UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The political speaking of the Hon. Howard C. Green as viewed within the framework of Cicero's 'Five canons… Montalbetti, Charles Edward 1969

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T H E P O L I T I C A L S P E A K I N G O F T H E H O N . HOWARD C G R E E N AS V I E W E D W I T H I N T H E FRAMEWORK O F C I C E R O ' S " F I V E CANONS O F R H E T O R I C " by C H A R L E S EDWARD M O N T A L B E T T I B . C o m . , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E O P M a s t e r o f E d u c a t i o n i n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S p e e c h C o m m u n i c a t i o n We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g , t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A p r i l , 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f Speech Communication The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date A p r i l , 19&9 ABSTRACT The study has two major purposes: 1. To present a n a r r a t i v e account o f the l i f e and speaking c a r e e r o f Hon. Howard C. Green, p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g those p e r i o d s when he spoke on b e h a l f o f s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s . 2. To analyze a s e l e c t number o f speeches d e l i v e r e d by Mr. Green i n the Canadian House o f Commons u t i l i z i n g C i c e r o ' s " F i v e Canons of R h e t o r i c " as a u n i f y i n g framework. A l l - o v e r sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n i n c l u d e d p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h Mr. Green and o t h e r s , p e r s o n a l papers, r e l e v a n t speeches, and f i n a l l y , newspapers, magazines, manuscripts and h i s t o r i c a l t e x t m a t e r i a l . TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE 1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY . .' 1 H i s t o r i c a l Preamble « 1 Choosing the Subject 2 Purposes o f the Study 3 L i m i t a t i o n s o f the Study k Chapter O r g a n i z a t i o n ^ 11 METHOD OP PROCEDURE 6 G e n e r a l Method 6* S e l e c t i o n of Speeches 8 Method of A n a l y s i s of Speeches . . . . . . 10 111 MR. GREEN'S BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT . . . . 12 P r e f a c e 12 E a r l y P e r i o d 12 Pre P o l i t i c a l Years Ik P o l i t i c a l P e r i o d . . . 19 Post P o l i t i c a l Years 30 IV ANALYSIS OP SELECTED SPEECHES 31 I n v e n t i o n 31 D i s p o s i t i o n . ^6 S t y l e 57 D e l i v e r y 68 Memory 75 V OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSIONS 78 FOOTNOTES . . 83 BIBLIOGRAPHY 92 APPENDIX 98 LIST 0? TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 A n a l y s i s o f Quotations Used i n Mr. Green's P o l i t i c a l Speeches •.. . 60 11 A n a l y s i s o f S i g n i f i c a n t D i f f e r e n c e s i n Mr. Green's P o l i t i c a l Speeches Between H i s Term i n O p p o s i t i o n and H i s Term as M i n i s t e r 82 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The a u t h o r i s deep ly i n d e b t e d to the H o n . Howard C . G r e e n , whose wise c o u n s e l and h e l p f u l s u g g e s t i o n s have c o n t r i b u t e d g r e a t l y to the p r e s e n t w o r k . B o t h he and M r s . Green have p a t i e n t l y answered my numerous q u e s t i o n s . To D r . P . Read Campbel l the a u t h o r would l i k e to express h i s pro found a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r her i m a g i n a t i v e and p a i n s t a k i n g a s s i s t a n c e i n t h i s t h e s i s . AUTHOR'S COMMENT F o r the g r e a t e r p a r t o f the p a s t t w e n t y - f i v e year s I have r e s i d e d w i t h my f a m i l y i n V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D u r i n g t h i s span o f t i m e , I have grown from a t i m i d p r e s c h o o l e r t o a c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e . Throughout my y o u t h I can remember my p a r e n t s d i s c u s s i n g v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f p o l i t i c s . A l t h o u g h I was n o t much c o n c e r n e d , t h e r e was one t h i n g t h a t d i d p u z z l e me. T h i s was the f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h my p a r e n t s and most o f t h e i r f r i e n d s were l i b e r a l s , y e t they p e r s i s t e n t l y v o t e d f o r a C o n s e r v a t i v e . T h i s C o n s e r v a t i v e happened to be our n e i g h b o r , M r . Howard C . G r e e n . L a t e r i n my c o l l e g e c a r e e r I d i d become s e r i o u s l y i n -v o l v e d w i t h p o l i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n s . I t was d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d t h a t I became aware o f M r . G r e e n ' s deep p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g f o r Canadian p e o p l e and o f h i s d e v o t i o n t o h i s work f o r the good o f a l l C a n a d i a n s . Over the y e a r s the example s e t by M r . Green became an i n s p i r a t i o n and a gu ide f o r me. When i t came t ime f o r me to b e g i n graduate work , and l a t e r , s e l e c t a t h e s i s f o r my program i n Speech Communicat ion , i t seemed most n a t u r a l t h a t I s h o u l d choose M r . Howard Green as a s u b j e c t . M r . G r e e n ' s speak ing and p e r s o n a l i t y seemed an e x -c e l l e n t e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n o f c e r t a i n p r i n c i p l e s o f r h e t o r i c t c w h i c h I had become s y m p a t h e t i c . The o n l y r e s e r v a t i o n I have i s t h a t t h i s s tudy may no t do j u s t i c e to M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l s p e a k i n g . F o r t h i s I a sk h i s i n d u l g e n c e . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY H i s t o r i c a l Preamble For the l a s t t w e n t y - f i v e c e n t u r i e s speech and speech-making have been s t u d i e d and w r i t t e n a b o u t . Prom the ex-p e r i e n c e o f these many c e n t u r i e s a number o f p r i n c i p l e s have emerged, p r i n c i p l e s w h i c h , i n the m a i n , are found to be as v a l i d today as they were i n the t ime o f A r i s t o t l e o r C i c e r o o r Q u i n t i i i a n . Whether c o n s c i o u s l y o r n o t , most speakers today a p p l y p r i n c i p l e s f o r m u l a t e d c e n t u r i e s ago . In t h i s s tudy the p r i n c i p l e s l a i d down by C i c e r o , the g r e a t Roman o r a t o r and w r i t e r o f the F i r s t C e n t u r y B . C . , a re used as a s t r u c t u r e w i t h i n w h i c h d i r e c t i o n and focus are g i v e n to the main body o f the work . I t i s n o t o n l y i n h i s own t ime t h a t C i c e r o was conceded the p o s i t i o n o f a l e a d i n g speech t h e o r i s t ; h i s c a r e f u l l y - f o r m u l a t e d speech code has s tood the t e s t o f two thousand years." 1" I t i s w i t h a f i n e f e e l i n g o f s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h e n , t h a t the a u t h o r o f t h i s t h e s i s chose to u t i l i z e C i c e r o ' s " F i v e Canons o f R h e t o r i c " as h i s f rame-work o f r e f e r e n c e . R h e t o r i c may be l o o s e l y d e f i n e d as the a r t and s k i l l o f s p e a k i n g . But s p e a k i n g has many forms and may be as complex and many-faceted as the human who uses i t . In t h i s s tudy major emphasis has been p l a c e d on p u b l i c a d d r e s s , a n d , even more d e l i m i t e d , on what i s commonly termed " p a r l i a m e n t a r y s p e a k i n g . " In a f r e e and r e s p o n s i b l e s o c i e t y the r i g h t to genuine d e l i b e r a t i o n and debate among the peop le or t h e i r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i s j e a l o u s l y g u a r d e d . Debate i s thought o f as the method o f p r e s e n t i n g f o r m a l l y to the a u d i e n c e concerned the e v i d e n c e , r e a s o n i n g and appea l s n e c e s s a r y f o r r e a c h i n g c o n c l u s i o n s . Choos ing the S u b j e c t The e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f a c o u n t r y are charged w i t h the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f m a i n t a i n i n g the government o f t h a t c o u n t r y . The members o f t h i s group have i n common the t a s k o f s h a r i n g i n the d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s r e f e r r e d to as p o l i t i c s . I t i s the sum t o t a l o f the c o l l e c t i v e com-m u n i c a t i o n o f the e l e c t e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w h i c h s e rve s to d i r e c t and m a i n t a i n the s o c i e t y w h i c h t h e y r e p r e s e n t . Mean i n g f u l i n s i g h t s may be g a i n e d by an a n a l y s t by f o c u s i n g on i n d i v i d u a l members o f the p o l i t i c a l s o c i e t y . To at tempt an a n a l y s i s o f s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l f i g u r e s would have c e r t a i n a d d i t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s . However, the l e n g t h o f t h i s paper p e r m i t s an i n - d e p t h s tudy o f o n l y o n e . The p a r t i c u l a r member o f the p o l i t i c a l group w h i c h the a u t h o r has chosen i s the Hon . Howard C . G r e e n , a former C o n s e r v a t i v e Member o f Canada ' s P a r l i a m e n t . I f one i s i n -t e r e s t e d i n a n a l y z i n g Canada ' s p o l i t i c a l communicat ion ( p o l i t i c a l speeches d e l i v e r e d i n the House o f Commons), what d i r e c t i o n s h o u l d the s t u d y t a k e ? How can one a c h i e v e a c l e a r - c u t v iew o f a s i n g l e p o l i t i c i a n i n a way t h a t makes such s tudy p o s s i b l e ? How s h a l l the a n a l y s t commence h i s s t u d y o f Canada ' s p o l i t i c a l a rena? These are hut a few o f numerous m e a n i n g f u l q u e s t i o n s w h i c h c o u l d he c o n s i d e r e d b e f o r e a s t u d y i s g e n e r a t e d . F o r purposes o f t h i s paper the d i s c u s s i o n w i l l be l i m i t e d to the r h e t o r i c a l a n a l y s i s o f one o f Canada ' s most prominent s t a te smen , M r . Howard G r e e n . Coupled w i t h a c o n -s i d e r a t i o n o f p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c w i l l be an o b s e r v a t i o n o f the r h e t o r i c a l p roce s s used i n Canada ' s p o l i t i c a l f o rum. S e l e c t i n g a p o l i t i c i a n from among the l a r g e number o f l i v i n g c a n d i d a t e s i s a r a t h e r easy t a s k . However, the 2 s e l e c t i o n o f a "good" p o l i t i c i a n i s something q u i t e e l s e . Where s h a l l one f i n d a man deep ly imbued w i t h a sense o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r , and c l o s e s o l i d a r i t y w i t h , the e n v i r o n -ment i n w h i c h he l i v e s ? Where s h a l l one f i n d a man who. i s a b l e to e x e r t a p ro found impact on h i s s o c i e t y ? Choos ing a good c a n d i d a t e f o r s tudy i s no s i m p l e task' . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a u t h o r i s c o n v i n c e d t h a t he was a b l e to f i n d such a man i n the per son o f M r . Howard G r e e n . T h i s s tudy c o n c e n t r a t e s on those p e r i o d s o f Howard G r e e n ' s c a r e e r when he spoke on s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s i n the Canadian House o f Commons. Purposes o f the S tudy The purposes o f t h i s s tudy a r e : ( l ) to p r e s e n t a n a r r a t i v e a c c o u n t o f the l i f e and s p e a k i n g c a r e e r o f M r . G r e e n ; ( 2 ) to a n a l y z e a s e l e c t number o f speeches w h i c h M r . Green d e l i v e r e d i n the Canadian House o f Commons from the p o i n t o f v i ew o f C i c e r o ' s "Canons o f R h e t o r i c ; " ( 3 ) "to ex-amine M r . G r e e n ' s p a r l i a m e n t a r y s p e a k i n g and debate t h r o u g h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the comments o f v a r i o u s j o u r n a l i s t s and numerous Members o f the House o f Commons. L i m i t a t i o n s o f the S tudy V/hen a sample from a p o p u l a t i o n i s chosen t h e r e i s a lways the q u e s t i o n o f w h i c h u n i t s to s e l e c t (or i n t h i s case w h i c h speeches to s e l e c t ) . M r . Green d e l i v e r e d one k hundred and n i n e t e e n speeches i n the House o f Commons, The a u t h o r has s e l e c t e d e i g h t speeches c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M r . G r e e n ' s s p e a k i n g from t h i s p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s not p o s -s i b l e i n e i g h t speeches to cover e v e r y p o s s i b l e speech s i t u a t i o n and communicat ion encounter i n w h i c h M r . Green was i n v o l v e d . I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t the s e l e c t i o n o f a s m a l l sample from a l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n w i l l i n d i c a t e o n l y the g e n e r a l t endency o f M r . G r e e n ' s s p e a k i n g . Chapter O r g a n i z a t i o n Chapter 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n to the S t u d y . F o l l o w i n g the h i s t o r i c a l preamble w h i c h provided a backward l o o k a t the em-ergence o f speech-making over the c e n t u r i e s and the a u t h o r ' s r ea sons f o r s e l e c t i n g C i c e r o as the u n i f y i n g frame f o r h i s s t u d y , r ea sons were then g i v e n f o r the c h o i c e o f s u b j e c t . The purposes and l i m i t a t i o n s o f the s tudy were d i s c u s s e d and the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the f o u r chap te r s o u t l i n e d . Chapter 1 1 . Method o f Procedure ' . M r . G r e e n ' s speeches were c o l l e c t e d ; j o u r n a l i s t i c o p i n i o n was s t u d i e d ; and p r e s s i n t e r v i e w s w i t h M r . Green were c o n d u c t e d . E i g h t speeches p o r t r a y i n g h i s concern f o r c e r t a i n b a s i c i s s u e s were s e l e c t e d as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample . These were o r g a n i z e d i n a t ime sequence and a n a l y z e d i n d e t a i l ' . C i c e r o ' s c l a s s i c a l com-ponents o f r h e t o r i c formed the b a s i s o f the a l l - o v e r e v a l u a t i o n o f the e i g h t speeches w h i c h were s e l e c t e d . Chapter 1 1 1 . M r . G r e e n ' s Background and Development. ' A c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Mr . G r e e n ' s p l a c e i n Canadian p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y was p r e s e n t e d . An a n a l y s i s was made o f h i s d e v e l o p -ment as a p o l i t i c a l s p e a k e r . Quota t ions are used t o e x e m p l i f y the o p i n i o n o f v a r i o u s j o u r n a l i s t s , not o n l y i n terms o f h i s p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c bu t a l s o r e g a r d i n g Howard G r e e n , the s tatesman and n e i g h b o r . Chapter I V . A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d Speeches . E a c h o f C i c e r o ' s " F i v e Canons o f R h e t o r i c " were e n l a r g e d upon i n t u r n i n o r d e r t h a t f u r t h e r d imens ions o f meaning might be u n d e r -s t o o d more c l e a r l y . R e l e v a n t e x c e r p t s f rom M r . G r e e n ' s speeches were quoted i n o r d e r to f u r n i s h an example o f the p r i n c i p l e b e i n g examined. Chapter V . Overv iew and C o n c l u s i o n s . E v a l u a t i o n s and c o n c l u s i o n s r e g a r d i n g M r . G r e e n ' s s t r e n g t h as a speaker were s e t f o r t h i , CHAPTER TWO METHOD OF PROCEDURE G e n e r a l Method In o r d e r to a n a l y s e the s p e a k i n g o f Howard Green i t was n e c e s s a r y to l o c a t e a l l p o s s i b l e m a t e r i a l p e r t a i n i n g to h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . By s i f t i n g t h r o u g h h i s t o r i c a l and b i o g r a p h -i c a l da ta a g e n e r a l i m p r e s s i o n o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l s p e a k i n g was o b t a i n e d . The a u t h o r t h e n p r o c u r e d the v a s t number o f speeches which M r . Green d e l i v e r e d . P a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t c e n t r e d on h i s speeches i n the Canadian House o f Commons. However, o t h e r speeches were g a t h e r e d , i n c l u d i n g those d e l i v e r e d i n the U n i t e d N a t i o n s i n New Y o r k ; speeches d e l i v e r e d to s e r v i c e groups and v a r i o u s o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s ; and a speech d e l i v e r e d over the Canad ian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n ( r a d i o ) . The t e x t o f M r . G r e e n ' s speeches was o b t a i n e d from the Canadian Government Hansard: and from numerous newspaper a r t i c l e s . By c o n t a c t i n g M r . Green and c o m p l e t i n g a s e r i e s o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s , i t became p o s -s i b l e to r e v i e w a l l o f h i s speeches g i v e n i n the House o f Commons. A r t i c l e s and comment from a number o f s e l e c t e d newspapers and magazines were s t u d i e d i n o r d e r to o b t a i n the o p i n i o n o f j o u r n a l i s t s c o n c e r n i n g h i s s p e e c h e s . The p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h M r . Green p r o v e d to be most h e l p f u l to the w r i t e r as he came to know more o f M r . G r e e n ' s c h a r a c t e r and s t a t u r e as a per son o f r ank 7 and i n f l u e n c e . One o f the dangers i n a n a l y z i n g a Canadian p o l i t i c i a n ' s speeches ( f o r content and e f f e c t i v e n e s s ) i s the a u t h o r ' s p o s s i b l e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to i n t e r p r e t i v e p r e s s u r e s , p a r t i c -u l a r l y from the newspapers . I t i s i m p o r t a n t to i n c l u d e b o t h a s p e c t s o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a s p e a k e r : a) how the speaker viewed h i s work b) the news m e d i a ' s o p i n i o n o f h i s work O f t e n t i m e s the nev/s media misquotes o r quotes' the speaker out o f c o n t e x t . T h i s changes the s p e a k e r ' s i n t e n d e d meaning . The a n a l y s t must c o n s t a n t l y keep the i n t e r p r e t i v e p i t f a l l s i n m i n d . I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see how j o u r n a l i s t s who o r i g i n a l l y devoted a r t i c l e s to M r . G r e e n ' s v iews would r e a c t today t o h i s e a r l i e r p o l i t i c a l s t a t e m e n t s . For example , one p o s i t i o n on w h i c h Mr . Green took a determined s t and was >5 a g a i n s t the a d m i s s i o n o f n u c l e a r arms i n t o Canada . A t the v e r y t ime t h a t M r . . G r e e n was b e i n g c r i t i c i z e d by the p r e s s 6 f o r h i s s t a n d Canada was t r y i n g to p r o v i d e the w o r l d w i t h a n e u t r a l power which would enable a l l c o u n t r i e s to embark upon m e a n i n g f u l disarmament n e g o t i a t i o n s i n Geneva . However, the news media were a n t a g o n i s t i c to M r . G r e e n ' s a t t i t u d e and proceeded to c a s t i g a t e h i s s tand ( r e f l e c t e d i n h i s s p e e c h e s ) . In f a c t the May 1 6 , 1 9 & 1 , e d i t o r i a l i n the Vancouver D a i l y 7 P r o v i n c e had the c a p t i o n : " M r . Green Shou ld R e s i g n . " How would these same j o u r n a l i s t s t r e a t h i s v iew on n u c l e a r arms today? One has to s c r u t i n i z e w i t h g rea t care the a c -c u r a c y and a u t h e n t i c i t y o f the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n g i v e n by the 8 newspaper m e d i a . S e l e c t i o n o f Speeches The a u t h o r r e a d a l l o f M r . G r e e n ' s speeches d e l i v e r e d i n the Canadian House o f Commons. Because o f the complex n a t u r e o f debate i n the Canadian P a r l i a m e n t many d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f s p e a k i n g s i t u a t i o n s were r e p r e s e n t e d . However, o n l y those speeches where M r . Green deve loped a s p e c i f i c i s s u e o r s e r i e s o f i s s u e s were s e l e c t e d as major p o l i t i c a l s p e e c h e s . H i s p a s s i n g remarks w h i c h were q u i t e s h o r t or w e r e ; u s e d by M r . Green o n l y as a f i l l e r , o r used i n answer ing a d i r e c t q u e s t i o n o r c o v e r i n g some p o i n t o f i n f o r m a t i o n have been o m i t t e d . In a l l , one hundred and n i n e t e e n speeches were 8 d e l i v e r e d b y M r . Green d u r i n g h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . M r . G r e e n ' s p u b l i c l i f e can be d i v i d e d r e a l i s t i c a l l y i n t o two separa te p a r t s : ( l ) h i s O p p o s i t i o n r o l e from 1935 t o 1 9 5 7 ; and (2) h i s r o l e as a C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r d u r i n g the t ime the C o n s e r v a t i v e Government was i n power from 1957 to 1963* T h i s d i v i s i o n seems warranted because i t appears t h a t M r . Green p l a y e d two d i s t i n c t r o l e s w h i l e i n p o l i t i c s . The f i r s t r o l e was t h a t o f the O p p o s i t i o n c r i t i c , the second was t h a t o f a M i n i s t e r i n o f f i c e . In a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w M r . Green c o n c u r r e d t h a t he saw h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r i n t h i s way. •As i n d i c a t e d above i t was n o t the purpose o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n to a n a l y z e and a u t h e n t i c a t e a l l o f M r . G r e e n ' s s p e e c h t e x t s , r a t h e r to s e l e c t enough speeches to form a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample . Prom t h i s sample w i l l come a f a i r l y r e a l i s t i c a n a l y s i s o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l s p e a k i n g . I t was d e c i d e d to s e l e c t e i g h t speeches ( f o u r speeches from each o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d s as p r e v i o u s l y o u t -l i n e d ) w h i c h were t y p i c a l o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l speak ing i n the House o f Commons. I t was known t h a t the m a j o r i t y o f speeches d e l i v e r e d t o o k ' p l a c e i n the f i r s t y e a r s o f h i s p o l i t i c a l l i f e , however , i n o r d e r to g i v e an e q u a l w e i g h t i n g to "both p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d s , i t was d e c i d e d to s e l e c t the same number o f speeches from e a c h . An i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n s e l e c t i n g a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample from M r . G r e e n ' s e a r l i e r s p e a k i n g p e r i o d was the f a c t t h a t t h e y were d e l i v e r e d over a twenty-two year p e r i o d . The t ime f a c t o r and the f a c t t h a t one hundred and twe lve major speeches were d e l i v e r e d by M r . Green d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d caused an a d d i t i o n a l problem i n s e l e c t i n g the sample . The second p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d was o n l y seven y e a r s i n l e n g t h and s u r p r i s i n g l y enough M r . Green d e l i v e r e d e x a c t l y seven major s p e e c h e s . Hence i t was e a s i e r t o s e l e c t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e speeches d u r i n g the second s p e a k i n g p e r i o d . H o l d i n g these f a c t o r s i n mind the f o l l o w i n g speeches were c h o s e n : a) P e r i o d one 1935 - May 1957 1) March 9 , 1936 - P e n s i o n s f o r the B l i n d 2) March 6 , 19^1 - B i l l Amending P e n s i o n A c t 3) O c t o b e r 18 , 1951 - Throne Speech Debate k) November 26, 1956 - The Suez C r i s i s 1 0 b) P e r i o d two June 1 9 5 7 - 1 9 6 3 ( 1 ) J u l y 9 , 1 9 5 9 - I n t r o d u c t i o n o f Estimates o f Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s ( 2 ) February 1 0 , i 9 6 0 - Canada's F o r e i g n P o l i c y ( 3 ) A p r i l 26, 1 9 6 1 - Canada i n Today's World ( 4 ) September 7 j 1 9 6 1 - The C r i s i s A r i s i n g Over Nucl e a r T e s t s and B e r l i n Some o f the i s s u e s w i t h which Mr. Green a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f d u r i n g the course o f h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r were: 1 . War Veterans 2 . The B l i n d 3. Disarmament 4. Strong B r i t i s h P r e f e r e n c e f o r Trade 5« ^b.e Commonwealth o. Canada's Role as a N e u t r a l World Leader 7 . Defense 8 . U n i t e d S t a t e s I n f l u e n c e i n Canada The speeches which were s e l e c t e d focused on the major i s s u e s proposed and explored b y Mr, Green. Through the process o f a n a l y z i n g the e i g h t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e speeches the author ob-t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g almost a l l a s p e c t s o f Mr. Green's speaking: ( l ) h i s development of s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s , ( 2 ) s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s speech, ( 3 ) c h o i c e and arrangement of h i s wording, (^) d e l i v e r y , and ( 5 ) h i s memory. In a d d i t i o n an overview o f h i s t o t a l p o l i t i c a l speaking c a r e e r became p o s s i b l e . The s e l e c t e d speeches were pres e n t e d t o Mr. Green as the sample to be a n a l y z e d . He agreed t h a t these speeches were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f h i s normal mode of p o l i t i c a l t h i n k i n g and speaking. Method of A n a l y s i s of Speeches The purpose of t h i s study was to d i s c o v e r and d i s c u s s the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the p o l i t i c a l speaking o f Howard C. Green, 1 1 as shown by an a n a l y s i s o f s e l e c t e d speeches he d e l i v e r e d i n the Canadian House o f Commons. V a r i o u s k i n d s o f m a t e r i a l s were used to s t u d y M r . Green as a speaker throughout h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r and to e s t a b l i s h a semblance o r model o f him as a man. H i s speak ing c a r e e r \^as t r a c e d t h r o u g h h i s speeches and o t h e r a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l s , t h r o u g h p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s c o n c e r n i n g the p r e p a r a t i o n o f h i s speeches from o u t l i n e to f i n a l d r a f t ; and f i n a l l y by comments c o n c e r n i n g h i s speeches as found i n newspapers , magazines and h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s . M r . G r e e n ' s s p e a k i n g c a r e e r was e v a l u a t e d i n terms o f C i c e r o ' s c l a s s i c a l components o f r h e t o r i c . ^ E i g h t speeches were s e l e c t e d throughout the p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r o f M r . Green w h i c h were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the t y p e o f speeches he used and w h i c h i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the major i s s u e s he spoke o n . In a n a l y z i n g Mr.. G r e e n ' s speeches there were a number o f q u e s t i o n s w h i c h n a t u r a l l y came to the f o r e f r o n t . How d i d M r . Green v i e w h i s p o l i t i c a l speak ing? What were the major i s s u e s w i t h w h i c h he i d e n t i f i e d ? What were the main i d e a s p r e s e n t e d i n h i s speeches? How d i d he deve lop h i s i d e a s ? What are the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f h i s i n v e n t i o n (development o f s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s ) , s t y l e ( c h o i c e and arrangement o f w o r d s ) , d i s p o s i t i o n ( s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f the s p e e c h ) , d e l i v e r y , and memory? These q u e s t i o n s p r o v i d e d the b a s i c p a t t e r n o f s t u d y f o r t h i s p a p e r . CHAPTER 111 MR. GREEN'S BACKGROUND AND DEVELOPMENT P r e f a c e There are a number o f methods open to the a n a l y s t f o r use i n measur ing an i n d i v i d u a l ' s a b i l i t y to i n t e r a c t i n s o c i e t y . One o f the most u s e f u l i s to at tempt to summarize and d e f i n e the i n d i v i d u a l ' s p e r s o n a l i t y i n terms o f h i s p a s t a c t i o n s , a n c e s t r y , e x p e r i e n c e , h e a l t h r e c o r d , and o t h e r r e l e v a n t c o n -10 s t i t u e n t s and c i r c u m s t a n c e s . T h i s - the case h i s t o r y method -can range from s imple b i o g r a p h i c a l ske tches to h i g h l y complex 11 i n t e r p r e t a t i v e m a t e r i a l s couched i n p s y c h i a t r i c l anguage . By u t i l i z i n g the case h i s t o r y method the author s t u d i e d M r . G r e e n ' s background and development as a p o l i t i c a l s p e a k e r . Such knowledge p r o v i d e d some m e a n i n g f u l i n s i g h t s i n t o h i s p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c . E a r l y P e r i o d The Honourable Howard C . G r e e n , P . C . , Q . C . , L L . D . , M . P . , was b o r n i n t o a Eootenay p i o n e e r f a m i l y on November 5? 1 8 9 5 • He was b o r n i n K a s l o , a town s i t u a t e d on Kootenay Lake i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . H i s f a t h e r , Samuel Howard G r e e n , had been b r o u g h t up i n P e t e r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o ? and had gone West w i t h the Canadia.n P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company. L a t e r he found em-ployment w i t h a c o n s t r u c t i o n crew and e v e n t u a l l y s e t t l e d i n 13 1 2 K a s l o where he opened a g e n e r a l s t o r e . M r . G r e e n ' s mother , F l o r a I s a b e l Goodwin, came o f a New B r u n s w i c k f a m i l y t h a t had emigra ted West as the Canadian P a c i f i c R a i l w a y Company opened the c o u n t r y . Nov/, n i n e t y - f o u r , she i s s t i l l a c t i v e and on o c c a s i o n has i n t e r e s t e d and i n -c i s i v e comments to make on h e r s o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s . Her permanent home i s s t i l l Ka s lo a l t h o u g h a t p r e s e n t she i s l i v i n g w i t h M r . and M r s . Green i n V a n c o u v e r . I t s h o u l d he mentioned t h a t she was made a "Freeman" o f K a s l o . T h i s i s an honor which i s "bestowed upon those c i t i z e n s who make an o u t s t a n d i n g c o n t r i -b u t i o n i n t h e i r community. In t i m e , the K a s l o b u s i n e s s e n t e r p r i s e o f the Green f a m i l y grew i n t o a s t r i n g o f g e n e r a l s t o r e s i n the Kootenay d i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s c h a i n was o p e r a t e d by Samuel Green i n p a r t n e r s h i p w i t h h i s b r o t h e r R o b e r t . Rober t e v e n t u a l l y e n t e r e d p o l i t i c s f i r s t by becoming mayor o f K a s l o , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He was t h e n e l e c t e d to the l e g i s -l a t u r e and was a p p o i n t e d a M i n i s t e r i n the p r o v i n c i a l government formed by S i r R i c h a r d McBride i n 1 9 0 3 * (Mr . Green l i k e s to r e c a l l t h a t a n o t h e r member o f t h a t c a b i n e t was F r e d e r i c k John F u l t o n , f a t h e r o f D a v i e F u l t o n , the p r e v i o u s J u s t i c e M i n i s t e r under the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y d i r e c t e d by John D i e f e n b a k e r . ) Rober t Green was e l e c t e d as a C o n s e r v -a t i v e i n the 1913 F e d e r a l b y - e l e c t i o n f o r Kootenay , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . He was a p p o i n t e d a s e n a t o r i n 1919 and h e l d t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l h i s death' i n 1946. Hav ing s t r o n g f a m i l y t i e s , the p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r o f h i s u n c l e had a p ro found i n f l u e n c e on Howard G-reen's e n t r y and i n v o l v e m e n t i n p o l i t i c s . The seed f o r a p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r was p l a n t e d e a r l y . M r . G-reen a t t e n d e d p u b l i c and h i g h s c h o o l i n the K a s l o a r e a , c o m p l e t i n g grades one t h r o u g h t h i r t e e n i n the same 15 s c h o o l - a t r a d i t i o n a l " l i t t l e r e d s c h o o l h o u s e . " One i n d i v i d u a l who i n i t i a l l y e x e r t e d a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on M r . Green was h i s s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , M r . George H i n d l e ( 1 9 0 7 - 1 9 0 9 ) • The c o n s t a n t encouragement r e c e i v e d from the p r i n c i p a l h e l p e d to i n c r e a s e M r . G r e e n ' s bent toward a u n i -v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . Prom t h i s s imple background c e n t r e d i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , the c a r e e r o f one o f Canada ' s g r e a t s t a t e s -men b e g a n . P r e P o l i t i c a l Year s A f t e r c o m p l e t i n g s e n i o r m a t r i c u l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , M r . Green t r a v e l l e d E a s t to a t t e n d the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto i n 1 9 1 2 . A t t h a t t ime B r i t i s h Columbia had no u n i v e r s i t y ; i t s one i n s t i t u t i o n o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g b e i n g a (Vancouver) b r a n c h o f M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y where a two-year course was a v a i l a b l e . In Toronto M r . Green l i v e d f i r s t w i t h an aunt and then f o r two y e a r s r e s i d e d a t the C e n t r a l YMCA on C o l l e g e S t r e e t , c l o s e to the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o . W h i l e a t u n i v e r s i t y M r . Green i n v o l v e d h i m s e l f d e e p l y i n the u n i v e r s i t y p a p e r , the V a r s i t y , becoming managing e d i t o r i n h i s l a s t s c h o o l y e a r . D u r i n g h i s t h r e e y e a r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o he wrote a number o f a r t i c l e s f o r the paper and j o i n e d w i t h f e l l o w s t u d e n t s from the paper i n a b i d to form the u n i v e r s i t y s tudent government . They c a l l e d t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n "The S o c i a l D e m o c r a t s . " However, t h e y p r o f e s s e d to be a n o n - p a r t i s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n . In l a t e r y e a r s the name S o c i a l Democrat became a source o f embarras s -ment f o r M r . G r e e n , e s p e c i a l l y i n v iew o f the f a c t t h a t he was now i n v o l v e d w i t h a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y known as the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s . When war broke out i n 1 9 1 ^ , M r . Green j o i n e d the o f f i c e r s ' t r a i n i n g corps a t the u n i v e r s i t y . As soon as he r e c e i v e d h i s a r t s degree i n 1 9 1 5 J he r e t u r n e d to B r i t i s h Columbia and was commissioned i n the 5 ^ t h (Kootenay) B a t t a l i o n i n May ( 1 9 1 5 ) • A humorous i n c i d e n t w h i c h o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the commis s ion ing o f M r . Green i n v o l v e d the examining p h y s i c i a n who was an o l d f a m i l y f r i e n d . He o v e r l o o k e d M r . G r e e n ' s i m p e r f e c t e y e s i g h t a l l o w i n g him to pass the p h y s i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n . When i t came t ime f o r M r . G r e e n ' s eye t e s t the d o c t o r t o l d him to c o v e r one eye a t a t ime and r e a d the eye c h a r t . A l t h o u g h c o v e r i n g h i s good eye the p a t i e n t kept h i s f i n g e r s spread to enable him to r e a d the c h a r t a c c u r a t e l y ' . T h i s anecdote c o r r e s p o n d s w i t h many o t h e r . s t o r i e s c o n c e r n i n g F i r s t Wor ld War m e d i c a l e x a m i n a t i o n s . A comrade i n arms i n the 5 ^ t h was H e r b e r t V/. H e r r i d g e ( F e d e r a l CCF Kootenay West - 1 9 ^ 5 - 1 9 6 8 ) . The p o l i t i c a l q u a r r e l s between the C o - o p e r a t i v e Commonwealth F e d e r a t i o n (CCF) and 16 t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia and i n the Commons have done n o t h i n g to c o o l the f r i e n d s h i p formed between the two men. The 5 *rth Kootenay B a t t a l i o n went over sea s December 1 9 1 5 and a r r i v e d i n France i n A u g u s t , 1916"• M r . Green se rved i n the t r e n c h e s f o r the next y e a r . He was then p o s t e d t o the Canadian Corps I n f a n t r y S c h o o l i n F r a n c e , where he g radua ted a t the head o f h i s c l a s s . Because o f h i s academic and l e a d e r -s h i p a b i l i t i e s he was a p p o i n t e d an i n s t r u c t o r a t the S c h o o l . T h i s t e a c h i n g p o s i t i o n a f f o r d e d him the o p p o r t u n i t y t o deve lop an a r t i c u l a t e p r e s e n t a t i o n and good tone c o n t r o l . From M a r c h , 1 9 1 8 , u n t i l he r e t u r n e d t o Canada, he was s t a f f o f f i c e r ( i n t e l l i g e n c e ) f i r s t w i t h the 6 t h Canadian I n f a n t r y B r i g a d e -2 9 t h Vancouver B a t t a l i o n ; t h e n the S t a f f C a p t a i n i n the G e n e r a l Canad ian S e c t i o n d u r i n g 1 9 1 9 ; and was f i n a l l y -p o s t e d as a S t a f f O f f i c e r to B r i t i s h G e n e r a l Headquar te r s i n F r a n c e . He was d e m o b i l i z e d J u l y , 1 9 1 9 » and r e t u r n e d to Canada . M r . Green now r e c a l l s t h a t he had t o y e d w i t h the i d e a o f e n t e r i n g j o u r n a l i s m upon h i s r e t u r n from o v e r s e a s . How-e v e r , he became a r t i c l e d to a Vancouver law f i r m by the name o f Abbot MacRae. He then r e t u r n e d E a s t to Osgoode H a l l Law S c h o o l , T o r o n t o , and was a b l e to p r o c e e d s t r a i g h t i n t o the second y e a r o f the law c o u r s e . He r e c e i v e d the s i l v e r medal f o r academic e x c e l l e n c e i n h i s g r a d u a t i n g y e a r l He was a b l e t o complete h i s u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g and law a r t i c l i n g i n t ime t o be c a l l e d to the b a r o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n F e b r u a r y , 1922". 1 7 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to no te t h a t C h i e f J u s t i c e Davie ; ( B r i t i s h Columbia) was c a l l e d to the b a r a t the same time * H i s c l a s smates a t Osgoode H a l l Law S c h o o l i n c l u d e d P r e m i e r L e s l i e F r o s t (Former C o n s e r v a t i v e P r e m i e r o f O n t a r i o 1 9 ^ 9 - 1 9 6 1 ) » whom he had p r e v i o u s l y known a t the i n f a n t r y s c h o o l i n F r a n c e ; A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l K e l s o Rober t s ( a p p o i n t e d 1 9 5 5 i n O n t a r i o ) and C h a r l e s P . McTague, the T o r o n t o c o r p o -r a t i o n l awyer who l a t e r became n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z e r o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y and was named chairman o f the R o y a l Com-m i s s i o n on R a i l w a y Problems d u r i n g the D i e f e n b a k e r r e g i m e . M r . (McTague graduated a t the head o f the c l a s s a t Osgoode H a l l , w h i l e M r . Green g r a d u a t e d i n second p l a c e . The p i c t u r e s t a r t e d to take f o r m . From h i s comrades i n the war year s and a t s c h o o l came a s e l e c t number who went d i r e c t l y i n t o p o l i t i c a l l i f e . The m o t i v a t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t e d them a l s o i n f l u e n c e d h i m . H i s peer group produced a p ro found e f f e c t on M r . G r e e n , m o t i -v a t i n g him i n the d i r e c t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . In 1 9 2 3 Mr* Green m a r r i e d M a r i o n Jean Mounce o f V a n c o u v e r . They had two s o n s , Lewis H . Green and John W. G r e e n . L e w i s , an e n g i n e e r who used to be employed by the F e d e r a l G e o l o g i c a l S u r v e y s , now works f o r the Hanna M i n i n g Company i n V a n c o u v e r . He took h i s B . S c . a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and h i s P h . D . a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f W i s c o n s i n . The o t h e r s o n , J o h n , i s the p u b l i s h e r o f the A g g a s i z - H a r r i s o n A d v a n c e , a weekly newspaper i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . John took h i s B . A . a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia and a degree 18 i n j o u r n a l i s m a t Columbia U n i v e r s i t y . He was a c a n d i d a t e i n the p r o v i n c i a l e l e c t i o n s i n 1 9 & 3 , i n Y a l e , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A f t e r s e r v i n g w i t h the Ladner and C a n t e l o n Vancouver law f i r m f o r the f o u r y e a r s 1923 to 1 9 2 6 , M r . Green e n t e r e d i n t o a law p a r t n e r s h i p i n Vancouver w i t h M r . F . K . C o l l i n s i n 1 9 2 6 . M r . C o l l i n s , as M r . G r e e n , was young e n e r g e t i c and C o n s e r v a t i v e . He was a p p o i n t e d to the Supreme Cour t o f B r i t i s h Columbia i n 1 9 5 8 . There i s l i t t l e doubt t h a t 17 M r . Green was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n o b t a i n i n g h i s a p p o i n t m e n t . A p a r t from h i s g rowing law p r a c t i c e M r . Green was immersed i n the p o l i t i c a l f i e I d * G r a d u a l l y , he became d e e p l y i n v o l v e d i n the a f f a i r s o f the South Vancouver C o n -s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n . In 1930 the C o n s e r v a t i v e s had l o s t the Vancouver South sea t to M r . Angus M a c l n n i s , one o f the o r i g i n a l members o f the CCF P a r t y . M r . Green t o o k charge o f a young a g g r e s s i v e group o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s who had made up t h e i r minds not o n l y to win back the sea t but to r e -18 o r g a n i z e the C o n s e r v a t i v e l o c a l . They were de te rmined n o t to r e p e a t the p o l i t i c a l c a t a s t r o p h e t h a t o c c u r r e d i n 1 9 3 0 . Prom the v e r y b e g i n n i n g numerous m o t i v a t i o n s p r o -p e l l e d M r . Green toward p o l i t i c a l l i f e . These v a r i e d m o t i v a t i o n s had a d i r e c t c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h h i s p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c and formed the d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d h i s speeches , M r . Green was m o t i v a t e d to speak b y : ( l ) h i s f r i e n d s h i p s c u l t i v a t e d b o t h i n the war and d u r i n g h i s ^u^ i v e r s i t y l i f e 1 9 i n T o r o n t o ; ( 2 ) h i s u n c l e ' s i n v o l v e m e n t i n p o l i t i c s ; (3) the many o f f i c e s and memberships he h e l d ; ( 4 ) h i s war e x p e r i e n c e ; ( 5 ) h i s background as a m i l i t a r y i n s t r u c t o r ; ( 6 ) h i s l e g a l b a c k g r o u n d ; ( 7 ) and perhaps the most i m p o r t a n t o f a l l , a sense o f d u t y ; a deep f e e l i n g f o r humanity and a sense o f the i n -j u s t i c e s apparent i n Canada . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y from these m o t i v a t i o n s t h a t M r . Green d e r i v e d the abundance o f energy and d i r e c t i o n w h i c h l e d him d i r e c t l y to the Canadian p o l i t i c a l 1 ° . f o r u m . ' P o l i t i c a l P e r i o d In the y e a r s f o l l o w i n g 1 9 3 ° a p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e deve loped between the younger men o f the Vancouver South C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n and the o l d g u a r d . E a c h sought t o g a i n c o n t r o l o f the r i d i n g . B o t h groups were s k e p t i c a l o f the o t h e r ' s chances o f r e g a i n i n g the seat i n the next g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s i n c e each group r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e y h e l d w i d e l y d i f f e r i n g p o i n t s o f v i e w . In the end the younger men won and M r . Green r e c e i v e d the n o m i n a t i o n to r e p r e s e n t the C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n the next e l e c t i o n . H i s f i g h t was by no means o v e r . The g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f 1935 found the C o n s e r v -a t i v e P a r t y a t i t s lowes t ebb o f p o p u l a r i t y . There was d i s s e n s i o n i n the c o u n t r y and a b i t t e r p e s s i m i s t i c a t t i t u d e toward the government . The people had j u s t weathered the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s and were i n no c o n d i t i o n to f a c e another economic s e t b a c k . The C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y was blamed f o r many o f the c o n d i t i o n s o f 1 9 3 5 • As we now know t h e y were charged w i t h the t a s k o f t r y i n g t o s o l v e an a lmos t i n s o l v a h l e 20 s i t u a t i o n . Many Canadians were unemployed and had not worked f o r s e v e r a l y e a r s . M r . G r e e n ' s p r o s p e c t s f o r w i n n i n g the seat were not too p r o m i s i n g , h u t t h i s d i d n o t s top h i m . He worked l o n g hours o r g a n i z i n g and making a s e r i e s o f p u b l i c speeches . The r e s u l t was t h a t on e l e c t i o n n i g h t he had won the sea t a l t h o u g h o n l y w i t h a s cant m a j o r i t y o f 279 v o t e s . Howard G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r had begunI When he a r r i v e d i n Ottawa t o t ake h i s p l a c e as an e l e c t e d Member o f P a r l i a -ment he found h i m s e l f among a s m a l l s h a t t e r e d C o n s e r v a t i v e m i n o r i t y o f o n l y t h i r t y - n i n e Members, i n a House o f 2^5 members. However, the s m a l l r a t i o o f C o n s e r v a t i v e s t o L i b e r a l s i n the House worked t o h i s advantage , as i n a v e r y s h o r t t i m e , he was l auded as t h e c h i e f O p p o s i t i o n - 2 1 Member to contend w i t h . Bruce H u t c h i s o n remarked t h a t , "Howard G r e e n , V a n c o u v e r s ' gaunt and rough-hewn ambassador, is 2 2 was one o f the f i n e s t men to e n t e r P a r l i a m e n t . " A f t e r the 19^5 e l e c t i o n M r . G r e e n ' s m a j o r i t y was i n -c rea sed by n e a r l y 14,000 v o t e s . A r e d i s t r i b u t i o n carved up the Vancouver South r i d i n g and i n 1 9 ^ 9 he moved to V a n c o u v e r -Quadra, a new c o n s t i t u e n c y . About t w o - t h i r d s o f i t s v o t e r s came from the o l d Vancouver South r i d i n g . M r . Green r e p -r e s e n t e d t h i s r i d i n g u n t i l 1 9 6 3 ("tb.e c u l m i n a t i o n o f h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r ) . For twenty-two y e a r s M r . Green sat i n the body o f the 21 O p p o s i t i o n p a r t y i n the Commons. In o r d e r to a p p r e c i a t e the impact he made i n P a r l i a m e n t s h o r t e x c e r p t s from s e v e r a l newspaper a r t i c l e s are quoted b e l o w . An a r t i c l e by Ben M e t c a l f e e n t i t l e d , "A Man Wise i n M a t t e r s o f P e a c e , " appeared i n The P r o v i n c e , June 3 5 1 9 5 9 ; . . . . H o w a r d i s a man o f v e r y h i g h c a l i b r e , g rea t e x p e r i e n c e , complete i n t e g r i t y and sound judgment. He made h i s name d u r i n g the b i t t e r wartime debates w i t h Defense M i n i s t e r J . L . R a l s t o n over men and arms t h r o u g h h i s i n t e r e s t as a v e t e r a n i n s e r v i c e and o l d age p e n s i o n s . H i s f i r s t i m p o r t a n t s o r t i e i n t o e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s came i n 1 9 5 0 , when he n e e d l e d L o u i s S t . L a u r e n t over Canada ' s " h e s i t a t i o n and d e l a y " i n s end ing t r o o p s to K o r e a . Though commonly d e s c r i b e d as a " s o f t - s p o k e n man , " he showed h i m s e l f s u s c e p t i b l e to the heat o f debate d u r i n g the Suez c r i s i s o f 1 9 5 6 when he accused the L i b e r a l s o f s t a b b i n g B r i t a i n i n the b a c k . 2 3 W r i t i n g some y e a r s e a r l i e r Don Mason had sugge s ted : In a f i r m , p e r s u a s i v e manner, Howard Green does the o f f i c i a l d e b a t i n g f o r the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e s on m a t t e r s c o n c e r n i n g the T r a n s p o r t Department , P u b l i c Works and R e c o n s t r u c t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , he heads the P a r t y ' s caucus committees on a tomic energy and the R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l . In 14 y e a r s i n the House o f Commons Green has become known as the champion o f the merchant seamen and war v e t e r a n s from a l l s e r v i c e s . 2 4 An Amer ican newspaper had t h i s to say c o n c e r n i n g h i s O p p o s i t i o n y e a r s : Howard C h a r l e s Green . . . . . . i s a t a l l , a n g u l a r b e s p e c t a c l e d man who keeps out o f the l i m e l i g h t . A wry s m i l e s o f t e n s the o v e r - a l l i m p r e s s i o n he g i v e s o f a u s t e r i t y and s e v e r i t y . . . . F o r most o f those y e a r s he has been a member o f the C o n s e r v a t i v e p a r t y o p p o s i t i o n , s c o u r g i n g the L i b e r a l Government w i t h p e r s i s t e n t and p o i n t e d q u e s t i o n s and c r i t i c i s m . 2 5 When a trumped up charge was l e v e l e d at M r . Green the f e d e r a l C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y came to h i s a i d and a t t e s t e d to h i s i n t e g r i t y . 2 2 I n The Sun t h e r e appeared an a r t i c l e e n t i t l e d , " l o y a l t y , Hones ty Set Green A p a r t . " Howard Green i s one o f the f i n e s t men i n our p u b l i c l i f e , a k i n d l y , h o n e s t , s i n c e r e man you cannot h e l p r e s p e c t i n g . I t does you good j u s t t o pass the t ime o f day ' w i t h h i m . He makes y o u r e a l i z e t h e r e are some p r e t t y s p l e n d i d v a l u e s to l i f e , i f o n l y w e ' l l s e a r c h f o r them, and h a v i n g found them, hang on to them. . . . . . . t a l l , s l i m , w i t h a good , f i n e f a c e , a p l e a s a n t c h u c k l e , a merry q u i p , a sense o f humor and f u n . He i s an a r t i s t a t t u r n i n g o f f r e p o r t e r s ' em-b a r r a s s i n g q u e s t i o n s , and l e a v i n g no hard f e e l i n g s . . . . . . . O n e admires h i s l o y a l t y to h i s p a r t y , to h i s s u p e r i o r s , t h r o u g h t h i c k and t h i n , an unwaver ing l o y a l t y . He has p r o b a b l y never done a d i r t y t r i c k i n h i s l i f e , n o t k n o w i n g l y , anyway, and i f he has h e ' s m i g h t i l y ashamed o f i t . He has never t r i e d to promote h i m s e l f i n a p e r s o n a l way. . . . . . . F o r 22 l ong y e a r s , the C o n s e r v a t i v e f l a g was a t h a l f mast i n t h i s c o u n t r y , h u t Green n e v e r f a l t e r e d i n h i s l o y a l t y to h i s p a r t y , to the s u c c e s s i o n o f u n -happy , thwar ted l e a d e r s t h a t p a r t y had i n those y e a r s o f f r u s t r a t i o n and deep d i s a p p o i n t m e n t . There were t imes when he must have been sure he would never l i v e to see another C o n s e r v a t i v e g o v e r n -ment i n O t t a w a . He took de fea t g r a c i o u s l y , w i t h o u t b i t t e r n e s s , p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y . And when v i c t o r y came a t l a s t , he t o o k i t w i t h e q u a l g r a c i o u s n e s s , w i t h o u t b l o w i n g or b o a s t i n g . 2 7 D u r i n g the time M r . Green was among the O p p o s i t i o n p a r t y he was s t i l l a c t i v e l y engaged i n h i s law p r a c t i c e i n V a n c o u v e r . I n a d d i t i o n , he a p p l i e d h i s t a l e n t s to a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . He became chairman o f a committee t h a t fought the B r i t i s h Columbia Te lephone Company i n 1 9 2 8 , on the i s s u e o f t r y i n g to p l a c e the d i s t r i c t o f P o i n t Grey on a t o l l r a t e (as opposed to a f l a t r a t e ) . H i s e f f o r t s were s u c c e s s f u l and P o i n t G r e y remained the o n l y d i s t r i c t o f the o u t l y i n g a r e a o f Vancouver to remain on a 23 f l a t r a t e t e l e p h o n e c h a r g e . K e r r i s d a l e and Marpole (two o u t -l y i n g areas o f Vancouver ) had to a c c e p t the t o l l on t h e i r t e l e p h o n e c a l l s . In 1 9 3 0 when a group a t tempted to e s t a b l i s h a cemetery n e a r Courtenay S t r e e t ( i n West P o i n t Grey) M r . Green s e r v e d as s e c r e t a r y to oppose t h i s move. He was i n s t r u m e n t a l i n d e f e a t i n g the b u i l d i n g o f the cemetery by c o n v i n c i n g the M i n i s t e r o f H e a l t h not to i s s u e the i m p o r t a n t h e a l t h l i c e n s e . He was a l s o a c t i v e i n the L i o n s Club and was a C h a r t e r Member o f West P o i n t Grey B r a n c h o f the Canadian L e g i o n . There were numerous o t h e r o r g a n i z a t i o n s w i t h w h i c h M r . Green was a s s o -c i a t e d and w i t h whom he w o r k e d . Among these was the N o r t h West P o i n t Grey Home Owners A s s o c i a t i o n (Rate P a y e r s A s s o -c i a t i o n ) o f w h i c h he has many fond memories . M r . Green i s o f the o p i n i o n t h a t perhaps t h i s was the most e f f e c t i v e Rate 29 P a y e r s A s s o c i a t i o n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . D u r i n g M r . G r e e n ' s c a r e e r i n the O p p o s i t i o n p a r t y o f the Commons he h e l d the p o s t o f O p p o s i t i o n House Leader d u r i n g 1 9 5 6 and 1 9 5 7 * He was s u c c e s s i v e l y c h i e f c r i t i c o f the de-par tments o f V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s , N a t i o n a l D e f e n s e , R e c o n s t r u c t i o n , T r a n s p o r t and P u b l i c Works . M r s . Green d i e d i n 1 9 5 3 and i n M a r c h , 1 9 5 6 , he m a r r i e d Donna E n i d K e r r , a b a c t e r i o l o g i s t who was a s s i s t a n t d i r e c t o r o f the p r o v i n c i a l l a b o r a t o r i e s i n V a n c o u v e r . Mi s s K e r r and the f i r s t M r s . Green had been c l o s e f r i e n d s d u r i n g t h e i r days t o g e t h e r a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . W i t h the e l e c t i o n o f the D i e f e n b a k e r government to power Ik i n 1957> " the- for tunes o f Howard Green took another upward t u r n . H i s p o s i t i o n as one o f Canada ' s l e a d i n g p o l i t i c a l f i g u r e s began t o be more c l e a r l y a p p a r e n t . On June 2 1 , 1 9 5 7 > M r . Green was sworn i n t o the P r i v y C o u n c i l and a p p o i n t e d M i n i s t e r o f P u b l i c Works and A c t i n g M i n i s t e r o f P r o d u c t i o n . There i s a w r y l y humorous s t o r y c o n c e r n i n g M r . G r e e n ' s appointment as a M i n i s t e r i n O t t a w a . A f t e r the C o n s e r v a t i v e v i c t o r y i n 1 9 5 7 M r . Green was a w a i t i n g the depar ture o f h i s p l ane to O t t a w a . A r e p o r t e r a t the Vancouver a i r p o r t was i n t e r v i e v / i n g h i m e Sometime d u r i n g the i n t e r v i e w i t was s p e c u l a t e d t h a t M r . Green might p o s s i b l y r e c e i v e the pos t o f M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t . Upon M r . G r e e n ' s a r r i v a l i n Ottawa M r . D i e f e n b a k e r c a l l e d him a s i d e and asked him to take a m i n i s t e r i a l p o s i t i o n . M r . D i e f e n b a k e r remarked t h a t he c o u l d have any pos t except t h a t o f M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s -p o r t , l a t e r M r . Green l e a r n e d t h a t the r e p o r t e r from the Vancouver paper had r e l a y e d h i s i n t e r v i e w on to O t t a w a , and the newspapers had p r i n t e d a s t o r y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t M r . Green was sure to r e c e i v e the p o s t o f M i n i s t e r o f T r a n s p o r t ( a l l t h i s because o f the comments made d u r i n g h i s Vancouver i n t e r v i e w ) . D u r i n g the 1957? 1 9 5 8 , and 1 9 5 9 s e s s i o n s , he was Government House l e a d e r i n O t t a w a . T h i s pos t r e q u i r e d o f him the t a c t n e c e s s a r y to a r range the d a y - t o - d a y b u s i n e s s o f the House w i t h a minimum o f f r i c t i o n among members o f h i s own p a r t y and among the House o f Commons i n g e n e r a l . The doughty f i g h t e r o f the O p p o s i t i o n became a b l a n d , mellow 25 peacemaker . He was capable o f j o k i n g i n the House and he t o o k 3 0 L i b e r a l and COP i n t r a c t a b i l i t y w i t h good humor. He was q u i t e s u c c e s s f u l as the House Leader k e e p i n g f r i c t i o n down to a minimum. He d i s p l a y e d no patronage i n h i s department w h i c h s u r p r i s e d b o t h the Members o f h i s p a r t y and the r e s t o f the House , p a r t i c u l a r l y s i n c e he was such a s t a u n c h C o n s e r v a t i v e . These were undoubted ly some o f the f a c t o r s w h i c h c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s appointment to t h e p o r t f o l i o o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . On June k\ 1959> he was a p p o i n t e d S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . There may have been a n o t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t l e d t o h i s a p p o i n t m e n t . Pr ime M i n i s t e r L i e f e n b a k e r p l a c e d a h i g h v a l u e on f r i e n d s h i p . Through the y e a r s i n O p p o s i t i o n M r . Green had become a c l o s e f r i e n d o f M r . D i e f e n b a k e r . They s a t s i d e - b y - s i d e i n the House o f Commons f o r a number o f y e a r s . These two men seemed to be the k i n g p i n s o f C o n s e r v a t i v e r h e t o r i c . The r e a c t i o n o f the news media was q u i t e f a v o r a b l e t o M r . G r e e n ' s a p p o i n t m e n t ! P u b l i c Works M i n i s t e r Howard G r e e n , 6k t o f V a n c o u v e r , w i l l be a p p o i n t e d Canada ' s e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s m i n i s t e r S i n c e the T o r y v i c t o r y on June 1 0 , 1 9 5 7 » he has been m i n i s t e r o f p u b l i c w o r k s , government House l e a d e r , and a tower o f s t r e n g t h i n the L i e f e n b a k e r m i n i s t r y . ' He i s c r e d i t e d w i t h c l e a n i n g house i n the p a t r o n a g e - d i s p e n s i n g works depar tment , t o the annoyance o f many T o r y MPs. There i s a s a y i n g in... Ottawa t h a t " i f y o u d o n ' t want a man to get a j o b , ask Howard t o g i v e h im o n e . " 3 1 In a column by C h a r l e s L y n c h the m e n t i o n i n g o f good omens ahead f o r Canada w i t h M r . G r e e n ' s appointment i s n o t e w o r t h y . M r . Lynch i n c l u d e d i n h i s co lumn: 26 He (Green) i s , a "be l i ever i n the Commonwealth., t h r o u g h and t h r o u g h , and he has l i t t l e use f o r Communists .32 A n o t h e r j o u r n a l i s t , E lmore P h i l p o t t , was a l s o much p l e a s e d by M r . G r e e n ' s appointment t o E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s : In the s e l e c t i o n o f Howard Green as the new s e c -r e t a r y o f s t a t e f o r e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s , the prime m i n i s t e r has made a move o f r e a l s t a t e s m a n s h i p . T h i s appointment w i l l p l e a s e f a i r - m i n d e d people o f a l l p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . M r . Green has a unique c o m b i n a t i o n . o f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h c o u l d v e r y w e l l make him a t r u l y g r e a t f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r f o r Canada i n the y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y ahead . C o n s i d e r i n g a l l the background of the vacancy w h i c h M r . Green now f i l l s , and c o n s i d e r i n g a l l a l t e r -n a t i v e s , Howard Green c e r t a i n l y l o o k s l i k e the r i g h t man i n the r i g h t p l a c e a t the r i g h t t i m e , I t seems to me t h a t M r . Green has i n s u p e r -abundance the one q u a l i t y which c o u l d make him a r e a l l y g r e a t e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s m i n i s t e r i n the f i r s t p a r t o f the n e x t decade . M r . G r e e n ' s r o b u s t Canadian i sm i s b a s e d on b e l i e f i n the B r i t i s h Commonwealth as an i n s t i t u t i o n w h i c h i s a n y t h i n g but "washed u p . " C o n t r a r y to what some s u p e r f i c i a l c r i t i c s might assume from h i s r a t h e r f u r i o u s s ta tements a t the t ime o f the Suez c r i s i s , M r . Green i s not a n t i - A m e r i c a n . But he r e s e n t s the s t a t u s o f c o l l e c t i v e c o l o n i a l i s m i n w h i c h Canada and the o t h e r members o f the Common-w e a l t h i n c r e a s i n g l y f i n d themselves i n r e l a t i o n to the U n i t e d S t a t e s . 