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Fray Mocho and lunfardo Aaron, Gerald Tingey 1968

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FRAY MOCHO AND LUNFARDO BY GERALD TINGEY"AARON B.A. Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y , 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of A r t s i n the Department of Hispanic and I t a l i a n Studies We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the re q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i 1 a b 1 e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n  t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department nf Hispanic and.Italian Studies T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8 , C a n a d a D a t e April 7.6, 1968 FRAY MOCHO AND LUNFARDO ABSTRACT The purposes of this thesis are to present a study of Jose S. Alvarez, known as Fray Mocho, and his works with particular attention paid to Memorias de un vigilante; to make a study of lunfardo, the slang of Buenos Aires - its origin, its nature, and its influence on language and literature; and to show the important place of Fray Mocho in the history of lunfardo. To accomplish these purposes, in Chapter I, I have undertaken to present a brief sketch of the l i fe of Fray Mocho. Then I attempt to make a brief introduction to his literary work and place i t into the literary history of Argentina. Chapter II contains first a discussion of the nature of and importance of Memorias de un vigilante and then a linguistic study, with definitions and etymologies, of the lunfardo vocabulary Fray Mocho gives in "Mundo lunfardo". This is a link with Chapter III which is a study of lunfardo and its historical and sociological background as well as a discussion of the sources of its vocabulary, and the nature of the language. This study of lunfardo closes with a discussion of the influence of lunfardo has had on literature and the spoken language. The conclusion is an attempt to bring together Fray Mocho and lunfardo and show his important place in the history of slang. CONTENTS 1 6 10 14 CHAPTER I I MEMORIAS DE UN VIGILANTE 16 VOCABULARY OF "MUNDO LUNFARDO" 26 FOOTNOTES 58 CHAPTER I I I HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF LUNFARDO 68 LUNFARDO VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR 79 THE INFLUENCE OF LUNFARDO 87 FOOTNOTES 90 CONCLUSION 94 FOOTNOTES 98 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 CHAPTER I THE LIFE OF FRAY MOCHO THE WORKS OF FRAY MOCHO FRAY MOCHO AND HIS TIME FOOTNOTES My thanks are due to H. V. Livermore and Dr. K. I. Kobbervig f o r t h e i r help and guidance i n the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s . CHAPTER I THE LIFE OF FRAY MOCHO Josd S. A l v a r e z , best known by the pseudonym, Fray Mocho, was born August 26, 1858 i n Gualeguaychu, Entre R i o s , Republica Argentina, to D e s i d e r i o A l v a r e z Gadea and D o r i a Escalada Baldez, both of t r a d i t i o n a l Spanish f a m i l i e s w i t h c l o s e t i e s to Argentine h i s t o r y . H i s great uncle was Lieutenant Santiago Gadea, one of the "33 o r i e n t a l e s " of L a v a l l e j a . A grandfather of maternal ancestry, Jose - Celedonio Escalada was r e l a t e d to the w i f e of San M a r t i n and was one of the Spaniards who embraced the independence movement and fought under San M a r t i n i n e a r l y campaigns cul m i n a t i n g i n San Lorenzo. There seems to be some question as to h i s second name. When he was named at b i r t h i t i s evident that the S d i d not stand f o r S i x t o . Marta M a r i n says that the S of h i s second name was an orthographic e r r o r of b u r e a u c r a t i c o r i g i n f o r a C that stood f o r C i r i a c o . ^ This i n f o r m a t i o n , however, seems to be i n c o r r e c t according to other sources. The D i c c i o n a r i o de l i t e r a t u r a  latinoamericana, A r g e n t i n a says that according to the b i r t h r e g i s t e r , the second name was S e f e r i n o , a m i s s p e l l i n g of Ceferino.3 V a l e n t i n de Pedro claims that the p a r r o c h i a l record where h i s b i r t h i s r e g i s t e r e d s t a t e s : "Jose" Z e f e r i n o A l v a r e z , " w i t h Z. This l e t t e r was replaced w i t h a C f o r C e f e r i n o and from the time when Fray Mocho began to sign h i s name he d i d i t a f t e r t h i s manner: Jose" C. A l v a r e z . L a t e r , as h i s name s t a r t e d to be made p u b l i c he changed the C to S supposedly f o r reasons of euphony. Some have claimed that the S stood f o r S i x t o and Lugones c a l l s him Santos i n E l Payador: "Nuestro contemporaneo Jose Santos A l v a r e z . " ^ Jose" A l v a r e z used the pseudonym Fabio C a r r i z o i n p u b l i s h i n g Vida de l o s ladrones celebres de Buenos A i r e s y sus maneras de robar (1887) and Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e (1897) but w i t h Un v i a j e a l pais de l o s matreros (1897) he took the name of Fray Mocho, which he continued to use and by which he became so w e l l known i n the p e r i o d i c a l Caras y Caretas. V a l e n t i n de Pedro comments on the o r i g i n of the pseudonym: <iC6mo se o r i g i n a su seudonimo? Peude d e c i r s e que c a s i nace con e l , ya que procede de su mas t i e r n a i n f a n c i a . Cinco anos contaba cuando su maestro de primeras l e t r a s , un v i e j e c i t o espartol a l que por l o v i s t o mareaba bastante con sus tr a v e s u r a s , l e d i j o delante de l a c l a s e . " iQuedate q u i e t o , carnero mocho!" La expresion cay6 en g r a c i a a l o s muchachos, que l a f e s t e j a r o n con r i s a s y l a h i c i e r o n suya, llamdndole desde entonces " e l mocho". M4s tarde, e l propio A l v a r e z , puesto a adoptar un seud6nimo, ante- puso e l Fray a l Mocho, acaso recordando a Fray Gerundio nombre que habfa dado a una efimera p u b l i c a c i d n que d i r i - g i d h a c i a 1882. 5 Fray Mocho was r a i s e d on an e s t a n c i a i n open country and d i d not begin school u n t i l he was twelve years of age. I n 1872 he entered the Colegio Nacional de Concepci6n d e l Uruguay and i n 1876 continued h i s studies w i t h a s c h o l a r s h i p at the Escuela Normal de Paran£. He had to leave school before r e c e i v i n g h i s teaching -3- degree.6 V a l e n t i n de Pedro o f f e r s the reasons f o r l e a v i n g s c h o o l . He says that when the school, Colegio Nacional de Concepcidn d e l Uruguay c l o s e d i n 1875, Fray Mocho went on to the Escuela Normal de Parana. He claims that he was an e x c e l l e n t student but not always completely dedicated to h i s s t u d i e s . Outside of school he was a t t r a c t e d by serenades to l o v e r s , the b i l l i a r d s of the Club S o c i a l , and t r i p s i n t o the country. The f o l l o w i n g year (1876) he l e f t the school and h i s home and went to Buenos A i r e s . De Pedro quotes Fray Mocho f o r the reason: Por causas que no hacen a l caso, me habia venido yo de mi p r o v i n c i a alia por 1876, trayendo por unico c a p i t a l unos d i e z pesos de l a antigua moneda y muchos deseos de no morirme de hambre y escapar con mi p e l l e j o entero de c i e r t a s aventuras en que me habfa metido: t e n i a unos d i e c i s i e t e anos de edad.^ U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the source of t h i s quote i s not given. V a l e n t i n de Pedro says he went to Buenos A i r e s f o r adventure but that the f r i g h t e n i n g c i t y , h i s homesickness, and the n e c e s s i t y of f i n i s h i n g h i s s t u d i e s l e d him to v i s i t a f e l l o w - c i t i z e n of Entre Rios and the M i n i s t e r of J u s t i c e , R e l i g i o u s A f f a i r s , and P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , Dr. Onesimo Leguizam6n. This man gave him a s c h o l a r s h i p and o f f e r e d to pay h i s way back to Parana'. He was not r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming a teacher and d e s p i t e h i s s c h o l a r s h i p he was e x p e l l e d from the school, accused of being r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the c o l l e c t i v e absense of students from a c l a s s as a demonstration of t h e i r d i s a p p r o v a l of the incompetence of the p r o f e s s o r . H i s f u t u r e teaching career was, t h e r e f o r e , permanently i n t e r r u p t e d . -4- I n 1879 he went t o Buenos A i r e s , t h i s time to succeed. He s t a r t e d as a r e p o r t e r f o r E l N a c i o n a l , Sarmiento's newspaper; then he became the p o l i c e r e p o r t e r f o r La Pampa of E z e q u i e l Paz. He went on to become one of the e d i t o r s of La P a t r i a Argentina of the G u t i e r r e z f a m i l y ; and l a t e r wrote f o r M i t r e ' s La N a c i & i f o r which he was parliamentary correspondent. From paper to paper and from p o l i c e r e p o r t e r to parliamentary r e p o r t e r he penetrated the l i f e of the c i t y and met a l l kinds of people i n d i f f e r e n t c i r c l e s . ^ Things were not easy during t h i s p e r i o d . Newspaper work was demanding and paid l i t t l e . In h i s w r i t i n g s he i n d i c a t e s that things were d i f f i c u l t . I n "Instantaneo metropolitana", l a t e r published i n Salero C r i o l l o , , he w r i t e s : "Ahora no soy aquel trabajador de antes, que usted conocid echando e l alma sobre l a s mesas de redacci6n...."10 i n "Ram6n Romero", of the same work, he t a l k s about the union the r e p o r t e r s formed,"^ and i n "Recuerdos v i e j o s " a l s o from Salero C r i o l l o he w r i t e s ; Siempre me acordare' de a q u e l l a v e c i n i t a que tuve cuando era n o t i c i e r o de aquel d i a r i o de l a tarde, que yo y muchos de mis colegas no olvidaremos jamas, cuyo redactor y p r o p i e t a r i o no nos pagaba nunca l o s sueldos....1 Fray Mocho i n t h i s insecure and poorly paid employment f r e q u e n t l y l i v e d a bohemian e x i s t e n c e , but a f t e r marrying he sought something more secure i n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n work so he entered the pol i c e f o r c e i n 1886. He wrote La v i d a de l o s ladrones celebres de Buenos A i r e s y sus maneras de robar (1887) as a s o r t of manual or t e x t f o r the employees of the department of i n v e s t i g a t i o n s which he f o u n d e d . ^ This i s not considered of l i t e r a r y value and i s not i n c l u d e d i n -5- h i s Obras completas published by Schapire i n 1961, but from t h i s experience he does produce a f i n e l i t e r a r y work c a l l e d Memorias  de un v i g i l a n t e , published i n 1897. Other works are s u c c e s s f u l l y published but h i s work w i l l be discussed i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n . I n 1898 Fray Mocho along wit h Eustaquio P e l l i c e r and the c a r t o o n i s t Manuel Mayol founded the magazine, Caras y Caretas. He was the e d i t o r of i t u n t i l h i s death, August 23, 1903 and no i s s u e f a i l e d to have a work by him d e s p i t e the f a c t that he s u f f e r e d from t u b e r c u l o s i s T h i s p u b l i c a t i o n l a s t e d u n t i l 1939. I t a c t u a l l y marked a r e v o l u t i o n s i n c e i t was the f i r s t p e r i o d i c a l to pay f o r l i t e r a r y c o l l a b o r a t i o n . I t gave great importance to n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e and c r i o l l i s t a l i t e r a t u r e . Some of the authors whose works appeared i n i t are Roberto J . Payrd, Ruben Dario, M a r t i n Leguizamon, Leopoldo Lugones, Jose' Ingenieros, Ricardo Rojas, and Horacio Quiroga. Humouristic c r i t i c i s m using p o l i t i c s and f i g u r e s of Buenos A i r e s , c h a r a c t e r i z e s the p u b l i c a t i o n . ^ -6- THE WORKS OF FRAY MOCHO The f i r s t volume published by Fray Mocho appeared i n 1882 c a l l e d Esmeraldas, s u b t i t l e d Cuentos mundanos. This i s a c o l l e c t i o n of e r o t i c short s t o r i e s of a picaresque s p i r i t . For example, one of the s t o r i e s "Acu'some Padre", deals w i t h the seduction of a g i r l by a p r i e s t to whom she goes f o r c o n f e s s i o n . He takes her to B r a z i l and to Europe but abandons her i n M a r s e i l l e s . Another s t o r y , " F r u t a prohibida", t e l l s of a husband who comes home from a dance to f i n d h i s w i f e i n bed w i t h an employee of h i s almacen. In a strange t u r n of a f f a i r s , the husband i s a r r e s t e d and the employee allowed to stay w i t h the w i f e . In 1887, the work p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Vida de l o s ladrones  cdlebres de Buenos A i r e s y sus maneras de robar was published mainly to be used as a manual. I n 1897, Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e appears, but a c t u a l l y had been w r i t t e n s e v e r a l years before. I t i s a book w r i t t e n i n autobiographic form under the name of Fabio C a r r i z o i n which A l v a r e z put much of h i s personal experiences that makes i t have a tone of a u t h e n t i c i t y . I n "Mundo l u n f a r d o " , the second part of t h i s book, Fray Mocho inco r p o r a t e s f o r the f i r s t time i n t o Argentine l i t e r a t u r e slang words (lunfardo) used by the thieves of whom he speaks. An extensive d i s c u s s i o n of the l i n g u i s t i c aspects of t h i s book w i l l f o l l o w l a t e r . S h o r t l y afterwards, i n the same year, he published h i s V i a j e a l p a i s de l o s matreros. This work i s a landmark i n Argentine r e g i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . I t can be compared to Una excursidn  a l o s i n d i o s ranqueles by L u c i o V. M a n s i l l a or Mis montanas by -7- Joaquin V. Gonzalez (1892). I t c o n s i s t s of scenes and s t o r i e s about the l i f e of the people who l i v e along the Parana - R i v e r i n Santa Fe and Entre Rios -- the home of A l v a r e z . I t i s about gauchos who change t h e i r horses f o r canoes and who hunt herons, carpinchos, and otter,. The m a j o r i t y of these men are i n d i f f i c u l t y w i t h the l a w . ^ Juan P i n t o gives t h i s a p p r a i s a l of the work: Un hombre que se asomd a nuestro l i t o r a l , que d e s c r i b i o en r e l a t o s breves y cuentos de v i s i d n ra'pida, pero ahondando en e l p a i s a j e y en l o s hombres que l o conviven, fue Fray Mocho (Josd S i x t o A l v a r e z ) . V i a j e  a l pais de l o s matreros es e l l i b r o que comentamos y que t i e n e un s i g n i f i c a t i v o s u b t i t u l o determinante: Cinematdgrafo c r i o l l o . Es una m a g i s t r a l p i n t u r a de una zona a r g e n t i n a , d e s c r i p t a con una f a c u l t a d de aprehender l a r e a l i d a d , de sorprender e l rasgo d e f i n i d o r y e l ambiente que hacen de e l l a un l i b r o s i n g u l a r en su geoiero.lS In 1898, a l e s s e r known work was published by Fray Mocho, c a l l e d En e l mar a u s t r a l i n which he p a i n t s the scenery and the people who l i v e along the channels and on the i s l a n d s of the T i e r r a d e l Fuego. He was never there but took h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from r e p o r t s of navy f r i e n d s who had v i s i t e d the r e g i o n . Marta Marin says i t seems that A l v a r e z conceived these adventures of s e a l hunters and prospectors as proof that he could w r i t e a purely imaginative book to show to those who f e l t h i s technique was too c l o s e to r e a l i t y t hat he d i d not lack, imagination.19 Beginning the eighth of October, 1898 the f i r s t e d i t i o n of Garas y Caretas appeared. I t i s i n t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n which he d i r e c t e d u n t i l h i s death that Fray Mocho became w e l l known, and f o r which he i s best remembered. I t i s here that h i s Cuentos appeared. They are f i l l e d w i t h humour, c o l o u r , l i f e , and accurate -8- psychology i n the p o r t r a y a l of the l i f e of Buenos A i r e s . The dialogues preserve the picturesque and c o l l o q u i a l language of the time. Some c o n s i s t of f a b l e s and r u r a l s t o r i e s with a f o l k l o r e f l a v o u r . They are f i l l e d w i t h c a r i c a t u r e s of the v a r i e d c o l o u r f u l types t o be found on the s t r e e t s of Buenos A i r e s . ^ u Of these works the w r i t e r s of D i c c i o n a r i o de l a l i t e r a t u r a latinoamericana  A r g e n t i n a , published under the D i v i s i o n of Philosophy and L e t t e r s of the Department of C u l t u r a l A f f a i r s of the Panamerican Union, s t a t e : "Fray Mocho" fue un costumbrista o r i g i n a l , comparable en su g^nero s i n trascendencia con l o s mejores de c u a l q u i e r pais y c a s i s i n precedentes en l a A r g e n t i n a , aunque sf fue repetidamente imitado: popular s i n descender a l o chocarrero; p i c a r e s c o , pero medido en l a expresidn; s a t i r i c o , pero s i n h i e l . ^ These cuentos were c o l l e c t e d a f t e r Fray Mocho's death and published i n 1906 under the t i t l e of Cuentos de Fray Mocho. L a t e r , other e d i t i o n s under d i f f e r e n t names such as Cuadros de l a  ciudad have appeared. One of the important features of Fray Mocho's s t y l e i n these cuentos i s the usage of d i a l o g u e . This s t y l e begins w i t h the s t o r y "Aguinaldos" and becomes the p r e v a i l i n g type of p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the f o l l o w i n g s t o r i e s . Miguel Cane* urged Fray Mocho s e v e r a l times to become a playwright because of h i s remarkable c o n v e r s a t i o n a l a b i l i t y . V a l e n t i n de Pedro says that t h i s " d i a  l o guing of the characters was h i s way of conversing with the public." (The p u b l i c l i k e d h i s dialogues as was shown i n the widespread mourning f o r him when he died.) Marta Marin b e l i e v e s that one of the weaknesses of costumbrismo i s that outside d e s c r i p t i o n i s so important. Fray Mocho's usage of dialogue i s a technique -9- that costumbrismo had discarded and she claims that t h i s shows that he abandoned costumbrista techniques f o r r e a l i s t a ones. She claims these cuentos show the changing s o c i a l r e a l i t y of Buenos A i r e s b e t t e r than any novel because they are fragments that approach i t from d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s . ^ -10- FRAY MOCHO AND HIS TIME Fray Mocho l i v e d during the time of the Generation of '80. Mr. F.J. Salero i n h i s "Pr61ogo y notas" t o the Obras Completas of Fray Mocho places Fray Mocho i n t h i s generation: Fray Mocho pertenece a l a generacidn d e l ochenta, a 6sa que nos d i o La B o l s a , S i l b i d o s de un vago, Prometeo y C i a . , Evang^licas Bajo l a g a r r a , Nuestra America, Rosas y su tiempo, L i b r o extrano, e t c . En esa dpoca se a l z a l a f i g u r a de Darfo y asoma ya, en l a s o r i l l a s , Misas h e r e j e s . Es e l momento en que irrumpe Alem, es l a ex p u l s i d n de Juarez Celman, y cuando se gesta, desde abajo, desde l a profundidad, Pobre mi madre querida de B e t i n o t t i , p r e l u d i o e t i c o s e n t i m e n t a l de l a o n t o l o g i a p l e n a r i a yacente en Mi noche t r i s t e , de C o n t u r s i - C a s t r i o t a . Es e l i n s t a n t e en que e l tango asume e l ropaje de l o p r o h i b i d o , de l o v i t a n d o . Fray Mocho pertenece a este tiempo, p a r t i c i p a de 61, recoge su h a l i t o , y se hunde, t a l vez l o bastante como para recoger de su limo, l o mas v i v i e n t e e imperecedero: humanidad.25 Marta Marin has an opposite p o i n t of view: E l hecho de carecer de b i o g r a f i a — s61o se puede hab l a r de un nacimiento y una muerte, v a r i o s empleos, una r e v i s t a , dos l i b r o s - - l o s i t u a dra'sticamente fuera de l a generacidn d e l 80, donde pretende i n c l u i r l o alguna obra de c o n s u l t a . Cuando decimos "carecer de b i o g r a f i a " , pensamos necesariamente en e l caso opuesto, M i t r e , por ejemplo, o M a n s i l l a , cuyos hechos sobrepasan l a s obras ^ l i t e r a r i a s . Prdceres u hombres de mundo que hacian l i t e r a - t u r a j . p o r un l a d o ; por e l o t r o , un p e r i o d i s t a que p u b l i c d f i b r o s , pero cuya mejor obra, y no puede ser c a s u a l , es p e r i o d i s t i c a , es d e c i r , e l logrd' mas acabado de su o f i c i o . 