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Utilization of manpower at children's aid society of Vancouver, B.C. Adams, Robert L. 1967

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UTILIZATION OF MANPOWER AT CHILDREN S AID SOCIETY 1  OF VANCOUVER, B.C.  by  Robert L. Adams Dianne G. B u n t i n g 01 ga M. D e k l e r L i n d a R. K o r b i n John C. Snyder Francis  W.  Winters  T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l l m e n t of t h e Requirements f o r t h e Degree o f MASTER OF SOCIAL WORK i n the S c h o o l . o f S o c i a l Work  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming  The U n i v e r s i t y  to the required, standard  of B r i t i s h Columbia  - May, 1967  ii  ABSTRACT T h i s study was prompted by a s t a f f - s h o r t a g e c r i s i s i n S o c i a l Work. Because i t i s apparent t h a t t h i s manpower c r i s i s cannot be a l l e v i a t e d by an i n c r e a s e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c r u i t m e n t , methods must be found by which to u t i l i z e e f f e c t i v e l y persons w i t h o u t p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d ing. Our assumptions i n t h i s s t u d y , t h e r e f o r e , are f i r s t l y , t h a t t a s k s p r e s e n t l y performed by p r o f e s s i o n a l l y - t r a i n e d s o c i a l workers can be c a t e g o r i z e d a c c o r d i n g to s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a and s e c o n d l y , t h a t these t a s k s can 'then be a s s i g n e d t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f s t a f f , both p r o f e s s i o n a l and non-professional. T h i s study d e a l s w i t h the former assumption, the l a t t e r assumption w i l l be l e f t t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . The agency from w h i c h our study was>idrawn was the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B.C. The s p e c i f i c a r e a o f study i n the agency was S e r v i c e s to C h i l d r e n - i n - C a r e . As c r i t e r i a f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g t a s k s we chose "worker autonomy" and. " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " . In essence these a r e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , the f u n c t i o n i n g of the worker i n r e l a t i o n t o h i s i n t e r n a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , and the r e l a t i v e amount of a c t i v i t y i n h e r e n t in a task. We then d e v i s e d a l i s t of t a s k s which we p r e s e n t e d t o a random sample of l i n e w o r k e r s , w i t h the major aim of d e t e r m i n i n g whether or not the t a s k s were a c t u a l l y p e r f o r m e d . The l i s t of t a s k s was r e v i s e d on s u g g e s t i o n s from the respondents and p r e s e n t e d a second time. This i n d i cated the r e p r e s e n t a t i v e n a t u r e of the t a s k s . I n order t o r a t e each t a s k as t o i t s degree of c o m p l e x i t y and the degree of autonomy r e q u i r e d by a worker to p e r f o r m i t , we s e l e c t e d t w e l v e judges at random s i x from C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y S t a f f and s i x from a l i s t s u p p l i e d by the B r i t i s h Columbia A s s o c i a t i o n of S o c i a l Workers. The judges r a t e d each t a s k on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e f o r each of our two c r i t e r I n a n a l y z i n g the d a t a we were concerned p r i m a r i l y w i t h the degree of agreement among the judges as to t h e i r r a t i n g s of each t a s k on the two c r i t e r i a of "worker autonomy" and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " . (  \ •  Our f i n d i n g s showed a h i g h p e r c e n t a g e of agreement among judges) on b o t h c r i t e r i a f o r most t a s k s . . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t the m a j o r i t y of t a s k s can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . The f i n d i n g s a l s o showed a h i g h degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between "worker autonomy" and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " -- t h a t i s , i f a t a s k was judged h i g h l y autonomous i t was u s u a l l y a l s o judged h i g h l y complex. T h i s p o i n t s t o the p o s s i b l e redundancy of the second c r i t e r i o n , "task complexity". I n other woras, i t appears t h a t "worker autonomy" may be the important measuring i n s t r u m e n t by which t a s k s can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d i n o r d e r t o be a s s i g n e d t o p e r s o n n e l of d i f f e r i n g competence.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I :  Introduction  Summary Statement o f the Problem Persons or Groups Concerned w i t h t h e Problem A l t e r n a t i v e S o l u t i o n t o the Problem.••. Methods o f R e s e a r c h i n g the-Problem The Purpose and Scope o f the R e s e a r c h O u t l i n e o f the Study Report  P. P. P. • P. P. P.  .  1 2 4 6 8 9  Chapter I I : Review o f the L i t e r a t u r e C r i t e r i a P r o v i d e d f o r Task C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . . L e v e l s o f P o s i t i o n s and T h e i r D i s t i n g u i s h i n g F a c t o r s a. E i g h t L e v e l s o f P o s i t i o n s b. N o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l Worker c. Four L e v e l s o f P o s i t i o n s d. Three L e v e l s o f P o s i t i o n s e. Two L e v e l s o f P o s i t i o n s Models o f Work Assignment a. Use o f L e s s Q u a l i f i e d P e r s o n b. S t r e a m i n g c. Team Approach Methods o f E v a l u a t i o n Chapter I I I :  11 17 18 19 20 22 22 24 24 25 27 30  Study D e s i g n  Purpose o f the Study C r i t e r i a F o r C l a s s i f y i n g Tasks and R a t i o n a l e f o r C h o o s i n g Criteria L e v e l o f Research D e s i g n Sampling P r o c e d u r e s Data C o l l e c t i o n Chapter IV:  P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. P. PP.  P. 34  ...  P. P. P. P.  36 39 41 44  Study F i n d i n g s  Introduction Problems i n Sampling and Data C o l l e c t i o n Data A n a l y s i s R e l a t i o n s h i p between R a t i n g s of. Autonomy and R a t i n g s o f Complexity Summary o f Study F i n d i n g s  P. 47 P. 47 P. 48 P . 55 P. 60  iv Chapter V:  I m p l i c a t i o n s , P r o p o s a l s and Summary  I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study P r o p o s a l s f o r F u r t h e r Research Summary of the Study . ..." Bibliography  P. P. P.  62 63 65  P.  73  P. P. P.  76 77 78  Appendices: A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. J.  K.  Summary o f E x p e r i e n c e Survey I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Workers I n s t r u c t i o n s f o r Judges L i s t of t a s k s w i t h Judges' r a t i n g s on Autonomy and Complexity Comparison of Modal Agreements on a F i v e - P o i n t S c a l e Comparison of Modal Agreements on a T h r e e - P o i n t S c a l e C a t e g o r i e s of Tasks f o r Autonomy and C o m p l e x i t y U s i n g the T h r e e - P o i n t R a t i n g S c a l e f o r Each L e v e l of Agreement Tasks Showing P e r c e n t Agreement f o r S e l e c t e d Combinations of Autonomy and C o m p l e x i t y R a t i n g s P e r c e n t Agreement, U s i n g a T h r e e - P o i n t S c a l e Formed by Combining R a t i n g L e v e l s 2, 3 and 4, f o r those Tasks which Rated<607<> on the T h r e e - P o i n t S c a l e Formed by Combining L e v e l s 1 and 2 and L e v e l s 4 and 5 P e r c e n t Agreement, U s i n g a T h r e e - P o i n t S c a l e Formed by Combining R a t i n g L e v e l s 2, 3 and 4, f o r those Tasks which Rated<607„ on the T h r e e - P o i n t S c a l e Formed by Combining L e v e l s 1 and 2 and L e v e l s 4 and 5  P. 7 9 P. 89 P. 91 P.  93  P.  95  P.  96  P.  97  LIST OF TABLES ' Table I Table I I  P e r c e n t Agreement on Autonomy and C o m p l e x i t y of Tasks U s i n g F i v e - P o i n t S c a l e and T h r e e - P o i n t S c a l e . P e r c e n t Agreement f o r S e l e c t e d Combinations and C o m p l e x i t y R a t i n g s  P.  50  of Autonomy P.  57  P.  59  H i s t o g r a m I l l u s t r a t i n g P e r c e n t Agreement on Autonomy and C o m p l e x i t y U s i n g F i v e - P o i n t S c a l e  P.  51  H i s t o g r a m I l l u s t r a t i n g P e r c e n t Agreement on Autonomy and C o m p l e x i t y u s i n g T h r e e - P o i n t S c a l e  P.  51  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Modal R a t i n g s f o r Tasks w i t h High Relationship  P.  56  T a b l e I I I R a t i n g L e v e l and P e r c e n t Agreement f o r Tasks w i t h no A p p r e c i a b l e Degree of R e l a t i o n s h i p LIST OF GRAPHS Graph I Graph 2  Graph 3  V  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would l i k e t o acknowledge t h e c o - o p e r a t i o n we r e c e i v e d from the s t a f f o f The C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y who a s s i s t e d i n h e l p i n g us f o r m u l a t e our t a s k  schedules.  We a p p r e c i a t e t h e h e l p g i v e n us by t h e judges chosen f o r our s t u d y , who w i l l i n g l y gave o f t h e i r time t o r a t e our t a s k s . S p e c i a l g r a t i t u d e i s due t o M r s . I . Smith o f t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , whose s p l e n d i d c o - o p e r a t i o n  i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d and t o  Mrs. M. Jones o f Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e f o r h e r k i n d a s s i s t a n c e . To Dr. John Crane, our R e s e a r c h A d v i s e r , we a r e indeed indebted  f o r h i s i n v a l u a b l e guidance, h i s enthusiasm and h i s sense o f  humour, which gave us t h e impetus t o see our p r o j e c t  through.  UTILIZATION OF MANPOWER AT CHILDREN'S AID SOCIETY OF VANCOUVER, B.C.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION  SUMMARY STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM One of the major problems i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l welfare i s the acute shortage of personnel to adequately carry out the functions of the profession as they are being recognized and put into practice at the present time.  This i s not a problem of recent o r i g i n .  However, i t has currently  reached new heights as a r e s u l t of several factors, including the development of new programs (such as the war on poverty),, an increasing awareness of gaps i n services,and a growing recognition that a l l tasks presently being performed by s o c i a l workers do not require professional education. i t has become obvious  that the manpower gap cannot be met  Since  i n the foreseeable  future by any increase i n professional recruitment, a new method of u t i l i z i n g the available personnel must be  found.  At the present time, many agencies find they are having to use s t a f f who  lack professional education i n the capacity of diagnostic and  intensive treatment workers.  At the other end of the continuum, i n these  same agencies, professionally educated  people are often being u t i l i z e d for  such tasks as d r i v i n g children to and from medical appointments, i n addition to their intensive casework interviews.  Thus, there i s a d e f i n i t e need for  a more adequate d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of tasks i n terms of the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of those performing  them.  Such an a l l o c a t i o n should serve to insure maximum  benefits to the c l i e n t and minimum cost to the agency. The Vancouver Children's Aid Society i s currently facing this dilemma - of how  to most e f f e c t i v e l y use the number of both professional and  non-professional personnel they have i n their employ.  With the recent  addition of eight welfare aides to this agency, the problem of task  a l l o c a t i o n has become a c r u c i a l i s s u e t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and tioners.  the p r a c t i -  A t p r e s e n t t h e r e appear t o be no c r i t e r i a f o r u t i l i z i n g the w e l f a r e  a i d e s t o t h e i r maximum p o t e n t i a l .  I t i s a l s o e v i d e n t t h a t t h e r e has been no  adequate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the t a s k s t o be performed.  PERSONS OR GROUPS CONCERNED WITH THE  PROBLEM  The p o l i c y makers and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s are v e r y much a f f e c t e d by s h o r t a g e of workers f o r they must not o n l y determine and  the  the community's needs  s e r v i c e s but they must a l s o e s t i m a t e a c c u r a t e l y the number of p e r s o n n e l  needed.  They are r e q u i r e d t o do more than f i l l  must make v a l i d job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s .  each v a c a n t p o s i t i o n - they  There i s an i n t e r r e l a t e d  connection  between p o l i c y making and manpower problems f o r the main d e t e r r e n t t o development of new  s o c i a l programs i s o f t e n the l a c k of p e r s o n n e l .  As  Schwartz (32) and Meyer (20) argue, t h e r e i s a need f o r c o n t i n u a l feedback r e s e a r c h on manpower to p o l i c y makers. w i l l o f f e r guidance  H o p e f u l l y , the r e s u l t s of t h i s  of  thesis  t o those a t an a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l w i t h r e g a r d t o  the p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l worker can be most a d v a n t a g e o u s l y  how used  i n s u p p l y i n g agency s e r v i c e s . The p r a c t i t i o n e r s of c l i e n t s e r v i c e methods, ( i . e . the w o r k e r s ) a t the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y are e q u a l l y concerned manpower.  The workers p e r c e i v e themselves  about the s h o r t a g e  of  as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the agency  and l o o k t o the agency t o s e t up a system whereby they know q u i t e c l e a r l y what d u t i e s they are t o p e r f o r m w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e i r v a r i o u s l e v e l s of competence.  On the whole, they appear concerned  t h a t they are not making  maximum use of s t a f f time i n p r o d u c t i v e d i r e c t work w i t h c l i e n t e l e which they f e e l s h o u l d occupy top p r i o r i t y . of heavy c a s e l o a d s  F r u s t r a t i o n and  c o n f u s i o n a r i s e as a r e s u l t  ( a v e r a g i n g between 125-130; on a g e n e r a l c a s e l o a d ) and  the  worker h a v i n g t o d e c i d e as t o whether q u a n t i t y or q u a l i t y should be s t r e s s e d with respect to performing t h e i r d u t i e s .  I f e i t h e r of these f a c t o r s i s  emphasized  a t the expense of the o t h e r then the r e c i p i e n t s of s e r v i c e  H a v i n g these problems f i n d i n g s which may  i n mind, we a n t i c i p a t e t h a t t h i s s t u d y w i l l  be a p p l i c a b l e t o the problems  suffer.  produce  of the workers and t h a t some  of the f r u s t r a t i o n and c o n f u s i o n might be e l i m i n a t e d . The u l t i m a t e g o a l of s o c i a l work i s to enable the c l i e n t , one t e c h n i q u e and/or another to d i s c o v e r and u t i l i z e h i s p o t e n t i a l  through strength.  W h i l e the c l i e n t e l e might not always f u l l y r e c o g n i z e the c o n t r i b u t i o n of a caseworker, so l o n g as they a r e a b l e t o a t t a i n the s e r v i c e s of e f f i c i e n t workers t o h e l p them i n t h i s p r o c e s s , they d e f i n i t e l y become aware of problems when s e r v i c e s which they seek a r e not b e i n g met  f o r one r e a s o n or a n o t h e r .  As a r e s u l t of the s h o r t a g e of w o r k e r s , the f a s t t u r n o v e r of s t a f f , or the u t i l i z a t i o n of u n d e r t r a i n e d w o r k e r s , the c l i e n t s can be l e f t v u l n e r a b l e and could v e r y w e l l s u f f e r . of the agency  T h e r e f o r e , i t i s t o t h e i r advantage, and the b e n e f i t  image, t h a t c o n s i d e r a t i o n be g i v e n and s t u d y be embarked upon  as t o how d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s t a f f can b e s t be  utilized.  The p u b l i c a t l a r g e s u f f e r when f o r one r e a s o n or another  adequate  w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s a r e not b e i n g rendered t o p a r t i c u l a r segments of t h e i r population.  I n d i r e c t l y , the p u b l i c pays f o r b o t h adequate and  s e r v i c e s as w e l l as f o r the r e s u l t s of inadequate s e r v i c e s . adequate  inadequate  To pay f o r  s e r v i c e i s by f a r the most b e n e f i c i a l f o r a l l concerned, both to the  p u b l i c i n g e n e r a l and the c l i e n t e l e i n p a r t i c u l a r .  The l a c k of coverage of  s e r v i c e s cannot be i g n o r e d f o r w i t h the i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and w i t h t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g c o s t , the p u b l i c i s concerned t h a t the b e s t p o s s i b l e s e r v i c e s be  available.  F i n a l l y , the problem of the manpower s h o r t a g e i s a l s o of concern to r e s e a r c h e r s f o r at p r e s e n t they a r e b e i n g c a l l e d upon to p r o v i d e answers the problem.  T h i s p r o j e c t i s expected t o produce f i n d i n g s which  will  determine the amount of judgment and autonomy r e q u i r e d of a worker to  to  f u l f i l l p a r t i c u l a r tasks.  These f i n d i n g s should be u s e f u l i n the p l a n n i n g of  t r a i n i n g programs f o r w e l f a r e a i d e s , such as programs a t Vancouver C i t y C o l l e g e , Vancouver; Brandon C o l l e g e , Brandon, Manitoba; Nova S c o t i a I n s t i t u t e of T e c h n o l o g y , H a l i f a x , Nova S c o t i a ; and, Ryerson T e c h n i c a l Toronto, Ontario. departments and and  The  Institute,  f i n d i n g s should a l s o be of i n t e r e s t t o undergraduate  graduate s c h o o l s of s o c i a l work i n s e t t i n g up t h e i r  courses,  f o r c h i l d w e l f a r e s e t t i n g s s i m i l a r t o the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y .  If a  common c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme of t a s k s i s w o r k a b l e at the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y , then s i m i l a r ones might v e r y w e l l be f o r m u l a t e d a g e n c i e s and  at other w e l f a r e  t h i s would f a c i l i t a t e i n t e r a g e n c y c o o r d i n a t i o n of the use  of  welfare aides.  ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS TO THE  PROBLEM  I t would appear t h a t t h e r e may  be s e v e r a l p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s t o the  manpower problem o t h e r than o b t a i n i n g more p r o f e s s i o n a l l y educated duals.  indivi-  W h i l e a more e x t e n s i v e r e c r u i t m e n t f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i s one  distinct possibility, personnel  i t seems obvious  t h a t the demand f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l  a l r e a d y exceeds the number t h a t can be t r a i n e d w i t h i n the  present  school s t r u c t u r e s . I f i t i s not f e a s i b l e t o expect s u f f i c i e n t numbers of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d personnel  t o be a v a i l a b l e , one a l t e r n a t i v e , as i n d i c a t e d above,  would seem to be the use of n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f i n some t a s k s p r e s e n t l y performed by those w i t h graduate s o c i a l work e d u c a t i o n . methods become o b v i o u s .  A t the p r e s e n t  In t h i s area  three  t i m e , a l l t h r e e of these methods are  b e i n g employed i n v a r y i n g p a r t s of N o r t h A m e r i c a . The  f i r s t , t h a t of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g , seems to be the most  e x t e n s i v e l y used by v a r i o u s agencies  and  Departments of W e l f a r e .  T h i s method  however, i s l i k e l y to be i n e f f e c t i v e u n l e s s r e l a t e d to c l e a r l y d e f i n e d of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  levels  A l s o i t i s open t o a g r e a t d e a l of c r i t i c i s m s i n c e i t  o f f e r s l i t t l e more than a p e r i o d of o r i e n t a t i o n . The personnel  are o f t e n given caseloads  in-service trained  e q u i v a l e n t t o those of the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y  educated s t a f f , w h i c h can r e s u l t i n a tendency t o d r i v e out the p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f who  a r e s e e k i n g agencies  that w i l l give r e c o g n i t i o n to t h e i r  qualifica-  tions. The  second method of u t i l i z i n g n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  employing i n d i v i d u a l s who  s t a f f i s t h a t of  have completed a v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g course  would p r o v i d e them w i t h the competence r e q u i r e d f o r p e r f o r m i n g  that  tasks at a  l e v e l d i f f e r e n t from t h a t of the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y educated w o r k e r s .  Under  these c o n d i t i o n s i t would seem t h a t a w e l l d e f i n e d r o l e should e x i s t f o r such job p o s i t i o n s .  However, a t the p r e s e n t  such d e f i n i t i o n .  A major q u e s t i o n a r i s e s h e r e - what i s the l e v e l  competency f o r which t h i s group i s b e i n g The training.  t i m e , t h e r e does not seem t o be  any  of  trained?  t h i r d method i s an undergraduate sequence i n s o c i a l work  T h i s type of n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n r a i s e s the same  q u e s t i o n - what p a r t i c u l a r t a s k s are these  i n d i v i d u a l s competent t o p e r f o r m .  A second p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n t o the manpower s h o r t a g e a c t i o n i n terms of i n i t i a t i n g p o l i t i c a l the number of c l i e n t s now  being served.  and economic r e f o r m  is social  t h a t w i l l reduce  T h i s , however, i s a l o n g range p l a n  t h a t w i l l l i k e l y o n l y occur on a " p i e c e - m e a l "  basis.  Because such a p l a n  can  o n l y take p l a c e over a l o n g p e r i o d of t i m e , and because the manpower problem has reached a c r i s i s l e v e l , t h i s s o l u t i o n would not a l l e v i a t e the immediate need.  I t i s a l s o a d i s t i n c t p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h i s type of r e f o r m would  to f u r t h e r a r t i c u l a t e the needs of s o c i e t y , thus i n c r e a s i n g the manpower problem, r a t h e r than a l l e v i a t i n g i t . A t h i r d p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n would e n t a i l a more e x t e n s i v e use volunteers.  T h i s , however, r a i s e s such p r a c t i c a l q u e s t i o n s as where a  s u f f i c i e n t number of v o l u n t e e r s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .  A l s o the l e v e l  of  of  serve  competence of these i n d i v i d u a l s would once a g a i n become an i m p o r t a n t i s s u e for  consideration. A f o u r t h p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n would be a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n o f  current  s o c i a l work p r a c t i c e s to determine the v a l i d i t y of the r o l e as i t i s l y being  c a r r i e d out.  Under such a r e - e v a l u a t i o n i t may  present-  be d i s c o v e r e d  that  much of what i s c u r r e n t l y b e i n g done, c o u l d more a d e q u a t e l y be c a r r i e d out a n o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n or p o s s i b l y even e l i m i n a t e d .  However, as w i t h  by  the  second suggested s o l u t i o n , i t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t such a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n may  l e a d to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f p r e v i o u s l y  sequently  new  METHODS OF  u n r e c o g n i s e d needs and  con-  t a s k s f o r s o c i a l workers to p e r f o r m .  RESEARCHING THE  PROBLEM  From the f o r e g o i n g ,  i t i s evident  o f a l l e v i a t i n g the manpower problem would be p r o f e s s i o n a l worker a t h i s own out e a r l i e r , very  t h a t of u t i l i z i n g  l e v e l of competence.  the non-  However, as  l i t t l e has been done i n terms of d e f i n i n g the  of the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l . r e s e a r c h must be  t h a t the most e f f i c i e n t method  pointed  functions  I t i s then, i n t h i s frame of r e f e r e n c e  that  initiated.  I n order  to a d e q u a t e l y r e s e a r c h  t h i s problem, a d e c i s i o n must be  made as to whether the major focus w i l l be on a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme r e l a t i n g to cases or the i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s t h a t comprise the c a s e s . i n g , on i n d i v i d u a l cases or "case s t r e a m i n g " has B r i t i s h Columbia.  r e c e n t l y been attempted i n  Such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme would n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e  an e x t r e m e l y thorough assessment and i n g i t t o . a worker.  Focus-  diagnosis  of each case p r i o r to a s s i g n -  Consequently, researching  such a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n method  would i n v o l v e o b t a i n i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f o r a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s of every conceivable  type of c a s e .  These cases would then, have to be r a t e d  to. a p r e d e t e r m i n e d c r i t e r i a of "case t y p e " . cases c o u l d  then be a s s i g n e d  With t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  to workers o f v a r i o u s  according the  l e v e l s of competence.  7. Case s t r e a m i n g , t o be e f f e c t i v e i m p l i e s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to many v a r i a b l e s .  Because these v a r i a b l e s themselves, have not been d e f i n i t e l y  i s o l a t e d , problems c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d i n terms of the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of very subtle points.  Other problems t h a t c o u l d be expected would i n v o l v e the  r e l i a b i l i t y of the d i a g n o s t i c t o o l employed. r e s u l t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia's to  The r e p o r t e d l y u n i m p r e s s i v e  attempt a t case s t r e a m i n g , may  these v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t s .  