UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Social workers' perceptions of child abuse and neglect Blakely, Samuel Elgin 1967

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SOCIAL WORKERS' PERCEPTIONS OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT fey Samuel E l g i n B l a k e l y Nancy E l i z a b e t h C h a t w i n L o u i s E l t o n Reimer Joy H a r c o u r t V e r n o n T h e s i s S u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t of t h e Re q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree of MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n th e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d . S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 1967 The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ABSTRACT T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t c o n c e r n s i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r and h i s p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse. I t i s based on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t a m e a n i n g f u l s t u d y o f n e g l e c t and abuse on a w i d e r s c a l e s h o u l d be p r e c e d e d by s t u d i e s s e e k i n g t o a r r i v e a t a more a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n o f the p r o b l e m . A comprehensive r e v i e w o f the l i t e r a t u r e f o c u s e d on t h e s t a g e w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e p r o b l e m and the i n i t i a l r e f e r r a l o f n e g l e c t and abuse t o a p r o t e c t i v e u n i t o r agency. T h i s r e v i e w i s found i n c h a p t e r two and c o v e r s the a r e a s o f d e f i n i t i o n s , r e f e r r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , agency w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g o f n e g l e c t f u l o r a b u s i v e f a m i l i e s , c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse, i n c i d e n c e and p r e v a l e n c e o f the same, and worke r d e c i s i o n m a king t h a t r e s u l t s i n a r e f e r r a l becoming a p r o t e c t i v e c a s e . A f t e r r e v i e w -i n g each o f t h e s e a r e a s a c r i t i q u e was w r i t t e n . A m e a s u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t was d e v e l o p e d , d r a w i n g from p r i o r s t u d i e s done by B i l l i n g s l e y and Young, i n t h e form of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o t e s t s o c i a l w o r k e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f n e g l e c t and abuse. A p r e t e s t was g i v e n t o one hundred and t h i r t y - t w o s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e C h i l d W e l f a r e f i e l d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . Respondents from f o u r t e e n o f f i c e s i n the Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e - a l l i n d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s , as w e l l as t h e Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , answered the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Thus t h e d a t a was o b t a i n e d from a wide c r o s s s e c t i o n o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s p r e s e n t l y w o r k i n g i n t h e f i e l d o f C h i l d W e l f a r e . The m ain h y p o t h e s i s o f the s t u d y , t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n w o r k e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n o f n e g l e c t and abuse was found t o be v a l i d . T h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d i d p r o v e t o be f r u i t f u l i n making a s t a r t i n o b t a i n i n g d a t a t h a t g i v e s c l u e s as t o how w o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d do p e r c e i v e n e g l e c t and abuse. I t c o u l d a l s o a c t as a s t i m u l u s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s u s i n g some o f t h e d a t a from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t h a t was n o t i n c l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y and moving on t o new r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s w h i c h f o c u s on one a s p e c t o f the p r e s e n t s t u d y and examine i t i n more d e p t h . i v . TABLE-OF CONTENTS Page No. CHAPTER I PROBLEM OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT: PLAN OF RESEARCH I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 Framework of S t u d y and Hypotheses 1 T e s t I n s t r u m e n t 5 S a m p l i n g 9 I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s 10 P r e l i m i n a r y T e s t o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 10 A n a l y s i s P l a n 10 CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT: IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL STAGES. I n t r o d u c t i o n 13 D e f i n i t i o n s 14 N e g l e c t 14 Abuse 16 N e g l e c t and Abuse 17 C r i t i q u e 18 P r o t e c t i v e Case 18 C r i t i q u e . 20 Community P e r c e p t i o n s 20 C r i t i q u e . 22 R e f e r r a l I n f o r m a t i o n 23 Sources o f R e f e r r a l 23 C r i t i q u e 24 R e f e r r a l P r o c e s s 25 C r i t i q u e 26 C r i t e r i a o f R e f e r r a l 27 C r i t i q u e 28 S p e c i a l Problems of R e f e r r a l 29 C r i t i q u e 30 Agency Working. R e l a t i o n s h i p s . 30 C r i t i q u e 33 F a m i l y F u n c t i o n i n g 34 C r i t i q u e . 42 C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f Types o f C h i l d Abuse and N e g l e c t 43 C r i t i q u e 48 I n c i d e n c e and P r e v a l e n c e o f C h i l d N e g l e c t . . . 50 C r i t i q u e 53 C r i t e r i a i n Workers D e c i s i o n M a k i n g 54 C r i t i q u e 55 V . CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTIVE AND STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION : OF ABUSE AND NEGLECT STUDY 57 C o d i n g P r o c e d u r e 59 D e s c r i p t i v e Data 61 The F i n d i n g s . . 65 CHAPTER IV SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH S y n o p s i s o f C h a p t e r I 76 S y n o p s i s o f C h a p t e r I I 78 S y n o p s i s o f C h a p t e r I I I 80 I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study 81 P r o p o s a l s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h 82 BIBLIOGRAPHY 84 APPENDIX A Q u e s t i o n n a i r e and R e l a t e d . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . 90 APPENDIX B C h i l d r e n i n Care r e l a t e d t o R i s k P o p u l a t i o n i n B.C. 1951 - 1961 109 v i . L IST OF TABLES Page No. TABLE I V a r i a b l e s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n Case V i g n e t t e s 8 TABLE I I P e r c e n t a g e Agreements o f P e r c e p t i o n s w i t h "Young M o d e l " 61 TABLE I I I P e r c e i v e d S i m i l a r i t y o f each Case V i g n e t t e t o Worker C a s e l o a d 62 TABLE IV . Worker R a n k i n g of S i t u a t i o n s P r e c e d i n g C o u r t A c t i o n i n C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n Cases 64 TABLE V P e r c e n t a g e o f Agreement on Abuse and N e g l e c t 65 TABLE V I Comparison of P e r c e p t i o n s o f N e g l e c t between C.A.S. and Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e 67 TABLE V I I P e r c e n t a g e o f Checks o f "Severe N e g l e c t " i n a l l N i n e Cases f o r T h i r t e e n O f f i c e s 69 TABLE V I I I Comparisons o f P e r c e p t i o n s o f Abuse Between C.A.S. and Department Workers 70 TABLE IX R e l a t i o n s h i p o f T o t a l D e v i a t i o n i n P e r c e p t i o n of N e g l e c t and Abuse t o S e l e c t e d I n d i v i d u a l S o c i a l Worker V a r i a b l e s 7 2 TABLE X S i z e o f Community o f Worker O r i g i n Compared w i t h P e r c e n t a g e of Workers C h e c k i n g "Severe N e g l e c t " 73 TABLE X I Community of Worker O r i g i n Compared w i t h P e r c e n t a g e o f Workers C h e c k i n g "Abuse A b s e n t " 74 v i i . L I ST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Page No. NO. 1 The e a r l y s t a g e of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and R e f e r r a l o f C h i l d N e g l e c t and Abuse 7 9 v i i i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We w i s h t o thank Dr. John A. Crane, t h e s i s a d v i s o r , whose e x p e r t knowledge has been o f i n v a l u a b l e h e l p t o us. He has g i v e n g e n e r o u s l y o f h i s t i m e and g u i d e d us w i t h much p a t i e n c e . Our a p p r e c i a t i o n i s extended t o t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e and t he Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . Because so many p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h i s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o acknowledge i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t t o anyone who made a c o n t r i b u t i o n we e x t e n d our s i n c e r e t h a n k s . SOCIAL WORKERS' PERCEPTIONS OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT CHAPTER I PROBLEM OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT PLAN OF RESEARCH INTRODUCTION The p r o c e s s e s l e a d i n g up t o the c u s t o d i a l c a r e o f c h i l d r e n f o r r e a s o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse, can be examined i n terms of a c o n c e p t u a l framework w h i c h i n c o r p o r a t e s a wide range o f f a c t o r s r e l a t e d t o t h e s e p r o c e s s e s . Demographic v a r i a b l e s w i t h i n t h e community, such as age s t r u c t u r e s , e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n , and m a r i t a l p r a c t i c e s , a r e f a c t o r s w h i c h can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c a r e o f c h i l d r e n . O ther i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s a r e : economic c o n d i t i o n s w i t h i n t h e community; h i g h r a t e s o f s o c i a l change as may be found i n communities w i t h r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g o r d e c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n s ; and s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , as c h a r a c t e r i z e d by wide ranges i n e d u c a t i o n , income and o c c u p a t i o n . Among t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h i d e n t i f y c h i l d r e n as n e g l e c t e d o r abused a r e community a t t i t u d e s about c h i l d c a r e , s o c i a l p r a c t i c e s , l e g i s l a t i v e p o l i c i e s and r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s e s . Of i m p o r t a n c e as w e l l a r e s o c i a l agency o r g a n i z a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and norms. W i t h r e s p e c t t o e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n s o c i a l work, t h e v a r i a b l e o f the s o c i a l w o r k e r i n t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f c h i l d r e n as n e g l e c t e d and abused i s o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t and r a i s e d the q u e s t i o n , a r e u n i f o r m c r i t e r i a o f n e g l e c t and abuse employed by s o c i a l w o r k e r s ? We a r e s e e k i n g answers t o t h i s q u e s t i o n i n our s t u d y . FRAMEWORK OF STUDY AND HYPOTHESES fv. T h i s s t u d y c o n c e r n s i t s e l f p r i m a r i l y w i t h the s o c i a l w o r k e r and h i s p e r c e p t i o n s of c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse and i s based on the p r e m i s e t h a t a m e a n i n g f u l s t u d y o f t h e p r o b l e m o f n e g l e c t and abuse on a w i d e r s c a l e , s h o u l d be p r e c e d e d by s t u d i e s s e e k i n g t o a r r i v e a t a more a c c u r a t e d e f i n i t i o n o f t he p r o b l e m . I f , f o r example, d e t a i l e d s t u d i e s were made on the p r e v a l e n c e o f t u b e r c u l o s i s i n a community, ;by m e d i c a l p r a c t i o n e r s who were n o t agreed on the s y j n p t o m a t i c a l d e f i n i t i o n o f t u b e r c u l o s i s the v a l i d i t y o f such s t u d i e s would of c o u r s e , be open t o q u e s t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , t h e v a l i d i t y o f s t u d i e s on the p r e v a l e n c e o f n e g l e c t and abuse can be q u e s t i o n e d on the grounds t h a t t h e r e may be d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s as t o what c o n s t i t u t e s the pro b l e m o f n e g l e c t and abuse. Some agreement on t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f the p r o b l e m i s t h e r e f o r e a f i r s t s t e p i n c o n d u c t i n g f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . I f an a c c e p t a b l e model o f n e g l e c t and abuse can be d e v e l o p e d and a p p l i e d w i t h r e l i a b i l i t y t o i n d i v i d u a l c ases by d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l w o r k e r s , v a l i d s t u d i e s o f t h e p r o b l e m would be p o s s i b l e on a l a r g e r s c a l e . One of the g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y t h e r e f o r e i s : can a r e l i a b l e model o f n e g l e c t and abuse be c o n s t r u c t e d and u t i l i z e d i n case f i n d i n g and i n the s t u d y o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse? W h i l e no s i n g l e h y p o t h e s i s f o r m u l a t e d i n t h i s s t u d y w i l l o f i t s e l f answer t h i s q u e s t i o n the a g g r e g a t e r e s u l t o f a number of t e s t a b l e h y p o t h e s e s s h o u l d p r o v i d e a t l e a s t a t e n t a t i v e answer. A n o t h e r q u e s t i o n w h i c h w i l l be e x p l o r e d a r i s e s out of the a m b i g u i t y o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f n e g l e c t i n the l i t e r a t u r e . W h i l e p h y s i c a l abuse o f a c h i l d has been d e f i n e d w i t h a l i m i t e d degree o f c e r t a i n t y (25) n e g l e c t , as p o i n t e d out i n the r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i s a term t h a t i s used w i t h o u t s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n . Some w r i t e r s s t a t e t h a t n e g l e c t can be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s t a n d a r d s o f c a r e f o r c h i l d r e n ( 6 9 i 8 2 ) w h i l e o t h e r s say t h a t n e g l e c t can be an e m o t i o n a l s t a t e w h i c h i s not n e c e s s a r i l y o b s e r v a b l e ( 7 2 ) . S t u d i e s on the a c t u a l a m b i g u i t y of n e g l e c t however a r e n o t t o be found i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t d e s p i t e the i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s o f d e f i n i t i o n , n e g l e c t i s no more ambiguous t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s t h a n i s abuse. I t i s t h e r e f o r e p r o p o s e d t o t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s . (1) n e g l e c t f u l b e h a v i o u r i s more ambiguous than a b u s i v e b e h a v i o u r The dependent v a r i a b l e used i s " s o c i a l w o r k e r p e r c e p t i o n s " . The term p e r c e p t i o n s as used i n t h i s s t u d y has a r e s t r i c t e d meaning. I t r e f e r s t o t h e c o n s i s t e n t tendency t o see r e l a t i v e l y more o r l e s s abuse/ n e g l e c t i n c a s e d e s c r i p t i o n s . I t may a l s o r e f e r t o agreement w i t h t h e a u t h o r ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f the v i g n e t t e s , based upon L e o n t i n e Young's type s of n e g l e c t and abuse. Independent v a r i a b l e s f a l l i n t o two main c a t e g o r i e s (1) demographic v a r i a b l e s and (2) i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s , and w i l l be d e s c r i b e d i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o s p e c i f i c h y p o t h e s e s . As t h e p r o j e c t t i t l e s u g g e s t s , t h e main q u e s t i o n r a i s e d i s : A r e t h e r e s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l worker p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse? F u r t h e r , i f such d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t , t o what v a r i a b l e s can t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s be a t t r i b u t e d ? One c o u l d s p e c u l a t e t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse c o u l d a r i s e out o f community d i f f e r e n c e s a f f e c t i n g t h e p e r f o r m a n c e o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h a t community. I t i s p o s s i b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r p e r c e p t i o n s i n a l a r g e u r b a n a r e a m ight d i f f e r a p p r e c i a b l y , f o r one r e a s o n or a n o t h e r from t h o s e i n a s m a l l r u r a l s e t t i n g . To see whether such d i f f e r e n c e s can be d e t e c t e d , a number o f c o mparisons w i l l be made between s o c i a l w o r k e r s employed i n a l a r g e urban c h i l d w e l f a r e agency, and s o c i a l w o r k e r s employed i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s i n s m a l l e r c o m m u n i t i e s . I n t h i s c o n n e c t i o n two h y p o t h e s e s have been f o r m u l a t e d : (2A) D i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of the s e v e r i t y of n e g l e c t e x i s t between s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t t i n g s . (2B) D i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of the s e v e r i t y , of abuse e x i s t between s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t t i n g s . O t h e r v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may a f f e c t p e r c e p t i o n s come under the h e a d i n g o f s o c i a l w o r k e r o r i e n t a t i o n s . I n a s t u d y by Andrew B i l l i n g s l e y , The S o c i a l Worker i n a C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n Agency, the a u t h o r d e m o n s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c o g n i t i v e or p s y c h o l o g i c a l / e n v i r o n m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n of s o c i a l w o r k e r s and agency s e t t i n g . S i n c e d i f f e r e n c e s o f t h i s t y p e e x i s t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r e may be c o r r e s p o n d i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s . Hence the h y p o t h e s i s : (3A) D i f f e r e n c e s i n c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e u n r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of n e g l e c t and abuse. S i m i l a r l y , B i l l i n g s l e y d e s c r i b e s d i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r a l - e v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s , t h a t i s , d i f f e r e n c e s i n l o y a l t i e s v i z . agency, c l i e n t , community, p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . (7) The p o s s i b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f t h e s e o r i e n t a t i o n s i s e x p r e s s e d i n the h y p o t h e s i s : (3B) D i f f e r e n c e s i n m o r a l - e v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s a r e u n r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse. D i f f e r e n c e s i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n was a l s o c o n s i d e r e d as a v a r i a b l e w h i c h m i g h t a f f e c t p e r c e p t i o n s . Thus i t i s h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t : (3C) D i f f e r e n c e s i n j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n a r e u n r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n o f n e g l e c t and abuse. F o r a more d e t a i l e d a c c o u n t of the r a t i o n a l e and a p p l i c a t i o n o f the v a r i a b l e s l i s t e d i n Hypotheses 3A,ji3B, 3C, see The S o c i a l Worker i n a  C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n Agency. Some i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s r e q u i r i n g no f u r t h e r d e f i n i t i o n h e r e a r e a l s o u t i l i z e d . The h y p o t h e s e s a r i s i n g out o f t h e s e v a r i a b l e s a r e : That d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse 5. a r e u n r e l a t e d t o : (4A) E x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i a l work: T h i s was used i n two ways. F i r s t , t h e l e n g t h o f time each s o c i a l w o r k e r had worked i n the o f f i c e where t h e y a r e p r e s e n t l y employed. S e c o n d l y , the l e n g t h o f t i m e each s o c i a l w o r k e r had worked i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work r e g a r d -l e s s o f t h e p l a c e or t h e t y p e of agency. (4B) S o c i a l Work T r a i n i n g : T h i s c o n s i d e r e d t h o s e who had M.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t ; B.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t ; degree o t h e r t h a n S.W., B.A., e t c . , I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ; and t r a i n i n g o t h e r t h a n s o c i a l work. (4C) Sex: s e l f e x p l a n a t o r y . (4D) Age: T h i s was b r o k e n down i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s . (4E) M a r i t a l s t a t u s : T h i s was d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e g r o u p i n g s . ( 1 . ) m a r r i e d , ( 2 . ) d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d , ( 3 . ) s i n g l e . (4F) U r b a n - r u r a l background of s o c i a l w o r k e r w h i l e g r o w i n g up, w h i c h was b r o k e n down i n t o f o u r community p o p u l a t i o n s i z e s . TEST INSTRUMENT I n o r d e r t o t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s of n e g l e c t and abuse, case d e s c r i p t i o n s or v i g n e t t e s have been c o n s t r u c t e d , each o f w h i c h r e p r e -s e n t s a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s degrees o f n e g l e c t and abuse. The v i g n e t t e s were d e s i g n e d w i t h two r e q u i r e m e n t s i n mind (a) t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , r e p o r t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s of n e g l e c t and abuse as t h e y a p p l y t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s and (b) t h a t t h e y s h o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e the p a r t i c u l a r degree of s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t and abuse d e f i n e d . The t h r e e degrees o f s e v e r i t y w h i c h have been d e f i n e d a r e , (1) a b s e n t , (2) moderate, (3) s e v e r e . Thus the t h r e e degrees of n e g l e c t and the t h r e e degrees f o r abuse c r e a t e 3 x 3 = 9 p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a case d e s c r i p t i o n . To accommodate a l l 9 p o s s i b l e cases o r c o m b i n a t i o n of degree o f s e v e r i t y , 9 v i g n e t t e s were c o n s t r u c t e d . To meet r e q u i r e m e n t (a) t h a t each v i g n e t t e s h o u l d a p p r o x i m a t e r e p o r t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s as t h e y a p p l y t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s , d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l was h e l d a t a low l e v e l o f s e m a n t i c a b s t r a c t i o n . S i m p l e and d i r e c t w o r d i n g was chosen i n o r d e r t o m i n i m i z e t h o s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n a r i s i n g out o f m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f words and p h r a s e s . Re-q u i r e m e n t (b) r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f the v a l i d i t y o f t h e degrees o f s e v e r i t y r e f e r r e d t o above. One c o u l d l o g i c a l l y a s k , how i s i t . p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e n e g l e c t and abuse as b e i n g a b s e n t , moderate o r s e v e r e w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c t u a l c a s e s ? W h i l e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n i s a t b e s t d i f f i c u l t , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o s e l e c t c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a o f p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e as d e f i n i n g each c a t e g o r y . L e o n t i n e Young, i n a s t u d y o f 180 cases o f n e g l e c t and abuse d e f i n e s the problems i n terms o f p a r e n t a l p e r f o r m a n c e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . The d i v i s i o n o f the cases i n t o f o u r groups, s e v e r e and moderate n e g l e c t , s e v e r e and moderate abuse was based on the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a and r a t i o n a l e . " f o r s e v e r e n e g l e c t t h e c r i t e r i o n was i n a d e q u a t e f e e d i n g . To e a t i s the most n e c e s s a r y and e l e m e n t a l o f a l l human needs. When p a r e n t s f a i l e d t o f e e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n , o f t e n l e a v i n g them t o s n a t c h what food t h e r e was i n the home, t h i s seemed t o denote an e x t e n t o f n e g l e c t t h a t m i ght p r o p e r l y be l a b e l l e d as s e v e r e . T h i s was n o t a f a i l u r e t o f e e d the c h i l d r e n because t h e r e was no food t o e a t but f a i l u r e t o s e c u r e the food or make i t e d i b l e . " ( 82, p.9) " f o r moderate n e g l e c t t h e c r i t e r i a were l a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s or f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e m e d i c a l c a r e . I f t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s were t r u e of a f a m i l y , e i t h e r s i n g l y or i n c o m b i n a t i o n b u t the c h i l d r e n were u s u a l l y f e d the f a m i l y was l a b e l l e d as m o d e r a t e l y n e g l e c t f u l . W h i l e t h e s e a re n o t d e s i r a b l e b e h a v i o u r and w h i l e t h e y can cause s u f f e r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , t h e y a r e n o t as e l e m e n t a l l y d e s t r u c t i v e as f a i l u r e t o f e e d a c h i l d . A mother m i g h t have a d i r t y house and s t i l l c a r e f o r h e r c h i l d r e n . She cannot f a i l t o f e e d them and s t i l l c a r e f o r them". (82, pp. 9-10) "when e i t h e r o r b o t h the p a r e n t s b e a t the c h i l d r e n v i o l e n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y so t h a t time a f t e r time the r e s u l t s of the b e a t i n g were v i s i b l e , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was s e v e r e abuse." ( 82, p.10) "when p a r e n t s b e a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n o n l y now and t h e n , t h a t i s when t h e y were drunk o r under some s t r e s s , and the b e a t i n g s tended t o be l e s s v i o l e n t , the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n moderate abuse was u s e d . " (82, p.10) U s i n g the c a t e g o r i e s d e s c r i b e d above, Young a p p l i e d a t e n t a t i v e l i s t o f 95 items t o a sample o f 173 f a m i l i e s ; o f the items c o n s i d e r e d t o be s u p p o r t i n g c r i t e r i a i n n e g l e c t and abuse cases as d e f i n e d , 37 p r o v e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o a c a t e g o r y a t a l e v e l o f .05 o r beyond, u s i n g t h e c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . I n the p r e s e n t s t u d y , Young's b a s i c c r i t e r i a f o r the f o u r c a t e g o r i e s were employed, as w e l l as s e l e c t e d items from the group of 37 wh i c h Young found t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s . The items used a r e shown i n the f o l l o w i n g t a b l e . U n l e s s o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d a l l items appear i n more tha n 907o o f the cases i n each o f Young's c a t e g o r i e s of n e g l e c t and abuse. 8. TABLE I VARIABLES INCORPORATED IN CASE VIGNETTES No. C l a s s i f i c a t i o n 1. S evere Abuse No N e g l e c t '.2. Moderate Abuse .Severe N e g l e c t 3 . Moderate Abuse .No N e g l e c t • : 4 . No Abuse No N e g l e c t 5. No Abuse Se v e r e N e g l e c t Moderate Abuse Moderate N e g l e c t No Abuse Moderate N e g l e c t S evere Abuse Moderate -Neglect S evere Abuse Severe N e g l e c t C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s C o n s i s t e n t v i o l e n t p h y s i c a l abuse, a b u s i v e language, i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e , no con-s i s t e n t p l a c e i n group, p a r e n t a l q u a r r e l l i n g , no o u t s i d e r e l a t i o n s h i p s . I n t e r m i t t e n t b e a t i n g under s t r e s s , f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l , i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e , p a r e n t s have no community a c t i v i t i e s , no c o n s i s t e n t p l a c e i n g r oup. I n a d e q u a t e f e e d i n g , l a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s , no* com-mu n i t y a f f i l i a t i o n , f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l , i n c o n -s i s t e n t e x p e c t a t i o n s , i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e . I n t e r m i t t e n t b e a t i n g under s t r e s s , f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l , i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e , no c o n s i s t e n t p l a c e i n group. I n a d e q u a t e f e e d i n g , l a c k of c l e a n l i n e s s , w i t h drawn b e h a v i o u r , f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l , i n c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e , no c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p o u t s i d e f a m i l y , no i n i t i a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n o f a c t i o n . I n t e r m i t t e n t b e a t i n g under s t r e s s , w i t h d r a w n b e h a v i o u r , f a i l u r e i n s c h o o l . Withdrawn b e h a v i o u r , p a r e n t s have few common a c t i v i t i e s . L a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s 6 9 % , l a c k o f adequate c l o t h -i n g 637o, l a c k o f m e d i c a l c a r e , w i t h d r a w n b e h a v i o u r , p a r e n t s have no common a c t i v i t i e s . C o n s i s t e n t v i o l e n t p h y s i c a l abuse. L a c k of c l e a n l i n e s s , 6 9 % , i n a d e q u a t e c l o t h i n g 6.3%. C o n s i s t e n t v i o l e n t p h y s i c a l abuse, a b u s i v e l a n g u a g e , p a r e n t a l q u a r r e l l i n g , f i g h t i n g i n f r o n t o f c h i l d r e n . I n a d e q u a t e f e e d i n g , l a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s , i n a d e -quate c l o t h i n g , f a i l u r e t o g i v e m e d i c a l c a r e . SAMPLING ;:.. I n an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f t h i s t y p e , the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f a l a r g e sample i s c l e a r . We a t t e m p t e d t o c a p t u r e a range of i n d i v i d u a l , agency, and demographic v a r i a b l e s w h i c h may have a f f e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e p r o b l e m . An i d e a l sample s i z e w o u l d , o f c o u r s e , i n c l u d e a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s w i t h i n a d e f i n e d g e o g r a p h i c a l r e g i o n e.g. B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , o r Canada. F o r r e a s o n s o f p r a c t i c a b i l i t y the p o p u l a t i o n chosen f o r t h i s s t u d y does n o t i n c l u d e a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s w i t h i n the p r o v i n c e , i n s t e a d a sample s i z e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150-was chosen. I t was made up o f (a ) a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n a c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n agency i n a l a r g e u r b a n a r e a and (b) a number of s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n s e l e c t e d p u b l i c w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s i n t h e r u r a l p a r t o f the p r o v i n c e . S i n c e the p a r t of the sample composed o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s d i d n o t i n c l u d e a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h o s e a g e n c i e s , some method o f p r e s e r v i n g h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f the sample was c o n s i d e r e d i m p o r t a n t . Three f a c t o r s were t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t (1) s o c i a l change i n t h e community (2) community "dependency" (3) s i z e o f community. S o c i a l change as used h e r e , r e f e r s t o m a j o r changes i n the p o p u l a t i o n o f the community. I t i s p o s t u l a t e d t h a t a r a p i d l y g r o w i n g or a r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n p r o d u c e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i f f e r f rom th o s e o f a s t a b l e community. As an i n d e x o f s o c i a l change, s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e between the y e a r s 1961-65 was used ( 1 4 ) . The number of s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n agency o f f i c e s , u s i n g t h i s i n d e x , r e p r e s e n t e d a b a l a n c e between h i g h and low s o c i a l change c o m m u n i t i e s . I n a s i m i l a r f a s h i o n a b a l a n c e was s t r u c k between communities w i t h h i g h and low "dependency" r a t e s ( 4 ) . T h i s was d e t e r m i n e d by s e l e c t i n g o f f i c e s w i t h h i g h and low s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s . A l t h o u g h no n u m e r i c a l b a l a n c e was a t t e m p t e d on the b a s i s o f low and h i g h p o p u l a t i o n , a r e a s o f b o t h h i g h and low p o p u l a t i o n c e n t r e s were r e p r e s e n t e d i n the i n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e agency o f f i c e s . 