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Hankai; a tale from the Harusame monogatari by Ueda Akinari (1734-1809) Young, Blake Morgan 1969

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HANKAI A. TALE FROM THE HARUSAME MONOGATARI BY UEDA AKINARI (1734-1809) —Hi. Translated and Annotated by BLAKE MORGAN YOUNG B.A., University of Alberta, 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Department of Asian Studies We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE Ig^ VERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree tha p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Asian S t u d i e s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date?A figpt.flmw^ -iPRO. (i) ABSTRACT Ueda.Akinari has already attracted the notice of a few Western scholars, but their studies to date have been concerned almost ex-clusively with his unchallenged literary masterpiece, Ugetsu monogatari (Tales of Moonlight and Rain). The thesis which follows is an attempt to introduce Akinari's next best known work of fiction, Harusame mono- gatari (Tales of the Spring Rain), to Western study. The core of my thesis is a translation of "Hankai," the longest of the ten tales which comprise Harusame monogatari. It is preceded, as an introduction, by an essay of three major divisions: first, a note on the li f e and works of Ueda Akinari; second, a discussion of Harusame monogatari as a whole; and finally, specific remarks on "Han-kai." Although Akinari's personal history is obscure, and will remain so until considerably more biographical research is done, I have tried to sketch his l i f e using the pertinent items about kLm which are known to be, or at least are generally accepted as being true, and to explain how he fits into the overall picture of Japanese literature. In translating "Hankai," an effort to keep the English rendition true to the original.Japanese was sustained throughout, but though held to a minimum and used only as a last resort, some compromises were necessary in the interests of good English. In translating works of literature, one always encounters this problem of achieving the appropriate balance between remaining faithful to the original work and creating a piece that is readable. I must leave i t to the reader (ii) to judge the degree of my success. "Hankai" is a tale with a moral theme. It concerns Daizo (later called Hankai), a wild and impetuous country youth who is able, due to his boldness and phenomenal strength, to live as he pleases with l i t t l e thought for the consequences. At length his crimes force him to flee from his home and keep moving in order to avoid arrest. In the course of his wanderings, he has experiences which exert a maturing influence upon him and gradually bring his latent goodness to the surface. At last he foresakes his evil ways, enters the priesthood, and finally attains enlightenment. The tale portrays the Buddhist concept that man is baedcally good by nature and that through mastery of his passions he can determine his own destiny. But "Hankai" also contains a wealth of references to old Japanese l i f e , history, geography, and literature. I have tried to clarify such points in a way that would prove informa-tive and interesting to both the casual reader and the more serious student of things Japanese. Approximately one thrid of this thesis is devoted to footnotes. Information for this study was gleaned from a variety of sources in both English and Japanese. Specialized dictionaries and encyclo-pedias—literary dictionaries, biographical dictionaries, historical dictionaries, Japanese language dictionaries, geographical diction-aries—proved extremely helpful. Collections of Japanese literary works, both in their original form andin translation, helped in clarifying the allusions to literature. Considerable information came from specialized studies in books and periodicals on such topics as Japanese history, philosophy, religion, customs, literature, and on ( i i i ) the l i f e and works of Ueda Akinari. Despite its limitations, i t is hoped that this study will in some v/ay prove helpful in introducing the li t e r -ature of Japan to the West. CONTENTS Abstract i Introduction 1 Ueda Akinari: His Life and Work 1 Harusame monogatari 12 Hankai 19 Hankai 24 Part I i .24 Part II 44 Abbreviations 64 Footnotes 65 Introduction 65 Hankai I : 67 Hankai II 85 Bibliography ;94 INTRODUCTION I. Ueda Akinari: His Life and Work Ueda Akinari X # 4JC$<], (also^il;^, ) aspired to distinction as a classical scholar and waka poet, achieved i t as a novelist, and is worthy of note as a writer of halkai and devotee of the tea ceremony. He has been called a good amateur."'" In a l l his endeavors—his studies, writings, and way of life—he kept away from the general trend and so his works possess a flavor a l l their own. As nearly as can be determined, although the evidence has been challenged, Akinari was born on July 25, 1734 in Sonezaki'^ Jfjjci% , the Osaka licensed quarter. According to tradition, he was the son of an 2 unknown father and a courtesan surnamed Tanaka g ^ . Akinari entered the world during the administration of Yoshimune£ % (ruled 1716-1745), the eighth Tokugawa shogun, who had already initiated the reforms that established the Edo government's authority over the Osaka region's commercial power and started Edo on the road to developing an economy and culture of i ts own. Culture in the Osaka-Kyoto area had reached its apex during the Genroku£f£ Era (1688-1703), when creative writing was epitomized by the works of Matsuo Basho^^ £ %. (1644-1693), Chi-kamatsu Monzaemon i£ f] (1653-1724) and Ihara Saikaku *f (1642-1693). Now i t was declining, and the next important period of literary production would be the Bunka^H. (1804-1817) and Bunsei$[$L (1818-1829) Eras, the time of Takizawa Bakin;j|Jgj fy (1767-1848) and (2) Santo Kyoden l> » | ^ ,/fj. (1761-1816), when Edo had become the center of culture. Akinari 1s l i f e f e l l between these two periods of literary activity, which accounts in part for his importance in the history of Japanese literature. He was the last major writer of the Kyoto circle and influenced authors of the later period. In 1737, young Akinari was adopted by Ueda Mosuke t. 15 $j] of Osaka, a prosperous dealer in o i l and paper. His shop, which was called the Shimaya tl4j, y | , was situated in Dojima Era-cho % % t now the approximate location of the Osaka Malnichi Shimbun office. Nothing is known of the circumstances behind the adoption. One can infer that Ueda needed a son to carry on the family name, for his only natural child was a gir l , but how he came to choose Akinari is a matter for speculation. The year after his adoption, Senjiro 'X jty , as he was called in childhood, contracted a severe case of smallpox that very nearly cut his l i f e short. His foster father went repeatedly to the Inari ^  #j Shrine in Kashima-mura Jj^j^ jfi on the northern outskirts of Osaka to offer prayers for his recovery. On one such excursion, i t is said, the father f e l l into a doze during which the god of the shrine appeared in a dream and told him that his son had been granted a l i f e of sixty-eight years. Shortly thereafter, the boy's health began to mend. The disease left him with a weakened constitution that would plague him throughout his l i f e , and with his right middle finger and 16ft index finger shortened and deformed. He remained sensitive about his resul-tant appearance and later used such pen names as Senshi Kijin ^ *lj A ("The Pruned Cripple") and Ueda Mucho ( i <Q $"Ueda »the Crab" ) (3) because of i t . Nevertheless, his l i f e had been spared. Believing the reports that his recovery had been the result of divine inter-vention, Akinari remained a faithful patron of the Kashima Inari Shrine a l l his l i f e . In 1801, when he began his sixty-eighth year, he composed sixty-eight waka and dedicated them to the shrine in thanks. Only a few miscellaneous items are known about the next quarter century of Akinari's l i f e . His foster mother died shortly after his recovery, but Ueda soon remarried and the new mother was very kind to the children. When he came of age, his childhood name of Senjiro was changed to Tosakuji (alsoj| ift )—Akinari was a nickname. His sis-ter, whose name and dates are unknown, left home, apparently with a lover, in 1755, and was disinherited by her father. Because of his poor health, Akinari was pampered and allowed considerable freedom al l through his youth, and until he was nearly twenty he appears to have received l i t t l e formal education. Light minded companions, i t seems, were often successful in luring him away from his studies and into the gay quarters or some other frivolous activity, but his father was determined to give him a good education, and sent him, in his late teens, to the Kaitokudo|J|f;§, ^  , an Osaka school for mer-chant families. It was probably here that he was introduced to classical studies, very likely through contact with Goi Eanshu t 5 Bg-li'l (1698-1762), a Confucian scholar and student of the national literature who wrote critical works on the Japanese classics. During his late teens and early twenties, Akinari read widely in popular fiction, and like many sons of merchant families, dabbled in haikai writing. In the latter pursuit, he had no formal teacher but asso-(4) elated with several of the Kyoto-Osaka haikai masters,'especially with Takai Kikei Ij fit. (1687-1761) of Kyoto, whom he met around 1756. It was probably at this same time that he encountered Kikei•s son Kito fl ^ (1741-1789), who was a student of the Haiku master losa Buson'i)£ f|) (1716-1783). Through Kito, Akinari was able to establish a friendship with the man. Akinari married in 1760. His bride was Ueyama Tama ^ (< J (1740?-1797), a'native of Kyoto who had been adopted into an Osaka family. Tama won his respect and devotion and their marriage proved to be a happy, albeit childless one. Akinari now began to study literature more seriously, and in 1766 he published Shodo kikimimi sekenzaru %fy Ifr % a collection of fifteen unrelated stories drawn from his own experiences, which present a witty and satirical picture of various aspects of society. This success was followed early the next year by Seken tekake katagj it ff\^. tf>, , which consists of twelve tales that are primarily concerned with the difficulties of keeping a mistress. Although droll and satirical in tone, the stories consider the feelings of concubines and the men who keep them, probing the dilemma of head versus heart. Both collections, written under the name of Wa Yakutaro •jfo<rfAj£?> falling into the class of literature known as ukiyozoshi  74 £f 2 » s h o w t h e influence of Ejima Kiseki #>$#,fr| (1667-1738). As the last noteworthy ukiyozoshi. these works have historical significance, but Akinari is not remembered for his contributions to a dying genre. About this same time, Akinari met Kato Umaki «o^ 'f % f l (1722-1777), who introduced him to the Mabuchi school of the kokugaku /$) ^ movement. Kokugaku. though hard to define precisely, was an effort; (5) through study of the Japanese classics, to clarify and understand the ancient language, spirit, and way of life-before the advent of conti-nental influences. The field included study of the national language and literature, ancient history, intellectual history, religion, and other areas. "* Interest in such study had been kindled by Keichu $t (1640-1701) and continued and expanded by Kamo Mabuchi 1| $ | (1697-1769) and others. Umaki had been a student of Mabuchi and was closer to him in character than was his more famous disciple, Motoori Norinaga %%b%.% (1730-1801). Akinari had been independently studying the works of Keichu and his admirer Goi Ranshu, but now he learned from Umaki the spirit of Mabuchi's teachings. This helped him to shift from popular literature to serious literary scholarship. He remained on close terms with Umaki until the man's death, either through per-sonal contact or correspondence. After Umaki died, Akinari returned to independent study, but he had fallen heir to Umaki's teachings and enlarged upon them, producing some deeply learned writings of his own. Acutely conscious of his position as an indirect disciple of Mabuchi, Akinari a l l his l i f e paid deep respect to the memory of both Mabuchi and Umaki. Akinari also studied for a time with the writer Takebe Ayatari X i ^ ^ / I L (1719-1774), whom he probably met in 1767. They agreed on matters of kokugaku at first, but their relationship deteriorated and Akinari developed feelings of rivalry toward the man. It is commonly believed that Akinari met Umaki through Ayatari, but the record is not 6 clear on this matter. When his father died in 1770, Akinari suddenly found himself re-(6) sponsible for the family business. He may, however, have felt some relief when the establishment was destroyed by fire the following year, 7 for he made no attempt to salvage anything or make a fresh start. S t i l l , he had to find a means of livelihood. He chose medicine, and in 1773 he moved to Kashima-mura and commenced study under the Confu-cian physician Tsuga Teishoff ' f f(1718?-1795?). But medicine was not a l l that he learned. A new literary genre, the yomihonft ^ , was developing. Jomihon, as the term implies, were books to be read primarily for pleasure rather than instruction, though a didactic element was often present. In the beginning they were usually collections of short stories, often based on actual events or classical tales, and influenced by Chinese vernacular literature. Translation and study of Chinese colloquial novels had begun early in the eighteenth century, and interest in them was now reaching its peak. Many of the early yomihon were translations or close adaptations of Chinese literature, but later their authors grew more original in their presentation. From 1750 to 1800, most yomihon were written in the Kyoto-Osaka region, and from about 1800 until 1848, when Bakin, the last creative author of the genre, died, Edo became the center of productivity. Outstanding among early yomi- hon were Tsuga Teisho's Hanabusazoshi # $ (1749) and Shigeshigaya fcPfvk (1766), and Takebe Ayatari's Nishiyama monogatari vJQ ^ tfq ^ (1768) and Honcho suikoden k^k'-ty\^ (1773). Indeed, Teisho's adaptations of Chinese novels were largely responsible for starting a dialogue about a new style of literature. Though not a genuine aca-demic Chinese scholar (his translations were aimed at financial (7) profit), Teisho was s t i l l a man of wide knowledge, and Akinari gained considerable learning from him as well as from Umaki and study of Mabuchi's writings. After two years with Teisho, Akinari returned to Osaka and. estab-lished his own medical practice. The following year, 1776, his master-piece was published. This was Ugetsu monogatari ^  >£| written under the name of Senshi Kijin. A collection of nine short tales of the super-natural, adapted from Chinese sources and written in an elegant and flowing style, Ugetsu is a work of eerie beauty. The preface is dated 1768, but the work is so pervaded by Chinese influences that i t must, have been drastically revised before publication, or else the date is incorrect. Historically, Ugetsu and the writings of Ayatari and Teisho formed the nucleus of the yomihon genre and helped provide the transition from early to late Tokugawa styles. Akinari was a conscientious and successful physician, though i t was hardly the ideal occupation for a man of his nervous temperament. He believed that working at one's trade was a duty, while scholarship and the arts were only a means of recreation, so he devoted himself to medicine in spite of the inner turmoil i t must have cost him. His : kindness and sincerity enabled him to. acquire an extensive practice,, and by 1781 he was prosperous enough to build a new house. But failure to alleviate suffering was a constant source of pain to him. His poor health forced many interruptions in his work and his sight began to weaken as well. Nor was he able permanently to suppress his literary inclinations. In 1788, when a young girl in his care died as a consequence of hismistaken diagnosis, he gave up medicine for a (8) l i f e of study and writing. He moved to A w a j i s h o - m u r a , not far from Kashima-mura, taking up residence in a house which he called the Uzurai f,| . The period that he spent here determined his own peculiar scholastic position and the views on society that appeared in his writings. After the publication of Ugetsu, which brought him acclaim among men of letters, Akinari seems to have turned away from fiction writing ±n favor of waka and more serious study of phonetics and the classics. His critical essays on old literary works contributed to the revival of interest in the Japanese classics, but the only works of fiction that he produced during this period were Kaklzomeki genkai %%n (1787) and Kusemonogatari jgj ffi £f (1791, pub. 1822). Both were merely sketches, sarcastic in tone, and quite different from Ugetsu. but they reflect his feelings at the time they were written. Akinari was prolific as a waka poet but never achieved excellence in this field, though his combination of fresh new expressions with conven-tional simplicity in subject matter earned him some praise. Not a poet of the court school, he wrote as a kokugakusha. His waka displayed the influence of Mabuchi and Umaki but had l i t t l e popular appeal. He set down some of his views on haikai writing in Yasaisho y& P>r , which he wrote under the name of Mucho, though his hai K'ai name was Gyoen$. $ (alsoft? $ ). Written in 1774, this work boasted a preface by Buson, but Akinari witheld publication until 1787, feeling that haikai had no value aside from being a source of amusement. Even so, he continued to write haikai a l l his l i f e . The famous quarrel between Akinari and Motoori Norinaga began (9) about 1784 or 1785. The two men disagreed on certain aspects of ancient Japanese manners and customs, and with particular sharpness on the subject of phonetics in the old language. Norinaga maintained that the "n" (/C) sound was of foreign origin, that "mu" (^ /) had been the original sound, while Akinari contended that both sounds had occurred anciently. He also challenged Norinaga1s belief that the "p" sound was not native to Japan. Their dispute appears in such works as (1792). Akinari 1s arguments were considered inadequate at the time, but in later years many scholars came to share his opinions. The depth of Akinari*s learning and conviction f e l l short of Norinaga*s but Akinari displayed a keen wit and a freedom of position. Despite his hot temper and eccentric words and actions, Akinari was a ration-alist, and Norinaga took exception to the value which he placed on independence and freedom of emotion. The fastidious Akinari was equally displeased by the passionate faith, fanatically anti-Chinese position, complacent self-satisfaction, and apparent indifference to systematization of Norinaga, whose view of the world was taken from the classics. Nor should jealousy be discounted as a source of Akinari's displeasure. Akinari's mother-in-law and stepmother both died in 1789, and the following year he himself lost most of the sight in his left eye. In 1793, perhaps motivated by grief over these losses, his wife became had failed to produce any substantial income and his wife was lonely for her old home, so that same year, Akinari decided to try his for-a nun. Her monastic name Repeated publication (10) tunes in Kyoto. At first he and his wife took lodgings near the Chion'in e where he i s known to have practiced the tea ceremony with a Murase Kotei fa who lived in the vicinity. Akinari's liking for the tea ceremony led him to design articles for i t and to write Seifj£_sagen -fo $ % (1794). A year after their arrival in Kyoto, Aki-nari and Koren'i transferred to quarters near the Nanzenji Temple, and thereafter they continued to move frequently. For a short time they lived at the home of the poet Ozawa Roan/h^ p/l|/^  (1723-1801), who had often visited them at the Nanzenji. Koren'i's death in 1797 was a great blow to Akinari, and perhaps influenced by his emotional state, his remaining eye began to f a i l . Even so, he eked out a living by copying manuscripts and continuing to write. Some of his best koku- gaku writings were produced during this period. They include annotated editions of Japanese classics and the works of Umaki and Mabuchi. Rei-gotsu ^  |f ^  (1797) enlarged upon Umaki's views on ancient Rana ortho-graphy. After the death of Koren'i, Akinari was cared for by Mineko^- ^  , his adopted daughter, and by Matsuyama Teiko j& k , a nun from Osaka who came to assist. But Teiko died three years after Koren'i, and Mineko left shortly thereafter, possibly to get married. Akinari had always isolated himself and remained cool toward society, being self-conscious about his birth and physical deformity. As he became older, his personality grew progressively darker, and in his last years he was noted for being a sulking, self-scorning old man, bitterly sarcastic toward the world and i t s people, and feeling that the masses were full of lies and immorality. Disenchanted with his own times, he favored (11) the past and felt that the only proper course was to withdraw from the world and live a strict ascetic l i f e . Outwardly he was irritable, foul mouthed, misanthropic, and stubborn, but though his hot temper and free speech bred dislike in many, others realized that he was simply high-strung. Ignoring his temperament, they applauded his wit, recog-nizing his irritability and keen insight as the sources of his literary talent. Such men watched over him unobtrusively, rather than risk his displeasure by offering assistance. Encouraged by them, he wrote Tsu-zurabumi^-^ tif) \ (1802, pub. 1806), a collection of poetry and prose, including some posthumous works of his wife, and Kinsa ^ X/f (1804), his longest work. A miscellany in style, i t brings together a l l his pre-vious studies of the Man'yoshu \b$Llk . It was followed the same year by a brief afterword,. Kinsa iogen fajftfj^ % • Certain actions in his last years suggest that Akinari felt his end approaching. In 1802 he designed his own tombstone, and in 1807 . he dropped a number of his manuscripts down a well. He moved back to the Wanzenji in 1806, and i t was here that he wrote Tandai shoshin roku E l l T v ' h ' U ' ^ t p u b . 