A l s o B r i t i s h Columbia's  i n p a r t , be  r e s u l t s may  a f f e c t e d by the l a r g e c a s e l o a d s t h a t are c a r r i e d by most w o r k e r s .  be Because  "A" cases r e q u i r e i n t e n s i v e t r e a t m e n t , the c a s e l o a d s must be l i m i t e d p e r m i t each worker  adequate time w i t h the c l i e n t s he has.  due  to  Because t h e r e i s  no c o n t r o l on i n t a k e t h i s i s not always p o s s i b l e , thus l i m i t i n g the e f f e c t s of  the case s t r e a m i n g method. C u r r e n t l y t h e n , i n c o r r e c t d i a g n o s i s , i n a d d i t i o n t o heavy c a s e l o a d s ,  are o f t e n r e s u l t i n g i n the i n a p p r o p r i a t e assignment as the p r e s e n t i n g problem  of c a s e s .  i s b e i n g "worked on", i t may  In addition,  become obvious t h a t  t h e r e a r e o t h e r , more d e e p l y r o o t e d problems t h a t would have a f f e c t e d d i a g n o s i s and c o n s e q u e n t l y the assignment the time of the assessment. remain s t a t i c .  What appeared  time o f assessment, may, of  the  of the case had they been known a t  A l s o i t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d out t h a t cases do not a p p r o p r i a t e f o r one l e v e l of competence a t the  a t a l a t e r d a t e r e q u i r e s e r v i c e s from another  level  worker. The o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e , t h a t of " t a s k s t r e a m i n g " , would appear t o  e l i m i n a t e many of these problems and a l l o w the assignment  of the v a r i o u s  t a s k s w i t h i n the case, to p e r s o n n e l competent t o p e r f o r m them.  With such a  scheme f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , once a t a s k has been c l a s s i f i e d , an a p p r o p r i a t e p e r s o n c o u l d be d e s i g n a t e d , a c c o r d i n g to h i s l e v e l of competence, t o c a r r y out t h i s type of t a s k f o r many c a s e s . To a d e q u a t e l y c a r r y out t h i s type of r e s e a r c h , a l l t a s k s t o be performed would have t o be i d e n t i f i e d and d e f i n e d , then d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  8. a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a , and  on the b a s i s of t h i s r a t i n g c o u l d be  to e i t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l or n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  staff.  I t would appear t h a t t h i s would be the most e x p e d i e n t r e s e a r c h i n g the use of n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l w e l f a r e , and  THE  PURPOSE AND  i n g e n e r a l , and a t Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d  SCOPE OF THE  method of  i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l  c o u l d r e s u l t i n the r e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the p r e s e n t  t i o n i n the f i e l d  assigned  task  alloca-  specifically.  RESEARCH  The purpose of t h i s r e s e a r c h study i s to d e t e r m i n e the e x t e n t  to  which t a s k s can be c l a s s i f i e d by u s i n g the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme r e l a t e d "task streaming"  as was  discussed  above.  I n order t o a c h i e v e our goal we  f i r s t developed a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s  of the f u n c t i o n s of the agency c a s e w o r k e r s . the study w i l l focus  to  The  p a r t i c u l a r a r e a upon which  i s t h a t of the t a s k s performed r e l a t i n g t o c h i l d r e n ,  b o t h ward and non-ward, who  are i n f o s t e r homes.  We  r e a l i z e t h a t t h i s i s one  v e r y s m a l l segment as compared to the whole a r e a of c h i l d c a r e , however time does not p e r m i t a f u l l  study of the g e n e r a l c a s e l o a d .  p a r t i c u l a r segment because we  chose t h i s  f e l t i t i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of areas where  workers of a l l l e v e l s of competence can be used. performed by the w o r k e r s , had  We  We  compiled  a l i s t of t a s k s  i t t e s t e d f o r one week by f i f t e e n workers of  v a r i o u s l e v e l s of competence who  were p i c k e d by random sample.  Following  t h i s , a f t e r c l a r i f y i n g the t a s k s and r e v i s i n g our i n s t r u m e n t , by i n c o r p o r a t ing  the w o r k e r s ' s u g g e s t i o n s ,  the i n s t r u m e n t was  i t was  once more t e s t e d f o r one week.  Again  r e v i s e d p r i o r t o b e i n g g i v e n to the judges f o r r a n k i n g .  These t a s k s were ranked a c c o r d i n g to t a s k c o m p l e x i t y and autonomy r e q u i r e d i n performance of the t a s k s .  the degree of worker  For the purposes of  r e a d e r , t a s k c o m p l e x i t y r e f e r s t o the number of o p e r a t i o n s a c t i v i t i e s or types of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n p e r f o r m i n g  the  (diverse a task) inherent i n  the s i n g l e t a s k , r a n g i n g from l e a s t complex (a s i n g l e o p e r a t i o n ) t o most  9. complex (many o p e r a t i o n s ) , and worker autonomy r e f e r s t o t h e r e l a t i v e l a c k o f e x t e r n a l guides and e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s upon t h e b e h a v i o u r  o f t h e worker, who  f u n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i n t e r n a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , d e r i v e d from p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge, e t h i c s and c o n t r o l s . two c r i t e r i a ,  F o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n on these  p l e a s e see Chapter I I I .  These r a n k i n g s w i l l be d e f i n e d a t two o r more l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w h i c h may be assumed by w e l f a r e a i d e s .  E v e n t u a l l y , t h e whole program  w i l l be assessed w i t h t h e e f f e c t s o f t h e assignment o f w e l f a r e a i d e t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f r e s p o n s i b i l i t y on t h e q u a n t i t y and q u a l i t y o f agency s e r v i c e to the i n d i v i d u a l  cases.  W h i l e t h e r e a r e many areas t h e s t u d y c o u l d have e x p l o r e d i n terms of c l i e n t s e r v i c e and a c t i v i t y , and/or worker a c t i v i t y , we chose t h e l a t t e r , for at  e v a l u a t i n g j o i n t l y b o t h t h e c l i e n t and t h e worker would n o t be p r o d u c t i v e t h i s t i m e , owing t o t h e f a c t t h a t they would n o t o n l y need t o be s t u d i e d  s e p a r a t e l y (7) b u t t h e time i n v o l v e d i n d o i n g so would be beyond t h e scope o f t h i s group. The  approach o f t h i s group then i s t o i d e n t i f y and e v a l u a t e t h e  s o c i a l work t a s k s p e r t a i n i n g t o ward o r non-ward c a r e i n f o s t e r homes.  These  t a s k s w i l l be r a t e d b o t h as t o t h e i r c o m p l e x i t y and t h e degree o f worker autonomy r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m phases.  them.  T h i s t h e s i s w i l l be completed i n two  I n t h i s , t h e f i r s t phase o f t h e s t u d y , we w i l l  the l i s t i n g  l i m i t ourselves to  and r a t i n g o f t h e t a s k s i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e two  c o m p l e x i t y and autonomy.  I n t h e second phase, s t u d i e s w i l l  criteria:  c e n t e r on how  d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f p e r s o n n e l can b e s t be used w i t h t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y t o c a r r y out t h e d i f f e r e n t t a s k s . OUTLINE OF THE STUDY REPORT T h i s r e s e a r c h study has been o r g a n i z e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g way: Chapter  I I , e n t i t l e d , "Review o f t h e L i t e r a t u r e " , i s a d i s c u s s i o n of p r e v i o u s  10. r e s e a r c h r e l a t i v e t o the u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower as i t p e r t a i n s t o our particular  study.  The w r i t i n g s and a r t i c l e s are p r i m a r i l y d e s c r i p t i v e w i t h  r e s p e c t t o t h i s t o p i c and o n l y a l i m i t e d  amount i s w r i t t e n r e g a r d i n g a c t u a l  r e s e a r c h r e s u l t s (see Chapter I I , "Methods of E v a l u a t i o n " ) .  Chapter I I I ,  e n t i t l e d "Study D e s i g n " d e s c r i b e s the framework employed i n the s t u d y ,  the  a s s u m p t i o n , the l e v e l of d e s i g n , s a m p l i n g p r o c e d u r e s and methods of g a t h e r i n g data.  Chapter IV, e n t i t l e d  "Study F i n d i n g s " d e a l s w i t h d e s c r i p t i v e d a t a  the study sample, the problems encountered i n s a m p l i n g and d a t a the m o d i f i c a t i o n s i n study d e s i g n and Chapter V, e n t i t l e d , "Summary and  on  collection,  the f i n d i n g s on study q u e s t i o n s .  In  C o n c l u s i o n s " , i s c o n t a i n e d the summary of  the major f i n d i n g s of the study f o r those concerned w i t h the problem p l u s  the  recommendations f o r u s i n g the f i n d i n g s as w e l l as the p r o p o s a l s f o r f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d of p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  workers.  CHAPTER I I  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE As a r e s u l t of t h e s h o r t a g e o f t r a i n e d p e r s o n n e l w i t h i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l work, numerous a r t i c l e s have been w r i t t e n f o r m u l a t i n g p l a n s t o improve t h e p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . agencies w i t h regard  Considering  the p a r t i c u l a r problems f a c i n g  t o optimum use o f a v a i l a b l e manpower, i t i s the purpose  of t h i s c h a p t e r t o r e v i e w the l i t e r a t u r e p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s t o p i c .  This  will  be approached i n terms o f l o o k i n g a t (1)  what c r i t e r i a a r e p r o v i d e d  f o r task  classification,  (2)  what l e v e l s o f s o c i a l work t a s k s a r e d e s i g n a t e d ,  (3)  what a r e t h e a l t e r n a t i v e models o f work assignment, and  (4)  evaluation procedures.  CRITERIA PROVIDED FOR TASK CLASSIFICATION I n d i s c u s s i n g the c r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f y i n g the t a s k s t h a t a r e performed w i t h i n the r e a l m o f s o c i a l work, t h e r e appear t o be s i x categories discussed  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  general  W h i l e the major d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s  concerned w i t h those t a s k s t h a t can most a p p r o p r i a t e l y be d e s i g n a t e d  t o non-  p r o f e s s i o n a l t h e r e i s some d i s c u s s i o n , i n a v e r y g e n e r a l way, o f those t h a t can most a p p r o p r i a t e l y be d e s i g n a t e d  tasks  to p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers.  F a c t F i n d i n g V e r s u s D e c i s i o n Making The  f i r s t category, o f c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s t h a t o f b a s i c f a c t f i n d i n g  as opposed t o d e c i s i o n making.  Dorothy D a l y ( 1 1 ) has i n d i c a t e d t h i s as one  method o f i t e m i z i n g the t a s k s t h a t must be performed.  She i m p l i e s t h a t the  d e c i s i o n making i n v o l v e d i n assessment and t r e a t m e n t i s a h i g h l y complex t a s k t o be performed w h i l e the i n f o r m a t i o n and o b s e r v a t i o n s d e c i s i o n s a r e l e s s complex t a s k s  i n a separate  n e c e s s a r y f o r such  category.  B r i e l a n d , another advocate o f t h i s method, s t a t e s t h a t "one  12. approach i s to d i f f e r e n t i a t e f a c t f i n d i n g t a s k s from o t h e r c h i l d f u n c t i o n s " , (8, p.93)  but does not c a r r y t h i s any  further.  c r i t e r i a g i v e n f o r t a s k s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e f a c t f i n d i n g , and  . There are  no  i n a d d i t i o n he  does not d i s c u s s the o t h e r c h i l d w e l f a r e f u n c t i o n s o f which he Brieland,does,  welfare  speaks.  however, f e e l t h a t t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n of f a c t f i n d i n g  versus  d e c i s i o n making s h o u l d not be r i g i d , because i f the c r i t e r i a f o r d e c i s i o n  \ making are l a i d out by,agency p o l i c y , the a b i l i t y to c a r r y out the i n v o l v e d can be made a t any  tasks  level.  Beck (4) a l s o b r i e f l y mentions t h i s method o f c a t e g o r i z i n g t a s k s and  s t a t e s t h a t one c a t e g o r y  o f t a s k s i s g a t h e r i n g f a c t s and  imparting  information.  However,, as w i t h B r i e l a n d and Daly, Beck does not pursue  this point.  Such a c r i t e r i o n f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t a s k s seems to be  extremely  vague and ambiguous, and do not l e n d themselves t o p r a c t i c a l  application. C l i e n t V u l n e r a b i l i t y , And Worker Autonomy Another c r i t e r i o n f o r c l a s s i f y i n g t a s k s i s t h a t o f c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y and worker autonomy.  The  former i s viewed by many w r i t e r s as  the c l i e n t ' s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o p s y c h o l o g i c a l or e m o t i o n a l  damage, or  e x p l o i t a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from incompetent or u n e t h i c a l b e h a v i o r the worker. has  on the p a r t o f  Worker autonomy i s d e t e r m i n e d by the degree to which the worker  i n t e r n a l i z e d the p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge, e t h i c s , and c o n t r o l s and h i s  c a p a c i t y to u t i l i z e Russel  them.  (31) r e c o g n i z e s  worker autonomy, and consequently  the concepts o f c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y hypothesizes  c r i t e r i a f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f t a s k s . the c o m p l e x i t y  a dichotomy a c c o r d i n g  to t h i s  However, such a dichotomy  of the t a s k and produces, f o r one c a t e g o r y  t h a t are p u r e l y m e c h a n i c a l and r o u t i n e i n n a t u r e .  of tasks,  and  excludes  those  I t seems p l a u s i b l e to  assume t h a t t h e r e are some complex t a s k s t h a t c o u l d be performed f o r h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e c l i e n t s by workers w i t h low autonomy.  13. It trichotomy.  i s i n t h i s v e i n o f t h i n k i n g t h a t R i c h a n (26) proposed a R i c h a n , who u t i l i z e s the concept o f task c o m p l e x i t y  c r i t e r i o n f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , recognized  in his  s p e c i a l complex t a s k s t o be  p e r f o r m e d , b u t by workers who have low autonomy f o r c l i e n t s who a r e h i g h l y vulnerable. Epstein  (12), while phrasing  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of tasks context,  the problem d i f f e r e n t l y , a l s o sees the  i n terms o f v u l n e r a b i l i t y and autonomy.  t a s k s a r e seen as those t h a t u t i l i z e c o n c r e t e  resources  In this as a  s o l u t i o n t o the problem and those t h a t r e l y on p r e c i s e knowledge o f human behavior f o r useable diagnosis major f a c t o r i n d i a g n o s i s  and a l s o where r e l a t i o n s h i p management i s a  and t r e a t m e n t .  Such a d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n o f t a s k s  n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i e s the c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f  complexity.  I n t h e i r s t u d y o f manpower u t i l i z a t i o n , the N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S o c i a l Workers (4) a l s o c o n s i d e r e d  c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y and worker autonomy.  These v a r i a b l e s were f u r t h e r s u b d i v i d e d ,  with c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y being  seen  i n terms o f (1)  the n a t u r e o f t h e c l i e n t s i t u a t i o n and  (2)  the n a t u r e o f s e r v i c e t o the c l i e n t .  Both o f these w i l l be d e t e r m i n i n g  f a c t o r s i n the c l i e n t ' s v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  concept o f worker autonomy was seen as b e i n g  The  i n f l u e n c e d by  (1)  the e x p l i c i t guides t o the worker,  (2)  v i s i b i l i t y o f p r a c t i c e , and  (3)  o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work  former was seen w i t h r e f e r e n c e  The  standards.  t o t h e r o u t i n i z a t i o n of many agency  f u n c t i o n s t h a t tend t o i n s u r e s t a n d a r d s o f performance.  The second sub-  d i v i s i o n , t h a t o f v i s i b i l i t y o f p r a c t i c e , was'viewed i n terms o f t h e degree t o which o t h e r s practice.  a r e aware o f what the worker i s d o i n g i n h i s p r o f e s s i o n a l  The t h i r d o f t h e i n f l u e n t i a l f a c t o r s was seen as the degree t o  14.  which the agency and consequently the worker i s accepted and understood by the community.  These subdivisions can be seen as contributing factors i n  determining both c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y  and worker autonomy.  However, those  influencing worker autonomy tend to be r e l a t i v e l y stable and w i l l remain constant with the worker, but those a f f e c t i n g  client vulnerability  the c l i e n t and, therefore, have to be determined  vary with  for each c l i e n t .  Such a c r i t e r i o n for c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of tasks i s not only highly subjective but poses other problems as w e l l .  Both of these concepts are  extremely d i f f i c u l t to measure i n terms of objective c r i t e r i a and consequently can result  i n much confusion i n task c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  this, client vulnerability that i s involved.  In addition to  varies with the c l i e n t rather than with the task  Worker autonomy, on the other hand, should remain constant  with each c l i e n t served. Client Needs A third category of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n found i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s that of d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g  the tasks, not according to an arbitrary  agency itemiza-  tion of the role of the s o c i a l worker, but rather i n l i n e with the needs of the c l i e n t .  Both David G i l (13) and Arthur Blum (5) propose such a scheme.  However, neither of these writers develops any criteria, for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c l i e n t needs. Blum implies that c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y issue when d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g discuss t h i s .  must be considered a key  tasks i n terms of c l i e n t needs, but does not  The worker's autonomy i n terms of meeting the c l i e n t ' s needs  is another issue that i s not explored by Blum.  The thesis put forward by  Blum i s "any plan for the u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower must begin with the needs of the c l i e n t and progress i n r e l a t i o n (5,p.18).  to how best to meet these needs".  Such c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of tasks would then depend on the configura-  tion of needs to determine  individual  or family v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  15. Gil,  i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n should be determined by  c l i e n t needs, b r i n g s i n the c o m p l e x i t y  of the t a s k .  however, t h a t the u n t r a i n e d worker may  become i n v o l v e d i n d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g  d i a g n o s i s and  treatment  p r o f e s s i o n a l worker.  There i s some i n d i c a t i o n ,  p r o v i d i n g they a r e made i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  T h i s , then, would be somewhat i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the  of g i v i n g the l e s s complex t a s k to the u n t r a i n e d worker. does not put forward " i t seems important  any  Task  (13,p.444).  Complexity  B r i d g e s Report (7) on t a s k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n proposes another s e t  of c r i t e r i a f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t a s k s .  W h i l e r e c o g n i z i n g the  dependence of c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y , worker autonomy, and f e l t t h a t the concept of c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y was  purposes.  Tasks were d e s i g n a t e d  of the t a s k o n l y , and grouping  then p l a c e d  inter-  task complexity, i t  inoperable for t h e i r  i n terms of worker autonomy and i n four general c a t e g o r i e s .  of t a s k s were those t h a t were s i m p l e and  l i t t l e worker autonomy.  complexity  The  c o n c r e t e , and  first  involved  Many of these t a s k s are on a f a c t f i n d i n g l e v e l such  as the dichotomy proposed by Daly grouping  As w i t h Blum, G i l  t o develop c r i t e r i a f o r t a s k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n  Worker Autonomy And  was  ( 1 1 ) , B r i e l a n d and Beck.  The  second  of t a s k s were those t h a t c a l l e d f o r a h i g h e r degree of worker  autonomy and  somewhat more c o m p l e x i t y .  The  t h i r d group i n v o l v e d complex  t a s k s which r e q u i r e d a f a i r l y h i g h degree of autonomy.  T h i s c o n f i g u r a t i o n of  t a s k s would u t i l i z e the concept proposed by b o t h Beck and Blum, t h a t of conscious  idea  c r i t e r i a f o r t a s k d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n , but s i m p l y s t a t e s  t o s e r v i c e needs of i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t s ' u n i t s "  The  the  the  use of r e l a t i o n s h i p , which w i l l be d i s c u s s e d l a t e r , i n a d d i t i o n t o  the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n proposed by E p s t e i n ( 1 2 ) , t h a t of u s i n g knowledge of human behavior  i n o b t a i n i n g the assessment.  The  f o u r t h group of t a s k s a r e  h i g h l y complex ones t h a t r e q u i r e complete worker autonomy and c l a s s i f i e d as " i n t e n s i v e casework".  could  the be  16. W h i l e the system of t a s k c l a s s i f i c a t i o n appears to i n c l u d e , i n an i n d i r e c t manner, most of those t h a t have been proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e , i t does p r e s e n t  a problem which i s not unique to t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  to which t a s k s can be p a r t i a l i z e d w i l l be the d e t e r m i n i n g e f f e c t i v e l y the concept of c o m p l e x i t y practically partialized  can be u t i l i z e d .  The  f a c t o r of  degree  how  I f t a s k s cannot be  i n terms of a w o r k a b l e scheme of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , then  the concept of c o m p l e x i t y w i l l l o s e a g r e a t d e a l of i t s e f f e c t i v e n e s s . S o c i a l Work And The  Non-Social  f i f t h and  Work Tasks  l a s t category  of t a s k c r i t e r i a t o be  discussed  e x t e n s i v e l y i n the l i t e r a t u r e i s J o n e s ' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (17) a c c o r d i n g whether the t a s k s a r e d e s i g n a t e d  s o c i a l work or n o n - s o c i a l work.  context, tasks are d i v i d e d i n t o four separate  c a t e g o r i e s and  to be e i t h e r of a s o c i a l work or n o n - s o c i a l work n a t u r e . however, t h a t Jones c o n s i d e r e d p r o f e s s i o n a l personnel t a s k s she d i f f e r e n t i a t e d  The  In t h i s  then determined  I t must be added,  o n l y t a s k s t h a t were b e i n g performed by non-  i n the agencies  she s t u d i e d .  The  f o u r c a t e g o r i e s of  were:  (1)  friendly  visiting,  (2)  o f f i c e management,  (3)  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t t o the caseworker,  (4)  recreational-enriching tasks.  and  l a t t e r t h r e e of these a r e n o n - s o c i a l work t a s k s w h i l e the former  i n t o the s o c i a l work c a t e g o r y .  falls  Jones appears to i n c l u d e i n the s o c i a l work  c a t e g o r y d i r e c t involvement w i t h the c l i e n t t h a t can be c o n s i d e r e d going  to  as  on-  contact. Conscious Use Of R e l a t i o n s h i p T h i s s i x t h c a t e g o r y does not appear i n the l i t e r a t u r e t o any  degree.  great  Both Blum (5) and Beck (3) make r e f e r e n c e t o the f a c t t h a t some  t a s k s i n s o c i a l work i n v o l v e the c o n s c i o u s  use of r e l a t i o n s h i p as a means of  17 . i n d u c i n g change i n the c l i e n t ' s l i f e .  However, n e i t h e r expand t h i s t o  produce any w o r k a b l e c r i t e r i a f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  Jones i m p l i e s t h i s  c r i t e r i o n i n h e r d i s c u s s i o n and makes r e f e r e n c e t o Beck's statement t h a t the non-professional in  "would n o t be expected t o use h i s p e r s o n a l s e l f t o i n t e r v e n e  the l i f e o f the c l i e n t and induce  change t h e r e b y "  t h e r e i s no e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r is  (17,p.319).  Because  c r i t e r i o n and because i t  i m p l i e d i n the m a j o r i t y of the f o r e g o i n g , such a concept i s of l i m i t e d  v a l u e i n the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t a s k s i n the manpower u t i l i z a t i o n problem. The B r i d g e s Report (7) a l s o g i v e s some r e c o g n i t i o n t o the concept o f t a s k s t h a t i n v o l v e the p u r p o s e f u l use of r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the a r e a o f s o c i a l work i n t e r v e n t i o n . this particular  T h i s , however, i s not developed any f u r t h e r s i n c e  r e p o r t i s p r i m a r i l y concerned w i t h the c r i t e r i a of c o m p l e x i t y  of t h e t a s k autonomy of t h e worker. From the f o r e g o i n g i t appears t h e r e a r e s i x methods o f c l a s s i f y i n g the t a s k s t h a t must be performed i n the f i e l d of s o c i a l w e l f a r e . the m a j o r i t y of these c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes a r e i n t e r d e p e n d e n t  However, and w h i l e a  major concept i s proposed t h e r e a r e o t h e r s t h a t a r e n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e d i n the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t a s k s .  