UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Utilization of manpower in a public welfare setting Budnick, Angela Frieda Mary 1967

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U T I L I Z A T I O N OF MANPOWER I N A PUBLIC WELFARE SETTING  by  Angela Frieda Ellis  Mary  Budnick  George L i n d s a y  William  N e i l MacBeth  Ronald F r a n c i s  Pollard  Thesis Submitted I n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Requirements for  t h e D e g r e e o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the  School o f S o c i a l  We a c c e p t t h i s  thesis  required  The U n i v e r s i t y  Work  as conforming standard  of B r i t i s h  April,  to the  1967  Columbia  In presenting  this thesis  i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e requirements  f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that  r.he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  1 f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by t h e Head o f my Department o r b y h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood that  copying  or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  permission„  Departmc-ftt o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Vancouver 8 , Canada  ^te  /T^U^.  Columbia  /£, ll^l-  ii  ABSTRACT  T h i s s t u d y i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e s o c i a l w o r k man-power p r o b l e m as i t e x i s t s i n t h e s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e s e c t o r o f t h e p u b l i c W e l f a r e field. The p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y was t o d e t e r m i n e i f a r a t i o n a l p l a n f o r t h e d e p l o y m e n t o f s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l c o u l d be d e v i s e d t h a t w o u l d r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e a n d a p p r o p r i a t e u t i l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k s t a f f w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g and c o m p e t e n c e . The p r o j e c t i s a n e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y b a s e d o n R i c h a n ' s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t a p l a n f o r w o r k e r d e p l o y m e n t c a n be more e f f e c t i v e l y d e v e l o p e d by f i r s t d e t e r m i n i n g t h e d e g r e e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s present o r r e q u i r e d i n the performance of the v a r i o u s tasks i n a p u h l i c w e l f a r e agency. A l i s t o f tasks performed i n the issuance o f s o c i a l allowance f r o m i n i t i a l c o n t a c t t h r o u g h t o t e r m i n a t i o n was d r a w n up by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r k n o w l e d g e and c o m b i n e d t w e n t y - t w o y e a r s e x p e r i ence i n t h i s a r e a . T h i s l i s t o f one h u n d r e d t w e n t y - e i g h t t a s k s was presented i n the form o f a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o seven e x p e r i e n c e d social w o r k e r s c a r r y i n g u r b a n and r u r a l c a s e l o a d s i n t h r e e p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s . The w o r k e r s w e r e a s k e d t o d e t e r m i n e o v e r a two week p e r i o d , by n o t i n g t h e i r d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s , i f t h e l i s t was a c c u r a t e , c o m p l e t e and u n a m b i g uous. T h i s v a l i d a t e d l i s t o f t a s k s was p r e s e n t e d t o a p a n e l o f f o u r t e e n j u d g e s h o l d i n g M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work d e g r e e s and a t l e a s t two y e a r s ' experience i n the p u b l i c welfare f i e l d f o r r a t i n g . The r a t i n g p r o c e d u r e s w e r e b a s e d o n a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e o f autonomy o f w o r k e r f u n c t i o n i n g r e q u i r e d i n the performance o f the d i f f e r e n t tasks. B e c k ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f w o r k e r a u t o n o m y was a c c e p t e d as a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s study, a s i t i n c o r p o r a t e s t h e e x p l i c i t n e s s o f g u i d e s t o t h e w o r k e r s , t h e v i s i b i l i t y o f w o r k e r a c t i v i t y and t h e d e g r e e o f r e q u i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s . T h i s m e t h o d o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n , t h e u s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and t h e r a t i n g s c a l e , was c o n s i d e r e d t h e m o s t f e a s i b l e a s t h e y w e r e e a s y t o a d m i n i s t e r , f l e x i b l e , a l l o w e d f o r f i n e d e f i n i t i o n w i t h a s p e c i f i c frame o f r e f e r e n c e , i n e x p e n s i v e f i n a n c i a l l y and i n t e r m s o f worker-judge-researcher time. An a n a l y s i s o f o u r s t u d y f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y 9 p e r c e n t o f t h e l i s t e d t a s k s r e c e i v e d 80 p e r c e n t o f j u d g e r a t i n g a g r e e m e n t t h a t was n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h i t s r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e r a t i n g s . I t was s i g n i f i c a n t , however, t h a t the judges' r a t i n g s u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d a p a t t e r n t e n d i n g t o c l u s t e r a t two a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s . While i t i s obvious that the instrument i s not y e t r e l i a b l e , t h e f a c t t h a t 42 p e r c e n t o f t h e t a s k s r e c e i v e d o v e r 60 p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t i s e n c o u r a g i n g and l e a d s t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o c o n c l u d e t h a t t h e s t u d y i s going i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n .  iii  I t was a l s o t e n t a t i v e l y c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e c l o s e n e s s o f t h e r a t i n g s seemed to. i n d i c a t e e i t h e r t h a t t h e r a t i n g s c a l e o f autonomy was not f i n e enough to a l l o w d i s t i n c t i o n s between a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s or t h a t the t a s k s were not d e f i n e d w i t h s u f f i c i e n t c l a r i t y f o r the j u d g e s to make d i s t i n c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e amount o f a u t o n o m y r e q u i r e d i n t h e p e r formance of the t a s k . The j u d g e s w e r e q u e r i e d on t h e p r o b l e m s t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e i r r a t i n g s and t h e i r r e m a r k s l e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o r e - e x a m i n e t h e d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e t a s k s , and a l t h o u g h t h e y had b e e n v a l i d a t e d by t h e f i e l d w o r k e r s i n t h e i n i t i a l p h a s e o f t h e s t u d y , i t became e v i d e n t t h a t d e f i n i t i o n s o f a g r e a t number o f t a s k s c o u l d be u n c l e a r o r c o n f u s i n g when t h e y w e r e r a t e d by t h e e m p l o y m e n t o f t h e autonomy c r i t e r i o n . This r e - e x a m i n a t i o n l e d the r e s e a r c h e r s to r e v i s e a l l t a s k s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n 80 p e r c e n t a g r e e m e n t . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e r e i s no i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e c r i t e r i o n o f a u t o n o m y s h o u l d be r e j e c t e d . R a t h e r , i f the r e v i s e d l i s t of t a s k s c a n be g i v e n t o j u d g e s t o r a t e a g a i n , i t i s f e l t t h a t a much h i g h e r d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d . S h o u l d t h e new r a t i n g s p r o v e t o be r e l i a b l e , t h e way w i l l t h e n be c l e a r t o d e v e l o p a t a s k a s s i g n m e n t scheme to be e m p l o y e d i n a f i e l d s t u d y .  iv TABLE OF  Chapter I :  CONTENTS  Introduction  The s c o e a n d i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m . Current practices. D e c i s i o n s n e e d i n g t o be made. P e r s o n s c o n n e c t e d with this project. O r g a n i z a t i o n of the research report  Chapter  II:  Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e  C r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f y i n g tasks. S o c i a l Work S t a f f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schemes. Schemes o f w o r k a s s i g n m e n t . Methods of e v a l u a t i o n . Staff Training proposals  Chapter I I I :  Study  IV:  ratings.  8  P. 30  Study F i n d i n g s  D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a on study sample. Problems encountered  C h a p t e r V:  P-  Design  C o n c e p t u a l framework. Q u e s t i o n s t o be s t u d i e d . C o n c e p t s t o b e i n c l u d e d i n t h e s t u d y . V a r i a b l e s t o be i n c l u d e d i n the study. L e v e l o f r e s e a r c h . d e s i g n . Data a n a l y s i s d e s i g n . Sampling p r o c e d u r e s . Methods o f G a t h e r i n g d a t a  Chapter  P. .1  A n a l y s i s of the  Summary  P. 43  P. 5 1  Bibliography  P. 57  Appendices: A.  The O r i g i n a l L i s t o f T a s k s a n d I n s t r u c t i o n s  P. 60  B.  Rating Scale  P. 72  C.  Revised L i s t  o f Tasks  P. 75  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The all  w r i t e r s would  like  to take  this  o p p o r t u n i t y t o thank  t h o s e who a s s i s t e d u s i n t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h i s p r o j e c t .  would p a r t i c u l a r l y for h i s guidance assistance study  like  t o thank  and s u p p o r t .  offices  Dr. John Crane, our t h e s i s To t h o s e  i n the V i c t o r i a  f i e l d , workers  our heartfelt  advisor  i n the socia  a r e a , who p a r t i c i p a t e d  a n d t o t h o s e who s e r v e d a s j u d g e s ,  We  i n this  thanks.  U T I L I Z A T I O N OF  MANPOWER I N A P U B L I C  WELFARE  SETTING  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION  The  S c o p e and The  Importance of  utilization  concern i n a l l f i e l d s of and  children's  of  corrections.  I n d e e d , due  to  agencies using  the  that  full  eligibility  public welfare  welfare  of  a l s o has  is often  a l s o w i t h more g e n e r a l  completed or  function  dysfunction. first not  social  and  of  and  social  other  to the  perhaps the  service  we  only  measure of p r o t e c t i o n  to  the  client.  feel  work are  and,  hopefully,  resource,  an  that  the  client  but  importance i s of  often a  of  the  workers have  capabilities,  s o c i a l work t a s k s  public  nature,  client  are  to  material  the  the  trad-  public  fact that  e d u c a t i o n and  O f t e n the  services  a material  offered  problems f a r beyond t h e i r  scheme f o r a s s i g n m e n t o f  need. numerous  forms of  F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e many p u b l i c w e l f a r e  with  find  of  of r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  dysfunctioning,  to  allow  worker.  field  a r e a of  Due  to  a d o p t i o n s , w h i c h were  only w i t h matters of  quantity  we  professional  assistance  field  experience, i t  a whole range of  in this  even begun t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l  to attempt to deal utilitarian  the  q u a l i t y and  utmost importance.  the  social  or a f a m i l y has,  improving the  tasks  the  general  personnel,  and  skilled  family  according  s p e c i f i c a l l y to the  for financial  further  worker  individual  the h i g h l y  particular  too  a selective basis  counselling  interest is limited  W h i l e the  prevention  h e a v y and  u n q u a l i f i e d workers to provide  the p r e s e r v e of  aid,  on  too  from a c t u a l  severe lack of p r o f e s s i o n a l  itionally  establish  p s y c h i a t r i c s e r v i c e s , and  l i t e r a t u r e and  services  t h o s e , s u c h as m a r i t a l  welfare.  and  caseloads are  including  Our  causing  social welfare--in public assistance,  Both from the  to provide  Problem  o f manpower i s a p r o b l e m p r e s e n t l y  services, medical  s o o n becomes e v i d e n t workers  the  not  required simple  would p r o v i d e  a  better  i s too v u l n e r a b l e  to  withstand welfare  the u n s k i l l e d worker's  clients  require l i t t l e for  tampering.  come w i t h a s p e c i f i c o r no o t h e r h e l p ,  the non-professional  H o w e v e r , a s many p u b l i c  and r e c o g n i z a b l e m a t e r i a l n e e d , b u t ,  i t would  seem t h e r e  i n public welfare.  is definitely  A classification  a place  scheme f o r  s o c i a l w o r k t a s k s and a n a p p r o p r i a t e scheme f o r a s s i g n m e n t o f t a s k s t o workers would skilled and  thus  f r e e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r t o p r o v i d e m o r e i n t e n s i v e and  forms o f treatment  and a l l o w t h e c l i e n t  a t t h e same t i m e , h e l p more a p p r o p r i a t e  t o r e c e i v e h e l p more q u i c k l y  t o h i s needs.  Current P r a c t i c e s Until  r e c e n t l y , t h e Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e  attempt t o c l a s s i f y Professional resulting to  tasks or to devise  and l a c k o f o p p o r t u n i t y  meet c l i e n t n e e d s .  aspects little  of determining time  a scheme f o r m a x i m i z i n g  and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s h a n d l e d  inability  either  Large caseloads eligibility  ^ made  use o f s t a f f .  t h e same c a s e s  to provide  little  with  a  comprehensive s e r v i c e  and t h e h e a v y demands o f t h e l e g a l  for financial  assistance left  f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g need f o r casework t r e a t m e n t  the workers or f o r  c a r r y i n g i t o u t when t h i s was i n d i c a t e d . A n a t t e m p t t o c o r r e c t t h e s i t u a t i o n was made two y e a r s the to  i n t r o d u c t i o n of "caseload  i s , assigning priority  s p e c i a l w o r k e r s who w e r e t o g i v e m o r e i n t e n s i v e s e r v i c e .  for  e s t a b l i s h i n g p r i o r i t y has been based  that  attention.  cases  criteria belief  Unfortunately,  these  a r e o f t e n made b y n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s who do n o t p o s s e s s  diagnostic  t r a i n i n g or s k i l l .  ment a r e s o m e t i m e s o v e r l o o k e d other  The  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r ' s  t h e c a s e r e q u i r e d some f o r m o f s p e c i a l  decisions  1  streaming"--that  ago w i t h  cases  Therefore, and b u r i e d  are r e f e r r e d through  cases  r e q u i r i n g i n t e n s i v e treat;*  i n "administrative caseloads"  f o r i n t e n s i v e treatment  when n o n e e d  while for i t  W i t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r , the Department of S o c i a l Welfare s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i s that of the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia.  exists.  This  l a c k o f an a d e q u a t e scheme f o r t a s k a s s i g n m e n t , t h e  of p r o f e s s i o n a l workers the  failure  either has  to handle the  i n t e n s i v e treatment  o f the Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e  l e d to encouraging  r a n g e f r o m as h i g h essional,  as  results  i n t e n s i v e care  t o as h i g h  as  One  t h e s i s members h a n d l i n g  of the  cases  t i m e was  It  t h a t t i m e was  is significant  intensive nature. of cases  T h u s , we  a b o u t w h i c h we  performed  in relation We  deployment. detail  should  are  so  f o r t h ) and  specific  To  belief  to t h i s  f a c t o r as  made b y  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e personnel  other  effort  the  really  streaming  streaming  of  tasks  be  staff  a t t e m p t has to the  yet  been  building  system i s i n o p e r a b l e  casework d e c i s i o n s  due  being  an a d m i n i s t r a t i l e b a s i s . agency i n t h i s p r o v i n c e aides  e f f e c t i v e a t t e m p t has  has  i n the c a p a c i t y of  some h a v e b e e n h i r e d by V a n c o u v e r C i t y S o c i a l  t o maximum p o t e n t i a l s .  i n t e r v i e w s o f a more  to separate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  i s that this  t o i m p l e m e n t a scheme u t i l i z i n g w e l f a r e  T h u s , no  issuing  eligibility.  to maximize  o u r k n o w l e d g e , no  l e d t o what s h o u l d on  of  case.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no p u b l i c w e l f a r e  workers.  social  (recording, f i l i n g ,  importance of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e tasks Our  prof-  t h a t the major p o r t i o n o f  c o n c e r n e d , o r more l i k e l y ,  from casework p r a c t i c e .  although  o f 180  in establishing  Some m u n i c i p a l i t i e s , h a v e t r i e d  i t has  f o r the  a d i a r y f o r t e n days  a v a i l a b l e f o r o n l y two  t o d i s c u s s one  casework r e l a t i o n s h i p s .  proportions  must c o n s i d e r whether i t i s a c t u a l l y a  t o any  like  made t o d e t e r m i n e t h e  tried  kept  spent h a n d l i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d e t a i l s s e r v i c e s and  for  Caseloads  cases  a caseload  I t is readily discernible  a n c i l l a r y medical  and  f o r the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e worker.  a s s i s t a n c e c a s e s , d u r i n g t h e summer o f 1966, his daily activities.  to manageable  i n t h i s program to date.  60 h i g h l y a c t i v e , 200  caseloads,  to reduce caseloads  the p r o f e s s i o n a l or n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l worker  not  shortage  S e r v i c e as  full  b e e n made t o u t i l i z e  yet aides, social staff  Decisions As of  should  concentrate  a classification  d i v i s i o n of  tasks  on  p e r f o r m e d by  to c l a s s i f y define ed;  a p a n e l of  to the  i n the p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e  s h a l l have to f u l f i l l  the  which the  judges to r a t e the  study u t i l i z i n g  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of  utilization  could  then provide  tasks;  define  following  t a s k s may  specific  be  In  order  conditions: differentiat-  Establish criteria  for  tasks  i t would  be  difficult  to  aides  a l l o w us  the development of  a measure of v a l i d i t y  of  "Appropriate to emphasize our  and,  conclusions hopefully,  a model s t r u c t u r e  The  operation  the  criteria.  of  of  such a model  However,  validity  determine.  m a t t e r o f a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l s on  that warrants  t o d r a w some  in public welfare  personnel deployment.  to  worker  c o n c e r n and  future  caseload  s i z e " has belief  not  weighting  investigation.  i n t h e i r work, s o c i a l w o r k e r s must have c a s e l o a d s  size.  some  field,;.  a scheme f o r a s s i g n i n g  tasks w i l l  of welfare  future researchers  The  wish  t o c o l l e c t and  The b a s i s f o r a s s e s s i n g l e v e l s o f c a p a b i l i t y (or p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ) .  a s s i g n m e n t and  ive  be  (2)  task  matter  will  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s t o t h e casework r e l a t i o n s h i p . I s t h e r e any h a r m t o a casework r e l a t i o n s h i p i n s e p a r a t i n g the admini s t r a t i v e tasks.  lead  be  approach would a l l o w  to  determine:  will  will  • In a d d i t i o n  (1)  A as  classifications  ratings;  In a l a t e r necessary to  step  I d e n t i f y c r i t e r i a , by  their  t h a n use  individual tasks.  c a s e s , s u c h an  first  t h e s e t a s k s , we  acceptance of  that rather  m o r e on  s o c i a l workers  each task;  Select  of  feel  i n d i v i d u a l cases.  C o n s e q u e n t l y our tasks  Made  i n d i c a t e d a b o v e , we  c a s e s , we  providing  N e e d i n g t o be  To that  be are  is. another truly effectof  appropriate  yet been s a t i s f a c t o r i l y determined.  that this  s t u d y and  others  m u s t be  focussed  We on  improving the q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e administrative  to the c l i e n t  and n o t m e r e l y on  serving  expediency.  . Persons Connected  With the P r o j e c t  Sponsor This project  i s b e i n g s p o n s o r e d by  Welfare, Province of B r i t i s h financial workers study. list of  assistance,  the Department  i n the three f i e l d  of tasks performed  ensuring c l a r i t y  and  incorporated  The  performed.  project  report w i l l  as  Department  terms  of act  specific  list  be a s k e d  to review the  allowance f o r the Any  included  purpose  task  i n the l i s t  t o i n d i c a t e e a c h t i m e any g i v e n t o the Department  to t h e i r The  own  a special  "Project  Department  p r e s e n t s t u d y may  task  i s i n fact  of S o c i a l  Welfare  interest  66"--  i s also  a  in this  comprehensive  interested  and p o s s i b l e  provide direction  to the  m a x i m i z i n g the use of t r a i n e d  I t m u s t be p o i n t e d  or  staff,  because  throughDepartment  solutions.  d i r e c t i o n has been g i v e n t o the r e a s e a r c h e r s by  study findings  will  submitted to the judges f o r  A l t h o u g h r e s p o n s i v e to our e f f o r t s ,  u p o n any  the nine  directly providing public welfare services  of problems, needs, No  sponsor.  The  i n making  o f each t a s k l i s t e d .  o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e has  on manpower.  i s the p r i m a r y agency  out the p r o v i n c e .  be  to providing  thesis.  i t relates directly  e x p e r i m e n t a l program  in  be a s k e d  Social  t o us d u r i n g a p o r t i o n o f t h e  these workers w i l l  i n t o the f i n a l  the form of the completed The  instrumental  available  of  In addition  d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d but not  workers w i l l A full  was  applicability  be n o t e d and rating.  (D.S.W.).  i n the issuance of s o c i a l  the workers  it  offices  D u r i n g a two week p e r i o d  p e r f o r m e d by  in  Columbia  the Department  and  the  i n agreement w i t h our  the Department  i s not committed  goal to  recommendations.  out that  the Department  or S o c i a l Welfare  suffers  f r o m an a c u t e s h o r t a g e o f p e r s o n n e l h o l d i n g B a c h e l o r and M a s t e r o f S o c i a l  Work  D e g r e e s and  does n o t ,  at t h i s  presents p a r t i c u l a r problems not  seriously affect  for  task  t i m e , employ w e l f a r e a i d e s . in constructing a field  the o b j e c t i v e o f t h i s  study  While  this  experiment,  to develop  an  i t will instrument  assignment.  