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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Fray Mocho and lunfardo Aaron, Gerald Tingey 1968

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FRAY MOCHO AND LUNFARDO  BY  GERALD TINGEY"AARON B.A. Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y , 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n t h e Department o f H i s p a n i c and I t a l i a n S t u d i e s  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968  In  presenting  advanced  Library  agree  this  degree  shall  that  make  the  it  may  tatives.  It  financial  gain  for  by  not  British  avai1ab1e  the  that  be  fulfilment  Head  of  my  April 7.6, 1968  Columbia  of  the  Columbia,  reference  copying  copying  allowed  for  of  this  Department  or  without  nf H i s p a n i c a n d . I t a l i a n S t u d i e s  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  D a t e  of  extensive  understood  shall  partial  University  be g r a n t e d  is  in  freely  permission  purposes  Department  at  thesis  requirements  for  I  the  agree  and  study.  thesis  or  publication  my w r i t t e n  by  of  that  I  an  further  for  scholarly  his  represen-  this  thesis  permission.  for  FRAY MOCHO AND LUNFARDO  ABSTRACT The purposes of this thesis are to present a study of Jose S. Alvarez, known as Fray Mocho, and his works with particular attention paid to Memorias de un vigilante; to make a study of lunfardo, the slang of Buenos Aires - its origin, its nature, and its influence on language and literature; and to show the important place of Fray Mocho in the history of lunfardo. To accomplish these purposes, in Chapter I, I have undertaken to present a brief sketch of the l i f e of Fray Mocho.  Then I attempt to make a brief introduction to his literary  work and place i t into the literary history of Argentina. Chapter II contains first a discussion of the nature of and importance of Memorias de un vigilante and then a linguistic study, with definitions and etymologies, of the lunfardo vocabulary Fray Mocho gives in "Mundo lunfardo".  This is a  link with Chapter III which is a study of lunfardo and its historical and sociological background as well as a discussion of the sources of its vocabulary, and the nature of the language. This study of lunfardo closes with a discussion of the influence of lunfardo has had on literature and the spoken language. The conclusion is an attempt to bring together Fray Mocho and lunfardo and show his important place in the history of slang.  CONTENTS  CHAPTER I THE L I F E OF FRAY MOCHO  1  THE WORKS OF FRAY MOCHO  6  FRAY MOCHO AND HIS TIME  10  FOOTNOTES  14  CHAPTER I I MEMORIAS DE UN VIGILANTE  16  VOCABULARY OF "MUNDO LUNFARDO"  26  FOOTNOTES  58  CHAPTER I I I HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF LUNFARDO  68  LUNFARDO VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR  79  THE INFLUENCE OF LUNFARDO  87  FOOTNOTES  90  CONCLUSION FOOTNOTES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  94 98 99  My  thanks a r e due t o  H. V. L i v e r m o r e and Dr. K. I. K o b b e r v i g f o r t h e i r h e l p and  guidance  i n t h e p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s  thesis.  CHAPTER I  THE  L I F E OF FRAY MOCHO  Josd S. A l v a r e z , b e s t known by the pseudonym, F r a y Mocho, was  b o r n August 26, 1858  i n Gualeguaychu, E n t r e R i o s ,  R e p u b l i c a A r g e n t i n a , t o D e s i d e r i o A l v a r e z Gadea and D o r i a  Escalada  B a l d e z , both of t r a d i t i o n a l S p a n i s h f a m i l i e s w i t h c l o s e t i e s to Argentine h i s t o r y .  H i s g r e a t u n c l e was L i e u t e n a n t  Gadea, one o f t h e "33 of m a t e r n a l  o r i e n t a l e s " of L a v a l l e j a .  a n c e s t r y , Jose C e l e d o n i o E s c a l a d a was -  the w i f e of San M a r t i n and was the independence movement and campaigns c u l m i n a t i n g i n San  A  Santiago grandfather related to  one of the S p a n i a r d s who  embraced  fought under San M a r t i n i n e a r l y Lorenzo.  There seems t o be some q u e s t i o n as t o h i s second name. When he was named a t b i r t h i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t the S d i d not for Sixto.  Marta M a r i n  stand  says t h a t the S of h i s second name was  an  o r t h o g r a p h i c e r r o r of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r i g i n f o r a C t h a t stood f o r Ciriaco.^  T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n , however, seems t o be i n c o r r e c t  according to other sources.  The D i c c i o n a r i o de  literatura  l a t i n o a m e r i c a n a , A r g e n t i n a says t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o the b i r t h r e g i s t e r , the second name was  S e f e r i n o , a m i s s p e l l i n g of Ceferino.3  V a l e n t i n de Pedro c l a i m s t h a t the p a r r o c h i a l r e c o r d where h i s b i r t h  is registered states:  "Jose" Z e f e r i n o A l v a r e z , " w i t h Z.  This  l e t t e r was r e p l a c e d w i t h a C f o r C e f e r i n o and from t h e time when F r a y Mocho began t o s i g n h i s name he d i d i t a f t e r t h i s manner: Jose" C. A l v a r e z .  L a t e r , as h i s name s t a r t e d t o be made p u b l i c  he changed t h e C t o S supposedly  f o r r e a s o n s o f euphony.  Some  have c l a i m e d t h a t t h e S stood f o r S i x t o and Lugones c a l l s h i m Santos i n E l Payador:  " N u e s t r o contemporaneo J o s e Santos A l v a r e z . " ^  Jose" A l v a r e z used t h e pseudonym F a b i o C a r r i z o i n p u b l i s h i n g V i d a de l o s l a d r o n e s c e l e b r e s de Buenos A i r e s y sus maneras de r o b a r (1887) and Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e (1897) b u t w i t h Un v i a j e a l p a i s de l o s matreros  (1897) he took t h e name o f F r a y  Mocho, which he c o n t i n u e d t o use and by w h i c h he became so w e l l known i n t h e p e r i o d i c a l Caras y C a r e t a s .  V a l e n t i n de Pedro comments  on t h e o r i g i n o f t h e pseudonym: <iC6mo se o r i g i n a su seudonimo? Peude d e c i r s e que c a s i nace con e l , y a que procede de su mas t i e r n a i n f a n c i a . C i n c o anos contaba cuando su maestro de p r i m e r a s l e t r a s , un v i e j e c i t o espartol a l que p o r l o v i s t o mareaba b a s t a n t e con sus t r a v e s u r a s , l e d i j o d e l a n t e de l a c l a s e . " iQuedate q u i e t o , c a r n e r o mocho!" L a e x p r e s i o n cay6 en g r a c i a a l o s muchachos, que l a f e s t e j a r o n con r i s a s y l a h i c i e r o n suya, l l a m d n d o l e desde entonces " e l mocho". M4s t a r d e , e l p r o p i o A l v a r e z , puesto a a d o p t a r un seud6nimo, a n t e puso e l F r a y a l Mocho, acaso recordando a F r a y G e r u n d i o nombre que h a b f a dado a una e f i m e r a p u b l i c a c i d n que d i r i g i d h a c i a 1882. 5  F r a y Mocho was r a i s e d on an e s t a n c i a i n open c o u n t r y and d i d n o t b e g i n s c h o o l u n t i l he was t w e l v e y e a r s o f age. I n 1872 he e n t e r e d t h e C o l e g i o N a c i o n a l de C o n c e p c i 6 n d e l Uruguay and i n 1876  c o n t i n u e d h i s s t u d i e s w i t h a s c h o l a r s h i p a t t h e E s c u e l a Normal  de Paran£.  He had t o l e a v e s c h o o l b e f o r e r e c e i v i n g h i s t e a c h i n g  -3-  degree.6  V a l e n t i n de Pedro o f f e r s t h e reasons f o r l e a v i n g s c h o o l .  He says t h a t when t h e s c h o o l , C o l e g i o N a c i o n a l de C o n c e p c i d n d e l Uruguay c l o s e d i n 1875, F r a y Mocho went on t o the E s c u e l a Normal de Parana.  He c l a i m s t h a t he was an e x c e l l e n t s t u d e n t but n o t  always c o m p l e t e l y d e d i c a t e d t o h i s s t u d i e s .  Outside of school  he was a t t r a c t e d by serenades t o l o v e r s , t h e b i l l i a r d s o f t h e C l u b S o c i a l , and t r i p s i n t o t h e c o u n t r y .  The f o l l o w i n g y e a r  he l e f t the s c h o o l and h i s home and went t o Buenos A i r e s .  (1876)  De  Pedro quotes F r a y Mocho f o r t h e r e a s o n : Por causas que no hacen a l c a s o , me h a b i a v e n i d o yo de mi p r o v i n c i a alia por 1876, t r a y e n d o por u n i c o c a p i t a l unos d i e z pesos de l a a n t i g u a moneda y muchos deseos de no morirme de hambre y e s c a p a r con mi p e l l e j o e n t e r o de c i e r t a s a v e n t u r a s en que me h a b f a metido: t e n i a unos d i e c i s i e t e anos de edad.^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e s o u r c e of t h i s quote i s n o t g i v e n . V a l e n t i n de Pedro says he went t o Buenos A i r e s f o r a d v e n t u r e but t h a t the f r i g h t e n i n g c i t y , h i s homesickness, and the n e c e s s i t y of f i n i s h i n g h i s s t u d i e s l e d him t o v i s i t a f e l l o w - c i t i z e n of E n t r e R i o s and the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , R e l i g i o u s A f f a i r s , P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , Dr. Onesimo Leguizam6n.  T h i s man  and  gave him  a s c h o l a r s h i p and o f f e r e d t o pay h i s way back t o Parana'.  He  was n o t r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming a t e a c h e r and d e s p i t e h i s s c h o l a r s h i p he was  e x p e l l e d from the s c h o o l , accused of b e i n g  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e c o l l e c t i v e absense of s t u d e n t s from a c l a s s as a d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l of the incompetence of the p r o f e s s o r . permanently  H i s f u t u r e t e a c h i n g c a r e e r was,  interrupted.  therefore,  -4I n 1879 He  he went t o Buenos A i r e s , t h i s time t o succeed.  s t a r t e d as a r e p o r t e r f o r E l N a c i o n a l , Sarmiento's newspaper;  then he became the p o l i c e r e p o r t e r f o r La Pampa of E z e q u i e l Paz. He went on t o become one of the e d i t o r s of La P a t r i a A r g e n t i n a  of  t h e G u t i e r r e z f a m i l y ; and l a t e r wrote f o r M i t r e ' s L a N a c i & i f o r which he was  parliamentary correspondent.  From paper t o paper  and from p o l i c e r e p o r t e r t o p a r l i a m e n t a r y r e p o r t e r he t h e l i f e of the c i t y and met circles.^ work was  a l l k i n d s of people i n d i f f e r e n t  Things were not easy d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d . demanding and p a i d l i t t l e .  t h a t t h i n g s were d i f f i c u l t .  penetrated  Newspaper  I n h i s w r i t i n g s he i n d i c a t e s  In "Instantaneo  l a t e r p u b l i s h e d i n S a l e r o C r i o l l o , , he w r i t e s :  metropolitana", "Ahora no  soy  a q u e l t r a b a j a d o r de a n t e s , que u s t e d c o n o c i d echando e l alma sobre l a s mesas de r e d a c c i 6 n . . . . " 1 0  i  n  "Ram6n Romero", o f the  same work, he t a l k s about the u n i o n the r e p o r t e r s formed,"^ and i n "Recuerdos v i e j o s " a l s o f r o m S a l e r o C r i o l l o he w r i t e s ; Siempre me acordare' de a q u e l l a v e c i n i t a que tuve cuando e r a n o t i c i e r o de a q u e l d i a r i o de l a t a r d e , que yo y muchos de mis c o l e g a s no o l v i d a r e m o s jamas, cuyo r e d a c t o r y p r o p i e t a r i o no nos pagaba nunca l o s s u e l d o s . . . . 1 F r a y Mocho i n t h i s i n s e c u r e and p o o r l y p a i d employment f r e q u e n t l y l i v e d a bohemian e x i s t e n c e , but a f t e r m a r r y i n g he sought something more secure i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n work so he e n t e r e d the p o l i c e f o r c e i n 1886.  He wrote La v i d a de l o s l a d r o n e s c e l e b r e s de Buenos A i r e s  y sus maneras de r o b a r (1887) as a s o r t of manual or t e x t f o r the employees of the department o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which he  founded.^  T h i s i s not c o n s i d e r e d of l i t e r a r y v a l u e and i s not i n c l u d e d i n  -5-  his  Obras completas  p u b l i s h e d by S c h a p i r e i n 1961, but from  this  e x p e r i e n c e he does produce a f i n e l i t e r a r y work c a l l e d Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , p u b l i s h e d i n 1897. Other works a r e s u c c e s s f u l l y p u b l i s h e d but h i s work w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .  I n 1898 F r a y Mocho a l o n g  w i t h E u s t a q u i o P e l l i c e r and t h e c a r t o o n i s t Manuel M a y o l founded t h e magazine, Caras y C a r e t a s . d e a t h , August 23, 1903  He was  the e d i t o r of i t u n t i l h i s  and no i s s u e f a i l e d t o have a work by  him  d e s p i t e t h e f a c t t h a t he s u f f e r e d from t u b e r c u l o s i s T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n l a s t e d u n t i l 1939. s i n c e i t was  t h e f i r s t p e r i o d i c a l t o pay f o r l i t e r a r y  I t gave g r e a t importance literature.  I t a c t u a l l y marked a r e v o l u t i o n  t o n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and  collaboration.  criollista  Some o f t h e a u t h o r s whose works appeared i n i t a r e  R o b e r t o J . P a y r d , Ruben D a r i o , M a r t i n Leguizamon, Leopoldo Lugones, Jose' I n g e n i e r o s , R i c a r d o R o j a s , and H o r a c i o  Quiroga.  H u m o u r i s t i c c r i t i c i s m u s i n g p o l i t i c s and f i g u r e s of Buenos A i r e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e s the p u b l i c a t i o n . ^  -6-  THE WORKS OF FRAY MOCHO The  f i r s t volume p u b l i s h e d by F r a y Mocho appeared i n 1882  c a l l e d E s m e r a l d a s , s u b t i t l e d Cuentos mundanos.  This i s a c o l l e c t i o n  of e r o t i c s h o r t s t o r i e s o f a p i c a r e s q u e s p i r i t .  For example, one  of the s t o r i e s "Acu'some P a d r e " , d e a l s w i t h the s e d u c t i o n o f a g i r l by a p r i e s t t o whom she goes f o r c o n f e s s i o n . to  He t a k e s  B r a z i l and t o Europe but abandons h e r i n M a r s e i l l e s .  story, "Fruta prohibida", t e l l s  her  Another  o f a husband who comes home from a  dance t o f i n d h i s w i f e i n bed w i t h an employee o f h i s almacen. In  a s t r a n g e t u r n o f a f f a i r s , the husband i s a r r e s t e d and the  employee a l l o w e d t o s t a y w i t h the w i f e . In  1887,  the work p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, V i d a de l o s l a d r o n e s  c d l e b r e s de Buenos A i r e s y sus maneras de r o b a r was p u b l i s h e d m a i n l y t o be used as a manual.  I n 1897, Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e  a p p e a r s , but a c t u a l l y had been w r i t t e n s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e . I t i s a book w r i t t e n i n a u t o b i o g r a p h i c form under the name o f F a b i o C a r r i z o i n which A l v a r e z put much o f h i s p e r s o n a l t h a t makes i t have a tone o f a u t h e n t i c i t y .  experiences  I n "Mundo l u n f a r d o " ,  t h e second p a r t o f t h i s book, F r a y Mocho i n c o r p o r a t e s f o r t h e f i r s t time i n t o A r g e n t i n e l i t e r a t u r e s l a n g words ( l u n f a r d o ) used by t h e t h i e v e s o f whom he speaks.  An e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n  o f the l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s of t h i s book w i l l  follow later.  S h o r t l y a f t e r w a r d s , i n the same y e a r , he p u b l i s h e d h i s V i a j e a l p a i s de l o s m a t r e r o s .  T h i s work i s a landmark i n  Argentine regional l i t e r a t u r e .  I t can be compared t o Una e x c u r s i d n  a l o s i n d i o s r a n q u e l e s by L u c i o V. M a n s i l l a or M i s montanas by  -7J o a q u i n V. G o n z a l e z  (1892).  I t c o n s i s t s o f scenes and  about the l i f e of t h e people who  l i v e a l o n g t h e Parana  Santa Fe and E n t r e R i o s -- the home of A l v a r e z . gauchos who  -  stories River i n  I t i s about  change t h e i r h o r s e s f o r canoes and who hunt h e r o n s ,  c a r p i n c h o s , and otter,.  The m a j o r i t y of t h e s e men  d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the l a w . ^  are i n  Juan P i n t o g i v e s t h i s a p p r a i s a l of  t h e work: Un hombre que se asomd a n u e s t r o l i t o r a l , que d e s c r i b i o en r e l a t o s b r e v e s y cuentos de v i s i d n ra'pida, pero ahondando en e l p a i s a j e y en l o s hombres que l o c o n v i v e n , f u e F r a y Mocho ( J o s d S i x t o A l v a r e z ) . Viaje a l p a i s de l o s m a t r e r o s es e l l i b r o que comentamos y que t i e n e un s i g n i f i c a t i v o s u b t i t u l o d e t e r m i n a n t e : Cinematdgrafo c r i o l l o . Es una m a g i s t r a l p i n t u r a de una zona a r g e n t i n a , d e s c r i p t a con una f a c u l t a d de aprehender l a r e a l i d a d , de s o r p r e n d e r e l r a s g o d e f i n i d o r y e l ambiente que hacen de e l l a un l i b r o s i n g u l a r en su geoiero.lS In  1898, a l e s s e r known work was  Mocho, c a l l e d En e l mar and the p e o p l e who  p u b l i s h e d by F r a y  a u s t r a l i n which he p a i n t s t h e scenery  l i v e a l o n g the c h a n n e l s and on t h e i s l a n d s of  t h e T i e r r a d e l Fuego.  He was never t h e r e but took h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  from r e p o r t s o f navy f r i e n d s who had v i s i t e d the r e g i o n .  Marta  M a r i n says i t seems t h a t A l v a r e z c o n c e i v e d t h e s e adventures  of  s e a l h u n t e r s and p r o s p e c t o r s as p r o o f t h a t he c o u l d w r i t e a p u r e l y i m a g i n a t i v e book t o show t o t h o s e who was  f e l t h i s technique  too c l o s e t o r e a l i t y t h a t he d i d n o t l a c k , i m a g i n a t i o n . 1 9 B e g i n n i n g the e i g h t h of O c t o b e r , 1898  of  Garas y C a r e t a s appeared.  the f i r s t  edition  I t i s i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n which  he  d i r e c t e d u n t i l h i s death t h a t F r a y Mocho became w e l l known, and for  which he i s b e s t remembered.  appeared.  I t i s here t h a t h i s Cuentos  They a r e f i l l e d w i t h humour, c o l o u r , l i f e , and a c c u r a t e  -8-  psychology  i n the p o r t r a y a l of the l i f e of Buenos A i r e s .  The  d i a l o g u e s p r e s e r v e the p i c t u r e s q u e and c o l l o q u i a l language o f the time.  Some c o n s i s t o f f a b l e s and r u r a l s t o r i e s w i t h a f o l k l o r e  flavour.  They a r e f i l l e d w i t h c a r i c a t u r e s of the v a r i e d c o l o u r f u l  types t o be found on the s t r e e t s of Buenos A i r e s . ^  u  Of  these  works the w r i t e r s of D i c c i o n a r i o de l a l i t e r a t u r a  latinoamericana  A r g e n t i n a , p u b l i s h e d under the D i v i s i o n of P h i l o s o p h y and L e t t e r s of the Department of C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s of the Panamerican Union, state: " F r a y Mocho" fue un c o s t u m b r i s t a o r i g i n a l , comparable en su g^nero s i n t r a s c e n d e n c i a con l o s mejores de c u a l q u i e r p a i s y c a s i s i n precedentes en l a A r g e n t i n a , aunque s f f u e repetidamente i m i t a d o : p o p u l a r s i n descender a l o c h o c a r r e r o ; p i c a r e s c o , pero medido en l a expresidn; s a t i r i c o , pero s i n h i e l . ^ These cuentos were c o l l e c t e d a f t e r F r a y Mocho's death and p u b l i s h e d i n 1906  under the t i t l e of Cuentos de F r a y Mocho.  L a t e r , o t h e r e d i t i o n s under d i f f e r e n t names such as Cuadros de l a c i u d a d have appeared. One  of the i m p o r t a n t  f e a t u r e s of Fray Mocho's s t y l e i n  t h e s e cuentos i s the usage of d i a l o g u e . the s t o r y " A g u i n a l d o s "  This s t y l e begins  with  and becomes the p r e v a i l i n g type of  p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g s t o r i e s .  M i g u e l Cane* urged F r a y  Mocho s e v e r a l times t o become a p l a y w r i g h t because of h i s r e m a r k a b l e conversational a b i l i t y .  V a l e n t i n de Pedro says t h a t t h i s  "dia-  l o g u i n g of the c h a r a c t e r s was h i s way  of c o n v e r s i n g w i t h the p u b l i c . "  (The p u b l i c l i k e d h i s d i a l o g u e s as was  shown i n the w i d e s p r e a d  mourning f o r him when he d i e d . )  Marta Marin believes that  one  of the weaknesses of costumbrismo i s t h a t o u t s i d e d e s c r i p t i o n i s so i m p o r t a n t .  F r a y Mocho's usage o f d i a l o g u e i s a  technique  -9t h a t costumbrismo had d i s c a r d e d and she c l a i m s t h a t t h i s shows t h a t he abandoned c o s t u m b r i s t a t e c h n i q u e s f o r r e a l i s t a ones. c l a i m s these cuentos  show the changing  s o c i a l r e a l i t y of Buenos  A i r e s b e t t e r than any n o v e l because they a r e fragments t h a t approach i t from d i f f e r e n t  angles.^  She  -10FRAY MOCHO AND  HIS TIME  F r a y Mocho l i v e d d u r i n g the time of the G e n e r a t i o n of '80.  Mr. F . J . S a l e r o i n h i s "Pr61ogo y n o t a s " t o t h e Obras Completas  of F r a y Mocho p l a c e s F r a y Mocho i n t h i s g e n e r a t i o n : F r a y Mocho p e r t e n e c e a l a g e n e r a c i d n d e l ochenta, a 6sa que nos d i o L a B o l s a , S i l b i d o s de un vago, Prometeo y C i a . , Evang^licas Bajo l a g a r r a , Nuestra America, Rosas y su tiempo, L i b r o e x t r a n o , e t c . En esa dpoca se a l z a l a f i g u r a de D a r f o y asoma y a , en l a s o r i l l a s , M i s a s h e r e j e s . Es e l momento en que irrumpe Alem, es l a e x p u l s i d n de J u a r e z Celman, y cuando se g e s t a , desde a b a j o , desde l a p r o f u n d i d a d , Pobre mi madre q u e r i d a de B e t i n o t t i , p r e l u d i o e t i c o s e n t i m e n t a l de l a o n t o l o g i a p l e n a r i a y a c e n t e en M i noche t r i s t e , de C o n t u r s i C a s t r i o t a . Es e l i n s t a n t e en que e l tango asume e l r o p a j e de l o p r o h i b i d o , de l o v i t a n d o . F r a y Mocho p e r t e n e c e a e s t e tiempo, p a r t i c i p a de 61, recoge su h a l i t o , y se hunde, t a l v e z l o b a s t a n t e como para r e c o g e r de su l i m o , l o mas v i v i e n t e e imperecedero: humanidad.25 M a r t a M a r i n has an o p p o s i t e p o i n t of view: E l hecho de c a r e c e r de b i o g r a f i a — s61o se puede h a b l a r de un n a c i m i e n t o y una muerte, v a r i o s empleos, una r e v i s t a , dos l i b r o s - - l o s i t u a dra'sticamente f u e r a de l a g e n e r a c i d n d e l 80, donde pretende i n c l u i r l o a l g u n a obra de c o n s u l t a . Cuando decimos " c a r e c e r de b i o g r a f i a " , pensamos n e c e s a r i a m e n t e en e l caso opuesto, M i t r e , por ejemplo, o M a n s i l l a , cuyos hechos sobrepasan l a s obras ^ literarias. P r d c e r e s u hombres de mundo que h a c i a n l i t e r a t u r a j . p o r un l a d o ; por e l o t r o , un p e r i o d i s t a que p u b l i c d f i b r o s , pero cuya mejor o b r a , y no puede s e r c a s u a l , es p e r i o d i s t i c a , es d e c i r , e l l o g r d ' mas acabado de su o f i c i o . 2 She p o i n t s out t h a t s i n c e F r a y Mocho was of  a p r o v i n c i a n o , not a member  the l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i v e r u l i n g e l i t e , nor a p a r t i c i p a n t i n  t h e c o s m o p o l i t a n and s e c u l a r i z e d f u r o r of the men  of '80,  he  had  l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on t h e l i t e r a r y w o r l d but h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s knew what he wanted t o do and what h i s work r e p r e s e n t e d . 2 8  xhe men  of  '80 shared t h e i r e d u c a t i o n and s o c i a l c l a s s which A l v a r e z d i d n o t . He remained a l o o f from European l i t e r a t u r e but l e a n e d towards  -11el criollismo.  He was  one of t h e f i r s t A r g e n t i n e w r i t e r s t o  i n t r o d u c e t h e l a n d s c a p e , customs and language of E n t r e R i o s i n t o t h e i r n a r r a t i v e as d i d M a r t i n i a n o Leguizam6n w i t h C a l a n d r i a . He i s a l s o the f i r s t t o i n t r o d u c e t h e l i t e r a t u r e of m a r g i n a l groups and f i g u r e s and o f the urban p r o l e t a r i a t  (compadritos,  vagabonds, s e r v a n t s , s t r e e t sweepers, p o l i c e m e n , and t h e l i k e ) with t h e i r vocabulary.  He r e p r e s e n t s t h e t r a n s i t i o n from t h e  r o m a n t i c and o c h e n t i s t a n o v e l s t o t h e n o v e l s of t h e 90's.  I n the  f i r s t t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e n o b l e , h e r o i c and of p r e s t i g e , and i n t h e l a t t e r they a r e o r d i n a r y .men.29 I n r e a l i t y i t i s a b i t dogmatic t o say t h a t F r a y Mocho i s n o t o f t h e G e n e r a t i o n of '80 and t h a t those who mistaken.  so c l a i m a r e  L e t us t a k e R o b e r t o F. G i u s t i ' s d e f i n i t i o n of t h e  G e n e r a t i o n of '80 i n H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a a r g e n t i n a and out how of  F r a y Mocho f i t s i n t o i t .  