UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Perceptions of occupational rewards and prestige and the relationship between them : a study of children… Baxter, Eunice Helen 1967

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1967_A8 B38.pdf [ 7MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104456.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104456-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104456-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104456-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104456-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104456-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104456-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104456-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104456.ris

Full Text

PERCEPTIONS OP OCCUPATIONAL REWARDS AND PRESTIGE AND THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THEM A Study o f C h i l d r e n and A d o l e s c e n t s by EUNICE HELEN BAXTER B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1957 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS I n the Department o f A n t h r o p o l o g y and S o c i o l o g y We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1967 In presenting this thesis in p a r t i a l fu l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library sha l l make i t f ree ly avai lab le for reference and Study. | further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholar ly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.iis representatives. It is understood that copying or publ ica t ion of th is thesis for f i n a n c i a l gain shal l not be allowed without my writ ten permission. Department of ANTHROPOLOGY & SOCIOLOGY The Univers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date September 12, 1967. ABSTRACT Re s e a r c h has shown t h a t t h e r e i s an o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y , s t a b l e over time and f rom s u b p o p u l a t i o n t o s u b p o p u l a t i o n . O c c u p a t i o n s i n the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the h i e r a r c h y , the s o - c a l l e d "middle range" o c c u p a t i o n s , a r e , however, s u b j e c t t o r e l a t i v e l y h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y . The e x p l a n a t i o n commonly advanced f o r p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s i s the "rewards h y p o t h e s i s " . That i s , p e r c e p t i o n s (not n e c e s s a r i l y a c c u r a t e ) o f o c c u p a t i o n a l r e w a r d s , o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , determine p r e s t i g e . I f t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s v i a b l e , i t ought to be p o s s i b l e to t r a c e the l e a r n i n g o f p r e s t i g e judgments and of the rewards which determine them. S i n c e age d i f f e r e n c e s between o l d e r and younger a d u l t s and u s u a l l y between o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s and a d u l t s do n o t seem s i g n i f i c a n t , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t the l e a r n i n g o f rewards and hence the h i e r a r c h y b e g i n s i n e a r l y c h i l d h o o d . I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y of the development of l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g was advanced as a r a t i o n a l e f o r the i n c r e a s e d s i m i l a r i t y between a d u l t s ' and m a t u r i n g c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f the h i e r a r c h y . The c h i l d l e a r n s t o a p p r e c i a t e the rewards a p p r e c i a t e d by a d u l t s , and what rewards are thought t o be g a i n e d f rom p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n s . As h i s r e a s o n i n g a b i l i t i e s improve, he i s i n c r e a s i n g l y a b l e t o weigh i i i t h e s e rewards " a c c u r a t e l y " , and so i n c r e a s i n g l y comes t o view p r e s t i g e as a d u l t s do. P r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , concerned w i t h " r e a s o n s " g i v e n by s u b j e c t s f o r a s s i g n i n g h i g h p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s , w i t h t a s k l e a r n i n g , and w i t h a number o f o t h e r b e h a v i o u r s , has shown t h a t d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s members have p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t r e wards. On the b a s i s o f these f i n d i n g s , i t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t h i g h e r s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l s a p p r e c i a t e p s y c h i c and d e f e r r e d rewards more than,-immediate rewards l e s s t h a n , and m a t e r i a l rewards t o the same degree as lower s t a t u s i n d i v i d u a l s . The s u b j e c t s were boys o f 9-10, 12-13* 15-l6, and 17-18, chosen e q u a l l y f r o m " b l u e " and "white c o l l a r " back-grounds. Boys were chosen because more s t u d y o f males than females has been c a r r i e d o u t . The o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d were from the "middle r a n g e " , s i n c e i t was assumed t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f s o c i a l c l a s s reward p r e f e r e n c e d i f f e r e n c e s . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s chosen, o p e r a t i o n a l l y d e f i n e d as d e f e r r e d -p s y c h i c , d e f e r r e d - m a t e r i a l , d e f e r r e d , i m m e d i a t e - p s y c h i c , i m m e d i a t e - m a t e r i a l , and m a t e r i a l , were "power", " s e c u r i t y " , " e d u c a t i o n " , "good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " , "income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g " , and "average income". The st u d y was m o d e l l e d on t h a t o f the N.O.R.C. and Duncan's a n a l y s i s o f those d a t a . Spearman's r was used t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the o l d e r the s u b j e c t group, the g r e a t e r the s i m i l a r i t y between t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and those o f an a d u l t , group. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s i v was s u p p o r t e d . V a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d was used as a t e s t of the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h i s phenomenon would he p a r a l l e l e d by-i n c r e a s i n g power o f rewards p e r c e p t i o n s t o p r e d i c t p r e s t i g e . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was not s u p p o r t e d ; a l t h o u g h p r e s t i g e p e r -c e p t i o n s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h most rewa r d p e r c e p t i o n s , the c o r r e l a t i o n s were low and much the same a t a l l age l e v e l s . S t e p - r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s t h a t s u b j e c t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s back-grounds would show p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t rewards. D i f f e r -ences i n the p r e d i c t e d d i r e c t i o n s were found f o r f o u r out o f the six. o p e r a t i o n a l hypotheses and f o r two of the f o u r t h e o r e t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s . These d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t marked. I t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t the d a t a were r e l i a b l e , b u t t h a t reward p e r c e p t i o n measurements are n o t a v a l i d p r e d i c t o r of the p r e s t i g e o f the m i d d l e range o c c u p a t i o n s . M e t h o d o l o g i c a l i n f l u e n c e s on the d a t a were c o n s i d e r e d , s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n b e i n g g i v e n t o " h a l o e f f e c t s " and to f a m i l i a r i t y o f the s u b j e c t s w i t h the o c c u p a t i o n s b e i n g r a t e d . A p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the f i n d i n g s i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h of a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s t i g e and rewards p e r c e p t i o n s i s t h a t v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r r a t h e r t h a n rewards p e r -c e p t i o n b i a s e s were b e i n g tapped. S e v e r a l s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h were made. A s t u d y s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n t o t h i s one, b u t i n c l u d i n g the oc c u -p a t i o n s a t the extreme ends of the h i e r a r c h y , would show i f V the r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y can be g e n e r a l i z e d t o a l l occu-p a t i o n a l • p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s . F u r t h e r s t u d y s h o u l d be made of c h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s of p r e s t i g e ; more knowledge o f these would be u s e f u l i n the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the rewards h y p o t h e s i s or i n the development o f an a l t e r n a t i v e t o i t . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 I I . RATIONALE . . . 7 Assumptions 7 The C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Which Determine P r e s t i g e 8 Age and H i e r a r c h y S t a b i l i t y 1 1 L e a r n i n g and rewards 12 Hypotheses and d e f i n i t i o n s 20 S o c i a l C l a s s and V a r i a b i l i t y 20 A model f o r e x p l a i n i n g v a r i a b i l i t y . . . 21 S o c i a l c l a s s reward p r e f e r e n c e s 23 M e t h o d o l o g i c a l C r i t i c i s m s o f P r e s t i g e S t u d i e s 30 Sources o f v a r i a b i l i t y 30 I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e s t i g e and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 33 L e a r n i n g o f rewards 36 I I I . METHOD 4 1 D e s i g n 4 l Choice o f O c c u p a t i o n s and Rewards f o r Study . 42 O p e r a t i o n a l and T h e o r e t i c a l Hypotheses . . 45 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n 48 v i i CHAPTER PAGE IV . RESULTS 53 L i m i t a t i o n s t o G e n e r a l i z a t i o n 53 T e s t s o f Hypotheses 53 L e a r n i n g o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . 53 L e a r n i n g o f rewards 55 S o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s 60 V. DISCUSSION 76 L e a r n i n g o f the P r e s t i g e H i e r a r c h y . . . . 76 C h i l d r e n ' s p e r c e p t i o n s o f p r e s t i g e . . . 76 Suggested r e s e a r c h • 79 The F a i l u r e o f the Rewards H y p o t h e s i s . . . 80 A m b i g u i t y o f r a t i n g c r i t e r i a and o f mi d d l e - r a n g e o c c u p a t i o n s 80 V e r b a l r e s p o n s e s and c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s . 84 C o n c l u s i o n 89 BIBLIOGRAPHY 92 APPENDICES I . THE QUESTIONNAIRE 96 P a r t I : The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 96 P a r t 2: O r a l I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r the Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 103 I I . • DATA TABLES Tab l e A: P r o p o r t i o n s o f S u b j e c t s G i v i n g " E x c e l l e n t " and "Good" R a t i n g s , and R e s u l t i n g Rankings 108 v i i i APPENDICES PAGE I I . DATA TABLES Table B: S t e p - R e g r e s s i o n C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P r e s t i g e and O c c u p a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 110 Table C: R e g r e s s i o n Formulae I l l Tab l e D: B e t a Weights f r o m R e g r e s s i o n Formulae 116 Tab l e E: Spearman's r C o r r e l a t i o n s Between P r e s t i g e and O c c u p a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . . 117 ; v i LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . C o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e and p e r c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f r om e a r l i e r s t u d i e s . 9 I I . O c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e c h o i c e s of boys and g i r l s , ages 8| t o l8|, from Lehman and W i t t y , 1931-32 13 I I I . By age group and o c c u p a t i o n , "don;t know" resp o n s e s t o r e q u e s t f o r judgments on p r e s t i g e . G i v e n are the number and pe r c e n t a g e s o f p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e s w h i c h were "don't know" r e s p o n s e s 44 IV. Spearman's r c o r r e l a t i o n s between age group r a n k i n g s and N.O.R.C. male a d u l t r a n k i n g s o f the t w e l v e o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d . H y p o t h e s i s 1. 54 V. By age group, v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . H y p o t h e s i s 2 . 56 V I . By age group, s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n c o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s and p r e s t i g e 57 V I I . By age group, the o r d e r o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e , and the g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by u s i n g a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r a t i n g s to p r e d i c t p r e s t i g e . 58 V I I I . Rank o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e and p e r c e i v e d power, e d u c a t i o n , good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and average income, f r o m the p r e s e n t s t u d y by age group, from Ramsey and S m i t h , 1959-60, and from Brown, 1955 60 I X . By age group, s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n b e t a w e i g h t s between p e r c e i v e d power (a d e f e r r e d - p s y c h i c reward) and p r e s t i g e . O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (a) 62 X. By age group, s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n b e t a w e i g h t s between p e r c e i v e d s e c u r i t y (a d e f e r r e d -m a t e r i a l reward) and p r e s t i g e . O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (b) 63 X TABLE PAGE X I . By age group, s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n b e t a w e i g h t s between p e r c e i v e d e d u c a t i o n ( a d e f e r r e d reward) and p r e s t i g e . O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (c) 64 X I I . By age group, s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n b e t a w e i g h t s between p e r c e i v e d good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s (an i m m e d i a t e - p s y c h i c reward) and p r e s t i g e . O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (d) 65 X I I I . By age group, s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n b e t a w e i g h t s between p e r c e i v e d income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g (an i m m e d i a t e - m a t e r i a l reward) and p r e s t i g e . O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (e) 66 XIV. By age group, s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n b e t a w e i g h t s between p e r c e i v e d average income ( a m a t e r i a l reward) and p r e s t i g e . O c c u p a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s ( f ) 67 XV. Comparison o f ra n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r c e i v e d power, s e c u r i t y , e d u c a t i o n , and average income and p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e f o r 17-18 upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s f r om the p r e s e n t s t u d y and f o r u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s u b j e c t s f rom p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . . . 69 XVI. By c l a s s group, r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e s t i g e : o r d e r of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e , c o r r e l a t i o n s between c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s , and g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by u s i n g a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r a t i n g s i n r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e 73 X V I I . Rank o r d e r s f o r the twe l v e o c c u p a t i o n s s t u d i e d , a s s i g n e d by N.O.R.C. male a d u l t s , N.O.R.C. 14-20 year o l d s , and by age groups i n t h i s s t u d y 77 X V I I I . By age group, comparison between r e s p o n s e s of a l l s u b j e c t s who gave " e x c e l l e n t " and "good" r a n k i n g s t o the most h i g h l y and a median r a n k e d o c c u p a t i o n . P e r c e n t a g e s show the p r o p o r t i o n o f these s u b j e c t s who a l s o gave " e x c e l l e n t " and "good" r a t i n g s t o these o c c u p a t i o n s on each o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s "power", " e d u c a t i o n " , and "average income". S t a r r e d comparisons are c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s 82 TABLE x i PAGE XIX. By age group, comparison between r e s p o n s e s o f a l l s u b j e c t s who gave "average", "somehwat below average" or "poor" r a t i n g s t o the l o w e s t and a median r a n k e d occu-p a t i o n . P e r c e n t a g e s show the p r o p o r t i o n of these s u b j e c t s who gave " e x c e l l e n t " or "good" r a t i n g s t o thes e o c c u p a t i o n s on each o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s "power", " e d u c a t i o n " and "average income". S t a r r e d comparisons are c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s 84 XX. I n o r d e r o f f r e q u e n c y , l i s t s o f "re a s o n s " g i v e n by s u b j e c t s f o r a c c o r d i n g c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s h i g h p r e s t i g e , and the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which each " r e a s o n " was g i v e n , when these d a t a are a v a i l a b l e . From s t u d i e s by the N.O.R.C., 1953, T i r y a k i a n , 1957-58, Brown, 1955 , and .Taft, 1953 87 LIST OP FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1 . Paradigm o f rewards r e l a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s , and showing d i f f e r e n c e s p r e d i c t e d between s o c i a l c l a s s groups 46 2 . Paradigm o f rewards r e l a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s , and showing d i f f e r e n c e s p r e d i c t e d and found between s o c i a l c l a s s groups 68 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The au t h o r wishes t o thank Dr. T.A. Nosanchuk f o r h i s a d v i c e and h e l p i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s s t u d y . The author w i s h e s t o thank the o f f i c i a l s and employees o f the "Vancouver S c h o o l B o a r d , and the employees and members of the C o q u i t l a m Community C e n t e r , f o r t h e i r c o - o p e r a t i o n and a s s i s t a n c e i n the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a f o r t h i s s t u d y . CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The e m p i r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e began w i t h a s t u d y by George Counts i n 1925. He asked 450 s u b j e c t s - - h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s and t e a c h e r s - - t o r a n k o r d e r 45 o c c u p a t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o how much the y were " l o o k e d up t o " . What s u r p r i s e d Counts was h i s i n a b i l i t y t o generate d i f f e r e n t p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h i e s f o r d i f f e r e n t subgroups; d i f f e r e n c e s i n age, r e s i d e n c e , v o c a t i o n a l f u t u r e o r o c c u p a t i o n , f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n , and f a t h e r ' s p l a c e o f b i r t h made l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e , t o the p e r c e p t i o n o f prestige."*" T h e r e a f t e r a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f such s t u d i e s were c a r r i e d o u t , i n the course o f wh i c h a v a r i e t y o f subpopu-l a t i o n s were t e s t e d . The most e x t e n s i v e s t u d y , which has s e r v e d as a model f o r most subsequent s t u d i e s , was t h a t o f N o r t h and H a t t i n 19^7, the N a t i o n a l O p i n i o n R e s e a r c h Center p s t u d y . I n s p i t e o f the number o f r e p l i c a t i o n s , the v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s employed, and the d i f f e r e n t subgroups t e s t e d , Counts' c o n c l u s i o n remains v i r t u a l l y u n m o d i f i e d ; t h e r e appears t o be a g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y , 2 s t a b l e over time.3 As R e i s s c o n c l u d e s , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the N.O.R.C d a t a , ". . .the p r e s t i g e s t a t u s o f occu-p a t i o n s i n American s o c i e t y i s viewed i n v i r t u a l l y the same way by major subgroups o f the s o c i e t y . " One f i n d i n g f r o m p r e s t i g e s t u d i e s has e x c i t e d con-s i d e r a b l e i n t e r e s t . C e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s , the s o - c a l l e d " m i d d l e - r a n g e " o c c u p a t i o n s , are more s u b j e c t t o r a n k i n g v a r i a b i l i t y t h a n those a t the extreme ends of the h i e r a r c h y . That i s t o say, a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of o c c u p a t i o n s i n the c e n t r a l p a r t o f the h i e r a r c h y f a l l t h e r e because s u b j e c t s d i s a g r e e as t o how th e y s h o u l d be p l a c e d . 5 Why such v a r i a t i o n e x i s t s i s not c l e a r , e x c e p t t h a t i t does n o t seem t o be d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o age, sex, c l a s s , o c c u p a t i o n o r 6 e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s , o r the l i k e . The most common e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the n a t u r e of the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y - - b o t h i t s s t a b i l i t y and i t s v a r i a b i l i t y - - i s the one w h i c h , i n t h i s s t u d y , i s c a l l e d the "rewards h y p o t h e s i s " . ^ O c c u p a t i o n s d i f f e r f r o m one another on income, the amount o f e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d , the power the incumbent h a s , and so on; these are the "rewards" of occu-p a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s w h i c h occu-p a t i o n s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h which r e w a r d s , and e v a l u a t e s o c c u p a t i o n s i n terms o f how r e w a r d i n g each would be t o i t s incumbents. Some rewards are v a l u e d more t h a n o t h e r s , and 3 some more "by one i n d i v i d u a l t h a n a n o t h e r . The degree to which o c c u p a t i o n s are p e r c e i v e d as o f f e r i n g h i g h l y v a l u e d rewards de t e r m i n e s t h e i r p r e s t i g e . The f o c u s i s on " p e r c e i v e d " r e w a r d s - - t h e assumption i s no t made t h a t p e o p l e p e r c e i v e a c c u r a t e l y the amount o f income or power w h i c h an o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n o f f e r s . There i s another approach, the " o b j e c t i v e " approach developed by o Duncan and B l i s h e n , i n wh i c h p r e s t i g e i s p r e d i c t e d f rom o b j e c t i v e m e a s u r e s - - n o t a b l y income and e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t as r e c o r d e d i n census d a t a . A t l e a s t i n i t s p r e s e n t s t a t e o f development, such an approach i s l i m i t e d because the • number and k i n d o f rewards f o r which t h e r e are o b j e c t i v e measures i s so l i m i t e d . The s u b j e c t i v e or " p e r c e p t i o n " approach i s not s u b j e c t t o t h i s l i m i t a t i o n . W i t h the s u b j e c t i v e approach the problem i s r a t h e r t o d i s t i n g u i s h f r om among the many o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h o s e w h i c h a f f e c t p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s . There a r e , however, a number o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l problems w i t h s u b j e c t i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e r e s e a r c h . I t has been argued, n o t a b l y by A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman, and by q Osgood and S t a g n e r , t h a t t h i s approach y i e l d s s p u r i o u s e v i d e n c e of a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e and g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s i n c e a s e t o f judgments made at one time i s s u b j e c t t o "ha l o e f f e c t " . That i s , s u b j e c t s have a f a v o u r a b l e o r u n f a v o u r a b l e o p i n i o n o f the o c c u p a t i o n b e i n g r a t e d , and ten d t o respond s i m i l a r i l y t o a l l c r i t e r i a on wh i c h t h a t o c c u p a t i o n i s t o be jud g e d , p a r t i c u -l a r i l y i f t h a t o p i n i o n i s s t r o n g l y f e l t . A nother problem, t o which p r e s t i g e r e s e a r c h of any k i n d i s s u b j e c t , I s t h a t p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s are i n f l u e n c e d by the s u b j e c t ' s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the o c c u p a t i o n b e i n g judged. S u b j e c t s r a t e t h e i r own and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s h i g h e r than do o t h e r subjects," 1"^ and g i v e "average" r a t i n g s t o occu-11 p a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h t h e y are n o t f a m i l i a r . The v a r i a b i l i t y i n r a t i n g o f c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s may be due t o such response t e n d e n c i e s , r a t h e r t h a n t o p e r c e p t i o n o f the rewards which t h e y o f f e r . T h e o r e t i c a l l y , the problem i s t o r e l a t e the occu-p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w hich determine p r e s t i g e t o a more g e n e r a l t h e o r y of reward p r e f e r e n c e s . The assumption i s t h a t these p r e f e r e n c e s are l e a r n e d , and t h a t t h e r e e x i s t d i f f e r e n t p r e f e r e n c e s f o r c e r t a i n rewards among d i f f e r e n t subpopu-l a t i o n s . There would be v a r i a t i o n w i t h i n such groups, due to i d e o s y n c r a t i c l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I n s p i t e o f t h i s , the i n d i v i d u a l would be e x p e c t e d to. r a t e o c c u p a t i o n s much l i k e o t h e r members o f the s u b p o p u l a t i o n ( i n so f a r as the same . o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the same o c c u p a t i o n s ) S i n c e the mid d l e - r a n g e o c c u p a t i o n s show the most v a r i a b i l i t y , i t would seem t h a t these are the most s u i t a b l e f o r s t u d y . 5 The f i r s t a i m o f t h i s s t u d y w i l l be t o t r a c e t h e l e a r n i n g o f t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y i t s e l f . S i n c e l i t t l e s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e h a s b e e n f o u n d b e t w e e n o l d e r and y o u n g e r a d u l t s , o r e v e n b e t w e e n a d u l t s a n d o l d e r a d o l e s c e n t s , i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , t h e r e w a r d p r e f e r e n c e s w h i c h d e t e r m i n e p r e s t i g e must be l e a r n e d v e r y e a r l y , b e f o r e a d u l t h o o d . The s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l be c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , a n d t h e a i m t o show t h a t , t h e o l d e r t h e s u b j e c t s , t h e more t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f p r e s t i g e w i l l be l i k e t h a t o f a d u l t s . The s e c o n d a i m w i l l be t o t e s t t h e p r e d i c t i o n t h a t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r c e r t a i n t y p e s o f r e w a r d s l e a d t o v a r i a b i l i t y i n t h e r a t i n g o f c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s . S i n c e t h e r e h a s b e e n c o n s i d e r a b l e r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e r e w a r d s p r e f e r r e d b y members o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s , t h e s u b j e c t s a m p l e w i l l be d i v i d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f s o c i a l c l a s s , and-d i f f e r e n t b i a s e s l e a d i n g t o d i f f e r e n t e m p h a s i s o n g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p r e d i c t e d . I t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t r e w a r d p r e f e r e n c e s i n t e r a c t , s u c h t h a t a g i v e n o c c u -p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and h e n c e t h e p r e s t i g e o f t h e o c c u -p a t i o n w i t h t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y e v a l u a t e d b y s u b j e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . 6 CHAPTER I FOOTNOTES I C o u n t s , 1 9 2 5 . 2 F o r r e p l i c a t i o n s o f Counts' s t u d y , see Anderson, 1 9 2 7 - 2 8 a & b; Menger, 1 9 3 1 - 3 2 ; Anderson, 193^; N i e t z , 193^-35; Tuckman, 19^-7. For the N a t i o n a l O p i n i o n R e s e a r c h Center s t u d y ( h e r e a f t e r c a l l e d the N.O.R.C. study) see, N a t i o n a l O p i n i o n R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , 1 9 5 3 , and R e i s s e t a l . , 1 9 6 1 . F o r r e p l i -c a t i o n s o f the N.O.R.C. s t u d y , see Brown, 1955; T i r y a k i a n , 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 ; W i l l i a m s o n , 1962; Hodge e t a l . , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 . 3see p a r t i c u l a r l y Hodge e_t a l . , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 . ^ R e i s s e t a l . , 1 9 6 l , p. 1 9 0 . I t a l i c i z e d i n the o r i g i n a l . ^See D a v i e s , 1 9 5 2 , f o r a summary. c "Almost e v e r y s t u d y has t e s t e d one or more of these f a c t o r s . These w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l i n subsequent c h a p t e r s . ^Counts d i s c u s s e d p r e s t i g e i n terms o f rewards. F o r the most e x p l i c i t s tatement of the u n d e r l y i n g a s s u m p t i o n s , see H a t t , 1 9 4 9 - 5 0 . F o r s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n w h i c h s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f these rewards has been atte m p t e d , see Brown, 1955; R o s s i and I n k e l e s , 1957; T i r y a k i a n , 1 9 5 7 - 5 8 ; Simpson and Simpson, I 9 6 O-6I; G a r b i n and B a t e s , l § 6 l ; N e l s o n and McDonagh, I 9 6 I ; K r i e s b e r g , 1962; G a r b i n and B a t e s , 1 9 6 6 . ^Duncan i n R e i s s , I 9 6 I ; B l i s h e n , 1 9 5 8 . 