3 3 M r . Green l e d the Canadian D e l e g a t i o n s to the f o u r -t e e n t h , f i f t e e n t h , s i x t e e n t h and s e v e n t e e n t h s e s s i o n s o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s G e n e r a l Assembly i n New Y o r k , and to the E i g h t e e n N a t i o n Disarmament Committee and Conference on L a o s , i n G e n e v a . D u r i n g h i s appointment to the E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s p o r t f o l i o he r e p r e s e n t e d Canada at a l l NATO m i n i s -t e r i a l m e e t i n g s . He was S p e c i a l Ambassador f o r Canada at the c e l e b r a t i o n s marking the 1 5 0 t h a n n i v e r s a r y o f the i n -dependence o f A r g e n t i n a h e l d i n Buenos A i r e s i n May, I 9 6 0 , 27 Prom 1959 to 1963 M r . Green h e l d the p o r t f o l i o o f M i n i s t e r o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . In the Canadian g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f A p r i l , 1 9 6 3 , w h i c h found the C o n s e r v a t i v e Party-r e d u c e d t o the s t a t u s o f O p p o s i t i o n , he was d e f e a t e d . And s o , a p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r t h a t spanned some t w e n t y - n i n e y e a r s , was e n d e d . M r . G r e e n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s a s : . . . . G r e e n seemed to b e l i e v e t h a t by showing " f r i e n d l i n e s s , " Canada c o u l d somehow l e a d the w o r l d out o f c o n f u s i o n . "Canada t o d a y has o n l y f r i e n d s , and no e n e m i e s , " he a s s u r e d the Commons d u r i n g an E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s debate on F e b r u a r y 1 0 , i 9 6 0 . Such a K i w a n i a n approach to w o r l d problems e x a s p e r a t e d the c y n i c a l p r o f e s s i o n a l s a t the U n i t e d S t a t e s S t a te Depar tment , and the s o p h i s t i c a t e s o f W h i t e h a l l u n -d o u b t e d l y d e r i d e d the man's l a c k o f f i n e s s e . But a t home, the Canadian p u b l i c seemed at l e a s t i n i t i a l l y t o r e a c t w i t h warm s y m p a t h y . . . h o l d i n g out hope f o r w o r l d peace and g o o d w i l l among men, a t a t ime when seasoned statesmen saw o n l y d e s p a i r . Green en joyed d e f l a t i n g the ' e l e g a n t j a r g o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l d i p l o m a t s by s p e a k i n g o f w o r l d t e n s i o n s i n such homely terms a s , "Canada ' s main r o l e i n the w o r l d i s t o keep the b i g boys f rom r o c k i n g the b o a t . " Of d i p l o m a c y , he once s a i d , "The most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i s to be f r i e n d l y . I t ' s j u s t l i k e p o l i t i c s . I f y o u ' r e T h i s comment made by P e t e r Newman was not too f l a t t e r i n g . However one s h o u l d keep i n mind t h a t the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f h i s n o v e l i s a n t i - C o n s e r v a t i v e , and i n p a r t i c u l a r , a n t i -35 D i e f e n b a k e r . D u r i n g M r . G r e e n ' s i n v o l v e m e n t w i t h the U n i t e d N a t i o n s he e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a w o r l d l e a d e r i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . In an a r t i c l e by Heath M a c q u a r r i e , the c o n t e n t i o n P e t e r Newman i n h i s book Renegade i n Power v iewed t h a t M r . Green was i n f a c t a w o r l d l e a d e r i s s u b s t a n t i a t e d 28 b y the f o l l o w i n g event t h a t o c c u r r e d one day i n the U n i t e d N a t i o n s : ev idence o f Canadian l e a d e r s h i p i n w o r l d a f f a i r s . . . . . A few weeks e a r l i e r Hon. Howard G r e e n , our S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , had s tood f i r m a g a i n s t those who - b e l i e v e d t h a t the r e a l i t i e s o f b i g power p o l i t i c s r e n d e r e d meet ings o f the Disarmament Commission u s e l e s s a t t h i s t ime ( t h i s was i n the U n i t e d N a t i o n s ) . 3 o M r . Green i n s i s t e d t h a t the peop le s o f the w o r l d demanded a more de termined h o p e f u l a t t i t u d e . By p a t i e n t and s k i l l f u l n e g o t i a t i o n the M i n i s t e r and h i s d e l e g a t i o n were ab le to b r i n g about suppor t f o r the Canadian s tand from the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f the o t h e r n a t i o n s . That the meet ing d i d no t f o l d up i n p e s s i m i s -t i c gloom i s a t r i b u t e to H o n . Howard G r e e n . 3 7 The above c e r t a i n l y p a i n t e d a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e o f M r . Green t h a n was sugges ted by Tom Gould when M r . Green t o o k the p o r t f o l i o o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s : The man who goes i n t o e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s v a i l f i n d ' h i m s e l f i n the shadow o f the prime m i n i s t e r throughout h i s t e n u r e . 3 8 A member o f M r . G r e e n ' s c o n s t i t u e n c y had t h i s comment c o n c e r n i n g h i s work w h i l e i n o f f i c e : M r . Green was one o f the most f a i t h f u l and devoted members o f P a r l i a m e n t . He went to no end o f t r o u b l e to h e l p p e o p l e i n h i s c o n s t i t u e n c y . He always a t t e n d e d P a r l i a m e n t even though many o t h e r members c o n s i s t e n t l y were a b s e n t . 3 9 W i l l i a m Stevenson i n h i s a r t i c l e , "Canada and the W o r l d , " sugges ted t h a t though " the b u t t o f s c h o l a r l y w i t s , Howard Green has i n t r u d e d on Ottawa h i s m a g n i f i c e n t o b -s e s s i o n f o r a new and independent r o l e f o r Canada i n f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . " Down a gloomy c o r r i d o r i n O t t a w a ' s E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s Department s t r i d e s the l a n k y Canadian whose job i t i s t o c r e a t e c o n d i t i o n s abroad t h a t w i l l p e r m i t h i s c o u n t r y t o 29 defend i t s e l f and earn i t s l i v i n g . Howard Green i s the a n g u l a r symbol o f Canada ' s chang ing f o r e i g n p o l i c y . The G o t h i c s t y l e and subs tance o f the b u t t r e s s e d E a s t B l o c k f i t h i s c h a r a c t e r . T h i s i s th e f o r t r e s s f rom which he r e s i s t s , w i t h d e p r e c a t i n g s m i l e , t h e . a s s a u l t s o f c r i t i c s — and sometimes o f C a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s . Throughout W i l l i a m S t e v e n s o n ' s column he deve loped the t h e s i s t h a t M r . Green was c e r t a i n l y an a b l e and s i n c e r e s t a te sman . M r . G r e e n ' s o b v i o u s competence where w o r l d a f f a i r s was c o n -c e r n e d gave substance to S t e v e n s o n ' s p o i n t o f v i e w . I f Howard Green has not en joyed the t r iumphs h i s o f f i c e might b r i n g , n e i t h e r has he been pursued by a v e n g e r s . P r e s s r e a c t i o n to h i s performance has f r e q u e n t l y been b e t t e r abroad than i t has been a t h o m e . . . . . . One wonders "who i_s the b e t t e r a b l e t o judge the E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s M i n i s t e r , the n a t i o n a l or i n t e r n a t i o n a l news media?" E lmore P h i l p o t t summed up M r . G r e e n ' s e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s c a r e e r by s a y i n g , " . . . t h e r e are some b r i g h t spo t s even i n t h i s government . Ho s ta tesman who has ever r e p r e s e n t e d Canada i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y has fought more r e s o l u t e l y or p e r s i s t e n t l y hi t h a n has Howard Green to h a l t the r a c e o f n u c l e a r a r m s . " He went on to deve lop h i s h i g h r e g a r d f o r M r . G r e e n : M r . G r e e n ' s succes s i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l f i e l d has been a l l the more noteworthy because h i s whole l i f e t i m e o f p o l i t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e had been i n the domest ic f i e l d . B e s i d e s , M r . Green was c a l l e d on to f o l l o w M r . P e a r s o n , the most b r i l l i a n t c a r e e r d i p l o m a t i s t t h a t Canada has ever p r o d u c e d . H i s t a s k t h e r e f o r e was doub ly d i f f i c u l t . D e s p i t e t h a t , or perhaps because o f i t , M r . G r e e n adopted what you might c a l l e l ementary b u l l d o g t a c t i c s . He f a s t e n e d on the most v i t a l o f a l l i s s u e s , and s t u c k to t h a t i s s u e , f o r a l l the w o r l d l i k e the b u l l d o g i n m o r t a l b a t t l e . When M r . Green v a c a t e d h i s s ea t i n the Canadian p o l i t i c a l forum t h e r e was i n d e e d a s i g n i f i c a n t l o s s . H i s 30 absence was f e l t not o n l y i n the Canadian n a t i o n a l scene b u t i n the i n t e r n a t i o n a l as w e l l . Many peace l o v i n g and n e u t r a l n a t i o n s l o s t t h e i r a l l y when M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r was c u r t a i l e d . P o s t P o l i t i c a l Year s S i n c e 1963 Mr* Green has been a c t i v e l y engaged i n h i s law p r a c t i c e i n V a n c o u v e r . He has found time to be i n v o l v e d i n a v a r i e t y o f s e r v i c e c l u b s and o r g a n i z a t i o n s . He i s a D i r e c t o r o f the N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d (Western D i v i s i o n ) ; a member o f the Vancouver Board o f T r a d e , Vancouver Bar A s s o c i a t i o n , Canadian L e g i o n , C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n , the U n i t e d Church o f Canada, the T e r m i n a l C i t y C l u b , and the C e n t r a l L i o n s C l u b . He was pa s t p r e s i d e n t o f the l a t t e r . M r . Green s t i l l en joys a d d r e s s i n g numerous a u d i e n c e s t h r o u g h -out B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF SELECTED SPEECHES I n v e n t i o n M . H . N i c o l s says t h a t one who makes jiidgments on the q u a l i t y o f r h e t o r i c must r e v e a l and e v a l u a t e the p u b l i c s p e a k e r ' s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f the w o r l d around him and h i s p e c u l i a r means o f e x p r e s s i n g t h a t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n to h i s g e n e r a t i o n . How can t h i s be done w i t h the s p e a k i n g o f M r . Howard Green? More s p e c i f i c a l l y , how can i t be accom-p l i s h e d w i t h i n the c o n f i n e s o f "The F i v e Canons o f R h e t o r i c ? " T h i s chap te r w i l l a t tempt to d e a l w i t h each o f the Canons i n t u r n , i l l u s t r a t i n g the a p p l i c a t i o n o f the p r i n c i p l e i n q u e s t i o n v / i t h q u o t a t i o n s from M r . G r e e n ' s s p e e c h e s . We t u r n f i r s t , t h e n , to " I n v e n t i o n " upon w h i c h C i c e r o p l a c e d major emphas i s . I n v e n t i o i s the L a t i n t e rm ( h e u r e s i s was the e q u i v a l e n t Greek term) f o r " i n v e n t i o n " or " d i s c o v e r y . " T h e o r e t i c a l l y , an o r a t o r c o u l d t a l k on any s u b j e c t , because r h e t o r i c , as s u c h , had no p r o p e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . In p r a c t i c e , however, each speech t h a t he under took p r e s e n t e d him w i t h a u n i q u e " c h a l l e n g e . He had to f i n d arguments which would support whatever case or p o i n t o f v i ew he was e s p o u s i n g . A c c o r d i n g to C i c e r o , the speaker r e l i e d on n a t i v e g e n i u s , on method o f a r t , o r on d i l i g e n c e to h e l p h im f i n d a p p r o p r i a t e arguments . O b v i o u s l y , t h a t man v/as a t a g r e a t advantage who had a n a t i v e , i n t u i t i v e sense f o r p roper arguments . B u t l a c k i n g such endow-ment, a man c o u l d have r e c o u r s e e i t h e r to h i s dogged i n d u s t r y or to some system f o r f i n d i n g arguments . I n v e n t i o was concerned w i t h a system or method f o r f i n d i n g arguments . I n l i g h t o f the above i t would seem t h a t our t a s k has to do 32 w i t h ways i n w h i c h M r . Green a n a l y z e d a g i v e n i s s u e o r s u b j e c t a r e a , how, a f t e r s e l e c t i n g s u c h , he went about o r g a n i z i n g h i s m a t e r i a l i n terms o f the s i t u a t i o n o f " f e l t d i f f i c u l t i e s " he f a c e d . How d i d he become aware o f the i s s u e ? A n d , v e r y i m p o r t a n t l y , how d i d he use h i s l i f e e x p e r i e n c e as he bent t o h i s t a s k ? An i m p o r t a n t a s p e c t o f i n v e n t i o n s h o u l d be mentioned a t th e o u t s e t o f t h i s d i s c u s s i o n . T h i s has to do w i t h the t h r e e methods o f p r o o f w h i c h have been u t i l i z e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a p r o p o s i t i o n s i n c e the days o f c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s : ( l ) l o g i c a l , meaning t h a t the argument appea led t o the l i s t e n e r ' s r e a s o n s ; (2) e t h i c a l , meaning t h a t the p e r s u a s i v e n e s s o f the argument r e s t e d on the c h a r a c t e r o f the speaker h i m s e l f , as a p p r a i s e d by h i s a u d i e n c e ; and (3) p a t h e t i c , meaning t h a t the ^ a p p e a l was d i r e c t e d to the emotions o f the a u d i e n c e . The l a s t a p p e a l m e n t i o n e d , namely t h a t o f p a t h e t i c , o f t e n -t imes i s r e f e r r e d to as the e m o t i o n a l p r o o f . I t i s b a s i c a l l y from these t h r e e p r o o f s t h a t the development o f the i n d i v i d u a l i s s u e s w i l l be se t out s t i l l work ing w i t h i n the contex t o f C i c e r o ' s " i n v e n t i o n s . " The p u b l i c s p e a k i n g o f M r . Green i n the Hoixse o f Commons r e v e a l e d t h a t the p r i n c i p a l i s s u e s w i t h w h i c h he was i d e n t i f i e d on the l o c a l , n a t i o n a l , and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c e n e , were : a) War "Veterans b) The B l i n d c) Commonwealth P r e f e r e n c e d) Canada ' s Ro le As A N e u t r a l Wor ld l e a d e r e) Defense f ) Minimum o f U . S . I n f l u e n c e In Canadian A f f a i r s g) Disarmament 33 I t would be p o s s i b l e to deve lop a l l o f these i s s u e s f u l l y bu t d i s c u s s i o n has to be l i m i t e d to manageable p r o p o r t i o n s . There ' f o r e , the a u t h o r has chosen one major i s s u e from each o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d s . E a c h o f these i s s u e s are t y p i c a l o f the p e r i o d chosen and w i l l s e rve t o i l l u m i n a t e the method M r . Green used i n h i s development o f " I n v e n t i o n . " F i r s t P e r i o d - The B l i n d . An example o f M r . G r e e n ' s development o f a f i r s t p e r i o d i s s u e was found i n h i s speech on March 9> 1 9 3 6 , on " P e n s i o n s f o r the B l i n d . " He deve loped a p a r t i c u l a r l i n e o f argument f o r the i n c l u s i o n o f a p e n s i o n f o r the b l i n d under the e x i s t i n g O l d Age P e n s i o n A c t (payable t o b l i n d peop le over f o r t y year s o f a g e ) . T h i s p e n s i o n would be g i v e n o n l y to those b l i n d persons who had no o t h e r v i s i b l e ineans o f s u p p o r t . M r . Green became aware o f the b l i n d i s s u e t h r o u g h the i n f l u e n c e o f the P r o v i n c i a l Government S c h o o l f o r the b l i n d ( J e r i c h o H i l l ) , w h i c h i s l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y a c r o s s the s t r e e t f rom h i s home (on West E i g h t h A v e . i n Vancouver - 4100 b l o c k ) . The c l o s e p r o x i m i t y o f the s c h o o l made M r . Green more aware o f the problems o f the b l i n d a,nd gave him a g r e a t e r i n s i g h t i n t o t h e i r needs and want s . A l l i e d to t h i s were c e r t a i n wartime e x p e r i e n c e s v/hich had moved M r . Green d e e p l y . Many o f the v e t e r a n s who r e t u r n e d from the F i r s t War had s u f f e r e d b l i n d -n e s s . M r . G r e e n , b e i n g a s t aunch s u p p o r t e r o f the v e t e r a n s ( h i m s e l f a v e t e r a n ) saw an a f f i n i t y w i t h the problems o f the b l i n d people and problems o f the b l i n d v e t e r a n s . He f e l t t h a t 34 t h e Canadian peop le wished to acknowledge a debt owed to t h e s e • d i s a b l e d p e o p l e . H i s p o l i t i c a l i d e a l s i n c l u d e d c a r r y i n g out the wishes o f the Canadian people i n h i s p o s i t i o n as O p p o s i t i o n c r i t i c . Hence h i s a t t e n t i o n to the P e n s i o n s f o r the B l i n d l e g i s l a t i o n . There i s v e r y l i t t l e t h a t I can add to the d i s -c u s s i o n o f t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , bu t t h e r e i s one m a t e r i a l f e a t u r e w h i c h s h o u l d be brought out ^5 H i s s ta tement se t a tone o f agreement w i t h p r e v i o u s speakers on the i s s u e . He d i d want to add an a d d i t i o n a l comment b u t d i d no t w i s h to have the mot ion d e f e a t e d on h i s s ta tement a l o n e . He wanted the suppor t o f h i s h e a r e r s , and i n p a r t i c -u l a r , those h e a r e r s who formed the Government (who i n e f f e c t c o n t r o l l e d the v o t e oh t h i s i s s u e ) . C i c e r o b e l i e v e d t h a t a s i t u a t i o n s u c h as t h i s i n v o l v e d the s p e a k e r ' s p e r s o n a l i t y and those o f h i s opponent s : . . . t h e f i r s t s t eps to s e c u r e good w i l l are a c h i e v e d by e x t o l l i n g our own m e r i t s or w o r t h or v i r t u e o f some k i n d , p a r t i c u l a r l y g e n e r o s i t y , sense o f d u t y , j u s t i c e and good f a i t h , and by a s s i g n i n g the o p p o s i t e q u a l i t i e s to our opponent s , and by i n d i c a t i n g some r e a s o n f o r e x p e c t a t i o n of , agreement w i t h the persons d e c i d i n g the c a s e . M r . Green i n d i c a t e d h i s agreement bu t went on to ment ion ano ther s i d e o f the a f f i r m a t i v e . As p r e v i o u s Members had spoken on t h i s i s s u e M r . Green was f a c e d w i t h the t a s k o f i n j e c t i n g a separa te and f r e s h v iew to r e i n f o r c e the r e s o -l u t i o n s a c c e p t a n c e . And y e t a t t e m p t i n g to do t h i s w i t h o u t b e i n g u n d u l y r e d u n d a n t . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s end he used b a s i c a l l y an e m o t i o n a l ( p a t h e t i c ) a p p e a l , 35 M r . Green formed t h i s a p p e a l w i t h a s p e c i f i c example . F i r s t I s h o u l d l i k e to ment ion C a p t a i n B a k e r . C a p t a i n Baker l o s t h i s s i g h t d u r i n g the war . He was a p r o m i s i n g young e n g i n e e r , a graduate o f T o r o n t o u n i v e r s i t y , d e c o r a t e d f o r g a l l a n t r y i n the f i e l d , and one n i g h t he was shot a c r o s s b o t h eyes and b l i n d e d . From t h a t t ime to the p r e s e n t h i s l i f e has been an e p i c o f courage and i n i t i a t i v e , a l i f e t h a t . i n t imes to come I t h i n k w i l l be l ooked back upon by the Canadian people as o u t s t a n d i n g i n h i s g e n e r a t i o n . The f i g u r e o f a b r i l l i a n t and courageous o f f i c e r f i g h t i n g f o r h i s c o u n t r y i s p r e s e n t e d . D u r i n g a m i l i t a r y encounter he l o s t the p r e c i o u s g i f t o f h i s s i g h t . Any per son would be touched b y t h i s s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n . M r . Green went on to deve lop what had happened to C a p t a i n B a k e r : C a p t a i n B a k e r , l i k e most o f the b l i n d e d s o l d i e r s , was t r a i n e d a t S t . D u n s t a n ' s i n E n g l a n d . When he came back to Canada, he took charge o f work f o r b l i n d e d s o l d i e r s ; then he t o o k over work f o r a l l b l i n d i n Canada . C a p t a i n Baker s u f f e r e d a tremendous hand icap b e i n g b l i n d . How-e v e r , t h i s d i d no t c u r t a i l h i s i n i t i a t i v e . He r e t u r n e d to Canada and i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a cause t h a t would no t o n l y b e n e f i t h i m s e l f , but a l s o o t h e r s who had the same a f f l i c t i o n . H i s d i r e c t i o n was to manage the work f o r a l l the b l i n d s o l d i e r s , b u t more than t h i s , the a f f a i r s o f a l l b l i n d peop le i n Canada . M r . Green i l l u s t r a t e d how t h i s courageous man no t o n l y o v e r -came a tremendous p e r s o n a l hand icap b u t , i n k e e p i n g w i t h h i s m i l i t a r y e x p e r i e n c e and l e a d e r s h i p among men C a p t a i n Baker a l s o went out o f h i s way to t r y to h e l p a l l Canadians to overcome a s i m i l a r h a n d i c a p , Mr . Green went o n : He i s now managing d i r e c t o r o f the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the B l i n d , and p r o b a b l y one o f the l e a d i n g younger e x e c u t i v e s i n Canada t o - d a y . C a p t a i n Baker has been a b l e to draw around him s e v e r a l o t h e r l e a d i n g young men, f o r i n s t a n c e , Mr. H a r r i s T u r n e r , who a l t h o u g h b l i n d e d over sea s was a t one t ime l e a d e r o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s L o y a l O p p o s i t i o n i n Saskatchewan; He showed t h a t C a p t a i n Baker had g r e a t p o t e n t i a l and u t i l i z e d t h i s p o t e n t i a l to deve lop a s t r o n g o r g a n i z a t i o n f o r the b l i n d . T o o , the magnetism o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y drew i n n o t a b l e s to h e l p h im i n the t a s k o f a i d i n g a l l b l i n d C a n a d i a n s . Coupled w i t h t h i s power to draw i n o t h e r l e a d i n g Canadians was a f a c t w h i c h h i t home more than any o t h e r . M r . Green mentioned t h a t one o f the men whom C a p t a i n Baker drew i n t o h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was Mr. H a r r i s T u r n e r . M r . T u r n e r was n o t o n l y a b l i n d Canadian b u t a b l i n d Canadian p o l i t i c i a n . Pie was O p p o s i t i o n l e a d e r i n the p r o v i n c e . o f Saskatchewan. T h i s f a c t would o b v i o u s l y make an i m p r e s s i o n i n Ot t awa . M r . Green went on to deve lop h i s I r e f e r to the se men f o r t h i s r e a s o n , t h a t i n a l l t h e i r work t h e i r main idea, has been to h e l p to make the b l i n d peop le i n d e p e n d e n t , make them f e e l t h a t they a re t a k i n g t h e i r share i n the l i f e o f the n a t i o n . T h i s r a i s e d the e m o t i o n a l q u e s t i o n o f whether b l i n d people can p a r t i c i p a t e i n s o c i e t y i n any m e a n i n g f u l way? In a d d i t i o n t h e y have t r i e d to r a i s e the morale o f the b l i n d . As many n o n . members know, b l i n d peop le e a s i l y become d i s c o u r a g e d , and i t i s no wonder they d o . These l e a d e r s o f the b l i n d have s t a r t e d s o c i a l c l u h s ; f o r i n s t a n c e i n Vancouver we have a c lub known as the N i l Lesperandum c l u b , which might be i n t e r p r e t e d as the Never Say D i e c l u b . By such means the morale o f the b l i n d has been g r e a t l y i m p r o v e d . H e r e , M r . Green c i t e d one attempt t o overcome the d e p r e s s i o n o r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t o f the b l i n d . How C a p t a i n Baker and h i s 37 c o h o r t s t r i e d to dev i se means to r e a c h the b l i n d and overcome t h e i r mood o f d i s couragement . D e s p i t e . t h i s a b l e l e a d e r s h i p and good work t h e r e i s a c l a s s o f b l i n d peop le f o r whom l i t t l e can be done, and t h e y a re the ones f o r whom we a r e a s k i n g h e l p t o - d a y , the b l i n d over f o r t y y e a r s o f age . These o l d e r b l i n d f o l k s are i n many cases n o t a c t i v e enough to work f o r wages; the m a j o r i t y o f them have not t h e i n i t i a t i v e to run c o n -c e s s i o n s t a n d s , or to c a r r y on a b u s i n e s s o f t h e i r own and are r e a l l y unemployab le ; t h e y a re j u s t s t r a n d e d , and I would suggest t h a t the government c o u l d v e r y w e l l ex tend the p r o v i s i o n s o f the O l d Age P e n s i o n A c t t o cover these p e o p l e . I n t h i s passage the f e a r s o f l o n e l i n e s s , h e l p l e s s n e s s , and f r u s t r a t i o n are mov ing ly p r e s e n t e d . These emotions would e l i c i t a r e a c t i o n o f s e r i o u s c o n t e m p l a t i o n . The O l d Age P e n s i o n s A c t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e because under i t s p r o v i s i o n s o n l y those peop le who are no t e a r n i n g a c e r t a i n income would get a s s i s t a n c e , and i t would throw a p o r t i o n o f the burden on the p r o v i n c e s , w h i c h , w h i l e perhaps not so good f o r the p r o v i n c e s , would ensure t h e i r c h e c k i n g v e r y c a r e f u l l y every a p p l i c a t i o n f o r a p e n s i o n . T h i s l o g i c a l s h i f t t r i e d to p o i n t out the advantage o f u t i -l i z i n g t h i s approach to h e l p the b l i n d people o v e r f o r t y . I t a l s o p r e s e n t e d the F e d e r a l Government w i t h a c h o i c e f o r s e c u r i n g the f i n a n c e s o f t h i s p e n s i o n . The l o g i c a l p r o o f deve loped by M r . Green i s i n l i n e w i t h the t h i n k i n g o f A l a n Monroe and Douglas E h n i n g e r who s t a t e : Items o f l o g i c a l p r o o f . . . . s u b p o i n t s s h o u l d always p r o v i d e l o g i c a l p r o o f o f the i d e a they s u p p o r t . O f t e n they c o n s i s t o f r ea sons or o f c o o r d i n a t e s t eps i n a s i n g l e p r o c e s s o f r e a s o n i n g . When t h i s i s the c a s e , you s h o u l d be a b l e to connect the major i d e a and s u b p o i n t s w i t h the word "because " . ^ 7 An example o f t h i s i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t i n Mr . G r e e n ' s summation. a) Main P o i n t - O l d Age P e n s i o n s A c t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e 3 8 b) S u b . P o i n t s - o n l y those peop le who are no t e a r n i n g a c e r t a i n income would get a s s i s t a n c e - i t w i l l throw a p o r t i o n o f the f i n a n -c i a l burden on the p r o v i n c e s - ensure a check by the p r o v i n c e The l o g i c a l a p p e a l or p r o o f th roughout M r . G r e e n ' s e a r l y speeches i s no t d e v e l o p e d or u t i l i z e d to the same ex tent as i n h i s l a t e r s p e e c h e s . He seemed to r e l y more on e m o t i o n a l p r o o f . T h i s c o u l d be due to h i s e a r l y i n c l i n a t i o n to defend the i s s t i e on a mastery o f the s u b j e c t bu t a t the same t ime t o u t i l i z e an e m o t i o n a l tone toward the a u d i e n c e . In company w i t h A . C r a i g B a i r d and F r a n k l i n H. Knower, M r . Green showed: E v i d e n c e o f your knowledge o f and a b i l i t y to hand le the m a t e r i a l s o f your s u b j e c t - to i n t e r p r e t soundly and o r g a n i z e w e l l — w i l l i n f l u e n c e your aud ience s t r o n g l y . I f you can demonstrate your a b i l i t y to r e s o l v e problems and c o n f l i c t s t h r o u g h unusual- i n s i g h t , you w i l l win t h e i r r e s p e c t and a d m i r a t i o n . A v o i d dogmatism, o f t e n a de-f e n s i v e a t t i t u d e s u g g e s t i n g weakness . E v i d e n c e t h a t your e x p e r i e n c e has c o n t r i b u t e d s u c c e s s f u l l y t o the needs o f o t h e r s i n s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s i s h i g h l y p e r -s u a s i v e . ^8 Throughout the B l i n d P e n s i o n s i s s u e M r . Green a l s o u t i l i z e d e t h i c a l p r o o f . In d e v e l o p i n g the i s s u e M r . Green c i t e s examples o f b l i n d men and g i v e s h i s aud ience a v i v i d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the background o f t h e s e men. T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n a i d s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g the e t h i c a l p r o o f . For example when M r . Green d i s c u s s e s C a p t a i n Baker he ment ioned : He was a p r o m i s i n g young e n g i n e e r , a graduate o f Toronto u n i v e r s i t y , d e c o r a t e d f o r g a l l a n t r y i n the f i e l d , and one n i g h t he was shot a c r o s s b o t h eyes and b l i n d e d C a p t a i n Baker has been ab le to draw around him s e v e r a l o t h e r l e a d i n g young men . . . M r . H a r r i s T u r n e r , who a l t h o u g h b l i n d e d over seas was a t one t ime l e a d e r o f H i s M a j e s t y ' s l o y a l o p p o s i t i o n i n S a s k a t c h e w a n ; . . . M . C . R o b i n s o n , s u p e r i n t e n d e n t o f the western d i v i s i o n o f the Canadian N a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e f o r the b l i n d . . . . . J o e C l u n k , p lacement o f f i c e r o f the I n s t i t u t e , . . . a q u a l i f i e d s o l i c i t o r The background of these i n d i v i d u a l s e s t a b l i s h e d an e t h i c a l a p p e a l . E t h i c a l p r o o f was a p p r o p r i a t e f o r t h i s audience b e - • cause s i t t i n g i n the House were men whose background was s u r p r i s i n g l y s i m i l a r ( w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f b l i n d n e s s ) to these men ment ioned as examples by M r . G r e e n . T h i s added emphasis to the e t h i c a l p r o o f . Second P e r i o d - Disarmament . On September 7 , 19^1, M r . Green d e l i v e r e d a sombre speech on "The C r i s i s A r i s i n g O v e r N u c l e a r T e s t s and B e r l i n " to the House o f Commons. Some o f the rea sons m o t i v a t i n g him to take a s o l i d s t and f o r w o r l d disarmament were r e l a t e d to event s o f h i s e a r l i e r y e a r s : a) h i s e x p e r i e n c e s w h i l e i n the t r e n c h e s i n the F i r s t Wor ld War ; h i s subsequent e x p e r i e n c e as an o f f i c e r i n charge o f t r a i n i n g t r o o p s ; and h i s s e r v i c e a t the Canadian G e n e r a l Headquar ter s i n P r a n c e ; b) many o f h i s f r i e n d s and c o l l e a g u e s i n b o t h the war and a t u n i v e r s i t y were o f the same o p i n i o n ; c) h i s d e s i r e to see Canada as a med ia tor and i n f l u e n c e f o r w o r l d p e a c e ; d) h i s y e a r s i n the o p p o s i t i o n p o s i t i o n at p a r l i a m e n t s t r e n g t h e n e d t h i s v i e w ; e) h i s a d m i r a t i o n f o r the v iews h e l d by M r . P e a r s o n , the L i b e r a l S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s - as i n d i c a t e d by the low t u r n o v e r o f s t a f f i n t h i s department a f t e r M r . G r e e n ' s t a k e o v e r . ° M r . Green l e d the aud ience d i r e c t l y i n t o the d i s c u s s i o n o f the p r o b l e m . " A f o u r t h f a c t o r today i s the q u e s t i o n o f d i s a rmament . " He then went on to use a n - e t h i c a l approach to deve lop h i s case f o r the disarmament p o s i t i o n : As h o n . members know, Canada was a member o f the t e n n a t i o n disarmament committee w h i c h was torpedoed by the f i v e communist members i n June o f l a s t y e a r . Two months l a t e r , w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s , we were a b l e t o b r i n g the q u e s t i o n b e f o r e the disarmament commission o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s and to o b t a i n a unanimous r e s o l u t i o n t h e r e t h a t n e g o t i a t i o n s shou ld be resumed. S u b s e q u e n t l y we b r o u g h t i n a r e s o l u t i o n a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s g e n e r a l a s sembly l a s t f a l l which was de s i gned to h e l p ge t nego-t i a t i o n s under way a g a i n . Tha t r e s o l u t i o n was c o -sponsored by 18 o t h e r n a t i o n s . H i s e t h i c a l form o f p r o o f i n c l u d e d : a) A p p e a l on the b a s i s o f an i n t e r n a t i o n a l commitment -r e s o l u t i o n adopted by commission and s u b m i t t e d to UN g e n e r a l a s s e m b l y . b) A p p e a l on the b a s i s o f Canada ' s p o s i t i o n i n the committee and i n the U n i t e d N a t i o n s . A l s o the e t h i c a l a p p e a l o f the a d d i t i o n a l i n c l u s i o n o r f u s i o n w i t h the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The r e s o l u t i o n was co- sponsored by e i g h t e e n o t h e r n a t i o n s ; thus t h e r e i s commitment. He c o n t i n u e d u s i n g the e t h i c a l a p p r o a c h i n the f o l l o w i n g : D u r i n g t h e i r meet ing i n London t h i s s p r i n g the pr ime m i n i s t e r s o f the commonwealth i s s u e d a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t s ta tement on the q u e s t i o n o f disarmament . T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y h e l p f u l because o f the membership o f the commonwealth. The prime m i n i s t e r s came from p r a c t i c a l l y every c o n t i n e n t and t h e y had v a r y i n g o p i n i o n s . He a l s o m e n t i o n e d : A t the s e s s i o n o f the U n i t e d N a t i o n s w h i c h r a n over i n t o the S p r i n g o f 1961, i t was f i n a l l y agreed t h a t the prob lem o f disarmament and a l l p e n d i n g p r o p o s a l s r e l a t i n g t o i t , w h i c h i n c l u d e d the Canadian r e s o l u t i o n , would be s tood over u n t i l the s e s s i o n o f the g e n e r a l assembly i n the f a l l o f t h i s y e a r . In a d d i t i o n the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the S o v i e t Union agreed t h a t t h e y would s i t down and t r y to work out a n e g o t i a t i n g g r o u p , as w e l l as g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n s , on t h e ' q u e s t i o n o f d i s a r m a -ment. He then proceeded v / i th a l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h : a) Showed t h a t the two g r e a t powers ( U n i t e d S t a t e s and R u s s i a ) had h e l d e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n s on d i s -armament i n w h i c h Canada v o i c e d i n t e r e s t and agreement . b) Tha t the t a l k s between the se two powers were s e c r e t and i t was not p o s s i b l e to r e v e a l the subs tance o f the t a l k s . H i s i n f e r e n c e here i s t h a t Canada had some i n s i d e i n f o r m a t i o n . I n o t h e r words he a t tempted to persuade the members o f the House to t r u s t him (Mr . Green)a s he c o u l d no t d i s c l o s e the subs tance o f the t a l k s . c) Tha t y e s t e r d a y the U n i t e d S t a t e s and R u s s i a met i n New Y o r k to d i s c u s s t h i s v e r y mat te r o f d i s a r m a -ment . Now M r . G r e e n ' s tone changed as he s t a t e d : The l a s t few d a y s , M r . C h a i r m a n , have seen b a r e l y c o n c e a l e d t h r e a t s w h i c h , as I have s a i d , we must meet s q u a r e l y . Here he u t i l i z e d the t e c h n i q u e o f r e p e a t i n g a s e c t i o n from a p r e v i o u s p o r t i o n o f h i s speech f o r emphas i s . He went o n : T h i s s i t u a t i o n , however , does not mean t h a t we s h o u l d downgrade our e f f o r t s to f u r t h e r the cause o f d i sarmament . On the c o n t r a r y f a r - r e a c h i n g measures on disarmament are now more v i t a l than ever i f we are to a v o i d even s h a r p e r eas t -west c o n f l i c t s i n a w o r l d w h i c h d a i l y sees the development o f more f r i g h t e n i n g weapons. We must r e c o g n i z e c l e a r l y t h a t u n t i l a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s f o r n e g o t i a t i o n i s e s t a b l i s h e d , we w i l l c o n t i n u e to r u n the most dangerous r i s k o f a l l , the r i s k o f n u c l e a r war . I n the l a t t e r p a r t o f t h i s p a r a g r a p h M r . Green s t a r t e d to use an e m o t i o n a l approach c o u p l e d w i t h a l o g i c a l a p p e a l . He t h e n s w i t c h e d back to the e t h i c a l a p p e a l b y : D u r i n g the p a s t months Canada has t a k e n an a c t i v e p a r t i n the d r a f t i n g o f a new w e s t e r n disarmament p l a n . Throughout t h i s p e r i o d the U n i t e d S t a t e s and the o t h e r c o u n t r i e s w h i c h r e p r e s e n t e d the west on the t e n - n a t i o n committee have been i n c l o s e c o n s u l t a t i o n . We have been r e p r e s e n t e d d u r i n g these d i s c u s -s i o n s by l i e u t e n a n t - G e n e r a l E . L . M . Burns who has p l a y e d a v e r y l a r g e p a r t i n the f i e l d o f disarmament f o r a l o n g t ime and who, I s u g g e s t , has no peer anywhere i n the w o r l d i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d . The e t h i c a l over tones are q u i t e apparent i n t h i s l a s t s e c t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e d l o g i c o f M r . G r e e n ' s l e g a l background came k2 t h r o u g h . He no t o n l y dep loys the e m o t i o n a l o r e t h i c a l forms b u t he s y n t h e s i z e d h i s whole argument i n t o a r e a s o n a b l e p r o -p o s i t i o n t h a t members c o u l d d i g e s t . ' M r . G r e e n ' s method o f p e r s u a s i o n was s p e l l e d out i n the le.st t h r e e paragraphs o f h i s s e c t i o n on d i sarmament . Many o f our s u g g e s t i o n s have been a c c e p t e d . . T h i s new wes tern p l a n w i l l be put fo rward f o r n e g o t i a t i o n , and no t on a " t ake i t o r l e a v e i t " b a s i s . The w e s t e r n powers are w i l l i n g to take i n t o account any f u r t h e r s u g g e s t i o n s the S o v i e t Union may h a v e , p r o v i d e d they r e f l e c t a genuine w i l l i n g n e s s to a r r i v e a t a r e a l i s t i c and p r o p e r l y sa feguarded disarmament program. A t the s e s s i o n o f the g e n e r a l assembly w h i c h opens on September 1 9 , Canada w i l l work f o r the endorsement o f t h i s new wes tern p l a n by the w i d e s t p o s s i b l e number o f s t a t e s and we w i l l do our b e s t to ensure t h a t any n e g o t i a t i n g body w h i c h may be agreed upon w i l l have c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the U n i t e d N a t i o n s . We b e l i e v e t h a t the most i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i v e i n the f i e l d o f d i s -armament i s to get n e g o t i a t i o n s s t a r t e d a g a i n j u s t as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . Here M r . G r e e n ' s l o g i c a l s tep by s t e p method o f development and p r o o f was a t i t s f i n e s t . He c a r r i e d the endorsement o f the wes tern p l a n to i t s l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n , t h a t o f a c c e p t -a n c e . However, he s t i l l i n j e c t e d a sa feguard t h a t would be adhered to i n case of any f a s t manoeuvers o f the enemy. He a l s o p l a c e d the Communist group as o p p o s i n g f o r c e s i n t h i s s t r u g g l e f o r d i sarmament . T h i s enab led the speech to take on more s t r e n g t h . The memory c o n c e r n i n g the Communist a t tempts to b l o c k p r e v i o u s disarmament n e g o t i a t i o n s would come to the f o r e f r o n t o f e v e r y o n e ' s m i n d . The development o f M r . G r e e n ' s speech f o l l o w e d t h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n : a) An example - Communist w o r l d torpedoed t e n - n a t i o n disarmament commit tee . b) Implied assumption - need f o r world disarmament °J Example - U n i t e d T f a t i o n s and Commonwealth prime M i n i s t e r s concerned over disarmament d) Example - U n i t e d S t a t e s and the S o v i e t Union e n t e r i n t o t a l k s concerning disarmament (Canada has a c l o s e l i a s o n ) e) Re statement - r e p e a t s p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n from h i s speech c o n c e r n i n g t h r e a t of d e s t r u c t i o n i f Canada does not meet the i s s u e o f disarmament s q u a r e l y i n the f a c e . D e f i n i t i o n - i f disarmament not reached the conse-quences are war and d e s t r u c t i o n s) Example - Canada's involvement w i t h disarmament and t h e i r use of I t . - G e n e r a l E.L.M. Burns (world renowned a u t h o r i t y on disarmament). h) Statement of what Canada should do - hack western p r o p o s a l i ) Statement of safeguard - to r e a f f i r m Canada's p o s i t i o n and d i s p e l any doubts t h a t members of the House of Commons may have t h a t Canada w i l l s e l l the i s s u e s h o r t . T h i s development p r e s c r i b e s a l o g i c a l framework w i t h the main u t i l i z a t i o n o f e t h i c a l p r o o f s and, i n a minor way, emotional p r o o f s . An e d i t o r i a l by Elmore P h i l p o t t d e s c r i b e d Mr. Green's e f f o r t i n t h i s disarmament b a t t l e : ......No statesman who has ever r e p r e s e n t e d Canada i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y has fought more r e s o l u t e l y or p e r s i s t -e n t l y than has Howard Green to h a l t the race i n n u c l e a r arms. I t i s one of the i r o n i e s o f our times t h a t the v a s t m a j o r i t y of the people o f Canada s t i l l have no c l e a r u n d e rstanding o f the nature of the f i g h t t h a t Mr. Green i s waging on t h e i r b e h a l f . 5 ° James McBurney and E a r n e s t Wrage suggest t h a t : Speech i s p t i r p o s e f u l when i t i s c o n s c i o u s l y d i r e c t e d to a c h i e v e a r e l a t i v e l y s p e c i f i c response from an audience. ...Speech without purpose s u f f e r s i n many r e s p e c t s . I t f a i l s to s e l e c t m a t e r i a l s w i t h any r e l e v a n c e , i t i s seldom w e l l o r g a n i z e d , i t i s l i k e l y to be i n d i r e c t , and i t r a r e l y claims the i n t e r e s t of e i t h e r speaker or l i s t e n e r . 5 1 B o t h of Mr. Green's speeches had the s p e c i f i c purpose of s e e k i n g I J 4 t o m o t i v a t e the audience to a s p e c i f i c e n d . However, i n the f i r s t i s s u e i n v o l v i n g the "b l ind i t was a c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t a t r e i n f o r c i n g an a l r e a d y e x i s t i n g p l a t f o r m ( t h i s due to the r o l e o f M r . Green i n the O p p o s i t i o n ) . The s e c o n d ' i s s u e r e g a r d i n g disarmament was a r a t h e r b r o a d e r i s s u e p e r s u a d i n g the House (and i n p a r t i c u l a r the O p p o s i t i o n ) to r e g a r d Canada ' s d i s a r m a -ment s t and as s i g n i f i c a n t to w o r l d p e a c e . M r . Green then had b u i l t i n t o the framework o f h i s speeches s p e c i f i c purposes and s p e c i f i c e n d s . I p e r s o n a l l y am c o n v i n c e d t h a t i f we i n the p a r l i a m e n t o f Canada adopt t h i s r e s o l u t i o n . . . . . 5 2 . . . . f a r - r e a c h i n g measures on disarmament are now more v i t a l than e v e r - b e f o r e 53 I n k e e p i n g w i t h t h i s : The c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n s ( n o t a b l y A r i s t o t l e , C i c e r o , and Q u i n t i l i a n ) i n s i s t e d t h a t an a b l e speaker must be an a b l e p e r s o n , and t h e i r i d e a o f a b l e n e s s i n c l u d e d m o r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y Communication r e s t s upon something to communicate, w h i c h means something wor th c o m m u n i c a t i n g . 5 ^ In these two i n s t a n c e s M r . Green had a v e r y w o r t h w h i l e i s s u e t o p u r s u e . He deve loped b o t h w i t h a s t r o n g u n d e r c u r r e n t o f mora l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Throughout M r . G r e e n ' s s p e a k i n g i t has been shown t h a t i n o r d e r to be e f f e c t i v e on the Canadian p o l i t i c a l scene the speaker must be an educa ted man 1^5 He shou ld be a c q u a i n t e d w i t h a l l p o s s i b l e f a c e t s o f h i s speech and deve lop the f a c t s o r i s s u e s i n a l o g i c a l and r e a s o n a b l e manner. T h i s was shown t o be t r u e i n M r . G r e e n ' s h a n d l i n g o f the i s s u e s on the b l i n d and d i sarmament . M r . Green b e l i e v e d t h a t s i n c e r i t y , h o n e s t y , and a c o m p l e t e l y e t h i c a l approach would e s t a b l i s h a fundamenta l h5 r a p p o r t w i t h the a u d i e n c e . A t r u s t may he deve loped between 57 speaker and a u d i e n c e . H i g h on the l i s t o f p r i o r i t i e s f o r the aud ience i s the s p e a k e r ' s background and h i s r e c o r d o f e f f e c t i v e n e s s w h i l e i n a l e a d e r s h i p p o s i t i o n . As the speaker matures p o l i t i c a l l y the c o n f i d e n t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p he has w i t h o t h e r Members w i l l be an i n v a l u a b l e t o o l f o r b u i l d i n g good r a p p o r t w i t h the a u d i e n c e . In l i g h t o f these s ta tements M r . Green t o o k advantage o f h i s a b i l i t y to be an ex t reme ly e f f e c t i v e p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n d u r i n g h i s p e r i o d i n O p p o s i t i o n . A t t h i s t ime h i s war e x p e r i e n c e s and l e g a l background f u r n i s h -ed the main elements f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a r e p u t a t i o n with, the a u d i e n c e . A f t e r he had e x p e r i e n c e i n the House h i s a b i l i t i e s as the O p p o s i t i o n c r i t i c and an o r a t o r not to be l i g h t l y d e a l t w i t h came s t r o n g l y to the f o r e . M o r e o v e r , the aud ience was o b t a i n i n g the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t M r . Green had a fund o f ex-h a u s t i v e i n f o r m a t i o n on each i s s u e he p u r s u e d . T h i s e s t a b l i s h e d the e t h i c a l o v e r t o n e s to h i s s p e a k i n g . M r . Green f e l t t h a t the p o l i t i c i a n must n o t be too b i t t e r w h i l e speak ing on an i s s u e n o r p o r t r a y t h i s b i t t e r n e s s t h r o u g h a n y e x t e r n a l p h y s i c a l or v o c a l mannerisms. He s h o u l d not " h i t the Members (and i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s o p p o s i n g Members) over the head w i t h a c l u b . " 5 8 The speaker s h o u l d not be more p a r t i s a n t h a n he has to even though p a r t y l o y a l t i e s d i c t a t e a c e r t a i n c o n f o r m i t y i n b e h a v i o r . Such t e c h n i q u e s h e l p e d M r . Green to b u i l d and deve lop a h i g h degree o f e t h i c a l p r o o f w i t h the a u d i e n c e . However, because i t t akes some time f o r the p o l i t i c i a n to make use o f e t h i c a l support f rom the aud ience j 46 M r . Green found t h a t the e t h i c a l p r o o f s were most i n f l u e n t i a l d u r i n g h i s second p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d . I t i s p r o b a b l y t r u e t h a t M r . Green c o u l d not be s a i d to have a t t a i n e d the broad and p h i l o s o p h i c a l wisdom w h i c h C i c e r o a s c r i b e d to h i s i d e a l o r a t o r y e t he d i d i n d i c a t e a r e s p o n s i v e i n t e r e s t i n the i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s c o n f r o n t i n g the Canadian p e o p l e and a w i l l i n g n e s s to work toward the s o l u t i o n o f n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p r o b l e m s . D i s p o s i t i o n The second p a r t o f a d i s c o u r s e , " d i s p o s i t i o " has to do w i t h i t s arrangement and o r g a n i z a t i o n . The d i s c o v e r y and a n a l y s i s o f the i d e a s and arguments were d e a l t w i t h above . D i s p o s i t i o n i s concerned w i t h s e l e c t i n g , o r g a n i z i n g , and a r r a n g i n g . In i t s s i m p l e s t terms i t may be thought o f as b e g i n n i n g , m i d d l e , and e n d . T h i s i s to say t h a t speech w h i c h pays a t t e n t i o n to the u n i t y imposed by i t s purpose i s an o r g a n i c whole w i t h a b e g i n n i n g , a development , and an e n d . These p a r t s are c l o s e - k n i t , r e l a t e d one to the o t h e r , and f l o w e a s i l y from one to the o t h e r In a n a l y z i n g M r . G r e e n ' s speeches d e l i v e r e d i n the Canadian House o f Commons the s t r u c t u r e and o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h i s thought s h o u l d p r o b a b l y be c o n s i d e r e d o f major i m p o r t a n c e . D i f f e r e n t a u d i e n c e s r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t a r rangements , and i t i s the o r a t o r ' s t a sk to s e a r c h out the p a t t e r n t h a t i s most a p -p r o p r i a t e to a p a r t i c u l a r a u d i e n c e . ^ 0 The f i r s t element t o examine i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f M r . G r e e n ' s speeches i s the kl •61 i n t r o d u c t i o n . . In h i s e a r l y p o l i t i c a l speak ing i t was h i s h a b i t to l e a d the audience d i r e c t l y i n t o the c o n t e x t o f the matter, he wi shed to p r e s e n t . As f o r example i n h i s speech on March 9» 1 9 3 6 , p e r t a i n i n g to " P e n s i o n s f o r the B l i n d " : There i s v e r y l i t t l e t h a t I can add to the d i s c u s s i o n on t h i s r e s o l u t i o n , but t h e r e i s one m a t e r i a l f e a t u r e w h i c h s h o u l d be b r o u g h t o u t , and t h a t i s the e f f i c i e n c y w i t h w h i c h work f o r the b l i n d has been c a r r i e d on i n Canada d u r i n g the l a s t t e n o r f i f t e e n y e a r s , perhaps l o n g e r . S i m i l a r l y i n h i s speech on March 6 , 19^1> c o n c e r n i n g the " B i l l Amending P e n s i o n s A c t " , he began : M r . Speaker , the M i n i s t e r o f P e n s i o n s and n a t i o n a l H e a l t h has j u s t s t a t e d t h a t i t i s the i n t e n t i o n o f the government to r e f e r t h i s b i l l to the s p e c i a l committee w h i c h was a p p o i n t e d the o t h e r day to c o n s i d e r q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t to e x - s e r v i c e men. M r . Green was l e s s d i r e c t i n h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n when he d i s -cussed on November 2 6 , 1 9 5 6 , "The Suez C r i s i s " : M r . Speaker b e f o r e g o i n g on w i t h the main p o r t i o n o f my speech t h i s e v e n i n g I s h o u l d l i k e to say a word about the speech w h i c h has j u s t been made by the M i n i s t e r o f C i t i z e n s h i p and Immigra t ion (Mr . P i c k e r s g i l l ) . D u r i n g h i s second p e r i o d as a M i n i s t e r , M r . G r e e n ' s i n t r o - . d u c t i o n s t ended t o become more l e n g t h y . In h i s speech o f J u l y 9» 1 9 5 9 » on the " I n t r o d u c t i o n o f E s t i m a t e s o f Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s " he began : M r . Chairman, i n open ing my remarks today on the e s t i m a t e s o f the Department o f V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s — I am a f r a i d I have done so much t a l k i n g i n t h i s house on v e t e r a n s a f f a i r s i n the l a s t 2k y e a r s t h a t I have become accustomed to r e f e r r i n g to t h a t depar tment . However, my v e r y o l d f r i e n d the M i n i s t e r o f V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s (Mr. B r o o k s ) o b j e c t s s t r e n u o u s l y to my i n t e r f e r i n g w i t h h i s depar tment . He i s a lways annoyed when my o l d speeches when i n o p p o s i t i o n are quoted a t h im when he 48 i s p u t t i n g h i s e s t i m a t e s t h r o u g h , so p r o b a b l y i t i s because o f a g u i l t y c o n s c i e n c e t h a t I spoke o f the Department o f V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s . In any e v e n t , I w i l l t r y a n o t h e r s t a r t . Then a g a i n , when s p e a k i n g on "Canada i n T o d a y ' s W o r l d " on A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 , he s a i d : M r . Speaker , these are v e r y s t i r r i n g days i n the f i e l d o f e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s . As a l l the members w i l l r e a l i z e , the d u l l moments are few and f a r be tween . Sometimes the news i s bad and a t o t h e r t imes i t i s g o o d . Today I am sure we are a l l v e r y p l e a s e d t h a t the t r o u b l e s t h r o u g h which our o l d f r i e n d and a l l y , the r e p u b l i c o f F r a n c e , has been g o i n g d u r i n g t h e l a s t week end , are o v e r . News o f the c o l l a p s e l a s t n i g h t o f the i n s u r g e n t s i n A l g e r i a was r e c e i v e d by the Canadian government w i t h g r e a t e s t r e l i e f . A c c o r d i n g to the l a t e s t r e p o r t s the s i t u a t i o n i s r e t u r n i n g to normal and the F r e n c h government i s now resuming f u l l c i v i l i a n and m i l i t a r y c o n t r o l i n A l g i e r s . P r e s i d e n t de G a u l l e , the F r e n c h government , and i n d e e d the e n t i r e F r e n c h peop le deserve h i g h p r a i s e f o r t h e i r f i r m n e s s and courage i n the f ace o f a c h a l l e n g e which c o u l d have had i n c a l c u l a b l e consequences , not o n l y f o r the f u t u r e o f A l g e r i a but f o r France i t s e l f , and w h i c h would have posed v e r y s e r i o u s problems f o r the N o r t h A t l a n t i c A l l i a n c e . F rance has emerged from t h i s t e s t s t r o n g e r than b e f o r e , and I hope i t w i l l now be p o s s i b l e to p r o c e e d t o a p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n o f the " A l g e r i a n i s s u e . In t h i s debate on e x t e r n a l a f f a i r s i t i s my hope t h a t as many h o n . members as p o s s i b l e w i l l p a r t i c i p a t e . There are a g rea t number o f members o f t h i s house who have had c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . I need o n l y r e f e r to the l a r g e number who, down t h r o u g h the y e a r s , have rendered e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e f o r Canada a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , e i t h e r as d e l e g a t e s o r as p a r l i a m e n t a r y o b s e r v e r s . Even when the news to be d i s c u s s e d was not good M r . Green used the same t e c h n i q u e - s l o w l y edg ing h i s way i n t o the i s s u e , a p p a r e n t l y b r a c i n g h i s aud ience f o r the t i d i n g s to come. On September 7» 1 9 6 1 , t a l k i n g on "The C r i s i s A r i s i n g Over N u c l e a r T e s t s and B e r l i n " w i t h an opening o f d i s c u s s i o n on the " E s t i -mates o f the Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s " , M r . Green s t a r t e d k9 o u t : M r . Chairmanj today we meet i n the Canadian House o f Commons a t a t ime o f deep c r i s i s . As h o n . members know, f o r some weeks t e n s i o n has been i n c r e a s i n g s t e a d i l y over B e r l i n , and w i t h i n the l a s t week the p r e m i e r o f the S o v i e t Union has announced a r e sumpt ion o f n u c l e a r t e s t s . In a d d i t i o n to t h a t , he has s t a t e d t h a t h i s c o u n t r y can deve lop a n u c l e a r bomb w i t h the power o f 100 m i l l i o n tons o f t . n . t . , and t h a t such a bomb c o u l d then be h u r l e d by r o c k e t t o any t a r g e t i n the w o r l d . I n t h i s speech he does b r o a c h the s u b j e c t much sooner than i n p r e v i o u s s p e e c h e s , bu t t h e r e i s s t i l l a s low i n t r o d u c t i o n a p p a r e n t l y aimed a t d e v e l o p i n g a r e c e p t i v e frame o f mind i n h i s a u d i e n c e . Due to the n a t u r e o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y deba te , i t i s unwise to spend too much t ime d e v e l o p i n g an i n i t i a l p o i n t i f the a t t e n t i o n o f the audience c o u l d be l o s t . I t i s n o t e -wor thy t h a t as h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y c a r e e r matured h i s i n t r o -d u c t i o n s t ended to l e n g t h e n somewhat. However, one r e a s o n f o r t h i s c o u l d be due t o M r . G r e e n ' s n a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and v a r i e d accompl i shments i n P a r l i a m e n t , w h i c h s u p p l i e d him w i t h the n e c e s s a r y e t h i c a l p r o o f . In a d d i t i o n , the e x p e r i e n c e and succe s s w i t h P a r l i a m e n t a r y aud iences tended to i n c r e a s e h i s s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e e n a b l i n g him to become more r e l a x e d d u r i n g the e a r l i e r s tages o f a s p e e c h . l e a v i n g the i n t r o d u c t i o n now and t u r n i n g to the main core o f M r . G r e e n ' s speeches i t would seem t h a t h i s e a r l i e r speeches appeared to c e n t r e around one b a s i c i s s u e r a t h e r than on a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f sub i s s u e s . F o r example , i n h i s f i r s t speech he c e n t e r e d h i s d i s c u s s i o n around a r e s o l u t i o n 62 t o expand p e n s i o n s f o r the b l i n d a t age f o r t y . He d i d 50 however use a framework t a k i n g one segment o f h i s d i s c o u r s e , expanding and d e v e l o p i n g i t b e f o r e he went on to the next segment. The framework l o o k e d something l i k e t h i s : 1. l e a d e r s o f the b l i n d have done e f f i c i e n t work 2 . C e r t a i n b l i n d men are among the l e a d i n g e x e c u t i v e s today 3 . T h e i r example has g i v e n b l i n d people an i n i t i a t i v e and sense o f independence -4 . Some b l i n d p e o p l e are unab le to work 5 . The O l d Age P e n s i o n A c t s h o u l d be extended to cover those b l i n d peop le unab le to work. E a c h o f the above concomitant p a r t s were deve loped b e f o r e he went on t o the next p o i n t . S i m i l a r l y i n h i s speech c o n c e r n i n g the " B i l l Amending P e n s i o n A c t " g i v e n on March 6 , 1941, M r . Green f i r s t e x t a b l i s h -ed the impor tance o f t h i s p i e c e o f l e g i s l a t i o n and then d e v e l o p e d , s t ep by s t e p , c e r t a i n s e c t i o n s o f the l e g i s l a t i o n w h i c h were unrea sonab le i n h i s e y e s . He d i d n o t appear t o jump a r o u n d . He deve loped one p o i n t f u l l y b e f o r e he ex-panded the nex t p o i n t . The s t ep by s t ep procedure c o n t i n u e s i n h i s "Throne Speech D e b a t e . " J He ment ioned t h a t h i s speech would i n -c lude f a c t o r s c o n c e r n i n g t h r e e M i n i s t e r s . He d e a l t w i t h each o f the se i n t u r n . F i r s t , h i s remarks were d i r e c t e d t o the M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e ( M r . A b b o t t ) , s e c o n d l y to the M i n i s t e r o f V e t e r a n s A f f a i r s (Mr . L a p o i n t e ) , and t h i r d l y t o the S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s ( M r . P e a r s o n ) . When M r . Green e n t e r e d the second e r a o f h i s p o l i t i c a l l i f e he a g a i n deve loped h i s a s s e r t i o n s on a s t ep by s tep b a s i s . In h i s " I n t r o d u c t i o n o f E s t i m a t e s o f Department o f 51 E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s " on J u l y 9 , 1 9 5 9 , he s t a r t e d o f f by d i s -c u s s i n g the Geneva c o n f e r e n c e . He then t u r n e d t o o t h e r i s s u e s such as Canadian a p p r o p r i a t i o n to P a k i s t a n and Ceylon' under the Colombo P l a n ( f o r e i g n a i d ) . On "Canada ' s F o r e i g n P o l i c y " d e l i v e r e d on February 1 0 , I 9 6 0 , he no t o n l y covered each i s s u e s e p a r a t e l y and c o m p l e t e l y b e f o r e g o i n g on t o h i s next p o i n t , b u t he a l s o enumerated the i s s u e s t o be d i s c u s s e d : In my remarks today I i n t e n d to d e a l w i t h n i n e d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s . They are disarmament, the N o r t h A t l a n t i c T r e a t y O r g a n i z a t i o n , the commonwealth, C a n a d i a n - U n i t e d S t a t e s r e l a t i o n s , L a t i n A m e r i c a , Canada and the P a c i f i c , the M i d d l e E a s t , the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , and the law o f the s e a . In h i s l a s t two speeches M r . Green made no attempt t o o u t l i n e the f a c t o r s c o v e r e d b e f o r e the development o f the i d e a s . ^ I n these l a s t two speeches he had to d e a l w i t h a v a r i e t y o f i n t e r r e l a t e d t o p i c s and perhaps d e c i d e d i t b e s t i f he h a n d l e d each mat ter by i t s e l f , a l l o w i n g the democra t i c p r o c e s s o f debate to run i t s n a t u r a l c o u r s e . A l l t h i s i s no t t o say t h a t M r . G r e e n ' s speak ing l a c k e d f l e x i b i l i t y . E v i d e n c e o f t h i s i s seen on those o c c a s i o n s where he used a g e n e r a l o u t -l i n e and p r e s e n t e d h i s speeches extemporaneous ly r a t h e r t h a n i n m a n u s c r i p t o r memorized f o r m . The na ture o f debate i n the House o f Commons as i n d i c a t e d by the number o f i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n h i s speeches seemed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i f one tended to be over s t r u c t u r e d the speech c o u l d s u f f e r . In o t h e r words the speaker must not become a c a p t i v e o f h i s speech form or s t r u c t u r e . He must be a b l e t o use h i s p e r s o n a l i t y and w i t . 