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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Decade of literary criticism in the Memoires secrets of Bachaumont (1762-1771) Almstrom, Marjorie Elsie 1968

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A DECADE GF LITERARY  C R I T I C I S M IN THE MEMOIRES  OF BACHAUMONT  SECRETS  (1762-1771)  by MARJORIE E L S I E ALMSTROM B.A., U n i v e r s i t y B.Ed., U n i v e r s i t y  of British of British  A T h e s i s Submitted  Columbia, Columbia,  i n Partial  1937 1943  Fulfilment  of  The R e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department of FRENCH  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e required standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  September,  1968  In  presenting  advanced  Library  agree  this  degree  shall  that  at  make  thesis  the  it  permission  in  University  freely  for  may  be  granted  by  tatives.  It  is  understood  financial  gain  not  of  the  that  be  fulfilment  British  available  extensive  purposes  shall  partial  Head  of  my  Columbia,  of  this  or  without  nf  French  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  Date  September  6,  Columbia  1968  requirements  for  I  the  agree  and  or  publication  my w r i t t e n  that  study.  thesis  Department  Marjorie  Department  the  reference  copying  copying  allowed  for  of  by  of  I  an  further  for  scholarly  his  represen-  this  thesis  permission.  E. Almstrom  for  ABSTRACT  A l m o s t two  1777» o f t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s de Bachaumont.  began, i n journal,  c e n t u r i e s have passed s i n c e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n  r e g a r d e d by  many as t h e  o u t g r o w t h o f a u n i q u e and group j o u r n a l i s m members o f an Doublet.  c u l t u r e d and  salon,  the  i t s acknowledged v a l u e  in  o f Madame  to students  s t u d i e s h a v e b e e n made o f t h i s  of  the  lengthy  complex work.  secrets:  the  literary  thirty-six  criticism  volumes t o g e t h e r  supplements f o r the years ends w i t h first  the  aspect  found i n the with  1762-1771.  that The  script  conceived  the  idea of r e c o r d i n g  first  two  chapters  background o f the  nouvelliste tradition paroisse that  i n the  R o u s s e a u and the  poetry  Memoires five  of  corresponding  decade t h u s  reviewed  and  dwelling  gave i t b i r t h .  Diderot,  The by  o u t l i n e the  decade i n q u e s t i o n and  are  miscellaneous  and  who  f o r p o s t e r i t y items f r o m whose manu-  devoted to  derived. a  consideration  journal, situating i t within  t i g a t e the treatment afforded  during  first  t h e s e e a r l y volumes o f t h e Memoires a r e The  of the  of the  d e a t h o f Bachaumont, a l e a d i n g p a r o i s s i e n  c h o s e n f r o m Madame D o u b l e t ' s r e g i s t e r s and  the  was  aristocratic  the p a r o i s s e  T h i s t h e s i s examines a l i m i t e d  the  o f i t s age,  s u c c e s s f u l experiment  the  almost-forgotten  A n c i e n Regime, few and  highly  u n d e r t a k e n by  Despite  mirror  This  a t some l e n g t h chapters  that  the  upon  the  follow  inves-  t h e Memoires t o V o l t a i r e , developments i n the offer  a general  theatre  account  prose w r i t i n g s reviewed i n  of  the  ii j o u r n a l t o g e t h e r w i t h an i n q u i r y attitudes. literary  They p r o v i d e , t h e n ,  activity  into  t r e n d s and  a general p i c t u r e of  o f t h i s p e r i o d as r e f l e c t e d  s e c r e t s r a t h e r than  contemporary the  i n t h e Memoires  a c o m p l e t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e many i t e m s  t h e s e volumes o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e s t u d e n t  of French  in  literature.  The most s t r i k i n g f e a t u r e o f t h e j o u r n a l i s i t s w e a l t h of content, and  evidence  of the i n t e l l e c t u a l  of the j o u r n a l i s t i c  the c r i t i c a l phrased.  f r e q u e n t l y be  reviews  o f t h e 1760*s  z e a l of the p a r o i s s i e n s .  comments a r e b r i e f ,  The  ferment  s u c c i n c t and  In general,  often elegantly  o f t h e more c o n t r o v e r s i a l w r i t i n g s must  read i n the l i g h t  of their underlying irony,  t h e c a r e f u l w o r d i n g b e i n g presumably a d e l i b e r a t e attempt confuse  the censorship a u t h o r i t i e s .  a p p e a r t o be t h e r e s u l t  The  opinions  expressed  o f group d i s c u s s i o n , a l t h o u g h  the  e x t e n t t o w h i c h t h e s e volumes o f t h e M e m o i r e s r e f l e c t  the  p e r s o n a l v i e w s o f Bachaumont o r h i s s u c c e s s o r M a i r o b e r t mains u n c e r t a i n .  Ideologically,  a p p e a r s t o be p a r l e m e n t a i r e and for literature, t r e n d s and with  the  strongly pro-philosophe.  As  t h e M e m o i r e s r e v e a l an a w a r e n e s s o f c u r r e n t  an a c c e p t a n c e  understandably,  o f i n n o v a t i o n s tempered,  however,  Among t h e  writers,  emerges a s t h e d o m i n a n t f i g u r e  of  decade. The  any  re-  the tenor of the journal  a certain conservatism of outlook.  Voltaire,  to  limited  scope of t h i s  investigation  f i r m assessment o f t h e Memoires as a whole.  t h e abundance and  diversity  of t h e i r  contents  precludes Certainly  invite-:;  further prior  study.  necessity  A more a d e q u a t e i n d e x w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e a f o r continued i n v e s t i g a t i o n of t h i s  whose p a g e s n o t o n l y des l e t t r e s " but a l s o a vanished  society.  record  journal  t h e advance o f the " r e p u b l i q u e  have p r e s e r v e d  f o r us the p i c t u r e o f  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Page  INTRODUCTION  CHAPTER I  1  The Memoires s e c r e t s : Background  CHAPTER I I  .  .  .  The Memoires s e c r e t s : and  The Memoires s e c r e t s  CHAPTER I V  The Memoires s e c r e t s : and  Diderot  .  General  .  .  .  7  Bachaumont  the paroissiens  CHAPTER I I I  CHAPTER V  Their  .  .  .  .  and V o l t a i r e  .  .  .  .  .  .  56  A Decade o f T h e a t r e i n t h e Memoires 73  A Decade o f P o e t r y and P r o s e i n t h e Memoires s e c r e t s  CHAPTER V I I  38  Rousseau  secrets CHAPTER V I  21  Conclusion  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  .  .  .  .  .  91 104 I l l  INTRODUCTION A l m o s t two c e n t u r i e s h a v e p a s s e d  since the publication  b e g a n , i n 1777* o f t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s commonly a s s o c i a t e d with  t h e name o f Bachaumont, a j o u r n a l r e g a r d e d  by many a s t h e  m i r r o r o f i t s age a n d a u s e f u l handbook f o r s t u d e n t s Ancien tual  Regime.  i n f o r m a t i o n , i t has a t times  colourless, in  Despite i t s admitted  or—with  v a l u e as a source  been d i s m i s s e d  much c l o s e r t h a n  pre-Revolutionary  of fac-  as tedious,  L a H a r p e — a s an "amas d ' a b s u r d i t e s . "  t h e second h a l f o f t h e t w e n t i e t h century  probably  of the  France,  earlier  critics  We  a r e , however,  to the spirit of  and c o n s e q u e n t l y  t h e t i m e may b e  opportune f o r a r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e Memoires s e c r e t s . The s u b j e c t i s one w h i c h must, o f c o u r s e , ed w i t h c a u t i o n . material contained p o s s i b l e areas this  The r i c h n e s s and apparent  disorder of the  i n t h e M e m o i r e s , w h i l e s u g g e s t i n g many  of investigation,  j o u r n a l extremely  also render  any a n a l y s i s o f  difficult.  The p r e f a c e t o t h e M e m o i r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t regarded  be a p p r o a c h -  Bachaumont  l i t e r a t u r e a s r e f l e c t i n g t h e mood o f h i s a g e — a n a g e  memorable f o r " 1 " i n v a s i o n d e l a p h i l o s o p h i e d a n s l a R e p u b l i q u e des  L e t t r e s en F r a n c e "  dans l e s e s p r i t s . "  and f o r l a r e v o l u t i o n q u * e l l e a o p ^ r e e n  T h i s v i e w , i t seemed t o me, p r o v i d e d a n  argument f o r l i m i t i n g my i n q u i r y discussed ending  t o a survey  i n t h e volumes f o r t h e y e a r s  with t h e death  of the literature  1762-1771.  o f Bachaumont, t h e f i r s t  This period,  editor,  links  2 t h e Memoires t o t h e i r o r i g i n a l  source,  sheets  e m a n a t i n g f r o m Madame D o u b l e t ' s  nearly  a decade o f l i t e r a r y As  to  the f i r s t  step i n such  catalogue a l l l i t e r a r y  for  items  t h i s purpose the f i r s t  Adamson i n 1777i Several abridged  criticism  in  eliminates licentious.  very l i t t l e ,  early  critical over  of these.  The  b e i n g no more t h a n  a l l that the e d i t o r f e l t The  second,  by  t i o n of the c h i e f  van to  t o be  Bever,  edit  provides  undertook  volumes,  p u b l i s h e d i n London  e d i t i o n s have appeared  be t h e most r e c e n t a t t e m p t  edition  using by  exists.^  t h e y e a r s , and first, 1867»  by  I  Bar-  contains  an a b r i d g e m e n t t h a t u n i n t e r e s t i n g or  dated  1912,  the Memoires.  entries concerning l i t e r a t u r e  appears A  and  to  compilathe  theatre  t h e y e a r s 1762-1771* i t c o n t a i n s a u s e f u l p r e f a c e , some  explanatory notes, from  i n these  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , no  news  f o r our e v a l u a t i o n .  i n c l u d e d i n a v o l u m e o f memoirs d a t e d  essence  for  s a l o n , and  an i n v e s t i g a t i o n I  edition,  h a v e b e e n a b l e t o c o n s u l t two riere,  the handwritten  and  t h e A r s e n a l and  an  appendix with i n t e r e s t i n g m a t e r i a l  other P a r i s i a n archives.  volume, t h e M e m o i r e s de M a i r o b e r t . was ation,  but My  areas.  I have attempted  historical  survey  has  subsequent  announced as i n p r e p a r -  I have not been a b l e t o l o c a t e t h i s reading for this  A  work.  c e n t e r e d about s e v e r a l  t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h t h e  b a c k g r o u n d and w i t h d e t a i l s  concerning the  necessary specific  "*"One a p p a r e n t l y b e g u n by J . R a v e n a l i n 1830 ended a t volume f o u r o f t h e Memoires. See T o u r n e u x , M. "Bachaumont", l a G r a n d e E n c v c l o p e d i e . IV, 1076.  3 authors  and  i t e m s t o be  information  discussed.  a b o u t Bachaumont and  Doublet's c i r c l e  l e d me  A search  for biographical  t h e o t h e r members o f Madame  to i n q u i r e i n t o the h i s t o r y of  the  early manuscript press  and  sions to the nouvelles  on w h i c h t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s a r e  as w e l l as l a t e r general, other  than encyclopedias,  the  and  and  were p u b l i s h e d  i n the  Goncourt b r o t h e r s ,  earliest Hatin's  references  century  press  early twentieth 2  (1866-67).  Bayle  annotated account  very  and  Herblay's  on  To  k n o w l e d g e , no  to t h i s  j o u r n a l has  the  I have the  found  eighteenth-  been  a r t i c l e s on  c o m p l e t e and  have a l s o been u s e f u l . t o 1940  and  well-  study  the  Little  i n the  t o Bachaumont a r e  special  the  was  more  generally  devoted e x c l u s i v e l y  undertaken. evaluation of  i n t h e M e m o i r e s h a v e b e e n made.  critical The  earliest,  F u l l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r t h i s and f o r o t h e r r e f e r e n c e s f o u n d i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y s e c t i o n , pp. I l l - 115. z  be  article  r o l e o f t h e Memoires i n  attempts at a systematic  opinion recorded  An  of  as w e l l as c e r t a i n  informative  t h e M e m o i r e s f r o m 1910  my  half  us w i t h  r e s e a r c h on  1  (1909) o f t h e  brief.  will  provides  helpful,  w o r k s (1940-65) r e f e r e n c e s  Few  century.  Funck-Brentano s very  g r o w t h o f t h e modern p r e s s  recent  1856,  In  correspondence of the Marquis d ' E g u i l l e s  M e m o i r e s (1905) and  published  dated  in his historical  (1859, 1866)  i n the  based,  consult,  i n the l a s t  most b a s i c b i o g r a p h y o f Bachaumont.  references  allu-  a p p r a i s a l s o f t h e Memoires t h e m s e l v e s .  I h a v e f o u n d t h a t t h e most u s e f u l works t o  the nineteenth by  t o i n v e s t i g a t e contemporary  4 and  by  f a r t h e most p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s  Aubertin*s tional  work o f 1873.  that  by  from p a s s i n g  Bachaumont a s  an  have been attempted  since.  little  One  diversity  scholars to regard  for  e n t i r e Memoires s e c r e t s .  in this  area  salon  and  Bachaumont as p e r s o n a l l y  a b o u t Bachaumont and  the  gaps o c c u r  especi-  to the  Additional difficulties  eighteenthresponsible  area  i n the  Madame D o u b l e t .  i n accounts of the  of the dates assigned  nouvelles.  "colour-  common m i s c o n c e p t i o n  f a c t u a l background s i n c e important  a l s o many d i s c r e p a n c i e s  a  as  seems t o  I have e n c o u n t e r e d s p e c i a l problems i n t h e  information  such  a p p a r e n t t e n d e n c y o f many  century  in  a p p r a i s a l (1963) o f  f  worthy o f n o t e i s the  the  and  references  Topazio s favourable  art c r i t i c , ^  found  g a v e some a d d i -  v a r i e t y of content  apart  be  Gooch (1956) c h a r a c t e r i z i n g t h e M e m o i r e s a s  l e s s c h r o n i c l e " * * and  ally  P r e a u d e a u i n 1909  c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the  o f p o i n t s o f view, but  s u r v e y , may  of  available  There  composition  are of  her  e x i s t i n g manuscript  result  from the  fact  that  r e g i s t e r s upon w h i c h t h e M e m o i r e s were b a s e d have b e e n  lost, cluded  a s has direct  preserved  B a c h a u m o n t s m a n u s c r i p t , and f  consultation of the  i n the  -  L o u i s XV. 264.  pre-  o r i g i n a l material that  Parisian archives.  ^Gooch, C. P. L o n d o n , 1956, pp. 263  circumstances  The  The  M e m o i r e s swarm  Monarchy i n  is with  Decline,  ^ T o p a z i o , V i r g i l W. "Art C r i t i c i s m i n the E n l i g h t e n ment", S t u d i e s on V o l t a i r e and t h e E i g h t e e n t h C e n t u r y , ( e d . B e s t e r m a n ) , V o l . X X V I I , pp. 1647 1648.  5 contemporary a l l u s i o n s , and I have undoubtedly misunderstood  some r e f e r e n c e s .  overlooked o r  I d i d f i n d an index o f names  (1866) t o be q u i t e u s e f u l , although i t too c o n t a i n s omissions and some i n a c c u r a c i e s . d e f i n i t e handicap  The l a c k o f a s u b j e c t index proved a  t o d e t a i l e d study of the Memoires.  When one r e f l e c t s upon the o r i g i n s of the Memoires and upon t h e i r v a r i e d content and views, c e r t a i n obvious quest i o n s come t o mind.  Foremost among these i s the q u e s t i o n  r a i s e d — b u t not d e f i n i t e l y answered—by e a r l i e r w r i t e r s  con-  c e r n i n g the source o f the o p i n i o n s expressed i n these e a r l y volumes.  S i n c e the exact a u t h o r s h i p of t h i s p o r t i o n of the  Memoires i s somewhat i n doubt, t h i s problem  remains  The p a r t i c u l a r b i a s or general i d e o l o g i c a l tendency  central. o f the  o p i n i o n s expressed seems, however, l e s s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h . F i n a l l y , the t r u e i n t e n t o f some o f the e n t r i e s seems at times p u z z l i n g and one may  o c c a s i o n a l l y suppose t h a t a number o f the  c r i t i c a l comments a r e s k i l f u l l y worded to confuse the censors h i p a u t h o r i t i e s or t o d e l i g h t t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y reader with subtle irony. A word about method:  My  survey w i l l  f i r s t of a l l  i n c l u d e a study of the background of the Me^moires s e c r e t s , attempting as f a r as p o s s i b l e t o e l i m i n a t e d i s c r e p a n c i e s and to  expand somewhat on the u s u a l accounts given o f the p a r o i s s e .  From such a survey I hope t h a t a more comprehensive p o r t r a i t will  emerge of those c o n t r i b u t o r s who  nouvelles.  compiled the o r i g i n a l  F i n a l l y , I hope t o p r o v i d e an a c c u r a t e i f somewhat  6  brief in  account o f t h e l i t e r a r y  the f i r s t  material  such a study w i l l  t o l i m i t a t i o n s o f t i m e and r e s e a r c h  sight for  be i n c o m p l e t e ,  materials.-*  t h i s modest i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l  i n t o the general  literary  content  owing  I hope n e v e r -  provide  some i n -  o f t h e Memoires  secrets  t h e d e c a d e r e v i e w e d , a s w e l l a s a panorama o f contemporary-  opinion  contained  t h e r e i n and an a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e v a l u e o f  t h i s j o u r n a l t o t h e student it  found  f i v e volumes o f t h e Memoires.  Inevitably,  theless that  and c r i t i c i s m  o f French l i t e r a t u r e .  Hopefully,  may e v e n i n d i c a t e some a d d i t i o n a l a v e n u e s f o r f u t u r e r e -  search  into this  " j o u r n a l abondant e t n o u r r i . "  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a p o s s e s s e s two s e t s o f t h e Memoires s e c r e t s , f i r s t e d i t i o n , a s w e l l as a copy o f t h e 1866 i n d e x and t h e B a r r i e r e a b r i d g e m e n t . I n t e r - l i b r a r y l o a n made a v a i l a b l e much o t h e r m a t e r i a l . I c o u l d n o t , however, o b t a i n t h e 1830 R a v e n a l e d i t i o n , n o r c o u l d I examine any o f t h e m a n u s c r i p t s i n t h e P a r i s i a n a r c h i v e s , s u c h a s Bachaumont's p o r t e f e u i l l e ( A r s e n a l ) . Madame D o u b l e t * s e a r l y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ( B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e ) and M a i r o b e r t ' s d o s s i e r ( A r s e n a l ) . 5  CHAPTER I  d un ,  THE  MEMOIRES SECRETS:  The  M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s a r e more t h a n t h e p r i v a t e " j o u r n a l  observateur",  as t h e i r  Rather, they represent  the  development, t h a t o f the The in  nouvelles  counterparts. from the  main, but  differ  cabinet.  outgrowth of a l o n g  in origin,  e a g e r e f f o r t s o f an intimate  and  from a commercial  elite  h i s t o r y of these words a s  gatherings eighteenth now  centuries.  work by Paris,  enterprise,  and  highly  nature of  a  cabxnets, Paris  and i n d i c a t i n g seventeenth  This p a r t i c u l a r cabinet  almost f o r g o t t e n  are  a "rendez-vous a  o f t h i s t y p e w e r e common i n t h e  revolved  " v i r t u o s e " , ^ Madame D o u b l e t ,  a t whose s a l o n many famous l i t e r a r y  and  academic f i g u r e s  l A comprehensive treatment i s found i n the e x c e l l e n t F. F u n c k - B r e n t a n o e n t i t l e d F i g a r o e t s e s d e v a n c i e r s . 1909. 2  une  o f an  c i r c l e w h i c h assumed somewhat t h e  Brentano t r a c e s the  around the  press."'"  i n d i v i d u a l n o u v e l l i s t e de  q u e l q u e s h o n n e t e s gens p o u r l a c o n v e r s a t i o n "  that  journalistic  however, f r o m t h e i r many  gatherings  d e f i n i n g them i n l a r B r u y e r e ' s de  imply.  e a r l y clandestine manuscript  T h e y emanated, n o t  from the  intellectual  s u b t i t l e w o u l d seem t o  a l a main from which the Memoires s e c r e t s  part derived  nor  THEIR GENERAL BACKGROUND  Ibid..  pp.  264  -  265.  ^The t e r m i s t h a t o f t h e M e m o i r e s . V, 310: "C»etait v i r t u o s e d o n t Madame G e o f f r i n n ' e s t qu'une f a i b l e c o p i e . "  assembled which  daily  t o d i s c u s s e v e n t s and p r e p a r e news  were welcomed f o r t h e i r  a c c u r a c y and  Born Marie-Anne Legendre of f i v e  a wealthy  general,  and h i s w i f e , M a r g u e r i t e L e r o u x ,  origin.  Charming, c u l t i v a t e d  i n 1698  interest.  i n 1677* she was  c h i l d r e n o f F r a n c o i s Legendre,  bulletins  the  farmer-  o f much h u m b l e r  and w e l l - d o w e r e d ,  she m a r r i e d  L o u i s D o u b l e t de B r e u i l l e p o n t , ^ member o f a  b r a n c h o f t h e D o u b l e t de P e r s a n f a m i l y Duke o f O r l e a n s .  third  younger  and t r e a s u r e r t o t h e  E v i d e n t l y o f a warm and  affectionate  natur  she m a i n t a i n e d a c l o s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h h e r f a m i l y w h i c h sisted junior,  o f one  b r o t h e r , F r a n c o i s Legendre,  three years her  and t h r e e s i s t e r s , — o n e m a r r i e d t o A n t o i n e C r o z a t ,  the banker, conseil",  one  t o D u r e y de V i e n c o u r t , " p r e s i d e n t  and t h e t h i r d  de S o u s c a r r i e r e .  These  n u c l e u s around which Indeed,  con  t o an o b s c u r e c o n s e i l l e r c o n n e c t i o n s were l a t e r  her j o u r n a l i s t i c  a correspondence  au  grand  d etat. T  t o form  activities  reveals the f i r s t  the  developed.  between Madame D o u b l e t and h e r  t e r , Madame de S o u s c a r r i e r e ,  M.  sign of  sisher  n o u v e l l i s t e tendencies.-*  a y l e , P., and J . H e r b l a y , " J o u r n a l i s m e c l a n d e s t i n au I 8 s i e c l e " , N o u v e l l e r e v u e . 1905, pp. 214 - 215. These p a g e s g i v e b i o g r a p h i c a l d e t a i l s a b o u t Madame D o u b l e t , and g e n e a l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n , q u o t e d f r o m t h e M e r c u r e de F r a n c e o f 1714, a b o u t h e r h u s b a n d . V e r y l i t t l e more i s known o f him. e  ^From i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e p r e f a c e by A. van B e v e r t o e d i t i o n o f t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s de Bachaumont. P a r i s , 1912, p . 8.  his  I n 1716, and  according to a record of the lease*  Madame D o u b l e t  de B r e u i l l e p o n t  t o o k up  apartment i n P a r i s a d j o i n i n g t h e convent  Monsieur  r e s i d e n c e i n an  of the  Filles-  J a c o b i n e s de S a i n t - T h o m a s .  She  seems a l r e a d y , t h r o u g h  her  charm and  t o h a v e b e e n welcomed i n t o  the  society  artistic  talents,  of Coypel,  " s o c i e t e " d e l i c i e u s e ou 1 * e s p r i t s a n s  c a u s t i c i t e ' , l e s t a l e n t s sans j a l o u s i e ,  l e s connaissances  sans p r e t e n t i o n s et l a g a i e t e sans  inde'cence s e m b l a i e n t  disputer l e droit  l e s amusements."^  s h e had met  d en diversifier T  such noteworthy  joining in their  Here  f i g u r e s as C a y l u s , F r e r e t ,  b a u d , Foncemagne, H e l v e t i u s , M a r i v a u x , g a t h e r i n g s and  se  Mir-  and many o t h e r s ,  i n t h e i r famous  "soupers  7  des  quinze l i v r e s . "  f r i e n d , who  H e r e a l s o was  shared her i n t e r e s t  a c c o r d i n g t o B a y l e and H e r b l a y , she  Bachaumont, a f a m i l y  i n a r t and  femme t e n d r e , l ' a t t r a i t Indeed,  f o r m a k i n g and  fevrier,  de  s a g r a c e , l a v i v a c i t e de  r e t a i n i n g a wide c i r c l e o f  cette son  p.  gift  friends.  C o y p e l , " i n B i b l i o g r a p h i e d e s romans, i n B a y l e and H e r b l a y , p_p_. c i t . , p . 215.  ? B a y l e and H e r b l a y , Ibid..  q u i eVoque l e charme de  s h e seems t o h a v e b e e n endowed w i t h a  ^ " E l o g e de M. 1779J q u o t e d  8  T h e s e same a u t h o r s  c h a n s o n d * a l o r s , t o u t e b r u i s s a n t e de l a v i e  qu'on m e n a i t a B r e u i l l e p o n t ,  coeur."^  seems,  t o h a v e a c t e d a s h o s t when  i n turn entertained at Breuillepont.  r e f e r t o "une  who  217.  loc. c i t .  10 I n 1722 h e r h u s b a n d d i e d , l e a v i n g h e r a t t h e a g e o f f o r t y - f i v e with in  two c h i l d r e n :  a son, Louis-Antoine-Francois,  the service of Elizabeth o f Orleans,  Spain,  and a m a r r i e d  daughter,  Madame Bombarde d e B e a u l i e u .  T o w a r d s 1730, Bachaumont came t o l i v e  at les F i l l e s  Thomas, h a v i n g resumed h i s r o l e o f h o s t ings.  T h e s e , no d o u b t a t t e n d e d  gradually  Probably societies,  f o r her social  by many o f h e r f o r m e r  to twenty-nine  jovial  reflecting  the interest  t h e group t o o k  circle,  then prevalent i n  t h e name o f l a p a r o i s s e .  p a r o i s s i e n s . i t was d i r e c t e d  composed o f Madame D o u b l e t ,  b r o t h e r , t h e Abbe L e g e n d r e .  parently  gather-  and a s e t purpose.  perhaps i n mocking r e f e r e n c e t o t h e nearby convent.  trinite*.  Saint-  assumed t h e n a t u r e o f a c a b i n e t , w i t h a f i x e d  membership, r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s ,  secret  t h e dowager queen o f  i n p a r t from  g a t h e r i n g s , ^ from  by l a s a i n t e  Bachaumont, a n d Madame s f  T h e members, drawn a p -  t h o s e who h a d f r e q u e n t e d  family connections  Limited  Coypel's  o f t h e h o s t e s s , and f r o m  f r i e n d s o f o t h e r p a r o i s s i e n s . seem t o h a v e f o r m e d a f e l l o w s h i p both  intellectual  forty years. influential  and joyous,  one t h a t c o n t i n u e d  Moreover, t h e presence  f o r some  o f s o many e m i n e n t and  f i g u r e s a s s u r e d t h e group o f a g r e a t e r d e g r e e o f  freedom o f e x p r e s s i o n than t h a t experienced  by t h e u s u a l  nouvellistes of the period.  F o r example, M i r a b a u d , Foncemagne, a n d p o s s i b l y Marivaux. Our C h a p t e r 3 w i l l d i s c u s s t h e p a r o i s s e i n d e t a i l . 9  11 Their activities at  a fixed  hour, they  followed  a certain ritual.  Daily,  assembled around a marble t a b l e i n  Madame D o u b l e t ' s s a l l e d e c o m p a g n i e, e a c h i n h i s a s s i g n e d place, trait  a chair upholstered of himself.  i n crimson v e l v e t , beneath a  N e a r b y were two g r e a t  registers,  r e c o r d i n g news known t o b e t r u e , t h e o t h e r quiring verification. it  was d i s c u s s e d  A s e a c h member  and e n t e r e d  complete t h e i r  information,  dents i n other  French c i t i e s  gave h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n ,  i n the appropriate t h e members r e l i e d  book. on  copied the  u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f Bachaumont.  and d i s t r i b u t e d w e e k l y h a n d w r i t t e n  r e g i s t e r s but with  To  correspon-  and a b r o a d , a s w e l l a s o n some Following  o f t h e news t h e s e s s i o n s c l o s e d w i t h  meal p r e p a r e d  one f o r  f o r matters r e -  of t h e approved n o u v e l l i s t e s i n t h e p r o v i n c e s . compilation  por-  a sumptuous Valets  then  g a z e t i n s based on  varying emphases—literary,  social or  p o l i t i c a l — d e p e n d i n g upon t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e r e c i p i e n t s.""""^ Such a r e p u t a t i o n f o r accuracy, gained  by t h e s e  hearing  an i t e m The  nouvelles  as w e l l as piquancy,  t h a t p e o p l e a r e q u o t e d a s a s k i n g , on  o f news, "Does i t come f r o m Madame  exact  was  date of formation  Doublet's?"