UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Analytical review of remedial educational programs for socially and economically disadvantaged adults 1968

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ANALYTICAL REVIEW OF REMEDIAL EDUCATJONAL PROGRAMS FOR SOCIALLY AND ECONOMICALLY DISADVANTAGED ADULTS by DARRELL VAJL ANDERSON B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1955 A THESJS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the F a c u l t y of Educat ion (Adu l t Educat ion* We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the requLre'd s t^ndaril TH£? UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA APRIL, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n - t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f Adult Education T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e April 16, 1968. ABSTRACT The p r i n c i p a l concern of t h i s t h e s i s was to examine the r o l e of educat ion In a l t e r i n g the personal and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d i s - advantaged a d u l t , and to s e l e c t Informat ion of f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e to program design fo r those educators or agencies contemplat ing remedial educat iona l programs w i t h disadvantaged a d u l t s . The sources of data f o r t h i s d e s c r i p t i v e study were l i m i t e d to research r e p o r t s on s p e c i a l r e t r a i n i n g and remedial educat iona l programs fo r the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . D e s c r i p t i v e data on poverty and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged were a l s o used s e l e c t i v e l y . As a group, the disadvantaged have the lowest Income, the poorest e d u c a t i o n , the l a r g e s t f a m i l i e s , the most Inadequate hous ing , the h i g h e s t Inc idence of III h e a l t h , and the l e a s t hope or promise of a b e t t e r f u t u r e . In a d d i t i o n to such soc io -economic hand icaps , the disadvantaged are hampered by c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s Inc lud ing a lack of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , low s e l f - e s t e e m and a high degree of dependency. Because of a l i m i t e d pei c e p t l o n of the v a l u e of e d u c a t i o n , the disadvantaged d i s p l a y n e i t h e r the a s p i r a t i o n nor the m o t i v a t i o n to ach ieve educat iona l g o a l s . They are f u r t h e r handicapped by a lack of v e r b a l • f a c t J I t y which l i m i t s t h e i r communication w i t h s o c i e t y . The research p rov ides a depress ing p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the disadvantaged and s o c i e t y . Large ly because of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e has been compelled to evolve I ts own o p e r a t i o n a l way of l i f e . The customary a s s o c l a t l o n a I c o n t a c t s of the m i d d l e - c l a s s II s o c i e t y are not f u n c t i o n a l t o the disadvantaged and they p a r t i c i p a t e I n - stead through c a s u a l , c l o s e , and o f t e n Int imate primary group r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Remedial programs are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by: programs of lengthy dura t ion w i t h a d i s t i n c t p re fe rence fo r the c lassroom method; I n s t r u c t i o n a l agents w i t h l i t t l e or no s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g for the c l i e n t e l e ; use of a I fmlted number of I n s t r u c t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e s ; heavy r e l i a n c e on I n s t r u c t i o n a l dev ices and m a t e r i a l s ; e x t e n s i v e use of p r e - a d u l t t e s t s for both placement and e v a l u a t i o n ; and a preponderant number of d e s c r i p t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e eva I u a t I o n s . Because of the s c a r c i t y of s u b s t a n t i a l r e s e a r c h , s p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of educat iona l p lann ing fo r the disadvantaged can not be s t a t e d w i t h a s s u r a n c e . The r e j e c t i o n of the I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s of educat ion by the disadvantaged Is I n d i c a t i v e of the need to d i scove r new p a t t e r n s which w i l l be acceptab le to them. The present p a t t e r n of remedial educat iona l programs o f f e r s l i t t l e hope of answering the needs of the d Isadvantaged. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter p a g e I. INTRODUCTION • • I PURPOSE OF THESJS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SOURCES OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DEFINITION OF TERMS. . 4 PLAN OF THESIS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 II. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED . 7 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS. . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Age and Sex. 8 Educat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Income . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . < I 5 FamI ly S i z e . . . - 16 M a r i t a l Status . 1 8 Hea l th . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . 24 S e I f - C o n f I d e n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 P e r c e p t i o n of Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 M o t i v a t i o n 31 Verbal FacI I I t y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 SUMMARY. 34 1 1 1 . SOCIAL INTERACTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 DISCRIMINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP . . . . . . . . . . . 42 PARTICIPATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 3 COMMUNICATION . . . . . . . . . 48 Iv Chapter Page SUMMARY . 51 I V . REMEDIAL EDUCATJONAL PROGRAMS. . . . . . . 52 CLASSIFICATION OF THE PROGRAMS. . . . . . . . . . . 52 L i t e r a c y E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 FamIly and Heal th . . . . . . . . . 59 ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAMS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 SUMMARY 66 V. IMPLICATIONS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 67 BARRIERS 67 S o c i e t a l B a r r i e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 S u b - c u l t u r a l B a r r i e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 EDUCATIONAL PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 CONTENT AREAS . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 B a s i c Educat ion . . . . . . . . . . . 74 V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . . . . . . 74 Family L i f e Educat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Homemaker Educat ion . . . . . . . . . . 76 Consumer E d u c a t i o n . 76 Hea l th Educat ion . . . . . . . 77 L e i s u r e Educat ion . . . . . . . . "77 C i t i z e n s h i p Educat ion . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 CONTENT SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . 79 ORGANIZATION AND CONTENT . . . . . . . 80 SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 APPENDIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 V LIST OF TABLES Page TABLE I ANALYSIS OF REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS TABLE IJ DESCRIPTION OF TESTS EMPLOYED JN REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS 65 APPENDIX TABLE OF CONTENTS ALLEN, D.W. AN EXPERJMENT IN EDUCATION WITH' THE LAUBACH LITERACY COURSE OF STUDY ON FILMS AT.THE OHIO STATE REFORMATORY BERTRAND, C A . AN EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF PRO- GRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL. MATERIAL FOR THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF THE TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF CORRECT!ONS BROOKS, L . B . RE-EDUCATION OF UNEMPLOYED AND UN- SKILLED WORKERS, NORFOLK DIVISION, VIRGINIA STATE COLLEGE, NORFOLK, VIRGINIA BROWN, E . J . BUNGER, M. CROHN, B . L . DRANE, R . S . EVALUATION OF A FOODS AND NUTRITION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN WILKES-BARRE, PENNSYLVANIA A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF OPERATJON ALPHABET ]N FLORIDA AND AN EVALUATION OF CERTAIN PROCEDURES EMPLOYED THE DJEBOLD LITERACY PROJECT; PROGRAMMING FOR THE ILLITERATE ADULT THE EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION TRAIN- ING ON ADULT LITERACY EDUCATION IN A MENTAL HOSPITAL EDUCATIONAL REHABILITATION: AN EVALUATION OF THE ADULT BASIC EDU- CATION PROGRAM OF THE.STATE OF ILLINOIS FEINTUCH, A . A STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INTE- ' GRATED PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL COUNSEL- LING CASEWORK AND A SHELTERED WORKSHOP IN INCREASING THE EMPLOYABILITY AND MODIFYING ATTITUDES CORRELATING WITH EMPLOYABILITY OF D|FF1CULT-TO-PLACE PERSONS v i Page 1 0 8 - 1 10 I I l - l 1 2 1 1 3 - 1 1 6 I I 7 - I 2 0 1 2 1 - 1 2 6 I 2 7 - I 2 9 I 3 0 - I 3 2 1 3 3 - 1 3 5 1 3 6 - 1 4 0 HAMILTON DEMONSTRATION P R O J E C T - LONG. TERM ASSISTANCE FAMILIES 1 4 1 - 1 4 3 v i ! HENNY, R . L HOLST, H. LONG, F. MCKEE, J . e t . a i . MCKEE, J . e t . a I NIEM1, J . NlEMJ, J . PEERSON, N. SCHMIDT, E. WH JTTEMORE, R . G . & ECHEVERRIA, B. Page READING INSTRUCTION BY A PHONIC METHOD FOR FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE ADULTS AT THE INDIANA REFORMATORY 144-147 SUMMARY OF THE WKNO-TV LITERACY PROJECT 148-150 IMPATIENCE AND THE PRESSURE OF T I M E - CLEVELAND'S READING CENTERS PROJECT 151-154 LONG-TERM ASSISTANCE FAMILIES— A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT 155-158 IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS — I. . 159-161 IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS — I I . 162-163 NEW HOPE PROJECT: 1965-1966 VOLUME I I , MODESTO, CALIFORNIA 164-165 A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED ADULTS IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA — I 166-168 A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED ADULTS IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA — 11 169-177 AN EXPERIMENT WITH EVALUATION IN THE ERADICATION OF ADULT ILLITERACY BY USE OF TELEVISION INSTRUCTION OVER A STATE EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION NETWORK SUPPLE- MENTED BY SUPERVISED GROUP VIEWING AND BY RELATED USE OF PROJECT-SUPPLIED MATERIALS OF INSTRUCTION 172-176 ST. CHRISTOPHER HOUSE. A FAMILY LIFE PROJECT IN A DOWNTOWN NEIGHBORHOOD 177-178 ONE ATTACK ON POVERTY 179 SELECTION AND EVALUATION OF TRAINEES IN.A BASIC EDUCATION EXPERIENCE UNDER THE MANPOWER TRAINING ACT 180-184 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Poverty Is an anc ien t s o c i a l phenomenon which has been of I n t e r m i t t e n t concern to mankind. At the moment, the s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s are g r a p p l i n g to d e f i n e poverty and t o I d e n t i f y the c a u s a t i v e f a c t o r s In order to e l i m i n a t e It as a major s o c i a l I I I . P r e v i o u s l y the I d e n t i f i c a - t i o n of poverty had been based almost s o l e l y on economic measurements but r e c e n t l y t h e r e has been an attempt to reconceptuaI I ze the phenomenon. There Is now a growing awareness t h a t poverty has both soc io -economic and s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l d imens ions . Thus, poverty Is both o b j e c t i v e and s u b - j e c t i v e In I t s m a n i f e s t a t i o n s . The d i f f e r e n c e s I d e n t i f y i n g the disadvantaged are of such a nature as t o suggest t h a t a d i s t i n c t i v e poverty s u b - c u l t u r e has developed w i t h i n the dominant c u l t u r e of our s o c i e t y . In urban slums the hard core poor have been found to have t h e i r own s e l f - c o n t a i n e d s o c i a l system In which they e x h i b i t a f l u e n t use of a p a r t i c u l a r language s t y l e t h a t p rov ides both an I d e n t i t y fo r members and p r o t e c t i o n for the group. Moreover , t h i s hard core group d i f f e r s from other urban slum r e s i d e n t s In terms of the p e r c e p t i o n of t i m e , of s e l f In s o c i a l space , and of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of schemes and c a u s a l i t y ( 6 9 ) . Such a s u b - c u l t u r e appears to be s e l f - i perpe tua t ing as I t s o c i a l i z e s new members to I ts r a n k s . The cont inued e x i s t e n c e of a poverty s u b - c u l t u r e In the midst of an a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y r e s u l t s from the I n t e r a c t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l s w i th t h e i r 2 environment In which both c o n t r i b u t e to the depr ived s t a t u s of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . The s o c i e t y t o l e r a t e s c o n d i t i o n s conducive to the c r e a t i o n of d isadvantaged s t a t u s and s imu l taneous l y r e j e c t s those I n d i v i d u a l s who have f a l l e n v i c t i m to such c o n d i t i o n s . The v i c t i m s In t u r n learn to accommodate themselves to t h e i r d isadvantaged s t a t u s and to r e j e c t the v a l u e s of the s o c i e t y which produces t h e i r p l i g h t . I t Is t h i s I n t e r a c t i o n which c r e a t e s a s e l f - p e r p e t u a t l n g s i t u a t i o n t h a t must be a l t e r e d If the problems of poverty are to be r e s o l v e d . Thus, the environment must be m o d i f i e d on a massive s c a l e so t h a t s o c i e t y I t s e l f no longer generates I t s p o o r . At the same t i m e , the disadvantaged must change w i t h respec t to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which make them so Imnedlately s u s c e p t i b l e to the pover ty forming f a c t o r s tn t h e i r env i ronment . The c r u c i a l environmental f a c t o r s which are conducive to the development of a disadvantaged group l i e In the nature and s t r u c t u r e of the economic system through which the resources of the s o c i e t y are used and d i s t r i b u t e d . Thus sub -s tandard h o u s i n g , Inadequate p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e to the fo rmat ion of a poverty g roup . At the same t i m e , the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o;f members of t h a t group determine t h e i r r e a c t i o n and response to such c o n d i t i o n s . The move from p r i v a t e to p u b l i c c h a r i t y has s i g n a l l e d the general acceptance of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for the e x i s t e n c e of p o v e r t y , but w e l - f a r e programs n e i t h e r a l t e r the b a s i c environmental f a c t o r s nor modify the s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those who are p o o r . 3 An a t t a c k upon poverty t h a t seeks to modify the environmental c o n d i t i o n s a lone Is unsuccessfu l because It does noth ing to a l t e r the human c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Mie poor themselves so t h a t they can assume some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to share In the u l t i m a t e e r a d i c a t i o n of p o v e r t y . To change people Is more d i f f i c u l t than to change the environment, yet such change Is an Ind ispensab le p r e r e q u i s i t e to the p rob lem. The disadvantaged I n d i v i d u a l s may be changed through educat iona l programs d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to t h a t end, but t h i s means has not yet rece i ved adequate a t t e n t i o n from those most concerned w i t h the problem of p o v e r t y . I. PURPOSE OF THE THESIS The p r i n c i p a l concern of t h i s t h e s i s Is to examine the r o l e of educat ion In a l t e r i n g the personal and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the d isadvantaged a d u l t . Research by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s suggests t h a t the s o c i a l l y and economica l l y disadvantaged have c e r t a i n I d e n t i f i a b l e chai— a c t e r l s t l c s which determine , In p a r t , the success of remedial educat iona l programs. Through a review of the l i t e r a t u r e , t h i s study w i l l s e l e c t t h a t In format ion whfch Is of f u n c t i o n a l v a l u e as a guide to program des ign fo r those educators or agencies contemplat ing remedial educat iona l programs w i t h disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n s . 4 I I. SOURCES OF DATA Because of the recent p r o l i f e r a t i o n of l i t e r a t u r e concerned w i t h the d isadvantaged , t h i s review w i l l be l i m i t e d main ly t o research r e p o r t s on remedial educat iona l programs fo r such I n d i v i d u a l s . These research s t u d i e s are found In the l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d to r u r a l r e s e t t l e m e n t p r o - grams, a g r i c u l t u r a l ex tens ion a c t i v i t i e s , programs fo r low Income fa rmers , remedial a c t i v i t i e s w i t h migratory workers , community development, urban redevelopment and s p e c i a l r e t r a i n i n g and remedial educat iona l programs fo r the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . D e s c r i p t i v e data on poverty and the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged w i l l a l s o be used s e l e c t i v e l y . I I I . DEFINITION OF TERMS In a n a l y z i n g the research on remedial educat iona l programs for a d u l t s , I t becomes apparent t h a t t h e r e Is a broad range of terminology used to d e f i n e poverty and to d e s c r i b e I ts v i c t i m s . For the purpose of t h i s a n a l y s i s , the f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t i o n s are employed: (1) Pover ty Is a s t a t e of need or Inadequacy which In f a c t e x i s t s fo r the' I n d i v i d u a l , or Is perce ived by him to e x i s t . 12} Disadvantaged Is a term a p p l i e d to those s u b j e c t s who are members of a poverty s u b - c u l t u r e and are handicapped w i th respec t to the mode of the dominant s o c i e t y . 5 The e x i s t e n c e of a d i s t i n c t s u b - c u l t u r e accentuates the f a c t t h a t the e x i s t e n c e of c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s Is not synonymous w i t h c u l - t u r a l d e p r i v a t i o n . Hence, the disadvantaged group should not be viewed as " c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d " (18 ) (165) (239) (267) . In e f f e c t , t h e n , the comparison of the disadvantaged w i t h the dominant p o p u l a t i o n becomes a c r o s s - c u l t u r a l comparison through which the d i f f e r e n c e s In c u l t u r e are more s i g n i f i c a n t and meaningful than d i f f e r e n c e s In I n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r - I s t I c s . The d e f i n i t i o n of disadvantaged used h e r e i n a f t e r Is Intended t o be I n c l u s i v e of those I n d i v i d u a l s v a r i o u s l y desc r ibed In the l i t e r a t u r e as the h a r d - c o r e poor , the lower soc io -economic c i t i z e n r y , low Income p e o p l e , the c u l t u r a l l y d e p r i v e d , the f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e , the educa - t i o n a l l y d e f i c i e n t , the h a r d - c o r e unemployed and such s i m i l a r t e r m s . IV. PLAN OF THE THESIS Th is study w i l l f i r s t examine the soc io -economic and the s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged as these have been I d e n t i f i e d by r e s e a r c h . The second step w i l l be t o examine the ways In which these I d e n t i f i a b l e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In f luence the response of the disadvantaged I n d i v i d u a l s t o t h e i r environment and 6 p a r t i c u l a r l y to educat iona l programs. The s e l e c t e d e d u c a t i o n a l programs designed fo r disadvantaged a d u l t s w i l l then be analyzed to assess t h e i r approach to the educat iona l task and to measure t h e i r success as repor ted by r e s e a r c h . F i n a l l y , the study w i l l ana lyze the elements which appear t o In f luence educat ion fo r the disadvantaged a d u l t and p rov ide sugges t i ve c l u e s to the des ign and conduct of such programs. CHAPTER U CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISADVANTAGED Disadvantaged s t a t u s Is not the consequence of e x c l u s i v e l y economic d e t e r m i n a n t s . Thus, It has been necessary to reconceptua11ze pover ty In terms of o b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s which are almost s o l e l y economic and s u b j e c t i v e f a c t o r s which d e s c r i b e the I n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r c e p t i o n of h i m - s e l f as p o o r . With t h i s two d imensional concept of p o v e r t y , I t Is p o s s i b l e to d e s c r i b e the disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n In ways which character— Ize I t as d i f f e r e n t from the populat ion as a who le . In a n a l y z i n g the conspicuous and s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the poor and o t h e r s , the d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g fea tu res are summarized h e r e i n - a f t e r In terms of common soc io -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and then In terms of s o d a l -psycho l o g l c a I c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Inc lud ing a t t i t u d e s , va lues and s I m l I a r f a c t o r s . I. SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS The disadvantaged a d u l t Is d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the general p o p u l a t i o n by c e r t a i n soc io -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The data concern ing these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s subsume themselves under the f o l l o w i n g head ings : age and sex , e d u c a t i o n , Income, employment, fami l y s i z e , m a r i t a l s t a t u s , h e a l t h and r e s i d e n c e . 8 Age and Sex Al though the very young, the e l d e r l y , and the female are ovet represented In the poverty group, n e i t h e r age nor sex are themselves d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s apart from t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p to other f a c t o r s . Among a l l the members of a p o p u l a t i o n , the re w i l l be age and sex d i f f e r e n t i a l s t h a t appear t o be accentuated when c o n s i d e r i n g the d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c e r t a i n d e s c r i p t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s encountered among the disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n . In v iew of t h i s , age and sex w i l l be noted where a p p r o p r i a t e In d i s c u s s i n g other f a c t o r s . Educat ion Educat iona l l e v e l , as measured by years of school completed, Is one of the most c o n s i s t e n t l y s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a b l e s In s o c i a l s c i e n c e . I t Is s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d t o occupat ion and Income as w e l l as to c e r t a i n other s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s which may a f f e c t leve l of l i v i n g ( I24M206) (207M208) (21 I ) (222) (267) . In the disadvantaged popu- l a t i o n , educat iona l leve l has been found to be c o n s i s t e n t l y below t h a t of the general p o p u l a t i o n so t h a t the major p r o p o r t i o n of the disadvantaged are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by educat iona l d e f i c i e n c y (I 7 ) (48) (90) (99) ( I 24)(I 28) ( 152)(207)(21 I ) ( 2 9 0 ) . There a r e , of course , age and sex d i f f e r e n c e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h educat iona l leve l In the general p o p u l a t i o n . Many s t u d i e s have revea led 9 t h a t the male Is on a lower educat iona l leve l than the female w i t h the d i f f e r e n t i a l as much as one to two years more of s c h o o l i n g fo r the female ( 2 2 ) ( 3 9 ) ( 7 2 H 1 3 0 ) ( 1 3 8 K 1 4 4 ) ( 1 8 2 ) ( 2 1 7 > . Th is normal d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n Is o f t e n accentuated among the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . A study of low-Income s u b j e c t s In r u r a l Canada d i s c l o s e d t h a t husbands had achieved an average educat iona l leve l of 6 . 9 grades , w h i l e wives had ach ieved 7.7 g r a d e s . S i m i l a r l y , among t h e i r c h i l d r e n , the males who had f i n i s h e d t h e i r formal s c h o o l i n g had completed 8 . 5 y e a r s , w h i l e the females had a t t a i n e d 9 . 2 years of s c h o o l i n g ( 1 7 4 ) . J t Is a l s o repor ted t h a t males tend to drop out of school e a r l i e r than females , but of those who f i n i s h h igh s c h o o l , more males than females go on to c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y (119 H 1 8 7 M 207K The educat iona l d e f i c i e n c y becomes conspicuous a t the l i t e r a c y leve l and In those f u n c t i o n s In which l i t e r a c y Is an Ind ispensable t o o l . There a re two l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y t h a t are u s u a l l y I d e n t i f i e d . The complete I l l i t - e r a t e Is one who has had no formal s c h o o l i n g and consequent I y , I s unable t o r e a d , w r i t e or f i g u r e a t the leve l of the f i r s t grade (45). (125). The f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e , on the other hand, Is one w i t h less than f i v e years of school completed ( 6 ) ( 9 ) ( 4 8 ) ( 1 2 5 ) . The U .S . O f f i c e of Economic Opportuni ty p r e s e n t l y uses the grade e i g h t leve l as the c r i t e r i o n fo r f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a c y In v iew of Increas ing Job s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and expanding t e c h - nology which r e q u i r e Increas ing educat iona l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . The normal 10 p r e r e q u i s i t e fo r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g Is c u r r e n t l y se t at the grade ten leve l ( 2 1 7 ) . Among the d isadvantaged , t h e r e Is a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e number c l a s s i f i e d as complete or f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e s and v i r t u a l l y none who can s a t i s f y the grade e i g h t or ten p r e r e q u i s i t e for v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Th is low leve l of educat ion Is r e f l e c t e d In data on Income, unemployment, n u t r i t i o n , cr ime and communicat ion. Low Income An Income leve l of $3,000 or less Is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I l l i t e r a c y ( 5 ) ( 9 8 ) ( 1 3 8 ) ( 2 1 7 ) ( 2 4 1 ) . Jn Canada, the average Income of a fami l y head r e p o r t i n g e i t h e r no s c h o o l i n g or one to four years of s c h o o l i n g completed was $3,318 a year compared w i t h an average of $4,985 fo r a l l f a m i l y heads ( 6 1 . Among Canadian males w i t h only an elementary e d u c a t i o n , 26 per cent earned less than $2,000 a n n u a l l y , and 46 per c e n t , less than $ 3 , 0 0 0 . There Is a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n w i t h respec t to low Incomeaid Inadequate educat ion In the data fo r women. About t w o - t h i r d s of a l l women w i t h only an elemen- t a r y e d u c a t i o n , 40 per cent of those w i t h a secondary e d u c a t i o n , and 20 per cent of those w i t h some u n i v e r s i t y repor ted earn ing less than $2,000 annua I Iy ( 1 3 8 ) . Unemp1oyment C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I l l i t e r a c y and Income Is the matter of unemployment ( 5 ) ( 8 5 ) ( 1 8 2 ) ( 2 3 1 ) ( 2 4 1 ) ( 2 7 4 ) . A 1960 Survey In Canada found t h a t about h a l f of the unemployed had not f i n i s h e d pr imary school and over 90 per cent had not completed high s c h o o l . Among people who had not 11 completed pr imary s c h o o l , the unemployment r a t e was sTx t imes g rea te r than t h a t among h igh school graduates , (211) . The unemployment r a t e of school dropouts from 14 to 19 years o l d , Is tw ice the o v e r a l l Canadian average ( 2 2 5 ) . Cr Ime Severa l recent s t u d i e s found a r e l a t i o n s h i p between I l l i t e r a c y and cr ime In t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a l l y d isadvantaged are more l i k e l y to b e - come Incarcerated In a c o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t i o n than are those w i t h more educat ion (1251(181) (191) ( 2 0 3 X 2 0 9 1 . A study conducted In the Ohio S t a t e Reformatory (9) revea led t h a t 73 out of 142 Inmates were unable t o r e g i s t e r an achievement score e q u i v a l e n t to grade one . The mean educat iona l grade achievement was 1 . 9 7 , and t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the Inmates achieved a grade of 4 . 3 or l e s s . Jn Texas, 55 .6 per cent of the p r i s o n p o p u l a t i o n would be c l a s s i f i e d as f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e s because of an educat iona l achievement of grade f i v e or less ( 5 ) . N u t r i t i o n The r e l a t i o n s h i p between a low leve l of educat ion and poor n u t r i t i o n Is suggested by a number of s t u d i e s (41) (102) (2081(217) . The e v a l u a t i o n of a foods and n u t r i t i o n educat ion program for low-Income f a m i l i e s In P e n n s y l v a n i a Ind icated t h a t n i n e t y - o n e persons (62 per cent) of the 145 s u b j e c t s had e i g h t years or less of formal s c h o o l i n g and they showed l i t t l e I n t e r e s t In us ing the n u t r i t i o n a l Informat ion 12 p r o v i d e d . Ha l f of the homemakers who were not even aware of the mai led Informat ion and r e c i p e cards had no formal s c h o o l i n g ( 4 1 ) . The lack of n u t r i t i o n a l knowledge was demonstrated f u r t h e r by a study of 352 Onta r io farm women, whose formal s c h o o l i n g averaged grade t e n . Only 161 (46 per cent) knew enough about n u t r i t i o n to serve one or more c o r r e c t sources of V i t a m i n C to t h e i r f a m i l i e s ( 1 0 2 ) . A study of w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s In Kentucky , a la rge number of whom were f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e , revea led t h a t only t h r e e - q u a r t e r s of the recommended s e r v i n g s of bread and c e r e a l s were being e a t e n , more meat and more meat s u b s t i t u t e s than recommended were being used, and on ly h a l f of the s e r v i n g s recommended by the U.S . Department of A g r i c u l t u r e f o r m i l k , f r u i t and vegetab les were In the d i e t ( 2 1 7 ) . Homemakers In a V i r g i n i a study of food buying revea led t h a t sav ing money on food was the main I n t e r e s t and concern to those w i t h a low e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l . On the o ther hand, the b e t t e r educated a t t a c h g r e a t e r Importance to " g e t t i n g the grade or q u a l i t y of food fo r the money s p e n t " , " h e a l t h and n u t r i t i o n " , and "how to t e l l g rade -o r q u a l i t y " . S i m i l a r l y , 20 per cent of the homemakers w i t h the lowest level of educat ion compared to 5 per cent of those w i t h one or more years of co l lege expressed " the d i f f i c u l t y of meal p r e p a r a t i o n " . Both educat ion and Income were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h l e v e l s of knowledge about grad ing and q u a l i t y , but there was l i t t l e If any c o n s i s t e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between educat ion or Income and knowledge of s e a s o n a l i t y and p r i c e . Consumers needed more Informat ion on s e a s o n - a l i t y as It r e l a t e d to the p r i c e and supply of pork , beef and eggs ( 2 0 8 ) . 13 Income Amount The amount of Income Is a common measure of d isadvantage on the assumption t h a t Income b a s i c a l l y determines the leve l of l i v i n g . In the Uni ted S t a t e s , the O f f i c e of Economic Oppor tun i ty o r i g i n a l l y de f ined poverty In terms of f a m i l y Income which was $3,000 or l e s s . In 1965, the d e f i n i t i o n was m o d i f i e d to f i t the s i z e of the f a m i l y u n i t w i t h s p e c i f i e d annual Incomes by s i z e of fami l y as f o l l o w s : a one-person f a m i l y , $ 1 , 5 4 0 ; a two-person f a m i l y , $1 ,990; a t h r e e - p e r s o n f a m i l y , $2 ,400 ; and a four—person f a m i l y , $3,130 ( 2 1 7 ) . In Canada rough Ind ices of m i n i - mum urban cash requirements have been l i s t e d as $1,500 to $1,800 for s i n g l e persons ; $2,000 to $2,500 fo r two a d u l t s ; and $2,600 to $3,400 for an urban f a m i l y of f o u r . Farm f a m i l i e s were expected to need cash Incomes at 80 per cent of the urban leve l (I 38) (204)(2 I I ) . In Canada, low Incomes were more pronounced fo r the young and o l d who are s i n g l e . Among male wage e a r n e r s , 77 per cent of the youths under 20 years of age and 35 per cent of males over 65 years of age earn annual Incomes of $2,000 or less (211) . ln s p i t e of having achieved more formal educat ion than her male c o u n t e r p a r t , I t Is the d isadvantaged female In Canada who s u f f e r s more In regard to Income d i s t r i b u t i o n . In 1961, over h a l f (53 per cent) of the f a m i l i e s w i t h female f a m i l y heads compared w i t h 21 per cent of f a m i l i e s w i t h male heads had Incomes of $3,000 or l e s s . L i k e w i s e , almost two- f i f t h s (37 per cent) of female f a m i l y heads compared w i t h II per cent of 14 male heads l i v e d on less than $2,000 a n n u a l l y . In f a c t , a lmost one - f i f t h (19 per cent) of the female f a m i l y heads had Incomes of $1,000 or less ( 2 1 1 ) . Source of Income W e l f a r e payments have been I d e n t i f i e d as an Important source of Income fo r the disadvantaged (99) (120) (124M138) (139) (170) (174) (208) (264) ( 2 7 4 ) . In some areas of the Saspe, where unemployment and undei—employment a re c h r o n i c , between 90 and 100 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n Is mainta ined by $100,000,000 d i s t r i b u t e d annua l l y through p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e and t r a n s - f e r payments ( 2 2 8 ) . With regard to Indian peop le , more than o n e - t h i r d ( 3 3 . 5 to 36 per cent) of a l l Ind ian households depend upon w e l f a r e grants main ly prov ided by the Indian A f f a i r s B ranch . Th is general r a t e of f i n a n c i a l dependency fo r Indians was about ten t imes the n a t i o n a l average ( 2 3 0 ) . I t has been suggested f u r t h e r t h a t I n d i v i d u a l Income Is no longer a sound measure of an I n d i v i d u a l ' s leve l of l i v i n g . What mat te rs more Is f a m i l y Income ( 1 9 0 ) ( 2 8 1 ) . Both the upper - lower c l a s s and the lowei—lower c l a s s are compel led f r e q u e n t l y to r e l y upon the work of wives and mothers as an a i d to economic s u r v i v a l ( 1 4 4 ) ( 2 5 1 ) . McBean and Abel l (174) found t h a t extremely low Income In a r u r a l area of Onta r io was s i g n i f i c a n t l y r e l a t e d to the f a m i l y dependence on e i t h e r one or two of s i x p o s s i b l e sources of Income and n i n e t y - f o u r of the 150 s u b j e c t s mentioned farming and government payments most f r e q u e n t l y as the sources of Income. 