52 ""The speeches t h a t Mr. Green d e l i v e r e d had s t r o n g c o n c l u s i o n s . For example: I p e r s o n a l l y am convinced t h a t i f we i n the p a r l i a m e n t of Canada, adopt t h i s r e s o l u t i o n we s h a l l he e x p r e s s i n g the sympathetic f e e l i n g of Canadians g e n e r a l l y f o r the b l i n d and c a r r y i n g out the wish of , an overwhelming m a j o r i t y of the people o f our n a t i o n . 5 'Or when he s a i d : I mention these i n s t a n c e s i n the hope t h a t c o n s i d -e r a t i o n w i l l be g i v e n to them not o n l y by hon. members who happen to be on t h i s s p e c i a l committee but a l s o by a l l o t h e r hon. members. I say t h a t t h i s b i l l i s f u n d -a m e n t a l l y wrong, because the whole tendency i s to be "tough", to be j u s t a l i t t l e tougher than b e f o r e on the men i n the f i g h t i n g f o r c e s . That means t h a t i f p a r l i a m e n t enacts t h i s b i l l i n i t s p r e s e n t shape i t w i l l be "tough" w i t h the v e r y Canadians who should b e ^ r e c e i v i n g the most c o n s i d e r a t i o n a t the p r e s e n t time."" Again a s h o r t c o n c i s e c o n c l u s i o n i s noted: I suggest t h a t a t t h i s time our g r e a t e s t c o n t r i b u t i o n to w o r l d peace would be to take a l e a d i n r e b u i l d i n g the s t r e n g t h of the B r i t i s h Commonwealth."''7 D u r i n g the second p e r i o d of h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r Mr. Green's - c o n c i s i o n s tended to become more l e n g t h y . Once again I i n v i t e hon. members to make t h e i r s u g g e s t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d to Canada's f o r e i g n p o l i c y and I am sure the r e s u l t w i l l be very b e n e f i c i a l not o n l y to the government but a l s o to p a r l i a m e n t and the n a t i o n as a whole. My own b e l i e f i s t h a t Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y should be one t h a t w i l l r e f l e c t a t a l l times the common sense and the courage, and above a l l the c h a r a c t e r , of the Canadian pe o p l e . I t w i l l be my aim as s e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e f o r E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s to do e v e r y t h i n g I can to see t h a t Canadian f o r e i g n p o l i c y w i l l f i t t h a t p a t t e r n , and I am sure t h a t i n t h i s t a s k I s h a l l have gr e a t h e l p from a l l hon. members. On February 10, i960, he ended h i s speech w i t h : 53 In c o n c l u s i o n may I say t h i s , Canada i s a s t r o n g young n a t i o n , s t e a d i l y growing s t r o n g e r . I t i s a n a t i o n , as I have p o i n t e d out, w i t h a good r e c o r d i n w o r l d a f f a i r s , w i t h many f r i e n d s and one t h a t i s a c t i v e l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n v a r i o u s a s s o c i a t i o n s such as the commonwealth, NATO and so o n . Above a l l i t i s a n a t i o n w i t h an i d e a l i s t i c , u n s e l f i s h a p p r o a c h . I suggest to y o u , M r . Speaker , and to a l l h o n . members o f the house t h a t Canada can p l a y a v i t a l p a r t i n w o r l d a f f a i r s t o d a y , perhaps j u s t as v i t a l a p a r t as any o t h e r n a t i o n i n the w o r l d . These next t e n year s c o u l d be Canada ' s y e a r s i n w o r l d a f f a i r s . T h i s i s the g r e a t c h a l l e n g e to C a n a d i a n s , , the c h a l l e n g e I s h o u l d l i k e to p l a c e b e f o r e them t h i s a f t e r n o o n , and I o f f e r t h i s c h a l l e n g e p a r t i c u l a r l y t o those Canadians who from t ime t o t ime r e p r e s e n t the Canadian people i n t h i s p a r l i a m e n t . ' On A p r i l 2 6 , 1961 , t a l k i n g on "Canada i n T o d a y ' s W o r l d " , M r . Green c o n c l u d e d : However, i n c o n c l u s i o n may I say t h i s . As h o n . members know and as they w i l l have found f rom t h i s s k e t c h y r e v i e w o f problems a r i s i n g i n a l l p a r t s o f the w o r l d , Canada i s i n v o l v e d everywhere . In p r a c t i -c a l l y e v e r y p a r t o f the w o r l d Canada i s i n v o l v e d i n one way or a n o t h e r , to an ex tent and i n such a manner t h a t she can do something about every one o f these p r o b l e m s . I suggest t h a t t h i s i s a g r e a t c h a l l e n g e to the Canadian p e o p l e . Whether we accep t t h a t c h a l -l e n g e , whether we p l a y our f u l l p a r t i n w o r l d a f f a i r s — the p a r t which i s t h e r e to be p l a y e d by Canada — w i l l , o f c o u r s e , depend on the w i l l o f the Canadian people to p a r t i c i p a t e , the i d e a l i s m and opt imi sm o f the Canadian people and the s a c r i f i c e s they are p repared to make. I b e l i e v e t h a t Canada can r e n d e r a s e r v i c e to man-k i n d as a whole i n the f i e l d o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s a n d , as the m i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r Canada ' s a c t i v i t i e s a b r o a d , i t w i l l be my o b j e c t i v e to do j u s t t h a t . , I ask f o r the suppor t o f the members o f the h o u s e , r e g a r d l e s s o f p a r t y , i n b r i n g i n g these f a c t s to the a t t e n t i o n o f the Canadian p e o p l e , thus h e l p i n g to make i t p o s s i b l e f o r the Canadian peop le to r e a l i z e the c h a l l e n g e w h i c h f a c e s them and t o r e a l i z e the o p p o r t u n i t y f o r -Canada to do something w o r t h w h i l e i n the w o r l d . I f we make t h a t a t tempt we s h a l l be g o i n g a l o n g way toward making our n a t i o n the type o f n a t i o n we a l l t h i n k i t s h o u l d b e . I n the l a s t speech under a n a l y s i s the l e n g t h y c o n c l u s i o n was a g a i n i n e v i d e n c e : 5k In c o n c l u s i o n , I r e p e a t what I s a i d a t the b e g i n n i n g . T h i s House o f Commons i s meet ing a t a t ime o f deep c r i s i s . In t imes such as these a n a t i o n shows i t s c a l i b r e . Canada has done so on more than one o c c a s i o n . We remember Canada i n the f i r s t war . We remember Canada i n the second w a r , the June day 21 y e a r s ago , when France was f a l l i n g and when our then m i n i s t e r o f defence was k i l l e d i n a t e r r i b l e a i r c r a s h . I t l o o k e d as though the U n i t e d Kingdom would be i n v a d e d . I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t i n my l i f e t i m e t h e r e has ever been a d a r k e r day than t h a t p a r t i c u l a r Monday. But no Canadian member o f p a r l i a m e n t had a thought i n h i s head t h a t t h e r e was g o i n g to be any s u r r e n d e r , t h a t we were not g o i n g to f a c e t h a t s i t u a t i o n and were g o i n g t o win t h r o u g h . I know t h a t Canada w i l l show h e r c a l i b r e and h e r m e t t l e i n these p r e s e n t t r y i n g t i m e s . The road ahead w i l l be h a r d . Perhaps we have had enough o f the s o f t l i f e anyway. But the road ahead i s c e r t a i n l y g o i n g to be h a r d ' and t h e r e w i l l be t e n s i o n f o r a l o n g , l o n g t i m e . We might j u s t as w e l l f a c e t h a t f a c t . Prom Canadians courage w i l l be r e q u i r e d , b o t h p h y s i c a l and m o r a l , and s a c r i f i c e ; and I b e l i e v e above a l l , a r e t u r n to our deep a b i d i n g fundamenta l f a i t h s . I f we f ace t h i s c h a l l e n g e we w i l l win t h r o u g h and the r e s u l t may v e r y w e l l be to make our n a t i o n one o f the l e a d i n g n a t i o n s o f the w o r l d . 7 0 In the m a i n , h i s endings were s h o r t e r a t f i r s t and then l e n g t h e n e d i n t o a s t r o n g m o t i v a t i n g message. No summary o f p o i n t s was. g i v e n i n h i s e n d i n g s . I t i s not u n t i l h i s t h i r d speech on O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 1 » d e a l i n g w i t h the "Throne Speech D e b a t e " , t h a t M r . Green used the t e c h n i q u e o f compl iment ing someone i n h i s a u d i e n c e . M r . Speaker , u n f o r t u n a t e l y I d i d not have the p r i v i l e g e o f h e a r i n g the speeches o f the mover (Mr . Cauchon) and the seconder (Mr . Simmons) o f the addres s i n r e p l y to the speech from the t h r o n e , but I u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r e f f o r t s were e x c e l l e n t . I can q u i t e b e l i e v e t h a t from my a c q u a i n t a n c e w i t h them around the h a l l s o f the b u i l d i n g . T h i s d i r e c t e d compliment to two members i n the House was the o n l y one p a i d d u r i n g the s e l e c t e d speeches o f the f i r s t p e r i o d . D u r i n g the second p e r i o d o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l 55 c a r e e r he used a number o f compliments t h r o u g h o u t . T h i s c o u l d be accounted f o r by the tendency f o r a man to become more b e n e v o l e n t when i n power . ( P a r t i c u l a r l y so i n M r . G r e e n ' s c a s e . He had had some twenty-two year s i n the O p p o s i t i o n camp b e f o r e the C o n s e r v a t i v e s were g i v e n the mandate to form the G o v e r n -ment .) S i m i l a r l y i n h i s speech on "Canada ' s F o r e i g n P o l i c y " , on F e b r u a r y 1 0 , I 960 , M r . Green s t a r t e d h i s d e l i v e r y w i t h the f o l l o w i n g q u o t e : These a c t s o f k i n d n e s s mean a g r e a t d e a l and r e f l e c t so c l e a r l y how mxjch good w i l l t h e r e i s i n t h i s house There seemed to be a p a t t e r n emerg ing . In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f the f i r s t two speeches under a n a l y s i s , M r . Green i n c l u d e d a compliment d i r e c t e d to h i s audience or some p o r t i o n o f the a u d i e n c e . A g a i n i n M r . G r e e n ' s speech d e l i v e r e d on A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 , c l o s e to the b e g i n n i n g o f h i s deve lopment , he i n c l u d e d t h i s compl iment : There a re a g r e a t number o f members o f t h i s house who have had c o n s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e i n the f i e l d o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s . I need o n l y r e f e r to the l a r g e number who, down through the y e a r s , have r e n d e r e d e x c e l l e n t s e r v i c e f o r Canada a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s I n the body o f t h i s speech i s found another compliment d i r e c t e d t o p r e v i o u s members o f the House who are now s e r v i n g i n the S e n a t e . I n d i r e c t l y t h i s compliment i s f o r the House a l s o . When there i s a. snap d e c i s i o n to be made i n a c o m p l i c a t e d s i t u a t i o n , i t h e l p s a g r e a t d e a l f o r a f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r to be a b l e to t a l k to an o l d f r i e n d from the Senate who has been i n the House o f Commons f o r many y e a r s , even though i n another p a r t y , and to get h i s v iew as to what Canada s h o u l d do . I have 56 a p p r e c i a t e d more than I can say the a d v i c e and the a s s i s t a n c e t h a t I have r e c e i v e d d u r i n g t h i s l a s t j s e s s i o n from those Senator s who have been i n a t t e n d a n c e . I n M r . G r e e n ' s l a s t speech on September 7» 1 9 6 l , c o n c e r n i n g "The C r i s i s Over N u c l e a r T e s t s and B e r l i n , " t h e r e were no compliments p a i d as i n h i s e a r l i e r speeches o f t h i s second p e r i o d . T h i s was undoubted ly due to the n a t u r e o f t h i s l a s t s p e e c h . I t seemed as i f the war c l o u d s were b e g i n n i n g to g a t h e r and Canada might be i n v o l v e d i n another g l o b a l s t r u g g l e . The sombre mood o f t h i s speech r u l e d out any n i c e t i e s . The s t r u c t u r e o f M r . G r e e n ' s speech was a s imple o n e , b e i n g f o r the most p a r t , d i r e c t and to the p o i n t . The speech i t s e l f seemed a r ranged a lmost a c c o r d i n g to a f o r m u l a . Because o f the n a t u r e o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y debate M r . Green had t o u t i l i z e a r a t h e r f o r m a l i z e d speech s t r u c t u r e . Upon d e c i d i n g w h i c h s u b j e c t he wanted to e x p l o r e and what images he wanted to p r o j e c t to the a u d i e n c e , he then d e v e l o p e d a b r i e f o u t l i n e o f h i s s p e e c h . To supplement t h i s o u t l i n e he g a t h e r e d a number o f newspaper and magazine c l i p p i n g s and a r t i c l e s . He would d e c i d e p r e c i s e l y what p o i n t he was g o i n g to make and then i n j e c t some s p e c i f i c f a c t o r s o f i n t e r e s t - f a c t o r s c a l c u l a t e d to h o l d the a t t e n t i o n o f h i s a u d i e n c e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t M r . Green p e r s o n a l l y composed a l l o f h i s speeches g i v i n g even minute d e t a i l s g r e a t c a r e . He d i d no t u t i l i z e e i t h e r a r e s e a r c h s t a f f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l s p e e c h w r i t e r s bu t r a t h e r depended on h i s own a b i l i t y . 57 S t y l e The t h i r d o f C i c e r o ' s Canons was e l o c u t i o . To the c l a s s i c a l r h e t o r i c i a n e l o c u t i o meant " s t y l e . " S t y l e , l i k e the o t h e r r h e t o r i c a l canons , s h o u l d he adapted to the v a r i a b l e components o f the speak ing s i t u a t i o n . For t h i s r ea son i t i s a mark o f i n f l e x i b i l i t y f o r a speaker to he c h a r a c t e r i z e d by one s t y l e . The a b l e s p e a k e r , r a t h e r , v r i l l become p r o f i c i e n t i n s e v e r a l s t y l e s to have freedom to speak a p p r o p r i a t e l y i n a v a r i e t y o f s i t u a t i o n s . F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s e r roneous to assume t h a t a speech s h o u l d m a i n t a i n the same s t y l e t h r o u g h o u t . I t i s b e t t e r to have the s t y l e c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the v a r y i n g thought s and emotions t h a t run t h r o u g h the speech t h a n to have a c o n s i s t e n c y o f sameness d e p r i v i n g the speech o f needed v a r i e t y . 7 2 As t h e r e are innumerable a s p e c t s o f s t y l e o n l y some o f the more p e r t i n e n t w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . M r . Green i n h i s speeches was ab le to adapt to d i f f e r e n t aud ience s i t u a t i o n s . By v a r y i n g h i s s t y l e , i n t e r e s t and a t t e n t i o n v/as s e c u r e d . For example , t h e * b a s i c form o f M r . G r e e n ' s speeches was p r o s e . However, he found i t a p p r o p r i a t e i n h i s speech "Throne Speech Debate " o f O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1951, to u s e : From the s t a b l e To the t a b l e We b r o u g h t back the h o r s e , L a c k i n g s i n c e r i t y We c a l l e d i t p r o s p e r i t y — F i d o w i l l be the next c o u r s e . M r . Green agreed (tongue i n cheek) w i t h t h i s ; then f o r c e f u l l y went on to suggest a s l o g a n f o r the next p o l i t i c a l encounter o r g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n . "Vote L i b e r a l and eat hor semeat " However, the L i b e r a l M i n i s t e r o f F i n a n c e got i n h i s l i c k 58 when he r e t o r t e d : "Vote C o n s e r v a t i v e and eat no meat" M r . G r e e n , no t t a k i n g a back seat t o anyone f i r e d back a q u i c k r e p l y : The" Pr ime M i n i s t e r was e x t r e m e l y smug about the whole q u e s t i o n . He s a i d t h a t o n l y c e r t a i n s e c t o r s o f the p o p u l a t i o n are b e i n g b o t h e r e d by the i n c r e a s e d c o s t o f l i v i n g and t h a t the o t h e r s a re do ing b e t t e r than t h e y have ever done b e f o r e . He s a i d , " O f c o u r s e , I hope t h a t the i n f l a t i o n w i l l s t o p . " I suggest one t h i n g to the Prime M i n i s t e r ; t h a t i s t h a t he s t a r t e a t i n g horsemeat r i g h t away and c o n t i n u e do ing so u n t i l he wakes up to what i s g o i n g on i n Canada. T h i s p o i n t i l l u s t r a t e s M r . G r e e n ' s a d a p t a b i l i t y to v a r y h i s s t y l e to the p o l i t i c a l a u d i e n c e . At f i r s t q u o t a t i o n s or i n c l u s i o n s o f s u p p o r t i n g m a t e r i a l s i n the form o f newspaper a r t i c l e s , p e r s o n a l l e t t e r s o r s e c t i o n s o f H a n s a r d , were used q u i t e s p a r i n g l y . There was no such i n -c l u s i o n i n h i s speech on March 9 , 1936? r e g a r d i n g "Pens ions f o r the B l i n d . " The f i r s t q u o t a t i o n appeared d u r i n g h i s speech on-March 6 , 19^1 , where he was a d d r e s s i n g the House on the " B i l l to Amend the P e n s i o n s A c t . " In o r d e r to make a s i g n i f i c a n t i n f l u e n c e on the House , M r . Green quoted a p e r s o n a l l e t t e r from a v e t e r a n p l e a d i n g f o r f a i r t r ea tment o f a l l m a r r i e d p e n s i o n e r s or v e t -e r a n s . I n h i s speech M r . Green p o i n t e d out t h a t r not a l l per sons were t r e a t e d e q u a l l y under the B i l l . The passage from the l e t t e r t h a t was i n c l u d e d i n M r . G r e e n ' s s p e e c h : r e a d : Can t h e r e not be some p r o v i s i o n made so t h a t an honest man can be p r o v i d e d f o r to the end t h a t a l l m a r r i e d p e n s i o n e r s or v e t e r a n s a re a f f o r d e d the same b e n e f i t s o f the P e n s i o n s A c t ? 59 The use o f t h i s passage seemed to i n j e c t an added spark h e l p i n g M r . Green make h i s p o i n t more s t r o n g l y . By the t ime M r . Green p r e s e n t e d h i s t h i r d speech on O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 1 , there were no l e s s t h a n twelve s epara te q u o t a t i o n s . I t appeared t h a t the use o f s u p p o r t i n g q u o t a t i o n s was i n d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n to M r . G r e e n ' s r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t v a l u a b l e use c o u l d be made o f the o p i n i o n o f o t h e r a u t h o r -i t i e s . In t h i s speech M r . Green u t i l i z e d s i x s epara te source s f o r o b t a i n i n g these q u o t e s . He used a quote on the d e v e l o p -ment o f the N o r t h from Macleans M a g a z i n e ; a summary o f a r e p o r t from the Bank o f Canada; a r t i c l e s from the Vancouver P r o v i n c e and the Vancouver Sun ; q u o t a t i o n s from v a r i o u s s e c t i o n s o f H a n s a r d ; and a q u o t a t i o n from a s p e e c h by the R i g h t H o n . V i n c e n t Massey d e l i v e r e d i n Vancouver on November 1 5 , 1 9 ^ 6 . I t thus becomes e v i d e n t t h a t the pro fuse use o f q u o t a -73 t i o n s d i d e f f e c t M r . G r e e n ' s s t y l e o f s p e a k i n g . 6 0 TABLE 1 ANALYSIS OP QUOTATIONS USED IN MR. GREEN'S POLITICAL SPEECHES DATE OP SPEECH T I T L E OP SPEECH NUMBER OP QUOTATIONS USED March 9 , 1936" March 6 , 19^1 O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 1 November 2 6 , 1 9 5 6 J u l y 9 , 1 9 5 9 F e b r u a r y 1 0 , i 9 6 0 A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 September 7 , 1 9 6 1 FIRST PERIOD P e n s i o n s For the B l i n d 0 B i l l Amending P e n s i o n s A c t 1 Throne Speech Debate 12 The Suez C r i s i s 6 SECOND PERIOD I n t r o d u c t i o n o f E s t i m a t e s o f Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s 2 Canada ' s F o r e i g n P o l i c y 2 Canada In T o d a y ' s Wor ld 3 The C r i s i s A r i s i n g Over N u c l e a r T e s t s And B e r l i n k 61 One r e a s o n f o r the d i f f e r e n c e i n the volume o f q u o t a -t i o n s used from the t ime o f M r . G r e e n ' s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d to h i s s e c o n d , may i n v o l v e h i s change i n p o s i t i o n from the o p p o s i t i o n camp to t h a t o f a M i n i s t e r i n o f f i c e . The burden o f p r o o f f o r m e r l y r e s t i n g on h i s s h o u l d e r s i s now p l a c e d on the s h o u l d e r s o f those who w i s h to change or oppose moves made by the government . When one i s a member o f the O p p o s i t i o n t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f p r e s s u r e brought to b e a r on the i n d i -v i d u a l s t r i v i n g to prove h i s p o i n t . In f a c t , when the O p p o s i t i o n wants a n y t h i n g they u s u a l l y have t o overprove the p o i n t i n o r d e r to o b t a i n the n e c e s s a r y a t t e n t i o n ! When the p a r t y i n power speaks t h r o u g h the v o i c e o f a s i n g l e M i n i s t e r the need to prove i n g r e a t d e t a i l becomes much l e s s . A n o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the change i n volume o f quo-t a t i o n s from one p e r i o d to another l i e s i n the f a c t t h a t M r . G r e e n ' s e a r l i e r speeches d e a l t w i t h more s p e c i f i c i s s u e s and tended t o d e a l w i t h these i n d e p t h . As s t a t e d e a r l i e r i n t h i s s t u d y , some o f the i s s u e s i n h i s e a r l i e r p e r i o d w e r e : P e n s i o n s f o r the B l i n d and V e t e r a n s A l l o w a n c e s . By t h e i r v e r y n a t u r e the se i s s u e s r e q u i r e d more s p e c i f i c argument , p e r -s u a s i o n o r debate a n a l y s i s . D u r i n g M r . G r e e n ' s second p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d he d e a l t w i t h more g e n e r a l i s s u e s . For example , he h a n d l e d i s s u e s such a s : Canada ' s r e l a t i o n to Egypt and Commonwealth t i e s . These i s s u e s tended to permi t a b r o a d e r b a s i s f o r d i s c u s s i o n and thus a l l o w e d more leeway f o r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and deve lopment . Throughout h i s second 62 p e r i o d a t endency to c l o s e the door somewhat on cross—debate o f the i s s u e s was i n e v i d e n c e . In h i s second s tage o f p o l i t i c a l r h e t o r i c M r . Green t r i e d to convey a government " f e e l i n g t o n e " , whereas i n the f i r s t s tage he t r i e d to de fea t some s p e c i f i c major or minor p o i n t i n a p a r t i c u l a r b i l l . H i s second p e r i o d tended to e n c i r c l e the g e n e r a l i s s u e s and become more p h i l o s o p h i c a l . I n h i s f i r s t p e r i o d he tended to p o r t r a y the p i c t u r e o f a watchdog o r a t h o r n i n the s i d e o f the p a r t y i n power. T h i s i n e v i t a b l y a f f e c t e d the use o f q u o t a t i o n s as i l l u s t r a t e d . Throughout the course o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r he en joyed i n j e c t i n g the odd b i t o f humor to s p i c e h i s s p e e c h e s . 75 I n h i s f i r s t p e r i o d the f o l l o w i n g : J "Vote L i b e r a l and eat hor semeat ; I suggest one t h i n g to the Pr ime M i n i s t e r ; t h a t i s t h a t he s t a r t e a t i n g horsemeat r i g h t away and c o n t i n u e d o i n g so u n t i l he wakes up to what i s g o i n g on i n C a n a d a . " In a s o r t i e w i t h M r . F l e m i n g the f o l l o w i n g t akes p l a c e . M r . G r e e n : . . . . H e compared Washington p r i c e s w i t h the p r i c e s o f modest , s e n s i b l e O t t a w a . M r . F l e m i n g : Where i s modest , s e n s i b l e Ottawa? M r . G r e e n : R i g h t h e r e . You s h o u l d know i t . I f y o u would j u s t get away from T o r o n t o you would r e a l i z e some o f the good q u a l i t i e s o f O t t a w a . In h i s second p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d he used humor i n d e s -c r i b i n g the r e p o r t o f the Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s f o r the c a l e n d a r year I960 : M r . G r e e n : . . . . W e b e l i e v e i t has a new l o o k , and t h a t i t w i l l not be as dry r e a d i n g as some o f the r e p o r t s o f p a s t y e a r s have b e e n . M r . Nowlan : I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e l y p r i n t e d between r e d c o v e r s . 63 M r . G r e e n : I h e a r a remark made by my c o l l e a g u e the M i n i s t e r o f N a t i o n a l Revenue to the e f f e c t t h a t the r e p o r t i s p r i n t e d w i t h i n covers o f a bad c o l o r , b u t I p o i n t out t h a t t h e y are r e a l l y not r e d but a s o r t o f salmon p i n k . 7 6 In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n o f a speech on "Canada ' s F o r e i g n P o l i c y " t h i s a i r y b e g i n n i n g : Today I have escaped from the bonds o f the d e p a r t -ment, i n t h a t I am not r e a d i n g a s p e e c h . I am r a t h e r s p e a k i n g from n o t e s , so i f a t h i r d w o r l d war s h o u l d s t a r t tomorrow as a r e s u l t the department w i l l no t be to b l a m e . 7 7 There was a l s o ev idence o f i r o n i c humor i n h i s speech d e l i v -e r e d on J u l y 9 , 1959» I would p r e f e r to be a b l e to speak today w i t h o u t n o t e s or w i t h v e r y s c a n t y n o t e s . However — and I am sure the Leader o f the O p p o s i t i o n w i l l c o n f i r m my f i n d i n g s i n t h i s r e g a r d — t h i s seems to be a he inous o f f e n c e from the p o i n t o f v iew o f the o f f i c i a l s o f the depar tment , and t h e y are most i n s i s t e n t t h a t o n e ' s remarks s h o u l d be v e r y c a r e f u l l y weighed and t h a t ex-t e n s i v e note s s h o u l d be u sed . 1 must admit t h a t I have l o s t out i n t h i s b a t t l e and appear here today w i t h a few n o t e s from w h i c h I propose to r e a d . I hope the h o n . members w i l l b e a r w i t h me, because I know j u s t as v / e l l as they do t h a t i t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t to r e a d remarks and keep people awake. P e r h a p s , however , we w i l l be a b l e to do j u s t a l i t t l e b e t t e r i n t h a t r e g a r d t h i s m o r n i n g e 7 8 I t appeared t h a t he used humor more o f t e n i n the second s e g -ment o f h i s speak ing c a r e e r . A g a i n , t h i s c o u l d i n p a r t be due to the c o n f i d e n c e o f o f f i c e and a l s o the e x p e r i e n c e o f many s e s s i o n s o f debate he weathered i n p a r l i a m e n t . However, the i n c l u s i o n o f humor d i d enable M r . Green t o v a r y h i s s t y l e , M r . G r e e n ' s use o f humor would f a l l g e n e r a l l y w i t h i n the remark b y Waldo Braden who l i s t e d the e s s e n t i a l aims f o r w h i c h humor can be u s e d . 6k 1. To r e c a p t u r e a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t . 2. To g a i n a f a v o r a b l e h e a r i n g . 3. To g i v e emphasis to or to a m p l i f y a p o i n t . 4. To r e l i e v e t e n s i o n or to disarm unsympathetic or h o s t i l e l i s t e n e r s . 5. To express good w i l l towards l i s t e n e r s , showing a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r the l i s t e n e r s by d e p r e c i a t i n g y o u r s e l f . 6. To serve as a thought break, t h a t i s , to permit the l i s t e n e r s to r e l a x d u r i n g or a f t e r a d i f f i c u l t p r e s e n t a t i o n . 7 . To cope w i t h the unexpected or embarrassing i n c i d e n t . 8. To answer a damaging a t t a c k of an opponent, t u r n i n g the barb and r e c a p t u r i n g the o f f e n s i v e . 7 9 Mr. Green's use o f humor seemed to be mainly concerned w i t h p o i n t s three and f i v e . He l i k e d to i l l u s t r a t e a p o i n t through the use of humor but d i d not l i k e to use b i t t e r or b i t i n g humor. Another aspect of s t y l e , t h i s one concerning the c l e a r and a p p r o p r i a t e use of language, has r e l e v a n c e i n the Canadian p o l i t i c a l a r e n a . The speaker's s t y l e holds a t t e n t i o n and i n t e r e s t . The manner i n which he expresses and r e l a t e s i d e a s can be i n t e r e s t i n g i n and by itself.8° The images Mr. Green used were i n t e n d e d to m a i n t a i n a h i g h l e v e l of i n t e r e s t . For example, i n d i s c u s s i n g the p l i g h t o f the b l i n d p e o p l e : I suggest t h a t these men have done a l l t h a t c o u l d p o s s i b l y be done, and they are now up a g a i n s t a b lank  w a l l . b l In the same speech he r e f e r r e d to C a p t a i n Baker, who had l o s t h i s s i g h t d u r i n g the F i r s t World War, as: ....decorated f o r g a l l a n t r y i n the f i e l d , and one n i g h t he was shot a c r o s s both eyes and b l i n d e d . From t h a t time to the p r e s e n t h i s l i f e has been an e p i c o_f courage and i n i t i a t i v e ...... T h i s use of imagery i s of importance because: 65 S t y l e a c t s as p r o o f . The s p e a k e r ' s word c h o i c e h e l p s to e s t a b l i s h the i m p r e s s i o n o f f a m i l i a r i t y and knowledge o f h i s s u b j e c t , w h i c h i s an i m p o r t a n t p a r t o f e t h i c a l p r o o f . 8 2 As ment ioned b e f o r e M r . Green used the e t h i c a l p r o o f i n h i s i n v e n t i o n . The imagery t h e n , became p a r t o f the p r o o f . In h i s speech on the " B i l l Amending P e n s i o n s A c t , " ^ h i s c o n c i s e comment was , " i t smacks o f o f f i c i a l d o m . " He c o n t i n u e d p r o -j e c t i n g the same image when he r e f e r r e d to the f a c t t h a t , "Throughout i t I can see i n d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s the d e f t  t o u c h o f d e p a r t m e n t a l o f f i c i a l s . " There i s no doubt t h a t he most s t r o n g l y d i s a p p r o v e d o f t h i s b i l l . In t h i s same speech he drew an a n a l o g y w i t h the B r i t i s h p e n s i o n laws s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y were a d m i n i s t e r e d i n a " h a r d - b o i l e d " manner, and t h a t Canada s h o u l d no t adopt t h i s same a t t i t u d e . R e f e r r i n g t o the p r e s e n t b i l l he sugges ted t h a t the g o v e r n -ment was " h e d g i n g " i n a v a r i e t y o f a r e a s , p a r t i c u l a r l y those s e c t i o n s most a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the t r ea tment o f widows. D u r i n g "The Throne Speech D e b a t e " o f O c t o b e r 18 , 1951 , he used v i v i d language to d r i v e home h i s p o i n t when he m e n t i o n e d , "Amer icans eat our b e e f , Canadians are e a t i n g h o r s e m e a t . " T h i s ana logy d e s c r i b e d the imbalance o f f o r e i g n t r a d e and commodit ies between Canada and the U n i t e d S t a t e s ; and the r e s u l t a n t imbalance o f s t andards o f l i v i n g . In t h i s same speech he used such e x p r e s s i o n s as "we a re i n a h a l f - w a r p e r i o d ; I would hope t h a t t h i s i n c r e a s e v / i l l be g r a n t e d a t t h i s s e s s i o n (pens ion i n c r e a s e ) , and t h a t t h e r e w i l l not be an at tempt t o do more c h e e s e - p a r i n g by b r i n g i n g i n an i n c r e a s e 66 o f 20 p e r c e n t o r 25 p e r c e n t ; Perhaps the g r a v e s t danger o f •war- today i s t h a t we l i v e i n a two—power w o r l d , w h i c h i s o f n e c e s s i t y a h i g h l y dangerous c o n d i t i o n . " D u r i n g the second segment o f M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r he used the f o l l o w i n g type o f e x p r e s s i o n s : "Heinous o f f e n c e , thermonuc lea r age , l u x u r y o f a s l a c k e n i n g , fundamenta l community o f i n t e r e s t s . " O H In h i s second s p e e c h : "Canada has o n l y f r i e n d s and no enemies ; the time has come to drop the i d e a t h a t Canada ' s r o l e i n w o r l d a f f a i r s i s to he an "hones t b r o k e r " between the n a t i o n s ; I had thought t h a t NATO would be a forum f o r s e t t l i n g the d i f f i c u l t i e s about European t r a d e . " 8 5 M r . Green used t h i s d i r e c t and s i m p l e imagery i n h i s l a s t two speeches : " v e r y s t i r r i n g d a y s ; i n c a l c u l a b l e consequences ; T h i s i s a day when Canada i n w o r l d a f f a i r s can urge c o o l - h e a d e d a c t i o n ; T h i s c o u l d be the g r e a t e s t w o r k - p r o d u c i n g p r o j e c t ; the w o r l d does R6 n o t s t and s t i l l . " In h i s f o u r t h speech he went on to i n c l u d e : " t ime o f deep c r i s i s ; In a m p l i f y i n g t h a t s t a t e -ment ; a v e r y s t a t e s m a n l i k e s t e p ; F o r Canadians i t i s so i m p o r t a n t a t t h i s t ime no t to add f u e l to the f lames w i t h the w o r l d h o v e r i n g on the b r i n k o f a n u c l e a r w a r ; c l e a r c u t , a n a l y t i c a l , and s t a t e s m a n l i k e s p e e c h ; p e a c e f u l s o l u t i o n s to t h i s dangerous p r o b l e m ; b a r e l y c o n c e a l e d t h r e a t s ; i f the c o l d war ever ge t s h o t ; g r e a t e r expans ion o f f reedom; main hope o f  m a n k i n d . I f i t grows and s u c c e e d s , t h e r e w i l l be w o r l d o r d e r . I f i t f a i l s , t h e r e w i l l be w o r l d d e s t r u c t i o n . " 8 ? C o r b e t t , speak ing o f C i c e r o s a y s : 67 V a r i o u s terms were used to name the k i n d s o f s t y l e , h u t t h e r e was fundamenta l agreement ahout t h r e e l e v e l s o f s t y l e . There was the low or p l a i n s t y l e ( a t t e n u a t a , s u b t i l e ) ; the midd le or f o r c i b l e s t y l e ( m e d i o c r i s , ~ r o b u s t a ) ; and the h i g h o r f l o r i d s t y l e ( g r a v i s , f l o r i d a ) . M r . Green appeared to use a s imple and d i r e c t s t y l e . He a v o i d e d f l o w e r y language or language t h a t was too academic . A c c o r d i n g to C i c e r o t h i s would p l a c e him i n the c a t e g o r y o f the p l a i n s t y l e . H i s imagery seemed v i v i d and down t o e a r t h . The u s u a l r e s u l t o f o v e r - a t t e n t i o n t o the n i c e t i e s of s t y l e i s the d e t e r i o r a t i o n o f the s p e a k e r ' s e l o q u e n c e . The main r e a s o n f o r t h i s i s t h a t those words w h i c h g i v e the i m p r e s s i o n o f s i m p l i c i t y , s i n c e r i t y and r e a l i t y become much more meaning-f u l t o the aud ience than words w h i c h seem to be over d e v e l o p e d and too o r n a t e or a c a d e m i c . Due to the n a t u r e o f the p a r -l i a m e n t a r y aud ience t h i s a spec t has c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e . M r . Green would agree w i t h E t o n A b e r n a t h y , who sugge s ted : The p r o p e r end r e s u l t o f a speech i s communicat ion o f t h o u g h t . I f the language employed i s so f l o w e r y , so vague , so p r e c i s e , so i n c o r r e c t , o r so s t i l t e d t h a t i t i s n o t i c e d , then to t h a t ex tent thought i s no t com-munica ted and the speech i s a f a i l u r e . 8 9 One a spec t o f p o l i t i c a l s p e a k i n g t h a t b o t h e r e d M r , Green i n h i s f i r s t p o l i t i c a l y e a r s was the t ime l i m i t t h a t was p l a c e d on h i s s p e e c h e s . A n o t h e r was the a g g r e s s i v e a t t i t u d e o f the p a r t y i n power . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the i m p o s i t i o n o f a t ime l i m i t may have a f f e c t e d h i s s t y l e . I t i s t r u e t h a t i n h i s second p e r i o d M r . G r e e n ' s speeches were l o n g e r bu t the s t y l e appeared much the same. I t can be rea soned t h a t the t ime l i m i t a t i o n d i d no t a d v e r s e l y a f f e c t M r . G r e e n ' s s t y l e ! 6 8 D e l i v e r y The f o u r t h d i v i s i o n o f r h e t o r i c was " d e l i v e r y " o r " p r o n u n t i a t i o . " C o r h e t t g i v e s us a d e f i n i t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n o f d e l i v e r y : I n v o l v e d i n the t rea tment o f d e l i v e r y was concern f o r the management o f the v o i c e and f o r g e s t u r e s ( a c t i o ) . P r e c e p t s were l a i d down about the m o d u l a t i o n o f the v o i c e f o r the p roper p i t c h , vo lume, and emphasis and about p a u s i n g and p h r a s i n g . In r e g a r d to a c t i o n , o r a t o r s were t r a i n e d i n g e s t u r i n g i n the p r o p e r s tance and p o s t u r e o f the b o d y , and i n the management o f the eyes and o f f a c i a l e x p r e s s i o n s . What t h i s a l l amounted to r e a l l y was t r a i n i n g i n the a r t o f a c t i n g , and i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t a l l the g r e a t o r a t o r s i n h i s t o r y have been g r e a t "hams ." 9 0 C i c e r o was even more e x p l i c i t : D e l i v e r y , I s a y , has the s o l e and supreme power i n o r a t o r y ; w i t h o u t i t , a speaker o f the h i g h e s t menta l c a p a c i t y can be h e l d i n no es teem; w h i l e one o f moderate a b i l i t i e s , w i t h t h i s q u a l i f i c a t i o n , may surpas s even those o f the h i g h e s t t a l e n t . 9 1 S i n c e the author was not p r e s e n t d u r i n g M r . G r e e n ' s speeches the d i s c u s s i o n on h i s d e l i v e r y w i l l have c e r t a i n l i m i t a t i o n s . In a sttidy o f d e l i v e r y a f i r s t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the n a t u r e o f the a u d i e n c e . S p e c i -f i c a l l y , M r . G r e e n ' s compr i sed the two-hundred and s i x t y - f i v e Members e l e c t e d by due p r o c e s s to the Canadian House o f Commons. These men came from a l l walks o f l i f e and had w i d e l y d i f f e r e n t b a c k g r o u n d s . The m a j o r i t y o f the members gave a l l e g i a n c e to a s i n g l e p o l i t i c a l p a r t y . The more prominent p a r t i e s - P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e , l i b e r a l , New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y ( f o r m e r l y C C P ) , S o c i a l C r e d i t and C r e d i t i s t e -69 c o u l d be c l a s s i f i e d a s : a) The Government-par ty w i t h a m a j o r i t y o f members b ) The O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n - s e c o n d l a r g e s t p a r t y r e p r e s e n t e d c) Remain ing Members Even though t h e r e seemed to be t h r e e d i s t i n c t segments i n the Canadian p o l i t i c a l s t r u c t u r e on the F e d e r a l l e v e l , f o r p r a c -t i c a l purposes o n l y two o f these segments were s i g n i f i c a n t i n the p o l i t i c a l s e n s e . For the most p a r t , the Canadian F e d e r a l House has t r a d i t i o n a l l y m a i n t a i n e d a l i b e r a l or C o n s e r v a t i v e o r i e n t a t i o n . The a u t h o r i s not s u g g e s t i n g t h a t o t h e r p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s i n Canada make no s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o P a r l i a m e n t . What i s suggested i s t h a t these two p a r t i e s seem to have c o n t r o l l e d F e d e r a l p o l i t i c s a lmost f rom the i n c e p t i o n o f Canada as a Dominion i n 1 8 6 7 © As a Member o f the O p p o s i t i o n camp (as M r . Green was f o r the f i r s t twenty-two y e a r s ) i t was most i m p o r t a n t to o b t a i n r e c o g n i t i o n from the f l o o r when p r e s e n t i n g a speech t o the House . The O p p o s i t i o n Member found i t a lmost i m -p o s s i b l e to h o l d the a t t e n t i o n o f the House i f he f a i l e d to get down to b u s i n e s s q u i c k l y . He was l i m i t e d i n the t ime a l l o t t e d f o r s p e a k i n g . The m a j o r i t y o f Members were q u i c k to q u e s t i o n the O p p o s i t i o n i f an e r r o r was made* I f one was a Member o f the p a r t y i n power ( the Government) then the c o i n changed s i d e s . In p a r t i c u l a r i f one was a M i n i s t e r i n t r o d u c i n g a b i l l , t h e r e was a lways needed t ime to s t a t e h i s case and r e c e i v e suppor t from h i s p a r t y c o l l e a g i i e s . T h i s 70 s u p p o r t o r l a c k o f i t f o r c e d the i n d i v i d u a l Members to use d i f f e r e n t ways o f speak ing (depending on whether o r not he was w i t h the m a j o r i t y ) . T h i s p o i n t v / i l l be deve loped l a t e r i n the paper as i t has p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to M r , G r e e n , The r e a d e r must be aware o f the two d i s t i n c t aud iences M r , Green f a c e d d u r i n g h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . P o l i t i c a l speeches are d e l i v e r e d i n the Canadian House o f Commons f o r t h r e e d i s t i n c t r e a s o n s : ( l ) to s t i m u l a t e o r evoke e m o t i o n s ; (2) to p e r s u a d e ; and (3) to i n s t r u c t or i n f o r m , Depending upon w h i c h s i d e o f the House he was s i t -t i n g o n , M r . G r e e n , by h i s c h o i c e o f purpose adapted to the mood o f h i s a u d i e n c e . In h i s e a r l y y e a r s p e r s u a s i o n and s t i m u l a t i o n o f emotion ranked h i g h on h i s p r i o r i t y l i s t . L a t e r on i n h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r he i n t r o d u c e d the i n f o r m -a t i v e speech to e n l i g h t e n the House on the a c t i v i t i e s o f h i s depar tment . When the C o n s e r v a t i v e s h e l d the m a j o r i t y , M r . Green c o u l d a f f o r d to become more b e n e v o l e n t i n h i s s p e a k i n g , as he had a l o y a l band o f c o l l e a g u e s to back up h i s s t a t e m e n t s . I t becomes o b v i o u s then t h a t the na ture o f the p o l i t i c a l aud ience addres sed shaped the format o f M r . G r e e n ' s speech as w e l l as h i s speech s t r a t e g i e s . Indeed one f e e l s sometimes t h a t the aud ience shaped the speech s i t u -a t i o n i n t o a r a t h e r s t a t i c e n t i t y . Perhaps the aud ience was n o t as i m p o r t a n t as i t a p p e a r e d , f o r a l t h o u g h i t d i d shape the speech s i t u a t i o n and the t e c h n i q u e s employed by the speaker i t c o n t i n u e d i n a somewhat f i x e d p o s i t i o n . T h i s p r o b a b l y was 71 due to the f a c t t h a t the audience e i t h e r a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d the s p e a k e r ' s arguments on the b a s i s o f p a r t y a f f i l i a t i o n or p a r t y r o l e s . , A f u r t h e r i m p o r t a n t c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n d e l i v e r y i s speech p r e p a r a t i o n . Because o f the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r o f p a r l i a m e n t a r y debate M r , Green employed the extemporaneous method o f speech as h i s main form o f d e l i v e r y i n the Canadian House o f Commons. The extemporaneous method g i v e s you the o p p o r t u n i t y to p r e p a r e s y s t e m a t i c a l l y over a p e r i o d o f t ime and y e t l e a v e s y o u f r e e to choose your language as y o u f o l l o w t h r o u g h w i t h your l i s t e n e r s the sequence o f i d e a s y o u have p r e v i o u s l y determined.92 P a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g h i s e a r l y speeches M r . Green hoped t h a t by u s i n g t h i s method he would be n a t u r a l and e f f e c t i v e . Even when i t was an accep ted p r a c t i c e f o r a M i n i s t e r to use a p r e p a r e d s p e e c h , we f i n d h im s a y i n g : Today I have escaped from the bonds o f the d e p a r t -ment, i n t h a t I am not r e a d i n g a s p e e c h . I am r a t h e r s p e a k i n g from n o t e s . ° 3 M r . Green s h a r e d the v i e w : t h a t the o n l y n a t u r a l e loquence i s t h a t w h i c h most re sembles o r d i n a r y c o n v e r s a t i o n s . a l l e f f i c a c i o u s o r a t o r y i s n a t u r a l e loquence a c e r t a i n amount o f ornament and e m o t i o n a l e f f e c t gu s t be a l l o w e d to s u i t the s p i r i t o f the age ; ' T h i s i s the type o f d e l i v e r y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M r . G r e e n . He a t tempted to t r a n s m i t h i s t h i n k i n g i n a m e a n i n g f u l way by a p p r o x i m a t i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i z e d s t r u c t u r e . He appeared to a t tempt to communicate to the members a t a l e v e l be low t h a t o f the pod ium. T h i s method was i n k e e p i n g v / i t h h i s s i m p l e and d i r e c t s t y l e . 72 To g i v e g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y to M s speeches M r . Green used the impromptu method when n e c e s s a r y . C l e a r l y y o u must r e l y upon what you a l r e a d y know, and y o u must s e l e c t , o r g a n i z e , and adapt your m a t e r i a l q u i c k l y on a dominant theme drawn from your e x p e r i e n c e between the t ime y o u are c a l l e d upon and the moment y o u f ace y o u r a u d i e n c e . 9 5 Due to i n t e r r u p t i o n s and h e c k l i n g f rom the aud ience M r . Green had to be p r e p a r e d w i t h a . s p e e c h d i v e r s i o n a t a moment's n o t i c e . I n the House he c o u l d be c a l l e d upon to i l l u s t r a t e a p o i n t o r d e v e l o p an i s s u e t h a t he had no t counted o n . F o r example : M r . G r e e n : . . . t h a t i s a new s u g g e s t i o n i n Canadian p o l i c y M r . A b b o t t : How are we g o i n g t o pay f o r the excess o f U n i t e d S t a t e s p r o d u c t i o n t h a t we b r i n g t o Canada? M r . G r e e n : We do not need t o s e l l them a l l o f our p r o d u c t i o n . M r . A b b o t t : We do n o t . We buy more from them than we s e l l to them. M r . G r e e n : One o f our g r e a t e s t problems i n Canada t o d a y i s our i n c r e a s i n g dependence on the U n i t e d S t a t e s . . . . 9 ° In the above M r . Green had to d e v i a t e from h i s o r i g i n a l i s s u e o f economic s a v i n g s . L a t e r i n t h i s same speech he f a c e d a n o t h e r q u e r y . M r . A b b o t t : We use American s t e e l . M r . G r e e n : I have a l e t t e r . . . . The above i n d i c a t e d M r . G r e e n ' s q u i c k r e a c t i o n to a q u e s t i o n from the f l o o r and o f how he had t h o r o u g h l y r e s e a r c h e d the i s s u e and was p r e p a r e d w i t h ev idence i f n e e d e d . M r . G r e e n ' s s p e a k i n g a f t e r 1957 became more r e l a x e d . He s w i t c h e d to the manusc r ip t form o f s p e e c h . 73 T h i s method o f f e r s the advantage o f a s p e c i f i c a l l y p r e p a r e d t e x t v / i th language chosen f o r p r e c i s e meaning .97 The speech was r e a d to the audience from a p r e p a r e d m a n u s c r i p t 0 In h i s second p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d M r . Green read a number o f r e p o r t s w h i c h were p r e p a r e d b y h i s depar tment . He used the exac t words g i v e n to h i m . In l i g h t o f h i s r e l i a n c e on e t h i -c a l p r o o f d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , the use o f the m a n u s c r i p t method o f speech d e l i v e r y seemed e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l . M r . Green f e l t however , t h a t by u s i n g the m a n u s c r i p t method, the speaker might l o s e h i s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . Cons tant r e f e r e n c e to the p r i n t e d page w i l l prove d i s t r a c t i n g . The b e n e f i t s o f a more pronounced audio and v i s u a l c o n t a c t w i t h the aud ience was l o s t . When the L i b e r a l s formed the O p p o s i t i o n M r . Green had a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d a r e p u t a t i o n as an hones t i n d i v i d u a l and s t r a i g h t -f o r w a r d p o l i t i c i a n . In t h i s s i t u a t i o n he f e l t the House was more r e c e p t i v e to h i s speeches (as h i s p a r t y now h e l d the m a j o r i t y o f Members) and he c o u l d now be more b e n i g n i n h i s s p e a k i n g . He a l s o found t h a t the major purpose o f h i s speeches d u r i n g t h i s second p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d tended to be i n f o r m a t i v e * . I f the speaker i s c o n s i d e r a t e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g and r e a s o n a b l e i n h i s d e l i v e r y the aud ience w i l l t r e a t him i n the same manner. R e s e a r c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e were v e r y few b i t i n g charges d i r e c t e d toward M r . Green compared to o t h e r C o n s e r v a t i v e s such as M r . D i e f e n b a k e r o r M r . Dona ld Flemming ( former F i n a n c e M i n i s t e r ) . The speaker must be calm and d e l i b e r a t e . M r . Green f e l t t h a t the speaker shou ld t a l k " w i t h " r a t h e r than " t o " the Ik 98 a u d i e n c e . One s h o u l d have a c o n f i d e n t a i r hut a t the same t ime p o r t r a y an honest concern f o r the i s s u e s a t h a n d . A s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and hones t approach seemed to he c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f M r . G r e e n ' s d e l i v e r y . The speaker must t a l k the common language and have an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f human n a t u r e . T h i s w i l l enab le the speaker to p e r c e i v e the needs o f the audience and s t r e n g t h e n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n . M r . Green appeared to d e l i v e r h i s speeches i n q u i t e a r e l a x e d and c o n f i d e n t manner. He l i k e s t o r e c a l l the f o l l o w -99 i n g i n c i d e n t . I t was d u r i n g h i s maiden speech a t the "United N a t i o n s i n New Y o r k . He went to the p l a t f o r m and began h i s s p e e c h . P a r t way t h r o u g h , f e e l i n g the need f o r added emphas i s , he s t r u c k the podium w i t h h i s f i s t . He i n a d v e r t e n t l y s t r u c k a b u t t o n w h i c h began the r e l e a s e o f the podium to the f l o o r . I t s t a r t e d to d i sappear ' . M r . G r e e n ' s speech was l y i n g on the podium and he began to wonder i f he might be the o n l y r e p r e -s e n t a t i v e a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s to conc lude h i s speech on h i s knees I However , he was ab le to s top the downward course o f the podium and to resume h i s s p e e c h . T h i s d i d no t shake h i s c o n f i d e n c e . C h a r l e s l y n c h s a i d o f t h i s s p e e c h : . . . . T h i s speech i s one o f the b e s t ever made by a Canadian a t the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , and would seem to i n d i -cate t h a t M r . Green has c a r r i e d w i t h him i n t o the f i e l d o f d ip lomacy the sure t o u c h t h a t he d i s p l a y e d i n the p o l i t i c a l forum o f the House o f Commons. The re-emergence o f a f i r m Canadian v o i c e i n w o r l d a f f a i r s i s something over w h i c h Canadians o f a l l p o l i t i c a l s t r i p e s can r e j o i c e . 1 0 0 1 01 M r . Green appeared to be f i r m and p e r s u a s i v e s o f t 75 1°2 , ._, . n 103 „. . . . . , s p o k e n , and c r i t i c a l . H i s manner appeared to be a s t a n d -a r d one t h r o u g h o u t the course o f h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . He u t i l i z e d a l l o f the t h r e e elements to he e f f e c t i v e . The o n l y d i s c e r n a h l e gest t i re o f any note i n h i s c a r e e r seemed to he the h a h i t o f e x t e n d i n g h i s r i g h t hand and p o i n t i n g 104 t o someone i n the a u d i e n c e . T h i s c o u l d have the e f f e c t o f making someone i n the aud ience s q u i r m . A f t e r 1957 M r . G r e e n ' s s p e a k i n g hecame more b e n e v o l e n t w i t h an i n c r e a s e d r e l i a n c e on l o g i c a l and e t h i c a l p r o o f . He was a ca lmer and more p h i l o s o p h i c a l speaker d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d and many o f h i s speeches were m a s t e r p i e c e s o f the e x p r e s s i o n o f Canadian i d e a l s . A l l i n a l l , Howard G r e e n , i n the t r a d i t i o n o f the H o n . V i n c e n t Massey p r o v i d e d the t y p e o f l e a d e r s h i p i n the House t h a t won f o r him the r e s p e c t o f h i s countrymen on the l o c a l , n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l s c e n e s . Memory The f i f t h p a r t o f r h e t o r i c a c c o r d i n g to C i c e r o was " m e m o r i a , " concerned w i t h the memor iz ing o f the s p e e c h . In i t s e a r l i e s t b e g i n n i n g s Greek l i t e r a t u r e was e s s e n t i a l l y o r a l and depended on r e c i t a t i o n and o r a l communica t ion . T h i s f a c t made memory an i m p o r t a n t a r t f o r them. Today we r e c o g n i z e t h a t the p r o c e s s o f speech has i t s own i n h e r e n t symbols and methods o f a rrangement ; the v e r y form o f an o u t l i n e , v / i th i t s numbers and l e t t e r s to l a b e l p o i n t s , p r o v i d e s a k i n d o f l o -c a t i o n p a t t e r n by means o f w h i c h we may r e c a l l i d e a s . More-76 o v e r , we have the language symbols i n w h i c h our communicat ion i s c a r r i e d o n . Thus l i t t l e c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s g i v e n i n t h i s s tudy to t h i s a spec t o f r h e t o r i c a l t h o u g h a p e r c e p t i v e o b s e r v -a t i o n by Marsh appears t o have a c e r t a i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y to M r . G r e e n ' s s p e a k i n g . Sometimes m i s u n d e r s t o o d , the canon o f memory may p r o v i d e the speech w i t h an a d d i t i o n a l p r o b a t i v e f o r c e because the s p e a k e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s are a b l e to be r e -c a l l e d a t the a p p r o p r i a t e t i m e . S k i l l i n the use o f t h i s canon r e q u i r e s h a b i t u a l t e c h n i q u e s o f memory, a knowledge o f where to f i n d needed i n f o r m a t i o n , and a b r o a d , l i b e r a l education.1^5 M r . G r e e n ' s e x t e n s i v e l e g a l background gave him ample o p -p o r t u n i t y t o u t i l i z e the t e c h n i q u e o f memory many t i m e s . One p r i n c i p l e i n c u l c a t e d i n h i s method was t h a t o f c o n s t a n t l y expanding the development o f h i s i d e a s beyond the p r e p a r e d d i s s e r t a t i o n . W i t h h i s l e g a l background came a s o l i d fund o f i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g key i s s u e s and the knowledge o f where to f i n d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n . The a b i l i t y to l o c a t e c r u c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n o f t e n saved M r . Green t i m e . M r . Green d i d h i s own homework and d i d not u t i l i z e the s e r v i c e s o f an e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h s t a f f . T h i s meant t h a t h i s m a t e r i a l was f i r s t hand and not s u b j e c t to as much d i s t o r t i o n as some o f the i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d by o t h e r members. On the i s s u e o f v e t e r a n s a f f a i r s M r . Green made p r o f i t a b l e use o f the t e c h -n i q u e o f memory. He c o u l d q u i t e c l e a r l y r e f o c u s h i s e x p e r i e n c e s on t h e i r p l i g h t e i t h e r on the i s s u e o f the b l i n d v e t e r a n s p e n -s i o n or on o t h e r mat te r s c o n c e r n i n g g e n e r a l v e t e r a n s a l l o w a n c e s . Memory c o u l d be c o n s i d e r e d the a c t u a l memor iza t ion o f a p r e p a r e d s p e e c h and the a b i l i t y o f the speaker to r e c r e a t e i t . As M r . Green spoke ex temporaneous ly , he would have had the o p p o r t u n i t y to use t h i s method i f he had wanted t o . However , he p r e f e r r e d to be spontaneous and s t a y away from the memor-i z a t i o n o f h i s s p e e c h e s . CHAPTER F I V E OVERVIEW AND CONCLUSIONS Overv iew Howard C , Green was a c t i v e on the Canadian P o l i t i c a l scene from 1935 t i l l 19^3 • D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d he e s t a b l i s h e d h i m s e l f as a n a t i o n a l l e a d e r and one o f Canada ' s g r e a t s t a t e s -men. The most i m p o r t a n t c h a n n e l used b y M r . Green to o b t a i n h i s n a t i o n a l and i n t e r n a t i o n a l prominence was h i s speeches i n the Canadian House o f Commons. W h i l e i n O p p o s i t i o n , he p l a y e d the r o l e o f Government c r i t i c , f o r c i n g the L i b e r a l s to concede ground on s e v e r a l i s s u e s . In e f f e c t he became the c o n s c i e n c e o f P a r l i a m e n t . Once a M i n i s t e r , h i s h o n e s t y and s i n c e r i t y s e t h im a p a r t f rom o t h e r p o l i t i c i a n s . He managed h i s department i n a h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t and o b j e c t i v e manner. Through h i s ex-p e r i e n c e s s e r v i n g Canada i n the U n i t e d N a t i o n s , he was a b l e t o o r i e n t most c o u n t r i e s o f the w o r l d toward an o b j e c t i v e o f p e a c e . He was a l s o a b l e to f o s t e r an independent Canadian v i e w p o i n t i n f o r e i g n a f f a i r s t h a t had been l a c k i n g i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s . H i s a b i l i t y to speak on and defend s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s was r e p e a t e d l y t e s t e d throughout h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . In the c o n t e x t o f Q u i n t i l i a n i t has been shown t h a t i n f a c t M r . Green was , "The Good Man Speak ing W e l l . " 79 C o n c l u s i o n s A . Much i n f o r m a t i o n has been g l e a n e d s i n c e t h i s s t u d y was u n d e r t a k e n . C e r t a i n c o n c l u s i o n s have been drawn. 1 . M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r can be d i v i d e d i n t o two s e p a r a t e p a r t s : ( l ) h i s O p p o s i t i o n r o l e f rom 1935 to 1957 ( 2 ) h i s r o l e w h i l e the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y d i r e c t e d Canada f rom 1957 to 1 9 6 3 . 2 . Some o f the i s s u e s w i t h which M r . G r e e n a s s o c i a t e d h i m s e l f were : a . War V e t e r a n s b . The B l i n d c . Commonwealth P r e f e r e n c e d . Canada ' s Ro le As A N e u t r a l W o r l d Leader e. Defense f . Minimum o f U . S . I n f l u e n c e i n Canadian A f f a i r s g . Disarmament 3* M r . Green was m o t i v a t e d t o speak b y : a. F r i e n d s h i p s b . O f f i c e s and Memberships He H e l d c . Background As A M i l i t a r y I n s t r u c t o r d . P e e l i n g F o r Humanity e. L e g a l Background f . Canad ian i sm g . War E x p e r i e n c e s ^ * Speech P r e p a r a t i o n . M r . Green would make a d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g the na ture o f the g e n e r a l a reas to p u r s u e ; from h e r e he would choose the s p e c i f i c p o i n t s to be c o v e r e d ; t h e n deve lop a g e n e r a l b r i e f o u t l i n e . 