2 She points out t h a t s i n c e Fray Mocho was a p r o v i n c i a n o , not a member of the l i b e r a l - c o n s e r v a t i v e r u l i n g e l i t e , nor a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the cosmopolitan and s e c u l a r i z e d f u r o r of the men of '80, he had l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the l i t e r a r y world but h i s c l o s e f r i e n d s knew what he wanted to do and what h i s work represented.28 xhe men of '80 shared t h e i r education and s o c i a l c l a s s which A l v a r e z d i d not. He remained a l o o f from European l i t e r a t u r e but leaned towards -11- e l c r i o l l i s m o . He was one of the f i r s t Argentine w r i t e r s to introduce the landscape, customs and language of Entre Rios i n t o t h e i r n a r r a t i v e as d i d M a r t i n i a n o Leguizam6n with C a l a n d r i a . He i s a l s o the f i r s t to introduce the l i t e r a t u r e of marginal groups and f i g u r e s and of the urban p r o l e t a r i a t (compadritos, vagabonds, servants, s t r e e t sweepers, policemen, and the l i k e ) w i t h t h e i r vocabulary. He represents the t r a n s i t i o n from the romantic and o c h e n t i s t a novels to the novels of the 90's. I n the f i r s t the characters are noble, h e r o i c and of p r e s t i g e , and i n the l a t t e r they are ordinary .men.29 In r e a l i t y i t i s a b i t dogmatic to say that Fray Mocho i s not of the Generation of '80 and that those who so c l a i m are mistaken. Let us take Roberto F. G i u s t i ' s d e f i n i t i o n of the Generation of '80 i n H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a argentina and f i n d out how Fray Mocho f i t s i n t o i t . G i u s t i says that the w r i t e r s of t h i s generation were European i n outlook.30 This would exclude A l v a r e z , whose l i t e r a t u r e i s very much a product of A r g e n t i n a . He a l s o says that these o c h e n t i s t a s censured the m a t e r i a l i s m of those times. We f i n d A l v a r e z has l i t t l e concern f o r t h i s problem and does not appear to have any "ax to g r i n d " . This generation c u l t i v a t e d impressions of t r i p s l i k e En v i a j e by Miguel Cand or V i a j e s y observaciones by Wilde. Perhaps we could say V i a j e a l pais de l o s matreros i s somewhat l i k e these. The 33 o c h e n t i s t a s were c r e a t o r s of sketches. C e r t a i n l y Fray Mocho created sketches of the l i f e of Buenos A i r e s i n h i s cuentos and a l s o of l i f e and landscapes of Entre Rios and even of T i e r r a d e l Fuego. This Generation of '80 remembered times i n the past34 -12- -- l i k e J u v e n i l i a of Cane\ Perhaps we cannot f i n d a work by A l v a r e z q u i t e l i k e t h i s but we do f i n d that Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e i s somewhat a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l and looks back on h i s experiences with the p o l i c e department. G i u s t i says that these w r i t e r s were c r e a t o r s of cuadros de costumbres-^ and t h i s c e r t a i n l y a p p l i e s to Fray Mocho. At f i r s t they condemned n a t u r a l i s m (Lucio V. Ldpez) but laterbecame r e a l i s t s a f t e r the French t r a d i t i o n (Cambaceres). They s t a r t e d almost e x c l u s i v e l y by d e s c r i b i n g Buenos A i r e s — p a i n t i n g p i c t u r e s of the v i d a portena.36 Fray Mocho i s a l s o famous f o r the p i c t u r e s he painted of the v i d a porteria. His frequent use of dialogue i s a technique of r e a l i s m according to Marta M a r i n . ^ A l v a r e z ' s book, V i a j e a l pais de l o s matreros, i s o f t e n s a i d to res$emble Una excursidn a l o s t i n d i o s ranqueles by L u c i o V. M a n s i l l a , Mis montafias by Joaquin V. Gonzalez, and Recuerdos  de l a t i e r r a (about Entre Rios) by M a r t i n i a n o Leguizamdn. These authors are considered t o be of the Generation of ' 8 0 . I t would seem l o g i c a l to i n c l u d e A l v a r e z d e s p i t e the f a c t that he d i d not have much i n f l u e n c e on the l i t e r a r y world. Perhaps En e l mar  a u s t r a l could a l s o be considered as r e g i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e . I t i s dangerous to s t a t e c a t e g o r i c a l l y that A l v a r e z does or does not belong to the Generation of '80 because there i s no c l e a r d e f i n i t i o n of what t h i s generation i s . I f i t r e f e r s to those who wrote i n the 1880's then he must be i n c l u d e d , but i f i t r e f e r s to a s p i r i t or a type of work then he may or may not be i n c l u d e d , depending on the d e f i n i t i o n of that s p i r i t or type. -13- In many ways he produces work similar to others of his age and i n other ways he i s unique ( l i k e i n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e ) . Valentine: de Pedro points out that Fray Mocho did not belong to any l i t e r a r y school: Sin hacer alarde de escuela l i t e r a r i a , sin levantar bandera propia n i a l i s t a r s e bajo ninguna otra, con humildad laboriosa, r e a l i z a su obra, en l a que nos deja una gran leccidn a.travds de una actitud verdaderamente ejemplar. A contribucidn de su obra puso sus dotes naturales, afinadas por e l estudio y l a observacibn, creando una l i t e r a t u r a que no puede llamarse l i t e r a t u r a p e r i o d i s t i c a en sentido peyorativo, porque es l i t e r a t u r a en l a acepcidn mds Integra, y por consiguiente perdurable, ya que hoy l a leemos con e l mismo placer que se leyd en su tiempo. Lit e r a t u r a en l a que se advierte una intencidn f i l o s d f i c a matizada de suave humorismo, de una comicidad empapada en simpatia humana, sin que f a l t e en l a ocasidn un toque de lirismo.39 Some have wished to take his c r i o i l i s m o as kind i n opposition to the modernismo then i n fashion and talk of a combative attitude on the part of Fray Mocho. He had no such attitude but produced a personal work based on his penetrating observations, his creative a b i l i t i e s , and on his command of the language. Miguel Cane* had this to say about Jose S. Alvarez: ...no se preocupaba de ninguna manera de entenderlo o comentarlo. Como todos los a r t i s t a s verdaderos, se ocupaba sdlo en producir y esto de l a tinica manera que podia hacerlo: mirando y pintando. Sus personajes no sdlo hablaban como estamos habituados a o i r hablar en nuestros campos, call e s y casas, sino que sentxan y con- cebxan las cosas como las sienten y las conciben necesaria- mente, por educacidn, por herencia y por l a influencia del medio, los diversos tipos sociales de nuestro pais.4-0 -14- FOOTNOTES •'•Valentin de Pedro, "Nota P r e l i m i n a r " to Memorias de un  v i g i l a n t e by Fray Mocho (Buenos A i r e s : Compaflxa General F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1962), p. 11; and Marta Marin, Fray Mocho (Buenos A i r e s : Centro de America L a t i n a , 1967), p. 7. 2 M a r i n , p. 7. -^Diccionario de l a l i t e r a t u r a l a t i n o a m e r i c a n a , A r g e n t i n a , F i r s t P a r t (Washington, D.C.: Union Panamericana, 1960), p. 12. ^De Pedro, pp. 11-12. ^ I b i d . , p. 12. ^ D i c c i o n a r i o , p.12. 7De Pedro, p. 13. §Ibid., pp. 13-14. 9 i b i d . , pp. 14-15. •^Fray Mocho, Obras completas (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Schapire, 1961), I , 59. 1 1 I b i d . , I , 76-78. 1 2 i b i d . , I , 106. 1 3De Pedro, p. 16. • ^ D i c c i o n a r i o , pp. 12-13. l ^ M a r i n , pp. 29-30. 1 6De Pedro, p. 17. • ^ p j c c i o n a r i o , p. 13. 18juan P i n t o , B r e v a r i o de l i t e r a t u r a argentina contempor^nea (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l La Mandra'gora, 1958), p. 85. •^Marin, p. 28. ^ Q p i c c i o n a r i o , p. 13. 2 1 I b i d . 2 2 S e e Marxn,pp. 29-31. -15- Z JDe Pedro, p. 21. 2 4 M a r i n , pp. 33-36. 25pbras completas, I , 10. 2 % a r l n , p. 7. 2 7 I b i d . , pp. 8-9. 2 8 I b i d . , p. 25. 2 9 I b i d . 3 0 R o b e r t o F. G i u s t i , "La prosa de 1852 a 1900," H i s t o r i a  de l a l i t e r a t u r a a r g e n t i n a , ed. R a f a e l A l b e r t o A r r i e t a (Buenos A i r e s : Peuser, 1959), I I I , 370. 3 1 I b i d . 3 2 I b i d . , I I I , 372. 3 3 I b i d . 3 4 I b i d . 3 5 I b i d . 3 6 I b i d . , I l l , 375-3. 3 7 M a r i n , pp. 33-36. 3 8 G i u s t i , p. 416. 39De Pedro, p. 19. 4 0 I b i d . , p. 20. CHAPTER I I MEMORIAS DE UN VIGILANTE I n t h i s chapter we s h a l l observe one of the most f a s c i n a t i n g l i n g u i s t i c aspects of the work of Fray Mocho "Mundo lu n f a r d o " , the second part of the book Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , w r i t t e n perhaps i n 1894 under the pseudonym of Fabio C a r r i z o , published i n 1897. As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, Jose' S. A l v a r e z worked on the p o l i c e f o r c e and i n 1887 had published Vida de l o s ladrones  celebres de Buenos A i r e s y sus maneras de robar, an album of photographs with biographies about the most popular d e l i n q u e n t s , a l s o used as a manual or t e x t f o r employees of the Department of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s . I n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e we f i n d that A l v a r e z brings out much more - the psychology of the l u n f a r d o ( t h i e f ) and to some degree h i s vocabulary. A l v a r e z observed with the great c u r i o s i t y of an author, everything he saw w h i l e working w i t h the p o l i c e and i n t h i s work he preserved some of that f o r us. I n h i s cuentos we a l s o f i n d frequent reference to the p o l i c e . Jose' Gobello, l i n g u i s t and student of lunfardo ( s l a n g ) , has pointed out that A l v a r e z was one of the f i r s t l exicographers of lunfardo and t h e r e f o r e i s g r e a t l y appreciated i n h e l p i n g to show the e v o l u t i o n of the porteno language.^ -17- J u s t what i s lunfardo? The next chapter w i l l be devoted to t r y i n g to f i n d the answer to t h i s question because i t i s a vast f i e l d to c o n s i d e r , however Enrique Ricardo d e l V a l l e i n Lunfardologfa gives us a b r i e f d e f i n i t i o n which w i l l help at f i r s t to o r i e n t the reader who may be u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the subject: Lengua o r i l l e r a d e l gran Buenos A i r e s : Es d e c i r , e l l u n f a r d o es, o fue en p r i n c i p i o , un fendmeno marginal dentro de un a"rea de c u l t u r a . Su l o c a l i z a c i d n g e o g r i f i c a fue Buenos A i r e s . Su punto de contacto (o a d s t r a t o de l o s l i n g u i s t a s ) l a pampa o e l campo; usada no sdlo por  l o s ladrones. como sucedid en su origen: luego e l l u n  fardo fue una j e r g a esote'rica, p r o f e s i o n a l , de l a d e l i n - cuencia; de cuyo v o c a b u l a r i o pasaron a l a lengua comrin  d e l pueblo buen numero de palabras: hubo pre'stamos d i a  l e c t a l es en un contacto l d g i c o que hubieron de mantener sus hablantes con e l r e s t o de l a comunidad; cuyo sentido  e s p e c i a l se ha adecuado en boca de e'ste para otros usos  conocidos: luego esos te"rminos esote'ricos, cambiaron de s i g n i f i c a d o , se c o n v e r t i e r o n en neologismos morfoldgicos, en neologismos de sentido y perdieron su c a r a c t e r c r i p t o - l d g i c o , se h i c i e r o n populares y vulgares y por provenir de una j e r g a que l a u t i l i z a b a n l o s l u n f a r d o s , se l a s i g u i d llamando d e l mismo modo.2 The only other w r i t e r about lunfardo to precede Fray Mocho was Benigno Lugones, c e r t a i n l y the f i r s t to p u b l i s h i n f o r m a t i o n on lunfardo which he d i d i n 1879. L i k e Fray Mocho he a l s o had been an employee of the p o l i c e department and he recorded the words he found i n two a r t i c l e s : "Los beduinos urbanos" published i n La Nacidn March 18, 1879 and "Los c a b a l l e r o s de i n d u s t r i a " a l s o i n La Nacidn on A p r i l 6, 1879. 3 Having published these works and l a t e r being dismissed from the p o l i c e f o r c e , Lugones sought to c u l t i v a t e l e s s popular aspects i n l i t e r a t u r e u n t i l he d i e d , s t i l l very young, i n 1884. These a r t i c l e s by Lugones were most u s e f u l to D e l l e p i a n e i n h i s work E l idioma d e l d e l i t o y d i c c i o n a r i o l u n --18- fardo because they were the o l d e s t documents of the slang of Buenos A i r e s . L a t e r l i n g u i s t s f i n d them to be of great v a l u e . Lugones wrote probably the only poem i n lunfardo that there i s : Estando en e l b o l i n polizando Se presented e l mayorengo: A p o r t a r l o encana vengo Su mina l o ha delatado.^ I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that these f i r s t two works on lunfardo came from former employees of the p o l i c e f o r c e . The p o l i c e are o b l i g e d to study the slang of delinquents and t h e i r ways of robbing. For t h i s purpose there e x i s t s the Escuela de P o l i c i a which has i n s t r u c t o r s who teach the lunfardo vocabulary besides the usual science of crime d e t e c t i o n . I n Chapter 26 of h i s book L u n f a r d o l o g i a , Enrique Ricardo d e l V a l l e gives an example of what can be found i n the l e x i c o g r a p h i e s of p o l i c e a r c h i v e s . ^ Despite the f a c t that Benigno Lugones precedes him, Al v a r e z was the f i r s t to in c o r p o r a t e these slang words i n t o Argentine l i t e r a t u r e i n "Mundo l u n f a r d o " . V a l e n t i n de Pedro says that s i n c e Fray Mocho knew h i s language so w e l l he was able to b r i n g t h i s slang to h i s works without impoverishing them. To the contrary he enriched them with great success.^ Del V a l l e points out that Jose? S. A l v a r e z made an "extensa y profusa i n c u r s i d n en e l mundo lu n f a r d o " i n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e . This work concludes the "h i s t o ' r i c o l u n f a r d o " or that of the 19th Century because nothing more was w r i t t e n on the subject u n t i l the 20th Century by which time great changes had taken place. He points out that there i s a great d i f f e r e n c e between the lunf a r d o of Alv a r e z and that current today even though some words are s t i l l used.' Now l e t us look at Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e and e s p e c i a l l y the, p a r t , "Mundo lunfa r d o " . At the f i r s t Fray Mocho c a l l s t h i s book "mis recuerdos" and says he wrote them without any pretensions Q of being a philosopher or a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e . Fabio C a r r i z o begins w i t h h i s b i r t h and t e l l s of how h i s childhood ended when the ranching foreman came to h i s house and he was t o l d by h i s f a t h e r to go w i t h him because t h i s was h i s patron now.9 He seeks to w r i t e what happened to him not to p a i n t a p i c t u r e but w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of presenting a scene of the campo of times gone by.10 Chapter IV, "De oruga a mariposa" i s a r i c h cuadro de costumbres of a f i e s t a (dance) of farm hands i n the country which ends i n the c o n s c r i p t i o n of a l l the men present and Fabio C a r r i z o enters the army. He stayed i n the army f o r s i x t e e n years u n t i l 1880 and became Captain Fabio C a r r i z o . H Up to t h i s point there are few s i m i l a r  i t i e s to the l i f e of Fray Mocho and t h a t of t h i s Fabio C a r r i z o except the f a c t that both were born i n the country and were poor. A l v a r e z a l s o probably worked on a ranch when very young f o r we do know that he d i d not enter school u n t i l twelve years of age. A f t e r h i s retirement from the army i n 1880, Fabio C a r r i z o goes to the b i g c i t y of Buenos A i r e s . This corresponds c l o s e l y to the date when Fray Mocho went f o r the second time to Buenos A i r e s - 1879. C a r r i z o went to Buenos A i r e s with l e t t e r s of recommendation from the Army and went to Mr. Marcos Paz, the P o l i c e C h i e f , to o b t a i n employment.12 i n chapter V I I , "Mosaico c r i o l l o " , A l v a r e z w r i t e s the impressions t h i s Fabio C a r r i z o had of the b i g c i t y : t h i s i s probably very a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l as A l v a r e z -20- remembers h i s own s u r p r i s e on seeing the c i t y f o r the f i r s t time. Here i s a s e l e c t i o n of t h i s impression: E l p r i n c i p i o de mi c a r r e r a fue penoso y m o r t i f i c a n - t e . C a r e c i a hasta de l a s nociones rn^s elementales de l o que formaba l a v i d a de l a ciudad, y todo era para mi mo- t i v o de asombro y de c u r i o s i d a d . Las c a l l e s , l o s tramways, l o s t e a t r o s , l a s tiendas y almacenes l u j o s o s , l a s j u g u e t e r f a s , l a s j o y e r i a s , l a s i g l e s i a s , no era extrano. que me a r r a s t r a r a n h a c i a e l l a s con fuerza i n v e n c i b l e y que no t u v i e r a ojos n i oidos sino para observarlas y asombrarme: era que todo me llamaba, todo me a t r a i a . No conocia ningun d e t a l l e de l a v i d a c i v i l i z a d a , y cada cosa que s a l t a b a ante mi v i s t a era un motivo de sorpresa. No hablo, por c i e r t o , de l a s m a r a v i l l a s de l a e l e c t r i c i d a d , de l a f o t o g r a f i a , de l a imprenta o de l a medicina, que eran cosas a b s t r a c t a s para ra£ en ese tiempo: hablo de l o s c a r r o s , de l o s c a r r u a j e s , de l o s veridedores ambulantes, d e l adoquinado, d e l agua c o r r i e n t e , que no podia comprender como manaba de una pared con s6lo dar v u e l t a a una Have, d e l gas, que me producla verdadero d e l i r i o cada vez que pensaba en e l , de l a s casas de v i s t a s , de l a s v i d r i e r a s l u j o s a s , d e l sombrero, de l a ropa y hasta d e l modo de r e f r y conversar de l a s gentes. Durante un mes mi cerebro t r a b a j d como no habfa trabajado durante todos l o s dfas de mi v i d a , reunidos, y de noche l a s paredes desnudas de mi modesto cuarto de c o n v e n t i l l o me vel a n caer como borracho sobre mi cama, abrumado bajo e l peso de l a s sensaciones de cada d i a . Me acostaba, y l a baravinda de l a s c a l l e s zumbaba en mis ofdos, y d e s f i l a b a n , en h i l e r a i n t e r m i n a b l e , l a s f i g u r a s heteroge'neas que en e l d i a habian pasado ante mi v i s t a . 1 3 Then he perhaps r e c a l l s h i s f i r s t days i n Buenos A i r e s when he says: iY considerar que a pesar de haber tanta gente a mi alrededor, de tener tantos compafieros en mi nuevo puesto yo estaba s o l o , s o l o como s i me h a l l a r a en e l d e s i e r t o l ^ He continues h i s d e s c r i p t i o n s of Buenos A i r e s and h i s f i r s t d u t i e s 21- and then says t h i s , which s u r e l y must be the words of Fray Mocho himse l f i n remembering h i s own experiences: Estas impresiones, que son l a s primeras que tuve en Buenos A i r e s , puede d e c i r s e , l a s tengo presentes, y l a s s i e n t o como s i fueran de ayer; veo aun l a s es- cenas y l a s cosas, t a l como se presentaron a mf, asf en t r o p e l , medio confusas, informes, baraja'ndose de una manera i n f e r n a l ; f i g u r a s especta'culos, d i a l o g o s , ruidos y hasta a i r e de personas absolutamente desco- nocidas, que yo encontraba en l a c a l l e o v e i a en l a s antesalas d e l M i n i s t e r i o en l a s horas de f accidn. Chapter IV, "Cinematdgrafo", i s a c o l o u r f u l dialogue between a woman and an o f f i c i a l at a wicket i n the A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . I n Chapter X, C a r r i z o describes a dear f r i e n d of h i s , Toma's Regnier - perhaps a person A l v a r e z knew i n h i s own l i f e . This person i s mentioned again l a t e r . Chapter XI contains d e s c r i p t i o n s of more people who a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C a r r i z o i n the p o l i c e force and Chapters X I I and X I I I deal w i t h h i s advancement to the Department of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s where he was taught under a Sergeant G6mez. I t i s here where he l e a r n s a l l about the delinquents and crimes that are described i n the second s e c t i o n , "Mundo lunfa r d o " . This again appears to be a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l f o r i t was i n t h i s same Department of I n v e s t i g a t i o n s that A l v a r e z d i d so w e l l - the department he a c t u a l l y founded, according to V a l e n t i n de Pedro.16 The second p a r t , "Mundo lu n f a r d o " , s t a r t s with Chapter XIV, the major chapter of t h i s p a r t , which i s d i v i d e d i n t o s e c t i o n , the f i r s t being c a l l e d "En l a puerta de l a cueva" i n which Fray Mocho laments the d i f f i c u l t y of p e n e t r a t i n g the "mundo lun f a r d o " . I n " P e r s p e c t i v a s " we f i n d an explanation of the d i f f i c u l t y of f o l l o w i n g a rogue through the s t r e e t s and the s t o r y of an experience that happened to C a r r i z o one day. Fray Mocho i n these sec t i o n s -22- puts the lunfardo word i n i t a l i c s w i t h the meaning r i g h t a f t e r i t as i n t h i s example: Como 4.1 siempre esta" sobre a v i s o y teme que l o embroquen -- conozcan, observen --, camina una cuadra y l a desanda para ver s i a l g u i e n l o sigue, da quin i e n t a s v u e l t a s antes de l l e g a r a un punto deseado, penetra a l a s casas a preguntar por don Fulano o don Zutano, -- un nombre supuesto para d a r l e e l esquinaso -- l o que equivale a d e s p i s t a r -- a algdn empleado que pasa y l o conoce.^7 I n " E n t r e l a cueva" he discusses the two ba s i c kincbof thieves -- the n a t i v e Argentines, who are few and l e s s dangerous, and the f o r e i g n e r s , who are the most common and the most d i f f i c u l t to catch. " E l l a s " r e f e r s to the women as s o c i a t e d w i t h the p i l l o s - the accomplices. He presents a sad p i c t u r e of the co n d i t i o n s of these women — l a s minas. Here i s one of these d e s c r i p t i o n s : iHe v i s t o madres que no sdlo abandonan l a s comodidades que un h i j o honorable puede p r o p o r c i o n a r l e s , sino que hasta cubren de verguenza su nombre por d i s i m u l a r l a s bajezas de uno de estos c a n a l l a s que ha rodado a l a b i s - mo y que l e s paga sus s a c r i f i c i o s imponielidoles cada dfa otros mayores! He v i s t o mujeres hambrientas, c a s i desnudas, vender, no ya su cuerpo s i algo v a l i e r a , sino l o mds indis p e n s a b l e para su s u b s i s t e n c i a , a f i n de l l e v a r c i g a r r i l l o s o bebida a sus maridos que, cuando estcfn fuera de l a ca'rcel, d i l a - pidan con otras de mala v i d a e l dinero que pueden a t r a p a r , y e l l a s l e s compensan su abnegacidn con c a r i c i a s que dejan sobre sus cuerpos i n d e l e b l e s c i c a t r i c e s que no se borran jam^s.lS There are f i v e b a s i c groups of thie v e s which A l v a r e z gives us i n " E l l o s " . They are the punguistas -- the pickpockets; the escruchantes -- those who p r o f e s s i o n i s to open locked doors; those who dan l a caramayoli' or l a biaba — the a s s a i l a n t s ; those who cuentan e l cuento or hacen e l scrusho — the cheaters or swindl e r s ; -23- and the f i f t h group -- those who have a l l four of these t a l e n t s c a l l e d those de l a s cuatro armas.