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Soils and soil capability classification for forestry of the Mission Tree Farm Kowall, Ronald C. 1967

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SOILS AND SOIL CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR FORESTRY OF THE MISSION TREE FARM by RONALD C. KOWALL B.S.F., Uni v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE i n the Department of S o i l Science accept t h i s t hesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1967 i i i In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department of by his representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada i i ABSTRACT A study of the s o i l s and s o i l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y of the Mission Tree Farm Licence No. 26 was c a r r i e d out. The s o i l survey and s o i l chemical analyses were done i n cooperation with the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l s D i v i s i o n , Kelowna, B. C. The purposes of the study were: to characterize the s o i l s found i n Compartment One, to determine the f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y of these s o i l s , to recommend management pra c t i c e s f o r these s o i l s f o r f o r e s t r y purposes, and to compare s o i l mapping at scales of 1:12,000, l:l5,8UO, 1:31,680, and 1:63,360. Fourteen s o i l s e r i e s were recognized and used as c r i t e r i a f o r the mapping units i n t h i s area. Ten s o i l s e r i e s were established, described, and chemically characterized. Although the s o i l s e r i e s could be morpho-l o g i c a l l y recognized i n the f i e l d , the chemical analyses exhibited very l i t t l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s among the s e r i e s . Vegetation could not be used c o n s i s t e n t l y as c r i t e r i a f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g among the various mapping u n i t s . Landform was the c h i e f a i d i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the extent of the s o i l mapping u n i t s . Each s o i l s e r i e s was rated f o r c a p a b i l i t y to produce commercial f o r e s t growth. The major tree species involved were western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and western red cedar. The s o i l s were evaluated f o r f o r e s t management p r a c t i c e s , i n c l u d i n g , r e f o r e s t a t i o n , road b u i l d i n g , e r o d i b i l i t y , logging p r a c t i c e s , and species adaptation to s p e c i f i c s o i l s . Four scales of mapping were compared and discussed i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r uses f o r s p e c i f i c purposes. For an area such as Compartment One on which good f o r e s t management i s being pra c t i c e d , mapping at the scale of I:l5,81i0 was i d e a l . iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to thank the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Soils Division, Kelowna, B. C. for the use of the soil data and for performing the soil chemical analyses. Thanks.is also conveyed to the personnel of the Mission Tree Farm for their cooperation. Personal thanks are conveyed to Dr. C. A. Rowles and Dr. L. Lavkulich for their guidance, criticisms, and suggestions pertaining to the preparation of this thesis. Thanks are also extended to Mr. H. Luttmerding and Mr. ¥. Bourgeois for their helpfjil assistance in the field, to my student assistant Mr. R. Nield, and to Mr. I. H. Schiedel, the T.F.L. Forester, for his help. RONALD C. KOWALL V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION 1 LITERATURE REVIEW U Soil Survey of Forested Lands h Soil Capability for Forestry 7 Aerial Photography for Soil Survey 9 MATERIALS AND METHODS 13 Description of the Area 13 Location and History 13 Climate 16 Geology and Topography 16 Soil Survey 18 Establishment of Soil Series and Classification of Soils 19 Map Preparation 19 Soil Analyses 20 Soil Capability for Forestry 21 Plot Location and Measurement 21 MAI Calculations 22 Plot 16 Measurement and MAI Calculations 2k RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 32 Soil Series and Results 32 Soils of Compartment One 37 Cardinal Series - Orthic Humic Podzol 37 Steelhead Series - Gleyed Humic Podzol U3 Hoover Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol hi V I PAGE Kenworthy Series - Acid Brown Wooded - Regosol Intergrade 5 2 Cannel Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol 5 6 Rock Outcrop Mapping Unit 6 0 Keystone Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol 62 Roach Series - Orthic Humic Podzol - O r t s t e i n Podzol Intergrade 66 Mission Series - Gleyed Humic Podzol - Gleyed O r t s t e i n Podzol Intergrade 71 Stave Series - Orthic Podzol lk Ryder Series - Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 79 Marble H i l l Series - Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 8 0 Calkins Series - Rego Humic Gleysol 82 Judson Muck Series - ( S t r a t i c Mesic F i b r i s o l ) 83 Scale of Mapping 8 7 Mapping at the Scale of 1:12,000 8 9 Mapping at the Scale of l:l5,8UO 9 0 Mapping at the Scale of 1:31,680 9 1 Mapping at the Scale of 1:63,360 9 2 GENERAL DISCUSSION 9k SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 97 REFERENCES 99 APPENDIX 103 v i i TABLES TABLE PAGE I Tally Sheet of Forest Capability Plot 16 23 II Basal Area Average D.B.H. Correction Factors for Western Hemlock, Douglas-fir, and Western Red Cedar on the Mission Tree Farm 31 III Classification of Soils and Soil Parent Material in Mission Tree Farm No. 26 33 IV Acreage of Soil Series and Capability Classes in Compartment One 3h V - Vegetation List (Scientific and Common Names) 35 VI Forest Productivity Plot Data 36 VII Chemical Analyses of the Cardinal Series - Orthic Humic Podzol Ul VIII Vegetation Occurring on the Cardinal Forest Productivity Plots 1|2 IX Chemical Analyses of the Steelhead Series - Gleyed Humic Podzol U6 X Vegetation Occurring on the Steelhead Forest Productivity Plots U? XI Chemical Analyses of the Hoover Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol 5 l XII Vegetation Occurring on the Hoover Forest Productivity Plots 52 XIII Chemical Analyses of the Kenworthy Series - Acid Brown Wooded - Regosol Intergrade 55 v i i i TABLE PAGE XIV Vegetation occurring on the Kenworthy Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y Plots 56 XV Chemical Analyses of the Cannel Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol 59 XVI Vegetation Occurring on the Cannel Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y Plots 60 XVII Vegetation Occurring on the Rock Outcrop Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y Plots 62 XVIII Chemical Analyses of the Keystone Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol 65 XIX Vegetation Occurring on the Keystone Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y Plots 66 XX Chemical Analyses of the Roach Series - Orthic Humic Podzol - O r t s t e i n Podzol Intergrade 69 XXI Vegetation Occurring on the Roach Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y Plots 70 XXII Chemical Analyses of the Mission Series - Gleyed Humic Podzol - Gleyed O r t s t e i n Podzol Intergrade 73 XXIII Vegetation Occurring on the Mission Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y Plots 7k XXIV Chemical Analyses of the Stave Series - Orthic Podzol .. 77 XXV Vegetation Occurring on the Stave Forest P r o d u c t i v i t y Plots 78 XXVI Chemical Analyses of the Judson Muck S e r i e s - ( S t r a t i c Mesic F i b r i s o l ) 85 ix TABLE PAGE XXVII Vegetation Occurring on the Judson Forest Productivity Plot 86 XXVIII Soil Series Classification Legend and Mapping Units .... 88 X FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 Location of the Study Area lk 2 Location of Tree Farm Licence No. 26 within the Mission M u n i c i p a l i t y Boundary 15 3 A General View of the Topography of Compartment One 18 h S i t e Class Curves f o r Coastal Douglas-fir (U" +) 25 5 S i t e Class Curves f o r Coastal Western Hemlock (U" +) 26 6 Curve of Correction Factors f o r a l l Species i n Compartment One 30 7 A Photograph of a S o i l P r o f i l e of the Cardinal Series .... UO 1 INTRODUCTION As the demand f o r f o r e s t products has increased, more emphasis has been placed on better u t i l i z a t i o n p ractices and management of the f o r e s t resources. A s h i f t from the "clear cut and get out" practices of the past decades to a sustained y i e l d management of today has r e s u l t e d . With the s h i f t to a sustained y i e l d management, s i l v i c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s have improved to a point where information on forest s o i l s i s e s s e n t i a l . Up to the present time, i n B r i t i s h Columbia, most studies r e l a t i n g to growth of trees have not included the s o i l , i n which the trees grow. As a r e s u l t , very l i t t l e of the forested land of B r i t i s h Columbia has been s o i l surveyed. With only l i m i t e d knowledge of f o r e s t s o i l s many problems are being encountered as c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping of forested land proceeds. One of the main problems i s that of the d e f i n i t i o n of useable mapping units. The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s by the Federal and P r o v i n c i a l S o i l Survey units has l a r g e l y been r e s t r i c t e d to a g r i c u l t u r a l lands. In e a r l y s o i l surveys most non - a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s were placed i n the "rough-broken" mapping u n i t . Forested lands occupying steep slopes have s o i l s that are under continuous movement and churning due to s o i l creep, talus development, tree uprootings, sheet wash, and other f a c t o r s . These s o i l s are very d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y . Logging practices may also change the s o i l s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r o d u c t i v i t y . Another problem i s p l a c i n g the s o i l s into c a p a b i l i t y classes f o r f o r e s t r y purposes. The present p r a c t i c e of i n d i c a t i n g s i t e q u a l i t y Is by s i t e indexj the height to which a dominant or codominant tree w i l l grow i n 100 years. No reference to the s o i l i s made. The determination of the q u a l i t y and p r a c t i c a b i l i t y of the c a p a b i l i t y classes i s governed by s o i l v a r i a b i l i t y , methods of p r o d u c t i v i t y measurements, scale of mapping, 2 amount of fieldwork and fieldc h e c k i n g , mapping units employed, and monies a v a i l a b l e . Scale of photography and mapping i s another problem encountered. The B r i t i s h Columbia Forest Service i n t h e i r inventory and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the f o r e s t resources of B r i t i s h Columbia have s h i f t e d towards l a r g e r scale photographs. The scale of photography used most widely at the present time i s l:l£,8U0, as opposed to the 1:31,680 scale used i n the past. The scale 1:15,81+0 means that one inch on the photograph i s equal to l5,8UO a c t u a l inches on the land surface. The proposed scale f o r placing s o i l s i n t o c a p a b i l i t y classes under the A g r i c u l t u r a l and Rural Development Act was o r i g i n a l l y 1:63,360, but a 1:31,680 scale has been proposed and accepted f o r mapping at t h i s time. The scale of photography used should depend on the purpose of the p r o j e c t . Another problem, and possibly a c r i t i c a l one at the present time, i s the lack of adequately trained personnel to carry out the mapping of f o r e s t s o i l s and to i n t e r p r e t the data and maps produced. The foregoing are some of the major problems encountered i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and mapping of s o i l s i n forested areas. Recognizing these problems the study was undertaken with the objectives noted below. The purpose of t h i s thesis i s to: (1) Characterize and c l a s s i f y the s o i l s found i n Compartment One of the Mission Municipality, e s p e c i a l l y that part of Compartment One that i s composed of the Tree Farm Licence No. 26. (2) Determine the f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y and management of these s o i l s f o r f o r e s t r y purposes. 3 (3) Compare mapping at the scales 1:12,000, 1:15,81*0, 1:31,680, and 1:63,360. The s o i l survey was c a r r i e d out i n cooperation with the B r i t i s h Columbia Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , S o i l s D i v i s i o n , Kelowna, B. C. This thesis and the accompanying photographs and maps present information obtained during the s o i l survey of Compartment One. LITERATURE REVIEW Soil Survey of Forested Lands In Canada, systematic soil classification began about 1920, but was not started in British Columbia until 1931. Since 1920, more than 250 million acres have been soil surveyed and classified in Canada (15, 16). The first soil survey report for British Columbia was published in 1939> subsequently, eight additional reports have been published. Because df the increasing interest in soil survey information, a need for a national classification system was recognized by Canadian pedologists in the l9U0's. The first Canadian classification of soils was proposed in 19U5 at the First Conference of the National Soil Survey Committee of Canada. The proposed classification was a "field classification" that was especially adapted for soil surveys and soil map productions. It consisted of seven categories: soil regions, zones, subzones, associations or catenas, series, types, and phases. Since 19U5, the scheme for classifying soils was further developed and in i960 a natural or taxonomic system of soil classification was published. This system consists of six categories: orders, great groups, subgroups, families, series, and types (16). This latter classification is also a working classification adapted for soil surveys and soil map productions. Since i960, there have been two revised publications, the fi r s t in 1963, and the second in 1965. For the most part, the soil surveys in British Columbia have, been confined to valley bottoms and populated areas. They were tradi-tionally centered around agricultural needs. It was not until the Agricultural and Rural Development Act (ARDA) was passed in I96I that 5 much consideration was given to forested areas. Since then, a number of projects have been undertaken in British Columbia. Sprout et al. (UO), Spilsbury et al. (39), and Lacate e_t al. (22) have done landform-soil-vegetation studies. Lacate (20) has completed a landform-soil-vegetation survey in which he restricted soil classification to subgroups and included soil drainage in his mapping units. The Canada Department of Agriculture, Soil Survey Division, in British Columbia, is now completing a soil survey and capability classification in the Princeton-Tulameen map-sheets area. Other areas completed are the Special Sales Area at Prince George and Quesnel in 1965 and the Rocky Mountain Trench in 1966 (25). British Columbia is not the only province concerned with mapping forested lands. All of the other provinces have carried out some work in this field, with perhaps the most being accomplished in Ontario by Hills and his colleagues (10, 11, 12). Lacate (21) sums up the progress by saying: "The general picture is, fi r s t , one of an active program in the inventory and mapping of wildland areas of Canada for a variety of purposes, but secondly, one of a much fragmented program in terms of continuity, organization, discipline involved, and the land features that the investigators map. Many of the studies have been initiated by research organizations whose main policies and objectives focus on the examination of various classification techniques in small pilot study areas, and not on the inventory of specified areas of land for improved land management pruposes." Although the total acreage surveyed in British Columbia has been relatively small, the studies have brought out some of the difficulties encountered in surveying and classifying forested lands. The major problem in mapping forested lands is the determination of the mapping units themselves. Beginning about 1950, Hills (10, 11) and later Hills and Pier-point (12) in Ontario have been working on a scheme whereby land is 6 classified by total site type (a manageable ecological unit). The total site type was composed of two components; (1) the physiographic site type which included the ecoclimate, landform, soil moisture and soil profile, and, (2) the forest type which included the animals, lesser vegetation and forest cover. In British Columbia, a comparable unit to the physiographic site type is the land unit. Lacate (20) has defined a land unit as: ".... a relatively small homogeneous segment of the land surface which has a characteristic topographic form and internal geologic structure, and with which are associated distinctive types of soils and vegetation." Within the land unit, the soils, in many cases, are similar in parent material and profile development (soil series), and occupy fairly specific physiographic locations (defined as to gradient and position(s) on the landscape). Permanent features are reflected in the slope and surficial geology, whereas the secondary features of soils and vegetation are subject to change due to logging, fire, soil creep, erosion and other factors (UO, 20, 21, 22). Although Hills and Lacate have suggested mapping units for the classification of forested lands, the soil series has been carried over from the agricultural lands into forested areas. The soil series is a group of soils having soil horizons similar in differentiating characteristics (pH, colour, texture etc. except for the texture of the surface horizon) and arrangement in the soil profile, and developed on a specific parent material. Variability exists in such features as slope, stoniness, degree of erosion, topographic position, and depth to bedrock (31, 37). In the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Classification Scheme 7 of Soils (38), properties below six inches, or plow depth, are given greatest weight in differentiating soil series rather than surface horizons which are more readily altered by environmental factors. Steinbrenner e_t al. (Ul), in the soil survey of the Vail Tree Farm, defined his mapping unit at the soil series level. The landforms were mapped in conjunction with the soil series as a single unit because the topography was thought to be as important as the soil in certain forest management practices. Generally, the mapping unit that seems to be most widely used is based on the soil series, which is formed on a particular landform (parent material and topography), and exhibits a characteristic profile development. Within a mapping unit, defined by a soil series, 15 percent of other soil series is allowed. An additional aid that may be used in determining the limits of a soil series, in mapping, is the characteristic vegetation associated with a particular soil series. Soil Capability for Forestry Capability rating of forested lands in Canada was initiated in 1 9 6 1 . Mackintosh (2U) briefly described the history as: "As a result of recommendations made by the "Resources for Tomorrow" Conference, an Act providing for the rehabilitation of agricultural lands and development of rural areas in Canada was implimented in I96I. This Act provided for a comprehensive survey of land capability and use in Canada as a "Canada Land Inventory". The overall objective of the Canada Land Inventory is to classify lands according to their capability for alternate use and to obtain an estimate