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Hai Jui dismissed from office : its role in the great poletarian cultural revolution Ansley, Clive Malcolm 1968

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HAI JTTI DISMISSED FROM OFFICE: ITS ROLE IN THE GREAT PROLETARIAN CULTURAL REVOLUTION by CLIVE MALCOLM ANSLEY B.A., University of British Columbia, 1966  A THESIS 'SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Arts in the Department of Asian Studies  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1968  R i g h t s o f P u b l i c a t i o n s and Loan  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e -  ments f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f erence and s t u d y .  I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e .  It is  understood that copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  i  Abstract I n November o f 1965, was  the G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n ,  l a u n c h e d i n C h i n a when a Shanghai newspaper e d i t o r , Yao  Wen-  yuan, p u b l i s h e d an a t t a c k on t h e p l a y w h i c h i s t r a n s l a t e d h e r e , H a i J u i Dismissed  from O f f i c e .  The  f a c t t h a t t h i s event c o n s t i t u t e d t h e  beginning  o f what l a t e r became a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e o f v a s t p r o p o r -  t i o n s was  recognized  o n l y b e l a t e d l y by most Western a n a l y s t s .  When  the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n moved i n t o h i g h gear w i t h the l a u n c h i n g t h e Red Guard movement i n the s p r i n g o f 1966,  of  vague r e f e r e n c e s were  made i n some Western commentaries t o the f a c t t h a t the  explosion  seemed t o have been i g n i t e d , by the p u b l i c exposure o f a drama w h i c h had p u r p o r t e d l y s a t i r i z e d t h e Communist P a r t y and Mao  Tse-tung.  one appeared t o have any c e r t a i n t y about e x a c t l y what the p l a y s a i d and i n what way  i t s a t i r i z e d Mao  and t h e P a r t y .  No had  As f a r as I  am  aware, t h i s i s t h e f i r s t t r a n s l a t i o n o f the e n t i r e t e x t o f the p l a y , o r any p a r t o f i t , i n t o E n g l i s h . A s i d e f r o m s i m p l y t r a n s l a t i n g the t e x t o f the p l a y , the p u r pose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o a n a l y z e the events o f l a t e 1965 e a r l y 1966  and  and p l a c e them b o t h i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r and i n p o l i t i -  cal perspective.  I n t h i s way,  i t i s c l e a r l y shown how  Wu Han l e d t o a t t a c k s on o t h e r " b o u r g e o i s " E v e n t u a l l y , t h i s l a t t e r group was  w r i t e r s and  the a t t a c k  on  intellectuals.  l i n k e d t o h i g h o f f i c i a l s i n the  P e k i n g M u n i c i p a l Committee o f the Chinese Communist P a r t y . t h e " c u l t u r a l " a s p e c t o f the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n gave way f l e d g e d p o l i t i c a l b a t t l e w i t h i n the P a r t y  itself.  Finally, to a  full-  ii  A further purpose of the thesis, a f t e r having demonstrated the r o l e of Hai J u i Dismissed from Office i n the Cultural Revolution, i s to assess the v a l i d i t y of the charges l e v e l l e d at the play and at Wu Han himself.  This Is done i n the t h i r d chapter.  The method of research i s b a s i c a l l y that of a documentary analysis.  The o r i g i n a l 1965 attack on Wu Han i s analyzed c a r e f u l l y .  Other writings of Wu Han are examined i n order to corroborate conclusions based on the play alone, and to evaluate the assessments of the writer's motives by those who  attack him.  F i n a l l y , an exten-  sive analysis i s made of the most important a r t i c l e s appearing during this period i n the leading Chinese newspapers and t h e o r e t i c a l organs. The research outlined above has l e d to one inescapable conclusion.  V i r t u a l l y everything Wu Han has written over the past  decade, not simply t h i s play alone, i s d i r e c t l y connected to the 1959 Lushan Conference of the Chinese Communist Party.  It was  this  conference which dismissed Defence Minister P'eng Teh-huai and replaced him with L i n Piao.  Moreover, Wu Han had a l l i e s i n the writing  f i e l d and i t i s c l e a r l y demonstrated that the entire group had i n f a c t joined i n s a t i r i z i n g and lampooning the Party over a period of several years.  Thus the most important charge brought against Wu  Han does appear to be v a l i d .  Many of the additional charges, however,  are rejected as being either i r r e l e v a n t or unsubstantiated.  iii TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  v  ABOUT THE AUTHOR OF HAI JUI DISMISSED FROM OFFICE CHAPTER I.  HAI JUI DISMISSED FROM OFFICE; AN HISTORICAL DRAMA BY WU HAN... Preface by Wu Han  1 13  Scene I: The people are angered  19  Scene I-A: In court  26  Scene II:  31  The case i s tried Taking office  41  Scene IV: Meeting with Hsu  53  Scene V: A mother's counsel  63  Scene VI: The lawsuit i s continued  73  Scene VII: Asking a favor  89  Scene VIII:  99  The counter-attack  Scene IX: Dismissed from office  106  THE ROLE OF HAI JUI DISMISSED FROM OFFICE IN THE CULTURAL REVOLUTION  CHAPTER III.  1  Introduction by Wu Han  Scene III:  CHAPTER II.  vi  EVALUATION OF THE CHARGES  135  FOOTNOTES For Chapter I  117  157 „  157  For Chapter II  160  For Chapter III  165  iv BIBLIOGRAPHY  168  Sources i n Chinese  168  Sources i n English  170  V  Acknowledgements I t i s w i t h g r e a t p l e a s u r e t h a t I acknowledge a t the o u t s e t s u b s t a n t i a l a i d rendered me  by my  the  supervisor, P r o f e s s o r L i Chi of  the Department o f A s i a n S t u d i e s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia. She spent c o u n t l e s s hours o f h e r t i m e w i t h me were moments when t h e r a t e o f my p r o g r e s s j e c t would n e v e r be completed.  I t was  and I am sure  there  caused h e r t o f e e l t h e  pro-  only through P r o f e s s o r L i ' s  a s s i s t a n c e t h a t some o f t h e more obscure c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s o c c u r r i n g i n t h e d i a l o g u e o f t h i s p l a y were  deciphered.  I am a l s o i n d e b t e d t o Mr. Raymond Lo, who language a s s i s t a n c e i n my  gave me  considerable  e x a m i n a t i o n s o f many o f t h e documents I  had assembled on the G r e a t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n China.  In  a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e t o express my thanks t o Mrs. M e l o d y K i l i a n , M i s s D a l e Evans, and t o my mother, Mrs. E m i l y A n s l e y , a l l o f whom typed p o r t i o n s of the o r i g i n a l manuscript, K i n g s b u r y who  and t o Mrs.  t y p e d the f i n a l v e r s i o n i n i t s e n t i r e t y .  m a n u s c r i p t was  r e a d by Mr.  N e i l B u r t o n , who  Patricia P a r t o f the  made a number o f h e l p -  f u l suggestions  and c o r r e c t i o n s .  S e v e r a l suggested r e v i s i o n s by  P r o f e s s o r s E.G.  P u l l e y b l a n k , W.L.  H o l l a n d , and Rene Goldman, have  been i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the t h e s i s as i t now Although  I express my  none o f them a r e i n any way form.  stands.  g r a t i t u d e t o a l l those mentioned above, r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t h e s i s i n i t s f i n a l  I a l o n e t a k e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r any e r r o r s o f f a c t o r  presentation.  vi About the Author of Hai Jul Dismissed from Office Wu Han was born i n 1909 i n the province of Chekiang. Although he came from a poor family, he supported himself through university and eventually became one of modern China's most prominent historians and a leader i n the Chinese intellectual community. for his extensive knowledge of literature.  He i s also known  Among Wu's published  works are Mirror of History. The Biography of Chu Yuan-chang, Javelin-throwing, "On Hai Jul", and "Hai Jul Sends a Memorial to the Throne".  He i s also the editor-in-chief of the Pocket Edition of  Geographical Books. From 1930-1934, Wu Han attended Tsinghua University on a halfwork, half-study basis.  From 1934-1937 he lectured i n Ming history  at Tsinghua. Then, i n 1937, he became a Professor of History at Yunnan University and the Southwest Associated University at Kunming. After the Second World War he was again a professor at Tsinghua (194-6-194-8), and while there he did underground work for the Chinese Communists.  He was Dean of the College of Arts and  Head of the Department of History at Tsinghua from March of 1949 to February of 1950. Wu had joined the China Democratic League i n 1944, and he never did become a member of the Chinese Communist Party.  Never-  theless, he has held a staggering number of p o l i t i c a l and cultural posts in Communist China. He was a Standing member of the First National People's P o l i t i c a l Consultative Committee, from September 1949 to December 1954-  During the same period he served on the  vii  Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h e S i n o - S o v i e t November 1949 I n October 1951 zed but Wu Han  t o October 1951,  F r i e n d s h i p Committee.  he served as Deputy Mayor o f  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f P e k i n g was became Deputy Mayor i n the new  P e o p l e ' s Government. demise i n 1966.  He c o n t i n u e d  From 194-9  From  t o 1956  Peking. reorgani-  Peking Municipal  i n t h i s post u n t i l h i s p o l i t i c a l he was  F i r s t C e n t r a l Committee o f the CDL.  a s t a n d i n g member o f  I n August o f 1954-  he  the  was  e l e c t e d a Deputy f o r P e k i n g t o the F i r s t N a t i o n a l P e o p l e ' s Congress. He was  r e - e l e c t e d f o r a second t e r m i n August 1958,  t e r m i n September  1964.  S i n c e June 1955, Philosophy  and  Wu  has been a member o f the Department o f  S o c i a l S c i e n c e s i n the Chinese Academy o f  I n F e b r u a r y o f 1956 of the Sino-Indian y e a r was  and f o r a t h i r d  he l e d a c u l t u r a l  Sciences.  d e l e g a t i o n t o I n d i a on  behalf  F r i e n d s h i p A s s o c i a t i o n and I n A p r i l o f the same  e l e c t e d t o the Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h i s body.  he l e d a song and dance t r o u p e on a v i s i t t o F r a n c e . played l e a d i n g r o l e s i n the China A f r o - A s i a n Nepalese F r i e n d s h i p A s s o c i a t i o n .  In  1958  He has  also  S o c i e t y and the  I n F e b r u a r y o f 1958  Wu became a  member o f t h e S c i e n t i f i c P l a n n i n g Commission o f the S t a t e to undertake planning  Sino-  Council,  f o r t h e r e p u b l i c a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l works.  He became P r e s i d e n t o f the P e k i n g T e l e v i s i o n U n i v e r s i t y i n  1964  and V i c e - c h a i r m a n o f the Chinese P e o p l e ' s Committee f o r W o r l d Peace i n The  1965above f u n c t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e o n l y some o f t h e most  a s p e c t s o f Wu Han's c a r e e r .  S i n c e 1949  he has i n a d d i t i o n  notable served  i n many o t h e r c a p a c i t i e s f a r too numerous t o be l i s t e d h e r e .  viii  I n November o f 1965,  H a i J u l D i s m i s s e d from O f f i c e , and Wu  Han  p e r s o n a l l y , came under s c a t h i n g a t t a c k i n a Shanghai newspaper article.  I t was t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s a r t i c l e w h i c h l a u n c h e d  the Great C u l t u r a l Revolution.  E v e n t u a l l y Wu and. s e v e r a l p e o p l e  c l o s e t o him were s p e c i f i c a l l y charged, w i t h h a v i n g c o l l u d e d w i t h China's enemies w i t h i n and w i t h o u t . appeared f r o m p u b l i c v i e w .  S u b s e q u e n t l y , t h e y have d i s -  The d e t a i l s o f t h e s e e v e n t s a r e d e s -  c r i b e d and a n a l y z e d i n c h a p t e r s I I and I I I o f t h i s  thesis.  Preface I do not have an understanding of plays, nor do I see them very often.  This i s especially true of Peking Opera. Although I  lived for many years i n Peking when I was studying at the university, I didn't see i t even once.  These last few years there have been com-  paratively many opportunities to see plays, but, for this reason or that, I could never take advantage of these opportunities.  Because  of this, one could say that so far as Peking Opera i s concerned, I am a genuine dilettante.  There are people who joke about my cultural  level and I heartily agree with them. Isn't i t really something to be wondered at that a man such as me has not only written a play, but that the play he has written i s a Peking Opera? You say this i s strange. Certainly i t i s strange. Actually, when a l l i s said and done, i t i s not so strange. Things happened i n this way. In 1959 I was doing research on Hai Jui and I wrote several essays concerning him.  It was sometime  around the end of that year that the Peking Opera dramatist, Ma Lienllang, and a few other friends sought me out.  They wanted me to  discuss Hal Jui and after we had finished talking they asked me to prepare an outline, saying they wanted to produce a play. I was delighted to accept the responsibility, but after I thought about i t very carefully I saw that the situation was not so wonderful.  First,  what to write? Second, how to write i t ? The f i r s t time I attempted this totally unprecedented undertaking, I f e l t very uncertain.  I  thought about i t for a long time and tried to start writing several  2 times, but none of my efforts seemed very much like an outline. I thought to myself that my effort was so p i t i f u l that I would have to throw i n the towel.  I hesitated for a long time but I f e l t embar-  rassed to renege, so there was no choice but to summon a l l my courage and do what I had promised to do.  With the outline uncom-  pleted, I would just try to write a play.  When I had written out a  draft, I would ask my friends i n the circle of dramatists to revise it.  By doing things i n this manner I could make i t a l i t t l e more  convenient for them. Thereupon, I set to work on i t . Unexpectedly, once I got into the saddle, I was unable to dismount. After the f i r s t draft had been read by the dramatic group and other friends, they f e l t i t was a l l right as a draft.  I origin-  a l l y f e l t as i f I had handed i t over to. them and that revising i t was not my affair.  After having discussed i t , my friends i n the  drama circle urged me to rewrite i t and raised quite a few opinions concerning i t .  In just, this way—writing a draft, debating the  draft, rewriting the draft—from beginning to end, I rewrote i t seven times and that i s s t i l l not taking into consideration minor changes.  I printed one mimeographed volume and two printed ones  and distributed them among those of my friends who knew something about plays, asking for their advice.  We had a few dress rehear-  sals with the drama circle, and a few specialists raised a great many viewpoints.  The great majority of them I accepted and used as  a basis for revision.  After the play was staged publicly, i t was 1  published i n Peking Literature and Art.  Now,  on the basis of the  opinions of a few friends, I have made some changes i n certain  3 parts.  By actual calculation, a year's time was required from the  f i r s t germination to the seventh and f i n a l draft, every rewriting taking two or three days.  From the f i r s t performance to the present  time i s almost another year.  Quite a l o t of time has been expended  and the writing has really required much energy.  Although I was  considerably disheartened while i n the midst of i t , and thought of washing my hands of i t , since things had already come as far as they had, I determined to do i t and just went on tenaciously. Before trying to start writing, I decided on two fundamental principles:  First, I was not going to write about Hai Jui's entire  l i f e , but only about one chapter i n the story of his l i f e struggle, because i f I was to write a biography of Hai Jui the required time would be so long, the themes and characters so many, that i t would be easy to commit the error of being insipid and develop the defect of undue verbosity. prominence. existence. Hai  It would not be easy for such a play to achieve  Second, I did not want to rewrite plays already i n Quite aside from old plays, there are new ones, like  Jui Sends a Memorial to the Throne, by comrade Chou Hsin-fang  of Shanghai.  Although I haven't seen i t , I know i t has already  been staged and so how could I write about the same episode again? It i s necessary that one policy cover the whole nation. the  But for  entire nation to have the same subject matter i n i t s plays i s ,  in my opinion, absolutely unnecessary.  Having considered i t over  and over again, I decided to write about the period, slightly more than half a year, from the summer of 1569 to the spring of 1570, particularly the events surrounding the appointment of Hai Jui to  4 the office of Ying T'ien Governor and the affairs of his elimination of the tyrant landlords and the return of the land.  The play was  originally called simply Hai Jul. Afterwards quite a few friends pointed out that what was written i n this play represented only a fraction of Hai Jui's l i f e , and only then did I change the name to Hai Jul Dismissed from Office. The changes which occurred i n the course of the seven rewrites were i n general concerned with the following problems. The f i r s t i s the central theme. The central theme of the f i r s t four drafts was to emphasize the orders Hai Jul gave the oppressive gentry to return the property which they had usurped from the common people, provoking the united opposition of the gentry so that he was dismissed from office and had to return home. Eliminating the bad gentry was just used as an embellishment for the story, as a sidelight to the returning of the land.  A number of friends  pointed out that Hai Jui's ordering the return of the land was  un-  questionably historically factual, but that under the conditions of the time i t was impossible for him not to solve the problems of the peasants at the same time. Measuring them by the standards of historical development, these kinds of p o l i t i c a l measures are definitely reformist. What would be the meaning of new historical dramas written today and propagating the reformism of history?  I  considered this problem many times and f i n a l l y made the elimination of the bad gentry the central theme, relegating the returning of the land to the position of sideline.  This was a major change.  The second thing concerned the details of the story.  The  5 drama uses the misfortunes of a single family, that of the peasant woman Hung A-lan, to explain clearly the class contradictions of this era  and. the internal contradictions of the ruling class.  After the  second draft had been printed and distributed, a number of friends said that i t was history but not drama, that i t lacked complexity, that the climax was not very exciting, and that the contradictions were not presented sharply enough. The words they used were very polite but what they were really saying was that i t was simply not a play. Because I am basically not a playwright or literary expert, my friends did not demand too much. In the fourth draft I added the scene "Meeting Hsu", allowing Hai Jui to f i r s t go and make a c a l l on Hsu Chieh.  Hsu Chieh stands with the gentry and wants Hai Jui  to deal severely with wicked people and be s t r i c t l y just i n upholding  the law, until Hai Jui asks about the case of Hung A-lan. But  Hsu Chieh.immediately repudiates the validity of the charges.  More-  over, he says that i f there i s any proof of the crime, he w i l l resign himself to the law taking i t s course.  Then, i n the scene  "Asking a Favour", Hai Jui uses Hsu Chieh s words against him, 1  presses him closely, and allows him no escape.  I painstakingly  carved out the dispositions and styles of work of the two opposing characters i n these two scenes.  My friends read i t and thought  that there was a l i t t l e drama i n i t , but s t i l l not enough. As for the case of Hung A-lan, I originally wrote i t so that Hai Jui came i n ordinary clothes to take up his post and overheard the peasant masses discussing the case i n front of the Official Wel2 coming Pavilion. While s t i l l i n the middle of writing i t , I revised  6 i t so that after Hai Jui had met with Hsu, he paid an incognito v i s i t 3 to Heng Yun Mountain and received the real facts of the case.  My  friends al1 thought that i f I was going to handle i t i n this way, i t would be necessary to add another scene.  Finally, I wiped i t a l l  out and went back to the original method. In the course of my several rewritings, I had already added the two scenes, "Discussing the Reception" and "The Feast of the Lanterns", i n order to introduce Hai Jui's past through the mouths of other people and to express the praise of the local people for his benevolent rule.  "Discussing the Reception" portrays the great  tension of the officials of Soochow and Sungkiang prefectures on the evening prior to Hai Jui taking office.  Everyone meets at the house  of Huang Chin, the eunuch who i s Superintendent of the Imperial Silk Factory, i n order to hear about the situation from him. really was such a man as Huang Chin.  There  After Hai Jui had sent i n the  memorial to the throne, the Chia Ching Emperor was i n a rage.  He  wanted to send some men to guard Hai Jui so as not to allow him to escape.  At this particular time, Huang Chin was at the side of the  Chia Ching Emperor. He said that there was no need for this action for he had heard that Hai Jui had already taken leave of his family and friends and had put his last affairs i n order.  This man  was  very strong and resolute and absolutely incapable of running away. As soon as the Chia Ching Emperor heard these words he was dumbfounded.  This scene, "Discussing the Reception", just makes use  of Huang Chin for foreshadowing.  At the beginning of the scene,  because Hai Jui i s coming, Huang Chin orders the subordinate eunuchs  7 to decrease the number of sedan chair attendants by half.  After the  government o f f i c i a l s had arrived, they heard from Huang Chin the details of Hai Jui's experience i n memorializing the throne and being imprisoned.  By the time of the scene "Feast of the Lantern  Festival", he had already received the news that Hai Jul had been dismissed from office.  When he goes out to see the lanterns, the  subordinate eunuchs have already prepared the four-man sedan chair. Once more he says that this i s unsatisfactory and that he now wants one for eight men.  The subordinate eunuchs ask why and Huang Chin  says that Hai J u l i s leaving.  What follows i s just the common  people celebrating the Feast of the Lantern Festival and lighting 5 lanterns i n the atmosphere of Ao Mountain. employed.  Singing and dancing are  From the mouth of each person come songs dealing with the  time since Hai Jui took up his post and of the changes which this half year has brought i n their l i v e s .  There was yet another revised  draft of this "Feast of the Lanterns" scene.  Its contents had Hai  Jui coming back from superintending the laborers on the Wusung River, preparing wine and meats, and passing the festival together with his mother and wife.  The changed situation of this half year  i s brought out through the discussions of the members of the family. Before they are finished eating, a messenger sends i n the Peking 6 Gazette.  By Imperial Decree, Hai Jui i s transferred from his o r i g i -  nal position to that of Superintendent of the Nanking Granary. Subsequently, another messenger arrives with a Peking Gazette stating that there i s no need to establish a special position for the Nanking Granary.  It i s to be reunited with the Board of Revenue  8 and P o p u l a t i o n .  They do n o t d i s m i s s h i m from h i s new p o s t ; t h e y  j u s t p u l l t h e r u g from underneath h i m by c a n c e l l i n g t h e p o s t . Hai  Having  J u i r e a d t h e d i f f e r i n g c o n t e n t s o f t h e s e two papers s e r v e s t h e  f u n c t i o n o f making h i s t h o u g h t s known t o t h e a u d i e n c e .  I studied  t h e s e two d r a m a t i c scenes many t i m e s b u t f o r t h e sake o f d i m i n i s h i n g the  number o f c h a r a c t e r s and themes, I ended by t h r o w i n g i t a l l o u t . The t h i r d t h i n g i s t h e change i n t h e ending o f t h e s t o r y .  I n t h e o r i g i n a l few d r a f t s t h e f i n a l scene was "The S e n d o f f " , i n which Hai J u i i s depicted l e a v i n g h i s post i n ordinary clothes w i t h the  common p e o p l e a l l accompanying  Pavilion.  him t o the O f f i c i a l Reception  Prom t h e mouths o f t h e common p e o p l e come songs  of t h e i r l o n g i n g , a f f e c t i o n , and f r i e n d s h i p f o r H a i J u i .  telling  I n the  m i d s t o f a l l t h i s i s i n s e r t e d an e p i s o d e i n w h i c h t h e new g o v e r n o r , Tai  F e n g - h s i a n g , assumes o f f i c e and i s welcomed b y Hsu C h i e h and a  group o f o f f i c i a l s .  H a i J u i meets h i m p e r s o n a l l y , and knowing he i s  the  n e w l y - a p p o i n t e d g o v e r n o r , j u s t wants t o a s k h i m n o t t o change  the  new a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e s w h i c h have d e v e l o p e d i n t h e l a s t  h a l f year.  B u t T a i Feng-hsiang a t t a c k e d H a i J u i , s a y i n g t h a t i t was  p r e c i s e l y because o f t h e s e p r a c t i c e s and because he h a d t e r r o r i z e d and f l e e c e d t h e p e o p l e and o p p r e s s e d t h e g e n t r y t h a t t h e Emperor had d i s m i s s e d h i m from o f f i c e . lines.  Hsu G'hieh a l s o j e e r e d him from t h e s i d e -  F l u s h e d w i t h i n d i g n a t i o n , H a i J u i c o n t r a d i c t s him.  The two  f a c t i o n s o f t h e f e u d a l r u l i n g c l a s s , l e f t and r i g h t , open a f a c e t o face struggle. Tai  F i n a l l y , i n t h e f a c e o f angry v o i c e s o f t h e p e o p l e ,  Feng-hsiang and Hsu C h i e h r u n f o r t h e i r l i v e s l i k e  f r i g h t e n e d out o f t h e i r w i t s .  rats  H a i J u i and a l l t h e o t h e r s e x i t  9 together.  This scene of the play underwent many rewritings and dress  rehearsals but everyone was dissatisfied with i t .  They felt that Hai  Jui l e f t in a dull and dismal manner, that a l l the emotional effect of the play was dissipated, and that i t was wishy-washy. no way to handle the ending.  This was  My friends i n the drama circle pointed  out that i f I rewrote this scene of the play with Hai Jui handing down a sentence of decapitation in the court, i t would be somewhat stronger.  However, according to historical fact, Hsu Chieh's son  was only exiled for ten years and was certainly not put to death. Would i t be reasonable to handle things i n this way? Only after changing i t several times did I finally make the decision to have Hsu Ying put to death.  What I then rewrote became the present  Hai Jui Dismissed from Office.  When Hai Jui was i n the throes of  his verbal struggle with Tai Feng-hsiang, he as usual cared nothing that everyone was against him.  Having sentenced Hsu Ying to be  executed, he would hand over his seal of office and leave his post only after the sentence had been carried out.  When i t was written  this way, quite a few of my friends thought i t comparatively improved.  But there was s t i l l another opinion.  Some felt that i f  there were to be s t i l l another change, that i f after the sentencing the emperor were to send someone with a special pardon, i t would s t i l l be impossible to k i l l Hsu Ying and this would add s t i l l another twist to the plot.  As for this opinion, up to the present  time I have been unable to decide.  It would be a good thing not to  k i l l him but that s t i l l does not solve the problem of the dullness of the mood.  In the end, how should I handle i t to make i t  10  correct?  The only thing to do was to wait for a while and listen to  s t i l l more opinions before forming another plan. In the process of making many revisions, not only was the content very greatly changed, but this was also true of the literary form. 7  In the rhyming of the f i r s t few drafts, I followed the Shah  Yun s t r i c t l y .  Afterwards some of my friends told me that i t was not  necessary to have i t like this and that I could take a few more liberties.  They said that the rhyming of Peking Opera had i t s own  conventions.  Secondly, the sung verses were basically of four,  eight, or twelve lines, but sometimes they were also of three or five.  My friends said that this was not satisfactory and that  verses of three or five lines could be used only i n exceptional circumstances.  In addition, the poem at the end of a scene was  sometimes four lines and sometimes two. to have two.  My friends said i t was best  After I had heard these viewpoints, everything was  changed according to their advice. Recalling the circumstances of the writing of this drama over the past two years, I feel profoundly the importance of learning.  The progression of my writing has been i n every way a progres-  sion of learning.  I learned some things from my friends i n the  drama circle, I learned some things from the specialists, and I learned some things from my non-specialist friends.  Always, I was  learning and seeking advice from every possible quarter. This drama i s far from sophisticated. form and content are s t i l l very much lacking.  The ideological However, even speak-  ing just on the basis of the progress of my own writing, there i s  11 one thing of which I am sure. That i s simply that there i s no need for us to fear things which we do not understand.  As long as one i s  not afraid and i s willing to go right to the root of a thing, then he can come to more or less understand i t .  On the other hand, the more  one fears a thing, the more he cannot understand i t , to the point where he w i l l never understand i t .  No matter how i t happened, my  knowledge of Peking Opera, after having gone through the learning process involved i n writing this drama, has somewhat increased over what i t was two years ago. raised.  My cultural level has been somewhat  The boundary between the dilettante and the expert i s not  impenetrable, but something which can be shattered. Speaking from my experience, i t not only can be, but must be shattered. Dare to think, dare to speak, and dare to do has been the new style since the Great Leap Forward.  I wrote a drama. Thus I  belong i n the ranks of those who dare.  If I did not dare, then I  simply could not do anything successfully. can always more or less handle a thing.  As long as I dare, I  As for the magnitude of  the achievement, or whether i t i s a success or failure, that i s another thing.  The historical development of a human society i s  also simply the history of people who dare to think, dare to speak, and dare to do. 8 a gem".  The ancients had a proverb, "Throw a stick to get  That i s to say that this drama should be taken as the  making of a brick to stimulate the interest of my friends i n the f i e l d of history.  Perhaps they w i l l a l l come forward and write a  new historical dramaI I also wish to clear up something else.  After Hai Jui  12 Dismissed from Office had been performed, there were a good many friends who urged me to write yet another play.  Regarding this, I  would l i k e to say that one mistake i s bad enough, but to repeat i t ? ! I have absolutely no ambition or resolve to become a playwright. This i s something I want to make clear once and for a l l . Just for the understanding of the reader, two supplements have been added to this volume.  One i s a portrait of Hai Jui and a  sample of his calligraphy, and one i s a note concerning the histori-  9 cal records on which this drama i s based. The portrait used i s one displayed i n the Chinese Historical Museum. Of the calligraphy, part was sent by Comrade K'a Hui-hsin in Tientsin, and part was sent by Comrade Ch'ang Jen-hsieh i n Peking.  I extend my thanks to both of them. This i s intended as an introduction. Peitaiho, August 8, 1961.  Hai Jui Dismi ssed from Office (An Historical Drama) Hai Jui (1515-1587), whose courtesy name was Kang-feng, was a native of Kwangtung Ghiunchou (now known as Hainan Island). temperament he was resolute and i n principle he was firm.  In  He was a  famous, honest, and good o f f i c i a l of the Ming Dynasty. He opposed avarice and extravagance.  He advocated the use  of heavy penalties to severely punish greed and he established a clean and honest p o l i t i c a l situation. He advocated frugality i n the allocation of financial resources, s t r i c t l y implemented the regulations and policies of the government, and restrained oppressive  10 landlords.  