^ " E l campana" i s a s e c t i o n r e f e r r i n g to those who s e l e c t the houses or men who can be easily- robbed. A l v a r e z says they are the r e a l thieves and are hard to catch f o r they appear to be honourable people. They work at a p r o f e s s i o n or i n some other work -- l i k e servants, b e l l b o y s i n h o t e l s , p o r t e r s , businessmen, f i n a n c i e r s , e t c . They guide and i n s p i r e the thi e v e s who a c t u a l l y execute the crime and are those who take the biggest part of the l o o t . I n the part e n t i t l e d , " E l a r t e es sublime" Fray Mocho describes how the punguista, a pickpocket, performs h i s crimes. " E l Cafe 7 de Cassoulet", the next p a r t , i s about the famous place of t h i s same name where the thieves met. " E l burro de carga" deals w i t h the methods used by the escruchante to commit h i s crimes; "Los que cargan con l a fama" deals with the a s s a i l a n t s ; and " E l panal en l a lengua" i s about the cheater and swindler. "No l e salvo* ser m i n i s t r o " t e l l s a story of how a p r i e s t was robbed by a t r i c k of a l l the coins he had saved. "Cupido y caco" t e l l s a s t o r y of how some swindler robbed don Jose R o b e l l a t t i . In " E l primer c l i e n t e " we read of how a lawyer was blackmailed by a t h i e f and a g i r l who appear to be a gentlemen and h i s daughter. The g i r l l e d him on u n t i l he was caught w i t h her by the supposed f a t h e r who demanded a p r i c e to keep i t q u i e t . This " f a t h e r " was the famous t h i e f : E l C u e r v i t o . The f i n a l s e c t i o n of t h i s long chapter i s e n t i t l e d " A l revuelo" and deals w i t h how a store-keeper i s robbed by t r i c k e r y . The next chapter IV, "Los m i s t e r i o s de Buenos A i r e s " , continues the story of Fabio C a r r i z o but c e r t a i n l y appears to be -24- A l v a r e z speaking of h i s own l i f e . He mentions the experiences he had with the p o l i c e which helped him to observe Buenos A i r e s -- l a t e r so v a l u a b l e i n w r i t i n g h i s Cuentos: Yo penetre e l movimiento de l o s hombres en sus c a l l e s estrechas, l a s pasiones que e n c i e r r a n l o s p a l a c i o s y l o s c o n v e n t i l l o s , l o s i n t e r e s e s que se juegan diariamente desde l a B olsa a l o s mercados, y nacido en l a s ma's humildes es- f e r a s , ascend£ peldaffo a peldario l a l a r g a e s c a l a s o c i a l , tendida entre e l humilde v i g i l a n t e , que parado en una esquina, expuesto a l a s inclemencias d e l tiempo, ignora todo l o que no se r e l a c i o n e con e l pequeno r a d i o puesto a su cuidado, y apenas sospecha l o s sucesos de mas v o l u - men que ocurren fuera de su parada y l a v i d a t u r b u l e n t a y accidentada de l o s hombres de mundo. Todo l o que v i y aprendi* en mi l a r g a y penosa ascension, todo d e s f i l a r a en l a s p^ginas de estas Memorias, y s i no en este volumen, en otro que l e s e g u i r d , r e f l e j a r e con toda l a p r e c i s i 6 n que me sea dada, l a s cosas y l o s hombres que encontr^ en e l andar de mi v i d a y l o s sucesos e x t r a o r d i n a r i o s en que m^s de una vez tuve que actuar.^O We can note h i s reference to f u t u r e books to f o l l o w and how these observations w i l l h e l p . Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e f i n i s h e s w i t h Chapter X V I , " E l hombre p r o v i d e n c i a l " , a chapter r i c h i n a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l m a t e r i a l . He f i r s t mentions h i s being named to r e p l a c e Sergeant Gomez as head of the Department of I n v e s t i g a t i o n . Jose* S. A l v a r e z d i d head t h i s department. He mentions again Tom^s Regnier, a good f r i e n d . They go to a cafe named "La Croce d i M a l t a " and at a nearby t a b l e there happens to be a curious group of people t a l k i n g l o u d l y : ...son l o s muchachos de l o s d i a r i o s , isabe? l o s n o t i c i e r o s de l a P a t r i a A r g e n t i n a , La Naci6n, La Prensa, que vienen a c o n s p i r a r contra l o s d i r e c t o r e s porque no l e s aumentan e l sueldo,...21 This i s an i n t e r e s t i n g reference to Fray Mocho's past mentioned p r e v i o u s l y when he took part i n or g a n i z i n g a union of newspaper r e p o r t e r s . -25- Ya n i me acuerdo: debe haber sido alia* por 1880 cuando comenzamos con Nino y Varas aquella lucha del Centro de Cronistas contra l a situacidn precaria en que se hallaba e l gremio. Don Juan Gutierrez vi(5 en t a l sociedad un motivo de alarma y nos fulmind: no querla en La Patria Argentina gentes compremetidas en centros, y l e tenia miedo a La Nacidn, que comenzaba a levantarse y cuyo cronista (Nino) era e l cau d i l l o de todos, debido a su bondad de cara'cter, su generosidad y su talento. * * * A Nuestro trabajo tuvo recompensa: dejamos de con- gregarnos en l a Croce d i Malta y en Volta, cafetines de . l a c a l l e cortada del Mercado del Plata, para reunirnos en l a Rotiserla Charpentier: ya habiamos trepado unos cuantos peldanos.22 Notice the s i m i l a r i t i e s with that mentioned i n Memorias de  un v i g i l a n t e . Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , we can say, i s ba s i c a l l y "Memorias de Jose' S. Alvarez" from the autobiographical notes i n i t we have observed which are closely related to his experiences i n the police force. I t i s closely similar then i n form to other works of the Generation of 80 for they frequently wrote of memories of the past (as i n J u v e n i l i a ) . We have also observed how this work adds to the knowledge of lunfardo and how i t f i t s i n h i s t o r i c a l l y with other works on the same subject. The next part of this chapter w i l l be a l i n g u i s t i c study of the lunfardo vocabulary which Fray Mocho gives us i n "Mundo Lunfardo". -26- VOCABULARY OF "MUNDO LUNFARDO" The lunfardo vocabulary of Fray Mocho given i n "Mundo Lunfardo" has been considered a great c o n t r i b u t i o n to the understanding of the e a r l y growth of porteno speech by such l i n g u i s t s a Jose" Gobello and Enrique Ricardo d e l V a l l e , p r e v i o u s l y mentioned - and. e s p e c i a l l y to the understanding of the growth of lun f a r d o . I n t h i s study of the vocabulary he gives us we s h a l l observe the words from v a r i o u s aspects. We s h a l l seek to f i n d the e t y m i l o g i c a l o r i g i n s of the words, to study t h e i r meanings, to see how g e n e r a l l y they are used and to see i f they were a l s o mentioned i n the works of Benigno Lugones. La t e r we s h a l l study i n greater d e t a i l the i n f o r m a t i o n on lunfardo and the outside i n f l u e n c e s on i t , but i n t h i s study of the vocabulary we s h a l l mention the o r i g i n s and leave the explanations to the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n s . A f t e r each vocabulary item w i l l f o l l o w i n parenthesis the page on which t h a t word appears i n the Obras completas of Fray Mocho p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d . We s h a l l f o l l o w an a l p h a b e t i c a l r a t h e r than a c h r o n o l o g i c a l order of sequence. Alca c h o f a (195) Fray Mocho gives t h i s word as the name of a p a r t i c u l a r t h i e f - "A l c a c h o f a , e l la d r 6 n ma's decidor que he conocido,...." I t does not appear i n the vo c a b u l a r i e s of Lugones nor i n those of D e l l e p i a n e , Del V a l l e , Gobello nor C a s u l l o . Though i t i s a proper name i t does have an i n t e r e s t i n g l i n g u i s t i c background. G. E. Kany i n American - Spanish S e m a n t i c s ^ says that besides " a r t i c h o k e " i t has come to mean a "worn out brush" among -27- p a i n t e r s and i n C h i l e i t had the meaning of "blow" which he l i s t s as now being obsolete. F r a n c i s c o J . Santamarra. i n D i c c i o n a r i o general de americanismos says i n C h i l e alcachofa means bofetada, guatada, manazo.^ 4 Kany f e l t that i t probably got t h i s usage from the f a c t that the pla n t c a l l e d a lcachofa had the shape of a clenched f i s t . Of course t h i s C h i l e a n usage could p o s s i b l y have been the reason f o r the t h i e f ' s name since "blows" are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h robbery. Armas (183) - l a s cuatro armas. The d e f i n i t i o n Fray Mocho gives us of t h i s i s that i t i s the de s i g n a t i o n f o r a t h i e f with the four a b i l i t i e s (pickpocket, house breaker, a s s a i l a n t , and s w i n d l e r ) . I t cannot be found i n the vo c a b u l a r i e s of Lugones, Gobello, Del V a l l e , C a s u l l o nor D e l l e p i a n e . E v i d e n t l y each type of crime was an arma. Armarse i n C e n t r a l and Mexico means "to get r i c h " . 2 5 Balurdo (195, 207) Here i s the way Fray Mocho defin e s balurdo: Cuando es t a f a n , valie'ndose de l o s sentimientos r e l i g i o s o s , dicen que han hecho "un c a t 6 " l i c o " , y s i han empleado e l recurso de l o s papeles i n s e r v i b l e s , o sea e l balurdo, han  hecho un toco o un vento mischo. (207) I t does not occur i n Lugones. Roberto A r r a z o l a i n D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos argentinos gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : Paquete que aparenta contener dinero y que s i r v e a l o s estafadores para enganar a l proximo. Engano. Senuelo. Vos lunfarda.26 I t has b a s i c a l l y the same meaning i n the D i c c i o n a r i o de voces  lunfardas y vulgares by Fernando Hugo Casullo.27 i n Breve -28- d i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o by Luciano Payet and Jose' Gobello we f i n d t h i s d e f i n i t i o n which i s not very d i f f e r e n t but adds a l i t t l e more in f o r m a t i o n : 1. E n v o l t o r i o de papeles, que a simple v i s t a semejan una gruesa suma de dinero, con e l que e l lun f a r d o enga- tusa a l o t a r i o en e l t r a b a j o de cuento. 2. E n v o l t o r i o en general. 3. Engano, mentira.28 This word i s not mentioned by Santamaria. Giuseppe B e l l i n i i n Lo Spagnolo d' America gives the word balurdo as having come from the I t a l i a n word balordo, "fool".29 D e l l e p i a n e gives us balurdo and capa de balurdo which he says i s the a c t u a l b i l l s of money OA placed on the outside of a r o l l of paper to form the balurdo. Gobello gives t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n on t h i s word's p o s s i b l e o r i g i n : En " L u n f a r d i a " l o supuse de origen genov^s. Me g u i l entonces por e l " D i z i o n a r i e t t o Etimologico d e l lunfardo d i o r i g i n e c o c o l i c h e 1 ' de C a l i b a r / E t t o r e Rossi7. M. Barres pens<$ que provenia de balumbo ( b u l t o que forman algunas cosas j u n t a s ) . Mas l a cosa se complica un poco s i se piensa en que balourd es palabra d e l argot, que se r e f i e r e a todo l o que es f a l s o y, desde luego, a l o s . b i l l e t e s de banco cuando l o son. Y e l balurdo no era, en e l fondo, sino un b u l t o de r e c o r t e s de papel que se hacxan pasar por b i l l e t e s de banco. Ma's f a l s o no podxa ser.31 According to Gobello a l s o , balurdo i s a word used i n common popular speech today.32 Ba t i d o r (194). Fray Mocho says b a t i d o r e s are de l a t o r e s - "informers, denouncers". C a s u l l o gives the same d e f i n i t i o n . D e l l e p i a n e gives us t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n : "Denunciante, e l que r e v e l a e l d e l i t o delatando a l o s c o m p l i c e s " . S a n t a m a r f a gives denunciador, soplon.35 i t i s not l i s t e d by Gobello as being i n common use today. Biaba (183 - "dan l a biaba", 193) Those who dan l a biaba according to Fray Mocho are a s s a i l a n t s and the most infamous -29- type of thieves without the l e a s t b i t of t a l e n t . (193). Biaba according to Gobello i s : Salteamiento en e l que e l ladrdn ataca a mano armada en los s i t i o s a b i e r t o s . P a l i z a , c a s t i g o . Usase con extensa variedad de acepciones f i g u r a d a s . 3 ^ We f i n d the same b a s i c d e f i n i t i o n i n C a s u l l o , 3 7 but he a l s o adds t h i s other usage: 3. Parse una biaba. Frase f i g u r a d a . Abusar en e l uso de cosmeticos. "Le di6 a l b a l e r o una biaba de gomina que l e qued<5 como charolado." Dellepiane gives us these d e f i n i t i o n s : Golpe, h e r i d a . Biaba de e s t a r o , sentencia. Biaba seca, muerte. Par l a biaba , golpear, l a s t i m a r , h e r i r . Tra- ba.jo de biaba, asalto.3° A r r a z o l a gives us: "Cachetada. Punetazo. P a l i z a i Vulgarismo." 3 Kany goes along w i t h the above d e f i n i t i o n s saying i t means "beat i n g , s l a p " 4 0 Santamaria l i s t s t h i s word as an Argentine word meaning glope, arremetida, sopapo.^1 There are other words which come from biaba such as biabazo, the augmentative of biaba. I t i s a l s o a blow on the r i g h t side of a v i c t i m or. i n h i s back. 4^ Another word i s b i a b i s t a , the t h i e f who uses blows to i n c a p a c i  t a t e h i s v i c t i m so as to f a c i l i t a t e the robbery. . Santamaria gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of b i a b i s t a : En A r g e n t i n a , ladron que para operar libremente empieza por poner a su v i c t i m a fuera de combate, h i r i e h d o l a o mata'ndola.^ 3 He a l s o gives the word biabar - a l s o i n Argenti n a - arremeter, atacar a g o l p e s . 4 4 The o r i g i n of t h i s word d e f i n i t e l y i s I t a l i a n and to show t h a t , Jose' Gobello gives a l i s t of the words i n each of the d i a l e c t s of I t a l y from which t h i s word comes. Here i s h i s l i s t : " I t a l i a n o - biaba - avena, pienso; Genoves - biava --30- avena, pienso, (Fig.) p a l i z a ; Napolitano -biava - avena, pienso, (Fig.) p a l i z a ; Piamontes - b i a v a , avena, pienso. (Fig.) p a l i z a ; Milane"s - biaya - avena, pienso, (Fig.) p a l i z a . " 4 ^ He a l s o s t a t e s that i t s t i l l i s very much i n common usage. Lugones gives i t i n h i s vocabulary beaba but w i t h the same meaning as Mocho. 4^ Burra (190 -cargar l a b u r r a ) . Fray Mocho gives the phrase cargar l a burra meaning a l z a r l o s robos (190) . Burra i s a " c a j a de h i e r r o donde se guardan c a u d a l e s " . 4 7 Cargar i n the A O Americas means " t o c a r r y " and " t o take on" C a s u l l o gives us various usages of burra: 2. Burra de v i a j e . Frase. V a l i j a . 3. B u r r i t a t de  v i a j e . Frase. Maleta pequeRa. 4. s. (En determinadas Ccfrceles) , b a i i l de pequeffo tamano, de sesenta por v e i n - t i c i n c o centimetros, en e l que e l penado guarda sus pocos efectos personales, sirvie*ndole adem£s de a s i e n t o . "La o t r a noche yo t e n i a cuatro b o t e l l a s de S e l l o Verde, escondidas, envueltas en una manta dentro de l a burr a . " (Jose" G o b e l l o , H i s t o r i a s con ladrones.) 5. Cargar l a bur r a . Expresidn l u n f a r d a . A l z a r e l robo. "Antes que e l sereno r e a c c i o n a r a , cargaron l a burra y r a j a r o n por lo s fondos d e l garage." 6. Hacer una b u r r a . Frase l u n f a r d a . Robar una c a j a f u e r t e . 4 y This word i s not l i s t e d as being i n common usage today by Gobello i n h i s l i s t of lunfardo words used i n the cur r e n t c o l l o q u i a l speech of Argentina.50 Busecca (211). Fray Mocho t a l k s about "un p l a t o de busecca" - today buseca - a soup made with t r i p e . Payet gives us the meaning v i e n t r e and gives us t h i s quote: "...cacho" e l t i p o por e l cogote y l o dej6 groggy de un seco castanazo en l a buseca. (Last Reason)"-^ Gobello gives us these d e f i n i t i o n s i n c l u d i n g both: "Suerte de sopa que se prepara con mondongo y diversos condimentos. Vientre."52 This word does not appear i n ..the vocabulary of Lugones. I t i s -31- d e f i n i t e l y of I t a l i a n o r i g i n from these d i a l e c t s : " I t a l i a n o - busecca - c a l l o s , Piamonte's - buseca - t r i p a s , Milane's - busecca - estomago de l o s animales que, bien l i m p i o y condimentado, se emplea como a l i m e n t o . " ^ 3 This word i s the current word i n Argentina f o r t h i s soup prepared from t r i p e . Cabra (191 - pata de cabra). As defined by Fray Mocho t h i s i s a s t e e l instrument i n a z i g - z a g shape used by the escruchantes i n breaking open doors: S i e l dueno de casa es precavido, y usa sus puertas enchapadas de h i e r r o en l a parte v u l n e r a b l e , se da un cor t e en e l umbral con e l formdn f r e n t e a l o s pasadores y se levantan estos; luego se introduce l a pata de cabra -- instrumento de acero, formado en zig-zag -- f r e n t e a l a cerradura, y se l a hace s a l t a r s i n r u i d o , con un leve movimiento l a t e r a l . (191) Payet gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o r cabra " p a l a n q u i t a con apoyo usada por l o s l u n f a r d o s " . Santamarxa gives us a d e f i n i t i o n f o r the complete phrase pata de cabra which he s t a t e s i s used i n A r g e n t i n a . I t i s a v a r i e t y of a game of dominos.^^ Whether there i s any r e l a t i o n i s not sure. This expression was not i n the vocabu l a r y of Lugones and i t i s not used c u r r e n t l y today. Cachar (180). A l v a r e z uses t h i s word i n the past p a r t i c i p l e form here. He gives the meaning as being embromar. Other d e f i n i t i o n s given f o r the word are: f a s t i d i a r , b u r l a r , a garrar, a s i r , coger, 5 6 apoderarse de algo. A r r a z o l a gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "Sacar un pedazo o a s t i l l a a un objeto duro. M o l e s t a r , incomodar, embromar, enganar."57/ The word seems to be i n use throughout the Americas. In Colombia cachar means to chat, f l i r t from cacho — "joke".58 In Peru i t means robar, engaffar.59 Kany says that cachar i n the R i v e r P l a t e and C e n t r a l American regions comes from the standard cachear meaning " t o search a person f o r hidden weapons" (to -32- f r i s k 7 to rob).60 Santamarfa gives two sets of meanings based on the o r i g i n s of the word. The f i r s t group i s based on cachar, from the E n g l i s h " c a t c h " , which means a s i r , obtener, h u r t a r , coger, and i n A rgentina a z o t a r , c a s t i g a r , vapular. The second group has cachar as coming from the word cacha meaning cuerno. The Ecuador t h i s means b u r l a r , r i d i c u l i z a r ; i n C e n t r a l America - acornear, and i n Argentina - "sacar un pedazo a un objeto duro" and he adds: "En • este ttltimo sentido hay ejemplos de ascendencia espanola."^-'- This word i s not given by Lugones. I t i s i n very common usage today.62 Cadena (186 - formar l a cadena). The d e f i n i t i o n given f o r the term formar l a cadena i s f o r the a s s o c i a t e s i n crime to s t a t i o n themselves behind the t h i e f i n such a manner as to pass the s t o l e n item from hand t o hand so as not to get caught. C a s u l l o gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n which i s b a s i c a l l y the same as the above but w i t h added i n f o r m a t i o n : 2. Formar l a cadena. Frase f i g u r a d a . Manera determinada de p r a c t i c a r l a punga, y que c o n s i s t e en entregar l o hur- tado a l o s colaboradores d e l ladr o n . "Muchachos, a prepa- r a r s e a formar l a cadena. Ya saben e l lugar que l e toca a cada uno~ i A t e n t i i " & 3 The word formar a l s o had other meanings. I t can mean " r e l a t a r una h i s t o r i a inventada con e l objeto de engaffar a a l g u i e n y s a c a r l e d i n e r o " ^ o r " p a g a r , c o n t r i b u i r " . ^  The word formar i s i n common usage today but not the phrase formar l a cadena.^6 Neither t h i s phrase nor formar alone appeared i n the vocabulary of Lugones.^ Cambiazo (207) . This r e f e r s to one of the methods of s w i n d l i n g . Fray Mocho gives us engaflo and m i s t i f i c a c i o n as synonymns and then proceeds to t e l l us of how a man makes f r i e n d s w i t h the owner of an almace'n and then abuses that f r i e n d s h i p to take -33- advantage of him. C a s u l l o gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : (En un robo), cuando una cosa es reemplazada por o t r a tan solo en a p a r i e n c i a , o cuando se a l t e r a e l contenido de un envase Usase mas en l a expresidn: pegar e l cambiazo.^ 8 D e l l e p i a n e s p e l l s i t cambiaso and says that i t means "cambio, e l acto de cambiar." He says that pegar e l cambiaso means the same a b a r a t i n a r which he i n t u r n defines as the operation of changing the baratxn ("el r o l l o de papeles de e s t r a z a que se l e deja a l o t a r i o en cambio de su dinero en e l t r a b a j o de cuento") f o r the money of the v i c t i m without h i s n o t i c i n g i t . 6 9 Lugones does not l i s t t h i s word i n h i s vocabulary and apparently i t i s not i n common usage today.^0 Caminar (187). " E l punguista, cuando camina, jarn^s l o hace llevando a l lado a sus companeros" (187). This word d i d not appear i n the vo c a b u l a r i e s of Lugones nor i n those of C a s u l l o , Gobello, nor Payet. Dellepiane gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "Caminar (con alguno). Robar en compania d e l mismo o bajo sus drdenes."71 No other d e f i n i t i o n s seem to be a v a i l a b l e . I t i s not i n use today with t h i s meaning. Camp ana (184-185). Fray Mocho gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : E l punto de contacto es e l campana, es d e c i r , e l que busca l a casa o e l hombre f a " c i l de robar, e l que es t u d i a e l medio de e f e c t u a r l o , e l que esta en r e l a c i o n e s con l o s que cambian l o robado por di n e r o ; l a provid e n c i a en forma de hombre. Bien considerado, estos camp anas son l o s verdaderos ladrones; l o s que efectiian e l robo son solamente sus instrumentos. (184) Besides t h i s d e f i n i t i o n there i s the general one of a campana being a spy, g e n e r a l l y placed outside of the hourse being robbed to give -34- a warning to the one i n s i d e i f anything happens: Espfa, e l ayudante de un ladrdh que se coloca en acecho o sigue a a l g u i e n con e l deliberado propo'sito de dar l a alarma o a v i s a r a l o s que efectuan e l robo. "Uno comienza a t r e p a r ; e l ot r o hace de campana." (Ricardo Lorenzo, En e l ^ rea d e l p o t r e r o . ) 7 ^ From t h i s word there comes a l i s t of d i f f e r e n t words derived from i t . We get campanaza - "Gente apostada cerca d e l lugar donde opera un lad r d n , con e l propo'sito de prevenir a e'ste y d i s i m u l a r c u a l q u i e r a c t i t u d sospechosa, a l a p o l i c i a " 7 3 ; campaneadero - " s i t i o e l e g i d o previamente, desde donde e l campana puede a t i s b a r , e s p i a r , campanear"; 7 4 campaneado/da - " a d j . Observado, atisbado, e s p i a d o " ; 7 ^ campaneador/ra - " a d j . Campana. 'Como companeador, nadie l e gana"; 7^ campanear - " o f i c i o d e l campana, a t i s b a r , observar" and campaneo - "accidn y efe c t o de campanear". 