I n the m a j o r i t y of t h e s e , no r e c o g n i t i o n i s  g i v e n t o these o t h e r v a r i a b l e s , thus p o s s i b l y r e s t r i c t i n g the v a l u e o f the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme. I n the t h i r t y - s e v e n a r t i c l e s r e v i e w e d ,  t h e r e were o n l y e i g h t  w r i t e r s who made an attempt t o propose any type of t a s k l i s t .  These l i s t s  were p r i m a r i l y i n terms of which l e v e l of s t a f f p o s i t i o n was competent t o p e r f o r m which t a s k s . and  The B r i d g e s R e p o r t was the o n l y r e a l attempt t o i s o l a t e  i t e m i z e the t a s k s n e e d i n g t o be performed i n the a r e a s t u d i e d , w i t h o u t  r e f e r e n c e to who s h o u l d be p e r f o r m i n g  them.  LEVELS OF POSITIONS AND THEIR DISTINGUISHING FACTORS The e s t a b l i s h m e n t  of l e v e l s of p o s i t i o n s i n order t o d e t e r m i n e the  18. u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower i n s o c i a l work agencies  has r e s u l t e d i n a v a r i e d  number o f approaches b e i n g taken by d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s . reviewed,  nine  Of the a r t i c l e s  ( 2 , 4, 8, 11, 12, 14, 15, 26, 38) l i s t e d d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f  p o s i t i o n s which r a n t h e gamut from e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s t o the v e r y g e n e r a l two c a t e g o r i e s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r , w h i l e f o u r a d d i t i o n a l articles  (17, 19, 31, 39) l o o k more s p e c i f i c a l l y a t the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f  the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r . E i g h t L e v e l s Of P o s i t i o n s Donald B r i e l a n d (8) p o i n t s out t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n t i a l use o f manpower should f r e e the p r o f e s s i o n a l t o use h i s s p e c i f i c s k i l l s more w i d e l y . He s u g g e s t s t h e r e should be a t l e a s t e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r the purposes o f manpower r e s e a r c h . (1)  These e i g h t c a t e g o r i e s a r e :  caseworkers w i t h a master's degree i n s o c i a l work as a minimum qualification,  (2)  persons w i t h a master's degree ( o r h i g h e r ) i n r e l a t e d f i e l d s ,  (3)  c o l l e g e graduates w i t h casework  (4)  c o l l e g e graduates w i t h no e x p e r i e n c e  experience, b u t w i t h an i n t e r e s t i n  c h i l d w e l f a r e and perhaps i n graduate s o c i a l work (5)  f o s t e r parents  education,  and o t h e r s from whom the agency may purchase  service, (6)  c l e r i c a l employees, g e n e r a l l y w i t h a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n or ab ov e,  (7)  v o l u n t e e r s r e p r e s e n t i n g wide v a r i a t i o n s i n i n t e r e s t s , and  (8)  education  skills,  former p u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e o r c h i l d w e l f a r e c l i e n t s ( 8 , p . 9 2 ) .  B r i e l a n d c l a s s i f i e s the l e v e l s of p o s i t i o n s v e r y c a r e f u l l y b u t does not e x p l a i n how t h e d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d . his  I t i s obvious t h a t  l i s t of p o s i t i o n s c o u l d be d i v i d e d i n t o two a r e a s , t h a t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l  19. (a graduate of the School  of S o c i a l Work) and  employed i n the s o c i a l work f i e l d but w i t h o u t  the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g ) .  a u t h o r s have looked a t these two main c a t e g o r i e s s e p a r a t e l y and emphasis has been p l a c e d on the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l Non-Professional Levinson indigenous  (a p e r s o n Several  particular  classification.  Worker  and  Schiller  ( 1 9 ) , i n w r i t i n g on the r o l e a n a l y s i s of  worker s t a t e t h a t the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  those which are more s t a n d a r d i z e d and  tasks assigned  are g e n e r a l l y  i n v o l v e s i t u a t i o n s i n which  They b e l i e v e the indigenous  c l a s s i f i e d i n a new  p o s i t i o n and propose a t h r e e f o l d d i v i s i o n , namely:  The  indigenous  p r e - p r o f e s s i o n a l who  a p p r e n t i c e i n an a u x i l i a r y s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l completion  of h i s (2)  should  would be s e r v i n g as  position, prior  be  an  to  education.  The  indigenous  p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f and who pre-professional.  non-professional  concrete  needs must be met.  (1)  the  The  s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l who  r e q u i r e s fewer s k i l l s  works c l o s e l y w i t h  than those r e q u i r e d by  the  o n l y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g f a c t o r would be t h a t the p r e -  p r o f e s s i o n a l hopes to a c h i e v e a master's degree i n s o c i a l work w h i l e s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l does not c l a i m t h i s as a c a r e e r g o a l .  Such j o b s  i n the s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l r o l e would i n c l u d e homemaker a i d e s , day  the  included  care s e r v i c e  a i d e s , or h e a l t h and homework a i d e s . (3)  The  indigenous  s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l whose employment i s o u t s i d e  the agency, i s l e a s t concerned w i t h any p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d but provides mechanical,  instead  c l e r i c a l or maintenance s e r v i c e s when r e q u i r e d .  B e t t y L. Jones ( 1 7 ) , i n l o o k i n g a t new  job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s f o r the  n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l , l i s t s f o u r k i n d s of s u p p o r t i v e j o b s , each of which r e q u i r e t r a i n i n g which i s a p p l i c a b l e t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n . the " F r i e n d l y V i s i t o r " or s o c i a l work t e c h n i c i a n , , who  Only one of  requires a  degree, would be f i l l i n g a s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n w h i l e the o t h e r  these,  bachelor's three,  20. namely:  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e a s s i s t a n t t o caseworkers,  office administrative  p o s i t i o n s and t h e workers p e r f o r m i n g e n r i c h i n g t a s k s o f a non-ongoing n a t u r e , would be n o n - s o c i a l work p o s i t i o n s . Four L e v e l s Of P o s i t i o n s Richan  (26) combines t h e two major v a r i a b l e s of worker autonomy and  c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y t o d i s t i n g u i s h f o u r d i s t i n c t worker r o l e s which a r e c a t e g o r i z e d as the P r o f e s s i o n a l , t h e S p e c i a l i s t , t h e S u b - P r o f e s s i o n a l and the Aide.  The p r o f e s s i o n a l i s a p e r s o n w i t h a h i g h degree o f autonomy who has  r e c e i v e d f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n a u n i v e r s i t y s e t t i n g and i s capable o f working  i n a s i t u a t i o n where t h e r e i s h i g h c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y .  The  s p e c i a l i s t i s one who r e c e i v e s t e c h n i c a l e d u c a t i o n a t e i t h e r agency  operated  s c h o o l s o r c o l l e g e s which a r e geared t o t h e s p e c i f i c s k i l l s and knowledge he w i l l need.  He has a low degree o f autonomy and performs t a s k s "which can be  r o u t i n i z e d and c o n t r o l l e d w i t h o u t d i s t r a c t i n g from t h e s e r v i c e t o t h e c l i e n t but may work w i t h h i g h l y v u l n e r a b l e c l i e n t e l e " (26, pp. 72-73).  The p o s i t i o n  of s p e c i a l i s t i s seen as a c a r e e r i n i t s e l f and n o t as a s t e p p i n g stone t o f u l l professional status.  The s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l i s one who has r e c e i v e d an  undergraduate e d u c a t i o n which i s b r o a d l y focused on " s o c i a l w e l f a r e p r i n c i p l e s " which p r e p a r e s  him f o r h i s r o l e .  t e n u r e because h i s t r a i n i n g i s c o n s i d e r e d encouraged t o complete graduate t r a i n i n g . perform The  H i s j o b would be o f l i m i t e d  incomplete  and he would be  T h i s s u b - p r o f e s s i o n a l would  the same t a s k s as the p r o f e s s i o n a l b u t w i t h l e s s v u l n e r a b l e  a i d e i s t r a i n e d q u i c k l y through b r i e f i n - s e r v i c e o r i e n t a t i o n  clients.  courses.  T h i s p e r s o n , who i s l e a s t autonomous and who works w i t h the l e a s t v u l n e r a b l e c l i e n t s , would be g i v e n v e r y l i m i t e d r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and i s seen as performing worker.  a v a l i d r o l e i n a team where he i s r e s p o n s i b l e t o an e x p e r i e n c e d  The v o l u n t e e r would be i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the r o l e o f a i d e . Somewhat a l i k e i n t h e i r approach t o c l a s s i f y i n g f o u r l e v e l s o f  s t a f f a r e Heyman ( 1 5 , 16) and Daly  (11).  Heyman c a t e g o r i z e s t h e f o u r as  21. senior  caseworker, caseworker, case a i d e and  p o s i t i o n s of s o c i a l worker, w e l f a r e tive service positions.  s e c r e t a r y w h i l e Daly has  worker and  a n c i l l a r y and/or  While Heyman does not  s o c i a l worker i s r e q u i r e d  to have a b a c c a l a u r e a t e  p r e p a r e d f o r work w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r f i e l d training.  The  welfare  range of s p e c i f i c tasks  school  two  categories  of s o c i a l worker i n v o l v e d  and  emphasizes not  caseworker by  utilized  would  be  of p r a c t i c e through i n - s e r v i c e  i n s e r v i c e s to p e o p l e " .  a n c i l l a r y and  and  degree and  the  and  or community c o l l e g e l e v e l f o r a " l i m i t e d  there would be  meet t h e i r needs.  while  t e c h n i c i a n i s prepared through v o c a t i o n a l  t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g at a h i g h  the  " s u p e r i o r " s o c i a l worker  must have a master of s o c i a l work degree ( f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m ) other  administra-  state s p e c i f i c a l l y  requirements f o r each p o s i t i o n , Daly s t a t e s t h a t the  two  administrative  In a d d i t i o n to these  service positions.  i n tasks  o n l y adequate s u p e r v i s i o n but Heyman d i s t i n g u i s h e s the  Daly sees  of assessment and  the  diagnosis  the p r o v i s i o n of s e r v i c e s  tasks  s t a t i n g the former r e q u i r e s  three,  of the s e n i o r  to  caseworker  advanced casework s k i l l s  i n independent on-the-spot casework treatment, w h i l e the  to  be  caseworker  r e q u i r e s knowledge of casework s k i l l s which are u t i l i z e d when f a c i n g diagnostic considerations.  The  welfare  t e c h n i c i a n and  the  case a i d e  expected to p e r f o r m s p e c i f i c assignments i n e l i g i b i l i t y s t u d i e s , plans  or other  concrete  tasks  parts:  fulfilled  such f u n c t i o n s  personnel  i n c o r r e c t i o n a l i n s t i t u t e s , who  the a n c i l l a r y worker,  a s p e c t s of the  and  required  the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  " s o c i a l welfare  For Heyman, the s e c r e t a r y does not  but was  i n making appointments, g a t h e r i n g  d o i n g general  who  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n work.  t e c h n i c a l knowledge and s t a f f who  had  r e q u i r e casework d a t a and  a  a technical  f u n c t i o n " such as r e p o r t i n g  record keeping. involved  Daly  as homemaker, f o s t e r p a r e n t , c o u n s e l l o r , c u s t o d i a l  s k i l l with l e s s e r education; i n other  treatment  under the d i r e c t i o n of a s o c i a l worker.  d i v i d e s the f o u r t h category i n t o two  skill  are  and  skills  information  and  22. Three L e v e l s Of P o s i t i o n s W h i l e E p s t e i n (12) sees a core " u n i t " c o n s i s t i n g of a s u p e r v i s o r , one  caseworker and  two  case a i d e s  (casework a s s i s t a n t s ) , she  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of the s u p e r v i s o r .  The  where p r e c i s e knowledge of human b e h a v i o r needed t o make a u s e a b l e  does not  caseworker i s used e x c l u s i v e l y and p s y c h o s o c i a l p a t h o l o g y  is  d i a g n o s i s and where r e l a t i o n s h i p management i s the  predominant f a c t o r i n d i a g n o s i s and  treatment.  The  casework a s s i s t a n t s are  "expected to become e x p e r t s a t e v a l u a t i n g c o n c r e t e problems and w i t h c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e s " (12,  Two  clarify  s o l v i n g them  p.7).  L e v e l s Of P o s i t i o n s I t i s e v i d e n t i n r e v i e w i n g the l i t e r a t u r e t h a t the manpower problem  i s most o f t e n c o n s i d e r e d and  at two v e r y g e n e r a l l e v e l s , namely the p r o f e s s i o n a l  the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l .  Welfare  Education  A study done by the A d v i s o r y Committee on S o c i a l  (as a b s t r a c t e d i n 4, p . 5 ) , c a t e g o r i z e s and d i s t i n g u i s h e s  the two p a r t i c u l a r p o s i t i o n s as the p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d worker who i n v o l v e d i n t a s k s c e n t e r i n g around p s y c h o s o c i a l d i a g n o s i s and p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r , who  i s r e q u i r e d t o have a b a c h e l o r ' s  s o r t of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g , and who supervision.  The  is  the non-  degree p l u s some  performs c o n c r e t e t a s k s under c l o s e  f u n c t i o n s and presumably the t r a i n i n g of the non-  p r o f e s s i o n a l worker are h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d . A study of a s i m i l a r n a t u r e made on the u t i l i z a t i o n of s o c i a l work s t a f f i n the Bureau of F a m i l y S e r v i c e s  and  the D i v i s i o n of S t a t e M e r i t Systems (38) a l s o proposes two p o s i t i o n s , t h a t of the s o c i a l w o r k e r , a p e r s o n w i t h a minimum of a b a c h e l o r ' s  degree and s p e c i a l  i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and whose s e r v i c e s t o a p p l i c a n t s and r e c i p i e n t s c e n t e r around the c l i e n t ' s p e r s o n a l and  f a m i l y s i t u a t i o n and  the graduate s o c i a l  w o r k e r , one w i t h a master's degree i n s o c i a l work whose s e r v i c e s t o a p p l i c a n t s and r e c i p i e n t s c e n t e r s around the p e r s o n a l , h e a l t h , and problems of i n d i v i d u a l s and  families.  emotional  23. F a r r a r and Hemmy ( 1 4 ) , who regard  r e p o r t on a p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t done w i t h  to the aged, d i s t i n g u i s h between the p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r , who  minimum of two y e a r s of graduate p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, i . e . s o c i a l s e r v i c e a s s i s t a n t , who recent  has  a  the non-  i s r e q u i r e d t o be  a  graduate of an a c c r e d i t e d c o l l e g e w i t h a major i n s o c i a l s e r v i c e s  possessing  p a r t i c u l a r personal  qualities.  They too d i s t i n g u i s h the d u t i e s  the workers by s t a t i n g t h a t the a s s i s t a n t performs s i m p l e  and  i s "to  t o e x e r c i s e p r o f e s s i o n a l judgment r e g a r d l e s s  whether the a s s i s t a n t i s w o r k i n g a l o n g w i t h the c l i e n t at a g i v e n . p o i n t whether she  of  concrete  s e r v i c e d u t i e s which augment the work of the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker who d e f i n e the s e r v i c e g o a l s and  and  of  or  i s a s s i s t i n g i n a s i t u a t i o n i n which the worker c a r r i e s major  a c t i v i t y " (14, p . 4 6 ) .  The  worker i s a l s o expected t o r e p r e s e n t  case c o n f e r e n c e s , m e d i c a l s t a f f meetings and  the agency at  i n other s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n s .  Baker (2) proposes a p o s i t i o n s i m i l a r t o other f i e l d s such as d e n t i s t r y , n u r s i n g and t r a i n i n g as such may She  teaching,, where many p e o p l e w i t h o u t s o c i a l work  c a r r y on c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s w i t h i n a s o c i a l work agency.  sees the d i s t i n c t i o n between a case a i d e and  the d i s t i n c t i o n between a p p r e n t i c e s h i p The  case a i d e or a p p r e n t i c e  t r a i n i n g and p r o f e s s i o n a l  t o s p e c i f i c s i t u a t i o n s i n order  through  A p r o f e s s i o n a l worker  of g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s based on a body of t h e o r y ,  t h a t he  applies  to s o l v e the problem p r e s e n t e d .  B a s i c a l l y the above s t u d i e s , when l o o k i n g at the non-professional'  education.  i s taught to c a r r y on c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s  s u p e r v i s i o n w i t h o u t any m e d i a t i n g use of t h e o r y . l e a r n s the use  caseworker as e s s e n t i a l l y  'professional -  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , r e q u i r e the p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n t o have a  master's degree i n s o c i a l work w h i l e the n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l at l e a s t a bachelor's  degree p l u s i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g .  i s required  The  to have  former i s i n v o l v e d  i n the more complex problems c e n t e r i n g around the assessment, d i a g n o s i s  and  t r e a t m e n t of c l i e n t s w h i l e the l a t t e r i s g e n e r a l l y expected to p e r f o r m more  24. c o n c r e t e t a s k s under t h e c a r e f u l s u p e r v i s i o n o f a. f u l l y professional.  Daly  qualified  (11) i n h e r f o u r l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n suggested  t h e use  of a w e l f a r e t e c h n i c i a n who r e c e i v e d p a r t i c u l a r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g a t a community c o l l e g e a f t e r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n as an added a s s e t t o any team i n p e r f o r m i n g a l i m i t e d range o f s p e c i f i c t a s k s .  Both t h e S o c i a l  Welfare  Department o f B r i t i s h Columbia and the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y o f Vancouver are u s i n g combinations t h a t i s , graduates  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l workers and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l  w i t h a b a c c a l a u r e a t e degree and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g ,  w e l f a r e o f f i c e r s , w e l f a r e a i d e s and s p e c i a l i s t s . done t o c l a r i f y  workers,  However, l i t t l e has been  the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f each p a r t i c u l a r l e v e l and t h e workers  appear i n most cases t o be used i n t e r c h a n g e a b l y on t h e v a r i o u s  caseloads.  MODELS OF WORK ASSIGNMENT In s t u d y i n g the manpower s i t u a t i o n , the q u e s t i o n i n v a r i a b l y a r i s e s as t o what models o f work a r e p r o v i d e d .  W h i l e some r e s e a r c h e r s have chosen  to o n l y acknowledge the a r e a o t h e r s have looked a t i t more c a r e f u l l y .  In her  a r t i c l e , Mary Baker (2) does n o t i g n o r e the f a c t t h a t as a r e s u l t o f h i r i n g n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f , the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e might v e r y w e l l be lowered. In f a c t she f e e l s i t i s almost i n e v i t a b l e t h a t t h i s w i l l happen, however, t h e f i n a l answer w i l l be dependent upon t h e " e x t e n t t o which t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l worker remains i n . c o n t r o l o f t h e d i a g n o s t i c p r o c e s s and the course o f treatment"  ( 2 , p.230).  Use Of L e s s Q u a l i f i e d  Person  Baker s t a t e s t h e r e a r e a c t u a l l y two major ways t o approach t h e use of s t a f f members w i t h o u t p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n .  The f i r s t i n v o l v e s u s i n g a  l e s s q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n i n l i e u o f a caseworker when a f u l l y q u a l i f i e d p e r s o n i s u n a v a i l a b l e - t h a t i s , a, " s u b s t i t u t e " caseworker who c a r r i e s a s e l e c t e d c a s e l o a d under much c l o s e r s u p e r v i s i o n than a t r a i n e d worker and h e r second s u g g e s t i o n would be t h a t o f the s o c i a l work team approach which w i l l be  25. discussed l a t e r .  There are p a r t i c u l a r problems  c e n t e r i n g around the use of a  " s u b s t i t u t e " n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l worker i n a " s e l e c t e d " c a s e l o a d f o r the c a s e l o a d g e n e r a l l y does not s t a y s e l e c t e d a t the l e v e l of the worker's c a p a c i t y , s u p e r v i s o r y time o f t e n becomes l e s s l i m i t e d or e l s e too time consuming  and t h e r e i s the danger of inadequate s e r v i c e b e i n g rendered when  the c l i e n t i s never seen d i r e c t l y by a p r o f e s s i o n a l .  These p o i n t s would  s u g g e s t the danger of s u b s t a n d a r d s e r v i c e b e i n g g i v e n to a c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y u s u a l l y does not remain c o n s t a n t .  because  On the o t h e r hand, i f a  p r o f e s s i o n a l i s used i n every c a s e , i t has been found t h a t they have had to p e r f o r m s e r v i c e s f o r which they a r e over educated. Streaming The a f o r e m e n t i o n e d problem opens up a new  a r e a r e f e r r e d to as  s t r e a m i n g where l e v e l s of c a r e e r l i n e s a r e used and e i t h e r t a s k s or cases a r e a s s i g n e d i n such a way  t h a t workers a r e used to t h e i r f u l l e s t c a p a c i t y .  Task  s t r e a m i n g was d e a l t w i t h e x t e n s i v e l y by the B r i d g e s Report (7) which l o o k e d a t worker autonomy and c o m p l e x i t y of t a s k i n r e l a t i o n t o a work model. combining these two concepts i t was  In  found t h a t t h e r e were p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r  d i s t i n g u i s h i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s of approach t o the c l i e n t .  Four t a s k l e v e l s  were suggested i n r e g a r d to p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l and c e r t a i n g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s were made about each. f u n c t i o n s as: The  f a c i l i t a t i v e , maintenance,  The Committee l a b e l e d these  the s u p p o r t i v e and  integrative.  c h i e f c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the f a c i l i t a t i v e f u n c t i o n , which i s the e q u i v a -  l e n t of the c a s e - a i d e p o s i t i o n , would be "the l a c k of involvement w i t h the c l i e n t , the v e r y s p e c i f i c c o n c r e t e n a t u r e of the t a s k s and t h e i r o n l y a t the r e q u e s t and d i r e c t i o n of the caseworker" (7, p.8). who performs the maintenance  performance The  worker  f u n c t i o n o p e r a t e s more b r o a d l y and i n d e p e n d e n t l y  than the a i d and the e s s e n t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h i s f u n c t i o n would be the e x e r c i s e of l i m i t s and c o n t r o l over the c l i e n t , t a s k s of a non-treatment  26. n a t u r e , and the judgement  and a c t i o n s r e q u i r e d c o n c e r n i n g the p h y s i c a l  needs o f c l i e n t s " ( 7 , p. 8 ) .  W h i l e the s u p p o r t i v e f u n c t i o n i s  c l e a r l y on the l e v e l o f t r e a t m e n t and the t a s k s i t c o n t a i n s a r e complex, such a s , e n a b l i n g the c l i e n t t o respond c o n s t r u c t i v e l y t o r e a l i t y demands and c o n d i t i o n s f a c i n g him, w i t h f o c u s upon c o n c r e t e problems, the worker does n o t n e c e s s a r i l y need t o have g r a d u a t e e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of t r a i n i n g i s r e q u i r e d .  The  i n t e g r a t i v e f u n c t i o n , which i s h i g h l y autonomous and complex,  entails  the u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the problems, a t t i t u d e s and f e e l i n g s which a r e o p e r a t i n g beneath the s u r f a c e i n the p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n as w e l l as those t h a t a r e d i r e c t l y e x p r e s s e d or a p p a r e n t .  B r i e f l y then, i n  s e t t i n g up t h e i r model, t h i s committee has ranked i n degree o f complexity,  the t a s k s performed by workers w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r agency and has  a s s i g n e d t a s k s i n r e l a t i o n to the degree o f autonomy o f each worker w i t h the most complex t a s k s g o i n g to the h i g h l y  individual  trained  professional. The second and more f a m i l i a r type o f s t r e a m i n g has to do w i t h the d i s t r i b u t i o n of c a s e s .  Most o f the i n f o r m a l e f f o r t s b e i n g  made i n p u b l i c a g e n c i e s , toward the d i f f e r e n t i a l use of manpower a r e based on the t r a d i t i o n a l model of a p r i m a r y casework between one worker and an i n d i v i d u a l o r f a m i l y .  relationship  A t times the non-  p r o f e s s i o n a l i s g i v e n a s m a l l e r number o f cases w h i l e i n o t h e r i n s t a n c e s the d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n comes i n assignment o f the cases a c c o r d i n g to the degree o f c o m p l e x i t y o f the client.'sneeds ( f o r an example of each type see Weed and Denham).  