of the extent and location of these lands. These alternate uses include agriculture, forestry, recreation and wildlife. The program is administered jointly by the federal and provincial governments under the Agricultural Rehabilitation and Development Act (ARDA) of 1 9 6 1 . The ARDA Act was designed primarily to cover the areas of Canada where questions of alternate land use arose. This does not mean that other areas are not considered, since a l l 8 the soil surveyed lands in Canada have been rated for their agricultural capability under the present scheme." In British Columbia, soil capability for forestry was started in I96I1 with a reconnaissance of the Special Sales Area at Prince George. Since then, the Special Sales Area has been mapped for its capabilities for forestry, followed by the Rocky Mountain Trench, Princeton-Tulameen Sheets, and parts of the Fraser Valley. As outlined by McCormack (27), the capability for forestry for ARDA purposes was determined by productivity classes based on Mean Annual Increment (MAI). The criteria for establishing forest productivity plots for the ARDA inventory in British Columbia was given in a mimeographed outline and later expanded upon by Kowall (17). The forest stands selected for MAI determination were to be thrifty, even-aged, normally stocked, and from 60 to 120 years old. The selected forest stands were to be on modal or near-modal examples of the soil unit. Where possible, at least five MAI plots were to be located on each soil series. The plots were one-fifth of an acre in size, either 93 feet square or one by two chains (one chain equals 66 feet). A square plot was laid out by first measuring a two chain diagonal. At one chain from the end of the diagonal (the center), a distance of one chain perpendicular to the diagonal was measured in both directions. All commercial species within the productivity plot boundary were to be tallied. The diameter at breast height (d.b.h.), being taken at U.5 feet above the ground (ground level being the point of germination), was measured to the nearest inch with calipers or a diameter tape. A l l sample tree heights were measured with the aid of a chain and Abney level 9 to the nearest foot. Sample trees were to be thrifty trees with good straight leaders. The d.b.h. was measured to the nearest one-tenth inch, and the age was determined by boring at two feet above the ground with an increment borer. Five sample trees as near as possible to the average d.b.h. were to be used for height and age determinations. The heights were not to range more than five,feet. Since the soil capability interpretations were based on soil series or groups of soil series, a soil survey previous to, or accompanying the capability mapping, was essential (21;). The capability plots were located by a two-man team composed of a soil surveyor and a foresterj the forester to select the stand, and the soil surveyor to verify that the stand was on the proper soil. An ideal situation would be to employ one person knowledgeable in both forestry and soil surveying. One change made in the classes outlined by McCormack was in the subdivisions of class 1; class 1 is now 111 to 130 cubic feet per acre per year, la (131 to 150), lb (151 to 170) etc. The tree species were symbolized according to the classification set forth by the Forest Management Service Section, Ottawa ( 1 * 2 ) . Aerial Photography in Soil Survey Aerial photography had its beginning in France in 1 8 5 8 . Two years later, in i 8 6 0 , J. Black took the fi r s t successful aerial photographs in North America ( 2 6 ) . In 1929, Bushnell was the first person to use aerial photography in soil surveying operations. In the I9h0's, Professor W. J. Belcher pioneered the development of techniques for mapping soil conditions. He found that different patterns observable on the aerial photographs correlated well with specific geologic landforms (1). The 10 use of aerial photographs has advanced to the stage where almost every land surveyor utilizes them. The use of aerial photography in the soil survey of forested lands is a great asset. In a province like British Columbia, i t is virtually impossible to field check the entire area to be surveyed because of limited accessibility to the areas. Therefore, a great deal of photo-interpretation must be done. Good photographic interpretation of soils, especially in forested areas, requires good quality photo-graphs and an experienced photo-interpretor. The interpretor can better his knowledge of interpretation by acquainting himself with the photo-graphs of the area and to routinely field check his decisions until he becomes confident in the patterns discernible on the photographs. Confidence in photographic interpretation generally cannot be acquired in one field season and usually a number of years of experience are required to train an individual for accurate photographic interpretation. The time needed will vary with the individual and the nature of the terrain. The quality of the photographs is dependent on many factors, including: camera equipment, type of film, and type of photographic paper. The photographs are taken in continuous flight lines, where there is 60 percent overlap between photographs in a flight line and 30 percent overlap between flight lines. The overlap allows for stereoscopic study of the photographs, allowing 3-dimensional study of the photograph. Depending on the flying altitude of the aircraft and the focal lenght of the camera, different scales of photographs can be obtained. The most widely used photographs are the 9 x 9 inch panchromatic _ black and white contact prints. Panchromatic film is used because this 11 film is sensitive to the entire range of the visible spectrum. Where the photographs are taken exclusively for soil interpretation, a minus-blue f i l t e r is used. The variations in the relative expression of tone on photographs represent the collective influence of natural soils colour, moisture content, soil texture, sun angle, light sensitivity of the film, light transmission by the f i l t e r , and techniques of processing and printing. A good average tone density, adequate range in tones, and consistent quality are required for good photographic interpretation of soils. If the tones on the prints of a flight strip vary appreciably, then tones may not be a reliable indicator of soil properties ( 2 6 ) . Photo-interpretations of soils on variations in tones may be difficult due to changes in the colour, texture, or moisture content of the soil, to changes in vegetation, or to some combination of these causes. Use of colour photography to record the natural colours of soils would permit more accurate identification of mapping units and would reduce the amount of field work needed to establish reliable correlation. Infrared photographs are often valuable in the study of drainage and moisture contents of soils ( 2 6 ) . Interpretation of soils under vegetation is difficult, especially i f the soils are covered by a canopy of trees 100 feet in height. Burger ( 6 ) used relief, vegetation and land use to identify forest soils in terms of parent material (texture and raineralogical composition), moisture regime and depth to bedrock. Relief was divided into macrorelief (hills, ridges, valleys, plains etc), and microrelief (small bedrock outcrop, minor depressions, waterfall, lake shores, etc. ). The vegetation characteristics were tree species, stand density, height, swamps and other factors. Land use included farms, roads, cut-over areas and other 12 developed land areas. Burger (6) stated that the use of relief requires a field knowledge of the influence of geological processes on the distribution of parent material and of the influence of relief on the moisture regime for a certain parent material. He also stated that the use of vegetation for identifying soils requires knowledge of each species soil requirements and of the common association of species. Lacate (20) used photographic interpretation of landform and vegetation as his major criteria in setting up the "Land Unit" as a mapping unit in forested areas. Fieldwork was necessary to locate and confirm boundaries. A similar study by Lacate et al. (22) used landform and vegetation characteristics as guides for classifying forest land. Sprout et.al. (l|0) classified forest land using three scales of photographs, l:lf?,000, 1:30,000 and 1:60,000. Their discussion on the scales of photographs corresponds closely to the author's and will be discussed under "Results and Discussion". Types, mapping units, boundaries, and type lines are descriptive terms used that may be confusing. As used in this thesis a type, mapping unit, soil unit, or soil series are terms used to describe a definite area of land surface having one soil series or a complex of two or more soil series. This area is enclosed by a boundary or a type line. A boundary or type line is a line inked on a photograph or map. 13 MATERIALS AND METHODS Description of the Area (1) Location and History The municipality of Mission, of which the Mission Tree Farm Licence Number 26 i s part, i s located on the north side of the Fraser River, about 55 miles east of Vancouver (Figure l ) . The Tree Farm i s divided n a t u r a l l y by Stave Lake and River into two compartments (Figure 2). Compartment Two, which i s on the west side of Stave Lake, i s r e l a t i v e l y i n a c c e s s i b l e and has not been s o i l surveyed. In t h i s p r oject, Compartment One, which has i t s southern boundary approximately two miles north of the C i t y of Mission was s o i l surveyed and the s o i l s were placed into the ARDA f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The f i e l d work f o r the s o i l survey and c a p a b i l i t y r a t i n g was c a r r i e d out during the summer months of 1966. Photographic and map work were done at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, and the s o i l s analyses were performed i n Kelowna, B. C , by the S o i l s D i v i s i o n of the B. C. Depart-ment of A g r i c u l t u r e . Compartment One i s separated into two d i s t i n c t u n i t s . One u n i t consists of the Mission M u n i c i p a l i t y Tree Farm Licence No. 26 and the other u n i t consists of p r i v a t e l y owned blocks of land, timber berths and the Mission watershed reserve. The Tree Farm occupies 9,300 acres of the t o t a l l5,06U acres of Compartment One. Much of the remaining acreage, which l i e s within the center of the compartment and also i n the center of the Tree Farm, i s the p r i v a t e l y owned r u r a l settlement of Steelhead. The Steelhead area, during the years 1915 to 1925, was the center 14 Figure 1. Location of the Study Area of a t h r i v i n g logging industry, and at t h i s time an i n f l u x of s e t t l e r s took up land on Crown grants f o r homestead purposes. During the depression years i n the 1930's, much of t h i s homesteaded land went back to the M u n i c i p a l i t y f o r payment of back taxes. In 1948 a Municipal Forest Reserve, which included the reverted lands, was i n i t i a t e d . In 1953, an a p p l i c a t i o n was made f o r a Management Licence to include surrounding Crown lands, and i n July 1958, the Tree Farm Licence was granted (33). Compartment One l i e s within the Southern P a c i f i c Coast Section (C.2) of the Coast Forest Region (35), and according to Krajina's Biogeoclimatic Zonation (18, 19), i t l i e s within the Coastal Western Hemlock Zone. 15 Y7ZZ Figure 2. Location of Tree Farm Licence No. 26 within the Mission M u n i c i p a l i t y Boundary 1 6 The f o r e s t h i s t o r y of t h i s area i s w e l l described by the Resources Planning Committee ( 3 3 )s "This area consists e n t i r e l y of second growth with exception of a few scattered veterans mainly i n the steep Stave Lake slope. I t appears that the whole area was burned about l8U0; then a heavy stand of f i r came i n a f t e r the f i r e to grow beside the remaining cedar snags. On most of the low elevation better s i t e s , t h i s timber was logged i n the 1920's, so that these areas contain only scattered patches of 110 to 120 year old f i r , hemlock and cedar. The major part of the logged area has come back into the same species varying i n age from 10 to iiO years, depending on the date of logging." (2) Climate Weather records have been maintained at Stave F a l l s , Mission, Steelhead, and the Un i v e r s i t y of B. C. Forest f o r a number of years. Compartment One generally has a warm and dry summer, and a comparatively mild and wet winter. The r a i n f a l l increases from an average of 6 2 . 6 inches per year at Mission, to an average of 102.3 inches per year at Steelhead. Steelhead also has a higher annual snowfall, 1|7.1 inches compared with 21.3 inches at Mission. The climate, as c l a s s i f i e d by II Koopen i s Cfb, a humid mesothermal climate ( U 3 ) . At Steelhead, the average January temperature i s 3 3 degrees F. and the average August temperature i s 6 3 degrees F. ( 3 ) Geology and Topography The Mission Tree Farm l i e s within, the Fraser Lowland (13). The underlying bedrock i s mainly quartz d i o r i t e and d i o r i t e (3U). The bedrock i s o v e r l a i n by g l a c i a l t i l l , outwash, and minor l a c u s t r i n e and aeolian deposits of varying thickness and extent. The area has been influenced by at l e a s t two periods of g l a c i a t i o n during the Pleistocene epoch. The Vashon ice-sheet, probably of continental 17 s i z e , covered the whole area and subsided about 12,000 years ago. This period of g l a c i a t i o n was probably responsible f o r the general shaping of the h i l l s . The l a t e s t g l a c i a t i o n was the Sumas Valley g l a c i a t i o n which occurred about 11,000 years ago. This l a t t e r i c e advance was the most important g l a c i a t i o n as f a r as the s o i l s of the area are concerned. In the advancing stages, the Sumas i c e l e f t a mantle of t i l l of varying thickness and extent. On r e t r e a t i n g , the meltwater from the g l a c i e r c a r r i e d and deposited stoney, g r a v e l l y , and sandy outwash materials on most of the v a l l e y f l o o r s (2). As the Sumas g l a c i e r retreated up the Fraser River Valley, g l a c i o f l u v i a l materials were deposited i n the Fraser River f l o o d p l a i n . At one stage, when the i c e tongue had retreated to the v i c i n i t y of Abbotsford and c l i m a t i c conditions were such that the meltwater flowing o f f the g l a c i e r was at a minimum, much of the outwash deposits west of the i c e f r o n t were exposed above the streams. The dry westerly winds blew the f i n e materials from the f l o o d p l a i n and blanketed the areas free of i c e with lo e s s . As compared with most of the uplands i n the Upper Fraser Valley, the topography of Compartment One i s rather gentle and subdued. Compartment One has seven k n o l l s that range i n ele v a t i o n from 1,500 to 2,100 fe e t . These k n o l l s are somewhat steepsided, rounded and flat-topped (Figure 3). The two main v a l l e y s , with an average e l e v a t i o n of about 700 fe e t , divide the area into four quadrants. Just north of Steelhead the v a l l e y f l o o r i s covered by a t h i n mantle of t i l l with a moderately gently r o l l i n g r e l i e f . In most other instances the va l l e y s are f i l l e d with g l a c i o f l u v i a l material, r e s u l t i n g i n a r e l a t i v e l y f l a t area, with m i c r o - r e l i e f of the v a l l e y f l o o r being r o l l i n g . The area i s drained predominantly by two small creeks. Steelhead Figure 3. A General View of the Topography of Compartment One. Creek drains west in t o the Stave River, and C a r d i n a l i s Creek, which i s p a r t l y fed by Cannell Lake, drains north i n t o Stave Lake. S o i l Survey Four scales of v e r t i c a l a e r i a l photographs were used. The photo-graphs were prepared for typing and f i e l d work by marking on the p r i n c i p l e points, the conjugate points, and the match l i n e . An example of a prepared photograph i s shown i n Appendix 3. The photographic scales used were 1:63,360 (80 chain), 1:31,680 (UO chain), l : l 5 , 8 U O (20 chain), and 1:12,000 (15 chain). With the aid of topographic maps, the s u r f i c i a l geology map by Armstrong (2), and a stereoscope, the major landforms were separated and t h e i r boundaries placed on the 1:63,360 photographs. The major land-forms separated were v a l l e y bottom outwash, and t i l l on the rougher h i l l s i d e s 19 and k n o l l s . The s o i l survey by K e l l y and Spilbury (15), and the c l i m a t i c data were also used to obtain a general idea of the s o i l s and weather. In the reconnaissance study of the area, the most recent (1963) 1:12,000 photographs were used. A l l f i e l d notations were referenced on the odd numbered photographs. This data was transferred to the 1: l5,8U0 photographs, on which a l l the f i n a l typing was made. (1) Establishment of S o i l Series and C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of S o i l s On f i e l d examination, the s o i l s were found to belong mainly to the • Podzol great group, which graded rather suddenly to the Acid Brown Wooded great group at the south-eastern l i m i t of the area. S o i l s e r i e s were then extablished with the major separations being made on parent material, drainage, slope, and s o i l subgroups. The s o i l s e r i e s established i n Compartment One conform to the d e f i n i t i o n set by the USDA (37 )• The s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d according to the Canadian System of S o i l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n (32). The fieldwork was done by a party of two; a f o r e s t e r - s o i l surveyor (the author), and an a s s i s t a n t . The s o i l s were examined, where possible, i n road cuts, gravel p i t s and other exposures. Where these were not a v a i l a b l e , holes were dug by hand with a shovel. The s o i l s representative of s o i l s e r i e s were sampled f o r analysis i n e a r l y September, 1966. The photographs were typed and l a b e l l e d using s o i l s e r i e s , and slope c r i t e r i a . Where complexes of s o i l s e r i e s were used, percentages of each s o i l s e r i e s were given. By photo-interpretation, mapping boundaries were extended in t o areas that were not examined during the f i e l d season. (2) Map Preparation A base map was drafted from the 20 chain Forest Cover Map Series 20 and contour lines were traced from a topographic map of Compartment One. A 20 chain sepia was reproduced from the drafted map. Also, a half-size sepia of UO chains was reproduced from the original map. The soil series type lines (boundaries) were transferred to both the 20 and IiO chain sepias by kail plotting. The type lines from the 20 chain sepia were then traced onto the drafted map. On the drafted map, the soil units were labelled as to soil series. The 20 chain sepia was labelled with the soil capability classes for forestry, and a l l plot locations were indicated. The soil survey mapping units on the Uo chain sepia were also labelled. Reproductions were made from the drafted soil map and from both of the sepias. The 1:63,360 type lines were transferred to the 1:50,000 topographic maps with the aid of a map-o-graph. (3) Soil Analyses Soil analyses were carried out on.the 10 soil series established. The tests on each soil horizon included the pH, percentage of organic matter and total nitrogen, parts per million of available phosphorous and sulphur, exchangeable cations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium and cation exchange capacity in