15 Access to Cap ItaI Another handicap s u f f e r e d by the economica l l y disadvantaged I n d i v i d u a l Is r e l a t e d to h i s I n a b i l i t y to o b t a i n c r e d i t and to employ I t e f f e c t i v e l y (2)(96)( 12 I ) (138)(225)(264). In 1963, the general popu- l a t i o n In Canada was est imated to have had access to c r e d i t averaging $255 per p e r s o n . The Indian p o p u l a t i o n , on the other hand, was only ab le to o b t a i n c r e d i t to the extent of s l i g h t l y over $1 per person (230). Furthermore, the c o s t of c r e d i t might be In excess of what a subs i s tence budget can a f f o r d (56). EmpIoyment The disadvantaged are l i k e l y to s u f f e r extended pe r iods of unemployment (98) ( I 33) I I 70) ( 2011) (24 I) . In H a m i l t o n , O n t a r i o , 160 employ- a b l e f a m i l i e s and 300 s o - c a l l e d unemployable f a m i l i e s had been w i thout work for more than a year (120). L i k e w i s e , the past employment h i s t o r y of 160 MInneapol Is s u b j e c t s showed t h a t almost h a l f the group (45 per cent ) had been out of work at l e a s t h a l f the t ime dur ing the past f i v e years (274). A study of 52 " d I f f I c u I t - t o - p I ace" persons of a s h e l t e r e d workshop In Montrea l revea led t h a t only two s u b j e c t s had worked more than one hundred days out of a p o t e n t i a l of 260 working days (99). i n g e n e r a l , the disadvantaged worker Is employed and working less than he wants t o , In p a r t - t i m e or casual employment where p r o d u c t i v i t y and Incomes are low. Hence, under—employment becomes a major f a c t o r In pover t y , e s p e c i a l l y r u r a l poverty (2)(I 38)(182) i Jenness (138) a l s o 16 a s s o c i a t e s undet—employment w i t h c e r t a i n occupat ions such as f i s h i n g , t r a p p i n g and some of the eastern f o r e s t r y o p e r a t i o n s . Another c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the employment h i s t o r y of the d isadvantaged Is seasonal unemployment, in Canada, seasonal v a r i - a t i o n s In a c t l v t t y account for as much as o n e - t h i r d of the t o t a l unemploy- ment; and In many a r e a s , t h i s Is a p r i n c i p a l cause of poverty ( 2 1 1 ) . Of those w i t h Incomes of less than $2 ,000 , over 60 per cent of the male and 35 per cent of the female workers are w i thout work for more than one - quar ter of the y e a r . There are l i m i t a t i o n s to the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of such data which concern wage and s a l a r y earners m a i n l y , and v i r t u a l l y exclude farmers , f i shermen , p e n s i o n e r s , smal l bus iness owners and the s e l f employed. A s u b s t a n t i a l p r o p o r t i o n of Canada's poor are found among farmers , f ishermen and pens ioners ( 1 3 8 ) . FamIIy S i z e The disadvantaged f r e q u e n t l y have f a m i l i e s t h a t are larger than average In s i z e . Data from severa l s t u d i e s reveal t h a t extremely low Income Is r e l a t e d to the bear ing and r e a r i n g of f i v e or more c h i l d r e n (17) (85) (98) (174) (215) (217) . Among the Indians and the M e t i s of Canada I t Is not uncommon for f a m i l i e s to c o n s i s t of ten or more c h i l d r e n w i t h a c o n s i d e r a b l e number of f a m i l i e s r e p o r t i n g between 13 and 16 c h i l d r e n ( 2 3 2 ) . 17 As e a r l y as 1936, f a m i l y s i z e was I d e n t i f i e d as a f a c t o r r e l a t e d t o poverty ( 2 1 7 ) . Subsequent research has s i n c e revea led an Inverse r e l a t i o n s h i p between f e r t i l i t y r a t e s and soc io -economic s t a t u s ( 1 4 4 ) . Such a s i t u a t i o n Is demonstrated In both Quebec and the A t l a n t i c Region which have la rger f a m i l i e s and a lower leve l of r u r a l l i v i n g than the r e s t of Canada ( 2 8 1 ) . More recent s t u d i e s have shown t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Income, e d u c a t i o n , occupat ion and r e s i d e n c e w i t h f e r t i l i t y r a t e s Is much less e v i d e n t . Such a r e l a t i o n s h i p Is s t i l l most c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of r u r a l m i g r a n t s to c i t i e s , and of the lowest segment of manual labourers (278)(279) ( 2 8 4 ) . F u r t h e r , I t has been suggested t h a t a l though the general r e l a t i o n - sh ip between s o c i a l c l a s s and f e r t i l i t y Is s t i l l Inverse , w i t h i n each c l a s s the r e l a t i o n s h i p Is d i r e c t . Hence the bet te r—of f manual workers have more c h i l d r e n than the p o o r e s t . S o c i a l m o b i l i t y ts proposed to be the In terven ing v a r i a b l e between b i r t h r a t e s and s o c i a l c l a s s ( 2 7 8 ) . The f i n d i n g s of Berent (28) s t rengthen the argument t h a t those who seek upward m o b i l i t y w i l l tend to c u r t a i l f a m i l y s i z e In order t o f a c i l i t a t e the p r o c e s s , w h i l e those who are downwardly mobi le do so In order to s low the course of t h e i r d e c l i n e . One Canadian study (211) contends tha t f a m i l y s i z e Is more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to educat ion than to Income. Thus f a m i l i e s In which the household head has the l e a s t educat ion are g e n e r a l l y the l a r g e s t . 18 M a r i t a l S ta tus I t Is d i f f i c u l t , If not Imposs ib le to use m a r i t a l s t a t u s as a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c to I d e n t i f y the d i sadvantaged . Jenness (138) found t h a t low Incomes In Canada are most pronounced among the young and the o l d who are s i n g l e . Among the wage earners and the s a l a r i e d , the number of marr ied men Is almost three t imes t h a t of s i n g l e men. Yet there Is a lmost the same number of mar r ied men and s i n g l e , young men who earn $3,000 or l e s s . On the otherUhand, data fu rn i shed by the U .S . Department of Labour for March , 1962 showed t h a t about 230,000 young men In the 1 4 - 1 9 age group were m a r r i e d . Of t h i s number, about 95 per cent were In the labour fo rce but many proved to have Inadequate Incomes. B e s i d e s , more than 700,000 non- farm f a m i l i e s w i t h fami l y heads below the age of 25 had t o t a l Incomes of less than $3,000 In 1961 ( 2 8 9 ) . A study of Incarcerated s u b j e c t s e n r o l l e d In an o c c u p a t i o n a l , r e h a b i l i t a t i o n and employment p r o j e c t revea led t h a t 85 per cent were s i n g l e , and al though on ly 15 per cent of the 289 youths , ranging In age from 17 to 26 y e a r s , were or had been m a r r i e d , an a d d i t i o n a l 16 per cent were f a t h e r s out of wedlock ( 1 9 1 ) . Among the hard core unemployed s t u d i e d In D e t r o i t , 65 per cent were m a r r i e d . Approx imately one In four men and women were s i n g l e , and more than one In f i v e (22 per cent) of the females were e i t h e r d i v o r c e d , separated or widowed ( 8 5 ) . In an . I l l i n o i s study (98) 5 5 . 7 per cent of 19 the s u b j e c t s were d i v o r c e d , widowed or separated compared w i t h 23 .5 per cent who were m a r r i e d , and 20.7 per cent who were unmarr ied . Th is was In c o n t r a s t to the f i n d i n g s obta ined from a survey of unemployed persons In the s t a t e which showed over 70 per cent mar r ied ( 2 7 4 ) . Hea l th The s o c i a l l y and economica l l y disadvantaged are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a high Incidence of d i s e a s e s , h igher r a t e s of Infant m o r t a l i t y , lower l i f e expectancy , more c h r o n i c I l l n e s s , more dental d e f e c t s , and a g rea te r evidence of g e n e r a l l y poor p h y s i c a l and mental h e a l t h (33)(70) ( 9 8 ) ( 9 9 ) ( I 2 0 ) ( I 3 7 ) ( I 5 6 ) ( 2 0 4 ) ( 2 I 7 ) ( 2 6 4 ) ( 2 6 7 ) ( 2 7 4 ) ( 2 9 I ) . In Canada, the In fant m o r t a l i t y r a t e v a r i e s from 23 to 193 out of 1,000 depending upon the Income of the r e g i o n of r e s i d e n c e (204) . S i m i l a r l y , l i f e expectancy shows a d i s t i n c t range . In 1963, the n a t i o n a l average was 6 0 . 5 years for men and 64.1 years for women. ( 2 0 4 ) . Among Eskimos and Indians the f i g u r e s were c o n s i d e r a b l y lower. The average l i f e expectancy for Eskimos was about 20 years ( 2 0 4 ) . For Indian males It was 33.1 y e a r s , and for females 34.71 y e a r s . If deaths o c c u r r i n g dur ing the f i r s t twelve months of l i f e were excluded however, the average age at death for males r i s e s to over 46 years and to Jus t under 48 years for females ( 2 3 0 ) . The disadvantaged are a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d by lower expendi tures fo r h e a l t h s e r v i c e s , less use of medical f a c i l i t i e s , lower r a t e s of p r e - n a t a l care and lower acceptance of v o l u n t a r y h e a l t h Insurance, and p r e - pa id medical coverage (22) (93) (156) ( I 7 2 ) ( 2 6 7 ) . Dental care Is a l s o Inadequate and main ly con f ined to e x t r a c t i o n s (I 72) (204) (2 I 7 ) . 2 0 P r a c t i c e s r e l a t i n g to c h i l d c a r e , home s a n i t a t i o n , p r e v e n t i v e d i s e a s e c o n t r o l , and the use of p r o f e s s i o n a l sources of Informat ion on h e a l t h p r a c t i c e s have l i t t l e re levance to the household In which the f a m i l y head Is employed as a farm t e n a n t , a share c ropper , or farm l a b o u r e r . In such households , fu r thermore , the homemakers are l i k e l y to have completed less than f i v e years of formal s c h o o l i n g ( 1 7 2 ) . The e x c e s s i v e h e a l t h problems of the disadvantaged are a t t r i b u t e d to a number of f a c t o r s Inc lud ing Inadequate h e a l t h c a r e , d e f i c i e n t n u t r i t i o n , sub - s tandard hous ing , and a lack of r e c r e a t i o n ( 9 8 ) ( 1 9 0 ) ( 2 1 5 ) ( 2 3 0 ) ( 2 3 1 ) ( 2 5 2 ) and there Is an I n t e r - r e I a t !onsh Ip of these f a c t o r s w i th Inadequate Incomes and low educat iona l l e v e l s ( 1 7 2 ) ( 2 0 4 ) ( 2 2 5 ) . Res Idence I so I a t ! o n The s o c i a l l y and economica l l y disadvantaged may w e l l p r e f e r to l i v e In an I s o l a t e d l o c a t i o n but such p re fe rence e n t a i l s c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l handicaps as Inhab i tants of I s o l a t e d areas have more l i m i t e d employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s , lack medical and dental s e r v i c e s and show the lowest r a t e s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n In a d u l t educat iona l a c t i v i t i e s (I 3 8 ) ( 1 4 0 ) ( I 7 2 ) ( 2 I 3 ) . I s o l a t i o n a l s o has I ts Impact on communicat ion. Amongst a group of d isadvantaged In Kentucky , f o u r — f i f t h s l i v e d on an unpaved road , f o u r — f i f t h s never r e c e i v e d a newspaper, about o n e - h a l f never watched t e l e v i s i o n and o n e - t h i r d never l i s t e n e d to the r a d i o . These handicaps 21 of I s o l a t i o n coupled w i t h the low educat iona l leve l of the parents and t h e i r lack of knowledge about the e x i s t e n c e of educat iona l f a c i l i t i e s c o n t r i b u t e to the format ion and p e r p e t u a t i o n of a d i s t i n c t s u b - c u l t u r e ( 2 1 7 ) . Hawthorn (124) has Ind icated t h a t It Is the geographica l d i s p e r s a l of Indian communities In Canada which has h indered the development of powerful reg iona l or Nat iona l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . L o c a t i o n Al though the s o c i a l l y d isadvantaged w i l l be found In both urban and r u r a l a r e a s , a la rger p r o p o r t i o n of Canada's poor are located In the r u r a l s e t t i n g . Rural areas were repor ted to have 28.5p;per cent of t h e i r male r e s i d e n t s and 6 6 . 8 per cent of the females earn ing annual Incomes of $2,000 or l e s s . Th is r u r a l - u r b a n d i f f e r e n c e was even more pronounced In Newfoundland, New Brunswick and Quebec where h a l f of the male wage earners In r u r a l areas earned less than $2,000 ( 1 3 8 ) . S i m i l a r l y In Kentucky the low Income f a m i l i e s have been more concent rated fn r u r a l areas ( 2 1 7 ) . Rura l areas a l s o tend to have more f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e s than urban a r e a s , but recent s t u d i e s suggest t h a t t h i s s i t u a t i o n Is changing w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e to the o l d e r p o p u l a t i o n ( 2 6 6 ) . In Texas, the re has been a d e f i n i t e t rend toward the u r b a n i z a t i o n of the e d u c a t i o n a l l y d e f i c i e n t . The g r e a t e s t c o n c e n t r a t i o n of I l l i t e r a t e s In t h a t s t a t e Is found In 21 m e t r o p o l i t a n areas ( 5 ) . In Kentucky I l l i t e r a c y has remained concent rated more among farm r e s i d e n t s ( 2 1 7 ) . 22 Mob I I I ty The d isadvantaged In the r u r a l areas are g e n e r a l l y an Immobile g r o u p . In one Nova S c o t i a a r e a , w i t h a labour fo rce I n d i c a t i n g a c o n - s i d e r a b l e amount of unemployment and underemployment, as w e l l as s u b s t a n t i a l numbers r e p o r t i n g a f a i r l y low leve l of l i v i n g , the s t a b i l i t y of res idence was apparent . Some 81 per cent had been born w i t h i n the p r o j e c t a r e a ; 36 per cent had never l i v e d beyond t h e i r present community fo r s i x months or more; and 54 per cent had l i v e d more than 30 years In t h e i r present p l a c e of res idence ( 7 2 ) . S i m i l a r l y , a study of low Income farmers In M i s s o u r i revea led t h a t 50 per cent of them were l i v i n g In the county of t h e i r b i r t h and 16 per cent were r e s i d e n t In ad jacent c o u n t i e s ( 1 6 4 ) . Such low m o b i l i t y among Hie dIsadvantaged r u r a l p o p u l a t i o n may be a f a c t o r In t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g disadvantaged s t a t u s as they do not move t o areas where employment and o p p o r t u n i t i e s fo r advancement may be more numerous. In c o n t r a s t , the length of res idence fo r the s o c i a l l y d i s a d v a n - taged In urban areas Is f requent l y very s h o r t (47) (85) (98) (22 I ) ( 2 6 3 ) . The 1961 Census Ind ica ted tha t 23 .4 per cent of the people In an urban renewal area In Vancouver had l i v e d In t h e i r homes fo r less than one year and 46 .8 per cent had been t h e r e Jess than two y e a r s . F u r t h e r , the p u p i l tu rnover r a t e In the loca l elementary school amounted to approx imate ly h a l f of the school p o p u l a t i o n ( 2 6 3 ) . 23 Standard of Housing The qua 11ty of the dweI 11ng u n l t s aval IabIe I n an area Is a s p e c i f i c I n d i c a t o r of soc io -economic s t a t u s . Hence, I t might be expected t h a t the disadvantaged w i l l l i v e In areas having a preponderance of o l d , d i l a p i d a t e d , overcrowded and Inadequate houses l a c k i n g the o r d i n a r y amen i t ies I I52 ) (195) (204) (217) (230) (241) (267) . In I ts d e s c r i p t i o n of Inadequate housing the U . S i O f f i c e of Economic Opportuni ty a l s o Included sound housing w i thout complete plumbing ( 2 1 7 ) . In Canada there are over 6 ,000 Indian f a m i l i e s who are e i t h e r s h a r i n g accommodation w i t h other f a m i l y u n i t s or l i v i n g In Improvised and Inadequate s h e l t e r s . A survey In 1962 revea led t h a t 60 per cent of the Indian f a m i l i e s l i v e In houses of th ree rooms or less compared to a n a t i o n a l average of II per c e n t . Fur ther data showed t h a t only 44 per cent of the Indian homes were prov ided w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y , 13 per cent w i t h running water , 9 per cent were s e r v i c e d w i t h sewers or s e p t i c t a n k s , and 7 per cent equipped w i t h Indoor b a t h s . This can be compared to a n a t i o n a l average In which 99 per cent of Canadian homes'were prov ided w i t h e l e c t r i c i t y , 92 per- .cent had running water and were s e r v i c e d by sewers or s e p t i c t a n k s , and 84 per cent -were equipped w i t h Indoor baths ( 2 3 0 ) . In a H a l i f a x s tudy , of the 134 Negro f a m i l i e s In te rv iewed , s l i g h t l y more than h a l f l i v e d In overcrowded d w e l l i n g s which were In need of major r e p a i r . Only one-seventh of the f a m i l i e s had p r i v a t e t o i l e t f a d I I t i e s whl le more -than ha I f the f ami I les had n e i t h e r p r i v a t e nor shared bathroom facI I I t i e s ( 2 4 1 ) . 24 The q u a l i t y or c o n d i t i o n s of d w e l l i n g s alone may be a m i s l e a d i n g c r i t e r i o n . I t was found t h a t r e s i d e n t s of the P r a i r i e Region have fewer amen i t i es than are found In homes In the A t l a n t i c Region even though the p r a i r i e d w e l l e r s are more a f f l u e n t . The re fo re , housing c o n d i t i o n s may r e f l e c t c e r t a i n s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a p o p u l a t i o n to some e x t e n t . (267)' . Both the lower c o n s t r u c t i o n r a t e s In depressed areas and the meager per c a p i t a Investment In housing for the disadvantaged have been noted (2300(267) . In 1963, the t o t a l per c a p i t a Investment In housing f o r the general Canadian p o p u l a t i o n was $90 compared w i t h $21 for Indians ( 2 3 0 ) . No doubt t h i s expendi ture has I ts Impact In Inadequate , housing wh ich ! In t u r n c o n t r i b u t e s to the low standard of h e a l t h among these disadvantaged people ( 2 6 7 ) . These soc io -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Ind ica te some of the d i f f e r - ences one might expect t o encounter In comparing the disadvantaged w i t h o t h e r s . Thus, a l though t h e s e o c h a r a c t e r l s t l c s d e s c r i b e the s t a t u s of the d isadvantaged , they n e i t h e r e x p l a i n the behavior nor the s u b - c u l t u r a l q u a l i t i e s of the group. I I . SOCIAL-PSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS The disadvantaged a d u l t Is d i f f e r e n t i a t e d from the general p o p u l a t i o n by c e r t a i n soc io -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as noted p r e v i o u s l y . 25 There are even more s t r i k i n g d i f f e r e n c e s observed w i t h respec t to c e r t a i n f a c t o r s w h i c h , for purposes of convenience, are d iscussed under the general heading of s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . These Items I d e n t i f y c e r t a i n p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s common to members of the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e and d e s c r i b e r e l a t i o n s h i p s , both among members of t h a t group, and between the s u b - c u l t u r e and the s o c i e t y . As a general d e s c r i p t i o n of the members of the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e , Skene (240) notes the f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s I d e n t i f i e d In r e s e a r c h : 1. a u t h o r i t a r i a n and employ p h y s i c a l r a t h e r than verba l dominance; 2 . r i g i d l y r e s t r i c t i v e where t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s are p r o h i b i t i v e ; 3 . more g iven to I n t o l e r a n c e , p r e j u d i c e , tending more to b lack and wh i te t h i n k i n g ; 4 . more prone to a c t i o n than r e f l e c t i o n ; more aqtI -1nte1 IectuaI ; 5 . more I n c l i n e d to p h y s i c a l or concrete t h i n k i n g and lea rn ing than to Impersonal , a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g ; 6 . more g iven to r e s i g n themselves to " f a t e " and to be p e s s i m i s t i c about a v o c a t i o n a l f u t u r e ; 7 . more s u s p i c i o u s and h o s t i l e toward p o l i c e and d i s t r u s t f u l of g o v e r n - mental a u t h o r i t y ; 8. less developed In Imaginat ive and l o g i c a l powers; 9 . more r e a c t i o n a r y In s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l areas but more g iven to economic I IberaI Ism; 10. more prone to have a shor t t ime p e r s p e c t i v e , l i v i n g and working for the present t o f u l f i l l Immediate needs as t h e i r f u t u r e seems no more secure than the p r e s e n t ; 11. more l i k e l y to revea l h o s t i l i t y , t e n s i o n and aggress ion than those who l i v e w e l l above the s u b s i s t e n c e l e v e l . 26 These are suppor ted , in p a r t , by an a n a l y s i s of a d u l t I l l i t e r a t e s made by Derbysh i re (84) In which he notes t h a t the p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s man i fes ted by h i s p o p u l a t i o n Inc luded: 1. I n s e c u r i t y — d i s p l a y e d by bo l s te rousness and a c t i n g out behavior and an u n w i l l i n g n e s s to admit error; 2 . p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n — r e c o g n i z e d lack of s t a t u s r e s u l t i n g In p h y s i c a l aggress Ion; 3 . r e t i c e n c e — n e g l e c t e d I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of personal needs except In an o c c a s i o n a l e x p l o s i v e manner; 4 . l e t h a r g y — r e s i g n e d to c u r r e n t s t a t u s w i t h lack of m o t i v a t i o n fo r change; 5 . c o m m u n i c a t i o n — s e n s i t i z e d to non -verba l cues by those In power; 6 . concrete t h i n k i n g — c o n t e n t e d to r e f e r to concrete o b j e c t s and s i t u a t i o n s of personal Importance Instead of a b s t r a c t thought . In an attempt to s y n t h e s i z e c u r r e n t knowledge on the m o t i v a t i o n s , va lues and a t t i t u d e s of s u b s i s t e n c e fa rmers , Rogers (226) I so la ted the ten main elements c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s u b - c u l t u r e of p e a s a n t r y . These Inc luded : ( I ) mutual d i s t r u s t of In terpersonal r e l a t i o n s ; (2) lack of Innovat Iveness ; (3) f a t a l i s m ; (4) low a s p l r a t l o n a l l e v e l s ; (5) a lack of defer red g r a t i f i c a t i o n ; (6) l i m i t e d t ime p e r s p e c t i v e ; (7) f a m l l l s m ; (8) dependence on government a u t h o r i t y ; (9) l o c a l i s m ; and (10) lack of empathy. I t Is these f u n c t i o n a l l y Interdependent and mutua l l y r e i n f o r c i n g p a r t s which should p rov ide I m p l i c a t i o n s fo r programs of change and r e s e a r c h . These forementloned c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s represent va lues which a re not conducive to s e l f - h e l p . Small farm operato rs Interviewed In Manitoba were s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r present way of l i f e and many of them 27 d i d not see f i t to adopt recommended farming p r a c t i c e s whtch cou ld have Increased t h e i r Income ( 2 ) . A study of urban renewal In Vancouver found t h a t a l though t h e r e were no d i s t i n c t i v e elements of s o c i a l c o n t r o l , the re was no I n d i c a t i o n t h a t the r e s i d e n t s des i red to change e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . Nor d id these r e s i d e n t s d e s i r e more c o n t r o l and d i r e c t i o n by c i v i c a u t h o r i - t i e s ( 2 6 3 ) . Another area development p r o j e c t In the same c i t y r e p o r t s t h a t I t Is the narrowed e x p e c t a t i o n of f a m i l i e s who know nothing e l s e which he lps to perpetuate the c y c l e of poverty and s o c i a l problems ( I ) . Many of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have been s t u d i e d In d e t a l I and a re presented here for f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n . S e l f Conf idence From t h e i r e a r l i e s t educat iona l exper iences of f a i l u r e In a m i d d l e - c l a s s o r i e n t e d school system, the disadvantaged begin to develop a concept of low s e l f - e s t e e m and a lack of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e (20)(44)(59) (78) (88) (100) (128) ( I 35)( 139)(154)(224)(234)(254)(29 I ) . C o n t r i b u t i n g to the lowering of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e Is the loss of employment and the n e c e s s i t y to accept Jobs at a leve l below that which the person had p r e v i o u s l y a c h i e v e d ; t h i s produces a f e e l i n g of having l o s t s t a t u s among former f r i e n d s and In the eyes of the wor ld ( 2 4 8 ) . Furthermore, when an I n d i v i d u a l loses a Job, a t f i r s t he keeps hoping for re-employment but when he f i n a l l y abandons hope, he wl I I f r e q u e n t l y r e s t r i c t h f s a c t i o n s 28 much more than fs r e q u i r e d . He may not leave h i s own neighborhood and h i s thoughts and a s p i r a t i o n s w i l l tend to become I n c r e a s i n g l y narrowed ( 1 6 0 ) . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h i s loss of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e Is the d e v e l o p - ment of dependency a t t i t u d e s (110) (129X235)••. The disadvantaged remain l a r g e l y s p e c t a t o r s r a t h e r than p a r t i c i p a n t s In s o c i e t y . Because a g reat number of them are dependent on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e , t h e i r l i v e s tend to become organ ized and t h e i r behavior p r e d i c t a b l e by the o p e r a t i o n of t h i s system (56 ) (124) (132) (211) . Dependency may a l s o be a t t r i b u t e d to the In f luence of a m a t r i a r c h a l fami l y s t r u c t u r e . In c e r t a i n segments of the lower c l a s s where the females are compelled to accept a p o s i t i o n of dominance through d e f a u l t of the m a l e s , problems of sexual I d e n t i f i c a t i o n as w e l l as those I n v o l v i n g p a s s i v i t y and dependency develop In c h i l d r e n . ( 1 4 4 ) . T ra inees In the JOBS P r o j e c t showed tha t the fa ther p layed a reduced r o l e even when p r e s e n t . Only 10 per cent of the male t r a i n e e s mentioned t h e i r f a t h e r or some other male f i g u r e as the person who was most Important or I n f l u e n t i a l . Furthermore, 92 per cent admired t h e i r mother very much as compared w i t h 14 per cent express ing the same o p i n i o n toward t h e i r f a t h e r s ; 51 per cent s t a t e d that they resembled t h e i r mothers compared with 29 per cent who I d e n t i f i e d w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s ( 1 8 1 ) . The lack of s e l f conf idence of the disadvantaged may r e s u l t In t h e i r a c q u i r i n g behav io ra l p a t t e r n s which serve to conceal t h e i r 29 p e r s o n a l i t y d e f i c i e n c i e s and t h i s may I n h i b i t such I n d i v i d u a l s from pursu ing educat iona l o b j e c t i v e s In t h e i r a d u l t l i v e s (31) (92) (103)(114) (154) (166) (216) . Thus there may be a r e l u c t a n c e to reveal t h e i r lack of formal educat ion and they may even attempt to h ide t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s from everyone I n c l u d i n g t h e i r Immediate f a m i l y (9 ) (48) ( I 16) (145) . The disadvantaged a l s o possess c e r t a I n!.psycho I og I ca I b a r r i e r s t o l ea rn ing which are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the lack of s e I f - c o n f I d e n c e . An I l l i n o i s study showed the anx ie ty exper ienced by a d u l t s before e n r o l l - ment In an educat iona l program w i t h 22 .3 per cent of them b e l i e v i n g t h a t they would be too dumb, 29 .9 per cent b e l i e v e d they cou ld not r e a l l y l e a r n , and 30 .6 per cent b e l i e v e d they would f e e l f o o l i s h . ( 9 8 ) . A marked Improvement In s e l f - c o n c e p t was noted among a d u l t s e n r o l l e d In both b a s i c educat ion and p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g programs (48 ) (180) (238) (280) . P e r c e p t i o n of Need The disadvantaged g e n e r a l l y d i s p l a y a l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of the va lue of educat ion as a means to personal achievement (49)(55)(79) (83) (103)( I 14)(I 16)(124)(138)(146)( I 77)(2 I I ) (23 I ) ( 2 5 7 ) ( 2 8 0 ) . Moreover , the d i f f e r e n t i a l p e r c e p t i o n of the v a l u e of educat ion Is a func t ion of the respondents ' own soc io -economic s t a t u s ( 2 1 ) ( 5 8 ) ( 2 0 7 ) ( 2 2 5 ) . In answer to a quest ion about how much s c h o o l i n g was necessary for people to get along In the w o r l d , 75 per cent of the midd le c l a s s respondents compared to 40 per cent of lower c l a s s respondents cons idered It was- 30 d e s i r a b l e for a young man to have more than a h igh school educat ion ( 6 5 ) . In a low-Income area of M a n i t o b a , seven out of ten of the farmers who wanted t h e i r boys to be farmers , thought t h a t e i g h t grades of school or less was a l l t h a t was necessary for a man to be a s u c c e s s f u l farmer ( 2 ) . In some Ins tances , the disadvantaged t h i n k h i g h l y of educat ion fo r t h e i r c h i l d r e n and other young people ( 1 6 4 ) ( 2 2 0 ) . Lower soc io -economic s t a t u s a d u l t s tend to a s s o c i a t e the term " e d u c a t i o n " w i t h c h i l d r e n and cannot accept It as a f i t t i n g a c t i v i t y for a d u l t s , except p o s s i b l y for those who are f o r e i g n born and going to c o l l e g e . The disadvantaged are more apt to accept educat iona l a c t i v i t i e s that are concerned w i t h or d i s g u i s e d as employment p r e p a r a t i o n ( 8 3 ) ( 9 8 ) ( I 3 3 ) . Th is suggests t h a t a t t i t u d e s expressed by the disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n are more:toward the schoo ls than toward educat ion I t s e l f ( 2 7 ) ( 7 I ) ( 8 3 ) ( 1 6 6 ) . There Is support for the p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t the disadvantaged a d u l t does not view educat ion In terms of s e I f - r e a 1 1 z a t l o n and does not t h i n k of l ea rn ing as an exper ience which Ts rewarding In I ts own r i g h t ( 4 9 ) . Consequent ly , they are less I n c l i n e d to t u r n to a d u l t educat ion for r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes than for purposes of v o c a t i o n a l advancement (140) ( 1 8 3 ) . Furthermore, when the rewards are Inadequate there may be good reason fo r the disadvantaged to p e r c e i v e l i t t l e va lue In e d u c a t i o n . Th is problem arose In Canada when the amount o f f e r e d as an a l lowance fo r 31 t r a i n i n g programs was! less than t h a t a v a i l a b l e through unemployment Insurance ( 1 1 2 ) . C l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of the va lue of educat ion Is the l i m i t e d a s p i r a t i o n fo r educat ion shown by the d i s a d v a n - taged (49H75) (83) ( 140) (220) (263) . The ava I I ab I e data Ind ica tes t h a t soc io -economic s t a t u s e x e r t s a s i g n i f i c a n t In f luence on the nature and leve l of a s p i r a t i o n s (581(65) . A d i r e c t p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n e x i s t s between the leve l of a s p i r a t i o n for educat ion and parenta l s o c i a l s t a t u s ( 2 3 6 ) . Those a s p i r a t i o n s most f r e q u e n t l y expressed by the disadvantaged a re of an o c c u p a t i o n a l and economic nature ( 4 9 ) ( 8 3 ) ( 9 0 ) ( 1 0 7 ) . In the JOBS P r o j e c t n ine out of ten t r a i n e e s viewed the p r o j e c t as a means of Improving t h e i r chances of Job success and t h e i r main c r i t i c i s m was t h a t the program had f a i l e d t o f u l f i l l t h e i r expec ta t ions In t h i s r e s p e c t . Fur thermore , I t was found t h a t d isadvantaged t r a i n e e s d id not appear to r e j e c t American g o a l s , va lues and a s p i r a t i o n s , and a l though they a s p i r e d to midd le c l a s s v a l u e s , the re was doubt t h a t such norms a p p l i e d to them (181). M o t i v a t i o n Both the l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of the va lue of educat ion and the l i m i t e d a s p i r a t i o n fo r educat ion no doubt reduce the m o t i v a t i o n of the d isadvantaged t o learn and to work (48)(I 29)(29 I ) . Indlk (133) found t h a t an I n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n toward a goal was d i v i d e d Into the f o l l o w i n g 32 t h r e e pa r t s for a n a l y s i s : h i s mot ive toward i t , h i s expectancy of o b t a i n i n g i t , and i t s present i n c e n t i v e to h im. The i n d i v i d u a l ' s m o t i v a t i o n to avo id an o b j e c t was d i v i d e d Into the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s : h i s m o t i v a t i o n to avoid an o b j e c t or s i t u a t i o n , h i s expectancy of doing s o , and h i s present i n c e n t i v e va lue of avo id ing I t . On the b a s i s of d a t a , he c h a r a c t e r i z e d the unemployed as s c o r i n g r e l a t i v e l y high on the mot ive to work, but a l s o s c o r i n g moderately high on the expectancy to avo id work. On i n c e n t i v e to work, they achieved a moderate s c o r e , and they scored moderately low on i n c e n t i v e to avo id work. In c o n t r a s t , those not in the labour fo rce scored low on motive to work and high on mot ive to avoid work ( 1 3 3 ) . Soc Io -psychoIog ica I f a c t o r s are important determinants of un - employed workers ' Job seeking b e h a v i o r . Regard less of educat iona l l e v e l , workers who held va lues s t r e s s i n g achievement were more l i k e l y to s t a r t look ing for a Job than those who p l a c e less importance to such v a l u e s , and they would use a v a r i e t y of methods to seek a Job . The need to serve c e r t a i n k inds of unemployed workers was d iscovered by the Employment S e r v i c e . F u r t h e r , the larger the number of s e r v i c e s r e c e i v e d , the h igher the r a t e of J o b - f i n d i n g success a c h i e v e d , r e g a r d l e s s of the age of the worker or h i s leve l of s k i l l . The s o c i a I -psycho IogicaI c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of over o n e - h a l f of the i n d i v i d u a l s s tud ied was a combinat ion of low achievement m o t i v a t i o n and high Job view anx iety ( 1 8 1 ) . 33 Verbal F a c i l i t y The avoidance of wider c o n t a c t s In the community I n h i b i t s communicat ion. The disadvantaged o f t e n l i m i t themselves to a d i s t i n c t s t y l e of communication and most under—educated a d u l t s p r e f e r to do much of t h e i r communication on the non -verba l leve l because of t h e i r l i m i t e d vocabulary and l i m i t e d s k i l l In a r t l e u I a t l o n . Thus, t h e i r s t y l e of l ea rn ing Is not s e t to respond to o r a l or w r i t t e n s t i m u l i . Ins tead , they respond more r e a d i l y to v i s u a l or t a c t i l e k i n e s t h e t i c s i g n a l s and tend to make Judgments more from a c t i o n s than words ( 7 ) ( 4 3 ) ( 8 6 ) ( 2 1 8 ) . Fur thermore , the c h i l d r e n of the disadvantaged are handicapped In language development and In a b i l i t y to converse w i t h a d u l t s . Often lower c l a s s parents do not t a l k to t h e i r c h i l d r e n at meal t i m e , and I t Is more common for such parents to Issue commands ra ther than to I n s t r u c t . Hence, the c h i l d r e n are III prepared for entry Into a midd le c l a s s school system which va lues ve rba l f a c i l i t y (32 ) (80 ) (87 ) (145) (184) (218) (275) (276) . In a taxonomy'of language usage, there are four c r i t i c a l areas which suggest t h a t the s o c i a l r e a l i t y of the hard core poor Is not on ly d i f f e r e n t but a l s o incompat ib le w i t h t h a t r e a l i t y u n d e r l y i n g standard usage: a) As for p e r c e p t i o n of t i m e , the hard core poor seem to p e r c e i v e t ime as a s e r i e s of d i s c r e t e moments each understood In I t s e l f , ra ther than as a cont inuum. b) The p e r c e p t i o n of s e l f In s o c i a l space i s e l u c i d a t e d by the repeated o b s e r v a t i o n t h a t language d i s t r i b u t i o n s t y p i c a l l y change In the d i r e c t i o n of s e l f - r e f e r e n c e s . Th is suggests t h a t hard core language users p e r c e i v e themselves to be p laced In the center of t h e i r s o c i a l s p a c e . 