9Asch, e t a l . , 1938; Osgood and S t a g n e r , 1 9 4 l . -bOThis w a s o n e Qf c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m the N.O.R.C. st u d y , R e i s s e_t a l . , 1 9 6 1 . For a s t u d y d e s i g n e d t o examine t h i s q u e s t i o n , see Coutu, 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 . U s e e p a r t i c u l a r l y Hartmann, 1936. See a l s o the change i n p r e s t i g e s t a t u s o f " n u c l e u r p h y s i c i s t " between 19^7 (N.O. R.C., 1953) and 1963 (Hodge e t a l . , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 ) . -L^Tnis s t u d y w i l l use an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s t a t i s t i c ( s t e p r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s ) . Most o f the e x t e n s i v e s t u d i e s w h i c h have d e a l t w i t h the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e and rewards have used group s c o r e s t a t i s t i c s . As A s c h , et a l . p o i n t o u t , the c o r r e l a t i o n s may or may n o t be comparable. The rewards o r i e n t a t i o n , as i n t e r p r e t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , i m p l i e s the use o f an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s t a t i s t i c . See f o o t n o t e 4 3 , Chapter I I , p. 3 9 . CHAPTER I I RATIONALE I . ASSUMPTIONS The c l e a r e s t statement o f the assumptions u n d e r l y i n g the rewards h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t o f H a t t , who advances the f o l l o w i n g p o s t u l a t e s : 1. D i f f e r e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s o c c u r i n many d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e s , e.g., r e l i g i o u s , govern-m e n t a l , e c o n o m i c a l . 2 . The rewards of these p o s i t i o n s are of v a r i o u s t y p e s , e.g., f i n a n c i a l g a i n , advantageous w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and h o n o r i f i c v a l u e or ' p s y c h i c income'. 3 . Some c o m b i n a t i o n o f a l l rewards a t t a c h e d t o any p o s i t i o n c o n s t i t u t e s the i n v i d i o u s v a l u e of t h a t p o s i t i o n and hence i t s p r e s t i g e . From t h i s p o i n t of v i e w , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an o c c u p a t i o n , as s u b j e c t i v e l y p e r c e i v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s , may be r e g a r d e d as r e w a r d s , as p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t s e n j o y e d by anyone who engages i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . Presumably the i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n s t o v a l u e c e r t a i n t h i n g s , such as a h i g h income o r the o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x e r c i s e a u t h o r i t y over o t h e r s , and l e a r n s which o c c u p a t i o n s o r groups of o c c u p a t i o n s have o r are thought t o have these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n some way he weighs th e s e d i f f e r e n t r e w a r d s , and the p r e s t i g e he a c c o r d s v a r i o u s o c c u -p a t i o n s v i s - \ - v i s each o t h e r i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s . T h i s p r o c e s s can be c o n c e p t u a l i z e d i n a number o f ways; G a r b i n and B a t e s i n t e r p r e t I t t h i s way: 8 O c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e must be v i s u a l i z e d , as b e i n g composed o f many i n t e r r e l a t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , some of w h i c h may be more i m p o r t a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o one o c c u p a t i o n t h a n t h e y are t o a n o t h e r . F o r example, i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r an o c c u p a t i o n t o be judged v e r y h i g h i n c e r t a i n p r e s t i g e c o r r e l a t e s , and low i n e q u a l l y i m p o r t a n t c o r r e l a t e s . However, the e x t r e m e l y h i g h t r a i t e v a l u a t i o n which an o c c u p a t i o n r e c e i v e s may f r e q u e n t l y overshadow the n e g a t i v e i n f l u e n c e o f the low e v a l u a t i o n s . 2 I I . THE CHARACTERISTICS WHICH DETERMINE PRESTIGE What o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are germane i n the e v a l u a t i v e p r o c e s s i s p r o b l e m a t i c , and i n s t u d i e s where a l a r g e number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are t e s t e d , the c h o i c e o f these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s tends t o be u n p a r s i m o n i o u s . I n Ta b l e I on the f o l l o w i n g page the f i n d i n g s f r om a number o f c l o s e d -ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t u d i e s are summarized. S i n c e G a r b i n and B a t e s have i n v e s t i g a t e d the l a r g e s t number o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e and o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h e i r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w e d . Three o f these s t u d i e s are o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t - - t h e two by G a r b i n and B a t e s , and t h a t o f Brown. Brown's s t u d y i s unique among o c c u p a t i o n a l reward s t u d i e s i n t h a t the c r i t e r i a on which he had s u b j e c t s r a t e o c c u p a t i o n s were e m p i r i c a l l y d e r i v e d . He had a group o f s u b j e c t s a s s i g n p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s t o a number o f o c c u p a t i o n s - -t hese r e s p o n s e s c o r r e l a t e d a t .94 w i t h N.O.R.C. r e s p o n s e s - -and t h e n s t a t e t h e i r r e a s o n s f o r r a t i n g an o c c u p a t i o n h i g h l y . 9 TABLE I CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PERCEIVED PRESTIGE AND PERCEIVED OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS, FROM EARLIER STUDIES3 CHARACTERISTIC STUDY A B. :c D E F G H I n t e l l i g e n c e and T r a i n -- .91 - - - • - -i n t e l l i g e n c e r e q u i r e d .94 .90 - - - - - .96 t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d . . .91 .83 .87 - - -e d u c a t i o n r e q u i r e d . . .90 .84 - - - - - -s c a r c i t y o f p e r s o n n e l .93 .90 - - - - -Rewards of the Work. . _ • 91 _ _ _ .17 „ o p p o r t u n i t y f o r .82 advancement . . . . .71 - - - - - -.79 .78 .88 .34 .90f -.18 .96 .97 s e c u r i t y .84 .79 - - - - .79 r e s p e c t r e c e i v e d . . . - - .66 - - - -I n t e r p e r s o n a l .87 R e l a t i o n s h i p s . . . . - - - - - -i n f l u e n c e over o t h e r s .86 .86 - - - - -d e s i r a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e .95 .84 - - - - -r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o .87 s u p e r v i s e o t h e r s . . .79 - - - - -a u t h o r i t y - - .89 - - - -I n t r i s i c Nature o f the Work - .86 - - - - -d e a l i n g more w i t h p e o p l e t h a n t h i n g s . .50 .49 - - - - -s e r v i c e t o humanity, 61 • 59 .66 .45 .90+ - .98 -honour a b l e , mor a l l y .81 .77 • 75 - - - -c a l l s f o r o r i g i n a l i t y , .87 .93 .89 - - - -i n t e r e s t i n g and .91 .90 - - - - .99 no muscular s t r e n g t h needed - .72 - - - -s t a n d i n g i n h i s t o r y . - - .63 - - - - -Working C o n d i t i o n s . . .49 _ _ _ _ _ .49 .35 - - - - -.67 .51 .79 - - - -f l e x i b l e w o r k i n g .56 .44 - - - - -Independence i n Work .48 - - - - - -f r e e time on j o b . . . .19 .15 - - - - -68 .57 - - - - -time f o r r e c r e a t i o n . 9 - .83 - - - -K e y : A - G a r b i n and B a t e s , 19bb. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t sample ( m a l e ) . B - G a r b i n and B a t e s , 1961. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t sample ( m a l e ) . C-Brown, 1955. Negro urban sample. A-E r a n k D-Stevens, 1940. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t sample ( f e m a l e ) . o r d e r E-Anderson, 1934. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t sample ( m a l e ) . c o r r e l a t i o n s . F - R o s s i and I n k e l e s , 1957. Sample o f R u s s i a n d i s p l a c e d persons,some i n European camps & some e m i g r a n t s t o U.S. G-N . 0.R.C.(Reiss,et al.,1961). R e p r e s e n t a t i v e U.S. sample. H-Osgood and S t a g n e r , 194l. C o l l e g e s t u d e n t sample. '.F-H use Pearson's r . 10 He c a t e g o r i z e d these r e s p o n s e s , and asked a second s e t of s u b j e c t s t o r a n k the same s e t of o c c u p a t i o n s on the e l e v e n most commonly employed " r e a s o n s " . An e q u a l w e i g h i n g o f r e w a r d s ^ y i e l d e d a h i e r a r c h y which c o r r e l a t e d a t . 9 2 w i t h the N.O.R.C. p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y . Such a r e s u l t can be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t reward p e r c e p t i o n s are s t a b l e . G a r b i n and B a t e s t a k e t h i s p o s i t i o n on the b a s i s of the markedly s i m i l a r d a t a f r o m t h e i r two s t u d i e s , conducted f i v e y e a r s a p a r t . W h i l e e x p l i c i t l y r e f u t i n g any c l a i m t o h a v i n g chosen the most s u i t a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r s t u d y , t h e y do t h i n k t h a t the r e p l i c a b i l i t y o f the o r i g i n a l s t u d y shows t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e s t i g e i s a f a i r l y s t a b l e one, and t h a t . . . a r e m a r k a b l e degree o f consensus must e x i s t i n our s o c i e t y on the importance of the v a r i o u s o ccu-p a t i o n a l t r a i t s . . . .5 An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the f i n d i n g s f r o m the o t h e r s t u d i e s , however, shows t h a t t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n among c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e s t i g e and r e w a r d s , p a r t i c u l a r i l y w i t h the most f r e q u e n t l y i n v e s t i g a t e d rewards " s e r v i c e to humanity" and "income". These r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s are open to a number of I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s . The one made i n t h i s s t u d y i s a m o d i f i c a t i o n of t h a t o f G a r b i n and B a t e s . G a r b i n and B a t e s ' samples were homogeneous f o r sex, b u t p r o b a b l y a l s o q u i t e homogeneous f o r s o c i a l c l a s s , s i n c e t h e y were a l l c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s . The d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e i r d a t a and t h a t o f o t h e r s t u d i e s may 11 r e f l e c t s u b p o p u l a t i o n d i f f e r e n c e s i n p r e f e r e n c e s f o r rewards. The p o s i t i o n t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e n , i s t h a t consensus e x i s t s among the members of a g i v e n s u b p o p u l a t i o n on the importance o f the v a r i o u s o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i t s o r re w a r d s . I f t h i s i s v a l i d , i t must be e s t a b l i s h e d n o t o n l y t h a t as the i n d i v i d u a l grows o l d e r he l e a r n s a s o c i a l l y d e t e r m i n e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y , b u t a l s o t h a t as he grows o l d e r he l e a r n s t o e v a l u a t e o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i n terms o f c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h he p e r c e i v e s as r e w a r d i n g . Only a l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y c o u l d a d e q u a t e l y address the q u e s t i o n o f the d i r e c t i o n o f t h i s c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , a q u e s t i o n which has been r a i s e d by K r i e s b e r g ^ and wh i c h w i l l be t r e a t e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h a t the end of t h i s c h a p t e r , b u t a c r o s s - s e c t i o n a l s t u d y such as t h i s one can y i e l d one k i n d o f e v i d e n c e o f the e x i s t e n c e o f such a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . I I I . AGE AND HIERARCHY STABILITY I n those s t u d i e s i n wh i c h the i n f l u e n c e o f age on the p e r c e p t i o n of the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y has been examined, i t has been g e n e r a l l y f o u n d t h a t age i s n o t a s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r , whether the comparison i s between the res p o n s e s o f o l d e r and younger a d u l t s o r between a d u l t s and adolescents.'' 7 T h i s f i n d i n g appears to i n v a l i d a t e an assumption t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n of the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e of the s u b j e c t . 12 L e a r n i n g and Rewards I n v e s t i g a t i o n s w i t h c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s suggest t h a t the l e a r n i n g o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y b e g i n s v e r y e a r l y . C o n s i d e r a s t u d y by W e i n s t e i n , who i n 1958 used an open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o examine the p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l o s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f Grade I V , V I , and V I I I boys. He r e p o r t s t h a t , w h i l e the youngest s u b j e c t s o f t e n mentioned " f i r e m a n " and " p o l i c e m a n " as examples o f " h i g h j o b s " , the o l d e r s u b j e c t s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y the o l d e s t ones, more o f t e n mentioned p r o f e s s i o n a l and m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s . More e x t e n s i v e e v i d e n c e o f the e a r l y l e a r n i n g o f a d u l t o p i n i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n s comes f r o m the 1931-32 s t u d y of Lehman and Witty.9 They had a t o t a l of 26,878 c h i l d r e n o f the ages o f 9^ , 10i, and so on up to l8| choose f r o m a l i s t of 200 o c c u p a t i o n s those t h r e e which t h e y thought "most h i g h l y r e s p e c t e d " . Lehman and W i t t y ' s summary of the 27 most f r e q u e n t c h o i c e s o f b o y s , and the 26 most f r e q u e n t c h o i c e s o f g i r l s , and the o r d e r i n which these were made by each o f the 22 age-sex groups, i s r e p r o d u c e d i n Table I I . There appears t o be c o n s i d e r a b l e change over time i n the c h o i c e s made--some o c c u p a t i o n s , such as "cowboy" f o r boys and " n u r s e " f o r g i r l s , are h i g h l y r a t e d by young c h i l d r e n b u t d e c l i n e r a p i d l y i n p o p u l a r i t y as age i n c r e a s e s . C o n v e r s e l y , some o c c u p a t i o n s , such as " c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r " , i n c r e a s e i n p o p u l a r i t y w i t h b o t h boys and g i r l s as the y grow o l d e r . I t 13 TABLE I I OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE CHOICES OF BOYS AND GIRLS, AGES 8| TO l8|, FROM LEHMAN AND WITTY, 1931-32 O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e s o f Boys O c c u p a t i o n Age :8£ 9k 10| 12* 13i l4i 151 i6i I 7 i 18| d o c t o r , s u r g e o n , e t c . 1 5 l I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 2 2 6 4 3 3 2 2 2 2 3 m i n i s t e r , p r i e s t , 6 .15 14 15 10 7 6 4 3 3 2 . 3 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 6 7 6 . 5 4 5 3 4 4 4 6 5 5 5 j u d g e , J.P., e t c . . .12 l l 7 7 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 6 13 22 army o f f i c e r . . . . 7 3 3 5 5 7 8 24 8 10 9 l l 6 3 4 6 8 13 - - - -s h e r i f f , p o l i c e m a n .10 7 10 11 16 15 14 19 20 20 19 movie a c t o r , .13 13 9 9 11 10 9 12 12 12 12 .19 16 14 12 13 9 10 9 9 11 9 p o l i t i c i a n , 8 6 6 - - - 18 10 7 . 7 7 c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r . . - - - - 26 26 20 14 l l l l 7 s c i e n t i s t , r e s e a r c h e r . . . • 26 24 13 12 10 8 8 11 13 14 16 16 10 21 13 14 . 9 10 12 19 22 26 - - - - -- — - - 23 24 27 21 17 13 13 n a v a l o f f i c e r . . . .14 12 8 8 9 12 13 16 15 14 17 c i v i l e n g i n e e r . . • — - 18 17 18 14 17 l l 16 20 18 p r o f , b a s e b a l l 16 14 15 15 15 19 12 17 - - -.13 9 17 20 21 25 23 - - - -- 19 16 16 17 17 25 - - - -- - - 15 12 11 15 13 18 15 14 21 18 8 10 15 21 11 19 17 16 17 e d i t o r , 14 16 22 15 8 14 O c c u p a t i o n a l C h o i c e s o f G i r l s O c c u p a t i o n Age :8| 9 1 10| H i 12| 13! 14! 15! 16! 17! l & ! d o c t o r , surgeon, 4 2 1 2 1 1 1 l l 1 1 16 15 17 11 10 4 2 2 2 2 2 . 3 4 9 7 6 3 3 3 3 3 3 .10 9 11 9 7 7 6 5 5 4 4 14 8 5 2 2 2 5 6 6 6 5 j u d g e , J.P., e t c . . 16 12 14 12 7 4 4 4 5 6 c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r . • — - - - 22 24 15 8 9 7 5 p o l i t i c i a n , - - - - 21 20 12 l l 8 8 7 - 24 14 13 14 9 8 7 7 9 5 8 6 6 6 11 8 9 12 11 11 8 . 1 1 2 1 5 6 7 9 10 18 -movie a c t o r , 4 14 2 l 3 3 19 23 - - -t e a c h e r - 8 grade, r u r a l . . . 5 3 4 4 13 22 27 22 - -t e a c h e r - 14 h i g h s c h o o l . .' . . 6 12 19 8 20 18 18 14 10 12 10 . 9 7 8 3 10 11 14 14 16 10 . 7 5 7 5 9 12 10 15 17 19 12 .11 11 13 15 19 21 25 22 24 - -.11 14 18 16 16 23 25 27 - - -- - 17 19 15 17 20 14 23 9 c o n s u l , 18 25 10 9 s t e n o g r a p h e r , 24 18 10 10 10 13 11 13 13 20 10 w r i t e r ( n o v e l s , 26 18 _ _ — _ 20 20 13 11 l l .19 17 15 12 15 15 18 16 19 15 -k i n d e r g a r t e n worker 14 23 23 o t h e r gov't (not P 0 or d i p l o m a t i c - - - - 23 21 16 13 10 s c u l p t o r - - - - - - - -11 15 appears t h a t , as a c h i l d matures, he i n c r e a s i n g l y comes to view o c c u p a t i o n s as a d u l t s do--by 17i* b o t h boys and g i r l s r a t e such o c c u p a t i o n s as " d o c t o r " , "banker", " j u d g e " , and " c o l l e g e p r o f e s s o r " l i k e a d u l t s . There i s one s t u d y of younger s u b j e c t s m e t h o d o l o g i c a l l y s i m i l a r t o s t u d i e s o f a d u l t s . Ramsey and Smith t e s t e d the p r e s t i g e p e r c e p t i o n s of American 17-18 year o l d s , 1 0 and found a .78 c o r r e l a t i o n between r a n k i n g s a s s i g n e d by t h e i r s u b j e c t s 11 and by N.O.R.C. s u b j e c t s . I n the l i g h t o f t h i s r e s e a r c h , i t would seem p r o f i t a b l e t o ask what o c c u p a t i o n s have been found t o be ran k e d d i f f e r -e n t l y by a d o l e s c e n t s and by a d u l t s . 1 ^ I n the Ramsey and Smith s t u d y , a d o l e s c e n t s r a n k e d "policeman" and " s o l d i e r " h i g h e r t h a n d i d a d u l t s , and " a u t h o r " and " i n s u r a n c e agent" l o w e r . I n the N.O.R.C. s t u d y , 14-20 year o l d s gave h i g h e r r a n k i n g s t o " l a w y e r " , "artist: ! !who p a i n t s g a l l e r y p i c t u r e s " , "author of n o v e l s " , " s o c i a l w o r k e r " , and " n i g h t c l u b s i n g e r " . They gave lower r a n k i n g s t o " c i v i l e n g i n e e r " and " t e a c h e r " . T a f t (whose s t u d y was conducted i n A u s t r a l i a ) f o u n d t h a t a d o l e s c e n t r a n k e d " p o l i c e m a n " and "miner" h i g h e r , and "shop a s s i s t a n t " lower t h a n d i d a d u l t s . " ^ I t i s r a t h e r remarkable how o f t e n " p o l i c e m a n " i s ra n k e d h i g h l y by adolescents---Lehman and W i t t y ' s and W e i n s t e i n boys r a n k e d t h i s o c c u p a t i o n h i g h l y t o o . D i f f e r e n c e s i n r a n k i n g s , . e s p e c i a l l y o f the n a t u r e o f t h a t o f " p o l i c e m a n " , 16 may s i g n i f y the p e r s i s t e n c e of e a r l i e r views of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i n t o a d o l e s c e n c e (a p o s s i b i l i t y w hich w i l l be con-s i d e r e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h i n Chapter V ) . B u t whether c h i l d r e n have f a i r l y f i x e d v i e w s , d i f f e r e n t f r om those of a d u l t s , of some o c c u p a t i o n s , or whether t h e y a s s i g n p r e s t i g e on the b a s i s o f p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , does not a f f e c t the rewards h y p o t h e s i s . The change o f p e r c e p t i o n o f p r e s t i g e w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age would be i n t e r p r e t e d as a l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s ; c h i l d r e n g r a d u a l l y l e a r n what rewards are h i g h l y v a l u e d by a d u l t s , and so come t o a c c o r d p r e s t i g e t o the same o c c u p a t i o n s as a d u l t s . Some e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s v iew comes from Ramsey and Smith's s t u d y . I n most s t u d i e s o f a d u l t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s , a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f o u n d between p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e and p e r c e i v e d s o c i a l importance and income. They found compara-t i v e l y low r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e s t i g e and income (.52) and between p r e s t i g e and s o c i a l importance (.37). Of those r e s e a r c h e r s who have t a k e n the rewards p o i n t o f v i e w , o n l y W e i n s t e i n has attempted a d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r o c e s s i n v o l v e d , a p r o c e s s w h i c h he t h i n k s i n v o l v e d i n the l e a r n i n g o f a t t i t u d e s toward s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l . H i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s based on I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t ' s t h e o r y o f the development of l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g . " 1 " ^ He found e v i d e n c e of i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age (among c h i l d r e n f r o m 9 t o 14) t o t h i n k a b s t r a c t l y . F i r s t , the o l d e r the c h i l d , the more " r e a s o n s " he gave f o r h i s r e s p o n s e s ; f o r i n s t a n c e , when 17 the c h i l d r e n were asked how one c o u l d move up i n the c l a s s system, the o l d e r ones tended t o mention more f a c t o r s , the most common of which were e d u c a t i o n , i n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t y , an advantageous f a m i l y background, and H o r a t i o A l g e r - t y p e a c t i v i t y . S e c o n d l y , the o l d e r the c h i l d , the more he tended t o r e l a t e " r e a s o n s " t o one a n o t h e r ; f o r i n s t a n c e , when asked what l i m i t e d the s i z e o f s o c i a l c l a s s e s , younger s u b j e c t s tended t o emphasize e i t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e or h a r d work. O l d e r s u b j e c t s n o t o n l y r e l a t e d the two, they o f t e n i n t r o d u c e d a t h i r d " r e a s o n " , i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . The rewards h y p o t h e s i s would r e q u i r e some such approach. Even assuming t h a t c h i l d r e n have (or t h i n k t h e y have) i n f o r m a t i o n about the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f v a r i o u s occu-p a t i o n s , e v a l u a t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s on such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as income and c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y , and w e i g h i n g these f a c t o r s v i s - s a - v i s each o t h e r , i s a h i g h l y a b s t r a c t t a s k . The t h e o r y o f I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t , i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h the rewards h y p o t h e s i s , a l l o w s us t o e x p l a i n why, by l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e , the r e s p o n s e s o f s u b j e c t s t o p r e s t i g e q u e s t i o n s are s i m i l a r t o those o f a d u l t s . I t m i g h t , f u r t h e r m o r e , y i e l d c l u e s as t o the age a t wh i c h such an e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e s s would be p o s s i b l e . I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t argue t h a t c h i l d r e n do n o t t h i n k i n the same way as e i t h e r a d u l t s o r a d o l e s c e n t s . . . . the c h i l d has no powers o f r e f l e c t i o n - - t h a t i s t o s a y, no second-order thoughts w h i c h d e a l c r i t i c a l l y w i t h h i s own t h i n k i n g . No t h e o r y can be b u i l t w i t h o u t such r e f l e c t i o n . 18 I n c o n t r a s t , the a d o l e s c e n t i s a b l e t o a n a l y s e h i s own t h i n k i n g and c o n s t r u c t t h e o r i e s . The f a c t t h a t these t h e o r i e s are o v e r s i m p l i f i e d , awkward, and u s u a l l y c o n t a i n v e r y l i t t l e o r i g i n a l i t y i s b e s i d e the p o i n t . From the f u n c t i o n a l s t a n d p o i n t , h i s systems are s i g n i f i -c a n t i n t h a t t h e y f u r n i s h the c o g n i t i v e and e v a l u a t i v e bases f o r the assumption o f a d u l t r o l e s . . . . They are v i t a l i n the a s s i m i l a t i o n o f the v a l u e s w h i c h d e l i n e a t e s o c i e t i e s o r s o c i a l c l a s s e s as e n t i t i e s i n c o n t r a s t t o s i m p l e i n t e r i n d i v i d u a l relations.15 I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t emphasize the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f p h y s i o l o g i c a l and c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s - - p h y s i o l o g i c a l m a t u r a t i o n t h e y c o n s i d e r i m p o r t a n t as l i m i t i n g the age a t which c e r t a i n t y p e s o f t h i n k i n g are p o s s i b l e . . . . the m a t u r a t i o n of the nervous system can do no more t h a n determine the t o t a l i t y o f p o s s i b i l i t i e s and i m p o s s i b i l i t i e s a t a g i v e n s t a g e . A p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l environment remains i n d i s p e n s a b l e f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e p o s s i b i l i t i e s . I t f o l l o w s t h a t t h e i r r e a l i -z a t i o n can be a c c e l e r a t e d o r r e t a r d e d as a f u n c t i o n o f c u l t u r a l and e d u c a t i o n a l c o n d i t i o n s . That i s why the growth o f f o r m a l t h i n k i n g as w e l l as the age a t wh i c h a d o l e s c e n c e i t s e l f o c c u r s - - t h a t i s t o say, the age a t w h i c h the i n d i v i d u a l s t a r t s t o assume a d u l t r o l e s - - r e m a i n dependent on s o c i a l as much as or more th a n on n e u r o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . 1 6 They h y p o t h e s i z e the growth o f l o g i c a l t h i n k i n g as a s e r i e s of s t a g e s . I f we are t o e x p l a i n the t r a n s i t i o n f r o m the c o n c r e t e t hought o f the c h i l d t o the f o r m a l thought o f the a d o l e s c e n t , we must f i r s t d e s c r i b e the development o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l l o g i c , w h i c h the c h i l d a t the c o n c r e t e l e v e l ( s t a g e I I : f r o m 7-8 t o 11-12 y e a r s ) cannot y e t h a n d l e . E x p e r i m e n t a t i o n shows t h a t a f t e r a l o n g p e r i o d d u r i n g w h i c h o n l y o p e r a t i o n s a p p r o p r i a t e t o c l a s s and r e l a t i o n a l g r o u p i n g s and t o the n u m e r i c a l and s p a c i o - t e m p o r a l s t r u c t u r e s w h i c h r e s u l t e d f rom them are u s e d , the b e g i n n i n g s o f stage I I I (substage I I I - A , f r o m 11-12 t o 14-15 y e a r s ; and substage I I I - B f r om 14-15 y e a r s onward) are d i s t i n g u i s h e d by the o r g a n i z a t i o n of new o p e r a t i o n s performed on the p r o p o s i t i o n s themselves and no l o n g e r o n l y on the c l a s s e s and r e l a t i o n s t h a t make up t h e i r c o n t e n t . ' 19 A r g u i n g a n a l o g o u s l y f r o m t h i s , one would e x p e c t t h a t a t 7-8 most c h i l d r e n ought t o be a b l e t o c l a s s i f y o c cu-p a t i o n s on a p r e s t i g e s c a l e . Not u n t i l the age o f 11-12, however, would one e x p e c t them t o be a b l e t o weigh rewards i n . o r d e r t o e v a l u a t e p r e s t i g e . Among o l d e r c h i l d r e n , t h i s a b i l i t y s h o u l d be more marked. T h i s l i n e o f r e a s o n i n g i s open t o s e v e r a l s e r i o u s c r i t i c i s m s . The age a t whi c h each stage appears i s d e s c r i p t i v e , b e i n g the age a t whi c h 70% o f I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t ' s s u b j e c t s i n each age group were ab l e t o p e r f o r m the o p e r a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the c u l t u r a l o r i g i n o f t h e i r s u b j e c t s and those i n t h i s s t u d y d i f f e r , and I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t note t h a t t h e r e i s e v i d e n c e t h a t c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e the emergence o f l o g i c a l a b i l i t i e s . Most s e r i o u s , p e r h a p s , i s t h a t the t e s t s which t h e y d e v i s e d were d e r i v e d f r om p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e - - e v e n w i t h i n t h a t a r e a , the age a t which p r o p o s i t i o n a l l o g i c i s a p p l i e d v a r i e s w i t h the p a r t i c u l a r c o ncepts used. W h i l e the f i n d i n g s o f W e i n s t e i n and of Ramsey and Smith appear t o r e f l e c t such a p r o c e s s , t o g e n e r a l i z e I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t ' s f i n d i n g s t o the " s o l v i n g " o f " s o c i a l e v a l u a t i o n " problems seems somewhat tenuous. For these r e a s o n s , i n t h i s s t u d y no attempt i s made t o s p e c i f y the ages a t which a marked i n c r e a s e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards and p r e s t i g e w i l l appear. R a t h e r , o n l y an i n c r e a s e i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age i s a n t i c i p a t e d . 