He advocated and implemented the "One Whip Policy"  in order to mitigate the indentured service of the impoverished.  In  addition, he expended great energy i n repairing the irrigation system and decreasing the burden of petty irregular taxes.  He took  the disposition of court cases very seriously and he redressed i n justices.  He opposed evil and corrupt o f f i c i a l s , as well as the  tyrannical gentry.  However, he was also a loyal minister for the  feudal ruling class and his every p o l i t i c a l action stemmed from the motive of reinforcing the long-range interests of this feudal ruling class.  Although he scolded the emperor and was imprisoned for i t ,  indeed expecting to be killed, when the emperor died, Hai Jui was moved to great weeping. The people of this period liked him and sang his praises. The powerful o f f i c i a l s , great landlords, and the gentry opposed him,  14 denounced him, and closed ranks against him.  But there was also a  group of principled o f f i c i a l s and young intelligentsia who supported him. What I have written about i n this play i s just one episode during the time when he held the post of Ying T'ien Governor (at that time generally called Governor of Kiangnan). runs from June of 1569 to January of 1570,  The time span  seven months in a l l .  In this year, Hai Jui was fifty-four years of age. The location i s i n Soochow, at that time the residence of the Ying T'ien Governor.  The Ying T'ien Governor was in charge of  the ten prefectures of Ying T'ien (Nanking), Soochow, Ch'ang-chow, Chinkiang, Sungkiang, Hweichow, T'ai-p'ing, Ningkuo, Anking, and Gh'ih-chow, as well as Kwangtechow. Moreover, he was  simultane-  ously responsible for the grain tax in the three West Chekiang prefectures of Hangchow, Chia-hsing, and Huchow. The o f f i c i a l duties of the governor were: F i r s t , to administer the government of the people; secondly, to superintend the grain reserves; third, to exercise control over the armed forces; fourth, to impeach government o f f i c i a l s . The hero of this play i s Hai Jui. Opposing him are the retired prime minister, Hsu Chieh, and the group of officials and landlords represented by him.  This group was collectively known as  gentry during the Ming Dynasty,  (in the Ming Dynasty, those in the  service of the court were called o f f i c i a l s ; after they had been dismissed from office and were l i v i n g a l i f e of leisure at home, they were called gentry.  These kinds of people were a l l big landlords  15  with wealth and influence.  Other terms used for them were hsiang-  shen, shen-chin, shen-fu. etc., but i n a word, they were a l l official-landlords. The setting of the story:  Hsu Chieh's third son, Hsu ling,  has used his position to abuse the people and seize their fields, and he has harassed to death the only son of the peasant, Chao Yushan.  On top of a l l this, at the time of the Ch'ing-ming Festival,  he kidnaps Chao Yu-shan's granddaughter, Chao Hsiao-Ian, and gives Chao Yu-shan a vicious beating. Chao Hsiao-Ian's mother, Hung A-lan, lodges a complaint with the county court. The county magistrate, Wang Ming-yu, i s secretly protecting the Hsu family, and w i l l not hear the case. Hsu Chieh buys off Wang Ming-yu and the Sungkiang Prefect and orders his servant, Hsu Fu, to go to court and give evidence proving that Hsu Ying had not gone out of the city at the time of the Ghing-ming Festival.  Wang Ming-yu publicly beats  Chao Yu-shan to death and drives out Hung A-lan, winding up the lawsuit.  This vividly describes the sinister decadence of politics  in the feudal era, the tyranny of the gentry, and the wretched c i r cumstances, slavery, and oppression of the people. Hai Jui came to his post i n ordinary clothes and on the way he learned directly from Hung A-lan and the masses of the peasants about the case of Hsu Ying and about the circumstances of the local people having their land usurped by the gentry. Hai Jui pays a v i s i t to Hsu Chieh. Hsu Chieh advises him that he ought to strictly uphold the law, meting out the same treatment to prince and commoner alike.  The gist of his comments was  16 t h a t he wanted H a i J u i t o r e s t r a i n w i t h a heavy hand t h e f r i v o l o u s l a w s u i t s o f t h e "wicked p e o p l e " and p r o t e c t t h e p r i v i l e g e s o f t h e gentry.  H a i J u i b r i n g s up t h e case o f Hung A - l a n , b u t H s u C h i e h l i e s  r i g h t t o t h e end. Moreover, he i n s t i g a t e s Hsu Y i n g t o have Hsu F u  11 pose as a H s i u - t s ' a i Hai  and go t o t h e c o u r t t o g i v e e v i d e n c e .  J u i was u n a l t e r a b l y opposed t o i n j u s t i c e and he o r d e r e d  t h e g e n t r y t o r e t u r n t h e l a n d s t h e y h a d s e i z e d from t h e common people.  When he d i s c u s s e d t h e s e measures w i t h t h e members o f h i s  f a m i l y , h i s mother agreed w i t h t h e utmost v i g o r . his  resolve s t i l l  This strengthened  further.  I n t h e scene where t h e case i s s e t t l e d , H a i J u i exposes t h e f a l s e t e s t i m o n y o f t h e Hsu f a m i l y ' s bondsman and p u n i s h e s h i m a c c o r d i n g t o l a w . He a l s o d i s p o s e s o f t h e greedy and c o r r u p t officials. Hsu Y i n g i s sentenced t o d e a t h and Hsu C h i e h pays a p e r s o n a l v i s i t t o H a i J u i . He t a l k s about t h e i r p a s t f r i e n d s h i p and begs f o r l e n i e n t treatment.  H a i J u i i g n o r e s a l l t h i s and j u s t l y r e p u d i a t e s  him, t h u s I n i t i a t i n g an open s t r u g g l e .  Hsu C h i e h s u g g e s t s he atone  f o r h i s son's crime by r e t u r n i n g t h e l a n d , b u t H a i J u i s t e r n l y p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e l a n d s w h i c h have been snatched from t h e p e o p l e w i l l be r e t u r n e d i n any case and Hsu Y i n g , h a v i n g v i o l a t e d t h e l a w , has t o be p u n i s h e d .  Hsu C h i e h t h e n goes so f a r as t o t h r e a t e n h i m ,  s a y i n g t h a t he c o u l d l o s e h i s o f f i c e b y c o m m i t t i n g t h i s k i n d o f transgression against the gentry.  H a i J u i i s s t i l l unmoved.  Fin-  a l l y , t h e y b r e a k o f f t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p and Hsu C h i e h l e a v e s i n a rage.  17 Hsu Chieh does not willingly accept defeat and he holds a secret meeting with his close friends i n order to plan a counter-attack.  They send people to the capital city to bribe the eunuchs and  the court officials so that Hai Jui w i l l be dismissed from office. The new governor, Tai Feng-hsiang, comes to take up his post immediately.  Hai Jui has already received the execution order for  the two criminals, Hsu Ying and Wang Ming-yu, who had been sentenced at the F a l l Assizes, but Tai Feng-hsiang tries every kind of browbeating to dissuade him from carrying out the sentences. Hai Jui is immovable.  He orders that the sentences f i r s t be carried out;  only then w i l l he hand over his credentials and seal of office and retire from public l i f e . The Tai Feng-hsiang i n the play i s the man who impeached Hai Jui and had him dismissed. He was a spokesman for the Kiangnan gentry at court. Here, just for the sake of convenience, we have him replacing Hai Jui as Ying T'ien Governor. This play emphasizes Hai Jui's uprightness of character.  He  would not submit to the fierce and overbearing, he was not scared off by failure, and when he did f a i l , he tried again with a relentless w i l l .  What i s expressed i s the Internal struggle of the feudal  ruling class, a struggle between the l e f t faction of Hai Jui and the right faction, that of the o f f i c i a l and landlord clique which took Hsu Chieh as i t s leader. Hai Jui was a loyal minister of the feudal ruling class, but he was comparatively far-sighted, and comparativel y close to the people.  For the long-range benefit of his own class,  he advocated doing some good things which were beneficial for the  18  people of those times.  He restricted the gentry's lawless fleecing.  He impinged on the interests of the right faction of* his own and opened a violent struggle.  class  During the struggle i n this act, Hai  Jui lost office, but he absolutely refused to yield an inch.  Be-  cause he did some good things, the people of that era supported him and sang his praises. be recognized.  Hai Jui's position i n history ought to  Some of his good actions and virtues are also  deserving of our study today. November 13, I960—Seventh draft. August 8, 1961, at Peitaho.  Final revision  HAI JUI DISMISSED FROM OFFICE (An Historical Drama) by WU HAN  First published i n 1961 by Peking Publications  Scene I  The People Are Angered 12  Time:- The season of the Ch'ing-ming Festival, 1569. Place:- Below Heng Yun Mountain i n Hua-t'ing County, Sungkiang Prefecture. Characters:- Hsu Chieh s third son, Hsu Ying, about forty years 1  old, a profligate and evil tyrant. The peasant, Chao Yu-shan, sixty-five years old. Chao's daughter-in-law, Hung A-lan, thirty-five years old. Chao Hsiao-Ian, Chao Yu-shan s granddaughter, 1  six-  teen years old. Wang Ming-yu, the Hua-t'ing District Magistrate, an avaricious o f f i c i a l , forty years old. A crowd of Hsu family bondsmen, a group of Hua-t'ing County runners, and a great number of common people f i l i n g complaints. A crowd of country people. (Enter Hsu Ying, riding a horse, amid a great crowd of male slaves.) Hsu Ying:- (recites) The colors of spring f i l l the frontiers beyond the city, I wander leisurely, Occupied with my gold stirrup and riding baton, I ride swiftly, Let me gaze on a l l the many and varied flowers, Ai Yal  20  There are some pretty ones over there, l e t us go after them. I am Hsu Ying, the third master of the Hsu family. Under the pretext of visiting ancestral graves, I shall come here and f l i r t with them. I shall put one over on themI How delightful i t i s going to be I  When one suddenly sees  before him two very attractive and seductive girls among the graves, why not go ahead and have some fun with them? Let us go quickly, l i t t l e ones I  (Exits)  (Enter Hung A-lan and Chao Hsiao-Ian, holding incense and paper money.) Hung A-lan:- (sings) At Ch'ing-ming Festival time, we sweep the new grave and burn paper money, I ache with sorrow for the death of my husband, one year ago, Despite the profusion of flowers and willows, I have no heart for pleasure, My father-in-law i s old, my daughter weak and helpless, who w i l l take pity on us? Hsiao-Ian, light the incense and burn the money, i n order to show respect to your father.  (Mother and daughter say  prayers together, crying.) Oh, father of Hsiao-Ian! (continues song) Your fa.mi.ly depended solely on you to sow the grain and plough the fields, By stars of morning and moon at night, Rising early and retiring late,  21 Raising cattle, tending mulberry and hemp, slaving the year long, Paying exorbitant taxes, l i v i n g a hard l i f e , enduring a l l kinds of harassment, As things progressed i n this way, the sky suddenly f e l l i n on us, The Hsu family went and antedated the mortgage on our land, They seized our crops and produce and s t i l l demanded taxes on our land, We wore out our shoes going to the magistrate and pleading with the gentry, You were so angry you spit blood and f e l l sick from bitter hatred, In just a few months you died and we buried you before the mountain. Oh, God, Father of Hsiao-Ian, what are your wife and daughter to do for the rest of our lives?  When w i l l  the injustice you received ever be redressed? 13 Hung Hsiao-Ian:- Do not cry, mother, there are some people coming over there. (Mother and daughter tidy up their s a c r i f i c i a l baskets and bowls and prepare to leave. Hsu Ying comes onstage, amid a crowd of attendants. Hsu Ying tries to f l i r t with Chao Hsiao-Ian,  22 but Hsiao-Ian avoids him and Hung A-lan stands i n his way.) Hsu Xing:- Go away, go awayI  She i s the one I want, not you.  Hung A-lan:- The young gentleman should show a l i t t l e respect. She is my daughter. Hsu Ying:- That's wonderful.  You may as well both go to my house  together. Hung A-lan:- This i s a l i t t l e strange. close friends.  We are neither relatives nor  What would we do at your house?  Hsu Ying:- A l l you w i l l do i s to be my concubines and I shall guarantee that both you women w i l l have more food than you can eat and more clothes than you can wear. Hung A-lan:- Nothing doing.  Hsiao-Ian, l e t us go quickly.  (Hsu Ying directs his servants to block their way) Hung A-lan:- In broad daylight the women of decent families are molested.  Fellow peasants, help!  Hsu Ying:- Don't raise a hue and cry over nothing, I, the third master of the Hsu family would be incapable of mistreating you two young women. Hung A-lan:- What?! Third Master Hsu i s the enemy who killed my husband! Help!  Help!  (Hearing her voice a large group of peasants comes on stage.  Hung A-lan and her daughter take the  opportunity to escape.) Group of peasants:- It's that rotten egg from the Hsu family abusing people again!  Why does God i n Heaven not open  23 his eyes and punish this rotten egg, eh?  It i s  outrageous I Hsu Ying:- Give chase to them. (The peasant masses are driven off and Hsu Ying and his bondsmen pursue them offstage. Hung A-lan, Ghao Hsiao-Ian, and Chao Yu-shan come on separately. They meet. Hsu Ying returns with his group of bondsmen and Chao Yu-shan steps i n front of them, blocking their way.) Hsu Ying:- Don't go.  Let us talk i t over.  Chao Yu-shan:- Talk what over?  Third master Hsu, your family has  usurped my family's land and hounded to death the only son I raised.  And you s t i l l want to compel an  old man to pay taxes and run errands. is not enough for you.  But even this  You s t i l l have to come and  14 insult and ridicule the widow and orphan family.  i n my  You simply w i l l not allow people to go on  livingI Hsu Ying:- Chao Yu-shan, do you not know your place?  Considering  that a poor old man such as yourself certainly cannot support them, you had better do as I say.  They would  wear silk and satin, have maids at their beck and c a l l , and have more of everything than they can use.  I would  also reward you, old man, with some rice to eat. Chao Yu-shan:- What I  Stop this talk!  Hsu Ying, I am a poor man  but there i s nothing poor about my spirit I  And I  2L  do not deal i n human beings. Get out of here fast, Be off with youI Hsu Ying:- He i s truly too ignorant to appreciate the kindness I am showing him.  L i t t l e ones, take them by force I  (Hsu Fu and a large group of bond-slaves drag off Chao Hsiao-Ian while Chao Yu-shan and Hung A-lan try to obstruct them.) Hsu Ying:- Beat him, beat this corpse which i s too stupid to l i e down. (The bondsmen of the Hsu family give Chao Yu-shan a painful beating, while Hung A-lan and Chao Hsiao-Ian try to save him.  Chao Yu-shan i s beaten into a stupor  and Hsu Ying leads his bond-slaves i n carrying off Hsiao-Ian.) Crowd of Peasants:- Plundering, carrying off the women of decent families, and beating the l i f e out of men i n broad daylight.  What kind of world i s this?  Where i s the law? Where i s justice? (Hung A-lan weeps bitterly.  A l l the peasants  attend to Chao Yu-shan as best they can, and Chao gradually regains consciousness.) Chao Yu-shan:- Daughter-in-law, this i s not a time for crying.  The  important thing now i s to go quickly to the district office, f i l e a complaint and see that granddaughter is rescued and brought back to us. (sings) In their tyrannical treatment of other people  25 they r i v a l the tiger and wolf, In order to redress our grievances, we must go and report them in court, As long as the law of the court i s s t i l l in existence, Its function should be to redress the grievances of wronged people. Hung A-lan:- My father-in-law's wounds are serious and there i s no one to tend to you.  Your daughter-in-law  cannot go.  Peasants:- Young lady, concern yourself only with going and laying the charges.  Your father-in-law has us to stay behind  and look after him.  Put your mind at ease and go I  Hung A-lan:- If this i s the case, a l l I can do i s thank you. in-law, I am on my  Father-  way.  Chao Yu-shan:- Hurry there and hurry back; rescue my granddaughter. Hung A-lan:- I shall,  (exits)  (Exit the large group of peasants, supporting Chao Yu-shan.)  Scene I-A  In Court  (A large group of runners crowds onstage with the Hua-t'ing Magistrate, Wang Ming-yu. The commoners who are pressing suits then follow.)  .  . .  Wang Ming-yu:- (recites) I am a seventh grade magistrate, But what use are essays i n the work of an official, When I see gold and silver, my mouth waters, The surname of a person matters not to me, Just so long as he sends me money, He w i l l win even against my own parents, Though the basis of his case be sound, If he has no money, there i s no use discussing i t I What I  Are a l l these people here before us laying  complaints? P l a i n t i f f s : - We are a l l f i l i n g charges.  (They hand up the documents  pertaining to their accusations.) Wang Ming-yu:- Who are you accusing? First P l a i n t i f f : - I am accusing the family of Grand Tutor Hsu of seizing people's land. Second P l a i n t i f f : - I report that the family of Grand Tutor Hsu has been appropriating other people's property. Third P l a i n t i f f : - I report that Third Master Hsu has been seizing people's houses. Wang Ming-yu:- That i s strange.  Ever since I came to this post, I  27 have had people coming every day to report the Hsu family.  Again today, every one of them is reporting  the Hsu family.  They a l l report this one family and  even the causes of their complaints are identical; i t is always because they are stealing people's property.  They really make a fuss over nothing.  Do  you think the Grand Tutor i s someone whom you may accuse like this?  I have long heard that the people  of this area are by nature of a wicked and arrogant character.  It is really true, indeed i t i s !  You  really are wicked people, you really are wicked, aren't you? Attendants, drive these wicked people out! (The runners drive the common people offstage. Hung A-lan comes on, beats a drum, and the runners beckon her to enter and kneel down.) Wang Ming-yu:- Here comes another plaintiff.  I can guess, without  a doubt she is here to complain about the Hsu family. Well, alright, woman, whom are you accusing? Hung A-lan:- Your worship, I accuse Third Master Hsu of kidnapping my daughter and administering a beating to my fatherin-law which resulted in serious injury. Worship w i l l redress my grievance!  I trust Your  (weeps)  Wang Ming-yu:- I was able to divine her intentions as well as i f I were God himself.  Well!  What about your daughter?  Hung A-lan:- She has been kidnapped by Third Master Hsu.  28 Wang Ming-yu:- Who w i l l testify to that effect? Hung A-lan:- There were a l l kinds of my fellow peasants who saw i t with their own eyes. Wang Ming-yu:- Where are these witnesses? Hung A-lan:- My father-in-law was severely injured. A l l our good peasant friends are at home looking after him and so they have not come. Wang Ming-yu:- I knew from the beginning you were going to pull a stunt like this. nesses.  First no evidence and then no wit-  Who really took your daughter? Where i s  your father-in-law? Hung A-lan:- He was so badly injured that he cannot even move. Wang Ming-yu:- EnoughI  If you are going to make accusations con-  cerning injuries, you must verify the injuries. is the universal requirement.  That  If your father-in-law  does not come to verify his injuries, how am I to know whether he has any injuries or not? You come here to launch a suit and i n the f i r s t place you do not have formal papers.  In the second place, you have no rele-  vant evidence, and third, you have no proof of injury. This i s obviously the false report of a vicious person.  I am taking into consideration the fact that  you are a woman and that this i s your f i r s t offence, so I am not going to deal with you severely. Come, take her out of here. Hung A-lan:- I have indeed been badly used.  Your Worship, please  29 have compassion, and r e d r e s s my g r i e v a n c e s . Wang Ming-yu:- I f t h e r e i s any i n j u s t i c e , i t w i l l be s e t r i g h t , b u t the making o f f a l s e a c c u s a t i o n s must a l s o be d e a l t with.  I f y o u a r e g o i n g t o f i l e a c o m p l a i n t , y o u must  have p e o p l e t o come a s w i t n e s s e s and g i v e  evidence.  The o n l y p r o o f i s what I h e a r from y o u r mouth a l o n e . I am n o t t h e t y p e o f a d d l e - b r a i n e d o f f i c i a l who i s going t o h e a r one s i d e o f t h e s t o r y o n l y and b e l i e v e it. Hung A - l a n : - Your Worship i s a n honest o f f i c i a l .  He s h o u l d r e d r e s s  my g r i e v a n c e . Wang M i n g - y u : - Of course I am an honest o f f i c i a l . there f o r you t o say t h a t ?  What need i s  I f you a r e not s a t i s f i e d ,  next time come back w i t h w i t n e s s e s t o t e s t i f y f o r you. Now, l e a v e t h e c o u r t . (Exit the runners.  E x i t Hung A - l a n , weeping.)  Wang Ming-yu:- T h i s i s a bothersome case t o h a n d l e . and b e a t i n g p e o p l e .  Both kidnapping  Supposing I were t o h a n d l e i t  a c c o r d i n g t o l a w , c o u l d a l i t t l e m i n i o n l i k e me a f f o r d to provoke t h e w r a t h o f Grand T u t o r Hsu?  Yet i f I  l e t i t drag on w i t h o u t d o i n g a n y t h i n g , t h i s woman can come here every day l a y i n g charges and b o t h e r me to  death.  So, how am I t o h a n d l e i t ?  (ponders)  I  know, I s h a l l p e r s o n a l l y go and c o n s u l t w i t h H i s Excellency L i P'ing-tu, the Prefect.  He i s e x t r e m e l y  knowledgeable and he w i l l have a way o f d e a l i n g w i t h  30  Night and day, the wicked people s t i r up wind and waves, When shall we ever see the end of the annoyances they cause?  (exits)  Scene II  The Case i s Tried  Time:- One month later. Place:- The Yamen of the Hua-t'ing Magistrate. Characters:- Hsu Ying and Hsu Fu. The farmer, Chao Yu-shan, and Hung A-lan. The Hua-t'ing Magistrate, Wang Ming-yu, i n the company of many runners. A crowd of peasants. (Hsu Ying and Hsu Fu come onstage.) Hsu Ying:- (recites) I have sent gold and profferred flatteries, And I s t i l l have some tricks up my sleeve to win this case. My good Chao Yu-shan, I did not think you would dare to come into court and report me.  However, one must fight  f i r e with f i r e and I did not have to ponder long before a scheme presented i t s e l f to me.  I sent Hsu Fu with two  hundred taels of gold for the magistrate and three hundred taels for the prefect. I have bought off everyone concerned, at a l l levels.  That Wang Ming-yu i s an excep-  tionally astute fellow. He says i t would be absolutely lacking in propriety on his part i f he were not to deal severely with any wicked people who make false accusations against the gentry.  So! There i s to be a lawsuit, eh  Chao Yu-shan? Chao Yu-shan, we shall see how far you are prepared to carry your evil scheme! Hsu Fu!  32  Hsu Fu:- Yes. Hsu Ying:- Go into the court, and i f the magistrate asks you what happened on that day, you must be very carefulj we cannot l e t the cat out of the bag. Hsu Fu:- That goes without saying. You may rest assured, Master. (They exit together.) (Wang Ming-yu comes on, followed by the runners and takes his seat.) Wang Ming-yu:- (recites) These last few days have seen much good fortune, How much has greased my palm, I know not, Concerning lawsuits, the money involved i s my only interest, Yet my reputation surpasses that of Pao  15  Lao. This i s really very interesting, very interesting! It used to be that I knew only how to fleece the poor people.  But there i s no percentage i n that.  Today,  for instance, even the family of the Grand Tutor Hsu has sent great quantities of gold. Being an o f f i c i a l has really be.en worthwhile for me.  In any event, I  must bring this case to a close today.  If not,  people w i l l say that I am a bumbling o f f i c i a l for not even being able to handle a small affair like this. Runners, c a l l into court the people involved i n the case of Hung A-lan.  (The runners shout out the summons. Enter Hung Alan, Chao Yu-shan, and a crowd of peasants.) A l l : - We simple folk and this young lady wish to pay our respects to Your Worship. Wang Ming-yu:- Stand to one side.  These last few days I have been  conducting thorough investigations about the case of Hung A-lan. Today I am holding court. speak only the facts.  You must  You must not add anything  extra i n order to try and make trouble.  Hung A-lan.  Hung A-lan:- I am here. Wang Ming-yu:- You accuse Hsu Ying of kidnapping your daughter; what day did this kidnapping take place? Hung A-lan:- He kidnapped her on the day of the Ch'Ing-ming Festival. Wang Ming-yu:- Are there any eyewitnesses or not? A l l the Peasants:- We humble people saw i t with our own eyes. Wang Ming-yu:- Hung A-lan, you accuse Hsu Ying of beating your father-in-law.  Has your father-in-law come or not?  Chao Yu-shan:- I am here. Wang Ming-yu:- Where are the injuries you suffered i n the beating? Chao Yu-shan:- They beat me with their f i s t s and kicked me with their feet.  I was injured a l l over my body.  Wang Ming-yu:- Do you have an eyewitness or not? A l l the Peasants:- We folk saw i t with our own eyes. Wang Ming-yu:- Coroner, verify these injuries. (The coroner strips off Chao Yu-shan's clothing i n  order to examine the wounds.) Coroner:- I must report, Your Worship, that his body i s entirely unmarked.  There are no scabs or scars and there are no  injuries. Wang Ming-yu:- Sol  The colossal gall of you vicious people 1 You  spread slanders and false accusations.  Bring the  cane and give him a severe beating for me. Chao Yu-shan:- Ah? Your Worship, my body does have wounds and scars. How can i t be said that there are no wounds? I beg Your Worship to make a careful examination. Peasants:- Chao Yu-shan took a fearsome beating at the hands of Hsu Ying; this we saw with our own eyes.  If this be false,  we are willing to take the punishment ourselves. Wang Ming-yu:- This i s certainly very strange.  There clearly are  not any wounds, yet the whole lot of you says that there are.  Coroner, go and have another look and  t e l l me what you find. Coroner:- There appear to be some self-inflicted wounds here, resulting from an intentional f a l l .  But there are absolutely no  traces of any Injuries resulting from a beating. Wang Ming-yu:- Runner, summon Hsu Ying into court. (Enter Hsu Ying and Hsu Fu) Hsu Ying:- Hsu Ying, of the Hsu family of gentry, wishes to pay his respects to Your Worship. Wang Ming-yu:- Do not stand on ceremony. Hsu Ying, we have on hand here some people who accuse you of kidnapping a young  35  g i r l and cruelly beating a respectable man. Can there be anything to such a story? Hsu Ying:- I am a member of the Prime Minister's household.  I spend  my time earnestly studying the Classics and I thoroughly understand the lofty ideas expressed i n them. How could I stoop to kidnapping girls and cruelly beating respectable folk? Your Worship understands clearly what I mean. Your Worship, may I inquire on what day this took place? Wang Ming-yu:- According to the original accusation, • i t was on the day of the Ch'ing-ming Festival. Hsu Ying:- The Ch'ing-ming Festival? Where did I go on that day? OhI  I know! It was that day that I was at the home of 16  Scholar Chang, discussing the Classics.  I never went  out of the city. Wang Ming-yu:- Where are your witnesses? Hsu Ying:- My bond-slave, Hsu Fu, went along and he was in attendance.  He can bear witness.  Wang Ming-yu:- Hsu Fu, where did Hsu Ying go on that day of the Ch'ing-ming Festival? Hsu Fu:- I can report to Your Worship that on that day of the Ch'ing-ming Festival The third master was indeed studying 17 at the home of a hsiu-ts'ai of this city, and he never l e f t the city.  The family bondsmen were at his side and  I can testify that we never l e f t him for a single moment. Wang Ming-yu:- Then this i s the way i t was.  On the day of the  Ch'ing-ming Festival, Hsu Ying spent the whole day  36 studying at the home of a hsiu-ts'ai i n this city. If this i s so., could he then have split himself in two so as to go outside the city, kidnapping and beating people?  This i s very obviously a case of wicked  people making false accusations against gentry. i s absolutely intolerable.  This  Come forward, attendants,  and give Hung A-lan a severe beating I Hung A-lan:- Your WorshipI  If I must repeat i t a million times,  this business of kidnapping and beating people i s true, i t i s absolutely accurate.  I have the peasants of my  neighborhood here as witnesses.  Your Worship must see  that justice i s done for me. My daughter i s now i n the Hsu household.  I beg Your Worship to return her  to us so that flesh and blood might dwell together again. Wang Ming-yu:- What! The great gall of this shrew! witnesses.  So you have  Am I therefore to act as i f the others  do not have witnesses?  Am I to be so partial as to  simply assume that your witnesses are telling the truth and that the other party's witnesses are lying? His Worship hears both sides and then decides according to law. poor justice.  To l i s t e n to one side only would be very If I did not l i s t e n to what the gentry  said, how could I possibly listen to the words of poor people on the other hand? Come, drag her out and give her a sound thrashing.  37  Chao Yu-shan:- Have mercy, Your Worship. Although I am involved only In farming and am a very poor man, my human spirit i s not poor at a l l .  Although I do not read books, I do  nevertheless possess some intelligence.  I inherited  a l i t t l e property and my whole family depended, on this for a living.  Third Master Hsu forged a contract,  antedated i t , and seized my land as his own.  Because  of this, my only begotten son became so vexed and angry that he died of chagrin, leaving his widow and child.  The land had gone, but the taxes s t i l l had to  be paid. labor.  I had to pay the grain tax by doing corvee There was no place where I could go to report  these injustices.  On that day of the Ch'ing-ming  Festival, Third Master Hsu, thinking he could get away with i t because of his position, both kidnapped my granddaughter and gave me a severe beating, leaving me wounded. And so I have suffered one wrong after another.  Overhead i s the sun in the sky and  here below are my peasant neighbors; and a l l can corroborate what I say.  If Your Worship w i l l not do  anything about i t for us, but on the contrary believes only the stories of our opponent and wants to beat the plaintiff, where are the eternal principles of justice?  Where i s your conscience? Your Worship,  you cannot behave like this; you must act i n the interests of the l i t t l e people I  38 Wang Ming-yu:- The great gall of you wicked people I It i s absolutely clear that you have no wounds yet you s t i l l say that you were wounded. It i s absolutely clear that the other party was at the home of a friend, studying, and never went out, yet you falsely accuse him of going out into the countryside, beating and kidnapping.  Is this your universal principle of justice?  Is this an example of conscience?  Your human spirit  i s also poor, so poor that in the end the only thing you can think of i s to summon up a l l your gall and make false accusations against the gentry.  You are  truly an extremely vicious and evil man I Come, take him out and thrash him! Chao Yu-shan:- Your Worship, you cannot beat me!  If you-are really  going to have me beaten, I am going to report i t . Wang Ming-yu:- Where are you going to report i t ? Chao Yu-shan:- I shall report in the prefectural court; I shall report i t in Soochow; I shall report i t in the capital: (sings) When an old man like me suffers injustices, High Heaven sees, Streams of tears flow for my beaten body and kidnapped granddaughter, Your office i s used not to uphold justice for the people,, but to transgress i t , I shall charge you in the capital as a corrupt  39 o f f i c i a l , selling law for the highest bribe. Wang Ming-yu:- The nerve of youI (sings) I never knew the wicked people could really be so bold and daring, As to falsely accuse the gentry i n such a wild and irresponsible manner, Come, seize him, l e t his punishment be eighty strokes of the bamboo. Give him a fierce and thorough beating for me I (The runners drag Chao Yu-shan out to receive the heavy beating and Chao Yu-shan i s beaten to death.) Runners:- Your Worship, we must report that the guilty one has died from the beating. Hung A-lan:- My God, no I (sings) My heart f u l l of grief and anger, I can only call on God i n Heaven, When my father-in-law can be beaten to death right before the court, Who among men can s t i l l distinguish right from wrong? Heaven, oh heavenJ My daughter who was kidnapped remains i n danger. Wang Ming yu:- (Alarmed, pales and becomes upset, but then settles down.) Carry him out and get her out of the court. (Exit the group of peasants, carrying Chao Yushan' s corpse. ly.  