UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Analytical review of remedial educational programs for socially and economically disadvantaged adults Anderson, Darrell Vail 1968-12-31

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ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF REMEDIAL EDUCATJONAL PROGRAMS FOR SOCIALLY AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS  by DARRELL VAJL ANDERSON B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1955  A THESJS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  In t h e F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n (Adult Education*  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e requLre'd s t ^ n d a r i l  TH£? UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1968  In  presenting  advanced  Library  agree  this  degree  shall  that  at  make  thesis  the  it  permission  in  University  freely  for  may  be  granted  tatives.  It  is  understood  financial  gain  Department  nf  by  not  Date  April 16,  the  that  be  1968.  fulfilment  British  available  Head  allowed  Columbia  for  of  my  of  the  Columbia,  reference  copying  copying  Adult Education  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  of  extensive  purposes  shall  partial  of  this  Department  or  without  requirements  I  agree  and  study.  thesis  or  publication  my w r i t t e n  by  of  for  that  I  an  the  further  for  scholarly  his  represen-  this  thesis  permission.  for  ABSTRACT  The p r i n c i p a l  concern of t h i s t h e s i s was t o examine t h e r o l e  e d u c a t i o n In a l t e r i n g t h e p e r s o n a l advantaged a d u l t ,  and t o s e l e c t  and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d i s -  I n f o r m a t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e t o  d e s i g n f o r t h o s e e d u c a t o r s or a g e n c i e s c o n t e m p l a t i n g r e m e d i a l programs w i t h d i s a d v a n t a g e d  educational  limited to  r e s e a r c h r e p o r t s on s p e c i a l r e t r a i n i n g and remedial e d u c a t i o n a l Descriptive  t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d were a l s o used As a g r o u p , education,  the  I n c i d e n c e of  III  program  adults.  The s o u r c e s of data f o r t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study were  for the disadvantaged.  of  programs  data on p o v e r t y and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of  selectively.  t h e disadvantaged have t h e lowest  Income, t h e  poorest  l a r g e s t f a m i l i e s , t h e most Inadequate h o u s i n g , t h e  highest  h e a l t h , and t h e  l e a s t hope or promise of a b e t t e r  future.  In a d d i t i o n t o such s o c i o - e c o n o m i c h a n d i c a p s , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d are hampered by c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l  d i s a b i l i t i e s Including  a lack of  low s e l f - e s t e e m and a h i g h degree of dependency.  self-confidence,  Because of a l i m i t e d pei  c e p t l o n of t h e v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d d i s p l a y n e i t h e r a s p i r a t i o n nor the m o t i v a t i o n t o a c h i e v e e d u c a t i o n a l g o a l s . handicapped by a lack of v e r b a l • f a c t J I t y which with  limits their  the  They are  further  communication  society. The r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s a d e p r e s s i n g p i c t u r e of t h e  between t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and s o c i e t y .  L a r g e l y because of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  t h e p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e has been compelled t o e v o l v e way of  life.  relationship  The customary a s s o c l a t l o n a I  I t s own o p e r a t i o n a l  c o n t a c t s of t h e m i d d l e - c l a s s  II s o c i e t y a r e not f u n c t i o n a l t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and they p a r t i c i p a t e  In-  s t e a d through c a s u a l , c l o s e , and o f t e n I n t i m a t e primary group r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Remedial programs are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by:  programs of  lengthy  duration  w i t h a d i s t i n c t p r e f e r e n c e f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m method; I n s t r u c t i o n a l  agents  with  Ifmlted  l i t t l e or no s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g for the c l i e n t e l e ; use of a  number of  Instructional  t e c h n i q u e s ; heavy r e l i a n c e on I n s t r u c t i o n a l  devices  and m a t e r i a l s ; e x t e n s i v e use of p r e - a d u l t t e s t s f o r both placement and e v a l u a t i o n ; and a preponderant number of d e s c r i p t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e eva I u a t I o n s . Because of t h e s c a r c i t y of s u b s t a n t i a l r e s e a r c h , s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d can not be s t a t e d w i t h assurance.  The r e j e c t i o n of t h e I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d  by t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d Is which w i l l  education  I n d i c a t i v e of t h e need t o d i s c o v e r new p a t t e r n s  be a c c e p t a b l e t o them.  e d u c a t i o n a l programs o f f e r s d Isadvantaged.  p a t t e r n s of  The p r e s e n t p a t t e r n of remedial  l i t t l e hope of answering t h e needs of  the  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Chapter I.  p  INTRODUCTION  •  PURPOSE OF THESJS SOURCES OF DATA  • I  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 3  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . 4  DEFINITION OF TERMS.  . 4  PLAN OF THESIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II.  age  5  CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED  .  SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . Age and Sex. Education . . Income . . Employment . FamI ly S i z e . . M a r i t a l Status Health . . Residence . .  7 7  8 . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . < I 5 . 16 .18 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0  SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . .  24  SeIf-ConfIdence. . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 P e r c e p t i o n of Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 Motivation 31 V e r b a l FacI I I t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 SUMMARY. 111.  34  SOCIAL INTERACTION. .  . . . . . . . . . . . .  36  DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  37  PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP  42  . . . . . . . . . . .  PARTICIPATION  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  COMMUNICATION  . . . . . .  . . . .  .43 48  Iv  Chapter  Page SUMMARY  IV.  V.  REMEDIAL EDUCATJONAL PROGRAMS. . . . . .  .  51  .  52  CLASSIFICATION OF THE PROGRAMS. . . . . . . . . . .  52  Literacy Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vocational Education. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  53 58  FamIly and H e a l t h  . . . . . . . . .  59  ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . .  60  SUMMARY  66  IMPLICATIONS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . BARRIERS  67  Societal Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sub-cultural Barriers . . . . . . . . . . . . . EDUCATIONAL PLANNING Communication  71  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  71  Basic Education . . . Vocational Education. Family L i f e E d u c a t i o n Homemaker E d u c a t i o n . Consumer E d u c a t i o n . Health Education Leisure Education . . C i t i z e n s h i p Education CONTENT SELECTION ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT  BIBLIOGRAPHY . APPENDIX  68 69  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  CONTENT AREAS . . . . .  SUMMARY  67  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  74 74 75 76 76 77 "77 78  . . . . . . . . . .  79  . . . . . . .  80  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  73  83 85  .  108  V  LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE I  ANALYSIS OF REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS  TABLE IJ  DESCRIPTION OF TESTS EMPLOYED JN REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS  65  vi APPENDIX TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ALLEN, D.W.  BERTRAND, C A .  BROOKS, L . B .  BROWN,  E.J.  BUNGER, M .  CROHN, B . L . DRANE, R . S .  FEINTUCH, A .  AN EXPERJMENT IN EDUCATION WITH' THE LAUBACH LITERACY COURSE OF STUDY ON FILMS AT.THE OHIO STATE REFORMATORY  1 0 8 - 1 10  AN EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL. MATERIAL FOR THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF THE TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF CORRECT!ONS  I Il-l12  RE-EDUCATION OF UNEMPLOYED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS, NORFOLK DIVISION, VIRGINIA STATE COLLEGE, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA  113-116  EVALUATION OF A FOODS AND NUTRITION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN WILKES-BARRE, PENNSYLVANIA  I I 7-I  A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF OPERATJON ALPHABET ]N FLORIDA AND AN EVALUATION OF CERTAIN PROCEDURES EMPLOYED  121-126  THE DJEBOLD LITERACY PROJECT; PROGRAMMING FOR THE ILLITERATE ADULT  I 2 7 - I 29  THE EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION TRAINING ON ADULT LITERACY EDUCATION IN A MENTAL HOSPITAL  I  EDUCATIONAL REHABILITATION: AN EVALUATION OF THE ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE.STATE OF ILLINOIS  133-135  A STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INTE- ' GRATED PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL COUNSELLING CASEWORK AND A SHELTERED WORKSHOP IN INCREASING THE EMPLOYABILITY AND MODIFYING ATTITUDES CORRELATING WITH EMPLOYABILITY OF D|FF1CULT-TO-PLACE PERSONS  136-140  HAMILTON DEMONSTRATION P R O J E C T LONG. TERM ASSISTANCE FAMILIES  141-143  20  3 0 - I 32  vi! Page READING INSTRUCTION BY A PHONIC METHOD FOR FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE ADULTS AT THE INDIANA REFORMATORY  144-147  HOLST, H.  SUMMARY OF THE WKNO-TV LITERACY PROJECT  148-150  LONG,  IMPATIENCE AND THE PRESSURE OF T I M E CLEVELAND'S READING CENTERS PROJECT  151-154  HENNY,  R.L  F.  LONG-TERM ASSISTANCE FAMILIES— A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT MCKEE, J . e t . a i .  MCKEE, J . e t . a I  NIEM1,  NlEMJ,  155-158  IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS —  I. .  IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS — II. NEW HOPE PROJECT: 1965-1966 VOLUME I I , MODESTO, CALIFORNIA A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED ADULTS IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA — I  J.  J.  PEERSON, N.  WH JTTEMORE, R . G . & ECHEVERRIA, B.  164-165  166-168  169-177  AN EXPERIMENT WITH EVALUATION IN THE ERADICATION OF ADULT ILLITERACY BY USE OF TELEVISION INSTRUCTION OVER A STATE EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION NETWORK SUPPLEMENTED BY SUPERVISED GROUP VIEWING AND BY RELATED USE OF PROJECT-SUPPLIED MATERIALS OF INSTRUCTION  172-176  A FAMILY LIFE  PROJECT IN A DOWNTOWN NEIGHBORHOOD E.  162-163  A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED ADULTS IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA — 11  ST. CHRISTOPHER HOUSE. SCHMIDT,  159-161  ONE ATTACK ON POVERTY SELECTION AND EVALUATION OF TRAINEES IN.A BASIC EDUCATION EXPERIENCE UNDER THE MANPOWER TRAINING ACT  177-178 179  180-184  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  Poverty Intermittent  Is an a n c i e n t s o c i a l phenomenon which has been of  concern to mankind.  A t t h e moment, t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s  a r e g r a p p l i n g t o d e f i n e p o v e r t y and t o I d e n t i f y t h e c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s o r d e r t o e l i m i n a t e It as a major s o c i a l  III.  P r e v i o u s l y the  In  Identifica-  t i o n of p o v e r t y had been based almost s o l e l y on economic measurements but r e c e n t l y t h e r e has been an attempt t o r e c o n c e p t u a I I z e  t h e phenomenon.  There Is now a growing awareness t h a t p o v e r t y has both s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l dimensions. jective  Thus, p o v e r t y Is both o b j e c t i v e and s u b -  In I t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s  Identifying  t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e of such a n a t u r e  as t o suggest t h a t a d i s t i n c t i v e p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e has developed w i t h i n t h e dominant c u l t u r e of our s o c i e t y .  In urban slums t h e hard c o r e poor  have been found t o have t h e i r own s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s o c i a l system In which they e x h i b i t a f l u e n t use of a p a r t i c u l a r  language s t y l e t h a t  both an I d e n t i t y f o r members and p r o t e c t i o n f o r t h e g r o u p . hard c o r e group d i f f e r s  from o t h e r urban slum r e s i d e n t s  p e r c e p t i o n of t i m e , of s e l f schemes and c a u s a l i t y ( 6 9 ) .  provides  Moreover,  In terms of  this  the  In s o c i a l s p a c e , and of t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Such a s u b - c u l t u r e appears t o be s e l f -  i p e r p e t u a t i n g as I t s o c i a l i z e s new members t o Its  ranks.  The c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of a p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e an a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y r e s u l t s from t h e I n t e r a c t i o n of  In t h e m i d s t of  Individuals with  their  2 environment  In which both c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e d e p r i v e d s t a t u s of  disadvantaged.  the  The s o c i e t y t o l e r a t e s c o n d i t i o n s c o n d u c i v e t o t h e c r e a t i o n  of d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t a t u s and s i m u l t a n e o u s l y r e j e c t s t h o s e I n d i v i d u a l s who have f a l l e n v i c t i m t o such c o n d i t i o n s .  The v i c t i m s In t u r n  learn to  accommodate themselves t o t h e i r d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t a t u s and t o r e j e c t v a l u e s of t h e s o c i e t y which produces t h e i r p l i g h t .  It  Is t h i s  the  Interaction  w h i c h c r e a t e s a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t l n g s i t u a t i o n t h a t must be a l t e r e d If problems of p o v e r t y a r e t o be r e s o l v e d .  Thus, t h e environment must be  m o d i f i e d on a m a s s i v e s c a l e so t h a t s o c i e t y Its poor.  the  I t s e l f no longer  generates  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d must change w i t h  respect  t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which make them so Imnedlately s u s c e p t i b l e t o t h e p o v e r t y forming f a c t o r s  tn t h e i r  environment.  The c r u c i a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s which a r e c o n d u c i v e t o t h e development of a d i s a d v a n t a g e d group l i e In t h e n a t u r e and s t r u c t u r e  of  t h e economic system t h r o u g h which t h e r e s o u r c e s of t h e s o c i e t y are used and d i s t r i b u t e d .  Thus s u b - s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g ,  Inadequate p u b l i c  services  and l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n of a poverty group.  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o;f members  of t h a t group d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e a c t i o n and response t o such c o n d i t i o n s . The move from p r i v a t e t o p u b l i c c h a r i t y has s i g n a l l e d t h e g e n e r a l a c c e p t a n c e of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  f o r t h e e x i s t e n c e of p o v e r t y , but w e l -  f a r e programs n e i t h e r a l t e r t h e b a s i c environmental s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h o s e who a r e p o o r .  f a c t o r s nor modify  the  3 An a t t a c k upon p o v e r t y t h a t seeks t o m o d i f y t h e  environmental  c o n d i t i o n s a l o n e Is u n s u c c e s s f u l because It does n o t h i n g to a l t e r  the  human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Mie poor themselves so t h a t they can assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  t o share In t h e u l t i m a t e e r a d i c a t i o n of  poverty.  To change p e o p l e Is more d i f f i c u l t than t o change t h e environment, such change Is an I n d i s p e n s a b l e p r e r e q u i s i t e to t h e p r o b l e m . disadvantaged  I n d i v i d u a l s may be changed through e d u c a t i o n a l  The programs  d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y t o t h a t end, but t h i s means has not y e t adequate a t t e n t i o n  received  from those most concerned w i t h t h e problem of  I.  Is t o examine t h e r o l e of  e d u c a t i o n In a l t e r i n g t h e p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Research by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s s u g g e s t s t h a t  s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d have c e r t a i n I d e n t i f i a b l e a c t e r l s t l c s which d e t e r m i n e , programs. that  In p a r t , t h e s u c c e s s of remedial  Through a r e v i e w of t h e  I n f o r m a t i o n whfch Is of  literature,  t h i s study w i l l  the the chai—  educational select  f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e as a g u i d e t o program  d e s i g n f o r t h o s e e d u c a t o r s or a g e n c i e s c o n t e m p l a t i n g remedial programs w i t h d i s a d v a n t a g e d  poverty.  PURPOSE OF THE THESIS  The p r i n c i p a l concern of t h i s t h e s i s  disadvantaged a d u l t .  yet  populations.  educational  4 I I.  SOURCES OF DATA  Because of t h e r e c e n t p r o l i f e r a t i o n of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , t h i s review w i l l  l i t e r a t u r e concerned w i t h  be l i m i t e d m a i n l y t o r e s e a r c h  on r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r such I n d i v i d u a l s . s t u d i e s a r e found In t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o r u r a l grams, a g r i c u l t u r a l  reports  These r e s e a r c h  resettlement pro-  e x t e n s i o n a c t i v i t i e s , programs f o r  low Income f a r m e r s ,  r e m e d i a l a c t i v i t i e s w i t h m i g r a t o r y w o r k e r s , community development,  urban  redevelopment and s p e c i a l r e t r a i n i n g and remedial e d u c a t i o n a l programs the disadvantaged.  D e s c r i p t i v e data on p o v e r t y and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d w i l l  III.  a l s o be used s e l e c t i v e l y .  DEFINITION OF TERMS  In a n a l y z i n g t h e r e s e a r c h on remedial e d u c a t i o n a l programs adults,  for  I t becomes apparent t h a t t h e r e  Is a broad range of  used t o d e f i n e p o v e r t y and t o d e s c r i b e I t s v i c t i m s .  for  terminology  For t h e purpose of  t h i s a n a l y s i s , t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s a r e employed: (1)  Poverty  Is a s t a t e of need or  the' I n d i v i d u a l , 12}  or  Inadequacy which In f a c t e x i s t s  Is p e r c e i v e d by him t o  for  exist.  Disadvantaged Is a term a p p l i e d t o t h o s e s u b j e c t s who a r e members of a p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e and are handicapped w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e mode of t h e dominant s o c i e t y .  5 The e x i s t e n c e of a d i s t i n c t s u b - c u l t u r e a c c e n t u a t e s t h e t h a t t h e e x i s t e n c e of c u l t u r a l tural  deprivation.  as " c u l t u r a l l y  fact  d i f f e r e n c e s Is not synonymous w i t h  cul-  Hence, the d i s a d v a n t a g e d group s h o u l d not be viewed  deprived" (18)(165)(239)(267).  In e f f e c t , t h e n , t h e  comparison of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d w i t h t h e dominant p o p u l a t i o n becomes a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison through which t h e d i f f e r e n c e s In c u l t u r e are more s i g n i f i c a n t and m e a n i n g f u l than d i f f e r e n c e s In I n d i v i d u a l  character-  IstIcs. The d e f i n i t i o n of d i s a d v a n t a g e d used h e r e i n a f t e r be I n c l u s i v e of t h o s e I n d i v i d u a l s v a r i o u s l y  Is  d e s c r i b e d In t h e  as t h e h a r d - c o r e p o o r , t h e lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c i t i z e n r y , people, the c u l t u r a l l y deprived, the f u n c t i o n a l l y tionally  Intended t o literature  low Income  Illiterate,  the educa-  d e f i c i e n t , t h e h a r d - c o r e unemployed and such s i m i l a r t e r m s .  IV.  T h i s study w i l l  PLAN OF THE THESIS  f i r s t examine t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and t h e  s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d as t h e s e have been I d e n t i f i e d by r e s e a r c h .  The second step w i l l  be t o examine  t h e ways In which t h e s e I d e n t i f i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I n f l u e n c e  the  response of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d I n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r environment and  6  particularly  t o e d u c a t i o n a l programs.  d e s i g n e d f o r disadvantaged a d u l t s w i l l  The s e l e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l  programs  then be a n a l y z e d t o a s s e s s  approach t o t h e e d u c a t i o n a l t a s k and to measure t h e i r success as by r e s e a r c h . to  Finally,  t h e study w i l l  their reported  a n a l y z e the elements which appear  I n f l u e n c e e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t and p r o v i d e  c l u e s to t h e d e s i g n and conduct of such programs.  suggestive  CHAPTER U CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED  Disadvantaged s t a t u s economic d e t e r m i n a n t s .  Is not t h e consequence of  Thus,  p o v e r t y In terms of o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e  It has been necessary t o  reconceptua11ze  f a c t o r s which a r e almost s o l e l y  f a c t o r s which d e s c r i b e t h e I n d i v i d u a l ' s  s e l f as p o o r .  exclusively  economic  p e r c e p t i o n of  W i t h t h i s two d i m e n s i o n a l concept of p o v e r t y ,  It  him-  Is  p o s s i b l e t o d e s c r i b e t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n In ways which c h a r a c t e r — Ize  I t as d i f f e r e n t  from t h e p o p u l a t i o n  as a w h o l e .  In a n a l y z i n g t h e c o n s p i c u o u s and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s t h e poor and o t h e r s , after  the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  between  f e a t u r e s a r e summarized h e r e i n -  In terms of common s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and then In terms  of s o d a l - p s y c h o l o g l c a I c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s sImlIar  Including  a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s and  factors.  I.  SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t  Is d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  from t h e g e n e r a l  p o p u l a t i o n by c e r t a i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  The data c o n c e r n i n g  t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s subsume themselves under t h e f o l l o w i n g age and s e x ,  education,  h e a l t h and r e s i d e n c e .  headings:  Income, employment, f a m i l y s i z e , m a r i t a l  status,  8  Age and Sex A l t h o u g h the v e r y young, t h e e l d e r l y , represented  In t h e p o v e r t y group,  and t h e female a r e ovet  n e i t h e r age nor sex a r e themselves  d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a p a r t from t h e i r factors.  r e l a t i o n s h i p to  Among a l l t h e members of a p o p u l a t i o n , t h e r e w i l l  be age and  sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s t h a t appear t o be a c c e n t u a t e d when c o n s i d e r i n g differences associated with certain descriptive c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s among t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n . noted where a p p r o p r i a t e  In view of t h i s ,  In d i s c u s s i n g o t h e r  other  the encountered  age and sex w i l l  be  factors.  Education  Educational  l e v e l , as measured by years of school c o m p l e t e d ,  one of t h e most c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s Is s i g n i f i c a n t l y  living lation,  In s o c i a l s c i e n c e .  r e l a t e d t o o c c u p a t i o n and Income as w e l l as t o  o t h e r s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  v a r i a b l e s which may a f f e c t  ( I24M206) (207M208) (21 I ) (222) (267) . educational  level  It  certain of  In t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d popu-  l e v e l has been found t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y  below t h a t  of the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n so t h a t the major p r o p o r t i o n of t h e a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y  Is  disadvantaged  (I 7 ) ( 4 8 ) ( 9 0 ) ( 9 9 ) ( I 24)(I 28)  ( 152)(207)(21 I ) ( 2 9 0 ) . There a r e , of c o u r s e , age and sex d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h educational  level  In the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n .  Many s t u d i e s have  revealed  9 t h a t t h e male Is on a lower e d u c a t i o n a l differential  l e v e l than t h e female w i t h  the  as much as one to two y e a r s more of s c h o o l i n g f o r t h e female  (22)(39)(72H130)(138K144)(182)(217>.  T h i s normal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n  Is  o f t e n a c c e n t u a t e d among t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . A study of  low-Income s u b j e c t s  In r u r a l Canada d i s c l o s e d  husbands had a c h i e v e d an average e d u c a t i o n a l w i v e s had a c h i e v e d 7.7 g r a d e s . who had f i n i s h e d t h e i r  that  l e v e l of 6 . 9 g r a d e s ,  while  S i m i l a r l y , among t h e i r c h i l d r e n , t h e males  formal s c h o o l i n g had completed 8 . 5 y e a r s , w h i l e  females had a t t a i n e d 9 . 2 y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g ( 1 7 4 ) .  Jt  the  Is a l s o r e p o r t e d  that  males tend t o drop out of school e a r l i e r than f e m a l e s , but of t h o s e who f i n i s h h i g h s c h o o l , more males than females go on t o c o l l e g e or  university  (119 H 1 8 7 M 2 0 7 K The e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c y becomes c o n s p i c u o u s a t t h e and In those f u n c t i o n s a r e two l e v e l s of  In which  literacy  literacy  Is an I n d i s p e n s a b l e t o o l .  l i t e r a c y t h a t are u s u a l l y  Identified.  level  There  The complete  Illit-  e r a t e Is one who has had no formal s c h o o l i n g and consequent I y , I s unable t o r e a d , w r i t e or f i g u r e a t t h e l e v e l of t h e f i r s t grade (45).(125). functional  Illiterate,  on t h e o t h e r hand,  o f school completed ( 6 ) ( 9 ) ( 4 8 ) ( 1 2 5 ) . presently Illiteracy  uses t h e grade e i g h t In v i e w of  nology which r e q u i r e  l e s s than f i v e  years  The U . S . O f f i c e of Economic O p p o r t u n i t y  l e v e l as t h e c r i t e r i o n  Increasing Increasing  Is one w i t h  The  for  functional  Job s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and expanding educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  tech-  The normal  10  p r e r e q u i s i t e for vocational t r a i n i n g level  (217).  Is c u r r e n t l y  s e t at t h e grade ten  Among t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , t h e r e Is a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number  c l a s s i f i e d as complete or f u n c t i o n a l  Illiterates  and v i r t u a l l y  none who  can s a t i s f y t h e grade e i g h t or ten p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r v o c a t i o n a l This  low l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n Is r e f l e c t e d  In data on Income,  training.  unemployment,  n u t r i t i o n , c r i m e and c o m m u n i c a t i o n .  Low Income An Income l e v e l of $3,000 o r (5)(98)(138)(217)(241).  l e s s Is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  Illiteracy  Jn Canada, t h e average Income of a f a m i l y head  r e p o r t i n g e i t h e r no s c h o o l i n g o r one t o four y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g completed was $3,318 a year compared w i t h an average of $4,985 f o r a l l (61.  Among Canadian males w i t h o n l y an elementary e d u c a t i o n , 26 per cent  earned l e s s than $2,000 a n n u a l l y , and 46 per c e n t , Is a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o In t h e d a t a f o r women. tary  f a m i l y heads  l e s s than $ 3 , 0 0 0 .  low Incomeaid Inadequate  There  education  About t w o - t h i r d s of a l l women w i t h o n l y an e l e m e n -  e d u c a t i o n , 40 per c e n t of t h o s e w i t h a secondary e d u c a t i o n , and 20  per c e n t of t h o s e w i t h some u n i v e r s i t y annua I Iy  reported earning  l e s s than $2,000  (138).  Unemp1oyment Closely associated with I l l i t e r a c y unemployment ( 5 ) ( 8 5 ) ( 1 8 2 ) ( 2 3 1 ) ( 2 4 1 ) ( 2 7 4 ) .  and Income Is t h e m a t t e r of A 1960 Survey  In Canada found  t h a t about h a l f of t h e unemployed had not f i n i s h e d primary s c h o o l and over 90 per c e n t had not completed h i g h s c h o o l .  Among people who had not  11 completed p r i m a r y s c h o o l , t h e unemployment r a t e was sTx t i m e s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t among h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s , ( 2 1 1 ) . s c h o o l dropouts average  from 14 t o 19 y e a r s o l d ,  The unemployment r a t e of  Is t w i c e the o v e r a l l Canadian  (225).  Cr Ime Several  r e c e n t s t u d i e s found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  Illiteracy  and c r i m e In t h a t t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e more l i k e l y t o b e come I n c a r c e r a t e d  In a c o r r e c t i o n a l  Institution  e d u c a t i o n (1251(181) (191) ( 2 0 3 X 2 0 9 1 . S t a t e Reformatory (9)  than are t h o s e w i t h more  A study conducted In t h e Ohio  r e v e a l e d t h a t 73 out of 142 Inmates were unable  t o r e g i s t e r an achievement s c o r e e q u i v a l e n t t o grade o n e .  The mean  e d u c a t i o n a l grade achievement was 1 . 9 7 , and t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of t h e a c h i e v e d a grade of 4 . 3 or  less.  Inmates  Jn T e x a s , 5 5 . 6 per c e n t of t h e p r i s o n  p o p u l a t i o n would be c l a s s i f i e d as f u n c t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a l achievement of grade f i v e or  less  Illiterates  because of an  (5).  Nutrition The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a low l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n and poor nutrition  Is suggested by a number of s t u d i e s ( 4 1 ) ( 1 0 2 ) ( 2 0 8 1 ( 2 1 7 ) .  e v a l u a t i o n of a foods and n u t r i t i o n e d u c a t i o n program f o r families  low-Income  In P e n n s y l v a n i a I n d i c a t e d t h a t n i n e t y - o n e persons (62 per  o f t h e 145 s u b j e c t s had e i g h t y e a r s or  The  cent)  l e s s of formal s c h o o l i n g  and they showed l i t t l e I n t e r e s t In u s i n g t h e n u t r i t i o n a l  Information  12 provided.  H a l f of t h e homemakers who were not even aware of t h e m a i l e d  I n f o r m a t i o n and r e c i p e c a r d s had no formal s c h o o l i n g The  lack of n u t r i t i o n a l  a study of 352 O n t a r i o grade t e n .  (41).  knowledge was demonstrated f u r t h e r  farm women, whose formal s c h o o l i n g  averaged  Only 161 (46 per c e n t ) knew enough about n u t r i t i o n t o  one o r more c o r r e c t s o u r c e s of V i t a m i n C t o t h e i r  by  families  serve  (102).  A study of w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s In K e n t u c k y , a l a r g e number of whom were f u n c t i o n a l l y  Illiterate,  revealed that only t h r e e - q u a r t e r s  of  t h e recommended s e r v i n g s of bread and c e r e a l s were being e a t e n , more meat and more meat s u b s t i t u t e s than recommended were b e i n g u s e d , and o n l y h a l f of t h e s e r v i n g s recommended by t h e U . S . for milk,  f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s were In t h e d i e t  Homemakers In a V i r g i n i a study of  Department of  Agriculture  (217).  food buying r e v e a l e d t h a t s a v i n g  money on food was t h e main I n t e r e s t and concern t o those w i t h a low educational  level.  On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e b e t t e r educated a t t a c h g r e a t e r  Importance t o " g e t t i n g t h e grade or q u a l i t y of food f o r t h e money s p e n t " , " h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n " , and "how t o t e l l g r a d e - o r q u a l i t y " . 20 per c e n t of t h e homemakers w i t h t h e  lowest  Similarly,  l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n compared  t o 5 per c e n t of t h o s e w i t h one o r more y e a r s of c o l lege expressed d i f f i c u l t y of meal p r e p a r a t i o n " . with If  Both e d u c a t i o n and Income were a s s o c i a t e d  l e v e l s of knowledge about g r a d i n g and q u a l i t y ,  any c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between e d u c a t i o n or  of s e a s o n a l i t y and p r i c e .  "the  but t h e r e was  little  Income and knowledge  Consumers needed more I n f o r m a t i o n on s e a s o n -  a l i t y as It r e l a t e d t o t h e p r i c e and s u p p l y of p o r k , beef and eggs  (208).  13  Income  Amount The amount of t h e assumption t h a t  Income Is a common measure of d i s a d v a n t a g e on  Income b a s i c a l l y determines t h e  l e v e l of  In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e O f f i c e of Economic O p p o r t u n i t y d e f i n e d p o v e r t y In terms of  living.  originally  f a m i l y Income which was $3,000 or  less.  1965, t h e d e f i n i t i o n was m o d i f i e d t o f i t t h e s i z e of t h e f a m i l y w i t h s p e c i f i e d annual family,  Incomes by s i z e of  $1,540; a two-person  and a four—person  family,  f a m i l y as f o l l o w s :  unit  a one-person  $1,990; a three-person  f a m i l y , $3,130 ( 2 1 7 ) .  family,  mini-  for  $2,000 t o $2,500 f o r two a d u l t s ; and $2,600 t o $3,400  an urban f a m i l y of  four.  Farm f a m i l i e s were expected t o need cash  a t 80 per c e n t of t h e urban l e v e l In Canada, who are s i n g l e .  $2,400;  In Canada rough I n d i c e s of  mum urban cash r e q u i r e m e n t s have been l i s t e d as $1,500 t o $1,800 s i n g l e persons;  In  for  Incomes  (I 3 8 ) ( 2 0 4 ) ( 2 I I ) .  low Incomes were more pronounced f o r t h e young and o l d  Among male wage e a r n e r s ,  77 per cent of the youths  under  20 y e a r s of age and 35 per c e n t of males over 65 y e a r s of age earn annual Incomes of  $2,000 or  less  (211).  ln s p i t e of having a c h i e v e d more formal e d u c a t i o n than her male counterpart,  It  Is t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d female In Canada who s u f f e r s more  r e g a r d t o Income d i s t r i b u t i o n .  In  1961, over h a l f  (53 per c e n t )  f a m i l i e s w i t h female f a m i l y heads compared w i t h 21 per cent of w i t h male heads had Incomes of fifths  (37 per c e n t )  of  $3,000 or  less.  of  In  the  families  L i k e w i s e , almost t w o -  female f a m i l y heads compared w i t h  II  per c e n t of  14 male heads l i v e d on l e s s than $2,000 a n n u a l l y .  In f a c t , a l m o s t o n e -  f i f t h (19 per c e n t ) of the female f a m i l y heads had Incomes of or  $1,000  less (211).  Source of  Income  W e l f a r e payments have been I d e n t i f i e d as an Important s o u r c e of Income f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d (99) (120) ( 1 2 4 M 1 3 8 ) (139) (170) (174) (208) (264) (274).  In some a r e a s of t h e S a s p e , where unemployment and undei—employment  a r e c h r o n i c , between 90 and 100 per c e n t of t h e p o p u l a t i o n Is m a i n t a i n e d by $100,000,000 d i s t r i b u t e d a n n u a l l y through p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e and t r a n s f e r payments ( 2 2 8 ) .  With r e g a r d t o I n d i a n p e o p l e , more than o n e - t h i r d  ( 3 3 . 5 t o 36 per c e n t ) of a l l I n d i a n households depend upon w e l f a r e g r a n t s m a i n l y p r o v i d e d by t h e Indian A f f a i r s B r a n c h . financial  T h i s g e n e r a l r a t e of  dependency f o r I n d i a n s was about ten t i m e s t h e n a t i o n a l average  (230). I t has been suggested f u r t h e r t h a t a sound measure of an I n d i v i d u a l ' s family  Income ( 1 9 0 ) ( 2 8 1 ) .  l e v e l of  Individual living.  Income Is no  longer  What m a t t e r s more Is  Both t h e u p p e r - l o w e r c l a s s and t h e  lowei—lower  c l a s s a r e c o m p e l l e d f r e q u e n t l y t o r e l y upon t h e work of w i v e s and mothers as an a i d t o economic s u r v i v a l t h a t extremely  (144)(251).  McBean and Abell (174)  found  low Income In a r u r a l area of O n t a r i o was s i g n i f i c a n t l y  r e l a t e d t o t h e f a m i l y dependence on e i t h e r one or two of s i x p o s s i b l e s o u r c e s of  Income and n i n e t y - f o u r of t h e 150 s u b j e c t s mentioned farming  and government payments most f r e q u e n t l y as the s o u r c e s of  Income.  15 A c c e s s t o Cap I t a I Another handicap s u f f e r e d by t h e e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d Individual  Is r e l a t e d t o h i s I n a b i l i t y  It e f f e c t i v e l y  t o o b t a i n c r e d i t and t o employ  ( 2 ) ( 9 6 ) ( 12 I ) ( 1 3 8 ) ( 2 2 5 ) ( 2 6 4 ) .  In 1963, t h e g e n e r a l  l a t i o n In Canada was e s t i m a t e d t o have had a c c e s s t o c r e d i t $255 per p e r s o n .  popu-  averaging  The I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n , on t h e o t h e r hand, was o n l y  a b l e t o o b t a i n c r e d i t t o t h e e x t e n t of s l i g h t l y over $1 per person Furthermore,  (230).  t h e c o s t of c r e d i t might be In excess of what a s u b s i s t e n c e  budget can a f f o r d ( 5 6 ) .  EmpIoyment  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e l i k e l y t o s u f f e r extended p e r i o d s of unemployment (98) ( I 33) I I 70) ( 2011) (24 I) .  In H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o ,  160 employ-  a b l e f a m i l i e s and 300 s o - c a l l e d unemployable f a m i l i e s had been w i t h o u t work f o r more than a year of  160 M I n n e a p o l I s  (120).  L i k e w i s e , t h e p a s t employment  history  s u b j e c t s showed t h a t a l m o s t h a l f t h e group (45 per  cent)  had been o u t of work a t l e a s t h a l f t h e time d u r i n g t h e p a s t  years  (274).  