milliequivalents per 100 grams of soil, and the percentage of iron and aluminum. Although there are many porblems with the choice of methods and many methods available for characterization of soils, the methods employed in this study were those which are routinely used for the characterization of soils in British Columbia. It was felt that common routine methods should be used to facilitate comparison with existing soil data. Soil pH was measured with a glass electrode using a 1:1 suspension of soil to water. pH of organic matter was measured by using a 1:5 suspension of organic matter to water. The wet digestion method, described by Peech et al. (30), was used to determine soil organic matter. Total 21 nitrogen was determined by the K j e l d a l method described by Atkinson et a l . (3), modified by the use of selenium as a c a t a l y s t , as suggested by Bremner (5). Available phosphorus was measured by the modified method set f o r t h by Laverty (23) and John (III). Sulphur was determined by the method outlined by Bardsley e_t a l . (U). Analyses f o r exchangeable cations and exchange capacity were undertaken using the method described by Peech et a l . (30). Cation exchange capacity was determined on the ammonium acetate extract. The exchangeable calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium were obtained using the atomic absorption spectrometer, Tectron AA-3. Aluminium and i r o n were determined by d i t h i o n i t e and oxalate extractions proposed by McKeaque and Day (28). S o i l C a p a b i l i t y f o r Forestry ( l ) P l o t Location and Measurement Once the s o i l survey was under way and the s o i l s e r i e s set up, f o r e s t r y p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t s were located to determine the c a p a b i l i t y class of each s o i l s e r i e s . The f i e l d party was consisted of a l o c a t i n g crew and a measuring crew. The l o c a t i n g crew consisted of the author and his a s s i s t a n t . Possible plots were kept i n mind during the s o i l survey, and others were located by study of the a e r i a l photographs. Each possible p l o t was accepted or rejected on i t s s o i l and stand character-i s t i c s . An acceptable p l o t was numbered and marked on the photograph. Both ends of the diagonal of a square p l o t , or both ends of one side of a rectangular p l o t , were marked with red flagging so that the measuring crew could properly p o s i t i o n the p l o t . A b r i e f s o i l p r o f i l e d e s c r i p t i o n was made at the time the produc-t i v i t y p l o t was located, as well as a vegetation l i s t . The slope, drainage 22 and other characteristics were also noted. The route to the road was flagged so that the measuring crew would be able to locate the plot. The measuring crew consisted of a senior talleyman and a compass-man. After the limits of the productivity plot were enclosed by string, a l l trees were dot tallied. Within the plot boundary, the plot was subdivided into smaller segments by string to aid in tallying. Trees 3.6 inches in diameter and over were tallied into one inch diameter classes by species. When the tallying was completed, the average d.b.h. for each species was calculated. After the d.b.h. was converted to basal area average d.b.h., by the addition of a correction factor (Table II), a proportionate number of sample trees for each species of the corrected d.b.h. were measured for height and age. The trees were bored at four feet above the ground and a correction was made for growth to that point. The age correction was obtained from three site classes of poor, medium and good, based on the age-height relationship of the sample trees (9). (2) MAI Calculations After the field work was completed, i t was found that the correction factor in converting the arithmetical average d.b.h. to the basal area average d.b.h. was in error for trees in Compartment One. The error was twofold. First, because the correction factor added to the arithmetical average d.b.h. tree (Figure 6) was too large, the resultant tree of basal area average d.b.h. was too large. Second, as a result of the larger diameter, the volume per tree was too large and the calculated MAI gave erroneously large results. The final outcome was that the capability classes were in some instances two or even three classes too high. The tree of basal area average d.b.h. was then calculated directly by using the following formula: 23 TABLE I TALLY SHEET OF FOREST CAPABILITY PLOT 16 dbh Species f d 2 fd fd 2 Species f d 2 fd fd D WH 4 1 16 U 16 5 :: 4 25 20 100 7 1 49 7 49 8 l 64 8 64 9 1 81 9 81 11 2 121 22 242 12 2 144 24 288 15 2 225 30 450 16 1 256 16 256 : 2 256 32 512 17 : 2 289 34 578 19 1 361 19 361 20 1 Uoo 20 4oo 23 27 29 31 32 36 41 1 1 1 l 2 2 1 529 729 841 961 1024 1296 1681 23 529 27 729 29 841 31 961 64 2048 72 2592 41 1681 10 303 9637 20 229 3 l 4 l SPP DBH TOP BOT TOT SD HD HT COR HT AGE COR AGE D 29.1 64 -13 77 214 210 162 15 177 104 6 110 D 36.5 72 -15 87 220 215 187 5 192 D 32.0 68 -15 83 221 215 178 5 183 106 6 112 WH 11.2 58 -17 75 111 108 81 5 86 WH 11.6 64 -16 80 106 103 82 5 87 97 9 106 AVERAGE D =184 = 109 WH = 86 = 109 number of trees in the diameter class diameter class in inches, e.g. 4, 5 , 6, etc. total number of trees of that species in the plot Tree of basal area average d.b.h. = where, f = d = n = 2U The MAI was calculated for gross cubic feet per acre per year for trees 3.6 inches plus (1 inch diameter classes). The formula for calculating the MAI of each species at the age of the present stand was: M , T fV)(n)(c) MAI age = ^ • ^  where, V = volume of the tree of basal area average d.b.h. n = number of trees recorded for a particular species c = per acre factor — 5 for a one-fifth acre plot A = age of species The volume of the average tree for each species was obtained from the B. C. Forest Service volume tables (29) by using the basal area average d.b.h. and the mean tree height. The MAI was calculated for each species and then totalled to give the MAI of the plot. The MAI was then adjusted to an age of 100 years by the use of site class curves (8) (Figures U and 5) in order to place the MAI on a comparative basis. (3) Plot 16 Measurement and MAI Calculations Plot 16 was chosen to illustrate the method of calculating the MAI. The plot was laid out as outlined above and a l l trees were measured and tallied according to diameter classes. The arithmetical average d.b.h. for each species was then calculated as follows: Tree of average d.b.h. per species = £fd n where, f = number of trees per d.b.h. class d = d.b.h. class n = total number of trees per species per plot 2 5 120 r AGE (YEARS) Figure U. S i t e Class Curves f o r Coastal Douglas-fir (U" +). Douglas-fir = =— = 30.3" Hemlock = —2. = n.^" An example of the t a l l y sheet i s shown i n Table I. To s i m p l i f y l a t e r explanations two extra columns f o r each measured species were included on the t a l l y sheet, which would not r o u t i n e l y appear. They 2 2 are the columns headed by d (the d.b.h. squared) and f d (the number of trees per d.b.h. class times the d.b.h. squared). Under the column 26 120 R AGE (YEARS) Figure 5. S i t e Class Curves f o r Coastal Western Hemlock (U" + ). headed species, D i s the symbol used f o r Douglas-fir and WH i s the symbol f o r Western Hemlock. The dots represent the number of trees i n a diameter c l a s s . The column headed by f i s the number of trees per diameter c l a s s . The column headed f d i s the number of trees per diameter cl a s s times the diameter c l a s s . The c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r to bring the a r i t h m e t i c a l average d.b.h. to basal area average d.b.h. was then added. This c o r r e c t i o n f a c t o r was obtained from Table I I . Douglas-fir 30.3 + 5.5 = 35.8" Hemlock 11.5 + 1.7 = 13.2" 27 Three Douglas-fir heights and two hemlock heights were taken using an Abney level and chain. An example of a height calculation follows (Table I). A Douglas-fir 32.0 inches in diameter had a bottom reading of -15 on the topographic scale and +68 for a slope distance of 221 links. Using slope correction tables, the horizontal distance was 215 links. The uncorrected height of the tree was (68 - (-15)) x 215", or 178 feet. Since the bottom reading was taken at five feet from the base of the tree, the total height was 178 + 5 = 183 feet. The average Douglas-fir height was 184 feet, and the average hemlock height was 86 feet. The age at four feet above the ground was 106 years. From the site index table (9), a tree 106 years old and 183 feet t a l l would be on a good site and would grow four feet in six years. Therefore, the total age was 106 + 6 = 112 years. Since the ages of both the hemlock and Douglas-f i r were similar, they were averaged, giving an average age of 109 years. The volume of the basal area average d.b.h. tree, for a diameter of 35.8 inches and a height of 18U feet for Douglas-fir, and 13.2 inches and 86 feet for hemlock, was obtained from the volume tables interpolating to the nearest one-tenth inch. The average volume for Douglas-fir was 1x09.3 cubic feet and for hemlock 3k.h cubic feet. The MAI at age 109 years was calculated as follows: for Douglas-fir ^°9'3 ^ X 1 0 = 188 cu.ft./acre/year for Hemlock 3U.U x 5 x 20 = 32 cu.ft./acre/year 109 Total MAI = 220 cu.ft./acre/year The MAI values were standardized to 100 years by site class curves (Figures k and 5) and by simple calculations. For Douglas-fir, since the age-height relationship indicated that 28 the site was good, site class curve I was used. At 109 years, the MAI was two cubic feet per acre per year lower than at 100 years. A l l of the two cubic feet per acre per year wouU be added to the unadjusted MAI of 199 cubic feet per acre per year i f the forest stand was composed totally of Douglas-fir. But since Douglas-fir represented only 85.5 percent of the yearly growth, only 2 x 85.5 percent or 1.7 cubic feet per acre per year was added to the 188 cubic feet per acre per year. This brought the MAI to 190 cubic feet per acre per year (to the nearest whole cubic foot per acre per year). For hemlock, the site was medium and site class curve I and II was used. At 109 years, the MAI was 3.5 cubic feet per acre per year lower, but since hemlock represented only 1U.5 percent, the amount added to the hemlock was 3.5 x lU.5 percent = 0.5 or no addition. It would not be correct to add one cubic foot per acre per year to hemlock because the total correction factor for both Douglas-fir and hemlock was 1.7 + 0.5 = 2.2 and Douglas-fir was already given a correction factor of 2 cubic feet per acre per year. Therefore, the final MAI at 100 years was 190 + 32 » 222 cubic feet per acre per year for plot 16. Since the correction factor was questioned, a l l 32 plots were recalculated by the long method, giving the basal area average d.b.h. directly, and for Douglas-fir i t was 31.0 inches and for hemlock, 12.5 inches Table I). The same heights were used since the average sample tree d.b.h.*s corresponded closely to calculated d.b.h.'s. The volume per tree for hemlock dropped slightly from 3h.h to 31.3 cubic feet, but dropped markedly for Douglas-fir from U09.3 to 295.2 cubic feet, giving MAI's at 109 years of 29 and 135 respectively, and a final MAI at 100 years of 166 cubic feet per acre per year. This corrected MAI is 56 cubic feet per acre per year lower than the MAI obtained by using 29 the correction factor, or equivalent to a change of two soil capability classes. The corrections in converting the arithmetical average d.b.h. was obtained from the difference between the calculated basal area average d.b.h. and arithmetical average d.b.h. The arithmetical average d.b.h. was plotted against the difference. This procedure of using corrections was used because of the time saved in calculating the basal area average d.b.h., especially on plots where this figure is needed immediately for the choosing of sample trees. It is shown on the graph (Figure 6) and the corresponding Table II, that the difference is not a straight line function for the trees on Compartment One, but a curve. 30 Figure 6. Curve of Correction Factors for A l l Species in Compartment One. 31 TABLE II BASAL AREA AVERAGE D.B.H. CORRECTION FACTORS FOR WESTERN HEMLOCK, DOUGLAS FIR, AND WESTERN RED CEDAR ON THE MISSION TREE FARM Arithmetical ^ Average D.B.H. Correction Correction' Range (inches) (inches) - (inches) 3 . 8 - U.2 0 . 2 0 . 3 U.3 - U.7 0 . 3 0 . 3 U.8 - 5 . 2 N O.U 0 . 3 5 . 2 - 5 . 7 0 . 5 O.U 5 . 8 - 6 . 2 0 . 6 O.U 6 . 3 - 6 . 7 0 . 7 O.U 6 . 8 - 7 . 2 0 . 8 O.U 7 . 3 - 7 . 7 0 . 9 0 . 5 7 . 8 - 8 . 2 1 . 0 o.5 8 . 3 - 8 . 7 1 . 1 0 . 5 8 . 8 - 9 . 2 1 . 2 0 . 6 9 . 3 - 9 . 7 1 . 3 0 . 6 9 . 8 - 1 0 . 2 l.U 0 . 7 1 0 . 3 - 1 0 . 7 1 .5 0 . 8 1 0 . 8 - 1 1 . 2 1 . 6 0 . 8 1 1 . 3 - 1 1 . 7 1 . 7 0 . 9 1 1 . 8 - 1 2 . 2 1 . 8 1 . 0 1 2 . 3 - 1 2 . 7 1 . 9 1 . 1 1 2 . 8 -13.2 2 . 0 1 . 2 13.3 -13.7 2 . 1 1 . 3 1 3 . 8 - 1 U . 2 2 . 2 l.U 1 ) Correction factor used in previous ARDA projects. For diameters above 1 U . 2 inches a straight line projection was used. 2) Correction factor calculated from tree data collected on the Mission Tree Farm. 32 RESLUTS AND DISCUSSION Soil Series and Results Ten new soil series were established in Compartment One. One other mapping unit, Rock Outcrop, was defined but no soil analyses were carried out on this unit. Three other established soil series, Ryder, Marble H i l l and Calkins are included, and the profile descriptions used are taken from the Soil Survey of Matsqui Municipality and Sumas Mountain (36). As indicated in Table III, the soils have developed in aeolian deposits, glacial outwash or glacial t i l l . The locations of the soils which were studied and sampled are marked on the Soil Capability for Forestry Map (Appendix 4). The typed photographs, and the Soil Survey maps are found in Appendices 1, 2 and 3. Acreages of the soil series are shown in Table IV. A l i s t of the vegetation found in Compartment One is tabulated in Table V. The vegetation located on each soil series was rated for degree of cover and abundance with 11+" covering one to two percent of the area, " l " two to five percent, "2" five to 20 percent, "3" 20 to 50 percent, "U" 50 to 75 percent, and "5" covering 75 to 100 percent of the area. A summary of the forest productivity plot data is shown in Table VI and the plot locations are marked on the Soil Capability for Forestry map (Appendix 4). Acreages occupied by each capability class are shown in Table IV. The average MAI for Compartment One was 123 cubic feet per acre per year, whereas, the Tree Farm portion had Tl8 cubic feet per acre _per year. The privately owned lands, being in the valley bottoms on 33 TABLE III | CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS AND SOIL PARENT MATERIAL j IN MISSION TREE FARM NO. 26 I Great Group Great Group Parent Material Orthic Humic Podzol Gleyed Humic Podzol Orthic Podzol Orthic Acid Brown Wooded Rego Humic Gleysol Deep Muck Orthic Humic Podzol-Ortstein Podzol Intergrade Gleyed Humic Podzol-Gleyed Ortstein Podzol Intergrade Orthic Concretionary Podzol Acid Brown Wooded-Regosol Intergrade Soil Series Soil Series Deep aeolian deposits (usually greater than 18") overlying basal t i l l Ryder V • Shallow aeolian deposits mixed with ablation t i l l overlying basal t i l l Cardinal Steelhead Mixture of colluvium, aeolian deposits and ablation t i l l overlying basal t i l l or bedrock Hoover Kenworthy Shallow mixture of colluvium, aeolian deposits and ablation t i l l (less than 18") overlying bedrock Cannel Deep aeolian deposits (greater than 18") overlying glacial outwash or basal t i l l Calkins Shallow aeolian deposits overlying or mixed with gravelly glacial outwash Roach Mission Keystone Shallow aeolian deposits overlying or mixed with sandy glacial outwash and/or sandy deltaic deposits Stave Deep aeolian deposits (usually greater than 18") overlying gravelly glacial outwash Marble H i l l Organic deposits Judson 10 inches or less of litter and with or with-out about 1 inch of mineral soi overlying bedrock Rock Outcrop I I 34 TABLE IV ACREAGE OF SOIL SERIES AND CAPABILITY CLASSES IN COMPARTMENT ONE Soil Series and other Mapping Units Compartment One (acres) Private Portion of Compartment One (acres) Tree Farm Portion of Compartment One (acres) Lakes Swamps Rock Outcrop Cannel Hoover Kenworthy Cardinal Steelhead Roach Keystone Mission Stave Judson Marble H i l l Ryder Calkins 102 184 1,098 2,512 1,625 1,349 2,057 1,181 1,296 1,144 491 647 117 684 412 165 15,064 102 136 233 345 320 333 869 422 603 874 218 465 82 410 232 120 5,764 48 865 2,167 1,305 1,016 1,188 759 693 270 273 182 35 274 180 45 9,300 Forest Capability Classes Lakes 7 4 3 2 1 la lb lc 102 184 1,098 3,808 117 1,625 3,177 3,125 1,828 15,064 102 136 233 948 82 320 1,617 1,439 887 5,764 48 865 2,860 35 1,305 1,560 1,686 9 4 l 9,300 35" TABLE V VEGETATION LIST (SCIENTIFIC AND COMMON NAMES) Tree Layer Herb Layer S c i e n f i f i c Name Abies amabilis (Dougl. ) Forbes Alnus rubra Bong. Betula papyrifera Marsh. Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco Thuja p l i c a t a Donn Tsuga heterophylla (Raf. ) Sarg. Shrub Layer Acer circinatum Pursh Gaultheria shallon Pursh Mahonia nervosa (Pursh) Nutt.) Menziesia ferruginea Smith Vaccinium o v a l i f o l i u m Smith Vaccinium parvifolium Smith Achlys t r i p h y l l a (Smith) DC. Blechnum spicant (L.) Roth) Dryopteris austriaca (Jacq.) Woynar Goodyera ob o n g i f o l i a Raf. Lysichitum americanum H. & S. Maianthemum dilatatum (Wood) N. & M. Polystichum munitum (Kaulf.) P r e s l . Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn T r i l l i u m ovatum Pursh Moss Layer  Eurhynchium oreganum ( S u l l . ) J. & S. Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. Mnium spp. Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) Bry. Eur. Polytrichum juniperinum Hedw. Rhytidiadelphus loreus (Hedw.) Warnst. Common Name amabilis f i r red alder white b i r c h Douglas-fir western red cedar western hemlock vine maple s a l a l Oregon grape .fa l s e azelea t a l l blue huckleberry red huckleberry v a n i l l a l e a f deer f e r n spiny wood-fern rattlesnake p l a n t a i n skunk cabbage wild l i l y - o f - t h e - v a l l e y sword f e r n bracken fern t r i l l i u m feather moss 36 TABLE VI FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOT DATA P l o t Number S o i l Series Slope (percent) Ele v a t i o n of Plot (feet) MAI Average Age (years) 1 CE 27 1800 75 120 2 CI 5 625 178 110 3 SE 0-5 350 106 62 4 CE 0-5 lliOO 81 110 5 HV 20 1400 130 100 6 CE 23 lUoo 90 110 7 ST 10 i4oo 179 100 Sampled^ 8 ST o-5 lUoo 168 105 9 ST o-5 800 171 36 10 KW 55 1900 143 100 11 RO 8 1200 54 113 Sampled 12 HV 37 1100 89 119 Sampled 13 RH 0-5 675 96 48 Sampled 14 MS 0-5 675 193 50 Sampled 15 HV 27 625 115 116 16 CI 23 675 166 109 17 KW 65 925 153 i l l Sampled 18 RO 15 1075 51 115 19 RO 50 1000 64 115 20 CE 15 900 84 112 21 CI 7 725 138 49 Sampled 22 SE o-5 375 187 36 Sampled 23 JN o-5 350 104 58 Sampled 2U SE o-5 350 144 37 25 KE o-5 425 130 50 Sampled 26 KE o-5 425 135 66 27 RH 35 525 72 103 28 RH 12 525 67 110 29 SE 10 65o 211 36 30 SE 10 700 190 38 31 SE 10 775 121 52 32 MS o-5 675 144 55 1) Indicates that t h i s p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t had the s o i l examined and sampled. 