10. I n t e r v e n i n g V a r i a b l e s An a t t e m p t has been made t o p r e v e n t e x t r a n e o u s v a r i a b l e s from a f f e c t i n g r e s p o n s e s . The t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was s e n t t o a l l o f f i c e s w i t h i n a g i v e n p e r i o d o f t i m e . I t was a l s o r e q u e s t e d t h a t a l l s o c i a l w o r k e r s a t each o f f i c e c omplete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d u r i n g the time p e r i o d d e s i g n a t e d by the o f f i c e f o r i t s c o m p l e t i o n . I n a d d i t i o n , a l l r e s p o n d e n t s were asked t o r a t e each case v i g n e t t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y . P r e l i m i n a r y t e s t o f Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The t e s t q u e s t i o n n a i r e was completed by f i v e s o c i a l w o r k e r s p r i o r t o f u l l s c a l e d i s t r i b u t i o n . No m a j o r changes were made; however, an a d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n w h i c h a l l o w e d t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o i n d i c a t e whether case v i g n e t t e s were d e s c r i p t i v e o f a l l cases on t h e i r c a s e l o a d s , was added. Time e s t i m a t e d t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e was e s t i m a t e d a t \\ t o 2 h o u r s . A g u i d e t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s i n c l u d e d i n A p p e n d i x A. ANALYSIS PLAN In o r d e r t o compare p e r c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l w o r k e r s , each r e s p o n d e n t r e c e i v e d (1) a n e g l e c t s c o r e , (2) an abuse s c o r e and, (3) a combined n e g l e c t and abuse s c o r e , t h e s e s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e sum o f the s c o r e on the n i n e v i g n e t t e s . To s c o r e each v i g n e t t e " s e v e r e " was a s s i g n e d a w e i g h t o f two, "moderate" a w e i g h t o f one, and " a b s e n t " a w e i g h t o f z e r o . T h i s ...applied t o b o t h n e g l e c t and abuse. " D e v i a t i o n " s c o r e s were a l s o c a l c u l a t e d , as d e s c r i b e d below. A c c o r d i n g t o the T a b l e I t h e r e i s one " c o r r e c t " answer f o r abuse i . e . " a b s e n t " , "moderate" or " s e v e r e " , and a " c o r r e c t " answer f o r n e g l e c t , i n v i g n e t t e . I f the r e s p o n d e n t chose the degree of s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t r e p r e s e n t e d by the model, h i s d e v i a t i o n s c o r e f o r n e g l e c t i n t h a t v i g n e t t e was 0, t h e same a p p l i e d t o abuse. I f he chose " a b s e n t " when the model r e p r e s e n t e d " s e v e r e " , h i s d e v i a t i o n s c o r e was 2, t h a t i s 2 u n i t s away from " s e v e r e " . I n p r i n c i p l e , maximum s c o r e s f o r n e g l e c t o r abuse c o u l d be 2 x 9 = 18, or a combined s c o r e o f 36. However, s i n c e i t was not g o s s i b l e t o d e v i a t e by 1 i n a l l v i g n e t t e s t h e maximum s c o r e f o r n e g l e c t or abuse can o n l y be 15, or a combined s c o r e o f 30. One o f the q u e s t i o n s we a r e a s k i n g has t o do w i t h t h e r e a l i a b i l i t y o r r e s p o n s e s t o a case v i g n e t t e . A h i g h degree o f agreement s u g g e s t s t h e u t i l i t y o f a v i g n e t t e i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f the p r o b l e m . Computer a n a l y s i s f a c i l i t a t e d t h e c o m p a r i s o n o f n u m e r i c a l agreement i n the d i f f e r e n t c a s e s . H y p o t h e s i s one, t h a t p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t a r e more ambiguous tha n p e r c e p t i o n s o f abuse was t e s t e d by comparing the number o f r e s p o n d e n t s h a v i n g n e g l e c t d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s w i t h the number i n each o f the c o r r e s p o n d i n g abuse d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s . N u m e r i c a l measures of agreement were a l s o used t o compare d i f f e r e n c e s between n e g l e c t and abuse r e s p o n s e s . The c h i square t e s t was used t o d e t e r m i n e whether o r n o t r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t e d between i n d i v i d u a l o r agency v a r i a b l e s and p e r c e p t i o n s c o r e s . I n H y p o t h e s i s 2A and 2B, i n w h i c h agency s e t t i n g i s r e l a t e d t o . n e g l e c t and abuse p e r c e p t i o n s , s c o r e s o f r e s p o n d e n t s i n t h e c h i l d w e l f a r e agency were compared w i t h s c o r e s o b t a i n e d by r e s p o n d e n t s i n a p u b l i c w e l f a r e s e t t i n g . Comparisons between agency s e t t i n g s have a l s o been made, h o l d i n g s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s c o n s t a n t . Due t o l a c k o f t i m e , s o c i a l w o r k e r c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s , m o r a l -e v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s , and j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n ( H y p o t h e s i s 3A, 3B, -3C) were not t e s t e d . C h i square t e s t s were used i n H y p o t h e s i s 4A..4E. I n t h i s s e r i e s , t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s were h y p o t h e s i z e d t o be r e l a t e d t o i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s . I n a d d i t i o n t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s were used t o t e s t t he r e -l a t i o n s h i p between p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t and abuse combined and the s i m i l a r i t y o f v i g n e t t e s t o c a s e l o a d s . A l s o t e s t e d u s i n g the c h i s q u a r e method, were (1) t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between e x p e r i e n c e i n an o f f i c e and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e , h o l d i n g agency l o c a t i o n c o n s t a n t (2) the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m a r i t a l s t a t u s and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e h o l d i n g sex c o n s t a n t . 1 3 . CHAPTER I I REVIEW OF LITERATURE ON CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL STAGES INTRODUCTION T h i s c h a p t e r i s a r e v i e w o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f c h i l d abuse and n e g l e c t w i t h p a r t i c u l a r f o c u s on the s t a g e w h i c h i d e n t i f i e s t h e p r o b l e m and i t s i n i t i a l r e f e r r a l t o a p r o t e c t i v e u n i t o r agency. The d i v i s i o n s o f the c h a p t e r f o l l o w a l o g i c a l sequence and a r e c a t e g o r i z e d i n t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s u b t i t l e s : d e f i n i t i o n s o f abuse, n e g l e c t and p r o t e c t i v e c a s e , r e f e r r a l i n f o r m a t i o n , agency w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g , c l a s s i f y i c a t i o n s o f abuse and n e g l e c t , i n c i d e n c e and p r e v a l e n c e o f t h e same, and c r i t e r i a i n w o r k e r s ' d e c i s i o n making. There a r e f o u r m a i n ^ c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a p p l i e d t o each one o f the d i v i s i o n s . The f i r s t one i s : What i s p r e s e n t l y a c t u a l l y w r i t t e n i n each one o f t h e s e a r e a s ? The second one i s : What i s o b v i o u s l y m i s s i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e i n each o f t h e c a t e g o r i e s . The t h i r d one i s : What a r e the l i m i t a t i o n s and i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e above two c o n s i d e r a t i o n s ? The f o u r t h one i s : I s t h e r e any p r o b l e m or advantage i n t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e i d e n t i f i e d i n f o r m a t i o n t o the same a r e a o f c h i l d abuse o r n e g l e c t as i t e x i s t s i n the prov;ineieS|of B r i t i s h Columbia. The scope o f the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d was v e r y wide and i n c l u d e d 7 books and 57 a r t i c l e s . Some of the w r i t i n g was v e r y much r e l a t e d t o the s t a g e as d e f i n e d above w h i l e the l a r g e r p o r t i o n o f i t r e l a t e d o n l y i n p a r t t o t h i s s t a g e . The most t y p i c a l k i n d o f a r t i c l e was d e s c r i p t i v e and e m p i r i c a l f o r t h e purpose o f s h a r i n g o r s t i m u l a t i n g i d e a s . There were, however, a p p r o x i m a t e l y a dozen r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s used i n the r e v i e w . They 1 4 . were e x p l o r a t o r y and p r e - e v a l u a t i v e i n n a t u r e , and v a r i e d i n t h e i r s t a g e s o f c o m p l e t i o n as w e l l as i n t h e i r d i r e c t a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e s t a g e f o c u s e d on. There i s a u n i v e r s a l consensus o f o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e a r e many more unknown t h a n known f a c t o r s i n t h i s a r e a o f c h i l d n e g l e c t , b u t w i t h i n t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s t h e r e has been an i n c r e a s e of r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s s e e k i n g t o answer as w e l l as t o r a i s e q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r t o f i n d v a l i d and r e l i a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t o n l y i m p o r t a n t t o t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r and the f a m i l i e s n e e d i n g h e l p but a l s o t o each i n d i v i d u a l i n any community because t h e r e i s n o t a N o r t h A m e r i c a n community i n w h i c h t h i s p r o b l e m does not e x i s t . DEFINITIONS An e f f o r t w i l l be made i n t h i s s e c t i o n t o a s s e s s the wide range o f d e f i n i t i o n s of a p r o t e c t i v e case and t h e c o n c e p t s o f abuse and n e g l e c t as t h e y a r e mentioned i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e . Many of the a u t h o r s assume t h a t t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e u n d e r s t o o d and t h e r e f o r e do n o t d e f i n e what t h e y mean when u s i n g them. Where d e f i n i t i o n s a r e e x p l i c i t , t h e r e i s a g r e a t v a r i a t i o n i n the a p proach t a k e n from one a u t h o r t o a n o t h e r t o a r t i c u l a t e t h e same c o n c e p t . The t h r e e c o n c e p t s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g o r d e r : n e g l e c t , abuse and p r o t e c t i v e c a s e , as w e l l as i d e a s e x p r e s s e d on community p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m . N e g l e c t T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s approaches used t o d e f i n e n e g l e c t . A l l e n s t a t e s t h a t " n e g l e c t i s t h e o m i s s i o n o f p r o p e r a t t e n t i o n t o a c h i l d , an o m i s s i o n t h a t undermines h i s w e l f a r e " . ( 1 , p.40) S t r e s h i n s k y and Gordon have a d e f i n i t i o n v e r y s i m i l a r t o t h i s . (74, p.31) Kaufman f o c u s e s on the p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n . He w r i t e s t h a t n e g l e c t r e p r e s e n t s t h o s e c ases where the p a r e n t i s u n a b l e t o be a p a r e n t because he e i t h e r 15. w i t h d r a w s p h y s i c a l l y by d e s e r t i n g the home, or he w i t h d r a w s e m o t i o n a l l y because of a l c o h o l i s m , o v e r t d e p r e s s i o n and o t h e r t y p e s of e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e . (43, p.9) Norman's i m p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n o f n e g l e c t s u p p o r t s the l a t t e r one because he i m p l i e s t h a t p e o p l e do n o t n e g l e c t , abuse or d e s e r t t h e i r c h i l d r e n u n l e s s t h e y have a p r o b l e m w i t h w h i c h t h e y cannot cope. (56) On the o t h e r hand Shames i n w r i t i n g an a r t i c l e on the use of homemaker s e r v i c e s i n n e g l e c t f u l f a m i l i e s , d e f i n e s n e g l e c t i n l i n e w i t h t h e f o c u s of h i s a r t i c l e namely t h a t " n e g l e c t e x i s t s i n a home i n w h i c h s t a n d a r d s of h o u s e h o l d management were so poor as t o s e r i o u s l y j e o p a r d i z e the h e a l t h and w e l f a r e of the c h i l d r e n i n the f a m i l y " . (69, p.12) But C o l l i n s c a u t i o n s t h a t one must be more p r a c t i c a l than t h e o r e t i c a l and c o n s i d e r c h i l d r e n as n e g l e c t e d o n l y when th e y i n f a c t s u f f e r or a r e l i k e l y t o s u f f e r m e n t a l l y or p h y s i c a l l y as a r e s u l t of n e g l e c t . " I n many f a m i l i e s where the mother's s t a n d a r d s of c a r e and c l e a n l i n e s s a r e low t h e r e e x i s t s an i n t e n s e l y s t r o n g bond of l o v e and a f f e c t i o n between he r and t h e c h i l d r e n " . (18, p.744) Smith t a k e s t h e i d e a of p a r e n t a l n e g l e c t one s t e p f u r t h e r by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t "the e v i d e n c e i s n o t always i n outward s i g n s or i n the c h i l d ' s p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e " . He goes on t o i d e n t i f y t h e v a r i a t i o n s i n c h i l d b e h a v i o u r w h i c h may be i n d i c a t i v e o f n e g l e c t . (72, p.36) Two a u t h o r s e x p l i c i t l y m e n t i o n e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t . M u l f o r d sugg-e s t s t h a t i t m i g h t be d e f i n e d as " t h e d e p r e v a t i o n s u f f e r e d by c h i l d r e n when t h e i r p a r e n t s do not p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e normal e x p e r i e n c e s p r o d u c i n g f e e l i n g s o f b e i n g l o v e d , wanted, s e c u r e and w o r t h y w h i c h r e s u l t i n t h e l a c k of a b i l i t y t o form h e a l t h y o b j e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p s " . (54, p.21) Gordon approached e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t more o b l i q u e l y , by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t e x i s t s i n s i t u a t i o n s where the c h i l d ' s c o n d i t i o n i s n o t r e c o g n i z e d by the p a r e n t s , i s p e r c e i v e d t o be u n r e l a t e d t o t h e i r b e h a v i o r , and stems from t h e p a r e n t s u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n s . ( 3 1 , p.26) Abuse The most s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n s a r e t o be found i n t h e w r i t i n g s c o ncerned w i t h p h y s i c a l abuse of c h i l d r e n , where the s i t u a t i o n b e i n g d e f i n e d i s more c o n s i s t e n t l y c o n c r e t e and v i s i b l e t h a n i s some a r e a s o f n e g l e c t o f c h i l d r e n . I n d e f i n i n g abuse, Broadman m e n t i o n s t h r e e a s p e c t s w h i c h i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g , (1) " u n j u s t i f i a b l e p h y s i c a l p a i n " , (2) " o r w i l f u l l y p e r m i t t i n g the c h i l d t o be p l a c e d i n a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h i t s l i f e o r l i m b may be endangered or i t s h e a l t h l i k e l y t o be i n j u r e d , (3) w i l f u l i n f l i c t i o n upon a c h i l d of any c r u e l or inhuman c o r p o r a l p u n i s h -ment or i n j u r y r e s u l t i n g i n a t r a u m a t i c c o n d i t i o n " . (14, p.43) A l l e n ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s synonymous i n c o n t e n t t o Broadman's t h i r d p a r t w i t h the added i d e a o f a t i m e f a c t o r w h i c h he s t a t e s may be " p r o t r a c t e d and p e r i o d i c or p e r s i s t e n t " . ( 1 , p.40) Z a l b a ' s d e f i n i t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l l y i n agreement, but he a l s o i n c l u d e s t h a t the abuser i s a p a r e n t o r p a r e n t s u b s t i t u t e . (83) He a d m i t s t h a t " t h e r e i s no c l e a r d e m a r c a t i o n between s e v e r e punishment and abuse". (83, p.5) I n the M a s s a c h u s e t t s ' s t u d y the d e f i n i t i o n was c l e a r and was b r o a d e r t h a n t h o s e c i t e d i n the p r e v i o u s p a r a g r a p h . "We d e f i n e s e r i o u s p h y s i c a l abuse o f c h i l d r e n as any s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h a c h i l d i s p h y s i c a l l y m i s t r e a t e d by an a d u l t t o the p o i n t t h a t c a r e o f p r o t e c t i o n by a s o u r c e o u t s i d e t h e f a m i l y i s needed. The a c t i o n may be d e l i b e r a t e or a c c i d e n t a l and t h e damage may be done by c ommission or o m i s s i o n . " (16, p.126) D e l -s o r d o ' s d e f i n i t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e s t h e i d e a of p r o t e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n , b u t he s t r e s s e s b o d i l y harm t o the c h i l d . For, example, cases o f m a l n u t r i t i o n , s t a r v a t i o n or s e x u a l m i s u s e i n c h i l d r e n were not i n c l u d e d ( i n h i s s t u d y ) u n l e s s b o d i l y damage was a l s o done. (21) There i s one o t h e r common i d e a found i n d e f i n i t i o n s o f abuse. I t i s most f r e q u e n t l y found i n m e d i c a l d o c t o r s w r i t i n g s . Kaufman w r o t e t h a t "abuse cases r e p r e s e n t t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where t h e c h i l d i s caught up d i r e c t l y i n t h e p a r e n t s ' p a t h o l o g y ; f o r i n s t a n c e , t h e c h i l d b e a t e n by t h e p a r e n t , perhaps f o r s a d o - m a s o c h i s t i c g r a t i f i c a t i o n or t o d e a l w i t h t h o s e u n c o n s c i o u s c o n f l i c t s he i s h o p i n g t o c o n t r o l i n t h i s way". (43, p.9) Kempe s t a t e s t h a t " p s y c h i a t r i c f a c t o r s a r e p r o b a b l y of p r i m e i m p o r t a n c e i n t h e p a t h o g e n e s i s of t h e d i s o r d e r ( t h e b a t t e r e d - c h i l d syndrome), but knowledge of t h e s e f a c t o r s i s l i m i t e d " . (45, p.17) C h e s s e r a l s o s u p p o r t s the i d e a of p a t h o l o g y i n t h e a b u s e r . (17) He and Oldum i n t i m a t e d i n t h e i r s e p a r a t e w r i t i n g s t h a t t h e r e a r e m e n t a l as w e l l as p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f abuse or c r u e l t y . (59, p.17) N e g l e c t and Abuse There i s an o v e r l a p p i n g of the d e f i n i t i o n s of n e g l e c t and abuse by s e v e r a l w r i t e r s . Sometimes n e g l e c t ( o r c r u e l t y ) i s used t o i n c l u d e abuse, and i n one i n s t a n c e abuse i s used i n a more g e n e r i c sense t o i n c l u d e b a d l y t r e a t e d c h i l d r e n . (84) Sandusky w r o t e t h a t " n e g l e c t o r abuse of a c h i l d may be a symptom of many types o f problems among p a r e n t s " . (67, p.23) Elmer i n one o f h e r p a p e r s w r o t e t h a t "abuse i s d e f i n e d as p h y s i c a l a s s a u l t by an a d u l t a g a i n s t a c h i l d . N e g l e c t i s d e f i n e d as t h e c h r o n i c f a i l u r e of t h e a d u l t t o p r o t e c t the c h i l d from o b v i o u s p h y s i c a l danger. F o r the sake, o f s i m p l i c i t y i n ( h e r ) V p a p e r , t h e term abuse w i l l be used t o c o v e r e i t h e r s i t u a t i o n " . (26, p.181) C h e s s e r tends t o use the word c r u e l t y i n a g e n e r i c s e n s e . "There i s a r a d i c a l d i f f e r e n c e i n c h a r a c t e r between cases o f neg-l e c t and cases o f c r u e l t y t o c h i l d r e n . . . w h i l e n e g l e c t may be a form o f c r u e l t y , i t i s more o f t e n caused o r e x a g g e r a t e d by extreme p o v e r t y or i g n o r -a n c e . " (17, p.130) Odium w r o t e " c r u e l t y and n e g l e c t a r e n o t e a s i l y d e f i n -a b l e s e p a r a t e l y " . a n d h i s a p p r o a c h i s much l i k e C h e s s e r ' s w i t h the a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t t h a t " p h y s i c a l c r u e l t y and n e g l e c t a r e o f t e n accompanied by m e n t a l 18. c r u e l t y " . (59, p.738) The l a t t e r term i s r e a l l y synonymous w i t h e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t as i t was p r e v i o u s l y commented upon. (54,31) O t t combines t h e terms i n h i s s t a t e m e n t t h a t "case o f n e g l e c t t h r o u g h s t a r v a t i o n o r p h y s i c a l abuse a r e d i s t i n c t e n t i t i e s and t h e d i a g n o s i s o f each i s based upon p o s i t i v e c l i n i c a l and p a t h o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s " . (60, p.315) Young;';s r e s e a r c h s u p p o r t s th e l a t t e r s t a t e m e n t and h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y l a t e r i n the c h a p t e r . (82) C r i t i q u e There a r e no common d e f i n i t i o n s t h a t i n c l u d e t he e m o t i o n a l and p h y s i c a l a s p e c t s o f n e g l e c t and abuse. I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t t h e r e a r e problems i n a r r i v i n g a t such common d e f i n i t i o n s , b u t i t would enhance comparisons; b e i n g made between d i f f e r e n t a r t i c l e s and r e s e a r c h s t u d i e s as w e l l as g i v i n g p e r s o n n e l i n t h e f i e l d a common s t a r t i n g ground f o r d i s c u s s i o n . One p r o b l e m t h a t i s a p p a r e n t from t h e l i t e r a t u r e o c c u r s when an a u t h o r does n o t d e f i n e t h e terms as he i s u s i n g them. T h i s i s v e r y impor-t a n t i f the r e a d e r i s t o f u l l y comprehend what the a u t h o r means. O f t e n , b u t n o t a l w a y s , n e g l e c t i s used t o c o v e r a l l c a t e g o r i e s . There i s l i t t l e i n t e g r a t i o n and o f t e n t i m e s t h e r e a r e gaps between l i t e r a r y d e f i n i t i o n s and l e g i s l a t i v e d e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h p r e s e n t s problems i n p r a c t i c e and i n s e m a n t i c s f o r t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r . I t a l s o appears t h a t t h e term c r u e l t y i s used a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y by E n g l i s h w r i t e r s . The f o c u s o f the d e f i n i t i o n i s sometimes a f f e c t e d by the p r o f e s s i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n o f the w r i t e r . The d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n d e f i n i n g terms a r e as a p p l i c a b l e t o the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a scene as t o any o t h e r l o c a l i t y . P r o t e c t i v e case There were o n l y t h r e e a u t h o r s i n the l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w e d who made some s u g g e s t i o n as t o what a p r o t e c t i v e case was. Broadman w r o t e t h a t a " p r o t e c t i v e case by C a l i f o r n i a Law i n c l u d e s any minor who i s i n need o f p r o p e r an e f f e c t i v e p a r e n t a l c a r e and c o n t r o l , and has no p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n w i l l i n g t o e x e r c i s e o r c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g such c a r e and c o n t r o l o r has no p a r e n t o r g u a r d i a n a c t u a l l y e x e r c i s i n g such c a r e and c o n t r o l " ... "whose home i s an u n f i t p l a c e f o r him, by r e a s o n o f n e g l e c t , c r u e l t y o r d e p r a v i t y o f e i t h e r o f h i s p a r e n t s o r o f h i s g u a r d i a n o r o t h e r p e r s o n i n whose c u s t o d y o r c a r e he i s " . (14, p.43) S c h e r e r s t a t e s t h a t "a p r o t e c t i v e case i s one i n w h i c h a c h i l d l a c k s p h y s i c a l c a r e o f i s p h y s i c a l l y abused or i s e x p l o i t e d , o r i s exposed t o an u n d e s i r a b l e e n v i r o n m e n t or a s s o c i a t i o n or i s w i t h o u t p r o p e r s u p e r v i s i o n from a r e s p o n s i b l e a d u l t o r i s so emot i o n -a l l y d e p r i v e d t h a t he has d e v e l o p e d b e h a v i o r a l symptoms". (68, p.28) Kaufman c o n s i d e r e d p r o t e c t i v e c ases t o be b a s i c a l l y t h e same whether t h e y a r e n e g l e c t o r abuse cases because t h e r e i s some o f b o t h k i n d s o f m i s t r e a t -ment i n e v e r y p r o t e c t i v e c a s e . (43) C l o s e l y l i n k e d w i t h the concept o f p r o t e c t i v e case i s the b r o a d e r c o n c e p t o f p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s w h i c h f o u r a u t h o r s m e n t i o n e d . L a z a r u s s u g g e s t s t h a t such a s e r v i c e " s h o u l d be con c e r n e d w i t h p a r e n t s who...are n o t a b l e t o f i n d a way t o t a k e even f i r s t s t e p s t o r e l i e v e t h e i r d i f f i c u l -t i e s " . Because o f problems a r i s i n g from d i s o r g a n i z e d f a m i l i e s " t h e community t h e n i n s i s t s t h a t s o m e t h i n g be done, b o t h f o r the p r o t e c t i o n of the c h i l d r e n and f o r i t s own p r o t e c t i o n . " (47, p.8) Norman makes the p o i n t t h a t " p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s I., when th e y do e x i s t , o f t e n emphasize emergency p h y s i c a l p r o t e c t i o n r a t h e r t h a n l o n g - r a n g e f a m i l y casework p r o t e c t i o n " . (56, p . 3 ) . . . . " P r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e w i t h the c h i l d i n h i s own home c l a r i f i e s t he community ego i d e a l o f t h e home and r e h a b i l i t a t e s t h e p a r e n t s and c h i l d r e n t o w h a t e v e r e x t e n t p o s s i b l e " . (43, p. 13) Gordon t a k e s h e r d e f i n i t i o n one s t e p f u r t h e r by s u g g e s t i n g t h a t i t i s a s e r v i c e f o r c h i l d r e n who a r e b e i n g n e g l e c t e d i n i t i a t e d on t h e b a s i s o f a c o m p l a i n t because t h e p a r e n t does n o t w i s h t o or cannot ask f o r h e l p . But she c o n t i n u e s t h a t t h i s i s a v a l i d 20. d e f i n i t i o n o n l y i f t h e r e a r e community r e s o u r c e s f o r h e l p i n g p a r e n t s i n c a r i n g f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and as a casework s e r v i c e must n o t o n l y p r o t e c t the c h i l d r e n b u t a l s o a s s i s t the p a r e n t s . ( 3 2 , p . l ) I n a n o t h e r a r t i c l e on e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t Gordon t a k e s a s t r o n g e r s t a n d and s t a t e s t h a t p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e i s o f f e r e d i n s i t u a t i o n s w h i c h c a n n o t c o n t i n u e b u t t h a t i f i t i s n o t used o r eamnot.:be used by t h e p a r e n t s " t h e n c o u r t a c t i o n i s the o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e " . ( 3 1, p.24) C r i t i q u e P r o t e c t i v e case i s a n o t h e r c o n c e p t t h a t needs t o be d e f i n e d by t h e u s e r o f the term. I t i s n o t a p r e v a l e n t c o ncept i n the l i t e r a t u r e . I n the t h r e e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h i t i s m e n t i o n e d , i t i s d e f i n e d from the p o i n t of v i e w of the c h i l d . What i s n o t i d e n t i f i e d i s t h e p o i n t a t w h i c h a r e f e r r e d f a m i l y becomes a p r o t e c t i v e c a s e . I n some s i t u a t i o n s i t may be upon r e f e r r a l , and i n o t h e r s i t u a t i o n s i t may be when c o u r t a c t i o n i s i n i t i a t e d . S i m i l a r -l y , i t i s not c l e a r when a case i s no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d a p r o t e c t i v e c a s e . T h i s may v a r y from one agency t o a n o t h e r from when the f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n improves t o when t h e c h i l d o r c h i l d r e n a r e removed from t h e home. Such v a r i a t i o n s and per h a p s o t h e r s r e l a t e d t o the co n c e p t o f p r o t e c t i v e case w i l l be found i n v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s t h a t have d i f f e r i n g f u n c t i o n s . I n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , f o r example, i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t what i s c a l l e d a f a m i l y s e r v i c e case i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s may be the same i n e s s e n c e t o a p r o t e c t i v e case i n a C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n the p r o v i n c e . Community P e r c e p t i o n s A number of a u t h o r s d i s c u s s a s p e c t s o f community p e r c e p t i o n s of the p r o b l e m o f c h i l d n e g l e c t . S c h w e i n t z s u g g e s t s t h a t " d i f f e r e n t i a l s t a n d a r d s w i t h some communities p o s e s q u e s t i o n s r a t h e r t h a n o f f e r s answers". (23, p.287) T h i s i d e a i s s u p p o r t e d by f o u r i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c community 21. s u r v e y s w h i c h were seen t o have a r e p r e s s i v e o r a s u p p o r t i v e a f f e c t on the o p e r a t i o n s o f t h e w e l f a r e d epartment. (74) Mass and E n g l e r a l s o found enough s i g n i f i c a n t i n t h i s f a c t t o c a t e g o r i z e communities as hom-ogeneous, segmented o r h e t e r o g e n e o u s . (49) R e l a t e d t o t h e t o p i c o f community p e r c e p t i o n i s the a s p e c t o f community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n t h e a r e a o f c h i l d n e g l e c t . One phase o f Boehm's r e s e a r c h d i r e c t e d by Crane was a community l e a d e r s h i p o p i n i o n s u r v e y w h i c h among o t h e r t h i n g s s t u d i e d t h e a t t i t u d e s o f s e l e c t e d l e a d e r s h i p groups t o -wards community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s deemed h a z a r d o u s t o the development o f the c h i l d r e n . ( 1 9 ) A community has the r i g h t (47) and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o r e p o r t s i t u a t i o n s o f n e g l e c t . (54,67,31) "A p e r s o n ' s o p t i m i s m as t o t h e r e s u l t s of e f f o r t s t o h e l p p a r e n t s improve c a r e o f c h i l d r e n i s a l s o l i k e l y t o a f f e c t h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n . " ( 1 9 , p.16) Gordon s t a t e s t h a t t he r e s p o n s i b i l i t y e xtends t o p r e v e n t i n g o r d e a l i n g w i t h e n v i r o n m e n t a l problems such as poo r h o u s i n g , s o c i a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , underemployment and poo r s c h o o l i n g w h i c h she c a l l s 'community n e g l e c t ' and a r e o f t e n p a r t o f c h i l d n e g l e c t beyond i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r o l . ( 3 1 ) T o l a n d s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t s t h e p r o v i s i o n o f adequate s e r v i c e s . (78) Crane's r e s e a r c h found t h a t " t h e m a j o r i t y o f r e s p o n d e n t s see t h a t t h e r e i s a need f o r e x p a n s i o n o f p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s , as w e l l as number of s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n w h i c h may be c o n s i d e r e d c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o or a d j u n c t i v e t o p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s " . ( 1 9 , p.92) The community needs h e l p i n i t s p e r c e p t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the p r oblem.(78,43) Some a r t i c l e s s u g g e s t t h a t the p r o b l e m o f c h i l d n e g l e c t i s a t h r e a t t o t h e community.(43,47) "The community s e t s t he s t a n d a r d s f o r a c c e p t a b l e , d e s i r a b l e and n e c e s s a r y p a r e n t - c h i l d b e h a v i o r . " ( 4 3 , p . 8 ) These s t a n d a r d s have been a f f e c t e d by t h e p a s t f o c u s o f law e n f o r c e m e n t , (66,17) and by the p r e v a l e n t v a l u e o f t r a d i t i o n a l p a r e n t a l r i g h t s w h i c h 22. r e s u l t s i n c o n s e r v a t i v e d e c i s i o n s i n f a v o r o f t h e p a r e n t s (83) as w e l l as by s o c i a l changes over t h e p a s t one hundred and f i f t y y e a r s . (14) S u p p o r t -i n g t h e v a l u e p l a c e d on p a r e n t s ' r i g h t s one s t u d y found t h a t members of t h e s e l e c t e d l e a d e r s h i p groups who were t h e m s e l v e s p a r e n t s were l i k e l y t o be l e s s i n f a v o r o f i n t e r v e n t i o n on a p r o t e c t i v e b a s i s t h a n r e s p o n d e n t s who were n o t p a r e n t s . (19) A n o t h e r a r e a where community p e r c e p t i o n s a r e r e f l e c t e d i s i n l e g i s l a t i o n . (66,83,19) There a r e o p p o s i t e o p i n i o n s e x p r e s s e d as t o whether i t i s e a s i e r (17) or more d i f f i c u l t (82) t o i d e n t i f y and r e f e r problems of c h i l d n e g l e c t i n our f a s t g r o w i n g urban c e n t r e s . But Crane's s t u d y found " t h a t on the i m p o r t a n t v a r i a b l e s o f o p i n i o n on t h e need f o r i n t e r v e n t i o n and s u p p o r t o f e x p a n s i o n o f c h i l d w e l f a r e p r o grams, t h e urban - r u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s were c o m p a r a t i v e l y s m a l l i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r s u r v e y " . ( 1 9 , p.95) C r i t i q u e T here i s a r e a l need f o r the development of s y s t e m a t i c s t u d i e s t o c o n s i d e r d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t s o f community p e r c e p t i o n s o f the p r o b l e m of abuse and n e g l e c t i n terms of i t s s o u r c e , i t s p e r v a s i v e n e s s , i t s r e s o l u t i o n and i n terms of the community's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n p r o v i s i o n o f p r e v e n t a t i v e and p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s , use of s e r v i c e s and adequate up t o d a t e l e g i s l a t i o n . I t i s s i m i l a r l y i m p o r t a n t f o r p e r s o n n e l w o r k i n g i n the f i e l d t o know the community's p e r c e p t i o n s i n o r d e r t o know where more i n f o r m a t i o n about and s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e community i s needed and how t o i n v o l v e t h e community more e f f e c t i v e l y . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t i f an adequate network o f r e l a t e d s e r v i c e s i s t o be p r o v i d e d and used f o r t h e community's h e l p i s needed i n terms o f e m o t i o n a l s u p p o r t , f i s c a l r e s o u r c e s , and a c t i o n i n p r e v e n t i n g and i d e n t i f y -i n g n e g l e c t i n g and a b u s i n g f a m i l i e s who need h e l p . F u r t h e r m o r e , knowledge o f community p e r c e p t i o n can i d e n t i f y common m i s c o n c e p t i o n s t h a t e x i s t about p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s and about the problems o f n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n and t h e i r 23. f a m i l i e s . V a r i a t i o n s do e x i s t from one l o c a l i t y t o a n o t h e r , b u t i n s p i t e o f t h i s t h e r e i s a need t o s h a r e v a l i d a t e d o r s p e c u l a t i v e knowledge f o r c o m p a r a t i v e s t u d i e s and as a s t i m u l a t i o n f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . Community p e r c e p t i o n i s o n l y one a s p e c t b u t an i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f the whole s u b j e c t o f c h i l d abuse and n e g l e c t . REFERRAL INFORMATION Some s o r t o f r e f e r r a l t a k e s p l a c e i n o r d e r f o r a f a m i l y t o be i d e n t i f i e d as n e e d i n g p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s . The i n f o r m a t i o n p e r -t a i n i n g t o t h i s s u b j e c t as i t p r e s e n t l y e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be c a t e g o r i z e d under the f o l l o w i n g f o u r s u b t i t l e s : s o u r c e s , p r o c e s s , c r i t e r i a and s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s . The i n f o r m a t i o n was found t o be s c a t t e r e d t h r o u g h -out a wide range o f a r t i c l e s as v e r y few a u t h o r s d e a l t w i t h t h i s s u b j e c t s p e c i f i c a l l y . S ources o f R e f e r r a l One v i t a l q u e s t i o n i n the a r e a o f c h i l d n e g l e c t i s who r e f e r s a f a m i l y t o an agency f o r p o s s i b l e p r o t e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n ? A number of s o u r c e s i m p l y t h a t s e l f r e f e r r a l s t e n d t o be t h e r a r e e x c e p t i o n . ( 6 7 , 6 8 , 8 2 , 17)( S c h e r e r makes a f i n e r d i s t i n c t i o n t h a t was n o t mentioned e l s e w h e r e . He s t a t e s t h a t some r e f e r r a l s a r e made by t h e p a r e n t who i s nb l o n g e r l i v i n g w i t h h i s or h e r n u c l e a r f a m i l y g r o u p . ( 6 8 ) One e x c e p t i o n t o t h i s g e n e r a l consensus about the l i m i t e d s e l f - r e f e r r a l s came out of the Ramsey County i n t a k e ( J u l y 1952) i n w h i c h 47 out o f 215 r e f e r r a l s were d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n s from a c h i l d o r p a r e n t . ( 1 1 ) R e l a t i v e s a r e mentioned f a i r l y c o n s i s t e n t l y as c o m p r i s i n g a s m a l l p r o p o r t i o n o f the r e f e r r a l s . ( 3 5 , 6 9 ) One n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n i n terms of the p r o p o r t i o n of such r e f e r r a l s i n c l u d e d a M a s s a c h u s s e t 1 s s t u d y i n w h i c h twenty-f o u r p e r c e n t o f the r e f e r r a l s from r e l a t i v e s was a l m o s t e q u a l t o t h o s e from n e i g h b o u r s (twenty-two p e r c e n t ) and l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s s u c h as p o l i c e and 24. p r o b a t i o n o f f i c e r s ( t w e n t y - t h r e e p e r c e n t ) . (16) The o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s o f p e o p l e who r e f e r a f a m i l y or r e p o r t a d i s t u r b i n g s i t u a t i o n , m e ntioned a r e o t h e r s o c i a l w o r k e r s , n e i g h b o u r s , c i t i z e n s , s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s , l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s and h e a l t h p e r s o n n e l such as d o c t o r s or n u r s e s . N e i g h b o u r s were most f r e q u e n t l y s p e c i f i c a l l y men-t i o n e d . (10,35,69,68) S c h o o l (82) a u t h o r i t i e s r e c e i v e d c o n s i d e r a b l e m e n t i o n . (68,69,10,17) I n one s t u d y , i t was noted t h a t i n the c o u n t y of Warden most o f t h e r e f e r r a l s were r e c e i v e d from s c h o o l s m a i n l y because of e m o t i o n a l and b e h a v i o r p r o b l e m s . ( 4 9 ) The i s s u e s i n v o l v e d i n d o c t o r s making r e f e r r a l s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more f u l l y under r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s . C r i t i q u e There i s no w e l l documented i n f o r m a t i o n on who does make r e f e r r a l s . I f such were a v a i l a b l e , i t would p r o v i d e p a r t i a l c l u e s t o o t h e r r e l a t e d f a c t s such as community p e r c e p t i o n s of the p r o b l e m and the v a r y i n g l e v e l s of community r e s p o n s i b i l i t y from one l o c a l i t y t o a n o t h e r . There a r e a number o f l i m i t a t i o n s i n a s s e s s i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t does e x i s t . One s t u d y cannot be compared w i t h a n o t h e r because i t s f o c u s , method, c r i t e r i a and c a t e g o r i e s d i f f e r from each o t h e r . The s t u d y w h i c h found s u c h a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e o f n e i g h b o u r r e f e r r a l s was based on a s m a l l r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t w h i c h r e l a t e d s o l e l y t o p h y s i c a l l y abused c h i l d r e n . (16) The most f r e q u e n t l y mentioned r e f e r r a n t may n o t be n u m e r i c a l l y the most p r e v a l e n t . I t i s n o t known what the k i n s h i p c o n n e c t i o n i s w i t h r e l a t i v e s who r e f e r a f a m i l y o r what degree of p h y s i c a l p r o x i m i t y o r e m o t i o n -a l i n v o l v e m e n t t h e y have w i t h t h i s same f a m i l y . There i s a g r e a t d i s c r e p -ancy i n the i n v o l v e m e n t o f s c h o o l a u t h o r i t i e s i n r e f e r r i n g from a v o i d a n c e o f i t , (82) t o the p redominant c a t e g o r y of r e f e r r a n t s . ( 4 9 ) I t i s not c l e a r what p e r c e n t a g e o f the r e f e r r a l s become p r o t e c t i v e cases i n any o f t h e w r i t i n g s . 25. T h e r e e x i s t s a v e r y g e n e r a l p i c t u r e of who makes r e f e r r a l s , b u t most o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n came from d e s c r i p t i v e a r t i c l e s w i t h no r e s e a r c h b a s i s . I t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e s o u r c e s o f the r e f e r r a l v a r i e s w i d e l y from one a r e a t o a n o t h e r , t h e r e f o r e t h e r e i s l i t t l e knowledge on t h i s a s p e c t o f r e f e r r a l w h i c h has much a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e p r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . R e f e r r a l P r o c e s s The f o c u s t h a t t h i s s e c t i o n t a k e s r e g a r d i n g the r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s i n c l u d e s t h e c h a n n e l s and means whereby an agency, an i n s t i t u t i o n or an i n d i v i d u a l makes a r e f e r r a l t o a s o c i a l agency whose f u n c t i o n i t i s t o be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r p r o t e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n . The p r o c e s s does n o t i n c l u d e what t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r may d e c i d e t o do w i t h t h e c a s e once t h e r e f e r r a l has been made. I n some l o c a l i t i e s i t has been found t o be e x p e d i e n t t o c e n t r a l i z e r e f e r r a l s by e s t a b l i s h i n g a P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s U n i t . (37) But i n most c e n t r e s " t h e r e needs t o be a c l e a r community s t r u c t u r e f o r the r e p o r t i n g o f n e g l e c t i n g and a b u s i n g f a m i l i e s , d e f i n e d c h a n n e l s of communication t h a t e n a b l e r e s p o n s i b l e c i t i z e n s t o know how and where t o t a k e a c t i o n " . ( 8 2 , p. 137) The c o m p l a i n a n t u s u a l l y uses t h e r e s o u r c e most f a m i l i a r t o h i m s e l f . (82,19) One agency r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e i r p o l i c y was t h a t the c o m p l a i n a n t was c o n s i d e r e d t h e " c l i e n t " and t h a t he was encouraged t o have an i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e s o c i a l worker t o s h a r e as much i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . A t t h i s t i m e , t h e w o r k e r i n t e r p r e t s the r o l e and the l i m i t a t i o n s o f the p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e t o the " c l i e n t " . ( 3 5 ) Such a p r o c e s s i s a r a r i t y among most a g e n c i e s . G e n e r a l l y inhere a r e no s t a n d a r d and c l e a r c h a n n e l s of communication and c o l l a b o r a t i o n o r c e n t r a l i z a t i o n or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h d e f i n i t i o n s o f p u r p o s e and p r o c e d u r e . (82,50) One a u t h o r even s u g g e s t s t h a t i n some a r e a s t h e r e a r e no l o c a l r e s o u r c e s t o w h i c h t o r e f e r . (17) A program i n H a w a i i i s s e t up t o meet any c r i s i s o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g 2 6 . each t w e n t y - f o u r hour p e r i o d . R e f e r r a l s a r e made by t e l e p h o n e , m a i l or p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w h i l e the S o c i a l w o r k e r i s a t t h e r e c e i v i n g desk of t h e p o l i c e s t a t i o n on a r o u t i n e check. I n t h i s p r o j e c t the w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e p o l i c e and t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s were v e r y c o - o p e r a t i v e , and t h e t r a d i t i o n a l methods and p r o c e d u r e s (such as i n i t i a l o f f i c e i n t e r v i e w s by appointment or r e f e r r a l summary by t h e p o l i c e ) were m i n i m i z e d . (53) The r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s t o a p h y s i c i a n who s u s p e c t s t h a t the p a r e n t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a c h i l d ' s symptom i s a c r u c i a l i s s u e . "The p h y s i c i a n s h o u l d seek t h e h e l p of a s o c i a l w o r k e r i n c l a r i f y i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n and i n c o n t a c t i n g the a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l or l e g a l a g e n c y " . ( 8 , ; p . 9 8 ) One s t u d y found t h a t " c o n s u l t a t i o n s (by m e d i c a l d o c t o r s ) were r e q u e s t e d f o r 22 out of t h e 50 (abused) c h i l d r e n s t u d i e d and most o f them were made s i n c e 1957 (when t h e i d e a o f abuse was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s e i n j u r i e s ) " . (26, p.184) C r i t i q u e There i s a g l a r i n g p a u c i t y of m a t e r i a l on the r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s as i t has been d e f i n e d . Most o f i t has come from a g e n c i e s w h i c h have des-c r i p t i v e l y r e p o r t e d s p e c i a l or u n i q u e p r o c e d u r e s , b u t a l m o s t w i t h o u t excep-t i o n t h e r e a r e no f i g u r e s t h a t v a l i d a t e t h e i r p r o j e c t s as improvements over o t h e r e x i s t i n g p r o c e d u r e s . The c h a n n e l s and p r o c e d u r e v a r y from one community t o a n o t h e r because agency s t r u c t u r e , p o l i c y and p u r p o s e v a r i e s , community u n d e r s t a n d i n g and i n v o l v e m e n t v a r i e s and a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s o u r c e s and s e r v i c e s v a r i e s . The p r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia i s u n d o u b t e d l y n o t immune t o t h e v a r i a t i o n s j u s t c i t e d . T h i s r a d i c a l l y l i m i t s ? , any wide s c a l e c o m parison u n l e s s a b a s i c framework i s d e v e l o p e d f o r c o l l e c t i n g and s t u d y i n g the f a c t s i n v o l v e d . There has been w i d e s p r e a d w r i t t e n c o n t r o v e r s y about d o c t o r s becom-i n g i n v o l v e d i n the r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s , when and i f t h e y i d e n t i f y and abused 27 . c h i l d . P r o b a b l y the r e a s o n t h a t t h i s i s s u e has been so h i g h l y f o c u s e d on i s t h a t the e x t e n t o f the cases o f the b a t t e r e d c h i l d has been r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y r e c o g n i z e d and our knowledge i s g r o w i n g about the s e r i o u s n e s s o f n o t p r o t e c t i n g such c h i l d r e n as soon as p o s s i b l e . I t would appear t h a t t h e r e a r e a number o f advantages t o the r e p o r t e d f a m i l y , agency and c o m p l a i n a n t when the l a t t e r i s r e q u i r e d t o become more i n v o l v e d t h a n j u s t t e l e p h o n i n g i n a c o m p l a i n t . T h i s p r o c e d u r e p r o v i d e s the w o r k e r w i t h as much a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n as p o s s i b l e . I t p r o v i d e s the c o m p l a i n a n t w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y t o l e a r n about the agency's r o l e s and l i m i t a t i o n s as w e l l as h i s own. I t p r o t e c t s the f a m i l y from exposure of p e t t y v e n d e t t a s . (35, 82) I t a c t s as a s c r e e n i n g p r o c e s s i n the r e f e r r a l a r e a . There i s n o t h i n g i n the l i t e r a t u r e , however, t o s u p p o r t the f a c t t h a t t h i s p r o c e d u r e i s a n y t h i n g b u t r a r e . I n c o n c l u s i o n , i t appears t h a t most a g e n c i e s have n o t s h a r e d w i t h one a n o t h e r i n any w r j t t e n form t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s and d i f f e r e n c e s i n the a r e a o f the r e f e r r a l p r o c e s s . C r i t e r i a of r e f e r r a l A s e a r c h was made i n t h e c h i l d n e g l e c t l i t e r a t u r e t o t r y t o i d e n t i f y what c r i t e r i a o f r e f e r r a l i s or i s n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o e i t h e r the r e f e r r a n t o r t o t h e r e c i p i e n t agency. B r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , r e f e r r a l s a r e made because t h e community b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e f a m i l y i s n o t g i v i n g the c h i l d adequate c a r e , t r a i n i n g or p r o t e c t i o n . ( 1 1 , 68) One c r i t e r i o n f o r n o t a c c e p t i n g a r e f e r r a l i n c l u d e d d i s t i n g u i s h i n g n e i g h b o u r h o o d f e u d s or f a m i l y s q u a b b l e s as t h e p r e d o m i n e n t r e a s o n f o r the c o m p l a i n a n t ' s r e f e r r a l . (35, 82) The range o f c o m p l a i n t s i s wide i n terms o f the degree of s p e c i f i c -i t y and s e v e r i t y . I t may v a r y from a c c u s a t i o n s o f n e g l e c t t o r e p o r t s about t h e c h i l d r e n f o r a g i n g i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d garbage cans f o r f o o d . (69) I n one s t u d y i n v o l v i n g f o r t y f a m i l i e s the f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a were documentated 2 8 . as b e i n g l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c i a l i n a r e f e r r a l b e i n g made: (1) Most of the f a m i l i e s were n o t i c e d by the community and i t s c a s e w o r k e r s because o f the b e h a v i o r o f the c h i l d r e n t h e m s e l v e s . (2) I n 14 f a m i l i e s , t h e p a r e n t s ' b e h a v i o r was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the community's a t t e n t i o n . S u p p o r t i n g e v i d e n c e had t o be sought p r i m a r i l y from the c a s e w o r k e r . (3) I n 7 f a m i l i e s , a l c o h o l i s m was c i t e d as the p r i m a r y cause of n e g l e c t . (69) C r i t i q u e There i s v e r y l i t t l e w r i t t e n about t h i s a s p e c t o f r e f e r r a l and a t p r e s e n t t h e r e appears t o be no e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . C r i t e r i a o f r e f e r r a l i s v e r y c l o s e l y i n t e r r e l a t e d t o community p e r c e p t i o n of the p r o b l e m l e g i s l a t i v e m easures, j u d i c i a l p r o c e s s e s , and e x i s t i n g agency s e r v i c e s . I t may w e l l be t h a t t h e r e w i l l be d i f f i c u l t i e s e n c o u n t e r e d i n any r e s e a r c h e f f o r t s , b u t i t i s an a r e a t h a t s a d l y l a c k s i n f o r m a t i o n , much l e s s compare a t i v e s t u d i e s from one community t o a n o t h e r . We do have some vague know-l e d g e t h a t the range o f c r i t e r i a i s wide and t h a t t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f some are g r e a t e r t h a n o t h e r s , b u t t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s m o s t l y s t o r e d up i n the minds o the w o r k e r s and has n o t been examined m e t h o d i c a l l y . There i s no a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n on the d i s c r e p a n c y o f t h e c r i t e r i a o f the r e f e r r a n t and the w o r k e r s i n an agency. F o r example, how many f a m i l i e s a r e r e f e r r e d t h a t upon i n v e s t i g a t i o n by the w o r k e r do n o t r e c e i v e f u r t h e r s e r v i c e s ? How much s u b j e c t i v i t y i s p r e s e n t i n the r e f e r r a n t ' s c r i t e r i a and the agency's c r i t e r i a ? How c l o s e a r e the c o m p l a i n a n t ' s c r i t e r i a t o the p r e v a l e n t v a l u e s and s t a n d a r d s o f t h e community i n wh i c h t h e y r e s i d e ? F o r what r e a s o n s do the c r i t e r i a d i f f e r f rom one l o c a l i t y t o a n o t h e r ? There a r e many q u e s t i o n s such as t h e s e t h a t cannot be answered because t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i s n o t a v a i l -a b l e o r known a t the p r e s e n t t i m e . 2 9 . S p e c i a l Problems of R e f e r r a l W i t h r e g a r d t o the c o n c e p t of r e f e r r a l i n terms o f s o u r c e , c r i t e r i a and p r o c e s s a number of s p e c i a l problems have been m e n t i o n e d i n v a r i o u s w r i t i n g s . One a r e a t h a t has r e c e i v e d a g r e a t d e a l o f a t t e n t i o n o ver t h e l a s t few y e a r s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e v o l v e s around the p h y s i c a l l y abused c h i l d r e n who a r e a t t e n d e d by d o c t o r s e i t h e r i n t h e i r o f f i c e s or i n h o s p i t a l s . Z a l b a s t a t e s t h a t "Kempe ... and o t h e r s have p o i n t e d o u t , many o f the ( t h e d o c t o r s ) a r e n o t aware of t h e phenomena and some p r e f e r t o do n o t h i n g when t h e y do r e c o g n i z e i t " . ( 8 3 , p.12) Elmer s u g g e s t s t h a t " t a r d y r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m i n m e d i c a l c i r c l e s r e f l e c t s s o c i e t y ' s d i s c o m f o r t i n f a c i n g i t " . (26, p.181) There i s a l s o the r e s i s t a n c e t o c o u r t appearances (83,14) w h i c h can be p a r t l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e danger o f p r o s e c u t i o n f o r s l a n d e r or d i s -c l o s i n g a p r i v e l e g e d communication. (76) Boardman i d e n t i f i e s o t h e r d i f f i -c u l t i e s i n r e f e r r i n g such c a s e s . (14) T h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o b l e m i s n o t i n s o l v a b l e as M a x w e l l s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e d o c t o r s need c l e a r c h a n n e l s f o r c e n t r a l i z e d r e p o r t i n g and c l e a r under-s t a n d i n g o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and t h e i r l e g a l p o s i t i o n . (51) T h e r e i s i n c r e a s -i n g p r e s s u r e f o r l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h makes i t mandatory f o r the m e d i c a l p r o -f e s s i o n t o r e p o r t cases o f p h y s i c a l abuse (82) because we now know th e i m p e r a t i v e n e c e s s i t y of immediate p r o t e c t i o n i n such c a s e s . (83) There i s a l s o e v i d e n c e t h a t such l e g i s l a t i o n i s i n c r e a s i n g l y b e i n g e n a c t e d . (66) A t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e such a s t e p i s b e i n g c o n s i d e r e d by t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L e g i s l a t o r s . T here i s a s i m i l a r r e l u c t a n c e on the p a r t o f many p e o p l e t o r e f e r a f a m i l y t o a p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e . F e a r o f i n v o l v e m e n t i n subsequent c o u r t a c t i o n i s one r e a s o n . (82) Thus a c o m p l a i n t i s o f t e n n o t made u n t i l t h e 30. p r o b l e m i s b l a t a n t and s e r i o u s . The mother of the r e f e r r e d f a m i l y i s apt t o be r e g a r d e d w i t h some p r e j u d i c e and t h i s a f f e c t s the s u b j e c t i v i t y o f the e o m p l a i n t a n t ' s r e f e r r a l . (41) One s t u d y i d e n t i f i e d t h a t i f the r e f e r r -a l comes from a n o t h e r agency t h e n g r e a t e r a t t e n t i o n i s p a i d t o i t t h a n i f i t comes from a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n . (10) S c h e r e r m e n t i o n s t h a t i t i s the e t h i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f a r e f e r r i n g agency t o i n f o r m i t s c l i e n t t h a t a c p m p l a i n t i s b e i n g made b u t t h i s i s n o t always c a r r i e d o u t . He a l s o p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e a r e r e a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n o b t a i n i n g s p e c i f i c and v a l i d i n f o r m -a t i o n on the i d e n t i f i e d n e g l e c t f u l f a m i l i e s . (68) There i s the a d d i t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t y o f r e c o g n i z i n g e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t w h i c h i s o f t e n n o t as r e a d i l y seen as p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t o r abuse. (54, 31) C r i t i q u e The above c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e the major and more common s p e c i a l problems of r e f e r r a l i n c h i l d n e g l e c t c ases as v a r i o u s w r i t e r s i d e n t i f i e d them. What i s e v i d e n t i s t h a t t h e r e i s a s c a t t e r e d and s u p e r f i c i a l amount of knowledge i n the whole a r e a o f r e f e r r a l t h a t needs t o be p u l l e d t o g e t h e r m e t h o d i c a l l y u s i n g a v a r i e t y o f r e s e a r c h methods. T h i s would p r o v i d e more v a l i d i n f o r m a t i o n and s h o u l d r e s u l t i n more e f f e c t i v e c h i l d p r o t e c t i v e and p r e v e n t a t i v e s e r v i c e s . AGENCY WORKING RELATIONSHIPS I n t h i s s e c t i o n we a r e concerned w i t h f i n d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n on the b e a r i n g w h i c h agency w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s have on t h e q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y of p r o t e c t i v e r e f e r r a l s . The q u e s t i o n t o be answered i s , w i l l a s o c i a l agency r e f e r a case t o the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n i f t h e y have l i t t l e c o n f i d e n c e i n the p r a c t i c e s o f t h a t agency, or do th e y p r e f e r t o d e a l w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n t h e m s e l v e s . Maas and E n g l e r , i n t h e i r s t u d y on c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , examined i n t e r a g e n c y n e t w o r k s i n n i n e c o m m u n i t i e s . They l o o k e d f o r p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n -31. s h i p s , n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , or the absence o f r e l a t i o n s h i p s between a g e n c i e s and from t h i s d e t e r m i n e d t o what e x t e n t t h e i n t e r a g e n c y network c o u l d be s a i d t o be c o l l a b o r a t i v e or non c o l l a b o r a t i v e . There were f o u r " f a c t o r s c o n c e i v e d t o a f f e c t an agency's p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e n etwork". (49, p.413) These i n c l u d e d ; t h e h i s t o r y of the agency, t h e t y p e s and numbers o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by an agency, t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e w o r k e r s i n the agency had r e c e i v e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , and f i n a l l y the g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n o f an agency i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e o t h e r a g e n c i e s . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t where a c o l l a b o r a t i v e "system of s p e c i f i c agencies'* e x i s t e d , i n t h a t the a g e n c i e s c o n s u l t e d and c o o p e r a t e d w i t h each o t h e r i n p l a n n i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , t h e r e would be "a h i g h a d o p t i o n r a t e among c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r c a r e and more movement from b o t h f o s t e r f a m i l y and i n s t i t u t i o n t o b o t h a d o p t i o n and r e t u r n home".(49, p.329) T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was found t o be l a r g e l y s u b s t a n t i a t e d . (49, pp.330-334) What was q u i t e s i g n i f i c a n t was t h a t i n a g e n c i e s w h i c h had a p r o f e s s i o n a l emphasis and a l a r g e number o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , t h e r e was a tendency f o r t h o s e a g e n c i e s t o be d e s i r o u s o f communications w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s and w i t h b r o a d e n i n g i t s own p e r s p e c t i v e s , r e s u l t i n g i n g r e a t e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h o t h e r a g e n c i e s . (49, p. 327) L e o n t i n e Young e x p r e s s e s the o p i n i o n t h a t the I'patchwork q u i l t " a p p r o ach o f s u p p l y i n g s o c i a l s e r v i c e s has tended t o " o b s c u r e b o t h the n a t u r e and the e x t e n d o f the p r o b l e m s " w i t h r e g a r d t o c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse. (83, p.112) The f a c t t h a t a c l i e n t o f one agency may a l s o be a c l i e n t o f s e v e r a l o t h e r a g e n c i e s adds t o the c o n f u s i o n f o r b o t h t h e c l i e n t and the w o r k e r . T h i s a c c e n t u a t e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s of c l i e n t s who a l r e a d y o f t e n have much i n t e r n a l f a m i l y d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n . Young f e e l s t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e s l a r g e l y t o the f a c t t h a t c h i l d w e l f a r e a g e n c i e s have h i g h s t a f f t u r n o v e r and t h a t u n e a s i n e s s and u n c e r t a i n t y e x i s t s w i t h i n t h e w o r k e r s 32. employed i n c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n . (83, p.114) There have been s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s made t o e s t a b l i s h b e t t e r co-o r d i n a t i o n amorig a u t h o r i t i e s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h r e g a r d t o c ases of c h i l d abuse. I n t h e r e p o r t o f a program i n H a w a i i , d e v e l o p e d t o e s t a b l i s h b e t t e r p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s , Minn t e l l s of t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s g o i n g out w i t h the p o l i c e o f f i c e r s on the i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of a c o m p l a i n t . I n t h i s way t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r o b t a i n e d f i r s t hand i n f o r m a t i o n and was i n v o l v e d a t t h e p o i n t o f c r i s i s w i t h t h e f a m i l y . T h i s new program b r o u g h t about a r e d u c t i o n i n the number o f n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n s b e i n g b r o u g h t b e f o r e the c o u r t . I n a d d i t i o n i t meant t h a t c h i l d r e n t a k e n i n t o c a r e were g i v e n immediate h e l p by t h e c a s e w o r k e r r a t h e r than s e v e r a l weeks l a t e r as had been the p r e v i o u s s i t u a t i o n . (53) I n a s i m i l a r way,. Sandusky e x p l a i n s t h a t "as u n d e r s t a n d i n g grows the p o l i c e a r e apt t o r e f e r t o the agency more c h i l d r e n and t h e i r p a r e n t s i n need of c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s f o r a v a r i e t y of r e a s o n s " . ( 6 7 ) Such c o o p e r a t i v e and prompt r e f e r r a l s r e s u l t i n f a m i l i e s b e i n g more q u i c k l y i d e n -t i f i e d as n e e d i n g h e l p , and i n c r e a s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c c e s s f u l t r e a t -ment. I f t h e p o l i c e have c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s t h e y w i l l be more l i k e l y t o r e f e r a t an e a r l i e r s t a g e . (67) Boardman, i n an a r t i c l e d i s c u s s i n g c h i l d abuse cases i n a c h i l d -r e n ' s h o s p i t a l , t e l l s o f t h e improved p r o t e c t i o n f o r abused c h i l d r e n r e s u l t -i n g from i n c r e a s e d communication between t h e c o u r t , t h e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s , and the h o s p i t a l . (8) I n t h e i r r e v i e w o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ' c a s e s i n w h i c h c h i l d r e n had been p h y s i c a l l y abused, B r y a n t p o i n t e d out t h a t i n the community t h e r e "was n o t a c o - o r d i n a t e d p l a n t o p r o v i d e p r o t e c t i o n t o the c h i l d and h e l p t o t h e f a m i l y " . (16, p.129) They emphasize most e m p h a t i c a l l y t h a t t h e r e s -p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h i s does n o t l i e e n t i r e l y w i t h t h e s o c i a l agency and t h a t o t h e r s s u c h as d o c t o r s , h o s p i t a l s , and l e g a l a u t h o r i t i e s must a l s o be i n v o l v e d . As B r y a n t s t a t e s i t , "We see t h e casework s e r v i c e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s p l a n n i n g , but n o t assuming t o t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the whole program". (16, p. 129) C r i t i q u e The m ain d i s c u s s i o n s o f agency w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e found r e l a t i n g t o t h e s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m of c h i l d abuse r a t h e r t h a t c h i l d n e g l e c t or c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n i n g e n e r a l . T h i s i s p r o b a b l y due t o the r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t i s o l a t i n g o f t h e " B a t t e r e d C h i l d Syndrome" and the amount o f i n t e r e s t and c o n c e r n i t has c r e a t e d among groups who come i n t o c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s e c h i l d r e n . The Maas and E n g l e r s t u d y i s q u i t e comprehensive b u t i t f o c u s e s on c h i l d r e n a l r e a d y t a k e n i n t o c a r e . T h e i r method o f e x a m i n i n g the i n t e r -agency network i n a community t h r o u g h f i e l d s t u d y c o u l d be a p p l i e d i n o t h e r communities w i t h the f o c u s b e i n g on the c o l l a b o r a t i v e or n o n - c o l l a b o r a t i v e -ness o f t h e network and i t s a f f e c t upon c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s . A f u r t h e r a r e a of i n t e r e s t would be t o t r y and d e t e r m i n e how e f f e c t i v e and how adequate the c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a r e i n a community as seen n o t o n l y by community l e a d e r s such as i n N e t t l e r ' s s t u d y ( 5 5 ) , but by the a v e r a g e c i t i z e n . One may p o s t u l a t e t h a t i f t h e average c i t i z e n as w e l l as p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l have c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i r l o c a l c h i l d w e l f a r e agency t h e y w i l l be more l i k e l y t o make r e f e r r a l s . Such a c o ncept needs t o be v a l i d a t e d i n r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l l o c a t i o n s . I n t h i s p r o v i n c e t h e p r o v i s i o n o f c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s i s v e s t e d in.:the P r o v i n c i a l Department of S o c i a l W e l f a r e , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f the two major c i t i e s where t h e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s a r e p r o v i d e d by C h i l d -r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s . No s t u d i e s have as y e t been done i n t h i s p r o v i n c e w h i c h p r o v i d e any i n f o r m a t i o n on the b e a r i n g w h i c h agency w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n -s h i p s have on t h e q u a l i t y and/or q u a n t i t y o f p r o t e c t i v e r e f e r r a l s . Such a 34. s t u d y o r s t u d i e s m i g h t be q u i t e i l l u m i n a t i n g p a r t i c u l a r l y when we hear so much about " c o o r d i n a t i o n o f s e r v i c e s " . One o f the o b s t a c l e s t o c o o r d i n a t i o n may be the poor p e r c e p t i o n of one agency and i t s s e r v i c e s by o t h e r a g e n c i e s . FAMILY FUNCTIONING When a r e f e r r a n t r e p o r t s a f a m i l y t o c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n agency because he f e e l s t h a t c h i l d abuse or n e g l e c t e x i s t s he has a l r e a d y made some a p p r a i s a l o f t h e f a m i l y r e f e r r e d . R e f e r r a l s may come from many s o u r c e s as has a l r e a d y been d i s c u s s e d . Whoever r e f e r s t h e case t o the agency w i l l be concerned p a r t i c u l a r l y w i t h what he c o n s i d e r s t o be i n a d -equate p e r f o r m a n c e by t h e p a r e n t s i n c a r i n g f o r • thei'ir c h i l d r e n . Whether or n o t t h i s i n a d e q u a t e p e r f o r m a n c e i s i n t e n t i o n a l o r u n i n t e n t i o n a l , c o n s c i o u s or u n c o n s c i o u s on t h e p a r t o f the p a r e n t s i t has caused c o n c e r n t o the p e r s o n o r the agency making the r e f e r r a l . T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l f o c u s on r e v i e w i n g some o f the s t u d i e s w h i c h have a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y t h o s e c h a r a -c t e r i s t i c s o f p a r e n t a l p e r f o r m a n c e and f u n c t i o n i n g w h i c h were found t o be most common i n f a m i l i e s where c h i l d n e g l e c t o r abuse has o c c u r r e d . One of the ma j o r s t u d i e s o f n e g l e c t e d and abused c h i l d r e n was c a r r i e d o ut by Young. (82) She completed an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f 120 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e case h i s t o r i e s s e l e c t e d by q u a l i f i e d s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h r e e s e p a r a t e c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n a g e n c i e s . The f o l l o w - u p s t u d y o r second p a r t t o the e x p l o r a t o r y s u t d y c o n s i s t e d o f a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f one hundred e i g h t y case r e c o r d s s e l e c t e d f r o m . s i x d i f f e r e n t p r o t e c t i o n a g e n c i e s from v a r i o u s p a r t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The a g e n c i e s s e l e c t e d i n c l u d e d t h o s e b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e and were s i t u a t e d i n b o t h r u r a l and urban a r e a s . T h i s s e l e c t i o n was made i n o r d e r t o ; " d e t e r m i n e any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n r u r a l a r e a s and s m a l l towns, and t h o s e i n medium and l a r g e u r b a n c e n t r e s " . 