five  A study of 52 " d I f f I c u I t - t o - p I a c e " persons of a s h e l t e r e d  workshop In M o n t r e a l r e v e a l e d t h a t o n l y two s u b j e c t s had worked more than one hundred days o u t of a p o t e n t i a l of 260 working days ( 9 9 ) . i n g e n e r a l , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d worker  Is employed and working  less  than he wants t o ,  In p a r t - t i m e or c a s u a l employment where p r o d u c t i v i t y and  Incomes a r e low.  Hence, under—employment becomes a major f a c t o r  poverty, especially rural  poverty (2)(I 38)(182)i  In  Jenness (138) a l s o  16  a s s o c i a t e s undet—employment w i t h c e r t a i n o c c u p a t i o n s such as f i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g and some of t h e e a s t e r n f o r e s t r y  operations.  Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e employment of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d ations  In a c t l v t t y  Is seasonal unemployment,  in Canada, seasonal  account f o r as much as o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l  ment; and In many a r e a s , t h i s those with  history  Incomes of  vari-  unemploy-  Is a p r i n c i p a l cause of p o v e r t y ( 2 1 1 ) .  Of  l e s s than $ 2 , 0 0 0 , over 60 per c e n t of t h e male and  35 per cent of t h e female workers are w i t h o u t work f o r more than o n e q u a r t e r of t h e y e a r .  There a r e  l i m i t a t i o n s t o t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  data which concern wage and s a l a r y e a r n e r s m a i n l y , and v i r t u a l l y farmers, fishermen, pensioners, employed. farmers,  small b u s i n e s s owners and t h e  such  exclude  self  A s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of Canada's poor a r e found among fishermen and p e n s i o n e r s  (138).  FamIIy S i z e The d i s a d v a n t a g e d f r e q u e n t l y average  In s i z e .  Data from s e v e r a l  have f a m i l i e s t h a t a r e  s t u d i e s reveal t h a t extremely  Income Is r e l a t e d t o t h e b e a r i n g and r e a r i n g of (17)(85)(98)(174)(215)(217) It  Is not uncommon f o r  .  larger  low  f i v e or more c h i l d r e n  Among t h e Indians and the M e t i s of Canada  f a m i l i e s t o c o n s i s t of ten or more c h i l d r e n  a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of  than  f a m i l i e s r e p o r t i n g between  with  13 and 16 c h i l d r e n  (232).  17  As e a r l y as 1936, f a m i l y s i z e was I d e n t i f i e d as a f a c t o r t o poverty (217).  related  Subsequent r e s e a r c h has s i n c e r e v e a l e d an Inverse  r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e r t i l i t y  r a t e s and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s  (144).  Such a s i t u a t i o n Is demonstrated In both Quebec and the A t l a n t i c Region which have l a r g e r  f a m i l i e s and a lower  l e v e l of r u r a l  l i v i n g than the  r e s t of Canada ( 2 8 1 ) . More r e c e n t s t u d i e s have shown t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p Income, e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n and r e s i d e n c e w i t h f e r t i l i t y less evident.  between  r a t e s Is much  Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p Is s t i l l most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  m i g r a n t s t o c i t i e s , and of the  lowest segment of manual l a b o u r e r s  rural (278)(279)  (284). Further,  I t has been suggested t h a t a l t h o u g h the g e n e r a l  s h i p between s o c i a l c l a s s and f e r t i l i t y c l a s s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p Is d i r e c t .  I n v e r s e , w i t h i n each  Hence t h e b e t t e r — o f f manual workers  have more c h i l d r e n than the p o o r e s t . the Intervening  Is s t i l l  relation-  Social mobility  ts proposed t o be  v a r i a b l e between b i r t h r a t e s and s o c i a l c l a s s  (278).  The f i n d i n g s of B e r e n t (28) s t r e n g t h e n t h e argument t h a t those who seek upward m o b i l i t y w i l l  tend t o c u r t a i l  f a m i l y s i z e In o r d e r t o  facilitate  t h e p r o c e s s , w h i l e t h o s e who are downwardly m o b i l e do so In o r d e r t o s l o w t h e c o u r s e of t h e i r  decline.  One Canadian study  (211) contends t h a t f a m i l y s i z e Is more c l o s e l y  r e l a t e d t o e d u c a t i o n than t o Income. head has t h e  Thus f a m i l i e s  l e a s t e d u c a t i o n are g e n e r a l l y t h e  In which the household  largest.  18 Marital  Status It  Is d i f f i c u l t ,  If  not I m p o s s i b l e t o use m a r i t a l s t a t u s as a  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to I d e n t i f y the disadvantaged. (138) found t h a t  Jenness  low Incomes In Canada a r e most pronounced among t h e  young and t h e o l d who a r e s i n g l e .  Among t h e wage e a r n e r s and the  s a l a r i e d , t h e number of m a r r i e d men Is a l m o s t t h r e e t i m e s t h a t of men.  single  Yet t h e r e Is a l m o s t t h e same number of m a r r i e d men and s i n g l e ,  young men who earn $3,000 or  less.  On t h e o t h e r U h a n d , data f u r n i s h e d by t h e U . S . Department of Labour f o r M a r c h , 1962 showed t h a t about 230,000 young men In the 1 4 - 1 9 age group were m a r r i e d .  Of t h i s number, about 95 per c e n t were In t h e  labour f o r c e but many proved t o have Inadequate Incomes.  B e s i d e s , more  t h a n 700,000 n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s w i t h f a m i l y heads below t h e age of 25 had total  Incomes of  l e s s than $3,000 In 1961 ( 2 8 9 ) .  A study of  I n c a r c e r a t e d s u b j e c t s e n r o l l e d In an o c c u p a t i o n a l ,  r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and employment p r o j e c t r e v e a l e d t h a t 85 per c e n t were s i n g l e , and a l t h o u g h o n l y 15 per c e n t of t h e 289 y o u t h s ,  r a n g i n g In age  from 17 t o 26 y e a r s , were or had been m a r r i e d , an a d d i t i o n a l 16 per cent were f a t h e r s out of wedlock ( 1 9 1 ) . Among t h e hard c o r e unemployed s t u d i e d In D e t r o i t , 65 per c e n t were m a r r i e d .  A p p r o x i m a t e l y one In f o u r men and women were s i n g l e , and  more than one In f i v e (22 per c e n t ) of t h e females were e i t h e r s e p a r a t e d or widowed ( 8 5 ) .  In an . I l l i n o i s study  divorced,  (98) 5 5 . 7 per c e n t of  19  t h e s u b j e c t s were d i v o r c e d , widowed or s e p a r a t e d compared w i t h 2 3 . 5 per c e n t who were m a r r i e d , and 2 0 . 7 per c e n t who were u n m a r r i e d . was In c o n t r a s t t o the f i n d i n g s o b t a i n e d from a survey of persons  This  unemployed  In t h e s t a t e which showed over 70 per cent m a r r i e d  (274).  Health  The s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y d i s a d v a n t a g e d are by a h i g h lower  I n c i d e n c e of d i s e a s e s , h i g h e r  l i f e expectancy,  greater  more c h r o n i c  e v i d e n c e of g e n e r a l l y  r a t e s of  Illness,  Infant m o r t a l i t y ,  more d e n t a l d e f e c t s , and a  poor p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h  (98)(99)(I20)(I37)(I56)(204)(2I7)(264)(267)(274)(29I). Infant mortality rate varies  from 23 t o  193 out of  t h e Income of t h e r e g i o n of r e s i d e n c e ( 2 0 4 ) . shows a d i s t i n c t r a n g e . men and 6 4 . 1 y e a r s  (204).  females 34.71 y e a r s . of  If  lower. For  1,000 depending  Similarly,  The average  life  upon  expectancy  l i f e expectancy  for  the  f o r Eskimos  I n d i a n males It was 33.1 y e a r s , and  for  d u r i n g the f i r s t t w e l v e months  t h e average age a t death f o r males r i s e s  over 46 y e a r s and t o J u s t under 48 y e a r s  for  females  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by l e s s use of m e d i c a l f a c i l i t i e s ,  n a t a l c a r e and lower a c c e p t a n c e of v o l u n t a r y p a i d m e d i c a l coverage  In Canada, t h e  Among Eskimos and Indians  deaths o c c u r r i n g  l i f e were e x c l u d e d however,  for health s e r v i c e s ,  (33)(70)  1963, the n a t i o n a l average was 6 0 . 5 y e a r s  f o r women. ( 2 0 4 ) .  f i g u r e s were c o n s i d e r a b l y was about 20 years  In  characterized  health  (22)(93)(156)(I 72)(267).  Inadequate and m a i n l y c o n f i n e d t o e x t r a c t i o n s  (230). lower  expenditures  lower r a t e s of Insurance,  Dental c a r e Is (I 7 2 ) ( 2 0 4 ) ( 2 I 7 ) .  pre-  and p r e also  to  20  P r a c t i c e s r e l a t i n g to c h i l d c a r e , home s a n i t a t i o n , d i s e a s e c o n t r o l , and t h e use of p r o f e s s i o n a l h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s have  Information  In such h o u s e h o l d s ,  a share c r o p p e r ,  furthermore,  or  farm  t h e homemakers a r e l i k e l y  have completed l e s s than f i v e y e a r s of formal s c h o o l i n g  nutrition,  factors  Inadequate h e a l t h c a r e ,  s u b - s t a n d a r d h o u s i n g , and a lack of r e c r e a t i o n and t h e r e  (230)(231)(252)  Inadequate  Including  attributed  deficient (98)(190)(215)  Is an I n t e r - r e I a t ! o n s h I p of t h e s e f a c t o r s  Incomes and low e d u c a t i o n a l  levels  to  (172).  The e x c e s s i v e h e a l t h problems of t h e disadvantaged a r e t o a number of  on  l i t t l e r e l e v a n c e to the household In which the  f a m i l y head Is employed as a farm t e n a n t , labourer.  s o u r c e s of  preventive  with  (172)(204)(225).  Res Idence  I so I a t ! o n The s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y disadvantaged may w e l l p r e f e r live  In an I s o l a t e d  l o c a t i o n but such p r e f e r e n c e e n t a i l s c e r t a i n  handicaps as I n h a b i t a n t s opportunities,  Isolation of d i s a d v a n t a g e d  additional  I s o l a t e d areas have more l i m i t e d employment  lack m e d i c a l and d e n t a l s e r v i c e s and show the  of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  four—fifths  of  to  In a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s a l s o has I t s In K e n t u c k y ,  Amongst a group  l i v e d on an unpaved r o a d ,  never r e c e i v e d a newspaper, about o n e - h a l f  t e l e v i s i o n and o n e - t h i r d never  rates  (I 3 8 ) ( 1 4 0 ) ( I 7 2 ) ( 2 I 3 ) .  Impact on c o m m u n i c a t i o n . four—fifths  lowest  l i s t e n e d t o the r a d i o .  never watched These handicaps  21 of  I s o l a t i o n coupled w i t h t h e  their  low e d u c a t i o n a l  l e v e l of the p a r e n t s and  lack of knowledge about the e x i s t e n c e of e d u c a t i o n a l  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f o r m a t i o n and p e r p e t u a t i o n of a d i s t i n c t (217). of  Hawthorn (124) has I n d i c a t e d t h a t  It  facilities sub-culture  Is t h e g e o g r a p h i c a l  dispersal  I n d i a n communities In Canada which has h i n d e r e d t h e development of  powerful  r e g i o n a l or N a t i o n a l  organizations.  Location Although the s o c i a l l y disadvantaged w i l l and r u r a l rural  be found In both urban  a r e a s , a l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of C a n a d a ' s poor a r e l o c a t e d In the  setting.  R u r a l areas were r e p o r t e d t o have 28.5p;per c e n t of  male r e s i d e n t s and 6 6 . 8 per c e n t of t h e females e a r n i n g annual of $2,000 or  less.  their  Incomes  T h i s r u r a l - u r b a n d i f f e r e n c e was even more pronounced  In Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Quebec where h a l f of t h e male wage earners  In r u r a l  Kentucky t h e areas  a r e a s earned l e s s than $2,000 ( 1 3 8 ) .  Similarly  In  low Income f a m i l i e s have been more c o n c e n t r a t e d fn r u r a l  (217). R u r a l a r e a s a l s o tend t o have more f u n c t i o n a l  Illiterates  than  urban a r e a s , but r e c e n t s t u d i e s suggest t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n Is changing w i t h p a r t i c u l a r reference to the o l d e r population (266).  In T e x a s ,  there  has been a d e f i n i t e t r e n d toward t h e u r b a n i z a t i o n of t h e e d u c a t i o n a l l y deficient.  The g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  found In 21 m e t r o p o l i t a n areas ( 5 ) .  Illiterates  In t h a t s t a t e  In Kentucky I l l i t e r a c y  c o n c e n t r a t e d more among farm r e s i d e n t s  (217).  Is  has remained  22 Mob I I I t y The d i s a d v a n t a g e d In the r u r a l group.  areas are g e n e r a l l y an Immobile  In one Nova S c o t i a a r e a , w i t h a labour f o r c e I n d i c a t i n g a c o n -  s i d e r a b l e amount of unemployment and underemployment, as w e l l as substantial  numbers r e p o r t i n g a f a i r l y  of r e s i d e n c e was a p p a r e n t .  low l e v e l of  l i v i n g , the s t a b i l i t y  Some 81 per c e n t had been born w i t h i n the  p r o j e c t a r e a ; 36 per c e n t had never  l i v e d beyond t h e i r p r e s e n t community  f o r s i x months or more; and 54 per cent had l i v e d more than 30 y e a r s t h e i r p r e s e n t p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e ( 7 2 ) .  S i m i l a r l y , a study of  farmers In M i s s o u r i r e v e a l e d t h a t 50 per cent of them were county of t h e i r b i r t h and 16 per c e n t were r e s i d e n t (164).  In  low Income  l i v i n g In t h e  In a d j a c e n t c o u n t i e s  Such low m o b i l i t y among Hie dIsadvantaged r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n may  be a f a c t o r  In t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t a t u s as they do not move  t o areas where employment and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r advancement may be more numerous. In c o n t r a s t ,  the  length of r e s i d e n c e f o r t h e s o c i a l l y d i s a d v a n -  taged In urban a r e a s Is f r e q u e n t l y v e r y s h o r t The  (47)(85)(98)(22 I)(263).  1961 Census I n d i c a t e d t h a t 2 3 . 4 per c e n t of t h e p e o p l e In an urban  renewal area In Vancouver had l i v e d In t h e i r homes f o r  l e s s than one year  and 4 6 . 8 per c e n t had been t h e r e Jess than two y e a r s .  Further,  p u p i l t u r n o v e r r a t e In t h e  l o c a l elementary s c h o o l amounted t o  a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of the school p o p u l a t i o n  (263).  the  23 Standard of Housing The qua 11ty of t h e dweI 11ng u n l t s aval IabIe specific  I n d i c a t o r of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s .  t h a t the d i s a d v a n t a g e d w i l l  live  I n an area Is a  Hence,  I t might be expected  In a r e a s having a preponderance of o l d ,  d i l a p i d a t e d , overcrowded and Inadequate houses l a c k i n g the o r d i n a r y amenities II52)(195)(204)(217)(230)(241)(267).  In I t s  d e s c r i p t i o n of  Inadequate h o u s i n g t h e U . S i O f f i c e of Economic O p p o r t u n i t y  also  Included  sound housing w i t h o u t complete plumbing ( 2 1 7 ) . In Canada t h e r e are over 6 , 0 0 0 Indian f a m i l i e s who are e i t h e r s h a r i n g accommodation w i t h o t h e r f a m i l y u n i t s or and Inadequate s h e l t e r s . the Indian f a m i l i e s l i v e n a t i o n a l average of  II  A survey  In  living  Improvised  1962 r e v e a l e d t h a t 60 per c e n t of  In houses of t h r e e rooms or  per c e n t .  In  l e s s compared t o a  F u r t h e r data showed t h a t o n l y 44 per  c e n t of t h e Indian homes were p r o v i d e d w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y ,  13 per c e n t w i t h  r u n n i n g w a t e r , 9 per c e n t were s e r v i c e d w i t h sewers or s e p t i c t a n k s , and 7 per c e n t equipped w i t h Indoor b a t h s .  T h i s can be compared t o a  n a t i o n a l average In which 99 per c e n t of Canadian homes'were p r o v i d e d w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y , 92 per-.cent had r u n n i n g water and were s e r v i c e d by sewers or s e p t i c t a n k s , and 84 per c e n t - w e r e equipped w i t h  Indoor baths  (230). In a H a l i f a x s t u d y , of t h e 134 Negro f a m i l i e s s l i g h t l y more than h a l f of major r e p a i r .  Interviewed,  l i v e d In overcrowded d w e l l i n g s which were In need  Only o n e - s e v e n t h of the f a m i l i e s had p r i v a t e  toilet  f a d I I t i e s whl le more -than ha I f t h e f ami I l e s had n e i t h e r p r i v a t e nor shared bathroom f a c I I I t i e s  (241).  24 The q u a l i t y o r c o n d i t i o n s of d w e l l i n g s alone may be a m i s l e a d i n g criterion.  I t was found t h a t r e s i d e n t s of t h e P r a i r i e Region have  fewer  a m e n i t i e s than are found In homes In t h e A t l a n t i c Region even though p r a i r i e d w e l l e r s a r e more a f f l u e n t .  Therefore,  reflect certain social-psychological  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p o p u l a t i o n  the  housing c o n d i t i o n s may to  some e x t e n t . (267)'. Both t h e  lower c o n s t r u c t i o n r a t e s  meager per c a p i t a Investment noted ( 2 3 0 0 ( 2 6 7 ) .  In  In depressed areas and t h e  In housing f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d have been  1963, t h e t o t a l per c a p i t a Investment  In housing  f o r t h e g e n e r a l Canadian p o p u l a t i o n was $90 compared w i t h $21 f o r Indians  (230).  No doubt t h i s e x p e n d i t u r e has Its  housing which!In turn c o n t r i b u t e s t h e s e d i s a d v a n t a g e d people  t o the  Inadequate,  low s t a n d a r d of h e a l t h among  (267).  These s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ences one might e x p e c t t o encounter others.  Impact In  I n d i c a t e some of t h e  differ-  In comparing t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d  with  Thus, a l t h o u g h t h e s e o c h a r a c t e r l s t l c s d e s c r i b e t h e s t a t u s of  d i s a d v a n t a g e d , they n e i t h e r e x p l a i n t h e b e h a v i o r nor t h e q u a l i t i e s of t h e  the  sub-cultural  group.  II.  SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t  Is d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  from the general  p o p u l a t i o n by c e r t a i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as noted  previously.  25 There are even more s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s observed w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n f a c t o r s w h i c h , f o r purposes of c o n v e n i e n c e , a r e d i s c u s s e d under t h e g e n e r a l heading of s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  These  Items I d e n t i f y c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s common to members of t h e p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e and d e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , both among members of t h a t group, and between the s u b - c u l t u r e and the s o c i e t y . As a g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e members of t h e p o v e r t y Skene (240) notes t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I d e n t i f i e d  sub-culture,  In r e s e a r c h :  1.  a u t h o r i t a r i a n and employ p h y s i c a l r a t h e r than v e r b a l  2.  rigidly  3.  more g i v e n t o I n t o l e r a n c e , white t h i n k i n g ;  4.  more prone t o a c t i o n than r e f l e c t i o n ; more aqtI-1nte1 I e c t u a I ;  5.  more I n c l i n e d t o p h y s i c a l or c o n c r e t e t h i n k i n g and l e a r n i n g t h a n t o Impersonal, a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g ;  6.  more g i v e n to r e s i g n themselves t o " f a t e " and t o be p e s s i m i s t i c about a v o c a t i o n a l f u t u r e ;  7.  more s u s p i c i o u s and h o s t i l e toward p o l i c e and d i s t r u s t f u l mental a u t h o r i t y ;  8. 9.  dominance;  r e s t r i c t i v e where t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s a r e p r o h i b i t i v e ; p r e j u d i c e , t e n d i n g more t o b l a c k and  l e s s developed In I m a g i n a t i v e and l o g i c a l more r e a c t i o n a r y I IberaI Ism;  of  govern-  powers;  In s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l areas but more g i v e n t o economic  10.  more prone to have a s h o r t t i m e p e r s p e c t i v e , l i v i n g and working f o r t h e p r e s e n t t o f u l f i l l Immediate needs as t h e i r f u t u r e seems no more s e c u r e than the p r e s e n t ;  11.  more l i k e l y to r e v e a l h o s t i l i t y , t e n s i o n and a g g r e s s i o n than t h o s e who l i v e w e l l above the s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l .  26 These a r e s u p p o r t e d , made by D e r b y s h i r e  (84)  in p a r t , by an a n a l y s i s of a d u l t  Illiterates  In which he notes t h a t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y  m a n i f e s t e d by h i s p o p u l a t i o n  traits  Included:  1.  I n s e c u r i t y — d i s p l a y e d by b o l s t e r o u s n e s s and a c t i n g out b e h a v i o r and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o admit error;  2.  physical aggression—recognized aggress Ion;  3.  r e t i c e n c e — n e g l e c t e d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of p e r s o n a l needs except o c c a s i o n a l e x p l o s i v e manner;  4.  lethargy—resigned  5.  c o m m u n i c a t i o n — s e n s i t i z e d to non-verbal  6.  c o n c r e t e t h i n k i n g — c o n t e n t e d t o r e f e r t o c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s and s i t u a t i o n s of p e r s o n a l Importance Instead of a b s t r a c t t h o u g h t .  lack of s t a t u s r e s u l t i n g In p h y s i c a l  to current status with  In an  lack of m o t i v a t i o n f o r change;  cues by t h o s e In power;  In an attempt t o s y n t h e s i z e c u r r e n t knowledge on t h e m o t i v a t i o n s , v a l u e s and a t t i t u d e s of s u b s i s t e n c e f a r m e r s , Rogers (226)  Isolated  t e n main elements c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e s u b - c u l t u r e of p e a s a n t r y . Included:  ( I ) mutual d i s t r u s t of  InnovatIveness;  (3)  fatalism;  of d e f e r r e d g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; (6) (8)  (4)  Interpersonal  low a s p l r a t l o n a l  It  Is t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l l y  p a r t s which s h o u l d p r o v i d e  levels;  l i m i t e d time p e r s p e c t i v e ;  dependence on government a u t h o r i t y ;  empathy.  r e l a t i o n s ; (2)  (9)  a lack famlllsm;  l o c a l i s m ; and (10)  Interdependent  and m u t u a l l y  These lack of  (5)  (7)  the  lack of  reinforcing  I m p l i c a t i o n s f o r programs of change and r e s e a r c h .  These forementloned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e p r e s e n t v a l u e s which a r e not c o n d u c i v e t o s e l f - h e l p .  Small farm o p e r a t o r s  In M a n i t o b a were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t way of  Interviewed l i f e and many of them  27 d i d not see f i t t o adopt recommended farming p r a c t i c e s whtch c o u l d have Increased t h e i r  Income ( 2 ) .  A study of urban renewal  In Vancouver  found  t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e r e were no d i s t i n c t i v e elements of s o c i a l c o n t r o l , was no I n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h e r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e d t o change e x i s t i n g  conditions.  Nor d i d t h e s e r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e more c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n by c i v i c t i e s (263). that It  Another area development p r o j e c t  Is t h e narrowed e x p e c t a t i o n of  In t h e same c i t y  there  authori-  reports  f a m i l i e s who know n o t h i n g  else  which h e l p s t o p e r p e t u a t e t h e c y c l e of p o v e r t y and s o c i a l problems  (I).  Many of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been s t u d i e d In d e t a l I and a r e p r e s e n t e d here f o r f u r t h e r  Self  consideration.  Confidence  From t h e i r e a r l i e s t e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s of f a i l u r e In a m i d d l e - c l a s s o r i e n t e d school system, the disadvantaged begin to a concept of  low s e l f - e s t e e m and a lack of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e ( 2 0 ) ( 4 4 ) ( 5 9 )  ( 7 8 ) ( 8 8 ) ( 1 0 0 ) ( 1 2 8 ) ( I 35)( 1 3 9 ) ( 1 5 4 ) ( 2 2 4 ) ( 2 3 4 ) ( 2 5 4 ) ( 2 9 I ) . the  develop  Contributing  to  lowering of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e Is t h e l o s s of employment and t h e  n e c e s s i t y t o a c c e p t Jobs a t a l e v e l below t h a t which t h e person had previously  a c h i e v e d ; t h i s produces a f e e l i n g of having  former f r i e n d s and In t h e eyes of t h e w o r l d ( 2 4 8 ) . Individual  l o s t s t a t u s among  F u r t h e r m o r e , when an  l o s e s a J o b , a t f i r s t he keeps hoping f o r re-employment but  when he f i n a l l y abandons hope, he wl I I f r e q u e n t l y r e s t r i c t h f s a c t i o n s  28 much more than fs r e q u i r e d . his  He may not  t h o u g h t s and a s p i r a t i o n s w i l l  leave h i s own neighborhood and  tend t o become I n c r e a s i n g l y  narrowed  (160). Closely  related to t h i s  l o s s of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e Is t h e  ment of dependency a t t i t u d e s (110) (129X235)••. l a r g e l y s p e c t a t o r s r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a n t s  develop-  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d remain  In s o c i e t y .  number of them a r e dependent on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , t h e i r  Because a g r e a t l i v e s tend t o  become o r g a n i z e d and t h e i r b e h a v i o r p r e d i c t a b l e by t h e o p e r a t i o n of system  this  (56)(124)(132)(211). Dependency may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e I n f l u e n c e of a  matriarchal  family s t r u c t u r e .  In c e r t a i n segments of t h e  lower c l a s s  where t h e females a r e compelled t o a c c e p t a p o s i t i o n of dominance t h r o u g h d e f a u l t of t h e m a l e s , problems of s e x u a l as t h o s e I n v o l v i n g p a s s i v i t y Trainees  and dependency develop  as w e l l  In c h i l d r e n .  (144).  In the JOBS P r o j e c t showed t h a t the f a t h e r p l a y e d a reduced  r o l e even when p r e s e n t . their  Identification  Only 10 per c e n t of t h e male t r a i n e e s mentioned  f a t h e r o r some o t h e r male f i g u r e as t h e person who was most  Important o r  Influential.  F u r t h e r m o r e , 92 per c e n t admired t h e i r mother  v e r y much as compared w i t h 14 per c e n t e x p r e s s i n g the same o p i n i o n their  toward  f a t h e r s ; 51 per c e n t s t a t e d t h a t they resembled t h e i r mothers  compared with 29 per c e n t who I d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i r The  fathers  (181).  lack of s e l f c o n f i d e n c e of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d may r e s u l t  t h e i r a c q u i r i n g b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s which s e r v e t o conceal  their  In  29  personality  d e f i c i e n c i e s and t h i s may I n h i b i t such I n d i v i d u a l s  pursuing educational objectives (154)(166)(216). of  In t h e i r a d u l t  lives  (31)(92)(103)(114)  Thus t h e r e may be a r e l u c t a n c e t o r e v e a l t h e i r  formal e d u c a t i o n and they may even attempt t o h i d e t h e i r  from everyone  from  Including  their  lack  deficiencies  Immediate f a m i l y ( 9 ) ( 4 8 ) ( I 1 6 ) ( 1 4 5 ) .  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a l s o possess c e r t a I n!.psycho I og I ca I b a r r i e r s l e a r n i n g which a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e I l l i n o i s study showed t h e a n x i e t y  lack of s e I f - c o n f I d e n c e .  to  An  e x p e r i e n c e d by a d u l t s b e f o r e e n r o l l -  ment In an e d u c a t i o n a l program w i t h 2 2 . 3 per cent of them b e l i e v i n g they would be t o o dumb, 2 9 . 9 per cent b e l i e v e d they c o u l d not  that  really  l e a r n , and 3 0 . 6 per cent b e l i e v e d they would f e e l f o o l i s h . ( 9 8 ) .  A marked  Improvement In s e l f - c o n c e p t was noted among a d u l t s e n r o l l e d In both b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g programs  (48)(180)(238)(280).  P e r c e p t i o n of Need  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y a l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of t h e v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n as a means t o p e r s o n a l achievement  (49)(55)(79)  ( 8 3 ) ( 1 0 3 ) ( I 14)(I 1 6 ) ( 1 2 4 ) ( 1 3 8 ) ( 1 4 6 ) ( I 77)(2 I I)(23 I ) ( 2 5 7 ) ( 2 8 0 ) .  Moreover,  t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n of t h e v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n Is a f u n c t i o n of t h e r e s p o n d e n t s ' own s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s ( 2 1 ) ( 5 8 ) ( 2 0 7 ) ( 2 2 5 ) .  In  answer t o a q u e s t i o n about how much s c h o o l i n g was n e c e s s a r y f o r  people  t o g e t along In t h e w o r l d , 75 per cent of the m i d d l e c l a s s compared t o 40 per cent of  respondents  lower c l a s s respondents c o n s i d e r e d It was-  30  d e s i r a b l e f o r a young man t o have more than a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n ( 6 5 ) . In a low-Income a r e a of M a n i t o b a , seven out of t e n of the farmers who wanted t h e i r boys t o be f a r m e r s , thought t h a t e i g h t grades of s c h o o l l e s s was a l l t h a t was n e c e s s a r y f o r a man t o be a s u c c e s s f u l In some I n s t a n c e s ,  t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d t h i n k h i g h l y of  f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and o t h e r young p e o p l e ( 1 6 4 ) ( 2 2 0 ) .  or  farmer ( 2 ) . education  Lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  s t a t u s a d u l t s t e n d t o a s s o c i a t e the term " e d u c a t i o n " w i t h c h i l d r e n and cannot a c c e p t It as a f i t t i n g a c t i v i t y  f o r a d u l t s , except p o s s i b l y  t h o s e who are f o r e i g n born and g o i n g t o c o l l e g e .  for  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e  more apt t o a c c e p t e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s t h a t a r e concerned w i t h or d i s g u i s e d as employment p r e p a r a t i o n ( 8 3 ) ( 9 8 ) ( I 3 3 ) .  This suggests  that  a t t i t u d e s expressed by t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n a r e more:toward t h e s c h o o l s than toward e d u c a t i o n I t s e l f There Is s u p p o r t  (27)(7 I)(83)(166) .  for the p r o p o s i t i o n that the disadvantaged a d u l t  does not view e d u c a t i o n In terms of s e I f - r e a 1 1 z a t l o n and does not t h i n k of  l e a r n i n g as an e x p e r i e n c e which Ts rewarding  Consequently,  they a r e  In I t s own r i g h t ( 4 9 ) .  less I n c l i n e d to turn to a d u l t education  r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes than f o r purposes of v o c a t i o n a l  for  advancement ( 1 4 0 )  (183).  F u r t h e r m o r e , when the rewards a r e Inadequate t h e r e may be good reason f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d t o p e r c e i v e  l i t t l e value  In e d u c a t i o n .  problem a r o s e In Canada when t h e amount o f f e r e d as an a l l o w a n c e  for  This  31  t r a i n i n g programs was! l e s s than t h a t a v a i l a b l e through Insurance  (112).  C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the e d u c a t i o n Is the  l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of the v a l u e of  l i m i t e d a s p i r a t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n shown by t h e d i s a d v a n -  taged ( 4 9 H 7 5 ) (83) ( 140) (220) (263) .  The ava I I ab I e data I n d i c a t e s  socio-economic status exerts a s i g n i f i c a n t l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n s the  unemployment  (581(65).  I n f l u e n c e on t h e n a t u r e and  A direct positive relation exists  l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n and p a r e n t a l s o c i a l s t a t u s Those a s p i r a t i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y  that  expressed by t h e  (236).  disadvantaged  a r e of an o c c u p a t i o n a l and economic n a t u r e ( 4 9 ) ( 8 3 ) ( 9 0 ) ( 1 0 7 ) . JOBS P r o j e c t n i n e out of t e n t r a i n e e s viewed t h e p r o j e c t  between  In t h e  as a means of  Improving t h e i r chances of Job s u c c e s s and t h e i r main c r i t i c i s m was t h a t t h e program had f a i l e d t o f u l f i l l Furthermore,  t h e i r expectations  In t h i s  respect.  It was found t h a t d i s a d v a n t a g e d t r a i n e e s d i d not appear  to  r e j e c t American g o a l s , v a l u e s and a s p i r a t i o n s , and a l t h o u g h they a s p i r e d t o m i d d l e c l a s s v a l u e s , t h e r e was doubt t h a t such norms a p p l i e d t o them (181).  Motivation Both t h e  l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of t h e v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n and t h e  l i m i t e d a s p i r a t i o n f o r e d u c a t i o n no doubt reduce t h e m o t i v a t i o n of disadvantaged to  l e a r n and t o work ( 4 8 ) ( I 29)(29 I ) .  I n d l k (133)  t h a t an I n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n toward a goal was d i v i d e d  the  found  Into the  following  32 three parts for a n a l y s i s : obtaining  it,  h i s m o t i v e toward i t ,  and i t s p r e s e n t  i n c e n t i v e to him.  m o t i v a t i o n t o a v o i d an o b j e c t was d i v i d e d  h i s expectancy The  of  individual's  Into the f o l l o w i n g  categories:  h i s m o t i v a t i o n t o a v o i d an o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n , h i s expectancy of s o , and h i s p r e s e n t i n c e n t i v e v a l u e of a v o i d i n g  It.  On t h e b a s i s of  d a t a , he c h a r a c t e r i z e d the unemployed as s c o r i n g r e l a t i v e l y m o t i v e t o work, a v o i d work.  doing  high on t h e  but a l s o s c o r i n g m o d e r a t e l y high on the expectancy  On i n c e n t i v e t o work,  they s c o r e d m o d e r a t e l y those not i n t h e  they achieved a moderate s c o r e , and  low on i n c e n t i v e t o a v o i d w o r k .  In  contrast,  labour f o r c e s c o r e d low on m o t i v e t o work and h i g h on  m o t i v e t o a v o i d work  (133).  SocIo-psychoIogicaI employed w o r k e r s '  to  f a c t o r s a r e i m p o r t a n t d e t e r m i n a n t s of  Job s e e k i n g b e h a v i o r .  R e g a r d l e s s of e d u c a t i o n a l  unlevel,  w o r k e r s who h e l d v a l u e s s t r e s s i n g achievement were more l i k e l y t o s t a r t l o o k i n g f o r a Job than t h o s e who p l a c e l e s s importance t o such v a l u e s , and they would use a v a r i e t y  of methods t o seek a J o b .  The need t o  serve  c e r t a i n k i n d s of unemployed workers was d i s c o v e r e d by the Employment Service.  Further,  the  l a r g e r the number of s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d , the h i g h e r  t h e r a t e of J o b - f i n d i n g s u c c e s s a c h i e v e d , r e g a r d l e s s of the age of worker or h i s  l e v e l of s k i l l .  The s o c i a I-psycho I o g i c a I  characteristics  of over o n e - h a l f of the i n d i v i d u a l s s t u d i e d was a c o m b i n a t i o n of achievement m o t i v a t i o n and h i g h Job view a n x i e t y  (181).  the  low  33 Verbal  Facility  The a v o i d a n c e of wider c o n t a c t s communication.  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d o f t e n  In t h e community  Inhibits  l i m i t themselves t o a d i s t i n c t  s t y l e of communication and most under—educated a d u l t s p r e f e r t o do much of t h e i r communication on the n o n - v e r b a l vocabulary learning  and l i m i t e d s k i l l  l e v e l because of t h e i r  In a r t l e u I a t l o n .  Thus,  limited  their style  Is not s e t t o respond t o o r a l or w r i t t e n s t i m u l i .  of  Instead,  they  respond more r e a d i l y t o v i s u a l or t a c t i l e k i n e s t h e t i c s i g n a l s and tend t o make Judgments more from a c t i o n s than words  (7)(43)(86)(218).  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e c h i l d r e n of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d are handicapped In  language development and In a b i l i t y t o converse w i t h a d u l t s .  Often  lower c l a s s p a r e n t s do not t a l k t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t meal t i m e , and I t more common f o r such p a r e n t s t o Issue commands r a t h e r than t o Hence, t h e c h i l d r e n a r e III system which v a l u e s v e r b a l In a taxonomy'of  Is  Instruct.  prepared f o r e n t r y I n t o a m i d d l e c l a s s s c h o o l facility  (32)(80)(87)(145)(184)(218)(275)(276).  language usage, t h e r e a r e four c r i t i c a l  which suggest t h a t t h e s o c i a l r e a l i t y of t h e hard c o r e poor d i f f e r e n t but a l s o i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h t h a t r e a l i t y u n d e r l y i n g  areas  Is not  only  standard  usage: a)  As f o r p e r c e p t i o n of t i m e , t h e hard c o r e poor seem t o p e r c e i v e t i m e as a s e r i e s of d i s c r e t e moments each understood In I t s e l f , r a t h e r than as a c o n t i n u u m .  b)  The p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f In s o c i a l space i s e l u c i d a t e d by t h e r e p e a t e d o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t language d i s t r i b u t i o n s t y p i c a l l y change In t h e d i r e c t i o n of s e l f - r e f e r e n c e s . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t hard c o r e language u s e r s p e r c e i v e themselves t o be p l a c e d In t h e c e n t e r of t h e i r s o c i a l space.  34 c)  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes and procedures a r e I d e n t i f i e d by the dominance of t h e d e s c r i p t i v e as opposed t o a n a l y t i c a b s t r a c t i o n mechanisms. The hard c o r e language u s e r s respond t o t h e e x t e r n a l , sensed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o b j e c t s and I n d i v i d u a l s r a t h e r than t o t h e i r a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s .  d)  As f o r c a u s a l i t y , t h e dominance of c a t e g o r i c a l comb i n a t i o n s of cause and e f f e c t , means and end, t h e a c t o r and t h e a c t , the p l a c e and I t s use a l l suggest t h a t a t t e n t i o n Is d i r e c t e d t o the u n i q u e , r a t h e r than t h e p e r s i s t e n t and r e c u r r i n g ( 6 9 ) .  The  language b a r r i e r becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y marked among Immigrants.  In the P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n y Isolated  In T o r o n t o ,  from o t h e r women, and those who worked had sought Jobs where  they d i d not need t o use E n g l i s h  III.  As a g r o u p , e d u c a t i o n , the the  language k e p t t h e Immigrant women  (231).  SUMMARY  the d i s a d v a n t a g e d have t h e lowest Income, t h e p o o r e s t  largest f a m i l i e s , the h i g h e s t  I n c i d e n c e of  l e a s t hope of employment or promise of a b e t t e r  III  future.  