^  o f t h e p a r o i s s e and o f i t s  12 first  journalistic  efforts  i s not clear.  The e a r l i e s t r e -  m a i n i n g e x a m p l e s o f t h e news b u l l e t i n s a p p e a r t o be t h e l e t t e r s 1 0  Funck-Brentano,  F.  op_. e x t . , p p . 262 - 264.  " ^ M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . V, 311. •'•^Apparent d i s c r e p a n c i e s a r e n o t e d i n t h e d a t e s g i v e n f o r t h e e a r l y e x t a n t c o p i e s o f Madame D o u b l e t ' s n o u v e l l e s a  f r o m Madame D o u b l e t t o h e r at and  Breuillepont.  they are  was  s e l e c t e d from the  learns that  registers.  aware o f t h e the  as  From  e a r l y as  1740  historic  r e g i s t e r s , an  T h e r e seems t o  carried out,^  to i n d i c a t e that the nouvelles  o f Madame D o u b l e t ' s s a l o n by  in  but  i n s t y l e t o t h e l a t e r Memoires s e c r e t s .  d o u b t a s t o w h e t h e r t h i s p r o j e c t was  was  reviews  c i r c u l a t i n g the prospectus f o r a regular p u b l i c a t i o n  of material  serves  Souscarriere,  somewhat s i m i l a r i n c o n t e n t  Bachaumont's c o r r e s p o n d e n c e one he  Madame de  A m i x t u r e o f f a m i l y news, t h e a t r e  Paris gossip,  much i n f e r i o r  sister,  D  u  were a r e g u l a r  t h a t date,  and  that  t i t feature  Bachaumont  s i g n i f i c a n c e o f much o f t h e  awareness t h a t  be  l a t e r motivated  materi  the  Memoires s e c r e t s . During the achieved  great  life  of the p a r o i s s e  popularity.  The  i t s news  journalistic  bulletins  scene i n  the  l a main. F o r example, B r e n t a n o , op_. c i t . , pp. 267 268, r e f e r s t o t h e MSS. 13701-13712 i n t h e B i b l i o t h e a u e n a t i o n a l e f o r t h e y e a r s 1745-1752. A u b e r t i n , C. E s p r i t p u b l i c au I 8 s i e c l e . P a r i s , 1889» p . 381, g i v e s t h e same r e f e r e n c e . Howe v e r , C o t t i n , P., Un p r o t e g e de Bachaumont. P a r i s , 1887 > p . x v i , r e f e r s to copies i n the B i b l i o t h e q u e n a t i o n a l e f o r 1733 1739, and i n t h e A r s e n a l f o r 1739 and 1740. H a t i n , E., B i b l i o g r a p h i e de l a p r e s s e p e r i o d i q u e f r a n c a i s e . P a r i s , 1866 p . 67> r e f e r s t o " c i n q v o l u m e s de c e t t e g a z e t t e m a n u s c r i t e . . . a l l a n t de 1738 a 1745." B o t h t h e D i c t i o n n a i r e de b i o g r a p h i e and t h e G r a n d e E n c v c l o p e d i e r e f e r t o t h e MSS. m e n t i o n e d above, g i v i n g no d a t e s , b u t s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c o p i e s o f t h e r e g i s t e r had b e e n i n c i r c u l a t i o n s i n c e 1738. e  l ^ F u n c k - B r e n t a n o , c o p . c i t . , pp. 268 - 269* s e e s t h e p r o s p e c t u s a s a n n o u n c i n g "une s e r i e de g a z e t i n s s o u s l e nom de C o r r e s p o n d a n c e de Bachaumont." Van B e v e r seems t o a g r e e . H a t i n and A u b e r t i n i m p l y t h a t t h e p r o j e c t went no f u r t h e r .  13 first  h a l f of the  eighteenth century  was  d o m i n a t e d by  l i c e n s e d p u b l i c a t i o n s * the Gazette  de  ment o f t h e  views,  de  France  limited avid the  government's p o l i t i c a l  and  t h e J o u r n a l des  i n scope,  they  failed  f o r news o f e v e r y d a y growing s p i r i t  France,  savants.  g e n s de  lettres  "des  Learned  and  matters,  nor The  could they  gens du monde s a n s a r g e n t  sans e s p r i t " , ^  Into  Less  selective,  France  and  if the  de  who  the l a t t e r , extent  nine  cheaply,  of a l l classes  f a r beyond t h e o r i g i n a l  were f r i e n d s o f t h e p a r o i s s i e n s . i n the intimacy of t h e i r  So  valets with  much o f E u r o p e w i t h a v e r i t a b l e  c a d e de n o u v e l l e s " t h a t r e a c h e d scribers,  this  eight or  selling  t h e s e b u l l e t i n s were e a g e r l y r e a d by p e o p l e covered  des  paroisse.  h a v e b e e n t r a c e d , d i r e c t e d u s u a l l y by  to the r e g i s t e r s .  ou  publications often severely  g r e a t became t h e demand f o r them t h a t a s many a s  and  allow f o r  nouvellistes,  vacuum came t h e n o u v e l l e s o f Madame D o u b l e t ' s  access  dull,  alternative lay in  repressed because of t h e i r l i b e l l o u s c h a r a c t e r .  "branches"  state-  t o meet t h e n e e d s o f a p u b l i c  of controversy.  c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  a weekly  t h e monthly Mercure  t h e mediocre g o s s i p - s h e e t s o f the commercial well  three  One  sessions,  "cassub-  wonders  realized  of t h e i r influence.  14de P r e a u d e a u , L o u i s . "Bachaumont, p e r e d e s e c h o s P a r i s , " Revue h e b d o m a d a i r e . 22 f e v . , 1908, p. 542.  i S o n e o f t h e c h i e f " b r a n c h e s " was t h a t o f Madame d ' A r g e n t a l , h e r s e l f a p a r o i s s i e n n e . whose v a l e t G i l l e t was a l s o d i r e c t i n g another "branch." F u n c k - B r e n t a n o , op., c i t . . p p . 272 - 288, g i v e s a f u l l a c c o u n t o f t h e s e .  Conflict was  inevitable.  indirectly,  with the authorities, The f i r s t  ° though l o n g delayed,  shadow t o t o u c h t h e g r o u p ,  was t h e a r r e s t  and b r i e f  even  e x i l e i n 1741 o f t h e  Abbe P r e v o s t , d e n o u n c e d by a n o u v e l l i s t e f o r h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n in  another  c l a n d e s t i n e journal.U  U n t o u c h e d by t h e h a r s h r e -  p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s r e - i n t r o d u c e d i n 1742 a n d 1745 t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e growing  audacity o f t h e manuscript  continued i t s b u l l e t i n s . C h a u v e l i n , was s e n t e n c e d lent was  anti-Jesuit  press, the paroisse  One o f i t s members, t h e Abbe d e i n 1753 t o i m p r i s o n m e n t  campaigns.  for his vio-  I n t h a t same y e a r Madame D o u b l e t  h e r s e l f warned by B e r r y e r , t h e l i e u t e n a n t o f p o l i c e ,  cerning the a c t i v i t i e s of her paroissiens. f r o m d r a s t i c m e a s u r e s by t h e i r i n f l u e n t i a l group, though outwardly as b e f o r e . matters,  submissive,  I n 1762 two i n d i s c r e e t  a result  Saved,  continued the nouvelles references to military  o f carelessness o r overconfidence,  caused  grand-nephew  t h e embarrassment o f h a v i n g t o d i s c i p l i n e h i s  " t r e s chere t a n t e . "  Herblay,  however,  connections, the  C h o i s e u l , m i n i s t e r o f war a n d Madame D o u b l e t ' s by m a r r i a g e ,  con-  Threatened  w i t h banishment t o a  convent,  I b i d . , p p . 271 - 272, 275 - 2 7 6 ; a l s o B a y l e a n d op_. c i t . , p p . 233 - 235, 395 - 405.  ^ B a y l e a n d H e r b l a y , op., e x t . , p . 222 l i s t h i m among t h e p a r o i s s i e n s a s does Boyer d ' E g u i l l e s i n a l e t t e r t o be found i n "Correspondance i n e d i t e du Marquis d ' E g u i l l e s , " R e v u e r e t r o s p e c t i v e , v o l . 3, 1885, p . 165. T h e a r t i c l e " P r e v o s t d » E x i l e s , " i n t h e B i o g r a p h i e U n i v e r s e l l e , XXXIV, 339, g i v e s a more c o m p l e t e a c c o u n t o f t h i s i n c i d e n t .  15 s h e must h a v e b e e n w a t c h e d c a r e f u l l y ,  a s h e r name o c c u r s 18  frequently The  o n p o l i c e l i s t s f r o m 1762 t o 1765. p a r o i s s e was, by t h i s t i m e ,  Many were w e l l  advanced  drawing  i n y e a r s ; Madame D o u b l e t was  a p p r o a c h i n g t h e age o f n i n e t y .  Weary p e r h a p s  police  last  inspection of their  bulletins,  to legalize their publication.  herself  of the struggle,  t h e r e m a i n i n g a c t i v e p a r o i s s i e n s seem, i n 1767y for  to i t s close.  t o have  hoping thereby a t  Correspondence  concerning  t h i s matter  h a s b e e n p r e s e r v e d and i n d i c a t e s t h a t ,  hesitation,  t h e a p p l i c a t i o n was r e f u s e d , t h e a u t h o r i t i e s  of  the opinion that  fore,  after  some being  a sudden a p p r o v a l o f t h e s e n o u v e l l e s a f t e r  s o many y e a r s w o u l d be a d e l i c a t e affair.  applied  and p o t e n t i a l l y  dangerous  T h e p a r o i s s i e n s were l e f t , t h e n , t o c o n t i n u e a s b e -  e x c e p t t h a t d ' A r g e n t a l , one o f t h e group,  responsible f o r the contents of the b u l l e t i n s .  was made S i n c e he  e n j o y e d d i p l o m a t i c immunity  a s s e c r e t a r y t o t h e Duke o f Parma, 1Q t h i s was m e r e l y a t o k e n g e s t u r e . O l d a g e now r a p i d l y o v e r t o o k t h e p a r o i s s e . A l l were, 7  20 as Voisenon  remarked, "en t r a i n  Abbe L e g e n d r e mont.  died,  de  raourir."  followed three years l a t e r  Madame D o u b l e t ,  I n 1768 t h e by B a c h a u -  t h e n aged n i n e t y - t h r e e and f a i l i n g i n  •^Funck-Brentano,  op_. c i t . . p p . 275 - 276.  B a y l e and H e r b l a y , op., c i t . . p p . 404 - 405. T h e correspondence, from m a t e r i a l i n t h e A r s e n a l , i s quoted a t some l e n g t h . 1 9  I b i d . , p . 403. An i n t e r e s t i n g a c c o u n t o f t h e d e c l i n y e a r s o f t h e p a r o i s s e (1760-1771) f o l l o w s o n p p . 403 - 408. 2 0  ing  16 mind, asked f o r h e r left  on  a j o u r n e y , became so  farewell ing  o l d f r i e n d and,  the  that  she  priest,  fell  had  being  told  that  he  had  upset at h i s f a i l u r e to b i d  i l l and  whom she  on  died  shortly thereafter,  desired  to  embrace, f o r  her scold-  disarrang-  21  ing  her  rouge. Of  With her  death, the  Madame D o u b l e t , whose s a l o n  v e n t u r e i n group j o u r n a l i s m , ary  paroisse  accounts are  few:  little  ceased to  nurtured  this  more i s known.  Grimm s p e a k s o f  her  exist.  unique Contempor-  advanced y e a r s  and  2 2  of her  long-standing  antipathy  to r e l i g i o n ;  her  obituary  t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s seems a c o l d l y worded " p h i l o s o p h i c " bute, mentioning her ironically  upon h e r  journalistic apparent f i n a l  lapse  glimpse of her  occurs i n the  Correspondance of the y o u t h f u l  affectionately, tence of her m a k i n g and reading  often  salon  the  character  frequently  speaks of her  close friendships.  e a r l y correspondence might  of t h i s  analysis give  The  teraire. 2  most  long  exis-  capacity  Perhaps a in light  almost-forgotten  for  re-  of  our  salonniere.  ^ d e G o n c o u r t , E . and J . , P o r t r a i t s i n t i m e s P a r i s , 1856, I , 87 - 88. 2 2  The  some f r e s h i n s i g h t i n t o  2  siecle,  touching  Boyer d ' E g u i l l e s ,  seems a l s o a t r i b u t e t o h e r  modern p s y c h o l o g i c a l  tri-  a warm human p e r s o n a l i t y  a s h i s " c h e r e maman."  maintaining  of her  and  into f a i t h . ^  most i n t i m a t e  t h e y o u n g e s t p a r o i s s i e n , who  as  activities  in  du  l8  e  G r i m m , F. M., D i d e r o t , e t c . Correspondance l i t ed. T o u r n e u x , P a r i s , 1879, IX, 317 318.  ^ M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . V,  310  -  312.  17 It  becomes o b v i o u s when we  secrets i n detail  that the  first  c l o s e l y l i n k e d to the p a r o i s s e . form, s e l e c t i o n s from the  consider  the  Memoires  f i v e volumes are They c o n t a i n ,  the  most  i n printed  r e g i s t e r s f o r 1762-1771, e d i t e d  Bachaumont, whose m a n u s c r i p t p a s s e d a f t e r h i s d e a t h t o secretary Mairobert.  The  latter  i n turn undertook to  the m a t e r i a l  f o r p u b l i c a t i o n , gave t h e  title, 4  wrote the preface,  and  2  the  Memoires.  1777, al  These f i r s t  literary  trends  friend's project until  of the 1779,  from a s e r i e s o f n o u v e l l e s ing.  M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s was and  period.  f o r m e r p a r o i s s i e n who  with merely c o n t i n u i n g  Mairobert  a l a m a i n w h i c h he  t a k e n up  by  long  the  task  the  continued  he  to  himself  36.  his  excerpts  Moufle d * A n g e r v i l l e ,  the nouvelles.  cultur-  was  of publishing  a d d e d v o l u m e s 15  of  i n London i n  a d d i n g t o t h e Memoires  A f t e r h i s s u i c i d e i n 1779,  arrange  s e t t i n g f o r t h the purpose  are l a r g e l y n o n - p o l i t i c a l , s t r e s s i n g c h i e f l y  and  his  work i t s r a t h e r  volumes, p u b l i s h e d  by  a  Not  i n s e r t e d items  issuthe lawyer  content from  ^ M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s p o u r s e r v i r a l ' h i s t o i r e de l a r e p u b l i q u e d e s l e t t r e s en F r a n c e , d e p u i s 1762 .iusqu''a nos i o u r s : ou J o u r n a l d'un o b s e r v a t e u r . c o n t e n a n t l e s a n a l y s e s des p i e c e s de t h e a t r e q u i o n t p a r u d u r a n t c e t i n t e r v a l l e ; l e s r e l a t i o n s des a s s e m b l i e s l i t t e r a i r e s ; l e s n o t i c e s des l i v r e s n o u v e a u x , c l a n d e s t i n s , prohibe's; l e s p i e c e s f u g i t i v e s , r a r e s ou m a n u s c r i t e s , en p r o s e ou en v e r s ; l e s v a u d e v i l l e s s u r l a c o u r ; l e s a n e c d o t e s e t b o n s mots; l e s e l o g e s d e s s a v a n t s , des a r t i c l e s , des hommes de l e t t r e s m o r t s , e t c . e t c . e t c . p a r f e u M. de Bachaumont ( a L o n d r e s , c h e z J o h n Adamson, 2  1777). "Les quafcorze p r e m i e r s v o l u m e s f u r e n t i m p r i m e s de 1777 a 1779, l e s tomes 15-17 en 1781; l e s tomes 18-36 furent i m p r i m e s de 1782 a 1789." ( B r e n t a n o , op_. c i t . . p . 289 n.)  18 the manuscripts  o f Bachaumont and M a i r o b e r t ,  twenty volumes cover o n l y e i g h t y e a r s .  so t h a t t h e l a s t  They a l s o c o n t a i n  items o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e r e s t t h a t were g e n e r a l l y omitted the e a r l i e r volumes.  P r o l i x and wordy, Moufle d ' A n g e r v i l l e  seems t o have been motivated tity,  from  by a d e s i r e t o p u b l i s h i n quan-  f o r t h e Memoires from the b e g i n n i n g were e a g e r l y sought  a f t e r and s o l d w e l l .  With t h e approach o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n ,  however, i n t e r e s t f l a g g e d and t h e Memoires s e c r e t s end i n 1787. The uneven q u a l i t y o f t h e s e r i e s may o f course be e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t t h e Memoires had t h r e e ferent editors i n a l l .  dif-  The f i r s t f i v e volumes, based most  d i r e c t l y upon Bachaumont* s manuscript,  a r e considered t h e  best w r i t t e n , but as we have a l r e a d y noted,  i t i s difficult  to determine t h e p r e c i s e extent t o which t h e s t y l e and o p i n i o n s r e f l e c t Bachaumont h i m s e l f , o r a g a i n how much i s due t o the p a r o i s s e which formulated  the o r i g i n a l nouvelles or to  M a i r o b e r t * s e d i t i n g o f Bachaumont's manuscript.  Aubertin,  who has compared these volumes o f t h e Memoires s e c r e t s with some o f t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g n o u v e l l e s which have been preserved, s t a t e s t h a t " l a forme e"tait a l u x ; l e fond a p p a r t e n a i t  la  25 paroisse."  Brentano, some y e a r s l a t e r , i n comparing the  Memoires with v a r i o u s o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s , ^  i s more c a u t i o u s :  2 5 A u b e r t i n , C. op., ext., pp. 382 - 383. ^Funck-Brentano, op_. ext., pp. 291 - 295 r e f e r s t o the documents i n t h e a r c h i v e s o f t h e B a s t i l l e , i n t h e B i b l i o theque de l a Mazarine, and i n t h e l i b r a r y o f t h e c i t y o f P a r i s . 2  19 Les Memoires s e c r e t s , q u i c o n s t i t u e n t , pour l'e'tude d e l ' A n c i e n Re'gime, u n e s o u r c e d e s p l u s i m p o r t a n t e s e t d e s p l u s v i v a n t e s , emanent done d e s r e g i s t r e s de l a P a r o i s s e . l i s en d o n n e n t l ' e c h o p o u r u n e p e V i o d e d e n e u f anne*es (1762-1771), . . . s a n s p a r l e r i c i de l a c o n t i n u a t i o n p a r M a i r o b e r t , p u i s d ' A n g e r v i l l e . . . e'cho a m o i n d r i e t a f f a i b l i , c a r n i Mairobert n i M o u f l e d ' A n g e r v i l l e n ' o n t r e p r o d u i t e x a c t e m e n t l e t e x t e d e Madame D o u b l e t . ' 2  He  c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s a r e "une d e f o r m a t i o n  de  l original,  i l s ne s o n t  f  /%  pas l a reproduction  du m a n u s c r i t  28  lui-meme."^  T o u r n e u x , i n h i s a r t i c l e on Bachaumont i n t h e  Grande EncyclopecLie.  states that  " s o n nom r e s t e a t t a c h e  p u b l i c a t i o n dont i l a pu f o u r n i r l ' i d ^ e premiere, posterieure sa main  mais.qui,  a s a m o r t , ne r e n f e r m e v r a i s e m b l a b l e m e n t r i e n d e  . . . "  Van B e v e r , i n t h e p r e f a c e  o f v o l u m e s 1-5 o f t h e M e m o i r e s , p r e s e n t s  t o h i s 1912 e d i t i o n them a s "un e x t r a i t du  m a n u s c r i t d e Bachaumont," b u t i s r e l u c t a n t t o s p e c u l a t e the  a une  source o f t h e views presented,  effects o f Mairobert's Since  possible  e d i t i n g o f Bachaumont s manuscript. 1  definite conclusions  a survey o f l i t e r a r y  o r upon t h e v a r i o u s  upon  criticism  i n t h i s respect  i n t h e M e m o i r e s must  are lacking, involve  The most c o m p l e t e , a s e r i e s o f n o u v e l l e s c o p i e d f r o m Madame D o u b l e t ' s r e g i s t e r s and f r o m t h e l i b r a r y o f t h e Duke o f P e n t h i e v r e , a r e more p o l i t i c a l t h a n l i t e r a r y a n d c o v e r t h e y e a r s 1762-1779. 7 l b i d . , p . 290. I t seems, however, t h a t t h e e d i t o r s c o u l d h a r d l y have based t h e i r m a t e r i a l a f t e r 1 7 7 1 — a p a r t from t h e e x c e r p t s added by M o u f l e d ' A n g e r v i l l e — o n " l e t e x t e de Madame D o u b l e t , " s i n c e t h e r e g i s t e r s o f t h e p a r o i s s e must have c l o s e d a t t h a t d a t e . 2  2 8  Ibid..  p . 291.  prior  c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the  information detect  concerning  gave them b i r t h .  p a r o i s s e may  enable the  i n t h i s c h r o n i c l e echoes o f t h e s e  n o u v e l l i s t e s who cessful  the  salon that  f o r so many y e a r s  experiment  i n group  carried  journalism.  reader  aristocratic out  this  More  suc-  to  CHAPTER I I  THE  MEMOIRES SECRETS:  Any of  AND THE PAROISSIENS  attempt t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e atmosphere and o u t l o o k  Madame D o u b l e t ' s  dominating  BACHAUMONT  c a b i n e t must f i r s t  figure o f Louis P e t i t  o f a l l review t h e  d e Bachaumont.  The G o n c o u r t  b r o t h e r s h a v e g i v e n what i s a p p a r e n t l y t h e e a r l i e s t  and most  c o m p l e t e b i o g r a p h i c a l account,'*' b a s e d l a r g e l y  upon an u n f i n -  ished  portefeuille  and  autobiography  contained  reprinted i n f u l l  i n Bachaumont's  i n t h e A p p e n d i x t o Van B e v e r ' s 1912  e d i t i o n o f t h e Memoires s e c r e t s . From t h e s e  sources  P a r i s , J u n e 2, 1690.  o n e l e a r n s t h a t he was b o r n i n  H i s father, Charles-Antoine  P e t i t de  Bachaumont, d i e d d u r i n g t h e c h i l d ' s i n f a n c y , l e a v i n g g a m b l i n g debts  and a y o u n g widow, aged e i g h t e e n , who was p e r s u a d e d t o  l e a v e t h e boy i n t h e c a r e o f h i s e l d e r l y p a t e r n a l p h y s i c i a n t o t h e Dauphin. up  as t h e s p o i l e d  ridors  as h i s p l a y g r o u n d ,  grew cor-  t h e Dauphin and t h e P r i n c e s s o f and Le N o t r e ,  a s h i s a d v i s o r and g u i d e  tunately,  h i s grandfather's  i n matters  of art.  Unfor-  t h e r e i s a gap i n o u r i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h i s s u b s e -  quent f o r m a t i v e y e a r s . partly  Bachaumont, a handsome c h i l d ,  d a r l i n g of the court, with the palace  C o n t i as h i s godparents, friend,  grandfather,  at Versailles,  Ide  H i s youth partly  was, a p p a r e n t l y ,  at h i s grandfather's  Goncourt, E. and J . , op. e x t . ,  spent chateau,  51 - 88.  22  but l i t t l e i s known o f him from h i s adolescence u n t i l 1730,  about  when he became a key f i g u r e i n Madame Doublet's p a r o i s s e . Some a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n may  correspondence. Goncourt  be gathered from h i s  In a l e t t e r quoted by Edmond and J u l e s de  Bachaumont d w e l l s i n some d e t a i l on h i s l o v e f o r  a r t , on h i s e a r l y t r a i n i n g t h e r e i n "sous l e s m e i l l e u r s m a l t r e s de ces temps-la  en t o u t genre," and on h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h  o t h e r c o n n o i s s e u r s o f a r t such as Coypel, Crozat and members of t h e i r c i r c l e .  He suggests t h a t a s e r i o u s i l l n e s s  (small-  pox) and poor e y e s i g h t had prevented h i s p u r s u i n g p a i n t i n g as a c a r e e r , and adds:  " J ' a i assez f o r t de b i e n , et j e n ' a i  voulu prendre n i charges, n i emplois; j ' a i voulu r e s t e r et j e n ' a i a u j o u r d ' h u i de r e g r e t que de n ' S t r e pas un peintre."  He l i v e d , then, the l i f e o f a wealthy,  libre,  bon  cultured  d i l e t t a n t e , a connoisseur o f the a r t s and an epicurean, h i s motto o t i o . musis et amoribus.  H i s -intimates c a l l e d him " l e  cher paresseux," y e t he speaks o f h i m s e l f as f u l l y o c c u p i e d : " I I m'est b i e n dur de m'arracher r e m p l i t o u t mon  aux o c c u p a t i o n s q u i ont  temps jusqu'a p r e s e n t et a u x q u e l l e s l e p l u s  p a r f a i t l o i s i r pouvait a peine s u f f i r e .  2  3  I b i d . , 84-85.  3 l b i d . . p. 77. Quoted from a l e t t e r dated 1743, i n which Bachaumont r e p l i e s t o an unknown l a d y , r e f u s i n g the p o s t of "premier p r e s i d e n t " t o which he has been appointed and a s k i n g f o r p e r m i s s i o n t o s e l l i t .  23  These occupations seem to have been connected with two r o l e s :  that of "un e d i l e de P a r i s , " and that of master  of ceremonies of Madame Doublet's cabinet.  Concerning the  f i r s t , i t i s known that Bachaumont was devoted to Paris, to i t s b e a u t i f i c a t i o n and to the preservation of i t s h i s t o r i c aspects.  For example, he purchased f o r 1,500 l i v r e s the  Colonne Medicis to preserve i t f o r posterity,**  and Grimm—  who i s not generally kind to Bachaumont—mentions approvingly the l a t t e r s concern f o r the Louvre.-*  He also seems to have  1  acted as consultant to many a r t i s t s of the day, being renowned for h i s sound judgements and excellent taste.  In 1751 he  published an Essai sur l a peinture. l a sculpture et l ' a r c h i tecture^ and, l a t e r , accounts of the Salons of 1767 and 1769, these l a s t appearing i n the form of l e t t e r s i n the Memoires secrets.^  According to one modern authority, Bachaumont "has  recently been judged to be, "avant D i d e r o t , — l e grand c r i t i q u e o  d'art du debut du dix-huitieme s i e c l e " . 1  Apart from two or  **An account of t h i s purchase, f o r which the c i t y l a t e r reimbursed him, i s found i n the a r t i c l e "Bachaumont" by M. Prevost, Dictionnaire de biographie u n i v e r s e l l e . Paris, 1948, IV, 1050. See also the Memoires secrets. I, 299 - 300. 5Grimm, op_. c i t . . I l l ,  12.  ^Characterized by Grimm i n I b i d . . I I , 94 as "commun et s u p e r f i c i e l . " ^Memoires secrets. XIII,  5-64.  ^Wildenstein, G. "Gouter une oeuvre d'art en connoisseur ( s i c ) " , i n Gazette des beaux arts, a v r i l , 1961, p. 1. Quoted by V i r g i l W. Topazio, op., ext., p. 1647. Topazio adds:  24 t h r e e i t e m s o f l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e , ^ no o t h e r work o f Bachaumont remains, except  t h e Memoires s e c r e t s w h i c h b e a r h i s name and  f o r which he f u r n i s h e d a t l e a s t  the i n i t i a l  inspiration.  Grimm, who i n s i n u a t e s t h a t Madame D o u b l e t  and B a c h a u -  mont h a d b e e n l o v e r s , s p e a k s o f h i m a s s e n i l e i n h i s d e c l i n i n g years,  as having  d'autres  lazy, idle,  irreligious,  "n*ayant  a f f a i r e s au monde que l e s o i n d e s e s p l a i s i r s ,  bonne c h e r e , is  been r i c h ,  e t de l a s e n s u a l i t e * . " ^  de l a  This implied selfishness  somewhat c o n t r a d i c t e d by t h e r e f e r e n c e s o f y o u n g B o y e r  d ' E g u i l l e s t o B a c h a u m o n t s g e n e r o s i t y and by t h e r e c o r d s i n f  Bachaumont*s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f h i s a t t e m p t s t o o b t a i n tance  f o r h i s young f r i e n d  i n h i s misfortunes.  t o t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s , w r i t t e n by M a i r o b e r t , testimony  assis-  The p r e f a c e also  bears  t o B a c h a u m o n t s s e n s e o f s e r i o u s p u r p o s e and c o u n T  t e r a c t s Grimm s a c c u s a t i o n s o f f r i v o l i t y . ,  The  t h i r d member o f " l a s a i n t e t r i n i t e " " t h a t d i r e c t e d  t h e p a r o i s s e was t h e Abbe" F r a n c o i s L e g e n d r e , Madame brother, chiefly  t o whom r e f e r e n c e h a s a l r e a d y  b e e n made.  Doublet*s Remembered  a s a "joyeux v i v a n t , buveur i n f a t i g a b l e , " he i n t r o -  duced t o t h e s e s s i o n s a t l e s F i l l e s Saint-Thomas h i s i n t i m a t e  " H i s c r i t i c i s m was c o n s i s t e n t l y s o u n d and e n l i g h t e n e d , and d e t a i l e d enough t o make h i s comments c r i t i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l w i t h o u t b e i n g e x c e s s i v e l y d e s c r i p t i v e and p e r s o n a l . He was, t o o u r mind, t h e b e s t c r i t i c b e f o r e D i d e r o t . . . " ^Memoires s u r l e L o u v r e ( c . 1750)j M e m o i r e s u r l a v i e d e M. l * a b b ^ Gedovn. P r e v o s t , M., op_. c i t . . I V , 1052. •^Grimm, op_. c i t . . I X , 318.  25 f r i e n d , t h e poet P i r o n , t h e a f f e c t i o n a t e and w i t t y c r i t i c o f t h e j o v i a l Abbe's a p p a r e n t l y  atrocious l i t e r a r y  efforts.H  N e g l e c t f u l though t h e l a t t e r may have been o f h i s e c c l e s i a s t i cal  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , he remained devoted t o good cheer and  f e l l o w s h i p and continued  a c l o s e associate o f the p a r o i s s e  12 u n t i l h i s death i n 1768. A l i s t o f t h e remaining  members o f t h e p a r o i s s e i s  d i f f i c u l t t o compile with complete c e r t a i n t y . however, g i v e s some d e f i n i t e i n f o r m a t i o n :  One source,  This i s the cor-  respondence, a l r e a d y noted, o f Boyer d ' E ^ g u i l l e s , ^ who, i n his  l e t t e r s t o Madame Doublet and Bachaumont, g r e e t s many o f  the p a r o i s s i e n s by name.  From other correspondence and mem-  o i r s o f t h e time a few more names can be gleaned,  and i n t e r n a l  r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e Memoires s e c r e t s r e i n f o r c e t h i s  information.  