Exit Hung A-lan, weeping bitter-  Exit Hsu Ying, laughing, followed by Hsu Fu,  who i s scowling.) Wang Ming-yu!- We have been careless.  I did not think this old  fellow was so unable to stand a beating,  (ponders)  S t i l l , this i s nothing to worry about, nothing to worry about at a l l l (Enter a runner to deliver the Peking Gazette.) Runner:- Your Worship, I have here an urgent dispatch. Please read i t , Your Worship. Wang Ming-yu:- (Tears i t open and reads i t carefully; gives a start and nervously drops the paper.) Good LordI  Hai Jui  has been taken from his position as Censor i n the Supreme Court and i s ordered to take the post of Governor of Ying T'ien and the Ten Prefectures. My GodI  This old beggar i s going nowhere else but  right here to Kiangnan. What are we to do now? (He has dropped the Peking Gazette.  Now he picks i t  up again, hesitatingly.) 18  Runner:- What? Hai Ch'ing-t'ien i s coming? What can we do? Wang Ming-yu:- Get my luggage ready.  We leave on a journey to  Soochow immediately. (The runner accompanies Wang Ming-yu offstage.)  Time:- The f i r s t week in June, 1569. Place:- The pavilion for welcoming officials,  19 outside Chang Men, i n  Soochow. Characters:- The Prefect of Soochow, Cheng Tu, f i f t y - f i v e years of age, willing to enact his duties honestly.  He has a  good reputation as an o f f i c i a l . 20  The Magistrate of Wu Hsien, Hsiao Yen, forty-five years of age, an avaricious o f f i c i a l . The Sungkiang Prefect, L i P'ing-tu, approximately years old, sycophant of the gentry.  fifty  Willing to bend  the law to increase his own wealth, he i s widely 21 known as L i Po-p'i. The Hua-t'ing Magistrate, Wang Ming-yu. Hung A-lan and the group of peasants. Hai Jui, fifty-four years old, beard already half whitened, wearing ordinary, everyday attire. Hai Jui's mother, Hsieh Shih, seventy-one years old, of stern and upright disposition.  Since her husband  died while she was s t i l l in her youth, she alone has educated Hai Jui and raised him to manhood. Hai Jui has the utmost respect for her. Hai Jui's wife, Wang Shih.  She i s his second wife.  She i s thirty years of age and of a meek and timid disposition.  She greatly respects Hai Jui but also  42 fears that his unbending principles w i l l bring misfortune.  She often advises him against doing things,  but after he explains his reasoning to her, she fully supports him. Hai P'eng, the aged servant of the Hai family.  He i s  resolute, loyal, and sincere, but fearful that Hai Jui w i l l offend someone. He too tries to dissuade Hai Jui at times.  He i s f u l l y devoted to his master.  Also, he suffers from contradictions, but in the end he i s always straightened out by Hai Jui. An officer, and a great many soldiers. (Enter a group of o f f i c i a l s , officers, and soldiers, accompanied by banners, parasols, and shouting.) Cheng Yu:- Gentlemen, Censor Hai has already started on his journey from Nanking, but to date he has s t i l l not arrived. I fear this w i l l be yet another fruitless trip on our part. Hsiao Yen:- When the eunuch, Huang Chin, Superintendent of the Imperial Silk Factory, heard that Hai Jui was coming, the old man's big sedan chair was reduced from eight to four men. L i P'ing-tu:- Yes.  And we have some gentry right here who have gone  out at night and smeared black paint over the red  22 gates i n order to avoid any unnecessary trouble. Wang Ming-yu:- Gentlemen, everyone describes Hai Jui as an absolutely honest and upright o f f i c i a l , but when a l l i s said and done, what kind of man i s he?  A3  Cheng Yu:- When I was in the capital many years ago, I knew a l i t t l e about what kind of man Censor Hai was.  Gentlemen,  I shall give you a bit of a description: (sings) Recognized as the most upright of men, he gave 23 himself the name Kang-feng, 2U  Near the close of the Chia Ching Reign, he memorialized the throne, provoking the emperor's wrath, He tried to persuade the emperor that the pursuit of immortality was but wasted effort, "Whether we speak of ancient times or modern, was there ever a man who never died? If one squanders wealth on sacrifices while the affairs of the people are neglected, the people w i l l a l l complain, and war, poverty, and distress arise from a l l directions, Now the people use 'Chia Ching" to signify  25 •every house i s empty', Unless changes are made, the state w i l l be endangered, and you w i l l be unable to face your ancestors. " He scolded the emperor bitterly and the emperor flew into a great rage.  He was going to condemn Hai Jui to death.  He ordered some men to apprehend him and not l e t him escape.  Afterwards i t became known that Hai Jui had  already put his f i n a l affairs i n order and the emperor was so taken aback he did not know what to do.  Hai Jui  44 was locked up i n the Imperial Prison and endured a l l manner of punishments. Only when the emperor died was he pardoned and l e t out of prison. Now that he i s coming to Kiangnan, gentlemen, you w i l l have to watch your steps. (Hsiao Yen, L i P'ing-tu, and Wang Ming-yu pale and become very nervous and jumpy.) Cheng Yu:- The weather i s absolutely scorching. Let us now take a l i t t l e rest i n the Official Welcoming Pavilion. When the heralds arrive, we shall come back out to welcome him.  That w i l l be soon enough. Come, l e t us go back to  the pavilion.  (All exit together.)  Hai J u i : - (offstage) Let us hurry forward. (Enter Hai Jui, Hsieh Shih, Wang Shih, and Hai P'eng, together.) Hai J u i : - (sings) I have imperial orders to tour the Ten Prefectures, ' f i r s t to Chin-chang, This presents the possibility of f u l f i l l i n g my ambition to help the weak against the strong, Kiangnan i s a place of rice and fish, but the land tax there i s high, It i s often said that above there i s heaven, while 26  below there i s Su-Hang, But evil gentry and greedy, oppressive officials tyrannize their fellow countrymen, So badly do they mistreat the people that many of the suffering have fled  elsewhere,  4-5 People are poor, there Is no money, and the lifeblood of the country Is drying up, I, Hai Jui, i f I am to serve my emperor, must take matters into my own hands. Wang Shih:- The perspiration i s flowing like rain right through my clothes. Although the scenery i s very pretty, I simply cannot enjoy i t . Hsieh Shih:- Son, how far do we s t i l l have to go from here to the city of Soochow? Hai Jul:- We go directly ahead, not much farther, and then we are at Soochow City.  The weather i s scorching hot. Mother,  how about resting for fifteen minutes or so and then going on? Hsieh Shi'h:- Just as you say. Hai Jul:- Look, up ahead there i s a grove of trees. Please, mother, have a rest there.  Hai P'eng, lead the way.  (Exit Hsieh Shih, Wang Shih, and Hai P'eng) (Enter Hung A-lan and a crowd of peasants) Third Peasant:- The weather Is scorching hot. rest before going on, eh?  Let us have a l i t t l e  Young lady, you are cry-  ing and sobbing away so uncontrollably, what has been done to you? Hung A-lan:- I am going to Soochow to launch a complaint at the Governor's Yamen. Third Peasant:- Against whom are you f i l i n g a complaint? Hung A-lan:- I am going to f i l e against the third son of the Hsu  46 family In Hua-t'ing County and against the Hua-t'ing Magistrate for seizing land, kidnapping, and murder. Third Peasant:- Please t e l l us a few particulars of the case. Hung A-lan:- Ah, me I Heaven help me I (sings) The evil Hsu Ying tramples on our rights, using his power to seize our land, Old men are beaten to death, girls kidnapped, and I am driven to beseech heaven, The Hua-t'ing Magistrate shielded the defendant and put the blame on me, With an anxious heart, I rush to Soochow to report i t to the governor. (Hai Jui listens attentively, shaking his head.) Third Peasant:- Can i t really be true that there are injustices such as these? First Peasant:- How can i t be untrue?  We a l l saw i t with our own  eyes. (Sings) In an old grave and a new one are buried father and son, two generations, A son hounded to death, his father beaten to death, his daughter kidnapped, Buried i n this ground w i l l be the injustices of three generations. Hai Jui:- Why do you not go and report i t to the officials? Second Peasant:- Excuse me s i r , but you would have no way of knowing how i t could be that we would not report such  a thing.  When i t was reported, the injured person  was beaten to death. Hai Jul:- If this was the case, what law did they rely on for their judgement? First Peasant:- They said i t was a false accusation, that he had falsely accused the gentry. Hai Jui:- Why did they say i t was a false accusation? Was there an eye-witness? First Peasant:- Yes, his family's head-servant gave evidence. Hai Jui:- What I How can a bond-slave be a witness for his master? Well, what testimony did he give? Second Peasant:- He said that on the day of the Ch'ing-ming Festi v a l , Third Master Hsu spent the entire day reading at the home of a hsiu-ts'ai of this city, and what i s more, that he never went outside the city. Hai Jui:- What Third Master Hsu i s that? First Peasant:- The Third Master Hsu of the family of Grand Tutor Hsu.  Is there any other?  Hai Jui:- No, you are quite right.  Since Third Master Hsu never  went outside the city, how could he s t i l l be i n the countryside kidnapping and beating people? First Peasant:- Bahl  Do you think we were  broad daylight?  seeing a ghost i n  We a l l watched him commit this  kidnapping and beating with our own eyes. Hai Jul:- Then i t was your own fault.  Since you saw i t with your  own eyes, why did you not go and give evidence?  Second Peasant:- Oh, sir I (sings) When we a l l go into court to appear as witnesses, The magistrate becomes rich on the bribes he receives, The words spoken by the gentry he believes absolutely, But he has difficulty accepting what poor men see with their own eyes. Hai J u i : - The speech of the gentry i s automatically true and the testimony of poor people i s automatically false. Crowd of Peasants:- Exactly. Hai J u i : - In this case the gentry was only one man and there are many of you.  When you had a l l had your say, did he s t i l l  not believe you? First Peasant:- Sir, how could you know the sufferings and hardships of us poor people? family.  We are a l l tenants of the Hsu  How could we dare to say anything more?  Hai J u l : - Oh! You are a l l tenants of the Hsu Family. A l l the Peasants:- Our lands and fields have a l l been seized by the Hsu family but we s t i l l have to hand over the rents and do corvee labor.  Truly, we have a  bitter time of i t . Hai J u i : - This i s your own fault too.  Why do you not report i t ?  First Peasant:- Sir, you are not a local man, and so i t i s not surprising that you think the way you do.  The  49  27 p r e f e c t i s t h e famous L i P o - p ' i and t h e m a g i s t r a t e an a b s o l u t e l y c o r r u p t o f f i c i a l . lay  a  How  is  c o u l d we dare t o  complaint?  ( s i n g s ) The yamens o f the o f f i c i a l s a r e opened w i d e , But i f you have o n l y e v i d e n c e and no money, you s t a y o u t s i d e , From the h i g h e s t l e v e l s t o the i t i s always an o f f i c i a l ' s And  lowest,  world,  t h e y say the poor p e o p l e have o n l y them-  s e l v e s t o blame t h a t t h e y do not l i v e b e t t e r . H a i J u i : - Amazing!  But i f you cannot r e p o r t i t t o the p r e f e c t o r  the m a g i s t r a t e , where a r e you going now? T h i r d P e a s a n t : - We  a r e g o i n g t o l a y our c o m p l a i n t  a t the yamen o f  the Soochow Governor. H a i J u i : - The  Soochow Governor.  Then does he not demand money, and  can he see t h a t j u s t i c e i s done f o r you? T h i r d Peasant:- E x a c t l y .  The  newly a p p o i n t e d  governor i s H a i G h ' i n g -  t ' i e n , and he c e r t a i n l y can see t h a t j u s t i c e i s done for  us.  I f you l i s t e n , I s h a l l t e l l you about  ( s i n g s ) Many y e a r s ago when I was  him.  selling rice in  Shun-an, Everyone t a l k e d o f the f a i r n e s s and t i a l i t y o f the o f f i c i a l , H a i  Ch'ing-t'ien,  He d e c r e a s e d the number o f c o u r i e r s implemented the "One  impar-  Whip P o l i c y " ,  The mouths o f the people are as  and  28  tablets,  50 recording the merits of a good magistrate, and praising him, 29  He absolished the l i Headman, removed bad traditional practices, instituted many good policies, He encouraged the people in their farming, regarding them as his own children, And a l l who had previously fled returned, Clothed i n broadcloth, living only on vegetables, his l i f e was very hard, He rounded up the bullies, eliminated the scoundrels, saw justice done i n court, When he was transferred and had to leave, the common people he had benefitted were very grieved. Hai J u i : - Do you truly believe that he can act on your behalf? Third Peasant:- Of course, he s t i l l has not arrived to take up his post.  We are just going by a l l the reports that  he lets the common people state their grievances and gets them redressed.  But i f he w i l l not act  for us, how can he s t i l l retain the name of Ch'ingt'ien? Hai J u i : - OhI Thank you for your information. (sound of drums and music from the rear) Second Peasant:- Here come the officials out to receive Hai Ch'ingt'ien.  Let us get a look at Hai Ch'ing-t'ien.  51 (Hung A-lan and a l l the peasants push forward and collide head-on with the group of o f f i c i a l s , o f f i cers, and soldiers.  A soldier knocks the Third  Peasant down; i n helping him up, Hai Jui then bumps into L i P'ing-tu and both are knocked off balance.) L i P'ing-tu:- You blind old fool, you knocked me overl  Beat this  old good-for-nothing I (A soldier raises his whip, Cheng Yu restrains him, and the crowd of o f f i c i a l s , officers, and soldiers goes off. Exit Hung A-lan and a l l the peasants i n a fright.) Hai Jul:- This petty l i t t l e o f f i c i a l with such an awe-inspiring reputationI (sings) The common people come i n droves to lay their complaints, Supporting their aged, leading young by the hand, they flee to remote areas, A l l because avaricious officials behave no better than packs of foxes and dogs, They squeeze and bleed the poor and proffer bribes to the detriment of the people, This o f f i c i a l uses his awe-inspiring reputation to intimidate and push others around, It Is obviously his habit to treat others with haughtiness and contempt,  52 As Governor of Kiangnan, Hai Jui will nourish and protect the interests of the masses, I shall entirely sweep away evil officials, repress the sinister, and support the virtuous. In a word; I shall restore the fabric of our society and destroy the tyrants, I shall f u l f i l l the ambitions which I have cherished through my entire l i f e ,  (exits)  Scene I V  M e e t i n g w i t h Hsu  Time:- Ten days l a t e r . P l a c e : - The mansion o f Hsu C h i e h i n H u a - t ' i n g  County.  C h a r a c t e r s : - H a i J u i , w e a r i n g a s i l k cap and l o n g r e d r o b e . H a i P'eng. Hsu C h i e h , s e v e n t y - f i v e y e a r s o f age. H i s b e a r d i s s t r e a k e d w i t h w h i t e and grey.  He i s s m a l l , s h o r t I n  s t a t u r e , w i t h a f a i r complexion. elegantly.  He c a r r i e s h i m s e l f  Dressed i n o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s .  A domestic s e r v a n t o f t h e Hsu f a m i l y . (Hsu C h i e h e n t e r s w i t h h i s domestic s e r v a n t f o l l o w i n g I n attendance.) Hsu C h i e h : -  ( s i n g s ) I h e l d t h e power o f t h e s t a t e i n my own hands for  twenty years,  Such was my c a l i b r e as a statesman t h a t my p o r t r a i t was p a i n t e d f o r p o s t e r i t y , Only when I r e t i r e d d i d I come t o e x p e r i e n c e t h e joy  o f country  living,  I c a n l a u g h a t t h e n o b i l i t y and I envy n o t even the  immortals.  I , Hsu C h i e h , have been Prime M i n i s t e r d u r i n g two r e i g n s and I am among t h e most famous men o f my g e n e r a t i o n .  I  r e t i r e d because o f my advanced y e a r s and now my e s t a t e s and p r o p e r t i e s a r e s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h t h e l e n g t h and b r e a d t h o f Wu.  I have a thousand s e r v a n t s and I am  54 rich and high-ranking. for?  What else i s there to wish  A month ago I read in the Peking Gazette that  Hai Kang-feng had been transferred to the governorship of Kiangnan.  I have not seen him for many years,  but i f he comes here I know he w i l l certainly do some outstanding things. (sings) I am glad that my old friend brings his banners to govern this place, A man of integrity, the older he grows, the more resolute he becomes, We shall renew our old association, discuss the Classics, be an inspiration for youth, He w i l l rule with benevolence and bring great benefit to the masses. Oh, oh, hold on.  I was at court for many years, but my  children live i n the country and there i s always inevitably some affair arising from their insulting and ridiculing of the peasants. tremely old fashioned. dig any of this up?  This man Kang-feng i s ex-  What shall we do i f he should  (contemplates)  I know, I had de-  f i n i t e l y better give my children some further instruction on these matters and control them rigorously. I cannot l e t them stir up a l o t of trouble needlessly. Even i f he starts trying to dig things up, as long as there i s nothing concrete for him to get his hands on, we can meet the situation satisfactorily.  Truly, I  55 am v e r y happy i n one way, and y e t q u i t e a p p r e h e n s i v e a t t h e same t i m e . ( E n t e r a domestic  servant)  S e r v a n t : - I beg t o i n f o r m t h e Grand T u t o r t h a t t h e Honourable Censor has come t o pay h i s r e s p e c t s . Hsu C h i e h : - A s k him i n q u i c k l y , and sound t h e drums o f welcome. (Sound o f drums and music.  E n t e r H a i J u i and H a i  P eng following.) 1  H a i J u l : - Grand T u t o r . Hsu C h i e h : - Kang-feng. H a i J u i : - S i n c e I have t a k e n up t h i s p o s t , many p u b l i c a f f a i r s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have k e p t me o c c u p i e d and o n l y t o d a y have I come t o pay my r e s p e c t s .  P l e a s e f o r g i v e me.  Hsu C h i e h : - What i s Kang-feng t a l k i n g a b o u t ?  The emperor has e s -  p e c i a l l y d i s p a t c h e d y o u t o come and govern t h i s p l a c e and we a r e a l l g r a t e f u l f o r t h i s b l e s s i n g .  I am o l d  and my s t r e n g t h has d e c l i n e d , so I have n o t gone t o g r e a t l e n g t h s t o welcome you.  I hope y o u w i l l  excuse  me. (They bow and t h e n s i t down.) H a i J u i : - I have n o t seen y o u f o r many y e a r s .  You have become  more r o b u s t and p e r k y t h a n e v e r . Hsu C h i e h : - Thank you, thank you, b u t I am o l d and o f no use whatsoever.  But my t e e t h a r e s t i l l good and I can  s t i l l e a t meat.  Kang-feng, I presume t h a t y o u r hon-  ourable family has accompanied you to this post? Hai Jui:- My mother's age i s very advanced, but she i s also s t i l l very robust. My wife has come with me to look after her. Hsu Chieh:- Good, good. Another day, I shall send my daughter-inlaw to c a l l on them. Hai Jul:- You are too kind. Hsu Chieh:- Kang-feng, I am honoured by your v i s i t today, but what i s i t you wish to speak to me about? Hai Jui:- I have come to pay my respects to the Grand Tutor. But the second reason for my coming i s that I want to ask your advice. Hsu Chieh:- If I know anything that can help you, I shall of course be entirely sincere with you and t e l l you everything. Hai Jui:- The Grand Tutor was an important statesman at court and you are an elder in this place. You w i l l certainly have a profound understanding of the merits and demerits  30 of politics i n Wuchung. This i s the f i r s t time I have ever been here.  I have hopes that you w i l l condescend  to give me some instructions concerning what the f i r s t priorities should be i n relation to government. Hsu Chieh:- Ha ha, Kang-feng, you are too modest, but since you want me to speak, I shall not try to beat around the bush.  I shall be perfectly direct with my old friend,  (sings) The wicked people i n the area of Wu are characteristically vicious and stupid,  57  And so frivolous about litigation that pending cases are piled high as a mountain, To rule without resort to coercion or petty regulations requires great courage, Uphold the law and use i t to preserve stability in this time of instability. Hai Jul:- Thank you for your instructions.  If the wicked people  sue frivolously, I shall of course uphold the law and preserve stability.  And i f the gentry break the law and  oppress good people? Hsu Chieh:- Kang-feng, you have been absolutely upright and straightforward a l l your l i f e .  Even to the late emperor, your  words were entirely direct when you admonished him. w i l l leave a fragrant name i n history.  You  I expect you w i l l  be even more direct with the gentry here, (sings) The great law of the Imperial Court i s promulgated throughout the land, Princes and common people must a l l receive exactly the same treatment, Wolves barring the way must be scattered, do 31  not put aside your precious sword. Hai Jul:- Many thanks for your advice. Ah, Grand Tutor I (sings) I recall years ago at the emperor's court, anxiety caused me to lose sleep and forget to eat, I had the courage to face the late emperor and  58 admonish him t o r e c t i f y bad p o l i t i c a l Now  practices,  I s h a l l d w e l l i n the c o u n t r y s i d e as the u n i -  v e r s a l hope o f t h e peasants h e r e , I s h a l l s e t an example f o r t h e y o u t h by  strict  adherence t o t h e l a w and by a l o n g , p e a c e f u l r u l e . There i s s t i l l one t h i n g I w i s h t o a s k you about. Hsu C h i e h : - P l e a s e do. H a i J u l : - Hung A - l a n , a peasant woman o f H u a - t ' i n g County,  has  l a u n c h e d a l a w s u i t a c c u s i n g someone i n y o u r household o f s e i z i n g p e o p l e ' s f i e l d s , k i d n a p p i n g a g i r l , and v i c i o u s l y b e a t i n g an i n n o c e n t man. Hsu C h i e h : - ( p a l e s ) Whatl she has  How  should I handle i t ?  I f such a t h i n g has happened, who  isi t  accused?  H a i J u i : - Hsu Y i n g . Hsu C h i e h : - He i s my t h i r d son. a man  Kang-feng, you remember what k i n d o f  I am, you have a p r o f o u n d knowledge o f me.  These  l a n d s and e s t a t e s o f mine were a l l purchased w i t h cash. How  can anyone t a l k about them b e i n g s e i z e d ?  Y i n g , i s a l a w - a b i d i n g man. people?  My son, Hsu  K i d n a p p i n g and b e a t i n g  He c e r t a i n l y would not go so f a r as t o commit  f o o l i s h crimes l i k e t h a t .  I have j u s t t o l d you how  these  w i c k e d p e o p l e i n Wu c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y make f a l s e a c c u s a tions.  Kang-feng, you must pay a b s o l u t e l y no a t t e n t i o n  to t h e i r falsehoods. H a i J u i : - There i s a b s o l u t e l y no t r u t h t o t h i s a f f a i r ? Hsu C h i e h : - There i s a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g t o i t . H a i J u i : - What i f t h i s a f f a i r were t r u e ?  59 Hsu Chieh:- What i f i t were true?  There i s not one chance i n ten  thousand that i t i s true. Hai Jui:- What i f the one chance i n ten thousand occurred and the evidence was really factual? Hsu Chieh:- If there were proof, you should do as you see f i t and handle i t according to law. Hai Jul:- Good! Good! According to law, then.  Well said.  That  being the case, I shall take my leave of you. Hsu Chieh:- Good day. Hai J u l : - Good day. (Drums and music. Hsu Chieh:- A i ya! about!  Hsu Chieh bows and Hai Jui exits.)  This affair which Kang-feng was just talking If one thing leads to another, this i s really  going to be terrible.  Let me c a l l Hsu Ying i n here  and I shall find out the facts of this thing.  Servant,  summon the Third Master to come i n here. Domestic Servant:- Calling Third Master! (enter Hsu Ying) Hsu Ying:- Allow me to pay my respects, father.  What i s i t that  has prompted you to call me? Hsu Chieh:- Someone has accused you of kidnapping and beating people.  Can there be anything to this?  Hsu Ying:- Why, damn! Yes, i t i s true, but the case has already been settled. Hsu Chieh:- Where was i t settled? Hsu Ying:- In the Hua-t'ing County Court.  60 Hsu Chieh:- How was i t settled? Hsu Ying:- The District Magistrate told me to say that on that day I was studying at the home of a hsiu-ts'ai i n this city and never l e f t the city.  Then he had the old man who  had l a i d the charge beaten to death publicly.  He settled  the case by getting r i d of the plaintiff. Hsu Chieh:- (pales) Ai yal  He beat the man to death!  man to death! the city.  He beat the  You said you never went outside  Who did you have for a witness?  Hsu Ying:- Hsu Fu was a witness. Hsu Chieh:- Do you mean the Hsu Fu of my household?  (asks Hsu Fu)  Were you the witness? Hsu Fu:- Grand Tutor, i t was no one else but your bond-slave. Hsu Chieh:- That i s no good, that w i l l not do at a l l . family slave be a witness?  (to Hsu Ying)  How can a Youl  This  case i s now going to be reported at the Governor's Yamen. You fool!  How do you think you are going to  handle i t this time? Hsu Ying:- Father, what i s the problem about this?  It cannot come  to more than us having to spend some more money again. With the people they have for officials these days, I 'cannot Imagine that there could be one who does not love money. Hsu Chieh:- Oh, you fool!  Do you know who the governor is?  Hsu Ying:- Does i t matter who he Is? Whoever he i s , he cannot be more than a governor.  61 Hsu Chieh:- Bah!  Idiot!  You have rushed headlong into a calamity.  This governor cannot be compared to other men.  He  happens to be Hai Jui, the one honest o f f i c i a l of these times.  He i s honest, upright, and absolutely  incorruptible.  He i s resolute and selfless and. i f he  judges this case according to law, you simply need not think about living any longer. Hsu Ying:- (alarmed) My God!  Hai Jul!  Father, what can be done  about this? Hsu Chieh:- What can be done about this?  What can be done about  this, indeed. Hsu Ying:- Father, I have done something wrong. We must think of a way out. Hsu Chieh:- Bah!  There i s no alternative to be considered. Good 32  God!  First, he beats someone half to death and then  he gets his bond-slave to testify for him. What can one do about a thing like this?  I have i t , a virtuous  man has ways of handling things. Hsu Ying, come close to me so that I may whisper i n your ear. Hsu Ying:- Yes.  (His father whispers i n his ear and Hsu Ying looks pleased.)  Hsu Chieh:- My son, I order that from now on no one i n this family i s to go needlessly provoking trouble and committing crimes. Hsu Ying:- Yes, father. Hsu Chieh:- I mean i t !  This cannot go on any longer.  62 Hsu Ying:- I understand, father. Hsu Chieh:- Ai yai yait  I shall leave now.  (exits)  This charge of kidnapping and beating  is indeed legitimate. When Hai Jui and I were talking just now, I was not careful.  I said too much. If Kang-  feng takes a firm stand on the law, there i s no doubt that he w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to deal with. another side to i t . the past.  Wait!  There i s  I did a kindness for him once i n  I think he i s an absolutely sincere and v i r -  tuous man. A virtuous man repays a kindness with kindness. now.  I would calculate that he would not turn on me I think my son's l i f e may s t i l l be saved. Anyway,  I cannot think of anything more than this.  If i t i s  the wrong move then i t i s the wrong move, but the only thing I can do i s to try to handle i t this way. We shall see how he handles things and cross our bridges when we come to them.  In a word:  I do not worry about national affairs, but family affairs, And I would serve as a slave for the benefit of my children.  Scene V.  A Mother's Counsel  Time:- Three days later. Place:- An inner court i n the Soochow Governor's Tamen. Characters:- Hai Jui. Hai P'eng. Hsieh Shih. Wang Shih. (Enter Hsieh Shih and Wang Shih with a slave g i r l following i n attendance.) Hsieh Shih:- (sings) As my son prepares to resume sittings of the court and ask questions about this case, So diligent, loyal, and devoted i s he that he forgets to sleep and ignores his food. Wang Shih:- (sings) He w i l l eradicate the greedy o f f i c i a l s and their rapacious underlings, The youth and the aged w i l l a l l enjoy happiness together. Hsieh Shih:- My daughter-in-lawI  These last few days Hai P'eng has  been coming to me saying that i n every street and alley there i s a babble of discussion. They say that the eyes of heaven have been opened. They say there really are some standards of justice and that there is a living Buddha for every family.  Some say that  since he has taken up his post, the dikes have been maintained and the people have been saved from the  64 33  c a l a m i t y o f f l o o d s ; t h e y say t h a t H a i Lung Wang has come to earth.  The Wusung R i v e r a l s o f l o o d s a f t e r extended  r a i n s and he has a l r e a d y begun d r e d g i n g o p e r a t i o n s it.  on  Moreover he has p e r s o n a l l y gone t o the r i v e r t o  superintend  the l a b o r .  The  r e f u g e e s have a l l gone j o y -  o u s l y t o j o i n i n the work.  B e s i d e s t h i s , he has  veyed t h e l a n d and implemented the e q u i t a b l e Whip P o l i c y " .  "One  When she h e a r s words l i k e t h o s e ,  o l d mother f e e l s v e r y happy. makes an o l d woman l i k e me  sur-  his  Having a son such as  this  f e e l t h a t a l l her e f f o r t s i n  b r i n g i n g him up have been w e l l w o r t h i t . ( s i n g s ) I t h i n k o f b r i n g i n g up t h i s f a t h e r l e s s c h i l d and the sadness i n the b l a c k o f the n i g h t , Taught the Book o f Odes and the Book o f H i s t o r y , t r a i n e d t o be f i l i a l , d i s d a i n i n g anything lacking i n propriety, We  h i r e d a s t r i c t and  s t e r n t u t o r t o make him  s t u d y d i l i g e n t l y ; he p l a c e d f i r s t i n the  local  examination, He became a m a g i s t r a t e ,  eliminated cruel  abuses o f the p e o p l e , r e s t o r e d the  basic  r e g u l a t i o n s of s o c i e t y , Nowadays, as the Governor o f Kiangnan, he occupies a very high o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n , H i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s v e r y g r e a t and the p e o p l e a l l l o o k up t o him i n hope t h a t he w i l l  help  65 them in their tribulations. Wang Shih:- Oh, motherI (sings) I have followed my husband through ten years of hardship i n o f f i c i a l l i f e , As an o f f i c i a l , he i s uncompromisingly righteous, loyal, and brave enough to peel the scales off a dragon, Imprisoned i n the Imperial Dungeon, flogged i n the audience chamber, your son nearly lost his life, With his upright nature he i s d i f f i c u l t to dissuade, but I s t i l l hope you might counsel him to be more moderate. Hsieh Shih:- Daughter-in-law, your husband i s an honest and conscientious o f f i c i a l and he has a wide reputation for being resolutely incorruptible.  He was dismissed from  office without warning and imprisoned but he i s s t i l l the same as he always was. What he says i s exactly what he means and a hundred t r i a l s w i l l not wear him down. This i s precisely what i s so good about him.  It would  be best i f you stopped worrying so much about him. Wang Shih:- You are right. (Enter Hal Jui, dressed i n ordinary clothes, with Hai P'eng following.) Hai J u i : - (sings) The gentry and the evil officials are feeding on the fat of the people,  66 The resentment of the people bubbles and boils, their hatred w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to overcome, When troops prepare for battle, wanting to shoot men, they f i r s t shoot their horses, The various affairs of state i n Kiangnan require a great deal of careful consideration. Wang Shih:- My Lord. Hai Jui:- Greetings, my wife.  I pay my respects, mother.  Hsieh Shih:- I am glad to see you.  Sit down beside me.  Hai Jui:- Thank you, I shall. Ah! Hsieh Shih:- My son, since you have come here to this post you do not think of food or drink and you have not had a peaceful sleep for many days.  You should work hard as  an o f f i c i a l , but at the same time you should not overdo i t and wear yourself out. Hai Jui:- Many thanks for your advice, mother, I shall take heed. Only.... Hsieh Shih:- Only what? Hai Jui:- Ah! Hsieh Shih:- Why does my son heave such a long sigh? Hai Jui:- There i s so much that you do not know about, mother. Since I have come to this position, the common people have flocked to accuse Grand Tutor Hsu of seizing their fields, allowing his son to act wickedly, oppressing the l i t t l e people, and shielding the gentry.  