h e a l t h and In a d d i t i o n  t o such s o c i o - e c o n o m i c h a n d i c a p s , the d i s a d v a n t a g e d are hampered by c e r t a i n psychological  disabilities.  a lack of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , Because of t h e i r  These people are f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by low s e l f - e s t e e m and a h i g h degree of  dependency.  l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of t h e v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n , the d i s a d -  vantaged d i s p l a y n e i t h e r t h e a s p i r a t i o n nor m o t i v a t i o n t o a c h i e v e e d u c a t i o n a l goals.  They are f u r t h e r handicapped by a lack of v e r b a l  facility  which  35 I f m l t s . t h e f r communTcatfon w f t h s o c i e t y .  To a l a r g e e x t e n t they are  o u t c a s t s , and they have accepted t h i s s t a t u s by w i t h d r a w i n g I n t o t h e i r own s u b - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u .  further  As t i m e p a s s e s , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s  between t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and o t h e r s become I n c r e a s i n g l y tenuous so t h a t t h e r e Is  l e s s and l e s s p o s s i b i l i t y of communication w i t h them and  their opportunity  f o r community Involvement  Is m i n i m a l .  CHAPTER 111  SOCIAL INTERACTION The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t responds t o h i s environment In ways t h a t appear t o be p r e - d e s t l n e d by t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c and s o c i a l factors described p r e v i o u s l y .  He Is assumed t o have s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i o n s ,  e x p e r i e n c e s , and d e s i r e s I r r e s p e c t i v e by t h e s u b - c u l t u r e  psychological  of t h e unique I n f l u e n c e s  In which he f u n c t i o n s . ( 1 9 2 ) .  This  exerted  sub-culture  d e v e l o p s I t s own v a l u e s which a r e u s u a l l y a t v a r i a n c e w i t h t h o s e of total  system.  but I t ,  Thus,  not o n l y  Is t h e p o v e r t y group r e j e c t e d by  In t u r n , a l s o r e j e c t s s o c i e t y  Furthermore,  the  society  (37) (95) ( 128)1 13.5)•( I 3 9 H 188) ( 2 6 8 ) .  Schnelderman (233) n o t e s , t h e p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n of  the  p o v e r t y l i f e s t y l e of c u l t u r e Is a p u r e l y u t i l i t a r i a n one w h i c h e n a b l e s t h e group t o s u r v i v e .  Hence, each element of t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e  culture  has some r e l e v a n c e f o r t h e environment In which t h e s e p e o p l e must out t h e i r  lives.  Consequently,  Is t o e v o l v e a way of power  " t h e t a s k of the  l i f e that w i l l  live  lowei—lower c l a s s person  reduce h i s I n s e c u r i t y  In ways t h a t do not depend on achievement In t h e  and ehhance h i s  unlversa1Istlc  s e c t o r and on command of a r i c h and s o p h i s t i c a t e d v a r i e t y of  perspectives"  (66). The v a l u e s which c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e r e l a t e t o t h e p e r c e p t i o n of c e r t a i n b a s i c c o n c e p t s .  The dominant c u l t u r e appears  t o p r e f e r mastery o v e r n a t u r e ; t h e p r i m a r y c u l t u r e f u t u r e but t h e s u b - c u l t u r e  Is o r i e n t e d t o t h e  Is o r i e n t e d t o t h e moment; and f i n a l l y ,  the  37 dominant c u l t u r e  Is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t r i v i n g  for a c a l c u l a t e d g o a l .  The dominant c u l t u r e Is s u c c e s s o r i e n t e d , w h i l e poor p e o p l e v a l u e t h e spontaneous a c t i v i t y of " b e i n g " r a t h e r than " d o i n g " (I 1 0 ) ( 2 6 8 ) The p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e s u b - c u l t u r e Is demonstrated by such groups as t h e C r e e I n d i a n s of Quebec who a r e deeply concerned w i t h p r e s e n t day p r o b l e m s , and unable t o p e r c e i v e t h e Importance of associated with e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l , Because of t h e i r  long-range planning  s o c i a l and economic development.  l e v e l of p o v e r t y , they must g i v e maximum a t t e n t i o n t o  o b t a i n i n g a minimum s u b s i s t e n c e ( 6 0 ) .  Thus w i t h p e r c e p t i o n  Influenced  by Immediate need, t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d view any p l a n designed f o r them from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e i r own s o c l o - c u - l t u r a I e x p e r i e n c e s than from a l a r g e r s o c i e t a l view  rather  (56).  i n a d d i t i o n , t h e responses of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d w i l l  differ  from  t h o s e t h a t might be expected s i n c e they have been c o n d i t i o n e d by a s o c i e t y t h a t r e j e c t s these people.  This r e j e c t i o n  Is m a n i f e s t In t h e e x e r c i s e of  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and t h e i r consequent r e j e c t i o n t h e v a l u e s , s t r u c t u r e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of t h e l a r g e r  I.  society.  DISCRIMINATION  The p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d are a c c e n t u a t e d by t h e response of t h e s o c i e t y t o them.  Members of  certain  r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups are l i k e l y t o c o n s t i t u t e a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  of  the disadvantaged population (48)(98)(124)(128)(133)(138)(18 I)(188)(207)  of  38  (234)(241)(289)  and they are f r e q u e n t l y t h e v i c t i m s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n  which g e n e r a t e s  In them both a sense of  I s o l a t i o n and p e r s e c u t i o n .  Is a s i t u a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y pronounced f o r r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s  It  (56)(63)(124)  ( 129) ( I37)( 141.) ( 2 8 6 ) . The Impact of t h i s v a r i a b l e was d i s c l o s e d t o t h e American Congress through t h e 1964 Manpower Report o f t h e P r e s i d e n t which d e s c r i b e d t h e p l i g h t s of t h e Negro, t h e P u e r t o R J c a n , t h e American I n d i a n and o t h e r minority groups.  In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,  I t was I n d i c a t e d t h a t a much  laijger p r o p o r t i o n of n o n - w h i t e youths were l e a v i n g t h e r u r a l  areas.  lack of t r a i n i n g c o u p l e d w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e s u l t e d In a h i g h e r ment r a t e .  In  1962, one o u t of  f o r c e was unemployed.  four non-white teenagers  Moreover,  unemploylabour  the a c q u i s i t i o n of h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n a l  l e v e l s does not a s s u r e equal e n t r y 1961 survey  In the  Their  Into t h e h i g h e r Job  levels (289).  A  In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s showed t h a t o n l y some 20 per c e n t of  the  n o n - w h i t e young persons who g r a d u a t e from h i g h s c h o o l have w h i t e - c o l l a r J o b s , w h i l e more than 50 per c e n t of w h i t e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s have such Jobs  (289). The p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s of d I f f u s e n e s s - s p e c l f I c I t y ,  neutrallty,  unlversaIIsm-partlcuIarIsm,  and achievement summarize t h e  r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e m i n o r i t y and t h e m a j o r i t y groups (200).  affectlvfty-  In our  A c c o r d i n g t o Byuarm (56) t h e v a r i a b l e d I f f u s e n e s s - s p e c I f I c I t y  c i r c u m s c r i b e s freedom of c h o i c e and s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t by m i n o r i t y members.  culture  Affective-neutrality  compels t h e Negroes' h a b i t u a l  group  deference  39  toward t h e w h i t e , and t h e c o l o u r e d m i n o r i t y affective-neutrality majority group.  Is p e r m i t t e d o n l y t o  reflect  f e e l i n g s In s i t u a t i o n s which I n v o l v e t h e w h i t e  The v a r i a b l e u n l v e r s a 1 1 s m - p a r t I c u I a r I s m was demonstrated  In t h e response shown t o m i n o r i t y members.  This v a r i a b l e requires  that  each group t a k e t h e o t h e r s ' members Into c o n s i d e r a t i o n o n l y as a s t a n d a r d i z e d member of t h e c a t e g o r y ,  and not as unique i n d i v i d u a l s .  By t h e  o p e r a t i o n of t h e f o u r t h p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e , a c h i e v e m e n t - a s c r i p t i o n , t h e m i n o r i t y members a r e o f t e n r e t r a i n e d on t h e b a s i s of a s c r i p t i o n , whereas m a j o r i t y members have t h e b e n e f i t of achievement and a r e Judged on t h e b a s i s of  Individual  abilities.  l n terms of t h e i r own s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d have no conviction that  It  i s w i t h i n t h e i r power t o a l t e r t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  They are s u f f i c i e n t l y r e a l i s t i c t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e of s o c i e t y h o l d t h e keys t o power.  larger  Institutions  If t h e power of t h e community  committed t o h o l d i n g them down, t h e r e Is no p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r from t h e i r m i s e r a b l e s t a t u s through t h e i r own e f f o r t s In r e g a r d t o t h e I n d i a n s , authority  It  Is rising  II10)(I4I).  Is f e l t t h a t t h e e x e r t i o n  of  by t h e I n d i a n A f f a i r s Branch tends t o e l i c i t from those people  t h e a t t i t u d e s of dependency, and d i s g u i s e d h o s t i l i t y  Irresponsibility,  (I24)(t29l.  It  t i e s where t h e w h i t e man's s t a n d a r d of a r e not t o o h i g h , t h a t t h e Indians on a more equal b a s i s ( 1 2 4 ) .  Is o n l y  apathy, In  submlssIveness,  l e s s developed communi-  Income, consumption and s c h o o l i n g  f e e l c o n f i d e n t of b e i n g a b l e t o compete  40 As a r e s u l t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e s t a t u s of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d Is g e n e r a l l y  low and they become s t e r e o t y p e d as s u b s t a n d a r d  (62)(95)(228).  Individuals  T h i s o f t e n develops a n e g a t i v e s e l f - I m a g e , and they  a s e l f - c o n c e p t through which they see themselves as h a v i n g g r e a t e r erences from o t h e r s t h a n a c t u a l l y e x i s t In p a r t ,  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  form diff-  (56)(124)(144)(152)(234)(286).  f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n must be borne by m i d d l e  c l a s s a d u l t s who have p e r p e t u a t e d a number of myths and h e l d c e r t a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s about the e d u c a b l l l t y of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d The d i s a d v a n t a g e d f r e q u e n t l y and h o s t i l i t y .  Their  physical aggression, t r u s t of t h e  Insecurity  (83)(98)(168).  r e a c t to overtures w i t h s u s p i c i o n  Is o f t e n d i s p l a y e d through  l e t h a r g y or r e t i c e n c e ( I 5 4 ) ( 2 l 6 ) .  l a r g e r w o r l d and I t s  Institutions  and u n f a m i l i a r ( 1 6 ) ( 5 5 ) ( 8 4 ) ( 1 2 4 ) ( 1 4 5 ) ( 2 4 0 ) ( 2 7 3 ) .  either  There Is a d i s -  because they are s t r a n g e Because of t h i s ,  d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e l e s s apt t o respond t o o p p o r t u n i t i e s  for further  the edu-  c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g which Is f u r t h e r a c c e n t u a t e d when r a c e or m i n o r i t y group f a c t o r s a r e added t o t h a t of The need f o r  poverty.  Increased e d u c a t i o n f o r m i n o r i t y e t h n i c groups was  emphasized by Johnfe S c o t t ( 2 3 4 ) .  In h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s own c l a s s  g r a d u a t i n g from Jordon S e n i o r High School In Los A n g e l e s , he d e s c r i b e d h i s c l a s s m a t e s by t h e i r own term " L e s A m e l l o r a n t s " (The I m p r o v e r s ) . t h e 550 who had completed t h e e i g h t h g r a d e , o n l y 97 of t h e graduated. reading  T h e i r grade p o i n t average was 1.8 (D-mlnus)  l e v e l was s i x t h  grade.  Of  Improvers  and t h e i r  average  41  The p l i g h t of m i n o r i t y groups  In Canada Is s i m i l a r .  r e p o r t e d t h a t 95 per c e n t of t h e Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s  In  It  Is  abject  p o v e r t y w i t h t h e cash e a r n i n g s of an average f a m i l y amounting t o t h a n $500 per y e a r .  T h i s meager sum n e c e s s i t a t e s supplemental a s s i s t a n c e  through government r e l i e f s i m i l a r though I t  less  (138).  The s i t u a t i o n of t h e C a n a d i a n I n d i a n  Is not as s e r i o u s as t h a t of t h e E s k i m o .  Is  Calculations  made by t h e Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s show t h e average e a r n i n g s of Canadian wage and s a l a r y e a r n e r s as a whole was $3,192 f o r t h e year t o June I,  prior  1961, w h i l e t h e average e a r n i n g s of Canadian Indians was $ 1 , 6 6 1 ,  an amount J u s t o v e r h a l f of t h e a v e r a g e , and c e r t a i n l y q u i r e d f o r a minimum s t a n d a r d of  l i v i n g (198)-.  acquired the p r e r e q u i s i t e education or s k i l l  Even If  f a r below t h a t an I n d i a n has  q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for  employ-  ment, he Is not f r e e from s t e r e o t y p e d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which a l s o extends t h e s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s such as e d u c a t i o n or f o r housing ( 1 2 4 ) .  Thus,  preparation.  l i b r a r i e s , and t o  to  provisions  I n c r e a s i n g employabI I I t y through e d u c a t i o n and  t r a i n i n g does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t which e t h n i c o r i g i n  re-  In employment In a s o c i e t y  Is as g r e a t a b a r r i e r t o advancement as  In  Inadequate  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d c o n d i t i o n of some groups such as t h e  Eskimo and t h e I n d i a n Is as much a p r o d u c t of s o c i a l p r e s s u r e as of p e r s o n a l abl. I I t y .  42  II. As I t s sub-culture  PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP  response t o r e j e c t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , t h e p o v e r t y  Is p a r t i c u l a r l y  Inclined to r e j e c t  o f m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i e t y as w e l l as I t s  the I n s t i t u t i o n a l  formalized assoclatlonaI  structure contacts.  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d p a r t i c i p a t e Instead through c a s u a l , c l o s e and o f t e n I n t i m a t e p r i m a r y group r e l a t i o n s h i p s which I n v o l v e s m a l l p e r s o n a l k i n s h i p , l o c a l i t y o r f r i e n d s h i p groups U 3 9 . ) ( 2 6 7 ) . disadvantaged p r e f e r Impersonal  Indicates that  c o n t a c t s o r a b s t r a c t communications (40);(48)(75) Because of t h i s , g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g can s e r v e  a n e c e s s a r y and Important  function  In programs f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d  (4)(40)(72l(98)(I20)(I46)(J66)(I70)(173)(205) f a c i l i t i e s a r e not a d e q u a t e .  >  (I)  but e x i s t i n g programs and  Through such g u i d a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g t h e  d i s a d v a n t a g e d can be h e l p e d to  I d e n t i f y t h e i r n e e d s , t o r e c o g n i z e what  r e l e v a n t t o them, t o know e x i s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  Is  and t o be encouraged t o  p a r t i c i p a t e In programs t h a t o f f e r a chance of m o d i f y i n g t h e i r status  the  f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s and p e r s o n a l communication t o  formal I s t l c  ( l69)-( 1741(257) ( 2 5 9 ) .  Evidence  disadvantaged  M>:(65>.(252). As w e l l as I n d i c a t i n g a p r e f e r e n c e f o r primary  relationships,  t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e on k f n s h l p t i e s (105)(144)(18 I ) ( 2 3 1 ) .  In a New Brunswick r e l o c a t i o n p r o j e c t ,  s t a t e d t h a t a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n relatives (96).  (41)(60)(96)'  Similarly,  the  subjects  In s e l e c t i n g a farm was p r o x i m i t y  low-Income f a m i l i e s  to  In P e n n s y l v a n i a d i s c l o s e d  t h a t almost a l l t h e p e o p l e they e n t e r t a i n e d were e i t h e r members of  their  43 Immediate f a m i l y or c l o s e r e l a t i v e s . declared that of t h e i r  Many of t h e same homemakers  Ideas about food or r e c i p e s were o b t a i n e d from a member  f a m i l y (41) and r e l a t i v e s have a l s o been name:d as one of  most e f f e c t i v e J o b - f l n d f n g  s o u r c e s f o r s e m l - s k f l l e d workers  Amongst t h e C r e e Indians of Quebec,  It  the  (181).  Is t h e extended and o t h e r  k i n s h i p t i e s which p r e s e n t b a r r i e r s t o Increased p o l i t i c a l awareness and action.  Under c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l and economic s t r e s s , t h e s e  tend t o r e l y on t h e k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s ance ( 6 0 ) .  in the  so c l o s e t h a t they  for s u p p o r t ,  security  Indians  and a s s i s t -  lowet—lower c l a s s , t h e s e k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s a r e o f t e n frequently  c o n f l i c t with conjugal  relations  (144).  In view of t h i s r o l e of t h e f a m i l y In t h e J I f e of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , t h e r e Is  l i t t l e chance t h a t they w i l l  f o r a s s i s t a n c e , thereby  turn to  creating further  l o c a l community a g e n c i e s  b a r r i e r s between themselves  and l o c a l r e s o u r c e s designed t o a s s i s t them ( 4 2 ) .  III.  Existing  PARTICIPATION  r e s e a r c h shows o n l y a v e r y  l i m i t e d degree of  p a t i o n In formal a s s o c i a t i o n s by t h e s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y (36)(41)(61)(91)(105)(123)(142)(144)(151)(164)(I lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n I.  particidisadvantaged  74)(2 15)(23 I ) ( 2 6 7 ) .  Is not e x c l u s i v e w i t h t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a s :  about 25 per c e n t of t h e a d u l t s do not belong t o any formal o r g a n i z a t i o n ;  This  44  2.  urban a r e a s have a h i g h e r r a t e of membership;  3.  f a m i l i e s w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , h i g h e r Income, h i g h e r s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and b e t t e r comm u n i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have a h i g h e r r a t e of membership;  4.  membership r a t e s Increase u n t f I about age 45 and decrease s h a r p l y a f t e r age 70;  5.  membership r a t e s and l e a d e r s h i p In o r g a n i z a t i o n s I n c r e a s e w i t h length of r e s i d e n c e In the community;  6.  c h u r c h membership Is t h e most predominant t y p e In r u r a l a r e a s (217),  Amongst a group of 21 of  low-Income, r u r a l s u b j e c t s In O n t a r i o ,  only  150 persons were spending any time a t meetings or on community  activities  (174).  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d may a l s o have a f f i l i a t i o n s connected  w i t h t h e i r Jobs (36). t o be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h  I t has been noted t h a t uppet—lower c l a s s men tend labour unions  (144).  The church has been I d e n t i f i e d as an agency w i t h which t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e l i k e l y t o be a f f i l i a t e d ,  hence t h e i r  Interests  and  a c t i v i t i e s a r e f r e q u e n t l y church o r i e n t e d (36)(4 I)(49)(56)(140)(143)(205) (215).  But church membership a l o n e may bear  pation. 86.8  Of 372 f a m i l i e s  l i t t l e relevance for p a r t i c i -  In a b l i g h t e d s e c t i o n of M e t r o p o l I t a n  per c e n t of t h e f a m i l i e s  Indianapolis,  I n d i c a t e d t h a t they belonged t o some c h u r c h .  N e v e r t h e l e s s , o n l y 39.8 per c e n t m a i n t a i n e d r e g u l a r church a t t e n d a n c e , and  as few as e i g h t per c e n t w e r e r p a r t i c i p a n t s In church c l u b s or  s o c i e t i e s (36).  It s h o u l d be n o t e d , however, t h a t a number of t h e  ings which show a h i g h subjects,  find-  l e v e l of church p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t e t o Negro  Immigrants or s p e c i f i c e t h n i c g r o u p s .  Another I n d i c a t i o n of  45 participation  fs t h e percentage of e l F g f b l e persons who v o t e .  In t h e  1964 p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n , about 45 per cent of a l l t h o s e 18 y e a r s age and over d i d not v o t e ( 2 1 7 ) . political  A s i m i l a r t y p e of  p a r t i c i p a t i o n was evidenced  of a community development p r o j e c t  populatlon  I n d i a n s who v o t e  to  In Canada where t h e Cree  showed l i t t l e  c i a l or f e d e r a l e l e c t i o n p r o c e s s ( 6 0 ) . p r o p o r t i o n of  Indifference  Further,  Indians  I n t e r e s t In t h e It  of  provin-  Is e s t i m a t e d t h a t  Is o n l y about t w o - t h i r d s  the  of t h e g e n e r a l  (124).  The f a i l u r e of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e In community o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a r r i e s over Into a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  P a r t i c i p a t i o n In  adult  e d u c a t i o n Is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a g e , s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n In v o l u n t a r y activities  associations (82)(123)(143).  Is  Thus p a r t i c i p a t i o n  In e d u c a t i o n a l  l i m i t e d f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d (48) ( 140) (.143) (166) ( 167) ( 1 9 7 ) .  A r e c e n t and e x t e n s i v e study emphasizes t h a t the f a c t o r s e d u c a t i o n , o c c u p a t i o n and Income each r e l a t e participation, ently.  t o r a t e s of  educational  and a l l t h r e e I n f l u e n c e t h e r a t e of p a r t i a l p a t f o n  Of t h e s e f a c t o r s ,  the differences  Individually  e d u c a t i o n seems to have t h e g r e a t e s t  differ-  Impact on  In t h e r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which ranges from s i x  per  c e n t among t h o s e w i t h o n l y a grade s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n t o 38 per c e n t among t h o s e who went t o c o l l e g e .  S u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s are a l s o  when p a r t i c i p a t i o n Is examined by o c c u p a t i o n . w h i t e c o l l a r group  Is 32 per cent compared t o  the blue c o l l a r category.  Amount of  encountered  P a r t i c i p a t i o n among t h e 17 per cent f o r t h o s e  Income has t h e e f f e c t of  In  substantially  46 I n c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n In each o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r y  (140).  Ten per  c e n t of t h e s e m t - s k j I led workers p a r t i c i p a t e d , w h i l e u n s k i l l e d workers had o n l y  f i v e per c e n t .  Those w i t h f i v e t o e i g h t y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g showed  s i x per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i l e t h o s e w i t h ing showed o n l y a two per cent r a t e  l e s s than f i v e y e a r s of s c h o o l -  (166)(167).  P a r t i c i p a t i o n Is c o n s i d e r e d a l s o In r e l a t i o n t o  Intelligence.  In s p i t e of t h e p r e v a l e n t b e l i e f t h a t t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d were a l r e a d y f u n c t i o n i n g at t h e upper  l e v e l s of t h e i r  t h a t they had s u f f i c i e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e  Intelligence  (168)  f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n In  I t was found further  education ( I l)(73)( 199)(274)(283). Farmers a t a lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c l e v e l r a r e l y directly  participate  In programs conducted by t h e A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e  (27l)(272).  (75)  McBean and Abe 11 surveyed a group of Canadian farmers and o u t  of 95 r e s p o n d e n t s , o n l y seven were u t i l i z i n g the s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e t o them from government ( 1 7 4 ) . fifty  to seventy-five  District Agriculturist of  f a r m e r s ' use of  In one study conducted In B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ,  per cent of t h e farmers had no c o n t a c t w i t h t h e (271).  This pattern  Information s e r v i c e s  Information  Is not o n l y  farmers but extends throughout s o c i e t y .  a Boston s l u m , p a r e n t s were shown t o t a k e v e r y  and gave them s t r a n g e v a l u e s .  In a study  of  l i t t l e I n t e r e s t In s c h o o l  and t o be a m b i v a l e n t about e d u c a t i o n and t e a c h e r s . t h a t e d u c a t i o n might lead to b e t t e r J o b s ,  In most s t u d i e s  (17).  Such lack of c o n t a c t w i t h s o u r c e s of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of  Is c o n s i s t e n t  A l t h o u g h they  It a l s o changed t h e i r  M o t h e r s and f a t h e r s were o f t e n  In  felt  children  47 disagreement on t h i s .  While the g i r l ,  who does w e l l  In s c h o o l  Is  encouraged by her mother as we I I as by her t e a c h e r s , t h e boy who a c h i e v i n g must cope w i t h h i s f a t h e r s  1  s c e p t i c i s m or o p p o s i t i o n .  Is Thus  s c h o o l may become t h e f o c a l p o i n t of s e x - r o l e c o n f l i c t f o r t h e b o y . E d u c a t i o n Is something encouraged by m o t h e r s , t e a c h e r s and s o c i e t y ,  but  not by f a t h e r s and o t h e r men ( 1 4 4 ) . In Canada s i n c e 1961, over a b i l l i o n d o l l a r s has been spent new v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g  facilities.  Yet, with t h i s massive expenditure,  t h e r e has been dropout r a t e s of 50 per cent and h i g h e r , among t h e unemployed w o r k e r s , and one sample month In one unemployed worker  for  particularly 1965 r e v e a l e d o n l y  In f i f t y was e n r o l l e d In a t r a i n i n g c o u r s e  (204).  Thus, t h e expansion of t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s i n c e 1961 has had l i m i t e d Impact among t h e unemployed and<only 3 . 5 per cent of unemployed were a t t e n d i n g t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s In F e b r u a r y , A s i g n i f i c a n t number of Canadian Indians  In t h e  1965 ( 2 1 1 ) . 17 t o 21 age  group a r e not t a k i n g advantage of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . In  1949 t h e r e were 13,770 Indians  For example,  In t h a t age r a n g e , and o n l y 58 were  e n r o l l e d In some form of p o s t - s c h o o l t r a i n i n g .  In 1965, t h e 17 t o 2l age  group numbered 18,813 persons and of t h e s e 1,685 were r e g i s t e r e d s c h o o l programs.  This  low p a r t i c i p a t i o n of  programs Is not s u r p r i s i n g  the  Indian subjects  In view of Byuarm's I l l i n o i s  In p o s t -  In e d u c a t i o n a l  study which p o i n t s  out t h a t  In a community where t h e r e a r e s u p e r o r d l n a t e - s u b o r d l n a t e  relations,  t h e r e Is  l i t t l e I n c e n t i v e f o r the s u b o r d i n a t e members t o seek formal  48 schooling (56).  The absence of a precedent f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n  community a f f a i r s a t t h e l e v e l of e q u a l i t y and a c r o s s r a c i a l p r e s e n t s an I n h i b i t i o n A d u l t s of  to  In lines,  Involvement.  lower e d u c a t i o n a l a t t a i n m e n t a r e much l e s s I n c l i n e d  to  use the a v a i l a b l e c u l t u r a l  and e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s of the community  than the better educated.  The home Is used more e x t e n s i v e l y  economically superior draw t h e poorer House study  by t h e  f a m i l i e s , w h i l e s p e c t a t o r a t t r a c t i o n s tended t o  f a m i l i e s away from t h e home ( 2 5 8 ) .  The S t .  Christopher  In Toronto (231) a l s o noted t h e Inadequate use of  r e s o u r c e s by I t s t o both t h e i r  disadvantaged s u b j e c t s .  l i m i t e d Involvement  This  lack of use was  In s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  of a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s .  community attributed  and an unawareness  T h i s f a i l u r e t o use a v a i l a b l e programs  and o t h e r r e s o u r c e s stems from t h e I n t e l l e c t u a l  I s o l a t i o n of the  poor.  Because of t h i s , they tend t o be Ignorant of the r e s o u r c e s of s o c i e t y have  little  Intellectual  stimulation.  These f a c t o r s  In t u r n cause a pet—  p e t u a t j o n of a c y c l e .  The c h i l d r e n of the poor a r e thus  adequate p a r t i c i p a t i o n  In the p r e s e n t m i d d l e c l a s s school s y s t e m s .  c h i l d r e n have o f t e n been reared istic attitude, range s u c c e s s  l i t t l e verbal  and  III  In an environment where t h e r e  prepared  for  These  Is a f a t a l -  communication, and a lack of b e l i e f  In  long-  (III).  IV.  W I r t h (285) s t a t e s , a r e t o have I d e a l s  COmUNICATION  " i f men of d i v e r s e e x p e r i e n c e and I n t e r e s t  In common, they must be a b l e t o communicate."  This  49 Inability  t o communicate p r e s e n t s c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y  disadvantaged  for  the  (38)(41)(56)(60)(69)(83)(125)(143)(164)(186)(199)(231)(267).  In a manpower r e t r a i n i n g study  In the U n i t e d S t a t e s , I t was found  t h a t among unemployed and u n s k i l l e d workers d i f f i c u l t i e s In communication were among t h e most Important training.  f a c t o r s c a u s i n g t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d t o forego  To overcome such d i f f i c u l t y the use of d e m o n s t r a t i o n t e c h n i q u e s  was recommended ( 3 8 ) .  S i m i l a r l y , when language b a r r i e r s p r e s e n t e d them-  s e l v e s In t h e p a r e n t e d u c a t i o n groups of t h e S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House  In  T o r o n t o , t h e I n s t r u c t i o n had t o be conducted In pantomime, or through use of n o n - v e r b a l  demonstrations  (231).  In a community where a s u p e r o r d l n a t e - s u b o r d l n a t e system of relattons e x i s t s , there w i l l  race  p r o b a b l y be no formal c h a n n e l s of communi-  c a t i o n between t h e r a c e s , and t h e Informal c h a n n e l s w i l l t h e exchange of o p i n i o n and I n f o r m a t i o n on r a c i a l I s s u e s . will  the  not o p e r a t e Hence,  for  there  be no means t o overcome t h e d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of a community  program which In t u r n w i l l a f f e c t I t s outcome ( 5 6 ) . The C r e e Indians of n o r t h e r n Quebec who f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n a l o c c u p a t i o n s of h u n t i n g and t r a p p i n g a r e I s o l a t e d from r e g u l a r w i t h o t h e r s d u r i n g much of the y e a r .  This  contacts  lack of communication does  l i t t l e t o s t i m u l a t e p e r c e p t i o n of t h e r e l e v a n c e of government p r o c e s s e s t o a s s i s t In s o l v i n g  l o c a l problems  An e x t e n s i v e study  (60).  In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s I n d i c a t e d t h a t one a d u l t  In t h r e e s i m p l y d i d not have any knowledge of e d u c a t i o n a l r e s o u r c e s adults  In h i s community.  P e r s o n s of  for  low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s were more  re-  50 l i k e l y than t h o s e of e i t h e r m i d d l e o r h i g h economic s t a t u s t o say t h a t they d i d not t h i n k any f a c i l i t i e s f o r ties  I n s t r u c t i o n e x i s t e d In t h e communi-  ( 140) . In r e g a r d t o t h e mass m e d i a , a food buying s t u d y In V i r g i n i a  found t h a t t h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y  l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e In e d u c a t i o n a l s t a t u s  between v i e w e r s and n o n - v f e w e r s of t e l e v i s i o n I n f o r m a t i o n a l programs. There was, however, p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more of t h e " u s e r s " of who had completed one or more y e a r s of h i g h s c h o o l .  Information  As f a r as newspapers  were c o n c e r n e d , r e a d e r s h i p was a f f e c t e d by both l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n and Income.  In an urban s a m p l e , t w o - f i f t h s (41 per c e n t ) of t h e n o n - r e a d e r s  of m a r k e t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n f o r consumers had o n l y an elementary e d u c a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , t h e use of such Information was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e d u c a t i o n and Income.  From t h e d a t a ,  f t was apparent t h a t m a r k e t i n g I n f o r m a t i o n  for  consumers over r a d i o and TV reached a somewhat l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of t h o s e with  l i m i t e d s c h o o l i n g than d i d t h e newspapers which seemed most e f f e c t i v e  In r e a c h i n g t h o s e w i t h h i g h e r  l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n ( 2 0 8 ) .  Among f a r m e r s , t h e c h a n n e l s of communication between t h e . poorer farmer and t h e p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of  I n f o r m a t i o n are b l o c k e d because of  the  low r a t e of c o n t a c t between them and t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t as n o t e d earlier.  Mass media p r o v i d e a p r i n c i p a l s o u r c e of  I n f o r m a t i o n but t h i s  has been found t o be Inadequate w i t h r e s p e c t t o a c t i o n t h a t Improving c o n d i t i o n s  (27l)(272).  \  leads t o  51  V.  SUMMARY  These s t u d i e s p r o v i d e a d e p r e s s i n g p i c t u r e of t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and s o c i e t y . the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e life.  L a r g e l y because of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n ,  Is compelled t o e v o l v e  The customary a s s o c f a t f o n a I  I t s own o p e r a t i o n a l way of  c o n t a c t s of m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i e t y  not f u n c t i o n a l to the disadvantaged.  They p a r t i c i p a t e Instead  through  c a s u a l , c l o s e , and o f t e n I n t i m a t e p r i m a r y group r e l a t i o n s h i p s which v o l v e small personal k i n s h i p ,  l o c a l i t y or f r i e n d s h i p g r o u p s .  f o r change or a m e l i o r a t i o n appear t o be doomed t o f a i l u r e  are  In-  Programs  i f they adhere  t o e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s of c o n t a c t t h a t a r e u n a c c e p t a b l e t o and not used by t h e group they a r e designed  for.  CHAPTER  IV  REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS  In s p i t e of t h e f a c t t h a t t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t s reject  Institutionalized  e d u c a t i o n a l programs, t h e r e Is an  consistently Increased  emphasis In g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r them In North America.  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e r e has been no c o r r e s p o n d i n g  empirical research that Curiously, virtually  Increase  In  Is a. p r e r e q u i s i t e of such programs t 7 5 ) .  governments a r e w i l l i n g t o spend v a s t sums on programs but n o t h i n g on r e s e a r c h t o determine what t h o s e programs s h o u l d be  o r how they s h o u l d be o r g a n i z e d and c o n d u c t e d .  An e x h a u s t i v e r e v i e w has  r e v e a l e d o n l y a l i m i t e d number of r e p o r t s based on v a l i d r e s e a r c h which deal w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n of d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t s . i d e n t i f i e d a r e d i s c u s s e d In t h i s  I.  Those which have been  chapter.  CLASSIFICATION OF THE PROGRAMS  The s t u d i e s reviewed here have been concerned m a i n l y w i t h an e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l w i t h respect to  p r o c e s s e s In formal s i t u a t i o n s ,  l i t e r a c y and fundamental e d u c a t i o n .  chiefly  Other s t u d i e s d e a l t  w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and f a m i l y and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n .  53 Literacy  Education  The I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t has a primary need f o r b a s i c development In  skill  language, r e a d i n g and s i m p l e a r i t h m e t i c as a f o u n d a t i o n  for  f u r t h e r v o c a t i o n a l or s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n .  the  low s e l f - i m a g e of t h e f u n c t i o n a l l y  whether an a d u l t  In an attempt t o overcome  Illiterate,  Drane (94)  studied  l i t e r a c y program u s i n g Laubach m a t e r i a l s , conducted  a h o s p i t a l , would be more e f f e c t i v e when preceded by a program of tlclpatlon training.  Age, reading  s e l e c t i n g t h e p a t i e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e In the s t u d y . a s s i g n e d groups a t t e n d e d a t o t a l of 45 hours of  literacy  pai—  l e v e l and I .0., as w e l l as the  p r o b a b i l i t y of r e m a i n i n g In t h e h o s p i t a l were t h e c r i t e r i a used  of Group T r e c e i v e d  In  for  The two randomly  Instruction.  The members  18 hours of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g and 27 hours of  I n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e Group L r e c e i v e d 45 hours of  Instruction.  The  members of both groups were g i v e n the N e l s o n Reading Test Form A as a pre-test.  A f t e r s i x weeks, the Nelson Reading T e s t Form B was a d m i n i s -  t e r e d t o both groups and a t the end of ten weeks, Form A was used a g a i n and Form B was a d m i n i s t e r e d a g a i n a t t h e end of f o u r t e e n w e e k s . s i x weeks, mean Improvement of Group L was h i g h e r than t h a t but t h e d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  After  In Group T  Furthermore,  was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a f t e r ten weeks In theiImprovement of mean grade  level  In both g r o u p s .  administered a f t e r  The t e s t  the  f o r r e t e n t i o n t h a t was  f o u r t e e n weeks showed a g r e a t e r  A l t h o u g h the reuse of t h e t e s t b a t t e r y  there  Improvement  In Group  l i m i t e d t h e r e l i a b i l i t y of  the  T.  54 l a t e r t e s t s c o r e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e study  I n d i c a t e s t h e Importance of  an Informal c l a s s r o o m c l i m a t e f o r programs of  literacy  Henny (125) sought t o determine whether I n s t r u c t i o n would e x e r t t h e g r e a t e r performance.  education.  