5» A u d i e n c e . M r . Green f a c e d two s e p a r a t e and d i s -t i n c t aud ience s depending on h i s r o l e . When he s a t i n the O p p o s i t i o n the audience c o n s t a n t l y put him on the o f f e n s i v e ! When h i s p a r t y formed the Government he f a c e d a much more 80 r e c e p t i v e a u d i e n c e . He d i d no t have t o assume the a t t i t u d e o f a t t a c k as h i s o p i n i o n s tended to he a u t o m a t i c a l l y a c c e p t e d by the m a j o r i t y o f the House . B . I n f o r m a t i o n and C o n c l u s i o n s i n the Context o f the Canons . 1 . ' I n v e n t i o n . M r . Green used a p r e d o m i n a n t l y e m o t i o n a l and l o g i c a l approach i n the f i r s t y e a r s o f h i s p a r l i a m e n t a r y s p e a k i n g . Because o f the n a t u r e o f h i s speeches w h i l e i n the O p p o s i t i o n camp, he found t h i s method o f p r o o f most e f f e c t i v e . When h i s p o s i t i o n changed, and he became a C a b i n e t M i n i s t e r , he u t i l i z e d an e t h i c a l a p p e a l w i t h i n a l o g i c a l f o r m a t . T h i s p r o g r e s s i o n can be t r a c e d to h i s l e g a l t r a i n i n g and h i s p o l i t i c a l m a t u r i t y . 2. D i s p o s i t i o n . The s t r u c t u r e o f M r . G r e e n ' s speeches was s imple and d i r e c t . He l e d the aud ience d i r e c t l y i n t o the i s s u e to be c o n s i d e r e d . B o t h the i n t r o d u c t i o n and c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s speeches tended t o become l o n g e r as he matured p o l i t i c a l l y . The speech i t s e l f appeared t o be a r r a n g e d a lmost a c c o r d i n g to a f o r m u l a . However, i t was f l e x i b l e enough to a l l o w d e v i a t i o n from h i s o r i g i n a l p l a n . 3 » S t y l e . In a f f i n i t y w i t h h i s speech s t r u c t u r e M r . G r e e n ' s speech s t y l e was s imple and s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . He a v o i d e d f l o w e r y o r wordy l anguage . D u r i n g the development o f h i s a d d r e s s he used a number o f q u o t e s . H i s imagery was one t h a t seemed q u i t e v i v i d and down to e a r t h . He had a 81 number o f e x p r e s s i o n s which, he l i k e d to use throughout h i s s p e a k i n g c a r e e r . The b a s i c format he used f o r h i s speeches was the prose s t y l e . He had the a b i l i t y to i n j e c t humor i n t o h i s speeches , p a r t i c u l a r l y d u r i n g the second segment o f h i s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . Throughout h i s p o l i t i c a l s p e a k i n g h i s s t y l e was n a t u r a l and u n c o n s t r a i n e d r e f l e c t i n g h i s l o v e o f s i m p l i -c i t y and h i s d i r e c t and honest manner. D e l i v e r y . A t f i r s t M r . Green used the extem-poraneous method o f speech d e l i v e r y . Then he t u r n e d i n h i s second p o l i t i c a l p e r i o d to the m a n u s c r i p t method. On o c c a s i o n throughout h i s c a r e e r the impromptu method v/as u t i l i s e d . He used few g e s t u r e s . He was c r i t i c a l , f i r m , s o f t spoken , and p e r s u a s i v e . 5 » Memory. H i s pas t e x p e r i e n c e s were the s t r o n g e s t f a c t o r i n h i s . u s e o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e . The s tudy a t tempted a comprehensive comment and c l a r i -f i c a t i o n o f M r . G r e e n ' s r o l e as a speaker." 1 " 0 ^ F u r t h e r , an at tempt was made to show the impact t h a t M r . Green made on Canadian p o l i t i c s , b o t h a t home and a b r o a d . The author t r i e d to p o r t r a y , at l e a s t i n p a r t , the i n f l u e n c e o f the p o l i t i c a l s p e a k i n g c a r e e r o f a t r u l y "Grea t C a n a d i a n . " 82 TABLE 11 ANALYSIS OP SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCES IN MR. GREEN'S POLITICAL SPEECHES BETWEEN HIS TERM IN OPPOSITION AND HIS TERM AS MINISTER FACTORS OPPOSITION FIRST PERIOD 1935-1957 . MINISTER SECOND PERIOD 1957-1963 A p p r o a c h to I ssue L o c a l i z e d I n t e r n a t i o n a l i z e d Meaning-Tone A t t a c k , P l e a d i n g B e n e v o l e n t , P a t r i o t i c A p p e a l s E m o t i o n a l , L o g i c a l E t h i c a l , L o g i c a l L e v e l P r a c t i c a l P r a c t i c a l - T e n d i n g Toward P h i l o -s o p h i c a l I n t r o d u c t i o n S h o r t e r Longer C o n c l u s i o n S h o r t e r Longer Humor Some More A t t i t u d e Les s T o l e r a n t More T o l e r a n t Mood C o o l hut ready f o r Combat C o o l b\rt more B e n e v o l e n t S tand Taken I s sues P o l i c y Speech D e l i v e r y Extemporaneous , Impromptu M a n u s c r i p t , some Extemporaneous , P a r t i a l l y Impromptu FOOTNOTES I t i s r e c o g n i z e d t h a t C i c e r o ' s i n f l u e n c e waned i n the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y . One o f the r ea sons f o r t h i s was the use o f language f o r more f u n c t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . The e x p r e s s i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c f a c t s i s an example o f t h i s . In the n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y t h e r e was l a c k o f l e i s u r e to s tudy c o m p o s i t i o n f o r i t s own s a k e . People f e l t c r i t i c a l o f the c l a s s i c s . Today the p r i n t i n g o f cheaper e d i t i o n s has markedly i n c r e a s e d the p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . C i c e r o has become b e t t e r known. Another r e a s o n i s p r i m a r i l y p o l i t i -c a l . "An age w h i c h has seen the freedom of the c i v i l i z e d w o r l d t h r e a t e n e d by a s u c c e s s i o n o f d i c t a t o r s has become l e s s s y m p a t h e t i c to Caesar and c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y more a p p r e c i a t i v e o f C i c e r o as the propounder par e x c e l l e n c e o f the r e p u b l i c a n i d e a l ; the second i s p h i l o s o p h i c a l : an age which i s , p r o b a b l y more than any o t h e r , h o s t i l e to dogmatism has found a sym-p a t h e t i c echo i n t h i s v o i c e o f common-sense l i b e r a l i s m and humanism. " John H i g g i n b o t h a m , ( t r a n s . ) C i c e r o : On M o r a l  O b l i g a t i o n , (Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a / P r e s s , T957), P . 30. ^ R . G . A u s t i n , ( t r a n s . ) Q u i n t i l i a n i I n s t i t u t i o n i s  O r a t o r i a e L i b e r X l l . ( L o n d o n : ' O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 5 ^ ) » P • x i i i . Q u i n t i i i a n i s r e f e r r i n g to the good man s p e a k i n g w e l l . In t h i s contex t the good man i s a m o r a l man. ^See K e i t h Brooks and o t h e r s , The Communicative A r t s  and S c i e n c e s o f Speech . (Colombus: C h a r l e s E . M e r r i l l Books I n c . , 1966), p . 22. k See A p p e n d i x . ^ P e r s o n a l I n t e r v i e w w i t h M r . G r e e n . ^ E d i t o r i a l i n The Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , May 18 , 1961 . 7 I b i d . , May 16, 1961. ^See A p p e n d i x . ^ B r o o k s , l o c . c i t . M r . Brooks has o u t l i n e d the t r a d i -t i o n a l "Canons o f R h e t o r i c " i n the f o l l o w i n g manner: i n v e n t i o n -the d i s c o v e r y and a n a l y s i s o f s u b j e c t mat ter and p r o o f s ; 84 d i s p o s i t i o n - t h e s t r u c t u r e and arrangement o f the d i s c o u r s e ; s t y l e - a p p r o p r i a t e use o f l anguage ; d e l i v e r y - v o i c e , a r t i c u l a t i o n and b o d i l y a c t i o n ; and f i n a l l y m e m o r y - r e f l e c t i n g on pas t ex-p e r i e n c e . " * " ° F r y e r and o t h e r s . G e n e r a l P s y c h o l o g y , ( f o u r t h e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : Barnes ' c O c b l e , I n c . , 1 9 5 4 ) , pp. 2 0 2 - 2 0 3 . I b i d . 1 2 B e n M e t c a l f e , "A Man Wise i n Matters , o f P e a c e , " The  Vancouver P r o v i n c e , June 3» 1 9 5 9 * 13 D u r i n g the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w s w i t h M r . Green the a u t h o r had the r e w a r d i n g exper i ence o f meet ing h i s mother , t r u l y a remarkab le woman. 1 4 Harvey H i c k e y , "The H i l l s , " The Globe Magaz ine , T o r o n t o , J u l y 4 , 1 9 5 9 , p . 7 . 15 ^The t r a d i t i o n a l one room s c h o o l s . 16 In a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h M r . Green he expre s sed h i s g r a t i t u d e f o r the i n f l u e n c e M r . H i n d l e e x e r t e d on h i s e a r l y y e a r s o r i e n t i n g him towards a u n i v e r s i t y e d u c a t i o n . 17 ' H i c k e y , l o c . c i t , 18 Vancouver South r i d i n g , 19 The m o t i v a t i o n s l i s t e d were expressed d u r i n g a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h M r . G r e e n . 20 The d e p r e s s i o n i n Canada was i n f l u e n c e d and d i r e c t e d t o a g r e a t ex tent by e x t e r n a l f o r c e s . The most n o t a b l e p r e s -sure f e l t a t t h i s t ime was the economic c o l l a p s e o f the U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t i s h i g h l y d o u b t f u l i f any p a r t y i n Canada c o u l d have a c c o m p l i s h e d more d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d or c o u l d have changed the sequence o f events t h a t o c c u r r e d d u r i n g the d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s o f the 1 9 3 0 ' s . 21 P e t e r C . Newman, Renegade i n P o w e r » ( T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L t d . , 1963) , p . 24 . 85 2 2 B r u c e H u t c h i s o n , M r . J P r i m e M i n i s t e r . 1 8 6 7 - 1 9 6 4 . ( T o r o n t o : Hunter Rose C o . l t d . ,~196 "4 ) , p . 3 3 1 . 23 M e t c a l f e , l o c . c i t . I t s h o u l d he ment ioned a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t the q u o t a t i o n s g i v e n from M r . G r e e n ' s speeches and o t h e r source s have not been g r a m m a t i c a l l y c o r r e c t e d . 24 Don Mason, "Law Second W i t h G r e e n , " The Vancouver D a i l y P r o v i n c e , November 1 7 , 1 9 4 9 • • • . ^ " C a n a d a ' s Top D i p l o m a t , " e d i t o r i a l i n The New Y o r k Times_, November 2 , I 9 6 0 . 26 Edwin Robert B l a c k . "The P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l i 9 6 0 , p p . 1 4 5 - 1 4 8 . In a l e t t e r from M r . George Drew ( N a t i o n a l l e a d e r o f the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ) to M r . Deane P i n l a y s o n ( P r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r o f the P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ) on June 9 , 1 9 5 ^ , "the f o l l o w i n g i s p e r t i n e n t : " I can o n l y expres s my v e r y s t r o n g o b -j e c t i o n to the unwarranted i m p u t a t i o n a g a i n s t the good f a i t h o f an o u t s t a n d i n g C a n a d i a n , whose • r e p u t a t i o n i n every p a r t o f the c o u n t r y s h o u l d be a source o f p r i d e to the people o f h i s own p r o v i n c e . Howard Green commands the r e s p e c t o f every Member o f the House o f Commons, as I am sure he a l s o does o f the overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f the peop le i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , who have f o l -lowed f o r y e a r s h i s u n t i r i n g e f f o r t s on b e h a l f o f h i s own p r o v i n c e , as w e l l as the c o n s t i t u e n c y w h i c h has expres sed i t s c o n f i d e n c e i n him f o r so many y e a r s . " T h i s l e t t e r was i n r e p l y to c e r t a i n charges from the p r o v i n c i a l l e a d e r t h a t Howard Green was not v e r y c o - o p e r a t i v e w i t h the C o n s e r v a t i v e P a r t y ( P r o v i n c i a l ) i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . I t was f u r t h e r i n f e r r e d t h a t he was not i n t e r e s t e d i n the p r o v i n c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n at a l l . The i n s i n u a t i o n s went deeper than t h i s . However, M r . Drew s p e a k i n g on b e h a l f o f the f e d e r a l o r g a n i z -a t i o n d i s p e l l e d any doubts about M r . G r e e n ' s c h a r a c t e r . He a l s o d e s t r o y e d any a c c u s a t i o n s t h a t had been made a g a i n s t M r . G r e e n . ' ' ' James K. N e s b i t t , " L o y a l t y , Honesty Se t Green A p a r t , " The Sun , V a n c o u v e r , December 1 0 , 1 9 5 9 . 86 28 M r s , Rober t McKee, who h e l d the pos t o f E x e c u t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f the N o r t h West P o i n t Grey Home Owners A s s o c i a t i o n f rom 1957 to 1 9 6 6 , had the f o l l o w i n g comment r e g a r d i n g M r . G r e e n : " M r . Green had the t ime to do the l i t t l e t h i n g s t h a t needed d o i n g , The k i n d o f t h i n g s t h a t concerned the i n d i v i d u a l i n h i s r i d i n g was h i g h on M r , G r e e n ' s l i s t o f p r i o r i t i e s , even when he was M i n i s t e r o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , He was n e v e r too busy to h e l p h i s c o n s t i t u e n t s . " In a p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w w i t h M r s . McKee she ment ioned t h a t she was no t a C o n s e r v a t i v e bu t r e s p e c t e d M r . Green f o r h i s hones t e f f o r t and u n s e l f i s h s e r v i c e over the y e a r s he spent r e p r e s e n t i n g the Canadian p e o p l e . 29 As a s m a l l s i n g l e u n i t t h i s o r g a n i z a t i o n was q u i t e a c t i v e and v e r y e f f e c t i v e ( p o l i t i c a l l y ) . The A s s o c i a t i o n dated back t o the "Ward System" o f s m a l l u n i t s w i t h i n a c i t y . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , the "Ward Sys tem" was abandoned by V a n c o u v e r , w h i c h weakened the c o n c e r n over ward i s s u e s on C i t y C o u n c i l , and tended t o fuse an i m p e r s o n a l w h o l e . These o b s e r v a t i o n s were made d u r i n g a d i s c u s s i o n the a u t h o r had w i t h M r . G r e e n . 30 H i c k e y , l o c , c i t . ^ T o m G o u l d , news i t e m i n The Sun , V a n c o u v e r , June 3 , 1 9 5 9 . 3 2 C h a r l e s L y n c h , news i t e m i n The P r o v i n c e , V a n c o u v e r , June 3 , 1 9 5 9 . 33 - ^ E l m o r e P h i l p o t t , "Green P i n e C h o i c e , " The Sun , V a n c o u v e r , June 9« 1959* ^ ^ e w m a n , 6p_. c i t . , p p . 2 5 6 - 2 5 7 * 35My c o n c l u s i o n i s suppor ted by John Andrew Munro i n h i s M . A . d i s s e r t a t i o n , "The D i f f i c u l t A r t o f Canadian F o r e i g n P o l i c y , 1 9 5 7 - 1 9 6 3 " ' ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , V a n c o u v e r , A p r i l , I 9 6 5 ) , p . 155* " I t s m a t e r i a l i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v a l u e , i f employed d i s c e r n i n g l y . M r . Newman's book does M r . D i e f e n b a k e r and c a b i n e t c o l l e a g u e s a d i s t i n c t i n j u s t i c e , n o t so much i n i t s s e n s a t i o n a l i s t i c p r e s e n t a t i o n o f events and c h a r a c t e r s , as i t does i n l e a d i n g the r e a d e r to u n w r i t t e n c o n c l u s i o n s by t e n d e n t i o u s p r e s e n t a t i o n . " 87 36 My' own. b r a c k e t s and i n c l u s i o n . 37 Heath M a c q u a i r i e , "The C o n s e r v a t i v e Theme: Grea tne s s on the I n t e r n a t i o n a l S t a g e , " The C o n s e r v a t i v e C a n a d i a n , (Ottawa: P r o g r e s s i v e C o n s e r v a t i v e A s s o c i a t i o n of. Canada. Volume 1, Number 3 , P a l l , i 9 6 0 ) , p . 14. Tom G o u l d , news i t e m i n The Sun , V a n c o u v e r , May 2 5 , 1 9 5 9 . - ^ T h i s s tatement was r e l a y e d d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w w i t h M r . Joe Brown who l i v e d i n Vancouver-Quadra d u r i n g M r . G r e e n ' s p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r . M r . Brown was a member o f the B o a r d o f B r o a d c a s t Governor s f rom 1958 to 1968 . ^ W i l l i a m S t e v e n s o n , "Canada And The V / o r l d , "The Globe and M a i l , T o r o n t o , December 21 , 1961 . 41 Elmore P h i l p o t t , " G r e e n ' s P i n e F i g h t , " The S u n , V a n c o u v e r , December, i 9 6 0 . 42 M a r i e Hochmuth N i c h o l s , R h e t o r i c and C r i t i c i s m . (Baton Rouge: L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y Press", 1 9 6 3 ) , p . 7 8 . 43 , Edward P . C o r b e t t , C l a s s i c a l R h e t o r i c . (New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , PP. 2 2 - 2 3 . 44 Alma S a r e t t and o t h e r s , B a s i c P r i n c i p l e s o f Speech , ( f o u r t h e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : Houghton M i f f l i n C o . , " 1 9 6 6 7 ; p p . 2 9 1 - 2 9 2 . 45 A l l q u o t a t i o n s from M r . G r e e n ' s speeches w i l l be found i n the A p p e n d i x . ^ C i c e r o , De O r a t o r e ( V o l . two; Cambridge , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y " P r e s s , 1948) , p . 3 3 3 . ^ A l a n H . Monroe and Douglas E h n i n g e r , P r i n c i p l e s And Types o f S p e e c h , ( s i x t h e d i t i o n ; P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : S c o t t , Foresman and C o . , I 9 6 7 ) , P. 2 3 2 . J i O A . C r a i g B a i r d and F r a n k l i n H . K n o w l e r , E s s e n t i a l s o f G e n e r a l S p e e c h , ( second e d i t i o n ; New Y o r k : .McGraww-Hil l Book CoV, I n c . , I 9 6 0 ) , p . 185 . 88 49 I t may be contended t h a t the v i r t u a l absence o f r e s i g n a t i o n s from the Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s a f t e r M r . G r e e n ' s appointment as M i n i s t e r s u b s t a n t i a t e d the f a c t t h a t these c i v i l s e r v a n t s were happy w i t h the way the D e p a r t -ment was b e i n g r u n . One must remember t h a t t h i s Department was c r e a t e d by the o u t g o i n g L i b e r a l s . In o r d e r f o r the D e p a r t -ment to make the t r a n s i t i o n from M r . Pear son to the C o n s e r v a -t i v e s , t h e r e must have been some common ground f o r agreement c o n c e r n i n g the managing o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s . T h i s p o i n t i s made i n : John Andrew Munro, op_. c i t . , p p . 76-77. 5° " G r e e n ' s P ine F i g h t , " l o c . c i t . -^James McBurney and E r n e s t Wrage, The A r t o f Good  S p e e c h . (New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l I n c . , 195577 P « 3^7 52 See M r . G r e e n ' s speech o f March 9, 1936, i n A p p e n d i x . 53 -^See M r . G r e e n ' s speech o f September 7, 1961, i n A p p e n d i x . 54 E . W i n s t o n J o n e s , A Guide to E f f e c t i v e Speech . (New Y o r k : Longmans, Green and C o . , I 9 6 I ) , p p . 9-10* ^ M e t c a l f e , l o c . c i t . " ^ N e s b i t t , l o c . c i t . - ^ A r t i c l e , • " G r e e n Lauded by O p p o s i t i o n M P , " The Globe  and M a i l , T o r o n t o , A p r i l 1, 1962. In t h i s a r t i c l e the CCF Member from B u r n a b y - C o q u i t l a m , E r h a r t R e g e i r s a i d : " M r . Green has won growing p r e s t i g e i n w o r l d c o u n c i l s . I f the New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y has to l o s e the c o n s t i t u e n c y o f V a n c o u v e r -Quadra i n the i n t e r e s t s o f w o r l d peace we w i l l be happy t o do s o . " •58A d i r e c t q u o t a t i o n from M r . G r e e n . ^ M c B u r n e y , oj>. c i t . , p . 226. ^ ° P a t r i c k 0.. M a r s h . P e r s u a s i v e Speaking (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , 1967), p . 16. ^ A l l o f M r . G r e e n ' s speeches i n t h i s s e c t i o n are found i n the A p p e n d i x . 89 House of Commons Speeches, "Pensions f o r the B l i n d , " March 9 , 1 9 3 6 , see Appendix. ^^House of Commons Speeches, "Throne Speech Debate," October 18, 1951> see Appendix. % o u s e of Commons Speeches, "Canada i n Today's World" A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 , and "The C r i s i s A r i s i n g Over Nuclear Tests and B e r l i n " September 7 , 1 9 6 1 , see Appendix. "Pensions f o r the B l i n d , " " B i l l Amending Pension "Throne Speech Debate," " I n t r o d u c t i o n of Estimates J u l y 9 . 1 9 5 9 . see Appendix. "Canada's Foreign P o l i c y " "The C r i s i s A r i s i n g Over 7 , 1 9 6 1 , see Appendix. 7 l M r . Green i s r e f e r r i n g to h i s "United Nations work. During the previous s e s s i o n at the "United Nations some Canadian Senators had attended, and had rendered him val u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e . 7 2Marsh, op_. c i t . , p. 2 8 0 . ? 3 s e e Table 1 , page 6 0 . 7^The Government i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the i s s u e . 75HO use of Commons Speeches, "Throne Speech Debate," October 18, 1 9 5 1 , see Appendix. 7 6 H o use of Commons Speeches, "Canada i n Today's World," A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 , see Appendix. 65House of Commons Speeches, March 9 , 1 9 3 6 , see Appendix. ^^House of Commons Speeches, A c t , " March 6 , 19^1. see Appendix. ^?House of Commons Speeches, October 18, 1 9 5 1 , see Appendix. ^House of Commons Speeches, of Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , " ^House of Commons Speeches, February 1 0 , i 9 6 0 , see Appendix. "^House of Commons Speeches, Nuclear Tests and B e r l i n , " September 90 77 House o f Commons Speeches , "Canada ' s F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " F e b r u a r y 1 0 , I 960 , see A p p e n d i x . rpO House o f Commons Speeches , " I n t r o d u c t i o n o f E s t i m a t e s o f Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , " J u l y 9 , 1 9 5 9 , see Appendix . 79 Waldo W. B r a d e n , P u b l i c S p e a k i n g : The E s s e n t i a l s (New Y o r k : Harper & Row, P u b l i s l i e r s , 1966), pp . " 161-162. Raymond G . S m i t h , P r i n c i p l e s o f P u b l i c Speak ing (New Y o r k : The Rona ld P r e s s Company, 1958") u b l i e ppe; , p . 'lj%7 On House o f Commons Speech , " P e n s i o n s f o r the B l i n d , " March 9 , 1 9 3 6 , see A p p e n d i x . O p Raymond S m i t h , l o c . p i t . S^House o f Commons Speech , " B i l l Amending P e n s i o n s A c t , " March 6 , 1 9 4 1 , see A p p e n d i x . 8 ^House o f Commons Speech, " I n t r o d u c t i o n o f E s t i m a t e s o f Department o f E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , " J u l y 9 , 1 9 5 9 , see A p p e n d i x . 8-*House o f Commons Speech , "Canada ' s F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " F e b r u a r y 1 0 , i 9 6 0 , see A p p e n d i x . 8 ^House o f Commons Speech , "Canada i n T o d a y ' s W o r l d , " A p r i l 2 6 , 1 9 6 1 , see A p p e n d i x . ^ H o u s e o f Commons Speech , "The C r i s i s A r i s i n g Over N u c l e a r T e s t s and B e r l i n , " September 7 , 1 9 6 1 , see A p p e n d i x . 8 8 C o r b e t t , 0£. c i t . , p p . 2 6 - 2 7 . 8 ? A l t on A b e r n a t h y , Fundamentals o f Speech (Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C . Brown Company, 1961), p .~106". 9 ° C o r b e t t , ojp. c i t . , p . 28 . ^ E u g e n e E . W h i t e , P r a c t i c a l Speech Fundamentals (New Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n C o . , I^Tu7,"pT~*+0". 9 2 W i l b u r E . G i lman and o t h e r s , An I n t r o d u c t i o n to S p e a k i n g (New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C o . , 196*2), p7~7"i \91 ^ H o u s e o f Commons Speech , "Canada ' s F o r e i g n P o l i c y , " F e b r u a r y 1 0 , I 9 6 0 , see A p p e n d i x . ^ A u s t i n , OJJ. c i t . , p p . x x i - x x i i . ^ Q - i l m a n , l o c . c i t . ^ H o u s e o f Commons Speech , "Throne Speech D e b a t e , " O c t o b e r 1 8 , 1 9 5 1 . see a p p e n d i x . ^ G i l m a n , l o c . c i t . 9 ^ M r . G r e e n ' s s t a t e m e n t . 9 % r . Green ment ioned t h i s i n c i d e n t d u r i n g an i n t e r v i e w . 1 0 0 C h a r l e s L y n c h , " M r . Green Makes Good" The P r o v i n c e , V a n c o u v e r , September 2 6 , 1 9 5 9 . 1 0 1 M a s o n , l o c . c i t . 1 0 2 M A ^ v/ise i n M a t t e r s o f P e a c e , " l o c » 1 0 3 " C a n a d a ' s Top D i p l o m a t , " l o c . c i t . 1 0 \ ) b t a i n e d t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n an i n t e r v i e w w i t h M r s . Green ( h i s w i f e ) . 1 0 5 M a r s h , pjo. c i t . , p p . 1 6 - 1 7 . 1 0 ^ F o r a c o n c i s e breakdown r e f e r to T a b l e 11 on page 8 2 . BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS A b e r n a t h y , E l t o n . Fundamentals o f S p e e c h . Dubuque, Iowa: Wm. C . Brown Co . ,~~196l. A u e r , J e f f e r y J . , and Ewbank, Henry L e e . D i s c u s s i o n and D e b a t e . Second E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y -C r o T t s , I n c . , 1951• A u e r , J e f f e r y J . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Resea rch i n Speech . New Y o r k : Harper & B r o t h e r s , P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , 1959* A u s t i n , R.G-. ( t r a n s . ) . Q u i n t i l i a n i - I n s t i t u t i o n i s 0 r a t o r i a e  L i b e r X I I . L o n d o n : " O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , T9T5T" B a c h r a c h , A r t h u r J . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h . Second E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : Random House , I n c . , 1966'. B a i r d , A . C r a i g . R h e t o r i c : , A P h i l o s o p h i c a l I n q u i r y . New Y o r k : The Rona ld P r e s s C o . , 19^5. B a i r d , A . C r a i g , and K n o w l e r , F r a n k l i n H . E s s e n t i a l s o f G e n e r a l Speech . Second E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : McGraw-Hi 11 Book C o . , I n c . , i960. B l a c k , E d w i n . R h e t o r i c a l C r i t i c i s m . Nev; Y o r k : The M a c M i l l a n Company, 1965. Bormann, E a r n e s t G . Theory and R e s e a r c h i n the Communicative  A r t s . T o r o n t o : H o l t , R i n e h a r t and W i n s t o n , " ~ T n c . , 1966. B r a d e n , Waldo V/.. P u b l i c Spj^aking: The E s s e n t i a l s . Nev/ Y o r k : Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I 9 6 6 . B r e b n e r , J . B a r t l e t . Canada, A Modern H i s t o r y . T o r o n t o : Ambassador Books L t d . , 19'6"0. B r o o k s , K e i t h , and o t h e r s . The Communicative A r t s and S c i e n c e s o f Speech . Columbus, O h i o : " Char les ' E 'T'T ' Ierr i l l B o o k s , I n c . , 196*77 Brown, C h a r l e s T . , and Van R i p e r , C h a r l e s . Speech And Man'. Englewood C l i f f s , Nev/ J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1966. Brown, James A . C . Techniques o f P e r s u a s i o n . B a l t i m o r e : Penguin B o o k s , I n c . , 196*3• 93 B u g e l s k i , B . R . An I n t r o d u c t i o n to the P r i n c i p l e s o f P s y c h o l o g y . New Y o r k : R i n e h a r t & Company, I n c . , 196*0*. B u r t , A . I . The Romance o f Canada. T o r o n t o : W . J . Gage & C o . , L t d . , 1 9 3 7 . B u t l e r , H . E . ( t r a n s . ) . The I n s t i t u t i o n O r a t o r i a o f Q u i n t i l i a n . 4 v o l s . London : W i l l i a m - H e i n e r a a n n L t d . , 1 9 2 0 . C i c e r o . De O r a t o r e . V o l . Two. (De P a r t i t i o n e O r a t o r i a , V l l l : 2 8 " ) Cambridge , M a s s a c h u s e t t s : Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 . ^ C l e v e n g e r , T h e o d o r e , J r . Audience A n a l y s i s . New Y o r k : The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company"," " I n c . , 1966. C o r b e t t , Edward P . J . C l a s s i c a l R h e t o r i c For The Modern S t u d e n t . New Y o r k : Oxford U n i v e r s i t y ~ P r e s s , 1965 • Engelmann, F r e d e r i c k C . and S c h w a r t z , M i l d r e d A . P o l i t i c a l P a r t i e s and the Canadian S o c i a l S t r u c t u r e . S c a r b o r o u g h , O n t a r i o : ' P Y e n t i c e - H a l l o f Canada, 1967". F r a s e r , B l a i r . The S e a r c h f o r I d e n t i t y . T o r o n t o : Doubleday Canada L i m i ' t e d , 196~7« F r e e l e y , A u s t i n J . Argum en t a t i p n and Deba te . Second E d i t i o n . B e l m o n t , C a l i f o r n i a : Wadswbrth P i i b l i s h T n g C o . , I n c . , 1966, G i l m a n , W i l b u r E . , and o t h e r s . An I n t r o d u c t i o n To_ S p e a k i n g . New Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n C o . , 1 9 6 2 . G r a n t , G e o r g e . Lament f o r a N a t i o n . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 5 • G r a y , G i l e s W i l k e s o n , and B r a d e n , Waldo W. P u b l i c S p e a k i n g . New Y o r k : Harper & B r o t h e r s P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 5 1 • G r a y , G i l e s W i l k e s o n , and W i s e , Claude M e r t o n . The B a s i s o f S p e e c h . T h i r d E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : Harper & B r o s . , P u b l i s h e r s , 1 9 5 9 . G r u b e , G . M . A . ( t r a n s . ) . A r i s t o t l e : On P o e t r y and S t y l e . New Y o r k : The L i b e r a l A r t s P r e s s , I n c . , 1 9 5 8 • H i g g i n b o t h a m , John ( t r a n s . ) . C i c e r o On M o r a l O b l i g a t i o n . Los A n g e l e s : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1 9 6 7 . H u t c h i s o n , B r u c e . M r . Pr ime M i n i s t e r 1 8 6 7 - 1 9 6 4 . T o r o n t o : Hunter Ross C o . " L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 4 . 94 J o n e s , W i n s t o n . A Guide to E f f e c t i v e Speech . New Y o r k : Longmans, Green and "Co. , 1 9 6 1 . Lamb, George ( t r a n s . ) . H . I . M a r r i u : A H i s t o r y o f E d u c a t i o n  In A n t i q u i t y . New Y o r k : Sheed and Ward, I n c . , 1956• Marsh , . P a t r i c k 0 . P e r s u a s i v e S p e a k i n g . New Y o r k : Harper & Row, P u b l i s h e r s , I n c . , Massey , V i n c e n t . Speak ing o f Canada . T o r o n t o : The M a c M i l l a n Company o f Canada L i m i t e d , 1 9 5 9 « McBurney , James H . , and Wrage, E r n e s t J . The A r t o f Good  S p e e c h . New Y o r k : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 1 9 5 5 * Monroe , A l a n H . P r i n c i p l e s and Types o f S p e e c h . P a l o A l t o , C a l i f o r n i a : S c o t t , Poresman and Company, 1 9 6 7 * Mouat , Lawrence H e n r y . A Guide to E f f e c t i v e P u b l i c S p e a k i n g . B o s t o n : D . C . Heath and C o . , 1 9 5 3 . Newman, P e t e r C . Renegade i n Power . T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and Stewart L i m i t e d , 1 9 6 3 * N i c h o l s , M a r i e Hochmuth. R h e t o r i c and C r i t i c i s m . Ba ton Rouge: L o u i s i a n a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , I963. O l b r i c h t , Thomas H . I n f o r m a t i v e S p e a k i n g . G l e n v i e w , I l l i n o i s : S c o t t , Poresman and C o . , 196o\ O l i v e r , R o b e r t T . H i s t o r y o f P u b l i c Speaking i n A m e r i c a . B o s t o n : A l l y n and B a c o n , " Inc . , 19$5. O l i v e r , R o be r t T . , and o t h e r s . Communicative S p e e c h . R e v i s e d and e n l a r g e d e d i t i o n . New Y o r k : H o l t , R'inehar't' and W i n s t o n , 1955 * O l i v e r , R o be r t T . , and o t h e r s . New T r a i n i n g For E f f e c t i v e  S p e e c h . R e v i s e d E d i t i o n . New Y o r k : The Dryden P r e s s , Rahskap f , Horace G . B a s i c Speech Improvement. New Y o r k : Harper & Row. , P u b l i s h e r s , 196"5*» R i c h a r d s o n , B . T . Canada and M r . D i e f e n b a k e r . T o r o n t o : Hunter Ross Co . , L i m i ' f ed , R o s s , Raymond S « •Speech Communicat ion . Englewood C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c ' e ^ a l l , I n c . , 1 9 6 5 . S m i t h , Raymond G . P r i n c i p l e s o f P u b l i c S p e a k i n g . New Y o r k : The R o n a l d P r e s s C o . , 1 9 5 8 . 1 9 5 1 . 95 Thouless, Robert H. S t r a i g h t and Crooked T h i n k i n g . London: Richard Clay and Company .""Ltd., 1961 . Veatch, Henry ( t r a n s . ) . A r i s t o t l e : E t h i c s , Book 1 ; P o l i t i c s , Book 1 . Chicago: Henry Regnery Company, I n c . , 1 9 5 8 . Weaver, Andrew Thomas, and Hess, Ordean Gerhard. The Fundamentals And Forms of Speech. Hew York: The' Odyssey P r e s s , 19577 Weaver, Andrew Thomas, and ot h e r s . The Teaching of Speech. Englewood C l i f f s , Hew Jersey: P r e n t i c e - H a l l , T n c . , 1 9 5 6 . White, Eugene E. P r a c t i c a l Speech Fundamentals. Nev; York: The Maemillan Co . ,~T9""6"0. ~ PERIODICALS The Canadian Who1s Who. Volume X. Toronto: Trans Canada ""Press, 1966. The Conservative Canadian. Ottawa: P r o g r e s s i v e Conservative A s s o c i a t i o n of Canada. J u l y I960 to August 1961 . The Speech A s s o c i a t i o n of America. Speech Monographs. New York: The Speech A s s o c i a t i o n of "America. August, 1966 to January, 1 9 6 9 . Murray, Eldwood, and o t h e r s . The Student as Speaker and L i s t e n e r . A summary of proceedings of a conference on communication s k i l l s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . A n t i o c h C o l l e g e , March 2 5 - 2 6 , 1 9 6 6 . U n d e r h i l l , Frank H. Canadian P o l i t i c a l Parties» Ottawa: Canadian H i s t o r i c a l A s s 0 c i a t i o n 7 " T 9 5 7 * H i s 1 0 r i c a l B ooklets No. 8 . • MAGAZINES AND NEWSPAPERS The Globe Magazine, Toronto, J u l y 4 , 1 9 5 9 . The Sun, Vancouver, January 195^ to December 1963* The Vancouver D a i l y Province (also r e f e r r e d to as The Vancouver Province and The P r o v i n c e ) , January 1954 to December 19657 The Globe and M a i l , Toronto, January 1959 to December 1 9 6 2 . 96 The New York Times, November 2 , I 9 6 0 . PUBLICATIONS OP THE GOVERNMENT The Queen's P r i n t e r and C o n t r o l l e r of S t a t i o n e r y , Ottawa. House of Commons Debates. "Speeches of Howard Green." "flarcE "97 T^WTo October 5 , 1 9 6 2 . Information D i v i s i o n , Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Ottawa. Statements and Speeches of Mr. Howard C. Green to the  United Nations General Assembly. September ~2%, 1959 to J u l y 2 4 , 1 9 6 2 . Information D i v i s i o n , Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s , Ottawa. B i o g r a p h i e s : Mr. Howard C. Green. November, 1 9 6 2 . UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS Statement by the Honourable Howard C. Green i n F i r s t Committee  of United Nations, speaking to the 6-power r e s o l u t i o n on the S o v i e t ,50—mefi;at;ori bomb. ~0"ctober 20, 196*T~. Trans-Canada Network of the Canadian Broadcasting C o r p o r a t i o n . "The Nation's Business" A Dying Government. February 12, 1948. Broadcast. UNPUBLISHED MANUSCRIPTS B l a c k , Edwin R. "The P r o g r e s s i v e Conservative P a r t y i n B r i t i s h Columbia." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, A p r i l , i 9 6 0 . L a z a r , Harvey. "Parliamentary C o n t r o l of Defense i n Canada 1 9 4 5 - 1 9 6 2 . " Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, 1963* Lindgren, W i l l i a m M. "Canada: The League of Nations and the U.N.O." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, A p r i l , 1 9 4 6 . Munro, John Andrew. "The D i f f i c u l t A r t of Canadian Foreign P o l i c y 1 9 5 7 - 1 9 6 3 . " Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, I 9 6 5 . O s t l e , Bernard. "War Finance i n Canada." Unpublished Master's t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver, August, 1 9 4 6 . 97 Rhodes , D e n i s H . "The P o l i t i c a l S p e a k i n g o f Jo seph T a y l o r R o b i n s o n . " U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f Southern I l l i n o i s , C a r b o n d a l e , 1965* Workman, A r u i n l e r o y . " A R h e t o r i c a l A n a l y s i s o f S e l e c t e d P u b l i c Speeches of- James R u s s e l l L o w e l l . " U n p u b l i s h e d D o c t o r a l t h e s i s , M i c h i g a n S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , E a s t L a n s i n g , 1965. APPENDIX MAJOR SPEECHES DELIVERED BY MR. GREEN IN THE CANADIAN HOUSE OP COMMONS March 9, 1936 - Pensions f o r the B l i n d March 17, 1936 - Canada-United States Trade Agreements March 17, 1936 - Suggestions on the Budget-Mining-Aviation i n Canada June 17, 1936 - War Veterans' Allowance February 5> 1937 - P o s t a l Service-on Holidays February o, 1937 - Divorce Appeals i n B r i t i s h Columbia February 23, 1937 - The Unemployed War Veteran March 16, 1937 - Old Age Pensions Act March 25, 1937 - Trans-Canada A i r Li n e s A p r i l 7, 1937 - The Unemployed War Veteran February 17. 1938 - Japanese Immigration March 17, 1938 - War Veterans' Allowance March 23, 1938 - Transport B i l l A p r i l 1, 1938 - Defense and Foreign P o l i c y May 13, 1938 - Defense and Foreign P o l i c y May 26, 1938 - The Unemployed Veteran January 26, 1939 - Speech from the Throne February 28, 1939 - Canada-United Stat e s Trade Agreement March 9, 1939 - Pension Act A p r i l 3, 1939 - Canada Foreign P o l i c y May 12, 1939 - The Defense of Canada May 23, 1940 - War A p p r o p r i a t i o n B i l l J u l y 4, 1940 - Budget Debate J u l y 25, I 9 4 O - Treachery B i l l September 11, 1940 - F i r s t (1939) War A p p r o p r i a t i o n B i l l November 29, 1940 - F i r s t (1939) V7ar A p p r o p r i a t i o n B i l l February 20. 1941 - War A p p r o p r i a t i o n B i l l (1941) March 3» 1941 ~ N a t u r a l i s a t i o n and Deportation March 6, 1941 - B i l l Amending Pension Act May 2, 1941 - B.C. Telephone Co. B i l l March 10, 1941 - B u i l d i n g Merchant Ships March 14, 1941 - Compulsory M i l i t a r y T r a i n i n g January 29, 1942 - Speech from the Throne March 23, 1942 - War A p p r o p r i a t i o n s B i l l (1942) A p r i l 28, 1942 - Our F i g h t i n g Men and Their Dependents May 1, 1§42 - Army of the P a c i f i c May 28, 1942 - War R i s k Insurance f o r Fishermen June 19, 1942 - The Japanese Question June 22, 1942 - B i l l Amending N a t i o n a l Resources M o b i l i z a t i o n Act 99 J u l y 1 3 , 1942 - Liquor February 17, 1943 - Speech from the Throne March 1 6 , 1943 - F u e l Shortage A p r i l 2, 1943 - Request f o r F i s h Trap P o l i c y May 11, 1943 - Request f o r Shipping P o l i c y May 18, 1943 - Canadian Army May 2 6 , 1943 - P r o t e c t i o n f o r Men i n Forces June 17, 1943 - Iron and S t e e l I n d u s t r y June 3 0 , 1943 - Japanese Question J u l y 9, 1943 - Canada's Foreign P o l i c y February 10, 1944 - Speech from the Throne February 18, 1944 - N a t u r a l i z a t i o n and Deportation February 24, 1§44 - Our F i g h t i n g Forces March 10, 1§44 - I n d u s t r i a l Development Bank March 27, 1944 - Shipping P o l i c y March 3 1 , 1944 - A i r P o l i c y May 5 . 1§44 - Japanese Problem May 18, 1944 - D i s a b i l i t y Pensions June 2, 1944 - Old Age Pension June 21, 1944 - A i r Transport Board J u l y 5, 1944 - Budget Debate J u l y 27, 1944 - Family Allowances March 22, 1945 - San F r a n c i s c o Conference A p r i l 3, 1945 - Veterans' A f f a i r s September 20, 1945 - Speech from the Throne September 28, 1945 - N a t i o n a l Defense October 2 9 , 1945 - C i v i l A v i a t i o n November 8, 1945 - The F l a g November 22. 1945 - The Japanese Problem A p r i l 1, 1946 - Peace R i v e r O u t l e t A p r i l 10, 1946 - Old Age Pensions June 3, 1946 - Crown Companies June 7, 19^6 - Logging S t r i k e June 10, 1946 - Research C o u n c i l June 11, 1946 ~ Atomic Energy C o n t r o l J u l y 3 1 , 1946 - Veterans' A f f a i r s February 11. 1947 - Chinese Immigration June 20, 1947 - Community Centres June 2 3 , 1947 - Canadian Maritime Commission December 10, 1947 - Geneva T r e a t i e s and the B r i t i s h Preference February 10, 1948 - Speech from the Throne March 1 9 , 1948 - B e l l Telephone Company B i l l A p r i l 1 3 , 19^8 - F r e i g h t Rates February 1, 1949 - Speech from the Throne March 11, 1949 - F r e i g h t Rates September 22, 1949 - Throne Speech Debate September 27, 1949 - Appeals to the P r i v y C o u n c i l October 3, 1§49 - N a t i o n a l S o c i a l S e c u r i t y Program October 7, 1§49 - Crime Comics October 27, 1949 - Amending the BNA Act October 3 1 , 1949 - Atomic Energy Committee 100 March 2, 1950 - Throne Speech Debate May 15, 1950 - Pipe Line Debate May 18, 1950 - War Veterans' Allowance September 4, 1950 - Canada and the Korean C r i s i s February 7, 1951 - Throne Speech Debate February 15, 1951 - Throne Speech Debate October 18, 1951 - Throne Speech Debate October 23, 1951 - Canada's P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Korea and Europe March 13, 1952 - Throne Speech Debate March 25, 1952 - E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s December 2, 1952 - Throne Speech Debate February 12, 1953 - E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s - the P a c i f i c February 17, 1953 - Atomic Energy February 1, 195^ - B i l l to Increase Indemnities to Senators and Members February 15, 1954 - Unemployment March 3 0 , 1954 - Should Red China be Recognized? Need f o r a P o l i c y f o r the P a c i f i c . January 12, 1955 - Throne Speech Debate June ik, 1955 - I n t e r n a t i o n a l R i v e r s January 23, 1956 - Throne Speech Debate May 15, 1956 - Closure of Debate and Amended Gas P i p e - l i n e P o l i c y January 21, 1957 - Throne Speech Debate February 14, 1957 - The Canada C o u n c i l and Parliament June 2, 1959 - The N a t i o n a l Energy Board Act (Columbia R i v e r ) J u l y 9, 1959 - I n t r o d u c t i o n of Estimates of Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s February 10, i960 - Canada's Foreign P o l i c y J u l y 14, I960 - Consideration of Estimate of Department of E x t e r n a l A f f a i r s A p r i l 26, 1961 - Canada i n Today's World September 7, 1961 - The C r i s i s A r i s i n g Over Nuclear Tests and B e r l i n October 5, 1962 - Emergency Program, Commonwealth Conference and Canada's P o s i t i o n i n the World 101 TEXT OF EIGHT SELECTED SPEECHES DELIVERED BY MR. GREEN P E N S I O N S F O R T H E B L I N D M o n d a y , M a r c h 9, 193G. M r . H . C . G R E E N (Vancouver S o u t h ) : There is very l i t t le that I can add to the dis-cussion on this resolution, bu t there is one mater ial feature which should be brought out, and that is the efficiency w i t h which work for the b l i n d has been carried on i n Canada dur ing the last ten or fifteen years, perhaps longer. T h a t is a mater ia l point , because the leaders of the b l i n d come before this pa r l i a -ment to-day as a group who have done efficient work . I suggest that these men have dene a l l that could possibly be done, and they are now up against a b lank w a l l . I should l ike for a minute or two to deal w i t h the work of some .o f these men. I t has been m y pr ivi lege to see some of them at work . F i r s t I should l ike to ment ion Cap t a in Baker . C a p t a i n B a k e r lost his sight dur ing the war. H e was a promis ing young engineer, a graduate of T o r o n t o univers i ty , decorated, for ga l lant ry 15804 i n the field, and onf^  n ight he was shot across ' bo th eyes and b l inded . F r o m that t ime to the ; present his life has been an epic of courage ; and in i t i a t ive , a l ife that i n t imes to come I th ink w i l l bo looked back upon by the C a n a -dian people as o i i t s t acd : ng n< hi? s s & . u a i o n . ; Cap t a in Baker , l ike most the b l inded soldiers, ' was t rained at St . Dunstan 's i n E n g l a n d . W h e n , he came back to Canada he took charge of ; work for bUtt'hd soldiers; then he took over i work for a l l the b l i n d in Canada . H e is now ; managing director of the Canad ian N a t i o n a l : Insti tute for the B l i n d , and probably one of the . leading younger executives i n Canada to-day. . C a p t a i n B a k e r has been able to draw around ! h i m several other leading young men, for \ instance, M r . H a r r i s Turner , who although , b l inded overseas was at cine t ime leader of j H i s Majes ty ' s l oya l opposi t ion i n Saskatche- ' w a n ; also there is M r . M y e r s , and we have • i n Vancouve r M . C . R o b i n s o n , superintendent ; of the western d iv i s ion of the Canad ian N a - ' t ional Insti tute for the B l i n d . M r . Robinson . ' was b l inded overseas at the age of nineteen,. ; j . a n d his work and experience have almost i dupl icated that of C a p t a i n B ake r . T h e n we * have Joe C l u n k , placement officer of the ^ ins t i tu te , an A m e r i c a n , a qualif ied sol ic i tor [-doing wonderful w o r k ; and we have the work : of the L a y t o n f ami ly i n M o n t r e a l . ; I refer to these men for this reason, that i n ; a l l their work their m a i n idea has been to help • to make the b l i n d people independent, make ':. t hem feel that they are tak ing their share i n : „ the life of the na t ion . I n add i t ion they have ' . t r ied to raise the morale of the b l i n d . A s ' m a n y hon. members know, b l i n d people easily •become discouraged, and i t is no wonder they do. These leaders of the b l i n d have started ' social c lubs; for instance i n Vancouver we have 1, a club k n o w n as the N i l Desperandum club, . which might be interpreted as the N e v e r Say j ' .Die c lub. B y such means the morale of the • .b l ind has been greatly improved . Desp i t e this able leadership and good work there is a class '•. of b l i n d people for w h o m l i t t le can be done, and they are the ones for w h o m we are asking . help to-day, the b l i n d over for ty years of age. These older b l i n d folks are i n m a n y cases not act ive enough to work for wages; the major i ty of them have not the in i t i a t ive to run concession stands, or carry on a business of their own and are real ly unemployab le ; they are just stranded, and I w o u l d suggest that the government could very , wel l extend the provis ions of the O l d Age Pensions A c t to cover these people. T h e O l d Age Pensions A c t is par t icu lar ly suitable because under its provisions on ly those b l i n d people who are not earning a certain income would get assistance, and i t would throw a por t ion of the burden on the p rov-inces, which, whi le perhaps no t so good for •the provinces, would ensure their checking very carefully every appl icat ion for a pension. I personally am convinced that if we i n the par l iament of Canada adopt this resolut ion we shal l be expressing the sympathet ic feeling of Canadians generally for the b l i n d and carrying out the wish of an overwhelming ! ma jo r i ty of the people of our na t ion . .[ I B I L L A M E N D I N G P E N S I O N A C T I M a r c h 6, 1941. ! M r . H . C . G R E E N (Vancouver S o u t h ) : M r . Speaker, the M i n i s t e r of Pensions and N a t i o n a l H e a l t h has just stated that it is the intent ion of the government to refer this b i l l to the. special commit tee which was appointed the other day to consider questions of interest to ex-service men. I f B i l l N o . 17 were merely a b i l l containing more or less routine amend-ments to the Canad ian pension law, perhaps there would be no need to discuss i t further at this stage. B u t it is of more importance than that, of more importance than the minister himself has just indicated, because it lays down principles to . be followed in the treat-ment of men of the new fighting forces who suffer d isabi l i ty , and the principles to be followed in the treatment of their dependents. T h e approach to this whole question on the part of the Canad ian people and the members of this house certainly is that at least as much consideration as the men of the last war received should be shown to the men who are serving in the present fighting forces of C a n a d a ; and that any changes in the Pension A c t should be of a type which w i l l give these new soldiers, a irmen and sailors at least .as much consideration as the fighting forces of the o ld war have received at the hands of different parl iaments of Canada . I was astonished, on receiving this b i l l yesterday for the first t ime, to find that, while i n some respects it gives addi t ional consideration to our fighting forces, in most respects i t restricts their rights. I t is t ighten-ing up not only on the soldiers of the last war bu t on the men who are i n the fighting forces at the present t ime. T o me i t smacks of officialdom. Throughou t i t I can see i n different sections the deft touch of depart-menta l officials, and I th ink that the house should realize that fact before this b i l l is sent to commit tee . I propose to-day 'to give several instances support ing the statement I have made. F o r example, i f hon. members w i l l look at page 5 of the b i l l , at the top of the page they w i l l find subsection 2 of section 11 of the Pens ion A c t . T h e amendment is a departure i n Canad i an pension law, something entirely new, and something which restricts i n a great degree the rights of these fighting men. I t provides that men serving i n Canada cannot receive pension for d isabi l i ty , nor can their dependents receive pension i n the event of their death, unless the injury or disease "arose out of and was d i rec t ly connected wi th such m i l i t a r y or war service." I n practice this means that i t is almost impossible for a member of our forces who is serving in Canada , not having ye t got overseas, or his dependents, to obtain a pension, because it must be shown that the injury or the disease was caused d i rec t ly by the service; i t must have been direct ly connected wi th the per-formance of mi l i t a ry duties. T h e proof of my statement is found in the smal l number of men who have been able to receive pension. T h e minis ter to ld us the other day that 10,S29 men of Canada 's fighting forces, exclusive of the air force—for which he promised to get me the figures; I do not know whether they are yet available—have been discharged from the fighting forces as phys ica l ly unfit, and of that number on ly 4S4 have been able to establish c la im for pension. T h i s includes, of course, dependents receiving pension i n the case of the death of the fighting man . T h a t works out at a percentage of about 4-4 of the number of men who have been discharged as medica l ly unfit. I n other words, only 9 men i n every 200 have been able to qual i fy for pension. T h i s is largely because of this restr ict ive provis ion which we now find i n the Pens ion A c t and which has been used, in the shape of an order in counci l , for the last nine or ten months. M r . C H U R C H : W h a t about the fifty-four soldiers who have been k i l l e d on the high-ways b y hit-and-run dr ivers? . M r . G R E E N : I w i l l leave m y hon. fr iend to deal w i t h that. H e has spoken of i t before, and spoken very we l l . T h i s s i tuat ion shows that there is some-thing wrong wi th the pension provis ion for men serving i n Canada . T h e y have been g iven a far more thorough medica l examina-t ion than recruits in the last war, and yet we find that only 4-4 of those discharged as medica l ly unfit arc able to qual ify for pension. I suggest to the house that this change i n the basis of awarding pensions -to Canada's fighting forces must be g iven careful considera-t ion , because if we carry on under the new provis ion which the government now pro-poses, great hardship w i l l be suffered, as the years go on, by the men who are disabled i n the fighting forces and b y their dependents. Ano the r instance of restricting the rights of the men in the forces w i l l be found on the same page of this b i l l , i n section 7, vJliich enacts a nev/ section 13 of the Pens ion A c t . T h a t section deals wi th what we cal l the dead-line. H i the r to , at least since the special commit tee met i n 1936, the posi t ion has been that if a man served i n the last war i n Canada or E n g l a n d only , he or his dependents could not apply for a pension after the first day of J u l y , 1936. There was a further provis ion that, in the case of a m a n who served in an actual theatre of war, appl icat ion could be made up to the first day of January, 1942. Or ig ina l ly , I believe, the date was January 1, 1940, bu t i t has been extended un t i l now it stands at the first of January , 1942. T i m e and again returned soldier members i n this house have asked that the government remove that dead-line entirely, so that a man who served in a theatre of war -would be able to apply for a pension whenever he broke down, regardless of whether i t was before or after the first day of January , 1942. One reason for the demand was that thousands and •thousands of Canad ian soldiers who were wounded in the last war are not yet ir. receipt of pens ion; as they grow older many of them break down, and i t was felt that there should not be a dead-line wi th respect to applications by such men. However , the government insisted that the dead-line stand as the first of January , 1942, and now, in this b i l l , the dead-line remains at that date. T h e provis ion regarding men of the new fighting forces is even more drastic. I t w i i l be found on page 6; i t provides that i n the case of a, man serving in the present war, no appl icat ion for pension w i i l be received after seven years from the date of his discharge. I f that same provis ion had been i n the Pen -sion A c t after the last war, men would have been cut off i n 1925; under this provis ion, seven years after a man is discharged he w i l l be out of luck, he w i l l not be able to apply for a pension. There is not even a proviso to that subsection such as par t ly protects the man who served in an actual theatre of war in the last war ; in his case the pension com-mission have discret ion to hear the appl ica-t ion after the dead-line is reached, but under this new provis ion for the men of the present fighting forces, the pension commission have •no discretion to grant such special leave. T h i s new provis ion is copied f rom the pension legis la t ion of Grea t B r i t i a n . A s every member of this house who has had anything to do w i t h returned soldier problems knows, the B r i t i s h are far more strict i n their pension laws. I t has been a great deal more difficult to get a pension there than i n Canada . T h e y have many more men to consider, men scat-tered a l l over the empire, and they have been hard-boiled i n dealing w i t h their veterans. Unde r this section the Canad ian government proposes to be just as hard-boi led, and that, I suggest, is contrary to the wish of the Canad ian people, contrary to the wish of the members of this house. I t should not be embodied i n our pension legislat ion. Ano the r example of hedging i n these men w i l l be found i n the treatment of widows under this amending b i l l . H o n . members w i l l find i t at page I I of the b i l l . There has been a demand from al l parts of C a n a d a dur ing the last few years for an extension of pensions. to various classes of widows, and I th ink a great deal can be said i n support of the content ion that these women should be receiving more consideration. B u t we find that there is noth ing i n this b i l l to give them that further consideration. There is no extension whatever of their r ights; and as for the widows of men who lose their l ives i n the present war, they are further restricted i n that the}' can get a pension under the provisions of section 16 of the b i l l only if they were marr ied to the pensioner before he was granted a pension.- Otherwise they cannot qual i fy . T h a t is a narrower clause than we have in our Pens ion A c t as it stands at present. There is also a good example of t ightening up on the part of departmental officials to be seen i n subsection 4 on page 11 of the b i l l , where i t is provided that if a woman has been separated from her husband she can get a pension upon his death only if she has been receiving a l imony . P rev ious ly the law said, if she had been awarded a l imony . There are many cases i n our courts i n which a woman is awarded a l imony but does not receive i t . I n other words, she gets judgment bu t cannot collect. T h i s section has been changed so that a l though she m a y have been awarded a l imony she cannot get a pension on her husband's death unless she has been actual ly receiving i t . I t is an example of departmental t ightening up. A t the b o t t o m of page 11 there is the p rov i s ion deal ing wi th pension to a widow whose husband has died of his pensionable d isabi l i ty . A t the present t ime the widow of a pensioner who was wounded i n the last war can get that pension provided she was marr ied before he was granted pension or before the first of January 1930, which of course was twelve years after the war. Unde r this b i l l the widow of a member of our new' fighting forces cannot get the pension unless she was marr ied to the pensioner at the t ime he was granted pension; in other words, no provis ion is made for the case of marriage ' w i t h i n a period of years after the war. T h e sum and substance of the provisions for .the widow of a pensioner is this , that if the pensioner marries after he has been granted pension and then dies, upon his death his widow w i l l be cut off. T h e result w i l l be that i n a few years' t ime there w i l l be hundreds of widows of men now serving i n our fighting forces coming to us and asking for more consideration and they w i l l be quite right in doing so. P r o v i s i o n should be made for them i n this b i l l . A t any rate, discretion should be given to the pension commission to award a pension to the widow even though she was marr ied to the veteran after he had received his pension. Ano the r restrict ion has reference to the wife. F r o m t ime to t ime each one of us gets complaints about these cases, and as hon. members know, there is no allowance payable for the wife of a soldier who served in the last war, if they were marr ied after M a y 1, 1D33. T h a t was introduced i n 1933 as an economy measure. I t was unjust at that t ime but it has been cont inued ever since. C o m -plaints have been made in the house but noth ing could be done about i t . T h e b i l l introduces a provis ion , to be found at page 16, that unless the new soldier and his wife have been married w i t h i n a period of ten years after the te rminat ion of the war no allowance w i l l be pa id for the wife. There is the same restr ict ion w i t h respect to chi ldren. I n other words, the chi ldren of our fighting forces who are lucky euough to be bo rn wi th in ten years of the war w i l l receive an allowance. A n y children born after that date w i l l not. T h a t is unfair. There is no reason for i t . A l l the chi ldren of a pensioner should be enti t led to the allowance, and none should be cut off at a date which is a rb i t rar i ly set. T h i s morning I had a letter from a veteran of the last war l i v i n g i n M a n i t o b a , i n the r id ing of the hon. member for D a u p h i n ( M r . W a r d ) . H e says: Can there not be some provision made so that an honest man can be provided for to the end that a l l married pensioners or veterans are afforded the same benefits of the pension act? 10 There is another restr ict ion to be made i n the act i n the change that is being brought about i n the appeal board. H o n . members w i l l find i t at page 15 of the b i l l . W h e n soldier questions were' considered b y the special commit tee i n 193G, the veteran at that t ime had the r ight to apply first of a l l to the pension commission, then to be heard by a quorum of two members of the pension com-mission—they sat in different parts of the country, saw the man and heard evidence— and finally he had the right of appeal to the pension appeal court, s i t t ing i n Ot tawa and consisting of three men. . Subsequently that was changed and to-day the veteran apply ing for a pension has the right, first of a l l , to what is called a first hearing, which is real ly not a hearing at a l l bu t a first consideration b y the pension commission in Ottawa—all done by correspondence. T h e n , if his appl ica-t ion is rejected, he has the r ight to a second hearing, which again is merely consideration g iven at Ot t awa . T h e n he has the r ight of final appeal, to an appeal board, which sits in different parts of the country, for example in H a l i f a x or Vancouver . T h e veteran can go before that board of three men, take his witnesses w i th h i m and have a proper hear ing; and he derives great satisfaction from being able to te l l his story to those three men. N o w under section 22 of this b i l l the govern-ment proposes to cut that final appeal board •down from three men to t w o ; and section 23 goes on to provide that i n case of a spli t verdict , in case one member of the new board is for the soldier and one against h i m , the decision w i l l be made by a man si t t ing here i n Ot tawa, a commissioner appointed b y the chairman of the pension commission. M r . H A N S O N ( Y o r k - S u n b u r y ) : W h o d id not hear the appeal or see the witnesses. M r . G R E E N : W h o d id not hear the witnesses, at a l l and d id not hear the ex-service-man's story, but who sits here in Ot tawa and looks through a file. T h a t is not good enough. Ce r t a in ly i t is one of the provisions of the b i l l which should not be retained. N o t h i n g w i l l do more to st ir up the veterans a-cross the country than to have some man here i n Ot tawa given the power -to throw out their appl ica t ion for pension on a final appeal. There are some provisions of the b i l l which are helpful . One in particular w i l l be found on page 13: I refer to the provision for extending the Pens ion A c t to cover Canadians who serve i n the R o y a l A i r Force or the R o y a l N a v y . B u t i t also is -too restricted. T h e hon. member for Wel l ing ton South ( M r . Glads tone) , when the resolution which preceded this b i l l was under considera-t ion , brought out the fact that those young Canadians who enlisted i n the Ro3'al A i r Force before the war broke out cannot get pensions under the act. Unde r these amend-ments the only airmen who ean benefit are those who have enlisted i n the Ro} 'a l A i r Force since the war s tar ted; i t does not cover those who went to Eng land in 1939 or 193S, or the other years preceding the W a r . I sug-gest that the b i l l should be extended to cover those cases. I ment ion these instances i n the hope that consideration, w i l l be g iven . t o them not on ly b y ' h o n . member s 'who happen to be on this special committee but also by a l l other hon. •members. I say that this b i l l is fundamen-ta l ly wrong, because the whole tendency is to be " tough," to be just a l i t t le tougher than before on the men i n -the fighting forces. T h a t means that i f parl iament enacts this b i l l i n its present shape i t w i l l be " tough" wi th the very-Canadians who should be receiving the most consideration at the present t ime . NOTE: Ce r t a in changes were made in this b i l l by the special committee. 