1808), a general statement of his ideas. A miscellany of his opinions and experiences, i t presents his views as he wanted them to be remembered. He wrote without deference to his superiors or old acquaintances, viciously attacking some while praising others. Tandai is a good key to his personality and tells us much about his l i f e . Akinari died on August 8, 1809 at the home of Hakura Nobuyoshi where he had been living since early that year. In accordance with his wishes his friends interred his remains at the Saifukuji jf% ^  Temple, near the Nanzenji, where his gravestone, inscribed with the (12) name "Ueda Mucho", can s t i l l be seen. II. Harusame monogatari From about 1800 until shortly before his death, Akinari was spora-dically working on a collection of ten short tales which he called Harusame monogatari . At the time he began this work, he dis-played considerable interest in political and cultural history, but later his concern shifted to social problems. These interests are re-flected in the tales. Early manuscripts contain drafts of certain stories, a l l having historical settings and themes, that were subsequently ex-cluded, and what appears to be the final version of Harusame (though Akinari probably was not yet satisfied with the result when he died) is a conglomeration of historical tales and human interest stories. Serious study of Harusame was delayed until after the Pacific War, because no complete text was available. Although the tales circulated in manuscript form, they were never published until the late Meiji Period, when a l l but four complete tales and half of a fifth had been lost. Scholars knew that there had been ten stories in the original, so i t was only natural that when interest in study of Akinari*s works was heightened by the publication of Ueda Akinari zenshu 'K (B iX. & st % in 1918 and Akinari ibmi^/fr^ £ in 1919, concerted efforts were made to find the missing portions. The complete text is now available. It consists of the following tales: 1. Chikatabira _ isL f< r*- 7 (13) 2. Amatsu otome £. zJf JL 3. Kaizoku |& 4. Nisei no en ^- £ <n ^ 5. Me hitotsu no kami_S s> l ^ ,<i ^ 6. Shinikubi no egao fc> & * & *v' (? 7. Suteishimaru A, 8. Miyagi ga tsuka % ^ *v fJ^c 9 . Uta no homare 10. Hankai ^ ^ Harusame was first published in 1907, through the efforts of Fuji-oka Sakutaro $|$li^/vf^ , who took his version from the so-called Tomioka Hon , named for its owner, a Tomioka Kenzo Jj 1^ ^- of Kyoto. This manuscript, now in the Tenri Library, consists of five scrolls in Aki-nari *s own handwriting, and contains the preface to Harusame and the tales "Chikatabira," "Amatsu otome," "Kaizoku," "Me hitotsu no kami," and the first part of "Hankai." In order to meet the demands of the average reader, Fujioka freely substituted kan.ii where kana had been in the original, and added okurigana where he deemed i t necessary for clarity. His version was subsequently included in Ueda Akinari zenshu and in the Yuhodo Bunko collection of Akinari*s writings. In order to supply a more scholarly version, Shigetomo Ki'fefc , in 1939, published a text that corresponded to the original. Another manuscript, the Urushiyama Honj^ ; , provided a more complete version of Harusame. A transcription in one volume, made in 1833, i t was discovered shortly after the Pacific War in the collection of Urushiyama Matashiro J J F J J 'kxft\<§* It contained eight tales; the (14) copyist noted that he had decided not to include "Hankai" and "Suteishi-maru." .Finally, through the efforts of Maruyama Sueo fLiU % X. > t ae first complete edition of Harusame was offered to the public. Maruyama had found a reference to a two-volume transcript copy of Harusame in the catalogue to the Sakurayama Bunko^ l i i . ^ , the collection of Kashima Noribumi/^ b*|; 8'J £ who, in the late Tokugawa Period, had been a chief priest at the Ise Shrine. Kashima's son Noriyuki ft'J ^ turned the manu-script over to Maruyama, who published i t in 1951. Two other manuscripts, both now in the Tenri Library, deserve men-tion here. The Seiso Bunko H o n i ^ l ^ i ^ ^ , a two-volume transcript copy from the Seiso Bunko, the collection of Ozu Keiso 4* con-tains a l l ten tales. Ozu Keiso (1804?-1858), a bibliographer and collector from Matsuzaka#£ *k. in Ise, was a friend of Takizawa Bakin, and i t was through this copy that Harusame came to be noted in Bakin's pioneer history of Edo literature, Edo sakusha burui 5t ?%$f » which in turn informed modern scholars that the complete v/ork consisted of ten items. The Tenri Kansubon £ was preserved by the Matsu-muro/frj |? family, into which Hakura Nobuyoshi's son Shigemura ^  ^ was adopted by marriage. It consists of three scrolls in Akinari's own handwriting, and contains the tales "Nisei no en," "Shinikubi no egao," "Suteishimaru," "Miyagi ga tsuka," "Uta no homare," and the second part of "Hankai," but there are many missing portions. Although other manuscripts exist, modern scholars are primarily concerned with those mentioned above, since they represent the most polished versions of Harusame• The Sakurayama, Urushiyama, and Seiso manuscripts were apparently copied from the draft that Akinari wrote (15) g i n 1808, while i n temporary residence at the Nanzenji Temple. The o r i g i n a l i s probably the manuscript s a i d to be i n the possession of a c e r t a i n H a s e g a w a o f Matsuzaka, but i t has never been found. Not-withstanding t h e i r common o r i g i n , these three manuscripts are not uniform. Deciphering A k i n a r i ' s handwriting i s a formidable task even f o r a s p e c i a l i s t i n o l d manuscripts, so there are numerous disagreements i n the use of kan.1l and kana. one of t e n being s u b s t i t u t e d f o r the other, and a number of di s c r e p a n c i e s i n wording. Without the o r i g i n a l manu-s c r i p t i t i s impossible to say which copy i s the most f a i t h f u l r e n d i t i o n of what A k i n a r i a c t u a l l y wrote. The dates of the Tomioka Hon and T e n r i Kansubon cannot be p i n -pointed, but comparison of them w i t h the 1808 v e r s i o n r e v e a l s numerous d i f f e r e n c e s i n s t r u c t u r e , o r g a n i z a t i o n , and wording. In general, the t e x t i s b e t t e r organized and more po l i s h e d and r e f i n e d i n the Tomioka Hon and T e n r i Kansubon, so i t i s commonly assumed t h a t A k i n a r i wrote t h i s d r a f t of the t a l e s i n 1809, oust before h i s death. Research has es t a b l i s h e d that o r i g i n a l l y the Tomioka Hon and T e n r i Kansubon were pa r t s of the same manuscript, but e f f o r t s to uncover the l a t t e r ' s missing p o r t i o n s have f a i l e d . At present, t h e r e f o r e , the complete f i n a l d r a f t of Harusame i s not a v a i l a b l e . Some hope was provided by the discovery of part of the Tawara Honffl^^s , a copy made a f t e r A k i n a r i ' s death by a waka poet of Kyoto named Tawara Shunsho \0Jfc&ft\ • This manuscript, now i n the T e n r i L i b r a r y , contains the preface and the t a l e s " C h i k a t a b i r a , " "Amatsu otome," and "Kaizoku," and they cor-respond to the v e r s i o n i n the Tomioka Hon. Discovery of the remainder of the Tawara Hon, then, would probably supply A k i n a r i ' s f i n a l r e n d i t i o n . (16) Harusame incorporates the knowledge that Akinari gained and the opinions that he formed as the result of his kokugaku studies. Although called a monogatari. i t is partly a vehicle for the transmission of his ideas. Most of the stories are based on actual events or folk legends. Chinese background material, unlike Ugetsu. is spotty and insignificant. "Chikatabira" and "Amatsu otome" show Akinari's historical views. The former, a tale of treachery and its overthrow, portrays the pure Japan-ese spirit, symbolized by the emperor Heizei * H . (reigned 806-809), and corruption, in the guise of Fujiwara conspirators. In the latter, Akinari attempts to show the effects of continental culture on the imperial court during the first half of the ninth century, the period of fascination with things Chinese, but he fails to bring the events and characters into clear focus. Four of the tales feature criticism of scholarship or religion. "Kaizoku" uses as its setting the journey described by Ei no Tsurayuki in Tosa nikki £. e ft • D O a t from Tosa is overtaken by a pirate who comes aboard and engages Tsurayuki in a debate on waka and politics. In "Nisei no en," a priest who had been buried alive long before, seeking the peace of the hereafter, is unearthed and revived. He marries into a poor family, lives by doing hard labor, and is cons-tantly scolded by his wife. Apparently his previous religious actions have gained him nothing. In "Me hitotsu no kami," a man on his way to study at the capital encounters a group of supernatural beings, in-cluding a one-eyed deity, who drink with him and talk about waka writing and study in general. Stressing the need for self-study rather than instruction,:they convince him to return home. "Uta no homare" is * (17) a very short piece about the Man'yo poet Takechi no Kuroto itj^&y^, who, making a journey, dresses his wife in male attire and goes on his way with her, reciting waka. Finally, there are four humanistic tales. "Shinikubi no egao" is the tragic story of a youth torn between his love for a girl and his duty to his father, who opposes the match. The girl is beheaded by her brother, and her lover carries her head away. Akinari based this story on an actual event, the same as that which formed the basis of Takebe Ayatari's Nishiyama monogatari. "Suteishimaru" begins in nor-thern Honshu,jwhere Suteishimaru, a servant, k i l l s his master and runs away. Seeking revenge, the dead man's son finally traces the murderer to Kyushu, but finds that he has repented and is constructing a tunnel as a service to the local inhabitants. Suteishimaru's reform drives a l l desire for vengeance out of the son's heart. The story is based on an old legend that Kikuchi Kan$ % (1889-1948) used as the source for his story "Onshu no kanata ni" )§• |t *> i$L?31< . "Miyagi ga tsuka" is the sad tale of Miyagi, a girl who is patterned after a courtesan of whom Akinari heard while living in Kashima-mura. Miyagi is forced into prostitution by poverty. She finds a lover but he is poisoned by a jealous rival who then ravishes her. The sorrowing Miyagi is consoled by a passing priest and then drowns herself in the sea. "Hankai," which forms the basis of this study, is the story of a wild young man who commits a l l manner of crimes but ultimately mends his ways and becomes a great priest. As indicated above, Harusame is a motley collection. Some of the tales are historical while others are set in no particular period. In (18) general, the tone of Harusame Is dark, in keeping with the author's feelings in his later years. Al l of the tales have subjects worthy of this phase of his l i f e . "Nisei no en" satirizes the Buddhist doctrine of finding peace in this world and the next. Criticism of scholarship appears in "Kaizoku," "Me hitotsu no kami," and "Uta no homare." "Chi-katabira" and "Amatsu otome" are crit ical of historical figures. "Mi-yagi ga tsuka" portrays the misery of an innocent victim of evil . Man's better nature is often called into question, although the reformation of Suteishimaru and Hankai are cases of affirmation. A moralistic tone appears now and again. The world was not, to the aging Akinari, a place of beauty, and the society he depicts in Harusame is unattractive and more realistically portrayed than in his earlier works of fiction. Whereas in Ugetsu he escaped from reality into a dream world, in Haru- same he seems to have decided to portray things as he saw them. Critics naturally tend to compare Harusame with Ugetsu, usually to the former's disadvantage. Harusame. although i t features Akinari's classic style and is a reservoir of his ideas and learning, lacks the eloquence and appeal of Ugetsu. being replete with difficult sentences and crude use of kan.ii. Also, Ugetsu is a unified whole, while Haru- same is uneven in construction—some of the tales are skil lfully organized and entertaining, while others are more like discourses. Even so, as a piece of high toned, learned writing, Harusame is on a par with Ugetsu. perhaps even surpassing i t in research and classic style. While i t may be inferior as a work of art, i t stands as proof that Akinari, who loved study and research from his young manhood, continued in this spirit to his l i fe's end. (19) III. Hankai For my translation of "Hankai," I have used the text prepared by Nakamura Yukihiko which is printed in Ueda Akinari shu Jfe # ^ , Nihon koten bungaku taikei 3>6>l?SL*f A f t i L V I (Tokyo, 1968), 214-247. Nakamura wanted to provide the most up to date version possible, but since only the first part of the 1809 rendition of "Hankai" was avail-able, he chose the 1809 version for Part I and the 1808 version for Part II. More specifically, he used the Tomioka Hon as the standard text for the first part, and for the second, the Seiso Bunko Hon, with reference to the Tenri Kansubon, Sakurayama Hon, and Urushiyama Hon. In order to make his text more comprehensible to the modern reader, Nakamura supplied punctuation, which is completely lacking in the original, and added some furigana. He also made certain minor changes and additions, either from reference to the non-standard manuscripts or from the context, but a l l such items are duly marked and their sources given. I was able to compare the NKBT text with the Koten Bunkofyty: i^jfy edition, which was published from the Sakurayama manu-9 script. As one would expect, the second part of "Hankai" is almost identical in both editions, but there are numerous differences in the first part, though none sufficient to alter the story. "Hankai" is Akinari's longest work of fiction. It is the tale of a young man who, though guilty of numerous crimes, is led to repen-tance through Buddhist virtue and ultimately attains enlightenment. The title derives from the name of a historical figure who died in 189 B.C. Fan K'uai, to give the Chinese reading of his name, was a faith-ful retainer of Liu Pang ^.i] Iff (247-195 B.C.), the founder of the Former (20) Han dynasty. A humble dog butcher by trade, Fan attached himself to Liu Pang early in that man's career and rose to a high position through military prowess and great strength. When Liu Pang met with his rival, Hsiang Y u r f | ^ , in 206 B.C., Fan K'uai saved his master from being assassinated. This was his most famous exploit and v/on him further honors. His name was well-known in Tokugawa Japan.^ D a i z o ^ ^ , the central charactersof "Hankai," is a strong man worthy of the t i t l e , but Akinari seems to have drawn him more from Lu Chih-shen.