Potential  Consumers  Other persons studies,  training  w i t h an  institutions  of s o c i a l workers  interest  include:  researchers doing  similar  f o r w e l f a r e a i d e s , the p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n  ( p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h r e f e r e n c e to l i c e n c i n g of  social  workers). The  Researchers The  Masters  researchers  are  four students  final  year  o f S o c i a l Work p r o g r a m a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  o f S o c i a l Work.  They have a t o t a l  and  to practice  will  in their  continue  o f 22 y e a r s  experience  of  the  Columbia,  School  i n public welfare  i n the p u h l i c w e l f a r e s e c t o r of  the  social  work p r o f e s s i o n . In  a d d i t i o n to t h e i r  own  interests  i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e and  commitment t o p r o v i d i n g t h e b e s t , most e f f i c i e n t , to  clients,  t h e y a l s o h a v e an  interest  i n preparing,a  of t h e i r Masters  o f S o c i a l Work p r o g r a m .  c o l o u r or a f f e c t  the study  i n any  O r g a n i z a t i o n of the Research Having i t now  becomes n e c e s s a r y  skills,  techniques  and  thesis  This additional  for  aspect  and  rated.  ing  w i t h the nature  A model can  may  be more e f f i c i e n t l y  of  completion should  Report  t o e m p l o y and  addresses  d e s c r i b e the v a r i o u s  a s s i s t a n c e a g e n c y c a n be  t h e n be  the and  not  way.  research  methodology i n v o l v e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g whether or  in a social  deep  most p r o d u c t i v e s e r v i c e  d e l i n e a t e d the problem to which t h i s p r o j e c t  itself,  tasks performed  and  their  developed  tasks performed rationally  collected,  that relates i n order  deployed.  social  not  identified worker  t h a t s o c i a l work  trainpersonnel  7.  The  first  w h a t i s known and and  step w i l l  what has  t o d i s c o v e r u s e f u l and  be  t o examine the l i t e r a t u r e  been attempted significant  i n the  identified  techniques  developed  by  other researchers, a p p l i c a b l e to t h i s  step w i l l  be  t o c o n s t r u c t the  i n v o l v e a d i s c u s s i o n and design, the  the  study.  study  sampling The  theoretical  d e s c r i p t i o n of  p r o c e d u r e s and  third  step w i l l  i n research procedures  problem  concepts  the a s s u m p t i o n s , the l e v e l  the d a t a  The  second  This of  will  research  c o l l e c t i o n methods i n v o l v e d i n  i n v o l v e a d i s c u s s i o n of the nature suggestions  t h a t were employed.  research.  area  already  area of study.  A  of  the  f o r p o s s i b l e modiffinal  v o l v e p r e s e n t i n g a summary o f t h e p r o j e c t , c o n c l u s i o n s a r r i v e d recommendations f o r f u t u r e  determine  framework o f the s t u d y .  f i n d i n g s - - t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d and  ications  and  to  step w i l l at,  and  in-  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Within this existing  literature  shortage  be o u r p u r p o s e t o r e v i e w t h e  client  from e x i s t i n g  experimental In  specific  this  i n an attempt  r e s e a r c h have proposed  c h a p t e r , .many o f t h e s e  s o c i a l work t a s k s  b e made t o :  Some w r i t e r s ,  on t h e b a s i s  c o n d i t i o n s , o r , on t h e b a s i s o f " i d e a l " models o f s t a f f u s e .  studies w i l l  (a) c r i t e r i a  ( b ) s o c i a l work s t a f f  a s s i g n m e n t schemes  agencies  t o a c h i e v e maximum b e n e f i t t o t h e  analysis of existing  reference w i l l  many  As  s m a l l s c a l e p r o j e c t s , some o f  s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l .  of an i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c actual  i n s o c i a l work s e t t i n g s .  becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a p p a r e n t ,  a few r e s e a r c h groups have u n d e r t a k e n  which are experimental,  ing  i twill  on t h e u s e o f p e r s o n n e l  the problem of s t a f f and  chapter,  be l o o k e d  a t and  employed f o r c l a s s i f y i n g  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes  ( d ) methods o f e v a l u a t i n g c r i t e r i a  ( c ) work  ( e ) methods o f t r a i n -  personnel. C r i t e r i a F o r C l a s s i f y i n g Tasks Within this  s e c t i o n we a r e p r e s e n t i n g v a r i e d c r i t e r i a ,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e , f o r the purpose of c l a s s i f y i n g Worker Autonomy  and Task  to  of the t a s k s Worker  professional  of task.  I t was t h e i r  independent from t h e c l i e n t o r groups o f c l i e n t s , (levels  of tasks) performed by s o c i a l  purpose  the nature  workers.  Autonomy  According  greater  b y t h e N.A.S.W. i n 1 9 6 4 ( 3 7 ) , u t i l i z i n g t h e  o f w o r k e r a u t o n o m y and c o m p l e x i t y  identify,  s o c i a l work t a s k s .  Complexity  A s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n concepts  suggested  t o Beck ( 2 6 ) , s o c i a l  controls.  work has b o t h  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l and  The g r e a t e r t h e n e e d f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l , t h e  t h e need f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n .  Inherent  i n the concept a r e  the  following: (a)  E x p l i c i t guides t o workers. R u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s c a n l e a d t o e f f i c i e n c y b u t many s o c i a l work j o b s a r e n o t s p e l l e d o u t i n a book o f r e g u l a t i o n s .  (b)  V i s i b i l i t y of practice. Casework i s almost invariably classed to direct observation.  (c)  O r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s --the degree t o which the worker p r a c t i c e s i n a s e t t i n g i n which there i sunderstanding support f o r s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s .  A u t o n o m y seems a w o r k a b l e c o n c e p t easy t o d e f i n e and t o d e t e r m i n e present.  i n that i t should  i n c e r t a i n t a s k s , t h e degrees o f c o n t r o l s  I t i su s e f u l f o r making r e l a t i v e b u t n o t absolute  T h i s may b e c o n s i d e r e d  be " r e l a t i v e l y "  a l i m i t a t i o n o f most o f t h e c r i t e r i a  l i n e d , however, u s i n g an o r d i n a l  judgements.(26) that w i l l  scale i t i susually sufficient  be out-  f o r work  purposes. Task  Complexity We w e r e u n a b l e  t h e N.A.S.W. s t u d y , ly  descriptive".  1964,  to locate a definition (37)  of "task complexity".  t h e t e r m was a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i d e r e d  Mary Baker suggests  three types  In  "sufficient-  o f c o m p l e x i t y : . (1) t h e  c o n s t e l l a t i o n of s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d by the whole s e r v i c e f u n c t i o n of t h e agency, i . e . , t h e l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , rather  than  the psychopathology,  (2) the type o f s e r v i c e r e q u i r e d  (3) the complexity of s e r v i c e r e q u i r e d , ( 2 3 )  We a r e a s s u m i n g t h a t i n t h e N.A.S.W. s t u d y , to  the term'"task  complexity"  refers  t h e degree o f knowledge i n t h e v a r i o u s s o c i a l work methods r e q u i r e d i n  c a r r y i n g o u t t h e t a s k as opposed t o t h e " t e c h n i c a l " o r s p e c i f i c k n o w l e d g e required of  in providing a direct  and c o n c r e t e  service,  f o r example, knowledge  resources. Worker Autonomy and C l i e n t  Vulnerability  S e v e r a l o f t h e s t u d i e s (37, 22, 14) reviewed  used t h e c r i t e r i a o f  10.  worker  a u t o n o m y and  client vulnerability  for classifying  d e v e l o p a means o f s o r t i n g j o b r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s  into  two  tasks  i n order to  categories — those  t h a t m i g h t b e t t e r be d o n e b y t h e f u l l y  trained  and  t h o s e t h a t m i g h t be ;.  a d e q u a t e l y done b y t h e l e s s  trained  and  s t i l l maintain a  acceptable standard.(26) discussed  than f u l l y The  c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y means t h e d e g r e e  the c l i e n t  is vulnerable  w o r k e r may  not have " b u i l t - i n "  t o harm r e s u l t i n g  Client vulnerability  s i t u a t i o n o r p r o b l e m and  from the f a c t  that  the  s o c i a l work v a l u e s , knowledge,  social  attitudes  the n a t u r e of the s e r v i c e b e i n g Professional  t o be  t a k i n g the c l i e n t  worker performance The  criterion,  and  concern i t s e l f with (37) however,  classified,  a l t h o u g h i t may  are i d e n t i f i e d ,  clients  need  that this  The  with,  (c) the consequences  foci  (b) the  of inadequate  the help  p e r h a p s more t h a n some, a p p e a r s  c l i e n t need.  I t was  suggested i n the  t h a t when i t i s w o r k e r  client vulnerability be a u s e f u l  and n o t t h e w o r k e r ' s a c t i v i t i e s . staff  t o be w o r k e d  seem  (26).  N.A.S.W. s t u d y , 1 9 6 4 , being rated  t o be b r o u g h t a b o u t ,  concept of c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y ,  to s p e c i f i c a l l y  also  c o n s i d e r a t i o n when t a s k s a r e d e f i n e d .  (a) the n a t u r e o f the " s t u f f "  n a t u r e o f t h e changes  client's  Components S t u d y t o s e e  t a s k s c o u l d be d e l e g a t e d t o n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l w o u l d  study are:  and  offered..  which  into  to which  c a n be d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e n a t u r e o f t h e  The M e d i c a l S o c i a l W o r k e r s  of t h i s  been  Vulnerability  A c c o r d i n g t o Beck,  own  autonomy has a l r e a d y  on t h e p r e v i o u s p a g e .  Client  skills.  concept of worker  certain  tasks which  i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e as  concept i f the approach  Once t h e t a s k s  the c o n c e p t has p o t e n t i a l o f the most s k i l l e d  understanding of the d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s h e l d  f o r the various  a client  levels  of  use i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h  workers.  c o n c e p t w o u l d be b a s i c a l l y h e l p f u l  i s the  are  I t was  further  i n o b t a i n i n g a more  i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n and  suggested  complete t h e ... .  i m p l i c a t i o n s which these F a c t F i n d i n g and Several criteria  of f a c t  d i f f e r e n c e s have f o r worker a c t i o n s w i t h  are,  should  be  articles finding  ( 5 , 8,  Fact  f i n d i n g as  to the  should  be  strict  (25)  tasks  material  nature).  This  explicit  criteria  to the  i n v o l v e no  Project  fact  (23)  dependent.  defined  on  use  These s t u d i e s suggest  of " t e c h n i c a l " t a s k s  of  the and  that  these  that a t t e n t i o n  ( i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) and  i n f o r m a t i o n and  the o b t a i n i n g  resources  and,  and  often,  Some w r i t e r s f e e l  that  the  the b a s i s of c l i e n t problem or need, o t h e r s ,  could  facts, planning  special risk. finding  i t i s on  p o s s i b l e to define  on  gathering  of f a c t s ,  a p p e a r t o be  those  s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d (of a  a c t i o n where p a t t e r n s  This would  tasks.  be  i s o b v i o u s and  i n c l u d e the  applying are  that the  in fact client  gathering,  or  the  of  unambiguous  the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g  I n the M i n n e s o t a Department of P u b l i c the emphasis  Welfare  i s on  task;  case.  Making  D e c i s i o n m a k i n g i m p l i e s the independent judgments w i t h regard  ability  to c l i e n t s  c o m p a r e d b y M a r g a r e t Heyman ( 1 0 ) , t o t h e a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . those  includes  s u g g e s t {that i t s h o u l d  i t i s suggested  Decision  involves  the  In p r a c t i c e i t i s recognized  or s i t u a t i o n s where need  i n d e c i s i o n making,  has  infer  d e c i s i o n making ( s e r v i c e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of r u l e s .  specific  of  31)  skill.  Mary Baker  factor  27,  a c r i t e r i o n apparently  classified  worker f u n c t i o n or  and  25,  ( d e c i s i o n making).  p r o v i d i n g of s p e c i f i c a l l y  tasks  23,  Finding Fact  according  tasks.  to the s e p a r a t i o n  " s o c i a l work" tasks  21,  ( i n v e s t i g a t i o n ) and  i n fact, mutually given  client.  Decision Making  treatment) for c l a s s i f y i n g tasks  the  t a s k s and  According  and/or n e c e s s i t y f o r making and  criteria  situations. of  I t has  been  "worker autonomy" which  to Mary Baker,  (25)  cases demanding "unique d e s i g n s "  d e c i s i o n making  based  upon  professional  judgment, s i t u a t i o n s where a p p l i c a t i o n of  a m b i g u o u s r e s u l t s and  risk  Again i t appears that  the  and  Podell  client of  (27)  define  n e e d s and  is involved. risk  Action  involved  i s the d e c i d i n g  Treatment  c l i e n t need and/or e n a b l i n g  the  implies  client  Mary Baker asks whether or not can  be  adequately c l a s s i f i e d .  universally applied  i n any  s e t t i n g and any  operationally defined.  s t u d y w h i c h was  initiated  dealing with  critical  provided (31)  under the  the  j u x t a p o s i t i o n of and  meeting  change h i s  clients  and  these c r i t e r i a  needs.  situations  could  be  work s i t u a t i o n s .  of where the  joint  Dumpson  We  c r i t e r i a were, i s an  auspices  of  in  experimental  t h e New  York  S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work a t C o l u m b i a  Univer-  Their  findings  is also  found  may  interest.(24)  theme o f u s i n g  t h r o u g h o u t the  w h i c h need  that  i n most s o c i a l  instances  i n 1963  their  through the  classed  suggests  a criterion  I t would appear t h a t terms.  W e i s s m a n and  that  o f n e e d s t o be  met use  the  criteria  a range of  few  (35)  client  problems  The  services  the worker.  p r o t e c t i v e , or r e h a b i l i t a t i v e .  o f t e n have been d e f i n e d  the  array  criteria  studies  Baker,  of  of  Meyer  than i n terms  approaches.  client  need, l e a d i n g u l t i m a t e l y to  w o r k a b l e t r e a t m e n t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a p p e a r t o be of a t t a c k i n g the problem under study.  using  "ideologically"in  to c e r t a i n treatment approaches r a t h e r  t h r o u g h an of  a c t i v i t i e s of  as p r e v e n t i v e ,  terms of a c c e s s i b i l i t y  The  n e e d as  i n c i d e n t t e c h n i q u e have t a b u l a t e d  t o be met  are  client  literature.  actually operationally define the  dynamics of  needs.  Need  The scattered  the  client  determining  d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of d e c i s i o n making.  e v e n t u a l l y prove of Client  to the  I n t e r e s t i n g l y enough, t h e r e  C i t y D e p a r t m e n t o f W e l f a r e and sity  the  yield  factor.  t o u n d e r s t a n d and  It is possible  were u n a b l e , however, to f i n d fact,  i s b a s e d on  s e r v i c e as p r i m a r i l y o r i e n t e d  resources.  criteria  a s u i t a b l e and  a  fundamental  Long term e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h ,  way  using  13.  this  c r i t e r i o n would p r o b a b l y y i e l d most u s e f u l r e s u l t s . S o c i a l Work S t a f f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Schemes A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n plan  similar  i s an o r d e r l y arrangement o f j o b s  duties, responsibilities,  k n o w l e d g e and s k i l l s  requiring  i n e a c h p o s i t i o n and  class. "A p o s i t i o n , w h i c h may b e e i t h e r o c c u p i e d o r v a c a n t must be c l e a r l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e incumbent of t h e p o s i t i o n s . I t i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by c e r t a i n d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , w h i c h c a l l f o r t h e t i m e a n d a t t e n t i o n o f some one i n d i v i d u a l . . . . A p o s i t i o n i n v o l v e s c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , and t o i t i s a s s i g n e d a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g and p e r h a p s c o n v e n t i o n a l title.." "A c l a s s i s a g r o u p o f p o s i t i o n s s u f f i c i e n t l y a l i k e i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s t o j u s t i f y common t r e a t m e n t i n s e l e c t i o n , c o m p e n s a t i o n and o t h e r e m p l o y m e n t p r o c e s s e s , and s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from p o s i t i o n s of other c l a s s e s t o j u s t i f y d i f f e r e n t t r e a t m e n t i n one o r m o r e o f t h e s e r e s p e c t s . . . . I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e same c h a r a c t e r i s t i c q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d , and t h e same s c a l e o f c o m p e n s a t i o n c a n b e a p p l i e d w i t h e q u i t y i n each c l a s s . " (40, p.5-7) More s p e c i f i c a l l y , are:  the f a c t o r s looked  the complexity  and r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y  and  nature of guidelines  and  original  staff  (40,  and s u p e r v i s i o n ;  thinking required;  t r a i n i n g and d e v e l o p m e n t ;  education  a t when d r a w i n g up a j o b c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  and d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n  of duties;  the a v a i l a b i l i t y  the degree of independent  t h e number and l e v e l  of positions  p u r p o s e and n a t u r e o f p e r s o n a l  judgment supervised;  relations;  o f k n o w l e d g e , e x p e r i e n c e and s k i l l s  required.  p.7) In  various  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  positions, classes  professional,  the leader,  the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l , specialist, volunteer,  we f i n d  the f o l l o w i n g t i t l e s  or l e v e l s of s t a f f  i n social welfare  t h e s o c i a l work s t u d e n t ,  the sub-professional,  staff.  to distinguish s e t t i n g s : the  the casework a s s i s t a n t ,  the i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d , the  the t e c h n i c a l person, the case a i d e , the c l e r i c a l  given  What f o l l o w s  the indigenous worker, the  i s an a t t e m p t t o  incorporate  14.  the m a t e r i a l classes,  on  staff  classification  the p r o f e s s i o n a l , the  i n the  literature,  non-professional,  into four  the v o l u n t e e r  main  and  clerical  staff. Professional  Staff  In  article  the  "Personnel  S o c i a l Work ( 1 9 6 5 ) , i t i s s u g g e s t e d establish professional a c c e p t e d , h o w e v e r , as  i n S o c i a l Work," i n the that  ideally  the  aim  s o c i a l workers at a l l l e v e l s . b o t h n e c e s s a r y and  Encyclopedia  s h o u l d be  It is  of  to  generally  s a t i s f a c t o r y to attempt  "planned  deployment of p e r s o n n e l at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . " (38,  p.532)  Meyer  organization of  (a)  (b)  (32)  i t s devotion  or  unwillingness  to f a l s e c r i t e r i a  of a p r o f e s s i o n a l qualified  t o a d a p t t o new  individual--and  It  is also  ly  at  Richan  He  professional  service  accepted  level (14)  i s a high  M a r g a r e t Heyman ( 9 )  that  of s k i l l  degree of suggests  an the  as  are,  the  approaches.  to the d e f i n i t i o n  is also a  professional  s h o u l d be  to provide  a high  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  these include  MeyeT  used  exclusive-  degree of  worker  handles  fully  requirement.  t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o u l d become  Apparently  (c)  experience.  c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y and  that  needs,  professionally trained,  association  i n order  suggests that  casework s k i l l s .  i s the  because  over s o c i a l  literature  M.S.W. ( o r e q u i v a l e n t ) : w i t h  a c c r e d i t a t i o n by  generally  the h i g h e s t  when t h e r e  the  of what i m p o r t a n t t a s k s  agreement i n the  s o c i a l worker.  suggests that  advanced  to suggest that  of p r i v a t e over p u b l i c s e r v i c e s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l There i s general  (32)  f a r as  p r o v e s a h i n d r a n c e t o e f f e c t i v e manpower u t i l i z a t i o n  its inability  valuing  g o e s so  cases where:  i n d e p e n d e n t on t h e s p o t c a s e w o r k t r e a t m e n t due the n a t u r e of the e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e i n the situation is required.  (2)  i n d e p e n d e n t on the. s p o t c a s e w o r k j u d g m e n t i s e s s e n t i a l t o s e c u r e t h e recommended v i t a l (medical) treatment.  involved  autonomy.  cases  (1)  service.  to  requiring  15.  (3)  Further  there are serious administrative implications related to public relations, administrative expediency or educational purposes.  t o t h i s Meyer  responsibility and  that the professional w i l l  We m i g h t add t o t h i s  to a c e r t a i n extent,  list,  supervision--an  educational  a f o r m o f e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l on t h e l e s s  In broadest work p e r s o n n e l  terms, non-professionals  (26) suggests  non-professional  may b e t h o u g h t o f a s s o c i a l  that there  placed  staff differing  a r e two m a i n c o n c e p t i o n s  i n s o c i a l work:  fessional  s o c i a l w o r k e r b u t on a l e s s i n t e n s i v e l e v e l  The  i n education  of the r o l e of the  (1) a s p e c i a l i z e d r o l e  ( 2 ) a b r o a d e r r o l e d r a w i n g o n many s k i l l s  crucial  There a r e ,  o n them i n t h e j o b s i t u a t i o n .  functions  and p r o g r a m  specific  employed b y t h e p r o and c a r r y i n g l e s s  responsibility. Sub-Professional The  1 i t e r a t u r e makes r e f e r e n c e  i n - s e r v i c e or post equivalent.  