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A linguistic study of Pʻi pa chi rhymes Na, Zongxun 1969

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A LINGUISTIC STUDY OF P'l PA CHI RHYMES by Tsung Shun Na B.Ed., Taiwan Normal University, 195^  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of ASIAN STUDIES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia, I a g r e e t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Asian Studies The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date April, 1969 ABSTRACT The purpose of t h i s study was to study the rhymes i n P ' i  Pa C h i , a drama from South China i n the YUan Dynasty. To achieve t h i s purpose the rhyme words of P ' i Pa Chi were gathered and d i v i d e d i n t o rhyming c a t e g o r i e s . These were compared w i t h e a r l i e r and contemporary phonological works such as rhyme t a b l e s , rhyme d i c t i o n a -r i e s e t c . and some p a r t i c u l a r problems were s t u d i e d . P ' i Pa Chi's rhyme c a t e g o r i e s , of course, cannot provide every s i n g l e d e t a i l of r e a l speech, but they do i n d i c a t e c e r t a i n d i f f e r e n c e s as compared w i t h contemporary Northern Drama which are important clues to an understanding of the phonological phenomena i n Southern China i n the YUan Dynasty. TABLE GF CONTENTS Page Chapter I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Are PPC's Rhymes Not Perfect? 1 1.2 The Author of the PPC 2 1.3 The Copies of the PPC 4 1. k Rhyme Words and Rhyme Lists 6 1.5 Two Questions 7 TL THE RHYME CATEGORIES FROM THE EARLIER STAGE TO PPC 2.1 PPC Rhyme Categories 10 2.2 Rhyme Groups ..... 1  2.3 Tz'u 18 2. k MKTY and CYYY 24 2.5 A L i s t of Rhyme Categories of PPC .. 32 3LT THE DISCUSSION OF EACH RHYME OF PPC 3.1 Yang Sheng Rhymes 36 3.1.1 PPC 1 3.1.2 PPC 2 3.1.3 PPC 3 i 3.1.4 PPC 4 3.1.5 PPC 5 3.1.6 PPC 6 3.1.7 PPC 7 3.2 Yin Sheng Rhymes 3.2.1 PPC 8 3.2.2 PPC 9 3.2.3 PPC 10 3.2.4 PPC 11 3.2.5 PPC 12 3.2.6 PPC 13 3.3 Entering Tone Words 3.3.1 PPC 14 3.-3.2 PPC 15 3.3.3 PPC 16 3.3.4 PPC 17 IV RHYME LISTS 4.1 Key to the Lists 4.2 Rhyme Lists 4.3 Additional Lists V CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Are PPC1s rhymes not perfect? In this study I shall discuss the rhyme categories of P'i Pa Chi 1 (abbreviated PPC), a famous Southern drama, by Kao Ming 2 in the Yu*an Dynasty (127-136?) in China. I chose this subject because neither in China nor in any other country have the rhyme categories of PPC been studied. Many authors, poets and dramatists have studied PPC which has been, since i t s pub-lic a t i o n , a standard of dramatic construction for Southern dramatists in China. When the c r i t i c s speak of PPC rhymes, they regard the rhymes as imperfect. Some scholars made s t a t i s t i c a l l i s t s to show the mistakes made in the PPC.J From the point of view of these scholars, the i n a b i l i t y of the playwright of the PPC to compose perfect rhymes constitutes a flaw in his dramatic form, k The famous Chinese dramatist, Wu Mei, has c r i t i c i z e d the rhyme categories of PPC as followsi "The PPC also has some mistakes: Chih(^) and Yu(,§J were not differentiated, and.Ko(|]X) and Ma(^) were used together.... this i s a bad influence on the beginners. 2 Wu Mei overlooked the fact that the PPC was a Southern drama. To study the rhyme of the Southern drama, PPC, he used the rhyme dictionary Chung Chou Yin Yun Chi Yao^ which 7 i s not representative of Southern drama rhymes. This dic-tionary, used in Northern dramas, was not available to the author of PPC. The rhyme categories of PPC are different from Northern drama, though some of the same categories exist in both. In PPC, for example, there are no differences between 8 the rhyme Ko and Ma. Chung Ytian Yin Yun (abbreviated CYYY) and Chung Chou Yin YUn Chi Yao, which represent Northern dramas rhyme dictionaries, show that Ko and Ma were two separate rhymes. But the Late T'ang poets, such as L i Ho, used Ko and Ma together 9 as perfect rhymes. We also can find other examples of these two rhymes being put in the same rhyme table, as in Ssu Sheng  Teng Tzu.^° These examples ill u s t r a t e that PPC corresponds with the usage of La&e T'ang poets and the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu, but not with the rhyme dictionaries of Northern dramas. Therefore, i f we want to understand the rhyme categories of the PPC, we must study the PPC rhymes themselves. 1.2 The Author of the PPC Historians have recorded l i t t l e information about the author of PPC, Kao Ming. Ch'ien Nan Yang, the modern Chinese scholar who studied the Southern dramas, compiled a biography 3 of Kao Ming 1 1 from Yuan Shih, 1 2 Ming Shih, 1 3 Liang Che Ming 14 Hslen Lu and some li t e r a r y works by Kao Ming and his friends, etc.. 1'' According to Ch'ien, Kao Ming was born about 1301(?) in the Jui-an County of Chekiang Province in China. He was a p r o l i f i c reader when he was very young and became a student of Hwang Chin, a famous scholar in Chekiang. Kao Ming obtained 17 the degree of Advanced Scholar in 1345. and became an o f f i c i a l in the Yiian Dynasty. Later on, he retired to the Ning Po Dic-18 t r i c t of Chekiang to lead a l i f e of seclusion. There i s no clear evidence which would indicate when he moved to Ning Po, 19 but we think i t must have been after 1356. According to Ming  Shih, the emperor, during the Ming Dynasty, asked Kao Ming to work as an o f f i c i a l , but he refused. We believe he died soon after 1368. The date of the composition of PPC is another problem. Nan 20 Tz'u Hsu Lu, as well as other sources, t e l l s us that Kao wrote1 PPC at the end of the Yiian Dynasty, and that Ming T'ai .Tsu, the f i r s t emperor of the Ming Dynasty, read PPC before becoming emperor. Thus, i t would seem that PPC was written before 1367* However, Kao Ming went to Ning Po after 1356, and he wrote PPC in Ning Po, so the date of composition should be placed after 1356. In addition to PPC, Kao Ming wrote many poems. Although 21 we can find some of these poems in Yuan Shih Hsuan, many of them have been lost. When PPC appeared, most audiences enjoyed i t , and later dramatists have hailed i t as the forerunner of Southern drama. 