UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Utilization of manpower in a public welfare setting Budnick, Angela Frieda Mary 1967

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UTILIZATION OF MANPOWER IN A PUBLIC WELFARE SETTING by A n g e l a F r i e d a Mary B u d n i c k E l l i s George L i n d s a y W i l l i a m N e i l MacBeth Ro n a l d F r a n c i s P o l l a r d T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d I n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l umbia A p r i l , 1967 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that r.he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. 1 f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission„ Departmc-ftt of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8 , Canada ^ t e /T^U^. /£, ll^l-i i ABSTRACT T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h the s o c i a l work man-power p r o b l e m as i t e x i s t s i n the s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e s e c t o r o f the p u b l i c W e l f a r e f i e l d . The p u r p o s e o f the s t u d y was to d e t e r m i n e i f a r a t i o n a l p l a n f o r the de-ployment o f s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l c o u l d be d e v i s e d t h a t would r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e and a p p r o p r i a t e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l work s t a f f w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g and competence. The p r o j e c t i s an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y based on R i c h a n ' s s u g g e s t -i o n t h a t a p l a n f o r worker deployment can be more e f f e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d by f i r s t d e t e r m i n i n g the degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l con-t r o l s p r e s e n t o r r e q u i r e d i n the performance o f the v a r i o u s t a s k s i n a p u h l i c w e l f a r e agency. A l i s t o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n the i s s u a n c e o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e from i n i t i a l c o n t a c t t h r o u g h t o t e r m i n a t i o n was drawn up by the r e s e a r c h -e r s on the b a s i s o f t h e i r knowledge and combined twenty-two y e a r s e x p e r i -ence i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s l i s t o f one hundred t w e n t y - e i g h t t a s k s was p r e s e n t e d i n the form o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o seven e x p e r i e n c e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s c a r r y i n g u r b a n and r u r a l c a s e l o a d s i n t h r e e p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s . The w o r k e r s were asked t o d e t e r m i n e o v e r a two week p e r i o d , by n o t i n g t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , i f the l i s t was a c c u r a t e , c o m p lete and unambig-uous. T h i s v a l i d a t e d l i s t o f t a s k s was p r e s e n t e d to a p a n e l o f f o u r -t e e n j u d g e s h o l d i n g M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work degrees and a t l e a s t two y e a r s ' e x p e r i e n c e i n the p u b l i c w e l f a r e f i e l d f o r r a t i n g . The r a t i n g p r o c e d -u r e s were based on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e o f autonomy o f worke r f u n c t i o n i n g r e q u i r e d i n the performance o f the d i f f e r e n t t a s k s . Beck's d e f i n i t i o n o f worke r autonomy was a c c e p t e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s study, as i t i n c o r p o r a t e s the e x p l i c i t n e s s o f g u i d e s to the w o r k e r s , the v i s i b i l i t y o f worker a c t i v i t y and the degree o f r e q u i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s . T h i s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , the use o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the r a t i n g s c a l e , was c o n s i d e r e d the most f e a s i b l e as they were easy t o a d m i n i s t e r , f l e x i b l e , a l l o w e d f o r f i n e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h a s p e c i f i c frame o f r e f e r e n c e , i n e x p e n s i v e f i n a n c i a l l y and i n terms o f w o r k e r - j u d g e - r e s e a r c h e r t i m e . An a n a l y s i s o f our stu d y f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y 9 per c e n t o f the l i s t e d t a s k s r e c e i v e d 80 p e r c e n t o f judge r a t i n g agreement t h a t was n e c e s s a r y to e s t a b l i s h i t s r e l i a b i l i t y o f the r a t i n g s . I t was s i g -n i f i c a n t , however, t h a t the j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n t e n d i n g t o c l u s t e r a t two a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s . W h i l e i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t i s not y e t r e l i a b l e , the f a c t t h a t 42 p e r c e n t o f the t a s k s r e c e i v e d o v e r 60 p e r c e n t agreement i s e n c o u r a g i n g and l e a d s the r e s e a r c h e r s to c o n c l u d e t h a t the s t u d y i s g o i n g i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . i i i I t was a l s o t e n t a t i v e l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t the c l o s e n e s s o f the r a t i n g s seemed to. i n d i c a t e e i t h e r t h a t the r a t i n g s c a l e o f autonomy was not f i n e enough to a l l o w d i s t i n c t i o n s between a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s or t h a t the t a s k s were not d e f i n e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y f o r the j u d g e s to make d i s t i n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the amount o f autonomy r e q u i r e d i n the p e r -formance o f the t a s k . The j u d g e s were q u e r i e d on the problems they e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e i r r a t i n g s and t h e i r remarks l e d the r e s e a r c h e r s to re-examine the d e f i n i t i o n s o f the t a s k s , and a l t h o u g h they had been v a l i d a t e d by the f i e l d w o r k e r s i n the i n i t i a l phase o f the s t u d y , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t d e f i n i t i o n s o f a g r e a t number o f t a s k s c o u l d be u n c l e a r o r c o n f u s i n g when they were r a t e d by the employment o f the autonomy c r i t e r i o n . T h i s r e - e x a m i n a t i o n l e d the r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e v i s e a l l t a s k s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n 80 per c e n t agreement. I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t the c r i t e r i o n o f autonomy s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d . R a t h e r , i f the r e v i s e d l i s t o f t a s k s c a n be g i v e n to j u d g e s to r a t e a g a i n , i t i s f e l t t h a t a much h i g h e r degree o f r e l i a b i l i t y can be e s t a b l i s h e d . S h o u l d the new r a t i n g s p r o v e to be r e l i a b l e , the way w i l l t h e n be c l e a r t o d e v e l o p a t a s k a s s i g n m e n t scheme to be employed i n a f i e l d s t u d y . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Ch a p t e r I : I n t r o d u c t i o n The scoe and i m p o r t a n c e o f the pr o b l e m . C u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s . D e c i s i o n s n e e d i n g to be made. P e r s o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h i s p r o j e c t . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h r e p o r t P. .1 C h a p t e r I I : Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e C r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f y i n g t a s k s . S o c i a l Work S t a f f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schemes. Schemes o f work a s s i g n m e n t . Methods o f e v a l u a t i o n . S t a f f T r a i n i n g p r o p o s a l s P- 8 C h a p t e r I I I : Study D e s i g n C o n c e p t u a l framework. Q u e s t i o n s t o be s t u d i e d . C o n c epts t o be i n c l u d e d i n the s t u d y . V a r i a b l e s t o be i n c l u d e d i n t he s t u d y . L e v e l o f r e s e a r c h . d e s i g n . Data a n a l y s i s d e s i g n . S a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s . Methods o f G a t h e r i n g d a t a P. 30 C h a p t e r IV: Study F i n d i n g s D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on st u d y sample. A n a l y s i s o f the r a t i n g s . Problems e n c o u n t e r e d P. 43 Chapt e r V: Summary P. 51 B i b l i o g r a p h y P. 57 A p p e n d i c e s : A. The O r i g i n a l L i s t o f Tasks and I n s t r u c t i o n s P. 60 B. R a t i n g S c a l e P. 72 C. R e v i s e d L i s t o f Tasks P. 75 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r s would l i k e t o t a k e t h i s o p p o r t u n i t y to thank a l l t h o s e who a s s i s t e d us i n the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t . We would p a r t i c u l a r l y l i k e to thank Dr. Joh n Crane, our t h e s i s a d v i s o r f o r h i s g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t . To those f i e l d , w o r k e r s i n the s o c i a a s s i s t a n c e o f f i c e s i n the V i c t o r i a a r e a , who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y and to thos e who s e r v e d as j u d g e s , o ur h e a r t f e l t t h a n k s . U T I L I Z A T I O N OF MANPOWER I N A P U B L I C WELFARE S E T T I N G CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The Scope and Importance of t h e P r o b l e m The u t i l i z a t i o n o f manpower i s a p r o b l e m p r e s e n t l y c a u s i n g c o n c e r n i n a l l f i e l d s of s o c i a l w e l f a r e - - i n p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , f a m i l y and c h i l d r e n ' s s e r v i c e s , m e d i c a l and p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s , and the f i e l d o f c o r r e c t i o n s . B o t h from the l i t e r a t u r e and from a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e , i t soon becomes e v i d e n t t h a t c a s e l o a d s a r e t o o heavy and t o o g e n e r a l t o a l l o w w o r k e r s t o p r o v i d e f u l l s e r v i c e s on a s e l e c t i v e b a s i s a c c o r d i n g t o need. Indeed, due t o the s e v e r e l a c k o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l , we f i n d numerous a g e n c i e s u s i n g u n q u a l i f i e d w o r k e r s t o p r o v i d e a whole range of s e r v i c e s i n c l u d i n g t h o s e , such as m a r i t a l c o u n s e l l i n g and a d o p t i o n s , w h i c h were t r a d -i t i o n a l l y the p r e s e r v e of t h e h i g h l y s k i l l e d p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r . Our i n t e r e s t i s l i m i t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e f i e l d o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e . W h i l e t h e p a r t i c u l a r t a s k s i n t h i s a r e a of s o c i a l work a r e t o e s t a b l i s h e l i g i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and o t h e r forms of m a t e r i a l a i d , p u b l i c w e l f a r e a l s o has the f u n c t i o n o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and, h o p e f u l l y , p r e v e n t i o n of f u r t h e r s o c i a l d y s f u n c t i o n . Due t o t h e f a c t t h a t the p u b l i c w e l f a r e w o r k e r i s o f t e n the f i r s t and p erhaps t h e o n l y r e s o u r c e , an i n d i v i d u a l or a f a m i l y h a s , n o t o n l y w i t h m a t t e r s o f a m a t e r i a l n a t u r e , but a l s o w i t h more g e n e r a l s o c i a l d y s f u n c t i o n i n g , we f e e l t h a t the i m p o r t a n c e of i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of s e r v i c e o f f e r e d the c l i e n t i s o f the utmost i m p o r t a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e many p u b l i c w e l f a r e w o r k e r s have n o t c o mpleted o r even begun t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and a r e o f t e n r e q u i r e d t o a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h problems f a r beyond t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s , a s i m p l e u t i l i t a r i a n scheme f o r a s s i gnment of s o c i a l work t a s k s would p r o v i d e a b e t t e r measure o f p r o t e c t i o n t o the c l i e n t . O f t e n the c l i e n t i s too v u l n e r a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d the u n s k i l l e d w o r k e r ' s t a m p e r i n g . However, as many p u b l i c w e l f a r e c l i e n t s come w i t h a s p e c i f i c and r e c o g n i z a b l e m a t e r i a l need, b u t , r e q u i r e l i t t l e o r no o t h e r h e l p , i t would seem t h e r e i s d e f i n i t e l y a p l a c e f o r t he n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme f o r s o c i a l work t a s k s and an a p p r o p r i a t e scheme f o r as s i g n m e n t o f t a s k s t o w o r k e r s would thus f r e e the p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r t o p r o v i d e more i n t e n s i v e and s k i l l e d forms o f t r e a t m e n t and a l l o w the c l i e n t t o r e c e i v e h e l p more q u i c k l y and a t the same t i m e , h e l p more a p p r o p r i a t e t o h i s needs. C u r r e n t P r a c t i c e s U n t i l r e c e n t l y , t h e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e ^ made l i t t l e a t t e m p t t o c l a s s i f y t a s k s or t o d e v i s e a scheme f o r m a x i m i z i n g use o f s t a f f . P r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s h a n d l e d the same cases w i t h a r e s u l t i n g i n a b i l i t y and l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y t o p r o v i d e comprehensive s e r v i c e t o meet c l i e n t needs. L a r g e c a s e l o a d s and t h e heavy demands o f the l e g a l a s p e c t s o f d e t e r m i n i n g e l i g i b i l i t y f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e l e f t t he w o r k e r s l i t t l e t ime e i t h e r f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g need f o r casework t r e a t m e n t o r f o r c a r r y i n g i t out when t h i s was i n d i c a t e d . An a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t the s i t u a t i o n was made two y e a r s ago w i t h t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f " c a s e l o a d s t r e a m i n g " - - t h a t i s , a s s i g n i n g p r i o r i t y c a ses to s p e c i a l w o r k e r s who were t o g i v e more i n t e n s i v e s e r v i c e . The c r i t e r i a f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t y has been based on the i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r ' s b e l i e f t h a t the case r e q u i r e d some form o f s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s e d e c i s i o n s a r e o f t e n made by n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s who do n o t p o s s e s s d i a g n o s t i c t r a i n i n g o r s k i l l . T h e r e f o r e , c a s e s r e q u i r i n g i n t e n s i v e t r e a t ; * ment a r e sometimes o v e r l o o k e d and b u r i e d i n " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c a s e l o a d s " w h i l e o t h e r c a s e s a r e r e f e r r e d t h r o u g h f o r i n t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t when no need f o r i t 1 W i t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r , the Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i s t h a t o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . e x i s t s . T h i s l a c k of an adequate scheme f o r t a s k a s s i g n m e n t , the s h o r t a g e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s t o h a n d l e the i n t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t c a s e l o a d s , and the f a i l u r e o f t h e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e t o r e d u c e c a s e l o a d s f o r e i t h e r the p r o f e s s i o n a l or n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l worker to manageable p r o p o r t i o n s has n o t l e d t o e n c o u r a g i n g r e s u l t s i n t h i s program t o d a t e . C a s e l o a d s range from as h i g h as 60 h i g h l y a c t i v e , i n t e n s i v e c a r e cases f o r the p r o f -e s s i o n a l , t o as h i g h as 200 cases f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e w o r k e r . One o f the t h e s i s members h a n d l i n g a c a s e l o a d o f 180 s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s , d u r i n g the summer o f 1966, k e p t a d i a r y f o r t e n days of h i s d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s . I t i s r e a d i l y d i s c e r n i b l e t h a t the m a j o r p o r t i o n o f t i m e was s p e n t h a n d l i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s ( r e c o r d i n g , f i l i n g , i s s u i n g a n c i l l a r y m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s and so f o r t h ) and i n e s t a b l i s h i n g e l i g i b i l i t y . I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t i m e was a v a i l a b l e f o r o n l y two i n t e r v i e w s of a more i n t e n s i v e n a t u r e . Thus, we must c o n s i d e r whether i t i s a c t u a l l y a s t r e a m i n g of cases about w h i c h we a r e c o n c e r n e d , or more l i k e l y , the s t r e a m i n g o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n r e l a t i o n t o any s p e c i f i c c a s e . We s h o u l d l i k e t o d i s c u s s one o t h e r e f f o r t t o m aximize s t a f f d eployment. Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , have t r i e d t o s e p a r a t e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l f rom casework p r a c t i c e . To our knowledge, no a t t e m p t has y e t been made t o d e t e r m i n e the i m p o r t a n c e o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t o the b u i l d i n g casework r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Our b e l i e f i s t h a t t h i s system i s i n o p e r a b l e due t o t h i s f a c t o r as i t has l e d t o what s h o u l d be casework d e c i s i o n s b e i n g made by a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l on an a d m i n i s t r a t i l e b a s i s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency i n t h i s p r o v i n c e has y e t t r i e d t o implement a scheme u t i l i z i n g w e l f a r e a i d e s i n the c a p a c i t y of a i d e s , a l t h o u g h some have been h i r e d by Vancouver C i t y S o c i a l S e r v i c e as f u l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s . Thus, no r e a l l y e f f e c t i v e a t t e m p t has been made t o u t i l i z e s t a f f t o maximum p o t e n t i a l s . D e c i s i o n s N e e d i n g t o be Made As i n d i c a t e d above, we f e e l t h a t r a t h e r t h a n use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f c a s e s , we s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e more on i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s . • I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c a s e s , s u c h an a p proach would a l l o w some d i v i s i o n of t a s k s on i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s . C o n s e q u e n t l y our f i r s t s t e p w i l l be t o c o l l e c t and d e f i n e s p e c i f i c t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e f i e l d , ; . I n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y t h e s e t a s k s , we s h a l l have t o f u l f i l l t he f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : d e f i n e each t a s k ; I d e n t i f y c r i t e r i a , by w h i c h t h e t a s k s may be d i f f e r e n t i a t -ed; S e l e c t a p a n e l of j u d g e s t o r a t e t h e t a s k s ; E s t a b l i s h c r i t e r i a f o r a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e i r r a t i n g s ; I n a l a t e r s t u d y u t i l i z i n g a scheme f o r a s s i g n i n g t a s k s i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o d e t e r m i n e : (1) The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t o the casework r e l a t i o n s h i p . I s t h e r e any harm t o a casework r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s e p a r a t i n g the admin-i s t r a t i v e t a s k s . (2) The b a s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g l e v e l s o f worker c a p a b i l i t y ( o r p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ) . A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t a s k s w i l l a l l o w us t o draw some c o n c l u s i o n s as t o the u t i l i z a t i o n o f w e l f a r e a i d e s i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e and, h o p e f u l l y , w i l l l e a d f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s t o the development of a model s t r u c t u r e of t a s k a s s i g n m e n t and p e r s o n n e l deployment. The o p e r a t i o n of such a model c o u l d t h e n p r o v i d e a measure o f v a l i d i t y of the c r i t e r i a . However, v a l i d i t y w i l l be d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . The m a t t e r of adequate c o n t r o l s on c a s e l o a d w e i g h t i n g i s . a n o t h e r m a t t e r t h a t w a r r a n t s c o n c e r n and f u t u r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . To be t r u l y e f f e c t -i v e i n t h e i r work, s o c i a l w o r k e r s must have c a s e l o a d s t h a t a r e of a p p r o p r i a t e s i z e . " A p p r o p r i a t e s i z e " has n o t y e t been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d e t e r m i n e d . We w i s h t o emphasize our b e l i e f t h a t t h i s s t u d y and o t h e r s must be f o c u s s e d on i m p r o v i n g t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e t o the c l i e n t and n o t m e r e l y on s e r v i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e d i e n c y . . P e r s o n s Connected W i t h t h e P r o j e c t Sponsor T h i s p r o j e c t i s b e i n g s p o n s o r e d by the Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a (D.S.W.). I n a d d i t i o n t o p r o v i d i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e , the Department was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n making t h e n i n e w o r k e r s i n t h e t h r e e f i e l d o f f i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o us d u r i n g a p o r t i o n o f the s t u d y . D u r i n g a two week p e r i o d t h e s e w o r k e r s w i l l be asked t o r e v i e w the l i s t o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n t h e i s s u a n c e o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e f o r the purpose of e n s u r i n g c l a r i t y and a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f each t a s k l i s t e d . Any t a s k p e r f o r m e d by the w o r k e r s d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d b u t n o t i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t w i l l be n o t e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e f i n a l l i s t s u b m i t t e d t o the judges f o r r a t i n g . The w o r k e r s w i l l be asked t o i n d i c a t e each t i m e any t a s k i s i n f a c t p e r f o r m e d . A f u l l r e p o r t w i l l be g i v e n t o the Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e i n the form of t h e completed t h e s i s . The Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e has a s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t i n t h i s p r o j e c t as i t r e l a t e s d i r e c t l y t o t h e i r own " P r o j e c t 66"-- a comprehensive e x p e r i m e n t a l program on manpower. The Department i s a l s o i n t e r e s t e d because i t i s the p r i m a r y agency d i r e c t l y p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t h r o u g h -out the p r o v i n c e . The p r e s e n t s t u d y may p r o v i d e d i r e c t i o n t o the Department i n terms o f p r o b l e m s , needs, and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . No s p e c i f i c d i r e c t i o n has been g i v e n t o the r e a s e a r c h e r s by the s p o n s o r . A l t h o u g h r e s p o n s i v e t o our e f f o r t s , and i n agreement w i t h our g o a l o f m a x i m i z i n g the use of t r a i n e d s t a f f , the Department i s not committed t o a c t upon any s t u d y f i n d i n g s or recommendations. I t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t t h e Department or S o c i a l W e l f a r e s u f f e r s from an a c u t e s h o r t a g e of p e r s o n n e l h o l d i n g B a c h e l o r and M a s t e r of S o c i a l Work Degrees and does n o t , a t t h i s t i m e , employ w e l f a r e a i d e s . W h i l e t h i s p r e s e n t s p a r t i c u l a r problems i n c o n s t r u c t i n g a f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t , i t w i l l n o t s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t the o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s s t u d y t o d e v e l o p an i n s t r u m e n t f o r t a s k a s s i g n m e n t . P o t e n t i a l Consumers Other p e r s o n s w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n c l u d e : r e s e a r c h e r s d o i n g s i m i l a r s t u d i e s , t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s f o r w e l f a r e a i d e s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n of s o c i a l w o r k e r s ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o l i c e n c i n g of s o c i a l w o r k e r s ) . The R e s e a r c h e r s The r e s e a r c h e r s a r e f o u r s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r f i n a l y e a r o f the M a s t e r s o f S o c i a l Work program a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work. They have a t o t a l of 22 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e and w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p r a c t i c e i n the p u h l i c w e l f a r e s e c t o r of the s o c i a l work p r o f e s s i o n . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e and t h e i r deep commitment t o p r o v i d i n g the b e s t , most e f f i c i e n t , and most p r o d u c t i v e s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s , t h e y a l s o have an i n t e r e s t i n p r e p a r i n g , a t h e s i s f o r c o m p l e t i o n of t h e i r M a s t e r s o f S o c i a l Work program. T h i s a d d i t i o n a l a s p e c t s h o u l d n o t c o l o u r or a f f e c t the s t u d y i n any way. O r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e R e s e a r c h R e p o r t H a v i n g d e l i n e a t e d t h e p r o b l e m t o w h i c h t h i s p r o j e c t a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f , i t now becomes n e c e s s a r y t o employ and d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h s k i l l s , t e c h n i q u e s and methodology i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether or n o t t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n a s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e agency can be c o l l e c t e d , i d e n t i f i e d and r a t e d . A model can t h e n be d e v e l o p e d t h a t r e l a t e s s o c i a l worker t r a i n -i n g w i t h the n a t u r e of the t a s k s p e rformed i n o r d e r t h a t s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l may be more e f f i c i e n t l y and r a t i o n a l l y d e p l o y e d . 7 . The f i r s t s t e p w i l l be t o examine the l i t e r a t u r e t o d e t e r m i n e what i s known and what has been a t t e m p t e d i n t h e i d e n t i f i e d p r o b l e m a r e a and t o d i s c o v e r u s e f u l and s i g n i f i c a n t t e c h n i q u e s and c o n c e p t s a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s , a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s a r e a of s t u d y . The second s t e p w i l l be t o c o n s t r u c t the t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f the s t u d y . T h i s w i l l i n v o l v e a d i s c u s s i o n and d e s c r i p t i o n of the a s s u m p t i o n s , the l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n , t h e s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s and the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n methods i n v o l v e d i n the s t u d y . The t h i r d s t e p w i l l i n v o l v e a d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e n a t u r e of t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g s - - t h e problems e n c o u n t e r e d and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p o s s i b l e m o d i f -i c a t i o n s i n r e s e a r c h p r o c e d u r e s t h a t were employed. A f i n a l s t e p w i l l i n -v o l v e p r e s e n t i n g a summary of t h e p r o j e c t , c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d a t , and recommendations f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE W i t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r , i t w i l l be our purpose t o r e v i e w t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the use o f p e r s o n n e l i n s o c i a l work s e t t i n g s . As the p r o b l e m of s t a f f s h o r t a g e becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t , many a g e n c i e s and a few r e s e a r c h groups have u n d e r t a k e n s m a l l s c a l e p r o j e c t s , some of w h i c h a r e e x p e r i m e n t a l , i n an at t e m p t t o a c h i e v e maximum b e n e f i t t o t h e c l i e n t from e x i s t i n g s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l . Some w r i t e r s , on the b a s i s o f an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s , o r , on the b a s i s o f a c t u a l e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s e a r c h have p r o p o s e d " i d e a l " models o f s t a f f u se. I n t h i s c h a p t e r , .many of t h e s e s t u d i e s w i l l be l o o k e d a t and s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e w i l l be made t o : (a) c r i t e r i a employed f o r c l a s s i f y i n g s o c i a l work t a s k s (b) s o c i a l work s t a f f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes ( c ) work assignment schemes (d) methods o f e v a l u a t i n g c r i t e r i a (e) methods of t r a i n -i n g p e r s o n n e l . C r i t e r i a F o r C l a s s i f y i n g Tasks W i t h i n t h i s s e c t i o n we a r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i e d c r i t e r i a , s u g g e s t e d i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e , f o r the p u r p o s e o f c l a s s i f y i n g s o c i a l work t a s k s . Worker Autonomy and Task C o m p l e x i t y A s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n by the N.A.S.W. i n 1964 ( 3 7 ) , u t i l i z i n g the co n c e p t s o f worker autonomy and c o m p l e x i t y o f t a s k . I t was t h e i r p u r p o s e t o i d e n t i f y , i n d e p e n d e n t from t h e c l i e n t o r groups of c l i e n t s , t he n a t u r e of the t a s k s ( l e v e l s o f t a s k s ) p e r f o r m e d by s o c i a l w o r k e r s . Worker Autonomy A c c o r d i n g t o Beck ( 2 6 ) , s o c i a l work has b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s . The g r e a t e r the need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l , the g r e a t e r the need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . I n h e r e n t i n the concept a r e the f o l l o w i n g : (a) E x p l i c i t g u i d e s t o w o r k e r s . R u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s can l e a d t o e f f i c i e n c y b u t many s o c i a l work j o b s a r e n o t s p e l l e d o u t i n a book o f r e g u l a t i o n s . (b) V i s i b i l i t y o f p r a c t i c e . Casework i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y c l a s s e d t o d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . ( c ) O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s - - t h e degree t o w h i c h t h e w o r k e r p r a c t i c e s i n a s e t t i n g i n w h i c h t h e r e i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s . Autonomy seems a w o r k a b l e c o n c e p t i n t h a t i t s h o u l d be " r e l a t i v e l y " e a sy t o d e f i n e and t o d e t e r m i n e i n c e r t a i n t a s k s , t h e degrees o f c o n t r o l s p r e s e n t . I t i s u s e f u l f o r m aking r e l a t i v e b u t n o t a b s o l u t e judgements.(26) T h i s may be c o n s i d e r e d a l i m i t a t i o n o f most o f the c r i t e r i a t h a t w i l l be o u t -l i n e d , however, u s i n g an o r d i n a l s c a l e i t i s u s u a l l y s u f f i c i e n t f o r work p u r p o s e s . Task C o m p l e x i t y We were u n a b l e t o l o c a t e a d e f i n i t i o n o f " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " . I n the N.A.S.W. s t u d y , 1964, (37) the term was a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d " s u f f i c i e n t -l y d e s c r i p t i v e " . Mary Baker s u g g e s t s t h r e e t y p e s o f c o m p l e x i t y : . (1) t h e c o n s t e l l a t i o n of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by t h e whole s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n of the agency, i . e . , t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , (2) the typ e o f s e r v i c e r e q u i r e d r a t h e r t h a n t h e p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y , (3) the c o m p l e x i t y of s e r v i c e r e q u i r e d , ( 2 3 ) We a r e assuming t h a t i n the N.A.S.W. s t u d y , t he t e r m ' " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " r e f e r s t o t he degree o f knowledge i n t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l work methods r e q u i r e d i n c a r r y i n g out the t a s k as opposed t o the " t e c h n i c a l " or s p e c i f i c k n o w l e d g e r e q u i r e d i n p r o v i d i n g a d i r e c t and c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e , f o r example, knowledge o f r e s o u r c e s . Worker Autonomy and C l i e n t V u l n e r a b i l i t y S e v e r a l o f the s t u d i e s (37, 22, 14) r e v i e w e d used t h e c r i t e r i a o f 10. worker autonomy and c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y f o r c l a s s i f y i n g t a s k s i n o r d e r t o d e v e l o p a means o f s o r t i n g j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s — t h o s e t h a t m i g h t b e t t e r be done by the f u l l y t r a i n e d and t h o s e t h a t m i g h t be ;. a d e q u a t e l y done by t h e l e s s t h a n f u l l y t r a i n e d and s t i l l m a i n t a i n a c e r t a i n a c c e p t a b l e s t a n d a r d . ( 2 6 ) The concept o f worker autonomy has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d on the p r e v i o u s page. C l i e n t V u l n e r a b i l i t y A c c o r d i n g t o Beck, c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y means the degree t o w h i c h the c l i e n t i s v u l n e r a b l e t o harm r e s u l t i n g from the f a c t t h a t t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r may n o t have " b u i l t - i n " s o c i a l work v a l u e s , knowledge, a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s . C l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y can be d e t e r m i n e d by the n a t u r e o f the c l i e n t ' s own s i t u a t i o n or p r o b l e m and the n a t u r e o f the s e r v i c e b e i n g o f f e r e d . . The M e d i c a l S o c i a l Workers P r o f e s s i o n a l Components S t u d y t o see w h i c h t a s k s c o u l d be d e l e g a t e d t o n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l would a l s o seem t o be t a k i n g the c l i e n t i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n when t a s k s a r e d e f i n e d . The f o c i o f t h i s s t u d y a r e : (a) the n a t u r e o f the " s t u f f " t o be worked w i t h , (b) the n a t u r e o f t h e changes t o be b r o u g h t about, ( c ) the consequences o f i n a d e q u a t e w o r k e r p e r f o r m a n c e ( 2 6 ) . The c o n c e p t o f c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y , perhaps more t h a n some, appears t o s p e c i f i c a l l y c o n c e r n i t s e l f w i t h c l i e n t need. I t was s u g g e s t e d i n the N.A.S.W. s t u d y , 1964, (37) however, t h a t when i t i s w o r k e r t a s k s w h i c h a r e b e i n g r a t e d and c l a s s i f i e d , c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e as a c r i t e r i o n , a l t h o u g h i t may be a u s e f u l c o n c e p t i f the approach i s the c l i e n t and n o t the w o r k e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s . Once the t a s k s f o r t h e v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s t a f f a r e i d e n t i f i e d , the c o n c e p t has p o t e n t i a l use i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h c l i e n t s need t h e h e l p o f the most s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . I t was f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h i s c o n cept would be b a s i c a l l y h e l p f u l i n o b t a i n i n g a more complete u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s h e l d i n the p r o f e s s i o n and the ... . i m p l i c a t i o n s w h i c h t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s have f o r w o r k e r a c t i o n s w i t h the c l i e n t . F a c t F i n d i n g and D e c i s i o n M a k i n g S e v e r a l a r t i c l e s ( 5 , 8, 21, 23, 25, 27, 31) i n f e r the use of t h e c r i t e r i a o f f a c t f i n d i n g ( i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) and d e c i s i o n making ( s e r v i c e and t r e a t m e n t ) f o r c l a s s i f y i n g t a s k s . I n p r a c t i c e i t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s e t a s k s a r e , i n f a c t , m u t u a l l y dependent. These s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be g i v e n t o t h e s e p a r a t i o n of " t e c h n i c a l " t a s k s ( i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) and " s o c i a l work" t a s k s ( d e c i s i o n m a k i n g ) . F a c t F i n d i n g F a c t f i n d i n g as a c r i t e r i o n a p p a r e n t l y i n c l u d e s the o b t a i n i n g and p r o v i d i n g o f s p e c i f i c a l l y d e f i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n and r e s o u r c e s and, o f t e n , a c c o r d i n g t o the s t r i c t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r u l e s . Some w r i t e r s f e e l t h a t the t a s k s s h o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d on t h e b a s i s o f c l i e n t p r o b l e m or need, o t h e r s , on w o r k e r f u n c t i o n or s k i l l . Mary Baker (25) s u g g e s t {that i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e t h o s e s p e c i f i c t a s k s or s i t u a t i o n s where need i s o b v i o u s and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d ( o f a m a t e r i a l n a t u r e ) . T h i s c o u l d i n c l u d e t h e g a t h e r i n g o f f a c t s , a p p l y i n g of e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a t o t h e f a c t s , p l a n n i n g a c t i o n where p a t t e r n s a r e unambiguous and i n v o l v e no s p e c i a l r i s k . T h i s would appear t o be the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r of f a c t f i n d i n g t a s k s . I n the M i n n e s o t a Department o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e P r o j e c t (23) i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i n f a c t g a t h e r i n g , t h e emphasis i s on t a s k ; i n d e c i s i o n m a king, i t i s on the c l i e n t or the c a s e . D e c i s i o n M a k i n g D e c i s i o n m a k i n g i m p l i e s the a b i l i t y and/or n e c e s s i t y f o r m aking i n d e p e n d e n t judgments w i t h r e g a r d t o c l i e n t s and s i t u a t i o n s . I t has been compared by M a r g a r e t Heyman ( 1 0 ) , t o t h e c r i t e r i a o f "worker autonomy" w h i c h has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . A c c o r d i n g t o Mary B a k e r , (25) d e c i s i o n making i n v o l v e s t h o s e t a s k s and cases demanding "unique d e s i g n s " based upon p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment, s i t u a t i o n s where a p p l i c a t i o n o f c r i t e r i a y i e l d ambiguous r e s u l t s and r i s k i s i n v o l v e d . A c t i o n i s based on c l i e n t needs. A g a i n i t appears t h a t the r i s k i n v o l v e d i s the d e c i d i n g f a c t o r . Dumpson and P o d e l l (27) d e f i n e s e r v i c e as p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d t o the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of c l i e n t needs and r e s o u r c e s . Treatment i m p l i e s the d e t e r m i n i n g and m e e t i n g of c l i e n t need and/or e n a b l i n g the c l i e n t t o u n d e r s t a n d and change h i s needs. Mary Baker asks whether or n o t the dynamics of c l i e n t s and s i t u a t i o n s can be a d e q u a t e l y c l a s s i f i e d . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e s e c r i t e r i a c o u l d be u n i v e r s a l l y a p p l i e d i n any s e t t i n g and i n most s o c i a l work s i t u a t i o n s . We were u n a b l e , however, t o f i n d any i n s t a n c e s of where the c r i t e r i a were, i n f a c t , o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e r e i s an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y w h i c h was i n i t i a t e d i n 1963 under the j o i n t a u s p i c e s o f the New York C i t y Department of W e l f a r e and the S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work a t C o l u m b i a U n i v e r -s i t y d e a l i n g w i t h d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n making. T h e i r f i n d i n g s may e v e n t u a l l y p r o v e o f i n t e r e s t . ( 2 4 ) C l i e n t Need The theme of u s i n g c l i e n t need as a c r i t e r i o n i s a l s o found s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t the l i t e r a t u r e . I t would appear t h a t few s t u d i e s a c t u a l l y o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e t h e i r t erms. Weissman and B a k e r , (35) u s i n g t h e c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e have t a b u l a t e d a range o f c l i e n t problems w h i c h need t o be met t h r o u g h t h e a c t i v i t i e s of the w o r k e r . The s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d a r e c l a s s e d as p r e v e n t i v e , p r o t e c t i v e , or r e h a b i l i t a t i v e . Meyer (31) s u g g e s t s t h a t the c r i t e r i a o f t e n have been d e f i n e d " i d e o l o g i c a l l y " i n terms of a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o c e r t a i n t r e a t m e n t approaches r a t h e r t h a n i n terms o f needs t o be met t h r o u g h an a r r a y of a p p r o a c h e s . The use o f the c r i t e r i a o f c l i e n t need, l e a d i n g u l t i m a t e l y t o a w o r k a b l e t r e a t m e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n appear t o be a s u i t a b l e and f u n d a m e n t a l way of a t t a c k i n g the p r o b l e m under s t u d y . Long term e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h , u s i n g 13. t h i s c r i t e r i o n would p r o b a b l y y i e l d most u s e f u l r e s u l t s . S o c i a l Work S t a f f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schemes A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p l a n i s an o r d e r l y arrangement o f j o b s r e q u i r i n g s i m i l a r d u t i e s , r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , knowledge and s k i l l s i n each p o s i t i o n and c l a s s . "A p o s i t i o n , w h i c h may be e i t h e r o c c u p i e d or v a c a n t must be c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the incumbent of the p o s i t i o n s . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c e r t a i n d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , w h i c h c a l l f o r t h e tim e and a t t e n t i o n o f some one i n d i v i d u a l . . . . A p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e s c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and t o i t i s a s s i g n e d a d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g and perhaps c o n v e n t i o n a l t i t l e . . " "A c l a s s i s a group o f p o s i t i o n s s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o j u s t i f y common t r e a t m e n t i n s e l e c t i o n , c ompensation and o t h e r employment p r o c e s s e s , and s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from p o s i t i o n s o f o t h e r c l a s s e s t o j u s t i f y d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t i n one o r more o f t h e s e r e s p e c t s . . . . I n o t h e r words, the same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d , and the same s c a l e o f com p e n s a t i o n can be a p p l i e d w i t h e q u i t y i n each c l a s s . " (40, p.5-7) More s p e c i f i c a l l y , t he f a c t o r s l o o k e d a t when d r a w i n g up a j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e : t h e c o m p l e x i t y and r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y o f d u t i e s ; the a v a i l a b i l i t y and n a t u r e o f g u i d e l i n e s and s u p e r v i s i o n ; the degree of ind e p e n d e n t judgment and o r i g i n a l t h i n k i n g r e q u i r e d ; the number and l e v e l o f p o s i t i o n s s u p e r v i s e d ; s t a f f t r a i n i n g and development; p u r p o s e and n a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s ; e d u c a t i o n and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n o f knowledge, e x p e r i e n c e and s k i l l s r e q u i r e d . (40, p.7) I n the l i t e r a t u r e , we f i n d t he f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s g i v e n t o d i s t i n g u i s h v a r i o u s p o s i t i o n s , c l a s s e s o r l e v e l s o f s t a f f i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e t t i n g s : the p r o f e s s i o n a l , the l e a d e r , the s o c i a l work s t u d e n t , the casework a s s i s t a n t , t h e n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l , the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d , t h e s p e c i a l i s t , t he t e c h n i c a l p e r s o n , t h e case a i d e , t h e i n d i g e n o u s w o r k e r , t h e v o l u n t e e r , the c l e r i c a l s t a f f . What f o l l o w s i s an a t t e m p t t o i n c o r p o r a t e 14. t h e m a t e r i a l on s t a f f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i n t o f o u r main c l a s s e s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l , the v o l u n t e e r and c l e r i c a l s t a f f . P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f I n the a r t i c l e " P e r s o n n e l i n S o c i a l Work," i n the E n c y c l o p e d i a of  S o c i a l Work ( 1 9 6 5 ) , i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t i d e a l l y t h e aim s h o u l d be t o e s t a b l i s h p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s a t a l l l e v e l s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d , however, as b o t h n e c e s s a r y and s a t i s f a c t o r y t o a t t e m p t " p l a n n e d deployment o f p e r s o n n e l a t d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " (38, p.532) Meyer (32) goes so f a r as t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v e s a h i n d r a n c e t o e f f e c t i v e manpower u t i l i z a t i o n because of (a) i t s i n a b i l i t y or u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o adapt t o new s e r v i c e needs, (b) i t s d e v o t i o n t o f a l s e c r i t e r i a o f what i m p o r t a n t t a s k s a r e , ( c ) the v a l u i n g of p r i v a t e o v e r p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l o v e r s o c i a l a p p r o a c h e s . There i s g e n e r a l agreement i n the l i t e r a t u r e as t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n of a p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r . He i s the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d , f u l l y q u a l i f i e d i n d i v i d u a l - - a n d M.S.W. ( o r e q u i v a l e n t ) : w i t h e x p e r i e n c e . M e y e T (32) s u g g e s t s t h a t a c c r e d i t a t i o n by an a s s o c i a t i o n i s a l s o a r e q u i r e m e n t . I t i s a l s o g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s h o u l d be used e x c l u s i v e -l y a t the h i g h e s t l e v e l o f s k i l l i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e a h i g h degree of s e r v i c e . R i c h a n (14) s u g g e s t s t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l would become i n v o l v e d when t h e r e i s a h i g h degree of c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y and w o r k e r autonomy. M a r g a r e t Heyman (9) s u g g e s t s t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l h a n d l e s cases r e q u i r i n g advanced casework s k i l l s . A p p a r e n t l y t h e s e i n c l u d e c ases where: (1) i n d e p e n d e n t on the s p o t casework t r e a t m e n t due t o the n a t u r e of the e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e i n the s i t u a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d . (2) i n d e p e n d e n t on the. s p o t casework judgment i s e s s e n t i a l t o s e c u r e t h e recommended v i t a l ( m e d i c a l ) t r e a t m e n t . 15. (3) t h e r e a r e s e r i o u s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s r e l a t e d t o p u b l i c r e l a t i o n s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e e x p e d i e n c y or e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . F u r t h e r t o t h i s Meyer (32) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w i l l assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r o r g a n i z i n g s e r v i c e s , f o r example, p r e v e n t a t i v e programs, and assume a r o l e as community change a g e n t , f a c i l i t a t i n g changes i n t h e community. We m i g h t add t o t h i s l i s t , s u p e r v i s i o n - - a n e d u c a t i o n a l d e v i c e and t o a c e r t a i n e x t e n t , a form o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l on t h e l e s s e x p e r i e n c e d . I t would appear t h a t t h e " I n t e g r a t i v e F u n c t i o n " as s u g g e s t e d i n the N.A.S.W. s t u d y , 1964 (37) would be t h a t p e r f o r m e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r . N o n - P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f I n b r o a d e s t t e r m s , n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s may be thought o f as s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l who a r e n o t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y o r f u l l y q u a l i f i e d . There a r e , however, many c a t e g o r i e s o f n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f d i f f e r i n g i n e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g and i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s p l a c e d on them i n t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n . Beck (26) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e a r e two main c o n c e p t i o n s o f the r o l e o f the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l i n s o c i a l work: (1) a s p e c i a l i z e d r o l e and program s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n s (2) a b r o a d e r r o l e d r a w i n g on many s k i l l s employed by the p r o -f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r b u t on a l e s s i n t e n s i v e l e v e l and c a r r y i n g l e s s c r u c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . The S u b - P r o f e s s i o n a l The 1 i t e r a t u r e makes r e f e r e n c e t o t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who have some i n - s e r v i c e o r p o s t g r a d u a t e t r a i n i n g b u t have n o t y e t o b t a i n e d an M.