^. ^  sa key figure in the Chinese novel Shui hu chuan .fcrjtf 4J|. than from Fan K'uai. Both Daizo and Lu Chih-shen are coarse and simple in their be-havior, lacking in education, but endowed with sufficient strength and reckless courage to do whatever they please. Both men flee from the law after killing someone, and personal descriptions are circulated for their arrest. Subsequently, both men become priests in order to avoid detection. Likewise, both become thieves,and both at last die peacefully after attaining Buddhist enlightenment. Daizo, or Hankai, as he is called through most of the story, i s a young man^ whose home is the traditional environment for producing a delinquent. Being the second son, he is subordinate to his brother, and probably resentful of this fact. His father and brother, who think only of finances and reputation, lack sympathy and understanding, qualities that his mother and sister-in-law have in abundance, with a corresponding lack of discretion. Such a home situation bears compari-son with the tale in Ugetsu, "Jasei no in" ajfc, in which the younger son is similarly indulged by his mother and sister-in-law, while being scorned by his father and brother. In Akinari's own home as well, the (21) father was steadfast, but the stepmother pampered the children, which may have influenced the daughter's flight f*om home. "Hankai" begins with the phrase, Mukashi ima wo shirazu ^ ^ which indicates an.indefinite time in the past, but the society portrayed in.the tale appears to be a peaceful feudal establishment such as existed in Japan during the Tokugawa-Period. This stands.to reason, for Akinari was concerned about cotrosion of values in his own day. The society in "Hankai" is not a good one. Daizo is raised.in ai home where utilitarian values replace human feelings. Money is the cause.of most of his wicked acts. Nearly everyone he meets, seemingly good people included, sacrifice their moral principles for material gain. It is a priest who does not desire money who brings Hankai to his senses. Akinari was impoverished when he wrote "Hankai," which probably caused him to despise monetary greed a l l the more. But there is not complete negation of society. True, Hankai is driven to crime by a bad social environment, but i t i s good social elements that reform him. There is good in the world as well as bad. This duality, the coexistence of good and evil, is the story's principal theme. Hankai is first portrayed as a youth who has l i t t l e for a guide except the world around him. He is.amoral and uneducated. Life, to him, is something one conquers by his own strength—the proverbial "might is right" outlook. As he uses his strength, his belief in i t grows. Early in the tale he is punished by a god, but this is defeat at the hands of a supernatural power. He feels no need to change his behavior toward humans, and so the experience, terrifying,though i t was, has no lasting affect on him. Paradoxically, his first move (22) toward real moral awareness comes when he begins his l i fe of crime. Having committed murder, he has to flee for his l i fe . Even though he remains arrogant and adds to his l i s t of crimes with no apparent re-flection, he is now on his own and has to become serious. Gradually the good side of Hankai's character emerges. He frustrates the scheme of the dishonest merchant. Later he discovers his own musical talent and brings pleasure to others through his performance. On several occasions he displays considerable generosity. But until he meets his match in the old temple, he is fundamentally unchanged. Coming at a time when he is most sure of his physical prowess, his de-feat amounts to shock treatment. And i t is the warrior's strength, not his words, that makes the lasting impression. Through this experience, though i t neither reforms him nor weakens his courage, Hankai comes to see the limits of his power and is prepared for the experience which does change his heart. When he meets the priest who saves him, Hankai, silhouetted against a blazing fire in a lonely and terrifying place, must present a fearsome spectacle, yet the priest, who is no physical match for him, passes by unmoved. His strength lies in a different realm. It is Hankai, having only physical prowess, who is disturbed. "Hankai" is f i l led with entertaining episodes and sidelights, but __  its main purpose is to illustrate the Buddhist concept of Ten'aku  seizen ^ . "Reform evil and create good." The Buddha nature is present in everyone, no matter how wicked he may be. Evil is not the basic nature of man, but merely the dust which covers his true charac-ter. Such a view denies the popular concept of evil as being unchangeable and irreversible. Man longs for virtue and purity, and he who is acquainted (23) with e v i l w i l l treasure these q u a l i t i e s a l l the more. In other words, e v i l serves as a mediator for good and exalts the man who triumphs over i t . Man, i n "Hankai," i s not at the mercy of fate, but responsible for hi s own actions. There i s no employment of Buddhist incantations i n order to escape from destiny, nor i s there any t a l k of being reborn i n paradise, or much r e l i g i o u s t a l k of any kind, f o r that matter. Salva-t i o n i s the peace of mind which can be found here and now through one's own e f f o r t s . I t i s s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , then, or the ]ack of i t , that deter-mines what a person becomes. And so i t i s with Hankai. When used i n -discriminately, h i s strength and courage are the source of considerable wrongdoing, but when h i s heart i s turned i n the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , these same q u a l i t i e s hel.<p him to a t t a i n Buddhahood. (24) HANKAI I In a former time, in the province of Hoki,1 there lived a fearsome 2 deity upon the sacred mountain of Daichi Daigongen. Needless to say, people came down from this mountain at night, hut i t is told that in . 3 the daytime as well, after the hour of the monkey, even the priests would descend, and only those monks who were assigned to worship through the night would remain until dawn. 4 In the village below, there was a house where a quarrelsome group of roistering youths would gather each night to pass the time drinking and gambling. One particular day, the labor in the fields and hills having been called off because of rain, they assembled about the hour 5 of the horse. Among those who were making merry with idle conversa-tion was a.man who pounded his fists and spoke without restraint. "You talk boastfully," one of his comrades said in scorn, "but I dare you to climb the sacred mountain at night and leave your mark 6 there. If you don't, we'll know that for a l l your strength, you're a coward at heart," and so shamed him before the crowd. "That's nothing at a l l , " the man replied. " I ' l l go there tonight and certainly leave my mark." Having eaten and drunk his f i l l , he put on a straw raincoat and sedge hat, because of the drizzle, and started off without delay. One of his friends, who was older and sympathetic, cried out with troubled countenance, "It's a senseless thing to do. The god will surely pick him up and cast him away," but he made no effort to run after his friend or to restrain him. (25) Being very swift of foot, this Daizo, as he was called, reached 7 the precincts of the temple hall while the sun was s t i l l high, but while he was walking about, twilight approached, the wind began to blow with an eerie sound, and the groves of cypress and f i r trees soughed in the breeze. Proud that only he was there i n the darkness, he thought, "Nothing's going to happen here. It's an idle tale that the mountain priests have made up to scare people." The rain having ceased, he flung his hat and raincoat aside and struck a light for his 8 tobacco. By then i t was completely dark. "Well, now for the upper 9 shrine," he said, and making his way through the woods and kicking the fallen leaves aside, he continued to climb. The distance was said to be about a mile and a quarter.^ Upon reaching his destination, he thought, "What shall I do for proof?" when his eye f e l l on a large 11 12 offering box. " I ' l l carry this down," he said. He swung the heavy box aloft with ease, but as he did so, i t began to move of- i t s own accord. Then, sprouting hands and feet, i t effortlessly drew Daizo along with i t up into the sky. Now his courage gave way. "Let me go I " he cried. "Help i " But there was no reply, and as.the box flew on, he could hear the roar and rumble of waves.• Very distressed, and fearing that he would be thrown into the sea, Daizo clung to the 13 box for dear l i f e . When at last the night had ended, the deity cast the box down upon the earth and departed. Daizo opened his eyes to find himself on the seashore. Here too there was a shrine, built i n the midst of stately pines and cedars. A priest approached. He was dressed i n 14 worn robes, with an eboshi on his greying head, and he bore the (26) morning offerings to present at the altar. Seeing Daizo, he questioned him, saying, "Where did you come from? You're a suspicious looking fellow." "I climbed Daisen i n Hoki," Daizo replied, "and the god has punished me by dropping me in this distant place with this box. The god has now returned.". "Strange indeed. You're a fool, and you've done a. stupid thing. Be grateful that at least your l i f e was spared. This i s the shrine of Takubi Gongen, i n the province of Oki.""^ At these words, Daizo's eyes and mouth opened wide in amazement. "I have a mother and father," he said. "Please let me cross the sea and return to my village." "We have laws for those who come from other provinces for no rear-son," the priest replied. Wait here for a while.. When I have finished with the offerings, come to my house." In order to confirm Daizo's story, they went before the local o f f i c i a l , and the priest explained: "Last night I dreamed that as I was raising my voice i n prayer and presenting this morning's offerings, something fluttered down onto my hand, whereupon I closed the door of the shrine and returned home. When I awoke, I hurried to get the offer- . ings ready, and upon reaching the shrine, I found a stranger standing under the pines.. When I asked where he came from, he declared himself to be a man of Hoki Province, and said that for doing a certain deed he had unintentionally come here. Thereupon, I took him to my home, and now I lay the matter before you." Having heard the circumstances, the magistrate said, "It was the (27) fault of the god that he came here. Since he i s not a man of this province, there appears to be no reason for us to punish him." On a ship that was awaiting the evening tide, they sent Daizo to 17 the province of Izumo on the opposite shore. Being a ship of eight 18 hundred koku capacity, i t was no small vessel, and with favoring winds i t travelled rapidly, though nothing like the wings of the god 19 on the previous night. They embarked on the ninety-three mile 20 crossing at the hour of the dragon, and arrived in Izumo early in the 21 22 hour of the monkey. Here a port inspector questioned Daizo and es-tablished his intentions. "Truly, the rascal of the world I "he said, - 23 and spat in Daizo's face as he gave him a travel permit. "Disgus-ting 1 " Escorted by two guards, Daizo passed through the villages one by one until on the seventh day of the month, at the hour of the horse, he reached his home town. Here he was dragged before the officials. As his offense was not a serious one, they beat him fifty strokes 24 with a. shimoto staff. Then, having summoned the village headman, they turned Daizo over to him. When the news was heard in the village, people ran ahead to his home crying, "Daizo has returned 1 " 25 "How?" exclaimed his mother and sister-in-law. As they stood waiting in the doorway with mingled joy and grief, Daizo appeared, his guards on either side. The women welcomed him and bustled about saying, "Have something to eat 1 Wash your feet 1 " His father, how-ever, sat before the family altar with his legs crossed and his knees drawn up high, blowing smoke into the air. The elder son picked up his sickle and carrying pole and said that he was going to the mountains. (28) "Strange that you've come back a l i v e , " he s a i d to h i s brother, " I don't want to hear about i t , " and g l a r i n g f i e r c e l y i n Daizo's face, he went out. Daizo's f r i e n d s i n the v i l l a g e gathered and expressed t h e i r joy at h i s r e t u r n . "We had b e t t e r stop such c o n t e s t s , " they s a i d . " I t ' s fortunate that the god didn't tear you a p a r t . " A f t e r they had gone, Daizo went to h i s quarters and s l e p t soundly u n t i l noon the f o l l o w i n g day. Saying that h e r e a f t e r he would pay heed to h i s parents, he went with h i s elder brother to work i n the mountains. People s a i d , "Crossing over to Izumcr: and r e t u r n i n g from the i s l a n d s of Oki i s l i k e a c r i m i n a l ' s r e c e i v i n g amnesty,"' and so they ceased to c a l l him Daizo and n i c k -named him Taisha, or The Pardoned One.^ A f t e r some days had passed, Daizo s a i d to h i s mother, "The d e i t y has spared my l i f e . As my heart i s p u r i f i e d , I s h a l l now pay a v i s i t to the s h r i n e . " F u l l of anx i e t y , h i s mother r e s t r a i n e d him, saying, " I f you have p u r i f i e d your body and changed your heart, are not Amida and the god one and the same? I t ' s enough to pray to Amida and show your respect.-Then r e t u r n to work i n the mountains with your b r o t h e r . " -His f a t h e r , overhearing, s a i d , " I f the god had thought i l l of you, would he have spared your l i f e ? Q u i c k l y , go and worship where you wish." "Then you must accompany him, please," the • s i s t e r - i n - l a w begged her husband, but the brother sneered, "What Father says i s r i g h t . Let him go alone. The gods and Buddhas should be w e l l aware of h i s change of heart," and he refused to escort Daizo. (29) Being bold by nature, Daizo l e f t the house saying, "I'11.go by myself, o f f e r my apologies, and come back." He returned shortly, not hurt i n the l e a s t . "I presented the money that you gave me to the god and worshipped," he said to h i s mother, "and I have brought back the hat and raincoat that I l e f t under the trees that night." "Now then, behave yourself and don't get punished again," h i s . mother urged. "People said that you had been torn apart and cast away, but the god has deigned to send you home unharmed." Thankful, she brought food to him. From that time, Daizo was a changed man. He followed a f t e r h i s elder brother, cut down trees, and returned bearing firewood. Not only did he win the love of h i s parents, but being a man of great strength, he surpassed h i s brother at cutting wood. His mother and sis t e r - i n - l a w heaped praise upon him and r e j o i c e d at the money he 27 earned. By the year's end, Daizo had saved t h i r t y kammon from h i s labors—more than ever before. "This was a good year," the father and the elder son said with s a t i s f a c t i o n . The mother and daughter-in-law agreed, and they made a new padded kimono f or Daizo. After the New Year, when the spring days grew warm, Daizo again took to playing at h i s old haunts, where he gambled and l o s t . Being pressed to pay h i s debts, he n a t u r a l l y f e l t ashamed and stayed away for a night or two. At length he asked h i s mother for money, saying, "My friends and I are going up the mountain f o r our New Year's worship." "Come back e a r l y , " h i s mother said on her way to the storeroom. " I t ' s t e r r i f y i n g a f t e r the hour of the monkey." "Please, I need a l o t , " Daizo said, following a f t e r . (30) " I f you're going to the mountain s h r i n e , what would you do w i t h so much?" she r e p l i e d . "This i s a l l that you may have." R a i s i n g the l i d o f a chest, she took out a. l i t t l e more than a hundred mon i n loose coins and s a i d , "Take t h i s and go." But as she was r e p l a c i n g the l i d , 28 he caught s i g h t of a bundle of twenty kammon i n s i d e the chest. "I've l o s t my money, p l a y i n g as we do every New Year," he s a i d . "My f r i e n d s keep demanding that I pay up. Please give me that money fo r a l i t t l e w h i l e . I can work i n the mountains and save up as much as before. I ' l l go i n t o the mountains tomorrow," he wheedled i n an exasperating manner. "Goodness me.! " the mother sighed. " I thought you had changed your ways, but you s t i l l haven't stopped gambling. The o f f i c i a l s warn 29 us about such e v i l t h i n g s every New Year. You make even the gods despise you. This i s the money that your brother put away. I can't do anything without h i s permission." So saying, she attempted to l o c k the chest, but Daizo's heart was overcome with greed. He seized h i s mother and held her f a s t . "Don't cry out," he ordered. " Y o u ' l l wake Father from h i s midday nap." With h i s fr e e hand, he r a i s e d the l i d and grabbed the twenty kammon. Then, s h u t t i n g h i s mother up i n the chest, he shouldered the money and went away, staggering under the l o a d . His s i s t e r - i n - l a w saw him and c r i e d out, "Where are you going wit h that money? That's my husband's savings 1 Father, wake-up ! Daizo has gone bad again 1 " The f a t h e r awoke. "You t h i e f I " he c r i e d . " I ' l l never f o r g i v e you I " S e i z i n g h i s cane, he rushed out to the garden and,struck h i s (31) son sharply from behind, but Daizo's bones were s o l i d . Laughing i n scorn, he disappeared-through the gate. His father pursued him, cursing, _ 30 but Daizo ran away as though with the feet of Idaten. "Catch that man 1 " the father shouted as he ran on behind. The elder son was returning home and met Daizo along the way. "You I l,! he c r i e d . "Where are you taking that money?" He attempted, to snatch i t away, but Daizo evaded h i s hands and kicked him down. The father had f a l l e n behind, for h i s legs v/ere weak, but now at l a s t he overtook h i s son and gripped him securely from behind. "You old men think you're tough," Daizo said,"but you can't hurt me." With one hand, he pulled h i s father around i n front of himself and threw him aside. The road was narrow, and the father r o l l e d over in t o a pool, where the i c e had f r e s h l y melted. "What have you done to your father?" the elder brother c r i e d , but while he was helping the old man to get up, Daizo ran f a r ahead of them. The father, himself a woodcutter, was stout of heart. Drawing h i s wet clothing up around h i s l o i n s , he resumed the chase. At a place where the road crossed over a ravine, Daizo encountered one of h i s friends, who stood d i r e c t l y i n h i s path and seized him firm-l y . He was a powerful man, but Daizo h i t him i n the face with a l l the strength he could muster. When h i s adversary appeared to waver, Daizo delivered a kick that sent the man tumbling to the bottom of the ras-vine. I t was that time of year when the water- was very cold; not even a stout-hearted man could- crawl out. " I t was you who hounded me to pay my gambling debts," Daizo said.