find  G i u s t i says t h a t t h e w r i t e r s  t h i s g e n e r a t i o n were European i n o u t l o o k . 3 0  T h i s would e x c l u d e  A l v a r e z , whose l i t e r a t u r e i s v e r y much a p r o d u c t of A r g e n t i n a . He a l s o says t h a t t h e s e o c h e n t i s t a s censured t h e m a t e r i a l i s m of those times.  We  f i n d A l v a r e z has l i t t l e c o n c e r n f o r t h i s  problem and does not appear t o have any "ax t o g r i n d " . g e n e r a t i o n c u l t i v a t e d i m p r e s s i o n s of t r i p s  l i k e En v i a j e by  M i g u e l Cand or V i a j e s y o b s e r v a c i o n e s by W i l d e . say V i a j e a l p a i s de l o s matreros  This  Perhaps we c o u l d  i s somewhat l i k e t h e s e .  The  33 o c h e n t i s t a s were c r e a t o r s o f s k e t c h e s .  C e r t a i n l y F r a y Mocho  c r e a t e d s k e t c h e s of t h e l i f e o f Buenos A i r e s i n h i s cuentos  and  a l s o of l i f e and l a n d s c a p e s of E n t r e R i o s and even of T i e r r a del  Fuego.  T h i s G e n e r a t i o n of '80 remembered times i n t h e  past34  -12-  -- l i k e J u v e n i l i a of Cane\  Perhaps we cannot f i n d a work by  A l v a r e z q u i t e l i k e t h i s but we  do f i n d t h a t Memorias de  v i g i l a n t e i s somewhat a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l w i t h the p o l i c e department.  and  l o o k s back on h i s e x p e r i e n c e s  G i u s t i says t h a t t h e s e w r i t e r s  were c r e a t o r s of cuadros de costumbres-^ and a p p l i e s t o F r a y Mocho.  un  this certainly  A t f i r s t they condemned n a t u r a l i s m  ( L u c i o V. Ldpez) but l a t e r b e c a m e r e a l i s t s a f t e r the F r e n c h t r a d i t i o n (Cambaceres).  They s t a r t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y by  Buenos A i r e s —  describing  p a i n t i n g p i c t u r e s of the v i d a portena.36  Fray  Mocho i s a l s o famous f o r t h e p i c t u r e s he p a i n t e d of the v i d a p o r t e r i a . His frequent to Marta  use  of d i a l o g u e  i s a t e c h n i q u e of r e a l i s m  according  Marin.^ A l v a r e z ' s book, V i a j e a l p a i s de l o s m a t r e r o s , i s o f t e n  s a i d t o res$emble Una  e x c u r s i d n a l o s t i n d i o s r a n q u e l e s by  V. M a n s i l l a , M i s montafias by J o a q u i n V. G o n z a l e z , and  Recuerdos  de l a t i e r r a (about E n t r e R i o s ) by M a r t i n i a n o Leguizamdn. authors are considered  Lucio  These  t o be of the G e n e r a t i o n of ' 8 0 . I t  would  seem l o g i c a l t o i n c l u d e A l v a r e z d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t he d i d have much i n f l u e n c e on the l i t e r a r y w o r l d . a u s t r a l c o u l d a l s o be c o n s i d e r e d  Perhaps En e l  not  mar  as r e g i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e .  I t i s dangerous t o s t a t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y t h a t A l v a r e z  does  or does not b e l o n g t o the G e n e r a t i o n of '80 because t h e r e i s no c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of what t h i s g e n e r a t i o n those who  is.  I f i t r e f e r s to  w r o t e i n the 1880's then he must be i n c l u d e d , but i f i t  r e f e r s t o a s p i r i t or a t y p e of work t h e n he may  or may  i n c l u d e d , depending on the d e f i n i t i o n of t h a t s p i r i t or  not  be  type.  -13I n many ways he produces work s i m i l a r to others of h i s age and i n other ways he i s unique ( l i k e i n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e ) . Valentine: de Pedro points out that Fray Mocho did not belong to any l i t e r a r y school: Sin hacer alarde de escuela l i t e r a r i a , s i n levantar bandera propia n i a l i s t a r s e bajo ninguna o t r a , con humildad l a b o r i o s a , r e a l i z a su obra, en l a que nos deja una gran l e c c i d n a.travds de una a c t i t u d verdaderamente ejemplar. A contribucidn de su obra puso sus dotes naturales, afinadas por e l estudio y l a observacibn, creando una l i t e r a t u r a que no puede llamarse l i t e r a t u r a p e r i o d i s t i c a en sentido peyorativo, porque es l i t e r a t u r a en l a acepcidn mds Integra, y por consiguiente perdurable, ya que hoy l a leemos con e l mismo placer que se leyd en su tiempo. L i t e r a t u r a en l a que se advierte una i n t e n c i d n f i l o s d f i c a matizada de suave humorismo, de una comicidad empapada en simpatia humana, s i n que f a l t e en l a ocasidn un toque de lirismo.39 Some have wished to take h i s c r i o i l i s m o as kind i n opposition to the modernismo then i n fashion and t a l k of a combative a t t i t u d e on the part of Fray Mocho.  He had no such a t t i t u d e but  produced a personal work based on h i s penetrating observations, h i s c r e a t i v e a b i l i t i e s , and on h i s command of the language. Miguel Cane* had t h i s to say about Jose S. Alvarez: ...no se preocupaba de ninguna manera de entenderlo o comentarlo. Como todos l o s a r t i s t a s verdaderos, se ocupaba sdlo en producir y esto de l a tinica manera que podia hacerlo: mirando y pintando. Sus personajes no sdlo hablaban como estamos habituados a o i r hablar en nuestros campos, c a l l e s y casas, sino que sentxan y concebxan l a s cosas como l a s sienten y l a s conciben necesariamente, por educacidn, por herencia y por l a i n f l u e n c i a del medio, l o s diversos t i p o s s o c i a l e s de nuestro pais.4-0  -14-  FOOTNOTES •'•Valentin de P e d r o , "Nota P r e l i m i n a r " t o Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e by F r a y Mocho (Buenos A i r e s : Compaflxa G e n e r a l F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1962), p. 11; and M a r t a M a r i n , F r a y Mocho (Buenos A i r e s : C e n t r o de A m e r i c a L a t i n a , 1967), p. 7. M a r i n , p. 7.  2  - ^ D i c c i o n a r i o de l a l i t e r a t u r a l a t i n o a m e r i c a n a , A r g e n t i n a , F i r s t P a r t (Washington, D.C.: Union Panamericana, 1960), p. 12. ^De P e d r o , pp. 11-12. ^ I b i d . , p. 12. ^ D i c c i o n a r i o , p.12. 7  De P e d r o , p. 13.  §Ibid., pp. 13-14. i b i d . , pp. 14-15.  9  • ^ F r a y Mocho, Obras completas (Buenos A i r e s : S c h a p i r e , 1961), I , 59.  Editorial  I b i d . , I , 76-78.  1 1  1 2 i b i d . , I , 106. 1 3  D e P e d r o , p. 16.  • ^ D i c c i o n a r i o , pp. 12-13. l ^ M a r i n , pp. 29-30. 1 6  D e Pedro, p. 17.  • ^ p j c c i o n a r i o , p. 13. 18juan P i n t o , B r e v a r i o de l i t e r a t u r a a r g e n t i n a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l L a Mandra'gora, 1958), p. 85. • ^ M a r i n , p. 28. ^Qpiccionario,  p. 13.  2 1  Ibid.  2 2  S e e Marxn,pp. 29-31.  contempor^nea  -15-  Z J  D e Pedro, p. 21.  2 4  M a r i n , pp. 33-36.  25pbras c o m p l e t a s , I , 10. 2  %arln,  p. 7.  2 7  I b i d . , pp. 8-9.  2 8  I b i d . , p. 25.  2 9  Ibid.  R o b e r t o F. G i u s t i , "La p r o s a de 1852 a 1900," H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a a r g e n t i n a , ed. R a f a e l A l b e r t o A r r i e t a (Buenos A i r e s : P e u s e r , 1959), I I I , 370. 3 0  3 1  Ibid.  3 2  I b i d . , I I I , 372.  3 3  Ibid.  3 4  Ibid.  3 5  Ibid.  3 6  Ibid., Ill,  3 7  M a r i n , pp. 33-36.  3 8  Giusti,  375-3.  p. 416.  39De P e d r o , p. 19. 4 0  I b i d . , p. 20.  CHAPTER I I  MEMORIAS DE UN VIGILANTE I n t h i s c h a p t e r we  s h a l l observe one of the most f a s c i n a t i n g  l i n g u i s t i c a s p e c t s o f the work of F r a y Mocho  "Mundo l u n f a r d o " ,  the second p a r t of the book Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , w r i t t e n perhaps i n 1894 1897.  under the pseudonym of F a b i o C a r r i z o , p u b l i s h e d i n  As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Jose' S. A l v a r e z worked on  p o l i c e f o r c e and i n 1887  had  p u b l i s h e d V i d a de l o s  the  ladrones  c e l e b r e s de Buenos A i r e s y sus maneras de r o b a r , an album of photographs w i t h b i o g r a p h i e s about the most p o p u l a r  delinquents,  a l s o used as a manual or t e x t f o r employees of the Department of Investigations.  I n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e we  f i n d that Alvarez  b r i n g s out much more - the p s y c h o l o g y o f the l u n f a r d o and t o some degree h i s v o c a b u l a r y . g r e a t c u r i o s i t y of an a u t h o r ,  A l v a r e z observed w i t h  some o f t h a t f o r us.  I n h i s cuentos we a l s o f i n d f r e q u e n t r e f e r e n c e t o the  out t h a t A l v a r e z was and  the  e v e r y t h i n g he saw w h i l e w o r k i n g w i t h  the p o l i c e and i n t h i s work he p r e s e r v e d  Jose' G o b e l l o , l i n g u i s t and  (thief)  student  police.  of l u n f a r d o ( s l a n g ) , has  pointed  one of the f i r s t l e x i c o g r a p h e r s of l u n f a r d o  t h e r e f o r e i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d i n h e l p i n g t o show the e v o l u t i o n  of t h e p o r t e n o language.^  -17J u s t what i s l u n f a r d o ? to  The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l be devoted  t r y i n g t o f i n d the answer t o t h i s q u e s t i o n because i t i s a v a s t  field  t o c o n s i d e r , however E n r i q u e R i c a r d o d e l V a l l e i n L u n f a r d o l o g f a  g i v e s us a b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n which w i l l h e l p a t f i r s t t o o r i e n t the r e a d e r who  may  be u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the s u b j e c t :  Lengua o r i l l e r a d e l g r a n Buenos A i r e s : Es d e c i r , e l l u n f a r d o es, o fue en p r i n c i p i o , un fendmeno m a r g i n a l d e n t r o de un a"rea de c u l t u r a . Su l o c a l i z a c i d n g e o g r i f i c a fue Buenos A i r e s . Su punto de c o n t a c t o (o a d s t r a t o de l o s l i n g u i s t a s ) l a pampa o e l campo; usada no s d l o por l o s l a d r o n e s . como s u c e d i d en su o r i g e n : luego e l l u n f a r d o f u e una j e r g a e s o t e ' r i c a , p r o f e s i o n a l , de l a d e l i n c u e n c i a ; de cuyo v o c a b u l a r i o pasaron a l a lengua comrin d e l pueblo buen numero de p a l a b r a s : hubo pre'stamos d i a l e c t a l es en un c o n t a c t o l d g i c o que h u b i e r o n de mantener sus h a b l a n t e s con e l r e s t o de l a comunidad; cuyo s e n t i d o e s p e c i a l se ha adecuado en boca de e'ste para o t r o s usos conocidos: luego esos te"rminos e s o t e ' r i c o s , cambiaron de s i g n i f i c a d o , se c o n v e r t i e r o n en neologismos m o r f o l d g i c o s , en neologismos de s e n t i d o y p e r d i e r o n su c a r a c t e r c r i p t o l d g i c o , se h i c i e r o n p o p u l a r e s y v u l g a r e s y por p r o v e n i r de una j e r g a que l a u t i l i z a b a n l o s l u n f a r d o s , se l a s i g u i d llamando d e l mismo modo. 2  The was  o n l y o t h e r w r i t e r about l u n f a r d o t o precede F r a y Mocho  Benigno Lugones, c e r t a i n l y the f i r s t t o p u b l i s h i n f o r m a t i o n  l u n f a r d o which he d i d i n 1879.  L i k e F r a y Mocho he a l s o had  an employee of the p o l i c e department and he r e c o r d e d he found i n two a r t i c l e s : N a c i d n March 18, 1879  on  been  the words  "Los beduinos urbanos" p u b l i s h e d i n La  and "Los  La N a c i d n on A p r i l 6, 1879.  3  c a b a l l e r o s de i n d u s t r i a " a l s o i n  H a v i n g p u b l i s h e d t h e s e works and  l a t e r b e i n g d i s m i s s e d from the p o l i c e f o r c e , Lugones sought t o c u l t i v a t e l e s s popular v e r y young, i n 1884.  aspects  i n l i t e r a t u r e u n t i l he d i e d ,  still  These a r t i c l e s by Lugones were most u s e f u l  to D e l l e p i a n e i n h i s work E l idioma d e l d e l i t o y d i c c i o n a r i o l u n -  -18-  f a r d o because they were t h e o l d e s t documents of t h e s l a n g o f Buenos A i r e s .  L a t e r l i n g u i s t s f i n d them t o be o f g r e a t  Lugones w r o t e p r o b a b l y  value.  t h e o n l y poem i n l u n f a r d o t h a t t h e r e i s :  Estando en e l b o l i n p o l i z a n d o Se presented e l mayorengo: A p o r t a r l o encana vengo Su mina l o ha d e l a t a d o . ^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t t h e s e f i r s t two works on l u n f a r d o came from former employees of t h e p o l i c e f o r c e . p o l i c e a r e o b l i g e d t o study t h e s l a n g o f d e l i n q u e n t s ways o f r o b b i n g .  and t h e i r  F o r t h i s purpose t h e r e e x i s t s t h e E s c u e l a de  P o l i c i a which has i n s t r u c t o r s who teach t h e l u n f a r d o besides  The  the usual science of crime d e t e c t i o n .  vocabulary  I n Chapter 26  of h i s book L u n f a r d o l o g i a , E n r i q u e R i c a r d o d e l V a l l e g i v e s an example o f what can be found i n t h e l e x i c o g r a p h i e s o f p o l i c e archives.^ Despite  t h e f a c t t h a t Benigno Lugones precedes h i m ,  A l v a r e z was t h e f i r s t t o i n c o r p o r a t e t h e s e s l a n g words i n t o l i t e r a t u r e i n "Mundo l u n f a r d o " .  Argentine  V a l e n t i n de Pedro says t h a t s i n c e  Fray Mocho knew h i s language so w e l l he was a b l e t o b r i n g t h i s s l a n g t o h i s works w i t h o u t  impoverishing  he e n r i c h e d them w i t h g r e a t s u c c e s s . ^  them.  To t h e c o n t r a r y  D e l V a l l e p o i n t s out t h a t  Jose? S. A l v a r e z made an " e x t e n s a y p r o f u s a i n c u r s i d n en e l mundo l u n f a r d o " i n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e .  T h i s work c o n c l u d e s t h e  " h i s t o ' r i c o l u n f a r d o " o r t h a t o f t h e 1 9 t h C e n t u r y because n o t h i n g more was w r i t t e n on the s u b j e c t u n t i l t h e 20th C e n t u r y by which time g r e a t changes had t a k e n p l a c e .  He p o i n t s out t h a t t h e r e i s a  g r e a t d i f f e r e n c e between t h e l u n f a r d o o f A l v a r e z and t h a t c u r r e n t  today even though some words are s t i l l Now  used.'  l e t us l o o k a t Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e and  the, p a r t , "Mundo l u n f a r d o " .  especially  A t the f i r s t F r a y Mocho c a l l s  this  book "mis r e c u e r d o s " and says he wrote them w i t h o u t any p r e t e n s i o n s Q of b e i n g a p h i l o s o p h e r or a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e . b e g i n s w i t h h i s b i r t h and t e l l s of how  Fabio C a r r i z o  h i s c h i l d h o o d ended when  t h e r a n c h i n g foreman came t o h i s house and he was  t o l d by h i s  f a t h e r t o go w i t h him because t h i s was h i s p a t r o n now.9  He  seeks  t o w r i t e what happened t o him not t o p a i n t a p i c t u r e but w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of p r e s e n t i n g a scene of the campo of times gone Chapter I V , "De  oruga a mariposa"  by.10  i s a r i c h cuadro de costumbres  of a f i e s t a (dance) of farm hands i n the c o u n t r y which ends i n t h e c o n s c r i p t i o n o f a l l t h e men army.  p r e s e n t and F a b i o C a r r i z o e n t e r s the  He s t a y e d i n t h e army f o r s i x t e e n y e a r s u n t i l 1880  Captain Fabio C a r r i z o . H  Up t o t h i s p o i n t t h e r e a r e few  and became similar-  i t i e s t o the l i f e of F r a y Mocho and t h a t of t h i s F a b i o C a r r i z o except the f a c t t h a t both were born i n the c o u n t r y and were poor. A l v a r e z a l s o p r o b a b l y worked on a r a n c h when v e r y young f o r we know t h a t he d i d not e n t e r s c h o o l u n t i l t w e l v e y e a r s of  do  age.  A f t e r h i s r e t i r e m e n t from the army i n 1880, F a b i o C a r r i z o goes t o the b i g c i t y of Buenos A i r e s .  T h i s corresponds  t o the d a t e when F r a y Mocho went f o r the second A i r e s - 1879.  closely  time t o Buenos  C a r r i z o went t o Buenos A i r e s w i t h l e t t e r s of  recommendation from the Army and went t o Mr. Marcos Paz, P o l i c e C h i e f , t o o b t a i n employment.12  the  i n c h a p t e r V I I , "Mosaico  c r i o l l o " , A l v a r e z w r i t e s t h e i m p r e s s i o n s t h i s F a b i o C a r r i z o had the b i g c i t y :  t h i s i s p r o b a b l y v e r y a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l as A l v a r e z  of  -20-  remembers h i s own s u r p r i s e on s e e i n g t h e c i t y f o r t h e f i r s t  time.  Here i s a s e l e c t i o n of t h i s i m p r e s s i o n : E l p r i n c i p i o de mi c a r r e r a f u e penoso y m o r t i f i c a n te. C a r e c i a h a s t a de l a s n o c i o n e s rn^s e l e m e n t a l e s de l o que formaba l a v i d a de l a c i u d a d , y todo e r a para mi mot i v o de asombro y de c u r i o s i d a d . Las c a l l e s , l o s tramways, l o s t e a t r o s , l a s t i e n d a s y almacenes l u j o s o s , l a s j u g u e t e r f a s , l a s j o y e r i a s , l a s i g l e s i a s , no e r a extrano. que me a r r a s t r a r a n h a c i a e l l a s con f u e r z a i n v e n c i b l e y que no t u v i e r a o j o s n i o i d o s s i n o p a r a o b s e r v a r l a s y asombrarme: e r a que todo me l l a m a b a , todo me a t r a i a . No c o n o c i a ningun d e t a l l e de l a v i d a c i v i l i z a d a , y cada cosa que s a l t a b a a n t e mi v i s t a e r a un motivo de s o r p r e s a . No h a b l o , por c i e r t o , de l a s m a r a v i l l a s de l a e l e c t r i c i d a d , de l a f o t o g r a f i a , de l a i m p r e n t a o de l a m e d i c i n a , que e r a n cosas a b s t r a c t a s para ra£ en ese tiempo: h a b l o de l o s c a r r o s , de l o s c a r r u a j e s , de l o s veridedores ambulantes, d e l adoquinado, d e l agua c o r r i e n t e , que no p o d i a comprender como manaba de una pared con s 6 l o d a r v u e l t a a una H a v e , d e l g a s , que me p r o d u c l a v e r d a d e r o d e l i r i o cada v e z que pensaba en e l , de l a s casas de v i s t a s , de l a s v i d r i e r a s l u j o s a s , d e l sombrero, de l a r o p a y h a s t a d e l modo de r e f r y c o n v e r s a r de l a s gentes. Durante un mes mi c e r e b r o t r a b a j d como no h a b f a t r a b a j a d o d u r a n t e todos l o s d f a s de mi v i d a , r e u n i d o s , y de noche l a s paredes desnudas de mi modesto c u a r t o de c o n v e n t i l l o me v e l a n c a e r como b o r r a c h o sobre mi cama, abrumado b a j o e l peso de l a s s e n s a c i o n e s de cada dia. Me a c o s t a b a , y l a baravinda de l a s c a l l e s zumbaba en mis o f d o s , y d e s f i l a b a n , en h i l e r a i n t e r m i n a b l e , l a s f i g u r a s heteroge'neas que en e l d i a h a b i a n pasado a n t e mi v i s t a . 1 3 Then he perhaps r e c a l l s h i s f i r s t days i n Buenos A i r e s when he says: iY c o n s i d e r a r que a pesar de haber t a n t a gente a mi a l r e d e d o r , de t e n e r t a n t o s compafieros en mi nuevo puesto yo e s t a b a s o l o , s o l o como s i me h a l l a r a en e l d e s i e r t o l ^ He c o n t i n u e s h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s o f Buenos A i r e s and h i s f i r s t  duties  21-  and t h e n says t h i s , which s u r e l y must be the words of Mocho h i m s e l f i n remembering h i s own  Fray  experiences:  E s t a s i m p r e s i o n e s , que son l a s p r i m e r a s que tuve en Buenos A i r e s , puede d e c i r s e , l a s tengo p r e s e n t e s , y l a s s i e n t o como s i f u e r a n de a y e r ; veo aun l a s escenas y l a s c o s a s , t a l como se p r e s e n t a r o n a mf, a s f en t r o p e l , medio c o n f u s a s , i n f o r m e s , baraja'ndose de una manera i n f e r n a l ; f i g u r a s especta'culos, d i a l o g o s , r u i d o s y h a s t a a i r e de personas absolutamente descon o c i d a s , que yo e n c o n t r a b a en l a c a l l e o v e i a en l a s a n t e s a l a s d e l M i n i s t e r i o en l a s h o r a s de f a c c i d n . Chapter IV, " C i n e m a t d g r a f o " , i s a c o l o u r f u l d i a l o g u e between a woman and an o f f i c i a l a t a w i c k e t  i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  I n Chapter X, C a r r i z o d e s c r i b e s a dear f r i e n d of h i s , Toma's R e g n i e r - perhaps a person A l v a r e z knew i n h i s own p e r s o n i s mentioned a g a i n l a t e r . of more people who  life.  Chapter X I c o n t a i n s d e s c r i p t i o n s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C a r r i z o i n the p o l i c e f o r c e  and C h a p t e r s X I I and X I I I d e a l w i t h h i s advancement t o Department of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s where he was G6mez.  This  the  taught under a Sergeant  I t i s h e r e where he l e a r n s a l l about t h e d e l i n q u e n t s  and  crimes t h a t are d e s c r i b e d i n the second s e c t i o n , "Mundo l u n f a r d o " . T h i s a g a i n appears t o be a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l f o r i t was  i n t h i s same  Department of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s t h a t A l v a r e z d i d so w e l l - the department he a c t u a l l y founded, a c c o r d i n g The XIV,  t o V a l e n t i n de Pedro.16  second p a r t , "Mundo l u n f a r d o " , s t a r t s w i t h Chapter  the major c h a p t e r  of t h i s p a r t , which i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n ,  the f i r s t b e i n g c a l l e d "En  l a p u e r t a de l a cueva" i n which F r a y  Mocho laments the d i f f i c u l t y of p e n e t r a t i n g the "mundo l u n f a r d o " . I n " P e r s p e c t i v a s " we  f i n d an e x p l a n a t i o n of the d i f f i c u l t y  f o l l o w i n g a rogue through the s t r e e t s and t h a t happened t o C a r r i z o one day.  the s t o r y of an  of experience  F r a y Mocho i n these s e c t i o n s  -22-  puts t h e l u n f a r d o word i n i t a l i c s w i t h the meaning r i g h t  after  i t as i n t h i s example: Como 4.1 siempre esta" sobre a v i s o y teme que l o embroquen -- conozcan, observen --, camina una cuadra y l a desanda para v e r s i a l g u i e n l o s i g u e , da q u i n i e n t a s v u e l t a s a n t e s de l l e g a r a un punto deseado, p e n e t r a a l a s casas a p r e g u n t a r por don F u l a n o o don Zutano, -un nombre supuesto p a r a d a r l e e l e s q u i n a s o -- l o que e q u i v a l e a d e s p i s t a r -- a a l g d n empleado que pasa y l o conoce.^7 In"Entre  l a cueva" he d i s c u s s e s t h e two b a s i c  kincbof  t h i e v e s -- t h e n a t i v e A r g e n t i n e s , who a r e few and l e s s dangerous, and  t h e f o r e i g n e r s , who a r e t h e most common and the most d i f f i c u l t  to catch.  " E l l a s " r e f e r s t o the women a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p i l l o s -  the a c c o m p l i c e s . t h e s e women —  He p r e s e n t s l a s minas.  a sad p i c t u r e o f t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f  Here i s one of t h e s e d e s c r i p t i o n s :  iHe v i s t o madres que no s d l o abandonan l a s comodidades que un h i j o h o n o r a b l e puede p r o p o r c i o n a r l e s , s i n o que h a s t a cubren de verguenza su nombre por d i s i m u l a r l a s b a j e z a s de uno de e s t o s c a n a l l a s que ha rodado a l a b i s mo y que l e s paga sus s a c r i f i c i o s i m p o n i e l i d o l e s cada d f a o t r o s mayores! He v i s t o mujeres h a m b r i e n t a s , c a s i desnudas, vender, no ya su cuerpo s i a l g o v a l i e r a , s i n o l o mds i n d i s p e n s a b l e p a r a su s u b s i s t e n c i a , a f i n de l l e v a r c i g a r r i l l o s o b e b i d a a sus maridos que, cuando estcfn f u e r a de l a c a ' r c e l , d i l a p i d a n con o t r a s de mala v i d a e l d i n e r o que pueden a t r a p a r , y e l l a s l e s compensan su abnegacidn c o n c a r i c i a s que d e j a n sobre sus cuerpos i n d e l e b l e s c i c a t r i c e s que no se b o r r a n jam^s.lS There a r e f i v e b a s i c groups o f t h i e v e s which A l v a r e z us i n " E l l o s " .  They a r e t h e p u n g u i s t a s  gives  -- t h e p i c k p o c k e t s ; t h e  e s c r u c h a n t e s -- those who p r o f e s s i o n i s t o open l o c k e d d o o r s ; those who  dan l a caramayoli' o r l a b i a b a —  t h e a s s a i l a n t s ; t h o s e who  cuentan e l cuento o r hacen e l s c r u s h o —  the cheaters  or s w i n d l e r s ;  -23and t h e f i f t h group -- those who have a l l f o u r of t h e s e t a l e n t s c a l l e d those de l a s c u a t r o a r m a s . ^  " E l campana" i s a s e c t i o n  r e f e r r i n g t o t h o s e who s e l e c t t h e houses or men who can be easilyrobbed.  A l v a r e z says they a r e t h e r e a l t h i e v e s and a r e h a r d t o  c a t c h f o r they appear t o be honourable  people.  They work a t a  p r o f e s s i o n or i n some o t h e r work -- l i k e s e r v a n t s , b e l l b o y s i n h o t e l s , p o r t e r s , businessmen,  f i n a n c i e r s , e t c . They guide and  i n s p i r e t h e t h i e v e s who a c t u a l l y e x e c u t e t h e crime and a r e those who take t h e b i g g e s t p a r t of the l o o t . "El  I n the part e n t i t l e d ,  a r t e es s u b l i m e " F r a y Mocho d e s c r i b e s how t h e p u n g u i s t a , a  p i c k p o c k e t , performs h i s c r i m e s .  " E l Cafe de C a s s o u l e t " , t h e n e x t 7  p a r t , i s about the famous p l a c e o f t h i s same name where t h e t h i e v e s met.  " E l b u r r o de c a r g a " d e a l s w i t h the methods used by t h e  e s c r u c h a n t e t o commit h i s c r i m e s ; "Los que cargan con l a fama" d e a l s w i t h t h e a s s a i l a n t s ; and " E l p a n a l en l a l e n g u a " i s about the c h e a t e r and s w i n d l e r .  "No l e salvo* s e r m i n i s t r o " t e l l s a s t o r y of  how a p r i e s t was robbed by a t r i c k of a l l t h e c o i n s he had saved.  "Cupido y caco" t e l l s a s t o r y of how some s w i n d l e r robbed  don Jose R o b e l l a t t i .  I n " E l p r i m e r c l i e n t e " we r e a d of how a  lawyer was b l a c k m a i l e d by a t h i e f and a g i r l who appear t o be a gentlemen and h i s daughter.  The g i r l l e d him on u n t i l he was  caught w i t h h e r by t h e supposed f a t h e r who demanded a p r i c e t o keep i t q u i e t .  T h i s " f a t h e r " was the famous t h i e f :  E l Cuervito.  The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s l o n g c h a p t e r i s e n t i t l e d " A l r e v u e l o " and d e a l s w i t h how a s t o r e - k e e p e r i s robbed by t r i c k e r y . The n e x t c h a p t e r I V , "Los m i s t e r i o s de Buenos A i r e s " , c o n t i n u e s t h e s t o r y of F a b i o C a r r i z o b u t c e r t a i n l y appears  t o be  -24A l v a r e z speaking  of h i s own l i f e .  He mentions t h e e x p e r i e n c e s  he had w i t h t h e p o l i c e which h e l p e d h i m t o observe Buenos A i r e s -- l a t e r so v a l u a b l e i n w r i t i n g h i s Cuentos: Yo p e n e t r e e l movimiento de l o s hombres en sus c a l l e s e s t r e c h a s , l a s pasiones que e n c i e r r a n l o s p a l a c i o s y l o s c o n v e n t i l l o s , l o s i n t e r e s e s que se juegan d i a r i a m e n t e desde l a B o l s a a l o s mercados, y n a c i d o en l a s ma's humildes esf e r a s , ascend£ peldaffo a peldario l a l a r g a e s c a l a s o c i a l , t e n d i d a e n t r e e l h u m i l d e v i g i l a n t e , que parado en una e s q u i n a , expuesto a l a s i n c l e m e n c i a s d e l tiempo, i g n o r a todo l o que no se r e l a c i o n e con e l pequeno r a d i o puesto a su c u i d a d o , y apenas sospecha l o s sucesos de mas v o l u men que o c u r r e n f u e r a de su parada y l a v i d a t u r b u l e n t a y a c c i d e n t a d a de l o s hombres de mundo. Todo l o que v i y aprendi* en mi l a r g a y penosa a s c e n s i o n , todo d e s f i l a r a en l a s p^ginas de e s t a s Memorias, y s i no en e s t e volumen, en o t r o que l e s e g u i r d , r e f l e j a r e con toda l a p r e c i s i 6 n que me sea dada, l a s cosas y l o s hombres que e n c o n t r ^ en e l andar de mi v i d a y l o s sucesos e x t r a o r d i n a r i o s en que m^s de una v e z tuve que actuar.^O We can n o t e h i s r e f e r e n c e t o f u t u r e books t o f o l l o w and how these observations w i l l  help.  Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e f i n i s h e s w i t h Chapter X V I , " E l hombre p r o v i d e n c i a l " , a c h a p t e r r i c h i n a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l . He f i r s t mentions h i s b e i n g named t o r e p l a c e Sergeant Gomez as head o f the Department o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n . Jose* S. A l v a r e z d i d head t h i s department.  He mentions a g a i n Tom^s R e g n i e r , a good f r i e n d .  They go t o a c a f e named "La Croce d i M a l t a " and a t a nearby t a b l e t h e r e happens t o be a c u r i o u s group o f people t a l k i n g l o u d l y : ...son l o s muchachos de l o s d i a r i o s , i s a b e ? los noticieros de l a P a t r i a A r g e n t i n a , L a N a c i 6 n , L a P r e n s a , que v i e n e n a c o n s p i r a r c o n t r a l o s d i r e c t o r e s porque no l e s aumentan el sueldo,...21 T h i s i s an i n t e r e s t i n g r e f e r e n c e t o F r a y Mocho's past mentioned p r e v i o u s l y when he took p a r t i n o r g a n i z i n g a u n i o n of newspaper r e p o r t e r s .  -25Ya n i me acuerdo: debe haber sido alia* por 1880 cuando comenzamos con Nino y Varas aquella lucha d e l Centro de Cronistas contra l a s i t u a c i d n p r e c a r i a en que se h a l l a b a e l gremio. Don Juan Gutierrez vi(5 en t a l sociedad un motivo de alarma y nos fulmind: no querla en La P a t r i a Argentina gentes compremetidas en centros, y l e t e n i a miedo a La Nacidn, que comenzaba a levantarse y cuyo c r o n i s t a (Nino) era e l c a u d i l l o de todos, debido a su bondad de cara'cter, su generosidad y su t a l e n t o . *  *  *  A  Nuestro trabajo tuvo recompensa: dejamos de congregarnos en l a Croce d i Malta y en V o l t a , c a f e t i n e s de . l a c a l l e cortada d e l Mercado d e l P l a t a , para reunirnos en l a R o t i s e r l a Charpentier: ya habiamos trepado unos cuantos peldanos.22 Notice the s i m i l a r i t i e s with that mentioned i n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e . Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , we can say, i s b a s i c a l l y "Memorias de Jose' S. Alvarez" from the autobiographical notes i n i t we have observed which are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to h i s experiences i n the p o l i c e force.  I t i s c l o s e l y s i m i l a r then i n form to other works of the  Generation of 80 f o r they frequently wrote of memories of the past (as i n J u v e n i l i a ) .  We have a l s o observed how t h i s work adds to  the knowledge of lunfardo and how i t f i t s i n h i s t o r i c a l l y with other works on the same subject.  The next part of t h i s chapter  w i l l be a l i n g u i s t i c study of the lunfardo vocabulary which Fray Mocho gives us i n "Mundo Lunfardo".  -26-  VOCABULARY OF "MUNDO LUNFARDO" The l u n f a r d o v o c a b u l a r y of F r a y Mocho g i v e n i n "Mundo L u n f a r d o " has been c o n s i d e r e d a g r e a t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e e a r l y growth of p o r t e n o speech by such  linguists  a Jose" G o b e l l o and E n r i q u e R i c a r d o d e l V a l l e , p r e v i o u s l y mentioned and. e s p e c i a l l y t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e growth o f l u n f a r d o . I n t h i s study o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y he g i v e s us we s h a l l observe t h e words from v a r i o u s a s p e c t s .  We s h a l l seek t o f i n d t h e e t y m i l o g i c a l  o r i g i n s of t h e words, t o study t h e i r meanings, t o see how g e n e r a l l y they a r e used and t o see i f they were a l s o mentioned i n t h e works of Benigno Lugones.  L a t e r we s h a l l study i n g r e a t e r  d e t a i l t h e i n f o r m a t i o n on l u n f a r d o and the o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e s on i t , b u t i n t h i s study of t h e v o c a b u l a r y we s h a l l mention t h e o r i g i n s and l e a v e t h e e x p l a n a t i o n s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s .  After  each v o c a b u l a r y i t e m w i l l f o l l o w i n p a r e n t h e s i s t h e page on which t h a t word appears i n t h e Obras completas cited.  o f F r a y Mocho p r e v i o u s l y  We s h a l l f o l l o w an a l p h a b e t i c a l r a t h e r than a c h r o n o l o g i c a l  order o f sequence.  A l c a c h o f a (195) F r a y Mocho g i v e s t h i s word as t h e name of a p a r t i c u l a r t h i e f - " A l c a c h o f a , e l l a d r 6 n ma's d e c i d o r que he conocido,...."  I t does n o t appear i n t h e v o c a b u l a r i e s o f Lugones  nor i n those o f D e l l e p i a n e , D e l V a l l e , G o b e l l o n o r C a s u l l o . Though i t i s a proper name i t does have an i n t e r e s t i n g background.  linguistic  G. E. Kany i n A m e r i c a n - Spanish S e m a n t i c s ^  says t h a t  b e s i d e s " a r t i c h o k e " i t has come t o mean a "worn out b r u s h " among  -27-  p a i n t e r s and i n C h i l e i t had t h e meaning o f "blow" which he l i s t s as now b e i n g o b s o l e t e .  F r a n c i s c o J . Santamarra. i n D i c c i o n a r i o  g e n e r a l de americanismos says i n C h i l e a l c a c h o f a means guatada, manazo.^  4  Kany f e l t t h a t i t p r o b a b l y  bofetada,  got t h i s usage  from the f a c t t h a t the p l a n t c a l l e d a l c a c h o f a had t h e shape o f a clenched  fist.  Of c o u r s e t h i s C h i l e a n usage c o u l d p o s s i b l y  have been t h e r e a s o n f o r t h e t h i e f ' s name s i n c e "blows" a r e closely  associated with  robbery.  Armas (183) - l a s c u a t r o armas.  The d e f i n i t i o n  Fray  Mocho g i v e s us o f t h i s i s t h a t i t i s t h e d e s i g n a t i o n f o r a t h i e f with the four a b i l i t i e s and  swindler).  ( p i c k p o c k e t , house b r e a k e r ,  assailant,  I t cannot be found i n t h e v o c a b u l a r i e s of Lugones,  Gobello, D e l V a l l e , C a s u l l o nor D e l l e p i a n e . of c r i m e was an arma.  E v i d e n t l y each  type  Armarse i n C e n t r a l and M e x i c o means " t o  get r i c h " . 2 5 Balurdo  (195, 207)  Here i s t h e way F r a y Mocho d e f i n e s  balurdo: Cuando e s t a f a n , valie'ndose de l o s s e n t i m i e n t o s r e l i g i o s o s , d i c e n que han hecho "un c a t 6 " l i c o " , y s i han empleado e l r e c u r s o de l o s papeles i n s e r v i b l e s , o sea e l b a l u r d o , han hecho un t o c o o un v e n t o mischo. (207) I t does n o t occur i n Lugones.  R o b e r t o A r r a z o l a i n D i c c i o n a r i o de  modismos a r g e n t i n o s g i v e s us t h i s  definition:  Paquete que a p a r e n t a contener d i n e r o y que s i r v e a l o s e s t a f a d o r e s para enganar a l proximo. Engano. Senuelo. Vos l u n f a r d a . 2 6 I t has b a s i c a l l y  t h e same meaning i n t h e D i c c i o n a r i o de voces  l u n f a r d a s y v u l g a r e s by Fernando Hugo C a s u l l o . 2 7  i  n  Breve  -28-  d i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o by L u c i a n o Payet and Jose' G o b e l l o we f i n d  this  d e f i n i t i o n which i s n o t v e r y d i f f e r e n t b u t adds a l i t t l e more information: 1. E n v o l t o r i o de p a p e l e s , que a s i m p l e v i s t a semejan una gruesa suma de d i n e r o , con e l que e l l u n f a r d o engat u s a a l o t a r i o en e l t r a b a j o de c u e n t o . 2. E n v o l t o r i o en g e n e r a l . 3. Engano, m e n t i r a . 2 8 T h i s word i s n o t mentioned by S a n t a m a r i a .  Giuseppe B e l l i n i i n  Lo Spagnolo d' A m e r i c a g i v e s t h e word b a l u r d o as h a v i n g come from the I t a l i a n word b a l o r d o , " f o o l " . 2 9  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us b a l u r d o  and capa de b a l u r d o which he says i s t h e a c t u a l b i l l s of money OA  p l a c e d on t h e o u t s i d e o f a r o l l  of paper t o form t h e b a l u r d o .  G o b e l l o g i v e s t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s word's p o s s i b l e o r i g i n : En " L u n f a r d i a " l o supuse de o r i g e n genov^s. Me g u i l entonces por e l " D i z i o n a r i e t t o E t i m o l o g i c o d e l l u n f a r d o d i o r i g i n e c o c o l i c h e ' de C a l i b a r / E t t o r e R o s s i 7 . M. B a r r e s pens<$ que p r o v e n i a de balumbo ( b u l t o que forman a l g u n a s cosas j u n t a s ) . Mas l a cosa se c o m p l i c a un poco s i se p i e n s a en que b a l o u r d es p a l a b r a d e l a r g o t , que se r e f i e r e a todo l o que es f a l s o y, desde l u e g o , a l o s . b i l l e t e s de banco cuando l o son. Y e l b a l u r d o no e r a , en e l fondo, s i n o un b u l t o de r e c o r t e s de papel que se hacxan pasar por b i l l e t e s de banco. Ma's f a l s o no podxa ser.31 1  According popular  t o G o b e l l o a l s o , b a l u r d o i s a word used i n common  speech today.32 B a t i d o r (194).  " i n f o r m e r s , denouncers".  F r a y Mocho says b a t i d o r e s a r e d e l a t o r e s C a s u l l o g i v e s t h e same d e f i n i t i o n .  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n : e l d e l i t o delatando soplon.35  " D e n u n c i a n t e , e l que r e v e l a  a l o s c o m p l i c e s " . S a n t a m a r f a gives denunciador,  i t i s n o t l i s t e d by G o b e l l o as b e i n g i n common use today.  Biaba  (183 - "dan l a b i a b a " , 193)  Those who dan l a b i a b a  a c c o r d i n g t o F r a y Mocho a r e a s s a i l a n t s and t h e most infamous  -29-  type o f t h i e v e s w i t h o u t t h e l e a s t b i t o f t a l e n t . ( 1 9 3 ) .  Biaba  according to Gobello i s : S a l t e a m i e n t o en e l que e l l a d r d n a t a c a a mano armada en los s i t i o s a b i e r t o s . P a l i z a , c a s t i g o . Usase con e x t e n s a v a r i e d a d de a c e p c i o n e s f i g u r a d a s . ^ 3  We f i n d t h e same b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n i n C a s u l l o ,  3 7  b u t he a l s o adds  t h i s o t h e r usage: 3. P a r s e una b i a b a . F r a s e f i g u r a d a . Abusar en e l uso de c o s m e t i c o s . "Le di6 a l b a l e r o una b i a b a de gomina que l e qued<5 como c h a r o l a d o . " D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us these d e f i n i t i o n s : G o l p e , h e r i d a . B i a b a de e s t a r o , s e n t e n c i a . B i a b a s e c a , muerte. P a r l a b i a b a , g o l p e a r , l a s t i m a r , h e r i r . T r a ba.jo de b i a b a , asalto. ° 3  A r r a z o l a gives us:  "Cachetada.  Punetazo.  Palizai  Vulgarismo."  3  Kany goes a l o n g w i t h t h e above d e f i n i t i o n s s a y i n g i t means "beating, slap" 0  Santamaria  4  l i s t s t h i s word as an A r g e n t i n e word  meaning g l o p e , a r r e m e t i d a , sopapo.^1  There a r e o t h e r words which  come from b i a b a such as b i a b a z o , t h e augmentative is  of b i a b a . I t  a l s o a blow on t h e r i g h t s i d e o f a v i c t i m or. i n h i s b a c k . ^ 4  Another word i s b i a b i s t a , t h e t h i e f who uses blows t o i n c a p a c i t a t e h i s v i c t i m so as t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e r o b b e r y . . Santamaria  gives  t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of b i a b i s t a : En A r g e n t i n a , l a d r o n que para operar l i b r e m e n t e empieza por poner a su v i c t i m a f u e r a de combate, h i r i e h d o l a o mata'ndola.^ 3  He a l s o g i v e s t h e word b i a b a r - a l s o i n A r g e n t i n a - a r r e m e t e r , atacar a g o l p e s .  4 4  The o r i g i n o f t h i s word d e f i n i t e l y i s I t a l i a n  and t o show t h a t , Jose' G o b e l l o g i v e s a l i s t o f the words i n each of t h e d i a l e c t s o f I t a l y from which t h i s word comes. his  list:  Here i s  " I t a l i a n o - b i a b a - avena, p i e n s o ; Genoves - b i a v a -  -30avena, p i e n s o , ( F i g . ) p a l i z a ; N a p o l i t a n o - b i a v a - avena, p i e n s o , ( F i g . ) p a l i z a ; Piamontes - b i a v a , avena, p i e n s o . ( F i g . ) p a l i z a ; Milane"s - b i a y a - avena, p i e n s o , ( F i g . ) p a l i z a . " ^  He a l s o  states that i t s t i l l  Lugones  4  i s v e r y much i n common usage.  g i v e s i t i n h i s v o c a b u l a r y beaba b u t w i t h the same meaning as Mocho. ^ 4  B u r r a (190 - c a r g a r l a b u r r a ) .  F r a y Mocho g i v e s t h e  phrase c a r g a r l a b u r r a meaning a l z a r l o s robos (190) . " c a j a de h i e r r o donde se guardan c a u d a l e s " .  4 7  Burra i s a  Cargar i n t h e  AO  A m e r i c a s means " t o c a r r y " and " t o take on"  C a s u l l o g i v e s us  v a r i o u s usages o f b u r r a : 2. B u r r a de v i a j e . F r a s e . V a l i j a . 3. B u r r i t a de v i a j e . F r a s e . M a l e t a pequeRa. 4. s. (En determinadas Ccfrceles) , b a i i l de pequeffo tamano, de s e s e n t a p o r v e i n t i c i n c o c e n t i m e t r o s , en e l que e l penado guarda sus pocos e f e c t o s p e r s o n a l e s , s i r v i e * n d o l e adem£s de a s i e n t o . "La o t r a noche yo t e n i a c u a t r o b o t e l l a s de S e l l o Verde, e s c o n d i d a s , e n v u e l t a s en una manta d e n t r o de l a b u r r a . " (Jose" G o b e l l o , H i s t o r i a s con l a d r o n e s . ) 5. Cargar l a b u r r a . E x p r e s i d n l u n f a r d a . A l z a r e l robo. "Antes que e l sereno r e a c c i o n a r a , c a r g a r o n l a b u r r a y r a j a r o n por l o s fondos d e l garage." 6. Hacer una b u r r a . Frase l u n f a r d a . Robar una c a j a f u e r t e . t  4 y  T h i s word i s n o t l i s t e d as b e i n g i n common usage today by G o b e l l o i n h i s l i s t o f l u n f a r d o words used i n t h e c u r r e n t c o l l o q u i a l of  Argentina.50 Busecca ( 2 1 1 ) .  F r a y Mocho t a l k s about "un p l a t o de busecca" -  today buseca - a soup made w i t h t r i p e . v i e n t r e and g i v e s us t h i s quote: y lo  Payet g i v e s us t h e meaning  "...cacho" e l t i p o por e l cogote  dej6 groggy de un seco c a s t a n a z o en l a buseca.  G o b e l l o g i v e s us these d e f i n i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g b o t h : que  speech  se p r e p a r a con mondongo y d i v e r s o s condimentos.  ( L a s t Reason)"-^ " S u e r t e de sopa Vientre."52  T h i s word does n o t appear i n ..the v o c a b u l a r y o f Lugones.  It is  -31d e f i n i t e l y of I t a l i a n o r i g i n from these d i a l e c t s :  "Italiano -  busecca - c a l l o s , Piamonte's - buseca - t r i p a s , Milane's - busecca - estomago de l o s animales que, b i e n l i m p i o y condimentado, se emplea como a l i m e n t o . " ^  3  T h i s word i s the c u r r e n t word i n A r g e n t i n a  f o r t h i s soup p r e p a r e d from t r i p e . Cabra  (191 - p a t a de c a b r a ) .  As d e f i n e d by F r a y Mocho t h i s  i s a s t e e l i n s t r u m e n t i n a z i g - z a g shape used by the e s c r u c h a n t e s i n b r e a k i n g open d o o r s : S i e l dueno de casa es p r e c a v i d o , y usa sus p u e r t a s enchapadas de h i e r r o en l a p a r t e v u l n e r a b l e , se da un c o r t e en e l umbral con e l formdn f r e n t e a l o s pasadores y se l e v a n t a n e s t o s ; l u e g o se i n t r o d u c e l a p a t a de c a b r a -- i n s t r u m e n t o de a c e r o , formado en z i g - z a g -- f r e n t e a l a c e r r a d u r a , y se l a hace s a l t a r s i n r u i d o , con un l e v e movimiento l a t e r a l . (191) Payet g i v e s us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o r c a b r a " p a l a n q u i t a con apoyo usada por l o s l u n f a r d o s " .  Santamarxa g i v e s us a d e f i n i t i o n  f o r the complete phrase p a t a de c a b r a which he s t a t e s i s used i n Argentina.  I t i s a v a r i e t y of a game of dominos.^^  i s any r e l a t i o n i s not s u r e .  T h i s e x p r e s s i o n was not i n the  l a r y of Lugones and i t i s not used c u r r e n t l y Cachar form h e r e .  (180).  Whether t h e r e vocabu-  today.  A l v a r e z uses t h i s word i n the p a s t p a r t i c i p l e  He g i v e s t h e meaning as b e i n g embromar.  g i v e n f o r the word a r e :  Other  definitions  f a s t i d i a r , b u r l a r , a g a r r a r , a s i r , coger,  56 apoderarse de a l g o .  Arrazola gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n :  pedazo o a s t i l l a a un o b j e t o duro. enganar."57/ I n Colombia  "Sacar  M o l e s t a r , incomodar,  un  embromar,  The word seems to be i n use throughout the A m e r i c a s . c a c h a r means t o c h a t , f l i r t  I n Peru i t means r o b a r , engaffar.59 R i v e r P l a t e and C e n t r a l American  from cacho —  "joke".58  Kany says t h a t c a c h a r i n the  r e g i o n s comes from the s t a n d a r d  cachear meaning " t o s e a r c h a person f o r h i d d e n weapons"  (to  -32f r i s k 7 t o rob).60  Santamarfa g i v e s two s e t s of meanings based  on t h e o r i g i n s of the word.  The f i r s t group i s based on c a c h a r , from  the E n g l i s h " c a t c h " , which means a s i r , o b t e n e r , h u r t a r , c o g e r , and i n Argentina azotar, castigar, vapular.  The second group has c a c h a r  as coming from the word cacha meaning cuerno.  The Ecuador  this  means b u r l a r , r i d i c u l i z a r ; i n C e n t r a l A m e r i c a - a c o r n e a r , and i n A r g e n t i n a - " s a c a r un pedazo a un o b j e t o duro" and he adds: "En • e s t e t t l t i m o s e n t i d o hay ejemplos de a s c e n d e n c i a espanola."^-'word i s n o t g i v e n by Lugones.  I t i s i n v e r y common usage  Cadena (186 - formar l a cadena).  This  today.62  The d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n f o r  t h e term formar l a cadena i s f o r the a s s o c i a t e s i n crime t o s t a t i o n themselves b e h i n d the t h i e f i n such a manner as t o pass the s t o l e n i t e m from hand t o hand so as not t o get caught.  Casullo  g i v e s us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n which i s b a s i c a l l y the same as the above but w i t h added i n f o r m a t i o n : 2. Formar l a cadena. F r a s e f i g u r a d a . Manera determinada de p r a c t i c a r l a punga, y que c o n s i s t e en e n t r e g a r l o hurtado a l o s c o l a b o r a d o r e s d e l l a d r o n . "Muchachos, a prepar a r s e a formar l a cadena. Ya saben e l l u g a r que l e t o c a a cada uno~ iAtentii"&3 The word formar a l s o had o t h e r meanings.  I t can mean " r e l a t a r una  h i s t o r i a i n v e n t a d a con e l o b j e t o de engaffar a a l g u i e n y s a c a r l e dinero"^ or"pagar, contribuir". ^  The word formar i s i n common  usage today but not the phrase formar l a cadena.^6  Neither this  phrase nor formar a l o n e appeared i n the v o c a b u l a r y of Cambiazo (207) . swindling.  Lugones.^  T h i s r e f e r s t o one of the methods of  F r a y Mocho g i v e s us engaflo and m i s t i f i c a c i o n as synonymns  and t h e n proceeds t o t e l l us of how a man makes f r i e n d s w i t h the owner of an almace'n and then abuses t h a t f r i e n d s h i p t o t a k e  -33-  advantage o f him.  C a s u l l o g i v e s us t h i s  definition:  (En un r o b o ) , cuando una cosa es reemplazada por o t r a t a n s o l o en a p a r i e n c i a , o cuando se a l t e r a e l c o n t e n i d o de un envase Usase mas en l a e x p r e s i d n : pegar e l c a m b i a z o . ^  8  D e l l e p i a n e s p e l l s i t cambiaso and says t h a t i t means "cambio, e l a c t o de cambiar."  He says t h a t pegar e l cambiaso means t h e same  a b a r a t i n a r which he i n t u r n d e f i n e s as t h e o p e r a t i o n of c h a n g i n g the b a r a t x n ( " e l r o l l o de p a p e l e s de e s t r a z a que se l e d e j a a l otario  en cambio de su d i n e r o en e l t r a b a j o de cuento") f o r t h e money  of t h e v i c t i m w i t h o u t h i s n o t i c i n g  it.69  Lugones does n o t l i s t  t h i s word i n h i s v o c a b u l a r y and a p p a r e n t l y i t i s n o t i n common usage today.^0 Caminar (187).  " E l p u n g u i s t a , cuando camina, jarn^s l o  hace l l e v a n d o a l l a d o a sus companeros" ( 1 8 7 ) .  T h i s word d i d n o t  appear i n t h e v o c a b u l a r i e s o f Lugones n o r i n those o f C a s u l l o , G o b e l l o , n o r Payet. (con a l g u n o ) .  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n :  "Caminar  Robar en compania d e l mismo o b a j o sus drdenes."71  No o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n s  seem t o be a v a i l a b l e .  I t i s n o t i n use today  w i t h t h i s meaning. Camp ana  (184-185).  F r a y Mocho g i v e s us t h i s  definition:  E l punto de c o n t a c t o es e l campana, es d e c i r , e l que busca l a casa o e l hombre f a " c i l de r o b a r , e l que e s t u d i a e l medio de e f e c t u a r l o , e l que e s t a en r e l a c i o n e s con l o s que cambian l o robado por d i n e r o ; l a p r o v i d e n c i a en forma de hombre. B i e n c o n s i d e r a d o , e s t o s camp anas son l o s v e r d a d e r o s l a d r o n e s ; l o s que e f e c t i i a n e l robo son solamente sus i n s t r u m e n t o s . (184) B e s i d e s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t h e r e i s t h e g e n e r a l one o f a campana b e i n g a spy, g e n e r a l l y p l a c e d o u t s i d e o f t h e h o u r s e b e i n g robbed t o g i v e  -34-  a w a r n i n g t o the one i n s i d e i f a n y t h i n g happens: E s p f a , e l ayudante de un l a d r d h que se c o l o c a en acecho o s i g u e a a l g u i e n con e l d e l i b e r a d o propo'sito de dar l a alarma o a v i s a r a l o s que e f e c t u a n e l r o b o . "Uno comienza a t r e p a r ; e l o t r o hace de campana." (Ricardo L o r e n z o , En e l ^ r e a d e l p o t r e r o . ) ^ 7  From t h i s word t h e r e comes a l i s t of d i f f e r e n t words d e r i v e d from it.  We get campanaza - "Gente apostada c e r c a d e l l u g a r donde  opera un l a d r d n , con e l propo'sito de p r e v e n i r a e'ste y d i s i m u l a r c u a l q u i e r a c t i t u d sospechosa, a l a p o l i c i a " 7 3 ; campaneadero " s i t i o e l e g i d o p r e v i a m e n t e , desde donde e l campana puede a t i s b a r , e s p i a r , campanear"; espiado"; ^ 7  74  campaneado/da - " a d j . Observado, a t i s b a d o ,  campaneador/ra - " a d j . Campana.  