Unfortunately,  i t i s not always c l e a r whether some o f t h e  persons mentioned were a c t u a l l y p a r o i s s i e n s o r merely c a s u a l v i s i t o r s to the salon.  A c c o r d i n g l y , though most l i s t s have a  - -Bayle and Herblay, op., e x t . , p. 220 quote a l e t t e r o f P i r o n i n which he l i k e n s t h e Abbe s w r i t i n g s t o t h e l a b o u r s o f H e r c u l e s except t h a t " c e l u i - c i d e " t r u i s a i t l e s monstres e t vous en p r o d u i s e z sans r e l a c h e . J e l e s comparerais mSme a l ' h y d r e , s ' i l s a v a i e n t p i e d ou t e t e . . . LJ  f  l b i d . . pp. 219 - 220. See a l s o Paul C o t t i n ' s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s Un Protege de Bachaumont: l a correspondance i n e d i t e du Marquis d E g u i l l e s . P a r i s , 1887, pp. x x - x x i . C o t t i n notes t h a t t h e Abbe Legendre " a v a i t des connaissances, s u r t o u t en a l c h i m i e . " 1 2  ,  • ^ W r i t t e n i n 1745 a t t h e time o f a s e c r e t d i p l o m a t i c e x p e d i t i o n from France t o S c o t l a n d headed by d ' E g u i l l e s .  26 certain basic instances. add  similarity,  To  the  many names o c c u r o n l y  names o f t h e  members, most r e f e r e n c e s  b r i e f i d e n t i f y i n g comments.  they  are  generally  of  the  personal  to  expand on  those usually  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of artistic quired  letters  paroissiens.  given  political  but  assessment  I have  attempted  a much more d e t a i l e d  i n t e r e s t s and  Typical  of the  sent  young d ' ^ g u i l l e s i n Scotland  Filles  by  greetings  Saint-Thomas i s the cher President,  a son  Mairan, Falconet, pour l e s t r o i s  Matha, e t c .  and  contained  following:  literary  and  of  rethe  who,  et p u i s  distinguished  presided  in public l i f e ,  a l a d e u x i e m e chambre d e s  affectionate  to h i s friends  un  "cher  over the  E n q u e t e s du  magistrate"*"-* was  article  The  held  the  de  president"  sessions  office  i n high  de  particulier  of  P a r l e m e n t de  held  at  " M i l l e tendres  Legendre , a M e s s i e u r s  b r a v e s d'Argentaux.""'"'* who  i n the  a Madame D u r e t ^jL.e. D u r e y  m a r i ; & l'Abbe"  D u r e y de M e i n i e r e s ,  paroisse  are,  secrets.  Viencourt],  This  enable a c l e a r  c o n n e c t i o n s o f Madame D o u b l e t ' s c i r c l e w o u l d be  c o m p l i m e n t s au  was  to  to produce a s u b s t a n t i a l l y accurate e v a l u a t i o n  Memoires  les  the  also  I n t e r e s t i n g though these  insufficient  views of the  in isolated  of  the  "president  Paris."  e s t e e m by  the  1 4 " C o r r e s p o n d a n c e i n e d i t e du m a r q u i s d ' E g u i l l e s , " R e v u e r e t r o s p e c t i v e , v o l . 3, 1885, p. 152. ^ N a n c y M i t f o r d , i n h e r Madame de Pompadour. London, 1954, pp. 213 - 217, d e s c r i b e s an i n t e r v i e w between t h e P r e s i d e n t de M e i n i e r e s and Madame de Pompadour w h i c h r e v e a l s him as "one o f t h e c l e v e r e s t and most i n t r a n s i g e a n t o f t h e P a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s ."  27 t h e o t h e r members o f t h e p a r o i s s e . w h i c h he entered  through  the marriage  c o u r t , t o Madame D o u b l e t ' s A review mentioned next  of  physics. of  I n 1718  of h i s long l i f e  also  apparently  in  he  began as  f r o m w h i c h he p a s s e d admitted  a r t and  I n 1740,  long attached  Of  a  reader  student  to mathematics  and  he  astronomy, p h y s i c s , replaced Fontenelle  later  to devote  to s c i e n t i f i c investigation.  a s k i l l e d musician  sculpture.  the  t o membership i n t h e Academy  returned three years  rest  (1768-1771),  g r e e t i n g , impresses  natural history.  as secretary.- but  was  works o f M a i r a n  S c i e n c e s , p u b l i s h i n g numerous p a p e r s on  g e o m e t r y and  of  and  A w e a l t h y man,  he was  Vien-  sister.  i n d'Eguilles*  ancient languages,  probably  o f h i s b r o t h e r , D u r e y de  of the l i f e  with h i s v e r s a t i l i t y .  had  and  a k i n d l y and  t o t h e p a r o i s s e and  had  the  He  was  a good a p p r e c i a t i o n  gentle disposition, h i s death  he  i s recorded  the Memoires s e c r e t s . ^ Camille Falconet  several  fields.  (1671-1762)  was  a l s o eminent i n  From L y o n s , where h i s m e d i c a l  been a c e n t r e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l  office  g a t h e r i n g s , he moved t o  b e c o m i n g a c o u r t p h y s i c i a n and  had Paris,  " i n s p e c t e u r de l a n a i s s a n c e  des  17 Enfants  de  France."  He  Academy o f I n s c r i p t i o n s ^ library.  was and  admitted  t o membership i n  became famous f o r h i s  the  extensive  Many o f h i s b o o k s , b e q u e a t h e d t o t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e 'Memoires s e c r e t s . V, Bayle  and  Herblay,  260.  op_. e x t . ,  223  -  224.  28 du R o i , h a v e become p a r t o f t h e c o l l e c t i o n o f t h e B i b l i o t h e q u e nationale.-^ The  next  p a r o i s s i e n mentioned, Matha, i s a p p a r e n t l y  n o t w i d e l y known.19  However, " l e s t r o i s  t o whom t h e M a r q u i s s e n d s a s p e c i a l  to students of the p a r o i s s e .  Ferriol,  comte d A r g e n t a l , was  member o f t h e P a r l e m e n t  jand r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n France  Charles-Augustin  f o r forty years  of Paris,  d*Argentaux"  g r e e t i n g a r e o f wide  interest  T  braves  de  (1721-1768) a  a close friend  of Choiseul,  o f t h e Duke o f Parma.  He  is  p e r h a p s b e s t remembered f o r h i s l i f e l o n g f r i e n d s h i p w i t h taire,  whose c o r r e s p o n d e n c e  Vol-  r e v e a l s t h e utmost c o n f i d e n c e i n  20 d Argental s t  ,  t a s t e and  critical  judgement.  Although  he  21 published  little  himself,  of writers of talent  and,  he was  noted  for his protection  a c c o r d i n g t o l a H a r p e , f o r "un  goftt  • ^ H e r e a l s o one c a n f i n d a p o r t r a i t o f F a l c o n e t s k e t c h e d by Madame D o u b l e t and e n g r a v e d by C a y l u s . Cottin, op. c i t . . p . x x i i n . "de him  ^ C o t t i n ( i b i d . , p . x x i v ) s a y s o n l y t h a t Matha was l a f a m i l l e de l e v € q u e d * A i r e . " No r e f e r e n c e i s made t o i n Michaud*s Biographie u n i v e r s e l l e . f  ^ A few examples f r o m V o l t a i r e s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e will i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . I n 1739, he w r i t e s t o d A r g e n t a l c o n c e r n i n g Zulime; "Je t r a v a i l l e , mais guidez-moi" (Correspond e n c e . V I I I , 290, No. 1738); t h e same y e a r he s u s p e n d s an a t t a c k on D e s f o n t a i n e s : " J a i s u s p e n d u mes procedures, p u i s q u e v o u s me l a v e z o r d o n n e . . ." ( i b i d . , 347, No. 1778). Y e a r s l a t e r , i n 1760-61 h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h L e k a i n i n d i c a t e s t h e same r e l i a n c e on d * A r g e n t a l ; f o r example: Ibid.. X L I I I , 176, No. 8503; X L I V , 88, No. 8589; XLV, 2 3 , No. 8912. 2  f  f  f  T  21  generally  He i s c r e d i t e d w i t h c o l l a b o r a t i o n a t t r i b u t e d t o h i s a u n t , Madame de  i n writings Tencin.  naturellement juste  e t un e s p r i t  oral,  de c e b e a u s i d c l e de L o u i s X I V , d o n t He  was a l s o n o t e d  Jeanne Bosc  n o u r r i de l a p o l i t e s s e  i l a v a i t vu l a f i n . . .  f o r h i s happy m a r r i a g e  t o Mademoiselle  d e B o u c h e r , a n i n t i m a t e f r i e n d o f Madame  Doublet,  d e s c r i b e d b y B a y l e and H e r b l a y a s a " p e r s o n n a l i t e r a r e p a r 1'esprit  e t l e coeur, nature f i n e ,  prompte e t s e d u i s a n t e . " 3 2  Endowed w i t h c o n s i d e r a b l e b u s i n e s s acumen a s w e l l a s j o u r n a l istic  zeal,  s h e was a c t i v e i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e n o u -  v e l l e s a l a main based Veyle, marine,  on Madame D o u b l e t ' s r e g i s t e r s .  d ' A r g e n t a l ' s o l d e r b r o t h e r , i n t e n d a n t d e s c l a s s e s de l a was a l s o a man o f l e t t e r s ,  f a n d a n d an a c t i v e p a r o i s s i e n . w i f e and b r o t h e r as w e l l January  heureuses  letter  a friend  D'Argental  o f Madame d u D e f o u t l i v e d both h i s  a s many o t h e r p a r o i s s i e n s .  1788, t e n y e a r s l a t e r Another  t h a n h i s good f r i e n d  Voltaire. "trop  gens q u i . . . une f o i s l e j o u r , p o u v e s a l l e r  Voisenons."  . . ." 4 2  The r e f e r e n c e h e r e i s undoubtedly  granddaughter  Voisenon,  l i e u t e n a n t - g e n e r a l i n t h e r o y a l army.  highly  al a  Among t h e s e a r e " t o u s  Doublet's  and  dying i n  o f d'figuilles r e f e r s t o other  P a r o i s s e d e ma c h e r e maman les  Pont d e  t o Madame  a n d h e r h u s b a n d , t h e Comte de  esteemed man, h e f o u n d  h i s wife a great  A  wealthy trial  Q _ u o t e d b y L a z a r e , G. i n t h e a r t i c l e " A r g e n t a l , " D i c t i o n n a i r e d e b i o g r a p h i e f r a n c a i s e , P a r i s , I V (1948), 563. 22  3  2  ^ B a y l e a n d H e r b l a y , op., e x t . , p . 225.  4"Correspondance ine'dite du Marquis Revue r e t r o s p e c t i v e , v o l . 4, 1886, 124. 2  d'Eguilles,"  30 because o f "ses g a l a n t e r i e s , son e s p r i t latter  et ses caprices," the  i n c l u d i n g a tendency t o meddle i n m e d i c a l  affairs. -* 2  However, much b e t t e r known and f r e q u e n t l y m e n t i o n e d i n t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s i s h i s b r o t h e r , t h e n o t o r i o u s Abbe de V o i s e non,  godson ( 1 7 0 8 - 1 7 7 5 ) ,  Madame D o u b l e t ' s  who seems t o h a v e  b e e n b o t h t h e " e n f a n t t e r r i b l e " o f t h e p a r o i s s e and h e r g r e a t favourite.  Worldly  own r e q u e s t , thereby  and d i s s i p a t e d , he was g r a n t e d ,  a p u r e l y nominal post  i n t h e church,  at h i s  and was  f r e e t o i n d u l g e h i s w i t and t a s t e f o r p l e a s u r e and  frivolity.  Voisenon  had many i n f l u e n t i a l  friends,  among them  V o l t a i r e , Madame d e C h a t e l e t , C h o i s e u l , and Madame d e Pompadour.  Despite h i s rather s l i g h t  literary  production, consis-  t i n g o f a number o f p l a y s and o f some c o n t e s was a d m i t t e d  libertins,  t o t h e Academie F r a n c a i s e i n 1 7 6 2 . ^ 2  he  His rela-  t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e a c t r e s s Madame F a v a r t , whose h u s b a n d ' s p l a y s Voisenon  was s u s p e c t e d  of w r i t i n g , i s recorded  Memoires e t correspondance.27 were a l s o ,  apparently,  recorded  These " f a c d t i e s  i n Favart*s indecentes"  at Voisenon*s request i n  5 A n a c c o u n t o f h e r mock i n s t a l l a t i o n a s p r e s i d e n t o f t h e P a r i s College of Medicine i s given i n t h e Biographie u n i v e r s e l l e ( M i c h a u d ) XLIV, 4 8 . 2  ^ H i s admission, a c c o r d i n g t o B a y l e and Herblay (op. e x t . , p . 3 9 9 ) was a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f e f f o r t s o f t h e p a r o i s s e i n h i s favour. I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g , however, t h a t P i r o n , a l t h o u g h a p a r o i s s i e n . was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n h i s b i d f o r membership. L o u i s XV r e f u s e d t o r a t i f y t h e e l e c t i o n . 2  27"Voisenon," Biographie u n i v e r s e l l e  42-49.  (Michaud),  XLIV,  31 Madame D o u b l e t ' s long period.  n o u v e l l e s and  were f o o d  H i s charm, g e n e r o s i t y ,  new  w r i t e r s seem t o h a v e won  his  obvious  him  f o r gossip over  and  encouragement  general  affection  one  be  certain?  g r e e t s a s p a r o i s s i e n s t h e Abbe* X a u p i and Abbe" P r 6 v o s t ,  author  o f Manon L e s c a u t .  " l a j o l i e t § t e " seem t o d e s i g n a t e  a grotesquely  u g l y man,  circle  interested tragedies. libertin  i n t h e a r t s and  men of  athee."  one  references Chauvelin,  for his fierce  J a n s e n i s t , he  as  was  also  Voltaire's  "parfaitement  f r i v o l o u s V o i s e n o n and  e r u d i t i o n and  their  the  uprightness  T h e s e a r e Foncemagne (1694-1779), modest  with V o l t a i r e over  at-  2 8  d e v o u t , famous a s an h i s t o r i a n and  friend  Several  f i n d s among t h e p a r o i s s i e n s s e v e r a l  h i g h l y esteemed f o r t h e i r character.  better-known  theatre, especially  P r 6 a u d e a u c h a r a c t e r i z e s him  Chauvelin,  D'Eguilles  t h e Abb6 de  A militant  I n marked c o n t r a s t t o t h e „ aggressive  despite  y  i n w h i c h t h e members o f Madame  rejoiced.  et peut-etre  the  known e s p e c i a l l y  t a c k s upon t h e J e s u i t s , Doublet's  of  weaknesses.  Of what o t h e r names may  to  a  for his long  and  controversy  t h e Testament p o l i t i q u e o f R i c h e l i e u ; h i s  Sainte-Palaye  2 9  (1697-1781), n o t e d  28preaudeau, op., e x t . , p .  for his  research  537.  9 w i t h S a i n t e - P a l a y e , a s a shadow, a p p e a r e d a l w a y s h i s t w i n b r o t h e r La C u r n e , whose d e v o t e d c a r e made S a i n t e P a l a y e ' s monumental r e s e a r c h p o s s i b l e . See, f o r example, the a r t i c l e "Sainte-Palaye" i n Biographie universelle, XXXVII, 295. 2  32 into the history,  language  and l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e M i d d l e Ages,  and J e a n - B a p t i s t e de M i r a b a u d  (1675-1760), t h e t r a n s l a t o r o f  Tasso's Jerusalem D e l i v e r e d .  A l l t h r e e were eminent  c i a n s and a l l l i v e d until  t h e end.  t o be w e l l  academi-  o v e r e i g h t y , a c t i v e and a l e r t  B o t h S a i n t e - P a l a y e and M i r a b a u d  had connec-  t i o n s w i t h t h e f a m i l y o f t h e Duke o f O r l e a n s , a s d i d Madame D o u b l e t ' s husband.  We have a l r e a d y n o t e d  Foncemagne's  presence a t e a r l i e r  gatherings o f the Coypel  circle.  O t h e r p a r o i s s i e n s mentioned, by t h e M a r q u i s h a v e been i d e n t i f i e d , Montesquiou"  b u t some r e m a i n m e r e l y  whom h e g r e e t s a r e , no d o u b t ,  d a u g h t e r o f Madame D o u b l e t Montesquiou,  who h e l d an a p p o i n t m e n t  t h e names Ba'ile and N i c o l a i  c o n s e i l l e r d u r o i en s o n g r a n d Nicolai,  names.  the other  i n t h e army.  refer t o "Nicolas  de N e s t i e r ,  Bailie,  He g i v e s no e x l e Coudray,  de M i r a b e l l e and d e V a l o r i ,  and t h i s p r e s e n t s u r v e y h a s n o t a t t e m p t e d this  suggests  c o n s e i l , " and G u i l l a u m e  p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e names o f d e M o n t l a u r , P e t r o c i n i , de L e i t r e ,  grand-  Cottin,  correspondence^  a c o m p a t r i o t o f t h e young Marquis.  Bachelier,  "Les  and h e r husband, P i e r r e de  i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e Marquis* that  d'Eguilles  any r e s e a r c h i n t o  area. The  list,  however, i s by no means c o m p l e t e .  c e r t a i n t h a t t h e Abb6 d e B e r n i s (1715-1794)> and d i s t i n g u i s h e d  30cottin,  career as poet,  op. c i t . ,  I t seems  who h a d a l o n g  academician, m i n i s t e r o f  pp. x x i i - x x i v .  33 foreign  a f f a i r s u n d e r L o u i s XV, a m b a s s a d o r and c a r d i n a l ,  31 attended  the gatherings  o f Madame D o u b l e t ' s  paroisse.  We h a v e a l r e a d y n o t e d t h e p r e s e n c e o f P i r o n , f r i e n d o f h e r brother,  famous f o r h i s gay p a r o d i e s  and e p i g r a m s , f o r h i s  M e t r o m a n i e . and f o r h i s i n t e n s e h a t r e d  of Voltaire.  A  letter  t o t h e l i e u t e n a n t o f p o l i c e f r o m d e Mouhy, q u o t e d by B r e n t a n o , and  dated  1762, g i v e s u s t h e a d d i t i o n a l names o f two  D e v a u r e and F i r m i n ,  and mentions a l s o t h r e e l a d i e s ,  R o n d e t d e V i l l e n e u v e , d e B e s e n v a l and d u B o c c a g e . the best greeted and  J  doctors, Mesdames Of  known i s Madame d u B o c c a g e (1710-1802), t h e p o e t e s s , with  s u c h e n t h u s i a s m by h e r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s i n F r a n c e  a b r o a d a s f o r m a V e n u s , a r t e M i n e r v a , b u t remembered  chiefly friend  these,  f o r her l e t t e r s . of Fontenelle  Member o f s e v e r a l l i t e r a r y  and M a i r a n , a c c l a i m e d  i n g the other  l a d i e s we h a v e l e s s  societies,  by V o l t a i r e ,  must h a v e b e e n a c h a r m i n g a d d i t i o n t o t h e p a r o i s s e .  today  she  Concern-  information.33  3^-Mitford, Nancy, op., c i t . , g i v e s much v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e l i f e and c h a r a c t e r o f d e B e r n i s , known by V o l t a i r e a s " B a b e t l a B o u q u e t i e r e . " See e s p e c i a l l y p p . 47 - 48, 195 - 200, 236 - 239, 254.  32 F u n c k - B r e n t a n o , op_. c i t . , p . 274. 3 3 i t seems p r o b a b l e t h a t Madame d e B e s e n v a l i s the l a d y mentioned i n a note accompanying Rousseau's Confess i o n s . P l e i a d e e d . , I , 1381, a s " l a c o m t e s s e C a t h e r i n e B i e l i n s k a , parents d u r o i S t a n i s l a u s , " who had m a r r i e d Baron J e a n - V i c t o r de B e s e n v a l d u r i n g h i s s o j o u r n i n P o l a n d a s F r e n c h envoy t o t h a t c o u n t r y . I have n o t been a b l e t o f i n d any i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t Madame R o n d e t d e V i l l e n e u v e .  34 T h e s e , t h e n , a r e t h e p e r s o n s whose p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Madame D o u b l e t ' s p a r o i s s e attempts t o r e c o n s t r u c t  seems r e a s o n a b l y c e r t a i n .  t h e membership, s c h o l a r s  many o t h e r  f i g u r e s o f t h e day.  along with  some o f t h o s e a l r e a d y  telle,  have  included  Pre"audeau, f o r example, cited  lists  t h e names o f Carmon-  t h e y o u n g e r d e T r o y , t h e C o u n t de C a y l u s and t h e Abbe'  Crozat,  as w e l l  Besenval. recent,  as M o n s i e u r du Boccage and t h e Baron de  V a n B e v e r ' s s t u d y o f 1912, a p p a r e n t l y  gives  includes  a careful l i s t  t h e most  o f twenty-nine p a r o i s s i e n s . but  t h e r e i n Coypel, Rigaud, L a r g i l l i e r e ,  Marivaux. but  Yet, i n  H e l v e t i u s and  T h e s e may w e l l h a v e been f r i e n d s o f Madame D o u b l e t ,  were n o t n e c e s s a r i l y members o f h e r p a r o i s s e .  includes  t h e M a r q u i s d ' A r g e n s and even V o l t a i r e .  Herblay35 d d t o t h e i r l i s t de l a M o r l i e r e  B a y l e and  s u c h u n l i k e l y members a s t h e  a  Chevalier  Cottin^  and t h e p o l i c e - s p y  No r e v i e w o f t h e p a r o i s s e  de M o u h y . ^  i s complete without  special  37 reference Said and  t o Mairobert,  by t h e g o s s i p  who c o n t i n u e d  the nouvelles  a l a main.  o f t h e d a y t o b e t h e s o n o f Madame D o u b l e t  Bachaumont, M a i r o b e r t  a p p e a r s t o h a v e become a  3 4 c o t t i n , op_. e x t . ,  frequent  p. x x i i i .  ^ ^ B a y l e and H e r b l a y , op., e x t . ,  p . 224.  ^ B r e n t a n o , op_. e x t . , p . 273, seems q u i t e c o r r e c t i n p o i n t i n g o u t t h e i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f de Mouhy's e v e r h a v i n g b e e n "un d i s c i p l e a s s i d u de l a p a r o i s s e . " ^Consideration " the later contributions of M a i r o b e r t s successor, Moufle d A n g e r v i l l e , l i e s well the scope o f t h e present study. o r  T  f  beyond  35 visitor  to the paroisse  f r o m an e a r l y a g e .  lacking,  however, and h i s e a r l y c a r e e r  I n 1749,  aged t w e n t y - t w o , he was  for r e c i t i n g s e d i t i o u s verses.  Precise dates are  seems r a t h e r  imprisoned i n the  Bastille  A t t h a t t i m e , he i s  a s " e p r i s de l i t t e V a t u r e e t d i n d e p e n d a n c e , T  tres  shadowy.  recorded  frondeur,  a t t a q u a n t l e s m i n i s t r e s , Madame de Pompadour, l e r o i lui-meme; il  est f i e r  de n o u e r l e s r e l a t i o n s a v e c l e s e c r i v a i n s en renom;  18 il  c o l p o r t e l e u r s oeuvres  a p o l i c e report la  p l u s mauvaise  which  . . .",  and t h e same s o u r c e q u o t e s  sums him up  a s "un d e s g a r c o n s q u i a i e n t  l a n g u e de P a r i s . "  working f o r a time i n the Archives doubt  He  Just  when t h i s f  V o l t a i r e d a t e d 1754  mentions  posts, no  f o r Madame D o u b l e t ' s  " d i m i n u t i f de  became B a c h a u m o n t s s e c r e t a r y  various  de l a M a r i n e , and was  a welcome s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n  bulletins.  held  Beaumarchais"^  9  i s not c l e a r , but a l e t t e r  of  "un nomme M e r o b e r t q u i t r o t t e  p o u r M o n s i e u r de Bachaumont"*^ and B r e n t a n o q u o t e s a n o t e t o the  p o l i c e which i n d i c a t e s t h a t M a i r o b e r t  Madame D o u b l e t ' s n o u v e l l e s  i n 1766.*"'"  was  The  extent  i n f l u e n c e on t h e e a r l y M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s b e a r s ° B r e n t a n o , op_. c i t . . p .  working at of h i s  considering.  282.  39 M o u f l e d ' A n g e r v i l l e i n h i s V i e Prive'e de L o u i s XV says t h a t Mairobert " v i f et souple, i n t r i g a n t et h a r d i , p a r l e u r c a u s t i q u e , o r a c l e d e s f o y e r s de l a c o m i d i e , c o u r t i s a n d e s l i e u t e n a n t s de p o l i c e , h a b i l e a c h a n g e r de masque e t a s e f a u f i l e r c h e z l e s g r a n d s , n o u s f i g u r e a s s e z b i e n un d i m i n u t i f de B e a u m a r c h a i s . " F u n c k - B r e n t a n o , op., e x t . , p . 284. 4 0  Voltaire,  C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . XXIV, 105,  ^^-Funck-Brentano,  op., e x t . , p .  281.  No.  5052.  36 What c o n c l u s i o n s cursory the  le  terme l e p l u s  l o n g e v i t y e n j o y e d by r e c u l e ' de  perhaps, the u n i f o r m i t y o v e r w h e l m e d by  r e a d i l y drawn f r o m e v e n a  most members:  of t h e i r  lives  met  daily  . . ."42  ends and  each o t h e r  some t h i r t y  artistic,  can  atteint But  one  there,  i s almost  A r o u n d Madame people,  religious,  i n t o l e r a n t and  marvel  "tout ont  l a v i e humaine  interests—political, Holding  W i t h Grimm, one  a sense of t h e i r d i v e r s i t y .  Doublet's table there  ary.  be  survey of the paroisse?  at  varied  can  with  and  liter-  a f f e c t i o n a t e esteem,  despite at times t h e i r  c o n f l i c t i n g p o i n t s o f view, t h e y  suc-  ceeded i n t r a n s f o r m i n g  their lively  of  their  day  i n t o an  Finally, literary  amazingly s u c c e s s f u l j o u r n a l i s t i c before  criticism  legacy  passing  found i n the  M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s , one work i s t h e  interest in affairs  should  of the  enterprise.  to a consideration of  the  first  the  f i v e volumes o f  remember t h a t , a l t h o u g h  paroisse.  i t represents  this  a derivative  e d i t i n g o f Bachaumont's own  e d i t i n g o f Madame D o u b l e t ' s r e g i s -  t e r s and  o r i g i n a l p a r o i s s e may  that  echoes o f the  become r a t h e r c o n f u s e d  and  faint.  c o v e r e d , 1762-1771, r e p r e s e n t s years  when, s a d d e n e d by  b e r s may period and  the  Furthermore, the  the paroisse  deaths of t h e i r  a l s o , p o l i c e s u p e r v i s i o n of the have been c a r e f u l l y  Grimm, op.  c i t . , IX,  317.  have  period  in i t s declining f r i e n d s , t h e mem-  h a v e become l e s s m i l i t a n t t h a n b e f o r e .  comments may  well  In  g r o u p was  worded t o  this  more  confuse  strict, the  censor.  N e v e r t h e l e s s ^ t h e s e volumes, so e a g e r l y sought  t h e time o f t h e i r p u b l i c a t i o n , remain an i n t e r e s t i n g v a l u a b l e r e c o r d o f contemporary o p i n i o n and  at  and  constitute  f o r t h e modern reader "un des p l u s p r 6 c i e u x m i r o i r s de l a s o c i e t e du d i x - h u i t i e m e s i e c l e . " ' * ^  H a t i n , E. f rancaise. p. 67. 4 , 5  B i b l i o g r a p h i e de l a p r e s s e  pe>iodique  CHAPTER I I I THE The in  the  dominant f i g u r e i n t h e  and,  The  first  d u r i n g the  h u n d r e d and in  fifty  two  literary  reflect  the  are  e n t r i e s i n the  ensuing  scene  general  evidence  journal  interest  I n p a r t , the  curiosity  t h a t he  of h i s p r o l i f i c  numerous  T  that  the  e x i s t e d between V o l t a i r e  gardien."  references  pen.  However, t h e r e the  are  philosophe  case,  but  he may  f r i e n d s h i p , already and  d'Argental,  and  noted,  h i s "ange  w e l l h a v e b e e n an o c c a s i o n a l  h i s awareness o f t h e  of the p u b l i c i t y  value  In a l e t t e r  speaks o f having  sent  p o u r en o r n e r  i n 1750,  an  existence  item  t o Madame S o l a r , d a t e d to  visitor.  paroisse  1742,  "Monsieur l e p r e s i d e n t  l e grand l i v r e  r e f e r r i n g t o some v e r s e s  Voltaire,  of the  is  o f t h e r e g i s t e r s i s shown i n h i s  correspondence.  Meiniere  great w r i t e r  V o l t a i r e ' s attendance at p a r o i s s e gatherings  recorded  I n any  and  paroisse  aroused; i n p a r t ,  most o b v i o u s l i n k between t h e  Madame D o u b l e t s s a l o n was  and  two  Ferney. The  not  concern  of the  more d e f i n i t e bonds l i n k i n g t h e p a r o i s s e and de  reviewed  d e c a d e (1762-1771), some  items r e c o r d the  h i s many a c t i v i t i e s .  they  VOLTAIRE  e a r l y volumes o f the Memoires s e c r e t s i s c e r t a i n l y  Voltaire. him  MEMOIRES SECRETS AND  he de  de Madame Doublet,"'*' imputed  Correspondence. XII,  104  t o him,  - 105,  No.  he  2479.  39 wrote t o d'Argental: le  grand  livre  " P r o t e s t e z done, j e v o u s en p r i e ,  de Madame D o u b l e t ,  dans  contre l e s Impertlnents q u i  2 m'attrxbueraient  ces impertinences  . . . "  Voltaire  seems t o  h a v e known Bachaumont, a n d makes s e v e r a l r e f e r e n c e s t o h i m . The  Besterman C o r r e s p o n d e n c e even i n c l u d e s a l e t t e r  t oour  p a r o i s s i e n t h a n k i n g h i m f o r a p e r s o n a l f a v o u r and r e f e r r i n g t o Bachaumont*s y o u n g prote'ge,  Boyer d E g u i l l e s . 3 f  Indeed,  V o l t a i r e numbered s e v e r a l o t h e r p a r o i s s i e n s among h i s f r i e n d s , ' and  certainly  t h e Memoires g i v e abundant p r o o f t h a t t h e  p a r o i s s e was w e l l i n f o r m e d  with regard t o events  V o l t a i r e i n t h i s p e r i o d was s t i l l  a t Ferney.  a c t i v e i n most  areas  o f l i t e r a t u r e a l t h o u g h h i s e f f o r t s were by no means e v e n l y distributed his find  greatest productivity  i nhistorical  correspondingly l i t t l e  to t h i s 1763,  among a l l t h e v a r i o u s g e n r e s .  