107 October 18, 1951 '"" s T H R O N E S P E E C H D E B A T E M r . Howard C . Green (Vancouver-Quadra): M r . Speaker, unfortunately I did not have the privilege of hearing the speeches of the mover (Mr. Cauchon) and the seconder (Mr. •Simmons) of the address in reply to the speech from the throne, but I. understand their efforts were excellent. I can quite believe that from m y acquaintance with them around the halls of the building. I was particularly interested in the remarks of the hon. member for Yukon-Mackenzie River in connection with Canada's nprthland. He pointed out that eventually railroads should be constructed to connect the various northern centres. I often wonder whether Canada wil l ever become a great nation unless she develops her northern country to the fullest extent. Probably most hon. members read an article by that great explorer M r . Vi lhja lmur Stefansson, in the August 1 issue of Maclean's Magazine. It . dealt with Canada's northland and the title was "We're Missing our Future in the North.": Here is what the sub-heading had to say: A famous explorer says that by exploiting our • rich northland we can match United States indus-trial wealth and support as many people. The' author then went on to prove those ' statements. I think it was most timely for the house to hear the speech of the hon. member for Yukon-Mackenzie river. I am sure that any proposal within reason for the develop-ment of the riorth wi l l have the support of the vast majority of the members of 'his parliament. . We saw that last year when a bil l was introduced to provide for the con-struction of a railroad line from Sherridon to L y n n Lake in northern Manitoba. In Brit ish Columbia the Canadian National line from Jasper to Prince Rupert cuts across the centre of the province and prac-tically all the area for hundreds. of miles north of that line is untapped, of course with the exception of the Peace river country and the district around At l in . There is great work to be done in the north and one prac-tical thing the government could do would be to provide separate seats for the Y u k o n and the Mackenzie river districts in the redis-tribution which is to take place shortly. That was advocated when the last redistri-bution measure was enacted but the sug-gestion was not accepted. I think the time has come when each of these districts should have a member, as it is quite impossible for one member to represent such a huge area. I propose to direct my remaining remarks to three ministers in particular, the Minister of Finance (Mr. Abbott), the Minister of s Veterans Affairs (Mr. Lapoihte) and the Secretary of State for External Affairs (Mr. Pearson). I appreciate greatly the fact that •they are all here to take their medicine. M r . A b b o l i : We were warned. . M r . Pearson: We were especially, invited. M r . Green: First of all, the Minister of Finance. The subject which involves the minister is perhaps the most important of the three, - although I submit they are all important. I am thinking particularly of the cost of l iving and inflation. In his speech earlier in the week the Pr ime Minister (Mr. St. Laurent) asked for suggestions as to how these great issues might be met. I am going to try to make some suggestions today. I have been somewhat disappointed that there have been so few, suggestions from private members on the government side. I hope they wil l not bo so bashful in the remaining days of the debate. They can do a great service to their fellow Canadians as well as to their constituents by getting up and expressing their views on these subjects. While the Pr ime Minister asked for suggestions, I really believe word went out from the govern-ment whip that anyone who opened his mouth-would be shot. That seems to be the way in which this debate has been develop-ing. I suggest that my good friends on the back benches on the L ibera l side be a little more courageous and step in and tell the. government what they think. Of course there has been a tremendous rise in the cost of living. It has been going up in a startling way, a way which has been distressing, not only to the Canadian people but to every member of this house regard-less of party. The Canadian cost of l iving index is now definitely higher than the United States index. I could not understand the Prime Minister's statement the other day to the contrary. M i n d you, he covered it very cleverly. H e took us down to Washington which is the centre of the world now, that great, roaring, busy city where everybody is a millionaire, or perhaps a billionaire, and where prices do not mean very much. He compared Washington prices with the prices in modest, sensible Ottawa. M r . Fleming: Where is modest, sensible Ottawa? M r . Green: Right here. Y o u should know it. If you would just get away from Toronto you would realize some of the good .qualities of Ottawa. The Prime Minister reached the conclusion that because prices in Washington were a little higher than in Ottawa every-thing was lovely, and Canada's cost of l iving index was lower than that of the United States. I have "here a report of a summary of the Bank of Canada published on Septem-ber 1 and headed:. Canada's c.o.l. now higher than in U.S. • Food, especially meat, big factor in sending price .index soaring. / • ' T h e article reads in part: For years living, costs in Canada were a lot lower than they were in the United States. Now, says the Bank of Canada, it is the other way round. The reversal in the cost of living pattern took place in June. Before that the cost of living index in the United States was running a lot higher than the one in Canada. In June, says the bank in its monthly statistical summary, the paths of the two indexes crossed. The United States index levelled off; the one in Canada kept on climbing. Going a step further, the bank makes a revealing comparison of ljving costs in the two countries over the twelve month period, July. 1950, to July, 1951'. The upward drive in living costs, it finds, was far more signifi-cant in Canada than in the United States. - H o w the Pr ime Minister can take a contrary view is beyond my understanding. So much for the rise in the cost of living. T h e n there- is the question of inflation. The inflation we already have i n Canada means that the insurance policies taken out by most Canadians to protect their families and the government bonds purchased by most Canadians against sickness or old age have lost approximately' half of their value. That is'the position in Canada today, and it cannot be gainsaid by anyone. I believe that the cost Of l iving and inflation are worrying the Canadian people far more than the Prime Minister of this country realizes. It seems to me there are two basic facts which must always be kept in mind in considering this question. First of all, increases in wages are now largely tied to the cost of l iving index. When the index goes • up, in most cases wages automatically go up, ' and of course the result eventually is a further increase in prices. There is. also irresponsible—and I repeat the word "irre-sponsible"—price setting going on in this country, as there has been for many'months. I do not believe, and I do not see how any member of this house can believe, any • authority in the country other than the gov-ernment can put a stop to that sort of business. The government alone has the authority 'to take some steps to break this chain. -The second basic fact which must always be remembered is that we are in what the Minister, of Labour (Mr. Gregg) the other day very aptly called a half war half peace era. In fact he summed it up very neatly when he said, "the period of half war and half peace of unknown duration". That is the situation in which we are today and it w i l l continue for many years, certainly until Russia decides that it is going to pay her to make more friendly arrangements .with the free nations. We are not in a time of peace when there are the usual checks and counter checks. That simply is not the position in which Canada stands today. Those two factors should be remembered at all times by Canadians when considering the questions of •the cost of l iving and inflation. The government, largely through the Minister of-Finance (Mr. Abbott), has taken certain steps to meet the situation. There has been an increase in taxation, principally in income, sales and excise taxes. Then there have been consumer credit regulations. They were designed of course to meet these' two problems. _ T h e y may have helped. I think that as things are working out a change should be made in the credit regulations. I think, for example, that longer time should be given people to pay for their cars and other commodities, but in this debate I am not going into details on this particular question. -Then the government arranged through the Bank of Canada for the restriction of credit to business concerns. I believe that has hit small businessmen a great deal harder than the large ones. I think it has been unfair in that way. Then of course there have been appeals to produce. The Minister of Finance and other ministers have urged the Canadian people to produce more goods. ' In some instances people were urged to work longer hours. There has always been behind such statements a sort of veiled suggestion that Canadian workmen were not earning their wages and I think the suggestion was unwise and unfair. However there have been these appeals for greater production. Then there have been appeals to save. Not quite a month ago the Minister of Finance advised the women of Canada that they should be thrifty, that they should cut out thoughtless spending and cultivate an attitude of mind in which prudent household manage-ment is both patriotic and fashionable. M r . Graydon: H o w did that go over at home? • ' M r . A b b o l i : L o u d cheers. M r . Knowles: D i d Mrs . Abbott turn the radio off? M r . Green: I have an immediate reaction as expressed in an editorial in the Vancouver Province of September 29 which is entitled, " A Long Way F r o m the Kitchen". It reads: Canadian housewives are hoping that Mrs. Doug. Abbott will shove a shopping basket in her husband's hand and send him to market to buy the family groceries. After hearing-the finance minister urge the ladies to beat inflation by cutting down on "thoughtless spending" and cultivating "an attitude of mind in which p'rudential household management is both patriotic and fashionable," householders wonder where Mr. Abbott has been all the time. As 109 4 far as people working for average wages.ai'e con-cerned, "prudential household management" is the only thing that keeps good food on the table. . M r . A b b o l l : Prudential? M r . Green: Then the editorial ends by . saying—• , A M r . Abbol t : Prudential? Is it not "pru-• dent"? • . M r . Green: It says "prudential". I think it should be "prudent". . v . -M r . A b b o l l : I think it should be "prudent". W e are not an insurance company. M r . Green: I have no doubt the minister is sorry that he said it,-anyway. . M r . A b b o l l : F a r from it. I am interested in the opinion of editorial writers but I do not necessarily look on them as the last word. M r . Green: The editorial ends by saying: If he puts on an apron, helps with the dishes— M r . A b b o i l : Pie does. . ' M r , Green: It continues: —and pays a few visits to the grocery store he won't wag his finger at the housewives again. Right now they have for Mr. Abbott the same answer they have when their husbands try to raise cain over .household expenses. "Let's see you do any better." In his speech the other day the Prime Minister (Mr. St. Laurent) admitted to the house, and to the country, that the govern-. merit's policy for meeting inflation has failed. Th i s admission wil l be found at page 33 of Hansard. It reads: I must confess that there are many of bur friends on this side, and in that other corner of the house near Mr. Speaker disturbed at the fact that the government has not been able to devise any more effective . measures of combating inflation than . those which have been so far proposed to parlia-ment. , Now, in October, 1951, he has only one proposal. We find a reference to that at • page 41 of Hansard: . . . as regards immediate additional measures to curb inflation, while others may develop, the only one we are prepared to submit at this time is the one that will arise out of this report of the com-bines committee with,respect to resale prices. I do not think that is going to have a very sub-stantial effect on the index of the cost of living; T h e Pr ime Minister admits that it wil l .not be of much effect. 1 am wondering if this one proposal wil l not even be detrimen-tal. O n the surface it looks as though it might be a good thing but since coming here I have had representations from extremely reliable and responsible businessmen in V a n -couver, largely men in small businesses, who point out that, a measure of this k ind is simply opening the way for the large stores to use what is known as the loss leader system. In other words, the large store wi l l cut the prices of these goods upon whio the price has hitherto been set by the manu-facturer, and in that way draw people into the store and sell them other goods at greatly increased prices. In the process ' the little fellow wi l l be put out of business. I do recommend that the government, in considering this legislation, try to work out some prohibition of this practice of loss leader selling. Certainly the measure is going to be of little help if it results in put-^ ting a great many small merchants in Canada' out of business.- If that happens the con-sumers are going to be hit worse than they are at the present time. Also I should like to ask the Minister of Finance (Mr. Abbott) to make a frank state-ment on the following suggestions, which I am making in all earnestness. In the first place, why would it not be good policy to reduce the sales tax from 10 per cent to 8 per cent? The revenues which are roll ing in show conclusively that an increase in the tax was not needed to carry out the govern-ment plans for this fiscal year. Obviously the tax had the effect of increasing prices, i n fact it pyramided prices because it was levied at the manufacturer's level. • If a reduction were made in that sales tax at this session, the effect might be to start a reduc-tion in prices right along the line. It might have an effect far greater than one would expect under normal conditions. If the gov-ernment gave that lead by cutting down the sales tax and saying to the Canadian people, "We cut that tax for the one purpose of help-ing to reduce the cost of living", then I believe the results would be very beneficial.' Someone has to take the lead in reducing the cost of living. Incidentally, with regard to taxation, I believe the Minister of Finance must bring up tp date his ideas of what are necessities in Canadian homes. He still believes an elec-tric range, an oil range or gas heater is a luxury. In most centres that is not the case, and certainly not in Vancouver. These things are necessities. They have to be bought by practically all the young people setting up homes, and the .Department of Finance should keep that fact in mind. I would ask the Minister of Finance to explain also why it would not be possible to establish a basic food menu and toasic cloth-ing requirement for Canada, and to maintain that standard. In this way a good home manager would know what her cost would be for this basic standard. One of the most distressing features of the situation today is the uncertainty of prices next week.- It does seem to me it should be within the ingenuity of the departmental advisers to work out a basic standard, one without any frills, and then adopt some scheme of maintaining that standard. I realize that might involve sub-sidies; It might involve certain controls. It might, involve such things, for example, as helping with the shipment of feed grain into the Fraser valley in Brit ish Columbia so that da i iy farmers .could produce milk at lower '. cost. Of course, they would have to pass that saving on to the consumers in Vancouver and the other cities in the area. I only mention this as an example. ! I should like to,hear from the Minister of Finance just why some scheme of this kind cannot be worked out. M r . Abbott: Just to be d e a r on what my hon. friend means, does he refer to the sort of utility garment they have in the United Kingdom? Is that what he has in mind, utility suits and. so on? M r . Green: M i l k and bread, for example, would be in the basic standard, and the same for clothing. . M r . Abbott: What is meant by "a basic standard"? Does he mean a fixed price for thfese commodities? • M r . Green: Yes. Then the minister does not get very far by merely urging the Canadian people to save. M i n d you, I think he is quite right in doing that, but why would it not be possible to go farther and arrange for refund-able savings as was done during the war. There could be a provision that money spent for life insurance and for the payment .of mortgage principal would be exempt. M r . Abbott: That means compulsory savings? M r . Green: Yes, such as we had in the war. I believe some scheme of that kind would help. It would certainly be an incentive to the Canadian people to save. • I believe further that the government must tackle these unjust prices which, in effect, amount to profiteering. There is. a great deal of that, and I know it is difficult to meet. I believe the situation in Canada today is such that we must tighten up our laws to curb this type of profiteering. Then why is it not possible to take steps to enable our own people to get our own products at reasonable prices? As I said before, we are in a half-war period. The United States is running short of many resources. She is a wealthy and powerful neighbour, and, becoming more wealthy and more powerful every day. She is depriving our people of some of their own production. The other day the Prime Minister said, as reported at page 34 o£ Hansard— M r . Abbott: We are buying more of United States production than we are exporting of .Canadian production. M r . Green: Just a minute. The minister has not yet got my point. In dealing with the export of our commodities—he was dealing with prices and one reason that prices went up—the Prime Minister said as reported at page 34 of Hansard: That is true here as .well as it is in the United Kingdom;— He was referring to the necessity to import goods and to pay the price charged by the other countries. Then he said: —arid in this country there is not only the prices we have to pay for the goods we import but the prices our Canadian producers can obtain for the goods they expoi't, unless we prevent them from exporting them and force them to take from the Canadian market for their labours less than they can obtain by exporting. . H e lays down the. policy there that this •country is going to allow all its goods to go out, if necessary, if a higher price can be obtained beyond the boundaries of Canada, and the Canadian people are going to have to go without. That is a new suggestion in Canadian policy. M r . Abbott: How are we going to pay for the excess of United States production that we bring to Canada? M r . Green: We do not need to sell them all of our. production. M r . Abbott: We do not. W e buy more from them than we sell to them. M r . Green: One of our great problems in Canada today is our increasing dependence on the United States. That is one of the big-gest problems we are facing right now. The picture is all neatly put in the fact that while the Americans eat our beef, Canadians are eating horsemeat. M r . Abbott: We use American steel. M r . Green: I have here a letter written to the Vancouver Sun which sums up the situa-tion neatly. It is entitled "Meat for Thought" and reads as follows: The present trend of piling up revenue surplus at the rate of over a billion and a half annually while aged veterans are existing on $35 monthly each for man and wife is a terrible indictment of the poli-tical party that cheerfully admits fuil responsibility for our so-called prosperity. This in addition to the fact that more and more thousands of Canadians are daily being compelled to resort to horsemeat in their family diet, because of Ottawa's strange reluctance to impose controls on essential food costs, may have repercussions in the not too distant future. I can foresee the day coming when the Liberal party, seeking votes for re-election, is greeted with a loud horse laugh and a resounding "neigh! neigh!" from Canadians too full of horsemeat for words. In the meantime, would suggest the following slogan the Liberals could use in their next cam-paign: • 6 From the stable To the table We brought back the horse, . _ Lacking sincerity .• . We called it prosperity— :-*• • Fido' will be the next course. I can suggest a much better slogan. It is: "Vote L ibera l and eat horsemeat". ' M r . A b b o l l : Vote Conservative and eat ho meat. M r . Green: The Pr ime Minister was extremely smug about the whole question. H e said that only certain sectors of the popu-lation are being bothered by the increased cost of l iving and that the others are doing better than they have ever done before. He said, "Of course, I hope thaf the inflation wil l stop". I. suggest one thing to the Prime Minister; that is that he start eating horse-meat right away and continue doing so until he wakes up to what is going on in Canada. '•• M r . M a r l i n : Under these hours he is not getting a chance to eat anything. M r . Green: A discussion of the increased cost of l iving brings me to the next minister, the 'Minister of Veterans Affairs (Mr. Lapointe). . M r . A b b o l i : I hope there wi l l now be more constructive suggestions.' M r . . Green: Last session the Minister of Veterans Affairs admitted that the basic dis-ability pension is too low, and he tried to meet that situation by a handout known as the unemployability supplement. His support-ers on the veterans affairs committee found themselves i n - great difficulties. The bell wether of the L ibera l flock in the veterans affairs committee, the hon. member for Spa-dina (Mr. Croll) had a terrible time backing up the government and explaining why it was not increasing the basic rate of pension. Final ly he produced- the good alibi: O h , well, • the cost of l iving was probably going to stop going up right away anyway, and it was not necessary to do anything at once. F r o m what he said when he spoke last night, I observe that he has at last become bold enough to say, as reported at page 146 of Hansard: I do not think we can delay any longer that which is now long overdue. It has now become an urgent matter, and must be dealt with at this session. It has become urgent, M r . Speaker, because the veterans from coast to coast have put the heat on with regard to this question and are demanding action. The Minister of Veterans Affairs and the government obviously thought that this unemployability supplement would stop the protests and that they would get by • with that measure. ' Now the veterans of Canada arc- incensed over this treatment. I have never seen them as incensed over anything before. The plan is obviously inadequate. It breaks down the i whole basis for disability pension, which was that the pension is paid as of right and that it is based on the cost of l iving and on wages. There can be no doubt of those statements. It is not based on the average wages paid in Canada. It is based on unskilled^ wages. I have that statement here in the Ralston report away back in 1924. Hon. members wi l l find-it in the second interim report of the Royal Commission on Pensions and Re-Establish-ment dated May , 1924, at page 44. The prin-ciple is this: The earning power of. a man in the class of the untrained labourer will be sufficient to provide decent comfort for himself and his family, that is to say, a little more than enough for subsistence. F r o m the start that has been the principle in pension legislation in Canada. Since last there was an increase in pension, in 1948, the cost of l iving has gone from about 140 to about 190. The average unskilled wage last year stood at 244-6, as compared with the year 1939 and this year is expected to be over 260. These figures are from the Department of Labour. The requests of the veterans organizations of this country for an increase of 33J- per cent in the basic pension are therefore entirely reasonable. I would hope that this increase wi l l be granted at this session, and that there 'will not be an attempt to do more cheese-paring by bringing in an increase of 20 per cent or 25 per cent. There is a wrong which should be righted at once. It is a disgrace that we have had to fight in this house all during this present year for fair treatment for the veterans of Canada. The same argu-ment applies in large measure with regard to the war veterans allowance. It also should be increased, certainly to the level of the old age pension in the respective provinces. M y final remarks, M r . Speaker, are directed to the Secretary of State for External Affairs (Mr. Pearson). When he speaks, I would ask him to answer two questions. The first one is this. W h y has Canada taken no stand with regard to the abrogation by Egypt of the Anglo-Egyptian treaty and the threats which have been made by Egypt to the United Kingdom and actually to all of the nations of the commonwealth? I asked h im two days ago what position the Canadian government is taking on this question and I received this strange reply, as reported at page 69 of Hansard: The situation in the area to which my hon. friend's question refers is a difficult one indeed at the 112 moment, and highly inflammable. I do not think : any statement from me at-this time in answer to a :' question will be helpful. •> . Well , New Zealand and Austral ia answered [ at once. Yesterday the United States ; ••- answered. I hold in my hand a clipping from ; . last night's paper and right across the front ; page we find the following: '• • " , U.S. backing Britain in Egypt. t. In the same article we find the same , statement from France. These great allies ;-' of ours did not find the situation too infiam-; . " mable to make a statement as to where they stood with regard to these actions in Egypt. '. W h y is Canada waiting? Is she waiting until ; her two warships get out of the Mediter-. • • \ ranean? Is that the reason for the delay? The minister cannot argue that Canada is not interested in the middle east. In the speech from the throne we find that the gov-i - ernment is going to recommend to this house that Greece and T u r k e y he admitted to the • ' N o r t h Atlantic Treaty Organization. That '• ;'. means if Turkey is attacked Canada wi l l be bound to come to her defence, yet no stand is- taken with regard to Egypt where the „ . whole lifeline of the commonwealth is in danger; in fact this may mean life or death to the free nations of the world. Last spring, when there was a common-\ wealth defence conference for the Mediter-ranean, • Canada would not even send a minister because she said she was not that much interested. She sent somebody from one of the departments. I would ask the minister '. • to tell us very frankly v/hat is the position of the Canadian government with regard to this Egyptian trouble. Second, let h im tell us why the govern-V. ment declines to enter a Pacific pact. When the pact was signed at San Francisco Canada was invited to join. I hold in my hand the Vancouver Dai ly Province dated September 1, 195.1. which says: United States, Australia sign Pacific past. Nations hope Canada will join. The three countries in this new alliance, which is similar to the security -arrangement entered into earlier in the week between the Philippines and • the United States, are anxious that Canada become a partner to stretch the alliance from the Arctic to the Antarctic. . When the minister was in Vancouver tell-ing Canada for the first time about what had happened at San Francisco he said that there - is a-Pacific pact between the United States, Austral ia and New Zealand; another peace pact in the Pacific between the United States and the Philippines; and that the United States and Canada have a Pacific pact. Well , that was just evading the issue. United States and Canada have no Pacific defence pact. They have a general defence pact, I agree. But the general situation is that / ' . '. -Canada, which is a country involved in the Pacific, should be in this defence pact, "and should be urging that other nations of the Pacific become members of the pact. I have not time to quote the editorials I have, but certainly in Brit ish Columbia I believe there is no difference of opinion on this question. We all believe that Canada should be a mem-ber of the Pacific pact. These are the two questions. Finally^ I have just one" suggestion to the minister. It is that Canada should urge upon the other commonwealth partners that there be adopted at once a policy of rebuilding the strength of the commonwealth until it is once again the third world power. Perhaps the gravest • .danger of war today is that we live in a two-power world, which is . of necessity a highly dangerous condition. If the common-wealth were a third world power it would be an influence for peace. I think the people of the nations of the commonwealth are more peace-minded than our neighbours to the south. • That is because of our geographical situation. I do not blame the people of the United. States a bit for their attitude but the fact is—and everyone here knows it—'that the people of the commonwealth are more peace-minded than either the people of the United States or the people of Russia. Per-haps if we had a strong commonwealth again we could give a lead in the settlement of these disputes. We are not in a position to do so now because of the weakness of the various nation members of the commonwealth who are all more or less camp followers in the • United States camp. ~" . The- Canadian policy on this question, as announced by the Secretary of State for External Affairs a few. days ago, has been to be on both sides. He made" a .speech on' September 25— M r . ' Speaker: Order. The hon. member's time has expired. • Some hon. members: Go on. M r . Green: I am sorry. I thank hon. mem-bers for allowing me to finish. In that speech he was dealing with the United States-Canada relations, and he used very significant words in explaining that the— M r . Speaker: Order. Has the hon. member unanimous consent to continue? Some hon. members: Yes. Some hon. members: No. M r . Lesage: Go on. M r . Green: He referred to the "fact that Canadian troops going to Europe were to serve with commonwealth troops but. that the airmen going to Europe were to serve with the United States air force. Of course that was confirmed today by.the Minister of "National Defence. (Mr. Claxton). T h e . S e c -retary of State for External Affairs used these words: "So that Canada as usual would be on both sides." I am sure that is a grave mistake. I think the time has come for Canada to review .the direction that she is taking and to give a lead in rebuilding the commonwealth. That would be of far greater advantage to the United States as well as to ourselves and to the other members of the commonwealth; the greatest support the United States could get would be from a strong and united commonwealth. Canadian .policy from now.on should be directed to the rebuilding of the commonwealth. 1 would remind the minister that one of his predecessors at Washington, one of the greatest l iv ing Canadians and one of the greatest members of his own party, Right Hon. Vincent Massey, has made various significant statements in Canada on this policy. I hold in my hand a quotation from a speech he made in Vancouver on November 15, 1946, and with this I close. It is entitled: "Canada's place in a troubled world." He said: ; We have, in my belief, far greater influence in the , world as a member of the British family than other-wise would be ours. We have, in a sense, a double status. I am quite sure from any experience that I may have been able to gain that the fact that Canada appears on the international scene, not only as an important country on her own account— which we are—but also as a member of a great association gives her both enhanced prestige and increased importance. I i I suggest that at this time our greatest contribution to world peace would, be to take a lead in rebuilding the strength of the Bri t i sh commonwealth. j 114 T H E SUE'Z CftlSIS 3 November 2G, 1956. M r . Howard C . Green (Vancouver-Quadra): M r . Speaker, before going on with the main portion of my speech this evening I should like to say a word about the speech which has just been made by the Minister of Citizen-ship and Immigration (Mr. Pickersgill). I hope he wi l l not feel that he is doing everything that could be done to get these patriots from Hungary to Canada. After all, the actions of these people have aroused great sympathy in the minds and the hearts of the Canadian people from coast to coast. Furthermore, by their actions in Hungary they have shown that they would make excellent Canadian citizens. We. cannot have too many citizens of this k ind who have known the tragedies of communism and who are prepared to stand up and fight against it. I hope the minister wi l l have a further look at his plans. F o r example, why should not Canada extend an invitation to these refugees right in Austria , pointing out to them the advantages of com-ing to Canada? F r o m his remarks I took it that the minister was just worrying about getting out those people who happen to ask about coming to Canada. M r . Pickersgill: I: am sure the hon. gentle-man is not trying to be unfair. I said that we were asked by the Austr ian government not to go into the camps. As long as that is the view of the Austr ian government we wi l l not go into the camps; but the day the Austr ian government invites us to go there, or the next day, I wi l l send a team there. M r . Green: I have one other suggestion which perhaps the minister wi l l take a little more kindly. It seems to me that it would be possible for him, with the co-operation of the Minister of Labour (Mr. Gregg), to set up some scheme of rehabilitation under which these patriots coming to Canada can be assisted to learn skills which wil l fit them into our industrial life,—and possibly also into our agricultural life. Then I should like to say a .word about the speech by the leader of the C . C . F . , the hon. member for Rosetown-Biggar (Mr. Cold-well). Unfortunately I was not able to hear that speech, but I understand that he largely followed the line of the Labour party in the United K i n g d o m which, of course, is what we expect in this house from his party on these questions. I understand also that he said the people of Great Bri ta in were over-whelmingly opposed to the policies followed by the Eden government. It so happens that I have here a dispatch to the Vancounver Sun from my neighbour, the hon. member for Vancouver South (Mr. Philpott), who was in the United Kingdom last week. This is in the issue of November 20, and here is what he had to say on that point. I do not always vouch for his accuracy, but probably in this' case he is nearly right. He said: Several factors have tended to push the Suez crisis out of the picture here. That is in England. The cease-fire in Egypt changed the public attitude in the twinkling of an eye. Instead of being damned up hill and down dale by half the nation as the man who got Britain into a war, Eden was and is increasingly hailed as the man whose timely action prevented the third world, war. I hope the member for Vancouver South wi l l take the same stand when he speaks in this debate. Then he went on to say: Several staunch supporters of the Labour party have told me privately that they think the Prime Minister did the right thing in the circumstances. Feelings on these questions raised by the Suez crisis, M r . Speaker, are running very deep in Canada, far deeper I believe than the government has the slightest conception. Listening to the Prime Minister I could not help but think he has been l iving in some other land altogether so far as public reac-tion to these issues is concerned, and particu-larly reaction, to the attitude of the Canadian government. This attitude has come as a great shock to millions of Canadian people. In Vancouver the story broke in the headlines on October 31, and I must admit that even I was shocked, although the stand taken was just in line with the stand this government has been taking for the last 10 years. It has been going steadily in the direction of the stand taken on this occasion. This time they hap-pened to get caught. They spoke off the cuff before they had a nice, cover-up explanation prepared. Here we have the headlines, "Canada Turns Her Back on U . K . " — i t should have been the U . K . and France—"Supports U.S.". This is a dispatch by M r . Leiterman and it begins this way: . . With a wrench that will make history, Canada turned her back on Great Britain Tuesday night . . . T h e n he went on to point out the i l l -concealed annoyance shown by the minister for external affairs when he was interviewed on this particular day. M r . Leiterman had this to say: Mr. Pearson had three possible courses. He could have supported Britain. He could have supported the U.S. or he could, like Australia in the security council, have abstained and said nothing at all. Hesitantly, almost as If surprised at his own boldness he chose in effect to desert Britain and "associate" Canada with the United States. '. That was on October 31^ M r . Pearson: M a y I ask the hon. member a question? Would he tell me to what he -is referring in reading that newspaper, what vote? M r . Green: I am referring to a report of a press conference or an interview by the •minister with the press, and the date of the report i n the Vancouver Province is October 31. This was only the beginning. The minis-ter went down to the United Nations, I be-lieve it was on November 2, after the United K i n g d o m and France had vetoed the resolu-tion brought into the security council, and he voted with Russia and the. United States . against the United Kingdom and France to •put this question on the agenda of the assembly. M r . Pearson: Everybody else did, too. M r . Green: Le t the minister and the gov-ernment laugh it off. This afternoon the Pr ime Minister was very careful not to refer to that. He had not a word to say about that particular vote. He talked about— M r . St. Laurent (Quebec East): He very firmly approves of that vote. * M r . Brooks: That does not make it right. M r . St. Laurent (Quebec East): A n d the fact that you say it is wrong does not make it wrong. M r . Green: The Pr ime Minister had an opportunity to make his speech this after-noon, and perhaps he wi l l allow me to make mine. This afternoon the Pr ime Minister said that when the vote came up about the cease-fire, then Canada abstained. H e did hot explain that while the minister for external affairs abstained, in his speech the minister showed very clearly that he was condemning the United Kingdom and France. The Prime M i n -ister should have made that clear. This has been the course followed by this government fight down through the piece since this serious situation first arose. Aga in , just two days ago in the assembly of the United Nations when the second resolu-. tion about the cease-fire was under discus-sion the minister got up and said that this was all wrong, there had already been a resolution passed and the United Kingdom, France and Israel were complying with it. They had already taken steps to comply with . that resolution and this second resolution should not be passed. Then the Canadian government did not have the courage to get up and vote against it. Only the United Kingdom, France, Israel, Austral ia and New 4 Zealand voted against that foolish and provoc-ative resolution. The Canadian government, representing the land of courageous people, • did not have the backbone to get up and:vote against that resolution; they were so busy currying favour with the United States. The feature of the speech, the Prime M i n i s -ter delivered today, M r . Speaker, was the anger, almost the hatred he showed in his remarks. I wish the Canadian people could have been here to watch him. M r . SI. Laurent (Quebec East): So do I. M r . Green: He made a violent attack on the big nations. M r . Garson: It is too bad they cannot hear you. M r . Green: He talked about the use of the veto. The veto was written into the United Nations charter because the big nations have to carry a great deal 'of responsibility. But the Pr ime Minister pushed that aside and talked about the life of a person in a small nation being as valuable as in a big nation. M r . Hosking: Is that not true? M r . Green: It is just dragging a red herring across the trail . T h e n he went on to talk about the United Kingdom and France taking the law into their own hands, and in effect the Prime Minister lumped the United Kingdom and France with Russia, in his condemnation. M r . St, Laurent (Quebec East): How silly can you be? M r . Green: T h e n he made this amazing statement. He said, "The era of supermen in Europe is coming to an end". I suppose he considers that all the supermen are in the Canadian government. If they are not all in the Canadian government, then I presume the opinion of this same Pr ime Minister is that, they are in the United States govern-ment. Here you have the prime minister of France and Pr ime Minister Eden of the United Kingdom. They do not claim to be supermen. I am amazed at the Pr ime M i n -ister of Canada making slurring remarks of that k ind this afternoon. Those men in the United Kingdom and France are simply doing the best they can for their people; they are trying to give good leadership. I suppose the Pr ime Minister of Canada sneers at Sir Winston Churchi l l as a superman and in-cludes h im in his nasty, biting remarks this afternoon. His whole attitude this afternoon was one of bitterness. M r . Pickersgill: We have one doing that right now. -. 116 »«• i- m i . T T i t „ • i • • „ „ u„-u;„„ hand-a statement by Defence Secretary W i l -M r . Green: The Uncle Louis Kissing babies . , . , 0 j . , . , . , . „ „ „ ° ™ „ „ son. It is quoted on August 8, and reads as went out the window this afternoon; so smug, - . so full of self-righteousness, so hypocritical. 0 - o w s -Defence Secretary Wilson today described the Where was Canada earlier this year when Suez situation as a "relatively small thing", this question was blowing up? This govern- T h e a r ^ ; c l e g o e s o p . ment was washing its hands of the whole A t a n Q t h e r a r e ' p o r t e l . a s k e d W J ] s o n „ h e problem. Now young Canadians are going l o o k e d u p o „ the Suez crisis as a minor upset, to have to go to the Middle East, perhaps He replied: "You described it well", to fight in the Middle East, perhaps to stand T h a t w a s C a n a d a a n d the United States up against young men from Great Bri ta in j u s t a i e w m 0 n t h s ago, absolutely failing to and France. , There is the situation we may take any stand to try to clear up the situation be facing in the near future; yet this spring in the Suez at that time, and summer the Secretary of State for E x - S o m e h o n _ M e m b e r s ! T e n o'clock, ternal Affairs and the Prime Minister took the position, well, the Suez is a long way off; M r . Green: I move the adjournment of the Canada is not concerned. They did nothing debate. about it, nothing to try to solve the problem. O n motion of M r . Green the debate was A l l the time President Nasser was openly adjourned. . - . ; ' boasting that he was out to destroy Israel , , —-•*-«— and to drive the United K i n g d o m and France out of the Middle East. He was fomenting trouble in North Afr ica for the French. The ', Canadian government was not interested at ; all . . . " ' • ! T h e n he seized the canal. He had no right ' to do it. That action was taken in direct and ] violent breach Xit the treaty. The United K i n g d o m and France moved their troops into the Mediterranean area at that time. The | Canadian government knew it; the whole world knew it. These two nations had to : act to save, their own national existence. What did Canada do?. I hold in my hand a . press, dispatch of Ju ly 28, headed, "Canada Plans No Move O n Suez Canal". The dis- . patch goes on to say: j Canada is making no representations in the Egyptian nationalization of the Suez canal, External Affairs Minister Pearson told the Journal. The subject was brought up in the house by the Leader of the Opposition on July 30. He asked the Pr ime Minister this question: In view of the developments over the week end, has the government given consideration to the advisability of presenting a formal protest to Egypt which would indicate the position of this govern-ment in relation to the events which have taken place there in a manner that is not merely a question of reporting, but would constitute a direct representation from this government? ! A n d here is the answer of this Pr ime . Minister, who is so full of indignation today, ' reported at page 6655 of Hansard. Here is his answer at that time: ' j The matter has, of course, been under considera-tion, but we have not decided yet to submit any formal protest. j I do not believe any formal protest was ever submitted. The United States took the same attitude at that time. I hold in my • 117 C A N A D A O F F I C I A L R E P O R T S P E E C H of H O W A R D GREEN Member for Vancouver Quadra and Secretary of State for External Affairs on Introduction of Estimates of Department of External AiTairs Made in the House of Commons on July 9, 1959 (These reprints were paid jor by Howard Green) 118 H o n . Howard C . Green (Secretary of Slate for External . Affairs): M r . Chairman," in opening my remarks today on the estimates of the Department of Veterans Affairs— Some hon. Members: Oh, oh. M r . Green: I am afraid I have done so much talking i n this house on veterans af-fairs in the last 24 years that I have become accustomed to referring to that department. However, my very old friend the Minister of Veterans Affairs (Mr . Brooks) objects strenuously to m y interfering with his depart-ment. • He is always annoyed when my old speeches when in opposition are quoted at h im when he is putting his estimates through, so probably it is because of a guilty con-science that I spoke of the Department of Veterans Affairs. In any event, I wi l l try another start. In opening the discussion on the estimates of the Department of External Affairs I am deeply conscious of the sadness of the fact that the late Hon. Sidney Smith is not here to carry on with these estimates for which he had been responsible and in the presentation of which, some months ago, he had done so well . Dur ing the time I have been the m i n -ister of this department I have had confirma-tion of m y opinion that Sidney Smith was making a great contribution to public life and was about to become one of the great foreign ministers in the world. We all realize what a tragedy it was that he was taken from us so suddenly' and perhaps the best way in which we can show our feelings in this regard is to keep in mind the unselfish contribution he made to the welfare of his fellow Canadians when he left such an important post in university life to enter the hur ly -bur ly of political life. A n d he did so, I know, i n the hope that he would be able to do something to further the cause of world peace. I shall be trying at all times to keep in mind the example he set in this department. Before I go on to deal with foreign affairs I should l ike to thank the members of the House of Commons once again for the very k ind reception they have given me today and for the encouragement they have given in the last few weeks. This is most helpful, and there has been similar encouragement from many other sources; for example, from Cana-dians in all walks of life and in all parts of the country. A n d it has. been somewhat of a surprise to me to realize how deeply Cana-dians today are interested in what goes on beyond the borders of our nation, though I suppose one should have realized that that would be the case because of the terrific issues at stake in external affairs in a nuclear age. Certainly I have no doubt that Cana-dians today are very much concerned over the part their nation is going to play in world affairs and, in' particular, over the part their nation wil l play in furthering co-operation among all the nations of the world. I have also had understanding and en-couragement from the representatives in Canada of other nations. Members of this house—and I include myself in that g r o u p -sometimes do not realize that we have here leading men from all over the world, 'men who have made a success in their own country and who have come here to represent their nations. Each and every one of them is a friend of Canada, and each and every one of them has a great contribution to bring to the. public men of Canada with whom they come into contact. There has not yet been time for roe to have a long talk with each of the ambassa-dors and high commissioners, but I have' been able to talk to quite a few and in every case I have learned a great deal and have been greatly helped as I approach the prob-lems confronting a minister of foreign affairs in Canada. I hope that from time to time it wi l l be possible to meet these representa-tives in other places, perhaps at the United Nations or at N A T O conferences or in their own homelands, and I would suggest to mem-bers of this house that they should lose no • opportunity to get acquainted with the am-bassadors and high commissioners, and the . staffs of the various missions in Ottawa, in . order not only to show that we are friendly to other nations of the world but also to learn, as leaders of the Canadian people, more of what is being done and more of the aims and ideals of those nations which are so ably represented i n Ottawa. Also, M r . Chairman, as I expected, I have received very great help from the officials of <•' the Department of External Affairs. They have had. the difficult task of beginning the education of a new minister. There have been many memoranda prepared. Perhaps most of them would not have been necessary if I had been doing my homework during the last 24 years. M r . Pearson: Y o u were' doing your home work. ' ' • . ' . ' M r . Green: In any event, the relationship between us has been very happy, and here again I doubt whether many members of the house have a clear idea of just what these Canadians are doing for their country. T w o days ago I attended the annual picnic of the Department of External Affairs, and yester-day I attended the annual picnic of the De-partment o f Public Works. In fact I am 119 getting to be quite good at picnics. But at that picnic the families and particularly the children of these men who have represented Canada. in places al l over the world gave me a much clearer. picture of what they are doing. One little girl, seven or eight years of age, speaks four languages and I expect that before very long she wi l l be learning a fifth. T h e n there was a foot race on snowshoes for the heads of divisions; that is to say, for the men who are giving the leadership here in Ottawa in the Department of External Affairs. After seeing them in action I am convinced of their great vitality and vast speed, and I think the winner and the runner-up are very well qualified to be ap-pointed ambassadors in Antarctica. These men and their families are great Canadians, probably more so from the fact that abroad, in these various countries, they have spoken for the people of Canada. I have the utmost confidence not only in the work they are doing now but in the work they wil l do in the years ahead. In the external affairs debates I hope it w i l l be possible to have frank discussion. The department would be very glad to have the suggestions and criticism of hon. mem-bers, provided there are not too many bricks in the criticism. . There are a great many members of the House of Commons who are now wel l qualified to express opinions on external affairs. • I think of those hon. members who ' have served on the standing committee on external affairs, which I believe is the topnotch committee of the commons. M a n y hon; members have been taking part in these committee meetings for a great many years and some have learned a great deal about external affairs. T h e y are therefore in a position to make worth-while contributions in the debates in this house. I think also of those hon. members who have participated in various conferences, for example, at the United Nations. Quite a large number of hon. members have taken part as delegates, alternates or observers, and there wi l l be more going to New Y o r k i n September. W e plan to have observers, for example, from the two opposition parties i n the usual way. There have been others taking part in N A T O conferences. In fact, whenever I notice an empty desk in this chamber on the government side I wonder if the occupant who should be there is not in Paris, London.. A n k a r a or somewhere else abroad attending a N A T O conference. I am sure these conferences are very enjoyable, but in addition to that they are beneficial to Canada and qualify the members-who attend to give worth-while opinions here on the floor of the house. Just a week or two ago we had the interparliamentary conference attended by representatives from the United States congress and from our own parliament. The hon. members who took part in that con-ference are also in a position to make a contribution here today, and I hope some wi l l do so. I would prefer to be able to speak today without notes or with very scanty. notes. However—and I am sure the Leader of the Opposition wi l l confirm my findings in this regard—this seems to be a heinous offence from the point of view of the officials of the department, and they are most insistent that one's remarks should be very carefully weighed and that extensive notes should be used. I must admit that I have lost out i n this battle and appear here today with a few notes from which I propose to read. I hope hon. members wi l l bear with me, because I know just as well as they do that it. is extremely difficult to read remarks and keep people awake. Perhaps, however, we w i l l -be able to do a little better in that regard this morning. The first subject I plan to discuss is the Geneva conference. I am aware, as you are, M r . Chairman, that Canadians have been following with close attention the course of the foreign ministers' discussions i n G e -neva. A s hon. members know, the. foreign ministers' conference adjourned on June. 20 and wi l l resume its sittings next Monday, Ju ly 13. It is disappointing that no agreement was. reached during the six weeks-of negotiations, but at the same time one should not underrate the benefits of the dis-cussions which took place. The attitudes of both sides have been clarified, and there are some common elements in the proposals advanced on the Ber l in issue which might possibly lead to progress. This has been a period of re-examination, for the west, both with respect to the at-titude to. be adopted in further discussions and with respect to the question as to whether the present discussions might usefully lead to a summit meeting. The United Kingdom, the United States and France, as the western negotiating powers, together with the Federal Republic of Germany, are examining the records of the discussion and are consulting to determine how best to proceed in the hope of making some progress. In addition— and this is important to Canada;—to p a r t i c i p a -tion in consultations with the negotiating powers which are taking place in the N A T O council, in which consultations, of course, Canada is at all times'represented, the Cana-dian government w i l l shortly have the 120 opportunity of discussing these matters v/ith the United States Secretary of State, M r . Christ ian Herter. A s I announced in the house yesterday, M r . Herter wi l l be here on Saturday. It is to be hoped that during the period of recess of the foreign ministers' conference the Soviet leaders wi l l come to realize that nothing' is to be gained by an attitude of challenge and impatience. If progress is to be made it wi l l be necessary for the east-west talks to be conducted in an atmosphere free of implied threats or peremptory demands. As hon. members are aware, the Canadian government has consistently supported pro-posals for negotiation with the Soviet union on the question, of Berl in , and on other issues. Since in this thermonuclear age war is unthinkable, there is no alternative to negotiation for the solution of these prob-lems. In our view negotiation implies a pre-paredness on both sides to do more than exchange views across the conference table. Each side must go some way to meet the basic interests of the other. If it is possible to arrive at some settlement on the Ber l in question, the way should be opened for the solution of broader problems. For these reasons we have watched with satisfaction the patient and determined efforts of the three western negotiating powers at Geneva to find some basis for reaching agreement. . W e commend the willingness shown by the western powers to make mod-ifications concerning the terms of their pres-ence in Berl in , which take account of expressed Soviet concerns. A t the same time we support the principle, on which the west-ern powers have been united, that no agree-ment would be acceptable which placed in. jeopardy the security of Ber l in or the free-dom of its citizens, or which could have the effect of foreclosing the prospect of the re-unification of Germany. Unfortunately, cir-cumstances do not seem propitious for great or sudden progress on the basic problem of reunification. This should not, however, pre-clude us from attempting to create an at-mosphere in which reunification can more easily be brought about. Where the resumed foreign ministers' con-ference wi l l lead us cannot now be predicted. The Canadian government has held to the view that progress toward settlement of some international issues might be achieved by discussions amongst heads of government, in other words at a summit conference. It is the hope of the Canadian government that such a meeting can be arranged. T h e n there may pi-ove to be subjects other than those relating to Germany and Berlin—-I mention the suspension of nuclear tests and the peace-ful use of outer space as examples—on which progress could be made by high level dis-cussions. A t this stage, I think as few pre-conditions and prior stipulations as possible should be placed in the way of a summit meeting. For example, there have been signs of some difference of opinion on the question of who should participate in a summit conference, and there are indications of a trend to increase participation. In the judgment of the Canadian government this is not l ikely to be a helpful development. The suicidal prospect of global war must be apparent to all nations, and the need of finding some alternative for the settlement of differences must recommend itself to all statesmen. For a middle power such as Canada, with brilliant prospects of develop-' ment, the international tensions which keep' alive the threat of a nuclear holocaust are in themselves especially significant. The speed with which our hopes and prospects can be realized, however, will depend to an i m -portant degree upon the international at-mosphere. We must work, within the western alliance of which we are a member, toward a reduction of tension if we are to be. free to devote a greater part of our na-tional talents and energies to constructive Canadian development. ' ' Through N A T O Canada is able to work intimately with the United Kingdom, the United States and the 12 European member states in the formulation of policies and attitudes which are designed to facilitate progress toward a settlement of some of the highly complicated issues dividing east and west. .