7 8 The o r i g i n of the word campana according to C E . Kany comes from the word campana 7 9 meaning " b e l l " or campanaza - " s t r o k e of a b e l l " and came to mean "accomplice who stands watch to warn of approaching danger" i n the R i v e r P l a t e region and i n Peru and Colombia From t h i s we get c a m p a n e a r L u c i a n o Payet and Jose' Gobello c l a i m the lunfardo word came from e i t h e r Genoese s t i de campanna, to accompany someone or from Neopolitan menarse i n t ' a 'e campane, to pretend not to see nor to hear.8-'- I n Genoese sta* de campanna a unn-a persohn-a means to wait f o r someone.82 si n c e so many words i n l u n f a r d o d i d come from I t a l i a n because of the l a r g e number of I t a l i a n thieves i n Argentina as w i l l be discussed more i n d e t a i l l a t e r , these explanations of the I t a l i a n o r i g i n seem more accurate -35- than Kany's -- that i t came from Spanish campana " b e l l " . Campana was l i s t e d by Benigno Lugones as meaning e s p i a . I t i s s t i l l i n wide use t o d a y . ^ Cantar (187, 204). Fray Mocho gives the d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s word as being d e s c u b r i r . C a s u l l o gives us "Confesar un d e l i t o , d e c i r l a verdad."85 This word was not found i n the vocabulary of Benigno Lugones and i s not l i s t e d i n many v o c a b u l a r i e s . I t seems to be a l i t t l e used word with t h i s meaning. Caramayoli* (183, 193 - dar caramayolx) . He gives i t as the synonym of biaba. I t i s given as a s a l t o , biaba i n C a s u l l o and i s not mentioned by many other w r i t e r s . D e l l e p i a n e gives a word caramayola to mean "La p e l o t a que se hace con e l panuelo y Q £ se introduce en l a boca de l a s personas para impedir que g r i t e n . " O D I t i s a l s o used i n the phrase t r a b a j a r de caramayola - "cuando se acogota a l a persona a s a l t a d a , para impedir que pida a u x i l i o . " ^ Corominas mentions caramafiola as being a s o l d i e r ' s canteen i n Leonese and Aragonese coming from the word carmagnol - a s o l d i e r i n the F i r s t French Republic. Then he says: "En C h i l e y en l a Argentina se emplea una forma vulgar caramayola pero l a v a r i a n t e con - n - es usual en ambos paises y predomina en l a Argentina." He continues by g i v i n g the word i n Catalan caramanyola which i s a gourd used as a wine container.88 E v i d e n t l y caramayoli never d i d achieve the p o p u l a r i t y of biaba which i s s t i l l i n wide usage. I t i s not l i s t e d as one of those words i n the common speech of Argentina today by Gobello.89 -36- Cebo (183 - dar e l cebo). I t appears to be another name fo r money: . . . l o s que dan e l cebo, o sea e l dinero necesario para r e a l i z a r e l robo, que hasta para eso se p r e c i s a p l a t a dada l a s i t u a c i o n a que ha llegado e l mundo;... (183-4) This term wasn't given by Benigno Lugones nor i s i t given by most d i c t i o n a r i e s of lunfardo words. Fray Mocho appears to be about the only lexicographer to l i s t i t . Corominas traces the o r i g i n of the Spanish word cebo from the L a t i n cibus - alimento, manjar. I n Portuguese i t was cevo - i n the Middle Ages i t had a v and meant 9 0 a l i m e n t a r , manjar. This could have some connection w i t h the usage of cebo f o r money. Food and money are f r e q u e n t l y connected. I n E n g l i s h we sometimes use "bread" t o mean "money". The word i s not i n usage today w i t h the meaning used i n lun f a r d o . Contar e l cuento (183? 207). Los que cuentan e l cuento are swindlers ( e s t a f a d o r e s ) . We f i n d that each d i f f e r e n t type of swindle (cuento) had a s p e c i a l name. Roberto A r r a z o l a gives us t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n of what i s the cuento de t i o : Cuento: E s t a f a . Engano. Dicese especialmente d e l que l o s bonaerenses denominan-'.el cuento d e l t i o . P r o f e s i o n a l de l a e s t a f a por medio d e l cuento dicho y que c o n s i s t e en r e f e r i r a quien se quiere hacer v i c t i m a de una e s t a f a , un cuento en e l que un supuesto t i o ha ordenado " i n a r t i c u l o m o r t i s " a un sobrino de pega r e s t i t u i r una cuantiosa suma que e l d i f u n t o habia robado a un doctor X or Y a quien e l sobrino no conoce porque acaba de l l e g a r a l a c a p i t a l o es pajuerano. E l objeto que persigue e l estafador es despertar l a c o d i c i a de l a v i c t i m a , pues e l sobrino d i c e l l e v a r e l dinero encima, l o cua l c a s i siempre cons'igue, resultando a l a postre estafado codicioso.91 This cuento de t i o i s a l s o sometimes c a l l e d cuento de o t a r i o . -37- Santamaria gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of el-cuento d e l tip - "modo de e s t a f a r que algunos bandoleros emplean, haciendo una h i s t o r i a f i n g i d a para embromar a l a v f c t i m a . " He a l s o gives cuento to mean chisme, t r a i c i ^ n . 9 ^ D e l l e p i a n e gives us contar as meaning engaKar and cuento to mean t r a b a j o (robbery). Tomar e l cuento i s to b e l i e v e the s t o r y of the one who t e l l s the cuento d e l t i o . Lugones d i d not use e i t h e r contar or cuento but they are used today. C u e r v i t o (191). A l v a r e z does not give us the d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h i s word. The only d i c t i o n a r i e s to mention i t are De l l e p i a n e who says that cuervo i s a "sacerdote, c a p e l l a n de p r i s i d n . " 9 4 Santamaria says that i n C h i l e cuervo i s used to speak of monks who t r a f f i c ; i n sacred things and i s used i n a derrogatory sense of a l l p r i e s t s . This he says i s common i n s e v e r a l c o u n t r i e s . 9 ^ Chafe (204). This i s another word f o r v i g i l a n t e which i n Argentina means policeman. Lugones i s h i s vocabulary gives chafo q r f o r v i g i l a n t e i n s t e a d of chafe. C a s u l l o has more in f o r m a t i o n to add: "Agente de p o l i c i a . I g u a l en Uruguay. Tambie'n se usaron l a s voces chafo, c h a f e r o l a y c h a j e . " 9 7 Chafe i s sometimes s p e l l e d chaffe.98 A r r a z o l a gives us c h a f l e f o r v i g i l a n t e but mentions that i t a l s o i s c h a f e . 9 9 This appears to be another word not used today - i n f a c t Gobello does not even l i s t i t i n h i s book V i e j a y nueva l u n f a r d i a except as part of the vocabulary given us by Fray Mocho. The o r i g i n i s u n c e r t a i n . A r r a z o l a i n h i s D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos argentinos gives us some other words which bear a s i m i l a r i t y i n form but not i n meaning. He gives us chafar - 3 8 - as meaning hacer b u r l a or mofarse and says that i t comes from Portuguese. As the noun form of t h i s verb he gives us chafa - b u r l a , mora. Champurriao (189). A d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s word i s not given by Fray Mocho. I n i t s usage here i t apparently has the same meaning as given by A r r a z o l a : "Champurreado: ( s u s t a n t i v o ) Dlcese d e l l i c o r que se obtiene mezclando dos o mds l i c o r e s d i s t i n t o s . H e r e i s how Fray Mocho uses the word i n d i s c u s s i n g " E l Cafe" de Cassoulet": A l i i * todo era c u e s t i d n de dinero. Tenie'ndolo, se h a l l a b a desde l a p i e z a lujosamente amueblada, hasta e l t u g u r i o infame, donde podia gozarse de l a s comodidades de un c a t r e de l o s muchos que, en f i l a y pegados unos a o t r o s , contenia un pequeno cuarto de madera y desde e l v i n o y l o s manjares e x q u i s i t o s , hasta l a s sobras de estos barajadas en un champurriao i n d e s c i f r a b l e , y que p odia remojarse con e l agua t u r b i a d e l a l j i b e , donde viboreaban l o s pequefios gusanitos r o j o s , descendientes quien sabe de que p u t r e f a c c i 6 n y cuyos movimientos r^pidos y variados podian s e r v i r de d i v e r s i d n a l a'nimo preocupado. (189) Santamaria says that champurreado i n Mexico i s a d r i n k made of 102 a t o l e , chocolate and sugar which agrees w i t h the d e f i n i t i o n given by Kany f o r champurrao^ 3 ( l i k e champurriao a c o r r u p t i o n of champurreado). Santamaria says that champurreado i n C e n t r a l and South America means a mixture of i n t o x i c a t i n g beverages and that champurrear i n South America means to make the d r i n k , champurreado. This agrees w i t h A r r a z o l a , however he says that champurrear means: "Champurrar. Hablar con d i f i c u l t a d un idioma. Es un americanismo."^^ A s i m i l a r d e f i n i t i o n i s given i n the vocabulary at the end of the p u b l i c a t i o n of Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e by Compa'nia General F a b r i l E d i t o r a : "Hablar con d i f i c u l t a d un idioma, pronuncicindolo mal y -39- s 10 6 usando en e l vocablos y g i r o s e x d t i c o s . " A more extensive d e f i n i t i o n i n c l u d i n g both the d e f i n i t i o n s of Santamaria and of A r r a z o l a i s given by T i t o Saubidet i n h i s Vocabulario y r e f r a n e r o c r i o l l o ; "Hacer mal una cosa o t r a b a j o , a medias. Hablar mal un idioma mezcld'ndolo con o t r o . Mezclar un l i c o r con otro u o t r o s . Chapurrear."107 This word i s not l i s t e d i n lunfardo v o c a b u l a r i e s and seems not to have been a lunfardo term. Chapurrar and chapurrear are from Spain. Corominas says that chapurrar means "hablar mal un idioma mezclandolo con formas de o t r o ; mezclar un l i q u i d o con o t r o . " He says i t s o r i g i n i s not c e r t a i n but the ancient form seems to be champurrar. This form with m i s the one i n common use i n America.^-08 Changador (180 - changadores). These the h e l p e r s : " - - e l gremio a u x i l i a r mis importante--, que se l a s vend en /.las victimas_7 por un tanto de l o que produzcan." (180). Payet-Gobello l i s t changador i n t h e i r Breve d i c c i o n a r i o lunfardo as: "mozo de cuerda. Changador de o t a r i o s : a u x i l i a r d e l ladro'n." They give c r e d i t 109 to Fray Mocho. Lugones d i d not l i s t the word and i t i s not g e n e r a l l y found i n lunfardo d i c t i o n a r i e s . According to Santamaria, Corominas, Kany, and others i t i s a word of the R i v e r P l a t e r e g i o n . Santamaria gives us these d e f i n i t i o n s : 1. Voz platense - persona que anda changando o haciendo changas, t r a b a j o s de ocasidn y poca monta. 2. Pedn s u e l t o , s i n t r a b a j o , n i empleo f i j o . 3. Mozo de c o r d e l . H y He a l s o gives us a d e f i n i t i o n of changa as meaning: " s e r v i c i o que presta e l changador y tambien e'l que se l e da"-'--'--'- He a l s o gives us a d e f i n i t i o n of changar: "hacer changas o n e g o c i o c i t o s -40- de poca importancia - en e l norte argentino - andar e j e r c i e n d o 112 su o f i c i o l a ramera c l a n d e s t i n a . " His f i r s t part of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and that of changa c o i n c i d e with those given by Saubidet,"'-''-3 and the second part of t h i s d e f i n i t i o n corresponds to the word given to us by Kany - changadora - prostitute.^''' 4 The o r i g i n of the word changador or changa i s a disputed one. Kany merely says: "of complicated and disputed origin".115 Let us observe some of the va r i o u s t h e o r i e s as to the o r i g i n of changador. Corominas, Kany, and Santamaria a l l give as a p o s s i b l e o r i g i n that of the Quichua word chancay, today changay which means 116 m a l t r a t a r , majar. Corominas says that i n Argentina and Uruguay changador was a "mozo de c o r d e l " ( l i k e the d e f i n i t i o n of Payet-Gobello p r e v i o u s l y mentioned) and one who k i l l e d animals and s o l d the hi d e s . He then gives the p o s s i b l e o r i g i n from Quichua and a l s o a p o s s i b l e o r i g i n from G a l i c i a n - Portuguese - facer changa - hacer negocio. He then gives the etymology of the Portuguese word - from a language of I n d i a - cangadam.^ 7 Another p o s s i b l e o r i g i n i s that from French quoted from Lizondo Borda and c i t e d by Santamaria. Groussac...considera como l o m^s probable que esta voz y sus derivados han tenido su origen en una corr u p c i o n de exchange, vocablo francos. Y se basa en que l o s primeros changadores, de que tenemos n o t i c i a s , eran contrabandistas que, a p r i n c i p i o s d e l s i g l o XVIII - " t e n i a n " sus guaridas en l a costa o r i e n t a l , donde acopiaban l o s cueros destinados a cargar l o s barcos f i l i b u s t e r o s especialmente franceses que cruzaban e l L i t o r a l desde e l P l a t a hasta l a s A n t i l l a s . ° Changa i s used i n the slang of Spain to mean negocio or g a n g a . ^ 9 I n l u n f a r d o , the common word, changador, e v i d e n t l y was used to mean a s p e c i f i c type of t h i e f as given by Fray Mocho. -41- D i r s e (187). "Tengo malos antecedentes, es c i e r t o , pero eso no hace a l caso..., i e l d e c i r adi6s no es d i r s e l " (187) E. Herman Hespelt i n An Anthology of Spanish American L i t e r a t u r e has a s e c t i o n c a l l e d , "Note on the Lengua gauchesca." He says: "6. Unorthodox P r e f i x e s are common: dentrar f o r e n t r a r , d i r f o r i r ; 1 70 a f i j o f o r f i j o ; . . . " Saubidet l i s t s the d e f i n i t i o n of d i r as , w , . 121 that of i r . Doctores (187). Here Fray Mocho seems to use t h i s word to mean experts: "jEstos p r a c t i c a n t e s l l e g a n a ser unos doctores que dan miedo, y no pasa mucho tiempo s i n que den v u e l t a y raya a su maestro!" (187) This probably comes from the a d j e c t i v e docto(a) - expert, w e l l posted or informed. Embrocar (179 - embroquen, 180 - embrocd). The d e f i n i t i o n given by A l v a r e z i s conocer or observar. (179) Further meanings of the word are given by C a s u l l o : M i r a r con mucha atencidn, f i l i a n d o . . . . "Se te embroca desde l e j o s , pelandruna abandonada." (Celedonio Esteban F l o r e s , Gardel-Razzano, Margot, Tango.) 2. V. V i g i l a r . . . . D e l l e p i a n e l i s t s embrocar as having the same meaning as manyar, campanear, and jamar.123 Benigno Lugones i n h i s lunfardo vocabulary gives embrocar to mean "mirar f i l i a n d o " . ^ 2 4 Embrocar i s one of those many lunfardo words which came i n t o the speech of Buenos A i r e s through the many I t a l i a n immigrants. Gobello says that i t comes from two I t a l i a n d i a l e c t s : "ITALIANO imbroccare - Dar en e l bianco; a c e r t a r . A d i v i n a r . GENOVES imbrocca* - Golpear j u s t o , dar en e l bianco."125 Santamaria l i s t s an i n t e r e s t i n g but unrelated usage of the word embrocar i n Mexico - empinar e l codo, beber.126 g o b e l l o does not l i s t t h i s word as being i n use today -42- i n the c o l l o q u i a l . 1 2 7 Encandilado (194): -- jNosotros l o que hacemos es embromar a quien nos t i e n e por zonzosf jA l o s o t a r i o s l e s contamos un cuento, l e s ofrecemos una ganancia enorme, y encandilados, l o s clavamos: eso es t o d o l . . . (194). The word here probably has the same meaning as given by Cuyas: "Encandilar - to d a z z l e , to daze, to bewilder." Santamairxa gives s e v e r a l d e f i n i t i o n s of t h i s word i n d i f f e r e n t parts of the Americas, In Cuba en c a n d i l a r means "alumbrarse con c a n d i l para paseo; i n C h i l e and Puerto Rico - encender, lumbrar; i n Colombia and Puerto 128 Rico - asustarse, alarmarse. This word i s not l i s t e d i n the v o c a b u l a r i e s of Lugones, C a s u l l o , Gobello, D e l l e p i a n e , and Payet. Escabios (188 - schacar e s c a b i o s ) . An escabio i s a drunk. (188). This word i s an apocopation of escabiado, the past p a r t i c i p l e of the verb e s c a b i a r - (beber) which i s from the word 129 escabio meaning an a l c o h o l i c beverage. This word comes from Genoese slang scabbio ,- wine and from;the Milanese slang scabbi - 130 wine. C a s u l l o gives us a l i s t of a l c o h o l i c beverages using the word escabio; Escabio a m a r i l l o - cognac. Escabio de can\5n - cafia. Escabio f u e r t e - aguardeiente. •Escabio verde - ajenjo.131 He a l s o gives us some other uses of the word escabio - " e s t a r escabiao - e s t a r completamente borracho; darse a l escabio - ser I o p borracho consuetudinario." We f i n d escabio i n the vocabulary of Lugones^ 3 3 and according to Gobello escabiar i s i n general 134 usage today. -43- Escruchante (183, 190). These are the abridores de puertas (183) whose a r t i s described i n d e t a i l by Fray Mocho (190). There are d i f f e r e n c e s of s p e l l i n g s of t h i s word. C a s u l l o w r i t e s i t escrushante, as does Payet. Other s p e l l i n g s given by C a s u l l o i n c l u d e : scrushante and scruchante.137 A r r a z o l a gives "Scrushante: Ladr6n de pisos o i n t e r i o r e s . (Del lunfardo)."138 Santamaria gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "En A r g e n t i n a , ladron que penetra en un d o m i c i l i o , por l a a s t u c i a o l o v i o l e n c i a . " 1 3 9 Lugones gave us t h i s word, s p e l l e d as d i d Fray Mocho "lu n f a r d o que p r a c t i c a e l escrucho".1^° C a s u l l o quotes F r a n c i s c o G a r c i a Jimenez to give the o r i g i n of the word: La palabra v i n o de "scrunch", que en ingle's popular equivale a l o que ''amasijo" en e l hampa portena; e l temible " escruchante 1' de nuestro medio es un ladron d o m i c i l i a r i o que no repara en f r a c t u r a y no t r e p i d a en matar, a l o menor a l a r m a . l ^ 1 Escrushe (183 - hacer e l scruscho). As i n the case of escruchante we f i n d v a r i ous s p e l l i n g s of t h i s word such as: escruche, escrucho, s c r u s c h o . T h e main problem w i t h t h i s word i s the d e f i n i t i o n . Fray Mocho gives us hacer e l scruscho to mean e s t a f a r - synonymous with contar e l cuento (183) yet he says that the escruchante devotes him s e l f to escrucho or opening doors (190) . Other lexicographers agree g e n e r a l l y that escrushe w i t h i t s v a r i o u s s p e l l i n g s r e f e r s to the robbery efected i n s i d e the house and not sw i n d l i n g . D e l l e p i a n e gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : Robo efectuado dentro de l a s casas, de d i a o noche, pero en ausencia de l o s moradores por h a l l a r s e e'stos en e l cam- po, e l t e a t r o , l a i g l e s i a , de v i s i t a , etc.1^3 -44- Lugones gives escrucho and escracho each w i t h d i f f e r e n t meanings. Escrucho means "robo en que e l ladron entra en una casa o e d i f i c i o para hacer e l t r a b a j o " and escracho has a d e f i n i t i o n much more l i k e that given by A l v a r e z f o r hacer e l scruscho; Se llama escracho l a e s t a f a que se comete presentando a un o t a r i o un b i l l e t e de l o t e r i a y un e x t r a c t o en que aqu£l aparece premiado con l a suerte mayor.•'•'•+4 This l a t t e r word and d e f i n i t i o n are mentioned by Payet. To that d e f i n i t i o n he adds r o s t r o and f o t o g r a f i a . ^ ^ D e l l e p i a n e gives a long l i s t of usages of escracho but not as s o c i a t e d w i t h s w i n d l i n g : Rostro, f o t o g r a f i a de una persona, c a r t a . Escracho a l a gurda, r o s t r o hermoso. Escracho f u l e r o , r o s t r o feo. Hacer  un escracho, e s c r i b i r una c a r t a . Escracho v o l a n t e , careta.l^-o There apparently are various d e f i n i t i o n s f o r the va r i o u s forms of s p e l l i n g of escrushe and f o r Fray Mocho scruscho i s not the same as escrucho. Jose? Gobello o f f e r s t h i s h e l p f u l e x p l a nation: A l mismo tiempo que r o s t r o , escracho s i g n i f i e d f o t o  g r a f i a . Luego se l a acoplaron otras s i g n i f i c a c i o n e s : "mujer fea y desagradable", t a l como se l e e en Diaz S a l a z a r ; p i n t a f u l e r a , segiin se desprende de este texto de Ernesto S^bato: "Pero imaginate, pibe ... era gente r i c a ... y yo adema's ... con este escracho"; y t a l vez algun o t r o . S i n embargo, ab i n i t i o e l escracho fue o t r a cosa, precisamente l a que e x p l i c a Benigno B. Lugones: "Se llama escracho, l a e s t a f a que se comete presentando a un o t a r i o un b i l l e t e de l o t e r i a y un e s t r a c t o en que aqu^l aparece premiado con l a suerte mayor; l a grande, como se d i c e generalmente l a gurda, como d i c e n l o s l u n f a r d o s Y b i e n , an argot escrache es, segiin V i r m a i t r e , pasaporte o papel; cosas ambas f ^ c i l e s de a s o c i a r a l suso- dicho e x t r a c t o , y a l a f o t o g r a f i a , que es l a parte mits destacada de un pasaporte y, por razones obvias, l a que ma's inquietaba a l o s delincuentes a l u v i o n a l e s . From t h i s we can see f i r s t that e a r l i e r escracho d i d r e f e r to a form of swin d l i n g but e v i d e n t l y not to house breaking and that i t has taken on other meanings - not uncommon i n lunfardo or any -45- other language. Another i n t e r e s t i n g point i s that escracho appears to have come from the argot w h i l e escrucho appears to have come from the E n g l i s h "scrunch". I n any event there i s confusion on t h i s word which has not been c l a r i f i e d . This word and i t s v a r i a t i o n s were very common i n lunfardo though not used much today. Esparo (187). This word i s the name of an a r t p r a c t i c e d by the punguistas, pickpockets, described by Fray Mocho i n t h i s way: Cuando es necesario i n t e r c e p t a r l a v i s t a de a l g u i e n , a h i se encuentra e l p r a c t i c a n t e , que h a r c i de nube, o o s i no e l brazo que no va a operar y que se baja o se levan- ta a l a a l t u r a n e c e s a r i a . Hay punguistas que son muy hcibiles en esta maniobra, que se llama esparo, y que es reputada como uno de l o s e s c o l l o s d e l a r t e . (187) Besides t h i s meaning given by Fray Mocho the word has acquired others. I t 1 r e f e r s to an avudante d e l punguista and a l s o anything which i s used to f a c i l i t a t e the robbery by a pickpocket l i k e a newspaper, a book, a hat - anything to hide the hand of the t h i e f : 148 "Llevaba una r e v i s t a como esparo / una r e v i s t a que junaba apenas." This word i s not given by Lugones and i s not l i s ted by Gobello as 149 being i n common usage today. Esquinazo (179 - d a r l e e l esquinazo). The d e f i n i t i o n of t h i s according to Jose - A l v a r e z i s d e s p i s t a r - to evade someone or "Turn from the t r a i l or course". The word equinazo i n one usage r e f e r s to a serenade - used i n both Argentina and C h i l e . Kany r e l a t e s t h i s meaning with d a r l e a uno esquinazo. I t i s derived from the word esquina, "corner", perhaps through the standard expression d a r l e a uno esquinazo - to give someone the s l i p by disappearing -46- suddenly around the corner, s i n c e i n c o g n i t o serenaders o f t e n disappeared i n t h i s m a n n e r . C a s u l l o l i s t s enganar, deceive, 151 as another meaning of the word. In D i c c i o n a r i o general de americanismos we f i n d a meaning somewhat r e l a t e d with engaifiar plus f u r t h e r usages of t h i s word i n other nations of South America: En A r g e n t i n a , en e l lunfardo ">bonaerense, e l hecho de b u r l a r un ladrdn a l o t r o , lleva"ndose e l producto d e l robo, s i n d e j a r l e parte a e'ste. Por extension, e s t a f a r , enganar, b u r l a r en general. En Peru - a s a l t o o ataque alevoso y en C h i l e alborada, serenata.152 This word i s not i n c l u d e d i n the vocabulary of Benigno Lugones. I t i s i n common usage today with the meaning as given above and a l s o to h o l d someone up ( d e i a r a uno plantado). Gato (191 - meter un gato). Fray Mocho describes the v a r i o u s ways of breaking i n t o the house by the escruchante and then mentions another procedure: S i estos medios no son p o s i b l e s , queda aun e l recurso de meter un gato, es d e c i r , hacer esconder en l a casa un cdmplice que a una hora dada franquear^ l a entrada. Este papel de gato no l o desempaffa / s i c / c u a l q u i e r a ; es necesario dedicarse a e l y hacerse una e s p e c i a l i d a d ; acostumbrarse a e s t a r i n m 6 v i l por horas enteras; a r e s p i r a r s i n hacer r u i d o ; a no estornudar n i t o s e r ; en f i n , hacerse un cad/ver. (191) Further meanings of gato are given by Payet and by C a s u l l o . Besides r e f e r r i n g to an accomplice who gets i n t o the house to open the door f o r the t h i e f , gato can a l s o r e f e r to the t h i e f who s e c r e t l y enters a house or a s t o r e and does the robbing h i m s e l f when the v i c t i m s have gone to sleep or out. Gato a l s o r e f e r s to a person of l i t t l e v alue. Both of these lexicographers c l a i m that t h i s word -47- with t h i s usage i s from the germania (slang) of S p a i n . ^ 3 Besses gives t h i s meaning: "d. Robo d e l gato. E l que v e r i f i c a una p r o s t i t u t a entrado a gatas en e l c u a r t q donde o t r a e n t r e t i e n e a un hombre."''