1.3 The Copies of the PPC There are many different editions of PPC today. Ch'ien divided the different earlier editions into two groups, Yuan 23 and Ming. There are numerous editions in both groups in China now. The Ming group was improved by scholars of the Ming Dynasty. Ch'ien produced a new edition, based on the Yuan_ group, and used the Ming group as a reference. Ch'ien's text, undoubtedly, i s a better text for Chinese l i t e r a r y studies, but, for phonological and rhyme studies, i t makes l i t t l e difference whether we use Ch'ien's text or some other text, since the rhyme endings have few differences. I have used the text from Mao Chin's Liu Shih Chung Ch'li 2^ as my source, since i t has more songs than Ch'ien's. In each song, some end words rhyme and some do not. To determine each rhyming word, I compared end words 25 from Ch'ien's, Mao's and Ch'en Chi-ju's text, and checked the 26 Chlu-Kung Ta-Ch'eng Nan-Pel Tz'u Kung-P'u, which has the song patterns of Chinese classical dramas. I do not have enough material to indicate which text i s more correct, though I think Kao Ming sometimes used the rhyming words carelessly. However, I do not believe he made unreasona-ble mistakes. For example, in song 19.2 of Ch'ien's text, 5 there are the rhyming words i | , J ^ , f 1 . f C j / L i ^ . 1 and # f , in which Lung(4^) i s Fu(^|) in Mao's text. But Ch'ien thought that Lung(-jf{[) was changed into Fu($|j by Ming scholars.2''' I do not think Kao Ming's original text used LungCfiy , because Pu and seven other words are entering tone words, but the word LungC^) i s yang sheng rhyme(nasal f i n a l ending rhyme). It was not possible for yang sheng rhyme words to rhyme with entering tone words in the Fourteenth Century. Therefore, i t seems that Kao Ming used the word FuUJO in that song. Ch'ien, using the Yuan group, decided the Lung(-fi) was right. However, the Yuan group i s based on a Ch'ing scholar's handwritten/text, and not on Kao Ming's original holograph. Also, the Ch'ing manuscript i s of a later date than Mao's. So I do not believe that the original text of PPC uses Lung(ft>). So, I w i l l not use the Ch'ien's edition as my only source. The main differences between Mao's and Ch'ien's editions of the play l i e in two scenesJ (1) Mao's eighth scene does not exist in Ch'ien's work. So, the eighth scene of Ch'ien i s the ninth scene of Mao, ninth of Ch'ien is tenth of Mao, etc., u n t i l the f o r t y - f i r s t scene. (2) The f o r t y - f i r s t scene in Ch'ien's edition does not exist in Mao's work. In both edition there are forty-three scenes, and the last two scenes have the same numerical designations. 6 I shall keep a l l scenes and songs from both works. As for any difference in the rhyming words of Ch'ien and Mao, I w i l l determine one and l i s t the other in footnotes. 1 . 4 Rhyme Words and Rhyme Lists To decide which i s the rhyming word, I have used Chiu-Kung Ta-Ch'eng Nan-Pei Tz'u Kung-P'u, which does not include a l l the songs of PPC, When necessary, I have checked the 28 pattern used in other dramas. If a word in the rhyme scheme sounds quite different from other words in the same song, there is a possibility that this word may be wrong or misrhymed. In such cases, I have checked other editions of PPC and compared similarly patterned songs in PPC or other, dramas. After making these checks, I then decided whether the word rhymes. I then put a l l the rhyme words thus collected into a rhyme l i s t . When editing the rhyme l i s t s , I considered the rhyme category for each word. The rhyme categories are based on the materials of PPC. The rhyme categories of PPC cannot be isolated from other works, especially the traditional rhyme tables, which were established a few hundreds years before PPC, 29 and the rhyme dictionaries of the same time, Meng Ku .Tzu Yttn (abbreviated MKTY) and CYYY. Besides these, the Tz'u rhyme categories are an important reference. I divided the rhyme words into several rhyme groups and 7 checked them with the works mentioned in the last paragraph. Then, I decided how to place each word into i t s rhyme category. There are some words which cross two rhyme categories; these words are placed in one rhyme category, but, they serve as cross rhymes in another category. The entering tone words, which w i l l be discussed in Chpater i n , have a somewhat different arrangement. 1.5 Two questions The main work of this study i s to try to answer two questions: (1) How are PPC rhyme words divided into 17 rhyme categories? (2) What are the special features of rhyme cate-gories in PPC? 8 NOTES 1. P 1 1 Pa Chi ( &a6) , w r i t t e n before 1367. abbreviated PPC. 2. Kao M i n g ( v f ) ) , a sc h o l a r and a pla y w r i g h t , born i n Chekiang. 3. See Chang Ching ( 5 ^ ^ ) , Ming Ch'ing Ch'uan Ch'i Tao Lun, 1961, Taiwan. 4. Wu Mei ( J f c f y f a ) , modern dramatist. 5. Ku Ch'ii Chu, T'an(#<^/f f£) , p. 65. 