w r i t i n g was p a s t , we  i n t h e Memoires  area, t h e e n t r i e s being confined mainly  1 7 6 8 , and 1 7 6 9 .  When t h e s e c o n d  de P i e r r e l e G r a n d a p p e a r e d they  criticism  Since t h e time o f  a r e pleased t o note  devoted  t o the years  volume o f h i s H i s t o i r e  i n 1763 t h e M e m o i r e s .  although  "des £tincelles de g e n i e " a t  1 6 6 , No. 3 6 5 3 .  2  Ibid..  XVIII,  3  Ibid..  XV, 2 0 9 , No. 3 1 9 6 .  ^We h a v e a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d V o i s e n o n a n d Madame d u Boccage, b u t h i s correspondence r e v e a l s c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h o t h e r paroissiens. F o r example, h e seems t o h a v e known Madame d e B e s e n v a l ( I b i d . . I , 304 - 3 0 5 ) ; h e c o n s u l t e d M a i r a n a b o u t p h y s i c s , c a l l i n g him t h e " p h i l o s o p h e a i m a b l e " ( i b i d . . V I I , 363), a n d a t o n e t i m e c o n s i d e r e d l e a s i n g S a i n t e ~ P a l a y e s h o u s e ( I b i d . . X X X I I I , 2 4 4 ; XXXIV, 2 5 ) . f  intervals, his  f i n d t h e work "extremement croque'. "-  8-volume N o u v e l l e H i s t o i r e  brilliant  style,  but  find  surtout 1*exactitude premiere  Reacting to  >  gene>ale. they p r a i s e h i s u s u a l  that i t l a c k s " l a profondeur,  sur l a q u e l l e est f o n d l e l a ve>acite,  q u a l i t y d'un  historien."  L a t e r i n t h e same y e a r ,  r e f e r r i n g to h i s Histoire universelle. Voltaire of s u p e r f i c i a l i t y : n'approfondit  rien,  et  they  " I I veut t o u t  again  accuse  embrasser,  e t t r a i t e t o u s l e s eVdnements de l a  m a n i e r e l a p l u s vague, l a m o i n s c i r c o n s t a n c i e ' e ,  et  souvent  n  la  p l u s e'ronne'e."  S i e c l e de merely  L o u i s XV.  which appeared  r e c o r d i n g the adverse  t h o u g h t h e y had The  P a s s i n g comment o n l y i s g i v e n t o  de P a r i s .  questioned as l i k e l y  r e a c t i o n o f t h e Parlement. a l -  The  Voltaire-  a brief  t o p i c but of  produced  wisdom o f s u c h  survey, t h e second  thereby  of the c o l p o r t e u r s .  volume i s j u d g e d  " I I e s t a p o r t e e du  t e u r s e t s e r a p l u s connu que  Later,  t o be o f f t h e  grand  use  nombre d e s l e c -  s ' i l 6tait profond,  savant,  M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s , I , 241. S p e l l i n g has been s t a n d a r d i z e d i n a l l q u o t a t i o n s f r o m t h e M e m o i r e s and o t h e r contemporary t e x t s . 3  I,  243.  7lbid., I,  284.  6  Ibid..  du  a production i s  general praise i s given to V o l t a i r e ' s s k i l f u l  simple prose:  work.  his Histoire  to antagonize the Parlement.  i n v i t i n g punishment, e s p e c i a l l y in  t h e Memoires  hoped f o r a f a v o u r a b l e r e c e p t i o n o f t h i s  f o l l o w i n g y e a r , 1769,  Parlement  i n 1768,  the  exact  et austere."°  The  final  reference implies that  the  work i s f a r f r o m o b j e c t i v e , s i n c e t h e P a r l e m e n t i s a r r a n g i n g for publication of certain  f a c t s t h a t V o l t a i r e has  "omis  expres." V o l t a i r e s merits  as a l i t e r a r y  T  by  t h e Memoires c h i e f l y  works o f C o r n e i l l e , is  on  critic  reviewed  the occasion of h i s e d i t i o n of  w h i c h a p p e a r e d i n 1764.  generally unfavourable  are  and  accuses  The  the  commentary  V o l t a i r e of p e t t i n e s s  c o n c e r n i n g m i n o r p o i n t s o f grammar, o f b e i n g r e p e t i t i o u s ,  and  o f showing p r e f e r e n c e  the  Memoires c o n c l u d e : vues g e n ^ r a l e s , tragedies.  On  "En  un mot,  et n u l l e sent  ne  s y m p a t h i s a i t pas  de  Voltaire."^ Critical  as a p l a y w r i g h t ,  over rien  C o r n e i l l e . A n d so d*approfondi,  a n a l y s e r e f l e c h i e d ' a u c u n e de  f a c i l e m e n t que  ce t r a v a i l  avec 1 i m a g i n a t i o n  et cofiteux  Voltaire  though g e n e r a l l y e q u a l l y c o n c i s e , a r e The  second e n t r y i n t h e Memoires Zulime.  t h e p l a y has  At  first,  withheld  until  mances.  Then f o l l o w s a d e t a i l e d  plot  unlikely psychological structure.  bornness of the author  °Ibid.. IV, Ibid..  ces  expressions of opinion concerning  f  9  lent  de  Monsieur  1  example, V o l t a i r e s  and  point  f o u g e u s e de  what more numerous. for  f o r Racine  50.  concerns,  comment i s  i t s run o f n i n e p e r f o r -  criticism  of i t s i l l o g i c a l Only  the  i n b e l i e v i n g i n the worth o f  329.  I I , 43,  completed  full  some-  stubthis  42 " m o n s t r u e u x drame," d e s p i t e i t s f a i l u r e t w e n t y - t h r e e  years  earlier,  unfor-  tunate  could  h a v e e n c o u r a g e d , we  production.  summarize t h e  We  general  are  are  told,  even f a v o u r e d  s u c h an  with  a couplet  to  sentiment:  Du temps q u i d i t r u i t t o u t , V o l t a i r e e s t l a v i c t i m e ; S o u v e n e z - v o u s de l u i , m a i s o u b l i e z Z u l i m e . i O Certainly,  one  favouritism At en  cannot accuse the  for a  vers," l*Ecueil  same d a t e ,  du  dans l e comique."  earlier sont  une  The  a voulu  brief  ses  plus  "Les  boulevards;  a l a d e r r i e r e t r a g e d i e de  1 : L  I,  44.  Ibid.,  I,  24  -  le  25.  et c'est  en  of  the the  actes troisieme et  I I y a pourtant  Drame e s t s u p e r i e u r  IMd.,  aussi  deux p r e m i e r s  l e grand m a l t r e ,  same p l a y  avoir  i s a l s o noted,  l e quatrieme l e s o u t i e n t ,  detestables.  review of t h i s  apres  follows i s largely  scenes qui decelent  detailed  that  p h r a s e d i n a manner t y p i c a l  p a r a d e d i g n e des  s e monte s u r l e h a u t t o n ,  envieux,  sans doute echouer  summary t h a t  volumes o f t h e Memoires: f a r c e , une  philosophique  c u t t i n g remark  whatever i s praiseworthy  judgements b e i n g  c i n q u i e m e e s t des  "come'die  Sage, e v o k e s t h e  echoue dans l e t r a g i q u e ,  critical  a new  V o l t a i r e , pour c o n s o l e r  u n f a v o u r a b l e but  expressing  friend.  about t h e  " M o n s i e u r de  Memoires o f  le  quelques  c e l a que  ce  l'auteur. " ^  A  i s promised but  not  included  in  the  o r i g i n a l Memoires.  I t a p p e a r s , however, i n  s u p p l e m e n t s , where a l e n g t h y more d e t a i l s o f t h i s again  tout  predicateur His  onction  q u i ne  Olvmpie i s d i s m i s s e d  va  as a " t r a g e d i e  circulating  (1763) i n m a n u s c r i p t  general  context  writings. only.^  The  the  tragedy,  later,  Adelaide  famous coup de  On  fort  du  i n t h i s chapter  Guesclin,  canon.^  beaucoup de  Ibid.,  XVI,  1 3  Ibid.,  I,  140  246  -  lbid..  II,  255.  two  brief  more  -  references  of V o l t a i r e ' s  i s a t t r i b u t e d to  Another h i s t o r i c a l  i n s p i r e s very  vers  4 i b i d . , I , 302,  1 5  then  i n the  r e c e p t i v e to innovations  cette tragedie  1 2  1  grand  f o r m , p r o v o k e s s e v e r a l com-  247.  303.  comment: en  et majestueuse.  heureux et f a c i l e s .  144.  tragedy,  favourable  belle  the  such  e s t imposante, l e s t y l e  et soutenu, l a v e r s i f i c a t i o n  y trouve  Voltaire's  t r e s m e d i o c r e d'un  a successful revival  d a t e d 1766,  " L ' o r d o n n a n c e de est  1  of reactions to V o l t a i r e ' s a n t i - r e l i g i o u s  years  l e Triumvirat.  .n- -*  more c o n t r o v e r s i a l S a u l ,  discuss later  c h a n g e i n p u b l i c t a s t e s , now as  point  . .  reviewed.  A r e v i s e d Mariamne meets w i t h Two  earlier  l u i ; i l n'est  are b r i e f l y  spectacle.""^  will  qu'a  but  characters  a u s s i penetrant  a p p a r e i l de  ments w h i c h we  romanesque,"  i n making h i s  aussi insinuant,  remaining plays  i s i n s e r t e d , g i v i n g many a fait  praising Voltaire's s k i l l  s p e a k " a v e c une de  "tissu  item  the  En  un  mot,  on  l a j u g e d e M. de V o l t a i r e . " 6  Less well r e c e i v e d are  x  Pandore, which V o l t a i r e , tous  "toujours  j a l o u x de b r i l l e r  dans  l e s g e n r e s , " h a d h a d s e t t o m u s i c ^ and C h a r i o t . a x  "drame t r a g i - c o m i q u e latter, n ait f  en t r o i s  actes  t h e M e m o i r e s comment t h a t  j a m a i s ete' m e r v e i l l e u s e ,  dans c e t ouvrage t r e s f r o i d , caractere n est f  bourgeois  e t en v e r s v "  Of t h e  " q u o i q u e s a t o u c h e cbmique  elle  e s t du p l u s mauvais  tres triste,  e t dont  aucun  d e v e l o p p e q u a u x noms d e s a c t e u r s . " f  p a s t o r a l , l e s Scythes,  x o  some "morceaux d e l a p l u s  therein. and  Especially deplorable  P r a s l i n made, we a r e t o l d ,  plein d*adulation indulge  review,  grande f o r c e " a r e found  i s the dedication to Choiseul i n a tone " l e p l u s bas e t  l a p l u s outre"e." 9 x  i n such s e r v i l e f l a t t e r y  occasions  A  which V o l t a i r e had sent t o  C a r d i n a l de B e r n i s , r e c e i v e s a g e n e r a l l y u n f a v o u r a b l e although  gout  V o l t a i r e s tendency t o  i s pointed  f  o u t on s e v e r a l  a s one o f h i s l e s s d e s i r a b l e a t t r i b u t e s .  Perfor-  mances o f h i s e s t a b l i s h e d p l a y s , T a n c r e d e . S e m i r a m i s and Brutus. nature  draw no added comment, and t h e l a s t  entry of t h i s  i s an a c c o u n t o f t h e embarrassment o f t h e Come'diens  who, h a v i n g  r e f u s e d l e D e p o s i t a i r e a s "bassement i n t r i g u e ' e " >:  J - ^ i b i d . . I l l , 139. An a d d i t i o n a l n o t e t h i s p l a y w i l l be f o u n d i n my C h a p t e r 5. J-^ibid..  Ill,  152, 166.  Ibid..  Ill,  283 - 284.  J-^lbid.. I l l ,  189 - 190.  l 8  concerning  45 and  "platement  Fortunately,  e c r i t e , " discovered  the  a u t h o r t o be  h i s f r i e n d s withdrew i t from the  Voltaire.  actors  before  20 they  c o u l d perform i t out The  M e m o i r e s do  Voltaire's plays his poetry.  of a sense o f o b l i g a t i o n .  not  contain  extensive  f o r the p e r i o d , nor  Scattered  examples o f h i s " v e r s  throughout the g a l a n t s , " and  epigrams are presented  do  with  relish,  they  criticism  of  d i s c u s s at  v o l u m e s one  length  f i n d s some  a number o f h i s w i t t y especially  those  directed  21  against ous  Pompignan and  didactic  works i n v e r s e  en v e r s , " and on  All  an  "epxtre  atheism—judged  admitted  t o be  these  Frdron.  t o be  en  There are  form:  references  a " f a b l e en  vers," the l a t t e r being  somewhat i l l o g i c a l — b u t  are c r i t i c i z e d ,  direct  references  in  supplements.  composed by Freron,  no 2 0  t o V o l t a i r e a s a p o e t a r e two One  c o n c e r n s an ode  V o l t a i r e i n h i s y o u t h and doubt out  Ibid..  V,  of spite. 78  -  to St.  published  I t i s admitted  an  vari"conte  attack  Voltaire  is  contre."  However, f o r t h e i r  rather than f o r t h e i r l a c k of p o e t i c q u a l i t i e s .  the  vers," a  "accoutume a p r § c h e r l e p o u r e t l e  pieces  to  The that  2 2  content only occur  Genevieve, i n 1764 t o be  by  very  79.  21 As  f o r example, t h e f o l l o w i n g : "Un j o u r l o i n du s a c r e v a l l o n Un s e r p e n t m o r d i t J e a n F r e r o n . Savez-vous ce q u * i l a r r i v a ? Ce f u t l e s e r p e n t q u i c r e v a . " (ibid., See a l s o I b i d . , I , 320, 349.  22 I b i d . , IV, 143,  151,  248.  I,  182)  p o o r a n d t h e M e m o i r e s a d d , " I I en f a u t c o n c l u r e q u i l  avait  T  peu  de d i s p o s i t i o n p o u r l a poe"sie l y r i q u e  second concerns  receives this direct genres,  voudrait  The  a p i n d a r i c o d e t o t h e Empress o f R u s s i a ,  1768, i n w h i c h V o l t a i r e ,  fer ents  et sacree." °  apparently  comment:  d e s i r i n g t o out-do  "Ce g r a n d  homme, d a n s  a t o u j o u r s echoue d a n s c e l u i - c i ,  dated  Pindar,  dif-  et i l  e f f a c e r du t e m p l e de memoire l e s noms d e s g r a n d 24.  maitres  de l ' o d e . " T h u s f a r t h e g e n e r a l t e n o r o f most o f t h e a l l u s i o n s  to V o l t a i r e ' s w r i t i n g s reveals a decidedly negative on  t h e p a r t o f t h e c o n t r i b u t o r s t o t h e Memoires.  torical  w o r k s , w h i l e commended f o r s i m p l i c i t y  clarity  of expression,  superficial, is  sketchy  unfavourably  a r e accused  and w a r p e d .  reviewed.  attitude  His his-  o f s t y l e and  o f b e i n g a t t h e same  time  His edition of Corneille  Finally,  h i s dramatic  works  pro-  duced d u r i n g t h e decade i n q u e s t i o n r e c e i v e o n l y s c a n t p r a i s e ; except and  f o r l e T r i u m v i r a t . they  weak i n c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n .  considered  t o have exhausted  as f o o l i s h l y  a r e seen as i l l o g i c a l One g a t h e r s  h i s best  that Voltaire i s  efforts  t r y i n g to excel i n a l l areas.  i n plot  and he i s s e e n  H i s l i g h t and  s p a r k l i n g v e r s e i s o b v i o u s l y a d m i r e d a s an e x c e l l e n t v e h i c l e f o r h i s sharp  w i t , b u t i n g e n e r a l i t i s conceded t h a t  i s not h i s strong point.  2 3  2  Ibid..  X V I , 240.  4 i b i d . , XIX, 4.  poetry  47 What e x p e c i a l l y on V o l t a i r e is  emerges from  a study of the o p i n i o n s  e x p r e s s e d i n t h e Memoires s e c r e t s f o r t h i s  a p i c t u r e o f t h e immense v i t a l i t y  most f e v e r i s h o u t p u t o f h i s pen, w i t h which a l l h i s a c t i v i t i e s personal l i f e  are frequently  whereabouts, h i s q u a r r e l s ,  pamphlets,  letters,  o f h i s mind, o f t h e a l -  and  evidence of the  were f o l l o w e d . reported:  an a l m o s t  contes, e p i s t l e s ,  eagerness  Details of h i s  h i s h e a l t h , his..-,  h i s communions.  the w r i t i n g s already noted,  decade  In addition  to  bewildering variety brochures,  as w e l l  l a r g e r works such as h i s D i c t i o n n a i r e p h i l o s o p h i q u e a r e logued as p o i n t i n g to h i s t i r e l e s s superstition." are devoted will  S i n c e more t h a n h a l f t h e V o l t a i r i a n  to t h i s last  a s p e c t o f h i s work, no  be p o s s i b l e i n o u r b r i e f  comments may, s i o n s about  e f f o r t s t o combat  survey.  p e r s o n a l as w e l l  entries  complete  study  typical  that  especially  one  cannot  i n the  area  They a r e t h e r e f o r e q u i c k t o j u d g e h i s  as h i s l i t e r a r y  q u a l i t i e s n o r do  t a t e t o e x p r e s s b o t h a d m i r a t i o n and  his actions,  they  severe c r i t i c i s m  Certain of h i s personal t r a i t s ,  hesi-  in this  evidenced i n h i s  receive acclaim.  Chief of  these  h i s h u m a n i t y , r e v e a l e d i n v a r i o u s w o r k s s u c h a s t h e Sermon  du R a b i n - A k i b , and  "infamous  A sampling of  t o t a k e t h e view  from h i s w r i t i n g s ,  o f h i s d i d a c t i c works.  is  cata-  the opinions expressed.  separate V o l t a i r e  w r i t i n g s and  as  however, e n a b l e u s t o draw some g e n e r a l c o n c l u -  The M e m o i r e s a p p e a r  regard.  of  an a t t a c k on t h e l a s t  in his activities  auto-da-fe i n Lisbon,  on h e h a l f o f v i c t i m s o f  religious  48 intolerance. in  The  Memoires r e c o r d w i t h  a i d of such persons:  letters  on  h i s o f f e r s of f i n a n c i a l  qui coulent  s i naturellement  1 ' i n n o c e n c e opprime'e. " -* 2  assure  "de  de V o l t a i r e , " w i t h  de  a i d and  the  final  adverse c r i t i c i s m  admit h i s g e n e r o s i t y  of kindness,  and  of l e t t e r s  ce  les  rehabilitation  s o i n s e t aux  reclama-  added n o t e t h a t i t w i l l  l'humanite'."  of h i s Corneille ,  une  Likewise,  place despite  t h e Memoires  towards M i l e C o r n e i l l e ,  proceeds are destined.  his  ce  l a plume de  p l u s en p l u s a c e p o e t e p h i l o s o p h i q u e  p a r m i l e s b i e n f a i t e u r s de  men  The  S i r v e n f a m i l y i s a t t r i b u t e d "aux  t i o n s de M.  the  efforts  e c r i v a i n l o r s q u . l i l pr§che l'humanite et defend  d r o i t s de of the  his  t h e i r b e h a l f , w r i t t e n "avec c e t t e o n c t i o n ,  pathe"tique grand  approval  readily  f o r whom  They a l s o r e c o r d o t h e r  little  the acts  express a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s h o s p i t a l i t y  a t F e r n e y — h o s p i t a l i t y w h i c h was  at  for  times  abused. '' 2  Apart  from such t r i b u t e s t o h i s p e r s o n a l  t h e Memoires f a v o u r a b l y  appraise  Voltaire's talent for clarity is  noted  especially  h i s thought. dilection  The  as  and  a powerful  Memoires r e c o r d  for h i s " l e t t r e s courtes  2 5  Ibid..  Ill,  2 6  Ibid..  V,  2  h i s techniques  ?Ibid..  212. 33.  I I , 271;  IV,  3.  simplicity  of  qualities, and  style.  expression  a i d to popularization of also the p u b l i c ' s e t 1 6 g e r e s " and  prethey  praise  "la  legerete,  l a bonne p l a i s a n t e r i e ,  penetrant" characteristic  o f much o f h i s work.  t h e enjoyment o f t h e p a r o i s s i e n s tical  j o k e s and  "On  ne p e u t  donne s a n s c e s s e M.  nent: il  qui  ses sarcasmes,  better brief  the Memoires:  "On  n ' a p p a r t i e n t qu'a  jouer l e public  2 9  i l l e harcele  q u o i q u ' i l s ne lire  avec  soient  criticize  literary  We  and p e r s o n a l .  plaisir." ^ 3  clarity,  both sarcasm,  t o e x c e s s , even i n  S i r v e n a f f a i r s where " l ' a u t e u r c o n t i n u e a  s e r v i r de l ' i r o n i e qui  humanitarian  t h a t h i s w i t and  w h i l e e n j o y a b l e , t e n d o f t e n t o be c a r r i e d t h e C a l a s and  pas  h i s shortcomings,  are t o l d  that  delicate,  s u c h o b v i o u s a d m i r a t i o n f o r h i s w i t and  t h e Memoires f r e q u e n t l y  et a t r a i t e r  en p l a i s a n t a n t ,  p a r a i s s e n t m e r i t e r un t o n p l u s s e r i e u x . "  2 8  lbid.,  II,  250.  3 0  Ibid..  II,  48.  ex-  contes  found than  D e s p i t e such h i g h r e g a r d f o r V o l t a i r e ' s and  oppo-  en c e t Stat  Concerning V o l t a i r e ' s c o u l d be  se  legerement,  y t r o u v e t o u j o u r s cette t o u c h e lui:  are  et l e  a s s a u l t s upon an  et l e l a i s s e  appraisal  egalement bons, i l s se f o n t  qualities  senses  r i r e d e s mouvements que  de V o l t a i r e p o u r  pose a l a r i s e e p u b l i q u e . "  in  trop  They r e l i s h h i s w i t t y  l e c o u v r e de  no  One  et  as they w i t n e s s h i s p r a c -  " I I v o l t i g e a u t o u r de l u i ,  perhaps  pur  h i s f r e q u e n t d i s a v o w a l s o f works t h a t  obviously h i s :  persifler."^°  l e sentiment  2  des On  matieres numerous  9 l b i d . . IV, 128.  3 1  Ibid..  se  I l l , 91.  occasions  V o l t a i r e i s accused o f t r e a t i n g s e r i o u s  topics  " m i l l e p l a i s a n t e r i e s , dont i l ne peut s ' a b s t e n i r ,  et qui  d o n n e n t un a i r de f a r c e a s e s o u v r a g e s l e s p l u s This  same p a s s a g e g o e s on t o p o i n t  tencies  and c o n t r a d i c t i o n s .  learn that,  "sous p r e t e x t e  out h i s frequent  de t o l e r a n c e ,  T  intole'rante, "  a ecrit  3  3  and i n an  " l ' a p S t r e de  opposee a t o u t c e  d e p u i s q u e l q u e temps, m a i s c e ne s e r a m a l -  heureusement p a s l a d e r n i e r e  de s e s c o n t r a d i c t i o n s . " 3 4  e a r l i e r n o t e on V o l t a i r e * s H o n n § t e t £ s l i t t e r a i r e s that since  An  suggests  h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s a l s o extend t o h i s choice "il  we  et preche l a guerre, l e carnage  e t l a d e s t r u c t i o n a v e c une vehemence b i e n qu'il  inconsis-  i l frappe toutes l e s  f o r 1770 a s i m i l a r comment n o t e s t h a t  l h u m a n i t e o u b l i e son r3le  serieux."32  I n t h e s u p p l e m e n t f o r 1767,  r e l i g i o n s de l a m a n i e r e l a p l u s entry  with  o f words,  donne lui-meme l e m o d e l e d e s g r o s s i e r e t e s  qu*il  r e p r o c h e aux a u t r e s ? ; ' t h e n o t e g o e s on t o c h a r a c t e r i z e h i m as  "un c h a m p i o n q u i d * a b o r d e n t r e  ensuite,  en l i c e  e p r o u v e e n f i n l e s memes f u r e u r s  en r i a n t , convulsives  s echauffe T  de s o n  adversaire." ^ 3  The  Memoires d e p l o r e  not only  d i c t i o n s but also h i s v i r u l e n t attacks  32ibid..  I V , 248.  33ibid., XVIII,  336.  3 4 i b i d . . XIX, 222. 35ibid..  Ill,  244.  h i s frequent upon a l l who  contradiffer  w i t h him  i n any  way.  Obviously  opposed the p h i l o s o p h e s . bitter  no  admirers  of those  who  t h e Memoires f o l l o w a p p r o v i n g l y  e x c h a n g e s between V o l t a i r e and  Freron.  They do  not,  however, a p p r o v e o f V o l t a i r e ' s a t t a c k s on R o u s s e a u , ^  and  3  they  see  i n h i s Questions  of insults,  adding  " p a r l a r a i s o n que  sur 1'Encvclopedie  1771  r e i t e r a t e s an  i s termed  the review s a r c a s m and  a r e a l s o emphasized:  earlier  A brochure  3 8  "digne  s u s p e c t e r de  on o t h e r o c c a s i o n s  e x c e s s i v e use  too p r o d i g a l with  flatterie. ° n  and  we  may  such  c h a r a c t e r t o be o f c e n t r a l  importance.  The  7  criticism  of  of  Nor  exemples b i e n l o i n ,  of  "eloges  assume t h a t Voltaire's  do  the  Memoires  l o v e o f money:  l a p a s s i o n f a v o r i t e des  des  the  charge i s  safely  t o remark upon t h e g r e a t p h i l o s o p h e ' s  e t s a n s en c h e r c h e r  adds  de l ' A p d t r e de l a t o l e * r a n c e , " b u t  h i s tendency t o be  " L ' a v a r i c e est encore  and  A com-  sent to the Czarina  the p a r o i s s i e n s considered  fail  criticism  a d d s an a t t a c k on V o l t a i r e ' s  qu'on p o u r r a x t repeated  abominable  3  charge of s e r v i l i t y . Russia  infame,  etc." ?  Other p e r s o n a l f a i l i n g s ment d a t e d  daily  l a l i b e r t e de c r i -  t i q u e r ses ouvrages est a 1 ' i n s t a n t repute execrable,  a repertoire  t h a t t h e number o f h i s e n e m i e s grows t o u t homme q u i p r e n d  the  g e n s de L e t t r e s  personne  n'ignore  201.  3 6  Ibid.,  Ill,  3 7  Ibid..  V,  316  -  3 8  Ibid..  V,  265  -  317. 266.  3 9  Ibid..  XIX,  6.  avec  q u e l l e a r d e u r M.  de V o l t a i r e , en c o u r a n t l a g l o i r e ,  a p o u r s u i v i l a fortune."4® Irascible, ricious—all  petty,  these things  most h a r s h i n t h e i r his  inconsistent, vain, he may  criticism  repetitiousness.  of another f a i l i n g ,  V o l t a i r e , we  que r e p e t e r  c e que t a n t d ' a u t r e s a v a i e n t comments may  be w e l l  pretentions  les  g e n s sense's ne v o i e n t  de M.  ce q u ' i l  e t M. de V o l -  a deja  d i t avant l u i . "  de V o l t a i r e a r i r e plus  4  A l l such  i  ing  2  "Malgre'  et a f a i r e  rire,  f  suivant  qui l e  l a definition  qu'on donne en m e d i c i n e de c e t e t a t v a p o r e u x : 4  dit—et  en l u i q u u n m a l a d e a t t a q u e  aux memes i d e e s ,  unum e t i d e m ob.iectum. "  has  his Lettres sur l e s  d'une a f f e c t i o n m6lancolique, d'une m a n i e t r i s t e  tolerance,"  told,  summed up i n one d a t e d 1767:  les  rappelle toujours  that of  are frequently  "ne f o n t que r e m a c h e r l a meine c h o s e ,  t a i r e lui-m8me ne f a i t  ava-  be, but t h e Memoires a r e  " m o i n s que j a m a i s d e s ide'es n e u v e s " j miracles  service,  Delirium  circa  A d m i r i n g him as t h e " a p o s t l e o f  t h e M e m o i r e s seem t o f e a r t h a t V o l t a i r e ' s grow-  i n t e n s i t y and r i g i d i t y  will  Obviously, d i f f i c u l t y  defeat  h i s own  of interpretation  purposes. surrounds  some o f t h e comments, e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e d e a l i n g w i t h V o l t a i r e ' s  4 0  Ibid..  V I , 45.  4 1  Ibid.,  I I , 253.  Ibid..  I l l , 236.  248; V, 319; XIX, 106. 4 2  See a l s o I b i d . , I I , 62;  I V , 247  -  a n t i - r e l i g i o u s works. be une  taken  seriously?  Can, f o r example, t h e r e m a r k s o n S a u l "Ce n e s t  h o r r e u r d a n s l e gout  impie,  p l u s abominable.  sans f r e m i r :  On n e n p e u t  d impie'tes  T  t  l a lecture  rares,  d horreurs a f  . . ."43  S u r e l y such  a  apparent  t h e censor  impartiality,  " d e t e s t a b l e e t dans l e f o n d vent l e s t y l e l e regardent  remarking  A  a care-  o n l y t h a t some f i n d i t  e t dans l a f o r m e ; i l s en r e p r o u -  emphatique e t s i m p l e t o u r a t o u r ; l e s a u t r e s comme u n c h e f - d ' o e u v r e  d impiete,  m a i s comme u n  T  Judgments o f t h i s  f r e q u e n t l y and t e n d t o p u z z l e t h e r e a d e r ,  appear t o be c o n t r a r y t o t h e g e n e r a l l y l a t i t u d i n a r i a n of the journal. after producing authors,  review  while i n t r i g u i n g thep u b l i c .  ouvrage p i t t o r e s q u e e t p h i l o s o p h i q u e . " ^ type occur  tres  recommendation, i t s tone o f shocked  l a t e r comment o n t h e same p l a y , now p r i n t e d , m a i n t a i n s ful  T  , Cette trageclie e s ttoujours  e t t r e s peu repandue  horror appeasing  entendre  T  c e s t un t i s s u  would be an e x c e l l e n t  c est  de l a P u c e l l e mais beaucoup p l u s  f a i r e d r e s s e r l e s cheveux. recherchee  p a s une p i e c e o r d i n a i r e ,  T  F u r t h e r examples a r e numerous. a list  f o r they spirit  I n 1764  o f a n t i - r e l i g i o u s works b y v a r i o u s  t h e e d i t o r s comment:  t r e s r e d o u t a b l e un r e c u e i l  "On n e p e u t  d a u t o r i t e " s e t de f  aussi forts contre l a religion."4^  43ibid., I , 191. 44ibid.. I , 296. 45ibid.. I I , 126.  r e g a r d e r que comme raisonnements  A work a t t r i b u t e d t o  Voltaire,  e n t i t l e d Doutes sur  t r e a t i s e by  Spinoza,  i s described  s e c h e , m a i s d a n g e r e u s e , de l'Ecriture Sainte," un  projet  lecteurs  key  light  trouvait  noye" d a n s un  Voltaire's  c o n n a i s s e n t pas of  the  denials  plus p l a i s a n t — e t  the  de  life  of  both said to  St.  be  Paul,  "nourris  can  only  istic  4 9  of  Blind  minds.  46ibid..  Ill,  287.  4 7  lbid.,  III,  132.  4 8  I b i d . . V,  192.  4 9 i b i d . . V, 195  -  le ."4°  fully  imposer a  appreciate  sur  difficile  ceux  Only i n  4 7  to V o l t a i r e ' s  et  add,  de  the  such  commentary St.  Pierre, soutenue,  resister, 4.8  aveugle."^  Such  for "les esprits les plus f r i -  acceptance of  enlightened  des  . .  d'une e r u d i t i o n p r o f o n d e e t  f a i t h we voles."  commun  works, they  his Dissertation  d'une f o i v i v e  t o l d , was  de toujours  verbiages  cartes."  