-^4 xh e D i c t i o n a r y of the Real Academia Espanola among i t s d e f i n i t i o n s gives these: " l a d r o n r a t e r o que h u r t a con a s t u c i a y engano", "hombre sagaz, a s t u t o " , and "hombre nacido en Madrid". Fray Mocho e v i d e n t l y i s the f i r s t to l i s t t h i s term f o r i t d i d not appear i n Lugones. Golpe (183). A l v a r e z uses t h i s word when d i s c u s s i n g the cuatro armas ( p r e v i o u s l y mentioned). He says that they are those who d i r e c t the important golpes ( e v i d e n t l y the o f f e n s e s ) . In Breve d i c c i o n a r i o l unfardo by Gobello and Payet we f i n d t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o r golpe: "En l a expresidn dar un golpe, cometer un delito."'''"^ The other v o c a b u l a r i e s of lunfardo terms do not give t h i s word, i n f a c t Gobello even f a i l s to l i s t i t as part of the vocabulary of Fray Mocho, perhaps because i t was i n very common use, but A l v a r e z does w r i t e the word i n i t a l i c s . Zunzunegui i n La v i d a como es uses golpe c o n s i s t e n t l y to mean a robbery or an offense as defined above, so i t seems to be meaning i n widespread usage i n the Spanish-speaking world. Lunfardo (183). "Entre l o s lunfardos hay c i n c o grandes f a m i l i a s " (183). Here Fray Mocho r e f e r s to the lunfardos as the t h i e v e s . D e l l e p i a n e gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : Ladrdn, gene'ricamente. • E l idioma que emplean l o s mismos en Buenos A i r e s . Sindn: Lunfa, choro, malevo, de l a v i d a . Lunfardo a l a gurda, ladrdn que p r a c t i c a todos l o s proce- dimientos de robo, s i n e s p e c i a l i z a r s e en ninguno, como regularmente acontece con l a mayorla de l o s l u n f a r d o s , -48- cada uno de l o s cuales adopta a q u e l l a e s p e c i a l i d a d que se armoniza con sus apti t u d e s f r s i c a s y psiquicas.156 By extension i t a l s o r e f e r s to the popular language which inc l u d e s l u n f a r d o words and others brought i n by the many immigrants.157 A r r a z o l a gives us t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : Argot. C a l d . D i a l e c t o propio de l a gente d e l hampa bonaerense cuyo uso se ha extendido a algunos sectores de l a poblacidn y algunas voces d e l cu a l son de curso f o r z o s o . Ladrdn. ( a d j e t i v o ) : Perteneciente y r e l a - t i v o a l lu n f a r d o como idioma y como actividad.158 Further i n f o r m a t i o n w i l l f o l l o w on t h i s language and how i t developed. A l l the lexicographers w r i t e v o c a b u l a r i e s of lunfardo but none gives i t s etymology. Ame*rico Castro says that i t i s a d i a l e c t a l word from I t a l i a n , but, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , f a i l s 159 to s t a t e that d i a l e c t a l word. The word i s used by Lugones and he a l s o gives the d e f i n i t i o n f o r l u n f a r d o a l a gurda p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. He gives only the d e f i n i t i o n " t h i e f " and does not mention i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to language. Marengo (195 - secuestro de marengos). Fray Mocho does not give us the d e f i n i t i o n of marengo. When Gobello l i s t s i t i n the "Vocabulario de Fabio C a r r i z o " i n h i s book, V i e j a y nueva l u n f a r d i a , he merely says "no t r a e d e f i n i c i d h " . I n I t a l i a n the word marengo i s a gold French c o i n of 20 francs of Napolean I . Secuestrar besides meaning " t o kidnap" can a l s o mean " t o s e i z e " . T h i s , then could have the d e f i n i t i o n to rob. I t seems that t h i s i s the usage intended by Fray Mocho: — {Aqui me t r a i n , seflor'.... jsiempre por l o mismoi..., secuestro de marengos — parodiando e l e s t i l o de l o s partes p o l i c i a l e s — a un gringo que querfa v o l a r I (195) -49- This r e f e r s to Al c a c h o f a , the famous t h i e f p r e v i o u s l y mentioned. L u i s Soler Canas i n Origenes de l a l i t e r a t u r e l u n f a r d a makes a statement that seems to support t h i s conclusion?;-. He says "marengos, antecedente d i r e c t o de mangos, hoy todavia en uso con e l s i g n i f i c a d o de pesos moneda n a c i o n a l . . . " Mina (183). These are the women described by Fray Mocho and quoted e a r l i e r i n t h i s chapter. He says t h i s : iSon l a s madres, son l a s mujeres, son esas pobres maVtires que a r r a s t r a n su cruz a trave's d e l mundo -- l a s minas, como e l l o s l e s {sicj llaman --, l a s que l e s s i r - ven de escudo contra l o s golpes de l a suerte! (183) This word i s f i r s t given by Lugones i n h i s lunfardo vocabulary - as mujer. Mina r e f e r r e d to a woman i n general but could a l s o mean the l o v e r of a lunfardo ( t h i e f ) , as given by Fray Mocho. A 161 mina de tango i s a p r o s t i t u t e as i s mina de tambo "(tambo, p r o s t i b u l o ) " . A mina s i n shacar i s a v i r g i n "(shacar, engatusar, enganar, robar por medio de l a mentira, es d e c i r , s e d u c i r ) " .^-^ Santamaria gives mina as concubina and barragana or any companera  amorosa i n B o l i v i a . C a s u l l o says that i n B o l i v i a , Colombia, C h i l e , Peru, and Uruguay mina i s a woman i n general or the l o v e r of a th i e f . 1 6 4 Kany gives the E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n of mina as " m i s t r e s s " . T h e r e are two p o s s i b l e explanations as to the o r i g i n of the word. Kany says that i t comes from I t a l i a n jargon i n which mina means woman but gives us no f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . C a s u l l o claims that i t i s a word p o s s i b l y of Portuguese o r i g i n from menina, a g i r l , and at the same time an a f f e c t i o n a t e word.•'-67 The word mina i s very much i n use i n Buenos A i r e s today, e s p e c i a l l y -50- among the younger s e t . The d e f i n i t i o n given by A r r a z o l a agrees with t h i s modern usage: Mina: ( s u s t a n t i v o ) Mujer joven, hermosa y b e l l a . Este l o c a l i s m o bonaerense s i g n i f i c a algo mils de l o que dejamos consignado para c i e r t a c l a s e de i n d i v i d u o s s i n escrupulos.168 Mosca (203) "Y R o b i l l o t t i nadaba ya por l a r g a r l a mosca, cuando para f e l i c i d a d de su b o l s i l l o , l o encontr<5 e l agente p o l i c i a l . " (203) The d e f i n i t i o n l i s t e d by Gobello i n "Vocabulario de Fabio C a r r i z o " i s d i n e r o . C a s u l l o says: "Dinero. . 'Para mi no hay mosca que y a l g a . 0 laburan o no comen. '"'''^  I t i s not given i n most d i c t i o n a r i e s of l u n f a r d o , and was not given by Lugones. SantamarLa l i s t s t h i s d e f i n i t i o n f o r Argentina: "...impacto en e l centro mismo d e l bianco; punto marcado en e l centro d e l bianco."171 Muchacho (183). I n d e s c r i b i n g the work of l a s cuatro armas Fray Mocho says: " E l l o s son, generalmente, l o s que educan y forman l o s muchachos esmera'ndose en aquellos que r e v e l a n mejores f a c u l t a d e s : ..." (183). E v i d e n t l y by muchachos he r e f e r s to the young men being prepared to be t h i e v e s . This does not appear i n any lunfardo v o c a b u l a r i e s though Mocho uses i t i n i t a l i c s . Santamaria gives us the d e f i n i t i o n i n Argentina f o r muchacho as being tentemozo d e l 172 c a r r o , a type of support or prop of a c a r t . These muchachos were indeed the props or support f o r the cuatro armas who planned the crime but had them to c a r r y i t out. O t a r i o (180, 194). "Viven de l o s o t a r i o s , como llaman a l a s v i c t i m a s que caen entre sus g a r r a s , . . . " (180). "...como anda di a y noche por l a s c a l l e s en busca de o t a r i o s -- v i c t i m a s — ..." (194). Most d e f i n i t i o n s of o t a r i o agree w i t h these but give the -51- i d e a of h i s being a f o o l or very s t u p i d . Dellepiane gives us these d e f i n i t i o n s : Hombre honrado. Ignorante, i n f e l i z , s ujeto fa'cilmente embaucable explotando sus condiciones de tonto y de p i l l o , de cre'dulo y de c o d i c i o s o , a l a vez. En este segundo sentido es sindnimo de cuadro, g i l , vichenzq t u r r o , ser- v i c i o l i l a , Sanchez, c a r t d n , e t c . O t a r i o de l a gurda, tonto de c a p i r o t e . Tomar de o t a r i o (a alguno), t r a t a r de embaucarlo, suponiendolo tonto.... Shacador de o t a r i o s , ladr<5n que se dedica a l a e s t a f a por medio d e l cuento de l legado d e l t i o , d e l legado para l a c r i a n z a d e l nino, e t c . 1 7 3 A r r a z o l a gives us: " I d i o t a , Zonzo, E s t u l t o , Necio, Bobo."!^ Santamaria gives about the same meaning. This i s b a s i c a l l y what Lugones says i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n . He adds: " o t a r i o cuadro: muy zonzo, c a s i i d i o t a " . 1 7 5 Kany st a t e s that i n the Ri v e r P l a t e r e g i o n the slang o t a r i o was once widely used i n popular speech but has l o s t f o r c e and i s being r e p l a c e by g i l and g i l i t o ( t o n t o ) . 1 ^ Despite t h i s , Gobello l i s t s o t a r i o as being a word i n popular use t o d a y . I 7 7 Punguista (183). These are the pickpockets (183). A l l of the part e n t i t l e d " E l a r t e es sublime" of Chapter XIV of Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e i s dedicated to the d e s c r i p t i o n of the punguista. There are s e v e r a l r e l a t e d words. Punga i s the "robo o sustracc i r f n de l o s objetos que l a gente l l e v a en l o s b o l s i l l o s ; r a t e r l a hecha con mafia y astucia."178 i t can a l s o be that which i s robbed from the pocket. Dejar l a punga means to deposit what i s robbed i n a safe place to p i c k i t up l a t e r when the danger has passed.179 Puaguear means "robar, s u s t r a e r por medio de l a punga." This means the same i n Chile.1^0 A r r a z o l a i n h i s D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos argentinos gives punguista a I -52- broader meaning - more than j u s t a pickpocket: "LadrcSn. Ratero. Lunfardismo."^ 8^ Kany says punguista i s a pickpocket i n Argentina and Ecuador but that i n C h i l e they use punga and i n Ecuador punguero. ° Benigno Lugones gives both punga and punguista i n h i s vocabulary.183 Gobello does not l i s t i t as being a word i n c u r r e n t usage today. Queso (191 - entrar como en queso). An escruchante t r i e s to break open a door but has d i f f i c u l t i e s : "Entonces es cuando se r e c u r r e a c o r t a r e l t a b l e r o de l a parte i n f e r i o r de l a puerta, formado por l o general de madera blanda, en l a c u a l una c i i c h i l l a a f i l a d a entra como en queso y abre un buen p o s t i g o . " (191) This appears to be nothing more than a s i m i l e - perhaps used commonly among the l u n f a r d o s . Queso was used i n lunfardo but w i t h meanings f a r d i f f e r e n t from the one already mentioned. C a s u l l o gives us these d e f i n i t i o n s : Porquerfas, c a s c a r r i a en l o s pies de l a s personas des- p r o l i j a s , s u c i a s . 2. s. Los pies de l a s personas. 3. Las medias. 4. F i g u r a . E l presupuesto d e l Estado. ."Todos patalean, todos c r i t i c a n . . . pero l e s gusta e l queso." 5. a d j . Hermoso, b e l l o ; buy bueno...,185 Besses l i s t s s e v e r a l d i f i n i t i o n s i n the slang of Spain: " P i e . P i e de gran tamafio. Dar e l queso: Enga&ar; engatusar."186 Rostro (185 - dar e l r o s t r o ) . Fray Mocho gives t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n of t h i s phrase: S i n embargo, e l negocio t i e n e sus contras. Veces hay que ha hecho efectuar un robo v a l i o s o , y cuando va a r e t i r a r su parte se encuentra con una punalada o con que, s e n c i l l a - mente, l e dicen que no sea zonzo, y se a l z a n con e l santo y l a limosna, a c c i d n que se llama dar e l r o s t r o . (184-5). There are other words r e l a t e d to t h i s one. Rostrear means dar e l r o s t r o and r o s t r a z o i s the a c t i o n and e f f e c t of r o s t r e a r . -53- Rostro means the same as r o s t r a z o . D e l l e p i a n e defines r o s t r e a r i n t h i s way: Ocultar a l o s c<5mplices una parte d e l robo para que no entre en l a d i s t r i b u c i 6 n , y obtener a s i una parte mayor de l a debida. Lo mismo que dar e l rostro.187 This term was not l i s t e d by Lugones and does not appear to be i n common usage today. Santamaria a l s o f a i l s ;to l i s t i t . Schacar or shacar (188 - schacar e s c a b i o s ) . This expression means robar borrachos. Schacar i n general means to 188 rob and a l s o to rob through d e c e i t . I t has va r i o u s other' uses: Engafiar, sacar una cosa por medio de l a mentira. Shacar  e l vento, conseguir e l dinero de o t r o , merced a l engano. Shacar una mina, f o r n i c a r . Mina s i n shacar, mujer virgen.-'- 8 9 There are d e r i v a t i v e s of t h i s word: shacador/ra - t h i e f ; shacadura - robbery; shacamento - robbery, d e c e i t , swindle. 191 These words come from s c i a c c a i n Genoese which means to squeeze. Fray Mocho i s the f i r s t to give us t h i s word and i t appears to s t i l l be i n wide usage i n the common c o l l o q u i a l speech of Argentina.192 Tano (195). This i s an apocopated form of n a p o l i t a n o - Neopolitan. A r r a z o l a gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "Dicese familiarmente d e l i t a l i a n o r e s i d e n t e en l a Arge n t i n a , especialmente d e l na p o l i t a n o . Kany says t h a t i t means nap o l i t a n o and by extension any I t a l i a n . S a n t a m a r i a says that i t was a derrogatory name: "En Ar g e n t i n a , afeVesis de nap o l i t a n o - nombre despectivo que se da a l o s ext r a n j e r o s emigrantes de esa nacionalidad."-'-95 -54- Toco (184 and 207, hacer e l t o c o ) . r E l campana pres t a s e r v i c i o s a l o s ladrones, pero que digan estos l o que l e s cuesta: siempre se l l e v a e l l o mejor d e l toco, o sea d e l monto de l o atrapado! (184) Toco i s a p o r t i o n of that which i s robbed. I t i s a l s o a bundle 196 of bank notes. This second d e f i n i t i o n i s r e l a t e d to the usage of toco made by Fray Mocho on page 207 - hacer e l toco or use the balurdo (useless papers that look l i k e a r o l l of money) to deceive. D e l l e p i a n e gives us another usage dar e l toco - "entregar l a p o r ci6n correspondiente de l o robado."-'-97 Another word derived from toco i s tocomocho: Tocomocho. s. (En algunos " t r a b a j o s " , en e l cuento d e l t i o , especialmente), b i l l e t e de l o t e r l a adulterado, que se usa para e s t a f a r . Tambien, montdh de papeles, r e c o r t e s de d i a r i o s , simulando un paquete de b i l l e t e s , para timar. "Y usted por s e r v i r l o , l e d i 6 c i e n t o s o doscientos. Eso se llama tocomocho." ( F l o r e n c i o Sanchez, Teatro, 187.)198 We a l s o f i n d tocomochero - " E l que p r a c t i c a e l genero de e s t a f a ] 99 denominada, t r a b a j o de tocomocho." A r r a z o l a gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of toco: "Guota, parte que l e corresponde a cada uno de l o s que p a r t i c i p a n en un robo o d e l i t o . (Del lunfardo)."200 For tocomocho he g i v e s : "Dicese d e l b i l l e t e y e x t r a c t o de l a l o t e r l a f a l s i f i c a d o s para hacer e l cuento o t r a b a j o denomindo del tocomocho. (Localismo d e l lunfardo bonaerense que ha cafdo en d e s u s o ) . " ^ l Santamaria gives another meaning not e x a c t l y r e l a t e d to l u n f a r d o - a type of indigenous cedar t r e e i n Argentina.202 Xoco comes from Genoese - tdcco - a piece of something, hence a part of the l o o t . Piggia* o tocco - to a l l o w y o u r s e l f to be b r i b e d (dejarse sobornar).203 Toco was -55- given by Lugones before Fray Mocho. I t i s not i n common, popular usage today.. Trabajo (180, 183, 186). Trabajo i n general terms i s a robbery, and t r a b a j a r i n lunfardo means to rob i n the widest sense of the w o r d . P a y e t f o r t r a b a j a r a l s o gives another meaning: 205 "conquistar e l ^ nimo de a l g u i e n " . This was f i r s t given by Lugones. Today i t no longer has t h i s meaning i n popular speech. Del l e p i a n e i n E l idioma d e l d e l i t o gives us s e v e r a l pages of var i o u s types of t r a b a i o s . Among some of those l i s t e d are these: t r a b a j o de albarde, t r a b a j o de biaba, t r a b a j o de caramayola, t r a b a j o de cuento, t r a b a j o de o t a r i o , t r a b a j o de descuido, t r a b a j o  de escamoteo, t r a b a j o de escrusho, t r a b a j o de espiante, t r a b a j o  de punga, and t r a b a j o de tocomocho. The usage of t r a b a j a r meaning " t o rob" i s not l i m i t e d to Argentina. Besses gives the d e f i n i t i o n s of robar f o r t r a b a j a r and expender moneda f a l s a f o r t r a b a j a r e l percal.207 Tumba (181). Cuando un moceton empieza a andar a malos t r a t o s , ya l o s d e l o f i c i o , a l ha b l a r de £l dicen; "jam£s sera" nada 1' o "es un muchacho de esperanzas y que ira* l e j o s 1 ' , segun sea que t a l pajaro haya s a l i d o bien o mal en sus primeros re v u e l o s . En e l primer caso, no encuentra protectores y t i e n e que hacerse .came de canon, soldado de l a gran falange, brazo ej e c u t o r y por l o tanto frecuentador de calabozos y abonado a l a tumba d e l Departmento C e n t r a l . (181) Tumba i s a puchero, "came cocida en agua" and a l s o "comida de presos".208 Santamaria says that i n Argentina i t i s "comida p e c u l i a r d e l pobre, escaso alimento; pieza o bocado que se saca de l a o l l a ; t r o z o de mala carne h e r v i d a en agua s i n s a l . " -56- He po i n t s out that t h i s word i s a l s o heard i n places on the coast of Southwestern Mexico.209 Vento mischo (207 - hacer un vento mischo). Vento mischo i s synonymous of toco. (207) I t means to use f a l s e papers to deceive and rob. Let's analyze each word. F i r s t vento. I t means money (dinero) - a l s o there i s another form - v e j i t o l i n a . •LU Some PI i of i t s synonymns are g u i t a , g u i t a r r a , paco, and r o l l o . I t comes from substandard Genoese vento, meaning dinero - "o 1'e ommo c h i 212 ha do vento, es un hombre r i c o . " I t i s i n use today i n the common language. I t was given by Lugones before Fray Mocho. Now l e t us examine mischo. I t i s sometimes s p e l l e d mishio, misho, or mishia.213 means pobre and misero. C a s u l l o gives andar misho - 9 1 / " e s t a r o andar s i n un centavo." Misho de uniforme means naked, and misho de rebute - very poor.215 There appears to be some di s c r e p a n c i e s on the o r i g i n of t h i s word. Gobello gives mishio as coming from Genoese, m i s c i o - " f a l t o de dinero".216 Kany c i t e s Lizondo Borda as g i v i n g misho - a word i n Northwestern Argentina meaning miser, ' and Santamaria claims that i t comes from the Quichua michha - "seco para o t r o s , agravado en todo g^nero."218 The more l i k e l y explanation of etymology i s that of Gobello as f a r as lunfardo i s concerned. Micho was l i s t e d i n the vocabulary of Benigno Lugones as meaning i n s i g n i f i c a n t e and pobre.219 xhe word mishiadura (poverty) i s s t i l l i n widespread use, but not misho or mishio.220 Vida (180). From the context we get the impression that i n t h i s case v i d a means the mala v i d a - the l i f e of t h i e v e r y : -57- —-iVengo por una temporada a v i s i t a r a l a f a m i l i a l *Yo prometo que no hare' ningdn dano!... lYa me he r e t i r a d o de l a v i d a 1 .. . iNo me pe r s i g a y ocu'peme en c u a l q u i e r averiguacidn! (180) Payet says t h i s of v i d a : "Se sobreentiende l a mala v i d a . " And so we conclude the vocabulary of Fray Mocho. He was the f i r s t to record many vocabulary items, but i n other cases Lugones had p r e v i o u s l y recorded them. Some of the Lunfardo words given by Fray Mocho are n o t - l i s t e d by other l e x i c o g r a p h e r s . Some are i n common usage today but others are not. Many d i c t i o n a r i e s l i k e t h a t of Payet, D e l l e p i a n e , and C a s u l l o give frequent c r e d i t to Jose" A l v a r e z as t h e i r source of in f o r m a t i o n . Besides the l i t e r a r y value of Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , t h i s work i s of great worth to the student of the speech of Buenos A i r e s . -58- FOOTNOTES I j o s l Gobello, Vie.ja y nueva l u n f a r d i a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Freeland, 1963), p. 16. Enrique Ricardo d e l V a l l e , L u n f a r d o l o g i a (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Freeland, 1966), p. 44. 3 G o b e l l o , pp. 101-117. 4 Gobello, p. 13. 5 D e l V a l l e , pp. 249-253. 6De Pedro, p. 17. 7 D e l V a l l e , p. 42. 8 0 b r a s completas, I , 147. 9 I b i d . , I , 148. l°Ibid., I , 149. U I b i d . , I , 159. 1 2 I b i d . , I , 160. 1 3 I b i d . , I , 162. l 4 I b i d . , I , 164. l ^ i b i d . , I , 165. "^De Pedro, p. 16. l^Obras completas, I , 179. I S l b i d . , I , 182. 1 9 l b i d . , I , 183-4. 