It truly  seems that he i s concerned with wealth, rather than  67 virtue.  H i s t h i r d son, Hsu T i n g , usurped t h e p r o p e r t y  34 o f t h e Chao f a m i l y , kidnapped an orphan g i r l i n t h e Chao f a m i l y , hounded the "only Chao son u n t i l he d i e d of chagrin.  And on t o p o f a l l t h i s , he b r i b e d a c o r r u p t  o f f i c i a l t o beat t o d e a t h an i n j u r e d member o f t h e Chao family.  Many y e a r s ago, t h e Grand T u t o r s t i l l had a good  r e p u t a t i o n a t t h e c o u r t and he saved my l i f e . seems nowl  The way he  Oh, t h i s manI  ( s i n g s ) A l t h o u g h masked as a m o r a l i s t , d i s c u s s i n g  pro-  p r i e t y and d u t y , e v i l l u r k s w i t h i n h i m , H i s son i n f l i c t s i n j u r i e s on t h e common p e o p l e and amasses p r o p e r t y and w e a l t h , L e n d i n g money a t h i g h i n t e r e s t r a t e s , s e i z i n g l a n d , they are t r u l y  shysters,  H i s v i r t u e s a r e f a l s e and h i s v i c e s a r e r e a l , o f t h a t t h e r e i s no doubt. H s i e h S h i h : - My son, i t i s n o t easy t o know t h e n a t u r e o f men.  35 There i s no u s e c r y i n g o v e r s p i l t m i l k . toward you, b u t n e v e r t h e l e s s common p e o p l e .  He was k i n d  he has come t o h a t e t h e  Do y o u h o l d w i t h p r i v a t e f a v o r s ?  about y o u r d u t y t o a p p l y t h e l a w o f t h e c o u n t r y ? my sonI ( s i n g s ) F i f t y y e a r s y o u have s t u d i e d t h e c l a s s i c w r i t i n g s o f C o n f u c i u s and M e n c i u s ,  36 Han  Dynasty p e o p l e b u r i e d c a r t - w h e e l s and  wiped out t h e e v i l c l a s s e s o f p e o p l e ,  What Oh,  68 I n t h i s d y n a s t y , P r e f e c t K'uang r e v e r s e d u n j u s t sentences  o f imprisonment,  W i t h a n c i e n t and contemporary men as examples, why s h o u l d y o u h e s i t a t e ? H a i J u i : - Those a r e my s e n t i m e n t s e x a c t l y . V e r y w e l l , mother! Tomorrow I s h a l l reopen t h e c o u r t .  The f i r s t t h i n g I  s h a l l do i s t o d e a l w i t h Hsu Y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o l a w . Second, I s h a l l make t h e Hsu f a m i l y g i v e back a l l t h e p r o p e r t y w h i c h t h e y have t a k e n f o r c e f u l l y f r o m t h e p e o p l e . T h i r d , I s h a l l i s s u e a p r o c l a m a t i o n s a y i n g t h a t any gent r y who have u n l a w f u l l y s e i z e d l a n d f r o m t h e people must r e t u r n i t t o t h e o r i g i n a l owners, under p e n a l t y o f law.  B u t I p a r t i c u l a r l y wanted t o hear your a d v i c e ,  mother. H a i P'eng:- My L o r d , excuse your o l d s e r v a n t f o r s p e a k i n g  frankly.  ( s i n g s ) Throughout t h e e n t i r e c o u n t r y , t h o s e i n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s m i s t r e a t t h e common p e o p l e , Though t h e people s u f f e r p a i n and d i s t r e s s , t h e r e i s nowhere t h e y can seek r e d r e s s , Grand T u t o r Hsu has g r e a t i n f l u e n c e and i s o f a s i n i s t e r and v i c i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n , Do n o t do a n y t h i n g h a s t y w h i c h might b r i n g a h o r n e t ' s n e s t down on your head. H a i J u l : - What y o u s a y i s n o t c o r r e c t .  I t c e r t a i n l y w i l l n o t do f o r  me t o be a f r a i d o f t h e Hsu f a m i l y , j u s t because i t has great i n f l u e n c e !  69 ( s i n g s ) What i s I t  i n your experience t h a t accounts  for  t h i s k i n d of t a l k ? I,  H a i J u i , have endured many h a r d s h i p s y e t my  w i l l remains e n t i r e l y u n d i m i n i s h e d , G e t t i n g r i d o f t h e t y r a n t s and a s s u a g i n g t h e p e o p l e ' s anger r e q u i r e s a man's w i l l , No m a t t e r how g r e a t h i s power,  I w i l l deal with  him. Wang S h i h : - My husband, t h e r e i s s t i l l m e r i t i n H a i P ' e n g ' s and I s t i l l hope you w i l l t h i n k i t over  words  carefully,  ( s i n g s ) These s e v e r a l y e a r s you have r e c e i v e d t h e empero r ' s f a v o r , your r a n k has r i s e n  steadily,  A p r o t e c t o r o f t h i s a r e a and o v e r s e e r o f  its  important a f f a i r s , your plans are f l a w l e s s , I f you k i l l Hsu Y i n g , u p h o l d t h e l a w of t h e country,  and d i s r e g a r d p e r s o n a l  considerations,  They w i l l say you have f o r g o t t e n o l d  obligations  and c a s t a s i d e f a v o r s done y o u , On t o p of a l l t h a t , you s h o u l d c o n s i d e r how p o w e r f u l he i s , H i s c o n n e c t i o n s a r e b o t h l o c a l and a t  court;  h i s power i s immense, T h i s i s no s m a l l m a t t e r and you must g i v e  it  most c a r e f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n , Do not l e t t h i s r e s u l t i n t h e sorrow and t r o u b l e of h i s w r a t h f u l  retribution.  70  H a i J u i : - My w i f e , what a r e y o u t a l k i n g about?  When t h a t Hsu C h i e h  a l l o w s h i s son t o a c t w i c k e d l y , i f I , H a i J u i , p a i d a t t e n t i o n t o p e r s o n a l o b l i g a t i o n s and f o r g o t t h e l a w o f t h e c o u n t r y , how c o u l d I f a c e my b e l o v e d mother, o r t h e emperor,  o r t h e people?  ( s i n g s ) When t h e son o f Grand T u t o r Hsu i s k i d n a p p i n g g i r l s and committing  murder,  And t h e people l o s e t h e i r p r o p e r t y and a r e t a x e d i n t o poverty, What i s t h e u s e o f s t u d y i n g g r e a t books i f I c o n s i d e r p r i v a t e o b l i g a t i o n s and f o r g e t t h e l a w ? To p r o t e c t t h e b o r d e r s and comfort t h e common p e o p l e , one must govern v e r y f a i r l y . H s i e h S h i h : - My s o n , my d a u g h t e r - i n - l a w , H a i P'eng!  I f one i s t o  r e a d t h e s a c r e d books and do v i r t u o u s deeds, t h e l a w o f t h e c o u n t r y must be u p h e l d and t h e p e o p l e d e l i v e r e d from t h e i r hardships.  My son must be concerned  only  w i t h t h e i m p a r t i a l observance and i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e l a w . He s h o u l d t h i n k o n l y o f answering  to the  emperor on t h e one hand, and m a i n t a i n i n g t h e peace o f t h e p e o p l e on t h e o t h e r . ( s i n g s ) I am g l a d my s o n a p p l i e s h i m s e l f t o t h e p e o p l e ' s problems, g i v i n g f i r s t p r i o r i t y t o u p h o l d i n g the l a w , To wipe o u t t h e t y r a n t s and t o support t h e s m a l l and weak i s t o be v e r y v i r t u o u s ,  71 Grand T u t o r Hsu i s a man o f wide e x p e r i e n c e , his  c a l c u l a t i o n s have f a r - r e a c h i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s ,  But h i s son has v i o l a t e d t h e l a w o f t h e country- and must c e r t a i n l y be p u n i s h e d , Your mother and w i f e w i s h t o support y o u w i t h i n t h e f a m i l y and a r e n o t concerned w i t h h i g h position, W i t h s i m p l e , homely f o o d and c l o t h c l o t h e s and shoes, we c a n be h a p p i e r t h a n t h e gods, Even i f i t means t h a t some o f t h e s e p e o p l e undermine y o u and cause y o u r d o w n f a l l , You can r e t u r n t o Ch'iung-chow and e n j o y t h e s i g h t o f t h e green water and t h e b l u e mountains. Hai  J u l : - Many t h a n k s f o r y o u r a d v i c e , mother.  My w i f e , mother has  become weary, how about t a k i n g h e r i n t o t h e c o u r t f o r a little  rest?  ( E x i t Wang S h i h , s u p p o r t i n g H s i e h S h i h ) Hai  J u i : - H a i P'eng, go and i s s u e t h e o r d e r f o r t h e c o u r t t o resume s e s s i o n s tomorrow.  Summon everyone connected w i t h t h e  case o f Hung A - l a n t o appear.  The o f f i c i a l s  o f t h e two  p r e f e c t u r e s o f Soochow and Sungkiang w i l l s i t i n j u d g e ment on t h e c a s e . Hai  P'eng:- V e r y w e l l ,  Hai  J u l : - I n a word:  There must be no m i s t a k e about  (exits)  I must a p p l y t h e l a w s o f t h e emperor, And k i l l t h e s e greedy, c o r r u p t o f f i c i a l s .  this.  72 (exits)  Scene V I  The L a w s u i t i s C o n t i n u e d  Time:- The n e x t day. P l a c e : - The G r e a t C o u r t i n t h e Soochow Governor's  Tamen.  Characters:- Hai J u i . The o f f i c i a l s o f Soochow and Sungkiang  Prefectures.  Hung A - l a n and a l a r g e group o f p e a s a n t s . Hsu Y i n g , accompanied by Hsu F u (wearing t h e cap and gown o f a h s i u  ts'ai.)  The D i r e c t o r o f t h e H u a - t ' i n g D i s t r i c t Academy. Standard-bearers, o f f i c e r s , s o l d i e r s ,  and many yamen  runners. ( E n t e r t h e o f f i c i a l s o f Soochow and Sungkiang Prefectures.) Cheng Yu:- ( r e c i t e s )  E v e r y day I w a i t b e f o r e t h e yamen gate f o r a n audience,  L i P'ing-tu:-  I t makes me f e e l v e r y w o r r i e d i n s i d e at  and i l l  ease,  H s i a o Yen:-  Why do t h e y n o t come and summon u s ?  Wang Ming-yu:-  N i g h t and day, I f e e l as i f I am s i t t i n g on p i n s and n e e d l e s .  H s i a o Yen:- Gentlemen, Censor H a i came t o t h i s p o s i t i o n  wearing  everyday a p p a r e l , and so we d i d n o t r e c e i v e him.  Now  he s h u t s h i s doors up t i g h t and never comes out and f o r t h e most p a r t never r e c e i v e s any m i l i t a r y o r c i v i l i a n officials.  A l l he does e v e r y day i s go t o t h e r i v e r t o  superintend l a b o r .  And he summons t h e l o w e r c l a s s e s and  i m p o v e r i s h e d , t h e p e a s a n t s , w o r k e r s , and merchants t o him so t h a t he can a s k them q u e s t i o n s .  Does no one  know t h e r e a s o n f o r t h i s ? Cheng Y u : - I t was h i s own d o i n g t h a t we d i d n o t meet h i m and w e l come him, s i n c e he e n t e r e d t h e c i t y w e a r i n g o r d i n a r y clothes.  I do n o t t h i n k t h i s would cause him t o blame  us f o r a n y t h i n g .  I t i s just that since taking o f f i c e  he has n o t resumed p u b l i c b u s i n e s s o r t h e s i t t i n g s o f the c o u r t .  Everything i s i n a state of limbo, waiting  f o r h i m t o do something.  When he never comes f o r w a r d  t o t a k e up h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , i t i s c e r t a i n t o make p e o p l e become a n x i o u s . Li  P'ing-tu:- I t c e r t a i n l y i s strange!  F i r s t he o r d e r s us t o come  here and w a i t f o r an a u d i e n c e , and t h e n , s e v e r a l days l a t e r , he s t i l l has n o t summoned u s .  Doesn't anyone  know what t h e purpose o f t h i s i s ? Wang Ming-yu:- E v e r y day we have come here t o w a i t b e f o r e t h e yamen gate f o r an a u d i e n c e , y e t t h e r e s t i l l i s n o t a s i g n of l i f e from i n t h e r e .  I t r e a l l y does make a p e r s o n  anxious. (Enter a  standard-bearer)  S t a n d a r d - b e a r e r : - H i s L o r d s h i p has o r d e r e d t h e gate t o be opened. C o u r t i s now i n s e s s i o n . ( E x i t t h e group o f o f f i c i a l s .  Enter o f f i c e r s ,  s o l d i e r s , and yamen r u n n e r s , t o t h e sound o f  7.5 drums and music.  Enter Hai J u i , wearing a red  robe and s i l k cap.) Hai J u i : - ( r e c i t e s ) Restore the r u l e of law, i n the name of the people, i n j u s t i c e must be redressed, The people have suffered c r u e l treatment and can bear no more, The gentry have presumed t o conduct themselves i n an e v i l and v i c i o u s fashion, Slaying the scaly dragon and shooting the t i g e r are a f f a i r s f o r a man, Why should one deserve a t a b l e t f o r virtuous government simply f o r doing h i s duty? I , the Ying T'ien Governor, Hai J u i , since taking o f f i c e , have been i n v e s t i g a t i n g the unreasonable and unlawful conduct of the r i c h gentry c l a s s .  A v a r i c i o u s and corrupt  o f f i c i a l s have been oppressing the people.  I n cases where  there i s f a c t u a l evidence against the people concerned, we s h a l l expend our f u l l e f f o r t i n e l i m i n a t i n g the e v i l d o e r s . The state has punishments to deal w i t h them. reopening the court.  Today, I am  I am determined t o set up a system  of laws which w i l l r e l i e v e the s u f f e r i n g of the people. Attendants, c a l l a l l the o f f i c i a l s to come i n here before me. Standard-bearer:- The o f f i c i a l s of Soochow and Sungkiang Prefectures are  to come i n before the Governor. (Enter a l l the o f f i c i a l s , each announced as he  presents  himself.)  A l l t h e O f f i c i a l s : - The o f f i c i a l s o f t h e two p r e f e c t u r e s o f Soochow and Sungkiang r e p o r t t o t h e Honourable Censor. When l o u r L o r d s h i p came h e r e t o f i l l  this  office,  we m i s s e d t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o welcome you. We beseech y o u r f o r g i v e n e s s . H a i J u l : - Thank y o u v e r y much f o r coming t o welcome me.  But the  r e a s o n y o u d i d n o t meet me was t h a t I came t o t a k e up my d u t i e s w e a r i n g o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s and w i t h o u t u s i n g a d i s p a t c h h o r s e , so what i s t h e r e t o f o r g i v e ?  More-  o v e r , we have met b e f o r e , so why i s any f u r t h e r f o r m a l ity  necessary?  L i P ' i n g - t u : - May I a s k H i s L o r d s h i p t h e Censor where i t was t h a t we met p r e v i o u s l y ? H a i J u l : - I t was r i g h t i n f r o n t o f t h e O f f i c i a l Welcoming Pavilion.  P l e a s e l i f t y o u r eyes and l e t us r e c o g n i z e one  another.  ( A l l t h e o f f i c i a l s l o o k up, s t a r t l e d . L i  P ' i n g - t u becomes alarmed and f l u s t e r e d ; he f e e l s l i k e crawling into a hole.) H a i J u i : - There i s a m a t t e r I w i s h t o t a l k over w i t h you. be  Please  seated.  A l l t h e O f f i c i a l s : - Thank y o u . Cheng Yu:- My L o r d Censor, I summon a l l my courage i n o r d e r t h a t I might dare t o a s k y o u i f y o u have f i x e d a date t o resume b u s i n e s s and a l l o w c o m p l a i n t s t o be heard? H a i J u i : - Why i s i t n e c e s s a r y t o s e l e c t a d a t e ?  I am resuming  77 business right today and I shall allow complaints to be heard.  Standard-bearer, proclaim the resumption of  o f f i c i a l business and the opening of the court for complaints. Standard-bearer:- Tour command i s received. (The standard-bearer takes the seal and stamps the tablet proclaiming the opening of court. A soldier picks up the tablet and goes off.) Hai Jui:- Gentlemen. A l l the Officials:- Your Lordship, the Great Censor. Hai Jui:- How do you conduct yourselves as officials? A l l the Officials:- We are absolutely honest and meticulously careful o f f i c i a l s .  We manage things i n the  interest of the Imperial Court, and we mitigate the misery of the common people. Hai Jui:- Is that a fact?  You truly manage things i n the interest  of the Imperial Court, and mitigate the misery of the common people? A l l the Officials:- Absolutely. Hai Jui:- Ha hai  Well, since you are a l l absolutely honest o f f i -  cials, there i s a case about which I would like to question a l l you gentlemen together and hear your judgements. Where is the Hua-t'ing District Magistrate? Wang Ming-yu:- I am here. Hai Jui:- I would like to ask you how you disposed of the case of Hung A-lan?  78 Wang Ming-yu:- This case, this case, I handled i t with justice, i t i s already settled. Hai Jul:- What was your way of settling i t with justice? Wang Ming-yu:- Hung A-lan charged that on the day of the Ch'ingming Festival, Hsu Ying had kidnapped her daughter and beaten her father-in-law, causing him serious injury.  I summoned the accused and made an inquiry.  On that day of the Ch'ing-ming Festival, Hsu Ying was at Scholar Chang's house, studying. Moreover, he never went outside the city.  It was obvious  that the vicious person was making a false accusation, so I drove her out of the court.  We cannot  tolerate such cases as these. Hai Jul:- If Hsu Ying never went outside the city on the day of the Ch'ing-ming Festival, who can testify to that effect? Wang Ming-yu:- The Hsu family's head servant accompanied him i n attendance and he testified i n court. Hai Jui:- OhI There was a witness. The Hsu family's bond-slave was a witness I  Good! The next thing I would like to  ask you about i s the manner In which Chao Yu-shan died. Wang Ming-yu:- Why, why....it happened while I was giving him a few very light strokes of the cane.  Who could know  that because he was so old, he would just go suddenly, like that? Hai Jul:- Ha ha! denly.  Ha ha!  How well you put i t j he just went sud-  It i s a good thing that you handled everything  79 according to justice.  Standard-bearer, summon Hung A-lan  and the witnesses concerned to come into court. (The standard-bearer  calls out the summons. Enter Hung  A-lan, a l l the peasants, Hsu Ting and Hsu Hung A-lan:- (wailing bitterly)  Tour WorshipI  Eu.)  Redress the wrongs  which have been done me I Hai Jui:- There i s no need for you to lament in this way.  Just  speak the truth. Hung A-lan:- Oh, Tour Worship! (sings) Having suffered injustice, f u l l of bitterness, I have harbored this grievance t i l l  now,  His land seized by evil tyrants, so vexed was my husband, he died of chagrin, During Ch'ing-ming Festival, they stole my beautiful daughter, brutally beat my father-inlaw, Why did Magistrate Wang beat to death the i n jured party, on the basis of perjured evidence? Hai J u i : - Her land seized, husband hounded to death, daughter kidnapped, father-in-law beaten to death. pitiable!  Disgusting, disgusting!  How pitiable, how  Oh, how hateful!  Hsu TingI Hsu Ting:- I am here. Hai J u i : - Hung A-lan has accused you of usurping land, kidnapping, and beating people.  Can these things be true?  Hsu Ting:- I am a junior member of the family of a statesman, a very  80  scholarly family.  How c o u l d I stoop t o t h i s l a w l e s s a c t ?  M o r e o v e r , on t h a t p a r t i c u l a r day o f t h e Ch'ing-ming F e s t i v a l , I a c t u a l l y never went o u t s i d e t h e c i t y . S c h o l a r Chang o f t h i s c i t y as a w i t n e s s . a l r e a d y been f a i r l y concluded D i s t r i c t M a g i s t r a t e Wang.  I have  T h i s case has  b y H i s Worship  Hua-t'ing  So I hope H i s Honor t h e G r e a t  Censor w i l l n o t s i m p l y l i s t e n t o t h e v e r s i o n g i v e n by t h e s e w i c k e d p e o p l e , b u t w i l l have some r e g a r d f o r my father's position  and s e t t l e t h i s case j u s t l y .  H a l J u i : - S i n c e t h e r e i s a w i t n e s s , i t s h o u l d be easy t o s e t t l e  this  case. Hsu Y i n g : - I s h a l l g i v e my e v i d e n c e t h r o u g h an i n t e r m e d i a r y and, according t o t h e u n i v e r s a l p r i n c i p l e , i f t h e evidence i s f a l s e , I am w i l l i n g t o undergo t h e a p p r o p r i a t e  punish-  ment. H a i J u l : - That i s w o n d e r f u l  o f you t o say t h a t you a r e w i l l i n g t o  undergo punishment i f y o u r e v i d e n c e i s f a l s e .  Scholar  Chang. Hsu F u : - I am h e r e . H a i J u l : - You must t e l l t h e t r u t h .  On t h a t day o f t h e Ch'ing-ming  F e s t i v a l , was Hsu Y i n g r e a l l y a t y o u r house, Hsu F u : - That i s t h e a b s o l u t e t r u t h .  studying?  On t h a t day, T h i r d M a s t e r  Hsu was n o t o n l y s t u d y i n g , b u t w r i t i n g  an essay.  H a i J u l : - What e s s a y was he w r i t i n g ? Hsu Fu:-  (agape w i t h a s t o n i s h m e n t ) Essay.  He wrote t h e Thousand  No, t h a t i s n o t c o r r e c t .  Character  What he wrote was t h e  81 37 Hundred Family Surnames. (Hsu Ting pales, stamps his foot.) Hai Jui:- (banging the table) The nerve of you, you blackguard. What should the punishment be for impersonating a hsiuts'ai? Hsu Fu:- I would not dare to do such a thing. 38  My cap i s l e g i t i -  mate, I am not an impostor. Hai Jul:- It i s legitimate; you are not an impostor. good.  Well, that i s  I would like to ask you, what year did you enter the  academy? Hsu Fu:- Why, why.... Hsu Ting:- If I may inform the Honorable Governor, I can testify that he really Is a hsiu-ts'ai from the District Academy. Hai Jul:- Silence.  Is the Director of the Hua-t'ing Academy here?  Academy Director:- I am here. Hai Jul:- Is he a graduate of your school? Academy Director:- I have never seen him before.  This man i s cer-  tainly not from our school. (Hsu Ting trembles; Hsu Fu kneels on the ' ground.) Hal J u i : - Sol  The great gall of you, you v i l l a i n !  To impersonate  l i t e r a t i and give false evidence i n order to bring undeserved suffering on good people I Attendants, take him out and flog him to death. Hsu Fu:- (kowtows) Save my l i f e , Tour Worship. according to the real facts.  I shall testify  82 Hai  Jui:-  I f you t e l l t h e r e a l f a c t s , I s h a l l spare y o u r l i f e .  Who  a r e you? Hsu Fu:- I am. Hsu F u , T h i r d M a s t e r Hsu's s e r v a n t . Hai  Jui:-  S i n c e you a r e a s e r v a n t , why d i d y o u impersonate a h s i u ts-'ai?  Hsu Fu:- I d e s e r v e t o d i e but I was o r d e r e d t o impersonate him. did Hai  Jui:-  not do i t v o l u n t a r i l y .  I m p e r t i n e n t b o n d - s l a v e , I s h a l l ask you once more. did  I  Hsu Y i n g go on t h e day o f t h e Ch'ing-ming  Where  Festival?  Hsu Fu:- He went t o t h e g r a v e y a r d on Heng Yun M o u n t a i n f o r an o u t i n g . Hai  Jui:-  Was  Chao H s i a o - I a n kidnapped by Hsu Y i n g , and where i s she  now? Hsu Fu:- I kidnapped h e r on t h e o r d e r s o f t h e Young M a s t e r and  we  gave h e r a f e a r f u l b e a t i n g when she would not submit t o him. Hai  Jui:-  Why  A t p r e s e n t , she i s s t i l l l o c k e d up i n h i s house. d i d you a l s o beat Chao Yu-shan?  Hsu Fu:- When we were c a r r y i n g out t h e k i d n a p p i n g , Chao Yu-shan b l o c k e d our way.  So t h e Young M a s t e r o r d e r e d us t o beat  him. Hai  Jul:-  How  s e r i o u s was t h e s t a t e o f h i s i n j u r i e s ?  Hsu Fu:- He had s c a r s a l l over h i s body.  H i s i n j u r i e s were v e r y  grave. Hai  Jui:-  The H u a - t ' i n g M a g i s t r a t e examined t h e i n j u r i e s , so how  was  i t t h a t he s a i d t h e r e weren't any? Hsu Fu:- On t h e o r d e r s o f t h e Young M a s t e r , I bought o f f t h e p r e f e c t , t h e m a g i s t r a t e , and t h e c o r o n e r .  The c o r o n e r a c c e p t e d our  83 bribe and he therefore said that there were no injuries. (Li P'ing-tu and Wang Ming-yu arise, trembling) Hai Jul:- How much did you bribe them? Who witnessed i t ? Speak the truth. Hsu Fu:- Three hundred taels of gold for the prefect, and two hundred taels of gold for the magistrate. (Wang Ming-yu, L i P'ing-tu, and Hsu Ying kneel down, trembling.) Hai Jul:- Did you yourself hand It over? Hsu Fu:- It was handed over by myself personally. Hai Jui:- What were the circumstances of Chao Yu-shan's death? Hsu Fu:- He was beaten to death by the Hua-t'ing District Magistrate.  This i s how the lawsuit was  won.  Hai Jui:- Did you see this with your own eyes? Hsu Fu:- With my own eyes. (Wang Ming-yu, L i P'ing-tu, and Hsu Ying kowtow, confessing their crimes and begging for mercy.) Hai Jul:- (sings) These avaricious and corrupt officials are entirel y without conscience, It i s i n vain for them to dress In the o f f i c i a l robes of the court, Today, I shall certainly quell the resentment of the people, The law w i l l be as firm and solid as a mountain, showing no mercy. This i s the sentence:  Hsu Ying abducted a g i r l , savagely  84 beat a common man, bribed the prefect, and gave false evidence which led to the k i l l i n g of another man.  In  accordance with the law, he w i l l be strangled. As for his family property, aside from what i s returned to his victims, the rest w i l l be confiscated by the state. Chao Hsiao-Ian i s to be reunited with Hung A-lan.  Wang Ming-yu  received bribes, administered the law crookedly, and killed the plaintiff by beating.  According to law, he w i l l be  beheaded. L i P'ing-tu, nicknamed L i Po-p'i, you have been greedy, corrupt and dishonest.  You are to be stripped of  your rank and imprisoned at the pleasure of the Imperial Court.  Hsu Fu has impersonated a hsiu-ts'ai. given bribes,  and committed perjury. Considering that he did not do this voluntarily and that he has, moreover, now testified according to the law, one hundred strokes of the cane and banishment for three years.  The coroner has received  bribes and committed perjury. He w i l l be stripped of his duties and according to law, he w i l l receive one hundred strokes of the cane and banishment for two years. Gentlemen, are the sentences fair? Cheng Yu:- The Great Censor has removed the abuses of the people. I support you. Hsu Ying:- (kowtows) Great and Honorable Censor, please have regard for my father's face and save my l i f e . Hal J u i : - Silence. When a prince violates the law, the punishment is the same as for an ordinary man.  Take him away.  85 (The soldiers bind Wang Ming-yu, L i P'ing-tu, Hsu Ying and Hsu Fu, and a l l exit.) Hai Jui:- Hung A-lan, do you have anything more to say? Hung A-lan:- Your Worship has erased the hatred amongst the people. Long l i f e to you, noble sir.  39  (kowtows)  Hai Jui:- Elders, the day before yesterday, we had a chat. Many thanks for your counsel.  This case i s now closed; i s  there anything you would like to say? First Peasant:- Your Worship's judgement i s extremely fairI  It i s  only that our lands were stolen by the Hsus and other gentry fa.mi.lies.  The property i s gone but the  taxes remain, so that the lives of the people are f u l l of hardship. We hope that Your Worship can also do something about this for us. Second Peasant:Please act i n our interest, Your Worship. Third Peasant:Hai Jul:- Standard-bearer, I want you to issue this order for me and publish notices of i t .  Within the time limit of ten days,  every gentry family which has seized land from the people w i l l return a l l of i t .  I shall not accept any delay.  If they disobey, they w i l l be punished according to law. Standard-bearer:- Your command i s received. A l l the peasants:- (kowtowing) Your Worship has acted for the people. From now on there w i l l be happy days i n store for the poor people of KiangnanI to you for your kindness.  We are much obliged  We shall return home  86 and paint a portrait of lour Worship, which we shall honor morning and evening! (all sing) These days we shall look up to Heaven above, We shall plough and sow dilegently, restoring orchards and gardens, While we have land, what worry do we have for clothes and food, A promising future Is therefore right before our eyes. Our humble thanks, Your Worship! Hai Jui:- There i s no need to go on like this.  You had better leave  now. (Exit Hung A-lan and a l l the peasants, s t i l l expressing their gratitude.) Cheng Yu:We shall take our leave now. Hsiao Yen:Hai Jul:- Not so fast.  Wu District Magistrate.  Hsiao Yen:- Yes. Hai Jul:- You are greedy, corrupt, and extravagant. • reputation as an o f f i c i a l .  You have a bad  Do you acknowledge these  faults? Hsiao Yen:- I acknowledge them. Hai Jul:- You are cashiered and sent home. Standard-bearer, remove his silk cap. (Standard-bearer removes Hsiao Yen's silk cap.  Exit  87 Hsiao Yen.) Hai Jui:- Prefect of Soochow. Cheng Yu:- Yes. Hai Jui:- You are to instruct a l l the officials to put their minds at ease and resume their duties.  There i s no need to har-  bour any uneasiness. Cheng Yu:- Very well.  I shall go now.  (exit Cheng Yu) Hai Jui:- Ha ha, for ten days now I have had to occupy myself solely with the handling of this case.  The Irrigation system on  the Wusung River i s right i n the middle of repairs and the Pai Mao River needs dredging.  The reforms of the  "One Whip Policy" must be extended to the people.  I shall  do a l l of these things one by one and the common people w i l l breathe a l i t t l e easier.  In a word:  I shall expend every effort to eliminate greed and corruption, and revitalize government, I intend to act i n the interests of the common people. (exits) (Exit the standard-bearer and soldiers, carrying a placard, beating a gong, and reading out the proclamation.) Standard-bearer:- A l l gentry and commoners, hear this: Censor Hai of the Imperial Court of Censors, Governor of Ying T'ien and the Ten Prefectures,  88 in relation to the matter of returning land, proclaims for a l l to know: E v i l gentry tyrants have usurped land belonging to the people.  The innocent  people, having lost their property, are i n a state of helpless dependence and hardship. According to the law of the country, the land i s to be given back. Whoever dares to disobey w i l l be inviting punishment. (All the people listen quietly and then go off, dancing happily to the sound of drums. Exit standard-bearer and soldiers.)  Scene 711  Asking a Favor  Time:- Three days l a t e r . P l a c e : - The Tamen o f t h e Soochow Governor. Characters  H a i J u i and H a i P'eng. Hsu C h i e h and a domestic s e r v a n t f r o m t h e Hsu household. ( E n t e r Hsu C h i e h , dressed  i n o r d i n a r y c l o t h e s and  r i d i n g on a sedan c h a i r , w i t h h i s d o m e s t i c  servant  f o l l o w i n g i n attendance.) Hsu  Chieh:  ( s i n g s ) I r e g r e t t h a t I l e f t t h e I m p e r i a l C o u r t and l o s t t h e emperor's f a v o r , I have no a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o p r o t e c t my e s t a t e f o r my c h i l d r e n , o t h e r w i s e  a l l my e f f o r t s w i l l  come t o nought, Oh, how b i t t e r , t o have such an u n f i l i a l son who a c t s so r a s h l y and v i o l a t e s t h e c r i m i n a l l a w , I n my o l d age, t o have t o watch my grandson, s o n , and daughter i n t h e i r weeping and g r i e f , how can my h e a r t endure i t ? I s h a l l f o r g e t my f a c e and go t o beg my o l d f r i e n d t o o v e r l o o k t h e l a w and a c t a c c o r d i n g t o his f e e l i n g s . Ahl  Things have come t o such a s t a t e t h a t I can no  l o n g e r have any r e g a r d f o r f a c e .  As l o n g as I can  succeed i n my p l e a t h a t my son s h o u l d n o t d i e , we need  90  not b o t h e r t o q u i b b l e about a n y t h i n g e l s e . A h l ( c o n t i n u e s song) B u t I hope t h a t Censor H a i w i l l remember our o l d f r i e n d s h i p and l e n d a h e l p i n g hand t o save h i s l i f e , I f I c a n g e t t h i s , though I gnash my teeth t o the roots, I s h a l l forsake my p r o p e r t y , and whether t h e y p u n i s h me l i g h t l y o r h a r s h l y , I s h a l l comply. We have a r r i v e d a t t h e Governor's Yamen.  S e r v a n t , go  f o r w a r d and announce u s . S e r v a n t : - Who i s on t h e g a t e ? Yamen S e n t r y : - What i s i t ? S e r v a n t : - Grand T u t o r Hsu pays a r e t u r n v i s i t t o Censor H a i . Yamen S e n t r y : - Wait h e r e w h i l e I r e p o r t i t .  Excuse me, Your Wor-  s h i p , Grand T u t o r Hsu has come t o pay r e s p e c t s . (Enter H a i J u i . ) Hai J u l : -  Grand T u t o r Hsu has come t o r e t u r n my c a l l . he has.  Indeed, so  Come i n , p l e a s e . 40  Hsu C h i e h : - Kang-feng, t h e day b e f o r e y e s t e r d a y y o u came t o see me. Hai J u l : -  Today, I have come e s p e c i a l l y t o r e t u r n y o u r v i s i t .  I am g r e a t l y honoured.  P l e a s e be s e a t e d .  Hsu C h i e h : - Thank y o u . Hai J u i : -  Am I c o r r e c t i n j u d g i n g f r o m t h e Grand T u t o r ' s appearance t h a t t h e r e i s something t r o u b l i n g you?  Hsu C h i e h : - You c e r t a i n l y a r e c o r r e c t .  Oh, Kang-feng!  ( s i n g s ) I n my o l d age and f e e b l e i n f i r m i t y ,  91  Hsu Ting, the violator of the law, i s my son, I beg you to consider me and cover up my son's crimes, And give him a light sentence i n order to comfort me. Hai Jui:- Grand TutorI (sings) Stealing land and abducting girls i s a heavy crime, Openly dispensing bribes and k i l l i n g poor people, Tou do not have any concern for the law, How can the law be so elastic as to be changed at will? Hsu Chieh:- Lord Hal, every other son that I have raised has a l ready died. Of a l l my children, there i s only this one son l e f t .  I s t i l l have the hope that you w i l l re-  member my old age and show some leniency, (sings) In my old age, I love my son and he looks after me from dawn to dusk, The love of parents for their offspring i s a happiness ordained by Heaven, I beg you to deign to remember me and to bestow some pity on me, I shall be grateful for your kindness, repay your goodnes.s, and always remember i t . Hai Jul:- Grand Tutor, you know a l l about the love you have for your son, but do you know anything about Hung A-lan's daughter, or her husband, or her father-in-law? And i t i s not only  92  Hung A-lan. Besides her, how many orphans and widows are there?  