6. Chung Chou Y i n Yun Chi Y a o ( ^ M j % | | f | # ) , 1781, by Wang Chun(J. . This study uses the r e v i s e d e d i t i o n by Wu Mei. 7. Wu Mei s a i d that the Chung Chou Y i n Yun Chi Yao i s very important f o r both Southern and Northern p l a y w r i g h t s . (Ku Ch'ii Chu T'an, p. 63). .8. Chung Yuan J Y i n Y u n ( ^ ) , by Chou Te-Ch«ing, 1324. There are many r e p r i n t e d e d i t i o n s . See Biblography. 9. Dr. P u l l e y b l a n k , 1968. See a l s o Chapter HI (3 .2 .4) . 10. Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu( \3J ), published i n the Sung Dynasty(960-1276), a book which i n c l u d e s 20 rhyme t a b l e s under rhyme groups. Some groups are i n one t a b l e , some groups are s p l i t i n t o two t a b l e s , some groups were put w i t h other groups i n one t a b l e . 11. Ch'ien Nan-yang's PPC, .Peking, 1965, pp. 231-244. 12. Yuan S h l h ( X , l ). (Yuan Dynasty, 1277-1367). 13. Ming Shih(^r1^ ). (Ming Dynasty, 1368-1643) . 14. L i a n g Che Ming Hsien Lu (\&\K\ |f ifc ). 15. Ch'ien Nan-yang, o p . c i t . , pp. 231-244. 16. Ch'ien Nan-yang, o p . c i t . , p. 240. J u i - a n ( ) 17. See Ming Shih. 18. Ming Shih, See als o Ch'ien, o p . c i t . , p. 239. 9 19. 20. 21. 22. 23-24. 25-26. 27. 28. 29. Fang Kuo-chen surrendered i n 1356. According to Yuan Shih, £ao Ming met Fang Kuo-chen a f t e r h i s surrender; so Kao Ming probably went to Ning Po a f t e r 1356. See Wang Kuo-wei,- Sung Yuan H s i Ch'u 3hlh{Jfc%.8&<&jfc. ), p. 149. See Nan Tz'u. Hsu Lu ($7^j §1 ti%) by Hsu Wei ( % ) , 1559, r e p r i n t e d i n P e i k i n g , and Ming Shih, L i e h C h ' a o Shih  Chi Hsiao C h u a n ( M i - j t y -1' \% ) e t c . . Yuan Shih Hsilan(;tf-fo% ) » e d i t e d by Ku S s u - l i , Ch'ing Dynasty, 110 Volumes. For d e t a i l s see Ch'ien Nan-yang, 1965* p . i i ? and Wei L i a n g - f u O ^ f i f j ), Ch'u L u ( t i H ^ ) . Ch'ien Nan-yang, i960 , pp. i v - v . The Ming group, according to Ch'ien Nan-yang(i960), has 13 t e x t s . One of the 13 i s Mao's t e x t . Ch' en Chi - Ju (f %lltstf) , P 1 i n g Ting Chuan .P' 1 Pa Chi ( f f $ iI *£?,f<6)» Ming Dynasty, r e p r i n t e d 1954, :Pe.king. Chiu-Kung Ta-Ch'eng Nan-Pei Tz'u K u n g - P ' u ( i h t t A f f i 3 , 1746, e d i t e d by Chou Hsiang-yu( fflJtfii.) , Hsu Hsing-hua Ch'ien, o p . c i t . , p. 111. The patterns of.rhyme schemes were given a name and used i n every drama. So each p a t t e r n can be found under the same p a t t e r n name even i n other dramas. Though the content d i f f e r s from drama to drama, the p a t t e r n remains same. Meng Ku Tzu Yun( ^  ^ '^jfw ), r e v i s e d e d i t i o n by Chu Tsung-w e n ( f ^ ), 1308. CHAPTER H PROM THE EARLIER STAGE TO PPC 2.1 PPC Rhyme Categories Before discussing material earlier than PPC, we must find rhyme categories from PPC i t s e l f . The general method employed here was described in the last chapter, but w i l l now be dis-cussed in more details. To find the rhyme words, we must check the song patterns from Chiu-Kung Ta-Ch'eng Nan-Pei Tz'u Kung-P'u1 and compare songs with the same patterns from PPC, since each pattern exists in plays other than PPC. To discover the rhyme cate-gories, we have to connect the rhyme words. For example, there are 18 rhyme words in four songs(Each letter represents a rhyme word): Song 1 A B C D E Song 2 fi F G H I Song 3 J K L M Song 4 N 0 G K P Q E R Song 1 and song 2 can be connected, because rhyme word B appears in both songs. Song 2 and song 4 are connected by rhyme word G. Similarly, song 3 and song 4 can be connected by rhyme word K, and song 1 and song 4 can be connected by 11 rhyme word E. Therefore, the 18 words can be placed in the same category. After connecting a l l the rhyme words, I have hypothesized that there are 17 rhyme categories in PPC. I shall designate them as PPC 1, PPC 2... PPC 17. Because there are some words which are very d i f f i c u l t to place definitely in one category, i t i s necessary to check the traditional rhyme tables and MKTY or CYYY. So, we need to go back to study the traditional rhyme categories. •2.2 Rhyme Groups The..term "traditional rhyme categories", usually, refers to the early Chinese rhyme dictionaries, Chf ieh Yiin(601) , and i t s revised, edition, Kwang Ytln (1008) . Although the Kwang Yun was published in the 11th century, i t s t i l l follows, for the most part, the Ch'i.eh Yiin rhymes. The difference i s that the Kwang Yun has 206 rhymes instead of the 196 found in Ch'ieh Yun. Compared with the rhyme categories of PPC, the rhymes in Ch'ieh Yun are much too early to be of use. Here, the term; ^traditional rhyme categories" refers to the "rhyme groups" which appeared in the 9th century: the 16 rhyme groups in the rhyme tables of the Sung Dynasty(96O-1276). The rhyme groups1 were derived from the rhyme tables. It is very hard to say when the f i r s t rhyme tables were published. Lo Ch'ang-p'ei, a Chinese linguist, assumed that they were 12 3 published as early as Late T'ang, which i s the 9th century. As to the rhyme groups, we find that some Late T'ang poets have, used them in their poems. Concerning this discussion, 4 Dr. Pulleyblank has saids "His [] Po CM-1 ] Hsin Yueh-fu and his Ku Shih do not rhyme according to T'ung Yung Canons at a l l , but according to.ithe rhyme groups (She ^  ) of the rhyme tables of Sung Times." Po Chtt-I, who died in 846, used the rhyme groups in his poetry. Thus, we can assume that the rhyme groups existed at least as early as the beginning of the 9th century.. Although the rhyme groups have been found in poetry of the 9th century, the names of the rhyme groups appeared as late as the 11th century in the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu. As we know today, the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu i s not the earliest of the 5 rhyme tables. There are two rhyme tables, Yttn Ching and 6 Ch.1 i Yin Lileh, which were published earlier than Ssu Sheng  Teng Tzu. In the Yfln Ching and the Ch'i Yin Ltteh, the 16 rhyme  groups have been separated into different tables, but we cannot find the names of rhyme groups. The Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu is the f i r s t of the rhyme tables which has the rhyme groups, but some groups had already been l i s t e d together. 