The more complex cases go  to the p r o f e s s i o n a l worker, the l e s s complex cases to the nonprofessional.  F o r example, t e c h n i c a l l y the P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h  Columbia uses the case s t r e a m i n g method o f work assignment i n i t s  'A', 'B' and 'C' c a s e l o a d s  - t h e 'A' c a s e l o a d c o n t a i n s the most complex  cases and the worker s h o u l d be a p r o f e s s i o n a l o r an e x p e r i e n c e d  worker  w i t h i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g who has a h i g h degree o f autonomy, w h i l e on the o t h e r end o f t h e continuum the 'C  c a s e l o a d w h i c h c o n t a i n s the l e a s t  complex c a s e s , has the worker ( t h e n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l ) w i t h the lowest degree o f autonomy.  However, t h i s would appear t o be h i g h l y i n o p e r a b l e  because o f l a c k o f q u a l i f i e d s t a f f and the heavy c a s e l o a d s .  I n Heyman's  s t u d i e s (15, 1 6 ) , on t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f c a s e s , assignment was made on the b a s i s d f d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a r a t h e r than on the b a s i s o f the o r i g i n o f the case i n a p a r t i c u l a r s e r v i c e and the case was c a r r i e d on the lowest possible l e v e l of required s k i l l .  I n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study the e n t i r e  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a case c o u l d be g i v e n t o any l e v e l o f s t a f f ,  that  i s s e n i o r c a s e w o r k e r , caseworker o r c a s e a i d e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f the s e c r e t a r i e s , however p a r t i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y c o u l d be d e l e g a t e d on the b a s i s o f the d e f i n e d c r i t e r i a by both l e v e l s o f caseworkers to e i t h e r caseaides or s e c r e t a r i e s . t h a t t h e r e was case s t r e a m i n g  I t i s a l s o apparent i n Richan's  study (26)  i n the top t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s - t h a t o f  p r o f e s s i o n a l , s u b p r o f e s s i o n a l and s p e c i a l i s t , w h i l e the case a i d e a s s i s t e d the o t h e r w o r k e r s .  F o r e f f e c t i v e casework t o take p l a c e i n  r e g a r d t o the above forms o f s t r e a m i n g  i t i s important  adequate s u p e r v i s i o n from.a q u a l i f i e d , o b s e r v a n t  t h a t t h e r e be  and e x p e r i e n c e d  profess-  i o n a l i f e i t h e r o f these methods i s t o prove a t a l l b e n e f i c i a l . Team Approach . Another work model which has been d i s c u s s e d f u l l y the l i t e r a t u r e i s the team approach.  throughout  G i l (13) s t a t e s , " j o i n t  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c a s e l o a d i s a b a s i c f e a t u r e o f the team p l a n and one t h a t d i f f e r e n t i a t e s i t from s t a f f i n g p a t t e r n s i n which each s t a f f member, p r o f e s s i o n a l o r n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l a l i k e , c a r r i e s by  28. h i m s e l f , r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a separate who  caseload"  (13, p. 443).  adapts the i d e a o f the team approach from the f i e l d  of  Gil*.,  education,  sees the s o c i a l work team c o n s i s t i n g o f a team l e a d e r w i t h  full  p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n • a n d one or more team members whose l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n may The  v a r y b u t who  s h o u l d be below f u l l p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n .  s i z e o f the teams can be a d j u s t e d f l e x i b l y and w i l l depend on such  f a c t o r s as k i n d o f s e r v i c e , n a t u r e o f c l i e n t p o p u l a t i o n ,  availability  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e need o f an agency and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s and  s k i l l s o f a v a i l a b l e team l e a d e r s .  B r i e l a n d i s o f the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t the "team approach p r o v i d e s f o r c l o s e w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y t r a i n e d and  s u b p r o f e s s i o n a l workers  w i t h r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s to each c l e a r l y d e f i n e d by  the agency" (8, p.  93).  He emphasizes t h a t a p r e r e q u i s i t e of t h i s approach i s a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the t a s k s i n v o l v e d i n the agencies  s e r v i c e s , f o l l o w e d by  c o n t i n u i n g s t a f f development program f o r a l l agency R i c h a n ( 2 6 ) , Daly  a  personnel.  ( 1 1 ) , F a r r a r and Hemmy ( 1 4 ) , and Baker  v i s u a l i z e a s o c i a l work team as one where the n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l ,  (2)  caseaide,  s o c i a l w e l f a r e t e c h n i c i a n or s o c i a l s e r v i c e a s s i s t a n t i s r e s p o n s i b l e to an e x p e r i e n c e d  worker.  The n o n p r o f e s s i o n a l i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the  c a r r y i n g out o f s p e c i f i c c o n c r e t e assignments i n the e l i g i b i l i t y or treatment  p l a n under the d i r e c t i o n o f a s o c i a l w o r k e r .  the caseworker who  Baker f e e l s  s u p e r v i s e s a case a i d e w i t h a streamed c a s e l o a d i s  d i s t i n g u i s h e d more markedly from the caseworker who,  as l e a d e r o f a  s o c i a l work team, c a r r i e s the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d i a g n o s i s and ment.  She p e r c e i v e s every caseworker w i t h a team which can  be  m o b i l i z e d on b e h a l f of a l l c l i e n t s , " i n whatever c o m b i n a t i o n  is  i n d i c a t e d by the range o f s e r v i c e s r e q u i r e d to a c c o m p l i s h treatment  study  g o a l s " (2, p.  233).  treat-  appropriate  29. As was  mentioned above, a v a r i e d number of  can be used on a s o c i a l work team.  nonprofessionals  B r i e l a n d (8) l i s t s e i g h t d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s o f p o s i t i o n s f o r the c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s and i t can be seen t h a t these c o u l d d e f i n i t e l y be u t i l i z e d on.a  team, however t h e i r  d i f f e r e n t r o l e s would need to be d e f i n e d v e r y e x p l i c i t l y , the m u l t i f u n c t i o n a l arrangement might v e r y w e l l confuse Blum (5) suggests  otherwise  the  client.  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l team.approach where a s i n g l e worker  would have major r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the case but whose j o b a l s o i n c l u d e s the c o o r d i n a t i o n and use o f a team o f s p e c i a l i s t s . such as t h i s ,  the needs o f the c l i e n t are assessed  In a s i t u a t i o n and  the e n t i r e  range of manpower r e s o u r c e s are a v a i l a b l e to m i n i s t e r and f o r the w e l f a r e o f the c l i e n t .  administer  Thus, f o r example i n the C h i l d r e n ' s  A i d S o c i e t y , i t would be p o s s i b l e to d e f i n e the f u n c t i o n of the p a r e n t s , the n u r s e ,  the d o c t o r , the caseworker, the c a s e a i d e and  o t h e r needed s t a f f as they r e l a t e to a p a r t i c u l a r S i n c e the team c o n c e p t s ,  one,  any  client.  not o n l y w i t h i n the s o c i a l work  f i e l d , but a l s o w i t h i n the i n t e r d i s c i p l i n a r y f i e l d new  foster  (21), i s a r e l a t i v e l y  i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to answer q u e s t i o n s which c e n t e r around  whether i t i s p o s s i b l e t o reduce f r a g m e n t a t i o n a n d :  d i f f e r e n t agencies  or whether a broader  gaps i n s e r v i c e i n  scope o f s e r v i c e can  be  p r o v i d e d over an i n d e f i n i t e p e r i o d o f time, however, i t i s f e l t  that  a w e l l c o o r d i n a t e d team approach can o f f e r some p o s i t i v e a s p e c t s . the u t i l i z a t i o n of a team o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers,  nonprofessionals  such as a i d e s , f o s t e r p a r e n t s and homemakers,. and/or a c o m b i n a t i o n s p e c i a l i s t s such as n u r s e s , d o c t o r s and t e a c h e r s , who  With  of  are m o b i l i z e d on  b e h a l f o f the c l i e n t to a i d him a c h i e v e h i s g o a l s , the c l i e n t i s more likely  to i d e n t i f y w i t h the agency than i n the one-to-one r e l a t i o n s h i p  o f c l i e n t - w o r k e r which c o u l d be d e t r i m e n t a l when t h e r e i s a h i g h  staff  30. turn over.  I t s h o u l d be c a r e f u l l y noted  that a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r this  approach i s a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s o f the t a s k s i n v o l v e d i n the a g e n c i e s s e r v i c e s and an on-going  s t a f f development program f o r a l l agency p e r s o n n e l  i f t h e team i s t o be a c l o s e l y k n i t group o f workers w i t h a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to each o t h e r , t o the agency and t o the w e l l b e i n g o f the c l i e n t e l e . METHODS OF EVALUATION While  t h e r e has been a g r e a t d e a l w r i t t e n r e g a r d i n g the  problems i n v o l v e d i n the manpower s h o r t a g e s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e has been v e r y l i t t l e done i n the a r e a o f a c t u a l r e s e a r c h . l i t e r a t u r e i s concerned  The m a j o r i t y o f the  with i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c analyses or d e s c r i p t i v e  s t u d i e s , and the problem o f e v a l u a t i o n o f the concepts and proposed hypotheses a r e n o t c o n s i d e r e d . Of the a r t i c l e s r e v i e w e d , o n l y t h r e e d e a l t w i t h the p r o c e s s of e v a l u a t i o n . judges  The B r i d g e s Report  (.7) u t i l i z e d  the s e r v i c e s o f twelve  to r a t e t h e i r 163 items i n terms o f c o m p l e x i t y and autonomy.  predetermined  The  c r i t e r i a f o r a c c e p t i n g an item was s e t a t e i g h t o u t o f  twelve o f the judges r a n k i n g an i t e m w i t h i n two a d j a c e n t p o i n t s on the f i v e p o i n t s c a l e t h a t was used.  The o n l y items t h a t were r e t a i n e d were  those t h a t were r a t e d the same f o r both autonomy and c o m p l e x i t y .  These  63 items were then c l a s s i f i e d i n t o the f o u r groups o f t a s k s t h a t were d i s c u s s e d above. W h i l e such,a method o f e v a l u a t i o n d e a l s w i t h t h e problem of r e l i a b i l i t y ,  the a r e a o f v a l i d i t y , i n terms o f the items  i s l e f t open t o some q u e s t i o n .  Although  themselves,  those items i n the f i r s t two  c a t e g o r i e s a r e r e l a t i v e l y c o n c r e t e and o b j e c t i v e , those i n c l u d e d i n c a t e g o r i e s t h r e e and f o u r a r e e l u s i v e and s u b j e c t i v e .  Because the  l a t t e r two c a t e g o r i e s a r e o f t h i s type v a l i d i t y would be d i f f i c u l t t o ascertain.  The study i t s e l f s t a t e s t h a t o t h e r t h a n , a n c h o r i n g  state-  ments p r o v i d e d on the i t e m s c h e d u l e , no o t h e r d e f i n i t i o n o f c o m p l e x i t y  31. was  g i v e n , as i t was  f e l t t h i s was  purpose of t h i s e v a l u a t i o n , was autonomy and  complexity  a s e l f d e s c r i p t i v e concept.  The  p r i m a r i l y to d e t e r m i n e the degree o f  of the t a s k s under e x a m i n a t i o n , and  attempted to a s s i g n these t a s k s to any  i n no  way  s p e c i f i e d l e v e l s of work a s s i g n -  ment. C o s t i n (9)  u t i l i z e d the r a t i n g s c a l e and  the o p i n i o n of judges  i n e v a l u a t i n g the a s s i g n m e n t . o f t a s k s to c e r t a i n p o s i t i o n s or l e v e l s of staff.  The  t a s k s were f i r s t i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of t h e i r importance to  the job a t hand.  They were then r a t e d by two  c o n s i s t i n g of 21 e x p e r t s and had  been d e s i g n a t e d  The  who  study  e s s e n t i a l agreement between the two p a n e l s ,  d i d not g i v e the c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  t h i s agreement.  The  but  evaluation  p r i m a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d to determine whether m i n i m a l s t a n d a r d s of  competence were b e i n g met  by those p e r f o r m i n g the t a s k s .  assignments were made a s u p e r v i s o r y  r a t i n g s c a l e was  A f t e r the  established.  r e s u l t s of t h i s r a t i n g i n d i c a t e d t h a t most t a s k s were performed at acceptable  l e v e l of competence, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n , of  to d e t e r m i n e whether i t would be u s e f u l i n o t h e r the e x c e p t i o n of s t a t i n g t h a t two  With  f a c t o r , no d e t a i l s are a v a i l a b l e . that  T h i s study i n v o l v e d an e x t e n s i v e  of the assignments i n terms of q u a n t i t y and a l s o of s t a f f r e a c t i o n s to the new  casework p r a c t i c e and  reported  analyses  q u a l i t y of s e r v i c e o f f e r e d ,  assignment system.  e v a l u a t i o n took i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the problems i n v o l v e d "good" or "bad"  an  information  s t u d i e s or not.  t h i r d study i n v o l v i n g e v a l u a t i o n , methods, was  by M a r g a r e t Heyman ( 1 6 ) .  The  independent p a n e l s were u t i l i z e d ,  presumably to d e a l w i t h the r e l i a b i l i t y The  job  recording.  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r e v a l u a t i o n does not g i v e adequate  and  one  the o t h e r composed of 92 s o c i a l workers  by s u p e r v i s o r s o f i n t e r e s t e d a g e n c i e s .  i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e r e was  was  independent p a n e l s ,  The in.determining  to e l i m i n a t e t h i s problem based  32. t h e i r e v a l u a t i o n on "change" i n casework p r a c t i c e over a p e r i o d o f time. T h i s appears t o be an i n t e l l i g e n t approach, t o a problem t h a t i s extremely  s u b j e c t i v e and upon which v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y would  l i k e l y he low. I n terms o f q u a n t i t y o f s e r v i c e , the prime i n t e r e s t was whether, under the new method o f t a s k assignment, t h e r e would be more time a v a i l a b l e f o r d i r e c t and i n d i r e c t c l i e n t c o n t a c t , w i t h no r e s u l t i n g l o s s i n o t h e r s u p p o r t i n g a c t i v i t i e s such,as r e c o r d i n g and supervision.  The method o f e v a l u a t i o n i n t h i s case was f o u r  s t u d i e s , each b e i n g c a r r i e d o u t f o r f i v e c o n s e c u t i v e days. hypothesized  time I t was  t h a t t h i s would i n d i c a t e the change i n the use of time  by t h e new assignment method. W i t h r e f e r e n c e t o the q u a l i t y o f s e r v i c e o f f e r e d , the c r i t e r i a f o r d e t e r m i n a t i o n was a Case Reader Schedule which i n c l u d e d items under the f o l l o w i n g f o u r headings:  (1) i f i n f o r m a t i o n f o r  j u d g i n g the i t e m was i n the r e c o r d i n g , (2) i f b o t h good and bad p e r formance c o u l d be a n t i c i p a t e d , (3) i f the i t e m was r e l e v a n t t o the s e t t i n g , and (4) i f the i t e m c o u l d be p r e c i s e l y f o r m u l a t e d and u n i f o r m l y understood  by e x p e r i e n c e d  case r e a d e r s .  I n a d d i t i o n t o these c r i t e r i a f o r i n c l u s i o n , , a c l e a r framework, was p r o v i d e d f o r the judges by p l a c i n g a l l the items under two headings:  (1) d i a g n o s i s and p l a n , and (2) t r e a t m e n t . Three samples, each o f 100 case r e c o r d s , were read and the  schedule  completed a c c o r d i n g to a t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e .  below a p r e s c r i b e d l e v e l o f agreement were e x c l u d e d .  Cases  falling  Criteria for  agreement was s e t a t a r a t i n g by the two r e a d e r s o f n o t more than one a d j a c e n t p o i n t a p a r t , on the t h r e e p o i n t s c a l e . To d e t e r m i n e o r e v a l u a t e s t a f f r e a c t i o n to the new method  33. of job assignment, anonymous questionnaires were completed by the s t a f f , i n terms of their perception and reactions to (1) the a c t i v i t i e s of the department, (2) the effectiveness with which the a c t i v i t i e s were carried out, and (3) the use of case work s k i l l made by various services. This evaluation method seems to be rather complete and one that could be applied to another setting with minor modifications. The study i t s e l f points out that there was no inter-judge  reliability  tests, however to compensate, only those items that had a predetermined degree of v a l i d i t y were included. These three evaluations can be broken down into two basic methods: (1) those relying on inter-judge agreement for ranking and  items,  (2) those r e l y i n g on supervisors opinion i n terms of specified c r i t e r i a ,  as to whether the tasks were being adequately carried out at the assigned  levels. For such evaluations, either i n terms of task c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  or how competently the task assignments are being carried out, r e l i a b i l i t y does not seem to be a problem area.  However, v a l i d i t y i s  one factor with which these studies did not adequately deal.  34. CHAPTER  STUDY  PURPOSE  OF  THE  the  i s  lacking the  different  that  to  be  tasks  assumption,  our  ing  instrument  Our  method  the  differentiation  the  the  agency  to  this  them.  classification  of  an  tasks,  analysis,  as  way,  area  be  of  i s , the  various  by  specific  a  beginning  an  attempt  of  derived  staff  to  social  of  i n  develop of  examining a  measur-  tasks.  c r i t e r i a  sampling,  the  and  professional  step  choosing  i n  work  c r i t e r i a  degree  tasks,  discussed  to  one  differentiation  study,  that  family.  As  of  I  than  the  and  Chapter  competence,  performed to  crisis,  persons  assigned  with  delineation will  are  more  or  tasks  according  That  level  individual the  i n  case  their  constituted  choosing  a  non-professional  effectively  proposed  to  commensurate  study  most  of  staff-shortage  solution.  In  that  perform  the  involved  for  data  following sections  study. One  is  for  and  is  made to  a  according  an  work's  was  regard  differentiated  required  collection,  with  acquisition  u t i l i z e I t  training.  can of  to  involved with  the  social  provide  performed  assumption  competence  of  would  Our  assignments  meeting  i s how  members,  be  that  education.  particular  would  to  arises  be  staff  their  personnel  this  answer  approach"  operations  member  assumption  professional  "team  from  the  an  problem  DESIGN  STUDY  With personnel  III  agency  Children's that  our  undertaken  by  workers  this  i n  impressions  of  Aid  study  the  which  Society was  addressing of  a l l of This  manpower  itself  Vancouver,  concentrated.  authors,  agency. the  i s  whom  survey  problems  An have  B.  to C ,  the  manpower  problem  and  i t i s  this  "experience been  consisted encountered  survey"  employed of by  the the  on  as  was  case-  authors' agency,  written their  scope and The  survey  importance,  and  the c u r r e n t p r a c t i c e s i n d e a l i n g w i t h them.  r e v e a l e d the f o l l o w i n g i m p r e s s i o n s  as to what the problems  were: 1. ing  i n heavy 2.  Insufficient  The  r e c e n t i n t r o d u c t i o n of case a i d e s and w e l f a r e and no  one-year course  s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g ,  aides  and people w i t h a  f o l l o w i n g h i g h s c h o o l , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) to a s s i s t  p r o f e s s i o n a l workers, w i t h inadequate resulting  result-  caseloads;  (persons w i t h a B.A. special  numbers of p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r s o n n e l  g u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e i r use, and  a  i n e f f i c i e n t use of them; 3.  A number of persons  employed as s o c i a l workers with  than p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , a s s i g n e d  the same tasks as graduate  less  social  workers. From t h i s  survey  i t was  agreed  t h a t the main d e c i s i o n s to be  made c e n t e r e d around f i r s t , a p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of c h i l d w e l f a r e then d e c i s i o n s as to assignment of t a s k s to d i f f e r e n t personnel.  T h i s study d e a l s w i t h  the former;  levels  tasks  of  the l a t t e r w i l l be  left  to f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h . T h e r e f o r e , we t a s k s , as performed by c o u l d be d e f i n e d and ing  attempted  to d i s c o v e r whether c h i l d  the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y of Vancouver, B,  c l a s s i f i e d so t h a t they c o u l d be a s s i g n e d  to v a r y i n g l e v e l s  C h i l d r e n i n F o s t e r - C a r e , as we  caseload.  The  S e r v i c e s to  t h i s u n i t encompassed a g r e a t  c o n s t i t u t e d the core of the g e n e r a l i z e d f i e l d - u n i t  Once a l i s t  done by p e r s o n n e l  felt  C,  accord-  of competence among c h i l d w e l f a r e s t a f f .  area i n the agency from which tasks were chosen was  v a r i e t y of tasks and  welfare  of tasks was  developed  i n t h i s a r e a , i t was  which d e s c r i b e d the work  g i v e n to a sample of  workers from the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y who,were asked c l a r i t y of wording and  exhaustiveness  o f the l i s t  social  to assess  of t a s k s .  The  the  refined l i s t was  then given to judges to rate according  to our chosen  c r i t e r i a (to be discussed i n the next section). CRITERIA FOR  CLASSIFYING TASKS AND  RATIONALE FOR  CHOOSING CRITERIA  We propose the c r i t e r i a of Task Complexity and Worker Autonomy for d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h i l d welfare  tasks.  Terms are defined as follows:  "Task" i s defined as an operation performed by a worker provided i n the main phases of c h i l d care.  A task i s part of a work  unit which, i n turn, i s part of an.agency programme ( i n this case, c h i l d welfare s e r v i c e s ) . "Worker autonomy" refers to the r e l a t i v e lack of external guides and external controls upon the behaviour of the worker,  who  functions according to his i n t e r n a l i z e d professional standards, from professional knowledge, ethics and controls.  derived  Tasks which require  a high degree of autonomy on the part of the worker are those which are not amenable to e x p l i c i t rules or generalized routines. Another aspect of worker autonomy i s v i s i b i l i t y .  The less  v i s i b l e the worker-client contact, the less subject to external scrutiny i s the worker s performance. 1  In situations i n which tasks are  performed i n private, i n accordance with the c o n f i d e n t i a l services offered by s o c i a l agencies,  i t i s e s s e n t i a l that internal controls be  operative. A third factor influencing worker autonomy i s the degree of organizational support for s o c i a l work standards,  which enables the  worker co u t i l i z e properly his knowledge, values and s k i l l s "Task complexity":  (4).  The study from which this concept was  derived, the Minnesota N.A.S.W. study ( 7 ) ,  did not.attempt to define  this c r i t e r i o n , as the authors considered  i t sufficiently descriptive.  I t was  required an operational  our opinion that "task complexity"  37.  definition, and we concluded that i t could best be described as the requirement of integrating a large number of activities or quantity of information in performing a task.  A task with, low complexity would  be single-faceted,, whereas a task with high complexity, would be multifaceted. It is believed by, some that a social work task can be complex also in terms of i t s objectivity (dealing in tangibles) or subjectivity (dealing in intangibles).  That i s , a subjective task (such as one  involving the conscious use of the client-worker relationship) might be considered complex, whereas an objective task (such as completing forms according to regulations) might not be considered as complex. While we acknowledged the validity of this proposition, we could not assume a correlation between subjectivity-objectivity and the number of activities inherent in the task, so that we could not measure complexity with regard to both elements simultaneously.  Because our definition of  worker autonomy did embody the elements of subjectivity and objectivity, we limited our definition of task complexity to that described above. We realize that this process of criteria analysis is not ideally complete because we have left out a most.important element namely, the client.  The concept of "client vulnerability" as a  criterion of task classification has been widely, proposed in.the ;  literature, and our position on i t is discussed in the following paragraph. We agree with the decision of the Minnesota N.A.S.W. (7) rejecting the use of "client vulnerability" as a criterion.  "Client  vulnerability" is defined as the degree to which the client is vulnerable to harm resulting from the fact that the worker may not have "built-in" social work values, knowledge and s k i l l s that are the sine qua non of professional performance ( 4 ) .  Because of the observation (outlined  38. i n Chapter I I ) t h a t " c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y " i s r e l a t e d t o the i n d i v i d u a l c l i e n t and not t o the t a s k performed, the study o f " c l i e n t  vulnerability"  r e q u i r e s the use o f v a l u e judgments so t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n , s c a l i n g and assessment o f t h i s c r i t e r i o n would p r e s e n t a number o f d i f f i c u l t i e s . Nevertheless,  the c l i e n t i s not b e i n g i g n o r e d i n our c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ,  as the concept o f "worker autonomy" i s based i n p a r t on the worker's i n t e r n a l i z a t i o n o f p r o f e s s i o n a l norms, v a l u e s and e t h i c s , which to p r o t e c t the c l i e n t .  