Are they a l l people without parents or sons and  daughters? (sings) The law of the land i s as firm and inflexible as a mountain, The Grand Tutor previously furnished me with the instructions, That when the law i s broken, no matter whether the offender be of noble rank or low, The prince and the pauper w i l l be treated with absolute equality. Hsu Chieh:- OhI  OhI  effect.  You are right.  I did say something to that  But many years ago, Lord Hai was incarcerated i n  the Imperial Prison, and i t was I who went before the emperor with entreaties for your release. Now there i s a chance for you to repay the favor. I beg you to think i t over once more.  Oh, Lord Hail  (sings) Many years ago you were punished for violating the law of the emperor, How can you forget the fact that It was I who begged for your release? I put my head i n the lion's mouth, Interceding and petitioning the emperor, It i s only because of this that you are here today as governor of this area. Hai Jui:- Grand Tutor, many years ago I irritated the late emperor,  93 and i t i s t r u e t h a t i t was t h r o u g h you I was r e l e a s e d and saved.  But I had sent i n a memorial c r i t i c i z i n g  the  emperor because I was l o y a l t o my s o v e r e i g n and l o v e d my country.  How c o u l d t h a t be c o n s i d e r e d c o m m i t t i n g a crime?  Hsu T i n g has b e a t e n p e o p l e and t r a n s g r e s s e d t h e c r i m i n a l law.  T h i s i s an unpardonable o f f e n c e and i t I s  c l e a r t h a t t h e two t h i n g s a r e not comparable.  abundantly How can you  speak about them i n t h e same s e n t e n c e ? ! ( s i n g s ) H a i J u i i s l o y a l t o h i s emperor and he has a fragrant  reputation,  Hsu T i n g i s a r u t h l e s s o f f e n d e r o f t h e law o f t h e land, " M a i n t a i n a f a i r b a l a n c e and u p h o l d t h e l a w , "  says  t h e Grand T u t o r . "When e l i m i n a t i n g e v i l one f i r s t  eliminates the  wolf which b l o c k s the way." Hsu C h i e h : - That i s r i g h t !  That i s r i g h t I  I r e a l l y d i d say those  t h i n g s about m a i n t a i n i n g a f a i r b a l a n c e and u p h o l d i n g the law.  And s i n c e t h i s i s t h e c a s e , I am w i l l i n g  to  hand over a p a r t o f my e s t a t e i n o r d e r t o atone f o r my son's crime. ( s i n g s ) My son has b r o k e n t h e l a w and I have no f a c e left, I  s h a l l g i v e l a n d t o pay f o r h i s crime and pay  grain for m i l i t a r y  provisions,  The l a w c l e a r l y s t a t e s t h a t an o f f e n c e can be  94 paid o f f i n grain, You  can  save a man's l i f e  and uphold the  law  simultaneously. H a i J u l : - Handing over l a n d I s another t h i n g a l t o g e t h e r . a l r e a d y i s s u e d a p r o c l a m a t i o n s t a t i n g t h a t any who  have usurped l a n d b e l o n g i n g  I have gentry  to the p e o p l e w i l l  have  t o r e s t o r e i t t o the o r i g i n a l owners, under p e n a l t y law.  Your f a m i l y has  from the p e o p l e .  in  hundred thousand  I t w i l l be r e t u r n e d  o f course under the ( s i n g s ) The  s t o l e n two  gentry  of mou  t o them as a m a t t e r  law. surpass even the t i g e r and  the w o l f  treachery,  They u s u r p the l a n d o f the people and no  then  pay  taxes,  The  people i n Kiangnan l e a d a c o l d and  life  of  lonely  hardship,  Unless t h e i r s t o l e n land i s returned,  they w i l l  not be a b l e t o go on f o r l o n g . Hsu  C h i e h : - ( t u r n s h i s back t o the audience) mou I  Two  hundred thousand mou I  land returned You  and  are making me  hundred thousand  You want t o have the  c a r r y out the death sentence as w e l l ! furious.  gone a b s o l u t e l y mad! H a i , you  Two  H a i J u i , H a i J u i , you  (faces Hai J u i )  A l l right,  had b e t t e r l i s t e n t o what I have t o  ( s i n g s ) You  are a man  l y and  who  strictly,  have Lord  say:  conducts h i m s e l f v e r y  stern-  95 You see o n l y one s i d e o f a problem, i g n o r i n g t h e major a s p e c t s , b u t d i s a s t e r a w a i t s y o u , A l l t h e g e n t r y y o u have i n j u r e d w i l l be o f t h e same mind and purpose, And  I f e a r t h a t y o u w i l l n o t be w e a r i n g y o u r  b l a c k s i l k cap much l o n g e r . H a i J u i : - BahI  Ha h a , h a h a i  My b l a c k s i l k cap?  I do n o t even f e a r  d e a t h , so c a n y o u Imagine how much l e s s i m p o r t a n t  it is  t o me whether I go on w e a r i n g a b l a c k s i l k capl A l l right I  A l l right!  ( t a k e s o f f h i s b l a c k s i l k cap)  ( s i n g s ) Poor s t u d e n t s f o r twenty y e a r s , s t u d y i n g gently to learn t o write  dili-  essays,  T a l k i n g o f C o n f u c i u s and M e n c i u s , d i s c u s s i n g t h e Book o f Songs and Book o f H i s t o r y , These p e o p l e a l l end up l o s i n g t h e i r d i r e c t i o n because o f y o u , Should I i m i t a t e t h e compromisers, I would be ashamed t o f a c e t h e emperor. Grand T u t o r Hsu, here i s my b l a c k s i l k cap, h e r e i t i s I H a i J u l wants n o t o n l y t o be a n o f f i c i a l , b u t t o be a man, w i t h n o t h i n g t o be ashamed o f . comes, I s h a l l r e t u r n home  When t h e decree  immediately.  Hsu C h i e h : - L o r d H a i , y o u r e a l l y w i l l n o t t a k e o u r o l d f r i e n d s h i p into consideration? H a i J u i : - I a d m i n i s t e r t h e l a w o f t h e emperor.  I could not t h i n k o f  l e t t i n g p e r s o n a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t a k e precedence over t h e  96 p u b l i c good I Hsu C h i e h : - You cannot reduce Hsu Y i n g ' s  sentence?  H a i J u l : - The Grand T u t o r has s a i d t h a t I s h o u l d u p h o l d t h e l a w and m a i n t a i n b a l a n c e , t r e a t i n g p r i n c e s and paupers a b s o l u t e l y alike I  " I f t h e r e was p r o o f o f t h e c r i m e " , i t was t o be  handled  "according t o law".  Hsu C h i e h : - There i s no way t h a t t h e r e t u r n o f t h e l a n d can be avoided ? H a i J u i : - U s u r p i n g l a n d b e l o n g i n g t o t h e people i s a b s o l u t e l y i n t o l e r a b l e b y d i n t o f r e a s o n o r emotion. it  Certainly  s h a l l be r e t u r n e d !  Hsu C h i e h : - You cannot  compromise even a l i t t l e  bit?  H a i J u l : - When i t comes t o u p h o l d i n g t h e l a w , I am a b s o l u t e l y implacable. Hsu C h i e h : - V e r y w e l l !  I cannot compromise even one i o t a ! Very w e l l !  H a i J u i , I hope y o u do n o t  have any r e g r e t s l a t e r on. H a i J u l : - I have no thought f o r l i f e o r d e a t h , g l o r y o r shame.  I  d e c i d e l y w i l l n o t have any r e g r e t s . Hsu C h i e h : - When y o u speak l i k e t h i s , does i t mean t h a t o u r f r i e n d s h i p i s broken  off?  Hai J u l : - I t i s f i n i s h e d ! Hsu C h i e h : - Ha ha!  HaiJuiI  ( s i n g s ) You a r e a mad and s e d i t i o u s man, f i s h i n g f o r p r a i s e and r e p u t a t i o n , You dare t o do i n j u r y t o t h e e n t i r e g e n t r y class,  collectively,  97 You refuse to listen to this old man's words of wisdom, But how do you think you w i l l end up i n the future? Hai Jui:- (sings) There i s no need for the Grand Tutor to say anything more, Hai Jui i s loyal and patriotic toward his Imperial Majesty, Even though I lose my position and am misunderstood, my name w i l l shed fragrance through thousands of years of history. Goodbye. (Exit Hsu Chieh, i n a rage.) Hai Jui:- I had anticipated that the old man would come here and make a scene, and indeed, I was right.  I do not think  he w i l l be willing-to just s i t back and accept this. Of the various affairs of state in Kiangnan, the elimination of the tyrants, the land survey, implementation of the "One Whip Policy", the regulation of the irrigation system, and the return of the land, these five important matters must be concluded at an early date, i n order that hundreds of thousands of ordinary people w i l l be able to live happy lives, and also in order to lessen some of the worries of the emperor.  In a word:  Although I am old, my bones are as proud as ever, How could they bend i n order to ingratiate me with  98 a powerful minister, (picking up the silk cap) Ha ha!  Ha ha!  (exits)  This s i l k cap!  This silk cap!  Scene VIII  The Counter-Attack  Time:- The next day. Place:- The apartments of Hsu Chieh i n Hua-t'ing County. Characters:- Hsu Chieh. Two close friends of the Hsu family. The Hsu family secretary. (Enter the two friends of the Hsu family) First Friend:- (recites) My heart has been i n my mouth ever since Hai Ch'ing-t'ien suddenly came on the scene, Second Friend:-  We must make plans, we villains cannot just watch our defeat occur before our eyes.  First Friend:- Old friend, Censor Hai has issued a proclamation • that the land must be returned.  What can we do about  this? Second Friend:- My family also received a copy of the  proclamation.  From the way he speaks, he really means business. It seems there i s no way to get out of returning i t . First Friend:- How  can you bear to return something which represents  a whole l i f e ' s work? Second Friend:- Who  can bear i t ?  First Friend:- Where are you going? Second Friend:- I am going to find our good friend, Hsu. First Friend:- I too am on my way to find him for a discussion. His third son has been sentenced to death and our good friend Hsu has gone to the Governor's place  100 t o beg L o r d H a i f o r l e n i e n c y . he r e t u r n s .  I s h a l l wait  until  He w i l l c e r t a i n l y have some news.  Second F r i e n d : - I n t h a t case, we might as w e l l go t h e r e F i r s t F r i e n d : - We a r e h e r e .  together.  Who i s on t h e g a t e ?  (Enter a domestic S e r v a n t : - Oh, i t i s y o u two.  servant)  The Grand T u t o r has s t i l l n o t come  back home, b u t y o u a r e welcome t o w a i t f o r h i m i n t h e rear  court.  F i r s t F r i e n d : - Then a s k t h e s e c r e t a r y t o come and have a chat with us. Servant:- I s h a l l ask the secretary. (enter the secretary) F i r s t F r i e n d : - The Grand T u t o r s t i l l has n o t come home so we a r e g o i n g t o w a i t f o r him h e r e f o r a w h i l e . Second F r i e n d : - L o r d H a i has commanded t h a t t h e l a n d be r e t u r n e d . I n e v e r y p r e f e c t u r e and d i s t r i c t , e x t r e m e l y angry.  the gentry are  They a r e a l l d i s c u s s i n g i t and  everyone hopes t h a t t h e Grand T u t o r w i l l come up w i t h an i d e a . Secretary:- According  t o h i s proclamation,  what he wants  i s t h e l a n d w h i c h was f o r c i b l y s e i z e d .  T h i s i s some-  t h i n g w h i c h one s i m p l y cannot argue a g a i n s t . very d i f f i c u l t  even f o r t h e Grand  returned  It is  Tutor.  F i r s t F r i e n d : - He has p o s t e d n o t i c e s t h a t c o m p l a i n t s w i l l be h e a r d and thousands upon thousands o f t h e v i c i o u s p e o p l e a r e coming t o make f a l s e a c c u s a t i o n s  against  101  us g e n t r y .  The l o w e r  classes are u p s e t t i n g  every-  t h i n g , what i s t h i s w o r l d coming t o ? S e c r e t a r y : - The  common p e o p l e i n Kiangnan always l o v e d l i t i g a t i o n  i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , but now,  w i t h him u r g i n g them on,  t h e y have gone beyond a l l r e a s o n . Second F r i e n d : - S e c r e t a r y , do you t h i n k i t would be p o s s i b l e t o h o l d a r e - t r i a l i n Hsu T i n g ' s  case?  S e c r e t a r y : - L o r d H a i and t h e Grand T u t o r have been c l o s e f r i e n d s f o r many y e a r s .  A few days ago, he even came h e r e t o  c a l l and t o d a y t h e Grand T u t o r i s r e t u r n i n g h i s v i s i t . I t h i n k t h a t i f L o r d H a i a t t a c h e s any Importance t o t h e i r f r i e n d s h i p , he w i l l g i v e him a l i g h t e r but s t i l l , t h e r e i s no way F i r s t F r i e n d : - Of course.  sentence,  o f knowing.  The Grand T u t o r was  Prime M i n i s t e r d u r i n g  two r e i g n s and L o r d H a i has always l o o k e d on  him  with favor. ( E n t e r Hsu C h i e h and h i s d o m e s t i c First Friend:Second F r i e n d : - The Grand T u t o r has Secretary:  servant)  returned.  Hsu C h i e h : - Tes, I have r e t u r n e d and I am so angry I c o u l d d i e ! F i r s t Friend:Second F r i e n d : - What? Censor H a i does not even show deference Secretary:Grand T u t o r ? Hsu C h i e h : - What d e f e r e n c e ?  He wants t h e l a n d r e t u r n e d and  t o the  the  e x e c u t i o n i s s t i l l g o i n g t o go ahead. First Friend:A i ya!  I f even the Grand T u t o r  cannot do  anything  102  Second F r i e n d : w i t h him, we might as w e l l g i v e up. Hsu C h i e h : - Do not be so q u i c k t o g i v e up t h e s h i p . d i s c u s s i t t h o r o u g h l y t o g e t h e r , we may  I f we a l l  be a b l e t o come  up w i t h an i d e a . F i r s t F r i e n d : - We and a l l t h e g e n t r y i n e v e r y p r e f e c t u r e and county have a l l d i s c u s s e d i t a l r e a d y .  I f t h e Grand  T u t o r can come up w i t h a s o l u t i o n , everyone i s p r e p a r e d t o share t h e expenses. Hsu C h i e h : - We  s h a l l p u l l t h e r u g out f r o m u n d e r n e a t h him.  must get r i d o f t h i s cursed o f f i c i a l .  We  At present,  we  a r e e n d u r i n g a temporary d e f e a t , but when we g e t a new  o f f i c i a l , w i l l t h e w o r l d not b e l o n g t o us  Second f r i e n d : - Yes I  Yes I  I have a p l a n .  We  again?  s h a l l gather a l l the  g e n t r y t o g e t h e r and send a memorial t o t h e t h r o n e . We  s h a l l accuse him o f i n c i t i n g t h e wicked  provoking the lower c l a s s e s t o r e v o l t , the g e n t r y , and r u i n i n g Hsu C h i e h : - That i s no good.  people,  oppressing  discipline.  When you send i n a memorial t o t h e  t h r o n e , i t i s d i s c u s s e d month a f t e r month f o r a whole y e a r i n some o u t e r c o u r t .  F a r away w a t e r i s no  use  i n p u t t i n g out a n e a r b y f i r e . F i r s t F r i e n d : - I have an idea....we can expend a l a r g e amount o f money and h i r e an a s s a s s i n t o s t a b him.  That  way  we s h a l l s o l v e t h e problem a t i t s r o o t . Hsu C h i e h : - That i s even worse.  S i n c e he i s i n command o f t h e  103  military done.  and. has p e r s o n a l g u a r d s , i t c o u l d not  I n t h e second p l a c e , i f by one  be  chance I n t e n  thousand t h e scheme s h o u l d l e a k o u t , remember t h a t t o murder t h e g r e a t e s t o f f i c i a l o f t h i s t e r r i t o r y i s no s m a l l c r i m e . First  Friend:-  T h i s i s no good, t h a t i s no good. Second F r i e n d : way  I f t h a t i s the  you f e e l , we had b e t t e r admit we a r e b e a t e n .  Hsu C h i e h : - What do you mean, beaten?  L e t us a l l t r y t o t h i n k o f  another i d e a . S e c r e t a r y : - Grand T u t o r , First  I have an i d e a .  Friend:L e t us h e a r i t q u i c k l y .  Second F r i e n d : S e c r e t a r y : - Accuse him of o p p r e s s i n g should accuse him.  the g e n t r y ,  of course  you  But i f you want i t t o be handled  q u i c k l y , you must work t h r o u g h an i n s i d e r .  I f there  i s someone a t the p a l a c e whom t h e Grand T u t o r knows w e l l , w r i t e him a l e t t e r I n y o u r hand, send him e x p e n s i v e g i f t , and get him t o e x p e d i t e of the memorial.  o f f i c i a l s i n the c a p i t a l  t h i s , we  approval  Then p u l l some s t r i n g s and  some of y o u r f r i e n d s f r o m t h i s a r e a who  a c c u s i n g him.  the  are  an  bribe now  t o hand i n t h e memorial  With a double-barrelled attack l i k e  s h a l l h i t him f r o m a l l s i d e s a t once.  l o n g as he l e a v e s h e r e , t h e n our s i t u a t i o n a thousand p e r c e n t  happier.  will  As be  104 Hsu Chieh.:- T h i s i s an e x c e l l e n t p l a n .  We  s h a l l p u l l t h e r u g from  u n d e r n e a t h him and get immediate r e s u l t s .  However, i f  he i s o n l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o another p o s t , I t w i l l s a t i s f y my h a t r e d o f him.  not  I s h a l l be s a t i s f i e d o n l y i f  we can f i x i t so t h a t he can never become an  official  again. F i r s t Friend:Indeed i t i s a good p l a n , and f o r our p a r t , we  ask  Second F r i e n d : the Grand T u t o r t o go ahead w i t h i t . Hsu C h i e h : -  (sings) In order t o protect t h e i r f a m i l i e s ,  many  f r i e n d s have h e l d l o n g d i s c u s s i o n s , We  s h a l l combine t h e i d e a s and t h e s t r e n g t h  o f many p e o p l e , and t h e n s e t t h e t r a p , We  s h a l l send someone t o secure an  insider,  and I s h a l l w r i t e a l e t t e r , And t h e n we  s h a l l w a i t and see how you make  o u t , H a i Kang-fengI First Friend:I f t h i s i s what we axe g o i n g t o do, t h e r e s h o u l d Second F r i e n d : be no d e l a y .  A l l t h e g e n t r y w i l l share expenses  e q u a l l y , and we must send someone i m m e d i a t e l y . s h o u l d s t a r t on h i s j o u r n e y t o t h e c a p i t a l by very  He this  evening.  Hsu C h i e h : - So i t i s the o p i n i o n o f my f r i e n d s t h a t I s h o u l d send the l e t t e r immediately. thousand t a e l s  We  s h a l l need t o r a i s e  o f g o l d among u s , two thousand  three taels  f o r t h e eunuch i n t h e p a l a c e , and one thousand f o r our  105  colleague i n the capital.  We had better a l l discuss  which of the officials in the capital would be best.  42 Second Friend:- Tai Feng-hsiang, the Kei Shih-chung of Chia-hsing is a relative of mine. His family has also been forced to return land, so he w i l l certainly be willing to expend every effort on our behalf. Hsu Chieh:- Tai Feng-hsiang i s my student, he definitely w i l l make the effort for us.  I shall ask you to go to the  capital, leaving immediately on a swift horse, what ho! Second Friend:- Right. leave  I shall have to pack my bags, so I shall now.  (Exit First Friend, Second Friend, and Hsu Chieh:- Ha ha!  Secretary)  Ha ha!  He shall ride into the capital and procure the services of an insider, and I shall not rest until Kang-feng i s driven off. (exits)  Scene I X  D i s m i s s e d from  Office  Time:- A c e r t a i n day f i v e months l a t e r . P l a c e : - The Great C o u r t i n t h e Yamen o f t h e Soochow  Governor.  Characters:- Hai J u i . Tai Feng-hsiang,  f i f t y y e a r s o l d , newly a p p o i n t e d  to the p o s i t i o n of Ying T'ien  Governor.  Hsu C h i e h . Hsu Y i n g and Wang Ming-yu. T a i Feng-hsiang s 1  and ( T a i Feng-hsiang  standard-bearers, o f f i c e r s , s o l d i e r s  runners. comes on w e a r i n g a s i l k cap and r e d r o b e ,  f o l l o w e d b y s t a n d a r d - b e a r e r s , o f f i c e r s , s o l d i e r s , r u n n e r s , and a p r o c e s s i o n o f banners and p a r a s o l s . ) T a i Feng-hsiang:-  ( r e c i t e s ) I have come t o Kiangnan, t h i s i s a promotion, What d i f f i c u l t y w i l l t h e r e be here i n making a hundred thousand? I must n o t p u n i s h t h e w e a l t h y and p o w e r f u l b u t j u s t i g n o r e them, I s h a l l j u s t go a l o n g w i t h o u t r o c k i n g t h e b o a t , and a l l w i l l be p e a c e f u l . I am T a i F e n g - h s i a n g , T ' i e n Governor.  t h e newly a p p o i n t e d Y i n g  Y e s t e r d a y , a l e t t e r came f r o m  t h e Grand T u t o r , a s k i n g me t o h u r r y t h e r e . i s why I am g a l l o p i n g t h e r e i n g r e a t h a s t e .  That  107  ( e x i t T a i Feng-hsiang and h i s p a r t y ) ( e n t e r Hsu C h i e h ) Hsu C h i e h : - ( r e c i t e s ) I g a l l o p on my way t o welcome t h e new Governor, expending e v e r y p o s s i b l e e f f o r t t o save t h e l i f e o f my s o n . department  The c l e r k i n t h e c r i m i n a l  o f t h e Governor's Yamen has t o l d  me t h a t t h e I m p e r i a l Decree f r o m t h e F a l l a s s i z e s w i l l a r r i v e w i t h i n a day o r s o . The new Governor, T a i F e n g - h s i a n g , has a l r e a d y set  out on h i s j o u r n e y here i n o r d e r t o save  t h e l i f e o f my son.  I am g a l l o p i n g t o w e l -  come t h e n e w l y - a p p o i n t e d Governor and t h a t i s why I am i n t h i s g r e a t h u r r y . (Hsu C h i e h g a l l o p s o f f s t a g e , w h i p p i n g h i s horse.) (Enter a standard-bearer) S t a n d a r d - b e a r e r : - H i s L o r d s h i p summons y o u i n t o ( E n t e r a crowd o f o f f i c i a l s some r u n n e r s .  court. and s o l d i e r s and  Enter H a i J u l , wearing a s i l k  cap and r e d gown.) Hai  Jui:-  ( r e c i t e s ) I have r e c e i v e d t h e I m p e r i a l Decree, o r d e r i n g the e x e c u t i o n , I s h a l l e l i m i n a t e t h e t r a i t o r s and s e t up proper standards. A t t e n d a n t s , b r i n g out t h e two condemned p r i s o n e r s , Hsu Y i n g and Wang Ming-yu.  The day o f e x e c u t i o n has  108 arrived. ( E n t e r s o l d i e r s l e a d i n g Hsu Y i n g and Wang Ming-yu, b o t h bound.) H a i J u i : - Hsu Y i n g , Wang Ming-yu:  t h e I m p e r i a l Decree has been  handed down c a l l i n g f o r t h e sentence t o be c a r r i e d o u t . You a r e t o be executed f o r t h w i t h . (signs w r i t f o r execution)  You two v i l l a i n s I  ( r e c i t e s ) You d i s r e g a r d e d t h e l a w o f t h e c o u n t r y and used t h a t l a w f o r y o u r own advantage, We s h a l l make an example o f you, i n s p i r i n g o t h e r greedy p e o p l e t o t u r n over new l e a v e s . Hsu Y i n g : Spare o u r l i v e s , Your Worship.  ( t h e y kowtow)  Wang Ming-yu:H a i J u i : - Take them away.  They w i l l be executed a t t h e a p p o i n t e d  time. (the s o l d i e r s l e a d Hsu Y i n g and Wang Ming-yu o f f s t a g e . ) (Enter T a i Feng-hsiang s standard-bearer.) !  S t a n d a r d - b e a r e r : - I b r i n g a n I m p e r i a l Decree. (drums and m u s i c .  E n t e r T a i Feng-hsiang and Hsu  Chieh, together.) T a i F e n g - h s i a n g : - By decree o f h i s M a j e s t y t h e Emperor, t h e Y i n g T ' i e n Governor, H a i J u i , i s d i s m i s s e d f r o m o f f i c e and r e t i r e d f r o m p u b l i c s e r v i c e .  Let a l l  know t h a t t h e new Y i n g T ' i e n Governor i s T a i Feng-hsiang. H a i J u i : - Long, l o n g l i v e t h e Emperor.  I would l i k e t o a s k  109 the  G r e a t Commissioner  what t r a n s g r e s s i o n I have  committed,  t h a t I s h o u l d be s t r i p p e d o f my r a n k and r e t i r e d ? Tai  F e n g - h s i a n g : - O f f i c i a l s a t c o u r t have accused y o u o f o p p r e s s i n g the  Hai  common p e o p l e and a b u s i n g t h e g e n t r y .  J u i : - What I ( s i n g s ) The g e n t r y a r e r u t h l e s s and o v e r b e a r i n g , t h e common p e o p l e i m p o v e r i s h e d , L i k e wolves and t i g e r s , t h e g e n t r y c r e a t e an empty w i l d e r n e s s , To speak o f o p p r e s s i n g t h e g e n t r y i s t r u l y to  speak a b s o l u t e nonsense,  And t o degrade me i s most u n r e a s o n a b l e and u n f a i r I May  I a s k t h e G r e a t Commissioner  on what day t h e newly  a p p o i n t e d governor w i l l a r r i v e here t o t a k e up o f f i c e ? Tai  F e n g - h s i a n g : - I am T a i Feng-hsiang h i m s e l f .  How do y o u do,  Lord Hai. Hai  Jui:-  How do y o u do, L o r d T a i .  S i n c e y o u have a r r i v e d t o t a k e  up y o u r d u t i e s , I would l i k e t o say a few words t o y o u . Tai  F e n g - h s i a n g : - P l e a s e do.  Hai  Jui:-  ( s i n g s ) The g r e a t e s t e v i l i n Kiangnan i s t h e g e n t r y , S e i z i n g p e o p l e ' s l a n d , making a g r i c u l t u r e difficult, I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t t h e s e i n j u r i e s be c o r r e c t e d , O n l y b y r e t u r n o f t h e l a n d can peace be p r e s e r v e d .  Tai  Feng-hsiang:- S i l e n c e ! the  I t i s p r e c i s e l y because y o u have oppressed  g e n t r y b y making them g i v e back l a n d , t e r r o r -  110  i z e d t h e common p e o p l e , and b a d l y m i s t r e a t e d t h e g e n t r y , t h a t t h e Emperor has d i s m i s s e d y o u . ( s i n g s ) One's r e l a t i v e r a n k o r s t a t u s i n l i f e i s a predestined matter, I t i s e n t i r e l y appropriate that the masses s h o u l d have a b i t t e r t i m e , The d i s t i n c t i o n between good and bad i s p r e c i s e l y t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between manual and m e n t a l l a b o r , You have s t u d i e d t h e s a c r e d books o f Confucius, That y o u s h o u l d t y r a n n i z e t h e common people and t r e a t a man w i t h c r u e l t y , And even oppress t h e g e n t r y , t o do t h i s i s v e r y wrong. H a i J u i : - Who i s wrong? T a i Feng-hsiang:-  You a r e t h e one.  Hai J u l : - S i l e n c e ! ( s i n g s ) You s a y t h a t t h e common people a r e t y r a n n i z e d , But do y o u know t h a t t h e g e n t r y i n j u r e s t h e p e o p l e ? Much f a n f a r e i s made a t c o u r t about o p p r e s s i n g the gentry, But do y o u know o f t h e p o v e r t y endured by t h e common p e o p l e ? You j u s t pay l i p s e r v i c e t o t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t the people a r e t h e r o o t s o f t h e s t a t e ,  111 The officials oppress the masses while pretending to be virtuous men, They act wildly as tigers and deceive the Emperor, If your conscience bothers you, you know no peace by day or night. Tai Feng-hsiang:- How do you have the gall to open your mouth and scold other men? You make me furious. Hsu Chieh:- Gentlemen, why don't both of you stop quarelling and be more agreeable?  Kang-feng, some time ago I gave  you some good advice. I urged you not to stir up everyone 's anger and not to cheat the gentry, but you would not listen.  Now you are dismissed from office and  leaving here, and I have a few words for you. (sings) In your period of middle age, your faculties remain sharp, You have tasted bitterness for several decades now, You have been overzealous i n your application of the law, In your prejudice and radicalism, you do i n jury to people. The last time we talked, our conversation was unpleasant, This time, you have fallen, and far-reaching changes have occured,  112 I a d v i s e y o u t o c u l t i v a t e and r e f i n e y o u r s e l f , And i f y o u g e t a p o s t a g a i n , do n o t i n d u l g e yourself l i k e  this.  H a i J u l : - Oh, Grand T u t o r Hsu! ( s i n g s ) The Grand T u t o r ' s words a r e c o m p l e t e l y l a c k i n g in  thought,  H a i J u i i s d i s m i s s e d from o f f i c e , b u t w i t h a fragrant reputation, As a man, I am on t h e i n s i d e what I appear t o be on t h e o u t s i d e , To s e c r e t l y c o n s p i r e f o r t h e d o w n f a l l o f a n o t h e r i s a d i s h o n o r a b l e deed. Hsu C h i e h : - Who has s e c r e t l y c o n s p i r e d ? H a i J u l : - You have I ( s i n g s ) You have been a t c o u r t and h e l d s t a t e power i n y o u r hands, You t a l k e d o f e t h i c s , e x p l a i n e d C o n f u c i u s and Mencius,  and r e l a t e d d e t a i l s o f former k i n g s ,  Your sons who l i v e d i n t h e c o u n t r y s e i z e d l a n d and p r o p e r t y , abducted women, p r o f f e r r e d b r i b e s , and a c t e d e n t i r e l y w i t h o u t c o n s c i e n c e , But y o u have suddenly found a c r a f t y method o f p u l l i n g t h e wool over Our S o v e r e i g n ' s  eyes,  And y o u have f a l s e l y accused t h e common p e o p l e o f b e i n g t h e w o l v e s and t i g e r s , You say t h e g e n t r y a r e b e i n g v i c t i m i z e d and a r e  113 unable t o speak o u t , But y o u can h a r d l y escape t h e h a t r e d o f a l l t h e p e o p l e , where w i l l y o u h i d e now? I , H a i J u i , have l o s t my b l a c k s i l k cap, b u t my conscience i s c l e a r , One day I s h a l l be an o f f i c i a l a g a i n and once more t h e l a w w i l l be e n f o r c e d w i t h r e c t i t u d e . Hsu C h i e h : - You a r e so o b s t i n a t e t h a t t h e r e I s n o t h i n g more t o be said. S t a n d a r d - b e a r e r : - The a p p o i n t e d time has a r r i v e d .  Please give the  o r d e r t o c a r r y out t h e punishment. Tai  Feng-hsiang:(alarmed)  Hsu  What punishment?  Chieh:-  Hai J u i : -  I have a l r e a d y r e c e i v e d t h e I m p e r i a l Decree. and Wang M i n g - y u a r e t o be executed  Hsu C h i e h : - What I Tai  Feng-hsiang:-  Hsu Y i n g  forthwith.  ( s t a r t s , p a l e s , and b e g i n s t o t r e m b l e ) Order t h e e x e c u t i o n t o be stopped.  H a i J u i : - Order t h e e x e c u t i o n t o go ahead. Tai  F e n g - h s i a n g : - The n e w l y - a p p o i n t e d  Governor o r d e r s t h a t t h e  punishment be stopped. H a i J u i : - The p r e s e n t Governor o r d e r s t h a t t h e e x e c u t i o n go ahead. Tai  F e n g - h s i a n g : - L o r d H a i , y o u cannot k i l l them.  H a i J u i : - Why n o t ? Tai  Feng-hsiang:-  I have r e c e i v e d p e r s o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n s  from  S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e L i and I n s p e c t o r Feng t h a t i n d e f e r e n c e t o Grand T u t o r Hsu's advanced  IH  age and his service to his country, Hsu Ying is to be reprieved. We are just awaiting the Imperial Decree. Hai  Jul:-  Where i s the Imperial Decree?  Tai  Feng-hsiang:- The Imperial Decree i s following us and w i l l arrive later.  Hai  Jui:-  And for the moment?  Tai  Feng-hsiang:- For the moment, I am issuing the order that i n accordance with the instructions from the Secretary of State and the Inspector, a reprieve is to be granted.  Hai  Jul:-  You cannot go issuing orders.  Tai  Feng-hsiang.:- Why not?  Hai  Jui:-  I s t i l l have not handed over to you. the  The Great Seal and  Arrow of Authority are s t i l l i n my hands, so how  can you issue any orders? Tai  Feng-hsiang:- I f this i s the case, then please hand them over now.  Hai  Jul:-  Absolutely not.  I have the Imperial Decree ordering me  to go ahead with the punishment. When the execution i s over, then I shall hand over to you. Tai  Feng-hsiang:- WhatI  Lord Hail  (sings) To disobey an Imperial Edict i s no small crime, You may lose your l i f e and have your entire clan wiped out before your eyes,  115  You should respect the great age of the Grand Tutor, Do not succumb to your urges or you w i l l later regret i t . Hai Jul:- Ha ha! (sings) I have received Imperial authority for this beheading, The execution w i l l of course proceed forthwith, How can one i n office heed special circumstances? Even i f punishment follows, i t i s of no concern to me. Tai Feng-hsiang:- Do you not even fear the misfortune of being killed as a result? Hai Jui:- A real man stands with his head held high and his feet planted firmly on the ground.  How could I fear the mis-  fortune of losing my l i f e and bend the law according to my personal feelings?  To do so would be to bring  shame on myself as a man whose conduct was not pure and incorruptible.  (grasping the Arrow of Authority)  Standard-bearer, order the executions carried out. Standard-bearer:- (accepting the arrow)  It w i l l be done.  (Exit the Standard-bearer. cannon are heard.  Three shots of a  Hsu Chieh collapses on the  ground; Tai Feng-hsiang becomes alarmed and  116 flustered.  H a i J u i h o l d s up t h e G r e a t S e a l . )  H a i J u l : - L o r d T a i , here i s t h e G r e a t S e a l . o v e r t o you.  Now, I s h a l l hand  I s h a l l l e a v e now..  (Amazed and c o n f u s e d , T a i Feng-hsiang s t a n d s absolutely rigid. again.  H a i J u i o f f e r s him t h e G r e a t S e a l  The c u r t a i n  falls.)  E n t i r e cast sings Heaven i s c o l d , t h e e a r t h i s f r e e z i n g , and t h e wind w h i s t l e s m o u r n f u l l y , The t h o u g h t s o f a l l t h e p e o p l e go w i t h t h i s o f f i c i a l as he l e a v e s , F a t h e r H a i r e t u r n s s o u t h and we cannot s t o p him, We b u r n i n c e n s e f o r t h e L i v i n g Buddha o f a l l the people.  The End  CHAPTER II  The Role of Hai Jui Dismissed From Office in The Cultural Revolution  117 The f i r s t criticism of this Peking Opera, Hai Jui Dismissed. From Office, has been widely hailed both by the o f f i c i a l organs of the Chinese Communist Party and by foreign observers as the f i r s t shot fired i n the current Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution i n 1 China.  