- "I'm running away because t h i s i s my father's money." He kicked down a large rock that l a y on the bank (32) and i t landed on the very spot where his friend was struggling to extri-cate himself. The man f e l l into the deep stream along with the rock, and this time he made no effort to get out. Daizo's father and brother, who had been unable to overtake him, at last arrived on the scene. Desperately they tried to retrieve -the money, but Daizo was mad with rage by nov;. Kicking both father and brother into the stream below, he fled out of sight, running like the wind to he knew not where. Numbed with cold, the man and his son sank into the depths and perished. The villagers had risen in disordered pursuit, but when they wit-nessed these deeds, they ran to the officials and told everything that had happened. "He's a despicable criminal indeed," said the officials. "We must catch him and punish him severely. But being so fleet footed, surely he is no longer in this province." In order to apprehend Daizo, they decided to draw and circulate a sketch of him, but then the village' headman pointed out, "There is no one in this village- who can draw pic-tures. Just write down what the culprit looks like, give an account of his crimes, and send that out." "Very well," said the authorities. "He is five feet, eight inches 31 t a l l . He has a face like a demon. He is broad and sturdy and likes to talk." They wrote down a full description and proclaimed i t through-32 out the land. Having made good his escape, Daizo now crossed over to far away 33 34 Tsukushi, where he sojourned for a- time at the port of Hakata. Here he f e l l in with a party of gamblers, and by a stroke of good for-tune he won a.considerable sum. But the order to apprehend the arch (33) criminal had been proclaimed even here, and these rogues r e a l i z e d that Daizo was the man. Seeing the look i n t h e i r eyes, he got away quickly, but as his winnings were too heavy, he discarded them at the foot of a 35 tree, saving only f i v e gold pieces on which to get along. In the guise of a t r a v e l l e r , Daizo wandered to the port of Nagar -s a k i , where he moved i n with a poor and lo n e l y widow. Through assidu-ous practice of gambling, he won repeatedly. "I'm a r i c h man ! " he boasted, and making the widow bring him wine, he l a y drunken day and 36 night. T e r r i f i e d at h i s recklessness, the woman f l e d to a brothel 37 i n Maruyama, found employment as a seamstress, and begged to be hidden. When Daizo awoke from h i s wine, he c a l l e d for h i s mistress, but she was gone. "Well," he said to himself, "she can't stand my acting l i k e t h i s , so she's run away. She was always t a l k i n g about going to v i s i t somewhere i n Maruyama. Most l i k e l y she's there," and he went a f t e r her. Cursing v i o l e n t l y , he shouted, "Give back my woman 1 " The master of the house and h i s servants, as well as those who were lodged there, a l l r a i s e d a clamor, crying, "What's going on?. Has a demon come here?" Meanwhile, Daizo kicked down a l l the sho.ii doors as he stormed hither and t h i t h e r . "Well, I'm almost sober now," he thought, and picking up some abandoned sake cups, he drank deeply. He gathered up f i s h and r i c e and other things to eat, and as he gulped them down, he swelled with renewed vig o r . "Bring out my woman I " he roared, running 38 about as though insane. He burst into an i n t e r i o r room which a 39 Chinese guest was occupying with a woman, and k i c k i n g over the screen, he sat down with a thud, crosslegged, i n front of the man. (34) Startled and t e r r i f i e d , the Chinese cried out, "It's Fan K'uai 1 He's 40 smashed the door I Please l e t me go. I don't know, anything at a l l . " The master of the house entered to see i f his guest had been i n -jured. Then he entreated Daizo, saying, "Your: wife did come here, but she has run away somewhere else. Calm yourself, please. She must be hiding nearby. I w i l l go and help you find her. I dare say you'd like some wine." So saying, he brought out"delicacies from the. moun-41 tains and the sea, foods that rivalled bear paws and ostrich feet, and offered them to Daizo, at which gesture, Daizo's wrath subsided. As he was eating and drinking, he reflected, "I like the t i t l e 'Hankai' that the Chinese gave me." Pleased, he decided, "From novon, I ' l l make i t my name." At daybreak a party of well-armed guards came to the house and Daizo heard them say, "Bring out the man Daizo of Hoki, who slew his father and brother. V/e want to take him into custody." There was no escaping, so Daizo steeled his nerve and leaped out saying, "I didn't k i l l my father." He acted as i f to submit, but then suddenly he snatched a staff from the foremost guard, beat his would-be captors down indiscriminately, and fled away without being apprehended. From here, Daizo wandered about aimlessly, sleeping on the moors 42 and hiding i n the h i l l s until he f e l l i l l with a fever and collapsed in a mountain recess. As he moaned like a howling wolf, passers-by were te r r i f i e d , and none stopped to investigate. ~ At length his fever subsided, but having eaten nothing during his ill n e s s , he was unable to stand. Crawling up to the road, he waited for someone to pass that way. After night had fallen, a.man came by. In the moonlight, (35) he heard Daizo's groans and asked, "Who are you?" "I'm ai traveller," Daizo replied. "I've been sick here for several days. I've recovered somewhat, but I'm so famished I can't get up. Please give me something to eat." When the man examined him by the light of the lamp that he held, Daizo, his form wasted and his hair tangled and disheveled, appeared like a demon. Other than, "Give me something to eat," he could say nothing. S a t i s f i e d that he was human, the man took pity and decided A3 to help him. Taking some cooked rice from the food pouch at his waist, he gave i t to Daizo, who merely raised i t to his head in token of gratitude and ate in silence. "I am much indebted to you," he said after he had consumed his f i l l . "I shall always be grateful." The traveller laughed. "You're an interesting one," he said. "What can you do when you've sunk so low? Make your living as a robber. Come and work under me." Now Daizo laughed. "Thief, it's fortunate that we ran into each other," he said. "I'm a good gambler. That's why I came into the 44 countryside. Gambling and theft are the same crime, but i f a gambler starts losing, he can't use his power. A. thief can always rely on his sinews." "You have a lot of spirit," the traveller said. "Do you happen to be the man who fled from Hoki after killing his father and brother?" "I am," Daizo replied. " I ' l l never be safe mixing with people in the towns. Working under you in the moors and mountains will be good," and he rejoiced at his great fottune. "Some travellers will pass this way tonight," the man said. "They (36) have a horse loaded w i t h baggage, and there's nobody to stop us but one o l d f o o t s o l d i e r . We'll k i l l the groom along with him. There appears to be gold i n the baggage, so i t w i l l be a good job. Come on now, show me what you can do." "That w i l l be q u i t e simple," Daizo s a i d , "but l e t me go down t h i s mountain and have some wine to r e s t o r e my s t r e n g t h . " "I'm c o l d myself," the man r e p l i e d , and they descended about two 45 46 t h i r d s of a mile and knocked on the door of a roadside i n n , saying, "We want to buy wine." Although i t was s t i l l dark, those w i t h i n an-swered and opened the door. "Bring out your best wine and f i s h and whatever e l s e you may have," the man s a i d , as though i n a hurry. "Since we're t r a v e l l i n g by 47 n i g h t , w e ' l l pay i n advance." He took out one gold bu and threw i t down. The master of the-house moved', b r i s k l y . "There, i s tuna cooking i n the house next door," he s a i d , and while the sake was being warmed, he went to f e t c h some. Then he brought out s l i c e d and p i c k l e d ^ 8 b l o w f i s h and warmed up a pot of bean curd soup. The two men expressed approval and ate and drank t h e i r f i l l . Then, saying, "We'd best be on our way before i t gets too l a t e , " they departed. A f t e r they had gone, the p r o p r i e t o r s a i d , "That t a l l man i s a. notorious robber. I've never seen the man with him, but he's working fo r him, no doubt." So saying, he ate up the remainder of the f i s h and drank up the r e s t of the sake and r e t i r e d f o r the n i g h t . Having found a good place to hide, the two bandits waited beneath the t r e e s u n t i l t h e i r ears caught the sound of the horse's b e l l s . (37) "Look sharp now, or we'll gain nothing," the leader said. 49 Daizo pulled up by the roots a pine tree nearly ten feet t a l l , and waved i t about laughing, "All right ! All right 1 Bravely now ! " . The horse's hoofbeats reached their hiding place. Without a word, Daizo brandished the pine tree and struck down both the horse and the 50 groom. The old footsoldier gave a shout of surprise, said looked as though he did not know how to draw his sv/ord. Confused, he tried to run away, but Daizo overtook him. "You're a chicken heart I " 5 1 he said, and threw his victim down where he thought the gorge was deepest. "Perhaps you think that I can't k i l l the horse too," he said, and trod heavily on the beast's abdomen until i t whinnied as though i t would die. "I can't be bothered untying the ropes on the baggage," Daizo swore as he tore at them, muttering. "There 1 " he exclaimed. "Good ! Well done I " said his companion, for when the baggage was - 52 loosened, just as expected, they beheld a pile of a* thousand gold ryo. "Why bother with the rest?" the leader added. "The horse will betray us i f i t comes to." He put the box on Daizo's back and they sped down the mountain lightheartedly. It was s t i l l dark when they reached the 53 54 seacoast. "Waves, come in. Are you on the shore?" the leader called. 55 A reply came. Then a boat was rowed to shore and two men got out and stepped forward. ' "How did things go tonight?" they asked. "I brought a good man into our service," the leader replied. "He did a fine job. Let's have a drink to celebrate." "Good," said the men. "We've been fishing." They set out a dish 56 of sea bream and sawara that they had made. (38) "I am called Hankai," Daizo said. "From now on consider.me your brother." He drank down a few cups of sake in quick succession, and scratched his head with pleasure. "I've run into good luck," he re-joiced, and the thieves looked on in fear at the way he consumed food and wine. At length Daizo said to the leader, "You haven't told me your name yet." "I am called Muragumo," the leader replied. "I used to be a sumo wrestler, but I was involved in a dispute and banished, even though my 57 crime was insignificant, and I was too ashamed to go back to my native village. Then I decided to become a thief and live dangerously. For the past three years I've hung out in the moors and mountains, or sailed the seas. Taking people's riches i s quite simple, so I've had no need to go to the eastern provinces. I've rowed my boat to the Sanyodo and to the nine provinces of Tsukushi on the opposite shore of 58 this sea, and to Iyo, Tosa, and Sanuki as well. I keep out of the . authorities' hands. We're in the province of Iyo now. It's no place for spending a thousand ryo t but we can pass the time at the Nigitazu 59 spa until spring. The wine i s good and so i s the seafood." When the day dawned, they rowed to their destination. "Two of us will stay here for a few days," Muragumo said. "Wait for spring in the provinces on the opposite shore, so as: not to get caught. I ' l l give you money, so don't steal anything.. Disguise yourselves as; merchants 60 and wait for me at the port of Shikama." Then he divided up the money and sent the boat away. Muragumo had given Hankai a hundred ryo. When people asked where 61 he came fro , e would reply, "I've come to follow th  ath of Kukai, ( 3 9 ) but I thought i t best to rest up in the baths while i t ' s so cold and then continue on my way." When the innkeeper heard this, he said, "Even among the pilgrims 6 2 who praise the name of Kukai, there are some with whom i t i s d i f f i -6 3 cult to associate," but nonetheless the man l e t him remain. Daizo reflected, "'Hankai' i s a high sounding t i t l e . Besides, no 64 matter where I go, that incident w i l l have been noised abroad, and may welit;prove my downfall. I ' l l disguise myself as a monk." Knowing there to be a temple on the peak of a nearby mountain, he went and saw how the'monks lived. An old priest, bent over with age, was chanting, "Praise be to Kukai," ever so quietly. Being ushered into this man's presence, Hankai said to him, "I come from the v i c i n i t y of the capital. 6 5 I have been travelling about Shikoku -with my mother, but yesterday, as we were boarding a ship, she missed her step and f e l l into the sea. I called for help, but therboatmen told me, 'These waters are deep and inhabited by crocodiles that swallow men and devour them. They must have eaten your mother by now. There's nothing we can do.' I have carefully thought my situation over. I have no father, and.my elder brother i s a shrewd man.- If I should return home and explain how I lost my mother, he surely would despise me and drive me away. I am a youth without a trade. I want to become a monk, journey everywhere Kukai went, and then make a pilgrimage through the sixty-six provinces. The hair on my head vexes me. Be so kind as to shave i t off and give me a set of old robes.?' Taking a single ryo from the hundred which Muragumo had given him, he presented i t respectfully. The mountain 67 priest, who, other than the flowers that bloomed i n the spring, saw (40) no yellow g l i t t e r , accepted i t , r a i s e d i t reverently to h i s head and said, "You may receive the commandments." But Hankai r e p l i e d , "No. I fin d anything but p r a i s i n g the name of Kukai to be bothersome." Clasp-ing h i s hands, he chanted loudly. As h i s hai r was being shaved o f f , he said with joy, "My heart has become pure." The p r i e s t took out a set of tattered grey robes and put them upon him. They were makeshift, st-and f i t t e d so t i g h t l y that he could scarcely get h i s hands 68 through. Even so, he expressed h i s gratitude and offered h i s respects before going down from the temple ancLreturning to the inn at the spa. Thinking that Muragumo would be t i r e d of waiting, he hurried on h i s way. "Well, well 1 You're an august p r i e s t , " Muragumo said when he saw Hankai. " I ' l l buy you a set of good robes." He talked with the land-l o r d , had him sew grey robes that were somewhat lar g e r , and gave them to h i s comrade. "Clothes that f i t him make him look s t i l l f i e r c e r , " , said the land-l o r d . "Make yourself look smaller and go around p r a c t i c i n g a u s t e r i t i e s , " 69 said Muragumo. " I f I happen to f i n d a portable shrine, I ' l l buy that for you too." "No," Hankai r e p l i e d . TTWhat would I put i n i t to carry with me? I ' l l place a l l my tr u s t i n the Buddha. Praise be to Kukai," he chanted i n a loud voice. "Well, we can't stay here forever," Muragumo laughed, and they em-70 ployed a ship to take them to Harima on the opposite shore. "I have an aunt at the port of Shikama," said Muragumo. "We'll go there f i r s t (41) of a l l . " They v/ent to the aunt's home, and upon entering, they asked how she had been. "My rice and money have run short," the aunt replied, "and a l l be-cause you haven't come to visit me. Hand over your gifts—lots of them." Muragumo hurried out to buy some vane. After about twenty days in this place, Hankai said, "Since I haven't seen the eastern provinces yet, I ' l l travel around and practice 71 austerities." Placing a bundle on his back, a sedge hat on his head, and girding his close-fitting robes up around his loins, he bade Mura-gumo farewell. 72 "In the village called Osakayama, on the road that ascends east-73 ward from the capital, they make pictures and sell them at every house. One of them shows a demon striking a gong and saying the 74 Nembutsu. He looks just like you," Muragumo said, laughing, as he gave Hankai a boisterous sendoff. Having eaten and drunk his f i l l , Hankai thought, "If I follow the main road, I may be recognized. I ' l l take the path that goes along the foot of the mountains." On and on he went, until the sun descended on the lonely moors. There was no inn at which he could spend the night, but at length he discovered a single ^welling, where he asked for lodging.• He was a terrifying priest, but even i f he were a robber, the lady of the house had nothing for him to steal. "Tomorrow is the anniversary of my husband's death," she said. 75 "My son has gone to buy rice at the so.ia. He will vis it the temple and read sutras in his father's honor." "I understand," Hankai said as he entered-the house. "It's (42) pleasant at your hearth," he added, warming his hands and feet. "I have nothing to eat," the woman said. "You must wait until my son returns." So saying, she offered him potatoes cooked with salt, and Hankai assured her that this would suffice to f i l l his stomach. She gave him a l l he could eat, and while he was devouring the food with pleasure, a man who claimed to he the neighbor came in , supposedly from the dwelling across the mountain stream. A merchant followed him into the house. "Hasn't your son come back yet?" the neighbor asked. "This mer-chant is the man who usually comes to trade in this area. He told me that you have gold in this house. I thought, 'That is strange. Per-76 77 haps i t ' s counterfeit. They sel l i t at the Osaka Ebisu Festival 78 in the spring and at the Hatsutora worship at the Kurama Temple in the capital. It's a l l fake. I ought to go and have a close look at i t . ' I was eating my supper, but I put my chopsticks down and came directly." "Now where did my son put it?" the woman said. "It's a useless thing, so I should give i t to no one, he told me." While she was speaking, the son came in , carrying the rice. "I'm putting a priest up for the night," his mother said. "We'll fix something special. Wash some rice. We'll cook that for hime" She began kindling a fire, but the man from across the stream interrupted, saying, "This merchant who travels-4fa£e area has been waiting a long time to see your gold." "It's right here," the son said, taking a bundle down from the household altar, and showing i t to them. A dazzling glitter shone (43) through a rent in the paper. There was no need to handle i t , and under the priest's fearsome gaze the merchant could not l i e . "This is real gold," he said, but then he added, "I could exchange i t for copper at the rate of two kammon. Or i f I had i t and were con-verting i t to rice, I would go to the shrine town and exchange i t at 79 the rate of three to." Hankai grew spiteful. "I have some experience myself," he broke in . "Since I travel around the provinces, I hear a l l about prices. A. rvo should buy a koku of rice or seven kammon of copper." The neighbor made no reply to this intrusion, and the merchant could only say, "Well, really I don't know much about anything besides what I trade in ," before the two of them fled away. "That merchant is hardly a thief," said Hankai, "but i f I hadn't been here, he probably could have talked you out of your gold. Be sure you don't show i t to anyone. Now I should add a coin to that for tonight's lodging." As he had used l i t t l e of the hundred ryo f Hankai kept his eyes open through the night. In the morning the son said, "Cook rice, boil potatoes, and treat this priest kindly. He's given us gold for one night's lodging." Living in this place, apart from a l l the villages, 80 he was like a man from before the time of Fu Hsi. Hankai chanted, "Praise be to Kukai," so loudly that woodcutters leaving their homes in the morning said, "Has a demon come to that house? It's a terrifying voice that, we hear." They went to investi-gate, and said, "How reverent of them to employ a priest. It's their father's memorial day. How splendid are the prayers." (44) Hankai spent a pleasant time there, and v/hen he took his leave, 81 his hosts said kindly, "Please come again. We'll prepare wakame from Akashi Bay, mushrooms, and chilled bean curd, and offer them at the so.1a." Nodding approval, Hankai departed. Being swift of foot, he 82 crossed over the moors, and following, the mountains he reached Naniwa by the close of day. This was tha largest port in Japan, and when he heard that ships from a l l regions were anchored there, he feared lest someone who knew him be i n town. Rather than take lodgings at an inn, he lay down in the gate of a temple on the moors and slept until morning. Awakened by the singing of birds, he once again donned his hat, gripped his staff, and made himself look as small as possible. As he passed through the market streets, he found the numbers of people frightening. 