we  sans l a grace s p e c i a l e are  assez  athee, dont  p l u s p r o p r e a en  d'une l o g i q u e c o n t r e l a q u e l l e i l e s t ^  cet  h i s own  pertaining and  "c'est  a  M e m o i r e s t h e m s e l v e s when,  l e d e s s o u s des  following,  livres  a p o r t e e du  f a t r a s de  of  t h e i r underlying irony  remarks or on  added n o t e t h a t  d ' a v o i r mis  of  discussion  1  i s perhaps found i n the  " R i e n de ne  "une  . . . l'e'norme d i s s e r t a t i o n de  speaking of  qui  as:  analysis  1 a u t h e n t i c i t y des  with the  a b o m i n a b l e que  p o i s o n se The  l a r e l i g i o n , an  196.  any  faith  i s not  a  character-  When we w e i g h t h e t o t a l cerning V o l t a i r e that  e f f e c t o f the opinions  a r e e n c o u n t e r e d i n t h e M e m o i r e s we a r e  somewhat s u r p r i s e d t o f i n d  that  s o much o f t h e c r i t i c i s m  a p p e a r s t o be h o s t i l e .  Yet,  ness t h e reader detects  a sense o f admiration  ate  worthwhile c o n t r i b u t i o n s .  regard  f o r h i s very  adulateurs, trophies  underlying  this  apparent  harsh-  and a f f e c t i o n -  des e'crivains m e r c e n a i r e s ne cessent  "De f a d e s d e l ever des 1  a l a g l o i r e de M. de V o l t a i r e , comme s i s e s p r o p r e s  o u v r a g e s n ' i t a i e n t p a s u n monument s u p e r i e u r qu'on p o u r r a i t l u i c o n s a c r e r . " ^ Memoires s e c r e t s w i l l the  con-  a t o u s ceux  Of s u c h a d u l a t i o n t h e  have no p a r t ;  f r i e n d s h i p does n o t b l i n d  p a r o i s s i e n s t o t h e w e a k n e s s e s o f " c e g r a n d homme."  Des-  pite  t h e b r e v i t y o f t h e comments, t h e p i c t u r e o f V o l t a i r e  that  emerges f r o m t h e j o u r n a l seems i n g e n e r a l  one  even t o d a y .  the  Memoires s e c r e t s t h e m s e l v e s r e f l e c t .  plaisir," 1767,  they  "qu'il  an  accurate  Perhaps a l s o i t i s V o l t a i r e ' s i n f l u e n c e  report  the Patriarche  "Je vois  as saying  X  i  na  immense  journal designed t o record  the  h i s t o r y of t h i s Republique des L e t t r e s ^  ily  o c c u p i e s a dominant  5°Ibid., I l l ,  avec  i n September  s e f o r m e dans 1 ' E u r o p e une R e p u b l i q u e  d'esprits cultives . . . »5  that  2  V o l t a i r e worth-  place.  50.  5 1  Ibid., Ill,  261  5 P i e r r e G a x o t t e i n L e S i e c l e d e L o u i s XV. P a r i s , 1933, ( e d . L i v r e d e p o c h e ) . p p . 243 - 245 g i v e s an a c c o u n t o f the Republique des l e t t r e s and V o l t a i r e i s again quoted: "Courage! F a i t e s un c o r p s , m e s s i e u r s . . . Ameutez-vous, e t vous s e r e z l e s m a l t r e s . J e vous p a r l e en r e p u b l i c a i n , m a i s a u s s i i l s ' a g i t de l a r e p u b l i q u e d e s l e t t r e s ! " 2  CHAPTER IV THE The  MEMOIRES SECRETS;  ROUSSEAU AND  DIDEROT  value o f the Memoires s e c r e t s l i e s not  i n i t s f a c t u a l content  only  but a l s o i n the i n s i g h t i t a f f o r d s  i n t o contemporary o p i n i o n .  In the case o f V o l t a i r e ,  we  have a l r e a d y noted the f a i r l y s o p h i s t i c a t e d range of p r a i s a l contained  i n i t s pages.  ap-  With r e g a r d t o Rousseau  and D i d e r o t , however, the e n t r i e s r e v e a l i n v a r y i n g degrees l e s s awareness of the t r u e s t a t u r e of these two  great  writers. The  f i r s t two  volumes of the Memoires g i v e Rousseau,  then a t the peak o f h i s r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f l i t e r a r y even more p u b l i c i t y than they taire.  career,  grant to h i s great r i v a l V o l -  Rousseau's Nouvelle H61o'ise had  already scored  an  immediate and o u t s t a n d i n g success,*" to which, u n f o r t u n a t e l y , no d e t a i l e d r e f e r e n c e i s made i n the Memoires. 1762,  On May  the c h r o n i c l e r e c o r d s the appearance of Emile,  a month l a t e r by l e C o n t r a t o f the year  followed  s o c i a l ; from then u n t i l the  some t h i r t y e n t r i e s i n c l o s e s u c c e s s i o n  the f o r t u n e s of these two  22,  works and t h e i r author.  comment c o n t i n u e s u n t i l 1765.  Thereafter,  interest  end  record Frequent centers  ^"C'est a beaucoup p r e s , s i l ' o n en excepte V o l t a i r e , l e p l u s grand succes de l i b r a i r i e du s i e c l e . Seul Candide p o u r r a i t f o u r n i r des c h i f f r e s E q u i v a l e n t s . " (70 e d i t i o n s , 1761-1800.) Mornet, D. Rousseau. P a r i s , 1950, p. 88.  chiefly  about  R o u s s e a u ' s t r i b u l a t i o n s and w a n d e r i n g s , a n d  i t e m s c o n c e r n i n g h i m g r a d u a l l y become No c l o s e l i n k Doublet's paroisse.  fewer.  seems t o c o n n e c t R o u s s e a u a n d Madame  as i n t h e case o f V o l t a i r e  and d ' A r g e n t a l  T h a t R o u s s e a u was, however, a c q u a i n t e d w i t h some o f t h e paroissiens i s indicated  i n h i s C o n f e s s i o n s . f o r he r e p o r t s  h a v i n g met t h e Abbe de B e r n i s a t t h e home o f Madame and  also  records the friendly  de B e s e n v a l and h e r d a u g h t e r : Mme  l a b a r o n n e de B e u z e n v a l  prenant  interSt  ressources,  interest  2  shown h i m by Madame  "Des l o r s j ' o s a i  e t Mme  Dupin  l a marquise  c o m p t e r que de B r o g l i e  a m o i n e me l a i s s e r a i e n t p a s l o n g t e m p s  e t j e n e me t r o m p a i p a s . . ."°  sans  He seems a l s o  t o h a v e known t h e Abbe P r e v o s t , whose n o v e l s he g r e a t l y a d mired.  Choiseul,  4  t o o , h a d shown h i m k i n d n e s s , a l t h o u g h h i s  w i f e , Madame D o u b l e t ' s g r a n d - n i e c e , h a d f o u n d  " l e sauvage  c i t o y e n de G e n e v e " t o o u n c u l t u r e d f o r h e r t a s t e s . * *  2  Rousseau, Jean-Jacques.  Oeuvres completes.  She c o u l d  Pleiade  e d . , I (1959), 289 - 290. 3  Ibid..  I , 291.  C l a i r e - E l i a n e E n g e l , i n h e r work e n t i t l e d l e V e r i t a b l e Abbe P r e v o s t . Monaco, 1957, p . 107 n o t e s : "Prevost e s t d e p u i s l o n g t e m p s en r a p p o r t s a v e c s o n g r a n d emule e t d i s c i p l e J e a n - J a c q u e s Rousseau e t , p a r m i r a c l e , i l s ne s e b r o u i l l e n t pas." 4  ^ R o u s s e a u , op_. e x t . , p . 1544 c o n t a i n s an i n t e r e s t i n g n o t e a b o u t Mme D o u b l e t ' s g r a n d - n i e c e : "Sainte-Beuve (Lundis, XIV, 225) c i t e c e mot de l a d u c h e s s e d e C h o i s e u l : ' J e me s u i s t o u j o u r s m e f i e e de c e Rousseau, avec s e s systemes s i n g u l i e r e s son accoutrement e x t r a o r d i n a i r e e t s a c h a i r e d'Eloquence p o r t e d s u r l e s t o i t s des maisons: i l m'a t o u j o u r s p a r u un charlatan.»"  58 apparently, own  admire p h i l o s o p h e s  only  when t h e y  were o f  her  class. The  interest  paroissiens quite obviously  i n R o u s s e a u and  Mdmoires s e c r e t s a l l o t  h i s w o r k s and  to Emile  shared we  what we  the p r e v a i l i n g  note that  the  would t e r m e x c e l l e n t  news-coverage:  p r e l i m i n a r y announcements, c r i t i c i s m s o f  t e n t and  reports of p u b l i c r e a c t i o n , d e t a i l s of  style,  s u i n g c o n t r o v e r s i e s and  items of personal  author.  Such t h o r o u g h t r e a t m e n t  a b l e s us  to a r r i v e at a f a i r l y  paroissiens*  view of  Approval first  a t t r a c t i v e and  ou  de  a s an  rently  a r o u s i n g much c u r i o s i t y . author's  preliminary c r i t i c a l  "ce  livre,  concludes  1762.  Reference at the  l a plume de  A few  ce philosophe"  and  i n the  very  same t i m e days l a t e r  a remark t y p i c a l  I , 94  -  95.  and,  a l'auteur."  o f the Memoires: mieux d i g e ' r e .  The  entry  1 , 7  a  comme  noting i t s  government, p r o p h e s i e s  de p e i n e  quand n o u s l ' a u r o n s  Ibid.,  the  comment t e r m s t h i s work " s i n g u l i e r ,  ^Memoires s e c r e t s . I , 92.  7  en-  1'education, which i s des-  "art siduisant."^  a coup s u r , f e r a  reviendrons,  the  w e l l - p r i n t e d book t h a t i s c u r -  against r e l i g i o n  with  work  p r e c i s e appreciation of  cribed  bold attacks  about  important  of Rousseau's s t y l e i s i m p l i c i t  t o u t c e q u i s o r t de  en-  Rousseau.  announcement o f E m i l e  i s made t o t h e  of t h i s  interest  con-  The  that entry  "Nous y Four  i s dated  days  May  22,  59 later,  the  s l o n n e du  journal records scandale  se r e u n i s s e n t  de  contre  plus  that  " l e l i v r e d e Rousseau  en p l u s .  l'auteur,  Le  et ses  g l a i v e et  occa-  l'encensoir  amis l u i ont  temoigne"  g qu'il y  a v a i t a c r a i n d r e pour l u i . "  l e a r n of the flight  burning  of the  o f the  author,  book i n P a r i s and  "decrete  From t h e s e p r e l i m i n a r y the  promised review of the  versial  work.  In  i t , they  jugements sur ce l i v r e , pourrait  seau. or's  First,  practical  other scorn.  de  are  i f the  admission,  servira  de  p r i s e de  details,  content  and  q u i ne  sont  of  rien?"  precepts  point  impossible,"  detruit toute  by  by  the  what i s  sait  has  dans t o u t  qu'il  Rousauth-  the ne  God  professed  to  son  que  livre  since, instead and  man,  toute  religion,  on  child  r a i s e d by  Rousseau's system, a l t h o u g h  °Ibid.. I ,  singulier."  a u t h o r draws h e a v i l y upon  fait  i n h i s duties to  des  a u s s i d i v e r s qu'on  s u c h a work, " l o r s q u ' o n  " l ' a u t e u r ne  to  contro-  resultat  ouvrage a u s s i  d e t r u i r e l ' o b j e t pour l e q u e l i l e c r i t " training a child  "un  i n t h i s work a r e ,  Secondly, the  the  9  style of t h i s  e s p e c i a l l y L o c k e , whom he  Finally,  corps."  to the m a t e r i a l presented  "d|une e x e c u t i o n  value  sources,  given  Geneva and  we  the Memoires t u r n  claim to give  l e p r e s u m e r a l'e'gard d'un  Three objections  In r a p i d succession  societe."  As  "on  of  aneantit  a result,  a  presumably  95.  I b i d . , I , 100. The j o u r n a l a l s o r e c o r d s t h e ban i m p o s e d on S a u v i g n y ' s M o r t de S o c r a t e a t t h e Come^die f r a n c a i s e " a c a u s e de l ' a f f a i r e J e a n - J a c q u e s . " ( i b i d . , I , 103 - 104*.) 9  v i r t u o u s and t a l e n t e d , degoute  "finit  de t o u s l e s e t a t s ,  p a r e t r e un  q u i n'en  misanthrope  remplit  a u c u n , e t va  p l a n t e r d e s choux a l a campagne e t f a i r e d e s e n f a n t s a s a femme."^-  0  Following this  c o n s e r v a t i v e r e a c t i o n to R o u s s e a u ' s  t h e o r i e s of p r o g r e s s i v e education, the review proceeds  to  a n a l y s e t h e c o n t e n t s o f each volume o f E m i l e s e p a r a t e l y , most a t t e n t i o n being given to the f i r s t the  f o r m e r , R o u s s e a u ' s v i e w s on i n f a n t  upon, h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s n o t e d , as  "peu  de c h o s e ,  The  rare qu'il  f o u r t h volumes. rearing are  In  touched  t h e s u b s t a n c e summed aux  up  s i m p l e s maximes  a p p e a l o f t h i s volume i s s e e n  as l y i n g not i n i t s c o n t e n t , but p a r un t a l e n t  and  s i l ' o n s'en t e n a i t  u s u e l l e s q u ' i l y de"bite."  et  and  i n i t s style:  a l e secret  " C ' e s t done  d ' e n c h a i n e r son  de 1 * empe*cher de v o i r l e v i d e de c e l i v r e .  Son  lecteur  eloquence  m a l e , r a p i d e e t b r u l a n t e , p o r t e de 1 ' i n t e r e s t d a n s l e s p l u s grandes sur  minuties."  l a maniere  Volume f o u r ,  c o n t a i n i n g "une  d'iduquer l e s f i l l e s "  dissertation  f i n d s more f a v o u r , a s  b e i n g b o t h more r e a s o n a b l e — " u n c h e f - d ' o e u v r e d ' a u t a n t p l u s seduisant q u ' i l the  ne p a r a i t  p o i n t h o r s de l a n a t u r e " — a n d  same t i m e more e m o t i o n a l l y t o u c h i n g :  jusqu'aux sants."  "on  l a r m e s d a n s c e m o r c e a u de d e t a i l s A g a i n , the Memoires p r e d i c t  lOlbid.,  I , 105  -  106.  at  est attendri  les plus  trouble with the  interesauth-  orities,  f o r they note that  t r e s dangereuses  E m i l e c o n t a i n s "des  centre l e s puissances."  assertions  x x  In general, the opinions expressed i n t h i s are t y p i c a l Rousseau.  o f those elsewhere  i n t h e Memoires c o n c e r n i n g  L i k e t h e g r e a t contemporary  p a r o i s s i e n s d e t e c t e d i n h i s works new which they d i d not always specific little in  Its le  fully  appeal i s that lit,  Many o f  e t on l e l i r a  sans doute  sufficient  l x  adding,  Contrat s o c i a l ,  carefully  x 3  developments plein  de  a v i s i o n a r y ' s dream:  avec que  avidite', parce  1*utile."  In  "On  que  addition,  "Eh!  Que  ne p a r d o n n e - t - o n  pas  emouvoir?"  The  first  "ce l i v r e ,  receive  t h a t t h e a u t h o r p o s s e s s e s t o a supreme d e g r e e " l a  a qui s a i t  copies.  the  s e r a d'aucun usage dans l a p r a t i q u e . "  of a curiosity,  p a r t i e du s e n t i m e n t , "  less  the  fascinating trends  understand.  smile to learn that  s p e c u l a t i o n s , ne  they f e e l  The  and  comment, and modern r e a d e r s , aware o f p a s t  l'homme aime mieux l e s i n g u l i e r  is  reading public,  t h e o r i e s i n Emile pass unnoticed, or at l e a s t  e d u c a t i o n , may  belles  review  which appeared  a few weeks  a n a l y s e d , a l t h o u g h t h e Memoires p r e s e n t  details  to arouse the i n t e r e s t  of t h e i r  announcement i n d i c a t e s t h e d i f f i c u l t y Shortly  Ibid.,  later,  thereafter,  I , 106  - 108  of  readers. obtaining  a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f t h e main  1 2  Ibid..  I , 108  -  109.  3 l b i d . . I , 115. " L e C o n t r a t s o c i a l s e r e p a n d peu & peu. On en f a i t v e n i r p a r l a p o s t e de H o l l a n d e . On e c r i t s e u l e m e n t l e s noms de ceux a q u i s o n t a d r e s s e s l e s e x e m p l a i r e s . 1  62 theme o f the work appears, preceded by a c a r e f u l l y worded statement, i n i t s e l f a s u b t l e recommendation to e n l i g h t e n e d minds:  n  L e C o n t r a t s o c i a l se repand i n s e n s i b l e m e n t . I I e s t  t r e s important qu un p a r e i l ouvrage ne fermente pas dans l e s T  tStes f a c i l e s a s e x a l t e r : f  disordres.  i l en r e s u l t e r a i t de t r e s  grands  Heureusement que 1 a u t e u r s ' e s t enveloppe* dans T  une obscurite' s c i e n t i f i q u e q u i l e rend impe'ne'trable au commun des l e c t e u r s .  Au reste, i l ne f a i t que developper des maximes  que tout l e monde a gravees s u r son coeur; i l d i t des choses o r d i n a i r e s d une facon s i a b s t r a i t e qu on l e s c r o i t f  veilleuses."^  f  mer-  4  Both the C o n t r a t s o c i a l and Emile provoked a storm of  c o n t r o v e r s y . The Memoires r e c o r d some o f the a c c u s a t i o n s  l e v e l l e d a t Rousseau and h i s attempts to r e f u t e them."^  One  item i n t h i s b a t t l e i s "une l e t t r e s i n g u l i e r e d'un auteur toujours s i n g u l i e r :  i n t i t u l e ' e L e t t r e de Jean-Jacques  a C h r i s t o p h e de Beaumont. de M. 1 Archeveque, 1  Rousseau  Cet auteur y d i s c u t e l e mandement  et defend son Emile avec sa f o r c e et sa 16  chaleur o r d i n a i r e . "  1 4  Ibid.,  In r e f e r e n c e to t h i s l e t t e r ,  obviously  I, 133.  l^One can d e t e c t a growing note o f approval i n the Memoires as Rousseau c o n t i n u e s t o a t t a c k h i s c r i t i c s . From "Jean-Jacques Rousseau," as he i s c a l l e d e a r l y i n 1762, he becomes " l e moderne Diogene" ( I , 240; 244 - 245; 276 - 2 7 7 ) , •aUmmortel Rousseau" ( I , 305 - 306), and " l e c i l e b r e proscrit" (II,56). 1 6 i b i d . . I , 237.  63 s t u d i e d w i t h c a r e by t h e p a r o i s s e . t h e M e m o i r e s l a t e r a d d : "Nous v e n o n s d e l a l i r e :  meme s i m p l i c i t e ,  meme f o r c e d e  l o g i q i i e , meme e n e r g i e d a n s l e s t y l e que d a n s s e s a u t r e s ouvrages. ? x  Weaknesses publicized. first  i n attempts t o d i s c r e d i t Rousseau a r e w e l l  W i t h amused d e l i g h t t h e j o u r n a l a n n o u n c e s t h e  v o l u m e o f t h e v e r b o s e Abbe" Y v o n ' s Rebonse a l a l e t t r e  de J . J . R o u s s e a u a C h r i s t o p h e d e Beaumont. A r c h e y g q u e d e P a r i s w h i c h c o n t a i n s a l e n g t h y p r e f a c e and t h e f i r s t teen l e t t e r s proposed:  of f i f -  " C ' e s t - a - d i r e que, p o u r r e f u t e r une  b r o c h u r e t r e s m i n c e , c e champion v o l u m i n e u x s e d i s p o s e a d o n n e r a u p u b l i c une s u i t e d e t r o i s o u q u a t r e v o l u m e s i n - 1 2 . Quant a u s t y l e , p e r s o n n e n ' o s e r a l e m e t t r e en p a r a l l e l e  avec  1-8 la  plume b r f t l a n t e d e R o u s s e a u . "  I n another instance t h e  p a r o i s s i e n s g i v e i r o n i c p r a i s e t o t h e c e n s o r M a r i n who, "dans une s a g e p r o d u c t i o n ,  a voulu f a i r e quelques e f f o r t s pour  r e p o u s s e r l e s d a n g e r e u x s o p h i s m e s d u p h i l o s o p h e d e Geneve." S i n c e h i s s u c c e s s was t h a t de f e r , "  t h e Memoires  o f " l e p o t de t e r r e c o n t r e l e pot  a s k , " P o u r q u o i done v o u l o i r  €tre  ' I b i d . , 241. T h i s p r a i s e f o r R o u s s e a u ' s l o g i c d i d not, however, p r e v e n t t h e i r commenting, a t a s t i l l l a t e r date, on t h e i n c o n s i s t e n c y o f Rousseau's r e l i g i o u s views as expressed i nt h i s l e t t e r . ( i b i d . , 250 - 251.) T h i s i n c o n s i s t e n c y was n o t e d b y V o l t a i r e , who a p p a r e n t l y was d e l i g h t e d and f e l t t h a t R o u s s e a u c o u l d a g a i n b e c o u n t e d among t h e philosophes. "He s w e a r s h e i s a C h r i s t i a n , and makes o u r h o l y r e l i g i o n as r i d i c u l o u s a s c o u l d be imagined." (Torrey, N. L . S p i r i t o f V o l t a i r e . New Y o r k , 1938, p . 112.) ^Memoires  secrets.  I , 250 - 251.  brise?"  x 9  Another c o n t r o v e r s y f o l l o w e d the appearance o f  t h e L e t t r e s e c r i t e s d e l a campagne, a n a t t e m p t p r o c u r o r - g e n e r a l a t Geneva, t o j u s t i f y a u t h o r i t i e s t h e r e a g a i n s t Rousseau.  by M. T r o n c h i n ,  the a c t i o n s o f t h e  T h i s work p r o v o k e d i n  r e p l y R o u s s e a u ' s L e t t r e s e ' c r i t e s d e l a montaane, first  i n t h e Memoires f o r January  content as:  and s t y l e a r e e v a l u a t e d ,  "Toujours  ments, meme  both  t h e w h o l e work summarized meme v i g u e u r d e s e n t i -  paradoxes."  indicated,  o f Rousseau's c h i e f  s c a t t e r e d r e f e r e n c e s are found  h i s other w r i t i n g s . of  Gnce again  2  meme e n e r g i e d e s t y l e ,  In a d d i t i o n t o reviews already  1, 1765. ®  recorded  The f i r s t  works, t o some o f  volume o f the Memoires speaks  "un roman n o u v e a u , i n t i t u l e E d o u a r d . " news o f w h i c h h a s  reached  t h e p a r o i s s e . b u t o f w h i c h no more i s s a i d .  Rousseau as a poet,  o n l y o n e comment i s f o u n d ,  assurement l e m e i l l e u r de s e s ouvrages:  que  l a g a l a n t e r i e n'est pas sonf a i t ;  une  f a c o n de p e n s e r  caractere original  l i b r e qui f a i t  "Ce n ' e s t  on sent  on y trouve  plaisir  Of  d a t e d 1763>  c o n c e r n i n g t h e r e p r i n t i n g o f l ' A l l e e de S i l v i e : pas  2 2  bien  cependant  e t q u i donne u n  a c e t t e production, toute mediocre q u ' e l l e  19 I b i d . . I , 312 - 313 2 0  Ibid..  I I , 150 - 151.  2 1  Ibid.,  I I , 153.  S e e a l s o p . 156.  I b i d . . I , 94. "Ce s o n t l e s a v e n t u r e s q u i j o u e u n r o l e d a n s l e roman d e J u l i e . " 2 2  d'un A n g l a i s  soit."  27  °  As f o r h i s music,  one r e f e r e n c e n o t e s t h e unsuc-  c e s s f u l p r o d u c t i o n i n 1765 o f a l i t t l e that  failed  village;  t o reveal t h etalent  "motet a v o i x  o f Rousseau*s Devin du  a n o t h e r n o t e s a r e h e a r s a l o f Neuf muses,  2 4  on a c o n c l u que c e t o p e r a n * e t a i t importance  seule"  of  pas j o u a b l e . " ^ 2  i s h i s D i c t i o n n a i r e de musique  (1767),  "d*ou more  which t h e  Memoires i n a c o n c i s e and r a t h e r s e v e r e r e v i e w s e e a s incomplete,  somewhat i n a c c u r a t e ,  and n o t t o o w e l l o r g a n i z e d .  Despite these shortcomings, the  however, t h e c h r o n i c l e r  amazing depth o f knowledge r e v e a l e d  ne c o n c o i t pensi, aussi  peut aride  notes  i n some a r e a s :  p a s comment un homme q u i a a u t a n t s e n t i ,  "On  autant  avoir acquis a ce degri l a theorie d un a r t , T  e t degoQtant  dans s e s p r i n c i p e s ,  qu*agreable  dans s e s e f f e t s . " One work w h i c h  final review  2 7  i s of interest,  as i t concerns a  i n some ways p r e f i g u r e s modern l i t e r a r y  experiments,  I b i d . . X V I , 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 . T h i s poem, composed i n 1747, was f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n t h e M e r c u r e d e F r a n c e o f September, 1 7 5 0 . See R o u s s e a u s Oeuvres completes. P l i i a d e ed., I I , 1 8 9 8 . T h e poem i t s e l f c a n be f o u n d o n p a g e s 1 1 4 6 - 1149 o f t h e same work. 2 3  T  2 4  2  Ibid..  XVI,  267.  5 i b i d . . I l l , 332.  2 6  Ibid..  I l l , 310 -  311.  27 'Rumours o f R o u s s e a u * s C o n f e s s i o n s , a n t i c i p a t e d w i t h m i s g i v i n g s i n some q u a r t e r s , h a d e v i d e n t l y r e a c h e d t h e paroisse. T h e o n l y r e f e r e n c e i s , however, t h e n o t a t i o n t h a t " i l p a r a x t f a u x que c e g r a n d homme f a s s e i m p r i m e r a p r e s e n t s e s m e m o i r e s . . . " I b i d . , I V , 62 - 6 3 .  66 T h i s was R o u s s e a u * s P y g m a l i o n , en  un a c t e ,  "en  prose,  en une s c e n e ,  p e r f o r m e d and l a t e r h a v e warm p r a i s e  endroits autant  l e splus  unique,  e t n ' a y a n t qu'un a c t e u r . "  sans musique v o c a l e "  ment , i t was a g r e a t  and  " o u v r a g e d'un g e n r e  Written  but with o r c h e s t r a l  accompani-  s u c c e s s b o t h a t L y o n s where i t was at Paris.  The Memoires o u t l i n e t h e p l o t  f o r " l a prose b r i l l a n t e ,  vifs  first  d'Heloise."  telle  They add:  de s e n t i m e n t que d e p h i l o s o p h i c  que l e s  " I I y regne  e l o q u e n t e q u i anime, 28  qui  rechauffe,  q u i embrasse t o u t e  l a nature  . . ."  " s a u v a g e c i t o y e n de G e n e v e " seems, i n s h o r t , vated  the hearts Of  concerning only  of the intellectual  the roughly  o f rumours o r s p e c u l a t i o n  quarrels sonal  paroissiens.  a b o u t t h e man  h i s occupations,  h i s income.  e n c e t o a c a r i c a t u r e "ou t o u s deux s o n t another a reference  l o u i s towards t h e c o s t "acte  de g e n e r o s i t e  himself—his  His relations  i t e m s , one a r e f e r -  t o u r n e s en  ridicule,"  t o R o u s s e a u ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n o f two of a statue  b i e n huimliant  being  ^"Ibid..  V, 243 - 244.  Ibid..  I , 144 - 145.  erected  to Voltaire:  pour ce d e r n i e r ;  n o b l e de s e v e n g e r de l a s o r t i e i n d i c e n t e  2 9  entries  h i s sufferings, h i s per-  w i t h V o l t a i r e a r e t o u c h e d upon i n s e v e r a l  and  capti-  T h e r e s t a r e news j o t t i n g s ,  and w a n d e r i n g s , h i s h e a l t h ,  qualities,  The  f i v e volumes o f t h e Memoires.  h a l f deal with h i s writings.  reports  O  t o have  one h u n d r e d a n d t w e n t y - f i v e  Rousseau i n t h e f i r s t  A  facon  e t c r u e l l e que  bien  2  67 1' a u t r e a f a i t e infiniment  c e n t r e ce  a u - d e s s u s de  grand  homme . . . e t de  l u i a u p r e s de  tous  s'e'lever  ceux q u i  connais-  10 sent  l a vraie  sides i n the friends  grandeur."  The  controversy  M e m o i r e s do  not  between R o u s s e a u and  of the philosophe  p a r t y but  they  s t r o n g l y take  his  former  d e p l o r e what  they  11 see  as V o l t a i r e ' s p e t t i n e s s  R o u s s e a u , an but  persecuted The  than  those  detailed, of  admittedly  the  eral,  for his  entries  difficult  relative  times  in  connection  man  interest  with,  f e w e r i n number  aroused and  by  Jean-Jacques.  measure  In  straightforward,  ambiguity  more  gen-  although  of wording already  noted  w i t h much o f V o l t a i r e ' s work a l s o o c c u r s .  "singulier'Vji both  the  r e q u i r i n g d i s c u s s i o n and  his  along  w h i c h s e r v e s p e r h a p s a s an a c c u r a t e  t h e same c a r e f u l  resistant  t o get  i s wxth  a r e o f t e n l o n g e r and  a d j e c t i v e most o f t e n a p p l i e d t o b o t h is  sympathy  about Rousseau, w h i l e  comments a r e c l e a r  at  their  beliefs.  concerning Voltaire, a fact  the  and  0  author  and  lengthy  t o o r u n i m p r e s s e d by  R o u s s e a u and  h i s work  h i s ideas are seen  consideration.  The  as  Occasionally  h i s t h e o r i e s , always a l e r t  i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s , t h e Memoires n e v e r t h e l e s s admire h i s  3  ° I b i d . . V,  168.  I b i d . , I I I , 201. R e f e r r i n g t o V o l t a i r e ' s poem L a G u e r r e de GeneVe. "une s a t i r e h o r r i b l e c o n t r e J.J.R," the entry concludes: "L'humanite s e u l e reclame c o n t r e c e t abominable ouvrage." 3 1  to  68 boldness and  of expression  f o r c e f u l prose,  and  a p p r e c i a t e h i s sweeping  s e n s i n g t h e r e i n a new  *  *• As deration, either  for Diderot,  t h e man  little  o r h i s work and  trend.  *  the other  i n t h i s dhapter,  sentiment  g r e a t w r i t e r under c o n s i information i s given  a careful  search  about  reveals only  11 some t w e n t y i t e m s  f o r t h i s e n t i r e decade.  The  p i c t u r e of  him  t h a t emerges f r o m t h e M e m o i r e s i s , t h e r e f o r e ,  sketchy  and  r a t h e r d i s a p p o i n t i n g to the twentieth-century  reader.  Some i n f o r m a t i o n o f i n t e r e s t of  h i s friendship with  tion  t o him  to v i s i t  the  her  i s given:  we  read,  Empress o f R u s s i a ,  c o u r t and  f o r example,  of her  invita-  o f her purchase o f h i s  12 library.  The  R o u s s e a u and  Diderot  This request, the voit  Contrat pas  teuse."  journal also records  social.  i  n  that  a code o f laws f o r C o r s i c a .  v i e w e d as l o g i c a l  en q u o i  3 3  draw up  P a o l i ' s request  i n the  i s questioned  case  of the  i n Diderot's  i l a pu m e r i t e r une  author  case:  distinction  "On  aussi  a d d i t i o n , the Memoires c o n t a i n a b r i e f  ence t o D i d e r o t ' s  friendship with D a m i l a v i l l e  3 4  and  of ne  flat-  refera  letter  H i s c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p a r o i s s e d o e s n o t seem t o h a v e been c l o s e . V o l t a i r e ' s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e i n d i c a t e s t h a t d ' A r g e n t a l must h a v e known D i d e r o t q u i t e w e l l , a s he i s a s k e d t o r e c e i v e f r o m D i d e r o t c e r t a i n p a p e r s and a r t i c l e s b e l o n g i n g to V o l t a i r e . ( C o r r e s p o n d e n c e . X X I I I , 110, 118, 145, 149.) 