37 flatter and more productive land, had a growth rate of 130 cubic feet per acre per year. Soils of Compartment One A brief description and characterization of the soils occurring in the study area follows. Cardinal Series - Orthic Humic Podzol The Cardinal series occupies 2,057 acres throughout Compartment One, of which 1,188 acres lie within the Tree Farm boundary. Most of this series is occurred between the elevations of 600 to 1,500 feet, with small areas located up to 2,000 feet. The topography varies from moderately rolling to steeply sloping, with slopes generally ranging from 10 to 30 percent. This soil occupies the upper portions of the lower slopes. A hummocky micro-topography, caused by the uprooting of large trees, is generally present. These soils have developed from aeolian and ablation t i l l deposits which have been mixed by windthrow. Profile textures are loamy with stones and gravels mixed throughout. At, depths between 2h and 36 inches, hard, compact, impermeable basal t i l l occurs. Root penetration is satis-factory through the solum, but decreases abruptly when the basal t i l l is encountered as evidenced by the formation of a well defined root mat just above the basal t i l l . A photograph of the Cardinal profile is shown in Figure 7. The Cardinal soils are usually moderately well drained and often grade into the imperfectly drained Steelhead soils. Only slight evidence of restricted water movement was evident in the profile except above and in the upper part of the basal t i l l . Here mottling and gleying occurred 3 8 indicating that water table peaching and seepage occurred in this zone. The Cardinal series is classified as an Orthic Humic Podzol. A well developed Ae horizon and Bhf and Bf horizons characterized by organic matter and sesquioxide accumulation were general except in areas where recent churning and mixing has occurred through windthrow action. A typical profile, located west of McCoombs Road in the forest productivity plot 21, was described as follows: Depth Horizon Inches Description L 3% - 1 Undecomposed coniferous material and moss. pH 3 . 9 . Abrupt boundary: HF 1 — 0 Black to dark reddish brown (5YR 2/1.5, moist) well to partially decomposed coniferous material. „ Abundant roots. pH 3 . 8 . Abrupt boundary: Ae 0 -3/4 Dark-gray (10TR 4/1, moist) or gray (5YR 5/1, dry) loam or s i l t loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Abundant roots. pH 4.2. Abrupt boundary: Bhf 3/4 - 3 Dark reddish brown (5YR 3 / 3 , moist) or brown to dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4, dry) s i l t loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Few, small to medium, hard shot. Abundant roots. pH 5.4. Clear boundary: Bfhl 3 - 8 Yellowish-red (5YR 4/6, moist) or dark-brown to stong-brown (7.5YR 4/4-5/6, dry) s i l t loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Occassional, hard shot. Abundant roots. pH 5.5. Gradual boundary: Bfh2 8 - 15 Reddish-brown (5YR 4/4, moist) or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/5, dry) s i l t loam. Weak to moderate, fine subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Occasional hard shot. Some stones and gravel. Common roots. pH 5.5. Gradual boundary: Bfhgj 15 -24 Dark-brown to strong-brown (7.5YR 4/4-5/6, moist) 39 Depth Horizon Inches Description or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4, dry) s i l t loam. Moderate, medium, subangular blocky structure. Friable to firm when moist. Some stones and gravel. Few fine, faint, mottles. Common roots. pH 5 .5 . Clear boundary: Beg 24 -31 Dark reddish brown to dark-brown (5YR 3/3 - 10YR 3/3, moist) loam. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Friable to firm when moist. Some stones and gravel. Many, coarse, distinct yellowish-red (5YR 4/7, moist) mottles. Weak to medium root mat present. Occasional roots. pH 5.5. Clear boundary: IlCgl 31 -39 Dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2, moist) fine sandy loam. Massive, breaking to moderate, coarse, psuedo-blocky * structure. Very firm when moist. Many, coarse, prominent yellowish-red (5YR 4/8, moist) mottles. Occasional roots in upper part. pH 5.6. Gradual boundary: IICg2 39 + Dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2, moist) fine sandy loam. Massive, breaking to strong, coarse, psuedo-blocky structure. Very firm when moist. Common, coarse, prominent yellowish-red to dark-red (5YR 4/8 - 2.5YR 3/6, moist) mottles, mainly along cracks and fractures. pH 6 .0 . The chemical analyses of the Cardinal series is shown in Table VII. The Cardinal series, in this area, lacks merchantable timber except for two small areas; one in the northwest corner of Compartment One and the other east of Steelhead. The remainder is covered by young (10 to 50 years old) second growth timber consisting of western hemlock, Douglas-f i r and western red cedar. From the vegetative description of the produc-tivity plots, shrubs and herbs were rather varied and sparse, with ferns being the most common. M°ss coverage varied from less than 10 percent on plot 16 to about 100 percent on the other two plots (Table VIII). The difference in abundance of mosses may be due to the difference in density and age of the stands. Trees on plot 16 were 49 years old with 840 stems Figure 7. A Photograph of a S o i l P r o f i l e of the Cardinal Series, per acre. The Cardinal s o i l s are well suited for forest production. Rooting depth, slope and texture are satisfactory and only during exceptionally dry summers w i l l moisture deficiency c u r t a i l tree growth. From the forest productivity plot measurements, the MAI was 161 cubic feet per acre per year. The s o i l c a p a b i l i t y rating f o r forestry i s l b . Once logged, this s o i l should be replanted as soon as possible for three reasons: (1) i t i s land of high s i t e r a t i n g , (2) because i t i s high Ul TABLE VII CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE CARDINAL SERIES - ORTHIC HUMIC PODZOL Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity m.e./lOO grams  Base Depth Saturation Horizon Inches pH Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. % L I V 1 3.9 11.42 2.56 HF 1 - 0 3.8 5.30 2.05 Ae 0 -3/4 4.2 0.94 0.16 Bhf 3/4- 3 5.4 0.35 0.10 Bfhl 3 - 8 5.5 0.13 o.o4 Bfh2 8 -15 5.5 0.17 o.o5 Bfhgj 15 -24 5.5 0.10 0.02 BCg 24 -31 5.5 - -HCgl 31 -39 5.6 - -IICg2 39 + 6.0 - -2.50 0.34 16.82 139.4 12.1 0.65 0.82 8.82 132.5 6.6 0.06 0.06 1.22 15.70 7.8 0.09 0.07 o.6l 50.49 1.2 o.o4 0.03 0.24 36.09 0.7 0.03 0.03 0.28 33.38 0.8 0.02 0.03 0.17 25.33 0.7 Dithionate Total N Oxalate -Citrate O.M. C-N P l S Extraction Extraction Horizon % % Ratio p.p.m. p.p.m. %Fe L 80.4 1.236 37.7 30.1 _ — — _ HF 80.6 1.379 33.9 13.8 - - - - -Ae 5.2 0.136 22.0 1.8 12.50 0.36 0.48 0.72 Tr. Bhf 14.5 0.390 21.5 2.1 30.75 1.34 4.26 2.17 3.00 Bfhl 9.1 0.238 22.2 2.5 52.50 1.33 4.20 2.10 2.35 Bfh2 8.2 0.207 22.8 2.5 49.75 1.62 4.08 1.75 2.25 Bfhgj 5.5 0.129 24.8 3.3 66.50 1.11 3.56 1.33 1.85 BCg 5.4 0.162 19.5 4.3 26.25 0.83 2.92 1.03 o.o5 HCgl 2.1 0.054 22.7 9.2 32.5o 0.71 1.98 0.84 1.03 IICg2 — — 28.1 29.50 0.05 0.98 0.44 0.36 site land, scrub and other undesirable species may invade before the desired species of Douglas-fir and western hemlock are established naturally, and (3) the solum being s i l t loam, will erode rather quickly under the heavy precipitation, i f there is no protective vegetation cover. The soil, has a fair potential for thinning because of its high productivity and relatively subdued topography. Care should be taken on choosing the yarding equipment U2 because of the erodability of the soil. Windthrow would not be too much of a problem. Roadbuilding is favourable but drainage ditches are necessary because of the indurated basal t i l l . TABLE VIII VEGETATION OCCURRING ON CARDINAL FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number 2 1 6 2 1 Douglas-fir 3 T Western red cedar + Western hemlock 4 2 Vine maple l Salal + Vanilla leaf 1 Deer fern 1 Rattlesnake plantain + Sword fern 1 + Bracken fern + Trillium + Eurhychium moss 2 Hylocomium moss h U Mnium moss + Plagiothecium moss 2 l + Rhythidiadelphus moss 2 2 These soils are generally unsuitable for agriculture because of the topography and stoniness. Also, land clearing costs are high because of the density of large stumps. Logging of the former stands have left 43 stumps four to eight feet in diameter. Steelhead Series - Gleyed Humic Podzol Of the l , l 8 l acres occupied by the Steelhead series, 759 acres are found in the Tree Farm portion of Compartment One. These soils are found up to an elevation of 1,500 feet, but the majority are found below 1,000 feet. Topographically they are gently to strongly sloping, with slopes being less than 15 percent. These soils are often associated with the Cardinal soils. They occupy the lower slopes and moderate depres-sions. The parent material of the Steelhead soils consists of aeolian materials mixed with and overlying ablation t i l l . Compact, impervious basal t i l l is encountered at about 36 inches. Mixing of the loamy aeolian and ablation deposits has occurred through windthrow action and stones and gravels occur throughout the profile. Root penetration is satisfactory until the basal t i l l is reached, then decreases abruptly with the resultant formation of a well defined root mat. The Steelhead soils are imperfectly drained due to restricted surface and subsurface water movement. Perching of a water table and seepage occurs near the junction between the basal t i l l and the overlay-ing deposits causing gleying and mottling. The Steelhead soils have been classified as Gleyed Humic Podzols. Well developed Ae, Bhf and Bfg horizons occur, except in areas recently affected by windthrow. A representative profile, located in the forest productivity plot 7 near the southern end of Campbell Road, was described as follows: 44 Depth Horizon Inches Description L 6 - 4 Undecomposed coniferous litter. pH 4.1 Clear boundary: F 4 - 1 Dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, moist) partially decomposed coniferous material. Occasional roots pH 4.0. Clear boundary: H 1-0 Black (5YR 2/1, moist) much developed from coniferous orgainic matter. Abundant roots. pH 3.8 Abrupt boundary: Ae 0 - l^ g Gray to grayish-brown (10 YR 5/1.5, mos it) or light-gray to light brownish gray (10YR 6/1.5, dry) loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Friable to very friable when moist. Abundant roots. pH 4.1. Abrupt boundary: Bhf lis- 4 Black to dark reddish brown (5YR 2/1-3/3, moist) or dark-brown (7.5YR 4/4-3/2, dry) loam. Moderate, coarse subangular blocky structure. Friable to firm when moist. Scattered patches of weak to moderate cementation. Common roots. pH 5.0. Clear boundary: Bfhgj 4 - 9 Strong-brown to yellowish-red (7.5YR 5/6 - 5YR 5/6, moist) or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4, dry)loam. Weak to moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Friable to firm when moist. Few, medium, distinct mottles. Some fine shot. Common roots. pH 5.3. Clear boundary: . Bfhgl 9 -19 Yellowish -brown (10YR 5/6, moist) gravelly sandy loam. Weak to medium, fine subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Many medium, prominent yellowish-red (5YR 4/8, moist) mottles. Occasional stones and boulders. Common roots. pH 5.4. Clear boundary: Bfhg2 19 -25 Dark-brown to brown (7.5YR 4/3, moist) loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Well defined root mat. Common, medium distinct yellow-ish-red (5YR 4/8, moist) mottles. Some stones and boulders. Abundant roots. pH 5.4. Gradual boundary: BUCg 25 -32 Dark-brown to brown (7.5YR 4/3, moist) loam. Moderate, very coarse subangular blocky structure. Firm when moist. Weakly developed root mat. Common, medium, distinct yellowish-red (5YR 4/8, moist) mottles. 16 Depth Horizon Inches Description Some stones and gravels. Occasional roots. pH 5.8. Abrupt boundary: Il C g j 32 + Olive-gray (5Y k/2, moist) g r a v e l l y sandy loam. Massive. Extremely f i r m when moist. Few medium, d i s t i n c t yellowish-red (5YR U /8, moist) mottles. pH 6 .0 . The chemical analyses of the Steelhead*. ser i e s are shown i n Table IX. In t h i s area, Steelhead s o i l s have been completely logged of any merchantable timber except f o r a small area east of the settlement of Steelhead. In the northern two-thirds of Compartment One, t h i s s o i l has been n a t u r a l l y restocked with western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and western red cedar, whereas, much of the southern one-third of Compartment One i s occupied by non-commercial brush cover. The understory vegetation i s scarce with only s o l i t a r y red huckleberry and t r i l l i u m . Mosses cover le s s than UO percent of the ground. Over 60 percent of the ground i s bare (Table X). The Steelhead s o i l s , as indicated by the measurement of the f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t s , are the most productive s o i l s i n Compartment One. The MAI i s 173 cubic f e e t per acre per year, i n d i c a t i n g a c a p a b i l i t y class of l c . Imperfect drainage i n these s o i l s insures adequate moisture at a l l times, yet the drainage r e s t r i c t i o n i s not severe enough to cause permanently high water table, which could create poor growing conditions. Logging should be immediately followed by p l a n t i n g to insure f a s t and desirable stocking. Previous mismanagement has shown that the areas occupied by t h i s s o i l has q u i c k l y regrown with non-commercial brush cover. Being high s i t e land and having gentle topography, thinning can be c a r r i e d out 46 TABLE IX CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE STEELHEAD SERIES - GLEYED HUMIC PODZOL Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity rri.e./lOO grams  Base Depth Saturation Horizon Inches P H Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. % L 6 - U 4.1 7.99 1.43 0.92 0.59 10.93 111.9 9.8 F 4 - 1 4.0 n . 4 i 1.77 0.97 0.77 14.92 149.6 10.0 H 1 -0 3.8 9.02 1.14 0.57 0.21 10.94 138.4 7.9 Ae o - ik 4.1 0.42 0.09 0.04 o.o5 o.6o 15.54 3.9 Bhf Ikr 4 5.0 0.20 0.12 o.o4 0.06 0.42 45.01 0.9 Bfhgj 4 - 9 5.3 0.10 0.02 0.03 0.06 0.21 27.82 0.8 Bfhgl 0 -19 5.4 0.09 0.02 0.02 0.04 0.17 21.82 0.8 Bfhg2 19 -25 5.4 0.05 0.02 0.08 0.05 0.20 26.64 0.8 BUCfc 25 -32 5.8 0.06 0.01 0.08 0.04 0.19 17.47 1.1 ncg j 32 + 6.0 0.11 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.23 2.13 10.8 Dithionate Horizon O.M. % Total N % C-N Ratio p l p.p.m. S p.p.m. Oxalate Extraction %?e %A1 -Citrate Extraction %Fe %kl L 100.0 1.408 41.4 18.4 _ — — F 20.3 - - - - -H 89.7 1.265 41.1 13.5 - - - - -Ae 3.4 o.o54 36.6 0.9 4.5o 0.18 0.22 0.64 0.48 Bhf 13.1 0.189 40.1 0.9 41.75 0.94 - 1.56 2.70 Bfhgj 7.8 0.129 35.0 0.8 73.50 1.12 3.20 l.5o 2.10 Bfhgl 5.0 0.101 28.5 2.3 71.00 0.86 3.32 i.4o i . 5 i Bfhg2 7.8 0.153 29.3 2.4 5o.oo 0.70 2.96 1.32 1.70 BIICg_ 4.1 0.091 26.3 4.7 88.75 0.74 2.76 1.32 1.29 HCgj . 0.3 0.013 12.3 19.2 27.OO 0.44 - 0.52 0.52 economically and safely. These soils are windfirm due to their position on the slope and depth of solum. They are also fairly stable soils because of their position, good lit t e r cover, and texture. Some portions of the Steelhead soils can be utilized for limited agriculture production, although adverse topography and restricted drainage will cause some problems in agriculture management. Forest cover is dense and clearing costs are high. 47 TABLE X VEGETATION OCCURRING ON STEELHEAD FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number 7 8 9 Amabilis f i r 2 Douglas-fir U 4 Western red cedar + Western hemlock 3 3 5 Red huckleberry + + Trillium + + Hylocomium moss 3 3 Plagiothecium moss 2 2 l Hoover Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol The Hoover series occupies 1,625 acres, of which 1,305 acres are within the boundaries of the Tree Farm. These soils are mainly found above 700 feet in elevation. Topographically, they are located on steeply to very steeply sloping sidehills, with most slopes between 30 to 60 percent. These soils have developed on slopes from a mixture of colluvium, ablation t i l l and loess, underlain by hard, compact glacial t i l l or bed-rock about 24 inches or more in depth. The soil mixing has been extensive and stones and cobbles occur throughout the profile. Root penetration and moisture permeability is good through the solum, but decreases abruptly when the compact basal t i l l is reached resulting in the formation of a well defined root mat and mottling above the t i l l . Numerous, hard concretions, up to one-quarter inch in diameter occur in the upper solum. The Ae horizon is well developed and varies from one to four inches in thickness. 49 The Hoover soils are generally moderately well to well drained, although in the lower slope positions, in some areas, the soils tend toward imperfect drainage. Somm seepage occurs above the basal t i l l . These soils are classi-fied as Orthic Concretionary Podzols. A typical profile, located near the north end of McCoombs Road in forest productivity plot 12, was examined and described as follows: Depth Horizon Inches Description LH Ae Bfhccl Bfhcc2 Bfhcc3 BCgj 3 - 0 0 - 2 2 - 3h 3 V H 11 -16 16 -20 Mixture of raw to well decomposed coniferous litter and moss. Abundant roots. pH 3.9. Abrupt boundary: Grayish-brown (10YR 5/2, moist) or light-gray to light brownish gray (10YR 6/1.5, dry) sandy loam. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Depth of horizon varies from one to four inches in sampling pit. Common roots. pH 4.4. Abrupt boundary: Strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6, moist) or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/4, dry) sandy loam. Numerous, hard concre-tions. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Common roots. pH 5.4. Clear boundary: Dark-brown to strong-brown (7.5YR 4/4, moist) or brown (10YR 5/3, dry) sandy loam. Numerous, hard concre-tions. Moderate, fine subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Abundant roots. pH 5.7. Gradual boundary: Brown to dark-brown (10YR 4/3, moist) gravelly sandy loam. Numerous, hard concretions. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Few, fine, faint mottles in lower part. Common roots. pH 5.7. Clear boundary: Dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4, moist) gravelly sandy loam. Moderate number of hard concretions. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Common, fine, faint to distinct strong-brown to brown (7.5YR 4/4, moist) mottles. Occasional roots. pH 5.7. Clear boundary: Cgl 20 -27 Dark-gray to olive-gray (5Y 4/1.5, moist) gravelly 50 Depth Horizon Inches Description sandy loam. Moderate, medium to coarse psuedo-sub-angular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Many, medium, prominent yellowish-red (5YR 4/8, moist) mottles. Occasional roots. pH 5.7. Gradual boundary: Cg2 27 -30 Dark-gray to olive-gray (5l 4/1.5, moist) gravelly sandy loam. Moderate, coarse, psuedo-subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Many coarse, prominent yellowish-red (5YR 4/6, moist) mottles). Common roots in a well defined root mat. pH 5.7. Abrupt boundary: IlCg 30 -38 Olive-gray (5Y 4.5/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam. Massive. Estremely firm when moist. Few, medium, distinct mottles. pH 6.2. Abrupt boundary with underlying granitic bedrock. The chemical analyses of the Hoover series is shown in Table XI. The Hoover soils are well forested. Scattered areas throughout Compart-ment One have merchantable stands of western hemlock and Douglas-fir. These stands represent the poorer and more inacessible stands of the past logging era. Younger stands of western hemlock and Douglas-fir dominate this soil. The shrubs and herbs, as noted on the productivity plots, are varied and scattered. Mosses cover most of the forest floor (Table XII). The forest growth is good, averaging 111 cubic feet per acre per year; capability class 1. The main limitations to forest growth appears to be moisture deficiencies during dry summer periods. Thinning should be done in moderation because of the steep slopes and windthrow susceptibility. Roadbuilding would be costly due to the slope and shallow depth to bedrock. The Hoover soils are unsuitable for agriculture utilization because of adverse topography and stoniness. TABLE XI CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE HOOVER SERIES - ORTHIC CONCRETIONARY PODZOL Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity m.e./lOO grams  Horizon Depth Inches PH Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. Base Saturation % LH 3 - 0 3.9 8.93 2.02 0 . 