Individual  I n f l u e n c e on p r o g r e s s  He c r e a t e d the F a m i l y P h o n i c s System of  e f f o r t t o determine t h e e x t e n t t o which f u n c t i o n a l l y  or group In r e a d i n g  Instruction Illiterate  In an  adults  can Increase t h e i r r e a d i n g performance by u s i n g a p h o n i c s y s t e m .  Thirty  Inmates of t h e Indiana Reformatory were randomly a s s i g n e d t o a c o n t r o l group which r e c e i v e d no I n s t r u c t i o n  u s i n g p h o n i c s but c o n t i n u e d In t h e  elementary s c h o o l ; an e x p e r i m e n t a l Group A which r e c e i v e d reading  Instruction  by t h e phonic method, and an e x p e r i m e n t a l Group B  which r e c e i v e d I n s t r u c t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d .  one-to-one  u s i n g t h e p h o n i c method In a group  setting  Henny found t h a t t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  d i f f e r e n c e In r e a d i n g g a i n between I n d i v i d u a l t h e 20 s e s s i o n s l a s t i n g one h o u r ,  and group  significant  Instruction.  After  the I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t Improved h i s r e a d -  ing a b i l i t y by as much as 2 . 5 grade l e v e l s w i t h a g a i n of  1.27 grade  l e v e l s f o r t h e groups which had r e c e i v e d phonic I n s t r u c t i o n .  And t h e r e  was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In the g a i n made by t h e s e groups over t h a t In t h e c o n t r o l  group.  In r e s e a r c h conducted at t h e Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l C e n t e r , McKee (178) t e s t e d an e x p e r i m e n t a l group which r e c e i v e d 40 hours of Instruction  along w i t h  mean g a i n s In r e a d i n g  160 hours of remedial I n s t r u c t i o n  reading  alone.  The  l e v e l were 2 . 3 9 f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group compared  55 t o .27 for the c o n t r o l group.  In t o t a l g a i n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l group  a c h i e v e d a 1.37 mean grade g a i n compared t o  1.05 f o r t h e c o n t r o l  group.  These d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t .  McKee (178)  s i m i l a r achievement In another e x p e r i m e n t a l study  In which the e x p e r i -  mental group which r e c e i v e d 40 hours of r e a d i n g I n s t r u c t i o n o v e i — a l l grade  level  group which d i d n o t .  Increase of 2 . 5 compared t o  a c h i e v e d an  for the control  Both t h e McKee s t u d i e s made use of t e a c h i n g  machines and programmed I n s t r u c t i o n Nleml  I.I  for the experimental  (196) found a mean I n c r e a s e of one grade  group.  level  In a group  of 70 men In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army who r e c e i v e d 240 hours of In an I n t e n s i v e  Instruction  l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n program conducted In A l a s k a which  v e r i f i e d t h e u t i l i t y of such programs In r a i s i n g t h e r e a d i n g , and computation l e v e l of f u n c t i o n a l l y  Illiterate  adults.  English  At the same  A l a s k a n b a s e , a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h e same p r o g r e s s was r e c o r d e d f o r who had f o r m e r l y been Hungarian Freedom F i g h t e r s . hours of  reported  Intensive  literacy  Instruction,  c l a s s a c h i e v e d a one grade l e v e l  twenty-six  A f t e r r e c e i v i n g 420  the s t u d e n t s  In an upper  level  Increase.  The use of t h e mass media as an a d j u n c t t o c l a s s r o o m was s t u d i e d by t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n WKN0-TV ( 1 3 1 ) .  Instruction  In t h i s c a s e , t h e  Laubach m a t e r i a l s were used as t h e b a s i s f o r t h e t e l e c a s t s and the study measured t h e amount of p r o g r e s s a c h i e v e d .  Through a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  the  M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test t o a group of 61 s t u d e n t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g average grade l e v e l s were r e p o r t e d :  word p i c t u r e —  2 . 6 ; word  recognition  56 2 . 5 ; word meaning —  2 . 7 ; average r e a d i n g —  average achievement —  2 . 6 ; numbers —  3 . 1 ; and  2.8 grades.  A t Ohio S t a t e R e f o r m a t o r y , A l l e n (9.) s t u d i e d t h e Laubach f i l m s w i t h formal c l a s s I n s t r u c t i o n . tion,  During t h e s i x t e e n weeks of o p e r a -  288 Inmates p a r t i c i p a t e d . In t h e program.  There was an average  e d u c a t i o n a l achievement of 2.1 grades and an average r e a d i n g Increment of  1.7 g r a d e s .  For t h e  literacy  achievement  108 cases who p a r t i c i p a t e d In the  pro-  gram f o r t h e e n t i r e s i x t e e n weeks, t h e t o t a l grade Increase was 2 . 5 and the r e a d i n g g a i n was 2 . 1 . P e e r s o n (202) d i r e c t e d t h e e v a l u a t i o n of the F l o r e n c e S t a t e C o l l e g e ' s l i t e r a c y program w h i c h u t i l i z e d t h e Laubach K i n e s c o p e s developed by WKNO-TV along with volunteer  teachers at a viewing c e n t e r .  d i r e c t t e a c h i n g were o r g a n i z e d reception. It.  Classes u t i l i z i n g  f o r t h o s e areas w i t h poor  television  Only 254 out of 608 s t u d e n t s who s t a r t e d t h e program completed  Both t e s t s developed  l o c a l l y and t h e MetropoI I tan Reading T e s t were  used t o measure t h e p r o g r e s s of t h e TV and r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . o f t h e program, the a d u l t s showed an average grade adults  l e v e l of 2 . 5 .  The  In the formal c l a s s s u r p a s s e d t h e t e l e v i s i o n group by o n e - h a l f  a grade  of  I eve I. Bunger  (48)  e v a l u a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e O p e r a t i o n  program In the S t a t e of F l o r i d a and found t h a t still  At t h e end  r e a d i n g a t t h e f i r s t grade  ment r a t h e r  Alphabet  132 of t h e 243 a d u l t s were  l e v e l or below a t the end of the  than r e a c h i n g t h e a n t i c i p a t e d achievement  experi-  l e v e l of t h i r d  grade.  57  One e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s o f f e r e d by Bunger was t h a t a f t e r t h e t w e n t i e t h l e s s o n t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e a d u l t s stopped w a t c h i n g t h e program on a regular b a s i s .  T h i s study a l s o found t h a t a d u l t s who s t u d i e d In groups  made g r e a t e r p r o g r e s s than d i d t h o s e who s t u d i e d  Individually.  C r o h n ' s r e p o r t (76) of t h e D f e b o l d L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t an attempt a t I n d i v i d u a l  l e a r n i n g through programmed I n s t r u c t i o n  around t h e l e a r n e r ' s spoken v o c a b u l a r y , developmental t e s t i n g ,  described  using a l i t e r a t e h e l p e r .  designed From  I t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t the d i s a d v a n t a g e d d i d not  l e a r n t h e I s o l a t e d words used In t h e s p e c i a l l y prepared m a t e r i a l s and t h a t t h e r e was a need f o r c o n t e x t u a l  support m a t e r i a l .  The Reading C e n t e r P r o j e c t (169) evaluation; nevertheless,  In C l e v e l a n d  lacked an o b j e c t i v e  I t r e p o r t e d two s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s .  Person-  t o - p e r s o n c o n t a c t between t h e r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t and t h e I l l i t e r a t e Is of paramount Importance and t h e r e must be an I n s t r u c t i o n a l  adult  agent t o  d i r e c t the learning p r o c e s s . The G r e e n l e l g h study (98) d e s c r i b e d t h e a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n program of  Illinois  and p o i n t e d o u t t h e d e f i c i e n c i e s of programs designed  to operate l a r g e l y w i t h i n the p r e - a d u l t school system, that  In s p i t e of p r o v i s i o n s  i t was a l s o found  f o r compulsory p a r t i c i p a t i o n by w e l f a r e  i p i e n t s , a t t e n d a n c e was poor (about o n e - t h i r d of t h e e n r o l l e d  rec-  students  a t t e n d e d s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e week s a m p l e d ) , and t h e drop out r a t e was c o n sIderab l e . The use of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s t o p r e d i c t academic achievement was d e s c r i b e d In two of t h e b a s i c e d u c a t i o n programs.  In t h e New Hope  58  P r o j e c t (194) a d u l t s e n r o l l e d In a foui—month program were t e s t e d w i t h Instruments  Intended f o r use a t t h e p r e - a d u l t  t h a t such t e s t s had s e v e r e  level.  The study concluded  l i m i t a t i o n s f o r use w i t h a d u l t s .  c l u s i o n was supported by Whlttemore (280)  This con-  In an eighteen-month study of  v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s used w i t h a d u l t s In b a s i c education. Vocational  Training  In a study of t h e e f f e c t s of c o u n s e l l i n g and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t t h e N o r f o l k Demonstration Research P r o j e c t a group of 200 a d u l t s were d i v i d e d  Into t h e f o l l o w i n g  (40),  groups:  1)  I n t e n s i v e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g ;  2)  T e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g but no general e d u c a t i o n ;  3)  C o u n s e l l i n g but no general or t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n ;  4)  C o u n s e l l i n g If  s o l i c i t e d but no general or t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n .  Groups one and two r e s u l t e d In a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n of group members employed than groups t h r e e and f o u r a c h i e v e d .  Group one had t h e  h i g h e s t r a t e of employment, s a l a r i e s and g r e a t e r Job s a t i s f a c t i o n than any of t h e o t h e r groups which I n d i c a t e s the v a l u e of general  education.  S i n c e some of the e v a l u a t i o n procedures used t o a s s e s s d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e four groups were s u b j e c t i v e r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e ,  t h e v a l l d f t y of  the  r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment a r e s u b j e c t t o q u e s t i o n . A study  In M o n t r e a l by F e l n t u c h (99) e v a l u a t e d t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s  of an I n t e g r a t e d program I n v o l v i n g v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g casework and a  59  s h e l t e r e d workshop t o I n c r e a s e empIoyabI I Ity  and modify a t t i t u d e s of  52 unemployed a d u l t s who were d i f f i c u l t t o p l a c e .  The study  found t h a t  t h e everage number of days employed a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n In t h e workshop compared w i t h t h e average employment b e f o r e , produced a mean Increase 8 9 . 2 5 days per year which was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  difference.  T h i s I n d i c a t e d the p o s i t i v e v a l u e of the workshop In q u a l i f y i n g unemployable a d u l t s f o r  of  previously  Increased employment.  O b s e r v a t i o n s on programmed v o c a t i o n a l  Instruction  a t t h e Texas  Department of C o r r e c t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of the Inmates p r e f e r r e d programmed l e a r n i n g over c o n v e n t i o n a l  Instruction  (34).  FamIIy and HeaIth  A p e r s o n a l approach t o changing b e h a v i o r through t h e use of Intensive  c o u n s e l l i n g was t r i e d  In a number of p l a c e s .  In two s t u d i e s  conducted In Toronto (170) and H a m i l t o n (120) such I n t e n s i v e by w e l f a r e caseworkers r e s u l t e d  counselling  In a g r e a t e r number of w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s  becoming dependent so t h a t more of t h e i r cases were c l o s e d than o c c u r r e d among those who d i d not r e c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . c o u n s e l l i n g p r o v i d e d 223 v o l u n t e e r s two-year  In t h e Family P l a n n i n g Program over a  p e r i o d r e s u l t e d In no p r e g n a n c i e s  In t h e S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House study group meetings was d e m o n s t r a t e d .  In North C a r o l i n a , t h e  (232). ( 2 3 1 ) , t h e v a l u e of s m a l l  A group of mothers a t t e n d e d  bi-monthly  meetings on n u t r i t i o n and r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t v a l u e t o them was the opportunity  t o g e t t o g e t h e r and d i s c u s s mutual p r o b l e m s .  The c o n t r a s t was  60 Illustrated with  In a study  In P e n n s y l v a n i a (41) which I n d i c a t e d t h a t women  low Income and r e a d i n g d e f i c i e n c i e s were not I n f l u e n c e d by w r i t t e n  m a t e r i a l s t o adopt new food h a b i t s .  II.  ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAMS  An a n a l y s i s (See T a b l e f i f t e e n of t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e  I on t h e f o l l o w i n g page)  reveals  s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h some a s p e c t of  that literacy  and fundamental e d u c a t i o n , f i v e s t u d i e s were concerned w i t h f a m i l y and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n and t h e r e m a i n i n g t h r e e were r e l a t e d t o v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs.  These f i n d i n g s I n d i c a t e t h e p r e s e n t  remedial e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d .  l i m i t e d scope of  Moreover, the p r o -  gram areas appear t o be t h o s e determined e x c l u s i v e l y by the majority  superordInate  In t h e i r n o t i o n of what Is most necessary f o r upgrading  subordinate s u b - c u l t u r e .  In a l l of t h e s t u d i e s , t h e s t a t e d  of the programs were those of the s p o n s o r i n g I n s t i t u t i o n was made t o p a r t i c i p a n t  Involvement  the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of g o a l s . voluntary  the  objectives  and no r e f e r e n c e  In t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n of needs and  T h i s Is h a r d l y a procedure which w i l l  Induce  p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d .  At  l e a s t o n e - t h i r d of t h e r e m e d i a l programs ( T a b l e I)  were  conducted by I n s t i t u t i o n s which c o u l d e x e r t a measure of c o e r c i o n operations.  In  their  F i v e of t h e s t u d i e s were conducted w i t h i n t h e s e t t i n g of  s t a t e r e f o r m a t o r i e s , two a t an army e d u c a t i o n c e n t e r ,  and one w i t h i n a  Table 1 ANALYSIS OF REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS  Program l.iMed In Appumlift  Type, "t Program  Spun soring institution  1. Allen  Literacy  Statu Reformatory  2. Ik.-rtra.iil  Vocu* lunal  Slate Reformatory  Vocational  CI>IICKC/U.S. Gov't  - 3. Ilrnuks  Panellation, enlisted  voluntary  Determination of Goals Institutionally Determined  Methods Class  Length of Program 4 months (44H hrs. approx.)  Class and Individual Study  24 monrhs  Class  12 montha  Type of Teacher staff teachers  Techniques  Level of Level of Materials Tests  DCV1L.CS and Material*  Review A Practice Review tt Drill  Kinescope Student Workbook  Adult  Practice  Teaching Machine  Adult  Mailed Cards  Adult  Kinescope Student Workbook  Adult  Programmed Tex  Adult  Pre-Adult  4. Wllkus-Uurre Study  Family and Health  (Jo-op li xt en si on A Statu Government  cnltMcd  Individual  6 months  5. Ikinger  Literacy  Statu tkrvcrnmon*  voluntary  Class and Individual Study  8 months (49 hours)  A. Uiebuld  Literacy  College  7. Ilrune  Literacy  Statu Menial Huspital  voluntary  Clans  M. litrulutit mi of Illinois Pribram  Litcrucy  Statu Government  enlisted  Class  V. Felntuch  Vocational  luwiKh Sheltered Workshop  voluntary  10. Hamilton Study  Family and Health  Provincial ami Civic Governments  enlisted  Individual  6 months  welfare workers  II. 1 lui.ny  Literacy  Staterteformat or y  voluntary  Class and Individual Study  1 mo. (20 hrs.)  trained inmate Instructors  12. Hols;  Literacy  TV Si at Ion  voluntary  Class and Individual Study  a mo. (40 hrs.)  13. Long  Literacy  Cliy Library Centers  voluntary  Individual Study A Discussion Grou  10 months  trained reading specialist  14. Long Turin  Ftimily ami Health  rmvinclal l< Civic Governments  emitted  Individual  6 months  welfare workers  IS. Mckee  Litcrucy  Stuie Hulormatoi y & U.S. Government  enlisted  Class  2.5 months (40 hours)  Reading Machine Programmed Inst.  Vc-Adull  lb. McKec  1.H r racy  Statu Reformatory t U.S. Government  enlisted  Class  2.5 months (40 hours)  Reading Machine Programmed Inst.  •re-Adult  17. New Hope Project  Literacy  Collegc/U.S. Gov't  enlisted  Class  4 months  18. Nlemi  Literacy  U.S. Armed Forces  enlisted  Class  3 months (420 hours).  civilian staff teachers  19. Mend  l.llorfl^y  U.S. Armed Forces  cnilsted  Class  A mom ha (240 hours)  civilian stalf leachucs  USAFl Tent-* Kinescopes Student Workbook  Individual  Practice 2.5 mos. (45 hrs.)  Student Workbook  Lltcr.Ly  Collcgc/U.S. Gov't  voluntary  Croup Meetings and Claaa  B months (IB hours)  trained volunteer tcachera  21. Saint Christopher  Family and Health  Neighbourhood House/ Civic 01. of Kducation  enlisted  Group Meeting*  11 months  regular staff Members  22. SchmWt  Family and Health  23. Whittcmurc  Literacy  Dcpt. of Education Univ. nf Nevada  entitled  Claaa  18 monthd  288  Statistical Testing  200  Statistical Testing  2800 enrol. 161 Intcrv.  Statistical Testing  180  2.1 grades  m* enrol. E43 Intcrv.  1.8 grades  139  hclow 3.0 grades  Descriptive Pre-Adult Statistical Testing  Practice  20. IVeriwn  24 montha  Aduh  •re-Adult  Pre -Adult Pre-Adult  naff teachers  14 months  voluntary  Review ft Practice  Descriptive  No. ol Measured Rcwlttg No. of Participants )ropouta Achievement  Descriptive Wult & re-Adult  volunteer teachers  Type of Evaluation  30  Descrlutlvc  Statistical Testing  52  Descriptive  200  Student Workbook  Adult  Pre-Adult Statistical Testing'  Review A Drill  Kinescopes Student Workbook  Adult  Pre-Adult  Practice k Discussion  Hooks, Films, Fllmstrlps, Rcc.  Adult  1.27 grades  30  2.6 grades  Descriptive  Descriptive Descriptive  Statistical Testing  200  33  2.39 grades 2.5 grades  Descriptive  58  Adult A. •re-Adult  Descriptive  695  *c -Adult  Descriptive  2A  Adult  Adult !• 're-Aduit  Descriptive  2a8  Adult  Pre-Adult  Descriptive  608  Descriptive  15  Descriptive  223  Adult & Pre-Adult Statistical Testing  171  1-3 grades 1-1.7 grades  1 grade 354  1-2 grade*  62 s t a t e mental h o s p i t a l .  Further,  a number of t h e r e m e d i a l e d u c a t i o n a l  programs which were f i n a n c e d by f e d e r a l or s t a t e monies had compulsory provisions  In t h e i r e n l i s t m e n t of p a r t i c i p a n t s .  In s l i g h t l y more t h a n  h a l f of t h e s t u d i e s , t h e s u b j e c t s were e n l i s t e d Into p r o g r a m s . c o m p u l s i o n may, In e f f e c t , c r e a t e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards educational  Such  future  programs.  The data I n d i c a t e t h a t the s p o n s o r i n g I n s t i t u t i o n s d I s t l n c t ' preference for organizing the p a r t i c i p a n t s  showed a  In c l a s s e s (Table I ) .  Jn a t  l e a s t ten of t h e s t u d i e s , t h e  while  In another f i v e s i t u a t i o n s , t h e c l a s s was combined w i t h some o t h e r  method.  l e a r n e r s were o r g a n i z e d  In c l a s s e s  A l t h o u g h t h e c l a s s method dominates a d u l t p u b l i c n i g h t s c h o o l  programs and u n i v e r s i t y  evening e x t e n s i o n programs ( 2 6 9 ) , I t may not be  an a c c e p t a b l e method f o r the d i s a d v a n t a g e d ( 1 3 6 ) . hood t h a t they w i l l a s s o c i a t e It  reject  Its  There Is some  formalized and:-structured nature,  negatively with previous educational  or  experiences.  The r e m e d i a l programs ranged from I t o 24 months In a median of s i x m o n t h ' s d u r a t i o n .  likeli-  length w i t h  The t o t a l number of hours f o r each  program v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from a minimum of 20 hours t o a maximum of 448 hours.  Considering their  l i v e and work t o f u l f i l l  l i m i t e d t i m e p e r s p e c t i v e and t h e i r proneness  Immediate needs, t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d seem u n l i k e l y  t o be committed t o programs of than h a l f of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s an extended  to  lengthy d u r a t i o n .  A drop o u t r a t e of more  Is noted In a number of s t u d i e s .  length of programming seemed of  I f t t l e benefit  Moreover,  In r e g a r d  to  63 t h e Improvement of r e a d i n g s k i l l s .  The r e a d i n g s c o r e s ranged from one  t o 2 . 6 grades on p o s t - t e s t s and In t h r e e of the  l i t e r a c y programs of  s h o r t e s t d u r a t i o n , t h e grade achievement In r e a d i n g was as h i g h or than t h a t  In the  longer programs.  grades compared w i t h  the  higher  T h e i r mean was a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2.1  1.9 grades f o r the s e v e r a l o t h e r  The management of t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l  literacy  studies.  p r o c e s s was f r e q u e n t l y  In  t h e hands of e d u c a t i o n a l agents who had l i t t l e or no s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g for d e a l i n g with t h e i r disadvantaged c l i e n t e l e .  Only t h r e e of t h e programs  made s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t r a i n e d I n s t r u c t o r s ,  and In one of t h e s e s t u d i e s  the s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g amounted t o no more than f i v e hours f o r the v o l u n t e e r  teachers (Table I).  Instruction  R e l i a n c e on r e g u l a r s t a f f members,  untrained volunteers,  and t e a c h e r s w i t h p r e - a d u l t e x p e r i e n c e seemed t o be  t h e common p r a c t i c e .  Without some s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g  that Instructors w i l l  understand t h e b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s of t h e d i s a d v a n -  I t seems u n l i k e l y  taged o r be a b l e t o p r e s c r i b e any s p e c i a l forms of e d u c a t i o n a l  treatment  (7)(75)(29l). There was s c a n t r e f e r e n c e t o the I n s t r u c t i o n a l These c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y of r e v i e w ,  p r a c t i c e and d r i l l .  s t u d i e s was d i s c u s s i o n mentioned as a t e c h n i q u e . If  procedures u s e d . In o n l y  two  I t would seem then t h a t  a t t i t u d e s and v a l u e s of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d are t o be both  understood  and m o d i f i e d , the use of t h i s t e c h n i q u e must be more f u l l y expbred Certainly,  (291).  group d i s c u s s i o n Is one of the b e s t t e c h n i q u e s f o r p r o b l e m -  s o l v i n g which I n v o l v e s both the a p p l i c a t i o n of I n t e g r a t i o n of knowledge  (269).  I n f o r m a t i o n and t h e  64 A g r e a t deal of emphasis In t h e upon t h e use of  Instructional  l i t e r a c y programs was p l a c e d  a i d s ( T a b l e I).  The Laubach K i n e s c o p e s  and s t u d e n t work books were used In the t h r e e t e l e v i s i o n grams and In one of the r e f o r m a t o r y s t u d i e s .  literacy  pro-  The s t u d e n t work books a l o n e  were used by p a r t i c i p a n t s In the mental h o s p i t a l s t u d y .  Henny (125)  developed a s t u d e n t g u i d e f o r use In h i s p h o n i c s system of Other d e v i c e s and m a t e r i a l s used In t h e remedial e d u c a t i o n a l  also  Instruction. programs  Included r e a d i n g and t e a c h i n g m a c h i n e s , f i l m s t r l p and r e c o r d s , m a i l e d I n f o r m a t i o n c a r d s , programmed t e x t s and t h e USAFI M o s t of t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l expressly  f o r a d u l t use ( T a b l e I)  testing devices.  texts.  m a t e r i a l s used had been developed but such was not t h e c a s e w i t h t h e  These were almost e x c l u s i v e l y  p r e - a d u l t t e s t s which  have been developed f o r and s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n ( T a b l e 11 on t h e f o l l o w i n g p a g e ) . were f r e q u e n t l y  In s p i t e of t h i s f a c t , such t e s t s  used f o r both placement and e v a l u a t i v e p u r p o s e s .  a c r i t i c a l need t o develop a d u l t t e s t purposeful  There  Is  Instruments i f more e f f e c t i v e and  e v a l u a t i o n Is t o be a c h i e v e d .  S i m i l a r l y , t h e r e Is a need f o r the more c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n of remedial e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . twenty-three of t h e d a t a .  studies  In o n l y e i g h t of  Is t h e r e any attempt t o apply s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s t o some  Too f r e q u e n t l y ,  the e v a l u a t i o n s u b j e c t i v e .  t h e data p r e s e n t e d Is merely d e s c r i p t i v e and  Too o f t e n , t h e c h i e f concern Is t o e s t a b l i s h  programs and t h e r e Is no p r o v i s i o n made f o r a n a l y t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n which c o u l d undoubtedly  the  b e n e f i t o t h e r program p l a n n e r s .  65 T a b l e 1J DESCRIPTION OF TESTS EMPLOYED IN REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS  Programs as Listed in Appendix  Tests Used  t Allen  Metropolitan Achievement Stanfuru Achievement  3 Brooks  5 Bunker 7 Drane 8 Illinois 11 Hcnny  Date of Test Construction  17 New Hope Project  18 Niemi 19 Niemi  20 Peerson 23 Whittemore  Appropriate Crauc or Age Levels  school pupils school pupils  Army Revi.seu Beta Examination  19J1 - 1957  General Aptitude Test Battery Gates Reading Survey SRA Arithmetic  1946 - 1953 1939 - 1960 1934 - 1964  Gilmore Oral Reading  1951 - 1952  school pupils  Oral Reading  Grades 1-8  1963  school pupils  Oral Reading  Nelson Reading Test  1931 - 1962  school pupils  Reading  Grades 1 - lb and adults Grades 3 - 9  Iowa Every Pupil Reading Test  1940 - 1945  school pupils  Achievement  Grades 3 - 9  1926 - 1962  school pupils  Reading (oral and written)  Grades 2 - h  Gray"Oral Reading Test  . Gates-McKillop Reading Diagnostic Tests  Achievement Achievement  Grades 1.5-12 Grades |.*-9  white male prison inmates  Intelligence  adult workers school pupils school pupils  Aptitude Reading Achievement  Graues 7-12 and Ages 16 - 59 Ages lo and over Grades J - 10 Grades 1 - 9  Oral Reading  Grades 1 - 8  Metropolitan Achievement Test  1931 - 1964  school pupils  Achievement  Grades 1.5-12  Metropolitan Achievement Test  1931 - 1964  school pupils  Achievement  Grades 1.5-12  Metropolitan Achievement Test  1931 - 1964  school pupils  Achievement  Grades L.5-12  California Achievement Test California Test of Mental Maturity  1934 - 195S 1936 - 1957  school pupils  Achievement Intelligence  Gates Reading Survey General Aptitude Test Buttery Revised Beta Examination  1939 - I960 1946 - 1958 1931 - 1957  Grades 1.- 14 Kindergarten to Grade 16 & adults Grades 3 - 10 Ages 16 and over Grades 7-12 and Ages 16 - 59  1915  school pupils adult workers white male prison inmates  Reading Aptitude Intelligence  California Achievement Test  1934 - 1958  school pupils  Achievement  Grades 1 • 14  Army General Classification Test  1940 - 1960  adult soldiers  Intelligence  California Achievement Test High School General Education Develop. (Iowa Tests of Educational Development)  1934 - 1958  school pupils  Achievement  Grades 9-16 and adults Grades 1 • 14  1942 - 1963  school pupils  Achievement  Grades 9-13  Metropolitan Reading Test  1932 - 1962  school pupils  Reading Achievement  Graues 2 - 9  Personality Inventory Intelligence  Ages 13 and over  Aptitude Intelligence Reading Interest Battery Personality Inventory Intelligence Intelligence  Grades 8-12 Grades 9-12 Grades 4 - 13 Grades 9-16 and adults Ages 16 and over  California Psychological Inventory  1956 - 1957  California Test of Mental Maturity (Level 3) Differential Aptitude Test (Form L) Hetimon Nelson Test of Mental Ability Iowa Silent Reading Kuder Preference Record--Vocational (Form CH) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Otis Quick Scoring Beta Test Revised Beta Examination  1936 - 1957  Sequential Test of Educational Progress (Level 3)  *  Type of Test  1931 - 1964 1923 - 1950  Gray Scandardi2ed Oral Reading Paragraph Test 12 Hoist 15 McKee 16 McKee  Basis of Standardization  So urce:  1947 1931 1927 1934  -  1958 1958 1943 1960  high school students  school pupils school pupils school pupils school pupils  1942 - 1951 1917 - 1954 1931 - 1957  school pupils white male prison inmates  1956 - 1958  school pupils and college students  Mental Measurements  Yearbooks.  Achievement  Grade 7 - 8  Grades 4 - 9 Grades 7-12 and Ages 16 - 59 Grades 4-14  66 III.  SUMMARY  The s p e c i f i c program r e s e a r c h which has been reviewed was concerned c h i e f l y w i t h m a t t e r s r e l a t i n g t o I n s t r u c t i o n . Is  Important,  Although  t h e more fundamental problem Is t h a t of overcoming  this resist-  ance t o e d u c a t i o n which Is so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d .  The  r e j e c t i o n of the I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s of e d u c a t i o n by t h e d i s a d v a n taged as noted p r e v i o u s l y p a t t e r n s which w i l l with that matter.  Is  I n d i c a t i v e of the need t o d i s c o v e r new  be a c c e p t a b l e .  None of t h e r e s e a r c h has been concerned  S e c o n d l y , t h e r e has been no c l e a r a p p r e c i a t i o n of  pre-  c i s e l y which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e most amenable t o permanent change, and which means w i l l on t h e i r t o t a l p a t t e r n of  living.  e x e r t the most e f f e c t i v e  There Is s t i l l  t h e problems In terms of c u l t u r a l change If  t h e need t o  leverage  redefine  programs are t o be d i r e c t e d  towards more w o r k a b l e s t r a t e g i e s and more v i a b l e r e s u l t s  (110).  A t t h e b e s t , t h e s t u d i e s reviewed here v e r i f y t h e p o t e n t i a l i t i e s for  further  e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d and suggest  personalized Instruction  Is most e f f e c t i v e .  that  They p r o v i d e v e r y few c l u e s  t o t h e d e s i g n of t h e programs and t o t h e s e l e c t i o n of  content.  CHAPTER V IAAPLI CATIONS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT  As y e t ,  t h e a t t e m p t s t o a m e l i o r a t e the s i t u a t i o n of  the  d i s a d v a n t a g e d have been n o t i c e a b l y piecemeal and u n s u c c e s s f u l .  Welfare  programs have shown themselves t o be Inadequate because they do more than t o m a i n t a i n e x i s t e n c e at a s u b s i s t e n c e w i t h the b a s i c causes of d i s a d v a n t a g e .  l e v e l and f a l l  t o cope  There Is some I n d i c a t i o n ,  t h a t education may.offer a s o l u t i o n to the problem. can  little  Educational  however, programs  be d i r e c t e d toward a l t e r i n g t h e s i t u a t i o n of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d  adult;  but t o do s o , a d i f f e r e n t c o n c e p t i o n of e d u c a t i o n a l programming must be e f f e c t e d and the b a r r i e r s which I n h i b i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the  disadvantaged  must be overcome.  I.  BARRIERS  There a r e c e r t a i n I d e n t i f i a b l e b a r r i e r s which I n h i b i t any p r o grams t o a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d p o p u l a t i o n . both  In t h e  These  l a r g e r s o c i e t y and In t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d s u b - c u l t u r e .  one w i t h o u t s i m u l t a n e o u s l y changing t h e o t h e r w i l l t h e problem of  disadvantage.  lie  Altering  not s u c c e s s f u l l y  resolve  68 Societal  Barriers The d i s a d v a n t a g e d c o n s t i t u t e a m i n o r i t y group which Is  t o t h e e x e r c i s e o f p r e j u d i c e d i r e c t e d toward them by the group.  The p r e j u d i c e  Inhibits  In t h e o n - g o i n g o r g a n i z e d  subjected  superordInate  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d  l i f e of t h e community.  Because of  prejudice,  they do not have ready access t o e d u c a t i o n a l and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s through which t h e s e p e o p l e m i g h t a l t e r t h e i r s t a t u s .  Thus, p r e j u d i c e  Is  a major s o c i e t a l b a r r i e r t h a t must be overcome through the e d u c a t i o n of the  larger s o c i e t y  In o r d e r t h a t I t can understand I t s  role  In the c r e a t i o n  and maintenance of d i s a d v a n t a g e ( 5 6 H 6 3 ) (95) ( 106) ( 110) ( 141) . economic I n s u f f i c i e n c y status (37)(122),  It  Is a major f a c t o r  Is p a r t i c u l a r l y  ment o p p o r t u n i t i e s be removed through (106).  In p r o d u c i n g  Since  disadvantaged  Important t h a t p r e j u d i c e s  In employ-  l e g i s l a t i o n and/or e d u c a t i o n (56)  A c c o r d i n g t o D e l l e f l e l d ( 8 3 ) , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d worker can be  t r a i n e d t o p e r f o r m s k i l l e d t a s k s In a s h o r t p e r i o d of t i m e so t h a t t h e lack of a s k i l l  Is not a J u s t i f i a b l e r a t i o n a l e t o o b s c u r e t h e more b a s i c  problem of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n Induced by p r e j u d i c e . Of equal Importance t o the b a r r i e r of p r e j u d i c e a r e those e r e c t e d by t h e e d u c a t i o n a l system I t s e l f .  Although t h e s e b a r r i e r s a r e not  d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the d i s a d v a n t a g e d as Is p r e j u d i c e , l e s s c r e a t e Impediments f o r t h e s e p e o p l e . largely  they  (75).  neverthe-  The e d u c a t i o n a l b a r r i e r s stem  from c o n c e p t s of e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g h e l d by e d u c a t o r s  t h e s u p e r o r d l n a t e group In s o c i e t y  barriers  serving  M o r e o v e r , the e d u c a t i o n a l system  69  has been developed t o s e r v e t h e v a l u e system of t h e m i d d l e c l a s s . same m i d d l e c l a s s e d u c a t i o n a l system has lacked s u f f i c i e n t  This  flexibility  t o f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the d i s a d v a n t a g e d who cannot meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of a system which Is t a l l o r e d for mass p r o d u c t i o n than I n d i v i d u a l  development ( 1 2 8 ) .  If  such an e d u c a t i o n a l system Is  change t o meet the needs of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , Introduce Innovations and the mode of  rather  I t wl1 I be n e c e s s a r y  to to  In the p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e c u r r i c u l u m ,  Instruction.  Otherwise  I t may be n e c e s s a r y t o  provide  e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o u t s i d e of t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s c h o o l s y s t e m .  Sub-cultural  Barriers  As v i c t i m s of a s i t u a t i o n  In which they r e c o g n i z e themselves t o  be outnumbered and w i t h o u t power, t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d have withdrawn s o c i e t y and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own s u b - c u l t u r a l  system (56)(I 1 0 ) .  from This  r e i n f o r c e s t h e I s o l a t i o n of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and promotes t h e d e v e l o p ment of a v a l u e system t h a t Is a t v a r I a n c e .wlth the s u p e r o r d l n a t e The r e s u l t a n t a l i e n a t i o n and power Iessness of t h e s u b - c u l t u r a l promotes  I 1st Iessness and f u t i l i t y  In t h e i r s u b - c u l t u r a l  environment,  differs significantly  from t h e p r e s e n t ;  level  (48)(49)(83)(177).  t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d see no f u t u r e c o n s e q u e n t l y , they are  In t h o s e p r a g m a t i c concerns r e l a t e d t o s u r v i v a l (183).  group  so t h a t the group Is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a low l e v e l of a s p i r a t i o n and a lack of m o t i v a t i o n  only  values.  that  Interested  a t the s u b s i s t e n c e  The s c h o o l system Is o r i e n t e d t o f u t u r e s u c c e s s r a t h e r  than  70 present survival  so t h a t t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d r e j e c t  unaware of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s Furthermore,  and f a c i l i t i e s (140) (221)'.  t h e i r p a s t e x p e r i e n c e s w i t h school have c r e a t e d  a t t i t u d e s toward s c h o o l as an I n s t i t u t i o n means of  e d u c a t i o n and remain  Improving t h e i r By w i t h d r a w i n g  s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y , rely frequently  lot  negative  and toward e d u c a t i o n as a  (128)(166).  Into t h e i r own group and r e j e c t i n g t h e  Institutional  t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d become unduly dependent.  They  upon t h e development of s t r o n g k i n s h i p t i e s which In t u r n  I n h i b i t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e s u p e r o r d l n a t e group and r e s t r i c t t h e i r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e p r o c e s s e s of s o c i e t y so t h a t  d i s a d v a n t a g e d cannot p r o f i t a b l y dependency ( 6 0 ) ( 1 2 4 ) ( 2 1 7 ) .  Although withdrawn, the  the  use p o l i t i c a l means t o help end t h e i r  In a d d i t i o n ,  t i m i d i t y and f e a r which r e s u l t s  (60)  I s o l a t i o n breeds  Insecurity,  In t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e t o change  the d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e not unaware of t h e i r  (3IM56M85). status  In  l a r g e r s o c i e t y and fn s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n they develop a s t r o n g p r i d e  that  makes them ashamed t o admit t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l d e f i c i e n c i e s (9) ( I 16) ( 146)'. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d are. r e a l b a r r i e r s change but i t  Is p o s s i b l e t o a l t e r them.  to  To do s o , t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d must  become aware of t h e v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n a l programs, develop a p e r c e p t i o n t h e i r need f o r  of  l e a r n i n g ( 4 9 ) ( 5 8 ) ( 8 5 ) , and a c o n s c i o u s n e s s of t h e f r own  e d u c a t i o n a l h a n d i c a p s and d e f i c i e n c i e s ( 8 3 ) .  These ends cannot be accom-  p l i s h e d e a s i l y because corrmunfcation w i t h t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d  Is  W r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s In newspapers, m a g a z i n e s , b u l l e t i n s or w r i t t e n  difficult. forms  71 are Ineffective even though they such Impersonal  In r e a c h i n g t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d ( 4 1 ) ( 1 4 3 ) ( 2 0 8 ) ( 2 5 4 )  and  l i s t e n t o r a d i o and watch t e l e v i s i o n they tend t o communication ( 4 8 ) ( 2 0 8 ) ( 2 1 7 ) .  