34 c) C l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes and procedures are I d e n t i f i e d by the dominance of the d e s c r i p t i v e as opposed to a n a l y t i c a b s t r a c t i o n mechanisms. The hard core language users respond to the e x t e r n a l , sensed c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o b j e c t s and I n d i v i d u a l s ra ther than to t h e i r a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s . d) As fo r c a u s a l i t y , the dominance of c a t e g o r i c a l com- b i n a t i o n s of cause and e f f e c t , means and end, the a c t o r and the a c t , the p l a c e and I ts use a l l suggest t h a t a t t e n t i o n Is d i r e c t e d to the unique, ra ther than the p e r s i s t e n t and r e c u r r i n g ( 6 9 ) . The language b a r r i e r becomes p a r t i c u l a r l y marked among Immigrants. In the Portuguese colony In Toronto , language kept the Immigrant women I s o l a t e d from other women, and those who worked had sought Jobs where they d i d not need to use E n g l i s h ( 2 3 1 ) . I I I . SUMMARY As a group, the disadvantaged have the lowest Income, the poorest e d u c a t i o n , the l a r g e s t f a m i l i e s , the h i g h e s t Incidence of III h e a l t h and the l e a s t hope of employment or promise of a b e t t e r f u t u r e . In a d d i t i o n to such soc io -economic hand icaps , the disadvantaged are hampered by c e r t a i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s a b i l i t i e s . These people are f r e q u e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a lack of s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e , low s e l f - e s t e e m and a h igh degree of dependency. Because of t h e i r l i m i t e d p e r c e p t i o n of the va lue of e d u c a t i o n , the d i s a d - vantaged d i s p l a y n e i t h e r the a s p i r a t i o n nor m o t i v a t i o n to achieve educat iona l g o a l s . They are f u r t h e r handicapped by a lack of ve rba l f a c i l i t y which 35 I f m l t s . t h e f r communTcatfon wfth s o c i e t y . To a large ex tent they are o u t c a s t s , and they have accepted t h i s s t a t u s by wi thdrawing f u r t h e r Into t h e i r own s u b - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u . As t ime passes , the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the disadvantaged and o thers become I n c r e a s i n g l y tenuous so t h a t there Is less and less p o s s i b i l i t y of communication w i t h them and t h e i r o p p o r t u n i t y for community Involvement Is m i n i m a l . CHAPTER 111 SOCIAL INTERACTION The disadvantaged a d u l t responds to h i s environment In ways t h a t appear to be p r e - d e s t l n e d by the soc io -economic and s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s desc r ibed p r e v i o u s l y . He Is assumed to have s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i o n s , e x p e r i e n c e s , and d e s i r e s I r r e s p e c t i v e of the unique In f luences exerted by the s u b - c u l t u r e In which he f u n c t i o n s . ( 1 9 2 ) . Th is s u b - c u l t u r e develops I t s own va lues which are u s u a l l y at v a r i a n c e w i t h those of the t o t a l sys tem. Thus, not on ly Is the poverty group r e j e c t e d by s o c i e t y but I t , In t u r n , a l s o r e j e c t s s o c i e t y (37) (95) ( 128)1 13.5)•( I 3 9 H 188) ( 2 6 8 ) . Furthermore, Schnelderman (233) n o t e s , the p r i n c i p a l f u n c t i o n of the poverty l i f e s t y l e of c u l t u r e Is a pure l y u t i l i t a r i a n one which enables the group to s u r v i v e . Hence, each element of t h i s d i s t i n c t i v e c u l t u r e has some re levance for the environment In which these people must l i v e out t h e i r l i v e s . Consequent ly , " the task of the lowei—lower c l a s s person Is to evolve a way of l i f e t h a t w i l l reduce h i s I n s e c u r i t y and ehhance h i s power In ways t h a t do not depend on achievement In the u n l v e r s a 1 I s t l c s e c t o r and on command of a r i c h and s o p h i s t i c a t e d v a r i e t y of p e r s p e c t i v e s " ( 6 6 ) . The va lues which c h a r a c t e r i z e the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e r e l a t e t o the p e r c e p t i o n of c e r t a i n b a s i c c o n c e p t s . The dominant c u l t u r e appears to p r e f e r mastery over n a t u r e ; the pr imary c u l t u r e Is o r i e n t e d to the f u t u r e but the s u b - c u l t u r e Is o r i e n t e d to the moment; and f i n a l l y , the 37 dominant c u l t u r e Is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by s t r i v i n g for a c a l c u l a t e d g o a l . The dominant c u l t u r e Is success o r i e n t e d , w h i l e poor people v a l u e the spontaneous a c t i v i t y of " b e i n g " r a t h e r than " d o i n g " (I 10) (268) - The p e r s p e c t i v e of the s u b - c u l t u r e Is demonstrated by such groups as the Cree Indians of Quebec who are deeply concerned w i t h present day prob lems, and unable to p e r c e i v e the Importance of long- range p lann ing a s s o c i a t e d w i t h e f f e c t i v e p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic development. Because of t h e i r leve l of p o v e r t y , they must g i v e maximum a t t e n t i o n to o b t a i n i n g a minimum s u b s i s t e n c e ( 6 0 ) . Thus w i t h p e r c e p t i o n In f luenced by Immediate need, the disadvantaged view any p l a n designed for them from the p e r s p e c t i v e of t h e i r own s o c l o - c u - l t u r a I exper iences r a t h e r than from a la rger s o c i e t a l view ( 5 6 ) . i n a d d i t i o n , the responses of the disadvantaged w i l l d i f f e r from those t h a t might be expected s i n c e they have been c o n d i t i o n e d by a s o c i e t y t h a t r e j e c t s these p e o p l e . Th is r e j e c t i o n Is m a n i f e s t In the e x e r c i s e of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n a g a i n s t the d isadvantaged and t h e i r consequent r e j e c t i o n of the v a l u e s , s t r u c t u r e and o p p o r t u n i t i e s of the la rger s o c i e t y . I. DISCRIMINATION The p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged are accentuated by the response of the s o c i e t y to them. Members of c e r t a i n r a c i a l and e t h n i c groups are l i k e l y to c o n s t i t u t e a large p r o p o r t i o n of the disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n (48) (98) (124) (128) (133) (138) (18 I ) (188)(207) 38 (234)(241)(289) and they are f r e q u e n t l y the v i c t i m s of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which generates In them both a sense of I s o l a t i o n and p e r s e c u t i o n . I t Is a s i t u a t i o n e s p e c i a l l y pronounced for r a c i a l m i n o r i t i e s (56)(63)(124) ( 129) ( I37)( 141.) ( 2 8 6 ) . The Impact of t h i s v a r i a b l e was d i s c l o s e d to the American Congress through the 1964 Manpower Report o f the P r e s i d e n t which d e s c r i b e d the p l i g h t s of the Negro, the Puer to RJcan , the American Indian and other m i n o r i t y g roups . In the Uni ted S t a t e s , I t was Ind icated t h a t a much laijger p r o p o r t i o n of non -whi te youths were leav ing the r u r a l a r e a s . T h e i r lack of t r a i n i n g coupled w i t h d i s c r i m i n a t i o n r e s u l t e d In a h igher unemploy- ment r a t e . In 1962, one out of four non -whi te teenagers In the labour f o r c e was unemployed. Moreover , the a c q u i s i t i o n of h igher educat iona l l e v e l s does not assure equal entry Into the h igher Job l e v e l s ( 2 8 9 ) . A 1961 survey In the Uni ted States showed t h a t only some 20 per cent of the non -whi te young persons who graduate from high school have w h i t e - c o l l a r Jobs , w h i l e more than 50 per cent of wh i te high school graduates have such Jobs ( 2 8 9 ) . The p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e s of d I f f u s e n e s s - s p e c l f I c I t y , a f f e c t l v f t y - n e u t r a l l t y , u n l v e r s a I I s m - p a r t l c u I a r I s m , and achievement summarize the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the m i n o r i t y and the m a j o r i t y groups In our c u l t u r e ( 2 0 0 ) . Accord ing to Byuarm (56) the v a r i a b l e d I f f u s e n e s s - s p e c I f I c I t y c i r c u m s c r i b e s freedom of cho ice and s e l f - d e v e l o p m e n t by m i n o r i t y group members. A f f e c t i v e - n e u t r a l i t y compels the Negroes' h a b i t u a l deference 39 toward the w h i t e , and the co loured m i n o r i t y Is permi t ted on ly to r e f l e c t a f f e c t i v e - n e u t r a l i t y f e e l i n g s In s i t u a t i o n s which Involve the wh i te m a j o r i t y g roup . The v a r i a b l e un l ve rsa 11sm-part IcuIarIsm was demonstrated In the response shown to m i n o r i t y members. Th is v a r i a b l e r e q u i r e s t h a t each group take the o t h e r s ' members Into c o n s i d e r a t i o n on ly as a s t a n d a r d - i zed member of the c a t e g o r y , and not as unique i n d i v i d u a l s . By the o p e r a t i o n of the f o u r t h p a t t e r n v a r i a b l e , a c h i e v e m e n t - a s c r i p t i o n , the m i n o r i t y members are o f t e n r e t r a i n e d on the b a s i s of a s c r i p t i o n , whereas m a j o r i t y members have the b e n e f i t of achievement and are Judged on the b a s i s of I n d i v i d u a l a b i l i t i e s . l n terms of t h e i r own s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n the disadvantaged have no c o n v i c t i o n t h a t It i s w i t h i n t h e i r power to a l t e r t h e i r c i r c u m s t a n c e s . They are s u f f i c i e n t l y r e a l i s t i c to recogn i ze t h a t the larger I n s t i t u t i o n s of s o c i e t y ho ld the keys to power. If the power of the community Is committed to h o l d i n g them down, t h e r e Is no p o s s i b i l i t y of t h e i r r i s i n g from t h e i r m i s e r a b l e s t a t u s through t h e i r own e f f o r t s I I 1 0 ) ( I 4 I ) . In regard to the I n d i a n s , I t Is f e l t tha t the e x e r t i o n of a u t h o r i t y by the Indian A f f a i r s Branch tends to e l i c i t from those people the a t t i t u d e s of dependency, I r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , apathy , submlss Iveness , and d i s g u i s e d h o s t i l i t y ( I 2 4 ) ( t 2 9 l . I t Is on ly In less developed communi- t i e s where the wh i te man's s tandard of Income, consumption and s c h o o l i n g are not too h i g h , t h a t the Indians f e e l c o n f i d e n t of being a b l e to compete on a more equal b a s i s ( 1 2 4 ) . 40 As a r e s u l t of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the s t a t u s of the disadvantaged Is g e n e r a l l y low and they become s te reotyped as substandard I n d i v i d u a l s ( 6 2 ) ( 9 5 ) ( 2 2 8 ) . Th is o f t e n develops a negat i ve s e l f - I m a g e , and they form a s e l f - c o n c e p t through which they see themselves as having g rea te r d i f f - erences from o thers than a c t u a l l y e x i s t (56 ) (124) (144) (152) (234) (286) . In p a r t , the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for t h i s s i t u a t i o n must be borne by middle c l a s s a d u l t s who have perpetuated a number of myths and he ld c e r t a i n r e s e r v a t i o n s about the e d u c a b l l l t y of the disadvantaged ( 8 3 ) ( 9 8 ) ( 1 6 8 ) . The d isadvantaged f r e q u e n t l y r e a c t to o v e r t u r e s w i t h s u s p i c i o n and h o s t i l i t y . The i r I n s e c u r i t y Is o f t e n d i s p l a y e d through e i t h e r p h y s i c a l a g g r e s s i o n , le thargy or r e t i c e n c e ( I 5 4 ) ( 2 l 6 ) . There Is a d i s - t r u s t of the la rger wor ld and I t s I n s t i t u t i o n s because they are s t range and u n f a m i l i a r (16 ) (55 ) (84 ) (124) (145) (240) (273) . Because of t h i s , the disadvantaged are less apt to respond to o p p o r t u n i t i e s for f u r t h e r edu - c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g which Is f u r t h e r accentuated when race or m i n o r i t y group f a c t o r s are added to t h a t of p o v e r t y . The need for Increased educat ion for m i n o r i t y e t h n i c groups was emphasized by Johnfe S c o t t ( 2 3 4 ) . In h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of h i s own c l a s s g raduat ing from Jordon Senior High School In Los A n g e l e s , he desc r ibed h i s c lassmates by t h e i r own term "Les A m e l l o r a n t s " (The Improvers ) . Of the 550 who had completed the e igh th g rade , only 97 of the Improvers g raduated . The i r grade p o i n t average was 1.8 (D-mlnus) and t h e i r average reading leve l was s i x t h g r a d e . 41 The p l i g h t of m i n o r i t y groups In Canada Is s i m i l a r . I t Is repor ted t h a t 95 per cent of the Eskimo p o p u l a t i o n l i v e s In a b j e c t poverty w i t h the cash earn ings of an average fami ly amounting to less than $500 per y e a r . Th is meager sum n e c e s s i t a t e s supplemental a s s i s t a n c e through government r e l i e f ( 1 3 8 ) . The s i t u a t i o n of the Canadian Indian Is s i m i l a r though I t Is not as s e r i o u s as t h a t of the Esk imo. C a l c u l a t i o n s made by the Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s show the average earnings of Canadian wage and s a l a r y earners as a whole was $3,192 fo r the year p r i o r t o June I, 1961, w h i l e the average earnings of Canadian Indians was $ 1 , 6 6 1 , an amount Jus t over h a l f of the average , and c e r t a i n l y fa r below t h a t r e - qu i red f o r a minimum standard of l i v i n g (198)-. Even If an Indian has acqu i red the p r e r e q u i s i t e educat ion or s k i l l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s fo r employ- ment, he Is not f ree from s te reo type d i s c r i m i n a t i o n which a l s o extends to t h e s o c i a l amen i t ies such as educat ion or l i b r a r i e s , and to p r o v i s i o n s f o r housing ( 1 2 4 ) . Thus, Inc reas ing employabI I I ty through educat ion and t r a i n i n g does not a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e s u l t In employment In a s o c i e t y In which e t h n i c o r i g i n Is as g reat a b a r r i e r to advancement as Inadequate p r e p a r a t i o n . The disadvantaged c o n d i t i o n of some groups such as the Eskimo and the Indian Is as much a product of s o c i a l p ressure as of personal abl. I I t y . 42 II. PRIMARY RELATIONSHIP As I t s response to r e j e c t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e Is p a r t i c u l a r l y I n c l i n e d to r e j e c t the I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i e t y as w e l l as I t s f o r m a l i z e d a s s o c l a t l o n a I c o n t a c t s . The disadvantaged p a r t i c i p a t e Instead through c a s u a l , c l o s e and o f t e n Int imate pr imary group r e l a t i o n s h i p s which Involve smal l personal k i n s h i p , l o c a l i t y or f r i e n d s h i p groups U 3 9 . ) ( 2 6 7 ) . Evidence Ind ica tes t h a t the disadvantaged p r e f e r f a c e - t o - f a c e c o n t a c t s and personal communication to Impersonal formal I s t l c c o n t a c t s or a b s t r a c t communications (40);(48)(75) ( l69)-( 1741(257) ( 2 5 9 ) . Because of t h i s , guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g can serve a necessary and Important f u n c t i o n In programs fo r the disadvantaged ( I ) ( 4 ) ( 4 0 ) ( 7 2 l ( 9 8 ) ( I 2 0 ) ( I 4 6 ) ( J 6 6 ) ( I 7 0 ) ( 1 7 3 ) ( 2 0 5 ) > but e x i s t i n g programs and f a c i l i t i e s are not adequate . Through such guidance and c o u n s e l l i n g the disadvantaged can be helped to I d e n t i f y t h e i r needs, to recogn i ze what Is r e l e v a n t to them, to know e x i s t i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s , and to be encouraged to p a r t i c i p a t e In programs t h a t o f f e r a chance of mod i f y ing t h e i r disadvantaged s t a t u s M>:(65>.(252). As w e l l as I n d i c a t i n g a p re fe rence fo r pr imary r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the disadvantaged p l a c e c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e on k f n s h l p t i e s (41) (60) (96) ' (105)(144)(18 I ) ( 2 3 1 ) . In a New Brunswick r e l o c a t i o n p r o j e c t , the s u b j e c t s s t a t e d t h a t a major c o n s i d e r a t i o n In s e l e c t i n g a farm was p r o x i m i t y to r e l a t i v e s ( 9 6 ) . S i m i l a r l y , low-Income f a m i l i e s In Pennsy l van ia d i s c l o s e d t h a t almost a l l the people they e n t e r t a i n e d were e i t h e r members of t h e i r 43 Immediate f a m i l y or c l o s e r e l a t i v e s . Many of the same homemakers d e c l a r e d t h a t Ideas about food or r e c i p e s were obta ined from a member of t h e i r f a m i l y (41) and r e l a t i v e s have a l s o been name:d as one of the most e f f e c t i v e J o b - f l n d f n g sources for s e m l - s k f l l e d workers ( 1 8 1 ) . Amongst the Cree Indians of Quebec, It Is the extended and other k i n s h i p t i e s which present b a r r i e r s to Increased p o l i t i c a l awareness and a c t i o n . Under c o n d i t i o n s of s o c i a l and economic s t r e s s , these Indians tend to r e l y on the k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s for suppor t , s e c u r i t y and a s s i s t - ance ( 6 0 ) . i n the lowet—lower c l a s s , these k i n s h i p r e l a t i o n s are o f t e n so c l o s e tha t they f r e q u e n t l y c o n f l i c t w i t h conjugal r e l a t i o n s ( 1 4 4 ) . In v iew of t h i s r o l e of the f a m i l y In the J I fe of the d isadvantaged , t h e r e Is l i t t l e chance t h a t they w i l l t u r n to loca l community agencies for a s s i s t a n c e , thereby c r e a t i n g f u r t h e r b a r r i e r s between themselves and loca l resources designed to a s s i s t them ( 4 2 ) . I I I . PARTICIPATION E x i s t i n g research shows on ly a very l i m i t e d degree of p a r t i c i - p a t i o n In formal a s s o c i a t i o n s by the s o c i a l l y and economica l l y disadvantaged (36) (41) (61) (91) (105) (123) (142) (144) (151) (164) ( I 74)(2 15)(23 I ) ( 2 6 7 ) . Th is lack of p a r t i c i p a t i o n Is not e x c l u s i v e w i t h the disadvantaged a s : I. about 25 per cent of the a d u l t s do not belong to any formal o r g a n i z a t i o n ; 44 2. urban areas have a h igher r a t e of membership; 3. f a m i l i e s w i t h h igher e d u c a t i o n , h igher Income, h igher soc io -economic s t a t u s , and b e t t e r com- m u n i c a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have a h igher r a t e of membership; 4. membership r a t e s Increase unt f I about age 45 and decrease s h a r p l y a f t e r age 70; 5. membership r a t e s and leadersh ip In o r g a n i z a t i o n s Increase w i t h length of res idence In the community; 6. church membership Is the most predominant type In r u r a l areas (217), Amongst a group of low-Income, r u r a l s u b j e c t s In O n t a r i o , on ly 21 of 150 persons were spending any t ime at meetings or on community a c t i v i t i e s (174). The disadvantaged may a l s o have a f f i l i a t i o n s connected w i t h t h e i r Jobs (36). I t has been noted tha t uppet—lower c l a s s men tend to be a f f i l i a t e d w i t h labour unions (144). The church has been I d e n t i f i e d as an agency w i t h which the d isadvantaged are l i k e l y to be a f f i l i a t e d , hence t h e i r I n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s are f r e q u e n t l y church o r i e n t e d (36)(4 I)(49)(56)(140)(143)(205) (215). But church membership a lone may bear l i t t l e re levance f o r p a r t i c i - p a t i o n . Of 372 f a m i l i e s In a b l i g h t e d s e c t i o n of M e t r o p o l I t a n I n d i a n a p o l i s , 86.8 per cent of the f a m i l i e s Ind icated t h a t they belonged to some c h u r c h . N e v e r t h e l e s s , on ly 39.8 per cent mainta ined r e g u l a r church a t tendance , and as few as e i g h t per cent w e r e r p a r t i c i p a n t s In church c l u b s or s o c i e t i e s (36). I t should be no ted , however, t h a t a number of the f i n d - ings which show a h igh leve l of church p a r t i c i p a t i o n r e l a t e to Negro s u b j e c t s , Immigrants or s p e c i f i c e t h n i c g roups . Another I n d i c a t i o n of 45 p a r t i c i p a t i o n fs the percentage of e l F g f b l e persons who v o t e . In the 1964 p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n , about 45 per cent of a l l those 18 years of age and over d i d not vote ( 2 1 7 ) . A s i m i l a r type of I n d i f f e r e n c e to p o l i t i c a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n was evidenced In Canada where the Cree Indians of a community development p r o j e c t showed l i t t l e I n t e r e s t In the p r o v i n - c i a l or federa l e l e c t i o n process ( 6 0 ) . F u r t h e r , I t Is est imated t h a t the p r o p o r t i o n of Indians who vote Is on ly about t w o - t h i r d s of the general p o p u l a t l o n ( 1 2 4 ) . The f a i l u r e of the disadvantaged t o p a r t i c i p a t e In community o r g a n i z a t i o n s c a r r i e s over Into a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n In a d u l t educat ion Is a s s o c i a t e d w i t h age, soc io -economic s t a t u s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n In v o l u n t a r y a s s o c i a t i o n s ( 8 2 ) ( 1 2 3 ) ( 1 4 3 ) . Thus p a r t i c i p a t i o n In educat iona l a c t i v i t i e s Is l i m i t e d for the d isadvantaged (48) ( 140) (.143) (166) ( 167) ( 1 9 7 ) . A recent and e x t e n s i v e study emphasizes t h a t the f a c t o r s e d u c a t i o n , o c c u - p a t i o n and Income each r e l a t e I n d i v i d u a l l y to r a t e s of educat iona l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and a l l t h r e e In f luence the r a t e of p a r t i a l p a t f o n d i f f e r - e n t l y . Of these f a c t o r s , educat ion seems to have the g r e a t e s t Impact on the d i f f e r e n c e s In the r a t e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , which ranges from s i x per cent among those w i t h on ly a grade school educat ion to 38 per cent among those who went to c o l l e g e . S u b s t a n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s are a l s o encountered when p a r t i c i p a t i o n Is examined by o c c u p a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n among the w h i t e c o l l a r group Is 32 per cent compared to 17 per cent for those In the b lue c o l l a r c a t e g o r y . Amount of Income has the e f f e c t of s u b s t a n t i a l l y 46 Inc reas ing p a r t i c i p a t i o n In each o c c u p a t i o n a l category ( 1 4 0 ) . Ten per cent of the semt -sk j I led workers p a r t i c i p a t e d , w h i l e u n s k i l l e d workers had only f i v e per c e n t . Those w i t h f i v e to e i g h t years of s c h o o l i n g showed s i x per cent p a r t i c i p a t i o n w h i l e those w i t h less than f i v e years of s c h o o l - ing showed only a two per cent r a t e (166) (167) . P a r t i c i p a t i o n Is cons idered a l s o In r e l a t i o n to I n t e l l i g e n c e . In s p i t e of the p r e v a l e n t b e l i e f t h a t the disadvantaged were a l ready f u n c t i o n i n g at the upper l e v e l s of t h e i r I n t e l l i g e n c e (168) I t was found t h a t they had s u f f i c i e n t I n t e l l i g e n c e fo r p a r t i c i p a t i o n In f u r t h e r educat ion ( I l ) (73) ( 199) (274) (283) . Farmers at a lower soc io -economic leve l r a r e l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i r e c t l y In programs conducted by the A g r i c u l t u r a l Ex tens ion S e r v i c e (75) ( 2 7 l ) ( 2 7 2 ) . McBean and Abe 11 surveyed a group of Canadian farmers and out of 95 respondents , on ly seven were u t i l i z i n g the s e r v i c e s a v a i l a b l e to them from government ( 1 7 4 ) . In one study conducted In B r i t i s h Co lumbia , f i f t y to s e v e n t y - f i v e per cent of the farmers had no c o n t a c t w i t h the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ( 2 7 1 ) . This p a t t e r n Is c o n s i s t e n t In most s t u d i e s of farmers ' use of Informat ion s e r v i c e s ( 1 7 ) . Such lack of con tac t w i t h sources of Informat ion Is not only c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of farmers but extends throughout s o c i e t y . In a study of a Boston s lum, parents were shown to take very l i t t l e I n t e r e s t In school and to be ambivalent about educat ion and t e a c h e r s . A l though they f e l t t h a t educat ion might lead to b e t t e r Jobs , I t a l s o changed t h e i r c h i l d r e n and gave them st range v a l u e s . Mothers and f a t h e r s were o f t e n In 47 disagreement on t h i s . Whi le the g i r l , who does w e l l In school Is encouraged by her mother as we I I as by her t e a c h e r s , the boy who Is a c h i e v i n g must cope w i t h h i s f a t h e r s 1 s c e p t i c i s m or o p p o s i t i o n . Thus school may become the f o c a l p o i n t of s e x - r o l e c o n f l i c t for the boy. Educat ion Is something encouraged by mothers , teachers and s o c i e t y , but not by f a t h e r s and other men ( 1 4 4 ) . In Canada s i n c e 1961, over a b i l l i o n d o l l a r s has been spent for new v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s . Y e t , w i t h t h i s massive expend i tu re , t h e r e has been dropout r a t e s of 50 per cent and h i g h e r , p a r t i c u l a r l y among the unemployed workers , and one sample month In 1965 revea led only one unemployed worker In f i f t y was e n r o l l e d In a t r a i n i n g course ( 2 0 4 ) . Thus, the expansion of t e c h n i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s i n c e 1961 has had l i m i t e d Impact among the unemployed and<only 3 .5 per cent of the unemployed were a t tend ing t r a i n i n g courses In February , 1965 ( 2 1 1 ) . A s i g n i f i c a n t number of Canadian Indians In the 17 t o 21 age group are not t a k i n g advantage of educat iona l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . For example, In 1949 t h e r e were 13,770 Indians In t h a t age range, and on ly 58 were e n r o l l e d In some form of p o s t - s c h o o l t r a i n i n g . In 1965, the 17 to 2l age group numbered 18,813 persons and of these 1,685 were r e g i s t e r e d In p o s t - school programs. Th is low p a r t i c i p a t i o n of Indian s u b j e c t s In educat iona l programs Is not s u r p r i s i n g In view of Byuarm's I l l i n o i s study which p o i n t s out t h a t In a community where t h e r e are s u p e r o r d l n a t e - s u b o r d l n a t e r e l a t i o n s , t h e r e Is l i t t l e Incent i ve for the subord inate members to seek formal 48 s c h o o l i n g ( 5 6 ) . The absence of a precedent for p a r t i c i p a t i o n In community a f f a i r s at the leve l of e q u a l i t y and across r a c i a l l i n e s , p resents an I n h i b i t i o n to Involvement. A d u l t s of lower educat iona l at ta inment are much less I n c l i n e d to use the a v a i l a b l e c u l t u r a l and educat iona l resources of the community than the b e t t e r educated . The home Is used more e x t e n s i v e l y by the economica l l y s u p e r i o r f a m i l i e s , w h i l e s p e c t a t o r a t t r a c t i o n s tended to draw the poorer f a m i l i e s away from the home ( 2 5 8 ) . The S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House study In Toronto (231) a l s o noted the Inadequate use of community resources by I ts disadvantaged s u b j e c t s . Th is lack of use was a t t r i b u t e d to both t h e i r l i m i t e d Involvement In s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , and an unawareness of a v a i l a b l e community r e s o u r c e s . Th is f a i l u r e to use a v a i l a b l e programs and other resources stems from the I n t e l l e c t u a l I s o l a t i o n of the poor . Because of t h i s , they tend to be Ignorant of the resources of s o c i e t y and have l i t t l e I n t e l l e c t u a l s t i m u l a t i o n . These f a c t o r s In t u r n cause a pet— pe tua t jon of a c y c l e . The c h i l d r e n of the poor are thus III prepared fo r adequate p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the present midd le c l a s s school sys tems. These c h i l d r e n have o f t e n been reared In an environment where there Is a f a t a l - i s t i c a t t i t u d e , l i t t l e verba l communicat ion, and a lack of b e l i e f In l o n g - range success ( I I I ) . IV. COmUNICATION WIrth (285) s t a t e s , " i f men of d i v e r s e exper ience and I n t e r e s t a re to have Ideals In common, they must be ab le to communicate." Th is 49 I n a b i l i t y to communicate presents c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y for the disadvantaged (38 ) (41 ) (56 ) (60 ) (69 ) (83 ) (125) (143) (164) (186) (199) (231) (267) . In a manpower r e t r a i n i n g study In the Uni ted S t a t e s , I t was found t h a t among unemployed and u n s k i l l e d workers d i f f i c u l t i e s In communication were among the most Important f a c t o r s caus ing the disadvantaged t o forego r e - t r a i n i n g . To overcome such d i f f i c u l t y the use of demonstrat ion techn iques was recommended ( 3 8 ) . S i m i l a r l y , when language b a r r i e r s presented them- s e l v e s In the parent educat ion groups of the S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House In Toronto , the I n s t r u c t i o n had to be conducted In pantomime, or through the use of non -ve rba l demonstrat ions ( 2 3 1 ) . In a community where a s u p e r o r d l n a t e - s u b o r d l n a t e system of race r e l a t t o n s e x i s t s , the re w i l l probably be no formal channels of communi- c a t i o n between the r a c e s , and the Informal channels w i l l not operate for the exchange of o p i n i o n and Informat ion on r a c i a l I s s u e s . Hence, the re w i l l be no means t o overcome the d i f f e r e n t p e r c e p t i o n s of a community program which In tu rn w i l l a f f e c t I ts outcome ( 5 6 ) . The Cree Indians of nor thern Quebec who f o l l o w t r a d i t i o n a l occupat ions of hunt ing and t r a p p i n g are I s o l a t e d from r e g u l a r c o n t a c t s w i t h o thers dur ing much of the y e a r . Th is lack of communication does l i t t l e to s t i m u l a t e p e r c e p t i o n of the re levance of government processes t o a s s i s t In s o l v i n g l o c a l problems ( 6 0 ) . An e x t e n s i v e study In the Uni ted S t a t e s Ind icated t h a t one a d u l t In t h r e e s imply d i d not have any knowledge of educat iona l resources fo r a d u l t s In h i s community. Persons of low soc io -economic s t a t u s were more 50 l i k e l y than those of e i t h e r midd le o r h igh economic s t a t u s to say t h a t they d id not t h i n k any f a c i l i t i e s for I n s t r u c t i o n e x i s t e d In the communi- t i e s ( 140) . In regard to the mass media , a food buying study In V i r g i n i a found t h a t t h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n c e In educat iona l s t a t u s between v iewers and non-vfewers of t e l e v i s i o n In format iona l programs. There was, however, p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y more of the " u s e r s " of Informat ion who had completed one or more years of h igh s c h o o l . As fa r as newspapers were concerned, readersh ip was a f f e c t e d by both leve l of educat ion and Income. In an urban sample , t w o - f i f t h s (41 per cent) of the non- readers of market ing Informat ion fo r consumers had only an elementary e d u c a t i o n . L i k e w i s e , the use of such Information was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h educat ion and Income. From the d a t a , f t was apparent tha t market ing In format ion fo r consumers over r a d i o and TV reached a somewhat la rger p r o p o r t i o n of those w i t h l i m i t e d s c h o o l i n g than d id the newspapers which seemed most e f f e c t i v e In reach ing those w i t h h igher l e v e l s of educat ion ( 2 0 8 ) . Among fa rmers , the channels of communication between the. poorer farmer and the p r i n c i p a l source of Information are b locked because of the low r a t e of c o n t a c t between them and the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t as noted e a r l i e r . Mass media p rov ide a p r i n c i p a l source of Information but t h i s has been found to be Inadequate w i t h respec t to a c t i o n t h a t leads to Improving c o n d i t i o n s ( 2 7 l ) ( 2 7 2 ) . \ 51 V. SUMMARY These s t u d i e s p rov ide a depress ing p i c t u r e of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the disadvantaged and s o c i e t y . Large ly because of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e Is compelled to evolve I t s own o p e r a t i o n a l way of l i f e . The customary assoc fa t fona I c o n t a c t s of m i d d l e - c l a s s s o c i e t y are not f u n c t i o n a l to the d isadvantaged . They p a r t i c i p a t e Instead through c a s u a l , c l o s e , and o f t e n Int imate pr imary group r e l a t i o n s h i p s which I n - v o l v e smal l personal k i n s h i p , l o c a l i t y or f r i e n d s h i p g roups . Programs f o r change or a m e l i o r a t i o n appear to be doomed to f a i l u r e i f they adhere to e s t a b l i s h e d p a t t e r n s of con tac t t h a t are unacceptable to and not used by the group they are designed f o r . CHAPTER IV REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS In s p i t e of the f a c t t h a t the disadvantaged a d u l t s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e j e c t I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d educat iona l programs, there Is an Increased emphasis In general educat ion and v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r them In North A m e r i c a . At the same t i m e , the re has been no cor responding Increase In e m p i r i c a l research t h a t Is a. p r e r e q u i s i t e of such programs t 7 5 ) . C u r i o u s l y , governments are w i l l i n g to spend v a s t sums on programs but v i r t u a l l y noth ing on research to determine what those programs should be o r how they should be o rgan ized and conducted. An exhaust i ve rev iew has revea led on ly a l i m i t e d number of r e p o r t s based on v a l i d research which deal w i t h the educat ion of disadvantaged a d u l t s . Those which have been i d e n t i f i e d are d i scussed In t h i s c h a p t e r . I . CLASSIFICATION OF THE PROGRAMS The s t u d i e s reviewed here have been concerned main ly w i t h an examinat ion of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l processes In formal s i t u a t i o n s , c h i e f l y w i t h respec t to l i t e r a c y and fundamental e d u c a t i o n . Other s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , and fami l y and h e a l t h e d u c a t i o n . 53 L i t e r a c y Educat ion The I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t has a pr imary need fo r b a s i c s k i l l development In language, read ing and s imple a r i t h m e t i c as a foundat ion f o r f u r t h e r v o c a t i o n a l or s o c i a l e d u c a t i o n . In an attempt to overcome the low s e l f - i m a g e of the f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e , Drane (94) s tud ied whether an a d u l t l i t e r a c y program us ing Laubach m a t e r i a l s , conducted In a h o s p i t a l , would be more e f f e c t i v e when preceded by a program of pai— t l c l p a t l o n t r a i n i n g . Age, read ing leve l and I .0., as w e l l as the p r o b a b i l i t y of remaining In the h o s p i t a l were the c r i t e r i a used fo r s e l e c t i n g the p a t i e n t s to p a r t i c i p a t e In the s t u d y . The two randomly ass igned groups attended a t o t a l of 45 hours of I n s t r u c t i o n . The members of Group T rece i ved 18 hours of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g and 27 hours of l i t e r a c y I n s t r u c t i o n w h i l e Group L rece i ved 45 hours of I n s t r u c t i o n . The members of both groups were g iven the Nelson Reading Test Form A as a p r e - t e s t . A f t e r s i x weeks, the Nelson Reading Test Form B was a d m i n i s - t e r e d to both groups and a t the end of ten weeks, Form A was used again and Form B was admin is te red again at the end of four teen weeks. A f t e r s i x weeks, mean Improvement of Group L was h igher than t h a t In Group T but the d i f f e r e n c e was not s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Furthermore, t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e a f t e r ten weeks In thei Improvement of the mean grade leve l In both g roups . The t e s t fo r r e t e n t i o n t h a t was admin is te red a f t e r four teen weeks showed a g reate r Improvement In Group T. A l though the reuse of the t e s t b a t t e r y l i m i t e d the r e l i a b i l i t y of the 54 l a t e r t e s t s c o r e s , n e v e r t h e l e s s , the study Ind ica tes the Importance of an Informal c lassroom c l i m a t e for programs of l i t e r a c y e d u c a t i o n . Henny (125) sought to determine whether I n d i v i d u a l or group I n s t r u c t i o n would e x e r t the g reate r In f luence on progress In reading per formance. He c rea ted the Family Phonics System of I n s t r u c t i o n In an e f f o r t to determine the ex tent to which f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s can Increase t h e i r reading performance by us ing a phonic sys tem. T h i r t y Inmates of the Indiana Reformatory were randomly ass igned to a c o n t r o l group which r e c e i v e d no I n s t r u c t i o n us ing phonics but cont inued In the elementary s c h o o l ; an exper imental Group A which rece i ved o n e - t o - o n e reading I n s t r u c t i o n by the phonic method, and an exper imental Group B which r e c e i v e d I n s t r u c t i o n us ing the phonic method In a group s e t t i n g were e s t a b l i s h e d . Henny found t h a t t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In reading ga in between I n d i v i d u a l and group I n s t r u c t i o n . A f t e r the 20 s e s s i o n s l a s t i n g one hour , the I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t Improved h i s r e a d - ing a b i l i t y by as much as 2 .5 grade l e v e l s w i t h a ga in of 1.27 grade l e v e l s fo r the groups which had r e c e i v e d phonic I n s t r u c t i o n . And there was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In the ga in made by these groups over t h a t In the c o n t r o l g roup . In research conducted at the Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l C e n t e r , McKee (178) t e s t e d an exper imental group which r e c e i v e d 40 hours of reading I n s t r u c t i o n along w i t h 160 hours of remedial I n s t r u c t i o n a l o n e . The mean ga ins In reading leve l were 2 .39 fo r the exper imental group compared 55 t o .27 f o r the c o n t r o l g roup . In t o t a l g a i n , the exper imental group ach ieved a 1.37 mean grade ga in compared to 1.05 fo r the c o n t r o l g roup . These d i f f e r e n c e s were s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . McKee (178) repor ted s i m i l a r achievement In another exper imental study In which the e x p e r i - mental group which rece i ved 40 hours of read ing I n s t r u c t i o n achieved an o v e i — a l l grade leve l Increase of 2 . 