83 Without stopping even to see such spots as the Sumiyoshi Shrine or the Tennoji Temple,^ he passed through Kawachi, Izumi,^ and the Kii 86 87 Highroad, vwandering a l l through Yamato, until he came to the capi-tal . Though nothing like the bustle of Naniwa, there were s t i l l many people about, and so he decided to spend the winter amidst the snows 88 of Mikoshi and travel around the eastern provinces in the spring. He was in no hurry, yet he moved on, uneasy at heart. Looking across - 89 the Sea of Omi on his right, he set his feet towards the provinces 90 of Koshi. II Hankai asked the way to the port of Tsunuga,^ " and since i t was a-, good night for travelling, he made his way over the barrier mountain (45) 2 of Arachi. From atop a boulder ai small man hailed him, saying, "Where are you going, Priest? I've nothing i n my purse. Leave me the price of a drink." Another man came up from behind and d e f t l y seized Hankai's pack. "This monk has a. l o t of gold," he said, with a look that showed no mercy. Hankai took off his pack and dropped i t . "Yes, I have plenty of gold," he said. "Take i t i f you can," and s i t t i n g down to the l e f t of the rock, he struck his f l i n t and l i t himself a smoke. "Ah, he's a brave one," the thieves jeered. They counted the money i n the pack and found that i t amounted to eighty r.vo. "Give me a share too," Hankai said with a scornful laugh. " I ' l l 3 treat you children to some g i r l s . " One of the thieves sprang at him crying, "That's enough out of you 1 " but Hankai leaped to his feet and kicked him, whereupon the man collapsed face up. In a flash Hankai seized the other man and held him as though he were a baby. "You boys want to steeeL," he said, "but with no strength, hov; can you l i v e long? Come and work for me. I ' l l l e t you have t h i s much gold a l l the time." When the men had agreed, he said, " I ' l l c a l l the l i t t l e man Kozaru, and as for you, who look as though you've had your k e t t l e stolen tonight, I ' l l name you Tsukiyo. Now, my plan i s to hole up for the winter i n the snow country and enjoy ourselves. Take me to a good place." 7 When they had arrived i n the province of Kaga, the men said, g "People gather at Yamanaka u n t i l spring to take cures i n the hot baths. Let us stay there and enjoy the snow." Hankai had Kozaru and (46) Tsukiyo show him the way, and they obtained lodgings. The master of the hot spring recognized the two men as thievesj but when he aas: how the priest treated them as i f they were children, he felt at ease and let them remain. Hankai forbade his companions to do anything unto-^ wardly, and so their host trusted him implicitly. "The snow is very deep this year," the guests at the hot spring said, as i t fe l l day after day. A priest came down from a mountain temple, bringing with him a flute, which he played in order to pass the time. Hankai listened with interest and asked, "Won't you teach me?" Pleased at having found a good companion, the monk commenced by 9 teaching him a melody called Kishunraku. Rhythm and tone came natur-ally to Hankai, and his powerful breath made a strong sound on the flute. Delighted, the priest said, "You are Myoonten"^ appearing in the form of a demon." Hankai replied, "Among the servants of the celestial nymphs there must be demons such as I," looking just like a demon when he laughed. "This has been a pleasant winter vacation," the priest said, "but now I must return to my temple for a time. I ' l l get things ready for the spring, and then I ' l l come back. But first let me teach you another melody." "No," Hankai declined. "One tune is enough. Learning any more would be burdensome." "Be sure and visit my temple for the New Year," the priest said as he left. "What a waste of talent ! Hankai wrote on a piece of paper, "Presented to our good visitor (47) in farewell,11 and in appreciation for the single melody, he wrapped up a gold piece and sent i t with Tsukiyo. Thus the priest returned to his mountain, having received far above his highest expectations. Hankai went around with his flute, playing i t even in the baths. Then, a l l the other guests left, because the snow was so heavy, and he grew lonely. "Isn't there any l ivelier place than this?" he asked. 12 "There are also hot springs at Awazu," he was told. "Many 13 people visit the place because i t i s near the castle town of Kaga." "We'll stay there then," he said, and giving the host sufficient to please him, they departed. Many people from the provinces had come to the new place as well; i t was gayer by far, and Hankai amused him-self day and night by playing his accustomed Kishunraku melody. "My, what beautiful music I " said a-man from the castle town. "And how strange that he stops at just one melody." To Hankai he said, "I play the side flute myself," and producing his own instrument, he joined in concert. "Your melody is good and your notes are strong. I've yet to hear anything like i t . Come and spend a few nights at my house," he requested. The day after this man had gone home, his servant came to meet Hankai and his comrades, who accompanied him, finding the man's dwelling to be large and spacious. Obviously i t was the home of a wealthy person. "Kozaru," Hankai ordered. "Look the place over well. This house has been keeping a treasure for us." Hankai was invited to the interior of the house. His friend entered with a flageolet, and repeatedly they played together. "Lovely music," they agreed, bowing their heads in appreciation. (48) Then the host set out wine, hot broth, and cooked meat,; and urged Han-- 14 ka i to eat, saying, "Are you a follower of Ikkoshu? At the spa.I saw you partaking free l y . " Hankai, having grown quite drunk, took out his f l u t e and blew upon i t . "By earnest devotion to Ikkoshu you have learned a beautiful melody," his host, said, and listened over and over without growing weary, but rather seeming deeply moved. Thus the f i r s t month went by. On the t h i r d day of the second month, Hankai and his companions took the i r leave and travelled about the i n l e t s of Noto, but when they discovered how cold i t was, Hankai said, "We have heard the plovers on t h i s strand saluting the reign of 15 countless ages. Now l e t us v i s i t the h e l l on the sacred mountain i n the middle province," and so they set out to climb the peak. The summit was very high and the show s t i l l deep. "Where i s the h e l l ? " Hankai asked Kozaru and Tsukiyo. ' "I t ' s so t e r r i f y i n g we've never v i s i t B Q u i t , " they replied. Letting t h e i r feet take them where they would, the men wandered on, crossing over the peaks and through the v a l l e y s , but saw nothing unusual. "I've heard that i t ' s dust a t a l e , " Hankai remarked as he brushed the snow from a rock. While they were resting, however, several shadow-l i k e forms appeared and stood before them, looking reproachful. "They 17 are probably hungry ghosts," said Hankai. "Let's feed them," and he gave the shades a l l the food he had hanging at his waist. The creatures gathered around and ate, and v/hen they appeared to have s a t i s f i e d them-selves, Hankai drew out his f l u t e and blew a strong note, at which the ghosts gave a start and vanished i n a twinkling. " I t i s good to prac-t i c e a u s t e r i t i e s on Tateyama," Hankai remarked as they descended. (49) Althovigh the Jinzugawa- River was swollen with water from the melting snows,, they were able to cross by means of the pontoon bridge. To t h e i r surprise, as they stood watching i n midstream, a large up-rooted tree came fl o a t i n g down from Tateyama and struck the span. I've found a good s t a f f , " said Hankai, as he took the tree up with l i t t l e e f f o r t , and pounding i t on the bridge, proceeded across. From here 19 they decided to go and see the fl o a t i n g islands of Onuma. On the way, they ran into Muragumo, and he and Hankai inquired as to the other's fortunes. "The authorities discovered me while I was l i v i n g on a ship," Muragumo said. I was wounded but I got away with my l i f e . " "I spent the winter i n the spas i n the mountains of these northern provinces," said Hankai, "but I was getting out of shape, so I took to the road again." Then he turned to Kozaru and Tsukiyo. "Get lodgings down at the foot of the mountain and wait for me," he said, and he and Muragumo climbed on together. When they reached t h e i r destination, they saw a flock of waterfowl playing n o i s i l y i n a large swamp, and two islands f l o a t i n g i n th e i r midst. In order to view the scene more c l e a r l y than from the shore, Hankai pulled his friend forward, saying, "Let's take a r i d e . We'll d r i f t about and enjoy the place," but as Muragumo leaped into the boat, Hankai gave i t a pov/erful shove away from the shore. "What are you doing?" Muragumo shouted, but Hankai made no reply, merely taking out his f l u t e and loudly playing the Kishunraku. while Muragumo cried again and again, "What are you doing?" S t i l l Hankai answered nothing, but went away laughing at h i s friend's expense. (50) When Hankai l e f t his room the next morning, he encountered Mura-gumo, who said to him, "You ungrateful wretch, you've forgotten that I saved your l i f e , gave you a hundred gold ryo. and told you to trust i n me l i k e a father. Instead you cast me a d r i f t on the water. I shouldn't forgive you, but I can l e t bygones be bygones t h i s time," and he went along with, the three. They arrived at the castle town. "This area i s ruled over by a-, certain l o r d , and the province i s very wealthy and heavily populated," said Tsukiyo. "This particular house used to be related to the lord's family, but the master i s now a commoner and has become very prosperous. There i s no one i n the Hokurikudo who can vie with him, they say." There was a huge stone wa l l , g l i t t e r i n g white, and a high gate through v/hich the men looked i n at the spacious grounds. "I haven't stolen anything since I f i r s t became a t h i e f , " Hankai said. "We'll get into t h i s place tonight and give i t a t r y . " After thoroughly looking the place over, the men entered a wine shop. "Warm up some sake. We'll buy a to for the four of us," they said, bringing out the i r money and paying i n advance. The shopkeeper was amazed, but they had payed his price, so he warmed the wine that they had ordered and served i t to them. "Do you have any f i s h ? " the men asked. "We have food from the mountains," the shopkeeper re p l i e d , and he roasted rabbit and wild boar's fl e s h together and set the meat before them. 2 0 While they were eating and drinking t h e i r f i l l , the sun set. "Let's go," said Hankai, and once again they set out for the house. In the (51) moonlight the wall appeared higher and more g l i t t e r i n g than i n the day-time. They took council on how i t was best to make entry. "That bu i l d i n g you see over there must be the treasure house," said Hankai. " I t ' s separated from the l i v i n g quarters, but a passage-way appears to lead from the house. Kozaru, you're of small b u i l d . Come here." Hankai stood at the base of the high wall and raised Kozaru to h i s shoulders, thus enabling him to grasp the pine branches hanging over from the i n s i d e . "Swing down into the garden on those branches and open the side gate," he in s t r u c t e d . Kozaru dropped into the garden as he was t o l d and attempted to open the gate, but then he c a l l e d from within, "The entrance i s fastened i n two places. This i r o n chain i s so firm that I can't open i t . " "These stones were p i l e d by men and that chain was fashioned by human hands," Hankai s a i d . "Can you c a l l yourself a t h i e f when you only glean a f t e r the reapers? Tsukiyo, you swing down on the branches and give Kozaru a hand." So saying, he r a i s e d Tsukiyo to h i s shoulders, l e t t i n g him grasp the lower branches, -and sent him i n s i d e . But not even the strength of two men s u f f i c e d to budge the chain. By now an 21 hour had passed, and Hankai was furious. He thrust h i s hands into a large crack i n the stone wall, which was p a r t l y f i l l e d with d i r t , and with one mighty grunt he opened i t wide. "Follow me, Muragumo," he said, and i n he crept. What they supposed was the treasure house was s t u r d i l y constructed, and they had to consider where and how to enter. "I have an idea," Hankai said a f t e r a while. Grasping one of the p i l l a r s of the passage-way, he climbed up to the roof.', and then, l i k e a f l y i n g b i r d c : (52) or a? springing beast, he leaped from the eaves to the roof of the trea-sury. "Two of you climb up on the pil lar and come over here," he called from above, and then he added, "You won't be able to jump over 22 here. Catch hold of my priest's staff," and he thrust i t down to them. Being thieves and lightly built, the two men ascended to the roof of the passageway, and with the aid of the staff, got over to the treasure house. Hankai, as though he were tearing paper, ripped away four or five tiles and pulled up the boards that lay against the roof 23 beam. "Now a man should be able to enter," he said. "Get in ," and seizing the two men, he flung them down. It was late at night and they had made considerable noise, but they were far. from any place where people were sleeping, and no. one awoke or came in pursuit. On the roof, Hankai struck a light for a match-cord and flung i t do?m after the men. Tsukiyo and. Kozaru looked around. Without a doubt, this was the treasure house. When they had gone down on a ladder from the second floor, they beheld an abundance of stacked boxes containing gold and silver. "It's gold that we want," they said, and each man shouldered a box and climbed back to the second floor,' but then they cried out, "Now what, shall we do?" "Isn't there a rope or anything down there?" Hankai asked. Looking about, they discovered a coll of thick hempen rope. "Here is some," they said. . "One of you fasten that tightly around you and climb up here on something," Hankai ordered. Kozaru twined the rope securely about himself and had Tsukiyo pull the ladder up to the second floor. Then, propping the ladder (53) against the wall, he ascended. "Just a l i t t l e bit more," he called. Once again Hankai extended his priest's staff to the impatient man and pulled him out. "Send the boxes up with this rope," Hankai called to Tsukiyo. "All right," Tsukiyo replied, and he bound the boxes tightly. "Now," he said, and Hankai lifted them ever so gently, as though he were drawing water in a bucket. When they had opened the boxes, they found a total of two thousand ryo. Tsukiyo brought up a third box, and then they tied the containers together and lowered them to the earth, where Muragumo, who had been waiting below, loosened them. Then once again Kozaru and Tsukiyo crossed over to the roof of the passage-way, while Hankai himself, being impatient, jumped down from the roof of the treasury. Not hurt in the least, the four men shouldered the boxes of gold and crept out through the hole in the wall. "Hankai, you look as though you've done this sort of job many a time," said Muragumo. Hankai replied as he took the gold from the boxes, "After you had the kindness to feed me cold rice and give me a hundred gold ryo f you had to brag about saving my l i f e . Here's the hundred ryo. of course, and you may take another thousand for the price of the rice. You two 24 take five hundred each, and I ' l l take the same for myself." Then for the first time, and without regret, Muragumo prostrated himself before Hankai. They were far from any village when day broke. "Four men travel-ling together are likely to be questioned," said Hankai. "You two head for Edo. What will you do, Muragumo?" (54) 25 "I've never been a s far as Tsugaru," Muragumo replied. "I ' l l go that way." "That's just what I was thinking," said Hankai, and they entered a wine shop and passed around the cup of parting. Hankai, becoming drunk, said, "I am told that when the Chinese say farewell, they break a willow branch. Let's do the same." There was an old willow tree on 26 the river bank which Hankai pulled up with one mighty heave. "What they do next, however, I don't know," he said, and he flung the tree away on the main road. Terrified, the keeper of the wine shop remained silent. When they had eaten and drunk to their satisfaction, Kozaru and Tsukiyo set out for Edo. Muragumo said, "I accepted that thousand ryo but now I wish I hadn't.. I ' l l give half of i t back to you." "What would I do with so much?" Hankai replied. "Stealing is at very easy matter. If we're hungry, we eat. If our purses are empty, we take someone's treasure. It's a bother to have too much on hand," and he would not accept. Together they put their gold into straw wrappers and proceeded, carrying i t on their backs. At length the sun went down. There was no village at which to spend the night, but on the top of a h i l l stood a dilapidated temple to which they went and asked for lodgings. A young and sickly priest 27 received them and said, "Someone*, is staying here already, and we 28 have nothing to feed you. Walk on for about two thousand paces and you will come to a good inn." "We don't mind not eating," they replied, "nor do we care about sleeping. Rather than make us lose our way on a strange road, just (55) let us spend the night here," and pushing their way inside, they looked around. They heard a cough behind the worn sho.ji doors, perhaps from the guest. A servant came in from outside. "I have brought the rice," he called . as he put the bag down. "We'll pay a good sum for your rice," said Hankai and Muragumo. "Sell i t to us," and they threw down a gold ryo. "No," the servant replied. "This rice belongs to the guest. You offer less than i t is worth. One of you should go and buy your own at the way station. My master sent me to get this rice." The men acceded and the servant went into the temple. When he opened the sho.1l doors, they saw a warrior of fifty some odd years, who said with a laugh, "You're a sound looking pair. Come.and stay with me. I ' l l pass the night listening to your stories. The head priest here is my nephew; He has always been sickly and weak-hearted. My servant will cook rice and I ' l l share i t with you. You needn't buy your own." Relieved at these generous words, Muragumo and Hankai sat and talked, drinking hot water and smoking. The warrior said, "You're a savage looking priest and you have a fierce expression. This big fellow, I notice, has two sword cuts on his forehead, for some reason. Paying a gold ryo for just some rice is not becoming to men of wealth and honor on a journey. Are you hot-headed gamblers, or robbers on the loose?" "We are robbers," Muragumo replied. "Last night we met with good luck, and we have a pile of money in our straw wrappers. It's a bother (56) to carry so much around, though, so we're trying to utee it.up somehow." "It looks that way," said the warrior. "When you see a manly looking priest, take him for a scoundrel. You men storm around and look upon l i fe as dust and ashes. If this were a time of disorder you could win fame, take over a province, and cause your foes to tremble. You are brave." "Even for.a thief, l i fe is difficult," said Hankai. "Wealth is 29 easy to come by, but l i fe is hard to preserve. If you know a way to steal a hundred years of l i fe , teach us." The warrior laughed. "Does the man exist who is not angry when his riches are stolen?" he said. "The authorities have facilities to capture men like yourselves. People who have done a lot of ki l l ing and stealing don't merit a. hundred years of l i fe as their reward. I have heard that a thief who is aware of his crimes shall not return to society, but must expect to be punished in his youth according to his. offence. Does your case differ from this? In a lawless world, you would be.the great men, but when stability reigns, thieves are sentenced for their crimes. Even should you change your