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Search and leadership training in probation : A pre-evaluative study of an experiment in the treatment… Bieber, Benjamin Arnold 1967

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SEARCH AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING I N PROBATION A PRE-EVALUATIVE STUDY OF AN EXPERIMENT IN THE TREATMENT OF DELINQUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA Be n j a m i n A r n o l d B i e b e r Anthony K e n d a l l B r i n d - S h e r i d a n Hugh David Campbell R o b e r t N o e l Doupe L y l e Edward G a r i n g e r F r e d e r i c k M a z i e T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t o f the Re q u i r e m e n t s f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work We A c c e p t t h i s T h e s i s as C o n f o r m i n g t o t h e R e q u i r e d S t a n d a r d The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A p r i l , 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f S>oC,fi*L 4/<M^ T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a Date A-P/J/L 3N\ , ABSTRACT For many y e a r , c o r r e c t i o n a l t h e o r y has shown t h e need f o r a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y o f t r e a t m e n t programs t o combat the p r o b l e m o f d e l i n q u -ency. I t has been m a i n l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r o b l e m s , stemming from a l a c k o f p u b l i c s u p p o r t , t h a t has r e s u l t e d i n t h e e x t e n s i v e gap between t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e . T h e r e have been s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s t o i n t r o d u c e new programs, b u t t h e r e a r e s t i l l many wide gaps i n the t o t a l range o f s e r v i c e s t h a t a r e needed. I n a d a p t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s o f Outward Bound t o a. C o r r e c t i o n a l Program, t h e B.C. C o r r e c t i o n s B r anch has t a k e n an i m a g i n a t i v e and r a d i c a l s t e p towards f i l l i n g p a r t o f t h e gap. T h e i r S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g program (S.A.L.T.) i s an i n j e c t i o n o f new i d e a s i n t o an e s t a b l i s h e d f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e r a t h e r t h a n a p r o g r e s s i o n a l development w i t h i n t h e f i e l d . However, t h e r e i s v i r t u a l l y no t h e o r e t i c a l o r s c i e n t i f i c e v a l u a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s o r methods of Outward Bound a v a i l a b l e . I n t h i s s t u d y o f t h e 1966 S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g c o u r s e s f o r boys on p r o b a t i o n , an a t t e m p t has been made t o i d e n t i f y t h e b a s i c t h e o -r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s on w h i c h t h e program r e s t s . These a s s u m p t i o n s have been r e l a t e d t o c u r r e n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h e o r y i n o r d e r t o show what c o n c e p t s can e v e n t u a l l y be t e s t e d by e v a l u a t i o n o f the program. The main f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y has been a t the p r e - e v a l u a t i v e l e v e l . The r e s e a r c h team has c o n c e n t r a t e d on d e v e l o p i n g i n s t r u m e n t s f o r t h e e f f e c -t i v e c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a . These i n s t r u m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e one d e v e l o p e d t o e x t r a c t i n f o r m a t i o n from t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t , a r e g e n e r i c i n scope and can be used t o e v a l u a t e a v a r i e t y o f programs or the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t i t s e l f . The i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d on t h e t w e n t y - f o u r boys who took the two S.A.L.T. c o u r s e s i n 1966 has been t a b u l a t e d t o show t h e amount and the c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e . P e r u s a l o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e s a c o n c i s e p i c t u r e o f t h a t d a t a and s u g g e s t i o n s have been made as t o what a r e a s o f i n f o r m a t i o n s h o u l d be s o l i c i t e d t o en s u r e f u t u r e e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s have adequate m a t e r i a l t o a n a l y z e . i i i . •TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. CHAPTER I . INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH PROBLEM L o c a l S o c i a l Work Pro b l e m 1 The Research" P r o b l e m 4 M a i n F e a t u r e s o f E x p e r i m e n t 5 S p e c i f i c D e t a i l s o f 1966 S.A.L.T. Program 6 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework 9 Sou r c e s and Types of Data U t i l i z e d i n the S t u d y . . . . 10 Scope o f t h e Study 11 O r g a n i z a t i o n of C h a p t e r s 11 CHAPTER I I . A.REVIEW. OF THE LITERATURE 13 CHAPTER I I I . STUDY DESIGN 27 T h e o r e t i c a l Framework '27 L e v e l o f R e s e a r c h D e s i g n 36 Methods of Data C o l l e c t i o n 38 CHAPTER IV. METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION 42 P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t 42 A d m i s s i o n s C r i t e r i a 54 S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e 54 T a b u l a t i o n o f Raw S c o r e s f o r the R a t i n g S c a l e s 56 Fo l l o w - U p Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 69 CHAPTER V. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of the Study 72 I m p l i c a t i o n s a n d - P r o p o s a l s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h . . . . 75 BIBLIOGRAPHY ^.>l^:yi;.:^:p'.iy. 81 APPENDICIES: APPENDIX I . L e t t e r from: Outward Bound I n t e r n a t i o n a l S e c r e t a r i a t , , . 86 APPENDIX I I . L e t t e r from: W i l l i a m G l a s s e r , M.D 88 APPENDIX I I I . O u t l i n e o f P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t C u r r e n t l y i n Use by the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e . . . 89 APPENDIX IV. A d m i s s i o n s C r i t e r i a : 1966 S.A.L.T. Course 90 i v . Page No. APPENDIX V. S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e . . . 92 APPENDIX V I . Follow-Up R e p o r t 93 APPENDIX V I I . O p e r a t i o n a l D e f i n i t i o n s : . P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t - Data C o l l e c t i o n I n s t r u m e n t 95 APPENDIX V I I I . P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t : Data C o l l e c t i o n I n s t r u m e n t . . . . . 102 LIST OF TABLES IN THE TEXT 'Page No. TABLE I . R e s u l t s : P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t Data C o l l e c t i o n I n s t r u m e n t 50 TABLE 2. S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e : T a b u l a t i o n of t h e Raw S c o r e s 59 TABLE 3. S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e : T o t a l s o f Group P e r T r a i t ( H o r i z o n t a l ) 65 TABLE 4. S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e : T o t a l s of Items P e r Case ( V e r t i c a l ) 66 TABLE 5. F o l l o w - u p P e r f o r m a n c e .. 67 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The r e s e a r c h team w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s i t s s i n c e r e thanks t o S. Rocksborough S m i t h , D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n f o r t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , and t h o s e o f h i s s t a f f , w i t h o u t whose c o - o p e r a t i o n t h i s s t u d y would n o t have been p o s s i b l e . Dr. M.A. Matheson, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n , was h e l p f u l i n d i s c u s s i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the program. Our thanks a l s o t o Mr. J.V. S a b o u r i n , S t a f f S u p e r v i s o r , who was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the 1966 S.A.L.T. program, and who p r o v i d e d the r e s e a r c h team w i t h e s s e n t i a l d a t a . We a l s o w i s h t o acknowledge Mr. A r t h u r Rodgers and Mr. M i c h a e l P e r r y , who have b o t h been i n s t r u c t o r s i n the Outward Bound S c h o o l s , f o r e n r i c h i n g our u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the Outward Bound movement. To M i s s Eva R. Younge, our r e s e a r c h c o n s u l t a n t from the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, our a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r h e r v a l u -a b l e g u i d a n c e and s u p p o r t . SEARCH.AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING IN PROBATION A PRE-EVALUATIVE STUDY OF AN EXPERIMENT IN'ITHE TREATMENT OF DELINQUENCY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH PROBLEM The L o c a l S o c i a l Work P r o b l e m T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s an a t t e m p t t o d e v i s e r e s e a r c h methods t o s t u d y the outcome of a r e c e n t e x p e r i m e n t i n the t r e a t m e n t of j u v e n i l e delinquency''" c a l l e d S.A.L.T. ( S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g ) w h i c h has 2 been c a r r i e d on by the P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e o f ^ B r i t i s h C o l umbia . When view e d on a l a r g e s c a l e , the problems of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y a r e v a s t and c o m p l i c a t e d . Inadequate p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the cause o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y , i s o n l y one f a c e t o f the p r o b l e m . The a d o l e s c e n t s t a g e of development w i t h a l l of the t u r b u -l e n c e s u r r o u n d i n g problems of i d e n t i t y , m a t u r i t y , independence and a g g r e s s -i o n , w h i c h a r e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t h i s s t a g e , seems p a r t i c u l a r l y r i p e f o r c o n f l i c t . The w i d e r s o c i a l c o n t e x t of the l a r g e r s o c i e t y w h i c h p e r m i t s such w i d e s p r e a d c o n d i t i o n s o f p o v e r t y , slums, mass unemployment, poor h o u s i n g and i n a d e q u a t e m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , t o e x i s t , must a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d as p a r t s of the p r o b l e m o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . 1-The R e v i s e d S t a t u t e s o f Canada (1952) d e f i n e " j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t " as f o l l o w s : ... any c h i l d who v i o l a t e s any p r o v i s i o n o f the C r i m i n a l code or of any Dominion or p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e , or of any b y - l a w o r o r d i n a n c e of any m u n i c i p a l i t y , or who i s g u i l t y of s e x u a l i m m o r a l i t y or any s i m i l a r f o r m of v i c e , or who i s l i a b l e by r e a s o n o f any o t h e r a c t t o be committed t o an i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l or j u v e n i l e r e f o r m a t o r y under t h e p r o v i s i o n s of any Dominion or p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u t e . " J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t , C h a p t e r 160, page 3508. T h i s d e f i n i t i o n w i l l be the one adhered t o whenever t h e term " j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t " i s used i n t h i s p r o j e c t . B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s h e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d as B.C. The community o f t h e p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y must absorb t h e consequences o f the a g g r e s s i o n o f i t s a l i e n a t e d y o u t h , has a t t e m p t e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e p r o b l e m i n many ways. I t has i n i t i a t e d s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e programs, r e f e r r e d c h i l d r e n t o f o s t e r homes, i n s t i t u t e d f a m i l y c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s and i t has a t t e m p t e d t h e placement o f s m a l l groups of t e e n a g e r s i n "group homes" and y o u t h h o s t e l s . One common a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e s o l u t i o n s mentioned above has been i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n . However, t h i s way of d e a l i n g w i t h j u v e n i l e problems h a s , i n . i t s t u r n , l e d t o t h e r i s e o f new p r o b l e m s . The i n c a r c e r a t e d j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r f r e q u e n t l y sees h i s commitment as "punishment" r a t h e r t h a n " r e h a -b i l i t a t i o n . " He r e s e n t s t h e community f o r t a k i n g away h i s freedom and he meets o t h e r boys who f e e l the same way. These r e s e n t m e n t s " h a r d e n " w i t h t i m e and t h e y a r e s h a r e d by most o f h i s f e l l o w i n m a t e s . When such a t e e n -ager i s r e l e a s e d from t h e i n s t i t u t i o n , t h e community i s n o t always r e a d y t o a c c e p t him. F r e q u e n t l y , the j u v e n i l e o f f e n d e r on ' p r o v i s i o n a l r e l e a s e ' r e -t u r n s t o the same k i n d o f e n v i r o n m e n t w h i c h caused h i s problems i n t h e f i r s t p l a c e . A n o t h e r o b j e c t i o n t o i n s t i t u t i o n a l i z a t i o n i s the heavy c o s t s i t r e q u i r e d t o c a r e f o r a boy i n a government i n s t i t u t i o n . A new a t t e m p t i n Canada a t d e a l i n g w i t h the p r o b l e m of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y was begun i n 1964 by the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e when a summer o u t d o o r s program c a l l e d S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g ^ was i n i t i a t e d . •^The B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e e s t i m a t e s t h a t i t c o s t s a p p r o x i m a t e l y $150 t o p l a c e a boy on p r o b a t i o n i n t h e community f o r a y e a r . The c o s t s o f p l a c i n g a boy i n an i n s t i t u t i o n f o r t h e same p e r i o d has been e s t i m a t e d by t h e S e r v i c e a t $2500. ^ H e r e a f t e r a b b r e v i a t e d as S.A.L.T. T h i s e x p e r i m e n t , w h i c h has been i n o p e r a t i o n f o r the p a s t t h r e e summers, i s based on the p r i n c i p l e s of the Outward Bound Movement w h i c h began i n E n g l a n d d u r i n g W o r l d War I I . - * T h e O u t w a r d Bound Movement p r o v i d e s c h a l l e n g i n g e x p e r i e n c e s f o r y o u t h i n i s o l a t e d p h y s i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t s where a v a r i e t y o f s t r e n u o u s a c t i v i t i e s a r e s h a r e d by s m a l l groups of boys under t r a i n e d l e a d e r s h i p . The P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e i n B.C. d e c i d e d t o d e v e l o p such a progr-am i n t h i s p r o v i n c e . The p l a n i s t o adapt the p r i n c i p l e s d e v e l o p e d i n E n g l a n d t o a C a n adian s e t t i n g . The a t t e m p t h e r e i s t o r e h a b i l i t a t e boys on p r o b a t i o n who have n o t responded w e l l t o t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f s o c i a l casework or s o c i a l group work. The 1966 summer program i s the s u b j e c t o f t h i s s t u d y . T h i s e x p e r i m e n t c o n s i s t e d o f two t w e n t y - s i x day o u t d o o r e x p e r i e n c e s i n t o t h e m o u n t a i n s and l a k e s o f B.C. Each program i n v o l v e d t w e l v e p r o b a t i o n e r s under the g u i d a n c e o f t h r e e c o u n s e l o r s from the B.C.. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e . The p u r p o s e o f S.A.L.T., as d e s c r i b e d by the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e , i s t o : "... t r a i n young men t o a d j u s t t o the c h a l l e n g e s o f n a t u r e and t h e r e b y g a i n s e l f - r e l i a n c e , a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e m s e l v e s and o t h e r s , s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e and the s a t i s f a c t i o n o f p o s i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t . " 0 I n an e f f o r t t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t s of the program on the boys i n v o l v e d , the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e a u t h o r i z e d the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work t o conduct a r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t on t h e S.A.L.T. e x p e r i m e n t . The r e s e a r c h team was a l s o asked t o t a k e a s p e c i a l 5See C h a p t e r I I f o r a d e t a i l e d e x p l a n a t i o n of the p r i n c i p l e s o f the Outward Bound Movement. 6 E x c e r p t from mimeographed i n f o r m a t i o n on S.A.L.T. p r o v i d e d by t h e B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e . i n t e r e s t i n a s e a r c h f o r improvements t h a t m i g h t be made i n the c r i t e r i a t o be used i n s e l e c t i n g boys f o r f u t u r e programs. U n f o r t u n a t e l y time has n o t been a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h e r s t o complete t h e s e t a s k s . The e f f o r t s o f t h i s group have been c o n c e n t r a t e d on d e v i s i n g methods t o c l a s s i f y and r e c o r d the e x i s t i n g i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h can be u t i l i z e d by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s f o r a more complete s t u d y o f t h e S.A.L.T. program. The R e s e a r c h P r o b l e m T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s a s t u d y o f s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . The p a r t i c u l a r methods o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t o be a n a l y z e d a r e t h o s e used i n the 1966 S.A.L.T. program. The s t u d y w i l l i n d i c a t e the backgrounds of t h e s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e p r o j e c t and i t w i l l d e v e l o p an a n a l y s i s of t h e p r o j e c t by c o m p a r a t i v e means whenever p o s s i b l e . The p r i m a r y p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y i s : 1. To d e v e l o p methodology f o r (a) c o l l e c t i n g (b) r e c o r d i n g and ( c ) a n a l y z i n g i n f o r m a t i o n about the i n d i v i d u a l S.A.L.T. members ' p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e s and p r e v i o u s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e s a p l a n f o r r e l a t i n g s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s and v a r i a b l e s o f the boy's l i f e and o f h i s c h i l d h o o d e n v i r o n m e n t t o h i s p o t e n t i a l s f o r b e n e f i t i n g from the o u t d o o r s program o f f e r e d i n t h e 1966 S.A.L.T. e x p e r i m e n t . T h i s o b j e c t i v e i s e s s e n t i a l l y an a t t e m p t t o d e v e l o p some g u i d a n c e i n d e t a i l o f (a) s e l e c t i n g and (b) r e c o r d i n g r e l e v a n t d a t a on j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y w h i c h may be used l a t e r on f o r more s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n t h a n has been p o s s i b l e i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . The more p r a c t i c a l p u r p o s e s o f the s t u d y , as r e q u e s t e d by the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e , . a r e : 2." To a s s e s s the r e s u l t s o f t h e S.A.L.T. program as e v i d e n c e d i n the changes o b s e r v e d i n the boys who p a r t i c i p a t e d d u r i n g the o u t d o o r e x p e r i m e n t and a l s o t h o s e r e p o r t e d some months l a t e r by the b o y s ' p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . 3. To make some s u g g e s t i o n s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the s e l e c t i o n of f u t u r e c a n d i d a t e s f o r o t h e r S.A.L.T. e x p e r i m e n t s on the b a s i s of the f i n d i n g s of changes i n the i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e 1966 S.A.L.T. program. The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n f o r the p r e s e n t s t u d y i s t h e r e f o r e seen as an e v a l u a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o o b j e c t i v e s (2) and (3) and as a p r e - e v a l u a t i o n d e s i g n i n r e s p e c t t o t h e development o f methodology f o r c o l l e c t i n g d a t a w i t h r e s p e c t t o o b j e c t i v e ( 1 ) . M a i n F e a t u r e s o f t h e E x p e r i m e n t The S.A.L.T. e x p e r i m e n t i n v o l v e s the t r a n s f e r o f p r o b a t i o n e r s from t h e i r u s u a l e n v i r o n m e n t s t o the rugged o u t d o o r s o f B.C. f o r a t w e n t y - s i x day p e r i o d . D u r i n g t h i s time each boy i s " f o r c e d " t o overcome t h e r i g o r o u s c h a l l e n g e s p r e s e n t e d t o him by c l i m b i n g h i g h m o u n t a i n s , e n d u r i n g l o n g h i k e s over d i f f i c u l t t e r r a i n , swimming, s a i l i n g , p l a n n i n g m e a l s , c o o k i n g f o o d , s e t t i n g up s h e l t e r f o r t h e n i g h t , e t c . The c l i m a x of the c o u r s e , i n terms o f c h a l l e n g e , i s a t h r e e day ' s o l o ' e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e rugged w i l d e r n e s s . F o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n o f the ' s o l o ' phase, t h e S.A.L.T. c a n d i d a t e i s g r a d u a t e d from the c o u r s e when he r e c e i v e s a c e r t i f i c a t e i n a ceremony a t t e n d e d by h i s p a r e n t s and h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a t the c l o s i n g o f the program. M u t u a l c o - o p e r a t i o n and i n t e r - d e p e n d e n c e upon one a n o t h e r i s s t r e s s e d t h r o u g h o u t the c o u r s e . L e a d e r s h i p a b i l i t i e s i n t h e boys a r e encouraged whenever p o s s i b l e . D i s c u s s i o n s about t h e day's e v e n t s a r e h e l d each e v e n i n g when each boy i s encouraged t o e x p r e s s h i s f e e l i n g s about the t h i n g s t h a t have happened t o him d u r i n g t h e day. I n d i v i d u a l and group p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r a r e c a r e f u l l y o b s e r v e d by t h e c o u n s e l o r s and r e p o r t e d i n t h e i r d i a r i e s . The boys who a r e s e l e c t e d f o r the S.A.L.T. Program have t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common, namely, low s e l f - e s t e e m , n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward a u t h o r i t y , p e r s i s t e n t h a b i t s o f d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , and a poor sense o f p o s i t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t . The S.A.L.T. Program aims a t p r o v i d i n g an atmosphere i n w h i c h each boy can see h i s own p o t e n t i a l f o r s t r e n g t h and the independence t h a t l i e s w i t h i n h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y . A n o t h e r g o a l o f the program i s t o p r o -v i d e the boys w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g and h e l p f u l a d u l t . By means of e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h i s k i n d , s i t u a t i o n s a r e c r e a t e d where t h e boy's p r e d o m i n a n t l y n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s toward a u t h o r i t y f i g u r e s can be a m e l i o r a t e d , and perhaps changed i n a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . S p e c i f i c D e t a i l s of t h e 1066 S.A.L.T. Program The 1966 S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g c o u r s e was conducted under th e a u s p i c e s and s u p e r v i s i o n o f the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e , d u r i n g the months of J u l y and A u g u s t . The t o t a l program was d i v i d e d i n t o two t w e n t y -s i x day c o u r s e s , c o m p r i s e d of t w e l v e boys between f i f t e e n and s e v e n t e e n y e a r s , and t h r e e s t a f f members. The p a r t i c i p a n t s f o r t h e S.A.L.T. c o u r s e were s e l e c t e d from p r o b a t i o n e r s who were r e f e r r e d by t h e i r p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . The s e l e c -t i o n was made on a p r o v i n c e - w i d e g e o g r a p h i c a l b a s i s , w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y of r e f e r r a l s coming from the l o w e r m a i n l a n d a r e a . There was a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p r e p a r a t i o n n e c e s s a r y and each boy had t o be g i v e n m e d i c a l and l e g a l c l e a r a n c e i n o r d e r t o t a k e the c o u r s e . S i n c e each r e f e r r a l was a l r e a d y under the a u t h o r i t y of an a c t i v e c o u r t o r d e r ( p r o b a t i o n ) , i t was f e l t t h a t the c o u r s e s h o u l d be made a con-d i t i o n of ;pr>obation and t h e r e f o r e t h e o r i g i n a l c o m m i t t i n g judge o f t h e F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t s h o u l d g i v e s a n c t i o n t o the c o u r s e as a f u r t h e r c o n d i t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n . T h i s had the e f f e c t of r e m o v i n g the v o l u n t a r y a s p e c t of the c o u r s e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . I t was f e l t , however, t h a t a l t h o u g h some of t h e boys were n o t eager to p a r t i c i p a t e , t h e r e were o n l y one or two who made any o v e r t g e s t u r e s toward r e s i s t i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , due t o a r a t h e r l a t e s t a r t i n the p l a n n i n g of t h e program, t h e number o f r e f e r r a l s was n o t s u f f i c i e n t t o s e t up a c o n t r o l group. The a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a were s e t up t o i n c l u d e i n g e n e r a l , a l l t h o s e p r o b a t i o n e r s between f i f t e e n and s e v e n t e e n y e a r s o f age who were n o t r e -s p o n d i n g w e l l t o t h e i r p r o b a t i o n and whose p r o b a t i o n . o f f i c e r s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t t h e y had a poor p r o g n o s i s f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e i r p r o b a t i o n . The F a m i l y C o u r t Judge's c o n s e n t was r e q u i r e d f o r each boy who a t t e n d e d t h e c o u r s e , and t h e P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e a l s o o b t a i n e d the c o n s e n t of t h e p a r e n t s . The l a t t e r were asked t o a r r a n g e f o r a m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n f o r t h e i r son and t o s u p p l y some o f h i s b a s i c equipment. The s t a f f members f o r t h e c o u r s e were a l l e x p e r i e n c e d i n mount-a i n e e r i n g and o u t d o o r s m a n s h i p . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t c o u r s e , t h e s t a f f c o m p r i s e d a l e a d i n s t r u c t o r , who had p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e as an i n s t r u c t o r i n the use of Outward Bound p r i n c i p l e s i n the t r e a t m e n t o f a d u l t o f f e n d e r s ; a p r o b a -t i o n o f f i c e r ; ; from t h e Kootenay a r e a , who had some p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e i n m o u n t a i n e e r i n g ; and a t h i r d member, a second y e a r e d u c a t i o n s t u d e n t ^ who was employed o n l y f o r t h i s summer p r o j e c t . D u r i n g the second c o u r s e , the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r from the Kootenay a r e a was r e p l a c e d by a n o t h e r c o r r e c t i o n s b r a n c h p e r s o n who had e x p e r i e n c e b o t h i n t h e o u t d o o r s and as a c o u n s e l o r i n a c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n . The s i t e f o r t h e f i r s t c o u r s e was s e l e c t e d i n the Koo t e n a y P a r k a r e a w h i l e t h e second c o u r s e was based i n G a r i b a l d i P a r k . A base camp was s e t up f o r each c o u r s e t o p r o v i d e the f a c i l i t i e s f o r b a s i c t r a i n i n g and c o n d i t i o n i n g i n the e a r l y s t a g e s o f the e x p e r i m e n t . D u r i n g the f i r s t t e n days of the c o u r s e , t h e c o u n s e l o r s p r o v i d e d l e a d e r s h i p i n t r a i n i n g the group by s h a r i n g t h e i r knowledge and s k i l l s i n T h i s s t u d e n t a l s o had e x p e r i e n c e i n c l i m b i n g and i n m o u n t a i n s u r v i v a l work. He i s now s e r v i n g as a p a r t - t i m e i n s t r u c t o r a t the C o l o r a d o Outward Bound S c h o o l i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 8. b o t h t h e o r e t i c a l and p r a c t i c a l a s p e c t s . The s e r v i c e s of v i s i t i n g i n s t r u c -t o r s and s p e a k e r s from the l o c a l community were u t i l i z e d whenever p o s s i b l e . S e v e r a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s l e n t r e s o u r c e p e r s o n s f o r some o t h e r k i n d s of h e l p d u r i n g the two S.A.L.T. c o u r s e s . These i n c l u d e d t h e P r o v i n c i a l F o r e s t S e r v i c e , the P a r k s B r a n c h , the S t . John's Ambulance Group, as w e l l as v a r i o u s p r i v a t e o r g a n i z a t i o n s such as the A l p i n e C l u b i n the K o o t e n a y s . S i n c e the base camps were s i t u a t e d r e l a t i v e l y c l o s e t o community p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s , the s t a f f were a b l e t o make use o f community v o l u n t e e r s t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e o v e r - a l l program. I n r e t u r n f o r t h i s s e r v i c e , t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the c o u r s e were encouraged t o a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a l o c a l community p r o j e c t . D u r i n g the G a r i b a l d i c o u r s e , f o r example, the boys were i n d u c e d t o h e l p w i t h a b e a c h - c l e a r i n g p r o j e c t f o r one day i n r e t u r n f o r t h e s e r v i c e s g i v e n by the Deep Cove Y a c h t C l u b . D u r i n g b o t h c o u r s e s , the base camps were d e s i g n e d t o u t i l i z e the n a t u r a l s u r r o u n d i n g s as f a r as p o s s i b l e . V a r i o u s s t r u c t u r e s were e r e c t e d i n o r d e r t o e n a b l e t h e boys t o l e a r n t h e f u n d a m e n t a l s of c l i m b i n g , b a l a n c e , and c o - o r d i n a t i o n . O b s t a c l e s were b u i l t so t h a t the boys c o u l d be t a u g h t t o use r o p e s , and t o a s s i s t one a n o t h e r i n v a r i o u s c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The d a i l y r o u t i n e was rigdr.pus and demanded a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of p h y s i c a l o u t p u t . B e s i d e s t h e e a r l y r i s i n g and q u i c k d i p i n a n e a r b y s t r e a m , each l a d was b e i n g a s s e s s e d t o d e t e r m i n e h i s r e a d i n e s s t o t a k e on some o f t h e more p r e s s i n g demands of t h e a c t u a l m o u n t a i n s e t t i n g . A p e r i o d o f p r e l i m i n a r y p r e p a r a t i o n p r o v e d t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r c o n d i t i o n i n g the boys and h e l p i n g the i n s t r u c t o r s t o g a i n some f i r m u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the i n d i v i d u a l s who were p a r t i c i p a t i n g . When t h e s e p r e p a r a t i o n s were c o m p l e t e d , t h e group moved out i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s a r e a t o t a k e p a r t i n m o u n t a i n c l i m b i n g e x e r c i s e s , w h i c h i n -e l u d e d r a p e l l i n g , a method of d e s c e n d i n g s t e e p s l o p e s w i t h t h e use o f a r o p e . The equipment used by t h e group was adequate b u t n o t e l a b o r a t e . P l a s t i c s h e e t i n g was used f o r t e n t s and the o n l y s p e c i a l i z e d gear was c l i m b i n g b o o t s and i c e a x e s . The two l a t t e r i t e m s were s u p p l i e d by t h e P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e w h i l e the s t a n d a r d i t e m s o f c l o t h i n g were s u p p l i e d by t h e boys t h e m s e l v e s . The c a n d i d a t e s were a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p e r s o n a l items a l t h o u g h t h e amount th e y were a l l o w e d t o c a r r y was l i m i t e d . C One of t h e m a j o r c h a l l e n g e s o f t h e t o t a l e x p e r i m e n t was a l e n g t h y e x p e d i t i o n w h i c h i n c l u d e d c l i m b i n g a f a i r l y f o r m i d a b l e p e a k i : i n t h e a r e a . F o l l o w i n g t h i s , each l a d was s e n t on a t h r e e - d a y ' s o l o ' m i s s i o n . He was p r o v i d e d w i t h h i s s l e e p i n g bag, some p l a s t i c s h e e t i n g , matches, s t r i n g , s a l t , and a s m a l l handbook t h a t d e s c r i b e d t h e e d i b l e p l a n t s i n the a r e a . He was e x p e c t e d t o ' l i v e o f f t h e l a n d ' f o r the t h r e e - d a y p e r i o d . Each boy was out of c o n t a c t w i t h t h e r e s t o f t h e group f o r t h i s p e r i o d w h i c h was c a l l e d a ' s o l o s u r v i v a l ' e x p e d i t i o n . T h i s e x e r c i s e ended the e v e n t s o f the c o u r s e and i t s e r v e d as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e a b i l i t y o f t h e s e boys t o f u n c t i o n on t h e i r own i n a w i l d e r n e s s a r e a . T h e o r e t i c a l Framework As mentioned p r e v i o u s l y , t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s of the S.A.L.T. e x p e r i m e n t a r e d e r i v e d from t h o s e o f t h e Outward Bound Movement. The e x p e r i m e n t i s a l s o c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e t h e o r y o f i n d i v i d u a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t hasubeen d e v e l o p e d i n t h e w r i t i n g s of W i l l i a m G l a s s e r . A n o t h e r r e l e v a n t t h e o r y i s t h e c o n f l i c t o f " i d e n t i t y " v e r s u s " i d e n t i t y d i f f u s i o n " i n t h e a d o l e s c e n t s t a g e of development w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d by E r i k E r i k s o n . The c o n c e p t of i n d e p e n d e n t ego e n e r g i e s as d e v e l o p e d i n the w r i t i n g s o f R o b e r t H. W h i t e , a l s o has some b e a r i n g on the e x p e r i m e n t . These t h e o r i e s and o t h e r s 10. r e l a t e d t o the t h e o r e t i c a l base o f t h i s e x p e r i m e n t w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . The a s s u m p t i o n s on w h i c h t h e s t u d y i s based as w e l l as the q u e s t i o n s posed by t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s , w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a i l i n the t h e o r e t i c a l s e c t i o n o f C h a p t e r T h r e e . Sources and Types o f Data U t i l i z e d i n the Study The d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y has been made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h group by the V.