5 compared to I.I fo r the c o n t r o l group which d id n o t . Both the McKee s t u d i e s made use of teach ing machines and programmed I n s t r u c t i o n fo r the exper imental g roup . Nleml (196) found a mean Increase of one grade leve l In a group of 70 men In the Uni ted S ta tes Army who rece ived 240 hours of I n s t r u c t i o n In an In tens ive l i t e r a c y educat ion program conducted In A l a s k a which v e r i f i e d the u t i l i t y of such programs In r a i s i n g the r e a d i n g , E n g l i s h and computation leve l of f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s . At the same A l a s k a n base, approx imate ly the same progress was recorded for t w e n t y - s i x who had former ly been Hungarian Freedom F i g h t e r s . A f t e r r e c e i v i n g 420 hours of In tens i ve l i t e r a c y I n s t r u c t i o n , the s tudents In an upper leve l c l a s s achieved a one grade leve l Inc rease . The use of the mass media as an ad junct to c lassroom I n s t r u c t i o n was s t u d i e d by t e l e v i s i o n s t a t i o n WKN0-TV ( 1 3 1 ) . In t h i s c a s e , the Laubach m a t e r i a l s were used as the b a s i s fo r the t e l e c a s t s and the study measured the amount of progress a c h i e v e d . Through a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test to a group of 61 s t u d e n t s , the f o l l o w i n g average grade l e v e l s were r e p o r t e d : word p i c t u r e — 2 . 6 ; word r e c o g n i t i o n 56 2 . 5 ; word meaning — 2 . 7 ; average reading — 2 . 6 ; numbers — 3 . 1 ; and average achievement — 2 .8 g r a d e s . A t Ohio S t a t e Reformatory , A l l e n (9.) s t u d i e d the Laubach l i t e r a c y f i l m s w i t h formal c l a s s I n s t r u c t i o n . During the s i x t e e n weeks of o p e r a - t i o n , 288 Inmates p a r t i c i p a t e d . In the program. There was an average educat iona l achievement of 2.1 grades and an average reading achievement Increment of 1.7 g r a d e s . For the 108 cases who p a r t i c i p a t e d In the p r o - gram for the e n t i r e s i x t e e n weeks, the t o t a l grade Increase was 2 .5 and the reading ga in was 2 . 1 . Peerson (202) d i r e c t e d the e v a l u a t i o n of the F lo rence S ta te C o l l e g e ' s l i t e r a c y program which u t i l i z e d the Laubach Kinescopes developed by WKNO-TV a long w i t h vo lun teer teachers a t a v iewing c e n t e r . C l a s s e s u t i l i z i n g d i r e c t teach ing were organized for those areas w i t h poor t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n . Only 254 out of 608 s tudents who s t a r t e d the program completed I t . Both t e s t s developed l o c a l l y and the MetropoI I tan Reading Test were used to measure the progress of the TV and r e g u l a r c l a s s e s . At the end of the program, the a d u l t s showed an average grade leve l of 2 . 5 . The a d u l t s In the formal c l a s s surpassed the t e l e v i s i o n group by o n e - h a l f of a grade I eve I. Bunger (48) eva luated the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Operat ion A lphabet program In the S t a t e of F l o r i d a and found tha t 132 of the 243 a d u l t s were s t i l l reading at the f i r s t grade leve l or below at the end of the e x p e r i - ment ra ther than reaching the a n t i c i p a t e d achievement leve l of t h i r d g rade . 57 One e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s o f f e r e d by Bunger was t h a t a f t e r the t w e n t i e t h lesson the m a j o r i t y of the a d u l t s stopped watching the program on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Th is study a l s o found t h a t a d u l t s who s t u d i e d In groups made g rea te r progress than d id those who s t u d i e d I n d i v i d u a l l y . C r o h n ' s r e p o r t (76) of the Dfebold L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t desc r ibed an attempt at I n d i v i d u a l l e a r n i n g through programmed I n s t r u c t i o n designed around the l e a r n e r ' s spoken v o c a b u l a r y , us ing a l i t e r a t e h e l p e r . From developmental t e s t i n g , I t was d i scove red t h a t the disadvantaged d id not learn the I s o l a t e d words used In the s p e c i a l l y prepared m a t e r i a l s and t h a t t h e r e was a need fo r contex tua l support m a t e r i a l . The Reading Center P r o j e c t (169) In C l e v e l a n d lacked an o b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , I t repor ted two s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g s . P e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n c o n t a c t between the read ing s p e c i a l i s t and the I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t Is of paramount Importance and t h e r e must be an I n s t r u c t i o n a l agent to d i r e c t the l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s . The Green le lgh study (98) desc r ibed the a d u l t b a s i c educat ion program of I l l i n o i s and po inted out the d e f i c i e n c i e s of programs designed to opera te l a r g e l y w i t h i n the p r e - a d u l t school sys tem, i t was a l s o found t h a t In s p i t e of p r o v i s i o n s fo r compulsory p a r t i c i p a t i o n by w e l f a r e r e c - i p i e n t s , at tendance was poor (about o n e - t h i r d of the e n r o l l e d s tudents at tended school dur ing the week sampled) , and the drop out r a t e was c o n - s Iderab l e . The use of s tandard i zed t e s t s to p r e d i c t academic achievement was desc r ibed In two of the b a s i c educat ion programs. In the New Hope 58 P r o j e c t (194) a d u l t s e n r o l l e d In a foui—month program were t e s t e d w i t h Instruments Intended fo r use a t the p r e - a d u l t l e v e l . The study concluded t h a t such t e s t s had severe l i m i t a t i o n s fo r use w i t h a d u l t s . This c o n - c l u s i o n was supported by Whlttemore (280) In an eighteen-month study of v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of s tandard i zed t e s t s used w i t h a d u l t s In b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . V o c a t i o n a l T r a i n i n g In a study of the e f f e c t s of c o u n s e l l i n g and general educat ion on v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a t the N o r f o l k Demonstrat ion Research P r o j e c t ( 4 0 ) , a group of 200 a d u l t s were d i v i d e d Into the f o l l o w i n g groups: 1) In tens ive general educat ion and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g w i t h c o u n s e l l i n g ; 2) Technica l t r a i n i n g and c o u n s e l l i n g but no general e d u c a t i o n ; 3) C o u n s e l l i n g but no general or t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n ; 4) C o u n s e l l i n g If s o l i c i t e d but no general or t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n . Groups one and two r e s u l t e d In a h igher p r o p o r t i o n of group members employed than groups th ree and four a c h i e v e d . Group one had the h i g h e s t r a t e of employment, s a l a r i e s and g reater Job s a t i s f a c t i o n than any of the o ther groups which Ind ica tes the va lue of general e d u c a t i o n . S ince some of the e v a l u a t i o n procedures used to assess d i f f e r e n c e s among the four groups were s u b j e c t i v e r a t h e r than o b j e c t i v e , the v a l l d f t y of the r e s u l t s of t h i s experiment are s u b j e c t to q u e s t i o n . A study In Montrea l by Fe ln tuch (99) evaluated the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an Integrated program Invo lv ing v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g casework and a 59 s h e l t e r e d workshop t o Increase empIoyabI I I ty and modify a t t i t u d e s of 52 unemployed a d u l t s who were d i f f i c u l t to p l a c e . The study found t h a t the everage number of days employed a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the workshop compared w i t h the average employment b e f o r e , produced a mean Increase of 89 .25 days per year which was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e . Th is Ind icated the p o s i t i v e va lue of the workshop In q u a l i f y i n g p r e v i o u s l y unemployable a d u l t s fo r Increased employment. Observat ions on programmed v o c a t i o n a l I n s t r u c t i o n at the Texas Department of C o r r e c t i o n s revea led t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the Inmates p r e - f e r r e d programmed lea rn ing over convent iona l I n s t r u c t i o n ( 3 4 ) . FamIIy and HeaIth A personal approach to changing behavior through the use of In tens i ve c o u n s e l l i n g was t r i e d In a number of p l a c e s . In two s t u d i e s conducted In Toronto (170) and Hamil ton (120) such In tens ive c o u n s e l l i n g by w e l f a r e caseworkers r e s u l t e d In a g rea te r number of w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s becoming dependent so t h a t more of t h e i r cases were c losed than occurred among those who d id not r e c e i v e c o u n s e l l i n g . In North C a r o l i n a , the c o u n s e l l i n g prov ided 223 v o l u n t e e r s In the Family P l a n n i n g Program over a two-year p e r i o d r e s u l t e d In no pregnancies ( 2 3 2 ) . In the S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House study (231) , the va lue of smal l group meetings was demonstrated . A group of mothers attended b i -month l y meetings on n u t r i t i o n and repor ted t h a t the g r e a t e s t va lue to them was the o p p o r t u n i t y to get together and d i s c u s s mutual prob lems. The c o n t r a s t was 60 I l l u s t r a t e d In a study In Pennsy l van ia (41) which Ind icated t h a t women w i t h low Income and reading d e f i c i e n c i e s were not Inf luenced by w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s t o adopt new food h a b i t s . I I . ANALYSIS OF THE PROGRAMS An a n a l y s i s (See Table I on the f o l l o w i n g page) r e v e a l s t h a t f i f t e e n of the t w e n t y - t h r e e s t u d i e s d e a l t w i t h some aspect of l i t e r a c y and fundamental e d u c a t i o n , f i v e s t u d i e s were concerned w i t h f a m i l y and h e a l t h educat ion and the remaining t h r e e were r e l a t e d to v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g programs. These f i n d i n g s I n d i c a t e the present l i m i t e d scope of remedial educat iona l programs for the d i sadvantaged . Moreover , the p r o - gram areas appear to be those determined e x c l u s i v e l y by the superord Inate m a j o r i t y In t h e i r n o t i o n of what Is most necessary fo r upgrading the subord inate s u b - c u l t u r e . In a l l of the s t u d i e s , the s t a t e d o b j e c t i v e s of the programs were those of the sponsor ing I n s t i t u t i o n and no re fe rence was made t o p a r t i c i p a n t Involvement In the de te rminat ion of needs and the es tab l i shment of g o a l s . Th is Is hard ly a procedure which w i l l Induce v o l u n t a r y p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the d i sadvantaged . At l e a s t o n e - t h i r d of the remedial programs (Table I) were conducted by I n s t i t u t i o n s which cou ld e x e r t a measure of coe rc ion In t h e i r o p e r a t i o n s . F i v e of the s t u d i e s were conducted w i t h i n the s e t t i n g of s t a t e r e f o r m a t o r i e s , two at an army educat ion c e n t e r , and one w i t h i n a Table 1 ANALYSIS OF REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS Program l.iMed In Appumlift Type, "t Program Spun soring institution Panellation, Determination of Goals Methods Length of Program Type of Teacher Techniques DCV1L.CS and Material* Level of Materials Level of Tests Type of Evaluation No. of Participants No. ol )ropouta Measured Rcwlttg Achievement 1. Allen Literacy Statu Reformatory enlisted Institutionally Determined Class 4 months (44H hrs. approx.) staff teachers Review A Practice Review tt Drill Kinescope Student Workbook Adult Pre-Adult Descriptive 288 180 2.1 grades 2. Ik.-rtra.iil Vocu* lunal Slate Reformatory Class and Individual Study 24 monrhs Practice Teaching Machine Adult Descriptive - 3. Ilrnuks Vocational CI>IICKC/U.S. Gov't voluntary Class 12 montha Wult & re-Adult Statistical Testing 200 1.8 grades 4. Wllkus-Uurre Study Family and Health (Jo-op li xt en si on A Statu Government cnltMcd Individual 6 months Mailed Cards Adult Statistical Testing 2800 enrol. 161 Intcrv. 5. Ikinger Literacy Statu tkrvcrnmon* voluntary Class and Individual Study 8 months (49 hours) volunteer teachers Review ft Practice Kinescope Student Workbook Adult •re-Adult Statistical Testing m* enrol. E43 Intcrv. 139 hclow 3.0 grades A. Uiebuld Literacy College Individual Practice Programmed Tex Adult Descriptive 7. Ilrune Literacy Statu Menial Huspital voluntary Clans 2.5 mos. (45 hrs.) Student Workbook Aduh Pre-Adult Statistical Testing 30 M. litrulutit mi of Illinois Pribram Litcrucy Statu Government enlisted Class naff teachers Pre -Adult Pre-Adult Descrlutlvc V. Felntuch Vocational luwiKh Sheltered Workshop voluntary 14 months Practice Statistical Testing 52 10. Hamilton Study Family and Health Provincial ami Civic Governments enlisted Individual 6 months welfare workers Descriptive 200 II. 1 lui.ny Literacy State rte format or y voluntary Class and Individual Study 1 mo. (20 hrs.) trained inmate Instructors Student Workbook Adult Pre-Adult Statistical Testing' 30 1.27 grades 12. Hols; Literacy TV Si at Ion voluntary Class and Individual Study a mo. (40 hrs.) Review A Drill Kinescopes Student Workbook Adult Pre-Adult Descriptive 2.6 grades 13. Long Literacy Cliy Library Centers voluntary Individual Study A Discussion Grou 10 months trained reading specialist Practice k Discussion Hooks, Films, Fllmstrlps, Rcc. Adult Descriptive 14. Long Turin Ftimily ami Health rmvinclal l< Civic Governments emitted Individual 6 months welfare workers Descriptive 200 IS. Mckee Litcrucy Stuie Hulormatoi y & U.S. Government enlisted Class 2.5 months (40 hours) Reading Machine Programmed Inst. Vc-Adull Statistical Testing 33 2.39 grades lb. McKec 1.H r racy Statu Reformatory t U.S. Government enlisted Class 2.5 months (40 hours) Reading Machine Programmed Inst. •re-Adult Descriptive 58 2.5 grades 17. New Hope Project Literacy Collegc/U.S. Gov't enlisted Class 4 months Adult A. •re-Adult Descriptive 695 171 1-3 grades 18. Nlemi Literacy U.S. Armed Forces enlisted Class 3 months (420 hours). civilian staff teachers *c -Adult Descriptive 2A 1-1.7 grades 19. Mend l.llorfl̂ y U.S. Armed Forces cnilsted Class A mom ha (240 hours) civilian stalf leachucs USAFl Tent-* Adult Adult !• 're-Aduit Descriptive 2a8 1 grade 20. IVeriwn Lltcr.Ly Collcgc/U.S. Gov't voluntary Croup Meetings and Claaa B months (IB hours) trained volunteer tcachera Kinescopes Student Workbook Adult Pre-Adult Descriptive 608 354 1-2 grade* 21. Saint Christopher Family and Health Neighbourhood House/ Civic 01. of Kducation enlisted Group Meeting* 11 months regular staff Members Descriptive 15 22. SchmWt Family and Health voluntary 24 montha Descriptive 223 23. Whittcmurc Literacy Dcpt. of Education Univ. nf Nevada entitled Claaa 18 monthd Adult & Pre-Adult Statistical Testing 62 s t a t e mental h o s p i t a l . F u r t h e r , a number of the remedial educat iona l programs which were f inanced by federa l or s t a t e monies had compulsory p r o v i s i o n s In t h e i r e n l i s t m e n t of p a r t i c i p a n t s . In s l i g h t l y more than h a l f of the s t u d i e s , the s u b j e c t s were e n l i s t e d Into programs. Such compuls ion may, In e f f e c t , c r e a t e negat i ve a t t i t u d e s towards f u t u r e educat iona l programs. The data I n d i c a t e t h a t the sponsor ing I n s t i t u t i o n s showed a d I s t l n c t ' p re fe rence for o r g a n i z i n g the p a r t i c i p a n t s In c l a s s e s (Table I ) . Jn a t l e a s t ten of the s t u d i e s , the learners were o rgan ized In c l a s s e s w h i l e In another f i v e s i t u a t i o n s , the c l a s s was combined w i t h some other method. Al though the c l a s s method dominates a d u l t p u b l i c n igh t school programs and u n i v e r s i t y evening ex tens ion programs (269), I t may not be an acceptab le method for the disadvantaged (136). There Is some l i k e l i - hood t h a t they w i l l r e j e c t I t s f o r m a l i z e d and: -s t ructured n a t u r e , or a s s o c i a t e It n e g a t i v e l y w i t h p rev ious educat iona l e x p e r i e n c e s . The remedial programs ranged from I t o 24 months In length w i t h a median of s i x month's d u r a t i o n . The t o t a l number of hours for each program v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y from a minimum of 20 hours t o a maximum of 448 h o u r s . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e i r l i m i t e d t ime p e r s p e c t i v e and t h e i r proneness to l i v e and work to f u l f i l l Immediate needs, the disadvantaged seem u n l i k e l y to be committed to programs of lengthy d u r a t i o n . A drop out r a t e of more than h a l f of the p a r t i c i p a n t s Is noted In a number of s t u d i e s . Moreover , an extended length of programming seemed of I f t t l e b e n e f i t In regard t o 63 the Improvement of read ing s k i l l s . The reading scores ranged from one to 2 .6 grades on p o s t - t e s t s and In th ree of the l i t e r a c y programs of the s h o r t e s t d u r a t i o n , the grade achievement In reading was as high or h igher than t h a t In the longer programs. The i r mean was approx imate ly 2.1 grades compared w i t h 1.9 grades for the severa l other l i t e r a c y s t u d i e s . The management of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l process was f r e q u e n t l y In the hands of educat iona l agents who had l i t t l e or no s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g for d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r d isadvantaged c l i e n t e l e . Only th ree of the programs made s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e to t r a i n e d I n s t r u c t o r s , and In one of these s t u d i e s the s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g amounted to no more than f i v e hours I n s t r u c t i o n for the vo lun teer teachers (Tab le I ) . R e l i a n c e on r e g u l a r s t a f f members, unt ra ined v o l u n t e e r s , and teachers w i t h p r e - a d u l t exper ience seemed to be the common p r a c t i c e . Without some s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g I t seems u n l i k e l y t h a t I n s t r u c t o r s w i l l understand the behav io ra l p a t t e r n s of the d i s a d v a n - taged or be a b l e to p r e s c r i b e any s p e c i a l forms of educat iona l t reatment ( 7 ) ( 7 5 ) ( 2 9 l ) . There was scant re fe rence to the I n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures used . These c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y of rev iew , p r a c t i c e and d r i l l . In on ly two s t u d i e s was d i s c u s s i o n mentioned as a t e c h n i q u e . I t would seem then t h a t If a t t i t u d e s and va lues of the disadvantaged are to be both understood and m o d i f i e d , the use of t h i s technique must be more f u l l y expbred ( 2 9 1 ) . C e r t a i n l y , group d i s c u s s i o n Is one of the best techniques for prob lem- s o l v i n g which Involves both the a p p l i c a t i o n of Informat ion and the I n t e g r a t i o n of knowledge ( 2 6 9 ) . 64 A g reat deal of emphasis In the l i t e r a c y programs was p laced upon the use of I n s t r u c t i o n a l a i d s (Table I). The Laubach Kinescopes and s tudent work books were used In the th ree t e l e v i s i o n l i t e r a c y p r o - grams and In one of the reformatory s t u d i e s . The s tudent work books a lone were used by p a r t i c i p a n t s In the mental h o s p i t a l s t u d y . Henny (125) a l s o developed a student guide fo r use In h i s phonics system of I n s t r u c t i o n . Other dev ices and m a t e r i a l s used In the remedial educat iona l programs Included reading and teach ing machines, f i l m s t r l p and r e c o r d s , mai led Informat ion c a r d s , programmed t e x t s and the USAFI t e x t s . Most of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s used had been developed exp ress l y for a d u l t use (Table I) but such was not the case w i t h the t e s t i n g d e v i c e s . These were almost e x c l u s i v e l y p r e - a d u l t t e s t s which have been developed for and s t a n d a r d i z e d w i t h m i d d l e - c l a s s c h i l d r e n (Table 11 on the f o l l o w i n g page ) . In s p i t e of t h i s f a c t , such t e s t s were f r e q u e n t l y used fo r both placement and e v a l u a t i v e purposes . There Is a c r i t i c a l need to develop a d u l t t e s t Instruments i f more e f f e c t i v e and purposefu l e v a l u a t i o n Is to be a c h i e v e d . S i m i l a r l y , the re Is a need f o r the more c a r e f u l e v a l u a t i o n of remedial educat iona l programs fo r the d i sadvantaged . In on ly e i g h t of the t w e n t y - t h r e e s t u d i e s Is the re any attempt to apply s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s to some of the d a t a . Too f r e q u e n t l y , the data presented Is merely d e s c r i p t i v e and the e v a l u a t i o n s u b j e c t i v e . Too o f t e n , the c h i e f concern Is to e s t a b l i s h programs and t h e r e Is no p r o v i s i o n made fo r a n a l y t i c a l e v a l u a t i o n which c o u l d undoubtedly b e n e f i t o ther program p l a n n e r s . 65 Table 1J DESCRIPTION OF TESTS EMPLOYED IN REMEDIAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS Programs as Listed in Appendix Tests Used Date of Test Construction Basis of Standardization Type of Test Appropriate Crauc or Age Levels t Allen Metropolitan Achievement Stanfuru Achievement 1931 - 1964 1923 - 1950 school pupils school pupils Achievement Achievement Grades 1.5-12 Grades |.*-9 3 Brooks Army Revi.seu Beta Examination General Aptitude Test Battery Gates Reading Survey SRA Arithmetic 19J1 - 1957 1946 - 1953 1939 - 1960 1934 - 1964 white male prison inmates adult workers school pupils school pupils Intelligence Aptitude Reading Achievement Graues 7-12 and Ages 16 - 59 Ages lo and over Grades J - 10 Grades 1 - 9 5 Bunker Gilmore Oral Reading 1951 - 1952 school pupils Oral Reading Grades 1-8 7 Drane Gray"Oral Reading Test Nelson Reading Test 1963 1931 - 1962 school pupils school pupils Oral Reading Reading Grades 1 - lb and adults Grades 3 - 9 8 Illinois Iowa Every Pupil Reading Test 1940 - 1945 school pupils Achievement Grades 3 -9 11 Hcnny . Gates-McKillop Reading Diagnostic Tests Gray Scandardi2ed Oral Reading Paragraph Test 1926 - 1962 1915 school pupils Reading (oral and written) Oral Reading Grades 2 - h Grades 1 - 8 12 Hoist Metropolitan Achievement Test 1931 - 1964 school pupils Achievement Grades 1.5-12 15 McKee Metropolitan Achievement Test 1931 - 1964 school pupils Achievement Grades 1.5-12 16 McKee Metropolitan Achievement Test 1931 - 1964 school pupils Achievement Grades L.5-12 17 New Hope Project California Achievement Test California Test of Mental Maturity Gates Reading Survey General Aptitude Test Buttery Revised Beta Examination 1934 - 195S 1936 - 1957 1939 - I960 1946 - 1958 1931 - 1957 school pupils school pupils adult workers white male prison inmates Achievement Intelligence Reading Aptitude Intelligence Grades 1.- 14 Kindergarten to Grade 16 & adults Grades 3 - 10 Ages 16 and over Grades 7-12 and Ages 16 - 59 18 Niemi California Achievement Test 1934 - 1958 school pupils Achievement Grades 1 • 14 19 Niemi Army General Classification Test California Achievement Test High School General Education Develop. (Iowa Tests of Educational Development) 1940 - 1960 1934 - 1958 1942 - 1963 adult soldiers school pupils school pupils Intelligence Achievement Achievement Grades 9-16 and adults Grades 1 • 14 Grades 9-13 20 Peerson Metropolitan Reading Test 1932 - 1962 school pupils Reading Achievement Graues 2-9 23 Whittemore California Psychological Inventory California Test of Mental Maturity (Level 3) Differential Aptitude Test (Form L) Hetimon Nelson Test of Mental Ability Iowa Silent Reading Kuder Preference Record--Vocational (Form CH) Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Otis Quick Scoring Beta Test Revised Beta Examination Sequential Test of Educational Progress (Level 3) 1956 - 1957 1936 - 1957 1947 - 1958 1931 - 1958 1927 - 1943 1934 - 1960 1942 - 1951 1917 - 1954 1931 - 1957 1956 - 1958 high school students school pupils school pupils school pupils school pupils school pupils white male prison inmates school pupils and college students Personality Inventory Intelligence Aptitude Intelligence Reading Interest Battery Personality Inventory Intelligence Intelligence Achievement Ages 13 and over Grade 7-8 Grades 8-12 Grades 9-12 Grades 4 - 13 Grades 9-16 and adults Ages 16 and over Grades 4-9 Grades 7-12 and Ages 16 - 59 Grades 4-14 * So urce: Mental Measurements Yearbooks. 66 I I I . SUMMARY The s p e c i f i c program research which has been reviewed was concerned c h i e f l y w i t h matters r e l a t i n g to I n s t r u c t i o n . Al though t h i s Is Important , the more fundamental problem Is t h a t of overcoming r e s i s t - ance to educat ion which Is so c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . The r e j e c t i o n of the I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d p a t t e r n s of educat ion by the d i s a d v a n - taged as noted p r e v i o u s l y Is I n d i c a t i v e of the need to d i scove r new p a t t e r n s which w i l l be a c c e p t a b l e . None of the research has been concerned w i t h t h a t m a t t e r . Secondly , there has been no c l e a r a p p r e c i a t i o n of p r e - c i s e l y which c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged are most amenable to permanent change, and which means w i l l exe r t the most e f f e c t i v e leverage on t h e i r t o t a l p a t t e r n of l i v i n g . There Is s t i l l the need to r e d e f i n e the problems In terms of c u l t u r a l change If programs are to be d i r e c t e d towards more workable s t r a t e g i e s and more v i a b l e r e s u l t s ( 1 1 0 ) . A t the b e s t , the s t u d i e s reviewed here v e r i f y the p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r f u r t h e r educat ion and t r a i n i n g of the disadvantaged and suggest t h a t p e r s o n a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n Is most e f f e c t i v e . They p rov ide very few c l u e s to the des ign of the programs and to the s e l e c t i o n of c o n t e n t . CHAPTER V IAAPLI CATIONS FOR PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT As y e t , the attempts to a m e l i o r a t e the s i t u a t i o n of the d isadvantaged have been n o t i c e a b l y piecemeal and u n s u c c e s s f u l . Wel fare programs have shown themselves to be Inadequate because they do l i t t l e more than t o m a i n t a i n e x i s t e n c e at a s u b s i s t e n c e leve l and f a l l to cope w i t h the b a s i c causes of d i s a d v a n t a g e . There Is some I n d i c a t i o n , however, t h a t educat ion m a y . o f f e r a s o l u t i o n to the prob lem. Educat iona l programs can be d i r e c t e d toward a l t e r i n g the s i t u a t i o n of the disadvantaged a d u l t ; but to do s o , a d i f f e r e n t concept ion of educat iona l programming must be e f f e c t e d and the b a r r i e r s which I n h i b i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the disadvantaged must be overcome. I. BARRIERS There are c e r t a i n I d e n t i f i a b l e b a r r i e r s which I n h i b i t any p r o - grams to a l t e r the s i t u a t i o n of the disadvantaged p o p u l a t i o n . These l i e both In the larger s o c i e t y and In the disadvantaged s u b - c u l t u r e . A l t e r i n g one w i thout s i m u l t a n e o u s l y changing the other w i l l not s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s o l v e the problem of d i sadvantage . 68 S o c i e t a l B a r r i e r s The disadvantaged c o n s t i t u t e a m i n o r i t y group which Is sub jected to the e x e r c i s e o f p r e j u d i c e d i r e c t e d toward them by the superordInate g roup . The p r e j u d i c e I n h i b i t s the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the disadvantaged In the on -go ing o rgan i zed l i f e of the community. Because of p r e j u d i c e , they do not have ready access to educat iona l and employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s through which these people might a l t e r t h e i r s t a t u s . Thus, p r e j u d i c e Is a major s o c i e t a l b a r r i e r t h a t must be overcome through the educat ion of the larger s o c i e t y In order t h a t I t can understand I t s r o l e In the c r e a t i o n and maintenance of d isadvantage ( 5 6 H 6 3 ) (95) ( 106) ( 110) ( 141) . S ince economic I n s u f f i c i e n c y Is a major f a c t o r In producing disadvantaged s t a t u s (37) (122) , I t Is p a r t i c u l a r l y Important tha t p r e j u d i c e s In employ- ment o p p o r t u n i t i e s be removed through l e g i s l a t i o n and/or educat ion (56) ( 1 0 6 ) . Accord ing to D e l l e f l e l d ( 8 3 ) , the disadvantaged worker can be t r a i n e d to perform s k i l l e d t a s k s In a shor t pe r iod of t ime so t h a t the lack of a s k i l l Is not a J u s t i f i a b l e r a t i o n a l e to obscure the more b a s i c problem of d i s c r i m i n a t i o n Induced by p r e j u d i c e . Of equal Importance to the b a r r i e r of p r e j u d i c e are those b a r r i e r s e r e c t e d by the educat iona l system I t s e l f . Although these b a r r i e r s are not d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y at the disadvantaged as Is p r e j u d i c e , they n e v e r t h e - less c r e a t e Impediments for these p e o p l e . The educat iona l b a r r i e r s stem l a r g e l y from concepts of educat ion and t r a i n i n g he ld by educators s e r v i n g the s u p e r o r d l n a t e group In s o c i e t y ( 7 5 ) . Moreover , the educat iona l system 69 has been developed to serve the va lue system of the midd le c l a s s . Th is same midd le c l a s s educat iona l system has lacked s u f f i c i e n t f l e x i b i l i t y to f u n c t i o n e f f e c t i v e l y w i t h the disadvantaged who cannot meet the e x p e c t a t i o n s of a system which Is t a l l o r e d for mass p r o d u c t i o n ra ther than I n d i v i d u a l development ( 1 2 8 ) . If such an educat iona l system Is to change to meet the needs of the d isadvantaged , I t wl1 I be necessary to Introduce Innovat ions In the p a t t e r n of o r g a n i z a t i o n , the c u r r i c u l u m , and the mode of I n s t r u c t i o n . Otherwise I t may be necessary t o p rov ide educat ion and t r a i n i n g o u t s i d e of the e s t a b l i s h e d school sys tem. S u b - c u l t u r a l B a r r i e r s As v i c t i m s of a s i t u a t i o n In which they recogn ize themselves to be outnumbered and w i thout power, the disadvantaged have withdrawn from s o c i e t y and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e i r own s u b - c u l t u r a l system (56)(I 10) . This r e i n f o r c e s the I s o l a t i o n of the disadvantaged and promotes the d e v e l o p - ment of a va lue system t h a t Is at var Iance .wlth the s u p e r o r d l n a t e v a l u e s . The r e s u l t a n t a l i e n a t i o n and power Iessness of the s u b - c u l t u r a l group promotes I 1st Iessness and f u t i l i t y so tha t the group Is c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a low leve l of a s p i r a t i o n and a lack of m o t i v a t i o n ( 4 8 ) ( 4 9 ) ( 8 3 ) ( 1 7 7 ) . In t h e i r s u b - c u l t u r a l environment, the disadvantaged see no fu tu re t h a t d i f f e r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y from the p r e s e n t ; consequent l y , they are In te res ted on ly In those pragmatic concerns r e l a t e d t o s u r v i v a l a t the s u b s i s t e n c e leve l ( 1 8 3 ) . The school system Is o r i e n t e d to f u t u r e success ra ther than 70 p resent s u r v i v a l so t h a t the disadvantaged r e j e c t educat ion and remain unaware of e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s (140) (221)' . Fur thermore, t h e i r past exper iences w i t h school have c reated negat i ve a t t i t u d e s toward school as an I n s t i t u t i o n and toward educat ion as a means of Improving t h e i r l o t ( 1 2 8 ) ( 1 6 6 ) . By wi thdrawing Into t h e i r own group and r e j e c t i n g the I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y , the disadvantaged become unduly dependent. They r e l y f r e q u e n t l y upon the development of s t rong k i n s h i p t i e s which In turn I n h i b i t the es tab l i shment of r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h the s u p e r o r d l n a t e group (60) and r e s t r i c t t h e i r understanding of the processes of s o c i e t y so t h a t the d isadvantaged cannot p r o f i t a b l y use p o l i t i c a l means to help end t h e i r dependency ( 6 0 ) ( 1 2 4 ) ( 2 1 7 ) . In a d d i t i o n , I s o l a t i o n breeds I n s e c u r i t y , t i m i d i t y and fear which r e s u l t s In t h e i r r e l u c t a n c e to change ( 3 I M 5 6 M 8 5 ) . A l though wi thdrawn, the d isadvantaged are not unaware of t h e i r s t a t u s In the la rger s o c i e t y and fn s e l f - p r o t e c t i o n they develop a s t rong p r i d e t h a t makes them ashamed to admit t h e i r educat iona l d e f i c i e n c i e s (9) ( I 16) ( 146)'. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged are. r e a l b a r r i e r s to change but i t Is p o s s i b l e to a l t e r them. To do s o , the disadvantaged must become aware of the v a l u e of educat iona l programs, develop a p e r c e p t i o n of t h e i r need fo r l ea rn ing ( 4 9 ) ( 5 8 ) ( 8 5 ) , and a consc iousness of t h e f r own e d u c a t i o n a l handicaps and d e f i c i e n c i e s ( 8 3 ) . These ends cannot be accom- p l i s h e d e a s i l y because corrmunfcation w i t h the disadvantaged Is d i f f i c u l t . W r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s In newspapers, magazines , b u l l e t i n s or w r i t t e n forms 71 a re I n e f f e c t i v e In reach ing the d isadvantaged (41)(143)(208)(254) and even though they l i s t e n to r a d i o and watch t e l e v i s i o n they tend to r e j e c t such Impersonal communication (48) (208) (2 17) . F a c e - t o - f a c e p e r s o n a l i z e d c o n t a c t s are a more e f f e c t i v e way of communicating w i t h the disadvantaged ( 4 0 ) ( 4 8 ) ( 1 3 2 ) . S u c c e s s f u l exper ience w i t h educat ion Is one way to conv ince the d isadvantaged of the personal va lue of f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g . To p rov ide such s u c c e s s f u l exper iences r e q u i r e s the p lann ing and conduct of educat iona l programs s p e c i f i c a l l y geared to the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and expec ta t ions of the d isadvantaged . J l . EDUCATIONAL PLANNING The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged and t h e i r response t o s i t u a t i o n s and c o n d i t i o n s as d i scussed p r e v i o u s l y p rov ide c l u e s to p l a n n i n g educat iona l and t r a i n i n g programs tha t w i l l meet t h e i r needs and be acceptab le to them. These c l u e s are d i scussed below In terms of communication, c o n t e n t , and the o r g a n i z a t i o n and conduct of the program. Communication S ince the disadvantaged s u b - c u l t u r e has I ts own communication system for I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and p r o t e c t i o n , the normal channels of communi- c a t i o n used among s u p e r o r d l n a t e group members are not s u i t a b l e for 72 communicating w i t h the d i sadvantaged . The h igh r a t e of I l l i t e r a c y and the g e n e r a l l y low read ing leve l of the disadvantaged prec ludes any e f f e c t i v e communication through p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s such as newspapers or b u l l e t i n s . Radio and t e l e v i s i o n have been found to be somewhat more e f f e c t i v e In d i f f u s i n g I n f o r m a t i o n . The disadvantaged are more aware of the Informat ion d isseminated by these med ia , but they are r a r e l y , If ever Induced to take a c t i o n as may be suggested by the message. Such f a i l u r e to take a c t i o n fs a t t r i b u t a b l e p a r t l y to the media which Is a b - s t r a c t and Impersonal and the disadvantaged r e j e c t the a b s t r a c t and sym- b o l i c elements of the dominant s o c i e t y . R e j e c t i o n may a l s o be caused by the k ind of a c t i o n proposed In the message. If I t suggests e n r o l l i n g In n i g h t c l a s s e s , the message Is r e j e c t e d because the disadvantaged r e j e c t the I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e . Thus, If the message Is to be accepted and lead to a c t i o n I t must be c o n c r e t e , personal and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h behavioral p a t t e r n s of the s u b - c u l t u r e . If these c o n d i t i o n s are met, the re Is no reason to b e l i e v e t h a t r a d i o and t e l e v i s i o n cannot e f f e c t i v e l y reach the d Isadvantaged . The medium of communication w i t h the g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t y of success fs personal f a c e - t o - f a c e communication e i t h e r on a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s or w i t h smal l n a t u r a l groupings (40) (48) (267) (29 I )i As shown e a r l i e r , I n tens i ve c o u n s e l l i n g (120)(170)(23 I) and smal l group s e s s i o n s (94) ( I80) (238) (29I ) were notab ly e f f e c t i v e In changing b e h a v i o r . If s u i t a b l e educat iona l and t r a i n i n g programs are e s t a b l i s h e d , the d i s a d v a n - taged can be Induced to p a r t i c i p a t e through personal c o n t a c t s ( 4 0 ) ( 4 8 ) ( 2 9 1 ) . 73 In a t i g h t homogeneous group such as the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e messages fed Into one p a r t of the system through personal contact w i l l spread s l o w l y through the system by word of mouth. Th is r e q u i r e s a message t h a t Is s imple and not r e a d i l y s u b j e c t to d i s t o r t i o n . Small group communication may be f a s t e r and c e r t a i n l y less s u b j e c t to m o d i f i c a t i o n but the groups must be n a t u r a l r a t h e r than a r t i f i c i a l . In any c a s e , the message w i l l evoke the des i red response only If the a c t i o n s p e c i f i e d Is I t s e l f acceptab le and meaningful to the d i sadvantaged . The language of the s u b - c u l t u r a l system d i f f e r s from t h a t of the pr imary c u l t u r e . Th is d i f f e r e n c e Is l a r g e l y a matter of word meanings; consequent l y , In order to Insure t h a t the des i red meaning Is conveyed, I t Is necessary to determine the vocabulary a p p r o p r i a t e to the sub - c u l t u r e . Furthermore, the s u b - c u l t u r e uses non-verbal communication e x t e n s i v e l y so t h a t t h i s must be understood and used where a p p r o p r i a t e (7 ) (43) (23 I ) . TeIevIs Ion may lend I t s e l f to non -verba l communication In the form of car toon p r e s e n t a t i o n s . These should be e f f e c t i v e In communicating s imple but s p e c i f i c messages. I I I . CONTENT AREAS The soc io -economic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged suggest areas of program content In which these people are p a r t i c u l a r l y d e f i c i e n t . I t would be a s e r i o u s m i s t a k e , however, to regard any of these program i 74 areas as p r e s c r i p t i v e . At the most they should be on ly sugges t i ve because the disadvantaged themselves must f i r s t be Involved In deve lop - ing programs which are r e l e v a n t to t h e i r own needs. Too f r e q u e n t l y , the content of the remedial programs has been d i c t a t e d s o l e l y by the I n s t i t u - t i o n s of the s u p e r o r d l n a t e m a j o r i t y . The p r i n c i p a l areas which might be explored w i t h the disadvantaged a re noted below: B a s i c Educat ion The h igh p r o p o r t i o n of I l l i t e r a t e s and f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e s among the disadvantaged Ind ica tes t h e i r need for competence In the b a s i c s k i l l s of r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and s imp le computations s i n c e these are p r e - r e q u i s i t e to most o thers areas of e d u c a t i o n . As has been shown, many disadvantaged a d u l t s do not possess even the minimum leve l of educat ion r e q u i r e d to q u a l i t y them for entry Into v o c a t i o n a l or J o b - t r a i n i n g programs (21 I)(2 I 7)(23 I ) . V o c a t i o n a l Educat ion The f a c t t h a t the disadvantaged a d u l t f r e q u e n t l y d i s p l a y s an I n t e r e s t In v o c a t i o n a l l y o r i e n t e d goa ls would des ignate t h i s area as s i g n i f i c a n t fo r both r u r a l and urban p e o p l e . At the present t ime Job p o s i t i o n s for the u n s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d workers are p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y d i m i n i s h i n g ; there a r e , though, expanding o p p o r t u n i t i e s In the s e r v i c e 75 I n d u s t r i e s ( I 6 3 M I 8 I ) . These may p rov ide acceptab le a l t e r n a t i v e sources of employment p r o v i d i n g the Jobs are not below the l e v e l which the worker had p r e v i o u s l y achieved ( 8 3 ) . With the p r o g r e s s i o n of automation and c y b e r n a t i o n , the re Is the constant c o n f r o n t a t i o n of t e c h n o l o g i c a l unemployment ( 2 5 3 ) . S ince I t Is now est imated t h a t a worker wlI I have to be r e t r a i n e d t h r e e or four t imes dur ing the course of h i s working y e a r s , the need for v o c a t i o n a l and Job r e t r a i n i n g programs becomes obvious If the I n d i v i d u a l Is to m a i n t a i n h i s employabI I I t y . Th is Is a problem of p a r t i c u l a r re levance to the young worker w i t h h i s working l i f e ahead of him (138) (166) (259) . Fami ly L f f e Educat ion S ince the disadvantaged g e n e r a l l y show a marked p re fe rence for I n t i m a t e , pr imary group r e l a t i o n s h i p s , f a m i l y l i f e educat ion would seem to be an area for c o n s i d e r a t i o n and e x p l o r a t i o n In program development. I t Is a l ready obvious t h a t poverty Is s e l f - p e r p e t u a t i n g and may Involve g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r g e n e r a t i o n In I ts c y c l e . I t Is a l s o ev ident t h a t the d isadvantaged f a m i l i e s o f t e n have as many as f i v e or more c h i l d r e n . Such large f a m i l i e s In themselves doubt less c o n s t i t u t e a c o n s i d e r a b l e If not overwhelming economic burden. Fami ly p lann ing would seem to be one of the areas of Imperat ive need fo r the disadvantaged (21 I ) ( 2 3 0 ) ( 2 3 2 ) . If d isadvantaged parents are g iven help t o understand the c o m p l e x i - t i e s of f a m i l y l i f e and the extent of t h e i r parenta l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , then some b e n e f i t s w i l l no doubt accrue to the disadvantaged c h i l d r e n . Recent 76 ev idence Ind ica tes t h a t It Is the home s e t t i n g which Is c r u c i a l In e s t a b l i s h i n g the c h i l d ' s a t t i t u d e s towards l e a r n i n g . I t Is these home- e s t a b l i s h e d a t t i t u d e s which l a r g e l y a f f e c t the subsequent p a t t e r n of l e a r n i n g In schoo ls and prov ide the o p p o r t u n i t y fo r the development of e f f e c t i v e communication through con tac t w i t h an a d u l t leve l of conver - s a t i o n ( 3 2 ) ( I 0 0 ) ( I 4 4 ) ( I 8 4 ) ( 2 l 8 ) ( 2 3 9 ) ( 2 4 0 ) . For these f u l l fami l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , both husbands and wives o f t e n need e x t e n s i v e parent educat ion programs. The event of automation may c e r t a i n l y make p o s s i b l e the more e q u i t a b l e s h a r i n g of these fami l y r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s between husband and w i f e . As the husband's working t ime decreases , he should have more t ime fo r fami ly and home a c t i v i t i e s ( 1 7 5 ) . Homemaker Educat ion The home a l s o bears the major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r p r o v i d i n g fo r an adequate leve l of n u t r i t i o n and m a i n t a i n i n g a s a t i s f a c t o r y standard of h e a l t h and c h i l d c a r e . To f u l f i l l these r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as w e l l as to perform housekeeping and home management w i t h competence, the disadvantaged women r e q u i r e In format ion and t r a i n i n g In homemaklng s k i l l s (102)(208) ( 2 I 7 J ( 2 3 I ) . Consumer Educat ion S ince the disadvantaged earn Inadequate Incomes, t h e r e Is a p r e s s i n g need fo r them to get a maximum r e t u r n for t h e i r consumer d o l l a r s . 77 S u i t a b l e educat iona l programs are r e q u i r e d to p rov ide the d i s a d v a n - taged w i t h an understanding of the consumer market , c r e d i t o p e r a t i o n s and the competence to deal w i t h f i n a n c i a l mat ters (2)(750(I 3 8 ) ( 2 0 8 ) . Hea l th Educat ion A study of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the disadvantaged members of s o c i e t y r e v e a l s a general low l e v e l of h e a l t h and a minimal use of e x i s t i n g agencies and f a c i l i t i e s . Al though l e g i s l a t i v e ac ts may be employed to p r o v i d e f ree or low c o s t s e r v i c e s , the re s t i l l remains the n e c e s s i t y to educate the disadvantaged as to t h e i r a v a i l a b i l i t y and most e f f e c t i v e use . There Is a l s o the need to understand the Importance of p r e v e n t i v e h e a l t h and dental care and a b a s i c knowledge of n u t r i t i o n (22)( I 72)(2 I 7 ) ( 2 5 2 ) . L e i s u r e Educat ion With the advance of automation and c y b e r n a t i o n , the re Is much l i k e l i h o o d of a s i g n i f i c a n t Increase In the amount of a v a i l a b l e l e i s u r e t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y fo r the l o w e r — s k i l l e d w o r k e r s . Coupled w i t h the p o s s i b i l i t y of the payment of a guaranteed annual Income, the two might c o n s t i t u t e the Ingred ients of s e r i o u s s o c i a l d i s o r d e r . The work 78 e t h i c has been f i r m l y Implanted In our s o c i e t y , (99) and t h e r e Is ev idence to I n d i c a t e t h a t the lower soc io -economic groups are the l e a s t eager to a n t i c i p a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y of Increased l e i s u r e t ime ( 2 5 8 ) . The r o l e of p a s s i v e s p e c t a t o r s Is u n l i k e l y to be s a t i s f a c t o r y as an o u t l e t fo r aggress i ve energ ies former ly r e l e a s e d by work ( 9 9 ) . There Is a l s o a growing number of aged people In our s o c i e t y who are not Involved In work. The c h a l l e n g e Is posed for developing r e c r e a - t i o n a l programs which w i l l engage the I n t e r e s t , develop the t a l e n t s , and r e l e a s e the energ ies of the disadvantaged In a c r e a t i v e l y s a t i s - f y i n g manner. Th is area of programming might very w e l l be of g reate r long range s o c i e t a l s i g n i f i c a n c e than t h a t type of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g which merely leads to the u n s a t i s f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n of dead-end J o b s . C i t i z e n s h i p Educat ion An obvious c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the disadvantaged Is t h e i r a l i e n a t i o n from p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the o r g a n i z a t i o n l i f e which t y p i f i e s mi d d l e c l a s s s o c i e t y . As id e from some Involvement In the church and labor un ions , the p a r t l c l p a t l o n a l r a t e s are m i n i m a l . If the d i s a d v a n - taged a r e i t o ' a c h I eve a f u l l e r measure of the b e n e f i t s of s o c i e t y , they should be prov ided w i t h o p p o r t u n i t i e s to r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l as voca l and v o t i n g c i t i z e n s . S ince t h e r e Is ev idence to Ind ica te t h a t 79 the disadvantaged are l a r g e l y r e l a t f o n a l l y o r i e n t e d In t h e i r conceptual s t y l e , the ac tua l Involvement In community a c t i o n programs may best serve the purpose of c i t i z e n s h i p programs. In these com- munity a c t i o n programs t h e y : s h o u l d be c a l l e d upon to t h i n k about and take I n i t i a t i v e In s o l v i n g some of t h e i r own prob lems. Th is would c a l l f o r c i t i z e n s h i p p a r t i c i p a t i o n In a f u n c t i o n a l way (56)(106)( I 10) (124)(188) . I V . CONTENT SELECTION The consuming preoccupat ion w i t h s u r v i v a l a t the s u b s i s t e n c e leve l by the disadvantaged a d u l t c l e a r l y Ind icates t h a t the content s e l e c t e d In the areas o u t l i n e d above must be f u n c t i o n a l and Immediately r e l e v a n t to the problems of the I n d i v i d u a l s I n v o l v e d . Thus, the e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g programs conducted fo r disadvantaged a d u l t s must center on t h e i r needs r a t h e r than content per s e . Th is Is a depar ture from the norm of s i m i l a r programs conducted fo r the s u p e r - o r d l n a t e group In which the content Is d i c t a t e d by some supposed l o g i c Inherent In the c o n t e n t . The disadvantaged r e q u i r e and w i l l accept only t h a t learn ing which Is complete ly p r a c t i c a l and Immediately 80 a p p l i c a b l e to t h e i r own s i t u a t i o n . Learn ing which Is d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to economic problems Is more acceptab le than any other (83) ( 9 8 ) ( 2 9 1 ) . Without such r e l a t i o n s h i p of the content to economic g o a l s , the re Is l i t t l e chance t h a t the disadvantaged w i l l p a r t i c i - p a t e . Among the young p a r t i c u l a r l y , the goa ls are v o c a t i o n a l so t h a t content should be geared to t h a t end ( 8 2 ) . V . ORGANIZATION AND CONDUCT The disadvantaged a d u l t s r e j e c t the a b s t r a c t Impersonal I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e of s o c i e t y ( 2 6 7 ) . Consequent ly , they r e j e c t the school as an agency fo r f u r t h e r l e a r n i n g . In a d d i t i o n , t h e i r own p r i o r exper iences In the school which were such as to Induce them to drop out r e i n f o r c e s t h e i r r e j e c t i o n of the s c h o o l . Any e f f o r t s to persuade the disadvantaged a d u l t to " r e t u r n to s c h o o l " I n e v i t a b l y meets w i t h f a i l u r e . In view of t h i s , t h e n , the school Is not the locus f o r I n i t i a l educat iona l programs for the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . A f t e r some s a t i s f a c t o r y exper iences w i t h l ea rn ing In a more acceptab le s e t t i n g , I t may be p o s s i b l e to r e - i n t r o d u c e the disadvantaged to the school b u i l d i n g or a proper s e t t i n g fo r l e a r n i n g . 81 There are- -other p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s In a community, p a r t i c u l a r l y In the Immediate area of the d isadvantaged , which are less o b j e c t i o n a b l e than Is the school and these should be used for b a s i c educat ion and t r a i n i n g programs. S ince the church Is a c c e p t - a b l e , such f a c i l i t i e s ' as church h a l l s and basements would prov ide a s u i t a b l e s e t t i n g . Union h a l l s , community centers and neighborhood houses might a l s o be a p p r o p r i a t e . At the moment, school systems are not attuned to the conduct of educat ion o u t s i d e of the school b u i l d - ing because of a d m i n i s t r a t i v e Inexper ience and/or I n d i f f e r e n c e to the needs arid c u l t u r e of the d i sadvantaged . Government r e g u l a t i o n s governing f u r t h e r educat ion and t r a i n i n g a l s o tend to I n h i b i t more f u n c t i o n a l approaches. Both these f a c t o r s c o n s t i t u t e b a r r i e r s t h a t I n t e r f e r e w i t h s u i t a b l e program development. Fur thermore, r e g u l a t i o n s and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p r a c t i c e r e q u i r e la rge r I n s t r u c t i o n a l groups than are s u i t e d to the disadvantaged s u b - c u l t u r e . Such groups are ad hoc s t r u c t u r e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s In the larger s o c i e t y which the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e r e j e c t s . Smal le r na tu ra l or autonomous l o c a l i t y groups are b e t t e r s u i t e d to the s u b - c u l t u r a l m i l i e u of the disadvantaged as these permit more p e r s o n a l i z e d communication and Inter—personal c o n t a c t s . 82 The I n s t r u c t i o n a l processes used In o r d i n a r y educat iona l s i t u a t i o n s are a p p r o p r i a t e fo r a mass c u l t u r e but they are r e j e c t e d by the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e as too Impersonal and forma 1 1 s t ! c . More emphasis Is needed on demonst ra t ion , d i s c u s s i o n , and s i m i l a r processes which Involve the I n d i v i d u a l In lea rn ing as an a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t r a t h e r than as a p a s s i v e o b s e r v e r . Textbooks and s i m i l a r I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w i l l need to be cons t ruc ted out of the exper iences shared In the poverty s u b - c u l t u r e so t h a t they are Immediately r e l e v a n t and p r a c t i c a l as s o l u t i o n s to f a m i l i a r problems. An Important p r e r e q u i s i t e to the o p e r a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e remedial educat iona l programs Is the s e l e c t i o n and t r a i n i n g of compet- ent I n s t r u c t o r s . They should be I n s t r u c t o r s who have s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g In a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . Formal course work In s o c i o l o g y , p s y c h o l - ogy and anthropology should b e t t e r enable such I n s t r u c t o r s to understand disadvantaged people In terms of t h e i r cuHure, t h e i r s o c i a l r o l e s , and t h e i r I n d i v i d u a l behav io ra l responses ( 7 5 ) ( 9 8 ) ( 2 9 1 ) . Without such background, I n s t r u c t o r s are hard ly In a p o s i t i o n to s e l e c t and use a p p r o p r i a t e processes fo r t h e i r s p e c i a l c l i e n t e l e . Educat ion and t r a i n i n g programs designed for the disadvantaged a d u l t must be p e r s o n a l , Informal and I n d i v i d u a l . In s h o r t , the mass educat iona l approach must be abandoned In favor of pr imary group r e l a t i o n s h i p s In the l ea rn ing s i t u a t i o n . Whether or not t h i s Is p o s s i b l e 83 t o ach ieve w i t h i n the e x i s t i n g educat iona l system remains to be explored but the l i k e l i h o o d of success seems dub ious . V I . SUMMARY S p e c i f i c d e t a i l s of educat iona l p lann ing to s o l v e the problems Inherent In programs designed for the disadvantaged cannot be s t a t e d w i th assurance a t p resent because of the s c a r c i t y of s u b s t a n t i a l r e s e a r c h . The g e n e r a l i z e d I m p l i c a t i o n s drawn from e x i s t i n g research as Ind icated above p r o v i d e c l u e s to p lann ing which s k i l l e d a d u l t educators should be a b l e to t r a n s l a t e Into f u n c t i o n a l programs. The present course of educat iona l and t r a i n i n g programs o f f e r s l i t t l e hope In answering the needs of the d Isadvantaged. Any p lan fo r a remedy fo r d isadvantage must be concerned w i t h c u l t u r a l change which Involves an a l t e r a t i o n In the over—a l l way of l i f e . Piecemeal approaches d i r e c t e d toward the a l l e v i a t i o n of I n d i v i d u a l d i s t r e s s w i l l not s o l v e the problem because they w i l l not a l t e r the b a s i c c u l t u r a l environment ( N O ) . 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Vancouver: Community Chest and C o u n c i l s (1966) . 264 . V a l e n t i n e , V . F . "Some Problems of the M e t i s of Northern Saskatchewan." S o c i a l P rob lems: A Canadian P r o f i l e . L a s k l n , R. ( e d . ) , New York : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964, pp . 116-124. 2 6 5 . V a l l e e , F . G . "Kabloona and Eskimo In the C e n t r a l Keewat ln : Trends and Compar isons . " Social Problems: A Canadian Prof 1 l e . L a s k l n , R. ( e d . ) , New York : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964, pp . 131-139. 266. Verner , C o o l i e . " A d u l t I l l i t e r a c y 1921-1961. " The Journal of Educat ion ofi the Facu l t y of E d u c a t i o n . U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 10:99 ( A p r i l , 1964). 267 . Verner , C o o l i e . "Human C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Slow Growing R e g i o n s . " S t i m u l a n t s to S o c i a l Development In Slow Growing R e g i o n s . W i n t e r , G .R . and W. Rogers ( e d s . ) . A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of A l b e r t a and UnlversI ty of B r i t i s h Co lumbia , 1967, pp . 1 6 - 3 1 . i 2 6 8 . Verner , C o o l i e . " C u l t u r a l Va lues and C o r r e c t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . " The Journal of C o r r e c t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n . 19:6 ( A p r i l , 1962) . 269 . Verner , C o o l i e and A lan Booth. . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . Washington, D . C : The Center fo r A p p l i e d Research In E d u c a t i o n , I n c . , 1964. 2 7 0 . Verner , C o o l i e and George S . D a v i s . "Complet ions and Drop Outs : A Review of R e s e a r c h . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . 14:157 (Spr Ing , 1964). 27 1. Ve rner , C o o l i e and P e t e r M. Gubbe ls . The Adopt ion or R e j e c t i o n of Innovat ions by Dairy Farm Operators In the Lower F raser V a l l e y . Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research Cound I of Canada (1967) . 2 7 2 . Verner , C o o l i e and Frank W. Ml H e r d . A d u l t Educat ion and the Adopt ion of/'l nnovat lons by O r c h a r d l s t s In the Okanagan Va I I ey of Br 11Ish Co IumbI a• Vancouver: Department of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia (1966) . 106 2 7 3 . V o n t r e s s , C . K . "Our Demora l i z ing Slum S c h o o l s . " Phi D e l t a Kappan. 45:39 (November, 1963). 2 7 4 . Walker , Robert A . R e h a b i l i t a t i o n of the Hard-Gore Unemployed. M i n n e a p o l i s ; MInneapoI Is RehabI11 t a t Ion Center I n c . ( A p r i l , 1965) . 2 7 5 . Warner, W.L . Democracy in J o n e s v l l l e . New York: Harper and B r o t h e r s , 1949. 2 7 6 . Warner, W.L . and P . S . L u n t . The S o c i a l L i f e of the Modern Communltv. New Haven: Ya le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1941. 2 7 7 . We i r , J . A . "Rura l R e c o n s t r u c t i o n In P r i n c e Edward I s l a n d : An E v a l u a t i o n . " (UripubI I shed P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of Not re Dame, Ind iana , 1964). 2 7 8 . Westo f f , C h a r l e s F. "The Changing Focus of D i f f e r e n t i a l F e r t i l i t y R e s e a r c h : The S o c i a l M o b i l i t y H y p o t h e s i s . " The Ml I bank Memorial Fund Q u a r t e r l y . 31:24 ( January , 1953). 2 7 9 . Westo f f , C h a r l e s F. " S o c i a l Change and F e r t i l i t y In the United S t a t e s . " T r a n s a c t i o n s of the T h i r d World Congress of S o c i o l o g y . 4:41 (1956) . 2 8 0 . Whlttemore, R .G . and Ben E c h e v e r r l a . S e l e c t i o n and E v a l u a t i o n of T ra inees In a B a s i c Educat ion Exper ience under the Manpower Deve lop - ment and T r a i n i n g A c t . Reno: Nevada S t a t e Department of Educat ion ( 1 9 6 5 ) . 2 8 1 . Whyte, Donald R. "Rura l Canada In T r a n s i t i o n . " In Rural Canada In Trans It Ion T Tremblay, M . A . and W . J . Anderson ( e d s . ) , Ottawa: A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics Research C o u n c i l of Canada, 1966, pp . 1 -113. 2 3 2 . Whyte, Donald R. " S o c i o l o g i c a l Aspects of P o v e r t y : A Conceptual A n a l y s i s . " Canadian Review of Soc io logy and Anthropo logy . 2:178 (November, 1965). 2 8 3 . W i l l i a m s , P . V . "School D r o p o u t s . " Nat iona l Educat ion J o u r n a l . 5 2 : 6 2 (May, 1963). 284 . Winch, R . F . The Modern F a m f l y . New York : H o l t , R l n e h a r t and Winston , I n c . , 1963. 2 8 5 . WI r th , L. "Concensus and Mass Communicat ion." American S o c i o l o g i c a l Rev iew. 13:1 (February , 1948) . 2 8 6 . WI r th , L. "The Problems of M i n o r i t y G roups . " The Sc ience of Man and t h e World C r i s i s . R. L i n t o n ( e d . ) , New York : Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1945, pp . 3 4 7 - 3 7 2 . 107 2 8 7 . Workshop fn A d u l t B a s i c E d u c a t i o n . Columbus: Center fo r A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , Ohio S ta te U n i v e r s i t y (1967) . 2 8 8 . W o r t l s , H . , Bardach , J . , C u t l e r , R . , Rue, R. and A . Freedman. " C h i l d Reading P r a c t i c e s In a Low Soclo -Economlc Group . " P e d i a t r i c s . 32:298 (August , 1963). 2 8 9 . Young Workerst The i r Spec ia l T r a i n i n g Needs. Washington, D . C . : Manpower Research B u l l e t i n No. 3 (1963) . 2 9 0 . Zentner , H. " C u l t u r a l A s s i m i l a t i o n Between Indians and Non- Indians In Southern A l b e r t a . " S o c i a l Prob lems: A Canadian P r o f 1 Ie . L a s k l n , R. ( e d . ) , New York : M c G r a w - H i l l , 1964, p p . 112-116. 2 9 1 . Z I n t z , M.V . (ed. ) T r a i n e r s of Teachers of Undereducated A d u l t s . A lbuquerque: U n i v e r s i t y of New M e x i c o , 1965. A P P E N D I X DIGEST OF PROGRAMS 108 A l l e n , D.W. AN EXPERIMENT IN EDUCATION WITH THE LAUBACH LITERACY COURSE OF STUDY ON FILMS AT THE OHIO STATE REFORMATORY O b j e c t i v e s The Laubach L i t e r a c y Course of the Ohio S ta te Reformatory purposes as I t s o b j e c t i v e to go beyond the mere a c q u i s i t i o n of academic and v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s to achieve as I t s u l t i m a t e g o a l , a s o c i a l i z e d and Integrated human p e r s o n a l i t y . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s goal Is the a c q u i s i t i o n of an Improved s t a t u s of p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s In the areas o f : ( I ) Home member- s h i p ; (2) Hea l th and P h y s i c a l f i t n e s s ; (3) Vocat iona l competency; (4) C i t i z e n s h i p I d e a l s ; (5) R e c r e a t i o n and l e i s u r e t ime a c t i v i t i e s ; and (6) E t h i c a l r e l a t i o n s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program The program was o rgan ized In I960 a s : a p i l o t program In l i t e r a c y educat ion by the Ohio S ta te Reformatory . The necessary f a c i l i t i e s and s t u - dent m a t e r i a l s were prov ided by the I n s t i t u t i o n . The experImentvwas d i r e c t e d by the A s s i s t a n t Super intendent of the Reformatory who was a s s i s t e d In the programming of the p r o j e c t by the L i t e r a c y D i v i s i o n of the John C. Campbell Fo lk School of North C a r o l i n a . In a d d i t i o n to the teacher on f i l m , the re were c lassroom teachers to s u p e r v i s e student work done at the r e f o r m a t o r y . The l i t e r a c y program was designed for the I l l i t e r a t e Inmates of the Ohio S ta te Reformatory , and dur ing I ts 16 weeks of o p e r a t i o n , I t Involved a t o t a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of 288 Inmates. 109 Format To I n i t i a t e the program, four l i t e r a c y c l a s s e s w i t h p r o v i s i o n fo r 40 s tudents In each were e s t a b l i s h e d . The c l a s s e s were then ass igned a school and work schedule on a l t e r n a t e days . On a school day, one to two l i t e r a c y educat ion f i l m s were presented d u r i n g the morning s e s s i o n . In the a f t e r n o o n , there was rev iew , p r a c t i c e , and d r i l l under the s u p e r v i s i o n of a c lassroom t e a c h e r . In these s e s s i o n s the t e a c h e r s , us ing the work t e x t books, r e - t a u g h t , reviewed and reworked the lessons p r e v i o u s l y presented by the teacher on f i l m . F u r t h e r , one day each week was a l lowed fo r a d d i t i o n a l d r i l l , review and p r a c t i c e In the c o n - s o l i d a t i o n of the l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . The Laubach L i t e r a c y Course of Study was employed. I t prov ided fo r 98 f i l m lessons taught by an expert l i t e r a c y t e a c h e r . Each of these f i l m lessons which were 30 minutes long, were a l s o supplemented w i t h student work m a t e r i a l s and c lassroom teacher g u i d e s . The educat iona l achievement was eva luated as the program p r o g r e s s e d . The f o l l o w i n g s tandard achievement s c a l e s were admin is te red In t h e i l i s t e d o r d e r : 1. S tan fo rd Achievement Tes t , Advanced B a t t e r y , P a r t i a l , Form J . 2 . M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , Elementary B a t t e r y , Form A . 3 . M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement T e s t , Elementary B a t t e r y , Form B. Eva Iuatlon For the 288 Inmates who p a r t i c i p a t e d fo r v a r y i n g I n t e r v a l s of t ime In the educattonal program, t h e r e was an average educat iona l achievement I 10 Increment of 2.1 g r a d e s . The 108 cases who p a r t i c i p a t e d In the program for the f u l l 16 weeks showed an average educat ion achievement Increment of 2 . 5 g r a d e s . As for the average reading grade achievement Increment, t h e r e was a 2.1 grade leve l ga in for the 108 s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d f o r 16 weeks,.:.and a 1.7 grade ga in fo r the 288 Inmates. 111 B e r t r a n d , C . A . AN EXPERIMENTAL DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL FOR THE VOCATIONAL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF THE TEXAS DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONS O b j e c t i v e On the b a s i s of the f i n d i n g s of a p r i o r research p r o j e c t In p r o - grammed learn ing at the Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l Center of E lmore , Alabama, the o b j e c t i v e of t h i s study was to I n v e s t i g a t e the r e h a b i l i t a t i v e v a l u e of programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . Eva I u a t l o n The f o l l o w i n g c o n c l u s i o n s and o b s e r v a t i o n s were made a f t e r two years of s tudy : 1. Most of the p r i s o n s t a f f recognized the va lue of programmed I n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n to t h e i r a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and f i n a n c i a l suppor t , they began deve lop ing programmed m a t e r i a l t h a t was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r e s e a r c h . 2 . The m a j o r i t y of Inmates who were In teres ted In t h e i r educat ion p r e f e r r e d programmed I n s t r u c t i o n over convent iona l I n s t r u c t i o n . 3 . The Inmate p o p u l a t i o n conta ined I n d i v i d u a l s who were capable and w i l l i n g to w r i t e programmed m a t e r i a l . 4. Programmed I n s t r u c t i o n can be e f f e c t i v e l y used fo r both superv ised c lassroom study and s e l f - s t u d y In a c e l l . 5. The s t y l e s of w r i t i n g which were developed were s u i t a b l e fo r study by the type of Inmate t h a t p a r t i c i p a t e d In the p r o j e c t . I 12 6. Study of l i n e a r programs In a c e l l was more e f f e c t i v e If p r e s e n t a t i o n was by machine r a t h e r than by book. 7. P r e s e n t a t i o n s by machine In c e l l s were s u p e r i o r to p r e s e n t a t i o n s by machines In c l a s s r o o m s . 8. P r e s e n t a t i o n s by book In a c lassroom were s u p e r i o r to p r e s e n t a t i o n s by book In a c e l l . 9. The s e l e c t i o n of w r i t i n g s t y l e fo r a program should be based l a r g e l y on the p r e f e r e n c e by the w r i t e r s i n c e no advantage of one over the other was found by t h i s r e s e a r c h . If l i n e a r s t y l e Is s e l e c t e d , p r o v i s i o n should be made fo r the w r i t i n g of responses . I 13 Brooks , Lyman B. fit. a I . RE-EDUCATION OF UNEMPLOYED AND UNSKILLED WORKERS- NORFOLK DIVISION, VIRGINIA STATE COLLEGE. NORFOLK. VIRGINIA O b j e c t i v e The major o b j e c t i v e of the Demonstrat ion Research P r o j e c t was t o demonstrate and eva lua te c e r t a i n a d u l t educat ion p r i n c i p l e s of teach ing and lea rn ing on the rec ru i tment and t r a i n i n g of u n s k i l l e d , unemployed w o r k e r s . The p r Inc Ip Ies were: 1. The u n s k i l l e d , unemployed a d u l t s can learn a new se t of o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s In an In tens i ve 12-month program which Is designed to t a k e Into account the personal a t t r i b u t e s In t h e i r l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . 2 . U n s k i l l e d a d u l t s can learn enough s k i l l s and I n t e r n a l i z e va lues e s s e n t i a l fo r q u a l i f y i n g for c e r t a i n t rades when t r a i n i n g In general educat ion (language a r t s , number s k i l l s , o c c u p a t i o n a l In fo rmat ion , and human r e l a t i o n s ) and a guidance supplement are g iven along w i t h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g In the 12-month p e r i o d . 