'Como companeador,  n a d i e l e g a n a " ; ^ campanear - " o f i c i o d e l campana, a t i s b a r , 7  and campaneo - " a c c i d n y e f e c t o de c a m p a n e a r " .  observar"  78  The o r i g i n o f the word campana a c c o r d i n g t o C E . Kany comes from t h e word c a m p a n a  79  meaning " b e l l "  b e l l " and came t o mean " a c c o m p l i c e  or campanaza - " s t r o k e o f a  who stands watch t o warn of  a p p r o a c h i n g danger" i n the R i v e r P l a t e r e g i o n and i n Peru and Colombia From t h i s we g e t c a m p a n e a r L u c i a n o Payet and Jose' G o b e l l o c l a i m the l u n f a r d o word came f r o m e i t h e r Genoese s t i de campanna, t o accompany someone or f r o m N e o p o l i t a n menarse i n t ' a t o p r e t e n d n o t t o see nor t o hear. -'8  'e campane,  I n Genoese sta* de campanna a  unn-a persohn-a means t o w a i t f o r someone.82  s i n c e so many words  i n l u n f a r d o d i d come from I t a l i a n because o f the l a r g e number of I t a l i a n t h i e v e s i n A r g e n t i n a as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d more i n d e t a i l l a t e r , t h e s e e x p l a n a t i o n s o f the I t a l i a n o r i g i n seem more a c c u r a t e  -35-  than Kany's -- t h a t i t came from S p a n i s h campana " b e l l " . was in  l i s t e d by Benigno Lugones as meaning e s p i a .  Itis still  wide use t o d a y . ^ C a n t a r (187, 204).  word as b e i n g d e s c u b r i r . d e c i r l a verdad."85  F r a y Mocho g i v e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s C a s u l l o g i v e s us " C o n f e s a r un d e l i t o ,  T h i s word was n o t found i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y of  Benigno Lugones and i s n o t l i s t e d i n many v o c a b u l a r i e s . to  I t seems  be a l i t t l e used word w i t h t h i s meaning. Caramayoli* (183, 193 - d a r caramayolx) .  the  Campana  synonym o f b i a b a .  He g i v e s i t as  I t i s g i v e n as a s a l t o , b i a b a i n C a s u l l o  and i s n o t mentioned by many o t h e r w r i t e r s .  Dellepiane gives a  word caramayola t o mean "La p e l o t a que se hace con e l panuelo y Q £  se i n t r o d u c e en l a boca de l a s personas para i m p e d i r que g r i t e n . " It  i s a l s o used i n t h e phrase t r a b a j a r de caramayola - "cuando se  acogota a l a persona a s a l t a d a , para i m p e d i r que p i d a  auxilio."^  Corominas mentions caramafiola as b e i n g a s o l d i e r ' s c a n t e e n i n Leonese and Aragonese coming from t h e word carmagnol - a s o l d i e r in  the F i r s t French R e p u b l i c .  Then he s a y s :  "En C h i l e y en l a  A r g e n t i n a se emplea una forma v u l g a r caramayola pero l a v a r i a n t e con - n - es u s u a l en ambos p a i s e s y predomina en l a A r g e n t i n a . " He c o n t i n u e s by g i v i n g t h e word i n C a t a l a n caramanyola which i s a gourd used as a wine c o n t a i n e r . 8 8  E v i d e n t l y c a r a m a y o l i never d i d  a c h i e v e t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f b i a b a which i s s t i l l It  i n wide usage.  i s n o t l i s t e d as one o f t h o s e words i n t h e common speech o f  A r g e n t i n a today by G o b e l l o . 8 9  O D  -36-  Cebo (183 - d a r e l c e b o ) .  I t appears t o be another name  f o r money: . . . l o s que dan e l cebo, o sea e l d i n e r o n e c e s a r i o para r e a l i z a r e l robo, que h a s t a para eso se p r e c i s a p l a t a dada l a s i t u a c i o n a que ha l l e g a d o e l mundo;... (183-4) T h i s term wasn't g i v e n by Benigno Lugones n o r i s i t g i v e n by most d i c t i o n a r i e s of l u n f a r d o words. only lexicographer to l i s t i t .  F r a y Mocho appears t o be about t h e Corominas t r a c e s t h e o r i g i n o f  the Spanish word cebo from t h e L a t i n c i b u s - a l i m e n t o , manjar.  In  P o r t u g u e s e i t was cevo - i n t h e M i d d l e Ages i t had a v and meant 90  a l i m e n t a r , manjar.  T h i s could have some c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e  usage o f cebo f o r money.  Food and money a r e f r e q u e n t l y  I n E n g l i s h we sometimes use "bread"  t o mean "money".  connected.  The word  i s n o t i n usage today w i t h t h e meaning used i n l u n f a r d o . Contar  e l cuento (183? 207).  swindlers (estafadores).  Los que cuentan e l cuento a r e  We f i n d t h a t each d i f f e r e n t type of  s w i n d l e (cuento) had a s p e c i a l name.  Roberto A r r a z o l a g i v e s us  t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f what i s t h e cuento de t i o : Cuento: E s t a f a . Engano. D i c e s e e s p e c i a l m e n t e d e l que l o s bonaerenses denominan-'.el cuento d e l t i o . P r o f e s i o n a l de l a e s t a f a por medio d e l cuento d i c h o y que c o n s i s t e en r e f e r i r a q u i e n se q u i e r e hacer v i c t i m a de una e s t a f a , un cuento en e l que un supuesto t i o ha ordenado " i n a r t i c u l o m o r t i s " a un s o b r i n o de pega r e s t i t u i r una c u a n t i o s a suma que e l d i f u n t o h a b i a robado a un d o c t o r X or Y a q u i e n e l s o b r i n o no conoce porque acaba de l l e g a r a l a c a p i t a l o es pajuerano. E l objeto que p e r s i g u e e l e s t a f a d o r es d e s p e r t a r l a c o d i c i a de l a v i c t i m a , pues e l s o b r i n o d i c e l l e v a r e l d i n e r o encima, l o c u a l c a s i siempre cons'igue, r e s u l t a n d o a l a p o s t r e e s t a f a d o codicioso.91 T h i s cuento de t i o i s a l s o sometimes c a l l e d cuento de o t a r i o .  -37-  Santamaria g i v e s us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of e l - c u e n t o d e l tip - "modo de e s t a f a r que algunos b a n d o l e r o s emplean, h a c i e n d o una h i s t o r i a f i n g i d a para embromar a l a v f c t i m a . " mean chisme, t r a i c i ^ n . ^  He a l s o g i v e s cuento t o  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us c o n t a r as meaning  9  engaKar and cuento t o mean t r a b a j o ( r o b b e r y ) .  Tomar e l cuento  i s t o b e l i e v e t h e s t o r y of t h e one who t e l l s t h e cuento d e l t i o . Lugones d i d n o t use e i t h e r c o n t a r or cuento but they a r e used today. C u e r v i t o (191). f o r t h i s word.  A l v a r e z does n o t g i v e us t h e d e f i n i t i o n  The o n l y d i c t i o n a r i e s t o mention i t a r e D e l l e p i a n e  who says t h a t c u e r v o i s a " s a c e r d o t e , c a p e l l a n de p r i s i d n . "  9 4  Santamaria says t h a t i n C h i l e c u e r v o i s used t o speak of monks who t r a f f i c ; i n s a c r e d t h i n g s and i s used i n a d e r r o g a t o r y of a l l p r i e s t s .  sense  T h i s he says i s common i n s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s . ^ 9  Chafe ( 2 0 4 ) .  T h i s i s a n o t h e r word f o r v i g i l a n t e which i n  A r g e n t i n a means p o l i c e m a n .  Lugones i s h i s v o c a b u l a r y  gives chafo  qr f o r v i g i l a n t e i n s t e a d of c h a f e . t o add:  "Agente de p o l i c i a .  C a s u l l o has more i n f o r m a t i o n  I g u a l en Uruguay.  l a s voces c h a f o , c h a f e r o l a y c h a j e . " chaffe.98  9 7  Tambie'n se u s a r o n  Chafe i s sometimes s p e l l e d  A r r a z o l a g i v e s us c h a f l e f o r v i g i l a n t e but mentions  that i t also i s c h a f e .  9 9  T h i s appears t o be a n o t h e r word n o t  used today - i n f a c t G o b e l l o does n o t even l i s t i t i n h i s book V i e j a y nueva l u n f a r d i a except as p a r t of t h e v o c a b u l a r y by F r a y Mocho.  The o r i g i n i s u n c e r t a i n .  g i v e n us  Arrazola i n h i s  D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos a r g e n t i n o s g i v e s us some other words which bear a s i m i l a r i t y i n form but n o t i n meaning.  He g i v e s us c h a f a r  -38-  as meaning hacer b u r l a or mofarse and says t h a t i t comes from Portuguese.  As the noun form of t h i s v e r b he g i v e s us c h a f a -  b u r l a , mora. Champurriao ( 1 8 9 ) . by F r a y Mocho.  A d e f i n i t i o n o f t h i s word i s not g i v e n  I n i t s usage h e r e i t a p p a r e n t l y has t h e same  meaning as g i v e n by A r r a z o l a :  "Champurreado:  (sustantivo)  D l c e s e d e l l i c o r que se o b t i e n e mezclando dos o mds d i s t i n t o s . H e r e  licores  i s how F r a y Mocho uses the word i n d i s c u s s i n g  " E l Cafe" de C a s s o u l e t " : A l i i * todo e r a c u e s t i d n de d i n e r o . Tenie'ndolo, se h a l l a b a desde l a p i e z a l u j o s a m e n t e amueblada, h a s t a e l t u g u r i o infame, donde p o d i a g o z a r s e de l a s comodidades de un c a t r e de l o s muchos que, en f i l a y pegados unos a o t r o s , c o n t e n i a un pequeno c u a r t o de madera y desde e l v i n o y l o s manjares e x q u i s i t o s , h a s t a l a s sobras de e s t o s b a r a j a d a s en un champurriao i n d e s c i f r a b l e , y que p o d i a r e m o j a r s e con e l agua t u r b i a d e l a l j i b e , donde v i b o r e a b a n l o s pequefios g u s a n i t o s r o j o s , d e s c e n d i e n t e s q u i e n sabe de que p u t r e f a c c i 6 n y cuyos movimientos r ^ p i d o s y v a r i a d o s p o d i a n s e r v i r de d i v e r s i d n a l a'nimo preocupado. (189) Santamaria  says t h a t champurreado i n Mexico i s a d r i n k made of 102  a t o l e , c h o c o l a t e and sugar  which agrees w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n  g i v e n by Kany f o r c h a m p u r r a o ^ champurreado).  Santamaria  3  ( l i k e champurriao a c o r r u p t i o n of  says t h a t champurreado i n C e n t r a l and  South America means a m i x t u r e of i n t o x i c a t i n g beverages  and t h a t  champurrear i n South America means t o make the d r i n k , champurreado. T h i s agrees w i t h A r r a z o l a , however he says t h a t champurrear means: "Champurrar.  H a b l a r con d i f i c u l t a d un i d i o m a .  Es un  americanismo."^^  A s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n i s g i v e n i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y a t the end of t h e p u b l i c a t i o n of Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e by Compa'nia G e n e r a l F a b r i l Editora:  " H a b l a r con d i f i c u l t a d un i d i o m a , pronuncicindolo mal y  -39usando en es l v o c a b l o s y g i r o s e x d t i c o s . " 10 6  A more e x t e n s i v e  d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d i n g both the d e f i n i t i o n s of Santamaria and of A r r a z o l a i s g i v e n by T i t o S a u b i d e t i n h i s V o c a b u l a r i o y r e f r a n e r o criollo;  "Hacer mal una cosa o t r a b a j o , a medias.  un i d i o m a mezcld'ndolo con o t r o . otros.  Chapurrear."107  H a b l a r mal  M e z c l a r un l i c o r con o t r o u  T h i s word i s n o t l i s t e d i n l u n f a r d o  v o c a b u l a r i e s and seems not t o have been a l u n f a r d o term. C h a p u r r a r and c h a p u r r e a r a r e from S p a i n .  Corominas  says t h a t  c h a p u r r a r means " h a b l a r mal un i d i o m a m e z c l a n d o l o con formas o t r o ; m e z c l a r un l i q u i d o con o t r o . "  de  He says i t s o r i g i n i s not  c e r t a i n but t h e a n c i e n t form seems t o be champurrar.  T h i s form  w i t h m i s the one i n common use i n America.^-08 Changador (180 - c h a n g a d o r e s ) .  These the h e l p e r s : " - - e l  gremio a u x i l i a r mis i m p o r t a n t e - - , que se l a s vend en /.las victimas_7 por un t a n t o de l o que produzcan." ( 1 8 0 ) .  Payet-Gobello l i s t  changador i n t h e i r Breve d i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o as: Changador de o t a r i o s :  a u x i l i a r d e l ladro'n."  "mozo de c u e r d a .  They g i v e c r e d i t  109 t o F r a y Mocho.  Lugones d i d n o t l i s t the word and i t i s not  g e n e r a l l y found i n l u n f a r d o d i c t i o n a r i e s .  According to Santamaria,  Corominas, Kany, and o t h e r s i t i s a word of the R i v e r P l a t e r e g i o n . Santamaria g i v e s us t h e s e d e f i n i t i o n s : 1. Voz p l a t e n s e - persona que anda changando o h a c i e n d o changas, t r a b a j o s de o c a s i d n y poca monta. 2. Pedn s u e l t o , s i n t r a b a j o , n i empleo f i j o . 3. Mozo de c o r d e l . H He a l s o g i v e s us a d e f i n i t i o n of changa as meaning: que p r e s t a e l changador y tambien e'l que se l e da"-'-'--'-  g i v e s us a d e f i n i t i o n of changar:  "servicio He  also  "hacer changas o n e g o c i o c i t o s  y  -40-  de poca i m p o r t a n c i a - en e l n o r t e a r g e n t i n o - andar  ejerciendo  112 su o f i c i o l a ramera c l a n d e s t i n a . "  H i s f i r s t part of t h i s  d e f i n i t i o n and t h a t o f changa c o i n c i d e w i t h those g i v e n by Saubidet,"' ''-  and t h e second p a r t o f t h i s d e f i n i t i o n c o r r e s p o n d s t o the word g i v e n t o us by Kany - changadora  -  prostitute.^'''  The o r i g i n o f t h e word changador one. Let  Kany merely s a y s :  4  o r changa i s a d i s p u t e d  " o f c o m p l i c a t e d and d i s p u t e d o r i g i n " . 1 1 5  us observe some o f t h e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s as t o t h e o r i g i n o f  changador.  Corominas, Kany, and Santamaria a l l g i v e as a p o s s i b l e  o r i g i n t h a t o f t h e Quichua word chancay, today changay which means 116  m a l t r a t a r , majar.  Corominas  says t h a t i n A r g e n t i n a and  Uruguay changador was a "mozo de c o r d e l " P a y e t - G o b e l l o p r e v i o u s l y mentioned) and s o l d t h e h i d e s .  ( l i k e the d e f i n i t i o n of  and one who k i l l e d a n i m a l s  He t h e n g i v e s t h e p o s s i b l e o r i g i n  Quichua and a l s o a p o s s i b l e o r i g i n from G a l i c i a n f a c e r changa - h a c e r n e g o c i o .  from  - Portuguese -  He t h e n g i v e s t h e etymology o f t h e  P o r t u g u e s e word - from a language o f I n d i a - c a n g a d a m . ^  7  Another  p o s s i b l e o r i g i n i s t h a t from F r e n c h quoted from L i z o n d o Borda and c i t e d by S a n t a m a r i a . G r o u s s a c . . . c o n s i d e r a como l o m^s p r o b a b l e que e s t a voz y sus d e r i v a d o s han t e n i d o su o r i g e n en una c o r r u p c i o n de exchange, v o c a b l o f r a n c o s . Y se basa en que l o s p r i m e r o s changadores, de que tenemos n o t i c i a s , e r a n c o n t r a b a n d i s t a s que, a p r i n c i p i o s d e l s i g l o X V I I I - " t e n i a n " sus g u a r i d a s en l a c o s t a o r i e n t a l , donde a c o p i a b a n l o s cueros d e s t i n a d o s a cargar l o s barcos f i l i b u s t e r o s especialmente franceses que c r u z a b a n e l L i t o r a l desde e l P l a t a h a s t a l a s A n t i l l a s . ° Changa i s used i n t h e s l a n g o f S p a i n t o mean n e g o c i o o r g a n g a . ^ I n l u n f a r d o , t h e common word, changador,  9  e v i d e n t l y was used t o mean  a s p e c i f i c type o f t h i e f as g i v e n by F r a y Mocho.  3  -41D i r s e (187).  "Tengo malos a n t e c e d e n t e s , es c i e r t o ,  eso no hace a l c a s o . . . ,  i e l d e c i r a d i 6 s no es d i r s e l "  pero  (187)  E.  Herman H e s p e l t i n An A n t h o l o g y of S p a n i s h American L i t e r a t u r e a s e c t i o n c a l l e d , "Note on the Lengua gauchesca." Unorthodox P r e f i x e s a r e common:  He s a y s :  has "6.  dentrar for entrar, d i r f o r i r ;  1 70  afijo for f i j o ; . . . " , , . 121 t h a t of i r .  Saubidet l i s t s the d e f i n i t i o n o f d i r as  w  Doctores to mean e x p e r t s :  (187).  Here F r a y Mocho seems t o use t h i s word  "jEstos p r a c t i c a n t e s l l e g a n a s e r unos d o c t o r e s  que dan miedo, y no pasa mucho tiempo s i n que den v u e l t a y r a y a a su maestro!"  (187)  T h i s p r o b a b l y comes from the a d j e c t i v e  d o c t o ( a ) - e x p e r t , w e l l p o s t e d or i n f o r m e d . Embrocar (179 - embroquen, 180 - embrocd). g i v e n by A l v a r e z i s conocer or o b s e r v a r . (179) of  The  definition  F u r t h e r meanings  the word a r e g i v e n by C a s u l l o : M i r a r con mucha a t e n c i d n , f i l i a n d o . . . . "Se t e embroca desde l e j o s , pelandruna abandonada." ( C e l e d o n i o E s t e b a n F l o r e s , G a r d e l - R a z z a n o , Margot, Tango.) 2. V. V i g i l a r . . . .  D e l l e p i a n e l i s t s embrocar as h a v i n g the same meaning as manyar, campanear, and jamar.123  Benigno Lugones i n h i s l u n f a r d o v o c a b u l a r y  g i v e s embrocar t o mean " m i r a r f i l i a n d o " . ^ 2 4  Embrocar i s one of  those many l u n f a r d o words which came i n t o the speech of Buenos A i r e s through the many I t a l i a n i m m i g r a n t s . comes from two I t a l i a n d i a l e c t s : en e l b i a n c o ; a c e r t a r .  Adivinar.  j u s t o , dar en e l bianco."125  G o b e l l o says t h a t i t  "ITALIANO i m b r o c c a r e - Dar GENOVES imbrocca* - G o l p e a r  Santamaria l i s t s an i n t e r e s t i n g but  u n r e l a t e d usage of the word embrocar i n Mexico - empinar e l codo, beber.126  g o b e l l o does n o t l i s t t h i s word as b e i n g i n use  today  -42-  i n the c o l l o q u i a l . 1 2 7 Encandilado  (194):  -- j N o s o t r o s l o que hacemos es embromar a q u i e n nos t i e n e por zonzosf j A l o s o t a r i o s l e s contamos un cuento, l e s ofrecemos una g a n a n c i a enorme, y e n c a n d i l a d o s , l o s clavamos: eso es t o d o l . . . ( 1 9 4 ) . The word h e r e p r o b a b l y has the same meaning as g i v e n by Cuyas: " E n c a n d i l a r - t o d a z z l e , t o daze, t o b e w i l d e r . "  Santamairxa  s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of t h i s word i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s of the I n Cuba e n c a n d i l a r means " a l u m b r a r s e  gives Americas,  con c a n d i l para paseo; i n  C h i l e and P u e r t o R i c o - encender, l u m b r a r ; i n Colombia  and  Puerto  128 Rico - asustarse, alarmarse.  T h i s word i s n o t l i s t e d i n t h e  v o c a b u l a r i e s of Lugones, C a s u l l o , G o b e l l o , D e l l e p i a n e , and E s c a b i o s (188 - s c h a c a r e s c a b i o s ) . drunk. ( 1 8 8 ) .  Payet.  An e s c a b i o i s a  T h i s word i s an a p o c o p a t i o n of e s c a b i a d o , the p a s t  p a r t i c i p l e of the v e r b e s c a b i a r - (beber) which i s from the word 129 e s c a b i o meaning an a l c o h o l i c beverage. T h i s word comes from Genoese s l a n g s c a b b i o ,- wine and from;the M i l a n e s e s l a n g s c a b b i 130 wine.  C a s u l l o g i v e s us a l i s t of a l c o h o l i c beverages u s i n g  the word e s c a b i o ; Escabio Escabio Escabio •Escabio He a l s o g i v e s us some o t h e r  a m a r i l l o - cognac. de can\5n - cafia. f u e r t e - aguardeiente. verde - ajenjo.131 uses of the word e s c a b i o - " e s t a r  e s c a b i a o - e s t a r completamente b o r r a c h o ; d a r s e a l e s c a b i o - s e r I  borracho consuetudinario." of L u g o n e s ^  3 3  We  f i n d e s c a b i o i n the v o c a b u l a r y  and a c c o r d i n g t o G o b e l l o e s c a b i a r i s i n g e n e r a l  134 usage today.  op  -43-  E s c r u c h a n t e (183, 1 9 0 ) . These a r e t h e a b r i d o r e s de p u e r t a s (183) whose a r t i s d e s c r i b e d i n d e t a i l by F r a y Mocho ( 1 9 0 ) . a r e d i f f e r e n c e s of s p e l l i n g s of t h i s word. escrushante,  as does P a y e t .  Casullo include: "Scrushante:  scrushante  There  Casullo writes i t  Other s p e l l i n g s g i v e n by  and scruchante.137  Ladr6n de p i s o s o i n t e r i o r e s .  Santamaria g i v e s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n :  Arrazola gives  (Del lunfardo)."138  "En A r g e n t i n a , l a d r o n que p e n e t r a  en un d o m i c i l i o , por l a a s t u c i a o l o v i o l e n c i a . " 1 3 9  Lugones gave  us t h i s word, s p e l l e d as d i d F r a y Mocho " l u n f a r d o que p r a c t i c a e l escrucho".1^°  C a s u l l o quotes F r a n c i s c o G a r c i a Jimenez t o  g i v e t h e o r i g i n of t h e word: La p a l a b r a v i n o de " s c r u n c h " , que en ingle's p o p u l a r e q u i v a l e a l o que ''amasijo" en e l hampa p o r t e n a ; e l t e m i b l e " e s c r u c h a n t e ' de n u e s t r o medio es un l a d r o n d o m i c i l i a r i o que no r e p a r a en f r a c t u r a y no t r e p i d a en matar, a l o menor a l a r m a . l ^ 1  1  E s c r u s h e (183 - h a c e r e l s c r u s c h o ) . escruchante escruche,  As i n t h e case o f  we f i n d v a r i o u s s p e l l i n g s o f t h i s word such a s :  escrucho,  i s the d e f i n i t i o n .  s c r u s c h o . T h e main problem w i t h t h i s word Fray Mocho g i v e s us h a c e r e l s c r u s c h o  t o mean  e s t a f a r - synonymous w i t h c o n t a r e l cuento (183) y e t he says t h a t the e s c r u c h a n t e  devotes h i m s e l f t o e s c r u c h o or opening doors (190) .  Other l e x i c o g r a p h e r s agree g e n e r a l l y t h a t e s c r u s h e w i t h i t s v a r i o u s s p e l l i n g s r e f e r s t o t h e robbery swindling.  e f e c t e d i n s i d e t h e house and n o t  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us t h i s  definition:  Robo e f e c t u a d o d e n t r o de l a s c a s a s , de d i a o noche, pero en a u s e n c i a de l o s moradores por h a l l a r s e e'stos en e l campo, e l t e a t r o , l a i g l e s i a , de v i s i t a , etc.1^3  -44-  Lugones g i v e s e s c r u c h o and e s c r a c h o each w i t h d i f f e r e n t meanings. E s c r u c h o means "robo en que e l l a d r o n e n t r a en una c a s a o e d i f i c i o para h a c e r e l t r a b a j o " and e s c r a c h o has a d e f i n i t i o n much more l i k e t h a t g i v e n by A l v a r e z f o r h a c e r e l s c r u s c h o ; Se l l a m a e s c r a c h o l a e s t a f a que se comete presentando a un o t a r i o un b i l l e t e de l o t e r i a y un e x t r a c t o en que aqu£l aparece premiado con l a s u e r t e mayor.•'•'•+4 T h i s l a t t e r word and d e f i n i t i o n a r e mentioned by P a y e t . d e f i n i t i o n he adds r o s t r o and f o t o g r a f i a . ^ ^  To t h a t  Dellepiane gives a long  l i s t o f usages o f e s c r a c h o b u t n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h s w i n d l i n g : R o s t r o , f o t o g r a f i a de una p e r s o n a , c a r t a . E s c r a c h o a l a gurda, r o s t r o hermoso. E s c r a c h o f u l e r o , r o s t r o f e o . Hacer un e s c r a c h o , e s c r i b i r una c a r t a . E s c r a c h o v o l a n t e , careta.l^-o There a p p a r e n t l y a r e v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the v a r i o u s forms o f s p e l l i n g o f e s c r u s h e and f o r F r a y Mocho s c r u s c h o i s n o t t h e same as e s c r u c h o .  Jose? G o b e l l o o f f e r s t h i s h e l p f u l e x p l a n a t i o n :  A l mismo tiempo que r o s t r o , e s c r a c h o s i g n i f i e d f o t o g r a f i a . Luego se l a a c o p l a r o n o t r a s s i g n i f i c a c i o n e s : "mujer f e a y d e s a g r a d a b l e " , t a l como se l e e en D i a z S a l a z a r ; p i n t a f u l e r a , segiin se desprende de e s t e t e x t o de E r n e s t o S^bato: " P e r o i m a g i n a t e , p i b e ... e r a gente r i c a ... y yo adema's ... con e s t e e s c r a c h o " ; y t a l v e z a l g u n o t r o . S i n embargo, ab i n i t i o e l e s c r a c h o f u e o t r a c o s a , p r e c i s a m e n t e l a que e x p l i c a Benigno B. Lugones: "Se l l a m a e s c r a c h o , l a e s t a f a que se comete presentando a un o t a r i o un b i l l e t e de l o t e r i a y un e s t r a c t o en que a q u ^ l aparece premiado con l a s u e r t e mayor; l a grande, como se d i c e generalmente l a gurda, como d i c e n l o s l u n f a r d o s Y b i e n , an a r g o t e s c r a c h e e s , segiin V i r m a i t r e , p a s a p o r t e o p a p e l ; cosas ambas f ^ c i l e s de a s o c i a r a l susod i c h o e x t r a c t o , y a l a f o t o g r a f i a , que es l a p a r t e mits d e s t a c a d a de un p a s a p o r t e y, por razones o b v i a s , l a que ma's i n q u i e t a b a a l o s d e l i n c u e n t e s a l u v i o n a l e s . From t h i s we can see f i r s t t h a t e a r l i e r e s c r a c h o d i d r e f e r t o a form o f s w i n d l i n g b u t e v i d e n t l y n o t t o house b r e a k i n g and t h a t i t has t a k e n on o t h e r meanings - n o t uncommon i n l u n f a r d o or any  -45-  o t h e r language.  Another i n t e r e s t i n g point i s t h a t escracho  appears  to have come from t h e a r g o t w h i l e escrucho appears t o have come from t h e E n g l i s h " s c r u n c h " .  I n any event t h e r e i s c o n f u s i o n on  t h i s word which has n o t been c l a r i f i e d .  T h i s word and i t s v a r i a t i o n s  were v e r y common i n l u n f a r d o though n o t used much today. Esparo (187).  