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t . R i c h a n (14) c a l l s them s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l s who p e r f o r m t h e same k i n d s o f t a s k s as t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l b u t w i t h l e s s v u l n e r a b l e c l i e n t s . ^ I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t M a r g a r e t Heyman (9) i n h e r su g g e s t e d s t a f f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , meant t h a t the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f cases c o u l d be h a n d l e d by the sub-1 The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t the s o c i a l work s t u d e n t can be " a b s o r b e d " i n t o t h e s t r u c t u r e , p r e s u m a b l y i n t h i s c a t e g o r y o f s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l s . 16. p r o f e s s i o n a l : (1) Cases w i t h p r e s e n t i n g d i a g n o s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s : (a) o b v i o u s a m b i v a l e n c e t o , r e s i s t a n c e t o , or r e j e c t i o n o f ( m e d i c a l ) recommendations. (b) o b v i o u s h o s t i l i t y towards o r a n x i e t y about th e d i a g n o s i s , t r e a t m e n t and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n ; an u n u s u a l degree o f d e f e n s i v e n e s s i n t h e b e h a v i o r o f the p a t i e n t o r r e l a t i v e s ; i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e a c t i o n t o t h e i l l n e s s . ( c ) d i s t u r b a n c e o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l and/or r e l a t i v e ( f a m i l y ) r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (d) p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s of t h e p a t i e n t or r e l a t i v e , f o r example, dependency, i n s e c u r i t y . (2) Cases where t h e r e i s a n t i c i p a t e d c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s or p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I n a s e n s e , the f u n c t i o n o f the s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l may be seen t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e " S u p p o r t i v e F u n c t i o n " r e f e r r e d t o i n the s t u d y by the N.A.S.W., 1964 ( 3 7 ) . The S p e c i a l i s t The term s o c i a l work s p e c i a l i s t i s used by R i c h a n . ( 1 4 ) By t h i s term he means i n d i v i d u a l s whose e d u c a t i o n i s t e c h n i c a l and geared t o s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and knowledge. These s p e c i a l i s t s may or may n o t have f u l l p r o f e s s -i o n a l t r a i n i n g . R i c h a n sees t h i s p o s i t i o n as b e i n g a c a r e e r i n i t s e l f and n o t a s t e p p i n g s t o n e t o t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l . The s p e c i a l i s t ' s t a s k s a r e o f t e n ones w h i c h can be r o u t i n i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d e x t e r n a l l y w i t h o u t d e t r a c t i n g f r o m t h e s e r v i c e and he may work w i t h h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e c l i e n t s . I n t h e U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e p u b l i c a t i o n d a t e d December 1965,. " U t i l i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Work S t a f f W i t h D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f  E d u c a t i o n " , an o u t l i n e i s g i v e n f o r t h e use of such s p e c i a l i s t s - - f o r p r o t e c -t i o n , l e g a l s e r v i c e s , home economics, and m e d i c a l p r o b l e m s . 17. The Case A i d e The term case a i d e i s used h e r e t o r e f e r t o t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s , p r o b a b l y w i t h o u t any u n d e r - g r a d u a t e u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g i n s o c i a l work, who have r e c e i v e d b r i e f c o u r s e s o r i e n t i n g them t o t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work. (14) T h i s i s d i f f e r e n t from E p s t e i n ' s p o s i t i o n o f casework a s s i s t a n t w h i c h i s f i l l e d by i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e " c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s w i t h e x p e r i e n c e i n making d e c i s i o n on human p r o b l e m s " . (5) R i c h a n (14) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e case a i d e ( w e l f a r e a i d e ) has o n l y l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and works i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a more f u l l y t r a i n e d s t a f f member and w i t h t h e l e a s t v u l n e r a b l e c l i e n t e l e . Heyman (10) s u g g e s t s t h a t the case a i d e can h a n d l e d i s c h a r g e p l a n n i n g , i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e d v i a s c h o o l a t t e n d a n c e f o r m s , h e l p w i t h s e c u r i n g a p p l i a n c e s , h o u s i n g and the l i k e , a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o n v a l e s c e n t c a r e , c o u r t e s y and e x p l a n a t o r y s e r v i c e s , f i n d i n g n u r s i n g home v a c a n c i e s and i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g from c o l l a t e r a l s . The " F a c i l i t a t i v e F u n c t i o n " and even perhaps the "Maint e n a n c e F u n c t i o n " s u g g e s t e d by the N.A.S.W. s t u d y , 1964 (37) may be c o n s i d e r e d f u n c t i o n s o f t h e case a i d e . • I n an a r t i c l e by B r a g e r (3) i t has been s u g g e s t e d t h a t low income p e r s o n s can e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n communication w i t h slum r e s i d e n t s e a s i l y and more e f f e c t i v e l y t h a n p r o f e s s i o n a l s . I n some p l a c e s , low income p e r s o n s , o f s t a b l e b a c k g r o u n d , a r e b e i n g employed i n t h e s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , b u t n o t i n r o l e s r e q u i r i n g a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree o f autonomy. The i n d i g e n o u s w o r k s , e r s must have some e x p e r t i s e i n t h e agency programs, must i d e n t i f y w i t h t h e i r own c u l t u r a l group and must be a c t i o n o r i e n t e d . I t i s f u r t h e r s u g g e s t e d , i n t h i s a r t i c l e , t h a t the i n d i g e n o u s worker n o t b e c o m e ' " p r o f e s s i o n -a l i z e d " - - b u t r a t h e r c o n t i n u e t o r e m a i n as h i m s e l f . I n d i g e n o u s w o r k e r s a r e a s s i g n e d a wide range o f t a s k s and freedom i n c a r r y i n g them o u t . They can g i v e a d v i c e , p r o c e s s c o m p l a i n t s , make r e f e r r a l s , o f f e r s u p p o r t and p e r f o r m c o n c r e t e tasks.. 18. The V o l u n t e e r L a u r a E p s t e i n , i n w r i t i n g on t h e use of p e r s o n n e l i n a T r a v e l l e r s A i d S o c i e t y , (5) s u g g e s t s t h a t v o l u n t e e r s can p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n s e r v i c e s , meet and p l a c e , under s t a f f s u p e r v i s i o n t r a v e l l e r s f o r whom t h e agency has agreed t o p r o v i d e a s e r v i c e , p e r f o r m t r a v e l o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p r o c e d u r a l d u t i e s and a c t as desk r e c e p t i o n i s t s . The C l e r i c a l S t a f f F i n e s t o n e and Heyman (10, 28) s u g g e s t t h e s h i f t i n g o f many a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t o c l e r i c a l p e r s o n n e l . Heyman s p e c i f i c a l l y s u g g e s t s the m a king o f a p p o i n t m e n t s , i n f o r m a t i o n g a t h e r i n g from .^community r e s o u r c e s o r v e n d o r s , c o u r t e s y and e x p l a n a t i o n s e r v i c e s w i t h i n department o f f i c e s as b e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e c l e r i c a l t a s k s . The E x p e r i m e n t a l W e l f a r e C e n t r e P r o j e c t (24) has e n g i n e e r e d a p i l o t p r o j e c t , "The R e a l l o c a t i o n o f C l e r i c a l T a s k s , " w h i c h may p r o v i d e u s e f u l d a t a a t a f u t u r e d a t e . Models Dumpson and P o d e l l (27) have o u t l i n e d a s t u d y w h i c h p r o p o s e s s e v e r a l t h e o r e t i c a l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f (a) typ e o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d and (b) c o m p o s i t i o n o f w o r k e r s i n the u n i t p r o v i d i n g t h e s e r v i c e . I t i s based on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l can h a n d l e s u p e r v i s o r y p o s i t i o n s , c o n s u l t a n t w e i l d i n g no a u t h o r i t y p o s i t i o n s , d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t p o s i t i o n s and i n t a k e . The s t a f f would t h e n be a r r a n g e d i n "case teams"--one i n v e s t i g a t o r y w o r k e r and one s e r v i c e o r t r e a t m e n t w o r k e r . Mary Baker (25) s u g g e s t s an i n t e r e s t i n g scheme. (1) Workers w i t h t h r e e months s p e c i f i c i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ::fior a . p a r t i c u l a r agency j o b t o h a n d l e s t a n d a r d i z e d s e r v i c e s such as g a t h e r i n g f a c t s , a p p l y i n g e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a t o the f a c t s . (The "X" worker i n a more l i m i t e d r o l e . ) (2) C.S.W.E. "X" worker h o l d i n g u n d e r g r a d u a t e degree and s i x months academic t r a i n i n g comparable t o t h a t o f a s c h o o l o f s o c i a l work and s u p e r v i s e d e x p e r i e n c e . 19. (3) C.S.W.E. "Y" w o r k e r - - a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n w i t h an M.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t and e x p e r i e n c e . P r o f e s s i o n a l judgment r e q u i r e d . Schemes o f Work Assi g n m e n t Case s t r e a m i n g appears t o be advantageous where t h e r e a r e a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f w o r k e r s w i t h f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . As y e t i t has l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n t o p u b l i c w e l f a r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The team approach d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from the s t r e a m i n g program i n t h a t the p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s a r e formed i n t o a team f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e s . The team, as o u t l i n e d by G i l ( 7 ) , can c o n s i s t o f any number of l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e a l t h o u g h the team l e a d e r s h o u l d be a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y educated s o c i a l w o r k e r . The f e a t u r e o f the team p l a n t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from the s t r e a m i n g approach i s t h a t the team has j o i n t r e p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c a s e l o a d . The team c a s e l o a d w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , be l a r g e r t h a n the i n d i v i d u a l c a s e l o a d s and can be used e a s i l y i n m u l t i - f u n c t i o n a g e n c i e s or w i t h i n s m a l l g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s . The members o f the team a r e c o n s i d e r e d t o t a l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e s e r v i c e t o the c l i e n t group r a t h e r t h a n as s p e c i a l i s t s f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s . The s i z e o f t h e team can be a d j u s t e d and w i l l depend on such f a c t o r s as t y p e o f s e r v i c e t h e agency o f f e r s , a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l l e d team l e a d e r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e o f the agency. A f u r t h e r f u n c t i o n i s t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f the team a p p r o a c h t o the n e i g h b o u r h o o d based s e r v i c e s where l o c a l r e s i d e n t s c o u l d be absorbed i n t o t h e team and thus s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r r o o t s i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d . I t can be seen t h a t s o c i a l teams can be adapted t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e t t i n g s and where c l i e n t needs c o n s i s t o f a b r o a d s p e c t r u m of s i t u a t i o n s t h a t can be s e r v e d by p e r s o n n e l o f d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g . U s e f u l n e s s of Teams There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t p e r s o n n e l who a r e employed i n the same agency, o f f e r i n g , the same s e r v i c e s b u t on d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s may be somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r own r o l e . G i l ( 7 ) , p o i n t s out t h a t team members w i l l d e r i v e a s t r o n g e r sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n from t h e i r j o b s and t h a t t h e y w i l l become more i d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e j o b and the agency when th e y a r e i n v o l v e d i n the whole j o b r a t h e r t h a n i n u n r e l a t e d p a r t s o f i t . They w i l l g a i n a f u r t h e r sense o f s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the o v e r a l l work p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e e n t i r e team. The team approach i s a n a t u r a l c o h e s i v e group t o employ the new co n c e p t o f group s u p e r v i s i o n s A l t h o u g h G i l , s t a t e s t h e r e i s the i n c r e a s -i n g emphasis on independence o f the s o c i a l w o r k e r from h i s s u p e r v i s o r , u n t i l t h i s i s an a c t u a l l y a c c e p t e d medium, t h e n group s u p e r v i s i o n w i l l be more e f f i c i e n t and may be more e f f e c t i v e . I t i s f r e q u e n t l y r e p o r t e d t h a t p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s , i f a t t r a c t e d , do n o t r e m a i n l o n g i n the f i e l d s o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e . There a r e many r e a s o n s f o r t h i s , two b e i n g o f t e n c a s e l o a d s t h a t a r e t o o h i g h and s a l a r i e s t h a t a r e t o o low. W h i l e s t i l l a l l o w i n g f o r more c l i e n t s t o be r e a c h e d p e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and w i t h o u t r e d u c i n g the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e , the use of the team a p p r o a c h may u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c e the number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s r e q u i r e d i n t h e f i e l d o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e . I f t h r o u g h t h e use o f teams, the c o s t p e r case i s reduced p e r h a p s more money c o u l d be a l l o c a t e d t o pay t h e f u l l y t r a i n e d w o r k e r a wage more comparable t o t h a t w h i c h he would r e c e i v e i n a p r i v a t e agency. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Team Approach The agency s t r u c t u r e i s o f t e n based on the need t o g i v e s e r v i c e and i n t a k e cannot be c o n t r o l l e d . C l i e n t s c a n n o t be chosen, t h e y must be a c c e p t e d f o r s e r v i c e because o f s t a t u t o r y r e q u i r e m e n t s . The d i f f i c u l t y i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e r e q u i r e s n o t o n l y c o n v i n c i n g d e p a r t m e n t a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u t a l s o the p o l i t i c i a n s , o f the soundness i n a 21. new a p p r o a c h . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e team a p p r o a c h i s new t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n some s e t t i n g s and a l t h o u g h i t may be w o r k a b l e , i t may t a k e t i m e t o be a c c e p t e d . C o n t i n u i t y o f team l e a d e r s h i p i s e s s e n t i a l t o p r o v i s i o n o f a m i n i m a l l y adequate l e v e l o f s e r v i c e . Method of E v a l u a t i o n , i A c c o r d i n g t o P o l a n s k y , r e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s t o - " a c l u s t e r o f c o n c e p t s r e l a t i n g t o t h e p r e c i s i o n , r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y o r s t a b i l i t y o f a s e t o f measures". I n a broad sense the v a l i d i t y o r r e l e v a n c e o f a measurement p r o c e d u r e i s based on the degree t o w h i c h t h e aims o r p u r p o s e s o f making t h e measurements, ar e a c c o m p l i s h e d . E v i d e n c e f o r v a l i d i t y u s u a l l y comes from one or b o t h of two m a j o r s o u r c e s - - t h e l o g i c a l or r a t i o n a l a p p roach and t h e e m p i r i c a l or s t a t i s t i c a l a p p r o a c h . (20. pp.98-103_) F o r t y s t u d i e s and/or a r t i c l e s were r e v i e w e d . Of t h i s number, twenty-two were c l a s s e d as i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a n a l y s i s and e i g h t e e n e m p i r i c a l , e i t h e r d e s c r i p t i v e , e x p l o r a t o r y o r e x p e r i m e n t a l . Of the twenty-two i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a n a l y s e s , o n l y two p r o v i d e d any f i n d i n g s o r r e s u l t s . Of t h e e i g h t e e n e m p i r i c a l s t u d i e s , seven p r o v i d e d e i t h e r a summary of f i n d i n g s or a t l e a s t an i n d i c a t i o n o f how t h e r e s u l t s would be e v a l u a t e d . I m p r e s s i o n i s t i c A n a l y s e s Three c a t e g o r i e s of t a s k were d e v i s e d i n the T r a v e l l e r s A i d S o c i e t y u n i t s t u d y ( 5 ) , by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t h e c a s e l o a d a c c o r d i n g t o the p r o b l e m t o be worked and s e r v i c e t o be o f f e r e d . A c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t , w i t h i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s t h e t o t a l u n i t work l o a d i n c r e a s e d and t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of work i n c r e a s e d . The o n l y measures p r o v i d e d were t h o s e of i n t e r v i e w count (up 507, i n t h e y e a r ) and cases under c a r e count (up 257, i n one y e a r ) . The s u g g e s t i o n was made t h a t as w e l l as n u m e r i c a l l y r e d u c i n g the cases h a n d l e d by the c a s e w o r k e r , t h e q u a l i t y o f t r e a t m e n t s e r v i c e was improved. 22. The M i n n e s o t a Department o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e s t u d y (1958) ( 2 3 ) , had . as i t s p u r p o s e t o h e l p a p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency s e l e c t cases n e e d i n g i n t e n s i v e s e r v i c e where t h e r e i s a h i g h p o t e n t i a l f o r improvement and t o r e l e a s e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t i m e f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s t h r o u g h use o f case a i d e s , a f l e x i b l e home v i s i t i n g . . p o l i c y and r e v i s i o n o f c o n t i n u i n g e l i g i b i l i t y p r o c e d u r e s . T h i s p r o j e c t c l e a r l y s t a t e d t h a t a s c i e n t i f i c t e s t o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f c a s e -work t r e a t m e n t was n o t i t s p u r p o s e . The b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t casework w i l l improve a s i t u a t i o n g i v e n the time and t h e r e s o u r c e s . Over a p e r i o d o f t ime a s e l e c t e d number o f cases showed marked improvement: 287, improved, 477> showed p o t e n t i a l t o improve. E m p i r i c a l S t u d i e s The p u r p o s e o f the N.A.S.W. s t u d y , 1964 (37) was t o i d e n t i f y l e v e l s o f t a s k s as t o t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y and degree o f autonomy r e q u i r e d by the worker i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . I n i t i a l l y t h e committee i d e n t i f i e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two hundred f i f t y t a s k s . These were condensed t o one hundred s i x t y - t h r e e w h i c h were r a t e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e by t w e l v e j u d g e s w i t h s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p l e x i t y o f t a s k and degree o f worker autonomy. Once t h e s e r a t i n g s were c o m p l e t e d , the r e s u l t s were a n a l y z e d f o r the degree o f judge agreement on t h e i t e m s . On the v a r i a b l e o f c o m p l e x i t y , one hundred twenty-e i g h t items were r e t a i n e d and on the v a r i a b l e o f autonomy, one hundred twenty. Beck r e p o r t e d on a s t u d y (26) u n d e r t a k e n u s i n g the c o n c e p t s o f autonomy and c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y and h e r e a l s o a system f o r r a n k i n g v a r i a b l e s was s e t up. He i n d i c a t e d a.problem m i g h t a r i s e i f a t a s k r anked h i g h on one v a r i a b l e and low on a n o t h e r . An a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n would have t o be made on the r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e o f d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s o r on o t h e r f a c t o r s i n a work s i t u a t i o n . Beck s t a t e s t h a t t h e c r i t e r i a a r e n o t o b j e c t i v e and cannot be s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v a l i d a t e d . He s u g g e s t s , however, t h a t t h e y can be s u b j e c t e d 23. t o v a r i o u s t e s t s . They can be t e s t e d a g a i n s t e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e i n s o c i a l work and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s . The c o n s u l t a n t s i n t h i s s t u d y made t r i a l r uns on v a r i o u s s o c i a l work t a s k s u s i n g the f o r m u l a t i o n . I n the v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s where t h e c r i t e r i a were t e s t e d , the same r a n k i n g of t a s k s was a c h i e v e d . The same was done i n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s where t h e r e a r e a l r e a d y s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , f o r example, d e n t i s t r y and n u r s i n g , and i t was found t h a t t h e r e s u l t a n t s o r t i n g o f t a s k s was l i k e t h a t a l r e a d y i n e x i s t e n c e f o r t h o s e p r o f e s s i o n s . The r e s u l t s were c o n s i d e r e d " e n c o u r a g i n g " . Heyman (10) r e p o r t e d on a two y e a r s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n a t A l b e r t E i n s t e i n M e d i c a l C e n t r e i n P h i l a d e l p h i a t o a l l e v i a t e t h e s h o r t a g e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o o i a l w o r k e r s by d e v i s i n g a scheme f o r a l l o c a t i n g work on the b a s i s o f worker s k i l l . I n r e g a r d t o the e v a l u a t i o n o f p r o d u c t -i v i t y , two t i m e s t u d i e s were conducted a t d i f f e r e n t i n t e r v a l s t o r e c o r d time s p e n t on d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t s e r v i c e t o the c l i e n t . S p e c i f i c a l l y measured were: (a) Q u a n t i t y o f S e r v i c e ( b e f o r e and a f t e r ) - - c h a n g e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i m e , changes i n average c a s e l o a d s , changes i n d i f f e r e n t i a l use o f l e v e l s of s t a f f , changes i n d o c t o r i n i t i a t e d s e r v i c e s . (b) Q u a l i t y o f S e r v i c e , ( b e f o r e and a f t e r ) A case r e a d e r s c h e d u l e was d e v e l o p e d t o i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e e x t e n t casework improved or d e t e r i o r a t e d , o ver a p e r i o d o f t i m e . Judges from o u t s i d e t h e h o s p i t a l made judgments on t h i r t e e n items under th e h e a d i n g s o f " d i a g n o s i s and p l a n " , and " t r e a t m e n t " . A .