A long-range  serve  g o a l r e l a t e d t o t h i s study i s the  development o f problem c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s which p r e s c r i b e treatment f o r the c l i e n t .  A t p r e s e n t , however, we have b u t l i m i t e d g u i d e l i n e s .  Consequently,  we b e l i e v e t h a t the c r i t e r i a o f "worker autonomy"  and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " , as d e f i n e d , served our purposes b e s t w i t h i n our l i m i t e d framework, and thus the i n t e n t o f our study was t o focus on the worker and the t a s k he performs,  independent o f the c l i e n t  served.  Other c r i t e r i a proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e , and o u t l i n e d i n Chapter I I , were n o t c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l . opposed t o " d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g "  " B a s i c f a c t - f i n d i n g " as  was r e j e c t e d because we f e l t t h a t such-a  d i v i s i o n o f t a s k s d i d n o t a l l o w f o r s u f f i c i e n t independent o b s e r v a t i o n by r e s e a r c h e r s .  F a c t - f i n d i n g c a n be c o n s i d e r e d a l e s s - c o m p l e x  t a s k s than d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g ,  b u t u n l e s s one were more s p e c i f i c  area of regarding  c r i t e r i a f o r t a s k s t h a t c o n s t i t u t e f a c t - f i n d i n g then the concept i s too vague.  Furthermore, although  these c r i t e r i a have been proposed i n the  l i t e r a t u r e , t h e r e has been l i t t l e d e t a i l e d e x a m i n a t i o n : mentions the c o m p l e x i t y  Daly  (11)  f a c t o r between " f a c t - f i n d i n g " and " d e c i s i o n -  making" b u t does n o t attempt to e l a b o r a t e . The c r i t e r i a o f " s o c i a l work" v s . " n o n - s o c i a l work" t a s k s were n o t c o n s i d e r e d u s e f u l p r i m a r i l y because o f d i f f i c u l t y  i n definitions,  and we f e l t t h a t any attempt would evoke c o n s i d e r a b l e c o n t r o v e r s y , due  39.  to the scope o f the s o c i a l work j o b .  I n t h i s r e g a r d , Beck (4) p o i n t s  out the need f o r a d e f i n i t i o n o f s o c i a l work t a s k s , which i s p r e s e n t l y lacking.  Jones'  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (17) p r e s e n t s the same d i f f i c u l t i e s  with respect to d e f i n i t i o n s .  She  i n c l u d e s i n the " s o c i a l work"  c a t e g o r y o f t a s k s d i r e c t involvement c o n s i d e r e d as ongoing  contact.  w i t h the c l i e n t t h a t can  T h i s i s too broad  be  f o r our purposes s i n c e  i n c h i l d w e l f a r e t h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l of "on-going"  c o n t a c t - such  c o n c r e t e s e r v i c e s as a r r a n g i n g m e d i c a l appointments and a l l o c a t i o n of c h i l d r e n ' s allowances Work.  We  covered  t h i s concept  t h a t may  not come under the banner o f S o c i a l  b e l i e v e our c r i t e r i a of "worker autonomy" and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y "  "Conscious  i n a less r e s t r i c t i v e fashion. use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p " v s . "non-conscious  r e l a t i o n s h i p " were not adopted as c r i t e r i a because we  felt,  t h a t these are o f too s u b j e c t i v e a n a t u r e to measure.  use  of  firstly,  Use o f r e l a t i o n -  s h i p i m p l i e s worker's use o f p e r s o n a l s e l f i n h e l p i n g the c l i e n t , which would mean an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the i n d i v i d u a l worker's degree o f s e l f -  awareness and a b i l i t y to u t i l i z e t h i s i n a c o n s t r u c t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the c l i e n t . study.  Needless  to say, such knowledge i s w e l l beyond the scope of our  A second r e a s o n f o r r e j e c t i n g these c r i t e r i a i s t h a t t h e r e i s no  e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f them i n the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed  f o r t h i s study.  a d d i t i o n , the concept o f " c o n s c i o u s use o f r e l a t i o n s h i p " i s i m p l i e d i n a l l p r e v i o u s c r i t e r i a and, due  to the v i r t u a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y o f c a p t u r i n g such  a vague ( a l b e i t i m p o r t a n t ) phenomenon, we  f e l t i t would b e s t be l e f t  as  i m p l i e d i n our c r i t e r i a o f worker autonomy and t a s k c o m p l e x i t y .  LEVEL OF RESEARCH DESIGN Our d e c i s i o n to d e l i n e a t e s o c i a l work t a s k s a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a o f " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " and "worker autonomy" n e c e s s i t a t e d a f u r t h e r d e c i s i o n r e g a r d i n g the l e v e l o f r e s e a r c h d e s i g n .  On the b a s i s o f  In  the l i m i t e d amount o f e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h a v a i l a b l e which u t i l i z e d  our  approach, the l i m i t e d amount o f time a v a i l a b l e to complete the p r o j e c t , and the e x t e n s i v e scope o f s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y (Vancouver);  we  e l e c t e d to develop a " p i l o t p r o j e c t " .  This  approach, we b e l i e v e , i s of s u f f i c i e n t scope to i n d i c a t e whether or not i t i s f e a s i b l e to d e l i n e a t e the v a r i o u s t a s k s performed by agency p e r s o n n e l as the b e g i n n i n g p o i n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a more e f f e c t i v e model f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n o f s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l .  As w e l l , the c o s t of a p i l o t  p r o j e c t as opposed to a more e x t e n s i v e study would be h e l d to a minimum l e v e l w h i l e p r o v i d i n g i n d i c a t i o n s as to whether or not i t c o u l d be a p p l i e d to o t h e r programs both w i t h i n the agency and i n o t h e r  agencies.  Each o f the programs o f f e r e d by the C.A.S. (Vancouver), i . e . " S e r v i c e s to Unmarried P a r e n t s " , " S e r v i c e s to A d o p t i n g P a r e n t s " , " S e r v i c e s to Children-In--;Care", and " C h i l d P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e s " was s e l e c t i o n as the focus o f our p r o j e c t .  available for  Our d e c i s i o n to s e l e c t the  " S e r v i c e s to C h i l d r e n - I n - C a r e " program was  based upon the f o l l o w i n g  factors: 1.  comprised  The program p r o v i d e d a broad  scope o f s e r v i c e s and  the core o f a g e n e r a l i z e d f i e l d - u n i t c a s e l o a d . 2.  The  s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d by f i v e semi-autonomous work  3.  The  s e r v i c e s are p r o v i d e d by s t a f f members who  units.  l e v e l s o f t r a i n i n g and 4.  have v a r i o u s  education.  G u i d e l i n e s f o r the r o l e performance o f s t a f f a r e  not  r i g i d l y d e f i n e d and v a r y between work u n i t s .  5.  The p r e v i o u s d e l i n e a t i o n o f t a s k s by the C h i l d r e n ' s  Bureau Study (37)  i n t h i s a r e a was  developing a l i s t of t a s k s .  p e r c e i v e d as p r o v i d i n g a c o r e to  41. Upon f u r t h e r e x a m i n a t i o n of the s e r v i c e s to " c h i l d r e n - i n - c a r e " program, i t became apparent t h a t i t was  composed of two areas or sub-  programs i . e . s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to f o s t e r homes and group homes.  s e r v i c e s r e l a t e d to  Because, on p r e l i m i n a r y e x a m i n a t i o n these s e r v i c e s  d i f f e r e d to a l a r g e degree and because the group home sub-program was a p e r i o d of change, we d e c i d e d to l i m i t the scope of our p i l o t  in  project  to " s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r home c a r e " . SAMPLING PROCEDURES A f t e r the f o c u s f o r our p r o j e c t had  been d e t e r m i n e d , i t became  n e c e s s a r y to s e l e c t the optimum method of d e l i n e a t i n g the v a r i o u s  tasks  performed w i t h i n the a r e a o f s e r v i c e s to c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r homes. We  d e c i d e d to d e v e l o p a s c h e d u l e of i t e m i z e d  sented to a sample of workers i n our f i c a t i o n of the items and  t a s k s which would be  selected area.  pre-  After their  assessment of the comprehensiveness of  clarithe  t a s k s , the r e v i s e d s c h e d u l e would be p r e s e n t e d to a p a n e l of judges would r a t e the t a s k s a c c o r d i n g  to the " c o m p l e x i t y "  of the t a s k and  degree of "worker autonomy" i n v o l v e d i n p e r f o r m i n g the t a s k . d e c i s i o n to u t i l i z e  the method was  who the  Our  based upon the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  the  following factors: 1.  The  time a v a i l a b l e to b o t h the r e s e a r c h  group and  the  workers a t C.A.S. ( V a n c o u v e r ) ; 2.  the degree of o b j e c t i v i t y i n v o l v e d i n the method chosen;  3.  the c o s t of the method chosen;  4.  the v a l i d i t y and  5.  the amount of t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d by  reliability  of the method; the j u d g e s ,  staff,  and r e s e a r c h members; 6.  the e s t i m a t e d workers;  degree of r e s i s t a n c e expected from the  42. 7.  the degree to which the r e s e a r c h group's knowledge and experience  8.  c o u l d be u t i l i z e d , and  the g u i d e l i n e p r o v i d e d  i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  The a l t e r n a t i v e methods o f d e l i n e a t i n g t a s k s which were examined and  the reasons f o r t h e i r r e j e c t i o n , a r e l i s t e d below: 1.  Personal Observation  - A method o f p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f  worker a c t i v i t i e s would n e c e s s i t a t e the t r a i n i n g o f the o b s e r v e r s r e l i a b l e and v a l i d d a t a c o l l e c t i o n .  t o ensure  The time i n v o l v e d i n t r a i n i n g and  o b s e r v a t i o n would be p r o h i b i t i v e i n terms o f demands on the p r o j e c t members and  the s t a f f o f C.A.S. (Vancouver).  As w e l l , some s t a f f members i n  c a s u a l c o n v e r s a t i o n i n d i c a t e d t h e i r r e s i s t a n c e t o t h i s approach because o f the e f f e c t upon c l i e n t 2.  confidentiality.  P a r t i c i p a n t Observation  - T h e method o f the p r o j e c t members  assuming the w o r k e r s ' r o l e s was n o t c o n s i d e r e d  s a t i s f a c t o r y because o f the  e f f e c t on the w o r k e r - c l i e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p and the amount o f time i n v o l v e d i n t r a i n i n g and o b s e r v a t i o n . had  However, s i n c e a l l the members o f the p r o j e c t  a t l e a s t f o u r months work e x p e r i e n c e  experience  a t C.A.S. (Vancouver),  their  was u t i l i z e d i n the approach s e l e c t e d . 3.  I n t e r v i e w i n g Workers - Any method o f i n t e r v i e w i n g workers  i n an e f f o r t t o e s t a b l i s h the t a s k s they performed was deemed u n r e l i a b l e due t o the h i g h r e l i a n c e on t h e i r a b i l i t y 4.  Interviewing.Supervisors  to r e c a l l .  - S i m i l a r t o the above method,  i n t e r v i e w s w i t h s u p e r v i s o r s would be s u b j e c t t o the same r e s t r i c t i o n s . As w e l l , the " s o c i a l d i s t a n c e " between the s u p e r v i s o r s and the workers which removes the former from the immediacy o f the t a s k s performed would tend t o d e c r e a s e . 5.  reliability.  E x t r a p o l a t i o n from Job D e s c r i p t i o n s - As j o b d e s c r i p t i o n s  are g l o b a l and n o t w e l l d e f i n e d , the method o f e x t r a p o l a t i n g t a s k s from  43. them was n o t c o n s i d e r e d 6.  v a l i d by the r e s e a r c h e r s .  Use o f Agency Records - From p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , the  r e s e a r c h group d i s c o u n t e d  the use o f r e c o r d i n g as i t i s n o t comprehen-  s i v e enough t o p r o v i d e an adequate l i s t o f t a s k s . 7.  Use o f Tape Recorders - T h i s method d i d n o t appear t o  be a p p r o p r i a t e due t o the time i n v o l v e d i n e x t r a c t i n g items and the t r a i n i n g involved i n developing 8.  r e l i a b l e and v a l i d  data.  W r i t e - i n Schedules - Use o f w r i t e - i n schedules  by workers  and/or s u p e r v i s o r s would make heavy demands on s t a f f time and would probably  c r e a t e unnecessary d i f f i c u l t i e s  i n d e l i n e a t i n g items.  As p r e v i o u s l y i n d i c a t e d , i t was n e c e s s a r y one  t o s e l e c t two samples;  sample t o p r e - t e s t the l i s t o f i t e m s , and the o t h e r t o r a t e the items  according  t o the- c r i t e r i a e s t a b l i s h e d . The  1966)  f i r s t sample was drawn from the e i g h t y - e i g h t workers (Nov./  employed by C.A.S. (Vancouver).  The workers i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g  s e r v i c e s t o c h i l d r e n i n f o s t e r home care had t h r e e l e v e l s o f e d u c a t i o n and training.  These a r e 1.) those w i t h an undergraduate degree and one y e a r  o f p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g (B.S.W.'s); 2.) those w i t h an undergraduate degree w i t h o u t p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l work t r a i n i n g b u t u s u a l l y w i t h some experience  i n s o c i a l work o r r e l a t e d a r e a s ( B . A . ' s ) ; and 3.) those  with  one y e a r o f p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t r a i n i n g ( w e l f a r e - a i d e s ) . The  s e r v i c e t o c h i l d r e n . i n f o s t e r home c a r e i s p r o v i d e d by the  workers i n f i v e u n i t s ; E a s t , F r a s e r , South, Centre and West.  Each u n i t  i s comprised o f one w e l f a r e ^ a i d e and a number o f "B.A." and "B.S.W." w o r k e r s , p l u s a s u p e r v i s o r and a s s i s t a n t s u p e r v i s o r . of the l a t t e r two p o s i t i o n s , o m i t t e d  With the e x c e p t i o n  from o u r s e l e c t i o n . a s they-are n o t  d i r e c t l y i n v o l v e d i n f i e l d work, the p o p u l a t i o n from which o u r sample was drawn c o n s i s t e d o f the w e l f a r e - a i d e s and the "B.A." and "B.S.W." workers  44.  w i t h i n the f i v e work u n i t s who had been employed w i t h the agency for  a p e r i o d o f a t l e a s t t h r e e months.  Our sample, randomly  selected,  c o n s i s t e d o f one "B.A." worker and one "B.S.W." worker as w e l l as the " w e l f a r e - a i d e " from each u n i t .  That i s t o say the sample i n c l u d e d one  worker a t each l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g from each o f the f i v e work u n i t s - a t o t a l o f f i f t e e n w o r k e r s . The second sample t o o b t a i n was t h a t o f the judges who would r a t e the items a c c o r d i n g t o our c r i t e r i a .  We a r b i t r a r i l y d e c i d e d t o  s e l e c t a sample o f t w e l v e , d i v i d e d i n t o two groups o f s i x s t a f f members of the  C.A.S. (Vancouver) and s i x members o f o t h e r a g e n c i e s .  We e s t a b l i s h e d  minimum o f a "B.S.W." l e v e l o f t r a i n i n g and two y e a r s e x p e r i e n c e  as the c r i t e r i a f o r the C.A.S. (Vancouver). s t a f f .  This provided a  p o p u l a t i o n o f f o r t y - o n e s t a f f members from which t o draw our sample; f o u r from the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e l e v e l , t w e l v e from the s u p e r v i s o r y , l e v e l , and t w e n t y - f i v e from workers a t the l i n e l e v e l .  On the b a s i s o f a rough  p r o p o r t i o n , one s t a f f member from a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , two s u p e r v i s o r s , and t h r e e workers were randomly  selected.  The o t h e r s i x members o f t h e j u d g i n g p a n e l were randomly s e l e c t e d from a l i s t o f s e v e n t y - s i x members s u p p l i e d by the Vancouver Branch o f the B.C.A.S.W. (1966) who met t h e f o l l o w i n g c r i t e r i a .  They had  worked i n C h i l d W e l f a r e a t l e a s t two o f the p a s t f i v e y e a r s , were n o t employed by C.A.S. ( V a n c o u v e r ) , and had a t l e a s t a "B.S.W." l e v e l o f training.  I n b o t h groups o f j u d g e s , e x t r a members were randomly  to  p r o t e c t a g a i n s t the event t h a t those i n i t i a l l y  to  participate.  selected  s e l e c t e d would be unable  DATA COLLECTION C o n c o m i t a n t l y w i t h t h e s e l e c t i o n o f j u d g e s , two members o f t h e r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t d e v e l o p e d a l i s t o f t a s k s u s i n g t h e i r own work e x p e r i e n c e ,  the B r i d g e s Report the s c h e d u l e . encountered  ( 7 ) , and the C h i l d r e n s Bureau Study  (37) to f o r m u l a t e  S i m i l a r to the B r i d g e s Report, i n i t i a l d i f f i c u l t y was  a t d e l i n e a t i n g the t a s k s , b u t by e s t a b l i s h i n g t e n c a t e g o r i e s  under which t o d e l i n e a t e the t a s k s , our j o b was f a c i l i t a t e d . categories are:  1.  Placement  3.  C l o t h i n g and A l l o w a n c e ;  7.  Family V i s i t s ;  and  8.  i n F o s t e r Home; 4.  Court;  Work w i t h F a m i l y ;  5.  2.  Medical  School; 9.  6.  The Resources; Recreation;  T e r m i n a t i o n o f Placement;  10. M i s c e l l a n e o u s . The i n i t i a l d r a f t o f the i t e m i z e d t a s k s was then r e f e r r e d t o the  t o t a l r e s e a r c h group f o r r e v i s i o n s , c l a r i f i c a t i o n s and the i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f omissions.  A t o t a l o f 121 t a s k s were d e l i n e a t e d .  F o l l o w i n g t h i s , the  l i s t o f t a s k s was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the s c h e d u l e t o be p r e s e n t e d t o the workers.  I t i n c l u d e d an i n s t r u c t i o n page, a g r i d f o r t a l l y i n g  worker  a c t i v i t i e s , and space f o r comments and o m i t t e d i t e m s . During the time the s c h e d u l e was b e i n g developed a meeting was h e l d w i t h the r e s e a r c h l i a i s o n p e r s o n a t C.A.S. ( V a n c o u v e r ) .  At this  meeting  i t was agreed t h a t a meeting would be h e l d w i t h the sample o f  workers  and the u n i t s u p e r v i s o r s to d i s c u s s the purpose  r e s p e c t i v e r o l e s , t o answer q u e s t i o n s , and c l a r i f y i n c o m p l e t i n g the s c h e d u l e . for  the i n i t i a l  o f the s t u d y ,  their  the o p e r a t i o n s i n v o l v e d  The week f o l l o w i n g the meeting was u t i l i z e d  t e s t r u n o f the s c h e d u l e .  On the b a s i s o f workers'  comments, q u e s t i o n s , and i n d i c a t i o n s o f o m i s s i o n s , a r e v i s e d schedule was developed by the r e s e a r c h group.  A t o t a l o f twenty items was r e v i s e d t o  enhance c l a r i t y and t w e n t y - t h r e e items were added. a t o t a l o f 144 items was l i s t e d .  As no items were d e l e t e d  The i n s t r u c t i o n s were a l s o r e v i s e d as  t h e r e a p p a r e n t l y was some m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g i n t h e i r  interpretation.  46.  F o l l o w i n g the r e v i s i o n o f the s c h e d u l e , i t was a g a i n a d m i n i s t e r e d to  the same sample o f workers f o r another weekly p e r i o d .  Upon c o m p l e t i o n ,  the l i m i t e d number o f comments by workers were a g a i n c o n s i d e r e d b u t the r e s e a r c h group d e c i d e d  t h a t f u r t h e r r e v i s i o n s were  As the t a s k schedule was now completed, for  the judges  arrangements were made  t o r a t e the items a c c o r d i n g to the c r i t e r i a o f " c o m p l e x i t y "  and "worker autonomy". judges.  unnecessary.  A s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s was p r o v i d e d f o r the  P r i o r t o the r a t i n g , t h r e e members o f the r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t met  w i t h the sample o f judges  t o i n t e r p r e t the scope o f the p r o j e c t , t o d i s c u s s  the r o l e and o p e r a t i o n s o f the j u d g e s , and to answer and c l a r i f y any questions that arose.  The schedules  f o r "worker autonomy" and " t a s k  c o m p l e x i t y " were a d m i n i s t e r e d c o n s e c u t i v e l y , and the j u d g i n g was completed i n one s e s s i o n .  CHAPTER IV STUDY FINDINGS  INTRODUCTION The chapter on "Study Findings" deals with the descriptive data on the study sample, problems i n data c o l l e c t i o n , modification i n study design and findings on the study questions.  The format of  this chapter i s outlined below. In the f i r s t part of the chapter we describe d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered with the judging and the rating scale.  Following this,  we present the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n on the judges' ratings of "task complexity" and "worker autonomy" using model agreements.  We  then describe the modifications made i n the rating scale and i n the number of judges used.  In the analysis of data, we show the r e l a t i o n -  ship between "worker autonomy" and "task complexity" and we examine those tasks for which the ratings were problematic.  The findings as  they relate to the basic assumptions of the study are discussed at the conslusion.  PROBLEMS IN SAMPLING AND  DATA COLLECTION  Our data c o l l e c t i o n was completed  with the judging of the  tasks that took place i n one two-hour session.  One of the twelve  judges did not attend the session and, because he gave no prior n o t i f i c a t i o n , we were unable to acquire a replacement.  Each judge  was given an i n s t r u c t i o n sheet (see Appendix C) with an explanation of c r i t e r i a and rating procedure.  Following the judging i t was  discovered that two of the judges, who  i d e n t i f i e d their schedules, had  had d i f f i c u l t y i n interpretation of our d e f i n i t i o n of "worker autonomy"  48. They i n t e r p r e t e d "worker autonomy" as r e f e r r i n g to the l a c k of c o n t r o l s upon the o v e r a l l b e h a v i o u r of the worker r a t h e r  external  than to  only  t h a t b e h a v i o u r r e l a t e d to the worker's i n t e r n a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s . For example, task no.  139,  "Store  personal  e f f e c t s " , was  r a t e d by  these  two  judges as r e q u i r i n g the h i g h e s t  all  the o t h e r judges r a t e d t h i s t a s k a t the l o w e s t l e v e l of "worker  autonomy".  degree o f "worker autonomy" whereas  As a r e s u l t , the r a t i n g s of these two  judges i n d i c a t e d  s i g n i f i c a n t v a r i a t i o n from those o f the o t h e r n i n e j u d g e s . Another problem encountered i n d a t a c o l l e c t i o n i n v o l v e d rating scale.  A majority  the t a s k s on our  of the judges e x p r e s s e d d i f f i c u l t y i n r a t i n g  5-point s c a l e .  For example, some s t a t e d they, had  d i f f i c u l t y d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between l e v e l s 1 and and  2 and between l e v e l s 4  5. These were the o n l y s i g n i f i c a n t problems we  s a m p l i n g and d a t a c o l l e c t i o n which had the  our  encountered i n  to be d e a l t w i t h  in.analyzing  data.  DATA ANALYSIS I t was  d e c i d e d i n a meeting h e l d by  the r e s e a r c h e r s  that should  there be a s i g n i f i c a n t discrepancy, between the r a t i n g s of the two  judges  who  the  misinterpreted  our d e f i n i t i o n of autonomy, and  the r a t i n g s of  o t h e r j u d g e s , we would e l i m i n a t e the s c h e d u l e s of the two also discussed  We  the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o l l a p s i n g the f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e i n t o  a three-point  scale considering  The  to combine l e v e l s 2, 3 and  f i r s t was  judges.  second, to combine l e v e l s 1 and t i v e l y d e c i d e d to use  two  a l t e r n a t i v e means o f a c h i e v i n g  2 and  4,  to form a s i n g l e l e v e l ;  l e v e l s 4 and  5.  I t was  this. the  tenta-  the l a t t e r method on the b a s i s of the comments made  by s e v e r a l judges on the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between  l e v e l s 1 and 2 and between l e v e l s 4 and 5 i n r a t i n g both "worker autonomy" and " t a s k I t was  complexity".  f u r t h e r decided  to d i v i d e the t a s k s i n t o t h r e e c a t e -  g o r i e s dependent upon the l e v e l s o f agreement i n the r a t i n g s o f judges.  We  a r b i t r a r i l y • c l a s s i f i e d those  t a s k s which had  the  above 757.  l e v e l o f agreement as h a v i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f agreement, those between 60-757 as h a v i n g a medium l e v e l o f agreement and o  those below 607, as  h a v i n g a low l e v e l of agreement. The  f i r s t step i n a n a l y s i s o f the d a t a was  to c a l c u l a t e the  modal agreements f o r each t a s k f o r "worker autonomy" and complexity",  "task  on both a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e and a t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e ,  (see Appendices E and F) number o f judges who  That i s , f o r each t a s k we c a l c u l a t e d the  r a t e d each t a s k a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s - 1, 2, 3,  and 5 on the f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e , and  1, 2 and 3 on the  s c a l e , u s i n g e l e v e n judges f o r " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " ,  4  three-point  e l e v e n judges f o r  "worker autonomy" and n i n e judges f o r "worker autonomy". From the t a b l e and graphs f o l l o w i n g , i t can be seen t h a t t h e r e was  an o b s e r v a b l e  d i f f e r e n c e on the "worker autonomy" r a t i n g s  between nine judges and e l e v e n judges.  We  found a l s o t h a t t h e r e  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e between l e v e l s o f agreement u s i n g the p o i n t s c a l e and The  the t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e .  