13 The 16 rhyme groups are as follows. The reconstruction of rhyme groups i s attributed to the work of Dr. Pulleyblank. Kuo % -ai >-aui [0] Yu -a 4 Chia -ai Hsieh f -aj Chih lb Hsiao -aw Liu >1 -SW Tang % -airj/k [a:] Tseng \& -ail Keng -airj/k [ E ] > - d r j/k Chiang yl -aurj/k [D] > -airj/k T'ung ]^ -9urj/k [o] Shan OJ' rari/t Chen £|- -^n/t Hsien $^  -am/t Shen -<9m/p From the above l i s t , we see that three pairs of rhyme  groups, Chiang and Tang, Keng- and Tseng, Kuo and Chia, were already l i s t e d together in the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu. We may assume that the names of "rhyme groups" were not used for the f i r s t time in the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu. If they were the f i r s t , why were some groups l i s t e d in the same table and given two names? Unfortunately, i t i s impossible to find enough evidence to.make a definitive statement on the point. The names of the rhyme groups can be found in Ching Shih o Cheng Yin Ch'ieh Yun Chih Nan(abbreviated CYCN), which was published in 1336. In CYCN, there i s only one group, Kuo, which i s merged with Chia. 14 Tone and grade are two important distinctions in any rhyme table. There are four tones in each rhyme tablet level tone(Jp-), rising tone(Ji), f a l l i n g tone (-^ ;), and entering tone(A). The entering tone words have f i n a l stops, -p, - t , or -k. The level, rising and f a l l i n g tone words do not have f i n a l stops, but they are separated into two divisions: yang  sheng rhyme words, which have the nasal finals -n, -rj, or -m? and yin sheng rhyme words, which have no nasal finals. In the rhyme groups, there are nine yang sheng rhyme groups, seven yin sheng rhyme groups and nine entering tone groups. Because the entering tone rhyme groups correspond to yang sheng rhyme  groups In the Yiin Ching, they are a l l placed in the same tables in yang sheng rhymes. yin sheng rhymes yang sheng rhymes entering tone rhymes (non^entering tone) (non-entering tone) Chih Tung Tung YU Chiang Chiang Hsieh Tang Tang Kuo Keng Keng Chia Tseng Tseng Hsiao Shan Shan Liu Chen Chen Shen Shen Hsien Hsien !5 We w i l l discuss the entering tone rhymes in Chapter TLT ( 3 « 3 ) « Grade i s another feature of the rhyme tables, and each table has four grades as well as four tones. In the Ytin Ching, each table is divided into four tones, and then each tone is divided into four grades. In Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu, the process i s reversed, for the table i s f i r s t divided into four grades, and then each grade i s divided into four tones. The differences between the four grades are the medials. The Q medial of each grade as reconstructed by Dr. Pulleyblank i s as follows: K'ai K'ou Ho K'ou Grade I (zero) -u-Grade H - j - -w-Grade in - i - - i u -Grade W - j i - - j i u -The terms, K'ai K'ou and Ho K'ou, are two kinds of medials or words. K'ai K'ou does not have the back vowel -u- or semivowel -w-, but Ho K'ou has. Below i s a l i s t of rhyme groups concerned with the rhyme categories of PPC. In the interest of brevity, I shall l i s t only the Yttn Ching and the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu. Table A Yun Ching Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu PPC Rhyme Categories T'ung T'ung 1 Keng Tseng Keng, Tseng 2 Chiang Tang Chiang,Tang 3 Shan Shan Chen Chen 5 Shen Shen 6 Hsien Hsien 7 Chih Chih Gr. IE, 8 Gr. m, IT, 9(8) YU YU Gr. I , II, 8 Gr. HE, W, 9 Hsieh Hsieh Gr. I , H, 10 Gr. HE, W, 9 Hsiao Hsiao 12 L i u L i u 13 Kuo Chia Kuo, Chia 11 E n t e r i n g tone words T'ung T'ung, YU, L i u 15 Keng Tseng Keng, Tseng 16 Chiang Tang Chiang,Tang,Hsiao,Kuo 17 Shan Shan,Hsieh, Ma(Gr. IE) 18 Chen Chen, Chih 9 Shen Shen Hsien Hsien 17 The above table illustrates the relationship of the regular words. The rhyme categories for irregular words w i l l be discussed in Chapter i n . From the table, we see that the rhyme categories of PPC are very close to the rhyme tables, especially those of Ssu  Sheng Teng Tzu. The main difference occurs in three groups t Chih, YU and Hsieh. The table below shows these differences. Table B \ \irade Groups\ I i : III IV K'ai K'ou Ho K'ou Chih PPC 8 PPC 9 PPC 9 ( 8 ) Yu PPC 8 PPC 8 PPC 9 ' Hsieh PPC 10 PPC 10 PPC 10 PPC 11 PPC 9 In Grade I, Ho K'ou, of Hsieh, the words can be separated into two divisions, one of which comes from rhyme Chia of the Kwang  YUn and becomes PPC 11, and the other comes from rhyme Chieh of the Kwang Yun, which becomes PPC 10. In Grade Wof Chih, the words with i n i t i a l sibilants occur in PPC 8 . (see 3.2) From Table A, we realize that in Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu the entering tone rhymes are placed in yang sheng rhymes, but some rhymes appeared in Yin sheng rhymes, tooi some rhymes are not 18 placed in only one yin sheng rhyme but in two yin sheng  rhymes. In PPC, these rhymes agree with rhyme groups which match with the yang sheng rhymes. 