T h i s word i s t h e name o f an a r t p r a c t i c e d  by t h e p u n g u i s t a s , p i c k p o c k e t s , d e s c r i b e d by Fray Mocho i n t h i s way: Cuando es n e c e s a r i o i n t e r c e p t a r l a v i s t a de a l g u i e n , a h i se e n c u e n t r a e l p r a c t i c a n t e , que h a r c i de nube, o o s i no e l b r a z o que no v a a operar y que se b a j a o se l e v a n ta a l a a l t u r a n e c e s a r i a . Hay p u n g u i s t a s que son muy h c i b i l e s en e s t a maniobra, que se l l a m a esparo, y que es reputada como uno de l o s e s c o l l o s d e l a r t e . (187) B e s i d e s t h i s meaning g i v e n by F r a y Mocho t h e word has a c q u i r e d others.  I t r e f e r s t o an avudante d e l p u n g u i s t a and a l s o a n y t h i n g 1  which i s used t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e r o b b e r y by a p i c k p o c k e t l i k e a newspaper, a book, a h a t - a n y t h i n g t o h i d e t h e hand o f t h e t h i e f : 148 " L l e v a b a una r e v i s t a como esparo / una r e v i s t a que junaba apenas." T h i s word i s n o t g i v e n by Lugones and i s n o t l i s t e d by G o b e l l o as  149 b e i n g i n common usage today. Esquinazo  (179 - d a r l e e l e s q u i n a z o ) .  The d e f i n i t i o n o f  t h i s a c c o r d i n g t o Jose A l v a r e z i s d e s p i s t a r - t o evade someone o r -  "Turn from the t r a i l o r c o u r s e " .  The word equinazo  i n one usage  r e f e r s t o a serenade - used i n b o t h A r g e n t i n a and C h i l e . r e l a t e s t h i s meaning w i t h d a r l e a uno e s q u i n a z o . the word e s q u i n a , " c o r n e r " , perhaps through d a r l e a uno e s q u i n a z o  Kany  I t i s d e r i v e d from  the standard  expression  - t o g i v e someone t h e s l i p by d i s a p p e a r i n g  -46-  suddenly  around the c o r n e r , s i n c e i n c o g n i t o serenaders  disappeared  often  i n t h i s m a n n e r . C a s u l l o l i s t s enganar, d e c e i v e , 151  as another meaning of the word. americanismos we  In D i c c i o n a r i o general  de  f i n d a meaning somewhat r e l a t e d w i t h engaifiar  p l u s f u r t h e r usages of t h i s word i n o t h e r n a t i o n s of South America: En A r g e n t i n a , en e l l u n f a r d o ">bonaerense, e l hecho de b u r l a r un l a d r d n a l o t r o , lleva"ndose e l producto d e l robo, s i n d e j a r l e p a r t e a e'ste. Por e x t e n s i o n , e s t a f a r , enganar, b u r l a r en g e n e r a l . En Peru - a s a l t o o ataque a l e v o s o y en C h i l e a l b o r a d a , serenata.152 T h i s word i s n o t i n c l u d e d i n the v o c a b u l a r y  of Benigno Lugones.  I t i s i n common usage today w i t h the meaning as g i v e n above and a l s o t o h o l d someone up  ( d e i a r a uno  Gato (191 - meter un g a t o ) .  plantado). F r a y Mocho d e s c r i b e s  the  v a r i o u s ways of b r e a k i n g i n t o the house by the e s c r u c h a n t e mentions another  and  then  procedure:  S i e s t o s medios no son p o s i b l e s , queda aun e l r e c u r s o de meter un g a t o , es d e c i r , hacer esconder en l a casa un c d m p l i c e que a una hora dada f r a n q u e a r ^ l a e n t r a d a . E s t e p a p e l de g a t o no l o desempaffa / s i c / c u a l q u i e r a ; es n e c e s a r i o d e d i c a r s e a e l y h a c e r s e una e s p e c i a l i d a d ; acostumbrarse a e s t a r i n m 6 v i l por horas e n t e r a s ; a r e s p i r a r s i n h a c e r r u i d o ; a no e s t o r n u d a r n i t o s e r ; en f i n , h a c e r s e un c a d / v e r . (191) F u r t h e r meanings of g a t o a r e g i v e n by Payet and by C a s u l l o . r e f e r r i n g to an a c c o m p l i c e  who  Besides  g e t s i n t o the house t o open the  door f o r the t h i e f , gato can a l s o r e f e r t o the t h i e f who  secretly  e n t e r s a house or a s t o r e and does t h e r o b b i n g h i m s e l f when the v i c t i m s have gone t o s l e e p or out. l i t t l e value.  Gato a l s o r e f e r s t o a person of  Both of these l e x i c o g r a p h e r s c l a i m t h a t t h i s word  -47-  w i t h t h i s usage i s from the germania g i v e s t h i s meaning:  "d. Robo d e l g a t o .  p r o s t i t u t a e n t r a d o a g a t a s en e l un hombre."'' ^ -  xh  4  e  ( s l a n g ) of S p a i n . ^  Besses  3  E l que v e r i f i c a una  c u a r t q donde o t r a e n t r e t i e n e a  D i c t i o n a r y of the R e a l Academia E s p a n o l a  among i t s d e f i n i t i o n s  g i v e s t h e s e : " l a d r o n r a t e r o que h u r t a con  a s t u c i a y engano", "hombre sagaz, a s t u t o " , and "hombre n a c i d o en Madrid".  F r a y Mocho e v i d e n t l y i s t h e f i r s t t o l i s t t h i s  term  f o r i t d i d not appear i n Lugones. Golpe  (183).  A l v a r e z uses t h i s word when d i s c u s s i n g the  c u a t r o armas ( p r e v i o u s l y m e n t i o n e d ) . who  He says t h a t they a r e t h o s e  d i r e c t the i m p o r t a n t g o l p e s ( e v i d e n t l y the o f f e n s e s ) .  Breve d i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o by G o b e l l o and Payet we d e f i n i t i o n f o r golpe: un d e l i t o . " ' ' ' " ^  find  In  this  "En l a e x p r e s i d n dar un g o l p e , cometer  The o t h e r v o c a b u l a r i e s of l u n f a r d o terms do n o t  g i v e t h i s word, i n f a c t G o b e l l o even f a i l s t o l i s t i t as p a r t of t h e v o c a b u l a r y of F r a y Mocho, perhaps because i t was use, but A l v a r e z does w r i t e the word i n i t a l i c s .  i n v e r y common  Zunzunegui  in  L a v i d a como es uses g o l p e c o n s i s t e n t l y t o mean a r o b b e r y or an o f f e n s e as d e f i n e d above, so i t seems t o be meaning i n widespread usage i n t h e S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g w o r l d . Lunfardo (183).  " E n t r e l o s l u n f a r d o s hay c i n c o grandes  familias"  (183).  Here F r a y Mocho r e f e r s t o the l u n f a r d o s as the  thieves.  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us t h i s  definition:  L a d r d n , gene'ricamente. • E l i d i o m a que emplean l o s mismos en Buenos A i r e s . Sindn: L u n f a , c h o r o , malevo, de l a v i d a . L u n f a r d o a l a gurda, l a d r d n que p r a c t i c a todos l o s proced i m i e n t o s de r o b o , s i n e s p e c i a l i z a r s e en ninguno, como r e g u l a r m e n t e acontece con l a mayorla de l o s l u n f a r d o s ,  -48-  cada uno de l o s c u a l e s adopta a q u e l l a e s p e c i a l i d a d que se armoniza con sus a p t i t u d e s f r s i c a s y p s i q u i c a s . 1 5 6 By e x t e n s i o n i t a l s o r e f e r s t o t h e p o p u l a r language which i n c l u d e s l u n f a r d o words and o t h e r s brought i n by t h e many immigrants.157 A r r a z o l a g i v e s us t h i s  definition:  A r g o t . C a l d . D i a l e c t o p r o p i o de l a gente d e l hampa bonaerense cuyo uso se ha e x t e n d i d o a algunos s e c t o r e s de l a p o b l a c i d n y algunas voces d e l c u a l son de c u r s o forzoso. Ladrdn. ( a d j e t i v o ) : Perteneciente y r e l a t i v o a l l u n f a r d o como i d i o m a y como a c t i v i d a d . 1 5 8 F u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l f o l l o w on t h i s language and how i t developed.  A l l t h e l e x i c o g r a p h e r s w r i t e v o c a b u l a r i e s of  l u n f a r d o b u t none g i v e s i t s etymology.  Ame*rico C a s t r o says  that  i t i s a d i a l e c t a l word from I t a l i a n , b u t , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f a i l s 159 t o s t a t e t h a t d i a l e c t a l word.  The word i s used by Lugones and  he a l s o g i v e s t h e d e f i n i t i o n f o r l u n f a r d o a l a gurda p r e v i o u s l y mentioned.  He g i v e s o n l y t h e d e f i n i t i o n " t h i e f " and does n o t  mention i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o language. Marengo (195 - s e c u e s t r o de marengos). not g i v e us t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f marengo.  F r a y Mocho does  When G o b e l l o l i s t s i t i n  the " V o c a b u l a r i o de F a b i o C a r r i z o " i n h i s book, V i e j a y nueva lunfardia,  he merely says "no t r a e d e f i n i c i d h " .  word marengo i s a g o l d French  I n I t a l i a n the  c o i n of 20 f r a n c s o f Napolean I .  S e c u e s t r a r b e s i d e s meaning " t o k i d n a p " can a l s o mean " t o s e i z e " . T h i s , then c o u l d have t h e d e f i n i t i o n t o r o b .  I t seems t h a t t h i s i s  the usage i n t e n d e d by F r a y Mocho: — {Aqui me t r a i n , seflor'.... jsiempre p o r l o mismoi..., s e c u e s t r o de marengos — parodiando e l e s t i l o de l o s p a r t e s p o l i c i a l e s — a un g r i n g o que q u e r f a v o l a r I (195)  -49-  T h i s r e f e r s t o A l c a c h o f a , t h e famous t h i e f p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. L u i s S o l e r Canas i n O r i g e n e s de l a l i t e r a t u r e l u n f a r d a makes a statement t h a t seems t o support  t h i s conclusion?;-.  He says  "marengos, a n t e c e d e n t e d i r e c t o de mangos, hoy t o d a v i a en uso con e l s i g n i f i c a d o de pesos moneda n a c i o n a l . . . " Mina (183).  These a r e the women d e s c r i b e d by F r a y Mocho  and quoted e a r l i e r i n t h i s c h a p t e r .  He says t h i s :  iSon l a s madres, son l a s m u j e r e s , son esas pobres m a V t i r e s que a r r a s t r a n su c r u z a trave's d e l mundo -l a s minas, como e l l o s l e s {sicj l l a m a n --, l a s que l e s s i r ven de escudo c o n t r a l o s g o l p e s de l a s u e r t e ! (183) T h i s word i s f i r s t g i v e n by Lugones i n h i s l u n f a r d o v o c a b u l a r y as mujer.  M i n a r e f e r r e d t o a woman i n g e n e r a l b u t c o u l d a l s o  mean t h e l o v e r of a l u n f a r d o ( t h i e f ) , as g i v e n by F r a y Mocho.  A  161 mina de tango i s a p r o s t i t u t e  as i s mina de tambo "(tambo,  prostibulo)".  i s a v i r g i n "(shacar,  A mina s i n shacar  engatusar,  enganar, r o b a r por medio de l a m e n t i r a , es d e c i r , s e d u c i r ) " .^-^ S a n t a m a r i a g i v e s mina as c o n c u b i n a and b a r r a g a n a o r any companera amorosa i n B o l i v i a .  C a s u l l o says t h a t i n B o l i v i a , C o l o m b i a ,  C h i l e , P e r u , and Uruguay mina i s a woman i n g e n e r a l o r t h e l o v e r of a t h i e f . 1 6 4  Kany g i v e s t h e E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f mina as  "mistress".There o r i g i n of t h e word.  a r e two p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s as t o t h e Kany says t h a t i t comes from I t a l i a n  jargon  i n which mina means woman b u t g i v e s us no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . C a s u l l o c l a i m s t h a t i t i s a word p o s s i b l y o f P o r t u g u e s e o r i g i n from menina, a g i r l , and a t t h e same time an a f f e c t i o n a t e word.•'-67 The word mina i s v e r y much i n use i n Buenos A i r e s today,  especially  -50-  among the younger s e t .  The d e f i n i t i o n g i v e n by A r r a z o l a agrees  w i t h t h i s modern usage: M i n a : ( s u s t a n t i v o ) Mujer j o v e n , hermosa y b e l l a . E s t e l o c a l i s m o bonaerense s i g n i f i c a a l g o mils de l o que dejamos consignado para c i e r t a c l a s e de i n d i v i d u o s s i n e s c r u p u l o s . 1 6 8 Mosca (203)  "Y R o b i l l o t t i nadaba ya por l a r g a r l a mosca,  cuando para f e l i c i d a d de su b o l s i l l o , l o encontr<5 e l agente p o l i c i a l . " (203)  The d e f i n i t i o n l i s t e d by G o b e l l o i n " V o c a b u l a r i o de  C a r r i z o " i s d i n e r o . C a s u l l o says: mosca que y a l g a .  "Dinero.  0 l a b u r a n o no comen. '"'''^  Fabio  . 'Para mi no  hay  I t i s not g i v e n i n  most d i c t i o n a r i e s of l u n f a r d o , and was not g i v e n by Lugones. SantamarLa l i s t s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o r A r g e n t i n a :  "...impacto en e l  c e n t r o mismo d e l b i a n c o ; punto marcado en e l c e n t r o d e l bianco."171 Muchacho ( 1 8 3 ) . F r a y Mocho says: los ..."  I n d e s c r i b i n g the work of l a s c u a t r o armas  " E l l o s son, generalmente, l o s que educan y forman  muchachos esmera'ndose en a q u e l l o s que r e v e l a n mejores f a c u l t a d e s : (183).  prepared  E v i d e n t l y by muchachos he r e f e r s t o the young men  t o be t h i e v e s .  T h i s does not appear i n any  v o c a b u l a r i e s though Mocho uses i t i n i t a l i c s .  being  lunfardo  Santamaria  g i v e s us  the d e f i n i t i o n i n A r g e n t i n a f o r muchacho as b e i n g tentemozo d e l 172 carro,  a t y p e of support or prop of a c a r t .  These muchachos  were indeed the props or support f o r the c u a t r o armas who  planned  the crime but had them t o c a r r y i t out. O t a r i o (180, 194).  " V i v e n de l o s o t a r i o s , como l l a m a n a  las  v i c t i m a s que caen e n t r e sus g a r r a s , . . . " ( 1 8 0 ) .  dia  y noche por l a s c a l l e s en busca de o t a r i o s -- v i c t i m a s —  (194).  "...como anda ..."  Most d e f i n i t i o n s of o t a r i o agree w i t h these but g i v e the  -51idea of h i s being a f o o l or very s t u p i d . these  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us  definitions: Hombre honrado. I g n o r a n t e , i n f e l i z , s u j e t o fa'cilmente embaucable e x p l o t a n d o sus c o n d i c i o n e s de t o n t o y de p i l l o , de cre'dulo y de c o d i c i o s o , a l a v e z . En e s t e segundo s e n t i d o es sindnimo de cuadro, g i l , v i c h e n z q t u r r o , s e r v i c i o l i l a , Sanchez, c a r t d n , e t c . O t a r i o de l a g u r d a, t o n t o de c a p i r o t e . Tomar de o t a r i o (a a l g u n o ) , t r a t a r de embaucarlo, suponiendolo t o n t o . . . . Shacador de o t a r i o s , ladr<5n que se d e d i c a a l a e s t a f a por medio d e l cuento d e l legado d e l t i o , d e l legado para l a c r i a n z a d e l n i n o , etc. 1 7 3  A r r a z o l a gives us:  " I d i o t a , Zonzo, E s t u l t o , N e c i o , B o b o . " ! ^  Santamaria g i v e s about t h e same meaning. Lugones says i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n . zonzo, c a s i i d i o t a " . 1 7 5  He adds:  T h i s i s b a s i c a l l y what " o t a r i o cuadro:  muy  Kany s t a t e s t h a t i n t h e R i v e r P l a t e  r e g i o n t h e s l a n g o t a r i o was once w i d e l y used i n p o p u l a r  speech  but has l o s t f o r c e and i s b e i n g r e p l a c e by g i l and g i l i t o  (tonto). 1 ^  D e s p i t e t h i s , G o b e l l o l i s t s o t a r i o as b e i n g a word i n p o p u l a r use  today.I  7 7  Punguista  (183).  These a r e t h e p i c k p o c k e t s ( 1 8 3 ) . A l l  of t h e p a r t e n t i t l e d " E l a r t e es s u b l i m e " o f Chapter XIV o f Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e i s d e d i c a t e d t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e punguista.  There a r e s e v e r a l r e l a t e d words.  Punga i s t h e  "robo o s u s t r a c c i r f n de l o s o b j e t o s que l a gente l l e v a en l o s b o l s i l l o s ; r a t e r l a hecha c o n mafia y a s t u c i a . " 1 7 8 be t h a t which i s robbed from t h e p o c k e t .  i t can a l s o  D e j a r l a punga means  to d e p o s i t what i s robbed i n a s a f e p l a c e t o p i c k i t up l a t e r when t h e danger has passed.179 medio de l a punga."  Puaguear means " r o b a r , s u s t r a e r por  T h i s means t h e same i n C h i l e . 1 ^ 0  Arrazola  i n h i s D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos a r g e n t i n o s gives p u n g u i s t a a  I  -52-  b r o a d e r meaning - more than j u s t a p i c k p o c k e t : Ratero.  Lunfardismo."^ ^ 8  "LadrcSn.  Kany says p u n g u i s t a i s a p i c k p o c k e t  i n A r g e n t i n a and Ecuador but t h a t i n C h i l e they use punga and i n Ecuador punguero. °  Benigno Lugones g i v e s both punga and  punguista i n h i s vocabulary.183 as b e i n g a word i n c u r r e n t usage  G o b e l l o does not l i s t i t today.  Queso (191 - e n t r a r como en queso). to b r e a k open a door but has d i f f i c u l t i e s :  An e s c r u c h a n t e  tries  "Entonces es cuando  se r e c u r r e a c o r t a r e l t a b l e r o de l a p a r t e i n f e r i o r de l a p u e r t a , formado por l o g e n e r a l de madera b l a n d a , en l a c u a l una c i i c h i l l a a f i l a d a e n t r a como en queso y abre un buen p o s t i g o . " (191)  T h i s appears t o be n o t h i n g more than a s i m i l e - perhaps  used commonly among the l u n f a r d o s .  Queso was  used i n l u n f a r d o  but w i t h meanings f a r d i f f e r e n t f r o m the one a l r e a d y mentioned. C a s u l l o g i v e s us these  definitions:  P o r q u e r f a s , c a s c a r r i a en l o s p i e s de l a s personas desp r o l i j a s , s u c i a s . 2. s. Los p i e s de l a s personas. 3. Las medias. 4. F i g u r a . E l presupuesto d e l Estado. ."Todos p a t a l e a n , todos c r i t i c a n . . . pero l e s g u s t a e l queso." 5. a d j . Hermoso, b e l l o ; buy bueno...,185 Besses l i s t s s e v e r a l d i f i n i t i o n s i n the s l a n g of S p a i n : Pie  de gran tamafio. Rostro  Dar e l queso:  (185 - dar e l r o s t r o ) .  e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s  "Pie.  Enga&ar; engatusar."186 F r a y Mocho g i v e s t h i s  phrase:  S i n embargo, e l n e g o c i o t i e n e sus c o n t r a s . Veces hay que ha hecho e f e c t u a r un robo v a l i o s o , y cuando va a r e t i r a r su p a r t e se encuentra con una punalada o con que, s e n c i l l a mente, l e d i c e n que no sea zonzo, y se a l z a n con e l santo y l a l i m o s n a , a c c i d n que se l l a m a dar e l r o s t r o . (184-5). There a r e o t h e r words r e l a t e d t o t h i s one.  R o s t r e a r means dar  e l r o s t r o and r o s t r a z o i s the a c t i o n and e f f e c t of r o s t r e a r .  -53-  R o s t r o means t h e same as r o s t r a z o .  Dellepiane defines rostrear  i n t h i s way: O c u l t a r a l o s c<5mplices una p a r t e d e l robo para que no e n t r e en l a d i s t r i b u c i 6 n , y obtener a s i una p a r t e mayor de l a d e b i d a . Lo mismo que d a r e l r o s t r o . 1 8 7 T h i s term was n o t l i s t e d by Lugones and does n o t appear t o be i n common usage today.  Santamaria a l s o f a i l s ;to l i s t i t .  Schacar or shacar  (188 - schacar e s c a b i o s ) .  e x p r e s s i o n means r o b a r b o r r a c h o s .  This  Schacar i n g e n e r a l means t o 188  rob and a l s o t o r o b through d e c e i t .  I t has v a r i o u s other'  uses: Engafiar, s a c a r una cosa por medio de l a m e n t i r a . Shacar e l v e n t o , c o n s e g u i r e l d i n e r o de o t r o , merced a l engano. Shacar una mina, f o r n i c a r . Mina s i n s h a c a r , mujer v i r g e n . - ' There a r e d e r i v a t i v e s of t h i s word: shacadura - r o b b e r y ;  shacador/ra  89  - thief;  shacamento - r o b b e r y , d e c e i t , s w i n d l e . 191  These words come from s c i a c c a i n Genoese which means t o squeeze. F r a y Mocho i s t h e f i r s t t o g i v e us t h i s word and i t appears t o s t i l l be i n wide usage i n t h e common c o l l o q u i a l Tano ( 1 9 5 ) . Neopolitan.  speech o f  Argentina.192  T h i s i s an apocopated form of n a p o l i t a n o -  A r r a z o l a gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n :  "Dicese  familiarmente  d e l i t a l i a n o r e s i d e n t e en l a A r g e n t i n a , e s p e c i a l m e n t e d e l napolitano.  Kany says t h a t i t means n a p o l i t a n o and by  e x t e n s i o n any I t a l i a n . S a n t a m a r i a says t h a t i t was a d e r r o g a t o r y name:  "En A r g e n t i n a , a f e V e s i s de n a p o l i t a n o - nombre  d e s p e c t i v o que se da a l o s e x t r a n j e r o s emigrantes de esa nacionalidad."-'-95  -54-  Toco (184 and 207, hacer e l t o c o ) . r E l campana p r e s t a s e r v i c i o s a l o s l a d r o n e s , pero que d i g a n e s t o s l o que l e s c u e s t a : siempre se l l e v a e l l o mejor d e l t o c o , o sea d e l monto de l o a t r a p a d o ! (184) Toco i s a p o r t i o n of t h a t which i s robbed.  I t i s a l s o a bundle  196 of bank n o t e s .  T h i s second d e f i n i t i o n i s r e l a t e d t o the usage  of t o c o made by F r a y Mocho on page 207 - h a c e r e l t o c o or the balurdo deceive.  use  ( u s e l e s s papers t h a t l o o k l i k e a r o l l of money) t o  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s us another  usage dar e l t o c o - " e n t r e g a r  l a p o r c i 6 n c o r r e s p o n d i e n t e de l o robado."-'-  97  A n o t h e r word d e r i v e d  from t o c o i s tocomocho: Tocomocho. s. (En algunos " t r a b a j o s " , en e l cuento d e l t i o , e s p e c i a l m e n t e ) , b i l l e t e de l o t e r l a a d u l t e r a d o , que se usa para e s t a f a r . Tambien, montdh de p a p e l e s , r e c o r t e s de d i a r i o s , simulando un paquete de b i l l e t e s , para t i m a r . "Y u s t e d por s e r v i r l o , l e d i 6 c i e n t o s o d o s c i e n t o s . Eso se l l a m a tocomocho." ( F l o r e n c i o Sanchez, T e a t r o , 187.)198 We  a l s o f i n d tocomochero - " E l que p r a c t i c a e l genero de e s t a f a  ] 99 denominada, t r a b a j o de tocomocho."  Arrazola gives t h i s  d e f i n i t i o n of t o c o :  l e c o r r e s p o n d e a cada  "Guota, p a r t e que  de l o s que p a r t i c i p a n en un robo o d e l i t o . For tocomocho he g i v e s :  (Del  uno  lunfardo)."200  " D i c e s e d e l b i l l e t e y e x t r a c t o de l a  l o t e r l a f a l s i f i c a d o s para h a c e r e l cuento o t r a b a j o denomindo d e l tocomocho. en d e s u s o ) . " ^ l  ( L o c a l i s m o d e l l u n f a r d o bonaerense que ha  Santamaria g i v e s another meaning not e x a c t l y  r e l a t e d t o l u n f a r d o - a type of i n d i g e n o u s Argentina.202  cafdo  cedar t r e e i n  Xoco comes from Genoese - t d c c o - a p i e c e of  something, hence a p a r t of the l o o t .  Piggia* o t o c c o - t o  a l l o w y o u r s e l f t o be b r i b e d ( d e j a r s e sobornar).203  Toco  was  -55g i v e n by Lugones b e f o r e F r a y Mocho.  I t i s n o t i n common, p o p u l a r  usage today.. Trabajo robbery,  (180, 183, 1 8 6 ) . T r a b a j o  i n g e n e r a l terms i s a  and t r a b a j a r i n l u n f a r d o means t o r o b i n t h e w i d e s t  of t h e w o r d . P a y e t  sense  f o r t r a b a j a r a l s o g i v e s a n o t h e r meaning: 205  " c o n q u i s t a r e l ^nimo de a l g u i e n " . Lugones.  T h i s was f i r s t g i v e n by  Today i t no l o n g e r has t h i s meaning i n p o p u l a r  speech.  D e l l e p i a n e i n E l i d i o m a d e l d e l i t o g i v e s us s e v e r a l pages o f v a r i o u s types o f t r a b a i o s .  Among some o f those l i s t e d a r e t h e s e :  t r a b a j o de a l b a r d e , t r a b a j o de b i a b a , t r a b a j o de c a r a m a y o l a , t r a b a j o de c u e n t o , t r a b a j o de o t a r i o , t r a b a j o de d e s c u i d o , de escamoteo, t r a b a j o de e s c r u s h o , de punga, and t r a b a j o de tocomocho.  trabajo  t r a b a j o de e s p i a n t e , t r a b a j o The usage o f t r a b a j a r  meaning " t o r o b " i s n o t l i m i t e d t o A r g e n t i n a .  Besses g i v e s  the d e f i n i t i o n s o f r o b a r f o r t r a b a j a r and expender moneda f a l s a f o r t r a b a j a r e l percal.207 Tumba  (181). Cuando un moceton empieza a andar a malos t r a t o s , ya l o s d e l o f i c i o , a l h a b l a r de £l d i c e n ; "jam£s sera" nada ' o "es un muchacho de esperanzas y que ira* l e j o s ' , segun sea que t a l p a j a r o haya s a l i d o b i e n o mal en sus p r i m e r o s r e v u e l o s . En e l p r i m e r caso, no encuentra p r o t e c t o r e s y t i e n e que h a c e r s e .came de canon, soldado de l a gran f a l a n g e , b r a z o e j e c u t o r y por l o t a n t o f r e c u e n t a d o r de c a l a b o z o s y abonado a l a tumba d e l Departmento C e n t r a l . (181) 1  1  Tumba i s a puchero, " c a m e c o c i d a en agua" and a l s o "comida de presos".208  Santamaria says t h a t i n A r g e n t i n a i t i s "comida  p e c u l i a r d e l pobre, escaso a l i m e n t o ; p i e z a o bocado que se saca de l a o l l a ; t r o z o de mala carne h e r v i d a en agua s i n s a l . "  -56-  He p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s word i s a l s o h e a r d i n p l a c e s on t h e c o a s t of Southwestern  Mexico.209  Vento mischo (207 - h a c e r un v e n t o m i s c h o ) . i s synonymous o f t o c o . d e c e i v e and r o b .  Vento mischo  (207) I t means t o use f a l s e papers t o  L e t ' s a n a l y z e each word.  F i r s t vento.  I t means  money ( d i n e r o ) - a l s o t h e r e i s another form - v e j i t o l i n a . •  LU  Some  PI i  of i t s synonymns a r e g u i t a , g u i t a r r a , paco, and r o l l o .  I t comes  from s u b s t a n d a r d Genoese v e n t o , meaning d i n e r o - "o 1'e ommo c h i 212 ha do v e n t o , es un hombre r i c o . " common language.  I t was g i v e n by Lugones b e f o r e F r a y Mocho.  l e t us examine mischo. mishia.213  I t i s i n use today i n t h e Now  I t i s sometimes s p e l l e d m i s h i o , misho, o r  means pobre and m i s e r o .  