f i n d i n g s were as f o l l o w s :  was  five-  TABLE I PER CENT AGREEMENT ON AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY OF TASKS USING FIVE-POINT SCALE AND THREE-POINT SCALE FIVE-POINT SCALE  AUTONOMY (a) (b) (c)  23 t a s k s 26 t a s k s 95 t a s k s  > 7 5 % agreement ^ 6 0 % agreement <C60% agreement  COMPLEXITY (a) (b) (c)  22 t a s k s 43 t a s k s 79 t a s k s  > 75% agreement 53-60% agreement < 60% agreement  THREE-POINT SCALE AUTONOMY - 11 j u d g e s : (a) (b) (c) (d)  37 27 32 48  t a s k s > 75% agreement t a s k s Ss* 70% agreement t a s k s -5^60% agreement t a s k s -« 60% agreement  AUTONOMY - 9 j u d g e s : (a) (b) (c)  7fe t a s k s > 75% agreement 30 t a s k s ^ 60% agreement 38 t a s k s < T 60% agreement  COMPLEXITY (a) (b) (c) (d)  76 18 11 39  tasks tasks tasks tasks  > 75% 70% ^ 60% < 60% 5r  agreement agreement agreement agreement  5 1 .  GRAPH 1 HISTOGRAM ILLUSTRATING PER CENT AGREEMENT ON AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY USING FIVE-POINT SCALE 1 0 0  •-  Vs  No. of tasks  7 5  •-  5 0  -  2 5  -  [ |  Complexity  ^  Autonomy  (7  <  6 0 7 ,  V2  >75%  6 0 - 7 5 7 o  Per Cent Agreement GRAPH 2 HISTOGRAM ILLUSTRATING PER CENT AGREEMENT ON AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY USING CTREE-POINT SCALE 1 0 0  No. of tasks  - -  7 5  •--  5 0  - -  2 5  •-  <  607o  1  | [  Complexity  ^  Autonomy  Vs  6 0 - 7 5 7 ,  Per Cent Agreement  > 7 5 7 „  On the b a s i s o f these f i n d i n g s i t was d e c i d e d t o e l i m i n a t e the r a t i n g s on "worker autonomy" by the two judges mentioned p r e v i o u s l y . I t was a l s o d e c i d e d t o use a t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e throughout the remainder of t h i s  study. U t i l i z i n g the t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e f o r l e v e l s o f "worker  autonomy", the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were (1)  obtained:  A t a l e v e l o f agreement g r e a t e r than  757o,  thirty  tasks  were r a t e d a t l e v e l 1 , no t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 2 , and f o r t y - s i x t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 3 . (2)  A t a l e v e l o f agreement between  60  and  757..,  twelve  t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 1 , two t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 2 , and s i x teen t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 3 . (3)  A t a l e v e l o f agreement o f l e s s than  607»,  sixteen  t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 1 , e i g h t t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 2 , and n i n e t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 3 .  I n t h i s category,  the modes were l o c a t e d a t two o r t h r e e Utilizing  for five  tasks  levels.  the t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e f o r l e v e l s o f " t a s k  complexity'  the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were o b t a i n e d : (1)  A t a l e v e l o f agreement g r e a t e r than  757<>,  thirty  tasks  were r a t e d a t l e v e l 1 , two t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 2 and f o r t y - f o u r t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 3 . (2)  A t a l e v e l o f agreement between 6 0 and 7 5 % , f i f t e e n  tasks  were r a t e d a t l e v e l 1 , three t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 2 , and t e n t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 3 . (3)  A t a l e v e l o f agreement o f l e s s than 6 0 % , , e i g h t t a s k s  were r a t e d a t l e v e l 1 , e l e v e n t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 2 , and t e n t a s k s were r a t e d a t l e v e l 3 .  I n this category,  l o c a t e d a t two o r t h r e e l e v e l s .  f o r t e n t a s k s the modes were  (See Appendix G)  Our c o n c e r n focused upon the t a s k s which r a t e d below a 60% l e v e l of. agreement on the c r i t e r i a o f "worker autonomy" and " t a s k complexity".  Three p o s s i b l e problem areas were suggested f o r examin-  a t i o n by the r e s e a r c h group.  These were (1) d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n  the f i v e - p o i n t r a t h e r than a t h r e e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e ; in  the wording o f the t a s k s ; and  (2) a m b i g u i t y  (3) d i f f i c u l t i e s i n h e r e n t i n the  i n s t r u c t i o n s to and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n by the judges. Contrary  t o the tendency toward g r o u p i n g  a t the e n d - p o i n t s  of  the s c a l e i n the t a s k s which reached a l e v e l o f agreement above 607,, we n o t i c e d a tendency toward c e n t r a l g r o u p i n g a 607, l e v e l o f agreement.  o f the t a s k s which f e l l below  F o l l o w i n g upon t h i s , we d e c i d e d  l e v e l s 2, 3, and 4 o f the s c a l e on these  tasks.  t a s k s r a t e d on the c r i t e r i o n o f " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " ,  to combine  Of the t h i r t y - n i n e twenty-eight  tasks  had an agreement o f g r e a t e r than 757,, e l e v e n f e l l between 60-757, and no t a s k s had l e s s than 607, l e v e l o f agreement when the s c a l e was combined. S i m i l a r l y , f o r the t h i r t y - e i g h t t a s k s r a t e d on the c r i t e r i o n o f "worker autonomy", t w e n t y - e i g h t  t a s k s had. an agreement o f g r e a t e r than 757,, seven ;  had between 60-757, and t h r e e £nos. 55, 63 and 95) had l e s s t h a ^ a  607,  l e v e l o f agreement. (See Appendices J, and K) F u r t h e r m o r e , when the t a s k s which y i e l d e d l e s s than a 607, l e v e l o f agreement on the i n i t i a l  t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e were c o n s i d e r e d  combining l e v e l s 2 and 3 o r l e v e l s 3 and 4, depending on which  by  category  the g r e a t e s t number o f items were r a t e d , the f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s were observed.  On.the c r i t e r i o n o f " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " ,  an agreement g r e a t e r than .757,. seven items were l e s s than 607,.  s i x t e e n items had  S i x t e e n items were between 60-757, and On the c r i t e r i o n o f "worker autonomy",  f o u r t e e n items had an, agreement g r e a t e r than .757,, e l e v e n . items between 60-757, and t h i r t e e n items were l e s s than 607=,.  were  Although  a total  54.  o f twenty-two items were r a t e d a t l e s s than a 6 0 % , l e v e l o f agreement on b o t h c r i t e r i a on the t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e , o n l y f o u r ( n o s . 4 8 , 7 6 , 1 1 4 and 144)  had l e s s than a  607o  l e v e l o f agreement on the s c a l e c o l l a p s e d by the  l a t t e r method. T h i s tendency toward c l u s t e r i n g a g a i n i n d i c a t e s the d i f f i c u l t i e s encountered by the judges i n d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g between a d j a c e n t p o i n t s on the s c a l e b o t h a t the end p o i n t s ( w i t h those items w i t h a l e v e l o f agreement g r e a t e r than 6 0 % , ) and i n the c e n t r a l area ( w i t h those w i t h , a l e v e l o f agreement l e s s than  60%,).  items  The r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i s  problem w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n Chapter V. The tasks. and  second f a c t o r we examined was the a c t u a l wording o f the  As examples, the r e a d e r  144.  i s r e f e r r e d to t a s k nos. 4 8 , 7 6 , 1 1 4  We wanted t o determine i f the wording o f the t a s k s accounted The r a t i n g o f t a s k n o . 4 8  f o r the d i f f i c u l t i e s i n r a t i n g by the j u d g e s . (Arrange  f o r f u n e r a l s ) p o s s i b l y c r e a t e d d i f f i c u l t i e s because i t i s a  r e l a t i v e l y uncommon t a s k and i t was n o t d e s c r i b e d i n any d e t a i l . no. 7 6 ( O b t a i n , a n d / o r process  c o u r t documents) i n c l u d e d two o p e r a t i o n s .  Task no. 1 1 4 ( O b t a i n " P e r m i s s i o n  t o Marry") n e c e s s i t a t e s the p r e p a r a t i o n  and p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a r e p o r t which i s p r o b a b l y o f the C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . t a s k no. I l l , and  Task  The p r o c e s s  f a m i l i a r o n l y t o employees  i s i d e n t i c a l to t h a t i n  which had a h i g h l e v e l of agreement on " t a s k  complexity"  a h i g h l e v e l o f agreement on "worker autonomy" when two a d j a c e n t  c a t e g o r i e s were c o n s i d e r e d . at Adoption  The l a s t i t e m , no. 1 4 4 , ( P r e s e n t  child  Conference) was n o t e x p l i c i t i n the o p e r a t i o n r e q u i r e d .  We  f e e l t h a t w i t h g r e a t e r c l a r i t y of w o r d i n g , the l e v e l of agreement i n the judges'  r a t i n g s c o u l d have been i n c r e a s e d . The  to the j u d g e s .  t h i r d area concerns the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the i n s t r u c t i o n s As the i n s t r u c t i o n s were p r e s e n t e d  b o t h v e r b a l l y and i n  w r i t t e n form,, and t h r e e members o f the r e s e a r c h group were a v a i l a b l e throughout the j u d g i n g to answer any q u e s t i o n s , we f e l t we had handled t h i s procedure adequately.  Upon r e - e x a m i n i n g  some o f the t a s k s , we  s p e c u l a t e d t h a t t h e i r r a t i n g s may have been dependent upon the r a t e r ' s s u b j e c t i v e p e r c e p t i o n o f them.  F o r example, t a s k no. 55 (Take c h i l d  shopping) and t a s k no. 63 ( S t a t i s t i c s ) have d i f f e r e n t i a l meanings t o v a r i o u s workers. by some!  M o n t h l y s t a t i s t i c s a r e viewed w i t h g r e a t t r e p i d a t i o n  These v a r i a b l e s cannot be c o n t r o l l e d .  RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN RATINGS OF AUTONOMY AND RATINGS OF COMPLEXITY Using  the t h r e e l e v e l s o f our r a t i n g s c a l e - i . e . , l e v e l 1  ( l o w r a t i n g ) , l e v e l 2 (medium r a t i n g ) and l e v e l 3 ( h i g h r a t i n g ) - as c r i t e r i a to measure the r e l a t i o n s h i p between "worker autonomy" and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " , a n a l y s i s o f f i n d i n g s r e v e a l e d t h a t o f the 144 t a s k s 118 had the same modal r a t i n g s between autonomy, and c o m p l e x i t y . * Of the r e m a i n i n g  twenty-six tasks, eleven f e l l w i t h i n adjacent  rating  l e v e l s ( e . g . , t a s k no. 88 i n c l u d e d r a t i n g l e v e l s 2 and 3) and f i f t e e n showed no a p p r e c i a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p ( e . g . , a comparison o f modal  agree-  ments on t a s k no. 46 i n c l u d e d t h r e e r a t i n g l e v e l s : , l e v e l 1 r e g a r d i n g autonomy and l e v e l s 2 and 3 r e g a r d i n g c o m p l e x i t y ) . Of the 118 t a s k s t h a t had the same modal r a t i n g s , f i f t y in  were  l e v e l 1, f i v e were i n . l e v e l 2 and s i x t y - t h r e e i n l e v e l 3:  All  t a s k s whose modal agreement f e l l w i t h i n any one s c a l e were  c o n s i d e r e d t o have a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p .  56. GRAPH 3 DISTRIBUTION,OF MODAL RATINGS FOR TASKS WITH HIGH RELATIONSHIP  75 -  Level 1 (LOW)  Level 2 (MEDIUM) RATING LEVELS  Level 3 (HIGH)  A breakdown o f f i n d i n g s on the 118 t a s k s i s shown.in the following  table: TABLE I I PERCENT AGREEMENT FOR SELECTED COMBINATIONS OF OF AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY RATINGS 7= AGREEMENT  . Level 1  ~> 757, agreement on. autonomy s* 757, agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  ^  , ^ 7 5 7 , agreement on autonomy 6 0 - 7 5 7 . agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  6  7>757c agreement on autonomy •*£607o agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  Level 2  Level 3  Q  28  0  3  ^  0  3  6 0 - 7 5 7 , agreement on autonomy ~>7b% agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  4  0  4  6 0 - 7 5 7 , agreement on. autonomy 6 0 - 7 5 7 , agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  5  0  6  6 0 - 7 5 7 , agreement on. autonomy < 607, agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  1  1  5  < 607, agreement on autonomy >15°L agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  3  ^607o. agreement on. autonomy 60-757o agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  4  2  1  ^ 6 0 7 , agreement on autonomy <607, agreement on c o m p l e x i t y  ^  ^  ^  50  5  63  Total  1  2  P l e a s e r e f e r t o Appendix H f o r the a c t u a l t a s k s i n v o l v e d . From the t a b l e the f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s a r e made: ( 1 ) There i s a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between r a t i n g s o f "worker autonomy" and r a t i n g s o f " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " i n 118 o u t o f 144 t a s k s ( t h e r e m a i n i n g t w e n t y - s i x t a s k s were n o t c l o s e l y r e l a t e d and w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n the n e x t paragraph (2)  There i s a d e f i n i t e tendency f o r g r o u p i n g a t the h i g h and low ends o f  the r a t i n g s c a l e ( i . e . , l e v e l s 1 and 3 ) , m i d d l e l e v e l o f the r a t i n g s c a l e , and  ( 3 ) Low agreement i s seen a t the  ( 4 ) There i s a p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y  58  g r e a t e r number o f t a s k s w i t h the h i g h e s t (I?\757o) degree o f agreement f o r i n l e v e l s 1 and 3 .  b o t h autonomy and c o m p l e x i t y p o i n t t o the g e n e r a l accuracy is  These  observations  and non-ambiguous n a t u r e o f the t a s k s .  f u r t h e r i n d i c a t e d by these o b s e r v a t i o n s  It  that d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of tasks  i n t o c a t e g o r i e s r e q u i r i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence appears  feasible. Regarding the e l e v e n t a s k s t h a t f e l l w i t h i n a d j a c e n t  levels,  rating  the breakdown i s as f o l l o w s : F i v e t a s k s f e l l w i t h i n l e v e l 2 on c o m p l e x i t y  and l e v e l 3 on  au tonomy: t a s k no. 13  ^5  64  88  116  l e v e l 2 on c o m p l e x i t y 607o agreement II 11  11  "  II  "  "  "  l e v e l 3 on autonomy ^ 6 0 7 . agreement it II "  "  p>757o agreement "  "  Three t a s k s f e l l w i t h i n l e v e l 2 on autonomy and l e v e l 3 on complexity: t a s k no. 36 137 107  l e v e l 3 on c o m p l e x i t y  l e v e l 2 on autonomy  60-757, agreement <. 607o agreement < 607» agreement  ^.607 agreement 60-757. agreement <607o agreement o  Two t a s k s f e l l w i t h i n l e v e l 1 on.autonomy and l e v e l 2 on complexity: t a s k no. 111 114  l e v e l 2 on c o m p l e x i t y  l e v e l 1 on autonomy  >757o agreement -C607, agreement  ^ 6 0 7 . agreement <607> agreement  One t a s k f e l l w i t h i n l e v e l 2 on autonomy and l e v e l 1 on c o m p l e x i T h i s t a s k no. 6 9 , showed <| 607> agreement on b o t h autonomy and  complexity.  Because each o f these e l e v e n t a s k s f e l l w i t h i n two r a t i n g s c a l e s a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between autonomy and c o m p l e x i t y  cannot be  assumed.  However,  be a s s i g n e d  i t seems t h a t some o f these  to personnel  tasks could c o n f i d e n t l y  a t v a r i o u s l e v e l s of p r o f e s s i o n a l competence.  F o r example, t a s k no. 8 8 , w i t h a > 7 5 7 , agreement on autonomy a t l e v e l 3 c o u l d no doubt be a s s i g n e d  to a worker o f h i g h p r o f e s s i o n a l a b i l i t y ,  w h i l e t a s k no. 1 0 7 , w i t h <C607> agreement on autonomy a t l e v e l 2 and <607o a t l e v e l 3 , might be d i f f i c u l t to a s s i g n .  agreement on c o m p l e x i t y The r e m a i n i n g  f i f t e e n t a s k s a l l showed no a p p r e c i a b l e degree o f  r e l a t i o n s h i p , s i n c e each i n c l u d e d t h r e e r a t i n g l e v e l s .  Please r e f e r to  Table I I I below. TABLE I I I RATING LEVEL AND PERCENT AGREEMENT FOR TASKS WITH NO APPRECIABLE DEGREE OF RELATIONSHIP t a s k no.  rating level autonomy complexity  127 28 41 46 48 96 117 44 70 144 37 56 63 113 51  1 2 1 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 3 3 & 2 & 3 & 3 &,2 & 2  1  1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1  & & & & & & & & & & 2 2 1 .1 2  2 3 2 3 3  2  :  3 3 3 3  7. agreement autonomy complexity <607, 60-757, 60-757, <607, "  <607o <607, "  "  "  "  11  60-757, <£607, " " " " " "  .  " 60-757, .£607, " "  I n a d d i t i o n to the l a c k o f r e l a t i o n s h i p i t c a n be seen t h a t most ;  o f the above t a s k s have modal agreement o f l e s s than 607, and none g r e a t e r than 6 0 - 7 5 7 , .  T h i s p o i n t s to the d i f f i c u l t i e s o u t l i n e d p r e v i o u s l y -  namely, p o s s i b l e a m b i g u i t y  of wording of tasks, d i f f i c u l t i e s  regarding  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n t o and by judges and d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o the rating scale.  SUMMARY OF STUDY FINDINGS This study constituted an attempt to discover whether a comprehensive l i s t of tasks could be compiled which described the work done by employees of the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C., the area of Services to Children in Foster-Care.  in  If this were possible,  we wanted to know i f such a l i s t of tasks could be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to the c r i t e r i a of "worker autonomy" and."task complexity" a group of judges.  by  We wanted to discover, too, the degree of  correlation between these two  criteria.  The following is a summary of our findings: (1)  We  concluded that i t i s possible to develop a l i s t of  tasks which accurately describes the services provided  to Children i n  Foster-Care. Our  i n i t i a l schedule of 121  tasks was  of workers from the Children's Aid society who t a l l y mark by a task every time i t was If a task was  administered  to a sample  were asked to place a  performed over a five-day period.  not carried out within this period, but had been performed  in the past, the worker was  asked to indicate t h i s .  Additions  and  comments were incorporated into a revised schedule with 144 tasks, which was  administered  for another five-day period.  to point out omissions and to provide comments.  Again, workers were asked Each of the tasks  l i s t e d was marked at least once as having been performed. a v e r i f i c a t i o n for every item on the schedule. therefore concurred (2)  We  This provided  Our sample of workers  with our l i s t of tasks.  concluded that tasks performed in providing services  to Children in Foster-Care  could be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d according to the  c r i t e r i a of "worker autonomy" and "task complexity".  Our evidence was  derived from an analysis of the data, which indicated that there was  a  g r e a t e r than 75% l e v e l o f agreement i n the r a t i n g o f over 507» o f tasks. We  Only 207. of the t a s k s had  speculated  h i g h e r had  the  a l e s s than 607.. l e v e l of agreement.  t h a t the l e v e l o f agreement f o r some t a s k s may, have been  the w o r d i n g o f the t a s k s been more e x p l i c i t or d e s c r i p t i v e .  F u r t h e r m o r e , our a n a l y s i s i n d i c a t e d t h a t the l e v e l of agreement f o r c e r t a i n t a s k s would have been i n c r e a s e d had  the o r i g i n a l s c a l e  contained  fewer c h o i c e s . (3)  A n a l y s i s o f the d a t a r e v e a l e d t h a t items  dichotomized, a t l e v e l s 1 and.3.  tended to be  This f i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s t h a t c l e a r  d i s t i n c t i o n s c o u l d be made by the judges i n r a t i n g t a s k s a h i g h or low degree o f autonomy, and degree o f c o m p l e x i t y .  which,require  t a s k s which have a h i g h or  Such d i s t i n c t i o n s would f a c i l i t a t e  low  the  p o t e n t i a l assignment o f t a s k s to p e r s o n n e l w i t h v a r y i n g e d u c a t i o n a l backgrounds . (4)  A comparison.of the d a t a on "worker autonomy" and  c o m p l e x i t y " r e v e a l e d a v e r y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between these  "task  criteria.  T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t i n subsequent s t u d i e s , • both c r i t e r i a need not be u t i l i z e d i n the r a t i n g o f t a s k s . Our  study f i n d i n g s supported  our i n i t i a l assumptions, demon-  s t r a t i n g t h a t t a s k s can be c l a s s i f i e d , and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g "task complexity"  and "worker autonomy".  the f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r  Based upon these  to  conclusions,  focuses on the i m p l i c a t i o n s o f our d a t a , recommend-  ations for u t i l i z i n g i t ,  and p r o p o s a l s  for further research.  62. CHAPTER V IMPLICATIONS, PROPOSALS, AND SUMMARY  IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY S e v e r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s f o l l o w e d from the study  f i n d i n g s , both f o r  t a s k assignment t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s t a f f and f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . The f i n d i n g s showed t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o develop a l i s t which a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e s t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d Care".  of tasks  to "Children i n Foster  We a l s o found t h a t i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e these  a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a o f "worker autonomy" and " t a s k  tasks  complexity".  C o n s e q u e n t l y , i t may be assumed t h a t s i m i l a r s t u d i e s c o u l d be conducted i n o t h e r areas w i t h i n the agency. As t h e r e was a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c r i t e r i a o f "worker autonomy" and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y "  i n t h e m a j o r i t y o f the t a s k s , i t was f e l t  t h a t i t would be p o s s i b l e t o a s s i g n , t a s k s , u t i l i z i n g o n l y one c r i t e r i o n , t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of workers.  I n t h i s case i t would be n e c e s s a r y  f o r the  c r i t e r i o n which was s e l e c t e d t o take i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n those t a s k s i n which t h e r e was a d i s c r e p a n c y between worker autonomy and " t a s k  complexity".  I n t h a t a t a s k r e q u i r i n g a h i g h degree o f worker autonomy r e g a r d l e s s of t h e l e v e l o f " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y "  can be e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out o n l y  by a h i g h l y educated worker, and t h a t a t a s k r e q u i r i n g l i t t l e  worker  autonomy, no m a t t e r how complex can be e f f e c t i v e l y c a r r i e d out by a worker w i t h a lower l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n , we suggest t h a t the c r i t e r i o n o f "worker autonomy" be used i n d e l i n e a t i n g t a s k s t o d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f s t a f f , and i n f u r t h e r studies of t h i s  nature.  The t a s k s tended t o be d i c h o t o m i z e d rating scale. assigned  a t h i g h / l o w l e v e l s on the  T h i s dichotomy would appear t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t a s k s c o u l d be  t o a t l e a s t two d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f workers w i t h l i t t l e  difficulty.  Several variables must, however, be taken into account.  Personality factors,  adequate s t a f f i n g and the task order sequence play an important role i n task assignment. We  also observed that many i n t e r r e l a t e d tasks d i f f e r e d i n their  levels of "worker autonomy" and "task complexity".  This, once again,  points out the r e a l need for the team work approach i n order to e f f e c t better services to the c l i e n t . The five-point scale was  found to be inadequate due  to the d i f f i -  c u l t i e s of the majority.of judges i n discriminaticfig between the levels on the end points of the rating|.scale. A modification of the five-point scale would therefore be desirable i n further studies of this kind.  The  use of a four or three point scale would hopefully reduce the problems which we encountered. This study has looked at tasks primarily from one perspective what the worker does, rather than what the c l i e n t needs.  The l a t t e r pers-  pective i s , however, of prime importance for a comprehensive approach to man  power studies, and should be considered  i n future research.  PROPOSALS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH This project represented  a beginning  point i n studying the u t i l i -  zation of manpower at the Children's Aid Society of Vancouver, B.C. problems encountered i n attempting d i f f e r e n t i a l use of personnel  The  to study as complex an area as the  are reflected i n the integration of l i t e r -  ature on this subject, Chapter I I .  Because of the numerous variables that  must be taken into account, considerably more research must be carried out i n this area before any d e f i n i t i v e conclusions can be made. It Aid  i s suggested that other areas of service at: the Children's  Society should be examined i n a way  similar to that of this study.  64.  With the resultant data, we suggest that one unit of the agency be s e l e c t ed for a p i l o t project in which s t a f f would u t i l i z e the approach to work assignment. "case-streaming" approach. be assigned  Other units would continue  "task-streaming" to use  the  Tasks which are rated at a high l e v e l could  to a graduate s o c i a l worker and tasks which are rated at a low  level could be assigned could be assigned  to a welfare aide.  Tasks rated at a. medium level  at the d i s c r e t i o n of the supervisor.  An alternative  would be to assign medium-level tasks to both social worker and  welfare-  aide and attempt to evaluate in whose sphere this task could best be handled.  This procedure would necessitate the development of a scale which  could accurately measure competence in*doing a p a r t i c u l a r job.  