2.3 Tz'u In Sung Dynasty, a new l i t e r a r y style of poetry, Tz'u, was used. Its rhyme categories are very important for the study of PPC rhymes. In the history of Chinese literature, Tz'u began to be written in the 9th century, 1 0 and were popular u n t i l the 10th century. Tz'u, the so-called "long and short verses", i s used for singing. The pattern i s very important, and the writer must follow the pattern. To find the rhyme words of Tz'u, we have to check the pattern to decide which word is supposed to rhyme. The writers of Tz'u did not have a rhyme dictionary. Therefore, they could use rhyme more freely. The Tz'u rhyme dictionaries were edited in Ming Dynasty(1368-1643) and Ch'ing Dynasty(1644-1911) . The. editors of Tz'u rhyme dictionaries collected the rhymes of Tz'u and compared the traditional rhyme categories to discover the categories, as I did with PPC. Each editor may have a different opinion about the rhyme categories, so some widely varying Tz'u rhyme dictionaries 19 were published i n China, but most of them have been l o s t , 11 Tz'u L i n Cheng Ytln i s one of the Tz'u rhyme d i c t i o n a r i e s which i s s t i l l extant, and the f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i s based on i t . The Tz'u L i n Cheng Yttn used as i t s b a s i s P'ing Shui Ytln, a type of rhyme category used by T'ang poets. I have changed them i n t o the rhyme groups. There are 19 ca t e g o r i e s i n Tz'u L i n Cheng Yttn. The e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e between the Tz'u L i n Cheng Ytln and the Yttn Ching concerns the e n t e r i n g tone words. In the Ytln Ching, these words match w i t h the yang sheng rhyme groups, and were on l y put i n t o the t a b l e s of yang sheng rhyme groups. In Tz'u L i n Cheng Yttn, these words match wi t h yang sheng rhymes and y i n sheng rhymes both, t h e r e f o r e , they appear twice: under the yang sheng rhymes, and under the y i n sheng rhymes. This arrangement i s the same as tha t of Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu and CYCN which a l s o place them twice — under y i n sheng rhymes and under yang sheng rhymes. The f o l l o w i n g l i s t shows 19 rhyme ca t e g o r i e s of Tz'u conderned w i t h rhyme groups and PPC. The e n t e r i n g tone words, which are placed under y i n sheng rhymes, w i l l be omitted here, and have a separate t a b l e , Table C. (The numbers are the o r i g i n a l numbers of the Tz'u L i n Cheng Yttn). Table A Rhyme Groups • Tz'u PPC T'ung 1 l Chiang Tang 2 3 Chih Hsieh 3,5 8 , 9 , 1 0 Yii k Chen 6 5 Shan 7 k Hsiao 8 12 Kuo 9 11 Chia 10 Keng Tseng 11 2 Liu - 12 13 Shen 13 6 Hsien Ik 7 Entering tone words T'ung 15 Ik Chiang Tang 16 16 Chen, Keng Tseng, Shen 1 7 !5 (without Shen & Chen) Chen(part*), Shan Hsien (Gr. Ill, ¥ K'ai K'ou) 1 8 1 7 (without Hsien & Chen) Hsien(except G r . m . F , Kai K'ou) 1 9 21 From the t a b l e , we can see tha t the rhyme ca t e g o r i e s of the Tz'u L i n Cheng Yun agree wi t h PPC rhymes except f o r groups Chih, Yii and Hsieh, as l i s t e d below: Table B Grade I Grade H Grade m Grade 1? Groups K'ai Ho Chih Tz'u 3 Yii. Tz'u 4 Hsieh Tz'u 5 Tz'u 3 Tz'u 5(10) Tz'u 3 Tz'u 3 Grade II of Hsieh, has already been discussed i n Chapter 11(2.2). Comparing t h i s t a b l e w i t h PPC (2.2, Table B ) , we can d i s c o v e r some s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s . (1) In PPC, rhyme group Yii has merged wi t h Chih and Hsieh but, i n Tz'u L i n Cheng Yun, Yii has been kept separate from Chih. (2) In Tz'u L i n Cheng Yun, the words i n Grade I , Ho K'ou, of Hsieh merged w i t h Tz'u 3, but not i n PPC. The e n t e r i n g tone words are placed under y i n sheng rhymes, too. But some words are not placed under only one y i n sheng rhyme but i n two yin-sheng rhymes. In other words, each word o c c a s i o n a l l y appeared twice under y i n sheng rhymes. For example, the e n t e r i n g tone words of Tz'u 12 are placed i n Tz'u 4, too. 22 Table C The Entering Tone Rhymes of Tz'u Rhyme groups Match with yang sheng rhyme Use with yin sheng rhyme T'ung 15 4(12)* Chiang Tang 16 8(9)** Chen Tseng Keng Shen 17 Chen (Gr. EI, Ho K'ou, rhyme Wu tfjQ only) 18 4 Shan 18 9,10** Hsien (Gr. 3TJ., W, K'ai K'ou) 18 10 Hsien (except Gr. 2LT, IV, K'ai K'ou) 19 10 * A l l entering tone words of Tz'u 12 have appeared in Tz'u 4. Most entering tone words of Tz'u 9 have appeared in Tz'u 8 and some in Tz'u 10. ### The entering tone words, in yin sheng rhyme, are divided into two divisions. 23 As mentioned before, the entering tone words are placed twice or three times, which is exactly like the pattern of Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu and CYCN. In the table above, there are two things of note: 1. Tz'u 17 has included three kinds of f i n a l stops -p, - t , -k:, and Tz'u 18 has included two kinds of f i n a l stops -p and - t . This indicates that the f i n a l stops might have been lost in that time. 2. The entering tone words of Tz'u 3, Tz'u 5, Tz'u 9 and Tz'u 10 include more than one kind of f i n a l stop, which also means the f i n a l stops may have been lost. The whole picture of Tz'u rhyme categories i s founded on Tz'u Lin Cheng Yun. Although i t primarily agrees with PPC and i t s entering tone words agree with Ssu -Sheng Teng Tzu and CYCN, we must use Tz'u i t s e l f as the basis of our proof. In Tz'u, examples of separate non-entering tone rhymes and of separate entering tone rhymes are very easy to find. Thus, we can easily see that those rhymes represent the real rhymes of Tz'u 12 (see examples in Wang L i , Han Yu Shih Lu Hsiieh). There are also examples in which entering tone rhymes with yin sheng  rhymes. The editor of Tz'u Lin Cheng Yun has given some examples in his Introduction. 