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was used f o r a c c e p t a n c e of judgments. ( c ) Q u a l i t y o f l e v e l s o f s t a f f was a l s o d e t e r m i n e d . O t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f q u a l i t y i n c l u d e d more e x p l o r a t i o n beyond i n t a k e , more use made o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s , and fewer cases c l o s e d because r e q u e s t f o r h e l p w i t h d r a w n or c l i e n t found i n a c c e s s i b l e t o casework h e l p . Beck, R a n t o r e t a l , (1) r e p o r t e d on a s t u d y w h i c h was c a r r i e d o ut t o d e t e r m i n e whether t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t and p r a c t i c a l l y i m p o r t a n t 24. change i n the c l i n i c a l and s o c i a l s t a t u s o f p s y c h o t i c h o s p i t a l p a t i e n t s f o l l o w i n g work done by v o l u n t e e r s who were c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . Success was e s t i m a t e d t o be 317». Of the t h i r t y - f i v e out o f one hundred t w e n t y who were out of the h o s p i t a l a t the time o f the s t u d y , c l i n i c a l s t a t u s was as f o l l o w s : t w o — a s s i c k as e v e r , t e n — m a r g i n a l a d j u s t -ment, e i g h t e e n — c o n s i d e r a b l y improved, f i v e — a p p a r e n t l y w e l l . Weissman and Baker r e p o r t e d ' on the s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n by the C.S.W.E. (1959) ( 3 5 ) , w h i c h a n a l y z e d c r i t i c a l i n c i d e n t s t o p r o v i d e (1) j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s t a t e m e n t s f o r f o u r key s o c i a l w o r k y p o s i t i o n s i n terms o f i n f e r r e d b e h a v i o r r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e f f e c t i v e p e r f o r m a n c e o f the j o b , and (2) a t a b u l a t i o n of the range o f c l i e n t problems i n d i c a t e d i n the i n c i d e n t s t o r e q u i r e t h e s e b e h a v i o r s . The c r i t i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s a r e a c o m p o s i t e of c r i t i c a l a s p e c t s of j o b b e h a v i o r s i n two d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f programs ( p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e and c h i l d w e l f a r e ) a d m i n i s t e r e d by n i n e d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s . Some b e h a v i o r s do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y appear i n b o t h programs or i n a l l s t a t e s . Dumpson and P o d e l l (27) o u t l i n e a s t u d y w h i c h a t t e m p t e d t o form-u l a t e a p l a n t o t e s t the outcome, upon c l i e n t s and w o r k e r s , i n p u b l i c w e l -f a r e department i n New York S t a t e , of v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s of t a s k s t o be based upon the i n v e s t i g a t o r y and s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n s o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e w o r k e r s . I t a l s o p r o p o s e d t o t e s t v a r i o u s model arrangements o f t r a i n e d and u n t r a i n e d w o r k e r s . H i l l (20) p r o v i d e s a r e a s o n a b l y d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of b o t h the P h i l a d e l p h i a Cost S t u d y Method and the Schwartz-Wo 1 i r i s C o s t A n a l y s i s Method. The P h i l a d e l p h i a method i s c o n s t r u c t e d around the c o n c e p t o f c o s t c e n t r e s — p r o d u c t i o n and s e r v i c e . As t h e g r e a t e s t p a r t o f the c o s t s of most a g e n c i e s a r e f o r s a l a r i e s , a y e a r l o n g t i m e s t u d y was c a r e f u l l y d e s i g n e d t o o b t a i n an e s t i m a t e o f the way each s t a f f group ( a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s t a f f , s u p e r v i s o r s , c a s e w o r k e r s and c l e r i c a l s t a f f ) s p e n t t h e i r t i m e . On e v e r y 25. w o r k i n g day of t h e y e a r , some (not a l l ) o f the s t a f f k e p t a r e c o r d o f t h e i r t i m e . Sample days f o r each s t a f f member were drawn a t random. T h i s s a m p l i n g method has the d i s a d v a n t a g e o f p r o l o n g i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the t i m e s t u d y . I t s g r e a t a d v a n t a g e , however, i s t h a t the time sample i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e whole y e a r . T h i s i s u s e f u l i n a s o c i a l agency where a c t i v i t i e s a r e known t o v a r y g r e a t l y from month t o month, season t o s e a s o n . The c h i e f f e a t u r e o f t h e S c h w a r t z - W o l i n s p r o j e c t c o n c e r n s t h e u n i t s o f agency s e r v i c e t o w h i c h the c o s t s a r e t o be r e l a t e d . One of the main p u r p o s e s o f the p r o j e c t was t o d e v e l o p and t e s t a work measurement p r o c e d u r e f o r casework i n a c h i l d p l a c i n g agency. A l t h o u g h u s e f u l , t h i s s t u d y p o i n t s t o a major p r o b l e m i n c o s t s t u d i e s , namely, the s e l e c t i o n o f u n i t s t h a t w i l l measure a d e q u a t e l y the o u t p u t o f a g e n c i e s and y e t be s i m p l e t o u se. There a r e a number o f d i f f e r e n t uses f o r c o s t a c c o u n t i n g and c o s t d a t a i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . I t i s u n d e s i r a b l e and i m p r a c t i b l e t o judge one method of c o s t a n a l y s i s as b e t t e r t h a n a n o t h e r w i t h o u t r e l a t i n g each system t o the pur p o s e s i t i s i n t e n d e d t o s e r v e . One t h i n g i s c e r t a i n , c o s t s s h o u l d n o t be reduced a t the expense or q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e . S t a f f T r a i n i n g P r o p o s a l s I n a r e c e n t a r t i c l e , L e v i n e (30, pp.9 - 1 7 ) , s t a t e s t h a t t h e p r e s e n t o u t p u t o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s i s f a l l i n g b e h i n d the p r o -j e c t e d need. I n the U.S.A., i n 1964, o n l y . o n e out o f e v e r y f i v e s o c i a l w o r k e r s was f u l l y t r a i n e d w i t h two y e a r s p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . There a r e 10,000 u n f i l l e d v a c a n c i e s f o r q u a l i f i e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s ; 15,000 s o c i a l w o r k e r s a r e needed a n n u a l l y t o r e p l a c e w o r k e r s who l e a v e and t o meet growth needs. The ann u a l o u t p u t o f f u l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,500 and d u r i n g t h e decade o f t h e s i x t i e s , t h e r e w i l l be a s h o r t a g e o f 26. about 16,000 w o r k e r s t o meet the growth needs a l o n e . L e v i n e , t h e r e f o r e , s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e needs i n d i c a t e the i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h and e x p e r i -m e n t a t i o n w i t h new methods and approaches i f the gap between needs and r e s o u r c e s i s g o i n g t o be c l o s e d . Not o n l y must s t a f f be t r a i n e d and r e t r a i n e d , b u t a l s o agency s t r u c t u r e s must be r e o r g a n i z e d and Boards and Heads o f Departments must be c o n v i n c e d o f t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f new schemes r e q u i r i n g s t a f f t r a i n i n g . F e s l e r ( 1 8 ) , p o i n t s out t h a t s t a b i l i t y o f agency p o l i c y and method and competence of i t s f i e l d p e r s o n n e l i s one f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g the degree t o w h i c h an agency d e c e n t r a l i z e s . I n o r d e r f o r a P u b l i c W e l f a r e o f f i c e t o f u n c t i o n e f f i c i e n t l y and o f f e r c o n s t r u c t i v e s e r v i c e i t must be d e c e n t r a l i z e d t o a f a i r l y h i g h d e g r e e . New methods of s e r v i c e , t h e r e f o r e , must be e f f e c t i v e i n o r d e r t o w a r r a n t the s u p p o r t o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I t has been p o i n t e d out by W h i t t e (36) t h a t the i d e a l o f an M.S.W. degree f o r a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s i s u n r e a l i s t i c and u n n e c e s s a r y . He says th e p r o f e s s i o n s h o u l d c a r r y out o v e r - a l l p l a n n i n g t o e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s , t o a s s e s s p r e s e n t f a c i l i t i e s , t o s e t g o a l s , and t o encourage p u b l i c under-s t a n d i n g o f t h e p r o b l e m s . F i s h e r ( 6 ) , goes a l i t t l e f u r t h e r by s u g g e s t i n g we must l o o k a t the r o l e e m p l o y e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i v a t e agency boards and government departments must p l a y i n development of p e r s o n n e l . He t h i n k s t h a t a l t h o u g h the S c h o o l s and i n the p r o f e s s i o n have an i m p o r t a n t p a r t t o p l a y i n e d u c a t i o n o f s o c i a l work, t h e r e must be more. There must be u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t o f s o c i a l work needs from e m p l o y e r s , b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s and government o f a l l l e v e l s . The many a r e a s o f i n d u s t r y , because of s t a f f needs, have had t o d e v e l o p s t a f f t r a i n i n g programs and s o c i a l work c o u l d l o o k and l e a r n from some o f i n d u s t r y ' s v e r y e f f i c i e n t and p r o v e n s t a f f t r a i n i n g programs. D a l y ( 4 ) , q uotes Dennison as making the p o i n t t h a t s o c i a l work 27. sometimes under p r e s s u r e o f c r i s i s , o r because o f l a c k o f r e s o u r c e s , p r o d u c e s a m a k e s h i f t remedy f o r what i s g o i n g t o be a l o n g term p r o b l e m and i n the f u t u r e , c o n t i n u e t o use and b u i l d on i t . Thus s o c i a l work sometimes c r e a t e s a new s t a t e o f a f f a i r s and n o t a s o l u t i o n . T h e r e f o r e , we must be s u r e t h a t our new programs a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o the need and t h a t t h e j o b s r e q u i r e d t o be f i l l e d a r e r e a l l y n e c e s s a r y . I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o d e v e l o p , f i n a n c e and r e c r u i t s t u d e n t s i n h i g h s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and g r a d u a t e l e v e l s t o ed u c a t e f o r p o s i t i o n s i n s o c i a l work. O n l y f o r the g r a d u a t e l e v e l o f s o c i a l work has the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s been f o r m a l i z e d . R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a i n i n g must l i e w i t h the P u b l i c W e l f a r e A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e y must m a i n t a i n a c l o s e l i a s o n w i t h t h e t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s a t a l l l e v e l s . I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed t h a t a program o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r a l l l e v e l s o f s t a f f i s r e q u i r e d b u t f o r s t a f f f u n c t i o n i n g on the l e v e l below t h a t o f the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d t h e r e s h o u l d be more i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g . The r e p o r t o f the U.S. Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e ( 2 1 ) , s u g g e s t s t r a i n i n g f o r the p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s t o h i s s p e c i f i c j o b and t h a t a l l l e v e l s s h o u l d l e a r n agency p h i l o s o p h y , f u n c t i o n , p o l i c y and methods o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Weissman and Baker ( 3 5 ) , s u p p o r t t h i s v i e w by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e r e s h o u l d be some form o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g program even f o r t h o s e w o r k e r s who come t o an agency w i t h f u l l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . I t i s s u g g e s t e d i n the E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work t h a t t h e r e i s a need t o d e v e l o p programs f o r p e r s o n n e l a t u n d e r g r a d u a t e l e v e l s . I t i s e s t i m a t e d i n t h i s a r t i c l e t h a t a t t h e p r e s e n t r a t e o f growth t h e needs by 1970 w i l l be a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2\ t i m e s p r e s e n t s t a f f . Development o f new s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work i n untapped g e o g r a p h i c a r e a s w i l l be o f some h e l p . Meyer ( 3 1 ) , warns t h a t s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work a r e g i v i n g p r e c o n c e i v e d v i e w s 28. of s o c i a l work j o b s t o s t u d e n t s and t h e y , t h e r e f o r e , a r e n o t g o i n g i n t o P u b l i c W e l f a r e a g e n c i e s . G r i p t o n ( 2 9 ) , goes f u r t h e r and s t a t e s t h a t the use of t r a i n i n g g r a n t s has been somewhat u n s u c c e s s f u l because a w o r k e r may have t o d i v i d e h i s l o y a l i t y between t h e P u b l i c W e l f a r e Agency and the p r o f e s s i o n o f s o c i a l work. A r e p o r t o f t h e W o r k i n g P a r t y on S o c i a l Workers ( 2 2 ) , c h a i r e d by Younghusband o u t l i n e d t h r e e main p r o p o s a l s f o r t r a i n i n g : (1) f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f the h i g h e s t q u a l i f i c a t i o n . (2) g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g o f r e l a t e d t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e t o be g i v e n i n c o l l e g e s or o t h e r e d u c a t i o n e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , w i t h the c o o p e r a t i o n o f the u n i v e r s i t i e s . (3) t r a i n i n g f o r w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n t s o r case a i d e s -p l a n n e d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g d e s i g n e d t o g i v e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f common human needs and s t r e s s e s and t o t r a i n t h e s e w o r k e r s t o d e t e c t e a r l y s i g n s o f s t r e s s or o t h e r problems beyond t h e i r c a p a c i t y to h a n d l e . The l i t e r a t u r e i s v e r y c l e a r and t h e r e appears t o be unanimous agreement on the need f o r f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s and t r a i n i n g programs f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r s a t a l l l e v e l s and i n any s e t t i n g . L i m i t a t i o n s i n the L i t e r a t u r e Reviewed. There a r e many a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d d e a l i n g w i t h the manpower c r i s i s i n s o c i a l work and j u s t as many d i f f e r e n t schemes p r o p o s e s f o r s o l v i n g t h i s dilemma. There does n o t , however, appear t o be any co-o r d i n a t i n g body o r group a s s i g n e d the t a s k of p o o l i n g t o g e t h e r the a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n or e v a l u a t i n g the e x i s t i n g programs i n o r d e r t o come up w i t h a w o r k a b l e s o l u t i o n . The l i t e r a t u r e g e n e r a l l y a g r e e s on the need f o r more p r o f e s s i o n -a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s and t h a t p e r s o n n e l w i t h l e s s e r e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g can p r o v i d e a u s e f u l and n e c e s s a r y s e r v i c e . However, a p a r t from s t a t i n g t h a t i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d and c a s e - a i d e w o r k e r s a r e r e q u i r e d , l i t t l e s u g g e s t i o n i s made of the methods of t r a i n i n g o r type s o f c o u r s e s t h a t s h o u l d be made a v a i l a b l e . P u b l i c W e l f a r e a g e n c i e s and p o l i t i c i a n s w i l l want t o know how much r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs w i l l c o s t i n r e l a t i o n t o s e r v i c e r e t u r n s . I t has always been d i f f i c u l t t o d i s c u s s changes w i t h government w i t h o u t knowing c o s t s , and how d i f f i c u l t i t i s t o pu t a p r i c e t a g on human b e h a v i o r . The l i t e r a t u r e c i t e d does n o t d i s c u s s c o s t s o f t r a i n i n g programs, s a v i n g s i n d o l l a r s t h r o u g h b e t t e r u t i l i z a t i o n o f s t a f f , and the amount o f money r e q u i r e d t o i n s t i t u t e a r e s e a r c h program. F u r t h e r m o r e , no h i n t i s g i v e n as t o where the t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l t o conduct the n e c e s s a r y r e s e a r c h i s g o i n g t o be o b t a i n e d . A t t e n t i o n i s now t u r n e d t o t h e d e s i g n o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y . 30. CHAPTER I I I STUDY DESIGN C o n c e p t u a l Framework As has a l r e a d y been documented i n the r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e i s a g r o w i n g need f o r p l a n n e d deployment of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l i n terms of t a s k s t o be p e r f o r m e d commensurate w i t h t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s . A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e , even i f t h e r e were a v a i l a b l e a s u f f i c i e n t number o f w o r k e r s w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g , no r a t i o n a l b a s i s e x i s t s by w h i c h t h e y m i g h t b e s t be d e p l o y e d . Thus, the o v e r a l l g o a l t o w h i c h t h i s s t u d y i s committed i s t o e x p l o r e the c r i t e r i a t h a t c o u l d be b e s t u t i l i z e d t o p r o v i d e a r a t i o n a l scheme f o r d e p l o y i n g s t a f f . I f c r i t e r i a a r e f o u n d , t h e y c o u l d be used t o d e v e l o p a l a t e r s t u d y i n w h i c h t a s k s t h a t have been c l a s s i f i e d c o u l d be a s s i g n e d t o w o r k e r s w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n and t r a i n i n g . The r e s u l t s c o u l d t h e n be s y s t e m a t i c a l l y o b s e r v e d , t a b u l a t e d and e v a l u a t e d . One c o u l d , f o r example, o b s e r v e t h e outcome of i n t r o d u c i n g w e l f a r e a i d e s a t v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . U l t i m a t e l y , i t i s hoped t h a t the e f f i c -i e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s ( i n terms of movement, q u a l i t y , q u a n t i t y and so f o r t h ) w i l l be improved. I t i s n o t t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y t o d e v e l o p means by w h i c h a cheaper b u t l e s s a p p r o p r i a t e s o u r c e o f l a b o u r w i l l a d m i n i s t e r c e r t a i n a s p e c t s of t h e S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e ' P r o g r a m . Q u e s t i o n s t o be S t u d i e d The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n t h i s s t u d y seeks t o r e s o l v e i s : W i t h what r e a l i a b i l i t y can t h e c o ncept o f autonomy be a p p l i e d t o the t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n a p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e s e t t i n g . 31. Once t h e c r i t e r i a have been i d e n t i f i e d and d e f i n e d , i t may be assumed t h a t i d e n t i f i e d s o c i a l work t a s k s may t h e n be ranked i n terms of the c r i t e r i a . The ranked t a s k s would be o r g a n i z e d o r c l a s s i f i e d i n t o work a s s i g n m e n t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o s o c i a l worker p o s i t i o n s . E s t a b l i s h i n g v a l i d i t y f o r the c r i t e r i a c o u l d o n l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d by u t i l i z i n g t a s k assignment, i n a f i e l d e x p e r i m e n t d e v e l o p e d t o t e s t whether or n o t the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of s e r v i c e t o a c l i e n t a c t u a l l y improved. T h i s w i l l be beyond the scope o f our s t u d y and w i l l be l e f t f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s t o f o l l o w up. I n t h e meantime, i t i s assumed t h a t the use o f c r i t e r i a as o u t l i n e d above i n d e t e r m i n i n g t a s k a s s i g n m e n t s would be an improvement over the p r e s e n t system f o r a s s i g n i n g t a s k s . R i c h a n (26) p r o p o s e d a b a s i c f o r m u l a t i o n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the k i n d s of t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by w o r k e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s k i l l s . He s u g g e s t e d t h a t one s h o u l d examine n o t Che n a t u r e of t h e t a s k s b u t the degree t o w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s a r e r e q u i r e d by each l e v e l o f w o r k e r i n p e r f o r m i n g h i s a c t i v i t i e s . Thus the c r i t e r i a chosen s h o u l d r e l a t e d i r e c t l y t o t h e major f a c t o r s d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f w o r k e r s k i l l and c a p a b i l i t y , i . e . , t h e M.S.W., the B.S.W., th e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e e , and t h e w e l f a r e a i d e . S e l e c t i n g c r i t e r i a on t h i s b a s i s l e a d s d i r e c t l y t o r e l a t i n g the ranked t a s k s t o worker p o s i t i o n s . The a l t e r n a t e c h o i c e o f s e l e c t i n g a r b i t r a r y c r i t e r i a o n l y from the n a t u r e of the t a s k s does n o t d i r e c t l y a c c o u n t f o r the f a c t o r s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e each l e v e l o f w o r k e r . C r i t e r i a chosen, as p r o p o s e d by t h i s s t u d y w i l l l i k e l y be more v a l i d t h a n by any o t h e r method. . I n a d d i t i o n , such a scheme o f t a s k s a s s i g n m e n t would l e a d t o u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s as t h e y a r e now b e i n g t r a i n e d and e d u c a t e d . R e l i a b i l i t y f o r the c r i t e r i a can be e s t a b l i s h e d i f t h e judges can r a t e the t a s k s ( i n terms o f the c r i t e r i a ) w i t h i n a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i t o f 32. a c c e p t a n c e . Tasks r a t e d w i t h 8 0 7 , or b e t t e r agreement w i l l be a c c e p t e d . Tasks r a t e d w i t h 607o - 7 97> agreement w i l l be v i e w e d as s u p p o r t i n g the use of autonomy as the c r i t e r i o n , however, t h e s e t a s k s w i l l be r e v i e w e d w i t h t h e v i e w t o e s t a b l i s h i n g f i n e r d e f i n i t i o n s . Tasks r a t e d below 6 0 7 , a g r e e -ment w i l l r e q u i r e a c o m p lete r e - a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e t a s k d e f i n i t i o n . Concepts t o be I n c l u d e d i n t h e Study (1) Task: A t a s k i n c o r p o r a t e s t h a t w h i c h i s done by a s o c i a l w o r k e r i n p r o v i d i n g a s e r v i c e as d e f i n e d w i t h i n t h e S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e A c t . The A c t s t a t e s t h a t s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e means: " ( a ) f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; (b) a s s i s t a n c e i n k i n d ; ( c ) i n s t i t u t i o n a l , n u r s i n g , b o a r d i n g or f o s t e r home c a r e ; (d) a i d i n money or i n k i n d t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s b o a r d s , c o m m i s s i o n s , o r g a n i z a t i o n s o r p e r s o n s p r o v i d i n g a i d , c a r e , or h e a l t h s e r v i c e s t o i n d i g e n t , s i c k , or i n f o r m p e r s o n s , and i n r e i m b u r s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s made by them; (e) c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s ; ( f ) h e a l t h s e r v i c e s ; (g) o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e t r a i n i n g or t h e r a p y f o r i n d i g e n t p e r s o n s and m e n t a l l y o r p h y s i c a l l y h a n d i c a p p e d p e r s o n s ; (h) g e n e r a l l y any form o f a i d n e c e s s a r y t o r e l i e v e d e s t i t u t i o n and s u f f e r i n g . " (42,. p.4541) These s e r v i c e s , f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , have been d i v i d e d i n t o work u n i t s i . e . c l u s t e r s o f t a s k s w h i c h o c c u r t o g e t h e r . Thus a t a s k r e p r e s e n t s one s t e p i n a work u n i t . The work u n i t s a r e : I n i t i a l C o n t a c t , Ongoing C o n t a c t and T e r m i n a t i o n C o n t a c t . Ongoing C o n t a c t has been f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e s , Community R e l a t i o n s h i p s 33. and Treatment S e r v i c e s . (See A p p e n d i x A f o r f u l l l i s t o f t a s k s ) . (2) C l i e n t : The c l i e n t , o r more p r e c i s e l y , the c o n f i g u r a t i o n he b r i n g s t o the agency t h a t r e q u i r e s t h e p e r f o r m a n c e of c e r t a i n t a s k s by the w o r k e r . T h i s c o n c e p t w i l l n o t be d i r e c t l y used i n t h i s s t u d y b u t i s n e c e s s a r y a t some f u t u r e s t a g e when the i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n e d by t h i s s t u d y i t u t i l i z e d i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y . A t the p r e s e n t , the c o n c e r n i s whether c r i t e r i a t o r a t e t a s k s can be a d e q u a t e l y d e v e l o p e d . V a r i a b l e s t o be I n c l u d e d i n the Study (1) Autonomy: T h i s i s the major v a r i a b l e t o be u t i l i z e d i n t h i s s t u d y and t h e d e f i n i t i o n used by Beck (26) and quoted i n t h e r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e , seems t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r our p u r p o s e s . W h i l e autonomy w i l l be s p e c i f i e d i n d e t a i l a t a l a t e r s t a g e a g e n e r a l o p e r a t i o n a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t i t i n c o r p o r a t e s the e x p l i c i t n e s s o f g u i d e s t o the w o r k e r , the v i s i b i l i t y o f p r a c t i c e , and t h e degree o f r e q u i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s . I t i s a r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t the t a s k s be e x p l i c i t l y d e f i n e d i n t h e s e terms i f the judges a r e t o r a t e them i n terms of autonomy. (2) A second v a r i a b l e c o n s i s t s of the a t t r i b u t e s o f t a s k s w h i c h p r o v i d e the b a s i s o f t a s k a s s ignment t o v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f w e l f a r e workers i . e . t h o s e a t t r i b u t e s r e q u i r i n g v a r y i n g degrees o f w o r k e r autonomy i n the p e r f o r m a n c e of t h e t a s k . (3) O t h e r s t u d i e s o f t h i s n a t u r e have t r i e d t o use o t h e r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h have a l l p r e s e n t e d drawbacks as f o l l o w s : (a) V u l n e r a b i l i t y as a c r i t e r i o n p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l t i e s i n s c a l i n g , assessment and t a s k d e f i n i t i o n . E v e n t u a l l y i t i s p r o b a b l e t h a t v u l n e r a b i l i t y w i l l have t o be employed b u t f o r our p u r p o s e s , i t i s t o o complex t o be used as a s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e . I n d eed, autonomy would seem t o i n c o r p o r a t e v u l n e r a b i l i t y . 