Face-to-face  c o n t a c t s a r e a more e f f e c t i v e way of communicating w i t h t h e  reject  personalized disadvantaged  (40)(48)(132). S u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h e d u c a t i o n Is one way t o c o n v i n c e d i s a d v a n t a g e d of t h e p e r s o n a l v a l u e of f u r t h e r  learning.  the  To p r o v i d e  s u c c e s s f u l e x p e r i e n c e s r e q u i r e s t h e p l a n n i n g and conduct of  educational  programs s p e c i f i c a l l y geared t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and e x p e c t a t i o n s the  such  of  disadvantaged.  Jl.  EDUCATIONAL PLANNING  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d and t h e i r s i t u a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s as d i s c u s s e d p r e v i o u s l y  response t o  provide clues  p l a n n i n g e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g programs t h a t w i l l meet t h e i r and be a c c e p t a b l e t o them. communication, c o n t e n t ,  to needs  These c l u e s a r e d i s c u s s e d below In terms of  and t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and conduct of t h e program.  Communication S i n c e t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d s u b - c u l t u r e has I t s own communication system f o r  Identification  and p r o t e c t i o n , t h e normal c h a n n e l s of communi-  c a t i o n used among s u p e r o r d l n a t e group members a r e not s u i t a b l e  for  72 communicating w i t h t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . the generally  low r e a d i n g  The h i g h r a t e of  Illiteracy  and  l e v e l of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d p r e c l u d e s any  e f f e c t i v e communication through p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s such as newspapers or bulletins.  Radio and t e l e v i s i o n have been found t o be somewhat more  e f f e c t i v e In d i f f u s i n g I n f o r m a t i o n .  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e more aware  of t h e I n f o r m a t i o n d i s s e m i n a t e d by t h e s e m e d i a , but they a r e r a r e l y , ever Induced t o t a k e a c t i o n as may be suggested by t h e message.  If  Such  f a i l u r e t o t a k e a c t i o n fs a t t r i b u t a b l e p a r t l y t o t h e media which Is a b s t r a c t and Impersonal and t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d r e j e c t t h e a b s t r a c t and symb o l i c elements of t h e dominant s o c i e t y .  R e j e c t i o n may a l s o be caused by  t h e k i n d of a c t i o n proposed In t h e message.  If  It suggests e n r o l l i n g  n i g h t c l a s s e s , t h e message Is r e j e c t e d because t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d the I n s t i t u t i o n a l  structure.  Thus, If  In  reject  t h e message Is t o be accepted and  lead t o a c t i o n I t must be c o n c r e t e , p e r s o n a l and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h b e h a v i o r a l p a t t e r n s of the s u b - c u l t u r e .  If  t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s are met, t h e r e Is no  reason t o b e l i e v e t h a t r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n cannot e f f e c t i v e l y  reach t h e  dIsadvantaged. The medium of communication w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t y success  fs p e r s o n a l f a c e - t o - f a c e communication e i t h e r on a o n e - t o - o n e  b a s i s or w i t h s m a l l n a t u r a l g r o u p i n g s earlier,  of  (40)(48)(267)(29 I)i  I n t e n s i v e c o u n s e l l i n g ( 1 2 0 ) ( 1 7 0 ) ( 2 3 I)  ( 9 4 ) ( I 8 0 ) ( 2 3 8 ) ( 2 9 I ) were n o t a b l y e f f e c t i v e  As shown  and s m a l l group s e s s i o n s  In changing b e h a v i o r .  If  s u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g programs a r e e s t a b l i s h e d , t h e d i s a d v a n taged can be Induced t o p a r t i c i p a t e through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t s  (40)(48)(291).  73 In a t i g h t homogeneous group such as the p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e messages fed Into one p a r t of t h e system through p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t w i l l s l o w l y through t h e system by word of mouth. that  T h i s r e q u i r e s a message  Is s i m p l e and not r e a d i l y s u b j e c t t o d i s t o r t i o n .  communication may be f a s t e r and c e r t a i n l y  Is  evoke the d e s i r e d response o n l y  If  In any c a s e ,  the a c t i o n s p e c i f i e d  I t s e l f a c c e p t a b l e and meaningful t o the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . The  language of t h e s u b - c u l t u r a l system d i f f e r s  primary c u l t u r e . consequently, It  Small group  less s u b j e c t t o m o d i f i c a t i o n  but t h e groups must be n a t u r a l r a t h e r than a r t i f i c i a l . t h e message w i l l  spread  T h i s d i f f e r e n c e Is  from t h a t of  the  l a r g e l y a m a t t e r of word meanings;  In o r d e r t o Insure t h a t t h e d e s i r e d meaning Is  conveyed,  Is necessary t o determine t h e v o c a b u l a r y a p p r o p r i a t e t o t h e s u b -  culture.  F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e s u b - c u l t u r e uses n o n - v e r b a l  extensively  communication  so t h a t t h i s must be understood and used where  (7)(43)(23 I).  T e I e v I s I o n may lend I t s e l f t o n o n - v e r b a l  t h e form of c a r t o o n p r e s e n t a t i o n s .  appropriate  communication In  These s h o u l d be e f f e c t i v e  In  communicating s i m p l e but s p e c i f i c messages.  III.  CONTENT AREAS  The s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged a r e a s of program c o n t e n t  In which t h e s e p e o p l e are p a r t i c u l a r l y  I t would be a s e r i o u s m i s t a k e , however,  i  suggest deficient.  t o regard any of t h e s e program  74 a r e a s as p r e s c r i p t i v e .  A t t h e most they s h o u l d be o n l y  suggestive  because t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d themselves must f i r s t be I n v o l v e d In d e v e l o p i n g programs which are r e l e v a n t t o t h e i r own n e e d s .  Too f r e q u e n t l y ,  c o n t e n t of t h e r e m e d i a l programs has been d i c t a t e d s o l e l y by t h e t i o n s of t h e s u p e r o r d l n a t e  the  Institu-  majority.  The p r i n c i p a l a r e a s which might be e x p l o r e d w i t h t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e noted below: Basic  Education The h i g h p r o p o r t i o n of  Illiterates  and f u n c t i o n a l  Illiterates  among t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d I n d i c a t e s t h e i r need f o r competence In t h e b a s i c s k i l l s of r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and s i m p l e computations s i n c e t h e s e a r e p r e r e q u i s i t e t o most o t h e r s areas of e d u c a t i o n .  As has been shown, many  d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t s do not possess even t h e minimum l e v e l of r e q u i r e d t o q u a l i t y them f o r e n t r y Into v o c a t i o n a l or  education  Job-training  programs (21 I ) ( 2 I 7 ) ( 2 3 I ) .  Vocational  Education  The f a c t t h a t t h e disadvantaged a d u l t f r e q u e n t l y  d i s p l a y s an  I n t e r e s t In v o c a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d g o a l s would d e s i g n a t e t h i s area as s i g n i f i c a n t f o r both r u r a l and urban p e o p l e .  At t h e p r e s e n t t i m e Job  p o s i t i o n s f o r t h e u n s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d workers a r e d i m i n i s h i n g ; t h e r e a r e , t h o u g h , expanding o p p o r t u n i t i e s  proportionately In the  service  75 Industries  (I63MI8I).  These may p r o v i d e a c c e p t a b l e a l t e r n a t i v e s o u r c e s  of employment p r o v i d i n g t h e Jobs a r e n o t below t h e l e v e l which t h e worker had p r e v i o u s l y  achieved  (83).  With t h e p r o g r e s s i o n of automation and c y b e r n a t i o n , t h e r e Is c o n s t a n t c o n f r o n t a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l unemployment ( 2 5 3 ) .  the  Since It  Is  now e s t i m a t e d t h a t a worker wlI I have t o be r e t r a i n e d t h r e e or four t i m e s d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e of h i s w o r k i n g y e a r s , t h e need f o r v o c a t i o n a l and Job r e t r a i n i n g programs becomes o b v i o u s employabI I I t y .  If t h e I n d i v i d u a l  Is t o m a i n t a i n h i s  T h i s Is a problem of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e t o t h e young  worker w i t h h i s w o r k i n g  l i f e ahead of him ( 1 3 8 ) ( 1 6 6 ) ( 2 5 9 ) .  Family L f f e Education  S i n c e t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d g e n e r a l l y show a marked p r e f e r e n c e  for  I n t i m a t e , p r i m a r y group r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f a m i l y l i f e e d u c a t i o n would seem t o be an area f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n In program development. It  Is a l r e a d y o b v i o u s t h a t p o v e r t y Is s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g and may I n v o l v e  g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n In I t s c y c l e .  It  Is a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e  d i s a d v a n t a g e d f a m i l i e s o f t e n have as many as f i v e or more c h i l d r e n . large f a m i l i e s  In themselves d o u b t l e s s c o n s t i t u t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e If  overwhelming economic b u r d e n . t h e areas of If  Such not  F a m i l y p l a n n i n g would seem t o be one of  I m p e r a t i v e need f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d (21 I ) ( 2 3 0 ) ( 2 3 2 ) .  d i s a d v a n t a g e d p a r e n t s a r e g i v e n help t o understand t h e c o m p l e x i -  t i e s of f a m i l y l i f e and t h e e x t e n t of t h e i r p a r e n t a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , t h e n some b e n e f i t s w i l l  no doubt a c c r u e t o t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d c h i l d r e n .  Recent  76 evidence  Indicates  that  It  Is t h e home s e t t i n g which Is c r u c i a l  e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e s towards e s t a b l i s h e d a t t i t u d e s which  learning.  It  In  Is these home-  l a r g e l y a f f e c t t h e subsequent p a t t e r n  l e a r n i n g In s c h o o l s and p r o v i d e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r the development of  e f f e c t i v e communication through c o n t a c t w i t h an a d u l t sation (32)(I00)(I44)(I84)(2l8)(239)(240).  of  l e v e l of  For t h e s e f u l l  conver-  family  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , both husbands and w i v e s o f t e n need e x t e n s i v e  parent  education programs. The event of automation may c e r t a i n l y make p o s s i b l e the more e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g of t h e s e f a m i l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between husband and wife. for  As t h e h u s b a n d ' s w o r k i n g time d e c r e a s e s , he s h o u l d have more time  f a m i l y and home a c t i v i t i e s  (175).  Homemaker E d u c a t i o n  The home a l s o bears the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  for providing  f o r an  adequate l e v e l of n u t r i t i o n and m a i n t a i n i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y s t a n d a r d of h e a l t h and c h i l d c a r e .  To f u l f i l l  t h e s e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l as t o  p e r f o r m housekeeping and home management w i t h competence, t h e women r e q u i r e  I n f o r m a t i o n and t r a i n i n g  In homemaklng s k i l l s  disadvantaged  (102)(208)  (2I7J(23I).  Consumer  Education  S i n c e t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d earn Inadequate p r e s s i n g need f o r them t o get a maximum r e t u r n  Incomes, t h e r e Is a f o r t h e i r consumer  dollars.  77  S u i t a b l e e d u c a t i o n a l programs a r e r e q u i r e d t o p r o v i d e t h e d i s a d v a n taged w i t h an u n d e r s t a n d i n g of t h e consumer m a r k e t , c r e d i t  operations  and t h e competence t o deal w i t h f i n a n c i a l m a t t e r s ( 2 ) ( 7 5 0 ( I 3 8 ) ( 2 0 8 ) .  Health Education  A study of t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d members of s o c i e t y r e v e a l s a general  low l e v e l of h e a l t h and a minimal use of  e x i s t i n g a g e n c i e s and f a c i l i t i e s . employed t o p r o v i d e f r e e or  Although  l e g i s l a t i v e a c t s may be  low c o s t s e r v i c e s , t h e r e s t i l l  t h e n e c e s s i t y t o educate the d i s a d v a n t a g e d as t o t h e i r and most e f f e c t i v e u s e .  remains  availability  There Is a l s o the need t o understand t h e  Importance of p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h and d e n t a l c a r e and a b a s i c knowledge of n u t r i t i o n  (22)(I 72)(2 I 7 ) ( 2 5 2 ) .  Leisure Education  W i t h the advance of a u t o m a t i o n and c y b e r n a t i o n , t h e r e much l i k e l i h o o d of a s i g n i f i c a n t  Increase  In t h e amount of  l e i s u r e time, e s p e c i a l l y for the  lower—skilled workers.  Is  available  Coupled w i t h  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e payment of a guaranteed annual Income, t h e two might c o n s t i t u t e t h e I n g r e d i e n t s of s e r i o u s s o c i a l d i s o r d e r .  The work  78  e t h i c has been f i r m l y  Implanted In our s o c i e t y ,  (99) and t h e r e  Is  e v i d e n c e t o I n d i c a t e t h a t t h e lower s o c i o - e c o n o m i c groups a r e t h e l e a s t eager t o a n t i c i p a t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of (258).  The r o l e of p a s s i v e s p e c t a t o r s  Increased  l e i s u r e time  Is u n l i k e l y t o be s a t i s f a c t o r y  as an o u t l e t f o r a g g r e s s i v e e n e r g i e s f o r m e r l y r e l e a s e d by work  (99).  There Is a l s o a growing number of aged people In our s o c i e t y who a r e not I n v o l v e d In w o r k . tional  The c h a l l e n g e Is posed f o r d e v e l o p i n g r e c r e a -  programs which w i l l  engage t h e I n t e r e s t , develop the t a l e n t s ,  and r e l e a s e t h e e n e r g i e s of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d In a c r e a t i v e l y  satis-  f y i n g manner.  greater  T h i s a r e a of programming might very w e l l be of  long range s o c i e t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e than t h a t type of v o c a t i o n a l which merely  Citizenship  training  leads t o t h e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n of dead-end J o b s .  Education  An o b v i o u s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d Is a l i e n a t i o n from p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the o r g a n i z a t i o n middle class s o c i e t y .  l i f e which  their typifies  A s i d e from some Involvement In t h e church and  l a b o r u n i o n s , t h e p a r t l c l p a t l o n a l r a t e s are m i n i m a l .  If  the d i s a d v a n -  taged a r e i t o ' a c h I eve a f u l l e r measure of the b e n e f i t s of s o c i e t y ,  they  s h o u l d be p r o v i d e d w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as v o c a l and v o t i n g c i t i z e n s .  S i n c e t h e r e Is e v i d e n c e t o I n d i c a t e  that  79 the disadvantaged are largely r e l a t f o n a l l y o r i e n t e d conceptual s t y l e ,  the actual  Involvement  In  their  In community a c t i o n programs  may b e s t s e r v e t h e purpose of c i t i z e n s h i p programs.  In t h e s e com-  munity a c t i o n programs t h e y : s h o u l d be c a l l e d upon t o t h i n k about and take I n i t i a t i v e call  In s o l v i n g some of t h e i r own p r o b l e m s .  T h i s would  f o r c i t i z e n s h i p p a r t i c i p a t i o n In a f u n c t i o n a l way ( 5 6 ) ( 1 0 6 ) ( I 10)  (124)(188) .  IV.  CONTENT SELECTION  The consuming p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h s u r v i v a l l e v e l by the d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t c l e a r l y  at the subsistence  I n d i c a t e s t h a t the c o n t e n t  s e l e c t e d In t h e areas o u t l i n e d above must be f u n c t i o n a l and Immediately r e l e v a n t t o the problems of the I n d i v i d u a l s  Involved.  Thus,  the  e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g programs conducted f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t s must c e n t e r on t h e i r needs r a t h e r than c o n t e n t per s e .  T h i s Is a  d e p a r t u r e from t h e norm of s i m i l a r programs conducted f o r t h e s u p e r o r d l n a t e group  In w h i c h t h e c o n t e n t Is d i c t a t e d by some supposed  Inherent In the c o n t e n t . only that  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d r e q u i r e and w i l l  logic  accept  l e a r n i n g which Is c o m p l e t e l y p r a c t i c a l and Immediately  80  a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n .  L e a r n i n g which Is  directly  r e l a t e d t o economic problems Is more a c c e p t a b l e than any o t h e r (98)(291).  W i t h o u t such r e l a t i o n s h i p of the c o n t e n t t o economic  g o a l s , t h e r e Is pate.  (83)  l i t t l e chance t h a t the d i s a d v a n t a g e d w i l l  Among t h e young p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  partici-  t h e g o a l s are v o c a t i o n a l  so  t h a t c o n t e n t s h o u l d be geared t o t h a t end ( 8 2 ) .  V.  ORGANIZATION AND CONDUCT  The d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t s r e j e c t the a b s t r a c t Institutionalized  s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y  (267).  r e j e c t t h e school as an agency f o r f u r t h e r own p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e s  Impersonal  Consequently,  learning.  they  In a d d i t i o n ,  In the school which were such as t o Induce them  t o drop out r e i n f o r c e s t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the s c h o o l .  Any e f f o r t s  persuade the d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t t o " r e t u r n t o s c h o o l "  Inevitably  meets w i t h f a i l u r e .  Is not t h e  for  Initial  their  In view of t h i s , t h e n , t h e school  e d u c a t i o n a l programs f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d .  s a t i s f a c t o r y experiences with  to  locus  A f t e r some  l e a r n i n g In a more a c c e p t a b l e s e t t i n g ,  I t may be p o s s i b l e t o r e - i n t r o d u c e t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d t o the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g or a proper s e t t i n g f o r  learning.  81  There are--other p h y s i c a l particularly  f a c i l i t i e s In a community,  In t h e Immediate area of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d , which are  l e s s o b j e c t i o n a b l e than Is t h e school and t h e s e s h o u l d be used b a s i c e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs.  S i n c e the church Is  for  accept-  a b l e , such f a c i l i t i e s ' as church h a l l s and basements would p r o v i d e a suitable setting.  Union h a l l s , community c e n t e r s and neighborhood  houses might a l s o be a p p r o p r i a t e .  A t t h e moment, s c h o o l systems a r e  not a t t u n e d to the conduct of e d u c a t i o n o u t s i d e of the school ing because of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e I n e x p e r i e n c e needs arid c u l t u r e of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d . governing functional  further  and/or  build-  Indifference  Government  to  the  regulations  e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g a l s o tend t o I n h i b i t more  approaches.  Both t h e s e f a c t o r s c o n s t i t u t e b a r r i e r s  that  I n t e r f e r e w i t h s u i t a b l e program development. Furthermore, larger  Instructional  culture.  require  groups than are s u i t e d to the d i s a d v a n t a g e d s u b -  Such groups are ad hoc s t r u c t u r e s  characteristics rejects.  r e g u l a t i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e  In t h e  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of  l a r g e r s o c i e t y which t h e p o v e r t y  S m a l l e r n a t u r a l or autonomous  the  sub-culture  l o c a l i t y groups a r e  better  s u i t e d t o t h e s u b - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d as t h e s e p e r m i t more p e r s o n a l i z e d communication and Inter—personal  contacts.  82 The  Instructional  p r o c e s s e s used In o r d i n a r y  educational  s i t u a t i o n s are a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a mass c u l t u r e but they are  rejected  by t h e p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e as too Impersonal and forma 1 1 s t ! c .  More  emphasis Is needed on d e m o n s t r a t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n , and s i m i l a r p r o c e s s e s which Involve the Individual  In  l e a r n i n g as an a c t i v e  r a t h e r than as a p a s s i v e o b s e r v e r . materials w i l l  participant  Textbooks and s i m i l a r  Instructional  need t o be c o n s t r u c t e d out of t h e e x p e r i e n c e s  shared  In t h e p o v e r t y s u b - c u l t u r e so t h a t they a r e Immediately r e l e v a n t and practical  as s o l u t i o n s t o f a m i l i a r p r o b l e m s .  An Important p r e r e q u i s i t e t o t h e o p e r a t i o n of  effective  remedial e d u c a t i o n a l programs Is the s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of competent I n s t r u c t o r s . training  They s h o u l d be I n s t r u c t o r s who have s p e c i a l i z e d  In a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  ogy and a n t h r o p o l o g y  Formal c o u r s e work  In s o c i o l o g y ,  s h o u l d b e t t e r enable such I n s t r u c t o r s  to  psycholunderstand  d i s a d v a n t a g e d p e o p l e In terms of t h e i r cuHure, t h e i r s o c i a l r o l e s , and their  Individual  background,  behavioral  Instructors  responses ( 7 5 ) ( 9 8 ) ( 2 9 1 ) .  are hardly  W i t h o u t such  In a p o s i t i o n t o s e l e c t and use  appropriate processes for t h e i r s p e c i a l c l i e n t e l e . E d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g programs designed f o r t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a d u l t must be p e r s o n a l , Informal  and I n d i v i d u a l .  In s h o r t ,  e d u c a t i o n a l approach must be abandoned In f a v o r of primary relationships  In the  learning s i t u a t i o n .  t h e mass group  Whether or not t h i s  Is p o s s i b l e  83 t o a c h i e v e w i t h i n t h e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l system remains t o be e x p l o r e d but t h e l i k e l i h o o d of success seems d u b i o u s .  VI.  SUMMARY  S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of e d u c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g t o s o l v e t h e problems I n h e r e n t In programs designed for t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d cannot be s t a t e d w i t h a s s u r a n c e a t p r e s e n t because of t h e s c a r c i t y of s u b s t a n t i a l r e s e a r c h . g e n e r a l i z e d I m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from e x i s t i n g r e s e a r c h as I n d i c a t e d  The  above  p r o v i d e c l u e s t o p l a n n i n g which s k i l l e d a d u l t e d u c a t o r s s h o u l d be a b l e t o t r a n s l a t e Into f u n c t i o n a l programs. and t r a i n i n g programs o f f e r s  The p r e s e n t c o u r s e of e d u c a t i o n a l  l i t t l e hope In answering the needs of  the  dIsadvantaged. Any p l a n f o r a remedy f o r d i s a d v a n t a g e must be concerned w i t h c u l t u r a l change which I n v o l v e s an a l t e r a t i o n In the o v e r — a l l way of Piecemeal approaches d i r e c t e d toward t h e a l l e v i a t i o n of will  not s o l v e t h e problem because they w i l l  environment  (NO).  an e c o l o g i c a l  Clearly  Individual  life. distress  not a l t e r the b a s i c c u l t u r a l  If t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d a r e t o be c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n  framework r a t h e r than a cause and e f f e c t m o d e l , t h e r e Is a  need t o deal w i t h m u l t i p l e l e v e l s of d i s a d v a n t a g e In a c o o r d i n a t e way which requires social  Institutions  u n l i k e any of those we now possess ( 9 5 ) .  84 Thus,  I t may be more economical In the  unrelated to present educational reconstruct  existing  systems.  long run to e s t a b l i s h new programs  Institutions  than t o attempt to  BIBLIOGRAPHY  1.  A Study of t h e R i l e y Park A r e a . Vancouver: Community C h e s t and C o u n c i l s , 1965.  Research Department,  2.  Abel I, Helen C . "Some Reasons f o r t h e P e r s i s t e n c e o f . Small F a r m s . " The Economic A n n a l i s t , 2 6 : 1 1 5 ( O c t o b e r , 1956).  3.  Abramson, Jane A . Adjustments A s s o c i a t e d w i t h M i g r a t i o n from Farm . O p e r a t o r t o Urban Wage E a r n e r . S a s k a t o o n : The Canadian C e n t r e f o r Community S t u d i e s , 1966.  4.  Abramson, Jane A . A Study of t h e E f f e c t s of D i s p l a c e m e n t on Farmers Whose Land was Purchased f o r Two Conmunlty P a s t u r e s In Saskatchewan. S a s k a t o o n : C e n t e r f o r Community S t u d i e s , 1965.  5.  Adair, J.B. Study of Education. Austin:  6.  Adamson, E d i t h . "Measuring t h e Need f o r A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n . " C o n t i n u o u s L e a r n i n g . 5 : 1 1 5 (May-June, 1966).  7.  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Washington,  3:35  Education,  JournaI  Special Planning  D.C:  105  26 I.  T r a i n i n g t h e Hard Core Unemployed—A D e m o n s t r a t i o n - R e s e a r c h P r o j e c t At V i r g i n i a State C o l l e g e . Norfolk D i v i s i o n . Washington, D . C : U . S . Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1964.  262.  Tremblay, M . A . and E. G o s s e l f n . "Le Contfnuum p a u v r e t e - p r o s p e r I t e : son u t i l e en t a n t qui I n d l c a t e u r de d e s I n t e g r a t I o n s o c l a l e . " S e r v i c e S o c i a l , 9 : 3 - 2 8 (November-December, I 9 6 0 ) .  263.  Urban Renewal Scheme I I I — M o u n t P l e a s a n t . C h e s t and C o u n c i l s ( 1 9 6 6 ) .  264.  Valentine, V.F. "Some Problems of t h e M e t i s of N o r t h e r n S a s k a t c h e w a n . " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s : A Canadian P r o f i l e . L a s k l n , R. ( e d . ) , New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964, p p . 1 1 6 - 1 2 4 .  265.  V a l l e e , F.G. "Kabloona and Eskimo In t h e C e n t r a l K e e w a t l n : and C o m p a r i s o n s . " Social Problems: A Canadian P r o f 1 l e . R. ( e d . ) , New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964, p p . 1 3 1 - 1 3 9 .  266.  Verner, C o o l i e . " A d u l t I l l i t e r a c y 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 6 1 . " The J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n ofi t h e F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 10:99 ( A p r i l , 1964).  267.  Verner, C o o l i e . "Human C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Slow Growing R e g i o n s . " S t i m u l a n t s t o S o c i a l Development In Slow Growing R e g i o n s . Winter, G . R . and W. Rogers ( e d s . ) . A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l E c o n o m i c s , U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and UnlversI t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967, p p . 1 6 - 3 1 .  Vancouver:  Community  Trends Laskln,  i  268.  Verner, C o o l i e . " C u l t u r a l V a l u e s and C o r r e c t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . " The J o u r n a l of C o r r e c t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . 19:6 ( A p r i l , 1962).  269.  V e r n e r , C o o l i e and A l a n Booth.. A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . W a s h i n g t o n , The C e n t e r f o r A p p l i e d Research In E d u c a t i o n , I n c . , 1964.  270.  V e r n e r , C o o l i e and George S . D a v i s . " C o m p l e t i o n s and Drop O u t s : A Review of R e s e a r c h . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 14:157 ( S p r I n g , 1964).  27 1.  V e r n e r , C o o l i e and P e t e r M . G u b b e l s . The A d o p t i o n o r R e j e c t i o n of I n n o v a t i o n s by D a i r y Farm O p e r a t o r s In t h e Lower F r a s e r V a l l e y . O t t a w a : A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research C o u n d I of Canada ( 1 9 6 7 ) .  272.  V e r n e r , C o o l i e and Frank W. Ml H e r d . 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" In R u r a l Canada In Trans It Ion T r e m b l a y , M . A . and W . J . Anderson ( e d s . ) , O t t a w a : A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research C o u n c i l of Canada, 1966, p p . 1 - 1 1 3 . T  232.  Whyte, Donald R. " S o c i o l o g i c a l A s p e c t s of P o v e r t y : A Conceptual A n a l y s i s . " Canadian Review of S o c i o l o g y and A n t h r o p o l o g y . 2:178 (November, 1965).  283.  Williams, P.V. "School D r o p o u t s . " 5 2 : 6 2 (May, 1963).  284.  Winch, R . F . The Modern F a m f l y . W i n s t o n , I n c . , 1963.  285.  W I r t h , L. Review.  286.  W I r t h , L. "The Problems of M i n o r i t y G r o u p s . " The S c i e n c e of Man and t h e World C r i s i s . R. L i n t o n ( e d . ) , New Y o r k : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1945, p p . 3 4 7 - 3 7 2 .  National Education  New Y o r k :  Journal.  H o l t , R l n e h a r t and  "Concensus and Mass C o m m u n i c a t i o n . " 13:1 ( F e b r u a r y , 1948).  American S o c i o l o g i c a l  107 287.  Workshop  fn A d u l t  Basic  Education.  E d u c a t i o n , Ohio S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y  Columbus: (1967).  Center  for  Adult  288.  W o r t l s , H . , B a r d a c h , J . , C u t l e r , R . , Rue, R. and A . Freedman. " C h i l d Reading P r a c t i c e s In a Low S o c l o - E c o n o m l c G r o u p . " P e d i a t r i c s . 3 2 : 2 9 8 (August, 1963).  289.  Young Workerst T h e i r S p e c i a l T r a i n i n g Needs. Manpower Research B u l l e t i n No. 3 ( 1 9 6 3 ) .  290.  Z e n t n e r , H. " C u l t u r a l A s s i m i l a t i o n Between Indians and N o n - I n d i a n s In Southern A l b e r t a . " S o c i a l P r o b l e m s : A Canadian P r o f 1 I e . L a s k l n , R. ( e d . ) , New Y o r k : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964, p p . 1 1 2 - 1 1 6 .  291.  Z I n t z , M.V. (ed.) T r a i n e r s of Teachers of Undereducated Albuquerque: U n i v e r s i t y of New M e x i c o , 1965.  Washington,  D.C.:  Adults.  A P P E N D I X  DIGEST OF PROGRAMS  108 Allen,  D.W. AN EXPERIMENT IN EDUCATION WITH THE LAUBACH LITERACY COURSE OF STUDY ON FILMS AT THE OHIO STATE REFORMATORY  Objectives The Laubach L i t e r a c y Course of t h e Ohio S t a t e Reformatory  purposes  as I t s o b j e c t i v e t o go beyond t h e mere a c q u i s i t i o n of academic and v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s t o a c h i e v e as I t s personality.  u l t i m a t e g o a l , a s o c i a l i z e d and I n t e g r a t e d human  A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s goal  Is t h e a c q u i s i t i o n of an Improved  s t a t u s of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s In t h e areas o f :  (I)  ship;  competency;  (2)  H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ;  (4)  Citizenship  (6)  Ethical  Ideals;  (5)  (3)  Vocational  Home member-  R e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e t i m e a c t i v i t i e s ; and  relations.  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program  The program was o r g a n i z e d In  I960 a s : a p i l o t program In  e d u c a t i o n by t h e Ohio S t a t e R e f o r m a t o r y .  literacy  The n e c e s s a r y f a c i l i t i e s and s t u -  dent m a t e r i a l s were p r o v i d e d by the I n s t i t u t i o n .  The experImentvwas  directed  by t h e A s s i s t a n t S u p e r i n t e n d e n t of t h e Reformatory who was a s s i s t e d In t h e programming of t h e p r o j e c t by t h e L i t e r a c y D i v i s i o n of t h e John C . Campbell F o l k School of North C a r o l i n a .  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e t e a c h e r on f i l m ,  were c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o s u p e r v i s e s t u d e n t work done a t t h e The  l i t e r a c y program was designed f o r t h e I l l i t e r a t e  Ohio S t a t e R e f o r m a t o r y , and d u r i n g t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of 288 Inmates.  Its  16 weeks of o p e r a t i o n ,  there  reformatory. Inmates of It  the  Involved a  109 Format To I n i t i a t e t h e program, four 40 s t u d e n t s  literacy classes with provision  In each were e s t a b l i s h e d .  for  The c l a s s e s were then a s s i g n e d a  s c h o o l and work s c h e d u l e on a l t e r n a t e d a y s . On a s c h o o l day, one t o two l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n f i l m s were p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g t h e morning s e s s i o n . and d r i l l  In t h e a f t e r n o o n , t h e r e was r e v i e w ,  under t h e s u p e r v i s i o n of a c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r .  t h e t e a c h e r s , u s i n g t h e work t e x t books, r e - t a u g h t , the  lessons p r e v i o u s l y  In t h e s e s e s s i o n s  reviewed and reworked  p r e s e n t e d by t h e t e a c h e r on f i l m .  each week was a l l o w e d f o r a d d i t i o n a l d r i l l ,  practice,  F u r t h e r , one day  review and p r a c t i c e In t h e c o n -  s o l i d a t i o n of t h e l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The Laubach L i t e r a c y Course of Study was employed. 98 f i l m lessons t a u g h t by an e x p e r t l i t e r a c y t e a c h e r .  It provided  for  Each of t h e s e f i l m  l e s s o n s which were 30 minutes l o n g , were a l s o supplemented w i t h s t u d e n t work m a t e r i a l s and c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r g u i d e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l achievement was e v a l u a t e d as t h e program p r o g r e s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g s t a n d a r d achievement s c a l e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d In t h e i l i s t e d order: 1.  S t a n f o r d Achievement T e s t , Advanced B a t t e r y , P a r t i a l ,  Form J .  2.  M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , Elementary B a t t e r y ,  Form A .  3.  M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , Elementary B a t t e r y ,  Form B.  Eva Iuatlon  For t h e 288 Inmates who p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r v a r y i n g  I n t e r v a l s of time  In t h e e d u c a t t o n a l program, t h e r e was an average e d u c a t i o n a l achievement  I 10 Increment of 2.1 g r a d e s . for the f u l l  The 108 cases who p a r t i c i p a t e d In the program  16 weeks showed an average e d u c a t i o n achievement Increment  of 2 . 5 g r a d e s .  As f o r t h e average r e a d i n g grade achievement  t h e r e was a 2.1 grade l e v e l g a i n f o r t h e for  Increment,  108 s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d  16 weeks,.:.and a 1.7 grade g a i n f o r t h e 288 Inmates.  111 Bertrand,  C.A.  AN EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF THE TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS  Objective On t h e b a s i s of t h e f i n d i n g s of a p r i o r r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t  In p r o -  grammed l e a r n i n g a t t h e Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l C e n t e r of E l m o r e , Alabama, t h e o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study was t o I n v e s t i g a t e t h e r e h a b i l i t a t i v e v a l u e of programmed  Instruction.  Eva I u a t l o n The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n s were made a f t e r two y e a r s of  study:  1.  Most of t h e p r i s o n s t a f f r e c o g n i z e d the v a l u e of programmed  Instruction.  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t , they began d e v e l o p i n g programmed m a t e r i a l t h a t was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e s e a r c h . 2.  The m a j o r i t y of  Inmates who were I n t e r e s t e d  programmed I n s t r u c t i o n over c o n v e n t i o n a l 3.  In t h e i r e d u c a t i o n p r e f e r r e d  Instruction.  The Inmate p o p u l a t i o n c o n t a i n e d I n d i v i d u a l s who were c a p a b l e and w i l l i n g t o w r i t e programmed m a t e r i a l .  4.  Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n can be e f f e c t i v e l y used f o r both s u p e r v i s e d c l a s s r o o m study and s e l f - s t u d y  5.  In a c e l l .  The s t y l e s of w r i t i n g which were developed were s u i t a b l e f o r study by the t y p e of  Inmate t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d In the  project.  I 12  6.  Study of  l i n e a r programs  In a c e l l was more e f f e c t i v e  If  presentation  was by machine r a t h e r than by book. 7.  P r e s e n t a t i o n s by machine In c e l l s were s u p e r i o r t o p r e s e n t a t i o n s  by  machines In c l a s s r o o m s . 8.  P r e s e n t a t i o n s by book In a c l a s s r o o m were s u p e r i o r to p r e s e n t a t i o n s  by  book In a c e l l . 9.  The s e l e c t i o n of w r i t i n g s t y l e f o r a program s h o u l d be based l a r g e l y the p r e f e r e n c e by t h e w r i t e r  s i n c e no advantage of one over the  was found by t h i s r e s e a r c h .  If  linear style  s h o u l d be made f o r t h e w r i t i n g of  responses.  Is s e l e c t e d ,  other  provision  on  I 13 B r o o k s , Lyman B.  fit.  aI .  RE-EDUCATION OF UNEMPLOYED AND UNSKILLED WORKERSNORFOLK DIVISION, VIRGINIA STATE COLLEGE. NORFOLK. VIRGINIA  Objective The major o b j e c t i v e of t h e Demonstration Research P r o j e c t was t o demonstrate and e v a l u a t e c e r t a i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e s of t e a c h i n g and l e a r n i n g on t h e r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g of u n s k i l l e d , workers. 1.  The p r I n c I p I e s were:  The u n s k i l l e d , unemployed a d u l t s can l e a r n a new s e t of skills  In an I n t e n s i v e  In t h e i r  life  situations.  U n s k i l l e d a d u l t s can l e a r n enough s k i l l s and I n t e r n a l i z e for q u a l i f y i n g (language a r t s , relations) training  3.  occupational  12-month program which Is designed t o t a k e Into  account t h e p e r s o n a l a t t r i b u t e s 2.  unemployed  number s k i l l s ,  occupational  In t h e  Information,  essential  education  and human vocational  12-month p e r i o d .  of t h e p r e c e d i n g  are:  When t h e c o m b i n a t i o n of general and guidance Is g i v e n , t h e r e  education, vocational  Is an Improvement  a b i l i t i e s as measured by s t a n d a r d i z e d b.  