t o those  i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e some  graduate t r a i n i n g b u t have n o t y e t o b t a i n e d  Richan  (14) c a l l s  o f t a s k s as t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l b u t w i t h l e s s v u l n e r a b l e  meant t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s  a n M.S.W. o r  them s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l s who p e r f o r m t h e same  i s p o s s i b l e t h a t M a r g a r e t Heyman ( 9 ) i n h e r s u g g e s t e d  1  i n t h e N.A.S.W.  who a r e n o t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y o r f u l l y q u a l i f i e d .  t r a i n i n g and i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s  kinds  experienced.  Staff  h o w e v e r , many c a t e g o r i e s o f n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  Beck  device  1964 (37) would be t h a t p e r f o r m e d by t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r .  Non-Professional  and  programs,  changes i n t h e  I t would appear t h a t t h e " I n t e g r a t i v e F u n c t i o n " as s u g g e s t e d study,  assume  f o r o r g a n i z i n g s e r v i c e s , f o rexample, p r e v e n t a t i v e  assume a r o l e a s c o m m u n i t y c h a n g e a g e n t , f a c i l i t a t i n g  community. and  (32) suggests  o f cases  staff  clients.  ^  It  classification,  c o u l d be h a n d l e d b y t h e s u b -  The l i t e r a t u r e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s o c i a l work s t u d e n t c a n be " a b s o r b e d " i n t o the s t r u c t u r e , presumably i n t h i s category of s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  16.  professional: (1)  Cases w i t h p r e s e n t i n g d i a g n o s t i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n s :  (2)  (a)  obvious ambivalence t o , r e s i s t a n c e t o , or r e j e c t i o n of (medical) recommendations.  (b)  obvious h o s t i l i t y towards or a n x i e t y about t h e d i a g n o s i s , t r e a t m e n t and h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n ; an u n u s u a l d e g r e e o f d e f e n s i v e n e s s i n t h e b e h a v i o r of the p a t i e n t or r e l a t i v e s ; i n a p p r o p r i a t e r e a c t i o n to the i l l n e s s .  (c)  d i s t u r b a n c e of the i n d i v i d u a l and/or relative (family) relationships.  (d)  p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s of the p a t i e n t or r e l a t i v e , f o r example, dependency, insecurity.  Cases where t h e r e i s a n t i c i p a t e d c o - o p e r a t i v e a c t i v i t y w i t h other agencies or p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  In  a sense, the  to  the  f u n c t i o n of the  "Supportive  s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l may  be  F u n c t i o n " r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e s t u d y by  seen to  correspond  t h e N.A.S.W.,  1964  (37). The  Specialist The  term s o c i a l work s p e c i a l i s t  t e r m he means i n d i v i d u a l s whose e d u c a t i o n skills ional not  and  knowledge.  training.  In  t h e U.S.  to the p r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l . routinized  s e r v i c e and  he may  and  The  controlled  geared  not have f u l l a career  By to  and  this specific  profess-  in itself  specialist's  e x t e r n a l l y without  Welfare  clients.  p u b l i c a t i o n dated  o f S o c i a l Work S t a f f W i t h D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s  Education",  an o u t l i n e i s g i v e n  f o r t h e use  tion,  s e r v i c e s , home e c o n o m i c s , and  of such s p e c i a l i s t s - - f o r  medical  and  tasks  work w i t h h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e  Department of H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n  December 1965,. " U t i l i z a t i o n  legal  o r may  s e e s t h i s p o s i t i o n as b e i n g  a r e o f t e n o n e s w h i c h c a n be d e t r a c t i n g from the  i s t e c h n i c a l and  T h e s e s p e c i a l i s t s may  Richan  a s t e p p i n g stone  i s used by R i c h a n . ( 1 4 )  problems.  of  protec-  17.  The  Case  Aide  The probably  term case aide  without  any u n d e r - g r a d u a t e u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g  who h a v e r e c e i v e d b r i e f (14) is  This  filled  i s used h e r e t o r e f e r t o those  courses  i s different  b y i n d i v i d u a l s who a r e  (5)  a more f u l l y  clientele. planning,  courtesy  responsibilities  indicated v i aschool and t h e l i k e ,  and e x p l a n a t o r y  information gathering  even perhaps t h e "Maintenance F u n c t i o n "  the least  discharge  The " F a c i l i t a t i v e  employed  i n this  s u g g e s t e d b y t h e N.A.S.W. s t u d y ,  al ized"--but assigned  rather continue  t h a t l o w income  slum r e s i d e n t s  I n some p l a c e s , l o w i n c o m e i n the social  give advice, process concrete  that the indigenous  tasks..  make r e f e r r a l s ,  persons,  s e r v i c e s , but not i n The i n d i g e n o u s  works,  with  I t i s further  Indigenous workers are  a n d f r e e d o m i n c a r r y i n g them o u t .  complaints,  easily  worker n o t become'"profession-  t o r e m a i n as h i m s e l f .  a wide range o f tasks  1964  aide.  g r o u p and m u s t be a c t i o n o r i e n t e d . article,  and  F u n c t i o n " and  e r s m u s t h a v e some e x p e r t i s e i n t h e a g e n c y p r o g r a m s , m u s t i d e n t i f y  suggested,  with  a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r convalescent  r o l e s r e q u i r i n g a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h d e g r e e o f autonomy.  own c u l t u r a l  aide  vulnerable  can handle  communication w i t h  than p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  of s t a b l e background, a r e being  their  i n making  and works i n c o n j u n c t i o n  (3) i t has been suggested  p e r s o n s c a n e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n more e f f e c t i v e l y  experience  attendance forms, help  f u n c t i o n s o f the case  • I n an a r t i c l e by B r a g e r  and  work.  s e r v i c e s , f i n d i n g n u r s i n g home v a c a n c i e s  from c o l l a t e r a l s .  ( 3 7 ) may b e c o n s i d e r e d  of social  (14) suggests that t h e case  Heyman ( 1 0 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e c a s e a i d e  securing appliances, housing care,  Richan  t r a i n e d s t a f f member a n d w i t h  information  work,  p o s i t i o n o f casework a s s i s t a n t which  " c o l l e g e graduates w i t h  ( w e l f a r e aide) has o n l y l i m i t e d with  i n social  o r i e n t i n g them t o t h e f i e l d  from E p s t e i n ' s  d e c i s i o n o n human p r o b l e m s " .  individuals,  offer  support  They can  and p e r f o r m  18.  The  Volunteer Laura Epstein,  Aid  Society,  i n w r i t i n g on t h e use o f p e r s o n n e l  (5) suggests  meet and p l a c e ,  that volunteers  under s t a f f  supervision  agreed  to provide  duties  and a c t as d e s k r e c e p t i o n i s t s .  The  Clerical  or vendors, courtesy  to clerical  personnel.  and e x p l a n a t i o n  clerical  has engineered  w h i c h may p r o v i d e  t r a v e l l e r s f o r whom t h e a g e n c y h a s  28) suggest t h e s h i f t i n g  the making o f a p p o i n t m e n t s , i n f o r m a t i o n  (24)  services,  procedural  Staff  tasks  being appropriate  information  a service, perform t r a v e l or transportation  F i n e s t o n e a n d Heyman ( 1 0 , administrative  can provide  i na Travellers  tasks.  a pilot  useful  o f many  Heyman s p e c i f i c a l l y  gathering  suggests  f r o m .^community r e s o u r c e s  s e r v i c e s w i t h i n department o f f i c e s as The E x p e r i m e n t a l W e l f a r e C e n t r e  project,  "The R e a l l o c a t i o n  data a t a future  of Clerical  Project Tasks,"  date.  Models Dumpson a n d P o d e l l several  assumption that  consultant and  have o u t l i n e d  a study which  proposes  t h e o r e t i c a l combinations o f (a) type o f s e r v i c e provided  composition of workers the  (27)  weilding  intake.  i n the unit providing  trained personnel  the service.  The s t a f f would  I t i sbased on  can handle supervisory  no a u t h o r i t y p o s i t i o n s , d i r e c t s e r v i c e then be a r r a n g e d  i n "case  and ( b )  positions,  to client  teams"--one  i n v e s t i g a t o r y w o r k e r and one s e r v i c e o r t r e a t m e n t w o r k e r . Mary Baker (1)  (2)  (25)  s u g g e s t s a n i n t e r e s t i n g scheme.  Workers w i t h t h r e e months s p e c i f i c i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ::fior a . p a r t i c u l a r a g e n c y j o b t o h a n d l e standardized s e r v i c e s such as g a t h e r i n g f a c t s , a p p l y i n g e x p l i c i t c r i t e r i a to the facts. ( T h e "X" w o r k e r i n a m o r e limited role.) C.S.W.E. "X" w o r k e r h o l d i n g u n d e r g r a d u a t e d e g r e e a n d s i x months academic t r a i n i n g comparable t o t h a t o f a s c h o o l o f s o c i a l work and s u p e r v i s e d experience.  positions  19.  (3)  C.S.W.E. "Y" w o r k e r - - a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n w i t h a n M.S.W. o r e q u i v a l e n t and e x p e r i e n c e . P r o f e s s i o n a l judgment r e q u i r e d .  Schemes o f Work A s s i g n m e n t Case s t r e a m i n g appears considerable  t o be a d v a n t a g e o u s w h e r e  number o f w o r k e r s w i t h  full  professional  i t has l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n t o p u b l i c w e l f a r e The team a p p r o a c h d i f f e r s that  the p r o f e s s i o n a l  formed  the  from the streaming program i n  i n t o a team f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g  team l e a d e r  s h o u l d be a p r o f e s s i o n a l l y e d u c a t e d  t h e team h a s j o i n t r e p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c a s e l o a d .  easily  The of  t o the c l i e n t  agencies or w i t h i n  group r a t h e r  s i z e o f t h e team c a n be a d j u s t e d  and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  A further  small  and w i l l  function  structure  local  team and t h u s s t r e n g t h e n t h e i r r o o t s  seen that  social  and  c l i e n t needs c o n s i s t  where  geographic total  used  areas.  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the  d e p e n d on s u c h f a c t o r s as  type  of s t a f f , p a r t i c u l a r l y s k i l l e d o f the agency.  residents  could  be a b s o r b e d  i n the neighbourhood.  teams c a n be a d a p t e d t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l w e l f a r e  be s e r v e d b y p e r s o n n e l  caseload  i s t h e a d a p t a b i l i t y o f t h e team a p p r o a c h t o t h e  n e i g h b o u r h o o d based s e r v i c e s where the  team  t h a n as s p e c i a l i s t s f o r s p e c i f i c t a s k s .  the agency o f f e r s , a v a i l a b i l i t y  team l e a d e r s ,  The  approach  be l a r g e r t h a n t h e i n d i v i d u a l c a s e l o a d s and c a n be  in multi-function  service  although The  that d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from the streaming  The members o f t h e team a r e c o n s i d e r e d service  team, as  s o c i a l worker.  is  therefore,  The  o f a n y number o f l e v e l s o f s e r v i c e  o f t h e team p l a n  will,  workers are  services.  feature that  As y e t  Columbia.  s o c i a l w o r k e r s and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  o u t l i n e d by G i l ( 7 ) , can c o n s i s t  are a  training.  in British  slightly  there  into  I t c a n be settings  of a broad spectrum of s i t u a t i o n s that  can  of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of t r a i n i n g .  U s e f u l n e s s o f Teams There i s a p o s s i b i l i t y  t h a t p e r s o n n e l who  a r e employed  i n t h e same  a g e n c y , o f f e r i n g , t h e same s e r v i c e s b u t o n d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s may be somewhat dissatisfied  with  their  will  derive  will  become more i d e n t i f i e d  involved gain  a stronger  own r o l e .  sense of s a t i s f a c t i o n with  i n the whole job r a t h e r  from t h e i r  jobs  than i n unrelated  they  parts  of i t .  They  will  c o h e s i v e g r o u p t o e m p l o y t h e new  Although G i l , states  there  i s the increas-  e m p h a s i s on i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r f r o m h i s s u p e r v i s o r ,  this  i s a n a c t u a l l y a c c e p t e d medium, t h e n g r o u p s u p e r v i s i o n w i l l  efficient  i s frequently  reported  a t t r a c t e d , do n o t r e m a i n l o n g many r e a s o n s f o r t h i s , salaries  i n the f i e l d s  two b e i n g  that are too low.  that professional  b e more  often  s o c i a l workers, i f  of Public Welfare.  There a r e  c a s e l o a d s t h a t a r e t o o h i g h and  While s t i l l  allowing  r e a c h e d p e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and w i t h o u t r e d u c i n g  f o r more c l i e n t s  t o be  t h e q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e , t h e use  t h e team a p p r o a c h may u l t i m a t e l y r e d u c e t h e number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l  workers required  i n the f i e l d  of Public Welfare.  the f u l l y  Limitations  intake  accepted  agency.  o f t h e Team A p p r o a c h  agency s t r u c t u r e i s o f t e n b a s e d on t h e need  c a n n o t be c o n t r o l l e d .  administrative reorganization  to give  service  C l i e n t s c a n n o t be c h o s e n , t h e y must be  f o r s e r v i c e because of s t a t u t o r y requirements.  departmental  be a l l o c a t e d t o  t r a i n e d w o r k e r a wage m o r e c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t w h i c h h e w o u l d  i n a private  The  social  I f through t h e use o f  t e a m s , t h e c o s t p e r c a s e i s r e d u c e d p e r h a p s more money c o u l d  receive  until  and may b e m o r e e f f e c t i v e . It  and  and t h a t  i n the o v e r a l l work performance o f t h e  team a p p r o a c h i s a n a t u r a l  c o n c e p t o f group s u p e r v i s i o n s  pay  team members  team. The  of  out that  t h e j o b and t h e a g e n c y when t h e y a r e  a f u r t h e r sense o f s a t i s f a c t i o n  entire  ing  G i l (7), points  i n public welfare  administration but also  requires  the p o l i t i c i a n s ,  The d i f f i c u l t y not only  in  convincing  of the soundness i n a  21.  new  approach.  workers to  be  Furthermore,  i n some s e t t i n g s  accepted.  t h e team a p p r o a c h  and  a l t h o u g h i t may  i s new  be w o r k a b l e ,  C o n t i n u i t y o f team l e a d e r s h i p  a m i n i m a l l y adequate  level  of  ,  to the p r e c i s i o n , r e p r o d u c i b i l i t y  a broad  based are  sense  the v a l i d i t y  on t h e d e g r e e  accomplished.  two m a j o r  to which  were c l a s s e d  either descriptive,  at  l e a s t an  to-"a c l u s t e r of  concepts  of a s e t of measures".  o f making the measurements,  usually  or r a t i o n a l  comes f r o m one  approach  and/or as  articles  and  or both  the e m p i r i c a l  were r e v i e w e d .  impressionistic  analysis  exploratory or experimental.  i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a n a l y s e s , o n l y two p r o v i d e d a n y eighteen empirical  of  of  or  ( 2 0 . pp.98-103_)  Forty studies twenty-two  to provision  i  or s t a b i l i t y  t h e aims o r p u r p o s e s  Evidence f o r v a l i d i t y  approach.  time  or r e l e v a n c e o f a measurement p r o c e d u r e i s  sources--the l o g i c a l  statistical  take  social  service.  According to Polansky, r e l i a b i l i t y r e f e r s  In  i t may  is essential  Method of E v a l u a t i o n  relating  to professional  studies,  the r e s u l t s would  and Of  this  number,  eighteen empirical,  the  twenty-two  f i n d i n g s or r e s u l t s .  seven p r o v i d e d e i t h e r  i n d i c a t i o n o f how  Of  Of  a summary o f f i n d i n g s  the  or  be e v a l u a t e d .  Impressionistic Analyses Three unit  study  categories  of t a s k were d e v i s e d i n the T r a v e l l e r s A i d  ( 5 ) , by d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  be w o r k e d and  service  the caseload a c c o r d i n g to the problem  t o be o f f e r e d .  A c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t ,  implementation of these three categories and  the t o t a l  t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f w o r k i n c r e a s e d .  The  (up 507, i n t h e y e a r ) and  count  The  s u g g e s t i o n was  n u m e r i c a l l y r e d u c i n g the c a s e s h a n d l e d by t r e a t m e n t s e r v i c e was  improved.  to  with  u n i t work l o a d  were those of i n t e r v i e w count (up 257, i n one y e a r ) .  Society  increased  o n l y measures p r o v i d e d cases under  made t h a t as w e l l  the caseworker,  care as  the q u a l i t y  of  22.  The M i n n e s o t a D e p a r t m e n t as i t s p u r p o s e  o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e s t u d y (1958)  t o h e l p a p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency  s e r v i c e where t h e r e i s a h i g h p o t e n t i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i v e time f o r s o c i a l workers home v i s i t i n g . . p o l i c y and r e v i s i o n project clearly  stated  of  improve  through use o f case a i d e s , a  flexible  procedures.  test of the effectiveness  g i v e n t h e t i m e and t h e r e s o u r c e s .  This  of case-  T h e b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n was t h a t  t i m e a s e l e c t e d number o f c a s e s showed m a r k e d  477> showed p o t e n t i a l  intensive  f o r i m p r o v e m e n t and t o r e l e a s e  that a s c i e n t i f i c  a situation  cases needing  of continuing e l i g i b i l i t y  w o r k t r e a t m e n t was n o t i t s p u r p o s e . will  select  ( 2 3 ) , had .  casework  Over a p e r i o d  improvement:  287, i m p r o v e d ,  t o improve.  Empirical Studies The  purpose  of  t a s k s as t o t h e i r  in  t h e i r performance.  hundred  fifty  were r a t e d  o f t h e N.A.S.W. s t u d y , 1 9 6 4 ( 3 7 ) was t o i d e n t i f y c o m p l e x i t y and d e g r e e Initially  tasks.  o f autonomy r e q u i r e d b y t h e w o r k e r  t h e committee  These were condensed  identified  t o one h u n d r e d  a p p r o x i m a t e l y two sixty-three  on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e by t w e l v e j u d g e s w i t h s o c i a l work  a c c o r d i n g t o c o m p l e x i t y o f t a s k and d e g r e e  o f worker  autonomy.  training,  o f judge  a g r e e m e n t on t h e i t e m s .  On t h e v a r i a b l e  eight  a n d o n t h e v a r i a b l e o f a u t o n o m y , one h u n d r e d  Beck  reported  s e t up.  one v a r i a b l e  He i n d i c a t e d  i n a work  twenty-  and h e r e a l s o a s y s t e m f o r r a n k i n g  a.problem  and l o w on a n o t h e r .  made o n t h e r e l a t i v e  o f c o m p l e x i t y , one h u n d r e d  twenty.  on a s t u d y ( 2 6 ) u n d e r t a k e n u s i n g t h e c o n c e p t s o f  a u t o n o m y and c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y was  which  Once t h e s e  r a t i n g s were c o m p l e t e d , t h e r e s u l t s were a n a l y z e d f o r t h e degree  items were r e t a i n e d  levels  might  arise  variables  i f a t a s k r a n k e d h i g h on  An a r b i t r a r y d e c i s i o n would  importance of d i f f e r e n t v a r i a b l e s  h a v e t o be  o r on o t h e r  factors  situation. Beck  scientifically  states  that  validated.  the c r i t e r i a  a r e n o t o b j e c t i v e and c a n n o t b e  He s u g g e s t s , h o w e v e r , t h a t  t h e y c a n be s u b j e c t e d  23.  to various  tests.  They c a n be t e s t e d a g a i n s t e x i s t i n g p r a c t i c e i n s o c i a l  w o r k and o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s . on v a r i o u s agencies  i n this  s o c i a l work t a s k s u s i n g t h e f o r m u l a t i o n .  s t u d y made t r i a l  The same was d o n e i n o t h e r  sub-professional  classifications,  f o r those  professions.  Heyman ( 1 0 ) r e p o r t e d Einstein Medical professionally  that already i n  The r e s u l t s were c o n s i d e r e d study  "encouraging".  undertaken a t A l b e r t  Centre i n P h i l a d e l p h i a to a l l e v i a t e  the shortage  of  t r a i n e d s o o i a l w o r k e r s b y d e v i s i n g a scheme f o r a l l o c a t i n g I n regard  two t i m e s t u d i e s w e r e c o n d u c t e d  s p e n t on d i r e c t  are already  f o r example, d e n t i s t r y and n u r s i n g , and  o n a two y e a r  w o r k on t h e b a s i s o f w o r k e r s k i l l . ivity,  o f t a s k s was  p r o f e s s i o n s where t h e r e  was f o u n d t h a t t h e r e s u l t a n t s o r t i n g o f t a s k s was l i k e  existence  runs  I n the various  w h e r e t h e c r i t e r i a w e r e t e s t e d , t h e same r a n k i n g  achieved.  it  The c o n s u l t a n t s  and i n d i r e c t  t o the evaluation of product-  at different  s e r v i c e to the c l i e n t .  intervals  t o record  Specifically  time  measured  were: (a)  Q u a n t i t y o f S e r v i c e ( b e f o r e and a f t e r ) - - c h a n g e s i n d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t i m e , changes i n average c a s e l o a d s , changes i n d i f f e r e n t i a l use o f l e v e l s o f s t a f f , changes i n d o c t o r i n i t i a t e d s e r v i c e s .  (b)  Q u a l i t y o f S e r v i c e , ( b e f o r e and a f t e r ) A c a s e r e a d e r s c h e d u l e was d e v e l o p e d t o i n d i c a t e t h e r e l a t i v e e x t e n t casework improved o r d e t e r i o r a t e d , over a p e r i o d of time. Judges from o u t s i d e t h e h o s p i t a l made j u d g m e n t s o n t h i r t e e n i t e m s u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g s o f " d i a g n o s i s a n d p l a n " , and " t r e a t m e n t " . A .05 l e v e l o f s i g n i f i c a n c e was u s e d f o r a c c e p t a n c e of judgments.  (c)  Q u a l i t y o f l e v e l s o f s t a f f was a l s o d e t e r m i n e d . O t h e r d e t e r m i n a n t s o f q u a l i t y i n c l u d e d more e x p l o r a t i o n b e y o n d i n t a k e , more u s e made o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s , and f e w e r c a s e s c l o s e d b e c a u s e r e q u e s t f o r help withdrawn o r c l i e n t found i n a c c e s s i b l e to casework h e l p .  