34. (b) F a c t - f i n d i n g , w h i l e i t appears t o be most a p p l i c a b l e t o p u b l i c w e l f a r e , i s n o t comprehensive and i s an a t t r i b u t e , n o t a v a r i a b l e m e a s u r a b l e on a continuum. ( c ) D e c i s i o n m a king i s an i n t e g r a l component o f autonomy. (d) C o m p l e x i t y a l s o i s an i n t e g r a l component o f autonomy. I t i s n o t l i k e l y t h a t autonomy would be r e q u i r e d i f t a s k s were n o t complex. H a v i n g d e s i g n e d a t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f the p u r p o s e , the under-l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s and the v a l u e s o f the s t u d y , the a t t e n t i o n may now be g i v e n t o e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . L e v e l o f R e s e a r c h D e s i g n G i v e n the p r e s e n t s t a t e o f knowledge a v a i l a b l e i n the a r e a under c o n s i d e r a t i o n , the l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i n t h i s p r o j e c t must be c o n s i d e r e d e x p l o r a t o r y . B e f o r e an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n can be f o r m u l a t e d , a r a t i o n a l b a s i s must be e s t a b l i s h e d by w h i c h s o c i a l work t a s k s can be a s s i g n e d . T h i s i s the p r o b l e m t o w h i c h t h i s s t u d y a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f . V a r i a b l e s t o be I n c l u d e d i n Study Autonomy Wor k i n g on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t s o c i a l work, as s u g g e s t e d by Beck (26) has b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s , the c o n c e p t o f worker autonomy r e f e r s t o the degree t o w h i c h t h e worker i s c a l l e d upon t o f u n c t i o n autonomously d e p e n d i n g on h i s b u i l t i n p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s . I n h e r e n t i n t h i s c o n c e p t a r e the f a c t s t h a t , ( l ) many s o c i a l work t a s k s a r e not s p e l l e d out i n a book o f r e g u l a t i o n s , (2) casework i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y c l o s e d t o d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n and (3) i n some s e t t i n g s t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s . There a r e f a c t o r s w i t h i n the c l i e n t s i t u a t i o n w h i c h we have chosen t o c a l l o b j e c t i v e and sub j e c t i v e w h i c h a l s o have a b e a r i n g on t h e amount of autonomy r e q u i r e d by a s o c i a l w o r k e r i n the pe r f o r m a n c e o f the t a s k s . The 35. c o n c e p t o f autonomy a l s o i m p l i e s r e c o g n i t i o n of t h e n e c e s s i t y o f the worker h a v i n g knowledge and a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h t h e s e f a c t o r s . O b j e c t i v e may be d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y c o n c r e t e a c t s d e a l i n g w i t h the p h y s i c a l needs o f a c l i e n t as opposed t o t h o s e o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e , f o r example, p r o v i d i n g accommodation. S u b j e c t i v e may be d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y t h o s e a c t s d e a l i n g w i t h the p s y c h o l o g i c a l ( e m o t i o n a l ) as w e l l as the p h y s i c a l needs o f the c l i e n t , f o r example, a c o n c e r n w i t h m o t i v a t i o n , ego c a p a c i t y and so f o r t h . F o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e c o n cept o f autonomy i s p l a c e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f r a t i n g t h e l i s t o f t a s k s , c o n f i r m e d and p e r f o r m e d by w o r k e r s c a r r y i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d s . The t a s k s w i l l be r a t e d by the j udges i n terms o f the l e s s e r o r g r e a t e r degree o f w o r k e r autonomy r e q u i r e d i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . The f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e i s a t t a c h e d . (See A p p e n d i x B) I t was f e l t t h a t the c o n c e p t o f autonomy i n c l u d e d t a s k c o m p l e x i t y , f a c t - f i n d i n g , d e c i s i o n making. No a t t e m p t was made t o i d e n t i f y o r c o n t r o l i n t e r f e r r i n g v a r i a b l e s . Data A n a l y s i s D e s i g n The p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , as has been s t a t e d , i s t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n p r o v i d i n g s e r v i c e t o a s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r e c i p i e n t can be r e l i a b l y r a t e d i n terms o f worker, autonomy. Such r e l i a b i l i t y can be e s t a b l i s h e d i f t h e p a n e l o f j udges can r a t e each t a s k w i t h a t l e a s t .80% agreement on t h e f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e a l r e a d y d e v e l o p e d . The 8 0 % l e v e l of agreement used i n the F i n e s t o n e s t u d y , (28) i s based l e s s on i t s s t a t i s t i c a l v a l i d i t y as a measure t h a n i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h i s s t u d y . I t p r o v i d e s an adequate s t a n d a r d by w h i c h t o e s t a b l i s h whether each t a s k has been r a t e d r e l a t i v e l y r e l i a b l y . I t i s adequate i n t h a t p e r f e c t agreement i s n e i t h e r r e q u i r e d n o r e x p e c t e d . One must e x p e c t t h e r e w i l l be some d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e j u d g e ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t a s k s due t o t h e i r w i d e l y 36. v a r y i n g backgrounds i n s e r v i c e , a f a c t o r t h a t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o c o n t r o l . W h i l e t h i s f a c t o r m i g h t seem t o negate the whole approach o f t h i s s t u d y , i t must be p o i n t e d out t h a t one p u r p o s e of d e v e l o p i n g a scheme o f t a s k s a s s i g n m e n t i s t o s t a n d a r d i z e s e r v i c e , i . e . , r e p l a c e the p r e s e n t system w i t h a more r a t i o n a l one. I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t a scheme o f t a s k s a s s i g n m e n t would have t o be f l e x i b l e , t h u s 100% agreement i s n o t n e c e s s a r y . The l e v e l o f 807o i s s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h enough to l e a d us t o b e l i e v e t h a t r e l i a b i l i t y has been e s t a b l i s h e d . However, the v a l i d i t y o f such a measure can o n l y be t e s t e d by an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y e m p l o y i n g the t a s k a s s i g n m e n t s . S a m p l i n g P r o c e d u r e s S t u d y P o p u l a t i o n s Needed and A v a i l a b l e (1) Worker Population': 1 The p o p u l a t i o n from w h i c h our sample w i l l be chosen i s a l l t h o s e s o c i a l w o r k e r s c a r r y i n g p r e d o m i n a n t l y s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d s i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s i n the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . These s o c i a l w o r k e r s p e r f o r m f u n c t i o n s s a n c t i o n e d by the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and implemented i n r e s p o n s e t o c l i e n t need. (2) Judge P o p u l a t i o n : The s t u d y p o p u l a t i o n from w h i c h the judges w i l l be s e l e c t e d a r e t h o s e s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia who a r e e i t h e r members o f C.A.S.W. or e l i g i b l e f o r membership i n t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n . D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Needed Sample S i z e (1) Worker Sample: The n e c e s s a r y worker p o p u l a t i o n f o r p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y was made a v a i l a b l e t o us by the Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e i n the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a A r e a . I n t h r e e o f f i c e s , V i c t o r i a C i t y , V i c t o r i a D i s t r i c t and S a a n i c h , t h e r e were w o r k e r s a v a i l a b l e who had s u f f i c i e n t e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d t o e n s u r e t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r s would be m e a s u r i n g the t a s k s p e r f o r m e d r a t h e r t h a n the w o r k e r ' s l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s . We f e l t 37 . t h a t t h e r e was a danger of m e a s u r i n g the l a t t e r i f the worker p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n e d a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of newly p l a c e d i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d w o r k e r s . ^ We f e l t t h a t the worker sample s h o u l d range i n s i z e from s i x t o te n w o r k e r s , i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e a range o f e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and e x p e r -i e n c e . I n c h o o s i n g w o r k e r s from t h r e e o f f i c e s i n the g r e a t e r V i c t o r i a a r e a we r e c o g n i z e t h a t the sample i s n o t random, however, i t may be c o n s i d -e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n broad t e r m s . I t s h o u l d n o t i n t e r f e r e w i t h our a t t e m p t t o u l t i m a t e l y r e l a t e the t a s k s p e r f o r m e d t o the l e v e l o f worker s k i l and t r a i n i n g . I n s h o r t , we f e l t t h a t a measurement o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d c o u l b e s t be o b t a i n e d by e x a m i n i n g t h o s e j o b s done i n s e v e r a l o f f i c e s o f f e r i n g the t o t a l s p e c t r u m o f s e r v i c e s under t h e S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t , i n u r b a n , suburban and r u r a l a r e a s and by e x p e r i e n c e d or a t l e a s t n o t newly t r a i n e d i n - s e r v i c e w o r k e r s . (2) Judge Sample: We f e l t t h a t the judge sample s h o u l d range i n s i z e from t e n t o f i f t e e n . Our c r i t e r i a f o r t h e judges were: (1) t h a t t h e y have f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g (M.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t ) , (2) t h a t t h e y be p r e s e n t l y employed i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e or t h a t t h e y have had some p u b l i c w e l f a r e e x p e r i e n c e . As such the judges w i l l c o n s t i t u t e a homegeneous group so t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample w i l l s u f f i c e and make f o r a h i g h degree o f a c c u r a c y . C h o o s i n g the Sample To o b t a i n our w o r k e r sample, t h e t h e s i s members p e r s o n a l l y and by l e t t e r e x p l a i n e d t o the s u p e r v i s o r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r o f the t h r e e o f f i c e s f rom w h i c h the w o r k e r s would be s e l e c t e d , t h e n a t u r e and p u r p o s e o f the p r o j e c t and our r e q u i r e m e n t s r e g a r d i n g the w o r k e r s t o be chosen. The 1. I n the i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y , the p l a n was t o use an o f f i c e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y t o Vancouver. On c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , however, we l e a r n e d t h a t a number o f the workers t h e r e were new and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d and t h e r e f o r e not s u i t a b l e f o r our p u r p o s e s . 38. r e q u i r e m e n t s were: (1) t h a t t h e w o r k e r s have a t l e a s t two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n t he f i e l d o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e , (2) t h a t they be c a r r y i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d s , (3) t h a t t h e r e be a range o f e d u c a t i o n , (4) t h a t t h e wo r k e r s be w i l l i n g t o c o - o p e r a t e i n the p r o j e c t . Each s u p e r v i s o r chose w o r k e r s , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e c r i t e r i a , from h i s o f f i c e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o j e c t . The t o t a l w o r k e r sample was sev e n . W i t h r e g a r d t o the judge sample, we at t e m p t e d t o o b t a i n w o r k e r s w i t h M a s t e r s o f S o c i a l Work degrees who were employed by the Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e . As a s u f f i c i e n t number was n o t a v a i l a b l e i n the immediate Vancouver a r e a , j u d g e s , who met our c r i t e r i a , were o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h o u t the p r o v i n c e . There a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 15 i n the p r o v i n c e who met our c r i t e r i a b u t o n l y 11 were a v a i l a b l e t o us. I n o r d e r t o e n l a r g e our sample t o 14, t h r e e i n d i v i d u a l s known t o the r e s e a r c h e r s and who had i n d i c a t e d an i n t e r e s t i n a s s i s t i n g i n the r a t i n g were i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e . These t h r e e judges met t h e c r i t e r i a , however, t h e y a r e n o t , p r e s e n t l y employed i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e but have p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s f i e l d . Methods of G a t h e r i n g D a t a Our r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g method of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n : i n t e r v i e w i n g c l i e n t s and/or w o r k e r s , case f i l e s t u d y , d a i l y work s h e e t s , t e l e p h o n e c a l l s t o w o r k e r s , time s t u d y , p a r t i c i p a n t o b s e r v a t i o n and s e l f completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e . (1) I n t e r v i e w i n g c l i e n t s and/or w o r k e r s ; A l t h o u g h f l e x i b l e , t h i s method had two s e r i o u s drawbacks i n t h a t i t would tend t o be time consuming and e x p e n s i v e , b o t h from the p o i n t o f v i e w o f t r a i n i n g i n t e r v i e w e r s and c o l l e c t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n and c l a s s i f y i n g i t . Because o f the l a c k o f anonymity b o t h f o r t h e c l i e n t and w o r k e r , t h e r e i s the danger t h a t r e s u l t s would be skewed, p a r t i c u l a r l y when d e a l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l t h a t c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d t h r e a t e n i n g and/or b i a s e d . . (2) Case f i l e s t u d y : The a n a l y s i s o f r e c o r d s i s timeconsuming. I t would tend t o l a c k b o t h r e a l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y due t o p o o r and i n c o m p l e t e r e c o r d s , l a c k of u n i f o r m i t y i n r e c o r d i n g and the o f t e n f a v o r a b l e b i a s of r e c o r d i n g . (3) D a i l y Work S h e e t s : A l t h o u g h t h i s ' m e t h o d i s r e l a t i v e l y i n e x p e n s i v e and w o r k a b l e we f e e l , i t i s u n f e a s i b l e due t o time f a c t o r s b o t h f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ( r e : t h e c o l l a t i n g of m a t e r i a l ) and the w o r k e r p a r t i e s i p a n t s . The w o r k e r s sometimes v i e w t h e s e work s h e e t s as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e n u i s a n c e s and can "cook" them or a t l e a s t complete them in;.such a way t h a t r e s u l t s a r e i n a c c u r a t e . (4) Telephone c a l l s t o w o r k e r s : T h i s p r o v i d e s ca u n i f o r m method b u t would n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be c o mprehensive. There would be a p r o b a b l e r e s e n t m e n t f e l t by w o r k e r s a t such i n t e r r u p t i o n s and i t would be e x p e n s i v e and t i m e consuming. (5) Time s t u d y : T h i s method i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e b u t encompasses many o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s l i s t e d above. The time s h e e t s may be completed i n c o r r e c t l y ; t h e y may be v i e w e d as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r y i n g . As s u c h , v a l i d i t y s u f f e r s . (6) P a r t i c i p a n t O b s e r v a t i o n : A l t h o u g h u n i f o r m and r e l a t i v e l y c omprehensive i t i s h i g h l y t i m e consuming and e x p e n s i v e . As i t i s d e a l i n g d i r e c t l y w i t h the c l i e n t , c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y would be j e o p a r d i z e d . (7) S e l f Completed Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s : T h i s method i s u s e f u l i n t h a t i t i s i n e x p e n s i v e and the i n f o r m a t i o n can be g a t h e r e d s i m u l t a n e o u s l y . The i n f o r m a t i o n i s u n i f o r m , r e l a t i v e l y comprehensive and c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y i s e n s u r e d . I n c o m p a r i s o n t o many o f the o t h e r methods i t makes f o r the l e a s t i n f r i n g e m e n t on w o r k e r t i m e . The most s t r i k i n g l i m i t a t i o n s a r e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s depend t o some e x t e n t on t h e knowledge of p r o f e s s i o n a l j a r g o n arid/or t h e frame of r e f e r e n c e and may o m i t r o u t i n e b e h a v i o r s n o t r e c o g n i z e d 40. c o n s c i o u s l y and as such t h e measurement o f v a l i d i t y may be a f f e c t e d . I n c o n s i d e r i n g a l l the a l t e r n a t e methods of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n t h e use o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e l i s t o f t a s k s , and t h e r a t i n g s c a l e f o r the r a t i n g o f t h e t a s k s by the j u d g e s , appears t o be t h e most f e a s i b l e method f o r our p u r p o s e s . I t i s easy t o a d m i n i s t e r , f l e x i b l e , a l l o w i n g f o r f i n e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h i n a s p e c i f i c frame o f r e f e r e n c e . I t i s i n e x p e n s i v e ; b o t h i n terms of b o t h economics and i n terms o f w o r k e r / j u d g e / r e s e a r c h e r t i m e . The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e On the b a s i s o f the combined 22 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s , a t e n t a t i v e l i s t was drawn up of the t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the v a r i o u s phases of t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h c l i e n t s . The t h r e e s u g g e s t e d phases a r e the " I n i t i a l C o n t a c t " , the "Ongoing C o n t a c t " and the " T e r m i n a t i o n C o n t a c t " . The t a s k s were d i v i d e d i n t h i s way f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y a l t h o u g h i t i s a p p r e c i a t e d t h a t some o f them a r e p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g a l l phases o f s o c i a l work a c t i v i t y . As the w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p r o j e c t were r e q u i r e d t o d e t e r m i n e i f , over a two week p e r i o d , t h e y a c t u a l l y c a r r i e d out the t a s k s as l i s t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s , the l e t t e r s (a) , (b) , and ( c ) f o l l o w e d each t a s k l i s t e d . Those t a s k s p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g the f i r s t week were t a l l i e d a f t e r (a) t h o s e p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g the second week were t a l l i e d a f t e r (b) and t h o s e n o t pe r f o r m e d d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f t h e s t u d y b u t a t o t h e r t i m e s d u r i n g the work y e a r a f t e r ( c ) a t a l l y was made each time a t e s t was p e r f o r m e d . E x p l i c i t ^ i n s t r u c t i o n s were drawn up on the use o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f o r t h e w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the p r o j e c t , so t h a t any ommissions, a m b i g u i t i e s o r s u p e r f l u o u s s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o the a t t e n t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h e r s . (See A p p e n d i x A) 41. . P r o c e d u r e s The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; was completed by the n i n e s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n the V i c t o r i a a r e a o f f i c e s f o l l o w i n g two m e e t i n g s a t w h i c h time the r e s e a r c h -e r s o u t l i n e d and e x p l a i n e d what was n e c e s s a r y by way o f c o m p l e t i n g the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I n o r d e r t o a v o i d any skew s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e was made t o the f a c t t h a t we were n o t i n any way e v a l u a t i n g t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . F o l l o w i n g t h e two week p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h t h e w o r k e r s completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t was found t h a t o n l y two t a s k s had t o be d e l e t e d from the o r i g i n a l l i s t . The c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i n g a t a s k as b e i n g a p p r o p r i a t e were: (1) i n d i c a t i o n by a t l e a s t one s o c i a l w o r k e r t h a t the t a s k was p e r f o r m e d . (2) absence o f d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o any t a s k d e f i n i t i o n A t a s k was t o be r e j e c t e d i f none o f the s o c i a l w o r k e r s p e r f o r m e d i t . To e n a b l e t h e judges t o a c c u r a t e l y r a t e t h e t a s k s f o r s o c i a l w o r k e r autonomy a f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e was d e v i s e d by the t h e s i s group. (See A p p e n d i x B) The r a t i n g s c a l e p r o g r e s s e s from a low r a t i n g of (1) w h i c h d e n o t e s low worke r autonomy t o a h i g h r a t i n g o f (5) d e n o t i n g h i g h w o r k e r autonomy. The r a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t was g i v e n t o the f o u r t e e n j u d g e s . Of t h e e l e v e n p u b l i c w e l f a r e j u d g e s , o n l y one was a f i e l d l e v e l w o r k e r w i t h t h e r e s t b e i n g i n s u p e r v i s o r y o r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p o s i t i o n s . I t was a c o n c e r n t h a t the j u d g e s a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e and t h o s e employed i n o t h e r a g e n c i e s would n o t be a b l e t o i n t e r p r e t t h e t a s k s t h a t had been c o n f i r m e d by w o r k e r s a t t h e f i e l d l e v e l . F u r t h e r m o r e , we were concerned t h a t t h e r e c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a p r o f e s s i o n a l b i a s i n f a v o r o f t a s k s b e i n g r a t e d a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f autonomy th a n would be n e c e s s a r y . The a l t e r n a t e would be t o l o w e r our c r i t e r i a f o r s e l e c t i o n o f j u d g e s . However, our b e l i e f i n the complete p r o f e s s i o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y l e d us t o m a i n t a i n the h i g h c r i t e r i a f o r t h e judges s e l e c t e d t o r a t e the .". 42. i n s t r u m e n t . The j u d g e s because o f the l o n g d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d were u n a b l e t o a t t e n d a m e e t i n g where the i n s t r u m e n t and i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r r a t i n g c o u l d be d i s c u s s e d . I t was n e c e s s a r y t o m a i l the m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r c o m p l e t i o n , t o them. On the b a s i s o f the r e t u r n o f e l e v e n i n s t r u m e n t s out o f f o u r t e e n the d a t a a n a l y s i s was c o m p i l e d and i s the s u b j e c t o f the n e x t c h a p t e r . 