2 Q I b i d . , I , 209. 2 1 I b i d . , I , 211. -59- 2 2 I b i d . , I , 76-77. 23c.E. Kany, American - Spanish Semantics (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1960), p. 52. 2 ^ F r a n c i s c o J . Santamaria, D i c c i o n a r i o general de americanismos (Mexico C i t y , Mexico: E d i t o r i a l Pedro Robredo, 1942), I , 75. 25c.E. Kany, American - Spanish Euphemisms (Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1960), p. 89. 26Roberto A r r a z o l a , D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos argentinos (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Colombia, 1943), p. 32. 2 7Fernando Hugo C a s u l l o , D i c c i o n a r i o de voce s lunfardas y  vulgares (Buenos A i r e s ; E d i t o r i a l Freeland, 1964), p. 33. 28Luciano Payet and Jos£ Gobell o , Breve d i c c i o n a r i o lunfardo (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l A. Pena L i l l o , 1959), p. 14. 2 9Giuseppe B e l l i n i , Lo Spagnolo d'America ( M i l a n : La G o l i a r d i c a ) , p. 60. See a l s o Americo Castro, La p e c u l i a r i d a d l i n g u i s t i c a r i o p l a t e n s e (Madrid: Taurus, 1961), p. 124. 3°Antonio De l l e p i a n e , E l idioma d e l d e l i t o y d i c c i o n a r i o p. 77." lunfa r d o (Buenos A i r e s : Compania General F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1967), 3 1 G o b e l l o , p. 190. 3 2 i b i d . , p. 209. 33 c a s u l l o , p. 35. 3^Dellepiane, p. 77. 35santamaria, I , 196. 3 6 G o b e l l o , p. 146. 3 7 c a s u l l o , p. 38. O Q D e l l e p i a n e , p. 77. 3^Arrazola, p . 35. ^Kany , Semantics , p. ^1Santamaria, I , 208. 4 2 G o b e l l o , p?. 146-147. -60- 4 3Santamari"a, I , 208. 4 4 I b i d . ^ G o b e l l o , p. 146. See a l s o page 139. 4 6 I b i d . , pp. 209, 14. 4 7 C a s u l l o , p. 45. 4^Kany, Semantics, pp. 163, 220. 4 9 c a s u l l o , pp. 45-46. 5 0 G o b e l l o , pp. 209-210. 5 1 P a y e t , p. 18. 5 2 G o b e l l o , p. 147 5 3 I b i d . , pp. 147-8. 5 4 P a y e t , p. 19. 5 5 S a n t a m a r l a , I I , 422. 5 6 C a s u l l o , p. 50. " ^ A r r a z o l a , p. 44. -^Kany, Euphemisms, p. 162. 5 9 I b i d . , p. 184. 6 0 I b i d . , p. 103. 6 1 S a n t a m a r l a , I , 258. Corominas gives us the o r i g i n of the word cacha as having come from the vulgar L a t i n cappula, p l u r a l f o r cappulum, meaning the h i l t of the sword. J . Corominas, D i c c i o n a r i o c r l t i c o e t i m oldgico de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n o (Berne: E d i t o r i a l Francke, 1954), I , 92-3. 6 2From cachar we a l s o get the word cachada - broma, b u r l a , guasa and cachador/ra - he or she who cacha. C a s u l l o , p. 50. 63Gobello, p. 110. 64Dellepiane, p. 86. 6 5 P a y e t , p. 41. 6 6 G o b e l l o , p. 210. 6 7 I b i d . , pp. 14-15. 6 8 C a s u l l o , p. 54. 6 9 D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 77, 79. 7 0 G o b e l l o , pp. 14-15, 210. 7 1 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 79. 7 2 C a s u l l o , p. 55. 7 3 i b i d . 7 4 i b i d . 7 5 I b i d . , p. 56. 7 6 I b i d . 7 7 I b i d . 7 8 I b i d . 7 9 S e e Corominas, I , 619. 8 0Kany, Semantics, p. 69. 8 ]-Payet, p. 21. 8 2 G o b e l l o , p. 148. 8 3 I b i d . , p. 14. 8 4 I b i d . , p. 210. 8 5 C a s u l l o , p. 58. 8 6 D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 79-80. 8 7 I b i d . , p. 98. 8 8Corominas, I , 668. 8 9 G o b e l l o , p. 209. 9 nCorominas, I , 743. ^ A r r a z o l a , pp. 58-59. 9 2 S a n t a m a r l a , I , 427. •62- 9 3 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 80. 9 4 i b i d . 95Santamaria, I , 429. 9 6 G o b e l l o , p. 14. 9 7 C a s u l l o , p. 74. 9 8 P a y e t , p. 29. 9 9 A r r a z o l a , p. 61. IQOlbid. I Q l l b i d . , p. 62. 1 0 2 S a n t a m a r i a , I , 462. l°3Kany, Semantics, p. 9 104santamaria, I , 462. i°5Arrazola, p > 52. 106 Fay Mocho, p. 159. 1 0 7 T i t o Saubidet, Vocabulario y r e f r a n e r o c r i o l l o , 6th ed. uenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Guillermo K r a f t , 1962), p. 119. l°8corominas, I I , p. 25. 1 0 9 P a y e t , p. 30. l l n S a n t a m a r i a , I , 465. 1 1 1 I b i d . 1 1 2 I b i d . ^ S a u b i d e t , pp. 119-120. 1 1 4 K a n y , Semantics, p. 114. H^Kany, Euphemisms, p. 35. 1 1 6 C o r o m i n a s , I I , 17; Kany, Semantics, p. 114; and Santamaria, 465. H 7Corominas, I I , p. 17. -63- 118 / Santamaria, I , p. 465. l ^ L u i s Besses, D i c c i o n a r i o de argot espanol (Barcelona: Sucesores de Manuel S o l e r , n . d . ) } p. 60. l ^ E . Herman Hespelt (ed.), An Anthology of Spanish American  L i t e r a t u r e (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1946), p. 304. 1 2 1 S a u b i d e t , p. 135. 1 2 2 C a s u l l o , p. 87. • ^ D e l l e p i a n e , p. 8 2. 1 2 4 G o b e l l o , p. 14. 1 2 5 I b i d . , p. 156. 1 2 6 S a n t a m a r i a , I , 591. 1 2 7 G o b e l l o , pp. 209-210. The word i s used i n the slang of Spain. I n Zunzunegui we read t h i s : "... ((El P i n t a o ) es e l maestro de una escuela de soneros f ^ c i l e s que salen limpiamente d e l embroque ... cY que" es e l embroque? Es (( ... l a d i s p o s i c i 6 n en que e l t o r e r o se h a l l a respecto a l t o r o , cuando s i no se moviera l l e v a r i a l a cornada)) ." Juan A. de Zunzunegui, La v i d a como  es, 2d. ed. (Barcelona: E d i t o r i a l Noguer, 1956), p. 513. 1 2 8 S a n t a m a r i a , I , 597. • L 2 9 P a y e t , p. 36. 1 3 0 G o b e l l o , p. 158. 1 3 1 C a s u l l o , p. 93. 1 3 2 I b i d . 1 3 3 G o b e l l o , p. 14. 1 3 4 I b i d . , p. 210. l 3 5 C a s u l l o , p . 95. 1 3 6 P a y e t , p. 36. 1 3 7 C a s u l l o , p. 95. 1 3 8 A r r a z o l a , p. 178. 1 3 9 S a n t a m a r i a , I , 620. -64- 1 4 0 G o b e l l o , p. 14. 1 4 1 C a s u l l o , p. 95. 1 4 2 I b i d . 1 4 3 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 84. 1 4 4 G o b e l l o , p. 13. 1 4 5 P a y e t , p. 36. 1 4 6 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 83. 1 4 7 G o b e l l o , p. 195. 1 4 8 I b i d . , pp. 97-98. 1 4 9 I b i d . , p. 210. 15°Kany, Semant-ics, p. 110. 151casullo, p. 100. •^Santamaria, I , p. 626. l 5 3 P a y e t , p. 43; C a s u l l o , p. 117. l-^Besses, p. 83. 1 5 5 P a y e t , p. 44. l 5 6 D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 89-90. 1 5 7 P a y e t , p. 49. 1 5 8 ^ r r a z o i a , p. 122. 1 5 9 A m ^ r i c o Castro, p. 89. 160Gobello, p. 17, and L u i s Soler Canas, Orfgenes dela  l i t e r a t u r a l unfarda (Buenos A i r e s : Ediciones S i g l o V e i n t e , 1965), p. 23. Gobello l i n k s mango and marengo as r e f e r r i n g to money (Gobello, pp. 42-43). 1 6 1 C a s u l l o , p. 145. l ^ 2 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 92. 163santamaria, 11, 281. 1 6 4 C a s u l l o , p. 145. -65- • L 6 5Kany, Euphemisms, p. 179. 1 6 6 I b i d . , p. 165. 1 6 7 C a s u l l o , p. 145. 1 6 8 A r r a z o l a , p. 134. 1 6 9 G o b e l l o , p. 17. l 7 0 C a s u l l o , p. 150. 1 7 1-Santamaria, I I , p. 302. 1 7 2 I b i d , I I , p. 312. 1 7 3 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 93. 1 7 4 A r r a z o l a , p. 145. ' l 7 5 G o b e l l o , p. 15. 1 76Kany, Euphemisms, p. 52. 1 7 7 G o b e l l o , p. 210. 1 7 8 C a s u l l o , p. 179. l 7 9 I b i d . I S O l b i d . l 8 1 A r r a z o l a , p. 164. 1 8 2 ^ a n v > Euphemisms, p. 106. 1 8 3 G o b e l l o , p. 15. 1 8 4 I b i d . , p. 40. 1 8 5 c a s u l l o , p. 182. l 8 6 B e S s e s , p. 139. 1 8 7 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 95 1 8 8 P a y e t , p. 65. l 8 9 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 97. 1 9 0 C a s u l l o , pp. 194-5. -66- 1 9 1 G o b e l l o , p. 184. 1 9 2 I b i d . , p. 210. •*- 9 3Arrazola, p. 183. 1 9 4 K a n y , Semantics, pp. 38, 255, 1 9 5 S a n t a m a r i a , I I I , p. 128. 1 9 6 P a y e t , p. 68. l 9 7 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 81. 1 9 8 C a s u l l o , p. 203. 1 9 9 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 97. 2 0 0 A r r a z o l a , p. 185. 2 0 1 I b i d . 2 0 2 S a n t a m a r i a , I I I , p. 190. 2 0 3 G o b e l l o , p. 185. 2 0 4 C a s u l l o , p. 205. 2 0 5 P a y e t , p. 68. 2 0 6 S e e D e l l e p i a n e , pp. 98-100. 2 0 7 B e s s e s , p . 161. 2 0 8 P a y e t , p. 68. 2 0 9 S a n t a m a r f a , I I I , 228. 2 1 0 C a s u l l o , p. 209. 2l-*-Dellepiane, p. 101. 2 1 2 G o b e l l o , p. 186. 2 1 3 C a s u l l o , pp. 146-7. 2 1 4 I b i d . 215 De l l e p i a n e , p. 92. 2 1 6 G o b e l l o , p. 176. - 6 7 - 2 i 7 K a n y , Euphemisms, p. 72. 2 1 8Santamarxa, I , 284. 2 1 9 G o b e l l o , p. 15. 2 2 Q I b i d . , p. 210. 2 2 1 P a y e t , p. 69. CHAPTER I I I What i s lunfardo? How d i d i t develop? Who used i t ? Does i t s t i l l e x i s t ? These questions a l l a r i s e as we mention l u n f a r d o . This chapter i s an attempt to observe the s o c i o l o g i c a l background of i t s growth, how i t developed and what l i n g u i s t i c and l i t e r a r y i n f l u e n c e s i t has exerted on the speech of Argentina and other n a t i o n s . HISTORICAL AND SOCIOLOGICAL BACKGROUND OF LUNFARDO Buenos A i r e s was slow i n growing i n po p u l a t i o n . The f i r s t s e t t l e r s i n Argentina went i n t o the Northwest r e g i o n , today known as the Provinces of S a l t a , Jujuy, Tucuman, and Santiago d e l E s tero. I t was not u n t i l 1580 that Buenos A i r e s was e s t a b l i s h e d ( f o r the second time) and then the c h i e f purpose was to provide a place where s h i p s , a f t e r a long voyage from Spain, could stop to take on p r o v i s i o n s and water before s t a r t i n g up the r i v e r to Asuncion.! This r e g i o n was not an a t t r a c t i v e place f o r Spaniards who sought gold. For two c e n t u r i e s or more -69- Rlo de l a P l a t a was a neglected colony and Spain's monopolistic trade p o l i c y s t i f l e d the economy. P o l i t i c a l l y i t was under the j u r i s d i c t i o n f i r s t of Asuncion and then of the V i c e r o y a l t y of Peru, u n t i l 1777 when the V i c e r o y a l t y of Rio de l a P l a t a was formed with Buenos A i r e s as c a p i t a l . Even at the time of independence i n 1810, Buenos A i r e s was a small v i l l a g e . The country and c i t y grew slowly during the f o r t y years of anarchy, c i v i l war, and succession f o l l o w i n g independence. Juan Manuel de Rosas r u l e d f o r twenty-three years u n t i l h i s deafeat i n 1852, a f t e r which the country adopted a f e d e r a l i s t c o n s t i t u t i o n . The end of the era of anarchy and the entrance of the Province of Buenos A i r e s i n t o the Confederation made way f o r a u n i t e d n a t i o n to be formed. At t h i s point there were only 1,200,000 people 2 l i v i n g i n A r g e n t i n a . This i s when Buenos A i r e s s t a r t e d to grow. The pampa began to be c u l t i v a t e d and i n 1857 the f i r s t r a i l r o a d s t a r t e d operations. Soon a whole system of r a i l r o a d s converging on Buenos A i r e s came i n t o being and i t became the b i g p o r t . B r i t i s h c a p i t a l flowed i n t o Argentina as d i d immigrants. This i s of great importance as we study the growth of lunfardo. In 1869 Buenos A i r e s had 177,787 i n h a b i t a n t s of which 44,233 were I t a l i a n s , i n 1887 i t had 433,375 with 138,166 I t a l i a n s , i n 1895 there were 633,854 with 181,093 I t a l i a n s , and i n 1914, 1,575,814 w i t h 312,267 I t a l i a n s . 3 Between 1857 and 1900 approximately 2,000,000 immigrants a r r i v e d i n Buenos A i r e s and 800,000departed l e a v i n g a net increase of 1,200,000. Again a f t e r World War I immigration increased and from,-1859 to 1930 the t o t a l immigration -70- came to 6,300,000 persons. About 807» of those who came were of I t a l i a n or Spanish n a t i o n a l i t y . A l s o represented i n l a r g e numbers were French, Germans, A u s t r i a n s , Russians, B r i t i s h , and Swiss. The a r r i v a l of the immigrants changed the character of the Argentine people r a d i c a l l y . 4 According to Marta Marin the "bad" l e g i s l a t i o n i n Argentina caused these immigrants to stay i n the c i t i e s - mainly Buenos A i r e s where they were employed i n b u i l d i n g r a i l r o a d s and other p u b l i c works.5 Buenos A i r e s up to the time of immigration had a t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n based on the landowners who were former m i l i t a r y leaders i n the War of Independence or p o l i t i c i a n s who had become famous i n t h e i r work to b u i l d the country from chaos. The general masses were u n s k i l l e d workers who worked part of the year i n the country and part i n the c i t y . There e x i s t e d a small group of merchants who could not r e a l l y be s a i d to form a middle c l a s s . The impact, of immigrants changed Buenos A i r e s - they formed a l a r g e new urban p r o l e t a r i a t , whose immediate i n t e r e s t was i n r i s i n g s o c i a l l y and economically. They formed a middle and a new upper c l a s s based on wealth. During t h i s time the stock market became a symbol of the new growth of the n a t i o n . ^ Jauretche i n E l medio pelo s a i d there came about an i n v e r s i o n of c l a s s e s . Those who descended from the founding h i d a l g o s became o r i l l e r o s and gauchos and the imported bourgeosie became the Argentine a r i s t o c r a c y . The descendents of the founders gave t h e i r place i n the c i t y to the wealthy, who were descendents of smugglers and merchants, and moved out to the suburbs. 7 -71- We f i n d the immigrants have a large e f f e c t on the development of lunfardo. The largest group of foreigners at f i r s t was the English ( u n t i l 1810). At that time almost any foreigner i n Buenos Ai r e s was c a l l e d an i n g l e s . Many early leaders learned English - among them Manuel Belgrano. In the time of Rivadavia the number of foreigners increased. General O'Brien went from the campaign i n C h i l e and Peru to Europe and returned with two hundred young men to work i n a g r i c u l t u r e . In 1821 the French population began to increase. The Gal i c i a n s started to come i n 1845 and became mostly peones and criadas. Later the Basques came - they became labourers and devoted themselves to milk production e s p e c i a l l y i n Quilmes, F l o r e s , and Moron, i n f a c t , i t i s said that almost a l l milkmen i n Buenos Aires were Basques. 8 Then came the great i n f l u x of immigrants as mentioned- mostly from I t a l y and Spain. In Buenos Ai r e s existed the famous Hotel de Inmigrantes near Dclrsena Norte where poor immigrants stayed u n t i l they found work. I t was a place of misery and promiscuity. The conv e n t i l l o s grew up where these immigrants went to l i v e . Because of t h i s i n f l u x of immigrants more than h a l f the adult male population of Buenos Aires was made up of foreigners. Sdlo e'l que vivi6 en medio de esa multitud y lle n o sus ojos con l a v a r i o p i n t a de sus ropas y sus oidos con e l ruido de cascada de todos los idiomas cayendo a l mismo tiempo sobre e l espafiol o e l lunfardo, puede medir l a magnitud del milagro de asimilacio'n que se r e a l i z d en Buenos Ai r e s en e l vertigo de unos pocos decenios 9 Since most immigrants were young sin g l e males, many Argentine g i r l s married immigrants - another reason for the large number -72- of I t a l i a n words i n lunfardo and the common language of Argentina. The Avenida de Mayo became the a x i s of movement of the new c i t y . I t was the modern s t r e e t - ^ f i l l e d with h o t e l s , taverns, c a f e s , and mujeres pintadas. I n d i v i d u a l s of d i v e r s e n a t i o n a l i t i e s entered these c a f e s . German h o t e l s and T u r k i s h stores abounded.H This i n t e r m i x i n g natural l y caused many f o r e i g n words e x p e c i a l l y I t a l i a n to be incorporated i n t o the speech of Buenos A i r e s . Am^rico Castro discusses t h i s phenomenon i n La p e c u l i a r i d a d l i n g t i i s t i c a r i o p l a t e n s e . Here are some of the observations he g i v e s , and i n part he i s quoting Amado Alonso: Lo que pone a Buenos A i r e s - - d i c e - - e n desventaja f r e n t e a l r e s t o de Hispano-Ame'rica (incluyendo Espana) es su i n c r e i b l e crecimiento por a l u v i d n , y su c o n d i c i o n de campamento c o l o s a l , en cuya vor^gine, l a pequena minoria que mantiene l a t r a d i c i o n de l a lengua c u l t a esta desperdigada y apenas ten i d a en cuenta.-*-2 A strong Spanish h i e r a r c h y had not developed i n Argentina as i n Peru or Mexico and w i t h the f l o o d of immigrants, i t was unable to defend i t s Spanish against the f o r e i g n words. Although most immigrants were I t a l i a n s , or Spaniards, as mentioned, the Spaniards were mainly from r u r a l areas and brought d i a l e c t a l forms - 1 Q not C a s t i l i a n - with them. As we already observed, the o l d h i e r a r c h y descended from the founding h i d a l g o s was replaced by the imported bourgeosie. Argentina does not have a s o c i o - c u l t u r a l i n t e g r a t i o n and t h e r e f o r e there are many d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of l i n g u i s t i c p e c u l i a r  i t i e s . Geography plays a d e c i s i v e r o l e i n the e v o l u t i o n of language. The i n h a b i t a n t s of Mendoza, because of i t s l o c a t i o n , speak more l i k e Chileans than l i k e portenos. I n Buenos A i r e s , b i l i n g u a l i s m , -73- l i n g u i s t i c c ontact, and l i n g u i s t i c borrowing are some of the s o c i o - c u l t u r a l processes which a f f e c t l u nfardo. Buenos A i r e s turned i t s back on the Provinces of Entre Rios and C o r r i e n t e s where a r c h a i c Spanish s t i l l e x i s t s and adopted f o r e i g n forms f r e e l y The c i t y grows and extends i t s border over r u r a l areas. The superstratum of the portefio language i s e s t a b l i s h e d over the substratum of the gauchesque language. Del V a l l e claims that i n Benigno Lugones, D e l l e p i a n e , and Fabio C a r r i z o , one can see a mixture of r u r a l and cosmopolitan language.l-> As c i t y l i m i t s expand, a phenomenon occurs which Del V a l l e d e s c r i b e s : Es que l a ciudad y e l campo se van tocando. La ciudad ganando terreno sobre e l campo, urbanizandolo en c i r c u l o s concentricos de diametro cada vez mayor. Y en la s regiones p e r i f e r i c a s de l a urbe, nace, crece y v i v e este medio expresivo que es l a connotacidn revelada de sus hablantes. Un nuevo hombre, mezcla de homo r u s t i c u s y homo urbanus. E l gaucho de a r r a b a l que l l e g a b a a los C o r r a l e s ( b a r r i o de extramuros situado mas a l i a d e l R e t i r o ) a c a b a l l o o en c a r r e t a s transportadoras de mercanclas procedents de l a campana. E l gaucho pueblero fue asimilando y contagictndose de costumbres ciudadanas. De a h i a l compadrito de a r r a b a l no media sino un paso. " C o n s t i t u i a l a fuerza p r i n c i p a l de t a l suburbio esa c l a s e media entre e l hombre de l a urbe y e l de l a campana; o sea e l compadrito c r i o l l o . . . " 1 6 Because of t h i s c u l t u r a l s u p e r p o s i t i o n of c i t y d wellers over country d w e l l e r s at the edges of the c i t y there arose the o r i l l e r o , the compadrito or compadre as he was c a l l e d . He has c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n common with the gaucho but a l s o there are notable d i f f e r e n c e s . There was considerable contact and .dialogue between c i t y and country: -74- Los malevos de l a s o r i l l a s c o n s t i t u y e n un grupo humano de c a r ^ c t e r marginal. " E l malevo ademits de ser un i n d i v i d u o marginal, es un r e s e n t i d o . " En su desplante excesivo se agazapan un trauma p s i q u i c o y una p r o t e s t a s o c i a l . Desdena a l a r i s t o c r a t i c o j a i l a i f e de l a s c a l l e s ce'ntricas que l l e v a g a l e r a y gasta y u g i l l o , a l susheta contemuse l l e n o de b e r r e n t i n e s , a l c h i t r u l o s i n e x p e r i e n c i a en l a carpeta o en e l t r a t o con e l bramaje, a l p i t u c o afeminado que moteja de m i n i s t r o , a l chantapufi que no paga sus deudas, todas variedades de l a fauna urbana. No t i e n e tampoco simpatia por e l paisano que carece d e l h i e r a t i s m o taimado, de su garbo e l a s t i c o , de su l e n t a e l e g a n c i a , de su g r a t i t u d oprobiosa. E l campesino es e l grebano, e l canario a n g e l i t o , e l payucano zonzo, e l hombre s i n c l a s e o r i l l e r a que no sabe b a i l a r tangos n i chamuyar debute o manejar e l vaiven con c o r t e y quebrada. Y finalmente d e s p r e c i a , como buen xendfobo que es, a l o s tanos lacrimosos, a l o s franchutes amigos de l a p i c h i - c a t a , a l o s g a i t a s aplicados a l laburo, a todos l o s e x t r a n j e r o s r a n t i f u s o s . ^ I n the seventeenth century, because of i n d u s t r y , suburbs grew around c i t i e s . Thesesuburbial areas had d i f f e r e n t names according to the country. I n Buenos A i r e s i t was the suburbio or a r r a b a l , the suburra i n I t a l y and the faubourg i n France. From L a t i n came the idea that suburra i s where the people of mal v i v i r l i v e d . The French faubourg came from L a t i n f o r i s burgum, "out s i d e of the c i t y " . I n more modern times, these areas were r e f e r r e d to as bajos fondos. Some famous b a r r i o s of t h i s nature are: La V i l l e t t e i n P a r i s ; the East Side i n New York, and the B a r r i o  chino i n Barcelona. Buenos A i r e s , because of the l a r g e number of immigrants has an abundance of b a r r i o s where these d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i t i e s congregate. One of them the b a r r i o de_los turcos -75- between Reconquista, Cordoba, Charcas, and Tres Sargentos, con s i s t i n g mainly of S y r i a n or Turkish merchants who have l i t t l e shops of a l l k i n d s . Another one i s the b a r r i o j u d i o c o n s i s t i n g of two important centers - the b a r r i o de V i l l a Crespo and C o r r i e n t e s and Pueyrred6n where r e t a i l and wholesale businesses abound. I n the b a r r i o de l a Boca, the most picturesque, one can hear languages and d i a l e c t s from a l l over the world but with a preponderance of I t a l i a n . I f there e x i s t e d a true bajo, fondo i n Buenos A i r e s i t was what i s today Leandro N. Alem Avenue.