35. (82, p.149) W i t h t h i s s e l e c t i o n of a r e a s i t was hoped t o i d e n t i f y t he r e g i o n a l f a c t o r s p r e v a l e n t and the p o s s i b l e emphasis o f an a t t i t u d e w h i c h m i g h t be p r e v a l e n t i n one community b u t t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t o r absent i n a n o t h e r community. A s c h e d u l e was drawn up and a l l b u t one of the items i n c l u d e d i n the s c h e d u l e c o u l d be responded t o as t r u e o r f a l s e . The e x c e p t i o n was the i t e m a s k i n g f o r " p a r e n t a l s t a t e m e n t s " . The s c h e d u l e was p r e t e s t e d and the p r e t e s t showed a tendency on the p a r t o f the r e s p o n d e n t ( c a s e r e a d e r ) t o " b i a s judgment o f what happened i n terms of why i t happened". (82, p. 152) I n o r d e r t o c o r r e c t t h i s , t he f i n a l s c h e d u l e a l l o w e d the worker t o a m p l i f y or q u a l i f y h i s r e s p o n s e s . Of t h e o r i g i n a l 180 c a s e s , o n l y 173 were used as seven cases showed no e x i s t e n c e o f n e g l e c t o r abuse. These 173 were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r t y p e s i n c l u d i n g s e v e r e abuse, moderate abuse, s e v e r e n e g l e c t , and mod-e r a t e n e g l e c t . The f i n a l d r a f t e d s c h e d u l e i n c l u d e d 95 ite m s and the r e -sponses t o t h e s e " d e s c r i b e d t h e p r e s e n c e o r absence i n the f a m i l y o f be-h a v i o r s p e c i f i e d by t h e i t e m " . ( 8 2 , p.153) On e l e v e n items the r e s p o n s e o b t a i n e d was "no i n f o r m a t i o n " so t h e s e items were e l i m i n a t e d from the s c h e d u l e . "The h y p o t h e s i s t h a t the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s t r u e and f a l s e on any i t e m were i n d e p e n d e n t o f ty p e was made. The c h i - s q u a r e t e s t was a p p l i e d and. o n l y t h o s e i t e m s f o r w h i c h t h i s t e s t c o u l d be r e j e c t e d were r e t a i n e d . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s was t o d e t e r m i n e whether t y p e , as d e f i n e d by the c r i t e r i a was a s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e i n d e l i n e a t i n g s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s . C h i - s q u a r e t a b l e s (2 x 4) were c o n s t r u c t e d f o r each i t e m . C h i -square t e s t s were made on 53 i t e m s . T h i r t y seven o f t h e s e p r o v e d t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t y p e a t a l e v e l o f .05 o r below. The n a t u r e o f t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p and t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s among the item s as a p p l i e d t o b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s were a n a l y z e d by t h e i r e m p i r i c a l meaning and l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y . " (82, p. 152) The it e m s were d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e d i v i s i o n s u s i n g as a b a s i s t h e i r e m p i r i c a l meaning. The f i r s t d i v i s i o n was t h a t o f " P a r e n t a l B e h a v i o r To-ward C h i l d r e n " and i n c l u d e d 19 items w h i c h were d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e . I n t h e type, " s e v e r e abuse" two ite m s r e c e i v e d a 907„ t r u e r e s p o n s e . These were s e v e r e b e a t i n g o f the c h i l d w i t h o t h e r t h a n the hand, 100% and a b u s i v e l a n g u a g e , 94.9%,. I n t h e ty p e " s e v e r e n e g l e c t " , i n a d e q u a t e f e e d i n g was a c c o r d e d a t r u e r e s p o n s e o f 100%,, l a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s 95.2%, i n a d e q u a t e c l o t h i n g 98 . 47°, and f a i l u r e t o g i v e needed m e d i c a l c a r e , 95.2%.. (82, pp. 156-157) The second d i v i s i o n o f ite m s i n c l u d e d t h o s e w h i c h i d e n t i f i e d " M a r i t a l R o l e s " . I n none of t h e items i n t h i s d i v i s i o n was t h e r e r e c o r d e d a t r u e r e s p o n s e o f g r e a t e r t h a n 90%. The i t e m " p a r e n t s have d e f i n e d r e -s p o n s i b i l i t i e s " was a c c o r d e d t r u e 19.47, f o r s e v e r e n e g l e c t and 67.7%, i n moderate n e g l e c t . T h i s and the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s i n d i c a t e d a much h i g h e r s t a t e o f d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e v e r e n e g l e c t and i s a commentary on t h e i n -a b i l i t y o f t h e s e f a m i l i e s t o a c c e p t and s h a r e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c a r r y i n g out normal d a i l y f u n c t i o n s i n t h e home. The i t e m " n e i t h e r p a r e n t t a k e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d e c i s i o n s " r e c e i v e d an 87.8% t r u e r e s p o n s e f o r s e v e r e abuse and 81.07° f o r s e v e r e n e g l e c t . An i n t e r e s t i n g i t e m was t h a t o f i n f i d e l i t y w h i c h was responded t o 50%, t r u e i n b o t h s e v e r e abuse and moderate n e g l e c t . I n s e v e r e n e g l e c t was marked 68.8% t r u e and i n moderate abuse 45.8%,. I t was s t a t e d t h a t " i n abusing f a m i l i e s , t he a g g r e s s i v e p a r t n e r tended t o be t h e one s e x u a l l y u n f a i t h f u l " . (82,, p.170) The t h i r d d i v i s i o n i n c l u d e d n i n e s i g n i f i c a n t i t e m s " c o n c e r n e d w i t h s t a n d a r d s o f b e h a v i o r as t h e s e a p p l i e d t o p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r and a t t i t u d e s t o f a m i l y c a r e " . ( 8 2 , p.170) The i t e m . " f a m i l y r o u t i n g i s p r e s e n t " was found t o 37 . be t r u e i n o n l y 4 . 8 7 ° o f the t y p e s e v e r e n e g l e c t . The p e r c e n t a g e s i n c r e a s e d t o 2 1 . 9 7 , i n moderate abuse, 3 9 . 4 7 , i n moderate n e g l e c t and 4 0 . 5 7 o i n s e v e r e abuse. Once a g a i n we see the abs e n c e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n s e v e r e n e g l e c t , o f " h a b i t u a l and o r d e r l y ways o f c a r i n g f o r t h e f a m i l y members and the house". ( 8 2 , p . 1 7 0 ) The i t e m w h i c h asked i f t h e p a r e n t s "does n o t s p o n t a n e o u s l y e x p r e s s remorse i n words" was t r u e 9 0 . 7 7 , i n s e v e r e abuse and 9 5 . 2 7 o i n s e v e r e n e g l e c t , i n d i c a t i n g t h e f a i l u r e on the p a r t o f t h e s e p a r e n t s t o l i n k t h e i r own a c t i o n s w i t h t h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y f i n d t h e m s e l v e s and t h e i r c h i l d r e n , "no R e l i g i o u s A f f i l i a t i o n " was seen as 9 5 . 2 7 o i n s e v e r e n e g l e c t and somewhat l e s s t r u e i n the o t h e r t h r e e t y p e s . One i t e m i n t h e t h i r d d i v i s i o n asked r e s -pondents t o i n d i c a t e t r u e o r f a l s e t h a t the p a r e n t "does n o t r e l a t e p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r w i t h b e h a v i o r o f c h i l d r e n " . T h i s was answered 9 3 . 0 7 , t r u e o f s e v e r e abuse and 8 8 . 9 7 , i n s e v e r e n e g l e c t . ( 8 2 , p. 1 7 1 ) There was r e c o r d e d r e s p o n s e s o f 9 5 . 4 7 , t r u e f o r s e v e r e abuse and 8 2 . 5 7 o f o r s e v e r e n e g l e c t when t h o s e q u e s t i o n e d were asked t o i n d i c i a t e i f t h e r e had been. "No Change i n B e h a v i o r Toward C h i l d r e n " . F o r t h i s i t e m 6 9 . 7 7 » t r u e f o r moderate n e g l e c t and 7 8 . 8 7 , f o r moderate abuse. These r e s p o n s e s i n t r o d u c e a whole s e r i e s o f q u e s t i o n s about the s u c c e s s o r l a c k o f i t i n p r e v i o u s and c u r r e n t a t t e m p t s t o b r i n g about changes i n a t t i t u d e o f p a r e n t s on " p r o t e c t i v e " c a s e l o a d s . The i t e m r e s p e c t i n g f a i l u r e t o keep t h e h o u s e h o l d c l e a n b r o u g h t a t r u e r e s p o n s e o f 8 7 . 3 7 , i n s e v e r e n e g l e c t b u t was somewhat l e s s t r u e o f the o t h e r t y p e s , b e i n g 6 5 . 6 7 , t r u e i n moderate abuse, 6 3 . 6 7 , t r u e i n moderate n e g l e c t and 5 2 . 5 7 > i n s e v e r e abuse. ( 8 2 , p . 1 7 1 ) I n a s e p a r a t e t a b l e Young i n c l u d e s 1 5 i t e m s o f the 4 7 w h i c h " f a i l e d t o show any s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t y p e , " ( 8 2 , p . 1 5 3 ) a t a l e v e l o f > . 0 5 . These she a n a l y z e d because the p e r c e n t a g e o f t r u e r e s p o n s e s 38. was h i g h enough t o be i m p o r t a n t and have " r e l e v a n c e t o the b e h a v i o r a l p r o f i l e o f the t o t a l group". (82, p.176) These items a r e c l u e s f o r p r o -t e c t i o n w o r k e r s and w i l l be found i n many o f t h e cases w h i c h a r e a s s i g n e d and a r e d i s c u s s e d h e r e f o r t h a t r e a s o n . The items i n t h i s group i n c l u d e p a r e n t a l i n d i f f e r e n c e t o b e h a v i o r of c h i l d r e n , no c o n s i s t e n t d i s c i p l i n e o f c h i l d r e n , no c o n s i s t e n t e x p e c t -a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n , p a r e n t a l q u a r r e l i n g v e r b a l l y , p a r e n t a l f i g h t i n g i n f r o n t o f c h i l d r e n , no c o n t i n u i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p o u t s i d e the f a m i l y , no con-s i s t e n t p l a c e i n the group, p a r e n t s s h a r e no common a c t i v i t i e s and no i n i t i a t i o n o f r e s p o n s i b l e p l a n or a c t i o n . A t l e a s t one t y p e o f the f o u r t y p e s l i s t e d above was a c c o r d e d a t r u e r e s p o n s e of g r e a t e r t h a n 907», i n -d i c a t i n g a g a i n t h e number and magnitude o f t h e problems e n g u l f i n g t h e f a m i l i e s of n e g l e c t e d and abused c h i l d r e n . F o r the two items " P a r e n t s Share i n P l a n s " and " P a r e n t s s h a r e and d i s c u s s Problems T o g e t h e r " , t r u e r e s p o n s e s under any of the f o u r t y p e s d i d n o t exceed 7 .97„ and was r e c o r d e d as low as 3.47<>. Geismar and A y r e s i n the F a m i l y C e n t e r e d P r o j e c t of S t . P a u l d e v e l o p e d a s e t o f s c a l e s f o r m e a s u r i n g the s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f f a m i l y members. These s c a l e s were d e s i g n e d to g i v e an o b j e c t i v e method of a n a l y s -i n g f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g and changes i n f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t . "The f a m i l y may be seen t o c a r r y out . . . s o c i a l l y a s s i g n e d f u n c -t i o n s as a r e s u l t o f a members p e r f o r m i n g the v a r i o u s r o l e s t h a t a r e the components o f f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g . Adequacy o f f u n c t i o n i n g i s c o n t i n g e n t upon the r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e i n k e e p i n g w i t h the r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s of s o c i e t y . Judgment o f f u n c t i o n i n g thus becomes a m a t t e r of d e t e r m i n i n g the d i s c r e p -ancy between r o l e e x p e c t a t i o n s and r o l e p e r f o r m a n c e . " (28, p.104) The s c h e d u l e of f u n c t i o n i n g i n c l u d e d n i n e a r e a s w h i c h a r e as f o l l o w s : (1) home and h o u s e h o l d p r a c t i c e s , (2) economic p r a c t i c e s , 39. (3) s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , (4) h e a l t h problems and p r a c t i c e s , (5) c a r e and t r a i n i n g c h i l d r e n , (6) f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s and f a m i l y u n i t y , (7) i n -d i v i d u a l b e h a v i o r and a d j u s t m e n t , (8) r e l a t i o n s h i p t o worker and, (9) use o f community r e s o u r c e s . . I n t e s t i n g t h i s s c h e d u l e , the j u d g e s were asked to r a t e the f a m i l i e s on a c o n t i n u u m from i n a d e q u a t e to adequate f u n c t i o n -i n g . (28) The g e n e r a l c r i t e r i a used f o r l e v e l s o f s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g were d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : " I n a d e q u a t e f u n c t i o n i n g (community, has a r i g h t t o i n t e r v e n e ) . Laws and/or mores c l e a r l y v i o l a t e d . B e h a v i o r of f a m i l y members a t h r e a t to the community. F a m i l y , l i f e c h a r a c t e r -i z e d by extreme c o n f l i c t , n e g l e c t , , s e v e r e d e p r i v a t i o n o r very, poor r e l a t i o n s h i p s r e s u l t i n g i n p h y s i c a l a n d / e m o t i o n a l s u f f e r i n g o f f a m i l y members; d i s r u p t i o n o f f a m i l y - l i f e im-m i n e n t , c h i l d r e n i n c l e a r . a n d p r e s e n t danger because o f con-d i t i o n s above o r o t h e r b e h a v i o r i n i m i c a l t o t h e i r w e l f a r e . M a r g i n a l F u n c t i o n i n g ( B e h a v i o r n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y h a r m f u l to j u s t i f y i n t e r v e n t i o n ) . No v i o l a t i o n o f major laws a l t h o u g h b e h a v i o r o f f a m i l y members i n c o n t r a r y t o what i s a c c e p t -a b l e f o r s t a t u s g roup. F a m i l y l i f e marked by c o n f l i c t , a p a t h y , o r u n s t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h a r e a p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t t o . w e l f a r e o f f a m i l y members and community. Adequate F u n c t i o n i n g ( B e h a v i o r i n . l i n e w i t h community ex-p e c t a t i o n s ) . Laws and mores a r e o b s e r v e d ; b e h a v i o r i s a c c e p t a b l e t o s t a t u s g r o u p . F a m i l y l i f e i s s t a b l e , . members have a sense o f b e l o n g i n g , f a m i l y i s a b l e t o h a n d l e problems w i t h o u t f a c i n g d i s r u p t i o n , c h i l d r e n a r e b e i n g i n an a t -mosphere c o n d u c i v e to h e a l t h y p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l deve-lopment." (29, pp. 73-74) To t e s t the r e l i a b i l i t y o f s c h e d u l e t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t judgments were o b t a i n e d . Two o f t h e s e were g i v e n by r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s and the t h i r d a casework s u p e r v i s o r . (29, p. 22) G e n e r a l r e l i a b i l i t y , was seen t o be p r e s e n t . W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the v a l i d i t y , o f the measurement Geismar and A y r e s s t a t e "The q u e s t i o n o f v a l i d i t y o f our e v a l u a t i o n p r o c e d u r e c a n n o t be answered s a t i s f a c t o r i l y w i t h i n the c o n t e x t o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y . " (29, 43) 40. The i n s t r u m e n t o f m e a s u r i n g f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g d e v e l o p e d by Geismar and A y r e s has been w i d e l y c o p i e d and i s e x t r e m e l y u s e f u l t o agen-c i e s . • Some o f t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o c h i l d n e g l e c t c a s e s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r . I n C h e s s e r ' s book, " C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n " , he d i s c u s s e s i n a g e n e r a l way the i n f l u e n c e o f home and f a m i l y i n pr o b l e m o f c h i l d " c r u e l t y " . He t a l k s a b o ut "bad homes" and "good homes" and says some o f t h e p r e c i p i -t a t i n g . f a c t o r s which, may r e s u l t i n . a bad home a r e (1) a d v e r s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s s u c h ; a s p o v e r t y , poor h o u s i n g , e t c . , (2) low i n t e l l i g e n c e , (3) i g n o r a n c e and, (4) ove r b u r d e n e d motherhood. He i d e n t i f i e s bad homes among h i g h e r i n -come groups and says what may p r e c i p i t a t e homes i n t h e s e g r o u p s as b e i n g "bad" ones, a r e (1) i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , (2) d e f i c i e n t m a t e r n a l i n s t i n c t and e m o t i o n a l i m m a t u r i t y . (17, p. 33) C h e s s e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n s a r e drawn idfrom 600 c a s e s o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and c r u e l t y b r o u g h t b e f o r e a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o u r t s i n E n g l a n d . H i s r e s e a r c h i s l a r g e l y d e s c r i p t i v e and i t was n o t s u b j e c t e d t o s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s f o r r e l i a b i l i t y , and v a l i d i t y . Sandusky, i n d i s c u s s i n g c h i l d n e g l e c t i n g e n e r a l , i d e n t i f i e s s e v e r a l f a c t o r s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g to i n a d e q u a t e p e r f o r m a n c e on the p a r t o f p a r e n t s and r e f e r s t o e m o t i o n a l p r o b l e m s , i m m a t u r i t y , e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g , and m a r i t a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . She s t a t e s t h a t t h e i r c a p a c i t y f o r p a r e n t h o o d i s b l o c k e d by p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s and they have d i f f i c u l t y i n . a s k i n g f o r h e l p even though they may want such h e l p . (67) M c F e r r a n makes somewhat s i m i l a r o b s e r v a t i o n s and sees n e g l e c t f u l p a r e n t s as l a c k i n g knowledge o f elemen-t a r y p r i n c i p l e s o f c h i l d c a r e because they grew up i n homes w h i c h d i d n o t p r e p a r e them f o r p a r e n t h o o d and because they, had l i t t l e f o r m a l o r i n f o r m a l e d u c a t i o n . As a r e s u l t , t h e s e p a r e n t s f e l t o v e r b u r d e n e d by c h i l d b e a r i n g and t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f day t o day l i v i n g , a l t h o u g h "most o f them d i d not i n t e n t i o n a l l y n e g l e c t t h e i r c h i l d r e n and r e a l l y want t o be good p a r e n t s " . (48) J a c o b u c c i , i n an a r t i c l e d i s c u s s i n g casework t r e a t m e n t of n e g l e c t f u l m o t h e r s , r e f e r s as do t h e a u t h o r s above, t o t h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f the mother b e i n g e m o t i o n a l l y immature. He i d e n t i f i e s l o n e l i n e s s and a f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n as the most r e v e a l i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the n e g l e c t f u mother. Such a mother w i l l commonly see h e r s e l f as i n a d e q u a t e , w i t h f e e l i n g s of h o s t i l i t y p r e v i o u s l y d i r e c t e d toward her mother, d i s p l a c e d toward h e r husband. She may r e g a r d her c h i l d r e n as s i b l i n g s and compete w i t h them f o r t h e a p p r o v a l and a t t e n t i o n of t h e husband and t h e caseworker The community o f t e n t r e a t s h e r w i t h h o s t i l i t y . (41) Shames a l s o found n e g l e c t f u l mothers t o be s u f f e r i n g from de-p r e s s i o n and l o n e l i n e s s and t o have a poor s e l f - i m a g e . She d i s c u s s e s f a m i l i e s w h i c h were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by poor h o u s e h o l d p r a c t i c e s and a h i g h degree of i n t e r n a l d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , as shown by t h e i r d i r t y unkempt houses i n a d e q u a t e c a r e o f p r e p a r a t i o n of f o o d , p o o r b u d g e t i n g o f money and t h e i r c h i l d r e n b e i n g d i r t y and unkempt. T h i s was a d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y based on a d e m o n s t r a t i o n p r o j e c t i n w h i c h homemakers were p l a c e d i n homes where house h o l d p r a c t i c e s were such t h a t t h e r e was a s e r i o u s h a z a r d t o t h e h e a l t h and w e l f a r e o f the c h i l d r e n . (69) I n the s t u d y of p h y s i c a l l y abused c h i l d r e n done by B r y a n t i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s , the p a r e n t s i n 907, of the cases were found t o have s e r i o u s s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . They were found t o have u s u a l l y l i v e d i n the community f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s b u t showed l i t t l e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t o i t and were n o t a c c e p t e d by o t h e r community members. U s u a l l y t h e s e p a r e n t s were young a t time of m a r r i a g e , and i n j u s t s l i g h t l y l e s s t h a n h a l f t h e f a m i l i e s , premar i t a l c o n c e p t i o n had o c c u r r e d . Most o f t h e f a m i l i e s were s e l f - s u p p o r t i n g though 227„ had f i n a n c i a l p r o b l e m s . The p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p a r e n t s , based on g e n e r a l c l i n i c a l i m p r e s s i o n s , , were grouped i n t h r e e c l u s t e r s . One was p a r e n t s who were h o s t i l e and a g g r e s s i v e , f i l l e d w i t h con t i n u o u s and u n c o n t r o l l e d anger. A second c l u s t e r i n c l u d e d t h o s e p a r e n t s who were r i g i d , c o m p u l s i v e and l a c k e d warmth. T h i s group r e j e c t e d the c h i l d r e n and o f t e n a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r own t r o u b l e s t o the c h i l d r e n . They made e x c e s s i v e demands o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n , c o u l d n o t r e l a x w i t h them and defended t h e i r a t t a c k s on the c h i l d r e n . The t h i r d c l u s t e r o f p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d e d the p a s s i v e and dependent type o f p a r e n t . T h i s group was r e t i c e n t and u n a g g r e s s i v e , dependent on o t h e r s to make d e c i s i o n s , immature, unassuming and g e n e r a l l y sad, moody and u n r e s p o n s i v e . (16) A . s t u d y o f twenty c a s e s a d m i t t e d t o Mount S i n a i H o s p i t a l i n C l e v e l a n d r e v e a l e d f i v e f a c t o r s common among p a r e n t s o f t h e abused c h i l d r e n . These f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d a h i s t o r y o f s o c i a l and f a m i l y breakdown i n t h e i r own c h i l d h o o d and y o u t h , and s e v e r e n e u r o t i c or c h a r a c t e r d i s o r d e r s . There had been r e p e a t e d i l l e g i t i m a c y and the f a m i l i e s s u f f e r e d s t r i k i n g p o v e r t y and l i v e d i n g r o s s l y i n a d e q u a t e h o u s i n g . (50) Nurse found i n h e r s t u d y o f p a r e n t s o f abused c h i l d r e n t h a t the f a m i l i e s a r e i s o l a t e d i n the community. The p a r e n t s u s u a l l y s e l e c t one c h i l d as a v i c t i m f o r d i s p l a c e m e n t o f h o s t i l i t y . As i n d i c a t e d i n o t h e r s t u d i e s , Nurse found a h i g h i n c i d e n c e o f p a r e n t s w i t h e m o t i o n a l d i s o r d e r s . Her f i n d i n g s d i d n o t s u p p o r t the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t abuse r e f l e c t s g e n e r a l p a r e n t a l h a r s h n e s s . There was e v i d e n c e i n h e r s t u d y t h a t abuse i s p r o p o r -t i o n a l i n a l l c l a s s e s o f the p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s was p u r e l y a d e s c r i p t i v e s t u d y and was n o t s u b j e c t e d to s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s . (58) C r i t i q u e The i n f o r m a t i o n a v a i l a b l e on p a r e n t a l f u n c t i o n i n g o f f a m i l i e s o f abused c h i l d r e n i s somewhat more co m p l e t e t h a n t h a t f o r the t o t a l a r e a o f 43. n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . Young's s t u d y , o f c o u r s e , c o v e r e d b o t h o f t h e s e a r e a s . The s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g s c a l e s d e v e l o p e d by Geismar and A y r e s a r e q u i t e complete and can be a p p l i e d by w o r k e r s a s s e s s i n g f a m i l i e s t o t a l s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g . Boehm p o i n t s out t h a t t h e s e s c a l e s : " r e v e a l marked c l u s t e r -i n g s o f f a m i l i e s i n t h e l o w e s t ( s o c i o - e c o n o m i c ) r a t i n g s " ( 1 1 , p.8) and i n a d d i t i o n a r e meant t o measure a f a m i l i e s t o t a l s o c i a l f u n c t i o n i n g whereas what i s needed i s an i n s t r u m e n t t o measure " t h e s p e c i f i c a r e a o f p a r e n t a l adequacy", i n r e l a t i o n t o c h i l d r e a r i n g . The r e s e a r c h d e s i g n p r o p o s e d by Boehm t o measure adequacy i s b e i n g done i n an " a t t e m p t t o c l a r i f y and improve the d e c i s i o n making p r o c e s s i n p r o t e c t i v e cases by i d e n t i f y i n g t he c r i t e r i a t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s now use i n making ... pla c e m e n t d e c i s i o n s " . (11, p . l ) T h i s s t u d y w i l l a n a l y s e 200 p r o t e c t i v e c ases t o t r y and d e t e r m i n e on what b a s i s s o c i a l w o r k e r s d e c i d e d t o e i t h e r remove the c h i l d r e n from t h e home or t o t r e a t t h e f a m i l i e s w i t h the c h i l d r e n r e m a i n i n g i n the home. Boehm f e e l s t h a t the F e l s P a r e n t B e h a v i o r S c a l e s a r e i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r m e a s u r i n g f a m i l y adequacy i n c h i l d n e g l e c t because t h e s e s c a l e s were d e v e l o p e d t h r o u g h a n a l y s i s of normal f a m i l i e s and a r e w e i g h t e d w i t h many upper m i d d l e c l a s s f a m i l i e s . (11) She does r e c o g n i z e t h e u s e f u l n e s s of the F e l s s c a l e s and the Geismar and A y r e s s c a l e as " i n v a l u a b l e s o u r c e s o f c o n c e p t s and h y p o t h e s e s " . ( 11, p.8) • A d e c i s i o n made t o remove a c h i l d from h i s home s h o u l d be j u s t -i f i e d by t h e w o r k e r s b e i n g a b l e t o p r e s e n t s p e c i f i c a l l y t he c r i t e r i a used i n a r r i v i n g a t t h a t d e c i s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e s e c r i t e r i a must e x i s t and be used by w o r k e r s t h e y have n o t b e e n c c l e a r l y s p e l l e d out and r e c o r d e d . CLASSIFICATIONS OF TYPES OF CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT A s e a r c h was made t h r o u g h o u t t h e l i t e r a t u r e t o d i s c o v e r i f any c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s had been d e v e l o p e d and t e s t e d f o r t y p e s o f c h i l d abuse and 44. n e g l e c t . The most comprehensive r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a has been done by L e o n t i n e Young. There a r e , however, two o t h e r a u t h o r s who have made a t t e m p t s a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , b u t they have n o t been t e s t e d as y e t . Z a l b a s u g g e s t s t h a t "one o f the major v a l u e s i n d e v i s i n g t y p o l o g i c a l systems i s t h a t they can p r o v i d e g u i d a n c e f o r making i n t e r v e n t i o n d e c i s i o n s " . (83, p.8) Each p e r s o n who has a t t e m p t e d a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n has i n t i m a t e d o r s t a t e d d e f i n i t e l y . w h a t f o c u s o f p r o t e c t i v e i n t e r v e n t i o n s h o u l d t a k e i n w o r k i n g w i t h the f a m i l i e s o f abused and/or n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n . Young r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n , "have we c a s u a l l y t o s s e d ( a l l a b u s i n g and n e g l e c t i n g f a m i l i e s ) t o g e t h e r i n our laws and our work w i t h them?" (82, p.10) One o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s has f o c u s e d o n l y on p h y s i c a l abuse. A n o t h e r has f o c u s s e d o n l y on p h y s i c a l abuse and p h y s i c a l n e g l e c t and the t h i r d one i s i n c l u s i v e o f b o t h the p h y s i c a l and e m o t i o n a l a s p e c t s o f n e g l e c t and abuse. D e l s o r d o made a s t u d y o f e i g h t y c a s e s o f abused c h i l d r e n i n 1962. I t was a sample o f c a s e s h a n d l e d w i t h i n the p r e v i o u s t h r e e y e a r s by the P e n n s y l v a n i a S o c i e t y t o P r o t e c t C h i l d r e n from C r u e l t y . Three main f a c t o r s were c o n s i d e r e d i n c h o o s i n g t h e s e c a s e s - the degree o f i n j u r y i n f l i c t e d , p r o b a b i l i t y o f abuse r e c u r r i n g , p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l a v a i l a b i l i t y o f p a r e n t s to casework h e l p . H i s c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s were based on the p a r e n t a l problems w h i c h were b e l i e v e d to r e s u l t i n the p a r e n t s a b u s i n g t h e i r c h i l d o r c h i l d r e n . The c a t e g o r i e s were as f o l l o w s : (1) Abuse by m e n t a l l y i l l p a r e n t s (4 o u t o f 80 c a s e s ) w h i c h i n c l u d e d p a r e n t s w i t h a c u t e m e n t a l i l l n e s s . He s u g g e s t s t h a t the f o c u s o f s e r v i c e f o r t h i s group was on how to most h e l p f u l l y s e p a r a t e the p a r e n t s and c h i l d . (2) O v e r f l o w abuse (13/ o u t o f 80 c a s e s ) w h i c h i s d e f i n e d as an o v e r f l o w from the p a r e n t s ' a i m l e s s way o f l i f e m a n i f e s t e d by f a c t o r s such as t h e i r f r u s t r a t i o n s , i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o r l a c k o f b e l i e f i n t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s 45. group o f p a r e n t s were l e a s t a b l e t o co n n e c t w i t h or use e x i s t i n g s o u r c e s of h e l p when t h e y were c o n t a c t e d . (3) B a t t e r e d c h i l d (8 out of 80 c a s e s ) w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d as a n o n s p e c i f i c d i s t u r b a n c e i n the p a r e n t r e s u l t i n g i n s e v e r e b a t t e r i n g o f the c h i l d by t w i s t i n g , t h r o w i n g , k n o c k i n g around o r some o t h e r form o f " b a t t e r -i n g " . These p a r e n t s were d i f f i c u l t t o h e l p . (4) D i s c i p l i n a r y abuse (12 out of 80 c a s e s ) w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d as a h a r s h n e s s i n d i s c i p l i n i n g c h i l d r e n who f a i l t o comply w i t h a p a r e n t a l e x p e c t a t i o n o r who have committed some f o r b i d d e n a c t . P a r e n t s i n t h