In general  and a guidance supplement a r e g i v e n a l o n g w i t h  Correlatives a.  f o r c e r t a i n t r a d e s when t r a i n i n g  values  Good employment adjustment Job a f t e r t r a i n i n g ,  etc.)  (as will  f u l c o m p l e t i o n of t h e General  training  In a p t i t u d e s and  tests.  Indexed by g e t t i n g and h o l d i n g a be a subsequent c o r r e l a t e of Educational-Vocational  success-  Program.  I 14 4.  That c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s of a p t i t u d e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e as w e l l as c e r t a i n I n v e n t o r i e s of a.  Interests  have:  p r e d i c t i v e v a l u e In the s e l e c t i o n of t r a i n e e s who a r e u n s k i l l e d , unemployed a d u l t s .  b.  utility  In t h e development of the m a t e r i a l s and t h e t r a i n i n g  program a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s 5.  group.  That general e d u c a t i o n supplemented w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g Is an e s s e n t i a l c o r r e l a t e of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g  If  a d u l t u n s k i l l e d workers a r e t o make  good adjustments In t h e i r new o c c u p a t i o n s .  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program  The I n i t i a l  proposal  f o r t h e Demonstration Research P r o j e c t was  designed by an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y  group a t V i r g i n i a S t a t e C o l l e g e .  Support  f o r t h i s study was p r o v i d e d t h r o u g h two s e p a r a t e g r a n t s , one from t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n under t h e C o - o p e r a t i o n Research Program and t h e other of  from t h e O f f i c e of Manpower, Automation and T r a i n i n g of t h e Department  Labour. To e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e t e c h n i q u e s and m a t e r i a l s used  In t h e p r o j e c t ,  the s t a f f  Imposed an e x p e r i m e n t a l d e s i g n on t h e r e t r a i n i n g  and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s u s i n g s t a t i s t i c a l and m e n s u r a t l v e methods on 200 persons who were d i v i d e d Into the f o l l o w i n g Group A —  Main E x p e r i m e n t a l  Group  Group B —  S u b s i d i a r y Experimental  Group C —  Main Control  Group D —  Subsidiary Control  Group Group  Group  groups:  I 15 Group A r e c e i v e d  I n t e n s i v e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g .  Group B r e c e i v e d t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g but no general e d u c a t i o n . received nelthen.generaI selling  nor t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g .  ff they s o l i c i t e d I t ,  while Individuals  Group C  Group D r e c e i v e d c o u n In Groups A, B, and C  r e c e i v e d p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g as t h e need a r o s e .  In a d d i t i o n , members of  t h e s e t h r e e groups r e c e i v e d group guidance on a s y s t e m a t i c b a s i s . C and D were g i v e n a. s m a l l honorarium t o a s s u r e t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g  Groups contact  and c o - o p e r a t i o n In s u p p l y i n g program r e c o r d s through t e s t i n g and I n t e r v i e w s w h i l e members of Groups A and B r e c e i v e d a weekly a l l o w a n c e . two e x p e r i m e n t a l Groups, A and B, were d i v i d e d  Each of  Into f i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l  the groups  of t e n t r a i n e e s e a c h .  The t r a i n e e s f o r a g i v e n o c c u p a t i o n In Group A were  matched w i t h t r a i n e e s  In Group B t a k i n g t h e same o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and  t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t were a p p l i e d t o age, e d u c a t i o n , and general a p t i t u d e s of t h e two groups  I n d i c a t e d no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s  between  t h e two g r o u p s .  Eva I u a t l o n In e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t s of t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on p o s t - t r a i n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e s , t h e men who completed t h e c o m b i n a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m (Group A) were I d e n t i f i e d by t h e 1.  They r e c e i v e d h i g h e r r a t i n g s by I n s t r u c t o r s , s a l a r i e s and h i g h e r  2.  following:  Instructors  higher t e s t s c o r e s ,  higher  I n d i c a t i o n s of Job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  ranked 65 per cent of t h e "A." group as "most l i k e l y t o -  succeed In c o n t r a s t t o 35 per cent In t h e " B " g r o u p .  I  3.  Men i n "A" group gained an average of 9 . 2 p o i n t s by the Army R e v i s e d Beta I n t e l l i g e n c e Reading Survey;  Test;  in I . 0 .  as measured  1.8 y e a r s on the Gates  2 . 9 p e r c e n t i l e ranks on the S . R . A . Test of  and 4 . 9 p o i n t s on t h e GATB I.Q.  test.  16  Men i n the  Arithmetic  lower h a l f of  the  group as measured by s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s seemed to b e n e f i t more from' t h e i n s t r u c t i o n ; Gates Reading s c o r e g a i n s , grades f o r the 4.  lower h a l f as compared t o  f o r example, were 2.1  1.8 grades for the t o t a l .  More men in the "A" group were employed a t the time of the  interview,  95 t o 74 per cent w i t h a h i g h e r g r o s s average-'week I y s a l a r y . 5.  Men in Group "A" u t i l i z e d a l a r g e r v a r i e t y ment and sought h i g h e r p a y i n g ,  6.  of methods of s e c u r i n g  h i g h e r s t a t u s jobs o u t s i d e t h e i r  employ-  fields.  Men i n group "A" e x h i b i t e d a high i n c i d e n c e of Job s a t i s f a c t i o n . In e v a l u a t i n g the r e s u l t s of the t r a i n i n g between the  and c o n t r o l employed.  groups,  a h i g h e r percentage of the experimental  They r e c e i v e d a h i g h e r  experimental  group were  r a t e of pay, a c q u i r e d more p r o m o t i o n ,  l e s s Job m o b i l i t y and expressed g r e a t e r  job s a t i s f a c t i o n .  had  I 17 Brown, E.J.  et. a1 .  EVALUATION OF A GOODS AND NUTRITION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN WlLKES-BARRE. PENNSYLVANIA  Objective  A p i l o t Food Stamp Program was e s t a b l i s h e d In P e n n s y l v a n i a w i t h t h e e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e t o I n c r e a s e t h e knowledge of homemakers In Income f a m i l i e s about n u t r i t i o n and foods and t o p r o v i d e them s o u r c e s Information.  A s e r i e s of  12 IBM c a r d s which Included  lowof  Information to the  p a r t i c i p a t i n g f a m i l i e s about foods and n u t r i t i o n were t h e method of t e a c h ing.  The f o l l o w i n g were t h e s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s  of t h i s  1.  To determine whether homemakers c o u l d r e c a l l  2.  To determine whether homemakers read t h e c a r d s ;  3.  To a s c e r t a i n whether homemakers used v a r i o u s  program:  receiving the cards;  foods and r e c i p e s mentioned  on t h e c a r d s ; 4.  To o b t a i n from homemakers t h e i r " f e l t " problems In f e e d i n g t h e i r  5.  To a s c e r t a i n t h e communication c h a n n e l s homemakers u s e d , t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s of t h e i r  6.  To determine whether s e l e c t e d p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l a s s o c i a t e d w i t h use made of  families;  personal  families;  f a c t o r s were  I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c a r d s .  Administration  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e p r o j e c t was t h e J o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of Department of H e a l t h and W e l f a r e , t h e S t a t e Government,  and t h e  the  Co-operative  I 18 Extension Service, Pennsylvania State U n i v e r s i t y . t h e mass m e d i a , was conducted between A p r i l WlIkes-Barre D i s t r i c t ,  Luzerne C o u n t y .  This p r o j e c t ,  utilizing  and September 1964 i n t h e  A s y s t e m a t i c l i s t sample was used  t o s e l e c t a seven per cent sample (161 names).  The i n t e r v i e w i n g of  this  sample was conducted by 27 s t a f f members of the P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e University. of  During t h e one day t h a t was s e t a s i d e f o r  interviews,  a total  1 4 5 ' I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d .  Evaluation  The I n t e r v i e w s r e p o r t e d t h a t 91 per cent of the sample had seen the s e t of  12 c a r d s .  It was b e l i e v e d t h a t t h i s n i n e per c e n t of  homemakers had. a c t u a I I y r e c e i ved the card's. receipt,  Of the group which acknowledged  c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e use  of c a r d s .  The homemaker was more l i k e l y t o read the c a r d s i f husband and  w i f e were t o g e t h e r ,  i f t h e r e were more than two in the f a m l l y ,  under 60 years of age, monthly  non-cognizant  If  i f she was  she c o u l d read E n g l i s h c o m p e t e n t l y , and i f  Income was $150 or more.  S i x t y - n i n e per c e n t of t h e sample  c a t e d t h a t the c a r d s were of h e l p t o them.  the Indi-  It was acknowledged t h a t change  of knowledge would not be adequate t o have people adopt new food h a b i t s . Programs must a l s o t a k e i n t o account a complex s e t of  attitudes.  Each homemaker was g i v e n a q u a n t i t a t i v e s c o r e based on the number of r e c i p e s which she had t r i e d  from the s e l e c t e d group of seven r e c i p e s .  A  w e i g h t of one was g i v e n f o r each r e c i p e so t h a t s c o r e s c o u l d range from zero to seven.  F o r t y - t w o per c e n t of t h i s group had a s c o r e of z e r o ,  14  I  per c e n t a s c o r e of o n e ,  I I per cent had a s c o r e of two, 20 per cent a  s c o r e of t h r e e , and 14 per cent a s c o r e of more than t h r e e . makers were d i v i d e d  19  The home-  Into t h r e e g r o u p i n g s based on theser..scores:  zero,  one t o two, and t h r e e t o s e v e n .  A number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c r o s s  tabulated with these groupings.  The f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e number  of r e c i p e s t r i e d w e r e :  h i g h e r monthly Income,  i l i e s not on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e .  l a r g e r f a m i l i e s , and fam-  The amount of formal s c h o o l i n g of  the  homemaker and her a b i l i t y t o read E n g l i s h were r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h t h e number of r e c i p e s t h a t were t r i e d . A s i m i l a r r a t i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d t o determine If t h e homemaker had a c q u a i n t e d h e r s e l f w i t h v a r i o u s k i n d s of n u t r i t i o u s and economical  foods.  The homemakers were d i v i d e d Into t h r e e g r o u p i n g s based on a weight of one g i v e n f o r each of t h e s i x recommended f o o d s .  The s c o r e s a t t a i n e d were:  z e r o t o two (23 per c e n t ) , t h r e e t o f o u r (44 per c e n t ) ,  f i v e t o s i x (33 per  cent).  In r e l a t i n g homemakers' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t o t h e number of  served,  It was noted t h a t t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e tendency of t h o s e homemakers  who had a b i l i t y t o read E n g l i s h and had h i g h e r more of t h e f o o d s .  f a m i l y Incomes t o be u s i n g  Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e . g . ,  f a m l l y , were not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e number of  foods  formal e d u c a t i o n , s i z e of  foods u s e d .  However,  the  change In t h e Food Stamp Program r a t h e r than t h e Penny P l a n n e r c a r d s was g i v e n as t h e most l o g i c a l reason f o r change In t h e use of new f o o d s . The homemakers I n d i c a t e d t h a t they enjoyed c o o k i n g ; b u t , o n l y one per cent a t t e n d e d a meeting In t h e p r i o r year where foods were d i s c u s s e d . Another  Interesting  f i n d i n g was t h a t t h e group d i d t h e i r  entertaining  120 p r i m a r i l y among members of t h e i r  Immediate f a m i l y or w i t h a r e l a t i v e .  A l t h o u g h t h e r e was a lack of communication w i t h t h e i r n e i g h b o r s ,  almost  all  their  of t h e group were I n f l u e n c e d by r a d i o and TV.  In r e s p e c t t o  membership In o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 85 per c e n t belonged t o a c h u r c h .  Although  8 1 per cent did,,not belong t o another o r g a n i z a t i o n o t h e r t h a n t h e c h u r c h , t h e most l i k e l y o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h e P a r e n t - T e a c h e r A s s o c i a t i o n . The need f o r more p e r s o n a l approaches t o change b e h a v i o r was a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g of t h i s s t u d y ,  significantly  a l t h o u g h t h e mass media method  had been a c c e p t e d w i t h a h i g h degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n by t h e Food Stamp Program r e c i p i e n t s .  121 Bunger, M, A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF OPERATJON ALPHABET IN FLORIDA AND AN EVALUATION OF CERTAIN PROCEDURES EMPLOYED  Objectives In her study of O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t In F l o r i d a , Bunger s t a t e d t h e main purposes a s : 1.  To r e l a t e t h e h i s t o r y of t h i s movement In F l o r i d a ;  2.  To d e s c r i b e t h e O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t Campaign; and  3.  To e v a l u a t e some of t h e I n s t r u c t i o n a l  procedures u s e d .  AdmlnIstratlon The O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t S e r i e s was Implemented In F e b r u a r y , as a s t a t e - w i d e  l i t e r a c y campaign.  1963,  The 98 h a l f - h o u r t e l e c a s t s were t r a n s -  m i t t e d by f i v e e d u c a t i o n a l and f o u r commercial s t a t i o n s which served F l o r i d a c o u n t i e s c o n t a i n i n g 75 per c e n t of t h e I l l i t e r a t e or I l l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n In t h e s t a t e . were M i a m i ,  the  functionally  The s i x major urban a r e a s s t u d i e d  J a c k s o n v i l l e , S t . P e t e r s b u r g , Tampa, Orlando and P e n s a e o l a .  The s t a t e wide program I n v o l v e d t h e e x p e n d i t u r e of over $50,000 f o r v i d e o tapes a l o n e . cial  In a d d i t i o n , thousands of d o l l a r s worth of commer-  and e d u c a t i o n a l t e l e v i s i o n t i m e was d o n a t e d . 1  for Continuing University personnel  The F l o r i d a  Institute  S t u d i e s c o n t r i b u t e d f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t and the  f o r t e a c h e r — t r a i n i n g programs, as w e l l as s p o n s o r i n g a b r o c h u r e .  122 The F l o r i d a S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n a l o n g w i t h  local school o f f i c i a l s  and community groups a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d much t i m e and money t o t h e By June, Florida  project.  1963, a survey of a l l t h e d i r e c t o r s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  I n d I c a t e d t t h a t 64 c l a s s e s had been o r g a n i z e d .  In  It was a l s o r e v e a l e d  t h a t 4,247 TV Home Study Guides had been d i s t r i b u t e d , and I t was e s t i m a t e d t h a t some 5,004 I l l i t e r a t e s  and f u n c t i o n a l  I l l i t e r a t e s were p a r t i c i p a t i n g  In t h e s e r i e s . B e s i d e s the t e l e v i s i o n t e a c h e r , d i r e c t o r s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s were I n v o l v e d In t h e o p e r a t i o n of t h e program.  The  d e v i c e s and m a t e r i a l s employed c o n s i s t e d of the O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t or Laubach K i n e s c o p e s , and a TV Home Study Guide t o be used'.by t h e s t u d e n t . I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t had minimum r e a d i n g s k i l l  158 s a i d t h a t they c o u l d not read a t a I I or  p r i o r to watching Operation Alphabet.  were l i s t e d as t h e most Important s o u r c e by which s t u d e n t s program.  Ninety-four  Employers  learned of  s t u d e n t s were Informed by t h i s s o u r c e .  the  Forty-one  learned of t h e program from p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s ; 27 from t e l e v i s i o n announcements; 22 from a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r s ;  18 from s c h o o l s ; and 13 from  friends. Of t h e  180 s t u d e n t s who used t h e Home-Study Gutde, 97 s t u d e n t s  l i s t e d t h e employer as t h e most Important s o u r c e f o r ! , h e l p i n g t o  procure  t h e G u i d e s ; 40 named t h e p r i s o n ; and 25 named t h e s c h o o l .  Format  The study was conducted by a r e s e a r c h e r o b t a i n i n g data f o r a doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n .  The s u b j e c t of t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h e O p e r a t i o n  123 Alphabet t e l e c a s t s e r i e s  In F l o r i d a .  The I n v e s t i g a t o r s e t out hour  t h e s e s and four c r i t e r i o n by which t o e v a l u a t e t h e t e l e v i s i o n  hypo-  literacy  series. S u b j e c t s from t h e s i x major F l o r i d a urban a r e a s , as w e l l as p a r t i c i p a t i n g s t u d e n t s a t t h e R a l f o r d and t h e Lowell C o r r e c t i o n a l were s e l e c t e d .  In a l l 243 s t u d e n t s , 31 t e a c h e r s and 10 d i r e c t o r s of  e d u c a t i o n became s u b j e c t s of t h e Three d i s t i n c t ' I n t e r v i e w to gather d e s c r i p t i v e  adult  Investigation. s c h e d u l e s were c o n s t r u c t e d and employed  I n f o r m a t i o n and o p i n i o n s from t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s a t  each l e v e l of O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t :  the a d u l t s t u d e n t s , the  t e a c h e r s and t h e d i r e c t o r s of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . T e s t was s e l e c t e d as the Informal ing  Institutes  volunteer  The GIImore Oral Reading  r e a d i n g Inventory t o determine t h e r e a d -  l e v e l of t h e a d u l t s t u d e n t a t t h e t i m e of t h e  Interview.  Evaluation  In e v a l u a t i n g t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t program, Bunger employed f o u r c c r I t e r I a of judgment. Operational Alphabet t h e end of t h e s t u d y ;  literacy (2)  They were:  (I)  l e v e l of a l l t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  the p o s t I n t e r v i e w e d at  t h e changes In e n r o l l m e n t In p u b l i c s c h o o l  l i t e r a c y and elementary e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s ;  (3)  t h e p e r c e n t a g e of  adult  adult  I l l i t e r a t e s who remained In O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t f o r more than 20 l e s s o n s , and t h e p e r c e n t a g e of those who remained a f t e r t h e s e v e n t y - f i f t h (4)  l e s s o n ; and  t h e s t a t e m e n t s of o p i n i o n and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s t r o n g and weak p o i n t s  as I d e n t i f i e d by s t u d e n t s , by t h e v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s and by t h e d i r e c t o r s adult education.  of  124 Four hypotheses were I n v e s t i g a t e d 1.  and r e p o r t e d o n .  There Is no d i f f e r e n c e In t h e two groups of O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t s t u d e n t s (group study and I n d i v i d u a l  s t u d y ) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n who  s c o r e d above and below 3 . 0 on t h e c r i t e r i o n 2.  They were:  test.  There Is no d i f f e r e n c e In t h e two groups of O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t s t u d e n t s ( t h o s e who used t h e Home Study Guide Book and t h o s e who d i d not) r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n who s c o r e d above and below 3 . 0 on t h e  with criter-  ion t e s t . 3.  There Is no d i f f e r e n c e In t h e two groups of O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t s t u d e n t s ( t h o s e who watched r e g u l a r l y and t h o s e who watched l e s s than t e n t i m e s ) w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n who s c o r e d above and below 3 . 0 on t h e criterion  4.  test.  There Is no d i f f e r e n c e between t h e t h r e e c o u n t i e s  Tn t h e study  r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n of a d u l t s e n r o l l e d In a d u l t  with  l i t e r a c y and  elementary e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s a t p r e - and p o s t - t e s t i n g t i m e s . The method of s t a t i s t i c a l ana IysIs T f o r t e s t i n g t h e four w a s t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of the c h [ - s q u a r e t e s t .  For hypotheses  I,  hypotheses 2 , and 3 the  c h l - s q u a r e t e s t was a p p l i e d t o s t u d e n t s c o r e s o b t a i n e d from t h e GIImore O r a l Reading T e s t .  The c r i t i c a l v a l u e f o r a c c e p t a n c e of t h e hypotheses was  determined at t h e . 0 5 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . As f o r c r i t e r i o n  I,  an e x a m i n a t i o n of the c o m p i l e d data from t h e  GIImore O r a l Reading T e s t s c o r e s r e v e a l e d t h a t  154 s t u d e n t s  ( 6 3 . 3 per  cent)  s c o r e d below 3 . 0 compared t o 89 s t u d e n t s who a c h i e v e d s c o r e s of 3 . 0 or above.  Of t h e  104 s u b j e c t s who watched t h e program r e g u l a r l y ,  62' s c o r e d  125 below 3 . 0 on t h e c r i t e r i o n t e s t w h i l e 42 s c o r e d above t h e 3 . 0 l e v e l . A l t h o u g h t h e O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t p r o m o t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s suggested t h a t s t u d e n t s who pursued t h e c o u r s e s h o u l d have a t t a i n e d a t l e a s t t h e grade  third  l e v e l by t h e end of t h e c o u r s e , t h e data I n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e t e s t e d  p o p u l a t i o n In t h i s study d i d not reach t h a t g o a l . were s t i l l  In f a c t ,  132 s t u d e n t s  r e a d i n g a t t h e f i r s t grade l e v e l or b e l o w .  In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c r i t e r i o n 2 , t h e data d i d not seem t o  Indicate  f o r t h e c o u n t i e s sampled t h a t O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t had a f f e c t e d t h e e n r o l l ments of a d u l t p u b l i c s c h o o l  l i t e r a c y and elementary e d u c a t i o n t o any  extent. As f o r c r i t e r i o n 3 , t h e d a t a I n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y of student population Interviewed s e r i e s w i t h any r e g u l a r i t y  the  f o r study d i d not c o n t i n u e t o watch t h e  a f t e r the twentIeth l e s s o n .  There were 104  s t u d e n t s who s t a t e d they had watched the program r e g u l a r l y ,  compared t o  139 who,-reported t h a t they had watched J u s t a few t i m e s or j u s t o f f and o n . The f i n d i n g s f o r c r i t e r i o n 4 were r e v e a l e d s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses.  In s t a t e m e n t s of  Students were Impressed w i t h t h e t e l e v i s i o n  t e a c h e r and h i s method of p r e s e n t a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n .  This c r i t i c i s m  d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h t i m e s c h e d u l i n g and r a t e of speed lessons were and l o s s of p e r s o n a l  taught,  contact.  The t e a c h e r s f e l t t h a t t h e alms and purpose of t h e program were h i g h l y commendable and t h a t t h e s e r i e s  I t s e l f was q u i t e g o o d .  c i s m concerned t h e f a c t t h a t t i m e s c h e d u l i n g was not good, too r a p i d l y ,  volunteer  t e a c h e r s coulduuse more h e l p .  Their  criti-  lessons p r o g r e s s e d  They f e l t t h a t  their  126  work was g r e a t l y hampered by g e n e r a l d i s i n t e r e s t , a p a t h y , and by t h e embarrassment of t h e i r  students.  The d i r e c t o r s commended t h e t e l e v i s i o n b r o a d c a s t , t h e t e a c h e r and his teaching techniques. grams brought a l l  They were p l e a s e d w i t h t h e f a c t t h a t such p r o -  f a c e t s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e t h e p u b l i c .  d i r e c t o r s were c r i t i c a l of t h e learner.  The  lack of p e r s o n a l communication w i t h t h e  They were d i s t u r b e d by t h e f a i l u r e of t h e v o l u n t e e r  teachers  and t h e s t u d e n t s who f a i l e d t o f o l l o w through w i t h t h e i r commitments. They were a l s o c r i t i c a l of the t i m e s c h e d u l i n g of t h e t e l e c a s t . ln t h e t e s t i n g of t h e four h y p o t h e s e s ,  It was found t h a t t h e  d i f f e r e n c e s t a t e d In hypothesIscone was s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e . 0 5 l e v e l above a n d , t h e r e f o r e , t h e h y p o t h e s i s was r e j e c t e d .  or  Hence, t h e r e was  found t o be a d i f f e r e n c e In t h e two groups of O p e r a t i o n A l p h a b e t s t u d e n t s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o r t i o n of t h o s e who s c o r e d above^and below 3 . 0 on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t .  The s t u d e n t s who s t u d i e d In groups made more p r o g r e s s  In r e a d i n g t h a n v t h o s e who s t u d i e d  Individually.  However, t h e s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of hypotheses two, t h r e e , four  and  I n d i c a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h e . 0 5 l e v e l , and,  therefore,  t h e s e hypotheses c o u l d not be r e j e c t e d .  The use of t h e Home-Study Guide d i d not appear t o make any d i f f e r — ence In t h e r e a d i n g of t h e O p e r a t i o n a l A l p h a b e t s t u d e n t s .  Nor d i d  r e g u l a r i t y of w a t c h i n g t h e t e l e c a s t s Insure s u c c e s s In r e a d i n g  Improvement.  It was t h e r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l t h o u g h much t i m e , and money had been spent In the over—all  effort  launching t h e O p e r a t i o n a l A l p h a b e t campaign,  program was not s u c c e s s f u l  In any of t h e areas e v a l u a t e d .  127 C r o h n , B u r r I I I L. THE D1EB0LD LITERACY PROJECT:  PROGRAMMING FOR THE ILLITERATE ADULT  Objectives  The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e DJebold L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t were d e f i n e d on t h e b a s i s of t h e assumption t h a t t h e I l l i t e r a t e had a l e v e l of command of spoken language.  the  Through t h e use of a minimum number of words t h a t were  In t h e l e a r n e r ' s spoken v o c a b u l a r y ,  s p e c i a l l y designed w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s  were developed f o r t h e a c q u i s i t i o n and d e m o n s t r a t i o n of r e a d i n g  skills.  The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h e program were: 1.  Sight recognition —  t h e development of t h e a b i l i t y t o read out  loud  a g i v e n number of words In a manner t h a t t r a n s m i t s meaning t o o t h e r members of o n e ' s environment w i t h o u t p i c t o r i a l or c o n t e x t u a l 2.  Information reception —  t h e I d e n t i f i c a t i o n by t h e  support.  l e a r n e r of a sound  t h a t he makes In t h e presence of a w r i t t e n word which r e l a t e s t o words t h a t are p a r t of h i s spoken v o c a b u l a r y of t h e w r i t t e n word as I t 3.  Independent r e c o g n i t i o n —  Is used In  In o r d e r t o a c q u i r e t h e meaning context.  t h e use of p r e v i o u s l y  learned I n f o r m a t i o n t o  master u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l .  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program  The DIebold L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t was sponsored by Tougaloo C o l l e g e and came under t h e d i r e c t i o n of t h e Programmed L e a r n i n g Department of D I e b o l d Group,  Inc.,  New Y o r k .  the  The p r o j e c t c o n c e n t r a t e d on t h e development  128 of m a t e r i a l s f o r t h e a d u l t I l l i t e r a t e Negroes who r e s i d e d In t h e M i s s i s s i p p i Delta region.  Staff  f o r v t h e program were r e c r u i t e d from both M i s s i s s i p p i  and New Y o r k .  The program p a r t i c i p a n t s were  Northeast M i s s i s s i p p i (Tunica County).  l o c a t e d In t h e r u r a l area of  E i g h t y per cent of t h e p o p u l a t i o n  In t h e county r e s i d e d In t h e r u r a l areas and t h e i r median annual Income was $992.  family  The median number of school years completed by t h i s  group was 4 . 0 . Due t o t h e c o s t f a c t o r , t h e use of a u d i o - v i s u a l t e a c h i n g machines was r e j e c t e d .  A programmed book was designed f o r t h e p r o j e c t and I t s  r e s u l t e d In the program being c a l l e d t h e " d o u b l e t r a c k p r o g r a m " . auditory s t i m u l i for the  To  use  provide  l e a r n e r , t h e m a t e r i a l was designed t o u t i l i z e a  l i t e r a t e h e l p e r of t h e I l l i t e r a t e s .  I t was a c t u a l l y a c o n t r o l l e d t u t o r i a l  program. The I n i t i a l  c o u r s e m a t e r i a l was designed around t h e t e a c h i n g of  common nouns which were p a r t of t h e v o c a b u l a r y of t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s of program.  L a t e r t h e m a t e r i a l was r e o r g a n i z e d t o Increase the use of  c o n t e x t as s t i m u l i s u p p o r t  f o r new w o r d s .  Through t h e f i r s t developmental t e s t i n g , r e t e n t i o n as I n d i c a t e d by subsequent rate.  the  This resulted  that  lessons was low d e s p i t e a low e r r o r  In f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g  In v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n .  t e s t i n g a l s o p o i n t e d out t h e need f o r an Increase stimuli support.  It was d i s c o v e r e d  This  In t h e use of c o n t e x t as  The r e s e a r c h e r s r e a l i z e d t h e l i m i t a t i o n s of  their  129  Initial  word approach as people t a l k i n meaningful  language u n i t s .  use of t h e s m a l l e s t u n i t , t h e I s o l a t e d word,  lacked t h e c o n t e x t u a l  s y n t a c t i c s u p p o r t of  T h i s developmental  larger  language u n i t s .  The and  testing  has served as a d i a g n o s t i c purpose by p r o v i d i n g data about t h e s k i I Is and a b i l i t i e s of t h e I l l i t e r a t e s t h a t a r e beyond t h a t o b t a i n e d from p r e t e s t i n g . F u r t h e r development of t h i s p r o j e c t s h o u l d r e s u l t  In a d d i t i o n a l  findings.  130 D r a n e , R f c h a r d Stephen THE EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION TRAINING ON ADULT LITERACY EDUCATION IN A MENTAL HOSPITAL  Objective  The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s program was t o determine whether or adult  not  l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n would be more e f f e c t i v e when preceded by a p r o -  gram of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g .  Administration  A r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t was designed In February State H o s p i t a l ,  IndlanapoI I s ,  been I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d on a s t a n d a r d s c a l e ;  f o r more than one month; (2) (3)  had a r e a d i n g  p a t i e n t s who had an I.Q.  had a p r o b a b i l i t y of s t a y i n g  t h e c o m p l e t i o n of the s t u d y ; (5)  IndI ana f o r v o l u n t e e r  1966, a t C e n t r a l  (4)  Initial  had  above 70  In t h e h o s p i t a l  for  were above 15 y e a r s of age and below 6 5 ;  l e v e l below t h e e i g h t h grade (The Gray O r a l  T e s t was used f o r t h i s  (I)  Paragraph  selection).  The 30 p a t i e n t s who had q u a l i f i e d were randomly a s s i g n e d t o t h e two groups of  15.  hours per d a y .  The c l a s s e s met t h r e e days a week f o r one and o n e - h a l f  Each group met f o r a t o t a l of 45 h o u r s .  Group) had four weeks of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g — weeks of  literacy  Instruction —  27 h o u r s .  18 hours —  Group L ( L i t e r a c y 45 h o u r s .  (Training  and s i x Group) had  t e n weeks of  literacy  the  I n s t r u c t i o n were t h o s e d e s i g n a t e d In L a u b a c h ' s S t r e a m l i n e d  literacy  I n s t r u c t i o n only —  Group T  P r o c e d u r e s used  In  131 English. 1.  The f o l l o w i n g procedures were o u t l i n e d f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of  The Nelson Reading T e s t (Form A) was g i v e n f o r t h e p r e - t e s t during the f i r s t  2.  s e s s i o n s f o r both Group T and Group  A f t e r s i x weeks of t h e s t u d y , a d m i n i s t e r e d t o both  3.  rating  L.  t h e Nelson Reading T e s t (Form B) was  groups.  At t h e end of ten weeks, t h e Nelson Reading T e s t (Form A) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o both  4.  data:  groups.  Four weeks a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e I n s t r u c t i o n ,  the  retention  p e r i o d , t h e Nelson Reading T e s t (Form B) was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o each g r o u p .  Evaluatlon  S i n c e Groups L and T were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y matched, F i s h e r ' s t e s t was used t o determine the s i m i l a r i t y of t h e p r e t e s t s c o r e s .  "t"  Because  of t h e s i z e of t h e two sample p o p u l a t i o n s , t h e S i g n T e s t and Median T e s t were a l s o u s e d . Three s e t s of t e s t s c o r e s between Group L and Group T were compared s t a t i s t i c a l l y to find t h e i r  differences  In t h i s s t u d y .  The mean s c o r e s  Group L and T on t h e p r e - t e s t were compared w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g mean s c o r e s on each of t h e o t h e r t h r e e t e s t s c o n s e c u t i v e l y .  group  The t e s t s  a d m i n i s t e r e d s i x weeks, t e n weeks, and f o u r t e e n weeks a f t e r t h e s t a r t t h e program.  for  were of  132  statistical Findings A f t e r 6 weeks — A l t h o u g h mean Improvement f o r group L Is h i g h e r than mean Improvement After  f o r group T, t h e d i f f e r e n c e was n o t found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t .  10 weeks  —  When F i s h e r ' s " t " t e s t was a p p l i e d t o t h e d a t a , d i f f e r e n c e was found between t h e mean grade l e v e l  no s i g n i f i c a n t  Improvement of Groups  T and L. After  14- weeks  —  Members of Group T advanced more In grade l e v e l t h a n t h o s e In Group L.  The d i f f e r e n c e , however,  t h e . 0 5 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  between means was n o t s i g n i f i c a n t a t  A c o n t i n u e d t r e n d of Improvement  of Group T Is shown as t h e t i m e between p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t  In f a v o r Increases.  The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between group means o c c u r r e d on t h e r e t e n tion test after t h a n Group L.  f o u r t e e n weeks w i t h Group T showing g r e a t e r  Improvement  133  EDUCATIONAL REHABILITATION: AIM EVALUATION OF THE ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS  Objective The purpose of G r e e n l e l g h A s s o c i a t e s I n c . was t o conduct an e v a l u a t i v e study of t h e a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n programs In t h e S t a t e of Illinois.  Admlnlstratlon  The a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n program of July  I l l i n o i s was e s t a b l i s h e d on  1963, by t h e General Assembly of the s t a t e .  The program was t o  provide  b a s i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n or both f o r r e c i p i e n t s under t h e P u b l i c A i d Code of  Illinois.  I t s o b j e c t i v e s were t o enhance t h e  opportunity  f o r s e l f - s u p p o r t and s e l f - c a r e and t o m i n i m i z e o r o b v i a t e t h e i r . . n e e d public assistance.  for  An amount of $ 4 , 0 5 0 , 0 0 0 was p r o v i d e d from F e d e r a l and  s t a t e funds f o r a blennlum p e r i o d . In o p e r a t i o n and they  I n v o l v e d about  By January  1965, some 220 programs were  10,000 s t u d e n t s .  Further,  I t was  e s t i m a t e d t h a t somewhere In t h e neighborhood of 40,000 a d u l t s have been enrolled  In t h e program f o r a t  least brief  periods.  Programs c o n s i s t i n g of c l a s s e s h e l d two evenings a week formed t h e dominant p a t t e r n , a l t h o u g h t h e r e were s e v e r a l day t i m e programs and evening programs which were o f f e r i n g c l a s s e s of t h r e e and four s e s s i o n s per week. The programs have p r o v i d e d both b a s i c and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n .  These have  been s t r u c t u r e d m a i n l y t o f i t w i t h i n t h e c u r r i c u l a and f a c i l i t i e s of elementary s c h o o l s y s t e m .  the  134  Format The s t u d y was conducted from J u l y t o December 1964. a t i o n was based on depth I n t e r v i e w s w i t h a random sample of 900 s t u d e n t s who were e i t h e r  approximately  The v a s t m a j o r i t y of t h e s t u d e n t s were  w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s from one of t h e f i v e s e l e c t e d c o u n t i e s : S t . C l a i r and W i l l i a m s o n .  50 t e a c h e r s  evalu-  In a t t e n d a n c e , had completed or had dropped  out of an a d u l t b a s i c program.  Saline,  Its  Cook, J a c k s o n ,  S i m i l a r I n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h  In t h e program and m a l l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed by 114  other teachers.  In a d d i t i o n , a l l p r i n c i p a l s of t h e s c h o o l , a l l  s u p e r i n t e n d e n t s of p u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n  county  and county heads of p u b l i c a i d were  Interviewed.  Evaluatlon  1.  The s c h o o l i n g was g e n e r a l l y based on a g r o s s l y  Inadequate c o n c e p t i o n  of t h e problems and t h e n a t u r e of t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e d s t u d e n t s . 2.  The programs were not I n t e n s i v e enough.  There were many cases of  a d u l t s who had been going t o s c h o o l two evenings a week f o r p e r i o d s of t i m e . k i n d of a t o t a l  long  I t was not r e a l i s t i c t o expect much p r o g r e s s or any educational experience for  Illiterates  devoting  four  hours a week t o e d u c a t i o n . 3.  The t e a c h i n g was f r e q u e n t l y recruited  Inadequate.  from elementary s c h o o l r a n k s .  e x p e r i e n c e and few If  any were g e t t i n g  The t e a c h e r s were almost a l l Few had any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g which r e l a t e d  t o a d u l t b e h a v i o r or t h e l e a r n i n g problems of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d .  135  C o m p e l l i n g p u b l i c a i d r e c i p i e n t s t o a t t e n d b a s i c e d u c a t i o n programs d i d not c r e a t e an environment c o n d u c i v e t o e f f e c t i v e pedagogy.  