3 . C o r r e l a t i v e s of the preceding a r e : a . When the combinat ion of general educat ion , v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and guidance Is g i v e n , t h e r e Is an Improvement In a p t i t u d e s and a b i l i t i e s as measured by s tandard i zed t e s t s . b. Good employment adjustment (as Indexed by g e t t i n g and h o l d i n g a Job a f t e r t r a i n i n g , e t c . ) w i l l be a subsequent c o r r e l a t e of s u c c e s s - f u l complet ion of the General E d u c a t i o n a l - V o c a t i o n a l Program. I 14 4. That c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d i z e d t e s t s of a p t i t u d e s and I n t e l l i g e n c e as w e l l as c e r t a i n Invento r ies of I n t e r e s t s have: a . p r e d i c t i v e va lue In the s e l e c t i o n of t r a i n e e s who are u n s k i l l e d , unemployed a d u l t s . b. u t i l i t y In the development of the m a t e r i a l s and the t r a i n i n g program a p p r o p r i a t e for t h i s group. 5. That general educat ion supplemented w i th c o u n s e l l i n g Is an e s s e n t i a l c o r r e l a t e of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g If a d u l t u n s k i l l e d workers are t o make good adjustments In t h e i r new o c c u p a t i o n s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program The I n i t i a l proposal fo r the Demonstrat ion Research P r o j e c t was designed by an I n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y group a t V i r g i n i a S ta te C o l l e g e . Support fo r t h i s study was prov ided through two separate g r a n t s , one from the Un i ted S ta tes O f f i c e of Educat ion under the C o - o p e r a t i o n Research Program and the o ther from the O f f i c e of Manpower, Automation and T r a i n i n g of the Department of Labour . To eva lua te the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the techniques and m a t e r i a l s used In the p r o j e c t , the s t a f f Imposed an exper imental design on the r e t r a i n i n g and educat iona l a c t i v i t i e s us ing s t a t i s t i c a l and mensurat lve methods on 200 persons who were d i v i d e d Into the f o l l o w i n g groups: Group A — Main Exper imental Group Group B — S u b s i d i a r y Exper imental Group Group C — Main C o n t r o l Group Group D — S u b s i d i a r y Cont ro l Group I 15 Group A r e c e i v e d In tens ive general educat ion and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . Group B r e c e i v e d t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g but no general e d u c a t i o n . Group C r e c e i v e d ne l then .genera I nor t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g . Group D rece ived coun - s e l l i n g ff they s o l i c i t e d I t , w h i l e I n d i v i d u a l s In Groups A, B, and C rece i ved personal c o u n s e l l i n g as the need a r o s e . In a d d i t i o n , members of these th ree groups r e c e i v e d group guidance on a sys temat i c b a s i s . Groups C and D were g iven a. smal l honorarium to assure t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g con tac t and c o - o p e r a t i o n In supp ly ing program records through t e s t i n g and Interv iews w h i l e members of Groups A and B r e c e i v e d a weekly a l l o w a n c e . Each of the two exper imental Groups, A and B, were d i v i d e d Into f i v e o c c u p a t i o n a l groups of ten t r a i n e e s e a c h . The t r a i n e e s for a g iven occupat ion In Group A were matched w i t h t r a i n e e s In Group B t a k i n g the same o c c u p a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g and t e s t s of s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t were a p p l i e d to age, e d u c a t i o n , and general a p t i t u d e s of the two groups Ind icated no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s between the two groups . Eva Iuat lon In e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t s of the general educat ion on p o s t - t r a i n i n g per formances , the men who completed the combinat ion c u r r i c u l u m (Group A) were I d e n t i f i e d by the f o l l o w i n g : 1. They rece i ved h igher r a t i n g s by I n s t r u c t o r s , h igher t e s t s c o r e s , h igher s a l a r i e s and h igher I n d i c a t i o n s of Job s a t i s f a c t i o n . 2 . I n s t r u c t o r s ranked 65 per cent of the "A." group as "most l i k e l y t o - succeed In c o n t r a s t to 35 per cent In the " B " g roup . I 16 3 . Men in "A" group gained an average of 9 . 2 p o i n t s in I . 0 . as measured by the Army Revised Beta I n t e l l i g e n c e Tes t ; 1.8 years on the Gates Reading Survey; 2 .9 p e r c e n t i l e ranks on the S . R . A . Test of A r i t h m e t i c and 4 . 9 p o i n t s on the GATB I.Q. t e s t . Men in the lower h a l f of the group as measured by s tandard i zed t e s t s seemed to b e n e f i t more from' the i n s t r u c t i o n ; Gates Reading score g a i n s , for example, were 2.1 grades for the lower ha l f as compared to 1.8 grades for the t o t a l . 4 . More men in the "A" group were employed at the t ime of the i n t e r v i e w , 95 to 74 per cent w i t h a h igher gross average-'week I y s a l a r y . 5 . Men in Group "A" u t i l i z e d a la rger v a r i e t y of methods of s e c u r i n g employ- ment and sought h igher pay ing , h igher s t a t u s jobs o u t s i d e t h e i r f i e l d s . 6 . Men in group "A" e x h i b i t e d a high inc idence of Job s a t i s f a c t i o n . In e v a l u a t i n g the r e s u l t s of the t r a i n i n g between the experimental and c o n t r o l groups, a h igher percentage of the experimental group were employed. They rece i ved a h igher ra te of pay, acqu i red more promotion, had less Job m o b i l i t y and expressed g reate r job s a t i s f a c t i o n . I 17 Brown, E .J . e t . a 1 . EVALUATION OF A GOODS AND NUTRITION EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM FOR LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN WlLKES-BARRE. PENNSYLVANIA O b j e c t i v e A p i l o t Food Stamp Program was e s t a b l i s h e d In Pennsy l van ia w i t h the educat iona l o b j e c t i v e to Increase the knowledge of homemakers In low- Income f a m i l i e s about n u t r i t i o n and foods and to p rov ide them sources of I n f o r m a t i o n . A s e r i e s of 12 IBM cards which Included Informat ion t o the p a r t i c i p a t i n g f a m i l i e s about foods and n u t r i t i o n were the method of t e a c h - i n g . The f o l l o w i n g were the s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of t h i s program: 1. To determine whether homemakers cou ld r e c a l l r e c e i v i n g the c a r d s ; 2 . To determine whether homemakers read the c a r d s ; 3. To a s c e r t a i n whether homemakers used v a r i o u s foods and r e c i p e s mentioned on the c a r d s ; 4. To o b t a i n from homemakers t h e i r " f e l t " problems In feeding t h e i r f a m i l i e s ; 5. To a s c e r t a i n the communication channels homemakers used , t h e i r personal c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and the soc io -economic s t a t u s of t h e i r f a m i l i e s ; 6. To determine whether s e l e c t e d personal and s o c i a l f a c t o r s were a s s o c i a t e d w i t h use made of In format ion on the c a r d s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the p r o j e c t was the J o i n t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Department of Hea l th and W e l f a r e , the S t a t e Government, and the C o - o p e r a t i v e I 18 Ex tens ion S e r v i c e , Pennsy l van ia State U n i v e r s i t y . Th is p r o j e c t , u t i l i z i n g the mass media , was conducted between A p r i l and September 1964 in the W l I k e s - B a r r e D i s t r i c t , Luzerne County . A sys temat i c l i s t sample was used to s e l e c t a seven per cent sample (161 names). The i n t e r v i e w i n g of t h i s sample was conducted by 27 s t a f f members of the Pennsy l van ia State U n i v e r s i t y . During the one day t h a t was s e t a s i d e for i n t e r v i e w s , a t o t a l of 145' In terv iews were conducted . E v a l u a t i o n The Interv iews reported t h a t 91 per cent of the sample had seen the s e t of 12 c a r d s . I t was b e l i e v e d tha t t h i s nine per cent of non -cogn izant homemakers had. actua I I y rece i ved the card's . Of the group which acknowledged r e c e i p t , c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the use of c a r d s . The homemaker was more l i k e l y to read the cards i f husband and w i f e were t o g e t h e r , i f there were more than two in the f a m l l y , i f she was under 60 years of age, If she cou ld read E n g l i s h competent ly , and i f the monthly Income was $150 or more. S i x t y - n i n e per cent of the sample I n d i - cated t h a t the cards were of help to them. It was acknowledged t h a t change of knowledge would not be adequate to have people adopt new food h a b i t s . Programs must a l s o take in to account a complex se t of a t t i t u d e s . Each homemaker was g iven a q u a n t i t a t i v e score based on the number of r e c i p e s which she had t r i e d from the s e l e c t e d group of seven r e c i p e s . A weight of one was g iven fo r each r e c i p e so that scores cou ld range from zero to seven . F o r t y - t w o per cent of t h i s group had a score of z e r o , 14 I 19 per cent a s c o r e of one, I I per cent had a score of two, 20 per cent a score of t h r e e , and 14 per cent a score of more than t h r e e . The home- makers were d i v i d e d Into t h r e e groupings based on theser. .scores: z e r o , one to two, and t h r e e to s e v e n . A number of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s were c ross t a b u l a t e d w i t h these g r o u p i n g s . The f a c t o r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the number of r e c i p e s t r i e d were: h igher monthly Income, la rger f a m i l i e s , and fam- i l i e s not on p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . The amount of formal s c h o o l i n g of the homemaker and her a b i l i t y to read E n g l i s h were r e l a t e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h the number of r e c i p e s t h a t were t r i e d . A s i m i l a r r a t i n g was e s t a b l i s h e d to determine If the homemaker had acqua inted h e r s e l f w i t h v a r i o u s k inds of n u t r i t i o u s and economical foods . The homemakers were d i v i d e d Into t h r e e groupings based on a weight of one g iven fo r each of the s i x recommended f o o d s . The scores a t t a i n e d were: zero to two (23 per c e n t ) , t h r e e t o four (44 per c e n t ) , f i v e to s i x (33 per c e n t ) . In r e l a t i n g homemakers' c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the number of foods s e r v e d , It was noted t h a t t h e r e was a d e f i n i t e tendency of those homemakers who had a b i l i t y to read E n g l i s h and had h igher f a m i l y Incomes t o be us ing more of the f o o d s . Other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e . g . , formal e d u c a t i o n , s i z e of f a m l l y , were not a s s o c i a t e d w i th the number of foods u s e d . However, the change In the Food Stamp Program r a t h e r than the Penny P lanner cards was g i ven as the most l o g i c a l reason fo r change In the use of new f o o d s . The homemakers Ind icated t h a t they enjoyed c o o k i n g ; but , on ly one per cent attended a meeting In the p r i o r year where foods were d i s c u s s e d . Another I n t e r e s t i n g f i n d i n g was t h a t the group d id t h e i r e n t e r t a i n i n g 120 p r i m a r i l y among members of t h e i r Immediate fami l y or w i t h a r e l a t i v e . A l though t h e r e was a lack of communication w i th t h e i r ne ighbors , almost a l l of the group were In f luenced by r a d i o and TV. In respec t t o t h e i r membership In o r g a n i z a t i o n s , 85 per cent belonged to a c h u r c h . A l though 8 1 per cent did, ,not belong to another o r g a n i z a t i o n other than the c h u r c h , the most l i k e l y o ther o r g a n i z a t i o n was the Parent -Teacher A s s o c i a t i o n . The need for more personal approaches t o change behavior s i g n i f i c a n t l y was a s i g n i f i c a n t f i n d i n g of t h i s s t u d y , a l though the mass media method had been accepted w i t h a high degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n by the Food Stamp Program r e c i p i e n t s . 121 Bunger, M, A DESCRIPTIVE STUDY OF OPERATJON ALPHABET IN FLORIDA AND AN EVALUATION OF CERTAIN PROCEDURES EMPLOYED O b j e c t i v e s In her study of Operat ion Alphabet In F l o r i d a , Bunger s t a t e d the main purposes a s : 1. To r e l a t e the h i s t o r y of t h i s movement In F l o r i d a ; 2 . To d e s c r i b e the Operat ion Alphabet Campaign; and 3 . To eva luate some of the I n s t r u c t i o n a l procedures u s e d . A d m l n I s t r a t l o n The Operat ion A lphabet S e r i e s was Implemented In February , 1963, as a s t a t e - w i d e l i t e r a c y campaign. The 98 h a l f - h o u r t e l e c a s t s were t r a n s - m i t t e d by f i v e educat iona l and four commercial s t a t i o n s which served the F l o r i d a c o u n t i e s c o n t a i n i n g 75 per cent of the I l l i t e r a t e or f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e p o p u l a t i o n In the s t a t e . The s i x major urban areas s t u d i e d were M i a m i , J a c k s o n v i l l e , S t . P e t e r s b u r g , Tampa, Orlando and P e n s a e o l a . The s t a t e wide program Involved the expendi ture of over $50,000 fo r v ideo tapes a l o n e . In a d d i t i o n , thousands of d o l l a r s worth of commer- c i a l and educat iona l t e l e v i s i o n t ime was1 donated . The F l o r i d a I n s t i t u t e f o r C o n t i n u i n g U n i v e r s i t y S tud ies c o n t r i b u t e d f i n a n c i a l support and the personnel fo r t e a c h e r — t r a i n i n g programs, as we l l as sponsor ing a b r o c h u r e . 122 The F l o r i d a S t a t e Department of Educat ion along w i th loca l school o f f i c i a l s and community groups a l s o c o n t r i b u t e d much t ime and money to the p r o j e c t . By June, 1963, a survey of a l l the d i r e c t o r s of a d u l t educat ion In F l o r i d a I n d I c a t e d t t h a t 64 c l a s s e s had been o r g a n i z e d . It was a l s o revea led t h a t 4,247 TV Home Study Guides had been d i s t r i b u t e d , and I t was est imated t h a t some 5,004 I l l i t e r a t e s and f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e s were p a r t i c i p a t i n g In the s e r i e s . Besides the t e l e v i s i o n t e a c h e r , d i r e c t o r s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and v o l u n t e e r teachers were Involved In the o p e r a t i o n of the program. The dev ices and m a t e r i a l s employed c o n s i s t e d of the Operat ion Alphabet or Laubach K inescopes , and a TV Home Study Guide to be used'.by the s t u d e n t . I t was repor ted t h a t 158 s a i d t h a t they cou ld not read a t a I I or had minimum read ing s k i l l p r i o r to watching Operat ion A l p h a b e t . Employers were l i s t e d as the most Important source by which s tudents learned of the program. N i n e t y - f o u r s tudents were Informed by t h i s s o u r c e . Fo r t y -one learned of the program from p r i s o n o f f i c i a l s ; 27 from t e l e v i s i o n announce- ments; 22 from a d u l t educat ion t e a c h e r s ; 18 from s c h o o l s ; and 13 from f r i e n d s . Of the 180 s tudents who used the Home-Study Gutde, 97 s tudents l i s t e d the employer as the most Important source fo r ! , he lp ing t o procure the Gu ides ; 40 named the p r i s o n ; and 25 named the s c h o o l . Format The study was conducted by a researcher o b t a i n i n g data fo r a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . The s u b j e c t of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n was the Operat ion 123 A lphabet t e l e c a s t s e r i e s In F l o r i d a . The I n v e s t i g a t o r s e t out hour hypo- theses and four c r i t e r i o n by which to eva luate the t e l e v i s i o n l i t e r a c y s e r i e s . Subjects from the s i x major F l o r i d a urban a r e a s , as w e l l as p a r t i c i p a t i n g s tudents a t the R a l f o r d and the Lowell C o r r e c t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e s were s e l e c t e d . In a l l 243 s t u d e n t s , 31 teachers and 10 d i r e c t o r s of a d u l t educat ion became s u b j e c t s of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n . Three d i s t i n c t ' I n t e r v i e w schedules were c o n s t r u c t e d and employed to gather d e s c r i p t i v e Information and o p i n i o n s from the p a r t i c i p a n t s at each leve l of Operat ion A lphabet : the a d u l t s t u d e n t s , the vo lunteer teachers and the d i r e c t o r s of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . The GIImore Oral Reading Test was s e l e c t e d as the Informal read ing Inventory to determine the r e a d - ing leve l of the a d u l t student a t the t ime of the I n t e r v i e w . E v a l u a t i o n In e v a l u a t i n g the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Operat ion Alphabet program, Bunger employed f o u r c c r I t e r I a of judgment. They were: (I) the p o s t - Operat iona l A lphabet l i t e r a c y leve l of a l l the p a r t i c i p a n t s Interviewed at the end of the s tudy ; (2) the changes In enro l lment In p u b l i c school a d u l t l i t e r a c y and elementary educat ion c l a s s e s ; (3) the percentage of a d u l t I l l i t e r a t e s who remained In Operat ion A lphabet for more than 20 lessons , and the percentage of those who remained a f t e r the s e v e n t y - f i f t h l e s s o n ; and (4) the statements of o p i n i o n and I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of s t rong and weak p o i n t s as I d e n t i f i e d by s t u d e n t s , by the vo lun teer teachers and by the d i r e c t o r s of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n . 124 Four hypotheses were Inves t iga ted and repor ted o n . They were: 1. There Is no d i f f e r e n c e In the two groups of Operat ion Alphabet s tudents (group study and I n d i v i d u a l study) w i t h respect to the p r o p o r t i o n who scored above and below 3 .0 on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t . 2 . There Is no d i f f e r e n c e In the two groups of Operat ion Alphabet s tudents ( those who used the Home Study Guide Book and those who d id not) w i t h respec t to the p r o p o r t i o n who scored above and below 3 . 0 on the c r i t e r - ion t e s t . 3 . There Is no d i f f e r e n c e In the two groups of Operat ion A lphabet s tudents ( those who watched r e g u l a r l y and those who watched less than ten t imes) w i t h respec t to the p r o p o r t i o n who scored above and below 3 . 0 on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t . 4 . There Is no d i f f e r e n c e between the th ree count ies Tn the study w i t h r e s p e c t t o the p r o p o r t i o n of a d u l t s e n r o l l e d In a d u l t l i t e r a c y and elementary educat ion c l a s s e s a t p r e - and p o s t - t e s t i n g t i m e s . The method of s t a t i s t i c a l ana IysIs T for t e s t i n g the four hypotheses wastthe a p p l i c a t i o n of the ch [ - square t e s t . For hypotheses I, 2 , and 3 the c h l - s q u a r e t e s t was a p p l i e d to s tudent scores obta ined from the GIImore Ora l Reading T e s t . The c r i t i c a l v a l u e for acceptance of the hypotheses was determined at the .05 leve l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . As for c r i t e r i o n I, an examinat ion of the compi led data from the GIImore Oral Reading Test scores revea led t h a t 154 students (63 .3 per cent) scored below 3 . 0 compared to 89 s tudents who achieved scores of 3 . 0 or above. Of the 104 s u b j e c t s who watched the program r e g u l a r l y , 62' scored 125 below 3 . 0 on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t w h i l e 42 scored above the 3 . 0 l e v e l . A l though the Operat ion Alphabet promotional m a t e r i a l s suggested t h a t s tudents who pursued the course should have a t t a i n e d a t l e a s t the t h i r d grade leve l by the end of the c o u r s e , the data Ind icated t h a t the t e s t e d p o p u l a t i o n In t h i s study d id not reach t h a t g o a l . In f a c t , 132 s tudents were s t i l l read ing a t the f i r s t grade leve l or below. In c o n s i d e r a t i o n of c r i t e r i o n 2 , the data d id not seem to Ind ica te f o r the count ies sampled t h a t Operat ion Alphabet had a f f e c t e d the e n r o l l - ments of a d u l t p u b l i c school l i t e r a c y and elementary educat ion to any e x t e n t . As fo r c r i t e r i o n 3 , the data Ind icated t h a t the m a j o r i t y of the s tudent p o p u l a t i o n Interv iewed fo r study d id not cont inue to watch the s e r i e s w i t h any r e g u l a r i t y a f t e r the twentIeth l e s s o n . There were 104 s tudents who s t a t e d they had watched the program r e g u l a r l y , compared to 139 who,-reported t h a t they had watched Jus t a few t imes or j u s t o f f and o n . The f i n d i n g s for c r i t e r i o n 4 were revea led In statements of s t r e n g t h s and weaknesses. Students were Impressed w i t h the t e l e v i s i o n teacher and h i s method of p r e s e n t a t i o n and e x p l a n a t i o n . Th is c r i t i c i s m d e a l t p r i m a r i l y w i t h t ime s c h e d u l i n g and r a t e of speed lessons were t a u g h t , and loss of personal c o n t a c t . The teachers f e l t t h a t the alms and purpose of the program were h i g h l y commendable and t h a t the s e r i e s I t s e l f was q u i t e good. The i r c r i t i - c ism concerned the f a c t t h a t t ime s c h e d u l i n g was not good, lessons progressed too r a p i d l y , v o l u n t e e r teachers coulduuse more h e l p . They f e l t t h a t t h e i r 126 work was g r e a t l y hampered by general d i s i n t e r e s t , apathy , and by the embarrassment of t h e i r s t u d e n t s . The d i r e c t o r s commended the t e l e v i s i o n b roadcas t , the teacher and h i s t e a c h i n g t e c h n i q u e s . They were p leased w i t h the f a c t t h a t such p r o - grams brought a l l f a c e t s of a d u l t educat ion before the p u b l i c . The d i r e c t o r s were c r i t i c a l of the lack of personal communication w i t h the l e a r n e r . They were d i s t u r b e d by the f a i l u r e of the vo lun teer teachers and the s tudents who f a i l e d to f o l l o w through w i th t h e i r commitments. They were a l s o c r i t i c a l of the t ime s c h e d u l i n g of the t e l e c a s t . ln the t e s t i n g of the four hypotheses, I t was found t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e s t a t e d In hypothesIscone was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 leve l or above and, t h e r e f o r e , the hypothes is was r e j e c t e d . Hence, t h e r e was found to be a d i f f e r e n c e In the two groups of Operat ion A lphabet s tudents w i t h respec t to the p r o p o r t i o n of those who scored above^and below 3 .0 on the c r i t e r i o n t e s t . The students who s t u d i e d In groups made more progress In reading thanvthose who s t u d i e d I n d i v i d u a l l y . However, the s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of hypotheses two, t h r e e , and four Ind icated the d i f f e r e n c e s were not s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l , and, t h e r e f o r e , these hypotheses cou ld not be r e j e c t e d . The use of the Home-Study Guide d id not appear t o make any d i f f e r — ence In the reading of the Opera t iona l Alphabet s t u d e n t s . Nor d id r e g u l a r i t y of watching the t e l e c a s t s Insure success In reading Improvement. I t was the r e s e a r c h e r ' s c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l though much t i m e , e f f o r t and money had been spent In launching the Operat iona l Alphabet campaign, t h e ov e r—a l l program was not s u c c e s s f u l In any of the areas e v a l u a t e d . 127 Crohn, Burr I I I L. THE D1EB0LD LITERACY PROJECT: PROGRAMMING FOR THE ILLITERATE ADULT O b j e c t i v e s The o b j e c t i v e s of the DJebold L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t were def ined on the b a s i s of the assumption t h a t the I l l i t e r a t e had a leve l of command of the spoken language. Through the use of a minimum number of words t h a t were In the l e a r n e r ' s spoken v o c a b u l a r y , s p e c i a l l y designed w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s were developed fo r the a c q u i s i t i o n and demonstrat ion of reading s k i l l s . The s p e c i f i c o b j e c t i v e s of the program were: 1. S igh t r e c o g n i t i o n — the development of the a b i l i t y to read out loud a g iven number of words In a manner t h a t t r a n s m i t s meaning to other members of one ' s environment w i thout p i c t o r i a l or contex tua l s u p p o r t . 2 . In format ion r e c e p t i o n — the I d e n t i f i c a t i o n by the learner of a sound t h a t he makes In the presence of a w r i t t e n word which r e l a t e s to words t h a t are p a r t of h i s spoken vocabulary In order to a c q u i r e the meaning of the w r i t t e n word as I t Is used In c o n t e x t . 3 . Independent r e c o g n i t i o n — the use of p r e v i o u s l y learned Informat ion to master u n f a m i l i a r m a t e r i a l . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program The DIebold L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t was sponsored by Tougaloo C o l l e g e and came under the d i r e c t i o n of the Programmed Learning Department of the DIebold Group, I n c . , New Y o r k . The p r o j e c t concent rated on the development 128 of m a t e r i a l s for the a d u l t I l l i t e r a t e Negroes who r e s i d e d In the M i s s i s s i p p i D e l t a r e g i o n . S t a f f fo rv the program were r e c r u i t e d from both M i s s i s s i p p i and New Y o r k . The program p a r t i c i p a n t s were located In the r u r a l area of Nor theast M i s s i s s i p p i (Tunica C o u n t y ) . E ighty per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n In the county r e s i d e d In the r u r a l areas and t h e i r median annual fami l y Income was $992. The median number of school years completed by t h i s group was 4 . 0 . Due to the cos t f a c t o r , the use of a u d i o - v i s u a l t e a c h i n g machines was r e j e c t e d . A programmed book was designed for the p r o j e c t and I ts use r e s u l t e d In the program being c a l l e d the "doub le t rack program". To p rov ide a u d i t o r y s t i m u l i for the l e a r n e r , the m a t e r i a l was designed to u t i l i z e a l i t e r a t e he lper of the I l l i t e r a t e s . I t was a c t u a l l y a c o n t r o l l e d t u t o r i a l program. The I n i t i a l course m a t e r i a l was designed around the t e a c h i n g of common nouns which were par t of the vocabulary of the p a r t i c i p a n t s of the program. Later the m a t e r i a l was reorgan ized to Increase the use of contex t as s t i m u l i support for new words . Through the f i r s t developmental t e s t i n g , I t was d iscovered t h a t r e t e n t i o n as Ind icated by subsequent lessons was low d e s p i t e a low e r r o r r a t e . Th is r e s u l t e d In f u r t h e r t r a i n i n g In v i s u a l d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . Th is t e s t i n g a l s o po in ted out the need for an Increase In the use of contex t as s t i m u l i s u p p o r t . The researchers r e a l i z e d the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r 129 I n i t i a l word approach as people t a l k in meaningful language u n i t s . The use of the s m a l l e s t u n i t , the I s o l a t e d word, lacked the contex tua l and s y n t a c t i c support of la rger language u n i t s . Th is developmental t e s t i n g has served as a d i a g n o s t i c purpose by p r o v i d i n g data about the s k i I Is and a b i l i t i e s of the I l l i t e r a t e s t h a t are beyond t h a t obta ined from p r e t e s t i n g . Fur ther development of t h i s p r o j e c t should r e s u l t In a d d i t i o n a l f i n d i n g s . 130 Drane, Rfchard Stephen THE EFFECTS OF PARTICIPATION TRAINING ON ADULT LITERACY EDUCATION IN A MENTAL HOSPITAL O b j e c t i v e The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s program was to determine whether or not a d u l t l i t e r a c y educat ion would be more e f f e c t i v e when preceded by a p r o - gram of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A research p r o j e c t was designed In February 1966, at C e n t r a l S t a t e H o s p i t a l , IndlanapoI I s , IndI ana for vo lunteer p a t i e n t s who ( I ) had been I n s t i t u t i o n a l i z e d for more than one month; (2) had an I.Q. above 70 on a s tandard s c a l e ; (3) had a p r o b a b i l i t y of s t a y i n g In the h o s p i t a l for the complet ion of the s tudy ; (4) were above 15 years of age and below 6 5 ; (5) had a reading leve l below the e ighth grade (The Gray Oral Paragraph Test was used for t h i s I n i t i a l s e l e c t i o n ) . The 30 p a t i e n t s who had q u a l i f i e d were randomly ass igned to the two groups of 15. The c l a s s e s met t h r e e days a week for one and o n e - h a l f hours per day . Each group met for a t o t a l of 45 h o u r s . Group T ( T r a i n i n g Group) had four weeks of p a r t i c i p a t i o n t r a i n i n g — 18 hours — and s i x weeks of l i t e r a c y I n s t r u c t i o n — 27 h o u r s . Group L ( L i t e r a c y Group) had ten weeks of l i t e r a c y I n s t r u c t i o n only — 45 hours . Procedures used In the l i t e r a c y I n s t r u c t i o n were those des ignated In Laubach's St reaml ined 131 E n g l i s h . The f o l l o w i n g procedures were o u t l i n e d for the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a : 1. The Nelson Reading Test (Form A) was g iven for the p r e - t e s t r a t i n g dur ing the f i r s t s e s s i o n s for both Group T and Group L. 2 . A f t e r s i x weeks of the s tudy , the Nelson Reading Test (Form B) was a d m i n i s t e r e d to both g roups . 3 . At the end of ten weeks, the Nelson Reading Test (Form A) was admin- i s t e r e d to both groups . 4 . Four weeks a f t e r the complet ion of the I n s t r u c t i o n , the r e t e n t i o n p e r i o d , the Nelson Reading Test (Form B) was admin is te red t o each group. E v a l u a t l o n S ince Groups L and T were not s t a t i s t i c a l l y matched, F i s h e r ' s " t " t e s t was used to determine the s i m i l a r i t y of the p r e t e s t s c o r e s . Because of the s i z e of the two sample p o p u l a t i o n s , the Sign Test and Median Test were a l s o used . Three s e t s of t e s t scores between Group L and Group T were compared s t a t i s t i c a l l y to f i n d t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s In t h i s s t u d y . The mean scores for Group L and T on the p r e - t e s t were compared w i t h the cor responding group mean scores on each of the other t h r e e t e s t s c o n s e c u t i v e l y . The t e s t s were admin is te red s i x weeks, ten weeks, and fourteen weeks a f t e r the s t a r t of the program. 132 statistical Findings A f t e r 6 weeks — Although mean Improvement for group L Is h igher than mean Improvement for group T, the d i f f e r e n c e was not found t o be s i g n i f i c a n t . A f t e r 10 weeks — When F i s h e r ' s " t " t e s t was a p p l i e d to the d a t a , no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e was found between the mean grade leve l Improvement of Groups T and L. A f t e r 14- weeks — Members of Group T advanced more In grade leve l than those In Group L. The d i f f e r e n c e , however, between means was not s i g n i f i c a n t at t h e .05 leve l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . A cont inued t rend of Improvement In favor of Group T Is shown as the t ime between p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t I n c r e a s e s . The g r e a t e s t d i f f e r e n c e between group means occur red on the r e t e n - t i o n t e s t a f t e r four teen weeks w i t h Group T showing g reate r Improvement than Group L. 133 EDUCATIONAL REHABILITATION: AIM EVALUATION OF THE ADULT BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM OF THE STATE OF ILLINOIS Objective The purpose of Green le lgh A s s o c i a t e s I n c . was to conduct an e v a l u a t i v e study of the a d u l t b a s i c educat ion programs In the S t a t e of I l l i n o i s . A d m l n l s t r a t l o n The a d u l t b a s i c educat ion program of I l l i n o i s was e s t a b l i s h e d on J u l y 1963, by the General Assembly of the s t a t e . The program was t o p rov ide b a s i c a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , v o c a t i o n a l educat ion or both fo r r e c i p i e n t s under the P u b l i c A i d Code of I l l i n o i s . I t s o b j e c t i v e s were to enhance the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - s u p p o r t and s e l f - c a r e and to min imize or o b v i a t e the i r . .need for p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e . An amount of $4,050,000 was prov ided from Federal and s t a t e funds fo r a blennlum p e r i o d . By January 1965, some 220 programs were In o p e r a t i o n and they Involved about 10,000 s t u d e n t s . F u r t h e r , I t was es t imated t h a t somewhere In the neighborhood of 40,000 a d u l t s have been e n r o l l e d In the program for a t l e a s t b r i e f p e r i o d s . Programs c o n s i s t i n g of c l a s s e s h e l d two evenings a week formed the dominant p a t t e r n , a l though t h e r e were s e v e r a l day t ime programs and evening programs which were o f f e r i n g c l a s s e s of t h r e e and four s e s s i o n s per week. The programs have prov ided both b a s i c and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n . These have been s t r u c t u r e d main ly to f i t w i t h i n the c u r r i c u l a and f a c i l i t i e s of the elementary school sys tem. 134 Format The study was conducted from Ju l y to December 1964. I t s e v a l u - a t i o n was based on depth Interv iews w i t h a random sample of approx imate ly 900 students who were e i t h e r In a t tendance , had completed or had dropped out of an a d u l t b a s i c program. The v a s t m a j o r i t y of the s tudents were w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s from one of the f i v e s e l e c t e d c o u n t i e s : Cook, Jackson , S a l i n e , S t . C l a i r and W i l l i a m s o n . S i m i l a r Interv iews were conducted w i t h 50 teachers In t h e program and mal l q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were completed by 114 other t e a c h e r s . In a d d i t i o n , a l l p r i n c i p a l s of the s c h o o l , a l l county super in tendents of p u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n and county heads of p u b l i c a i d were I n t e r v i e w e d . E v a l u a t l o n 1. The s c h o o l i n g was g e n e r a l l y based on a g r o s s l y Inadequate concept ion of the problems and the nature of the disadvantaged s t u d e n t s . 2 . The programs were not In tens ive enough. There were many cases of a d u l t s who had been going to school two evenings a week fo r long p e r i o d s of t i m e . I t was not r e a l i s t i c to expect much progress or any k i n d of a t o t a l educat iona l exper ience for I l l i t e r a t e s devot ing four hours a week to e d u c a t i o n . 3 . The t e a c h i n g was f r e q u e n t l y Inadequate. The teachers were almost a l l r e c r u i t e d from elementary school r a n k s . Few had any a d u l t educat ion exper ience and few If any were g e t t i n g I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g which r e l a t e d t o a d u l t behavior or the l ea rn ing problems of the d i s a d v a n t a g e d . 135 Compel l ing p u b l i c a i d r e c i p i e n t s to at tend b a s i c educat ion programs d i d not c r e a t e an environment conducive to e f f e c t i v e pedagogy. I t was recommended t h a t programs be made of such h igh q u a l i t y and r e l e - vance t h a t enro l lment and attendance would be l a r g e l y v o l u n t a r y . Attendance was poor and t h e r e was a problem of program d r o p - o u t s . There was a lack of both a d u l t m a t e r i a l s and s u i t a b l e t e s t i n g Ins t ruments . 