ways, i f your offences are major ones you will be taken in the end. Do you jest,and make fun of me?" Glaring at the warrior, Hankai said, "I have more than enough strength in my body. Men have failed to catch me many times already. If the l i fe that heaven has granted me is long, I can get away not-withstanding my crimes." Muragumo added,."You're an old man. You ought to be saying the Nembutsu and hoping to be reborn in paradise. When I learned that the (57) head monk was your nephew, I recalled hearing that when one man enters the priesthood, nine clans will be taken into heaven. In order to get your share of the blessings, you ought to be saying prayers while you're here," and he laughed in derision. "I may be old, but I am s t i l l a warrior,"'the samurai replied. '"I have no desire but to serve my lord faithfully. My l i fe I leave up to heaven. What matter i f i t be long or short? If I were to ask for a hundred years of l i fe and then run here and there to hide, with no place to rest, I would be the same as one who dies in his youth." "It is useless to argue," said Hankai. "Let us see the prowess of one-who is faithful to his lord." He raised his fist to strike the warrior in the face, but before his hand could f a l l , he was pulled over. "Well, so you are an able man," he said. Rising to his feet, he aimed a kick at his opponent, but this time the warrior seized his foot, flung him sideways, and with a loud cry, hit him such a solid blow in the ribs that he was unable to get up. Now Muragumo arose and struck at the man with Hankai's priestly staff, but the warrior snatched i t away, gripped Muragumo's right hand, and held him fast. "Those two sword wounds on your face mark you as an inept thief who has met many a hard time," the warrior said. "Try and escape from my hands. There are many such as I among the authorities. We could capture you easily." So saying, he threw Muragumo down. Muragumo's hand was numbed, and there was no fight left in him. "My bones are broken, you wretch," Hankai moaned, but despite the 30 wrath in his voice, his strength was exhausted. "Well now, supper's ready," the warrior said with a laugh. "I ' l l (58) feed you," and pulling Hankai up with a grunt, he kicked him in the back, whereupon he recovered. "My hand is sprained," Muragumo muttered. The warrior grasped his arm and manipulated i t , and the place he thought had been hurt returned to normal. The servant and the abbot entered, carrying the evening meal. "I ' l l give you one bowl apiece," said the warrior. "Imagine yourselves in prison." He gave them each a heaping bowl of rice, but they were too humiliated to eat. At length the night grew late, and each.man went to his sleeping quarters. When Hankai and Muragumo arose in the morning, the old warrior gave them ointment, saying, "Put this on the sore places." The thieves. accepted gratefully and applied i t . The warrior had eaten his break-fast and was about to leave. "Listen," he said. "The head priest here is a.young man, but sickly. S t i l l , being a warrior's son, he has some training, though he conceals i t well. He'll probably leave you alone, but when your injuries have mended, thank him and^et out quickly." With these words, he departed through the gate. The abbot went along to see him off. "Those thieves are like birds in a cage," he said. "I'm sick and run down, but I can s t i l l break their bones i f they try anything. Don't worry about leaving me." Seeing that Hankai and Muragumo s t i l l looked unwell, and that the time had passed noon, the young priest brought them.dirty rice gruel, but when to pay for their lodging they took out the gold r.yo that they had previously tendered, their host said, "Do you offer stolen money to a priest?" and without so much as a glance at i t , he turned to (59) throw wood on the fire. The two men became fearful, and left without saying a word. "For some reason my heart has grown faint since I left the sea," 31 Muragumo said at length. "I'm going back to my home in Shmano to recuperate. In Edo I fear that I'd be recognized from my sumo days," and so they parted company. Feeling lonely, Hankai reflected, "Now I'm by myself, and there is — 32 no one to see the extremities of Ou with me. I ' l l go to Edo and play around," and promising to meet again, they went their separate ways. Hankai arrived in Edo but felt uncomfortable wherever crowds would gather. One day when a light rain was falling, he visited the — 33 Sensoji Temple, but even on such a day as this i t was not peaceful. Pulling his sedge hat down low, he went to a wine shop and got drunk, though not to the point of satisfaction. Then he went through the Kaminari Gate and found the people in an uproar. "Thieves I " was the word in everyone's mouth. "Are Kozaru and Tsukiyo in trouble here?" he thought, and went to make certain. Sure enough, he found them with blood on their hands, swinging their swords in combat. Five or six young samurai, who themselves bore wounds, had surrounded the pair. Men from the market place and the temple precincts as well, each one bearing a staff, had grouped around them. "This is unfair," thought Hankai. "I ' l l give them a hand." As he pushed through the attackers, he inquired of a stranger, "What sort of dispute is it?" "Those two thieves, drunken with wine, were caught stealing the samurai's purses," the man replied, "so we took them to our lord's (60) 35 mansion and spoke of ki l l ing them. In a bid to escape, they drew their swords and wounded a man. We a l l joined in the chase and have been fighting with them, as you see by this blood." "Well," said Hankai, drawing nearer, "it's now a pointless quarrel. Let's talk things over." Gaining courage from this aid, Kozaru and Tsu-kiyo took up positions under a tree, with swords unsheathed. But none of the samurai would agree. "Never," they said. "Wounded as we are, there is no way for us to go home.' We will cut off their heads and then return and apologize to our lord. Don't get yourself kil led, you peacemaking priest." "Their heads belong to them," Hankai retorted. "If they return what they stole, let them go. Misbehaving and then letting thieves injure you is your own misfortune. I can't agree with you." He swung his priest's staff and struck down two or three of them. "My goodness i The thieves' leader has come'! " said some, running away in a body, but the rest clustered around, their staves more dense than a bamboo thicket, some shouting, "Knock him down J " and others, "Ki l l him ! " "Have you no eyes?" said Hankai. "I am a priest. Hear the facts and judge, rather than take a man's l i f e . I ' l l beat you a l l down i f you're so thoughtless." With his priest's staff he struck at the seven or eight who stood before him, and then, crying, "Ah I " he felled everyone. Now the samurai were thrown into confusion, and fled. "You come with me," Hankai said to his friends, and taking one under each arm, he strode away. There was only the sound of people's chatter, and no one came in pursuit. He escorted them to an open (61) place and let them wipe away the blood and wash their faces, hands, and feet. Then, without speaking a word, they ran on. When they were be-yond the limits of Edo, they noticed that Hankai1s straw bundle of gold was missing. "I must have dropped i t ," he said, "but we'll never • find i t even i f we go back. This happened on account of you fellows. Don't you have anything left from what I gave you?" "We lost some at gambling, and used.up the rest in the gay quarters and for wine," they replied. "Today we stole those samurai's purses, and now we're here. We have a l i t t l e money, but just enough for a drink." A search produced only one gold bu, with which they bought some sake and enough blowfish soup to quell their hunger. "It won't be safe to go to Edo," they decided, and so they travelled 36 eastward, until the sun went down on the Nasuno Moor of Shimotsuke. 37 "The road on this moor branches off in many places," said Kozaru and Tsukiyo.. "The night is dark, and we have already lost our way. Rest here for a while. We will go and ask directions," and they ran on ahead. Hankai kindled a.roaring fire beside the broken down fence that — 38 surrounded the Sesshoseki,. a rock said to be poisonous. A lone monk came by, but passed without even a glance. Hankai found his manner offensive. "Oh Priest," he called out. ."If you have any food, let me eat. If you have money for your journey, leave i t here. You can't pass by for nothing." The.priest halted and said, "Here is a gold bu. Take i t . I have no food." Placing a bare coin in Hankai's hand, he proceeded without looking back. "There should be two young men in the way ahead of you," Hankai (62) called after him. "Tell them you met Hankai and gave him something." The priest murmured a reply and quietly walked on, but within an hour, or so i t seemed, he returned. "Is Hankai there?" he asked. "Ever since my religious awakening I have never told a l i e , but in a moment of greed I kept back one bu. and my heart is not pure. This too I will give you," and he handed over the coin. As the gold passed into his hand, a chi l l crept into Hankai's heart. Standing before this upright priest, he began to meditate on how wretched he had been to slay his father and brother, cause loss to many people, and pass his days as a thief. Facing the monk, he said, "Your virtue has changed my heart. Now I shall become your disciple and enter the way of the Buddha." The priest was moved. "Very well," he replied. Come with me," and he led him away. Kozaru and Tsukiyo passed by. "Go where you wish and do what you please," said Hankai. "I intend to become this priest's disciple and practice austerities. Don't cling to me like the lice on my collar. We will not meet again." Looking at them no more, he parted from their company. "It was wise to cast off the useless children," the priest said 39 as he took the lead. "I will hear your confession as we go along." * * * * * * * * * * The story is told that in an old temple in Michinoku, the great 40 abbot, weakened by more than eighty years, announced on a certain day that he would die. He purified himself, changed his robes, and sat in (63) a chair with eyes closed and did not even repeat the name of the Buddha. His attendants and the wandering monks who were lodged in his temple urged him, saying, "Oh Great-One, give us a verse of your dying prayer." "All deathbed verses are lies," the old monk replied. "I shall end my l i fe speaking the truth. I was born in the province of Hoki. For various reasons I became a scoundrel. To this day I have brooded 43 44 over my actions. Now Shaka, Daruma, and myself are of one heart, and the clouds have cleared away." And with these words he died. It is said, "If we control our passions, anyone can attain the 45 heart of a Buddha; but when we release them, we become monsters." Such is the tale of Hankai. (64) ABBREVIATIONS KK Kokugo kokubun 1^ 1 f# & KKK Kokubungaku kalshaku to kansho .0 k MN Monumenta Nipponica NKBT Nihon koten buneaku talkei W i ^ f TASJ Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan YB Yuhodo Bunko Stjfy ZTB Zoku teikoku bunko (65) FOOTNOTES Introduction 1. Nakamura Yukihiko -tyh^fy , ed., Akinari 8£ , Nihon koten  kansho koza , XXIV (Tokyo, 1966), 3. 2. For the views on Akinari's parentage, see Takada MamorUvfj g jf^J, Ueda Akinari nenrpu kosetsu v t& (Tokyo. 1964), pp. 1-3. Although the matter presents an interesting puzzle, i t was the dark circumstances of his birth rather than the identity of those responsible for i t that affected Akinari*6 future l i f e . His real parents had l i t t l e time to influence him, but he was very sensitive about his apparently illegitimate origin. 3. Originally this nickname probably referred to his deformed hands, which seem to have born a slight resemblance to a crab's pincers. In his later years, i t was used in connection with his vituperative dis-position. "Mucho" can also be interpreted to mean "gutless," but I have found no evidence that the name v/as ever applied in this sense. 4. This school was established in 1726 by the Confucian scholar Nakai Shuan «f 4f (1693-1758) under orders from Yoshimune, and con-tinued until 1869 as a center for instruction in neo-Confucian studies and the national history and literature. 5. One Japanese scholar has summed up his attempt to define kokugaku by calling i t the study of "something" with the classics as (66) the principal reference work. See Uzuki Hiroshi|^j^ "Akinari no shiso to bungaku"^^:^^.-^. t i , ^ , Nakamura, ed., Akinari.pp. 249-258, N.B. p. 251. 6. See Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 53-55. 7. I have presented the orthodox view here. It is commonly assumed that losing his source of income forced Akinari to look more seriously and perhaps more pessimistically at l i fe , thus introducing a more seri-ous tone to his writings. However, there is convincing evidence that his father died in 1761. See Takada, Akinari nempu. pp. 32,33. If so, Akinari would have been managing the business during his early classical studies and first literary successes. This challenges the idea that his in i t ia l literary pursuits were made possible by financial support from his father, but supports the view that he was not conscientious in handling the business. 8. A l l three manuscripts have the postscript, Bunka go nen haru  sangatsu. Zuiryuzan-ka no roin tawamure ni kaku. toki ni sai nana-.1u-go. 14L tftfasJi , f-n ^ A ' l l i ^ * , 1$ -t + % . "Written for amusement, Bunka, fifth year |l808"], third month, in aged seclusion under Mt. Zuiryu when seventy-five years old." See Nakamura Yukihiko, "Harusame monogatari," Nakamura, ed., Akinari. pp. 196-245, N.B. p. 196. 9. Harusame monogatari. ed. Maruyama Sueo (Tokyo, 1951). 10. It appears, for example, in Chikamatsu Monzaemon, Kokusenya  kassen ig fiVfe , Chikamatsu .ioruri shu ge *t¥L$ f%/fa%\ » m m ' L (Tokyo, 1959), 227-292, N.B. p. 267. (67) 11. The 1808 version gives his age as twenty-one. See Harusame. ed. Maruyama, p. 168. Hankai I 1. Hoki^ ^ . One of the San• indo iL "ff ^  provinces, now that part of Tottori-ken ^ which encompasses Tohaku^/^ , Saihaku^j^ , and Hinot? | f districts (gun#j3 ). 2. DaisenjCtk , an extinct volcano in Saihaku-gun, Tottori-ken. Sometimes called Hold. Fuji because of its resemblance to Mt. Fuji when viewed from the western side, Daisen is the highest peak in the San'indo (alt. approx. 1713 m.). Today, Daisen and the lesser peaks that surround i t comprise Daisen National Park. Daichi Daigongen K. %H X ^§ w & 6 o n e o f t n e names of the deity en-shrined on the mountain. Gongen refers to a Buddha who appears on the earth in order to bring salvation to men, or i t may be the honorific t i t le appended to the name of a Shinto deity that is regarded as a manifestation of a Buddha or Bodhisattva. The Daisenji, an old temple of the Tendai^.^ sect, is located about halfway up the northern slope of Daisen. The temple seems to have been founded during the Yoro ^ Era (717-723) by the monk Konren^; ^  , who, upon having a religious awakening, turned his dwelling into a temple dedicated to Jizo B o s a t s u « ^ : f ^ | (Sansk. Ksitigarbha). During the time of the Empress Shotoku^) ftg. (reigned 764-770), the temple became a shrine, and Jizo Bosatsu became known as Daichi Myojin (68) X.^8^^* (-)ne s n o u l < l bear i n mind that there was no sharp distinction between Buddhist and,Shinto institutions at that time. The Daisenji was quite powerful by the late Heian Period, and continued so until the latter half of the sixteenth century. After a period of decline, i t began to flourish once again during the KeichojlJ| ^  Era (1596-1614), and came to draw a revenue of 3,000 koku. It remained prosperous until the Meiji Restoration, when i t s estates were confiscated. The temple s t i l l exists, but i t i s only.a fraction of i t s former size. The Okamiyama JinjaA - ^ J - i #t^£(also called Daichi Myojinja) was situated southeast of the Daisenji. Built i n early Heian times, i t , honored the gods Oanamuchi-no-kamiX.}t^-^^^ and Susa-no-o-no-mikoto % ^ ^ % • Later i t came under the auspices of the Daisenji and was used as a place for ascetic practices, with Daichimyo Gongen as the enshrined deity. In 1868, the shrine became independent and was moved to nearby Otaka^, 4>) . The structure on Daisen remains as a subsidiary of the principal shrine. 3. About 4:00 p.m. In this system of t e l l i n g time, the day was divided into twelve periods of roughly two hours each. 4. Yadoj^ . .Probably an inn, though other possible meanings i n this context include a post station, a private dwelling, or a brothel. 5. Approx. 12:00 noon. 6. This challenge i s reminiscent of the Noh drama Rashomon ^  >fr , by Kanze K o j i r o | » £ t f > l ( d . 1516), i n which Tsuna£$ , a retainer of Minamoto no Raikojyl|$i| £ , questions the truth of a rumor that a demon (69) is living at the Rashomon. He goes alone at night to investigate, and leaves a mark on the gate to prove that he has actually done so. See Yokyoku taikan £ | & AINU ed. Sanari Kentaro-fli &.ift.&-ff , 7 vols.^. (Tokyo, 1964), V, 3345-57. 7. The Daisenji. 8. Tobacco was introduced into Japan as an article of commerce by Portuguese traders sometime during the administration of Hideyoshi Jfcltp (ruled 1582-1598) and around 1605 the Japanese began to plant and cul-tivate i t themselves; the use of tobacco became so popular that shogunal edicts prohibiting i t proved ineffective. Richard Cocks, in the August 7, 1615 entry of his diary remarks, "It is strange to see how these Japons—men, women and children—are besotted in drinking that herb, and not ten yeares since i t was first in use." Quoted in James Murdoch, A History of Japan. 3 vols. (London, 1926), II, 702. Ejima Kiseki comments on the popularity of smoking in his Seken  musume kataki $ f|) : Mukashi wa onna tabako nomu koto yu.jo no hoka wa.kega nimo nakarishi koto naru ni ima tabako nomanu onna to sho.iin  suru shukke wa mare nari % \1 -k is \i t> Q L$ <-* n Ifi^- i % it It rt ffy fi ') . "Smoking, for instance, used to be unknown as a feminine practice, except among courtesans; yet to-day women who abstain are as fev; as monks who fast," Hachimon.liya hon  goshu A , YB (Tokyo, 1932), p. 219; trans. Howard Hibbett, The Floating World in Japanese Fiction (New York, 1959), p. 105. The comments of Captain Golownin of the Russian Navy, who was held prisoner On Hokkaido from July, 1811 (just two years after Akinari's (70) death) to October, 1812, illustrate.-• the degree to which tobacco grow-ing had developed: "I saw various kinds of prepared tobacco among them, 'from the most agreeable to the most unpleasant. They cut both the good and the bad tobacco very small, as the Chinese do: in the manufacture of the better sort, they use sagi to moisten i t , and sell i t in papers which weigh about a Russian pound..., "The Japanese manufacture tobacco so well, that though I was before no friend to smoking, and even when I was in Jamaica, could but seldom persuade myself to use a Havannah cigar, yet I smoked the Japanese tobacco very frequently, and with great pleasure.... "The Academician, our interpreters, and the guards, a l l smoked, and used different kinds of tobacco, according to their respective tastes or means," Vasi l i i Mikhailovich Golow-nin, Japan and the Japanese. 2 vols. (London, 1853), II, 163-165. Daizo is probably smoking the smaller variety of k i s e r u , a slender pipe five or six inches long and made entirely of metal, usually brass, though iron, silver, and various alloys were also used. A longer type, which sometimes exceeded three feet in length, consisted of a metal bowl and mouthpiece connected by a length of bamboo tube. 9. The Okamiyama Jinja. 