C a s u l l o gives andar misho -  9 1/  " e s t a r o andar s i n un c e n t a v o . "  M i s h o de u n i f o r m e means  naked, and misho de r e b u t e - v e r y poor.215  There appears t o be  some d i s c r e p a n c i e s on t h e o r i g i n o f t h i s word.  Gobello gives  m i s h i o as coming from Genoese, m i s c i o - " f a l t o de d i n e r o " . 2 1 6 Kany c i t e s L i z o n d o Borda as g i v i n g misho - a word i n N o r t h w e s t e r n A r g e n t i n a meaning m i s e r ,  ' and Santamaria c l a i m s t h a t i t comes  from t h e Quichua michha - "seco p a r a o t r o s , agravado en todo g^nero."218  The more l i k e l y e x p l a n a t i o n o f etymology i s t h a t  of G o b e l l o as f a r as l u n f a r d o i s concerned.  Micho was l i s t e d  i n t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f Benigno Lugones as meaning i n s i g n i f i c a n t e and pobre.219  xhe word m i s h i a d u r a ( p o v e r t y ) i s s t i l l  i n widespread  u s e , b u t n o t misho or mishio.220 Vida (180).  From t h e c o n t e x t we g e t t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t  i n t h i s case v i d a means t h e mala v i d a - t h e l i f e o f t h i e v e r y :  -57—-iVengo por una temporada a v i s i t a r a l a f a m i l i a l *Yo prometo que no hare' ningdn dano!... l Y a me he r e t i r a d o de l a v i d a 1 .. . iNo me p e r s i g a y ocu'peme en c u a l q u i e r a v e r i g u a c i d n ! (180) Payet says t h i s of v i d a :  "Se s o b r e e n t i e n d e l a mala v i d a . "  And so we c o n c l u d e t h e v o c a b u l a r y o f F r a y Mocho.  He was  the f i r s t t o r e c o r d many v o c a b u l a r y i t e m s , b u t i n o t h e r cases Lugones had p r e v i o u s l y r e c o r d e d them.  Some o f t h e L u n f a r d o  words g i v e n by F r a y Mocho a r e n o t - l i s t e d by o t h e r l e x i c o g r a p h e r s . Some a r e i n common usage today b u t o t h e r s a r e n o t .  Many  d i c t i o n a r i e s l i k e t h a t o f P a y e t , D e l l e p i a n e , and C a s u l l o g i v e f r e q u e n t c r e d i t t o Jose" A l v a r e z as t h e i r s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n . B e s i d e s t h e l i t e r a r y v a l u e o f Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , t h i s work i s o f g r e a t worth t o t h e s t u d e n t o f t h e speech o f Buenos A i r e s .  -58-  FOOTNOTES I j o s l G o b e l l o , Vie.ja y nueva l u n f a r d i a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l F r e e l a n d , 1963), p. 16. E n r i q u e R i c a r d o d e l V a l l e , L u n f a r d o l o g i a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l F r e e l a n d , 1966), p. 44. G o b e l l o , pp. 101-117.  3  4 G o b e l l o , p. 13. 5  D e l V a l l e , pp. 249-253.  6  De Pedro, p. 17.  7  D e l V a l l e , p. 42.  8  0 b r a s c o m p l e t a s , I , 147.  9  I b i d . , I , 148.  l°Ibid., I , 149. U  Ibid.,  I , 159.  1 2  I b i d . , I , 160.  1 3  I b i d . , I , 162.  l I b i d . , I , 164. 4  l ^ i b i d . , I , 165. "^De Pedro, p. 16. l^Obras c o m p l e t a s , I , 179. I S l b i d . , I , 182. 1 9 l b i d . , I , 183-4. 2 Q  I b i d . , I , 209.  2 1  I b i d . , I , 211.  -59-  2 2  I b i d . , I , 76-77.  23c.E. Kany, American - S p a n i s h Semantics ( B e r k e l e y : of C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1960), p. 52.  University  ^ F r a n c i s c o J . S a n t a m a r i a , D i c c i o n a r i o g e n e r a l de americanismos (Mexico C i t y , M e x i c o : E d i t o r i a l Pedro Robredo, 1942), I , 75. 2  25c.E. Kany, A m e r i c a n - S p a n i s h Euphemisms U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1960), p. 89.  Aires:  (Berkeley:  26Roberto A r r a z o l a , D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos a r g e n t i n o s E d i t o r i a l C o l o m b i a , 1943), p. 32.  (Buenos  2 F e r n a n d o Hugo C a s u l l o , D i c c i o n a r i o de voce s l u n f a r d a s y v u l g a r e s (Buenos A i r e s ; E d i t o r i a l F r e e l a n d , 1964), p. 33. 7  28Luciano P a y e t and Jos£ G o b e l l o , Breve d i c c i o n a r i o (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l A. Pena L i l l o , 1959), p. 14.  lunfardo  G i u s e p p e B e l l i n i , L o Spagnolo d'America ( M i l a n : L a G o l i a r d i c a ) , p. 60. See a l s o Americo C a s t r o , L a p e c u l i a r i d a d l i n g u i s t i c a r i o p l a t e n s e ( M a d r i d : Taurus, 1961), p. 124. 2 9  3°Antonio D e l l e p i a n e , E l i d i o m a d e l d e l i t o y d i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o (Buenos A i r e s : Compania G e n e r a l F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1967), p. 77." 3 1  Gobello,  p. 190.  3 2 i b i d . , p. 209. 3 3 c a s u l l o , p. 35. 3^Dellepiane,  p. 77.  3 5 s a n t a m a r i a , I , 196. 3 6  Gobello,  p. 146.  3 7 c a s u l l o , p. 38. O  Q  Dellepiane, 3^Arrazola,  p. 77.  p . 35.  ^ K a n y , Semantics , p. ^ 1 S a n t a m a r i a , I , 208. 4 2  G o b e l l o , p?. 146-147.  -60-  43  S a n t a m a r i " a , I , 208. Ibid.  4 4  ^ G o b e l l o , p. 146. 4 6  Ibid.,  pp. 209,  4 7  C a s u l l o , p. 45.  See a l s o page 139. 14.  4  ^ K a n y , S e m a n t i c s , pp. 163,  4  9 c a s u l l o , pp. 45-46.  5 0  G o b e l l o , pp. 209-210.  5 1  P a y e t , p. 18.  5 2  G o b e l l o , p.  5 3  I b i d . , pp. 147-8.  5 4  P a y e t , p. 19.  5 5  S a n t a m a r l a , I I , 422.  5 6  C a s u l l o , p. 50.  220.  147  " ^ A r r a z o l a , p. 44. -^Kany, Euphemisms, p. 5 9  Ibid.,  p.  184.  6 0  Ibid.,  p.  103.  162.  S a n t a m a r l a , I , 258. Corominas g i v e s us the o r i g i n of the word cacha as h a v i n g come from t h e v u l g a r L a t i n c a p p u l a , p l u r a l f o r cappulum, meaning the h i l t of t h e sword. J . Corominas, D i c c i o n a r i o c r l t i c o e t i m o l d g i c o de l a l e n g u a c a s t e l l a n o (Berne: E d i t o r i a l F r a n c k e , 1954), I , 92-3. 6 1  6 F r o m cachar we a l s o get the word cachada - broma, b u r l a , guasa and c a c h a d o r / r a - he or she who cacha. C a s u l l o , p. 50. 2  6 3 G o b e l l o , p.  110.  6 4 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 86. 6 5  P a y e t , p. 41.  6 6  G o b e l l o , p.  210.  6 7  I b i d . , pp. 14-15.  6 8  C a s u l l o , p. 54.  6 9  D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 77, 79.  7 0 o b e l l o , pp. 14-15, 210. G  7 1  D e l l e p i a n e , p. 79.  7 2  C a s u l l o , p. 55.  73ibid. 74ibid. 7 5  I b i d . , p. 56.  7 6  Ibid.  7 7  Ibid.  7 8  Ibid.  7 9  S e e Corominas, I , 619.  8 0  K a n y , S e m a n t i c s , p. 69.  8]  - P a y e t , p. 21.  8 2  Gobello,  p. 148.  8 3  I b i d . , p. 14.  8 4  I b i d . , p. 210.  8 5  C a s u l l o , p. 58.  8 6  D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 79-80. I b i d . , p. 98.  8 7  8 8  C o r o m i n a s , I , 668.  8 9  Gobello,  9 n  C o r o m i n a s , I , 743.  p. 209.  ^ A r r a z o l a , pp. 58-59. 9 2  S a n t a m a r l a , I , 427.  •62-  D e l l e p i a n e , p. 80.  9 3  9 ibid. 4  9  5 S a n t a m a r i a , I , 429.  9 6 G o  b e l l o , p. 14.  9 7  C a s u l l o , p. 74.  9 8  P a y e t , p. 29.  9 9  A r r a z o l a , p. 61.  IQOlbid. I Q l l b i d . , p. 62. S a n t a m a r i a , I , 462.  1 0 2  l° Kany, S e m a n t i c s , p. 9 3  1 0 4 s a n t a m a r i a , I , 462. i° Arrazola, 5  p >  52.  106 Fay Mocho, p. 159. T i t o S a u b i d e t , V o c a b u l a r i o y r e f r a n e r o c r i o l l o , 6 t h ed. uenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l G u i l l e r m o K r a f t , 1962), p. 119. 1 0 7  l°8corominas, I I , p. 25. 1 0 9  P a y e t , p. 30.  l l S a n t a m a r i a , I , 465. n  1 1 1  Ibid.  1 1 2  Ibid.  ^ S a u b i d e t , pp. 119-120. 1 1 4  K a n y , Semantics, p. 114.  H ^ K a n y , Euphemisms, p. 35. 1 1 6  C o r o m i n a s , I I , 17; Kany, Semantics, p. 114; and S a n t a m a r i a ,  465. H C o r o m i n a s , I I , p. 17. 7  -63-  /  118  Santamaria,  I , p.  465.  l ^ L u i s Besses, D i c c i o n a r i o de a r g o t espanol Sucesores de Manuel S o l e r , n . d . ) p. 60.  (Barcelona:  }  l ^ E . Herman H e s p e l t ( e d . ) , An A n t h o l o g y of Spanish A m e r i c a n L i t e r a t u r e (New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I n c . , 1946), p. 304. Saubidet,  1 2 1  p.  135.  C a s u l l o , p.  1 2 2  87.  • ^ D e l l e p i a n e , p. 8 2. G o b e l l o , p.  1 2 4  Ibid.,  1 2 5  p.  14. 156.  Santamaria,  1 2 6  I,  591.  G o b e l l o , pp. 209-210. The word i s used i n the s l a n g of S p a i n . I n Zunzunegui we read t h i s : "... ((El P i n t a o ) es e l maestro de una e s c u e l a de soneros f ^ c i l e s que s a l e n limpiamente d e l embroque ... cY que" es e l embroque? Es (( ... l a d i s p o s i c i 6 n en que e l t o r e r o se h a l l a r e s p e c t o a l t o r o , cuando s i no se moviera l l e v a r i a l a cornada)) ." Juan A. de Zunzunegui, La v i d a como es, 2d. ed. ( B a r c e l o n a : E d i t o r i a l Noguer, 1956), p. 513. 1 2 7  1 2 8  •  Santamaria,  L 2 9  Payet,  I,  p.  597.  36.  1 3 0  G o b e l l o , p.  158.  1 3 1  C a s u l l o , p.  93.  Ibid.  1 3 2  1 3 3  G o b e l l o , p.  1 3 4  Ibid.,  p.  210.  l Casullo,p.  95.  3 5  1 3 6  Payet,  1 3 7  C a s u l l o , p.  1 3 8  A r r a z o l a , p.  1 3 9  p.  14.  Santamaria,  36. 95. 178. I,  620.  -64-  1 4 0  G o b e l l o , p. 14.  1 4 1  C a s u l l o , p. 95.  1 4 2  Ibid. D e l l e p i a n e , p. 84.  1 4 3  1 4 4  G o b e l l o , p. 13.  1 4 5  P a y e t , p. 36.  1 4 6  D e l l e p i a n e , p. 83.  1 4 7  G o b e l l o , p. 195.  1 4 8  Ibid.,  pp. 97-98.  1 4 9  Ibid.,  p. 210.  15°Kany, Semant-ics, p. 110. 1 5 1 c a s u l l o , p. 100. • ^ S a n t a m a r i a , I , p. 626. l P a y e t , p. 43; C a s u l l o , p. 117. 5 3  l - ^ B e s s e s , p. 83. 1 5 5  P a y e t , p. 44.  l D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 89-90. 5 6  1 5 7  P a y e t , p. 49.  158^ 1 5 9  r r a z o  i a , p. 122.  Am^rico  C a s t r o , p. 89.  160Gobello, p. 17, and L u i s S o l e r Canas, Orfgenes d e l a l i t e r a t u r a l u n f a r d a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i c i o n e s S i g l o V e i n t e , 1965), p. 23. G o b e l l o l i n k s mango and marengo as r e f e r r i n g t o money ( G o b e l l o , pp. 42-43). 1 6 1  C a s u l l o , p. 145.  l ^ D e l l e p i a n e , p. 92. 2  163santamaria, 1 1 , 281. 1 6 4  C a s u l l o , p. 145.  -65-  •  L65  K a n y , Euphemisms, p. 179.  1 6 6  I b i d . , p. 165.  1 6 7  Casullo,  1 6 8  A r r a z o l a , p. 134.  1 6 9  Gobello,  p. 145.  p. 17.  l C a s u l l o , p. 150. 7 0  171  - S a n t a m a r i a , I I , p. 302. I b i d , I I , p. 312.  1 7 2  Dellepiane,  1 7 3  p. 93.  A r r a z o l a , p. 145.  1 7 4  ' l G o b e l l o , p. 15. 7 5  6 K a n y , Euphemisms, p. 52.  1 7  Gobello,  1 7 7  1 7 8  l  p. 210.  C a s u l l o , p. 179. Ibid.  7 9  ISOlbid. l A r r a z o l a , p. 164. 8 1  1  82^  a n v >  Euphemisms, p. 106.  183 bello, G o  p. 15.  1 8 4  I b i d . , p. 40.  1 8 5  c a s u l l o , p. 182.  l 6 B s e s , p. 139. 8  e S  1 8 7  Dellepiane,  1 8 8  p. 95  P a y e t , p. 65.  l D e l l e p i a n e , p. 97. 8 9  1 9 0  C a s u l l o , pp. 194-5.  -66-  1 9 1  G o b e l l o , p. 184. I b i d . , p. 210.  1 9 2  • * - A r r a z o l a , p. 183. 93  1 9 4  K a n y , S e m a n t i c s , pp. 38, 255,  1 9 5  S a n t a m a r i a , I I I , p. 128.  1 9 6  P a y e t , p. 68.  l D e l l e p i a n e , p. 81. 9 7  1 9 8  C a s u l l o , p. 203.  1 9 9  D e l l e p i a n e , p. 97.  2 0 0  A r r a z o l a , p. 185. Ibid.  2 0 1  2 0 2  S a n t a m a r i a , I I I , p. 190.  2 0 3  G o b e l l o , p. 185.  2 0 4  C a s u l l o , p. 205.  2 0 5  P a y e t , p. 68. S e e D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 98-100.  2 0 6  2 0 7  B e s s e s , p . 161.  2 0 8  P a y e t , p. 68.  2 0 9  Santamarfa, I I I ,  2 1 0  C a s u l l o , p. 209.  2  l - * - D e l l e p i a n e , p. 101.  2 1 2  G o b e l l o , p. 186.  2 1 3  C a s u l l o , pp. 146-7.  2 1 4  Ibid.  215 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 92. 2 1 6  G o b e l l o , p. 176.  228.  -67-  2 i 7  2 1 8  2 1 9  2 2 Q  2 2 1  K a n y , Euphemisms, p. 72. Santamarxa, I , G o b e l l o , p. 15. I b i d . , p. 210. P a y e t , p. 69.  284.  CHAPTER I I I  What i s l u n f a r d o ? Does i t s t i l l lunfardo.  exist?  How d i d i t develop?  Who used i t ?  These q u e s t i o n s a l l a r i s e as we mention  T h i s c h a p t e r i s an attempt t o o b s e r v e t h e s o c i o l o g i c a l  background o f i t s growth, how i t developed  and what l i n g u i s t i c  and l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e s i t has e x e r t e d on t h e speech o f A r g e n t i n a and o t h e r n a t i o n s .  HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF LUNFARDO Buenos A i r e s was slow i n growing i n p o p u l a t i o n .  The  f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n A r g e n t i n a went i n t o t h e Northwest r e g i o n ,  today  known as t h e P r o v i n c e s o f S a l t a , J u j u y , Tucuman, and S a n t i a g o del Estero.  I t was n o t u n t i l 1580 t h a t Buenos A i r e s was  e s t a b l i s h e d ( f o r t h e second time) and then t h e c h i e f purpose was t o p r o v i d e a p l a c e where s h i p s , a f t e r a l o n g voyage from S p a i n , c o u l d stop t o take on p r o v i s i o n s and water b e f o r e up t h e r i v e r t o A s u n c i o n . !  starting  T h i s r e g i o n was n o t an a t t r a c t i v e  p l a c e f o r S p a n i a r d s who sought g o l d .  F o r two c e n t u r i e s o r more  -69-  R l o de l a P l a t a was a n e g l e c t e d c o l o n y and Spain's m o n o p o l i s t i c t r a d e p o l i c y s t i f l e d t h e economy. jurisdiction first  P o l i t i c a l l y i t was under the  of A s u n c i o n and then of the V i c e r o y a l t y o f  P e r u , u n t i l 1777 when the V i c e r o y a l t y o f R i o de l a P l a t a was formed w i t h Buenos A i r e s as c a p i t a l .  Even a t t h e time of  independence i n 1810, Buenos A i r e s was a s m a l l v i l l a g e .  The  c o u n t r y and c i t y grew s l o w l y d u r i n g t h e f o r t y y e a r s of anarchy, c i v i l war, and s u c c e s s i o n f o l l o w i n g independence.  Juan Manuel  de Rosas r u l e d f o r t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s u n t i l h i s d e a f e a t i n 1852, a f t e r which t h e c o u n t r y adopted a f e d e r a l i s t c o n s t i t u t i o n . end of the e r a o f anarchy  The  and the e n t r a n c e of the P r o v i n c e o f  Buenos A i r e s i n t o t h e C o n f e d e r a t i o n made way f o r a u n i t e d n a t i o n to be formed.  A t t h i s p o i n t t h e r e were o n l y 1,200,000 people 2  l i v i n g i n Argentina. grow.  T h i s i s when Buenos A i r e s s t a r t e d t o  The pampa began t o be c u l t i v a t e d and i n 1857 the f i r s t  r a i l r o a d started operations.  Soon a whole system of r a i l r o a d s  c o n v e r g i n g on Buenos A i r e s came i n t o b e i n g and i t became the b i g port.  B r i t i s h c a p i t a l f l o w e d i n t o A r g e n t i n a as d i d i m m i g r a n t s .  T h i s i s of g r e a t importance In  as we study t h e growth of l u n f a r d o .  1869 Buenos A i r e s had 177,787 i n h a b i t a n t s o f which 44,233 were  I t a l i a n s , i n 1887 i t had 433,375 w i t h 138,166 I t a l i a n s , i n 1895 t h e r e were 633,854 w i t h 181,093 I t a l i a n s , and i n 1914, 1,575,814 w i t h 312,267 I t a l i a n s . 2,000,000 immigrants  3  Between 1857 and 1900 a p p r o x i m a t e l y  a r r i v e d i n Buenos A i r e s and 800,000departed  l e a v i n g a n e t i n c r e a s e of 1,200,000.  A g a i n a f t e r World War I  i m m i g r a t i o n i n c r e a s e d and from,-1859 t o 1930 t h e t o t a l  immigration  -70-  came t o 6,300,000 p e r s o n s .  About 807» of t h o s e who  I t a l i a n or S p a n i s h n a t i o n a l i t y .  came were of  A l s o r e p r e s e n t e d i n l a r g e numbers  were F r e n c h , Germans, A u s t r i a n s , R u s s i a n s , B r i t i s h , and S w i s s . The a r r i v a l of the immigrants changed t h e c h a r a c t e r of t h e A r g e n t i n e people  radically.  4  A c c o r d i n g t o M a r t a M a r i n the "bad" l e g i s l a t i o n i n A r g e n t i n a caused t h e s e immigrants t o s t a y i n the c i t i e s - m a i n l y Buenos A i r e s where they were employed i n b u i l d i n g r a i l r o a d s o t h e r p u b l i c works.5  Buenos A i r e s up t o the time of i m m i g r a t i o n  had a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n based on the who were former m i l i t a r y l e a d e r s i n the War  landowners  of Independence or  p o l i t i c i a n s who had become famous i n t h e i r work t o b u i l d c o u n t r y from chaos.  and  The g e n e r a l masses were u n s k i l l e d  the  workers  who worked p a r t of the y e a r i n the c o u n t r y and p a r t i n t h e c i t y . There e x i s t e d a s m a l l group of merchants who be s a i d t o form a m i d d l e c l a s s .  could not r e a l l y  The impact, of immigrants changed  Buenos A i r e s - they formed a l a r g e new urban p r o l e t a r i a t , whose immediate  i n t e r e s t was  i n r i s i n g s o c i a l l y and e c o n o m i c a l l y .  formed a m i d d l e and a new upper c l a s s based on w e a l t h . t h i s time the s t o c k market became a symbol of the new of the n a t i o n . ^  They  During growth  J a u r e t c h e i n E l medio p e l o s a i d t h e r e came about  an i n v e r s i o n of c l a s s e s .  Those who  descended  from the f o u n d i n g  h i d a l g o s became o r i l l e r o s and gauchos and the i m p o r t e d b o u r g e o s i e became t h e A r g e n t i n e a r i s t o c r a c y .  The descendents  of the founders  gave t h e i r p l a c e i n the c i t y t o the w e a l t h y , who were of smugglers and merchants,  descendents  and moved out t o the s u b u r b s .  7  -71-  We  find  development f i r s t was  the immigrants  of l u n f a r d o .  the E n g l i s h  have a l a r g e e f f e c t  on the  The l a r g e s t group of f o r e i g n e r s at  (until  1810).  any f o r e i g n e r i n Buenos A i r e s was  A t t h a t time almost  c a l l e d an i n g l e s .  Many e a r l y  l e a d e r s l e a r n e d E n g l i s h - among them Manuel B e l g r a n o . of R i v a d a v i a the number of f o r e i g n e r s i n c r e a s e d .  I n the time  General O'Brien  went from the campaign i n C h i l e and Peru t o Europe and r e t u r n e d with two hundred  young men  to work i n a g r i c u l t u r e .  French p o p u l a t i o n began t o i n c r e a s e . come i n 1845  The G a l i c i a n s  and became mostly peones and c r i a d a s .  In 1821  the  s t a r t e d to L a t e r the  Basques came - they became l a b o u r e r s and devoted themselves  to  m i l k p r o d u c t i o n e s p e c i a l l y i n Quilmes, F l o r e s , and Moron, i n f a c t , i t i s s a i d t h a t almost a l l milkmen i n Buenos A i r e s were Basques.  8  Then came the g r e a t i n f l u x of immigrants  mostly from I t a l y and S p a i n .  promiscuity. to l i v e .  mentioned-  In Buenos A i r e s e x i s t e d the famous  H o t e l de Inmigrantes near Dclrsena Norte where poor stayed u n t i l they found work.  as  I t was  immigrants  a p l a c e of misery and  The c o n v e n t i l l o s grew up where these immigrants  went  Because of t h i s i n f l u x of immigrants more than h a l f  the a d u l t male p o p u l a t i o n of Buenos A i r e s was  made up of f o r e i g n e r s .  S d l o e'l que vivi6 en medio de esa m u l t i t u d y l l e n o sus o j o s con l a v a r i o p i n t a de sus ropas y sus oidos con e l r u i d o de cascada de todos l o s idiomas cayendo a l mismo tiempo sobre e l espafiol o e l l u n f a r d o , puede medir l a magnitud d e l m i l a g r o de asimilacio'n que se r e a l i z d en Buenos A i r e s en e l v e r t i g o de unos pocos decenios 9  S i n c e most immigrants  were young s i n g l e males, many A r g e n t i n e  g i r l s m a r r i e d immigrants  - another r e a s o n f o r the l a r g e number  -72-  of I t a l i a n words i n l u n f a r d o and  the common language of A r g e n t i n a .  The A v e n i d a de Mayo became the a x i s of movement o f the new I t was  city.  the modern s t r e e t - ^ f i l l e d w i t h h o t e l s , t a v e r n s , c a f e s ,  and mujeres p i n t a d a s . these c a f e s .  I n d i v i d u a l s of d i v e r s e n a t i o n a l i t i e s  German h o t e l s and T u r k i s h s t o r e s abounded.H  entered This  i n t e r m i x i n g n a t u r a l l y caused many f o r e i g n words e x p e c i a l l y I t a l i a n t o be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the speech of Buenos A i r e s .  Am^rico  C a s t r o d i s c u s s e s t h i s phenomenon i n La p e c u l i a r i d a d l i n g t i i s t i c a rioplatense.  Here a r e some of the o b s e r v a t i o n s he g i v e s ,  and  i n p a r t he i s q u o t i n g Amado A l o n s o : Lo que pone a Buenos A i r e s - - d i c e - - e n d e s v e n t a j a f r e n t e a l r e s t o de Hispano-Ame'rica ( i n c l u y e n d o Espana) es su i n c r e i b l e c r e c i m i e n t o por a l u v i d n , y su c o n d i c i o n de campamento c o l o s a l , en cuya v o r ^ g i n e , l a pequena m i n o r i a que mantiene l a t r a d i c i o n de l a lengua c u l t a e s t a d e s p e r d i g a d a y apenas t e n i d a en cuenta.-*2  A s t r o n g Spanish  h i e r a r c h y had not developed i n A r g e n t i n a  as i n Peru or M e x i c o and w i t h the f l o o d of i m m i g r a n t s , i t was u n a b l e t o defend i t s Spanish  a g a i n s t the f o r e i g n words.  most immigrants were I t a l i a n s , or S p a n i a r d s , Spaniards  were m a i n l y  Although  as mentioned, the  from r u r a l areas and brought d i a l e c t a l forms -  1Q not C a s t i l i a n - w i t h them.  As we a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d , the o l d  h i e r a r c h y descended from the f o u n d i n g h i d a l g o s was the imported  replaced  by  bourgeosie.  A r g e n t i n a does not have a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e t h e r e a r e many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c p e c u l i a r ities. The  Geography p l a y s a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n the e v o l u t i o n of language.  i n h a b i t a n t s of Mendoza, because of i t s l o c a t i o n , speak more  l i k e C h i l e a n s than l i k e p o r t e n o s .  I n Buenos A i r e s , b i l i n g u a l i s m ,  -73-  linguistic  c o n t a c t , and l i n g u i s t i c b o r r o w i n g a r e some o f t h e  s o c i o - c u l t u r a l p r o c e s s e s which a f f e c t l u n f a r d o .  Buenos A i r e s  t u r n e d i t s back on t h e P r o v i n c e s o f E n t r e R i o s and C o r r i e n t e s where a r c h a i c Spanish s t i l l  e x i s t s and adopted f o r e i g n forms  freely The c i t y grows and extends The  i t s border over r u r a l  areas.  s u p e r s t r a t u m o f t h e portefio language i s e s t a b l i s h e d over t h e  substratum  of t h e gauchesque language.  Del V a l l e claims that i n  Benigno Lugones, D e l l e p i a n e , and F a b i o C a r r i z o , one c a n see a m i x t u r e of r u r a l and c o s m o p o l i t a n language.l-> expand, a phenomenon o c c u r s which D e l V l l a  e  As c i t y  limits  describes:  Es que l a c i u d a d y e l campo se v a n tocando. L a c i u d a d ganando t e r r e n o sobre e l campo, u r b a n i z a n d o l o en c i r c u l o s c o n c e n t r i c o s de d i a m e t r o cada v e z mayor. Y en l a s r e g i o n e s p e r i f e r i c a s de l a urbe, nace, c r e c e y v i v e e s t e medio e x p r e s i v o que es l a c o n n o t a c i d n r e v e l a d a de sus h a b l a n t e s . Un nuevo hombre, m e z c l a de homo r u s t i c u s y homo urbanus. E l gaucho de a r r a b a l que l l e g a b a a l o s C o r r a l e s ( b a r r i o de extramuros s i t u a d o mas a l i a d e l R e t i r o ) a c a b a l l o o en c a r r e t a s t r a n s p o r t a d o r a s de mercanclas procedents de l a campana. E l gaucho p u e b l e r o f u e a s i m i l a n d o y contagictndose de costumbres ciudadanas. De a h i a l compadrito de a r r a b a l no media s i n o un paso. " C o n s t i t u i a l a f u e r z a p r i n c i p a l de t a l s u b u r b i o e s a c l a s e media e n t r e e l hombre de l a urbe y e l de l a campana; o sea e l compadrito c r i o l l o . . . " 1 6 Because o f t h i s c u l t u r a l s u p e r p o s i t i o n o f c i t y d w e l l e r s over c o u n t r y d w e l l e r s a t t h e edges o f t h e c i t y t h e r e arose t h e o r i l l e r o , the compadrito  o r compadre as he was c a l l e d .  