136 F e l n t u c h , A l f r e d A STUDY OF EFFECTIVENESS OF AN INTEGRATED PROGRAM OF VOCATIONAL COUNSELLING CASEWORK AND A SHELTERED WORKSHOP IN INCREASING THE EMPLOYABI U T Y AND MODIFYING ATTITUDES CORRELATING WITH EMPLOYABILITY OF DIFFI CULT-TO-PLACE PERSONS O b j e c t i v e s The Fe ln tuch study se t as I ts purpose to eva luate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of an Integrated program of v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g and placement, casework and a s h e l t e r e d workshop In Increas ing the employabI I I ty of d I f f I c u l t - t o - p l a c e persons , who had p r e v i o u s l y rece i ved a l l the same s e r v i c e s except the s h e l t e r e d workshop. Administrat ion' The study was conducted by a researcher o b t a i n i n g data for a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . The s e t t i n g for the I n v e s t i g a t i o n was a s h e l t e r e d workshop In M o n t r e a l . The s u b j e c t s of the study were 52 wh I ter.adu I t s of the Jewish f a i t h . They had been unable t o f i n d and keep employment In Industry for at l e a s t 50 per cent of the t ime because of advanced age, p h y s i c a l or emotional d i s a b i l i t i e s , or some combinat ion of t h e s e . For at l e a s t s i x months p r i o r to enro l lment In the s tudy , the sub jec ts had been r e c e i v i n g casework s e r v i c e s and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the Jewish Vocat iona l S e r v i c e and the Family Wel fare Department of the Baron de HI rsch I n s t i t u t e of M o n t r e a I . 137 Format The I n v e s t i g a t i o n was based on the study of these dI f f I c u I t - t o - p l a c e c l i e n t s who had entered the s h e l t e r e d workshop on or a f t e r November 12, 1950 when I t was I n s t i t u t e d , and had l e f t the workshop on or be fo re February 2 9 , 1952. In each c a s e , the s u b j e c t ' s employment h i s t o r y fo r a p e r i o d of one year p r i o r to h i s acceptance Into the workshop and for one year a f t e r d i s c o n t i n u i n g work t h e r e was s t u d i e d . The s h e l t e r e d workshop In the study l i m i t e d the k inds of work I t would accept to those r e q u i r i n g s i m p l e m a n i p u l a t i v e p r o c e s s e s . These were s i m p l e t a s k s such as I n s e r t i n g l e t t e r s Into enve lopes , l a b e l l i n g v a r i o u s products w i t h gummed l a b e l s , I n s e r t i n g a v a r i e t y of a r t i c l e s on c a r d s , the s e t t i n g of r h l n e s t o n e s , and the assembling of e l e c t r i c cords and s i m p l e e l e c t r i c s w i t c h e s . The s u b j e c t s s e l e c t e d for the workshop had to be ab le to come to work and r e t u r n home by themse lves . They had to be ab le t o work a f u l l week from 30 to 35 h o u r s . They a l s o had t o have f u l l use of t h e i r f i n g e r s and hands and be ab le to do sedentary work of a very l i g h t and s imple n a t u r e . The s h e l t e r e d workshop, as used In the In tegrated program, was Intended t o p rov ide the s u b j e c t s w i t h the o p p o r t u n i t y to t r y out new exper iences In a p e r m i s s i v e envi ronment . F u r t h e r , the shop was to p rov ide the means by which the s u b j e c t s cou ld be observed as they p a r t i c i p a t e d In group exper iences and work s i t u a t i o n s . 138 Eva 1natfon The I n v e s t i g a t i o n In the study was based on four b a s i c hypotheses: 1. t h a t an In tegrated program of v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e l l i n g , p lacement , c a s e - work and s h e l t e r e d workshop could s i g n i f i c a n t l y Increase the employa- b l l l t y of " d l f f I c u I t - t o - p l a c e " persons who had p r e v i o u s l y rece i ved the same s e r v i c e s w l t h o u t i t h e use of a workshop. 2 . t h a t " d l f f I c u I t - t o - p I ace" persons possess a t t i t u d e s toward work and towards s e l f which c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r e m p l o y a b l I I t y . 3 . t h a t the In tegrated program, u t i l i z i n g a s h e l t e r e d workshop, cou ld s i g n i f i c a n t l y modify these a t t i t u d e s In a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n , and 4 . t h a t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s of the sample cou ld be found which d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between those who developed a r e l a t i v e l y h igh degree of employab l I I t y a f t e r the exper ience of the program, and those who d id n o t . For s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of h i s v a r i o u s d a t a , the researcher a p p l i e d (I) W l l c o x l n ' s Matched P a r i s Signed Ranks Tests (2) C h f - s q u a r e t e s t of goodness of f i t , and (3) G u i l f o r d ' s C o e f f i c i e n t s of C o r r e l a t i o n and t R a t i o s . The number of working days t h a t the 52 s u b j e c t s of the Integrated program of vocatIonaI counseI I Ing and placement, casework and s h e l t e r e d workshop Increased from an average of 26.76 days dur ing the one-year p e r i o d p r i o r to the workshop to an average of 116.04 dur ing the one-year p e r i o d 139 f o l l o w i n g the workshop e x p e r i e n c e . The mean Increase of 89 .28 days was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t . Seven a t t i t u d e s towards work and towards s e l f were found to c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h the s u b j e c t s ' employab l I I t y : ' 1. F e e l i n g s towards work a t low, but p r e v a i l i n g wage r a t e s ; 2 . F e e l i n g s towards work of low s t a t u s or p r e s t i g e l e v e l ; 3 . F e e l i n g s about m a i n t a i n i n g good work h a b i t s ; 4 . F e e l i n g s about g i v i n g an employer a fuI I day ' s work; 5 . F e e l i n g s about Job h u n t i n g ; 6 . Use of d i s a b i l i t y as a b a r r i e r a g a i n s t f i n d i n g work; and 7 . Conf idence In a b i l i t y to f i n d work and keep employment. Moreover , t h e r e was a s u b s t a n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p found between each of the l a s t f i v e a t t i t u d e s l i s t e d and empIoyabI I I t y . The In tegrated program succeeded In s i g n i f i c a n t l y modi fy ing in a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n those a t t i t u d e s of s u b j e c t s towards work and towards s e l f which had been found to c o r r e l a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i t h t h e i r employabl l However, w h i l e the m a j o r i t y of the s u b j e c t s were a ided by the i n t e g r a t e d program, 20 (38.5 per cent) were not helped to any extent as f a r as empIoyabI I I t y , or s t a b i l i t y of employment was concerned . Of the 52 s u b j e c t s , II (21 .2 per cent) d i d not work a s i n g l e day; 14 (26.9 per cent ) worked less than 26 days ; and 20 (38.5 per cent) were employed less than 65 days . The s u b j e c t s deve lop ing a r e l a t i v e l y h igh degree of employment as a r e s u l t of the Integrated program g e n e r a l l y possessed the f o l l o w i n g 140 d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s at the t ime of t h e i r entry Into the workshop: 1. they were under 55 years of age; 2 . they had been In Canada less than ten y e a r s ; 3 . they had one or more dependents; 4 . t h e i r d i s a b i l i t i e s handicapped t h e i r emp1oyabI I I ty on ly moderate ly ; 5 . they had been employed 20 days or more dur ing the one-year p e r i o d p r i o r to t h e i r workshop e x p e r i e n c e ; 6 . they were Judged t o be ab le t o get along we l l w i t h peop le ; 7 . they had been r e c e i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e from the community for less than one y e a r ; 8. they were cons idered to be In good mental h e a l t h , or ff the re were d e v i a t i o n s In mental h e a l t h , they were moderate. None of the a t t i t u d e s of the s u b j e c t s p r i o r to t h e i r entry Into the workshop was found to d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i g n i f i c a n t l y between those who became h i g h l y employable a f t e r they l e f t the workshop and those who d id n o t . 141 HAMILTON DEMONSTRATION PROJECT — LONG TERM ASSISTANCE FAMILIES O b j e c t i v e s The Hamil ton Demonstrat ion P r o j e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d t o p rov ide more concent ra ted s e r v i c e to a s e l e c t e d group of f a m i l i e s t h a t had been r e c i p i e n t s of w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e for more than a y e a r . The o b j e c t i v e s were to Increase the number s u c c e s s f u l l y res to red to Independence and to Improve the h e a l t h , economic and s o c i a l c i rcumstances of the f a m i l i e s . A d m l n l s t r a t l o n The Hamil ton P r o j e c t was J o i n t l y sponsored by the Department of P u b l i c Wel fa re of the P r o v i n c e of O n t a r i o and the C i t y of Hamil ton from December I, 1963, to May 3 1 , 1964. Two w e l f a r e workers , one from the C i t y of H a m i l t o n , and the other from the Onta r io Wel fare Department, were ass igned to serve the study g roup . The s u b j e c t s of the study were two random samples of 100 employ- a b l e and unemployable f a m i l i e s taken from the long - term a s s i s t a n c e cases I d e n t i f i e d In a p rev ious s u r v e y . Format The two random samples of 100 employable and unemployable f a m i l i e s were each subd iv ided Into equal groups of 50 to p rov ide fo r a balanced number of employable and unemployable cases to be p laced In the 142 study and c o n t r o l g roups . The 100 cases compr is ing the study group were then ass igned to two w e l f a r e workers who had no p reparatory t r a i n i n g for the p r o j e c t beyond the o u t l i n e of. I t s alms and the r e q u i r e d p rocedures . The 100 c o n t r o l cases remained s c a t t e r e d throughout the general c a s e l o a d . The regu la r w e l f a r e workers were not made aware of the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the c o n t r o l cases In the s t u d y . The i r case loads were unchanged at something over 100 fo r each w e l f a r e worker . Bas ic to the techn iques was the es tab l i shment of a h e l p f u l and understanding r e l a t i o n s h i p which the two w e l f a r e workers s t r o v e to c r e a t e and m a i n t a i n w i t h each r e c i p i e n t of the exper imental g roup . Eva Illation Two main c r i t e r i a were used to measure changes. These were: whether or not w e l f a r e a s s i s t a n c e ceased by the end of the p r o j e c t ; and whether there was obvious Improvement In each case remaining on a s s i s t - ance accord ing to the s e r v i c e s g i v e n . Of the 100 cases g iven s p e c i a l a t t e n t i o n , 56 had l e f t the m u n i c i p a l r o l l s at the end of the s i x -month p e r i o d . In the c o n t r o l group, t h e r e were 21 cases c l o s e d . In the study group 36 heads of f a m i l i e s had ob ta ined employment, w h i l e only 14 of the 100 c o n t r o l cases had found work. As for the measurement of Improvement In the c i rcumstances of those who remained on a s s i s t a n c e , the p r o j e c t workers est imated t h a t 88 per cent of the t r e a t e d cases had made a noteworthy advance towards b e t t e r 143 management of t h e i r a f f a i r s . Th is cou ld be saldc-of less than 20 per cent of the c o n t r o l g roup . F u r t h e r , of the study group, on ly 1 3 . 5 per cent of those remaining dependent were a c t u a l l y employable, w h i l e 3 2 . 9 per cent of the c o n t r o l group cou ld be cons idered s u c h . The r e s u l t s of the p r o j e c t served to generate enthusiasm for r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e s among the w e l f a r e s t a f f members. S ince the re-employment of r e c i p i e n t s accounted for the l a r g e s t number of case c l o s u r e s In the study group, I t was recommended t h a t w e l f a r e workers a c q u i r e more t r a i n i n g In v o c a t i o n a l r e h a b i l i t a t i o n c o u n s e l l i n g . In some c a s e s , the w e l f a r e workers had made personal v i s i t s to employers and had recommended the r e c i p i e n t t o them as a p r o s p e c t i v e employee. Hence, the use and development of m e d i c a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , p s y c h i a t r i c and v o c a t i o n a l assessments fo r r e c i p i e n t s are of prime Im- portance to the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n program. I t was a l s o recommended t h a t the present exemption of p a r t - t i m e earn ings as Incent i ve and encouragement r e q u i r e s cont inued e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . 144 Henny, Robert L. READING INSTRUCTION BY A PHONIC METHOD FOR FUNCTIONALLY ILLITERATE ADULTS AT THE INDIANA REFORMATORY O b j e c t i v e s In the Henny s tudy , the major purpose was (I) to determine the ex tent to which f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s can Increase t h e i r reading performance If g iven reading I n s t r u c t i o n us ing a phonic system; and (2) to determine If t h e r e Is a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between group I n s t r u c t i o n and I n d i v i d u a l I n s t r u c t i o n as to the progress In reading performance which Is made by f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s . Administration The study was conducted by a researcher o b t a i n i n g data fo r a d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n . The s e t t i n g of the I n v e s t i g a t i o n was the Indiana Reformatory . The I n v e s t i g a t o r was a s s i s t e d In h i s work by four t r a i n e d Inmate I n s t r u c t o r s . A l l the s u b j e c t s were re formatory Inmates who were e i t h e r complete ly I l l i t e r a t e or f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e as measured by G r a y ' s S tandard ized Ora l Reading Paragraph T e s t . A l l the s u b j e c t s p a r t i c i p a t e d v o l u n t a r i l y In the research p r o j e c t . There was no compulsion e x e r c i s e d by the researcher or any p r i s o n o f f i c i a l for any of the Inmates to p a r t i c i p a t e Tn the s t u d y . Format The I n v e s t i g a t o r s e l e c t e d 30 s u b j e c t s matched on c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of (I) age; (2) t e s t e d read ing l e v e l ; (3) diagnosed major read ing 145 d i f f i c u l t y ; (4) I n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t ; (5) educat iona l background; and (6) t e s t e d grade l e v e l . These s u b j e c t s were ass igned randomly t o one of the f o l l o w i n g groups: (1) c o n t r o l group; (2) exper imental group A; and (3) exper imental group B. The t h r e e groups were scheduled for 20 one-hour s e s s i o n s over a p e r i o d of four weeks. The s u b j e c t s In the c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d no s p e c i a l phonic In - s t r u c t i o n dur ing the p e r i o d of the exper iment , but remained as s tudents In the elementary school a t the I n s t i t u t i o n . In exper imental group A, the s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d o n e - t o - o n e reading I n s t r u c t i o n by the phonic method. The s u b j e c t s of exper imental group B r e c e i v e d I n s t r u c t i o n by the phonic method In a group s i t u a t i o n , and met In groups of f i v e s tudents to one t e a c h e r . The Standard ized Oral Reading Paragraph Tests prov ided the reading leve l for each student In a p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t e x a m i n a t i o n . The G a t e s - McKII lop Reading D i a g n o s t i c Tests Forms I and II prov ided for each student an a n a l y s i s of read ing d i f f i c u l t i e s In p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t e x a m i n a t i o n . The Family Phon ics System, c reated by the researcher e s p e c i a l l y for use w i t h f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e s t u d e n t s , was used In t h i s study to teach exper imental group A and exper imental group B. Eva Iuat lon Hypotheses was presented and sub jected to the s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t of the c r i t i c a l t - v a l u e s . In the s tudy , c r i t i c a l t - v a l u e s a t the f i v e per cent l eve l def ined the In te rva l o u t s i d e of which a l l t - v a l u e s cou ld be expected to f a l l by chance . 146 1. It was hypothes ized t h a t t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In the amount of progress a f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e a d u l t w i l l make in h i s a b i l i t y to read i f he i s taught In a group as com- pared to being i n d i v i d u a l l y i n s t r u c t e d . The t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean ga ins in reading performance between the s u b j e c t s of exper imental group A and the s u b j e c t s of e x p e r i - mental group B d id not exceed the c r i t i c a l t - v a I u e at the f i v e per cent leve l of s i g n i f i c a n c e . Thus t h i s n u l l hypothes is was a c c e p t e d . 2 . I t 'was hypothes ized t h a t t h e r e i s no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r — ence In the amount of progress in reading performance t h a t a f unctIona My i l l ! t e r a t e w i l l make i f he i s taught by a phon i c method, and i f he remains in the i n s t i t u t i o n ' s elementary school wherse he r e - c e i v e s no s p e c i a l phonic i n s t r u c t i o n . The t e s t of s i g n i f i c a n c e of mean ga ins in reading performance between the s u b j e c t s of the combined exper imental group exceeded the c r i t i c a l t - v a l u e at the f i v e per cent l e v e l . Thus t h i s n u l l hypothes is was r e j e c t e d . F u r t h e r , i t was found t h a t the complete i l l i t e r a t e in both exper imental groups progressed more than any other s u b j e c t s dur ing the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In exper imental group A, the i l l i t e r a t e improved 2 .5 grade l e v e l s dur ing the i n v e s t i g a t i o n . In exper imental group B, he Improved 2.1 grade l e v e l s . A l l the s u b j e c t s who rece ived i n s t r u c t i o n by the phonic method showed a ga in of 1.27 grade l e v e l s . 147 The study a l s o found t h a t t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between the ga ins In reading performance, when taught to read by the Fami ly Phonics between the o l d e s t and youngest , between those w i t h high I . Q . ' s and those w i t h low I . Q . ' s and between having the lowest p r e t e s t i n g scores and those having the h ighes t p r e t e s t read ing s c o r e s . 148 H o i s t , Howard SUMMARY OF THE WKNO-TV LITERACY PROJECT O b j e c t i v e The o b j e c t i v e of the WKNO-TV L i t e r a c y P r o j e c t , Memphis, Tennessee was to p rov ide I l l i t e r a t e s In the area served by t h i s s t a t i o n w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y to learn how to read and w r i t e by p r e s e n t a t i o n of the Laubach method on t e l e v i s i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n of Program Because Laubach teach ing pr imers had been used s u c c e s s f u l l y I n t e r n a t i o n a l l y fo r teach ing I l l i t e r a t e s , WKNO-TV s e l e c t e d s t r e a m l i n e d Reading I as the nuc leus for I ts I n i t i a l s e r i e s . F i r s t produced In 1956, I t c o n s i s t e d of 42 h a l f hour lessons which were t e l e c a s t on Monday, Wednesday and F r iday evenings at 8 :00 p.m. In a d d i t i o n to the home v i e w e r s , m a t e r i a l s were produced by WKNO-TV to a s s i s t the s tudents who r e g i s t e r e d fo r study at 31 c e n t e r s throughout the c i t y of Memphis. Supplemental guides were a l s o produced to a i d the t e a c h e t — a s s i s t a n t s a t the v a r i o u s c e n t e r s . A second s e r i e s e n t i t l e d St reaml ined Reading IJ was developed by WKNO-TV w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the s tudents and the t e a c h e r - a s s i s t a n t s a t the c e n t e r s . Th is s e r i e s was f i r s t t e l e c a s t In the form of 96 h a l f hour lessons In 1958-59. 149 Format Although home v iewers were ab le t o r e c e i v e the t e l e c a s t s , the t u t o r i a l c l a s s method was a l s o used t o a s s i s t the new reader a t the v a r i o u s centers which used D r . Laubach's technique for teach ing a d u l t I l l i t e r a t e s t o read and w r i t e . I n i t i a l emphasis was on the words t h a t were w i t h i n the l e a r n e r s ' spoken v o c a b u l a r y . The lessons went from the whole t o the p a r t , f i r s t teach ing the word, and then the sound from which I t began. Th is was fo l lowed by lessons on the sounds for vowels and r e g u - lar ways to s p e l l each sound. The l a s t s e c t i o n of S t reaml ined Reading I covered the consonants and t h e i r sounds. In St reaml ined Reading I I , the s t u d e n t ' s a b i l i t y w i t h w r i t i n g was extended through the p r e s e n t a t i o n of a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l which Increased t h e i r knowledge of the w r i t t e n word . Content of t h i s s e r i e s was based on such areas as h e a l t h , n u t r i t i o n , personal f inance and problems of d a l l y l i f e . In a d d i t i o n to the t e l e c a s t s , WKNO-TV's s p e c i a l l y designed work- books were an Important dev ice to guide the student In h i s l ea rn ing exper Ience . E v a l u a t l o n The t e a c h e t — a s s i s t a n t s from the centers prov ided WKNO-TV w i th feedback on the t e l e c a s t s . As a r e s u l t , severa l changes were made on 150 I n d i v i d u a l t e l e c a s t s w i t h a d d i t i o n a l t ime being a l lowed for rev iew and w r i t i n g . The producers f e l t t h a t the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the Laubach system was not l o s t through a d a p t a t i o n to t e l e v i s i o n . However, they Ind icated t h a t more t ime was needed for rev iew In the case of the E n g l i s h I l l i t e r a t e as opposed to n o n - E n g l i s h speaking I l l i t e r a t e s . In May, 1959, an attempt was made to a c q u i r e a d d i t i o n a l e v a l u a t i o n data by the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Metropo11 tan Achievement Test t o a group of 61 St reaml ined Reading I s tudents w i t h the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : Word P i c t u r e 2 .6 Word R e c o g n i t i o n 2 . 5 Word Meaning 2 .7 Average Reading 2 . 6 Average Grade Level Numbers 3 . I Average Achievement 2 . 8 151 Long, Fern IMPATIENCE AND THE PRESSURE OF TIME — CLEVELAND'S READING CENTERS PROJECT Objectives 1. to p rov ide l i b r a r y s e r v i c e s fo r the " l i m i t e d a d u l t reader" or the f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t ; and 2. t o develop f u r t h e r the b a s i c read ing s k i I I which such readers have a l ready a c q u i r e d . Administrat ion The L i m i t e d A d u l t Reader S e r v i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d by the C i t y of C l e v e l a n d In 1965, a f t e r It was awarded a L i b r a r y S e r v i c e s and C o n s t r u c t i o n A c t grant from the Ohio State L i b r a r y to c a r r y on the exper imental p r o j e c t . The LSCA grant made p o s s i b l e the es tab l i shment of th ree Reading Centers for l i m i t e d a d u l t readers In the C l e v e l a n d a r e a . The r e s p o n s i - b i l i t y fo r the Centers was a l l o c a t e d to the A d u l t Educat ion Department of the C l e v e l a n d l i b r a r y . Funds a l s o enabled the Department t o : 1. purchase large q u a n t i t i e s of books at an e a s y - r e a d i n g leve l as w e l l as other usefu l m a t e r i a l s . These Included f i l m s , f l l m s t r l p s and r e c o r d s . 2. Add equipment which was needed to use these m e d i a . 3 . Employ s t a f f for a l l t h r e e C e n t e r s . 152 One of the s t a f f a d d i t i o n s was a reading s p e c i a l i s t . Other necessary appointments Included s t a f f f i e l d workers who were t o seek out the l i m i t e d a d u l t r e a d e r s . E x t r a c l e r i c a l workers were needed In the l i b r a r y to process books and m a t e r i a l s and make them a v a i l a b l e as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . There was a l s o a need t o add a t e c h n i c a l a ide t o help the r e g u l a r p r o j e c t i o n i s t w i t h e x t r a f i l m showings, t a p i n g s and c a r i n g for equipment. The c l i e n t e l e t o be served were the f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e s . These the study de f ined as one who reads a t a f i f t h grade l e v e l . The r e p o r t r e f e r r e d to these s u b j e c t s as the l i m i t e d a d u l t r e a d e r s . The Centers were located In the Main L i b r a r y , in the Carnegie West Branch, and the Quincy East Side Branch . Each of the areas revea led a high p r o p o r t i o n of f u n c t i o n a l I l l i t e r a t e s . They comprised 35 per cent of the p o p u l a t i o n In the west a r e a ; and 34 per cent In the east a r e a . Format One of the f i r s t assignments of new s t a f f f i e l d workers was to seek out the l i m i t e d readers and to communicate the In ten t ions of the program. They v i s i t e d a g e n c i e s , churches and homes. Secondly , the reading s p e c i a l i s t was ass igned to work main ly w i t h I n d i v i d u a l s on a o n e - t o - o n e b a s i s . T h i r d l y , the s t a f f worked w i t h g roups . Reading a l o u d , d i s c u s s i o n based on s imple r e a d i n g , on f i l m s t r i p s and on f i l m s were the a c t i v i t i e s 153. conducted . There was a l s o a sys temat i c program of v i s i t s to a l l t h r e e Centers by the 2,000 people e n r o l l e d In these b a s i c educat ion c l a s s e s . A f o u r t h phase of the a c t i v i t i e s was to I n s t i l l more v i t a l i t y Into the prev ious s e r v i c e of lending books to a d u l t c l a s s e s . Another Important aspect of the program was the f a c t t h a t the a c t i v i t i e s have been conducted w i t h i n areas of the e x i s t i n g l i b r a r y b u i l d - i n g s , ra ther than In new or s p e c i a l rented q u a r t e r s . The purpose was to lead the " l i m i t e d a d u l t reader" as d i r e c t l y as p o s s i b l e Into the l i b r a r y envIronment. As fa r as the use of m a t e r i a l s , I t was not l i m i t e d to books a l o n e . F i l m s , f l l m s t r l p s , s l i d e s , records and v iew-masters were a l l cons idered l e g i t i m a t e means of b r i d g i n g the gap of communication between the c u l - t u r a l ly d isadvantaged and the c u l t u r a l l y p r i v i l e g e d . The program I t s e l f was p u b l i c i z e d by the f o l l o w i n g means: the use of TV and r a d i o spot announcements; b r i e f notes enclosed w i t h 17,000 r e l i e f cheques; v i s i t s by f i e l d workers ; announcements to b a s i c educat ion c l a s s e s and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of 22,000 dooi—to -door f l i e r s . E v a l u a t l o n A f t e r ten months of o p e r a t i o n , the f o l l o w i n g views have been expressed concern ing the program: F i r s t , the e f f o r t which Is exer ted Is o f t e n out of p r o p o r t i o n to the r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d . Secondly , t h e r e Is an ebb and f l u x s i t u a t i o n In the p a r t i c i p a t i o n . There Is o f t e n enough m o t i v a t i o n for a s t a r t , but not enough 154 fo r c o n t i n u a t i o n . T h i r d l y , I t was found necessary t h a t l i b r a r y s t a f f must assume a t e a c h i n g r o l e t o accompl ish I ts work, r a t h e r than merely r e l y i n g upon the development of an e x i s t i n g s k i l l , as was purposed a t the b e g i n n i n g . C i r c u l a t i o n w i s e , the r e s u l t s are n o t a b l e . In the d i v i s i o n which lends c lassroom s e t s for a d u l t s t u d e n t s , c i r c u l a t i o n has almost t r i p l e d . A l s o a good number of the " l i m i t e d a d u l t r e a d e r s " have taken out l i b r a r y c a r d s , and many have gone from the Reading Centers Into c l a s s e s . As fa r as the work of the read ing s p e c i a l i s t w i t h I n d i v i d u a l s , t h e r e seems to be s t rong evidence t h a t the p e r s o n - t o - p e r s o n approach has proved I t s e l f . 155 LONG-TERM ASSISTANCE FAMILIES — A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT Objective The Toronto Demonstration P r o j e c t s t a t e d the two o b j e c t i v e s of the program as (I) to measure the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of In tens i ve and concent ra ted s e r v i c e by the r e g u l a r s t a f f of a w e l f a r e department In promoting the s e l f - r e l i a n c e of r e c i p i e n t s to the p o i n t where f i n a n - c i a l Independence Is a t t a i n e d ; (2) to make o b s e r v a t i o n s about s e r v i c e s t h a t would be r e q u i r e d fo r the economic, h e a l t h and s o c i a l r e h a b i l i t - a t i o n of these f a m i l i e s . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n The study of Long-Term A s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s was c o n s t i t u t e d as a J o i n t p r o j e c t by the Onta r io Department of P u b l i c Wel fa re and the C i t y of To ronto . The study and demonstrat ion was conducted dur ing the s i x -month p e r i o d from Ju ly 1962 to January 1963. Two w e l f a r e workers , one from the c i t y of Toronto and the other from the Onta r io Department of Wel fa re were ass igned to the study c a s e s . 156 The s u b j e c t s of the study were 200 long- term a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s chosen from the Wel fa re A s s i s t a n c e r o l l s of To ronto . Format These 200 f a m i l i e s were d i v i d e d evenly Into a c o n t r o l group and a study group w i th s i m i l a r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Then the 100 study group cases were ass igned on an equal b a s i s of 50 each to the two w e l f a r e w o r k e r s . Because the frequency and q u a l i t y of the home v i s i t s was c o n - s i d e r e d e s s e n t i a l , the case loads were reduced to a p o i n t where the w e l - f a r e v i s i t o r cou ld spend as much t ime as necessary w i t h any f a m i l y . The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of home v i s i t s was cons idered e s s e n t i a l In f u r t h e r i n g the r e h a b i l i t a t i o n o b j e c t i v e . Jn a d d i t i o n , the s e t t i n g of l i m i t e d goa ls fo r r e c i p i e n t s was cons idered of pr imary Importance. The w e l f a r e workers were f i r m , d i r e c t and p r e s c r i p t i v e In t h e i r expec ta t ions of the r e c i p i e n t s . Eva I n a t i o n There fs ev idence of the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the more In tens ive c o u n s e l l i n g s e r v i c e s . The r e s u l t s were accomplished by a s s i g n i n g smal l 1 5 7 c a s e l o a d s to s t a f f members. I t was found t h a t 4 2 per cent l e f t the m u n i c i p a l r o l l s compared w i t h 2 3 per cent of the c o n t r o l g roup . Moreover , of the 4 2 s u c c e s s f u l cases In the s tudy , 2 6 l e f t the r o l l s w i t h i n the f i r s t four months of o p e r a t i o n . Such would seem to I n d i c a t e the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of concent rated s e r v i c e s In g e t t i n g people o f f a s s i s - tance at an e a r l i e r d a t e . Another p o s i t i v e r e s u l t was t h a t among the 5 8 study cases remaining on the w e l f a r e r o l l s , there was a n o t i c e a b l e upgrading In economic, h e a l t h and fami l y c i rcumstances fo r 5 4 of the s u b j e c t s and on ly four showed no f a v o r a b l e response . The Judgment of Improvement was based on o b s e r v a t i o n of o b j e c t i v e behavior and p h y s i c a l c i r c u m s t a n c e s . In the c o n t r o l group c a s e s , the re were 1 3 cases s t i l l r e c e i v i n g a s s i s - tance who showed Improvement; however, 6 4 cases d i s p l a y e d no n o t i c e a b l e Improvement. The d i f f e r e n c e In o b j e c t i v e fami l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ( e . g . , empIoyabI 11 t y , number of parents In the home and number of c h i l d r e n ) between long - term and s h o r t - t e r m a s s i s t a n c e f a m i l i e s was found to be n e g l i g i b l e . The reason fo r prolonged dependency was t h e r e f o r e r e l a t e d to h e a l t h c o n d i t i o n s In some c a s e s , but f r e q u e n t l y to general s u b j e c t i v e InadequacIes. 158 I t was found t h a t people withdrew from p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e under f requent v i s i t i n g . The s u b j e c t s a l s o d i s p l a y e d a s u r p r i s i n g r e s o u r c e - f u l n e s s and s e l f - r e l i a n c e when conf ronted by n e c e s s i t y . To some of the w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s who had l e t themselves adopt a r a t h e r p a s s i v e a c c e p - tance of t h e i r l i f e s t r u c t u r e , the d i r e c t and f i r m approach of the w e l f a r e v i s i t o r p rov ided s t r u c t u r e and m o t i v a t i o n fo r a c t i o n . 159 McKee, John M. e t . a l . IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS O b j e c t i v e s The purpose of the study was to determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a read ing program on o v e r - a l l g r a d e - l e v e l ga ins and I n d i v i d u a l subtes t ga ins of young a d u l t s tudents In a V o c a t i o n a l Experimental and Demonstrat ion P r o j e c t . Admln Is t ra t Ion The V o c a t i o n a l E and D P r o j e c t was conducted by the Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l Center at E lmore, Alabama. A l l the s u b j e c t s were Inmate students e n r o l l e d in the s i x -month t r a i n i n g courses of the V o c a t i o n a l E & D P r o j e c t . They were s tudents who each had achieved a t o t a l score of 8 .5 grades or below on the Metropol i tan Achievement T e s t . Format Two t reatment groups which had been organized as c l a s s e s were s e l e c t e d for the s t u d y . The v a r i a b l e s had been p r e v i o u s l y admin is te red w i t h o u t b e n e f i t of a predetermined d e s i g n . In s h o r t , the exper imental des ign was Imposed on the e x i s t i n g d a t a . Group A was comprised of 26 s u b j e c t s In the four th t r a f n l n g c l a s s of the E &. D P r o j e c t . These s u b j e c t s rece i ved 40 hours (4 hours a-.week for 160 10 weeks) of t r a i n i n g In a reading program using m a t e r i a l s and a Perceptoscope from Perceptua l Development L a b o r a t o r i e s of S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i . The s u b j e c t s a l s o r e c e i v e d an average of 160 hours of remedial I n s t r u c t i o n us ing programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Group B comprised of 33 s u b j e c t s In the second t r a i n i n g c l a s s of the E & D P r o j e c t . These s u b j e c t s had no s p e c i a l I n s t r u c t i o n In r e a d i n g . However, they r e c e i v e d an average of 160 hours of remedial I n s t r u c t i o n us ing programmed I n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . Each s u b j e c t was g iven the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test both at the beginning and the end of the s i x -month t r a i n i n g c o u r s e . The t reatment v a r i a b l e s were admin is te red between the dates of the p r e - t e s t I n g and p o s t - t e s t i n g . Eva l u a t i o n Comparisons were made between the grade ga ins of the two groups . The areas Included In the M e t r o p o I I t a n Achievement Test Included Tota l Score , Reading , Word Knowledge, S p e l l i n g , Language, A r i t h m e t i c Computation and A r i t h m e t i c Reason ing . The I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of group d i f f e r e n c e s was done by Inspect ion or by use of the s t u d e n t ' s t - t e s t . Group A made s i g n i f i c a n t l y g reate r ga ins than Group B In t o t a l average, read ing and language. 