The purpose of this chapter i s to place Wu Han's drama i n  meaningful perspective by noting the p o l i t i c a l environment i n which i t was written and discussing chronologically the series of events related to this drama which have culminated i n what many commentators have described as the most crucial power struggle i n the history of the Chinese Communist Party. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution has often been regarded by Western analysts as a s t r i c t l y p o l i t i c a l confrontation, having l i t t l e or no relation to the cultural sphere.  It would  probably be f u t i l e to dwell on the distinction between the cultural and p o l i t i c a l aspects of the Cultural Revolution, as i n China the two are inextricably related.  Nevertheless, there are two points  which should be stated clearly at this time, both of which w i l l be further amplified i n the ensuing discussion.  The f i r s t point i s  that although since August 1966, the Cultural Revolution has indeed become a fight for supremacy among competing elements within the Chinese Communist Party, there i s no denying the fact that in the early stages i t was waged almost exclusively within the cultural sphere, involving plays, fables, essays, short stories, journalism  2  and films.  In this sense the Cultural Revolution may be seen as  the latest stage of a campaign against writers and intellectuals which has continued unabated ever since Mao Tse-tung enunciated his  1.18  thesis that a l l art and literature has a class character. According to this thesis any art or literature not explicitly serving the interests of the workers, peasants, and soldiers must of necessity 3 serve the interests of the exploiting classes. movement of 1955  The Anti-Hu Feng  may then be seen as the direct historical antece-  dent of the Cultural Revolution, at least i n the early stages of the latter. The second point to be stressed, however, illustrates the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of attempting to press the distinction between culture and politics too far.  It w i l l be clearly demonstrated below that although  literature has been the vehicle through which the elements attacked in the i n i t i a l stages of the Cultural Revolution had previously waged their own attacks on Mao Tse-tung and the Chinese Communist Party, important aspects of Chinese foreign and domestic policy were from the beginning the real issues i n dispute. The realm of art and literature has always been seen as a forum for class struggle i n Communist China, and i n the course of the Current Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, i t should not be surprising that the theoretical journal of the Chinese Liberation Army should warn readers that the "enemies without guns" are far more deadly than any armed 4-  adversaries. The controversy raised by the criticism of Wu Han's drama i n November of 1965 led directly to a l l the events which have transpired since.  The charges levelled against Wu amounted to charges  of treason. As criticism of Wu grew more widespread, various colleagues who had either co-authored articles with him or sought  to defend him at some point were implicated.  Within a matter of  months, a number of important p o l i t i c a l figures within the Chinese Communist Party had been attacked as the strategists standing behind the supposedly anti-communist writers.  After a deluge of attacks  on a wide array of plays, films, essays, dramas, and anecdotes, the o f f i c i a l charge was made that the traitors had their base i n the 5 Peking Municipal Party Committee. Although a number of Western commentators have accorded recognition to the fact that Hai Jui Dismissed Prom Office sparked the current struggle, the actual content of the play has never to my knowledge been presented to readers i n the English language, and i t s p o l i t i c a l implications have never been analyzed anywhere else but i n the Chinese press. This i s the reason for translating the entire text here.  The remainder of this chapter consists of a  chronological survey of events from the origins of the Cultural Revolution until the end, i n July 1966, of what might be called the literary phase of the struggle. On June 19, 1959, an essay entitled "Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor" appeared i n the pages of Jen Min J i h Pao, under the name 6 of Liu Mien-chih.  This was a pen-name used by Wu Han.  The  article concerned the same Hai Jui who appears i n the drama translated here, a genuine historical figure who served the Chia Ching Emperor i n sixteenth-century China.  The author emphasized the fact  that i n traditional China i t was almost unheard of that any o f f i c i a l would criticize the emperor, and expressed great joy at having discovered an historical o f f i c i a l who actually possessed the courage  120 to do so.  With the advantage of hindsight and a considerable body of  evidence which w i l l appear below, we can now say with reasonable assurance that the publication of this article by Wu Han was directl y related to another event which occurred less than a month later. On July 14, 1959, P'eng Teh-huai, then China's Minister of National Defence, sent a letter to Mao Tse-tung i n which he articulated his opposition to the CCP general line, the "Great Leap 7 Forward", and the people's communes.  In August of 1959, the Eighth  Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee was held at Lushan in Kiangsi.  At the Lushan Conference, as i t has since become known,  an historic confrontation took place in which Marshal P'eng Teh-huai i s alleged, with the aid of several high-ranking  supporters within  the party, to have launched a f u l l assault on the leadership of Mao Tse-tung, the failure of the "Great Leap Forward", and the people's commune movement. There i s also justification for believing that P'eng and Mao had serious differences over the issue of the modernization of the Chinese People's Liberation Army and the acquisition 9 of nuclear weapons i n particular. Prior to the Lushan Conference, P'eng Teh-huai had been touring Eastern Europe and had been i n 10 close contact with Soviet leaders. An analysis of the Sino-Soviet dispute i s beyond the scope of this study, but in view of the fact that the conflict was developing i n 1959, i t should be noted that P'eng Teh-huai has been regarded as a pro-Soviet element within 11 12 the CCP, that he was subsequently defended by Nikita Khrushchov, and that i t has even been suggested that he may have divulged secret information to the Soviet leaders during his 1959 tour of  121 Europe.  13  In any case, Mao was able to withstand the challenge of P'eng Teh-huai and his supporters and the latter were a l l dismissed from  U their posts by a special resolution of the Lushan Conference. During this period and in the years immediately following, Wu Han's writings began to dwell on the exploits of Hai J u i . to the dismissal of P'eng Teh-huai and his followers,  Prior  (and prior to  P'eng-'s letter to Mao) Wu Han praised Hai Jui for having the courage to scold the emperor.  Subsequent to the dismissal of the ."Right  Opportunist Clique" (as P'eng and his followers are now classified by the CCP), Wu Han began to extol the virtue and courage of Hai Jui after the latter's criticisms of and struggles against tyrants had resulted In his being dismissed from office.  This is clearly  one of the main themes of Hai Jui Dismissed From Office, a play on which, according to the preface, Wu Han began work almost immediatel y after the Lushan Conference.  Two secondary themes, that of  returning land to i t s rightful owners, and that of the opposition by honest officials to tyrants who had usurped power, were also stressed by Wu Han. On September 21, 1959, Wu Han published another article in the pages of Jen Min Jih Pao, entitled "On Hai Jui". This  15 article was widely interpreted as lauding P'eng Teh-huai. Once more the theme of courage in the face of dismissal from office was stressed, and in this article Wu Han called for a modernday Hai Jui who would understand the people, lead them, and fight against modern bureaucratism in the same way that the real Hai Jui  122 had fought against the "feudal" gentry.  It was also In the year 1959  that Wu Han gathered together a collection of short stories he had published years earlier and republished them i n a collection entitled Javelin-Throwing.  This volume was also later criticized i n the  course of the Cultural Revolution. In the most important criticism later made of Wu Han, i t was charged that Hai Jui Dismissed From Office was a prelude for a l l the anti-party literature i n the years 16 that followed. Hai Jui Dismissed From Office was f i r s t published in January of 1961 i n Peking Literature and Art. In March of the same year, 17 Teng T'o began a series of articles entitled "Evening Chats at Yenshan" which appeared i n Frontline and the Peking Daily.  As  long as i t continued to be published, "Evening Chats at Yenshan" constituted a series of bitingly satirical and sarcastic articles which lampooned the Chinese Communist Party, and Mao Tse-tung personally, i n a manner which i n most cases could not even be 18 described as subtle.  When the Cultural Revolution was launched  late i n 1965, i t was stated that the period of June to July, 1961, had constituted a major campaign by "Right Opportunist" writers to 19 upset the results of the Lushan Meeting. One article by Wu Han, which appeared on June 7, 1961, was particularly singled out for 20 criticism.  In this article, Wu praised Yu Chien, yet another  historical figure who had been dismissed from office.  Moreover,  he stated that Yu Chien had been rehabilitated and had returned to power as Secretary of War (the equivalent of Minister of 21 National Defence).  On October 10, 1961, the column "Notes from Three-Family V i l l a g e " was i n i t i a t e d i n the magazine Frontline.  This column 22 was j o i n t l y written by Wu Han, Teng T'o, and Liao Mo-sha. By the spring of 1966,  "Three-Family V i l l a g e " had become a house23  hold word throughout China.  The expression referred to the news-  paper column on one l e v e l , but on another and more common l e v e l i t came to denote the three authors mentioned above, and by extension t h e i r supporters and sympathizers as well.  On May 21, 1966,  an  a r t i c l e i n Shanghai s Liberation D a i l y traced the o r i g i n of the 1  name "Three-Family V i l l a g e " to a poem by a Sung poet, Lu Yu, concerning a high o f f i c i a l who had l o s t h i s post and was  spending  24 his l a s t days i n a place called Three-Family V i l l a g e . The Twenty-second Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was convened i n October of 1961.  The month follow-  ing t h i s event saw a p r o l i f e r a t i o n of s a t i r i c a l material by the 25 "Three-Family V i l l a g e " group.  Between 1961 and 1963, Teng T'o  alone wrote at l e a s t four separate a r t i c l e s on the theme of virtuous o f f i c i a l s i n Chinese history who were dismissed from 26 o f f i c e when they refused to compromise t h e i r p r i n c i p l e s . "On Waves", an a r t i c l e by Wu Han which appeared on January 1, 1962, was l a t e r interpreted by the foremost spokesman of the Cultural Revolution as the signal that the "Three-Family V i l l a g e " 27 forces intended to sweep everything before them i n 1962.  In the  February 4 instalment of "Evening Chats at Yenshan", Teng T'o wrote, The. b i t t e r cold of the north wind w i l l soon come to an end.  124 In i t s stead- a warm east wind will blow and a thaw will, soon set in on this earth.28 Later i t was charged that the use of the word "thaw" was a deliberate borrowing of the vocabulary used by the ."Khrushchev Revisionist  29 clique against Stalin".  On March 29, 1962,  Teng published an  3P article entitled "In Defence of L i San-tsai.  Again, the theme was  that of a "good o f f i c i a l " , dismissed from office during the Ming Dynasty.  In the most important criticism of "Three-Family Village"  in 1966, the purpose of "defending" L i was" questioned since he had been dead for four hundred years and i t was quite obvious that no  31 one was attacking him. It was also charged i n 1966 that L i San-tsai was really a v i l l a i n and that Teng T'*o had whitewashed his character  32  for his own political purposes. It appears that Mao Tse-tung and his supporters launched a counter-attack against their critics during the Tenth Plenary Session of the Eighth Central Committee, held in September of  33  1962.  Mao used this conference as a forum from which to issue a  plea that the class struggle never be forgotten and that "Right  34 Opportunist" tendencies among the cadres be combatted.  Signifi-  cantly, Teng T'o abandoned "Evening Ghats at Yenshan" almost  35 immediately after the Tenth Plenary Session.  This action appeared  to be a signal for retreat on the part of "Three-Family Village". The three partners entered a period of decline and during 1963 1964 Liao Mo-sha was subjected to continuous public criticism  36 because of his article "There i s No Harm in Ghost Plays". was later noted by Wu Han's chief attacker that the self-  It  and  125 criticism published by Liao Mo-sha i n this period was repeated almost word for word by Wu Han when he himself was attacked at a later 37 date. On June 5, 1964, Lu Ting-i, Director of the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, made an important speech i n which he linked ghost themes i n Peking 38 Opera dramas with support for "Krushchov Revisionists". In the course of this speech, Lu made an obvious reference to the above39 mentioned article by Liao Mo-sha.  In July, "Notes from Three-Family  Village" was discontinued. Mao Tse-tung i s said to have called for the launching of a new wave of criticism against reactionary bourgeois ideology at a meeting of the central leadership of the Chinese Communist Party i n  40 September 1965.  Shortly afterward he disappeared from public view  and was not seen from November 1965 until May 1966.  It i s possible  that Mao was already experiencing difficulty with the Communist leadership i n Peking and that he planned the early stages of the  41 Cultural Revolution i n Shanghai.  What i s known i s that when the  f i r s t banner of the Cultural Revolution was raised, i t was raised in Shanghai.  Moreover, several CCP documents have indicated that 42  Mao's hand guided the Cultural Revolution from the f i r s t .  The  remainder of the chronology presented here shows quite clearly that the call for the Cultural Revolution was taken up only belatedly i n Peking and when the purges began i n 1966, they were directed almost exclusively against government and party officials i n Peking. The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution was launched o f f i c -  126 i a l l y on November 10, 1965, with the publication of an article i n the A3  Shanghai newspaper, Wen Hui Pao, criticizing Wu Han.  Written by Yao  Wen-yuan and entitled "On the New Historical Drama, Hai Jui Dismissed From Office", the article became the model for almost a l l the c r i t i cisms later levelled against the assorted works of "Three-Family Village" and other writers of a similar bent. Yao charged that Wu Han was using historical characters i n order to satirize contemporary people and events, that he was denying the basic thesis of Mao Tsetung which holds that only the people are the motive force of history, and instead substituting the actions of an honest and upright "saviour" as an antidote to a l l the hardships which plagued the peasants. Further, he accused Wu of desiring, to replace the state theory of Marxism-Leninism with the state theory of the landlords and bourgeoisie. He wishes to replace the theory of class struggle with the theory of class harmony. Finally, Yao raises the fact that i n the preface to Hai Jui Dismissed From Office, Wu Han had suggested that there were things to be learned from the old histories and that the l i f e of Hai Jui was worthy of study today.  Noting that the two most important  themes of the play were the return of the land to i t s rightful owners and the redress of grievances, Yao asked two very pointed questions.  Were the readers to learn about returning the land?  In the words of Yao, The peasants of our country have already realized socialism, possess everything, and have established the great People's Communes. Return to who? The landlords? The peasants? Can one say that on the road of socialism, our five hundred million peasants need to study the lesson of "returning the land"?  127 Or was i t some lesson to do with redressing injustices that the readers were to learn from this play?  Again, Yao Wen-yuan answers  his own rhetorical question, Our country Is one which has achieved the state power of the proletariat. If we speak of "redressing injustices" at a time when the proletariat and a l l the oppressed have been delivered from the hell on earth of the exploiting classes, i f the landlords and bourgeoisie have been smashed, how can i t be said....that there are any injustices to redress? If, in the contemporary situation, he wants us to learn about the "redress of injustices", I would like to ask, i n the final analysis, which class has suffered the "injustice" and how i s i t to be "redressed"? The fact that Yao Wen-yuan's article quickly became a basic manual for the prosecution of the Cultural Revolution and  was  probably the most widely quoted document in China during 1966  has  led to some interesting speculation on the part of non-Chinese observers.  The unique prestige which the essay has enjoyed has  been linked with statements in Chinese documents to the effect that Mao's guiding hand has been behind the Cultural Revolution from the 44 beginning and presented as evidence that Yao Wen-yuan may i n fact 45 be Mao Tse-tung. This speculation, however, appears for several reasons to have l i t t l e basis i n fact.  On November 22, 1966,  Yao 46 Wen-yuan was named a member of the Cultural Revolution Group, the body o f f i c i a l l y described as "an organ of power of the cultural 47 revolution". He has also been identified as the chief editor of the Shanghai newspapers Wen Hui Pao and Liberation Daily at the 48 time his essay appeared. Furthermore, he has delivered at least 49 one major public address, and has been photographed i n public with Mao.  50  Not' until.-November 29, 1965, d i d the Peking D a i l y r e p r i n t Yao .Wen-yuan's a r t i c l e .  This delay of almost twenty days formed the  basis of a l a t e r attack against the Peking D a i l y and the magazine F r o n t l i n e i n the pages of Red F l a g , the t h e o r e t i c a l journal of the 51 Chinese Communist Party. The e d i t o r s of these two p u b l i c a t i o n s were 52 accused of c r i t i c i z i n g the p u b l i c a t i o n of the a r t i c l e i n Shanghai. , I t has als.p been charged that the above p u b l i c a t i o n s , together with the Peking Evening News, s y s t e m a t i c a l l y attempted to s t i f l e a grow-  53 ing wave of c r i t i c i s m against Wu Han. December 12, 1965, marked a s h i f t i n t a c t i c s by the members of "Three-Family V i l l a g e " .  On t h i s date, F r o n t l i n e and Peking D a i l y  both published an a r t i c l e by Hsiang Yang-sheng, e n t i t l e d "From Hai J u i Dismissed From O f f i c e to the Theory of I n h e r i t i n g Old E t h i c a l Values".  This a r t i c l e was the f i r s t i n a s e r i e s of c r i t i -  cisms and s e l f - c r i t i c i s m s which were l a t e r i d e n t i f i e d as "phoney" attempts to d e f l e c t the growing c r i t i c i s m of Wu Han and "ThreeFamily V i l l a g e " before the p o l i t i c a l purposes of the w r i t e r s were 54 • ' . > • exposed. Hsiang Yang-sheng appeared to chastise Wu Han quite thoroughly, but i t should be noted that he treated Wu Han's errors purely as a case of bad historiography and completely ignored the p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s r a i s e d by Yao Wen-yuan's a r t i c l e of a month 55 before.  Wu Han published a s e l f - c r i t i c i s m i n the Peking D a i l y on  December 27.  In h i s confession, Wu Han c r i t i c i s e d himself f o r  having forgotten the c l a s s struggle, ignored c l a s s contradictions i n h i s t o r y , and f a l s i f i e d the r e a l character of Hai J u i .  Completely  ignoring what he had said i n the preface to Hai J u i Dismissed From  129 Office, however, Wu claimed that his writings constituted only "drama for the sake of drama" and that they had absolutely no significance for contemporary situations. self-criticism on December 30.  Jen Min Jih Pao reprinted Wu's 56  In early 1966, a number of allegedly anti-socialist literary 57 works and their authors were subjected to criticism, although the attack on Wu Han grew i n intensity and continued to be the main focus of the Cultural Revolution. On January 8, a stage play en58 titled Hsieh Yao-huan, written by T'ien Han, was described as a "big poisonous weed" by Jen Min Jih Pao.  The Peking Daily pub-  lished a second self-criticism by Wu Han on January 12.  In this  article, Wu Han expressed gratitude to Hsiang Yang-sheng for pointing out his errors, and admitted his articles lacked adequate class 59 analysis. Within a few months i t was disclosed that Hsiang Yang-  60 sheng was a pseudonym employed by Teng T'o.  On February 1,  an  article by one L i Tung-shih was published, entitled "A Comment on Comrade Wu Han's Conception of History".  L i Tung-shih i s said to  have been a pseudonym for L i Chi, the Director of the Propaganda  61 Department of the Peking Municipal Party Committee. The f i r s t significant reverberation i n the p o l i t i c a l realm occurred on March 29, when P'eng Chen, the Mayor of Peking, eighthranking man i n the Chinese Communist Party, and long a confidante 62 63 of President Liu Shao-ch'i, disappeared from public view. In April and May, the attack on Wu Han reached a level of unprecedented ferocity.  "The Reactionary Nature of 'Hai Jui Scolds  the Emperor' and Hai Jui Dismissed From Office", by Chi Pen-yu, and  130  "'Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor' and Hai Jui Dismissed From Office Are Two Big Anti-Party, Anti-Socialist Poisonous Weeds", by Kuan Feng and Lin Chieh, were two key articles published early i n April by Red Flag.  The latter was particularly significant i n that i t formally  charged Wu Han with the crimes Yao Wen-yuan's article had hinted at. For example the two authors are explicit i n their allegations that Wu Han's writings concerning Hai Jui were directly connected with the Lushan Conference.  The formal charge i s made for the f i r s t time  in this article that Wu Han's real intention was to scold the Chinese Communist Party and i t s Central Committee. Wu Han i s accused of singing the praises of the Right Opportunist elements who had been dismissed from office, encouraging them not to lose heart because of their failure and urging them to "reassume p o l i t i cal power and restore capitalism". Also i n April, Wu Han was subjected to a widening range of criticism i n a series of increasingly unsophisticated articles printed by Jen Min Jih Pao.  His family background and class origins  64were thoroughly scrutinized i n the pages of the newspaper. His edu-  65 cational history was also examined. On April 13, an article i n Jen Min Jih Pao accused Wu Han of being a devoted follower of Hu  66 Shih, and a fervent admirer and cultural servant of the U.S.A. The t i t l e of another article appearing i n the same newspaper on April 27 speaks for i t s e l f :  "Wu Han—Strategist for the Chiang  Family Monarchists and Helper of American Imperialism".  Red Flag,  on April 29, carried a long article attacking Javelin-Throwing, the earlier-mentioned collection of Wu Han's satirical essays.  It was  131  alleged that this volume was intended to provide "Right Opportunists" with a blueprint for overthrowing socialism and restoring capital67 ism. At the same time, the attack on Wu Han now grew into an onslaught against the entire "Three-Family Village" superstructure.  On  April 16, Frontline and the Peking Daily both published an article entitled "A Criticism of Three-Family Village and Evening Chats at Yenshan". The editors of the two publications engaged i n some very mild self-criticism, stating that their "minds were influenced by 68 bourgeois and feudal ideas...."  Yao Wen-yuan later charged that  Three-Family Village had been i n complete control of the Peking Daily, Peking Evening Mews, and Frontline, and that their crimes had not been the result of any mistakes, but had on the contrary constituted a well-planned and well-coordinated campaign against 69 the party over a long period of time.  Yao reminded his readers  that at an earlier stage, Teng T'o had penned a fraudulent c r i t i cism of Wu Han under the name of Hsiang Yang-sheng, i n order to divert the main force of the attack from "Three-Family Village".  He  charged Peking Daily and Frontline with employing the same tactics. The month of May brought a flurry of attacks on "Three-Family Village".  On May 8, the Liberation Daily i n Shanghai published 70 two militant articles attacking Peking Daily and Frontline for the 71 reasons stated i n the above paragraph.  Two days later, the same  paper printed an extensive condemnation by Yao Wen-yuan, entitled "On 'Three-Family Village*—The reactionary Nature of 'Evening Chats at Yenshan' and 'Notes from Three-Family Village'".  Yao's  132 latest article came to play a role i n relation to  "Three-Family  Village" which was identical to that which his earlier article had played in relation to the writings of Wu Han-  On May 11, an article  appeared i n Red Flag further amplifying the extent of the control which "Three-Family Village" had exercised over Peking Daily and 72 Frontline. Jen Min Jih Pao of May 14- published an attack on Teng 73 T'o and for the rest of the month there was scarcely an issue which did not carry several attacks on him.  Finally, on May 25, the newly  re-organized Peking Municipal Party Committee dismissed the editori a l boards of Peking Daily and Peking Evening News, fired their 74 director, Fan Chin, and suspended publication of Frontline. It was in June of 1966 that a series of major political repercussions occurred, moving the Cultural Revolution out of the literary sphere and into the arena of a serious p o l i t i c a l struggle within the Chinese Communist Party i t s e l f . On June 3, the Central Committee of the CCP decided to completely re-organize the Peking Municipal 75 Party Committee.  It was at this time that L i Hsueh-feng was trans-  ferred from his post as First Secretary of the North China Bureau of the CCP Central Committee to that of First Secretary of the Peking 76 Municipal Committee. Wu Teh, First Secretary of the CCP Kirin Provincial Committee, became Second Secretary of the Peking Municipal 77 Committee. At the same time Lu P'ing was dismissed from his posts as President of Peking University and Secretary of the Peking University 78 Party Committee. On June 4, Jen Min Jih Pao made the claim that  "Three-Family  Village" had had i t s roots right in the Peking Municipal Party  79 Committee. This was not an unreasonable charge, i n view of the fact that the Peking Daily and Frontline were both organs of the Peking 80 Committee.  An editorial i n Liberation Army Daily i n Shanghai on  June 6 made the direct accusation that "Three-Family Village" had been i n constant close collusion with the "Right Opportunists" both before and after the Lushan Conference.  The same editorial linked  up "Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor", Hai Jui Dismissed From Office, "Evening Chats at Yenshan", "Notes from Three-Family Village", and the three publications Frontline, Peking Daily, and Peking Evening News as component parts of a sinister plot against the CCP. On June 17, an attack was launched against Ch'en Ch'i-t'ung, Deputy Director of the General P o l i t i c a l Department of the People's Liberation Army, for an article he had written entitled "A Searching Anatomy". Red Flag, launched a two-pronged attack on July 1. On the one hand i t accused "leading members of the former Peking Municipal Committee" of promoting revisionism. 81  Simultaneously, i t launched  the f i r s t attack on Chou Yang. Lu Ting-i was removed from his position as Director of the Propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the CCP on July 82 10, 1966 and replaced by T'ao Chu. It has been suggested that action was taken against Lu because he procrastinated i n carrying 83 out Mao's directives on the Cultural Revolution. The evidence for this view i s based on the fact that until June, neither Jen Min Jih Pao nor Red Flag had participated i n the Cultural Revolution with a zeal which could be compared with the tone of Wen Hui Pao,  134  Liberation Daily, and Liberation Army Daily.  84  Both of the former pub-  lications were directly under the control of Lu Ting-i i n his 85  capacity as Director of Propaganda.  By July 11, a furious attack  against Chou Yang was i n progress and during the remainder of July and most of August i t rivalled i n intensity the earlier campaign against Wu Han.  It i s now a matter of common knowledge that the  p o l i t i c a l struggles which occurred subsequent to August, 1966, moved to even higher levels of the Chinese Communist Party, until eventually i t resulted i n conflict between the two top men.  This phase of  the Cultural Revolution i s beyond the scope of the present study.  CHAPTER  III  Evaluation of the Charges  135 I n t h i s c h a p t e r an attempt w i l l be made t o determine what i t was t h a t Wu Han was  e x p r e s s i n g i n H a i J u i D i s m i s s e d From O f f i c e and o t h e r  r e l a t e d w r i t i n g s f r o m 1959  t h r o u g h t h e e a r l y 1960's.  I n o r d e r t o do  t h i s , i t w i l l a l s o be n e c e s s a r y t o a n a l y z e t h e most i m p o r t a n t charges w h i c h have been brought a g a i n s t him and determine whether o r not t h e y are b a s i c a l l y v a l i d . P r i o r t o a n a l y z i n g t h e charges brought a g a i n s t Wu Han, t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n o b s e r v a t i o n s w h i c h can be made s i m p l y on t h e b a s i s o f a r e a d ing  o f t h e p l a y t r a n s l a t e d h e r e , t o g e t h e r w i t h a number o f a r t i c l e s  by t h e same a u t h o r on H a i J u i and s i m i l a r themes, and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o l l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l penned by t h e o t h e r two members o f "Three-Family V i l l a g e " . f i a b l e t o h o l d one man ary  writers.  O r d i n a r i l y , i t would be c o m p l e t e l y u n j u s t i r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e works o f o t h e r contempor-  However, v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l evidence has been brought  f o r w a r d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t Wu Han was  coordinating h i s efforts  closely  1 w i t h t h o s e o f Teng T o f  and L i a o Mo-sha.  T h e r e f o r e i t seems p e r f e c t l y  v a l i d t o examine t h e w r i t i n g s o f t h e l a t t e r two f o r themes i d e n t i c a l to o r complementary t o m a t e r i a l a p p e a r i n g under Wu Han's name. F o r t h e moment, l e t us by-pass t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r not Hai  J u i D i s m i s s e d From O f f i c e h a r b o u r s a genuine and d e l i b e r a t e  a t t a c k on t h e C h i n e s e Communist P a r t y and Chairman Mao  Tse-tung.  Even had t h e p l a y not been so i n t e r p r e t e d , i t i s s t i l l l i k e l y t h a t i t would have been s u b j e c t e d t o s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m i n C h i n a .  Even  to a r e a d e r w i t h o n l y a r u d i m e n t a r y knowledge o f communist i d e o l o g y and t h e M a r x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f h i s t o r y , i t i s i m m e d i a t e l y o b v i o u s t h a t n e a r l y a l l t h e i m p o r t a n t themes and i d e a s e x p r e s s e d here a r e  136 anathema to Marxism-Leninism. One need progress no further than the preface to find the f i r s t examples. Wu Han begins by telling us that he uses the case of Hung A-lan to illustrate the class contradictions of the time.  Yet in the  play i t s e l f , the problems of Hung A-lan are clearly not solved through the conflict of any class contradictions. On the contrary, the solution of her problems depends entirely on the benevolence of an o f f i c i a l who, Wu Han himself t e l l s us, i s entirely loyal to the "feudal" ruling class.  The only meaningful class contradictions  during the period in which the drama i s set would have to be between the ruling class of "feudal" landlords on the one hand, and the peasantry on the other.  