Beck, Rantor e t a l , (1) r e p o r t e d  on a s t u d y w h i c h was c a r r i e d o u t  t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  and p r a c t i c a l l y  important  24.  change i n the c l i n i c a l  and  social  status of p s y c h o t i c h o s p i t a l  f o l l o w i n g w o r k d o n e b y v o l u n t e e r s who S u c c e s s was hundred  t w e n t y who  clinical  were c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s .  e s t i m a t e d t o be 317».  were out of the h o s p i t a l  s t a t u s was  as f o l l o w s :  two—as  ment, e i g h t e e n — c o n s i d e r a b l y improved, W e i s s m a n and (1959) ( 3 5 ) , w h i c h statements  of  a t the time of the  critical  j o b b e h a v i o r s i n two  five—apparently  indicated  requirements  d i f f e r e n t k i n d s of programs  Dumpson and ulate a p l a n to test f a r e department based  and  description  of i n f e r r e d  behavior  (2) a t a b u l a t i o n to require  of  these  of c r i t i c a l  aspects  (public assistance  states.  Podell  (27) o u t l i n e a s t u d y w h i c h  t h e outcome, upon c l i e n t s  Some b e h a v i o r s  i n New  York  I t a l s o proposed  attempted  and w o r k e r s ,  S t a t e , of v a r i o u s combinations and  service  to  and do  form-  in public  wel-  of t a s k s to  functions of p u b l i c  be  assistance  t o t e s t v a r i o u s model arrangements  of  trained  untrained workers. H i l l (20) p r o v i d e s a r e a s o n a b l y d e t a i l e d  P h i l a d e l p h i a C o s t S t u d y M e t h o d and Method.  The  P h i l a d e l p h i a method  c e n t r e s — p r o d u c t i o n and  service.  most a g e n c i e s a r e f o r s a l a r i e s , to  t h e C.S.W.E.  i n b o t h programs or i n a l l s t a t e s .  upon the i n v e s t i g a t o r y  workers.  adjust-  well.  i n the i n c i d e n t s are a composite  one  study,  t o p r o v i d e (1) j o b  o f t h e j o b , and  c h i l d w e l f a r e ) a d m i n i s t e r e d by n i n e d i f f e r e n t not n e c e s s a r i l y appear  out of  s i c k as e v e r , t e n — m a r g i n a l  incidents  f o r e f f e c t i v e performance  The  the t h i r t y - f i v e  s o c i a l w o r k y p o s i t i o n s i n terms  of c l i e n t problems  behaviors.  Of  r e p o r t e d ' on t h e s t u d y u n d e r t a k e n b y  analyzed c r i t i c a l  f o r f o u r key  requirements the range  Baker  patients  o b t a i n an e s t i m a t e o f t h e way  supervisors,  caseworkers  and  account  of both  the Schwartz-Wo 1 iris Cost i s c o n s t r u c t e d around As  clerical  Analysis  the concept  of cost  the g r e a t e s t p a r t of the c o s t s of  a y e a r l o n g t i m e s t u d y was each  the  staff  group  s t a f f ) spent  carefully  (administrative their  time.  designed  staff, On  every  25.  working  day of t h e year,  some ( n o t a l l ) o f t h e s t a f f k e p t  time.  S a m p l e d a y s f o r e a c h s t a f f member w e r e d r a w n a t r a n d o m .  s a m p l i n g method h a s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e the time study.  a r e known t o v a r y The  units  chief  procedure  This  greatly  t o which  i s useful  f o r casework  i n a social  sample i s  agency where  from month t o month, season  t o season.  p r o j e c t concerns the  t h e c o s t s a r e t o be r e l a t e d .  o f t h e p r o j e c t was t o d e v e l o p  One o f t h e  and t e s t a work measurement  i n a c h i l d p l a c i n g agency.  study p o i n t s t o a major problem units  of prolonging the a d m i n i s t r a t i o nof  f e a t u r e o f the Schwartz-Wolins  o f agency s e r v i c e  main purposes  This  I t s g r e a t advantage, however, i s t h a t the time  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the whole year. activities  a record of their  Although  useful,  this  i n cost s t u d i e s , namely, the s e l e c t i o n o f  t h a t w i l l measure adequately  the output  of agencies  and y e t b e s i m p l e  to u s e . T h e r e a r e a number o f d i f f e r e n t data and  u s e s f o r c o s t a c c o u n t i n g and c o s t  i n s o c i a l w e l f a r e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and p l a n n i n g . i m p r a c t i b l e t o judge  without r e l a t i n g thing  i s certain,  I t i s undesirable  one m e t h o d o f c o s t a n a l y s i s a s b e t t e r t h a n  each system  t o the purposes  i ti s intended  c o s t s s h o u l d n o t be reduced  another  to serve.  One  a t the expense o r q u a l i t y o f  service. Staff Training Proposals In output  of professionally  j e c t e d need. workers  a recent a r t i c l e ,  trained  needs.  (30,pp.9-17), s t a t e s that the present  s o c i a l workers  I n t h e U.S.A., i n 1 9 6 4 , o n l y . o n e  was f u l l y  i s f a l l i n g behind  the pro-  out o f every  social  t r a i n e d w i t h two y e a r s p r o f e s s i o n a l  a r e 10,000 u n f i l l e d v a c a n c i e s workers  Levine  f o rq u a l i f i e d  The a n n u a l  output  of f u l l y  trained  2,500 and d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e o f t h e s i x t i e s ,  education.  s o c i a l workers;  a r e needed a n n u a l l y t o r e p l a c e workers  five  15,000  There social  who l e a v e a n d t o m e e t  s o c i a l workers there w i l l  growth  i s approximately  be a s h o r t a g e o f  26.  about 16,000 w o r k e r s suggests that  Levine,  these needs i n d i c a t e t h e i n t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h  mentation with resources  t o meet t h e g r o w t h needs a l o n e .  and e x p e r i -  new m e t h o d s and a p p r o a c h e s i f t h e gap b e t w e e n n e e d s and  i s g o i n g t o be Not  therefore,  closed.  o n l y m u s t s t a f f b e t r a i n e d and r e t r a i n e d , b u t a l s o  agency  s t r u c t u r e s must be r e o r g a n i z e d  a n d B o a r d s and Heads o f D e p a r t m e n t s m u s t  be  o f new schemes r e q u i r i n g s t a f f  convinced  Fesler  of the usefulness  (18), points  out that  competence o f i t s f i e l d  stability  personnel  w h i c h an a g e n c y d e c e n t r a l i z e s . function efficiently to a f a i r l y high effective  i n order  should  out by W h i t t e is unrealistic  of the problems.  to set goals,  Fisher  s e r v i c e i t must be d e c e n t r a l i z e d  (36) that  t h e i d e a l o f a n M.S.W.  and u n n e c e s s a r y .  He  that although  to establish p r i o r i t i e s ,  and t o e n c o u r a g e p u b l i c  ( 6 ) , goes a l i t t l e  f u r t h e r by  i n development of personnel.  t h e S c h o o l s and i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n  i n education  of  o f s o c i a l work, there  and g o v e r n m e n t o f a l l l e v e l s .  s t a f f n e e d s , have had t o d e v e l o p  work c o u l d staff  under-  suggesting  He  must be more.  T h e r e must be  look  business  The many a r e a s o f i n d u s t r y ,  staff  thinks  have an i m p o r t a n t p a r t t o  u n d e r s t a n d i n g and s u p p o r t o f s o c i a l work needs f r o m e m p l o y e r s , leaders  says  a t t h e r o l e e m p l o y e r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y p r i v a t e a g e n c y b o a r d s and  government departments must p l a y  play  f o r a Public Welfare o f f i c e to  c a r r y out o v e r - a l l planning  to assess present f a c i l i t i e s ,  we m u s t l o o k  I n order  to warrant the support of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  degree f o r a l l s o c i a l workers  standing  i s one f a c t o r c o n t r o l l i n g t h e d e g r e e t o  New m e t h o d s o f s e r v i c e , t h e r e f o r e , m u s t b e  I t has been p o i n t e d  the p r o f e s s i o n  o f a g e n c y p o l i c y and m e t h o d and  and o f f e r c o n s t r u c t i v e  degree.  training.  because  t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s and s o c i a l  and l e a r n f r o m some o f i n d u s t r y ' s v e r y  efficient  and p r o v e n  t r a i n i n g programs. Daly  ( 4 ) , quotes Dennison as making the p o i n t  that  social  work  27.  sometimes under p r e s s u r e produces a makeshift and  of c r i s i s ,  or because o f l a c k of r e s o u r c e s ,  remedy f o r w h a t i s g o i n g  i n the f u t u r e , continue  t o u s e and b u i l d  s o m e t i m e s c r e a t e s a new s t a t e o f a f f a i r s we m u s t b e s u r e the  It w i l l  be n e c e s s a r y  work.  Only f o r the graduate  process  been f o r m a l i z e d .  all  levels  necessary.  to develop, levels  level  f i n a n c e and r e c r u i t  o f s o c i a l work has t h e e d u c a t i o n a l  Responsibility  i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  of s t a f f  training  f o r t r a i n i n g must l i e w i t h t h e  that a program o f i n - s e r v i c e  i s required but f o r staff trained  there should  levels  function, policy  administration.  W e i s s m a n and B a k e r  that  be some f o r m o f i n - s e r v i c e  (35), support  w o r k e r s who come t o a n a g e n c y w i t h f u l l It  i s suggested  programs f o r p e r s o n n e l  estimated  i n this  article  1970  be a p p r o x i m a t e l y  j o b and t h a t a l l and m e t h o d s o f  t h i s v i e w by s u g g e s t i n g  t r a i n i n g program even f o r those  qualifications.  a t undergraduate l e v e l s .  that at the present 2\ t i m e s  s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work i n untapped Meyer  on t h e  i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work t h a t t h e r e i s  a need t o develop  will  and W e l f a r e ( 2 1 ) ,  f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s h o u l d be f o c u s s e d  l e a r n agency p h i l o s o p h y ,  below  be m o r e i n t e n s i v e t r a i n i n g .  to h i s specific  there should  training for  f u n c t i o n i n g on t h e l e v e l  application of professional principles should  students i n  to educate f o rp o s i t i o n s i n s o c i a l  r e p o r t o f t h e U.S. D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n  suggests  Therefore,  at a l l levels.  that of the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y The  work  A d m i n i s t r a t o r s and t h e y m u s t m a i n t a i n a c l o s e l i a s o n w i t h t h e  training facilities It  Thus s o c i a l  and n o t a s o l u t i o n .  are really  s c h o o l , c o l l e g e and g r a d u a t e  Public Welfare  on i t .  problem  t h a t o u r new p r o g r a m s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e n e e d and t h a t  j o b s r e q u i r e d t o be f i l l e d  high  t o be a l o n g t e r m  present  r a t e o f growth t h e needs by  staff.  geographic  It is  D e v e l o p m e n t o f new  areas w i l l  b e o f some h e l p .  ( 3 1 ) , warns t h a t s c h o o l s o f s o c i a l work a r e g i v i n g p r e c o n c e i v e d  views  28.  of s o c i a l work  jobs  to students  P u b l i c Welfare  agencies.  and  Gripton  they,  therefore, are not going  ( 2 9 ) , goes f u r t h e r and s t a t e s t h a t t h e  use  of t r a i n i n g grants  may  have t o d i v i d e h i s l o y a l i t y between t h e P u b l i c W e l f a r e  p r o f e s s i o n of s o c i a l  h a s b e e n somewhat u n s u c c e s s f u l  because a worker  The  o u t l i n e d three main proposals  (2)  g e n e r a l t r a i n i n g o f r e l a t e d t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e t o be g i v e n i n c o l l e g e s o r o t h e r e d u c a t i o n establishments, w i t h the cooperation of the univers i t i e s .  (3)  t r a i n i n g f o r w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n t s or case a i d e s planned i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g designed to give u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f common human n e e d s and s t r e s s e s and t o t r a i n t h e s e w o r k e r s t o d e t e c t e a r l y s i g n s o f s t r e s s or o t h e r problems beyond t h e i r c a p a c i t y to handle. i s very  c l e a r and t h e r e  for further educational  s o c i a l workers at a l l l e v e l s Limitations  and  this  work  and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s f o r  setting.  published  dealing with  and j u s t as many d i f f e r e n t  dilemma.  t h e manpower  schemes p r o p o s e s f o r  T h e r e d o e s n o t , h o w e v e r , a p p e a r t o be a n y c o -  o r d i n a t i n g body o r group a s s i g n e d available  agreement  i n the L i t e r a t u r e Reviewed.  T h e r e a r e many a r t i c l e s i n social  a p p e a r s t o be u n a n i m o u s  facilities  i n any  by  for training:  f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g of the highest qualification.  on t h e n e e d  solving  (22), chaired  (1)  literature  crisis  A g e n c y and t h e  work.  A r e p o r t o f t h e W o r k i n g P a r t y on S o c i a l W o r k e r s Younghusband  into  the task of p o o l i n g together  i n f o r m a t i o n or e v a l u a t i n g the e x i s t i n g programs  the  i n order  to  come up w i t h a w o r k a b l e s o l u t i o n . The ally  literature  g e n e r a l l y a g r e e s on t h e need  t r a i n e d s o c i a l w o r k e r s and t h a t p e r s o n n e l  t r a i n i n g can p r o v i d e  a u s e f u l and n e c e s s a r y  with  service.  f o r more p r o f e s s i o n -  lesser education However, a p a r t  and from  stating  that in-service  suggestion  trained  and c a s e - a i d e w o r k e r s a r e r e q u i r e d ,  i s made o f t h e m e t h o d s o f t r a i n i n g  s h o u l d b e made a v a i l a b l e .  Public Welfare  or types  agencies  of courses  relation  to service returns.  changes w i t h government w i t h o u t put  a price  I t has always been d i f f i c u l t  The l i t e r a t u r e  costs of t r a i n i n g programs, savings of s t a f f ,  i n dollars  cited  through  and t h e amount o f money r e q u i r e d t o i n s t i t u t e  Furthermore, the n e c e s s a r y  no h i n t  Attention  to discuss  i s going  i t i s to  does n o t d i s c u s s  better  utilization  a research  i s g i v e n as t o where t h e t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l  research  will  cost i n  k n o w i n g c o s t s , and how d i f f i c u l t  t a g o n human b e h a v i o r .  that  and p o l i t i c i a n s  w a n t t o know how much r e o r g a n i z a t i o n and t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s w i l l  little  program.  t o conduct  t o be o b t a i n e d .  i s now t u r n e d  to the design of the present  study.  30.  CHAPTER I I I  STUDY DESIGN Conceptual As there  Framework  has  a l r e a d y been documented  i s a g r o w i n g need f o r p l a n n e d  s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l t h e i r k n o w l e d g e and At  overall  i n terms of t a s k s  t o be p e r f o r m e d  time,  commensurate w i t h  even i f t h e r e were a v a i l a b l e a of education  b a s i s e x i s t s b y w h i c h t h e y m i g h t b e s t be to which t h i s  t h a t c o u l d be b e s t  literature,  skills.  the present  goal  of the  deployment of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d  number o f w o r k e r s w i t h v a r y i n g l e v e l s rational  i n the review  study  utilized  i s committed  to provide  and  training,  deployed.  no  Thus,  i s to explore  a rational  sufficient  the  scheme f o r  the  criteria  deploying  staff. If study  c r i t e r i a are  i n which  t h e n be  could,  c o u l d be  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  so  forth) w i l l  to develop  labour w i l l  The realiability  t o be  improved.  c e r t a i n aspects  the  to workers  The  results  evaluated.  One aides  ( i n t e r m s o f movement,  I t i s not less  the purpose of  appropriate  of the S o c i a l  source  at efficquality, this of  Allowance'Program.  Studied  specific question can  training.  later  U l t i m a t e l y , i t i s hoped t h a t the  means b y w h i c h a c h e a p e r b u t  administer  Questions  be  a  assigned  introducing welfare  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of s e r v i c e to c l i e n t s  q u a n t i t y and  c o u l d be  t a b u l a t e d and  f o r example, o b s e r v e t h e outcome of  i e n c y and  used t o develop  o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n and  s y s t e m a t i c a l l y observed,  varying levels  study  they  t a s k s t h a t have been c l a s s i f i e d  with varying levels could  found,  this  study  c o n c e p t o f a u t o n o m y be  in a public assistance  setting.  seeks to r e s o l v e i s : a p p l i e d to the  tasks  W i t h what performed  31.  Once t h e c r i t e r i a h a v e b e e n i d e n t i f i e d assumed t h a t the  identified  criteria.  assignments validity  The  s o c i a l w o r k t a s k s may  ranked  tasks would  assignment, i n a f i e l d  could  outlined  above i n d e t e r m i n i n g  Richan  left  task  or not  improved.  the This  (26) proposed  t h a t one  should  will  for future researchers  task assignments would  as  be an i m p r o v e m e n t o v e r  a basic formulation  e x a m i n e n o t Che  different  to d i f f e r e n t i a t e levels  the  of s k i l l s .  He  nature of the tasks but the  t o w h i c h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l o r p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s a r e r e q u i r e d by each of worker  i n performing his a c t i v i t i e s .  relate directly worker  skill  t r a i n e e , and directly choice  to the major  and  capability,  the w e l f a r e  to r e l a t i n g  does n o t d i r e c t l y worker. valid  assignment would  the ranked  Reliability the tasks  tasks  to worker  criteria  o t h e r method. .  being  on t h i s b a s i s  positions.  of  The  leads alternate  o n l y from the n a t u r e of the  study w i l l  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and  t r a i n e d and  f o r the c r i t e r i a  ( i n terms  level  should  levels  tasks  each l e v e l  of  l i k e l y be m o r e  I n a d d i t i o n , s u c h a scheme o f  to u t i l i z a t i o n  w o r k e r s as t h e y a r e now  rate  Selecting criteria  c h o s e n , as p r o p o s e d b y t h i s  lead  chosen  degree  i . e . , t h e M.S.W., t h e B.S.W., t h e i n - s e r v i c e  account f o r the f a c t o r s t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e  Criteria  t h a n b y any  Thus t h e c r i t e r i a  factors differentiating various  aide.  of s e l e c t i n g a r b i t r a r y  to  tasks.  of t a s k s performed by workers w i t h  suggested  i n t o work  I n t h e m e a n t i m e , i t i s assumed t h a t t h e u s e o f c r i t e r i a  the p r e s e n t system f o r a s s i g n i n g  kinds  be  of  Establishing  experiment developed to t e s t whether actually  be  i n terms  o n l y be a c c o m p l i s h e d b y u t i l i z i n g  t h e s c o p e o f o u r s t u d y and w i l l  f o l l o w up.  i t may  or c l a s s i f i e d  positions.  q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e t o a c l i e n t be b e y o n d  t h e n be r a n k e d  be o r g a n i z e d  c o r r e s p o n d i n g to s o c i a l worker  f o r the c r i t e r i a  and d e f i n e d ,  tasks  non-professional  educated.  c a n be e s t a b l i s h e d i f t h e j u d g e s  of the c r i t e r i a ) w i t h i n a p r e - e s t a b l i s h e d l i m i t  can of  32.  acceptance.  Tasks rated w i t h  Tasks rated w i t h o f a u t o n o m y as  607o  the  7  -  807,  or b e t t e r  agreement w i l l  97>  criterion,  be  agreement w i l l v i e w e d as  however, these tasks  the v i e w to e s t a b l i s h i n g f i n e r d e f i n i t i o n s . ment w i l l  require  (1) worker The  Act  Task:  in providing states  Included  that  A  task  i n the  social  "(a)  defined  assistance  financial  reviewed b e l o w 607,  w i t h i n the  a  social Act.  assistance;  (c)  i n s t i t u t i o n a l , nursing, f o s t e r home c a r e ;  (d)  a i d i n money o r i n k i n d t o m u n i c i p a l i t i e s boards, commissions, o r g a n i z a t i o n s or p e r s o n s p r o v i d i n g a i d , c a r e , or h e a l t h s e r v i c e s to i n d i g e n t , s i c k , or inform p e r s o n s , and i n r e i m b u r s i n g e x p e n d i t u r e s made b y them;  (e)  counselling  (f)  health  (g)  o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , r e t r a i n i n g or t h e r a p y f o r i n d i g e n t p e r s o n s and m e n t a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y handicapped persons;  (h)  g e n e r a l l y any f o r m o f a i d n e c e s s a r y t o r e l i e v e d e s t i t u t i o n and s u f f e r i n g . " (42,. p . 4 5 4 1 )  in kind; boarding  or  services;  services;  i n t o work u n i t s  i . e . c l u s t e r s of  task  one  been f u r t h e r d i v i d e d  agree-  means:  assistance  s t u d y , have been  tasks which occur together.  i n a work u n i t .  C o n t a c t , O n g o i n g C o n t a c t and  with  S o c i a l Allowance  (b)  step  use  definition.  t h a t w h i c h i s done by  These s e r v i c e s , f o r purposes of t h i s  represents  be  the  Study  incorporates  a s e r v i c e as  task  accepted.  supporting  Tasks r a t e d  a complete re-assessment of the  C o n c e p t s t o be  will  be  The  work u n i t s are:  Termination Contact.  into Administrative  divided Thus  Initial  Ongoing Contact  P r o c e d u r e s , Community  a  has  Relationships  33.  and T r e a t m e n t (2) he b r i n g s the  Services.  (See A p p e n d i x A f o r f u l l  Client:  The  to the agency  worker.  client,  o r more p r e c i s e l y ,  that requires  This concept w i l l  list  the performance  n o t be d i r e c t l y  used  of  tasks).  the  configuration  of c e r t a i n t a s k s in this  study but i s  n e c e s s a r y a t some f u t u r e s t a g e when t h e i n s t r u m e n t d e s i g n e d b y it  utilized  whether  i n an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y .  criteria  Variables (1) this of  to rate tasks  t o be  Included  Autonomy:  s t u d y and  c a n be a d e q u a t e l y d e v e l o p e d .  i s the major v a r i a b l e  specification  i s that  in detail  of p r a c t i c e ,  s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s . defined  i n the review  i n t h e s e terms  and  While  stage a general  the e x p l i c i t n e s s  in  operational  of guides t o the  the degree of r e q u i r e d  I t i s a requirement that  i f the judges are to r a t e  organizational the tasks  be  them i n t e r m s  autonomy. (2)  provide i.e.  ( 2 6 ) and q u o t e d  at a l a t e r  i t incorporates  worker, the v i s i b i l i t y  of  t o be u t i l i z e d  seems t o be a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o u r p u r p o s e s .  