20 Hypotheses and D e f i n i t i o n s Below i s a more f o r m a l statement o f e x p e c t a t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o the d i f f e r e n c e s between the p e r c e p t i o n s o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y by a d u l t s and by c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . The f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are proposed: l 8 D e f i n i t i o n 1: age: c h r o n o l o g i c a l age group 9 - 1 ° : stage I I c h r o n o l o g i c a l age group 12-13: substage I I I - A c h r o n o l o g i c a l age group 15-16: substage I I I - B , younger group c h r o n o l o g i c a l age group 17-18: substage I I I - B , o l d e r group D e f i n i t i o n 2: rewards o f o c c u p a t i o n s : p e r s o n a l b e n e f i t s , p e r c e i v e d as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a g i v e n occu-p a t i o n , and p e r c e i v e d as en j o y e d by an i n d i v i d u a l engaged i n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n : e.g. income, s e c u r i t y , s h o r t w o r k i n g h o u r s , i n f l u e n c e over o t h e r s , s e r v i c e t o humanity. D e f i n i t i o n 3: p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r e s i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s : the e m p i r i c a l r a n k i n g o f o c c u p a t i o n s d e r i v e d f rom the r e s p o n s e s o f s u b j e c t s . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses are proposed: H y p o t h e s i s 1: The o l d e r the c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , the g r e a t e r the resemblance between t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s and a d u l t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 2: The o l d e r the c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , the more i m p o r t a n t the p e r c e p t i o n o f rewards a p p r e c i a t e d by a d u l t s w i l l be i n e x p l a i n i n g • the p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e of o c c u p a t i o n s . I V . SOCIAL CLASS AND VARIABILITY The above hypotheses c o n c e r n the c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h w hich the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y i s p e r c e i v e d by a d u l t s , the 21 p r o b l e m o f v a r i a b i l i t y i n the r a n k i n g o f the s o - c a l l e d " m i d d l e - r a n g e " o c c u p a t i o n s r e m a i n s . T h i s phenomenon ought to b e . e x p l i c a b l e i n terms of the rewards h y p o t h e s i s , t o o . A Model f o r E x p l a i n i n g V a r i a b i l i t y F o r i l l u s t r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , c o n s i d e r two i n d i v i d u a l s , one o f whom v a l u e s m a t e r i a l rewards such as income, and one of whom v a l u e s p s y c h i c rewards such as the o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p o t h e r s . F o r c o n v e n i e n c e , f u r t h e r assume t h a t each i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s o n l y the one reward, and t h a t b o t h i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e the same rewards as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h any g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n . V a r i a b i l i t y s c o r e s suggest t h a t one can r o u g h l y i d e n t i f y t h r e e t y p e s o f o c c u p a t i o n s — t h o s e which have h i g h p r e s t i g e and low v a r i a b i l i t y , those w h i c h have low p r e s t i g e and low v a r i a b i l i t y , and those w h i c h have average p r e s t i g e and h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y . I f " d o c t o r " , which f a l l s i n t o the f i r s t c a t e g o r y , i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g an o c c u p a t i o n whose incumbents have b o t h h i g h income and f r e q u e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o h e l p o t h e r s , we would e x p e c t b o t h o f our s u b j e c t s t o a s s i g n " d o c t o r " a h i g h p r e s t i g e r a t i n g . I f " s t r e e t sweeper"', w h i c h f a l l s i n t o the s e c o n d . c a t e g o r y , i s p e r c e i v e d as b e i n g an o c c u p a t i o n whose incumbents have n e i t h e r h i g h income nor f r e q u e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o h e l p o t h e r s , we would e x p e c t b o t h o f our s u b j e c t s t o a s s i g n " s t r e e t sweeper" a low p r e s t i g e r a t i n g . I n b o t h these c a s e s , however, the d i f f e r e n t i a l b a s i s 22 on which p r e s t i g e was a s s i g n e d i s o b s c u r e d . The o c c u p a t i o n s one wishes t o s t u d y are those which are r e w a r d i n g o n l y t o one of the s u b j e c t s , o c c u p a t i o n s which f a l l i n the t h i r d c a t e g o r y o f average p r e s t i g e and h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y . As an example, l e t us take " s o c i a l w o r k e r " , p e r c e i v e d as an o c c u p a t i o n whose incumbents have low income b u t f r e q u e n t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o h e l p o t h e r s . One would e x p e c t t h a t the s u b j e c t who v a l u e s o p p o r t u n i t y t o h e l p o t h e r s would r a t e " s o c i a l w orker" more h i g h l y t h a n would the s u b j e c t who v a l u e s h i g h income. G i v e n a l a r g e sample o f s u b j e c t s , r e p r e s e n t i n g b o t h i d e a l t y p e s o f i n d i v i d u a l s , such o c c u p a t i o n s as " s o c i a l w orker" would r e c e i v e average r a n k i n g s b u t show h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y . I n t h i s i l l u s t r a t i v e example, f o r purposes o f c l a r i t y i t has been assumed t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s p e r c e i v e the same rewards as a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the same o c c u p a t i o n s . I f t h i s a ssumption i s made, i n d i v i d u a l s f rom, say, d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s would be e x p e c t e d t o rank a number o f o c c u p a t i o n s v e r y d i f f e r e n t l y . But c o n t r o l l i n g f o r s o c i a l c l a s s , or f o r the c o n g e r i e s o f f a c t o r s - - i n c o m e , e d u c a t i o n , and o c c u p a t i o n and so o n - - r e l a t e d t o i t does not y i e l d such d i f f e r e n c e . ^ I n i s o l a t e d c a s e s , s m a l l d i f f e r e n c e s have been f o u n d - - f o r example, d i f f e r e n c e s i n the r a t i n g s made by " b l u e " and "white c o l l a r " workers o f " b l u e " and "white c o l l a r " o c c u p a t i o n s , by s u b j e c t s f r o m a g r i c u l t u r a l and s k i l l e d t r a d e s b ackgrounds, and by s e m i - s k i l l e d and u n s k i l l e d workers o f u n s k i l l e d o ccu-pp p a t i o n s . ^ 23 F u r t h e r m o r e , t h i s assumption i m p l i e s a wide and " a c c u r a t e " knowledge of a l a r g e number of o c c u p a t i o n s ; t h i s seems u n l i k e l y , and i s e s p e c i a l l y i n a p p r o p r i a t e i n t h i s s t u d y , where the s u b j e c t s are p a r t i c u l a r l y young. R a t h e r , t h e n , t h a n making t h i s a ssumption, i t i s p r e d i c t e d t h a t those o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h are h i g h l y r a n k e d on p r e s t i g e w i l l be h i g h l y r a n k e d on d i f f e r e n t rewards by s u b j e c t s f r o m d i f f e r e n t s u b p o p u l a t i o n s . Thus, the l a c k of marked s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n o f the o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y i s seen as a r e f l e c t i o n o f " i n a c c u r a t e " a s s o c i a t i o n of rewards w i t h o c c u p a t i o n s . S o c i a l C l a s s Reward P r e f e r e n c e s There i s e v i d e n c e t h a t members of d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s have, because of d i f f e r e n t e x p e r i e n c e s d u r i n g s o c i a l i z a t i o n , a p r e f e r e n c e f o r d i f f e r e n t rewards. T h i s p o s i t i o n i s i m p l i c i t i n H o l l i n g s h e a d ' s Elmstown  Youth, i n which the g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on the b e h a v i o u r of c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s of t h e i r f a m i l i e s ' s o c i a l p o s i t i o n s and o f the neighbourhoods i n which t h e y have grown up, and the e a r l y age a t which these b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s are e s t a b l i s h e d , i s s t r e s s e d . . . . i f an a d o l e s c e n t has been t r a i n e d i n the home and the n e i g h b o r h o o d t o a c t , l e t us say, l i k e a c l a s s I p e r s o n , and h i s c l i q u e a s s o c i a t i o n s are w i t h c l a s s I boys or g i r l s , t h a t a d o l e s c e n t w i l l r e v e a l a c l a s s I b e h a v i o r p a t t e r n i n h i s n o n - f a m i l y s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s . ^ 24 S i m i l a r l y , W e i n s t e i n f o u n d t h a t the s o c i a l c l a s s o f the 24 c h i l d i n f l u e n c e d h i s p e r c e p t i o n of the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y and emphasis on o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The tendency o f o l d e r c h i l d r e n t o g i v e p r o f e s s i o n a l and m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s as examples o f " h i g h j o b s " has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . When the s u b j e c t sample was d i v i d e d on the b a s i s o f s o c i a l c l a s s , however, W e i n s t e i n found t h a t t h e r e was a b i a s among upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s toward m a n a g e r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s , among m i d d l e c l a s s s u b j e c t s toward m a n a g e r i a l and p r o -p r i e t o r i a l o c c u p a t i o n s , and among lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s toward s k i l l e d l a b o u r o c c u p a t i o n s . I n another a r t i c l e W e i n s t e i n r e p o r t s c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n emphasis on g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s - - f o r i n s t a n c e , upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s p u t more emphasis on good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s and e d u c a t i o n t h a t d i d lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s , and l e s s on income, fame, and a u t h o r i t y . ' M a t e r i a l and p s y c h i c r e w a r d s. Such d i f f e r e n t emphases on rewards have been f o u n d among a d u l t s . One such d i f f e r e n c e concerns m a t e r i a l and p s y c h i c r e wards. C e n t e r s , i n a s t u d y 26 o f e l e v e n d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l r e w a r d s , c o n c l u d e d t h a t the g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between m i d d l e and w o r k i n g c l a s s s u b j e c t s was the emphasis on " s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n " by the former and on "income" by the l a t t e r . Hyman,^7 commenting on the d a t a o f Roper, says t h a t when a d u l t s were asked, "What do you t h i n k i s the most i m p o r t a n t s i n g l e t h i n g f o r a young man t o c o n s i d e r when he i s c h o o s i n g h i s l i f e ' s work?", lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s 25 emphasized economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s such as s e c u r i t y , wages, s t e a d y employment and s u b s i d i a r y economic b e n e f i t s more th a n d i d m i d d l e c l a s s s u b j e c t s , w h i l e the l a t t e r tended t o emphasize p s y c h i c rewards such as p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t s and the c o n g e n i a l i t y o f the job t o the p e r s o n , more t h a n d i d lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . 28 G u s f i e l d and S c h w a r t z , s i m i l a r l y , found t h a t s u b j e c t s f r o m lower economic groups were more l i k e l y t o emphasize income and s e c u r i t y t h a n s u b j e c t s from h i g h e r economic groups, who p u t more emphasis on s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and p r e s t i g e . ^ G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , W e i n s t e i n found s i m i l a r t e n d e n c i e s among younger s u b j e c t s . A l l s u b j e c t s w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n mentioned income as a f a c t o r i n h i g h o c c u p a t i o n a l s t a t u s , b u t , p a r t i c u l a r l y among o l d e r s u b j e c t s , m i d d l e and upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n tended t o emphasize p s y c h i c rewards such as g e t t i n g t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h i m p o r t a n t p e o p l e , w h i l e lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n c o n t i n u e d t o p l a c e the emphasis on m a t e r i a l r e w a r d s . There i s s u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e from e x p e r i m e n t a l s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y f o r these f i n d i n g s . I n t h r e e e x p e r i m e n t s , those o f Douvan, o f T e r r e l l , D u r k i n and W i e s l e y , and o f Z i g l e r and de L a b r y , i t was found t h a t , a t c o n c e p t u a l t a s k s , a m i d d l e c l a s s c h i l d would p e r f o r m b e t t e r f o r a n o n - m a t e r i a l or p s y c h i c reward (such as b e i n g t o l d t h a t h i s answer was r i g h t ) t h a n would a lower c l a s s c h i l d ; a lower c l a s s c h i l d p erformed b e t t e r f o r a m a t e r i a l r e w a r d (such as candy or a p l a s t i c t o y ) . There i s di s a g r e e m e n t , however, as t o whether or not a p s y c h i c 26 reward i s a g r e a t e r i n c e n t i v e t h a n a m a t e r i a l reward f o r the mi d d l e c l a s s c h i l d - - T e r r e l l , D u r k i n and W e i s l e y , and Z i g l e r and de L a b r y c o n c l u d e d t h a t i t was, b u t Douvan found m a t e r i a l and p s y c h i c rewards e q u a l l y m o t i v a t i n g . When we r e c a l l W e i n s t e i n ' s f i n d i n g t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n mentioned income as a reward o f h i g h s t a t u s , i t seems most p l a u s i b l e t o argue t h a t m a t e r i a l rewards are g e n e r a l l y v a l u e d . There i s no r e a s o n t o t h i n k , e i t h e r , t h a t l e a r n i n g t o v a l u e a second k i n d o f reward n e c e s s a r i l y p r e c l u d e s v a l u i n g a reward l e a r n e d e a r l i e r . 3 1 The sample i s d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s , c a l l e d the "upper" and the " l o w e r " . E s s e n t i a l l y t h i s i s the "white c o l l a r - b l u e c o l l a r " dichotomy. A l l o f the s o c i a l psycho-l o g i c a l s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d employ o n l y two c l a s s e s , s t r a t i f i e d on f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n o r , more commonly, on a v a r i a t i o n of Warner's c r i t e r i a . S o c i o l o g i s t s g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r a more e l a b o r a t e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , b u t even H o l l i n g s h e a d ' s f i v e - c l a s s system seems o f t e n t o a c t l i k e a t w o - c l a s s s y s t e m - - f o r i n s t a n c e , he says t h a t c l a s s I , I I and I I I (upper and mid d l e ) c l a s s c h i l d r e n f i n d t h e i r v a l u e s r e i n f o r c e d i n the s c h o o l , w h i l e c l a s s I V and V (lo w e r ) c l a s s c h i l d r e n f i n d t h e i r v a l u e s r e j e c t e d . The same d i v i s i o n a p p l i e s i n the m o t i v a t i o n f o r t a k i n g p a r t - t i m e j o b s and f o r the k i n d s o f p a r t - t i m e j o b s a c c e p t a b l e t o p a r e n t s f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n ( e x c e p t t h a t c l a s s I c h i l d r e n do n o t take p a r t - t i m e j o b s a t a l l ) . 27 I n summary, the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are employed: D e f i n i t i o n 4: upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s : c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s whose f a t h e r s are i n p r o f e s s i o n a l , t e c h n i c a l , m a n a g e r i a l , o f f i c e , s a l e s and c l e r i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s . lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s : c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s whose f a t h e r s are c r a f t s m e n , foremen, o r i n o p e r a t i v e , p r i v a t e h o u s e h o l d , s e r v i c e o r l a b o u r i n g o c c u p a t i o n s . D e f i n i t i o n 5: p s y c h i c reward: p r i m a r i l y a p s y c h i c o r e m o t i o n a l b e n e f i t , or a b e n e f i t w hich has e m o t i o n a l v a l u e , r e s u l t i n g f r om p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , e.g., w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , power. m a t e r i a l reward; p r i m a r i l y an economic b e n e f i t . , or a b e n e f i t w h i c h has economic v a l u e , r e s u l t i n g f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , e.g. income, s e c u r i t y . " o f t e n u r e and employment, income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses are proposed: H y p o t h e s i s 3: Upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more we i g h t to p s y c h i c rewards t h a n do lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 4: Lower and upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e the same weight t o m a t e r i a l rewards when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e of o c c u p a t i o n s . Immediate and d e f e r r e d r e wards. Another s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e i s sometimes p o s i t e d i n s o c i o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , a d i f f e r e n c e i n p r e f e r e n c e f o r immediate and d e f e r r e d rewards; the lower c l a s s p r e f e r r i n g the f i r s t , the m i d d l e c l a s s the second. A l l i s o n D a v i s , f o r i n s t a n c e , sees t h i s d i f f e r e n c e as a consequence of c h i l d - r e a r i n g p r a c t i c e s . She m a i n t a i n s t h a t m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i a l i z a t i o n p r a c t i c e s , w hich are aimed a t 28 i n h i b i t i n g p h y s i c a l and s e x u a l a g g r e s s i o n , and which r e q u i r e the c o n f o r m i t y o f the c h i l d t o g i v e n b e h a v i o u r p a t t e r n s , c r e a t e c o n s i d e r a b l e a n x i e t y . Such a n x i e t y i s f u n c t i o n a l i n a d u l t l i f e t o the maintenance o f m i d d l e - c l a s s s t a t u s . The development of a d a p t i v e , s o c i a l i z e d a n x i e t y i n the m i d d l e - s t a t u s l i f e i s a l l the more e s s e n t i a l because the s o c i a l and p r e s t i g e rewards of t h i s s t a t u s must n e c e s s a r i l y be postponed d u r i n g the p r o l o n g e d t r a i n i n g of the c h i l d and a d o l e s c e n t f o r h i g h s k i l l s and complex, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . 3 2 The m i d d l e c l a s s emphasis on e d u c a t i o n i s one o f the most p e r s i s t e n t themes i n s o c i a l c l a s s r e s e a r c h , and i t seems r e a s o n a b l e t o c l a s s i f y such an emphasis as a p r e f e r e n c e f o r d e f e r r e d rewards, a l o n g e d u c a t i o n g i v e s the i n d i v i d u a l a b e t t e r chance o f e n j o y i n g m a t e r i a l and p s y c h i c rewards a t some f u t u r e d a t e , a l t h o u g h i t may r e q u i r e f o r e g o i n g some of these i n the p r e s e n t . T h i s emphasis on e d u c a t i o n has been fo u n d i n a l a r g e number of s t u d i e s o f m i d d l e c l a s s a d u l t s . Hyman, d i s c u s s i n g Roper's d a t a , mentions t h i s , and a s i m i l a r f i n d i n g comes f r o m the N.O.R.C. s t u d y . A b e r l e and N a e g e l e , i n t h e i r s t u d y of the m i d d l e c l a s s f a t h e r , m a i n t a i n t h a t the f a t h e r i s the c h i l d ' s main source o f i n f o r m a t i o n about the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d . Thus, t h e y thought i t s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t these f a t h e r s e x p e c t e d t h e i r sons t o get a c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n and t o have a non-manual occupation.33 Form3^" found t h a t w o r k i n g c l a s s p a r e n t s tended t o emphasize the v a l u e o f e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r t h a n e d u c a t i o n as a f a c t o r i n i m p r o v i n g one's job s i t u a t i o n . He found too t h a t , 29 w h i l e m i d d l e c l a s s a d u l t s tended t o spend a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t h e i r l e i s u r e time i n " s e l f - i m p r o v e m e n t " ( i n c l u d i n g t a k i n g f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n ) , lower c l a s s a d u l t s tended t o spend t h e i r l e i s u r e i n p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y , such as s p o r t s . H o l l i n g s h e a d n o t e s t h a t i t i s p r i m a r i l y lower c l a s s a d o l e s c e n t s who make up the s c h o o l drop-out p o p u l a t i o n ; 3 5 as among a d u l t s , e d u c a t i o n i s more i m p o r t a n t t o members o f the m i d d l e t h a n the lower c l a s s . O r t conducted a s t u d y of lower and m i d d l e c l a s s ado-. ^6 l e s c e n t b o y s , based on the work o f C e n t e r s and H o l l i n g s h e a d , i n w hich he h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t m i d d l e c l a s s a d o l e s c e n t boys would p r e f e r d e f e r r e d r e w a r d s , w h i l e lower c l a s s a d o l e s c e n t boys would p r e f e r immediate rewards. He had h i s s u b j e c t s r e s p o n d to a q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h i c h p o s i t e d a number of r o l e c o n f l i c t s i t u a t i o n s , t o each o f which t h e r e were two s o l u t i o n s . F o r i n s t a n c e , one i t e m concerned the s i t u a t i o n i n which one's p a r e n t s e x p e c t e d a boy t o r e t u r n home at a g i v e n h o u r , w h i l e one's f r i e n d s e x p e c t e d him t o s t a y out l a t e r ; the f i r s t s o l u t i o n was c o n c e p t u a l i z e d as a d e f e r r e d reward and the second as an immediate c h o i c e . O r t p r e d i c t e d and f o u n d t h a t m i d d l e c l a s s s u b j e c t s would more o f t e n choose the d e f e r r e d r e w a r d b e h a v i o u r , and the lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s the immediate r e w a r d b e h a v i o u r , as the b e t t e r , and r e p o r t t h a t t h e y would behave i n these ways i n such a s i t u a t i o n . 30 I n summary, the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are proposed: D e f i n i t i o n 6: d e f e r r e d reward: p r i m a r i l y a b e n e f i t e x p e c t e d t o f o l l o w l o n g - t e r m p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , e.g., s e c u r i t y of t e n u r e , p e n s i o n b e n e f i t s , power. immediate reward: p r i m a r i l y a b e n e f i t which one r e c e i v e s i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r o r w h i l e engaging i n a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y , e.g., income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g hypotheses are advanced: H y p o t h e s i s 5: Upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more w e i g h t t o d e f e r r e d rewards t h a n : d o lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 6: Lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more wei g h t to immediate rewards t h a n do upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . V. METHODOLOGICAL CRITICISMS OP PRESTIGE STUDIES L e t us now t u r n t o a number o f m e t h o d o l o g i c a l c r i t i c i s m s w h i c h have been made of p r e s t i g e s t u d i e s o f the cl o s e d - e n d e d t y p e . Sources o f V a r i a b i l i t y I t has been argued t h a t v a r i a b i l i t y i s a f u n c t i o n o f s u b p o p u l a t i o n p r e f e r e n c e s f o r d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards. But : v a r i a b i l i t y has o t h e r s o u r c e s . One o f these i s l a c k o f f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the o c c u p a t i o n s b e i n g judged. Hartmann found t h a t s u b j e c t s t e n d t o g i v e "average" r a t i n g s t o such o c c u p a t i o n s . ^ He asked a group of s t u d e n t s and two randomly 31 s e l e c t e d groups o f a d u l t s f rom two s m a l l towns t o r a n k o r d e r 25 m e d i c a l o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s l i s t i n c l u d e d many m e d i c a l s p e c i a l i t i e s , r e l a t i v e l y u n f a m i l i a r t o the layman, such as " o s t e o p a t h " and " a l i e n i s t " . I n a l l t h r e e groups, e i t h e r " d o c t o r " or "surgeon" was r a n k e d h i g h e s t , and "nurse's a i d " l o w e s t . B u t the s p e c i a l i s t m e d i c a l p r o f e s s i o n r a t i n g s were s u b j e c t t o h i g h v a r i a b i l i t y , b o t h w i t h i n and between groups. " A l i e n i s t " was by a l l t h r e e groups r a n k e d lower t h a n " p s y c h i a t r i s t " , presumably because the l a t t e r term i s more f a m i l i a r t h a n the f o r m e r . From the N.O.R.C. s t u d y comes a O Q s i m i l a r f i n d i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o " n u c l e u r p h y s i c i s t " . O n l y jfo o f the s u b j e c t s were a b l e t o d e s c r i b e a c c u r a t e l y - t h e work o f the n u c l e u r p h y s i c i s t , and another iQ/o c o u l d g i v e p a r t i a l l y c o r r e c t d e s c r i p t i o n s . Y e t 49$ of the s u b j e c t s r a n k e d i t , and i t r a n k e d below " s c i e n t i s t " , " c h e m i s t " , and "government s c i e n t i s t " . I n the 1963 r e p l i c a t i o n o f the N.O.R.C. study,39 however, o n l y 10$ of the s u b j e c t s gave "don't know" r e s p o n s e s , and the p r e s t i g e s t a t u s of " n u c l e u r p h y s i c i s t " was much h i g h e r - - i n f a c t , i t was the o n l y o c c u -p a t i o n markedly changed i n s t a t u s s i n c e the 1947 s t u d y . T h i s " u n f a m i l i a r i t y " e f f e c t would be d i f f i c u l t t o d i s t i n g u i s h f r om o t h e r causes o f v a r i a b i l i t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e the r a t i n g s o f " n u c l e u r p h y s i c i s t " i m p l y t h a t some s u b j e c t s r a t e o c c u p a t i o n s t h e y know l i t t l e or n o t h i n g about. Two p r e c a u t i o n s w i l l be t a k e n i n t h i s s t u d y . F i r s t , o c cu-32 p a t i o n s f a m i l i a r t o c h i l d r e n w i l l he chosen, and the s u b j e c t s w i l l be encouraged t o g i v e "don't know" r e s p o n s e s . S e c o n d l y , p e r c e p t i o n s o f rewards of each o c c u p a t i o n w i l l be t e s t e d ; one would e x p e c t t h a t an o c c u p a t i o n g i v e n an " i n a c c u r a t e " r a t i n g on p r e s t i g e would a l s o be g i v e n " i n a c c u r a t e " r a t i n g s on r e w a r d s . Another source of v a r i a b i l i t y i s the b i a s o f s u b j e c t s toward t h e i r own and r e l a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s b i a s i s 40 commented upon by s e v e r a l r e s e a r c h e r s , b u t o n l y one s t u d y has f o c u s e d d i r e c t l y on t h i s phenomenon. Coutu asked t h r e e groups o f s u b j e c t s - - m e d i c a l , e n g i n e e r i n g , and law s t u d e n t s - - t o r a t e a number of p r o f e s s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g " p h y s i c i a n " , " e n g i n e e r " , " l a w y e r " , and a number o f h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s , such as " d e n t i s t " and " n u r s e " . The a n a l y s i s o f group s c o r e s showed t h a t the m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s r a t e d " p h y s i c i a n " , the e n g i n e e r i n g s t u d e n t s " e n g i n e e r " , and the law s t u d e n t s " l a w y e r " , h i g h e s t . F u r t h e r m o r e , the m e d i c a l s t u d e n t s r a t e d a l l h e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n s h i g h e r t h a n d i d the o t h e r two s t u d e n t groups. One might argue t h a t c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s would be l e s s s u b j e c t t o t h i s b i a s , s i n c e t h e y are f u r t h e r removed f r o m the o c c u p a t i o n a l w o r l d . B u t one s u s p e c t s t h a t the s t a t u s a c c o r d e d cowboys and a v i a t o r s and movie a c t o r s by Lehman and W i t t y ' s younger s u b j e c t s i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f c h i l d h o o d a m b i t i o n s , r e f l e c t i n g the phenomenon t h a t Hartmann 33 o b s e r v e d . A g a i n , a l t h o u g h the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y w i l l be a f f e c t e d by t h i s phenomenon, h a v i n g the s u b j e c t s r a t e each o c c u p a t i o n on rewards s h o u l d s e r v e as a c o n t r o l , s i n c e one would e x p e c t t h a t h i g h l y v a l u e d o c c u p a t i o n s are p e r c e i v e d as o f f e r i n g h i g h r e w a r d s . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s Between P r e s t i g e and  O c c u p a t i o n a l C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s More s e r i o u s f o r the rewards h y p o t h e s i s i s the con-t e n t i o n t h a t the h i g h i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s so o f t e n f o und between r a t i n g s of p e r c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and rewards are e x p e r i m e n t a l a r t i f a c t s . A c c o r d i n g to t h i s v i e w , the s u b j e c t e n t e r s the e x p e r i m e n t a l s i t u a t i o n w i t h some g e n e r a l o p i n i o n o f a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n . When he i s asked t o judge i t on i t s s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s , i t s p r e s t i g e , or whatever, h i s response i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l o p i n i o n , and he g i v e s s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e s t o any c r i t e r i a on w h i c h he i s asked t o r a t e t h a t o c c u p a t i o n . As p a r t o f a s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o i n v e s t i -gate the o p e r a t i o n o f t h i s s o - c a l l e d " h a l o e f f e c t " , A s c h , h o B l o c h , and Hertzman had u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s r a t e t e n p r o f e s s i o n s on f i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s — i n t e l l i g e n c e , s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s , c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , s t a b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r , and i d e a l i s m - - a n d on g e n e r a l esteem. S i n c e the h i g h e r and more a l i k e group and i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s ^ a r e , the s t r o n g e r the " h a l o e f f e c t " , and s i n c e t h e y found group 3 4 c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m .67 t o . 9 7 , and i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g i n g f r o m .36 t o . 60, t h e y c o n c l u d e d t h a t o c c u p a t i o n a l r a t i n g s were s u b j e c t to a moderate " h a l o e f f e c t " ; o p i n i o n s about o c c u p a t i o n s are m o d e r a t e l y s t r o n g l y f e l t . I f a judgment i s made on what the s u b j e c t t h i n k s i s o b j e c t i v e knowledge, o p i n i o n s s h o u l d n o t , a c c o r d i n g t o the r e s e a r c h e r s , be a f f e c t e d by i n f l u e n c e attempts i f the " h a l o 4 4 e f f e c t " were low o r moderate. S i n c e " h a l o e f f e c t s " are moderate f o r o c c u p a t i o n s , and g i v e n t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s do n o t t h i n k t h e y have a c c u r a t e knowledge of the rewards of occu-p a t i o n s , one would e x p e c t t h a t p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s c o u l d be m o d i f i e d by what A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman c a l l " a u t h o r i t a t i v e " i n f o r m a t i o n . I n the second p a r t o f the e x p e r i m e n t , s u b j e c t s were 45 shown bogus I.Q. s c o r e s , ^ s u p p o s e d l y r e p r e s e n t i n g the average I.Q. s c o r e s o f the incumbents of each of the p r o f e s s i o n s t h e y were to j u d g e , and s u p p o s e d l y the r e s u l t s o f p s y c h o l o g i s t s ' i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . I n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e s t i g e and the o t h e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r a t i n g s — s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s , c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , s t a b i l i t y o f c h a r a c t e r , and i d e a l i s m - - w e r e c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y lower or h i g h e r t h a n i n the f i r s t e x p e r i m e n t , i n accordance w i t h t h e o r e t i c a l h y p o t h e s e s . A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman c o n c l u d e t h a t . . . u n d e r l y i n g the s e v e r a l judgments and p a r t i a l l y d e t e r m i n i n g them i s the s u b j e c t ' s g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e to the p r o f e s s i o n , and . . . the s e p a r a t e judgments must be r e g a r d e d as p e r s p e c t i v e views of t h i s g e n e r a l 3 5 a t t i t u d e . The s u b j e c t i n the absence o f o b j e c t i v e c r i t e r i a , and i n the f a c e o f r e a c h i n g some c o n c l u s i o n , p roceeds t o arrange a s c a l e o f p r e f e r e n c e i n terms o f some g e n e r a l l y f a v o r a b l e or u n f a v o r a b l e impression.4° 47 Osgood and Stagner ' came t o the same c o n c l u s i o n . When the y had s u b j e c t s e v a l u a t e o c c u p a t i o n s , t h e y found t h a t p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s were h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d even w i t h such v a r i a b l e s as "hopefulness"- and " s o c i a b i l i t y " w hich do not seem, i n t u i t i v e l y , t o be r e l e v a n t t o p r e s t i g e . A l l t e n measures ( e x c e p t "hours of work") were c o r r e l a t e d a t .79 o r b e t t e r w i t h p r e s t i g e . Another r e s e a r c h e r who has r e j e c t e d the rewards 48 o r i e n t a t i o n i s K r i e s b e r g . He was s t u d y i n g the p r e s t i g e o f d e n t i s t r y v i s - a - v i s o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s , and i n v e s t i g a t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p r e s t i g e a c c o r d e d d e n t i s t s and such f a c t o r s as the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which s u b j e c t s v i s i t e d t h e i r d e n t i s t , t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the q u a l i t y of the work done, and so on. T h i s l a t t e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n y i e l d e d o n l y low i n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s . K r i e s b e r g f o u n d , however, a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n between the p r e s t i g e of d e n t i s t s and t h i n k i n g o f d e n t i s t r y as a p r o f e s s i o n . He came t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t I t has been assumed t h a t s u b j e c t s have a c l e a r n o t i o n o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f an o c c u p a t i o n , and an a r t i c u l a t e d s e t of b e l i e f s about an o c c u p a t i o n , b u t i t may be t h a t a s u b j e c t r a t e s an o c c u p a t i o n h i g h l y because he knows t h a t o t h e r s do, or t h a t he knows a g i v e n c a t e g o r y of o c c u p a t i o n s i s r e l a t e d h i g h l y and t h a t a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n b e l o n g s i n t h a t c a t e g o r y . . . . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a person's e v a l u a t i o n o f the s o c i a l importance o f an o c c u p a t i o n and o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or rewards may be m o d i f i e d so t h a t i t i s made c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y as he l e a r n s i t . 4 9 36 The c o n c l u s i o n s o f these r e s e a r c h e r s i m p l y t h a t , w h i l e r a t i n g s o f p e r c e p t i o n s of some o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards may he u s e f u l as i n d i c a t o r s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e , as an e x p l a -n a t i o n o f the e x i s t e n c e o f a s t a b l e o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y the rewards h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t adequate. The C r u c i a l H y p o t h e s i s : E v i d e n c e of L e a r n i n g Rewards None o f these r e s e a r c h e r s has o f f e r e d an a l t e r n a t i v e h y p o t h e s i s , however. B u t t h e y have u n d e r l i n e d the inadequacy o f the e v i d e n c e f o r the rewards h y p o t h e s i s . W h i l e t h e r e has been some i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the l e a r n i n g o f the h i e r a r c h y i t s e l f , n o t a b l y by W e i n s t e i n and by Lehman and W i t t y , t h e r e i s o n l y one s t u d y t o u c h i n g on the l e a r n i n g o f p e r c e p t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l r e w a r d s , t h a t o f Ramsey and Smith. As has a l r e a d y been mentioned, t h e i r s t u d y p r o v i d e s some e v i d e n c e t h a t p e r c e p t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards are b e i n g l e a r n e d t o o , s i n c e the i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between the s e and p r e s t i g e are„lower t h a n those among a d u l t s . Support f o r t h i s i s c r u c i a l f o r the rewards h y p o t h e s i s ; thus the c r u c i a l h y p o t h e s i s o f t h i s s t u d y i s H y p o t h e s i s 2 - - w i t h i n c r e a s i n g age the p e r c e p t i o n s o f rewards a p p r e c i a t e d by a d u l t s w i l l be i n c r e a s i n g l y a c c u r a t e p r e d i c t o r s o f p r e s t i g e . 37 CHAPTER I I FOOTNOTES X H a t t , 1949-50, p. 553. ^ G a r b i n and B a t e s , 1966, p. 301. 3 G a r b i n and B a t e s , 1966; G a r b i n and B a t e s , 1 9 6 l ; Brown, 1955; S t e v e n s , 1940; Anderson, 1934; R o s s i and I n k e l e s , 1957; R e i s s , e t a l . , 1 9 6 l ; Osgood and S t a g n e r , 1 9 4 l . ^"Lacking, l i k e o t h e r proponents o f the rewards h y p o t h e s i s , a r a t i o n a l e f o r w e i g h i n g rewards. ^ G a r b i n and B a t e s , 1966, p. 302. ^ K r i e s b e r g , 1962. K r i e s b e r g suggests t h a t r a t i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards are de t e r m i n e d by p e r c e p t i o n s o f occu-p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . 7For comparisons of the re s p o n s e s o f younger and o l d e r a d u l t s , see Counts, 1925; C o n g a l t o n , 1935; R o s s i and I n k e l e s , 1957; H a l l and J o n e s , 1950; R e i s s , e t a l . , 1961. For comparisons o f the re s p o n s e s o f a d u l t s and a d o l e s c e n t s , see Counts, 1925; T a f t , 1953; T i r y a k i a n , 1957-58; R e i s s , e t a l . , I 9 6 I ; W i l l i a m s o n , 1962. F o r a stu d y where some d i f f e r e n c e was f o u n d , see Ramsey and S m i t h , 1959-60, d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . 8 w e i n s t e i n , 1958. 9Lehman and W i t t y , 1931-32. l°Ramsey and S m i t h , 1959-60. H T h i s i s a r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n . I t i s c o n s i d e r a b l y lower t h a n the product-moment c o r r e l a t i o n o f .96 found between re s p o n s e s o f 14-20 year o l d and 40 and over year o l d s u b j e c t s i n the N.O.R.C. s t u d y . Such a d i f f e r e n c e may be r e l a t e d t o the occupations--Ramsey and Smith s t u d i e d o n l y 20 o c c u p a t i o n s , the N.O.R.C. 88. 1 2 T h e r e are no N.O.R.C. type s t u d i e s o f c h i l d r e n . ! 3 T a f t , 1953. 0 38 i ^ W e i n s t e i n , 195 8. ^ I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t , 1958, p. 340. l 6 I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t , 1958, p. 337. - ^ i n h e l d e r and P i a g e t , 1958, p. 1. l^The f i r s t t h r e e age gr o u p i n g s f a l l w i t h i n I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t ' s stage I I ( c o n c r e t e l e v e l ) , substage I I I - A ( b e g i n n i n g o f p r o p o s i t i o n a l l e v e l ) and substage I I I - B ( l a t e r p r o p o s i t i o n a l l e v e l ) . The l a s t group f a l l s w i t h i n substage I I I - B as w e l l , b u t s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h i s group s h o u l d have more h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d l o g i c a l a b i l i t i e s t h a n the 15-16 year o l d s . 1 9 o n s o c i a l c l a s s , see Counts, 1925; T a f t , 1953; T i r y a k i a n , 1957-58; R e i s s , e t a l . , I 9 6 I ; Ramsey and Sm i t h , 1959-60; W i l l i a m s o n , 1962. On e d u c a t i o n of the f a t h e r , see H a l l and J o n e s , 1950; S t e v e n s , 1940. On e d u c a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t , see T i r y a k i a n , 1957-58; R e i s s , e t a l . , 1961. On o c c u p a t i o n o f the f a t h e r , see H a l l and J o n e s , 1950. On o c c u p a t i o n o f the s u b j e c t , see Counts, 1925; S t e v e n s , 1940; C o n g a l t o n , 1953; B.lau, 1957; R e i s s , e t a l . , 1961. 2 0 R e i s s , e t a l . , 1961. 2 1 S t e v e n s , 1940. 2 2 H a l l and J o n e s , 1950. 2 3 H o l l i n g s h e a d , 1949, p. 446. 2 4 w e i n s t e i n , 1958. W e i n s t e i n f o u n d t h a t c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h age. T h i s i s u n e x p e c t e d , s i n c e c l a s s b i a s e s i n the p e r c e p t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e are at b e s t s l i g h t . 2 5 w e i n s t e i n , 1956. ^ c e n t e r s , 1952-53-27Hyman, 1953. ' G u s f i e l d and Sc h w a r t z , 1963. 39 29Most of these r e s u l t s come from open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e s - - i t may be t h a t m i d d l e c l a s s s u b j e c t s do n o t mention m a t e r i a l rewards because t h e y take f o r g r a n t e d t h a t these w i l l be f o r t h c o m i n g . H o l l i n g s h e a d , 1 9 4 9 , i m p l i e s t h a t income i s much on the minds of lower c l a s s p e o p l e because t h e y have so l i t t l e o f i t . 3°Douvan, 1 9 5 6 , T e r r e l l , e_t a l . , 1 9 5 9 ; Z i g l e r and de L a b r y , 1 9 6 2 . 3 1 s e e Rosenham and Greenwald, 1 9 6 5 . 3 2 D a v i s , 1 9 4 4 , pp. 2 0 4 - 0 5 . 3 3 A b e r l e and N a e g e l e , 1 9 5 5 -3 4 p 0rm, 1 9 4 6 . 35 Ho l l i n g s h e a d m a i n t a i n s t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f economic n e c e s s i t y and the c l a s h of v a l u e systems w i t h i n the s c h o o l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the l a r g e number of lower and w o r k i n g c l a s s d r o p - o u t s . 3 6 0 r t , 1 9 5 2 . 3fH.artmann, 1 9 3 6 . 3 8 N . O . R . C , 1 9 5 3 . 3 9 H o d g e , e t a l . , 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 . ^"°See D a v i e s 1 r e v i e w , 1 9 5 2 , and R e i s s , e_t a l . , 1 9 6 1 . B l a u , 1 9 5 7 * c o n s i d e r s t h i s p r o blem a t some l e n g t h u s i n g N.O.R.C. d a t a . ^ I C o u t u , 1 9 3 5 - 3 6 . ^ A s c h , e t a l . , 1 9 3 8 . ^ 3 m t h i s s t u d y , the terms "group" or "group s c o r e " c o r r e l a t i o n s and s t a t i s t i c are used t o r e f e r t o s t a t i s t i c a l measures i n w h i c h s c o r e s o f s u b j e c t s are combined, such as i n Spearman's r . The terms " i n d i v i d u a l " or " i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e " c o r r e l a t i o n s and s t a t i s t i c are used t o r e f e r t o s t a t i s t i c a l measures i n w h i c h the s c o r e o f each i n d i v i d u a l i s c o n s i d e r e d a t r i a l , as i n s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s or Pearson's r . 4o 44originally, A s c h e t a l . thought t h a t the lower the "h a l o e f f e c t " , the more m o d i f i a b l e would be the o p i n i o n , b u t th e y found d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o d i f i a b i l i t y i n two exp e r i m e n t s where o p i n i o n s were s u b j e c t t o low "ha l o e f f e c t s " . O p i n i o n s about photographs o f p e o p l e , judged on t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e and h o n e s t y , were markedly m o d i f i e d by bogus i n f o r m a t i o n . O p i n i o n s about p o l i t i c a l s l o g a n s f r o m U.S. h i s t o r y judged on "com-p e l l i n g n e s s t o a c t i o n " , " s o c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e " , " p e r s o n a l i m p o r t a n c e " , "I.Q,. of the a u t h o r " , and " p e r s o n a l a p p r o v a l " were n o t . 45 These were based on I.Q. judgments made by the f i r s t s e t of s u b j e c t s . I n the ex p e r i m e n t s i n t h i s s e r i e s , s u b j e c t s were•shown I.Q. r a t i n g s w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d e i t h e r 1.00, .12 or -.50 w i t h the judgments made by the f i r s t s e t of s u b j e c t s . I t was e x p e c t e d t h a t those bogus s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d a t 1.00 would r a i s e i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between p r e s t i g e and c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s , those a t .12 would lower them, and those a t -.50 would lower them t o an even g r e a t e r e x t e n t . 46Asch, e t a l . , 1938, p. 225. 47osgood and S t a g n e r , 194l. 4 8 K r i e s b e r g , 1962. 4 9 K r i e s b e r g , 1962, p. 240. CHAPTER I I I METHOD I . DESIGN T h i s s t u d y i s m o d e l l e d on t h a t of the N.O.R.C. The re s p o n s e s o f the c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s o f t h i s s t u d y can th e n be compared t o the re s p o n s e s of N.O.R.C. a d u l t s i n o r d e r t o t e s t the f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , which concerns the i n c r e a s i n g s i m i l a r i t y o f c h i l d r e n ' s and a d u l t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of p r e s t i g e as c h i l d r e n mature. A d u l t s c o u l d have been t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y as w e l l , t o be s u r e , b u t p a s t r e s e a r c h shows t h a t the h i e r a r c h y i s stable,- 1- and t h a t Canadian and American a d u l t s 2 p e r c e i v e the h i e r a r c h y i n much the same way. S i n c e the N.O.R.C. s t u d y had such a l a r g e sample, i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t d a t a c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h i s s t u d y f r o m a much more l i m i t e d sample would have been more r e l i a b l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the N.O.R.C. s t u d y sampled the l a r g e s t number o f o c c u p a t i o n s o f any s t u d y e x c e p t t h a t o f Smith.3 Among thes e o c c u p a t i o n s t h e r e ought t o be a s u f f i c i e n t number f a m i l i a r t o c h i l d r e n t o do the p r e s e n t s t u d y . The N.O.R.C. pr o c e d u r e was m o d i f i e d somewhat. S i n c e a f a i r l y l a r g e sample was t o be t e s t e d , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f r o m a number o f s u b j e c t s a t a t i m e . Each s u b j e c t r e c o r d e d h i s r e s p o n s e s on a q u e s t i o n n a i r e , b u t i n s t r u c t i o n s were g i v e n 42 o r a l l y . T h i s worked w e l l , e x c e p t w i t h the youngest group, the 9-10 year o l d s . Problems i n t h i s r e g a r d are d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r . I t was d e c i d e d t o use o n l y boys i n the sample. Lehman and W i t t y ' s l i s t o f o c c u p a t i o n s chosen by boys and g i r l s shows sex d i f f e r e n c e s . Moreover, more r e s e a r c h i n t o reward p r e f e r e n c e s has been done w i t h males t h a n w i t h f e m a l e s , and the N.O.R.C. st u d y f o c u s e d almost e n t i r e l y on male o c c u p a t i o n s . I n summary, the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are advanced: D e f i n i t i o n J: a d u l t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e : r a n k i n g s o f the o c c u p a t i o n s t o be s t u d i e d a s s i g n e d by male a d u l t s i n the N.O.R.C. s t u d y . D e f i n i t i o n 8: c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e " : r a n k i n g s o f the occu-p a t i o n s t o be s t u d i e d a s s i g n e d by s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y . D e f i n i t i o n 9: s u b j e c t s : boys o f 9-10, 12-13, 15-l6, and 17-l8. I I . ' CHOICE OF OCCUPATIONS AND REWARDS FOR STUDY The f i n a l c h o i c e of o c c u p a t i o n s and rewards was made l a r g e l y a c c o r d i n g t o the r e s p o n s e s o f e i g h t " j u d g e s " . These were a d u l t s w i t h a t l e a s t t e n y e a r s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , f o u r o f whom were "upper c l a s s " and f o u r "lower c l a s s " by the d e f i n i t i o n used i n t h i s s t u d y . Each judge was asked t o r a t e each o c c u p a t i o n on each reward and on p r e s t i g e as, " e x c e l l e n t " , "good", "average", "somewhat below average", and "poor", or " I don't know where t o put t h a t one". The o c c u p a t i o n s used at t h i s p o i n t were f r o m the m i d d l e o f the N.O.R.C. h i e r a r c h y , 43 r a n g i n g f rom " a r t i s t who p a i n t s g a l l e r y p i c t u r e s " to "mailman", The rewards used a t t h i s p o i n t were ones w h i c h seemed s u i t a b l e o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f p s y c h i c , m a t e r i a l , d e f e r r e d and immediate r e w a r d s . They were, f o r the most p a r t , c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s w h i c h , i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , had c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h p r e s t i g e . A f t e r t h i s p r o c e d u r e had been c a r r i e d out on two o c c a s i o n s , two weeks a p a r t , the f i n a l c h o i c e s were made. The aim was, f i r s t , t o e l i m i n a t e o c c u p a t i o n s which were n o t w e l l u n d e r s t o o d and rewards w h i c h seemed m e a n i n g l e s s , and t o e l i m i n a t e o c c u p a t i o n s and rewards which were i n c o n s i s t e n t l y r a t e d f r o m judge t o judge and f r o m i n t e r v i e w t o i n t e r v i e w . The second aim was t o choose some o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h had been shown by p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h t o be d i f f e r e n t l y r a t e d by c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s and by a d u l t s . ^ 6 The f o l l o w i n g o c c u p a t i o n s were chosen: D e f i n i t i o n 10: o c c u p a t i o n s : A r t i s t who p a i n t s g a l l e r y p i c t u r e s C a r p e n t e r S m a l l s t o r e manager i n a c i t y R a i l r o a d c o n d u c t o r S o c i a l worker f o r a c i t y E l e c t r i c i a n R e p o r t e r f o r a d a i l y newspaper Mailman M u s i c i a n i n a symphony o r c h e s t r a Author of n o v e l s Newspaper c o l u m n i s t P o l i c e m a n These c h o i c e s , j u d g i n g f r o m the "don't know" r e s p o n s e s g i v e n by s u b j e c t s , seem t o have been g e n e r a l l y f a m i l i a r , a l t h o u g h " s o c i a l w orker" and "author o f n o v e l s " were somewhat 44 d i f f i c u l t f o r the youngest group. The number and per c e n t a g e of 'tLon't know" r e s p o n s e s by age group and o c c u p a t i o n are g i v e n i n T a b l e I I I . TABLE I I I ' BY AGE GROUP AND OCCUPATION, "DON'T KNOW" RESPONSES TO REQUEST FOR JUDGMENTS ON PRESTIGE. GIVEN ARE THE NUMBER AND PERCENTAGE OF POSSIBLE RESPONSES WHICH WERE "DON'T KNOW" RESPONSES Age Group 9-10 12-13 15-16 17-18.' A l l N 50 50 51 50 201 ' A r t i s t 2 0 1 2 5 Author o f n o v e l s 9 3 0 1 13 M u s i c i a n 0 1 0 0 1 C o l u m n i s t 6 1 0 0 7 R e p o r t e r 1 1 0 0 2 E l e c t r i c i a n 3 0 0 0 3 S o c i a l worker 10 6 0 0 16 S m a l l s t o r e manager 2 0 0 1 3 Conductor 1 0 0 0 . 1 P o l i c e m a n 0 2 0 1 3 C a r p e n t e r 1 0 0 0 1 Mailman 1 0 0 0 1 TOTAL "don't know" r e s p o n s e s 36 14 1 5 56 PERCENTAGE "don't know" re s p o n s e s 6f0 2-% 2% The f o l l o w i n g rewards were chosen; each i s f o l l o w e d by i t s o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n , the d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n t o the s u b j e c t 45 D e f i n i t i o n 11; o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards g power: i n f l u e n c e over the a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s of o t h e r s , e i t h e r employees o r members o f the g e n e r a l p u b l i c . s e c u r i t y : s e c u r i t y of b o t h job and income--one i s u n l i k e l y t o be f i r e d o r be out o f work, and w i l l be e l i g i b l e f o r some f o r m of p e n s i o n when one r e t i r e s . e d u c a t i o n : the amount.of f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n - - h i g h s c h o o l o r u n i v e r s i t y - - w h i c h a p e r s o n engaged i n a g i v e n occu-p a t i o n would have, on the average. w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s : o n - t h e - j o b c o n d i t i o n s such as the number of hours one works, whether one has r e g u l a r h o u r s , whether one works a t n i g h t or i n the day t i m e , and how s a f e and c l e a n one's s u r r o u n d i n g s a r e . income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g : the e x t e n t t o which a p e r s o n j u s t e n t e r i n g an o c c u p a t i o n i s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g w h i l e he i s l e a r n i n g the o c c u p a t i o n , i g n o r i n g the l e n g t h of the t r a i n i n g p e r i o d . average income: the amount of money a p e r s o n engaged i n a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n would be l i k e l y t o make, on the ave r a g e , d u r i n g a l l the y e a r s he works. I I I - . OPERATIONAL AND THEORETICAL HYPOTHESES F o l l o w i n g are the o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s ; f o r con-v e n i e n c e , the t h e o r e t i c a l hypotheses are r e p e a t e d . H y p o t h e s i s 1: t h e o r e t i c a l The o l d e r the c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , the gr e a t e r -the resemblance between t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s and a d u l t s ' p e r c e p t i o n of the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . ope r a t i o n a l The h i g h e r the age group o f the s u b j e c t s , the h i g h e r the r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n between r a n k i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n s on p r e s t i g e made by s u b j e c t s and by N.O.R.C. a d u l t males. H y p o t h e s i s 2: t h e o r e t i c a l The o l d e r the c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , the more i m p o r t a n t the p e r c e p t i o n of rewards a p p r e c i a t e d by a d u l t s w i l l he i n e x p l a i n i n g the p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . o p e r a t i o n a l The h i g h e r the age group o f s u b j e c t s , the g r e a t e r the amount o f v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by a g i v e n number of r e w a r d s . From the n e x t f o u r t h e o r e t i c a l hypotheses are g e n e r a t e d s i x o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . A paradigm, summarizing p r e d i c t i o n s and showing the r e l a t i o n s h i p among the h y p o t h e s e s , i s g i v e n i n F i g u r e 1. The f o r m a l statement o f the t h e o r e t i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l hypotheses f o l l o w s i t . DEFERRED U > L T h e o r e t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 5 IMMEDIATE L > U T h e o r e t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 6 PSYCHIC U > L T h e o r e t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 3 POWER U > L O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (a) GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS U = L O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (d) MATERIAL U = L T h e o r e t i c a l H y p o t h e s i s 4 SECURITY U > L O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (b) INCOME DURING TRAINING L > U O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (e) AVERAGE INCOME U = L O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s ( f ) EDUCATION U > L O p e r a t i o n a l H y p o t h e s i s (c) FIGURE 1. Key: Paradigm o f rewards r e l a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s , and showing d i f f e r e n c e s p r e d i c t e d between s o c i a l c l a s s groups. U upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s L lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s more than the s ame as 47 H y p o t h e s i s 3: t h e o r e t i c a l ( p s y c h i c rewards) Upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more w e i g h t t o p s y c h i c rewards t h a n do lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f occu-p a t i o n s . ; H y p o t h e s i s 4: t h e o r e t i c a l ( m a t e r i a l rewards) Lower and upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e the same w e i g h t to m a t e r i a l rewards when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e of o c c u p a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 5: t h e o r e t i c a l ( d e f e r r e d rewards) Upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more w e i g h t t o d e f e r r e d rewards t h a n do lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s 6 : t h e o r e t i c a l (immediate rewards) Lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more we i g h t t o immediate rewards t h a n do upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . H y p o t h e s i s ( a ) : o p e r a t i o n a l ( d e f e r r e d - p s y c h i c rewards) I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h power i s g r e a t e r f o r upper c l a s s t h a n f o r lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . H y p o t h e s i s ( b ) : o p e r a t i o n a l ( d e f e r r e d - m a t e r i a l rewards) I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s e c u r i t y i s g r e a t e r f o r upper c l a s s t h a n f o r lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . H y p o t h e s i s ( c ) : o p e r a t i o n a l ( d e f e r r e d rewards) I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n i s g r e a t e r f o r upper c l a s s t h a n f o r lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . H y p o t h e s i s ( d ) : o p e r a t i o n a l ( i m m e d i a t e - p s y c h i c rewards) I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good w o r k i n g con-d i t i o n s i s s i m i l a r f o r upper c l a s s and lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . "48 H y p o t h e s i s ( e ) : o p e r a t i o n a l ( i m m e d i a t e - m a t e r i a l rewards) I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the "beta w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g i s g r e a t e r f o r lower c l a s s t h a n f o r upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s . H y p o t h e s i s ( f ) : o p e r a t i o n a l ( m a t e r i a l rewards) I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h average income, i s s i m i l a r f o r lower c l a s s and upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s . I V . QUESTIONNAIRE ADMINISTRATION Ex c e p t t h a t i n the p r e - t e s t s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l l y , and i n the experiment s u b j e c t s were t e s t e d i n grou p s , the p r e t e s t and the exp e r i m e n t were conducted i n the same way. B r i e f l y , the proce d u r e was t h i s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were