161 The average g a i n made In reading by Group A was approx imate ly n ine t imes g rea te r than the gains made by Group B. The mean grade ga ins on the read ing subtes t of the MetropoI I tan Achievement Test showed a 2 .39 Improvement by Group A compared w i t h a .27 ga in by G r o u p ; B . Th is was cons idered s i g n i f i c a n t by Inspect ion beyond the .01 l e v e l . The language ga ins were a l s o found to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y w i th Group A showing the g reate r Inc rease . The language s u b - t e s t of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test showed a mean grade ga in of 1.27 for Group A compared w i t h the .27 ga in for Group B. Th is was cons idered s i g n i f i c a n t by Inspect ion beyond the .01 l e v e l . For the t o t a l g rade, Group A achieved a 1.37 mean grade ga in compared w i t h 1.05 for Group B. With t = 1.797, t h i s d i f f e r e n c e was I n t e r p r e t e d as s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .05 l e v e l . 162 McKee, John M. e t . a I. IMPROVING THE READING LEVEL OF DISADVANTAGED ADULTS O b j e c t i v e s The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s exper imental program was t o determine the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of a reading Improvement program designed w i t h the Perceptoscope* In overcoming the low m o t i v a t i o n of Inmates towards academic p u r s u i t s . Admln Is t ra t Ion In order to accompl ish the o b j e c t i v e of the academic and v o c a t i o n a l programs, the s t a f f of Draper C o r r e c t i o n a l Center experimented w i t h v a r i o u s read ing programs to overcome the problems In the t r a i n i n g of s tudents w i t h low reading l e v e l s . A l l inmate a p p l i c a n t s for v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g who score below the 7th grade read ing leve l on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test were e n r o l l e d In the phonics or Immediate reading Improvement program. In order t o determine the read ing r a t e , read ing comprehension, vocabu lary and s t o r y comprehension of the s t u d e n t s , the Perceptua l Development L a b o r a t o r i e s (PDL) D i a g n o s t i c Test was a d m i n i s t e r e d . The s tudents of the Reading Improvement Program were r e t e s t e d at m i d - c o u r s e and again at the c o n c l u s i o n of the program. A d i f f e r e n t form * A M u l t i - f u n c t i o n machine which Is manufactured by Perceptua l Development L a b o r a t o r i e s CPDU of S t . L o u i s , M i s s o u r i . 163 of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Achievement Test was used upon complet ion of the read ing program to determine what e f f e c t the p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the reading c l a s s e s may have had on s u b - t e s t areas other than r e a d i n g . The students who d id not p a r t i c i p a t e In the Reading Improvement Program and had on ly remedial t r a i n i n g served as c o n t r o l g roups . E v a l u a t l o n A f t e r 40 hours of I n s t r u c t i o n In the Intermediate PDL Reading Program using the Perceptoscope , s u b j e c t s In the f i r s t experiment achieved an ov e r—a l l average Increase In grade leve l of 2 . 5 compared w i t h I.I grade l e v e l s for the non -par t IcI p a n t s . In reading l e v e l s , the average Increase was 2 . 5 grades for the program p a r t i c i p a n t s , w h i l e n o n - p a r t I c l p a n t s who used on ly programmed I n s t r u c t i o n In t h e i r t r a i n i n g , r e g i s t e r e d on ly a .7 grade ga in In r e a d i n g . The g r e a t e s t grade ga in In reading leve l among a l l the s u b j e c t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d In the reading program was from 4 . 9 to 9 .7 or an Increase of 4.8 grade l e v e l s . 164 NEW HOPE PROJECT: 1965-66 VOLUME 11 MODESTO. CALIFORNIA O b j e c t i v e s The New Hope P r o j e c t I n i t i a t e d by Modesto Jun io r C o l l e g e l i s t e d the f o l l o w i n g o b j e c t i v e s for the a d u l t b a s i c educat ion aspect of t h e i r manpower t r a i n i n g programs: 1. to a s s i s t the undereducated and unemployed a d u l t to q u a l i f y for v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g through a program of b a s i c e d u c a t i o n ; 2 . to a s s i s t the undereducated and unemployed a d u l t to develop those c a p a b i l i t i e s which would enable him to secure employment at an entry leve l o c c u p a t i o n ; 3. to a s s i s t the t r a i n e e to develop those competencies which would enable him to m a i n t a i n cont inued employment. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Through the A d u l t D i v i s i o n , Modesto Jun ior C o l l e g e , the New Hope P r o j e c t was e s t a b l i s h e d . As of 1966, the p r o j e c t r e c e i v e d 1006 d i f f e r e n t r e f e r r a l s to the v a r i o u s educat iona l programs from the Department of Employment. Approx imate ly 400 of these I n d i v i d u a l s r e c e i v e d t r a i n i n g In b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . These students remained In the p re - voca t fona I phase of the program for an average of four months. Exper ience Ind icated t h a t methods and techniques had t o be m o d i f i e d when working w i th undereducated a d u l t s t o cope w i t h the f o l l o w i n g : absence from c lass room, s e r i o u s personal problems, I s o l a t i o n and non—Ident i ty w i t h surrounding community. 165 Eva Illation In the New Hope P r o j e c t , I t was d iscovered tha t the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test and the General A p t i t u d e Test Ba t te ry had severe l i m i - t a t i o n s as I n d i c a t o r s of academic p r o g r e s s . The t e s t s are h i g h l y dependent upon background and verba l s k i l l s . They cover d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l from what Is covered In the c l a s s r o o m . The norms of the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test were based on a p o p u l a t i o n c o n s i d e r a b l y younger than persons In the Modesto Program. S p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s of t h i s p r o j e c t were: 1. A d u l t s w i t h less than four years of s c h o o l i n g cou ld be expected to advance one school year In four months. 2 . A d u l t s w i t h four to n ine years of s c h o o l i n g cou ld be expected t o advance between two and t h r e e years In four months. 3 . In mathematics , the adu l t w i l l genera 1 Iy advance between two to th ree years In four months r e g a r d l e s s of h i s p r i o r s c h o o l i n g . 4 . I n t e l l i g e n c e , p e r c e p t u a l , verba l and manual a p t i t u d e s w i l l Increase a f t e r t r a i n i n g In bas i c e d u c a t i o n . 5 . Students can be e f f e c t i v e l y p laced Into the program by grade leve l through use of a graded word l i s t . 6 . I n d i v i d u a l s w i t h a reading leve l below s i x t h grade should be g iven t e s t s such as Gates Reading Survey, C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test elementary l e v e l , mathematics t e s t , and the r e v i s e d BETA. 7 . A d u l t s a t or above s i x t h grade reading should be admin is te red t e s t s such as C a l i f o r n i a Achievement T e s t — J u n i o r high l e v e l — a n d C a l i f o r n i a Test of Mental M a t u r i t y , shor t form. 166 NJeml, John A . A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED ADULTS IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA O b j e c t i v e The o b j e c t i v e of the E n g l i s h Fluency T r a i n i n g was to p rov ide b a s i c E n g l i s h c l a s s e s to m i l i t a r y personnel who were unable t o speak or understand the E n g l i s h language. A d m l n l s t r a t l o n Army r e g u l a t i o n s s p e c i f y t h a t u n i t commanders may request the Army Educat ion Center to conduct courses In b a s i c E n g l i s h f luency If a large number of personnel In t h e i r u n i t s are unable to speak or undei— stand the E n g l i s h language. S ince the a u t h o r i z a t i o n for the program was o u t l i n e d In Army r e g u l a t i o n s , r e g u l a r command funds were a v a i l a b l e for the h i r i n g of I n s t r u c - t o r s from the loca l community to teach the program at the Educat ion Center from 8 a .m. u n t i l 4 p.m. (Monday to F r i d a y ) . P r i o r to 1958, courses In E n g l i s h f luency had been requested a t the v a r i o u s Army posts In A l a s k a for Puer to Rfcans and German n a t i o n a l i s t s . In the f a l l of 1958, the For t R ichardson Army Educat ion Center rece i ved a request to e s t a b l i s h an EngI Ish f Iuency c l a s s for 26 Hungarian Freedom F i g h t e r s who had been ass igned to the p o s t . These men who entered the Army under the Lodge A c t , r e c e i v e d no p r i o r E n g l i s h language t r a i n i n g . 167 Thei r I n a b i l i t y to speak and understand E n g l i s h was a f f e c t i n g t h e i r performance as s o l d i e r s . Format Since I n i t i a l t e s t i n g was Imposs ib le , the group of 26 Hungarians were a r b i t r a r i l y d i v i d e d Into' two equal c l a s s e s on the b a s i s of the formal s c h o o l i n g completed In t h e i r n a t i v e Hungary. A f t e r s i x weeks of e x t e n s i v e work In phonics and r e a d i n g , the two c l a s s e s were admin is te red the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement II for placement Into two homogeneous c l a s s e s . The I n s t r u c t o r s had the dual problem of t e a c h i n g the Hungarians a new language and of broadening t h e i r l i m i t e d b a s i c knowledge In mathe- m a t i c s , s c i e n c e and geography. The lower leve l c l a s s cont inued to work e x t e n s i v e l y w i t h p h o n i c s , b a s i c read ing and t h i r d and four th grade leve l E n g l i s h and s p e l l i n g . The advanced c l a s s covered, In a d d i t i o n to advanced r e a d i n g , Jun io r h igh courses In geography and h i s t o r y . Eva Iuat lon An I n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n was completed by the I n s t r u c t o r s on each man. S ince the course d i s c l o s e d a low leve l of l i t e r a c y In t h e i r n a t i v e language, the content of the course was expanded to cover b a s i c knowledge. A second v e r s i o n of the C a l i f o r n i a Achievement Test II was a l s o admin is te red a t the complet ion of the a d d i t i o n a l s i x weeks of study and the r e s u l t s were compared to the I n i t i a l t e s t s c o r e s . 168 The upper leve l c l a s s obta ined the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : Reading Arithmetic 1.7 1.5 Average Increase In Grade Level Language 1.4 The lower leve l c l a s s obta ined the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s : Reading Arithmetic I l Average Increase In Grade Level Language 169 NI em I, John A . A PROPOSAL IN FUNDAMENTAL LITERACY EDUCATION FOR UNDEREDUCATED ADULTS IN THE OUTLINED AREAS OF ALASKA O b j e c t i v e s The o b j e c t i v e s of the On-Duty Refresher Course , For t R i c h a r d s o n , A l a s k a , were e s t a b l i s h e d to p rov ide m i l i t a r y personnel who had less than an e igh th grade educat ion leve l or low a p t i t u d e scores w i t h an o p p o r t u n i t y to ove" come these d e f i c i e n c i e s . The o b j e c t i v e s of the course were to p rov ide the p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h b a s i c s k i l l s and knowledge which would enable the person to acqu i re the f o l l o w i n g : 1. an e ighth grade c e r t i f i c a t e by pass ing s tandard i zed examinat ions developed by Uni ted S ta tes Armed Forces I n s t i t u t e In the areas of E n g l i s h , a r i t h m e t i c , s c i e n c e , geography and h i s t o r y . 2 . an o p p o r t u n i t y to apply for a r e t e s t of the Army C l a s s i f i c a t i o n B a t t e r y based on s u c c e s s f u l complet ion of the e ighth grade l e v e l . 3 . a chance for the graduates t o complete the High School General Educat ion Development Test through enrichment m a t e r i a l covered In the c l a s s e s to meet I n d i v i d u a l needs. 4 . a p o s s i b l e c i v i l i a n high school c e r t i f i c a t e or diploma on the b a s i s of the I n d i v i d u a l ' s HSGED scores and course c o m p l e t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n Al though Army r e g u l a t i o n made p r o v i s i o n s fo r o f f - d u t y c l a s s e s , the Uni ted States Army, A l a s k a (USARAL) pub l i shed a command c i r c u l a r 170 t h a t a u t h o r i z e d the es tab l i shment of an On-Duty Refresher C o u r s e . The personnel at the Educat ion Center had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r , l o c a t i n g d e f i c i e n t personne 1, counseI I fng, p r e - t e s t l n g and e s t a b l i s h i n g the quotas fo r I n d i v i d u a l m i l i t a r y u n i t s . As a r e g u l a r USARAL supported program, the cos t of the Program was Included In the Educat ion C e n t e r ' s budget . Regular a p p r o p r i a t e d funds were Included to h i r e teach ing s t a f f from the loca l community to I n s t r u c t at the educat ion c e n t e r , and to develop supplementary m a t e r i a l s t o e n r i c h the two l e v e l s of I n s t r u c t i o n . Format On the b a s i s of t h e i r C a l i f o r n i a Achievement 11 P r e - T e s t s c o r e s , the s o l d i e r s who were sent to the program, were o rgan ized Into homogeneous g r o u p i n g s . The On-Duty Ref resher Course was d i v i d e d Into two l e v e l s . Students who scored below the s i x t h grade leve l on the p r e - t e s t were p laced In a lower leve l c l a s s . Students who scored above s i x t h grade on the p r e - t e s t or who had successfuI Iy comp1eted the lower leve l of study were p laced In the upper l e v e l . The lower leve l c l a s s e s covered f o u r t h , f i f t h and s i x t h grade r e a d i n g , E n g l i s h amd mathematics p lus courses In h i s t o r y , geography and s c i e n c e . Dur ing the. c l a s s I n s t r u c t i o n which was conducted In the morning (8 a . m . - l 2 a.m.) t h e r e was_a combinat ion of techniques used by the I n s t r u c t o r s t o meet I n d i v i d u a l needs. In the af ternoon a study h a l l 171 was conducted In each c l a s s w i t h the top rank ing men In c h a r g e . The s tudents rece i ved a t o t a l of 240 hours of c lassroom I n s t r u c t i o n . Uni ted States Armed Forces I n s t i t u t e t e x t s were used as m a t e r i a l s . Format Test r e s u l t s for a group of 70 students who completed the lower leve l of study between June 1957 and December 1957 Ind icated an average Increase of one grade leve l In r e a d i n g , E n g l i s h and performance computa- t i o n s dur ing the s i x weeks of s t u d y . Only s i x of the 70 s tudents ( 8 . 5 per cent) f a i l e d to meet the r e q u i r e d s i x t h grade s tand ing which e n t i t l e d them to r e t u r n for the upper leve l of s t u d y . During the same p e r i o d , 218 students completed the upper leve l of s t u d y . Of t h i s group, 142 (66 per cent) s u c c e s s f u l l y passed a l l f i v e USAFI e n d - o f - c o u r s e examinat ions and rece i ved an e ighth grade c e r t i f i c a t e . A l though large percentages of the group completed a r e - t e s t of the Army C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Bat te ry and took the High School General Educat ion Development t e s t , a mass r o t a t i o n of personnel prevented the a c q u i s i t i o n of t h i s d a t a . 172 Peerson , N. AN EXPERIMENT WITH EVALUATION IN THE ERADICATION OF ADULT ILLITERACY BY USE OF TELEVISION INSTRUCTION OVER A STATE EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION NETWORK SUPPLEMENTED BY SUPERVISED GROUP VIEWING AND BY THE RELATED USE OF PROJECT-SUPPLI ED MATERIALS OF INSTRUCTION O b j e c t i v e The purpose of the p r o j e c t was to eva luate the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of the combined t e l e c a s t s , p r e s e n t a t i o n s designed w i t h an a d a p t a t i o n of the Laubach method of teach ing reading and w r i t i n g and group I n s t r u c t i o n w i t h I l l i t e r a t e a d u l t s In an 11-county area In c l o s e p r o x i m i t y to F lo rence S t a t e C o l l e g e , F l o r e n c e , Alabama. A d m i n i s t r a t i o n In June 1960, F lo rence S t a t e C o l l e g e o f f i c i a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d the l i t e r a c y p r o j e c t w i t h the appointment of a d i r e c t o r and a s t a f f of s i x area s u p e r v i s o r s . F i n a n c i a l support for t h i s research was acqu i red through a grant from the U .S . Department of Health, , Educat ion and W e l f a r e , O f f i c e of E d u c a t i o n . The f i r s t th ree weeks of the p r o j e c t were spent In f o r m u l a t i n g the p lan on how to o rgan i ze a community In regard to the locat ion of s t u d e n t s , to methods of a c q u i r i n g s t a f f and f a c i l i t i e s and to e s t a b l i s h a p lan for e v a l u a t i o n . The area s u p e r v i s o r s had the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of working w i t h loca l committees to o rgan i ze the program wi th regard to p u b l i c i t y , I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and enro l lment of s t u d e n t s , rec ru i tment and t r a i n i n g of 173 v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s , l o c a t i o n of t e a c h i n g centers and the a c q u i s i t i o n of f i n a n c e s where n e c e s s a r y . The I n i t i a l lesson was t e l e c a s t on a Wednesday evening from 8:30-9:00. A f te rwards a r e g u l a r schedule was e s t a b l i s h e d on Monday, Wednesday and F r i d a y even ings . To a s s i s t the s tudents a t the cente rs In I n t e r p r e t i n g the lessons and to p rov ide them a d d i t i o n a l help In r e a d i n g , w r i t i n g and ear t r a i n i n g , vo lun teer teachers were r e c r u i t e d . The vo lunteer teachers were g iven f i v e hours of s p e c i a l i z e d I n s t r u c t i o n by the area s u p e r v i s o r . In a d d i t i o n to the v o l u n t e e r t e a c h e r s , s o c i o l o g y and educat ion s tudents from a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y a s s i s t e d In some areas In e n r o l l i n g s tudents and a d m i n i s t e r i n g t e s t s . The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n d u t i e s of the center became an assumed r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the vo lunteer t e a c h e r s . A v a r i e t y of f a c i l i t i e s were used In the program, e . g . , school b u i l d i n g s , churches , r e c r e a t i o n c e n t e r s , homes. T e l e v i s i o n s e t s were lent or g iven to the cen te rs by I n d i v i d u a l s or g roups . The p a r t i c i p a n t s In the program came from an area where 105,310 people were f u n c t i o n a l l y I l l i t e r a t e and 19,430 had no p r i o r s c h o o l i n g . Of the 608 s tudents who were e n r o l l e d In the program, 53 per cent learned about the program through personal I n v i t a t i o n s from employers , members of t h e i r f a m i l y , f r i e n d s or committee members designated to Interv iew s t u d e n t s . The remaining 47 per cent learned about the program through r a d i o (15 per c e n t ) , newspapers (13 per c e n t ) , church announcements (II per c e n t ) , TV (5 per c e n t ) ; and PTA, unemployment o f f i c e and r e h a b i l i t a t i o n centers (7 per c e n t ) . The t y p i c a l s tudent was In h i s f o r t i e s w i t h two or th ree 174 years of p r i o r formal s c h o o l i n g . An a d d i t i o n a l 57 s tudents who were not Included In the sample purchased m a t e r i a l s and rece i ved I n s t r u c t i o n from vo lunteer t e a c h e r s . No attempt was made to take Into account the home- v iewers who were not o f f i c i a l l y In the program. Format The s tudents viewed the t e l e v i s e d lessons as a group at the cente rs which were s t a f f e d by vo lun teer teachers who acted as resource p e r s o n s . Small c l a s s e s w i t h d i r e c t I n s t r u c t i o n were e s t a b l i s h e d for l a t e enrol lees to the program and In areas In which the t r a n s m i s s i o n s i g n a l was weak. The content of the t e l e v i s e d lesson was based on the k inescopes t h a t were procured from WKNO-TV In Memphis, Tennessee. Th is agency had adapted the Laubach m a t e r i a l t o TV and had developed two student workbooks w i t h the m a t e r i a l r e l a t e d to the k i n e s c o p e . To supplement the program, the area s u p e r v i s o r s developed m a t e r i a l s , e x e r c i s e s and a s s i s t e d In the development of a weekly newspaper. Eva l u a t l o n Of the 608 s tudents who s t a r t e d the program, on ly 254 completed the work. To evaluate the program, f i v e reading t e s t s were g iven dur ing the course of the y e a r . Four I n i t i a l Informal t e s t s were cons t ruc ted for the p r o j e c t w h l l e the f i f t h was the Pr imary 11 leve l of the M e t r o p o l i t a n Reading T e s t . 175 As some standard of comparfson, the Informal t e s t s were gfven to groups of c h i l d r e n In grades two, t h r e e and In some cases four In c e r t a i n Alabama s c h o o l s . For the MetropoI I tan Tes t , the pub l i shed n a t i o n a l norms were used fo r the compar ison . In the l o c a l l y developed I n i t i a l t e s t , n e i t h e r the TV v iewers nor the I n d i v i d u a l s In the r e g u l a r c l a s s d id as we l l as c h i l d r e n In the e a r l y months of the second g r a d e . On t e s t s two and t h r e e , the two a d u l t groups d id about as we l l as c h i l d r e n In the second grade a t a cor responding t ime of the y e a r . In the fou r th t e s t , the a d u l t s appeared to move ahead of the second grade s t u d e n t s , but d i d not do as w e l l as t h i r d g r a d e r s . . In the Metropo I I tan Reading T e s t , the r e s u l t s Ind icated t h a t the a d u l t s . I n the two programs were performing at the leve l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of c h i l d r e n halfway through the second g rade . Of the th ree scores — one for knowledge, one for word d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , and one for reading of connected p rose , the notab le d i f f e r e n c e between the two a d u l t groups was the score on connected r e a d i n g . The a d u l t s In the forma I Iy taught c l a s s surpassed the t e l e v i s i o n group by o n e - h a l f a g rade , which suggests t h a t t e l e v i s i o n teach ing Is a less e f f e c t i v e procedure In developing s k i l l s of connected r e a d i n g . In r e l a t i n g p r i o r educat ion t o the r e s u l t s on the M e t r o p o l i t a n Tes t , I n d i v i d u a l s who had repor ted no p r i o r a b i l i t y at the beginning were performing at a leve l comparable to a r e c e n t l y promoted f i r s t grader w h i l e those w i t h four or more years of s c h o o l i n g demonstrated a reading a b i l i t y e q u i v a l e n t to the average c h i l d In the second g rade . 176 Although the l i t e r a c y program had handwr i t ing as one of I ts o b j e c t i v e s , c a l c u l a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t because of the lack of a p p r o p r i a t e s c a l e s and Inst ruments . Through s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n of the comparat ive p u b l i c school s tudents and a comparison w i t h p u b l i s h e d handwr i t ing s c a l e s , I t was repor ted tha t the handwr i t ing performance of the a d u l t s was r e l a t e d to years of e a r l y s c h o o l i n g and to t h e i r repor ted a b i l i t y to r e a d . For the average a d u l t In the two groups, w r i t i n g a b i l i t y was represented at a leve l equal to a mid - te rm second grade s t u d e n t . 177 ST. CHRISTOPHER HOUSE. A FAMILY LIFE PROJECT IN A DOWNTOWN NEIGHBORHOOD Objectives The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s program was to determine the va lue of us ing the group method In t r a i n i n g mothers of " m u l t i - p r o b l e m " f a m i l i e s to Improve the q u a l i t y of f a m i l y n u t r i t i o n . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n In September 1962, Ryerson School which Is In the S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House neighborhood, was s e l e c t e d for the newly Inaugurated Board of Educat ion School Lunch P r o j e c t . The economic s t a t u s of the f a m i l i e s n e c e s s i t a t e d a s u b s i d i z a t i o n which would enable s e l e c t e d c h i l d r e n to p a r t i c i p a t e In the program. Upon the r e c e i p t of a s e r v i c e c lub g r a n t , a group of 13 c h i l d r e n were s e l e c t e d which represented 11 f a m i l i e s . The mothers agreed to at tend a b i - m o n t h l y n u t r i t i o n meeting which was held a t S t . C h r i s t o p h e r House. At these meet ings , the lunch room money was d i s t r i b u t e d . Four a d d i t i o n a l mothers Jo ined the group, a l though t h e i r c h i l d r e n were not being s u b s i d i z e d for school lunches . A r e p r e s e n t a t i v e adv isory committee of agencies and p u b l i c departments which were concerned w i th the study met on th ree occas ions t o d i s c u s s and eva luate the p r o j e c t . 178 Format The group meetings were e s t a b l i s h e d on a b i - m o n t h l y b a s i s dur ing the per iod between J u l y 1962 and June 1963. A v a r i e t y of techniques and numerous t e a c h i n g dev ices were used In the group m e e t i n g s . Al though the o u t l i n e of the meetings was prepared In advance, changes were made as needs appeared or upon requests from the group. Time was a l s o a l lowed f o r I n d i v i d u a l c o u n s e l l i n g a f t e r the meetings and the f a m i l i e s were v i s i t e d f r e q u e n t l y by the Family L i f e Worker . E v a l u a t i o n The amazing f a c t t h a t the overburdened mothers d id p a r t i c i p a t e was I n i t i a l l y a t t r i b u t e d to the s u b s i d i e s ; however, the group Ind icated t h a t the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the subsidy was not necessary fo r t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the second y e a r . The mothers Ind icated t h a t the meetings had p r a c t i c a l v a l u e to them. In a d d i t i o n , the members shared Informat ion and s i m i l a r problems w i t h one another and I t a l s o brought them Into an Informal con tac t w i t h two p r o f e s s i o n a l workers , a n u t r i t i o n i s t and a s o c i a l worker , who were In te res ted In t h e i r problems. These group leaders were ab le t o d e t e c t a c t u a l a p p l i c a t i o n of what had been learned through d i s c u s s i o n s , home v i s i t s and r e a c t i o n s from c h i l d r e n . The general o b s e r v a t i o n s and comments of the c h l I d r e n s ' teachers Ind icated an o v e r - a l l b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t of the program on the c h i l d ' s h e a l t h and I n d i r e c t l y on the q u a l i t y of t h e i r work In s c h o o l . 179 Schmidt , E r l c k ONE ATTACK ON POVERTY (Mecklenberg County — A P i l o t PI I I P r o j e c t for Wel fa re R e c i p i e n t s , CaroI Ina) O b j e c t i v e In November, I960, a p i l o t p r o j e c t was s t a r t e d for w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s In Mecklenberg County . The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was t o determine the success of f a m i l y p lann ing programs on the v o l u n t a r y and s u c c e s s f u l use of the " p i l l " by w e l f a r e r e c i p i e n t s . Eva Iuat lon A f t e r two y e a r s , I t was reported t h a t t h e r e were no pregnancies among the 223 women v o l u n t e e r s who had been p r e v i o u s l y accustomed t o f requent p r e g n a n c i e s . In an e v a l u a t i o n of the f i n a n c i a l c o s t s of the program, It was learned t h a t the program cos t the p u b l i c less than one - t w e n t y - f i f t h as much as It would c o s t the p u b l i c to support unwanted chI Idren. 180 Whlt temore, R . G . and Ben Echever r fa SELECTION AND EVALUATION OF TRAINEES IN A BASIC EDUCATION EXPERIENCE UNDER THE MANPOWER TRAINING ACT O b j e c t i v e The o b j e c t i v e of t h i s p r o j e c t was to develop f u r t h e r knowledge about a p p l i c a n t s fo r MDT programs who cou ld not b e n e f i t from MDT t r a i n i n g programs w i thout I n s t r u c t i o n In bas i c e d u c a t i o n . The p r o j e c t had the f o l l o w i n g a d d i t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s : 1. Determine the best t e s t i n g dev ices t h a t can be used to d i scove r v a r i o u s areas of homogeneity In t r a i n e e s e n r o l l e d In MDTA c l a s s e s Invo l v ing b a s i c e d u c a t i o n . 2 . D iscover the most e f f e c t i v e way of measuring the reading and com- p u t a t i o n l e v e l s of such t r a i n e e s . 3. Ana lyze the common p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics of such t r a i n i n g . 4. Compi le a s t a n d a r d i z e d system of t e s t i n g the a d u l t educat ion t r a i n e e s t h a t would enable the teachers and c o u n s e l l o r s to understand these groups b e t t e r and to ach ieve more e f f e c t i v e t e a c h i n g . A d m i n i s t r a t i o n A rev iew of p r i o r s t u d i e s on t e s t s by the Nevada S t a t e Department of Educat ion d i s c l o s e d a number of d e f i c i e n c i e s . Some of these f i n d i n g s were : 181 1. the general method of s e l e c t i n g t e s t s was to choose them by t r a d i t i o n ; 2. t h e r e was no adequate data on the v a l i d i t y of a v a i l a b l e s tandard i zed t e s t s for a d u l t s ; 3. t h e r e were es t imates on the amount of t ime and money t h a t were r e q u i r e d t o operate a t e s t i n g program; 4. the p e r s o n a l i t y dynamics of the s tudents were not shown In t e s t s of q u e s t i o n a b l e v a l i d i t y ; and 5. the grouping was haphazard when the I n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a f f was not sure of the t e s t s u s e d . As a r e s u l t , the Nevada S ta te Department of Educat ion contacted two c o n s u l t a n t s from the U n i v e r s i t y of Nevada, D r . Whlttemore and M r . E c h e v e r r l a to design the s t u d y . C l a s s e s from both Las Vegas and Reno were used In t h i s s t u d y . The p a r t i c i p a n t s In the two Las Vegas groups were p r i m a r i l y Negro and female . Only f i v e out of 87 t r a i n e e s were Caucasian and on ly two were m a l e . The t h r e e Reno groups were more heterogeneous. Of the 39 t r a i n e e s , the groups had four Negroes and n ine men. The Las Vegas sample 's edu - c a t i o n a l leve l ranged from 5-12 years which r e s u l t e d In a median c la imed educat iona l leve l of 10 y e a r s . The i r "G" score of the General A p t i t u d e Test Ba t te ry (GATB), which was used as an I n d i c a t i o n of I n t e l l i g e n c e , ranged from 41 t o 112 w i t h a mean "G" score of 88.8. The Reno t r a i n e e s had a median c la imed educat iona l leve l of 10.2 years on the b a s i s of a range of educat ion from 4 to 13 y e a r s . Thei r "G" score ranged from 73-148 w i t h a mean "G" score of 101. One of the Reno c l a s s e s was f n c o i — porated Into the study as a c o n t r a s t group. The i r l.O. scores and 182 educat iona l leve l are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the other g roups . Dur ing the 18 months, the f o l l o w i n g Instruments were admin is te red t o the f i v e d i f f e r e n t groups In t h e i r r e g u l a r c l a s s t i m e : I n t e l l i g e n c e : Henmon-NeI son Test of Mental A b i l i t y , Grades 9 - 1 2 , Form A C a l i f o r n i a Short Form Test of Mental M a t u r i t y , Level 3 , Grades 7 - 8 , 1963 O t i s Quick Scor ing Mental A b i l i t y — Beta Test Rev ised Beta Examination AchIevement: A p t i t u d e : I n t e r e s t : Persona I I ty : Read ing : Sequent ia l Test of Educat iona l P r o g r e s s , Level 3 , Grades 7 - 8 - 9 - D l f f e r e n t l a l A p t i t u d e T e s t , Form L, Grade 9 Kuder P r e f e r e n c e Record — Vocat iona l Form CH Minnesota M u l t i p h a s i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory , C a l i f o r n i a P s y c h o l o g i c a l Inventory Iowa S i l e n t Reading Test E v a l u a t i o n The Las Vegas t e s t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n had been under the d i r e c t i o n of MDT c o u n s e l l o r s who a l s o repor ted the t e s t d a t a . The Reno c l a s s e s d id not have a c o u n s e l l o r which r e s u l t e d In sketchy Informat ion on the p r e - t e s t and p o s t - t e s t d a t a . Dur ing the e a r l y par t of the s tudy , many s u b j e c t i v e e v a l u a t i o n s of c e r t a i n Instruments were made. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the Hemnon-NeI son Test d id not c o n f i r m the prev ious Information about average grade complet ion of 9 . 9 . There a l s o was no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between p r e - and p o s t - t e s t t reatment mean s c o r e s , and as a r e s u l t t h i s Instrument was dropped 183 from f u r t h e r use fn these c l a s s e s . The s e q u e n t i a l t e s t of Educat iona l Progress d i d not appear f e a s i b l e due to the f o l l o w i n g : 1. the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e cos ts for a widespread t e s t i n g program; 2 . the t ime for a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (280 minutes) seemed too long for t h i s type of program; 3 . t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e In p r e - and p o s t - t e s t s c o r e s . There was an a c t u a l decrease In the mathematical mean scores a f t e r 16 months In c l a s s . Th is Instrument was droppedffrom f u r t h e r u s e . TheMMPl was used as an attempt to e l i m i n a t e s tudents w i t h d i s a b l i n g p s y c h o l o g i c a l p rob lems. The r e s u l t i n g p r o f i l e s (both p r e - and p o s t - t r e a t m e n t ) were I d e n t i f i e d as norma 1 p r o f f I e s . The researchers were aware t h a t I n d i v i d u a l t r a i n e e s might m a n i f e s t s e r i o u s p e r s o n a l i t y d i s tu rbances but the absence of any gross p a t t e r n prec luded c o n t i n u i n g w i t h the MMPI. C o r r e l a t i o n s at .01 s i g n i f i c a n c e were made on the f o l l o w i n g v a r I a b I e s : GATB "G" score w i t h O t i s IQ s c o r e . O t i s 10 score w i t h DAT s e n t e n c e s . DAT V score w i t h DAT s e n t e n c e s . CP I W e l l - b e i n g score w i t h CP1 S e l f - C o n t r o l . CPI W e l l - b e i n g score w i t h CPI Ach ievement - through-conformance. CPI W e l l - b e i n g score w i th CPI I n t e l l e c t u a l - e f f i c i e n c y . CPI Achievement - through-conformance w i t h I n t e l l e c t u a l - e f f i c i e n c y . Iowa Composite w i t h Revised Beta IQ s c o r e . Iowa Word-meaning w i t h Rev ised Beta IQ s c o r e . 184 C e r t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t changes d id take p l a c e as a r e s u l t of the l ea rn ing exper ience o f f e r e d through the b a s i c educat ion program. Al though the DAT Mean V scores had revea led an approximate 9th grade norm, the tremendous Increase In numerical a b i l i t y by both Reno and Las Vegas c l a s s e s Ind icated by the DAT N scores s t i l l l e f t I n d i v i d u a l s below the 8th grade leve l of competency. The mean IQ of the C a l i f o r n i a Test of Mental M a t u r i t y was around 80 IQ In both p r e - and p o s t - t r e a t m e n t . The researchers caut ioned I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of mental r e t a r d a t i o n wi thout c o n - s i d e r a t i o n of c u l t u r a l background. The CPI Ind icated an over—a l l Improvement In s e l f - c o n c e p t and w e l l - b e i n g (the l a t t e r p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t ) . There a l s o was a f a v o r a b l e t rend In Improvement In r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l mlndedness.

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