24 2.4 MKTY and CYYY At approximately the same time as PPC, two dictionaries, MKTY (1308) and CYYY (1324) appeared. Both of them reflect the real speech of their time. The MKTY i s a dictionary intended to help people to study and use the hP'ags-pa alphabet to spell the Chinese characters. 1 3 The CYYY collects the rhyme words of Northern dramas and i t i s a rhyme dictionary. These two dictionaries have merged the entering tone words into yin sheng rhyme. The following l i s t i n g illustrates the differences between MKTY, CYYY and PPC. Some exceptional cases are omitted and wi l l be discussed in Chapter 3LT. The entering tone words are given in a separate table. Table A Groups MKTY CYYY PPC T'ung Tung(Keng) Tung Chung(Keng Ch'ing) 1 Keng Tseng Keng Keng Ch'ing 2 Chiang Tang Yang Chiang Yang 3 Shan Han,Hsien Han Shan Huan Huan Hsien T'ien Chen Chen Chen Wen 5 Shen Chih Ch'in Hsun 6 Hsien T'an Chien Hsien 7 Lien Hsien Chih Chih Chih Ssu ! 8 , 9 Ch'i Wei Yti Yu1 Yu Mo 8 , 9 Chia,Chih (Ma) Ch'i Wei 9 ,10 Hsieh Chieh Lai (Chia Ma) Kuo Ko, Ma Ko Ko 11 Ch'e Che Chia Ma Chia Ma 11 Ch'e Che Hsiao Hsiao Hsiao Hao 12 Liu Yu Yu Hou 13 26 Here, there are four important points which merit discussion: 1. Group Shan i s divided into two parts in MKTY and three in CYYY: Table B Group i Shan MKTY CYYY PPC Grade I K'ai K'ou Han Han Shan k it Ho K'ou Han Huan Huan k Grade IE K'ai K'ou Han Han Shan it Ho K'ou Han Han Shan Grade m , ST- Hsien Hsien T'ien k MKTY and CYYY have divided group Shan into two or but we cannot find such a division in PPC. 2 . Group Hsien i s divided into two rhymes in CYYY according to the grades: Table C Group Hsien MKTY CYYY Grades I & IE T'an Chien Hsien Grades HI & ¥ T'an Lien Hsien Because there are only two words of group Hsien in PPC, i t is very d i f f i c u l t to say whether i t becomes two rhymes in PPC. 27 3 . Groups Chih, Yu' and Hsieh do not have the same kind of change as PPC: Table D MKTY —-^rade \ M K T Y ~ \ Grade I Grade IE Grade HE Grade W Groups"—_ K'ai Ho Chih Chih Yu Yu' Hsieh Chia Chih Chia Chih Table E CYYY —-Jlrade \^CYYY~\ Groups^ _ _ N ^ Grade I Grade n Grade HI Grade W K'ai Ho K'ai Ho Chih Chih Ch'i Ch'i (Chih)* Yu' Yu Hsieh Lai Ch'i Lai (Chia)"* Ch'i (Chia)** Ch'i Ch'i For Table E: Chih = Chih Ssu, Ch'i = Ch'i Wei, Yii = Yii Mo, Lai = Chieh Lai * Chih Ssu includes a l l the words with supradental, palatal and sibilant i n i t i a l s . ( K ' a i K'ou) ** Some words with velar and glottal i n i t i a l s in the 29 we can see that some words of Grade II, in rhyme  Chia have changed, but this only part of them, and i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to find a rule. (4) Groups Kuo and Chia are divided into three rhymes in the CYYY. They depend on the grades and K'ai K'ou or Ho K'ou for separation. Groups Kuo Chia Grade I HI I JK,W MKTY Ko Ma •($5 only) Ma Ma CYYY Ko Ko Ch'e Che Chia Ma Ch'e Che' PPC 11 11 11 11 In PPC, two groups are treated as one. (5) There are some words of group Keng in Grade Hand HI, Ho K'ou, which are repeated In Keng Ching and Tung.Chung in CYYY. Only two words are found in Tung Chung that may have been lost in Keng Ching. As to the MKTY, some words have changed into rhyme Tung and some words are s t i l l kept in rhyme  Keng, but no words are repeated in both rhymes Tung and Keng. The following l i s t shows the words which change into Tung Chung (CYYY) or Tung (MKTY) and are repeated in both Tung Chung and Keng Ching. 30 Rhyme Words MKTY CYYY S Tung Tung Chung (missing) Tung Chung, Keng Ching The asterisked words in this l i s t are used in PPC. From this l i s t , i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to find a rule to t e l l us what kinds of words are repeated in CYYY and changed into Tung Chung in CYYY and Tung in MKTY. The six words which are used in PPC are not changed and are placed in PPC 2 , which corresponds to Keng Ching(CYYY) or Keng(MKTY). (see 3 . 1 . 2 ) Keng Tung Chung, Keng Ching Tung Tung Chung, Keng Ching Keng Tung Chung T a b l e F 30b Rhyme G r o u p s MKTY CYYY PPC T'ung Yu Yii Mo ,. Yu Hou H s i a o Hao 14 C h i a n g Tang H s i a o H s i a o ' H a o Ko Ko 16 Chen C h i h , Yii C h ' i Wei Yti Mo C h i h S s u ( ^ ) 9 Keng Tseng G r . I , IE C h i a C h i e h L a i 15 Gr.ITI, W C h i h C h ' i Wei C h i h Ssu(%) Shan G r . I K ' a i Ko, Ma C h i a Ma 17 G r . I K ' a i Ko Ko G r . I Ho Ko Ko Gr . H C h i a Ma G r . HE,W Ch'e Che Gr . m <fM ft A > C h i a Ma Shen C h i h C h ' i Wei C h i h S s u ( r ? i ) H s i e n G r . I,IE Ko, Ma C h i a Ma Ko K o C ^ f f l 1>B % ' G r . HE,Jtf Ch'e Che 31 In Table F the entering tone words have been completely changed intd 4 yin sheng rhymes. In some rhymes in CYYY, the entering tone words are repeated. A l l the enterint tone words of rhyme Yu Hou have been repeated in rhyme Yu1 Mo and most of the entering tone words of rhyme Hsiao Hao have been repeated in rhyme Ko Ko. From Table F we can see that grade i s a rather important distinction, particularly in groups Keng, Tseng and Shan, which have a f i n a l stop - t . Grade I Grade IE Grade JLT Grade W MKTY Chia Chia Chih Keng CYYY Chieh Lai Chieh Lai Ch'i Wei MKTY Chia Chih Tseng CYYY Chieh Lai (Chih Ssu ^  ) Ch'i Wei MKTY Ko Ma Shan CYYY £ ! a i Chia Ma K'ou 5? Ko Ko K'ou Chia Ma Ch« e Che 32 2.5 A L i s t of Rhyme Categories of PPC After discussing the rhyme tables, Tz'u, MKTY and CYYY, we understand that the rhyme categories of PPC, for the most part, agree with them. However some rhymes s t i l l have their own arrangement. The following i s a table which describes the rhyme categories of PPC. Each category w i l l be discussed individually in the next chapter, and a complete series of rhyme l i s t s w i l l be given in Chapter IV. PPC Rhyme Groups PPC 1 T'ung PPC 2 Keng, Tseng PPC 3 Chiang, Tang PPC Shan PPC 5 Chen PPC 6 Shen PPC 7 Hsien PPC 8 Chih (Grade Tfj , Yu (Grade I,H) PPC 9 Chih (Gr... HE,3$, Yu (Gr.IEE.lV), Hsieh PPC 10 Hsieh (Grade I.H, except Chia rhyme) PPC 11 Kuo, Chia, Hsleh(Chih rhyme only, see PPC 12 Hsiao PPC 13 Liu Entering tone words of T'ung Entering tone words of Keng, Tseng Entering tone words of Chiang, Tang Entering tone words of Chen 34 NOTES 1. See Chapter I, note 27. 