10. Eighteen cho -j" • One cho was roughly 119 yards. Akinari»s distance agrees with that given in Yoshida Togo @%/,h. , comp., Dai  Nihon chimei .iisho < A Ik*P. %r , 7 vols. (Tokyo, 1938-39), II, 1007. Al l measures of distance, weight, and volume in this study are taken from Andrew Nathaniel Nelson, The Modern Reader's Japanese-English  Character Dictionary (Tokyo, 1967), pp. 1029, 30. Since the native system of measurements was not standardized until 1891, the equivalents given for measures before that time can only be approximate. 11. Nusa taimatsuru hako j ., 1 i h jfe . Probably equivalent (71) to the modern term, salsenbako'^^J^ , a box for monetary offerings at a Shinto shrine. .Nusa'ffi is generally taken to mean Shinto offerings of cloth, rope, or cut paper, but i t also applies to anything offered to a Shinto deity, or even to a guest. Note that the character for nusa can also be read zeni (cf. zenlftfc ). 12. The word for "carry" is written with the characters -oy o £ X in the text. It is uncertain whether Akinari meant kazukite—to carry (or wear) on the head—or katsugite— to carry on the shoulder. 13. A similar case of a man being carried into the sky by a super-natural power occurs in the tale "Kito wa.nadekomu tengu no haboki" ^ f l l <$ V C i>£^<n^l<f , in Shodo kikimimi sekenzaru. See Ueda Akinari  shu. YB (Tokyo, 1931), p. 102. 14. Eboshi jfyffi f • A kind of headgear worn by adult males, known in Japan as early as 683, but apparently derived from a piece of clothing worn in China around the fourth century A.D. At first , eboshi were worn by government officials, the shape and color varying according to the wearer's rank and office, but during the late Heian Period they became a common piece of clothing worn by the upper and middle classes, and , even by the masses, when going out of doors. Eboshi were originally made from silken gauze or other soft fabric, but from the time of the emperor Toba|,^ (reigned 1107-1123) they were made from paper and hardened by a coating of lacquer. 15. O k i j j | , A . Sarfindo province, now part of Chibu-gun%p$Jfi , Shimane-ken • On Takibi-sanJ^^jj , on the island of Nishi no ( 7 2 ) ShimatfS there are two shrines dedicated to Takubi Gongen, who is locally revered as god of pacification and preservation of l i fe on the sea. Daizo is probably at the Hinamachi-h&me-no-mikoto Jinja *3 *t^ |<4^  fttf , located near the seashore at the foot of the mountain's western slope. 1 6 . Mokudai $ • During the Heian and Kamakura Periods, a man who went to govern an area in place of the man who was actually appointed; from Muromachi times, a. chief administrator or local governor. Mokudai of the Tokugawa Period were administrators of lands under direct control of the shogunate. 1 7 . Izumo& . Another San'indo province, adjacent to Hoki on the east, now part of Shimane-ken. 1 8 . Koku & . The standard unit of volume in Tokugawa Japan. About 4 4 . 8 U.S. gallons. 1 9 . Thirty-eight r i J_ . A r i was about 2 . 4 4 miles. The place of landing is not specified, but i t must have required considerable skirting of the coastline to amount to such a distance. 2 0 . About 8 : 0 0 a.m. 2 1 . Saru no .iokoku f ^  y (alsoj:£<J ). It was customary to di-vide each hour into three parts. Jokoku, then, is the first third of a two-hour period. 2 2 . Sakimori ^ ^ (usually j $ / v )• This term originally referred to men, usually from the eastern provinces, who were appointed for three-year periods to guard the coasts of Kyushu, Tki-f. Tsushima , and (73) certain other points against encroachments by foreign enemies. The first recorded instance of the office is A.D. 646, and i t was discontinued after 795 except for the islands of Iki and Tsushima. See Nihon reki- shi dai.liten a ^j|£ f.$J$ $ J comp. Kawade Takao ?£J £ , 22 vols. (Tokyo, 1956-61), IX, 23, 24. The term appears in such eighth century writings as the Man'yoshu and Nihon rvoiki ^jhi^^^i* • For the former, see the texts in NKBT. VT (Tokyo, 1960), 445, kan 15, no. 3569, and NKBT. VTI (Tokyo, 1962), 157, kan 16, no. 3866. For the latter, see the text in NKBT. LXX (Tokyo, 1967), 179, kan 2, no. 3. Akinari's use of the term suggests a government official at a port. 23. Kashobumi l8\ % fr (alsoi&fr £ ). A paper issued by a government off icial , authorizing the bearer to pass through the barriers that he encountered enroute to his destination. The practice was adopted from ancient China. Evading a barrier was a serious offense, often punished by death. See John Carey Hall, "Japanese Feudal Laws III: The Tokugawa Legislation, Part IV," TASJ, XLI, 4 (1913), 683-804, N.B. p. 707. The above mentioned article, which has been my principal source of reference for Tokugawa laws, is l i t t l e more than a translation of the Osadamegaki hyakka.io flEpjj^-gIfo , which was the second part of the Ku.iikata osadamegaki 'L*. fy # '{^^J^f . Compiled in 1742 by the order of Yoshimune, i t was an attempt to select and arrange into a codified form as a guidebook for judges, the important decrees and precedents in the legal records which had accumulated for over a century. It is a com-pendium of legal procedure and penal law that was in force during most of the Edo Period. Even though compiled after the mid-point, i t embodied customs that had been in force from the beginning of the Tokugawa regime. (74) The edict was revised and amended i n 1790 by Matsudaira Sadanobu Pu ^ ^ ( 1 7 5 8 - 1 8 2 9 ) , who was chief administrator under the eleventh shogun, Ienari^; ^  (ruled 1787-1837). I t was d i r e c t l y operative only i n the shogun's own domains, but i n general i t guided j u d i c i a l procedure i n the f i e f s of a l l daimyo who recognized Tokugawa.suzerainty. 24. A slender wooden rod, s p e c i f i c a l l y designed for flogging. F i f t y blows was the normal number; severe flogging, a hundred. Corporal pun-ishment was administered i n public, the blows being struck on the of-fender's shoulders, back, and buttocks, care being taken to avoid the spine, l e s t he be knocked unconscious. In the case of a countryman, the head of h i s v i l l a g e was required to witness the punishment and take charge of him afterwards. See H a l l , "Laws," TASJ t LXE, 799. 25. Anivome L i t e r a l l y , "the wife of his elder brother." 26. From the Heian Period, the Oki Archipelago was used as a place of e x i l e , and many noted persons were banished to t h i s spot—among them the emperors Go*obaj^jL^] (reigned 1183-1198) and Godaigo^^_g^(reigned i . 1318-1339). One required an amnesty, of course, to return from t h i s exile—hence the nickname. 27. Kammonif"jr . The mon was the smallest unit of copper currency, and a thousand mon (later 960) was called a kan. The mon coin had a hole i n the center, and i t was customary to st r i n g them on a piece of rope called a z e n i s a s h l ^ - j j ^ . 28. These coins are strung on a zenisashi f unlike those that the mother offered him. (75) 2 9 . Gambling for stakes was an offense punishable by fines, banish-ment, or other penalties. See H a l l , "Laws," TASJ. XLI, 7 4 8 - 7 5 2 . 3 0 . Idaten JpSj/C £ • Sansk. Skanda. A s w i f t l y running heavenly being who watches over monks and monasteries, protects children from sickness, and acts as guardian of Buddha's doctrine. He i s said to have pursued and overcome a demon who had stolen the ashes of Buddha. 3 1 . Five s h a k u , seven sun <J . A shaku was roughly . 9 9 4 feet; a sun. 1 .2 inches. 3 2 . By t h i s act, the authorities place Daizo i n a special category of criminals. "As regards a treasonable conspirator against the* govern-ment, "A murderer of one's master, "A murderer of one's parent, "An i n f r i n g e r of a government barrier, "Any one who knowingly keeps i n concealment, or takes into his employ i n any sort of service, and f a i l s to report to the authorities, a criminal of any of the above kinds for whom a search i s being made by means of a published personal description, i s to be decapitated and his head gibbetted," H a l l , "Laws," TASJ. LXI, 7 7 7 . This incident c a l l s to mind the episode i n Shui hu chuan i n which Lu Ta,|j. ^ £ accidentally k i l l s Cheng ^'u-^Jfe and flees, whereupon the authorities send out a proclamation ordering his arrest. See Pearl S. Buck, trans., A l l Men Are Brothers. 2 vols. (New York, 1 9 3 3 ) , I, 5 7 - 6 3 . 3 3 . T s u k u s h i ^ ^ . The old name for Kyushu. 3 4 . Hakataj\| fy, A port i n Kyushu, now that part of Fukuoka on the east side of the Nakagawai £»f (76) 35. Five ryo fa . The ryo was the standard unit of currency in ... Tokugawa Japan. See note 52, below. 36. Ageya/titj ^ . Not a brothel in.the usual sense, but an establish-ment to which courtesans were summoned to entertain the customers. 37. Maruyama J-i . The Nagasaki gay quarter. During the Tokugawa Period its prosperity was comparable to that of Shimabara^^ in Kyoto or Shin-Yoshiwara in Edo. 38. Daizo1s behavior under the influence of alcohol is not unlike that of Lu Chih-shen in Shui hu chuan. See Buck, trans., Brothers. I, 77, 78. 39. As Nagasaki was the port to which foreigners had to come during the Tokugawa Period, Maruyama became noted for i ts visitors from other lands. It is quite natural for Daizo to encounter a Chinese here. 40. It is said that when Liu Pang was failing, he shut himself up in the palace and refused admittance to everyone, but Fan K'uai forced his way in and discovered his master asleep, pillowed upon a eunuch, whereupon he burst into tears and reminded the emperor of Chao K a o ^ ^ j , the eunuch who had tried to seize power after the first C h ' i n g emperor died in 210 B.C. This story probably inspired the episode in which Daizo bursts into the bedchamber. 41. Yusho date! g^^i^^i. Flesh from the palm of a bear's paw and from between the claws of an ostrich's foot. (77) 42. Eyami ^  zt In modern Japanese, ekibyo or yakubyo. Refers to any severe contagious disease. In premodern times, besides this general meaning, i t referred specifically to an attack of chills and fever, or o k o r i . Okori often meant malaria, but the context of the story does not justify diagnosing Daizo's illness as such. 43. Ebukuroy^ w / j-, . Originally a kind of bamboo basket carried on falconry expeditions as a container for the bird's food. Later i t came to denote a pouch used by travellers for carrying food on a journey. For a sketch, see Kindaichi K y o s u k e — % and Kindaichi Haruhiko jfc® comp., Kogo .liten (Tokyo. 1966), p. 1088.. 44. Daizo apparently means that gambling and theft incur the same penalty, but the punishment for theft was usually death, whereas exile was the maximum penalty for gambling. See Hall, "Laws," TASJ, XLI, 748-755. Possibly the death penalty v/as invoked for extreme or habitual gambling offenses, however. 45. Ten cho. See above, note 10. 46. Mizu umava ,]i 9 J (or7K,|^). Originally an inn on a water route, but the term later included a roadside rest house where a man could obtain food and drink for both himself and his horse. 47. Bu/^ . A gold coin, worth one quarter the value of a gold ryo. 48. Namasu^-. Raw fish, thinly sliced, and seasoned with soy sauce and vinegar. (78) 49. One jo^KL, roughly 3.31 yards. -50. The whole account of t h i s robbery i s too b r i e f to be clear. Presumably the groom i s k i l l e d by the blow, since he i s not mentioned again. 51. Kubi hosoki yatsu j | ^ I . L i t e r a l l y , a "thin necked fellow." For t h i s expression, see Murasaki S h i k i b u ^ & #p , "Hahakigi" Gen.ii monogatari y j f o ^ f f r . NKBT, XIV (Tokyo, 1958), 102. 52. The box i s a senryobako ^^Jf^ , a wooden box containing a thousand ryo in-paper-wrapped bundles of f i f t y or a hundred. The weight of a gold ryo varied with the era of coinage, but those issued i n both the Gembun ft K. (1736-1740) and Bunsei£ (1818-1829) Eras weighed 3.50 momme Q • See Mitamura Engyo Edo seikatsu .iiten -^ ifl fflf^ft SkP.yi&fyM, ed. Inagaki Fumio^ (Tokyo, 1959), p. 95. A momme was about .1325 ounces. A senryobako at that time, then, would have weighed roughly twenty-nine pounds plus the weight of the wood. 53. Nami yosuru jjLx-^Ta . Probably a password referring to his own a r r i v a l . Cf. shiranami^ which means both "white crested wave" and "robber." 54. K i s h i n i a r i ya ^  K $n >\ ? . In previous editions, t h i s passage was printed as Yama nigo r i a r i ya ^  ^ v & ' J f » 3 1 1 ( 1 thought to be a part of the password. Nakamura, however, believes t h i s to be a misin-terpretation that arose from the upper and lower portions of the char-acter for k i s h i being inadvertently written quite far apart i n the (79) original manuscript. See NjCBT, LVI, 226, note 5. 55. Tomabune *fc !ft (or^^J- ). A boat with a roof of thatched rushes. Robbers calling to a boat from the shore may have been sugges-ted by similar actions at Liang Shan P'o in Shui hu chuan. See Buck, trans., Brothers. I, 187. 56. Sawara 2 Jo h A salt-water fish, similar to the tuna in appearance, found in the waters around southern Japan, especially in the Inland Sea (Seto Naikai 3$/*^ ,'#-). 57. "Any one who behaves in a disorderly manner and so raises a tumult in town or in other places is to be expelled from his domicile," Hall, "Laws," TASJ. XLI, 773. 58. T.yo{ft$ , T o s a i : ^ ,. and Sanuki Z lO * &jt&>%)» Three of the four provinces of Shikoku, today respectively Ehime^^, Kochi^^o, and Kagawa r^ H) Prefectures. 59. Nigitazu « V K (j&^Jf). Now the Dogo Onseni#,f£;'\f in Matsuyama-shi^ J.« ^  , Ehime-ken. Visits to this place by such proto-historical figures as the emperors Keiko |? ft (traditionally d. 130 A.D.) and Chuai^f (traditionally d. 200 B.C.) are reported, and i t is mentioned in early literature. See', for example, Man'yoshur NKBT. IV, 15, kan 1, no. 8; 173, kan 3, no. 323; and Murasaki Shikibu, "Utsusemi" $ £ f > Genji, NKBT. XIV (Tokyo, 1958), 112. 60. Shikama 1^1 (ftjj^)* From ancient times an important port on the Inland Sea. Formerly independent, i t is now part of Himeji-shi (80) . H3rogo-ken£#i$fc . 61. Kukai$ , or Kobo Dalshl fatb&ty (774-835), the founder in Japan of the Shingon^ % sect of Buddhism. Called simply "Daishi" in the text. Hankai is referring to the pilgrimage described in the r e l i -gious ballad Namudaishi if] li- < $4f> , which summarizes t^he l i fe of Kukai. "From China he brought to Japan the soil upon v/hich the eight pagodas [i.e. the eight stupas built in India over the relics of Sakyamuni, whose ashes were divided amongst eight tribes] had stood. This soil he divided amongst eighty-eight places (in Sanuki), so that they who suffer from illness, as the result of Karma either in the past l i fe or present, might go round them on pilgrimage and so be cleansed from their sins," Arthur Lloyd, The Creed of Half Japan (London, 1911), p. 250. The "eighty-eight places" are known as Shikoku hachi-.iu-hakkasho l|0 A - f A {$>\^ > or Shikoku fuda.io y£J l^iL^j". For their names, see 9tLmmura Izuru #r/frj&, ed., Ko.iien/ll#^ (Tokyo, 1967), p. 925. 62. Pilgrims who go on their way reciting Namu daishi hensho kongo "Glory to the universal light and mighty power of the great teacher." 63. "For giving a night's lodging to scoundrels knowing them to be such, or for taking them in as lodgers for five or.seven days at a time, medium deportation. If the scoundrels are afterwards sentenced to crucifixion the person who gave them shelter is to be punished with death," Hall, "Laws," TASJ, XLI, 753. 64. Probably the episode at the brothel in Nagasaki. (81) 65. Shikoku meguri & <.• ') . A pilgrimage to the "eighty-eight places." See above, note 61. 66. Japan consisted of s i x t y - s i x provinces around A.D. 1000. The number varied after that, due to administrative changes, but the term " s i x t y - s i x provinces" continued to be used i n reference to the whole country. 67. Yamabuki,U O^Z . a variety of rose, golden i n color. The v/ord sometimes refers to gold or gold coins. 68. This episode was probably suggested by the one i n Shui hu chuan i n which Lu Ta becomes a pri e s t i n order to avoid arrest, and receives the name of Lu Chih-shen. See Buck, trans., Brothers. I, 69-74. 69. 0 i ^ _ . More accurately, a kind of cr e e l , carried by itinerant priests as a container for food, clothing, al t a r accessories, and so on. For a sketch, see Kindaichi, Comp., Kogo l i t e n . p. 179. 70. Harima^-^ . One of the Sanyodo'provinces. Now a part of Hyogo-ken. 71. Tteutsumimono Probably an o i , since i t l a t e r becomes clear that he i s carrying one. In the 1808 version, he requests an o i when he begins t h i s journey. See Harusame, ed. Maruyama, pp. 175, 176. 72. Osakayama £> -3. ( o r ^ j ; ^ . ^ ). A small mountain on the wes-tern outskirts of Otsu-shiXr# , on the border between Kyoto-fu and Shiga-ken^ &{p?||£ . I * w a s t h e s i t e of the Osaka barrier, which was the (82) gateway from the ca p i t a l region to the eastern provinces. 73. Muragumo i s ref e r r i n g to Otsue jf.rfjfffi , pictures drawn and sold as souveniers of the area by the descendants of a r t i s t s who had come into the towns after losing t h e i r patrons i n the c i v i l wars of the late Muromachi Period. Being commercial objects, Otsue aimed at popu-l a r appeal rather than a r t i s t i c achievement, and so they were simple i n design and drawn on crude paper. Otsue began to appear around the K a n 1 e i i | ^ Period (1624-1643), and reached the i r peak between the Kambun|| (1661-1672) and Genroku (1688-1703) Eras. 74. Nembutsu-^: . O r i g i n a l l y , meditation on the mercy of a Buddha; l a t e r , c a l l i n g upon Amida Buddha, usually with the words, Namu  Amida Butsu i|] ffiffi^jtg^. This invocation has come to be known as the Nembutsu. The picture that Muragumo describes i s one of the more famous Otsue scenes. 75. So.laf^, ( a l s o ^ ^ ) . A shrine dedicated to the dei t i e s of a number of other shrines for the convenience of worshippers. Most provinces.had at least one. In Harima, the Idate Hyosu J i n j a ffijpt and the Iwa J i n j a ^ ^ ^ ^ , both i n Himeji-shi, were sola. 76. "A coiner of false gold or s i l v e r money i s to be led around for public exposure and c r u c i f i e d , " H a l l , "Laws," TASJ, XLI,.762. 77. Ebisu matsuri £ y (also# tr. 4jja ) ? n •) . Commonly called Toka  Ebisu -f Q & • A f e s t i v a l held on the tenth day of the New Tear at the Ebisu J i n j a i n Osaka i n honor of Ebisu, the god of commercial prosperity. (83) 78. Kurama no hatsutora mode f%$<r\ fa® f 1" . The-Kuramadera, built in 796, is a temple of the Tendai sect on Mt. Kurama, on the northern outskirts of Kyoto. It was customary to visit the temple on the first day of the tiger (hatsutora) in the New Year and offer prayers for happiness and prosperity. 79. That i s , two kammon of copper or three to of rice for one ryo of gold. A to 5| was one tenth of a koku. See above, note 18. In 1808, a gold ryo was valued at 66.2-66.7 momme of silver; a koku of rice at 55-56 momme of silver. The equivalent in silver of 1000 mon in 1807 was 9-9.2 momme. See Dokushi biyo C-d^ . comp. Tokyo Teikoku Dai-gaku Shiryo H e n s a n - j o . £ ^ I f 3 ^ £ £ 4 ^ $ - ^ (Tokyo, 1933), p. 772. According to these values, a gold ryo would have been worth well over a koku of rice or more than seven kammon of copper. The merchant is assessing the gold at less than a third of its value. 