No such  method of evaluation is to be found in the l i t e r a t u r e , and we would consider this a d i f f i c u l t instrument to design. Associated with this problem is the notable lack of agreement as to the delineation of s t a f f levels according to professional competence. The reader  is again referred to Chapter II for a discussion of this issue.  It is evident that no research has been carried out to relate levels of professional t r a i n i n g to competence in performing certain tasks.  For  example, what is a person with an M.S.W. equipped to do that a person with a B.A.  or B.S.W. is not?  No decisions can accurately be made i n the  assignment of tasks u n t i l we have some adequate guidelines.  There i s a  necessity for detailed examination of the curricula of undergraduate in service and graduate training programs to aid in the development of such guidelines. One involvement.  other aspect which must be considered  is that of c l i e n t  Although our frame of reference i n d i r e c t l y considered  the  c l i e n t , we would suggest that in subsequent studies the c l i e n t be d i r e c t l y involved.  The only way  one can be assured  that the agency is f u l f i l l i n g  65. i t s f u n c t i o n i s through  communication w i t h those i n r e c e i p t o f i t s s e r v i c e s .  Such feedback would be i n v a l u a b l e i n a s s e s s i n g and f o r m u l a t i n g agency p o l i c i e s and p r a c t i c e s .  F o r example, we would be i n t e r e s t e d t o know t h e  responses o f the agency's c l i e n t e l e t o " t a s k - s t r e a m e d "  s e r v i c e s , i n which  more than one p e r s o n from t h e agency would be i n v o l v e d i n p r o v i d i n g the service. Although  t h e r e remains i^uch ground t o c o v e r , i t i s apparent t h a t  the d i f f e r e n t i a l assignment o f t a s k s t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f p e r s o n n e l  holds  much promise f o r a r a p i d l y - g r o w i n g f i e l d i n which the need f o r s t a f f i s spiralling.  The u t i l i z a t i o n of p e r s o n n e l w i t h v a r y i n g degrees o f e d u c a t i o n ,  however, w i l l enhance s e r v i c e s o n l y when t h e r e a r e p r e c i s e d e f i n i t i o n s as to who can b e s t do what.  T h i s i s t h e g o a l toward which s o c i a l work  r e s e a r c h e r s must work t o r a i s e the s t a n d a r d o f our s o c i a l w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s .  SUMMARY OF THE STUDY T h i s study o r i g i n a t e d as a response t o t h e e v e r i n c r e a s i n g concern v o i c e d w i t h i n s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e about the c r i t i c a l shortage power w i t h i n the p r o f e s s i o n .  Although  l a t e l y t h e r e has been a r e - e x a m i n a t i o n  o f man-  the problem i s n o t o f r e c e n t  origin,  o f methods o f d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s  r e s u l t i n g i n many a d a p t i o n s w i t h i n the f i e l d .  F o r example, t h e r e has been  a re-assessment o f the use o f n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l and v o l u n t e e r  personnel,  development o f v o c a t i o n a l and undergraduate t r a i n i n g programs as w e l l as more comprehensive i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g . s o c i a l p o l i c y have developed  and s o c i a l a c t i o n movements have gained  W i t h i n many a g e n c i e s , a post-graduate t i o n of s t a f f .  A t t h e same time new i n n o v a t i o n s i n momentum.  the u t i l i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n n e l w i t h l e s s  than  l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n has r e s u l t e d i n an i n a p p r o p r i a t e a l l o c a I n some s i t u a t i o n s , s t a f f w i t h o u t adequate p r o f e s s i o n a l  e d u c a t i o n a r e b e i n g used i n a c a p a c i t y which would r e a l i s t i c a l l y r e q u i r e  66. h i g h l y s k i l l e d workers. are performing  A t the same time, p r o f e s s i o n a l l y educated  staff  some t a s k s t h a t c o u l d e a s i l y be performed by those w i t h a  lower l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n .  Two s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s misuse a r e p r e s e n t e d i n  the l i t e r a t u r e and i n p r a c t i c e . whereby cases a r e a s s i g n e d  The f i r s t ,  "case-streaming",  i s a method  a c c o r d i n g t o t y p e , a f t e r d i a g n o s i s and a s s e s s -  ment, t o workers of v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f competence.  I t i s our c o n t e n t i o n  t h a t t h i s method o f assignment i s n o t t h e most e f f e c t i v e because i t i s based on a s t a t i c d i a g n o s i s and assessment a t one p o i n t i n time and t h e r e f o r e p r e d e t e r m i n e s t h e l e v e l o f s e r v i c e t h a t w i l l be o f f e r e d .  Other  v a r i a b l e s which a f f e c t t h i s method o f assignment i n c l u d e the r e l i a b i l i t y of d i a g n o s t i c t o o l s and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems, and the i n a b i l i t y t o c o n t r o l i n t a k e and t h e r e f o r e assignment o f cases i n p u b l i c a g e n c i e s . The second s o l u t i o n , t h a t o f " t a s k - s t r e a m i n g " , assignment o f v a r i o u s t a s k s w i t h i n each case t o p e r s o n n e l t o p e r f o r m them.  i n v o l v e s the who a r e competent  I m p l i c i t i n t h i s method o f assignment i s t h a t a l l t a s k s  performed by a p r a c t i t i o n e r i n d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e t o c l i e n t s can be d e l i n e ated a c c o r d i n g t o c e r t a i n c r i t e r i a and then a s s i g n e d  t o v a r i o u s workers  a c c o r d i n g t o t h e l e v e l of competence r e q u i r e d i n p e r f o r m i n g  the t a s k s .  The purpose o f t h i s r e s e a r c h study i s t o determine t h e e x t e n t t o which t a s k s can be d e l i n e a t e d , then c l a s s i f i e d a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c -- t h e i n i t i a l phase i n d e v e l o p i n g "task streaming".  criteria  a system o f s e r v i c e d e l i v e r y based upon  We e x p e c t a subsequent p r o j e c t which w i l l a s s i g n  the competence o f v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f workers i n p e r f o r m i n g  tasks  and  assess  them  and  then d e v i s e a method o f task assignment based upon c o l l a b o r a t i v e f i n d i n g s . The agency t o which we l i m i t e d our s t u d y , t h e C h i l d r e n ' s A i d  S o c i e t y of Vancouver, i s n o t w i t h o u t crisis  t h e s t r e s s e s induced by t h e p r e s e n t  i n manpower r e f e r r e d t o p r e v i o u s l y .  A survey o f the members o f the  r e s e a r c h group, based upon t h e i r work e x p e r i e n c e  a t the agency, r e v e a l e d  67 . the f o l l o w i n g i m p r e s s i o n s :  (1)  r e s u l t i n g i n heavy c a s e l o a d s ;  t h e r e i s an i n s u f f i c i e n t number o f p e r s o n n e l (2) t h e r e are inadequate  guidelines for  p e r s o n n e l w i t h l e s s than p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g r e s u l t i n g i n t h e i r i e n t use; and  ineffic-  (3) the same t a s k s are a s s i g n e d to p e r s o n n e l w i t h d i f f e r e n t  l e v e l s of t r a i n i n g .  These i m p r e s s i o n s , t o g e t h e r w i t h the r e q u e s t of the  agency's a d m i n i s t r a t i v e p e r s o n n e l , p r o v i d e d i n i t i a l  impetus f o r the  study.  The b e g i n n i n g stages of the p r o j e c t c e n t e r e d around a r e v i e w of p e r t i n e n t s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to the manpower s i t u a t i o n . was  c o n s i d e r e d under the r u b r i c s of (1) c r i t e r i a p r o v i d e d f o r t a s k  ification;  (2) l e v e l s o f y p e r s o n n e l p o s i t i o n s ;  It  class-  (3) models of work assignment;  and  (4) methods of e v a l u a t i o n u t i l i z e d  Six  g e n e r a l c a t e g o r i e s o f c r i t e r i a f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of t a s k s were  d i s c u s s e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  i n p e r t i n e n t r e s e a r c h on the s u b j e c t .  They are (1) b a s i c f a c t f i n d i n g and d e c i s i o n  making; (2) c l i e n t v u l n e r a b i l i t y and worker autonomy; (4) worker autonomy and t a s k c o m p l e x i t y ; work t a s k s ; and  (3) c l i e n t needs;  (5) s o c i a l work and n o n - s o c i a l  (6) the degree o f c o n s c i o u s use of r e l a t i o n s h i p .  The  proposed c l a s s i f i c a t i o n schemes were, i n many cases, i n t e r d e p e n d e n t o f t e n i m p l i e d the importance  of c o n s i d e r i n g the o t h e r v a r i a b l e s .  s m a l l m i n o r i t y of the w r i t e r s made an attempt The  and Only a  to propose a l i s t of t a s k s  second a r e a , r e l a t e d to the l e v e l s o f p e r s o n n e l  r e v e a l e d a wide d i s c r e p a n c y between the v a r i o u s w r i t e r s .  positions,  Their d i v i s i o n s  ranged from e i g h t h i g h l y d e f i n i t i v e l e v e l s ghrough a continuum t o a d i v i s i o n between p r o f e s s i o n a l and n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s .  In general,  a d i v i s i o n based upon the l e v e l o f e d u c a t i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s appeared most s u i t a b l e .  The models of work assignment t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f  p e r s o n n e l examined i n the l i t e r a t u r e were d i v i d e d between concepts  of " t a s k  s t r e a m i n g " and. "case s t r e a m i n g " which have p r e v i o u s l y been d i s c u s s e d . former method was  The  expanded upon by some a u t h o r s t o i n c l u d e p r o p o s a l s f o r a  68. "team approach" method t o d e l i v e r the s e r v i c e s . i n the l i t e r a t u r e was concerned  The f i n a l a r e a c o n s i d e r e d  w i t h e v a l u a t i v e r e s e a r c h methods.  research i n t h i s area i s minimal,  Although  two methods o f e v a l u a t i o n were proposed.  The f i r s t r e l i e d upon i n t e r - j u d g e agreement f o r r a t i n g t a s k s a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a and the second r e l i e d upon s u p e r v i s o r s ' o p i n i o n s as t o whether or not the t a s k s were b e i n g a d e q u a t e l y performed a t the a s s i g n e d levels. W i t h a background from the l i t e r a t u r e and the e x p e r i e n c e g u i d e l i n e s f o r the purpose o f the study were developed.  survey,  From the p r e -  s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t the a c q u i s i t i o n o f n o n - p r o f e s s i o n p e r s o n n e l  i s one method  to meet the c r i t i c a l s h o r t a g e o f manpower, we assumed t h a t t a s k s performed by s o c i a l work p e r s o n n e l c o u l d be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o s p e c i f i c c r i t e r i a , so t h a t they c o u l d be a s s i g n e d commensurate w i t h the degree o f p r o f e s s i o n a l competence r e q u i r e d t o p e r f o r m them. examining  t h i s assumption,  our study i s an attempt  As a b e g i n n i n g step i n to develop  a measuring  i n s t r u m e n t f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of t a s k s . o f the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e , we d e c i d e d t o l i m i t  Because  our study t o a p i l o t  p r o j e c t invthe area of "Services to C h i l d r e n i n Foster-Care".  This area  encompasses a g r e a t v a r i e t y of t a s k s , c o n s t i t u t e s the core of a g e n e r a l i z e d f i e l d - u n i t c a s e l o a d , and employs a l l l e v e l s o f s t a f f a v a i l a b l e a t the agency i n f i v e semi-autonomous work u n i t s .  Our approach, we b e l i e v e , i s of  s u f f i c i e n t scope t o i n d i c a t e whether or not i t i s f e a s i b l e t o d e l i n e a t e t a s k s performed by agency p e r s o n n e l as the b e g i n n i n g p o i n t i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a more e f f e c t i v e model f o r the u t i l i z a t i o n of manpower as w e l l as p r o v i d i n g i n d i c a t i o n s t o i t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o o t h e r programs and a g e n c i e s . For the purpose of t h i s study we chose the c r i t e r i a o f " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " and "worker autonomy" f o r d i f f e r e n t i a t i n g c h i l d w e l f a r e t a s k s . The terms a r e d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s :  Task:  an o p e r a t i o n performed by a. worker p r o v i d e d  phases of c h i l d c a r e .  i n the main  A task i s p a r t of a work u n i t w h i c h , i n t u r n , i s  p a r t of an agency programme ( i n t h i s case, c h i l d w e l f a r e s e r v i c e s ) . Worker Autonomy: and  r e f e r s t o the r e l a t i v e l a c k of e x t e r n a l guides  e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s upon the b e h a v i o r  according  of the w o r k e r , who  to h i s i n t e r n a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s ,  i o n a l knowledge, e t h i c s and  controls.  functions  d e r i v e d from p r o f e s s -  Tasks which r e q u i r e a h i g h degree  of autonomy on the p a r t of the worker are those which are not amenable to e x p l i c i t r u l e s or g e n e r a l i z e d r o u t i n e s . Another a s p e c t of worker autonomy i s v i s i b i l i t y .  The  less  v i s i b l e the w o r k e r - c l i e n t c o n t a c t , the l e s s s u b j e c t t o e x t e r n a l s c r u t i n y i s the worker's performance.  I n s i t u a t i o n s i n which t a s k s are performed  i n p r i v a t e , i n accordance w i t h the c o n f i d e n t i a l s e r v i c e s o f f e r e d by agencies,  i t i s e s s e n t i a l t h a t i n t e r n a l c o n t r o l s be  social  operative.  A t h i r d f a c t o r i n f l u e n c i n g worker autonomy i s the degree of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l s u p p o r t f o r s o c i a l work s t a n d a r d s , to u t i l i z e p r o p e r l y h i s knowledge, v a l u e s Task C o m p l e x i t y :  The  and  skills.  number of o p e r a t i o n s  types of i n f o r m a t i o n r e q u i r e d i n p e r f o r m i n g task, ranging from.least  which enables the worker (4) (diverse a c t i v i t i e s  a task) inherent  comple^ (a s i n g l e o p e r a t i o n )  or  i n the s i n g l e  to most complex  (many o p e r a t i o n s ) . Other c r i t e r i a proposed i n the l i t e r a t u r e were r e j e c t e d because of t h e i r  unsuitability. The  below. porated  p r o c e d u r e s f o l l o w e d f o r the c o l l e c t i o n of d a t a are o u t l i n e d  A l i s t of 121  t a s k s was  i n t o a s c h e d u l e which was  personnel questions,  developed by the r e s e a r c h e r s presented  indicated omissions,  incor-  to a random sample of agency  i n v o l v e d i n the s e l e c t e d a r e a of study. and  and  the s c h e d u l e was  U t i l i z i n g t h e i r comments, r e v i s e d and  then  70.  p r e s e n t e d a g a i n t o the same sample f o r a f i n a l check.  The completed  list  of 144 t a s k s was then p r e s e n t e d t o a random sample of agency workers and o t h e r p e r s o n n e l i n v o l v e d i n c h i l d w e l f a r e programs o u t s i d e the agency. They r a t e d each t a s k on a f i v e - p o i n t s c a l e a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a o f "worker  autonomy"and"task c o m p l e x i t y " . F o l l o w i n g the s e s s i o n , a m a j o r i t y o f the judges  indicated  d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s c r i m i n a t i n g between t h e l e v e l s a t the e n d - p o i n t s of t h e rating scale.  I t was a l s o d i s c o v e r e d t h a t two judges had m i s i n t e r p r e t e d  the d e f i n i t i o n o f "worker  autonomy".  We d e c i d e d , i f i t was i n d i c a t e d by  the d a t a , t o combine l e v e l s 1 and 2 , and l e v e l s 4 and 5 - r e s u l t i n g i n a three-point scale. r a t i n g s on "worker  As w e l l , we d e c i d e d t o e l i m i n a t e t h e two j u d g e s ' autonomy" i f n e c e s s a r y .  A t t h i s time we d e c i d e d t o  c a t e g o r i z e t h e modal l e v e l of agreement between t h e j u d g e s ' r a t i n g s of the tasks.  We a r b i t r a r i l y c l a s s i f i e d those t a s k s i n which t h e r e was c o n c u r r -  ence i n t h e r a t i n g s o f g r e a t e r than 757„ as h a v i n g a h i g h l e v e l o f agreement, those between 607o and 15% as h a v i n g a medium l e v e l o f agreement, and those below 607o as h a v i n g a low l e v e l o f agreement. A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of d a t a j u s t i f i e d our concerns about the j u d g i n g and a d e c i s i o n was made t o u t i l i z e t h e t h r e e - p o i n t s c a l e and e l i m i n ate two r a t i n g s c h e d u l e s as was suggested  above.  Our a n a l y s i s of the d a t a on both c r i t e r i a i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n over 507> o f t h e t a s k s , a h i g h l e v e l of agreement was o b t a i n e d between judges on the r a t i n g s c a l e . o f agreement.  I n o n l y 207 o f the t a s k r a t i n g s was t h e r e a low l e v e l o  F u r t h e r a n a l y s i s o f these t a s k s suggests t h a t the d i f f i c u l t y  i n r a t i n g was p r e s e n t e d m a i n l y by the r a t i n g s c a l e and t h a t i f t h e c h o i c e s a v a i l a b l e were decreased t h i s d i f f i c u l t y would be e l i m i n a t e d . o f p r o b l e m a t i c items suggested  The a n a l y s i s  t h a t i n o n l y f o u r cases c o u l d t h e r a t i n g  d i f f i c u l t i e s be a t t r i b u t e d t o a l a c k of c l a r i t y i n w o r d i n g or t o s u b j e c t i v e  71. p e r c e p t i o n s o f the t a s k s by the j u d g e s .  As w e l l , i t was n o t i c e d t h a t a  g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t a s k s were r a t e d a t the e n d - p o i n t s  of the scale.  This  dichotomy c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e the assignment o f t a s k s t o p e r s o n n e l w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f competence. A n a l y s i s of the d a t a a l s o r e v e a l e d a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c r i t e r i a o f "worker autonomy" and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " .  A t o t a l o f 118  out o f 144 t a s k s had the same modal agreement on the two c r i t e r i a .  Of  t h e s e , f i f t y items r e c e i v e d a low r a t i n g and s i x t y - t h r e e r e c e i v e d a h i g h rating. both  Of t h e s e , a t o t a l o f s i x t y - o n e t a s k s had a h i g h r a t i n g l e v e l on  criteria. Of t h e r e m a i n i n g t w e n t y - s i x t a s k s , e l e v e n had r a t i n g s a t a d j a c e n t  l e v e l s , b u t these and the o t h e r f i f t e e n t a s k s c o u l d n o t be c o n s i d e r e d t o have an a p p r e c i a b l e degree o f r e l a t i o n s h i p .  Notwithstanding  the above, i t  appears t h a t i t i s f e a s i b l e t o a s s i g n t h e t a s k s on t h e b a s i s of t h e i r  rating  on the c r i t e r i o n o f "worker autonomy". In that:  c o n c l u d i n g t h e d i s c u s s i o n on study f i n d i n g s i t i s apparent  (1) i t i s p o s s i b l e t o develop  a l i s t o f t a s k s which a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b -  es t h e s e r v i c e s p r o v i d e d t o C h i l d r e n i n F o s t e r - C a r e ;  (2) t h a t these t a s k s  can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a c c o r d i n g t o the c r i t e r i a o f "worker autonomy" and "task complexity";  (3) t h a t items tend t o be d i c h o t o m i z e d  on t h e r a t i n g s c a l e ;  at high/low  levels  (4) t h e r e i s a h i g h r e l a t i o n s h i p between the c r i t e r i a  chosen f o r t h e study; and (5) i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o make the d i s c r i m i n a t i o n s necessary  on a f i v e - p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e . From the p r e c e d i n g f i n d i n g s we have drawn t h e f o l l o w i n g  ations.  The r e l a t i v e ease w i t h which a l i s t o f t a s k s was developed  a r e a o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d by C.A.S. (Vancouver) suggests to attempt  implici n one  that i t i s f e a s i b l e  t o d e l i n e a t e the t a s k s w i t h i n a l l o f the agency's programmes as  the b e g i n n i n g stage i n e s t a b l i s h i n g a more e f f e c t i v e model f o r s t a f f  deployment.  S e c o n d l y , the h i g h degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between "worker  autonomy" and " t a s k c o m p l e x i t y " i n d i c a t e s the former v a r i a b l e i s a s u f f i c i e n t c r i t e r i o n t o d i f f e r e n t i a t e t a s k s when viewed from the s t a n d p o i n t of w o r k e r s ' a c t i v i t i e s .  T h i s does n o t , however, p r e c l u d e  of a s s e s s i n g the t a s k s from the c l i e n t s ' v i e w p o i n t .  the importance  T h i r d l y , the h i g h / l o w  dichotomy i n the r a t i n g of the t a s k s p e r m i t s r e l a t i v e ease i n t h e i r assignment t o s t a f f w i t h d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s o f competence.  Other  factors,  such as the t a s k o r d e r sequence, adequate s t a f f i n g , and p e r s o n a l i t y f a c t o r s w i l l , of n e c e s s i t y , have t o be c o n s i d e r e d .  We suggest t h a t  interrelated-  ness o f t a s k s i n t i m a t e s the use of the team approach f o r t h e i r F i n a l l y , the d i f f i c u l t i e s  performance.  i n h e r e n t i n the rating.f.scale suggest i t s modif-  i c a t i o n i n f u t u r e s t u d i e s t o one w i t h fewer c h o i c e s . I n c o n c l u d i n g , we propose t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h should  continue  by d e v e l o p i n g a p i l o t p r o j e c t which would a s s i g n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t a s k s t o v a r i o u s l e v e l s of p e r s o n n e l i n g them.  and assess  The r e s u l t s would  t h e i r l e v e l of competence i n p e r f o r m -  i n d i c a t e the manner i n which r a t e d t a s k s c o u l d  be a s s i g n e d t o and performed by d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s t a f f .  The r e s u l t s  may  have major i m p l i c a t i o n s i n r e g a r d t o the s t r u c t u r e f o r d e l i v e r i n g s e r v i c e s to  clients.  73. B I B L. I 0 G R A P H Y 1.  4.  6.  8.  Allerhand,  M e l v i n E.  " S e l e c t i o n of Cottage P e r s o n n e l " , C h i l d W e l f a r e , V o l . XXXVII, No. 9, pp. 14-18.  Baker, Mary R.  "Approaches t o a D i f f e r e n t i a l Use of S t a f f " , S o c i a l Casework, V o l . 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"A Theoretical Scheme for Determining Roles of Professional and Non-Professional Personnel", Social Work, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 22-28.  27.  Riessman, Frank  "The 'Helper' Therapy P r i n c i p l e " , Social Work, V o l . 10, No. 2, pp. 27-32.  28.  Riessman, Frank  "Self-Help Among the Poor", Transaction, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 32-36,  29.  Rosen, Alex.  "The Pervasive Shortage of Professional Personnel", Children, Vol." 7, No. 2, p. 72.  30.  Russell, E l l e r y  "Case Aides Free Casework Time", Child Welfare, Vol. XXXVII, No. 4, pp. 22-25.  31.  Russell, E l l e r y  "The Real Case Aid i s Standing Up", Child Welfare, Vol. XLV, No. 4, 'pp;. 202-205.  32.  Schwartz, Edward E.  "A Strategy of Research on the Manpower Problem", Manpower i n Social Welfare, Edward E. Schwartz (Editor), New York: National Association of Social Workers, pp. 145-158.  33.  Shea, Margaret  "Specialized Workers", Child Welfare, Vol. XLV, No. 4, pp. 205-208.  34.  Siegel, Sidney  Non-Parametric S t a t i s t i c s Fd^ Behavioral Sciences, New York: McGraw-Hill Co., 1956.  35.  Thompson, Jane, and Riley, Donald P.  "Use of Professionals i n Public Welfare", Social Work, V o l . 11, No. 1, pp. 16-21.  36.  Turabian, Kate L.  A Manual For Writers, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 19!55.  37.  United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.  The Use of Case Aides i n Child Welfare. A Meeting on the Appropriate and Selective Use of Personnel i n Child Welfare - June, 1959.  38.  United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare.  U t i l i z a t i o n of Social Work Staff with Different Levels of Education. December, 1965.  39.  Weed, Verne, and Denham, William H.  "Toward More E f f e c t i v e Use of the Nonprofessional Worker: A Recent Experiment':', Social Work, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 29-35.  40.  Younghusband, Eileen  "A Comparative View of Manpower Problems: The B r i t i s h Approach",, Social Service Review, Vol. XXXIX, No. 4, pp. 454-456.  