-, Today N A T O takes stock of the past decade and the plans for the years ahead. Nothing that can be seen on the horizon suggests or permits the luxury of a slackening in the preparedness of free nations. The need for vigilance and unity is as imperative now as at any time during the past decade. It is imperative not only for reasons of our security but also in the context of bur never-ending search through diplomacy for peace-ful solutions to the problems dividing 1 the world today. The presence of Canadian forces alongside their friends from the United .Kingdom, the United States and.Europe is both an earnest of Canadian intentions and an important cause of the respect accorded Canada in the daily conduct of international affairs. I might mention, in connection, with the stationing of Canadian forces i n Germany, that the negotiations concerning supple-mentary arrangements governing their status in that country have recently been concluded, and that signature is expected to take place 5 next month. I regret that as the house wi l l , I hope, have risen by that time, it wi l l not be possible to table the documents, but this wil l be done early in the next session of parliament. Even though the initial emphasis in N A T O was on military requirements, the members of the alliance have recognized the funda-mental community of interests arid aspira-tions shared by all parties to the treaty, and have fostered through the years the develop-ment , of an Atlantic community of l ike-minded nations and peoples. Today, when the threat to the free world is not only military but economic, political and psycho-logical, Canada is playing its part in stressing the need for consultations between member governments in the development of both the military and non-military aspects of the al-liance. Support for N A T O remains an essen-( t i a l cornerstone of Canada's foreign policy. It is natural enough, M r . Chairman, that with Her Majesty, by happy circumstance, in Canada when this debate takes place, the commonwealth and Canada's place i n it should be foremost in our minds at this time. I recall with satisfaction the useful exchanges of views which have taken place here in Ottawa in recent months with a number of commonwealth leaders. In M a r c h we had the pleasure of welcoming the United Kingdom Prime Minister, M r . Macmil lan, and foreign secretary Selwyn L l o y d , and I would like to take this opportunity of paying tribute to the important part they have since played i n preserving the unity of approach of the western powers in the difficult negotiations that have been carried on at Geneva. W e have, in addition, had the privilege of wel-coming here the Pr ime Minister of Austral ia and cabinet ministers or other distinguished representatives of India, the West Indies Federation, Pakistan and, only last month, Nigeria. . • . ; : One has only to recite the far-flung terri-tories from which these visitors came to be reminded of the vast compass of this friendly association of nations which continues to exercise a beneficent-influence on the affairs of all mankind. It is an association, more-over, which is never static but constantly expanding and evolving as former dependent territories take their place in orderly progress as free and independent members of the commonwealth. A s a member of the com-' monwealth we are justly proud of its record in facilitating the constitutional development of its members. For example, very recently we had the opportunity of welcoming a further step in this' direction and yet another member, Singapore. • Similar developments are taking place today in another most important area of the world, Afr ica . In the welter of news reports about problems and stresses in various parts of that continent I am afraid there has been a tendency to overlook a significant and happy commonwealth event in Afr ica ."T am referring, of course, to the fact that recently powers of self-government passed to the populous northern region of the federation of Nigeria, thus completing the internal political evolution which is to culminate on October 1, 1960, when the large and important nation of Nigeria is scheduled to obtain independence. I am happy to say that both the Prime M i n -ister of the. federation and the premiers of the regions have expressed the intention to remain in the commonwealth. I am sure all' hon. members wi l l wish to join with me in expressing to the Nigerian leaders and to the United K i n g d o m government congratulations for their respective parts in this welcome event. The Canadian government hopes to be in a position to establish suitable diplomatic representation in Nigeria and to take similar action with respect to the, federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland as soon as c ircum-stances permit. It wi l l be appropriate, I think, if I should say a word or two here about the assistance which Canada has been giving in recent, months to the less developed countries under the various programs which have been estab-lished for this purpose, especially since most of Canada's assistance has gone to our part-ners in the commonwealth family. I refer, of course, to the Colombo plan, i f the com-monwealth association is to continue to have the meaning it now has, it is important that the less developed countries of the common-wealth should continue to be able to count on the active sympathy and support of those of us who are in a more fortunate position. Since my predecessor last reviewed the position we have been able to carry to a successful conclusion our discussions with Pakistan and Ceylon with respect to their share of the Colombo plan appropriation voted by parliament for the fiscal year 1958-59. As a result of these discussions we have' now agreed that $13 mill ion in the form of Canadian commodities and equipment wi l l be made available to Pakistan and $2 mil l ion to Ceylon. Under the Pakistan program we have agreed to provide a further $2 mil l ion worth of wheat in addition to the $2 mil l ion of which the house was informed last Novem-ber. The amount of $2,800,000 wil l be devoted to the provision of industrial metals which are urgently required for the indus-trial sector of the economy to help maintain reasonable levels of industrial activity and 122 employment. Some $650,000 wi l l be made available in the form of wood pulp which is-required for a. new newsprint mi l l being constructed by a Canadian engineering firm. T h e n $120,000 wi l l be provided for the pur-chase of pesticide spraying equipment and $200,000 for the purchase of three Beaver aircraft to help with the eradication of crop pests. T h e sum of $500,000 has been set aside to provide spare parts and to finance the cost of overhauling the equipment which has been used in the construction of the Warsalc dam, and which wi l l be turned over to the government of Pakistan as and when it ceases to be required on the project. A n amount of $1,100,000 has been allocated to the construction of a transmission line from Karnaphul i to the port of Chittagong in east Pakistan. The balance of $3,630,000 available from the $13 mil l ion set aside for Pakistan is being allocated tentatively to two new projects, one in the construction field and the other aimed at creating addi-tional electrical generating capacity in Pakistan. Turn ing to the Canadian aid program in Ceylon, the government has approved an allocation of $710,000 to finance the contin-uation of the aerial photographic and resources survey which a Canadian firm has been carrying out in Ceylon under the Colombo plan. A second project, which has been tentatively selected, covers the construction of transmission lines in an area i n the development of which Canada has already had an opportunity to participate. We have also completed discussions with a number of non-commonwealth countries, notably Indonesia, B u r m a and Viet Nam, out of which has emerged a program that wi l l absorb about $2 mi l l ion of the Colombo plan appropriation voted by parliament for 1958-59, the last fiscal year. This program com-prises the provision of Canadian foodstuffs, Canadian participation in a highway survey and a bridge bui lding project in B u r m a and the supply of prospecting equipment to B u r m a and of three Otter aircraft to Indonesia to assist that country i n the development of its widely scattered island economy. We hope shortly to be able to commence discussions with our Colombo plan partners about the program to be financed out of our contribution for the present fiscal year, 1959-60, which as the house is aware wi l l be increased from $35 mil l ion to $50 million. There are, however, two projects to which I might refer briefly today because they are projects of a regional nature which, because of their importance and the very substantial benefits that are l ikely to flow from them, have attracted wide interest and support from countries other than Canada. The first of these is the Mekong river proj-ect, about which my colleague the Minister of • Finance provided information to the house on M a r c h 12. I am glad to be able to say that the arrangements for Canadian participation in tliis project are moving ahead rapidly and that we expect the photographic surveying of the Mekong river basin, which as hon. mem-bers know affects several different nations, to get under way before the end of the year. In working out these arrangements we have had the benefit of the full and enthusiastic co-operation of the riparian states and the executive agent whom the United Nations has placed at their disposal to help with the administration of the project. The second project about which I think the house would wish me to say something at this stage relates to the development of the Indus waters system.. A s the house is aware, the apportionment of the waters of the Indus system is one of the residual problems that has been left over from the partition of the Indian subcontinent in 1947. This problem has been a source of continuing difficulty between India and Pakistan, and efforts to. solve it had proved to no avail. Some years ago, therefore, India and Pakistan agreed to refer this problem to the international bank to see whether the officials of the bank could devise a solution which would be at once -economically feasible and politically accept-able to them. -A s a result of the negotiations that have been conducted under the bank's auspices, the elements of a solution have now emerged in terms of an engineering program that would safeguard the interests of both countries. T h e bank has asked the governments of Canada, Australia, the United K i n g d o m and the United States whether they would be prepared to co-operate in the implementation of this pro-gram, which is expected to extend over a 10-year period. The Canadian government agreed in principle to participate i n the program that has been drawn up by the bank, on the understanding that the funds required for this purpose would be provided as part :\ of our increased Colombo plan contribution. I am confident that the house wi l l endorse the government's view that it is in Canada's interest to help in the solution.of a problem which has stood in the way of better relations between two of our commonwealth partners • in Asia . One final commonwealth development cer-tainly deserves mention here. A t the common-wealth trade and economic conference held i n Montreal last year a commonwealth scholar-ship scheme was agreed to by the governments there represented. It was envisaged that in. time there might be as many as 1,000 com-monwealth students studying under the aus-123 pices of the scheme i n commonwealth countries. A t Montreal , Canada undertook to be responsible for one quarter of this total, or about 250 places at any one time. T h e cost of this commitment to Canada is estimated at about $1 mil l ion annually. A s I informed hon. members last week, detailed discussions about the implementation of the proposed scholarship scheme wi l l take place at a commonwealth education con-ference to be held from J u l y 15 to Ju ly 29 at Oxford; in other words, it starts next Wednesday. T h e purpose of this conference is to work out the scope and detailed ar-rangements of a commonwealth scholarship scheme. In addition, however, the conference wi l l have a wider mandate: —to review existing arrangements for common-wealth co-operation in the field of education and to make recommendations for any improvement or expansion that may be possible, particularly in regard to the supply and training of teachers. O n Ju ly 3 I announced to the house the composition of the Canadian delegation to the commonwealth education conference. I indicated at the time that members of the delegation would be required to leave for the United K i n g d o m over the week end and that accordingly I foresaw some difficulty in adding representatives to the delegation at that stage. However, the hon. member for Burnaby-Coquit lam suggested that there should be a representative from a teachers' federation, and I am glad to tell the house today, as, I have already been able to tell the hon. • member, that through the good offices of the Canadian teachers' federation it has been possible to add M r . G . A . Mosher to the delegation as a teachers' representa-tive from the province of Nova Scotia. T u r n i n g to our relations with our neighbour and good friend, the United States, I shall endeavour to confine my remarks to certain matters which are of current interest. Within the past two weeks a signal event occurred when the President of the United States joined with Her Majesty the Queen at the opening ceremonies of the St. Lawrence seaway. It v a s a happy occasion, and the importance of good relations between the two countries was underlined by the realization of what could be done to the advantage of both i n co-operation. T h e personal and friendly relations which existed among Her Majesty, the President, the. Pr ime Minister and the ministers of the two governments— and-1 might add the Leader of the Opposition and other very responsible citizens of Canada and the United States—were evident as together we took part i n the opening ceremonies and other events of that day. It seemed to me that in many ways we were paralleling the experiences of numerous families, business firms, service clubs and other organizations in our friendly approach to matters of common concern. . A particular parallel is, of course, present in my mind. The opening of the St. Lawrence seaway was chosen as a convenient occasion for a meeting of the legislators of the two countries, to which I made some reference i n opening my remarks. M a y I take this occa-sion to pay tribute to the members of the interparliamentary group who examined to-gether many of the facets of the relations between the United States and Canada, and whose serious and constructive approach wil l , I am sure, be reflected in discussions of matters affecting the two countries as these are dealt with from time to time i n our re-spective legislative bodies. A sound basis of understanding one another's points of view together with an objective attempt to deter-mine what is the real national and interna-tional interest in each question wil l , I am sure, pay untold benefits. The boundary water problems between the two nations are receiving urgent attention, especially that concerning the development of the waters of the Columbia river basin, a problem to which the international joint commission has been devoting active con-sideration for some years. In January of this year, 1959, the two governments requested that the commission should report specifically and quickly with respect to the principles which might be applied by governments to two matters; first, the calculation of the ben-efits accruing i n the downstream country in consequence of the storage and regulated release of water i n the upstream country; second, the allocation between the two coun-tries of these benefits. -Although no formal report has so far been made to governments by the commission, the chairmen are keeping their respective gov-ernments informed of the course of their deliberations. ' A s hon. members are aware, the commission does not maintain an inde-pendent staff. Accordingly the facilities and the personnel of government departments and agencies of the United States, Canada- and also of the province of Brit ish Columbia have been placed at the disposal of the commis-sioners. I am confident that it w i l l be pos-sible for the commission to report soon recom-mending principles which wi l l be acceptable, to the governments concerned. Such princi -ples, with respect to the determination and division of benefits, should reduce materially the period required for completion of an international agreement. The immense volume and complexity of Canada-United States economic and commer-cial relations inevitably create many diffi-culties and problems. These receive a great. 124 deal of publicity which sometimes tends to obscure the fundamental fact that our mutual economic relations are on the whole extremely profitable and advantageous to both sides. This is the starting point from which we must examine the particular, and often very important, difficulties which turn up from time to time, such as questions arising from the operation of Canadian subsidiaries of United States companies and, related to this, the problems sometimes encountered in the attempted extraterritorial application of United States legislation and policy. I have in mind such matters as' United States anti-trust proceedings and the effect of United States commercial or strategic policy on Canadian subsidiary companies. We have also had problems in our various agri-cultural sales and disposal policies and in connection with restrictions or limitations by one country on imports from the other. Such problems are a continuing and natural con-sequence Of our closely interlocked economies. They are not problems which are susceptible of any general or final solution, and genuine differences in our interests must be faced frankly; but I believe most of these problems can be met to the mutual satisfaction of the two countries if we continue to tackle them in a spirit of good wi l l and friendly co-operation, always bearing in mind the great mutual gain arising from our commercial and economic dealings with each other. I am particularly pleased to be able to say that in recent months there have been a number of very important developments or decisions in the United States which have favourably affected Canadian interests and have reflected a responsible and co-operative attitude in the United States toward relations with Canada and other friendly countries. I have in mind, for example, the modification of the United States oil import provisions, as they affected Canadian oil transported by land; the removal of obstacles to transit ship-ment of certain goods—including, I think, canned shrimp—and the favourable modifica-tion of "buy American" requirements on United States defence orders. Another recent example which was of particular significance to Canada was a ruling of the office of civi l and defence mobilization that imports of large hydroelectric turbines and other related electrical generating equip-ment would not endanger the national security. A s a consequence of this ruling a Canadian company wil l share in a very substantial contract for turbines to be in -stalled at the B ig Bend dam on the Missouri river in South Dakota. These are all matters on which we have had direct and friendly discussions with the United States authorities, and the outcome indicates what can be achieved by this means. -Similarly, our defence relationships with . the United States continue to be close. These relationships stem from an identity of interest in the face of the possibility which exists, by. reason of technological advances in modern weaponry, of a devastating attack on our two countries. Neither country can defend itself effectively in the face of such a threat without the co-operation of the other. This collective approach to the problem of continental de-fence is but one segment of a much wider collectivity of effort through the N A T O alliance. ' The military planning of joint defence activities and the implementation of specific projects in this field are of primary concern to the Minister of National Defence, who reported fully to the house during last week's defence debate. I shall not, therefore, com-ment on these strictly military aspects of our defence co-operation with the" United States. I would, however, like to speak briefly on the other important factors which influence that co-operation. Our identity of interest with the United States in the defence field does not preclude our differences of' emphasis cn policies designed to serve our common objective. It is for this reason that the Canadian government insists that we be consulted regularly and fully by the United States government on a wide range of devel-opments throughout the world which might bring with them the possibility of armed, conflict. -In our bilateral dealings on defence matters with the United States the Canadian gov-ernment does not hesitate to assert the requirements of Canadian sovereignty. Cana-dians are convinced, I am certain, that the best physical protection of our sovereignty lies in co-operative continental defence ar-rangements. Canada must insist, however, that such co-operaticn shall not jeopardize the . political and economic objectives of our own. nation. The Chairman: I regret to interrupt the . minister, but I must inform h im that his time has expired. Is it the pleasure of the com-mittee that the minister be allowed to continue? - ' Some hon. Members: Agreed. M r . Green: Once again, M r . Chairman, may I express appreciation for the kindness of hon. members in giving me further time. Most of us are inclined to overlook the fact that we have another great neighbouring state, the Soviet union. As has been mentioned on more than one occasion in this house, Canada has a special interest in its relations 125 9 with the Soviet union. Together our northern boundaries account for the major part of the coast line of the Arct ic ocean. We share a deep interest in problems of northern de-velopment, transportation and communica-tion across a large land mass, the exploita-tion of basically similar timber, mineral, agricultural and other resources. A s a con-sequence, each has much to gain from draw-ing upon the other's experience. In recent years interchanges between our two countries, particularly in the scientific, cultural and technical fields, have increased in a limited but encouraging way. The ap-pearance in Toronto and Montreal only a few weeks ago of the famed Bolshoi ballet is a pleasant manifestation of this develop-ment. Exchanges of delegations and informa-tion are continuing in a variety of other fields. The developments which have been taking place i n Canadian-Soviet relations are in large part a reflection of the Soviet union's emergence into more active participation' in the affairs of the world community. It has been in only comparatively recent times that the Soviet union has begun to take an active part in many of the agencies of the United Nations, at world • conferences in various fields of science and technology and in such international co-operative ventures as the international geophysical year. Canada has welcomed this evidence of the Soviet union's desire to take up some of the heavy obliga-tions which fal l to a great world power. Turn ing to a more remote corner of the world, I should like to say something about Indochina, where Canadian civil ian and mil itary officers continue to serve on two of the three international commissions which were set up by the Geneva agreements in order to maintain those agreements. I shall begin with Laos where, the committee wi l l recall, the international commission adjourned sine die in July, 1958, following the con-clusion of political and mil i tary agreements between the Laotian government and the dissident Pathet Lao . Since the beginning of this year, when it was reported that .north Viet Namese troops had crossed into Laot ian territory as a result of" border disputes, the situation in Laos has attracted some degree of public attention. There have been more recent troubles in Lacs caused by the refusal of two battalions of the ex-Pathet. L a o — I am not sure of m y pronunciation, M r . Chairman —to accept terms for integration into the Laot ian army, which was provided for by the mil itary agreement reached between the Laotian government and the former Pathet "Lao in November, 1957. One of the battalions later accepted integration. T h e other refused to do so and is now dispersed at the border of north Viet N a m . However, the situation has improved recently and the Laot ian government issued a communique stating that this affair can now be regarded as closed.-The difficulties in Laos prompted numerous requests for reconvening the international commission for Laos, of which, as hon. m e m -bers know, Canada is a member. The Canadian position, as stated by the right hon. Prime Minister in the house on M a y 8, is that . Canada cannot agree to any commission action which would infringe upon Laotian sover-eignty. The Laotian government is under-stood to be opposed to the reconvening of the commission, but has pledged itself to uphold the Geneva cease-fire agreement. W e are in continuous touch with the Indian and United K i n g d o m governments on this ques-tion—India being another member of the commission, with Poland the third member— and we are watching Laotian developments closely. A s to Cambodia, it was stated in the house on Ju ly 25, 1958 that an adjournment formula similar to that used in Laos might be applied to the Cambodian commission. This ,has not proved possible, although efforts in this direc-tion are continuing and the strength of the Cambodian commission has been reduced to a ' m i n i m u m . _ > " , In Viet Nam, the tension between south and north has not abated, unfortunately, and the Viet N a m commission—on which Canada is also represented, as she is on the Cambodian commission—continues to perform a valuable task in maintaining stability in the area. However, we hope that it might be possible to effect a reduction of the strength of the Viet N a m commission which would not impair its effectiveness. I take this opportunity to pay tribute to the way in which India has fulfilled the dif-ficult role of chairman of the three inter-national commissions. Our work together in Indochina has been and wil l , I am sure, con-tinue to be one of beneficial co-operation. The policy of the Canadian government toward relations with communist China was examined at some length by the late Hon. Sidney Smith last February, and I do not intend to restate it here. Hon. members wi l l find that statement commencing at page 1405 of this year's Hansard. The Peking a u -thorities, however, do not make things any easier for us.. Last year, for instance, when the Chinese question was being discussed in the United Nations, it had to be done against a background of communist attack on the nationalist-held islands of Quemoy and Matsu. More recently there has been the 126 repression of Tibet, the attempt to tamper with its way of life, extinguish its religious values and destroy its autonomy. These actions are not conducive to the peaceful rela-tions which we should like to have with the Chinese people. Let us hope that the situation in that respect wi l l improve. Final ly , M r . Chairman—last but by no means least—I have a few comments to make with regard to Canada and the United Nations. This is the season of the year at which foreign offices throughout the world begin to turn their attention to the annual general assembly of the United Nations. It is an opportune moment at which to give hon. members an account of some of the ac-complishments of the agencies of that organi-zation during the period since it last met in plenary session, and to give some thought to matters to which its attention wi l l be de-voted at the forthcoming fourteenth session. First there is the matter of disarmament. Hon. members wi l l be aware that during the past several months discussion of the substantive problems of disarmament has been limited to the negotiations at Geneva on the discontinuance of nuclear tests. These negotiations were begun among the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet union on October 31 last. The central prob-lem separating the two sides became clear at quite an early stage. It concerns the pro-cedures to be used for the dispatch of teams to make on-site inspections of unidentified events which could be suspected of being nuclear explosions. The United Kingdom and the United States position has been that in -spection should be initiated automatically, on the basis of agreed technical criteria, by the administrator of the control system unless a contrary decision were taken by a two thirds majority of the control commission. The Soviet union has argued that such arrange-ments would enable the western ' powers to use the control machinery for purposes of espionage. The Soviet union therefore has demanded that the dispatch of inspection teams should require the concurrence of the three nuclear powers. With a view to finding a way out of this deadlock Prime Minister Macmil lan, during his visit to Moscow, suggested to Premier Khrushchev that each side should have the right to demand that an agreed annual quota of inspections be made which would not require votes in the control commission. Some weeks later the Soviet representative at Geneva introduced a proposal based upon this concept. I may say that the Canadian government considers that Pr ime . Minister Macmillan's idea seems more likely than any other suggestion we have seen to provide the basis for a solution to this most difficult problem. Fol lowing a short recess when the foreign ministers' meeting started, negotiations were resumed on June 8, and shortly thereafter the three representatives agreed to the forma-tion of a working group of experts to study methods for detection of nuclear explosions carried out at high altitudes; that is, from thirty kilometres to fifty kilometres above the earth. The expert group met beginning June 22 and their report has just been received. I trust that its technical findings wi l l facilitate political agreement. Also during the past month the United States representative introduced papers relating to the problem of detecting underground nuclear tests. The Soviet representative has not as yet agreed to take these new data under consideration or to remit them to a group of experts. While difficult problems remain to be re-solved, it is encouraging to note that to date a total of 17 articles have been approved for a draft treaty on the discontinuance of nuclear tests. We are confident that with continued good wi l l on both sides the conference wi l l result in a workable agreement. Such agree-ment could hardly fail to give impetus to the renewal of negotiations on other aspects of disarmament. In order to facilitate such other negotiations it would be desirable to reactivate the former subcommittee of the disarmament commis-sion of which Canada was a member, or to provide in some other manner acceptable to the powers principally involved for a group of manageable size within the present 82-member disarmament commission. Hon. members wil l , of course, realize the diffi-culties involved in reaching any agreement in a commission composed of 82 members. I venture to express the hope that when the conference of foreign ministers of the four powers reconvenes next week it may give some consideration to the question of negotiat-ing machinery within the United Nations. A n d now a word about outer space. Dur ing M a y and June the United Nations ad hoc committee on the peaceful uses of outer space held a useful session. The committee was created at the last session of the general assembly in recognition, as the assembly resolution phrased it, of "the common interest of mankind in outer space", and "the com-mon aim that outer space should be used for peaceful purposes only". Canada was one of 18 members elected to the committee. Unfortunately the Soviet union, in order to demonstrate its disapproval of the composition of the committee, has.re-fused to participate. In this policy it has been followed by Czechoslovakia and Poland.' India and the United A r a b Republic have also 11 felt unable to attend the sessions of the com-mittee. The Canadian representative ex-pressed this country's hope that at some time in the not too distant future all these countries would feel able to co-operate. The committee nevertheless proceeded with detailed studies in accordance with its terms of reference. Technical and legal com-mittees were formed to draft components of the report eventually to be made to the gen-eral assembly and, as hon. members are no doubt aware, Canada provided the chair-m a n of the technical committee, D r . Donald Rose of the national research council. The final report of the committee was approved on June 25. In addition to a number of con-clusions relating to specific matters, it sug-gests that the United Nations might establish a committee suitably composed to carry fur-ther the investigations which have been begun. I trust that the general assembly w i l l agree that such action is appropriate and that in the future Soviet co-operation wi l l be forthcoming. Here I should say a few words on the United Nations and radiation. I have already indicated one reason for our concern that the negotiations on nuclear tests should be fruit-ful; it is that their success might provide a turning point in the armaments race. A further reason is that a definitive agreement would avoid any increase in whatever hazard may be involved in radioactive fall-out. Hon. members w i l l recall that last year the United Nations scientific committee on the effects of atomic radiation produced a valuable report, based upon the data made available to it by - governments. Because the methods of collecting data vary from country to coun-try, and because not all governments have instituted programs for the collection, anal-ysis and reporting of appropriate samples, the data available to the committee neces-sarily was not as comprehensive as it might have been. In the Canadian government's view it is desirable that support be given to the efforts of the committee to enlarge and improve these data. The next subject to which I should like to refer is the stand-by force. A further issue which received considerable attention at the last session of the general assembly and which may be up for consideration again relates to the many and varied United Nations activities as a peace-keeping organ-ization and the possibilities that these wi l l i n turn evolve into rr"?,re permanent United Nations stand-by arrangements. Canada's strong support for efforts undertaken under United Nations auspices to secure peace and stability i n troubled areas of the world is evidenced by Canadian contributions to, and active participation in , such bodies as the United Nations truce supervisory organiza-tion in Palestine, the United Nations mil i tary observers group in India and Pakistan, the United Nations emergency force, known as U N E F , and unti l its disbandment in Novem-ber, 1958, the United Nations observer group in Lebanon. U N E F represents the largest and most recent of these operations, and within its terms of reference has achieved notable success. I should like here to pay tribute to those young Canadians who have served i n this U N E F force in the faraway deserts. They have been making a great contribution, and they have kept the name of Canada high. Natural ly a good deal of attention has been given to the possibility of extending or trans-forming U N E F into a permanent United N a -tions police force. Last year's session of the United Nations general assembly requested' the United Nations secretary general to study the experience of U N E F for any lessons which might be derived for future United Nations policy. It is the Canadian government's view that experience has shown that United Nations requirements can involve a wide variety of types of service, designed to meet particular situations in particular areas, none of which may offer an exact precedent for a more permanent type of stand-by force. The Cana- . dian government has emphasized the need for flexibility in our approach to breaches of the peace in view of the complexity and delicacy of the issues presented. Dur ing a recent press conference in New Y o r k , when the U n i t e d . Nations secretary general was asked whether he visualized a permanent United Nations force along the lines of U N E F , he replied in the negative and used the analogy of a tailor and his cloth in explanation of his position. M r . H a m -marskjold said: We need really to cut the suit to the body . . . more carefully in these various cases of which .. UNEF is an example than any other cases which are of concern to the United Nations . . . We can-not afford or usefully have a wardrobe sufficiently rich and varied to be able to pick out just the right suit as the situation arises. It is much better to have the cloth and go into action as a good tailor quickly when the need arises. It would no doubt be agreed that in a world which is far from perfect we should not be dissatisfied if progress is made by a series of small steps. Nevertheless, these various United Nations operations in the interests of restoring and maintaining peace have provided a very useful body of expe-rience out of which it is hoped to evolve more comprehensive machinery for strengthening the forces of peace. I can assure you that all proposals to this end are given the most careful study by the Canadian government. 128 12 I would be remiss if I were to omit from this account of United Nations activities reference to a most admirable humanitarian project which members of the United Nations are undertaking this year as a common endeavour. Recently I informed the house of the opening of world refugee year, which formally began in Canada on June 28 with statements on radio and on television by the right hon. Pr ime Minister. I must say that I have been gratified by the extent of public response to the statement I made at that time, and in particular by the numerous newspaper editorials which have expressed approval of the fact that the government plans to admit a number of tubercular refugee cases into Canada and provide for their treatment. Arrangements for such a scheme are now under discussion. I am sure the warm hearts of the Canadian people from coast to coast wi l l see that support is given to this plan and any other plans of a similar nature. Not only is the government interested, but there is also a Canadian committee for world refugee year which has already been doing excellent work. Wor ld refugee year began as an idea put forward by a group of private Brit ish citizens. Since then it has been given inter-national approval by the general assembly as a means of facilitating its own task of permanently solving refugee problems. T h e government has been participating actively in United Nations refugee ' programs, and we shall continue to do so. I have already occupied the time of hon. members too long with this statement, es-pecially when it is my earnest hope that spontaneous and frank discussions on interr national problems wi l l increasingly become the rule in this house. I really should have been setting an example in that regard this morning. I might mention before I close that I felt free to devote my attention entirely to international affairs rather than to details of the estimates in view of the thorough scru-tiny given to the estimates of the depart-ment by the standing committee on external affairs earlier in the year. Once again I invite hon. members to make their suggestions with regard to Canada's foreign policy and I am sure the result wi l l be very beneficial not only to the gov-ernment but also to parliament and the na-tion as a whole. M y own belief is that Cana-dian foreign policy should be one that w i l l reflect at al l times the common sense and the courage, and above all the character, of the Canadian people. It wi l l be my aim as Secretary of State for External Affairs to do everything I can to see that Canadian foreign policy wi l l fit that pattern, and I am sure that in this task I shall have great help from all hon. members. The Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, 1959 C A N A D A 129 7 & O F F I C I A L R E P O R T S P E E C H of H O W A R D G R E E N Member for Vancouver Quadra and Secretary of State for External Affairs on ' s Foreign Nicy. Made in the House of Commons on February 10, 1960 31348-5 (These reprints were paid for by Howard Green) 130 E X T E R N A L A F F A I R S R E F E R E N C E O F E S T I M A T E S O F D E P A R T M E N T T O S T A N D I N G C O M M I T T E E . Hon. Howard C . Green (Secretary of State for External Affairs) moved: That items numbered 75 to 106 inclusive, as listed in the main estimates 1960-1961, relating to the Department of External Affairs, be withdrawn from the committee of supply and referred to the standing committee on external affairs, saving always the powers of the committee 'of supply in relation to the voting of public moneys. He said: M r . Speaker, first may I thank • the members of all parties for the very en-couraging reception they have given me as I rise to lead off in my first full-dress debate on external affairs. It reminded me of the very fine start they gave me just eight months ago. These acts of kindness mean a great deal and reflect so clearly how much good wil l there is in this house, even though some-times one wonders if it has not vanished out through all the doors at once. • The time during which I have been minister of this department has been very interesting. There has been a great deal to learn, and I am afraid I have only begun to scratch the surface as yet. In this connection I should like to commence by * expressing appreciation to the officers and staff of the Department of External Affairs. They have been extremely patient with a new minister. I think they must have prepared at least 1,000 memoranda so that he might be up to date on the various questions. The only sad part about it is that there are still several thousand more that wi l l be needed in the months that lie ahead. I was particularly pleased, as I am sure any member of parliament holding this port-folio would have been, by the conference I attended last October in Paris. There we had 28 ambassadors and high commissioners representing Canada in various European capitals and in the Middle East. It made one very proud of Canada's representation abroad to sit and listen to the discussions of that group for four days. I believe the men and women who have gone into the Department of External Affairs, have entered that work in order to make a career of service to Canada rather than for the monetary rewards they •might get. It is very important, I think, for those of us who are here in Canada, partic-ularly those who are in the House of C o m -mons, to realize just what a fine contribution these men and women are making. Today I have escaped from the bonds of the department, in that I am not reading a speech. I am. rather speaking from notes, so if a third world war should start tomor-row as a result the department wi l l not be to blame. I am d o i n g . this for several 81348-5—U . [ ' reasons, and one is that .1 am hoping the debate on external affairs this year wi l l come down out of the clouds; that we wi l l get as many speeches by members from-as many - different parts of the country as pos-sible, rather than having a series of written speeches, which are all very good but inevi-tably put the listeners to sleep. I believe they do not mean as much to parliament or to the country as would be the case if we had a wide open, free-swinging debate with members speaking more or less off the cuff. B y . the way, this is one reason we have allocated two days instead of one for the debate. There should be an opportunity tomorrow for 25 or 30 speeches, provided, they are not too long. However, no one is supposed to follow my example in this regard, because my speech may be for an hour or even more, so I am not practising what I am preaching. I find that the Canadian people are very much interested in external affairs. Fortu-nately, or unfortunately, they are much more interested in what the Secretary of State for External Affairs says than they were in what he said as minister of public works. Probably we underestimate the intense interest of the Canadian people in , world affairs at the present time. After al l , is it any wonder that such should be the case; because it just may be that the.whole of our civilization is at stake, depending upon what is done by the various nations. In my remarks today I intend to deal with nine different subjects. They are disarma-ment, the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza-tion, the commonwealth, Canadian-United States relations, Lat in America , Canada and the Pacific, the Middle East, the United Nations, and the law of the sea. If I find that time is going I may possibly delay my remarks on the law of the sea until we get into the committee on external affairs. Before going on with these nine different subjects I have two general comments to make. The first is that in the world today Canada-has only friends and no enemies. She is a comparatively young nation with an excellent record, for which credit is due to those Canadians who have been in positions of responsibility down through the years. Canada is a nation with no designs on anyone, a, nation whose people approach world affairs with an unselfish attitude, and also a nation whose people have great capacity for friend-ship. I repeat that Canada today has only friends and no enemies. For this situation, too, we owe a great deal to those distinguished representatives from abroad who have come here to man the embassies and the high commissioner's offices. They keep us informed of the views of their respective countries, and they go home" at the end of their term, or to another post, friends of Canada. They have played through the years a very important part in spreading good wi l l for Canada throughout the world. I should like to pay that tribute to them today, and to thank the members of the present diplomatic corps who have been of great help to me in these last eight months. The second thought I should like to place before the house is that the time has come to drop the idea that Canada's role in world affairs is to be an "honest broker" between the nations. W e must decide instead that our role is to be to determine the right stand to take on problems, keeping in mind the Cana-dian background and, above all, using Cana-dian common sense. In effect, the time has come to take an independent approach. I do not want to leave the impression for one minute that former governments have not taken an independent approach, but across the country one has heard time and time again, "Oh, Canada can do a great deal by being honest broker between the nations, particularly between the big nations, by run-ning from one to the other and suggesting that one should modify its attitude because the other one does not like it", and so on. This has been so particularly as it concerned dealings between the United K i n g d o m and the United States. E v e r y member of the house wi l l have heard comments to the effect that Canada should be interpreting the Brit ish to the Americans and the Americans to the Brit ish. - . ' That, idea used to appeal to me, and it may have been a wise plan to adopt at one time. But • today the Brit ish and the Americans are just as close together as any two nations could be. They do not need any interpreters from Canada, or from any other place. Some-times I think, when we do not agree with their policies, that they "gang up on Canada". I am not using the phrase "gang up" in any offensive way; if they think we are in the wrong, then it -is natural that they should, get together and try to do what they can to persuade us to change. It is all done in a very friendly way with the attitude that "this hurts me more than it hurts you". So we are all good friends. It is not as if there is any lack of friendship and understanding. But I do ask the hon. members of this house to consider whether Canada would not gain more respect in the years that lie ahead and exercise more influence if she forgot about this role of being a middle man or an honest broker. - ' 131 . Then, M r . Speaker, to come to. m y . first subject, the subject of disarmament. In my -judgment the field of disarmament is the most important field for Canada in world affairs in 1960, because our nation is a mem-ber of the 10-nation disarmament committee, , which literally carries with it the hopes of mankind. May I just outline something of the back-ground. For many years there have been attempts to work out some system of disarma-; ment both in the United Nations and outside. Canada, I think, has participated in every committee or commission on disarmament since these efforts began and has made a splendid contribution. But this work has been discouraging, and to a degree disillusioning. _ Dur ing the summer of 1959 the position was that in the United Nations there was a dis-armament commission whose function was supposed to be to work out some method of disarmament. A s I understand it, the attempt had been made earlier to have a fairly small" committee deal with the subject but it had been unsuccessful, so this United Nations dis-armament commission was set up, consisting of every one of the 82 member states. Y o u can imagine, M r . Speaker, how difficult it would be for a commission of that size to get results, and of course there were no results obtained. ' T h e n last summer the foreign ministers of the United States, the United Kingdom, France" and Russia spent many long weeks negotiating at Geneva. One result of their deliberations was that at the conclusion of their conference they announced their intention of inviting • Canada, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Italy, Poland and Roumania to join them on a new 10-member disarmament committee. They, announced at the time that this committee was expected to be, and I am now quoting from their announcement:. -—a useful means of exploring, through mutual consultations, every avenue of possible progress toward such agreements and recommendations- on the limitation and reduction of all types of arma-ments and armed forces under effective interna-tional control as may, in the first instance, be of particular relevance to the countries participating in these deliberations. It should be pointed out that five of those countries are western countries and five are eastern. A l l of the five western countries, belong to the North Atlantic Treaty Organiza- . tion, and all of the five eastern to the Warsaw pact. Canada, of course, was perfectly wil l ing to fall in with this idea and to serve on such a committee. "' , • The four big.nations which had decided to set up the committee so reported to the United Nations in September because, after all, here was the disarmament commission of the United Nations supposedly dealing with this question of disarmament, and it was essential that there should be some arrange-ment worked, out between the 10-member committee and the large United Nations disar-mament commission. The four big powers asked that the United Nations disarmament commission be convened to hear formally of the creation of the new committee of ten. These four, powers, moreover, made it clear that the United Nations would be kept i n -formed of progress in the deliberations of the committee, because it was essential to keep the United Nations in the picture. After all, the only way in which a world-wide disarma-ment plan wi l l be worked out wi l l be under the aegis of the United Nations. Canada was particularly concerned that the United Nations should be kept fully informed, and when I spoke in New Y o r k on Septem-ber 24 I pointed out that the middle-sized and smaller powers must have an opportunity of being heard, since disarmament is of the deepest concern to all mankind. I said, further, that in Canada's work on the l u -nation committee we would at all times keep these considerations very much in mind. - A t the United Nations last fall it .was very clear that the delegates from every nation were far more interested in the question of disarmament than in any other question. They had witnessed a lessening of tension across the world. There had been a visit by Prime Minister Macmi l lan and Foreign Secretary Selwyn L l o y d to the Soviet union, and while we were in New Y o r k Premier Khrushchev came to the United States. The two leading speeches in the opening debate at the United Nations were made by M r . Selwyn L loyd and by Premier Khrushchev, and both dealt with disarmament; each speaker put forward a plan for disarmament. Thus, I repeat that at the United Nations there was tremendous i n -terest in this question of disarmament, and I suggest that right around the world today there is a realization in the minds of millions of people that a nuclear war would be a catastrophe and that it would probably end civilization as we know it. In these circumstances it was to be expected that the United Nations would fall in with the proposal of the four big powers that this disarmament committee should carry on the work on the question of disarmament. Some-thing happened which had never happened at the United Nations before, I believe, when all 82 nations co-sponsored the resolution which provided United Nations facilities for the meetings of the 10-power committee. That resolution contained these words: The question of general and complete disarma-ment is the most important one facing the world today.:.. - ' The Canadian government realized from the start the vital role Canada could play in these disarmament deliberations, hence the appointment of Lieutenant-General E . L . M . ' Burns as Canada's representative at. these discussions. I do not need to tell anyone in this house of the wonderful record of General Burns in two wars, as deputy minister of veterans affairs, then as chairman of the truce supervision body in Palestine and, finally, as commander of the United Nations emergency force. He is a man respected not only from coast to coast in Canada but by delegates from, every member state in the United Nations. We were able to persuade M r . Hammarskjold, the secretary-general of the United Nations, to release General Burns from his important command in the Middle East because the secretary-general felt—and so did General Burns—that he could make an even greater contribution as a member of this disarmament committee. In addition, Canada has opposed from the beginning any delay in the actual commence-ment of the work of the disarmament com-mittee. We did this for several reasons, but principally because • we were afraid that if there were not an early start there might be an increase in tension, and around the world people might become discouraged again and decide they would have to pay more atten-tion to arming, with the result that the .impetus gained by the friendly actions taken in 1959 might be lost. There was some i n -clination in some other countries to postpone the calling together of the disarmament com-mittee until after the east-west summit meet-ing' had been held. This is not to be held until the middle of M a y — ' M r . Mart in (Essex East): Was it in A p r i l or May? - • M r . Green: May , I think. That would have meant that the disarmament committee would not have begun to function until June, or later. The next session of the United Nations would commence about the middle of Sep-tember, and the 10 nations would then be in the position of having nothing to report to the other 72 member nations who are depend-ing on us to get some results on this question of disarmament. • As I said, Canada insisted from the start that there should be no delay in getting busy on this disarmament question. In Paris last December when we ware attending the N A T O meetings, the foreign ministers of the five-western members on the disarmament com-mittee were called- together at the Quai d'Orsay and there we decided to invite the five eastern members to commence the sit-tings of the disarmament committee on M a r c h 133 15. As hon. members know,'that invitation was accepted and the 10-member committee is to start its work.on or about March 15, I believe, in Geneva. . In addition we set January 18 as the date for the first meeting of representatives of the" five western mem-bers " of this. 10-nation committee. These meetings commenced in Washington on January 18 and have been continuing ever since. A t the same time in Paris the North A t l a n -tic treaty council, which of course contains representatives from the 15 nations belonging to N A T O , decided that the five western nations on the disarmament committee would do all the preparatory work on ' disarmament for the east-west summit meeting and further that N A T O would give all the help it could to the disarmament committee. Y o u see, N A T O is very much involved in the question of disarmament because N A T O has most of the forces which, of course, would be i n -volved in disarmament and would have to work out many of the problems. Thus the five-nation group of which Canada is a member has a double function. It is, first of all, to participate in the discussions with the five eastern nations and, second, to do the preparatory work on disarmament for the United States, the United Kingdom and France for use by them at the east-west summit meeting. Arrangements were made to keep the N A T O council in the picture and that there should be regular reports to the council. That plan is being carried out. The five-member disarmament committee is re-porting to the council from time to time. T o date, while the five nations have been meeting.only since January 18 there has been considerable progress made. General Burns has been in Washington and he comes back here from time to time. I had an interview with him last Friday. Canada is putting for-ward her proposals which I am not at liberty to disclose as yet. Also we are getting great help from our own Department of National Defence. There is a series of studies being made under the direction of the five-nation group .and the whole situation is really hopeful. We believe that the general objective on this question of disarmament must be to achieve a maximum of disarmament and reduction of military forces which could be verified and controlled and which is com-patible with the "maintenance of adequate security against aggression. However, no one should underestimate the difficulties that lie ahead nor look for.universal panaceas in the near future.' There is no intention on the part of the Canadian government to let down the guard so far as Canada is concerned but we do believe that a genuine effort should be made, to work out some scheme of disarmament. If every nation on that 10-member committee feels the same way about it then there wi l l be results which wil l benefit mankind. This should not be taken as meaning that if the five eastern countries wi l l only approach it sincerely there wi l l be worthwhile results. I mean all ten nations both on the eastern side and the western side. If they all genuinely want disarmament in the world today ;then there wi l l be disarmament. The second subject is the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. N A T O is essentially a defensive alliance and it has fulfilled "this function. After all it was set up to prevent aggression by the eastern nations. Whether or not they would have committed