be s p e c i f i e d  study  i n the Study  This  autonomy w i l l  explicitly  this  At the p r e s e n t , the concern i s  t h e d e f i n i t i o n used by Beck  the l i t e r a t u r e ,  by  A second v a r i a b l e  the b a s i s  of task assignment  those a t t r i b u t e s  performance  of the  (3)  consists  of the a t t r i b u t e s  to varying  assessment  vulnerability will  o f t h i s n a t u r e have t r i e d  Vulnerability  workers  autonomy i n t h e  and  t o use o t h e r  follows:  as a c r i t e r i o n p r e s e n t s d i f f i c u l t i e s  task d e f i n i t i o n .  Eventually  in  i t i s probable that  h a v e t o be e m p l o y e d b u t f o r o u r p u r p o s e s , i t i s t o o  c o m p l e x t o be u s e d as a s e p a r a t e v a r i a b l e . incorporate  which  task.  v a r i a b l e s w h i c h h a v e a l l p r e s e n t e d d r a w b a c k s as  scaling,  of w e l f a r e  r e q u i r i n g v a r y i n g degrees of worker  Other s t u d i e s  (a)  levels  of tasks  vulnerability.  I n d e e d , autonomy w o u l d  seem t o  34.  (b) to p u b l i c w e l f a r e ,  Fact-finding, while  i t a p p e a r s t o be most  applicable  i s n o t c o m p r e h e n s i v e and i s a n a t t r i b u t e , n o t a  v a r i a b l e m e a s u r a b l e on a c o n t i n u u m .  It  (c)  Decision  (d)  Complexity also  i s not l i k e l y  that  m a k i n g i s a n i n t e g r a l component o f a u t o n o m y . i s an i n t e g r a l component o f autonomy.  autonomy w o u l d be r e q u i r e d  Having designed  i f tasks  were n o t complex.  a t h e o r e t i c a l framework o f t h e p u r p o s e , t h e under-  l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s and t h e v a l u e s o f t h e s t u d y , t h e a t t e n t i o n may now b e given  to e s t a b l i s h i n g a research Level  of Research  Design  Given the present consideration, considered  design.  the l e v e l  exploratory.  s t a t e of knowledge a v a i l a b l e i n the area  of research  d e s i g n i n t h i s p r o j e c t must be  B e f o r e an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n c a n b e f o r m u l a t e d ,  a r a t i o n a l b a s i s must be e s t a b l i s h e d assigned.  This  Variables  under  by w h i c h s o c i a l work t a s k s  i s the problem to which t h i s  t o be I n c l u d e d  study addresses  can be itself.  i n Study  Autonomy W o r k i n g on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t (26)  has both o r g a n i z a t i o n a l  s o c i a l work, as s u g g e s t e d by Beck  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  controls,  the concept of  w o r k e r autonomy r e f e r s t o t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h t h e w o r k e r function  a u t o n o m o u s l y d e p e n d i n g on h i s b u i l t  Inherent  i n this  not  closed  to d i r e c t observation  lesser  organizational  autonomy r e q u i r e d  controls.  (2) casework i s almost i n v a r i a b l y  a n d ( 3 ) i n some s e t t i n g s  there  i s a greater  or  s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work p r i n c i p l e s .  There a r e f a c t o r s w i t h i n objective  i n professional  c o n c e p t a r e t h e f a c t s t h a t , ( l ) many s o c i a l w o r k t a s k s a r e  s p e l l e d o u t i n a book o f r e g u l a t i o n s ,  to c a l l  i s c a l l e d upon t o  the c l i e n t  s i t u a t i o n w h i c h we h a v e  a n d sub j e c t i v e w h i c h a l s o h a v e a b e a r i n g by a s o c i a l worker  chosen  on t h e amount o f  i n the performance o f the tasks.  The  35.  c o n c e p t o f autonomy a l s o h a v i n g k n o w l e d g e and defined  as  opposed  accommodation.  a five point  Subjective  these f a c t o r s .  dealing with  may  be  defined  purposes of  study, the  workers c a r r y i n g s o c i a l  r a t e d by  the  judges i n terms of  attached.  (See  I t was fact-finding,  felt  that  worker  Objective  may  f o r example,  ego  capacity  and  be  a  providing dealing  the p h y s i c a l needs of  the  so  forth.  c o n c e p t o f autonomy i s p l a c e d list  assistance the  of  tasks,  The  greater  on  confirmed  caseloads.  l e s s e r or  i n t h e i r performance.  Appendix  the  as p r i m a r i l y t h o s e a c t s  s c a l e f o r the purpose of r a t i n g the  p e r f o r m e d by be  this  of  the p h y s i c a l needs of  nature,  ( e m o t i o n a l ) as w e l l as  w o r k e r autonomy r e q u i r e d is  acts  the n e c e s s i t y  f o r example, a concern w i t h m o t i v a t i o n , For  will  to deal with  to those of a p s y c h o l o g i c a l  the p s y c h o l o g i c a l  client,  and  ability  as p r i m a r i l y c o n c r e t e  client  with  i m p l i e s r e c o g n i t i o n of  The  tasks  degree  five point  of  rating  scale  B)  the  c o n c e p t o f autonomy i n c l u d e d  d e c i s i o n making.  No  a t t e m p t was  task  complexity,  made t o i d e n t i f y  or  control  interferring variables. Data A n a l y s i s The the  tasks  can  be  Design  purpose of  performed  reliably  established  rated  the  s e r v i c e to a s o c i a l  of j u d g e s can  i n the F i n e s t o n e  validity  as  provides  adequate standard  been r a t e d  relatively  is neither  required  differences  i n the  reliably.  nor  assistance  study,  (28)  expected.  judge's  recipient  Such r e l i a b i l i t y  The  80%  be  level  i s b a s e d l e s s on i t s to t h i s  study.  which to e s t a b l i s h whether each task I t i s adequate i n that p e r f e c t One  can  a t l e a s t .80%  developed.  a measure than i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y by  i s to determine i f  r a t e each task w i t h  r a t i n g scale already  statistical an  been s t a t e d ,  i n terms o f worker, autonomy.  five point  of agreement used  s t u d y , as has  in providing  i f the panel  a g r e e m e n t on  this  must e x p e c t t h e r e  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of tasks  due  will  to t h e i r  be  has  agreement some widely  It  36.  v a r y i n g backgrounds While this  i n service,  f a c t o r might  i t m u s t be p o i n t e d assignment  i s to standardize s e r v i c e ,  assignment would level  seem t o n e g a t e  o f 807  one.  h a v e t o be o  that  i s impossible to  the whole  o u t t h a t one p u r p o s e  w i t h a more r a t i o n a l  The  a factor  approach  of t h i s  i . e . ,replace  I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d  t h a t a scheme o f  i s s u f f i c i e n t l y h i g h e n o u g h t o l e a d us t o b e l i e v e  t e s t e d b y an e x p e r i m e n t a l s t u d y e m p l o y i n g t h e t a s k  that  However, the v a l i d i t y o f such a measure assignments.  Procedures  S t u d y P o p u l a t i o n s N e e d e d and (1)  Worker Population':  chosen  Available The  1  p o p u l a t i o n from which our  i s a l l those s o c i a l workers  social  i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  These s o c i a l workers p e r f o r m f u n c t i o n s  A s s i s t a n c e A c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  sample  carrying predominantly  assistance caseloads i n public welfare offices Columbia.  tasks  f l e x i b l e , thus 100% agreement i s n o t n e c e s s a r y .  c a n o n l y be  be  tasks  the p r e s e n t system  has b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d .  will  study,  o f d e v e l o p i n g a scheme o f  reliability  Sampling  control.  implemented  s a n c t i o n e d by  the  i n response to  Social  client  need. (2) will who  be  Judge P o p u l a t i o n :  selected  The  are those s o c i a l  study p o p u l a t i o n from which  workers  the  i n the p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h  a r e e i t h e r members o f C.A.S.W. o r e l i g i b l e f o r m e m b e r s h i p  judges Columbia  i n this  association. D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f Needed S a m p l e (1)  Worker Sample:  of  this  in  the G r e a t e r V i c t o r i a Area.  District  s t u d y was  and  experience the  The  made a v a i l a b l e  Size necessary worker p o p u l a t i o n f o r purposes  t o us b y  tasks performed  to ensure that  rather  of S o c i a l  In three o f f i c e s , V i c t o r i a  S a a n i c h , t h e r e were workers  i n the f i e l d  the Department  a v a i l a b l e who  City,  had  the r e s e a r c h e r s would  than the worker's  Welfare  Victoria  sufficient be  measuring  learning a c t i v i t i e s .  We  felt  37 .  t h a t t h e r e was contained  of measuring  the l a t t e r  i f the worker  a h i g h percentage of newly p l a c e d i n - s e r v i c e We  ten  a danger  felt  that  the worker  sample  should range  trained in size  workers.^ from s i x t o  w o r k e r s , i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e a r a n g e o f e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g and  ience.  In choosing workers  a r e a we  from t h r e e o f f i c e s  r e c o g n i z e t h a t the sample  ered r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  i n broad  terms.  and  felt  I n s h o r t , we  to the l e v e l  suburban  spectrum of s e r v i c e s and  in-service  rural  Judge  Sample:  have f u l l  professional  presently  employed  welfare experience.  t h a t a measurement o f t a s k s performed  coul  under  We Our  offices  offering  the S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t , i n urban,  felt  that  criteria  training  the judge sample  trained  As  such  (M.S.W. o r e q u i v a l e n t ) ,  the judges w i l l  small  should range i n  f o r t h e j u d g e s were:  i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e or that  so t h a t a r e l a t i v e l y  degree  our skil  a r e a s and b y e x p e r i e n c e d o r a t l e a s t n o t n e w l y  from t e n t o f i f t e e n .  group  consid-  workers. (2)  size  be  of worker  b e s t be o b t a i n e d by e x a m i n i n g t h o s e j o b s done i n s e v e r a l total  exper-  Victoria  I t should not i n t e r f e r e with  the tasks performed  training.  i n the greater  i s n o t r a n d o m , h o w e v e r , i t may  attempt to u l t i m a t e l y r e l a t e  the  population  sample w i l l  (1) t h a t  (2) t h a t  t h e y h a v e had  they  they be  some p u b l i c  c o n s t i t u t e a homegeneous suffice  and make f o r a h i g h  of accuracy.  C h o o s i n g t h e Sample To letter  explained  from which p r o j e c t and  1.  o b t a i n our worker  sample,  to the s u p e r v i s o r s  the workers would  and  t h e t h e s i s members p e r s o n a l l y and administrator  be s e l e c t e d ,  our requirements r e g a r d i n g  of the three o f f i c e s  t h e n a t u r e and p u r p o s e  the workers  by  t o be  chosen.  of the The  I n t h e i n i t i a l s t a g e s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e p l a n was t o u s e an o f f i c e i n c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to Vancouver. On c l o s e r e x a m i n a t i o n , h o w e v e r , we l e a r n e d t h a t a number o f t h e w o r k e r s t h e r e w e r e new and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n e d and t h e r e f o r e n o t s u i t a b l e f o r o u r p u r p o s e s .  38.  r e q u i r e m e n t s were: in  the f i e l d  caseloads, willing  of public welfare,  (3) that  there  (2) t h a t  to these c r i t e r i a ,  t o t a l w o r k e r s a m p l e was With regard  experience  t h e y be c a r r y i n g s o c i a l  be a r a n g e o f e d u c a t i o n ,  t o co-operate i n the p r o j e c t .  according The  ( 1 ) t h a t t h e w o r k e r s h a v e a t l e a s t two y e a r s  ( 4 ) t h a t t h e w o r k e r s be  Each s u p e r v i s o r  from h i s o f f i c e  assistance  chose w o r k e r s ,  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p r o j e c t .  seven.  t o t h e j u d g e s a m p l e , we a t t e m p t e d  to obtain  workers  w i t h M a s t e r s o f S o c i a l Work d e g r e e s who w e r e e m p l o y e d b y t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Social Welfare. Vancouver area, province. but  only  three  A s a s u f f i c i e n t number was n o t a v a i l a b l e i n t h e i m m e d i a t e j u d g e s , who met o u r c r i t e r i a , w e r e o b t a i n e d  There are approximately  15 i n t h e p r o v i n c e  11 w e r e a v a i l a b l e t o u s .  I n order  i n d i v i d u a l s known t o t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  in assisting  i n t h e r a t i n g were i n v i t e d  who met o u r c r i t e r i a  to enlarge  o u r sample t o 14,  and who h a d i n d i c a t e d a n i n t e r e s t  to p a r t i c i p a t e .  These three  met t h e c r i t e r i a ,  however, they a r e n o t , p r e s e n t l y employed  but  experience  have p r e v i o u s  Methods o f G a t h e r i n g Our  review  i n this  work s h e e t s ,  telephone c a l l s  completed (1)  expensive,  collecting  time study,  clients  i n that  both from the p o i n t  information  and/or workers; i t would  and/or  participant  daily observation  and c l a s s i f y i n g  and w o r k e r , t h e r e  biased.  Although f l e x i b l e ,  tend  t o be t i m e  this  consuming  o f v i e w o f t r a i n i n g i n t e r v i e w e r s and i t .  Because o f the l a c k of anonymity  i s t h e danger t h a t r e s u l t s w o u l d be  s k e w e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y when d e a l i n g w i t h m a t e r i a l threatening  study,  questionnaire.  Interviewing  both f o r the c l i e n t  t h e f o l l o w i n g method o f d a t a  and/or workers, case f i l e  to workers,  m e t h o d h a d two s e r i o u s d r a w b a c k s and  welfare  field.  of the l i t e r a t u r e revealed  interviewing clients  self  i n public  judges  Data  collection:  and  throughout the  t h a t c o u l d be  considered  . (2)  Case f i l e  tend  to lack both  I t would  incomplete bias  records, lack  and  of records  validity  i s timeconsuming.  due  o f u n i f o r m i t y i n r e c o r d i n g and  workable  the r e s e a r c h e r s The  workers  nuisances  and  can  results  we  feel,  to poor  and  the o f t e n f a v o r a b l e  resentment  is relatively to time  o f m a t e r i a l ) and  t h e s e work s h e e t s  " c o o k " them o r a t l e a s t  Telephone c a l l s  f e l t by w o r k e r s  complete  factors  the worker  both  parties  as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  them in;.such a way  that  to workers:  T h i s p r o v i d e s a u n i f o r m method c  comprehensive.  at such  T h e r e w o u l d be  interruptions  and  a  probable  i t w o u l d be  expensive  consuming. (5)  Time s t u d y :  many o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s incorrectly;  t h e y may  T h i s method  listed  be v i e w e d  above.  i s a l s o a p p l i c a b l e but The  time  s h e e t s may  as a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r y i n g .  encompasses  be  completed  As  such,  suffers. (6)  Participant Observation:  comprehensive i t i s h i g h l y d i r e c t l y w i t h the c l i e n t , (7)  Self  information  time  Although  c o n s u m i n g and  the  i n f o r m a t i o n c a n be  i s uniform, r e l a t i v e l y In comparison  u n i f o r m and  expensive.  As  relatively i t is dealing  c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y w o u l d be j e o p a r d i z e d .  Completed Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s :  i s i n e x p e n s i v e and  ensured.  i t i s u n f e a s i b l e due  sometimes v i e w  b u t w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y be  validity  this'method  are i n a c c u r a t e . (4)  time  Although  (re: the c o l l a t i n g  ipants.  it  analysis  realiability  D a i l y Work S h e e t s :  i n e x p e n s i v e and  and  The  of r e c o r d i n g . (3)  for  study:  T h i s method gathered  c o m p r e h e n s i v e and  is useful  i n that  simultaneously. confidentiality  The is  t o many o f t h e o t h e r m e t h o d s i t makes f o r t h e  i n f r i n g e m e n t on w o r k e r t i m e .  The  most s t r i k i n g  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d e p e n d t o some e x t e n t on a r i d / o r t h e f r a m e o f r e f e r e n c e and may  limitations  are that  the knowledge of p r o f e s s i o n a l  omit  r o u t i n e behaviors not  least the jargon  recognized  40.  c o n s c i o u s l y and a s s u c h t h e m e a s u r e m e n t o f v a l i d i t y may b e a f f e c t e d . I n c o n s i d e r i n g a l l t h e a l t e r n a t e methods o f d a t a use  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ,  c o n s i s t i n g of the l i s t  o f t a s k s , and t h e r a t i n g  s c a l e f o r the r a t i n g of the tasks by the judges, f e a s i b l e method f o r our p u r p o s e s .  researcher The  time. Questionnaire  s o c i a l workers  a tentative l i s t  i n the v a r i o u s phases of t h e i r  "Termination  Contact".  although  Contact",  as  by t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ,  were t a l l i e d after other  after  times  during  t e s t was p e r f o r m e d . questionnaire  the "Ongoing Contact"  the l e t t e r s  actually (a)  carried  , (b)  listed.  Those tasks performed d u r i n g  (a) those  performed during  ( b ) and t h o s e  The and  during  i n t h e p r o j e c t were r e q u i r e d t o  i f , o v e r a two week p e r i o d , t h e y  each task  clients.  t h a t some o f them a r e p e r f o r m e d  determine  followed  contact with  activity.  As t h e w o r k e r s p a r t i c i p a t i n g  listed  i n public welfare  T h e t a s k s w e r e d i v i d e d i n t h i s way f o r t h e s a k e  i t i s appreciated  phases o f s o c i a l work  experience  was d r a w n up o f t h e t a s k s p e r f o r m e d b y  suggested phases a r e the " I n i t i a l  of c l a r i t y all  I ti s  i n t e r m s o f b o t h e c o n o m i c s and i n t e r m s o f w o r k e r / j u d g e /  of t h e r e s e a r c h e r s ,  the  flexible,  frame o f r e f e r e n c e .  On t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o m b i n e d 22 y e a r s  three  appears t o be t h e most  I t i s easy t o a d m i n i s t e r ,  allowing for fine definition within a specific inexpensive ; both  c o l l e c t i o n the  not performed d u r i n g  t h e work y e a r  after  out the tasks , and ( c )  the f i r s t  t h e s e c o n d week w e r e  the period  of the study  week tallied  but at  ( c ) a t a l l y was made e a c h t i m e a  E x p l i c i t ^ i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e d r a w n up o n t h e u s e o f t h e  f o r the workers p a r t i c i p a t i n g  ommissions, a m b i g u i t i e s  or superfluous  a t t e n t i o n of the researchers.  i n t h e p r o j e c t , so t h a t any  s t a t e m e n t s c o u l d be b r o u g h t t o t h e  (See A p p e n d i x A)  41.  . Procedures The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ; was the V i c t o r i a a r e a  offices  In order  s o c i a l workers i n  f o l l o w i n g two m e e t i n g s a t w h i c h t i m e t h e r e s e a r c h -  e r s o u t l i n e d and e x p l a i n e d questionnaire.  completed by t h e n i n e  w h a t was n e c e s s a r y to avoid  b y way o f c o m p l e t i n g  a n y skew s p e c i f i c  reference  the  fact  the  two week p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h t h e w o r k e r s c o m p l e t e d  was  found  A t a s k was  t h a t o n l y two t a s k s h a d t o be d e l e t e d f o r s e l e c t i n g a t a s k as b e i n g i n d i c a t i o n by a t l e a s t t a s k was p e r f o r m e d .  (2)  absence of disagreement w i t h regard definition  s c a l e was d e v i s e d  w o r k e r autonomy t o a h i g h The r a t i n g  public welfare  rating  judges,  by the t h e s i s group.  i t .  To  autonomy  (See A p p e n d i x  B)  o f (5) d e n o t i n g was  given  high worker  to the fourteen  autonomy.  judges.  Of t h e  l e v e l worker w i t h the  a concern that the judges a t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l s i n  and t h o s e  the tasks  employed i n o t h e r  t h a t had been c o n f i r m e d  i n favor of tasks being  be n e c e s s a r y .  us  f o r s o c i a l worker  o n l y one was a f i e l d  F u r t h e r m o r e , we w e r e c o n c e r n e d  of judges.  task  i n supervisory or administrative positions. I t was  interpret  t o any  from a low r a t i n g of (1) which denotes low  instrument  public welfare  list.  one s o c i a l w o r k e r t h a t t h e  t o be r e j e c t e d i f n o n e o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s p e r f o r m e d  The r a t i n g s c a l e p r o g r e s s e s  rest being  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , i t  from the o r i g i n a l  (1)  a five point rating  Following  a p p r o p r i a t e were:  enable the judges to a c c u r a t e l y r a t e the tasks  bias  was made t o  t h a t we w e r e n o t i n a n y way e v a l u a t i n g t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e .  The c r i t e r i a  eleven  the  that there  criteria  level.  c o u l d p o s s i b l y be a p r o f e s s i o n a l  The a l t e r n a t e w o u l d be t o l o w e r  the high  w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o  by w o r k e r s a t t h e f i e l d  rated at a higher  However, our b e l i e f  to maintain  agencies  level  o f autonomy t h a n would  our c r i t e r i a  forselection  i n the complete p r o f e s s i o n a l o b j e c t i v i t y l e d f o r t h e j u d g e s s e l e c t e d t o r a t e t h e .".  42.  instrument. The j u d g e s  because o f the l o n g d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d were  t o a t t e n d a m e e t i n g where the i n s t r u m e n t  and i n s t r u c t i o n s  be d i s c u s s e d .  the m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g  instructions eleven  I t was n e c e s s a r y f o r completion,  instruments  to mail  t o them.  On  chapter.  for rating  could  detailed  the b a s i s of the r e t u r n of  o u t o f f o u r t e e n t h e d a t a a n a l y s i s was  the s u b j e c t o f the next  unable  compiled  and i s  43.  CHAPTER I V  STUDY FINDINGS . D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a on S t u d y The  Social The  trained.  Sample  Workers  seven w o r k e r s c o m p l e t i n g t h e i n s t r u m e n t were a l l I n - s e r v i c e  I n t e r m s o f e d u c a t i o n , two w o r k e r s h a d B a c h e l o r o f A r t s  one h a d t h i r d y e a r u n i v e r s i t y , grade 12.  