It  was recommended t h a t programs be made of such h i g h q u a l i t y and r e l e vance t h a t e n r o l l m e n t and a t t e n d a n c e would be l a r g e l y  voluntary.  A t t e n d a n c e was poor and t h e r e was a problem of program d r o p - o u t s . There was a lack of both a d u l t m a t e r i a l s and s u i t a b l e t e s t i n g Instruments.  136  Felntuch,  Alfred  A STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INTEGRATED PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL COUNSELLING CASEWORK AND A SHELTERED WORKSHOP IN INCREASING THE EMPLOYABI U T Y AND MODIFYING ATTITUDES CORRELATING WITH EMPLOYABILITY OF DIFFI CULT-TO-PLACE PERSONS  Objectives  The F e l n t u c h study s e t as I t s purpose t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an I n t e g r a t e d  program of v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and p l a c e m e n t , casework  and a s h e l t e r e d workshop In I n c r e a s i n g t h e employabI I I t y of p l a c e p e r s o n s , who had p r e v i o u s l y  dIffIcult-to-  r e c e i v e d a l l t h e same s e r v i c e s  except  the s h e l t e r e d workshop.  Administration' The study was conducted by a r e s e a r c h e r o b t a i n i n g data f o r a doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n .  The s e t t i n g f o r t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n was a s h e l t e r e d  workshop In M o n t r e a l . The s u b j e c t s of t h e study were 52 wh I ter.adu I t s of t h e faith. at  Jewish  They had been unable t o f i n d and keep employment In I n d u s t r y  l e a s t 50 per cent of t h e t i m e because of advanced age, p h y s i c a l  emotional d i s a b i l i t i e s , or some c o m b i n a t i o n of t h e s e . months p r i o r t o e n r o l l m e n t In t h e s t u d y ,  For at  for  or  least six  t h e s u b j e c t s had been r e c e i v i n g  casework s e r v i c e s and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e Jewish V o c a t i o n a l S e r v i c e and t h e Family W e l f a r e Department of t h e Baron de H I r s c h of M o n t r e a I .  Institute  137 Format The I n v e s t i g a t i o n was based on t h e study of t h e s e dI f f I c u I t - t o p l a c e c l i e n t s who had entered the s h e l t e r e d workshop on or November  12, 1950 when I t was I n s t i t u t e d ,  b e f o r e February 2 9 , 1952.  after  and had l e f t t h e workshop on or  In each c a s e , t h e s u b j e c t ' s employment  history  f o r a p e r i o d of one year p r i o r t o h i s a c c e p t a n c e Into t h e workshop and f o r one year a f t e r d i s c o n t i n u i n g work t h e r e was s t u d i e d . The s h e l t e r e d workshop In t h e study  l i m i t e d t h e k i n d s of work  would a c c e p t t o t h o s e r e q u i r i n g s i m p l e m a n i p u l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . s i m p l e t a s k s such as I n s e r t i n g  letters  p r o d u c t s w i t h gummed l a b e l s , I n s e r t i n g  Into e n v e l o p e s ,  It  These were  labelling various  a v a r i e t y of a r t i c l e s on c a r d s ,  t h e s e t t i n g of r h l n e s t o n e s , and t h e assembling of e l e c t r i c c o r d s and simple e l e c t r i c  switches.  The s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d f o r t h e workshop had t o be a b l e t o come t o work and r e t u r n home by t h e m s e l v e s . week from 30 t o 35 h o u r s .  They had t o be a b l e t o work a f u l l  They a l s o had t o have f u l l  and hands and be a b l e t o do s e d e n t a r y work of a very  use of t h e i r  fingers  l i g h t and s i m p l e  nature. The s h e l t e r e d workshop, as used In t h e I n t e g r a t e d program, was Intended t o p r o v i d e t h e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y experiences  In a p e r m i s s i v e e n v i r o n m e n t .  Further,  t o t r y out new  t h e shop was t o  provide  the means by which t h e s u b j e c t s c o u l d be observed as they p a r t i c i p a t e d group e x p e r i e n c e s and work s i t u a t i o n s .  In  138 Eva 1natfon The I n v e s t i g a t i o n  In t h e study was based on four b a s i c  hypotheses: 1.  t h a t an I n t e g r a t e d program of v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , p l a c e m e n t , c a s e work and s h e l t e r e d workshop c o u l d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  I n c r e a s e t h e employa-  b l l l t y of " d l f f I c u I t - t o - p l a c e " persons who had p r e v i o u s l y  received the  same s e r v i c e s w l t h o u t i t h e use of a workshop. 2.  t h a t " d l f f I c u I t - t o - p I a c e " persons possess a t t i t u d e s toward work and towards s e l f which c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r  3.  t h a t the Integrated  program, u t i l i z i n g a s h e l t e r e d workshop,  s i g n i f i c a n t l y modify t h e s e a t t i t u d e s 4.  employablIIty. could  In a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n , and  t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s of t h e sample c o u l d be found which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between t h o s e who developed a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h degree of e m p l o y a b l I I t y t h o s e who d i d  a f t e r t h e e x p e r i e n c e of t h e program, and  not.  For s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of h i s v a r i o u s d a t a , t h e r e s e a r c h e r applied  (I)  W l l c o x l n ' s Matched P a r i s Signed Ranks T e s t s  t e s t of goodness of f i t ,  and  (3)  (2)  G u i l f o r d ' s C o e f f i c i e n t s of  Chf-square Correlation  and t R a t i o s . The number of w o r k i n g days t h a t t h e 52 s u b j e c t s of t h e  Integrated  program of v o c a t I o n a I counseI I Ing and p l a c e m e n t , casework and s h e l t e r e d workshop Increased from an average of 2 6 . 7 6 days d u r i n g the o n e - y e a r p r i o r t o t h e workshop t o an average of  116.04 d u r i n g t h e o n e - y e a r  period  period  139 f o l l o w i n g t h e workshop e x p e r i e n c e . statistically  The mean Increase of 8 9 . 2 8 days was  significant.  Seven a t t i t u d e s towards work and towards s e l f were found t o c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y with the s u b j e c t s '  employablIIty:'  1.  F e e l i n g s towards work a t  low, but p r e v a i l i n g wage r a t e s ;  2.  F e e l i n g s towards work of  low s t a t u s or p r e s t i g e  3.  F e e l i n g s about m a i n t a i n i n g good work h a b i t s ;  4.  F e e l i n g s about g i v i n g an employer a fuI I d a y ' s work;  5.  F e e l i n g s about Job h u n t i n g ;  6.  Use of d i s a b i l i t y as a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t f i n d i n g work; and  7.  C o n f i d e n c e In a b i l i t y t o f i n d work and keep employment.  level;  M o r e o v e r , t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p found between each of last five attitudes  the  l i s t e d and empIoyabI I I t y .  The I n t e g r a t e d  program succeeded In s i g n i f i c a n t l y m o d i f y i n g in a  p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n t h o s e a t t i t u d e s of s u b j e c t s towards work and towards s e l f which had been found t o c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r  employabll  However, w h i l e t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e s u b j e c t s were a i d e d by t h e i n t e g r a t e d program, 20 ( 3 8 . 5 per c e n t ) were not helped t o any e x t e n t as f a r as empIoyabI I I t y , 52 s u b j e c t s ,  II  or s t a b i l i t y of employment was c o n c e r n e d .  ( 2 1 . 2 per c e n t )  d i d not work a s i n g l e day;  Of  the  14 ( 2 6 . 9 per  c e n t ) worked l e s s than 26 d a y s ; and 20 ( 3 8 . 5 per c e n t ) were employed  less  than 65 d a y s . The s u b j e c t s d e v e l o p i n g a r e l a t i v e l y  h i g h degree of employment as  a r e s u l t of t h e I n t e g r a t e d program g e n e r a l l y possessed t h e f o l l o w i n g  140 d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a t t h e t i m e of t h e i r  entry  Into t h e workshop:  1.  they were under 55 y e a r s of age;  2.  they had been In Canada l e s s than t e n y e a r s ;  3.  they had one or more dependents;  4.  t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s handicapped t h e i r emp1oyabI I I t y  5.  they had been employed 20 days or more d u r i n g t h e o n e - y e a r p r i o r t o t h e i r workshop  only moderately; period  experience;  6.  they were Judged t o be a b l e t o get a l o n g w e l l w i t h p e o p l e ;  7.  they had been r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from t h e community  for  l e s s than one y e a r ; 8.  they were c o n s i d e r e d t o be In good mental h e a l t h , or deviations  ff t h e r e were  In mental h e a l t h , they were m o d e r a t e .  None of the a t t i t u d e s of t h e s u b j e c t s p r i o r t o t h e i r  entry  Into  t h e workshop was found t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between t h o s e who became h i g h l y employable a f t e r they not.  l e f t t h e workshop and t h o s e who d i d  141  HAMILTON DEMONSTRATION PROJECT —  LONG TERM ASSISTANCE  FAMILIES  Objectives The H a m i l t o n D e m o n s t r a t i o n P r o j e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d t o more c o n c e n t r a t e d s e r v i c e t o a s e l e c t e d group of  provide  f a m i l i e s t h a t had been  r e c i p i e n t s of w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e f o r more than a y e a r . were t o Increase t h e number s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s t o r e d t o  The  objectives  Independence and t o  Improve t h e h e a l t h , economic and s o c i a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s of t h e f a m i l i e s .  Admlnlstratlon  The H a m i l t o n P r o j e c t was J o i n t l y  sponsored by t h e Department of  P u b l i c W e l f a r e of t h e P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o and t h e C i t y of H a m i l t o n from December I, 1963, t o May 3 1 , 1964. of H a m i l t o n , and t h e o t h e r  Two w e l f a r e w o r k e r s , one from t h e  from t h e O n t a r i o W e l f a r e Department, were  a s s i g n e d t o s e r v e t h e study  group.  The s u b j e c t s of t h e study were two random samples of a b l e and unemployable f a m i l i e s t a k e n from t h e Identified  In a p r e v i o u s  City  100 employ-  l o n g - t e r m a s s i s t a n c e cases  survey.  Format  The two random samples of were each s u b d i v i d e d  100 employable and unemployable f a m i l i e s  Into equal groups of 50 t o p r o v i d e  f o r a balanced  number of employable and unemployable cases t o be p l a c e d In t h e  142 study and c o n t r o l g r o u p s .  The 100 cases c o m p r i s i n g t h e study group were  then a s s i g n e d t o two w e l f a r e workers who had no p r e p a r a t o r y t r a i n i n g t h e p r o j e c t beyond t h e o u t l i n e of. I t s alms and the r e q u i r e d The  for  procedures.  100 c o n t r o l c a s e s remained s c a t t e r e d throughout t h e g e n e r a l c a s e l o a d .  The r e g u l a r w e l f a r e workers were not made aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of control over  cases In t h e s t u d y .  the  T h e i r c a s e l o a d s were unchanged at something  100 f o r each w e l f a r e w o r k e r . B a s i c t o t h e t e c h n i q u e s was the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of a h e l p f u l  and  u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p which t h e two w e l f a r e workers s t r o v e t o c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n w i t h each r e c i p i e n t of t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  group.  Eva Illation Two main c r i t e r i a were used t o measure c h a n g e s .  These were:  whether or not w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e ceased by the end of t h e p r o j e c t ; whether t h e r e was o b v i o u s  Improvement  ance a c c o r d i n g t o t h e s e r v i c e s  In each case r e m a i n i n g on a s s i s t -  given.  Of t h e 100 cases g i v e n s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , 56 had l e f t m u n i c i p a l r o l l s a t t h e end of t h e s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d . t h e r e were 21 cases c l o s e d .  and  the  In t h e c o n t r o l  group,  In t h e study group 36 heads of f a m i l i e s had  o b t a i n e d employment, w h i l e o n l y 14 of t h e 100 c o n t r o l As f o r t h e measurement of  Improvement  cases had found w o r k .  In t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s of  t h o s e who remained on a s s i s t a n c e , t h e p r o j e c t workers e s t i m a t e d t h a t 88 per c e n t of t h e t r e a t e d cases had made a noteworthy  advance towards  better  143 management of t h e i r a f f a i r s . of t h e c o n t r o l  group.  T h i s c o u l d be saldc-of  Further,  l e s s than 20 per  of t h e study group, o n l y 1 3 . 5 per cent of  t h o s e r e m a i n i n g dependent were a c t u a l l y e m p l o y a b l e , w h i l e 3 2 . 9 per of t h e c o n t r o l  cent  group c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d s u c h .  The r e s u l t s of the p r o j e c t rehabilitation objectives  served t o generate enthusiasm f o r  among t h e w e l f a r e s t a f f members.  re-employment of r e c i p i e n t s accounted f o r t h e closures  cent  In t h e study g r o u p ,  a c q u i r e more t r a i n i n g  Since the  l a r g e s t number of case  I t was recommended t h a t w e l f a r e  In v o c a t i o n a l  rehabilitation  workers  counselling.  In some c a s e s , t h e w e l f a r e workers had made p e r s o n a l v i s i t s  to  employers and had recommended t h e r e c i p i e n t t o them as a p r o s p e c t i v e employee.  Hence, t h e use and development of m e d i c a l ,  p s y c h i a t r i c and v o c a t i o n a l  psychological,  assessments f o r r e c i p i e n t s a r e of prime Im-  p o r t a n c e t o the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  program.  I t was a l s o recommended t h a t t h e p r e s e n t exemption of e a r n i n g s as I n c e n t i v e and encouragement r e q u i r e s c o n t i n u e d  part-time  experimentation.  144  Henny, Robert  L.  READING INSTRUCTION BY A PHONIC METHOD FOR FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE ADULTS AT THE INDIANA REFORMATORY  Objectives In t h e Henny s t u d y ,  t h e major purpose was (I)  e x t e n t t o which f u n c t i o n a l l y performance If  Illiterate  t o determine t h e  a d u l t s can I n c r e a s e t h e i r  given reading I n s t r u c t i o n  u s i n g a phonic s y s t e m ; and (2)  determine If t h e r e Is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between group and I n d i v i d u a l  Instruction  Is made by f u n c t i o n a l l y  as t o t h e p r o g r e s s  Illiterate  reading to  Instruction  In r e a d i n g performance which  adults.  Administration The study was conducted by a r e s e a r c h e r o b t a i n i n g data f o r a doctoral d i s s e r t a t i o n . Reformatory. Inmate  The s e t t i n g of t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n was t h e  The I n v e s t i g a t o r  was a s s i s t e d In h i s work by four  Indiana trained  Instructors. A l l t h e s u b j e c t s were r e f o r m a t o r y  I l l i t e r a t e or f u n c t i o n a l l y  I l l i t e r a t e as measured by G r a y ' s  O r a l Reading Paragraph T e s t . the research p r o j e c t .  Inmates who were e i t h e r  completely  Standardized  A l l the subjects p a r t i c i p a t e d v o l u n t a r i l y  There was no compulsion e x e r c i s e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r  o r any p r i s o n o f f i c i a l f o r any of t h e Inmates t o p a r t i c i p a t e Tn t h e  study.  Format The I n v e s t i g a t o r of  (I)  a g e ; (2)  In  s e l e c t e d 30 s u b j e c t s matched on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  t e s t e d r e a d i n g l e v e l ; (3)  diagnosed major r e a d i n g  145  difficulty; (6)  (4)  t e s t e d grade  Intelligence quotient; level.  the f o l l o w i n g groups: (3)  e d u c a t i o n a l background; and  These s u b j e c t s were a s s i g n e d randomly t o one of  (1)  e x p e r i m e n t a l group B.  s e s s i o n s over a p e r i o d of The s u b j e c t s  (5)  c o n t r o l group;  (2)  e x p e r i m e n t a l group A; and  The t h r e e groups were s c h e d u l e d f o r 20 one-hour four weeks.  In t h e c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d no s p e c i a l phonic  In-  s t r u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d of t h e e x p e r i m e n t , but remained as s t u d e n t s t h e elementary s c h o o l a t t h e I n s t i t u t i o n .  In e x p e r i m e n t a l group A,  subjects received one-to-one reading Instruction The s u b j e c t s of e x p e r i m e n t a l group B r e c e i v e d  the  by t h e phonic method.  Instruction  method In a group s i t u a t i o n , and met In groups of  In  by t h e phonic  f i v e s t u d e n t s t o one  teacher. The S t a n d a r d i z e d Oral Reading P a r a g r a p h T e s t s p r o v i d e d t h e r e a d i n g level  f o r each s t u d e n t  In a p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t e x a m i n a t i o n .  McKII lop Reading D i a g n o s t i c T e s t s Forms I and II  The G a t e s -  p r o v i d e d f o r each s t u d e n t  an a n a l y s i s of r e a d i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s In p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t e x a m i n a t i o n . The F a m i l y P h o n i c s System, c r e a t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r e s p e c i a l l y use w i t h f u n c t i o n a l l y  for  I l l i t e r a t e s t u d e n t s , was used In t h i s study t o t e a c h  e x p e r i m e n t a l group A and e x p e r i m e n t a l group  B.  Eva I u a t l o n  Hypotheses was p r e s e n t e d and s u b j e c t e d t o t h e s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t the c r i t i c a l t - v a l u e s .  In t h e s t u d y ,  of  c r i t i c a l t - v a l u e s a t t h e f i v e per cent  l e v e l d e f i n e d t h e I n t e r v a l o u t s i d e of which a l l t - v a l u e s c o u l d be expected t o fall  by c h a n c e .  146 1.  It was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e r e difference  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y  In the amount of p r o g r e s s a f u n c t i o n a l l y  w i l l make i n h i s a b i l i t y t o read i f he i s taught pared t o being  individually  significant illiterate  In a group as com-  instructed.  The t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean g a i n s i n r e a d i n g between the s u b j e c t s of experimental  2.  performance  group A and the s u b j e c t s of  mental group B d i d not exceed t h e c r i t i c a l l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e .  experi-  t - v a I u e a t t h e f i v e per  cent  Thus t h i s n u l l h y p o t h e s i s was a c c e p t e d .  It'was hypothesized that there  i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t  ence In the amount of p r o g r e s s  i n r e a d i n g performance t h a t a  f unctIona My  adult  differ—  i l l ! t e r a t e w i l l make i f he i s t a u g h t by a phon i c method,  and i f he remains i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n ' s elementary school wherse he r e c e i v e s no s p e c i a l phonic  instruction.  The t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean g a i n s i n r e a d i n g  performance  between t h e s u b j e c t s of the combined e x p e r i m e n t a l group exceeded t h e critical was  t - v a l u e a t t h e f i v e per cent  level.  Thus t h i s n u l l  hypothesis  rejected. Further,  experimental  i t was found t h a t t h e complete i l l i t e r a t e  groups p r o g r e s s e d more than any other s u b j e c t s d u r i n g  investigation.  In e x p e r i m e n t a l  group A, t h e i l l i t e r a t e  l e v e l s during the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . grade  levels.  i n both  In e x p e r i m e n t a l  A l l t h e s u b j e c t s who r e c e i v e d  method showed a g a i n of  1.27 grade  levels.  the  improved 2 . 5 grade  group B, he Improved 2.1  i n s t r u c t i o n by t h e phonic  147  The study a l s o found t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e g a i n s In r e a d i n g p e r f o r m a n c e , when t a u g h t t o read by t h e F a m i l y P h o n i c s between t h e o l d e s t and y o u n g e s t , between t h o s e w i t h h i g h I . Q . ' s and t h o s e w i t h  low I . Q . ' s and between having t h e lowest p r e t e s t i n g  s c o r e s and t h o s e h a v i n g t h e h i g h e s t p r e t e s t r e a d i n g s c o r e s .  148 Hoist,  Howard SUMMARY OF THE WKNO-TV LITERACY PROJECT  Objective  The o b j e c t i v e of t h e WKNO-TV L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t , Memphis, Tennessee was t o p r o v i d e w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y  to  Illiterates  In t h e area served by t h i s  station  l e a r n how t o read and w r i t e by p r e s e n t a t i o n of  the  Laubach method on t e l e v i s i o n .  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program  Because Laubach t e a c h i n g p r i m e r s had been used s u c c e s s f u l l y Internationally Reading  f o r t e a c h i n g I l l i t e r a t e s , WKNO-TV s e l e c t e d s t r e a m l i n e d  I as t h e n u c l e u s f o r  I t c o n s i s t e d of 42 h a l f hour  Its  Initial  series.  F i r s t produced In 1956,  lessons which were t e l e c a s t on Monday,  Wednesday and F r i d a y evenings at 8 : 0 0 p . m .  In a d d i t i o n t o t h e home v i e w e r s ,  m a t e r i a l s were produced by WKNO-TV t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s who r e g i s t e r e d f o r study a t 31 c e n t e r s throughout t h e c i t y of Memphis.  Supplemental  g u i d e s were a l s o produced t o a i d t h e t e a c h e t — a s s i s t a n t s a t the v a r i o u s centers.  A second s e r i e s e n t i t l e d S t r e a m l i n e d Reading IJ was developed  by WKNO-TV w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e of the s t u d e n t s and t h e t e a c h e r - a s s i s t a n t s a t the c e n t e r s .  T h i s s e r i e s was f i r s t t e l e c a s t In t h e form of 96 h a l f  hour  1958-59.  l e s s o n s In  149  Format A l t h o u g h home v i e w e r s were a b l e t o r e c e i v e t h e t e l e c a s t s , t h e tutorial  c l a s s method was a l s o used t o a s s i s t the new reader a t t h e  v a r i o u s c e n t e r s which used D r . L a u b a c h ' s t e c h n i q u e f o r t e a c h i n g a d u l t I l l i t e r a t e s t o read and w r i t e . were w i t h i n t h e  emphasis was on t h e words  l e a r n e r s ' spoken v o c a b u l a r y .  whole t o t h e p a r t , I t began.  Initial  that  The lessons went from t h e  f i r s t t e a c h i n g t h e word, and then t h e sound from which  T h i s was f o l l o w e d by lessons on t h e sounds f o r vowels and r e g u -  l a r ways t o s p e l l each s o u n d .  The  covered t h e consonants and t h e i r In S t r e a m l i n e d Reading I I ,  l a s t s e c t i o n of S t r e a m l i n e d Reading I  sounds. t h e s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y w i t h w r i t i n g was  extended through t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l which t h e i r knowledge of t h e w r i t t e n w o r d .  Increased  C o n t e n t of t h i s s e r i e s was based on  such areas as h e a l t h , n u t r i t i o n , p e r s o n a l  f i n a n c e and problems of  dally  life. In a d d i t i o n t o the t e l e c a s t s , WKNO-TV's s p e c i a l l y designed w o r k books were an Important d e v i c e t o g u i d e t h e s t u d e n t  In h i s  learning  experIence.  Evaluatlon  The t e a c h e t — a s s i s t a n t s from t h e c e n t e r s p r o v i d e d WKNO-TV w i t h feedback on t h e t e l e c a s t s .  As a r e s u l t ,  s e v e r a l changes were made on  150 Individual writing. was not  t e l e c a s t s w i t h a d d i t i o n a l t i m e being a l l o w e d f o r r e v i e w and The p r o d u c e r s  f e l t t h a t t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e Laubach system  l o s t through a d a p t a t i o n t o t e l e v i s i o n .  t h a t more t i m e was needed f o r r e v i e w  However, they  In t h e case of t h e E n g l i s h  as opposed t o n o n - E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g I l l i t e r a t e s .  In May,  Indicated Illiterate  1959, an attempt  was made t o a c q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n data by t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e Metropo11 t a n Achievement T e s t t o a group of 61 S t r e a m l i n e d Reading I s t u d e n t s w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  Average Grade  results: Word P i c t u r e 2.6  Word R e c o g n i t i o n 2.5  Word Meaning 2.7  Average Reading  Numbers 3. I  Average Achievement  Level  2.6  2.8  151 Long,  Fern  IMPATIENCE AND THE PRESSURE OF TIME —  CLEVELAND'S READING CENTERS PROJECT  Objectives 1.  to provide  l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s f o r t h e " l i m i t e d a d u l t r e a d e r " or t h e  functionally 2.  Illiterate  a d u l t ; and  t o develop f u r t h e r t h e b a s i c r e a d i n g s k i I I which such r e a d e r s have already acquired.  Administration The L i m i t e d A d u l t Reader S e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e C i t y of Cleveland  In  1965, a f t e r  It was awarded a L i b r a r y  S e r v i c e s and C o n s t r u c t i o n  A c t g r a n t from t h e Ohio S t a t e L i b r a r y t o c a r r y on t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  project.  The LSCA g r a n t made p o s s i b l e t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of t h r e e Reading Centers for bility  l i m i t e d a d u l t readers  In t h e C l e v e l a n d a r e a .  The r e s p o n s i -  f o r t h e C e n t e r s was a l l o c a t e d t o t h e A d u l t E d u c a t i o n Department of  the Cleveland  library.  Funds a l s o enabled t h e Department t o : 1.  purchase l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of books a t an e a s y - r e a d i n g other useful m a t e r i a l s .  These Included f i l m s ,  f l l m s t r l p s and r e c o r d s .  2.  Add equipment which was needed t o use t h e s e m e d i a .  3.  Employ s t a f f  for a l l three C e n t e r s .  l e v e l as w e l l as  152 One of t h e s t a f f a d d i t i o n s was a r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t . n e c e s s a r y appointments Included s t a f f out t h e  limited adult readers.  Other  f i e l d workers who were t o seek  E x t r a c l e r i c a l workers were needed In t h e  l i b r a r y t o p r o c e s s books and m a t e r i a l s and make them a v a i l a b l e as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e .  There was a l s o a need t o add a t e c h n i c a l a i d e t o help t h e  r e g u l a r p r o j e c t i o n i s t w i t h e x t r a f i l m showings, t a p i n g s and c a r i n g  for  equipment. The c l i e n t e l e t o be served were the f u n c t i o n a l t h e study d e f i n e d as one who reads a t a f i f t h grade  Illiterates.  level.  These  The r e p o r t  r e f e r r e d t o t h e s e s u b j e c t s as t h e  limited adult readers.  were  in t h e C a r n e g i e West B r a n c h , and t h e  l o c a t e d In t h e M a i n L i b r a r y ,  Quincy E a s t Side B r a n c h . functional  Illiterates.  The C e n t e r s  Each of t h e areas r e v e a l e d a h i g h p r o p o r t i o n They comprised 35 per c e n t of t h e p o p u l a t i o n  of In  t h e west a r e a ; and 34 per cent In t h e e a s t a r e a .  Format One of t h e f i r s t assignments of new s t a f f seek out the program.  f i e l d workers was t o  l i m i t e d r e a d e r s and t o communicate t h e I n t e n t i o n s of  the  They v i s i t e d a g e n c i e s , churches and homes. S e c o n d l y , t h e r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t was a s s i g n e d t o work m a i n l y w i t h  Individuals  on a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s .  T h i r d l y , t h e s t a f f worked w i t h g r o u p s .  Reading a l o u d , d i s c u s s i o n  based on s i m p l e r e a d i n g , on f i l m s t r i p s and on f i l m s were t h e a c t i v i t i e s  153. conducted.  There was a l s o a s y s t e m a t i c program of v i s i t s t o a l l  C e n t e r s by t h e 2,000 people e n r o l l e d  three  In t h e s e b a s i c e d u c a t i o n c l a s s e s .  A f o u r t h phase of t h e a c t i v i t i e s was t o I n s t i l l more v i t a l i t y I n t o t h e p r e v i o u s s e r v i c e of Another  l e n d i n g books t o a d u l t c l a s s e s .  Important a s p e c t of t h e program was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e  a c t i v i t i e s have been conducted w i t h i n areas of t h e e x i s t i n g i n g s , r a t h e r than In new or s p e c i a l r e n t e d q u a r t e r s .  library  build-  The purpose was t o  lead t h e " l i m i t e d a d u l t r e a d e r " as d i r e c t l y as p o s s i b l e Into t h e  library  envIronment. As f a r as t h e use of m a t e r i a l s , I t was not Films,  l i m i t e d t o books a l o n e .  f l l m s t r l p s , s l i d e s , r e c o r d s and v i e w - m a s t e r s were a l l  considered  l e g i t i m a t e means of b r i d g i n g the gap of communication between t h e t u r a l ly d i s a d v a n t a g e d and the c u l t u r a l l y  cul-  privileged.  The program I t s e l f was p u b l i c i z e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g means: use of TV and r a d i o s p o t announcements; b r i e f notes e n c l o s e d w i t h relief  cheques; v i s i t s by f i e l d w o r k e r s ;  the 17,000  announcements t o b a s i c e d u c a t i o n  c l a s s e s and t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of 22,000 d o o i — t o - d o o r  fliers.  Evaluatlon  A f t e r ten months of o p e r a t i o n , t h e f o l l o w i n g views have been expressed c o n c e r n i n g t h e program: First,  t h e e f f o r t which Is e x e r t e d  the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . participation.  Is o f t e n out of p r o p o r t i o n  S e c o n d l y , t h e r e Is an ebb and f l u x s i t u a t i o n  There Is o f t e n enough m o t i v a t i o n f o r a s t a r t ,  to  In t h e  but n o t enough  154  for c o n t i n u a t i o n .  Thirdly,  It was found necessary t h a t  must assume a t e a c h i n g r o l e t o a c c o m p l i s h I t s work, relying the  upon t h e development of an e x i s t i n g s k i l l ,  library  staff  r a t h e r than merely as was purposed  at  beginning. C i r c u l a t i o n w i s e , t h e r e s u l t s are n o t a b l e .  lends c l a s s r o o m s e t s f o r a d u l t s t u d e n t s ,  In t h e d i v i s i o n which  c i r c u l a t i o n has almost t r i p l e d .  A l s o a good number of the " l i m i t e d a d u l t r e a d e r s " have taken out c a r d s , and many have gone from t h e Reading C e n t e r s  Into c l a s s e s .  As f a r as the work of t h e r e a d i n g s p e c i a l i s t w i t h t h e r e seems t o be s t r o n g evidence t h a t t h e p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n proved  Itself.  library  Individuals, approach has  155  LONG-TERM ASSISTANCE FAMILIES —  A DEMONSTRATION  PROJECT  Objective The Toronto of t h e program as (I)  Demonstration P r o j e c t s t a t e d t h e two o b j e c t i v e s t o measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of  Intensive  and  c o n c e n t r a t e d s e r v i c e by t h e r e g u l a r s t a f f of a w e l f a r e department promoting t h e s e l f - r e l i a n c e of r e c i p i e n t s t o t h e p o i n t where cial  Independence  Is a t t a i n e d ; (2)  finan-  t o make o b s e r v a t i o n s about s e r v i c e s  t h a t would be r e q u i r e d f o r t h e economic, h e a l t h and s o c i a l a t i o n of t h e s e  In  rehabilit-  families.  Administration  The study of Long-Term A s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s was c o n s t i t u t e d as a J o i n t p r o j e c t by t h e O n t a r i o Department of P u b l i c W e l f a r e and t h e C i t y of T o r o n t o .  The study and d e m o n s t r a t i o n was conducted d u r i n g  s i x - m o n t h p e r i o d from J u l y  1962 t o January  1963.  Two w e l f a r e w o r k e r s ,  one from t h e c i t y of Toronto and t h e o t h e r from t h e O n t a r i o of W e l f a r e were a s s i g n e d t o t h e study c a s e s .  the  Department  156  The s u b j e c t s of t h e study were 200 l o n g - t e r m a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s chosen from t h e W e l f a r e A s s i s t a n c e r o l l s of T o r o n t o .  Format  These 200 f a m i l i e s were d i v i d e d evenly  Into a c o n t r o l  and a study group w i t h s i m i l a r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .  group Then the  100 study group c a s e s were a s s i g n e d on an equal b a s i s of 50 each t o t h e two w e l f a r e w o r k e r s . Because t h e frequency and q u a l i t y of t h e home v i s i t s was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l , t h e c a s e l o a d s were reduced t o a p o i n t where t h e w e l fare v i s i t o r  c o u l d spend as much t i m e as n e c e s s a r y w i t h any f a m i l y .  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of home v i s i t s was c o n s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l rehabilitation  In f u r t h e r i n g  The the  objective.  Jn a d d i t i o n , the s e t t i n g of c o n s i d e r e d of p r i m a r y and p r e s c r i p t i v e  Importance.  l i m i t e d g o a l s f o r r e c i p i e n t s was The w e l f a r e workers were f i r m ,  direct  In t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s of t h e r e c i p i e n t s .  Eva I n a t i o n  There fs e v i d e n c e of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e more I n t e n s i v e counselling services.  The r e s u l t s were accomplished by a s s i g n i n g small  157  c a s e l o a d s t o s t a f f members. municipal  I t was found t h a t 4 2 per c e n t  r o l l s compared w i t h 2 3 per c e n t of t h e c o n t r o l  M o r e o v e r , of t h e 4 2 s u c c e s s f u l cases In t h e s t u d y , w i t h i n the f i r s t  f o u r months of o p e r a t i o n .  t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c o n c e n t r a t e d s e r v i c e s t a n c e a t an e a r l i e r  l e f t the  group.  2 6 l e f t the r o l l s  Such would seem t o  Indicate  In g e t t i n g p e o p l e o f f  assis-  date.  Another p o s i t i v e r e s u l t was t h a t among t h e 5 8 study c a s e s r e m a i n i n g on the w e l f a r e r o l l s ,  t h e r e was a n o t i c e a b l e upgrading  In  economic, h e a l t h and f a m i l y c i r c u m s t a n c e s f o r 5 4 of t h e s u b j e c t s and only  f o u r showed no f a v o r a b l e r e s p o n s e .  The Judgment of  Improvement was  based on o b s e r v a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e b e h a v i o r and p h y s i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In t h e c o n t r o l  group c a s e s , t h e r e were 1 3 cases s t i l l  receiving  assis-  t a n c e who showed Improvement; however, 6 4 cases d i s p l a y e d no n o t i c e a b l e Improvement. The d i f f e r e n c e In o b j e c t i v e  family c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  empIoyabI 1 1 t y , number of p a r e n t s In t h e home and number o f  (e.g., children)  between l o n g - t e r m and s h o r t - t e r m a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s was found t o be negligible.  The reason f o r p r o l o n g e d dependency was t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e d t o  health conditions InadequacIes.  In some c a s e s , but f r e q u e n t l y t o g e n e r a l  subjective  158  I t was found t h a t people withdrew from p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e under frequent v i s i t i n g .  The s u b j e c t s a l s o d i s p l a y e d a s u r p r i s i n g  f u l n e s s and s e l f - r e l i a n c e when c o n f r o n t e d by n e c e s s i t y .  resource-  To some of  the  w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s who had l e t themselves adopt a r a t h e r p a s s i v e a c c e p t a n c e of t h e i r welfare v i s i t o r  l i f e structure,  t h e d i r e c t and f i r m approach of  p r o v i d e d s t r u c t u r e and m o t i v a t i o n f o r  action.  the  159  McKee, John M . e t . a l . IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED  ADULTS  Objectives The purpose of t h e study was t o determine t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a r e a d i n g program on o v e r - a l l of young a d u l t s t u d e n t s  grade-level  g a i n s and I n d i v i d u a l  subtest gains  In a V o c a t i o n a l Experimental and Demonstration  Project.  AdmlnIstratIon  The V o c a t i o n a l E and D P r o j e c t was conducted by t h e Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l C e n t e r a t E l m o r e , Alabama. All  t h e s u b j e c t s were Inmate s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e s i x - m o n t h  t r a i n i n g c o u r s e s of t h e V o c a t i o n a l E & D P r o j e c t .  They were s t u d e n t s who  each had a c h i e v e d a t o t a l s c o r e of 8 . 5 grades or below on t h e Metropolitan Achievement T e s t .  Format Two t r e a t m e n t groups which had been o r g a n i z e d as c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d for the s t u d y .  The v a r i a b l e s had been p r e v i o u s l y  w i t h o u t b e n e f i t of a predetermined d e s i g n . d e s i g n was Imposed on t h e e x i s t i n g  In s h o r t , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l  data.  Group A was comprised of 26 s u b j e c t s of t h e E &. D P r o j e c t .  administered  In t h e f o u r t h t r a f n l n g c l a s s  These s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d 40 hours (4 hours a-.week  for  160 10 weeks) of t r a i n i n g  In a r e a d i n g program u s i n g m a t e r i a l s and a  P e r c e p t o s c o p e from P e r c e p t u a l Development L a b o r a t o r i e s of S t . Missouri.  The s u b j e c t s a l s o r e c e i v e d an average of  Instruction  u s i n g programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l  Group B comprised of 33 s u b j e c t s the E & D P r o j e c t . However,  u s i n g programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l  160 hours of r e m e d i a l  materials. In t h e second t r a i n i n g c l a s s of  These s u b j e c t s had no s p e c i a l  they r e c e i v e d an average of  Louis,  Instruction  160 hours of remedial  In  reading.  Instruction  materials.  Each s u b j e c t was g i v e n t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test both a t t h e b e g i n n i n g and t h e end of t h e s i x - m o n t h t r a i n i n g c o u r s e .  The t r e a t m e n t  v a r i a b l e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d between the dates of the p r e - t e s t I n g  and p o s t -  testing.  Eva l u a t i o n  Comparisons were made between t h e grade g a i n s of t h e two The areas Included  In t h e M e t r o p o I I t a n Achievement T e s t Included  groups. Total  S c o r e , R e a d i n g , Word Knowledge, S p e l l i n g , Language, A r i t h m e t i c Computation and A r i t h m e t i c R e a s o n i n g . The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n or by use of t h e s t u d e n t ' s  of group d i f f e r e n c e s was done by t-test.  