3 x  M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I , 150; I I , 195; I I I , 130 - 131. T h e s e i t e m s , a s w e l l a s t h a t i n I I , 233 - 234 a l s o i m p l y p r a i s e o f t h e " b i e n f a i s a n c e " o f t h i s e n l i g h t e n e d monarch. 3 2  3 3  Ibid..  I I , 132  -  133.  3 4  Ibid..  IV,  215.  69 i n w h i c h V o l t a i r e r e m a r k s upon t h e p o o r t r e a t m e n t has  experienced  a t t h e hands o f  Although these to  reveal Diderot  to  be  today.  sparse.  The  Rousseau. -* 3  items are  of i n t e r e s t ,  as t h e m a j o r l i t e r a r y  In t h i s  they  f i g u r e he  do  Memoires r e f e r t o D i d e r o t ' s  r o l e as d i r e c t o r o f t h e  t o u c h e d upon i n t h e s e  little  i s judged  r e s p e c t , however, i n f o r m a t i o n  r e s u l t i n g from F r i r o n ' s suggestions important  Diderot  i s also  d i s l i k e of  Goldoni,  of plagiarism.  Encyclopedic  His  i s barely  e a r l y volumes, the Memoires  noting  o n l y h i s i n t e r v e n t i o n i n a b o o k s e l l e r s ' d i s p u t e which attracted  t o him  "1*indignation  generale  des  gens de  has lettres"  37 and  "le ridicule universel."  philosophe  appear t o pass l a r g e l y  enthusiastic 1'influence  r e f e r e n c e t o an des  opinions  des  hommes p a r M.  the  essay  case, des  Even h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n s a s  was  D.  de  D.~  E s s a i s u r l e s pre\juges  ou  one  de  l e s moeurs e t s u r l e b o n h e u r  The  (mistakenly)  i t i s termed  progres  sur  unremarked, except f o r  a  initials  would i n d i c a t e t h a t  attributed to Diderot.  In  any  " l a m e i l l e u r e p r e u v e qu'on p u i s s e f o u r n i r  l a r a i s o n humaine d e p u i s  3 5  Ibid..  I l l ,  3 6  Ibid..  I , 191;  I I , 108  3 7  Ibid.,  V,  376  quelques  anne'es."  38  176.  365,  -  - 109;  II,  185.  377.  I b i d . . V, 21 - 23. The i n i t i a l s may, o f c o u r s e , be a t y p o g r a p h i c a l e r r o r from which t h e f i r s t e d i t i o n o f t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s i s by no means f r e e . Barbier, i n his D i c t i o n n a i r e d e s o u v r a g e s anonvmes. P a r i s , 1872, I I , 262 - 263 g i v e s t h e i n i t i a l s M. D. M., n o t i n g : " l e s i n i t i a l e s p l a c i e s sur l e f r o n t i s p i c e o n t f a i t a t t r i b u e r c e t o u v r a g e "a D u m a r s a i s . . ." I n r e a l i t y , s a y s B a r b i e r , t h e e s s a y was by d ' H o l b a c h . 3 8  O n l y h i s drames r e c e i v e any d e t a i l e d c o n s i d e r a t i o n h e r e t h e a u t h o r seems t o be l a r g e l y o v e r l o o k e d , being and  focussed  upon t h e p l o t and t h e t r e n d  pathos developing  i n this  and e v e n  attention  to sentimentality  "age o f r e a s o n . "  I n t h e c a s e o f l e Pere de f a m i l l e t h e r e v i e w s a r e i n t e r e s t i n g f o r t h e i r p o r t r a y a l o f i t s overwhelming e f f e c t s upon a u d i e n c e s o f t h e d a y . comptait  E v e r y o n e wept, we a r e t o l d ; "on  a u t a n t de m o u c h o i r s que de s p e c t a t e u r s , "  3 9  and a t  one  p e r f o r m a n c e i n December 1 7 6 9 , a woman was so o v e r c o m e  "au  moment o u l e j e u n e homme d e f e n d l'epe'e a l a m a i n s a  m a i t r e s s e qu'on v e u t e n l e v e r , " vulsions tional  et  s h e was s e i z e d w i t h  and had t o be a s s i s t e d from t h e t h e a t r e .  a p p e a l i s i n d i c a t e d by " l a f u r e u r  parterre, .  that  lorsqu'on  . . s'est  I t s emo-  avec l a q u e l l e l e  e s t v e n u a n n o n c e r l a r e p r i s e d'Hamlet  recrie':  cela a plusieurs  con-  'Point  d'Hamlet I  l e Pere de f a m i l l e ! :  fois." ^ 4  A different reception,  however, a t t e n d e d t h e p e r f o r -  mance i n September, 1 7 7 1 , o f l e F i l s n a t u r e l .  " c e drame  i m p r i m e i l y a v i n g t a n s , e t q u i f i t b e a u c o u p de b r u i t a s a naissance par sa s i n g u l a r i t e , par les pretentions auteur, The  et par 1 ' e c l a t  question  3 9  O P .  of plagiarism  i s r a i s e d again,  M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I l l , 333 -  l e pronent."  and t h e n e a r -  334.  l b i d . , V, 36 - 3 7 . T h e H a m l e t was an a d a p t a t i o n J . F. D u c i s o f Shakespeare's p l a y . See Lancaster, ext., pp. 571, 615. 4 0  by  avec l e q u e l s e s p a r t i s a n s  de s o n  failure is  of t h i s performance,  recorded  butable  as a h u m i l i a t i n g e x p e r i e n c e  p o s s i b l y to h i s current  sellers'  affair  genre other  criticism  of the  than n o t i n g i t s popular  i n s t a n c e i n w h i c h an  " s e n s i b i l i t e " he The  has  limited  secrets,is.  drame a s  appeal  book-  4 2  and  a  literary  recording  view of D i d e r o t  plays.  afforded i n the  a r e f l e c t i o n of the l i m i t e d  t i o n s were t o a p p e a r p o s t h u m o u s l y . he  was  c l o p e ' d i e and  only  the  p a r o i s s i e n s he  Memoires  knowledge  was  also of i n t e r e s t  critic,  a dramatic  i n these A study  Appreciation of his qualities t h e o r e t i c i a n and  o f R o u s s e a u and  of such a j o u r n a l i s t i c  4 1 l b i d . , V, 37.  the  as an  art  the  as a n o v e l i s t i s not  384.  Diderot  both the  record.  Memoires secrets. I l l ,  as p o r t r a y e d  limitations  and  in  earlier  reference  shown i n my C h a p t e r V,,. o f t h e drame. ;  118.  the  values  Contemporary judgements  S ee a l s o t h e  g e n e r a l , a s w i l l be p a r o i s s i e n s appear t o disapprove 4 3  To  volumes.  Memoires s e c r e t s i l l u s t r a t e s  footnote  a s a member o f  in  Encv-  a u t h o r o f s e v e r a l drames b o u r g e o i s .  company.  recorded  produc-  h i s contemporaries  the hard-working d i r e c t o r of the  philosophe as  To  the  4 3  o f h i s work t h e n a v a i l a b l e , s i n c e h i s m a j o r l i t e r a r y  general  the  author acknowledges h i s debt t o  found i n D i d e r o t ' s  of course  i n the  attri-  These volumes o f  4  direct  insoutenable,"  for Diderot,  unpopularity  a l r e a d y mentioned. '*"  M e m o i r e s g i v e no  an  "d'une f r o i d e u r  are  in the  of n e c e s s i t y incomplete: potentially ings,  widespread f u t u r e i n f l u e n c e o f Rousseau's w r i t -  any more t h a n t h e y  Diderot's valuable  t h e M e m o i r e s do n o t f o r e s e e t h e  true greatness. factual  reveal a f u l l  appreciation of  They p r o v i d e ,  information  nevertheless,  t h a t r e i n f o r c e s o r supplements  knowledge a v a i l a b l e from o t h e r  sources  concerning  o p i n i o n o f t h e day and t h e p r o b l e m s e n c o u n t e r e d by two  public these  g r e a t men who a d d r e s s e d t h e i r w r i t i n g s a s much t o  posterity  as t o t h e i r  own  contemporaries.  CHAPTER V A DECADE OF The secrets of  wealth of material  enables the  individual  garding  the  it  be  can  literary  i n d i c a t i v e of the the  theatre,  MEMOIRES SECRETS  recorded  also  the  genres.  most e x t e n s i v e f o u n d on  THE  i n the  reader to t r a c e not  a u t h o r s but  various  ceives  THEATRE IN  almost  only  Mimoires  the  evolution of Of  treatment  these, and  every page.  the  activities opinion  re-  theatre  re-  entries  concerning  Such p r o f u s i o n  ferment then o c c u r r i n g i n t h i s  c a u g h t up  i n the  spirit  t o move away f r o m i t s t r a d i t i o n a l  o f the  area  age,  f o r m s and  is as  continued  preoccupations.  Members o f Madame D o u b l e t ' s c i r c l e o b v i o u s l y the  interest  i n the  the  t i m e and  d i s c u s s i o n of current  prominent f e a t u r e Thomas . selves is  theatre  of  the  common t o c u l t u r e d  gatherings  F u r t h e r m o r e , a number o f  l o n g been a s s o c i a t e d  t o them t h a t  we  owe  as  that  e n l i v e n the  c h r o n i c l e and  tion  f o r piquancy claimed  the He  the  spicier  group, the  at l e s F i l l e s  the  much o f t h e  society  Saint-  p a r o i s s i e n s had  serious  No  comment i n  credence to the  f o r Madame D o u b l e t ' s Abb6 de  V o i s e n o n was  achieved  a certain reputation  both as  the  gossip reputa-  nouvelles. probably  t i m e t h e most a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e a t r i c a l had  them-  doubt i t  items of backstage give  of  must h a v e been a  with the theatre.  M e m o i r e s as w e l l  Of  the  plays  shared  the  at  affairs.  author  of  a number o f l i g h t  comedies  and  o f Madame F a v a r t , t h e a c t r e s s . he was  too, beloved  was  experienced  an  gained  o f many o f h e r  view s t r o n g l y supported  Piron,  i n the Memoires s e c r e t s .  of the p a r o i s s e f o r h i s w i t t y playwright  and  a l s o had  as a u t h o r  who  beautiful  and  i n the  apparently  of a l i t t l e  i n 1738  tragedy  talent  and  field  of tragedy. i n t o the  play, l e Fat puni.  s e v e r a l times  c u l t u r e d Madame du  thereafter.  4  Boccage, her  l e s Amazones (1749), t h o u g h c o l d l y  the d i s t i n c t i o n  field  As  had  had  shown  Pont  de  o f drama performed for  the  classical  r e c e i v e d , won  of being the only feminine playwright  to  a p l a y p e r f o r m e d a t t h e Come'die-Francaise d u r i n g t h e  last  the l a s t  have  twenty-five years of Louis X V s  2  epigrams,  i n h i s younger days  ventured  one-act  that  husband's  fame w i t h h i s comedy Me'tromanie (1738) and  originality  first  Rumour a l s o s u g g e s t e d  t h e unacknowledged author  plays—a  Veyle  as t h e acknowledged l o v e r  reign.$  We  her have  -I  - G a i f f e , F. i n l e Drame en F r a n c e au 18 P a r i s , 1907, p . 23 r e f e r s t o V o i s e n o n a s "un d e s de M a r i v a u x . " L  siecle. singes  The M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I I , 277 n o t e "1'opinion t r e s f o n d e e que F a v a r t f a i t l e s c a r c a s s e s d e s p i e c e s e t que l ' a b b e de V o i s e n o n h a b i l l e l a poupe*e." The a r t i c l e " V o i s e n o n " i n M i c h a u d ' s B i o g r a p h i e u n i v e r s e l l e . X L I V , 45 d e a l s more f u l l y w i t h V o i s e n o n ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h F a v a r t . " • L a n c a s t e r , H. C. i n h i s F r e n c h T r a g e d y i n t h e Time o f L o u i s XV. B a l t i m o r e , 1950, p p . 152 - 162 d i s c u s s e s P i r o n ' s C a l l i s t h e n e (1730), G u s t a v e (1733) and F e r n a n d C o r t e z (1744). 4  Ibid..  pp.  241,  5  Ibid..  pp.  294  265. -  297.  already noted  t h e presence  o f M a r i v a u x i n Madame  e a r l i e r g a t h e r i n g s , as w e l l as t h e importance as f r i e n d ,  critic  and d r a m a t i c  Through c o n n e c t i o n s doubtedly theatre,  such  o f d'Argental  of Voltaire.  a s t h e s e t h e p a r o i s s e un-  g a i n e d i t s i n t i m a t e knowledge o f t h e w o r l d i n c l u d i n g a wealth  items o f t r i v i a l testify  agent  Doublet's  of factual  of the  i n f o r m a t i o n and many  g o s s i p which, r e c o r d e d  i n t h e Memoires.  t o t h e u n c h a n g i n g w e a k n e s s e s o f human n a t u r e .  i l l u s t r a t e t h e wide v a r i e t y o f m a t e r i a l r e c o r d e d ,  To  one h a s  o n l y t o r e f e r t o some o f t h e more o u t s t a n d i n g i t e m s .  For  example, t h e c h r o n i c l e a n n o u n c e s t h e m e r g e r o f t h e Q p e r a Comique and t h e Comedie I t a l i e n n e . ^ mal  de c e t t e j o n c t i o n . "  7  a d d i n g t h a t "on a u g u r e  I t reviews  i n some d e t a i l  the state  o of  e a c h o f t h e t h r e e t h e a t r e s i n 1762  c o n c e r n i n g t h e d e s t r u c t i o n by f i r e 1763,  9  installation  and t h e move o f t h e  t o the s a l l e des T u i l e r i e s f o l l o w i n g t h e  o f t h e O p e r a i n i t s new p e r m a n e n t l o c a t i o n . "^  ^Memoires s e c r e t s . I , 2 1 , Ibid..  7  particulars  o f t h e Opera i n A p r i l ,  t h e problems o f r e b u i l d i n g " ^  Comedie-Francaise  and g i v e s  28.  I, 40.  F o r t h e Comedie I t a l i e n n e s e e I b i d . . I , 5 5 . The Comedie F r a n c a i s e i s r e v i e w e d i n I , 3 1 , 3 5 , 38 and t h e O p e r a i n I . 17 - 1 9 . 8  Ibid..  I , 221 -  Ibid..  I , 227,  9  1 0  20,  235 -  5 9 ; V, 68 - 7 0 . 1 : L  I b i d . . V, 121  224.  -  122.  2 3 6 , 249 -  250; I I , 11,  12 -  13,  The high-handed conduct o f the comediens draws comment,^ as does the unexpected  success o f the I t a l i e n s . ^  3  a success  a t t r i b u t e d t o the f r i v o l o u s t a s t e s o f the general p u b l i c . Many s p e c i f i c p l a y s and performances  are mentioned, i n c l u d i n g  those g i v e n p r i v a t e l y or at c o u r t as w e l l as those appearing at the r e g u l a r t h e a t r e s , some b e i n g merely touched upon w h i l e o t h e r s r e c e i v e more e x t e n s i v e treatment.^"  4  A p e r u s a l of the  Memoires a l s o impresses the modern reader with the  difficul-  t i e s under which p l a y w r i g h t s and a c t o r s worked, n o t a b l y those due t o the p e r v a d i n g domination o f the f o u r Gentlemen o f the Chamber and the n e c e s s i t y o f s u b m i t t i n g t o the censors* vention.  From such e x t e n s i v e coverage  inter-  emerges a confused but  l i v i n g p o r t r a i t o f the P a r i s i a n t h e a t r e o f the  day.  A d e t a i l e d examination of a l l the many dramatic authors and p l a y s reviewed i n the Memoires i s beyond the scope of the present survey.  T h i s was,  however, a decade  of c o n t i n u e d e v o l u t i o n i n t r a d i t i o n a l tragedy and comedy duri n g which w r i t e r s experimented  1 2  I b i d . . I , 96, 124;  1 3  I b i d . . I , 215;  w i t h both s t y l e and content i n  I I I , 326.  I I , 55,  208.  T h e supplements added by Moufle d ' A n g e r v i l l e cont a i n an abundance of m a t e r i a l on the t h e a t r e taken presumably d i r e c t l y from the p a r o i s s e r e g i s t e r s . T h i s m a t e r i a l seems t o have been e i t h e r summarized or o m i t t e d a l t o g e t h e r by Bachaumont i n p r e p a r i n g h i s manuscript f o r the Memoires. Although the supplements, p u b l i s h e d some f i f t e e n y e a r s a f t e r the events they r e c o r d , must have made d u l l r e a d i n g , they p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t might otherwise have been l o s t . 1 4  77 an  a t t e m p t t o r e p l a c e o u t w o r n f o r m u l a s and e x p r e s s  views. 5  w  A  e  these trends  shall,  therefore,  and d i s c o v e r ,  attempt t o e x p l o r e  current some o f  as f a r as p o s s i b l e , t h e a t t i t u d e  o f t h e p a r o i s s i e n s t o w a r d s them. In tragedy, the innovations tinued,  begun by V o l t a i r e c o n -  and seem t o have become g e n e r a l l y w e l l  For  example, e x o t i c c h a r a c t e r s  the  use o f elaborate  t h e Memoires.  scenery  accepted.  and s e t t i n g s n e c e s s i t a t i n g  evoke l i t t l e  direct  comment i n  The r o l e o f t h e "sauvage" i n l e B l a n c ' s  Capac. p r e m i e r Inca  du P e r o u  (1763)  Manco  i s seen as a p o t e n t i a l l y  f i n e v e h i c l e f o r Rousseau's t h e o r i e s , t h e p l a y b e i n g  con-  demned n o t f o r i t s e x o t i c e l e m e n t s b u t f o r i t s weaknesses o f s t r u c t u r e and c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n . H i r z a ou l e s I l l i n o i s  (1766),  S i m i l a r l y , i n Sauvigny's  the references  t o N i a g a r a and  L a b r a d o r , t h e o u t l a n d i s h names o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s  and t h e  17 lavish  setting  p a s s u n r e m a r k e d and t h e p l a y  receives  brief  and  r a t h e r c o o l p r a i s e i n t h e Memoires.  The a t t i t u d e o f  the  c h r o n i c l e r s t o such use o f e x o t i c elements i s c l e a r l y  ^ F o r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e drame on t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o r m s , s e e G a i f f e , F. op_. e x t . , p p . 182 - 185. x  ^ M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I , 254 - 256. a l e n g t h y review, i s termed " d e t e s t a b l e , " p l u s mal f a i t e s . " x  This play, given "une p i e c e d e s  • ^ L a n c a s t e r , H. C , op_. e x t . , p p . 545 - 546, discusses the e x o t i c elements o f t h i s p l a y , quoting t h e l o n g d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s e t t i n g g i v e n by S a u v i g n y a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f A c t I . l 8  Memoires secrets. I l l ,  220 -  221, 2 2 8 .  78 revealed  i n a phrase r e f e r r i n g to Lemierre's  Guillaume  (1766) where, f o l l o w i n g a b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e and  costumes, they  n'ont pas The  note that  empeche de  innovations  n o r m a l and  first  the  style, with  n e e d t o add  such playwright relied to  accessoires essentiels  h a l f of the  features of the  Even t h o s e a u t h o r s classical  ces  who  century  tragedy  h e a v i l y upon  1760*8.  attempted p l a y s c l o s e r to  c h a r a c t e r s drawn f r o m a n t i q u i t y ,  Dormont de de  COUPS  B e l l o y , who  t h e a t t r e and  i n Zelmire  elaborate  "c'est  un  success  of t h i s play,  s u j e t de p u r e i n v e n t i o n , p l e i n  the  felt  tragedy.  One (1762)  spectacle  compensate f o r h i s l a c k o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n s i g h t .  Memoires r e c o r d t h e  i 9  h a v e become  of the  f e a t u r e s unknown t o R a c i n i a n was  scenery  trouver cette tragedie p i t o y a b l e . "  of the  accepted  "tous  Tell  The  remarking that d'absurdites  d eVenements i n c r o y a b l e s , mais l e s s i t u a t i o n s sont T  et  si  20 s e c l u i s a n t e s que  l a r a i s o n se l a i s s e  A subsequent note remarks again  facilement  subjuguer."  upon i t s s h e e r a b s u r d i t y  and  21 poor v e r s i f i c a t i o n .  Yet  o f contemporary t a s t e s . 1 9  Ibid..  I l l ,  2 0  Ibid..  I,  85.  i t s p o p u l a r i t y continued,  Another play with  a  evidence  traditional  135. See  a l s o pp.  86  - 87,  95.  21 " " I b i d . , I , 100. L a n c a s t e r , H. C. op_. e x t . , pp. 472 478 r e v i e w s Z e l m i r e . n o t i n g t h a t " i t shows d e c i d e d c l e v e r n e s s i n i t s a p p e a l t o an a u d i e n c e t h a t had b e e n s u r f e i t e d w i t h l o g i c and d e p r i v e d o f e x c i t e m e n t and s p e c t a c l e . It i s , e x c e p t f o r i t s s t y l e and f o r m a l u n i t y and i t s happy e n d i n g , a f o r e r u n n e r o f t r a g e d i e s by A l e x a n d r e Dumas and V i c t o r Hugo."  classical  T  Whether o r n o t t h e a u t h o r i n t e n d e d t i o n o f R o u s s e a u and an a t t a c k  the play  on P a l i s s o t ,  as a  justifica-  the implications  were t h e r e and t h e M e m o i r e s r e c o r d t h e d e l a y s the  (1762).  theme was S a u v i g n y s M o r t d e S o c r a t e  that  ensued as  a u t h o r was f o r c e d t o d e l e t e some p a s s a g e s and r e w r i t e  22 others.  T h e u n d e r l y i n g b i a s was, o f c o u r s e ,  the p a r o i s s i e n s ; Palissot contre ce  "M. de S a u v i g n y n o u s a l u l a t i r a d e  qui devait  & t r e inse'ree d a n s l e S o c r a t e .  l e moderne A r i s t o p h a n e  scelerat.  a p p r o v e d by contre  Ce m o r c e a u  e s t nerveux e t p e i n t a m e r v e i l l e  I I e s t fScheux que l a p o l i c e a i t c o u v e r t  *  de s o n  21  egide  ce v i i personnage."  version,  The Memoires r e g a r d  however, a s l a c k i n g i n warmth.  appeal  or intellectual  succes  mediocre." Voltaire  piquancy,  the f i n a l  Without  emotional  i t r e m a i n e d m e r e l y "un  2 4  had a l r e a d y  introduced  i n t o tragedy  charac-  t e r s w i t h w e l l - k n o w n F r e n c h names and a l l u s i o n s t o F r e n c h heroes, -* b u t i t remained f o r de B e l l o y i n 1765 2  play  drawn f r o m n a t i o n a l h i s t o r y w i t h  tinge.  a strong  to write a patriotic  The M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s r e c o r d t h e phenomenal  of t h i s play,  l e Siege  of i t s n a t i o n a l i s t i c z z  2  3lbid.,  2 4  2  Memoires  Ibid.,  5zaire  de C a l a i s ( 1 7 6 4 ) ,  appeal  which, they  s e c r e t s . I , 103 -  success  r e v e a l i n g awareness feel,  104,  187,  has b l i n d e d 213,  309.  I, 309. I, 332. (1733);  Adelaidedu  Guesclin  (1734,  1765).  the p u b l i c  t o i t s many o t h e r w e a k n e s s e s .  increase of patriotic  interest,an  26  Along with  awakening c u r i o s i t y  this about  o t h e r n a t i o n s l e d t o growth o f h i s t o r i c a l  tragedy  English history  s u c c e s s , l e Comte  inspired  l a Harpe's e a r l y  i n general.  de W a r w i c k (1763), p r a i s e d by t h e c h r o n i c l e r o f t h e M e m o i r e s  27 both  f o r i t s content  Harpe's l a t e r from  tragedy,  Swedish h i s t o r y ;  t i o n e d , was b a s e d into  and f o r i t s s i m p l e , c l e a r G u s t a v e Wasa Lemierre s T  (1766)  Guillaume  on a Swiss l e g e n d .  what was c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a l m o s t  with h i s controversial  depicted  La events  T e l l . a l r e a d y men-  Lemierre  also  contemporary  ventured history  B a r n e v e l t . which t r e a t s o f events  s u r r o u n d i n g t h e e x e c u t i o n i n 1619 W r i t t e n i n 1766,  style.  o f a Dutch  i t was n o t p e r f o r m e d  until  statesman. 1790  a s i t s themes  o f p a t r i o t i s m a n d v i r t u e and d i s c u s s i o n s o f p e a c e and r e l i g i o n  29 were n o t a c c e p t a b l e t o t h e F r e n c h  authorities until  Such t e n d e n c i e s t o d i d a c t i c i s m , ing  emphasis on e m o t i o n a l  appeal  introduction of non-aristocratic 173  then.  a l o n g w i t h t h e grow-  and t h e o c c a s i o n a l c a u t i o u s heroes,  prepared  t h e way  ^ M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I I , 171 - 172. S e e a l s o p p . 172 and 176. F o r t h e 1769 r e v i v a l o f t h e p l a y s e e I b i d . . XIX,  55 - 56, 57, 58, 60 - 61, 75, 83 - 84. 2 7  Ibid..  I , 324 - 325.  28 L a H a r p e was a t t e m p t i n g t o i m p r o v e on P i r o n * s Gustave. F o r a r e v i e w , s e e L a n c a s t e r , H. C. op_. c i t . . 563 565. T h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I l l , 5 - 6 , r e c o r d t h e f a i l u r e o f i t s one p e r f o r m a n c e . A O  20  ^ L a n c a s t e r , H. C. o p . c i t . . 447 - 452. The p l a y i s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I I , 314, 323.  for  the t r a g e d i e bourgeoise.  drame.  S u c h a p l a y was  a form  very c l o s e to  Saurin s Beverlei. T  and  the  accounts  in  t h e M e m o i r e s a r e w o r t h y o f some a t t e n t i o n ,  to  i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p a r o i s s i e n s viewed p l a y s o f t h i s  w i t h somewhat m i x e d f e e l i n g s .  the  f o r they  Announcing the  seem type  forthcoming  p e r f o r m a n c e o f S a u r i n s p l a y , an a d a p t a t i o n o f M o o r e ' s Gamef  ster, "'" t h e Me"moires add: 3  pas  reussi jadis;  "Ce  genre,  m a i s l e F r a n c a i s commence a r e g a r d e r  intrepidite  l e s scenes  d'energie  f  a t r o c e s , e t s i s o n Sine n a f  q u a u t r e f o i s , son  oeil  en s u p p o r t e  davantage dans l a c t i o n t h 6 a * t r a l e . " f  however, h a v e f a l l e n  under t h e  formance, f o r the next un t r e s  grand  succes,  favourable review times  t o be  longest,  entry notes  The  et i l l e m e > i t e . "  i n t e r e s t i n g a s an  plus  au m o i n s  w r i t e r s must,  spell  of the  J O  per-  the action i s f e l t  A few  comment.  eu  A generally  days l a t e r  poems c o n c e r n i n g t h i s p l a y ,  i n s e r t e d without  pas  avec  t h a t " c e drame . . . a  f o l l o w s , although  j o u r n a l p u b l i s h e d two  J  emotional  excessively violent.  anonymous and  a coup s u r , n ' a u r a i t  The  first  at  the both and  expression of conservative opinion,  ^ T h e h e r o o f l e S i e g e de C a l a i s i s t h e mayor o f C a l a i s n o t t h e K i n g o f E n g l a n d , and L e m i e r r e * s T e l l i s a Swiss peasant. L a n c a s t e r , H. C. op_. e x t . , p . 618. 3  ^ A s e n t i m e n t a l and m o r a l i s t i c m i d d l e - c l a s s t r a g e d y f i r s t p e r f o r m e d i n London i n 1753. " D i d e r o t en a v a i t e s q u i s s e uhe t r a d u c t i o n a s s e z l i b r e e t 1 * a v a i t c o n f i n e "a S a u r i n p o u r l a c o m p o s i t i o n de B e v e r l e y . " G a i f f e , F. op. e x t . , p . 53. 3  3 2  3 3  Memoires secrets. Ibid..  IV,  30.  IV,  25.  82 c r i t i c i z e s B e V e r l e i as a "drame tant6*t bas, a " t i s s u mal  tantot  exalte,"  c o n s t r u i t et de tout p o i n t b i z a r r e " w h i l e  condemning the p r e v a i l i n g anglomania which i n f l u e n c e d to attempt such an " a f f r e u s e h o r r e u r . "  3 4  The  also Saurin  second poem i s  a l i t t l e vers galant p r a i s i n g Madame S a u r i n as the model f o r the devoted v i r t u o u s spouse p o r t r a y e d  i n the p l a y . 5 3  one hand, the p a r o i s s i e n s seem to d e p l o r e  the  On  threatened  p a s s i n g o f R a c i n i a n tragedy; y e t they too seem to y i e l d the appeal of pathos and  the  to  sensibility.  In the Memoires one  can t r a c e a corresponding  to the e v o l u t i o n i n comedy which was o p i n g great d i v e r s i t y of s t y l e and i n f l u e n c e d by the d r a m e . ° 3  reaction  i n the process o f d e v e l -  content,  being  particularly  The t r a d i t i o n a l comedy o f  Moliere  e v i d e n t l y no longer appealed t o the popular t a s t e . 37  3 4  I b i d . , IV, 34 -  35.  -5The p a r o i s s i e n s may have known her, f o r S a u r i n h i m s e l f was a s e c r e t a r y to the Duke o f Orleans and on f r i e n d l y terms with V o l t a i r e and H e l v e t i u s . Lancaster, H. C. op_. ext., P. 313. 3  G a i f f e , F. op. ext., p. 183 observes: "A c 8 t e du drame proprement d i t f l e u r i s s e n t l e s comedies s e r i e u s e s , moitie" s o u r i a n t e s , moitie' touchantes, admettant l e s emotions douces et l e r i r e tempere, s i v o i s i n e s du-genre de D i d e r o t que l a l i m i t e est souvent malaisee a e " t a b l i r . " 3 6  ^ T h e Memoires c o n t a i n very few r e f e r e n c e s to p e r f o r mances o f M o l i e r e ' s comedies. One entry ( I I , 89) remarks; upon the p r e v a i l i n g "scrupuleuse e x a c t i t u d e sur l e s b i e n seances" as d e t r i m e n t a l to the enjoyment o f M o l i e r e . Another (IV, 226) notes t h a t " l e s d i s p o s i t i o n s a c t u e l l e s des s p e c t a t e u r s a s ' a t t e n d r i r et p l e u r e r a nos p i e c e s comiques" may cause the f i n a n c i a l f a i l u r e o f an e x c e l l e n t p r o d u c t i o n of l e Bourgeois Gentilhomme. 3  83 M a r i v a u x , who  d i e d i n 1763,  had  w r i t t e n no  new  plays  for  /j o many y e a r s  and  paroissiens,  his "esprit  had  had  no  f i n et maniere,"  p r a i s e d by  successful imitators.  