aggression no one can say but there has been no aggression during these ten years. N A T O continues f u l -filling that same function today and must continue doing so until there is actual con-trolled disarmament. Canada is doing her full share in . the alliance. We have a magnificent brigade of troops in Europe and we have. a thoroughly efficient air division which next to the air forces of the United States is the most power-ful and effective air force in the N A T O organization today. Sometimes when I hear of the criticism of the Department of National Defence I think it would be worth while for Canadians to recognize the fact that in peacetime that Canada has abroad a permanent force army. How difficult it is for any old soldier from the first world war to realize that. I think back to those days when my one ambition was to fulfil the terms of the song, "When I get my civvy clothes on, O h how happy I wi l l be". I remember how everybody wanted to get out of Europe by the first boat and what a job it was to get them sorted out because everybody thought he should be on the first boat. The same thing was true of the second war. We now have a permanent force army and a permanent, air force sta-tioned in Europe. I repeat that Canada can hold her head high because of the contribu-. tion that is being made by her young men. to the strength of N A T O . The N A T O alliance is a great deal stronger than one would believe from the criticism one hears in parts of Canada and even some-times in this house. I remember that, a few days ago the Leader of the Opposition (Mr. Pearson) accused me of being a hopeless optimist,, as if that were a crime now in Canada. Of course, I can understand why 7 people in opposition like to say these things and indeed I used to say them myself just a few short years ago. In my judgment, how-ever, N A T O is an exceedingly strong alliance. There is in that organization a spirit of comradeship built up over the last ten years which is very strong. These fifteen nations understand each other's viewpoint. There, have been friendships made which wi l l last for a lifetime. The leaders of a l l these countries are on the very best of terms and fundamentally the foundations of; N A T O go very deep. I do not believe there is any chance of the N A T O alliance breaking up. Most of the European members of that al-liance have made an outstanding economic recovery. They are in a very strong position; for example, France, Germany, the Nether-lands and Belgium. Some, of course, are not in such a good position. Naturally there are problems. We have problems, in getting 15 Progressive Conservatives around the table to agree, and the 15 Liberals would present just as many problems while the eight mem-bers of the C C F . might'present a whole lot more. Here you have these 15 nations and, as I say, there are problems. One which has worried Canada considerably has been to ensure adequate consultation. Last fall the big powers were talking about a summit meeting and other subjects and they were not agreeing. One thought this should be done and another thought that should be done, and instead of going to the N A T O council and airing their troubles there they said nothing about them. A l l the press in all the N A T O countries started to speculate, as the press wi l l do quite naturally. The press made quite a lot of good guesses, and the whole story was on the front page of all the .papers in Canada, in the United States, in France and in England. The whole story was there, and yet there were no adequate consultations in N A T O . When I went to Paris in October I had an opportunity to speak to the N A T O council and emphasized on behalf of Canada that we thought there would have to be a far better system of consultation. I made the same submissions to President de Gaulle, to Prime Minister D e b r e a n d to M r . Couve de Murvi l l e the foreign minister of France, also to Prime Minister Macmi l lan and M r . Se lwyn Lloyd , and they all agreed. The Americans agreed at Camp Dav id a few weeks later. E v e r y -body was perfectly wil l ing to consult, but' they still were not consulting. The smaller nations, of course, agreed with us that there was great need to get a some-what better system. One direct result was that when the western summit meeting was held in Paris in Decem-ber there were consultations in the N A T O council before that was held and there were also consultations after. The foreign ministers of the four came together and reported to the N A T O council. The report was not treated in a perfunctory way. It had quite a going over at that meeting of the council which followed the meeting of the four. The same plan is to be followed this year. There is to be a meeting of the foreign min-isters of the four western powers, I think in April—-I am not sure of the date—but i n any event there are to be consultations wi th the N A T O council at each stage. France, of course, has a special problem in Algeria. Hon. members have read critic-isms of that great nation. After the events of the last 10 days or two weeks I am sure the Canadian people wi l l have a far clearer realization of the very difficult problems France has been facing and still faces i n Algeria. She has an outstanding foreign m i n -ister in M r . Couve de Murvi l l e . H e speaks with great logic and great friendliness. He is very well liked in the N A T O council. I suggest that Canada must at al l times have the deepest understanding for France and for her problems. She, of course, is one of. our mother countries, and one feels that when he goes to her shores. I am of Ang lo -Saxon descent, and yet when I went to Paris, in fact the minute I stepped off the plane, I felt that I was at home with members of the family. We were treated in just that way on both occasions that I had the privilege of visiting France. I repeat, so far as N A T O is concerned, that in my judgment there cer-tainly is no sign of any impending break-up. I hope there wi l l be no more talk in Canada about possible break-up. • -I should like to explain in a word or two the position of N A T O in relation to European trade problems. This is not my field, of course; it comes under the Minister of Trade and Commerce (Mr. Churchill) and the Minister of Finance (Mr. Fleming). I had thought that N A T O would be a forum for settling the difficulties about European trade, but when' you remember that six of the N A T O countries are in the common market —they are the inner six—and that only four of the European free trade areas known as the outer seven are in N A T O , and that there are two from North America , Canada and the United States, and three, Greece, Turkey and Iceland, which are not in the six or the seven; and when you think that Sweden, Switzerland and Austria are not in N A T O ; when you look at this picture, you realize that N A T O is not the place to work out the problems of trade 135 in Europe. Hence the solution of these problems has been left to other organizations and including the possibility of a new or-ganization being set up. Hon. members know that negotiations are under way at the present time, but the wi l l to help is certainly in N A T O . Every one of the N A T O countries is very anxious to do -whatever it can to solve those difficult trad-ing problems. I should like to sum up what I have to say about N A T O in these words. I believe it is remarkable that N A T O has developed the way it has into a closely knit and effective organization for collective defence and co-operation in many important non-military fields. Its strength derives in large measure from the freedom and independence which its members exercise and from the strong ties of history, culture and friendship, which the nations of western Europe share with Canada and the United States. With this background I believe we can be confident that any differ-ences which arise out of the alliance wi l l be resolved, as they have in the past, in a spirit of friendship and mutual regard for each other's interests. I go on to the commonwealth. Canada's relations with each one of the other nine members of the commonwealth are excellent. A l l 10 members value this membership very highly. W h y should they not? As members of the commonwealth, they have far more in-fluence than any one of them could possibly have alone.. • , Another reason why they place great value on this membership is that today the com-monwealth is obviously the. best bridge between the continents, playing a significant part in world affairs and of necessity working for peace. This commonwealth of ours is so spread out around the world that it must work for peace. If there should be war the commonwealth would be in far more trouble than the .United States or the Soviet union because, as I say, it is so scattered across the globe, and certainly everyone in the com-monwealth at the present time is working for peace. Another reason why great value is placed on membership is that the commonwealth is steadily growing and growing in a way that sets an example to all the rest of the world. O n October 1 o f this year Nigeria is to become a free nation and of its own free wi l l a member of the commonwealth of na-tions; Nigeria is one of the leading countries in Afr ica with over 30 mill ion people, the most populous country on that continent, and I believe it has the stability and the organiza-tion to make a splendid contribution, not 8 only in the commonwealth but also in the United Nations and in world affairs generally. This nation is one more that is being launched as an independent nation under the leader-ship of the United Kingdom and the other members of the commonwealth. We think of the launching of India, that great country which has been such a friend of Canada from the time it first got its inde-pendence, of Pakistan and Ceylon, both similarly great friends of Canada, of Ghana, Malaya and now Nigeria; and, shortly to come, the West Indies Federation, Uganda, Tanganyika and Kenya , and soon or later the problems of the central Afr ican federation will be worked out. When we think of these developments going on in the commonwealth at this time we have every reason to be proud of our membership in that organization. I know from my own discussions in London with L o r d Home, secretary for commonwealth relations, and Selwyn L l o y d that these Brit ish statesmen are deeply concerned about launch-ing these new nations. They are putting much thought into working out the best plan to help these nations gain their independence. Here is statesmanship of the highest order. In three short months the prime ministers of the commonwealth wi l l be meeting and there further great steps forward wil l be taken. I think of the contribution our own Prime Minister (Mr. Diefenbaker) made in 1957 when, within a few days of taking over his present position, he got on a plane, and went to London to participate in a common-wealth conference and there gave splendid leadership which had a great deal to do with, making the conference the success that it was. He wil l be leaving us again for the meetings which commence early in May . Because of the contacts and friendships he made with leaders of all the other common-wealth nations at the conference in 1957 and during his tour in 1958 I believe that Canada can do. a great deal at the conference in M a y of 1960 to strengthen further the com-, monwealth and to help to implement the plans for launching new members on the world scene. Thei-e is one other aspect of ' common-wealth relations which is very important to us at the" present time and that is the plan for commonwealth scholarships. It was in 1958 at a conference in Montreal that arrangements were made to set up a com-monwealth scholarship plan and that • plan is now about to function. Last summer a commonwealth conference on education was held in England which took further steps toward implementing the scholarship plan. It approved a Canadian proposal for an ex-change of high level academic scholarships 9 136 between different parts of the commonwealth. It was agreed that a total of 1,000 scholar-ships should be exchanged between the nations of the commonwealth, and Canada undertook to place 250 students from other parts of the commonwealth in Canadian universities and other educational institutions at a cost of about $1 mil l ion per year. To guide Canada's participation in the scholarship plan the government has ap-pointed a Canadian scholarship committee. The committee is working smoothly in re-ceiving applications from students in other commonwealth countries who wish to study in Canada and in processing the applications of Canadians who wish to study abroad under the plan. I am.hoping that this fall 100 to 125 students from other parts of the commonwealth wi l l come to Canada under the plan. They wil l be here for a two year term and at. the start there wi l l be about 125. Also at the conference in the United K i n g -dom the more advanced countries agreed to provide assistance in the general field of education to their less developed partners. Canada undertook to provide assistance by sending teams of teachers abroad to assist in training teachers in other countries, and to receive trainees for the same purpose in this country. Work is under way to imple-ment that portion of the policy. M r . Chevrier: M a y I ask the minister a question? Under the plan how many Cana-dian students are entitled to scholarships in other commonwealth countries? M r . Green: I cannot give the hon. member that information at the moment. I wi l l get it before the end of the debate. Eventually there wi l l be 250 coming here. - M r . Chevrier: I want to know how many Canadians are going to other commonwealth countries. M r . Green: Yes. Lists have been made up and recommendations have already gone forward as to eligible Canadians but I do not remember the actual number. The fourth subject is Canada-United States relations. One might make a very long speech on this subject but today I merely wish to say that relations with the United States also are excellent. They are on a personal basis between our own Prime M i n -ister and the President of the United States, between the secretary of state and myself and between various other ministers of the two governments. This is true also at the ambassadorial level. Canada is extremely well, served in Washington by our ambas-sador there, A r n o l d Heeney. H e is very well l iked in Washington and I think he is doing a splendid job. Similarly, the United States ambassador in Ottawa, the Hon. M r . Wigglesworth, is giving splendid representa-tion here. The relationship between the two countries at every level could not be better. There has been, as you know M r . Speaker, a very significant step taken within the last, year or two in the setting up of a joint legislative committee composed of members of the Senate and the House of Commons and of the United States Senate and House of Representatives. This committee wi l l be meeting again, in Washington this time, within the next few weeks. This informal group has done a great deal to help create understanding in the respective legislative chambers. O f course, there are also the relationships between private citizens of the two countries,- which are probably on - a more intimate and friendly basis than those between private citizens of any two other countries in the world. W e had a very successful visit at Camp Dav id early in November when the joint ministerial committee on defence met. We were able to sit around in the lounge of the main building and discuss views frankly on a man to man basis, with both sides feel-ing free to make any complaints or any suggestions. I feel the results were very beneficial. I am sure this means a lot to Canadians and, of course, it does also to the people of the United States. In the world today this is a very i m -portant relationship. One good example of the result is that tomorrow there wi l l be negotiations taking place in Ottawa between the representatives of the United States and Canada concerning the development of the Columbia river. Here we have another great scheme which can be developed only if there is co-operation between the two nations. If this development does take place it wi l l mean a great, deal to the-citizens of both countries. The representatives of the two nations have been able to get together in a way which I am sure wi l l bring about a solution of this problem. W e are having a similar experience with regard to the Passamaquoddy project in the maritimes. The international joint com-mission has been making studies of that project, and I hope eventually it wi l l be possible for some workable scheme to be devised which wi l l . be of benefit to the citizens of both' the New England states and our own maritime provinces. We have the same type of relationship with regard to another body of water in which the hon. member for Laurier (Mr. 137 10 Chevrier) is very much interested. I refer to the great lakes and the St. Lawrence river. This is a joint asset which probably no other two countries in the world can equal. Its use for the purposes of power production, recreation, navigation and the protection of commerce really startles the imagination. It has been necessary, in order to maintain this great resource, for Canada to deny requests, which otherwise we might have been able to entertain, from some United States interests who have wished to remove some of the water from this basin for other uses. It has been possible to sit down and talk the whole matter over with United States representatives. I believe there is a thorough understanding between the two nations as to just what is involved. Sometimes I wonder whether it is realized in all parts of the United States, or even for that matter in all parts of Canada, just how vital the St. Lawrence and great lakes have been from the dawn of Canadian history. They have been the main geographic fea-tures in the development of Canada. Two-thirds of the people of our nation live in this area, and for us, it is possibly of a great deal more significance ..than it is in the over-all United States picture. If that fact alone is realized, I believe that our difficulties with the United States on this question wil l eventually be solved. .Then, I come to the fifth subject, and wil l deal with only four more. I refer to Lat in America . In what is known as Lat in A m e r -ica there are 20 republics all imbued with the love of freedom and all very responsible members of the United Nations. M a n y of them took part in the old league of nations. A t the United Nations todaj', these 20 Lat in American nations are making a great con-tribution. The current president, Dr . Be-launde of Peru, has been outstanding in fulfilling the functions of that office. Lat in America has given 5 presidents to the United Nations since that organization was set up, a far larger number than from any other area in the world. They have a deep friendship for Canada. They feel that we are al l American nations together, that we are all in the western hemisphere and that we have very much in common. They are anxious to increase their trade with us, and. we are anxious to increase ours with them. I think there is also a great deal more that could be done to ex-tend our relations in the cultural field with these L a t i n American countries. It is our intention to pay special attention to Lat in America . I am hoping it wi l l be possible to get away for a visit to the Argen-tine in M a y when they are celebrating 150 years of independence,'and also that it w i l l be possible to visit some other L a t i n Amer ican countries, as well as to hold consultations with our eleven ambassadors in L a t i n A m e r -ica. This is an area in which I believe a good deal more can be done than has been done by Canada in the past. T h e next subject is Canada and the Pacific. I realize that many Canadians are not clearly aware of the fact there is such a place as the Pacific ocean. However, for- those of us who happen to represent Brit ish Columbia ridings the Pacific is a very important area. Today I plan to say a few words about -Canada's relationships with the different countries around the r im of the Pacific. First of all, there is Japan. We had a visit a few days ago from Prime Minister K i s h i and Foreign Minister Fuj iyama. It was possible to discuss all the problems be-tween the two countries in a most amicable, way. ' . . Canada's relationship with Japan is ex-cellent. A t the United Nations Japan has been one of our firmest friends. She was the first to offer, to co-sponsor our resolution, on radiation, and we have had excellent co- . operation from her representative. In the field of trade they have also been co-opera-tive. There have been difficulties about Japanese goods coming into Canada and af-fecting the sale of Canadian products. The Japanese have throughout been very fair in the attitude they have taken in these dis-cussions and, as I have said, the relationship between our two nations is excellent. Then going a little further down on the far side of the Pacific we come to the old Indo-china , South Viet Nam, Cambodia and Laos. There Canada has been a member of the three international commissions set up under the Geneva agreements, and we have' as a result had reason to follow very closely what goes on in that particular part of the world. We were worried last fall about the-situation in Laos. It appeared as though there might be the beginning there of a full scale war in the F a r East. Canada took the position on the security council, and later in • the general assembly, that there should be a United Nations presence sent to and kept i n Laos. This policy was followed; I believe there are still representatives of the United Nations in Laos. There has-been no war and it looks as though the difficulties are gradually being settled. •' :-. ''. We were also involved in this area be-cause, with several other countries we are participating in an aerial survey of the Mekong river. This is the key river through 138 that part of A s i a just as the St. Lawrence is the key river in this part of Canada. We have people out there now taking part in .this survey which wi l l be very beneficial to all of the nations in that particular area. Then in Malaya , where an outstanding job is being done in carrying on the govern-ment of this new member of the common-wealth of nations, we have close contacts and there is the best of good wil l between our two countries. In Indonesia a similar situation obtains. We have many Indonesian students studying in Canada. We have a mission in Jakarta, and the relationship is excellent. With regard to Australia and New Zealand, here we have, of course, two of our oldest and best friends, the ties are so strong, and they go back over so many years. We work closely together in the United Nations, and under all conditions the relationships be-tween Austral ia, New Zealand and Canada are excellent.' I hope it wi l l not be very long before we can announce the conclusion of trade negotiations with Australia, and from time to time the various problems which arise between these fellow members of the commonwealth and ourselves wi l l be ironed out. This is a picture of our friends across the Pacific, and I know that everyone wi l l be wondering just what our attitude is about the recognition of red China. Most of the countries to which I have referred look on this ques-tion in exactly or practically the same light as Canada; for example, Japan, and I believe Malaya, Austral ia and New Zealand. The Canadian government does not believe that red China should be recognized under present conditions. I have made that clear in answer to questions in different parts of the country, and there is no need to repeat here our reasons at length. ' " Fundamentally, our reasons are that we believe it would be letting down our friends in that part of the world, particularly in Southeast Asia , were Canada to take the step of recognizing red China at the present time. Also, she is in default under various resolu-tions passed by the United Nations. Cer.-tainly, her actions in Tibet and in India during the last few months have not made it easier for any of the countries which have not already done so to recognize her: There is another very good reason which I think should be emphasized i n this house. 'One of. the main'difficulties in any approach to the problem is the fact that, given the attitude .of Peking, recognition on the part of Canada, unless accompanied by. explicit acceptance of Peking's claims to the exclusive right to represent China in the United N a -tions and to occupy Taiwan—-Formosa— would, in all probability, serve to bring about only a worsening of our relations with com-munist China. Evidence of this is a matter of record. The. communist prime minister M r . Chou E n - L a i , at the last session of the national people's congress held in Peking last A p r i l , said unequivocally—and here I am quoting the Chinese prime minister: Taiwan is an inalienable part, of Chinese ter-ritory. We are determined to liberate Taiwan, Penghu, Quemoy and Matsu. All U.S. armed forces in the Taiwan area must be withdrawn. The Chinese people absolutely will not tolerate any plot to carve up Chinese territory and create two Chinas. In accordance with this principle, any country that desires to establish diplomatic rela-tions with our country must sever so-called diplomatic relations with the Chiang Kai-shek clique, and respect our country's legitimate rights in international affairs. It is clear, that the Peking government's quarrel is not solely with the nationalist gov-ernment installed on the island of Formosa. The Peking government is opposed to any arrangement that wi l l give a separate status to Formosa, whether under the nationalist government or any other. In fact, the official new China news agency spoke a few weeks ago of the—I am quoting—-"plot engineered by the United States to put Taiwan under United Nations trusteeship". -Now a word about the Middle East. M r . Pearson: M r . Speaker, might I ask the minister, before he leaves Asia, whether he can give us an indication of his views with regard to the collective security organizations i n that part of the world? I am thinking of S E A T O and A N Z U S . M r . Green: M r . Speaker, as the Leader of the Opposition knows, Canada is not a mem-ber of S E A T O and is not directly concerned with what is done in the S E A T O organization. We are, of course, in close contact with most of. the nations which belong to S E A T O . Our dealings with them are as nations rather than. with S E A T O as an organization. The same thing might be said concerning the A N Z U S .treaty. . . . ' . , -The Middle East continues to be a very sensitive area. Canada has embassies in the United A r a b Republic, Israel, Lebanon, T u r -key, Iran and I hope before long wi l l have some representation in Iraq. Our relations with all of these countries are good, even though they do not all agree among them-selves. We are, of course, at al l times doing what we can to help bring about a settlement • of these very difficult problems in that area.' 139 12 W e are also involved directly because of Canada's participation in the United Nations emergency force. We had there in that force 945 men as of December 31. That w a s the second largest of the seven national units in the emergency force. We believe that this force is rendering a very efficient and worth while service. Hon. members w i l l have noticed that whereas there was some trouble on the Israeli-Syrian border a few days ago, no such trouble has flared. up in the area where the. United Nations emergency force is situated. Of course, it is not equipped for major fighting; it has only small arms and it is only, really, a police force. But we think it is rendering a great contribution, and regard it as a vital stabilizing force in the Middle East besides being a demonstration of the ability of the United Nations in similar conditions to place in the field a paramilitary force of substantial size as a means of separating combatant forces and preventing the renewal of hostili-ties between sovereign. states. We are also very much interested in the problem of the refugees in the Middle East. This subject was debated at some length in the United Nations, and Canada is continu-ing her contribution of § 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 , subject to parliamentary approval, to U N R W A for work in this field. Final ly , there is the United Nations itself. I do not take the United Nations last because of any considerations as to - relative- impor-tance, for it certainly is as important in Canadian external policy as any other organi-zation. T think a i r those hon. members who have attended meetings of the United Nations wi l l agree that it is playing a wonderful part in bringing about stabilized conditions across the world. It is a huge organization with several thousand employees and I believe most of them have a United Nations mental-ity; rather than feeling they are working for their own countries they feel that they are working for the United Nations. They are being given wonderful leadership by the secretary-general, M r . Hammarskjold, who. is bringing order out of chaos in an amazing way. When I think of having 82.parties in the House of Commons here and trying to reach any result, and then see the represen-tatives of 82 nations working together down in New York , I am forced to conclude that somebody, somewhere, has done a great deal of careful planning, and it is really a seven-day wonder the way results are obtained at that organization. F r o m the point of view of a foreign m i n -ister, the meetings of the general assembly are extremely valuable. I had the oppor-tunity to meet and talk with at least 35 foreign ministers, and I know no other way in which it would have been possible to get their views or to pass on Canadian views to them. These contacts alone have more than justified any time spent in New Y o r k during, the session of the assembly. Canada was represented, at the last assem-bly by a splendid delegation. I am very proud of the part they played and I include everybody—those who came from outside the service, the delegates, the alternates who came from the department and the parliamentarians from all parties. We were there as a team. Each and every one of the group made a great contribution and I think we were able to give Canada good representation throughout the assembly-. ' One is also struck by the work done by the permanent mission to the United Nations. In effect, this is Canada's embassy at the United Nations, and so much is done there' under pressure—resolutions and amendments and difficult problems come up so fast' and so frequently—that decisions have to be made in a hurry, various people have to be con-sulted in a hurry, and I am sure the Leader of the Opposition wi l l agree with me when I say there is very little spare time during a meeting of the general assembly. Throughout the whole period the Canadians had a very busy time and made a worth-while con-tribution. W e had as our main initiative'this year a resolution to provide for more effective col-lection of information on radiation and fal l -out, and also a more effective method of dis-tributing such information. We had a great deal of difficulty in getting that resolution through. The vice-chairman of the delega-tion,- my parliamentary secretary, the hon. member for Oxford (Mr. Nesbitt), did a won-derful job in carrying out these negotiations. He has become one of the outstanding reprer sentatives at the United Nations. With any luck at all he wi l l play a very significant part for Canada in foreign affairs. These negotiations on this resolution took a long time, in fact they took many weeks. We had to convince the big powers that the resolution should go through, and we had to convince the eastern powers that we were not trying to deceive them. Final ly we got ten 13 co-sponsors—Argentina, Austria , Czechoslo-vakia, Italy, Ireland, Japan, Ghana, Norway New Zealand and Mexico. None of these were big powers; we got the middle powers and received unanimous support from the general assembly. I hope that resolution wi l l be of considerable help in meeting the problems of radiation. We also had some complications in connec-. tion with the election to one of the non-per-manent seats on the security council. Canada was supporting Poland because we thought that under the gentleman's agreement reached in 1946 the seat should go to eastern Europe. We also thought this election should not. be made a cold war issue. Poland had been i n the field for some time, before the United Nations sat, whereas Turkey was not put forward until after we had met in New York; taking all these things into consideration we reached the conclusion that we should support Poland. M a n y of our friends thought the same thing; many of the L a t i n Amer ican nations, for example, reached the same conclusion. A s hon. members know, there was a series of votes, about 50 votes altogether, but nobody would give in. Both contenders were evenly balanced. Final ly , our delegation was able to play a considerable part i n bringing about a compromise under which Poland took the seat for the first year, and Turkey wi l l take it for the second. -W e also h a d difficult questions to face in connection with atomic tests. A s hon. mem-bers wi l l recall there was a resolution con-demning the proposed tests in the Sahara and Canada, having made her decision clear from the start that she was against atomic tests, voted for that resolution. It was very dif-ficult for some of our friends to understand why we would not be vot ing.on their side but we believed that our policy was the right one and we . voted for the resolution throughout. We were able to support France later on in the resolution about Algeria . President de ' Gaulle, we thought, had offered very good terms for the settlement of that problem and we felt free to support France throughout on that question. -We have been criticized in some places in Canada for our vote on the resolution on apartheid. Here again was another very difficult question. The previous government, ' just as the present government, had been against the policy of apartheid. No one in Canada believes in an apartheid policy. Ye t the previous government had seen fit through-out to abstain in so far as paragraphs in resolutions directly condemning South Afr ica were concerned and in certain cases saw fit to abstain on the whole question. I think in no case did they vote against South Afr ica . Last year the present government did vote against South Afr ica on a resolution which was a good deal milder than the one which was brought forward in this last session of the United Nations; after careful considera-tion we voted for those paragraphs in that resolution condemning apartheid in general but abstained on the paragraphs which named South Afr ica; we abstained on the vote on the whole resolution. Last fall South Afr ica was elected one of the vice presidents of the United Nations and her foreign minister M r . Loeuv made an ex-cellent contribution to the work of the assembly. In addition to this South Afr ica has had a long record of worth while ac-complishments which it would not do any harm for the Canadian people to recall. Just about 60 years ago the Boers in South Africa were fighting a valiant battle against the Brit ish empire with Canadian troops participating against them. After that war they were offered self-government and the great Boer leaders General Botha and G e n -eral Smuts took the lead in accepting that offer and in setting up an independent govern- • ment in that country. Within a few short years world war I broke out and they actually put down rebellion i n their own country by one of their fellow generals in the Boer war of a decade earlier and their troops fought beside us throughout the world war. In the intervening years General Smuts as Fie ld Marshal Smuts became one of the out-standing world statesmen of my time. Other than Sir Winston Churchi l l there were prob-ably no more outstanding world statesmen contemporary with Fie ld Marshal Smuts. He made a great contribution toward world peace.. In world war II South Afr ica was with us again. Before we talk of voting against South Afr ica and of taking the course advo-cated by a delegation here not so long ago, a course that would lead to South Afr i ca being thrown out of the commonwealth, I suggest that all Canadians should just stop • and think for a few minutes. If we adopt the sort of policy that would lead to throw-ing countries out of the commonwealth there would be no commonwealth left before very long. • 141 Canada believes that the commonwealth is of such great value in world affairs that a course of the type I have mentioned would be doing a disservice to the Canadian people and to the world at large. We have been able to use our influence for the modifica-tion of policies we do not like, but to come out and condemn a fellow member of the common wealth as has been suggested would be very unwise in our opinion. So much, M r . Speaker, for the nine sub-jects which have now been reduced to eight. In conclusion may I say this. Canada is a strong young nation, steadily growing stronger. It is a nation, as I have pointed out, with a good record in world affairs, 14 with many friends and one that is actively participating in various associations such as the commonwealth, N A T O and so on. Above all it is a nation with an idealistic, unselfish approach. I suggest to you, M r . Speaker, and to all hon. members of the house that Canada can play a vital part in world affairs today, perhaps just as vital a part as any other nation in the world. These next ten years could be Canada's years in world affairs. This is the great challenge to Cana-dians, the challenge I should like to place before them this afternoon, and I offer this challenge particularly to those Canadians who from time to time represent the Cana-dian people in this parliament. The Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, 1960 \ 142 C A N A D A O F F I C I A L R E P O R T S P E E C H of H O W A R D G R E E N Member for Vancouver Quadra and . Secretar/ of State for External Affairs _ Made in the House of Commons on April 26, 1961 95681-3—1 (These reprints were paid jor by Hoviard Green) 1^3 3 E X T E R N A L A F F A I R S i R E F E R E N C E O F E S T I M A T E S O F D E P A R T M E N T T O S T A N D I N G C O M M I T T E E Hon. Howard C . Green (Secretary of State for External Affairs) moved: That items numbered 76 to 110 ' inclusive, and item numbered 481, as listed in the main estimates . 1961-62, relating to the Department of , External Affairs, be withdrawn from the committee of supply and referred to the standing committee on external affairs, saving always the powers of the committee of supply in relation to the voting of public moneys. He said: M r . Speaker, these are very stirring days in the field of external affairs. As ail members wi l l realize, the dull moments are few and far between. Sometimes the news is bad and at other times it is good. Today I am sure we are all very pleased that the troubles through which our old friend and ally, the republic of France, has been going during the last week end, are over. News of the collapse last night of the insurgents in Algeria was received by the Canadian government with the greatest relief. According to the latest reports the situa-tion is returning to normal and the French government is now resuming ful l civil ian and military control in Algiers. President de Gaulle, the French govern-ment, and indeed the entire French people deserve high praise for their firmness and courage in the face of a challenge which could have had incalculable consequences, not only for the future of Algeria but for France itself, and which would have posed very serious problems for the North Atlantic alliance. France has emerged from this test stronger than before, and I hope it wi l l now be possible to proceed to a peaceful solution of the Algerian issue. In this debate on external affairs it is my hope that as many hon. members as possible wi l l participate. There are a great number of members of this house who have had con-siderable experience in the field of foreign affairs; I need only refer to the larce number, who, down through the years, have rendered excellent service for Canada at the United Nations, either as delegates or as parlia-mentary observers. Another large group have gone abroad to attend meetings of the com-monwealth parliamentary association. . Sti l l others have made a practice of attending the meetings of the N A T O parliamentary organi-zation. Another group have taken part in the meetings of the interparliamentary group which consists of 24 members of the Cana-dian Senate and House of Commons and a similar number from the United States Senate 95681-3—1J and House of Representatives. A few months ago Canadian members of parliament also attended meetings of the interparliamentary-union. There is no good excuse for many members of this house if they fail'to partici- " pate in this debate on the ground that they know nothing about external affairs. A n y who have attended at least one of these meet-ings to which I have referred should have sufficient knowledge to be able to speak for perhaps ten minutes. The day has long since passed when the members of the Canadian House of Commons should take the attitude that foreign affairs' problems are for someone else and not their particular concern. The department last year, and I take full' responsibility, was late in getting out the annual report. M i n d you, we get out our report for the calendar year. We do not wait for a year from the end of the previous fiscal year to do so. Today we have available the report of the Department of External Affairs for the calendar year 1960, and I believe it wi l l be of some help to those members who wish to participate in the de-bate. The members of the department are quite proud of this report. We believe it has a new look, and that it wi l l not be as dry reading as some of the reports of past years have been. M r . Nowlan: It is unfortunately printed between red covers. M r . Green: I hear a remark made by my colleague the Minister of National Revenue to the effect that the report is printed within covers of a bad colour, but I point out that they are really not red but a sort of salmon pink. In any event, my officials, as well as myself, are hoping for some useful suggestions from the members taking part in this debate. It cannot be gainsaid that an informed C a n a -dian public opinion on foreign affairs is v i tal to the future greatness of our nation. This is one aspect of the whole picture which worries me, namely whether or not Canadian members of parliament, and the Canadian people generally, are following international affairs with sufficient care to give whatever government happens to be in charge of the affairs of this country the backing required for Canada to play the part she can play in the world of today. Make no mistake, no country in A p r i l of 1961 has a greater op-portunity to take a part and play a worthy role in world affairs than Canada. . A n hon. Member: Hear, hear. . •' 144 M r . Green: Let me put it this way. No-country has a greater responsibility. Let us stress the feature of responsibility in world affairs rather than opportunity. I go on, M r . Speaker, to give the house a picture of the world situation as I see it today. In the first place—I think this is the most important factor—we have a great world organization actually functioning today, and I refer to the United Nations. Some people scoff at the United Nations, but when you go to New York and see the representatives of 99 nations meeting in that great world body, and when you realize the speed of communica-tions and the fact that world opinion is quickly focused on any vital issue that comes up anywhere in the world, you cannot help feeling that in the United Nations we have the greatest world organization there has ever been. It makes mistakes. The amazing thing is that it does not make a great many more, because of necessity the transactions must be of such a complicated nature. It -would repay members to watch events there and to consider that while the United Nations seems to arrive at the edge of the precipice every so often, and while it might appear that in a few days' time the. whole organiza-tion would blow up, that day never comes. Just within the last week there was a serious crisis over the financing of the United Nations effort in the Congo. For a few hours that situation looked very serious; in fact one key resolution failed to carry during the last night of the sitting. If things had rested there the result might have been that the United Nations would have been forced to recall its troops from the Congo. But good judgment prevailed; consideration of the sub-ject was adjourned for an hour or so and delegates "went out into the lounge. Perhaps they went into the bar, I do not know; I would not) be there, but perhaps some were. In any event, the resolution was voted on again and carried. . . . . " M r . Argue: Something helped. . M r . Green: We cannot do that in the House of Commons; our rules and procedures are not quite so flexible. I do point out that this organization has gone through crisis after crisis, and I believe it w i l l continue to do so and it wi l l continue to grow, because without the United Nations our civilization would probably revert to savagery. Another feature of the world situation today is the large number of new nations emerging on the scene'. Y o u know, I think it is a good thing for Canadians to see some of the bright sides of the world picture and not be con-centrating only on the scare headlines. Today we have self government spreading in the world at a rate which was never even imag-ined a few years ago. I was looking at a map of Afr i ca this morning and counting up the sovereign states in that key continent. I think the number is 28. .1 may be out one or two because the maps are not always kept up to date, but a new nation is emerging at m i d -night tonight, namely Sierra Leone. It wi l l not be very long until there are other new nations taking their place in the world from that continent of Afr ica . These are some of the bright spots in the world picture. There are, of course, some which are not so bright. One of those is that we are l iving in days of an uneasy coexistence, with the communist world on one side and the so-~ called western world on the other. I hasten to add that I do not believe any honest person can question the fact that the western group-ing was formed as a defensive unit. It was not formed with the purpose of taking away anything from anybody, from the communist world or from anyone else; it was formed as a defensive grouping, and we should always keep that fact in mind. In these two groups there are a com-paratively small number of nations.- The vast number of nations in the world today are in between. For example, practically all those nations on the continent of Afr i ca are not committed to one side or the other. In fact one of their main purposes is to refuse to be committed either way. They want no part whatever of the cold war. They have too many problems of their own, building up their own nations, training the necessary -leaders and all that sort of thing, to have any time for getting mixed up in the cold war; this is a fact which Canadians should re-member. Another dark spot in the world picture is that at the present time, the age in which we live, there is overwhelming destructive power. When you recall that the Soviet can hur l a missile with an atomic warhead 7,000 or 8,000 miles and land that missile within a mile of the target, and when you recall at the same time that there are now at sea Polaris submarines of the United States, each with many times the destructive power con-tained in all the bombs dropped in the second world war—when you realize these facts you understand that mankind today is in a posi-tion to destroy our whole civilization. Here again is another fact which Canadians i n ' particular would do well not to forget, be-cause we just happen to lie between the two great nuclear powers of the world, each of which has the capacity to destroy the other i n a matter of hours; it does not need a very fertile imagination for a Canadian to realize 145 what would happen to his country if there should be a catastrophe of that kind. What is Canada's role in this world? I sug-gest, M r . Speaker, that there must be no escapism in Canada. A s a people we have traditions of courage, of common sense and of . religious faith. Our nation was not founded by people who were in the habit of wr ing-ing their hands, giving up and refusing to face facts no matter how unpleasant they might be. This is not the character of the Canadian people. We must take our full part in world affairs and do it with a spirit of optimism. This is no day for a pessimist in world affairs. Anyone trying to deal with world problems today who is a pessimist is very likely to end up in a mental asylum. I feel that Canadians should face the world with optimism and also idealism, and this our people have been doing. Canadians from coast to coast look on world affairs from an idealistic point of view. How else can you explain the fact that, there has been prac-tically unanimous endorsation of the large programs of aid to the less fortunate peoples of the world? Our people do not look at the world with envy. We envy no one his or her country. Canadians have had an unselfish approach, perhaps because we have so much land that we do not know what to do with it. If we had not had enough, we might have been just as greedy about taking over other people's land as some other countries have been; I do not suggest for a minute that we are-any better fundamentally than any other people. In addition, M r . Speaker, in the world of today Canada must honour her commitments. We must stand by our allies. There are a great many Canadians gone before us who would be ashamed if they ever found that Canadians in 1961 were running out on their allies. This is not the Canadian character. When a nation fails to stand by its friends then it is not worthy of having friends, and none of us wants to put Canada in that position. This is a day when Canada in world affairs can urge cool-headed action. It is so easy to become excited about some of these ques-tions and start condemning some other na-tion, start saying, things that wi l l hurt the people of another nation, saying things which may have a far-reaching effect that is not for the good of Canada or of mankind. I suggest- that we must always urge cool-headed action in dealing with world prob-lems. We have a far wider influence in the world than most Canadians realize. I do not take any credit for that myself or on behalf of the government of which I am a member. I do not say that we are doing more. than previous governments did but Canada has a very wide influence in world affairs. Today I propose to review briefly and sketchily some of the ways in which Cana-dian efforts are being directed in dealing with various world problems. Before pro-ceeding to do so, I feel that I must pay a tribute to the men and women serving C a n -ada in the Department of External Affairs." They number about 2,000 and I believe it would be impossible to find a more devoted group than these officers and members of our department. Canada now has diplomatic re-lations with some 63 other countries, 19 i n the western hemisphere, 22 in Europe, 7 in Afr ica and 15 in Asia including the Middle East, F a r East and Australasia. This does not mean that we have 63 embassies because in some cases an ambassador wi l l be represent-ing Canada in two or in one case in four dif-ferent countries; there are 16 countries to which our ambassadors from another coun- -try are accredited. I do not believe that any nation in the world has a finer group of foreign service officers today. These men have been carefully selected and trained. Our senior foreign service officers have vast experience, and in my time as foreign m i n -ister I have not found representatives of any other country who were any better. We have been helped a great deal also by the type of ambassador sent here by other countries. We have a large number of em-bassies in Ottawa staffed by distinguished citizens and through their work here C a n -ada has made a large number of friends. A l l over the world you run into ambassa-dors who have served in Ottawa and. who. have left as friends of Canada. It is very-important that we appreciate this work being done here and also that we learn from them because each and every one of them has a great deal to offer. Canadian efforts in the world of today have been directed in various fields. Perhaps the most important has been the field - of disarmament. When I mention disarmament I mean not only the attempt to reach agree-' ment on the reduction of arms but also the effort to bring about a cessation in the de-velopment of more fearsome weapons. There are two sides to the picture, cutting down ex- . isting weapons and preventing the invention and development of weapons which are becoming steadily more destructive. F r o m the start Canada has participated in -disarmament negotiations commencing as far back as 1946 or .1947. Our most recent ef-forts in the negotiating field, were as a mem-ber of the ten-nation disarmament committee which was set up by the foreign ministers of . 17*6 6 - ' the United K i n g d o m , the United States, France and the Soviet union at Geneva in the summer of 1959. A s hen. members know, these negotiations began in the spring of 1960, but in June they were broken off when the five eastern mem-bers walked out. In August, following that walkout, Canada and the United States suc-ceeded in bringing about a meeting of the disarmament commission of the United Na-tions which is composed of all the member nations. A t that meeting we got through a unani- ' mous resolution calling for a resumption of the disarmament negotiations at the earliest possible date. Nothing had been done when the general assembly met in September and Canada then introduced a disarmament res-olution, co-sponsored by Sweden and Nor-way, which in essence called for a prompt resumption of negotiations for the selection of a neutral as chairman and for co-operation of the United Nations with the negotiators through the disarmament commission. For example, we had in mind that the disarma-ment commission should set up ad hoc com-mittees to assist the negotiators and also to check the work that they were doing. Even- ' tually, we were able to get a total of 18 co-sponsors for that resolution. However, the atmosphere at the United Nations last fall was very tense and that, M r . Speaker, is putting it in mild language. It really was worse than that. It was very difficult to have agreement reached on any question, let alone on the subject of disarma-ment. We were not able to gain our objective before the adjournment in December. For -tunately during the session which ended last • Saturday morning, there was far less tension. I cannot say whether or not this was because there had been a change of administration in the United States or because everyone was tired of that quarrelsome attitude just as we in this house get tired of such an atmosphere after a few hours and decide it might be better to be less pugnacious. There is a good deal of the element of human nature in the deliberations of the United Nations, just as there is in those of the Canadian House of Commons. Whatever the cause, there has been far less tension in the United Nations during these recent weeks. Eventually, the United States and the Soviet union, with a good deal of assistance and a good deal of prompting from other nations—I am not being immodest when I say Canada took a prominent part in this prompting and in these negotiations—decided that they would get together and try to ar-' range for the resumption of disarmament 'negotiations at about the end of Ju ly of this year. After all, these two nations are the key nations in any disarmament negotiations. They brought in a joint resolution before the . general assembly which was passed unani-mously. They were unable to agree on the composition of the negotiating group. One side had suggested that there should be an impartial chairman and vice chairman. The other side wanted five uncommitted countries added to the five eastern and the five western countries. Agreement was not finally reached, but I believe that in these intervening weeks that question can be worked out. One fact which was of great help was that at the prime ministers' conference in London in March there was a statement issued on disarmament which was published as an annex to the final communique. Here was a statement agreed to by all the com-monwealth prime ministers on this question of disarmament.- It contained the following very significant and very helpful paragraph: The principal military powers should resume direct negotiations without delay in close contact with the United Nations, which is responsible for disarmament under the charter. Since peace is the concern of the whole world, other nations should also be associated with the disarmament negotia-tions, either directly or through some special machinery to be set up by the United Nations or by both means. Canada is working now in preparation for the resumption of disarmament negotiations. As hon. members know Lieutenant General E . L . M . Burns is our adviser on this sub-ject and he would be heading any Canadian delegation participating in disarmament talks. I believe there is good reason to expect real progress in the field of disarmament during the present year. Hon . members wi l l recall that Canada has. taken a firm position on the question of nuclear tests. Time and again we have said we are against any further nuclear weapons tests. We continue to follow with the greatest attention the developments in the three-power negotiations which are taking place now in Geneva on this parallel question- of finding a way to end further nuclear weapons tests. This conference is one which has never been broken up. It has been going on now' for nearly three years, but has been ad-journed from time to time. Agreement has' been reached on many aspects of the prob-lem but there has been no final agreement and yet, during the whole of that time, not one of those three participating nations has undertaken a nuclear test. There has been a voluntary moratorium during this inter-vening period. This moratorium has con-tinued until today, in spite of the demands from people, for instance in the United States, that further tests are essential and that testing should be resumed. " -7 Before the Christmas break in the recent session of the general assembly, the C a n a -dian position on nuclear tests was once again reaffirmed by our votes in support of two resolutions asking to reinforce the present moratorium on nuclear weapons tests. C a n a -dian opposition to testing is based not only on concern for the radiation hazard but also on its belief that the' prevention of testing wi l l inhibit the spread of nuclear weapons. With this consideration in mind Canada also voted in the general assembly for an Irish proposal aimed at l imiting the spread of nuclear weapons at the independent dis-posal of national governments. Consistent with the Canadian view that temporary measures are no substitute for disarmament —and this Irish resolution, of course, was a temporary measure—under effective inter-national control, the Canadian vote on this resolution was explained as follows, and I am now quoting from the statement made by my parliamentary secretary the hon. member for Oxford (Mr . Nesbitt): Here again, however, I must emphasize the importance of the time factor. We have stressed over and over again the necessity of resuming negotiations on disarmament and we think that the threat of the further spread of nuclear weapons is one of the most important reasons for getting on with these negotiations. If no steps are taken toward disarmament—if, indeed, we do not have even a beginning to serious negotiations on this subject—no country will be content to sit by in the hope that goodwill alone will prevent the widespread dissemination of these weapons. For our part I must say quite clearly that Canada would not be able to accept this state of affairs for very long. We have worked and we will con-tinue to work with every resource at our com-mand to achieve an agreement on disarmament which would include provisions to deal with the frightening problem of nuclear weapons. If, how-ever, there is no significant progress in this field in the immediate future, we will reconsider our position on the temporary measures which are proposed in this resolution. Another field - to which Canadian efforts have been directed is in the United Nations itself. Here, M r . Speaker, may I say a word of praise for my parliamentary secretary, for the members of parliament, Senator Blois and other Canadians who have represented Canada during this last session. A t the United N a -tions the work is hard. I would never admit that fact to the delegation when I am in New Y o r k but, now that they are all safely home, I must admit that they work very much harder there than we do here in Ottawa. The hours, are long. Constantly coming up for consideration are resolutions and amend-ments. There are other delegations to canvass and there are receptions to attend, and-they are also quite a hazard. This is a full-time job for anybody who represents Canada at the United Nations, not only as a delegate but also as an observer. There our people have worked as a team. There are no dif-ferences between the parties. We are all the2-e as a Canadian team. This is the main reason why the Canadian delegation has been so successful during this last session. For the first time we have had observers from the Senate. I must say that I have found them also to be extremely helpful. When there is a snap decision to be made in a complicated situation, it helps' a great deal for a. foreign affairs minister to be able to talk to an old friend from the Senate who has been in the House of Commons for. many years, even though in another party, and to get his view as to what Canada should do. I have appreciated more than I can say the advice and the assistance that I have re-ceived during this last session from those Senators who have been in attendance. A t the United Nations we are in contact with 98 other delegations. It is a wonderful place to make friends and to sell Canada.' I use the word "sell" in the constructive sense. I think this is one of the main jobs of the Canadian delegation. That job has been done very well during this last session. We were greatly helped by the results of the commonwealth prime ministers' confer-ence. It was amazing to see the reaction among the representatives from Afr ica and As ia , after that conference. They, of course, had been following very closely what went on in London. They were extremely pleased with the stand taken by the Canadian Prime M i n -ister, and our work with those delegations was made a great deal easier and a great deal more successful by reason of Canada's posi-tion on the question of apartheid which was so important at the prime ministers' con-ference. One of our main problems at. the United. Nations has been that of the Congo. We are., one of the three European and North A m e r i -can countries with any considerable number of troops in the Congo. Because of those troops' Canada has been a member of the 18-nation Congo advisory committee. There are dif-ferences of opinion on that committee. The Afr ican nations do not always agree and neither do the nations of Asia . Our' main purpose has been to keep this pot from boi l -ing over, to try to reduce the friction in the Congo committee and to help the secretary general take action which would be effective. A s you know, M r . Speaker, from the begin-ning of the session last September he has been under terrific attacks, and very unfair attacks they have been. Sometimes I, wonder why any human being would feel obliged to take all the abuse that has been' handed out to M r . Hammarskjold in these last six or seven months. However, he is a great world states- . man who is there doing a job for humanity. 