i s group b e n e f i t t e d from casework s e r v i c e s i n n e a r - t e r m p r o t e c t i o n b u t o n l y o c c a s i o n a l l y was t h i s h e l p s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r l o n g - r a n g e p r o t e c t i o n . (5) M i s p l a c e d abuses (43 out of 80 c a s e s ) w h i c h i s d e s c r i b e d as a p a r e n t s ' c o n f l i c t b e i n g p r o j e c t e d onto the c h i l d . T h i s group o f p a r e n t s was found t o be most amenable t o h e l p . D e l s o r d o a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y under each o f t h e above f i v e c a t -e g o r i e s the f o l l o w i n g i t e m s : p a r e n t a l weakness and d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e p a r e n t s , r e a s o n f o r abuse, method of abuse, c h i l d ( o r c h i l d r e n ) chosen f o r r e c e i v e abuse, and the p h y s i c a l home c o n d i t i o n s . ( 2 1 , pp.213-18) Elmer made a s t u d y o f t h i r t y - t h r e e c h i l d r e n who had been p a t i e n t s i n t h e C h i l d r e n ' s H o s p i t a l i n P i t t s b u r g h , whose p h y s i c a l symptoms upon a d m i s s i o n appeared t o be caused by c a r e t a k e r m i s t r e a t m e n t . (24,25,26) The c r i t e r i a f o r c h o o s i n g t h e s e c h i l d r e n was t h a t t h e y had m u l t i p l e bone i n j u r i e s i n v a r i o u s h e a l i n g s t a g e s a t the time o f a d m i s s i o n , t h a t t h e y were f r e e o f bone d i s e a s e and t h a t t h e y had a h i s t o r y o f abuse or n e g l e c t or a h i s t o r y i n a d e q u a t e t o e x p l a i n the i n j u r i e s . I t was assumed, on the b a s i s of the n a t u r e o f t h e i n j u r i e s p a r t i c u l a r l y as f i f t y p e r c e n t o f the sample i n c l u d e d c h i l d r e n under n i n e months o f age t h a t t h e y were abused c h i l d r e n . As the s t u d y p r o g r e s s e d t h e a s s u m p t i o n d i d n o t h o l d and i t became n e c e s s a r y to d e t e r m i n e the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f the o l d i n j u r i e s . T h e r e f o r e t h e sample was r e c l a s s i f i e d on the b a s i s o f the judgments made by the r e s e a r c h s t a f f i n t o t h r e e g r o u p s , abused, nonabused, and u n c l a s s i f -i e d . "The judgments c o n c e r n i n g the abused and nonabused c h i l d r e n were unanimous; i n f a c t , t h i s was a r e q u i r e m e n t f o r p l a c i n g a c h i l d i n e i t h e r c a t e g o r y . Nonabused c h i l d r e n were t h o s e whose e a r l i e r bone i n j u r i e s had a p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n o t h e r t h a n a d u l t a s s a u l t . The u n c l a s s i f i e d c a t e g o r y c o m p r i s e d c h i l d r e n about whom t h e r e was d i s a g r e e m e n t among the c l i n i c i a n s and t h o s e c h i l d r e n whose i n j u r i e s c o u l d n o t be e x p l a i n e d on any r e a s o n a b l e b a s i s . " (25, p.31) T h i s p a r t i c u l a r a r t i c l e by Elmer based on h e r s t u d y o f abused c h i l d r e n was w r i t t e n t o i l l u s t r a t e some o f the d i f f i -c u l t i e s t h a t were e n c o u n t e r e d i n d e t e r m i n i n g who i s abused i n a sample w h i c h f o r a l l i n t e n t s and p u r p o s e s was c o m p r i s e d o f a group o f p h y s i c a l l y abused c h i l d r e n . (25) Young used f o u r c a t e g o r i e s i n h e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w h i c h she d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s : (1) S e v e r e n e g l e c t , the c r i t e r i o n o f w h i c h was i n a d e q u a t e f e e d i n g . (2) Moderate n e g l e c t , the c r i t e r i a o f w h i c h were l a c k o f c l e a n -l i n e s s or l a c k o f adequate c l o t h i n g f o r the c h i l d r e n o r f a i l u r e to p r o v i d e m e d i c a l c a r e . (3) Severe abuse, the c r i t e r i a o f w h i c h were t h a t e i t h e r o r b o t h o f the p a r e n t s b e a t the c h i l d r e n v i o l e n t l y and c o n s i s t e n t l y , so t h a t time a f t e r time the r e s u l t s o f the b e a t i n g were v i s i b l e . (4) Moderate abuse, the c r i t e r i a o f w h i c h were t h a t the p a r e n t s b e a t t h e i r c h i l d r e n o n l y now and t h e n , t h a t i s when they were drunk or under some s t r e s s and the b e a t i n g s tended t o be l e s s v i o l e n t . When a f a m i l y b o t h n e g l e c t e d and abused i t s c h i l d r e n , t h i s was 47. c l a s s i f i e d as abuse. (82) The r e s e a r c h was aimed a t e s t a b l i s h i n g i f a p r o f i l e ( i . e . " c o n s i s t e n t a c t i o n s and i n t e r a c t i o n s , the c o n n e c t i o n s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s " ) (82, p.9) of p a r e n t a l b e h a v i o r c o u l d be found under each of t h e above c a t -e g o r i e s . Young s t a t e s t h a t her items were c o n f i n e d t o v i s i b l e b e h a v i o r . (82, p.154) Her f i n d i n g s r e l a t e more s i g n i f i c a n t l y t o f a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g and have a l r e a d y been h i g h l i g h t e d i n the p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n o f t h i s c h a p t e r . C h e s ser was an e a r l i e r E n g l i s h a u t h o r who made a rough c l a s s i f -i c a t i o n system based on h i s e x a m i n a t i o n of 600 c a s e s . He w r i t e s t h a t " c r u e l t y may be d e f i n e d as a c o u r s e o f a c t i o n c a u s i n g u n n e c e s s a r y s u f f e r -i n g of body o r mind to a n o t h e r " (17, p.22) and t h a t c r u e l t y a r i s e s from the i n d i v i d u a l make-up, i n h e r i t e d and m o d i f i e d t h r o u g h g e n e r a t i o n s ; p l u s the e a r l y home ba c k g r o u n d ; p l u s t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of a d u l t l i f e ; p l u s t h e immediate p r e s s u r e of p r e c i p i t a t i n g f a c t o r " . (17, p.115) The two main c a t e g o r i e s t h a t C h e sser found were A c t i v e C r u e l t y and P a s s i v e C r u e l t y . A c t i v e C r u e l t y c o v e r s a l l t h e c ases where a c t u a l p h y s i c a l v i o l e n c e or d e l i b e r a t e m e n t a l t o r t u r e i s employed and he s u b d i v i d e d s t h i s c a t e g o r y i n t o the f o l l o w i n g two groups: c o n s i s t e n t A c t i v e C r u e l t y ( o r p a t h o l o g i c a l c r u e l t y ) w h i c h he d e f i n e s as t h e e x e r c i s e of such c r u e l t y t h a t i s or has become a p a r t of the v e r y n a t u r e o f the p e r s o n s concerned and because o f i t s i n n a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s i t u n l i k e l y t h a t the p e r s o n s concerned can e v e r be t a u g h t t h e e r r o r s of h i s ways. (17, p . 2 4 ) ; E p i s o d i c A c t i v e C r u e l t y w h i c h he sugg-e s t s may a r i s e from some p h y s i c a l cause or from some un b a l a n c e d e m o t i o n a l s t a t e b u t t h a t i n the m a j o r i t y of c ases the causes a r e due t o e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s . T h i s i s a l e s s h o p e l e s s m a t t e r and can be t r e a t e d . (17) C h e s s e r ' s second m a j o r c a t e g o r y i s P a s s i v e C n u e l t y w h i c h is.more l i k e l y t o be c o n s i s t e n t t h a n e p i s o d i c and u s u a l l y a r i s e s i n e i t h e r o f two s e t s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s , namely; f i r s t the c h i l d may be unwanted by f a t h e r , by mother or by b o t h , or s e c o n d l y " t h e p a r e n t s may be so i g n o r a n t of t h e n a t u r e of l i f e and the needs of the c h i l d t h a t , though t h e y l o v e , want and c h e r i s h him t o t h e b e s t o f t h e i r a b i l i t y , t h e y s t a r v e him of h i s e m o t i o n a l needs - the e x i s t e n c e o f w h i c h t h e y a r e n o t even aware". (17, p.25) He a l s o i n c l u d e s i n t h i s group s p i r i t u a l n e g l e c t w h i c h i s t h e l a r g e s t group of a l l , b u t w h i c h does n o t come t o the n o t i c e o f any a u t h o r i t y . " I t c o v e r s a l l t h o s e i n s t a n c e s where p a r e n t s ( u s u a l l y w i t h the b e s t of i n t e n -t i o n s ) a c t i n t h e w o r s t p o s s i b l e manner so f a r as the e m o t i o n a l needs of the c h i l d ' s development a r e e c o n c e r n e d . " (17, p.23) Chesser makes no s t a t e m e n t r e g a r d i n g the t r e a t a b i l i t y or p r o g n o s i s o f the P a s s i v e C r u e l t y group as he d e f i n e s i t . C r i t i q u e The r e s e a r c h and e m p i r i c a l w r i t i n g s on t h e a r e a o f c l a s s i f y i n g t y p e s of abuse and n e g l e c t a r e v e r y s p a r s e . C h e s s e r ' s e f f o r t s tend t o be broad and p h i l o s o p h i c a l as he says " t h i s a n a l y s i s remains an " a t t e m p t " o n l y because o f the d i f f i c u l t y i n many cases o f o b t a i n i n g p r e c i s e and f u l l know-l e d g e o f the background a g a i n s t w h i c h the o f f e n s e s o c c u r r e d . Only t o o o f t e n , i n d e e d , " t h e background i s known o n l y t o the p e r s o n s c o n c e r n e d , i n t h a t f u l l d e t a i l w h i c h i s n e c e s s a r y t o any e x a c t and s c i e n t i f i c , a n a l y s i s . " (17, p.54) There i s a s e m a n t i c q u e s t i o n w h i c h a r i s e s from h i s w r i t i n g s . F o r example, i s h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f ' s p i r i t u a l n e g l e c t 1 e q u i v a l e n t t o the g e n e r a l N o r t h A m e r i c a n concept o f ' e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t 1 or does i t embrace a f u l l e r d i m e n s i o n ? Can one equate h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f c r u e l t y w i t h the g e n e r a l i z e d d e f i n i t i o n o f n e g l e c t as i t i s used i n N o r t h America? Never-t h e l e s s , h i s c o n c e p t s as he e x p r e s s e d them i n 1952 s h o u l d n o t be„ignored because i m p l i c i t l y he has s k i l f u l l y woven h e r e h e r e d i t a r y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l and immediate s i t u a t i o n a l f a c t o r s i n t o h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . I n a l l t h e s e a r e a s we have g r e a t e r knowledge t o d a y and one area cannot be emphasized t o 49. t h e e x c l u s i o n o f t h e o t h e r two i n the l o n g r u n i f we a r e g o i n g t o get a h o l i s t i c p i c t u r e of the p r o b l e m . Young's work i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t l y t e s t e d o f any works p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e on c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . She s t a t e s i n herobwn work, however, t h a t "we need much more knowledge. We need t h e s t e a d y , c o n t i n -u i n g c o l l e c t i o n o f d i s c i p l i n e d o b s e r v a t i o n s t h a t c h i l d w e l f a r e c o u l d w i t h t h o u g h t and p u r p o s e c o n t r i b u t e from a l l over the n a t i o n . We need r e s e a r c h t h a t w i l l p u r s u e the many q u e s t i o n s t h a t can o n l y be s u g g e s t e d by t h i s s t u d y . " (82, p.148) F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e whole a r e a of e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t was not d i r e c t l y d e a l t w i t h i n h e r work (and she made no c l a i m t h a t i t was) b u t i t i s one a s p e c t o f the p r o b l e m t h a t cannot c o n t i n u e t o evade r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d o f C h i l d W e l f a r e . Elmer's s t u d y w h i c h has n o t y e t been p u b l i s h e d i n i t s f i n a l form i s a l r e a d y f r u i t f u l i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g some o f t h e K n o t t y problems t h a t f a c e r e s e a r c h e r s i n d e f i n i n g and c l a s s i f y i n g p h y s i c a l abuse. Not u n t i l more r e s e a r c h i s a t t e m p t e d and e n c o u n t e r e d d i f f i c u l t i e s s h a r e d i n t h e c l a s s i f y i n g o f abuse and n e g l e c t w i l l our knowledge be s u b s t a n t i a t e d . D e l s o r d o ' s work s p e c i f i c a l l y f o c u s e d on p h y s i c a l abuse was e m p i r i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d from the s t u d y o f e x i s t i n g c a s e s . Z a l b a s u g g e s t s t h a t " w h i l e t h e r e i s a l a c k o f l o g i c a l c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e a b s t r a c t d i m e n s i o n s i n w h i c h ( D e l s o r d o ' s ) c a t e g o r i e s a r e o r d e r e d he does a t t e m p t t o a s s e s s the p h y s i c a l danger t o the c h i l d r e n i f t h e y r e m a i n i n t h e p a r e n t a l home and a l s o g i v e s h i s e s t i m a t e as t o the p r o g n o s i s f o r t r e a t m e n t o f the p a r e n t s . " ( 8 3 , p.8) Z a l b a c a u t i o n s t h a t a t t h i s p o i n t i n time D e l s o r d o ' s c a t e g o r i e s "beg f o r f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t i o n and t e s t " (83, p.8) A t t h i s s t a g e , h i s work cannot be a d e f i n i t i v e g u i d e f o r t h e p r a c t i t i o n e r f a c e d w i t h d e c i s i o n s about what p r o t e c t i v e measures s h o u l d a f a m i l y be o f f e r e d . The a r e a o f r e l i a b l e and v a l i d a t e d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s i s o f utmost 50. i m p o r t a n c e . When t h e y a r e f o u n d , t h e y w i l l be used t o a s s i s t p e r s o n n e l i n p r e d i c t i n g t h e danger t o the c h i l d r e n , i n a s s i g n i n g w o r k e r s o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s of s k i l l t o p a r t i c u l a r c a s e s , on g a i n i n g g r e a t e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e phenomena o f abuse and n e g l e c t , i n u s i n g the most a p p r o p r i a t e i n t e r -v e n t i o n s e r v i c e f o r a p a r t i c u l a r case ( i . e . homemaker s e r v i c e s , casework, group work, c o u r t i n t e r v e n t i o n e t c . ) , i n c h a n g i n g communities p e r c e p t i o n o f a g e n c i e s ' work w h i c h m i g h t i n t u r n encourage e a r l i e r r e f e r r a l s b e f o r e t h e problems a r e s e v e r e . INCIDENCE AND PREVALANCE OF CHILD NEGLECT There a r e many d i f f i c u l t i e s i n d e t e r m i n i n g t h e e x t e n t of c h i l d n e g l e c t i n any s p e c i f i c g e o g r a p h i c a l a r e a . There a r e communities i n w h i c h most, i f n o t a l l cases a r e i d e n t i f i e d and d e a l t w i t h i n some way. I n o t h e r communities many s i t u a t i o n s e x i s t w h i c h r e q u i r e i n t e r v e n t i o n , b u t t h e y a r e not r e p o r t e d t o the agency r e s p o n s i b l e f o r o f f e r i n g c h i l d p r o t e c -t i o n s e r v i c e . Maas and E n g l e r found t h a t o f the n i n e communities w h i c h t h e y examined, t h e two w i t h t h e ' b e s t ' and most adequate p r e v e n t a t i v e c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a l s o had the g r e a t e s t number of c h i l d r e n i n c a r e . On the o t h e r hand, i n the community w h i c h had the s m a l l e s t number o f c h i l d r e n i n c a r e , t h e r e was a tendency t o i g n o r e the f a c t t h a t problems e x i s t e d and c h i l d r e n ' s s e r v i c e s were n o t o f f e r e d . (49) Young says t h a t i t i s o n l y r e c e n t l y t h a t p r o t e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n has become a major c o n c e r n i n s o c i a l work and t h a t t h e p r o b l e m has been shrouded i n s i l e n c e . (82) O n l y when emergency s i t u a t i o n s a r i s e do w o r k e r s i n t e r v e n e i n a f a m i l y and t h e r e has been l i t t l e a c c o u n t k e p t of p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r and i n c i d e n c e . I t has been s t a t e d t h a t c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse i s p r e v a l e n t and i s on t h e i n c r e a s e . (34,41) I n d i s c u s s i n g e m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t , M u l f o r d s p e c u l a t e s t h a t " t he number o f c h i l d r e n s u f f e r i n g from e m o t i o n a l d e p r i -v a t i o n i s g r e a t e r t h a n the t o t a l c a s e l o a d s o f our p r o t e c t i v e a g e n c i e s . " (54, p.24) Chesser r e p o r t s t h a t i n B r i t a i n d u r i n g the t w e l v e months p r i o r t o F e b r u a r y 28, 1950 a t o t a l o f 40,198 cases i n v o l v i n g 99,622 c h i l d r e n under th e age o f f i f t e e n were r e p o r t e d t o the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n . T h i s amounted t o one c h i l d i n e v e r y one hundred c h i l d r e n i n the c o u n t r y b e i n g abused or n e g l e c t e d d u r i n g t h a t one y e a r . C a l c u l a t i n g the number o f c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s and p r o j e c t -i n g f o r subsequent y e a r s , C h e s s e r c o n c l u d e d t h a t 6 or 7 c h i l d r e n out o f e v e r y one hundred w i l l i n the c o u r s e o f t h e i r l i f e t i m e , be so abused or n e g l e c t e d t n a t t h e y w i l l be r e p o r t e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n . (17, pp. 12-15) I n h i s s u r v e y o f the c h i l d abuse p r o b l e m Z a l b a e s t i m a t e d t h a t t h e r e a r e between 200,000 and 250,000 n e g l e c t e d c h i l d r e n i n t h e U.S. i n need of p r o t e c t i o n . A p p l y i n g C h e s s e r ' s r a t i o o f abused t o n e g l e c t e d c h i l d -ren,. Z a l b a c o n c l u d e s t h a t "30,000 t o 37,500 c h i l d r e n - need p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n -s t s e r i o u s p h y s i c a l abuse". ( 8 3 , p.8) Maas and E n g l e r r e p o r t e d i n 1959 t h a t t h e r e were about 268,000 c h i l d r e n i n the U.S. l i v i n g i n i n s t i t u t i o n s and f o s t e r homes. They s t a t e t h a t o f t h i s number, 224,000 c h i l d r e n would n o t be p l a c e d f o r a d o p t i o n . From t h e n i n e communities t h e y s u r v e y e d , t h e y f e l t t h a t 25 p e r c e n t o f the c h i l d r e n i n c a r e would r e t u r n t o t h e i r f a m i l y homes. (49, p.381) T h i s means t h a t 169,000 c h i l d r e n a t t h a t time were n o t w i t h t h e i r p a r e n t s , e i t h e r because t h e y were orphaned, w h i c h would a c c o u n t f o r a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e , or because the p a r e n t s were i n a d e q u a t e or i n c a p a b l e f o r some r e a s o n o f c o n t i n -u i n g t o c a r e f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n . As a f u r t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f the i n c r e a s e i n c h i l d n e g l e c t Boehm i n 52. 1960 t h a t "The r e q u e s t f o r p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s has i n c r e a s e d m a r k e d l y i n the l a s t t e n y e a r s ; the cases o f n e g l e c t f i l e d i n j u v e n i l e c o u r t s i n c r e a s e d 23 p e r c e n t between 1950 and 1957". (11, p.2) She f u r t h e r r e f e r s t o the Tennessee P u b l i c W e l f a r e Record w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t on December 31, 1959, 2,551 c h i l d r e n i n t h a t s t a t e were i n f o s t e r f a m i l y homes. Of t h i s t o t a l 44 p e r c e n t were r e c e i v i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and t h a t the g r e a t e s t s i n g l e r e a s o n f o r r e f e r r a l f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s were due t o the c o m p l a i n t s r e g a r d i n g n e g l e c t and abuse.(11) H e r r e , w r i t i n g i n S o c i a l Casework, gave an a c c o u n t i n g o f r e f e r r a l s i n M i l w a u k e e County a f t e r t he e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s U n i t t o c e n t r a l i z e p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s i n t h a t a r e a . D u r i n g the p r i o d December 1, 1962 t h r o u g h September 30, 1963, a t o t a l o f 1,005 c h i l d r e n were r e f e r r e d t o the u n i t . By 1964 the volume of r e f e r r a l s had more than d o u b l e d t h a t number. (37) Some of the more d e f i n i t i v e s t u d i e s have been done i n the p a r t i c -u l a r s p h e r e o f c h i l d abuse. S t a t e wide s u r v e y s and h o s p i t a l a d m i t t a n c e and t r e a t m e n t f i g u r e s a r e no t e d i n some s t u d i e s . B r y a n t r e v i e w e d and a n a l y s e d a l l c a s es o f p h y s i c a l abuse r e p o r t e d t o the N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r the P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n i n M a s s a c h u s e t t s i n a one y e a r p e r i o d . I n t h e f i r s t s t a g e o f the s t u d y the wo r k e r s i n t h e 18 d i s t r i c t o f f i c e s r e p o r t e d 134 cases i n v o l v i n g 200 c h i l d r e n . I n t h e second s t a g e of t h e c s t u d y , . w h i c h was more d e f i n i t i v e , t he w o r k e r s were asked a g a i n t o r e p o r t t h e number o f cases o f abuse t o c h i l d r e n . T h i s s t a g e o f t h e s t u d y saw t h e number d e c r e a s i n g t o 115 cases i n v o l v i n g 180 c h i l d r e n . The s t u d y committee was of the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the i n c i d e n c e o f c h i l d abuse was u n d e r - r e p o r t e d i n b o t h s t a g e s o f the s t u d y . (16) Young r e f e r s i n h e r book t o t h e r e p o r t o f t h e Am e r i c a n Humane A s s o c i a t i o n w h i c h had t a b u l a t e d c h i l d abuse i n c i d e n t s r e p o r t e d i n A m e r i c a n 53. newspapers. I n t h e y e a r 1962 t h e r e was a t o t a l o f 662 such c a s e s i n v o l v i n g 557 f a m i l i e s . (82) I n a s u r v e y o f A m e r i c a n h o s p i t a l s Dr. Kempe d e t e r m i n e d t h a t 302 ca s e s o f s e v e r e abuse o f c h i l d r e n under the age o f one y e a r had r e s u l t e d i n h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n of the c h i l d . (45) Of the t o t a l o f 40,198 cases r e f e r r e d t o above as h a v i n g been r e p o r t e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e P r e v e n t i o n o f C r u e l t y t o C h i l d r e n i n a s i n g l e y e a r , i l l t r e a t m e n t and a s s a u l t o f c h i l d r e n a c c o u n t e d f o r 4,286 c a s e s . (17) The f i g u r e s showing t h e t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r 1951 and 1961 r e l a t e d t o t o t a l r i s k p o p u l a t i o n may be found i n A p p e n d i x B. The 1966 A n n u a l R e p o r t o f t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n A d v i s o r y Committee n o t e s t h a t i n 1963 c h i l d r e n o f I n d i a n r a c i a l o r i g i n . , c o n s t i t u t e d 36.27» o f the t o t a l number o f c h i l d r e n i n c a r e i n the p r o v i n c e t h a t y e a r . I n 1965 t h i s p e r c e n t a g e r o s e t o - 3 9 . 4 % even though I n d i a n c h i l d r e n make up o n l y a p p r o x i m a t e l y 4% o f the t o t a l r i s k p o p u l a t i o n . The l a t t e r c o m p r i s e s a l l the c h i l d r e n i n . B r i t i s h C o l umbia w i t h i n the age group of 0 t o 19 y e a r s . C r i t i q u e What i s o b v i o u s l y m i s s i n g from the l i t e r a t u r e i s an a c c u r a t e and comprehensive a c c o u n t i n g o f the t o t a l number o f n e g l e c t e d and abused c h i l d r e n i n t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n . There a r e e s t i m a t e s and s p e c u l a t i o n s b u t t h e r e i s no r e l i a b l e f i g u r e o f the i n c i d e n c e and p r e v a l e n c e . I t i s g e n e r a l l y a greed t h a t n e g l e c t i s common and i s on t h e i n c r e a s e , b u t t h e r e i s no method i n e x i s t e n c e a t the p r e s e n t time o f making an a c c u r a t e assessment of t o t a l s . W i t h r e f e r e n c e s p e c i f i c a l l y t o c h i l d abuse, i t i s n o t known whether i t i s more f r e q u e n t now tha n i n the p a s t , or whether i t i s j u s t more e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a n i n the p a s t . The c o i n i n g o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n " B a t t e r e d 54. c h i l d Syndrome" has r e s u l t e d i n much more a t t e n t i o n t o the p r o b l e m by b o t h the m e d i c a l p r a c t i t i o n e r s and t h e c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n w o r k e r s . H o s p i t a l s a r e becoming more a l ' e r t t o i n j u r i e s w h i c h may have been d e l i b e r a t e l y i n f l i c t e d upon c h i l d r e n and a r e now more prone t o i n v o l v e s o c i a l a g e n c i e s i n w o r k i n g w i t h t h e p a r e n t s . The r e s u l t of t h i s awareness has r e s u l t e d i n more w r i t i n g about t h i s a s p e c t o f c h i l d w e l f a r e and b e t t e r t r a c k k e p t o f i t s i n c i d e n c e . The p r o b l e m of d e t e r m i n i n g the number- of c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o u n t r y b e i n g n e g l e c t e d and abused w i l l r e m a i n w i t h us. As has been p o i n t e d out communities v a r y i n what t h e y deem t o be n e g l e c t , but as p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n i n c r e a s e s and our knowledge i n t h i s R e s p e c t i n c r e a s e s , t h e r e may d e v e l o p a more common i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of what c o n s t i t u t e s n e g l e c t . CRITERIA IN WORKERS DECISION MAKING T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l be c o n c e r n e d w i t h a t t e m p t i n g t o d e t e r m i n e t h o s e f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e a p r o t e c t i o n w o r k e r i n d e c i d i n g whether a r e f e r r e d f a m i l y s h o u l d be t a k e n on as a p r o t e c t i v e c a s e . A p r o t e c t i v e case i s one i n w h i c h agency i n t e r v e n t i o n i s deemed n e c e s s a r y . The s e c t i o n i s n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h t r e a t m e n t methods and t e c h n i q u e s used by t h e w o r k e r i n d e a l -i n g w i t h a f a m i l y , but o n l y w i t h those f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e the d e c i s i o n as t o whether t h e r e f e r r a l was l e g i t i m a t e and whether t h e r e were grounds f o r agency i n t e r v e n t i o n i n t h e s i t u a t i o n . Boehm s t u d i e d r e f e r r a l s made t o a p r o t e c t i o n agency over a two month p e r i o d and made an a n a l y s i s of t h o s e cases t a k e n on by t h e agency f o r p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s compared w i t h t h o s e c a s e s d i s p o s e d o f a t i n t a k e . The a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d o f the case b e i n g a c c e p t e d as a p r o t e c t i o n c a s e i f t h e r e f e r r a l showed t h a t the c h i l d r e n were r e c e i v i n g i n a d e q u a t e m e d i c a l c a r e o f i f t h e y were n o t b e i n g g i v e n adequate c o n t r o l and d i s c i p l i n e . Cases l i k e l y t o r e c e i v e s e r v i c e i n c l u d e d t h o s e i n . 55. w h i c h c h i l d r e n were a b s e n t from s c h o o l ; were s u s p e c t e d of t h e f t or were e x h i b i t i n g f r i g h t e n e d and w i t h d r a w n b e h a v i o u r . I f the c h i l d r e n ' s p a r e n t s showed marked e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e s o r t h e r e was e x c e s s i v e d r i n k i n g t h e agency would a c c e p t t h e case and a s s i g n i t f o r s e r v i c e s . ( 1 0 ) A f a m i l y r e f e r r e d f o r t h e f i r s t time was r t r a r e l y t a k e n on. f o r c o n t i n u e d s e r v i c e . The p r o c e d u r e u s u a l l y f o l l o w e d was w a r n i n g the f a m i l y and t h e n c l o s i n g the c a s e . There were t h r e e f a c t o r s w h i c h showed s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the f a m i l i e s warned and t h e f a m i l i e s a c c e p t e d f o r p r o -t e c t i v e s e r v i c e . There was a. h i g h e r p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t s e r v i c e s would be g i v e n i f the p a r e n t s were unemployed; were i n r e c e i p t o f f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e ; o r i f t h e y had more t h a n a medium number o f c h i l d r e n . ( 1 0 ) T here a r e s e v e r a l e m p i r i c a l a r t i c l e s w h i c h d i s c u s s and d e s c r i b e i n a g e n e r a l way what w o r k e r s s h o u l d l o o k f o r i n t h e i r i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a c o m p l a i n t . These c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e s p e c i f i c d e c i s i o n the worker must make as t o whether removal o f the c h i l d o r c h i l d r e n i s i n d i c a t e d a t t h a t t i m e . C r i t i q u e When a p r o t e c t i o n w o r k e r , whether a t the i n t a k e l e v e l or a t the p o i n t of i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n , makes a d e c i s i o n t h a t a n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n r e q u i r e s p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e , he must use some s e t of c r i t e r i a i n m a king the d e c i s i o n . The absence o f " c l e a r l y f o r m u l a t e d c r i t e r i a i n d e t e r m i n i n g the need f o r s e p a r a t i o n o f c h i l d and f a m i l y " ( 1 1 , p . l ) prompted Boehm t o engage i n r e s e a r c h i n an a t t e m p t t o d e t e r m i n e more s p e c i f i c a l l y what the c r i t e r i a i s . S i m i l a r l y , the d e c i s i o n t o c l o s e a case on i n i t i a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n or t o o f f e r s e r v i c e i m p l i e s t h a t some s e t o f c r i t e r i a i s used. I t has n o t been e x p l o r e d i n any r e s e a r c h w h i c h we have examined w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e a r t i c l e r e v i e w e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n . The i m p o r t a n c e of t h e d e c i s i o n t o o f f e r s e r v i c e o r t o c l o s e a case on f i r s t c o n t a c t w i t h the r e f e r r e d f a m i l y cannot be o v e r - e m p h a s i z e d . A f a m i l y w r o n g l y d e p r i v e d o f s e r v i c e a t t h i s p o i n t may s u f f e r f u r t h e r p s y c h o l -o g i c a l breakdown and r e s u l t i n p h y s i c a l dangers t o the c h i l d r e n . The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a used by w o r k e r s i n making t h i s d e c i s i o n would p r o v e b e n e f i c i a l , not o n l y as a gu i d e f o r new w o r k e r s , b u t t o h e l p t o e l i m i n a t e some of the s u b j e c t i v i t y w h i c h may i n f l u e n c e w o r k e r s i n m a king assessments of p o s s i b l e n e g l e c t s i t u a t i o n s . By s p e c i f y i n g the c r i t e r i a on w h i c h d e c i s i o n s a r e ba s e d , t h e agency can more e a s i l y i n t e r p r e t t o t h e community the r e a s o n s f o r i t s d e c i s i o n s when t h e s e a r e q u e s t i o n e d . A f u r t h e r advantage t o b e i n g a b l e t o s p e l l o ut t h e f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g d e c i s i o n making i s t h a t s h o u l d a case come b e f o r e the c o u r t , some c l e a r j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r what has been done i s a v a i l a b l e f o r p r e s e n t a t i o n . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h i s g o a l o f w e l l d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a i s a d i f f i c u l t one t o a c h i e v e and when t h e y a r e e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e y s h o u l d n o t be r i g i d and i n f l e x i b l e , b u t s h o u l d a l l o w f o r the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f new i d e a s and c o n c e p t s as t h e y a r e discovered'.: and r e f i n e d b o t h i n p r a c t i s e and by r e s e a r c h . 57. CHAPTER I I I DESCRIPTIVE AND STATISTICAL INTERPRETATION OF ABUSE AND NEGLECT STUDY T h i s t h i r d c h a p t e r i s a d i s c u s s i o n of t h e r e t u r n s from t h e r e s p o n d e n t s , the c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e and t h e f i n d i n g s b o t h d e s c r i p t i v e and as t h e y p e r t a i n t o the h y p o t h e s i s s t a t e d i n c h a p t e r one. One hundred and e i g h t y - e i g h t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were d i s t r i b u t e d t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s t h r o u g h o u t B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . There were e i g h t y d i s t r i b u t e d t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h e '"Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . The r e t u r n s amounted t o f o r t y - f i v e o r f i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t . There were one hundred and e i g h t q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c i r c u l a t e d among s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n f o u r t e e n o f f i c e s of the ^Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e t h r o u g h o u t t h e P r o v i n c e . The r e t u r n s f rom t h i s group amounted t o e i g h t y - s i x o r s e v e n t y - n i n e p e r c e n t . An e x p l a n a t i o n s h o u l d be made as t o why t h e r e was o n l y a 56% r e t u r n from.C.A.S. The q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e q u i r e d a t l e a s t one and a h a l f hours t o c o m p l e t e . The w o r k e r s i n t h i s agency had v e r y l i m i t e d p h y s i c a l c o n d i t i o n s i n w h i c h t o do t h e i r w r i t i n g . They had t o f i l l them out on t h e i r l a p s w i t h o u t the c o n v e n i e n c e o f t a b l e s o r desks t o work on. As a r e s u l t many of the w o r k e r s went t o t h e i r o f f i c e s t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . We may assume t h a t o n l y the h i g h l y m o t i v a t e d w o r k e r s d i d a c t u a l l y complete the a s s i g n m e n t . T h e r e may have been a l i t t l e c o l l a b o r a t i o n between the r e s p o n d -e n t as t h e r e t u r n s took over a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l days t o be completed r a t h e r t h a n b e i n g done i n one m o r n i n g as p l a n n e d . But t h i s was p r o b a b l y m i n i m a l . * H e n c e f o r t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d by C.A.S. * H e n c e f o r t h i n t h i s c h a p t e r Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e w i l l be d e s i g n a t e d by Department. 