Yet Wu Han has taken a member of the former  class and portrayed him as the "saviour" of the latter class.  Class  contradictions appear to be completely solved once the land i s returned to the peasants.  "A promising future" l i e s ahead, even  though the "feudal" system continues.  Revolution would seem to be  unnecessary under such circumstances.  A few paragraphs after the  reference to Hung A-lan, Wu writes of the "longing, affection, and friendship for Hai J u i " f e l t by the peasantry. The dependence of the common people on the virtue of a "saviour" who emerges from the ranks of the ruling class i s an important theme running through the entire drama. In the scene "A Mother's Counsel", reference i s made to the common people saying that since Hai Jui had assumed office there was a "living Buddha" for every household. The same term i s used to describe Hai Jui when the entire cast assembles on stage at the play's close. The peasants are quoted as saying that  137  Hai Lung Wang has come to earth.  This i s almost tantamount to por-  traying Hai Jui as some form of superman. When Hai Jui finally brings justice to Hung A-lan and returns the land to the peasants, the peasants announce that when they go home they w i l l have a porrtrait of Hai Jui painted which they w i l l worship morning and evening. It would be d i f f i c u l t to imagine anything more un-Marxist than the fawning, idolatrous worship of Hai Jui by the Chinese peasants i n this play. There are numerous other examples in this play of ideas which simply cannot be reconciled with Marxism-Leninism. Hai Jui's unswerving devotion to the emperor i s portrayed as a virtue.  Yet i t  i s absolutely basic to Chinese Communist ideology that the emperor, as the supreme authority i n a system which exploited the peasants, was the enemy of the people.  We see the glorification of tradition-  al Confucian teachings i n the description by Hsieh Shih of the upbringing she has given her son.  In the same scene, Hai Jui sings,  "The resentment of the people bubbles and boils, their hatred w i l l be d i f f i c u l t to overcome". The idea that i t should be overcome, i n order to prevent the outbreak of revolt, would immediately be interpreted by any Marxist-Leninist as the propagation of "reformist" politics. There are times when Wu Han's viewpoints appear so "reactionary" that i t i s scarcely possible for the reader to believe that his writings appeared i n print i n contemporary China.  2  In his essay,  "On Hai Jui", Wu praises Hai Jui for the fact that his actions never betrayed any unseemly emotions and states that he patterned his  138 standards on those of the ancient emperors.  "Even when he beat his  slaves", Wu t e l l s us, "he never displayed any anger". Later i n the same article, Wu Han introduces as evidence of Hai Jui's virtue the fact that Ho Liang-chun criticised Hai Jui only for attempting to implement his reform policies too rapidly. Ho Liang-chun was the greatest landlord in the Sungkiang-Suchow area during the period when 3 Hai Jui governed there, and his father was the government tax collector. Although the discussion to this point shows quite clearly that Wu Han's thinking i s incompatible with the basic tenets of Marxism, the instances cited so far certainly do not constitute any proof that the author was intentionally attacking the Chinese Communist Party or any of i t s leaders.  Wu Han has never himself been a member  U of the CCP.  5 He was a member of the Democratic League.  It i s certain-  l y conceivable that his writings simply represent the ideas of a man whose understanding of Marxism never rose above a very low level. Indeed, this i s essentially what Wu t e l l s us in his two self6 criticisms of late 1965 and early 1966.  The essence of his position  at that time was that through lack of vigilance on his part, his mind was influenced by bourgeois ideology and he had forgotten the class struggle.  It i s therefore now necessary to examine the evidence for  the much more serious charges which have been levelled against Wu Han by his c r i t i c s . Tao Wen-Yuan maintains that a l l the writings of Wu Han and "Three-Family Village" as a whole since 1959 were carefully planned and coordinated.  Tao Wen-yuan's articles criticising Wu Han and  "Three-Family Village" have become something akin to modern classics  139 i n the course of the Cultural Revolution.  After Yao's i n i t i a l  article, l i t e r a l l y scores of attacks appeared i n the Chinese press. Very few, however, had new evidence to bring to light and most simply parroted Yao.  Given the prominence which the Chinese accorded his  f i r s t essay, one i s surprised at the lack of sophistication of much of what i s contained therein. As w i l l be shown below, there are strong arguments which can be brought to bear in support of Yao yuan' s contentions.  Wen-  Nevertheless, his case and those later presented  by many of his followers are considerably weakened by the fact that many of their charges are either utterly ludicrous or else altogether irrelevant. presented.  Also, their sources are at times very dishonestly  This aspect of the attack w i l l be considered before  going on to some of the more concrete charges. One of the flagrantly dishonest techniques employed by Yao  Wen-  yuan i s that of citing quotations taken not only out of context, but 7 frequently with no reference given.  Often, even a single word w i l l  appear in quotation marks in the middle of a paragraph which contains the most damning statements but which, with the exception of the one word quoted, has been composed entirely by Yao.  As w i l l be seen  shortly, this was a technique which was carried to even greater lengths by later c r i t i c s .  Also, Yao has a habit of stringing to-  gether a whole series of highly questionable hypotheses, each of which i s dependent on the validity of the one which precedes i t , and then arriving at a sweeping conclusion which simply cannot be justified on the basis of the evidence presented.  For example, i n  his attack on "Three-Family Village", Yao quotes Teng T'o as having  140 once written, "'everything' should be 'actively guided to facilitate i t s smooth development'". Yao Wen-yuan's analysis of the meaning of these few words deserves to be quoted at some length as an apt example of his ability to construct a large case from very meagre materials, "Everything", please note, including those dark, reactionary things that are anti-Party and anti-socialist,...By demanding that instead of blocking we should "facilitate the smooth development" of "everything", including anti-socialist things, was not Teng T'o clearly demanding that we should practice bourgeois liberalization and bend and surrender to the i l l winds which were blowing at the time, the winds of "going i t alone" (i.e., the restoration of individual economy) and of the extension of plots for private use and of free markets, the increase of small enterprises with sole responsibility for their own profits or losses, and the fixing of output quotas based on the household?^ Yao i s also prone to occasionally lapse into the rather hysterical 9 use of jargon. The above criticisms of Yao Wen-yuan, however, do not really deal with his central arguments. There i s one very basic charge levelled against Wu Han by Yao which should now be carefully considered.  Yao chooses to base his case largely on this charge.  He  accuses Wu Han of having f a l s i f i e d history i n his portrayal of Hai Jui, going so far as to state that the historical Hai Jui bore no resemblance whatever to the Hai Jui depicted in Wu Han's drama. Yao's arguments on the historical questions raised by the play are on a much more sophisticated level than his other criticisms noted above. His main arguments w i l l be summarized here and then evaluated.  He cites Wu Han's constant reference in the play to the  "people's lands" which have been seized by big, landlords.  Yao points  out that an examination of Ming history w i l l show that the lands  141 seized at that time by b i g landlords had p r e v i o u s l y belonged to small and middle l a n d l o r d s .  The system of tax evasion by b i g landlords  10  e x i s t i n g at that time had l e d to a s i t u a t i o n i n which b i g l a n d l o r d s became bigger and small landlords became p r o g r e s s i v e l y smaller.  Yao  claims that the demise of the small and middle l a n d l o r d classes had a s e r i o u s l y adverse e f f e c t on the income of the s t a t e .  Therefore,  under the conditions p r e v a i l i n g at that time, he sees the r e t u r n of the l a n d as a b e n e f i t to the state and the emperor rather than as a b e n e f i t to the people.  Yao advances h i s argument a step f u r t h e r by  reasoning that since the records show that i n the period i n which the drama takes place, 90% of the l a n d was owned by l a n d l o r d s , any t a l k of returning l a n d to the o r i g i n a l owners must mean r e t u r n i n g i t to small and middle l a n d l o r d s .  Moreover, Yao claims that according to  the plan of the r e a l Hai J u i , the land was not to be returned f r e e of charge, but had to be re-purchased by the o r i g i n a l owners.  Ob-  v i o u s l y , the peasants could not a f f o r d to pay even i f they had o r i g i n a l l y owned the l a n d .  On the basis of these f a c t s , Yao argues  that Wu Han i s using h i s drama to propagate the r e t u r n of the land to the l a n d l o r d s i n contemporary China. Yao quotes from a l e t t e r w r i t t e n by Hai J u i , i n h i s capacity 11  as Ying T'ien Governor, to L i Ch'ung-fang.  In t h i s l e t t e r , Hai J u i  says that he wants L i to r e t u r n more than h a l f the land i n h i s possession.  Otherwise, he says, the peasants w i l l r e v o l t and  w i l l lose control".  "you  He admonishes L i to be s a t i s f i e d w i t h the land  he has and states that he i s t a k i n g t h i s a c t i o n "only f o r your l a s t i n g peace".  Since the r e t u r n of the l a n d was implemented only  U2 for the purpose of preventing a rebellion of the people, Yao asks how Wu Han can possibly suggest that Hai Jui was really concerned with solving the land problems of the tenant farmers.  The same analysis  is applied to the memorial which Hai Jui sent to the Chia Ching Em-  12 peror.  According to Yao's sources, Hai Jui's complaint to the  emperor i n this document was not that the plight of the people was d i f f i c u l t to bear.  Rather, he was concerned that the money-lenders  and millers were allowed to take their cut of the people's crops prior to the emperor's tax being applied.  He suggested that the  emperor's shortage of funds, which had resulted from the tax evasion system mentioned earlier, could be solved by taking the taxes f i r s t and then allowing the money-lenders to exact their interest from the people.  Wu Han never ceases to eulogize Hai Jui  for his virtue, honesty, and refusal to compromise his principles, and states that he stood on the side of the people against the large landlords.  Yao Wen-yuan claims that historical records  show only Hai Jui's loyalty to the emperor, not to the people. A very basic question occurs at this stage. Can Wu Han really be faulted for the bad characteristics of the real Hai Jui? Many dramas i n both East and West have eulogized historical characters who were undoubtedly never as noble i n real l i f e as on the stage. Certainly, i t need hardly be mentioned that "proletarian writers" in China imbue their characters with superhuman qualities as a matter of course. Hai Jui, to be sure, i s drawn from the "feudal" ruling class, but that i s a matter to be discussed separately below.  The question for consideration here i s whether a writer can  U3  legitimately be charged with harboring malevolent intentions simply on the basis of having "whitewashed" an historical character for dramatic purposes.  It seems that the key factor i n this case would  be the historical awareness of the audience watching the play. If those who saw a performance of Hai Jui Dismissed From Office were f u l l y aware of the details of Hai Jui's l i f e , then the requirements for satire would be f u l f i l l e d , and Yao Wen-yuan's accusation of falsifying history would have some meaning.  On the assumption, how-  ever, that the audience's acquaintance with Hai Jui's personal history would not be nearly so intimate as that of Wu Han, i t would be reasonable to conclude that the message contained in what transpired on the stage would have a far more profound impact on the audience than would the secret facts of Hai Jui's real intentions four hundred years ago. Perhaps anticipating some doubts about the relevance of his charge that Wu Han has f a l s i f i e d history, Yao Wen-yuan attempts to set out some criteria for defining the bounds within which an historical dramatist may operate. Historical dramas need some a r t i s t i c improvements and also require creativity. We definitely do not ask that new historical dramas be exactly according to history in a l l their details, but we must ask that a character's class standpoint and class relations f i t historical fact.13 Nevertheless, he s t i l l seeks to embellish his case against Wu Han by quibbling about the fact that according to the o f f i c i a l histories, the magistrate and prefect were neither executed nor discharged by Hai Jui.  No one higher than a magistrate was discharged during the  144 period i n which. Hai Jul served as Ying T'ien Governor. Also Yao takes pains to point out that Hsu Ying was not really executed, but only exiled for ten years.  This news, of course, comes with a  somewhat lessened impact i n view of the fact that Wu Han has a l ready stated i t in his preface, and f u l l y explained his reasons for making the change. Yao i s also quite concerned about the fact that Hsu Ying's punishment was not really handled by Hai Jui at a l l , but by Kao Kung, the prime minister who had succeeded Hsu Chieh after securing the dismissal of the latter.  Again, Wu Han has already  stated i n his preface that he has cast Huang Chin and Tai Fenghsiang i n roles which are not strictly accurate historically.  This  practice not only appears perfectly reasonable for dramatic purposes, but also f a l l s completely within the bounds set by Yao yuan himself in the quotation cited on page 143.  Wen-  Yao reaches  perhaps the lowest level of that part of his criticism based on historical analysis when he chides Wu Han for portraying Hai Jui as repairing the water control system on the Wusung River in one week. He holds that this would have been a physically impossible task, forgetting that "Historical dramas need some a r t i s t i c improvements and..creativity."  Yao could also perhaps be accused of forgetting  that there can be no limits to the achievements of the people when  14 properly motivated. Aside from the preceding array of charges concerning Wu Han's t r i f l i n g with history, there i s another charge which Is also veryweak. The reader cannot help but have noticed the emphasis throughout the play on the fact that Hai Jui steadfastly refuses  U5 t o compromise h i s p r i n c i p l e s , r e g a r d l e s s . o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h he finds himself. ground.  No m a t t e r who  opposes him, he always stands h i s  Yao c l a i m s t h a t t h i s " i n d i v i d u a l i s m " i d e n t i f i e s H a i J u i as  a bourgeois hero.  A p r o l e t a r i a n h e r o , c l a i m s Yao, i s always w i l l i n g  to modify h i s p o s i t i o n a c c o r d i n g t o the views o f other people.  If  anyone i n C h i n a e v e r a p p l i e s t h e same s t a n d a r d s o f a n a l y s i s t o t h i s statement t h a t Yao Wen-yuan has a p p l i e d t o Wu Han's emphasis  on  t h e " r e t u r n o f t h e l a n d " , Yao h i m s e l f c o u l d w e l l become a v i c t i m o f the C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n .  The p e o p l e s u r r o u n d i n g H a i J u i and  i n g h i s p o l i c i e s were e x c l u s i v e l y o f f i c i a l s and g e n t r y who  oppos-  quarreled  w i t h h i s l i m i t a t i o n s on t h e i r e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e p e a s a n t r y .  Thus  i t i s obvious t h a t f o r H a i J u i t o f u l f i l l the requirements of a p r o l e t a r i a n hero and submit t o t h e v i e w s o f o t h e r s , he would have t o adopt t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e b i g g e s t l a n d l o r d s .  I t might t h e r e f o r e be  argued t h a t Yao Wen-yuan i s r e a l l y u s i n g h i s a t t a c k on Wu Han as a v e h i c l e t o argue f o r t h e . r e s t o r a t i o n o f c a p i t a l i s m and l a n d l o r d ism! Once Yao Wen-yuan's a r t i c l e had f i r e d t h e f i r s t s a l v o o f t h e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n , a p r o l i f e r a t i o n o f c r i t i c s appeared i n t h e pages o f s e v e r a l Chinese d a i l y newspapers  and f o r t n i g h t l y magazines.  G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , t h e charges l e v e l l e d a g a i n s t Wu Han became e v e r g r a v e r and t h e e v i d e n c e upon w h i c h t h e y were based became e v e r flimsier.  Two  documents w i l l be b r i e f l y n o t e d h e r e as examples  t h e l e v e l t o w h i c h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l b a s i s o f t h e a t t a c k on Wu had sunk by A p r i l o f  Han  1966.  On A p r i l 27, J e n M i n J i h Pao p u b l i s h e d a l e n g t h y a r t i c l e by  of  146 L i Ssu-chun, entitled "Wu Han—Strategist for the Chiang Family Monarchists and Helper of American Imperialism".  The basis for this  sensational charge consists entirely of a collection of quotations from Chiang K'ai-shek, Wu Han, Hu Shih, and a number of American officials. ideas.  Occasionally, the quotations express roughly similar  The author quotes Chiang K'ai-shek, i n China's Destiny, as  saying that i n the present period of Chinese history i t i s necessary for a small group of politicians and scholars to come forward and assume the responsibility of changing Chinese social customs. A statement by Wu Han i s then taken from one of his essays, "Social Customs", arguing that only the educated group within the middle class can assume responsibility for changing social customs.  An  e l i t i s t and un-Maoist viewpoint this certainly is} proof of collusion with Chiang K'ai-shek, i t decidely i s not. The remainder of the writer-'s argument that Wu Han had been a strategist for Chiang i s conducted on a similar level of banality, brings forth no evidence whatever i n support of his contentions, and warrants no further space here., Before leaving L i Ssu-chun's article, however, his handling of his second charge against Wu Han should also be noted. - The accusa;  tion that he was a helper of American Imperialism was, after a l l , the most serious charge ever brought against Wu Han.  The evidence  i n support of i t ? Leighton Stuart, the American Ambassador to China, i n his report of September 29, 194V, to Secretary of State Marshall, advocated American support of what he termed "the progressive elements" within and without the Chinese government i n order  U7 that America could achieve her goals i n China.  In the 1950 American  White Paper on China, Stuart i s quoted as advocating a "third force" in China. As a member of the Democratic League, Wu Han belonged to a "third force".  According to L i , this may be taken as concrete proof  of an alliance between Wu Han and the Americans. Returning now to the criticisms concerned with what Wu Han had actually written on the subject of Hai Jui, a comment should be made concerning the CCP theoretical journal, Red Flag.  Despite the  abundance of rather banal p o l i t i c a l ranting appearing i n the Chinese press as a whole at the time, several articles of a relatively high 15  analytical standard appeared i n this journal. In view of the gravity of the charges made against Wu Han and his cohorts, i t i s necessary to examine a l l of them, despite the fact that many appear groundless. Because we have until this point been systematically eliminating the weak or absurd charges hurled i n the frenzy of the Cultural Revolution, the reader may have already assumed that there i s no case against the group. t i r e l y incorrect.  This would be en-  Although sometimes obscured by the type of polemic  we have cited i n the f i r s t part of this chapter, well-substantiated charges do appear both in Yao Wen-yuan's essays and in other analyses which have appeared in the Chinese press. Earlier, i t was noted that Mao Tse-tung has declared that the class nature of any work of literature must be determined primarily 16  on the basis of the class from which i t draws i t s heroes. The question of Hai Jui, a member of the "feudal" ruling class, being characterized by Wu Han as a "saviour" of the common people has  us already been discussed.  It i s noteworthy that Wu Han's glorification  of the old scholar-official class was not an isolated phenomenon. Virtually everything written by Wu Han, Teng T'o, and Liao Mo-sha under the headings of "Evening Chats at Yenshan" and "Notes from Three-Family Village" i s centred around some aspect of pre-modern literature or aristocratic social l i f e .  Jen Min Jih Pao stated in  an editorial of June 2, 1966, On the cultural front, they have worked hard to l e t emperors and kings, generals and prime ministers, scholars and beauties, foreign idols and dead men dominate the stage....^7 Yao Wen-yuan, once he frees himself from the quagmire of his obsession with historical details, makes some penetrating criticisms. Several of these were already raised at the beginning of this chapter without reference to Yao.  They are simply noted here without dis-  cussion prior to beginning consideration of a number of rational charges which have not been considered as yet.  Yao raises the fact  that i n the play, once the land i s returned to the peasants, "sharp class contradictions suddenly have no meaning whatsoever", even though the "feudal" system remains unchanged, and the cruel exploitation and oppression by the landlords s t i l l exists. Yao argues that since according to Marxist theory, the state i s a machine through which one class oppresses another, a l l o f f i c i a l s , including "honest ones" and "good ones", were of necessity members of the landlord class. But the play, says Yao, simply t e l l s us noj Wu Han i s interpreted as saying that the "honest o f f i c i a l " "is not a political instrument of the landlord class, but on the contrary i s in the service of the peasantry". Wu has been charged by other  149  critics as well with trying to portray the virtues of "good o f f i 18 cials" as being above class. Yao holds that in Wu Han's opinion the "good o f f i c i a l " , not the class struggle, constitutes the motive 19 force of history. The masses of the people do not need to rise up and liberate themselves. They only need to wait for the kindness of an "honest o f f i c i a l " or "your worship" and then they w i l l immediately arrive upon "happy days". He also raised the question of what Wu Han was asking readers to learn i n the preface of the play.  Are they to learn something about 20  returning land, or perhaps about the "redress of injustices"? In the f i n a l analysis, the case against "Three-Family Village", Hai Jui Dismissed From Office, "Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor" and Hai J u i " must stand or f a l l on the basis of one accusation.  "On  Despite  charges to the contrary, there i s no conclusive evidence that any of the three writers attacked were acting in collusion with foreign powers.  It i s highly doubtful that Wu Han's manipulation of histori-  cal characters constitutes any form of political satire in i t s e l f . However, Yao Wen-yuan and others have also accused Wu Han of "using the past i n order to satirise the present".  Here they are  on much more solid ground. When we ignore the accuracies or i n accuracies of the play in terms of Ming history and concentrate only on the contemporary p o l i t i c a l events transpiring in China at the time this literature appeared, i t i s not d i f f i c u l t to discern biting satire.  Earlier, Yao Wen-yuan's contention that Wu Han made  his argument by "whitewashing" bad historical characters was held to be implausible on the ground that the audience's lack of detailed  150 h i s t o r i c a l knowledge would render s a t i r e impossible.  When the  p a r a l l e l s are drawn between the stage play and current events, however, the requirements f o r parody are f u l f i l l e d .  The remainder of  t h i s chapter i s devoted to demonstrating that Hai J u i Dismissed From Office was i n fact intended as an attack on the Chinese Communist Party and as support f o r Marshal P'eng Teh-huai. In the course of the long public discussion which followed the disclosure of the Wu-Teng-Liao a l l i a n c e and the pervasive influence i t enjoyed f o r a number of years through journals under i t s control,  21 several comparisons were made with the P e t o f i Club i n Hungary. "Three-Family V i l l a g e " and t h e i r followers have been regarded by elements l o y a l to Mao as the p o l i t i c a l arm of a counter-revolutionary movement.  Their r i d i c u l e of Party leaders and p o l i c i e s and  constant promotion of "bourgeois  ideology" were seen as the necessary  22 p o l i t i c a l groundwork f o r the r e s t o r a t i o n of capitalism. Mao has taught the Chinese that before an established p o l i t i c a l order can be  23 overthrown, the necessary i d e o l o g i c a l groundwork must be completed. According to Mao, "This i s true f o r the revolutionary class as well  24 as f o r the counter-revolutionary c l a s s " . The chronology i n the previous chapter began with the events surrounding the Lushan Conference of 1959-  I t was stated there that  Defence Minister P'eng Teh-huai and a number of his supporters launched an attack on the Party's Central Committee.  This attack  resulted i n P'eng and h i s followers being dismissed from t h e i r posts. "Three-Family V i l l a g e " has consistently been accused of coordinating t h e i r writings with the actions of the "Right Opportunists", both  151 before and after the Lushan Conference, and with systematically 25 attacking the Party over a period of years. The evaluation of this charge depends largely on an examination of the dates of publication of important articles i n relation to the occurrence of major p o l i t i cal events. The article "Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor" was published less than one month before P'eng Teh-huai sent his c r i t i c a l letter to Mao.  The  emphasis of the article i s entirely on the courage of a minister i n criticising his superior.  In the following month, P'eng Teh-huai was  dismissed from his post as Minister of Defence.  One month after  P'eng's dismissal, on September 21, 1959, Wu Han penned another article, "On Hai Jui".  No longer emphasizing the matter of ministers  criticising their superiors, Wu's  theme now became that of the "virtu-  ous o f f i c i a l " who has been unjustly dismissed from office.  Perhaps  i t was mere coincidence that Wu Han's change of themes happened to coincide with the change in fortunes of the "Right Opportunists". However, Wu Han became extremely interested i n the question of "unjust dismissal" and over the next few years he culled other examples 26 from Chinese history.  Perhaps i t was simply a further coincidence,  but between 1961 and 1963 Teng T'o also wrote four separate articles about "good officials'" i n Chinese history who had been dismissed from office.  As one proceeds with an examination of the writings  of "Three-Family Village", however, the number of occasions on which articles with possible double meanings coincide with major p o l i t i c a l events i s seen to greatly exceed the laws of chance. Yao Wen-yuan takes issue with Wu Han's statement of theme i n  152  the preface to Hai Jui Dismissed From Office. Although Wu  claims  that the final writing of the play took as i t s central theme the elimination of tyrannical landlords, Yao states that the main conflict of the drama occurs over the issue of "returning the land".  Accord-  ing to Yao, the "high tide" i s the dismissal of Hai Jui and this occurs because of the returning of the land.  The land question in Wu  Han's writing appears, in the views of most of his critics, to be an 27  attack on the Great Leap Forward. Yao also stresses Wu Han's emphasis and re-emphasis on the fact that "there are many injustices which must be reversed".  In "On Hai Jui", Wu Han stated quite openly that  modern people should oppose bureaucratism i n the same way that bad officials were opposed in the olden days. A Red Flag article in June of 1966 specifically charged that the play, Hai Jui Dismissed From Office, was intended to sing the praises of the "Right Opportunist elements" who had been dismissed from office in 1959, to encourage them not to submit, not to lose their 28  spirit, and to try again when they met failure.  The same article  also accused Wu Han of encouraging these elements to "reassume p o l i t i cal power and restore capitalism". When he says in the preface that 'he did not submit even though he lost his position, and did not lose his spirit.... that he deserves our study today', he has already made the central idea of Hai Jui Dismissed From Office absolutely clear.29 In the opinion of the authors of this article, two of the major purposes of the play are to stress the sympathy f e l t by the people for Hai Jui after his dismissal, and to use Hai Jui's statement that he w i l l one day return to power as an opportunity to publicly promise  153 that P'eng Teh-huai would also eventually triumph.  It Is in this  particular article that the most weighty single argument i s produced concerning Wu Han's real intentions in writing the play.  The  authors claim that at the time of the Lushan Conference, one of the "Right Opportunists" was actually referring to himself as "Eai  30  Jul".  If this claim i s valid, i t surely constitutes quite concrete  proof of Wu Han's intentions, when considered in conjunction with the chronological record.  Unfortunately, Kuan and Lin do not elaborate.  Further evidence that Wu Han's writings were intended as p o l i t i cal satires may be found through an examination of some articles by other members of "Three-Family Village" during the same period. At the Twenty-second Congress of the CPSU, in October of 1961, Nikita Khrushchov launched an open attack on Albania, and by extension, on 31 the Chinese Communist Party as well. Whether by coincidence or otherwise, this period saw a considerable upsurge in the publications by the Wu-Teng-Liao group.  To cite but one example, i n November, 32  Teng T'o published the article "Great Empty Talk".  In this essay,  Teng wrote disparagingly of people who "talk....like water flowing from an undamned river". "  "After listening to them", he says,  you can remember nothing".  He then t e l l s us that his neigh-  bour's l i t t l e boy has developed the habit of indulging in meaningless cliches and "great empty talk".  Recently he has written an  absurd l i t t l e poem, the last two lines of which are, The East Wind i s our benefactor And the West Wind i s our enemy. There can be no doubt that this i s a rather unsubtle attack on that  154theory of Mao Tse-tung's which Yao Wen-yuan calls the "scientific Marxist-Leninist thesis that the East Wind prevails over the West 33 Wind". Teng T'o ends his article by advising, ....those friends given to great empty talk to read more, think more, say less and take a rest when the time comes for talking, so as to save their own as well as other people's time and energy. Yao Wen-yuan has strongly attacked Teng for articles which Yao 34interprets as support for Soviet Revisionism. In one, Teng advocated that China unite with countries stronger than herself, and expressed 35 satisfaction that China had stronger friends. In a more pointed statement on the same theme, Teng T'o wrote, If a man with a swelled head thinks he can learn a subject with ease and kicks his teacher out, he w i l l never learn anything.36 The above quotation was seen by Yao Wen-yuan as a vicious attack on the Great Leap Forward and the policy of "self-reliance".  In this  period, Teng T'o wrote "The Family Wealth Consisting of a Single Egg", which was also widely interpreted as supporting Khrushchev's 37 position on the Great Leap. There are numerous other examples which can be cited, but the purpose of examining Teng T'o's writings i s only to shed light on Wu Han's motives, not to initiate a f u l l discussion on Teng. In case there should be any further doubt about the joint motivation of the members of "Three-Family Village", they themselves provide some of the most conclusive evidence.  