43. CHAPTER IV STUDY FINDINGS . D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a on Study Sample The S o c i a l Workers The seven w o r k e r s c o m p l e t i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t were a l l I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d . I n terms of e d u c a t i o n , two w o r k e r s had B a c h e l o r o f A r t s Degrees, one had t h i r d y e a r u n i v e r s i t y , two had s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n and one had grade 12. One o f t h e sample w o r k e r s d i d n o t r e c o r d h i s e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . The work e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e seven w o r k e r s ranged from a h i g h o f t e n y e a r s i n t h e p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e f i e l d (one w o r k e r ) t o a low of t h r e e y e a r s ( t h r e e w o r k e r s ) . Two of the w o r k e r s had e i g h t and one h a l f y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e and a n o t h e r had f o u r and one h a l f y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . I t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t our s t u d y measured t h e t a s k a c t i v i t y o f e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s . Task Measurement The combined S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d s o f the seven w o r k e r s amounted t o a t o t a l o f 862 c a s e s . Of t h i s t o t a l , 522 were c l a s s i f i e d as urban and 340 as r u r a l . I t a p p e a r s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t a f a i r l y even d i s t r i b u t i o n o f u r b a n - r u r a l c a s e s was o b t a i n e d . As s u c h , t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n b o t h r u r a l and u r b a n cases were measured. The r e t u r n e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , i n d i c a t e d t h a t Task #64,. " R e c r u i t i n g and T r a i n i n g V o l u n t e e r s , " and #65, " S u p e r v i s i n g I n - s e r v i c e T r a i n e e s , " were n o t p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g the two week t e s t p e r i o d or a t any t i m e d u r i n g t h e y e a r by the sample w o r k e r s . Task #66 " A d d r e s s i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o r community groups on s o c i a l work," and Task #67 " R e p r e s e n t i n g agency a t p u b l i c m e e t i n g s , r a d i o , t e l e -v i s i o n e t c . , " were n o t p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e two week t e s t p e r i o d ; however, 44. one w o r k e r i n d i c a t e d t h a t he p e r f o r m e d t h e s e t a s k s a t o t h e r t i m e s d u r i n g the y e a r . A l l t h e o t h e r t a s k s were p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g the two week t e s t p e r i o d . None o f t h e t a s k s were q u e r i e d as t o v a l i d i t y , a l t h o u g h two w o r k e r s i n d i c a t -ed t h a t i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r them t o a c c u r a t e l y r e c o r d the f r e q u e n c y o f p e r f o r m a n c e o f each t a s k because of p r e s s u r e s o f work. One worke r q u e s t i o n e d the p l a u s i b i l i t y o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a model f o r deployment o f s o c i a l work manpower from t h e c o n t e n t s o f a 15 t o 20 m i n u t e i n t e r v i e w . A n o t h e r n o t e d t h a t he found t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f f e r e d . , i n s u f f i c i e n t space t o r e c o r d t h e number o f time s he p e r f o r m e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s i n v o l v i n g case c l o s i i n g s . The w o r k e r s s u g g e s t e d t h r e e t a s k s t h a t t h e y f e l t were n o t i n c l u d e d i n our q u e s t i o n n a i r e : home v i s i t s , cases d i a g n o s e d and c a t e g o r i z e d f o r casework p r o c e s s e s , d i s c u s s i o n w i t h s o c i a l w o r k e r s on a s p e c i f i c c a s e . From t h i s i n i t i a l phase of t h e s t u d y , i t c o u l d t e n t a t i v e l y be c o n c l u d e d t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t v a l i d l y measures the t a s k s a c t u a l l y b e i n g p e r f o r m e d i n a s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d . The Judges F o u r t e e n j u d g e s , e l e v e n p r e s e n t l y employed i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e and t h r e e w i t h p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s f i e l d , were used i n t h i s p r o j e c t t o r a t e the t a s k s . As many of t h e j u d g e s were, o f n e c e s s i t y , l o c a t e d o u t s i d e t h e Vancouver a r e a , i t was i m p o s s i b l e f o r t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o meet w i t h them c o l l e c t i v e l y t o d i s c u s s the i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r r a t i n g . I n s t e a d , the d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s were m a i l e d t o the judges a l o n g w i t h the l i s t o f t a s k s f o r r a t i n g . Of the f o u r t e e n m a i l e d , e l e v e n were r e t u r n e d . One, however, was n o t f u l l y c ompleted and c o u l d n o t be u t i l i z e d . The r e s u l t s t h e n were c o m p i l e d from t h e r a t i n g s o f t e n j u d g e s . A l l t he judges had a M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work degree from the S c h o o l 45. of S o c i a l Work a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u mbia. They ranged i n t o t a l e x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i a l work, from f o u r y e a r s t o twenty-two y e a r s , f o r a t o t a l o f 117 y e a r s . T h e i r e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e ranged from two y e a r s (two j u d g e s ) t o twenty y e a r s (one j u d g e ) . Two judges had 16 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , two had t e n y e a r s , one had e l e v e n y e a r s , one seven y e a r s and one f o u r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e , m a k i n g f o r a combined t o t a l o f 98 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e . Three of the judges w i t h p r e v i o u s p u b l i c w e l f a r e e x p e r i e n c e a r e now w o r k i n g e l s e w h e r e . One i s a s o c i a l worker a t the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , Vancouver; one i s a s o c i a l w o r k e r a t the M e n t a l H e a l t h C e n t r e i n Burnaby as w e l l as a f i e l d s u p e r v i s o r f o r t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . The t h i r d i s an i n s t r u c t o r a t the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work a t t h i s U n i v e r s i t y . The seven r e m a i n i n g judges a r e a l l employed by the Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e : t h r e e a r e d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s u p e r v i s o r s , one i s a r e g i o n a l d i r e c t o r , one i s a t r a i n i n g s u p e r v i s o r , one, the s p e c i a l p l a c e m e n t s u p e r v i s o r , and one, the Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e . The j u d g e s , w i t h f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s and an ave r a g e of n e a r l y t e n y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e each i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e s h o u l d g i v e us the most o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s p o s s i b l e . A n a l y s i s o f the R a t i n g s A r e v i e w o f t h e 128 t a s k s s u b m i t t e d t o the ju d g e s f o r r a t i n g r e v e a l e d t h a t 16 t a s k s were, i n e s s e n c e , u n r a t e a b l e due t o the f a c t t h a t t h e y were a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d o f a l l w o r k e r s and d i d n o t r e q u i r e autonomy i n t h e i r c o m p l e t i o n , f o r example, a t t e n d i n g m e e t i n g s , c o m p l e t i n g expense a c c o u n t s , r e c o r d i n g . W h i l e t h e degree o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n may d i f f e r f o r each l e v e l o f w o r k e r , t h e l e v e l o f autonomy does n o t . Removing t h e s e u n r a t e a b l e t a s k s l e f t a t o t a l o f 112 t a s k s t o be a n a l y z e d . The r e s u l t s a r e 4 6 . as f o l l o w s : Number 7, 1 . Tasks r e c e i v i n g agreement o f 8 0 7 , o r b e t t e r - 1 0 9 2. " " " " 6 0 7 , t o 7 97o - 37 33 3. " " " " 597o or l e s s - 6 5 5 8 W h i l e v e r y few o f the t a s k s r e c e i v e d the d e s i r e d 8 0 7 , agreement, i t was s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the j u d g e s ' . . r a t i n g s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n t e n d i n g t o c l u s t e r a t two a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s , e.g., 6 0 7 , a t r a t i n g 5 and 4 0 7 , a t r a t i n g 4 . W h i l e i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t the i n s t r u m e n t i s n o t y e t r e l i a b l e , the f a c t t h a t 4 1 . 9 7 , of t h e t a s k s r e c e i v e d o v e r 607> agreement i s e n c o u r a g i n g and l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e we a r e g o i n g i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n . Our n e x t s t e p was t o examine the l i s t o f t a s k s and t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f autonomy. The c l o s e -ness o f r a t i n g s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f autonomy was n o t f i n e enough t o a l l o w d i s t i n c t i o n s between a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s , o r t h a t t h e t a s k s were n o t d e f i n e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y f o r the j udges t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the amount o f autonomy r e q u i r e d o r i t c o u l d , o f c o u r s e , be a c o m b i n a t i o n o f the two. We, t h e r e f o r e , approached the j u d g e s f o r t h e i r comments about problems t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d i n r a t i n g the t a s k s and we r e v i e w -ed the t a s k d e f i n i t i o n s . Problems E n c o u n t e r e d . Our r e v i e w l e a d s us t o b e l i e v e t h a t a major p r o b l e m i n e s t a b l i s h -i n g b e t t e r r e l i a b i l i t y i n the j u d g e s r a t i n g s o f the t a s k s i s dependent on s h a r p e r , more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s o f the t a s k s t h e m s e l v e s . S e v e r a l f a u l t s were n o t e d by most j u d g e s in.;the t a s k d e f i n i t i o n s o n l y t h r e e j udges however, c r i t i c i z e d the r a t i n g i n s t r u m e n t . The comments on the r a t i n g s c a l e i t s e l f i n d i c a t e d two p o s s i b l e p r o b l e m s . The f i r s t was whether o b j e c t i v e ( r e p r e s e n t i n g m a t e r i a l m a t t e r s ) and s u b j e c t i v e ( r e p r e s e n t i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l m a t t e r s ) a r e a v a l i d d i c h o t o m y . 47. The q u e s t i o n was r a i s e d whether any t a s k c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t from the n a t u r e o f the c l i e n t and h i s p r o b l e m , or whether the e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s c o u l d , i n f a c t , be s e p a r a t e d o u t . We have spoken on t h i s e a r l i e r , n o t i n g t h a t any h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d scheme w i l l r e s t upon judgments c o n c e r n i n g c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y . How t h e s e judgments a r e made would have t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n any t a s k a s s ignment scheme. However, c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t t h e i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e o f the t a s k s , w h i c h i s , o f c o u r s e , the f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y . The second p r o b l e m , r a i s e d by o n l y one j u d g e , was whether t o r a t e a t a s k i n terms o f the autonomy r e q u i r e d now i n i t s p e r f o r m a n c e o r i n terms o f the autonomy t h a t s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d i n i t s p e r f o r m a n c e . These o b j e c t i o n s , w h i l e i m p o r t a n t do n o t , i n our o p i n i o n , i n d i c a t e problems w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t , b u t r a t h e r , problems w i t h t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the i n s t r u m e n t t o t h e j u d g e s . T h i s c o u l d be overcome by m e e t i n g w i t h t h e j u d g e s , as a group, b e f o r e t h e y r a t e the t a s k s t o o u t l i n e the i n s t r u m e n t and what i s r e q u i r e d . Thus, t u r n i n g t o the l i s t o f t a s k s , we no t e d t h a t o f the o r i g i n a l l i s t o f 130 t a s k s s u b m i t t e d t o the d i r e c t s e r v i c e w o r k e r s f o r r e v i e w , o n l y two were r e j e c t e d and no s p e c i f i c s u g g e s t i o n s were made f o r r e v i s i o n or d e l e t i o n o f any o f the t a s k s . T h i s c o u l d be due t o the l a c k o f t i m e , the w o r k e r s had t o d e v o t e t o t h e l i s t . I t c o u l d a l s o be due t o the f a c t t h a t a l l t h e sample w o r k e r s were I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d . As such t h e y may have f e l t t h a t a l i s t of t a s k s , drawn up by second y e a r s t u d e n t s a t a S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, was beyond r e p r o a c h , i . e . , s i n c e the s u b j e c t s were f e a r f u l o f making a m i s t a k e , no c r i t i c i s m s were made. One f u r t h e r d e f i c i e n c y , a t the i n i t i a l s t a g e , o f t h i s s t u d y was t h a t no B.S.W. or M.S.W. r e v i e w e d t h e l i s t o f t a s k s . The above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e c r i t i c i s m o f the judges t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t t a s k d e f i n i t i o n s were n o t c l e a r , l e d us t o r e v i s e a l l t a s k s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n 807o agreement. 48. We n o t e d i n t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f a g r e a t number o f t a s k s , t h e use of c e r t a i n words t h a t c o u l d be u n c l e a r or c o n f u s i n g . These i n c l u d e d words such as " a s s e s s " , " d e t e r m i n e " , " e v a l u a t e " , " c o m p l e t e " , " a r r a n g e " and " i n t e r p r e t " . T h e i r use i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g and " d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d " . F o r example, " e v a l u a t e " was used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y w i t h " a s s e s s " . The word " c o m p l e t e " was o f t e n used where " a s s e s s m e n t " was meant. Of t h e t a s k s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n 807, agreement, 36 were a f f e c t e d by the above mentioned words. As i t would appear t h a t some s t a n d a r d i z e d use o f words would be a p p r o p r i a t e , we have d e f i n e d them as f o l l o w s : A s s e s s - The m u t u a l p r o c e s s of d e t e r m i n i n g what t h e p r o b l e m i s , what a r e the r e l e v a n t p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r s , and g e n e r a l approaches to s o l v i n g the p r o b l e m . E v a l u a t e - A judgment as t o e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p l a n s , t r e a t m e n t , and so f o r t h , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o cope w i t h the p r o b l e m . Complete - The p e r f o r m i n g o f the p r o c e d u r a l r e q u i r e m e n t s of an a c t i v i t y . E x p l a i n i n g - The p r o c e s s o f g i v i n g r e q u e s t e d i n f o r m a t i o n . I n t e r p r e t a t i o n - E x p l a n a t i o n o f the r e a s o n s f o r c e r t a i n a c t i o n s and o f the manner i n w h i c h t h e y e f f e c t the c l i e n t . Other, t a s k s were found t o be s i m i l a r l y u n c l e a r i n d e f i n i t i o n and a t t e m p t s were made t o a v o i d " d o u b l e - b a r r e l l e d " q u e s t i o n s and d u p l i c a t i o n s o f t a s k s . The r e v i s e d l i s t i s a t t a c h e d as A p p e n d i x C. A p a r t from the t a s k d e f i n i t i o n s , problems appeared i n the p r o c e d u r e s used i n r e c r u i t i n g j u dges and i n g i v i n g them i n s t r u c t i o n s . Due i n p a r t , t o the use o f m a i l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n , we r e c e i v e d o n l y e l e v e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s from t h e f o u r t e e n j u d g e s . Of t h e e l e v e n , o n l y t e n were f u l l y c o mpleted and u s a b l e . Of t h e s e r e m a i n i n g t e n , t h e r e were seven completed by a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h r e e by n o n - d e p a r t m e n t a l p e o p l e . None of the t e n judges were p r e s e n t l y employed as d i r e c t s e r v i c e w o r k e r s i n p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l t h o u g h i t was b e l i e v e d t h a t M.S.W.'s would be the p e r s o n s 49. most l i k e l y t o p r o v i d e o b j e c t i v e , p r o f e s s i o n a l o p i n i o n s , i t i s l i k e l y v a r y -i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . W h i l e a t b e s t , t h i s v a r i a b l e i s m i n i m a l l y c o n t r o l l a b l e , i t was n o t c o n t r o l l e d a t a l l i n t h i s s t u d y . The r e a s o n s f o r t h i s a r e t h a t : t h e r e was an e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d number from w h i c h t o .choose the judge sample; each ju d g e l i k e l y had d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t -a t i o n s and p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o f t a s k s due t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e ; t h e r e was l i t t l e o r no p e r s o n a l communication between t h e r e s e a r c h e r s and t h e judges because th e l a t t e r was s p r e a d t h r o u g h the p r o v i n c e . T h e r e i s a l s o a s t r o n g p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the judges tended t o r a t e t a s k s i n terms o f how t h e y t h o u g h t t h e r a t i n g would be u t i l i z e d i n a t a s k a s s i gnment scheme. T h i s p o s s i b l y would be due t o t h e i r c o n c e r n w i t h i m p r o v i n g s t a n d a r d s o f s e r v i c e and t o t h e i r b i a s as M.S.W.'s. A g a i n , t h i s i s a v e r y d i f f i c u l t f a c t o r t o c o n t r o l . I n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g c l u s t e r e d a t a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s , we n o t e d t h a t t h e model r a t i n g tended t o be 1, 3 or 5. Of 47 t a s k s r a t e d i n t h e s e t h r e e l e v e l s , 28, or 607,, were r a t e d a t 1 or 5. I t was thought t h a t a t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e m i g h t t h e r e f o r e , be more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r our p u r p o s e s . We d e c i d e d , however, t h a t t h e r e was no b a s i s f o r c o m b i n i n g t h e ju d g e s r a t i n g s 1 and 2, 4 and 5, t o c r e a t e a t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e . The r a t i n g s c a l e i s d e s i g n e d so t h a t 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i d i s t a n t . We recommend t h a t t h e r e d e s i g n e d l i s t o f t a s k s be s u b m i t t e d t o the judges f o r r a t i n g a f t e r the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s : 1. Meet f a c e t o f a c e w i t h t h e ju d g e s as a group t o d i s c u s s p r o c e d u r e s and p r o b l e m s . T h i s w i l l h e l p over come such d i f f i c u l t i e s as " n o n - r e t u r n s " and e s t a b l i s h some c o n t r o l over b i a s and p r e c o n c e p t i o n . Common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t he t a s k s . The v a r i a b l e o f autonomy and so f o r t h , a more s t a n d a r d i z e d p o i n t o f v i e w i n r a t i n g t h e t a s k s would be d e v e l o p e d . 2. The sample o f judges would be improved i f a number o f l i n e w o r k e r s c o u l d be r e c r u i t e d as j u d g e s . The r a t i n g s as r e p o r t e d above were made by p e r s o n s no l o n g e r c a r r y i n g 50. out d i r e c t s e r v i c e t a s k s . Even i f i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t l i n e w o r k e r s means a c c e p t i n g B.S.W. as the q u a l i f y i n g l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g , i t would seem t h a t t h i s would be a d e s i r a b l e s t e p . 3. The judges s h o u l d be r e q u e s t e d t o r e c o r d t h e l o w e s t amount o f autonomy r e q u i r e d t o a d e q u a t e l y p e r f o r m the t a s k . T h i s s h o u l d be based on the i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k s and the w o rker's c a p a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n on c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y . 4. A " G l o s s a r y o f Terms" s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d w i t h the r a t i n g s c a l e i n o r d e r t o a v o i d c o n f u s i o n i n the employment and meaning of such words as " a s s e s s " , " d e t e r m i n e " , " e v a l u a t e " and so f o r t h . We f e e l t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n o f autonomy s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d a t t h i s t i m e . R a t h e r , i f the r e v i s e d l i s t o f t a s k s can be g i v e n t o judges t o r a t e a g a i n as o u t l i n e d above, i t i s our o p i n i o n t h a t a much h i g h e r degree o f r e l i a b i l i t y can be e s t a b l i s h e d t h a n was a c h i e v e d i n t h i s s t u d y . S h o u l d the new r a t i n g s p r o v e t o be r e l i a b l e , the way would t h e n be c l e a r t o d e v e l o p a t a s k a s s ignment scheme t o be u t i l i z e d t o e s t a b l i s h v a l i d i t y o f our i n s t r u m e n t . CHAPTER V SUMMARY I t i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t t h a t a "man-power c r i s i s " e x i s t s i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work. The r e a s o n s a r e many and v a r i e d and i n c l u d e such f a c t o r s as the e x p a n s i o n of e x i s t i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of new s e r v i c e s , the g r o w i n g demand f o r " b e t t e r " s e r v i c e s and the r a p i d i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a t i o n i n the m o s t v v u l n e r a b l e groups. T h i s p r o j e c t a d d r e s s e s i t s e l f t o t h e man-power p r o b l e m as i t i s found i n t h e a r e a o f p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e and i s concerned w i t h d e v e l o p i n g a r a t i o n a l p l a n f o r the deployment of s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l of t r a i n i n g , i n terms o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d commensurate w i t h t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s . The g o a l s of t h i s p r o j e c t a r e t o pave the way f o r : (1) a p p r o p r i a t e u t i l i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , (2) p r o t e c t i o n o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e r e c i p i e n t s from i n a p p r o p r i a t e and sometimes damaging t r e a t m e n t by u n t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l , (3) p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s o f a r e s t o r a t i v e and p r e v e n t a t i v e n a t u r e . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s , the l i t e r a t u r e has been r e v i e w e d t o r e v e a l (a) c r i t e r i a employed f o r c l a s s i f y i n g s o c i a l work t a s k s , (b) s o c i a l work s t a f f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes, ( c ) work assignment schemes, (d) methods of e v a l u a t i n g c r i t e r i a , and (e) methods of t r a i n i n g p e r s o n n e l . The c r i t e r i a most f r e q u e n t l y used i n a t t e m p t i n g t o c l a s s i f y t h o s e t a s k s w h i c h can be p e r f o r m e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d w o r k e r and t h o s e w h i c h can be done by the l e s s t h a n f u l l y t r a i n e d were "worker autonomy", " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " , " c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y " , " f a c t f i n d i n g " , " d e c i s i o n m a k i n g " and " c l i e n t need". O n l y "worker autonomy" and " c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y " were found t o have been o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d . C l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y i s s u g g e s t e 52. as b e i n g a u s e f u l c o n c e p t when the f o c u s i s on the c l i e n t and n o t the a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e w o r k e r . When i t i s worker t a s k s w h i c h a r e b e i n g r a t e d and c l a s s i f i e d , the c o n c e p t of worker autonomy i s s u g g e s t e d as b e i n g more a p p r o p r i a t e . Schemes of s t a f f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e many and v a r i e d . I n g e n e r a l , however, a l l s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s can be c l a s s e d under f o u r main h e a d i n g s . The p r o f e s s i o n a l i s the f u l l y t r a i n e d w o r k e r (M.