6 0 0.22 11.77 119.5 9.8 Ae 0 - 2 4.4 0.21 0.04 0.05 o.oU 0.34 5.34 6.4 Bfhccl 2-3^5 5-.li 0.32 0.05 0.09 0.03 0.49 28.56 1.7 Bfhcc2 3M . 1 5.7 0.27 0.05 0.06 0.03 0.41 26.47 1.5 Bfhcc3 11 -16 5.7 0.17 0.03 o.o5 0.03 0.28 26.52 1.1 Bcgj 16 -20 5.7 0.12 0.03 o.o5 0.03 0.23 27.13 0.8 Cgl 20 -27 5 .7 0.10 0.02 o.oU 0.03 0.19 20.88 0 . 9 Cg2 27 -30 5 .7 0.10 0.02 o.ou 0.03 0.19 27.34 0.7 HCg 30 -38 6.2 0.28 0.02 o.o5 0.03 0.38 3.24 11.9 Dithionate Total N Oxalate - Citrate O.M. C-N P l S Extraction Extraction Horizon % % Ratio p.p.m. p.p.m. %A1 %Fe LH 98.7 1.002 57.1 72.9 _ mm mm mm mm Ae 1.8 0.038 26.7 7.8 4.25 0.18 0.18 0.44 0.19 Bfhccl 7.9 0.122 37.5 23.5 45.50 1.48 2.96 2.06 2.04 Bfhcc2 7.7 0.127 34.9 20.4 34.50 1.00 3.56 1.46 2.10 Bfhcc3 7.5 0.117 37.3 13.6 38.75 0.84 3.56 1.18 2.46 BCgj 7.1 0.133 31.0 8.3 49.25 0.72 3.44 1.00 2.54 Cgl 4.7 0.120 22.9 6.9 49.50 0.68 3.32 0.85 1.72 Cg2 5.6 0.135 24.1 6.0 42.00 0.60 3.56 0.70 1.78 HCg 0.4 0.010 23.2 28.8 43.50 0.34 3.20 0.32 0.61 52 Table XII VEGETATION OCCURRING ON HOOVER FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number 5 12 15 Douglas-fir 5 3 + Western red cedar 1 2 Western hemlock 2 3 5 Oregon grape 1 False azalea l Red huckleberry + l Dee fern + Rattlesnake plantain + Sword fern l Bracken fern + Eurhychium moss 1 Hylocomium moss 3 4 4 Plagiothecium moss 2 3 Rhytidiadelphus moss 2 l Kenworthy Series - Acid Brown Wooded - Regosol Intergrade The Kenworthy series occupies scattered acreage throughout Compartment One. Of the 1,349 acres found in Compartment One, 1,016 acres are found in the Tree Farm. It usually occupies elevations below 1,500 feet. The Ken-worthy soil is usually associated with the Hoover soil. Kenworthy soils grade with an increase in elevation into the Hoover series. The Kenworthy soil occurs on very steep to extreme slopes with gradients varying between 50 to 90 percent. 53 The Kenworthy soils have developed from a mixture of colluvial materials, loess and glacial t i l l . Most slopes are relatively unstable, and are being mixed through the action of windthrow and other agencies. Rooting depths are usually greater than 36 inches except where bedrock occurs close to the surface. Profiles are very stony with a large portion of the soil volume occupied by stones and cobbles. The upper parts of most slopes are well drained, with the drainage commonly moderately well drained on the lower slopes. Kenworthy soils are classified as Acid Brown Wooded - Regosol Inter-grades. Due to instability of the slopes, the Ae horizon is only weakly expressed and, in many cases, is lacking. The Bf horizons are only weakly developed because of the processes of mass wasting. As a result, the Ken-worthy soil does not completely meet the definition of the Acid Brown Wooded soil. A typical profile, located in the northeastern portion of the Tree Farm, in forest productivity plot 17, was described as follows: Depth Horizon Inches Description L 3^ g- 3 Undecomposed coniferous l i t t e r . pH U.7 Abrupt boundary: HF 3 - 0 Black (10YR 2/1, moist) well to partially decomposed coniferous material. Abundant roots. pH U.3. Abrupt boundary: Ae 0 - ig Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/2, moist) or dark grayish brown to dark-brown (10YR U/2.5, dry) loam. Weak, fine, subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Abundant roots. pH U.8. Abrupt boundary: Bhfj ^- 2 Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/U, moist) or dark-brown to brown (7.5YR U/U, dry) loam. Weak, fine, subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Few, hard, fine concretions. Approximately 20$ stones and cobbles in horizon. Common roots. pH 5.3. Clear boundary: 5U Depth Horizon Inches Description B f j h 2 -10 Reddish-brown to yellowish-red (5YR U/5, moist) or brown (7.5YR 5/U, dry) s i l t loam. Weak, f i n e , subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Occasional, f i n e , hard concretions. Approximately 20$ stones and cobbles i n horizon. Common roots. pH 5.6. Gradual boundary: Bfj 10 -25 Reddish-brown (5YR U/U, moist) or brown (7.5YR 5/U, dry) s i l t loam. Weak, f i n e subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Approximately 25$ stones and cobbles i n horizon. Abundant roots. pH 5.6. Gradual boundary: BC1 25 -32 Dark yellowish brown (10YR U/U, moist) or brown to light-brown (7.5YR 5.5/U, dry) sandy loam. Moderate, medium subangular blocky str u c t u r e . F r i a b l e when moist. Approximately 30$ stones and cobbles i n horizon. Common roots. pH 6.0. Abrupt boundary: BC2 32 -36 Brown to dark-brown (7.5YR U/U, moist) or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/U, dry) g r a v e l l y sandy loam. Firm i n place, breaking to singlegrains when disturbed. F r i a b l e when moist. Few, weak mottles. Approximately 80$ stones and cobbles i n horizon. Occasional roots. pH 5.9. Clear boundary: BC3 36 -U9 Brown to dark yellowish brown (10YR U/3.5, moist) or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/U, dry) g r a v e l l y loam. Firm i n place breaking to singlegrains when disturbed. F r i a b l e when moist. Few, weak mottles. Approximately &0% stones and cobbles i n horizon. Common roots. pH 6.0. Cgj U9 + Gravelly sandy loam of variegated colour. Firm i n place breaking to singlegrains when disturbed. Very f r i a b l e when moist. Common, medium, d i s t i n c t yellowish-red (5YR 5/8, moist) mottles. Approximately Q0% stones and cobbles i n horizon. Occasional roots. pH 6.0. The chemical analyses of the Kenworthy s e r i e s are shown i n Table XIII. The Kenworthy s o i l s have some merchantable timber located on them i n the northeast corner of the Tree Farm. Most of the area occupied by t h i s 55 TABLE XIII CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE KENWORTHY SERIES - ACID BROWN WOODED - REGOSOL INTERGRADE Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity ^ m.e./lOO grams  Base Depth Saturation Horizon Inches pH Ca Mg K Na To t a l C.E.C. % L 33g- 3 4.7 15.31 2.UO 1 .62 0.17 19.50 131.U ; l 4 . 8 HF 3 - 0 4.3 8 .18 0.92 0 . 6 0 0.23 10.93 125.5 8.7 Ae 0 - i§ 4 . 8 U.oU 0 .25 0.10 0.11 U.5o 3U.30 13.1 Bhfj k- 2 5 . 3 1 .35 0.11 0 .08 0.07 1 . 6 l 36 .48 4 . 4 Bfjh 2 -10 5.7 0 .49 0 . 0 4 0 .04 0 .04 0 .61 18 .80 3 .2 B f j 10 -25 5 . 6 0.22 0.03 0 .04 0 .05 0 .34 19.22 1.8 BC1 25 -32 6.0 0 .43 0 .04 0 .05 0 .06 0 .58 19.10 3.0 BC2 32 -36 5.9 0 .83 0 .06 0.07 0.10 1 .06 26.13 4.1 BC3 36 -49 6.0 0 .79 0 .05 0 .06 0.07 0 .97 21 .52 4 . 5 Cgj 49 + 6.0 Dithionate T o t a l N Oxalate - C i t r a t e O.M. C-N V S Ex t r a c t i o n E x t r a c t i o n Horizon % % Ratio p.p.m. p.p.m. %Fe %A1 %Fe %A1 L 100.0 1.366 4 4 . 4 3 3 . 7 _ _ _ _ HF 89.2 1.375 37.6 11.7 - - - - -Ae 14.7 0.309 27.5 0 . 9 6 . 0 0 0.75 0 .44 1.36 0.72 Bhfj 11.8 0.266 25.6 3 . 8 16.25 1.11 1.86 2.12 2 .20 B f j h 5 . 2 0.121 2 5 . 1 3 . 8 2 2 . 0 0 0.86 2.44 1.76 1.76 B f j 4.3 0.097 25.6 3 . 1 58.75 0.86 2.74 1.96 1.70 BC1 3.7 0.077 2 7 . 8 1.2 98.75 0.86 2.50 1.88 1.60 BC2 5 . 3 0.108 2 8 . 4 2 .8 110.00 0.95 3.56 1.96 1.86 BC3 4 .3 0.076 3 3 . 0 1.5 108.25 0.91 3.02 1.88 1.60 Cgj 4 . 6 0.113 23.7 3 .6 97 .00 1.08 5.20 1.76 2.30 s o i l i s covered by immature stands of western hemlock, Douglas-fir and western red cedar and i n the southern part by non-commercial brush cover. The l e s s e r vegetation i s varied and sparse (Table XIV). This ser i e s has a high p r o d u c t i v i t y , averaging 148 cubic f e e t per acre per year. The c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i s l a . Moisture deficiences during se dry periods occur and curtail tree growth to some extent. This soil is unstable, as noted by the bent trees and buildup of soil and talus on the upper sides of the trees. Because of the erodability of the soil and the adverse topography, natural regeneration of trees on this soil would be slow after logging. Owing to the good growth exhibited by trees on this soil, planting would be advisable, but the adverse topography would make planting costs high. Although the rooting depth is adequate, trees are susceptible to windthrow because of the steep slopes and soil movement. Thinning practices should be view with caution. The Kenworthy soils have l i t t l e agricultural use as a result of the adverse topography and stoniness. TABLE XIV VEGETATION OCCURRING ON KENWORTHY FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number Douglas-fir 10 4 11 U Western red cedar 2 2 Western hemlock 3 3 Oregon grape 3 Vanilla leaf + Dear fern 1 Sword fern 1 3 Hylocomium moss 1 1 Plagiothecium moss 1 Cannel Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol The Cannel series occupies the larges acreage in Compartment One. 57 Of the 2,512 acres, 2,16? are found in the Tree Farm. They occur through-out the area at elevations mainly above 800 feet. Topography is variable and ranges from moderately to very steeply sloping with gradients usually varying from 16 to 20 percent. The Cannel soils occur on or near the top of rocky ridges where the underlying bedrock is usually within six to 12 inches of the soil surface. The soil profiles have developed from a mixture of glacial t i l l , colluvium and loess, containing a large number of stones and cobbles. The profile is well to rapidly drained. Rooting depth is poor because of the shallowness to bedrock. The Cannel series is classified as an Orthic Conretionary Podzol. Numerous, hard concretions occur in the Bfcc horizon. The Ae horizon, one to two inches in depth, is well developed. A typical profile, located on a south facing slope near the north end of McCoombs Road, in forest productivity plot 11, was described as follows: Horizon Depth• Inches Description L 4 - 3 Raw coniferous li t t e r and moss. Common roots in lower part. pH 3.8. Abrupt boundary: FH 3 - 0 Partially to well decomposed coniferous material and moss. Abundant roots. pH 3.6. Abrupt boundary: Ae 0 - 1 Dark-gray (10YR 4/1, moist) or gray to grayish-brown (10YR 5/1.5, dry) sandy loam. Weak, fine, subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Abundant roots. pH 4.1. Abrupt boundary: Bfhcc 1 - 4 Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/4, moist) or brown (7.5YR 5/4, dry) sandy loam. Numerous, hard concretions. Weak, fine, subangular blocky structure. Friable to firm when moist. Abundant roots. pH 5.0. Clear boundary: 58 Depth Horizon Inches Description Bfcc k - 7 Reddish-brown (5YR h/h, moist) or brown (7.5TR 5A, dry) sandy loam. Numerous, hard concretions. Weak, fine, subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Abundant roots with development of a moderate root mat in bottom inch. Abrupt boundary with underlying granitic bedrock. The chemical analyses of the Cannel series is shown in Table XV. The Cannel soil, along with Rock Outcrop, have the largest acreage of mature stands of Douglas-fir, western hemlock and western red cedar. Because the timber was of poor quality and the location of these stands were on the ridge tops, the rather large acreage of mature timber was not logged during the logging boom of the 1920's. Although the Cannel soils have a sizeable acreage of mature timber, much of the area occupied by this soil is covered by immature stands of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar. Shrubs and herbs are varied and scattered without a definite pattern. Mosses cover less than 40 percent of the ground area (Table XVI). Forest growth is poor on these soils due to poor rooting depth and moisture deficiency. MAI measurements indicate growth at 82 cubic feet per acre per year and a capability class rating of 3R; R indicating a limitation in rooting depth due to bedrock. Because of the relatively poor forest growth on these soils and their position on the slopes, the forest stands on these soils should be carefully considered for their potential for other uses, before logging is attempted. Other than for limited forest use, the areas occupied by this soil would be ideal for watershed protection and wildlife. 59 TABLE XV CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE CANNEL SERIES - ORTHIC CONCRETIONARY PODZOL Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity m.e./lOO grams  Depth Horizon Inches pH Base Saturation Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. L FH Ae Bfhcc Bfcc 4 3 0 1 4 3 0 1 4 7 3 . 8 3 .6 4.1 5 . 0 5 . 0 7.30 5.73 0.24 0.28 0.09 1.72 1.75 0.10 0.03 o.o4 2.57 1.66 0.11 0 .06 0.09 0.23 11.82 0.28 9.42 0 .04 0.49 0.03 0 . 2 0 0.04 0.26 107.7 149.4 12.40 18.96 17.84 11 .0 6.3 4 . 0 1.0 1.4 Horizon O.M. % Total N % C-N Ratio 1 p.p.m. S p.p.m. Dithionate Oxalate -Citrate Extraction Extraction %Fe %kl %Fe %A1 L FH Ae Bfhcc Bfcc 100.0 100.0 4 . 8 7.6 6.2 1.223 1.026 0.071 O.088 0.109 5 o . 5 5 9 . 9 3 9 . 4 49.5 3 3 . 1 5 9 . 4 42.7 15.9 34 .3 4 8 . 4 8.00 0.71 0 .20 9 4 . 0 0 1.08 1.76 6 9 . 0 0 1.08 1.66 0.72 0.18 1.84 1.26 1.64 1.65 These soils would not be economical to plant after logging. The logged areas would be subject to heavy erosion and much of the mineral soil would be lost. Re-establishment of any vegetation would then be difficult, resulting in the loss of that area for many years as a watershed reserve. The trees, having a very shallow root system, are subject to windthrow. Roadbuilding would be costly as a result of the shallowness to bedrock. The Cannel soils have l i t t l e agricultural value because of the adverse topography, stoniness, droughtiness and shallow rooting depth. 60 TABLE XVI VEGETATION OCCURRING ON CANNEL FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number 1 u 6 20 Douglas-fir U 3 4 + Western red cedar 2 2 3 2 Western hemlock 2 3 2 5 Salal 1 + Oregon grape + False azalea + + Tall blue huckleberry + Red huckleberry l Dear fern 2 + Sword fern 2 Eurhychium moss 2 Hylocomium moss 2 2 2 4 Plagiothecium moss 2 Rhytidiadelphus moss 3 Rock Outcrop Mapping Unit The Rock Outcrop mapping unit occupies 1,098 acres in Compartment One, of which 865 acres are within the boundaries of the Tree Farm. Rock Outcrop occurs at most elevations, but is most prevalent at elevations above 1,000 feet. It is associated with the Cannel soils and occurs as ridgetops and upper slopes. The topography ranges from moderately to very steeply sloping and, as with the Cannel soils, the gradients usually vary from 16 to 60 percent. 61 The profile is very simple and consists of L, FH, and Ae of the Cannel soil. The profile can be described as having a shallow capping of lit t e r , less than 10 inches deep. An Ae may occur between the litter and bedrock and may be up to one inch thick. A thin Bf may be found in some of the bedrock crevasses. The profile is rapidly to well drained. This soil was not sampled for analyses because of the extreme shallowness and variability in characteristics. Mature stands of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar are found on Rock Outcrop. As with the Cannel soils, much of the area supports immature stands of Douglas-fir, western hemlock, and western red cedar. Shrubs and herbs are few and varied. Mosses cover most of the ground (Table XVII). Forest growth is poor due to the poor rooting depth, or lack of i t , and the occurrence of moisture deficiency during the drier summer seasons. MAI measurements indicated the yearly growth at $6 cubic feet per acre per year. The capability class rating is UR. As with the Cannel series, Rock Outcrop areas should be kept for watershed protection. It is impossible to practice agriculture on Rock Outcrop areas due to the lack of solum. 62 TABLE XVII VEGETATION OCCURRING ON ROCK OUTCROP FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number 11 18 19 Douglas-fir 2 3 3 Western red cedar 3 2 1 Western hemlock 3 3 a Salal + 3 Red huckleberry + + Rattlesnake plantain + Eurhychium moss 1 i Hylocomium moss U h 3 Plagiothecium moss 3 l Rhytidiadelphus moss 2 3 Keystone Series - Orthic Concretionary Podzol The Keystone series occupies l , l 8 l acres in Compartment One, with only 270 acres belonging to the Tree Farm. It is found mostly in the southern and southwesterly portions of Compartment One at elevations below 700 feet. The topography is gently to strongly sloping with most slopes below 10 percent. The parent material of the Keystone soils consists of shallow aeolian deposits overlying glacial outwash. Scattered stones occur in the upper surface due to windthrow of large trees. Root and moisture penetration throught the solum is good. Cementation in the lower subsoil, at about 30 inches in depth, however, abruptly restricts moisture and roots resulting in the formation of a distinct root mat and mottling immediately above the cemented strata. 6 3 The Keystone s e r i e s i s c l a s s i f i e d as an Orthic Concretionary Podzol. The Ae horizon i s w e l l developed except where disturbance has occured due to w i n d f a l l . The Bfcc horizons contain numerous hard concretions. These s o i l s are moderately w e l l drained, although some seepage and water table perching occurs immediately above the cemented s u b s o i l . A t y p i c a l p r o f i l e , located near the east end of School Road i n f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t 25, was examined and described as follows: Horizon F-L H Ae B f h c c l Bfhcc2 Bfcc BIIC Depth Inches 2g- lk lh- 0 o - lk Ih- 3 3 - 6 6 -10 10 -12 Description P a r t l y decomposed to raw coniferous material and moss. Occasional roots. pH U.2. Abrupt boundary: Black (7.5YR 2/0, moist) well decomposed coniferous material and moss. Abundant roots. pH 3 . 9 . Abrupt boundary: Dark-gray (10YR U/l, moist) or gray to l i g h t - g r a y (5YR 6/1, dry) loam. Weak, f i n e subangular blocky structure. Very f r i a b l e when moist. Common roots. pH U.5. Abrupt boundary: Dark reddish-brown (5YR 3/2.5, moist) or brown to dark-brown (7.5YR U/U, dry) s i l t loam. Numerous, hard concretions. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. F r i a b l e when moist. Abundant roots. pH 5 . 3 . Clear boundary: Dark reddish brown (5YR 3/U, moist) or brown (7.5YR, dry) loam. Numerous, hard concretions. Moderate, f i n e subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e when moist. Abundant roots. pH 5 . 6 . Clear boundary: Dark reddish brown to reddish-brown (5YR 3.5/U, moist) or brown (7.5YR 5/4, dry) loam. Numerous, hard, f i n e , concretions. Moderate, medium subangular blocky s t r u c -ture. F r i a b l e when moist. Common roots. pH 5.7. Clear boundary: Reddish-brown (5YR U/U, moist) or brown (7.5YR 5/U, dry) sandy loam. Occasional, hard concretions. Weak, fi n e subangular blocky s t r u c t u r e . Very f r i a b l e when moist. Occasional roots. pH 5.8. Abrupt boundary: 6 4 Horizon Depth Inches Description HCgj 1 2 - 2 1 Gravelly sand of variegated colour. Single grained. Loose when moist. Common, fine, faint to distinct mottles. Occasional roots. pH 5.9. Gradual boundary: HCg 2 1 - 2 8 Gravelly sand of variegated colour. Single grained. Loose when moist. Many, medium, prominent yellowish-red ( 5 Y R 5 / 8 , moist)mottles. Abundant roots. Distinct root mat in lower part of horizon. pH 6.0. Abrupt boundary: IIC 28 + Gravelly sand of variegated colour. Cemented in place, breaking to single grains when disturbed. Extremely firm when moist. pH 6 . 