As mentioned In the  previous chapter, the very name they selected was based on the story of the last days of a "virtuous o f f i c i a l " who had been dismissed from  155 office,  Furthermore two of Teng T-'o's articles consist of describing 38 the methodology of satirists whom Teng admires. One such description is particularly valuable for helping the reader to understand the real meanings of Liao Mo-sha's works. Liao's specialty within "Three-Family Village" was the writing of articles about ghosts. Lu Ting-i made a pointed reference to Liao i n 1964 while stating that the ghost themes i n a number of Peking operas supported revision39 ism. Another c r i t i c who has achieved prominence in the course of the Cultural Revolution saw i n the ghosts of Liao Mo-sha, ....the imperialists, revisionists and reactionaries of various countries....landlords, rich peasants, counterrevolutionaries, bad elements and Rightists....^ In writing of the career of an artist who drew satirical ghosts, Teng T'o states, ....his satirical portrayal of ghosts Is actually a satirical portrayal of men....if the artist had used the cartoon directly to satirise living men, he would simply have been asking for t r o u b l e — . i f he only satirised a few ghosts, he would be quite safe.4-1 To conclude the argument, Kuan Feng and Lin Chieh have raised a number of valid points, mostly concerning the discrepancy between the content of Wu Han's early explanations of his interest i n Hai Jui and the content of his later self-criticisms.  They recall that  at the time when ."Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor" and "On Hai J u i " were written, Wu Han was urging his readers to study the past i n order to apply i t s lessons to the future.  In his self-criticism, however, Wu  says that Hai Jui Dismissed From Office has no meaning whatever for the present and no p o l i t i c a l content.  He says he had forgotten the  principle that a l l art must serve the needs of the present day  political situation.  In organizing their case against Wu, Kuan and  Lin emphasize the fact that i t was he who made the connection with 42 the Lushan Conference. Since Wu Han has claimed that he wrote "On Hai J u l " and Hai Jui Dismissed From Office only in response to the c a l l by the Central Committee of the CCP at Lushan for a struggle 43  against "Right Opportunists", Kuan and Lin insist that the play be analysed in terms of i t s relationship to Lushan. They point out that the claim of responding to the call of the Central Committee i s simply tacked onto the end of Wu's essay and has no connection with what precedes i t .  It must also be noted that  there i s no explanation whatever of how the essay or the play f u l f i l l s the task of combatting "Right Opportunists".  Moreover, the  argument that "Right Opportunism" could be exposed by taking a member of the ruling class and casting him i n the role of "saviour" of the peasants i s politically i l l o g i c a l and certainly requires explanation.  The final blow i s dealt Wu Han's claim of responding  to the Central Committee's call when Kuan Feng and Lin Chieh draw attention to the fact that "Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor", the direct antecedent of "On Hai Jui" and Hai Jui Dismissed From Office, was published two months before the Lushan Conference took place. It is therefore clear that whatever Wu Han's plan at the time, he had "mounted horse" and was "in the saddle" before the Central Committee's call ever went out from Lushan.  Footnotes  157 Chapter I 1 This occurred in January, 1961, as noted in the chronology which appears i n Chapter Two. 2 A pavilion on the edge of the city where minor officials staged receptions for high officials coming to assume office. 3 A mountain north-west of Sungkiang County i n Kiangsu province. See Chung-Kuo Ku Chin T i Ming Ta Tz'u-tien (Taipei: Taiwan Commercial Press, 1967), p. 12194 Ming Dynasty Emperor, ruling from 1522 to 1567. 5 The Chinese character Ao which i s used here i s translated as "sea-turtle". 6 The Chinese for which the translation "Peking Gazette" i s given i s T i Pao, l i t e r a l l y "newspaper of the capital". 7 The rhyme scheme of traditional T'ang Dynasty poetry. 8 An old Chinese saying, roughly the equivalent of "throw a sprat to catch a mackerel". 9 In order to provide a faithful translation of everything Wu Han wrote i n his preface, this passage i s translated even though the portrait, calligraphy, and historical notes are not reproduced here. 10 The "One—Whip Policy" was a tax reform introduced during the last century of the Ming Dynasty. It was intended to overcome the gross corruption which had grown steadily under the l i - c h i a system, which put responsibility for collecting government taxes i n the hands of the wealthiest and most powerful families of each area. These powerful gentry families quite commonly forged land documents and registered their own land i n the names of the poor. The latter then had to pay the taxes, though they were completely helpless to enforce any rights of ownership. Also, so many land, grain, and labor taxes were assessed against the common people that they were paying some sort of levy almost throughout the year. In many areas, the burden had become so great that large numbers of the people fled their land. The "One-Whip Policy" combined this myriad of assessments into only one, or sometimes a few, payments. See Edwin 0. Reischauer and John K. Fairbank, East Asia The Great Tradition (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , I960), pp. 337-340. 11 Literally "cultivated talents", this was the term used to denote a graduate of the f i r s t degree under the old examination system. 12 The meaning of Ch'ing-ming i s l i t e r a l l y "clear and bright". Here, i t refers to a solar period occurring approximately April 5At this time of the year, the Chinese traditionally visited their family graves. 13 The mistake here i s either that of the writer or else i s a misprint, and did not occur i n the translation. It seems clear that the speaker i s Chao Hsiao-Ian. 14 The Chinese word, ku, usually translated as orphan, i s not the exact equivalent of the English term. It actually means "fatherless child". 15 This i s a reference to a Sung Dynasty judge who established a reputation for redressing injustices. 16 The Chinese term here rendered as "scholar" i s sheng-yuan, meaning "a first-degree licentiate under the former system".  158 17 See footnote 11. 18 Oh'ing-t'ien i s a polite term denoting an honest o f f i c i a l . 19 The Gates of Heaven. 20 Wu District or County, referring to the Woosung-Shanghai area. 21 The translation of the characters Po-p i i s "to skin; to fleece; to extort; to rob the clothes off". 22 The significance of this statement i s not clear to the translator. It appears that only gentry of a certain standing were entitled to paint their gates red, and many lower ranking gentry had done so prior to Hai Jui's arrival. 23 Meaning "resolute, firm, unyielding, lofty". 24 The date of Hal Jui's memorial was February, 1566. See Wu Han, "Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor", i n K. H. Fan (ed.;, The Chinese .Cultural Revolutioni Selected Documents (New York: Grove Press, 1968), pp. 72-76. 25 This i s a pun based on the fact that the two characters designating the reign t i t l e of the emperor, chia-ching. have the same sound i n Chinese as the two characters meaning "empty house". 26 An abbreviation referring to Suchow and Hangchow. 27 See footnote 21. 28 See footnote 10. 29 See footnote 10. The reference would appear to Indicate that Hai Jui had done away with the practice of putting tax collection in the hands of a village-headman, as had become the custom in the Ming Dynasty, under the l i - c h i a system. 30 This i s the ancient name for Wu County i n Kiangsu, dating from the Spring and Autumn period. See Chung-Kuo Ku Chin T i Ming Ta Tz'u-tien (Taipei: Taiwan Commercial Press, 1967), p. 37. 31 A sword given by the emperor as a rare honor to o f f i c i a l s who had distinguished themselves. The possessor was entitled to perform executions at his own discretion with this sword. 32 The l i t e r a l meaning of Hsu Chieh's words i s "beats to death". However, the reference i s to the f i r s t beating of Chao Yu-shan, in which the latter was only injured. 33 Hai Lung Wang, according to Chinese mythology, i s a dragonking of the sea, with powers over the rivers, lakes, rains, and waters generally. He i s said to have the power of providing prosperity and peace. See E. T. C. Werner, A Dictionary of' Chinese Mythology (New York: Julian Press, 1961). 34 See footnote 15. 35 This phrase seems inapt in this context, yet the English expression i s very close in meaning to the Chinese. Wu Han's method of expression seems awkward here. 36 In the reign of Emperor Shun T i , during the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Prime Minister, Liang Yi, ordered a commission of eight men to go on a tour of inspection and examine the customs and morals of the empire. One of the eight, a censor named Chang Kang, had been campaigning against o f f i c i a l corruption. He refused to go on the tour and as a symbol of his defiance he 1  159 buried the wheels of his cart at the gates of the capital and uttered the statement, "While wolves are i n office, why seek out foxes?" See Herbert A. Giles, A Chinese Biographical Dictionary (Taipei: Literature House). 37 The "Thousand Character Essay" was a standard exercise book for children learning to write characters. In this text, no single character i s used more than once. The "Hundred Family Surnames", as the t i t l e implies, was a compilation of Chinese surnames, and this also formed a standard text for students beginning their study of the Chinese written language. Hsu Fa at this point completely exposes himself because these two wall-known texts could not possibly be mistaken for original essays, and also because no educated Chinese would spend his time writing them out. 38 Here Hsu Fu i s referring to the black silk cap which could be worn only by a hsiu-ts'ai. 39 A polite term, used by Hai Jui i n this case as a form of address to the peasants whom he had befriended. 40 Wu Han t e l l s us that this scene occurs three days after the t r i a l has taken place. The phrase "day before yesterday" therefore seems to be inaccurate, but this i s what appears i n the Chinese text. 41 A Chinese measure of land which i s approximately equal to one sixth of an acre. 42 A Supervising Censor.  160 Chapter I I 1 "Never F o r g e t the C l a s s S t r u g g l e " , L i b e r a t i o n Army D a i l y ( S h a n g h a i ) , May 4-, 1966, r e p r i n t e d i n The G r e a t S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a ( l ) ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Languages P r e s s , 1966), pp. 20-28; "China i n the M i d s t o f H i g h - T i d e o f t h e G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n " , Chinese L i t e r a t u r e , No. 8, 1966, r e p r i n t e d i n A s i a R e s e a r c h C e n t r e (ed.) The G r e a t C u l t u r a l Revo l u t i o n i n C h i n a ( R u t l a n d and Tokyo: C h a r l e s . E . T u t t i e , 1968), pp. 304--312; "Long L i v e t h e G r e a t P r o l e t a r i a n C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n " , Red F l a g , No. 8, 1966, r e p r i n t e d i n The G r e a t S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a (U) ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Languages P r e s s , 1966), pp. 1-19. 2 See J e n M i n J i h Pao. A p r i l - J u n e , 1966. A n e d i t o r i a l i n t h i s newspaper on June 2, 1966, d e s c r i b i n g the w r i t e r s t h e n under a t t a c k , s t a t e d , "On the c u l t u r a l f r o n t , t h e y have worked t o l e t emperors and k i n g s , g e n e r a l s and prime m i n i s t e r s , s c h o l a r s and b e a u t i e s , f o r e i g n i d o l s and dead men dominate t h e s t a g e . . . . " On June 4-, t h e same paper e l a b o r a t e d , "Your poisonous p r o d u c t s f i l l e d o u r newspapers, r a d i o , magazines, books, t e x t b o o k s , l e c t u r e s , l i t e r a r y works, f i l m s , p l a y s , operas and b a l l a d s , f i n e a r t s , m u s i c , dancing...." A g a i n , on June 8, "We c r i t i c i s e t h e b o u r g e o i s c o n c e p t i o n o f h i s t o r y , b o u r g e o i s academic t h e o r i e s , pedagogy, j o u r n a l i s m , and t h e o r i e s o f a r t and l i t e r a t u r e , and a l l bad p l a y s , f i l m s , and works o f l i t e r a t u r e and a r t . " 3 Mao T s e - t u n g , " T a l k s a t the Yenan Forum on L i t e r a t u r e and A r t " , S e l e c t e d Works o f Mao Tse-tung ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Languages P r e s s , 1965), v o l . I l l , p. 86. 4- "Never F o r g e t t h e C l a s s S t r u g g l e " , op. c i t . . p. 23; Kao Chu, "Open F i r e a t the B l a c k A n t i - P a r t y and A n t i - S o c i a l i s t L i n e " , L i b e r a t i o n Army D a i l y . May 8, 1966. R e p r i n t e d i n The G r e a t S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a (2) ( P e k i n g : F o r e i g n Languages P r e s s , 1966). "Mao Tse-tung's Thought i s the T e l e s c o p e and M i c r o s c o p e o f Our R e v o l u t i o n a r y Cause", ( L i b e r a t i o n Army D a i l y , June 7, 1966). R e p r i n t e d i n The G r e a t S o c i a l i s t C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n i n C h i n a ( 3 ) , pp. 11-17. 5 "New V i c t o r y f o r Mao Tse-tung's Thought", J e n M i n J i h Pao, June 4-, 1966. 6 K. H. F a n ( e d . ) , The C h i n e s e C u l t u r a l R e v o l u t i o n : Selected Documents (New Y o r k : Grove P r e s s , 1968), p. 65. 7 " R e s o l u t i o n o f E i g h t h P l e n a r y S e s s i o n o f E i g h t h C e n t r a l Committee o f CCP C o n c e r n i n g the A n t i - P a r t y C l i q u e Headed b y P'eng T e h - h u a i " , i n K. H. Fan, I b i d . , p. 67. 8 Ibid. 9 T h i s s p e c u l a t i o n i s based on a c o m b i n a t i o n o f f a c t s . As i s noted h e r e , c l a i m s have been made t h a t P'eng Teh-huai d i v u l g e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e S o v i e t s . A l s o Khrushchov came t o P'eng s defence a f t e r t h e l a t t e r ' s d i s m i s s a l . Mao's d e c i s i o n t o a c q u i r e n u c l e a r weapons f o r China appears t o have been made a f t e r r e c e i v i n g o n l y m i n i m a l S o v i e t support d u r i n g t h e Quemoy-Matsu c r i s i s . • P'eng Teh-huai was M i n i s t e r o f Defence, and i f he was as c l o s e t o 1  161 the Soviets as circumstantial evidence would indicate, i t i s surmised that Mao and P'eng may have clashed over much more than the Great Leap Forward and the People's Communes. 10 David Floyd, Mao Against Khrushchev: A Short History of the Sino-Soviet Conflict (New York and London: Praeger, 1963), p. 66. 11 David A. Charles, "The Dismissal of Marshal P'eng Teh-huai", China Quarterly. No. 8 (October-December 196l), p. 64-. 12 Floyd, op. c i t . , p. 67. 13 Ibid. 14- "Resolution of Eighth Plenary Session of Eighth Central Committee of CCP Concerning the Anti-Party Clique Headed by P'.eng Teh-huai", K. H. Fan, op. c i t . . pp. 66-72. 15 Editor's Note, Ming Pao (April, 1966), p. 67. 16 Yao Wen-yuan, "On 'Three-Family Village'—The Reactionary Nature of Evening Chats at Yenshan and Notes from Three-Family Village". The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (l) (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966), p. 46. 17 Teng T'o i s a former editor of Jen Min J i h Pao. He was Secretary of the Peking municipal Party Committee prior to June 1966, when that body was re-organized. Until the month before, he had also been editor-in-chief of the Peking Daily, Peking Evening News, and the fortnightly magazine, Frontline. In 1964, he was elected deputy for Peking to the Third National People s Congress, and i n 1965 he became an alternate member of the CCP North China Bureau. 18 See quotations from his essay, "Great Empty Talk", i n Chapter III. 19 Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . , p. 4320 Ibid. 21 Ibid. 22 K. H. Fan, op. c i t . , p. 65. Liao Mo-sha i s the former Director of the United Front Work Department of the Peking Municipal Committee of the CCP. 23 Be ginning i n late April of 1966, dozens of articles attacking "Three-Family Village" appeared i n the pages of Jen Min J i h Pao and Red Flag. The writer can state on the basis of personal experience i n China i n .October of 1966 that even at this time i t seemed impossible to engage a Chinese citizen i n a discussion of the Cultural Revolution which did not centre on the threat which "Three-Family Village" posed to the Party. 24 Liberation Daily (Shanghai), May 21, 1966. Cited i n Asia Research Centre (ed.), op. c i t . , pp. 177-178. 25 On October 10, 1961, the column, "Notes from Three-Family Village"began i n Frontline. It was under this t i t l e that some of the most blatantly satirical material written by the three appeared. On November 10, Teng's article "Great Empty Talk" appeared. Liao Mo-sha published two articles on November 21. One, entitled "Wherein Lies Confucius' Greatness", characterized Confucius as a democrat. The second article was entitled "Jokes About Being Afraid of Ghosts" and was interpreted as supporting "revisionism". On November 26, Teng T'o published "Two Foreign Fables" i n his regular column 1  162 "Evening Chats at Yenshan" which was carried i n the Peking Evening Mews. Teng was later accused of having used this article to attack the CCP policy of self-reliance. 26 Lin Chieh and Others, "Teng T'o's Evening Chats at Yenshan i s Anti-Party and Anti-Socialist Double-Talk", The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (2) (Peking: Foreign Languages Press,  1966), p. 38.  27 Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . , p. 4-7. 28 Ibid. 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid., p. 53. 31 Ibid. 32 Ibid. 33 Ibid., p. 62. 34 Ibid. 35 Ibid. 36 Ibid., p. 64. 37 Ibid. 38 Lu Ting-i, Speech at the opening of the 1964 Festival of Peking Opera on Contemporary Themes, June 5, 1964Asia Research Centre, op. c i t . , p. 2939 Ibid. 40 "Raise High the Great Red Banner of Mao Tse-tung's Thought and Carry the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Through to the End—Essential Points for Propaganda and Education i n Connection with the Great Cultural Revolution", Liberation Army Daily. June 6, 1966. Reprinted i n The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (5) (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966), pp. 8-9. 41 This speculation i s based on a combination of noteworthy facts. The beginning of Mao's absence from public view coincided with the publication of Yao Wen-yuan's attack on Wu Han. This article initiated the Cultural Revolution. In a very short time, the Cultural Revolution began to assume the character of an attack on Peking Party officials by their counterparts i n Shanghai. Not until the Peking Municipal Party Committee and i t s o f f i c i a l organs were reeling under heavy attack did Mao reappear i n public. 42 "Long Live the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution", Red Flag, No. 8, 1966. Reprinted in The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (4), pp. 1-19; "Raise High the Great Red Banner of Mao Tse-tung's Thought and Carry the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Through to the End", op. c i t . , p. 6. 43 "China i n the Midst of High-Tide of the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution", op. c i t . , p. 306. 44 See footnote 42. 45 Ting Kuang-hua, "The Climax i n the Struggle of 'Cultural Revolution'", Chinese Communist Affairs, vol. 3, No. 4 (August,  1966), p. 36. 46 47 48 49  Asia Research Centre, op. c i t . , p. 419Ibid. Ibid., p. 91. "Commemmorate Lu Hsun and Carry the Revolution Through to the  163 End", speech by Yao Wen-yuan, Peking Review (No. 45, November 4,  1966), p. 12.  50 Yao's photograph has appeared i n Peking Review on October 27, and December 25, 1967, and February 2 and June 28, 1968. 51 Chi Pen-yu, "On the Bourgeois Stand of Frontline and the Peking Daily", Red Flag (No. 7, 1966). Reprinted in The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (2), pp. 50-65. 52 Ibid., p. 51. 53 Ibid. 54 Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . , p. 64. 55 The questions asked by Yao and quoted earlier i n this chapter concerning whether Wu Han was actually propagating "return of the land" and "redress of injustices" i n contemporary China are not explored. The key question of a link between Wu's writings and the 1959 Lushan Conference i s also avoided. 56 The fact that Jen Min J i h Pao published a self-criticism which was later held to be a sham may be significant, as Lu Ting-i s later f a l l from power was linked to the lack of enthusiasm exhibited by Jen Min Jih Pao i n the i n i t i a l stages of the Cultural Revolution. 57 See Asia Research Centre, op. c i t . , pp. 194-204. 58 T'ien Han was Chairman of the Union of Chinese Drama Workers, vice-chairman of the All-China Federation of Literary and Art Circles, and the writer of China's national anthem. He was subjected to fierce attack i n Jen Min J i h Pao and other Chinese newspapers throughout 1966, and eventually was accused of working for Chiang K'ai-shek. 59 One of Yao Wen-yuan s most central themes i n his attack on "Three-Family Village" i s the fact that the three partners and the publications under their control, when faced with attack, have consistently criticised themselves for forgetting the class struggle. Yao maintains that, on the contrary, they have constantly and consciously waged a class struggle against the CCP. 60 Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . , p. 64. 61 Chi Pen-yu, op. c i t . , p. 54* 62 Wan Ta-hung, "The Suicidal Purge Campaign", Chinese Communist Affairs (vol. 3, No. 4, August, 1966), p. 26. 63 Asia Research Centre, op. c i t . , p. 169. Actually, although P'eng was not seen i n public after this date, the p o l i t i c a l implications were not f u l l y appreciated until he lost his position as First Secretary of the Peking Municipal Committee of the CCP i n early June. Just prior to P'eng's dismissal, on May 21, Jen Min Jih Pao stated that someone more powerful must have been standing .behind the members of "Three-Family Village", shielding and supporting them. The paper demanded that this person be identified. 64 "Expose Wu Han's True Social Standing", Jen Min Jih Pao, May 20, 1966. 65 "Wu Han and Hu Shih", Jen Min J i h Pao. April 13, 1966. 66 Ibid. 67 For an English summary of the main charges i n this article, see Asia Research Centre, op. c i t . , p. 187. 1  1  164 68 Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . , p. 2969 Ibid., pp. 30-31. 70 Kao Chu, op. c i t . ; Lin Chieh and Others, op. c i t . 71 The article by Lin Chieh's group i s also particularly valuable because i t reproduces a great number of the articles carried under the t i t l e s of "Evening Chats at Yenshan" and "Three-Family Village". There i s a short analysis and commentary after each article. 72 Chi Pen-yu, op. c i t . 73 Lin Chieh, "Expose Teng T'o's Anti-Party and Anti-Socialist Features". 74 Asia Research Centre, op. c i t . , p. 49475 Ibid., p. 495. 76 Ibid. 77 Ibid. 78 Ibid. In the June 5 edition of Jen Min Jih Pao, Lu was accused of allowing Peking University to be used by members of the former Peking Municipal Committees as an instrument for gaining the a l l e giance of students, attempting to spread "revisionism" and d i s c r i minating against students of worker and peasant backgrounds. 79 As noted earlier, since May 25, Jen Min Jih Pao had been raising the question of who had been responsible for allowing "ThreeFamily Village" to function for such a long period of time. 80 Chi Pen-yu, op. c i t . , p. 50. 81 Asia Research Centre, op. c i t . , p. 497. 82 Ibid.. p. 167. 83 Ibid., p. 168. 84 It i s only by comparing these papers from January to June, 1966, that the difference can be appreciated. Jen Min J i h Pao seemed i n April and May to be joining i n the Cultural Revolution with great vigour. However, much of the material i t printed was initiated i n Shanghai. 85 Asia Research Bureau, loc. c i t .  165 Chapter III 1 It has already been noted that "Notes from Three-Family Village" was jointly written by a l l three. In the last chapter, i t was also pointed out that when Wu Han f i r s t came under attack, Teng T'o penned a sham criticism of Wu under a pseudonym. Moreover, i n February of 1961, after Hai Jui Dismissed from Office had been published, Liao Mo-sha published an open letter to Wu Han, congratulating him on "breaking through the door and dashing out... in order to encourage people to greater efforts". See Yao Wen-yuan, "On 'Three-Family Village'—The Reactionary Nature of Evening Chats at Yenshan and Notes from Three-Family Village (Liberation Daily, May 10, 1966). Reprinted i n The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (l) (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966). 2 Jen Min Jih Pao, September 21, 19593 Ibid. L Stephen Uhalley, Jr., "The Cultural Revolution and the Attack on the 'Three-Family Village'", China Quarterly (No. 27, JulySeptember, 1966), p. 150. 5 Who's Who i n Communist China (Hong Kong: Union Research Institute, 1966), p. 636. 6 Jen Min J i h Pao. December 30, 1965, and January 12, 1966. 7 "...slandering the Party line for socialist construction as 'forced' and claiming that China's 'only out' i s to 'learn from' the Soviet revisionist clique and practise revisionism i n China." See Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . , p. 4-2. 8 Ibid., p. 4.0. 9 "Everybody knows that the great Chinese Communist Party and the great Chinese people, educated by Mao Tse-tung's thought, are not only not afraid of monsters and ghosts, but are determined to destroy a l l the monsters and ghosts i n the world." Ibid.., p. 4-9. 10 A rather complicated procedure, involving the registering of one man's land i n the name of another, in order to circumvent the highest tax rates, i s discussed i n some detail by Yao i n this article. 11 Identified by Yao as the biggest landlord i n the area under Hai Jui's jurisdiction. 12 Yao claims that the historical records show only Hai Jui's devotion to the emperor and that there i s no historical evidence of any devotion on his part to the people. This point was later greatly amplified by Kuan Feng and Lin Chieh. They charge that Wu Han has translated the original memorial from Classical Chinese into modern and used his own translation as the basic source for his description of the memorial i n "Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor" and Hai Jui Dismissed from Office. It i s claimed that Wu Han's translation i s entirely different from the original. Allegedly, some parts are taken out of context, some are entirely different from the ideas expressed i n the original, and some are entirely figments of Wu Han's imagination. See Kuan Feng and Lin Chieh, "'Hai Jui Scolds the Emperor' and Hai Jui Dismissed from Office Are Two Great Anti-Party, Anti-Socialist Poisonous Weeds", Red Flag  166  (no. 5, 1966), pp. 15-33.  13 Yao Wen-yuan, "On the New Historical Drama 'Hai Jui Dismissed from Office'", Wen Hui Pao (Shanghai), November 10, 196514 This i s a theme which pervades almost a l l the military writings of Mao Tse-tung. 15 Kuan Peng and Lin Chieh, op. c i t . ; Chi Pen-yu, "On the Bourgeois Stand of Frontline and the Peking Daily" (Red Flag No. 7, 1966); "Long Live the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" (editorial i n Red Flag No. 8, 1966). 16 Mao Tse-tung, "Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art", Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung, v o l . I l l (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1965), pp. 92-9317 "A Great Revolution That Touches People to Their Very Souls", The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966), pp. 7-10. 18 Jen Min J i h Pao, May 8, 1966. 19 Mao Tse-tung has stated, "The people, and the people alone, are the motive force of world history". Selected Works of Mao Tsetung, vol. I l l (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1965), p. 257. This i s among the most widely cited quotations of Chairman Mao. 20 See Chapter II, pp. 126-127 for Yao's elaboration on this question. 21 "Long Live the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution", Red Flag (No. 8, 1966). Reprinted i n The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (3), pp. 1-19. 22 In one of his "Evening Chats at Yenshan", Teng T'o discussed the old practice of writing up the biographies of the important gentry i n each geographic locality, and seems to suggest that the famous gentry of the Peking area should be written up i n this fashion. Yao charges that this i s an "attempt at restoration i n the most profound sense of the term." He also accuses the members of ThreeFamily Village" of going so far as to advocate the return of the old Confucian style of greeting (the clasping of the hands in front of the body), and of indulging themselves i n gluttony and the pursuit of bourgeois pleasures. Unfortunately, he gives no references to substantiate these charges. See Yao Wen-yuan, op.  c i t . , pp. 59-61.  23 Decision of the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party Concerning the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966), p. 1. 24 Ibid. 25 "Raise High the Great Red Banner of Chairman Mao's Thought and Carry the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution Through to the End", Liberation Army Daily (June 6, 1966). Reprinted i n The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (5) (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966). 26 Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . , p. 43. 27 Wu's consistent emphasis of this theme has been taken as opposition to the collectivization of land formerly owned privately by peasants. 28 Kuan Feng and Lin Chieh, op. c i t .  167 29 Ibid. 30 Ibid. 31 David Floyd, Mao Against Khrushchev: A Short History of the Sino-Soviet Conflict (New York and London: Praeger, 1963), p. 145• 32 In "Evening Chats at Yenshan", Peking Daily, November 10, 1961. See Yao Wen-yuan, op. c i t . . p. 48. 33 Yao Wen-yuan, Ibid. 34 Ibid., p. 42. 35 Ibid. 36 Ibid. 37 Lin Chieh and Others, "Teng T'o.'s Evening Chats at Yenshan is Anti-Party and Anti-Socialist Double-Talk", Liberation Army Daily (May 8, 1966). Reprinted i n The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution in China (2) (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966). 38 Ibid., pp. 41-42 and pp. 45-46. 39 Lu Ting-i, speech at the opening of the 1964 Festival of Peking Opera on Contemporary Themes, June 5, 1964- See Asia Research Centre, The Great Cultural Revolution i n China (Rutland and Tokyo: Charles E. Tuttie, 1968), p. 2940 Ghi Pen-yu, "On the Bourgeois Stand of Frontline and the Peking Daily". Red Flag (No. 7, 1966). Reprinted i n The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China (2), pp. 50-65• 41 Lin Chieh and Others, op. c i t . , pp. 45-46. 42 Kuan Feng and Lin Chieh, op. c i t . 43 Wu Han, "On Hai Jui", Jen Min Jih Pao (September 21, 1959).  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Sources i n Chinese  hAt^Mi-tV&hiJi  $4'?,  6$i$3  170 Sources i n English Asia Research Centre. The Great Cultural Revolution i n China. Rutland and Tokyo: Charles E. Tut tie, 1968. Charles, David A. "The Dismissal of Marshal P'eng Teh-huai". China Quarterly, No. 8 (October-December 1961), pp. 63-76. Fan, K. H. (ed.) The Chinese Cultural Revolution: ments. New York: Grove Press, 1968.  Selected Docu-  Feng Wen. "Assumptions and Proofs of Mao-Liu Power Struggle", Chinese Communist Affairs, Vol. 3, No.' 4 (August 1966), pp. 4755. Floyd, David. Mao Against Khrushchev: A Short History of the Sino-Soviet Conflict. New York and London: Praeger, 1963. Giles, Herbert A. A Chinese Biographical Dictionary. Reprint, Taipei: Literature House. Goldman, Merle. "The Fall of Chou Yang", China Quarterly. No. 27 (July-September 1966), pp. 132-148. The Great Socialist Cultural Revolution i n China. (Series of 7 pamphlets) Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1966. G r i f f i t h , William E. The Sino-Soviet Rift. M. I. T. Press, 1964-  Cambridge, Mass.:  Joffe, E l l i s . "China i n Mid-1966: 'Cultural Revolution' or Struggle for Power?", China Quarterly, No. 27 (July-September 1966), pp. 123-131. Mao Tse-tung. "Talks at the Yenan Forum on Literature and Art", Selected Works of Mao Tse-tung (Vol. III). Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1965. Reischauer, Edwin 0. and John K. Fairbahk. East Asia the Great Tradition. Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, I960. Ting Kuang-hua. "The Climax in the Struggle of 'Cultural Revolution"', Chinese Communist Affairs, Vol. 3, No. 4 (August 1966), pp. 33-41. TJha.ll.ey, Stephen Jr. "The Cultural Revolution and the Attack on the 'Three-Family Village'", China Quarterly, No. 27 (JulySeptember 1966), pp. 149-161. Wan Ta-hung. "The Suicidal Purge Campaign", Chinese Communist Affairs, Vol. 3, No. 4 (August 1966), pp. 23-32.  171 Wu Chi-yen. "Repudiate Chou Yang's Revisionist Programme for Literature and Art", Chinese Literature, No. 10 (1966), pp. 112-14-0. Zagoria, Donald S. The Sino-Soviet Conflict 1956-1961. Princeton University Press, 1964-.  New York:  

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