two h a d s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n and one h a d  One o f t h e s a m p l e w o r k e r s d i d n o t r e c o r d h i s e d u c a t i o n a l The w o r k e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e v e n w o r k e r s r a n g e d  years  Degrees,  i n the p u b l i c assistance  (three workers).  field  level.  from a h i g h of t e n  (one w o r k e r ) t o a low o f t h r e e y e a r s  Two o f t h e w o r k e r s h a d e i g h t and one h a l f y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e  and a n o t h e r h a d f o u r and one h a l f y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e . It experienced Task  i s a p p a r e n t t h a t our s t u d y measured workers.  Measurement The  combined  amounted t o a t o t a l  Social Assistance  o f 862 c a s e s .  u r b a n a n d 3 4 0 as r u r a l .  in both r u r a l The  Of t h i s  total,  c a s e s was o b t a i n e d .  and u r b a n c a s e s were  indicated  522 w e r e c l a s s i f i e d  that a f a i r l y  as  even  As such, t a s k s  performed  t h a t T a s k #64,. " R e c r u i t i n g  " and #65, " S u p e r v i s i n g I n - s e r v i c e T r a i n e e s , " w e r e  p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e two week t e s t p e r i o d  y e a r by t h e sample  workers  measured.  returned questionnaires,  and T r a i n i n g V o l u n t e e r s ,  caseloads o f the seven  I t appears, therefore,  d i s t r i b u t i o n of urban-rural  not  the task a c t i v i t y of  or a t any time d u r i n g t h e  workers.  T a s k #66 " A d d r e s s i n g p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o r c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s o n s o c i a l w o r k , " and T a s k #67 vision  " R e p r e s e n t i n g agency  at p u b l i c meetings, radio,  e t c . , " w e r e n o t p e r f o r m e d d u r i n g t h e two week t e s t p e r i o d ;  telehowever,  44.  one  worker i n d i c a t e d  the  t h a t he p e r f o r m e d  tasks a t other  times  during  year. All  the other  t a s k s were performed d u r i n g  None o f t h e t a s k s w e r e q u e r i e d ed  these  that  i t was i m p o s s i b l e  as t o v a l i d i t y ,  the p l a u s i b i l i t y  t h a t he f o u n d  t h e number o f t i m e s  two w o r k e r s  period. indicat-  the frequency  o f work.  of  One w o r k e r  o f c o n s t r u c t i n g a model f o r deployment o f s o c i a l  w o r k manpower f r o m t h e c o n t e n t s noted  although  f o r them t o a c c u r a t e l y r e c o r d  performance o f each task because o f p r e s s u r e s questioned  t h e two week t e s t  o f a 15 t o 20 m i n u t e i n t e r v i e w .  the questionnaire  offered., i n s u f f i c i e n t  he p e r f o r m e d a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t a s k s  Another  space t o record  i n v o l v i n g case  closi  ings . The in  workers suggested  our questionnaire:  casework p r o c e s s e s , From t h i s  home v i s i t s ,  initial  t h a t they  performed  i n a social  tentatively  v a l i d l y measures the tasks  assistance  judges,  three with previous the tasks.  actually  be  being  caseload.  collectively  e l e v e n p r e s e n t l y employed  experience  i n this  field,  i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e and  were used  i n this project to  A s many o f t h e j u d g e s w e r e , o f n e c e s s i t y , l o c a t e d  the Vancouver area,  i t was i m p o s s i b l e  to discuss  i n s t r u c t i o n s were m a i l e d  f o r the researchers  the i n s t r u c t i o n s  for rating.  t o the judges along w i t h  rating.  Of t h e f o u r t e e n m a i l e d ,  not  c o m p l e t e d and c o u l d n o t b e u t i l i z e d .  compiled  i t could  case.  Judges Fourteen  fully  f e l t were n o t i n c l u d e d  c a s e s d i a g n o s e d and c a t e g o r i z e d f o r  phase of t h e study,  that the instrument  rate  tasks  d i s c u s s i o n w i t h s o c i a l w o r k e r s on a s p e c i f i c  concluded  The  three  e l e v e n were r e t u r n e d .  t o meet w i t h  Instead,  the l i s t  outside them  the d e t a i l e d  of tasks f o r One, h o w e v e r , was  The r e s u l t s  then were  from the r a t i n g s o f t e n judges. All  t h e j u d g e s h a d a M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work d e g r e e f r o m t h e S c h o o l  45.  of  S o c i a l Work a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h  total  experience  a total  i n s o c i a l work, from  o f 117 y e a r s .  Columbia.  four years  t o twenty-two y e a r s , f o r  Their experience i n the f i e l d  from  judges  h a d 16 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e , two h a d t e n y e a r s , one h a d e l e v e n y e a r s ,  seven  (two j u d g e s )  t o twenty  years  of public welfare  ranged  one  two y e a r s  They ranged i n  y e a r s and one f o u r y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e  m a k i n g f o r a combined t o t a l  (one j u d g e ) .  i n the f i e l d  Two  of public welfare,  o f 98 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e .  Three of the judges w i t h p r e v i o u s p u b l i c w e l f a r e experience a r e now w o r k i n g  elsewhere.  One  i s a s o c i a l worker  S o c i e t y , V a n c o u v e r ; one i s a s o c i a l w o r k e r B u r n a b y as w e l l  as a f i e l d  University of B r i t i s h of  The  seven  Social Welfare: director, and  of  The t h i r d  remaining judges  three are d i s t r i c t  judges, w i t h f u l l  i s an i n s t r u c t o r a t t h e S c h o o l  a r e a l l employed by t h e Department o f  office  s u p e r v i s o r s , one i s a r e g i o n a l  of Child  their  average  possible.  t h a t 16 t a s k s w e r e , i n e s s e n c e ,  t o the judges  r e q u i r e d o f a l l workers  While  for rating  u n r a t e a b l e due t o t h e f a c t  that  and d i d n o t r e q u i r e a u t o n o m y  c o m p l e t i o n , f o r example, a t t e n d i n g meetings,  accounts, recording. each  and a n  of the Ratings  they were a c t i v i t i e s in  qualifications  i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e s h o u l d g i v e us t h e  A r e v i e w o f t h e 128 t a s k s s u b m i t t e d revealed  supervisor,  Welfare.  professional  n e a r l y t e n y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e each  Analysis  Work,  s u p e r v i s o r , one, t h e s p e c i a l placement  one, t h e Deputy S u p e r i n t e n d e n t  most o b j e c t i v e r e s u l t s  Health Centre i n  University.  one i s a t r a i n i n g  The  at the Mental  supervisor f o r the School of S o c i a l  Columbia.  S o c i a l Work a t t h i s  at the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d  completing  expense  t h e d e g r e e o f p a r t i c i p a t i o n may d i f f e r f o r  level  of worker,  the l e v e l  unrateable  tasks l e f t  a total  o f autonomy does n o t .  Removing  o f 112 t a s k s t o b e a n a l y z e d .  these  The r e s u l t s a r e  46.  as  follows: 7,  Number 1.  Tasks r e c e i v i n g agreement o f 807,  37  33  -  65  "  607,  to 7  3.  "  "  "  "  597o  or less  few  o f the  that  the  t o c l u s t e r a t two While  fact that  and  leads  was  t o examine the  41.97,  tasks  received  judges'..ratings  i t i s obvious that of  the  tasks  u s t o b e l i e v e we a r e list  607,  and  the  agreement,  a pattern  yet  reliable,  agreement i s e n c o u r a g i n g  607>  right direction.  definition the  58  a t r a t i n g 5 and 407,  instrument i s not  over  going i n the  o f tasks  807,  usually followed  the  received  97o  the d e s i r e d  a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s , e.g.,  n e s s o f r a t i n g s seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t  Our n e x t  o f autonomy.  defined  regarding  the  with  sufficient  clarity  d e f i n i t i o n o f a u t o n o m y was  amount o f a u t o n o m y r e q u i r e d  combination o f the  two.  We, t h e r e f o r e ,  comments a b o u t p r o b l e m s t h e y e n c o u n t e r e d the  task  . Our  review leads  us to b e l i e v e  i n the  tasks  j u d g e s t o make d i s t i n c t i o n s  o r i t could, approached  the  i n r a t i n g the  o f course, be a judges f o r tasks  and  their  we r e v i e w -  more p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s o f the  the The  rating  that a major problem i n e s t a b l i s h -  judges r a t i n g s o f the  were n o t e d b y most j u d g e s in.;the t a s k  problems.  the  Encountered  better r e l i a b i l i t y  criticized  not  definitions.  Problems  sharper,  f o r the  step  The c l o s e -  enough t o a l l o w d i s t i n c t i o n s between a d j a c e n t r a t i n g s , o r t h a t  were n o t  and  -  "  the  ing  9  "  at r a t i n g 4 .  ed  10  "  i t was s i g n i f i c a n t  fine  -  2.  While very  tending  o rbetter  tasks  i s dependent on  themselves.  definitions only  three  Several  faults  judges  however,  instrument.  comments o n t h e  rating scale  T h e f i r s t was w h e t h e r o b j e c t i v e  subjective  tasks  (representing psychological  itself  i n d i c a t e d two  possible  (representing material matters) are  a valid  matters)  dichotomy.  47.  The  question  was r a i s e d w h e t h e r a n y t a s k  the n a t u r e o f t h e c l i e n t could,  could  out.  We h a v e s p o k e n o n t h i s  t h a t a n y h i g h l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d scheme w i l l  incorporated  apart  and h i s p r o b l e m , o r w h e t h e r t h e e m o t i o n a l  i n f a c t , be s e p a r a t e d  client vulnerability.  be c o n s i d e r e d  from aspects  earlier,  r e s t upon judgments  noting  concerning  How t h e s e j u d g m e n t s a r e made w o u l d h a v e t o b e  i n any t a s k  a s s i g n m e n t scheme.  However, c l i e n t  vulnerability  does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y a f f e c t t h e i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k s , w h i c h course,  the focus of t h i s  study.  T h e s e c o n d p r o b l e m , r a i s e d b y o n l y one  j u d g e , was w h e t h e r t o r a t e a t a s k its  i n terms o f t h e autonomy r e q u i r e d  p e r f o r m a n c e o r i n terms o f t h e autonomy t h a t  performance.  These o b j e c t i o n s , w h i l e  i n d i c a t e problems w i t h  the instrument,  meeting with  t h e j u d g e s , as a g r o u p , b e f o r e  to the judges.  o f 130 t a s k s  to the l i s t  submitted  w e r e r e j e c t e d and n o s p e c i f i c  This  they r a t e  could  that a l i s t  the tasks  to outline  initial  stage,  of tasks.  tasks  only  I t could  a l s o be d u e t o t h e f a c t  trained.  that  A s s u c h t h e y may h a v e  o f t a s k s , d r a w n up b y s e c o n d y e a r s t u d e n t s a t a S c h o o l o f  of this  i . e . , since  the subjects  were f e a r f u l o f  One f u r t h e r d e f i c i e n c y , a t  s t u d y was t h a t no B.S.W. o r M.S.W. r e v i e w e d t h e  The above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ,  judges t o the e f f e c t that all  be overcome by  be due t o t h e l a c k o f t i m e , t h e  m a k i n g a m i s t a k e , no c r i t i c i s m s w e r e made.  list  could  o f t a s k s , we n o t e d t h a t o f t h e o r i g i n a l  t h e sample w o r k e r s were I n - s e r v i c e  S o c i a l W o r k , was b e y o n d r e p r o a c h ,  the  This  s u g g e s t i o n s w e r e made f o r r e v i s i o n o r  workers had t o devote t o t h e l i s t .  felt  i n our opinion,  t o the d i r e c t s e r v i c e workers f o rreview,  d e l e t i o n o f any o f t h e t a s k s .  all  i nits  i n s t r u m e n t and what i s r e q u i r e d . Thus, t u r n i n g  two  be r e q u i r e d  now i n  but r a t h e r , problems w i t h t h e  of the instrument  list  should  i m p o r t a n t do n o t ,  presentation  the  i s , of  task  as w e l l as t h e c r i t i c i s m  of the  d e f i n i t i o n s w e r e n o t c l e a r , l e d us t o r e v i s e  r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n 807  o  agreement.  48.  We of  noted  i n the d e f i n i t i o n s  c e r t a i n w o r d s t h a t c o u l d be  s u c h as  "assess",  "interpret".  T h e i r use  Of  the  The  unclear  or c o n f u s i n g .  "determine", "evaluate",  "double-barrelled". "assess".  o f a g r e a t number o f t a s k s , t h e  For  word  and  often misleading  e x a m p l e , " e v a l u a t e " was  " c o m p l e t e " was  These i n c l u d e d words  "complete", "arrange"  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was  used  and  interchangeably  o f t e n u s e d w h e r e " a s s e s s m e n t " was  t a s k s r e c e i v i n g l e s s t h a n 807, a g r e e m e n t , 36 w e r e a f f e c t e d by  above m e n t i o n e d words. w o r d s w o u l d be  As  i t would  a p p r o p r i a t e , we  a p p e a r t h a t some s t a n d a r d i z e d  have d e f i n e d  use  with meant.  the use  of  them as f o l l o w s :  A s s e s s - The m u t u a l p r o c e s s o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h a t t h e p r o b l e m i s , w h a t a r e t h e r e l e v a n t p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r s , and general approaches to s o l v i n g the problem. E v a l u a t e - A j u d g m e n t as t o e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p l a n s , treatment, and s o f o r t h , i n a t t e m p t i n g t o c o p e w i t h t h e p r o b l e m . C o m p l e t e - The an a c t i v i t y . Explaining  performing  - The  Interpretation a c t i o n s and o f  process  a t t e m p t s w e r e made t o a v o i d tasks.  The Apart  in recruiting  i n p a r t , to the  use  c o m p l e t e d and by  t o be  similarly  i s attached  usable.  a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and  j u d g e s and  in definition and  C. in  the  i n g i v i n g them i n s t r u c t i o n s . we  received  Of  remaining  t e n , t h e r e were seven  non-departmental people.  i t was  s e r v i c e workers  Due  eleven  Of  t h r e e by  the eleven,  only  judges.  these  and  duplications  fourteen  j u d g e s w e r e p r e s e n t l y e m p l o y e d as d i r e c t Furthermore, although  unclear  as A p p e n d i x  of m a i l i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  from the  of  information.  task d e f i n i t i o n s , problems appeared  p r o c e d u r e s used  questionnaires  g i v i n g requested  "double-barrelled" questions  revised l i s t from the  of  requirements  - E x p l a n a t i o n of the reasons f o r c e r t a i n the manner i n w h i c h t h e y e f f e c t the c l i e n t .  Other, t a s k s were found  of  of the p r o c e d u r a l  only  t e n were  None o f  fully  completed the  ten  in public assistance.  b e l i e v e d t h a t M.S.W.'s w o u l d be  the  persons  49.  most l i k e l y ing  to provide  experience  minimally  objective, professional opinions, i t i s l i k e l y  i npublic assistance.  controllable,  reasons f o r t h i s  While at best,  i t was n o t c o n t r o l l e d  limited  w h i c h t o .choose t h e j u d g e s a m p l e ; e a c h j u d g e l i k e l y a t i o n s and p r e c o n c e p t i o n s o r no p e r s o n a l  o f t a s k s due t o h i s e x p e r i e n c e ;  through  i n t e r m s o f how t h e y  a s s i g n m e n t scheme. improving is  standards  a very d i f f i c u l t In  point  from interpret-  t h e r e was  and t h e j u d g e s  little because  t h a t the judges tended t o r a t e  t h o u g h t t h e r a t i n g would be u t i l i z e d  T h i s p o s s i b l y w o u l d be due t o t h e i r  i n a task  concern  o f s e r v i c e a n d t o t h e i r b i a s a s M.S.W.'s.  with Again,  this  r a t i n g s , we n o t e d  that  factor to control.  addition to being  the model r a t i n g tended levels,  number  The  the province.  There i s a l s o a strong p o s s i b i l i t y tasks  study.  had d i f f e r e n t  communication between t h e r e s e a r c h e r s  t h e l a t t e r was s p r e a d  this variablei s  at a l l i nthis  a r e t h a t : t h e r e was a n e x t r e m e l y  vary-  clustered at adjacent  t o b e 1, 3 o r 5.  2 8 , o r 607,, w e r e r a t e d a t 1 o r 5.  O f 47 t a s k s r a t e d i n t h e s e  I t was t h o u g h t t h a t a t h r e e  s c a l e m i g h t t h e r e f o r e , be more a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o u r p u r p o s e s .  decided,  We  h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e r e was n o b a s i s f o r c o m b i n i n g t h e j u d g e s r a t i n g s  1 a n d 2, 4 and 5, t o c r e a t e a t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e . designed  three  s o t h a t 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 a r e a p p r o x i m a t e l y  recommend t h a t t h e r e d e s i g n e d rating after  the f o l l o w i n g  list  The r a t i n g s c a l e i s equidistant.  o f t a s k s be s u b m i t t e d  We  t o the judges f o r  procedures:  1.  Meet f a c e t o f a c e w i t h t h e j u d g e s as a group t o d i s c u s s p r o c e d u r e s and p r o b l e m s . T h i s w i l l h e l p o v e r come s u c h d i f f i c u l t i e s a s " n o n - r e t u r n s " and e s t a b l i s h some c o n t r o l over b i a s and p r e c o n c e p t i o n . Common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e t a s k s . T h e v a r i a b l e o f a u t o n o m y and s o f o r t h , a more s t a n d a r d i z e d p o i n t o f v i e w i n r a t i n g t h e t a s k s would be d e v e l o p e d .  2.  T h e s a m p l e o f j u d g e s w o u l d b e i m p r o v e d i f a number o f l i n e w o r k e r s c o u l d be r e c r u i t e d as j u d g e s . The r a t i n g s as r e p o r t e d a b o v e w e r e made b y p e r s o n s n o l o n g e r c a r r y i n g  50.  out d i r e c t s e r v i c e t a s k s . Even i f i n v o l v i n g d i r e c t l i n e w o r k e r s means a c c e p t i n g B.S.W. as t h e q u a l i f y i n g l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g , i t w o u l d seem t h a t t h i s w o u l d be a desirable step. 3.  The j u d g e s s h o u l d be r e q u e s t e d t o r e c o r d t h e l o w e s t amount o f a u t o n o m y r e q u i r e d t o a d e q u a t e l y p e r f o r m t h e task. T h i s s h o u l d be b a s e d on t h e i n t r i n s i c n a t u r e o f t h e t a s k s and t h e w o r k e r ' s c a p a b i l i t y r a t h e r t h a n on c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  4.  A " G l o s s a r y o f T e r m s " s h o u l d be i n c l u d e d w i t h t h e r a t i n g s c a l e i n order to a v o i d c o n f u s i o n i n the e m p l o y m e n t and m e a n i n g o f s u c h w o r d s as " a s s e s s " , " d e t e r m i n e " , " e v a l u a t e " and so f o r t h .  We s h o u l d be be  feel  t h e r e i s no  rejected at this  g i v e n to judges  indication  time.  Rather,  t o r a t e a g a i n as  a much h i g h e r d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y in  this  t h e n be validity  study. clear  Should to develop  of our  t h e new  that the c r i t e r i o n  i f the r e v i s e d l i s t  outlined c a n be  above, i t i s our  autonomy of tasks  r a t i n g s p r o v e t o be  reliable,  can  opinion that  e s t a b l i s h e d t h a n was  a t a s k a s s i g n m e n t scheme t o be  instrument.  of  achieved  t h e way  utilized  to  would establish  CHAPTER V  SUMMARY It exists  i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y apparent that  i n the  include  of  such f a c t o r s  introduction the  field  rapid  o f new  increase  as  i n the  rational of and  the  f o r the  addresses  The  to reveal  The which  w h i c h can "task  (a)  of  services  be  of  be  criteria,  p e r f o r m e d by  done by  complexity",  the  less  the  varying  schemes, and  the  used  by  preventative  (c) work a s s i g n m e n t  been  than f u l l y  schemes,  t r a i n i n g personnel.  t r a i n e d w o r k e r and  t r a i n e d were "worker  O n l y " w o r k e r a u t o n o m y " and defined.  those those  autonomy",  "client vulnerability", "fact finding", "decision  to have been o p e r a t i o n a l l y  tasks,  i n a t t e m p t i n g to c l a s s i f y  professionally  level  trained  l i t e r a t u r e has  (e) methods of  a  for:  employed f o r c l a s s i f y i n g s o c i a l work  c r i t e r i a most f r e q u e n t l y can  a r e s t o r a t i v e and  these o b j e c t i v e s ,  criteria  evaluating  " c l i e n t need".  found  t o p a v e t h e way  of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  i t is  t h e i r knowledge  p r o t e c t i o n of s o c i a l allowance r e c i p i e n t s from i n a p p r o p r i a t e and s o m e t i m e s d a m a g i n g t r e a t m e n t untrained personnel,  s o c i a l work s t a f f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  tasks  commensurate w i t h are  and  developing  (2)  (d) methods of  and  performed  this project  In accordance with  (b)  i s concerned w i t h  appropriate personnel,  provision nature.  the  t o t h e man-power p r o b l e m as and  and  services  s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l w i t h  utilization  varied  groups.  (1)  (3)  reviewed  itself  crisis"  existing social services,  i n the m o s t v v u l n e r a b l e  assistance  tasks  g o a l s of  r e a s o n s a r e many and  g r o w i n g demand f o r " b e t t e r "  deployment of  t r a i n i n g , i n terms of skills.  the  in population  area of p u b l i c  plan  The  e x p a n s i o n of  services,  This project found  s o c i a l work.  a "man-power  making"  " c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y " were  Client vulnerability is  suggeste  52.  as b e i n g a u s e f u l activities and  concept  when t h e f o c u s  of the worker.  classified,  i s on t h e c l i e n t  and  When i t i s w o r k e r t a s k s w h i c h  the concept  not  the  are being rated  o f w o r k e r autonomy i s s u g g e s t e d  as b e i n g more  appropriate. Schemes o f s t a f f  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e many and v a r i e d .  however, a l l s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s The  professional  operates  The  t r a i n e d worker  n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s are  training differ.  and  skill  of  staff  and  those workers  are r e q u i r e d i n the tasks they perform.  The  v o l u n t e e r and  found  the c l e r i c a l  i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  Two  the case  and  t r a i n i n g but  are  inadequate  s t r e a m i n g " and  indications  the "team a p p r o a c h " .  are  knowledge includes  indigenous categories  service  used  and  i n such  i n the  E a c h i s an  at a l l l e v e l s  of  t h a t p r e s e n t programs f o r s t a f f  i n t h a t the c r i t e r i a  proEducation  This category the  are  schemes.  attempt  education deployment  endeavours are n e i t h e r  (treatment) oriented.  