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e . The m a t e r i a l s used i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y i n c l u d e t he f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n : 1. P r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s on most of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s . I n o r d e r t o a b s t r a c t d a t a from t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t , a d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u m e n t has been d e v e l o p e d by the r e s e a r c h team. C e r t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e l i m i -t a t i o n s o f t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s and o t h e r d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n v o l v e d i n c o l l e c t i n g d a t a from i t w i l l be e x p l a i n e d i n Chap t e r T h r e e . 2. A d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a d e v e l o p e d by the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e . 3. R a t i n g S c a l e s d e s i g n e d t o a s s e s s o v e r a l l p e r f o r m a n c e o f the b o y s . The f i r s t o f t h e s e r a t i n g s c a l e s were f i l l e d o ut by t h e c o u n s e l o r s t e n days a f t e r t h e program had begun. 4. E n d - o f - c o u r s e r a t i n g s c a l e s on each boy were f i l l e d o ut by t h e c o u n s e l o r s a f t e r t he c o u r s e had been c o m p l e t e d . 5. S e l f r a t i n g s were made by each boy a t the c o m p l e t i o n o f the c o u r s e . 6. P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r s 1 o b s e r v a t i o n s o f each boy i n h i s l o c a l community were r e p o r t e d s i x months a f t e r t he c o u r s e was c o m p l e t e d . The l a t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n was o b t a i n e d by means of a f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o a l l p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s who had boys p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the 1966 S.A.L.T. Program. D e t a i l s about t h e s e l e c t i o n , r e c o r d i n g / a n d c l a s s i f y i n g o f a l l t h e above-mentioned m a t e r i a l s w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n Chap t e r T h r e e . Scope o f the Study 1. The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i s seen as a p r e l i m i n a r y s t u d y w h i c h has a t t e m p t e d t o c l a s s i f y and r e c o r d the a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s . T h i s ; d a t a can t h e n be used by o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r s t o a s s e s s t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e S.A.L.T. E x p e r i m e n t more i n t e n s i v e l y t h a n was p o s s i b l e i n t h i s s t u d y . 2. The p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h team has examined the t h e o r e t i c a l base of the Outward Bound Movement and have r e l a t e d the a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e p r i n c i p l e s t o t h e S.A.L.T. Program. They have a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o r e l a t e t h e s e p r i n -c i p l e s t o c u r r e n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h e o r i e s d e a l i n g w i t h the t r e a t m e n t o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . 3. The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s l i m i t e d t o a s m a l l and s e l e c t e d p o p u l a t i o n o f t w e n t y - f o u r boys and any c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t may be drawn a r e n e c e s s a r i l y o f a s u g g e s t i v e n a t u r e . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e C h a p t e r s C h a p t e r One has p r e s e n t e d an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e s t u d y i n c l u d i n g a summary of t h e s o c i a l work and r e s e a r c h problems i n v o l v e d . A r e v i e w o f the r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e d e a l i n g w i t h the p r o b l e m of j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y as w e l l as a h i s t o r y o f the Outward Bound Movement and i t s main p r i n c i p l e s a r e d e a l t w i t h i n C h a p t e r Two. The t h i r d c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s a t h e o r e t i c a l and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework f o r the S.A.L.T. E x p e r i m e n t . Q The r e s e a r c h team a l s o had a c c e s s t o tape r e c o r d i n g s o f the b o y s ' r e a c t i o n s t o t h e c o u r s e and t o t h e i r s c o r e s on J e s s n e s s P s y c h o l o g i c a l T e s t s w h i c h measure p r e d i c t i o n s o f d e l i n q u e n t a t t r i b u t e s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y l a c k o f t i m e f o r the a n a l y s i s o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s p r e v e n t e d t h e i r use i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . I The f o u r t h c h a p t e r e x p l a i n s t h e development o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t s d e v i s e d t o c o l l e c t the d a t a . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r o c e d u r a l s t e p s t a k e n i n t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and the t a b u l a t i o n of the d a t a . The f i n a l c h a p t e r w i l l summarize the work done on the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t t o d a t e . I t w i l l a l s o o f f e r s u g g e s t i o n s on the i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g s and p r o p o s a l s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER I I A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE The S.A.L.T. c o u r s e i s a new p r o b a t i o n program w h i c h has been d e s i g n e d t o meet th e needs of some of the p r o b a t i o n e r s who do n o t r e s p o n d t o the more t r a d i t i o n a l p r o b a t i o n methods. Though new t o c o r r e c -t i o n s , the p r i n c i p l e s of the program a r e d e r i v e d from a w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d f i e l d o f p r a c t i c e . Hence, t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o r e v i e w the development of t h e t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e i n t o w h i c h t h e c o ncept o f S.A.L.T. has been i n j e c t e d . I t was n o t u n t i l the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h a t the W e s t e r n World began t o a c c e p t t h a t e v i l was n o t i n n a t e and t h a t man c o u l d change. T h i s new v a l u e was r e f l e c t e d i n p e n o l o g y by d e c r e a s i n g use o f the d e a t h p e n a l t y and a b o l i t i o n of such s e n t e n c e s as t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . The f i r s t r e f o r m e r s were Quakers and t h e i r i n f l u e n c e r e s u l t e d i n the c o ncept of the p e n i t e n t i a r y where a s i n n e r c o u l d make h i s peace w i t h God i n s i l e n c e and s o l i t u d e . But a g r o w i n g s o c i a l awareness r e s u l t e d i n the b e l i e f t h a t i t was n o t enough t o p u n i s h o r r e s t r a i n t h e o f f e n d e r , he must a l s o be g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p i n n e r r e s o u r c e s . Thus t h e c o ncept o f r e h a b i l i t a t i o n was d e v e l o p e The term r e h a b i l i t a t i o n tends t o be m i s l e a d i n g as i t s u g g e s t s t h a t the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f an o f f e n c e were more i n the n a t u r e o f a t emporary l a p s e from an a c c e p t a b l e p a t t e r n of b e h a v i o u r . However, r e s e a r c h has shown t h a t most o f f e n d e r s have l i f e l o n g h i s t o r i e s of i r r e s p o n s i b l e b e h a v i o u r . Thus c r i m i n a l i t y came t o be a c c e p t e d as a symptom o f an u n d e r l y i n g e m o t i o n a l weakness r a t h e r t h a n a s p e c i f i c weakness i n i t s e l f . T h i s means the r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y o f the c o r r e c t i o n a l p r o c e s s i s t o g i v e the o f f e n d e r an o p p o r t u n i t y t o mature e m o t i o n a l l y r a t h e r t h a n m e r e l y r e s t r i c t h i s p r o p e n s i t y t o c r i m e . 14. The f i r s t a t t e m p t t o p u t t h i s t h e o r y i n t o p r a c t i c e was a t t h e famous r e f o r m a t o r y a t E l m i r a , i n t h e S t a t e o f New York w h i c h was f u l l y o p e r a t i v e i n t h e l a s t decade of the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . By modern s t a n d a r d s , t h e program a t E l m i r a was p r i m i t i v e . I t has been d e s c r i b e d as an i n t r i c a t e and r i g i d s ystem o f m o r a l , p h y s i c a l and i n -d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g t h a t regimmented i t s inmates t o a c t out t h e i d e a l o f t h e t i m e s . (25,70) However, the program was a p p a r e n t l y a d m i n i s t e r e d w i t h b o t h e n t h u s i a s m and d e d i c a t i o n , and i t was t h i s t h a t i n s p i r e d t h e E n g l i s h P r i s o n Commissioner t o s t a r t e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h t r a i n i n g young o f f e n d e r s i n E n g l i s h p r i s o n s . (13,47) The r e s u l t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t was the B o r s t a l system w h i c h was l e g a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d i n 1908 as t h e means of r e h a b i l i t a t i n g a l l o f f e n d e r s i n G r e a t B r i t a i n between the ages o f s i x t e e n and twenty-one y e a r s . The p u r p o s e o f t h e B o r s t a l system i s " t o seek an a l l r o u n d d e v e l o p -ment of c h a r a c t e r and c a p a c i t i e s and i s based on p r o g r e s s i v e t r u s t , demanding i n c r e a s i n g p e r s o n a l d e c i s i o n , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and s e l f c o n t r o l . " (32,34) I n p r a c t i c e , t h i s program was p e c u l i a r l y B r i t i s h and i t adapted many o f the p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e E n g l i s h P u b l i c s c h o o l system t h a t was r e s e r v e d f o r t h e upper c l a s s e s . T h i s made the program a p p e a l i n g t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and un-d o u b t e d l y enhanced i t s a c c e p t a n c e . However, though the program s p r e a d , i t s development was c u r t a i l e d by w o r l d a f f a i r s . S t a r t i n g w i t h W o r l d War I , th r o u g h the ' r o a r i n g t w e n t i e s ' and t h e 'depressed t h i r t i e s ' , meant t h r e e decades t h a t were n o t c o n d u c i v e t o p e n a l r e f o r m . However, t h e B o r s t a l s ystem was an i n s p i r a t i o n t o many and i t o n l y needed a f a v o u r a b l e s o c i a l c l i m a t e f o r i t s i n f l u e n c e t o s p r e a d . (13,47) T h i s came a t the end o f World War I I when many s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , armed w i t h new knowledge a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h m i l i t a r y e x p e r i m e n t s , were d e m o b i l i z e d . P e r h a p s t h e most s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e c t i o n a l program t o d e v e l o p a f t e r 15. W o r l d War I I was Dr. L l o y d M c G o r k l e ' s concept of 'Guided Group I n t e r a c t i o n ' . T h i s i s d e f i n e d as: " u s i n g f r e e d i s c u s s i o n i n a f r i e n d l y and s u p p o r t i v e atmosphere t o r e - e d u c a t e the d e l i n q u e n t t o a c c e p t the r e s t r i c t i o n s o f s o c i e t y by f i n d i n g g r e a t e r p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n i n c o n f o r m i n g t o s o c i a l r u l e s t h a n f o l l o w i n g d e l i n q u e n t p a t t e r n s . " (22, 1 J 9 7 ) There were two s i g n i f i c a n t i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h i s program. F i r s t l y , M c C o r k l e used the group as t h e v e h i c l e f o r change or t r e a t m e n t . S e c o n d l y , he a t t e m p t e d t o i n v o l v e the d e l i n q u e n t h i m s e l f i n the p r o c e s s o f change by g i v i n g him t h e r i g h t t o choose and t o p r o c e e d a t h i s own pace. T h i s p r o -gram was e s s e n t i a l l y an a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e p r a c t i c e o f group p s y c h o t h e r a p y t o t h e c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n and as such i t was a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the f a c t t h a t the t o t a l p r i s o n community i s a dynamic p a r t o f the p r o c e s s o f change. The B o r s t a l system r e c o g n i z e d t h i s , b u t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n endea-v o u r e d t o c r e a t e t h e program f o r change r a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g the inmates d e v e l o p t h e d e s i r e t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s t h e o r y was p u t i n t o p r a c t i c e w i t h the l a u n c h i n g of t h e H i g h -f i e l d s P r o j e c t i n New J e r s e y i n 19.4,9. I t i s a r e s i d e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t program f o r p r o b a t i o n e r s who would o t h e r w i s e have been committed t o t h e S t a t e R e f o r m a t o r y . The whole p r o j e c t was s c i e n t i f i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and a con-s i d e r a b l e body of documented e v i d e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e t o show i t s r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s . (20, -) D u r i n g the same p e r i o d , a s j i m i l a r program was d e v e l o p i n g i n C a l i -f o r n i a . T h i s was known as Group C o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h was d e v i s e d by Dr. Norman F e n t o n . ( 1 1 , -) There i s l i t t l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e the t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e o f Group C o u n s e l l i n g from t h a t o f Guided Group I n t e r a c t i o n . The f a c t t h a t the former was i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e t r a d i t i o n a l , p r i s o n s e t t i n g and was d e v e l -oped i n a d i f f e r e n t e n v i r o n m e n t and l e g i s l a t i v e c l i m a t e from t h a t o f the l a t t e r , i s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e t h a t the p r i n c i p l e o f i n d i v i d u a l s e l f d e t e r m i n a -t i o n w i t h i n a t h e r a p e u t i c group i s b a s i c t o t h e c o r r e c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . The above programs were b o t h s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o the f i e l d o f c o r r e c t i o n s and t h e i r t h e o r i e s were n o t i c e a b l y d i f f e r e n t t o s o c i a l group work t h e o r y o f the t i m e . The s o c i a l group w o r k e r has tended t o con-s i d e r h i s r o l e t o be n o n - d i r e c t i v e and t o become i n v o l v e d i n the p r i s o n / / z o n l y on a t r e a t m e n t b a s i s . T h i s means he w i l l a c t i n a c o n s u l t a t i v e c a p a 1 c i t y and work w i t h v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a n t s o n l y , due t o h i s b e l i e f t h a t t h e r a p y and c u s t o d y can n o t be mixed.''" However, Group C o u n s e l l i n g i n C a l i f o r n i a P r i s o n has shown t h a t n o t o n l y c o u l d c u s t o d y and t h e r a p y become one r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , b u t t h a t group t h e r a p y c o u l d be c a r r i e d o u t by p r i s o n guards under s u p e r v i s i o n . The d i f f e r e n c e between the two approaches i s due t o t h e o r e t i c a l o r i e n t a t i o n . S o c i a l Group work was i n f l u e n c e d by a p s y c h o - a n a l y t i c h e r i t a g e and thus o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d t h e n o n - d i r e c t i v e r o l e of the t h e r a p i s t and the v o l u n t a r y r o l e of the c l i e n t . Hence, th e s o c i a l group w o r k e r tended t o be u n c o m f o r t a b l e i n t h e p r i s o n s e t t i n g . T h i s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by a r e v i e w of t h i r t y - f i v e a r t i c l e s i n c o r r e c t i o n a l p e r i o d i c a l s t h a t d e a l w i t h group t r e a t m e n t i n c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , o n l y one of w h i c h was w r i t t e n by a s o c i a l group w o r k e r u s i n g the s o c i a l group work method. (24, -) I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e the d i f f i c u l t y t h i s s o c i a l group w o r k e r had i n a c c e p t i n g the a u t h o r i t a r i a n l i m i t a t i o n s of the s e t t i n g , b u t i n t h i s c a s e he was a b l e t o adapt h i s m ethodology w i t h a p p a r e n t s u c c e s s . On the o t h e r hand, s m a l l l.This t h e s i s i s expounded by S i s e l a Kanopka i n h e r book, Group Work  i n t h e I n s t i t u t i o n , N.Y. A s s o c i a t i o n P r e s s . 1954. ^The p e r i o d i c a l s c oncerned a r e : The C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l of C o r r e c t i o n s , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n and Crime, and D e l i n q u e n c y ( f o r m a l l y N.P.P.A. J o u r n a l ) . The r e v i e w c o v e r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 80% o f the i s s u e s s i n c e 1956. 17 . group t h e o r y i s concerned w i t h group p r o c e s s and i s n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o con-s i d e r i n g t h a t p r o c e s s w i t h i n a l i m i t e d t h e o r e t i c a l framework. C o r r e c t i o n a l group p r a c t i c e used the l a t t e r as i t s t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e . M i c h a e l Olmstead (72, • i d e n t i f i e s t h r e e b a s i c g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s t h a t a p p l y t o a l l s m a l l groups r e g a r d -l e s s o f how t h e y were formed. F i r s t , i t i s e a s i e r t o change a group t h a n t o change any i n d i v i d u a l member. Second, t h a t t h e r e i s a g r e a t e r permanence o f change when i t t a k e s p l a c e i n a group, and t h i r d , t h a t changes i n a t t i t u d e s a r e more l i k e l y t o be e f f e c t i v e i f t h e i n d i v i d u a l p a r t i c i p a t e s i n t h e d e c i s i o n making. I t seems t h a t s o c i a l group work t h e o r y has tended t o o v e r - e m p h a s i z e the t h i r d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n and t e n d s t o o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t few group memberships, whether t h e y be i n t h e f a m i l y , t h e s c h o o l or t h e j o b , a r e t r u l y v o l u n t a r y . 'J There a r e of c o u r s e , many o t h e r a s p e c t s t o a c o r r e c t i o n a l program o t h e r t h a n group s e s s i o n s . I t i s t h e p u r p o s e and s p i r i t o f t h e program t h a t d e c i d e s whether e d u c a t i o n a l or v o c a t i o n a l programs become t o o l s o f r e h a b i l i -t a t i o n o r m e r e l y means of e d u c a t i n g c r i m i n a l s . The c o r r e c t i o n a l w o r k e r s g r e a t e s t a d v e r s a r y i n t h i s a r e a i s the a r c h a i c s e t t i n g i n w h i c h he must work. I n an a t t e m p t t o overcome t h i s , more arid more f o c u s i s now b e i n g p l a c e d on g e t t i n g t h e community i n v o l v e d i n t h e c o r r e c t i o n a l p r o c e s s . One a u t h o r i t y f e e l s t h e r o l e of t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i n the p r i s o n i s i n t h e f i e l d o f Community O r g a n i z a t i o n b o t h w i t h i n and w i t h o u t t h e i n s t i t u t i o n . I n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n i s b e i n g g i v e n t o t h i s a s p e c t and t h e r e i s now a w i d e v a r i e t y o f p r o g r a m s , r a n g i n g from; t a k i n g g i r l s f rom an i n d u s t r i a l s c h o o l t o v i s i t . t h e aged, t o inmates p r e s e n t i n g a New Y e a r ' s Pageant t o t h e l o c a l community. These a c t i v i t i e s endeavour t o c r e a t e a ' p u r p o s i v e c l i m a t e ' f o r the c o r r e c t i o n -a l program. But t h e r e a r e s t i l l many o f f e n d e r s who do n o t r e s p o n d . I n t h e i r Ij.W. B r a i t h w a i t e , the warden of t h e Haney C o r r e c t i o n I n s t i t u t e , Haney,B.C s t u d y o f r e c i d i v i s t s t h e B.C. C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h i d e n t i f i e d t h r e e c a t e -g o r i e s whose d e l i n q u e n t v a l u e s were most d i f f i c u l t t o change. These were c a l l e d " t h e h o s t i l e a c t i n g - o u t a g g r e s s i v e " , " t h e m a n i p u l a t i v e c o n f o r m i s t " and " t h e u n r e s p o n s i v e i n a d e q u a t e " . I t was t o t a c k l e t h i s p r o b l e m t h a t t h e S.A.L.T. program f o r g a o l inmates was developed."*" I n s e a r c h i n g f o r a p r o -gram t h e o r i g i n a t o r s o f S.A.L.T. s u r v e y e d programs of y o u t h c h a r a c t e r b u i l d i n g o u t s i d e o f t h e i r own p r a c t i c e . The r e s u l t a n t program was e s s e n -t i a l l y an a d a p t a t i o n of the Outward Bound program b u t w i t h acknowledged i n f l u e n c e s from the B o r s t a l s y s t e m . o f t r a i n i n g young o f f e n d e r s , and programs used by the M i l i t a r y Academies i n t h e U.S. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t t h e S.A.L.T. program r e - i n t r o d u c e d a maj o r c o n c e p t t o c o r r e c t i o n a l programmes t h a t had tended t o be overshadowed by a f o c u s on t h e p r i n c i p l e o f s e l f 7 i n v o l v e m e n t . T h i s i s t h e co n c e p t o f " c h a l l e n g e " . The i m p o r t a n c e o f c h a l l e n g e i s n o t e d i n b o t h s o c i o l o g i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l w r i t i n g s . R o b e r t K. M e r t o n (70, -) f e e l s t h a t the l a c k o f a d e f i n e a b l e c u l t u r a l c h a l l e n g e r e s u l t s i n a s t a t e o f anomie,. J o s e p h Kaufman (60, 181) sees the r e s p o n s e t o t h e Peace Corps as y o u t h ' s d e s i r e t o have a c h a l l e n g e a t i t ' s own l e v e l o f need t o enhance i t ' s m a t u r a t i o n . D a v i d Reisman (74, -) f e e l s t h a t i t i s s o c i e t y ' s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o c r e a t e a m e a n i n g f u l c h a l l e n g e f o r y o u t h now t h a t the b a s i c r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r e x i s -t e n c e a r e s u p p l i e d by t h e s t a t e . R o b i n W i l l i a m s (80, -) i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l dominant v a l u e s i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n c u l t u r e . Of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e i s t h e p r e -f e r e n c e f o r " a c t i v e m a s t e r y " o v e r " p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e " . To be e f f e c t i v e , The o u t l i n e f o r t h i s program can be found i n Matheson, Dr. Mai com A., S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g f o r Young O f f e n d e r s a t L a k e v i e w F o r e s t Camp. C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f C o r r e c t i o n s , O c t . 1966. However, many more d e t a i l s were o b t a i n e d d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e a u t h o r i n F e b r u a r y , 1967. a c o r r e c t i o n a l program must harae v a l u e s t h a t a r e c o m p a t i b l e t o the c u l t u r e to w h i c h the o f f e n d e r w i l l r e t u r n . The S.A.L.T. can be c o n s i d e r e d an a t t -empt t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e c u l t u r a l l y a c c e p t e d c o n c e p t o f c h a l l e n g e i n t o a c o r r e c t i o n a l program. The program was d r a m a t i c . The h a r d - c o r e d e l i n q u e n t was f a c e d w i t h a t a s k w i t h w h i c h h i s d e l i n q u e n t v a l u e s c o u l d n o t cope and he was p l a c e d i n the dilemma o f b e i n g c a l l e d " c h i c k e n " or a c c e p t i n g the v a l u e s o f the i n s t r u c t o r s who had shown t h e i r competence. T h i s breakdown o f de-f e n c e s c r e a t e d a v o l a t i l e s i t u a t i o n . On one S.A.L.T. c o u r s e t h e r e was a r i o t , b u t t h i s was m a i n l y due to i n e x p e r i e n c e d s t a f f . On the o t h e r hand, when an i n s t r u c t o r f e l l f o r t y f e e t i n t o a c r e v i c e and 'was s e r i o u s l y i n j u r e d , h i s ' p a t r o l ' o f h a r d - c o r e d e l i n q u e n t s o r g a n i z e d h i s r e s c u e and c a r r i e d him t h i r t y - f i v e m i l e s t o the n e a r e s t h o s p i t a l . The r e l a t i v e s u c c e s s o f t h i s program i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t t h a t o f the f i f t e e n t r a i n e e s p a r o l l e d o n l y one was r e v o k e d , w h i c h i s c o n s i d e r a b l y l e s s t h a n any o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n i n B.C. The r a t e o f c o n v i c t i o n f o r the t o t a l number o f t r a i n e e s o v e r a two y e a r f o l l o w - u p was 31.6? 0 opposed t o 56%';o, f o r a c o n t r o l group. (18,-) D e s p i t e i t s s u c c e s s , t h i s program has been d i s c o n t i n u e d due t o d i f f i c u l t y i n o b t a i n i n g s u i t a b l e s t a f f . T h i s p r e d i c a m e n t poses a c r i t i c a l p r o b l e m e s p e c i a l l y when many a u t h o r i t i e s a r e s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s the c a l i b r e o f p e r s o n n e l r a t h e r t h a n the program t h a t i s the c r u c i a l , f a c t o r i n c o r r e c t i o n s . (10-17) . Thus f a r , d i s c u s s i o n has been l i m i t e d to i n s t i t u t i o n a l programs, b u t most l e g a l j u r i s d i c t i o n s use f i n e s and s u p e r v i s i o n i n the community as two major a l t e r n a t i v e s t o i n c a r c e r a t i o n . From a c o r r e c t i o n a l p o i n t o f v i e w a f i n e s h o u l d o n l y be imposed when t h e o f f e n d e r i s c o n s i d e r e d to have s e l f c o n t r o l s , and when h i s o f f e n s e i s more i n the n a t u r e o f t r a n s g r e s s i o n . 