76. APPENDIX A SUMMARY OF  - EXPERIENCE SURVEY  The f o l l o w i n g r e v e a l s some p e r c e p t i o n s of what has been seen as problem areas w i t h r e g a r d to the optimum use of workers i n the Vancouver Children's Aid Society. These remarks* have r e s u l t e d from our summer.'s e x p e r i e n c e (1966) as caseworkers i n the above agency. (a) A t p r e s e n t t h e r e i s a s h o r t a g e of p r o f e s s i o n a l s o c i a l workers i n a g e n c i e s w i t h i n the Vancouver a r e a and i n the m a j o r i t y of cases the workers who are a v a i l a b l e are not u t i l i z e d to the utmost of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l . T h i s i s n o n e t h e l e s s t r u e at the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d S o c i e t y . The p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f a t t h i s agency, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of a few i n s t a n c e s when case a i d e s are a v a i l a b l e , p e r f o r m a l l t a s k s which, run the gamut from c o m p l e t i n g placement s l i p s and camp forms or d r i v i n g c h i l d r e n to d i f f e r e n t appointments to i n t e n s i v e casework such as h e l p i n g a c h i l d a d j u s t to the f a c t t h a t h i s p a r e n t s no l o n g e r want him or h e l p i n g an unwed mother come to make a d e c i s i o n as t o what she w i l l do about her unborn c h i l d . Because of the s h o r t a g e o f w o r k e r s , p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f are f i n d i n g i t f r u s t r a t i n g i n terms of f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r p o t e n t i a l and w o r k i n g toward t h e i r g o a l s w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o p r e v e n t i v e treatment and t h i s i s p a r t l y due to the f a c t t h a t many v a l u a b l e hours are spent on l e s s important t a s k s which c o u l d be done by n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l w o r k e r s , such as case a i d e s or w e l f a r e a i d e s . (b) There were a l i m i t e d number of case a i d e s a t C.A.S. and the agency employed a few w e l f a r e a i d e s d u r i n g the summer. However, i t was our f e e l i n g t h a t t h e i r r o l e s were somewhat p o o r l y d e f i n e d and the degree to which these p e r s o n n e l were used depended upon the p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l and the a t t i t u d e of each s u p e r v i s o r toward the u t i l i z a t i o n of the s e r v i c e s of a n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l worker. I n some cases the s u p e r v i s o r s and l i n e workers were v e r y r e c e p t i v e toward the a i d e s , w h i l e i n o t h e r cases the case a i d e s were not encouraged to f u l f i l l a p u r p o s e f u l r o l e . (c) D e c i s i o n s must be made as to what can be done to improve the s i t u a t i o n r e g a r d i n g heavy c a s e l o a d s w i t h i n which are found many time consumi n g t a s k s t h a t are n e v e r t h e l e s s n e c e s s a r y . I t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y f o r the agency, i f i t i s c o n s i d e r i n g u t i l i z i n g the s e r v i c e s of i t s s t a f f t o f u l l advantage, t o d e f i n e the r o l e s t h a t each worker, whether p r o f e s s i o n a l or n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l , i s required to perform. T h i s n e c e s s i t a t e s assessment of e d u c a t i o n of p e r s o n n e l and l o o k i n g at the t a s k s t o be performed and the development of c r i t e r i a whereby the c o m p l e x i t y of the t a s k t o g e t h e r w i t h the a b i l i t y of the worker might be judged. I n the d e f i n i n g o f t a s k s i t w i l l be n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s i d e r how much each t a s k can be p a r t i a l i z e d . Supervision o f n o n - p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a f f a l s o needs to be c o n s i d e r e d . (d) Data needed t o make d e c i s i o n s r e g a r d i n g the optimum use of s t a f f would i n c l u d e the r e v i e w of s o c i a l work l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t e d t o the u t i l i z a t i o n of s t a f f w i t h s p e c i a l references to a c h i l d w e l f a r e s e t t i n g , agency case r e c o r d s , tapes o f r e c o r d e d i n t e r v i e w s , i n t e r v i e w s w i t h workers to f i n d out what they see as t h e i r r o l e , ; job s p e c i f i c a t i o n s or d e s c r i p t i o n s and p o s s i b l y c l i e n t i n t e r v i e w s . (e) Data would be a v a i l a b l e from the Vancouver C h i l d r e n ' s A i d Soci e t y i n g e n e r a l and from s p e c i f i c departments w i t h i n the agency i n p a r t i c u l a r .  APPENDIX B INSTRUCTIONS  The following i s a l i s t of tasks which have been delineated in the area of child care s p e c i f i c a l l y i n foster homes. We want to know how many times each task i s performed d a i l y during the week. Please place a t a l l y mark i n the appropriate column beside each task after i t has been performed. If a task i s of a seasonal nature (e.g. Christmas, camping, etc.), please place a t a l l y mark i n the seasonal column.  them under  If you perform tasks that are not l i s t e d , please incorporate "Omissions".  • I f you have c r i t i c i s m s , questions or comments to make, place them under "Comments". If problems are encountered, during the evening.  c a l l Bob Adams at 733-9726  As i t i s essential f o r research purposes that this record be as accurate as possible, please ensure the form i s completed d a i l y . Thank you for your cooperation.  N.B.  IN THE FINAL COLUMN, PLEASE CHECK ANY TASK YOU HAVE PERFORMED IN THE PAST BUT NOT DURING THIS WEEK. PLEASE NOTE THAT "TASKS PERFORMED" APPLY TO BOTH WARDS AND NON-WARDS IN FOSTER HOMES. PLEASE PUT "OMISSIONS" AND "COMMENTS" ON THE BACK OF THE RESPECTIVE PAGES.  78. APPENDIX C INSTRUCTION FOR  JUDGES  The t a s k s are t o be judged by two c r i t e r i a - Task and Worker Autonomy, which are d e f i n e d as f o l l o w s :  Complexity  Task C o m p l e x i t y . The number of o p e r a t i o n s i n h e r e n t i n a s i n g l e t a s k , v a r y i n g from l e a s t complex ( s i n g l e o p e r a t i o n ) t o most complex (many o p e r a t i o n s ) . Worker Autonomy. The r e l a t i v e l a c k o f e x t e r n a l guides and e x t e r n a l c o n t r o l s upon the behaviour of the w o r k e r , who f u n c t i o n s a c c o r d i n g t o h i s i n t e r n a l i z e d p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , d e r i v e d from p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge, e t h i c s and c o n t r o l s . For each t a s k we want your o p i n i o n as t o the degree of c o m p l e x i t y of the t a s k and the autonomy r e q u i r e d by the worker i n p e r f o r m i n g the t a s k . T h i s w i l l be done by the use of the f o l l o w i n g r a t i n g s c a l e : 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  Very low Low Medium High Very h i g h  You w i l l be g i v e n two i d e n t i c a l l i s t s o f t a s k and the f i r s t one i s t o be r a t e d w i t h r e g a r d t o Task C o m p l e x i t y . P l e a s e p l a c e a check mark under the number you choose f o r each t a s k on the l i s t . A f t e r c o m p l e t i o n and c o l l e c t i o n of t h i s f i r s t l i s t the second i d e n t i c a l l i s t w i l l then be d i s t r i b u t e d and you w i l l be asked t o r a t e i t , i n the same way, w i t h r e s p e c t t o Worker Autonomy. We have taken examples from;:the l i t e r a t u r e . The s e t t i n g i s a f a m i l y c o u r t agency. Here i s an example of a t a s k of v e r y low c o m p l e x i t y ; . "Check d r i v i n g r e c o r d s when t h e r e are q u e s t i o n s " . F o l l o w i n g i s an example of a t a s k of v e r y h i g h  complexity:  "Help c l i e n t t o understand f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g h i s behaviour during v i s i t a t i o n " . An example of a t a s k of v e r y low Worker Autonomy i s : "Transport  clients".  An example of a t a s k of v e r y h i g h Worker Autonomy i s : "Help c l i e n t t o understand toward spouse". students  his hostile  behaviour  I f t h e r e are any q u e s t i o n s , p l e a s e f e e l f r e e t o ask any of the present.  79.  APPENDIX D  LIST OF TASKS WITH JUDGES' RATINGS ON AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY  Complexity/^ /Autonomy  % agreement  3  TASKS  3 -point  A.  1 = low<607o 2 =medium 6 0 . 7 5 7 3 =high>757o  1.  PLACEMENT IN FOSTER HOME Worker's assessment and deci s i o n to place c h i l d i n f o s t e r home  2.  C o n s u l t a t i o n r e g a r d i n g deci s i o n with supervisor  3.  P r e p a r a t i o n f o r "permanent p l a n n i n g " conference  4.  " N o t i c e t o Homefinder"  5.  "Permanent P l a n n i n g " conference  6.  Discussion with prospective foster parents re f e a s i b i l i t y of placement  7.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h i l d ' s h i s t o r y to prospective foster parents  8.  E v a l u a t i o n o f f o s t e r home f o r c h i l d t o be p l a c e d  9.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f placement / to c h i l d  10.  11.  I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f placement t o n a t u r a l p a r e n t s and/or r e l a t i v e s Pre-placement v i s i t  XX V Vo XX \ X X X XXX XXX  X X X X  XXX  X  XXX V XXX V V XXX /o V °/„ X V V XXV V V XXXX  X X X X X X  V  o  /  v,  °/ Vo 0  V  x  0  0  /  0  '6  5  12.  Placement o f c h i l d home  i n foster  scale  X  0  5  0  x  3.  o  TASKS 13.  Observation of child's r e l a t i o n ship to foster parents and foster s i b l i n g s  14.  Evaluating child's to foster home  adjustment  15.  Diagnosis of adjustment problems to foster home  16.  Treatment of adjustment problems to foster home  17 .  Discussion of child's needs with foster parents  18.  Determining needs of child i n foster home (physical & psycho-social)  19.  Providing needs of child i n foster home related to above  20.  V i s i t foster home  21.  Discuss foster home rates & payment with foster parents  22.  Discuss with foster parents their proposed adoption of foster child  23.  Submit placement s l i p  B.  XXXXX XXXXv V XX X /o V XX X X 0 V XXX X '0  X  XXXX  X  XXV XX Vi V X X Xx X  X X X  %XXXX XXXXX  X  3  1  X X X x  2  'X  MEDICAL RESOURCES  24.  Arranging medical appointments with doctors and dentists  25.  Arranging medical appointments with foster parents  XXXXV XXXXV  26.  Driving foster parents and/or child to or from appointment  XXXXX  X X  27.  Arranging for medical sheet to be sent to doctors  XXXXX  X  X  81.  TASKS 28.  Obtain child's medical history from natural and foster parents, Public Health Department  29.  Compile information for (pink) medical sheet  30.  Ensure that child's innoculations are up to date  31.  32.  33. 34. 35. 36. 37.  38.  39. 40.  41.  42.  43.  Interpret medical information to natural parents and/or relatives Interpret medical information to foster parents  v  \ v  v„  5  % \%  \  \ \  Interpret medical information to c h i l d Work through medical problems with child  V  v 2  v  \  3  v  3  /  v  v  %  Drive c h i l d to and/or from hospital  v  7  v  5  v  6  Explain child's symptoms to doctor  5  V v  Vo  /  2  v  2  v  3  v  6  % V  \ \ \\  Vo v  5  v  x  3  0  °/ °/  5  7  /  3  v  3  °/ 0  2  3 /  '0  Admit c h i l d to hospital  Ensure medical records are up-to-date  3  V  3  Referral of child to other agencies (e.g. Burnaby Mental Health)  V i s i t child i n hospital  v  5  Compile Social History of child  Discharge child from hospital  2  v ;  t  \ Vo V \ \ \ °/„ \ Vo  Psychiatric consultation  v  3  v  3  />  2  v, v  3  v  3  v  3  v  2  44.  45. 46.  47.  48.  Prepare Medical and Social History for Child Welfare Division  V  Interpret medical information to other agency personnel  °/„ V  0  Arrange for extra services for foster parents with sick child (e.g. Homemaker, f i n a n c i a l services) Prepare written report requesting special dental care (e.g. Orthodontia) Arrange f o r funerals  X  X v  2  XX vXX v  2  v  3  2  X Vo  3  X V V, X X X Vo 2  c. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53.  2  v  3  v  2  X V, v  2  CLOTHING AND ALLOWANCE F i l l out clothing voucher  10  /  7  Send clothing voucher to foster parents Interpret clothing p o l i c y to foster parents  v  Interpret clothing p o l i c y to child  %  Arrange miscellaneous services (e.g. shoe repairs, haircuts, hairdo s) 1  54.  Request f o r additional clothing  55.  Take child  shopping  56.  U t i l i z i n g shopping as constructive experience i n handling money  57.  Obtain allowance f o r child  58.  v  •  Plan constructive use of allowance with child  2  X X %XXX Vo X V XX X '0  v  2  v  3  2  X v  3  X X  XXX X X X V Vo X / / v X X  X X X  XXXX  X X v  l  5  2  2  2  3  \ Vo Vo \ X \ v2 X X  V  6  2  83.  TASKS 59.  60.  61.  D.  T r a n s f e r F a m i l y o r Youth Allowance I n t e r p r e t Youth and F a m i l y Allowance t o f o s t e r parents Help youth o b t a i n employment (part-time, f u l l - t i m e )  X XX X °/„ X X X  X X X  X XX XX X X XXXX \ XX XX XX 'XX X X X % XXXX XXXX X / XXX \ XX\ V X / XXX XXXX XXXX  X X X X  V  2  6  V  2  V  °/  v  /o  MISCELLANEOUS  62.  Recording  63.  Statistics  64.  C o m p o s t ; l e t t e r s and memo's  65.  Reimbursements from " P e t t y Cash"  66.  Obtain car allowance  67 .  Record  car mileage  68.  W r i t e Summary o f f i l e  69.  C l o s i n g and/or T r a n s f e r o f file  70.  Read m a i l and f i l e s  l  Take snapshots  72.  Purchase g i f t s o r cards f o r foster children  of children  73.  Arrangement f o r t a x i  74.  V i s i t child at Juvenile D e n t e n t i o n Home  3  v„  4  2  71.  V  2  7  '0  2  :  X X X X X X  84.  TASKS 75. 76.  77 . 78.  79.  Send or s e r v e n o t i c e of h e a r i n g to n a t u r a l parents  v  O b t a i n and/or p r o c e s s c o u r t documents (e.g. a f f i d a v i t s , advertising, v i t a l statistics) A r r a n g e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to c o u r t for n a t u r a l parents Arrange t r a n s p o r t a t i o n to from c o u r t f o r c h i l d and f o s t e r parents  and  P r e p a r e statement f o r c o u r t  X  2  X XX  2  2  /  T e s t i f y i n court  Conference w i t h c o u r t worker or" s u p e r v i s o r  82.  P r e p a r e d i a g n o s t i c statement for f i l e  83. 84. 85. 86.  I n t e r p r e t c o u r t p r o c e d u r e to child I n t e r p r e t court procedure to n a t u r a l p a r e n t s or r e l a t i v e s I n t e r p r e t court procedure to f o s t e r parents Casework w i t h c h i l d about s i t u a t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n court  X '%  %  XX XX  X  x  v  3  0  v  0  5  0/ 0 7  /  7  89.  Casework w i t h f o s t e r p a r e n t s about s i t u a t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n court  /  0  0 7  '0  X X  %  %  7  0  X\ XXX Vo  V 1  2  0  V  D i s c u s s case w i t h officer  Acknowledge p o l i c e r e p o r t  Vo  V  88.  90.  X X  Vo  X  V  probation  X 1  Casework w i t h p a r e n t s about s i t u a t i o n which r e s u l t e d i n court  87 .  X  X X <Y X %/ X X XXX XXXX XX X V A). X X XXX »/  81.  XX  4  2  80.  2  X X X X X X  v  3  X  91.  Discuss s i t u a t i o n w i t h p o l i c e  92.  I n t e r p r e t c o u r t p r o c e d u r e and p l a n t o another agency i n contact with n a t u r a l parents  E.  %%  XXX  X  XXXXX  X  XXXXX XXXX XXXX XX XX XX XX X XX XX X X X XXXX X °/l X XXX / X  X X X X X  XXXXX XXXXX  X X  SCHOOL  93.  Prepare  94.  Attend school  95.  Complete s c h o o l forms  f o r school  conference  conference  2 /l  5  96.  Arrange f o r c h i l d to attend s c h o o l or c o n t i n u e i n s c h o o l  97 .  Transfer child  98.  A s s i s t f o s t e r p a r e n t s w i t h '•• c h i l d ' s enrollment  to school  99.  Read and r e c o r d s c h o o l r e p o r t s  100.  Discuss c h i l d ' s s i t u a t i o n with school personnel  101.  A s s i s t c h i l d w i t h problems i n s c h o o l areas  102.  Help w i t h v o c a t i o n a l p l a n n i n g  4  v,  2  v„  4  5  V  7  6  F.  v  2  X X X X  RECREATION  103.  Contact camp r e s o u r c e personnel  1QA.  Complete camp forms  TASKS 105. 106.  107.  D i s c u s s camp w i t h c h i l d D i s c u s s camp w i t h f o s t e r parents D i s c u s s camp w i t h n a t u r a l parents  108.  Arrange camp  109.  Arrange f o r s p e c i a l c l o t h i n g and equipment f o r camp  110.  O b t a i n and d i s t r i b u t e t i c k e t s for s p e c i a l functions  111.  /o /  0  x  0  transportation to  V  '6  P r e p a r e and p r e s e n t r e p o r t t o Youth Case Committee ( f o r d r i \ s licence, vocational training, etc.) 0 /  112.  Enrol c h i l d i n organizations (eg. Boys C l u b s , YMCA)  113.  Arrange f o r s p e c i a l l e s s o n s and courses  114.  Obtain "Permission t o Marry"  115.  Arrange  116.  Casework r e g a r d i n g r e c r e ational a c t i v i t i e s with child  G. 117.  o u t i n g s ( p a r k , beach)  /  0  X X X X  x X X v X X X X V '0 X V0  Xx X X X X V X 7 X V  2  5  X X X X X X  i  2  X X X X X  X X X X  7 /o  X X •X X X X  X X X X X XX X X XX X  X X '" X  V  X X X X X  5  /„  V  1  °/ 0  Vol :  V /o  FAMILY VISITS Coordinate f a m i l y v i s i t X  118.  Drive c h i l d to v i s i t  119.  Prepare c h i l d f o r v i s i t  0  V'2  °/ '0  c  87 .  120.  121.  Prepare parents or r e l a t i v e s for v i s i t Supervise v i s i t  V V X X v, v °/ °/ X X v, V„ X ., X % vX X 3  1 /  ' 0 ' 0  122.  123. 124.  H.  Interpret reaction of child's v i s i t to f o s t e r parents Help f o s t e r p a r e n t d e a l w i t h child's reaction to v i s i t I n t e r p r e t t o agency p e r s o n n e l t o c h i l d ' s and f a m i l y ' s reaction to v i s i t  127. 128. 129.  130. 131.  132.  /  0  0  0  0  f  •  3  /  3  1  /o Vo  X X X  X X vX X  X X X X  v  3  WORK WITH FAMILY  125. - D i s c u s s and d e c i d e upon l o n g term g o a l s w i t h f a m i l y 126.  V  r  Casework s e r v i c e toward goals Halp f a m i l y f i n d  accommodation  Apply f o r low-rental  housing  V  /  V /o  2  C o n t i n u a l assessment o f f a m i l y ' s a b i l i t y t o care f o r child  V  Preparing return  V  family for child's  0  '0  X v X / X X  3  0  3  v v  3  5  3  ' 0  V  X % X  A s s i s t i n g family to prepare for court concerning r e t u r n of t h e i r c h i l d .  V  X X X  ;  V  3  3  7  V  /  v v, v  10  X X X v X X  P r e p a r i n g f a m i l y f o r permanent or temporary s e p a r a t i o n from child  'o  : 6  V  X  3  88.  TASKS I. 133  TERMINATION OF PLACEMENT Assessment o f and d e c i s i o n for termination of placement  134  Consultation with supervisor re t e r m i n a t i o n  X X  135  A r r a n g i n g f o r new r e s o u r c e (new f o s t e r home, own home, i n s t i t u t i o n , a d o p t i o n home)  X  136  Interpretation regarding t e r m i n a t i o n t o new r e s o u r c e  137  Organize t r a n s f e r o f c h i l d to new r e s o u r c e  138  T r a n s f e r c h i l d and p e r s o n a l effects  139 140  Store personal e f f e c t s I n t e r p r e t new r e s o u r c e t o c h i l d I n t e r p r e t new r e s o u r c e t o parents or r e l a t i v e s  142  I n t e r p r e t new r e s o u r c e t o f o s t e r parents  143  Transport c h i l d to Adoption Conference  144  Present c h i l d at Adoption Conference  /  0  V  X X X X X X  XX °/ X X X %XX X X / X X / X% X "/ X X 7 X X Vo X X X X X X XX X X V  7  4  10  7  ./o 141  7  '0  X X X X X X X X v  X X X X X X x  3  X X X X  89. APPENDIX E  COMPARED MODES (% AGREEMENT) ON A 5 POINT SCALE Complexity 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  81.8 36.3 63.6 45.4 54.5 45.4 63.6 72.7 70.0 63.6 72.7 60.0 54.5 63.6 81.8 72.7 45.4 54.5 45.4 36.3 36.3 72.7 81.8  24. 45.4 25. 45.4 26. 54.5 27. • 81.8 28. 36.3 54.5 29. 63.6 30. 31. ' 54.5 45.4 32. 40.0 33. 72.7 34. 63.6 35. 36. 54.5 37. 45.4 63.6 38. 45.4 39. 40. 45.4 41. 45.4 42. 45.4 63.6 43. 45.4 44. 45. 45.4. 46. 45.4  Autonomy 55.5 77.7 55.5 66.6 44.4 44.4 33.3 44.4 33.3 33.3 55.5 66.6 33.3 33.3 66.6 55.5 55.5 44.4 55.5 22.2 33.3 55.5 77.7 55.5 55.5 66.6 66.6 22.2 22.2 22.2 22.2 55.5 22.2 44.4 66.6 11.1 22.2 77.7 22.2 22.2 33.3 22.2 44.4 55.5 22.2 33.3  Complexity 47:-, 48.  Autonomy  54.5 27.2  33.3 22.2  49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61.  90.9 100.0 45.4 54.5 90.9 45.4 45.4 63.6 72.7 72.7 81.8 36.3 36.3  77.7 77.7 44.4 55.5 77.7 77.7 33.3 44.4 66.6 44.4 66.6 33.3 44.4  62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73.  36.3 36.3 54.5 81.8 100.0" 100.0 36.3 36.3 36.3 72.7 72.7 100.0  77.7 11.1 33.3 66.6 88.8 77.7 55.5 44.4 22.2 66.6 55.5 88.8  74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.  36.3 45.4 27.2 72.7 72.7 54.5 45.4 72.7 81.8 63.6 63.6 63.6 90.9 81.8 54.5 54.5 54.5  22.2 22.2 44.4 55.5 55.5 33.3 55.5 66.6 88.8 66.6 55.5 55.5 88.8 88.8 22.2 33.3 55.5  91. 92. 93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116.  Complexity  Autonomy  54.5 54.5  33.3 55.5  36.3 .27.2 45.4 45.4 45.4 45.4 45.4 63.6 63.6 63.6 45.4 72.7 72.7 54.5 45.4 72.7 • 45.4 81.8 81.8 27.2 45.4 50.0 63.6 45.4  55.5 66.6 44.4 33.3 33.3 22.2 44.4 77.7 44.4 66.6 33.3 66.6 55.5 66.6 22.2 66.6 77.7 66.6 44.4 55.5 44.4 22.2 44.4 77.7  Complexity  Autonomy  117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124.  45.4 72.7 72.7 72.7 80.0 50.0 72.7 45.4  22.2 22.2 77.7 77.7 55.5 44.4 77.7 44.4  125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132.  81.8 90.9 36.3 40.0 54.5 54.5 1.00.0 54.5  66.6 77.7 44.4 55.5 55.5 55.5 88.8 55.5  133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144.  72.7 54.5 63.6 63.6 45.4 63.6 90.9 45.4 54.5 63.6 72.7 27.2  66.6 55.5 44.4 66.6 66.6 44.4 77.7 55.5 44.4 55.5 55.5 33.3  APPENDIX F COMPARED MODES (% AGREEMENT) ON A 3 POINT SCALE Complexity  Autonomy  1. 2. 3. 4, 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.  90.9 72.7 72.7 72.7 81.8 90.9 90.9 90.9 90.9 100.0 81.8 70.0 54.5 90.9 100.0 100.0 72.7 81.8 45.4 45.4 54.5 100.0 100.0  100.0 88.8 77.7 66.6 66.6 88.8 100.0 88.8 100.0 100.0 55,5 66.6 33.3 77.7 100.0 88.8 66.6 88.8 66.6 44.4 77.7 88.8 77.7  24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46.  72.7 72.7 90.9 90.9 36.3 63.6 90.9 45.4 5415 70.0 100.0 91.8 72.6 45.4 90.9 63.6 72.7 45.4 72.7 63.6 45.4 36.3 45.4  77.7 66.6 77.7 77.7 66.6 66.6 87.5 62.5 55;5 66.6 88.8 88.8 55.5 33.3 77.7 77.7 88.8 66.6 77.7 44.4 66.6 55.5 33.3  X  Complexity  Autonomy  47. 48.  63.6 36.3  66.6 55.5  49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61.  90.9 100.0 45.4 54.5 90.9 81.8 63.6 63.6 72.7 81.8 100.0 45.4 72.7  77.7 77.7 44.4 55.5 88.8 88.8 44.4 44.4 88.8 66.6 88.8 55.5 55.5  62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73.  54.5 •54.5 54.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 54.5 45.4 36.3 100.0 90.9 100.0  88.8 44.4 33.3 87.5 88.8 77.7 66.6 44.4 55.5 77.7 77.7 88.8  74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88. 89. 90.  63.6 63.6 45.4 81.8 81.8 81.8 72.7 90.9 90.9 100.0 100.0 90.9 100.0 100.0 45.4 90.9 90.9  66.6 55.5 55.5 66.6 77.7 55.5 88.8 88.8 100.0 88.8 88.8 88.8 100.0 100.0 77.7 100.0 66.6  Complexity  Autonomy  91. 92.  45.4 72.7  66.6 66.6  93. 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 99. 100. 101. 102. 103. 104. 105. 106. 107. 108. 109. 110. 111. 112. 113. 114. 115. 116.  45.4 45.4 90.9 45.4 72.7 54.5 81.8 81.8 90.9 81.8 81.8 100.0 72.7 54.5 45.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 81.8 63.6 54.5 50.0 90.9 45.4  66.6 77.7 55.5 55.5 66.6 66.6 66.6 88.8 88.8 66.6 55.5 11 n 55.5 66.6 33.3 88.8 88.8 88.8 44.4 55.5 44.4 22.2 66.6 77.7  Complexity  Autonomy  117. 118. 119. 120. 121. 122. 123. 124.  45.4 90.9 81.8 81.8 80.0 90.0 100.0 54.5  33.3 44.4 100.0 88.8 55.5 100.0 100.0 77.7  125. 126. 127. 128. 129. 130. 131. 132.  100.0 100.0 36.3 70.0 90.9 100.0 100.0 90.9  77.7 88.8 55.5 88.8 77.7 100.0 88.8 77.7  133. 134. 135. 136. 137. 138. 139. 140. 141. 142. 143. 144.  90.9 63.6 100.0 90.9 45.4 72.7 100.0 90.9 90.9 81.8 100.0 36.3  77.7 66.6 66.6 88.8 66.6 55.5 88.8 100.0 88.8 88.8 77.7 44.4  APPENDIX G CATEGORIES OF TASKS FOR AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY USING THE 3-POINT RATING SCALE FOR EACH LEVEL OF AGREEMENT AUTONOMY 60 - 75%  >75%  <60%  Levels of Autonomy ( l o - h£  21,23, 24,26, 27,30, 38,39,40, 42,49,50, 53,54,57, 59,65,66,67, 71,72,73,78, 104,108,109, 110,128,139,143,  1,2,3,6,7, 8,9,10,14,15, 16,18,22,34, 35,62,80,81, 82,83,84,85,86, 87,88,89,94, 100,101,116,119, 120,122,123,124, 125,126,129,130, 131,132,133,136, 140,141,142,  4,25, 28,29, 41,47, 77,90, 97,98, 99,115,  106, 137,  5,12,17, 19,31,33, 44,58,68, 74,91,92,93, 102,134,135,  20,46, 48,55, 60,75, 76,95, 96,103, 111,112, 114,118, 127,138,  36,43, 52,69, 105,107, 117,121,  11,13,32, 45,61,64, 70,79,144,  63-1,3, 37-1,2,3, 113-1,2, 51-1,2, 56-2,3,  COMPLEXITY  23,26,27, 30,38,49, 50,53,54, 59,65,66, 67,71,72,73, 77,78,90,95, 99,103,104, 108,109,110, 115,118,139, 143,  111, 121,  <60%  60 - 75%  ,>75%  1,5,6,7,8,9, 10,11,14,15,16, 18,22,34,35, 58,79,81,82, 83,84,85,86, 87,89,100,101, 102,119,120, 122,123,125,126, 129,130,131,132, 133,135,136,140, 141,142,  43,56, 4,24, 105, 25,29, 39,40,42, 47,55,57, 75,97,112, 128,138,  2,3,12, 17,33,36, 61,74,80, 92,134,  20,21, 60,63, 69,76, 98,113,  13,31, 45,51, 52,64, 88,91, 106,114, 116, 28-1,3, 41-1,2, 44-2,3, 46-2,3, 48-1,3, 70-1,3, 96-1,2, 117-1,3,  19,32,37 , 62,68,93, 94,107, 124,137, 127-1,2, 144-1,3,  95.  APPENDIX H  TASKS SHOWING:PERCENT AGREEMENT FOR SELECTED COMBINATIONS OF AUTONOMY AND COMPLEXITY RATINGS Level 1  Percent Agreement (a) >75% agreement on autonomy  1,6,7,8,9,10,14,15, 16,18,22,34,35,81,82, 83,84,85,86,87,89,100, y-101,119,120,122,123,125,126, 129,130,131,132,133,136,140, 141,142,  23,26,27,30,38,49, 50,53,54,59,65,66,67, 71,72,73,78,104,108, 109,110,139,143, .j  >757o agreement  on complexity  (b) >757» agreement  on autonomy  60-757<> agreement  28,39,40,42,57,128  Level 3  Level 2  2,3,80,  ;  on complexity (c) >757» agreement  on autonomy  <607  o  21,  62,94,124,  agreement  on complexity (d)  6 0 - 7 5 % agreement on autonomy 77,90,99,115, >757<> agreement  5,58,102,135,  on complexity (e)  60-757o agreement on autonomy 4,25,29,47,97, 60-757o agreement  12,17,33,74,92, 134,  on complexity (f)  60-757o agreement  on autonomy  <607o agreement  98,  106,  19,31,68,91,93,  121.  11,79,  43,105,  61,  52,  32,  on complexity (g) <607„ agreement on autonomy 95,103,118,  >7 57o agreement on complexity  (h) £607„ agreement on autonomy 55,75,112,138 60-757o agreement  on complexity ( i ) <607 agreement on autonomy 2 0 , 6 0 , 7 6, <607o agreement o  on complexity  96. APPENDIX J AUTONOMY 7o agreement, u s i n g a 3 - p o i n t s c a l e formed by combining r a t i n g l e v e l s 2, 3 & 4, f o r those t a s k s which rated<607> on the 3 - p o i n t s c a l e formed by combining l e v e l s 1 & 2 and 4 & 5.  Task No.  11 13 20 32 36 37 43 45 46 48 51 52 55 56 60 61 63 64 69 70  7> Agreement  99,.9 77 ,.7 77 ,.7 100,.0 88,.8 88,.8 88,.8 88,.8 88,.8 66,.6 66,.6 88,.8 55,.5 77 .7 88 .8 88,.8 55 .5 88,.8 88,.8 77 ,.7  Task No.  75 76 79 95 96 103 105 107 111 112 113 114 117 118 121 127 138 144  >757> agreement - 28 t a s k s 60-757. agreement - 7 t a s k s <"607> agreement - 3 t a s k s  7 . Agreement  77 .7 88.8 66.6 44.4 77 .7 66.6 88.8 88.8 100.0 100.0 77 .7 66.6 100.0 66.6 88.8 77 .7 77 .7 66.6  97 .  APPENDIX K COMPLEXITY % agreement, u s i n g a 3 - p o i n t s c a l e formed by c o m b i n i n g r a t i n g l e v e l s 2, 3 & 4, f o r those t a s k s w h i c h rated<607> on the 3 - p o i n t s c a l e formed by combining l e v e l s 1 & 2 and 4 & 5.  Task No. 19 20 28 32 37 41 44 45 46 48 ' 51 52 60 62 63 64 68 69 70 76  7. Agreement 81.8 72.7 90.9 90.9 100.0 72.2 90.9 90.9 81.8 72.7 100.0 90.9 81.8 81.8 81.8 90.9 81.8 81.8 90.9 72.7  Task No. 88 91 94 96 98 106 107 113 114 116 117 124 127 137 144 13 21 31 93  >757, agreement - 28 t a s k s 60-757. agreement - 11 t a s k s <607. agreement - 0 t a s k s  7> Agreement 90.9 81.8 72.7 81.8 63.6 100.0 100.0 72,7 7 0.0 100.0 81.8 90.9 63.6 100.0 63.6 81.8 63.6 90.9 90.9  

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