T r a i n i n g of the v a r i o u s types responsibility.of  and  a l l levels  The  s o c i a l w o r k man-power c r i s i s  of government.  a p p r o a c h e d f r o m many d i r e c t i o n s co-ordinated  s o c i a l work.  a r e t h e o t h e r two  t o w a r d s more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n . o f p e r s o n n e l  the concern  complete  m a i n methods o f work a s s i g n m e n t have been s u g g e s t e d  literature--"case  e x p l i c i t nor  without  a i d e , and  staff  who  p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge  In g e n e r a l , however, l e s s p r o f e s s i o n a l  the s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l , the s p e c i a l i s t ,  headings.  (M.S.W. o r e q u i v a l e n t )  t r a i n i n g . b u t w i t h some o r i e n t a t i o n t o w a r d  and  worker.  c l a s s e d under f o u r main  i n s i t u a t i o n s where the most s k i l l  required. fessional  i s the f u l l y  c a n be  In general,  o f s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l  schools, universities,  T h e r e i s need  should  colleges,  be  agencies  for evaluative research.  is a multifacited s i m u l t a n e o u s l y and  phenomenon t h a t m u s t in well  be  balanced,  efforts.  T h i s p r o j e c t i s an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y b a s e d on R i c h a n ' s  suggestion  t h a t a m o d e l f o r w o r k e r d e p l o y m e n t c a n be more e f f e c t i v e l y first  determining  present  w e l f a r e agency.  in  can  The the  specific  q u e s t i o n posed  c o n c e p t o f a u t o n o m y be  a public welfare  setting.  The  Act  in  allowance.  issuance  of s o c i a l  Beck's d e f i n i t i o n s t u d y , was  accepted  explicitness  as  of guides  tasks  in this  in a public  s t u d y w a s - - w i t h what  a p p l i e d to the  tasks r e f e r r e d to are  under the S o c i a l Allowance the  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and  tasks those  sanctioned  p e r f o r m e d by  a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o u r p u r p o s e s as to the worker, the v i s i b i l i t y  client  situation.  psychological  c l i e n t as  for  The  the purpose of r a t i n g  assistance caseloads, required  in their A  from i n i t i a l on  list  the  area.  oppossed  concrete  to those  placed  acts  of a those  the p h y s i c a l needs  on a f i v e p o i n t s c a l e  i n terms of the  lesser  or g r e a t e r degree of  autonomy  performance. of tasks performed  contact  This  p r e s e n t l y employed assistance  having  t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by w o r k e r s c a r r y i n g s o c i a l  through  list  i n the  o f t a s k s was  combined  i n u r b a n and  rural  of s o c i a l  d r a w n up b y  researchers  experience  to seven experienced  offices,  areas.  allowance,  the  twenty-two years  presented  i n three p u b l i c welfare  caseloads  issuance  t o t e r m i n a t i o n was  t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r k n o w l e d g e and  this  the The  S u b j e c t i v e t a s k s w e r e d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y  c o n c e p t o f a u t o n o m y was  the  s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n the  a c t s : . d e a l i n g w i t h t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l ( e m o t i o n a l ) as w e l l as of the c l i e n t .  this  o f p r a c t i c e and  O b j e c t i v e t a s k s w e r e d e f i n e d as p r i m a r i l y  nature.  in  f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s .  t o d e a l w i t h o b j e c t i v e and  d e a l i n g w i t h the p h y s i c a l needs o f the  workers  i t incorporates  concept a l s o i m p l i e s r e c o g n i t i o n of the n e c e s s i t y of the worker ability  performed  of autonomy, the m a j o r v a r i a b l e used  degree of r e q u i r e d o r g a n i z a t i o n support  k n o w l e d g e and  by  the degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n t r o l s  or r e q u i r e d i n the performance of the v a r i o u s  reliability  developed  The  and  in  workers,  carrying social  worker sample,  although  54.  not  r a n d o m , was  representative  d e t e r m i n e , o v e r a two the  list  was  c o m p l e t e and  validated l i s t  judges f o r r a t i n g , in  week p e r i o d , by  accurate,  The  three,  experience  not  in this  field.  I t was  purposes.  i n terms of  judgments could the  be  a u t o n o m y as  the  task  the  expenditure  (33%)  if  fourteen required (M.S.W.  had  and  previous  judges c o n s t i t u t e d  involving  considered  and  that a satisfactory i f the  the  suffice  such and  f l e x i b l e and  of  the  allowed  for  for  T h i s m e t h o d was  degree of r e l i a b i l i t y  limit  r a t e the  requiring finer  our  fine inexpensive  worker/judge/researcher  judges could  agreement were c o n s i d e r e d  use  the most f e a s i b l e  time.  for  tasks  the  ( i n terms  o f a c c e p t a n c e o f 807>.  t o 7 97, a g r e e m e n t w e r e v i e w e d as  supporting  the  task d e f i n i t i o n .  to r e q u i r e complete  use  of  Tasks reassessment  definition. of  the  128  o f a l l w o r k e r s and  112  of  in public welfare,  sample would  frame of r e f e r e n c e .  tasks  tasks were, i n essence, unrateable required  t o s. p a n e l  professional training  t h a t the  collection,  established  60%  A review  Of  felt  s c a l e was  c r i t e r i o n but  r a t e d b e l o w 60% the  full  criteria) within a pre-established  Tasks r a t e d w i t h  of  rating  financial felt  to  accuracy.  a specific  I t was  of  the  activities,  the d e g r e e o f w o r k e r autonomy  They were easy t o a d m i n i s t e r ,  definition with both  presented  r e l a t i v e l y small  T h i s method of d a t a and  daily  c u r r e n t l y working i n p u b l i c welfare,  degree of  questionnaire  their  w o r k e r s were asked  unambiguous.  t a s k s was of  The  were p r e s e n t l y employed  a homogeneous g r o u p t h a t t h i s ensure a high  terms.  noting  A l l j u d g e s had  Eleven  although  of  on ;the b a s i s  t h e i r performance.  or e q u i v a l e n t ) .  i n broad  tasks  received  analyzed  10  agreement of  d i d not  submitted due  to the  to the fact  judges revealed  that  they were  r e q u i r e autonomy i n t h e i r  (97,) r e c e i v e d 607, t o 7 97, and  that  activities  performance.  a g r e e m e n t o f 807, o r b e t t e r ,  37  65  of  (587,) r e c e i v e d  16  agreement  less  than  While very  597o.  m e n t , i t was  significant  t o c l u s t e r a t two 4.  for  5. our  ratings  of  t h a t the  adjacent  I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s  3 or  few  the  tasks received  the d e s i r e d  judges r a t i n g s followed  807,  agree-  a pattern  tending  60%. a t r a t i n g 5 and  r a t i n g s , e.g.,  the modal r a t i n g s tended  407,  at r a t i n g  A l t h o u g h a t h r e e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e m i g h t h a v e b e e n more p u r p o s e s , we a t 1 and  instrument  was  2,  felt and,  designed  t h e r e was 3 and  4,  no  to c r e a t e  that 1,  so  valid  2,  3,  basis the  4 and  1,  to f o l l o w a p a t t e r n of  f o r combining  three  point  appropriate the  judges  scale.  The  5 were a p p r o x i m a t e l y  equi-  distant. The valid It  by  study  t o be  a l s o be  pointed  out  therefore,  completely  t h a t the  i n a  education, agency.  w o r k e r p o p u l a t i o n was  training  Our  and  experience  judges represented  j u d g e s c o u l d be  no  as  longer  fined of  The  c a r r y i n g out list  of  direct service t a s k s , on  By  understanding We of expert  The  r e d e f i n i n g the  level  of expert  r a t i n g of  the  i n this  judges  the  f o r r a t i n g on  tasks  should stan-  c r o s s - s e c t i o n of welfare  s o c i a l work The  personnel  sample  of  l i n e w o r k e r s c o u l d be study  re-  w e r e made b y . p e r s o n s  tasks. showed them t o be  tasks  so  that  o f w h a t i s i n v o l v e d , a more u n i f o r m have r e d e f i n e d  judges  judge. clearly  t h a t a more  tasks.  w o r k u n i t s a p p e a r t o be of  The  workers i n . a p u b l i c  re-examination,  list  c o n c i s e l y and  so  being  t o an e x p e r t  representative  of s o c i a l  ratings received  i n some i n s t a n c e s .  tasks.  a fairly  as  achieved.  i m p r o v e d , h o w e v e r , i f a number o f  judges.  Our  defined  t a s k s be  the  acceptable  misleading  the r e s e a r c h e r s  a high  c a p a b l e o f o b j e c t i v e d e c i s i o n s on  be  tasks  t o what i s done.  g r o u p by  p o i n t of v i e w i n r a t i n g the The  can  t a s k s be  d e s c r i p t i v e as  seen p e r s o n a l l y  dardized  cruited  that although  t h e w o r k e r c a r r y i n g them o u t ,  i s necessary,  so as  has  the  acceptable  the  de-  divisions  judges have a b e t t e r  a g r e e m e n t may  for future presentation  the b a s i s o f  poorly  be to a  realized. panel  fivepoint rating scale  (autonomy).  On t h e b a s i s  of these r e s u l t s  a model c o u l d be c o n c e i v e d  whereby t h e t a s k s performed by s o c i a l workers w i t h d i f f e r e n t e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g c o u l d b e v a l i d a t e d ,  by p u t t i n g  l e v e l s of  the findings  into  practice. The year's  class  findings  where h o p e f u l l y  w h e r e we h a v e l e f t Association  of t h i s study w i l l  off.  another group w i l l  w i t h a s u r v e y o f t h e i r own.  is  administered.  with  on w i t h  There are broader  such a model.  of next  the project t o t h e B.C.  i n conjunction  The B.C. D e p a r t m e n t o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e w i l l  be  the s o c i a l allowance program  implications  Many s o l u t i o n s  w o r k i n g model has n o t been t e s t e d offer  carry  be u s i n g t h e r e s u l t s  i n t h e i r o f f i c e s where  t h e man-power p r o b l e m .  study w i l l  at the disposal  I t has p a r t i c u l a r ongoing i n t e r e s t  o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s who w i l l  a b l e t o use the r e s u l t s  be p l a c e d  f o r a l l those  concerned  have been proposed b u t a  and v a l i d a t e d .  The end p r o d u c t o f o u r  57.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Article  i n a Journal:  1.  Beck, Rantor, e t . a l . "Follow-up Study o f C h r o n i c P s y c h o t i c P a t i e n t s ' t r e a t e d ' by C o l l e g e C a s e - a i d V o l u n t e e r s . " A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f P s y c h i a t r y , September 1963, pp. 269271.  2.  Blum, A r t h u r . " D i f f e r e n t i a l U s e o f Manpower i n P u b l i c S o c i a l Work, J a n u a r y 1 9 6 6 , p p . 1 6 - 2 1 .  3.  Broger, George. "The I n d i g e n i o u s W o r k e r : A New A p p r o a c h t o t h e S o c i a l Work T e c h n i c i a n . " S o c i a l Work, A p r i l 1 9 6 5 , p p . 3 3 - 4 0 .  4.  Daly,  5.  Epstein, Laura. " D i f f e r e n t i a l Use o f S t a f f . Social Services." S o c i a l Work, O c t o b e r  6.  F i s h e r , P. "A L o o k a t S o c i a l Work T r a i n i n g . " November - D e c e m b e r 1 9 6 4 .  7.  G i l , David. " S o c i a l Work Teams." pp. 4 4 2 - 4 4 6 .  8.  Hamilton, Jordon. " E d i t o r ' s Page." pp. 2 a n d 1 2 8 .  9.  Heyman, M a r g a r e t . "A S t u d y o f E f f e c t i v e U s e o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s i n a Hospital: S e l e c t e d F i n d i n g s and C o n c l u s i o n s . " Social S e r v i c e Review, December 1961, pp. 414-429.  10.  Dorothy. July,1965.  "Personnel  i n Public Welfare."  Public  Welfare."  Welfare,  A Method to Expand 1962, pp. 66-72. Canadian  Child Welfare,  Welfare,  October  S o c i a l Work, J a n u a r y  1965,  1962,  . . " C r i t e r i a F o r the A l l o c a t i o n o f Cases A c c o r d i n g to L e v e l s o f S t a f f S k i l l . " S o c i a l Casework, J u l y 1961, pp. 3 2 5 - 3 3 1 .  11.  Irvine, Elizabeth. "The F u n c t i o n s o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s . " Royal S o c i e t y H e a l t h J o u r n a l , November - December 1 9 6 1 , p p . 3 2 9 332.  12.  Johanson, Walter. "The S u p e r v i s i o n and T r a i n i n g o f S o c i a l Work Technicians." A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f M e n t a l D e f i c i e n c y , November 1961, p p . 5 3 4 - 5 4 7 .  13.  L e e , G e r a l d T. "A New D i m e n s i o n f o r V o l u n t e e r s . " A p r i l 1962, pp. 273-282.  14.  Richan, W i l l i a m . "A T h e o r e t i c a l Scheme F o r D e t e r m i n i n g R o l e s o f P r o f e s s i o n a l and N o n p r o f e s s i o n a l P e r s o n n e l . " S o c i a l Work, O c t o b e r 1961, pp. 22-28.  Mental  Hygiene,  58.  15.  Russell, Ellery. "The R e a l C a s e A i d e i s S t a n d i n g Up." Welfare, A p r i l 1966, pp. 202-204.  Child  16.  Thompson, J a n e and R i l e y , D o n a l d P. "Use o f P r o f e s s i o n a l s i n Public Welfare." S o c i a l Work, J a n u a r y 1966, p p . 1 6 - 2 1 .  17.  Y o u n g h u s b a n d , E i l e e n . "A C o m p a r a t i v e V i e w o f Manpower P r o b l e m s . The B r i t i s h A p p r o a c h . " S o c i a l S e r v i c e R e v i e w , December 1965, p p . 4 5 4 - 4 5 8 .  Books: 18.  F e s l e r , James W. " F i e l d O r g a n i z a t i o n . " Elements o f P u b l i c Admini s t r a t i o n , ed. F r i t z Marx. P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 2nd ed;. 1 9 5 9 , pp. 2 4 6 - 2 7 3 .  19.  M e y e r , C a r o l H. S t a f f Development i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e New Y o r k , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 .  20.  P o l a n s k y , Norman A., e d . S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h . of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1960.  Government  Agencies.  Chicago,  University  Publications:  21.  U n i t e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h , E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e . " U t i l i z a t i o n o f S o c i a l Work S t a f f w i t h D i f f e r e n t L e v e l s o f Education." December 1 9 6 5 .  22.  M i n i s t r y o f H e a l t h and D e p a r t m e n t o f H e a l t h f o r S c o t l a n d . "Report of the Working P a r t y on S o c i a l Workers," by E i l e e n Y o u n g h u s b a n d . London, Her M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1959.  23.  Minnesota Department o f P u b l i c W e l f a r e . "Reorientation ment and C o n t r o l . " P u b l i c W e l f a r e , A p r i l 1958.  24.  New Y o r k C i t y D e p a r t m e n t o f W e l f a r e and S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work a t Columbia., "The E x p e r i m e n t a l W e l f a r e C e n t r e P r o j e c t , P r o g r e s s Report." F e b r u a r y 1963.  f o r Treat-  Publications: 25.  B a k e r , M a r y R. " U t i l i z i n g Professional Staff Resources," Basic I s s u e s i n C o o r d i n a t i n g F a m i l y and C h i l d W e l f a r e Programs, C e l l a . a n d Lane, E d i t o r s , pp. 95-117.  26.  Beck, Bertram. U t i l i z a t i o n o f P e r s o n n e l i n S o c i a l Work: Those W i t h F u l l P r o f e s s i o n a l E d u c a t i o n and T h o s e W i t h o u t . National Associ a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 2 .  27.  Dumpson, J.R... and . P o d e l l , L. A l t e r n a t i v e Deployment o f P u b l i c A s s i s t a n c e and T r a i n e d Casework P e r s o n n e l . Unpublished Report.  59.  28.  F i n e s t o n e , S. S t r a t e g i e s f o r R e s e a r c h i n P u b l i c W e l f a r e A d m i n i s t r a tion. The D e m o n s t r a t i o n ; N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , New Y o r k , May 1 9 6 5 .  29.  G r i p t o n , J a m e s , M. June 1963.  30.  Levine, Morton. " T r e n d s i n P r o f e s s i o n a l E m p l o y m e n t . " Manpower i n Social Welfare. Edward S c h w a r t z , e d . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 , p p . 9-16.  31.  Meyer, Henry. "The E f f e c t o f S o c i a l Work P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n o n Manp o w e r . " Manpower i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Edward S c h w a r t z , e d . Nat i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 , p p . 6 6 - 8 0 .  32.  Meyer, Henry. P r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n i n S o c i a l Work a n d i t s I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r Manpower i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Unpublished Report.  33.  Richan, William. "Research i n Occupational Restructuring." Manpower in.Social Welfare. Edward S c h w a r t z , e d . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , New Y o r k , 1966, p p . 4 3 - 5 6 .  34.  S c h w a r t z , Edward. "A S t r a t e g y o f R e s e a r c h o n t h e Manpower P r o b l e m . " Manpower i n S o c i a l W e l f a r e . Edward S c h w a r t z , e d . N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , New Y o r k , 1 9 6 6 , p p . 1 4 5 - 1 5 8 .  35.  Weissman, I r v i n g and B a k e r , Mary. E d u c a t i o n F o r S o c i a l Workers i n Public Services. S o c i a l Work C u r r i c u l u m S t u d y , C.S.W.E., New York, 1959.  36.  Witte,  Ernest.  Official  Staffing  and S t a f f U t i l i z a t i o n  "Realities of.Staffing  i n Public  S o c i a l Welfare  P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e N.C.S.W.  Welfare.  Programmes."  1963, p p . 178-194.  37.  A n . A p p r o a c h t o E v a l u a t i n g S o c i a l Work T a s k s .  38.  " P e r s o n n e l i n . S o c i a l Work." p. 5 3 2 .  39.  "Public Assistance Agencies." pp. 6 0 0 - 6 0 6 .  40.  "A G u i d e t o C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f P r o f e s s i o n a l O u t l i n e s i n a F a m i l y S e r v i c e Agency.  41.  Educational Objectives i n Field Work, O c t o b e r , 1 9 6 5 .  N.A.S.W. New Y o r k , 1 9 6 4 .  E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work, 1 9 6 5 , E n c y c l o p e d i a o f S o c i a l Work,  1965  P o s i t i o n s and E v a l u a t i o n F.S.A.A., New Y o r k , 1966  Instruction,  U.B.C. S c h o o l o f S o c i a l  Statutes: 42.  The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e A c t , V o l . IV, c h . 360, pp. 4541-4543.  60.  . APPENDIX A  EXPLANATION OF THE STUDY Purpose We a r e p r e s e n t l y u n d e r t a k i n g  a research  project to a s c e r t a i n  how t o make t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e u s e o f s o c i a l w o r k p e r s o n n e l welfare  agency. The  last  i n a public  purpose o f t h i s p a r t i c u l a r  two w e e k s ) , i s t o d e t e r m i n e  performed a t other assistance  times  those  o f the year  phase o f the p r o j e c t (which  tasks being  by s o c i a l  will  p e r f o r m e d now a n d  workers c a r r y i n g  those  social  caseloads.  Instructions The  first  sheet  i s to provide  certain  statistical  information.  Names a r e n o t t o b e g i v e n . We h a v e d r a w n up a t e n t a t i v e l i s t  o f t a s k s p e r f o r m e d by  workers i n p u b l i c welfare  s e t t i n g s i n the v a r i o u s phases o f t h e i r  with clients.  suggested  (Nos.  1-35),  Contact"  The t h r e e  the "Ongoing C o n t a c t "  (Nos. 97-105).  sake o f c l a r i t y , all  stated  i n broad The  t h a t some o f them a r e p e r f o r m e d Please  (a)  i n d i c a t e those  during  n o t e t h a t many o f t h e t a s k s  t e r m s h a v e b e e n b r o k e n down i n t o  f o l l o w each task l i s t e d . ject will  Contact"  (Nos. 3 6 - 9 6 ) , and t h e " T e r m i n a t i o n  we r e a l i z e  work a c t i v i t y .  letters  contact  The t a s k s h a v e b e e n d i v i d e d i n t h i s way f o r t h e  although  phases o f s o c i a l  phases a r e the " I n i t i a l  social  , (b)  s u b - s e c t i o n s , e . g . No. 1 2 . , and ( c )  A f t e r (a) e a c h w o r k e r v p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h i s tasks  t h a t were a c t u a l l y  pro-  p e r f o r m e d by h i m d u r i n g  the  first  will  week o f t h e s t u d y .  be shown a f t e r  Those t a s k s c a r r i e d  ( b ) . This w i l l  t i e s w i t h month-end a c t i v i t i e s , t a s k s a r e p e r f o r m e d more After not  carried  times  during  t h e month  e . g . , t o d e t e r m i n e i n a g e n e r a l way,  frequently at specific  times  i n d i c a t e those  the p e r i o d o f the study, (year).  t h e s e c o n d week  a s s i s t us i n c o m p a r i n g mid-month  (c) each worker w i l l  out during  out during  during  activiwhich  the month.  activities  which  although  a r e i n f a c t done a t o t h e r  This would i n c l u d e tasks of a  seasonal  nature. We w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h o s e complete the attached 1. . 2.  in  Complete s t a t i s t i c a l Read t h r o u g h  information  the e n t i r e  list  sheet.  of tasks  t o be f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e  suggested.  Indicate after  which a given a c t i v i t y  ( a ) o r ( b ) ( f i r s t week o r s e c o n d week) e a c h d a y  i s performed.  We w o u l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h i s be d o n e  when a c h a n g e o f a c t i v i t y  f r o m one w o r k u n i t t o a n o t h e r  a tally  a task i s performed.  i s made e a c h t i m e 4.  of  t h e month 5.  I n d i c a t e (c) which tasks l i s t e d (year)  are i n fact c a r r i e d  I n d i c a t e by c i r c l i n g  Please  note  and n o t p e r f o r m e d a t t h i s  time  out a t other  I n d i c a t e on the b l a n k  s e n t l y performed  sheets  and  times.  co-operation.  understandable.  a t back o f f o l d e r  that are not i n c l u d e d i n the l i s t  Thank y o u f o r y o u r  occurs.  t h e number o f t h e t a s k any i n s t a n c e w h e r e  the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n o f the tasks i s n o t c l e a r 6.  i n this project  forms i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner:  whole range of a c t i v i t i e s 3.  workers p a r t i c i p a t i n g  provided.  any t a s k s  pre-  62.  Office: Caseload:  Worker's  Total:  Position:  Education:  Total  o f S.A. C a s e s :  Experience:  _  Urban:  In Public Welfare:  yrs.  Rural:  Other  yrs.  TASK RATING INSTRUMENT ( L i s t  S o c i a l Agencies:  of Tasks)  WORK UNITS I.  Initial  II.  Ongoing Contact  III.  2.  1-35)  ( I t e m 36 - 9 6 )  A. B.  A d m i n i s t r a t i v e Procedures Community R e l a t i o n s h i p s  C.  Treatment S e r v i c e s (Items  97 - 1 0 5 )  INSTRUCTIONS  Place t a l l i e s  1.  (Item  Termination Contact  TALLY  I.  Contact  as f o l l o w s :  (a)  Task performed  first  (b)  Task performed  second  (c)  Task performed  at other  Initial  week. week. times.  Contact  Accept  referral  and a r r a n g e  initial  (a)  b y p h o n e a.  (b)  by l e t t e r  a.  , b.  , c.  (c)  i n person  a.  , b.  , c.  I n t e r v i e w t o determine c.  , b.  appointment:  financial  , c.  eligibility,  a.  , b.  63.  3.  Determine the problem (a)  presenting  a.  , b.  , c.  (b)  underlying  a.  , b.  , c.  4.  Complete  a p p l i c a t i o n f o r m a.  5.  Complete  life  cord, 6.  health,  (Education,  , b. ability  work r e ^  , c.  t o h a n d l e own p r o b l e m s ,  a.  .  , c.  Evaluate  applicant's  b. 8.  , c.  82 o r e q u i v a l e n t .  e t c . ) a.  Determine a p p l i c a n t ' s b.  7.  h i s t o r y - S.W.  , b.  e f f o r t s a t s o l v i n g p r o b l e m , a.  ,  , c.  Determine a p p l i c a n t ' s  immediate  goals,  a.  , b.  ,  c. 9.  Determine a p p l i c a n t ' s  l o n g range goals,  a.  , b.  ,  c._ 10.  Evaluate  applicant's  strengths,  a.  11.  Evaluate  a p p l i c a n t ' s weaknesses,  , b.  a.  , c.  , b.  ,  c. 12.  13.  Determine t e n t a t i v e methods of (a)  environment manipulation  (b)  s u p p o r t and e n c o u r a g e m e n t  (c)  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n a.  (d)  other  a.  treatment: a.  , b.  a.  , b.  , b. , b.  D e t e r m i n e what a p p l i c a n t  , c. , c.  , c. , c.  sees agency d o i n g ,  a.  , b.  c. 14.  Evaluate b.  15.  f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s and n e e d s  o f a p p l i c a n t , a.  ,  , c.  Enable applicant  t o v e n t i l a t e f e e l i n g s about s i t u a t i o n ,  a.  Explore applicant's  motivation  f o r help.  a.  , b.  c. Explore applicant's  capacity  f o r help.  a.  , b.  c. Help a p p l i c a n t  a c c e p t h i s need  for help.  a.  , b.  c. Arrange f o r immediate r e f e r r a l a.  , b.  Interpret  _,  to applicant  i f n e c e s s a r y , e.g. m e d i c a l ,  legal.  c.  function  o f a g e n c y , a.  , b.  c. Interpret policy Interpret  o f a g e n c y , a.  to applicant  b.  , b.  function of intake  , c.  interview,  a.  , c.  Interpret  to applicant  b.  new  social  worker w i l l  be a s s i g n e d ,  a.  , c.  Make r e f e r r a l b.  t o another agency or r e s o u r c e  i f n e c e s s a r y , a.  , c,  Interpret  function  of r e f e r r a l  resource,  a.  , b.  c. Check f i l e s  for previous  contact,  a.  , b.  ,  c. Contact other agencies f o r previous  contacts.  a._  _, b.  e.g. l e g a l ,  financial,  c.__ Obtain special a. Provide  information  , b. for transportation  for applicant, , c.  i f n e c e s s a r y , a.  , b.  65.  30.  P r o v i d e f o r accommodation  i f necessary,  a.  , b.  ,  c. 31.  Report  back t o person  b. 32.  o r agency making r e f e r r a l ,  a.  ,  , c.  Arrange  f o r cheque, e n t e r on g r a n t s h e e t , a.  , b.  c. 33.  Complete n e c e s s a r y a.  34.  forms f o r o t h e r s e r v i c e s , e.g. v o u c h e r s ,  , b.  Record  , c.  i n t e r v i e w and make r e c o m m e n d a t i o n , a .  , b.  c. 35.  Make r e f e r r a l b  I I Ongoing  t o agency worker t o c a r r y case. a._  ,  , c.  Contact  A. A d m i n i s t r a t i v e P r o c e d u r e s 36.  C h e c k S.W.  81 ( d e c l a r a t i o n o f e a r n i n g s ) f o r :  (a) e a r n i n g s  a.  , b.  (b) change o f address (c)  o t h e r changes  , c.  a.  i n circumstances.  b.  , c.  a.  b.  ,  c. 37.  N o t i n g c h a n g e s on f a c e s h e e t , a.  38.  N o t i n g c h a n g e s on g r a n t  39.  Completing  40.  s h e e t , a.  forms f o r a n c i l l a r y  examinations,  a.  , b. , b.  , c.  s e r v i c e s , e.g. t e e t h , g l a s s e s , eye  , b.  A u t h o r i z i n g grants f o l l o w i n g  , c._  interview,  , c. a.  , b.  c. 41.  Completing c.  monthly reports or s t a t i s t i c s ,  a.  , b.  66.  C o m p l e t i n g e x p e n s e a c c o u n t s , a. Organizing  work,  office routines,  , b. a.  , b.  Reading p o l i c y manual, a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a.  , b.  d i r e c t i v e s and o t h e r  material,  , d,  Work w i t h  files  Attending  s t a f f m e e t i n g s , s o c i a l work  b.  , c.  e.g.  closing reading,  B.F.  a.  , b.  institutes,  e t c . a.  , c.  Interviewing a  •  collateral  for verification  , b.  eligibility,  , c.  R e a d i n g and s i g n i n g b.  of  i n c o m i n g and o u t g o i n g m a i l .  a.  ,  , c.  Writing  letters  a.  to c o l l a t e r a l s to determine c l i e n t s  , b.  Issuing medical Community Medical:  eligibility,  , c. card.  a.  , b.  , c.  Relationships accounts,  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of service, c l a r i f y  requests f o r  service, etc. (a) P u b l i c H e a l t h (b)  Department  Doctors, Dentists, b.  Optometrists,  clinics  a.  , c.  Specialists  arrange r e f e r r a l ,  , b. confirm  Lawyers.:,;, l e g a l a i d , c o u r t s , b.  a.  ,  court  , c. appearances, review  R.C.M.P., ( f r a u d  evidence  c h a r g e s ) a.  , c.  Schools: (a)  , b.  , c.  (c) H o s p i t a l s , Legal:  a.  confirming  teachers,  attendance, behavior,  counsellors,  principals  a.  progress , b.  ,  67 .  c. (b)  vocational,  special classes,  b.  , c.  Financial:  confirming  night  credit, consolidating  bureaus, i n s u r a n c e companies, f i n a n c e b.  Clubs:  a.  provision  a.  ,  debts, banks,  companies,  credit  a.  ,  extraordinary  services  (medical,  social)  , c.  Agencies:  Community s p o n s o r e d : nurseries,  re:  a.  Housekeeping s e r v i c e s ,  , b.  Federal  a.  re:  , b.  sponsored:  re:  day  care  , c.  P r o v i n c i a l Government s p o n s o r e d : Committee.  (c)  of  , b .  Social  (b)  etc.  , c.  Service  (a)  classes,  Probation,  Rehabilitation  , c.  Manpower  a.  , b.  ,  c. Community (a)  merchants: of  (b)  Services:  services.  a.  post o f f i c e : b.  (c)  accounts, p r o v i s i o n  of m e r c h a n d i s e ,  , b.  change of  interpretation  , c.  address, l o s t  cheque.  a.  ,  , c.  Board of Review:  prepare report.  a.  , b.  ,  c. (d)  Funeral:  authorize  indigent  burials.  a.  , b.  ^_  c. (e)  (f)  Community c o m m i t t e e s :  winter  councils,  , b.  a.  Church groups:  young p e o p l e s ,  w o r k s , b o a r d i n g home,  local  , c. counselling.  a.  ,  68.  (g)  P r i v a t e groups: Y o u t h camps,  58.  Provide  , c.  t o community r e s o u r c e s .  a.  ,  client  for  other agencies,  a.  S  , c.  Provide  i n f o r m a t i o n on  other  resources  :f o r c o m m u n i t y ,  a.  , c.  61.  Trv  62.  Dealing with  to l o c a t e c l i e n t s ,  b .  a.  ,  , b  anonymous t e l e p h o n e  c.  c a l l s or l e t t e r s ,  a.  3  , c.  Dealing with b .  64.  , b.  i n f o r m a t i o n on  b .  63.  G u i d e s , Y.M.C.A., Y.W.C.A.,  , c.  b . 60.  a.  I n t e r p r e t agency p o l i c y b.  59.  S c o u t s and  irate  citizens  over  p o l i c y or  client,  a.  S  , c.  R e c r u i t i n g and  training volunteers,  a.  ,  b.  5  c. 65.  Supervising  In-service Trainees,  ,  a.  b.  _  5  c. 66.  Addressing  p u b l i c m e e t i n g o r c o m m u n i t y g r o u p s on  a. 67.  , b.  Representing a.  C.  Agency at p u b l i c meeting, r a d i o , t e l e v i s i o n ,  Services  Planning  69.  I d e n t i f y i n g t h e u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m , e.g. medical, Carry  out  b. 71.  Carry  etc.  , c.  68.  70.  work,  , c.  , b.  Treatment  social  interview with  employment, treatment  client,  a.  a.  , b .  _,  c.  marital, parent-child,  , b.  f o r i m m e d i a t e g o a l s , e.g.  , c. cheque,  a.  , c. out  treatment  for longer  r a n g e g o a l s , e.g.  interpersonal  69.  relationships, 72.  a.  Review treatment  , b.._  , c.  plans with c l i e n t ,  a.  , b.  _ ,  c 73.  Assess  client's  strengths,  a.  , b.  7 4.  Assess  client's motivation f o r help.  , c.  a.  , b .__  ,  c. 75.  Assess  client's  capacity f o r help.  a.  , b.  ,  c. 76.  Arrange f o r r e f e r r a l s , home.  a.  , b.  77.  Arranging  78.  Arranging f o r special  79.  i f necessary,  a.  , b.  ancillary  drugs  a.  (b)  medical  (c)  transportation  (d)  emergency s h e l t e r ,  ,  c._______  services.  , b.  care  boarding  , c.  for repatriation,  (a)  e.g. h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n ,  , c._  a.  , b. a.  , c.  , b. e t c . a.  Case c o n s u l t a t i o n - s c h e d u l e d  supervision,  , c. , b.  , c.  a.  , b.  c. 80.  Case c o n f e r e n c e a.  - two o r m o r e d i s c i p l i n e s  , b,  ____, c.  81.  R e a d i n g case  82.  Obtaining information f o r other (a)  social  files,  83.  a.  , b ._  , c.  agencies:  a s s e s s m e n t and p l a n n i n g , e . g . s u i t a b i l i t y  planning, (b)  (formal, face-to-face),  a.  , b.  , c.  statistical  i n f o r m a t i o n , e.g. work h i s t o r y  a.  , b.  Writing letters  to client  of predischarge  from  N.E.S.  , c. t o i n v o l v e him i n treatment,  a.  ,  70.  84.  Setting limits  and  c o n t r o l s on b e h a v i o r ,  a.  , b.  c. 85.  S u p p o r t i n g and e.g.  86.  reinforcing client  Phychiatrist.  Deal w i t h f e e l i n g s  a.  at request  , b.  o f o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e , ••' , c.  about b e i n g c l i e n t ,  a.  , b.  ,  c. 87.  Involve family treatment,  88.  I n v o l v e extended  a.  , b.  , c.  f a m i l y i n treatment,  a.  , b.  ,  a c c e p t h i s need f o r h e l p .  a.  , b.  ,  c. 89.  Help  client  c. 90.  I n t e r p r e t ongoing b.  91.  Support  agency,  a.  ,  , c. client  b. 92.  r o l e o f w o r k e r and  i n c a r r y i n g o u t p l a n s , e.g.  taking job.  a.  , c.  G i v e a d v i c e when n e c e s s a r y  and  appropriate,  a.  , b.  c. 93.  Support  families  94.  Recording  of c l i e n t ,  o f a s s e s s m e n t and  a.  , b.  planning,  , c.  a.  , b.  , b.  , c.  ,  c. 95.  E v a l u a t i o n of p r o g r e s s ,  96.  Compiling  social  a.  histories  and  reports,  a.  , b.  ,  c. I I I Termination 97.  Review reason b.  98.  Contact' f o r coming t o agency,  problem,  a.  ,  , b.  ,  , c.  Review long-range c.  e.g.  goals with c l i e n t ,  a.  99.  100.  Evaluate  treatment  Clarify with b.  101.  with  client  client.  reasons  a.  , b.  f o r t e r m i n a t i o n , a.  , c.  Support c l i e n t  i n l e a v i n g agency,  a.  , b.  i s always a v a i l a b l e ,  a.  c. 102.  Reassure c l i e n t b.  103.  that help  , c.  Report back to o r i g i n a l  referrant.  a.  , b  c. 104.  Carry  out  administrative  (a)  cancel medical  (b)  cancel  (c)  enter necessary  card.  financial  procedures: a.  grant,  , b._ a.  n o t a t i o n on  , b.  file  a.  c. (d)  record  and  close f i l e  a.  , b.  APPENDIX  INSTRUCTIONS FOR  B  RATING  The e n c l o s e d  list  of tasks  should  be r a t e d  from 1 to 5  d e p e n d i n g o n t h e amount o f s o c i a l w o r k e r autonomy r e q u i r e d p l e t i o n o f them i n t h e g r a n t i n g For been d e s i g n a t e d the  tasks.  "1"  as opposed  rated acts  of s o c i a l  a t "5".  by a f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e  to those tasks Objective  dealing with  psychological dealing with  allowance.  the purposes o f t h i s p r o j e c t ,  Tasks o f a completely  t h e c o n c e p t o f autonomy  o b j e c t i v e n a t u r e a r e t o be r a t e d  are defined  subjective nature as t h o s e p r i m a r i l y  t h e p h y s i c a l needs o f a c l i e n t  nature.  Subjective  psychological  tasks  the  (inner)  degree to which  as opposed  are.defined  and e m o t i o n a l needs o f a  S o c i a l work has b o t h o r g a n i z a t i o n a l professional  controls.  at  t o be concrete  to those of a  as p r i m a r i l y  those  client.  (outer)  controls  and  The c o n c e p t o f w o r k e r autonomy r e f e r s t o  the worker i s c a l l e d upon to f u n c t i o n autonomously,  depending on h i s " a c q u i r e d "  professional controls.  concept are the three  that:  (1)  has  f o r the purposes of r a t i n g  of a completely  tasks  i n t h e com-  facts  i .  Inherent i nh i s  many s o c i a l w o r k t a s k s a r e n o t s p e l l e d o u t i n .a b o o k o f r e g u l a t i o n s .  (2)  casework i s almost i n v a r i a b l y c l o s e d observation.  (3)  some a g e n c y s e t t i n g s p r o v i d e a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work principles.  The f o l l o w i n g g u i d e  lines  are provided  to d i r e c t  to. a s s i s t you i n r a t i n g  73.  the  tasks  i n order (1)  t o d e t e r m i n e t h e d e g r e e o f autonomy  Tasks r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e objective)  o r no a u t o n o m y :  required: (purely  S i m p l e and c o n c r e t e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t r e l a t e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h e i m m e d i a t e and t a n g i b l e w h i c h a r e s e t down i n t h e f o r m o f r u l e s a n d r e g u l a t i o n s and w h i c h r e q u i r e l i t t l e i f any r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h e i r p e r f o r m a n c e . No n e e d to a p p l y i n d e p e n d e n t judgment based on g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s o f s o c i a l work t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e , e.g., d r i v i n g c l i e n t t o d o c t o r . (2)  Objective  but requiring  decisions:  S p e c i f i c a n d c o n c r e t e t a s k s r e q u i r i n g some i n d e p e n d e n t judgment i n t h e u s e o f p o l i c y and regulations. Tasks s t i l l r e l a t e d to the imm e d i a t e and t a n g i b l e . No r i s k i n v o l v e d i n t h e making o f d e c i s i o n s . e.g., i s s u i n g form f o r emergency m e d i c i n e . (3)  Objective  and  Subjective:  J u d g m e n t r e q u i r e d i n d e c i s i o n made t a k i n g i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e o b j e c t i v e , and t o a l e s s e r extent s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s f o r the purpose of d e t e r m i n i n g c l i e n t needs. Use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i n r e a l i t y focussed s i t u a t i o n s r e q u i r i n g environmental manipulation. e.g., d e c i d i n g w h e t h e r t o recommend t h a t a f a m i l y o f 10 i n r e c e i p t o f s o c i a l a l l o w a n c e a t r a t e o f U n i t 7, have t h e i r u n i t i n c r e a s e d . (4)  Subjective  and  Objective:  Judgment r e q u i r e d i n t h e u s e o f p o l i c y based on an a s s e s s m e n t o f b o t h o b j e c t i v e and subj e c t i v e f a c t o r s i n the c l i e n t s i t u a t i o n . Purposeful use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i n treatment but l i m i t e d t o t h e u s e o f s u p p o r t i v e s k i l l s and techniques. There i s l e s s v i s i b i l i t y w i t h regard to the handling of subjective f a c t o r s . (5)  Tasks r e q u i r i n g g r e a t e s t (subjective)  d e g r e e o f autonomy:  Working w i t h i n t h e framework o f a g e n c y . p o l i c y , c o m p l e t e f r e e d o m o f a c t i v i t y , and d e c i s i o n making with regard to the c l i e n t ' s t o t a l s i t u a t i o n . F u l l u s e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s i n a s s e s s m e n t and t r e a t m e n t , w i t h c o n t r o l s emanating from p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e .  Rate the tasks at the lowest l e v e l For  o f autonomy  example, where a t a s k r e q u i r e s a worker  of "2", i n d i c a t e a "2" a f t e r  autonomy  t h e t a s k a n d n o t 2, 3,  4, 5. Thank y o u f o r y o u r  only.  co-operation.  75.  APPENDIX C  A.  I N I T I A L CONTACT  1.  Accept r e f e r r a l  2.  RATING for interview:  a.  by p h o n e ;  b.  by  c.  i n person.  a.  I d e n t i f y the p r e s e n t i n g  b.  Assess  letter;  the p r e s e n t i n g  3.  I d e n t i f y the u n d e r l y i n g  4.  Complete  5.  a.  b.  problem;  problem.  problem.  a p p l i c a t i o n form.  Complete  life  h i s t o r y - S.W.  82 o r  (Education,  work r e c o r d ,  Assess  history information.  life  health,  equivalent  etc.);  6.  Assess applicant's  ability  7.  Assess applicant's  e f f o r t s a t s o l v i n g problem.  8.  Assess applicant's  immediate  9.  Assess applicant's  long  10.  Assess applicant's  strengths.  11.  Assess applicant's  weaknesses.  12.  Determine  total  manipulation,  t o h a n d l e own  needs.  range  treatment plan  goals.  (e.g. environmental  support, etc.)  13.  Assess applicant's  14.  Explain  15.  Assess  16.  Assess applicant's  v i e w o f the agency.  f u n c t i o n and/or  p o l i c y of the agency.  f e e l i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , and n e e d s o f a p p l i c a n t . need  to v e n t i l a t e f e e l i n g s  situation. 17.  problems.  Assess applicant's motivation  for help.  about  A s s e s s a p p l i c a n t ' s c'apacity Purposefully a.  helping  for  help.  a p p l i c a n t a c c e p t h i s need f o r  A s s e s s need f o r immediate r e f e r r a l  (e.g.  help.  medical,  legal); b.  Complete arrangements f o r immediate  Interpret  to a p p l i c a n t  Interpret  t o a p p l i c a n t new  Interpret reason for Check  social  intake  interview.  worker w i l l  be  assigned.  referral.  files:  a.  for previous  b.  f o r assessment  Contact other  contact; information.  agencies:  a.  for previous  b.  for verification  Provide e.g.  f u n c t i o n of  referral.  treatment  information  legal  of  finances,  employability,  for applicant re: other  a i d , c r e d i t bureau,  A s s e s s need f o r  etc.  resources,  etc.  transportation.  Complete arrangements f o r A s s e s s need  contacts;  transportation.  f o r accommodation.  Complete arrangements f o r Contact person or a.  to r e p o r t  b.  to p r o v i d e  accommodation.  agency making  service  rendered;  e v a l u a t i o n or  Complete necessary  referral;  assessment.  f o r m s f o r s e r v i c e s , e.g.  vouchers,  cheques. A s s e s s c a s e t o d e t e r m i n e who  in office  should  carry i t .  77.  B.  ONGOING CONTACT I.  34.  Check  RATING  ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES S.W.  financial  81 ( d e c l a r a t i o n o f e a r n i n g s ) f o r c h a n g e s i n or other circumstances.  35.  Note changes on face s h e e t .  36.  Note changes  37.  Assess e l i g i b i l i t y glasses,  i n g r a n t on g r a n t sheet. for ancillary  services,  e.g. t e e t h ,  eye e x a m i n a t i o n s .  38.  Complete forms f o r p r o v i s i o n o f a n c i l l a r y  39.  Assess e l i g i b i l i t y  40.  Complete p r o c e d u r e s f o r i s s u i n g m e d i c a l c a r d .  41.  Contact post o f f i c e  42.  Try to locate c l i e n t s .  43.  Complete r e p o r t  44.  a.  A s s e s s need f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n ;  b.  Complete arrangements f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n .  II.  COMMUNITY  45.  services.  f o r medical card.  _____  r e : l o s t cheque o r change o f a d d r e s s _____  f o r Board o f Review.  RELATIONSHIPS  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f agency f u n c t i o n and/or p o l i c y  t o community  resources: a.  Medical  (doctors, hospitals);  b.  Legal;  c.  Financial  d.  Service Clubs;  e.  S o c i a l A g e n c i e s ( P u b l i c H e a l t h , Manpower);  f.  Religious  _______ ( c r e d i t bureaus, finance companies);  (ministers,  ______  etc.).  78.  46.  Request s e r v i c e not  provided  by  agency from  RATING  other  sources:  47.  a.  Legal  b.  School  c.  Financial (consolidating debts);  d'.  Service Clubs  e.  S o c i a l Agencies  f.  R e l i g i o u s ( c o u n s e l l i n g by  Provide  (legal aid); (counselling service);  (transportation); (Public Health,  i n f o r m a t i o n on  mental health c l i n i c s , 48.  Dealing  with  re c l i e n t s  social etc.)  homemaker);  Minister). resources  ( i . e . g r o u p homes,  f o r community  groups.  anonymous i n f o r m a t i o n c o m i n g i n t o  the  agency  by:  a.  phone;  b.  letter;  c.  in  person;  49.  Dealing  with private inquiries  50.  Addressing  about i n d i v i d u a l  clients.  p u b l i c m e e t i n g s o r community groups o n . s o c i a l  work. 51.  Representing  Agency a t p u b l i c meeting,, r a d i o ,  television,  etc. III. 52.  TREATMENT SERVICES  Assessing  t h e c l i e n t ' s u n d e r l y i n g p r o b l e m s , e.g.  parent-child,  employment.  53.  C o m p l e t e m e a s u r e s t o m e e t i m m e d i a t e n e e d s , e.g.  54.  Carry  out  marital,  treatment  f o r l o n g r a n g e g o a l s , e.g.  cheque. interpersonal  relationships. 55.  Evaluate  ongoing treatment  56.  Assess c l i e n t ' s  strengths.  plans  with  the  client.  79.  RATING 57.  Assess c l i e n t ' s  motivation f o rhelp.  58.  Assess c l i e n t ' s  capacity f o rhelp.  59.  Representing disciplines  60.  Provide a.  Agency a t Case c o n f e r e n c e s (formal, face-to-face).  information f o r other  social  61.  statistical  Purposeful  agencies:  a s s e s s m e n t and p l a n n i n g , e . g . s u i t a b i l i t y  of predishcarge b.  - two o r more  planning;  i n f o r m a t i o n , e.g. work h i s t o r y  setting  o f l i m i t s and c o n t r o l s on  f r o m N.E.S.  client's  behaviour. 62.  Advising client  of limits  and c o n t r o l s as e s t a b l i s h e d i n  agency p o l i c y . 63.  Purposeful e.g.  support  of client  of other  discipline,  Psychiatrist.  64.  H e l p c l i e n t work through  65.  Involve  66.  Involve extended  67.  Help c l i e n t  68.  Purposeful e.g.  a t request  feelings of being  a client.  family i n treatment.  ______  family i n treatment.  accept support  h i s need f o r t r e a t m e n t . of c l i e n t  ______  i n carrying out h i s plans,  taking job.  69.  P u r p o s e f u l g i v i n g o f a d v i c e when n e c e s s a r y  70.  Purposeful  71.  Recording  C.  TERMINATION CONTACT  72.  Evaluate  support  of families  of client.  o f a s s e s s m e n t and t r e a t m e n t  treatment  and a p p r o p r i a t e .  planning.  i n terms o f l o n g range g o a l s w i t h c l i e n t .  ______  80. RATING 73.  Evaluate  help given  t o meet s h o r t r a n g e n e e d s .  74.  Clarify  75.  Purposeful  support  76.  Purposeful  reassurance  with c l i e n t reasons of client  for termination. in'leaving  of client  agency.  that help  i s always  available. 77.  C a r r y o u t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o c e d u r e s upon t e r m i n a t i o n o f case.  78.  e.g. c a n c e l m e d i c a l  Record c l o s i n g  summary.  card or grant.  

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