20. I f t he o f f e n s e i s a symptom o f ego weakness, th e n a program o f t r e a t m e n t s i s needed. But c r i m e i s a symptom of a wide v a r i e t y o f ego d e f i c i e n c i e s and p r o b a t i o n has l a c k e d t h e r e s o u r c e s t o meet the heeds o f many o f f e n d e r s who do n o t need i n c a r c e r a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l p r o b a t i o n s u p e r v i s i o n i s u s u a l l y synonymous w i t h casework, b u t the i n t e r p r e t i v e and s u p p o r t i v e i n t e r v i e w has l i m i t a t i o n s . A s t u d y o f s c h o o l d r o p - o u t s found casework e f f e c t i v e w i t h 807o o f t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d ' n e u r o t i c ' and w i t h 407,, o f t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d ' c h a r a c t e r d i s t u r b a n c e s ' . (68,137) A l t h o u g h casework has been supplemented by such programs as N a l l i n e T e s t i n g w i t h d r u g a d d i c t s ( 4 , - ) , c i t i z e n s h i p c o u r s e s w i t h j u v e n i l e s and t h e i r p a r e n t s (9,-) o r group p s y c h o -t h e r a p y w i t h sex o f f e n d e r s ( 2 9 , - ) , i t s t i l l has l i m i t a t i o n s . I n an a t t e m p t t o c o u n t e r a c t the i n f l u e n c e o f a poor e n v i r o n m e n t , p r o b a t i o n has l o n g e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h out-of-home p l a c e m e n t s . The v a l u e of f o s t e r homes i s l i m i t e d , s i n c e few f o s t e r p a r e n t s a r e equipped t o d e a l w i t h t h e a c t i n g - o u t a d o l e s c e n t . I n B r i t a i n , t h e y have made c o n s i d e r a b l e use o f p r o b a t i o n h o s t e l s ( 7 , c ) and a l t h o u g h t h i s program has t h e s u p p o r t o f the Home O f f i c e , i t has n o t been s c i e n t i f i c a l l y a s s e s s e d . The C a l i f o r n i a n Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y has a l s o been e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h community programs and by means o f s c i e n t i f i c e v a l u a t i o n i t has been found t h a t o n l y f o u r out of n i n e c a t e g o r i e s o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s b e n e f i t from out of home p l a c e m e n t s . (5,-) A s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s p r o b a t i o n has made i s o l a t e d a t t e m p t s t o meet t h e v a r i e t y o f needs e v i d e n t , b u t few programs have been o p e r a t e d i n such a way as t o make e f f e c t i v e a p p r a i s a l p o s s i b l e . T y p i c a l o f t h i s s i t u a t i o n a r e r e p o r t s on camping e x p e r i m e n t s w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s . Some a r e c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l (17,-) w h i l e o t h e r s were c o n s i d e r e d o f l i t t l e v a l u e . (15,-) The v a l u e o f camping as a c o r r e c t i o n a l t o o l i s a l s o ques-t i o n e d on the ground t h a t i t i s of l i t t l e i n t e r e s t and l i t t l e use t o the modern u r b a n d w e l l e r . One a t t e m p t t o approach t h i s p r o b l e m s c i e n t i f i c a l l y was the E s s e x f i e l d s E x p e r i m e n t i n New J e r s e y . (26,-) T h i s was the H i g h f i e l d s program r u n on a n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l b a s i s f o r boys on p r o b a t i o n . , . The e x p e r i m e n t was c o n s i d e r e d s u c c e s s f u l and showed t h a t the p r i n c i p l e s o f the program a p p l i e d e q u a l l y w e l l to r e s i d e n t i a l and t o n o n - r e s i d e n t i a l t r e a t m e n t . The S.A.L.T. program i s a l s o an a t t e m p t to p r o v i d e a new t r e a t -ment r e s o u r c e f o r the f i e l d o f p r o b a t i o n . To u n d e r s t a n d t h i s program i t i s n e c e s s a r y to f o l l o w the h i s t o r y and p r a c t i c e o f the Outward Bound movemept, from w h i c h S.A.L.T. i s d e r i v e d . Outward Bound has a t t r a c t e d a n u c l e u s o f s i n c e r e and d e d i c a t e d s u p p o r t e r s t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d , but they seldom commit t h e m s e l v e s t o p r i n t . D i r e c t c o m m u n i c a t i o n w i t h the Outward Bound T r u s t i n E n g l a n d ( s e e a p p e n d i x ) by the r e s e a r c h team produced a b r i e f b i b l i o g r a p h y o f d e s c r i p t i v e and e m o t i o n a l l y a p p e a l i n g a r t i c l e s and pam-p h l e t s b u t n o t h i n g o f e i t h e r t h e o r e t i c a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n o r s c i e n t i f i c v e r i -f i c a t i o n . I n the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r , the b a s i c t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s t h a t the program appears to make w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . However, a r e v i e w o f Outward Bound l i t e r a t u r e and i n t e r v i e w s w i t h p e r s o n s who have been i n s t r u c t o r s i n Outward Bound S c h o o l s does g i v e a p i c t u r e o f i t s h i s t o r y and the program a c t i v i t i e s . ^ Outward Bound had i t s o r i g i n s i n the n i n e t e e n t h i r t i e s when Dr. K u r t Hahn, a German e d u c a t o r , founded h i s s c h o o l a t Salem i n Germany, •'•The r e s e a r c h team w i s h to e x p r e s s t h e i r thanks t o M r . A r t h u r Rodgers and Mr. M i c h a e l P e r r y f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e s o f Outward Bound, w i t h them d u r i n g . O c t o b e r and November 1966. Mr. Rodgers was a an i n s t r u c t o r a t the Outward Bound S c h o o l , E s k d a l e , Cumberland d u r i n g 1961-1962,. Mr. P e r r y was an i n s t r u c t o r a t E s k d a l e , 1961-1962, a t L o i t o k i t o k , Kenya, 1963 and a t H u r r i c a n e I s l a n d , Maine, U.S.A. i n 1964. The f i l m "As T a l l as the M o u n t a i n s " w h i c h i s a t h i r t y - f i v e m i n u t e documentary o f the Outward Bound S c h o o l i n C o l o r a d o , was a l s o v e r y i l l u m i n a t i n g . 22. I n 1933 the p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e f o r c e d Dr. Hahn t o l e a v e Germany and he went t o E n g l a n d where he founded G o r d o n s t o a n S c h o o l and d e v e l o p e d t h e Moray Badge p l a n f o r p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s t h a t was a d m i n i s t e r e d t h r o u g h o u t B r i t a i n . The b a s i s o f Dr. Hahn's p h i l o s o p h y i s t h a t p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s n e c e s s a r y f o r t o t a l h e a l t h and t h a t i n t h e p r o c e s s o f d e v e l o p i n g p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s the p a r t i c i p a n t can a l s o d e v e l o p t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l q u a l i t i e s o f r e s o u r c e -f u l n e s s , i n i t i a t i v e and endurance. (34,12) The a c t u a l Outward Bound Program d e v e l o p e d i n 1941 a t the i n s t i g a -t i o n o f a B r i t i s h s h i p p i n g owner. He became concerned when one o f h i s s h i p s was t o r p e d o e d and he found a l a r g e p e r c e n t a g e of t h e crew was l o s t b ecause t h e men l a c k e d t h e w i l l t o s u r v i v e . ( 3 3 , 2 0 ) . I n hopes of o v e r -coming t h i s , he asked Dr. Hahn t o d e v e l o p a program t h a t would t e a c h a boy t o l o o k i n t o h i m s e l f , t o f i n d t h e d e s i r e t o l i v e and d i s c o v e r the r e s o u r c e -f u l n e s s t o s t r i v e f o r i t . Dr. Hahn agreed t o do t h i s and t h e r e s u l t w h i c h became known as Outward Bound was c o n s i d e r e d a s u c c e s s . S i n c e the b e g i n n i n g s t u d e n t s of Outward Bound have been m a i n l y s p o n s o r e d by p r i v a t e or p u b l i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the movement has c o n t i n u e d t o grow u n t i l i t i s now o p e r a -t i n g i n n i n e d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . ^ The p r i n c i p l e s o f Outward Bound a l s o have wide a p p e a l and t h e y have been adapted i n t o many t r a i n i n g programs n o t a b l y by the R o y a l Navy and the B r i t i s h Army. (34,37) Outward Bound has a l s o been used as a c o r r e c t i o n a l t o o l . The B r i t i s h Home O f f i c e has s e n t boys on p r o b a t i o n , f r o m : B o r s t a l s and from Approved S c h o o l s t o Outward Bound f o r some time and i s e n t h u s i a s t i c r e g a r d -i n g the r e s u l t s . However, t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n a v a i l a b l e t o ^The n i n e c o u n t r i e s a r e : G r e a t B r i t a i n , Germany, A u s t r a l i a , New Z e a l a n d , M a l a y a , N i g e r i a , Kenya,, Zambia, and the U.S.A. A group of B r i t i s h Columbians a r e p r e s e n t l y i n the p r o c e s s o f t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h an Outward Bound S c h o o l i n B.C. w h i c h would make Canada t h e t e n t h c o u n t r y . s u p p o r t t h e Home O f f i c e ' s o p i n i o n . C e r t a i n l y t h e Outward Bound T r u s t i s n o t s u r e o f i t s v a l u e as a c o r r e c t i o n a l t o o l . Dr. Hahn has concerned h i m s e l f w i t h the 'normal' r a t h e r t h a n t h e d e v i a n t y o u t h and no m a t e r i a l could- be found t h a t d e a l s s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t h e l a t t e r . P e rhaps the p r e s e n t f e e l i n g i s b e s t summed up by one o f t h e E n g l i s h Outward Bound S c h o o l Wardens who says t h e y a r e v e r y g l a d t o have a l i m i t e d number of boys from t h e c o u r t s , but t h e y a r e n o t r e a l t y s u r e what t h e y can do f o r them. (37,-) However, a more s c i e n t i f i c assessment may soon be a v a i l a b l e when th e M a s s a c h u s e t t s Department of C o r r e c t i o n s has a s s e s s e d i t s p r e s e n t program of s e n d i n g p r o b a t i o n e r s t o t h e Outward Bound S c h o o l a t C o l o r a d o . (39,-) A d e s c r i p t i o n o f Outward Bound i s e s s e n t i a l l y a d e s c r i p t i o n of S.A.L.T., b u t w i t h two s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . S.A.L.T. i s n o t o p e r a t e d under the a u s p i c e s o f the Outward Bound T r u s t n o r a r e the i n s t r u c t o r s Outward Bound t r a i n e d . Hence the program w i l l v a r y i n some degree t o the Outward Bound S c h o o l s . S e c o n d l y , S.A.L.T. i s a c o r r e c t i o n a l program admin-i s t e r e d by a c o r r e c t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y f o r d e l i n q u e n t s as opposed t o Outward Bound w h i c h i s a:>program f o r a l l y o u t h . Thus S.A.L.T. does n o t escape what i s c o n s i d e r e d by W i l l i a m L e n t y (16,-) t o be one of the main problems of the c o r r e c t i o n a l p r o c e s s , namely, t h a t the v e r y p r o c e s s i t s e l f tends t o s o l i d i f y t he d e l i n q u e n t i n h i s r o l e as a d e l i n q u e n t . However, as t h e s e two p o i n t s cannot be d e t e c t e d a t a d e s c r i p t i v e l e v e l , i t can be assumed t h a t the de-s c r i p t i o n of S.A.L.T. i n C h a p t e r I i s a l s o a d e s c r i p t i o n on Outward Bound program. An o b j e c t i v e assessment o f e i t h e r Outward Bound o r S.A.L.T. c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e some v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n t o b o t h s m a l l group t h e o r y and s o c i a l group work t h e o r y . The s o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e i s g e n e r a l l y l a c k i n g i n 24. i t s d i s c u s s i o n o f programs such as Outward Bound. S t u d i e s o f f i g h t i n g u n i t s d u r i n g W o r ld War I I (56,256) gave i n f o r m a t i o n about the group p r o c e s s , b u t t h e r e was l e s s t e s t e d knowledge about t h e l o n g - r a n g e change p r o c e s s e s . A t :present t h e r e i s a r e s u r g e n t i n t e r e s t i n t h i s t y p e o f program. Group t h e r a p i s t s a r e now e x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h a more a u t h o r i t a r i a n and m i l i t a r i s t i c a p p r o ach i n t h e i r work w i t h c h i l d r e n from u n d e r p r i v i l e g e d a r e a s (76,-) and i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e Outward Bound method w i l l come i n f o r some c l o s e s t u d y . S i n c e Outward Bound's r o o t s go back t o t h e 1930's, i t i s i n t e r e s t -i n g t o compare i t ' s t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e w i t h c u r r e n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h e o r y . P a r t o f the r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g f o r t h e S.A.L.T. i n s t r u c t o r s i s Dr. W i l l i a m G l a s s e r ' s book ' R e a l i t y T herapy'. (64,-) T h i s t h e o r y i s a r e a c t i o n t o t h e p s y c h o a n a l y t i c s c h o o l s o f t h o u g h t . R e a l i t y t h e r a p y d e a l s o n l y w i t h p r e s e n t problems r a t h e r t h a n s e a r c h i n g f o r an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p a s t . Dr. G l a s s e r c a t e g o r i z e s p e o p l e a l o n g a continuum w h i c h ranges from r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and he r e j e c t s the t r a d i t i o n a l c o n cept o f m e n t a l i l l n e s s . T h i s continuum i s synonymous w i t h ego s t r e n g t h s and t h e t h e o r y of r e a l i t y t h e r a p y h o l d s t h a t one g a i n s ego s t r e n g t h , or becomes more r e s p o n s i b l e , as one l e a r n s t o a c c e p t the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's own a c t i o n s i n s t e a d o f g i v i n g i n t o a p a t h o l o g i c a l d e f e n c e . The p r a c t i c e of R e a l i t y Therapy has much i n common w i t h Dr. F r i t z R e d l ' s l i f e - s p a c e i n t e r v i e w t e c h n i q u e s (73,-) a l t h o u g h the two a r e based on d i f f e r e n t t h e o r e t i c a l frameworks. Hence s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a t i o n of the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e c o u l d e v e n t u a l l y p r o d u c e some v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l i n e i t h e r v a l i d a t i n g or i n a l t e r i n g t h e s e two approaches t o t h e r a p y i n a group program. Study o f t h e S.A.L.T. program c o u l d a l s o pose some q u e s t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o Dr. R o b e r t W h i t e ' s t h e o r y of i n d e p e n d e n t ego e n e r g i e s . (79,-) I n 25. c o n t r a d i c t i o n t o F r eud's t h e o r y o f l i b i d i n a l d r i v e s , W h i t e h o l d s t h a t man's d e s i r e t o c r e a t e o r e x p l o r e i s the r e s u l t of ego e n e r g i e s t h a t come i n t o p l a y when the b a s i c needs a r e s a t i a t e d . The e x e r c i s e of t h e s e ego e n e r g i e s c r e a t e s a f e e l i n g of ' e f f i c a c y ' , and a chievement c r e a t e s a sense of 'competence'. To W h i t e , i t i s the e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e s e two phenomena t h a t r e s u l t i n t h e m a t u r a t i n g p r o c e s s . W h i t e ' s t h e o r y i s d e r i v e d from a b l e n d i n g o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y and c h i l d p s y c h o l o g y . The p r e s e n t s t u d y i s f o c u s e d on t h e a d o l e s c e n t who i s d e e p l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a f a c t o r t o w h i c h W h i t e made l i t t l e r e f e r e n c e i n h i s t h e o r i s i n g . Thus, t h e e f f e c t o f ' e f f i c a c y ' and 'competence' must be c o n s i d e r e d b o t h i n terms of d e v e l o p -ment and e n v i r o n m e n t . A f u r t h e r p o i n t o f i n t e r e s t i s t h e d i s c r e p a n c y between W h i t e ' s b e l i e f t h a t ego e n e r g i e s a r e s e l f - a c t i v a t i n g and Outward Bound's b e l i e f t h a t t h e y must be c h a l l e n g e d by the e n v i r o n m e n t . Dr. E r i k E r i k s o n ' s t h e o r y o f the e i g h t l i f e phases (58,-) i s based on a s t u d y f o c u s e d on the g r o w i n g c h i l d . E r i k s o n i d e n t i f i e s t h e m a in s o c i a l t a s k f o r each o f the e i g h t phases but h o l d s t h a t t h e seven o t h e r t a s k s a r e o p e r a t i v e i n v a r y i n g d e grees e i t h e r p r e p a r i n g f o r what i s t o come or c o n s o l i d a t i n g what i s p a s t . Whereas G l a s s e r h o l d s t h a t r e s p o n -s i b i l i t y can be l e a r n e d i n terms o f c u r r e n t p r o b l e m s o l v i n g , E r i k s o n ' s t h e o r y i s more d e v e l o p m e n t a l . Thus t o E r i k s o n , i f development i n one l i f e phase i s r e s t r i c t e d o r r e t a r d e d , t h e ego must be r e t u r n e d t o t h a t l e v e l , o f development i n o r d e r t o g i v e an adequate f o u n d a t i o n b e f o r e i t can p r o g r e s s t o l a t e r t a s k s . Thus, G l a s s e r , as he has s u g g e s t e d ^ , sees a program such as S.A.L.T. b e i n g a v a l i d t o o l t o t e a c h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . However,- E r i k s o n would o n l y c o n s i d e r i t v a l i d i f t h e s t u d e n t had b a s i c a l l y sound p s y c h o -"This o p i n i o n was e x p r e s s e d i n a l e t t e r a d d r e s s e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h team i n O c t o b e r , 1966. s e x u a l development. The above t h e o r i e s p r o v i d e c o n c e p t u a l t o o l s w i t h w h i c h the S.A.L.T. program can be e v a l u a t e d . However, assessment o f b o t h the p r o c e s s and the r e s u l t s o f the program may w e l l s u p p l y answers t h a t t h r a new l i g h t on t h e s e t h e o r i e s o f human b e h a v i o u r . Study of.S.A.L.T. and s i m i l a r programs w i l l be o f p a r t i c u l a r v a l u e i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r o l e o f ' c h a l l e n g e 1 , ' a u t h o r i t y ' and ' p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ' , b o t h i n group p r o c e s s and c o r r e c t i o n a l methodology. 27. CHAPTER I I I STUDY DESIGN The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o o u t l i n e t h e t h e o r e t i c a l base f o r the s t u d y as s u g g e s t e d by the c o n c e p t s touched on i n C h a p t e r Two and t o g i v e an o v e r v i e w of the methodology employed as a r e s u l t o f t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n . I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t , i n v i e w o f the p r e - e v a l u a t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e s t u d y , no a t t e m p t has been made t o d e v e l o p e x p l i c i t h y p o t h e s e s f o r t e s t i n g a l t h o u g h , h o p e f u l l y , i t w i l l u n e a r t h many i m p l i c i t q u e s t i o n s w h i c h m i g h t be t e s t e d more r i g o r o u s l y by f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . C e r t a i n l y i t i s t h e concensus of the r e s e a r c h team t h a t t h e s t u d y p r o v i d e s a n e c e s s a r y m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework f o r any f u t u r e e v a l u a t i v e s t u d i e s w h i c h may be u n d e r t a k e n . The c h a p t e r i s d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e major s e c t i o n s . I n t h e f i r s t s e c t i o n , seven d i f f e r e n t a s s u m p t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g human growth and b e h a v i o u r w h i c h u n d e r l y t h e Outward Bound p h i l o s o p h y a r e i d e n t i f i e d . These a r e r e l a t e d , i n t u r n , t o the p a r t i c u l a r o b j e c t i v e s and p r o c e s s e s i n v o l v e d i n t h e S.A.L.T. program and t o c u r r e n t c o n c e p t s and p r e v a i l i n g t r e n d s i n s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h e o r y . The second s e c t i o n p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the r e s e a r c h d e s i g n employed and examines the r a t i o n a l e f o r i t s s e l e c t i o n . I n s e c t i o n t h r e e , the s o u r c e s of d a t a m a t e r i a l a r e o u t l i n e d . A b r i e f o u t l i n e w i l l be g i v e n of the m a t e r i a l used and t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g t h e r e s e a r c h team's d e c i s i o n t o c o n c e n t r a t e on them t o the e x c l u s i o n of o t h e r s . T h e o r e t i c a l Framework The r o o t s o f Outward Bound go back t o the 1930's and i t s p h i l o -sophy has remained e s s e n t i a l l y unchanged s i n c e t h a t t i m e . I n s t u d y i n g the 28. Outward Bound. Program, w h i c h i s d e s i g n e d t o promote growth, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y seven b a s i c u n d e r l y i n g t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s . I t i s i n t e r e s -t i n g and r e v e a l i n g t o r e l a t e them t o contemporary s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h e o r y . The f i r s t a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t , as t h e program i s s e t i n t h e o u t -doors and r e q u i r e s b o t h p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s and competence t o c o m p l e t e , p h y s i c a l h e a l t h i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e - r e q u i s i t e t o e f f e c t i v e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . The i m p o r t a n c e o f p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s i s a co n c e p t t h a t tends t o be o v e r l o o k e d i n c u r r e n t s o c i a l s c i e n c e t h e o r y . I n our i n d u s t r i a l i z e d w o r l d i t does n o t appear t o be n e c e s s a r y f o r d a y - t o - d a y l i v i n g . Thus, p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n tends t o be i g n o r e d by t h o s e o f l i m i t e d a t h l e t i c a b i l i t y and emphasized o n l y by t h o s e w i t h a t h l e t i c s k i l l s . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e r e i s a tendency i n modern s o c i e t y t o b e l i t t l e o r a t l e a s t i g n o r e p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s as a p o s s i b l e component of e m o t i o n a l h e a l t h and growth. A second a s s u m p t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y and based on the b e l i e f t h a t man -- p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a d o l e s c e n t s t a g e -- can r e a l i z e h i s f u l l p o t e n t i a l o n l y when he i s c h a l l e n g e d by h i s en v i r o n m e n t . The program a c h i e v e s t h i s by s t r i v i n g t o d e v e l o p y o u t h s t o a h i g h e r l e v e l o f competence t h a n t h e y o r i g i n a l l y t h o u g h t p o s s i b l e . The c o n c e p t o f c h a l l -enge i s a l s o r e c e i v i n g a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n from t h e s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t and from o t h e r t h e o r i s t s as w e l l , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the a r e a o f t h e a d a p t i v e problems o f a d o l e s c e n t s . E r i k s o n (60, 7) p o i n t s out t h a t the p r o c e s s o f change i s becoming the main c h a l l e n g e f o r contemporary y o u t h . B e t t e l h e i m (60, 78) e x p r e s s e s c o n c e r n t h a t the c h a l l e n g e i s becoming b l u r r e d because th e i n c r e a s i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t a n c e between g e n e r a t i o n s i s c r e a t i n g a com m u n i c a t i o n p r o b l e m . Kaufman's (60, 182) c o n c e r n i s the f r u s t r a t i o n many young p e o p l e e x p e r i e n c e i n programs such as the Peace Corps i n wh i c h y o u t h i s o f f e r e d a. c h a l l e n g e i n i t s own c o n t e x t , b u t b u r e a u c r a t i c r e d tape c o n c e a l s 2 9 . t h i s c h a l l e n g e b e h i n d c o n v e n t i o n a l and u n r e a l i s t i c r e q u i r e m e n t s . On the o t h e r hand, K e n n i s t o n (60,194) sees a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t f o c u s and c h a l l e n g e . He argues t h a t the o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n i s concerned w i t h the t e c h n o l o g i c a l changes, w h i l e t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n seeks s o c i a l change i n our t i m e . These w r i t e r s a r e a l l concerned about the a v a i l a b i l i t y o f a c h a l l e n g i n g e n v i r o n -ment f o r y o u t h and th e y a l l i m p l y t h a t y o u t h cannot mature w i t h o u t i t . Due t o the i n f l u e n c e o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y , t h e es s e n c e o f c h a l l e n g e appears t o be l a c k i n g i n many c o r r e c t i o n a l programs t o d a y . White,-.; f o r i n s t a n c e , i n h i s t h e o r y o f independent ego e n e r g i e s (79, - ) , s u g g e s t s t h a t man l e a r n s due t o an i n n a t e i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s t h a t comes i n t o f u l l o p e r a -t i o n when b a s i c d r i v e s a r e s a t i a t e d . Thus, man w i l l c r e a t e when he i s n o t f r u s t r a t e d o r c h a l l e n g e d too s e v e r e l y by h i s environment and, on h i s own a c c o r d , f i n d s a c h a l l e n g e t o t e s t h i s v i t a l e n e r g i e s and s t r e n g t h e n h i s ego. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t W h i t e ' s t h e o r i e s a r e d e v e l o p e d from a b l e n d i n g o f p s y c h o a n a l y t i c t h e o r y and t h e f i n d i n g s of c h i l d p s y c h o l o g i s t s and he makes no r e f e r e n c e t o t h e e v i d e n c e o f more s o c i o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d s t u d i e s o f t h e a d o l e s c e n t i n c o n t a c t w i t h h i s t o t a l e n v i r o n m e n t . The q u e s t i o n t h a t remains u n r e s o l v e d i s whether man's need f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l c h a l l e n g e i s due t o i n -h e r e n t l a z i n e s s o r whether i t stems from the c u l t u r a l v a l u e s o f the " p r o t e s -t a n t e t h i c " . Some t h e o r i s t s s u g g e s t t h a t man w i l l seek out h i s c h a l l e n g e b u t i n our c u l t u r e he appears t o need encouragement. T h i s unanswered q u e s t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t i n t h e development o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f man, b u t i t s h o u l d n o t dominate the p h i l o s o p h y o f c o r r e c t i o n s . F o r as i t s name s u g g e s t s , c o r r e c t i o n s i n v o l v e s the p r o c e s s e s by w h i c h d e s t r u c t i v e d e v i a n t s l e a r n t o conform c u l t u r a l l y t o t h e i r s o c i e t y b u t t h e y a r e n o t p r o c e s s e s t h a t r e v o l u t i o n i z e t h a t s o c i e t y . The t h i r d a s s u m p t i o n , a l s o r e l a t e d t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , i s t h a t 30. i f a boy i s p l a c e d , i n the p o s i t i o n o f l e a d e r s h i p , as he i s i n t h i s c o u r s e , then the a c t of l e a d i n g h e l p s him t o d e v e l o p a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . T h i s i d e a has an i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o E r i k s o n ' s t h e o r y (58,9) o f t a s k s f o r d i f f e r e n t l i f e s t a g e s . He sees t h e m ain t a s k of the a d o l e s c e n t phase as " i d e n -t i t y v e r s u s r o l e d i f f u s i o n . " When a boy i s p l a c e d i n a p o s i t i o n of l e a d e r s h i p , he i s f o r c e d t o i d e n t i f y w i t h w hatever or whoever a c h i e v e s t h e r e s u l t s he de-s i r e s . I n the o u t d o o r m o u n t a i n e n v i r o n m e n t , he has l i t t l e a l t e r n a t i v e b u t t o f o l l o w the examples o f the s t a f f members who d e m o n s t r a t e competence. Thus he i s p l a c e d i n the p o s i t i o n where he sees the v a l u e o f i d e n t i f y i n g w i t h s t a f f p e r s o n s i n o r d e r t o s u r v i v e i n the m o u n t a i n s and, i n so d o i n g , he i n c o r p o r a t e s o t h e r c u l t u r a l v a l u e s f o r w h i c h t h e y s t a n d . T h i s h e l p s the a d o l e s c e n t t o a t t a i n h i s own i d e n t i t y . M e a nwhile, E r i k s o n h o l d s t h a t l e a r n i n g o t h e r t a s k s r e l a t e d t o o t h e r l i f e phases a r e a l s o o p e r a t i v e . Those t a s k s t h a t have gone b e f o r e need c o n s o l i d a t i o n and t h o s e t h a t a r e s t i l l t o come need p r e p a r a t i o n . Thus, a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e i n the-Outward Bound c o u r s e w i l l h e l p t o d e v e l o p t h a t " s e l f c e r t a i n t y " w h i c h E r i k s o n h o l d s t o be an e x t e n s i o n of the m u s c u l a r - a n a l or second l i f e phase. A r o l e i n l e a d e r s h i p enhances " r o l e e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n " w h i c h i s the e x t e n s i o n o f the l o c o - m o t o r - g e n i t a l s t a g e . I t o f f e r s a y o u t h the chance t o " a n t i c i p a t e a c h i e v e m e n t " , s i n c e the c o u r s e i s based on o v e r a l l p r o g r e s s i o n w h i c h i s the e x t e n s i o n o f the l a t e n c y s t a g e . I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the f u t u r e , the e x p e r i e n c e o f t a k i n g a l e a d e r s h i p r o l e h e l p s the a d o l e s -c e n t boy t o s e c u r e a " s e x u a l i d e n t i t y " i n w h i c h the c u l t u r a l r o l e o f the male i s t o be a g g r e s s i v e l y dominant, and t h i s , E r i k s o n h o l d s , i s n e c e s s a r y p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the young a d u l t phase. Perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t p r e p a r a t i o n i s f o r the a d u l t p h a s e , w h i c h E r i k s o n s u g g e s t s i s the phase o f l e a d e r s h i p p o l a r i z a t i o n . By " p l a y i n g " a t b e i n g l e a d e r , the a d o l e s c e n t has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e the n e c e s s i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p f o r communal e x i s t e n c e . . I n 31. Outward Bound and the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e , t h e f i n a l g o a l i s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r m a t u r i t y and t h e t a s k i s " i d e o l o g i c a l p o l a r i z a t i o n " , w h i c h i s perhaps r e l a t e d more t o t h e t o t a l program t h a n i t i s t o t h i s one a s s u m p t i o n con-c e r n i n g the l e a d e r s h i p r o l e . The f o u r t h and f i f t h a s s u m p t i o n s a r e r e l a t e d t o s m a l l group t h e o r y . The f o u r t h a s s u m p t i o n u n d e r l y i n g the S.A.L.T. program i s t h a t , as p a r t i c i p a n t s a r e o r g a n i z e d i n t o c o m p e t i n g g r o u p s , changes w i l l be a c c e l -e r a t e d i f a p a r t i c i p a n t can i d e n t i f y h i m s e l f as a member o f a c o m p e t i t i v e group. The f i f t h a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t , s i n c e many t a s k s on t h i s c o u r s e must be t a c k l e d on a team b a s i s , t h e use o f the team approach d e v e l o p s i n y o u t h t h e a b i l i t y t o c o - o p e r a t e and t o l e a r n t h e v a l u e o f i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e . The p r i n c i p l e o f u s i n g the group as t h e v e h i c l e f o r change i n c o r r e c t i o n a l programs has been r e c o g n i z e d as t h e o r e t i c a l l y c o n s i s t e n t , as i t i s s t a t e d by Olmstead, and t h a t i t i s sound i n p r a c t i c e has been de m o n s t r a t e d by M c C o r k l e and F e n t o n . However, one s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the Outward Bound and s t a n d a r d c o r r e c t i o n s a p p r o a c h i s t h a t the v e r y s t r o n g element o f c o m p e t i t i o n i n h e r e n t i n the Outward Bound p h i l o s o p h y i s u s u a l l y m i s s i n g i n most c o r r e c t i o n a l programs. The s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a team i n an Outward Bound S c h o o l f i n d s i t s e l f i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t con-f r o n t i n g many s m a l l f i g h t i n g u n i t s i n a war. S t u d i e s o f such u n i t s (56, 256) i n d i c a t e t h a t the c h a l l e n g e c r e a t e s an e x t r e m e l y h i g h degree o f group c o h e s i v e n e s s w i t h accompanying h i g h moriaJie -- as l o n g as l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n the group l i v e s up t o t h e i d e a l . However, one q u e s t i o n t h a t has n o t y e t been answered i s , whether t h i s k i n d o f group atmosphere tends t o c r e a t e good f o l l o w e r s o r ind e p e n d e n t i n d i v i d u a l s . The s u p p o r t e r s o f Outward Bound would c l a i m t h a t the l a t t e r i s t r u e b u t t h e r e i s no s u b s t a n t i a l body o f e v i d e n c e e i t h e r from Outward Bound o r from s i m i l a r programs t h a t p r o v e t h i s c o n t e n t i o n . A n o t h e r d i f f e r e n c e between Outward Bound and the c o n v e n t i o n a l 32. c o r r e c t i o n a l approach i s t h e a u t o c r a t i c atmosphere o f the c o u r s e w h i c h demands a mass i d e n t i t y t h r o u g h the a p p l i c a t i o n of such p r i n c i p l e s as "nobody i n the team can f a i l " . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s i s t h a t i t c r e a t e s i n t e r d e p e n d e n c e and a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e weak and, though i t i s c l e a r t h a t team c o - o p e r a t i o n i s a c h i e v e d i n t h e c o u r s e , e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g a c o n n e c t i o n between t h i s a c t i v i t y and a l a s t i n g sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s a g a i n l a c k i n g . T h i s a u t h o r i t a r i a n a p proach i s bound to be somewhat s u s p e c t by c o r r e c t i o n a l w o r k e r s who a r e s t i l l t r y i n g t o s h r u g o f f the h e r i t a g e s of t h e o l d p e n i t e n t i a r y system. However, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e i s an element o f " r e a c t i o n f o r m a t i o n " i n t h i s f e a r . Group work t h e o r y has a l s o tended to shun a u t h o r i t a r i a n programs, b u t some r e c e n t e x p e r i m e n t s (76, -) s u g g e s t t h a t an a u t h o r i t a r i a n approach i s n e c e s s a r y when one i s w o r k i n g w i t h d e p r i v e d b o y s. Thus, f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f Outward Bound o r S.A.L.T. may w e l l s u p p l y some answers t o q u e s t i o n s about t h e v a l u e o f c o m p e t i t i o n , a u t h o r i t y and c o n t r o l l e d programs i n the s m a l l group p r o c e s s e s . The s i x t h a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f a c o n s i d e r a b l e d egree o f s k i l l and knowledge, w h i c h i s demanded o f the boy t o complete t h e c o u r s e , a l s o h e l p s him t o g a i n s e l f c o n f i d e n c e and t o e s t a b l i s h h i s own i d e n t i t y . T h i s needs l i t t l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l terms. Our s o c i e t y r a t e s a man a c c o r d i n g t o h i s knowledge and s k i l l , w h i c h g i v e s him h i s l e v e l i n t h e s o c i a l h i e r a r c h y . However, t h e r e i s s t i l l a b i g q u e s t i o n r e g a r d i n g t h e t y p e of the s k i l l . Outward Bound does n o t q u e s t i o n t h e use o f n a t u r e . I t makes th e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t , as i t i s t h e r e , i t s h o u l d be used. However, many a u t h o r i t i e s a r e now q u e s t i o n i n g the v a l u e o f g i v i n g y o u t h camping s k i l l s t h a t a r e o f no use i n t h e i r u s u a l e n v i r o n -ment, and t h a t a r e o f l i t t l e a p p e a l t o them. As a r e s u l t , y o u t h programs a r e f o c u s i n g on the development o f programs i n t h e y o u t h ' s o r gang's n a t u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . ( 2 , - . 5,-. 62,-) However, r e s u l t s t o d a t e show t h e r e a r e many cases t h a t a r e "not r e a c h e d " i n t h e i r l o c a l e n v ironment and temporary removal may be more e f f e c t i v e f o r some yo u t h s t h a n a r e t h e community programs. F i n a l l y , t h e s e v e n t h a s s u m p t i o n i s t h a t the p r e v i o u s s i x must be r o o t e d i n a system of v a l u e s or code o f e t h i c s . T h i s program i s based on a C h r i s t i a n p h i l o s o p h y . A c c o r d i n g t o Dr. Hahn, s e r v i c e --p a r t i c u l a r l y v o l u n t a r y s e r v i c e -- i s t h e e x p r e s s i o n of i d e a l i s m and w i t h o u t i d e a l i s m competence i s dangerous. To e x p l a i n t h i s p o i n t , Dr. Hahn once s a i d : I f t h e r o b b e r s among whom the man f e l l , t o whose r e s c u e the good S a m a r i t a n came, had been t r a i n e d i n r e s o u r c e , i n i t i a t i v e and endurance, th e n t h e y would have been a l l the more e f f e c t i v e r o b b e r s ; but i f the p r i e s t had bean thus t r a i n e d , he would n o t have p a s s e d by on t h e o t h e r s i d e . (37, -) The f i n a l a s s u m p t i o n a l s o needs l i t t l e q u a l i f i c a t i o n . The v a l u e of h a v i n g u s e f u l work has been a c c e p t e d by a l l programs. V a r i o u s group e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d as e a r l y as 1914 showed c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t the more m e a n i n g f u l the t a s k , the h i g h e r t h e m o t i v a t i o n and t h e q u i c k e r i t was a s s i m i l a t e d (56, 2 3 7 ) . However, how a g i v e n t a s k becomes " u s e f u l " or o f v a l u e i n t h e v i e w of t h e i n d i v i d u a l i s a n o t h e r q u e s t i o n . T r a d i -t i o n a l s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e has tended to encourage the c l i e n t t o s e a r c h f o r h i s own g o a l and t h e n f i n d the t a s k . Outward Bound, on t h e o t h e r hand makes the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t o s e r v e i s "good" and the p a r t i c i p a n t i s t h e n g i v e n t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e t h i s "goodness". R e l i a n c e on a u t h o r -i t y i s a l s o an a c c e p t e d mode o f l e a r n i n g , but i t does n o t g i v e the p a r t i -c i p a n t an o p p o r t u n i t y t o work t h r o u g h the e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f a c c e p t i n g the p r i n c i p l e s t h a t the t a s k i m p l i e s . He may even f a i l t o grasp t h e s e 34. b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s . However, whether i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o "work t h r o u g h " e v e r y new co n c e p t w i t h someone e l s e i s open t o q u e s t i o n , f o r the m a j o r i t y o f young p e o p l e have d e v e l o p e d w i t h o u t t h e b e n e f i t o f a " t h e r a p e u t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p " i n t h e i r u p b r i n g i n g . A n o t h e r comment i s n e c e s s a r y w i t h r e g a r d t o the i n c i d e n c e o f s e r v i c e . I n most Outward Bound S c h o o l s , t h e range o f s e r v i c e i s l i m i t e d t o m o u n t a i n or sea r e s c u e and t o f i r e f i g h t i n g . There i s no q u e s t i o n as t o the v a l u e o f t h e s e s e r v i c e s , b u t t h e y a r e a l l o f such a n a t u r e t h a t t h e y a r e v e r y seldom p u t i n t o a c t i o n . C o n s e q u e n t l y , when Outward Bound i s c o n s i d e r e d as a c o r r e c t i o n a l t o o l , t h i s poses the v e r y c r u c i a l q u e s t i o n as t o whether o r n o t t h i s program w i l l tend t o c r e a t e d e l i n q u e n t s w i t h " r e s o u r c e , i n i t i a t i v e , and endur a n c e " r a t h e r t h a n upc s t a n d i n g c i t i z e n s . Thus i t can be s a i d t h a t Outward Bound i s a p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y o r i e n t e d program t h a t t r i e s t o d e v e l o p " s t r e n g t h o f c h a r a c t e r " t h r o u g h c h a l l e n g e , c o - o p e r a t i o n and s e r v i c e . I f i t s v a l u e as a c o r r e c t i o n a l program f o r d e l i n q u e n t s i s a c c e p t e d , t h e n mt f o l l o w s t h a t d e l i n q u e n c y must be u n d e r s t o o d , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , as a "weakness o f c h a r a c t e r " . T h i s appears t o be t h e r e a s o n i n g a c c e p t e d by the B.C. C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h . I t may be mentioned i n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n t h a t Dr. W i l l i a m G l a s s e r ' s book, R e a l i t y Therapy (64, -) i s r e q u i r e d r e a d i n g i n t h e i n s t r u c t o r ' s t r a i n i n g c o u r s e f o r the S.A.L.T. program. A b r i e f s y n o p s i s o f t h i s a u t h o r ' s t h e o r y i s t h e r e f o r e i n o r d e r h e r e . The b a s i s o f r e a l i t y t h e r a p y i s t h e need o f human b e i n g s t o l o v e and be l o v e d , and c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s e i s t h e need f o r s e l f -r e s p e c t . I f t h e s e needs a r e not met, t h r o u g h adequate i n t e r - a c t i o n w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e , t h e n a p e r s o n tends t o deny r e a l i t y . "N T h i s i n t u r n , l e a d s t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s c o m f o r t s t h a t may, i n some c a s e s , r e s u l t i n an u n h e a l t h y 35. d e f e n s e w h i c h appears i n t h e form o f such p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o u r as a l c o h o l i s m , c r i m e , m e n t a l i l l n e s s , e t c . To Dr. G l a s s e r , a l l o f t h e s e p a t h o l o g i e s can be measured i n terms o f the degree o f a g i v e n p e r s o n ' s i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , and t h e i r c u r e i n v o l v e s t h e a s s u m p t i o n of r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r h i s own a c t i o n s , w i t h the i m p l i e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a l s o t o change h i s b e h a v i o u r . Dr. G l a s s e r t h i n k s of t h e ego i n such a manner t h a t i t can be c o n s i d e r e d a n a l a g o u s t o a " m u s c l e " (63, -) t h a t needs the e x p e r -i e n c e o f r e g u l a r and c o n s i s t e n t e x e r c i s e i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n a l e v e l o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t h a t i s a p p r o p r i a t e t o a g i v e n p e r s o n ' s s t a g e of d evelopment. Owing t o d e f i c i e n c i e s i n ^ a young p e r s o n ' s s o c i a l e n v i r o n -ment, th e whole ego or v a r y i n g p a r t s o f i t can be weak. I n such a c a s e , the r o l e o f r e a l i t y t h e r a p y i s t o c r e a t e an e x e r c i s e t o s t r e n g -t h e n t h e weak p a r t s so t h e ego can a c c e p t r e a l i t y and c o n s e q u e n t l y l e a r n t o r e a c t t o i n t e r n a l and e x t e r n a l s t r e s s i n a r e s p o n s i b l e manner. One may i n t e r p r e t Outward Bound p h i l o s o p h y i n t o Dr. G l a s s e r ' s t e r m s , as f o l l o w s : The c o u r s e i s an e x e r c i s e i n a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i -l i t y f o r y o u r own a c t i o n s and t h o s e of the group. I n the p r o c e s s o f a c c e p t i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , one r e c e i v e s " l o v e " or " r e c o g n i t i o n " from o t h e r s , a sense of b e l o n g i n g , and a sense of a c h i e v e m e n t . A t the same t i m e , one has t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o " l o v e " t h o s e w i t h whom one has i n t e r -dependent r e l a t i o n s h i p s . The aims o f Outward Bound and o f the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e , a r e t o g i v e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t a s t r o n g and v i r i l e m a s c u l i n e i d e n -t i t y , w h i c h i s d e s i r e d f o r a l l . Then the p a r t i c i p a n t can a t t a i n s e l f -r e s p e c t i n s t r i v i n g toward the same g o a l as e v eryone e l s e . But a c o u r s e o f e x e r c i s e s t o s t r e n g t h e n e i t h e r p h y s i c a l o r e m o t i o n a l " m u s c l e " u s u a l l y i n v o l v e s a l o n g - t e r m p r o j e c t . Thus, the t w e n t y - s i x day S.A.L.T. c o u r s e s t a r t s a p r o c e s s t h a t must be f o l l o w e d up. By t a k i n g a d e l i n q u e n t out 36. of h i s environment even f o r a b r i e f p e r i o d and e n a b l i n g him t o demon-s t r a t e t h a t he has some degree o f competence may m o t i v a t e him t o t a c k l e the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o change i n o t h e r ways when he r e t u r n s t o h i s o l d e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s i s i n l i n e w i t h Dr. Hahn's t h i n k i n g , f o r he has c l a i m e d t h a t Outward Bound i s an e x p e r i e n c e " t h a n can i g n i t e -- t h a t i s a l l --i t i s f o r o t h e r s t o keep t h e f l a m e a l i v e " . (37, 3) The above e x p l a n a t i o n of d e l i n q u e n c y has i t s l i m i t a t i o n s s i n c e i t tends t o o v e r l o o k s o c i o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s t h a t cannot r e a s o n a b l y be i g n o r e d . However, as the c o u r s e endeavours t o c r e a t e a s e g r e g a t e d and a p a r t l y c o n t r o l l e d e n v i r o n m e n t , i t does g i v e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o s t u d y t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l a s p e c t s of d e l i n q u e n c y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e s o c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s t h a t a r e i n v o l v e d b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t . I n t h i s way i t may w e l l h e l p t o d e v e l o p what A l b e r t Cohen (6, -) c a l l s a " m u l t i p l e f a c t o r a p p r o a c h " t o the problems of u n d e r s t a n d i n g and d e a l i n g w i t h d e l i n q u e n c y . The f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n s of t h i s c h a p t e r w i l l o u t l i n e the m e t h o d o l o g i c a l framework d e v e l o p e d by the r e s e a r c h team t o e x p l o i t t h e s e a t t r i b u t e s f o r the p u r p o s e s of the s t u d y . L e v e l of R e s e a r c h D e s i g n The model chosen f o r our r e s e a r c h d e s i g n i s i n t h e n a t u r e o f a f o r m u l a t i v e - e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y . A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e and p r e -v i o u s r e s e a r c h on t h i s s u b j e c t r e v e a l s a l i m i t e d development of t h e o r y . As t h i s i s a r e l a t i v e l y new a r e a f o r r e s e a r c h t h e S.A.L.T. e x p e r i m e n t i s c l e a r l y "not p r e p a r e d f o r e l a b o r a t e e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n s t o t e s t complex, a b s t r a c t h y p o t h e s e s " . (48, 5 1 ) . I n s t e a d , the p l a n of t h e r e s e a r c h ! : team i s t o d e s i g n an i n s t r u m e n t t h a t p r o v i d e s f o r c l a s s i f i c a -t i o n s of b o t h o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s i n terms of a c o n c e p t u a l framework. Such a d e s i g n , w i t h i t s b r o a d scope, can i n c r e a s e u n d e r s t a n d -i n g o f the y o u t h ' s r e a c t i o n t o the program so t h a t f u t u r e s t u d i e s can f o r m u l a t e h y p o t h e s e s under more c o n t r o l l e d c o n d i t i o n s and w i t h a n a r r o w e r f o c u s . The most p r o d u c t i v e s t r a t e g y i n e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h a t p r e s e n t would seem t o i n v o l v e an emphasis on the problems r e q u i r i n g s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n and t h e i n t e r v e n t i v e p r o c e s s i t s e l f , r a t h e r t h a n on the outcome. ( 4 1 , 8 ) . Such a r e s e a r c h program i s not d i r e c t e d a t t e s t i n g an h y p o t h e s i s . I t i s r a t h e r c o n s i d e r e d as a " p r e l i m i n a r y t o a n o t h e r s t u d y i n w h i c h i t s f i n d i n g s w i l l be c a r r i e d a s t e p f u r t h e r " . (48, 51) Through the use o f the f o r m u l a t i v e - e x p l o r a t o r y model the r e -s e a r c h team were e n a b l e d t o s t u d y each i n d i v i d u a l i n some de p t h by means of a c o m p a r i s o n of h i s b e g i n n i n g and t e r m i n a l " s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s ' (42, 159) B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , the a r e a s of g r e a t e s t c o n c e r n i n t h e S.A.L.T. s t u d y a r e a boy's b e h a v i o u r i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s f a m i l y , p e e r s , s c h o o l , employment and a u t h o r i t y . I n c h o o s i n g t h i s d e s i g n i t was f e l t , due t o i t s f l e x i b i l i t y , t h a t i t would e n a b l e us t o f o r m u l a t e p r o b l e m c a t e g o r i e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s t u d y was d i r e c t e d a t two r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s : (1) What ty p e of a d o l e s c e n t boy d e r i v e s most from t h e c o u r s e ? (2) What elements i n t h e c o u r s e a r e most i n f l u e n t i a l i n b r i n g i n g about changes i n him? A n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g t h i s f o r m u l a t i v e - e x p l o r a -t o r y model has bean t h e u n s t r u c t u r e d and u n c l a s s i f i e d s t a t e o f some o f t h e d a t a a v a i l a b l e t o us. The major s o u r c e of p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about the boys we s t u d i e d i s t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t . T h i s document i s c h i e f l y d e s i g n e d f o r use by c o u r t s and the s t a f f s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s and i t does n o t l e n d i t s e l f r e a d i l y t o r e s e a r c h . However, by s t u d y i n g i t s c o n t e n t s , we c o u l d g a i n some u n d e r s t a n d i n g of the p e r s o n a l i t i e s of the boys s t u d i e d and r e l a t e t h i s t o t h e i r r e s p o n s e s t o the S.A.L.T. e x p e r i -38. ence. "The answers r e c e i v e d , t h e t o t a l s , t h e t r e n d s , the i n t e r r e l a -t i o n s , r a i s e new q u e s t i o n s w h i c h a r e w o r t h y o f a n s w e r i n g t h r o u g h a new s t u d y . " (48, 51) I d e a l l y , the use of a c o n t r o l group would g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e the v a l u e of our f i n d i n g s . But t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l d e v i c e i s n o t a v a i l -a b l e . The f a c t t h a t a l l the f i n d i n g s from our s t u d y w i l l be a r r i v e d a t on an e x - p o s t - f a c t o b a s i s a l s o r e d u c e s the p r a c t i c a l v a l u e o f our d e s c r i p t i v e model. I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was i n i t i a t e d o n l y s i x weeks a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f the l a s t S.A.L.T. c o u r s e i n 1966. T h i s l i m i t e d the scope o f the p r o j e c t i n terms of f o l l o w -up m a t e r i a l i n t h e b e h a v i o u r o f the s u b j e c t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e members of t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t a r e s t u d e n t s w i t h an e i g h t - m o n t h t i m e span f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t as w e l l as f o r o t h e r c u r r i c u l u m commitments i n g r a d u a t e s o c i a l work. C o n s e q u e n t l y , the r e s e a r c h team has been o b l i g e d t o l i m i t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s t o l a y i n g f o u n d a t i o n s f o r more ex-t e n s i v e a n a l y s e s f o r a l a t e r s t a g e i n r e s e a r c h . I t i s hoped a f u r t h e r s t u d y w i l l c a r r y our p r e l i m i n a r y work f u r t h e r . Methods o f Data C o l l e c t i o n The r e s e a r c h team's main s o u r c e o f d a t a were t h e agency f i l e s . Each of the boys had come b e f o r e the J u v e n i l e C o u r t and were p r e s e n t l y e i t h e r on p r o b a t i o n i n the community or a t t h e Brannan Lake T r a i n i n g S c h o o l . T h e i r f i l e s v a r i e d i n c o m p l e t e n e s s but f o r t h e most p a r t t h e y c o n t a i n e d f o u r documents from w h i c h the d a t a was o b t a i n e d . These were a p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t ( i n c l u d i n g a P s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t i n some c a s e s ) , a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a , S.A.L.T. r a t i n g s c a l e s and a f o l l o w - u p 39. e v a l u a t i o n . The p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t (see A p p e n d i x I I I ) was one o f the maj o r s o u r c e s o f our d a t a . T h i s r e p o r t i s p r e p a r e d by the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r p r i o r t o d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e y o u t h i n J u v e n i l e C o u r t . I t c o n t a i n s b o t h o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l r e l a t i n g t o the s o c i a l h i s t o r y o f t h e y o u t h and h i s f a m i l y , h i s b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e s t o p a r e n t s , s c h o o l , employment and o t h e r a u t h o r i t i e s . The a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a , (see A p p e n d i x IV) as o u t l i n e d by the C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h , had been s e n t t o a l l p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s . These i n s t r u c t i o n s were used t o s e l e c t and recommend c a n d i d a t e s f o r the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . The d e t a i l e d l e t t e r s from the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s w h i c h c o n t a i n e d the recommendations and t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n o f c e r t a i n y o u t h s were u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e r e s e a r c h team. The S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e s (see A p p e n d i x V) c o n t a i n e d t h r e e e v a l u a t i o n s made a t d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s i n t i m e . The f i r s t e v a l u a t i o n was made t e n days a f t e r t h e c o u r s e began, the second a t t h e end o f the c o u r s e and t h e t h i r d , t h e y o u t h ' s s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n , was a l s o made a t the end o f the c o u r s e . The f o l l o w - u p e v a l u a t i o n was o b t a i n e d by means o f a b r i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e v e l o p e d by t h e r e s e a r c h team. (see A p p e n d i x V I ) . S i x months a f t e r t e r m i n a t i o n o f the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e , t h i s form was f o r -warded t o each o f the boy's s u p e r v i s i n g p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r who com-p l e t e d i t on t h e b a s i s o f h i s assessment o f the boy's c u r r e n t s i t u a t i o n . The s u c c e e d i n g c h a p t e r w i l l e l a b o r a t e more f u l l y on t h e s e s o u r c e s o f d a t a and how the d a t a was c o l l e c t e d and c l a s s i f i e d . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e s e f i v e documents from w h i c h o u r d a t a was a b s t r a c t e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g m a t e r i a l s a r e a v a i l a b l e f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h on t h e S.A.L.T. 40. c o u r s e : 1. J e s s n e s s I n v e n t o r y on each y o u t h . 2. So c i o g r a m r e v e a l i n g i n t r a - g r o u p r e l a t i o n s h i p . 3. Taped r e c o r d i n g s o f d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h c o u r s e c o - o r d i n a t o r a t t e r m i n a t i o n . 4. Taped r e c o r d i n g s of d i s c u s s i o n between i n s t r u c t o r s a t t e r m i n a t i o n . 5. Taped r e c o r d e d comments of some y o u t h s a t t e r m i n a t i o n . The J e s s n e s s I n v e n t o r y was n o t s c o r e d and t h e r e f o r e i t was no t r e a d y f o r use by the r e s e a r c h team. Due t o our time l i m i t a t i o n s we were u n a b l e t o use the tap e r e c o r d i n g s and, f u r t h e r m o r e , we f o r e s a w t h e " i d e n t i f i c a t i o n " problems i n h e r e n t i n such m a t e r i a l s . M e n t i o n o f t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y i s made h e r e i n t h e e v e n t t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s may w i s h t o make use o f them. The r e s e a r c h team had s e v e r a l i n f o r m a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h t h e c o u r s e c o - o r d i n a t o r , Mr.. J . V. S a b o u r i n , and w i t h Dr. M.A. Matheson, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r o f C o r r e c t i o n s . These i n t e r v i e w s f o c u s e d c h i e f l y on t h e S.A.L.T. program and i t s p a r t i c i p a n t s b u t , a l s o l e d t o some u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o n on s i m i l a r r e s e a r c h programs e l s e w h e r e . I n t h i s c h a p t e r we have o u t l i n e d the r e s e a r c h t a s k and i d e n t i f i e d t h e l e v e l o f s t u d y d e s i g n . M e n t i o n has been made o f some of t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n s e l e c t i n g t h i s d e s i g n , the most i n f l u e n t i a l o f w h i c h was t h e t y p e s o f m a t e r i a l s a v a i l a b l e . The r e -s e a r c h d e s i g n a l s o r e f l e c t s a m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h team's ob-j e c t i v e , w h i c h i n i t i a l l y was t h a t o f m e a s u r i n g change. I t was d i s -c o v e r e d , however, t h a t b e f o r e change c o u l d be measured more i n t e n s i v e work would be r e q u i r e d i n c e r t a i n a r e a s t o d e v e l o p d e v i c e s f o r c o l l e c t i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r e f f e c t i v e measurement. Thus the r e -s e a r c h team was f o r c e d t o s e l e c t the p r e - e v a l u a t i v e l e v e l as the most u s e f u l l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s the p r o c e s s e s o f the a b s t r a c t i o n o f d a t a i n the f o u r a r e a s , namely, p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t , a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a , S.A.L.T. r a t i n g s c a l e s and f o l l o w - u p e v a l u a t i o n s Each a r e a w i l l be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y w i t h r e g a r d t o the p r o c e s s e s and methods o f d a t a c o m p i l a t i o n , as w e l l as some o f t h e problems and c o n s i d e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d i n d e v e l o p i n g s u i t a b l e c o l l e c t i o n i n s t r u ments. The d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a w i l l a l s o be t a b u l a t e d . CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY AND DATA COLLECTION T h i s c h a p t e r w i l l d e s c r i b e t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n and t a b u l a t i o n p r o c e s s e s used i n each o f the f o u r a r e a s m entioned i n Chapt e r T h r e e , i . e . the P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t , the A d m i s s i o n C r i t e r i a , t he R a t i n g S c a l e s used d u r i n g t he Se a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g c o u r s e , and the F o l l o w - u p E v a l u a -t i o n . We have, t h e r e f o r e , d i v i d e d t h i s c h a p t e r i n t o f o u r p a r t s , each o f w h i c h w i l l i n c l u d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f each document and o f the methods used i n p r o c e s s i n g i t s c o n t e n t s f o r t h e pu r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The o r d e r o f d i s c u s s i o n o f the f o u r a r e a s mentioned above, c o r r e s p o n d s t o the c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r o f t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y . The P r e -Sentence R e p o r t c o n t a i n s the i n i t i a l r e s e a r c h m a t e r i a l s w h i c h a r e s e l e c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . These m a t e r i a l s . r e f e r t t o each c a n d i d a t e from a p o i n t inr.time p r i o r t o h i s r e f e r r a l t o the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . The A d m i s s i o n C r i t e r i a came n e x t and c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e q u a l i f i c a -t i o n s of t h e v a r i o u s c a n d i d a t e s r e f e r r e d t o the c o u r s e . The R a t i n g S c a l e s w h i c h f o l l o w , a r e s o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d d u r i n g the c o u r s e i t s e l f , w h i l e t h e F o l l o w - u p E v a l u a t i o n i s t h e most r e c e n t s o u r c e , o b t a i n e d a p p r o x i -m a t e l y s i x months a f t e r t he c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t Data C o l l e c t i o n The r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t d e s c r i b e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n has been d e v e l o p e d by t h e r e s e a r c h team i n an e f f o r t t o a b s t r a c t and c l a s s i f y s i g n i -f i c a n t i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g each o f t h e t w e n t y - f o u r boys who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t he S.A.L.T. program. The P r e - S e n t e n c e r e p o r t i s c o m p r i s e d o f o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s p r i n c i p a l ' s o c i a l h i s t o r y ' s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . 43. These m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e d the f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f d a t a : 1. A wide range of f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o : (a) t y p i c a l demographic f a c t o r s such as the boy's age, e t h n i c o r i g i n , r e l i g i o n , , p l a c e o f r e s i d e n c e , l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , and t y p e o f employment. (b) the ty p e o f o f f e n c e committed by the boy p r i o r t o h i s l a s t c o u r t a p p e a r a n c e , . p r e v i o u s o f f e n c e s and c o u r t d i s p o s i t i o n s , e t c . ( c ) p a r e n t s , s i b l i n g s and o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t p e r s o n s i n the boy's e n v i r o n m e n t . 2. D e s c r i p t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g the boy's d e v e l o p m e n t a l h i s t o r y , b e h a v i o u r a l p a t t e r n s , p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , h a b i t s and i n t e r e s t s . 3. The P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r ' s assessment o f : (a) the boy's a t t i t u d e t o a u t h o r i t y , p a r e n t a l c o n t r o l , J d i s c i p l i n e , s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e , employment, d e l i n q u e n t a c t i v i t y , e t c . (b) the boy's r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p a r e n t s and s i b l i n g s and the n a t u r e and e x t e n t of peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s . ( c ) the p o s s i b i l i t y o f the boy becoming i n v o l v e d i n f u r t h e r d e l i n q u e n c i e s . 