0 . The chemical analyses of the Keystone series are presented in Table XVIII. The Keystone soils, in this area, lacks any merchantable timber. These soils, being mostly under private ownership, are cultivated or have non-commercial brush cover growing on them. Where these soils are under forest cover, 1 0 to 7 0 year old stands of western hemlock, Douglas-fir, and western red cedar occur. The shrub and herb layers are composed of few species, with vine maple and bracken fern being the most dominant. Mosses cover 6 0 to 8 0 percent of the forest floor (Table XIX). The Keystone soils produce good forest growth averaging 1 3 3 cubic feet per acre per year and has a capability class rating of la. The main limitation to forest growth appears to be moisture deficiencies during dry summer periods. Having a good site index, these soils should be planted soon after logging. Thinning could be practiced economically on these soils because of the good productivity and gentle slopes. Rooting depth is sufficiently deep to allow the trees to be windfirra. Road building properties are good since the parent material is coarse, allowing for good drainage. 65 TABLE XVIII CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE KEYSTONE SERIES - ORTHIC CONCRETIONARY PODZOL Exchangeable Cations and- Exchange Capacity m.e./lQO grams  Base Saturation Depth Horizon Inches pH Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. FL H Ae Bfhccl Bfhcc2 Bfcc BIIC HCgj HCg IIC 2 V lis lkr 0 0 - lh 1%- 3 3 - 6 6 -10 10 -12 12 -21 21 -28 28 + 4.2 17.24 3.9 9.52 4.5 5.3 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 6.0 6.0 0.60 0.33 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.20 0.16 o . i 5 4.39 3.78 0.23 0.10 0.06 o.o5 o.o4 0.03 0.02 0.02 2.47 2.17 0.11 0.11 0.06 o.o5 o.o4 0.02 0.03 0.07 0.20 0.30 o.o5 o.o5 o.o4 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 0.03 24.30 15.77 0.99 0.59 0.43 0.37 0.33 0.28 0.24 0.27 126.5 136.2 11.88 28.29 28.35 19.50 12.24 4.71 4.90 3.46 19.2 11.4 8.3 2.1 1.5 1.9 2.7 5.9 4.9 7.8 Dithionate Total N Oxalate -Citrate O.M. C-N P l S Extraction Extraction Horizon % % Ratio p.p.m. p.p.m. %Fe %A1 %Fe %Fe FL 98.6 1.300 44.0 65.2 _ _ _ H 90.3 1.375 38.1 66.2 - - - - -Ae 2.7 0.085 18.7 24.9 4.75 0.25 0.25 0.66 -Bfhccl 7.0 0.207 20.3 76.5 23.75 1.63 2.10 2.17 i . 5 o Bfhcc2 6.6 0.159 24.1 13.7 17.50 1.63 2.80 2.10 0.36 Bfcc 3.7 0.097 21.9 8.8 27.75 1.34 2.25 1.68 1.47 BIIC 2.2 0.073 17.4 12.2 4 l .5o 1.00 1.70 1.26 0.91 HCgj 1.1 0.024 26.0 59.0 7.75 0.44 0.80 0.5o 0.55 HCg 0.7 0.021 18.7 47.3 44.25 0.54 1.03 1.00 0.47 IIC 0.7 0.023 17.0 56.9 7.00 0.38 0.65 0.44 0.35 In some areas these soils have potential for agricultural production, the main limitations being low moisture hold capacity, stoniness and possibly adverse topogrpahy. Clearing costs are often prohibitive because of the heavy coniferous growth. 66 TABLE XIX VEGETATION OCCURRING ON KEYSTONE FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number White birch + 26 Douglas-fir 2 + Western red cedar 1 1 Western hemlock 5" 5 Vine maple 1 l Salal + Sword fern + Bracken fern + l Eurhychium moss 1 l Hylocomium moss 4 3 Plagiothecium moss 3 Mnium moss + 3 Roach Series - Orthic Humic Podzol - Ortstein Podzol Intergrade The Roach series occupies 1,296 acres in Compartment One and occurs below elevations of 900 feet. Of the total acreage 693 acres occur with-in the Tree Farm. Topography varies from moderately to steeply sloping with slopes ranging from six to 30 percent. Micro-releif is hummocky caused by the uprooting of trees. This soil occurs in the valley bottoms west, .south and southeast of Steelhead, occupying the middle and upper parts of ridges in the undulating outwash. These soils have developed from coarse glacial outwash deposits which occasionally have a very shallow aelian capping. The deposits are very 67 stony and UO to 6 0 percent of the soil volume is occupied by cobbles and stones greater than three inches in diameter. The Roach soils are classified as Orthic Humic Podzol-Ortstein Podzol Intergrades. The Ae horizon is well developed except in areas where recent churning by windthrow has occurred. The upper B horizons contain a high proportion of organic matter while the lower horizons are strongly cemented and are almost impermeable causing the rooting zone to be extremely shallow. The soil profiles are moderately well to well drained although slight seepage and temporary perching of water occurs above the cemented horizon. Water holding capacity is very low. A typical profile, located north of Steelhead in the forest procuc-tivity plot 1 3 , was examined and described as follows: Depth Horizon Inches Description L 3kr 2ig Raw coniferous litter and moss. pH U .3. Abrupt boundary: HF 2%- 0 Black (5YR 2/1, moist) well to partially decomposed coniferous organic material. pH 3 . 9 . Abundant roots. Abrupt boundary: Ae 0 - l^ g Dark-gray (10TR U/l, moist) or gray to grayish-brown (10YR 5/1.5, dry) sandy loam or loam. Weak, medium, subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Abundant roots. pH U.O. Abrupt boundary: Bhf lV- 8 Dark reddish brown (2 .5YR 3/U, moist) or dark-brown to strong-brown (7.5YR U/U - 5/6, dry) sandy loam. Moderate, fine to medium subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Well developed root mat. Abundant roots. pH 5.0. Clear boundary: Bfhc 8 -lU Yellowish-red (5YR U/8, moist) or strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6 , dry) gravelly loamy sand. Strongly cemented in place, breaking to strong, medium subangular blocky 68 Horizon Depth Inches Bfc 14 -19 BC 19 -25 CI 25 -37 C2 37 + Description structure. Very firm when moist. Approximately 40 percent of horizon is composed of cobbles greater than three inches in diameter. Occasional roots. pH 5.4. Gradual boundary: Yellowish-red to strong-brown (5YR 5/8 - 7.5YR 5/8, moist) or light yellowish brown to brownish-yellow (10YR 6/5, dry) gravelly sand. Very strongly cemented in place, breaking to strong, medium subangular blocky structure. Extremely firm when moist. Approxi-mately UO percent of horizon is composed of cobbles greater than three inches in diameter. Occasional fine roots. pH 5.6. Clear boundary: Strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6, moist) to variegated gravelly sand. Strongly cemented in place, breaking to strong, medium, subangular blocky structure. Very firm when moist. Approximately 50$ of horizon is composed of cobbles greater than three inches in diameter. Few, fine, faint mottles. pH 5.8. Gradual boundary: Variegated gravelly sand containing approximately 50$ cobbles greater than three inches in diameter. Moderately to strongly cemented in place, breaking to moderate, medium, psuedo-subangular blocky structure. Scattered iron staining around some pebbles and cobbles. pH 5.9. Diffuse boundary: Variegated gravelly sand containing approximately $0% cobbles greater than 3 inches in diameter. Compact in place, breaking to single grains when disturbed. pH 5.7. A summary of the chemical analyses of the Roach series is given in Table XX. The Roach soils lack any merchantable timber except for a small area west of Steelhead. Immature stands of western hemlock, Douglas-fir and western red cedar and non-commercial brush cover are now found on this soil. Salal is the most abundant shrub while mosses cover most of the forest floor (Table XXI). 69 TABLE XX CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE ROACH SERIES - ORTHIC HUMIC PODZOL - ORTSTEIN PODZOL INTERGRADE Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity m.e./lOO grams  Base Depth Saturation Horizon Inches pH Ca Mg . K Na Total Total % L 3 V 2is 4.3 15.81 4 .35 2.80 0 .21 23.17 126.9 18.2 HF 2h- 0 3.9 10.64 3.18 1.37 0 . 4 0 15.59 141.9 11 .0 Ae 0 - 1 ^ 4 . 0 0.17 0.12 0.06 0.06 0 . 4 l 12.64 3.2 Bhf 1%- 8 5 . 0 0 .04 0.04 0.07 0.04 0.19 34.85 0.6 Bfhc 8 -14 5 . 4 o.o5 o . o i o . o i 0.02 0.09 26.92 0 . 4 Bfc 14 -19 5.6 0 .05 Tr. Tr. 0.02 0.07 26.51 0.3 BC 19 -25 5.8 0 .06 Tr. Tr. 0.02 0 .08 14.04 0.6 Cl 25 -37 5.9 0.11 Tr. 0.02 0.02 0.16 6.75 2 .4 C2 37 + 5.7 0.09 Tr. Tr. Tr. 0.11 6.66 1.6 Dithionate Total N Oxalate -Citrate O.M. C-N p l S Extraction Extraction Horizon % % Ratio p.p.m. p.p.m. %Fe %A1 %A1 L 100.0 1.388 44.3 62 .3 16.75 _ HF 9 6 . 8 1.259 44.6 47 .4 - - - - -Ae 3 . 8 0.100 21.9 2.3 6.25 0.22 0 .20 0.52 0.19 Bhf 1 4 . 0 0.235 3 4 . 4 10.2 45.50 1.48 3 . 0 0 2.36 2.17 Bfhc 7.8 0.124 3 6 . 5 7.5 44.oo 1.72 4 . 8 0 1.88 2.46 Bfc 4 . 5 0.088 2 9 . 7 8.7 33.75 1.20 3 .96 1.14 1.92 BC 2 . 4 0.63 21 .8 10.3 36.25 0 . 6 0 2.74 0.50 1.09 Cl 1.0 0 .21 27.3 17.1 21 .00 0.43 1.46 0.23 0.69 C2 • - - - 18.8 28.50 0.46 1.25 0.22 0 . 5 l Roach soils are among the poorest for forest production as rooting depths are very shallow, water holding capacities are very low, nutrient levels are low, and stoniness is high. MAI measurements show forest growth to be 78 cubic feet per acre per year. Capability class is 3pJ the major restrictions on growth being D (limitation in rooting depth), and P (stoniness). 7 0 These soils, being poor for forest growth, might be better used for other purposes. Economically, the deposists on which this soil is developed, can be used for two major purposes. The first is as a source of gravel and sand and the second is as real estate, where the topography is not too severe. The Roach series is unsuitable for agriculture due to the extreme stoniness, low water holding capacity, poor rooting depth and adverse topo-graphy. TABLE XXI VEGETATION OCCURRING ON ROACH FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number Amabilis f i r + 2]_ 2j8 Western red cedar 3 3 Western hemlock k a Vine maple 1 Salal 2 2 Oregon grape + Tall blue huckleberry 1 Red huckleberry + 1 Rattlesnake plantain + Bracken fern + Eurhychium moss 2 3 Hylocomium moss 2 3 3 Plagiothecium moss 2 3 Rhytidiadelphus moss 2 2 71 Mission Series - Gleyed Humic Podzol - Gleyed O r t s t e i n Podzol Intergrade The Mission s o i l s occupy r e l a t i v e l y minor areas of Compartment One below elevations of 700 f e e t . Of the U°l acres i n Compartment One, 273 are within the Tree Farm boundaries. This s o i l i s found mainly complexed with the Roach s o i l and topographically, the Mission s o i l i s generally depressional to l e v e l , with the Roach s o i l s occupying higher and more steeply sloping areas. Slopes of the Mission ser i e s are l e s s than 10 percent. The Mission s e r i e s has developed from coarse g l a c i a l outwash deposits which o c c a s i o n a l l y are capped by very shallow aeolian materials. The out-wash deposits are very stony with UO percent or more of the s o i l volume occupied by cobbles, stones and boulders. The Mission s o i l s are c l a s s i f i e d as Gleyed Humic Podzol - Gleyed O r t s t e i n Podzol Intergrade. The Ae horizon i s w e l l developed although the depth varies depending on churning and mixing due to windthrow. The Bfc horizons are very strongly cemented and the upper portion contains a high proportion of organic matter. The rooting zone i s shallow due to the strong cementation. Drainage i s imperfect with seepage and water table perching occurring above the cemented l a y e r . A t y p i c a l p r o f i l e , located north of Steelhead i n f o r e s t c a p a b i l i t y p l o t l U , was described as follows: Horizon Depth Inches Description L 6 - 5 Undecomposed coniferous l i t t e r and moss. Common roots. pH U.O. Abrupt boundary: HF 5 - 0 Well to p a r t l y decomposed coniferous and moss material. Very f r i a b l e when moist. Abundant roots. pH 3 . 8 . Abrupt boundary: Ae 0 - 3 Gray (5lR 5/1, moist) or gray to l i g h t - g r a y (10YR 5.5/1, dry) loamy sand or sandy loam. Weak to moderate, medium subangular blocky st r u c t u r e . F r i a b l e when moist.. Abundant roots. pH U .2 . 7 2 Depth Horizon Inches Description Abrupt boundary: Bhf 3 - 7 Dark reddish brown (5YR 2 / 2 , moist) or reddish-brown (5YR 4/4, dry) sandy loam. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Friable to firm when moist. Boulders and stones occupy about $0% of volume. Well defined root mat. Abundant roots. pH 5.0. Abrupt boundary: Bfc 7 -10 Strong-brown to yellowish-red (7.5YR 5/8,;- 5YR 4/8, moist) or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6, dry) gravelly loamy sand. Indurated. Extremely firm when moist. Few, fine, faint mottles. Large stones occupy approximately $0% of the horizon. Occasional roots. pH 5.5. Clear boundary: Bfcgj 10 -14 Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6, moist) gravelly sand. Strongly cemented, breaking to single grains when crushed. Extremely firm when moist. Common, fine, distinct, strong-brown_(7.5YR 5/6, moist) mottles. Stones occupy approximately 50$ of the horizon. pH 5.0. Clear boundary: BCg 14 - 2 3 Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6, moist) to variegated gravelly sand. Strongly cemented breaking to single grains when crushed. Extremely firm when moist. Large portion of horizon consists of large stones. Common, medium, distinct, strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6, moist) mottles. pH 5.7. Clear boundary: Cg 2 3 + Gravelly sand of variegated colour. Single grained. Loose when moist. Few, medium, faint mottles. pH 5.7. The chemical analyses of the Mission series is tabulated in Table XXII. As with the Roach soils, the Mission soils are lacking merchantable timber. Second growth stands ranging in age from 10 to 60 years are composed mainly of western hemlock. The lesser vegetation (understory) is variable and sparse and the ground is covered with varying amounts of mosses (Table XXIII). 73 TABLE XXII CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE MISSION SERIES - GLEYED HUMIC PODZOL - GLEYED ORTSTEIN PODZOL INTERGRADE Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity m.e./lOO grams  Base Depth Saturation Horizon Inches pH Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. % L 6 - 5 HF 5 - 0 Ae 0 - 3 Bhf 3 - 7 Bfc 7 -10 Bfcgj 10 -14 BCg 1U -23 Cg 23 + 4.0 10.15 2.49 3.8 10.39 2.77 4.2 5.0 0.76 0.06 5.5 0.49 0.08 5.9 0.11 0.01 5.7 0.18 0.01 5.7 0.17 Tr. 1.91 0.29 14.84 1.02 0.60 14.78 0.04 0.03 0.89 0.09 0.03 0.69 0.04 0.02 0.18 0.02 0.03 0.24 0.02 o.o5 0.24 132.1 11.2 147.9 10.0 9.83 56.31 1.6 22.45 3.1 8.82 2.0 7.44 3.2 5.89 4.1 Dithionate Horizon O.M. % Total N % C-N Ratio p l p.p.m. S p.p.m. Oxalate Extraction %Fe %kl -Citrate Extraction %Fe %kl L 100.0 1.421 44.3 66.1 _ _ _ _ HF - 97.7 1.466 38.1 36.7 - - - - -Ae 3.3 .075 25.0 2.0 3.75 0.36 0.48 0.44 0.20 Bhf I6 . 9 .349 24.8 27.2 11.25 2.24 3.60 2.44 2.88 Bfc 4.0 .073 32.0 9.2 44.75 O.98 3.36 1.00 1.86 Bfcgj 1.2 .021 26.6 12.1 41.75 0.36 1.92 0.32 1.11 BCg 1.1 0.021 30.9 14.9 20.75 0.40 1.52 0.23 0.63 Gg .-. - - 27.0 14.75 0.30 O.69 0.20 0.42 The Mission soils produce good forest growth even though they have a very shallow rooting zone. Seepage and a perched water table make water available for long periods in spite of the low water holding capacity of the soil. MAI measurements place this soil into capability class lb, with an average growth of 168 cubic feet per acre per year. Although the Mission soil has good capacity for forest growth, i t is scattered throughout areas 7U with the poorer Roach soil and must be managed with the. Roach series. These soils generally are not suited for agriculture because of extensive stoniness, low fe r t i l i t y and shallow rooting depth, as well as restricted drainage. TABLE XXIII VEGETATION OCCURRING ON MISSION FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number Western red cedar i k 2 ; 32 Western hemlock 5 5 Vine maple + + Red huckleberry 1 Vanilla leaf l Rattlesnake plantain + Sword fern 1 Bracken fern + + Eurhychium moss l Hylocomium moss 3 2 Mnium moss 1 1 Plagiothecium moss 3 Rhytidiadelphus moss 2 Stave Series - Orthic Podzol The Stave series has restricted representation in Compartment One, occupying 647 acres of which 182 acres are within the Tree Farm boundaries. These soils are usually found on the valley floors below elevations of 600 feet and have gently to moderately sloping topography with slopes up to nine 75 percent, except where erosion has occurred. On the eroded parts, the slopes may be as steep as 40 percent. The Stave s o i l s have developed from shallow aeolian materials over-l y i n g , or mixed with, sandy g l a c i a l outwash or sandy d e l t a i c deposits. P r o f i l e textures are loamy and generally become coarser with depth. Stones and boulders sometimes occur i n the lower p r o f i l e and i n the parent material. Weak to moderate cementation usually occurs i n the parent material r e s t r i c t i n g water movement as evidenced by mottling and gleying i n the lower solum. Drain-age i s c l a s s i f i e d as moderately w e l l . Permeability and root penetration i s good u n t i l the cemented layer i s encountered. The Stave series i s c l a s s i f i e d as an Orthic Podzol. Well developed horizons up to two inches thick and Bf horizons enriched with organic matter and sesquioxides are generally found, except i n areas where recent churning and mixing of the solum has occurred, through windthrow action. A t y p i c a l p r o f i l e , located near the intersection of Keystone and Shaw roads i n forest productivity plot 22, was described as follows: Depth Horizon Inches Description LH l^g- 0 Raw to wel l decomposed coniferous l i t t e r and moss. Roots abundant. pH 4 . 0 . Abrupt boundary: Ae 0 - 1 Gray to reddish-gray (5lR 5 / 1 . 5 , moist) or gray (10YR 5 . 5 / 1 , dry) loam. Weak, f i n d subangular blocky struc-ture. Friable when moist. Abundant roots. pH 4.2. Abrupt boundary: Bfh 1 - 6 Dark reddish brown to reddish-brown (5YR 3 . 5 / 4 , moist) or broxm to strong brown (7.5YR 5 / 5 , dry) loam, Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Occasional, f i n e , hard shot. Abundant roots. pH 5 . 4 . Gradual boundary: B f l 6 -15 Reddish-brown (5YR 4/4, moist) or brown to yellowish-brown (7.5YR 5/4 - 10YR 5/4, dry) loam or s i l t loam. Weak, fine to medium subangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Few, scattered, f i n e , hard shot. Common roots. pH 5 . 