^ Another kind of b a r r i o has grown up i n Buenos A i r e s i n the past few decades - the v i l l a or the b a r r i o de emergencia. These v i l l a s m i s e r i a s are not unique to Buenos A i r e s but common throughout L a t i n America: En l a s grandes c a p i t a l e s d e l mundo donde e x i s t e n l o s bajos fondos y moran en e l l o s , gente de mal v i v i r , es d e c i r i n c u l t a , no urbanizada, se produce l a descomposici6n de l a lengua o f i c i a l , que r e c i b e segiin l o s d i s t i n t o s paxses a que pertenece, diversos nombres, a saber: cant y slang, en I n g l a t e r r a ; furbesco y gergo, en I t a l i a ; germanla, b r i b i a y hampa, en Espafia; Rotwelsch, en Alemania; coa, en Santiago de C h i l e ; K o e l t r i g e l a t i n y P r o e v e l i k v a n t , en Dinamarca; b r i b a , en Cuba; calo', en Mexico; c a l a o , en P o r t u g a l ; Bargoens, en Holanda; hantyrka, en Bohemia; b a l a i b a l a n , en I n d i a ; hiant-chang, en China; replana o can t u j a , en e l Peru; g i r i a , e n e l B r a s i l ; argot y p a t o i s , en F r a n c i a , e t c . ^ 9 Buenos A i r e s a l s o has her argot. The l u n f a (thieves) or the human product of the hampa of the River P l a t e inaugurated a s t y l e of speech which the o r i l l e r o a s s i m i l a t e d l i t t l e by l i t t l e . The word lunfardo came to designate a c e r t a i n t i p o and a l s o h i s language. I n time the compadre began to use t h i s c o l o u r f u l jargon -76- but never a s s o c i a t e d himself w i t h those who o r i g i n a t e d it.^° Lunfardo was the name f o r m a l v i v i e n t e s and the atmosphere i n which they acted.21 We r e c a l l that Fray Mocho claimed there were more f o r e i g n thieves than Argentine thieves.22 A l i s t of the priso n e r s i n Buenos A i r e s i n 1901 helps to show how many f o r e i g n p r i s o n e r s there were - a source of so many f o r e i g n words i n lunfardo f o r these p r i s o n e r s o f t e n developed t h e i r own language while i n p r i s o n . Gobello gives t h i s l i s t : 860 A r g e n t i n i a n s 782 I t a l i a n s 374 Spaniards 142 O r i e n t a l s 57 French A l s o - North Americans, Germans, Greeks, Cubans, Ch i l e a n s , Russians, etc.23 There are three hypotheses as to how lunfardo developed among the t h i e v e s : 1) The most popular i s that the n e c e s s i t y of communicating i n the presence of the v i c t i m without being understood causes the thieves to develop t h e i r own language. To r e f u t e t h i s theory D e l l e p i a n e says: Esta h i p d t e s i s no r e s i s t e a un examen minucioso. En primer l u g a r , es inexacto que e l delincuente haga use d e l argot en presencia de l a persona a quien va a hacer v l c t i m a de una bribonada, o de l a de l o s em- pleados de l a p o l i c i a . En casos t a l e s , l o s d e l i n - cuentes echan mano de un lenguaje mimico, que no e x c i t a sospecha alguna y que pasa enteramente i n a d v e r t i d o para aquel de quienes t i e n e n i n t e r n s en ocultarse.24 2) Lambroso e x p l a i n s the o r i g i n of argot as a r e s u l t of the c r i m i n a l , savage character of t h i e v e s . They cr e a t e t h e i r own language, which i s s i m i l a r to that of savage t r i b e s , because of t h e i r r e g r e s s i o n to the s t a t e of p r i m i t i v e b a r b a r i t y . I f a -77- c r i m i n a l i s a savage then he w i l l t h i n k and f e e l as a savage. He gave these analogies between the c r i m i n a l s ' language and that of savage t r i b e s : Los mismos automatismos ( t i t i , t i p o g r a f x a ; coco, bebi, amigo), l a misma tendencia a l onomatopeyismo (tap, marcha; t i c , r e l o j ; f r i c - f r a c , l a s a l i d a de l a p r i s i d n ) , l a misma a f i c i d n a l empleo de l a metafora para designar l o s objetos ( e l incdmodo, e l pico de gas; e l lavandero, e l abogado).25 Del l e p i a n e r e f u t e s t h i s hypothesis: No obstante l a s analogias indicadas y algunas otras que pudieran s e f i a l a r s e , forzoso es convenir que e l parecido entre e l argot c r i m i n a l y l o s idiomas s a l v a j e s es mas aparente que r e a l , y que, en e l fondo, e x i s t e n carcfcteres d i f e r e n c i a l e s importantxsimos entre unos y o t r o s . Como tendremos ocasidn de ver a l e s t u d i a r l a na t u r a l e z a d e l argot, su e s t r u c t u r a s i n t a c t i c a , su t i p o g r a m a t i c a l , l a s leyes de formacidn de su l e x i c o , mas que como idioma d i s t i n t o , debe ser considerado como un remedo, como un engendro bastardo de l a lengua o r d i n a r i a de que d e r i v a . E l a n a l i s i s de l o s cara'cteres p s i c o l d g i c o s de estas jergas nos va a r e v e l a r igualmente e l abismo profundo que separa a l argot c r i m i n a l , cuyos rasgos p r i n c i p a l e s son e l cinismo, e l e s p x r i t u chancero, l a tendencia a r e b a j a r l a s ideas, d e l idioma d e l s a l v a j e , "siempre grave aun en medio de su f e r o c i d a d , jama's i r d n i c o , nunca bromista, no buscando manchar e l objeto de su pensamiento, s e n c i l l o y r u r a l en sus metaforas, fecundo en formas gramaticales, o r i g i n a l e s y perfectas."26 3) The t h i r d hypothesis Dellepiane accepts as being b e t t e r founded. I t i s that any group of people who are together and have t h e i r own h a b i t s and customs create t h e i r own slang, so c r i m i n a l s have t h e i r s . Lunfardo i s a p r o f e s s i o n a l language. The terms the speakers have, the objects they name, and the ideas they e x p l a i n are a l l r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y to the e x e r c i s e of t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n of crime: -78- A s i , a l l a d r o n , y solamente a l l a d r o n , puede o c u r r i r s e l e dar un nombre e s p e c i a l a cada uno de l o s b o l s i l l o s d e l t r a j e masculino; en l o cual nuestro argot aventaja a l a misma lengua o r d i n a r i a que no ha pensado jama's en e s t a b l e c e r semejantes d i s t i n c i o n e s (cabalete, b o l s i l l o en g e n e r a l ; g r i l l o , b o l s i l l o l a t e r a l d e l pantalon; g r i l l o de espienate, b o l s i l l o t r a s e r o d e l pantalon; g r i l l o de c a m i s u l i n , b o l s i l l o d e l chaleco; shuca, b o l s i l l o l a t e r a l d e l saco; s o t a l a o sontana, b o l s i l l o i n t e r i o r d e l saco, jaquet o l e v i t a ; media luna, b o l s i l l o e x t e r i o r d e l saco, donde suele l l e v a r s e e l p a n u e l o ) . 2 7 Lunfardo, then, developed as a language of a marginal s o c i e t y of Buenos A i r e s . Marta Marin p o i n t s out that i t i s i n t e r  e s t i n g to note that Fray Mocho i n three major works wrote of marginal s o c i e t i e s as a type of c o n f r o n t a t i o n with the s o c i e t y i n which he l i v e d . They were the compadritos and the lunfardos of Buenos A i r e s i n Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e , the s e a l hunters and prospectors of T i e r r a d e l Fuego i n En e l mar a u s t r a l , and the hunters and matreros of Entre Rios i n Un v i a j e a l pais de l o s p Q matreros. ' -79- LUNFARDO VOCABULARY AND GRAMMAR Lunfardo developed from s e v e r a l sources among the delinquents of Buenos A i r e s . Del V a l l e claims that i s not a d i a l e c t because i t does not p e r t a i n to a geographical r e g i o n but to a s o c i a l group. He c a l l s i t an habla grupal.^9 when i t i s used by p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n crime to communicate among themselves, i t i s a s p e c i a l jargon of a p a r t i c u l a r s o c i a l group but when i t supplies words f o r the common language (which i t does as we s h a l l see) then i t goes beyond t h i s . 3 ^ L e t us see how the lengua grupal developed. Del V a l l e s t a t e s that the laws of the formation of slang, except i n a few e x c l u s i v e cases, are b a s i c a l l y the u n i v e r s a l laws of language and there f o r e s i m i l a r to the development of any ordinary v e r n a c u l a r . As i n the c u l t u r e d languages, words do not u s u a l l y appear by spontaneous generation. Because of the la r g e p r o p o r t i o n of immigrants and because of the number of c r i m i n a l s of f o r e i g n descent, as p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, i t i s n a t u r a l to expect that i n lunfardo much of the vocabulary d e r i v e s from f o r e i g n sources and, i n many cases, f o r e i g n slangs. We have observed i n the lunfardo vocabulary given by Fray Mocho the l a r g e number of words of I t a l i a n o r i g i n . Of the 142 words given i n the D i c c i o n a r i o lunfardo-espanol by D e l l e p i a n e , f i f t y are probably from I t a l i a n . Gobello gives the d e f i n i t i o n s and etymologies of more than 180 words from I t a l i a n i n V i e j a y nueva l u n f a r d x a . 3 3 Am^rico Castro c a l l s the language "l u n f a r d o -80- i t a l o - a r g e n t i n o " because of i t s many I t a l i a n words. About t h i s phenomenon he s t a t e s : En r e a l i d a d l a i n f l u e n c i a i t a l i a n a , en su mayoria d i a l e c t a l , ha contribuxdo mas que nada a d e s v e n c i j a r l a lengua de Buenos A i r e s , y de rechazo, l a de l o s paxses platenses. La f o n e t i c a y l a entonacidn, a veces l a s i n t a x i s e i n f i n i d a d de vocablos r e v e l a n l a h u e l l a de t a l e s d i a l e c t o s . Un c i e r t o a i r e de desgarro y cinismo plebeyos ha soplado a su favo r , y ha sido luego a su vez favore c i d o por t a l e s i n f l u j o s . 3 5 Words frcm Piedmontese, Milanese, S i c i l i a n , and Genoese are mixed i n t o the speech of Buenos A i r e s , but e s p e c i a l l y those from Genoese because the speakers of t h i s d i a l e c t were mariners and p r e f e r r e d the c i t y and i t s port.36 This i s a l i s t of some of the most common words i n Argentina which have come from I t a l i a n d i a l e c t s i n t o porteno speech through l u n f a r d o : a p o l i y a r (or a p o l i l l a r ) " t o sleep" < puleggiare " t o sleep" ( I t a l i a n jargon).37 b a c i n " r i c h man" < Genoese baccan "patron, p r i n c i p a l , p a d r e . " 3 8 chapar "tomar, agarrar" and by extension "to make lo v e " ^aciapa or i n Genoese acciapare "atrapar".39 manyar " t o eat" < I t a l i a n mangiare " t o eat". Genoese mangia* " t o eat", and Piedmontese mange " t o e a t " . 4 ^ pibe "boy" < I t a l i a n pivo (jargon of the 17th century) " l i t t l e boy", Genoese p i v e t t o " l i t t l e boy", and Milanese piva " l i t t l e b o y". 4 1 There are a great many other words from I t a l i a n or I t a l i a n d i a l e c t s used i n Argentina but which d i d not cone through lunfardo such as canelones < c a n n e l l o n i , chau < I t a l i a n c i a o or Milanese c i a v o , macarrones ^ maccheroni, and noquis < gnocchi, and other names f o r foods. -81- Many words n a t u r a l l y come from the Spaniards s i n c e a f t e r the I t a l i a n s the next l a r g e s t group of immigrants were from Spain, who brought t h e i r slang. Gobello points out that germania was mixed with c a l o : Nuestra j e r g a no tomd de l a b i o s gitanos l a s voces d e l c a l d que trae a s i m i l a d a s . Las importaron l o s espanoles, confundidas con l o s vucablos germanescos. "En un primer periodo, d i s c r i m i n a S a l i l l a s , en e l de gran acrecenta- miento, de gran personalidad de l a hampa, l a germania, que fue su lenguaje, i n f l u y d poderosamente en e l c a l d ; y en un segundo periodo, es d e c i r , e l de l a decadencia de l a c o l e c t i v i d a d hampona, e l c a l d i n f l u y o tanto que l l e g d a supla n t a r , ya que no a d e s v i r t u a r , l a germania." Los delincuentes espanoles hablan, en r e a l i d a d , un h i b r i d o germanescogitano. De l o s que l l e g a r o n hasta a q u i , no de l a s t r i b u s sucias y policromas que acampaban en l o s b a l d i o s en dxas de t o l e r a n c i a m u n i c i p a l , tomd' e l l u n f a r d o algunas de sus voces m^s c a r a c t e r x s t i c a s : chamuyar, junar, chorro, etc.^3 Ame'rico Gastro claims lunfardo was based on c a l d and I t a l i a n d i a l e c t a l w o r d s . 4 4 Gobello l i s t s some of the words that came from c a l d among which are these: chorro ^ chorar - robar; g i l - tonto, l e l o ; n a j ar - to f l e e , run - now replaced by r a j a r which, according to him, i s a transformation of na j a r by phonetic a s s i m i l a t i o n ; and p i r o b a r - a v e r s i o n of p i r a b e r a r or p i r a b a r - f o r n i c a r . 4 ^ D e l l e p i a n e gives a l i s t of words as having come from what he c a l l s b r i b i a - the c r i m i n a l slang of Spain, a mixture of germania and cald': g u i t a - d i n e r o , parne* - di n e r o , jamar - comer, l a d r i l l o - ladrd n , lima - camisa, n a j a r - h u i r , p i s a n t e - p i e , timba,- casa de juego, g a r r o t e a r - acto de romper.46 Gobello has a r a t h e r long l i s t of words from germania. He claims that the i n f l u e n c e of germania i s not as l a r g e as some had supposed nor as small as others b e l i e v e d . Among the many words he l i s t s are these: a l i v i a r - 8 2 - ( r o b a r ) , b a l i c h e (casa de juego, comercio de poca monta), cantar ( d e c l a r a r o confesar un d e l i t o ) , penca (azote de verdugo), and p a r l a r (an I t a l i a n word used i n germania f o r h a b l a r ) . 4 7 Because many thieves from Buenos A i r e s went to B r a z i l to p r a c t i c e t h e i r a r t s there i s a c e r t a i n degree of interchange of words between lunfardo and g i r i a dos gatunos. I n g i r i a , many terms were taken from Buenos A i r e s . A few words i n lunfardo came from g i r i a such as quilombo which came to be enquilombar or q u i l o m b i f i a r ( to confound or cause d i s o r d e r ) from cachimbo or cachimba, an A f r i c a n word i n B r a z i l meaning a pipe f o r smoking, and bondi (tram) which d i d not remain i n usage i n Buenos A i r e s . 4 8 French immigrants were a much smaller group than were the I t a l i a n s or Spaniards. Only about four per cent of the pr i s o n e r s of 1901 were French. Of the lunfardo words c o l l e c t e d by D e l l e p i a n e only three per cent are from argot. Among these words we f i n d : balurdo - mentioned e a r l i e r ; bobo ( r e l o j ) from bobino, from the argot des voleurs according to V i r m a i t r e ; castana (golpe) from French chataigne; gamba (100 peso bank note) from argot, jambe (100 f r a n c s ) ; l a r g a r (dar, r e g a l a r ) from l a r g u e r ; 49 and morfar (to eat) from m o r f i l e r . I n lunfardo there are a l s o indigenous words and a few i s o l a t e d words from E n g l i s h or other f o r e i g n languages, but these i n f l u e n c e s are minimal. Words d i e out and words are born i n lunfardo and as i n any c u l t u r e d language, there i s constant change.50 That i s why so much of the vocabulary given by Fray Mocho i s no longer used at present. -83- Besides words from f o r e i g n languages we f i n d many other sources f o r the lunfardo l e x i c o n . The words i n lunfardo do not appear by spontaneous generation but are developed or evolved from other words by va r i o u s processes. The e v o l u t i o n of a word i n a c u l t u r e d language i s the product of a long and slow process. I n lunfardo that process at times i s abbreviated by a s a i n e t e r o or the w r i t e r of tangos. I n lunfardo there occurs aphaeresis (leones < pantalones, tano < n a p o l i t a n o , napar < anapar), syncopation ( n a l < n a c i o n a l , mango < marengo), and appocopation ( c i r u j a < c i r u j a n o s ) . Some words come from d e f e c t i v e hearing ( o r s a i < " o f f s i d e " i n E n g l i s h ; bufarrcoi < bujarron i n normal Spanish, c h i n c h i v i r r i a , a d r i n k used by c r i m i n a l s i n Ushuaia, ( gingerbeer) . There are many sy.nedoches i n lunfardo where part of a whole comes to represent the whole. This a l s o occurs i n germania where, f o r example, a poniente stands f o r a sombrero because i t i s put on (se pone). I n lunfardo sangre means dinero because of the s c r a t c h or cut made on the v i c t i m by the t h i e f to get the money; a homosexual i s a mino, masculine of mina, and i t soon became m i n i s t r o ; a g a l l e g o i s a g a i t a ; s t r e e t sweepers were c a l l e d musolinos a f t e r the famous S i c i l i a n bandit named Jose' Musolino, who was a s t r e e t sweeper; y o n i (from Johnny) meant any Englishman; and cosaco r e f e r r e d to any agent of the mounted p o l i c e . Other metaphors are these: coco, mate or melon f o r "head"; whiskey was a l p i s t e because i t i s made by fermenting c e r t a i n grains among which was a l p i s t e ; queso f o r " f e e t " p o s s i b l y because of the odor; -84- sonadora f o r p i l l o w ; ventanas f o r eyes; centenario f o r the hundred peso bank note ( a s s o c i a t i n g one hundred with the c e n t e n n i a l of Independence) or sometimes i t was c a l l e d c a n a r i o f o r i t s c o l o u r ; a thousand peso note was f r a g a t a because of i t s decoration (the p i c u t r e of a f r i g a t e on the back). Hyperbole e x i s t s a l s o ("acanalar - l a accion de a b r i r un t a j o en l a cara; 52 carga - dinero que se l l e v a en e l b o l s i l l o , p i o j o s a - cabeza"). Another phenomenon i n the growth of lunfardo i s e l  calambur mentioned by Del V a l l e . I t comes from French calembour, a play on words. This i s not new or p e c u l i a r to Buenos A i r e s f o r i t was used f a r e a r l i e r i n Spain. An example of t h i s from V i l l a m e d i a n a i s : "Diamantes que fueron antes / de amantes de su mujer." An example i n E n g l i s h i s "Dew drop i n n " f o r "Do drop in".53 Other words i n lunfardo as i n other languages are formed from onomatopeotic sounds l i k e tun tun f o r a r e v o l v e r and b i b i f o r a g i r l . D e l l e p i a n e says that t h i s r e p e t i t i o n makes c r i m i n a l 54 languages more s i m i l a r to the language of a c h i l d . Some lunfardo vocabulary items come from phonetic m o d i f i c a t i o n or ordinary words by metathesis, c o n t r a c t i o n s , and t r a n s p o s i t i o n s l i k e r u f i n o f o r r u f i ^ n ; lache f o r cambalache; barbusa f o r barba; cambiaso f o r cambio; and j a i f e f o r lechuguino. These slangs, according to Dellepiane are poor i n words mainly because the ment a l i t y , of the c r i m i n a l s i s poor but i n things d e a l i n g w i t h t h e i r own l i k e robbery, k i l l i n g , money or h u r t i n g , t h e i r jargons are r i c h . An example i s the long l i s t of words f o r money: blanca, -85- a r m a r i l l o , parne -, pulenta, g u i t a , g u i t a r r a , paco, r o l l o , vento, f e r r o s , mangangas, and others. (In I t a l i a n slang there are seventy-two ways of t a l k i n g about g e t t i n g drunk or drinking.^5) P h i l o s o p h e r s , j u r i s t s , s o c i o l o g i s t s , and w r i t e r s are i n t e r e s t e d i n l u n f a r d o or any slang, because i t r e v e a l s the soul of the person - h i s world, h i s l i f e , h i s b r u t a l i t y , m a t e r i a l i s m , obscenity, and c h a r a c t e r . Some examples of words that may r e v e a l the character . of the lunfardos are these: cuero f o r p i e l , alcai f o r brazo, p i c o f o r boca, reventar f o r morir, and tener un  p o l i c h i n e l a en e l cajdn f o r e s t a r encinta.56 Lunfardo i s a l s o h i g h l y f i g u r a t i v e : blood i s c a l l e d colorada or c h o c o l a t a , sugar i s endulzante, verba mate i s verda, and lawyers are c a l l e d blanqueadores. I t i s an i m a g i n a t i v e language abounding i n picturesque and c o l o u r f u l images which are o f t e n f u l l of i r o n y and sarcasm - a policeman who deprives a lunfardo of h i s l i b e r t y i s c a l l e d a botdn, and a door which i s hard to break i s a virgen.57 Another source of vocabulary i n l u n f a r d o i s the vesre, something s i m i l a r to our " p i g l a t i n " i n E n g l i s h . Gobello. says that vesre i s a game, not a slang, and a Spanish custom.58 I t was used among thie v e s so o u t s i d e r s could not understand. Some words formed i n t h i s manner are: greno / negro, chepo ^ pecho, toba ^ bota, g r i t o ^ t r i g o . I n these we n o t i c e that the con sonants change places but not the vowels. Others are d i f f e r e n t l i k e gotan ^ tango, canemu ^ muneca, or t o p l a ^ p l a t o - an i n v e r s i o n of s y l l a b l e s . Monosyllabic words of t e n undergo other changes l i k e oyo f o r y_o or efe f o r fe.59 -86- I n review of the o r i g i n s of lu n f a r d o , l e t us read what Jose" Gobello says about: Se i n s i s t e . . . en hablar d e l lunfardo como de un vo c a b u l a r i o generado en l a s ca"rceles, sobrentendiendo l a s C c i r c e l e s argentinas. Y esto no es exacto. S i l a mayoiria de l o s vocablos lunfardos son productos de importacion -- como esta' demostrado con creces en l o s trabajos l u n f a r d o l d g i c o s que p r o l i f e r a n , en buena hora, desde hace un tiempo --, es evidente que no se crealron en Las Heras n i en l a Prisic5n, n i en l a T i e r r a c r u e l e i n h o s p i t a que, durante tantos anos, e s c a r n e c i ^ e l a r t i c u l o 18 de l a C o n s t i t u t i o n N acional. La mayoria de l a s palabras l u n f a r - das v i n i e r o n de Europa -- I t a l i a , Espana, F r a n c i a -- y fueron mudando luego en forma -- a veces tambie'n su s i g n i f i c a d o 3 - ; se en r i q u e c i e r o n con nuevas connotaciones; asumieron acepciones m e t a f o r i c a s ; incorpora'ronse indigenismos y sematemas campesinos, y sumaron algunas otras de formacio'n popular. S i este proceso o c u r r i ^ en l a s c ^ r c e l e s o en lo s c o n v e n t i l l o s es cosa necesaria de e s c l a r e c e r , mas todo i n d i c a que l a promiscuidad de l o s segundos conto tanto como l a s primeras.