2. Ch' 1 eh Yun{•*/]Iff ) , one of the earlier stage rhyme dic-tionaries by Lu F a - y e n ( f ), appeared in 601. The original text is missing. There are some original fragments and some revised editions. Kwang Yun(f% ), one of the revised editions, edited by Ch'en P'eng-nien ) and Ch'iu Yung (if % ) in 1008. There are 206 rhymes in this book. 3. See Lo Ch'ang-p'ei's "T'ung Chih Ch'i Yin Lueh Yen Chiu" i$L&t ), Chung Yang Yen Chiu Yuan L i Shih Yu  Yen Yen Chiu So Chi K ' a n ( % f £ it j j t f f t ^ % * \ J, Vol. 5 , No. 4 ( 1 9 3 5 ) i reprinted in Lo Ch'ang-p'ei Yii . Yen Hstfeh Lun Wen Hsuan Chi (ffittfcgfr t,Jf?&* # if T7~19tS3," Peking., 4. Dr. Pulleyblank 1 9 6 8 . 5 . Yun Ching(-&IJJ) , edited by Chang Lin-chih ( l&f^ i ) , is one of the books which includes some rhyme tables. The present copy of Yiin Ching i s kept in Japan, but has been reprinted in Japan and China. Lung Yu/i:.-ch'un(f^'f) did a revised work, Yun Ching Chlao Chu ( ^Hf . j ^ j ) . There are 43 rhyme tables in this book. 6. Ch'i Yin Luehf -b-^f ), edited by Cheng Ch'iao ( # f l £ ) , i s for the most part, the same as Ylin Ching. See Lo Ch'ang-p'ei's "T'ung Chih Ch'i Yin Lueh Yen Chiu", op.cit.. 7. Dr. Pulleyblank 1969c 8• Ching Shih Cheng Yin Ch'ien Yttn Chih Nan(£%ff £ ^ V ^ l t i ) , edited by Liu Chien($|%.), f i r s t appeared In 1336. It has 24 rhyme tables. In i t , Ko and Chia rhyme groups are merged. But the Tseng and Keng, Chiang and Tang are s t i l l kept separate. 9. Dr. Pulleyblank 1969c 10. Lu K'an-ju and Feng Yttan-chun( 5^-;^, %, ): Chung  Kuo Shih Shih(vfl^|Jr^ ), 1957, Peking, p. 529. 11. Tz'u Lin Cheng Y t o ( ^ " ] ^ ^ ) by Ko T s a i ^ J ^ ) , preface 1821. 12. W a n g L i ( i ^ ) . Han Y<1 Shih LU HsttehGggg H ) . 1958. 1964, Peking, pp. 534-582. 13. Lo Ch«ang-p«ei (g^t) and Ts'ai Mei-lin(f-| i%) , Pa Ssu Pa -Tzu Ytt Yttan Tai Han Yti(i\*LZS% tylZj^itl\) , Peking, 1959, p. 91. CHAPTER m DISCUSSION OF EACH RHYME OF THE PPC 3.1 Yang Sheng Rhymes There are seven yang sheng rhymes in PPC., According to the analysis in Chapter H , the seven rhyme categories retain the frame work of the rhyme groups. The nasal finals of these rhyme groups are as follows $ With f i n a l -rj T1 ungt Keng, Tseng, Chiang, Tang With f i n a l -n Shan, Chen With f i n a l -m Shen, Hsien In PPC, Keng and Tseng have merged into PPC 2 , and Chiang and Tang have merged into PPC 3 , but the two pairs have, the same fin a l s . The nasal finals of the yang sheng rhymes in PPC are as follows: With f i n a l With f i n a l With f i n a l -i] PPC 1 , PPC 2 , PPC 3 -n PPC k, PPC 5 -m PPC 6 , PPC 7 37 3.1.1 PPC 1 PPC 1 corresponds exactly to rhyme group T'ung. There is not, as in the MKTY and the CYYY, any tendency to merge the Ho K'ou of rhyme group Tseng with this group in PPC. That i s , words l i k e , and ^  , only rhyme in PPC 2 and never in PPC 1. Note that in this respect, PPC does not agree with Modern Wu dialects, in which the Grade m and IV, Ho K'ou of rhyme group Keng have merged with rhyme group T'ung. Wu Dialects"'" Su Chou Wen Chou v|ff Keng Grade U, Ho K'ou iorj piydrj #f T'ung Grade 31, Ho K'ou iorj f\y0y ?| Keng Grade W, Ho K'ou d^iorj d^yorj T'ung Grade in, Ho K'ou d^iorj ^Jorj An apparent exception i s the word , which rhymes with rhyme Tung ) In Ch'ieh Yiln and Kwang Yun and in Grade I of rhyme group T'ung in the Yun Ching, but which f a l l s in PPC 2, That i s , however, a word which has an irregular development. 2 It has lost i t s rounded vowel in a l l modern dialects» Peking Chinan Hank' ou -."Su Chou Wen Chou Canton ^ t'jrj -frdh dcm daij t'drj 38 In CYYY, i t i s placed in the rhyme as a homophone of , showing that i t already had such a pronunciation in Northern Chinese in the Yiian Dynasty. Even earlier evidence for such a form i s found in the Kwang Yiin, which contains the character , defined as^| , "painful", and is homophonous with fi^ . The character^ i s elsewhere termed a vulgar variant of and versions in PPC have^ or as texual variants for 5 ^ . 3.1.2 PPC 2 PPC 2 corresponds to rhyme groups Keng and Tseng. In PPC, these two rhyme groups are used together so frequently that they must be considered a single rhyme category. Actually, entering tone words of these two groups were used together in Late T'ang; the poet L i Ho(791-817) used them in such manner.3 In Sung Dynasty, the non-entering tone words had already merged, as illustrated in Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu or CYCN ( see 2.2). This combination is continued in MKTY, CYYY, and in modern dialects. PPC does not agree with the MKTY and the CYYY in that some words of rhyme groups Keng and Tseng, Ho K'ou, have merged into PPC 1 as seen in Chapter H , 2.4. No Ho K'ou words of group  Tseng are used in PPC, but i t does contain ten words of group  Keng. The following l i s t shows the.arrangement of these ten words in PPC, MKTY and CYYY. 39 Groun Grade PPC category MKTY CYYY Keng H 2 Tung Tung, Keng is m 2 Tung Tung, Keng UI 2 Keng i Tung, Keng HI 2 Tung Tung, Keng " 21 2 Tung Tung, Keng HE 2 Keng Tung, Keng m 2 Keng Keng HE 2 Tung Keng » HE 2 Tung A HE 2 Keng Keng CYYY$ Tung=Tung Chung, Keng=Keng Ching From the above table, we see that the words of PPC agree with the rhyme group but not with the MKTY and the CYYY. A very special case in PPC 2 is the word"^" , which i s placed in rhyme group Tseng in Yun Ching, Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu and MKTY as well as PPC. In the CYYY and most modern dialects, | i s a homophone of t f , andl^. , which are of group Chen.