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t ) who o p e r a t e s i n s i t u a t i o n s where t h e most s k i l l and p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge a r e r e q u i r e d . The n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s a r e t h o s e w o r k e r s w i t h o u t complete p r o -f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g . b u t w i t h some o r i e n t a t i o n toward s o c i a l work. E d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g d i f f e r . I n g e n e r a l , however, l e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge and s k i l l a r e r e q u i r e d i n the t a s k s t h e y p e r f o r m . T h i s c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e s the s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e s p e c i a l i s t , t h e case a i d e , and the i n d i g e n o u s w o r k e r . The v o l u n t e e r and the c l e r i c a l s t a f f a r e the o t h e r two c a t e g o r i e s of s t a f f found i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes. Two main methods o f work a s s i g n m e n t have been s u g g e s t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e - - " c a s e s t r e a m i n g " and the "team a p p r o a c h " . E a c h i s an a t t e m p t towards more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n . o f p e r s o n n e l a t a l l l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g b u t i n d i c a t i o n s a r e t h a t p r e s e n t programs f o r s t a f f deployment a r e i n a d e q u a t e i n t h a t the c r i t e r i a used i n such endeavours a r e n e i t h e r e x p l i c i t nor s e r v i c e ( t r e a t m e n t ) o r i e n t e d . T r a i n i n g o f the v a r i o u s t y p e s of s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l s h o u l d be t h e c o n c e r n and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . o f s c h o o l s , u n i v e r s i t i e s , c o l l e g e s , a g e n c i e s and a l l l e v e l s o f government. There i s need f o r e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h . The s o c i a l work man-power c r i s i s i s a m u l t i f a c i t e d phenomenon t h a t must be approached from many d i r e c t i o n s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and i n w e l l b a l a n c e d , c o - o r d i n a t e d e f f o r t s . T h i s p r o j e c t i s an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y based on R i c h a n ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a model f o r w o r k e r deployment can be more e f f e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d by f i r s t d e t e r m i n i n g the degree o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s p r e s e n t o r r e q u i r e d i n the p e r f o r m a n c e o f the v a r i o u s t a s k s i n a p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency. The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n posed i n t h i s s t u d y w a s - - w i t h what r e l i a b i l i t y can the c o ncept of autonomy be a p p l i e d t o the t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n a p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e t t i n g . The t a s k s r e f e r r e d t o a r e t h o s e s a n c t i o n e d under the S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and p e r f o r m e d by w o r k e r s i n t h e i s s u a n c e o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e . Beck's d e f i n i t i o n of autonomy, the major v a r i a b l e used i n t h i s s t u d y , was a c c e p t e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r our p u r p o s e s as i t i n c o r p o r a t e s the e x p l i c i t n e s s of g u i d e s t o the w o r k e r , the v i s i b i l i t y of p r a c t i c e and the degree o f r e q u i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s . The c o n c e p t a l s o i m p l i e s r e c o g n i t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y o f t h e worker h a v i n g knowledge and a b i l i t y t o d e a l w i t h o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n t h e c l i e n t s i t u a t i o n . O b j e c t i v e t a s k s were d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y c o n c r e t e a c t s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l needs o f the c l i e n t as oppossed t o t h o s e o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e . S u b j e c t i v e t a s k s were d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y t h o s e a c t s : . d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l ( e m o t i o n a l ) as w e l l as t h e p h y s i c a l needs o f the c l i e n t . The c o ncept o f autonomy was p l a c e d on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e f o r the p u r p o s e o f r a t i n g the t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by w o r k e r s c a r r y i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d s , i n terms of the l e s s e r or g r e a t e r degree of autonomy r e q u i r e d i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . A l i s t o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d i n the i s s u a n c e of s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e , from i n i t i a l c o n t a c t t h r o u g h t o t e r m i n a t i o n was drawn up by the r e s e a r c h e r s on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r knowledge and combined twenty-two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s l i s t o f t a s k s was p r e s e n t e d t o seven e x p e r i e n c e d w o r k e r s , p r e s e n t l y employed i n t h r e e p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s , and c a r r y i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d s i n urban and r u r a l a r e a s . The w o r k e r sample, a l t h o u g h 54. not random, was r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n b r o a d terms. The w o r k e r s were asked t o d e t e r m i n e , over a two week p e r i o d , by n o t i n g t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , i f the l i s t was a c c u r a t e , c o m p lete and unambiguous. The v a l i d a t e d l i s t o f t a s k s was p r e s e n t e d t o s. p a n e l of f o u r t e e n j u d g e s f o r r a t i n g , on ;the b a s i s of t h e degree o f worker autonomy r e q u i r e d i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . A l l j udges had f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g (M.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t ) . E l e v e n were p r e s e n t l y employed i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e , and t h r e e , a l t h o u g h n o t c u r r e n t l y w o r k i n g i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e , had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n t h i s f i e l d . I t was f e l t t h a t t h e j u d g e s c o n s t i t u t e d such a homogeneous group t h a t t h i s r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l sample would s u f f i c e and e n s u r e a h i g h degree o f a c c u r a c y . T h i s method o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , i n v o l v i n g the use o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and the r a t i n g s c a l e was c o n s i d e r e d the most f e a s i b l e f o r our p u r p o s e s . They were easy t o a d m i n i s t e r , f l e x i b l e and a l l o w e d f o r f i n e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h a s p e c i f i c frame o f r e f e r e n c e . T h i s method was i n e x p e n s i v e b o t h i n terms of f i n a n c i a l e x p e n d i t u r e and w o r k e r / j u d g e / r e s e a r c h e r t i m e . I t was f e l t t h a t a s a t i s f a c t o r y degree of r e l i a b i l i t y f o r t h e judgments c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d i f the j udges c o u l d r a t e the t a s k s ( i n terms of the c r i t e r i a ) w i t h i n a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i t o f a c c e p t a n c e o f 807>. Tasks r a t e d w i t h 60% t o 7 97, agreement were v i e w e d as s u p p o r t i n g t h e use o f autonomy as the c r i t e r i o n b u t r e q u i r i n g f i n e r t a s k d e f i n i t i o n . Tasks r a t e d below 60% agreement were c o n s i d e r e d t o r e q u i r e c o m p lete r e a s s e s s m e n t of t h e t a s k d e f i n i t i o n . A r e v i e w of the 128 t a s k s s u b m i t t e d t o t h e judges r e v e a l e d t h a t 16 t a s k s were, i n e s s e n c e , u n r a t e a b l e due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y were a c t i v i t i e s r e q u i r e d of a l l w o r k e r s and d i d n o t r e q u i r e autonomy i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . Of the 112 t a s k s a n a l y z e d 10 (97,) r e c e i v e d agreement o f 807, or b e t t e r , 37 (33%) r e c e i v e d agreement o f 607, t o 7 97, and 65 (587,) r e c e i v e d agreement of l e s s t h a n 597o . W h i l e v e r y few o f the t a s k s r e c e i v e d the d e s i r e d 8 0 7 , a g r e e -ment, i t was s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the j u d g e s r a t i n g s f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n t e n d i n g t o c l u s t e r a t two a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s , e.g., 60%. a t r a t i n g 5 and 4 0 7 , a t r a t i n g 4 . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h i s the modal r a t i n g s tended to f o l l o w a p a t t e r n o f 1 , 3 o r 5 . A l t h o u g h a t h r e e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e m i g h t have been more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r our p u r p o s e s , we f e l t t h e r e was no v a l i d b a s i s f o r c o m b i n i n g the j u d g e s r a t i n g s a t 1 and 2 , and, 3 and 4 , t o c r e a t e the t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e . The i n s t r u m e n t was d e s i g n e d so t h a t 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 and 5 were a p p r o x i m a t e l y e q u i -d i s t a n t . The s t u d y has p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a l t h o u g h t a s k s a c c e p t a b l e as b e i n g v a l i d by the w o r k e r c a r r y i n g them o u t , c a n be m i s l e a d i n g t o an e x p e r t j u d g e . I t i s n e c e s s a r y , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t the t a s k s be d e f i n e d c o n c i s e l y and c l e a r l y so as to be c o m p l e t e l y d e s c r i p t i v e as t o what i s done. The j u d g e s s h o u l d a l s o be seen p e r s o n a l l y i n a group by the r e s e a r c h e r s so t h a t a more s t a n -d a r d i z e d p o i n t o f v i e w i n r a t i n g the t a s k s be a c h i e v e d . The worker p o p u l a t i o n was a f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n . a p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency. Our j u d g e s r e p r e s e n t e d a h i g h l e v e l o f e x p e r t s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l c a p a b l e o f o b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s on the r a t i n g o f the t a s k s . The sample o f j u d g e s c o u l d be i m p r o v e d , however, i f a number o f l i n e w o r k e r s c o u l d be r e -c r u i t e d as j u d g e s . The r a t i n g s r e c e i v e d i n t h i s s t u d y were made b y . p e r s o n s no l o n g e r c a r r y i n g o u t d i r e c t s e r v i c e t a s k s . Our l i s t o f t a s k s , on r e - e x a m i n a t i o n , showed them t o be p o o r l y de-f i n e d i n some i n s t a n c e s . The work u n i t s appear to be a c c e p t a b l e d i v i s i o n s o f t a s k s . By r e d e f i n i n g the l i s t o f t a s k s so t h a t the j u d g e s have a b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what i s i n v o l v e d , a more u n i f o r m agreement may be r e a l i z e d . We have r e d e f i n e d the t a s k s f o r f u t u r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t o a p a n e l o f e x p e r t j u d g e s f o r r a t i n g on the b a s i s o f the f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e (autonomy). On the b a s i s of t h e s e r e s u l t s a model c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d whereby the t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by s o c i a l w o r k e r s w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c o u l d be v a l i d a t e d , by p u t t i n g t he f i n d i n g s i n t o p r a c t i c e . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be p l a c e d a t t h e d i s p o s a l o f n e x t y e a r ' s c l a s s where h o p e f u l l y a n o t h e r group w i l l c a r r y on w i t h the p r o j e c t where we have l e f t o f f . I t has p a r t i c u l a r o n g o i n g i n t e r e s t t o the B.C. A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers who w i l l be u s i n g the r e s u l t s i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h a s u r v e y o f t h e i r own. The B.C. Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e w i l l be a b l e t o use the r e s u l t s i n t h e i r o f f i c e s where the s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e program i s a d m i n i s t e r e d . There a r e b r o a d e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r a l l t h o s e concerned w i t h t h e man-power pr o b l e m . Many s o l u t i o n s have been pr o p o s e d b u t a w o r k i n g model has n o t been t e s t e d and v a l i d a t e d . The end p r o d u c t o f our s t u d y w i l l o f f e r such a model. 57. BIBLIOGRAPHY A r t i c l e i n a J o u r n a l : 1. Beck, R a n t o r , e t . a l . " F o l l o w - u p Study o f C h r o n i c P s y c h o t i c P a t i e n t s ' t r e a t e d ' by C o l l e g e C a s e - a i d V o l u n t e e r s . " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , September 1963, pp. 269-271. 2. Blum, A r t h u r . " D i f f e r e n t i a l Use o f Manpower i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e . " S o c i a l Work, J a n u a r y 1966, pp. 16-21. 3. B r o g e r , George. "The I n d i g e n i o u s Worker: A New Approach to the S o c i a l Work T e c h n i c i a n . " S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 1965, pp. 33-40. 4. D a l y , D o r o t h y . " P e r s o n n e l i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e . " P u b l i c W e l f a r e , J u l y , 1 9 6 5 . 5. E p s t e i n , L a u r a . " D i f f e r e n t i a l Use o f S t a f f . A Method to Expand S o c i a l S e r v i c e s . " S o c i a l Work, October 1962, pp. 66-72. 6. F i s h e r , P. "A Look a t S o c i a l Work T r a i n i n g . " C a n a d i a n W e l f a r e , November - December 1964. 7. G i l , D a v i d . " S o c i a l Work Teams." C h i l d W e l f a r e , O c t o b e r 1965, pp. 442-446. 8. H a m i l t o n , J o r d o n . " E d i t o r ' s Page." S o c i a l Work, J a n u a r y 1962, pp. 2 and 128. 9. Heyman, M a r g a r e t . "A Study o f E f f e c t i v e Use o f S o c i a l Workers i n a H o s p i t a l : S e l e c t e d F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s . " S o c i a l  S e r v i c e Review, December 1961, pp. 414-429. 10. . . " C r i t e r i a F o r the A l l o c a t i o n o f Cases A c c o r d i n g to L e v e l s o f S t a f f S k i l l . " S o c i a l Casework, J u l y 1961, pp. 325-331. 11. I r v i n e , E l i z a b e t h . "The F u n c t i o n s o f S o c i a l W o rkers." R o y a l S o c i e t y H e a l t h J o u r n a l , November - December 1961, pp. 329-332. 12. J o h anson, W a l t e r . "The S u p e r v i s i o n and T r a i n i n g o f S o c i a l Work T e c h n i c i a n s . " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , November 1961, pp. 534-547. 13. Lee, G e r a l d T. "A New D i m e n s i o n f o r V o l u n t e e r s . " M e n t a l Hygiene, A p r i l 1962, pp. 273-282. 14. R i c h a n , W i l l i a m . "A T h e o r e t i c a l Scheme F o r D e t e r m i n i n g R o l e s o f P r o f e s s i o n a l and N o n p r o f e s s i o n a l P e r s o n n e l . " S o c i a l Work, Oct o b e r 1961, pp. 22-28. 58. 15. R u s s e l l , E l l e r y . "The R e a l Case A i d e i s S t a n d i n g Up." C h i l d W e l f a r e , A p r i l 1966, pp. 202-204. 16. Thompson, Jane and R i l e y , Donald P. "Use o f P r o f e s s i o n a l s i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e . " S o c i a l Work, J a n u a r y 1966, pp. 16-21. 17. Younghusband, E i l e e n . "A Co m p a r a t i v e View o f Manpower Probl e m s . The B r i t i s h A p p r o a c h . " S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review, December 1965, pp. 454-458. Books: 18. F e s l e r , James W. " F i e l d O r g a n i z a t i o n . " Elements o f P u b l i c Admin-i s t r a t i o n , ed. F r i t z Marx. P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 2nd ed;. 1959, pp. 246-273. 19. Meyer, C a r o l H. S t a f f Development i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e A g e n c i e s . New Y o r k , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. 20. P o l a n s k y , Norman A., ed. S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1960. Government P u b l i c a t i o n s : 21. U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e . " U t i l i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Work S t a f f w i t h D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f E d u c a t i o n . " December 1965. 22. M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h and Department o f H e a l t h f o r S c o t l a n d . "Report o f the Working P a r t y on S o c i a l W o rkers," by E i l e e n Younghusband. London, Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1959. 23. M i n n e s o t a Department o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e . " R e o r i e n t a t i o n f o r T r e a t -ment and C o n t r o l . " P u b l i c W e l f a r e , A p r i l 1958. 24. New York C i t y Department o f W e l f a r e and S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work a t Columbia., "The E x p e r i m e n t a l W e l f a r e C e n t r e P r o j e c t , P r o g r e s s R e p o r t . " F e b r u a r y 1963. P u b l i c a t i o n s : 25. B a k e r , Mary R. " U t i l i z i n g P r o f e s s i o n a l S t a f f R e s o u r c e s , " B a s i c I s s u e s i n C o o r d i n a t i n g F a m i l y and C h i l d W e l f a r e Programs, C e l l a . a n d Lane, E d i t o r s , pp. 95-117. 26. Beck, B e r t r a m . U t i l i z a t i o n o f P e r s o n n e l i n S o c i a l Work: Those W i t h F u l l P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n and Those W i t h o u t . N a t i o n a l A s s o c -i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New Y o r k , 1962. 27. Dumpson, J.R... and . P o d e l l , L. A l t e r n a t i v e Deployment o f P u b l i c A s s i -s t a n c e and T r a i n e d Casework P e r s o n n e l . U n p u b l i s h e d R e p o r t . 59. 28. F i n e s t o n e , S. S t r a t e g i e s f o r R e s e a r c h i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e A d m i n i s t r a -t i o n . The D e m o n s t r a t i o n ; N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W orkers, New Y o r k , May 1965. 29. G r i p t o n , James, M. S t a f f i n g and S t a f f U t i l i z a t i o n i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e . June 1963. 30. L e v i n e , M o r t o n . "Trends i n P r o f e s s i o n a l Employment." Manpower i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Edward S c h w a r t z , ed. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o rkers, New Y o r k , 1966, pp. 9-16. 31. Meyer, Henry. "The E f f e c t o f S o c i a l Work P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n on Man-power." Manpower i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Edward S c h w a r t z , ed. Na-t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers, New Y o r k , 1966, pp. 66-80. 32. Meyer, Henry. P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work and i t s I m p l i c a -t i o n s f o r Manpower i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e . U n p u b l i s h e d R e p o r t . 33. R i c h a n , W i l l i a m . " R e s e a r c h i n O c c u p a t i o n a l R e s t r u c t u r i n g . " Manpower i n . S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Edward S c h w a r t z , ed. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o rkers, New Y o r k , 1966, pp. 43-56. 34. S c h w a r t z , Edward. "A S t r a t e g y o f R e s e a r c h on the Manpower Pro b l e m . " Manpower i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Edward S c h w a r t z , ed. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o rkers, New Y o r k , 1966, pp. 145-158. 35. Weissman, I r v i n g and B a k e r , Mary. E d u c a t i o n F o r S o c i a l Workers i n P u b l i c S e r v i c e s . S o c i a l Work C u r r i c u l u m Study, C.S.W.E., New Yo r k , 1959. 36. W i t t e , E r n e s t . " R e a l i t i e s o f . S t a f f i n g S o c i a l W e l f a r e Programmes." O f f i c i a l P r o c e e d i n g s o f the N.C.S.W. 1963, pp. 178-194. 37. An.Approach t o E v a l u a t i n g S o c i a l Work T a s k s . N.A.S.W. New Y o r k , 1964. 38. " P e r s o n n e l i n . S o c i a l Work." E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work, 1965, p. 532. 39. " P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e A g e n c i e s . " E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work, 1965 pp. 600-606. 40. "A Guide t o C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l P o s i t i o n s and E v a l u a t i o n O u t l i n e s i n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency. F.S.A.A., New Y o r k , 1966 41. E d u c a t i o n a l O b j e c t i v e s i n F i e l d I n s t r u c t i o n , U.B.C. S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, O c t o b e r , 1965. S t a t u t e s : 42. The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t , V o l . IV, c h . 360, pp. 4541-4543. 60. . APPENDIX A EXPLANATION OF THE STUDY Purpose We a r e p r e s e n t l y u n d e r t a k i n g a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o a s c e r t a i n how t o make the b e s t p o s s i b l e use o f s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l i n a p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency. The purpose o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phase o f the p r o j e c t ( w h i c h w i l l l a s t two we e k s ) , i s t o d e t e r m i n e those t a s k s b e i n g p e r f o r m e d now and those p e r f o r m e d a t o t h e r t i m e s o f the y e a r by s o c i a l w o r k e r s c a r r y i n g s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e c a s e l o a d s . I n s t r u c t i o n s The f i r s t s h e e t i s to p r o v i d e c e r t a i n s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Names a r e n o t t o be g i v e n . We have drawn up a t e n t a t i v e l i s t o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e t t i n g s i n the v a r i o u s phases o f t h e i r c o n t a c t w i t h c l i e n t s . The t h r e e s u g g e s t e d phases a r e the " I n i t i a l C o n t a c t " (Nos. 1-35), the "Ongoing C o n t a c t " (Nos. 3 6 - 9 6 ) , and the " T e r m i n a t i o n C o n t a c t " (Nos. 97-105). The t a s k s have been d i v i d e d i n t h i s way f o r the sake o f c l a r i t y , a l t h o u g h we r e a l i z e t h a t some o f them a r e p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g a l l phases o f s o c i a l work a c t i v i t y . P l e a s e n o te t h a t many o f the t a s k s s t a t e d i n b r o a d terms have been b r o k e n down i n t o s u b - s e c t i o n s , e.g. No. 12. The l e t t e r s (a) , (b) , and ( c ) f o l l o w each t a s k l i s t e d . A f t e r (a) each w o r k e r v p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s p r o -j e c t w i l l i n d i c a t e t h o s e t a s k s t h a t were a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m e d by him d u r i n g the f i r s t week o f the s t u d y . Those t a s k s c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g the second week w i l l be shown a f t e r ( b ) . T h i s w i l l a s s i s t us i n comparing mid-month a c t i v i -t i e s w i t h month-end a c t i v i t i e s , e.g., to d e t e r m i n e i n a g e n e r a l way, w h i c h t a s k s a r e p e r f o r m e d more f r e q u e n t l y a t s p e c i f i c times d u r i n g the month. A f t e r (c) each w o r k e r w i l l i n d i c a t e t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a l t h o u g h not c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f the s t u d y , a r e i n f a c t done a t o t h e r times d u r i n g the month ( y e a r ) . T h i s would i n c l u d e t a s k s o f a s e a s o n a l n a t u r e . We would s u g g e s t t h a t t h o s e w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s p r o j e c t c o m p l e t e the a t t a c h e d forms i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: 1. Complete s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n s h e e t . . 2. Read t h r o u g h the e n t i r e l i s t o f t a s k s to be f a m i l i a r w i t h the whole range o f a c t i v i t i e s s u g g e s t e d . 3. I n d i c a t e a f t e r (a) or (b) ( f i r s t week o r second week) each day i n w h i c h a g i v e n a c t i v i t y i s p e r f o r m e d . We would s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s be done when a change o f a c t i v i t y from one work u n i t to a n o t h e r o c c u r s . P l e a s e note a t a l l y i s made each time a t a s k i s p e r f o r m e d . 4. I n d i c a t e (c) w h i c h t a s k s l i s t e d and n o t p e r f o r m e d a t t h i s time o f the month ( y e a r ) a r e i n f a c t c a r r i e d o u t a t o t h e r t i m e s . 5. I n d i c a t e by c i r c l i n g the number o f the t a s k any i n s t a n c e where the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n o f the t a s k s i s n o t c l e a r and u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . 6. I n d i c a t e on the b l a n k s h e e t s a t back o f f o l d e r any t a s k s p r e -s e n t l y p e r f o r m e d t h a t a r e n o t i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t p r o v i d e d . Thank you f o r y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n . 62. O f f i c e : C a s e l o a d : Worker's P o s i t i o n : T o t a l : E d u c a t i o n : T o t a l o f S.A. Cases: E x p e r i e n c e : _ Urban: I n P u b l i c W e l f a r e : y r s . R u r a l : Other S o c i a l A g e n c i e s : y r s . TASK RATING INSTRUMENT ( L i s t o f T a s k s ) WORK UNITS I . I n i t i a l C o n t a c t (Item 1 - 3 5 ) I I . Ongoing C o n t a c t (Item 36 - 96) A. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e s B. Community R e l a t i o n s h i p s C. Treatment S e r v i c e s I I I . T e r m i n a t i o n C o n t a c t (Items 97 - 105) TALLY INSTRUCTIONS P l a c e t a l l i e s as f o l l o w s : ( a ) Task p e r f o r m e d f i r s t week. (b) Task p e r f o r m e d second week. (c) Task p e r f o r m e d a t o t h e r t i m e s . I . I n i t i a l C o n t a c t 1. A c c e p t r e f e r r a l and a r r a n g e i n i t i a l a p pointment: (a) by phone a. , b. , c. (b) by l e t t e r a. , b. , c. (c) i n p e r s o n a. , b. , c. 2. I n t e r v i e w t o d e t e r m i n e f i n a n c i a l e l i g i b i l i t y , a. , b. c. 63. 