handed o u t , a b r i e f e x p l a n a t i o n o f the s t u d y r e a d , and the s u b j e c t s asked to w r i t e on the f i r s t page o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t h e i r grade i n s c h o o l , t h e i r b i r t h d a t e (or age, f o r those who d i d not know t h i s ) , and t h e i r f a t h e r s ' occu-p a t i o n (or t h e i r mothers' o r g u a r d i a n s ' , i f th e y were n o t l i v i n g w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s ) . They were asked t o l o o k a t the f i r s t sample q u e s t i o n . (a) AIRPLANE PILOT E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one The e x p e r i m e n t e r r e a d t h i s a l o u d , and asked s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s t o say how th e y would r a t e t h i s o c c u p a t i o n . S u b j e c t s were 4 9 t h e n i n s t r u c t e d t o u n d e r l i n e the answer wh i c h t h e y thought b e s t . The same p r o c e d u r e was used w i t h the other.two examples, s p e c i a l emphasis b e i n g p l a c e d on the " I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one" c a t e g o r y o f "economist", the t h i r d example. The e x p e r i m e n t e r asked f o r q u e s t i o n s , answered them, and t h e n asked s u b j e c t s t o t u r n over the page and re s p o n d t o the six. o c c u p a t i o n s t h e r e ( c a r p e n t e r , newspaper c o l u m n i s t , r a i l r o a d c o n d u c t o r , a r t i s t who p a i n t s g a l l e r y p i c t u r e s , s o c i a l worker f o r a c i t y , and author o f n o v e l s ) i n the same way and, when f i n i s h e d , t o t u r n t o the t h i r d page and do the same f o r the s i x o c c u p a t i o n s t h e r e ( e l e c t r i c i a n , r e p o r t e r f o r a d a l l y newspaper, mailman, m u s i c i a n i n a symphony o r c h e s t r a , s m a l l s t o r e manager i n a c i t y , and p o l i c e m a n ) . When a l l s u b j e c t s i n d i c a t e d t h e y were f i n i s h e d , the e x p e r i m e n t e r asked them t o t u r n t o the f o u r t h page, and t o l o o k a t the q u e s t i o n a t the-top o f the page. 13. POWER . H MH AV ML L Ca r p e n t e r Newspaper C o l u m n i s t R a i l r o a d Conductor A r t i s t who p a i n t s G a l l e r y P i c t u r e s S o c i a l Worker f o r a C i t y . . . Aut h o r o f N o v e l s E l e c t r i c i a n . . . . . . . . . R e p o r t e r f o r a D a i l y Newspaper Mailman M u s i c i a n i n a Symphony O r c h e s t r a S m a l l S t o r e Manager i n a C i t y P o l i c e m a n 5 0 The d e f i n i t i o n was r e a d t o them, and the method of a n s w e r i n g ( t h a t i s , H means h i g h , MH m o d e r a t e l y h i g h , AV average , ML m o d e r a t e l y low, and L low) and mark i n g c h o i c e s i n the spaces p r o v i d e d was demonstrated, w i t h o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s as examples. When q u e s t i o n s had been answered, the s u b j e c t s were t o l d t o complete the i t e m . T h i s p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d f o r each o f the r e m a i n i n g i t e m s . The e x p e r i m e n t e r t h e n thanked the s u b j e c t s and c o l l e c t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n s t r u c t i o n s i n t h e i r f i n a l f o r m are g i v e n i n Appendix I . The q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n s t r u c t i o n s u sed i n the p r e t e s t were s i m i l a r ; a f t e r the p r e t e s t , the s p a t i a l arrangement was m o d i f i e d , the v o c a b u l a r y i n the i n s t r u c t i o n s s i m p l i f i e d , and f u r t h e r examples added t o b o t h i n s t r u c t i o n s and q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f i r s t p a r t o f the p r e t e s t was i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o s i x c h i l d r e n , t h r e e n i n e year o l d s , two t e n year o l d s , and one e l e v e n year o l d . I t was f e l t t h a t i f c h i l d r e n o f t h i s age c o u l d r e s p o n d a d e q u a t e l y , the o l d e r ones c o u l d t o o . A f t e r t h i s , the above m o d i f i c a t i o n s were made. The second p a r t o f the p r e t e s t was u n p r e m e d i t a t e d , and c o n s i s t e d o f the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o a group of 34 n i n e t o t e n year o l d s , the f i r s t s u b j e c t group t o be t e s t e d . As mentioned e a r l i e r , the proce d u r e d i d n o t work w e l l w i t h t h i s group, and t h e s e d a t a had t o be d i s c a r d e d . The c h i l d r e n became v e r y e x c i t e d , so t h a t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t o o k a 51 l o n g time and many items were l e f t i n c o m p l e t e o r responded t o more t h a n once. T h e r e a f t e r , d a t a were c o l l e c t e d f r om t h i s age group i n groups no l a r g e r t h a n e i g h t . D a t a were c o l l e c t e d f r o m o t h e r age groups i n groups o f up t o 36. The sample was u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . I t c o n s i s t e d o f 201 boys f r o m a l o c a l h i g h s c h o o l , i t s f e e d e r s c h o o l s , and a l o c a l community c e n t e r where summer s c h o o l was b e i n g h e l d . The l a t t e r group was used t o make up f o r the l o s t 9-10 year o l d s u b j e c t group. D e c i s i o n s as t o the s o c i a l c l a s s o f the s u b j e c t s were made on the b a s i s o f t h e i r f a t h e r s ' o c c u p a t i o n s , as d e s c r i b e d i n Chapter I I . I n those cases where the c h i l d d i d n o t know t h i s , s c h o o l r e c o r d s s u p p l i e d the i n f o r m a t i o n . Duncan's method o f g r o u p i n g d a t a ^ was u s e d - - t h a t i s , " e x c e l l e n t " and "good" r e s p o n s e s were c o n s i d e r e d as p o s i t i v e r e s p o n s e s , w h i l e "average", "somewhat below average" and "poor" r e s p o n s e s were c o n s i d e r e d as n e g a t i v e r e s p o n s e s . Of t h i s p r o c e d u r e , Duncan says I t has been found r e p e a t e d l y i n s t u d i e s o f p r e s t i g e t h a t r e s p o n d e n t s are l e s s w i l l i n g or are l e s s e x p e r t i n making n e g a t i v e judgments t h a n i n making p o s i t i v e judgments. -1-0 S t a t i s t i c a l t e s t i n g o f the h y p o t h e s e s - - t o be d e s c r i b e d i n more d e t a i l i n the n e x t c h a p t e r — w e r e made u s i n g Spearman's r and s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s . 52 CHAPTER I I I FOOTNOTES iHodge, e t a l . , 1964-65. 2Tuckmah;_,, 1947. He r e p l i c a t e d Counts' s t u d y , and fo u n d a .94 c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h Counts' d a t a . 3smith, 1943. 4rhat i s t o say, as the N.O.R.C. i n t e r v i e w s were done. 5 0 r i g i n a l l y the i n t e n t i o n was t o choose o c c u p a t i o n s and rewards e x c l u s i v e l y by t h i s method. The number of " e x c e l l e n t " and "good" r e s p o n s e s were t o be t a l l i e d , t o f i n d o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h were h i g h i n o n l y one o f the c a t e g o r i e s : d e f e r r e d -p s y c h i c , d e f e r r e d - m a t e r i a l , i m m e d i a t e - p s y c h i c , and immediate m a t e r i a l . The aim was, i n b r i e f , t o f i n d "pure" o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i s method p r o v e d too r e s t r i c t i v e . Most s e r i o u s l y , i t e l i m i n a t e d o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h were p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g , i n c l u d i n g " p o l i c e m a n " and "author of n o v e l s " . A f t e r s e v e r a l m o d i f i c a t i o n s the pr o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d i n the t e x t was adopted. Another d i s a d v a n t a g e o f the o r i g i n a l method was t h a t i t r e q u i r e d the assu m p t i o n t h a t the s u b j e c t s who saw the p r e s t i g e o f an o c c u p a t i o n much l i k e the judges were p e r c e i v i n g the rewards a t t a c h e d t o t h a t o c c u p a t i o n as d i d the j u d g e s . T h i s a ssumption seemed h i g h l y d u b i o u s . An advantage o f u s i n g judges was t h a t i t a l l o w e d the e l i m i n a t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n s , such as " m a c h i n i s t " and "p l a y g r o u n d d i r e c t o r " , w h i c h were o b s c u r e ; and the e l i m i n a t i o n o f r e w a r d s , such as "meeting p e o p l e d e s i r a b l e t o a s s o c i a t e w i t h " , w h i c h seemed m e a n i n g l e s s t o the j u d g e s . 6The o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s " m a i l c a r r i e r " and " w e l f a r e worker" were changed t o "mailman" and " s o c i a l w orker" t o conform t o l o c a l p r a c t i c e . 7In the o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , these were supplemented w i t h examples. See the o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n s , g i v e n i n the Appendix. ^The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of "power" as a d e f e r r e d reward seems t o need some f u r t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n . I t i s assumed t h a t those o c c u p a t i o n s whose incumbents have most power are n o t u s u a l l y open t o i n d i v i d u a l s j u s t b e g i n n i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l c a r e e r s , b u t t h a t power i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l o n g t r a i n i n g o r e x p e r i e n c e o r b o t h . 9see R e i s s , e t a l . , 1961. 1 0 R e i s s , e t a l . , 1961, p. 117. CHAPTER IV RESULTS I . LIMITATIONS TO GENERALIZATION To frame the r e s u l t s (and, i n the n e x t c h a p t e r , the c o n c l u s i o n s ) i n terms of how c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s p e r c e i v e o c c u p a t i o n s , as i s done i n t h i s s t u d y , i s t o go beyond the d a t a ; the s u b j e c t s were a l l males, and the sample u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and s m a l l . As f o r the f i r s t l i m i t a t i o n , had some or a l l g i r l s been t e s t e d , c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s might have been r a n k e d d i f f e r e n t l y , 1 b u t t h i s was c o n t r o l l e d f o r by comparing the d a t a f rom t h i s s t u d y w i t h t h a t f o r a d u l t males. As f o r the u n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e and s m a l l sample, e a r l i e r s t u d i e s have shown t h a t sample b i a s has l i t t l e e f f e c t on the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h i e s found.. B l a u s a y s , commenting on the s i m i l a r way i n w h i c h the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y i s seen by v a r i o u s s u b p o p u l a t i o n s , A m e t h o d o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s g e n e r a l agreement i n o c c u p a t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n i s t h a t even r a t i n g s based on a f a i r l y s m a l l and n o t e n t i r e l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample are l i k e l y t o be r e l i a b l e . 2 C o n c l u s i o n s about o c c u p a t i o n s a r e , s t r i c t l y , a p p l i c a b l e o n l y to " m i d d l e - r a n g e " o c c u p a t i o n s . I I . TESTS OP HYPOTHESES L e a r n i n g o f the O c c u p a t i o n a l H i e r a r c h y The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s p o s i t s t h a t as c h i l d r e n grow o l d e r t h e y l e a r n t o e v a l u a t e o c c u p a t i o n s ' p r e s t i g e as a d u l t s do. 54 T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was t e s t e d , u s i n g Spearman's r , by comparing the d a t a w i t h those f o r male a d u l t s f rom the N.O.R.C. s t u d y . TABLE IV SPEARMAN'S r CORRELATIONS BETWEEN AGE GROUP•. RANKINGS AND N.O.R.C. MALE ADULT RANKINGS OP THE TWELVE OCCUPATIONS STUDIED. HYPOTHESIS 1. Age Group r s (N.O.R.C.) 9-10 ..45 12-13 .  .59 15-16 .61 17-18 •71 The c o r r e l a t i o n s i n c r e a s e m o n o t o n i c a l l y , a r e s u l t t o be e x p e c t e d o n l y one time i n 24 (4. = 24, p = .04) by chance. The f i r s t h y p o t h e s i s , t h a t The o l d e r the c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , the g r e a t e r the resemblance between t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s and a d u l t s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . i s s u p p o r t e d . T h i s r e s u l t agrees w i t h t h a t of Ramsey and S m i t h , whose stud y o f 17-l8 year o l d American a d o l e s c e n t s i s s i m i l a r i n d e s i g n t o t h i s one.^ I n p a r t i c u l a r , the .71 c o r r e l a t i o n between 17-18 year o l d s ' r a n k i n g s and N.O.R.C. a d u l t males' r a n k i n g s i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h e i r f i n d i n g o f a .78 c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e i r s u b j e c t s ' and N.O.R.C. s u b j e c t s ' r a n k i n g s . 55 L e a r n i n g of Rewards I t has been found t h a t young c h i l d r e n do n o t p e r c e i v e the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y as a d u l t s do, b u t t h a t t h i s d i f f e r e n c e d e c r e a s e s as age i n c r e a s e s . The e x p l a n a t i o n p r o posed f o r t h i s f i n d i n g was t h a t as c h i l d r e n mature, t h e y i n c r e a s i n g l y come t o e v a l u a t e o c c u p a t i o n s i n terms o f the rewards p e r c e i v e d as a c c r u i n g t o i n d i v i d u a l s engaged i n those o c c u p a t i o n s . On the a s s u m p t i o n t h a t e v a l u a t i n g o c c u p a t i o n s i n terms o f what a d u l t s c o n s i d e r " r e w a r d i n g " must be l e a r n e d , one would e x p e c t an i n c r e a s i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s t i g e and r e w a r d p e r c e p t i o n s w i t h age. T h i s h y p o t h e s i s does n o t p r e c l u d e the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t c h i l d r e n r a t e an o c c u p a t i o n on rewards w h i c h t h e y , b u t not a d u l t s , v a l u e . F o r i n s t a n c e , c h i l d r e n may t h i n k the l i v e s o f p o l i c e m e n and s o l d i e r s and f i r e m e n " e x c i t i n g " , and be r e l a t i v e l y i n d i f f e r e n t t o , say, income. The p r e d i c t i o n , more f u l l y s t a t e d , i s t h a t as c h i l d r e n mature t h e y i n c r e a s i n g l y a c c o r d p r e s t i g e t o occu-p a t i o n s on the b a s i s o f the same rewards as a d u l t s do. S t e p - r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s was used t o t e s t t h i s hypothe-s i s , and the amount o f v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by the number of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was c o n t r o l l e d . S i n c e most o f these were h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e by a d u l t s i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , an i n c r e a s e i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by a g i v e n number o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i t h age would be i n t e r p r e t e d as e v i d e n c e of i n c r e a s i n g " a c c u r a c y " o f p e r -c e p t i o n o f o c c u p a t i o n a l r e w a r d s . 56 The i n t e n t i o n was to use a l l s i x . independent v a r i a b l e s i n t h i s t e s t , b u t i n g e n e r a l the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between p r e s t i g e and the o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s was such t h a t i n most cases a l l s i x v a r i a b l e s were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e . T h e r e f o r e , o n l y the v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s p r e s e n t e d , s i n c e f o r the 12-13 year o l d group o n l y t h r e e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to p r e s t i g e . TABLE V BY AGE GROUP, VARIANCE EXPLAINED BY THREE OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS. HYPOTHESIS 2. Age Group R 9-10 .25 12-13 .20 15-16 .26 17-18 .29 The amount of v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d does not i n c r e a s e m o n o t o n i c a l l y w i t h age. I ndeed, the d i f f e r e n c e between age groups i s b o t h s l i g h t and i n c o n s i s t e n t i n d i r e c t i o n . The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t The o l d e r the c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , the more i m p o r t a n t the p e r c e p t i o n o f rewards a p p r e c i a t e d by a d u l t s w i l l be i n e x p l a i n i n g the p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . i s n o t s u p p o r t e d . I t was argued at the c o n c l u s i o n o f Chapter I I t h a t t h i s i s the c r u c i a l h y p o t h e s i s f o r the rewards h y p o t h e s i s . The o n l y o t h e r s t u d y w h i c h b e a r s on t h i s p r o b l e m i s t h a t o f W e i n s t e i n , 4 57 who fo u n d r e s u l t s somewhat more e n c o u r a g i n g t h a n i n t h i s s t u d y . U s i n g a p a i r e d - a n s w e r t e c h n i q u e , he found t h a t o f s i x o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (fame, a u t h o r i t y , income, e d u c a t i o n , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s , and s c a r c i t y o f p e r s o n n e l ) two were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o i n c r e a s e i n age among 9 - l 4 year o l d s - - " f a m e " d e c l i n e d i n i m p o r t a n c e , and " a u t h o r i t y " i n c r e a s e d . H y p o t h e s i s 2 may have f a i l e d b e cause, as i n W e i n s t e i n ' s s t u d y , some rewards are d e c r e a s i n g i n importance w h i l e o t h e r s are i n c r e a s i n g . To see i f changes such as these are r e f l e c t e d i n the d a t a of the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s t i g e and each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c was examined; the r e s u l t s are g i v e n i n Ta b l e V I . TABLE V I BY AGE GROUP, STEP-REGRESSION CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PERCEIVED OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRESTIGE Age Group 9-10 12-13 15-16 17-18 POWER .35 .34 .34 • 39 SECURITY .28 .17 .31 .18 EDUCATION • 31 .29 .37 • 39 GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS .18 .19 • 35 .33 INCOME DURING TRAINING .07 .11 .20 .02 AVERAGE INCOME .37 • .34 . .38 .'. .40 The changes are n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n d i r e c t i o n , and are a t b e s t s l i g h t . A g a i n i t must be c o n c l u d e d t h a t no s u p p o r t has been f o u n d f o r H y p o t h e s i s 2. 58 Power, e d u c a t i o n and average income are c o r r e l a t e d a t much the same l e v e l a t a l l age l e v e l s ; t h e y are e q u a l l y good (or bad) p r e d i c t o r s o f p r e s t i g e as p e r c e i v e d by i n d i v i d u a l s . A c o m b i n a t i o n o f rewards does not much improve p r e d i c t i o n , as the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e shows; the o r d e r i n which the c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s are r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e and the g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d by the use of each a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c are g i v e n f o r each age group. v TABLE V I I BY AGE GROUP, THE ORDER OP CHARACTERISTICS IN THE REGRESSION FORMULAE, AND THE GAIN IN VARIANCE EXPLAINED .n: BY USING ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTIC RATINGS TO PREDICT PRESTIGE Age Group 9-10 12-13 15-16 17-18 .02 n. s n. s. n. s. n. s. n. s. n. s. ,02 second .10 • 03 AVERAGE INCOME o r d e r f i r s t f i r s t f i r s t f i r s t g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .14 .12 .15 . l 6 POWER o r d e r second second t h i r d g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .06 .06 .05 EDUCATION o r d e r f o u r t h t h i r d f o u r t h t h i r d g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .02 WORKING CONDITIONS o r d e r f i f t h g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .01 SECURITY o r d e r t h i r d g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .05 INCOME DURING TRAINING • o r d e r n.s. g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d n.s. second f o u r t h .06 .03 f i f t h .01 n.s. n.s. s i x t h n.s. .01 n..s. 59 "Average income" i s , f o r a l l age g roups, the b e s t p r e d i c t o r o f p r e s t i g e , and the p r e d i c t i o n can be improved o n l y s l i g h t l y by the use o f more v a r i a b l e s — a t most, by .15. I t appears t h a t i n d i v i d u a l r a t i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s are u s e f u l n e i t h e r as e x p l a n a t o r y f a c t o r s nor as i n d i c a t o r s o f p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e . The f a i l u r e o f H y p o t h e s i s 2 ought n o t t o be due t o the c h o i c e of o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f o r a l l b u t "income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g " have been used i n p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , and a l l o f these e x c e p t "working c o n d i t i o n s " have been found t o be h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e i n s t u d i e s o f a d u l t s . That the r e s u l t s are q u i t e r e l i a b l e i s a t t e s t e d t o by a comparison between the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o u n d i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h and i n t h i s s t u d y when the same type o f s t a t i s t i c , a group c o r r e l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c , i s u sed. Among p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , the p o p u l a t i o n s t e s t e d w h i c h most resemble the p r e s e n t one are those o f Brown and o f Ramsey and S m i t h , i n which the p o p u l a t i o n s were mixed 6 w i t h r e g a r d t o s o c i a l c l a s s . I n T able V I I I are g i v e n the r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e and o ccu-p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s common to the t h r e e s t u d i e s . I f the d a t a of t h i s s t u d y i s r e l i a b l e , one would e x p e c t c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r the 17-l8 year o l d s to be l i k e t h a t f o r Ramsey and S m i t h ' s , and s i m i l a r (perhaps somewhat lower than) f o r Brown's group. 6o I f H y p o t h e s i s 2 i s v a l i d , one would e x p e c t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s t i g e and a g i v e n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c t o i n c r e a s e as age i n c r e a s e s . TABLE V I I I RANK ORDER CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PERCEIVED PRESTIGE AND PERCEIVED POWER, EDUCATION, GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS AND AVERAGE INCOME, PROM THE PRESENT STUDY BY AGE GROUP, PROM RAMSEY AND SMITH, 1959-60, AND FROM BROWN, 1955 Study T h i s Study Ramsey & Smith Brown Age Group 9-10 12-13 15-16 17-18 17-18 A d u l t POWER .54 .71 .63 .75 - .89 EDUCATION .78 .76 .92 .88 - .87 WORKING CONDITIONS -.08 .84 .67 .73 - • 79 AVERAGE INCOME .73 .83 .75 .42 .88 I t a p pears, t h e n , t h a t the d a t a from t h i s s t u d y are o g e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e , b u t n o t v a l i d . Group s c o r e r a t i n g s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s appear t o be more u s e f u l a l t e r n a t i v e i n d i c a t o r s o f p r e s t i g e t h a n are i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e r a t i n g s , b u t n e i t h e r appear u s e f u l as e x p l a n a t o r y f a c t o r s . S o c i a l C l a s s D i f f e r e n c e s Some r e l a t i o n s h i p , a l b e i t s l i g h t , has been f o u n d between p e r c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r a t i n g s . T h i s may be due, as p r e d i c t e d , t o s o c i a l c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the remainder of the h y p o t h e s e s , w h i c h c o n c e r n t h i s f a c t o r , f o l l o w s . 6 l The g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s l e a r n t o v a l u e d i f f e r e n t rewards d u r i n g the c h i l d h o o d and a d o l e s c e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n p e r i o d , and so a t t r i b u t e h i g h e r p r e s t i g e t o those o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h t h e y p e r c e i v e as o f f e r i n g the incumbent the enjoyment o f these v a l u e d rewards. A l l of the f o l l o w i n g hypotheses were t e s t e d by comparing the b e t a w e i g h t s g e n e r a t e d by s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s ( a l l s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s b e i n g u s e d ) . B e t a w e i g h t s r a t h e r t h a n c o r r e l a t i o n s were used because the hypotheses demand comparison between w e i g h t s g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards by s u b j e c t s o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . When an h y p o t h e s i s p r e d i c t s a d i f f e r e n c e , the h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t e d i f the d i f f e r e n c e s are i n the same d i r e c t i o n f o r a l l subgroups. When no d i f f e r e n c e i s p r e d i c t e d , an h y p o t h e s i s w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d s u p p o r t e d i f the d i f f e r e n c e s are not a l l i n the same d i r e c t i o n , and i f the b e t a w e i g h t s f o r the two c l a s s groups ( t h a t i s , when a l l lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s are compared w i t h a l l upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s ) are the same or 9 n e a r l y so. Each of the o p e r a t i o n a l hypotheses w i l l be c o n s i d e r e d i n t u r n , and t h e n the i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r the t h e o r e t i c a l h y potheses w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The l a t t e r p r e d i c t t h a t p s y c h i c and d e f e r r e d rewards are p e r c e i v e d as g r e a t e r rewards by upper t h a n by lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , immediate 62 rewards as g r e a t e r by lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s , and m a t e r i a l rewards e q u a l l y as g r e a t by lower and upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . O p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s i s (a) p r e d i c t s t h a t the upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s w i l l p e r c e i v e "power" (a d e f e r r e d - p s y c h i c reward) as a g r e a t e r r e w a r d t h a n w i l l lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . TABLE I X BY AGE GROUP, STEP-REGRESSION BETA WEIGHTS BETWEEN PERCEIVED POWER (A DEFERRED-PSYCHIC REWARD). AND PRESTIGE. OPERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS (a) AGE GROUP BETA WEIGHTS LOWER UPPER 9-10 .21 .30 12-13 .25 .25 15-16 .26 n.s. 17-18 .28 .20 A l l .22 .22 The c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s are n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n d i r e c t i o n a t a l l age l e v e l s , and the b e t a w e i g h t s f o r the c l a s s groups are i d e n t i c a l . No d i f f e r e n c e s were found between lower and upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s i n t h e i r p r e f e r e n c e f o r a d e f e r r e d - p s y c h i c reward. H y p o t h e s i s ( a ) , t h a t I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h power i s g r e a t e r f o r upper c l a s s t h a n f o r lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . i s n o t s u p p o r t e d . 63 The n e x t h y p o t h e s i s , h y p o t h e s i s (b) , p r e d i c t s t h a t upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e s e c u r i t y (a d e f e r r e d -m a t e r i a l reward) as a g r e a t e r reward t h a n do lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . TABLE X BY AGE GROUP, STEP-REGRESSION BETA WEIGHTS BETWEEN PERCEIVED SECURITY (A DEFERRED-MATERIAL REWARD) AND PRESTIGE. OPERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS (b) AGE GROUP BETA WEIGHTS LOWER UPPER 9-10 .28 n-.s. 12-13 n. s. n. s. 15-16 .10 n. s. 17-18 n. s. n. s. A l l .13 n. s. C l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s a r e , a t a l l age l e v e l s , o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n t o those p r e d i c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s ( b ) , c o n c e r n i n g d e f e r r e d - m a t e r i a l r e w a r d s , I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n i s g r e a t e r f o r upper c l a s s t h a n f o r lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . i s n o t s u p p o r t e d . H y p o t h e s i s (c) p r e d i c t s t h a t upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s p e r c e i v e e d u c a t i o n , which l e a d s t o the deferment o f r e w a r d s , as more l i k e l y t o l e a d t o d e s i r e d rewards t h a n do lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . 64 TABLE X I BY AGE GROUP, STEP-REGRESSION BETA WEIGHTS BETWEEN PERCEIVED EDUCATION (A DEFERRED REWARD) AND PRESTIGE. OPERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS (c) AGE GROUP BETA WEIGHTS LOWER UPPER 9-10 n.s. : .18 12-13 n.s. .21 15-16 .14 .23 17-18 .16 .21 A l l .14 .20 C l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s a t a l l age l e v e l s are i n the d i r e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d . H y p o t h e s i s ( c ) , I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the "beta w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n i s g r e a t e r f o r upper c l a s s t h a n f o r lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . i s s u p p o r t e d . Such an outcome would o c c u r by chance 1/24 or .06 o f the t i m e . H y p o t h e s i s (d) i s concerned w i t h i m m e d i a t e - p s y c h i c r e w a r d s , and p r e d i c t s t h a t good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i l l be p e r c e i v e d as as g r e a t a reward by lower and upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s . The c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s are n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n d i r e c t i o n , and the b e t a w e i g h t s f o r the c l a s s groups are i d e n t i c a l . The h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g i m m e d i a t e - m a t e r i a l r e w a r d s , H y p o t h e s i s ( d ) , 65 I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g - ; p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s i s s i m i l a r f o r upper c l a s s and lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . i s s u p p o r t e d . TABLE X I I BY AGE GROUP, STEP-REGRESSION BETA WEIGHTS BETWEEN PERCEIVED GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS (AN IMMEDIATE-PSYCHIC REWARD) AND PRESTIGE. OPERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS (d) AGE GROUP BETA WEIGHTS LOWER UPPER 9-10 .16 n. s. 12-13 n. s. n. s. 15-16 .21 .20 17-18 .11 .20 A l l .14 .14 The n e x t h y p o t h e s i s , H y p o t h e s i s ( e ) , p r e d i c t s t h a t "income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g " (an i m m e d i a t e - m a t e r i a l reward) w i l l be p e r c e i v e d as a g r e a t e r r e w a r d by lower t h a n by upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s . The c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s on an i m m e d i a t e - m a t e r i a l r e w a r d , i n so f a r as t h i s v a r i a b l e i s r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e , are i n the same d i r e c t i o n a t a l l age l e v e l s . H y p o t h e s i s (e) t h a t I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g i s g r e a t e r f o r lower c l a s s t h a n f o r upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s . i s w eakly s u p p o r t e d . S i n c e the c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r t h i s v a r i a b l e are g e n e r a l l y so low ( b e i n g .17 f o r the lower c l a s s group, and 66 .06 f o r the upper) and. i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d so s l i g h t ( b e i n g l e s s t h a n .01 f o r the lower c l a s s group and no t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r the upper c l a s s g r o u p ) , "income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g " I s p r o b a b l y not an adequate o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n o f an i m m e d i a t e - m a t e r i a l r e w a r d . TABLE X I I I BY AGE GROUP, STEP-REGRESSION BETA WEIGHTS BETWEEN PERCEIVED INCOME DURING TRAINING (AN IMMEDIATE-MATERIAL REWARD) AND PRESTIGE. OPERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS (e) AGE GROUP BETA WEIGHTS LOWER UPPER 9-10 n.s. n.s, 12-13 n.s. n.s. 15-16 .15 n.s, 17-18 n.s. - . 13 A l l .07 n.s, H y p o t h e s i s ( f ) r e f e r s t o m a t e r i a l r e w a r d s , and p r e d i c t s t h a t a h i g h average income w i l l be p e r c e i v e d as as g r e a t a reward by one c l a s s group as the o t h e r . The c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s are n o t i n the same d i r e c t i o n a t a l l age l e v e l s , and the b e t a w e i g h t s o f the two c l a s s groups are almost i d e n t i c a l . H y p o t h e s i s ( f ) , I n the s t e p - r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e p r e d i c t i n g p r e s t i g e , the b e t a w e i g h t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h average income i s s i m i l a r f o r lower and upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s . i s s u p p o r t e d . p 67 TABLE XIV BY AGE GROUP, STEP-REGRESSION BETA WEIGHTS BETWEEN PERCEIVED AVERAGE INCOME (A MATERIAL REWARD) AND PRESTIGE. OPERATIONAL HYPOTHESIS '(f)' AGE GROUP BETA WEIGHTS LOWER UPPER 9-10 .28 .20 12-13 .26 .21 15-16 .17 .19 17-18 .23 .28 A l l .19 .20 The p r e d i c t i o n s and outcomes axe summarized i n F i g u r e 2. A l t h o u g h f o u r o f the s i x o p e r a t i o n a l hypotheses are s u p p o r t e d by the d a t a , i n terms o f the paradigm the r e s u l t s are c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The i m m e d i a t e - d e f e r r e d dichotomy does n o t seem t o be a m e a n i n g f u l d i s t i n c t i o n . T h i s may be because the c h o i c e o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s poor. "Income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g " was the l e a s t c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r e s t i g e . 1 0 "Good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " was, i n t h i s s t u d y and p r e v i o u s ones, n o t h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e . F u r t h e r m o r e , W e i n s t e i n found i n h i s p a i r e d c omparison t e s t t h a t upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s thought "good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " a g r e a t e r reward t h a n d i d lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s , 1 1 a d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t t h a n f o u n d i n t h i s s t u d y . H y p o t h e s i s 6, 68 DEFERRED (Hy . 6 ) p r e d i c t e d : U > L found: ? IMMEDIATE (Hy . 5 ) p r e d i c t e d : L > U found: ? PSYCHIC (Hy . 4 ) p r e d i c t e d : U > L found: ? POWER (Hy.a) p r e d i c t e d : U > L found: U = L GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS (Hy.d' p r e d i c t e d and found: U = L ) MATERIAL(Hy.3) p r e d i c t e d : U = L found: ? SECURITY (Hy.b) p r e d i c t e d : U > L found: L > U INCOME DURING TRAINING (Hy.e) p r e d i c t e d and found ( ? ) : -L > U AVERAGE INCOME (Hy.f) p r e d i c t e d and found: U = L EDUCATION (Hy.c) p r e d i c t e d and found: U > L FIGURE 2 . Paradigm o f rewards r e l a t i n g t h e o r e t i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l h y p o t h e s e s , and showing d i f f e r e n c e s p r e d i c t e d and f o u n d between s o c i a l c l a s s groups. Key: U upper c l a s s s u b j e c t s _> more t h a n L lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s = the same as 69 Lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more w e i g h t t o immediate rewards t h a n do upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . i s n o t s u p p o r t e d . I t s v i a b i l i t y has n o t been a d e q u a t e l y t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y , p r o b a b l y because o f a poor c h o i c e o f o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s . The r e l i a b i l i t y of the o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r a t i n g s can be checked by comparing group c o r r e l a t i o n s f o r these d a t a w i t h c o r r e l a t i o n s f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . I n none of these s t u d i e s was the sample s t r a t i f i e d on s o c i a l c l a s s , b u t t h r e e o f these u s i n g a r a n k o r d e r s t a t i s t i c had u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s as s u b j e c t s , a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n o f whom p r o b a b l y came fr o m more p r o s p e r o u s backgrounds. The a g e - c l a s s group f r o m t h i s study w h i c h ought t o be most l i k e t hese s u b j e c t s i s the 17-18 year o l d upper c l a s s group. The r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o mparison are g i v e n i n Ta b l e XV. TABLE XV COMPARISON OP RANK ORDER CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PERCEIVED POWER, SECURITY, EDUCATION, AND AVERAGE INCOME AND PERCEIVED PRESTIGE FOR 17-18 UPPER CLASS SUBJECTS FROM THE PRESENT STUDY AND FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENT SUBJECTS . FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES  POWER SECURITY EDUCATION INCOME T h i s Study .74 .21 .89 .72 G a r b i n and B a t e s (1961) .86 .79 .84 .78 G a r b i n and B a t e s (1966) .86 .84 • 90 .79 Anderson (1934) - - - .90 70 A l l b u t the r a t i n g s f o r " s e c u r i t y " appear t o be r e l i a b l e . I f d a t a on " s e c u r i t y " i s d i s c a r d e d , the r e m a i n i n g f i n d i n g s can be r e c o n c i l e d w i t h i n the rewards paradigm. The o n l y r e m a i n i n g t e s t of m a t e r i a l rewards i s t h a t o f "average income". I t was f o u n d t h a t s u b j e c t s o f b o t h s o c i a l c l a s s e s r a t e d t h i s s i m i l a r l y . H y p o t h e s i s 4 , Lower and upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e the same we i g h t t o m a t e r i a l rewards when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . i s w eakly s u p p o r t e d . O n l y weak s u p p o r t i s c l a i m e d f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s because of the n e c e s s i t y of d i s c a r d i n g the f i n d i n g s on " s e c u r i t y " , and, f u r t h e r , because W e i n s t e i n found t h a t lower c l a s s 9 - - 4 year o l d s weighed t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c more tha n d i d upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . The t e s t o f d e f e r r e d rewards now r e s t s o n l y on the f i n d i n g w i t h r e g a r d t o " e d u c a t i o n " w h i c h , as i n W e i n s t e i n ' s s t u d y , was g i v e n more w e i g h t by upper t h a n by lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . I t i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t H y p o t h e s i s 5, Upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more w e i g h t t o d e f e r r e d rewards t h a n do lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e of o c c u p a t i o n s . i s w e a k l y s u p p o r t e d . O n l y weak su p p o r t f o r t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s c l a i m e d because o f the n e c e s s i t y o f d i s c a r d i n g the f i n d i n g s on " s e c u r i t y " . N e v e r t h e l e s s , p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s t h i s h y p o t h e s i s . The t e s t o f p s y c h i c rewards r e s t s upon the f i n d i n g s w i t h r e g a r d t o the d e f e r r e d - p s y c h i c reward "power". To a c c e p t 71 the p s y c h i c r e w a r d h y p o t h e s i s would r e q u i r e t h a t "power" be more h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e by upper t h a n lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . No d i f f e r e n c e between c l a s s groups was f o u n d . T h i s i m p l i e s , i f a c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e e x i s t s , i t i s o p p o s i t e i n d i r e c t i o n t o t h a t p r e d i c t e d . F u r t h e r m o r e , the r e s u l t s are c o n t r a d i c t e d by two p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s ; b o t h C e n t e r s and W e i n s t e i n f o u n d "power" ( W e i n s t e i n used the term " a u t h o r i t y " ) t o be more h e a v i l y w e i g h t e d by lower t h a n by upper c l a s s 1 p s u b j e c t s . I t i s c o n c l u d e d , t h e n , t h a t H y p o t h e s i s 3* Upper c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s g i v e more w e i g h t to p s y c h i c rewards t h a n do lower c l a s s c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s when e v a l u a t i n g the p r e s t i g e o f o c c u p a t i o n s . i s n o t s u p p o r t e d . The outcome f o r these f o u r t h e o r e t i c a l hypotheses i s not e n c o u r a g i n g . T h i s outcome may i n p a r t be due t o the o p e r a t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s o f "immediate", " d e f e r r e d " , " m a t e r i a l " , and " p s y c h i c " r e w a r d s . There are o t h e r r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s w hich s u p p o r t t h i s , such as Form's f i n d i n g t h a t lower and middl e c l a s s a d u l t s do n o t d i f f e r i n the emphasis w h i c h t h e y p l a c e on the g o a l of i m p r o v i n g t h e i r o c c u p a t i o n a l p o s i t i o n , b u t t h a t m i d d l e c l a s s a d u l t s see e d u c a t i o n , and lower c l a s s a d u l t s see job e x p e r i e n c e as a means t o t h a t end."^3 Another check on the degree o f emphasis g i v e n rewards i s p o s s i b l e ; one can examine the o r d e r i n which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are o r d e r e d i n the r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e , and see i f some c h a r a c t e r i s t i c or c o m b i n a t i o n o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w i l l p r e d i c t 72 p r e s t i g e f o r one c l a s s group b u t n o t f o r the o t h e r . I n Table XVI are g i v e n the o r d e r i n which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are w e i g h t e d by each c l a s s group, the improvement i n p r e d i c t i o n g a i n e d by i n c l u d i n g a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the c o r r e l a t i o n s between each c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and p r e s t i g e . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f the o r d e r i n which the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are weighed i n the r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e a l o n e might suggest t h a t c o n s i d e r a b l e c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t . B u t an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the c o r r e l a t i o n s shows t h a t "power 1 1, "average income" and " e d u c a t i o n " are c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r e s t i g e a t much the same l e v e l as each o t h e r f o r each c l a s s group, as are " s e c u r i t y " and "good w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " . F o r b o t h c l a s s groups, "income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g " i s l e a s t h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e . Any o f the f i r s t group o f t h r e e seems t o be about as good a p r e d i c t o r o f p r e s t i g e as any o t h e r , and l i t t l e i s g a i n e d by u s i n g a d d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n the r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e . I t has a l r e a d y been demonstrated i n Ta b l e XV t h a t these d a t a are g e n e r a l l y r e l i a b l e , i n so f a r as t h i s c o u l d be checked by comparison w i t h f i n d i n g s f r o m p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s . R a t i n g s by members o f d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s are r e l i a b l e , b u t are n o t a v a l i d measure of d i f f e r i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . 73 TABLE XVI BY CLASS GROUP, RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERCEIVED OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS AND PRESTIGE: ORDER OF CHARACTERISTICS IN REGRESSION FORMULAE, CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CHARACTERISTIC AND PRESTIGE RATINGS, AND GAIN IN VARIANCE EXPLAINED BY USING ADDITIONAL CHARACTERISTIC RATINGS IN REGRESSION FORMULAE LOWER UPPER CLASS CLASS POWER f i r s t second c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p r e s t i g e .37 • 35 g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .14 .07 AVERAGE INCOME second f i r s t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p r e s t i g e • 37 • 36 g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .07 .13 WORKING CONDITIONS t h i r d f o u r t h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h ' • p r e s t i g e .29 .26 g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .03 .02 SECURITY f o u r t h n. s. c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p r e s t i g e .27 .20 g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .02 n. s. EDUCATION f i f t h t h i r d c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p r e s t i g e .35 • 34 g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d .07 .03 INCOME DURING TRAINING s i x t h n. s. c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h p r e s t i g e .17 .06 g a i n i n v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d . 0 0 - n. s. 74 CHAPTER IV FOOTNOTES -'-See T a b l e I I , Chapter I I , t a k e n f r o m Lehman and W i t t y , 1931-32; sex d i f f e r e n c e s seem t o be q u i t e s u b s t a n t i a l . S t e v e n s , 1940, (see T a b l e I , Chapter I I ) found sex d i f f e r e n c e s among a d u l t s , when the o c c u p a t i o n s b e i n g r a t e d were women's o c c u p a t i o n s . The N.O.R.C. o c c u p a t i o n s were m o s t l y male o c c u p a t i o n s , and marked sex d i f f e r e n c e s were n o t f o u n d . 2 B l a u , 1957, P. 398. 3Ramsey and S m i t h , 1959-60, had t h e i r s u b j e c t s r a t e 20 o c c u p a t i o n s on p e r c e i v e d p r e s t i g e , income and c o n t r i b u t i o n t o s o c i e t y . Weinstein, 195*6. 5 l n t h i s and a l l o t h e r t a b l e s i n t h i s c h a p t e r , "n.s." means t h a t a p a r t i c u l a r independent v a r i a b l e does n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e the v a r i a n c e e x p l a i n e d i f i t i s c o n s i d e r e d . ^The resemblance between th e s e and t h i s s t u d y ' s s u b j e c t s i s n o t as g r e a t as one would w i s h . Brown's were Negro men and women. Ramsey and Smith's sample may i n c l u d e a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f " w h i t e c o l l a ^ s u b j e c t s t h a n does t h i s s t u d y , s i n c e "blue c o l l a r " c h i l d r e n t e n d t o drop out of s c h o o l more f r e q u e n t l y t h a n do "white c o l l a r " c h i l d r e n . ^The low .42 c o r r e l a t i o n i s due t o r e s p o n s e s o f lower c l a s s s u b j e c t s . The 17-18 upper c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n was .72; the 17-18 lower c l a s s c o r r e l a t i o n was . 3 7 . ^The 9-1° year o l d age group c o r r e l a t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y lower t h a n f o r the o t h e r groups. T h i s d i f f e r e n c e i s not marked e x c e p t f o r " w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " . I t may r e f l e c t the more l i m i t e d c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s of t h i s age group, as would be e x p e c t e d f r o m I n h e l d e r and P i a g e t ' s t h e s i s . ^These b e t a w e i g h t s come fr o m s e p a r a t e r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e . See the Appendix f o r a t a b u l a t i o n of a l l r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a e , b e t a w e i g h t s , and c o r r e l a t i o n s . l ^ T h i s , i t w i l l be remembered, was the o n l y . c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c n o t p r e v i o u s l y t e s t e d , so no c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h i s f i n d i n g e x i s t s . 75 ^ w e i n s t e i n , 1 9 5 6 . S i n c e s u b j e c t s were f o r c e d t o choose one c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o r the o t h e r , c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n W e i n s t e i n 1 s s t u d y c o u l d r e f l e c t b i a s e s i n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r . - ^ C e n t e r s , 1949; W e i n s t e i n , 1956. 1 3 F o r m , 1 9 4 6 . CHAPTER V DISCUSSION I . LEARNING OF THE PRESTIGE HIERARCHY C h i l d r e n ' s P e r c e p t i o n s of P r e s t i g e As p r e d i c t e d , i t was f o u n d t h a t between the ages o f 9-10 and 17-18 the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of the occu-p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y changes, becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y l i k e t h a t o f an a d u l t . T h i s change i n p e r c e p t i o n may i m p l y t h a t c h i l d r e n a s s i g n r a t i n g s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e , so t h a t such r a t i n g s appear random; as t h e y grow o l d e r , t h e y g r a d u a l l y l e a r n the a d u l t h i e r a r c h y , and the resemblance between t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s and a d u l t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f p r e s t i g e i n c r e a s e . On the o t h e r hand, the a s s i g n i n g o f p r e s t i g e by c h i l d r e n may be more s y s t e m a t i c . They may p e r c e i v e p r e s t i g e i n terms o f a d i f f e r e n t p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y p e c u l i a r t o c h i l d r e n o f a g i v e n age group. The i n c r e a s i n g resemblance t o the a d u l t view w i t h age would t h e n be due t o the u n l e a r n i n g of t h a t h i e r a r c h y and the l e a r n i n g o f the a d u l t one. T h i s q u e s t i o n cannot be a d d r e s s e d a t any l e n g t h by r e f e r e n c e t o the d a t a f rom t h i s s t u d y o f o n l y t w e l v e o c c u p a t i o n s . Some occu-p a t i o n s were, however, i n c l u d e d because t h e y have been f o u n d i n the p a s t t o be d i f f e r e n t l y r a t e d by c h i l d r e n and a d o l e s c e n t s . Responses t o these o c c u p a t i o n s — p o l i c e m a n , s o c i a l worker i n a 77 c i t y , and auth o r o f n o v e l s - - a r e g i v e n below, as are those t o an o c c u p a t i o n which s u b j e c t s ranked q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y f r o m what was e x p e c t e d - - s m a l l s t o r e manager i n a c i t y . 1 I n the t a b l e below are thes e d a t a by age group, f o r N.O.R.C. male a d u l t s and N.O.R.C. 14-20 year o l d s . I n a l l c a s e s , the f i g u r e s r e f e r t o ra n k o r d e r among the twe l v e o c c u p a t i o n s t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . TABLE X V I I RANK ORDERS FOR THE TWELVE OCCUPATIONS. STUDIED, ASSIGNED BY N.O.R.C. MALE ADULTS, N.O.R.C. 14-20 YEAR OLDS, AND BY AGE GROUPS IN THIS STUDY N.O.R.C. THIS STUDY A d u l t 14-20 9-10 12-13 15-16 17-18 POLICEMAN 10 8 l l i 6 4 SMALL STORE MANAGER 8 9 12 12 12 9 AUTHOR OF NOVELS 2 2 5 l i 1 1 SOCIAL WORKER 6^ 4 6 ! 7 4 3 ARTIST 1 1 2 i 3 7 . 5 The most s t r i k i n g outcome i s the response t o "po l i c e m a n " . As i n many p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s , t h i s o c c u p a t i o n i s h i g h l y r a n k e d . Unexpected was the c o n s i s t e n t l y low r a n k i n g g i v e n " s m a l l s t o r e manager". F o r b o t h these occu-p a t i o n s , the d i f f e r e n c e i n r a n k i n g f r o m N.O.R.C. d a t a d e c l i n e s as age i n c r e a s e s . The change i n p e r c e p t i o n o f "author o f n o v e l s " and " s o c i a l w o r ker" i s l e s s s t r i k i n g , and p r o b a b l y the i n c r e a s e i n p r e s t i g e w i t h age r e f l e c t s i n c r e a s e d 78 a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s . I t i s an example of the phenomenon which Hartmann o b s e r v e d ; more t h a n h a l f o f the "don't know" res p o n s e s made were re s p o n s e s made t o these two o c c u p a t i o n s . The change i n r a t i n g of " a r t i s t " , however, i s o p p o s i t e t o what was e x p e c t e d , and the d i s c r e p a n c y i n c r e a s e s w i t h age. Why t h i s o c c u r r e d i s u n c l e a r ; the two o l d e s t groups gave the g r e a t e s t number of "don't know" re s p o n s e s t o t h i s o c c u p a t i o n . The change I n response t o " s m a l l s t o r e manager" and t o " p o l i c e m a n " , b u t p a r t i c u l a r l y t o the l a t t e r , may be an i n d i -c a t i o n t h a t a t l e a s t some o c c u p a t i o n s are r a t e d by c h i l d r e n on the b a s i s of a d i f f e r e n t h i e r a r c h y . An e x a m i n a t i o n o f Lehman and W i t t y 1 s d a t a s u g g e s t s o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s o f t h i s t y p e , i n c l u d i n g ( f o r boys) "cowboy", " s o l d i e r " , " s a i l o r " and " f i r e m a n " . The most p r o b a b l e h y p o t h e s i s i s t h a t c h i l d r e n do have a p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y i n mind wh i c h d i f f e r s i n some r e s p e c t s from t h a t p e r c e i v e d by a d u l t s . I t would resemble t h a t h e l d by a d u l t s t o some e x t e n t — e v e n 8 § year o l d boys r a t e d " d o c t o r " , "banker", and " l a w y e r " v e r y h i g h l y , as a d u l t s do. U n d o u b t e d l y i t i s more r e s t r i c t e d i n s i z e , because of the c h i l d ' s l i m i t e d e x p e r i e n c e . Any t e s t , t h e n , i s l i k e l y t o d i s c o v e r a g r e a t e r number of "middle r a n g e " o c c u p a t i o n s than among a d u l t s , o c c u p a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h c h i l d r e n are n o t f a m i l i a r o r o f w h i c h t h e y have no d e f i n i t e o p i n i o n s . " A r t i s t " , p e r h a p s , i s one o f t h e s e . 79 Suggested R e s e a r c h T h i s s t u d y has d e a l t o n l y w i t h "middle r a n g e " o c c u -p a t i o n s - - "middle r a n g e " , t h a t i s , f o r a d u l t s . Lehman and W i t t y d e a l t o n l y w i t h o c c u p a t i o n s o f h i g h p r e s t i g e . W e i n s t e i n d e a l t w i t h o c c u p a t i o n s a t a l l p r e s t i g e l e v e l s , h u t h i s s u b j e c t sample was v e r y s m a l l . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o c a r r y out an e x t e n s i v e d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y of c h i l d r e n ' s and a d o l e s c e n t s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e . Such i n f o r m a t i o n c o u l d be o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e . By a d u l t h o o d and perhaps even by l a t e a d o l e s c e n c e , p e r c e p t i o n s o f p r e s t i g e are f a i r l y f i x e d , b u t d u r i n g c h i l d h o o d t h e y are i n f l u x . Under these c i r c u m s t a n c e s , one c o u l d more r e a d i l y t e s t h ypotheses c o n c e r n i n g the e x p l a n a t o r y f a c t o r s d e t e r m i n i n g p r e s t i g e . As the t e s t s o f the rewards h y p o t h e s i s r e p o r t e d i n Chapter I V s u g g e s t , t h a t h y p o t h e s i s i s n o t adequate i f i t i s assumed t h a t p r e s t i g e i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f l e a r n i n g t o a p p r e c i a t e the rewards a p p r e c i a t e d by a d u l t s . Nor was i t found t h a t s o c i a l c l a s s markedly a f f e c t e d the p e r c e p t i o n o f the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y . T h i s l e a v e s two problems t o be s o l v e d ; what de t e r m i n e s p r e s t i g e , and why h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s are so o f t e n f o u n d between o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and p r e s t i g e i n s t u d i e s o f a d u l t s . The l a t t e r p roblem s h a l l be d e a l t w i t h f i r s t . 8o I I . THE FAILURE OF THE REWARDS HYPOTHESIS A m b i g u i t y o f R a t i n g C r i t e r i a and  of M i d d l e - r a n g e O c c u p a t i o n s I n Chapter I I was a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f the " h a l o e f f e c t " h y p o t h e s i s o f A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman, w h i c h says t h a t , when a s e t o f judgments are made a t one t i m e , a r t i -f i c i a l l y h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s among res p o n s e s r e s u l t . The more f a v o u r a b l e o r u n f a v o u r a b l e , the more e m o t i o n a l the s u b j e c t ' s r e a c t i o n t o the s t i m u l u s , the g r e a t e r the " h a l o e f f e c t " - - t h a t i s , the h i g h e r and more s i m i l a r group and i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s w i l l be. I f A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman's c o n c l u s i o n s are a c c e p t e d , and the d a t a f r o m t h i s s t u d y compared w i t h t h e i r s , the re s p o n s e s i n t h i s s t u d y r e f l e c t a m i l d " h a l o e f f e c t " ; i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s are r e s t r i c t e d i n range ( r a n g i n g f r o m -.10 t o .43) and are l e s s extreme t h a n group s c o r e c o r r e l a t i o n s ( r a n g i n g f rom -.61 t o .96). The s u b j e c t s can be thought o f , t h e n , as h a v i n g come i n t o the t e s t i n g s i t u a t i o n w i t h a r a t h e r v a g u e l y f a v o u r a b l e or u n f a v o u r a b l e o p i n i o n o f the o c c u p a t i o n s t o be t e s t e d . I n the experiment A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman d i d i n wh i c h t h e y asked s u b j e c t s t o judge p r o f e s s i o n s on t h e i r c h a r a c -t e r i s t i c s , t h e y f o u n d a somewhat g r e a t e r " h a l o e f f e c t " t h a n was found i n t h i s s t u d y . T h i s may be because the s u b j e c t s i n t h i s s t u d y were so young, b u t t h i s i m p l i e s a marked 81 d i f f e r e n c e between the s t r e n g t h o f the o p i n i o n s o f 17-18 year o l d s and u n i v e r s i t y s t u d e n t s about o c c u p a t i o n s . I n view o f the f i n d i n g t h a t t h e r e i s no s y s t e m a t i c d i f f e r e n c e s between the ages of 9 and 18 i n s t r e n g t h o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p r e s t i g e and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , t h i s i s d i f f i c u l t t o c r e d i t . The d a t a f r o m t h e i r s e r i e s of e x p e r i m e n t s most l i k e those i n t h i s s t u d y are those f r o m a s t u d y i n w h i c h s u b j e c t s were asked t o judge h i s t o r i c s l o g a n s (such as "Remember the Maine" and "Share the Wealth") on t h e i r l i t e r a r y m e r i t . I n d i v i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n s between these r e s p o n s e s and judgments on the s l o g a n s ' " c o n s e r v a t i s m " and such l i k e averaged .22; c o r r e l a t i o n s f r o m t h i s s t u d y averaged . 2 8 . C o r r e l a t i o n s t h i s low the r e s e a r c h e r s a t t r i b u t e t o the seeming i r r e l e v a n c e o f the c r i t e r i a t o the s u b j e c t s . The low c o r r e l a t i o n s i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y may, t h e n , r e f l e c t t h a t the s u b j e c t s f o u n d the c r i t e r i a on w h i c h they were asked t o judge o c c u p a t i o n s o f r e l a t i v e l y low r e l e v a n c e . The f i n d i n g , d i s c u s s e d i n the p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r , t h a t "average income", " e d u c a t i o n " and "power" are more h i g h l y r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e f o r a l l b u t one age or c l a s s group i m p l i e s t h a t these were more m e a n i n g f u l t o s u b j e c t s t h a n the o t h e r c r i t e r i a . T h i s p o i n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d a t g r e a t e r l e n g t h l a t e r ; a t the moment, l e t us c o n s i d e r the ambiguous n a t u r e o f the occu-p a t i o n s s t u d i e d - - p e r h a p s t h i s i s the source o f low r e l e v a n c e . 