Tears  and  m o r a l i z i n g were i n vogue, r a t h e r t h a n f r a n k l a u g h t e r psychology.  3 9  Writers,  g e n r e , p r o d u c e d an tragedy; be  experiment  or  in  subtle  this  r a n g e i n comedy t h a n i n  i n development can,  however,  detected.  S i £ g e de  B e l l o y ' s tragedy i n two  reported  as h a v i n g  l a paix,  and  we  can  3 8  s e c o n d comedy, l e s 4  automatically  ensure  t r a c e i n the Memoires the  s t o r y o f C o l l e t s l a P a r t i e de  of  c h a s s e de  M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I , 193  -  Henri  from  i s also  s a v i n g i t from u t t e r f a i l u r e . ^  theme, however, d i d n o t  of a play  first  derived  t o V o i s e n o n , who  r e w r i t t e n the  thereby  The  immediate e n t h u s i a s t i c  t h e Memoires a t t r i b u t e i t s s u c c e s s , s p a r k l i n g wit,  le  comedies w r i t t e n  f o r t h e p e a c e c e l e b r a t i o n s o f 1763.  d e l i c a c y and  otic  i n t e r e s t o f de  1 * A n g l a i s a B o r d e a u x , won  acclaim; its  patriotic  C a l a i s found i t s counterpart  Favart  these,  de  even g r e a t e r  certain similarities  The  by  f e e l i n g free to  the  Fetes A  patri-  acceptance  interesting IV w h i c h  was  194.  T h e Me*moires, I I , 25 - 26 q u o t e f r o m a r e v i e w o f Le P h i l o s o p h e s a n s l e s a v o i r i n t h e J o u r n a l E n c y c l o p i d i q u e f o r M a r c h 15, 1766: "A l a t r o i s i e m e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n l e p u b l i c . . . s e r e s s o u v i n t que l a c o m e d i e n ' e t a i t p l u s un t a b l e a u d e s r i d i c u l e s , q u e l l e 6ta±t t o u j o u r s bonne des q u ' i l y p l e u r a i t , e t i l a p p l a u d i t en p l e u r a n t . " 3 9  f  268,  269  4 0 i b i d . , I , 208 - 270.  - 209,  210,  213  - 214,  270,  267  -  84 long withheld royalty.  from the  state theatres  4 x  A wide range o f other little  themes became p o p u l a r .  comedies, o f t e n mingled with  or at l e a s t the  a moralizing tone.  ariettes,  Allied  4 2  tendency to d i d a c t i c i s m already  the period, curious  as u n f l a t t e r i n g t o  noted i n the  serious  we  find  tragedy  of  a t e n d e n c y w h i c h l e d a t t i m e s t o some r a t h e r  example, l e s M o i s s o n n e u r s by c o n g r u o u s f o r two  reasons:  s t o r y o f R u t h , Boaz and  Favart first,  Naomi as  is felt  sur 1 ' a g r i c u l t u r e ,  a l a chose."  a l l u s i o n s to nature,  Influenced o r by  to report. t o be  i t presents  trop  the  by  a l s o "des  embellis,  the  For  quite i n Biblical  a 3 - a c t comedy w i t h  t h i s "drame c h a n t a n t " c o n t a i n s  philosophiques etranger  a  to t h i s ,  r e s u l t s which the Memoires a r e q u i c k  secondly,  had  Many  ariettesft  morceaux  d'un  esprit  growing t a s t e f o r  the philosophy  of Rousseau,  the  I b i d . . I , 167 n o t e s t h a t "on n ' o s e p a s m e t t r e un de n o s r o i s s i r e c e n t s u r l a s c e n e . " See a l s o I b i d . . I I , 330; I I I , 43, 57, 61, 188; IV, 358 - 359. The references also i l l u s t r a t e the valuable r o l e of the p r i v a t e theatres i n p e r m i t t i n g p r o d u c t i o n s o f t h e more " e x p e r i m e n t a l " plays such as t h i s . I t was f i n a l l y p e r f o r m e d a t t h e Come'dieF r a n c a i s e i n 1774, and i n t h e y e a r s 1781-1790 was e x c e e d e d o n l y i n p o p u l a r i t y by l e M a r i a g e de F i g a r o ( G a i f f e , F. op. e x t . , pp. 189 - 190). 4 x  42 G a i f f e , F. op_. e x t . , pp. 456 - 457 i n f o r m s us t h a t l e s C o n t e s moraux de M a r m o n t e l e*taient l e g r a n d g r e n i e r ou l e s auteurs dramatiques venaient s'approvisionner." The M e m o i r e s r e f e r t o a number o f p l a y s d e r i v e d f r o m M a r m o n t e l ' s stories: A n n e t t e e t L u b i n . I , 45, "une b a g a t e l l e t r e s j o l i e " ; l a B e r g e r e des A l p e s , I , 213; and H e u r e u s e m e n t . I , 164. 4 3 h e p l a y was T  27,  1768.  p e r f o r m e d by  the  Italiens.  January  3  audience apparently received the play with transports of enthusiasm d e s p i t e i t s i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s . 4 4 Another c u r i o u s development  was  the blending of  e l e m e n t s o f s e n s i b i l i t e ' and p a t h o s d e r i v e d w i t h a r i e t t e s f r o m t h e OpeVa-comique. Tom  Jones  (1765) by P o i n s i n e t ,  f r o m t h e drame  A comedy o f t h i s t y p e ,  receives lengthy study i n the  M e m o i r e s where i t i s j u d g e d t o be " a b s o l u m e n t  r a t e " and t o j  c o n t a i n s u c h an "amas de m a u v a i s e s  choses" that  m u s i c o f P h i l i d o r c a n n o t redeem  4  even  the  it. -*  The w r i t e r s o f t h e M e m o i r e s do n o t a p p e a r t o of  another tendency, that o f i n t r o d u c i n g ,  h e r o e s drawn f r o m t h e w o r l d o f commerce. o u l e t r i o m p h e de l ' a m i t i e . the  A n o t h e r come'die  v i r t u e s o f a n e g o c i a n t . was  s t y l e t o t h e drame. was  finds l i t t l e  praise,  c o n s i d e r i t "une ecrite,  summarized  Julie of  and  seVieuse. t h i s time s e t t i n g l e Bienfait  marchand by t h e M a r q u i s de D a m p i e r r e . in  Marin's play  d i s m i s s e d a s "joue'e p o u r l a p r e m i e r e e t d e r n i e r e  fois."46 the  comedy,  b a s e d on an e v e n t i n t h e l i f e  f i n a n c i e r Samuel B e r n a r d , i s b r i e f l y  curtly  even i n t o  approve  forth  r e n d u ou l e  This play,  very c l o s e  a p p a r e n t l y "un d e m i - s u c c e s . "  however, i n t h e Me*moires. whose w r i t e r s  satire  amere e t l o u r d e de l a n o b l e s s e , " "mal  a v e c durete*," i t s b e t t e r s p e e c h e s t i n g e d w i t h  amertume b a s s e e t  ignoble."  44Memoires s e c r e t s . 4 5  Ibid..  47ibid..  It  I I , 177  228 -  -  229.  "une  4 7  I l l , 339 178.  -  340, 4 6  352.  Ibid..  I , 57  -  58.  86  ronais.  A l s o c l o s e t o t h e drame was  C o l l y ' s Dupuis et  s a i d by  l e Drame fin F r a n c e  dix-huitieme  G a i f f e i n h i s study  siecle  t o be  "un  raodele  de  Desau  come'die s e r i e u s e  b e a u c o u p p l u s r e u s s i e t meme p l u s c o n f o r m e , s u r c e r t a i n s points,  au t h e o r i e s de D i d e r o t  lui-meme."48 part  The  Memoires, w h i l e  of the players to over-act,  the performance: qu'il une  soit,  "Ce  a fait  p e i n t u r e de Despite  nos  The  critics  o f t h i s new Diderot's no  reference  tician  merely that n'a  pas  approval  t h a t we  Memoires use were o n l y genre.  As  this  "ce  simple,  t o u t peu  par  of  intrigue  les details  et  of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r play,  now  in their  recognize  par  we  have seen, the  f a m i l l e and  As  journal  emergence reviews  o r i g i n a t o r and  makes theore-  f o r Beaumarchais' Eugenie, to which  officially  a p p l i e d , the Memoires note  drame t a n t p r o n e a e t e donne a u j o u r d ' h u i se f l a t t a i t . " - ^  4 8 Q a i f f e , F. op_. c i t . , p . 164. He o u t l i n e s " c h a r m a n t e p i e c e " more f u l l y on p a g e s 336 337. M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I , 182  5°Ibid.. I l l ,  the  i t i s clear  n o t e s i t s i n f l u e n c e but  r o l e as the  the  treatment  as m o d e l s o f  t e r m l o o s e l y and  eu l e s u c c e s d o n t l ' a u t e u r  4 9  the  success  j u s t b e c o m i n g aware o f t h e  to Diderot's  first  r e m a r k upon t h e  generally sympathetic  o f t h e drame.  t h e t e r m was  n o t i n g a t e n d e n c y on  drame, t o u t  their  P e r e de  Diderot  moeurs t r e s a f f l i g e a n t e m a i s t r e s v r a i e . "  of those productions drame.  l e s p i e c e s de  t r e s grand p l a i s i r  p a r o i s s i e n s are not  that  que  159.  -  183.  The  this  et play  4 9  87 was  regarded as a f a i l u r e  "parvenu," tion. the  "un homme f o r t  and Beaumarchais repandu  sans a v o i r aucune  Much more i s s a i d o f h i s l i f e  journal,  after  "un nomme L e v £ q u e , "  was l a b e l l e d a  than o f h i s plays;  a n n o u n c i n g h i s m a r r i a g e t o t h e widow o f a d d s t h a t M. C a r o n d e B e a u m a r c h a i s i s  " p l u s renomme e n c o r e p o u r s e s i n t r i g u e s que p o u r litteraires."-* bienfait  rendu,  d a t e d J a n u a r y , 1770, seems, however, t o i n -  dont  modification  of opinion.  theme o f a d o u b l e b a n k r u p t c y  adding that  "ce sujet  3  condemning  a encore p l u s r e v o l t e p a r l a maniere  i l a ete presente," t h e c h r o n i c l e r  tendre i n t l r e t . " ^  While  a s " d e f e c t u e u x en l u i - m e m e , "  pourtant trouve des scenes heureuses  does  ses talents  A r e v i e w o f h i s l a t e r p l a y , Deux Amis o u l e  2  d i c a t e some s l i g h t the  considera-  admits t h a t  "on y a  et produisant l e plus  Disapproval o f theupstart  Beaumarchais  not completely obscure a p p r e c i a t i o n o f h i s l i t e r a r y  skill.  As f o r S e d a i n e , who, i n h i s P h i l o s o p h e s a n s l e s a v o i r , "donne a t o u s l e s e c r i v a i n s d e p r o f e s s i o n c e que d e v r a i t  e t r e l e drame e t , m a l g r e  beaux e s p r i t s ,  fait  l e s r a i l l e r i e s des  un chef-d'oeuvre sans l e s a v o i r , " - * t h e 4  Memoires a r e e x c e e d i n g l y h a r s h . devenu p o e t e — m a i s  . . . un modele de  plus habile  D e s c r i b i n g h i m a s " c e macon encore a t r a c e r  5 1  Ibid.,  I l l , 140 - 141, 159.  5 2  Ibid..  I V , 14.  5 3  Ibid..  V, 55, 61.  5 4 G a i f f e , op_. c i t . , p . 185.  l e p l a n d'un  edifice  que c e l u i  d u n d r a m e — , »»55 t h e y  to h i s Philosophe. said  t o be b a d l y  having  give scant p r a i s e  f  T h i s "espece d*episode  bourgeois" i s  c o n s t r u c t e d , t h o u g h redeemed somewhat by  "des c a r a c t e r e s assez soutenus,  e t b e a u c o u p de n a t u r e l  dans l e d i a l o g u e "  and by p r e s e n t i n g " d e s i m a g e s n a l v e s de c e  qui  T  se passe  dans l i n t e r i e u r  success c o n t i n u e d , ^ the twenty-eighth  des f a m i l i e s . " - ^  I t s unexpected  however, and t h e M e m o i r e s r e m a r k  and f i n a l  after  performance that "ce b i z a r r e  rO succes Four taste  serait  etonnant  years l a t e r ,  i n 1769* t h e y  f o r Sedaine*s  nouvelle,  dans un a u t r e s i e c l e  dram.es:  deplore the popular  "On j o u a i t  l e Deserteur,  t o u j o u r s mauvaise quoique f o r t  The  journal,  a s we m i g h t  degree the b i a s o f i t s w r i t e r s , to  still  impartiality  que c e l u i - c i . " - '  expect,  courue  must b e g r a t e f u l  . . ."59  reflects  t o some  notwithstanding t h e i r  stated i n the introduction.^^ t h a t a c e r t a i n human q u a l i t y  piece  claim  I n a sense  we  colours the  ^ M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I V , 67. 5 6  Ibid..  I I , 293 - 295.  5 7  Ibid..  I I , 321.  5 8  Ibid..  I I , 331.  5 9  Ibid..  I V , 266 - 267.  S e e a l s o p p . 271 - 272.  6°"Quant aux n o t i c e s d e s e c r i t s de t h e S t r e , d e s a s s e m b l i e s l i t t e r a i r e s , d i s t i n g u e e s p a r une p r e c i s i o n u n i q u e e t i m p a r t i a l i t e q u o n a t t e n d r a i t en v a i n d pour t e l . . . " See t h e a v e r t i s s e m e n t , f  T  nouveaux, d e s p i e c e s e l l e s sont encore s u r t o u t p a r une un c r i t i q u e affiche I b i d . , I , p p . v, v i .  r e v i e w s and b r e a t h e s  life  into long-past  p a r o i s s i e n s were n o t immune f r o m  t h e i r treatment o f l e sT r i u m v i r s .  be  by Chabanon, t h e y  it  find  of the offerings at t h i s  h a s become "l'e'goQt  des a u t r e s ;  q u i n e p u i s s e y e*tre a d m i s e . " ^ there  i s poor, hoping that  to give i t high  i t t o be by V o l t a i r e . ^  approve o f t h e Comedie-Italienne.  mediocrity  Supposing the play to  heap s c o r n upon i t , o n l y  p r a i s e l a t e r when t h e y  That t h e  e r r o r s o f j u d g e m e n t i s shown  by  not  events.  2  They do  Commenting upon t h e theatre, they  i l n est T  point  T h e y r e j o i c e when  "ce debut p o u r r a i t b i e n  remark t h a t d'absurdite' attendance etre  l e p o q u e d e l a de'cadence que t o u s  l e s amateurs du v r a i  lui  3  T  presagent  they an  find  asset,  occasion profits  et l u i souhaitent."^  some a c t o r s s a t i s f a c t o r y ^  Despite 4  -* t h e M e m o i r e s r e c o r d w i t h  the fact  and r e g a r d  bien that  Riccoboni  as  o b v i o u s s a t i s f a c t i o n an  when, " p a r un r e t o u r d u b o n g o u t ou d e l a mode," t h e at t h e Comedie-Francaise a r e a t  of those  last  f a r i n excess  of l e s I t a l i e n s . ^  ^ L a n c a s t e r , H. C. op_. e x t . , p . 360 p o i n t s o u t t h e i r error. One may compare t h e s e o p p o s i n g v i e w s i n t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I I , 75 - 76 and I I I , 139. u  "'Memoires s e c r e t s . I , 282.  6 3  Ibid.,  I , 76 - 77.  6 4 i b i d . . I , 55 - 56, 306. 6 5  Ibid..  I , 141.  6 6  Ibid..  I V , 242.  In g e n e r a l , the Memoires r e v e a l a tendency to vatism, tempered by an acceptance of c e r t a i n The  conser-  innovations.  f a c t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n bequeathed by the j o u r n a l has been  o f very r e a l a s s i s t a n c e to s t u d e n t s  of the  theatre.^  Though many o f the reviews are b r i e f , they  supplement  i n f o r m a t i o n given i n other sources anecdotes and  such as Grimm, and  the  g o s s i p add to our a p p r e c i a t i o n of the person-  a l i t i e s involved.  We may  indeed be g r a t e f u l t o the p a r o i s s e  f o r t h i s comprehensive r e c o r d of the  eighteenth-century  theatre.  ^For example, Lancaster (op_. c i t . . p. 535) acknowl e d g e s h i s debt t o the Memoires f o r i n f o r m a t i o n concerning Chabanon's l o s t p l a y Eponine.  CHAPTER V I A DECADE OF  POETRY AND  PROSE IN THE  In addition to t h e i r period,  reviews  o f major works o f  t h e Memoires s e c r e t s p r o v i d e us w i t h  of lesser  items t h a t appear at f i r s t  classification.  sight  f o r our  r e f e r e n c e s t o l o n g - f o r g o t t e n w o r k s we certain literary  the i n s i g h t  occupations of their  to defy  simple  and  sense  t h e age.  study.  In  neverthese  can d e t e c t t r e n d s i n  as w e l l the  c u r i o u s b l e n d o f p o l i s h e d w i t and  that t y p i f i e d is  genres  evolution of  intellectual  unrest  P e r h a p s o f e v e n more i m p o r t a n c e  that these e n t r i e s a f f o r d  o f Madame D o u b l e t * s  into the daily  p a r o i s s i e n s and  the  still pre-  "bias"  journal. In view of the eighteenth-century p r e d i l e c t i o n  prose,  the  a multitude  This miscellaneous material o f f e r s  t h e l e s s much t h a t i s s i g n i f i c a n t  that  MEMOIRES SECRETS  a s u r p r i s i n g number o f i t e m s  or reviews  of poetry.  T h i s genre.  r e l a t e to  for  announcements  w h i l e f a r from  dead,  seems  i n many r e s p e c t s t o h a v e b e e n d e c i d e d l y s t a g n a n t ,  as  of the p u b l i c  inscriptions  s e s s i o n s o f t h e Academie r o v a l e des  et b e l l e s l e t t r e s  show o n l y t o o c l e a r l y .  cussed  and  fairly  l i f e l e s s but  x  detail.  the poetry  reviewed  almost  at these  total  x  The  accounts  subjects dis-  sessions indicate  preoccupation with  traditional  T h e s e t w i c e - y e a r l y s e s s i o n s a r e r e p o r t e d i n some See, f o r example, t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I , 224 -  and I I , 5 5 - 5 6 .  a  225  92 G r e e k o r Roman themes. in  In l i n e with t h i s  t h e M e m o i r e s numerous r e v i e w s  c o n c e r n we  of t r a n s l a t i o n s or  t i o n s of c l a s s i c a l poetry, the o d e — s e r i o u s or b e i n g a f a v o u r i t e form. total  detected  i n the i n t e r e s t  i n g s o f German poems and  however,  Several entries deal with the journal notes that  annees l e s Allemands marchent a grands  c a r r i e r e de l a b e l l e p o e ' s i e , " p r o d u c i n g , ouvrages  d i g n e s de nos m e i l l e u r s p o e t e s . "  refer briefly  6  4  n a t u r e and  example, "deux poernes h e r o i q u e s  i n 1765 . . .  pas  Other  and Thomson's The  The M e m o i r e s show g r e a t i n t e r e s t or s a t i r i c  be from  render-  "depuis  apparently,  t o t r a n s l a t i o n s o f P e t r a r c h ^ and  p o e t i c w o r k s s u c h as O s s i a n  didactic  almost  shown i n t r a n s l a t i o n s o f p o e t r y  o t h e r European c o u n t r i e s .  quelques  themes c a n ,  adapta-  otherwise—  Some d e p a r t u r e f r o m t h i s  absorption with t r a d i t i o n a l  find  of  dans l a "des  entries English  7  Seasons.'  i n poetry of a  cite  approvingly, for  q u i ramenent l a p o e s i e  By 1770, however, a t r e n d t o more e x o t i c s u b j e c t s seems t o h a v e s e t i n . I b i d . , V, 285 288. F o r de R o c h e f o r t ' s t r a n s l a t i o n s o f Homer s e e I b i d . . I , 163; I I , 140, 151 - 152; I I I , 39 - 40. The Abbe'de L i s l e ' s r e n d e r i n g o f t h e G e o r g i c s i s r e v i e w e d i n I b i d . , I , 164. 3  4  Ibid..  II,  69.  5  Ibid..  I I , 192  6  Ibid..  II,  -  193.  231.  ? I b i d . . I V , 239 - 240. S t . Lambert's a d a p t a t i o n l e s S a i s o n s , a p a s t o r a l , though i t i n d i c a t e s a r e v i v a l o f i n t e r e s t i n n a t u r e p o e t r y , i s f o u n d d u l l and d i s a p p o i n t i n g by t h e paroissiens.  a son ancienne  institution,  »  8  de c h a n t e r l a v e r t u , d e x c i t e r 1  le  zele patriotique."  it  seems, i s i t s " p h i l o s o p h i c " — d e s c r i b e d a s " n e c e s s a i r e ,  mime aux p o e t e s . "  T h e most e s s e n t i a l mark o f p o e t r y ,  Even t h e P o e s i e s s a c r e e s by V o l t a i r e s  9  1  enemy, L e f r a n c d e Pompignan, a r e h i g h l y p r a i s e d a s o u t s t a n d ing i n this  respect:  p a r M. d e V o l t a i r e ,  "Cet auteur,  tant mystifie,  tant  a c e p e n d a n t un m e r i t e s p e c i f i q u e :  bafoue i ly a  d a n s s e s o d e s d e s s t r o p h e s d i g n e s de R o u s s e a u ; s e s d i s c o u r s t i r e s des l i v r e s sublime, As  e n r i c h i e d iine p o e s i e vive, nerveuse f  f o rs a t i r i c  and  poetry, the journal  epigrams o f t h e type used  Piron. such  s a p i e n t i a u x s o n t p l e i n s d'une p h i l o s o p h i c  We a l s o  find  et p i t t o r e s q u e . " ^  abounds i n l i g h t  so e f f e c t i v e l y  by V o l t a i r e a n d  l o n g e r and more m a l i c i o u s  compositions  a s t h e s e r i e s o f no e l s f e a t u r e d i n t h e o p e n i n g  In a l l t h i s there i s l i t t l e ever thought tional  o f poetry  feeling.  t o suggest  the c r i t i c a l  seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i t was v a l u e d noble public  sentiments  expressed  1 0  8  Ibid..  I I , 245.  9  Ibid..  I I , 98 - 9 9 .  Ibid..  I , 297.  Ibid.,  I , 354 -  1 : L  21 - 2 5 , 37 - 3 8 .  359; I I , 4,  f o r s t r o n g emo-  comments i n t h e M e m o i r e s  chiefly  i n lofty  exchange o f w i t i n e n d l e s s l i t e r a r y  volumes. ^  that the paroissiens  as a c r e a t i v e o u t l e t  Rather,  verses  as a vehicle f o r form o r f o r t h e  or personal  9 - 10,  vendettas.  13, 16 -  18,  If  i t could  the  a l s o r i s e to heights  so much  better. D e c i d e d l y more v a r i e d  in  of p h i l o s o p h i c  q u a l i t y are  nal  the  prose  i n s c o p e and  writings  usually  superior  of t h i s period.  The  i n f a c t r e v i e w s a f a s c i n a t i n g v a r i e t y o f b o o k s and  phlets  which, t r e a t i n g the  illustrate  the  prevailing spirit  o f human a c t i v i t y . 1766,  that  widest imaginable range of  For  a book on  jourpam-  topics,  of inquiry into a l l aspects  example, t h e  h a i r d r e s s i n g has  Memoires n o t e i n March, been p u b l i s h e d ,  appar-  12 ently of quite they record of  a scientific  the  a published  I n J u l y , 1769,  nature.  appearance of  "une  work a t t a c k i n g we  find  the  A  few  weeks  absurdite"  i n the  p r a c t i c e of  a review of  later, form  bleeding.  i 3  l e Pornographe. a h i s t o r y  of p r o s t i t u t i o n together with a proposed plan  f o r i t s regu-  lation,  point  proving,  ment 1 ' e s p r i t voit  un  e r u d i t , sage, honnete et  porter  meme s e s  Ibid..  Ill,  11.  ^ibid..  Ill,  54.  1 4  regards."*"^  concerning c u r i o s i t i e s  r e v i e w s o f many p u b l i c a t i o n s 1 2  quel  d e'garef  lorsqu'on  profond,  m a t i e r e s u r l a q u e l l e i l a u r a i t eu h o n t e dans  temps de  notations  c h r o n i c l e r , "a  p h i l o s o p h i q u e p r e t e n d u nous a c o n d u i t  auteur grave,  t r a i t e r une autre  says the  ibid..  IV,  318  -  addition  o f t h i s s o r t , we  r e l a t i n g to the  319.  In  also  un to  find  scientific,  95 military  and e c o n o m i c i s s u e s o f t h e day, -* a s w e l l a s A  historical  t r e a t i s e s of various types.  cosmopolitanism of t r a v e l ^ x  i s well illustrated  Eighteenth  i n the accounts  as w e l l as i n t h e reviews  century o f books  of translations of  17 f o r e i g n prose  works. '  Strangely passes cited no  u n r e m a r k e d and c o m p a r a t i v e l y  few examples a r e  by t h e p a r o i s s e d u r i n g t h e d e c a d e 1762-1771,  doubt t h e u s u a l r e s p e c t a b l e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t  French in  almost  enough, i n a l l t h i s p r o f u s i o n t h e n o v e l  adaptations  o f E n g l i s h novels a r e noted,  g e n e r a l t h e Memoires r e v i e w  such  indicating  i n this  genre.  however, and  works f a v o u r a b l y , e s p e c i -  19 ally  i fthe style  i s found  t o be t a s t e f u l  and e l e g a n t .  5 T h e l a t t e r , we may a d d , a p p e a r t o b e p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s t a s t e f u l t o t h e p a r o i s s i e n s ( i b i d . , I I , 225). x  ^ I b i d . . I I , 109 110 r e v i e w s t h e a c c o u n t s o f t r a v e l s i n E n g l a n d , H o l l a n d and I t a l y f o u n d i n l e s O e u v r e s d e Madame du B o c c a g e (1764). A l t h o u g h s h e was a p a r o i s s i e n e . t h e M e m o i r e s d i s m i s s t h e work a s " r i e n d e n e u f , n i du c 6 t e h i s t o r i q u e n i du c6te" p h i l o s o p h i q u e . C*est ce q u i s a p p e l l e e c r i r e pour e c r i r e . " A t r a v e l book by B a i l l y de F l e u r y i s , on t h e o t h e r hand, h i g h l y p r a i s e d f o r i t s e r u d i t i o n and i n t e r e s t ( I b i d . . I I , 259). x  ,  ? F o r a n i n t e r e s t i n g and p e r c e p t i v e comment o n German l i t e r a t u r e exemplified i n Lessing's Fables see I b i d . , I I , x  144  - 145.  I n t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r (1761) D i d e r o t had p u b l i s h e d h i s E l o g e d e R i c h a r d s o n and R o u s s e a u h i s N o u v e l l e H e l o i s e which a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Richardson. x  8  Among such novels i n t h e E n g l i s h s t y l e a r e t h e M e m o i r e s en f o r m e d e l e t t r e s . d e deux .ieunes p e r s o n n e s de q u a l i t e ^ (1765) by t h e M a r q u i s e d e Champfery ( M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I I , 158), A m e l i e (1762) by Mme R i c c o b o n i ( i b i d . . I , 63) and L e t t r e s d e J u l i e de M a n d e v i l l e (1764) b y M. B o u c h a n t ( I b i d . . x 9  96 Also well received t h e n xn vogue,  are the sentimental, moralizing novels  s u c h a s Mme  Benoit's Elisabeth,  o f which  the  20 chronxcle states merely:  " I I a f f e c t e l e coeur."  t h e s h o r t e r , more s o p h i s t i c a t e d  and a r t i f i c i a l  M i m o i r e s f i n d none t o e q u a l t h o s e o f V o l t a i r e , ority  i n this  ocre * 4  Le  Bret's  t o be d e c i d e d l y  Candide.  medi-  2 3  n o v e l d i d , however, r e c e i v e more a t t e n t i o n  t h e p a r o i s s e t h a n a l l t h e o t h e r s combined, ects our attention to c e r t a i n  specific  famous B e l i s a i r e .  nal  to praise,  f i n d s at f i r s t  little  i n mid-February  1767  a f a c t which  2  On  dirgroup.  i n which the  jour-  c r i t i c i z i n g i t upon i t s  a s "une  dissertation  t r e s l o n g u e , t r e s r e b a t t u e s u r d e s o b j e t s de  e t de p o l i t i q u e . " 4  from  i n t e r e s t s of the  T h i s n o v e l i s Marmontel's  froide,  superi-  l ' O p t i q u e ou l e C h i n o i s a Memphis  c a n n o t be compared t o Z a d i g o r  appearance  whose 2  and S e m p e r a v i ' s  One  conte, the  genre has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d . ^  C o n t e s moraux e t d r a m a t i q u e s a r e f e l t  As f o r  tres morale  such a note the e n t r i e s concerning t h i s  I I , 75). C o n c e r n i n g a n o v e l t r a n s l a t e d f r o m t h e E n g l i s h by Abb6 P r e V o s t t h e j o u r n a l a d d s : " I I a p o u r t a n t une g r a n d e v o g u e p o u r l e s a v e n t u r e s e x t r a o r d i n a i r e s e t c o m p l i q u e e s dont i l e s t r e m p l i j c ' e s t l e l i v r e du j o u r . " ( i b i d . , I , 83.) 2 0  Ibid..  II,  308.  -*-See s u p r a C h a p t e r  IV.  Memoires secrets.  II,  2  2 2  2 3 i b i d . , I , 334. 2 4  Ibid..  Ill,  165.  218.  97 work might have ended, had i t not contained a p l e a ^ f o r t o l e r a n c e which offended t h e a u t h o r i t i e s .  A week l a t e r i t s  p r i v i l e g e was withdrawn and a l o n g and heated ensued.  controversy  The c h r o n i c l e l e a v e s us no doubt as t o t h e views o f  the p a r o i s s e i n t h i s a f f a i r .  Sympathetic t o t h e author and  to t h e p r i n c i p l e i n v o l v e d , they p u b l i c i z e a t l e n g t h t h e 25 a t t a c k s on t h i s work it  and a l s o draw a t t e n t i o n t o t h e support  i s r e c e i v i n g from t h e e n l i g h t e n e d monarchs o f n o r t h e r n  Europe " q u i f o n t l e p l u s grand eloge du l i v r e e t t r a i t e n t l e s sages m a i t r e s comme des c u i s t r e s . " * ' 2  enter t h e b a t t l e themselves. 1768,  The c h r o n i c l e r s even  From a warning on February  21,  t h a t " l e p l u s me'chant l i v r e p r o s c r i t en d e v i e n t p l u s  recherche,  1 , 2 7  they pass on March 6 t o t h e p r i n t i n g i n t h e i r  j o u r n a l o f a Vers au B e l i s a i r e t h a t s t r o n g l y a t t a c k s t h e 28 Sorbonne t h e o l o g i a n s .  A year l a t e r , when t h e ban imposed  on t h e book was upheld,  t h e Memoires i r o n i c a l l y recorded t h e  f i n a l statement o f t h e churchmen who i n f a c t d i s p o s e d o f t h i s work i n support o f t o l e r a n c e i n the most i n t o l e r a n t terms, 5 s e e I b i d . . I l l , 167 - 168, 169, 174 - 175, 181 - 182, 249, 305 - 306, 312 - 314, 323 - 324, 342 - 343, 344 - 345. 2  205,  2 6  Ibid.. Ill,  314 - 315.  2 7  I b i d . . I l l , 168.  