4. The P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r ' s recommendations t o the F a m i l y C o u r t r e g a r d i n g d i s p o s i t i o n and t r e a t m e n t f o r the boy. I n the e a r l y e x p l o r a t o r y s t a g e s , the r e s e a r c h team d e c i d e d t h a t t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f a s u i t a b l e i n s t r u m e n t f o r c l a s s i f y i n g t h i s w ide r a n g i n g mass of d a t a s h o u l d be a ma j o r f o c u s o f the p r o j e c t . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , the P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t c o n s t i t u t e s the p r i m a r y s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g each boy's c i r c u m s t a n c e s and b e h a v i o u r p r i o r t o h i s a d m i s s i o n t o the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h i s m a t e r i a l c o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o p r o v i d e an e s s e n t i a l base f o r the measurement o f any changes i n b e h a v i o u r , a t t i t u d e s 4 4 . or p e r f o r m a n c e s w h i c h m i g h t r e s u l t from the c o u r s e e x p e r i e n c e . I t c o u l d a l s o h e l p t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o i d e n t i f y some of t h e v a r i a b l e s t h a t would be s i g n i f i c a n t f o r a n a l y s i s l a t e r on. S e c o n d l y , s i n c e the P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t i s a document p r e p a r e d p r i m a r i l y f o r s e n t e n c i n g and t r e a t m e n t p u r p o s e s r a t h e r t h a n f o r r e s e a r c h , the m a t e r i a l s i n i t a r e n o t c l a s s i f i e d i n terms of t h e o b j e c t i v e s and a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the i n t e r v e n t i v e t e c h n i q u e s employed i n the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . C o n s e q u e n t l y , g i v e n the t i m e a v a i l a b l e , t h e r e s e a r c h team was f a c e d w i t h t h e major t a s k o f c l a s s i f y i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r an e v a l u a t i o n of t h e S.A.L.T. program and t h e o v e r - a l l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . I t was f e l t t h a t , i f t h i s t a s k c o u l d be c o m p l e t e d , t h e p r o j e c t would p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . I n a d d i t i o n i t c o u l d d e v e l o p a s c h e d u l e t h a t m i g h t be used as a g u i d e f o r P r o b a t i o n O f f i -c e r s , i f t h e y a r e asked t o g i v e a r e p o r t arid t o recommend a boy f o r ad-m i s s i o n t o a f u t u r e S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . I n e s s e n c e , t h i s r e s e a r c h i n s t r u m e n t has been d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g , d e f i n i n g , and c l a s s i f y i n g d a t a c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l t o t h e w i d e r o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y . I n t h e c o u r s e o f t h i s p r o c e s s , t h e f o l l o w i n g s e l e c t i o n c r i t e r i a , l i s t e d i n o r d e r o f p r i o r i t y , have been d e v e l -oped by t h e r e s e a r c h group: 1. An e f f o r t i s made t o i n c l u d e c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h would encompass a l l r e l e v a n t f a c t u a l o r o b j e c t i v e d a t a c o n c e r n i n g each boy and h i s f a m i l y . The i n s t r u m e n t a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d the v a r i o u s c o u r t d i s p o s i t i o n s f o r d e l i n -q u e n t s as s e t f o r t h i n t h e J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t s A c t and employs t h e Dominion B u r e a u o f S t a t i s t i c s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e a r e a s o f e t h n i c o r i g i n , t y p e o f o f f e n c e , e t c . However, i n t h e l a t t e r c a s e , c e r t a i n modi-f i c a t i o n s were found n e c e s s a r y i n t h e p r e t e s t phase due t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous p o p u l a t i o n and our r e s e a r c h r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r more p r e c i s e c a t e -g o r i z a t i o n . 2. Each i t e m was examined and p r e - t e s t e d by t h e group i n r e l a t i o n t o i t s p o s s i b l e u s e f u l n e s s f o r t e s t i n g t he b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the program and f o r m e a s u r i n g changes i n b e h a v i o u r . I n t h i s r e s p e c t , an at t e m p t was made t o i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s i n each o f t h e major a r e a s o f the s u b j e c t ' s l i f e ( e . g . group e x p e r i e n c e s , t y p e o f group e x p e r i e n c e s , f i n a n c i a l management i n the home^boy's c o n t a c t w i t h a b s e n t p a r e n t s e t c . ) whether o r n o t t h e s e v a r i a b l e s were s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r r e d t o i n the p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t . 3. Where s u b j e c t i v e m a t e r i a l was i n v o l v e d , an e f f o r t was made t o adapt o t h e r r e s e a r c h c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t o our p u r p o s e s . G l u e c k ' s P r e d i c t a -b i l i t y T a b l e s (44) f o r example, p r o v i d e d a u s e f u l framework f o r c l a s s i f y -i n g d a t a i n the a r e a o f p a r e n t - b o y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , a l t h o u g h i t was found n e c e s s a r y t o i n c l u d e more p r e c i s e c a t e g o r i e s under main h e a d i n g s o f the G l u e c k model. O p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s were d e v e l o p e d f o r t h o s e c l a s s i -f i c a t i o n s w h i c h t h e r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s d e v i s e d t h e m s e l v e s , f o r t h i s s t u d y . (See A p p e n d i x V I I ) 4. I n c e r t a i n a r e a s , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o r e a c h a compromise between t h e p r o j e c t g o a l o f o b t a i n i n g a l l d a t a c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s and t h e p r a c t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s as t o d a t a t h e P r o b a -t i o n O f f i c e r m i g h t r e a s o n a b l y be e x p e c t e d t o know and i n c l u d e i n t h e p r e -s e n t e n c e r e p o r t . C o n s i d e r a t i o n was a l s o g i v e n t o c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s w h i c h p r e -sumably a f f e c t the r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d . F i r s t , i t was n o t e d t h a t p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d on the c a n d i d a t e s f o r the c o u r s e , were n o t made by t h e same p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . As a r e s u l t , t h e r e was c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c o n s i s t e n c y i n the k i n d o f m a t e r i a l r e p o r t e d and the way i n w h i c h i t was r e p o r t e d . S e c o n d l y , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f the r e p o r t s 46 had been completed d u r i n g p e r i o d s r a n g i n g from s i x months t o a y e a r or l o n g e r , p r i o r t o t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e c o u r s e . T h i s l e f t gaps i n our i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g t h e o r i g i n a l d i s p o s i t i o n of t h e case and the boy's c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n t h e i n t e r i m p e r i o d . However, some of t h e s e gaps were f i l l e d by l a t e r p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t s and r e f e r r a l l e t t e r s s u b m i t t e d t o S.A.L.T. c o u r s e o f f i c i a l s by t h e s u p e r v i s i n g p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r a t the be-g i n n i n g of the c o u r s e . T h i r d , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e i n the t i m e a v a i l a b l e and w i t h t h e m a t e r i a l a t hand, t o d e v e l o p s u i t a b l e methods t o c l a s s i f y m a t e r i a l s i n t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t w h i c h r e l a t e d t o t h e boy's p e r s o n a -l i t y t r a i t s and t o h i s b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s . T h i s was due, i n p a r t , t o t h e s u b j e c t i v e n a t u r e of t h i s m a t e r i a l and p a r t l y t o i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n r e p o r -t i n g . I t was a l s o f e l t t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y r a t i n g s o b t a i n e d by the v a r i o u s s t a f f members d u r i n g the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e r a t i n g s c a l e s w ould have g r e a t e r v a l i d i t y i n terms of t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s t u d y , t h a n any p r o f i l e s g a i n e d from t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s . S e v e r a l methods were employed by the group i n the p r o c e s s o f s e l e c t i n g and d e f i n i n g s u i t a b l e c o n c e p t s f o r the s c h e d u l e . I n t h e e a r l y s t a g e s , each i t e m p r o p o s e d was d i s c u s s e d by the e n t i r e r e s e a r c h group w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a g i v e n boy, whose case was chosen a t random from the t w e n t y -f o u r f i l e s a t our d i s p o s a l . The i t e m was t h e n m o d i f i e d , r e - d e f i n e d and r e -d r a f t e d t o meet th e consensus of t h e group and t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e m a t e r i a l s i n a n o t h e r boy's f i l e w h i c h was a l s o s e l e c t e d a t random. T h i s p r o c e s s was c o n t i n u e d u n t i l a consensus on a l l i t e m s i n c l u d e d i n t h e i n s t r u m e n t had been r e a c h e d . T h i s was f o l l o w e d by a p r e p a r a t i o n o f a f i n a l d r a f t and the a p p o i n t m e n t of two members of the r e s e a r c h team t o a b s t r a c t d e s i r e d m a t e r i a l from t h e f i l e s . These i n d i v i d u a l s compared t h e i r r e s u l t s a f t e r t h e s c h e -d u l e had been t e s t e d i n two c a s e s . F u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s were u n d e r t a k e n i n 47. v i e w of d i s c r e p a n c i e s r e v e a l e d by t h i s p r e - t e s t b e f o r e t h e t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s was c o m p l e t e d . Some o f the f u r t h e r l i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s i n s t r u m e n t w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d upon i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a r a g r a p h s . The completed s c h e -d u l e has been o r g a n i z e d i n t o f i f t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e a s , each o f w h i c h r e f e r s t o a g i v e n i t e m of i n f o r m a t i o n . W h i l e t h e s e a r e a s a r e m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e , t h e y a r e n o t e x h a u s t i v e i n terms of i n c l u d i n g a l l p o s s i b i l i t i e s r e l e v a n t t o t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e a . The scope of t h e s c h e d u l e was narrowed by the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e p r e 0 s e n t e n c e r e p o r t i t s e l f , and by t h e r e l a t i v e h omogeneity o f t h e group under s t u d y . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i n c l u d e demo-g r a p h i c d a t a as w e l l as assessments o f a t t i t u d e s of t h e s u b j e c t towards s c h o o l , employment, and p a r e n t s . A number o f problems were e n c o u n t e r e d i n a t t e m p t i n g t o a b s t r a c t t h e d a t a from t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t , where the i n s t r u m e n t demanded a c a t e g o r i c a l p l a c e m e n t of a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount o f j u d g e m e n t a l d a t a . F a c t -u a l i n f o r m a t i o n such as age, r e l i g i o n , or e t h n i c o r i g i n c o u l d be e a s i l y grouped i n terms of s p e c i f i c c a t e g o r i e s . I n a s s e s s i n g r e a s o n s f o r l e a v i n g s c h o o l however, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e each a r e a o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n so t h a t t h e v a r i o u s r e a s o n s c o u l d o n l y be g i v e n d i s t i n c t and m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . F o r example, i t was n e c e s s a r y t o d e f i n e what was meant by 'normal p e e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s ' o r what was meant by ' s a t i s f a c t o r y manage-ment of f i n a n c i a l a f f a i r s ' as opposed t o ' u n s a t i s f a c t o r y management'. The o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s we d e v e l o p e d , s e r v e t o p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r the c l a s s -i f i c a t i o n of d a t a i n t h e s e a r e a s and a p r e - t e s t o f t h e s e complex judgements p e r m i t t e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r s t o g a i n some c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r methods of a r r i v i n g a t o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . T h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the (Appendix V I I ) as s u p p o r t i n g r e f e r e n c e s t o the i n s t r u m e n t . F o l l o w i n g the c o m p l e t i o n of t h e p l a n f o r the t r a n s f e r of d a t a from the f i l e s t o t h e s c h e d u l e s , the r e s p o n s e s l i s t e d i n t h e t w e n t y - f o u r i n s t r u -ments were coded. The t o t a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s r e c o r d e d on f o u r pages o f t a b u l a t i o n a r r a n g e d t o f o l l o w t h e sequence d e v e l o p e d i n the s c h e d u l e . The t a b u l a -t i o n l i s t s t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a r e a s i n n u m e r i c a l o r d e r from one t o f i f t y , and t h e s e a r e p l a c e d i n v e r t i c a l o r d e r i n the f i r s t column from the l e f t m a r g i n l M a t e r i a l s f o r each boy i s i d e n t i f i e d by a number, and t h i s s e r i e s r u n s h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s the page. Each i t e m or c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . l o c u s , i s i n d i c a t e d by number, v e r t i -c a l l y down th e page. I f f o r example, one w i s h e s t o o b t a i n the average age o f t h e S.A.L.T. c o u r s e c a n d i d a t e s , one s i m p l y r e f e r s t o column one ( w h i c h d e s i g n a t e s age) and by r e a d i n g h o r i z o n t a l l y a c r o s s the page, c a l c u l a t e s the t o t a l ages f o r t h e group and t a k e s an a v e r a g e . S i m i l a r l y , any s i n g l e i t e m f o r any g i v e n case can be o b t a i n e d by l o c a t i n g the case and r e l a t i n g i t t o t h e r e q u i r e d i t e m . S i n c e column one r e f e r s t o age, and each p a r t i c i p a n t was e i t h e r f i f t e e n , s i x t e e n or s e v e n t e e n y e a r s , t h e r e a r e o n l y t h r e e p o s s i b c a t e g o r i e s under the age c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i s arrangement of t h e d a t a l e n d s i t s e l f q u i t e r e a d i l y t o machine c o m p u t a t i o n when the coded i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a g i v e n boy i s t r a n s -f e r r e d t o an I.B.M. c a r d . . Hence a f u t u r e s t u d y c o u l d r e a d i l y make use o f computer p r o c e s s e s as s t a g e s i n a n a l y s e s of i f i k i s : raw:; d a t a . The C o r r e c t i o n s B r anch i s a b l e t o s u p p l y r e f e r e n c e s t o each case number l i s t e d i n t h e t a b u l a t i o n s , so t h a t the i d e n t i t y of each boy i n t h e s t u d y group can be r e c o v e r e d i n t h e e v e n t t h a t f u r t h e r f o l l o w - u p s t u d y i s c o n t e m p l a t e d . The f o l l o w i n g f o u r pages c o n t a i n t h e coded d a t a from t h e p r e -s e n t e n c e r e p o r t i n s t r u m e n t s . A l l t w e n t y - f o u r cases a r e t a b u l a t e d and each 49. i t e m on t h e i n s t r u m e n t i s r e p r e s e n t e d by a s i n g l e n u m e r i c a l i n d e x . T h e r e -f o r e t h e raw d a t a has been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o n u m e r i c a l symbols t h a t liatid t h e m s e l v e s t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . 50. TABLE 1 RESULTS PRE-SENTENCE REPORT DATA Case Number 1 2 3 4 5 Code Column 1 2 3 3 1 2 2 1 9 9 9 1 3 2 4 4 4 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 5 6 2 6 6 6 6 4 •2 2 4 4 7 4 4 4 4 4 8 2 2 3 5 1 9 4 4 6 5 4 10 3 2 5 4 3 11 5 1 6 5 1 12 1 5 5 4 1 13 2 2 4 1 2 14 1 2 6 3 1 15 2 2 3 2 2 16 5 4 8 7 3 17 3 3 5 4 1 18 3 2 4 •3 2 19 2 2 1 1 2 20 7 7 7 7 21 2 2 3 3 2 22 4 3 4 2 23 4 4 8 8 4 24 3 5 3 6 5 25 7 7 COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 9 8 1 9 1 9 1 9 4 1 4 1 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 6 6 1 6 1 6 2 2 1 4 4 1 2 3 3 2 4 4 4 3 1 4 2 4 4 3 4 3 4 5 2 4 . 4 4 5 3 1 2 5 3 3 5 1 5 3 5 5 1 4 5 4 4 4 4 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 7 5 7 7 6 6 7 4 2 4 4 2 5 4 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 7 7 7 7 6 7 7 2 2 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 2 2 3 3 3 7 4 4 4 4 8 4 5 5 1 5 6 6 5 9 51 TABLE 1 ( c o n t . ) (2) PRE-SENTENCE REPORT DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT Case Number: 1 2 3 4 5 Code Column 26 3 2 3 27 4 3 -28 8 3 29 3 1 3 4 1 30 , 3 4 3 5 4 31 1 4 4 4 2 32 3 1 1 7 4 33 . 2 3 4 4 2 34 1 3 4 4 2 35 1 6 4 6 1 36 5 4 37 4 38 3 39 4 . 4 7 6 5 40 3 6 6 3 3 41 5 3 5 4 3 42 1 3 5 5 2 43 2 5 5 4 3 44 2 5 1 5 2 45 2 3 5 5 5 46 4 5 2 6 5 47 2 6 3 6 2 48 6 6 6 6 6 49 3 1 3 3 2 50 1 6 7 8 9 10 11 . 12 1 3 3 4 4 3 3 8 8 3 1 1 3 2 2 1 3 4 4 3 3 3 4 2 5 5 4 4 4 1 1 7 1 5 1 5 1 4 7 4 2 4 3 4 4 7 4 2 4 3 4 7 3 5 2 3 1 1 3 2 4 3 3 3 2 3 3 4 7 6 3 7 4 3 1 5 5 7 3 5 5 5 2 5 5 3 5 5 2 2 5 5 2 2 5 5 2 3 5 3 2 5 2 2 3 5 3 5 2 3 3 5 4 2 1 4 6 4 6 1 3 4 2 2 2 6 6 6 6 3 1 6 2 2 2 3 1 3 1 52. TABLE 1 ( c o n t . ) (3) PRE-SENTENCE REPORT DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT Case Number: 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Code Column 1 2 2 1 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 1 3 2 1 1 2 1 9 2 9 2 9 3 9 9 3 2 1 2 2 4 4 4 . 1 4 1 4 4 4 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 5 5 5 1 5 5 1 6 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 4 3 2 4 4 1 3 1 4 2 4 4 7 3 3 3 4 4 3 4 3 4 1 4 . 4 8 4 1 2 1 3 2 3 2 2 2 5 4 9 3 3 3 5 2 3 2 4 5 5 5 3 10 3 3 3 4 5 2 5 5 4 5 5 5 11 1 1 5 5 1 1 6 1 5 1 6 6 12 1 . 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 4 4 5 5 13 2 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 14 2 1 3 3 4 2 1 3 2 3 6 6 15 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 16 5 3 7 - 7 7 5 3 6 7 7 8 3 17 1 3 4 4 4 1 3 1 4 4 5 2 18 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 4 2 19 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 2 5 20 7 7 7 0 2 7 7 2 7 7 7 21 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 1 3 3 22 3 3 2 2 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 4 23 4 4 4 4 4 8 4 4 4 4 8 4 24 5 1 5 5 5 2 6 1 5 1 3 6 25 7 7 1 7 7 7 53. TABLE 1 ( c o n t . ) (4) PRE-SENTENCE REPORT DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT Case Number: 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Code Column 26 2c 3 3 2 1 3 27 4 4 3 3 2 3 28 4 4 8 4 4 8 29 2 1 1 3 3 1 2 1 1 1 4 3 30 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 4 3 5 31 2 1 2 2 2 1 4 1 1 1 4 4 32 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 1 7 7 33 1 2 4 4 4 , 1 3 2 4 2 4 4 34 1 2 4 4 4 1 4 2 4 2 4 4 35 2 1 4 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 6 1 36 1 5 1 1 1 37 3 3 3 38 4 4 39 4 4 5 4 2 5 4 4 7 7 7 7 40 2 3 5 3 3 3 7 7 7 7 7 41 3 4 5 5 3 2 3 5 5 5 5 3 42 2 2 6 3 5 2 2 5 5 5 5 3 43 2 4 5 4 3 2 3 3 2 3 5 5 44 2 2 6 4 5 2 1 2 2 2 5 5 45 2 3 5 3 3 2 3 3 5 5 5 5 46 1 4 3 1 3 4 5 '3 6 4 6 6 47 4 2 1 4 2 1 2 1 6 2 6 6 48 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 49 2 2 2 3 2 1 2 3 3 3 3 50 1 54 A d m i s s i o n s C r i t e r i a T h e ' P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e e s t a b l i s h e d a l i s t o f a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a (see A p p e n d i x IV) i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e f i e l d p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s some g u i d e -l i n e s f o r s e l e c t i o n o f r e f e r r a l s t o t h e S.A.L.T. c o u r s e from t h e i r c u r r e n t c a s e l o a d s o f p r o b a t i o n e r s . I n t h e i n i t i a l phases o f ^ f c h i s s t u d y i t was f e l t t h a t an i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d be d e v i s e d i n o r d e r t o c a t e g o r i z e t h e r e f e r r a l s i n terms of t h e i r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e t o v a r i o u s c r i t e r i a on t h e a d m i s s i o n s l i s t . When the m a t e r i a l was examined c l o s e r , i t was o b s e r v e d t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f t h e r e f e r r a l s were matched a l m o s t p e r f e c t l y w i t h a l l t h e items on the l i s t o f a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a . S i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e way i n d i -v i d u a l cases r e l a t e d t o t h e a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a , were n o t o b t a i n a b l e . I t was f e l t t h e r e f o r e , t h a t t h e a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a c o u l d n o t be used i n terms of c l a s s i f y i n g r e f e r r a l s . The a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a were n o t s e t up as an at t e m p t t o e s t a b l i s h a s i g n i f i c a n t l y u n i q u e group of p r o b a t i o n e r s b u t r a t h e r , as mentioned above, t o p r o v i d e a p p r o x i m a t e g u i d e l i n e s f o r s e l e c t i o n . C e r t a i n c r i t e r i a r e g a r d i n g age, p h y s i c a l f i t n e s s , e t c . , tended t o narrow t h e s e l e c t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y , w h i l e some o f t h e more s u b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a a r e l i k e l y t o be found i n many of the d e l i n q u e n t s a l r e a d y known t o the P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e . S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e I n v i e w o f the n a t u r e and p u r p o s e s o f the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e , t h a t i s , t o p r o v i d e an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r boys t o m o d i f y t h e i r v a l u e s and b e h a v i o u r , i t was f e l t some i n s t r u m e n t s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d t o l i s t c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and item s o f b e h a v i o u r t h a t l e a d e r s c o u l d r e a d i l y use i n r e c o r d i n g the o b s e r v a t i o n s t h e y made o f each boy i n t h e i r :care d u r i n g the c o u r s e . As a r e s u l t , t h e S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e was d e v i s e d by t h e p r o b a t i o n s t a f f i n an a t t e m p t t o n o t e c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s and o b s e r v e t h e changes 55. them, as judged by an i n s t r u c t o r who was one of the l e a d e r s d u r i n g the p e r i o d o f the c o u r s e . The s c a l e s were based on a t e n p o i n t r a t i n g between the p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a s p e c t o f a c e r t a i n t r a i t , (see A p p e n d i x V) The i n d i v i d u a l t r a i t s were grouped under f o u r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; namely (1) P e r s o n a l i t y A t t r i b u t e s and T a s k ; P e r f o r m a n c e , (2) P h y s i c a l A t t r i b u t e s , (3) R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h C o - o r d i n a t o r , and (4) Peer R e l a t i o n s h i p s . Each o f the above c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s component t r a i t s , seeks t o a s s e s s a boy's r e s p o n s e e i t h e r t o a g i v e n t a s k or h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o a n o t h e r p e r s o n . The r a t i n g s c a l e c o n s i s t e d o f t w e n t y - n i n e s e p a r a t e b e h a v i o u r t r a i t s . On each t r a i t , a range o f t e n p o i n t s was used i n o r d e r t o e s t i m a t e t h e boy's pe r f o r m a n c e i n p e r c e n t a g e t e r m s . Each t r a i t i n the s c a l e used i n the c o u r s e i s d e s c r i b e d i n terms borrowed from common usage, such as " i n d u s t r i o u s " t o " l a z y " , "prompt" t o " t a r d y " e t c . , and the t e n - p o i n t s c a l e i s used t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the boy appears t o behave somewhere on the continuum between t h e extremes o f the s c a l e . The e x a c t l o c a t i o n o f h i s s c o r e i s n o t so i m p o r t a n t as the ' r e l a t i v e t e n d e n c y ' t o be i n a g i v e n a r e a o f the s c a l e . T h i s i s t a k e n t o i n d i c a t e h i s l e v e l o f f u n c t i o n i n g a t the ti m e the t e s t i s c o m p l e t e d . When s c o r e s a r e a s s i g n e d by the i n s t r u c t o r a p r o f i l e can be shown f o r a g i v e n group o f t r a i t s . The s c o r e s can a l s o be used f o r comparisons t o show changes i n a boy's b e h a v i o u r or t o compare group s c o r e s f o r one or more t r a i t s . F o r example: when a boy i s s c o r e d a t i n t e r v a l 6 h i s l e v e l o f f u n c -t i o n i n g i s r a t e d somewhere between 60 p e r c e n t and 69 p e r c e n t o f the t o t a l p o s s i b l e f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y . I f , f o r example, the c a t e g o r y i s " e n t h u -s i a s t i c " v e r s u s " a p a t h e t i c " , the l a d would be f u n c t i o n i n g between 60 p e r c e n t and 69 p e r c e n t toward the " e n t h u s i a s t i c " s i d e o f t h e s c a l e . A s c o r e o f 5 i s i n d e c i s i v e , b u t tends t o show a m i n i m a l p o s i t i v e t e n d e n c y f o r the d e s i r e d t y p e 5.6. o f b e h a v i o u r . Comparisons o f the boy's i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s can be made t o measure i n d i v i d u a l o r group s c o r e s , t r e n d s , o r s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n b e h a v i o u r . The f o u r - p a r t r a t i n g s c a l e s ; . w e r e L i u t i l i z e d on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s d u r i n g the t w e n t y - s i x day p e r i o d o f the c o u r s e . The s c a l e was used by the i n s t r u c t o r on two o c c a s i o n s : t e n days a f t e r t he c o u r s e had been under way and a g a i n a t the end of the c o u r s e . A t the end o f the c o u r s e , each boy a l s o used t h e s c a l e s t o g i v e h i m s e l f a " s e l f r a t i n g " on h i s p e r f o r m a n c e . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e as s e s s m e n t , by means of a s c o r e on a t e n - p o i n t s c a l e , r e p r e -s e n t s a judgement made o f t h e boy's b e h a v i o u r , a t a g i v e n p o i n t i n t i m e , by e i t h e r t h e i n s t r u c t o r , (a p r o f e s s i o n a l o b s e r v e r ) o r by t h e boy h i m s e l f , as a sub-j e c t i v e o b s e r v e r . I t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t the i n i t i a l and f i n a l s c a l e s were completed by t h e i n s t r u c t o r who implemented t h e program f o r each camping group and who l i v e d i n d a i l y a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the bo y s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t the f i r s t s e t of r a t i n g s , w h i c h were made by the i n s t r u c t o r a f t e r t e n da y s , were m a i l e d t o the p r o b a t i o n b r a n c h h e a d q u a r t e r s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e y were c o m p l e t e d . T h i s p l a n p r e c l u d e d use o f the f i r s t r a t i n g s c o r e s f o r co m p a r i s o n when the l e a d e r p r e p a r e d t h e f i n a l r a t i n g s c a l e s . T a b u l a t i o n o f Raw Sc o r e s f o r t h e R a t i n g S c a l e s F i l e s on each o f the boys who completed the S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g Course were k e p t a t t h e P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e h e a d q u a r t e r s . Among the m a t e r i a l s i n t h e f i l e s were the t h r e e completed r a t i n g s c a l e s f o r each boy. I t was f e l t t h a t i t was e s s e n t i a l , i n v i e w o f the scope o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t o c l a s s i f y and t a b u l a t e each boy's s c o r e s and i n c o r p o r a t e them i n t o t h e s t u d y . F o r p u r p o s e s o f c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y , each boy was g i v e n a number, from 1 t o 24. The l i s t , w h i c h s e r v e s t o i d e n t i f y coded d a t a f o r a g i v e n boy, i s on f i l e a t the p r o b a t i o n b r a n c h h e a d q u a r t e r s . The t a b u l a t i o n of t h e raw s c o r e s from t h e S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e s e t i s 57.. shown i n T a b l e 2. Each group of t h r e e columns r e f e r s t o one boy's raw s c o r e s . Column 1 under each Case Number i n T a b l e 2 g i v e s t h e " b e f o r e " r a t i n g made by t h e i n s t r u c t o r f o r t h a t p a r t i c u l a r boy a t t h e c l o s e o f t h e f i r s t ten-day p e r i o d o f the c o u r s e . Column 2 g i v e s the i n s t r u c t o r ' s r a t i n g f o r the same boy a t the end o f t h e t w e n t y - s i x day t r a i n i n g c o u r s e . Column 3 g i v e s the boy's s e l f r a t i n g s c o r e s a t t h e c l o s e o f the t w e n t y - s i x day c o u r s e . The t w e n t y - n i n e t r a i t s o f t h e s c a l e a r e l i s t e d on t h e l e f t s i d e of t h e T a b l e (number 3) i n v e r t i c a l o r d e r , and i t d i s t i n g u i s h e s the f o u r s e p a r a t e c a t e g o r i e s w i t h i n t h e groups o f t r a i t s . Each c a t e g o r y i s t o t a l l e d s e p a r a t e l y on t h e t a b l e . T a b l e 4 t o t a l s t h e sums of each c a t e g o r y so t h a t t h e sum t o t a l o f each boy's s c o r e s i s i n d i c a t e d . ( V e r t i c a l ) T a b l e 3 t o t a l s t h e whole groups p e r f o r m a n c e f o r each t r a i t on t h e t h r e e s c a l e s a d m i n i s t e r e d . ( H o r i z o n t a l ) The d a t a from t h e s e t a b l e s can be used i n a number of ways. A l t h o u g h t h e scope o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y l i m i t s a n a l y s i s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t e d , t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e examples o f uses f o r t h i s d a t a : 1. The amount o f change ( p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e ) f o r each boy i n terms o f each t r a i t , i n p e r c e n t a g e terms. 