58. I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h the s a m p l i n g c r i t e r i a m e ntioned i n Chapter One namely; (1) s o c i a l change i n t h e community, (2) "community dependency", (3) s i z e o f the community; the f o l l o w i n g Department o f f i c e s were s e l e c t e d , Duncan, Campbell R i v e r , New. W e s t m i n s t e r D i s t r i c t , Kelowna, Vernon, T r a i l , N e l s o n , C r a n b r o o k , Q u e s n e l , P r i n c e George, C h i l l i w a c k , S m i t h e r s , P r i n c e R u p e r t , Dawson Creek as w e l l as the R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s and C.A.S. T h i s c r o s s s e c t i o n o f s e l e c t e d o f f i c e s meet t h e above c r i t e r i a and a good p e r -c e ntage r e t u r n s were r e c e i v e d from each p l a c e . There were f o u r t e e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s out o f t h e t o t a l one hundred and t h i r t y - t w o r e t u r n s w h i c h were n o t used f o r the d a t a c a l c u l a t i o n s by t h e computer because t h e r e p o n d e n t s answered s i x or l e s s o f the n i n e q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o t h e case v i g n e t t e s . Thus the f i n d i n g s d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e based on a " n " o f one hundred and e i g h t e e n . H a l f o f t h e f o u r t e e n r e j e c t s f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y were from C.A.S. r e s p o n d e n t s and the o t h e r h a l f were from t h e Department. I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d a f t e r the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were s e n t t o the Department o f f i c e s t h a t on the f i r s t case v i g n e t t e , t h e space t o f i l l i n an answer as t o t h e s e v e r i t y o f abuse was o m i t t e d . (see q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n A p p e n d i x A) T h i s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t e r r o r t o r e c t i f y because a c c o r d i n g t o the "Young M o d e l " the answer t o t h a t f i r s t v i g n e t t e was " n e g l e c t a b s e n t " and "abuse s e v e r e " . An e x t r a s h e e t was m a i l e d out i m m e d i a t e l y t o the Department o f f i c e s and t h e e r r o r was v e r b a l l y c o r r e c t e d a t t h e C.A.S. m e e t i n g . Of the one hundred and e i g h t e e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s used i n the d a t a a n a l y s i s f o r t y - f o u r r e s p o n d e n t s d i d n o t make the c o r r e c t i o n . I t was d e c i d e d t h a t i f th e y d i d n o t f i l l i n an answer f o r b o t h n e g l e c t and abuse t h a t the p a r t i c u l a r i t e m would be coded z e r o f o r b o t h p a r t s o f the answer i n the c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e . Thus t h e e r r o r was c o r r e c t e d by enough of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s so t h a t r e s u l t s were not g r e a t l y a f f e c t e d . C o d i n g P r o c e d u r e A t o t a l o f s e v e n t y - t w o items were coded from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o be used i n computing the d a t a . None of the items were from the open-ended q u e s t i o n s and w i t h two s m a l l e x c e p t i o n s , up t o i t e m number f i f t y - f o u r t h e c o d i n g was a s t r a i g h t t r a n s f e r from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e t o the c o d i n g s h e e t . The f i r s t e x c e p t i o n p e r t a i n e d t o the few r e s p o n d e n t s whose m a r i t a l s t a t u s was widowed. There were a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r and i n the c o d i n g p r o c e s s , they were i n c l u d e d w i t h t h o s e who were m a r r i e d . The second e x c e p t i o n p e r t a i n e d t o the t r a i n i n g q u e s t i o n w h i c h was i t e m number f o u r , s e c t i o n t h r e e o f the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The f o u r c o d e r s agreed upon l o o k i n g a t the answers o f a l l t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o code t h i s i t e m under e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s w h i c h were as f o l l o w s (0) No answer; (1) M.S.W.; (2) 2 y e a r s , no degree; (3) B.S.W.; (4) 1 y e a r , no d e g r e e ; (5) B.A. or o t h e r n o n - s o c i a l work degree; (6) I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ; (7) O t h e r ; (8) B.A. or o t h e r degree p l u s I n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . T h i s c o d i n g c o v e r e d a l l t h e v a r i a t i o n s o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' r e p l i e s . The c o d i n g i t e m number f i f t y - f o u r was t o t a l n e g l e c t s c o r e based on t h e c o d i n g of each v i g n e t t e . I f a r e s p o n d e n t answered e i g h t or n i n e v i g n e t t e s no a d j u s t m e n t was deemed n e c e s s a r y . I f seven v i g n e t t e s were answered out o f t h e n i n e , t h e t o t a l n e g l e c t s c o r e was a d j u s t e d by m u l t i p l y i n g by 2/9. I f l e s s t h a n seven v i g n e t t e s were answered t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was r e j e c t e d as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d . The same p r o c e d u r e was f o l l o w e d f o r the c o d i n g i t e m number f i f t y - s i x w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d t o t a l abuse s c o r e s f o r each r e s p o n d e n t . The c o d i n g items number f i f t y - f i v e and f i f t y - s e v e n were the d e v i a t i o n s c o r e o f n e g l e c t ^ a n d abuse r e s p e c t i v e l y - t h a t i s d e v i a t i o n from the "Young M o d e l " . A c o r r e c t i o n was made f o r t h o s e r e s p o n d e n t s who answered o n l y seven v i g n e t t e s . F o r t h o s e who answered e i g h t o r n i n e no a d j u s t m e n t was made. The t o t a l number o f r e s p o n d e n t s who answered a l l n i n e v i g n e t t e s 60. was 59; and t h o s e who answered o n l y e i g h t v i g n e t t e s was 46; and t h o s e who answered o n l y seven v i g n e t t e s was 13. F o u r t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s answered l e s s t h a n seven and t h e i r q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e j e c t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s t u d y . The c o d i n g items number f i f t y - e i g h t was t h e t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e of abuse and n e g l e c t i g n o r i n g t h e d i r e c t i o n o f the d e v i a t i o n . The c o d i n g i t e m number f i f t y - n i n e was a t o t a l s c o r e o f the s i m i l a r i t y o f the case v i g n e t t e s t o the r e s p o n d e n t s ' c a s e l o a d . I f the r e s p o n d e n t o n l y answered seven out o f n i n e o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a c o r r e c t i o n was made by m u l t i p l y i n g by 1/4. But i f more t h a n seven v i g n e t t e s were answered no c o r r e c t i o n was deemed nece-s s a r y . The n e x t s t e p l - i n the c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e was t o d i c h o t o m i z e seven c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s w h i c h were as f o l l o w s : (1) l e n g t h o f t i m e worked i n r e s p o n d e n t s ' p r e s e n t o f f i c e w h i c h was d i v i d e d between l e s s t h a n t h r e e y e a r s and more t h a n t h r e e y e a r s ; (2) l e n g t h o f t i m e r e s p o n d e n t s ' had worked i n the f i e l d o f s o c i a l work w h i c h was d i v i d e d i n the f i r s t c a s e between t h o s e who had two y e a r s o r l e s s and t h o s e who had more th a n two y e a r s . I n the second case t h i s v a r i a b l e was d i v i d e d between t h o s e who had more th a n f i v e y e a r s ; (3) t r a i n i n g ( o r e d u c a t i o n ) was d i v i d e d between t h o s e who had M.S.W., B.S.W. or e q u i v a l e n t d i p l o m a s and t h o s e who had a degree o t h e r t h a n i n s o c i a l work, o r i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g or l e s s ; (4) sex w h i c h d i v i d e d n a t u r a l l y between males and f e m a l e s ; (5) age w h i c h was d i v i d e d between t h o s e t h i r t y - f o u r y e a r s o r younger and t h o s e o l d e r t h a n t h i r t y f o u r ; (6) s i z e o f community when g r o w i n g up w h i c h was d i v i d e d between t h o s e who grew up i n communities 10,000 to 100,000 and t h o s e who grew up i n ones o f over 100,000. These diichtitxim'ized v a r i a b l e s were used as c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s i n t h e f i n d i n g s d i s c u s s e d i n the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h e c h a p t e r . U s i n g a sample o f t h i r t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s we c a l c u l a t e d the median s c o r e s , f o r t o t a l n e g l e c t , t o t a l abuse, d e v i a t i o n n e g l e c t s c o r e , d e v i a t i o n 61. abuse s c o r e , t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e and t o t a l s i m i l a r i t y s c o r e . Thus i t i s o b v i o u s i n our c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e we d i d not use any o f t h e open ended q u e s t i o n s . T h i s was m a i n l y due t o our l i m i t e d time f a c t o r i n c o m p l e t i n g t h i s s t u d y b u t i t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e r e i s a w e a l t h o f raw d a t a t h a t c o u l d be f u r t h e r a n a l y z e d t o f i n d o u t more i n f o r m a t i o n on the s u b j e c t b e i n g s t u d i e d . D e s c r i p t i v e D a t a D e s c r i p t i v e d a t a i s i n c l u d e d i n t a b l e s two, t h r e e and f o u r . The second t a b l e shows t h e p e r c e n t a g e of agreement t h a t the r e s p o n d e n t s 1 answers had w i t h the '.'Young M o d e l " t h a t was d e v e l o p e d f o r t h i s s t u d y . TABLE I I PERCENTAGE AGREEMENT OF PERCEPTIONS WITH "YOUNG MODEL" (n = 118) NEGLECT ABUSE V i g n e t t e number Agreement P e r c e n t a g e Agreement w i t h "Young M o d e l " V i g n e t t e Number Agreement P e r c e n t a g e Agreement w i t h "Young M o d e l " 1 25.42 N e g l e c t a b s e n t N e g l e c t A b s e n t 1 50.85 Abuse s e v e r e Abuse S e v e r e 2 76.27 N e g l e c t moderate N e g l e c t Severe 2 67 .80 Abuse moderate Abuse Moderate 3 47 .46 N e g l e c t moderate N e g l e c t A b s e n t 3 67.80 Abuse moderate Abuse Moderate 4 75.42 N e g l e c t a b s e n t N e g l e c t a b s e n t 4 95.7 6 Abuse a b s e n t Abuse A b s e n t 5 55.93 N e g l e c t moderate N e g l e c t S e v e r e 5 76.27 Abuse a b s e n t Abuse A b s e n t 6 44.92 N e g l e c t moderate N e g l e c t M o d e r a t e 6 79.66 Abuse moderate Abuse Moderate 62. - - NEGLECT ABUSE V i g n e t t e number 7 Agreement P e r c e n t a g e 61.02 N e g l e c t moderate Agreement w i t h "Young M o d e l " N e g l e c t M o derate V i g n e t t e Number 7 Agreement P e r c e n t a g e 88.14 Abuse a b s e n t Agreement w i t h "Young M o d e l " Abuse Ab s e n t 8 66.95 N e g l e c t moderate N e g l e c t Moderate 8 74.58 Abuse s e v e r e Abuse S e v e r e 9 6 9 . 4 9 N e g l e c t s e v e r e N e g l e c t S e v e r e 9 47.46 Abuse moderate 47.46 Abuse s e v e r e Abuse s e v e r e I t can be seen t h a t i n s i x o f the n i n e v i g n e t t e s t he r e s p o n d e n t s agreed w i t h the model i n p e r c e i v i n g b o t h abuse and n e g l e c t and i n p e r c e i v i n g n e g l e c t i n case v i g n e t t e number two. I n t h a t case 76.21% o f the r e s p o n d e n t s p e r c e i v e d n e g l e c t as moderate whereas t h e answer a c c o r d i n g t o the model was s e v e r e . I n case v i g n e t t e s t h r e e and f i v e t he r e s p o n d e n t s saw n e g l e c t as moderate whereas a c c o r d i n g t o t h e model f o r t h e s e two v i g n e t t e s n e g l e c t was r a t e d as a b s e n t and s e v e r e r e s p e c t i v e l y . I t w i l l be no t e d t h a t abuse was p e r c e i v e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e model i n a l l n i n e case v i g n e t t e s . The t h i r d t a b l e shows t h e p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y o f each c a s e v i g n e t t e t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' c a s e l o a d . TABLE I I I PERCEIVED SIMILARITY OF EACH CASE VIGNETTE TO WORKER CASELOAD (n = 118) • # Type o f V i g n e t t e S i m i l a r t o none S i m i l a r t o <one h a l f S i m i l a r t o >one h a l f No r e s p o n s e 1 N e g l e c t a b s e n t Abuse s e v e r e 24.58 57 .63 7 .63 10.17 63. # . Type:; o f V i g n e t t e S i m i l a r t o none S i m i l a r t o <one h a l f S i m i l a r t o >one h a l f No r e s p o n s e 2 N e g l e c t s e v e r e Abuse moderate 5.93 41.53 44.92 7 .63 3 N e g l e c t absent Abuse moderate 8.47 -62.71 20.34 8.47 4 N e g l e c t absent Abuse a b s e n t 9.32 60.17 22.88 7 .63 5 N e g l e c t s e v e r e Abuse a b s e n t 7 .63 50.85 33.90 7.63 6 N e g l e c t moderate Abuse moderate 16.10 61.02 12.71 10.17 7 N e g l e c t moderate Abuse a b s e n t 7 .63 51.69 30.51 10.17 8 N e g l e c t moderate Abuse s e v e r e 27 .12 55.93 5.93 11.02 9 N e g l e c t s e v e r e Abuse s e v e r e 16.10 52.54 22.03 9.32 I n e i g h t o f the n i n e v i g n e t t e s , t h e wo r k e r s saw the d e s c r i p t i v e case v i g n e t t e as s i m i l a r t o one h a l f o f t h e i r c a s e l o a d s . V i g n e t t e number two was p e r c e i v e d by t h e g r e a t e s t p e r c e n t a g e o f r e s p o n d e n t s as s i m i l a r t o more tha n h a l f o f t h e i r c a s e l o a d . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g because as was n o t e d above t h e i r p e r c e n t a g e of n e g l e c t i n t h i s v i g n e t t e was moderate r a t h e r t h a n s e v e r e . The t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t the d e s c r i p t i v e c o n t e n t of the v i g n e t t e s was m e a n i n g f u l t o the r e s p o n d e n t s because i t was s i m i l a r , b r o a d l y s p e a k i n g , t o many o f t h e t y p e s o f f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n s found i n t h e i r own c a s e l o a d s . 64. The f o u r t h t a b l e i l l u s t r a t e s how the r e s p o n d e n t s ranked s i t u a t i o n s p r e c e d i n g c o u r t a c t i o n i n cases o f n e g l e c t and/or abuse. . TABLE IV WORKER RANKING OF SITUATIONS PRECEDING COURT ACTION IN CHILD PROTECTION CASES (n = 118) Item P e r c e n t a g e R a n k i n g Item F i r s t P e r c e n t a g e R a n k i n g Item Second P e r c e n t a g e R a n k i n g Item T h i r d P e r c e n t a g e R a n k i n g Item F o u r t h Taken t o c o u r t emergency s i t u a t i o n 37.29 17.80 15.25 9.32 Taken t o C o u r t a f t e r < 6 months casework s e r v i c e 23.73 24.58 15.25 15.25 Taken t o C o u r t f o l l o w i n g 6-12 months p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e t o f a m i l y 5.93 22.88 42.37 5.93 Taken t o C o u r t a f t e r >12 months p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e 12.71 11.86 6.78 47 .46 I t can be seen t h a t t h e l a r g e s t p e r c e n t a g e of r e s p o n d e n t s i n each column forms a d i a g n o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n . Cases t a k e n t o c o u r t as emergency s i t u a t i o n was r a n k e d f i r s t by 37.297» o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t h r o u g h t o t h o s e cases t a k e n t o c o u r t a f t e r t w e l v e months p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e w h i c h were ranked f o u r t h by 47.467. of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s . C o n t r a r y t o much o f the t h e o r e t i c a l l i t e r a t u r e on C h i l d W e l f a r e w h i c h a d v o c a t e s and d e s c r i b e s v a r i o u s k i n d s of p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s , i t would appear from t h i s t a b l e t h a t i n p r a c t i c e the w o r k e r s a r e u n a b l e or do n o t o f f e r p r o t e c t i v e s e r v i c e s o ver an extended p e r i o d o f t i m e . I t must be remembered, however, t h a t t h i s t a b l e i s made up from one q u e s t i o n i n w h i c h t h e w o r k e r answered by m e r e l y a n u m e r i c a l r a n k i n g 65. w i t h no o p p o r t u n i t y f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n . T h e r e f o r e no c o n c l u s i v e s t a t e m e n t s can be made about t h e t a b l e b u t i t does show c l e a r l y an e x i s t i n g t r e n d f o l l o w e d by p r e s e n t w o r k e r s i n t h e f i e l d . The F i n d i n g s T h i s s e c t i o n o f c h a p t e r t h r e e w i l l d e a l s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h t he f i n d i n g s o f t h e r e s e a r c h and t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e f i n d i n g s s u p p o r t e i t h e r an a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f the h y p o t h e s e s . Where t a b l e s have been con-s t r u c t e d t h e y w i l l be i n c l u d e d and a d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o l l o w each o f t h e s e . Not a l l o f t h e f i n d i n g s w i l l be r e p r o d u c e d as t a b l e s b u t s e l e c t e d i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d i n d i s c u s s i o n f o r m , where t h e s e f i n d i n g s r e l a t e s p e c i f -i c a l l y t o the p r e c e d i n g h y p o t h e s i s . H y p o t h e s i s 2A was t h a t " n e g l e c t e d b e h a v i o u r i s more ambiguous t h a n a b u s i v e b e h a v i o u r " , F i n d i n g s : To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s a t a b l e was c o n s t r u c t e d as f o l l o w s ; TABLE V PERCENTAGE OF AGREEMENT ON:ABUSE AND NEGLECT V i g n e t t e •k S i g n N e g l e c t Abuse Case #1 + 25.42 50.85 Case #2 - 76.27 67 .80 Case #3 + 47 .46 67 .80 Case #4 + 75.42 95.7 6 Case #5 + 55.93 76.27 Case #6 + 44.92 7 9.66 Case #7 + 61.02 88.14 Case #8 + 66.95 74.58 Case #9 69.49 47.46 * A l l c a s e s i n w h i c h agreement on abuse i s g r e a t e r t h a n agreement on n e g l e c t r e c e i v e a p l u s s i g n i n t h e " S i g n " column. p. <C.10 ( s i g n s T e s t ) f r o m S i e g e l 66. From t h i s t a b l e i t can be seen t h a t t h e r e was a tendency on the p a r t o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s t o d i s t i n g u i s h more c l e a r l y and t o agree about t h o s e cases i n w h i c h abuse was p r e s e n t than t h o s e i n wh i c h n e g l e c t was p r e s e n t . T h i s was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .10 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . A c a l c u l a t i o n was made o f t h e t o t a l d e v i a t i o n from t h e "Young M o d e l " f o r b o t h n e g l e c t and abuse. The h i g h e s t t o t a l d e v i a t i o n from t h e model was seven b u t the d e v i a t i o n s were n o t c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h e s t f o r e i t h e r n e g l e c t or abuse. I n f o u r o f the seven i n s t a n c e s the d e v i a t i o n was h i g h e s t f o r n e g l e c t b u t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t t e n d e n c y t o d e v i a t e any more on n e g l e c t t h a n abuse. I n c a l c u l a t i n g the d e v i a t i o n s c o r e the d i r e c t i o n o f t h e d e v i a t i o n s was n o t t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n , t h a t i s , whether the r e s p o n d e n t tended t o see more or l e s s a b u s e / n e g l e c t i n t h e v i g n e t t e was i g n o r e d i n o b t a i n i n g the s c o r e . The f i n d i n g s from T a b l e #5 s u p p o r t a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t n e g l e c t i s more a m b i g u o u s l y p e r c e i v e d t h a n abuse. The comparisons o f the d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s do n o t s u p p o r t e i t h e r a c c e p t a n c e o r r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s . The h y p o t h e s i s can be a c c e p t e d as b e i n g s u p p o r t e d on t h e b a s i s o f the f i n d i n g s i n T a b l e #5. H y p o t h e s i s 2A was t h a t " d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f the s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t e x i s t between s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t t i n g s " . I n o r d e r t o t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y was compared w i t h t h e Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e O f f i c e s , h o l d i n g s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s , such as age o f w o r k e r , e x p e r i e n c e i n s o c i a l work, and community o f wo r k e r o r i g i n , c o n s t a n t . The r e s u l t s o f t h i s c o m p a r i s o n a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n T a b l e #6. 67. TABLE V I COMPARISON OF PERCEPTIONS OF NEGLECT BETWEEN C.A.S. AND DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE Comparison Group X 2 (df = 1) L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e CAS.* v s . Dept.** ^ 2 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n o f f i c e 2.326 .20 > p > .10 CAS. v s . Dept. ^ 2 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n o f f i c e 0.638 .90 > p ;> .80 CAS. v s . Dept. 2 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n f i e l d o f S o c i a l Work 1.462 inva'l i d CAS. v s . Dept. > 2 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n f i e l d o f S o c i a l Work 1.183 .30 > p >.20 CAS. v s . Dept. <T 3 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n S o c i a l Work f i e l d 2.187 .20 >- p >.10 CAS. v s . Dept. >-3 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n S o c i a l Work f i e l d 0.518 .50 > p > .30 CAS. v s . Dept. <. 1 y e a r i n S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 8.052 . O l j - . p i> .001 CAS. v s . Dept. 1 y e a r i n S c h o o l of S o c i a l Work 0.260 *** i n v a l i d CAS. v s . Dept. Age o f S o c i a l Worker <T 35 y e a r s 3.119 .10 > p >.05 CAS. v s . Dept. Age o f S o c i a l Worker > 3 5 y e a r s 0.168 . 7 0 > p > .50 CAS. v s . Dept. :•<-,1-0,000 pop. o f S o c i a l Worker's community of Fam-i l y o r i e n t a t i o n 2.761 .10 ^  p y. .05 CAS. v s . Dept. >10,000 pop. of r e s p o n d e n t s community of F a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n 0.261 .70 > p > .50 *** CAS. r e f e r s t o the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y Dept. r e f e r s t o the P r o v i n c i a l Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e The e x p e c t e d f r e q u e n c y was n o t o b t a i n e d 68. These comparisons r e s u l t i n only three findings which were s i g n i f i c a n t at the .10 l e v e l of confidence. The C.A.S. respondents were compared with the Department respondents i n c l u d i n g only the group of respondents who had not attended a School of S o c i a l Work. The C.A.S. Group was s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the Department group at the p.<^.01 l e v e l of confidence, the C.A.S. workers obtaining higher neglect scores than the Department workers. The other s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the C.A.S. and the Department Workers was found where the two were compared examining only those workers who had grown up i n communities with a population of less than 10,000. In t h i s comparison the d i f f e r e n c e was s i g n i f i c a n t at .10^?*p^.05 l e v e l of confidence, with the C.A.S. workers scoring higher on neglect than t h e i r counterparts employed with the Department. Holding constant the t o t a l number of workers under the age of 35 years and comparing C.A.S. and Department the d i f f e r e n c e i n neglect perception was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t p ^ .10 l e v e l of confidence. The C.A.S. workers i n th i s age category had higher neglect scores than the Department Workers. A c a l c u l a t i o n was made of the percentages of respondents who checked severe neglect i n a l l nine cases f o r t h i r t e e n d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e s p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n the study and the r e s u l t s are tabulated i n Table VII. Our o r i g i n a l assumption underlying the d e c i s i o n to compare C.A.S. with the Department o f f i c e s was that the major dif f e r e n c e s i n perception would be between r u r a l and urban o f f i c e s . This assumption proved inaccurate; however, as seen i n the r e s u l t s shown i n Table VII. Where t h i r t e e n o f f i c e s , including C.A.S., were compared against "severe neglect" checks the dif f e r e n c e s among the 69. o f f i c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , a t the p «<^.001 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . C.A.S., i t w i l l be seen ranked about midway between the h i g h e s t and the l o w e s t i n the t o t a l group o f o f f i c e s . The m a j o r d i f f e r e n c e s were seen between the r u r a l o f f i c e s . TABLE V I I PERCENTAGE OF CHECKS OF "SEVERE NEGLECT" IN ALL NINE CASES FOR THIRTEEN OFFICES* L o c a t i o n of O f f i c e Number o f Respondents P e r c e n t a g e of Checks o f "Severe N e g l e c t " C ranbrook 5 55% T r a i l 7 50% New W e s t m i n s t e r 8 45% P r i n c e R u p e r t 7 36% N e l s o n 7 26% C • A. • S • 37 25% P r i n c e George 10 20% C h i l l i w a c k 7 20% Vernon 4 1.9% Q u e s n e l 4 19% S m i t h e r s 5 18% Duncan 5 17% Dawson Creek 8 16% F r i e d m a n T e s t X* = 35.8 d f = 12 p <d .001 * 2 o f f i c e s were n o t used because of an i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f r e s p o n s e s . 70. The r e s u l t s tend t o s u p p o r t a c c e p t a n c e of the h y p o t h e s e s t h a t t h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n o f s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t i n d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a -t i v e s e t t i n g s . H y p o t h e s i s 2B was t h a t " d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l w o r k e r p e r c e p t i o n s o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f abuse e x i s t between s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n d i f f e r e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i v e s e t t i n g s " . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s was a l s o t e s t e d by comparing C.A.S. and Department w o r k e r s w h i l e h o l d i n g s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s c o n s t a n t . The r e s u l t s a r e seen i n T a b l e V I I I . TABLE V I I I COMPARISONS OF PERCEPTIONS OF ABUSE BETWEEN C.A.S. AND DEPARTMENT WORKERS Comparison Group X 2 ( d f = 1) L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e CAS. v s Dept. y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n o f f i c e 1.706 i n v a l i d CAS. v s Dept. >2 y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e i n o f f i c e 0.098 .80 > p > .70 CAS. v s Dept. <C2 y e a r s s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e 1.462 i n v a l i d CAS. v s Dept. j>2 y e a r s s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e 0.453 .70 > p > .50 CAS. v s Dept. C 3 y e a r s s o c i a l work . e x p e r i e n c e 1.026 i n v a l i d CAS. v s Dept. . "> 3 y e a r s s o c i a l work e x p e r i e n c e 0.020 .90 > p > .80 CAS. v s Dept. < 1 y e a r S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 0.239 .70> p P-.50 CAS. v s Dept. ->1 y e a r a t S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work 0.175 i n v a l i d CAS. v s Dept. <Age 35 S o c i a l Worker 2.544 i n v a l i d 71. Comparison Group X 2 ( d f = 1) L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e CAS. v s Dept. ;> Age 35 S o c i a l Worker 0.081 ,80 ,> p >.70 CAS. v s Dept. <^ 10,000 pop. Community o f Worker F a m i l y o r i e n t a t i o n 0.049 i n v a l i d CAS. v s Dept. > 10,000 pop. Community o f w o r k e r ' s o r i g i n . _• 0.752 . ^.50 y p > .30 T h i s group of comparisons gave no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s f o r any o f the v a r i a b l e s t e s t e d . T h i s d e a r t h of d i f f e r e n c e s l e n d s s t r o n g s u p p o r t t o r e j e c t i n g h y p o t h e s i s 2B. What i t does i n d i c a t e i s t h a t no m a t t e r what v a r i a b l e i s examined t h e r e i s a s t r o n g l y s i m i l a r p e r c e p -t i o n o f abuse. T h i s , t h e n , l e n d s f u r t h e r s u p p o r t to the h y p o t h e s i s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t abuse was more c l e a r l y p e r c e i v e d t h a n n e g l e c t . What can a l s o be c o n c l u d e d from the f i n d i n g s i s t h a t t h e r e may be a b e t t e r method o f c o m b i n i n g v a r i a b l e s and comparing o f f i c e s o r groups t h a n was d e v i s e d i n t h e manner chosen. H y p o t h e s i s 4 s t a t e d t h a t " d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n of n e g l e c t and abuse a r e r e l a t e d t o : a. e x p e r i e n c e i n t h e f i e l d o f s o c i a l work b. l e v e l or amount o f e d u c a t i o n i n s o c i a l work c. sex d. age e. m a r i t a l s t a t u s of r e s p o n d e n t f . s i z e o f community,of o r i g i n o f s o c i a l w o r k e r . " T h i s group of h y p o t h e s i s were t e s t e d by c o m p i l i n g a t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e f o r each r e s p o n d e n t and c o m p a r i n g t h i s s c o r e w i t h s e l e c t e d i n d i v i d u a l w o r k e r v a r i a b l e s . These c o m p a r i s o n s a r e shown i n T a b l e IX . 72. TABLE IX RELATIONSHIP OF TOTAL DEVIATION IN PERCEPTIONS OF NEGLECT AND ABUSE TO SELECTED INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL WORKER VARIABLES Comparison Group x 2 ( d f = 1) L e v e l o f S i g n i f i c a n c e E x p e r i e n c e i n O f f i c e and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n Dept. Wkrs. (N=81) 1.000 .50 > p > .30 E x p e r i e n c e i n O f f i c e and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n C.A.S. Wkrs. (N=37) 0.222 .70 > p y.50 M a r i t a l s t a t u s v s t o t a l d e v i a t i o n Male s o c i a l w o r k e r (N=43) 1.048 (df=2) i n v a l i d M a r i t a l s t a t u s v s t o t a l d e v i a t i o n Female s o c i a l w o r k e r (N=71) 5.837 (df=2) i n v a l i d S i m i l a r i t y s c o r e and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n N = 118 1.690 .20 > p >.10 U r b a n - R u r a l Worker background and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n N = 118 0.517 . 5 0 ^ p ^ . 3 0 -S o c i a l Work E d u c a t i o n and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n N = 118. 0.037 . 9 0 > p >.80 E x p e r i e n c e i n O f f i c e and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n N = 118 1.036 .50> p > .30 E x p e r i e n c e i n F i e l d o f S o c i a l Work and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n N = 118 0.183 .70 > p .50 M a r i t a l s t a t u s and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n N = 118 4.661 i n v a l i d Sex and t o t a l d e v i a t i o n N = 118 3.739 .10^> p >• .05 The f i n d i n g s i n d i c a t e o n l y one s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between compared g r o u p s . A t the .10p>p .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e t h e r e was a d i f f e r e n c e between males and fe m a l e s i n t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s on n e g l e c t and abuse r e s p o n s e s . The f e m a l e r e s p o n d e n t s tended t o d e v i a t e l e s s t h a n male r e s p o n d e n t s , i n d i c a t i n g g r e a t e r a c c u r a c y i n p e r c e i v i n g n e g l e c t and abuse a c c o r d i n g t o the "Young M o d e l " . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e p a r t i c u l a r h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse a r e n o t r e l a t e d t o a d i f f e r e n c e i n sex of t h e o b s e r v e r . Due t o the o b v i o u s i n a d e q u a c i e s o f u s i n g t o t a l d e v i a t i o n s c o r e s and r e l a t i n g t h e s e t o i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s , some f u r t h e r t e s t s were d e v i s e d and computed.