7 . Gradual boundary: Bf2 15 -19 Dark-brown to brown (7.5YR 4/4, moist) or yellowish-76 Depth Horizon Inches Description brown (10YR 5.5/4, dry) loam. Weak to moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Friable to firm when moist. Common roots. pH 5.9. Gradual boundary: BCgj 19 -24 Yellowish-brown to dark-brown (10YR 5/4 - 4/3, moist) or light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4, dry) loam. Moderate, medium to coarse subangular blocky struc-ture. Friable to firm when moist. Few, find, faint mottles. Few, scattered, moderately cemented patches. Occasional roots. pH 5.8. Diffuse boundary: Cg 24 -35 Olive (5Y 5/3, moist) loamy sand of sandy loam. Moderate to strong, medium to coarse psuedo-subangular blocky structure. Very firm to firm when moist. Common, medium, prominent yellowish-red (5YR 4/6 -5/8, moist) mottles. Moderately to weakly cemented. Occasional, scattered stones and boulders in lower part of horizon. Occasional roots in upper part. pH 5.8. IlCg 35 + Coarse gravelly sand of variegated colour. Sixty percent of horizon consists of boulders greater than one foot in diameter. pH 5.9. The summary of the chemical analyses of the Stave series is shown in Table XXIV. Being of lower elevation, and therefore, easily accessible, a l l of the Stave soils have been logged. Stands 10 to 60 years old of mainly hemlock and varying amount os amabilis f i r , Douglas-fir, western red cedar, red alder, and white birch occupy this soil. In the southern part of Compartment One, these soils are either cultivated or under non-commercial brush cover. The lesser vegetation is sparse and varied. Ferns are the major herbs, while mosses cover less than 50 percent of the forest floor (Table XXV). Stave soils have a great range in productivity. The MAI ranges from 106 to 211 cubic feet per acre per year with 160 cubic feet per acre per 77 TABLE XXIV CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE STAVE SERIES - ORTHIC PODZOL Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity m.e./lOO grams  Base Depth Saturation Horizon Inches pH Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. % LH 1*6- 0 Ae 0 - 1 Bfh 1 - 6 Bfl 6 -15 Bf2 15 -19 BCgj 19 -24 Cg 24 -35 HCg 35 + 4.0 9.30 2.22 4.2 0.82 0.16 5.4 0.19 o.o5 5.7 0.29 0.04 5.9 0.22 0.03 5.8 0.31 0.01 5.8 o.i5 o.oi 5.9 0.16 0.01 1.72 0.23 13.47 0.05 0.07 1.10 0.08 0.03 0.35 o.io 0.03 o.46 0.04 0.03 0.32 0.03 0.03 0.38 0.02 0.03 0.21 0.03 o.o4 0.24 160.9 8.4 17.63 6.2 31.24 1.1 16.82 2.7 11.04 2.9 7.67 5.0 5.68 3.7 6.03 4.0 Dithionate Total N Oxalate -Citrate O.M. C-N P l S Extraction Extraction Horizon % % Ratio p.p.m. p.p.m. %Fe %Fe %A1 LH 90.1 1.320 39.7 33.5 _ mm mm mm Ae 5.3 0.107 29.8 4.8 4.5o 0.43 0.42 0.88 0.10 Bfh 8.7 0.188 27.0 3.6 6i.5o 1.94 3.20 2.60 2.35 Bfl 3.7 0.109 19.8 1.2 72.25 1.28 2.66 1.83 1.28 Bf2 1.6 0.055 I6 .9 3.0 245.00 1.02 2.16 1.33 0.83 BCgj 1.3 0.038 19.2 8.5 50.75 0.75 1.66 O..86 0.88 Cg 1.0 0.031 18.4 22.2 32.00 0.58 1.25 0.63 0.40 HCg — 31.1 34.50 O.87 1.98 0.42 0.28 year being the average growth rate. The soil was placed into the lc capabil-ity class. Rooting depth is adequate and for the most part the slopes are moderate. During dry summers some moisture deficiencies occur; the deficiencies, however, are not as severe as the coarse nature of underlying deposits suggest. The cementation in the C horizon tends to restrict downward movement of water, thereby making more moisture available for tree growth. Thinning on these soils should be done with care. Although the topography is favourable and the productivity is high, the trees may be 78 subjected to windthrow due to the shallowness of the soil. Road building properties are good owing to the coarseness of the parent material. Planting should follow logging because of the good site quality and gentle topography. TABLE XXV VEGETATION OCCURRING ON STAVE FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOTS Plot Number 3 22 2k 29 30 31 Amabilis f i r + + 3 Red alder + + White birch + + Douglas-fir 3 Western red cedar + 2 Western hemlock ii 5 5 U Vine.maple l l + Tall blue huckleberry + Deer fern + l Spiny wood-fern + Wild lily-of-the-valley 2 Sword fern + + Bracken fern 1 + Eurhychium moss 3 3 Hylocomium moss 3 2 l Mnium moss + 1 l l Plagiothecium moss 1 3 2 2 2 Polythrichum moss 1 1 Rhytidiadelphus moss 1 1 1 • 79 Where topography is not severe, the Stave soils have some potential for agricultural use. When cultivated the main limitations are low fertility, adverse topography and low moisture holding capacity. The cost of clearing presently forested areas is high due to the dense forest cover. Ryder Series - Orthic Acid Brown Wooded The Ryder series occupies 412 acres in the southeastern portion of Compartment One, with 180 acres in the Tree Farm. The soil occurs at elevations less than 1,200 feet. The topography is moderately, to steeply sloping with slopes mainly being 10 to 30 percent. The Ryder soils are derived from aeolian deposits which overlie glacial t i l l . The depth of the aeolian deposits is usually greater than 18 inches. Surface textures are loam and s i l t loam. There are scattered stones where uprooted trees have raised them from the underlying t i l l . These soils differ from the Cardinal soils in that they have a deeper layer of loess deposited over the glacial t i l l and they lack an Ae horizon. The Ryder soils are moderately to well to well drained and are classified as Orthic Acid Brown Wooded soils. A profile, taken from the Soil Survey of the Matsqui Municipality and Sumas Mountain (36) is described as follows: Depth Horizon Inches Description L-H l^g- 0 Leaves, needles, bracken and other organic l i t t e r . pH 5.8. Bfh 0-7 Strong-brown (7.5TR 5/6, dry) or reddish-brown (5YR 4/4, moist) loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Occasional', scattered iron concretions. Friable when moist. Root abundant. pH 6.1. Diffuse boundary: 80 Depth Horizon Inches Description Bf 7 -15" Strong-brown (7.5IR 5/6 , dry) or dark brown (7.5IR U/U, moist) s i l t loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. A few iron concretions. Friable when moist. Roots abundant. pH 5 . 3 . Gradual boundary: CIIC 15 -22 Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/U, dry) or yellowish brown (10IR 5/U.- 5/6 , moist) very fine sandy loam. Weak, pseudo-suangular blocky structure. Friable when moist. Roots common. pH 5 . 9 . Gradual boundary: IIC1 22 -30 Very pale brown (10TR 7/3, dry) or pale-brown (10YR 6/3, moist) fine sandy loam. Weathered t i l l . Massive, breaking to single-grain structure. Slightly compact but friable when moist. Occasional roots. pH 5 . 9 . Clear boundary: IIC2 30 + Gray (10YR 6/1, dry) or grayish-grown (10YR 5/2, moist) gravelly sandy loam t i l l . Massive. Compact when moist. pH 5 . 9 . Much of the Ryder soils are cultivated or under non-commercial cover. Their productivity would be similar to that of the Cardinal soils, having a MAI of about 160 cubic feet.per acre per year; capability class lb. Rooting depth, slope and texture are satisfactory and only during dry summers will moisture deficiency curtail tree growth. Forest management practices would be the same as for the Cardinal soils. These soils are suitable for agricultural use where topography and depth of solum are not limiting factors. Marble Hi l l Series - Orthic Acid Brown Wooded The Marble H i l l soils occupy 68U acres with only 27U acres within the Tree Farm. This soil is found in the southeastern part of Compartment One at elevations below 1000 feet. The topography is moderate to steeply sloping with slopes usually on the order of 10 to 30 percent. Marble Hi l l soils are derived from loess that overlays glacial outwash. 8 1 The outwash texture varies from medium sand to coarse gravelly sandy loam. The aeolian deposits are usually deeper than 18 inches. Scattered stones at the surface and variable textures are due to uprooting of trees. The well to rapidly drained Orthic Acid Brown Wooded soils has occasional, scattered, more or less soft, iron concretions in the upper part of the solum ( 3 6 ) . A profile description taken from the Soil Survey of the Matsqui Municipality and Sumas Mountain ( 3 6 ) is as follows: Depth Horizon Inches Description L-H l^g- 0 Leaves, grasses, needles and other organic lit t e r , partly decomposed. pH 5.8. Bfh 0 - U Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6 - 5/8, dry) or strong-brown (7.5YR 5/6, moist) loam. Weak, fine subangular blocky structure. Occasional, scattered iron conre-tions. Very friable when moist. Roots common. pH 5.9. Clear boundary: Bf U -11 Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/6 - 5/8, dry) or brown to strong-brown (7.5YR 5/U - 5/6, moist) loam. Weak, very fine subangular blocky structure. Few, scattered iron concretions. Very friable when moist. Roots common. pH 5.9. Gradual boundary: BC 11 - 1 6 Yellowish-brown (10YR 5/U - 5/6, dry) or brown (5YR 5/U, moist) s i l t loam. Weak, very fine subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Roots common. pH 5.7. Diffuse boundary: C 1 6 -2k Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/U, dry) or brown (7.5YR 5/U, moist) loam. Weak, pseudo-subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Occasional roots. Ph 5.7. Gradual boundary: C-IIC 2 U -30 Light yellowish brown (10YR 6/U, dry) or yellowish-brown (10YR 5/U, moist) gravelly loam. Weak pseudo-subangular blocky structure. Very friable when moist. Occasional roots. pH 5.7. Abrupt boundary: 82 Depth Horizon Inches Description IIC 30 + Gravelly sand of various colours. Single-grained. Loose when moist. pH 5.8. The Marble H i l l s o i l s were rated the same as the Keystone s o i l s at 140 cubic f e e t per acre per yearj c a p a b i l i t y class l a . They have some scattered stands of mature timber but they are mostly covered by non-commercial brush cover or are c u l t i v a t e d . Forest management would be s i m i l a r to the Ryder and Cardinal s o i l s because of the f i n e textured solum. The main l i m i t a t i o n s to f o r e s t growth appears to be moisture deficiences during dry summer periods. These s o i l s have a good a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l where topography and depth of solum are not l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s . Calkins Series - Rego Humic Gleysol The Calkins s e r i e s occupy 165 acres, of which 45 acres are within the Tree Farm boundaries. They occupy seepage areas scattered throughout the Marble H i l l and Ryer s o i l s at elevations l e s s than 1000 f e e t . The topography i s u s u a l l y l e v e l . The parent material consists of loess, which has accumulated i n depressions by erosion from higher ground. The loess ranges from 40 to 72 inches t h i c k , underlain by g r a v e l l y or sandy outwash, or g l a c i a l t i l l . The p r o f i l e textures are s i l t loam and s i l t y c l a y loam. They are poorly drained Rego Humic Gleysol s o i l s (36). A p r o f i l e , taken from the S o i l Survey of the Matsqui Municipality and Sumas Mountain (36) i s described as follows: 83 Depth Horizon Inches Description Ah 0 - 9 Very dark brown (10YR 2/2, moist) silty clay loam. Moderate, medium subangular blocky structure. Roots Common. pH 5 .6 . Gradual boundary: Ac 9 -19 Dark-gray (10YR U/l, moist) s i l t loam. Massive. Firm when moist. Occasional roots. pH 5.8. Abrupt boundary: Cgl 19 -30 Grayish-brown (2.5Y 5/2, moist) silty clay loam. Many yellowish-red (5YR 5/6, moist) mottles. Massive. Firm when moist. Occasional roots. pH 5 .9 . Abrupt boundary: Cg2 30 + Light brownish gray (10YR 6/2, moist) s i l t loam. Massive. Many yellowish-red (5YR 5/6, moist) mottles. Firm when moist. pH 6 .6 . The Calkins soil occupies small, poorly drained swampy and forested areas. It was placed in the lb capability class, with a growth rate of 160 cubic feet per acre per year. Occupying small, scattered areas within the Ryder or Marble Hi l l soil areas, the use of Calkins soil for forestry or agriculture would be determined by the uses prescribed for the Ryder and Marble Hi l l soils. Judson Muck Series - (Stratic Mesic Fibrisol) The Judson Muck occupies 117 acres in Compartment One, of which 35 acres occur within the boundaries of the Tree Farm. The topography is flat and depressional in relation to the surrounding areas. This soil has developed mainly from accumulations of woody organic materials, moss and sedge. The depth of the organic material is variable, but generally exceeds two feet. The upper horizons are usually well to partly decomposed, while the subsurface horizons vary from raw to partially 84 decomposed organic matter. This organic soil could be classified as a Stratic Mesic Fibrisol. Judson Muck is very poorly drained and has a water table at or near the surface for most of the year. Root depth is shallow due to the restricted drainage. The reaction of the soil is extremely acid. A typical profile, located near the margin of Stave Lake in the forest productivity plot 2 3 , was examined and described. At the time of sampling (September 1966) the water table was 16 inches below the soil surface. Horizon HF Fl F2 FL LF Depth Inches 0 - h V 2 2 - 6 6 -10 10 -14 14 + Description Mixture of undecomposed coniferous materials and moss. pH 4 . 5 . Abrupt boundary: Very dusky red to black (2.5YR 2/2 - 2/0, moist) well to partially decomposed muck. Abundant roots. pH 4 . 0 . Dark reddish brown (5YR 2/2, moist) partially decomposed mixture of woody and moss peat. Abundant roots. pH 3 . 2 . Gradual boundary: Dark reddish brown (5TR 2 . 5 / 2 , moist) partially decomposed mixture of woody and moss peat. Horizon contains numerous, partially decomposed, dead tree roots. Abundant roots. pH 3 . 9 . Gradual boundary: Dark reddish brown (5YR 2 . 5 / 2 , moist) partially decomposed to raw mixture of woody and moss peat. Horizon contains numerous dead tree roots. Common roots in upper part, none in lower. pH 4 . 1 . Diffuse boundary: Dark reddish brown (5YR 2 . 5 / 2 , moist) raw to partially decomposed mixture of woody and moss peat. Common dead tree roots present. Water table at 16 inches. pH 4 . 2 . A summary of the chemical analyses of the Judson Muck is given in Table XXVI. 85 TABLE XXVI CHEMICAL ANALYSES OF THE JUDSON MUCK SERIES - (STRATIC MESIC FRIBRISOL) Exchangeable Cations and Exchange Capacity m.e./lOO grams  Base Depth Saturation Horizon Inches pH Ca Mg K Na Total C.E.C. % L 0 - h HF kr 2 Fl 2 - 6 F2 6 -10 FL 10 -14 LF 14 + 4.5 14.21 3.17 4.0 12.93 3.02 3.2 5.50 8.65 3.9 14.01 6.38 4.1 20.44 5.82 4.2 23.10 5.30 2.73 0.26 20.37 1.41 0.58 17.94 0.58 0.64 15.37 0.45 0.88 21.70 0.14 0.82 27.22 0.83 0.43 29.66 116.6 17.5 140.7 12.8 155.6 9.9 165.2 13.1 172.6 15.8 187.4 15.8 Dithionate ,po^a^ Oxalate -Citrate 0 M JJ Q [j S Extraction Extraction Horizon % % Ratio p.p.m. p.p.m. %?e %k\ %Fe %A1 L 100.0 1.249 50.2 28.2 HF 100.0 1.856 32.9 21.7 Fl 100.0 1.149 54.4 6.0 F2 100.0 1.556 41.4 15.2 FL 100.0 1.213 51.9 8.9 LF 100.0 1.397- 45.1 7.1 Negligible merchantable timber was found on this soil but immature stands of western hemlock and western red cedar were observed. The lesser vegetation consisted of skunk cabbage and salal with mosses covering the entire forest floor (Table XXVII). If compared to the other soils, in Compartment One, Judson Muck rates as one of the poorer soils for forest growth. Growth, however, is s t i l l substantial averaging 104 cubic feet per acre per year. The capability class rating is 2W. The main limitation (W) to forest growth is the extremely high water table. 8 7 TABLE XXVII VEGETATION OCCURRING ON JUDSON FOREST PRODUCTIVITY PLOT Plot Number 23 Red alder + Western red cedar 3 Western hemlock k Salal 1 False azalea + Deer fern + Spiny wood-fern + Skunk cabbage 1 Eurhychium moss 2 Hylocomium moss U Mnium moss 1 Rhytidiadelphus moss 1 The Judson Muck has very limited use for agriculture in its present state due to high water tables and very strong acidity. Scales of Mapping Four scales of aerial photographs were available for Compartment One: 1:63,360, 1:31,680, l : l5,8U0 and 1:12,000 taken in 1954, 1952, 1957, and 1963 respectively. Compartment One was mapped at scales of 1:15,840, 1:31,680, and 1:63,360 scales. Table XXVIII shows the relationship between the mapping units delineated at the above photographic scales. Examples of mapping at these scales are shown on the photographs (Appendices 1, 2, TABLE XXVIII SOIL SERIES CLASSIFICATION LEGEND AND MAPPING UNITS 1:15,8UO Soil Series Parent Material 1:31,680 1:63,360 Forest Mapping Mapping Slope Capability Units Units (percent) Drainage Class  Rock Outcrop Cannel Hoover Kenworthy Cardinal Steelhead Roach Keystone Mission Stave Marble Hill Calkins Ryder Judson bed rock (10) 16-60 shallow colluvium, loess and ablation (10) 16-60 t i l l over bedrock colluvium, loess and ablation t i l l (16) 30-60 over basal t i l l or bedrock colluvium, loess and ablation t i l l (30) 50-90 over basal t i l l or bedrock loess and ablation t i l l over basal (6) 10-30 t i l l loess and ablation t i l l over basal 15 t i l l shallow loess over or mixed with 6-30 gravelly outwash shallow loess over or mixed with 10 gravelly outwash shallow loess over or mixed with 10 gravelly outwash shallow loess over or mixed with 10(40) sandy outwash deep loess over gravelly outwash (6) 10-30 deep loess over gravelly outwash 6 or glacial t i l l deep loess over glacial t i l l (6) 10-30 deep muck 6 rapid-we11 well-rapid moderately we11-well well-moder-ately well moderately well imperfectly moderately well-well moderately well imperfect moderately well well-rapid poor moderatley well-well poor 1 la lb lc 3 D  JP la lb lc 89 and 3) and soil survey maps (Appendices 1, 2, and 3). The 1:12,000 photographs were used as aerial maps because they were of a large scale and because they were recently taken (I963). Mapping at the Scale of 1:12,000 The scale of 1:12,000 was the largest scale available for Compartment One. Although no final typing was done at this scale, some preliminary typing was attempted. The mapping units used were the established soil series. Complexes of the soil series were used in moderation and used only when the units were small of where steep slopes were encountered. The delination of the mapping units at the 1:12,000 scale would require a considerable amount of time consuming fieldwork to check the placement of the boundaries. Also, intensive photographic interpretation would be required. Because of the large scale, 52 photographs were needed for complete coverage of Compartment One. Each photograph covered within the match lines an area of approximately 1.5 square miles. As a result, i f the area was mapped at this scale, a considerable amount of time would have been spent on typing, checking, and transferring boundaries and labels on the photographs and maps. In surveys which would cover hundreds of square miles a volumous amount of photographs would be needed increasing the work load tremendously. The 1:12,000 is very difficult to use in mountainous terrain. Steep slopes are hard or almost impossible to study stereoscopically owing to the distortion. In many cases the flight lines did not overlap and spaces up to one inch or more existed. The lack of overlap would make map making and photographic work difficult. On gentle or moderate slopes the topography appeared flat, because that photograph covered only a small portion of the 90 area. Also, trees tended to mask topography making i t very difficult to pick out the relief. - Detailed interpretation and mapping at 1:12,000 is useful in planning experimental plot work or fertili t y work and in the location and management of tree nurseries, where intensive management warrants the additional expenditure of time and money. Mapping at the Scale of l:l5,8UO At the scale 1:15,81*0, fourteen different mapping units were used (Table XXVIII). The mapping units consisted of the established soil series. More than 75 percent of the delineated units were complexes of two or three soil series. Mapping at this scale znd at larger scales is considered detailed mapping. Delineation of the mapping units at the l:l5,81|0 scale required a considerable amount of time consuming fieldwork to locate and to check the placement of boundaries. Also, intensive photographic interpretation was involved in locating the boundaries. The mapping units were extended into non-field checked areas by photographic interpretation and by using indicators such as: shape of the land surface, slope changes, drainage, and changes in forest stand structure. With this scale as with the 1:12,000 scale, in surveys that cover many hundreds of square miles, alarge number of photographs would be needed and a considerable amount of time would be spent on locating photographs, checking and transferring boundaries and labels. Within Compartment One, 28 photographs at the scale l:l5,8UO were needed for complete coverage. Each photograph covered, within the match lines, an area of approximately 2.5 square miles. The number of photographs used in the fieldwork was 9 1 insignificant in an area as small as Compartment One, but the number of photographs was significant in increasing the work load when boundaries and labels were being transferred among photographs and checked on the maps. In mountainous terrain steep slopes are difficult to differentiate stereoscropically and in some cases flight lines did not overlap. Relief was easier to see on the l:l5,81;0 photographs than on the 1:12,000 because, larger areas could be seen at one time and the greater