^O Lunfardo i s not a r e g u l a r language. I t does not have i t s own syntax but used that of Spanish though at times i t does v i o l e n c e to i t by ommitting p r e p o s i t i o n s or conjunctions. An e s s e n t i a l part of i t i s the use of metaphors. Lunfardo does have a very extensive vocabulary which i s always growing even though i t does not c o n s t i t u t e a language with a l l i t s s t r u c t u r a l resources. Though i t does f o l l o w the b a s i c r u l e s of Spanish syntax, there are some formations which are i r r e g u l a r l i k e the augmentative of o t a r i o i s o t a r i o cuadro because cuadro i s Spanish means tonto, the same meaning of o t a r i o . Thg? are a c t u a l l y saying tonto tonto. This i s s i m i l a r to a b o r i g i n a l languages and d i f f e r e n t from Spanish where the expression would be tonti s i m o or requetetonto. Del V a l l e says: " E l l u n f a r d o ha hecho uso de todos l o s mecanismos p o s i b l e s d e l lenguaje." -87- THE INFLUENCE OF LUNFARDO Jos£ Gobello i n the Prologue of the book, Qrigenes de l a l i t e r a t u r a l u n f a r d a s t a t e s : La d e f i n i c i 6 n que presenta a l lunfardo como una tecnnologia de ladrones ya ha perdido v a l i d e z . Ahora se a d v i e r t e y se admite que e l lunfardo es e l lenguaje popular de Buenos A i r e s , de Montevideo y de Rosario -- en cada ciudad adquiere matices d i f e r e n c i a l e s - - , y de l a s zonas de i n f l u e n c i a de esos grandes micleos urbanos; un lenguaje l l e v a d o por e l tango a otras ciudades mediterra /neas, que en 1918 p l a n t d uno de sus vocablos en P a r i s , en e l l e t r e r o d e l cabaret " E l G a r r i o n " . 6 2 Lunfardo went from the m a l v i v i e n t e s to the language of the pueblo as these thieves came i n contact w i t h other people. Del V a l l e gives t h i s d e f i n i t i o n of lu n f a r d o : "Lenguaje de l a gente de mal v i v i r , propio de Buenos A i r e s y de sus alrededores y que p o s t e r i o r - mente se ha extendido entre algunas gentes d e l pueblo."^3 Payet and Gobello a l s o give t h i s d e f i n i t i o n : "por extension / l u n f a r d o es/ e l lenguaje popular que i n c l u y e voces lunfardas y otras t r a i d a s por l a c o r r i e n t e i n m i g r a t o r i a . " ^ 4 A multitude of expressions from lunfardo got i n t o the ordinary language because: 1) they are r i c h , graphic, and picturesque; 2) the lower c l a s s e s came i n contact with the c r i m i n a l world and then immitated them and used t h e i r vocabulary; 3) the youth of higher c l a s s e s used these words and c a r r i e d them to higher l e v e l s of s o c i e t y . ^ Lunfardo o r i g i n a t e d i n Buenos A i r e s and spread because of geography to the Ri v e r P l a t e region and then l a t e r because of the tango to more pl a c e s . I t spread to other c o u n t r i e s of -88- America. Many words went i n t o g i r i a of B r a z i l . Dr. Ordonez P e r a l t a observes that the m a j o r i t y of the words used i n the slang of Bogota are Argentine o r i g i n . ° Today such words as pibe, a t o r r a n t e , and f a r r a are completely accepted i n Buenos A i r e s . Gobello gives a l i s t of 129 lun f a r d o words now used commonly i n the language of Buenos A i r e s . ^ 7 Del V a l l e discusses how so many words came i n t o lunfardo from Europe but a l s o says that the reverse i s true because many words have gone i n t o Spain and Europe from the Americas.^ 8 Through the s a i n e t e , the thea t r e incorporated l o c a l idioms and expressions used i n Buenos A i r e s at the end of the nineteenth century. T h i s l l u n f a r d o was propagated by newspapers, the tango,and the c r e o l e t h e a t r e . The f i r s t s a i n e t e , premiered i n R i o de l a P l a t a and by an Argentine w r i t e r , "De paso por aqui" by Bias Ratal G a l l o i n 1890, used the language of the o r i l l e r o . Lunfardo appeared i n the thea t r e of F l o r e n c i o Sanchez and s e v e r a l 69 other w r i t e r s . Tangos are f i l l e d w i t h lunfardo mainly because the tango grew up among the m a l v i v i e n t e s of Buenos A i r e s . Many w r i t e r s besides Fray Mocho and Benigno Lugones have used l u n f a r d o , though A l v a r e z l e d the way. Cambaceres i n P o t - p o u r r i used l o c a l language as d i d Roberto A r l t . Other i n c l u d e Fe'lix Lima, L u i s Pardo, Enrique Rua, E v a r i s t o C a r r i e g o , Manuel G^lvez and even Leopoldo Lugones used such words as: a t o r r a n t e , c a l a v e r a , compadre, and gomina.^ There has been an exhuberant costumbrista l i t e r a t u r e . Del V a l l e gives f i v e pages of authors and t h e i r works which have lunfardo i n them.71 -89- Americo Castro expressed h i s d i s p l e a s u r e at the way lunfa r d o has grown i n p o p u l a r i t y and has been embraced by the people of Buenos A i r e s as " t h e i r language". He t e l l s how by 1927 i t had become so w e l l accepted: C l r c u l o s amplios adoptan ma's o menos esas palabras, l a s p r e f i e r e n l o s e s c o l a r e s , y, para algunos, h a c i a 1927, parec£an e l pedestal sobre e l que debiera a l z a r s e e l fu t u r o gran idioma de l o s argentinos, r e f l e j o de su alma. E l l u n f a r d o tuvo antes c u l t i v a d o r e s (ya se supone para que c l a s e de l i t e r a t u r a ) en Fray Mocho y Fe'lix Lima; luego e l apo'stol de l a nueva f e 1 i n g u l f s t i c a fue L a s t Reason, quien d i o en A rienda s u e l t a una s e r i e de narraciones de l a v i d a en l o s arrabales p o r t e f i o s . 7 2 Del V a l l e makes a plea f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n of lu n f a r d o . Some have c a l l e d i t a worthless language spoken only by crazy people or pr i s o n e r s and i t has been r e j e c t e d by many because i t s h i s t o r y keeps i t from being a s s i m i l a t e d , yet Cervantes, Quevedo, and other Spanish w r i t e r s used common words l i k e those of lunfa r d o which l a t e r were included i n the d i c t i o n a r y . I t should be recognized once and f o r a l l that the common speech, the vu l g a r language, i s f i l l e d with l u n f a r d i s m o s , 7 3 Castro admits that many of the words of lunfardo from I t a l i a n l i v e i n the common language, occur i n fa m i l y c o n v e r s a t i o n , and at times even reach the higher l e v e l s . 7 4 Del V a l l e makes a r a t h e r emotional; plea f o r lunfardo s i m i l a r to the ones made e a r l i e r i n the century by those who wanted to use i t as the b a s i s f o r a n a t i o n a l language and who were so s e v e r l y c r i t i c i z e d by Ame'rico Castro: E l l u n f a r d o es como uno de esos h i j o s a d i i l t e r o s , bas- tardos o i l e g i t i m o s , y que pese a su origen e s p u r i o , l e g i - timamos, acuna'ndolo en nuestros brazos, porque es de nuestra misma sangre. 7^ -90- FOOTNOTES "'"Preston E. James, L a t i n America, 3d. ed. (New York: The Odyssey P r e s s , 1959), p. 331. 2James, p. 332. 3 Gobello, p. 44. 4James, p. 339. 5 M a r t n , p. 10. 6 I b i d . , pp. 11-12. 7 A r t u r o Jauretche, E l medio pelo en l a sociedad argentina (Apuntes para una s o c i o l o g f a n a c i o n a l ) , 7th ed. (Buenos A i r e s : A. PefTa L i l l o , 1967), pp. 60-61. 8Jose* Antonio Wilde, Buenos A i r e s desde setenta anos a t r a s (Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l U n i v e r s i t a r i a de Buenos A i r e s , 1960), pp. 78-96. 9 Jauretche, p. 128. 1 0 I b i d . , pp. 129-36, 154-55. "'•"'•Manuel Gctlvez, E l mal m e t a f i s i c o , 2d.ed. (Buenos A i r e s : Espasa-Calpe, 1947), p. 196. 1 2 C a s t r o ,P- 34. 1 3 I b i d . , pp. 31-37. 1 4 D e l V a l l e , pp. 65-66 1 5 I b i d . , P- 110. 1 6 I b i d . , pp. 110-112. 1 7 I b i d . , pp. 131-132. 1 8 I b i d . , pp. 117-126. 1 9 I b i d . , P- 126. 2 0 I b i d . , P- 130. 2 1 I b i d . , P- 42. -91- 2 2 F r a y Mocho, I , 181. 2 3 G o b e l l o , p. 189. D e l l e p i a n e , p. 50. 2 5 I b i d . , p. 51. 2 6 I b i d . 2 7 I b i d . , p. 53. 2 8 M a r i n , p. 28. 2 9 D e l V a l l e , p. 37. 3 0 I b i d . , p. 39. 3 1 I b i d . , pp. 30-31. 3 2 G o b e l l o , p. 63. 3 3 I b i d . , pp. 139-188. 3 4 C a s t r o , p. 20. 3 5 I b i d . , pp. 123-24. 3 6 G o b e l l o , pp. 44-45. 3 7 C a s t r o , p. 124. 3 8 G o b e l l o , p. 143. 3 9 I b i d . , pp. 45, 158. 4 0 I b i d . , p. 174. 4 1 I b i d . , p. 181. 4 2 D e l V a l l e , p. 62. 4 3 G o b e l l o , p. 26. 4 4 C a s t r o , p. 86. 4 5 G o b e l l o , pp. 27-28. 4 6 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 59. 4 7 G o b e l l o , pp. 19-25. -92- 4 8 I b i d . , pp. 54-57. 4 9 I b i d . , pp. 189-200. 5 0 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 62. 5 1 G o b e l l o , pp. 63-64. 5 2 I b i d . , pp. 65-68. 5 3 D e l V a l l e , pp. 67-74. -* 4Dellepiane, p. 58. 5 5 I b i d . , pp. 60-62. 5 6 I b i d . , p. 54. 5 7 I b i d . , pp. 55-57. 5 8 G o b e l l o , p. 69. 59Del V a l l e , pp. 75-79. 6 0 S o l e r Carias, p. 9. 6 1 D e l V a l l e , pp. 53-59. 6 2 S o l e r Canas, p. 9. 6 3 D e l V a l l e , p. 27. 6 4 P a y e t , p. 49. 6 5 D e l l e p i a n e , p. 62. 6 6 D e l V a l l e , p. 43. 6 7 G o b e l l o , pp. 209-210. 6 8 D e l V a l l e , p. 62. He r e f e r s to Menenez P i d a l , R., Manual  de gram^tica h i s t d r i c a espanola, 8th ed. (Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1949), pp. 28, f f . 69 vyDel V a l l e , pp. 137rl39. 7 0 I b i d . , p. 148. 7 1 l b i d . , pp. 164-172. 7 2 C a s t r o , p. 86. 7 3 D e l V a l l e , p. 148. 7 4 C a s t r o , p. 124. 7 5 D e l V a l l e , p. 149. CONCLUSION Lunfardo i s more than j u s t another slang of a b i g c i t y . I t has proved to be an important source of vocabulary f o r the common language and l i t e r a t u r e of Arg e n t i n a . I t has supplied many words which have become common place i n ordinary conversation. I t has a l s o had i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n f l u e n c e and has been observed. One of the reasons f o r t h i s success i s the development of the tango which gave lun f a r d o a boost to p o p u l a r i t y not enjoyed by other jargons. Another reason was the Argentine d e s i r e to create a n a t i o n a l language d i s t i n c t i v e from that of Spain or any other Spanish-speaking country. Many f e l t that lunfardo could be the base f o r such a language and promoted i t i n earnest.! Castro says that i n A r g e n t i n a , because of i t s l a c k of a f i r m Spanish h i e r a r c h y l i k e those which developed i n Lima and Mexico C i t y , the r u r a l i n f l u e n c e s which used a r c h a i c forms l i k e the voseo p r e v a i l e d on the n a t i o n a l speech. 2 The same i s tru e f o r the r a p i d growth of I t a l i a n words through lunfardo i n the n a t i o n a l language. There was no f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i e t y to defend Spanish. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that the gaucho language a t t a i n e d a t t e n t i o n and acceptance because of the w r i t i n g s of Hidalgo, Ascasubi, and Jose* Hernandez. Many other -95- w r i t i n g s followed i n the gaucho s e t t i n g w i t h an i m i t a t i o n of t h e i r language. This d i d f o r the r u r a l speech o f Argentina something that never happened to the r u r a l speech of C h i l e , Colombia, or Mexico, and though some minor l i t e r a r y works i n those r u r a l languages were w r i t t e n , they never a t t a i n e d the p o p u l a r i t y and wide acceptance i n l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s as d i d the gauchesque l i t e r a t u r e . As Hernandez and Ascasubi advanced among the educated through t h e i r works the knowledge of the gaucho language they had observed, so Fray Mocho made a place i n the l i t e r a r y world f o r l u n f a r d o , and.we have seen, others such as Roberto A r l t followed s u i t . We have observed b r i e f l y the w r i t i n g s of Fray Mocho and have noted that he o f f e r e d to the l i n g u i s t one of the f i r s t l u n f a r d o v o c a b u l a r i e s . To the general p u b l i c he gave an understanding of the lunfardo as w e l l as a b i t of h i s language. As the gauchesque l i t e r a t u r e f u r t h e r e d the knowledge of the gaucho language and c u l t u r e , so the works of Fray Mocho furthered the general knowledge of l u n f a r d o , though to a l e s s e r degree. I n both the case of the gaucho and the lu n f a r d o , those who wrote of them were o u t s i d e r s who observed these groups and i n t e r p r e t e d them to t h e i r educated urban readers i n a way which added greater acceptance of or at l e a s t greater i n t e r e s t i n t h e i r jargons. I n both cases one from the predominant s o c i e t y i s w r i t i n g about a marginal s o c i e t y . Fray Mocho i s always mentioned i n any study of l u n f a r d o , whether l i n g u i s t i c , p s y c h o l o g i c a l or l i t e r a r y . Benigno Lugones -96- s t a r t e d t h i s l unfardo l i t e r a t u r e but h i s work was small and not w e l l known, i n f a c t Gobello says that the a r t i c l e s i n La Nacion of Benigno Lugones had never been reproduced u n t i l he d i d so i n 3 h i s book. Fray Mocho's works a t t a i n e d a f a r greater success - e s p e c i a l l y as he became the e d i t o r of a l e a d i n g l i t e r a r y magazine. His work i s v a l u a b l e because of the vocabulary but a l s o because of the psychology of the lunfardos which he i n t e r p r e t s . Indeed, Fray Mocho's works, which we have discussed, make him almost the "patron s a i n t " of l u n f a r d o . His work makes lun f a r d o a v a i l a b l e to us and i t makes i t worth studying. Perhaps without him i t would never have a t t a i n e d the place i t has i n Ar g e n t i n a . Because he worked on the p o l i c e f o r c e , which few w r i t e r s have done, he was able to introduce to the educated a language which was q u i t e unknown by them. He gave that language more acceptance by the mere f a c t that he, a l i t e r a r y f i g u r e , put i t i n w r i t i n g i n a f i n e l i t e r a r y work. La t e r n u r a , e l t i b i o abrazo d e l hombre por l a mujer c a i d a , por l a mujer que a r r a s t r a su f l a q u e z a , y se entrega, amorosa, a l gesto de aque'l que l a golpea y o l v i d a , encuentra en Fray Mocho una palabra t i e r n a , de hermano, de hombre que ha s u f r i d o y comprende. Y cuando enumera l o s o f i c i o s d e l submundo de Buenos A i r e s , no hay acusacidn, no hay c r l t i c a . Hay c a r i n o por e l que padece, por e l que mata, por e l que roba, por e l i n f e l i z que no sabe que' hacer de su v i d a . Y s i l a monstruosidad e s t a l l a , entonces, l a cubre con un v e l o i r d n i c o - ^ Y en l a i n t e r g r a c i o n de Fray Mocho t i e n e un papel importantisimo e l l e n g u a j e . 4 E l vos suprime toda r e t 6 r i c a , es l o i n t i m o , l o ' reco'ndito lanzado con pura desnudez a l mundo de una forma u n i v e r s a l -- e l lenguaje -- pero que entre nosotros, se va trasvasando por l a p a u l a t i n a i n c o r p o r a c i o n de palabras extranas, readaptadas y, con e l tiempo -- ya se observan algunos ejemplos — , elevados a rango de objeto mundial, -97- en donde irrumpe con l a confianza de l o i m p r e s c i n d i b l e y en cuyo h o r i z o n t e adn e x i s t e c i e r t a inseguridad debido precisamente, a l a e s t r u c t u r a a c c i d e n t a l de l a s ciudades, a l a h o s t i l i d a d permanente de l a l l a n u r a , d e l paisa j e . 5 These words of F.J. Solero i n the Prologue to the Obras completas of Fray Mocho along w i t h the f o l l o w i n g of V a l e n t i n de Pedro show that the language c o n t r i b u t i o n s made by Fray Mocho form one of the important c o n t r i b u t i o n s of h i s w r i t i n g s : Y es c u r i o s o ver cdmo, con este l i b r o de c a r a c t e r i s t i c a s l o c a l e s , Josi S. A l v a r e z se coloca dentro de l a mas pura t r a d i c i 6 n l i t e r a r i a espanola, code^ndose con l o s maestros d e l idioma que a f i n a r o n sus oidos para escuchar a l pueblo, que descendieron hasta e l hampa para recoger sus voces de germania, como Cervantes, y todavia mas don Fr a n c i s c o de Quevedo. Puede d e c i r s e que Jose" S. A l v a r e z , con sus Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e inaugura una modalidad l i t e r a r i a , agregando a l c a s t e l l a n o que se hable eh Buenos A i r e s , voces que mezclan con e l sus hablantes de todo e l mundo. S i otros antes que 4.1 se habian r e f e r i d o a esos vocablos d e l Mundo  lunfardo -- t i t u l o de l a segunda parte de este l i b r o — , A l v e r e z es e l primero que l o s incorpora l i t e r a r i a m e n t e a nuestro idioma. Y porque conocia b i e n e l idioma en que e s c r i b i a , pudo l l e v a r a sus pa'ginas, s i n deme'rito d e l propio idioma, s i n empobrecerlo, sino a l c o n t r a r i o , enriquecidndolo, l a s locuciones de l a lengua c o r r i e n t e , l a s de l a c a l l e , con sus g i r o s e s p e c i a l e s , con sus modismos, con su s i n t a x i s ; como tambie'n recoger y d e f i n i r l a s palabras de germania. Su e x i t o se debid a su p a r t i c u l a r t a l e n t o , a su conocimiento y sentido d e l idioma, y a sus e x t r a - o r d i n a r i a s dotes de observacidn.^ -98- FOOTNOTES ^Ca s t r o , pp. 83-94. 2 I b i d . 3 F r a y Mocho, I , 12. 4 I b i d . , I , 13. 5 I b i d . , I , 15. %)e Pedro, p. 17. -99- SELEGTED BIBLIOGRAPHY A r r a z o l a , Roberto. D i c c i o n a r i o de modismos argentinos. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Colombia, 1943. A r r i e t a , R a f a e l A l b e r t o , ed. H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a a r g e n t i n a . V o l . IV. Buenos A i r e s : Peuser, 1959. B e l l i n i , Giuseppe. Lo Spagnolo d'America. M i l a n : La G o l i a r d i c a , 1963. Besses, L u i s . D i c c i o n a r i o de argot espanol. Barcelona: Sucesores de Manuel S o l e r , E d i t o r e s , n.d. Cane, M i g u e l . J u v e n i l i a . Buenos A i r e s : Sur, 1962. Car r i e g o , E v a r i s t o . Poesias. Prologue and notes by Juan Carlos Ghiano. Buenos A i r e s : Compafiia General F a b r i l E d i t o r i a , 1964. C astro, Ame'rico. La p e c u l i a r i d a d l i n g u i s t i c a r i o p l a t e n s e . 2d ed. r e v i s e d . Madrid: Taurus, 1961. C a s u l l o , Fernando Hugo. Diccxonario de voces lunfardas y v u l g a r e s . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Freeland, 1964. Corominas, J . D i c c i o n a r i o c r i t i c o e timoldgico de l a lengua c a s t e l l a n a . 4 v o l s . Berne: E d i t o r i a l Francke, 1954. De l l e p i a n e , Antonio. E l idioma d e l d e l i t o y d i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o . Buenos A i r e s : Compania General F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1967. Del V a l l e , Enrique Ricardo. L u n f a r d o l o g i a . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Freeland, 1967. De Pedro, V a l e n t i n . "Nota p r e l i m i n a r " , Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e by Fray Mocho. Buenos A i r e s : Campania General F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1962. D i c c i o n a r i o de l a l i t e r a t u r a latinoamericana, A r g e n t i n a . Washington, D.C.: Unicfa Panamericana, 1960. F e r r e y r a , Ana J u l i a Darnet de. H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r a americana  y a r g e n t i n a . Revised and adjusted to school programmes of grade 5 ) . Beunos A i r e s : Angel Estrada y C i a . , S.A., 1965. Fray Mocho. Cuadros de l a ciudad. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l u n i v e r s i t a r i a de Buenos A i r e s , 1961. -100- Fray Mocho. Memorias de un v i g i l a n t e . P r e l i m i n a r y Note by V a l e n t i n de Pedro. Buenos A i r e s : Compania General F a b r i l E d i t o r a , 1962. Fray Mocho. Obras completas. Prologue and notes by F.J. S a l e r o . 2 v o l s . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Schapire, 1961. Galvez, Manuel. •  E l mal m e t a f i s i c o . 2d. ed. Buenos A i r e s : Espasa-Calpe, 1947. G i u s t i , Roberto F. "La prosa de 1852 a 1900", V o l . I l l of H i s t o r i a de l a l i t e r a t u r e a r g e n t i n a . E d i t e d by R a f a e l A l b e r t o A r r i e t a . Buenos A i r e s : Peuser, 1959. Gobello, Josi. V i e j a y nueva l u n f a r d i a . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Freeland, 1963. Hespelt, E. Herman, ed. An Anthology of Spanish American L i t e r a t u r e New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1946. James, Preston E. L a t i n America. 3d. ed. New York: The Odyssey Press, 1959. Jauretche, A r t u r o . E l medio pelo en l a sociedad a r g e n t i n a . 7th ed. Buenos A i r e s : A. Pena L i l l o , 1967. Kany, Charles E m i l . American - Spanish Euphemisms. Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1960. Kany, C h a r l e s , E m i l . American - Spanish Semantics. Berkeley: U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1960. Kany, Charles E m i l . American - Spanish Syntax. 2d. ed. Chicago: The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1951. Lapesa, R a f a e l . H i s t o r i a de l a lengua espanola. 5th ed. New York: Las Americas P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1959. L i n g u i s t i c B i b l i o g r a p h y . Published by Permanent I n t e r n a t i o n a l Committee of L i n g u i s t s . Utrecht-Antwerp: Spectrum, 1939-1965. Marin, Marta. •Fray Mocho. Buenos A i r e s : Centro E d i t o r de America L a t i n a , 1967. Monner Sans, Ricardo. Disparates y barbaridades. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l . P.RiO.C.MiO., 1947. Monner Sans, Ricardo. Notas a l c a s t e l l a n o en l a A r g e n t i n a . Buenos A i r e s : A. Estrada, 1944. -101- Obligado., Pastor S. and V i c t o r G^lvez. Tradiciones de Buenos A i r e s . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l u n i v e r s i t a r i a de Buenos A i r e s , 1961. Pages L a r r a y a , Antonio, ed. 20 Relatos argentinos, 1838-1887. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l u n i v e r s i t a r i a de Buenos A i r e s , 1961. Payet, Luciano and Jose' Gobello. Breve d i c c i o n a r i o l u n f a r d o . Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l A. Pefla L i l l o , 1959. P i n t o , Juan. B r e v a r i o de l i t e r a t u r a a rgentina contemporanea. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l La Mandra'gora, 1958. Santamaria, F r a n c i s c o J . D i c c i o n a r i o general de americanismos. 3 v o l s . Mexico: E d i t o r i a l Pedro Robredo, 1942 Saubidet, T i t o . Vocabulario y r e f r e n a r i o c r i o l l o . 6th ed. Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l Guillermo K r a f t , 1962. Soler Canas, L u i s . Origenes de l a l i t e r a t u r a l u n f a r d a . Prologue by Jos6 Gobello. Buenos A i r e s : Ediciones S i g l o V e i n t e , 1965. Wilde, Jose Antonio. Buenos A i r e s desde setenta anos a t r a s (1810- 1880). Buenos A i r e s : E d i t o r i a l u n i v e r s i t a r i a de Buenos A i r e s , 1960. Z e i t s c h f i f t f u r romanische, P h i l o l o g i e - B i b l i o g r a p h i e (1875/6 - 1966). The Hague: M. Niemeyer, 1875-1966. Zunzunegui, Juan A. de. La v i d a como es. 2d. ed. Barcelona; E d i t o r i a l Noguer, 1956. 

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