2. By u s i n g the t o t a l s o f each column or t h e s u b t o t a l s o f each o f the f o u r p a r t s and comparing a g i v e n f i g u r e f o r t e s t s 1 and 2, t h e amount o f change and i t s d i r e c t i o n , i . e . p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e , f o r each boy can be e a s i l y c a l -c u l a t e d . 3. Trends f o r the whole group can be a s s e s s e d by comparing the t o t a l s c o r e s f o r s c a l e s 1 and 2 i n the t o t a l group. T h i s can be a c h i e v e d by u s i n g the t o t a l s o f t h e columns, h o r i z o n t a l l y . ( T a b l e 3) 4. By u s i n g the sums o f t h e s c o r e s f o r a s i n g l e t r a i t ( T a b l e 2) f o r a l l t h e boys and comparing c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e s u l t s o f r a t i n g 1 and 2, one can n o t e the de-$8. gree and d i r e c t i o n o f change i n s i g n i f i c a n t a r e a s o f f u n c t i o n i n g t h a t a p p l y t o the whole group. W h i l e t h e scope o f t h i s t h e s i s i s l i m i t e d t o g a t h e r i n g the d a t a o b t a i n e d by v a r i o u s methods, the n u m e r i c a l r a t i n g s made a v a i l a b l e here i n T a b l e s 2, 3, and 4 c o u l d be used i n f u r t h e r a n a l y s i s so as t o p r o v i d e b o t h g e n e r a l i z e d and d e t a i l e d i n f o r m a t i o n , f o r a g i v e n boy, f o r a sub-group of s e l e c t e d b o y s , or f o r the t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n of t w e n t y - f o u r b o y s. C o r r e l a -t i o n s c o u l d be c a l c u l a t e d and graphs c o u l d be drawn t o show e i t h e r i n d i v i d u a l or group t r e n d s . . TABLE 2 S.A.L.T. RATING SCALE TABULATION OF THE RAW SCORES Case Number 1 2 3 4 Column: 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s i:> , 6 4 6 8 5 7 7 6 9 5 5 I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s 2 7 3 5 7 6 5 3 5 6 8 7 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 2 7 4 5 8 9 5 7 7 6 8 6 P a i n s t a k i n g 2 5 7 8 7 5 5 3 6 5 9 6 S e l f C o n f i d e n c e 3 6 6 5 9 10 6 5 3 5 4 8 E n t h u s i a s m 1 7 8 5 8 9 7 5 6 6 7 6 F e a r l e s s n e s s 3 6 6 4 3 7 7 4 1 9 4 8 Judgement 2 5 7 7 8 8 6 6 10 5 5 4 Manners 3 4 6 4 4 5 6 7 6 7 8 8 Language Approp. 3 5 8 5 2 5 6 7 4 7 9 7 TOTAL . 22 58 59 54 64 69 60 54 54 65 67 65 S t r e n g t h 8 8 6 10 10 10 7 8 5 8 8 5 C o - o r d i n a t i o n 8 10 7 10 10 10 6 6 5 8 4 3 Grooming 7 9 4 9 9 8 7 3 5 7 7 5 V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n 4 9 7 8 9 6 7 3 5 5 5 5 R e f l e x e s 7 9 9 10 9 10 6 5 4 7 8 7 Endurance 1 9 3 5 9 8 7 2 7 9 8 7 TOTAL 35 54 36 52 56 52 40 27 31 44 40 32 H e l p f u l n e s s 2 7 6 5 7 6 7 2 7 8 9 6 C o u r t e o u s n e s s 1 7 7 5 8 8 8 7 6 9 9 8 Obedience 3 7 7 7 8 4 7 8 6 8 9 8 Promptness 5 8 8 7 9 9 8 6 6 5 7 6 A c c e p t n e s s o f A u t h o r i t y 2 8 4 5 9 8 7 8 6 8 8 9 A b i l i t y t o R e l a t e 2 8 10 6 8 9 9 7 10 6 7 10 TOTAL 15 45 42 35 49 44 46 38 41 44 49 47 P o p u l a r i t y 4 8 6 5 9 5 9 9 5 3 4 1 Dominance 10 8 7 10 9 8 6 6 5 4 2 1 L e a d e r s h i p 3 6 4 9 8 8 7 4 4 7 2 5 Harmoniousness 4 7 9 8 8 9 10 9 6 5 3 2 Temperament 3 3 1 6 5 4 1 3 1 7 8 9 Humour 2 8 9 5 4 8 9 8 10 5 7 5 U n s e l f i s h n e s s 1 4 8 3 2 9 4 5 1 6 7 9 TOTAL 27 44 44 46 45 51 46 44 32 37 33 32 TABLE 2 ( c o n t . ) (2) Case Number 5 6 7 8 Column: 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s 2 4 6 2 8 3 3 4 5 9 7 7 I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s 5 7 5 2 9 5 2 4 6 9 7 6 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 5 6 10 2 8 5 6 7 9 7 9 8 P a i n s t a k i n g 4 4 6 3 7 4 6 5 4 6 8 5 S e l f C o n f i d e n c e 2 3 2 2 7 1 3 3 7 7 9 4 E n t h u s i a s m 6 6 5 3 8 5 2 4 5 7 8 6 F e a r l e s s n e s s 3 4 7 5 4 10 2 3 5 7 3 2 Judgement 3 4 6 1 6 10 2 6 5 7 8 7 Manners 7 6 9 1 1 I S •Z 6 5 7 8 7 Language Approp. 8 7 9 1 1 3 6 9 5 3 9 4 TOTAL 45 51 65 22 71 51 39 51 56 69 76 56 S t r e n g t h 3 4 3 8 8 5 4 7 5 6 8 4 C o - o r d i n a t i o n 7 4 10 9 9 10 4 7 9 6 7 5 Grooming 6 5 4 8 8 6 9 9 9 7 8 7 V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n 2 7 4 2 6 5 6 8 9 7 6 4 R e f l e x e s 4 3 10 7 7 5 4 7 8 8 6 6 Endurance 4 6 1 1 8 8 2 4 •3 9 8 6 TOTAL 26 29 32 35 46 39 29 42 43 43 43 32 H e l p f u l n e s s 8 8 8 2 9 4 4 6 5 8 9 6 C o u r t e o u s n e s s 9 9 9 3 9 5 6 8 5 8 9 6 Obedience 8 9 10 5 9 9 5 8 9 9 9 7 Promptness 5 7 8 6 9 10 8 8 9 7 8 6 A c c e p t a n c e o f A u t h o r i t y 6 9 10 5 8 3 5 8 8 8 9 5 A b i l i t y t o R e l a t e 5 7 10 6 9 8 2 : 1 5 9 9 8 TOTAL 41 49 55 27 53 39 30 45 41 49 53 38 P o p u l a r i t y 1 2 1 4 8 5 5 4 5 8 8 6 Dominance 1 1 1 9 7 8 9 4 5 5 5 7 L e a d e r s h i p 2 2 2 5 7 3 7 3 5 5 7 4 Harmoniousness 2 4 , 1 4 8 6 6 6 5 8 8 5 Temperament 8 8 3 4 4 9 6 8 7 5 7 8 Humour 6 6 2 4 8 6 5 7 5 9 9 7 U n s e l f i s h n e s s 7 6 2 2 8 7 7 2 3 1 8 3 TOTAL 37 29 12 32 50 44 45 34 35 41 52 40 TABLE 2 ( c o n t . ) (3) Case Number 9 10 11 12 Column: 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s 8 9 5 2 3 4 2 7 6 4 3 6 I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s 8 9 9 3 4 5 6 8 4 2 3 4 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 8 9 10 5 2 4 5 7 9 2 4 6 P a i n s t a k i n g 8 8 5 1 3 2 7 5 6 3 4 6 S e l f C o n f i d e n c e 8 6 10 1 2 8 4 4 8 6 7 8 E n t h u s i a s m 8 8 5 1 2 3 5 8 9 2 5 7 F e a r l e s s n e s s 7 6 10 1 4 8 4 5 3 3 6 5 Judgement 7 9 1 2 1 6 3 6 8 3 3 6 Manners 8 9 6 1 3 4 4 7 4 7 8 7 Language A p p r o p . 9 9 6 2 4 2 6 7 2 6 8 7 TOTAL 79 82 67 19 28 46 46 64 59 38 51 62 S t r e n g t h 6 8 5 4 4 5 7 9 Z 6 3 6 Co-ord i n a t i o n 6 8 10 3 2 7 8 9 7 7 5 7 Grooming 6 7 5 1 3 5 5 6 4 8 7 6 V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n 5 8 10 2 3 3 3 7 9 6 6 7 R e f l e x e s 6 8 10 3 4 9 4 8 9 5 2 8 Endurance 8 9 10 7 7 2 3 8 4 1 2 4 TOTAL 37 48 50 20 23 31 30 47 50 33 25 38 H e l p f u l n e s s 9 10 10 6 4 5 7 8 5 4 7 5 C o u r t e o u s n e s s 9 9 10 6 6 4 5 8 8 6 8 7 Obedience 9 9 10 7 6 8 7 8 7 5 6 6 Promptness 7 9 10 8 6 7 8 9 9 1 1 2 A c c e p t a n c e o f A u t h o r i t y 9 9 10 8 7 2 8 9 9 4 5 5 A b i l i t y t o R e l a t e 7 8 10 5 5 9 6 7 7 5 8 9 TOTAL 50 54 60 40 34 35 41 49 45 25 35 34 P o p u l a r i t y 5 10 6 1 2 5 7 9 7 8 9 6 Dominance 5 7 6 5 2 5 7 7 9 5 4 6 L e a d e r s h i p 5 10 10 5 2 3 8 8 8 5 4 4-Harmoniousness 7 9 10 2 3 3 9 7 7 8 8 7 Temperament 8 9 10 6 8 5 4 6 2 2 6 5 Humour 8 9 10 3 5 2 4 6 3 6 9 7 U n s e l f i s h n e s s 7 4 9 5 2 10 5 6 6 4 7 8 TOTAL 45 58 61 27 24 33 44 49 42 38 47 43 TABLE 2 ( c o n t Case Number 13 Column: 1 2 3 R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s 6 3 6 I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s 4 2 6 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 4 4 9 P a i n s t a k i n g 3 .2 5 S e l f C o n f i d e n c e 5 10 9 E n t h u s i a s m 6 5 8 F e a r l e s s n e s s 8 10 . 8 Jud gement 4 1 7 Manners 4 10 9 Language Approp. 4 2 7 TOTAL 48 49 74 S t r e n g t h 8 9 6 C o - o r d i n a t i o n 9 9 9 Grooming 7 2 7 V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n 7 10 6 R e f l e x e s 9 9 7 Endurance 3 1 4 TOTAL 43 40 39 H e l p f u l n e s s 4 3 6 C o u r t e o u s n e s s 5 5 4 Obedience 4 8 4 Promptness 4 7 5 A c c e p t n e s s o f A u t h o r i t y 3 6 5 A b i l i t y t o R e l a t e 8 7 5 TOTAL 28i5- 36 29 P o p u l a r i t y 6 8 7 Dominance 6 9 5 L e a d e r s h i p 6 8 7 Harmoniousness 6 5 6 Temperament 3 1 4 Humour 7 5 8 U n s e l f i s h n e s s 3 2 6 TOTAL 37 38 43 ) (4) 14* 15 16 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 4 8 6 2 8 5 1 6 10 6 1 9 3 1 5 10 6 2 10 4 2 4 8 6 3 9 5 1 5 10 7 2 5 5 2 5 10 6 3 5 6 1 8 3 8 1 2 7 2 5 9 6 "3 5 5 2 4 9 4 i 2 5 3 5 9 5 2 4 5 16 51 86 60 20 59 50 4 8 8 7 9 10 5 4 9 9 7 9 10 6 4 4 5 6 7 4 8 2 5 7 6 1 1 4 2 8 9 7 9 9 6 7 7 10 8 8 4 4 23 41 48 41 43 38 33 4 7 10 6 5 5 5 5 7 10 5 4 5 4 6 7 10 6 5 8 5 6 8 10 6 2 8 6 6 8 10 6 4 8 7 4 6 10 6 3 5 5 31 43 60 35 23 39 32 2 5 10 7 4 9 6 2 4 4 6 4 3 6 1 3 9 6 4 5 7 2 7 9 6 3 9 5 10 7 9 4 8 9 4 4 7 10 7 3 3 5 2 *5 9 6 2 2 4 23 38 60 42 28 40 37 *Case number 14 was w i t h d r a w n from the c o u r s e p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n . TABLE 2 ( c o n t . ) (5) Case Number 17 18 19 20 Column: 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s 7 2 7 8 9 8 3 5 7 5 2 5 I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s • 8 1 6 2 2 5 3 5 5 5 3 4 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 9 3 9 5 2 4 2 1 8 6 2 5 P a i n s t a k i n g 7 3 6 5 4 5 2 5 5 5 4 4 S e l f C o n f i d e n c e 6 3 6 3 9 8 3 1 3 5 3 6 En t h u s i a s m 6 4 7 5 3 6 4 1 4 4 4 6 F e a r l e s s n e s s . 7 4 6 2 1 8 2 1 2 3 2 5 Judgement 7 4 7 6 2 4 3 1 3 4 5 8 Manners 6 5 7 5 9 3 2 5 9 3 9 6 Language Approp. 6 9 8 5 5 5 5 7 6 4 9 8 TOTAL ..... 69 38 69 46 46 56 29 32 52 44 43 57 S t r e n g t h 7 3 6 7 9 7 6 5 5 4 2 5 C o - o r d i n a t i o n 7 2 6 7 9 7 5 5 3 4 3 5 Grooming 6 1 6 7 9 5 5 7 7 4 9 5 V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n 6 2 7 7 9 5 4 3 3 3 7 7 R e f l e x e s 7 2 6 9 9 8 4 2 5 4 3 6 Endurance 7 1 8 2 1 2 5 1 9 4 4 6 TOTAL 40 11 39 39 46 34 29 23 32 23 28 34 H e l p f u l n e s s 7 3 6 3 2 2 7 5 5 5 5 5 C o u r t e o u s n e s s 7 7 6 7 5 5 7 5 7 5 9 7 Obedience 8 5 6 7 5 5 6 5 5 4 5 7 Promptness 8 3 5 2 3 3 5 3 5 3 3 4 A c c e p t n e s s o f A u t h o r i t y 8 3 5 6 1 5 7 7 3 5 7 8 A b i l i t y t o R e l a t e 8 5 6 5 2 5 6 1 5 4 5 8 TOTAL 46 26 34 30 18 25 38 26 30 26 34 39 P o p u l a r i t y 7 3 6 5 2 5 4 2 7 4 5 6 Dominance 6 2 5 7 10 5 6 1 5 5 2 5 L e a d e r s h i p 7 2 4 9 10 6 4 1 4 6 2 6 Harmoniousness 7 8 6 7 10 6 4 5 5 5 4 6 Temperament 6 8 5 7 9 5 8 9 8 6 9 6 Humour 8 5 7 6 1 5 3 5 8 5 5 6 U n s e l f i s h n e s s 5 2 4 5 1 5 2 2 8 4 2 7 TOTAL 46 30 37 46 43 37 31 25 45 35 29 42 TABLE 2 ( c o n t . ) (6) Case Number 21 22 23 24 Column: 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 . 1 2 3 R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s 2 5 4 7 9 7 1 5 7 3 7 8 I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s 3 4 5 9 9 7 1 5 4 4 6 6 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 2 4 6 8 9 9 2 9 8 4 2 7 P a i n s t a k i n g 3 2 4 7 8 5 1 4 4 4 1 5 S e l f C o n f i d e n c e 4 5 8. 7 9 8 2 3 8 4 9 7 E n t h u s i a s m 4 8 6 7 10 9 2 7 7 4 5 8 F e a r l e s s n e s s 3 2 5 8 8 5 5 4 2 1 3 4 Judgement 4 5 4 6 10 10 1 7 9 3 2 9 Manners 4 5 5 5 10 5 2 4 7 4 3 6 Language A p p r o p . 5 8 3 4 10 8 3 5 9 5 5 4 TOTAL 34 48 50 68 72 73 20 53 65 .36 43 64 S t r e n g t h 4 4 4 8 8 5 5 6 9 4 9 7 C o - o r d i n a t i o n 6 5 6 7 9 7 4 5 8 4 8 6 Grooming 4 4 .5 9 9 7 4 5 10 4 2 4 V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n 4 7 4 8 10 7 1 6 9 4 5 7 R e f l e x e s 4 8 8 9 9 5 1 3 8 6 7 9 Endurance 2 9 7 8 10 7 1 5 9 3 7 8 TOTAL 24 37 34 49 55 38 16 30 53 25 38 41 H e l p f u l n e s s 7 7 5 8 10 8 3 2 9 4 5 6 C o u r t e o u s n e s s 5 8 6 8 10 9 3 2 2 6 3 8 Obedience 5 7 5 8 8 8 5 2 4 6 4 4 Promptness 3 3 6 7 9 6 1 3 3 4 2 4 A c c e p t a n c e o f A u t h o r i t y 6 6 4 8 9 8 5 9 9 5 5 7 A b i l i t y t o R e l a t e 6 9 6 8 7 8 3 8 2 4 7 8 TOTAL 32 40 32 47 53 47 20 26 29 29 26 37 P o p u l a r i t y 5 8 4 7 10 6 3 9 9 4 4 8 Dominance 3 3 8 6 7 5 7 3 4 5 8 6 L e a d e r s h i p 3 2 5 7 8 5 1 3 8 5 8 6 Harmpniousness 6 8 4 7 9 5 1 8 7 5 3 8 Temperament 7 2 3 5 5 5 9 8 8 3 3 5 Humour 7 9 6 7 9 7 5 8 9 5 4 8 U n s e l f i s h n e s s 6 4 5 4 7 8 6 5 3 1 2 5 TOTAL 37 36 35 43 55 41 32 44 48 28 32 46 TABLE 3 S.A.L.T. RATING SCALE TOTALS OF GROUP PER TRAIT* (HORIZONTAL) B e f o r e A f t e r S e l f R e s o u r c e f u l n e s s 103 134 122 I n d u s t r i o u s n e s s 101 132 116 D e p e n d a b i l i t y 107 138 162 P a i n s t a k i n g 102 118 116 S e l f C o n f i d e n c e 98 130 140 Enthus iasm 103 149 147 F e a r l e s s n e s s 103 92 132 Judgement 98 118 150 Manners 105 147 138 Language Approp. 110 156 130 S t r e n g t h 137 158 132 C o - o r d i n a t i o n 153 155 159 Grooming 142 138 138 V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n 109 144 139 R e f l e x e s 141 151 170 Endurance 107 133 133 H e l p f u l n e s s 141 143 134 C o u r t e o u s n e s s 139 166 146 Obedience 145 163 150 Promptness 122 140 143 A c c e p t a n c e o f A u t h o r i t y 140 158 146 A b i l i t y t o R e l a t e 129 157 169 P o p u l a r i t y 114 152 129 Dominance 135 114 128 L e a d e r s h i p 123 123 124 Harmoniousness 131 155 134 Temperament 129 147 121 Humour 129 150 150 U n s e l f i s h n e s s 105 100 131 *Case Number 14 was n o t i n c l u d e d because he was w i t h d r a w n p p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e . c o u r s e . " A f t e r " and " S e l f " r a t i n g s were n o t a v a i l a b l e f o r No. 14. 66. TABLE 4 S.A.L.T. RATING SCALE TOTALS OF ITEMS PER CASE (VERTICAL) Case Number B e f o r e A f t e r S e l f 1 99 201 181 2 187 214 216 3 192 163 158 4 190 189 176 5 139 158 164 6 116 220 173 7 143 172 175 8 202 224 166 9 211 242 228 10 106 109 145 11 161 209 186 12 134 158 177 13 156 163 185 14* 93 * * 15 173 254 178 16 114 176 152 17 201 105 179 18 161 153 152 19 127 106 159 20 128 134 172 21 127 161 151 22 207 255 199 23 88 153 195 24 118 139 188 *Case Number 14 was w i t h d r a w n p r i o r t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e c o u r s e , t h e r e f o r e , the " A f t e r " and t h e " S e l f " r a t i n g s were n o t done. TABLE #5 FOLLOW-UP PERFORMANCE CASES PROBATION C o n t i n u i n g ^ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Completed X X X X X SUBSEQUENT COURT APPEARANCE F a m i l y C o u r t X X X X X A d u l t C o u r t X X Committed t o I n s t i t u t i o n X X X X X X * O f f e n s e B.I TH BE BP INT TH AS BE BP TH EMPLOYMENT F u l l Time X X P a r t Time X X X S p o r a d i c X X X X X Unemployed X x; : x X X :•: X X L e n g t h o f Employment A t t i t u d e G P G G G P F P F P F P F G F SCHOOL Grade 9 9 10 9 Vo 11 11 9 11 L e f t S c h o o l Reason: D i s c i p l i n e X X Employment X X X Academic No Reason X ( A t t i t u d e G P G G P F P P p F P F G P *BP - B r e a c h o f P r o b a t i o n INT - I n t o x i c a t i o n TH - T h e f t BE - B r e a k i n g & E n t e r i n g AS - A s s a u l t ( c o n t i n u e d ) TABLE 5 ( c o n t . ) . PARENTAL RELATIONSHIPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Mother Improved X X x . X X X R e g r e s s e d X Remained Same X X X X X X X X X X X X X X F a t h e r Improved x X X X X R e g r e s s e d X X X X Remained Same X X X X X X X X X X X X X L e f t Home L i v i n g Arrangements Home X X X X X X X X X X R e l a t i v e s B o a r d i n g X X X X X O t h e r X X X X X X X X X PROGNOSIS FOR FUTURE CONDUCT p G F F p G G G F p G F p F G F G F E E F G p p SIGNIFICANT CHANGES Improved R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h : P e e r s X X P a r e n t s X X X A d u l t s X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X No Improvement X X X X X X X F o l l o w - U p Q u e s t i o n n a i r e S i x months a f t e r the c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e second S.A.L.T. c o u r s e o f 1966, each p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r who was i n cha r g e of boys who had completed the c o u r s e were s e n t f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The o f f i c e r s were asked t o f i l l out t h e i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u e s t e d f o r each boy on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . (see Ap p e n d i x V I ) The r e s e a r c h team d e s i g n e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e near t h e end o f 1966. I t was s e n t t o t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f the new y e a r t o be r e t u r n e d t o t h e r e s e a r c h team i n time t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t h e s i s . I t was f e l t by t h e team t h a t a minimum o f s i x months between t h e t i m e the boys f i n i s h e d the c o u r s e and t h e t i m e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was n e c e s s a r y t o a c h i e v e an a c c u r a t e p i c t u r e o f t h e boy's b e h a v i o u r i n the community. Time l i m i t a t i o n s o f the r e s e a r c h team p r o h i b i t e d an extended l a p s e of t i m e . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was t o d e t e r m i n e the boy's p r e -s e n t b e h a v i o u r i n t h e community and see i f t h e r e were any changes i n h i s be-h a v i o u r as a s s e s s e d by h i s p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e b l a n k was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n as f a r as p o s s i b l e , on the boy's p e r f o r m a n c e on p r o b a t i o n , a t s c h o o l , a t h i s p l a c e o f employment, and i n h i s r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h p a r e n t s , as w e l l as a p r o g n o s t i c i m p r e s s i o n f o r the s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n . Under the h e a d i n g s o f " S c h o o l " and "Employment" a space was p r o v i d e d f o r the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r t o i n d i c a t e the boy's a t t i t u d e i n t h e s e a r e a s o f f u n c t i o n i n g . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d e s i g n e d t o g a i n as wide a scope o f f o l l o w - u p i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . I n o r d e r t o c l a s s i f y t h e d a t a r e c e i v e d from the f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n -a i r e , a t a b u l a t i o n was d e s i g n e d , p e r m i t t i n g a l l t w e n t y - f o u r cases t o be p l o t -t e d f o r c o m p a r i s o n . ( T a b l e 5) However,. when t h e i n f o r m a t i o n was t o be t r a n s -c r i b e d o n t o t h e t a b l e , we e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t y i n i s o l a t i n g s i n g l e f a c t o r s t h a t c o u l d be c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d on a t a b l e . F o r example: the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r was asked t o a s s e s s s i g n i f i c a n t changes i n b e h a v i o u r , f o l l o w i n g the boys r e t u r n t o t h e community. I n o r d e r t o t a b u l a t e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o i s o l a t e s i n g u l a r s i g n i f i c a n t changes, e.g., improved r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h p e e r s , p a r e n t s , o r a d u l t s . Q u e s t i o n s 9, 10 and 11 a l l o w e d f o r s u b j e c t i v i t y t o e n t e r i n t o t he assessment. However, i t was the c o n s i d e r e d o p i n i o n o f the p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r who was a t t e m p t i n g t o make a p r o g n o s i s and i t was f e l t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n was e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t . F o r p u r p o s e s o f t a b u -l a t i o n , however, some judgements had t o be made by t h e t h e s i s group. Wherever a p r o g n o s i s was s t a t e d as ' d o u b t f u l ' by t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r , i t was c l a s s -i f i e d as ' f a i r ' on the t a b l e . The r a t i n g s under the a r e a ' p r o g n o s i s f o r s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f p r o b a t i o n ' a r e g i v e n as 'Good',,. ' F a i r ' , or 'Poor'', and appear on t h e t a b l e as 'G', 'F', or 'P' as the a b b r e v i a t i o n s . S i m i l a r l y , t he r a t i n g s under ' S c h o o l ' and 'Employment' a r e i n d i c a t e d w i t h a G, F, or P, as the a b b r e v i a t e d form of Good, F a i r , o r P o o r . A s y n o p t i c i m p r e s s i o n can be g a i n e d f o r each boy by f o l l o w i n g t he r a t i n g s v e r t i c a l l y on t h e t a b l e . T o t a l s f o r group comparisons can be o b t a i n e d by a d d i n g i t e m s i n s u b - t o t a l o r as a grand t o t a l , h o r i z o n t a l l y . The scope o f t h i s s t u d y d i d n o t p e r m i t the r e s e a r c h team t o a n a l y z e t h e c o l l e c t e d d a t a t o a p o i n t where any s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s c o u l d be made. The i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r c l a s s i f i e s and t a b l e s d a t a t h a t were c o l l e c t e d from t h e S i A . L . T . c a n d i d a t e s ' f i l e s . I t has p l a c e d the e x t r a c -t e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n c h r o n o l o g i c a l o r d e r from t h e i n i t i a l p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t p r e p a r e d by t h e p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s e r v i n g t h e boy's home community. F o l l o w i n g the d a t a from t h e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t , the a d m i s s i o n c r i t e r i a , t h e r a t i n g s c a l e s , and t h e f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were used i n o r d e r t o a b s t r a c t i n f o r -m a t i o n r e l a t i n g t o each boy's p r o g r e s s and b e h a v i o u r b e f o r e , d u r i n g , and a f t e r the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . From t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s can be done t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s and/or t e s t h y p o t h e s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e S.A.L.T. co u r s e i n i t s a t t e m p t t o m o d i f y t h e v a l u e s and the b e h a v i o u r o f t h e boys i n v o l v e d . The f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r w i l l d i s c u s s f u r t h e r t h e work done i n t h i s p r e s e n t s t u d y and i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary of the Study A t the o n s e t o f t h i s s t u d y , i t s main p u r p o s e was t o a s s e s s the r e s u l t s o f an o u t d o o r e x p e r i m e n t d e v i s e d as a new approach i n t h e t r e a t -ment o f boys on p r o b a t i o n . I n B.C., the P r o v i n c i a l P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e conducted a u n i q u e e x p e r i m e n t i n p r o v i d i n g a new program, c a l l e d the S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g C ourse, as an a d j u n c t t o the t r a d i t i o n a l methods of w o r k i n g w i t h p r o b a t i o n e r s . T h i s program i s an a d a p t a t i o n t o a Canadian s e t t i n g , , o f the t r a i n i n g program d e v e l o p e d by the Outward Bound movement w h i c h o r i g i n a t e d i n G r e a t B r i t a i n . I n the l a n d o f i t s o r i g i n , and l a t e r i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h i s program has been used f o r a d o l e s c e n t boys from a l l w a l k s of l i f e , and i t was u s u a l l y o f f e r e d on a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s . So f a r as the r e s e a r c h team has been a b l e t o l e a r n , the a d a p t a t i o n o f the Outward Bound c o u r s e t o an e x p e r i m e n t i n the p r o b a t i o n p r o c e s s o f d e l i n q u e n t boys i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i s the f i r s t o f i t s k i n d on t h i s c o n t i n e n t . I n c o m p i l i n g t h i s t h e s i s t h e r e f o r e , the w r i t e r s had t o examine a l l r e l e v a n t l i t e r a t u r e on the Outward Bound movement b o t h i n terms of i t s p h i l o s o p h i c a l base and the methods used i n i m p l e m e n t i n g the program. S i n c e the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e was c e n t e r e d on the t r a i n i n g o f d e l i n -quent boys i t was a l s o n e c e s s a r y t o examine the t e s t e d knowledge t h a t g i v e s c r e d e n c e t o the program from a t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e . S o c i a l s c i e n c e l i t e r a t u r e , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t he t h e o r i e s o f E r i k s o n , W h i t e and G l a s s e r , have been exam-i n e d and r e l a t e d t o the S.A.L.T. program. The f i r s t two c h a p t e r s o f the t h e s i s d e s c r i b e the S.A.L.T. program and p r o v i d e s a s u r v e y o f the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t i s r e l e v a n t t o the p r e s e n t r e -s e a r c h s t u d y . The scope o f t h e s t u d y as i t was f i n a l l y d e v e l o p e d , has been l i m i t e d t o t h e development of methods t o c l a s s i f y and p r e p a r e c e r t a i n mate-r i a l s , t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e a t the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e , f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The m a t e r i a l s i n c l u d e p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s , some p s y c h i a t r i c r e p o r t s r e l e v a n t t o the p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t s , r e f e r r i n g l e t t e r s from t h e P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r s a d d r e s s e d t o t h e a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a , t he S.A.L.T. c o u r s e R a t i n g S c a l e s p r o -duced d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e , and f i n a l l y , f o l l o w - u p e v a l u a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The p r e - s e n t e n c e r e p o r t i s w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y f o r use by t h e P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r i n the f i e l d and the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t j u d g e . S i n c e t h e p r e -s e n t e n c e r e p o r t i s n o t w r i t t e n f o r r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s , the r e s e a r c h team had t o d e v e l o p an i n s t r u m e n t t o c l a s s i f y r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r r e s e a r c h . A second s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n was t h e a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a . S i n c e most o f the c a n d i d a t e s who took p a r t i n the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e , adhered t o t h e m a j o r i t y o f the a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a , the r e s e a r c h team were u n a b l e t o c l a s s i f y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . I n terms o f the a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a t h e r e f o r e , t h e r e s e a r c h team d i d n o t d e v i s e an i n s t r u m e n t t o c l a s s i f y a d m i s s i o n s d a t a . A copy o f the a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a i s i n c l u d e d as a p p e n d i x IV. The S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e s were d e v i s e d by the s t a f f t o measure changes i n a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v i o u r o f the boys i n v o l v e d . S i n c e one of the aims o f the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e i s t o . m o d i f y d e l i n q u e n t b e h a v i o u r , any s i g n i f i -c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the s c o r i n g c o u l d i n d i c a t e a change, e i t h e r p o s i t i v e or n e g a t i v e i n a g i v e n boy's b e h a v i o u r . The S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e s were a d m i n i s -t e r e d on t h r e e s e p a r a t e o c c a s i o n s , i n hopes o f o b t a i n i n g an o v e r v i e w o f the b o y s ' p r o g r e s s d u r i n g the c o u r s e . The S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e s c o n s i s t o f a t e n p o i n t range between the extremes o f c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y a t t r i b u t e s or t r a i t s . The S c a l e i d e n t i -f i e d : t w e n t y - n i n e t r a i t s w h i c h were a r r a n g e d i n f o u r s u b - g roups. T h r e e w e r e 74. r e l e v a n t t o p e r s o n a l i t y and i n t e r - p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , w h i l e the f o u r t h was r e l e v a n t t o p h y s i c a l and motor s k i l l s . The d a t a from t h e s e s c a l e s was a b s t r a c t e d f o r use i n f u r t h e r s t u d y . A f u r t h e r m a j o r i n s t r u m e n t was a f o l l o w - u p q u e s t i o n n a i r e s e n t t o each P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r who r e f e r r e d a boy t o the 1966 S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e was completed s i x months a f t e r the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the second S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . The v a l u e o f the completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s t h a t i t i n d i -c a t e s a g i v e n boy's p r o g r e s s i n the community f o l l o w i n g h i s r e t u r n from the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . I t i s assumed t h a t the d a t a a r e r e l e v a n t i n a s s e s s i n g the boy's change s i n c e h i s r e t u r n from the c o u r s e and t h a t t h i s change may r e l a t e , i n p a r t , t o the e x p e r i e n c e t h a t he had d u r i n g the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . The raw s c o r e s from a l l the i n s t r u m e n t s used i n the s t u d y have been t a b u l a t e d and i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the t e x t o f the t h e s i s . The f u l l s i g n i -f i c a n c e o f t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n may be r e v e a l e d i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s o f t h i s p r o -gram. As m e n t i o n e d i n the c h a p t e r d e s c r i b i n g i t s d e s i g n , the p r e s e n t s t u d y i n v o l v e s a p r e p a r a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s now a v a i l a b l e , so t h a t t h e y can be used f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The S.A.L.T. c o u r s e f o r d e l i n q u e n t s i n B.C. i s a unique program i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the Outward Bound p h i l o s o p h y . T h i s p h i l o s o p h y i s de-r i v e d from s u r v i v a l t r a i n i n g g i v e n t o seamenC o f the R o y a l Navy, d u r i n g the e a r l y y e a r s o f W o r l d War I I . The s u c c e s s o f the program i n s p i r e d the d e v e l -opment o f the p r o g r a m . i n the p o s t war y e a r s as a method of t r a i n i n g c h a r a c t e r and b u i l d i n g l e a d e r s h i p q u a l i t i e s . Outward Bound i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s i s an i n c o r p o r a t e d e n t e r p r i s e , w i t h s c h o o l s i n C o l o r a d o , M i n n e s o t a , and M a i n e . The S.A.L.T. c o u r s e i n B.C. has i n c o r p o r a t e d the i d e a s o f the Outward Bound movement w i t h the t h e o r i e s and p r a c t i c e s o f t r a d i t i o n a l methods o f w o r k i n g w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s . The r e s u l t has been the development o f t h i s new a p proach i n an a r e a t h a t has had l i m i t e d b e n e f i t o f r e s e a r c h or p r o o f o f p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n . T h e r e • a p p e a r s t o be s i g n i f i c a n t v a l u e i n the S.A.L.T. progtam, and the c o u r s e may have m e r i t as a major t o o l i n the t r e a t m e n t of s o c i a l l y d e p r i v e d a d o l e s c e n t s . Due t o the d e a r t h of r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l i n the use o f such a program i n p r e s e n t day work w i t h d e l i n q u e n t s , i t was f e l t t h a t r e s e a r c h i n t o t h i s a r e a was n e c e s s a r y as a p r e r e q u i s i t e t o f u r t h e r e x p l o r a -t i o n a t a h i g h e r l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . We hope t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h of t h i s k i n d w i l l i n d i c a t e t h a t the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e w i l l d e v e l o p i n t o a s c i e n t i f i c a l l y v a l i d method of c o r r e c t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t . I m p l i c a t i o n s and P r o p o s a l s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l i n c l u d e a summary of our o b j e c t i v e s , a c r i t i q u e o f our s t u d y , and a d i s c u s s i o n p o f i t s p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the C o r r e c -t i o n s B r a n c h , as w e l l as f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g the i n t e g r a t i o n of s o c i a l work t h e o r y and c o r r e c t i o n s t h e o r y . The p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n w i l l o f f e r some p r a c t i c a l s u g g e s t i o n s as t o the ways i n w h i c h the r e s e a r c h team f e e l s t h i s e x p e r i e n c e can be u t i l i z e d t o the b e s t advantage and i t w i l l make c e r t a i n p r o j e c t i o n s as t o the p o s s i b l e d i r e c t i o n s and scope o f f u r t h e r r e -s e a r c h . As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , the r e s e a r c h team's i n i t i a l o b j e c t i v e was t o e v a l u a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e as an a l t e r n a t i v e t r e a t -ment method t o t h o s e c u r r e n t l y used f o r j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n t s . However, i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t , w i t h i n the scope of t h i s b road o b j e c t i v e , s e v e r a l i n t e r -m e d i a t e g o a l s s h o u l d be s o u g h t . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , i t was hoped t h a t the p r o j e c t w o u l d p r o g r e s s t o the p o i n t where an a n a l y s i s o f our r e s u l t s would be p o s s i b l e . I t was presumed t h a t such an a n a l y s i s would a s s i s t the C o r r e c t -i o n s B r a n c h i n p l a n n i n g and c a r r y i n g out f u r t h e r S.A.L.T. c o u r s e s . S e c o n d l y , we saw t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f b e i n g a b l e t o i d e n t i f y the p a r t i c u l a r t y p e s o f boys 76. who b e n e f i t e d most from the c o u r s e and t o d e t e r m i n e the degree of b e h a v i o u r a l changes. The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h i s i n r e l a t i o n t o the a d m i s s i o n s c r i t e r i a employed i n the s e l e c t i o n of f u t u r e c a n d i d a t e s f o r the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e , i n p a r t i c u l a r , was q u i t e e v i d e n t . T h i r d , on the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t some change i n the b o y s ' b e h a v i o u r and a t t i t u d e d i d o c c u r , i t was hoped t h a t the s t u d y would i d e n t i f y what s p e c i f i c t y p e s of i n t e r v e n t i o n employed by t h e c o u r s e were most i n f l u e n t i a l i n a e f f e c t i n g t h i s change. A f o u r t h p o s s i b l e g o a l was t o t e s t t h e v a l i d i t y of the t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n s i d e n t i f i e d as u n d e r l y i n g a p a r t i c u l a r t y p e o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i n v i e w o f the f a c t t h a t more t h a n one type o f i n t e r v e n t i o n i s employed by the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . As the s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d beyond the p r o b l e m f o r m u l a t i o n s t a g e , the r e s e a r c h team found t h a t , w h i l e t h e s e o b j e c t i v e s r e t a i n e d l o n g range v a l i -d i t y , i t would n o t be p o s s i b l e t o a c h i e v e them i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s t u d y . Due t o t h e r ange o f v a r i a b l e s e n c o u n t e r e d and l i m i t a t i o n s i n time a v a i l a b l e t o t h e r e s e a r c h team, a d e c i s i o n was made t o m o d i f y the o b j e c t i v e s . T h i s r e s u l t -ed i n a d e c i s i o n t o s h i f t t o a p r e - e v a l u a t i o n a p p r o a c h t o the r e s e a r c h p r o b -lems. As a consequence, the team c o n c e n t r a t e d on the o b j e c t i v e s o f c o n s t r u c -t i n g a b e g i n n i n g e v a l u a t i v e d e s i g n and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , d e v e l o p i n g s u i t a b l e d e v i c e s f o r t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , e x t r a c t i o n , and t a b u l a t i o n of d a t a . I n o t h e r words, our major o b j e c t i v e became one o f d e v e l o p i n g the n e c e s s a r y methodo-l o g i c a l framework f o r f u t u r e e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h . Thus, no a t t e m p t was made t o a n a l y z e the a v a i l a b l e d a t a . D u r i n g the p r o c e s s o f the s t u d y , however, and f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h c o r r e c t i o n s p e r s o n n e l , we r e a l i z e d t h a t c e r -t a i n a r e a s o f our work had b o t h p r a c t i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r c o r r e c t i o n s beyond the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e i t s e l f . These i m p l i c a t i o n s w i l l be e l a b o r a t e d on i n s u c c e e d i n g p a r a g r a p h s . A p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n s u g g e s t s c e r t a i n major l i m i t a t i o n s t o the 77. s t u d y . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , t h e r e a r e the u s u a l r e s t r i c t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n an e x p l o r a t o r y - f o r m u l a t i v e l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h . S e c o n d l y , t h e d a t a was n o t a n a l y z e d and we were u n a b l e t o i d e n t i f y p o s s i b l e t r e n d s or c o r r e l a t i o n s . M o r e o v e r, f o r the same reason,.we have n o t had the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e v a l u a t e our i n s t r u m e n t s and methods o f d a t a c o l l e c t i o n as much as c o u l d have been p o s s i b l e , i f a t l e a s t a c u r s o r y a n a l y s i s had been c o m p l e t e d . T h i r d , due t o the c o n c e n t r a t i o n on v e r y narrow a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n , i t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o c l e a r l y d e l i n e a t e or r e f i n e t h e o v e r a l l r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . Conse-q u e n t l y , many v a r i a b l e s had t o be c o n s i d e r e d c o n s t a n t and c e r t a i n k e y q u e s t i o n s have been l e f t u n e x p l o r e d . I n s p i t e o f t h e s e l i m i t a t i o n s , however, i t i s the consensus o f the r e s e a r c h team t h a t a f i r m r e s e a r c h base has been e s t a b -l i s h e d . We b e l i e v e t h a t the s t u d y has p o t e n t i a l f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u -t i o n s i n t h r e e s p e c i f i c a r e a s , namely, c o r r e c t i o n s p r a c t i c e , r e s e a r c h and s o c i a l work t h e o r y . The r e s e a r c h team f e e l s t h a t the s t u d y i s o f p o t e n t i a l v a l u e t o the C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h f o r s e v e r a l p u r p o s e s . We have a l r e a d y made p r o j e c t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e p o s s i b l e r e l e v a n c e o f our e x p l o r a t o r y f i n d i n g s t o t h e admis s -i o n s c r i t e r i a used i n c o n s i d e r i n g f u t u r e c a n d i d a t e s f o r the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e . By r e f e r e n c e t o t h e t a b u l a t i o n s o f the raw d a t a c o n t a i n e d i n t h e body o f the t h e s i s , some i n d i c a t i o n c o u l d be drawn as t o the t y p e o f boy l i k e l y t o b e n e f i t most from t h e c o u r s e . I t may be p o s s i b l e , f o r example, t o p r e d i c t w i t h some a c c u r a c y w h i c h c a t e g o r i e s o f o f f e n d e r (grouped a c c o r d i n g t o s i m i -l a r i t i e s i n age, p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , o f f e n c e s committed, e t c . ) have a tendency t o p e r f o r m w e l l on the c o u r s e and/or t o m a i n t a i n b e h a v i o u r a l or a t t i t u d i n a l changes a f t e r t h e i r r e t u r n t o t h e i r home e n v i r o n m e n t . S i m i l a r l y , s p o t a n a l -y s e s o f s e l e c t e d components o f the c o u r s e c o u l d be used as a i d s i n a s s e s s i n g the c o n s i s t e n c y and e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f s e l e c t e d t e c h n i c a l , . p r o c e d u r a l o r o r g a n i -78. z a t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f the i n t e r v e n t i o n p r o c e s s e s . I n e i t h e r c a s e , i t s h o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y some g e n e r a l t r e n d s and t e s t c o r r e l a t i o n s between v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h the B r a nch may c o n s i d e r s i g n i f i c a n t in,.an assessment of t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e S.A.L.T. e x p e r i e n c e . Such a n a l y s e s c o u l d be made e i t h e r on a n . ' i n d i v i d u a l or on c o l l e c t i v e b a s i s . We a r e q u i t e a w a r e - - g i v e n the s m a l l sample, the l i m i t e d scope of the i n s t r u m e n t s , and the absence o f a c o n t r o l group — t h a t such f i n d i n g s may have l i m i t e d v a l i d i t y f o r immediate a p p l i c a t i o n . However, the raw d a t a f o r t h e most p a r t r e a d i l y l e n d s i t s e l f t o a c o m p u t e r i z a t i o n so t h a t a n a l y s e s can be c a r r i e d o u t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s hoped t h a t the i n f o r m a t i o n can be used s e l e c t i v e l y t o e x p l o r e some o f t h e more dominant v a r i a b l e s i n t h e c o u r s e or as an a i d i n d e v e l o p i n g more p r e c i s e methods of measurement i n the f u t u r e . A t the v e r y l e a s t , i t i s a n t i c i p a t e d t h a t t h e s t u d y f i n d i n g s s h o u l d s t i m u l a t e f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h e i t h e r by the C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h i t s e l f or by o t h e r i n t e r -e s t e d r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s . As we have emphasized t h r o u g h o u t , the m a j o r f o c u s o f the p r o j e c t has been the development o f a s u i t a b l e d e v i c e f o r c l a s s i f y i n g and e x t r a c t i n g d a t a from the p r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s i n t h i s a r e a t h a t the most immediate and p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f s t u d y f i n d i n g s can be f o r e s e e n . I n the f i r s t p l a c e , s i n c e t h i s i n s t r u m e n t c o u l d be used t o d e t e r m i n e the t y p e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n now b e i n g r e p o r t e d and the r e p o r t i n g modes p r e s e n t l y employed by P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r s i n any s e l e c t e d a r e a o r program i n w h i c h the B r a n c h i s i n v o l v e d . Such a p r o c e d u r e would be b a s i c t o an assessment o f c u r r e n t r e p o r t i n g p r o c e d u r e s and/or a r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f o r m a t of g i v e n r e p o r t s . I t i s f e l t t h i s p o s s i b l e use i s o f s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e s i n c e the B r a n c h i s p r e s e n t l y c o n s i d e r i n g such a s t e p . S e c o n d l y , w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o the S.A.L.T. program i t s e l f , the i n s t r u m e n t c o u l d be used i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h o t h e r f i n d i n g s t o d e t e r m i n e ways o f making the p r e - c o u r s e m a t e r i a l more a c c e s s -i b l e t o r e s e a r c h i n the f u t u r e . The p r e s e n t i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y o f t h e s e mate-r i a l s f o r purposes o f r e s e a r c h i s seen as one o f the major problems i n , a s s e s s -i n g b e h a v i o u r a l changes t h a t may have o c c u r r e d from t h e S.A.L.T. e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s f a c t o r i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t s i n c e the c o u r s e , as p r e s e n t l y o r g a n -i z e d , a l r e a d y c o n t a i n s some b u i l t - i n d e v i c e s ( s u c h as the S.A.L.T. R a t i n g S c a l e s ) w h i c h a r e c a p a b l e o f m e a s u r i n g change d u r i n g the a c t u a l c o u r s e . T h e i r u s e f u l n e s s would be enhanced i f some s i m i l a r d e v i c e s were a v a i l a b l e f o r more a c c u r a t e p r e - c o u r s e assessment o f the b e h a v i o u r and/or a t t i t u d e s o f the p a r t i -c i p a n t s . The r e s e a r c h team r e c o g n i z e s t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t , has a l s o e x p l o r e d a r e a s o f s i g n i f i c a n c e beyond the l i m i t s o f the S.A.L.T. c o u r s e i t s e l f , namely, the b r o a d f i e l d s o f s o c i a l work and o f c o r r e c t i o n s t h e o r y . T r a d i t i o n a l l y , t h e s e two d i s c i p l i n e s , a l t h o u g h s e e k i n g common o b j e c t i v e s , have p r o g r e s s e d a l o n g d i f f e r e n t p a t h s . I n our o p i n i o n , t h i s p r o j e c t has a f f o r d e d the oppor-t u n i t y t o compare and c o n t r a s t the two t h e o r e t i c a l b a s e s . The s t u d y has i l l u s t r a t e d t h a t , w h i l e t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l work has tended t o r e l y m a i n l y on n o n - d i r e c t i v e t y p e s o f t h e r a p y , t h e Outward Bound p h i l o s o p h y s t r e s s e s a more d i r e c t i v e and a c t i o n - o r i e n t e d a p proach. Our s t u d y has a t t e m p t e d t o i s o l a t e the major components o f t h i s a p p roach and t o o r g a n i z e them i n t o a c o n c e p t u a l framework w h i c h , we b e l i e v e , makes such a c o m p a r i s o n p o s s i b l e . As o u t l i n e d i n Chap t e r Two, a d e f i n i t i v e program such as S.A.L.T. may p r o v i d e a g u i d e f o r r e s e a r c h a t a more advanced l e v e l t o t e s t v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s and c o n c e p t s o f human b e h a v i o u r . These i n c l u d e W h i t e ' s t h e o r y o f i n d e p e n d e n t ego e n e r g i e s , E r i k s o n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t a l t h e o r y , and G l a s s e r ' s r e a l i t y - o r i e n t e d a p p r o a c h . F u r t h e r m o r e , the p r e l i m i n a r y work c a r r i e d on i n t h i s s t u d y e n a b l e s us to p o i n t o u t s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e avenues f o r f u r t h e r e x p l o r a t i o n by i n t e r e s t e d 80. r e s e a r c h g r o u p s . Many o f t h e s e have been i d e n t i f i e d e a r l i e r , b u t we co n -s i d e r t h r e e o f them worthy o f s p e c i a l m e n t i o n . F i r s t , t h e r e i s a need t o r e f i n e our p r e s e n t d e s i g n i n terms o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s o f a s u i t a b l e " b e f o r e and a f t e r " s t u d y . F u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s may w i s h t o c o n c e n t r a t e on new a r e a s ( e . g . , the a c t u a l c o n t e n t o f the c o u r s e ) w h i c h t h i s s t u d y has c o n s i d e r e d o n l y i n a r e s t r i c t e d way. S e c o n d l y , s i n c e the i n s t r u m e n t s d e v i s e d have been i n s u f f i c i e n t l y t e s t e d , t h e r e i s a need to c a r r y t h i s t e s t i n g p r o c e s s f u r t h e r and perhaps t o expand or r e f i n e c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n -s t r u m e n t s we have d e v i s e d . T h i r d , an a n a l y s i s o f o u r s t u d y d a t a may r e v e a l c e r t a i n t r e n d s w h i c h c o u l d i n d i c a t e a more d i r e c t a p p r o a c h t o t e s t i n g t he as s u m p t i o n s u n d e r l y i n g the S-.A.L.T. a p p r o a c h . I n c o n c l u s i o n , the members o f the r e s e a r c h team a r e unanimous i n t h e i r o p i n i o n t h a t the S.A.L.T. program c o n s t i t u t e s a s i g n i f i c a n t and c h a l l -e n g i n g t o p i c f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . T h i s i s due, i n p a r t , t o the n o v e l and i m a g i n a t i v e a p proach w h i c h i t employs i n the t r e a t m e n t o f j u v e n i l e d e l i n q u e n c y . I t poses a wide range o f p o t e n t i a l l y r e s e a r c h a b l e q u e s t i o n s w i t h i m p l i c a t i o n s t h a t go beyond the immediate problems a t hand. F u r t h e r m o r e , our r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s have been s t i m u l a t e d by the i n t e r e s t e d and c o - o p e r a t i v e a t t i t u d e s c o n s i s t e n t l y d i s p l a y e d hy. the S.A.L.T. s t a f f and the p r e v a i l i n g r e s e a r c h atmosphere i n the C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h . C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t i s our hope t h a t i t w i l l be p o s s i b l e t o a r r a n g e f o r a n o t h e r r e s e a r c h group a t the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work t o c a r r y on t h i s p r o j e c t . 81. BIBLIOGRAPHY I . CORRECTIONS 1. Adams, S t e w a r t , "The V a l u e o f R e s e a r c h i n P r o b a t i o n " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . V o l . XXIX No..3, September, 1965. 2. B oard o f C o r r e c t i o n , S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a . A l t e r n a t i v e s t o I n c a r c e r a t i o n . Monograph No. 4, June, 1964. 3. B.C. C o r r e c t i o n s B r a n c h . D i r e c t i v e s i s s u e d t o the B.C. P r o b a t i o n S e r v i c e on the 1964 and 1966 S e a r c h and L e a d e r s h i p T r a i n i n g C o u r s e s . Mimeographed s h e e t s . 4. Brown L t . T h o r v a l d T. " N a r c o t i c s and N a l l i n e : S i x Y e a r s o f T e s t i n g " , F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , V o l . XXVI No. 2, June, 1962. 5. C a l i f o r n i a Y o u t h A u t h o r i t y . Community Treatment P r o j e c t s 1966 R e s e a r c h R e p o r t s , Nos. 1 t o 6. Mimeographed b o o k l e t s . 6. Cohen, A l b e r t K. " M u l t i p l e . F a c t o r A p p r o a c h e s " , pp. 77-80. W o l f g a n g , S a v i t z and J o h n s t o n (Eds.) T h e ' S o c i o l o g y o f Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y , New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & Sons, 1962. 7. Cooks, R..A.F. Home O f f i c e Approved P r o b a t i o n H o s t e l s . C h i c h e s t e r , J u s t i c e o f the Peace, L t d . , 1957. 8. C r e s s e y , Donald R. "The Development o f a Theory:- D i f f e r e n t i a l A s s o c i a t i o n " . pp. 81-91 i n W o l f g a n g , S a v i t z and J o hnson. The S o c i o l o g y o f Crime  and D e l i n q u e n c y . New Y o r k : John W i l e y 6c Sons,. 1962. 9. C r o s s l e y , Judge Evan. "Group T r a i n i n g f o r P r e - D e l i n q u e n t s , D e l i n q u e n t s and t h e i r P a r e n t s " . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , V o l . X X I I I No. 2, June, 1958. 10. D u d l e y , L.W. "New H o r i z o n s f o r the I n s t i t u t i o n a l Treatment o f Y o u t h O f f e n d e r s " . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , V o l . XXX No. 2, June, 1966. 11. F e n t o n , Dr. Norman. An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Group C o u n s e l l i n g i n C o r r e c t i o n a l S e r v i c e . New Y o r k : The A m e r i c a n C o r r e c t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1960. 12. F e n t o n , Dr. Norman. The P r i s o n e r ' s F a m i l y . P a l o A l t o . C a l i f o r n i a : P a c i f i c Books, 1959. 13. Fox, L i o n e l W. The E n g l i s h P r i s o n . a n d B o r s t a l Systems. London: Route-l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , L t d . 1952. 14. G l a s s e r , W i l l i a m M.D. A d d r e s s to B.C. C o r r e c t i o n s I n s t i t u t e , 1963. Mimeographed S h e e t . 15. Kogan, B e r n a r d . " P r o b a t i o n Camps". F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . V o l . 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F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n , V o l . - X I I I , No. 2, June, 1949. 22. "Group Therapy w i t h O f f e n d e r s " i n W olfgang, S a v i t z and J o h n s t o n (Eds.) pp. 196-202. The S o c i o l o g y o f Crime and  D e l i n q u e n c y . New Y o r k : John W i l e y & Son, 1962. 23. M c G r a t h , W.T. Crime and i t s Treatment i n Canada. T o r o n t o : M a c M i l l a n o f Canada, 1965. 24. P i e r c e , F . J . " S o c i a l Group Work i n a Women's P r i s o n " . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . V o l . X X V I I No. 4, December, 1963. 25. Rose, Gordon. The S t r u g g l e f o r P e n a l Reform. London: S t e v e n s and Sons, L t d . 1961. 26. S c a r p a t t i , F.R. and Stephenson, R.M. "The use of the S m a l l Group i n the R e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f D e l i n q u e n t s " . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . V o l . XXX No. 3 September, 1966. 27. S h a r p , P r e s t o n E., and G r a y s o n , E l l i s S. "How D e l i n q u e n t C h i l d r e n T h i n k and F e e l " . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . V o l . . X X I X , June, 1965. 28. . S i e g e l , N.H. and Weeks, H.A. " F a c t o r s C o n t r i b u t i n g t o S u c c e s s and F a i l u r e a t the H i g h f i e l d s P r o j e c t " . F e d e r a l P r o b a t i o n . V o l . XXI No. 3, September, 1957. 29. S l a t e r , Manning R. (as t o l d to George B i s h o p ) . Sex O f f e n d e r s i n Group-t h e r a p y . Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a : Sherbourne P r e s s I n c . , 1964. 30. S y k e s , Gresham. The S o c i e t y o f C a p t i v e s . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1958. 31. £ . , and M a t z a , D a v i d . " T e c h n i q u e s o f NeutEa-l i z a t i o n : A Theory o f D e l i n q u e n c y " , pp. 249-254. Wolfgang, S a v i t z and J o h n s t o n . The S o c i o l o g y o f Crime and D e l i n q u e n c y . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & Sons, 1962. 83. 32. U n i t e d Kingdom I n f o r m a t i o n S e r v i c e s . The Treatment o f O f f e n d e r s i n B r i t a i n . London: 1960. I I . OUTWARD BOUND 33. F r o e l i c h e r , C h a r l e s F. " F o r the Sake o f the Young". The John Hopkins M a g a z i n e . November, 1962. 34. James, D a v i d , (Ed.) Outward Bound. London: R o u t e l e d g e and Kegan P a u l , L t d . , 1957. 35. "Marshmallow Becomes a Man". L i f e M a g a z i n e . August 7, 1964. 36. P r i c e , T. "Some A s p e c t s o f C h a r a c t e r B u i l d i n g " . J o u r n a l o f the R o y a l S o c i e t y o f A r t s . J u l y , 1966. 37. "Outward Bound i n the '60's and '70's". A R e p o r t o f the A n n u a l C o n f e r -ence o f the Outward Bound T r u s t , May, 1965. London: The Outward Bound T r u s t . 38. P r o s p e c t u s . Outward Bound S c h o o l , H u r r i c a n e I s l a n d , Maine, U.S.A., 1965. 39. 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The S o c i o l o g y o f Crime and D e l i n - quency . New Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y &-Son, 1962. 44. P r e d i c t i n g D e l i n q u e n c y and Crime. H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1960. H e r z o g , E l i z a b e t h . Some Guide l i n e s t o E v a l u a t i v e R e s e a r c h . C h i l d r e n s ' B ureau, 1959. N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o rkers. S o c i a l S c i e n c e Theory and S o c i a l  Work R e s e a r c h . New Y o r k : 1960. O h l i n , L l o y d . S e l e c t i o n f o r P a r o l e . New Y o r k : R u s s e l l Sage F o u n d a t i o n , 1951. 45. 46. 47. 84. 48. P o l a n s k y , Norman A. S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h i c a g o Press,. 1963. 49. Russon, G.W. "A D e s i g n f o r C l i n i c a l C l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f O f f e n d e r s " . C a n a d i a n J o u r n a l o f C o r r e c t i o n s . V o l . 5 No. 4, O c t o b e r , 1963. 50. 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O l m s t e a d , M i c h a e l S. The S m a l l Group. New Y o r k : Random House, 1959. 73. R e d l , F r i t z . " S t r a t e g y and Tech n i q u e s o f the L i f e - S p a c e I n t e r v i e w " . A m e r i c a n J o u r n a l o f O r t h o p s y c h i a t r y , V o l . X X V I I I , No. 1, J a n u a r y , 1959. 74. Riesman, D a v i d . • Abundance f o r What ? Garden C i t y , New Y o r k : Doubleday, 1964. 75. Roth, Norm R. R e a c h i n g the Hard t o Reach. S y r a c u s e , New Y o r k : The New Y o r k : The H u n t i n g t o n F a m i l y C e n t r e s , I n c . , 1961. 76. S c h e i d l i n e r , S a u l . "Three Group Approaches w i t h S o c i a l l y D e p r i v e d L a t e n c y - a g e C h i l d r e n " . The I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l o f Group Psycho Therapy, pp. 434-435, 1965. 77. • S p r o t t , W.J.H. Human Groups . P e l i c a n Books. A346,1963. 78. S t o u f f e r , Samuel e t a l . The A m e r i c a n S o l d i e r : S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l P sycho-l o g y i n W o r l d War I I . P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1949. 79. W h i t e , R o b e r t M. "Ego and R e a l i t y i n P s y c h o a n a l y t i c Theory". Psycho-l o g i c a l I s s u e s , V o l . I l l , No. 3, New Y o r k : I n t e r n a t i o n a l U n i v e r s i -t i e s P r e s s , I n c . , 1963. 80. W i l l i a m s , R o b i n M. " V a l u e O r i e n t a t i o n s i n A m e r i c a n S o c i e t y " , pp. 288-314. S t e i n and Cloward (Eds.) S o c i a l P e r s p e c t i v e s on B e h a v i o u r . The F r e e P r e s s o f G l e n c o e , 1958. APPENDIX I COPY o f l e t t e r r e c e i v e d from: OUTWARD BOUND INTERNATIONAL SECRETARIAT, RNS/SDC 9 t h November, 1966 F. M a z i e , Esq., MSW S t u d e n t The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , Vancouver 8, CANADA Dear Mr. M a z i e , Your l e t t e r o f 23rd O c t o b e r has been p a s s e d t o me by our Chairman, S i r Spencer Summers, M.P., t o answer. I am e x t r e m e l y i n t e r e s t e d t o r e a d about the work your.are d o i n g and I am o n l y t oo p l e a s e d t o h e l p y ou i n any way p o s s i b l e . As you p r o b a b l y know, Outward Bound i n t h i s c o u n t r y i s n o t d i r e c t e d p r i m a r i l y a t the c o r r e c t i o n o r r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o f d e l i n q u e n t b o y s , b u t we do r e c e i v e t h r o u g h the Home O f f i c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 boys each y e a r , from B o r s t a l I n s t i t u t i o n s and Approved S c h o o l s . Most o f the c o u r s e s a t each o f our f i v e S c h o o l s u s u a l l y c o n t a i n one o f th e s e boys, and the change i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e t o l i f e c an be q u i t e s t a r t l i n g . R e g a r d i n g b i b l i o g r a p h y , t h e r e a r e two goo d i b o o k s on the h i s t o r y and p h i l o s o p h y o f Outward Bound: 1. "Outward Bound" by Da v i d James, p u b l i s h e d by R o u t l e d g e & Kegan P a u l . 2. " U n f o l d i n g C h a r a c t e r " by A.A. Brown, P u b l i s h e d by R o u t l e d g e & Kegah P a u l . b o t h o f th e s e books a r e b e s t o b t a i n e d d i r e c t from the p u b l i s h e r s , whose a d d r e s s i s : I am a l s o e n c l o s i n g a s e l e c t i o n o f our Outward Bound l i t e r a t u r e , i n c l u d i n g the f i r s t two i s s u e s o f the I n t e r n a t i o n a l B u l l e t i n , w h i c h d e s c r i b e s the development and a c t i v i t i e s o f Outward Bound t h r o u g h o u t the w o r l d . The f o o t -n o t e on page 41 o f the Aug u s t i s s u e o f the B u l l e t i n s h o u l d be o f i n t e r e s t t o F. M a z i e , Esq., 9 t h November, 1966. you, and i t i s by no means u n t y p i c a l o f the p a r t Outward Bound i s p l a y i n g i n h e l p i n g t o c u r e some o f the problems w h i c h a r i s e from a f e e l i n g o f a i m l e s s n e s s and f r u s t r a t i o n among young p e o p l e i n modern s o c i e t y . You may be i n t e r e s t e d t o know t h a t t h e r e i s a move a f o o t t o s t a r t an Outward Bound S c h o o l i n Canada, I t h i n k i n f a c t i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Do p l e a s e l e t me know i f I c a n be o f any f u r t h e r a s s i s t a n c e t o y o u . Y o u r s s i n c e r e l y , ( S i g n e d ) RALPH.STANBURY R.N.