80. Giko.lo no hito (correctly^' ) ^ £ a) • A man who lived before the time of the legendary Chinese emperor Fu Hsi/^ (tradition-ally 2852-2738 B.C.), who is said to have taught his people how to fish and raise cattle, and to have invented writing. Giko.lo no hito means a person of simple and honest disposition. 81. Wakametf-7 ^ HO (also^ ). A variety of edible seav/eed, common to the coasts a l l around Japan. 82. Haniwai|[^ fj|_. Osaka and district. 83. The Sumiyoshl J i n j a / £ £ ^ , also called Sumiyoshi Taisha^^., (84) i n Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka, dedicated to the gods Sokotsutsu-o-no-mikoto fyy$)$>£f , Nakatsutsu-o-no-mikoto <f $\ , and Uwatsutsu-o-no-mikoto JL$) , revered from ancient times as protectors of sea t r a v e l l e r s ; and to Jingu Kogo J ^ f j f e ( t r a d i t i o n a l l y A.D. 201-269). 84. Popular name for the Shitennoji& X. * i n Tennoji-ku, Osaka, dedicated to Nyoirin Kannonk$%tf$$$L-%i and the Four Heavenly Kings. The temple i s said to have been established i n 593 by Shotoku Taishi, but i t has been destroyed by f i r e and r e b u i l t several times. 85. Kawachi^i^) and IzumiJceJ^ . Provinces to the east of Osaka, both now part of Osaka-fu. 86. K i no michi &*. cn The road through the province of Kllfajf , now part of Wakayama - f ^ i l i and Mie s£. Prefectures. 87. The province of YamatoX-fcj , now Nara-ken^^|^ . 88. Mik o s h i j i *h I I (also £ ) . Refers'both to the Hoku-rikudo and to the Hokurikudo provinces of Echizen^^Tj , Etchu jJOfcrtf , and Echigo^j^_ . Also the name of the road leading to those provinces. 89. Cmi no umi^--r <n 1&-. B i w a - k o ^ ^ ^ ^ , or Lake Biwa. 90. Koshi no kuni C i m |^ ) ( a l s o ^ $ ). The Hokurikudo provinces. (85) Hankai II 1. Tsunuga<? <*A". Wow Tsuruga-sai-|5(|5^ , Fukui-ken %fa tf . For the name "Tsunuga," see Man'yoshu. NKBT. IV, 183, kan 3, no. 366. 2. Arachi no sekiyama f> ^ (also ^ (^_, or^f^ )<n f§j . A moun-tain in Fukui-ken, in ancient times the site of the barrier between the provinces of Omi and Echizen. The barrier appears to have been estab-lished in 764 and abolished in 789 or shortly thereafter. See Yoshida, comp., Chimei .iisho. I l l , 1862. 3. Hana motasetsuru j ^ ^ ^ . In modern Japanese (nana wo  motasu ^  \ ^^'f c ' f)» *° award the victory or honors to one's opponent. In the Kyoto-Osaka, area, however, hana used to refer to the money paid to a prostitute. See Daigenkaiy . comp. Otsuki FumihikoXj$E£ Pj » 5 vols. (Tokyo, 1932-1937), III, 880. 4. Kozaru;]^*$L . "Little Monkey." 5. Alluding to the proverb, Tsukiyo ni kama wo nukareru }%$L r-yfeJs Ylo^ft-fi* to have one's kettle stolen on a moonlit night. Refers to a very neglectful person. See Suzuki Tozo^p^^$. and Hirota Eitaro 0 e d « . Ko.ii kotowaza .1iten : t r ^ $ (Tokyo, 1962) , p. 627. 6. Tsukiyo$ & • "Moonlit Night." 7. Kaga^tf^. One of the Hokurikudo provinces, now part of Ishi-(86) kawa-ken^ • 8. Yamanaka *f . A hot spring in Enuma-gun J i ^ ^ f , Ishikawa-ken, said to have been discovered by the monk Gyokif^ (668-749). However, the spa: fe l l into disuse until , in 1186, Hasebe Nobutsura &%r%^{%-dt (d. 1218) was enfeoffed in the area by Minamoto Yoritorno^jg|^fl (1148-1199). Nobutsura is said to have seen a white heron bathing its in-jured foot in the spring, and recognizing the spiritual healing powers of the water, he reclaimed the area and stationed his retainers to guard i t . 9. Kishunraku J Jfr*^* See Murasaki, "Wakana ge" $ |> 'f- , Genji, NKBT. XVI, 414. A piece of ceremonial court music, Chinese in origin, accompanied by a dance which was usually performed by four persons, though sometimes by two .or six. It v/as often performed on occasions such as the crown prince's coming of age ceremony or the dedication of a new shrine. Neither the melody nor the dance are known today. 10. Myoonten^ Jjr^ j-^ Q • Sansk. Sarasvati. Usually called Benzaiten or B e n t e n S o m e t i m e s considered male, but usually a female deity who brings joy to a l l living things through her beautiful music. Also regarded as the goddess of eloquence and learning and the bestower of riches and the Sanskrit language and letters. 11. Atara Myoon Bosatsu nari fo <-r h^X^ ^-A „ ^ . . Perhaps, "What a waste of Myo0n Bosatsu 1 " Although the priest speaks as though Myo-onten and Myoon Bosatsu are one and the same, Myoon Bosatsu is in fact identified as the Bodhisattva Gadgadasvara. (87) 12. Awazu^?-^". A hot spring in what is nov/ Komatsu-shi 4^2. ^ > Ishikawa-ken, said to have been discovered during the Yoro Era by the monk Taicho Daishi^,"^ ^  |vj? (683-767). It is the oldest hot spring in the Hokuriku area. 13. Kanazawa. 14. Ikkoshu ,~ {<j The Jodo Shinshu .'^1 % % sect of Buddhism, founded by Shinran|j|^| (1173-1262), who believed that salvation v/as solely dependent upon the grace of Amida Buddha, and therefore monastic disciplines such as celibacy, sobriety, and a vegetarian diet, were un-necessary. The sect was called Ikkoshu because i ts adherents meditated on the mercy of Amida with singleminded devotion (ikko isshin 15. Sashide no iso no chidorl no koef yachiyo to naku J . -Jf&3<?>%>/\4-4\* fc"^* Cf. the following from the first imperial col-lection of waka. Kokin wakashu (comp. 905): Shio no yama Sashide no iso ni Sumu chidori Kimi ga miyo oba Yachiyo to zo naku. X <h i. t V ft < The plovers that nest Upon Mt. Shio And upon this strand Cry out for thee A reign of countless ages. See the text in NKBT, VIII, 169, kan 7, no. 345. (88) 16. Naka no kuni <4fn ffi . Etchu, the middle "Etsu" province. He wants to visit Jigokudani vL7$£J&, an old volcano crater that s t i l l dis-charges sulfur smoke and gases. The '.'sacred mountain" is Tateyama ti-* . Although "Tateyama" refers generally to a series of peaks in what is now Toyama-kenjl |£ , i t specifically indicates Oyama;££ J-) (alt. 2992 m.) and the subsidiary peaks, Jodozan^-^1 dj (2872 m.) and Betsuzan %i\ (2885 m.). The Oyama Jinja, dedicated to the deities Tajikara-o-no-mikoto fy -* ^ fe-^f and Izanagi-no-mikoto^^^& j | is located on the top of Oyama. Boys of the area used to climb the mountain as part of the rites of attaining manhood. The Oyama Jinja attracted worshippers from a l l over Japan—so many that Tateyama came to rank with Hakusan j^ and Mt. Fuji as a center for religious practices. 17. The 1743 work, Shokoku ri.lin dan y^ i f I ^ . reports that shadowlike spirits of dead persons had been seen on Tateyama, and also that during the Genroku Era, three men who were returning from a p i l -grimage to the mountain were given food by such beings. See the text in Kikobunshu fai^. ZTB, XX (Tokyo, 1900), 869-970, N.B. pp. 917, 918. Such a report may have suggested this incident, even though in this case i t is mortals who feed the spirits. ' 18. Jinzugawa t^ A- (^Ojjf l " ! • A river (length approx-126 km.) that flows through central Toyama-ken. During the Tokugawa Period, i t was bridged at Toyama-shi by sixty-four boats which were bound together and covered with boards. See Yoshida, comp., Chimei .iisho. I l l , 1965. 19. Qnuma no ukishima X -Abifo. Onuma is a small lake, about ten feet deep, in Nishi Murayama-gun^ f$ ^ ^ , Yamagata-ken Jj (89) Ukishima. floating clumps of hardened earth mixed with vegetation, are found in other parts of Japan as well, hut those of Qnuma are the most famous. Reports of their number vary from sixty-six to twenty-four or so. See Yoshida, comp., Chimei .1isho. V, 4413. 20. Very similar to the incident in Shui hu chuan in which Lu Ta, Shih Ching_^, and L i Chung^ fc, go into a wine shop and order food and drink. See Buck, trans., Brothers. I, 53. 21. Toki nakaba r$ *N I < ( if). Half of a two-hour period. 22. Shaku .io ^  Sansk. khakkara. A wooden staff with a piece of tooth or horn affixed to the bottom and the upper part made of metal with several rings suspended. For a sketch of the head, see Shimmura, ed., Ko.iien. p. 991. This staff was originally used by travelling priests in India for making a noise to drive off insects, but i t later came to be used for announcing one's presence or marking time when reading sutras. 23. The text reads, Hito iru bekarazu. Kaere A. ~Kh^< *>\h"% <f>\/\%\* "No one should be in here. If you are, leave." However, Nakamura cites a Yamamoto ShigeruJj fys fy who sees this speech as a mistaken reading of Hito ibekariki. Haire A X /\ A>^<) . f<3.iijfl, which I have used for my translation. See NKBT. LVI, 238, note 2. 24. This leaves 400 ryo unaccounted for. The passage is vague, but probably Hankai gives Muragumo 500 rjco as his share, even though he speaks of his act as returning the hundred that Muragumo had previ-(90) ously given him. 25. Tsugaru no hate ^ ^ f ^ l l . The Tsugaru Peninsula, now a part of Aomori-ken 26. Lu Chih-shen performs a similar feat in Shui hu chuan. See Buck, trans., Brothers. I, 124, 125. 27. In Shui hu chuan. Lu Chih-shen goes to a ruined temple in search of shelter and finds the priests ailing and wasted from lack of food. See Buck, trans., Brothers. I, 107, 108. 28. Twenty eho. See above, note 10. 29. Perhaps a reference to the proverb, Inochi ni sugitaru takara  nashi £f* 7J SJHfe. \, . "There are no riches more precious than l i fe ." See Suzuki and Hirota, ed., Kotowaza .iiten. p. 83. 30. This episode may have been suggested by Lu Chih-shen's defeat at the ruined temple (see above, note 27). See Buck, trans., Brothers. I, 111,112. 31. Shinano^f^. A Tosando v ^ J , ^ province, now Nagano-kenJr - f^j^' 32..0u-^I^. The provinces of Michinoku ffc and Dewa^^ . The Tohoku >$?;>L region. 33. Sensoji>*§ ^ j^f . Popularly called Asakusa Kannon;j£. v^f.;^, ,.a Tendai temple in Taito-ku, Tokyo. In 628, i t is said, two brothers who were fishing at the mouth of the Sumidagawa^ # n| brought up a golden (910 image of Kannorrin their net. Their master i n s t a l l e d t h i s statue i n his home, but l a t e r a small shrine was b u i l t on the present s i t e i n order to accomodate the numerous worshippers who came from far around. The subsequent prosperity of the Asakusa area has been attributed to the grace of Kannon. 34. Kaminari Mon^n^, (also*0 ) f ^ . The main entrance to the Sen-s o j i , formerly flanked by images of the gods of wind and lightning. 35. Many daimyo of the Tokugawa Period b u i l t t h e i r Edo residences i n the Asakusa area. 36. Shimotsuke no Nasuno no Hara 'y %^<>\ ffitffy Shimotsuke, a Tosando province, i s now Tochigi-kenyfcfjj . Nasuno no Hara (now called Nasunogahara) i s a moor extending from the foot of N a s u d a k e ^ ^ ^ i i n * the northern part of the prefecture. Situated i n a volcanic area, the moor was dry and had shallow t o p s o i l . Efforts to cultivate i t succeeded only after the M e i j i Restoration, so i t would have been sparsely settled at t h i s time. 37. Matsuo Basho was t o l d v/hen t r a v e l l i n g i n t h i s area, Kono no wa  •Iuo n i wakarete. uneuneshiki tabibito no michi fumitagaen $sf \4 fr)4}\4\<, Ofi v*.tikA-*&;S'*t 1< W A /O. "This moor branches o f f and z i g -zags i n every direction. A t r a v e l l e r w i l l lose h i s way." See Matsuo Basho, Oku no hosomichi ^ %jf\^ , Kikobunshu. ZTB. XX, 971-996, N.B. p. 973. 38. Sesshoseki$2>£ fa • A rock near the Nasu Hot Spring. Both Oku (92) no hosomichi and Shokoku ri.iin dan state that poisonous gases strong enough to k i l l birds and insects v/ere emitted from the immediate vicinity. See ZTB, XX, 900, 975. According to legend, there was a fox that took the form of a beautiful woman by the name of Tamamo-no mae£f$^j , and won the favor of the emperor Toba. When her true identity was discovered, she fled from the capital, but was overtaken on the Nasunogahara and slain, whereupon her spirit took the form of this rock and caused harm to a l l who came near. During the time of the emperor Go-Fukakusa ^ (reigned 1246-1259), the monk Genno>^j passed by and heard the story. After saying prayers for the repose of Tamamo-no-mae's soul, he struck the rock with his staff, splitting i t in two. The spirit appeared and told the monk that his prayers had cured her of a l l desire to injure people. The Noh drama Sesshoseki is based on this legend. See Sanari, ed., Yokyoku taikan. I l l , 1633-46. Repentance, contrition, or confession of sins. The first character is interpreted as confession, and the second as repentance and reform. 40. Osho jfc (Jrj . Sansk. upadhyaya. A priestly teacher of Bhuddist doctrine; also a monk v/ho has performed considerable ascetic practices. The reading osho indicates the Zen£$£ sect. The same characters are read kasho by the Tendai sect and washo by the Shingon. 41. In the 120"chapter version of Shui hu chuan. Lu Chih-shen goes Irwin, The Evolution of a Chinese Novel: Shui hu chuan. Harvard Yenching Institute Series, X (Cambridge, Mass., 1953), 184. through a similar procedure in preparation for death. See Richard Gregg (93) 42. - Ige . A poem of praise to Buddha, recited at the hour of death as a legacy to those who remain on earth. 43. Shaka^fi^. . Sansk. Sakya. The historical Buddha. 44. Darumaji|j^ , Sansk. Bodhidharma. The twenty-eighth Buddhist patriarch, generally regarded as the founder of the Zen sect. Said to be the son of a king in southern India, he arrived in China in A.D. 520 and settled in Loyang, where he engaged in silent meditation for nine years. His doctrine and practice disregarded ritual and sutras, but emphasized his belief that each individual has direct access to Buddha through meditation. 45. Kokoro osamureba dare mo busshin nari. Hanateba aomaji-.'ftf^f,«lKi^" ^Jl^'^Ms . Cf. the following passage from the Ugetsu tale, "Aozukin" ^ tfkfy '• Kokoro yuruseba yoma to nari. osamuru toki wa bukka  wo eru ,t ..• ^I'Jittik i rr i). yjLi,h%\x4{tyf£'$ • "He who gives in to his passions becomes a demon; by controlling them he- obtains the Fruit of Buddhahood," NKBT. LVI, 126trans. Dale Saunders, "The Blue Hood," MN, XXI (1966), 196-202, N.B. p. 199. (94) BIBLIOGRAPHY Araki, James T. "A Critical Approach to the Ugetsu monogatari," MN, XXII (1967), 49-64. Aso Iso j i j f o > £ . j S % X a n d Shuzui Kenji^/^-^ ;t5 , ed. Nihon bungaku kenkyu nyumon yx MSfytffeK f*\ . Tokyo, 1963. Buck, Pearl S., trans. A l l Men Are Brothers. 2 vols. New York, 1933. Chamberlain, Basil Hall. Things Japanese. London, 1902. Chikamatsu Monzaemon $Tfj. Chikamatsu .ioruri shu geift $ f/f$$* %\ . NKBT. L. Tokyo, 1959. de Bary, Wm. Theodore, Ryusaku Tsunoda, Donald Keene, et a l . Sources  of the Japanese Tradition. New York, 1958. Ejima Kiseki . Hachimon.liya hon go shu A j S, Jfy . IB. Tokyo, 1932. Fujimura Tsukuru^c jfcf^ , ed. Nihon bungaku d a i . i i t e n tiiS.jJ^ < lffi ^ . 8 vols. Tokyo, 1957. Fujimura Tsukuru and Nishio Minoru vf9/|, * . Nihon bungaku shi .iiten # /f\ #®tM% ' T o k y 0 j 1 9 5 5 -Giles, Herbert A. A Chinese Biographical Dictionary. Taipei, 1968. Golownin, Vasi l i i Mikhailovich. Japan and the Japanese. 2 vols. London, 1853. Hall, John Carey. "Japanese Feudal Laws III: The TokugawaiLegislation, Part IV," TASJ. XLI, iv (1913), 683-804. Heibonsha f\ , comp. Dai .iimmei iiten < fejsre-ffi . 9 vols. Tokyo, 1937-1941. , comp. Dai.iiten-f jffi $ . 26 vols. Tokyo, 1934-1936. 'comp. Sekai dai hyakka .iiten &Z-< . 32 vols. Tokyo, 1959. Hibbett, Howard. The Floating World in Japanese Fiction. New York, 1959. Ichiko T e i j i ^ | l . Koten bungaku kenkyu hikkei$ p$W^%.1y,jf|. Tokyo, 1967. ~ " (95) Inagaki Fumio^*!. , ed. Mitamura. Engyo Edo seikatsu .Uteri ^ t f l ^ ^ r l , ; i » 14r $ . Tokyo, 1959 Irwin, Richard Gregg. The Evolution of a Chinese Novel: Shui hu chuan. Harvard Yenching Institute Series, X. Cambridge, Mass., 1953. Joya, Mock. Things Japanese. Tokyo, 1963. Kawade T a k a o M , ed. Nihon rekishi dai.iiten V/^J&ZXfi&ty • Tokyo, 1956-1961. Kikobunshu foif j^f . ZTB, XX. Tokyo, 1900. Kindaichi Kyosuke^ and Kindaichi Haruhikoj£ KJ M^^T , comp. Kogo .iiten ft Tokyo, 1966. Kokin wakashu ^^inj^#, . NKBT. VTII. Tokyo, 1959. Lane, Richard. "Saikaku's Contemporaries and Followers," MN, XIV (1958), 371-383. Lloyd, Arthur. The Creed of Half Japan. London, 1911. Man'vo shu &)<fL$k. NKBT, IV-VI I. Tokyo, 1959-1962. Matsuo Y a s u a k i ^ . ^ ^ ^ . Kinsei no bungakusff -HEO fr.^ . Tokyo, 1965. Mochizuki Shinko ^ $ 4 f ^ , ed. Bukkyo dai.iitenJ#fyf< j^f f . 10 vols. Tokyo, 1955-1963. . Morohashi Tetsuji.^;^^;;^, ed. Dai Kan-wa .iiten £ . 13 vols. Tokyo, 1955-1960. Murasaki Shikibuj$ f^ff . Genii monogatari ^fttffrlgfc. NKBT. XIV-XVIII. Tokyo, 1958-1963. Murata Noboru ^ $ j | • Kinsei bungei no bukkyotekl kenkyuiir « fttf&ffiX^ . Tokyo, 1963. Murdoch, James. A History of Japan. 3 vols. London, 1926. Nakamura Yukihiko1?i'btyk , ed. Akinari>\/' . Nihon koten kansho koza fl^Mzf ~&>t , XXIV. Tokyo, 1966. . "Akinari den no mondaiten">i% *$ , KKK, XXIII, v i (1958), 7-11. . "Hankai" ^e^, KK, XXI, x (1952), 1-10. Nelson, Andrew Nathaniel. The Modern Reader's Japanese-English Character  Dictionary. Tokyo, 1967. (96) Nihon Chiri Fuzoku Taikei Henshu Iinkai 0 % % ^ % » ed. Nihon chiri fuzoku taikei fl &tt**gj£Ufcr/L £ . 13 vols. Tokyo, 1959-1960. Nihon ryoiki fl^f . NKBT. LXX. Tokyo, 1967. Oda Tokuno^ fec "flf^ gfe. Bukkyo dai.iitendhfr < ffiff . Tokyo, 1954. Otsuki Fumihiko^$#,j}^r , comp. Daigenkai HJ^ftr . 5 vols. Tokyo, 1932-1937. Sakai Koichi*]f & . "Harusame monogatari"^^)^)#, KKK, XXIII, v i (1958), 35-42. "Harusame monogatari 'Hankai' to Suikoden to no kankei" ^ * f ^ j l i t e & $ l * M & t KK. XXV. x i i (1956), 26-33. Sanari Kentaro fo&^Kffi , ed. Yokyoku taikan f§ jig,. 7 vols. Tokyo, 1964. Sansom, George B. A History of Japan. 3 vols. Stanford, 1965-1967. Sato KaruofoffcjkK. • Ueda Akinari V-tg-ftf Tokyo, 1964. Shigetomo Ki "Harusame monogatari 'Hankai* ni tsuite" r$»f j K *> 1 , Bungaku frffi , XXXIV, x (1966), 21-34. . Kinsei bungaku shi no shomondaiifr %%} f*\$. Tokyo, 1963. • "Ueda Akinari no sakkateki shogai" KKK. XXIII, vi (1958), 2-7. Shimmura Izuru|^<J jfc , ed. Ko.i ien^^j^ . Tokyo, 1967. Sieffert, Rene. La Litterature Japonaise. Paris, 1961. Soothill, William Edward and Lewis Hodous. A Dictionary of Chinese  Buddhist Terms. London, 1937. Suzuki Tozo^^vf and Hirota Eitaro ^ # ^f^ftf , ed. Ko.ii kotowaza. J i ien^C^ * t ihJ^ff. • Tokyo, 1962. " Takada Mamoru (j^ j . Ueda Akinari nempu kosetsu Tokyo, 1964. Teruoka Yasutakap^J-^jj '^j^ and Gunji Masakatsu^J?]i£. . Edo shimin  bungaku no k'aika -ji-ji^fc ^$-<* fflifc • Nihon no bungaku $ fa <r\ , V. Tokyo, 1966. Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku ShiryoAHensan- jo t^$/^ t^^tfo^ft , ed. Doku- shi biyo ffyf. Tokyo, 1933. (97) Tsugita Uruu^gjjflfl. Kokubungaku shinko ffifcffi & S&- . 2 vols. Tokyo, 1932-1936. Tsujimori Shuel&ikfc$L . Ueda Akinari no shogai i . r0$J&*A'$L . Tokyo, 1942. Ueda Akinari ^ # -$J&. . Harusame monogatari ^^Jtf^^-. ed. Maruyama Sueo JLtb/f-jC . Tokyo, 1951. . Ueda Akinari shu . NKBT, LVT. Tokyo, 1968. . Ueda Akinari shu V ti-lgj^y^ . YB. Tokyo, 1931. . Ueda Akinari zenshu tia^fgy^^ . 2 vols. Tokyo, 1923. . "Ugetsu monogatari, or Tales of Moonlight and Rain," trans. Dale Saunders, MN, XXI (1966), 171-202. "Ugetsu monogatari; Tales of a Clouded Moon," trans. W i l f r i d Whitehouse, MN, I , i (1938), 242-258; I , i i (1938), 257-275; IV, i (1941), 166-191. Yoshida Seiichi^W t% . Nihon bungaku kansho .iiten. koten hen Wl+.k Tokyo, 1960. Yoshida Togo$tf$/& . Dai Nihon chimei .iisho £ fl/^geJ?!^^ . 7 vols. Tokyo, 1938-1939. Watanabe Akira ific£]b . Nihon chimei i i t e n ^fawhfyty. . 4 vols. Tokyo, 1956. Zolbrod, Leon. "A Comparative Approach to the Ugetsu monogatari." Unpublished manuscript. -. Takizawa Bakin . New York, 1967. -. "Yomihon," The Journal of Asian Studies. XXV, i & i (1966), 485-498. 


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