vertical exageration. Trees s t i l l tended to mask the maximum expression of topography. At the scale I : l5,8h0 detailed mapping and interpretation is very useful for intensive forest management and for research. Road locations, logging plans, planting, scarifying, forest nursery location are some forest management practices that could be carried out at this scale of interpretation. Experimental plot work and fertili t y studies are some of the research uses possible at this scale of photography. Mapping at the Scale 1:31,680 At the scale 1:31,680, nine mapping units were used (Table XXVIIl). These units are combinations of soil series of similar parent material, slope, position on the land surface, drainage, and forest capability ratings. There is less homogeneity within these mapping units than in the large scale units. Features used to delineate the mapping units at the scale of 1:13,680 were: position on the land surface, shape of the land surface, slope changes, drainage, and changes in the forest stand structure. Most of the preceding were landform features. The mapping unit boundaries were field 92 checked to ensure correct positioning. Since the mapping units were less homogeneous and broader in scale, less accuracy was required and less time was needed in placing their boundaries on the photographs. Consequently, only 10 photographs were needed for complete coverage of Compartment One; each photography covering within the match lines an area of 100 square miles. As a result of the low number of photographs typed, time was saved in transferring and checking boundaries and labels from one typed photograph to the next. Therefore, the area was mapped more quickly at the 1:31,680 scale than at the larger scales. However, i t must be remembered there was a loss in accuracy of the map boundaries and there was greater heterogeneity with a map unit. With the present forestry practices this scale of photograph and mapping would be the most practical for the management of large blocks of forested lands - 100 square miles or more. Interpretations for forest management at this level of generalization should be satisfactory to meet most forest management requirements. Mapping at the Scale 1:63,360 Seven mapping units were used at the 1:63,360 scale. Broad landforms and geologic features were the major criteria used to identify these mapping units. Aided by the exagerated vertical scale and a knowledge of the area, these features were readily outlined and identified on the photo-graphs. Since only six photographs were needed for complete coverage of Compartment One and each photograph covered within the match lines an area of approximately 55 square miles, the mapping of Compartment One was done in a relatively short time. If the photographs would have been taken especially for this area, only three would have been required at this scale 93 of 1:63,360, as Compartment One has an area of only 23.5 square miles. The boundaries located at this scale were used to check and locate the same boundaries on the larger scale photographs, where the vertical exageration and stereoscopic field was much less. Mapping at this broad scale of 1:63,360 is useful in planning regional resource surveys and inventories, and in making regional compari-sons. It would also be ideal for the ARDA studies now being undertaken in forested lands. 94 GENERAL DISCUSSION The r e s u l t s of the analyses of the s o i l s are included with the s o i l s e r i e s descriptions given i n the previous s e c t i o n . From these tables i t may be noted that the s o i l s were a l l acid and varied i n pH from 3.8 to 6.0. The organic horizons, which varied i n thickness from 1.5 to 6.0 inches, were the most a c i d i c , ranging i n pH from 3.8 to 4.2. The Ae horizons were usually t h i n , 0.5 to 3.0 inches, and t h e i r r e a c t i o n was quite uniform, the pH being 4.1 to 4.2. The B horizons were variable i n thickness, ranging from 6 to 24 inches. The pH of the top horizons of the B was low, about 5.0, and increased with depth to about 5.9- The t r a n s i t i o n horizons and the C horizons had a pH of 5.7 to 6.0. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased with increasing amounts of organic matter. The CEC of the organic horizons was very high with values averaging 130 m i l l i e q u i v a l e n t s per 100 grams of s o i l (me/100 grams). The Ae horizons were low i n organic matter and t h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r CEC which ranged from 10 to 15 me/100 grams. In the B horizons, where the organic matter accumulation was high, such as i n the Bhf, the CEC was correspondingly large, around 50 me/100 grams. The Bfh, containing le s s organic matter than the Bhf horizons, had CEC values ranging between 20 to 30 me/100 grams. The Bf horizons were s t i l l somewhat lower i n organic matter and the CEC varied between 11 to 22 me/100 grams. Although there was a marked r e l a t i o n s h i p between CEC and organic matter, the CEC was also influenced by the amount of clay and to some extent s i l t i n the s o i l . The sulphur content of the s o i l was high, above 40 parts per m i l l i o n (ppm). Generally, f o r the more productive s o i l s the phosphorus content was very low, being less than 5 ppm. In the mineral horizons of the s o i l the percentage of nitrogen was less than 0.3 percent. The base saturation was 95 s u r p r i s i n g l y low, varying between 0.3 to 19.2 percent. These values, of course, are dependent on the methods employed i n the analyses. The chemical data gives l i t t l e evidence of the reasons f o r differences i n s o i l p r o d u c t i v i t y . At the present time there i s very l i t t l e information regarding the parameters needed to assess tree growth and as a r e s u l t , the analyses common f o r a g r i c u l t u r e s o i l s have been applied to forested s o i l s . The r e s u l t s obtained i n t h i s study suggest that the analyses and methods should be c r i t i c a l l y examined. For example, the determination of exchange-able cations and CEG may be performed using a normal, neutral s a l t , rather than the standard, buffered ammonium acetate (UU, pp. 6 7 - 7 6 ) . Other para-meters such as bulk density, water holding capacity, rooting depth, and l o c a l c l i m a t i c data may be very pertinent i n assessing the p r o d u c t i v i t y of a s o i l and these are not used i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of s o i l s at the present time. Vegetation l i s t s were made with the hope that c e r t a i n species would be associated with a p a r t i c u l a r s o i l s e r i e s and, therefore, a i d i n d e l i n e -ating mapping boundaries. No major s i g n i f i c a n c e could be a t t r i b u t e d to the vegetation l i s t s . The area had been burnt about 130 years ago and logged since the turn of the century. The f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y p l o t s were of two ages, the oldes group of p l o t s averaging 110 years old and the youngest group, 50 years o l d . In a l l pl o t s the shrubs and herbs were very v a r i a b l e . Western hemlock was the dominant tree species i n the younger stands, whereas, i n the older stands dominance was shared by western hemlock and Douglas-fir. Of the mosses, feather moss was the most consistent on a l l p l o t s , but no one s o i l had a unique c h a r a c t e r i s t i c species of moss. In the c o a s t a l region of B r i t i s h Columbia, Douglas-fir has been the species most widely used i n p l a n t i n g . Generally, f o r the Tree Farm, i t 96 would be the desired species. In some cases hemlock might be more advantag-eous than Douglas-fir or planted with Douglas-fir. Where feasible, the soils having a la or better capability rating (such as the Cardinal, Steel-head, Keystone, Stave, Marble H i l l , and Ryder soils) should be planted immediately after logging. The Hoover and Kenworthy soils being on steep hillsides may be uneconomical to plant. There is a possiblity that these soils may regenerate naturally. Being located on steep slopes, the Hoover and Kenworthy soils are subject to erosion and steps to curtail erosion should be taken. These soils would be expensive to intensively manage. The soils having a capability rating less than 1 would be uneconomical to manage intensively for forestry purposes. The Roach soils would be better used for their source of gravel and sand. Because of slow tree growth, topographic position, and erodability the Cannel and Rock Outcrop soils, where feasible, should not be logged but used as a watershed reserve. The Tree Farm, being a relatively small, hilly area, has a very complex soil pattern. As a result, the management of the Tree Farm would be governed by the larger soil units with possibly some modification for the minor soil units. Therefore,, road construction, logging methods, planting practices, and other facets of forest management would depend on a weighted average of the capability of a group of soil units. 97 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION Fourteen soil series were mapped in Compartment One at three photographic scales. Of the fourteen series, eleven soil series were newly established and three soil series were setablished in a previous soil survey. Each soil series was rated for its capability to produce commercial forest growth. The soil sereis belonged to the Podzolic and Brunisolic orders and were established according to the standards set forth by the National Soil Survey Committee of Canada. Profile develop-ment, slope, drainage, parent material, and position on the slope were the major parameters used in establishing the soil series. The soil series was used as the criteria for the mapping unit at the scale l:l5,8UO. Seventy-five percent of the mapping units at this scale were complexes of two or three soil series. As the scale 1:31,680, nine mapping units were used. These mapping units were less homogeneous and consisted of complexes of soil series. At the scale 1:63,360, seven mapping units were established. They were based on broad landform and geologic features. At the scales 1:12,000, 1:15,840, 1:31,680, and 1:63,360; 55, 28, 10, and six photographs, respectively, were needed to obtain complete coverage of Compartment One. Compartment One had an area of l5,06U acres of approximately 23.5 square miles, of which 9,300 acres were within the Tree Farm Licence No. 26 boundary. For an area such as Compartment One on which good forest management is being practiced, mapping at the scale of l:l5,8UO was ideal. For large forested areas - 100 square miles or more -mapping at the scale of 1:31,680 would be most adequate. Mapping at the 1:12,000 was very difficult and time consuming. This scale of mapping should be restricted to detailed studies of small, specific areas at the 9 8 present time. Mapping at the 1:63 ,360 scale was useful in obtaining a broad picture of the major landforms. Soil capability rating for each soil were established and ranged from UR on the Rock Outcrop mapping unit to lc on the Steelhead and Stave series. Growth of trees seemed to be related to the amount and continuity of seepage water, to the nutrients carried by the seepage water, and to the depth of solum, rather than to the nutritional value of the soil. From the chemical data obtained from the soil, no apparent reason could be related to the difference of growth rates between the productivity plots. For example, the sampled Steelhead and Roach profiles were 1 5 0 feet apart. The chemical data was very similar, but the growth rate differed by 9 7 cubic feet per acre per year, the Steelhead plot having a growth rate of 1 9 3 cubic feet per acre per year and the Roach plot, 9 6 cubic feet per acre per year. The major difference is belived to be that the Steelhead plot was depressional and imperfectly drained, whereas, the Roach plot was located on a well drained flat ridge top about 2 0 feet higher than the Steelhead plot. Rooting depth in both cases was approximately 1 2 inches. The uses for each soil and their management for forestry was dependent on the capability rating, parent material and topography. Further studies are needed to determine the relationship between soils and tree groiirth, especially the determination of soil parameters which show a direct relationship with tree growth. Many of the present soil analyses may not be necessary in relating the soils to growth. 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Canada, Dept. of Northern Affairs and National Resources, Forestry Branch, Bulletin 123. 36. Runka, G. G. and C. C. Kelley. 1964. Soil Survey of Matsqui Municipality and Sumas Mountain. Preliminary Report No. 6 , B. C. Dept. of Agriculture, Kelowna, B. C. 37. Soil Survey Staff, USDA. 1951. Soil Survey Manual. U. S. Dept. of Agriculture Handbook No. 18, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. pp. 280-284. 38. Soil Survey Staff, USDA. i 9 6 0 . Soil Classification, A Comprehensive System, 7 th Approximation. U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. pp. 15-17. 39- Spilsbury, R. H., J. W. C. Arlidge, N. Keser, L.Farstad, and D. S. Lacate. 1965. A Co-operative Study of the Classification of Forest Land. Forest-Soil Relationships in North America. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis. 40. Sprout, P. N., D. S. Lacate, and J. W. C. Arlidge. I 9 6 6 . Forest Land Classification Survey and Interpretation for Management of a Portion of the Niskonlith Provincial Forest, Kamloops District, British Columbia. Canada, Dept. of Forestry Publication No. 1159. B. C. Forest Service Technical Publication T60. 41. Steinbrenner, E. C. and F. E. Gehrke. 1964. Soil Survey of the Vail Tree Farm. Weyerhaeuser Company, Washington, U. S. A. 42. Tree Farm Abbreviations. Re-issued: Forest Management Services Section, Ottawa. March 4, I 9 6 6 . 102 43. Trewartha, G. T. 1954. An Introduction to Climate. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. New York. pp. 381-383. 44. Workshop Report. 1965. Third British Columbia Soil Science Workshop. B. C. Dept. of Agriculture, Cloverdale, B. C. 103 APPENDIX 1 Is63,360 Typed Photographs and 1:50,000 S o i l Survey Map LEGEND Symbol Description 1 rough, mountainous terrain, steeply sloping, soils developed in a mixture of colluvium, loess and ablation t i l l , usually shallow to basal t i l l or bedrock, rapid to moderately well drained. 2 rolling terrain and depressions, soils developed in loess and ablation t i l l , usually deep to basal t i l l , moderately well to imperfectly drained. 3 rolling terrain and depressions (valley bottoms), soils developed in a shallow loess over or mixed with gravelly outwash, well to imperfectly drained. h flat or subdued terrain, soils developed in shallow loess over or mixed with shallow sandy outwash or sandy deltaic deposits. 5 steeply sloping to rolling terrain, soils developed in deep loess over gravelly outwash, rapid to poorly drained. 6 steeply sloping to rolling terrain, soils developed in deep loess over glacial t i l l , well to poorly drained. 7 flat depressional areas, soils developed in organic matter, poorly drained. Scale: 1:50,000 A 13247 - 28 A I K f t l U l U U l V I O l u n tnikai - Mints & RESOURCES - CANADIAN GOVT. COPYRIGI 6 1 MIR PHOTO DIVISION ENERGY - MINES & RESOURCES - CANADIAN GOVT, COPYI 10U APPENDIX 2 1:31,680 Typed Photographs and Corresponding Soil Survey Map LEGEND Mapping Unit S o i l s Parent Material Drainage ; 3 6 r 1 7 l 6 1 ? Rock Outcrop and Cannel S o i l Series Hoover and Kenworthy S o i l Series Cardinal and Steelhead S o i l Series Roach S o i l Series Keystone and Mission S o i l Series Stave S o i l Series shallow l i t t e r to a shallow mixture of loess, colluvium, and ablation t i l l over bedrock mixture of loess, colluvium and ablation over basal t i l l or bedrock mixture of loess and ablation t i l l over basal t i l l shallow loess mixed with gravelly g l a c i a l outwash shallow loess over or mixed with gravelly g l a c i a l outwash shallow loess over or mixed with sandy g l a c i a l outwash or sandy delt a i c deposits Marble H i l l and Calkins S o i l Series deep loess over gravelly g l a c i a l outwash Ryder and Calkins S o i l Series Judson Muck S o i l Series Swamp deep loess over g l a c i a l t i l l organic material rapid to well w e l l to moderately w e l l moderately w e l l to imperfect w e l l moderately w e l l to imperfect moderately well w e l l to moderately w e l l moderately well poor BC JbZi - 8 BC lt>20- Sb B C l b 2 0 - 5 8 105 APPENDIX 3 l:l5 ,8UO Typed Photographs and Corresponding Soil Survey Map LEGEND Symbol S o i l Series Subgroup Parent Material Drainage f~CE~  | HV  | KW RH KE ih H'OL SE RD CN MH J Rock Outcrop Cannel Hoover Kenworthy Cardinal Steelhead Roach Keystone Mission Stave Ryder Calkins Marble H i l l Judson Muck Orthic Concretionary Podzol Orthic Concretionary Podzol Acid Brown Wooded-Regosol Intergrade Orthic Humic Podzol Gleyed Humic Podzol Orthic Humic Podzol-Ortstein Podzol Intergrade Orthic Concretionary Podzol Gleyed Humic Podzol-Gleyed O r t s t e i n Podzol Intergrade Orthic Podzol Acid Brown Wooded Rego Humic Gleysol Acid Brown Wooded Acid Brown Wooded-(Stractic Mesic F i b r i s o l ) shallow l i t t e r over bedrock shallow colluvium, loess and abl a t i o n t i l l over bedrock colluvium, loess and a b l a t i o n t i l l over basal t i l l or bedrock colluvium, loess and a b l a t i o n t i l l over basal t i l l or bedrock loess and abl a t i o n t i l l over basal t i l l loess and ablation t i l l over basal t i l l shallow loess over or mixed with g r a v e l l y outwash shallow loess over or mixed with g r a v e l l y outwash shallow loess over or mixed with g r a v e l l y outwash shallow loess over or mixed with sandy outwash or d e l t a i c sands deep loess over g l a c i a l t i l l deep loess over g r a v e l l y outwash or g l a c i a l t i l l deep loess over g r a v e l l y outwash deep muck rapid to well w e l l to rapid moderately well to w e l l well to moderately well moderately w e l l imperfect moderately well to well moderately well imperfect moderately w e l l moderately w e l l to well poor well to rapid poor Swamp I Topographic Classes Single slopes Multiple slopes Slope % A depressional to level a 0 - 0 B very gently sloping b 0.5 - 2 C gently sloping c 2 - 5 D moderately sloping d 6 - 9 E strongly sloping e 10 - 15 F steeply sloping f 16 - 30 G very steeply sloping g 30 - 60 H extremely sloping h over 60 Reference Roads = = = = = = = = Powerline • " " Streams ~~ Photograph centers and Q 64 ^ ^ Q flight line Privately owned land ' T.F.L. No. 26 Scale: 4 inches = 1 mile or 1:15,840 B C 2 3 2 3 - SJ BC 2 3 2 3 ~?2 106 APPENDIX h 1:15,8U0 S o i l C a p a b i l i t y For Forestry Map LEGEND Forest Capability-Class Capab i l i t y Rating Mean Annual Increment (cubic feet per acre per year) lc l b l a 2 171-190 151-170 131-150 111-130 91-110 71- 90 5 1 - 70 0- 10 Roads Powerline Streams Photograph centers and flight line Privately owned land Scale: 4 inches = 1 mi REFERENCE r j 6 4 B.C. 2 3 2 3 o / T.F.L. No. 2 6 4 3 or 1:15,840 86 85 6 2 ro // ro ro CM O CD o 9 0 7 SCALE 4 INCHES 8 I MILE l u _ CM ro CM o o CM (J CD ' ro CM ro CM Q CD 78 o 55 ro Pi CM d CD O CM CD O CD ro CM ro C\J o" CD 71 MISSION TREE FARM LICENCE NO. 26 • COMPARTMENT I SOIL CAPABILITY FOR FORESTRY MISSION TREE FARM LICENCE NO. 26 COMPARTMENT I SOIL SURVEY Reference 86 Roads Powerline Streams Contours ( 1 0 0 f o o t ) 1 5 0 0 ,85 .62 Photograph centers and q 6 4 ^ ^ Q f l i g h t l i n e S c a l e : 2 inches = 1 m i l e or 1:31*680 o ft* <g o CE 5^5 n u a ,78 MISSION TREE FARM LICENCE NO. 26 COMPARTMENT I SOIL SURVEY 

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