- S t a n b u r y . D i r e c t o r o f P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s . APPENDIX I I COPY o f l e t t e r r e c e i v e d from: WILLIAM GLASSER, M.D.. Brentwood San V i n c e n t e M e d i c a l C e n t e r 1 s t November, 1966 M i s s Eva R. Younge THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work Vancouver 8, B.C. Canada Dear M i s s Younge: The program w h i c h you d e s c r i b e i n y o u r l e t t e r i s something t h a t comes to me as a complete s u r p r i s e . I c e r t a i n l y am i n t e r e s t e d i n i t , b u t as f a r as g i v i n g you any h e l p w i t h the e v a l u a t i o n of i t I am a f r a i d I cannot do v e r y much. I suppose t h a t the a c t u a l program i s p r e t t y s u c c e s s f u l . The p r o b l e m would be the s e l e c t i o n o f the boys and where they l i v e . I f they l i v e i n a s i t u a t i o n - ; w h e r e they c o u l d use some o f t h i s t r a i n i n g and c o u l d be somewhat i n v o l v e d w i t h a t l e a s t one o f the i n s t r u c t o r s o v e r a p e r i o d of t i m e , I b e l i e v e t h a t the c o u r s e would be an e x c e l l e n t way t o change t h e i r a t t i t u d e s away from d e l i n q u e n c y . I f t h e r e i s j u s t one c o u r s e , and t h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e f o l l o w - u p t h e n I b e l i e v e i t would be l e s s s u c c e s s -f u l . C e r t a i n l y , i n answer t o y o u r f i r s t q u e s t i o n , R e a l i t y Therapy c o u l d be used e a s i l y and would f i t v e r y w e l l i n such a program. The answer to y o u r second q u e s t i o n would r e q u i r e much more e x p e r i e n c e t h a n I have. I t h i n k t h a t y o u r i n s t r u c t o r s would be v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n r e a d i n g my new manual on the use o f R e a l i t y Therapy i n L a r g e Group C o u n s e l l i n g w h i c h w i l l be a v a i l -a b l e s h o r t l y and w h i c h c o u l d be used as p a r t o f t h i s program. I f you a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n the manual, w r i t e me and I w i l l see t h a t one i s m a i l e d to y o u . I am s o r r y t h i s i s the b e s t I can do i n answer to y o u r l e t t e r , b u t I c e r t a i n l y a p p r e c i a t e y o u r i n t e r e s t i n my work. C o r d i a l l y , ( S i g n e d ) " W i l l i a m G l a s s e r " W i l l i a m G l a s s e r , M.D. APPENDIX I I I OUTLINE OF PRE-SENTENCE REPORT CURRENTLY IN USE BY THE B.C. PROBATION SERVICE 1. Name 2. A d d r e s s 3. Telephone No. 4. R e f e r r e d by: (Name o f Judge and C o u r t ) 5. O f f e n s e ( l e g a l d e s c r i p t i o n ) 6. S u b j e c t ' s a c c o u n t o f o f f e n s e 7. S o u r c e s o f I n f o r m a t i o n f o r R e p o r t P e r s o n a l H i s t o r y 1. B i r t h (and e a r l y d e v e lopment) 2. H e a l t h ( i n c l u d i n g h a b i t s ) 3. E d u c a t i o n 4. I n t e r e s t s 5. Employment H i s t o r y 6. P e r s o n a l i t y assessment (by P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r ) F a m i l y H i s t o r y 1. F a t h e r (and/or s u b s t i t u t e s ) 2. M o t h e r ( " " 11 ) 3. S i b l i n g s Comments 90. APPENDIX IV PROVINCIAL PROBATION BRANCH SEARCH AND LEADERSHIP TRAINING COURSES FOR PROBATIONERS 1966 SUMMER-SEASON Ad m i s s i o n . C r i t e r i a (1) P r o b a t i o n . O r d e r a c t i v e d u r i n g p e r i o d o f C o u r s e . (2) • Age o v e r 15 and under 17 y e a r s d u r i n g p e r i o d o f Course. (3) Minimum h e i g h t - 5 f e e t 4 i n c h e s ) can be f l e x i b l e a c c o r d i n g to (4) Minimum w e i g h t - 120 l b s . ) b u i l d . (5) H e a l t h - Must be i n e x c e l l e n t p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n which i n c l u d e s good d e n t a l h e a l t h c e r t i f i e d by a p h y s i c i a n . (6) , Weak i n M o t i v a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g f u t u r e g o a l s by £a) u n d e r - a c h i e v i n g i n s c h o o l grades when he has the p o t e n t i a l to make average o r above average p r o g r e s s OR (b) h a v i n g dropped o u t o f s c h o o l w i t h no r e a l i s t i c p l a n n i n g OR (c) n o t h a v i n g s e c u r e d s t e a d y employment s i n c e q u i t t i n g s c h o o l . (7) I n t e l l i g e n c e p o t e n t i a l r a t e d average o r above average ( r e f e r t o s c h o o l r e c o r d s ) (8) Judge o f the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t i s i n agreement OR w i l l a g r e e to P r o b a t i o n e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g on the C o u r s e . (9) P a r e n t s ( L e g a l G u a r d i a n s ) w i s h t o c o - o p e r a t e i n s u p p o r t i n g P r o -b a t i o n O f f i c e r ' s a p p l i c a t i o n on b e h a l f o f t h e i r son t o a t t e n d C o u r s e . (10) P r i o r i t y c o n s i d e r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n t o the f o l l o w i n g : (a) , Background of h a v i n g been pampered, s p o i l e d , o r dominated by an o v e r - p e r m i s s i v e mother w i t h f a t h e r s ' i n f l u e n c e m i n i m a l o r n o n - e x i s t e n t . (b) . Background o f h a v i n g been o v e r - p r o t e c t e d e s -p e c i a l l y i n r e l a t i o n t o i l l n e s s and h e a l t h con-c e r n s a t a younger age. (c) . L a c k i n g i n m a s c u l i n e t r a i t s i n h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . (d) P r e s e n c e o f s t r o n g dependency needs w i t h p a r e n t -a l d i s c i p l i n e h a v i n g been i n c o n s i s t e n t . (e) . Shy, w i t h d r a w n , i n t r o v e r t , type o f p e r s o n a l i t y who has l a c k e d r e c o g n i t i o n from h i s peer group. ( f ) • L a c k i n g i n f e e l i n g s o f p e r s o n a l w o r t h because o f p h y s i c a l a ppearance. (g) ,. P r e s e n c e o f c u l t u r a l o r r a c i a l c o n f l i c t s c a u s i n g f e e l i n g s o f low p e r s o n a l w o r t h . Background o f no f a t h e r o r f a t h e r s u b s t i t u t e due t o d e a t h o r d e s e r t i o n p r o v i d i n g p r o b a t i o n e r has the c a p a c i t y t o i d e n t i f y w i t h a male a d u l t . Home env i r o n m e n t s t r o n g l y m a t e r i a l i s t i c w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s l a c k i n g f o r p r o b a t i o n e r to d e v e l o p a p h i l o s o p h i c awareness w i t h r e g a r d t o f e e l i n g s f o r o t h e r s . Background o f r e j e c t i o n by p a r e n t s o r s u b s t i t u t e p a r e n t s b u t p r o b a t i o n e r i s s t i l l s t r i v i n g f o r r e c o g n i t i o n and ego s u p p o r t from a d u l t s . L a c k i n g i n s e l f c o n f i d e n c e and p e r s o n a l w o r th b u t has the p o t e n t i a l a b i l i t y t o form r e l a t i o n -s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s . E v i d e n c e o f u n m a n a g e a b i l i t y a c c o r d i n g to p a r e n t s s i n c e the o n s e t o f a d o l e s c e n c e . A g g r e s s i v e - a c t i n g o u t p e r s o n a l i t y - a t t e m p t s to g a i n r e c o g n i t i o n by o f f e n s i v e b e h a v i o u r . APPENDIX V S.A.L.T. RATING SCALE P e r s o n a l i t y A t t r i b u t e s i n Task Per f o r m a n c e R e s o u r c e f u l I n d u s t r i o u s Dependable P a i n s t a k i n g S e l f C o n f i d e n t E n t h u s i a s t i c F e a r l e s s Judgement Sound I m p r e s s i v e Manners Language A p p r o p r i a t e I I , P h y s i c a l A t t r i b u t e s S t r o n g , Tough C o - o r d i n a t i o n B a l a n c e Good W e l l Groomed C l e a r V o i c e E x p r e s s i o n I n s t a n t R e f l e x A c t i o n Endures H a r d s h i p I I I . R e l a t i o n s h i p s W i t h C o - o r d i n a t o r s H e l p f u l C o u r t e o u s O b e d i e n t Prompt A c c e p t s A u t h o r i t y R e l a t e s w i t h Warmth I V . Peer R e l a t i o n s h i p s P o p u l a r D o m i n e e r i n g L e a d e r Harmonious Q u i e t Good Humoured U n s e l f i s h L a c k s I n i t i a t i v e L a z y I r r e s p o n s i b l e S l i p s h o d I n h i b i t e d A p athy S e n s i t i v e to F e a r E r r a t i c U n p r e p o s s e s s i n g C o n s t a n t obscene Language Weak, s o f t C o - o r d i n a t i o n B a l a n c e Poor Unkempt I n d i s t i n c t R e t a r d e d R e f l e x A c t i o n C o m p l a i n s under S t r e s s C o n t r a r y I n s o l e n t D i s o b e d i e n t Tardy R e b e l l i o u s H o s t i l e U n p o p u l a r S u b m i s s i v e F o l l o w e r I n c o m p a t i b l e B o i s t e r o u s S u r l y S e l f i s h APPENDIX VI FOLLOW-UP REPORT (Completed by the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r o f the 1966 S.A.L.T. P a r t i -c i p a n t s s i x months a f t e r the end o f the Course) (1) I s the l a d s t i l l on p r o b a t i o n ? (2) Has he s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e d P r o b a t i o n ? (3) I s he b e f o r e the F a m i l y and C h i l d r e n ' s C o u r t ? (4) Has he been r a i s e d to A d u l t C o u r t ? (5) Has he been committed t o the t r a i n i n g s c h o o l o r an a d u l t i n s t i t u t i o n ? (6) , I f 3, 4, o r 5, What was the n a t u r e - d a t e o f the o f f e n c e ? (7) Employment: a) f u l l time b) r e g u l a r p a r t - t i m e c) s p o r a d i c employment d) unemployed e) no. o f months employed s i n c e S.A.L.T. Course f ) a t t i t u d e towards employment: good f a i r poor (8) P r e s e n t s c h o o l p e r f o r m a n c e : a) c o n t i n u i n g i n s c h o o l grade b) l e f t s c h o o l s i n c e S.A.L.T. Course: check most s i g n i f i c a n t r e a s o n : d i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m .  to a c c e p t employment academic problems no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n c) a t t i t u d e w h i l e a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l : poor , f a i r good_ (9) R e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h p a r e n t s : Mother F a t h e r _. improved _. improved r e g r e s s e d r e g r e s s e d remained same remained same 9 4 . I f l e f t home s t a t e r e a s o n -L i v i n g a rrangements: . a t home r e l a t i v e s O t her - s p e c i f y .  (10) P r o g n o s i s f o r a s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n o f P r o b a t i o n ? (11) S i n c e t h i s l a d s r e t u r n t o the community f o l l o w i n g t he comple-t i o n o f the c o u r s e l a s t summer have you n o t e d any s i g n i f i c a n t change i n b e h a v i o u r o r a t t i t u d e s ? 95. APPENDIX V I I OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS ( P r e - S e n t e n c e R e p o r t - Data C o l l e c t i o n I n s t r u m e n t ) T h i s i s a l i s t o f the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t were d e v e l o p e d by the r e s e a r c h team f o r v a r i o u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o n t a i n e d i n t h e P r e - S e n -t e n c e R e p o r t : Data C o l l e c t i o n I n s t r u m e n t as i n d i c a t e d i n C h a p t e r I V . They were a r r a n g e d to c o i n c i d e w i t h the fo r m a t o f the i n s t r u m e n t (see Ap p e n d i x V I I I ) to f a c i l i t a t e c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d u r i n g the d a t a c o l l e c t i o n p r o c e s s . How-e v e r , i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t i t i s o n l y a p a r t i a l l i s t r e f e r r i n g to major, complex c o n c e p t s w h i c h t h e team f e l t s h o u l d be s t a n d a r d i z e d i n the i n t e r e s t s o f r e l i a b i l i t y . L e s s e r c o n c e p t s a r e d e f i n e d , e i t h e r e x p l i c i t l y o r i m p l i c i t l y , i n the body o f the i n s t r u m e n t . Column Code 2 I, - ETHNIC ORIGIN ( F a t h e r ) 1 - R e p o r t e d as " C a n a d i a n " r e f e r s t o a p e r s o n b o r n i n Canada, b u t whose e t h n i c o r i g i n was n o t known or r e p o r t e d by the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r . 5 CULTURAL AND/OR INTER-GENERATIONAL CONFLICT 2 - C u l t u r a l C o n f l i c t i n d i c a t e s d y s f u n c t i o n i n g i n f a m i l i e s where i m m i g r a n t p a r e n t s b o t h adhere to t h e i r homeland c u l t u r e and where they a r e a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e i r c h i l d ' s a d o p t i o n o f Ca n a d i a n v a l u e s . 3 - I n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l o n l y r e f e r s t o c o n f l i c t between C a n a d i a n - b o r n p a r e n t s and t h e i r c h i l d w h i c h i s engendered p r i m a r i l y by age d i f f e r -e n t i a l o r by a c l a s h o f v a l u e s r e s u l t i n g from g e n e r a t i o n a l d i f f e r e n c e s . ATTITUDE TO EMPLOYMENT A Good A t t i t u d e t o Employment i s i n d i c a t e d by a d e m o n s t r a t e d a b i l i t y t o o b t a i n and/or main-t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y r e c o r d o f employment and by a r e a s o n e d a c c e p t a n c e , i n b o t h a c t i o n s and words, o f a c u l t u r a l l y approved c o n c e p t o f the r o l e o f work. A F a i r A t t i t u d e t o Employment i s a f a i l u r e i n one or two o f the a r e a s d e f i n e d i n ( 1 ) . A Poor A t t i t u d e t o Employment i s a demonstra-t e d i n a b i l i t y or f a i l u r e i n . a l l t h r e e a r e a s d e f i n e d i n ( 1 ) . REASON FOR LEAVING SCHOOL (Dominant f a c t o r o n l y ) F o r . A c a d e m i c Reasons i s i n d i c a t e d when b o t h t h s t u d e n t and h i s t e a c h e r s f e e l t h a t , f o r a l a c k o f i n n a t e c a p a c i t y , he i s u n a b l e t o b e n e f i t from f u r t h e r s c h o o l i n g . To A c c e p t Employment o c c u r s when a s t u d e n t has made a r e a s o n a b l e c h o i c e t o l e a v e s c h o o l , i n terms o f h i s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e and i n l i n e w i t h h i s a b i l i t y and c a r e e r p o t e n t i a l . A D i s c i p l i n e P r o b l e m i s e v i d e n t when a s t u d e n t has been e x p e l l e d o r suspended from s c h o o l or r e f u s e d r e - a d m i s s i o n f o r r e a s o n s o f u n a c c e p t -a b l e b e h a v i o u r . O t h e r r e f e r s t o any i d e n t i f i a b l e r e a s o n a b l e p u r p ose i n l e a v i n g s c h o o l w h i c h i s n o t s p e c i -f i e d above. ATTITUDE TO SCHOOL A Good A t t i t u d e t o S c h o o l i s d e f i n e d as an a b i l i t y t o m a i n t a i n a s a t i s f a c t o r y academic and b e h a v i o u r r e c o r d and/or a r e a s o n e d a c c e p t a n c e o f the v a l u e s and pur p o s e s o f the e d u c a t i o n a l system. A F a i r A t t i t u d e to S c h o o l i s i n d i c a t e d when t h e r e has been a f a i l u r e t o meet one or two o f s o c i e t y ' s demands as l i s t e d i n ( 1 ) . A Poor. A t t i t u d e t o S c h o o l i n d i c a t e s a demons-t r a t e d i n a b i l i t y t o meet any o f the demands l i s t e d i n (1) TYPE OF OFFENSE T h i s s e c t i o n i s based on the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n employed by the Dominion Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s , w i t h m i n o r m o d i f i c a t i o n s l i s t e d below. D r i n k i n g O f f e n s e s i s a c a t e g o r y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t he DBS c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r e f e r r i n g t o c r i m e s o f h o m i c i d e s i n c e i t i s c o n s i d e r e d more r e l e -v a n t t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o p u l a t i o n b e i n g s t u d i e d and to the o b j e c t i v e s o f the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . T h e f t i n c l u d e s B r e a k i n g and E n t e r i n g . a n d Car T h e f t o f f e n s e s . ATTITUDE TOWARD OFFENSE A P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e t o O f f e n s e i s i n d i c a t e d by a p p r o p r i a t e f e e l i n g s o f remorse and g u i l t and/ o r an a p p a r e n t d e s i r e t o change p a t t e r n s o f a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r . A F a i r A t t i t u d e t o O f f e n s e i s i n d i c a t e d by a l a c k o f a p p r o p r i a t e f e e l i n g s i n one o f the a r e a s d e f i n e d i n (1) A Poor A t t i t u d e t o O f f e n s e s u g g e s t s a f a i l u r e i n a l l t h r e e a r e a s d e f i n e d i n (1) DISPOSITION OF COURT T h i s s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s c a t e g o r i e s f o r a l l p o s s i -b l e l e g a l d i s p o s i t i o n s open t o the C o u r t as s e t f o r t h i n the J u v e n i l e D e l i n q u e n t ' s A c t , S e c t i o n 20 (a t o i ) . GROUP EXPERIENCES Normal Peer R e l a t i o n s h i p s o c c u r when the y o u t h has f r i e n d l y and c o - o p e r a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h o t h e r s o f s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s and when he i s a c c e p t e d by t h o s e w i t h whom he i s i n c i r -c u m s t a n t i a l c o n t a c t . I s o l a t e r e f e r s t o a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h the y o u t h i s r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d , e i t h e r by h i s own o r o t h e r s c h o i c e , when i n a group and who, e i t h e r by h i s own o r o t h e r s c h o i c e , spends h i s l e i s u r e time a l o n e o r on the f r i n g e o f group a c t i v i t y . O v e r - a c t i v e r e f e r s t o a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h th e y o u t h c o n s i s t e n t l y and c o n t i n u a l l y seeks ou t and becomes i n v o l v e d i n group a c t i v i t i e s o f e i t h e r o r b o t h a f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l n a t u r e , t o the e x t e n t where group o b l i g a t i o n s o v e r -shadow a l l o t h e r o b l i g a t i o n s . MAIN TYPE OF GROUP RELATIONSHIP F o r m a l Groups a r e t h o s e groups o r g a n i z e d around a c o n s t i t u t e d p u r p o s e and g u i d e d by an a u t h o r -i t y , r e c o g n i z e d by the group and s o c i e t y , as b e i n g d e d i c a t e d to t h a t p u r p o s e . I n f o r m a l - P o s i t i v e Groups, a r e t h o s e groups t h a t f orm s p o n t a n e o u s l y around m u t u a l i n t e r e s t s , and/ o r f r i e n d s h i p s f o r the purpose o f s h a r i n g mu-t u a l l y d e s i r e d e x p e r i e n c e s o f a s o c i a l n a t u r e , w i t h o u t a g u i d i n g a u t h o r i t y . I n f o r m a l - N e g a t i v e G r o u p s. a r e t h o s e groups w h i c h form i n a s i m i l a r manner and/or f o r s i m i l a r p u r p o s e s as t h o s e i n ( 2 ) , b u t whose o r i e n t a -t i o n and v a l u e system i s p r e d o m i n a n t l y a n t i -s o c i a l . I n f o r m a l - M i x e d r e f e r s t o groups w h i c h p o s s e s s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o n t a i n e d i n . b o t h (3). and ( 2 ) , b u t whose o r i e n t a t i o n and v a l u e system i s n o t f i x e d o r c o n s i s t e n t , and group b e h a v i o u r r e -f l e c t s e l e ments o f b o t h s o c i a l and a n t i - s o c i a l o b j e c t i v e s . SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL HABITS N o n - D r i n k e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t the boy does n o t d r i n k o r t h a t he has e x p e r i m e n t e d w i t h b u t r e j e c t e d the h a b i t . D r i n k e r s u g g e s t s t h a t , i n the o p i n i o n o f the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r , a l c o h o l i s consumed on a r e g u l a r p a t t e r n so as t o c r e a t e an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f the boy's b e h a v i o u r . P r o b l e m - D r i n k e r i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n the o p i n i o n o f the P r o b a t i o n O f f i c e r , the boy has become i n v o l v e d i n a s o c i a l or a n t i - s o c i a l b e h a v i o u r due t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f a l c o h o l . FINANCIAL SITUATION IN THE HOME F i n a n c i a l S i t u a t i o n i s Good when t h e r e i s a s t e a d y income e q u a l t o or b e t t e r t h a n the e a r n -i n g s of. the s t e a d i l y employed, u n i o n i z e d b l u e -c o l l a r w o r k e r . F i n a n c i a l S i t u a t i o n . i s F a i r when t h e r e i s o n l y s u f f i c i e n t money f o r m i n i m a l l u x u r i e s , o r money f o r l u x u r i e s o n l y p e r i o d i c a l l y i n r e l a -t i o n t o the e a r n i n g s o f a s t e a d i l y employed, u n i o n i z e d w o r k e r . F i n a n c i a l S i t u a t i o n i s Poor when t h e r e i s o n l y s u f f i c i e n t money f o r p r o v i d i n g the b a s i c e s s e n t i a l s o f e x i s t e n c e . MANAGEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS F i n a n c i a l Management i s S a t i s f a c t o r y when i n -come i s d i s p e n s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the needs o f the f a m i l y . F i n a n c i a l Management i s F a i r l y , S a t i s f a c t o r y when income i s u s u a l l y d i s p e n s e d a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the needs o f t h e f a m i l y , b u t where o c c a s i o n a l breakdowns i n t h i s p a t t e r n o c c u r . F i n a n c i a l Management i s U n s a t i s f a c t o r y when i n -come i s d i s p e n s e d i n a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n r e l a t i o n t o the needs o f t h e f a m i l y as e v i d e n c e d by a p e r v a s i v e p a t t e r n o f l o n g s t a n d i n g . FATHER'S SUPERVISION AND DISCIPLINE F i r m and C o n s i s t e n t i n d i c a t e s a f i r m b u t under-s t a n d i n g a p p r o a c h t o the p r o v i s i o n o f c o n t r o l s and l i m i t s . O v e r l y s t r i c t - R i g i d s u g g e s t s u n r e a s o n a b l e demands, adherence t o p r e c o n c e i v e d c o n c e p t s o f d i s c i p l i n e r a t h e r t h a n human needs, and an unbending b u t r e l a t i v e l y c o n s i s t e n t a t t i t u d e . Lax and P e r m i s s i v e d i s c i p l i n e o c c u r s when t h e r e i s i n t e r e s t i n the boy, b u t c o n t r o l s , l i m i t s , demands and e x p e c t a t i o n s a r e l a c k i n g . P a s s i v e - Not I n v o l v e d i n d i c a t e s l a c k o f pa-r e n t a l i n t e r e s t i n the boy, b l o c k e d or d i s -t o r t e d c o m m u n i c a t i o n between f a t h e r and son, and a v o i d a n c e . E r r a t i c - I n c o n s i s t e n t . s u g g e s t s temperamental v a r y i n g o f d i s c i p l i n e between modes (1) - (4) MOTHER'S SUPERVISION AND DISCIPLINE T h i s s e c t i o n employs the same c a t e g o r i e s as t h o s e i n d i c a t e d i n column (39) above. FATHER'S AFFECTION FOR BOY Very Marked i n d i c a t e s t h a t the f a t h e r con-s i s t e n t l y e x p r e s s e s f e e l i n g s o f i n t e r e s t , warmth, t r u s t and r e s p e c t toward t h e boy. Some s u g g e s t s t h a t the f a t h e r o c c a s i o n a l l y e x p r e s s e s the f e e l i n g s d e s c r i b e d i n ( 1 ) , b u t does so i n c o n s i s t e n t l y and r e v e a l s some am-b i v a l e n c e i n h i s f e e l i n g s about the boy. L i t t l e o r None i n d i c a t e s a d e m o n s t r a t e d l a c k o f a f f e c t i o n i n a l l a r e a s d e f i n e d i n ( 1 ) . MOTHER'S AFFECTION FOR BOY T h i s s e c t i o n employs the same c a t e g o r i e s as th o s e d e f i n e d i n column (41) above. BOY'S AFFECTION FOR FATHER Very Marked d e s c r i b e s a s i t u a t i o n i n which the boy c o n s i s t e n t l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h h i s f a t h e r and e x p r e s s e s f e e l i n g s o f i n t e r e s t , t r u s t and r e s p e c t toward him. Some s u g g e s t s t h a t t he boy o c c a s i o n a l l y ex-p r e s s e s f e e l i n g s i n one o r two o f the a r e a s d e s c r i b e d i n ( 1 ) , b u t does so i n c o n s i s t e n t l y and r e v e a l s some a m b i v a l e n c e i n h i s f e e l i n g s about h i s f a t h e r . L i t t l e „or None i n d i c a t e s a d e m o n s t r a t e d l a c k o f a f f e c t i o n i n a l l a r e a s d e f i n e d i n ( 1 ) . BOY'S AFFECTION FOR MOTHER T h i s s e c t i o n employs the same c a t e g o r i e s as d e f i n e d i n column (43) above. FAMILY COHESION Very Marked i n d i c a t e s a s t r o n g "we" f e e l i n g among members o f the immediate f a m i l y as e v i -denced by c o - o p e r a t i v e n e s s , group i n t e r e s t s , p r i d e i n the home, and a f f e c t i o n f o r each o t h e r . Some s u g g e s t s t h a t the f a m i l y has some b u t not a l l o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a c o h e s i v e f a m i l y as d e s c r i b e d i n ( 1 ) . L i t t l e o r None d e s c r i b e s a f a m i l y i n wh i c h none o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s m e ntioned i n (1) ar e i n e v i d e n c e . APPENDIX V I I I GROUP #8 OUTWARD BOUND PRE-SENTENCE REPORT DATA-COLLECTION INSTRUMENT 103. Column Code .1 ( ) AGE 1 - 15 . 2 - 16 3 - 17 2 ( ) ETHNIC ORIGIN ( F a t h e r ) 1 - R e p o r t e d as " C a n a d i a n " 2 - B r i t i s h 3 - O t h e r European 4 - N a t i v e I n d i a n 5 - A s i a n 6 - Negro 7 - O t h e r 8 - NK 9 - NR 3 ( ) ETHNIC ORIGIN (Mother) 1 - Same as f a t h e r 2 - D i f f e r e n t 3 - NK 4 - NR 4 ( ) BOY'S ORIGINS 1 - B o r n i n Canada 2 - Immigrated t o Canada b e f o r e 10 y e a r s o f age 3 - Came t o Canada a f t e r 10 y e a r s o f age 4 - NK 5 - NR • ( ) CULTURAL AND/OR INTER-GENERATIONAL CONFLICT 1 - None • 2 - C u l t u r a l o n l y 3 - I n t e r - g e n e r a t i o n a l o n l y 4 - B o t h t y p e s 5 - NK 6 - NR 6 ( ) RELIGION 1 - RC 2 - P r o t e s t a n t 3 - O t h e r 4 - NR ( ) CHURCH ATTENDANCE 1 - R e g u l a r (weekly or more o f t e n ) 2 - O c c a s i o n a l (Once or t w i c e a month) 3 - Seldom (monthly o r l e s s ) 4 - NR 8 ( ) - POPULATION: AREA OF RESIDENCE 1 - R u r a l ( f a r m , v i l l a g e o r s m a l l town under 2 0 0 0 ) 2 - L a r g e town (pop. 2000 - 10,000) 104. Column Code 3 - S m a l l c i t y (10 - 50,000) 4 - L a r g e c i t y (50,000 o r o v e r ) 5 - NR 9 ( ) EMPLOYMENT 1 - F u l l time 2 - R e g u l a r ( p a r t - t i m e ) 3 - I r r e g u l a r ( c a s u a l j o b s ) 4 - Unemployed 5 - Not a p p l i c a b l e 6 - NR 10 ( ) ATTITUDE TO EMPLOYMENT (PO's Assessment) 1 - Good 2 - F a i r 3 - Poor 4 .- NA 5 - NR 11 ( ) JOB STABILITY ( L e n g t h o f time employed) 1 - L e s s t h a n 3 months 2 - 3 - 6 months 3 - 6 - 1 2 months 4 - 1 y e a r o r more 5 - NA •6 - NR 12 ( ) . NUMBER OF JOBS SINCE LEAVING SCHOOL .1 - (1 - 3) , 2 - ( 4 - 5 ) 3 - 3 - 6 o r more 4 - NA 5 - NR 13 ( ) EDUCATION (SCHOOL ATTENDANCE) 1 - A t t e n d i n g s c h o o l now 2 - Not a t t e n d i n g s c h o o l 3 - NA ( I f w o r k i n g f u l l t i m e ) 4 - NR 14 ( ) AMOUNT OF SCHOOLING 1 - D i d n o t c o m p l e t e 8 g r a d e s 2 - Completed 8 grades 3 - Completed 1 o r 2 y e a r s of J u n i o r H i g h S c h o o l 4 - Completed 1 y e a r o f s e n i o r High 5 - Gr a d u a t e d from H i g h S c h o o l 15 ( ) . VOCATIONAL TRAINING (AFTER HIGH SCHOOL OR IN PLACE OF ACADEMIC STUDIES) 1 - Yes 2 - No 3 - NR 105. Column Code 16 ( ) REASONS FOR LEAVING SCHOOL 1 - Graduated from grade s c h o o l 2 - Graduated from S e n i o r H i g h 3 - L e f t s c h o o l f o r academic r e a s o n s 4 - L e f t s c h o o l t o a c c e p t employment 5 - D i s c i p l i n e p r o b l e m 6 - O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) .7 - NA 8 - NR 17 ( ) LENGTH OF TIME SINCE LEAVING' SCHOOL 1 - L e s s t h a n 6 months 2 - 6 - 11 months 3 - 1 y e a r o r more 4 - NA 5 - NR 18 ( ) ATTITUDE TO SCHOOL (PO's Assessment) 1 - Good 2 - F a i r 3 - Poor 4 - NR 19 ( ) NUMBER OF OFFENCES AT TIME OF PRESENT CHARGE 1 - One 2 - Two 3 - Three 4 - More tha n t h r e e 5 - NR 20 ( ) TYPE OF OFFENSE (Ma.jor o f f e n s e o n l y ) 0 • L i q u o r o f f e n s e s 1 • A s s a u l t o f f e n s e s 2 • Sex o f f e n s e s 3 • F a m i l y o f f e n s e s 4 • C o m m e r c i a l i z e d v i c e 5 • G a i n f u l o f f e n s e s w i t h v i o l e n c e 6 • • - - M a l i c i o u s o f f e n s e s a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y 7 • T h e f t - b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g 8 • F r a u d 9 • - Mo t o r v e h i c l e o f f e n s e s . 21 ( ) HOW OFFENSE WAS COMMITTED 1 - A l o n e 2 - I n a group 3 - NR 22 ( ) ATTITUDE TOWARD OFFENSE 1 - P o s i t i v e 2 - F a i r 3 - Poor 4 - NR 106. Column Code 23 ( ) DISPOSITION OF COURT.(Present O f f e n s e ) 1. - Suspend 2 - A d j o u r n 3 - F i n e 4 - P r o b a t i o n 5 - Care and custody, o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r 6 - F o s t e r home 7 - Ward o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e 8 - T r a i n i n g s c h o o l 9 - Ot h e r 24 ( ) . NUMBER OF PREVIOUS OFFENSES 1 - One 2 - Two 3 - Three 4 - More t h a n t h r e e 5 - None 6 - NR •23, ( ) TYPE OF LAST PREVIOUS OFFENSES ( M a i o r ) 0 - L i q u p r o f f e n s e s 1 - A s s a u l t 2 - Sex o f f e n s e s 3 - F a m i l y o f f e n s e 4 - E o m m e r c i a l i z e d v i c e 5 - G a i n f u l o f f e n s e s w i t h v i o l e n c e 6 - M a l i c i o u s o f f e n s e a g a i n s t p r o p e r t y . 7 - T h e f t - b r e a k i n g and e n t e r i n g 8 - F r a u d 9 - Mo t o r v e h i c l e o f f e n s e 26 ( ) • HOW LAST PREVIOUS OFFENSE WAS COMMITTED 1 - A l o n e 2 - I n a group 3 - NR 27 ( ) ATTITUDE TOWARD LAST PREVIOUS OFFENSE 1 - P o s i t i v e 2 - F a i r 3 - Poor 4 - NR <28 ( ) DISPOSITION OF COURT ( L a s t p r e v i o u s o f f e n s e ) 1 - Suspend 2 - Adj o u r n 3 - F i n e 4 - P r o b a t i o n 5 - Care and c u s t o d y o f p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r 6 - F o s t e r home 7 - Ward o f S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e 8 - T r a i n i n g s c h o o l 9 - Ot h e r 107. Column Code 29 ( ) GROUP EXPERIENCES (Boy's h a b i t u a l b e h a v i o u r ) 1 - Normal peer r e l a t i o n s h i p s 2 - O v e r - a c t i v e 3 - I s o l a t e 4 - NR 30 ( ) MAIN TYPE OF GROUP.RELATIONSHIP 1 - F o r m a l 2 - I n f o r m a l - P o s i t i v e 3 - I n f o r m a l - N e g a t i v e 4 - I n f o r m a l - M i x e d 5 - NR 31 ( ) SIGNIFICANT PERSONAL HABITS 1 - N o n - d r i n k e r 2 - D r i n k e r 3 - Pr o b l e m d r i n k e r 4 - NR 32 ( ) .MAIN SOURCE OF FAMILY INCOME 1 - Wages 2 - Unemployment I n s u r a n c e 3 - Compensation 4 - P e n s i o n 5 - S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e 6 - Other ( s p e c i f y ) 7 - NR 33 ( ) FINANCIAL SITUATION IN THE HOME (PO's assessment) 1 - Good 2 - F a i r 3 - Poor 4 - NR 34 ( ) MANAGEMENT OF FINANCIAL AFFAIRS 1 - S a t i s f a c t o r y 2 - F a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y 3 - U n s a t i s f a c t o r y 4 - NR 35 ( ) WITH. WHOM DOES BOY LIVE 1 - Home w i t h b o t h p a r e n t s (own) 2 - Home w i t h one n a t u r a l and one s t e p - p a r e n t 3 - Home w i t h one p a r e n t ( i . e . mother) 4 - Home w i t h one p a r e n t ( i . e . f a t h e r ) 5 - R e l a t i v e s 6 --- F o s t e r home 7 - Group l i v i n g home 8 - O t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) Code ( ) , BOY'S AGE WHEN OWN FATHER LEFT HOME 1 - Under 10 y e a r s 2 - 11 to 14 y e a r s 3 - Over 14 y e a r s 4 - NR ( ) .. BOY'S AGE WHEN OWN MOTHER. LEFT HOME 5 - Under 10 y e a r s 6 - 11 to 14 y e a r s 7 - Over 14 y e a r s 8 - NR ( ) BOY'S-CONTACT WITH ABSENT FATHER 1 - R e g u l a r 2 - O c c a s i o n a l 3 - None 4 - NR ( ) BOY's CONTACT WITH ABSENT MOTHER 1 - R e g u l a r 2 - O c c a s i o n a l 3 - None 4 - NR PARENT - BOY RELATIONSHIPS ( ) FATHER'S SUPERVISION AND DISCIPLINE OF BOY 1 - F i r m and c o n s i s t e n t 2 - O v e r l y s t r i c t , r i g i d 3 - P e r m i s s i v e and l a x 4 - P a s s i v e ( n o t i n v o l v e d ) 5 - E r r a t i c , i n c o n s i s t e n t 6 - NK 7 - NR ( ) , MOTHER'S SUPERVISION AND DISCIPLINE OF BOY 1 - F i r m and c o n s i s t e n t 2 - O v e r l y s t r i c t , r i g i d 3 - P e r m i s s i v e and l a x 4 - P a s s i v e ( n ot i n v o l v e d ) 5 - E r r a t i c , i n c o n s i s t e n t 6 - NK 7 - NR ( ) FATHER'S AFFECTION FOR BOY 1 - Very marked 2 - Some 3 - L i t t l e o r none 4 - NK 5 - NR • 109. Column Code 42 ( ) MOTHER'S AFFECTION FOR BOY 1 - Ve r y marked 2 - Some 3 - L i t t l e o r none 4 - NK 5 - NR 43 ( ) BOY'S AFFECTION FOR FATHER 1 - Ve r y marked 2 - Some 3 - L i t t l e o r none 4 - NK 5 - NR 44 ( ) BOY'S AFFECTION FOR MOTHER 1 - Very marked 2 - Some 3 - L i t t l e o r none 4 - NK 5 - NR 45 ( ) FAMILY COHESION ( P s y c h o - s o c i a l s u p p o r t and a f f e c t i o n among members o f f a m i l y ) 1 - V e r y marked 2 - Some 3 - L i t t l e o r none 4 - NK 5 - NR - SIBLINGS AND SIBLING RELATIONSHIPS 46 ( ) NUMBER OF SIBLINGS 1 - None 2 - One 3 - Two 4 - Three t o f i v e 5 - More t h a n f i v e 6 - NR 47 ( ) BOY'S ORDINAL POSITION IN SIBLING GROUP ( i n c l u d i n g , own, h a l f o r s t e p ) 1 - E l d e s t 2 - M i d d l e 3 - Youngest 4 - NA ( o n l y , c h i l d ) 5 - NK 6 . - NR Column Code 48 ( ) SIBLING WITH.WHOM BOY FEELS HE HAS CLOSEST RELATIONSHIP 1 - O l d e r b r o t h e r 2 - Younger b r o t h e r 3 - O l d e r s i s t e r 4 - Younger s i s t e r 5 - Ot h e r ( t w i n o r s t e p - s i b l i n g ) 6 - NR 49 ( ) . COURT RECORD OF ONE OR MORE. SIBLINGS 1 - Yes 2 - No 3 - NR 50 ( ) . IF ANSWER TO 49 i s "YES" - IDENTIFY 1 - O l d e r b r o t h e r 2 - Younger b r o t h e r 3 - O l d e r s i s t e r 4 - Younger s i s t e r 5 - O t h e r 6 - NR 

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