He has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  i n common w i t h t h e gaucho b u t a l s o t h e r e a r e n o t a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s . There was c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t a c t and .dialogue between c i t y and country:  -74-  Los malevos de l a s o r i l l a s c o n s t i t u y e n un grupo humano de c a r ^ c t e r m a r g i n a l . " E l malevo ademits de ser un i n d i v i d u o m a r g i n a l , es un r e s e n t i d o . " En su d e s p l a n t e e x c e s i v o se agazapan un trauma p s i q u i c o y una p r o t e s t a s o c i a l . Desdena a l a r i s t o c r a t i c o j a i l a i f e de l a s c a l l e s ce'ntricas que l l e v a g a l e r a y g a s t a y u g i l l o , a l s u s h e t a contemuse l l e n o de b e r r e n t i n e s , a l c h i t r u l o s i n e x p e r i e n c i a en l a c a r p e t a o en e l t r a t o con e l bramaje, a l p i t u c o afeminado que moteja de m i n i s t r o , a l c h a n t a p u f i que no paga sus deudas, todas v a r i e d a d e s de l a fauna urbana. No t i e n e tampoco s i m p a t i a por e l p a i s a n o que c a r e c e d e l h i e r a t i s m o taimado, de su garbo e l a s t i c o , de su l e n t a e l e g a n c i a , de su g r a t i t u d o p r o b i o s a . E l campesino es e l grebano, e l c a n a r i o a n g e l i t o , e l payucano zonzo, e l hombre s i n c l a s e o r i l l e r a que no sabe b a i l a r tangos n i chamuyar debute o manejar e l v a i v e n con c o r t e y quebrada. Y f i n a l m e n t e d e s p r e c i a , como buen xendfobo que es, a l o s tanos l a c r i m o s o s , a l o s f r a n c h u t e s amigos de l a p i c h i c a t a , a l o s g a i t a s a p l i c a d o s a l l a b u r o , a todos l o s extranjeros r a n t i f u s o s . ^ I n the seventeenth grew around c i t i e s .  c e n t u r y , because of i n d u s t r y , suburbs  T h e s e s u b u r b i a l areas had d i f f e r e n t names  a c c o r d i n g t o the c o u n t r y .  I n Buenos A i r e s i t was  or a r r a b a l , the s u b u r r a i n I t a l y and the faubourg  the  suburbio  i n France.  L a t i n came the i d e a t h a t s u b u r r a i s where the people of mal lived.  The French  s i d e of the c i t y " . t o as b a j o s fondos.  immigrants  vivir  faubourg came from L a t i n f o r i s burgum, " o u t I n more modern t i m e s , t h e s e areas were r e f e r r e d Some famous b a r r i o s of t h i s n a t u r e a r e :  L a V i l l e t t e i n P a r i s ; the E a s t S i d e i n New chino i n Barcelona.  From  Y o r k , and the B a r r i o  Buenos A i r e s , because of the l a r g e number of  has an abundance of b a r r i o s where these  n a t i o n a l i t i e s congregate.  One  different  of them the b a r r i o d e _ l o s t u r c o s  -75between R e c o n q u i s t a , Cordoba, C h a r c a s , and Tres S a r g e n t o s , cons i s t i n g m a i n l y of S y r i a n o r T u r k i s h merchants who have shops o f a l l k i n d s .  little  Another one i s t h e b a r r i o j u d i o c o n s i s t i n g  of two i m p o r t a n t c e n t e r s - t h e b a r r i o de V i l l a Crespo and C o r r i e n t e s and  P u e y r r e d 6 n where r e t a i l and w h o l e s a l e b u s i n e s s e s abound.  I n t h e b a r r i o de l a Boca, t h e most p i c t u r e s q u e ,  one can hear  languages and d i a l e c t s from a l l over t h e w o r l d b u t w i t h a preponderance o f I t a l i a n .  I f t h e r e e x i s t e d a t r u e bajo, fondo i n  Buenos A i r e s i t was what i s today Leandro N. Alem A v e n u e . ^ A n o t h e r k i n d o f b a r r i o has grown up i n Buenos A i r e s i n t h e past few decades - t h e v i l l a o r t h e b a r r i o de emergencia. v i l l a s miserias  These  a r e n o t unique t o Buenos A i r e s b u t common  throughout L a t i n A m e r i c a : En l a s grandes c a p i t a l e s d e l mundo donde e x i s t e n l o s b a j o s fondos y moran en e l l o s , gente de mal v i v i r , es d e c i r i n c u l t a , no u r b a n i z a d a , se produce l a d e s c o m p o s i c i 6 n de l a lengua o f i c i a l , que r e c i b e segiin l o s d i s t i n t o s paxses a que p e r t e n e c e , d i v e r s o s nombres, a s a b e r : c a n t y s l a n g , en I n g l a t e r r a ; f u r b e s c o y gergo, en I t a l i a ; germanla, b r i b i a y hampa, en Espafia; R o t w e l s c h , en A l e m a n i a ; coa, en S a n t i a g o de C h i l e ; K o e l t r i g e l a t i n y P r o e v e l i k v a n t , en Dinamarca; b r i b a , en Cuba; calo', en M e x i c o ; c a l a o , en P o r t u g a l ; Bargoens, en H o l a n d a ; h a n t y r k a , en Bohemia; b a l a i b a l a n , en I n d i a ; h i a n t - c h a n g , en C h i n a ; r e p l a n a o c a n t u j a , en e l P e r u ; g i r i a , e n e l B r a s i l ; a r g o t y p a t o i s , en F r a n c i a , e t c . ^ 9  Buenos A i r e s a l s o has h e r a r g o t .  The l u n f a ( t h i e v e s ) o r  the human p r o d u c t o f t h e hampa o f t h e R i v e r P l a t e i n a u g u r a t e d a s t y l e o f speech which the o r i l l e r o a s s i m i l a t e d l i t t l e by l i t t l e . The  word l u n f a r d o  language.  came t o d e s i g n a t e a c e r t a i n t i p o and a l s o h i s  I n time t h e compadre began t o u s e t h i s c o l o u r f u l j a r g o n  -76-  but never a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f w i t h t h o s e who o r i g i n a t e d it.^° L u n f a r d o was t h e name f o r m a l v i v i e n t e s and the atmosphere i n which they acted.21  We r e c a l l t h a t Fray Mocho c l a i m e d  more f o r e i g n t h i e v e s than A r g e n t i n e  thieves.22  t h e r e were  A l i s t o f the  p r i s o n e r s i n Buenos A i r e s i n 1901 h e l p s t o show how many f o r e i g n p r i s o n e r s t h e r e were - a s o u r c e o f so many f o r e i g n words i n l u n f a r d o f o r t h e s e p r i s o n e r s o f t e n developed t h e i r own language while i n prison.  Gobello gives t h i s  list:  860 A r g e n t i n i a n s 782 I t a l i a n s 374 S p a n i a r d s 142 O r i e n t a l s 57 F r e n c h A l s o - N o r t h A m e r i c a n s , Germans, G r e e k s , Cubans, C h i l e a n s , Russians, etc.23 There a r e t h r e e h y p o t h e s e s as t o how l u n f a r d o developed among t h e t h i e v e s :  1)  The most p o p u l a r  i s that the necessity  of communicating i n t h e presence o f t h e v i c t i m w i t h o u t  being  u n d e r s t o o d causes t h e t h i e v e s t o d e v e l o p t h e i r own language. To r e f u t e t h i s t h e o r y D e l l e p i a n e  says:  E s t a h i p d t e s i s no r e s i s t e a un examen m i n u c i o s o . En p r i m e r l u g a r , es i n e x a c t o que e l d e l i n c u e n t e haga use d e l a r g o t en p r e s e n c i a de l a persona a q u i e n v a a h a c e r v l c t i m a de una b r i b o n a d a , o de l a de l o s empleados de l a p o l i c i a . En casos t a l e s , l o s d e l i n cuentes echan mano de un l e n g u a j e mimico, que no e x c i t a sospecha a l g u n a y que pasa enteramente i n a d v e r t i d o para a q u e l de quienes t i e n e n i n t e r n s en o c u l t a r s e . 2 4 2)  Lambroso e x p l a i n s t h e o r i g i n o f a r g o t as a r e s u l t o f t h e  criminal,  savage c h a r a c t e r o f t h i e v e s .  language, which i s s i m i l a r  They c r e a t e t h e i r own  t o t h a t o f savage t r i b e s , because o f  t h e i r regression to the state of p r i m i t i v e b a r b a r i t y .  Ifa  -77-  c r i m i n a l i s a savage then he w i l l t h i n k and f e e l as a savage. He gave t h e s e a n a l o g i e s between t h e c r i m i n a l s ' language and t h a t of savage t r i b e s : Los mismos automatismos ( t i t i , t i p o g r a f x a ; coco, bebi, amigo), l a misma t e n d e n c i a a l onomatopeyismo ( t a p , marcha; t i c , r e l o j ; f r i c - f r a c , l a s a l i d a de l a p r i s i d n ) , l a misma a f i c i d n a l empleo de l a m e t a f o r a para d e s i g n a r l o s o b j e t o s ( e l incdmodo, e l p i c o de gas; e l l a v a n d e r o , e l abogado).25 Dellepiane refutes this hypothesis: No o b s t a n t e l a s a n a l o g i a s i n d i c a d a s y algunas o t r a s que p u d i e r a n s e f i a l a r s e , f o r z o s o es c o n v e n i r que e l p a r e c i d o e n t r e e l a r g o t c r i m i n a l y l o s idiomas s a l v a j e s es mas a p a r e n t e que r e a l , y que, en e l fondo, e x i s t e n c a r c f c t e r e s d i f e r e n c i a l e s i m p o r t a n t x s i m o s e n t r e unos y o t r o s . Como tendremos o c a s i d n de v e r a l e s t u d i a r l a n a t u r a l e z a d e l a r g o t , su e s t r u c t u r a s i n t a c t i c a , su t i p o g r a m a t i c a l , l a s l e y e s de f o r m a c i d n de su l e x i c o , mas que como i d i o m a d i s t i n t o , debe s e r c o n s i d e r a d o como un remedo, como un engendro b a s t a r d o de l a lengua o r d i n a r i a de que d e r i v a . E l a n a l i s i s de l o s cara'cteres p s i c o l d g i c o s de e s t a s j e r g a s nos va a r e v e l a r i g u a l m e n t e e l abismo profundo que separa a l a r g o t c r i m i n a l , cuyos rasgos p r i n c i p a l e s son e l c i n i s m o , e l e s p x r i t u chancero, l a t e n d e n c i a a r e b a j a r l a s i d e a s , d e l idioma d e l s a l v a j e , "siempre grave aun en medio de su f e r o c i d a d , jama's i r d n i c o , nunca b r o m i s t a , no buscando manchar e l o b j e t o de su pensamiento, s e n c i l l o y r u r a l en sus m e t a f o r a s , fecundo en formas g r a m a t i c a l e s , o r i g i n a l e s y p e r f e c t a s . " 2 6 3)  The t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s D e l l e p i a n e a c c e p t s as b e i n g b e t t e r founded.  I t i s t h a t any group o f people who a r e t o g e t h e r and have t h e i r own h a b i t s and customs c r e a t e t h e i r own s l a n g , so c r i m i n a l s have theirs.  Lunfardo  i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l language.  The terms t h e  speakers have, t h e o b j e c t s they name, and t h e i d e a s they e x p l a i n are a l l r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y t o t h e e x e r c i s e of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n of crime:  -78-  A s i , a l l a d r o n , y solamente a l l a d r o n , puede o c u r r i r s e l e dar un nombre e s p e c i a l a cada uno de l o s b o l s i l l o s d e l t r a j e m a s c u l i n o ; en l o c u a l n u e s t r o a r g o t a v e n t a j a a l a misma lengua o r d i n a r i a que no ha pensado jama's en e s t a b l e c e r semejantes d i s t i n c i o n e s ( c a b a l e t e , b o l s i l l o en g e n e r a l ; g r i l l o , b o l s i l l o l a t e r a l d e l p a n t a l o n ; g r i l l o de e s p i e n a t e , b o l s i l l o t r a s e r o d e l p a n t a l o n ; g r i l l o de c a m i s u l i n , b o l s i l l o d e l c h a l e c o ; shuca, b o l s i l l o l a t e r a l d e l saco; s o t a l a o sontana, b o l s i l l o i n t e r i o r d e l saco, j a q u e t o l e v i t a ; media l u n a , b o l s i l l o e x t e r i o r d e l saco, donde s u e l e l l e v a r s e e l p a n u e l o ) . 2 7  L u n f a r d o , t h e n , developed as a language s o c i e t y o f Buenos A i r e s .  of a m a r g i n a l  M a r t a M a r i n p o i n t s out t h a t i t i s i n t e r -  e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t F r a y Mocho i n t h r e e major works wrote o f m a r g i n a l s o c i e t i e s as a t y p e o f c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h t h e s o c i e t y i n which he l i v e d .  They were t h e compadritos and the l u n f a r d o s  of Buenos A i r e s i n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , t h e s e a l h u n t e r s and p r o s p e c t o r s of T i e r r a d e l Fuego i n En e l mar a u s t r a l , and the h u n t e r s and matreros of E n t r e R i o s i n Un v i a j e a l p a i s de l o s  pQ matreros.  '  -79-  LUNFARDO VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR  L u n f a r d o developed from s e v e r a l sources among t h e delinquents  o f Buenos A i r e s .  Del V a l l e claims that i s not  a d i a l e c t because i t does n o t p e r t a i n t o a g e o g r a p h i c a l but  t o a s o c i a l group.  region  He c a l l s i t an h a b l a g r u p a l . ^ 9  when i t  i s used by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n c r i m e t o communicate among t h e m s e l v e s , i t i s a s p e c i a l j a r g o n of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l group b u t when i t s u p p l i e s words f o r t h e common language (which i t does as we s h a l l see)  t h e n i t goes beyond t h i s . ^ 3  developed.  L e t us see how t h e l e n g u a  grupal  D e l V a l l e s t a t e s t h a t t h e laws o f t h e f o r m a t i o n o f  s l a n g , except i n a few e x c l u s i v e cases, are b a s i c a l l y t h e u n i v e r s a l laws o f language and t h e r e f o r e s i m i l a r t o t h e development o f any ordinary vernacular.  As i n t h e c u l t u r e d languages, words do  not u s u a l l y appear by spontaneous  generation.  Because o f t h e l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n of immigrants and because of t h e number o f c r i m i n a l s o f f o r e i g n d e s c e n t , as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i t i s n a t u r a l t o expect t h a t i n l u n f a r d o much o f t h e vocabulary foreign  d e r i v e s from f o r e i g n sources and, i n many c a s e s ,  slangs. We have observed i n t h e l u n f a r d o v o c a b u l a r y  g i v e n by  F r a y Mocho t h e l a r g e number of words of I t a l i a n o r i g i n . 142 words g i v e n i n t h e D i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o - e s p a n o l f i f t y a r e p r o b a b l y from I t a l i a n . and  Gobello  Of t h e  by D e l l e p i a n e ,  gives the d e f i n i t i o n s  e t y m o l o g i e s o f more than 180 words from I t a l i a n i n V i e j a y  nueva l u n f a r d x a .  3 3  Am^rico C a s t r o c a l l s t h e language  "lunfardo  -80-  i t a l o - a r g e n t i n o " because o f i t s many I t a l i a n words.  About t h i s  phenomenon he s t a t e s : En r e a l i d a d l a i n f l u e n c i a i t a l i a n a , en su mayoria d i a l e c t a l , ha c o n t r i b u x d o mas que nada a d e s v e n c i j a r l a lengua de Buenos A i r e s , y de r e c h a z o , l a de l o s paxses p l a t e n s e s . L a f o n e t i c a y l a e n t o n a c i d n , a veces l a s i n t a x i s e i n f i n i d a d de v o c a b l o s r e v e l a n l a h u e l l a de t a l e s d i a l e c t o s . Un c i e r t o a i r e de d e s g a r r o y c i n i s m o p l e b e y o s ha soplado a su f a v o r , y ha s i d o l u e g o a su v e z f a v o r e c i d o por tales influjos.35 Words frcm Piedmontese, M i l a n e s e , S i c i l i a n , and Genoese a r e mixed i n t o t h e speech o f Buenos A i r e s , b u t e s p e c i a l l y those from Genoese because t h e speakers o f t h i s d i a l e c t were m a r i n e r s and p r e f e r r e d t h e c i t y and i t s p o r t . 3 6  This i s a l i s t  o f some o f t h e most  common words i n A r g e n t i n a which have come from I t a l i a n  dialects  i n t o p o r t e n o speech through l u n f a r d o : apoliyar (or a p o l i l l a r ) " t o sleep" sleep" ( I t a l i a n jargon).37 b a c i n " r i c h man" padre."  < puleggiare " t o  < Genoese baccan " p a t r o n , p r i n c i p a l ,  3 8  chapar "tomar, a g a r r a r " and by e x t e n s i o n " t o make l o v e " ^ a c i a p a or i n Genoese a c c i a p a r e " a t r a p a r " . 3 9 manyar " t o e a t " < I t a l i a n mangiare " t o e a t " . Genoese mangia* " t o e a t " , and Piedmontese mange " t o e a t " . ^ 4  p i b e "boy" < I t a l i a n p i v o ( j a r g o n o f t h e 1 7 t h c e n t u r y ) " l i t t l e boy", Genoese p i v e t t o " l i t t l e boy", and M i l a n e s e piva " l i t t l e boy". 4 1  There a r e a g r e a t many o t h e r words from I t a l i a n o r I t a l i a n d i a l e c t s used i n A r g e n t i n a b u t which d i d n o t cone through l u n f a r d o such as canelones < c a n n e l l o n i , chau < I t a l i a n c i a o o r M i l a n e s e c i a v o , macarrones ^ m a c c h e r o n i , and n o q u i s < g n o c c h i , and o t h e r names f o r f o o d s .  -81-  Many words n a t u r a l l y come f r o m t h e S p a n i a r d s  since  a f t e r t h e I t a l i a n s t h e n e x t l a r g e s t group of immigrants were from S p a i n , who brought t h e i r s l a n g .  G o b e l l o p o i n t s out t h a t  germania was mixed w i t h c a l o : N u e s t r a j e r g a no tomd de l a b i o s g i t a n o s l a s voces d e l c a l d que t r a e a s i m i l a d a s . L a s i m p o r t a r o n l o s e s p a n o l e s , c o n f u n d i d a s con l o s v u c a b l o s germanescos. "En un p r i m e r p e r i o d o , d i s c r i m i n a S a l i l l a s , en e l de gran a c r e c e n t a m i e n t o , de gran p e r s o n a l i d a d de l a hampa, l a germania, que f u e su l e n g u a j e , i n f l u y d poderosamente en e l c a l d ; y en un segundo p e r i o d o , es d e c i r , e l de l a d e c a d e n c i a de l a c o l e c t i v i d a d hampona, e l c a l d i n f l u y o t a n t o que l l e g d a s u p l a n t a r , ya que no a d e s v i r t u a r , l a germania." Los d e l i n c u e n t e s e s p a n o l e s h a b l a n , en r e a l i d a d , un h i b r i d o germanescogitano. De l o s que l l e g a r o n h a s t a a q u i , no de l a s t r i b u s s u c i a s y p o l i c r o m a s que acampaban en l o s b a l d i o s en dxas de t o l e r a n c i a m u n i c i p a l , tomd' e l l u n f a r d o a l g u n a s de sus voces m^s c a r a c t e r x s t i c a s : chamuyar, j u n a r , c h o r r o , e t c . ^ 3 Ame'rico G a s t r o c l a i m s l u n f a r d o was based on c a l d and I t a l i a n dialectal words.  4 4  Gobello l i s t s  from c a l d among which a r e t h e s e :  some o f t h e words t h a t came chorro ^ chorar - robar; g i l -  t o n t o , l e l o ; n a j a r - t o f l e e , r u n - now r e p l a c e d by r a j a r w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o him,  i s a t r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f na j a r by p h o n e t i c  assimilation;  and p i r o b a r - a v e r s i o n of p i r a b e r a r o r p i r a b a r - f o r n i c a r . ^ 4  D e l l e p i a n e g i v e s a l i s t o f words as h a v i n g come from what he c a l l s b r i b i a - the c r i m i n a l slang of Spain, a mixture cald':  o f germania and  g u i t a - d i n e r o , parne* - d i n e r o , jamar - comer, l a d r i l l o -  l a d r d n , l i m a - c a m i s a , n a j a r - h u i r , p i s a n t e - p i e , timba,de  juego, g a r r o t e a r - a c t o de romper.46  l o n g l i s t o f words from germania.  casa  G o b e l l o has a r a t h e r  He c l a i m s t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e  of germania i s n o t as l a r g e as some had supposed n o r a s s m a l l as others b e l i e v e d .  Among t h e many words he l i s t s a r e t h e s e :  aliviar  -82-  ( r o b a r ) , b a l i c h e ( c a s a de j u e g o , comercio de poca monta), c a n t a r ( d e c l a r a r o c o n f e s a r un d e l i t o ) , penca ( a z o t e de v e r d u g o ) , and p a r l a r (an I t a l i a n word used i n germania f o r h a b l a r ) .  4 7  Because many t h i e v e s from Buenos A i r e s went t o B r a z i l t o p r a c t i c e t h e i r a r t s t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n degree o f i n t e r c h a n g e of words between l u n f a r d o and g i r i a dos gatunos. terms were t a k e n from Buenos A i r e s .  I n g i r i a , many  A few words i n l u n f a r d o came  from g i r i a such as quilombo which came t o be enquilombar or q u i l o m b i f i a r ( t o confound or cause d i s o r d e r ) from cachimbo or cachimba, an A f r i c a n word i n B r a z i l meaning a p i p e f o r smoking, and b o n d i (tram) which d i d n o t remain i n usage i n Buenos A i r e s .  4 8  F r e n c h immigrants were a much s m a l l e r group than were t h e I t a l i a n s or S p a n i a r d s .  Only about f o u r per cent o f t h e  p r i s o n e r s o f 1901 were F r e n c h .  Of t h e l u n f a r d o words c o l l e c t e d  by D e l l e p i a n e o n l y t h r e e per c e n t a r e from a r g o t . words we f i n d :  Among t h e s e  b a l u r d o - mentioned e a r l i e r ; bobo ( r e l o j ) from  b o b i n o , from t h e a r g o t des v o l e u r s a c c o r d i n g t o V i r m a i t r e ; c a s t a n a ( g o l p e ) from F r e n c h c h a t a i g n e ; gamba (100 peso bank n o t e ) from a r g o t , jambe (100 f r a n c s ) ; l a r g a r ( d a r , r e g a l a r ) from l a r g u e r ; 49 and m o r f a r ( t o e a t ) from m o r f i l e r . I n l u n f a r d o t h e r e a r e a l s o i n d i g e n o u s words and a few i s o l a t e d words from E n g l i s h or o t h e r f o r e i g n languages, b u t these i n f l u e n c e s a r e minimal.  Words d i e out and words a r e born  i n l u n f a r d o and as i n any c u l t u r e d language, t h e r e i s c o n s t a n t change.50  That i s why so much o f t h e v o c a b u l a r y g i v e n by F r a y  Mocho i s no l o n g e r used a t p r e s e n t .  -83-  B e s i d e s words from f o r e i g n languages we f i n d many o t h e r sources f o r t h e l u n f a r d o l e x i c o n .  The words i n l u n f a r d o  do n o t appear by spontaneous g e n e r a t i o n b u t a r e developed o r e v o l v e d from o t h e r words by v a r i o u s p r o c e s s e s .  The e v o l u t i o n  of a word i n a c u l t u r e d language i s the product o f a l o n g and slow p r o c e s s .  I n l u n f a r d o t h a t process a t times i s a b b r e v i a t e d  by a s a i n e t e r o o r t h e w r i t e r o f tangos.  I n lunfardo there  o c c u r s a p h a e r e s i s ( l e o n e s < p a n t a l o n e s , tano < n a p o l i t a n o , napar < a n a p a r ) , s y n c o p a t i o n ( n a l < n a c i o n a l , mango < marengo), and a p p o c o p a t i o n  (ciruja < cirujanos).  Some words come from  d e f e c t i v e hearing ( o r s a i < " o f f s i d e " i n E n g l i s h ; bufarrcoi < b u j a r r o n i n normal S p a n i s h , c h i n c h i v i r r i a , a d r i n k used by c r i m i n a l s i n Ushuaia, ( gingerbeer) . There a r e many sy.nedoches i n l u n f a r d o where p a r t o f a whole comes t o r e p r e s e n t t h e whole.  T h i s a l s o o c c u r s i n germania  where, f o r example, a p o n i e n t e stands f o r a sombrero because i t i s put on ( s e pone).  I n l u n f a r d o sangre means d i n e r o because  of t h e s c r a t c h or c u t made on t h e v i c t i m by t h e t h i e f t o g e t the money; a homosexual i s a mino, m a s c u l i n e o f mina, and i t soon became m i n i s t r o ; a g a l l e g o i s a g a i t a ; s t r e e t sweepers were c a l l e d musolinos  a f t e r t h e famous S i c i l i a n b a n d i t named Jose' M u s o l i n o ,  who was a s t r e e t sweeper; y o n i ( f r o m Johnny) meant any Englishman; and cosaco r e f e r r e d t o any agent o f t h e mounted p o l i c e . metaphors a r e t h e s e : was  Other  coco, mate or melon f o r "head"; whiskey  a l p i s t e because i t i s made by f e r m e n t i n g c e r t a i n g r a i n s among  which was a l p i s t e ; queso f o r " f e e t " p o s s i b l y because o f t h e odor;  -84-  sonadora f o r p i l l o w ; ventanas f o r eyes; c e n t e n a r i o f o r t h e hundred peso bank n o t e ( a s s o c i a t i n g one hundred w i t h t h e c e n t e n n i a l of  Independence)  or sometimes i t was c a l l e d c a n a r i o f o r i t s  c o l o u r ; a thousand peso note was f r a g a t a because o f i t s d e c o r a t i o n ( t h e p i c u t r e of a f r i g a t e on t h e b a c k ) .  Hyperbole  e x i s t s a l s o ("acanalar - l a a c c i o n de a b r i r un t a j o en l a c a r a ; 52 c a r g a - d i n e r o que se l l e v a en e l b o l s i l l o , p i o j o s a - c a b e z a " ) . Another phenomenon i n t h e growth o f l u n f a r d o i s e l calambur mentioned by D e l V a l l e . a p l a y on words. for  T h i s i s n o t new or p e c u l i a r t o Buenos A i r e s  i t was used f a r e a r l i e r i n S p a i n .  Villamediana i s : su  I t comes from F r e n c h calembour,  mujer."  "Diamantes  An example of t h i s  from  que f u e r o n antes / de amantes de  An example i n E n g l i s h i s "Dew drop i n n " f o r "Do  drop i n " . 5 3 Other words i n l u n f a r d o as i n o t h e r languages a r e formed from onomatopeotic sounds l i k e t u n t u n f o r a r e v o l v e r and b i b i for  a girl.  D e l l e p i a n e says t h a t t h i s r e p e t i t i o n makes c r i m i n a l 54  languages more s i m i l a r t o t h e language of a c h i l d . Some l u n f a r d o v o c a b u l a r y items come from p h o n e t i c m o d i f i c a t i o n or  o r d i n a r y words by m e t a t h e s i s , c o n t r a c t i o n s , and t r a n s p o s i t i o n s  l i k e r u f i n o f o r r u f i ^ n ; l a c h e f o r cambalache; barbusa f o r b a r b a ; cambiaso f o r cambio; and j a i f e f o r l e c h u g u i n o .  These s l a n g s ,  a c c o r d i n g t o D e l l e p i a n e a r e poor i n words m a i n l y because t h e m e n t a l i t y , of t h e c r i m i n a l s i s poor but i n t h i n g s d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r own l i k e r o b b e r y , k i l l i n g , money or h u r t i n g , t h e i r j a r g o n s are  rich.  An example i s t h e l o n g l i s t of words f o r money:  blanca,  -85a r m a r i l l o , parne , p u l e n t a , g u i t a , g u i t a r r a , paco, r o l l o ,  vento,  f e r r o s , mangangas, and o t h e r s .  are  -  (In I t a l i a n slang  there  seventy-two ways of t a l k i n g about g e t t i n g drunk or  drinking.^5)  P h i l o s o p h e r s , j u r i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , and w r i t e r s a r e i n t e r e s t e d i n l u n f a r d o or any  s l a n g , because i t r e v e a l s the s o u l  of the p e r s o n - h i s w o r l d , h i s l i f e , h i s b r u t a l i t y , m a t e r i a l i s m , o b s c e n i t y , and c h a r a c t e r .  