I b i d . . I l l , 177 - 178. The c o n c l u d i n g l i n e s i n d i c a t e i t s general tone: "Que ce blasphemateur s o i t puni p a r l e f e u ; N a - t - i l pas du s a v o i r q u * i l c a u s a i t du scandale Quand, malgre l a Sorbonne, i l f a i s a i t aimer Dieu." 2 8  ,  98 condemning i t as "contenant captieuses, respirant  temeraires,  l'heresie  des p r o p o s i t i o n s f a u s s e s ,  scandaleuses,  et he'retiques.  impies,  erronnies,  1 , 2 9  This strong reaction to the suppression of B e l i s a i r e s e r v e s t o r e i n f o r c e t h e i m p r e s s i o n we h a v e a l r e a d y g a i n e d the pro-philosophe  sympathies o f t h e p a r o i s s i e n s .  respect, of course,  they  In  of  this  show t h e m s e l v e s t o be v e r y much p a r t  o f a movement t h a t d a t e s b a c k t o t h e e a r l i e r y e a r s o f t h e century.  I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note,  long active i n the f i e l d begin h i s manuscript  lightenment,  Jesuits.  Early  largely  until  1762  to  advance  t h e f o r c e s o f t h e en-  i n the r a d i c a l  t o have s c o r e d a s i g n a l  i n the f i r s t  Bachaumont,  t o r e c o r d i n g the steady  In that year  symbolized  t h e d a y , were f e l t  o f journalism, waited  devoted  o f t h e age o f r e a s o n .  however, t h a t  victory  volume we r e a d  over  the  the notation:  " E n f i n l e d e r n i e r coup e s t p o r t i a u j o u r d ' h u i  a l a compagnie  de J e s u s .  La S o c i e t e e s t d i s s o u t e  le  e s t d u n e grande i m p o r t a n c e dans l a l i t t e ' r a t u r e . " ^  repete,  . . .  writings of  C e t t e epoque,  T  3  T h e p a r o i s s e . we must  remember, had more t h a n  intellectual  i n this  interest  t h e Abbe de C h a u v e l i n ,  3  Ill,  344  ° I b i d . . I , 123.  -  a  detached  s i n c e one o f i t s members, blow t h a t  brought  d argile." ^ ,  3  345.  The e n t r y i s dated  A u g u s t 8,  ^ - B a y l e and H e r b l a y , op., c i t . . p p . 399 - 400 t h e Abbe de C h a u v e l i n , w i t h t h e h e l p o f a l e t t e r 3  how  Ibid..  affair,  had s t r u c k t h e f i n a l  down " c e t t e s t a t u e aux p i e d s  2 9  on  1762.  relates found  99 As for  the  we  might expect, a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n  y e a r s 1762-1764 a r e  r a n g i n g from the p o o n s and  usual l e t t e r s ,  the  any  defended.  p a m p h l e t s and  Order s activities.  Seldom a r e  f  Rather, the  paroisse  revealing  weaknesses i n i t s attempts at  M i n g l e d w i t h t h i s j u b i l a t i o n at the discerns,  i n q u a l i t y of bien  icrit,  the  Journal  n i aussi  de  Trevoux;  savamment d i s c u t e  journal  en p l u s . "  Despite i t s contrary  3 3  qui  this Jesuit  journal  and  of  regret  i t s editor,  in  and  rebuttal.  in 3 2  Jesuits  at the  T  plus  On  decline ni  paroisse  plus  thus  e r u d i t i o n and Pere  aussi  regrettera  d e g e n e r e r a de  views the  at l e a s t the  curtail-  delight  Society  . . .  lam-  Jesuits  "II n est  degenere et q u i  have a p p r e c i a t e d  the  of  overthrow of the  however, a c e r t a i n n o t e o f  longtemps ce  seems t o  books t o  appears to  w i t t i c i s m s that d i s c r e d i t t h e  the  entries  a n t i - J e s u i t propaganda,  in publishing  one  the  s a t i r e s , blended with triumphant reports  ment o f way  obviously  of  wit  of  Berthier.  a c c i d e n t a l l y by F a l c o n e t and w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f t h e P r e s i d e n t de M e i n i e r e s , l e d t h e a t t a c k i n t h e P a r l e m e n t o f P a r i s t h a t r e s u l t e d i n the overthrow of the order. Hence t h e c o u p l e t , quoted i n the Memoires s e c r e t s . I, 124• "Que f r a g i l e est ton s o r t , s o c i e t e Un b o i t e u x t a f o n d e e , un b o s s u t e f  perverse! renverse."  ( C h a u v e l i n was g r o t e s q u e l y d e f o r m e d ) . The j o u r n a l a l s o p r a i s e s C h a u v e l i n as " c e r e d o u t a b l e i c u e i l c o n t r e l e q u e l sont venus se b r i s e r l * o r g u e i l , l ' a s t u c e et l a p o l i t i q u e des J e s u i t e s . " ( i b i d . . I, 64.) 3 2  122  - 123, 3 3  For  example M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s , 135.  I,  82,  90,  116,  126,  Ibid.,  I , 119.  See  also  I b i d . . I,  233,  II,  73.  100 Logically corresponding well  allied  to t h i s  a n t i - J e s u i t b i a s we  sympathy i n t h e M e m o i r e s f o r t h e  illustrated  by  the  following rather  e n t h u s i a s t i c n o t e d a t e d September 1,  find  a  parlements.  3  immoderately  1763:  La l i t t e r a t u r e e s s u y e des modes, a i n s i que t o u t le reste: d e p u i s q u e l q u e temps l e s g e n i e s s e sont tendus vers l a finance et l a p o l i t i q u e ; l e s c a l a m i t i s de l £ t a t o n t f a i t n a x t r e des i c r i t s v i g o u r e u x , p r e s q u e d i g n e s d e s beaux j o u r s d e s r e p u b l i q u e s d A t h e n e s e t de Rome . . . On s a i t b i e n que n o u s v o u l o n s p a r l e r d e s b e l l e s remons t r a n c e s que n o s d i v e r s p a r l e m e n t s ne c e s s e n t de f a i r e en c e temps o r a g e u x : c e l l e s de B o r d e a u x ne s o n t p o i n t i n f i r i e u r e s a c e l l e s de P a r i s e t de Rouen, e l l e s e n c h S r i s s e n t meme, e t n ' a p p r o c h e n t c e p e n d a n t p o i n t e n c o r e a c e q u o n a s s u r e de c e l l e s de G r e n o b l e . 3 5 f  f  f  Such keen i n t e r e s t i n the p a r l e m e n t s no "le  activities  doubt a l s o r e f l e c t s t h e  cher president"  of the p a r o i s s e .  E v e n more a b u n d a n t t h a n t h e recorded  and  p u b l i c a t i o n s of  direct  influence  D u r e y de  religious  of  Meinieres.  anti-Jesuit writings  i n t h e M e m o i r e s i s t h e mass o f m a t e r i a l  ceeded from the  the  controversies of the  that  pro-  period.3°  34 t h i s study i s l i t e r a r y r a t h e r than p o l i t i c a l i n scope, I s h a l l not attempt r e f e r e n c e t o passages t h a t d e a l w i t h s u c h m a t t e r s a s t h e s t r u g g l e between t h e K i n g and t h e p a r l e m e n t s and t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s o v e r t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e latter. Such a s p e c t s would m e r i t s e p a r a t e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . A s  3^Memoires s e c r e t s . I , 300 - 301. See a l s o I b i d . . I , 364 where t h e c h r o n i c l e r p r a i s e s t h e R e m o n s t r a n c e s de G r e n o b l e a s "un c h e f d ' o e u v r e de l i b e r t e " i n w h i c h " l e s C i c e r o n , l e s Demonsthene . . . s e t r o u v e r o n t . r e v i v r e . " 3^In t h i s a r e a , o f c o u r s e , V o l t a i r e was p r e - e m i n e n t . " L e s s e u l s e c r i t s de V o l t a i r e i g a l e n t en nombre l e r e s t e des p u b l i c a t i o n s a n t i - r e l i g i e u s e s de c e t e m p s - l a . " (Aubertin,  101 In  g e n e r a l , t h e a n t i - r e l i g i o u s works w i n a p p r o v a l  judged felt,  t o be symptoms o f t h e a d v a n c e o f r e a s o n w h i c h , i t i s will  eventually prevail  humaines" as C h r i s t i a n i t y . that  and a r e  i n v e r t e d type  3 7  over  such  "extravagances  Frequently the praise i s o f  already noted  i n connection with  Voltaire's  a n t i - r e l i g i o u s w r i t i n g s i n which condemnation o b v i o u s l y both  t o deceive t h e censors  lightened  minds.  The is  not,  "On  a n d recommend t h e work t o e n -  3 8  exact p o s i t i o n o f t h e p a r o i s s e as regards  however, c o m p l e t e l y  as t o t a l l y  irreligious;  y etait  clear.  Grimm d e s c r i b e s t h e group  o f Madame Doublet's  s a l o n he remarks:  pas cnre'tien;  jamais  croyant n i divot  a d m i s , s i c e n ' e s t p e u t - e t r e M. d e F o n c e m a g n e . i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may b e t o o s t r o n g . that,  religion  j a n s e n i s t e , ou du moins t r e s p a r l e m e n t a i r e ,  on n'y i t a i t  serves  w h i l e t h e Memoires r e v i e w  mais  n y fut f  Yet t h i s  1,39  I t s h o u l d b e remembered  w i t h apparent  a p p r o v a l so  many a n t i - r e l i g i o u s p u b l i c a t i o n s a n d a r e q u i c k t o n o t e t h e w e a k n e s s e s i n t h e c o u n t e r - a t t a c k s by t h e churchmen, ** 4  they  op. e x t . , p . 393.) F o r e x a m p l e s o f o t h e r w r i t e r s r e v i e w e d i n t h i s f i e l d , s e e t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I , 21, 52; I I , 272 - 273, I V , 124 - 126, 131 - 132. 3 7  V,  The  208 - 211. 3 8  central  Ibid..  i d e a o f V o l t a i r e ' s V i e de J i s u s .  Ibid.,  I I , 272; I I I , 51 - 52.  G r i m m , op_. e x t . , I X , 317. We may a l s o add t h e name o f B o y e r d ' E g u i l l e s , whom C o t t i n , i n h i s work Un Frote'ge d e Bachaumont. p . x x v i i , t e r m s " p r o f o n d e r a e n t r e l i g i e u x . " 39  4  °Memoires secrets.  V, 184 - 186, 246 - 249.  102 seem a l s o t o have f l e e t i n g moments o f sympathy f o r a work such as M e d i t a t i o n s chre*tiennes.  described  as " l e f r u i t des  r e t r a i t e s de l ' a u t e u r , " i n which they p r i a s e " l e t o n de douceur, de candeur, de r a i s o n e t de c h a r i t e . " 4 1  Aubertin,  in  h i s E s p r i t p u b l i c au d i x - h u i t i e m e  in  t h i s j o u r n a l only " l e s f a i b l e s t r a c e s d'une r e s i s t a n c e  timide,  sie'cle c l a i m s t o f i n d  etouffee dans l a clameur p u b l i q u e  par l e r i d i c u l e . "  4 2  e t tu6e a u s s i t 8 t  Perhaps a c l o s e r study o f t h e Memoires.  one not l i m i t e d t o t h e i r l i t e r a r y a s p e c t s , would help t o c l a r i f y this issue.  C e r t a i n l y , u n l e s s one a c c e p t s t h e  many p i o u s and shocked p r o t e s t a t i o n s at t h e i r f a c e there  seems t o be l i t t l e  value,  evidence i n t h e j o u r n a l s t o sug-  gest t h a t t h e p a r o i s s i e n s had any s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s sympathies.  4 3  In r e f l e c t i n g upon t h e d i v e r s i t y o f m a t e r i a l t a i n e d i n these "memoires d * A r g u s , impressed by t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l d e s p i t e t h e i r advanced y e a r s .  1,44  we cannot f a i l  conto be  alertness of the paroissiens. I n t h e i r sympathy f o r t h e  -*-Memoires s e c r e t s , I I , 73 - 74.  4  4 A u b e r t i n , op_. c i t . . p. 395. 2  43perhaps even the name p a r o i s s i e n s was chosen with a c e r t a i n i r o n i c intent? 44 Goncourt, E. and J . , oj>. c i t . . pp. 72 - 73. I t i s perhaps unnecessary t o p o i n t out that Argus was a p r i n c e who a c c o r d i n g t o legend, possessed one hundred eyes, f i f t y o f which remained always open. d e  103 cause of the e n l i g h t e n m e n t , ^ 4  they show themselves to be  among the p r o g r e s s i v e s p i r i t s of t h e i r day.  Yet they  are  a l s o very much p a r t of t h e i r a r i s t o c r a t i c m i l i e u , d i s t u r b e d by the r i s e o f c o m m e r c i a l i s m — e s p e c i a l l y  i n the realm o f  l i t e r a t u r e ^ — a n d d i s t r e s s e d a t what they f e e l to be a grow4  i n g tendency i n j o u r n a l i s m to pander to the f r i v o l o u s t a s t e s o f the general p u b l i c .  4 7  I n t e r e s t e d i n new  t r e n d s , aware of  c u r r e n t problems, they are none the l e s s l o y a l to the t o c r a t i c standards o f elegance, w i t and refinement,  aris-  which—  l i k e so much o f the m a t e r i a l they r e v i e w e d — w e r e d e s t i n e d s h o r t l y to disappear.  5 H e r e again we should not, I f e e l , b e m i s l e d by apparent a t t a c k s on the p h i l o s o p h e s , such as the entry dated September 22, 1768 which b e g i n s : " I I s * e s t e l e v i depuis quelques annees en France une s e c t e de p h i l o s o p h e s audacieux q u i semble a v o i r eu l e systeme r e f l e ' c h i de p o r t e r une clarte? f a t a l e dans l e s e s p r i t s , d ' e b r a n l e r t o u t e cre*ance, de r e n v e r s e r l a r e l i g i o n et de l a saper jusque dans ses fondements . . ." 'Memoires s e c r e t s . IV, 124 - 126. 4  ^ L ' E c o l e l i t t e r a i r e t i r i e des m e i l l e u r s e c r i v a i n s . i s , f o r example, s a i d to be a f a i l u r e because " l e s o r d i d e intere't q u i f a i t a g i r t o u t e s nos plumes l i t t e ' r a i r e s " has motivated the p r o d u c t i o n of an i n f e r i o r work. I b i d . . I I , 32. 4  I b i d . , I I , 292 - 293. "On peut j u g e r de l a f u t i l i t i de n o t r e gout et de n o t r e paresse par l a l i s t e des almanachs nouveaux ..." 4 7  CHAPTER V I I CONCLUSION  An  analysis of the material  even w i t h i n t h e l i m i t e d has  scope o f t h i s p r e s e n t  p r o v e d t o b e an u n d e r t a k i n g  a s e l e c t i v e approach could crowd t h e pages o f t h i s  i n t h e Memoires s e c r e t s ,  o f some c o m p l e x i t y .  the profusion  s u r v e y has t e n d e d t o be f a i r l y  fined,  of necessity,  genres. various as  haustive for  trends,  Obviously,  that  Accordingly, i n nature,  t o a study o f the p r i n c i p a l  this  to catch  con-  a u t h o r s and  a glimpse o f the  t o note contemporary r e a c t i o n  f a r as p o s s i b l e — t o assess  journal.  report. general  I n a d d i t i o n , I have t r i e d literary  of details  O n l y by  "volumineux r e c u e i l " ^ " be b r o u g h t  w i t h i n t h e n a r r o w compass o f a b r i e f this  investigation,  and—  the i d e o l o g i c a l bias of the  i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i n no way an e x -  study o f t h e l i t e r a r y  t h e decade i n q u e s t i o n ,  material  i n t h e Memoires  n o r i s i t a complete  even  catalogue  o f a u t h o r s and w o r k s o f t h e p e r i o d .  ^ B a r r i e r e , i n t h e p r e f a c e t o h i s E x t r a i t d e s memoires d e Bachaumont. P a r i s , 1867> p . 212 r e m a r k s — p e r h a p s n o t a l t o g e t h e r j u s t l y — t h a t " i l n » y a p o i n t de l e c t e u r , f u t - i l i n f a t i g a b l e , dont c e volumineux r e c u e i l ne r e b u t S t l a patience." P e r h a p s i t was t h i s c o n f u s i o n o f d e t a i l s t h a t c a u s e d Mme du D e f f a n d , s p e a k i n g o f t h e M e m o i r e s . t o remark t h a t s h e h a d made "une s o t t e e m p l e t t e . " ( L e t t r e s de l a m a r q u i s e du D e f f a n d a H o r a c e W a l p o l e (1766-1780), M r s . P. T o y n b e e e d . , L o n d o n , 1912, I I I , 368, 373.) But then, might not the re-reading o f s e v e r a l y e a r s back i s s u e s o f Time produce a s i m i l a r reaction? 1  105 Certainly,  t h e most s t r i k i n g  f e a t u r e o f t h e Melnoires  secrets i s their  r i c h n e s s o f content, a f e a t u r e so w e l l  c r i b e d more t h a n  a c e n t u r y ago b y t h e G o n c o u r t  saw  i n Madame D o u b l e t * s s a l o n " l e r e n d e z - v o u s  des-  b r o t h e r s , who d e s echos, l e  c a b i n e t n o i r 6\x l * o n d e c a c h e t a i t l e s n o u v e l l e s , " a d d i n g : "Pele-mSle  y tombait  l e d i x - h u i t i e m e s i e c l e heure  b o n s mots e t s o t t i s e s ,  querelles, proces, s i f f l e t s ,  morts et n a i s s a n c e s , l i v r e s  e t grands  q u o i s a n s o r d r e , une m o i s s o n de c h o s e s journal, of  . . . "  hommes, un j e n e s a i s  a p l e i n e b r a s s i e de p a r o l e s e t  I n keeping with t h e s t a t e d purpose  and i t i s w i t h some r e g r e t t h a t  leave other areas unexplored. literary  and  bravos,  ofthe  t h e greater part o f t h e e n t r i e s concern t h e world  letters  exists,  a heure,  I have had t o  Within the confines ofthe  m a t e r i a l , however, t h e same a b u n d a n c e and v a r i e t y testimony t o the i n t e l l e c t u a l  to the journalistic In  activity  o f t h e day  fervour of the paroissiens.  a d d i t i o n t o t h e i r wealth o f content, these  early  v o l u m e s o f t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a s t y l e that  i s concise, clear  and a t times almost  quality.  Consequently,  lengthy c r i t i c a l  exception  rather than the r u l e ;  reviews  most d i r e c t  2  are the  i n g e n e r a l , we f i n d  summary o f what a r e s e e n t o b e t h e s a l i e n t The s b y l e o f t h e s e e a r l y  epigrammatic i n  a neat  p o i n t s o f a work.  volumes c o n s t i t u t e s ,  one f e e l s , t h e  e v i d e n c e we h a v e o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f Bachaumont.  d e G o n c o u r t , E. a n d J . op_. e x t . , p p . 72 - 7 3 .  106  To  quote A u b e r t i n :  Instruit  e t d'un  "Tout y p o r t e  homme de  sens, l a j u s t e s s e  l a marque d u n  bonne c o m p a g n i e .  1'expression  de  moindres fragments."  3  A f t e r January 1 ,  f  which the as his  the  rather  style  general  successor  and  La  s o l i d i t e ' du  d o n n e n t du p r i x  which Bachaumont s manuscript apparently a p p e a r t o be  less elegantly  1770,  the  ended,  phrased.  Mairobert  journal)  r e v e a l the  aux point the  4  The  content of items a f t e r that  tone of the  observateur  T  at  entries  extent date  to  (as  influence  i s , however, a m a t t e r f o r  well of  further  investigation. One  of  the  s e c r e t s i s the mentioned the  c h i e f p r o b l e m s p o s e d by  question  of t h e i r  the  authorship.  responsible  f o r the  Such a view i s o b v i o u s l y  incorrect.  We  assume t h a t he  the  was  Apart  furnished  chiefly  material  We  e r r o r o f some modern s c h o l a r s who  Bachaumont as p e r s o n a l l y  and  Memoires  responsible  from t h e  from t h i s ,  basic f o r the  may  already  consider  entire journal. no  doubt  safely  i n s p i r a t i o n f o r the s e l e c t i o n and  r e g i s t e r s , at l e a s t f o r the we  have  must, I t h i n k , a g r e e  series  e d i t i n g of  years  1762-1770.  with C o t t i n that  "les  A u b e r t i n , C. op_. e x t . , p . 3 8 5 . A comparison of s i m i l a r e n t r i e s o c c u r r i n g i n b o t h t h e j o u r n a l and t h e supplements i n d i c a t e s v e r y c l e a r l y t h e s u p e r i o r s t y l i s t i c q u a l i t i e s o f the former. One can compare, f o r example, t h e c o n c i s e r e v i e w o f l ' E c u e i l du s a g e ( 1 7 6 2 ) f o u n d i n t h e M e m o i r e s s e c r e t s . I , 24 - 25 w i t h t h e l e n g t h y a c c o u n t p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e r e g i s t e r s and p u b l i s h e d i n t h e s u p p l e m e n t s , I b i d . * XVI, 1 4 0 144. 3  4  S e e the  Avertissement. I b i d . , I, v i .  107 v e r i t a b l e s auteurs p a r o i s s i e n s . I  de  ce p r e c i e u x  repertoire  have c o n s e q u e n t l y  furent l e s  been c a r e f u l  to  avoid  u s i n g t h e name o f Bachaumont i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  any  critical  certain  opinions expressed  and  I remain f a i r l y  t h e b i a s o f t h e j o u r n a l i s most p r o b a b l y p a r o i s s e w i t h which* largely  of course*  literary  f a r a s one  items*  can  no  that  the  doubt  political  from a study  of the  That  anti-Jesuit  " j a n s e n i s t e , ou  du m o i n s  the r e l i g i o u s  sense) i s e v i d e n t  l e a n i n g s ; that they  s e e n even i n t h e l i t e r a r y  admiredthe  reviews.  s a l o n were d e c i d e d l y i r r e l i g i o u s  and,  from  parlements  Grimm was*  however, o f t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e h a b i t u e s o f Madame  7  tres  t h e members were J a n s e n i s t ( i n t h e  r a t h e r than  this point.  purely  Grimm a p p e a r s t o h a v e been a c c u r a t e i n h i s  pariementaire."  be  Bachaumont was  gather  assessment o f t h e p a r o i s s e as  can  the b i a s o f  the  i n sympathy. As  their  of  indeed,  Doublet s 1  seems t o  P e r h a p s i t w o u l d be more a c c u r a t e t o  stress  regard  ^ C o t t i n , C o r r e s p o n d a n c e i n e c l i t e du m a r q u i s d ' E g u i l l e s , p. x v i i i . The same a u t h o r c r e d i t s D u r e y de M e i n i e r e s w i t h a p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o the Memoires; "Les a r t i c l e s des Memoires r e l a t i f s a l a m a g i s t r a t u r e peuvent e t r e r e g a r d e s comme s o n o e u v r e . " ( i b i d . , p . xx.) V e r i f i c a t i o n of t h i s s t a t e m e n t i s , however, b e y o n d t h e s c o p e o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n . 6 A p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n t o t h e t h e o r y o f group a u t h o r s h i p l i e s i n t h e e n t r i e s c o n c e r n i n g p a i n t i n g and s c u l p t u r e . I n view o f Bachaumont s pre-eminence i n t h e f i e l d o f a r t , t h e c r i t i c a l comments i n t h i s a r e a w o u l d seem i n a l l l i k e l i h o o d t o be h i s p e r s o n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n . f  Grimm, op_. e x t . , IX, 317 r e f e r r e d t o i n my C h a p t e r 7  already  - 318. 6.  See  the  passage  108 them a s m e r e l y  indifferent  consider r e l i g i o n Certainly militant  as  generally incompatible with  to  reason.  were, as a  group,  atheists. the a t t i t u d e o f the p a r o i s s i e n s to the  c a u s e b o t h A u b e r t i n and  8  philosophe's  the Goncourt b r o t h e r s note  o f detachment, the former  tuelle paresse" that  respect, inclined  i t seems d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e y  In  spirit  in this  this  commenting upon t h e  o f t h e p a r o i s s i e n s and  the l a t t e r  same  "spiri-  insisting  t h e y were " n i p h i l o s o p h e s , n i j a n s e n i s t e s ; . . . i l s  etaient  des  indifferents."  as a r e c o r d o f the introduction  Yet  9  i f t h e M e m o i r e s were w r i t t e n  progress of the  would i m p l y , ^ x  one  enlightenment,  as i t s  must n e v e r t h e l e s s remember  the source of the items t h e r e i n .  I t seems u n l i k e l y  that  p a r o i s s i e n s c o u l d h a v e b e e n unaware o f t h e power o f t h e and  of the p u b l i c i t y  les  Filles  Rather,  to the p r o g r e s s o f the  and  enlightenment worded  and  band o f a r i s t o c r a t i c  quite consciously promulgating  Aubertin,  9de  op_. e x t . , p p .  G o n c o u r t , E. and  -^Memoires s e c r e t s .  377  -  the gospel of the  378.  J . , op., e x t . , p p .  I, i i i - v i .  cause  journal-  reason.  8  86  the  comments  o f t h e group i n t h e p h i l o s o p h e  seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s  i s t s was of  the involvement  from  t h e many e n t r i e s i n t h e  warmth o f a p p r o v a l i m p l i e d i n t h e c a r e f u l l y reflect  press  v a l u e o f t h e n o u v e l l e s t h a t emanated  Saint-Thomas.  j o u r n a l devoted  the  -87.  age  109 As f o r l i t e r a t u r e , an  t h e j o u r n a l r e v e a l s on t h e w h o l e  a w a r e n e s s o f c u r r e n t t r e n d s and  innovations, nostalgia  although  an a c c e p t a n c e  of  i t occasionally manifests a  f o r v a n i s h i n g standards  and  a s a g e n e r a l d e c l i n e i n good t a s t e .  certain  certain  d e p l o r e s what i t s e e s A completely  objective  a t t i t u d e i s s e l d o m a t t a i n e d b u t most o f t h e c r i t i c a l try  t o t e m p e r h a r s h c r i t i c i s m w i t h words o f p r a i s e  reviews  whenever  possible. The s e c r e t s from  c o n c l u s i o n s t h a t can be an  investigation  drawn a b o u t  limited  t o one  t h e Memoires  a r e a and  d e c a d e must, o f n e c e s s i t y , be c o n s i d e r e d as p u r e l y Other  avenues remain  t o be  o f t h e j o u r n a l can be gest  e x p l o r e d b e f o r e any  reached.  tentative.  firm  Among t h e s e , one  one  appraisal  might  sug-  a study o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f the p a r o i s s i e n s with  literary,  religious  and p o l i t i c a l  f i g u r e s o f t h e day;  the  a com-  p a r i s o n o f t h e Memoires w i t h o t h e r j o u r n a l s o f t h e p e r i o d ; a study of the content of the l a t e r attempt  volumes; a  t o gauge t h e i n f l u e n c e o f M a i r o b e r t .  i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a more a d e q u a t e i n d e x necessity.  Though undoubtedly  X i  appears  further For a l l such t o be  a complex u n d e r t a k i n g ,  a  prior a  T h e p r e s e n t i n d e x , c o n s i s t i n g o f a t a b l e o f names a p p e a r i n g i n t h e M e m o i r e s . has many l i m i t a t i o n s . Some names a r e o m i t t e d ( f o r example, t h a t o f Mme du B o c c a g e ) and e n t r i e s are overlooked i f the author i s r e f e r r e d to i n d i r e c t l y r a t h e r t h a n by name. D a t e s a l s o a r e a t t i m e s i n a c c u r a t e , a l t h o u g h t h e s e e r r o r s may be t y p o g r a p h i c a l . Above a l l , a s u b j e c t i n d e x i s e s s e n t i a l i f t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h e Memoires i s t o become more r e a d i l y a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e s t u d e n t . 1 : L  110  detailed  i n d e x would be an i n v a l u a b l e t o o l  study of t h i s  fascinating  I would l i k e  sight  investigation  into the l i t e r a r y  activity  French l i t e r a t u r e .  will  a s w e l l a s some i n -  o f the decade.  i n material of interest A d d i t i o n a l rewards,  t h e r e a d e r who c a r e f u l l y p e r u s e s him  has p r o v i d e d a g e n e r a l  and i t s c r e a t o r s ,  are, obviously, r i c h of  chronicle.  t o end my s t u d y by e x p r e s s i n g t h e  hope t h a t t h i s l i m i t e d view of t h e j o u r n a l  be g r a n t e d t h e p r i v i l e g e  their  ciates,  f r o m whose d a i l y m e e t i n g s d e v e l o p e d  pour s e r v i r France."  to the student  however,  t h e e y e s o f Madame D o u b l e t " s  vivante:  cultured "cette  E . and J .  asso-  source  a 1 " h i s t o i r e de l a r e p u b l i q u e d e s l e t t r e s  Goncourt,  To  l e s Memoires s e c r e t s  1 2  12de  await  o f glimpsing a vanished  through  cette chronique  The Memoires  crowded p a g e s .  society  intarissable,  for further  op_. e x t . , 53.  en  A SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  Amat, Roman d*. " B e r n i s , " D i c t i o n n a i r e de b i o g r a p h i e f r a n c a i s e , P a r i s , V I ( 1 9 5 4 ) , 123 - 126. . "Doublet," D i c t i o n n a i r e P a r i s , 1966, F a s c . l x i i i ,  de  biographie  6  4  6  francaise.  .  3  Aubertin, Charles. "Memoires de Bachaumont," E s p r i t au l 8 e s i e c l e . P a r i s , 1873, pp. 374 399.  public  Bachaumont, L o u i s P e t i t de. Memoires s e c r e t s pour s e r v i r a l ' h i s t o i r e de l a r e p u b l i q u e d e s l e t t r e s en F r a n c e d e p u i s 1762 .jusqu'a nos .jours, ou .journal d*un o b s e r v a t e u r l L o n d o n , I-V (1777); XVI (1781);  X V I I I (1782); XIX ( 1 7 8 3 ) .  Barbier,  Antoine Alexandre. Dictionnaire anonvmes. P a r i s , 1872-79.  des  ouvrages  Barbier,  Edmond J e a n F r a n c o i s . C h r o n i q u e de l a r i g e n c e de l a r e g n e de L o u i s XV. Paris, 1857.  et  Barroux, Robert. 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