3. Determine t h e p r o b l e m (a) p r e s e n t i n g a. , b. , c. (b) u n d e r l y i n g a. , b. , c. 4. Complete a p p l i c a t i o n form a. , b. , c. 5. Complete l i f e h i s t o r y - S.W. 82 or e q u i v a l e n t . ( E d u c a t i o n , work r e ^ c o r d , h e a l t h , e t c . ) a. , b. , c. 6. D e t e r m i n e a p p l i c a n t ' s a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e own p r o b l e m s , a. . b. , c. 7. E v a l u a t e a p p l i c a n t ' s e f f o r t s a t s o l v i n g p r o b l e m , a. , b. , c. 8. Determine a p p l i c a n t ' s immediate g o a l s , a. , b. , c. 9. Determine a p p l i c a n t ' s l o n g range g o a l s , a. , b. , c._ 10. E v a l u a t e a p p l i c a n t ' s s t r e n g t h s , a. , b. , c. 11. E v a l u a t e a p p l i c a n t ' s weaknesses, a. , b. , c. 12. Determine t e n t a t i v e methods of t r e a t m e n t : (a) e n v i r o n m e n t m a n i p u l a t i o n a. , b. , c. (b) s u p p o r t and encouragement a. , b. , c. ( c ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a. , b. , c. (d) o t h e r a. , b. , c. 13. Determine what a p p l i c a n t sees agency d o i n g , a. , b. c. 14. E v a l u a t e f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s and needs of a p p l i c a n t , a. , b. , c. 15. E n a b l e a p p l i c a n t t o v e n t i l a t e f e e l i n g s about s i t u a t i o n , a. E x p l o r e a p p l i c a n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p . a. , b. c. E x p l o r e a p p l i c a n t ' s c a p a c i t y f o r h e l p . a. , b. c. Help a p p l i c a n t a c c e p t h i s need f o r h e l p . a. , b. c. A r r a n g e f o r immediate r e f e r r a l i f n e c e s s a r y , e.g. m e d i c a l , l e g a l . a. , b. _, c. I n t e r p r e t t o a p p l i c a n t f u n c t i o n o f agency, a. , b. c. I n t e r p r e t p o l i c y o f agency, a. , b. , c. I n t e r p r e t t o a p p l i c a n t f u n c t i o n o f i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w , a. b. , c. I n t e r p r e t t o a p p l i c a n t new s o c i a l w o r k e r w i l l be a s s i g n e d , a. b. , c. Make r e f e r r a l t o a n o t h e r agency o r r e s o u r c e i f n e c e s s a r y , a. b. , c, I n t e r p r e t f u n c t i o n of r e f e r r a l r e s o u r c e , a. , b. c. Check f i l e s f o r p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t , a. , b. , c. C o n t a c t o t h e r a g e n c i e s f o r p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t s . a._ _, b. c . _ _ O b t a i n s p e c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a p p l i c a n t , e.g. l e g a l , f i n a n c i a l , a. , b. , c. P r o v i d e f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i f n e c e s s a r y , a. , b. 65. 30. P r o v i d e f o r accommodation i f n e c e s s a r y , a. , b. , c. 31. R e p o r t back t o p e r s o n or agency making r e f e r r a l , a. , b. , c. 32. A r r a n g e f o r cheque, e n t e r on g r a n t s h e e t , a. , b. c. 33. Complete n e c e s s a r y forms f o r o t h e r s e r v i c e s , e.g. v o u c h e r s , a. , b. , c. 34. Record i n t e r v i e w and make recommendation, a. , b. c. 35. Make r e f e r r a l t o agency w o r k e r t o c a r r y c a s e . a ._ , b , c. I I Ongoing C o n t a c t A. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e s 36. Check S.W. 81 ( d e c l a r a t i o n o f e a r n i n g s ) f o r : (a) e a r n i n g s a. , b. , c. (b) change o f ad d r e s s a. b. , c. (c ) o t h e r changes i n c i r c u m s t a n c e s . a. b. , c. 37. N o t i n g changes on f a c e s h e e t , a. , b. , c . _ 38. N o t i n g changes on g r a n t s h e e t , a. , b. , c. 39. C o m p l e t i n g forms f o r a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s , e.g. t e e t h , g l a s s e s , eye e x a m i n a t i o n s , a. , b. , c. 40. A u t h o r i z i n g g r a n t s f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w , a. , b. c. 41. C o m p l e t i n g m o n t h l y r e p o r t s or s t a t i s t i c s , a. , b. c. 66. C o m p l e t i n g expense a c c o u n t s , a. , b. , c. O r g a n i z i n g work, o f f i c e r o u t i n e s , a. , b. R e a d i n g p o l i c y manual, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d i r e c t i v e s and o t h e r m a t e r i a l , a. , b. , d, Work w i t h f i l e s e.g. c l o s i n g r e a d i n g , B.F. a. , b. A t t e n d i n g s t a f f m e e t i n g s , s o c i a l work i n s t i t u t e s , e t c . a. b. , c. I n t e r v i e w i n g c o l l a t e r a l f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n of e l i g i b i l i t y , a • , b. , c. R e a d i n g and s i g n i n g i n c o m i n g and o u t g o i n g m a i l . a. , b. , c. W r i t i n g l e t t e r s t o c o l l a t e r a l s t o d e t e r m i n e c l i e n t s e l i g i b i l i t y , a. , b. , c. I s s u i n g m e d i c a l c a r d . a. , b. , c. Community R e l a t i o n s h i p s M e d i c a l : a c c o u n t s , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f s e r v i c e , c l a r i f y r e q u e s t s f o r s e r v i c e , e t c . (a) P u b l i c H e a l t h Department a. , b. , c. (b) D o c t o r s , D e n t i s t s , O p t o m e t r i s t s , S p e c i a l i s t s a. , b. , c. ( c ) H o s p i t a l s , c l i n i c s a. , b. , c. L e g a l : a r r a n g e r e f e r r a l , c o n f i r m c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e s , r e v i e w e v i d e n c e Lawyers.:,;, l e g a l a i d , c o u r t s , R.C.M.P., ( f r a u d c h a r g e s ) a. b. , c. S c h o o l s : c o n f i r m i n g a t t e n d a n c e , b e h a v i o r , p r o g r e s s (a) t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l l o r s , p r i n c i p a l s a. , b. , 67 . c. (b) v o c a t i o n a l , s p e c i a l c l a s s e s , n i g h t c l a s s e s , e t c . a. , b. , c. F i n a n c i a l : c o n f i r m i n g c r e d i t , c o n s o l i d a t i n g d e b t s , b a n k s , c r e d i t b u r e a u s , i n s u r a n c e companies, f i n a n c e companies, a. , b. , c. S e r v i c e C l u b s : p r o v i s i o n of e x t r a o r d i n a r y s e r v i c e s ( m e d i c a l , s o c i a l ) a. , b . , c. S o c i a l A g e n c i e s : (a) Community spo n s o r e d : r e : H o u s e k e e p i n g s e r v i c e s , day c a r e n u r s e r i e s , a. , b. , c. (b) P r o v i n c i a l Government s p o n s o r e d : r e : P r o b a t i o n , R e h a b i l i t a t i o n Committee. a. , b. , c. ( c ) F e d e r a l s p o n s o r e d : r e : Manpower a. , b. , c. Community S e r v i c e s : (a) m e rchants: a c c o u n t s , p r o v i s i o n of m e r c h a n d i s e , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of s e r v i c e s . a. , b. , c. (b) p o s t o f f i c e : change of a d d r e s s , l o s t cheque. a. , b. , c. ( c ) Board o f Review: p r e p a r e r e p o r t . a. , b. , c. (d) F u n e r a l : a u t h o r i z e i n d i g e n t b u r i a l s . a. , b. _^ c. (e) Community committees: w i n t e r w o rks, b o a r d i n g home, l o c a l c o u n c i l s , a. , b. , c. ( f ) Church groups: young p e o p l e s , c o u n s e l l i n g . a. , 68. (g) P r i v a t e groups: S c o u t s and G u i d e s , Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A., Youth camps, a. , b. , c. 58. I n t e r p r e t agency p o l i c y t o community r e s o u r c e s . a. , b. , c. 59. P r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on c l i e n t f o r o t h e r a g e n c i e s , a. S b . , c. 60. P r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on o t h e r r e s o u r c e s : f o r community, a. b . , c. 61. T r v t o l o c a t e c l i e n t s , a. , b , c. 62. D e a l i n g w i t h anonymous t e l e p h o n e c a l l s o r l e t t e r s , a. 3 b . , c. 63. D e a l i n g w i t h i r a t e c i t i z e n s o v er p o l i c y or c l i e n t , a. S b . , c. 64. R e c r u i t i n g and t r a i n i n g v o l u n t e e r s , a. , b. 5 65. c. S u p e r v i s i n g I n - s e r v i c e T r a i n e e s , a. , b. _ 5 c. 66. A d d r e s s i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g or community groups on s o c i a l work, a. , b. , c. 67. R e p r e s e n t i n g Agency a t p u b l i c m e e t i n g , r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , e t c . a. , b. , c. C. Treatment S e r v i c e s 68. P l a n n i n g i n t e r v i e w w i t h c l i e n t , a. , b . _, c. 69. I d e n t i f y i n g the u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m , e.g. m a r i t a l , p a r e n t - c h i l d , m e d i c a l , employment, a. , b. , c. 70. C a r r y out t r e a t m e n t f o r immediate g o a l s , e.g. cheque, a. b. , c. 71. C a r r y out t r e a t m e n t f o r l o n g e r range g o a l s , e.g. i n t e r p e r s o n a l 69. r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a. , b.._ , c. 72. Review t r e a t m e n t p l a n s w i t h c l i e n t , a. , b. _ , c 73. A s s e s s c l i e n t ' s s t r e n g t h s , a. , b. , c. 7 4. A s s e s s c l i e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p . a. , b .__ , c. 75. A s s e s s c l i e n t ' s c a p a c i t y f o r h e l p . a. , b. , c. 76. A r r a n g e f o r r e f e r r a l s , i f n e c e s s a r y , e.g. h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n , b o a r d i n g home. a. , b. , c. 77. A r r a n g i n g f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n , a. , b. , c . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 78. A r r a n g i n g f o r s p e c i a l a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s . (a) drugs a. , b. , c._ (b) m e d i c a l c a r e a. , b. , c. ( c ) t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a. , b. , c. (d) emergency s h e l t e r , e t c . a. , b. , c. 79. Case c o n s u l t a t i o n - s c h e d u l e d s u p e r v i s i o n , a. , b. c. 80. Case c o n f e r e n c e - two o r more d i s c i p l i n e s ( f o r m a l , f a c e - t o - f a c e ) , a. , b, ____, c. 81. R e a d i n g case f i l e s , a. , b ._ , c. 82. O b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o t h e r a g e n c i e s : (a) s o c i a l assessment and p l a n n i n g , e.g. s u i t a b i l i t y o f p r e d i s c h a r g e p l a n n i n g , a. , b . , c. (b) s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , e.g. work h i s t o r y from N.E.S. a. , b. , c. 83. W r i t i n g l e t t e r s t o c l i e n t t o i n v o l v e him i n t r e a t m e n t , a. , 70. 84. S e t t i n g l i m i t s and c o n t r o l s on b e h a v i o r , a. , b. c. 85. S u p p o r t i n g and r e i n f o r c i n g c l i e n t a t r e q u e s t of o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e , ••' e.g. P h y c h i a t r i s t . a. , b. , c. 86. D e a l w i t h f e e l i n g s about b e i n g c l i e n t , a. , b. , c. 87. I n v o l v e f a m i l y t r e a t m e n t , a. , b. , c. 88. I n v o l v e extended f a m i l y i n t r e a t m e n t , a. , b. , c. 89. Help c l i e n t a c c e p t h i s need f o r h e l p . a. , b. , c. 90. I n t e r p r e t o n g o i n g r o l e o f w o r k e r and agency, a. , b. , c. 91. Support c l i e n t i n c a r r y i n g out p l a n s , e.g. t a k i n g j o b . a. b. , c. 92. G i v e a d v i c e when n e c e s s a r y and a p p r o p r i a t e , a. , b. c. 93. Support f a m i l i e s of c l i e n t , a. , b. , c. 94. R e c o r d i n g of assessment and p l a n n i n g , a. , b. , c. 95. E v a l u a t i o n of p r o g r e s s , a. , b. , c. 96. C o m p i l i n g s o c i a l h i s t o r i e s and r e p o r t s , a. , b. , c. I I I T e r m i n a t i o n C o n t a c t ' 97. Review r e a s o n f o r coming t o agency, e.g. p r o b l e m , a. , b. , c. 98. Review l o n g - r a n g e g o a l s w i t h c l i e n t , a. , b. , c. 99. E v a l u a t e t r e a t m e n t w i t h c l i e n t . a. , b. 100. C l a r i f y w i t h c l i e n t r e a s o n s f o r t e r m i n a t i o n , a. b. , c. 101. S u p p o r t c l i e n t i n l e a v i n g agency, a. , b. c. 102. R e a s s u r e c l i e n t t h a t h e l p i s always a v a i l a b l e , a. b. , c. 103. R e p o r t back t o o r i g i n a l r e f e r r a n t . a. , b c. 104. C a r r y out a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s : (a) c a n c e l m e d i c a l c a r d . a. , b._ (b) c a n c e l f i n a n c i a l g r a n t , a. , b. ( c ) e n t e r n e c e s s a r y n o t a t i o n on f i l e a. c. (d) r e c o r d and c l o s e f i l e a. , b. APPENDIX B INSTRUCTIONS FOR RATING The e n c l o s e d l i s t o f t a s k s s h o u l d be r a t e d from 1 t o 5 d e p e n d i n g on the amount o f s o c i a l worker autonomy r e q u i r e d i n the com-p l e t i o n o f them i n the g r a n t i n g o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e . F o r the p u r p o s e s o f t h i s p r o j e c t , the c o n c e p t o f autonomy has been d e s i g n a t e d by a f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e f o r the purposes o f r a t i n g the t a s k s . Tasks o f a c o m p l e t e l y o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e a r e to be r a t e d a t " 1 " as opposed t o those t a s k s o f a c o m p l e t e l y s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e to be r a t e d a t " 5 " . O b j e c t i v e t a s k s a r e d e f i n e d as t h o s e p r i m a r i l y c o n c r e t e a c t s d e a l i n g w i t h the p h y s i c a l needs o f a c l i e n t as opposed t o th o s e o f a p s y c h o l o g i c a l n a t u r e . S u b j e c t i v e t a s k s a r e . d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e m o t i o n a l needs o f a c l i e n t . S o c i a l work has b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ( o u t e r ) c o n t r o l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l ( i n n e r ) c o n t r o l s . The c o n c e p t o f worker autonomy r e f e r s t o the degree t o w h i c h the work e r i s c a l l e d upon to f u n c t i o n autonomously, i . depe n d i n g on h i s " a c q u i r e d " p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s . I n h e r e n t i n h i s c o n c e p t a r e the t h r e e f a c t s t h a t : (1) many s o c i a l work t a s k s a r e n o t s p e l l e d o u t i n .a book o f r e g u l a t i o n s . (2) casework i s a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y c l o s e d to d i r e c t o b s e r v a t i o n . (3) some agency s e t t i n g s p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r or l e s s e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s . The f o l l o w i n g g u i d e l i n e s a r e p r o v i d e d t o . a s s i s t you i n r a t i n g 73. the t a s k s i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the degree o f autonomy r e q u i r e d : (1) Tasks r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e o r no autonomy: ( p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e ) S i m p l e and c o n c r e t e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y to the immediate and t a n g i b l e w h i c h a r e s e t down i n the form o f r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s and w h i c h r e q u i r e l i t t l e i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . No need to a p p l y i n d e p e n d e n t judgment based on g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l work t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , e.g., d r i v i n g c l i e n t to d o c t o r . (2) O b j e c t i v e b u t r e q u i r i n g d e c i s i o n s : S p e c i f i c and c o n c r e t e t a s k s r e q u i r i n g some in d e p e n d e n t judgment i n the use o f p o l i c y and r e g u l a t i o n s . Tasks s t i l l r e l a t e d to the im-m e d i a t e and t a n g i b l e . No r i s k i n v o l v e d i n the making o f d e c i s i o n s . e.g., i s s u i n g form f o r emergency m e d i c i n e . (3) O b j e c t i v e and S u b j e c t i v e : Judgment r e q u i r e d i n d e c i s i o n made t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the o b j e c t i v e , and to a l e s s e r e x t e n t s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s f o r the purpose o f d e t e r m i n i n g c l i e n t needs. Use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i n r e a l i t y f o c u s s e d s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g en-v i r o n m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n . e.g., d e c i d i n g whether t o recommend t h a t a f a m i l y o f 10 i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e a t r a t e o f U n i t 7, have t h e i r u n i t i n c r e a s e d . (4) S u b j e c t i v e and O b j e c t i v e : Judgment r e q u i r e d i n the use o f p o l i c y based on an assessment o f b o t h o b j e c t i v e and sub-j e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n the c l i e n t s i t u a t i o n . P u r -p o s e f u l use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t r e a t m e n t b u t l i m i t e d t o the use o f s u p p o r t i v e s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s . There i s l e s s v i s i b i l i t y w i t h r e g a r d t o the h a n d l i n g o f s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s . (5) Tasks r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e s t degree o f autonomy: ( s u b j e c t i v e ) W orking w i t h i n the framework o f a g e n c y . p o l i c y , c o m p l e t e freedom o f a c t i v i t y , and d e c i s i o n making w i t h r e g a r d to the c l i e n t ' s t o t a l s i t u a t i o n . F u l l use o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s i n assessment and t r e a t m e n t , w i t h c o n t r o l s e manating from p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e . R a t e t h e t a s k s a t the l o w e s t l e v e l o f autonomy o n l y . F o r example, where a t a s k r e q u i r e s a worker autonomy of "2", i n d i c a t e a "2" a f t e r the t a s k and not 2, 3, 4, 5. Thank you f o r your c o - o p e r a t i o n . 75. APPENDIX C A. I N I T I A L CONTACT RATING 1. A c c e p t r e f e r r a l f o r i n t e r v i e w : a. by phone; b. by l e t t e r ; c. i n p e r s o n . 2. a. I d e n t i f y the p r e s e n t i n g p r o b l e m ; b. A s s e s s the p r e s e n t i n g p r oblem. 3. I d e n t i f y the u n d e r l y i n g p r oblem. 4. Complete a p p l i c a t i o n form. 5. a. Complete l i f e h i s t o r y - S.W. 82 o r e q u i v a l e n t ( E d u c a t i o n , work r e c o r d , h e a l t h , e t c . ) ; b. A s s e s s l i f e h i s t o r y i n f o r m a t i o n . 6. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s a b i l i t y to h a n d l e own p r o b l e m s . 7. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s e f f o r t s a t s o l v i n g p r oblem. 8. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s immediate needs. 9. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s l o n g range g o a l s . 10. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s s t r e n g t h s . 11. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s weaknesses. 12. Determine t o t a l t r e a t m e n t p l a n ( e . g . e n v i r o n m e n t a l m a n i p u l a t i o n , s u p p o r t , e t c . ) 13. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s v i e w o f the agency. 14. E x p l a i n f u n c t i o n and/or p o l i c y o f the agency. 15. A s s e s s f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and needs o f a p p l i c a n t . 16. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s need to v e n t i l a t e f e e l i n g s about s i t u a t i o n . 17. A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p . A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s c'apacity f o r h e l p . P u r p o s e f u l l y h e l p i n g a p p l i c a n t a c c e p t h i s need f o r h e l p . a. A s s e s s need f o r immediate r e f e r r a l ( e . g . m e d i c a l , l e g a l ) ; b. Complete arrangements f o r immediate r e f e r r a l . I n t e r p r e t to a p p l i c a n t f u n c t i o n o f i n t a k e i n t e r v i e w . I n t e r p r e t t o a p p l i c a n t new s o c i a l w orker w i l l be a s s i g n e d . I n t e r p r e t r e a s o n f o r r e f e r r a l . Check f i l e s : a. f o r p r e v i o u s c o n t a c t ; b. f o r assessment i n f o r m a t i o n . C o n t a c t o t h e r a g e n c i e s : a. f o r p r e v i o u s t r e a t m e n t c o n t a c t s ; b. f o r v e r i f i c a t i o n o f f i n a n c e s , e m p l o y a b i l i t y , e t c . P r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a p p l i c a n t r e : o t h e r r e s o u r c e s , e.g. l e g a l a i d , c r e d i t b u r e a u , e t c . A s s e s s need f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . Complete arrangements f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A s s e s s need f o r accommodation. Complete arrangements f o r accommodation. C o n t a c t p e r s o n o r agency making r e f e r r a l ; a. to r e p o r t s e r v i c e r e n d e r e d ; b. to p r o v i d e e v a l u a t i o n o r a s s e s s m e n t . Complete n e c e s s a r y forms f o r s e r v i c e s , e.g. v o u c h e r s , cheques. A s s e s s c a s e to d e t e r m i n e who i n o f f i c e s h o u l d c a r r y i t . 77. B. ONGOING CONTACT RATING I . ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES 34. Check S.W. 81 ( d e c l a r a t i o n o f e a r n i n g s ) f o r changes i n f i n a n c i a l o r o t h e r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 35. Note changes on f a c e s h e e t . 36. Note changes i n g r a n t on g r a n t s h e e t . 37. A s s e s s e l i g i b i l i t y f o r a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s , e.g. t e e t h , g l a s s e s , eye e x a m i n a t i o n s . 38. Complete forms f o r p r o v i s i o n o f a n c i l l a r y s e r v i c e s . 39. A s s e s s e l i g i b i l i t y f o r m e d i c a l c a r d . _ _ _ _ _ 40. Complete p r o c e d u r e s f o r i s s u i n g m e d i c a l c a r d . 41. C o n t a c t p o s t o f f i c e r e : l o s t cheque o r change o f a d d r e s s 42. Try to l o c a t e c l i e n t s . _ _ _ _ _ 43. Complete r e p o r t f o r B o a r d o f Review. 44. a. A s s e s s need f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n ; b. Complete arrangements f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n . I I . COMMUNITY RELATIONSHIPS 45. I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f agency f u n c t i o n and/or p o l i c y t o community r e s o u r c e s : a. M e d i c a l ( d o c t o r s , h o s p i t a l s ) ; b. L e g a l ; _______ c. F i n a n c i a l ( c r e d i t b u r e a u s , f i n a n c e c o m p a n i e s ) ; d. S e r v i c e C l u b s ; ______ e. S o c i a l A g e n c i e s ( P u b l i c H e a l t h , Manpower); f. R e l i g i o u s ( m i n i s t e r s , e t c . ) . 78. 46. Request s e r v i c e n o t p r o v i d e d by agency from o t h e r s o u r c e s : a. L e g a l ( l e g a l a i d ) ; b. S c h o o l ( c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e ) ; c. F i n a n c i a l ( c o n s o l i d a t i n g d e b t s ) ; d'. S e r v i c e C l u b s ( t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ) ; e. S o c i a l A g e n c i e s ( P u b l i c H e a l t h , homemaker); f . R e l i g i o u s ( c o u n s e l l i n g by M i n i s t e r ) . 47. P r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on s o c i a l r e s o u r c e s ( i . e . group homes, m e n t a l h e a l t h c l i n i c s , e t c . ) f o r community g r o u p s . 48. D e a l i n g w i t h anonymous i n f o r m a t i o n coming i n t o the agency r e c l i e n t s by: a. phone; b. l e t t e r ; c. i n p e r s o n ; 49. D e a l i n g w i t h p r i v a t e i n q u i r i e s about i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s . 50. A d d r e s s i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o r community groups o n . s o c i a l work. 51. R e p r e s e n t i n g Agency a t p u b l i c meeting,, r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n , e t c . I I I . TREATMENT SERVICES 52. A s s e s s i n g the c l i e n t ' s u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s , e.g. m a r i t a l , p a r e n t - c h i l d , employment. 53. Complete measures t o meet immediate needs, e.g. cheque. 54. C a r r y o u t t r e a t m e n t f o r l o n g range g o a l s , e.g. i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . 55. E v a l u a t e o n g o i n g t r e a t m e n t p l a n s w i t h the c l i e n t . 56. A s s e s s c l i e n t ' s s t r e n g t h s . RATING 79. RATING 57. A s s e s s c l i e n t ' s m o t i v a t i o n f o r h e l p . 58. A s s e s s c l i e n t ' s c a p a c i t y f o r h e l p . 59. R e p r e s e n t i n g Agency a t Case c o n f e r e n c e s - two o r more d i s c i p l i n e s ( f o r m a l , f a c e - t o - f a c e ) . 60. P r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r o t h e r a g e n c i e s : a. s o c i a l assessment and p l a n n i n g , e.g. s u i t a b i l i t y o f p r e d i s h c a r g e p l a n n i n g ; b. s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , e.g. work h i s t o r y from N.E.S. 61. P u r p o s e f u l s e t t i n g o f l i m i t s and c o n t r o l s on c l i e n t ' s b e h a v i o u r . 62. A d v i s i n g c l i e n t o f l i m i t s and c o n t r o l s as e s t a b l i s h e d i n agency p o l i c y . 63. P u r p o s e f u l s u p p o r t o f c l i e n t a t r e q u e s t o f o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e , e.g. P s y c h i a t r i s t . 64. H e l p c l i e n t work t h r o u g h f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g a c l i e n t . 65. I n v o l v e f a m i l y i n t r e a t m e n t . ______ 66. I n v o l v e e x t e n d e d f a m i l y i n t r e a t m e n t . 67. Help c l i e n t a c c e p t h i s need f o r t r e a t m e n t . ______ 68. P u r p o s e f u l s u p p o r t o f c l i e n t i n c a r r y i n g o u t h i s p l a n s , e.g. t a k i n g j o b . 69. P u r p o s e f u l g i v i n g o f a d v i c e when n e c e s s a r y and a p p r o p r i a t e . ______ 70. P u r p o s e f u l s u p p o r t o f f a m i l i e s o f c l i e n t . 71. R e c o r d i n g o f assessment and t r e a t m e n t p l a n n i n g . C. TERMINATION CONTACT 72. E v a l u a t e t r e a t m e n t i n terms o f l o n g range g o a l s w i t h c l i e n t . 80. RATING 73. E v a l u a t e h e l p g i v e n t o meet s h o r t range needs. 74. C l a r i f y w i t h c l i e n t r e a s o n s f o r t e r m i n a t i o n . 75. P u r p o s e f u l s u p p o r t o f c l i e n t i n ' l e a v i n g agency. 76. P u r p o s e f u l r e a s s u r a n c e o f c l i e n t t h a t h e l p i s always a v a i l a b l e . 77. C a r r y o u t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s upon t e r m i n a t i o n o f c a s e . e.g. c a n c e l m e d i c a l c a r d o r g r a n t . 78. Record c l o s i n g summary. 

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