82 Assume t h a t an o c c u p a t i o n g i v e n a median r a n k i n g i s one of which s u b j e c t s have an a m b i v a l e n t o p i n i o n , and t h a t one g i v e n 'a h i g h r a n k i n g , one o f which s u b j e c t s have a h i g h l y f a v o u r a b l e o p i n i o n . I f the p e r c e n t a g e s o f these s u b j e c t s who . a l s o gave " e x c e l l e n t 1 1 or "good" r a t i n g s t o each o f the occu-p a t i o n s on each o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , s u b j e c t t o the h i g h e s t " h a l o e f f e e t " - - " a v e r a g e income", " e d u c a t i o n " and "power"--is computed, one would e x p e c t t h a t the ambiguous o c c u p a t i o n would be l e s s a f f e c t e d t h a n the h i g h l y f a v o u r e d one. The r e s u l t s are g i v e n i n Ta b l e X V I I I , f o r each age group, f o r the h i g h e s t and a median r a n k e d o c c u p a t i o n . Outcomes c o n t r a r y t o e x p e c t a t i o n s are s t a r r e d . TABLE X V I I I BY AGE GROUP, COMPARISON BETWEEN RESPONSES OF ALL SUBJECTS WHO GAVE "EXCELLENT" AND "GOOD" RANKINGS TO THE MOST HIGHLY AND A MEDIAN RANKED OCCUPATION. PERCENTAGES SHOW THE PROPORTION OF THESE SUBJECTS WHO ALSO GAVE "EXCELLENT" AND "GOOD" RATINGS TO THESE OCCUPATIONS ON EACH OF THE CHARACTERISTICS "POWER", "EDUCATION" AND "AVERAGE INCOME". STARRED COMPARISONS ARE'CONTRARY TO EXPECTATIONS RANK POWER EDUCATION INCOME 9- 10 POLICEMAN 1 96$ 80$ 89$ SOCIAL WORKER 48$ 71$ 67$ 12- 13 POLICEMAN i i 67$ •. 62$ 65$ ELECTRICIAN 6 39$ 39$ 86$' 15- 16 AUTHOR OF NOVELS 1| 43$^ 52$ 50$ ARTIST 7 45$ 35$ 70$ 17-• 18 AUTHOR 1 71$ 79$ 88$ ELECTRICIAN 7 20$ 60$ 100$ 83 T w o - t h i r d s of the comparisons are i n the e x p e c t e d d i r e c t i o n . Some ev i d e n c e t h a t median o c c u p a t i o n s are more ambiguously p e r c e i v e d has been found; the e v i d e n c e i s not as good as one would l i k e , e s p e c i a l l y on "average income" and f o r the o l d e r groups. On the same assu m p t i o n s , one would e x p e c t t h a t when an o c c u p a t i o n i s g i v e n a low p r e s t i g e r a t i n g , i t w i l l be g i v e n fewer " e x c e l l e n t " and "good" r a t i n g s , the l e s s ambiguously i t i s p e r c e i v e d . I n T a b l e XIX are the r e s p o n s e s of a l l s u b j e c t s who gave the l o w e s t and a median r a n k e d o c c u p a t i o n . a p r e s t i g e r a t i n g o f "average", "somewhat below average" or "poor", and the p e r c e n t a g e of these s u b j e c t s who gave " e x c e l l e n t " o r "good" r a t i n g s on each o f the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s "average income", "power" and " e d u c a t i o n " . A g a i n , and t o a somewhat g r e a t e r e x t e n t , the p r e d i c t i o n h o l d s i n most c a s e s . The e x c e p t i o n s may be due t o the g e n e r a l l y ambiguous n a t u r e o f the o c c u p a t i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the l o w e s t and h i g h e s t r a n k e d o c c u p a t i o n s . A l l o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h i s s t u d y are m i d d l e - r a n g e o c c u p a t i o n s ; A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman used p r o f e s s i o n s , g e n e r a l l y a c c o r d e d h i g h p r e s t i g e . I n Chapter I I , the h y p o t h e s i s o f Hartmann t h a t occu-p a t i o n s w i t h which the s u b j e c t i s u n f a m i l i a r w i l l be g i v e n "average" r a t i n g s was d i s c u s s e d . I t may be t h a t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s c o u l d be g e n e r a l i z e d t o f a m i l i a r b u t ambiguous o c c u p a t i o n s . A s t u d y o f b o t h these k i n d s of o c c u p a t i o n s , b o t h w i t h a d u l t s and 84 w i t h younger s u b j e c t s , s h o u l d show t h a t b o t h t y p e s were s u b j e c t t o m i l d " h a l o e f f e c t s " , lower t h a n those found by A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman f o r p r o f e s s i o n s . Such judgments o f o c c u p a t i o n s s h o u l d be v e r y s u s c e p t i b l e t o m a n i p u l a t i o n , more s u s c e p t i b l e t h a n were the p r o f e s s i o n s w h i c h A s c h , B l o c h and Hertzman s t u d i e d . TABLE XIX . BY AGE GROUP, COMPARISON BETWEEN RESPONSES. OF ALL SUBJECTS WHO GAVE "AVERAGE", "SOMEWHAT BELOW AVERAGE".OR "POOR" RATINGS TO THE LOWEST AND A MEDIAN RANKED OCCUPATION. PERCENTAGES SHOW THE PROPORTION OF THESE SUBJECTS WHO GAVE "EXCELLENT" OR "GOOD" RATINGS TO THESE OCCUPATIONS ON EACH OF THE CHARACTERISTICS "POWER", "EDUCATION" AND "AVERAGE INCOME". STARRED COMPARISONS ARE CONTRARY TO EXPECTATIONS  RANK POWER EDUCATION INCOME 9- 10 SOCIAL WORKER % 29$ 59$ 24$ SMALL STORE MANAGER 12 8$ 25$ 15$ 12- 13 ELECTRICIAN 6 l 4 $ 55$ 44$ SMALL STORE MANAGER 12 2$ 18$ 26$ 15- 16 ARTIST 7 10$* 20$ 37$ SMALL STORE MANAGER 12 11$ 13$ 22$ 17- • 18 ELECTRICIAN 7 4$ 8$ * 66$ CARPENTER H I 2$ 16$ 38$ V e r b a l Responses and C l a s s D i f f e r e n c e s I t was mentioned e a r l i e r t h a t the low c o r r e l a t i o n s found may have a second s o u r c e ; the low r e l e v a n c e o f the c r i t e r i a on whi c h s u b j e c t s had t o judge o c c u p a t i o n s . The h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s 85 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h "average income",, "power", and " e d u c a t i o n " would t h e n be i n t e r p r e t e d t o mean t h a t these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r some r e a s o n are f a v o u r e d by the s u b j e c t s . L e t us now examine t h i s q u e s t i o n more c l o s e l y , and t r y to r e l a t e i t t o o t h e r f i n d i n g s about the " r e a s o n s " s u b j e c t s g i v e f o r a c c o r d i n g an o c c u p a t i o n h i g h p r e s t i g e . A r e l a t e d p r o b l e m , p e r h a p s , was the f a i l u r e t o f i n d c l a s s d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e s p o n s e . These had been r e p o r t e d by such r e s e a r c h e r s as Roper, H o l l i n g s h e a d , A b e r l e and N a e g e l e , and W e i n s t e i n . Most o f those r e s e a r c h e r s who found such d i f f e r e n c e s w h i l e i n v e s t i g a t i n g the "r e a s o n s " f o r s u b j e c t s ' a c c o r d i n g h i g h p r e s t i g e used an open-ended q u e s t i o n n a i r e . 5 T h i s s t u d y used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f a type w h i c h does n ot d i s t i n g u i s h between degrees o f emphasis i n t h i s way. What these e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h e r s may have o b s e r v e d were b i a s e s i n v e r b a l behaviour. p a t t e r n s of d i f f e r e n t c l a s s groups. That i s , t h e r e may be a tendency f o r people f r o m p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s backgrounds t o l e a r n c e r t a i n t y p e s o f " e x p l a n a t i o n s " f o r the phenomena t h e y o b s e r v e , and t o l e a r n t o emphasize some of these more tha n o t h e r s . These v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s would be e l i c i t e d when a d i f f i c u l t and complex q u e s t i o n such as "When you say t h a t c e r t a i n j o b s have ' e x c e l l e n t 1 s t a n d i n g ' , what do you t h i n k i s the one main t h i n g about such 6 j o b s t h a t g i v e s t h i s s t a n d i n g ? " , or when a p a i r e d comparison q u e s t i o n n a i r e such as u s e d by W e i n s t e i n i n h i s 1956 s t u d y i s used. 86 There are no s t u d i e s w h i c h one can c i t e i n d i r e c t s u p p o r t o f t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , s i n c e no r e s e a r c h e r s t u d y i n g " r e a s o n s " as w e l l as the p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y has l i s t e d them a c c o r d i n g t o the c l a s s o f the s u b j e c t . Such s t u d i e s have been made o f d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups, however, and one would e x p e c t c u l t u r a l b i a s e s as w e l l as c l a s s b i a s e s i n v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s . I n Table XX are l i s t e d i n o r d e r of t h e i r f r e q u e n c y o f o c c u r r e n c e the "reasons" g i v e n f o r a c c o r d i n g h i g h p r e s t i g e t o c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s . When the r e s e a r c h e r has r e p o r t e d the p e r c e n t a g e o f res p o n s e s f a l l i n g i n t o a g i v e n c a t e g o r y , these are g i v e n . 7 T i r y a k i a n , Brown and T a f t f o u n d t h a t judgments o f p r e s t i g e made by t h e i r s u b j e c t s c o r r e l a t e d h i g h l y w i t h t h a t o f the N.O.R.C, so t h a t i f p e r c e i v e d rewards were d e t e r m i n i n g p r e s t i g e , one would e x p e c t t h a t the f r e q u e n c y w i t h which a reward was mentioned would be q u i t e s i m i l a r f r o m s t u d y t o st u d y . The t a b l e shows t h a t no one " r e a s o n " i s f a v o u r e d by more t h a n a q u a r t e r of the sample, and t h a t a wide v a r i e t y Q o f " r e a s o n s " are g i v e n . I n s p i t e o f the h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n s f o u n d between p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h i e s g e n e r a t e d from d a t a from these s t u d i e s w i t h one a n o t h e r , such a correspondence i s n o t found among the " r e a s o n s " . F o r i n s t a n c e , the most f r e q u e n t l y g i v e n r e s ponse of A u s t r a l i a n s was "use o f i n t e l l i g e n c e , e d u c a t i o n " . The n e a r e s t e q u i v a l e n t s i n the o t h e r s t u d i e s are 87 TABLE XX IN ORDER OP FREQUENCY, LISTS OF "REASONS" GIVEN BY SUBJECTS FOR ACCORDING CERTAIN OCCUPATIONS HIGH PRESTIGE, AND THE FREQUENCY WITH WHICH EACH "REASON" WAS GIVEN, WHEN DATA I S AVAILABLE. FROM STUDIES BY THE N.O.R.C, 1953, BY TIRYAKIAN, 1957-58, BY BROWN, 1955, AND BY TAFT, 1953 Study N.O.R.C. T i r y a k i a n Brown T a f t C o u n t r y U.S. P h i l i p p i n e s U.S.(Negro) A u s t r a l i a Responses 1 income lb> s e r v i c e t o community 25$ n e c e s s a r y use o f i n t e l l i g e n e d u c a t i o n 2 s e r v i c e t o humanity 16$ income & s e c u r i t y 18$ p r e s t i g e i n t e r e s t i n 3 e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g 14$ e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g 11$ c l e a n s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s 4 p r e s t i g e 14$ i n f l u e n c e , power 5$ e d u c a t i o n , t r a i n i n g o t h e r 5 h i g h m o r a l n o b i l i t y o f t a l e n t , s t a n d a r d 9$ _ work 4$ s k i l l 6 r e q u i r e s a b i l i t y 9$ s e r v i c e t o o t h e r s kvfo income 7 s e c u r i t y 5$ r e f e r e n c e group 3$ l e i s u r e 8 good f u t u r e 3$ good f u t u r e 2$ a c c e p t e d as a u t h o r i t y 9 e a s y , s a f e , p l e a s a n t 2$ independence 1$ h i s t o r i c a l s t a t u s 10 independence 1$ m o r a l c h a r a c t e r 1$ not need muscles l l o t h e r 9$ o t h e r 26$ m o r a l t r a d i t i o n 12 o t h e r 88 r a n k e d f o u r t h ( A m e r i c a n s ) , and t h i r d (American Negroes, and P h i l i p p i n o e s ) . The second most f r e q u e n t r e sponse by A u s t r a l i a n s , " i n t e r e s t i n g " , has no e q u i v a l e n t i n the o t h e r s t u d i e s . The t h i r d , " s o c i a l u s e f u l n e s s " , i s a common response i n a l l f o u r s t u d i e s ; i t i s g i v e n most f r e q u e n t l y by P h i l i p p i n o e s and American Negroes, and most f r e q u e n t l y a f t e r "income" by Americans. Perhaps the r e a s o n why the d a t a i n t h i s s t u d y show no c l a s s b i a s e s i s because the s e are weaker t h a n c u l t u r a l b i a s e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t "average income", " e d u c a t i o n " and "power" are common " e x p l a n a t i o n s " which have been l e a r n e d by most of q the s u b j e c t s . I f s o, such v e r b a l r e s p o n s e s must be l e a r n e d v e r y e a r l y , or t h e r e would have been g r e a t e r age l e v e l d i f f e r e n c e s i n re s p o n s e . The d i f f e r e n c e s among 12-13, 15-16, and 17-18 year o l d s t o the d i f f e r e n t o c c u p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are s l i g h t and i n g e n e r a l n o t s y s t e m a t i c . Even the 9-10 year o l d s g i v e v e r y s i m i l a r r e s p o n s e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r " e d u c a t i o n " and "average i n c o m e " . 1 0 Such r e s p o n s e s , t h e n , seem t o be w e l l f i x e d by a t l e a s t the age o f 12-13. What appears t o be a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e i v e d o c c u p a t i o n a l rewards and p r e s t i g e may be a r e f l e c t i o n o f the l e a r n i n g o f two s e t s o f s o c i a l judgments, a p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y and a s e t of. " e x p l a n a t i o n s " (which would be used f o r o t h e r phenomena b e s i d e s o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e ) . T h i s i s 89 n s i m i l a r t o K r i e s b e r g ' s c o n c l u s i o n . He argues t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l , h a v i n g l e a r n e d the o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e h i e r a r c h y , a t t r i b u t e s t o h i g h p r e s t i g e o c c u p a t i o n s h i g h p r e s t i g e a t t r i b u t e s ; i n a sense, p r e s t i g e determines the p e r c e p t i o n o f re w a r d s . I n h i s s t u d y o f d e n t i s t s , u s i n g an i n d i v i d u a l s c o r e s t a t i s t i c , he c o u l d f i n d no marked r e l a t i o n -s h i p between p r e s t i g e and the a t t r i b u t e s o f d e n t i s t r y , d e n t i s t s , or o f the s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h d e n t i s t s . He d i d f i n d , however, t h a t t h e r e was a s t r o n g r e l a t i o n s h i p between knowing d e n t i s t r y was a p r o f e s s i o n , r a t i n g p r o f e s s i o n s h i g h i n p r e s t i g e , and r a t i n g d e n t i s t s h i g h i n p r e s t i g e . The h i e r a r c h y b e i n g l e a r n e d , K r i e s b e r g i m p l i e s , i s t h a t o f ty p e s of occu-p a t i o n s . Perhaps some of the v a r i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m i d d l e -range o c c u p a t i o n s a r i s e s f r o m the s u b j e c t s ' d i f f i c u l t y i n c l a s s i f y i n g them. Are t e a c h e r s p r o f e s s i o n a l s ? I s the owner-o p e r a t o r of a p r i n t shop t o be c l a s s i f i e d w i t h the d i r e c t o r o f a l a r g e c o r p o r a t i o n ? I l l . CONCLUSION T h i s d i s c u s s i o n has n o t y e t d e a l t w i t h the problem, w h i c h prompted t h i s s t u d y , o f what dete r m i n e s the p r e s t i g e of o c c u p a t i o n s . The rewards h y p o t h e s i s has been d i s c a r d e d as an e x p l a n a t i o n o f the v a r i a b i l i t y and o r d e r i n g o f middle-range o c c u p a t i o n s , and by i m p l i c a t i o n o f the v a r i a b i l i t y and o r d e r i n g o f a l l o c c u p a t i o n s . W h i l e the former c o n c l u s i o n seems sound, 90 the l a t t e r cannot be made u n t i l more i s known about the d i f f e r e n c e s between the o c c u p a t i o n s i n the m i d d l e and on the extremes of the o c c u p a t i o n a l h i e r a r c h y . I t may be t h a t the h i e r a r c h y would be b e t t e r v i s u a l i z e d as a s c a l e , w i t h h i g h p r e s t i g e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v i n g d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s , low p r e s t i g e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v i n g u n d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s , and m i d d l e - r a n g e o c c u p a t i o n s h a v i n g n e i t h e r to any g r e a t e x t e n t . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , one c o u l d f o r m u l a t e another h y p o t h e s i s to e x p l a i n o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e e v a l u a t i o n s . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no such a l t e r n a t i v e can be o f f e r e d h e r e . B u t t h e r e i s one immediate p r o b l e m w h i c h c o u l d be i n v e s t i g a t e d w i t h p r o f i t . Throughout t h i s s t u d y i t has been i m p l i e d t h a t d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a about o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e i s l a c k i n g , p a r t i c u l a r l y as t h i s i s p e r c e i v e d by c h i l d r e n . I f more s t u d i e s , something of the type done by Lehman and W i t t y , were c a r r i e d o u t , i t might be p o s s i b l e , by s t u d y i n g changes i n p r e s t i g e r a t i n g s , t o advance a r e f o r m u l a t i o n o f the rewards h y p o t h e s i s or an a l t e r n a t i v e t o i t . 91 CHAPTER V FOOTNOTES •^North and H a t t , u s i n g an average s c o r e o f the f i v e r esponse c a t e g o r i e s , f o u n d t h i s o c c u p a t i o n t o be more h i g h l y r a t e d by s u b j e c t s o f 40 and over t h a n by 14-20 year o l d s . Duncan, whose t e c h n i q u e o f a n a l y s i s was used i n t h i s s t u d y , d i d n o t . ^Ramsey and Smith found t h i s o c c u p a t i o n r a n k e d lower by a d o l e s c e n t s , the N.O.R.C. found i t r a n k e d h i g h e r . 3However, t h e r e were o n l y 5 o f thes e i n 201 r e s p o n s e s - -2 among the 9-10 year o l d s , 1 among the 15-l6 year o l d s , and 2 among the 17-l8 year o l d s . 4For the lower c l a s s group i t comes second, b u t i s almost as h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r e s t i g e as power (which was most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r e s t i g e ) . ^Not C e n t e r s , 1949,- who used a q u e s t i o n n a i r e much l i k e the one i n t h i s s t u d y . 6 T h i s was the q u e s t i o n used i n the N.O.R.C. s t u d y . ^ T i r y a k i a n , 1957-58, a st u d y done i n the P h i l i p p i n e s ; Brown, 1955, a s t u d y done w i t h American Negro s u b j e c t s ; T a f t , 1953, a s t u d y done i n A u s t r a l i a . ^Some o f the re s p o n s e s are tautological - - l 4 $ of the N.O.R.C. s u b j e c t s gave p r e s t i g e as a r e a s o n . A l s o , t h e r e are o t h e r r e s p o n s e s t h a t do n o t r e l a t e t o the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the occupation--3$ of T i r y a k i a n ' s s u b j e c t s gave " r e f e r e n c e group" ( t h a t i s , t h a t they knew someone who was i n t h a t occu-p a t i o n ) , and some of Brown's s u b j e c t s mentioned " h i s t o r i c a l s t a t u s " . 9why c e r t a i n v e r b a l b e h a v i o u r s h o u l d be more emphasized i n one c u l t u r e o r s u b - c u l t u r e t h a n i n another i s a q u e s t i o n t o which no answer i s o f f e r e d . I t i s , i n any c a s e , beyond the scope o f t h i s paper. 10For c o m p i e t e f i g u r e s , see the Appendix. i : L K r i e s b e r g , 1962. BIBLIOGRAPHY A b e r l e , D., and Na e g e l e , K.D., (1955). " O c c u p a t i o n a l R o l e and A t t i t u d e s Toward C h i l d r e n 1 1 . I n M.B. Sussman ( e d . ) , Sourcebook i n M a r r i a g e and the F a m i l y . Cambridge, Mass.: HougnTon M i f f l i n . A n d erson, W.A. (1927-28 a ) . "The O c c u p a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e s and C h o i c e s o f a Group o f C o l l e g e Men. P a r t I " . Soc. F o r c e s . v o l . 6, pp. 278-83. Anderson, W.A. (1927-28 b ) . "The O c c u p a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e s and C h o i c e s o f a Group of C o l l e g e Men. P a r t I I " . Soc. F o r c e s . v o l . 6, pp. 467-73. Anderson, W.A. (1934). "The O c c u p a t i o n a l A t t i t u d e s o f C o l l e g e Men". J . Soc. P s y c h o l , v o l . 5* pp. 435-66. A s c h , S.E., B l o c h , H., and Hertzman, M. (1938). " S t u d i e s i n the P r i n c i p l e s o f Judgments and A t t i t u d e s : I . Two B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f Judgment". J . P s y c h o l , v o l . 5* pp. 219-51. B l a u , P.M. (1957). " O c c u p a t i o n a l B i a s and M o b i l i t y " . Amer. S o c i o l . Rev, v o l . 22, pp. 392-99. B l i s h e n , B. (1958). "The C o n s t r u c t i o n and Use o f an O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s S c a l e " . Can. J . Econ. P o l . S c i . v o l . 24, pp. 521-31. Brown, M.C. (1955). "The S t a t u s o f Jobs and O c c u p a t i o n s E v a l u a t e d by an Urban Negro Sample". Amer. S o c i o l . Rev, v o l . 20, pp. 5 6 I - 6 6 . C e n t e r s , R. (1948). " A t t i t u d e and B e l i e f i n R e l a t i o n t o O c c u p a t i o n a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n " . J ^ Soc. P s y c h o l , v o l . 27, pp. 159-85. C e n t e r s , R. (1949)• The P s y c h o l o g y o f S o c i a l C l a s s e s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . C e n t e r s , R. (1952-53). " S o c i a l C l a s s , O c c u p a t i o n , and Imputed B e l i e f " . Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 58* pp. 543-55. C o n g a l t o n , A.A. (1953)• " S o c i a l G r a d i n g o f O c c u p a t i o n s i n New Z e a l a n d " . B r i t . J . S o c i o l . v o l . 4 , pp. 45-59-Counts, G.S. (1925). "The S o c i a l S t a t u s o f - O c c u p a t i o n s : A Problem I n " V o c a t i o n a l Guidance". Sch. Rev, v o l . 33* pp. 16-27. 93 Coutu, ¥. (1935-36). "The R e l a t i v e P r e s t i g e o f Twenty O c c u p a t i o n s as Judged by Three Groups o f P r o f e s s i o n a l S t u d e n t s " . Soc. F o r c e s . v o l . 14, pp. 522-29. D a v i e s , A.F. (1952). " P r e s t i g e of O c c u p a t i o n s " . B r i t . J .  S o c i o l . v o l . 3 , pp. 134-47. D a v i s , A. (1944). " S o c i a l i z a t i o n and A d o l e s c e n t P e r s o n a l i t y " . I n N.B. Henry ( e d . ) , The F o u r t y - T h i r d Yearbook. P a r t I . Ad o l e s c e n c e . C h i c a g o , 111.: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a . D a v i s , J . (1926-27). " T e s t i n g the S o c i a l A t t i t u d e s o f C h i l d r e n i n the Government S c h o o l s o f R u s s i a " . Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 32, pp. 947-52. Douvan, E. (1956). " S o c i a l S t a t u s and Success S t r i v i n g " . J . Abnorm. Soc. P s y c h o l , v o l . 52 , pp. 219-23. Form, W.H. (1946). "Toward an O c c u p a t i o n a l S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y " . J . Soc. P s y c h o l , v o l . 24, pp. 85-99-Gar "bin, A.P., and B a t e s , F.L. (1961) . " O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e : An E m p i r i c a l Study o f i t s C o r r e l a t e s " . Soc. F o r c e s . v o l . 40 , pp. 131-36. G a r b i n , A.P., and B a t e s , F.L. (1966). " O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e and i t s C o r r e l a t e s : A R e - e x a m i n a t i o n " . Soc. F o r c e s . v o l . 45, pp. 295-302. G u s f i e l d , J.R., and Sc h w a r t z , M. (1963). "The Meanings o f O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e : R e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the NORC S c a l e " . Amer. S o c i o l . Rev, v o l . 28, pp. 265-71. H a l l , J . , and J o n e s , D.C. (1950). " S o c i a l G r a d i n g o f O c c u p a t i o n s " . B r i t . J . S o c i o l . v o l . 1, pp. 31-55. Hartmann, G.W. (1936). "The R e l a t i v e S o c i a l P r e s t i g e o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e M e d i c a l S p e c i a l i t i e s " . J . A p p l .  P s y c h o l , v o l . 20, pp. 659-63. H a t t , P.K. (1949-50). " O c c u p a t i o n and S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n " . Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 55 , pp. 533-43. Hodge, R.W., S i e g e l , ' P . M . , and R o s s i , P.H. (1964-65). " O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1925-63". Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 70 , pp. 286-302. H o l l i n g s h e a d , A.B. (1949). Elmtown's Youth. New York: W i l e y and Sons. 94 Hyman, H.H. (1953). "The V a l u e Systems o f D i f f e r e n t C l a s s e s : A S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o n t r i b u t i o n to the A n a l y s i s o f S t r a t i f i c a t i o n " . I n R. B e n d i x and S.M. L i p s e t ( e d s . ) , C l a s s , S t a t u s and Power. Glencoe, 111.: F r e e P r e s s . I n h e l d e r , B., and P i a g e t , J . (1958). The Growth of L o g i c a l  T h i n k i n g . New York: B a s i c Books. I n k e l e s , A., and R o s s i , P.H. (1955-56). " N a t i o n a l Comparisons o f O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e " . Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 6 l , pp. 329-39. K r i e s b e r g , L. (1962). "The B a s i s o f O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e : The Case o f D e n t i s t s " . Amer. S o c i o l . Rev, v o l . 27, pp. 238-44. Lehman, H.C, and W i t t y , P.A. (1931-32). " F u r t h e r Study o f the S o c i a l S t a t u s o f O c c u p a t i o n s " . C_ Educ. S o c i o l . v o l . 5 , PP. 101-12. Menger, C. (1931-32). "The S o c i a l S t a t u s of O c c u p a t i o n s f o r Women". Teach. C o l l . Rec. v o l . 33, pp. 696-704. N a t i o n a l O p i n i o n R e s e a r c h Center (1953). " O c c u p a t i o n s : A P o p u l a r E v a l u a t i o n " . I n R. B e n d i x and S.M. L i p s e t ( e d s . ) , C l a s s , S t a t u s and Power. Glencoe, 111.: Free P r e s s . N e l s o n , H.A., and McDonagh, E . C (1961) . " P e r c e p t i o n of S t a t u s e s and Images of S e l e c t e d O c c u p a t i o n s " . S o c i o l . Soc. Res. v o l . 46, pp. 3 - l 6 . N i e t z , J.A. (1934-35). "The D e p r e s s i o n and the S o c i a l S t a t u s o f O c c u p a t i o n s " . Elem. Sch. J . v o l . 35, pp. 4 5 4 - 6 1 . O r t , R.S. (1952). "A' Study o f R o l e - C o n f l i c t s as R e l a t e d t o C l a s s L e v e l " . J . Abnorm. Soc. P s y c h o l , v o l . 47, pp. 425-32. Osgood, C.E., and S t a g n e r , R. ( 1 9 4 l ). " A n a l y s i s o f a P r e s t i g e Frame of R e f e r e n c e by a G r a d i e n t T echnique". J . A p p l . P s y c h o l , v o l . 25, pp. 275-90. Ramsey, C.E., and S m i t h , R.J. (1959-60). "Japanese and American P e r c e p t i o n s o f O c c u p a t i o n s " . Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 65, pp.- 4 7 5 . - 8 2 . R e i s s , A . J . , - J r . , Duncan, C D . , H a t t , P.K., and N o r t h , C C . (1961). O c c u p a t i o n s and S o c i a l S t a t u s . New York: F r e e P r e s s o f Glen c o e . 95 Rosenheim, D., and Greenwald, J.A. (1965) . "The E f f e c t s of Age, Sex and Socioeconomic C l a s s on Re s p o n s i v e n e s s to Two C l a s s e s o f V e r b a l R e i n f o r c e m e n t " . P e r s . v o l . 33, PP. 108-21. R o s s i , P.H., and I n k e l e s , A. (1957)• " M u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l R a t i n g s o f O c c u p a t i o n s ' . S o c i o m e t r y . v o l . 20, pp. 234-51. Simpson, R.L., and Simpson, I.H. (I96O-61). " C o r r e l a t e s and E s t i m a t i o n o f O c c u p a t i o n a l P r e s t i g e " . Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 66, pp. 135-40. S m i t h , M. (1943). "An E m p i r i c a l S c a l e o f P r e s t i g e S t a t u s o f O c c u p a t i o n s " . Amer. S o c i o l . Rev, v o l . 8, pp. 185-92. S t e v e n s , R.B. (1940). "The A t t i t u d e s o f C o l l e g e Women Toward Women's O c c u p a t i o n s " . J . A p p l . P s y c h o l , v o l . 24, pp. 615-27. T a f t , R. (1953). "The S o c i a l G r a d i n g o f Oc c u p a t i o n s i n A u s t r a l i a " . B r i t . J . S o c i o l . v o l . 4 , pp. 181-88. T e r r e l l , G., J r . , D u r k i n , K., and W i e s l e y , M. (1959). " S o c i a l C l a s s and the Nature of the I n c e n t i v e i n D i s c r i m i n a t i o n L e a r n i n g " . J ^ Ahnorm. Soc. P s y c h o l . v o l . 59 , PP. 270-72. T i r y a k i a n , E.A. (1957-58). "The P r e s t i g e E v a l u a t i o n o f Oc c u p a t i o n s i n an Underdeveloped Country: the P h i l i p p i n e s " . Amer. J . S o c i o l . v o l . 63, pp. 390-99. Tuckman, J . (1947). " S o c i a l S t a t u s o f O c c u p a t i o n s i n Canada". Can. J . P s y c h o l , v o l . 1, pp. 71-74. W e i n s t e i n , E.A. (1956). "Weights A s s i g n e d by C h i l d r e n t o C r i t e r i a o f P r e s t i g e " . S o c i o m e t r y . . v o l . 19, pp. 126-32. W e i n s t e i n , E.A. (1958). " C h i l d r e n ' s C o n c e p t i o n s of O c c u p a t i o n a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n " . S o c i o l . Soc. Res. v o l . 42, pp. 278-84. W i l l i a m s o n , R.C. (1962). " S o c i a l C l a s s D e t e r m i n a n t s o f P e r c e p t i o n and Adjustment i n an A d o l e s c e n t and A d u l t Sample: E l S a l v a d o r " . J ^ Soc. P s y c h o l , v o l . 57, pp. 11-21. Z i g l e r , E., and de L a b r y , J . (1962). " C o n c e p t - S w i t c h i n g i n M i d d l e - C l a s s , L o w e r - C l a s s , and R e t a r d e d C h i l d r e n " . J . Abnorm. Soc. P s y c h o l , v o l . 