Some examples of words t h a t may  the c h a r a c t e r . o f the l u n f a r d o s a r e t h e s e :  c u e r o f o r p i e l , alcai  f o r b r a z o , p i c o f o r boca, r e v e n t a r f o r m o r i r , and p o l i c h i n e l a en e l c a j d n f o r e s t a r e n c i n t a . 5 6 highly figurative: is  endulzante,  tener  Lunfardo i s also  v e r b a mate i s v e r d a , and  lawyers  are  I t i s an i m a g i n a t i v e language abounding  i n p i c t u r e s q u e and c o l o u r f u l images which a r e o f t e n f u l l  his  sarcasm - a p o l i c e m a n who  of  deprives a l u n f a r d o of  l i b e r t y i s c a l l e d a b o t d n , and a door which i s hard t o b r e a k  is a  virgen.57 A n o t h e r source of v o c a b u l a r y  i n l u n f a r d o i s the v e s r e ,  something s i m i l a r t o our " p i g l a t i n " i n E n g l i s h .  Gobello.  says t h a t v e s r e i s a game, not a s l a n g , and a Spanish I t was  used among t h i e v e s so o u t s i d e r s c o u l d not  Some words formed i n t h i s manner a r e : toba  un  b l o o d i s c a l l e d c o l o r a d a or c h o c o l a t a , sugar  c a l l e d blanqueadores.  i r o n y and  reveal  ^  bota, g r i t o ^ t r i g o .  custom.58  understand.  greno / n e g r o , chepo ^ pecho,  I n these we n o t i c e t h a t the con-  sonants change p l a c e s but not the v o w e l s .  Others a r e  different  l i k e gotan ^ tango, canemu ^ muneca, or t o p l a ^ p l a t o - an i n v e r s i o n of s y l l a b l e s .  M o n o s y l l a b i c words o f t e n undergo o t h e r  changes l i k e oyo f o r y_o or e f e f o r fe.59  -86-  I n r e v i e w o f t h e o r i g i n s o f l u n f a r d o , l e t us read what Jose" G o b e l l o says about: Se i n s i s t e . . . en h a b l a r d e l l u n f a r d o como de un v o c a b u l a r i o generado en l a s c a " r c e l e s , sobrentendiendo l a s C c i r c e l e s a r g e n t i n a s . Y e s t o no es e x a c t o . S i l a mayoiria de l o s v o c a b l o s l u n f a r d o s son productos de i m p o r t a c i o n -- como esta' demostrado con c r e c e s en l o s t r a b a j o s l u n f a r d o l d g i c o s que p r o l i f e r a n , en buena h o r a , desde hace un tiempo --, es e v i d e n t e que no se crealron en L a s Heras n i en l a P r i s i c 5 n , n i en l a T i e r r a c r u e l e i n h o s p i t a que, d u r a n t e t a n t o s anos, e s c a r n e c i ^ e l a r t i c u l o 18 de l a C o n s t i t u t i o n N a c i o n a l . L a mayoria de l a s p a l a b r a s l u n f a r das v i n i e r o n de Europa -- I t a l i a , Espana, F r a n c i a -- y f u e r o n mudando l u e g o en forma -- a veces tambie'n su s i g n i f i c a d o 3 - ; se e n r i q u e c i e r o n con nuevas c o n n o t a c i o n e s ; asumieron a c e p c i o n e s m e t a f o r i c a s ; incorpora'ronse i n d i g e n i s m o s y sematemas campesinos, y sumaron algunas o t r a s de formacio'n p o p u l a r . S i e s t e proceso o c u r r i ^ en l a s c ^ r c e l e s o en l o s c o n v e n t i l l o s es cosa n e c e s a r i a de e s c l a r e c e r , mas todo i n d i c a que l a p r o m i s c u i d a d de l o s segundos conto t a n t o como l a s primeras.^O Lunfardo  i s not a r e g u l a r language.  I t does not have i t s  own syntax b u t used t h a t o f Spanish though a t times i t does v i o l e n c e t o i t by ommitting  p r e p o s i t i o n s or c o n j u n c t i o n s .  e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f i t i s t h e u s e o f metaphors.  An  L u n f a r d o does have  a v e r y e x t e n s i v e v o c a b u l a r y which i s always growing  even though  i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a language w i t h a l l i t s s t r u c t u r a l resources.  Though i t does f o l l o w t h e b a s i c r u l e s o f Spanish  s y n t a x , t h e r e a r e some f o r m a t i o n s which a r e i r r e g u l a r l i k e t h e augmentative o f o t a r i o i s o t a r i o cuadro because cuadro i s Spanish means t o n t o , t h e same meaning o f o t a r i o . tonto tonto.  Thg? a r e a c t u a l l y s a y i n g  T h i s i s s i m i l a r t o a b o r i g i n a l languages and d i f f e r e n t  from S p a n i s h where t h e e x p r e s s i o n would be t o n t i s i m o o r r e q u e t e t o n t o . D e l V a l l e says:  " E l l u n f a r d o ha hecho uso de todos l o s mecanismos  posibles d e l lenguaje."  -87-  THE INFLUENCE OF LUNFARDO  Jos£ G o b e l l o i n t h e P r o l o g u e o f t h e book, Qrigenes  de l a  l i t e r a t u r a lunfarda states: L a d e f i n i c i 6 n que p r e s e n t a a l l u n f a r d o como una t e c n n o l o g i a de l a d r o n e s y a ha p e r d i d o v a l i d e z . Ahora se a d v i e r t e y se admite que e l l u n f a r d o es e l l e n g u a j e p o p u l a r de Buenos A i r e s , de Montevideo y de R o s a r i o -- en cada c i u d a d a d q u i e r e m a t i c e s d i f e r e n c i a l e s - - , y de l a s zonas de i n f l u e n c i a de esos grandes m i c l e o s urbanos; un l e n g u a j e l l e v a d o por e l tango a o t r a s c i u d a d e s mediterra neas, que en 1918 p l a n t d uno de sus v o c a b l o s en P a r i s , en e l l e t r e r o d e l cabaret " E l G a r r i o n " . /  6 2  L u n f a r d o went from t h e m a l v i v i e n t e s t o t h e language o f t h e pueblo as t h e s e t h i e v e s came i n c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r p e o p l e . gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of l u n f a r d o :  Del V a l l e  "Lenguaje de l a gente de mal  v i v i r , p r o p i o de Buenos A i r e s y de sus a l r e d e d o r e s y que p o s t e r i o r mente se ha e x t e n d i d o e n t r e algunas gentes d e l pueblo."^3 and G o b e l l o a l s o g i v e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n :  Payet  "por extension / l u n f a r d o  es/ e l l e n g u a j e p o p u l a r que i n c l u y e voces l u n f a r d a s y o t r a s t r a i d a s por l a c o r r i e n t e i n m i g r a t o r i a . " ^  4  A m u l t i t u d e of e x p r e s s i o n s from l u n f a r d o g o t i n t o t h e o r d i n a r y language because: picturesque;  2)  1)  they a r e r i c h , g r a p h i c , and  t h e lower c l a s s e s came i n c o n t a c t w i t h t h e  c r i m i n a l w o r l d and then i m m i t a t e d 3)  them and used t h e i r  vocabulary;  t h e youth o f h i g h e r c l a s s e s used these words and c a r r i e d them  to higher l e v e l s of s o c i e t y . ^ L u n f a r d o o r i g i n a t e d i n Buenos A i r e s and spread because of geography t o t h e R i v e r P l a t e r e g i o n and then l a t e r because of t h e tango t o more p l a c e s .  I t spread t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s of  -88America.  Many words went i n t o g i r i a o f B r a z i l .  Dr. Ordonez  P e r a l t a observes t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e words used i n t h e s l a n g of Bogota a r e A r g e n t i n e  origin. °  Today such words as p i b e ,  a t o r r a n t e , and f a r r a a r e c o m p l e t e l y  accepted  i n Buenos A i r e s .  G o b e l l o g i v e s a l i s t o f 129 l u n f a r d o words now used commonly i n t h e language o f Buenos A i r e s . ^ 7  D e l V a l l e d i s c u s s e s how so many  words came i n t o l u n f a r d o from Europe b u t a l s o says t h a t t h e r e v e r s e i s t r u e because many words have gone i n t o S p a i n and Europe from t h e A m e r i c a s . ^  8  Through t h e s a i n e t e , t h e t h e a t r e i n c o r p o r a t e d  local  idioms and e x p r e s s i o n s used i n Buenos A i r e s a t t h e end o f t h e nineteenth century.  T h i s l l u n f a r d o was propagated by newspapers,  the tango,and t h e c r e o l e t h e a t r e .  The f i r s t  s a i n e t e , premiered  i n R i o de l a P l a t a and by an A r g e n t i n e w r i t e r , "De paso por a q u i " by B i a s Ratal G a l l o i n 1890, used t h e language o f t h e o r i l l e r o . L u n f a r d o appeared i n t h e t h e a t r e o f F l o r e n c i o Sanchez and s e v e r a l 69 other w r i t e r s . Tangos a r e f i l l e d w i t h l u n f a r d o m a i n l y because t h e tango grew up among t h e m a l v i v i e n t e s o f Buenos A i r e s .  Many w r i t e r s  b e s i d e s Fray Mocho and Benigno Lugones have used l u n f a r d o , though A l v a r e z l e d t h e way.  Cambaceres i n P o t - p o u r r i used l o c a l language  as d i d Roberto A r l t .  Other i n c l u d e Fe'lix Lima, L u i s Pardo,  E n r i q u e Rua, E v a r i s t o C a r r i e g o , Manuel G ^ l v e z and even L e o p o l d o Lugones used such words a s : a t o r r a n t e , c a l a v e r a , compadre, and gomina.^  There has been an exhuberant c o s t u m b r i s t a  V a l l e g i v e s f i v e pages o f authors l u n f a r d o i n them.71  literature. Del  and t h e i r works which have  -89-  Americo C a s t r o expressed  h i s d i s p l e a s u r e a t t h e way  l u n f a r d o has grown i n p o p u l a r i t y and has been embraced by t h e people o f Buenos A i r e s as " t h e i r language". 1927  i t had become so w e l l  He t e l l s how by  accepted:  C l r c u l o s a m p l i o s adoptan ma's o menos esas p a l a b r a s , l a s p r e f i e r e n l o s e s c o l a r e s , y, para a l g u n o s , h a c i a 1927, parec£an e l p e d e s t a l sobre e l que d e b i e r a a l z a r s e e l f u t u r o gran idioma de l o s a r g e n t i n o s , r e f l e j o de s u alma. E l l u n f a r d o tuvo a n t e s c u l t i v a d o r e s ( y a se supone para que c l a s e de l i t e r a t u r a ) en F r a y Mocho y Fe'lix Lima; luego e l apo'stol de l a nueva f e 1 i n g u l f s t i c a fue L a s t Reason, q u i e n d i o en A r i e n d a s u e l t a una s e r i e de n a r r a c i o n e s de l a v i d a en l o s a r r a b a l e s p o r t e f i o s . 7 2  Del V a l l e makes a p l e a f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f l u n f a r d o . Some have c a l l e d i t a w o r t h l e s s language spoken o n l y by c r a z y people o r p r i s o n e r s and i t has been r e j e c t e d by many because i t s h i s t o r y keeps i t from b e i n g a s s i m i l a t e d , y e t C e r v a n t e s , and  Quevedo,  o t h e r Spanish w r i t e r s used common words l i k e those o f  l u n f a r d o which l a t e r were i n c l u d e d i n t h e d i c t i o n a r y . be r e c o g n i z e d  I t should  once and f o r a l l t h a t t h e common speech, t h e v u l g a r  language, i s f i l l e d w i t h l u n f a r d i s m o s ,  7 3  C a s t r o admits t h a t  many of t h e words o f l u n f a r d o from I t a l i a n l i v e i n t h e common language, occur i n f a m i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n , and a t times even r e a c h the higher l e v e l s .  7 4  D e l V a l l e makes a r a t h e r e m o t i o n a l ; p l e a  f o r l u n f a r d o s i m i l a r t o t h e ones made e a r l i e r i n t h e c e n t u r y by those who wanted t o use i t as t h e b a s i s f o r a n a t i o n a l language and who were so s e v e r l y c r i t i c i z e d by Ame'rico C a s t r o : E l l u n f a r d o es como uno de esos h i j o s a d i i l t e r o s , b a s t a r d o s o i l e g i t i m o s , y que pese a su o r i g e n e s p u r i o , l e g i timamos, acuna'ndolo en n u e s t r o s b r a z o s , porque es de n u e s t r a misma s a n g r e . ^ 7  -90-  FOOTNOTES  "'"Preston E. James, L a t i n A m e r i c a , 3d. ed. (New Y o r k : The Odyssey P r e s s , 1959), p. 331. 2James, p. 332. 3 G o b e l l o , p. 44. 4  J a m e s , p. 339.  5  M a r t n , p. 10.  I b i d . , pp. 11-12. A r t u r o J a u r e t c h e , E l medio p e l o en l a s o c i e d a d a r g e n t i n a (Apuntes para una s o c i o l o g f a n a c i o n a l ) , 7 t h ed. (Buenos A i r e s : A. PefTa L i l l o , 1967), pp. 60-61. 6  7  Jose* A n t o n i o W i l d e , Buenos A i r e s desde s e t e n t a anos a t r a s (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l U n i v e r s i t a r i a de Buenos A i r e s , 1960), pp. 78-96. 8  9  J a u r e t c h e , p. 128. 1 0  I b i d . , pp. 129-36, 154-55.  "'•"'•Manuel Gctlvez, E l mal m e t a f i s i c o , 2d.ed. (Buenos A i r e s : E s p a s a - C a l p e , 1947), p. 196. 1 2  C a s t r o ,P- 34.  1 3  I b i d . , pp. 31-37.  1 4  Del  1 5  I b i d . , P- 110.  1 6  I b i d . , pp. 110-112.  1 7  I b i d . , pp. 131-132.  1 8  I b i d . , pp. 117-126.  1 9  I b i d . , P- 126.  2 0  I b i d . , P- 130.  2 1  I b i d . , P- 42.  V a l l e , pp. 65-66  -91-  2 2  F r a y Mocho, I , 181.  2 3  G o b e l l o , p. 189. D e l l e p i a n e , p. 50.  2 5  I b i d . , p. 51.  2 6  Ibid.  2 7  I b i d . , p. 53.  2 8  M a r i n , p. 28.  2 9  D e l V a l l e , p. 37.  3 0  I b i d . , p. 39.  3 1  I b i d . , pp. 30-31.  3 2  G o b e l l o , p. 63.  3 3  I b i d . , pp. 139-188.  3 4  C a s t r o , p. 20.  3 5  I b i d . , pp. 123-24.  3 6  G o b e l l o , pp. 44-45.  3 7  C a s t r o , p. 124.  3 8  G o b e l l o , p. 143.  3 9  I b i d . , pp. 45, 158.  4 0  I b i d . , p. 174.  4 1  I b i d . , p. 181.  4 2  D e l V a l l e , p. 62.  4 3  G o b e l l o , p. 26.  4 4  C a s t r o , p. 86.  4 5  G o b e l l o , pp. 27-28.  4 6  D e l l e p i a n e , p. 59.  4 7  G o b e l l o , pp. 19-25.  -92-  4 8  Ibid.,  pp. 54-57.  4 9  Ibid.,  pp. 189-200.  5 0  D e l l e p i a n e , p. 62.  5 1  G o b e l l o , pp. 63-64.  5 2  I b i d . , pp. 65-68.  5 3  D e l V a l l e , pp. 67-74.  - * D e l l e p i a n e , p. 58. 4  5 5  Ibid.,  pp. 60-62.  5 6  Ibid.,  p. 54.  5 7  I b i d . , pp. 55-57.  5 8  G o b e l l o , p. 69.  59Del V a l l e , pp. 75-79. 6 0  S o l e r Carias, p. 9.  6 1  D e l V a l l e , pp. 53-59.  6 2  S o l e r Canas, p. 9.  6 3  D e l V a l l e , p. 27.  6 4  P a y e t , p. 49.  6 5  D e l l e p i a n e , p. 62.  6 6  D e l V a l l e , p. 43.  6 7  G o b e l l o , pp. 209-210.  D e l V a l l e , p. 62. He r e f e r s t o Menenez P i d a l , R., Manual de g r a m ^ t i c a h i s t d r i c a e s p a n o l a , 8 t h ed. ( M a d r i d : E s p a s a - C a l p e , 1949), pp. 28, f f . 6 8  69 vy  Del  7 0  V a l l e , pp. 1 3 7 r l 3 9 .  Ibid.,  p. 148.  7 1  l b i d . , pp. 164-172.  7 2  C a s t r o , p.  7 3  D e l V a l l e , p.  7 4  C a s t r o , p.  7 5  D e l V a l l e , p.  86. 148.  124. 149.  CONCLUSION  L u n f a r d o i s more than j u s t a n o t h e r s l a n g o f a b i g c i t y . I t has proved t o be an i m p o r t a n t source o f v o c a b u l a r y f o r t h e common language and l i t e r a t u r e o f A r g e n t i n a .  I t has s u p p l i e d  many words which have become common p l a c e i n o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n . I t has a l s o had i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e and has been observed. One o f t h e r e a s o n s f o r t h i s s u c c e s s i s t h e development  of the  tango which gave l u n f a r d o a boost t o p o p u l a r i t y n o t enjoyed by o t h e r j a r g o n s .  A n o t h e r r e a s o n was t h e A r g e n t i n e d e s i r e t o  c r e a t e a n a t i o n a l language d i s t i n c t i v e from t h a t of S p a i n o r any o t h e r S p a n i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r y .  Many f e l t t h a t l u n f a r d o  c o u l d be t h e base f o r such a language and promoted i t i n e a r n e s t . ! C a s t r o says t h a t i n A r g e n t i n a , because o f i t s l a c k of a f i r m S p a n i s h h i e r a r c h y l i k e t h o s e which developed i n Lima and M e x i c o C i t y , t h e r u r a l i n f l u e n c e s which used a r c h a i c forms l i k e t h e voseo p r e v a i l e d on t h e n a t i o n a l s p e e c h .  2  The  same i s t r u e f o r t h e r a p i d growth o f I t a l i a n words through l u n f a r d o i n t h e n a t i o n a l language. s o c i e t y t o defend S p a n i s h .  There was no f i r m l y  established  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t h a t t h e gaucho  language a t t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n and acceptance because o f t h e w r i t i n g s of H i d a l g o , A s c a s u b i , and Jose* Hernandez.  Many o t h e r  -95-  w r i t i n g s f o l l o w e d i n t h e gaucho s e t t i n g w i t h an i m i t a t i o n of t h e i r language.  T h i s d i d f o r t h e r u r a l speech o f A r g e n t i n a  something t h a t never happened t o t h e r u r a l speech of C h i l e , C o l o m b i a , o r M e x i c o , and though some minor l i t e r a r y works i n those r u r a l languages were w r i t t e n , they never a t t a i n e d t h e p o p u l a r i t y and wide a c c e p t a n c e i n l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s as d i d the gauchesque  literature.  As Hernandez and A s c a s u b i advanced among t h e educated through t h e i r works t h e knowledge  of t h e gaucho language they  had o b s e r v e d , so F r a y Mocho made a p l a c e i n t h e l i t e r a r y w o r l d f o r l u n f a r d o , and.we have seen, o t h e r s such as R o b e r t o A r l t followed s u i t .  We have observed b r i e f l y t h e w r i t i n g s of F r a y  Mocho and have n o t e d t h a t he o f f e r e d t o t h e l i n g u i s t one o f t h e f i r s t lunfardo vocabularies.  To t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c he gave an  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e l u n f a r d o as w e l l as a b i t of h i s language. As t h e gauchesque  l i t e r a t u r e f u r t h e r e d t h e knowledge  of t h e  gaucho language and c u l t u r e , so t h e works of F r a y Mocho f u r t h e r e d t h e g e n e r a l knowledge  of l u n f a r d o , though t o a l e s s e r degree.  I n b o t h t h e case of t h e gaucho and t h e l u n f a r d o , those who wrote of them were o u t s i d e r s who observed t h e s e groups and i n t e r p r e t e d them t o t h e i r educated urban r e a d e r s i n a way which added g r e a t e r a c c e p t a n c e of o r a t l e a s t g r e a t e r i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r  jargons.  I n b o t h cases one from t h e predominant s o c i e t y i s w r i t i n g  about  a marginal society. F r a y Mocho i s always mentioned i n any s t u d y o f l u n f a r d o , whether l i n g u i s t i c , p s y c h o l o g i c a l or l i t e r a r y .  Benigno Lugones  -96-  s t a r t e d t h i s l u n f a r d o l i t e r a t u r e but h i s work was  s m a l l and not  w e l l known, i n f a c t G o b e l l o says t h a t the a r t i c l e s i n La N a c i o n of Benigno Lugones had never been reproduced u n t i l he d i d so i n 3  h i s book.  Fray Mocho's works a t t a i n e d a f a r g r e a t e r success -  e s p e c i a l l y as he became the e d i t o r of a l e a d i n g l i t e r a r y  magazine.  H i s work i s v a l u a b l e because of the v o c a b u l a r y but a l s o because of the p s y c h o l o g y of the l u n f a r d o s which he  interprets.  Indeed, F r a y Mocho's works, which we have d i s c u s s e d , make him almost the " p a t r o n s a i n t " of l u n f a r d o .  H i s work makes  l u n f a r d o a v a i l a b l e t o us and i t makes i t worth s t u d y i n g .  Perhaps  w i t h o u t him i t would n e v e r have a t t a i n e d the p l a c e i t has i n Argentina.  Because he worked on the p o l i c e f o r c e , which  few  w r i t e r s have done, he was a b l e t o i n t r o d u c e t o the educated a language which was  q u i t e unknown by them.  He gave t h a t  language more a c c e p t a n c e by the mere f a c t t h a t he, a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e , put i t i n w r i t i n g i n a f i n e l i t e r a r y work. L a t e r n u r a , e l t i b i o a b r a z o d e l hombre por l a mujer c a i d a , por l a mujer que a r r a s t r a su f l a q u e z a , y se e n t r e g a , amorosa, a l g e s t o de aque'l que l a g o l p e a y o l v i d a , e n c u e n t r a en F r a y Mocho una p a l a b r a t i e r n a , de hermano, de hombre que ha s u f r i d o y comprende. Y cuando enumera l o s o f i c i o s d e l submundo de Buenos A i r e s , no hay a c u s a c i d n , no hay c r l t i c a . Hay c a r i n o por e l que padece, por e l que mata, por e l que r o b a , por e l i n f e l i z que no sabe que' h a c e r de su v i d a . Y s i l a m o n s t r u o s i d a d e s t a l l a , e n t o n c e s , l a cubre con un v e l o i r d n i c o - ^ Y en l a i n t e r g r a c i o n de F r a y Mocho t i e n e un p a p e l importantisimo e l l e n g u a j e . 4  '  E l vos suprime toda r e t 6 r i c a , es l o i n t i m o , l o reco'ndito l a n z a d o con pura desnudez a l mundo de una forma u n i v e r s a l -- e l l e n g u a j e -- pero que e n t r e n o s o t r o s , se va t r a s v a s a n d o por l a p a u l a t i n a i n c o r p o r a c i o n de p a l a b r a s e x t r a n a s , readaptadas y, con e l tiempo -- ya se observan algunos ejemplos — , e l e v a d o s a rango de o b j e t o m u n d i a l ,  -97-  en donde irrumpe con l a c o n f i a n z a de l o i m p r e s c i n d i b l e y en cuyo h o r i z o n t e adn e x i s t e c i e r t a i n s e g u r i d a d debido p r e c i s a m e n t e , a l a e s t r u c t u r a a c c i d e n t a l de l a s c i u d a d e s , a l a h o s t i l i d a d permanente de l a l l a n u r a , d e l paisaje.5 These words o f F . J . S o l e r o i n t h e P r o l o g u e t o t h e Obras  completas  of F r a y Mocho a l o n g w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g o f V a l e n t i n de Pedro show t h a t t h e language  c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by F r a y Mocho form one o f  the i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f h i s w r i t i n g s : Y es c u r i o s o v e r cdmo, con e s t e l i b r o de c a r a c t e r i s t i c a s l o c a l e s , Josi S. A l v a r e z se c o l o c a d e n t r o de l a mas pura t r a d i c i 6 n l i t e r a r i a e s p a n o l a , code^ndose con l o s maestros d e l idioma que a f i n a r o n sus o i d o s para escuchar a l p u e b l o , que d e s c e n d i e r o n h a s t a e l hampa para r e c o g e r sus voces de germania, como C e r v a n t e s , y t o d a v i a mas don F r a n c i s c o de Quevedo. Puede d e c i r s e que Jose" S. A l v a r e z , con sus Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e i n a u g u r a una modalidad l i t e r a r i a , agregando a l c a s t e l l a n o que se h a b l e eh Buenos A i r e s , voces que mezclan con e l sus h a b l a n t e s de todo e l mundo. S i o t r o s antes que 4.1 se h a b i a n r e f e r i d o a esos v o c a b l o s d e l Mundo l u n f a r d o -- t i t u l o de l a segunda p a r t e de e s t e l i b r o — , A l v e r e z es e l p r i m e r o que l o s i n c o r p o r a l i t e r a r i a m e n t e a n u e s t r o i d i o m a . Y porque c o n o c i a b i e n e l i d i o m a en que e s c r i b i a , pudo l l e v a r a sus pa'ginas, s i n deme'rito d e l p r o p i o i d i o m a , s i n empobrecerlo, s i n o a l c o n t r a r i o , e n r i q u e c i d n d o l o , l a s l o c u c i o n e s de l a lengua c o r r i e n t e , l a s de l a c a l l e , con sus g i r o s e s p e c i a l e s , con sus modismos, con su s i n t a x i s ; como tambie'n r e c o g e r y d e f i n i r l a s p a l a b r a s de germania. Su e x i t o se d e b i d a su p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t o , a su c o n o c i m i e n t o y s e n t i d o d e l i d i o m a , y a sus e x t r a o r d i n a r i a s dotes de o b s e r v a c i d n . ^  -98-  FOOTNOTES  ^ C a s t r o , pp.  83-94.  2  Ibid.  3  F r a y Mocho, I ,  4  I b i d . , I,  13.  5  Ibid., I,  15.  %)e P e d r o , p.  12.  17.  -99-  SELEGTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A r r a z o l a , R o b e r t o . D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos a r g e n t i n o s . A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l C o l o m b i a , 1943.  Buenos  A r r i e t a , R a f a e l A l b e r t o , ed. H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a a r g e n t i n a . V o l . I V . Buenos A i r e s : P e u s e r , 1959. B e l l i n i , Giuseppe. 1963.  Lo Spagnolo d'America.  Milan:  B e s s e s , L u i s . D i c c i o n a r i o de a r g o t e s p a n o l . de Manuel S o l e r , E d i t o r e s , n.d. Cane, M i g u e l .  Juvenilia.  Buenos A i r e s :  Carriego, Evaristo. Poesias. Ghiano. Buenos A i r e s : 1964.  La G o l i a r d i c a ,  Barcelona:  Sucesores  S u r , 1962.  P r o l o g u e and n o t e s by Juan C a r l o s Compafiia G e n e r a l F a b r i l E d i t o r i a ,  C a s t r o , Ame'rico. L a p e c u l i a r i d a d l i n g u i s t i c a r i o p l a t e n s e . r e v i s e d . M a d r i d : Taurus, 1961. C a s u l l o , Fernando Hugo. 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H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a americana y argentina. R e v i s e d and a d j u s t e d t o s c h o o l programmes of grade 5 ) . Beunos A i r e s : A n g e l E s t r a d a y C i a . , S.A., 1965. F r a y Mocho. Cuadros de l a c i u d a d . Buenos A i r e s : u n i v e r s i t a r i a de Buenos A i r e s , 1961.  Editorial  -100-  F r a y Mocho. Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e . P r e l i m i n a r y Note by V a l e n t i n de Pedro. Buenos A i r e s : Compania G e n e r a l F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1962. F r a y Mocho. Obras c o m p l e t a s . 2 v o l s . Buenos A i r e s :  P r o l o g u e and notes by F . J . S a l e r o . E d i t o r i a l S c h a p i r e , 1961.  G a l v e z , Manuel. •• E l mal m e t a f i s i c o . 2d. ed. E s p a s a - C a l p e , 1947.  Buenos A i r e s :  G i u s t i , Roberto F. "La prosa de 1852 a 1900", V o l . I l l of H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r e a r g e n t i n a . E d i t e d by R a f a e l A l b e r t o A r r i e t a . 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