148 I suppose the realization of this fact has been what has enabled h im to withstand these at-tacks and to carry on in such a calm and effi-cient manner. Canada has felt that there should be no qualifications to our support for the secretary general while he .was under attacks of this kind. Another important feature of this last ses-sion has been the question of financing. Some countries wi l l not pay their share. Communist bloc countries, for example, wi l l pay nothing towards the expenses of the Congo operation. They pay nothing towards the cost of the United Nations emergency force. Other nations claim they are not able to pay. This has been one of the most difficult questions faced by the United Nations. As one of its final acts in the early hours of last Saturday morning, the general as-sembly voted a resolution which approved the expenditure of $100 mil l ion for the Congo operation for the period January 1, 1961 to October 31, 1961, that is, for ten months. The new session wil l convene in September, so this financial arrangement straddles the intervening period. It opened an ad hoc ac-count for the 1961 expenditures as it had done for the 1960 expenditures. A t the same time it decided to apportion the $100 mill ion as expenses of the organization in accordance with the scale of assessment for the regular budget.- It provided for rebates of up to 80 per cent on some of the lowest assessments in an effort to assist some of the less-developed nations in meeting their financial obligations. What this means is that the United States wil l be paying a very large part of the amount required. As hon. members wi l l be aware from newspaper and radio reports, this resolution was finally adopted after a great deal of difficulty and after it had failed in its original form to secure the required two-thirds majority in the plenary body. A s I explained earlier in my remarks, there was a second vote and it carried. In addition, the Canadian delegation tabled a draft resolution in the fifth committee which called for a thorough discussion at the sixteenth session, that is, the next one, of the administrative and budgetary procedures of the organization with a view to' their improvement and to meeting the peace-keep-ing costs of the United Nations. Our draft resolution also provided for the appointment of a working group to study these procedures with particular reference to the establishment of a peace and security fund and a peace and security scale of assessments. It was put forward when it became evident that the sentiment at the resumed session was in favour of continuing to deal with the costs of the Congo operation on an ad hoc basis. Our object was to ensure that this approach would not be continued indefinitely and that serious consideration would be given to more . permanent solutions to the organization's financial difficulties at the sixteenth session. We believe these expenses should be con-sidered as part of the regular United Nations budget. In committee this Canadian resolution was amended to take cut the main feature. Our delegation found itself obliged to vote against its own resolution as altered by these unac-ceptable amendments. However, when the resolution came before the plenary body the objectionable amendments failed to get the two-thirds vote required, so they went out and our own resolution as it had been orig-inally drawn, with minor changes, got the two-thirds vote necessary. Thus we finally succeeded in getting our way on this partic-ular question. There is much more that could' be said about the session, but the hon. member for Oxford wil l be giving the house further details. Before I leave this subject I should like to make one plea on behalf of the United Nations. The Canadian government attaches a great deal of importance to con-tinued development in Canada of an informed public opinion on United Nations matters. It is very much aware of, and grateful for, the efforts which are being made in this direc-tion by a wide variety of groups and asso-ciations of dedicated Canadians. Special mention might be made of the activities of the United Nations association in Canada. That association, through its national and branch offices, has taken the lead in stimulat-ing public interest in the work of the United Nations. It has done this in a variety of ways, through the distribution of informa-tion material, the regular publication of a number of pamphlets and assistance in the organization of student United Nations groups. These groups, by the way, have been very successful. I have attended two or three of their meetings myself and have been much impressed. In addition, lectures have been organized, university and school seminars arranged, and so on. The success of these1 efforts so far has been reflected in the greater awareness in Canada of the value of the United Nations not only to less fortunate people in other parts of the world but to Canadians as well. Such efforts deserve the full support of the Canadian people, and I suggest they deserve the full support of the members of this House of Commons. I turn now to another field to which Cana- ' dian efforts have been directed. I have men-tioned the commonwealth. I have already said something about the prime ministers' conference and about the effects of decisions made there on our daily contacts with As ian 9 149 and Afr i can nations. The addition of new members to this community continues. Sierra Leone wi l l become a full-fledged member. tomorrow and Tanganyika is to get its inde-pendence on December 28 of this year. Next year it is hoped the West Indies Federation wi l l join the commonwealth family, and so the story unfolds. Various other countries wi l l be coming into the commonwealth in the years that lie ahead. Canada now has a very important part to play in the commonwealth. This has been one effect of the decision taken in London. We now have a closer working relationship with Asian and Afr ican members of the commonwealth than we had before, and we are in a preferred position to work with them in connection with problems arising not only within the commonwealth but i n other parts of the world. v The Canadian government has placed great stress on the commonwealth scholarship plan. It was designed to enable 1,000 young grad-uates in various parts of the commonwealth to undertake a two-year course, in another comonwealth nation. Canada is to provide for 250; our objective is 250 at all times studying here under this commonwealth plan. Because this is a two-year course we had only some 101 during the past-year but there wi l l be an additional number coming in the fall, and we think that at the end of the present, fiscal year there wi l l be in Canada about 230 such students from other parts of the commonwealth. I do not have the figure for the Canadians studying abroad under this scheme. It is not as large as the number coming here, but quite a significant number o f young Canadians have benefited under the commonwealth scholarship plan. In addition we have initiated a special commonwealth Afr ican aid program which is to cost Canada $10,500,000 spread over a period of three years. We have asked for a vote of $3,500,000 for this particular work during the present fiscal year. The aid wi l l go to independent members of the common-wealth in Afr ica , and those who are approach-ing independence. Information on the needs of these countries is now being collected so that effective and useful programs can be carried out. We believe that assistance in education wi l l be one of the greatest needs, and already requests have been received for a number of teachers in various fields. In this connection there has been a very interesting development in that the province of Manitoba has decided to share in . this work. In M a y of last year, Premier Roblin expressed a desire to co-operate with the federal government in providing teachers for under-developed commonwealth countries. We welcomed his offer, and a project in Ceylon was suggested as a pilot scheme. Three i n -structors are required for an institute of technology in Ceylon and an arrangement has now been worked out with the province of Manitoba under which it wi l l recruit three teachers and pay their regular salaries amounting to $30,000 and the federal govern-ment will provide transportation, overseas bonuses and l iving allowances, costing from $20,000 to $25,000 per year. This federal gov-ernment share w i l l be part of our regular Colombo plan technical assistance program. We believe this is a very helpful development and we wi l l be interested in entering into similar schemes with any of the other pro-vincial governments. Another field is that of the French-speak-ing African states. A t the United Nations most of these states became members last year. They are very much interested in Canada because we are a bilingual country. They feel they have a closer kinship with us than v/ith countries where French is not one of the official languages. In this work the hon. mem-ber for Charlevoix (Mr. Asselin), who was one of our delegates, has been particularly helpful, as well as the parliamentary obser-vers from the province of Quebec. Their main task during this session has been to keep, in touch with delegates from these French-speaking African countries. I believe that as a result a friendship has been built up there which has been of great value to Canada, and we hope of great value to these Afr ican na-tions as well. Earl ier this week I announced a scholarship plan involving $300,000 per year to provide for training in several French speaking uni-versities in Canada and for sending teachers abroad to these French-speaking nations in Afr ica . Some of these countries have put out feelers with regard to the establishment of diplomatic missions in Ottawa. We are very interested in establishing one or two mis-sions in certain of these French-speaking countries in Afr ica . The ambassador to France, M r . Pierre Dupuy, visited all of these French-speaking Afr ican countries in No-vember and December and brought back a most interesting report in which he pointed out that they need, primarily, help in educa-tion and in health matters. We believe this is a field in which Canada can render efficient service, and one in which we can gain a large number of new friends. Then we have the N A T O field. I had in -tended to go into this at some length but I think perhaps I had better not do that today. There wi l l be greater opportunity in this regard in the committee. • There is to be a N A T O ministerial meeting in Oslo from M a y 8 to May 10, and I expect to head the Canadian delegation to that meet-ing. It wi l l not be dealing at length with defence matters because the defence ministers are not attending, but there wil l be'consider-ation given to long ' range planning for N A T O . For example, there wil l be questions having to do with consultation and ways in which consultation between members of the alliance can be improved. Canada has always been very much concerned about this partic-ular aspect of N A T O activities. It is not easy to have adequate consultation' among the representatives of 15 nations, but down through the years there has been built up an understanding and friendship among the representatives, and-in my opinion, the meth-ods of consultation are steadily improving. There are different approaches by different nations and, as a matter of fact, some mem-bers of the alliance think that we should adopt a uniform policy on all questions regardless of whether or not they have to do directly with the N A T O areas. Canada has never gone that far, our opinion being that there should be consultation on all questions which affect the members of the alliance but that it is not essential that they should adopt a bloc policy. This is particularly true with regard to the United Nations. We believe it would be unwise for the N A T O nations to act as a bloc in the United Nations because there are many issues which do not directly affect the N A T O alliance as a whole, and on which the views of different members of N A T O vary. We believe it would be.unwise to attempt to put N A T O in a strait jacket in that way. In Oslo we shall also discuss the interna-tional situation generally. There are many problems arising in all parts of the world which wil l be considered, and our general approach is that Canada should do everything possible to strengthen N A T O . In this connec-tion we attach considerable importance to the efforts which are being made in the con-text of long term planning to define the main problems and objectives of the alliance with a view to charting a guide line for the future. A t the same time we believe that in. prepar-ing for the future years we should not mini -mize or under-rate N A T O ' s accomplishments, and in particular, the essential contribution it has made and continues to make to the pres-ervation, of world peace and security. A s a going concern N A T O ' s future viability wi l l depend largely on its ability to adapt itself to a changing world; a world of emerg-ing new nations and revitalized old ones. It has to face complex new challenges, political, economic, psychological,' as well as military, which are continuing to develop. -150 10 One of the striking features of the world today is that the situations which pose a serious potential threat to world peace often arise in the peripheral areas of the globe, as for example, in the Congo and Laos. Canada" believes that to deal with such situations we must'often rely on the activities of agency or peace-keeping machinery s p o n -sored by or under the auspices of broadly-based organizations such • as . the United Nations. We consider that these peace-keeping activities are complementary to the efforts of the alliance to maintain world peace and security. Canada believes that the long term aims of the alliance can be furthered if all members are prepared to recognize the im-portant role of those peace-keeping activities in the preservation of world peace and are will ing to lend their full support. During the debate there may be some dis-cussion with regard to trade and economic matters and the role of N A T O in that par-ticular field. I believe that the objectives of the new' organization for economic co-opera-tion and development known as the O . E . C . D . . are fully consistent with those embodied in article II of the North Atlantic treaty alliance.. Indeed, the new organization reflects the con-tinuing desire of N A T O countries to develop closer and more intimate relations in the economic field and provides an opportunity to translate into concrete measures and achievement the aims of article II. N A T O , however, continues to have a most important role to play in assessing the implications for the alliance of the economic developments and policies of the Sino-Soviet bloc and, through consultations, in developing the political wi l l among N A T O countries to find solutions for economic problems which threaten to weaken the alliance or which threaten to provide opportunities for the extension of communist, influence. In the words of M r . Spaak, N A T O can and must serve as the "political con-science" of the Atlantic community of nations. We shall be doing our best to build up and promote activities of N A T O in this field, although quite a large part of the field wil l be covered by this O . E . C . D . With regard to N A T O , I realize that my hon. friend from Assiniboia and his fellow members of the C C F . party are of the opinion that Canada should withdraw from this alliance. As he knows, the government does not agree with that suggestion. We feel it would be a great mistake for Canada to take a step of that kind. I merely point out to him that we have very - worth-while sup-port in the Canadian Labour Congress. I am just wondering how he is going to square his policy with the policy of the Canadian Labour Congress and of the so-called New party when it gets formed. . • . 11 M r . Herridge: Y o u wi l l be surprised. M r . Green: Representatives of the Cana-dian Labour Congress presented their brief to the government on February 2 of this year and on page 30, under the heading "Neutral-ity No Solution", we find the following: While looking toward world disarmament, the congress does not believe that Canada can make a contribution in this direction by unilateral dis-armament or by pursuing a policy of armed or disarmed neutrality. The brief goes on: For reasons geographic,' economic and historical, Canada must work in concert with those nations which share her outlook and interests, while at all times preserving her own integrity and striving for a world in which blocs and alliances will be obsolete. I would be very interested to hear the hon. member for Assiniboia or the hon. mem-ber for Kootenay West square these declara-tions of the Canadian Labour Congress with the statements of policy which have been made on behalf of the C . C . F . party on the question of whether or not Canada should give up her membership in the N A T O organi-zation. M r . Argue: I am not tied to the C . L . C . , neither is this party. M r . Herridge: The Brit ish Columbia trade unions voted against our remaining in N A T O . • M r . Green: I really did not raise this sub-ject to start an argument, but I see it got under somebody's skin. Let me leave the old world and come back to the western hemisphere where we really belong. I should like to say a word or two about our relations with the United States and with the Lat in American countries. Canada continues to be on a basis with the United States under which it is possible for us to consult on all problems of mutual i n -terest and to do so in a most effective way. We have had the utmost co-operation from President Kennedy and from his secretary of state, Dean Rusk, and from M r . A d l a i Stevenson, the permanent representative' of the United States at the United Nations. I am confident that it wi l l be possible to con-tinue working in this friendly effective way with the representatives of our great neigh-bour nation. As hon. members know, we were success-ful in negotiating a treaty - with .the United States concerning the Columbia river. This was done after a great deal of time, and effort had been expended. Now, of course, we are in a position where questions are being raised by the province of Brit ish Columbia which, of necessity, is involved in this whole trans-action. This is not the place to go into that in any great detail; I merely point out these facts, Mr? Speaker. A deputy minister of the government of British Columbia sat in as one of the four Canadian negotiators. There was a joint ministerial committee consisting of ministers of the federal government and of the provincial government of British Colum- . bia, engineers and lawyers and all types of officials who were required for work of this kind. Every word of the treaty was gone over with a magnifying glass and everybody was agreed. Before the treaty was signed Brit ish Columbia was satisfied that it was a good treaty. There was no question of any doubts. Since the signing of the treaty many dif-ferent road blocks have been thrown in the way. When I was last at the coast two or three weeks ago I even.heard that the federal government was now on the spot; that it must go ahead and do this because we signed a treaty. Well , we are under no obligation until the treaty is passed in parliament. Unt i l it is duly ratified we are under no obliga-tion to go further, and the people who wil l suffer if this great co-operative, scheme does not go through wil l not be the federal gov-ernment. The people who wil l pay the piper . wil l be those citizens of Brit ish Columbia who wil l not get the cheap power they would have got under the scheme or the develop-ments that would have taken place if the installations were constructed. This could be the greatest work-producing project that there has ever been in western Canada, and all I wish to do is to make it perfectly clear that the fault for the failure of the project to materialize will not rest here at Ottawa but wi l l be with our brethren in the pro-vincial government in Victoria. I should like to say a word about Lat in America. As hon. members know, we have been very anxious to build up our relation-ship with the 20 republics of Lat in America and we have met with considerable success in this regard. We now have diplomatic rela-tions with all but two of the Lat in American countries. Of course, in some cases there is double accreditation. For example, we are establishing a new embassy in Costa Rica and the ambassador-to that country wil l also represent Canada in Nicaragua, . Honduras and Panama. As I have said, we have diplo-matic relations with all but two of the L a t i n American countries and in one of those two we have a trade mission. There have been serious ^problems in . con-nection with Cuba. A s you know, M r . Speaker, Canada has continued, to maintain normal diplomatic and commercial relations with Cuba through these recent troubled months. In doing so, Canada-has acted in a manner consistent with common international prac-tice. No country except the United States has placed a comprehensive ban on trade' with 12 152 Cuba and Canada has not had the same grounds as the United States for taking such action. While Canadian businessmen have re-mained free to carry on peaceful trade with Cuba, the Canadian government has used existing regulations to prevent the export of strategic goods to that country. This is in keeping with Canada's general policy of pro-hibiting the export of military material to areas of tension, anywhere in the world. The Canadian government has also seen to it that the United States embargo should not be evaded by transshipment through Canada. It has permitted the export to Cuba of only such United States goods as might be ex-ported directly from the United States to Cuba. These policies remain in force. As the Prime Minister recently pointed out, Canada's prac-tice over the years has been to carry on nor-mal relations with countries of a different philosophy. I am sure members would be interested to know that Canada's exports to Cuba in November of last year amounted to $1.4 mi l -lion compared with $1.7 mil l ion in November of 1959 while in December of last year our exports were $2.4 mil l ion compared with $1.4 mil l ion in the same month the year before. In each of these months last year the United States sold more than twice as much to Cuba as Canada did in spite of al l the restrictions the Americans have imposed. For the whole of the year 1960 our exports to Cuba amounted to $13 mill ion whereas in 1959 they were $15.1 mil l ion or $2.1 mil l ion higher than in 1960. I might add with regard to Cuba that the government is sincerely hopeful that a peace-ful solution wi l l soon be found for the con-flicts troubling Cuba. I am sure hon. members wil l join me in looking forv/ard to the day when an independent Cuba, free of all out-side pressures, wi l l choose to resume its tradi-tionally close relations with the nations of this hemisphere. M r . Mart in (Essex East): Before the Sec-retary of State for External Affairs leaves this portion of his address, may I ask h i m whether he has anything to say about the new affirm-ation of the Monroe doctrine in view of the recent declaration by President- Kennedy in this context? M r . Green: I thought the hon. member for Assiniboia (Mr . Argue) was .asking me a question about that statement yesterday and I gave a n answer, to the effect that I was quite sure that the statement made by Pres i -dent Kennedy was not intended to apply to Canada. The relationship between Canada and the United States is covered by our obligations under N A T O and in my opinion there is no question of this particular state-ment being made applicable to Canada. I should like also to say a word about Chile. About a year ago, when the brave people of that country were suffering so ter-ribly as a result of earthquakes, we had the opportunity to give them some help by supply-ing foodstuffs and air transportation, and in other ways. I think that these actions on our part have resulted in the building up of a very fine relationship between our two coun-tries. Canada, of course, was doing only what any humane country would do. We were delighted to be able to help them. But • they have shown great gratitude. • Recently our ambassador to Chile had the opportunity to travel throughout the stricken ^ area of southern" Chile and there he was shown records of the distribution of Canadian flour to hundreds of needy persons. He found the-most kindly feeling toward our country. A s another sequel to the airlift assistance we were able to give, the ambassador of Chile on A p r i l 20, on behalf of the Chilean air force, presented the Prime Minister, with a plaque to commemorate the R .C .A .F . ' s part in flying relief supplies to Chile. In the United Nations we found that Chile gave us help time and again. They were one of the first to co-sponsor our resolution on disarma-ment and we believe there has been a very fine friendship established between our. two countries. Hon. members may wonder what is the present position with regard to Canada jo in-ing the organization of American states. I have mentioned this question in many speeches during the. last year. It has aroused a good deal of interest. Some branches of the C a n a -dian institute of international affairs have undertaken to study the question and to let me know the results of their study. The policy of finding out from the Canadian people just what they think about this aspect of foreign policy is progressing very well. We are not yet in a position to make a decision as to whether or not Canada should join this organization. We took steps to send ob-servers to the meeting of the organization of American states which was to have been held in Quito, Ecuador, next month. However, we received word today that the conference is to be postponed and I am not sure when it wil l be going ahead. It is gratifying to see in Canada the increasing interest in this ques-tion. I am wondering whether Canada is wise in adopting an isolationist policy with regard to the western hemisphere. However, that is part of the argument on one side. : I do suggest to hon. members that they give this whole question deep thought, and that they discuss it with their constituents. It 153 13 would be a big step in Canadian foreign policy if we were to join this western hemi-sphere organization. I think the decision should be taken only when it is fairly clear that the majority of the Canadian people are in favour of this being done. The final field of activity toward, which we are directing our attention is in the Pacif ic . Yesterday I announced that a call for a cease fire had been issued by the United Kingdom and the U.S.S.R. as co-chairmen of the Geneva conference of 1954. They had invited India, as chairman of the truce supervisory commission, to call the com-mission together in New Delhi . In addition, they called for a conference' of 14 nations to be held in Geneva on M a y 12. If hon. members read these letters', they wi l l observe that the first job of the commission, which is Canada's main concern, wi l l be to discuss the question of the tasks and functions which should be allotted to the commission if there is a cease fire in Laos. The commission is to hold these discussions in New Delhi, not in Laos, and then present an appropriate report to the co-chairmen, that is Russia and Great Britain, who wi l l con-sider the commission's report and give the commission directions on going to Laos to carry out the work of controlling the cease fire. This is not a perfect scheme because, at the first, we are going to be working in New Delhi, a thousand miles or so away from Laos. In addition, it is not clear just what the tasks of this commission wil l be if the cease fire should take place. We are hoping that there wi l l be a cease fire promptly and that the commission can be sent into Laos promptly and can be sent in before the conference meets in Geneva on M a y 12. This is the intention, as explained by the United K i n g -' dom, and I am hoping that things wil l work out in that way. Canada wil l do her ful l part. It is important that there should be peace in that part of Southeast As ia if for no other reason than that a war there might lead to war all over the world. We are in a position to make a contribution in the area, and we wil l be glad to do so. Yesterday the hon. member for Essex East (Mr. Martin) made some noises which rather impressed me as indicating that he was going to have something to say about the commis-sion in Laos having been deactivated in 1958. A t that time the request was made by Pr ime Minister Souvanna Phouma, who is the key man in the picture today. He requested that the commission get out of Laos. The majority of the members, India and Canada, voted accordingly and the commission did get out of that country. The belief at the time was, of course, that a stable government had been established and that there would be no further need for that commission. I. was very pleased to find that both the Leader of the Opposition (Mr. Pearson) and the hon. member for Essex East had approved of that course. I have the extract from Hansard right here to prove it if they dare to attack me on the subject this afternoon. M r . Pearson: What is this, intimidation? M r . Green: Perhaps this is a species of in -timidation, but it is very helpful in the circumstances. This is an issue on which I am sure all members of the house are united, and I am hoping that Canada can make a worth-while contribution. We are also in a very influential position across the Pacific by virtue of our partici-pation in the Colombo plan. This has made us various friends in that area and Canada has an important voice in bringing about decisions across the Pacific which wil l be of general benefit to our nation as well as to the rest of the world. I should like to say a final word about China. I feel quite sure that the hon. mem-ber for Assiniboia and his associates wi l l be dealing with that subject in their remarks. I do not believe the Leader of the Opposition or the hon. member for Essex East wil l be very vocal . about this particular question. During the L ibera l convention last J a n u -ary a resolution was passed with regard to the entry of red China into the United Nations which advocated that Canada should no longer vote for a moratorium on the discus-sion of this question in the United Nations. This resolution, of course, did not-go very far. While that particular procedure has been followed for some years, the introduction of the moratorium resolution has not prevented an effective debate on the real issue of the admission of red China. The step taken by the opposition in their convention does not. go more than three or four inches ahead of. the position which was adopted by the former government and which has been followed b y . the present government with regard to the discussion of the subject in the United N a -tions. ; • : ' M a y I say, too, that the world does not.' stand still. Changes keep occurring every-where, and certainly the question of red China is one of the most interesting and i m -portant questions now under consideration by the external affairs department. Every-one knows the policy we have adopted, and if and when there is a change in that policy, it wi l l be announced in the ordinary manner. One fact Canadians should remember is that there are a great many people l iving on Formosa who are native Formosans. No one is anxious to have them turned over to red 14 China. I think this would be a disastrous move to make, yet red China is not interested in recognition or entry into the United N a -tions unless her right to take over For -mosa is accepted.. This, of course, has been one of the very big obstacles in the way of taking steps to change the present situation. Eventually, the wishes of the people of For -mosa will have to be an important factor. In considering this whole question I suggest that it would be wise for Canadians not to forget the important factor of Formosa in the whole picture. ~v • I think I have never made such a long speech, M r . Speaker, in my parliamentary career and I hope never to do it again. However, in conclusion may I say this. As hon. members know and as they wi l l have found from this sketchy review of problems arising in all parts of the world, Canada is involved everywhere. In practically every part of the world Canada is involved in one way or another, to an extent and in such a manner that she can do something about every one of these problems. I suggest that this is a great challenge to the Canadian people. Whether we accept that challenge, whether we play our full part in world affairs—the part which is there to be played by Canada—will , of course, depend on the wil l of the Canadian people to participate, the idealism and optimism of the Canadian people and the sacrifices they are prepared to make. I believe that Canada can render a service to mankind as a whole in the field of foreign affairs and, as the minister responsible for Canada's activities abroad, it wil l be my objective to do just that. I ask for the sup-port of the members of the house, regardless of party, in bringing these facts to the atten-tion of the Canadian people, thus helping to make it possible for the Canadian people to realize the challenge which faces them and to realize the opportunity for Canada to do something worth while in the world. If we make that attempt we shall be going a long way toward making our nation the type of nation we all think it should be. ROGER DUHAMEL, F.R.S.C, Queen's Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa, 1961 155 CANADA OFFICIAL REPORT SPEECH of Member for Vancouver Quadra and Secretary of State for External Affairs on (Opening Discussion of the Estimates of the Department of External Affairs) Made in the House of Commons on Sept. 7, 1961 {These reprints were paid jor by Howard Green) 99963-4 3 156 Hon. Howard C . Green (Secretary of State for External Affairs): M r . Chairman, today we meet in the Canadian House of C o m -mons at a time of deep crisis. As hon. mem-bers know, for some weeks tension has been increasing steadily over Berl in, and within the last week the premier of the Soviet union has announced a resumption of nuclear tests. In addition to that, he has stated that his country can develop a nuclear bomb with the power of 100 mil l ion tons of t.n.t, and that such a bomb could then be hurled by rocket to any target in the world. It was very interesting to read the first reports of this shocking statement. No doubt hon. members have seen them. I refer in particular to one which is contained in the Ottawa Journal of September 2. It is a dis-patch from Moscow reporting an interview Premier Khrushchev held with two mem-bers of the Brit ish Labour party. To them he is reported as having declared that he had decided to resume the testing of nuclear weapons in order to shock the western powers into negotiations on Germany and disarmament. In amplifying that statement he apparently said that by taking a tough line he hoped to make the Atlantic alliance agree to merging the discussions at Geneva on a nuclear test ban treaty with negotia-tions for general and complete disarmament. There is no doubt that world opinion has been profoundly shocked by the statement and also by the actions which followed so quickly on the heels of the statement. I refer to the conducting of four nuclear tests in the at-mosphere, where of course the radiation and fall-out are of the m a x i m u m degree. The United States has now decided that in the face of these actions by the Soviet union it must undertake nuclear tests, although they are not of the same type and are reported as being such that they do not pro-duce fall-out. They wi l l be tests in the labora-tory and tests underground. In the meantime a very statesmanlike step was taken by President Kennedy and Pr ime Minister Macmil lan of the United K i n g d o m when they appealed to the Soviet premier on September 3 in the following words: The President of the United States of America and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom propose to Chairman Khrushchev that their three govern-ments agree, effective immediately, not to conduct nuclear tests which take place in the atmosphere and produce radioactive fall-out. Their aim in this proposal is to protect mankind from the increasing hazards from atmospheric pollution and to contribute to the reduction of international tensions. They urge Chairman Khrushchev to cable his immediate acceptance of this offer and his cessa-tion of further atmospheric tests. They further urge that their representatives at Geneva meet not later than September 9 to record this agreement and report it to the United Nations. They sincerely hope that the U.S.S.R. will accept this offer, which remains • open for the period indicated. They point out that with regard to atmospheric testing the United States and the United Kingdom are prepared to rely upon existing means of detection, which they believe to be adequate, and are not suggesting additional controls. But they reaffirm their serious desire to conclude a nuclear test ban treaty applicable to other forms of testing as well, and regret that the U.S.S.R. has blocked such an agreement. A s yet there has been no reply to that appeal, and I am sure I speak for all members of the house when I say that we still hope Premier Khrushchev wi l l agree to the proposal which has been made. In my opinion, M r . Chairman, the great tragedy of 1961 has been that Soviet leaders have not understood or have ignored the fact that President Kennedy and his top advisers have, from the start of their administration, genuinely desired to bring about a reduction in world tension. We know that for a fact because of our contacts with these United States leaders. For Canadians it is so important at this time not to add fuel to the flames with the world hovering on the brink of a nuclear war. We must do our utmost to help to reduce ten-sion, and the government has been doing that during the recent very serious weeks. We must not lose our heads but must show Cana-dian common sense. Common sense is one of the finest qualities in the Canadian character, and now is the time to remember this and to show that common sense in our talk and in our actions. In addition, we must continue our idealistic approach to world affairs. Because the situa-tion is serious is no excuse for Canadians to abandon the idealistic approach they have had down through their history. These attri-butes have been shown by Canadians for a long time. Such is our record, and this is what is expected of us now by all nations, including the nations in the communist camp. A few weeks ago in Geneva I had a brief talk with M r . Gromyko, the foreign minister of the Soviet union. There was, of course, a certain amount of banter but finally he said ' "I know that Canada stands for peace". That is our reputation in world affairs, and it is a very good reputation to have. ' . Today I propose to deal with certain mate-rial factors in the present world situation. Ordinari ly I would go on to cover various other subjects which probably are of equal importance, but I plan today to deal with the facts relative to the present serious situation and later during the discussion of the estim-ates I shall try to deal with these other subjects. First of al l let me deal with nuclear tests. The tremendous world interest in nuclear tests is because people are rightly, afraid of the 157 effects of radiation and fall-out. They remem-ber what happened at Hiroshima and they know that the damage and destruction would be infinitely greater in a nuclear holocaust with the present hydrogen bombs. They are worried about the effect not only on them-selves but on the generations to come. For this reason, and also in the hope that an agreement to ban nuclear tests would be a long step toward a general disarmament agreement, the three nuclear powers, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet union, decided nearly three years ago to try to work out a nuclear test ban agree-ment. France did not participate in that con-ference and, I think unfortunately, in the intervening period set off certain nuclear blasts, although the other three countries until last week maintained a moratorium on any further testing. This conference held its 339th meeting this week and it meets again on Saturday, Septem-ber 9, in Geneva. U p to the end of last year there had been great progress made in these negotiations. Scientists of the three countries had met and reported on various ways of checking tests, and the delegates had agreed to many paragraphs of a test ban treaty. In-cidentally, at the United Nations last year there were two resolutions passed dealing with the suspension of nuclear and thermonuclear tests. One of them contained this operative paragraph: Urges the states concerned in these negotiations— The reference is to the negotiations at Geneva. • , —to continue their present voluntary suspension of the testing of nuclear weapons. That resolution was sponsored by Austria, India and Sweden and was adopted by a vote of 89 in favour, including Canada, none against and four abstentions. Another resolu-tion, sponsored by India and 25 other countries, contained the following operative paragraph: Urges the states concerned in the Geneva negotia-tions to continue their present voluntary suspen-sion of the testing of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, and requests other states to refrain from undertaking such tests. That resolution was adopted by a vote of 83 in favour, including Canada, none opposed and 11 abstentions. This year for some reason or other—I really do not understand why—the delegate of the Soviet union to the conference in Geneva be-came intransigent. It was really impossible to make any further progress. The United States and Great Br i ta in sub-mitted revised proposals meeting many of the' objections which had been taken by the Soviet delegate, but these were not even adequately discussed by the Soviet repre-sentative. He was insistent on the troika principle for controlling the test ban under which principle there would be one repre-sentative of the U.S.S.R., one representative of the western side and one neutral, and was also insistent that the whole question of nuclear tests should be taken out of the con-ference and put into a general conference on disarmament. However, the conference still goes on. The western side have refused to take steps to break it off, and I believe, have acted very wisely in so doing. A t the United Nations in 1959 Canada spon-sored a resolution calling for more adequate reporting on radiation and for additional steps to warn the people of the world about. the effects of radiation as wel l as further action along that line. The resolution was co-sponsored by ten other nations and was finally adopted by unanimous vote on No-vember 21, 1959. We offered to conduct i n Canada tests of samples of air, soil, water, food and bone collected in nations which did not have the scientific facilities for carrying out such tests. In the intervening period ar-rangements have been made with Burma, Malaya, Ghana and Pakistan for Canada to carry out such tests. We have had to build up staff in Canada to do this work. We have extended our facilities and everything has now been prepared with this end in view. • As a result of the resolution, increased attention has been given to radiation problems internationally. For example, 13 other states have offered their facilities in the same way Canada did. These include the United K i n g -dom, the United States, Austral ia, France, Norway, Belgium, Sweden, Denmark, Japan, Israel, the Soviet union, Argentina and Italy in addition to the international atomic energy agency and the world health organization. There has been a marked increase i n the. number of member countries supplying the United Nations with data on fall-out levels. I think we can be proud of the results that have followed from the initiative taken in 1959. " -In addition we have made it perfectly clear for a long time that the Canadian government is opposed to nuclear tests of any kind. That was done in order that there would be no misunderstanding and that every country would know exactly where we stood. We see no reason for Canada to change that policy. ' .. In the present situation, with the Soviet union conducting these tests in the way it has been, there can be no doubt that the respon-sibility for this backward step must be placed at their door. The United States has said that it now proposes to carry out tests. I think in fairness every hon. member of the committee 5 158 would agree with me that the United States could not sit by indefinitely while the Russians were proceeding with their tests; but naturally we regret that it has been deemed necessary for the United States to announce the resump-tion of tests at this time. Canada on this problem wil l endeavour to further an agree-ment banning tests. That may not be an objective easily reached, but this is the target at which we wi l l be aiming. Having dealt with nuclear testing, I turn now to the situation in Ber l in and Germany. I am sure all hon. members of the committee and the Canadian people generally wi l l join with me in supporting the clear cut, analytical and statesmanlike speech made by the Prime Minister of Canada in Winnipeg on September 1. I see by the press that the Leader of the Opposition has said he agrees with the attitude adopted in that speech by our Prime Minister. It would be tantamount to gilding the li ly for me to attempt today to go over the same ground which was covered by the Prime Minister on that occa-sion. I merely point out that for many months there have been warnings by the Soviet union that there would be -a peace treaty . signed with East Germany and there have been various threats, not all confined to one side, incidentally. Threats do not obtain very good results. Perhaps this is one of the ways in which the Leaders of the Soviet union misunderstand the people on the western side. The Soviet can-not obtain results by threatening the Cana-dians, the British, the people of the United States or other western nations. We have been threatened before, and have met those threats with. the proper action. That is the reason we are in active business in the world today. We do not back down in the face of threats. There is an election campaign under way in West Germany which tends to add to the con-fusion with respect to the situation in Berl in . Voting takes place on September 17, ten days from now. The leader of the main opposition party is the mayor of West Berlin. , I suppose knowing elections as we do, we might have expected that there would be a great many statements made which might not have been made the day after the election. I also draw attention to the flood of refugees from East Germany, into West Germany. This is a very significant factor. It shows more clearly than a mil l ion words could do what the people in East Germany think of the regime in that country. O f course it has had a very damaging effect on the image of communism which is being portrayed to other nations of the world. Let me say a word also about President Kennedy's stand on Berl in. A few weeks ago he made a speech, which probably all hon. . members heard, in which he set out the posi-tion on which the western world would stand. I think it was wise to do that in order that there could be no misunderstandings, no mis-calculations, as are supposed, to have hap-pened in the case of both the first and second world wars. He went further and said that the United States was will ing and anxious to enter into negotiations about this whole •-question, and that too was very wise. Our • own Prime Minister has said the same thing and has stressed the need for negotiations. A t one stage or another all parties have said that there must be negotiations in an attempt to iron out this difficult problem. Our policy today on Ber l in and Germany is that an attempt must be made to settle it around the table. There- are many channels and methods for exploring with the Soviet union possible grounds of agreement. Partly to this end the foreign ministers of the three major western powers and of West Germany wil l be meeting in Washington ori September 14, one week from today, to discuss further the steps which may be taken to reach a satisfactory agreement with the Soviet union. • Similarly, consultations wi l l continue in the North Atlantic council—and there have been many consultations in that council during the last few weeks—about peaceful solutions to this dangerous problem in accordance with' the United Nations charter. ' Through these discussions with our allies , and in negotiations with the Soviet union it is hoped that it wi l l be possible to reach an honourable accommodation with the Soviet. ' Canada certainly wi l l do everything in her power to help bring about negotiations, and wil l do her part to see that they are brought to a successful conclusion. The third material factor with which I wish to deal briefly is the position of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Today I would think there are not very many C a n a -dians who believe that N A T O is superfluous, and that it does not have a very important part to-play in the world situation. So often it is forgotten that this is a defensive alliance. It . was not set up for purposes of aggression. We know that the countries of that alliance do' not believe in aggression. It was set up to defend western Europe and the north Atlantic area. It is so important that that organiza-tion be kept strong. The Deputy Chairman: M a y I interrupt the minister. Under the rules, his time has ex-pired. Would the committee give unanimous consent for the minister to continue? Some hon. Members: Agreed. , M r . Green: M r . Chairman, through you may I thank the members of the committee for giving me this extension. .. 6 159 In recent months discussions in the N A T O council have greatly improved, and I am glad to be able to announce that on Monday next we shall have in Canada M r . D i r k U . Stikker, the distinguished secretary general of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. He wi l l be here for a two day conference with C a n a -dian ministers, and this wi l l give us an op-portunity to review the whole N A T O situa-tion. M r . Stikker took on this difficult post just a few months ago; he has been making a great success of that work, and we shall welcome h i m very warmly when he pays his first visit to Canada. I think Canada must state once again that she believes in the equality of membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. There is always the danger of the bigger na-tions trying to set up a sort of executive-or control body. A few months ago there was concern over a possible three nation exec-utive, a three nation triumvirate directing N A T O . Now, with the Ber l in crisis, West Germany has been taking part in the various discussions on Ber l in with the United States, the United Kingdom and France. I think we must take care to see that there is not a four power group assuming executive powers in the organizations A t the last meeting of the North Atlantic Treaty foreign ministers we were very pleased to find that there was practically unanimous opinion that there was no incom-patibility in the member nations of N A T O taking independent stands in the United N a -tions, particularly on peace keeping activities of the United Nations and on appeals to world opinion; Canada has never believed that membership in N A T O should restrict her activities in the United Nations. A fourth material factor today is the ques-tion of disarmament. A s hon. members know, Canada was a member of the ten nation dis-armament committee which was torpedoed by the five communist members in June of last year. Two months later, with the United States, we were able to bring the question before the disarmament commission of the United Nations and to obtain a unanimous resolution there that negotiations should be resumed. Subsequently we brought in a reso-lution at the United Nations general as-sembly last fal l which was designed to help get negotiations under way again. That res-olution was co-sponsored by 18 other nations. Dur ing their meeting in London this spring the prime ministers of the commonwealth issued a very significant statement on the question of disarmament. This was particu-larly helpful because of the membership of the commonwealth. The prime ministers came from practically every continent and they had varying opinions. They did not agree on all things. But on this statement on dis-armament, they were unanimous and issued a communique in respect thereof. I think in the days ahead as work proceeds, on dis-armament this commonwealth resolution wil l be of great importance. A t the session of the United Nations which ran over into the spring of 1961, it was finally agreed that the problem of disarmament and all pending proposals relating to it, which included the Canadian resolution, would be stood over until the session of the general assembly in the fall of this year. In addition the United States and the Soviet union agreed that they would sit down and try to work out a negotiating group, as well as general pr in-ciples for negotiations, on the question of disarmament. Since the spring there have been discussions between the representatives of these tv/o great powers. Canada has throughout warmly approved this attempt to reach agreement on a suitable forum for resuming disarmament negotiations and a satisfactory set of directives to guide the negotiators. We have been kept closely in touch with all that has gone on at each of the meetings, and here again the United States has made a real attempt to de-vise a satisfactory basis. It has been flexible in its approach during these two-nation dis-cussions. The talks, of course, have been confidential and it is not possible to reveal the substance of the matters discussed. While they have not achieved their goal, the differences between the two sides have been clarified. Yesterday the United States and the Soviet union, were meeting in New Y o r k on this question of disarmament. The last few days, M r . Chairman, have seen barely concealed threats which, as I have said, we must meet squarely. This situation, however, does not mean that we should down-grade our efforts to further the cause of dis-armament. On the contrary far-reaching measures on disarmament are now more vital than ever if we are to avoid even sharper east-west conflicts in a world which daily sees the development of more frightening weapons. We must recognize clearly that until a realistic basis for negotiation is established, we wil l , continue to run the most dangerous risk of all , the risk of nuclear war. During the past months Canada has taken an active part in the drafting of a new western disarmament plan. Throughout this period the United States and the other countries which represented the west on the ten-nation com-mittee have been in close consultation. The other members of the western alliance who were not on the committee have also had an opportunity to express their views on the new plan. The contents of this plan cannot be re-vealed at this time, but it does constitute a 7 160 significant improvement over previous west-ern proposals. We have been represented dur-ing these discussions by Lieutenant-General E . L . M . Burns who has played a very large part in the field of disarmament for a long time and who, I suggest, has no peer anywhere in the world in this particular field. M a n y of our suggestions have been ac-cepted in the working out of this new plan. A great deal of effort has been put into trying to meet the desires expressed at the commonwealth prime ministers conference to ensure the max imum amount of disarmament in the shortest possible time. F u l l considera-tion has already been given to the reasonable Soviet proposals. This new western plan wi l l be put forward for negotiation, and not on a "take it or leave it" basis. The western powers are wi l l -ing to take into account any further sug-gestions the Soviet union may have, pro-vided they reflect a genuine willingness to arrive at a realistic and properly safeguarded disarmament program. A t the session of the general assembly which opens on September 19, Canada wi l l work for the endorsement of this new west-ern plan by the widest possible number of states and we wi l l do our best to ensure that any negotiating body which may be agreed upon wi l l have close relationship with the United Nations. W e believe that the most important objective in the field of disarma-ment is to get negotiations started again just as quickly as possible.. Then, I should like to say a few words about the unaligned nations conference which met over the week end in Belgrade. There you had 25 neutral nations, some of whom were not very friendly towards the west if one can judge by their actions in recent years. The representatives of these nations came from various continents to try to work out some plan to help reduce tension in the world. I grant that a good deal of time was spent in attacking the question of colonialism and issues which affected particular nations. I believe that the press reports of the meetings of these unaligned countries have not done justice to the significance of their reaction to the questions of Ber l in and the resumption of nuclear testing. The dispatch which came out during that conference after the Soviet announcement that nuclear tests would be resumed is contained in one of our news-papers under this heading: "Neutrals Rap A Testing; Urge- Ber l in Talks.". It. is very important that that should have been the reaction i n Belgrade. I think, for example, that the statements made by Prime Minister Nehru have been and wi l l be very helpful in bringing about some solution of these terrible problems. I learned the hard way at the