Group A made s i g n i f i c a n t l y average,  r e a d i n g and  Inspection  language.  g r e a t e r g a i n s than Group B In t o t a l  161 The average g a i n made In r e a d i n g by Group A was a p p r o x i m a t e l y n i n e t i m e s g r e a t e r than t h e g a i n s made by Group B.  The mean grade g a i n s  on t h e r e a d i n g s u b t e s t of t h e M e t r o p o I I t a n Achievement T e s t showed a 2 . 3 9 Improvement by Group A compared w i t h a . 2 7 g a i n by G r o u p B . ;  c o n s i d e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t by I n s p e c t i o n beyond t h e .01 The  language g a i n s were a l s o found t o d i f f e r  Group A showing t h e g r e a t e r  Increase.  The  level. significantly  language s u b - t e s t of  M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t showed a mean grade g a i n of A compared w i t h t h e . 2 7 g a i n f o r Group B. by I n s p e c t i o n beyond t h e .01  T h i s was  the  1.27 f o r  T h i s was c o n s i d e r e d  with  Group  significant  level.  For t h e t o t a l g r a d e , Group A a c h i e v e d a 1.37 mean grade g a i n compared w i t h Interpreted  1.05 f o r Group B.  With t = 1.797, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was  as s i g n i f i c a n t beyond t h e . 0 5 l e v e l .  162  McKee, John M . e t . a I. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS  Objectives  The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s e x p e r i m e n t a l program was t o determine t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a r e a d i n g Improvement program designed w i t h t h e P e r c e p t o s c o p e * In overcoming t h e  low m o t i v a t i o n of  Inmates towards  academic p u r s u i t s .  AdmlnIstratIon  In o r d e r t o a c c o m p l i s h t h e o b j e c t i v e of t h e academic and v o c a t i o n a l programs, t h e s t a f f of Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l C e n t e r experimented w i t h  various  r e a d i n g programs t o overcome t h e problems In the t r a i n i n g of s t u d e n t s low r e a d i n g All  with  levels. inmate a p p l i c a n t s f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g who s c o r e below t h e  7 t h grade r e a d i n g  l e v e l on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t were e n r o l l e d  In t h e p h o n i c s or  Immediate r e a d i n g Improvement program.  In o r d e r t o determine t h e r e a d i n g r a t e , r e a d i n g comprehension, v o c a b u l a r y and s t o r y comprehension of t h e s t u d e n t s , t h e P e r c e p t u a l Development L a b o r a t o r i e s (PDL)  D i a g n o s t i c T e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d .  The s t u d e n t s of t h e Reading Improvement Program were r e t e s t e d m i d - c o u r s e and a g a i n at t h e c o n c l u s i o n of t h e p r o g r a m .  A different  at  form  * A M u l t i - f u n c t i o n machine which Is manufactured by P e r c e p t u a l Development L a b o r a t o r i e s CPDU of S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i .  163  of t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t was used upon c o m p l e t i o n of  the  r e a d i n g program t o determine what e f f e c t t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n In t h e r e a d i n g c l a s s e s may have had on s u b - t e s t areas o t h e r than r e a d i n g .  The s t u d e n t s  who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e In the Reading Improvement Program and had o n l y remedial t r a i n i n g s e r v e d as c o n t r o l  groups.  Evaluatlon  A f t e r 40 hours of  Instruction  In t h e I n t e r m e d i a t e PDL Reading  Program u s i n g t h e P e r c e p t o s c o p e , s u b j e c t s an o v e r — a l l  average  Increase  In grade  l e v e l s f o r t h e n o n - p a r t IcI p a n t s .  In the f i r s t experiment a c h i e v e d  l e v e l of 2 . 5 compared w i t h  In r e a d i n g  l e v e l s , t h e average  I.I  grade  Increase  was 2 . 5 grades f o r t h e program p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e n o n - p a r t I c l p a n t s who used o n l y programmed I n s t r u c t i o n grade g a i n In r e a d i n g .  In t h e i r t r a i n i n g , r e g i s t e r e d o n l y a . 7  The g r e a t e s t grade g a i n In r e a d i n g  l e v e l among a l l  t h e s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d In t h e r e a d i n g program was from 4 . 9 t o 9 . 7 or an Increase of 4.8 grade  levels.  164  NEW HOPE PROJECT: 1965-66 VOLUME 11 MODESTO. CALIFORNIA  Objectives The New Hope P r o j e c t the following objectives  I n i t i a t e d by Modesto J u n i o r C o l l e g e  f o r t h e a d u l t b a s i c e d u c a t i o n a s p e c t of  listed their  manpower t r a i n i n g programs: 1.  t o a s s i s t t h e undereducated and unemployed a d u l t t o q u a l i f y  for  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g through a program of b a s i c e d u c a t i o n ; 2.  t o a s s i s t the undereducated and unemployed a d u l t t o develop  those  c a p a b i l i t i e s which would enable him t o s e c u r e employment at an e n t r y level occupation; 3.  t o a s s i s t t h e t r a i n e e t o develop those competencies which would e n a b l e him t o m a i n t a i n c o n t i n u e d employment.  Administration Through t h e A d u l t D i v i s i o n , Modesto J u n i o r C o l l e g e , the New Hope P r o j e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d .  As of  1966, t h e p r o j e c t r e c e i v e d  1006 d i f f e r e n t  r e f e r r a l s t o t h e v a r i o u s e d u c a t i o n a l programs from t h e Department of Employment.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 400 of t h e s e I n d i v i d u a l s  basic education.  received t r a i n i n g  These s t u d e n t s remained In t h e p r e - v o c a t f o n a I  t h e program f o r an average of four m o n t h s .  Experience Indicated  methods and t e c h n i q u e s had t o be m o d i f i e d when w o r k i n g w i t h a d u l t s t o cope w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g : problems,  I s o l a t i o n and n o n — I d e n t i t y  In  phase of that  undereducated  absence from c l a s s r o o m , s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l w i t h s u r r o u n d i n g community.  165  Eva Illation In t h e New Hope P r o j e c t ,  It was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t t h e C a l i f o r n i a  Achievement T e s t and t h e General A p t i t u d e T e s t B a t t e r y had s e v e r e t a t i o n s as I n d i c a t o r s of academic p r o g r e s s . dependent upon background and v e r b a l material  The t e s t s a r e  skills.  They cover  from what Is covered In t h e c l a s s r o o m .  limi-  highly  different  The norms of  the  C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test were based on a p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y younger than persons In t h e Modesto P r o g r a m . project 1.  Adults with  l e s s than four y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g c o u l d be expected t o In four months.  A d u l t s w i t h four t o n i n e y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g c o u l d be expected advance between two and t h r e e y e a r s  3.  Intelligence,  perceptual, verbal  three  schooling.  and manual a p t i t u d e s w i l l  Increase  In b a s i c e d u c a t i o n .  Students can be e f f e c t i v e l y p l a c e d Into t h e program by grade through use of a graded word  6.  In four months.  In four months r e g a r d l e s s of h i s p r i o r  after training 5.  to  In m a t h e m a t i c s , the a d u l t w i l l genera 1 Iy advance between two t o years  4.  this  were:  advance one s c h o o l year 2.  S p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s of  Individuals with a reading  level  list.  l e v e l below s i x t h grade s h o u l d be g i v e n  tests  such as Gates Reading S u r v e y , C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t elementary l e v e l , mathematics t e s t , and t h e r e v i s e d 7.  BETA.  A d u l t s a t or above s i x t h grade r e a d i n g s h o u l d be a d m i n i s t e r e d t e s t s such as C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t — J u n i o r of Mental M a t u r i t y ,  short  form.  high  l e v e l — a n d C a l i f o r n i a Test  166 NJeml, John A . A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED ADULTS IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA  Objective  The o b j e c t i v e of t h e E n g l i s h Fluency T r a i n i n g was t o  provide  b a s i c E n g l i s h c l a s s e s t o m i l i t a r y personnel who were unable t o speak or understand t h e E n g l i s h  language.  Admlnlstratlon  Army r e g u l a t i o n s s p e c i f y t h a t u n i t commanders may r e q u e s t t h e Army E d u c a t i o n C e n t e r t o conduct c o u r s e s In b a s i c E n g l i s h f l u e n c y l a r g e number of personnel stand the English  If a  In t h e i r u n i t s are unable t o speak or undei—  language.  S i n c e the a u t h o r i z a t i o n f o r t h e program was o u t l i n e d In Army r e g u l a t i o n s , r e g u l a r command funds were a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e h i r i n g of tors  from t h e  l o c a l community t o t e a c h the program a t t h e E d u c a t i o n C e n t e r  from 8 a . m . u n t i l 4 p.m. (Monday t o P r i o r to  of  Friday).  1958, c o u r s e s In E n g l i s h f l u e n c y had been r e q u e s t e d a t  t h e v a r i o u s Army p o s t s In t h e f a l l  Instruc-  In A l a s k a f o r P u e r t o Rfcans and German n a t i o n a l i s t s .  1958, t h e F o r t R i c h a r d s o n Army E d u c a t i o n C e n t e r r e c e i v e d a  r e q u e s t t o e s t a b l i s h an EngI Ish fIuency c l a s s for 26 Hungarian Freedom F i g h t e r s who had been a s s i g n e d t o t h e p o s t .  These men who entered the  Army under t h e Lodge A c t , r e c e i v e d no p r i o r E n g l i s h  language t r a i n i n g .  167  Their  Inability  t o speak and understand E n g l i s h was a f f e c t i n g  their  performance as s o l d i e r s .  Format Since I n i t i a l were a r b i t r a r i l y  t e s t i n g was I m p o s s i b l e , the group of 26 Hungarians  divided  Into' two equal c l a s s e s on t h e b a s i s of t h e  s c h o o l i n g completed In t h e i r  n a t i v e Hungary.  A f t e r s i x weeks of  formal  extensive  work In p h o n i c s and r e a d i n g , t h e two c l a s s e s were a d m i n i s t e r e d the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement  II  The I n s t r u c t o r s  f o r placement Into two homogeneous c l a s s e s .  had t h e dual problem of t e a c h i n g t h e  a new language and of broadening t h e i r m a t i c s , s c i e n c e and geography. extensively  The  Hungarians  l i m i t e d b a s i c knowledge In m a t h e -  lower  l e v e l c l a s s c o n t i n u e d t o work  w i t h p h o n i c s , b a s i c r e a d i n g and t h i r d and f o u r t h grade  E n g l i s h and s p e l l i n g . reading, Junior  The advanced c l a s s c o v e r e d ,  high courses  In geography  and  In a d d i t i o n t o  level advanced  history.  Eva I u a t l o n  An I n d i v i d u a l Instructors literacy  subjective  on each man.  In t h e i r  native  t o cover b a s i c knowledge. Test  e v a l u a t i o n was completed by the  S i n c e t h e c o u r s e d i s c l o s e d a low l e v e l  of  language, the c o n t e n t of the c o u r s e was expanded A second v e r s i o n of t h e C a l i f o r n i a Achievement  II was a l s o a d m i n i s t e r e d a t t h e c o m p l e t i o n of t h e a d d i t i o n a l  weeks of study and t h e r e s u l t s were compared t o t h e I n i t i a l  test  six scores.  168  The upper  level c l a s s obtained the following  results: Reading 1.7  Average  Increase  Arithmetic 1.5  In Grade Level Language 1.4  The  lower  level c l a s s obtained the following  results: Reading I  Average  Increase  In Grade Level Language  Arithmetic l  169  NI em I,  John A .  A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA  ADULTS  Objectives  The o b j e c t i v e s of t h e On-Duty R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e , F o r t R i c h a r d s o n , A l a s k a , were e s t a b l i s h e d t o p r o v i d e m i l i t a r y personnel who had less than an e i g h t h grade e d u c a t i o n  l e v e l or  t o ove" come t h e s e d e f i c i e n c i e s .  low a p t i t u d e s c o r e s w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y  The o b j e c t i v e s of the c o u r s e were t o  p r o v i d e t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h b a s i c s k i l l s and knowledge which would e n a b l e t h e person t o a c q u i r e t h e 1.  following:  an e i g h t h grade c e r t i f i c a t e by p a s s i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d e x a m i n a t i o n s developed by U n i t e d S t a t e s Armed Forces I n s t i t u t e English,  2.  In the areas of  a r i t h m e t i c , s c i e n c e , geography and h i s t o r y .  an o p p o r t u n i t y  t o apply f o r a r e t e s t of t h e Army C l a s s i f i c a t i o n  B a t t e r y based on s u c c e s s f u l c o m p l e t i o n of the e i g h t h grade 3.  level.  a chance f o r t h e g r a d u a t e s t o complete t h e High School General E d u c a t i o n Development Test through enrichment m a t e r i a l covered c l a s s e s t o meet I n d i v i d u a l  4.  In t h e  needs.  a p o s s i b l e c i v i l i a n high s c h o o l c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma on the b a s i s of t h e I n d i v i d u a l ' s  HSGED s c o r e s and c o u r s e c o m p l e t i o n .  Administration  A l t h o u g h Army r e g u l a t i o n made p r o v i s i o n s  for o f f - d u t y  classes,  t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Army, A l a s k a (USARAL) p u b l i s h e d a command c i r c u l a r  170  t h a t a u t h o r i z e d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t of an On-Duty R e f r e s h e r C o u r s e . personnel at t h e E d u c a t i o n C e n t e r had t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  The  for ,locating  d e f i c i e n t personne 1, counseI I f n g , p r e - t e s t l n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g the quotas for  Individual  military  units.  As a r e g u l a r USARAL supported program, t h e c o s t of the Program was Included  In t h e E d u c a t i o n C e n t e r ' s b u d g e t .  were Included t o h i r e t e a c h i n g s t a f f  Regular appropriated  from t h e l o c a l community t o  funds  Instruct  a t t h e e d u c a t i o n c e n t e r , and t o develop supplementary m a t e r i a l s t o e n r i c h t h e two l e v e l s of  Instruction.  Format On t h e b a s i s of t h e i r C a l i f o r n i a Achievement 11 P r e - T e s t t h e s o l d i e r s who were s e n t t o the program, were o r g a n i z e d groupings.  Into homogeneous  The On-Duty R e f r e s h e r Course was d i v i d e d Into two  Students who s c o r e d below t h e s i x t h grade p l a c e d In a lower  level c l a s s .  level.  levels.  l e v e l on the p r e - t e s t were  Students who s c o r e d above s i x t h grade on  t h e p r e - t e s t or who had successfuI Iy comp1eted t h e lower were p l a c e d In t h e upper  scores,  The  lower  l e v e l of  l e v e l c l a s s e s covered  study fourth,  f i f t h and s i x t h grade r e a d i n g , E n g l i s h amd mathematics p l u s c o u r s e s history,  In  geography and s c i e n c e . D u r i n g the. c l a s s I n s t r u c t i o n which was conducted In the  morning (8 a . m . - l 2 a.m.) t h e r e was_a c o m b i n a t i o n of t e c h n i q u e s used by the Instructors  t o meet I n d i v i d u a l  needs.  In t h e a f t e r n o o n a study h a l l  171 was conducted In each c l a s s w i t h t h e top r a n k i n g men In c h a r g e . s t u d e n t s r e c e i v e d a t o t a l of 240 hours of c l a s s r o o m I n s t r u c t i o n . S t a t e s Armed F o r c e s  The United  I n s t i t u t e t e x t s were used as m a t e r i a l s .  Format T e s t r e s u l t s f o r a group of 70 s t u d e n t s who completed t h e  lower  l e v e l of study between June  1957 and December 1957 I n d i c a t e d an average  Increase of one grade  In r e a d i n g , E n g l i s h and performance computa-  level  t i o n s d u r i n g t h e s i x weeks of s t u d y . per c e n t )  Only s i x of t h e 70 s t u d e n t s  (8.5  f a i l e d t o meet the r e q u i r e d s i x t h grade s t a n d i n g which e n t i t l e d  them t o r e t u r n  f o r the upper  l e v e l of  study.  During t h e same p e r i o d , 218 s t u d e n t s completed t h e upper of s t u d y .  Of t h i s group,  142 (66 per c e n t )  level  s u c c e s s f u l l y passed a l l  five  USAFI e n d - o f - c o u r s e e x a m i n a t i o n s and r e c e i v e d an e i g h t h grade c e r t i f i c a t e . Although  l a r g e percentages of the group completed a r e - t e s t  t h e Army C l a s s i f i c a t i o n B a t t e r y and took the High School General Development t e s t , of t h i s  data.  of  Education  a mass r o t a t i o n of personnel prevented t h e a c q u i s i t i o n  172  Peerson,  N.  AN EXPERIMENT WITH EVALUATION IN THE ERADICATION OF ADULT ILLITERACY BY USE OF TELEVISION INSTRUCTION OVER A STATE EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION NETWORK SUPPLEMENTED BY SUPERVISED GROUP VIEWING AND BY THE RELATED USE OF PROJECT-SUPPLI ED MATERIALS OF INSTRUCTION  Objective  The purpose of the p r o j e c t was t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s t h e combined t e l e c a s t s , p r e s e n t a t i o n s designed w i t h an a d a p t a t i o n of Laubach method of t e a c h i n g r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g and group with I l l i t e r a t e  adults  of the  Instruction  In an 1 1 - c o u n t y area In c l o s e p r o x i m i t y  to  F l o r e n c e S t a t e C o l l e g e , F l o r e n c e , Alabama.  Administration  In June 1960, F l o r e n c e S t a t e C o l l e g e o f f i c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d the l i t e r a c y p r o j e c t w i t h t h e appointment of a d i r e c t o r area s u p e r v i s o r s .  and a s t a f f of  six  F i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t f o r t h i s r e s e a r c h was a c q u i r e d  through a g r a n t from the U . S . Department of Health,, E d u c a t i o n and W e l f a r e , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t t h r e e weeks of t h e p r o j e c t were spent In f o r m u l a t i n g t h e p l a n on how t o o r g a n i z e a community In r e g a r d t o t h e  l o c a t i o n of  students,  t o methods of a c q u i r i n g s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s and t o e s t a b l i s h a p l a n evaluation.  for  The area s u p e r v i s o r s had t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of working w i t h  l o c a l committees t o o r g a n i z e t h e program w i t h r e g a r d t o  publicity,  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and e n r o l l m e n t of s t u d e n t s , r e c r u i t m e n t and t r a i n i n g of  173  volunteer  teachers,  f i n a n c e s where  necessary.  The I n i t i a l 8:30-9:00.  l o c a t i o n of t e a c h i n g c e n t e r s and the a c q u i s i t i o n of  lesson was t e l e c a s t on a Wednesday evening  A f t e r w a r d s a r e g u l a r s c h e d u l e was e s t a b l i s h e d on Monday,  Wednesday and F r i d a y e v e n i n g s . Interpreting  the  To a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t s a t t h e c e n t e r s  t e a c h e r s were g i v e n supervisor.  t e a c h e r s were r e c r u i t e d .  f i v e hours of s p e c i a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n  In a d d i t i o n t o the v o l u n t e e r  from a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y  s t u d e n t s and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s .  homes.  c e n t e r s by I n d i v i d u a l s  or  The p a r t i c i p a n t s p e o p l e were f u n c t i o n a l l y  and e d u c a t i o n enrolling  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u t i e s of t h e  Television  teachers.  A variety  school b u i l d i n g s ,  s e t s were  center of  churches,  l e n t or g i v e n t o  the  groups. In the program came from an area where Illiterate  and 19,430 had no p r i o r  Of the 608 s t u d e n t s who were e n r o l l e d about t h e program through p e r s o n a l  105,310  schooling.  In the program, 53 per cent  Invitations  learned  from e m p l o y e r s , members of  f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or committee members d e s i g n a t e d t o I n t e r v i e w s t u d e n t s .  The r e m a i n i n g 47 per c e n t cent),  volunteer  by the area  a s s i s t e d In some areas In  f a c i l i t i e s were used In t h e program, e . g . , recreation centers,  The  teachers, sociology  became an assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of t h e v o l u n t e e r  their  In  lessons and to p r o v i d e them a d d i t i o n a l help In r e a d i n g ,  w r i t i n g and ear t r a i n i n g , v o l u n t e e r  students  from  newspapers  (5 per c e n t ) ; (7 per c e n t ) .  learned about the program through r a d i o (15 per  (13 per c e n t ) ,  and PTA,  church announcements (II per c e n t ) ,  unemployment o f f i c e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n  The t y p i c a l  TV  centers  s t u d e n t was In h i s f o r t i e s w i t h two or  three  174  y e a r s of p r i o r Included  formal s c h o o l i n g .  An a d d i t i o n a l 57 s t u d e n t s who were not  In t h e sample purchased m a t e r i a l s and r e c e i v e d  volunteer  teachers.  Instruction  from  No attempt was made t o t a k e Into account t h e home-  v i e w e r s who were not o f f i c i a l l y  In the program.  Format  The s t u d e n t s viewed the t e l e v i s e d  lessons as a group at the  c e n t e r s which were s t a f f e d by v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s who a c t e d as r e s o u r c e persons.  Small c l a s s e s w i t h d i r e c t  I n s t r u c t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d f o r  late  e n r o l lees t o the program and In areas In which t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n s i g n a l was weak. The c o n t e n t of the t e l e v i s e d  lesson was based on the k i n e s c o p e s  t h a t were procured from WKNO-TV In Memphis, Tennessee.  T h i s agency had  adapted t h e Laubach m a t e r i a l t o TV and had developed two s t u d e n t workbooks with the m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to the k i n e s c o p e .  To supplement the program,  the area s u p e r v i s o r s developed m a t e r i a l s , e x e r c i s e s and a s s i s t e d In the development of a weekly  newspaper.  Eva l u a t l o n  Of t h e 608 s t u d e n t s who s t a r t e d t h e program, o n l y 254 completed the work.  To evaluate the program, f i v e r e a d i n g t e s t s were g i v e n  t h e c o u r s e of t h e y e a r .  Four  Initial  during  Informal t e s t s were c o n s t r u c t e d  for  t h e p r o j e c t w h l l e t h e f i f t h was the P r i m a r y 11 l e v e l of t h e M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading T e s t .  175  As some s t a n d a r d of comparfson, the Informal t e s t s were gfven t o groups of c h i l d r e n Alabama s c h o o l s .  In grades two, t h r e e and In some cases four  For t h e MetropoI I t a n T e s t , the p u b l i s h e d n a t i o n a l norms  were used f o r the c o m p a r i s o n .  In t h e l o c a l l y developed I n i t i a l  n e i t h e r the TV v i e w e r s nor t h e I n d i v i d u a l s w e l l as c h i l d r e n  In c e r t a i n  test,  In the r e g u l a r c l a s s d i d as  In the e a r l y months of t h e second g r a d e .  On t e s t s two  and t h r e e , t h e two a d u l t groups d i d about as w e l l as c h i l d r e n In the second grade a t a c o r r e s p o n d i n g time of the y e a r .  In t h e f o u r t h  the a d u l t s appeared t o move ahead of t h e second grade s t u d e n t s , d i d not do as w e l l as t h i r d  test, but  graders..  In t h e Metropo I I t a n Reading T e s t , t h e r e s u l t s  Indicated that  a d u l t s . I n t h e two programs were p e r f o r m i n g a t t h e l e v e l of c h i l d r e n h a l f w a y through t h e second g r a d e .  the  characteristic  Of t h e t h r e e s c o r e s  —  one f o r knowledge, one f o r word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and one f o r r e a d i n g of connected p r o s e , t h e n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e two a d u l t groups was the s c o r e on connected r e a d i n g .  The a d u l t s  In the forma I Iy t a u g h t c l a s s  s u r p a s s e d t h e t e l e v i s i o n group by o n e - h a l f a g r a d e , which s u g g e s t s t e l e v i s i o n t e a c h i n g Is a less e f f e c t i v e procedure In d e v e l o p i n g of connected r e a d i n g . Metropolitan Test,  In r e l a t i n g p r i o r  that  skills  e d u c a t i o n t o the r e s u l t s on t h e  I n d i v i d u a l s who had r e p o r t e d no p r i o r  a b i l i t y at the  b e g i n n i n g were p e r f o r m i n g a t a l e v e l comparable t o a r e c e n t l y  promoted  f i r s t grader w h i l e t h o s e w i t h four or more y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g demonstrated a r e a d i n g a b i l i t y e q u i v a l e n t t o the average c h i l d In t h e second g r a d e .  176  Although the objectives,  l i t e r a c y program had h a n d w r i t i n g as one of  c a l c u l a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t because of the  s c a l e s and I n s t r u m e n t s .  lack of  Its  appropriate  Through s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of t h e c o m p a r a t i v e  p u b l i c s c h o o l s t u d e n t s and a comparison w i t h p u b l i s h e d h a n d w r i t i n g  scales,  I t was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e h a n d w r i t i n g performance of the a d u l t s was r e l a t e d t o y e a r s of e a r l y s c h o o l i n g and t o t h e i r average a d u l t  reported a b i l i t y to read.  For t h e  In t h e two g r o u p s , w r i t i n g a b i l i t y was r e p r e s e n t e d a t a l e v e l  equal t o a m i d - t e r m second grade s t u d e n t .  177  ST. CHRISTOPHER HOUSE. A FAMILY LIFE PROJECT  IN A DOWNTOWN NEIGHBORHOOD  Objectives The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s program was t o determine t h e v a l u e of u s i n g the group method In t r a i n i n g mothers of " m u l t i - p r o b l e m " f a m i l i e s t o Improve t h e q u a l i t y of f a m i l y n u t r i t i o n .  Administration  In September  1962, Ryerson School which Is  House n e i g h b o r h o o d , was s e l e c t e d f o r t h e newly E d u c a t i o n School Lunch P r o j e c t .  In t h e S t .  Christopher  Inaugurated Board of  The economic s t a t u s of t h e  families  n e c e s s i t a t e d a s u b s i d i z a t i o n which would enable s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n participate a group of  In t h e program.  Upon t h e r e c e i p t of a s e r v i c e c l u b  to  grant,  13 c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d which r e p r e s e n t e d 11 f a m i l i e s .  The  mothers agreed t o a t t e n d a b i - m o n t h l y n u t r i t i o n meeting which was h e l d a t S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House. distributed.  At t h e s e m e e t i n g s , t h e  lunch room money was  Four a d d i t i o n a l mothers J o i n e d the group, a l t h o u g h  c h i l d r e n were not b e i n g s u b s i d i z e d f o r s c h o o l  their  lunches.  A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e a d v i s o r y committee of a g e n c i e s and p u b l i c departments which were concerned w i t h t h e study met on t h r e e o c c a s i o n s t o d i s c u s s and e v a l u a t e t h e  project.  178  Format  The group meetings were e s t a b l i s h e d on a b i - m o n t h l y b a s i s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d between J u l y  1962 and June 1963.  A v a r i e t y of t e c h n i q u e s and  numerous t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s were used In t h e group m e e t i n g s .  Although the  o u t l i n e of t h e meetings was prepared In advance, changes were made as needs appeared or upon r e q u e s t s from t h e g r o u p . for  Individual  Time was a l s o a l l o w e d  c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r t h e meetings and t h e f a m i l i e s were  v i s i t e d f r e q u e n t l y by t h e Family L i f e W o r k e r .  Evaluation  The amazing f a c t t h a t t h e overburdened mothers d i d p a r t i c i p a t e was Initially  a t t r i b u t e d t o the s u b s i d i e s ; however,  t h e group  Indicated  t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n of t h e s u b s i d y was not necessary f o r t h e i r In t h e second y e a r . v a l u e t o them.  that  participation  The mothers I n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e meetings had p r a c t i c a l  In a d d i t i o n , t h e members shared I n f o r m a t i o n and s i m i l a r  problems w i t h one another and I t a l s o brought them Into an Informal  contact  w i t h two p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s , a n u t r i t i o n i s t and a s o c i a l w o r k e r , who were I n t e r e s t e d  In t h e i r p r o b l e m s .  These group  l e a d e r s were a b l e t o  d e t e c t a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of what had been learned through d i s c u s s i o n s , home v i s i t s and r e a c t i o n s from c h i l d r e n . comments of t h e c h l I d r e n s '  The general o b s e r v a t i o n s and  t e a c h e r s I n d i c a t e d an o v e r - a l l  e f f e c t of t h e program on t h e c h i l d ' s h e a l t h and I n d i r e c t l y of t h e i r work  In s c h o o l .  beneficial on t h e  quality  179  Schmidt,  Erlck ONE ATTACK ON POVERTY  (Mecklenberg County —  A P i l o t PI I I P r o j e c t  for Welfare R e c i p i e n t s , CaroI Ina)  Objective In November, recipients  I960, a p i l o t p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d f o r w e l f a r e  In M e c k l e n b e r g C o u n t y .  The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was t o  determine t h e s u c c e s s of f a m i l y p l a n n i n g programs on the v o l u n t a r y successful  use of t h e " p i l l " by w e l f a r e  and  recipients.  Eva I u a t l o n  A f t e r two y e a r s ,  It was r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e r e were no p r e g n a n c i e s  among the 223 women v o l u n t e e r s who had been p r e v i o u s l y accustomed t o frequent pregnancies. program,  It was learned t h a t t h e program c o s t t h e p u b l i c  twenty-fifth chI I d r e n .  In an e v a l u a t i o n of the f i n a n c i a l c o s t s of  the  l e s s than o n e -  as much as It would c o s t t h e p u b l i c t o s u p p o r t  unwanted  180 W h l t t e m o r e , R . G . and Ben E c h e v e r r f a SELECTION AND EVALUATION OF TRAINEES IN A BASIC EDUCATION EXPERIENCE UNDER THE MANPOWER TRAINING ACT  Objective  The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was t o develop f u r t h e r  knowledge  about a p p l i c a n t s f o r MDT programs who c o u l d not b e n e f i t from MDT t r a i n i n g programs w i t h o u t  Instruction  In b a s i c e d u c a t i o n .  The p r o j e c t had t h e f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l 1.  objectives:  Determine t h e best t e s t i n g d e v i c e s t h a t can be used t o v a r i o u s areas of homogeneity  In t r a i n e e s e n r o l l e d  discover  In MDTA c l a s s e s  Involving basic education. 2.  D i s c o v e r t h e most e f f e c t i v e way of measuring t h e r e a d i n g and computation  l e v e l s of such t r a i n e e s .  3.  A n a l y z e t h e common p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics of such t r a i n i n g .  4.  C o m p i l e a s t a n d a r d i z e d system of t e s t i n g t h e a d u l t e d u c a t i o n t r a i n e e s t h a t would e n a b l e t h e t e a c h e r s and c o u n s e l l o r s t o understand t h e s e groups b e t t e r and t o a c h i e v e more e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g .  Administration A r e v i e w of p r i o r s t u d i e s on t e s t s by the Nevada S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n d i s c l o s e d a number of d e f i c i e n c i e s . were:  Some of t h e s e  findings  181 1.  t h e general method of s e l e c t i n g t e s t s was t o choose them by t r a d i t i o n ;  2.  t h e r e was no adequate data on t h e v a l i d i t y of a v a i l a b l e s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s for a d u l t s ;  3.  t h e r e were e s t i m a t e s on t h e amount of time and money t h a t were r e q u i r e d t o o p e r a t e a t e s t i n g program;  4.  t h e p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics of t h e s t u d e n t s were not shown In t e s t s of questionable v a l i d i t y ;  5.  and  t h e g r o u p i n g was haphazard when t h e I n s t i t u t i o n a l  s t a f f was not s u r e  of t h e t e s t s u s e d . As a r e s u l t , t h e Nevada S t a t e Department of E d u c a t i o n c o n t a c t e d two c o n s u l t a n t s from t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Nevada, D r . Whlttemore and M r . Echeverrla to design the  study.  C l a s s e s from both Las Vegas and Reno were used In t h i s  study.  The p a r t i c i p a n t s In t h e two Las Vegas groups were p r i m a r i l y Negro and female. male.  Only f i v e out of 87 t r a i n e e s were C a u c a s i a n and o n l y two were The t h r e e Reno groups were more h e t e r o g e n e o u s .  t h e groups had four Negroes and n i n e men. cational  Of t h e 39 t r a i n e e s ,  The Las Vegas s a m p l e ' s e d u -  l e v e l ranged from 5-12 y e a r s which r e s u l t e d In a median c l a i m e d  educational Test Battery  l e v e l of  10 y e a r s .  T h e i r "G" s c o r e of t h e General  (GATB), which was used as an I n d i c a t i o n of  ranged from 41 t o  Aptitude  Intelligence,  112 w i t h a mean "G" s c o r e of 88.8. The Reno t r a i n e e s  had a median c l a i m e d e d u c a t i o n a l range of e d u c a t i o n from 4 t o  l e v e l of  13 y e a r s .  73-148 w i t h a mean " G " s c o r e of  10.2 y e a r s on t h e b a s i s of a  T h e i r " G " s c o r e ranged from  101. One of t h e Reno c l a s s e s was  p o r a t e d Into t h e study as a c o n t r a s t g r o u p .  Their  l.O. s c o r e s and  fncoi—  182 educational  level are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  During the  groups.  18 months, t h e f o l l o w i n g Instruments were a d m i n i s t e r e d  t o t h e f i v e d i f f e r e n t groups Intelligence:  from t h e o t h e r  In t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s t i m e :  Henmon-NeI son T e s t of Mental A b i l i t y , Grades 9 - 1 2 , Form A C a l i f o r n i a Short Form T e s t of Mental M a t u r i t y , Grades 7 - 8 , 1963 O t i s Quick S c o r i n g Mental A b i l i t y —  Level 3 ,  Beta T e s t  R e v i s e d Beta Examination AchIevement:  S e q u e n t i a l T e s t of E d u c a t i o n a l P r o g r e s s , Level 3 , Grades 7 - 8 - 9 -  Aptitude:  D l f f e r e n t l a l A p t i t u d e T e s t , Form L, Grade 9  Interest:  Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record —  Persona I I t y :  Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory, C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory  Reading:  Iowa S i l e n t Reading T e s t  V o c a t i o n a l Form CH  Evaluation The Las Vegas t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had been under t h e d i r e c t i o n of MDT c o u n s e l l o r s who a l s o r e p o r t e d the t e s t d a t a . not have a c o u n s e l l o r which r e s u l t e d t e s t and p o s t - t e s t  The Reno c l a s s e s d i d  In s k e t c h y I n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p r e -  data.  D u r i n g t h e e a r l y p a r t of t h e s t u d y , many s u b j e c t i v e  evaluations  of c e r t a i n Instruments were made.  The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h e Hemnon-NeI son  T e s t d i d not c o n f i r m t h e p r e v i o u s  Information about average grade c o m p l e t i o n  of 9 . 9 .  There a l s o was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p r e - and p o s t -  t e s t t r e a t m e n t mean s c o r e s , and as a r e s u l t t h i s  Instrument was dropped  183 from f u r t h e r  use fn t h e s e c l a s s e s .  The s e q u e n t i a l t e s t of  P r o g r e s s d i d not appear f e a s i b l e due t o t h e  following:  1.  t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o s t s f o r a widespread t e s t i n g  2.  t h e t i m e f o r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (280 m i n u t e s ) t y p e of  3.  program;  seemed t o o  long f o r  this  program;  t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e test  Educational  In p r e - and p o s t -  scores.  There was an a c t u a l d e c r e a s e In t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l mean s c o r e s a f t e r months In c l a s s .  This  Instrument was droppedffrom f u r t h e r  use.  was used as an attempt t o e l i m i n a t e s t u d e n t s w i t h d i s a b l i n g problems.  The r e s u l t i n g p r o f i l e s  Identified  as norma 1 p r o f f I e s .  Individual  t r a i n e e s might m a n i f e s t s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y  16  TheMMPl  psychological  (both p r e - and p o s t - t r e a t m e n t )  were  The r e s e a r c h e r s were aware t h a t disturbances  but  t h e absence of any g r o s s p a t t e r n p r e c l u d e d c o n t i n u i n g w i t h t h e MMPI. Correlations  at .01 s i g n i f i c a n c e were made on t h e  following  varIabIes: GATB " G " s c o r e w i t h O t i s  IQ s c o r e .  DAT V s c o r e w i t h DAT s e n t e n c e s .  Otis  10 s c o r e w i t h DAT s e n t e n c e s .  CP I W e l l - b e i n g s c o r e w i t h CP1  CPI W e l l - b e i n g s c o r e w i t h CPI  Achievement-through-conformance.  CPI W e l l - b e i n g s c o r e w i t h CPI  Intellectual-efficiency.  CPI A c h i e v e m e n t - t h r o u g h - c o n f o r m a n c e w i t h Iowa Composite w i t h R e v i s e d Beta IQ s c o r e . R e v i s e d Beta IQ s c o r e .  Self-Control.  Intellectual-efficiency. Iowa Word-meaning  with  184  C e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes d i d t a k e p l a c e as a r e s u l t of  the  l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e o f f e r e d through t h e b a s i c e d u c a t i o n program. A l t h o u g h t h e DAT Mean V s c o r e s had r e v e a l e d an approximate 9th grade norm, t h e tremendous I n c r e a s e  In numerical a b i l i t y  Vegas c l a s s e s I n d i c a t e d by t h e DAT N s c o r e s s t i l l t h e 8 t h grade  l e v e l of competency.  by both Reno and Las left  Individuals  below  The mean IQ of the C a l i f o r n i a T e s t of  Mental M a t u r i t y was around 80 IQ In both p r e - and p o s t - t r e a t m e n t .  The  researchers cautioned  Interpretation  con-  s i d e r a t i o n of c u l t u r a l  background.  Improvement  of mental r e t a r d a t i o n w i t h o u t The CPI  In s e l f - c o n c e p t and w e l l - b e i n g  I n d i c a t e d an o v e r — a l l (the  significant).  There a l s o was a f a v o r a b l e t r e n d  responsibility  and p s y c h o l o g i c a l  mlndedness.  latter  particularly  In Improvement  In  

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