* One o f t h e s e t e s t s done was t o c a l c u l a t e t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f w o r k e r s c h e c k i n g " s e v e r e n e g l e c t " as p r e s e n t e d i n each case v i g n e t t e and compare t h i s w i t h the s i z e o f t h e community i n w h i c h t h e worker was r a i s e d . The r e s u l t s a r e seen i n T a b l e X. TABLE X SIZE OF COMMUNITY OF WORKER ORIGIN COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGE OF WORKERS CHECKING "SEVERE NEGLECT". S i z e o f Community 2500 2500-10,000 10,000-100,000 100,000 P e r c e n t a g e o f Workers c h e c k i n g S e v e r e N e g l e c t 19% 20% 2 1 % 26% F r i e d m a n T e s t X 2 = 4.83 df = 3 .20 > p >.10 A l t h o u g h the d i f f e r e n c e h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t o n l y a t the .20 ^ >p ^>.10 l e v e l t h e r e was a te n d e n c y f o r w o r k e r s r a i s e d i n s m a l l e r communities t o see l e s s " s e v e r e n e g l e c t " t h a n t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s r a i s e d i n the l a r g e r c o m m u n i t i e s . A f u r t h e r t e s t was made c a l c u l a t i n g t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f w o r k e r s c h e c k i n g "abuse a b s e n t " and comparing t h i s w i t h t h e s i z e o f t h e i r community JL. " B y Dr. J.A. Crane, T h e s i s A d v i s o r . 74. of o r i g i n . See T a b l e X I . TABLE X I COMMUNITY OF WORKER ORIGIN COMPARED WITH PERCENTAGE OF WORKERS CHECKING "ABUSE ABSENT". Community o f Worker O r i g i n 2500 2500-10,000 10,000 100.000. 100,000 7<> c h e c k i n g Abuse Ab s e n t 40 23 26 19 F r i e d m a n T e s t X 2 = 10.87 df = 3 .02 p .01 The d i f f e r e n c e between w o r k e r s r a i s e d i n s m a l l and w o r k e r s r a i s e d i n l a r g e r c e n t e r s s e e i n g "abuse a b s e n t " was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t th e ^ . 0 2 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s f i n d i n g s u p p o r t s r e j e c t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n o f abuse a r e u n r e l a t e d t o urban -r u r a l b a ckground o f t h e w o r k e r . One o f t h e i n f e r e n c e s t o be g a i n e d from t h i s i s t h a t the community of o r i g i n o f the worker may be more i m p o r t a n t t h a n h i s l e v e l o f s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g i n d e t e r m i n i n g h i s assessment o f a s i t u a t i o n as p o s s e s s i n g "abuse". A c a l c u l a t i o n was made of males and f e m a l e s c h e c k i n g " s e v e r e n e g l e c t " i n each o f the n i n e case v i g n e t t e s . The mean p e r c e n t a g e o f males s e e i n g " s e v e r e n e g l e c t " was 22.27, and the mean p e r c e n t a g e o f fe m a l e s making the same o b s e r v a t i o n s was 24.17.. The C h i sq u a r e w i t h d . f . = 1 was 1.07 and t h i s r e a c h e d the c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l o f .50 >*p ;>.30, thus i t was n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . A s i m i l a r c a l c u l a t i o n was made o f males and f e m a l e s c h e c k i n g " n e g l e c t a b s e n t " i n each o f the n i n e c a s e s . The mean p e r c e n t a g e o f males 75. p e r c e i v i n g " n e g l e c t a b s e n t " was 20.8% and f e m a l e s 20.1%. I n e i g h t o f the v. n i n e cases the males ranked ahead of the fe m a l e s i n the p e r c e n t a g e c h e c k i n g " n e g l e c t a b s e n t " . The r e s u l t i n g F r i e d m a n t e s t c a l c u l a t i o n w i t h df = 1 was 4.00 and r e s u l t e d i n a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a t the p <.05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . T h i s f i n d i n g can be summarized by s t a t i n g t h a t f e m a l e s more o f t e n than males saw n e g l e c t as p r e s e n t w h i c h l e n d s s u p p o r t t o a r e j e c t i o n of h y p o t h e s i s 4C. A c o m p a r i s o n was drawn o f males and fe m a l e s c h e c k i n g "abuse a b s e n t " i n t h e n i n e v i g n e t t e s . The mean p e r c e n t a g e o f males i n d i c a t i n g "abuse a b s e n t " was 4 1 % and f o r fe m a l e s 35%. The C h i square was .44 w i t h d f = 1 . T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e o f 70. > p ^».50 w h i c h has no s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . I n c o mparing males and fe m a l e s i n c h e c k i n g the p r e s e n c e o f " s e v e r e abuse" i n the case v i g n e t t e s , the mean p e r c e n t a g e o f males was 18.1%, and of females 21.8%. The C h i square ( F r i e d m a n t e s t ) was 8,000 w i t h d f = 1. T h i s p r o v e d t o be s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e p ^ . 0 1 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e . Females, t h e n , tend t o see the abuse t h a t e x i s t s i n a case as more s e v e r e t h a n do m a l e s . The f i n d i n g s on t h i s "abuse a b s e n t " and " s e v e r e abuse" have r e l e -v a n c e f o r two o f the h y p o t h e s e s . The absence o f s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e : i n i n d i c a t i n g whether or n o t abuse i s p r e s e n t i n a case s u p p o r t s a c c e p t a n c e o f h y p o t h e s e s #1. The s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between sexes i n the c h e c k i n g o f " s e v e r e abuse" s u p p o r t s t h e r e j e c t i o n o f h y p o t h e s i s #4 C. The f i n d i n g s d i s c u s s e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e s e l e c t i v e and cannot be c o n s i d e r e d a l l i n c l u s i v e o r c o n c l u s i v e . They c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e the many p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r v a r i o u s c o m b i n a t i o n s o f v a r i a b l e s t o be t e s t e d and f u r t h e r examined. F u r t h e r i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r extended s t u d y a r e d i s c u s s e d i n the n e x t c h a p t e r . CHAPTER IV SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS AND PROPOSALS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH S y n o p s i s o f C h a p t e r I The f o c u s o f t h i s s t u d y has been on t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r and h i s p e r c e p t i o n s o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse. I t was s p e c u l a t e d t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s would d i f f e r i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n o f t h e s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t and abuse r e p r e s e n t e d i n case d e s c r i p t i o n s o r v i g n e t t e s , and t h a t t h e s e d i f f e r -ences m i g h t be r e l a t e d t o one o r a number of v a r i a b l e s . The c o n s t r u c t i o n and t e s t i n g o f t h e s e case v i g n e t t e s was a l s o seen t o be a p r e l i m i n a r y s t e p i n a s s e s s i n g t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f a model i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s o f n e g l e c t and abuse. P e r c e p t i o n o f n e g l e c t and abuse as d e f i n e d i n t h i s s t u d y was the c o n s i s t e n t tendency t o see more o r l e s s n e g l e c t / a b u s e i n case d e s c r i p t i o n s t h a n was a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s . A number o f q u e s t i o n s gave r i s e t o h y p o t h e s e s about d i f f e r e n c e s i n s o c i a l w o r k e r p e r c e p t i o n s . Were p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t more ambiguous tha n p e r c e p t i o n s o f abuse, d i d agency s e t t i n g have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s ; were i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s such as c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s , m o r a l - e v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s , j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , s e x , s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g , age, u r b a n / r u r a l background of s o c i a l w o r k e r s , r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s ? I n o r d e r t o t e s t d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s , case d e s c r i p t i o n s were c o n s t r u c t e d , each one r e p r e s e n t i n g a c o m b i n a t i o n o f v a r i o u s degrees o f n e g l e c t and abuse. The d e s c r i p t i o n s s i m u l a t e d r e p o r t s and o b s e r v a t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse as t h e y a p p l y t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s , and a p p r o x i m a t e d , as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e , d e f i n e d d e grees o f s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t and abuse. C r i t e r i a used i n d e f i n i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f s e v e r i t y f o r n e g l e c t and abuse were t h o s e used by L e o n t i n e Young i n h e r s t u d y o f n e g l e c t and abuse c a s e s . S e v e r e n e g l e c t was d e f i n e d as p a r e n t a l f a i l u r e t o a d e q u a t e l y f e e d t h e i r c h i l d r e n , moderate n e g l e c t , as l a c k o f c l e a n l i n e s s o r f a i l u r e t o p r o v i d e m e d i c a l c a r e . Severe abuse was d e f i n e d as c o n s i s t e n t and v i o l e n t p h y s i c a l abuse o f t h e i r c h i l d r e n and moderate abuse, as i n t e r m i t t e n t b e a t i n g under s t r e s s . S u p p o r t i n g d e s c r i p t i v e m a t e r i a l f o r each v i g n e t t e was a l s o t a k e n from L e o n t i n e Young's s t u d y o f n e g l e c t and abuse c a s e s , u s i n g i t e m s w h i c h were found t o be r e l a t e d t o the p a r t i c u l a r c a t e g o r y o f s e v e r i t y . (82) To compare p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s , r e s p o n d e n t s t o t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e c e i v e d a n e g l e c t s c o r e , an abuse s c o r e , a combined n e g l e c t and abuse s c o r e ; t h e s e s c o r e s r e p r e s e n t e d the sum of s c o r e s on t h e n i n e v i g n e t t e s . Each v i g n e t t e was s c o r e d by a s s i g n i n g w e i g h t v a l u e s t o the d i f f e r e n t d e g rees o f s e v e r i t y . D e v i a t i o n s c o r e s f o r n e g l e c t and abuse were based on d e v i a t i o n s from t h e s e w e i g h t numbers. The h y p o t h e s i s c o n c e r n i n g a m b i g u i t y o f n e g l e c t as compared t o abuse, was t e s t e d by comparing agreement o f r e s p o n s e s f o r n e g l e c t and abuse. Comparisons o f agency s e t t i n g were made between s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n a l a r g e u r b a n c h i l d w e l f a r e agency and s o c i a l w o r k e r s employed i n p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p r o v i n c e . o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . These comparisons as w e l l as com p a r i s o n s between p e r c e p t i o n s and a s e r i e s o f i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s , were made u s i n g computer a n a l y s i s and the c h i - s q u a r e t e s t . Not t e s t e d i n t h i s s t u d y were the h y p o t h e s e s d e v e l o p e d c o n c e r n i n g m o r a l e v a l u a t i v e , and jo b s a t i s f a c t i o n v a r i a b l e s . Data f o r the s t u d y was o b t a i n e d from q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w h i c h were s e n t t o s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n a number o f p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s and a c h i l d w e l f a r e agency. C h o i c e o f the p u b l i c w e l f a r e o f f i c e s took i n t o a c c o u n t f a c t o r s w h i c h c o u l d a f f e c t p e r c e p t i o n s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s : i n d i c e s o f s o c i a l change, p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , and community "dependency". 78. S y n o p s i s o f C h a p t e r I I . C h a p t e r two of t h i s s t u d y was a r e v i e w of t h e l i t e r a t u r e on the e a r l y s t a g e o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and c e f e r r a l o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse t o the a p p r o p r i a t e s o c i a l agency. A t o t a l of seven books and f i f t y - s e v e n a r t i c l e s were r e v i e w e d a f t e r a comprehensive s e a r c h f o r t h e m a t e r i a l w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t . The d i a g r a m g i v e s a g r a p h i c p i c t u r e o f the a r e a s t h a t were c o v e r e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r . By i d e n t i f y i n g the a l p h a b e t i c a l l e t t e r s on the i l l u s t r a t i o n i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e l i n e a t e the framework o f the c h a p t e r . The i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s as f o l l o w s : (a) D e f i n i t i o n s w h i c h c o v e r e d n e g l e c t , abuse, p r o t e c t i v e c a s e , community p e r c e p t i o n s ; (b) R e f e r r a l i n f o r m a t i o n w h i c h c o v e r e d the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e , p r o c e s s , c r i t e r i a , and s p e c i a l p r o b l e m s ; ( c ) Agency w o r k i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h i c h i d e n t i f i e d the b e a r i n g on the q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y o f p r o t e c t i v e r e f e r r a l s ; (d) F a m i l y f u n c t i o n i n g w h i c h i n c l u d e d a r e v i e w o f s t u d i e s t r y i n g t o i d e n t i f y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a b u s i n g or n e g l e c t i n g f a m i l i e s ; ( e ) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t y p e s o f c h i l d abuse and n e g l e c t ; ( f ) I n c i d e n c e o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse; (g) Worker d e c i s i o n m aking w h i c h r e v i e w e d any l i t e r a t u r e on the s u b j e c t o f how a p r o t e c t i o n w o r k e r d e c i d e s whether a r e f e r r e d f a m i l y s h o u l d be t a k e n on as a p r o t e c t i v e c a s e . I n summary, we found t h a t t h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e r e s e a r c h done i n t h i s a r e a o f t h e c h i l d w e l f a r e b u t t h e r e was a . l a r g e amount o f d e s c r i p t i v e and t h e o r e t -i c a l w r i t i n g . THE EARLY STAGE OF IDENTIFICATION AND REFERRAL OF . . . S-CHILD NEGLECT AND ABUSE f The main f o c u s of t h i s s t u d y i s w o r k e r s 1 p e r c e p t i o n of abuse and n e g l e c t C W A F o s t e r Home Care H E G I L E Wards L F N D A C C o u r t A c t i o n R Y E A d o p t i o n s LITERATURE NOT REVIEWED IN THESE AREAS 4 80. Synopsis of Chapter I I I Chapter three dealt with the problems of data c o l l e c t i o n , how i t was coded (tabulated), the method of an a l y s i s , and the fi n d i n g s . Of 188 questionnaires d i s t r i b u t e d to s o c i a l workers i n B. C , 132 were returned of which 118 were used i n obtaining our find i n g s . Seventy-two items on the questionnaire were coded for the computer tabulations. The seven control v a r i a b l e s were dichotomized to f a c i l i t a t e data processing. As a r e s u l t eleven tables were constructed. There was a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e , p. .001, among respondents from t h i r t e e n o f f i c e s who checked "severe neglect" as present i n a l l nine vignettes. In comparing C. A. S. and Department on perceptions of abuse there were no s i g n i f i c a n t differences which indicates that although abuse e x i s t s i t i s more evenly perceived than neglect. When t o t a l d e viation scores from the "Young Model" were calcul a t e d , women tended to achieve greater accuracy than men i n th e i r scores. The findings indicated that workers ranked emergency s i t u a t i o n s as those which dominated the number of pr o t e c t i v e cases proceeding to court action. Ranked l a s t i n going to court were p r o t e c t i v e cases r e c e i v i n g more than twelve months se r v i c e . Eight of the nine vignettes presented to the respondents were viewed as being s i m i l a r to less than one-half of t h e i r present caseload. The respondents tended to agree more often about the existence of abuse i n the vignettes .than about the existence of neglect. Those respondents from both the Children's Aid Society and the Department of So c i a l Welfare who (a) had not attended a School of Soci a l Work (b) were r a i s e d i n communities of less than 10,000 population and (c) were under t h i r t y - f i v e years old obtained higher t o t a l neglect scores. 81. Respondents whose communities of o r i g i n had a population of 2,500 6r l e s s , l e s s often saw "severe neglect" than respondents who had been r a i s e d in larger communities. This d i f f e r e n c e was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t at the p. "^.02 l e v e l of confidence where the two groups were compared on the item of "abuse absent". Workers coming from smaller centers saw "abuse absent" more often than workers ra i s e d i n more urban centres. In eight of nine vignettes males more often than females checked "neglect absent", r e s u l t i n g i n a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e at the p. <^.05 l e v e l of confidence. Male and female respondents tended to agree on the presence of abuse i n a case but d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y (p. ^ . 0 1 ) i n judging cases containing "severe abuse". Females saw more "severe abuse" than males. Implications of the Study One of the findings of t h i s study has been that considerable d i f f e r e n c e s i n the perception of c h i l d neglect and abuse e x i s t among s o c i a l workers. This f i n d i n g points to the need for a more e x p l i c i t d e f i n i t i o n of the problem, not only f or the purpose of e s t a b l i s h i n g methods of study-ing neglect and abuse, but equally important, to ensure the a p p l i c a t i o n of consistent c r i t e r i a i n c h i l d welfare work. According to the a v a i l a b l e evidence, there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that a c h i l d i s more l i k e l y to be appre-hended by a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l worker than by another s o c i a l worker. This i s so because small differences i n perceptions of neglect and abuse, p a r t i c u l a r l y those at the upper end of the absent-severe continuum can determine the d i f f e r e n c e between a d e c i s i o n to apprehend or not to apprehend a c h i l d . Despite the u t i l i t y of common c r i t e r i a however, i t i s recognized that a consistent a p p l i c a t i o n of the c r i t e r i a may be d i f f i c u l t due to 82. d i f f e r e n c e s i n community s t a n d a r d s and v a r y i n g i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s by s o c i a l w o r k e r s o f the model. Changes w h i c h a r e d e s i r a b l e , may r e q u i r e some i n -g e n u i t y i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n . The development of a model of n e g l e c t and abuse would appear t o be a u s e f u l s t e p i n l o n g term s t u d i e s o f the p r o b l e m . I t i s c o n s i d e r e d t h a t d a t a c o l l e c t i o n s h o u l d be based n o t on l e g i s l a t i v e o r o t h e r c o n v e n i e n t c a t e g o r i c a l d e f i n i t i o n s , b u t r a t h e r on a s y s t e m a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n o f d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a t o i n d i v i d u a l c a s e s . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y i n d i c a t e t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e t o c o n s t r u c t and use the model i n f u r t h e r s t u d i e s . B e f o r e f u l l s c a l e d a t a c o l l e c t i o n was i n i t i a t e d however, d a t a c o l l e c t i o n on a l i m i t e d s c a l e would be v a l u a b l e i n o b t a i n i n g some i d e a o f t h e advantages and d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t c o u l d be e x p e c t e d . P r o p o s a l s f o r F u r t h e r R e s e a r c h The v a l i d i t y o f the f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s t u d y c o u l d be s t r e n g t h e n e d by m o d i f y i n g and i m p r o v i n g v i g n e t t e s , and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e r e v i s e d t e s t i n s t r u m e n t t o a new s e l e c t i o n o f o f f i c e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e o r i n o t h e r p a r t s of the c o u n t r y . S e v e r a l v i g n e t t e s i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were l e s s c l e a r i n t h e i r p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a p a r t i c u l a r degree of s e v e r i t y o f n e g l e c t and abuse than were o t h e r v i g n e t t e s , and t h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n d i f f e r e n c e s i n the p e r c e n t a g e s o f agreement on the p a r t i c u l a r degrees o f s e v e r i t y . An improved s e t of v i g n e t t e s c o u l d have been more e f f e c t i v e i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s . N, S e v e r a l a r e a s o f i n t e r e s t t h a t emerged i n the s t u d y i n v o l v e d t h e i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s o f sex, and d i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t among v a r i o u s o f f i c e s , and d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d t o community p o p u l a t i o n . From t h e r e s u l t s , i t appears t h a t women a r e more c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse, and tend t o see more s e v e r i t y o f 83. n e g l e c t and abuse i n cases t h a n do men. S i n c e the e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h i s f i n d i n g i s n o t c l e a r , f u r t h e r t e s t s c o u l d be made w h i c h would i n d i c a t e whether such d i f f e r e n c e s were p r i m a r i l y r e l a t e d t o the w o r k e r s ' s e x , or were r e l a t e d t o o t h e r v a r i a b l e s such as r e c e n t e x p e r i e n c e o r d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s u p e r v i s i o n . M o r e o v e r , the f i n d i n g t h a t women tend t o see more n e g l e c t t h a n men, r a i s e s the q u e s t i o n : I s i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t s o c i a l w o r k e r s see more n e g l e c t i n cases than m i g h t be seen by o t h e r o b s e r v e r s ? D i f f e r e n c e s i n p e r c e p t i o n s o f n e g l e c t and abuse w i t h r e g a r d t o d i f f e r e n t o f f i c e s may i n d i c a t e t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e l a t e d t o demographic f e a t u r e s o f the community, t o i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s i n t h o s e o f f i c e s , o r t o some o t h e r v a r i a b l e . F u r t h e r t a b u l a t i o n s and t e s t s m i g h t e x p l a i n some o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s . Of i n t e r e s t t o o , i s t h e f i n d i n g t h a t t h e u r b a n / r u r a l background o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o p e r c e p t i o n s . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t such d i f f e r e n c e s a r e r e l a t e d t o d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l i z a t i o n and e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . 84. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. A l l e n , . A.F. 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" R o l e o f O b j e c t i v e T e s t s i n C h i l d W e l f a r e Research!:', i n * The Known and Unknown i n C h i l d W e l f a r e R e s e a r c h : An A p p r a i s a l . New York: N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l W o rkers, 1965. pp. 132-42 47. L a z a r u s , E s t h e r . "The P o s i t i v e A p p r o a c h t o P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e " , C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . 27 (Nov. 1949), pp 48. M c F e r r a n , J a n e . " P a r e n t ' s Groups i n P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s " , C h i l d r e n , V o l . 5 (Nov. Dec. 1958) pp. 223-8 49-. Maas, Henry and R i c h a r d E n g l e r . C h i l d r e n i n Need of P a r e n t s . New York and London: C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. pp. 462 50. M a s s i n g , Rose. " N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n : A C h a l l e n g e t o t h e Community", S o c i a l Work, V o l . 3 ( A p r . 1958), pp. 30-6 51. M a x w e l l , I.D. " A s s a u l t and B a t t e r y o f C h i l d r e n and O t h e r s " , Nova S q o t i a M e d i c a l B u l l e t i n , V o l . XLV ( A p r . 1966), pp.105-7 52. M e i e r , E.G. "Focussed Treatment f o r C h i l d r e n a t Home", C h i l d r e n , V o l . . 9 ( J a n . - F e b . 1962), pp. 15-20. 53. M i n n , P.K. " O p e r a t i o n Help: An A p p r o a c h t o C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n " , S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e 1964, N a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e on S o c i a l W e l f a r e , New York: C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1964. pp. 172-80 54. M u l f o r d , R.M. " E m o t i o n a l N e g l e c t o f C h i l d r e n : A C h a l l e n g e t o - P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s " , C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . X XXVII ( O c t . 1958), pp. 19-24 55. N e t t l e r , Gwynn. A Study o f O p i n i o n s on C h i l d W e l f a r e i n H a r r i s County. Houston Texas: Community C o u n c i l o f Houston and H a r r i s County, 1958 pp. 98 56. Norman, Sherwood. "Emergency S e r v i c e i n C h i l d W e l f a r e " , C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . X X X I I I ( A p r . 1954), pp. 3-7 57. N o r r i s , M i r i a m and Barbara W a l l a c e , eds., The Known and Unknown i n C h i l d W e l f a r e R e s e a r c h : An A p p r a i s a l . New York: N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l W o rkers, 1965. pp. 214 58. N u r s e , S.M., " F a m i l i a l P a t t e r n s of P a r e n t s who Abuse T h e i r C h i l d r e n " , S m i t h C o l l e g e S t u d i e s i n S o c i a l Work. N o r t h Hampton, M a s s a c h u s e t t s O c t . 1964, pp.11-25 59. Odium, D.M. " N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n " , R o y a l S o c i e t y H e a l t h J o u r n a l , V o l . 7 9 (Nov.- D e c 195 9 ) , pp.737-43 60. O t t , J.F. " N e g l e c t e d o r P h y s i c a l l y Abused C h i l d r e n " , J o u r n a l o f the South C a r o l i n a M e d i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , V o l . 60 ( O c t . 1964), pp.309-15 61. O v e r t o n , A l i c e . "Casework as a P a r t n e r s h i p " , C h i l d r e n , V o l . 3 ( S e p t . -O c t . 1956), pp.181-6 * M i r i a m N o r r i s and B a r b a r a W a l l a c e , e d s . 88. 62. P o l a n s k y , N.A. S o c i a l Work R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o : The U n i v e r s i t y of C h i c a g o P r e s s , 1960. pp.306 63. P r i n g l e , M.L.K. and V i c t o r i a B o s s i o . "A S t u d y o f D e p r i v e d C h i l d r e n -P a r t I - I n t e l l e c t u a l , E m o t i o n a l and S o c i a l Development", V i t a  Humana, V o l . 1-2 (1958) pp. 65-88 64. P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t . P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a S t a t u t e , 1943 R a i l , M.E. "The Casework P r o c e s s i n Work w i t h the C h i l d and the F a m i l y i n t h e C h i l d ' s own Home", S o c i a l S e r v i c e Review, V o l . X X V I I I ( S e p t . 1954), pp. 270-8 Sandusky, A.L. ^ P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s " , _in H.L. L u r i e , ed. S o c i a l Work  E n c y c l o p e d i a , New York: N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l W o r k e r s , 1965. pp. 579-87 . " S e r v i c e s t o N e g l e c t e d C h i l d r e n " , C h i l d r e n , V o l . 7 ( J a n . - F e b . 1960), pp. 23-8 S c h e r e r , L o r n a . " P r o t e c t i v e Casework S e r v i c e " , . C h i l d r e n , V o l . 3 (Feb. 1 9 5 6 ) , pp. 27-31 Shames, M i r i a m . "Use of Homemaker S e r v i c e i n F a m i l i e s That N e g l e c t T h e i r C h i l d r e n " , S o c i a l Work, V o l . 9 ( J a n . 1964), pp. 12-8 S h e l d o n , E l e a n o r . " I n t a k e P r a c t i c e s - The Core o f the Agency's S e r v i c e i n H e l p i n g C h i l d r e n and T h e i r P a r e n t s " , C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . 27 (Dec. 1949) 71. S i e g e l , S i d n e y . N o n p a r a m e t r i c S t a t i s t i c s F o r t h e B e h a v i o u r a l S c i e n c e s . New York: McGraw, 1956 pp. 312 72. S m i t h , B a r b a r a . " H e l p i n g N e g l e c t f u l P a r e n t s t o Become R e s p o n s i b l e " , The C h i l d , V o l . 14 ( S e p t . 1949) pp. 36-8, 45-6 73. Smyser, M.M. P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s f o r C h i l d r e n . U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C. 1954. pp. 130 74. S t r e s h i n s k y , Naomi. e t a l • "A S t u d y o f S o c i a l Work P r a c t i c e i n P r o t e c t i v e S e r v i c e s : I t s n o t What you Know, I t s Where you Work", C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . XLV (Oct 1966), pp. 444-450, 471. 75. Ten Have, R a l p h . "A P r e v e n t i v e A p p r o a c h t o Probems of C h i l d Abuse and N e g l e c t " , M i c h i g a n M e d i c i n e , V o l . 64 ( S e p t . 1 9 6 5 ) , pp. 645-9 -76. "The C h i l d Abuse P r o b l e m i n Iowa. The e x t e n t o f the P r o b l e m , and A P r o p o s a l f o r Remedying i t " , " " J o u r n a l o f Iowa M e d i c a l S o c i e t y , V o l . L I I I ( O c t . 1963), pp. 692-4 65. 66. 67 . 68. 69. 70. 77. Thimm, J.L . "A Community P r o t e c t i v e Program", C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . X X X V I I I (Mar. 1 9 5 9 ) , pp. 28^32 89. 78. T o l a n d , M a r j o r i e . "Abuse o f C h i l d r e n - Whose R e p o n s i b i l i t y ? " , C o n n e c t i c u t M e d i c i n e , V o l . 28 ( J u n . 1964), pp. 438-42 79. W e i n b e r g e r , P a u l and Peggy S m i t h . "The D i s p o s i t i o n of C h i l d N e g l e c t Cases r e f e r r e d by c a s e w o r k e r s t o J u v e n i l e C o u r t " , C h i l d W e l f a r e V o l . XLV ( O c t . 1966) pp. 457-61, 471. 80. V i c e l l i , L . J . The R e t u r n o f G u a r d i a n s h i p t o N a t u r a l P a r e n t s . U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r o f S o c i a l Work T h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , B.C., 1961. pp. 97 81. W e l s c h , E x i e . " S u s t a i n i n g the C h i l d i n H i s I m p a i r e d Home", C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . X X X I I ( J u l . 1 9 5 3 ) ; pp. 3-7 82. Young, L e o n t i n e . Wednesday's C h i l d r e n - A Study of C h i l d N e g l e c t and Abuse. New Y o r k , M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964. pp.195 83. Z a l b a , S.R. "The Abused C h i l d - A Survey o f The P r o b l e m " , S o c i a l Work, V o l . I I ( O c t . 1966), pp. 3-1.6. APPENDIX A INSTRUCTIONS TO AGENCIES ADMINISTERING THESIS QUESTIONNAIRE "SOCIAL WORKER PERCEPTIONS OF CHILD NEGLECT AND ABUSE", U.B.C. SCHOOL OF SOCIAL WORK The e n c l o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s h o u l d t a k e a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1% hours t o c o m p l e t e . E n v e l o p e s have been p r o v i d e d . When c o m p l e t e d , q u e s t i o n n a i r e can be p l a c e d i n e n v e l o p e s and s e a l e d by each S o c i a l Worker. As i n d i c a t e d i n our l e t t e r t o t h e D e p a r t -ment o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e , V i c t o r i a , we would l i k e v e r y much t o have co m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e t u r n e d t o t h e S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work by F e b r u a r y 16, i n o r d e r t o meet t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f the t h e s i s s c h e d u l e . 91. MEMORANDUM FROM: TO ALL REGIONAL DIRECTORS, DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE The D i r e c t o r DEPARTMENT OF SOCIAL WELFARE P a r l i a m e n t B u i l d i n g s VICTORIA, B.C. J a n u a r y 2 4 t h , 1967. Re: Group S t u d y on C h i l d Abuse and N e g l e c t . M a s t e r s t u d e n t s o f the S c h o o l o f S o c i a l Work, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , w i l l be c o n d u c t i n g a group s t u d y on c h i l d abuse and n e g l e c t . As a means o f i n t r o d u c t i o n I q u ote from.Dr. J . Crane's l e t t e r o f J a n u a r y 1 9 t h , 1967 .. "The s t u d y c o n c e r n s i t s e l f w i t h the r o l e o f t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r i n v o l v e d w i t h cases o f c h i l d n e g l e c t and abuse i n v a r i o u s a g e n c i e s . Of s p e c i f i c i n t e r e s t i s t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n of n e g l e c t and abuse. Demographic v a r i a b l e s w i l l be t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t . I t would be a p p r e c i a t e d i f the o f f i c e s c o n c e r n e d c o u l d r e c e i v e advance n o t i c e o f the a r r i v a l o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . I t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t a l l w o r k e r s complete t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a t t h e same o f f i c e m e e t i n g , and i t would be des-i r a b l e i f a l l o f f i c e s completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e w i t h i n a few days of each o t h e r . We hope t h a t no d i s c u s s i o n of the t e s t would t a k e p l a c e between o f f i c e s p r i o r t o F e b r u a r y 1 5 t h . We e x p e c t t o m a i l t h e t e s t i n s t r u m e n t t o the v a r i o u s o f f i c e s on F e b r u a r y 1 s t and would l i k e t o have a l l t e s t S c completed by F e b r u a r y 1 5 t h . We w i l l ask the o f f i c e s t o r e t u r n t h e c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e d i r e c t l y t o u s " . I n a d d i t i o n , I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t R e g i o n a l D i r e c t o r s and S u p e r v i s o r s o f the s e l e c t e d o f f i c e s w i l l be r e q u e s t e d t o complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A t r i a l r u n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e e s t a b l i s h e d t h a t i t t a k e s f r o m . 