65, pp. 267-73. APPENDIX I PART I : THE QUESTIONNAIRE OCCUPATIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE Grade B i r t h d a y F a t h e r 1 s O c c u p a t i o n SAMPLE QUESTIONS (A) AIRPLANE PILOT (B) STREET SWEEPER (C) ECONOMIST E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one 1. CARPENTER 2 . NEWSPAPER COLUMNIST 3. RAILROAD CONDUCTOR 4. ARTIST WHO PAINTS GALLERY PICTURES 97 PAGE 2 E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r ate t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one 98 5. SOCIAL WORKER FOR A CITY 6. AUTHOR OF NOVELS 7. ELECTRICIAN 8. REPORTER FOR A DAILY NEWSPAPER E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one PAGE 3 E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one 9. MAILMAN 1 0 . MUSICIAN 1 1 . SMALL STORE MANAGER IN A CITY 1 2 . POLICEMAN 99 E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how t o r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one E x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g Good s t a n d i n g Average s t a n d i n g Somewhat below average s t a n d i n g Poor s t a n d i n g I don't know how to r a t e t h a t one 13. POWER Ca r p e n t e r Newspaper C o l u m n i s t R a i l r o a d Conductor A r t i s t who p a i n t s G a l l e r y P i c t u r e s . S o c i a l Worker f o r a C i t y A u thor o f N o v e l s E l e c t r i c i a n R e p o r t e r f o r a D a i l y Newspaper. . . Mailman M u s i c i a n i n a Symphony O r c h e s t r a . . S m a l l S t o r e Manager i n a C i t y . . . P o l i c e m a n 14. WORKING CONDITIONS C a r p e n t e r Newspaper C o l u m n i s t R a i l r o a d Conductor A r t i s t who p a i n t s G a l l e r y P i c t u r e s . S o c i a l Worker f o r a C i t y A u thor of N o v e l s E l e c t r i c i a n R e p o r t e r f o r a D a i l y Newspaper. . . Mailman M u s i c i a n i n a Symphony O r c h e s t r a . . S m a l l S t o r e Manager i n a C i t y . . . P o l i c e m a n 100 H HH A\7 MX L EX G AV F P 101 15. SECURITY C a r p e n t e r Newspaper C o l u m n i s t R a i l r o a d Conductor A r t i s t who p a i n t s G a l l e r y P i c t u r e s . S o c i a l Worker f o r a C i t y A u thor o f N o v e l s E l e c t r i c i a n R e p o r t e r f o r a D a i l y Newspaper. . . Mailman M u s i c i a n i n a Symphony O r c h e s t r a . . S m a l l S t o r e Manager i n a C i t y . . . P o l i c e m a n 16. INCOME DURING TRAINING Ca r p e n t e r Newspaper C o l u m n i s t R a i l r o a d Conductor A r t i s t who p a i n t s G a l l e r y P i c t u r e s . S o c i a l Worker f o r a C i t y Author o f N o v e l s E l e c t r i c i a n R e p o r t e r f o r a D a i l y Newspaper. . . Mailman M u s i c i a n i n a Symphony O r c h e s t r a . . S m a l l S t o r e Manager i n a C i t y . . . P o l i c e m a n EX G AV F P PAGE 5 H MH AV ML L 102 1 7 . EDUCATION C a r p e n t e r Newspaper C o l u m n i s t R a i l r o a d Conductor A r t i s t who p a i n t s G a l l e r y P i c t u r e s . S o c i a l Worker f o r a C i t y A u thor o f N o v e l s E l e c t r i c i a n R e p o r t e r f o r a D a i l y Newspaper. . . Mailman M u s i c i a n i n a Symphony O r c h e s t r a . . S m a l l S t o r e Manager i n a C i t y . . . P o l i c e m a n 1 8 . AVERAGE INCOME Ca r p e n t e r Newspaper C o l u m n i s t R a i l r o a d Conductor A r t i s t who p a i n t s G a l l e r y P i c t u r e s . S o c i a l Worker f o r a C i t y . . . . . . Aut h o r o f N o v e l s E l e c t r i c i a n R e p o r t e r f o r a D a i l y Newspaper. . . Mailman . . . . M u s i c i a n i n a Symphony O r c h e s t r a . . S m a l l S t o r e Manager i n a C i t y . . . P o l i c e m a n H MH AV ML L H MH AV ML L 103 PART 2: ORAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR THE QUESTIONNAIRE T h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s p a r t of a s u r v e y Toeing done at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The aim o f the s u r v e y i s t o f i n d out what p e o p l e t h i n k of a number of o c c u p a t i o n s . F i r s t I would l i k e you t o f i l l out the i n f o r m a t i o n on the f i r s t page o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and t h e n I w i l l show you how t o answer the q u e s t i o n s . Look at the box a t the top o f the f i r s t page. A f t e r the word "grade", w r i t e . A f t e r the word " b i r t h d a y " , w r i t e the month, the day, and the year of your b i r t h . The n e x t q u e s t i o n i s about your f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n or j o b . I don't want t o know where your f a t h e r works, b u t what he does. I f you do n o t l i v e w i t h your f a t h e r , w r i t e down your mother's j o b , or the job of the p e r s o n you l i v e w i t h . Are t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? P l e a s e p u t down your p e n c i l s . You know t h a t t h e r e are l o t s o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f j o b s , and l o t s o f p e o p l e l i k e t h e i r own k i n d o f job b e s t . B u t most p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t some j o b s are b e t t e r t h a n o t h e r s . F o r example, most peop l e t h i n k t h a t a d o c t o r i s a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p e r s o n i n the community, and t h a t he has an e x c e l l e n t j o b . We say t h a t he has " e x c e l l e n t s t a n d i n g " i n the community. Now, most p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t a f a c t o r y owner has a good j o b , b u t n o t as good as t h a t o f a d o c t o r . So most p e o p l e say t h a t a f a c t o r y owner has "good s t a n d i n g " , t h a t i s , t h a t he has a good j o b . Most p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t a farmer does not have as good a job as a f a c t o r y owner or a d o c t o r , and so most peop l e would say t h a t a farmer has an "average s t a n d i n g " i n the community, or an average j o b . Now, t h i n k about a b a r b e r . Most p e o p l e t h i n k t h a t a b a r b e r does not have as good a job as a f a r m e r . So t h e y would say t h a t he has a job w hich has "somewhat below average s t a n d i n g " . A shoe-s h i n e r , most p e o p l e t h i n k , has a poor j o b , so t hey would say h i s job has "poor s t a n d i n g " . Now, you may n o t agree w i t h what these people have s a i d . There are no " r i g h t " or "wrong" ways of t h i n k i n g about these j o b s , and many peopl e would d i s a g r e e w i t h what I have s a i d about the d o c t o r , the f a c t o r y owner, the f a r m e r , the b a r b e r , and the s h o e s h i n e r . Now I want you t o t e l l me what you t h i n k o f some j o b s . Remember, t h e r e are no " r i g h t " a n s w e r s - - ! want t o know what you t h i n k , what your o p i n i o n i s . 104 Look at the questions under the box. The f i r s t job i s " a i r p l a n e p i l o t " . To the r i g h t are six. p o s s i b l e answers--"excellent standing", "good standing", "average standing", "somewhat below average standing", "poor standing", and " I don't know how to ra t e t h a t one". You a l l know what an a i r p l a n e p i l o t does, but i f you d i d n ' t , you would choose " I don't know how to ra t e that one". Now t h i n k about the other f i v e answers. Do you t h i n k that a p i l o t has an e x c e l l e n t , a good, an average, a somewhat below average, or a poor job? What do you think? Then you und e r l i n e . Does anyone t h i n k something d i f f e r e n t ? . You und e r l i n e . Now everyone underline the answer he t h i n k s i s best. Look at the next question. The next job i s " s t r e e t sweeper". What k i n d of job do you t h i n k that i s - - e x c e l l e n t , good, average, somewhat below average, or poor? What do you thi n k ? Then und e r l i n e . And you? Then underline . Now everyone underline the answer he th i n k s best. Now look at the l a s t question. Of the three j o b s , t h i s i s the one you may not know enough about to give an o p i n i o n . How many don't know what an economist does? Then you w i l l u n d e r l i n e " I don't know how to ra t e that one". I f you do know, underline what you t h i n k i s the best answer. Are there any questions? Please put down your p e n c i l s . Turn to the next page. On t h i s page and the next are twelve jobs or occupations. Let us read them over together — carpenter, newspaper columnist, r a i l r o a d conductor, a r t i s t who p a i n t s g a l l e r y p i c t u r e s , s o c i a l worker f o r a c i t y , author of novels, e l e c t r i c i a n , r e p o r t e r f o r a d a i l y newspaper, mailman, musician i n a symphony o r c h e s t r a , small store manager i n a c i t y , and policeman. Now t u r n back to page two, which begins with "carpenter". For each j o b , u n d e r l i n e the answer that you t h i n k best describes that j o b , o r , I f you don't know how to answer, underline " I don't know how to ra t e that one". Are there any questions? When you f i n i s h the f i r s t s i x questions, t u r n to page three and ra t e the l a s t s i x . Then put down your p e n c i l and wait u n t i l everyone i s f i n i s h e d . Then I w i l l t e l l you what to do next. Is everyone f i n i s h e d ? Turn over to the next page. 105 L o o k a t t h e q u e s t i o n a t t h e t o p o f t h e p a g e , number t h i r t e e n . You w i l l see t h a t a l l t h e o c c u p a t i o n s w h i c h y o u h a v e j u s t r a t e d a r e l i s t e d h e r e , , u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g "power". To t h e r i g h t o f e a c h o c c u p a t i o n a r e f i v e s p a c e s , h e a d e d H, MH, AV, ML, and L. T h e s e l e t t e r s s t a n d f o r " h i g h " , " m o d e r a t e l y h i g h " , " a v e r a g e " , " m o d e r a t e l y l o w " , and " l o w " . P o w e r , f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , means " i n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s o f o t h e r s , e i t h e r e m p l o y e e s o r members o f t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c " . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e mayor o f a l a r g e c i t y m i g h t be t h o u g h t t o h a v e a l o t o f p o w e r , s i n c e he makes d e c i s i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t e v e r y o n e who l i v e s i n t h e c i t y , a nd r u n s t h e c i t y g o v e r n m e n t , b y w h i c h a l o t o f p e o p l e a r e e m p l o y e d . I f y o u t h o u g h t t h a t he h a d a " h i g h " amount o f p o w e r , y o u w o u l d p u t an "X" i n t h e s p a c e o p p o s i t e t h a t o c c u -p a t i o n and u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g "H". What a b o u t t h e owner o f a l a r g e f a c t o r y ? What do y o u t h i n k ? T h e n y o u w o u l d p u t an "X" i n t h e c o l u m n h e a d e d Does anyone t h i n k d i f f e r e n t l y ? ~ THen y o u w o u l d p u t an "X" u n d e r . What a b o u t a s t r e e t s w e e p e r ? T h e n y o u w o u l d p u t an "X" u n d e r . Now t h i n k o f t h e t w e l v e o c c u p a t i o n s g i v e n h e r e , b e g i n n i n g w i t h " c a r p e n t e r " . D e c i d e how much power he h a s , i n y o u r o p i n i o n - -a h i g h amount, a m o d e r a t e l y h i g h , an a v e r a g e , a m o d e r a t e l y l o w , o r a l o w amount o f p o w e r , o f I n f l u e n c e o v e r t h e a c t i o n s and d e c i s i o n s o f o t h e r s , e i t h e r e m p l o y e e s o r t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c . T h e n p u t a n "X" i n t h e s p a c e t h a t i s p r o v i d e d . When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d r a t i n g a l l t w e l v e o c c u p a t i o n s , p u t down y o u r p e n c i l and w a i t u n t i l e v e r y o n e i s f i n i s h e d . A r e t h e r e a n y q u e s t i o n s ? Q u e s t i o n f o u r t e e n i s a b o u t " w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s " . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s w i l l mean " o n - t h e - j o b c o n d i t i o n s s u c h as t h e number o f h o u r s one w o r k s , w h e t h e r one h a s r e g u l a r h o u r s , w h e t h e r one w o r k s a t n i g h t o r i n t h e d a y , and how s a f e and c l e a n o n e ' s s u r r o u n d i n g s a r e " . F o r i n s t a n c e , a s a i l o r m i g h t be t h o u g h t t o h a v e p o o r w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s b e c a u s e he g o es o n l o n g v o y a g e s away f r o m home, and he may h a v e t o w o r k i n wet and c o l d w e a t h e r . A t e a c h e r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w o r k s i n d o o r s , h a s l o n g h o l i d a y s , and w o r k s where i t i s s a f e and c l e a n and warm. To t h e r i g h t o f q u e s t i o n f o u r t e e n a r e t h e l e t t e r s EX, G, AV, F, and P. T h e s e s t a n d f o r " e x c e l l e n t " , " g o o d " , " a v e r a g e " , " f a i r " and " p o o r " . 'Judge e a c h o c c u p a t i o n o n t h e b a s i s o f how g ood y o u t h i n k t h e w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s a r e . When y o u f i n i s h , p u t down y o u r p e n c i l a nd w a i t u n t i l e v e r y o n e i s d one. A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? Q u e s t i o n f i f t e e n i s a b o u t " s e c u r i t y " . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s means b o t h j o b and income s e c u r i t y - - t h a t i s , a p e r s o n e m p l o y e d i n a j o b i s s e c u r e i f "he i s u n l i k e l y t o be f i r e d o r be o u t o f w o r k , and i f he w i l l be 106 e l i g i b l e f o r a p e n s i o n when he r e t i r e s " . A t e a c h e r , f o r i n s t a n c e , o f t e n w o r k s i n t h e same s c h o o l a l l h i s l i f e , a n d when he s t o p s w o r k i n g , he s t i l l r e c e i v e s a p a r t o f h i s s a l a r y i n t h e f o r m o f a p e n s i o n . A man who owns and r u n s a p o p - c o r n wagon o r a l u n c h s t a n d , h o w e v e r , may no l o n g e r make much money i f p e o p l e h a v e l i t t l e money t o s p e n d , o r i f t h e y g e t t i r e d o f e a t i n g p o p - c o r n o r s a n d w i c h e s , and when he s t o p s w o r k i n g when he i s o l d , he must l i v e o n t h e money he h a s s a v e d . A g a i n , t h e l e t t e r s a t t h e h e a d o f e a c h c o l u m n s t a n d f o r " e x c e l l e n t " , " g o o d " , " a v e r a g e " , " f a i r " , a n d " p o o r " . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? When y o u h a v e f i n i s h e d , p u t down y o u r p e n c i l and w a i t f o r e v e r y o n e t o f i n i s h . T u r n t o t h e n e x t p a g e , page f i v e . The s i x t e e n t h q u e s t i o n i s a b o u t income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s w i l l mean " t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h a p e r s o n j u s t e n t e r i n g t h i s o c c u p a t i o n o r j o b i s s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g w h i l e he i s l e a r n i n g h i s j o b , i g n o r i n g l e n g t h o f t r a i n i n g . " T h a t i s , i n most j o b s a p e r s o n n e e d s some s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g b e s i d e s what he g e t s i n s c h o o l , and t h i s t r a i n i n g d i f f e r s f r o m one j o b t o a n o t h e r . A d o c t o r , f o r i n s t a n c e , must f i n i s h g r a d e t w e l v e a n d t h e n t a k e a t l e a s t s e v e n y e a r s o f t r a i n i n g a t u n i v e r s i t i e s a n d h o s p i t a l s . D u r i n g t h a t t i m e , he makes no money e x c e p t a s m a l l amount i n h i s l a s t y e a r o f t r a i n i n g i n a h o s p i t a l . So we c o u l d s a y t h a t h i s i n come d u r i n g t r a i n i n g i s l o w , b e c a u s e he c a n n o t s u p p o r t h i m s e l f o n w h a t he makes d u r i n g h i s t r a i n i n g . I n some j o b s , h o w e v e r , a p e r s o n i s p a i d a t l e a s t s o m e t h i n g w h i l e one i s l e a r n i n g t h e j o b . A g i r l who i s g o i n g t o be a w a i t r e s s , f o r i n s t a n c e , u s u a l l y g e t s p a i d as much o r n e a r l y as much as o t h e r w a i t r e s s e s a t t h e same r e s t a u r a n t who have h a d e x p e r i e n c e . So we c a n s a y t h a t t h e w a i t r e s s g e t s more income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g t h a n t h e d o c t o r d o e s . A g a i n , t h e l e t t e r s a t t h e h e a d o f e a c h c o l u m n s t a n d f o r " h i g h " , " m o d e r a t e l y h i g h " , " a v e r a g e " , " m o d e r a t e l y l o w " and " l o w " . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? When y o u a r e f i n i s h e d , p u t down y o u r p e n c i l and w a i t f o r e v e r y o n e t o f i n i s h . Q u e s t i o n s e v e n t e e n i s a b o u t e d u c a t i o n . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s means how much " f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n - -t h a t i s , a t a h i g h s c h o o l o r u n i v e r s i t y — w h i c h a p e r s o n i n one o f t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s h a s , o n t h e a v e r a g e . " The d o c t o r , f o r i n s t a n c e , h a s a t l e a s t 19 y e a r s o f e d u c a t i o n - - t w e l v e i n h i g h s c h o o l , s i x ,at u n i v e r s i t y , and one i n a h o s p i t a l . So we w o u l d s a y t h a t he h a d a l o t o f e d u c a t i o n . B u t e d u c a t i o n d o e s n ' t m a t t e r so much i f y o u a r e a w a i t r e s s , so y o u m i g h t be a b l e t o g e t t h a t j o b i f y o u h a d v e r y l i t t l e e d u c a t i o n , s a y e i g h t o r t e n y e a r s i n s c h o o l . A g a i n , t h e l e t t e r s a t t h e h e a d o f e a c h c o l u m n s t a n d f o r " h i g h " , " m o d e r a t e l y h i g h " , " a v e r a g e " , " m o d e r a t e l y l o w " and " l o w " . 107 When y o u a r e f i n i s h e d , p u t down y o u r p e n c i l a n d w a i t f o r e v e r y o n e t o f i n i s h . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? The l a s t q u e s t i o n , number e i g h t e e n , i s a b o u t a v e r a g e i n c o m e . F o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , t h i s means "how much a p e r s o n w i t h t h i s j o b w o u l d be l i k e l y t o make, o n t h e a v e r a g e , d u r i n g a l l t h e y e a r s he w o r k s . " Now, most p e o p l e w o r k f o r 40 o r 50 y e a r s d u r i n g t h e i r l i v e s , b u t t h e amount o f money t h e y make depends a l o t o n what j o b t h e y w o r k a t . F o r i n s t a n c e , a l t h o u g h a d o c t o r does n o t make any money u n t i l he i s 25 o r more, b e c a u s e he h a s t o go t o s c h o o l and u n i v e r s i t y f o r so many y e a r s , he c a n make a g r e a t d e a l o f money once he b e g i n s t o w o r k . A s t r e e t s w e e p e r , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , may s t a r t t o w o r k when he i s v e r y y o u n g , b e c a u s e he d o e s n ' t n e e d much e d u c a t i o n , b u t he does n o t g e t v e r y much money, and h i s s a l a r y w i l l p r o b a b l y be v e r y much t h e same a l l h i s l i f e . A g a i n , t h e l e t t e r s a t t h e h e a d o f e a c h c o l u m n s t a n d f o r " h i g h " , " m o d e r a t e l y h i g h " , " a v e r a g e " , " m o d e r a t e l y l o w " and " l o w " . A r e t h e r e any q u e s t i o n s ? W o u l d t h e l a s t p e r s o n i n t h e row p l e a s e c o l l e c t a l l t h e que s t i o n n a i r e s ? Thank y o u a l l v e r y much f o r h e l p i n g me. APPENDIX I I TABLE A: PROPORTION OP SUBJECTS GIVING "EXCELLENT" AND "GOOD" RATINGS, AND RESULTING RANKINGS by N.O.R.C. males, N.O.R.C. 14-20 year o l d s , and by age groups i n the p r e s e n t s t u d y 1. .By Age Groups $ " E x c e l l e n t " , "Good" R a n k i n g STUDY NORC PRESENT STUDY NORC PRESENT STUDY AGE a d u l t 14-20 9-10 12-3 15-6 17-8 a d u l t 14-20 9-10 12-3 15-6 17-8 N 1414 453 50 50 51 50 1414 453 50 50 51 - 50 ARTIST 87 85 77 62 38 52 1 1 2^ ^ 2 3 7 5 AUTHOR 74 81 56 77 71 84 2 2 5 1* 1 MUSICIAN 71 78 70 61 71 64 3 3 4 4 i£ 2 COLUMNIST 65 64 50 59 49 50 4 5 9 5 5 6 REPORTER 53 56 55 41 31 36 5 6 6^ 8 8 8 SOCIAL WORKER 52 66 55 54 51 60 4 6^ ^ 2 7 4 3 ELECTRICIAN 52 54 77 56 53 48 6^ 7 21-^ 2 6 3 7 STORE MANAGER 45 39 19 . 16 10 24 8 9 12 12 12 9 CONDUCTOR 38 30 53 22 14 10 9 11 8 11 11 10 POLICEMAN 36 47 86 77 45 53 10 8 l iir 6 4 CARPENTER 32 31 37 28 20 8 l l 10 11 10 9 i H i MAILMAN 31 29 41 32 20 8 12 12 10 9 9 i l l - | H O CO 1 0 9 TABLE A: PROPORTION OF SUBJECTS GIVING "EXCELLENT" AND . , "GOOD" RATINGS, AND RESULTING RANKINGS (CONT'D.) 2 . By Age - S t a t u s Groups jo " E x c e l l e n t " and "Good" N 22 28 27 23 26 25 2 4 26 99 1 0 2 AGE 9 - 10 1 2 - 13 1 5 - • 1 6 1 7 - •18 CLASS L u L U L u L u L u ARTIST 86 7 0 63 6 l 36 40 4 1 62 5 6 5 8 AUTHOR 65 5 0 7 1 83 65 96 7 8 88 70 7 4 MUSICIAN 7 3 68 5 8 65 5 8 84 67 62 63 7 0 COLUMNIST 65 46 5 2 68 62 36 33 65 5 3 5 4 REPORTER 7 7 37 27 5 7 38 24 37 35 4 4 38 SOCIAL WORKER 7 4 38 5 2 57 31 7 2 42 7 7 48 62 ELECTRICIAN 8 l 7 4 5 9 5 2 65 40 5 4 4 2 64 5 2 STORE MANAGER 23 15 22 9 1 2 8 26 23 20 1 4 CONDUCTOR 7 1 39 30 1 3 23 4 17 4 3 4 16 POLICEMAN 91 82 80 7 4 42 48 70 38 7 0 6 1 CARPENTER 55 22 37 17 19 20 4 12 28 18 MAILMAN 50 33 4 4 17 8 32 12 4 28 22 R a n k i n g ARTIST 2 3 3 5 7 5i 6 4 ! 5 5 AUTHOR &! 5 2 1 1 | 2 1 1 1 ! 1 MUSICIAN 6 4 5 4 4 1 3 4 2 COLUMNIST 8 ! 6 6 i 3 3 7 8 3 6 6 REPORTER 4 9 11 6 i 6 9 7 8 8 8 SOCIAL WORKER 5 8 6| 6^ " 2 8 3 5 2 7 3 ELECTRICIAN 3 2 4 8 1 * % 4 6 3 7 STORE MANAGER 12 1 2 1 2 12 1 1 l l 9 9 1 2 12 CONDUCTOR 7 7 10 1 1 9 12 10 H i 9 1 1 POLICEMAN 1 1 1 2 5 4 ' 2 7 l ! 4 CARPENTER 10 1 1 9 9i 10 10 12 10 1 0 ! 10 MAILMAN i i 10 8 9i 12 8 1 1 1 1 ! 1 0 ! 9 110 TABLE B: STEP-REGRESSION CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PRESTIGE AND OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS by the t o t a l s u b j e c t group, age groups, c l a s s g r o u p s , and a g e - c l a s s groups GROUP POWER SEC. EDUC. WORKING CONDITIONS INCOME AVERAGE DURING INCOME TRAINING a l l .36 .24 .35 .27 .11 .36 9-10 .35 .28 .31 .18 .07 .37 12-13 .34 .17 .29 .19 .11 .34 15-16 • 34 • 31 .37 .35 .20 .38 17-18 .39 .18 .39 .33 .02 .40 lower upper .37 .35 .27 .20 • 35 • 34 .29 .26 .17 .06 .37 .36 9-10 lower .29 .36 .28 .25 :o8 .40 9-10 upper • 39 .17 .29 .10 .05 .33 12-13 lower .33 • 17 .28 .16 .06 • 34 12-13 upper .35 .17 • 32 .24 .17 .35 15-16 lower M • 33 .38 .38 .31 .40 15-16 upper .25 .29 .36 .32 .10 .36 17-18 lower .42 • 19 • 38 .30 .13 .40 17-18 upper .37 .16 .40 .36 -.10 .40 I l l TABLE C : REGRESSION FORMULAE f o r age groups, s t a t u s groups, a g e - s t a t u s groups, and t o t a l s u b j e c t group Code: Each "X" r e p r e s e n t s the p e r c e n t a g e o f " e x c e l l e n t " and "good" r a t i n g s g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n s on a g i v e n occu-p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . •They are l i s t e d i n the o r d e r I n w h i c h t h e y were s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to p r e s t i g e i n the r e g r e s s i o n 'formulae f o r the t o t a l s u b j e c t group. Xj_ : p r e s t i g e X^ : average income X^ r: w o r k i n g c o n d i t i o n s X^ : power Xg : s e c u r i t y X^ : e d u c a t i o n X^ : income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g I n the t a b l e s w h i c h f o l l o w , independent v a r i a b l e s are l i s t e d i n the o r d e r i n which t h e y are s i g n i f i c a n t l y . r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e . Formulae u s i n g up t o one t o s i x independent v a r i a b l e s are g i v e n , e x c e p t when, f o r a p a r t i c u l a r group, a l l were not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p r e s t i g e . For t o t a l s u b j e c t group, u s i n g up t o f i v e independent v a r i a b l e s . X l = .36 x2 .29 R 2 -- • 13 X l = .29 x2 + .29 x3 + .22 R 2 .21 X l = .23 x2 + .25 x3 + .20 X4 + .18 R 2 = .24 x l = .21 x2 + .23 x3 + .18 X4 + .15 X5 + .14 R 2 = .26 X i = .19 x2 + .22 x3 + .17 X4 + .15 x5 + .09 X6 + .13 P R = .26 For 9-1Q year o l d group, u s i n g up t o f i v e independent v a r i a b l e s . X x = .37 X 2 + .41 R 2 = .14 X± - .30 X 2 + .27 X3 + .33 R 2 = .20 X]_ = .24 X 2 + .28 X 3 + .21 Xg + .26 R 2 = .25 X i = .20 X 2 t .26 X 3 + .19 Xg + .15 X4 + .22 R 2 = .27 X i = .20 X 2 t .25 X 3 + .19 Xg + .15 X^ + .12 X 5 +.18 R 2 = .28 112 TABLE C: REGRESSION FORMULAE (CONTINUED) Fo r 12-13 year o l d group, u s i n g up t o t h r e e independent v a r i a b l e s . X - L = . 3 4 X 2 + .31 R 2 = . 12 X _ = . 2 6 X 2 + . 2 8 X 3 f . 2 6 R 2 = . 18 X _ = . 2 2 X 2 t . 2 4 X 3 f .15 X4 - . 2 3 R 2 = . 2 0 F o r 1 5 - l 6 year o l d group, u s i n g up t o s i x independent v a r i a b l e s X_ = .37 X 2 f . 2 2 R 2 = .15 = . 3 0 X 2 t- . Xn = 9  . 2 7 Xc t . 16 R 2 = . 2 1 X X = .25 X 2 <- . 2 3 X5 + . 2 3 X 3 f . 11 R 2 = . 2 6 X x = . 19 X 2 f . 2 1 X^ 4- . 2 0 X 3 t . 18 X4 + . 0 9 R 2 = . 2 8 X_ = .17 X 2 t . 2 1 X 5 + .18 X 3 t . 16 X4 f . 12 Xg f . 0 8 R 2 = . 2 9 X_ = . 16 X 2 f . 2 0 X^ + . 1 8 X 3 + . 16 X^ t . 10 Xg +.09 Xj f . 0 7 R 2 = . 3 0 F o r 17-18 year o l d group, u s i n g up t o f o u r independent v a r i a b l e s . x = . 4 0 x 2 + . 2 0 x_ = . 3 3 x 2 + . 3 2 x 3 + . 11 X_ = .27 X 2 t .27 X 3 t . 2 1 X4 t . 0 7 X i = . 2 4 x 2 + . 2 4 x 3 t . 19 x^ + . 16 x 5 For l ower c l a s s group, u s i n g up t o s i x independent v a r i a b l e s . X_ = . 3 8 X 3 + . 3 4 R 2 = . 14 X_ = . 3 0 X 3 + . 2 9 X 2 + . 2 2 R 2 = . 2 1 X-j_ = .27 X 3 + .27 X 2 + . 1 8 X^ + . 1 8 R 2 = . 2 4 x_ = . 2 5 x 3 * . 2 4 x 2 + . 16 x 5 + .15 X5 + . 14 R 2 = . 2 6 X_ = . 2 2 X 3 t . 2 0 X 2 + .14 X 5 f . 14 X 6 4- . 14 X^ + . 13 R 2 = . 2 8 x_ = . 2 2 x 3 + . 19 x 2 + . 14 x 5 t . 13 X6 -J-.14 X4 - . 0 7 x 7 +.12 R 2 = . 2 8 R 2 = . 16 R 2 = . 2 6 R 2 = . 2 9 + .05 R 2 = • 32 113 TABLE C: REGRESSION FORMULAE (CONTINUED) F o r u p p e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o f o u r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . X _ = .36 X 2 + - .28 R 2 = .13 X _ = .29 X 2 f .28 X 3 + .21 R 2 = .20 X _ = .23 X 2 f .24 X3 + .21 X4 + .16 R 2 = .23 X x = .20 X 2 + .22 X 3 + .20 X ^ + .14 X 5 + .13 R 2 =• .25 F o r 9-10 l o w e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o f o u r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . X x = .38 X 2 + .48 R 2 = .16 X 1 = .32 X 2 + .27 X 6 f .37 R 2 = .24 X 1 _ = .27 X 2 + .28 X g t .22 X 3 + .30 R 2 = .29 X - L = .26 X 2 + .26 X5 t .20 X 3 + .15 X ^ + .24 R 2 = .31 F o r 9-10 u p p e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . x = .40 x3 + .33 R 2 = .15 X - i = .33 Xq + .25 X 0 * .26 R 2 = .21 - A 3 + .dO _ = .31 X 3 t .21 X 2 t . 1 0 X o o f .18 Xu + .22 R 2 = .24 F o r 12-13 l o w e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o two i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . 2 X _ = .34 X 2 f .32 R = .11 X X = .26 X 2 +• .27 X 3 f .28 R 2 = .17 F o r 12-13 u p p e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . X X = .37 X 3 f .35 R 2 = .13 X1 = .32 X 3 -i- .26 X4 f -24 R 2 = .19 X - L = .26 X 3 t .21 X4 + .21 X 2 + .18 R 2 = .23 114 TABLE C: REGRESSION FORMULAE (CONTINUED) F o r 15-16 l o w e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o s i x i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . X 1 = .44 x 3 + .23 R 2 = .18 Xx = .36 X3 «- .31 X 2 + .13 R 2 = .27 X x = .31 f .26 X 2 + .26 X 5 f .07 R 2 = .33 X x = .30 X3 <- .22 X 2 f .24 X 5 4- .24 X 7 t .05 R 2 = .37 X± - .28 X 3 «- .18 X 2 + .22 X ^ f .23 Xj f .15 X ^ f .03 R 2 = .39 X± = .27 X 3 t .17 X 2 + .21 X f .19 X ? i - .14 X4 + .11 X g f 02 R 2 = .39 F o r 1 5 - l 6 u p p e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . X = .36 X 4 f .23 R 2 = .13 X x = .30 X^ f .25 X 5 f .17 R 2 = .19 X± = .22 X^ t- .20 X 5 + .19 X 2 t .14 R 2 = .22 F o r 1 7 - l 8 l o w e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o f o u r i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . X± = .43 X 3 *- .25 R 2 = .18 X± = .35 X 3 f .32 X 2 +• .08 R 2 = .27 x± - .30 x 3 t .26 X 2 f .18 X4 •»- .06 R 2 = .29 X± = .28 X 3 h .24 X 2 ¥ .16 X^ t .11 X^ f .04 R 2 = .31 115 TABLE C: REGRESSION FORMULAE (CONTINUED) F o r 1 7 - l 8 u p p e r c l a s s g r o u p , u s i n g up t o f i v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s . x x = .41 X4 <- .27 R 2 = .16 X X = .32 X ^ »- .31 X 2 f .14 R 2 = .25 X X = .25 X4 f .28 X 2 +- .24 X 3 + .09 R 2 = .30 X _ = .21 X4 »- .25 X 2 f .22 X 3 +• .21 X ^ + .06 R 2 = .34 X - L = .21 X ^ f .28 X 2 f .20 X 3 + .21 X ^ - .17 X 7 f .08 R 2 = .35 116 TABLE D: BETA WEIGHTS FROM REGRESSION FORMULAE by the t o t a l sub jec t group, age groups , c l a s s groups , and a g e - c l a s s groups Note : These b e t a weights are c a l c u l a t e d f r o m , i n each case , t h a t r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a based on a l l r a t i n g s of o c c u -p a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to p r e s t i g e . Three dashes ( ) i n d i c a t e t h a t t h a t p a r t i c u l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to p r e s t i g e f o r t h a t group. Code: POW = power W C = good working c o n d i t i o n s SEC = s e c u r i t y I T = income d u r i n g t r a i n i n g EDU = e d u c a t i o n A I = average Income n . s . = not s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to p r e s t i g e i n the r e g r e s s i o n f o r m u l a GROUP POW SEC EDU W C I T A I a l l .21 .09 .17 .14 n . s . .20 9-10 • 25 .19 .15 .12 n . s . .20 12-13 .23 n . s . .15 n . s . n . s . .21 15-16 • 17 .10 .16 .20 .07 .16 17-18 .24 n . s . • 19 .16 n . s . .24 lower .22 .13 .14 .14 .06 .19 upper .22 n . s . .20 .14 n . s . .21 9-10 lower .21 .28 n . s . .16 .28 9-10 upper • 30 .18 — .20 12-13 lower .25 — .26 12-13 upper .25 .21 — .21 15-16 lower .26 .10 • 13 .21 .15 • 17 15-16 upper • 23 .20 • 19 17-18 lower .28 .16 .11 • 23 17-18 upper .20 .21 .20 .13 .28 117 TABLE E: SPEARMAN'S r CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PRESTIGE AND OCCUPATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 1. by age - s t a t u s groups i n the present study : POW = power -w C = good working cond" SEC = s e c u r i t y I T = income d u r i n g t r a . EDU = e d u c a t i o n A I = average •income Lower C l a s s age POW SEC EDU W C I T A I 9-10 .25 .52 ..43 .33 .25 .37 12-13 .57 .47 • 73 .65 .00 .90 15-16 .63 . .41 .96 .52 .37 • 77 17-18 .65 .10 .76 .49 .18 .37 Upper C l a s s age POW SEC EDU W C I T A I 9-10 .60 .58 .77 .08 .05 .80 12-13 .71 .14 .79 .80 .47 .70 15-16 .54 .14 .81 .69 .24 • 51 17-18 .74 .21 .89 .74 - .56 .72 Age Groups age POW SEC EDU w c I T A I 9-10 .54 -- .45 .78 • - . 0 8 .11 .73 12-13 .71 .39 .76 . 8 4 .06 .83 15-16 .63 .57 • 92 .67 .51 .75 17-18 .75 .20 .88 .73 -•.61 .42 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104456/manifest

Comment

Related Items