1 % t o 2 hours f o r c o m p l e t i o n . The o f f i c e s s e l e c t e d a r e : R e g i o n I ... Duncan and Campbell R i v e r R e g i o n 113- ... New W e s t m i n s t e r D i s t r i c t R e g i o n I I I ... Kelowna and Vernon R e g i o n IV ... T r a i l , N e l s o n and Cranbrook R e g i o n V ... Q u e s n e l and P r i n c e George R e g i o n V I ... C h i l l i w a c k R e g i o n V I I ... S m i t h e r s and P r i n c e R u p e r t R e g i o n V I I I ... Dawson Creek Your k i n d c o o p e r a t i o n i s a p p r e c i a t e d , cc - t o s e l e c t e d D i s t r i c t O f f i c e s . J.A. SADLER D i r e c t o r o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e 92. EXPLANATORY NOTES TO QUESTIONNAIRE SCHEDULE S e c t i o n I Page 93 I n t r o d u c t i o n w i t h an e x p l a n a t i o n t o t h e r e s p o n d e n t s about the s t u d y and an a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Page 94 E x p l a n a t o r y page r e g a r d i n g the case v i g n e t t e s and what i s r e q u i r e d o f the r e s p o n d e n t s i n a n s w e r i n g the q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w i n g each v i g n e t t e . Page 95 S h o r t d e s c r i p t i v e case v i g n e t t e f o l l o w e d by s i x q u e s t i o n s : Item No. 1. - p r e s e n c e or absence of n e g l e c t and abuse and/ o r t h e s e v e r i t y o f each. Item No. 2 - 5. - q u e s t i o n s used t o d e t e r m i n e r e s p o n d e n t s ' c o g n i t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . Item. No. 6. - q u a n t i t a t i v e s i m i l a r i t y o f t h e p r e c e d i n g v i g n e t t e t o the r e s p o n d e n t ' s own e x p e r i e n c e w i t h p r o t e c t i v e c a s e s . Pages 96 - 103 Each have t h e i r own case v i g n e t t e f o l l o w e d by s i x q u e s t i o n s . Each o f the 6 items on t h e s e pages a r e i d e n t i c a l t o tho s e d i s c u s s e d above as found on page 95. Page 104 Item No. 55. - i n f o r m a t i v e q u e s t i o n s u p p o r t i n g or r e j e c t i n g whether the v i g n e t t e s a r e a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' c a s e l o a d s . Item No. 5 6 - 6 1 . - q u e s t i o n s t o e s t a b l i s h p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n c e s i n w o r k e r s ' p e r c e p t i o n s o f abuse and n e g l e c t . S e c t i o n I I Page 105 Item 1 - 6. - r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e used t o d e t e r m i n e s o c i a l w o r k e r s ' m o r a l - e v a l u a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n s . S e c t i o n I I I Page 106 Items 1 - 5. - r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e used t o o b t a i n g e n e r a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s ' p r e s e n t employ-ment s i t u a t i o n , p r e v i o u s t r a i n i n g and p a s t s o c i a l work and/ or o t h e r f u l l t i m e work e x p e r i e n c e . S e c t i o n IV Page 107 Items 1 - 4. - r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e used t o d e t e r m i n e t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s ' j o b s a t i s f a c t i o n . S e c t i o n V Page 108 Items 1 - 6 . - r e s p o n s e s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s a r e used t o o b t a i n p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e s o c i a l w o r k e r s . I N T R O D U C T I O N Our t h e s i s group i s u n d e r t a k i n g an e x p l o r a t o r y s t u d y o f c h i l d n e g l e c t - abuse. We a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e v i e w s o f s o c i a l w o r k e r s on s e l e c t e d a s p e c t s o f t h i s p r o b l e m . We a r e p l e a s e d t h a t you a r e a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a f i e l d o f r e s e a r c h w h i c h we hope w i l l e v e n t u a l l y c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f a l l t h o s e w o r k i n g w i t h f a m i l i e s and c h i l d r e n . We do n o t ask you t o s i g n t h e q u e s t i o n -n a i r e . Your r e s p o n s e s w i l l be seen o n l y by the r e s e a r c h s t a f f o f t h i s p r o j e c t , and w i l l be h e l d i n s t r i c t c o n f i d e n c e . When t h e s t u d y has been co m p l e t e d , f i n d i n g s w i l l be a v a i l a b l e i n the fo r m of s t a t i s t i c a l summaries, b u t i t w i l l n o t be p o s s i b l e t o i d e n t i f y an i n d i v i d u a l ' s r e s p o n s e s . We ask the l o c a t i o n o f you r o f f i c e o n l y t o t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t s e l e c t e d demographic v a r i a b l e s . Thank you v e r y much f o r y o u r c o - o p e r a t i o n PART 1 Some R e p r e s e n t a t i v e Cases I n t h i s s e c t i o n you w i l l be p r e s e n t e d w i t h s e v e r a l b r i e f case v i g n e t t e s . F o r t h e pu r p o s e s o f t h i s T h e s i s we a r e d e f i n i n g n e g l e c t as t h e l a c k o f p r o v i s i o n of the p h y s i c a l needs o f c h i l d r e n and abuse as any p h y s i c a l a t t a c k on a c h i l d . A t t he end o f each v i g n e t t e we would l i k e you t o d e t e r m i n e what degree o f n e g l e c t and/or abuse you t h i n k i s d e s c r i b e d i n each. The o t h e r q u e s t i o n s we would l i k e you t o answer w i t h b r i e f one - or two - s e n t e n c e answers. There i s no c o r r e c t o r r i g h t answer t o any of the q u e s t i o n s . Each o f the cases s t a n d s a l o n e and s h o u l d be r a t e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y . We want yo u r own v i e w s about the s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d so t h a t we may d e s c r i b e the range o f t h e s e v i e w s . The case v i g n e t t e s do n o t c o n t a i n enough i n f o r m a t i o n t o e n a b l e you t o answer t h e q u e s t i o n s on t h e b a s i s o f the f a c t s p r e s e n t e d . . I n each v i g n e t t e i t i s assumed t h a t the c o m p l a i n a n t s a r e p r o v i d i n g a c c u r a t e i n f o r m a t i o n . The p u r p o s e o f the case v i g n e t t e s i s t o s t i m u l a t e you t o s p e c u l a t e about t h e s i t u a t i o n s p r e s e n t e d and t o answer the q u e s t i o n s from y o u r g e n e r a l knowledge o f human b e h a v i o u r and p e o p l e i n need o f h e l p . Your r e s p o n s e s s h o u l d n o t be l i m i t e d by t h e f u n c t i o n o r the r e s o u r c e s o f y o u r p a r t i c u l a r agency. 0 95. Case #1 The Agency had r e c e i v e d c o m p l a i n t s from two n e i g h b o u r s t h a t John, aged 7, was m i s t r e a t e d by h i s p a r e n t s . The f a m i l y c o u l d n o t m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u i n g f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h any o f the n e i g h b o u r s , saw l i t t l e o f t h e i r r e l a t i v e s who l i v e d n e a r by, d i d n o t a t t e n d PTA m e e t i n g s , c h u r c h e t c . One n e i g h b o u r had seen John p l a y i n g i n the y a r d when h i s f a t h e r came home from work and f o r no a p p a r e n t r e a s o n t h e f a t h e r had p i c k e d up a b a s e b a l l b a t and b e a t e n John n e a r l y u n c o n s c i o u s . The o t h e r n e i g h b o u r r e p o r t e d a s i m i l a r i n c i d e n t when Mr. A. had thrown John a c r o s s t h e y a r d h i t t i n g him a g a i n s t the garage w a l l . He a l s o s a i d Mr. and Mrs. A. a r e c o n t i n u a l l y s w e a r i n g and s c r e a m i n g a t each o t h e r . John i s sometimes a l l o w e d t o p l a y o u t s i d e h i s y a r d , a t o t h e r t i m e s he must s t a y i n s i d e . John's t e a c h e r s a i d he o f t e n came t o s c h o o l w i t h b r u i s e s on h i s body. 1. I n t h i s case n e g l e c t i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e * I n t h i s case abuse i s absent moderate s e v e r e 2. What would you say seems t o be the e s s e n t i a l problem? 3. What would you s a y a r e some of the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s problem? 4. What h e l p o r t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 5. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 6. How s i m i l a r i s the p a r e n t s t r e a t m e n t o f John t o the t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r o t e c t i v e cases w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None L e s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n 1/2 T h i s l i n e was i n a d v e r t e n t l y o m i t t e d from t h e t y p i n g o f the o r i g i n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e . The Department o f S o c i a l W e l f a r e Workers were asked by l e t t e r t o make t h e c o r r e c t i o n b e f o r e c o m p l e t i n g the forms. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver w o r k e r s were t o l d when t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was b e i n g a d m i n i s t e r e d . 96. Case #2 Mr. and Mrs. M. have been i n r e c e i p t o f S o c i a l A l l o w a n c e f o r 3 y e a r s . He has grade 8 e d u c a t i o n & has been u n a b l e t o f i n d any work o t h e r t h a n the M u n i c i p a l w i n t e r works p r o j e c t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . The p r e s e n t S.A. w o r k e r i s concerned t h a t the house & c h i l d r e n a r e always d i r t y . I n s p i t e o f h e l p from s o c i a l w o r k e r s and p u b l i c h e a l t h n u r s e s , Mrs. M seems un a b l e t o p r o v i d e proper, meals f o r the f a m i l y and sometimes the d a y s ' meals c o n s i s t o f c o l d c e r e a l . The c h i l d r e n , aged 6, 10 and 12, a r e a l l i n s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r s l o w l e a r n e r s and do h o t p a r t i c i p a t e i n s c h o o l or community a c t i v i t i e s . The worker o f t e n n o t i c e s t h a t , when she v i s i t s , M rs. M. w i l l t e l l one of the c h i l d r e n . n o t t o do so m e t h i n g , b u t he w i l l soon manage t o get p e r m i s s i o n from h i s f a t h e r . O c c a s i o n a l l y the S.A. worker has seen b r u i s e s on t h e c h i l d r e n and she once saw M r s . M. s l a p t h e 6 y e a r o l d q u i t e h a r d when.he had spoken o u t o f t u r n . 7 . I n t h i s c a s e n e g l e c t i s absent moderate _ s e v e r e abuse i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e 8. What would you say seems t o be t h e e s s e n t i a l problem? 9. What would you say a r e some of the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? 10. What h e l p or t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 11. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 12. How s i m i l a r i s the M's t r e a t m e n t o f t h e c h i l d r e n t o t h e t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n the p r o t e c t i o n cases w i t h w h i c h y ou have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None L e s s than 1/2 More t h | n 1/2 97. Case #3 A " F a m i l y S e r v i c e " w o r k e r was s e e i n g seven y e a r o l d Bob's mother who was s e p a r a t e d from h e r l e g a l husband who was n o t h i s f a t h e r . H i s P u t a t i v e f a t h e r p r o v i d e d a s m a l l m o n t h l y sum, a t t h e o i d e r o f t h e c o u r t , on a f a i r l y r e g u l a r b a s i s . M r s . C had r e c e i v e d some S.A. but was u s u a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t and m a i n t a i n e d h e r s e l f and Bob c l e a n i n g o f f i c e s and d o i n g housework. Bob was w i t h o u t f r i e n d s i n h i s own p e e r group, was n o t d o i n g w e l l i n s c h o o l , c r a v e d t h e a t t e n t i o n o f the t e a c h e r and o f t e n d i s r u p t e d the c l a s s . He o f t e n d i d n o t come home from s c h o o l and on s e v e r a l o c c a s i o n s s t a y e d out a l l n i g h t . He was sometimes found w a n d e r i n g a r o u n d , or h i d i n g i n d i t c h e s e t c . , by the l o c a l p o l i c e when h i s absence was r e p o r t e d by h i s mother. A t tim e s M r s . C. t r e a t e d Bob as an a d u l t and " t a l k e d t o him", sometimes she used f o r c e f u l c o r p o r a l punishment and he would have b r u i s e s t o show f o r i t . 13. I n t h i s case n e g l e c t i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e abuse i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e 14. What would you say seems t o be the e s s e n t i a l problem? 15. What would you say a r e some of the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n ? 16. What h e l p or t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 17. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 18. How s i m i l a r i s Mrs. C's t r e a t m e n t o f Bob t o the t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n c ases w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None Le s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n 1/2 98. Case #4 Mr. & Mrs. E. came t o the Agency concerned t h a t t h e y c o u l d n o t c o n t r o l t h e i r 14 y e a r o l d d a u g h t e r Jane. They s a i d t h a t she was i m p a t i e n t and d e f i a n t and o f t e n had temper tantrums when th e y t r i e d t o impose what t h e y c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l e l i m i t s . She was g o i n g s t e a d y , a g a i n s t her p a r e n t s w i s h e s , o f t e n s t a y e d out l a t e , and t h e y d i d n o t know where she was. She wore make-up e x c e s s i v e l y , s p e n t hours f u s s i n g w i t h her h a i r , w h i c h h e r f a t h e r d e s c r i b e d "as a mess", and i n s i s t e d on m i n i - s k i r t s and o t h e r c u r r e n t f a d s . Jane showed l i t t l e i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l , o t h e r t h a n the s o c i a l c o n t a c t s and i t was u n l i k e l y she would pass i n t o the n e x t g r a d e , a l t h o u g h her p a r e n t s had been t o l d she had t h e a b i l i t y t o do b e t t e r . Mr. & Mrs. E. had t r i e d t o d e p r i v e h e r o f p r i v i l e g e s , had t a k e n away h e r a l l o w a n c e , d i d n o t l e t h e r watch TV. f o r a week,, and had once c o n f i s c a t e d h e r t r a n s i s t o r r a d i o , b u t none o f t h i s changed Jane's b e h a v i o u r . Jane i s uncommunicative w i t h h e r p a r e n t s and seems t o l i v e i n a hazy dream w o r l d . 19. I n t h i s case n e g l e c t i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e abuse i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e 20. What would you say seems t o be the e s s e n t i a l problem? 21. What would you say a r e some o f t h e f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s problem? 22. What h e l p or t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 23. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e t h e n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 24. How s i m i l a r i s Mr. & M r s . E's t r e a t m e n t o f Jane t o the t r e a t m e n t of c h i l d r e n i n the p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None L e s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n 1/2 99. Case #5 A w o r k e r v i s i t e d the L. home a t the r e q u e s t o f the P u b l i c H e a l t h Nurse who had known the f a m i l y f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . There a r e 5 c h i l d r e n 7 y e a r s of age and younger. Mrs. L. has r e q u i r e d much h e l p and encourage-ment from t h e n u r s e t o t a k e the c h i l d r e n t o i m m u n i z a t i o n c l i n i c s , e t c . Mr. L. i s S t e a d i l y employed as a l a b o u r e r . The f a m i l y l i v e s i n a cramped 3-room apartment; w h i c h i s v e r y d i r t y and c o l d . S c r a p s o f f o o d - p o t a t o c h i p s , coke, c o o k i e s e t c . remained on a t a b l e o b v i o u s l y from a " h e l p y o u r -s e l f " meal - t h e r e were n o t enough c h a i r s f o r a l l the f a m i l y t o s i t down t o g e t h e r . B oth p a r e n t s were home. The f o u r y e a r o l d s t o o d k i c k i n g the c h e s t e r f i e l d f o r a c o n s i d e r a b l e l e n g t h o f t i m e , and a l t h o u g h t h e p a r e n t s t o l d him t o s t o p , made no e f f o r t t o e n f o r c e t h i s . The o l d e s t g i r l was r e p e a t i n g h e r f i r s t grade a t s c h o o l andyfche p a r e n t s s a i d she was r e a l l y smart and the s c h o o l s h o u l d n ' t have f a i l e d h e r . When she showed t h e w o r k e r some o f h e r work and had d i f f i c u l t y w i t h some a d d i t i o n s , the f a t h e r y e l l e d , "See how dumb you a r e n o t iojknow;'. t H a t " .Mr. & Mrs. L. s a i d t h e y seldom went out t o g e t h e r and had few f r i e n d s w i t h whom t h e y s h a r e d a c t i v -i t i e s . The c h i l d r e n seemed w i t h d r a w n , t h i n and hungry. 25. I n t h i s c a s e n e g l e c t i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e abuse i s absent moderate s e v e r e 26. What would you say seems t o be t h e e s s e n t i a l problem? 27. What would you say a r e some o f the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s problem? 28. What h e l p or t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 29. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 30. How s i m i l a r i s Mr. & Mrs. L's t r e a t m e n t o f the c h i l d r e n t o the t r e a t -ment of c h i l d r e n i n p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None L e s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n 1/2 100. Case #6 The s c h o o l r e p o r t e d t o the Agency t h a t t h e y were concerned about 10 y e a r o l d Mary, who was v e r y w i t h d r a w n and a c a d e m i c a l l y was n o t a c h i e v -i n g near h e r maximum p o t e n t i a l . Mary seemed a p a t h e t i c and d e p r e s s e d , had no f r i e n d s and was not a l l o w e d by her p a r e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n e x t r a -c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . There had been i n c i d e n t s o f p e t t y s t e a l i n g . Mary had come t o s c h o o l w i t h a n a s t y b r u i s e on h e r f a c e one day and had t o l d t h e t e a c h e r , "Daddy h i t me l a s t n i g h t , b u t he d i d n ' t know he d i d i t " . When the t e a c h e r t a l k e d w i t h the p a r e n t s t h e i r a t t i t u d e had been one of i n d i f f e r -ence. When t h e worker v i s i t e d the p a r e n t s t h e y saw no need f o r c o n c e r n . The p a r e n t s s h a r e d few a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h i n t h e a r e a o f work or r e c r e a t i o n . Mary's mother s a i d she was a happy and o b e d i e n t l i t t l e g i r l . Her f a t h e r s a i d she was s t u b b o r n , moody and he had t o " g e t a f t e r her a l l t h e t i m e " . 31. I n t h i s case n e g l e c t i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e abuse i s absent moderate s e v e r e 32. What would you say seems t o be the e s s e n t i a l problem? 33- What would you say a r e some o f the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s problem? 34. What h e l p or t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 35. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 36. How s i m i l a r i s t h e p a r e n t s t r e a t m e n t o f Mary t o t h e t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n c ases w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None L e s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n 1/2 101. Case #7 Mrs. H. who has 3 c h i l d r e n aged 6, 8 & 9 has been i n r e c e i p t o f S.A. f o r 5 y e a r s , s i n c e she was d e s e r t e d by h e r husband. Seven s o c i a l w o r k e r s have v i s i t e d i n the home d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . A l l have o b s e r v e d Mrs. H.'s d i r t y home, t h e * l a c k o f adequate c l o t h i n g f o r t h e c h i l d r e n and th e mother's l a c k o f c o n c e r n about m e d i c a l c a r e f o r the c h i l d r e n . The c h i l d r e n a r e a l l shy and t h e r e have been s t o r i e s of s t e a l i n g , l y i n g , e t c . r e p o r t e d . Mr. & Mrs. H. m a r r i e d a f t e r k nowing each o t h e r 4 months, when she became p r e g n a n t a t 17 and he was 18. Mr. H., who had come t o Canada from Hungary a f t e r t he u p r i s i n g , had l e f t s c h o o l a t 16 and s t a r t e d t o work as a ch e c k - o u t boy i n a g r o c e r y s t o r e . He had d r i f t e d from j o b t o j o b . Mr. H. l i k e d t o a t t e n d s p o r t s a c t i v i t i e s w h i l e she p r e f e r r e d shows and dances. Mrs. H. s u s p e c t s t h a t h e r husband was c a r r y i n g on w i t h a n o t h e r woman and l i k e l y l e f t w i t h h e r , b u t has n o t h e a r d from him i n 5 y e a r s . 37. I n t h i s case n e g l e c t i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e abuse i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e 38. What would you s a y seems t o be t h e e s s e n t i a l problem? 39. What would you s a y a r e some of the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s problem? 40. What h e l p or t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 41. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 42. How s i m i l a r i s Mrs. H's t r e a t m e n t o f the c h i l d r e n t o the t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n the p r o t e c t i o n cases w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None ; L e s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n l / 2 _ _ 102. Case #8 Dr. S. c o n t a c t e d the Agency co n c e r n e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n o f the D. f a m i l y whom he had known f o r a number o f y e a r s seemed t o have more a c c i d e n t s t h a n u s u a l f o r c h i l d r e n t h e i r age. A t the time o f h i s t e l e p h o n e c a l l t h e 4 y e a r o l d boy was i n t h e h o s p i t a l w i t h a compound f r a c t u r e of an arm, a l l e g e d t o have happened i n a f a l l , b u t on d e t a i l e d q u e s t i o n i n g t h e Dr. l e a r n e d t h a t t h e mother had t w i s t e d h i s arm when he r e f u s e d t o s t a y i n h i s bed the n i g h t p r e v i o u s t o t h e h o s p i t a l a d m i s s i o n . A l t h o u g h t h e f a t h e r was s t e a d i l y employed and r e c e i v e d an average wage, th e y d i d not seem t o be a b l e t o manage t h e i r f i n a n c e s v e r y w e l l , and the home was u s u a l l y d i r t y , and t h e c h i l d r e n not p r o p e r l y c l o t h e d . 43. I n t h i s c a s e n e g l e c t i s absent moderate s e v e r e abuse i s a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e 44. What would you say seems t o be the e s s e n t i a l problem? 45. What would you say a r e some o f the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s problem? 46. What h e l p or t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 47. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y h e l p or t r e a t m e n t ? 48. How s i m i l a r i s t h e D's t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i r son t o the t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e p r o t e c t i o n c ases w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None L e s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n 1/2 103. Case #9 The p o l i c e r e p o r t e d the Jones f a m i l y t o the Agency a f t e r t h e y were c a l l e d a t 1 a.m. t o t h e home by n e i g h b o u r s . The p a r e n t s were f i g h t i n g , u s i n g a b u s i v e l a n g u a g e , and a p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r a n s c r e a m i n g from t h e house. The p o l i c e s a i d t h e r e were 4 c h i l d r e n , t he e l d e s t perhaps 6, who were a l l awake when t h e y c a l l e d . When t h e worker v i s i t e d t he same day she found the f a m i l y had r e c e n t l y moved t o t h e n e i g h b o u r h o o d . The house, w h i c h was b a d l y i n need o f r e p a i r s , was f i l t h y , t h e r e was l i t t l e f o o d i n t h e house, t h e c h i l d r e n were p o o r l y d r e s s e d , l o o k e d s i c k and hungry. Mr. Jones was t o s t a r t work i n a l o c a l m i l l i n a few days. The p a r e n t s q u a r r e l e d i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f the worker - b l e s s i n g each o t h e r f o r the " w e l f a r e " coming. They y e l l e d a t the c h i l d r e n and f o r no o b v i o u s r e a s o n Mr. Jones s t r u c k one o f the c h i l d r e n q u i t e a s e v e r e blow on t h e head. 49. I n t h i s case i s n e g l e c t a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e abuse a b s e n t moderate s e v e r e 50. What would you say seems t o be t h e e s s e n t i a l problem? 51. What would you say a r e some o f the f a c t o r s w h i c h p r o b a b l y l e d up t o t h i s problem? 52. What h e l p o r t r e a t m e n t does t h i s s i t u a t i o n seem t o r e q u i r e ? 53. Who s h o u l d p r o v i d e the n e c e s s a r y h e l p o r t r e a t m e n t ? 54. How s i m i l a r i s the Jones s i t u a t i o n t o the t r e a t m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n the p r o t e c t i o n c a s e s w i t h w h i c h you have had e x p e r i e n c e ? I s i t s i m i l a r t o None L e s s t h a n 1/2 More t h a n 1/2 104. I n y o u r c a s e l o a d , do you have c a s e s w h i c h you c o n s i d e r t o be n e g l e c t o r abuse w h i c h a r e n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n cases 1-9? I f s o , p l e a s e d e f i n e b r i e f l y . Do you f e e l t h e r e i s a good , some n o t much u n d e r s t a n d i n g of c h i l d p r o t e c t i o n s e r v i c e s amongst t h e community A g e n c i e s w i t h w h i c h you work? I n the p a s t s i x months i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y how many ca s e s have you i n s t i g a t e d a c t i o n t o l a y a c o m p l a i n t under the P r o t e c t i o n o f C h i l d r e n A c t ? What s p e c i f i c r e s o u r c e s does y o u r Agency have f o r h e l p i n g c h i l d r e n whose f a m i l i e s a r e f a i l i n g t o p e r f o r m t h e i r p a r e n t a l d u t i e s a d e q u a t e l y ? What r e s o u r c e s a r e l a c k i n g t o he%> f a m i l i e s m entioned icy q u e s t i o n 58 above? I n y o u r e x p e r i e n c e rank (1,2,3,4) t h e s e a l t e r n a t i v e s as t o the f r e q u e n c y p r o t e c t i o n c ases come t o c o u r t . (a) as a r e s u l t o f an emergency s i t u a t i o n - no p r i o r s e r v i c e t o f a m i l y aimed a t i m p r o v i n g c a r e o f c h i l d . (b) l e s s t h a n 6 months s e r v i c e t o f a m i l y aimed a t i m p r o v i n g c a r e o f c h i l d . ( c ) 6 - 1 2 months s e r v i c e t o f a m i l y aimed a t i m p r o v i n g c a r e of c h i l d . (d) more tha n 12 months s e r v i c e t o f a m i l y aimed a t i m p r o v i n g c a r e o f c h i l d . t h a t u s u a l l y l e a d up t o p r o t e c t i o n U s u a l l y O c c a s i o n a l l y Un-I m p o r t a n t I m p o r t a n t I m p o r t a n t 1. P e r s o n a l i t y p roblems o f p a r e n t s 2. L a c k o f f a m i l y f i n a n c e s 3. L a c k o f day c a r e c e n t r e s 4. Lack o f community r e c r e a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s What g e n e r a l f a c t o r s have you found a c t i o n b e i n g taken? 5. P h y s i c a l n e g l e c t o f c h i l d r e n 6. 2nd or 3 r d g e n e r a t i o n " p r o b l e m " f a m i l i e s 7. E m o t i o n a l n e g l e c t o f c h i l d r e n 8. Oth e r 105. SECTION I I 1. A s o c i a l worker s h o u l d a c t so as t o meet the needs o f h i s or h e r c l i e n t even i f a p a r t i c u l a r a c t d i f f e r s from e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e d agency p o l i c i e s . A b s o l u t e l y must p r o b a b l y s h o u l d _ p r o b a b l y s h o u l d not a b s o l u t e l y must not 2. A s o c i a l w o r k e r ^ s h o u l d a c t so as t o meet the needs o f h i s o r h e r c l i e n t even though a p a r t i c u l a r a c t i s c o n s i d e r e d " u n p r o f e s s i o n a l " by h i s or h e r c o l l e a g u e s . A b s o l u t e l y must p r o b a b l y s h o u l d p r o b a b l y s h o u l d n o t a b s o l u t e l y must n o t 3. A s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d a c t so as t o meet the needs o f h i s o r her c l i e n t even i f i t may d i f f e r from what the r e f e r r i n g s o u r c e , or o t h e r i m p o r t a n t segments o f the community t h i n k s he or she m i g h t do. A b s o l u t e l y must p r o b a b l y s h o u l d p r o b a b l y s h o u l d n o t a b s o l u t e l y must n o t 4. A s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d a c t so as t o c a r r y out the p o l i c i e s o f the agency even i f d o i n g so d i f f e r s from what h i s o r h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment l e a d s him o r h e r t o b e l i e v e what whould be done. A b s o l u t e l y must p r o b a b l y s h o u l d p r o b a b l y s h o u l d n o t a b s o l u t e l y must no t 5. A s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d a c t so as t o c a r r y out the p o l i c i e s o f the agency even i f d o i n g so d i f f e r s w i t h what t h e r e f e r r e d s o u r c e or o t h e r i m p o r t a n t segments o f the community t h i n k s s h o u l d be done. A b s o l u t e l y must p r o b a b l y s h o u l d p r o b a b l y s h o u l d n o t a b s o l u t e l y must n o t 6. A s o c i a l w o r k e r s h o u l d a c t so as t o f o l l o w a p r o f e s s i o n a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what s h o u l d be done, even i f so d o i n g d i f f e r s from what the r e f e r r a l s o u r c e , or some o t h e r i m p o r t a n t segment o f the Community t h i n k s s h o u l d be done. A b s o l u t e l y must p r o b a b l y s h o u l d p r o b a b l y s h o u l d n o t a b s o l u t e l y must n o t 106. SECTION I I I G e n e r a l I n f o r m a t i o n P l e a s e c i r c l e number c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o y o u r answer, where a p p r o p r i a t e , 1. L o c a t i o n of o f f i c e . L e n g t h o f time worked i n o f f i c e . 1. L e s s t h a n 1 y e a r 2. 1 - 2 y e a r s 3. 3 - 5 y e a r s 4. More t h a n 5 y e a r s 3. How l o n g have you worked i n t h e f i e l d o f S o c i a l Work? 1. L e s s t h a n 1 y e a r 2. 1 - 2 y e a r s 3. 3 - 5 y e a r s 4. More th a n 5 y e a r s 4. What t r a i n i n g have you completed? S t a t e y e a r completed b e s i d e a p p r o p r i a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ^ ) : y e a r completed Year 1. MSW 2. 2 y e a r s no degree 3. BSW 4. 1 y e a r no degree 5. degree o t h e r t h a n SW, BA e t c . 6. i n s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g 7. o t h e r ( s p e c i f y ) 5. (a) D i d you have any f u l l t ime work e x p e r i e n c e p r i o r t o e n t e r i n g the f i e l d o f S.W.? (b) I f s o , d e s c r i b e b r i e f l y SECTION IV C u r r e n t Job S i t u a t i o n 1. What £ype of c a s e l o a d do you c a r r y ? 2. What i s the number of c l i e n t s i n y o u r c u r r e n t c a s e l o a d ? 3. How s a t i s f i e d a r e you w i t h t h a t number? Q u i t e s a t i s f i e d Somewhat d i s s a t i s f i e d S a t i s f i e d Q u i t e d i s s a t i s f i e d 4. What would you c o n s i d e r t h e i d e a l number o f c l i e n t s c o n s i d e r i n g y o u r c u r r e n t c a s e l o a d ? 108. SECTION V , P e r s o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n 1. Sex 1. Male 2. Female 2. Age 1. L e s s t h a n 25 2. 25 - 34 3. 35 - 44 4. More t h a n 45 3. M a r i t a l S t a t u s 1. M a r r i e d 2. D i v o r c e d or s e p a r a t e d 3. S i n g l e 4. F a t h e r ' s u s u a l o c c u p a t i o n w h i l e you were g r o w i n g up 5. O c c u p a t i o n o f husband or w i f e i f m a r r i e d 6. W h i l e g r o w i n g up, d i d you l i v e i n communities w i t h p o p u l a t i o n s o f 1. L e s s t h a n 2,500 2. 2,500 - 10,000 3. 10,000 - 100,000 4. More t h a n 100,000 109. APPENDIX.B CHILDREN IN CARE RELATED TO RISK POPULATION IN B.C. 1951 - 1961 1951 1961 C h i l d r e n i n Care Cared f o r d u r i n g y e a r by C.A.S.'s J u r i s d i c t i o n S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e J u r i s d i c t i o n 2,596 1,599 3,214 4,096 R i s k P o p u l a t i o n (0-19 y e a r s ) C.A.S.'s J u r i s d i c t i o n 117,949 S u p e r i n t e n d e n t J u r i s d i c t i o n 256,668 C h i l d r e n i n Care R i s k P o p u l a t i o n C.A.S.'s J u r i s d i c t i o n 0.022 S u p e r i n t e n d e n t J u r i s d i c t i o n 0.006 160,048 461,748 0.020 0.009 R e l a t i v e I n c r e a s e 1.24 2.56 1.36 1.80 0.002 0.003 I t w i l l be n o t e d h e r e t h a t the number o f c h i l d r e n i n c a r e o f the t h r e e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s r e l a t i v e t o t h e r i s k p o p u l a t i o n a c t u a l l y d e c r e a s e d by 0.002 from 1951 t o 1961. The number o f c h i l d r e n i n c a r e o f the S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e r e l a t i v e t o the r i s k p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d by 0.003. The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t i e s a r e the C.A.S. i n Va n c o u v e r , the C a t h o l i c C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y i n Vancouver and The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f V i c t o r i a . The a r e a n o t i n c l u d e d by t h e s e C.A.S.'s i s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t he S u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f C h i l d W e l f a r e . 

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