^ Rhyme Dialects: Groups Peking Ch'eng Tu ^ir, Chou Wen Chou Hakka Canton Tseng /<'an fc'&n K'^n K'arj K'tn h^ij % Chen K'^n K'^n K'zn K'drj k'tn hdn j£ Chen K'zn i<zn k^n K'ay /<'in han 40 In Cantonese, ""^ j" i s s t i l l kept separate from$ f xand^ ; and in Wen Chou, although^ i s homophonous wiifch and ^  , they s t i l l keep the f i n a l -Q, but not the -n. "^j" should be kept in group Tseng in PPC, so i t i s rhymed with PPC 2 only. 3.1.3 PPC 3 PPC 3 corresponds exactly to rhyme groups Tang and Chiang. These two rhyme groups had merged in Sung Dynasty and had a tendency to merge in the T'ang Dynasty. About this discussion, Dr. Pulleyblank says., ^  "This rhyme group merged in Sung times with Group XH and was already tending to do so in T'ang as we can see from the fact that L i Ho twice rhymes words from rhyme>i with Group XIL Since, however, L i Ho also once rhymes a word, from this rhyme with Group XVI (a), one cannot be sure that the merger had yet been completed." I think he i s right, for we can find much evidence from T'ang poems, we also can find such combination of two groups in rhyme tables of the Sung Dynasty, such as Ch'ieh Yttn Chih Chang  T'u and Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu, which put two groups into one table. CYYY and MKTY, as well.as the above rhyme tables, merge two groups into one. 41 PPC uses the two rhyme groups s t r i c t l y together and has no cross rhymes. 3 . 1 . 4 PPC 4 PPC 4 corresponds exactly to rhyme group Shan. There i s no tendency to s p l i t PPC 4 into two or three categories as in the MKTY and the CYYY. We have a table in Chapter IE ( 2 . 5 ) to explain the development of group Shan in the MKTY and the CYYY, for the sake of clarity, we reproduce i t here. Group Shan MKTY CYYY Grade I I Grade IE II Grade ILT.If K'ai K'ou Ho K'ou K'ai K'ou Ho K•ou Han Han Shan Han Huan Huan Han Han Shan Han Han Shan T'ien Hsien T'ien From this l i s t , we see that the MKTY and the CYYY divide group Shan into two or three rhymes according to grade and K'ai K'ou or Ho K'ou. But the words of group Shan have always rhymed and cannot be divided in the PPC. There are two wores, ^  and ^  , which are of group Hsieja (ending with -m), and which rhyme only with PPC 4(ending with -n). From these two words alone, we cannot decide whether they 42 kept the f i n a l -m or changed l t to -n. In the MKTY and the CYYY; these two words are placed i n T'an (MKTY) or L i e n Hsien (CYYY) r e s p e c t i v e l y , which corresponds to group Hsien (ending w i t h -m). Although we can f i n d some modern d i a l e c t s i n which the f i n a l -m i s changed i n t o -n (e.g. Peking), or i n which the -m i s l o s t (e.g. Su Chou), we cannot come to any d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n , since the only evidence i s two words. Therefore, I s t i l l leave them i n PPC 7 (corresponding to group Hsien). There are two words, -k^j and z,%.f from group Chen which are rhymed only w i t h PPC 4 . T h e s e two words are placed w i t h the words of group Chen i n the MKTY and the CYYY, I cannot f i n d any evidence f o r such a merging w i t h PPC 4. So I t r e a t them as cross rhymes. 3.1 .5 PPC 5 PPC 5 corresponds to rhyme group Chen. MKTY and CYYY agree w i t h PPC, but the word P'in (sya) of group Shen (ending w i t h -m), i s found i n Chen Wen (corresponds to PPC 5) i n the CYYY. 43 There are two such words in group Shen which are found in PPC 5,#and7# t. Groups MKTY CYYY PPC f f Shen(-m) Ch'in Ch'in Hsun PPC 5 Shen(-m) Ch'in Ch'in Hsun PPC 5.6 T h e s i s only used with PPC 5, and:j% is used with both PPC 5 and PPC 6. There i s no evidence from the MKTY or the CYYY to indicate that these two words should be changed into PPC 5» They should be treated, then, as cross rhymes. There are some words which come from other rhyme groups other than group Chen, and rhyme with PPC 5. They are treated as cross rhymes: From group Keng (PPC 2) From group Tseng (PPC 2) From group Shan (PPC 4) 3.1.6 PPC 6 PPC 6 corresponds to rhyme group Shen. Though group Shen is merged with group Chen in many modern dialects, the two groups are kept separate in the MKTY and CYYY, as well as in 44 PPC. In fact, this i s very good evidence that most words of group Shen are used alone. Only two words are used with another group(group Chen, see 3»1«5). Therefore, the words o f group  Shen are kept in a separate category, PPC 6, in PPC. A word lg , which i s in group Chen, is rhymed with PPC 6. It is a cross rhyme. 3.1.7 PPC 7 PPC 7 corresponds to rhyme group Hsien(ending with -m). There are only two words ^  andi^, in group Hsien which are rhymed with group Shan. From these two words, we could assume that group Hsien has already merged with group Shan; but this evi-dence i s too weak to be conclusive. Also, this group i s s t i l l kept in a separate rhyme in MKTY and in CYYY. So, I w i l l keep this group separate in PPC. 3.2 Yin Sheng Rhymes 45 There are six categories of yin sheng rhymes in PPC. These categories are : PPC ? PPC 10 PPC 11 PPC 12 PPC 1? Chih 2, Yu 2, Hsieh 2 Hsieh 1 Chia, Kuo Hsiao Liu 1 u s e Chih 1. Chih 2, Yu 1 etc. because groups Chih, Yu and Hsieh must each be divided into two portions in PPC: Chih 1 includes words of group Chih with dental, sibilant and supradental i n i t i a l s . ^ Chih 2 .^includes words of group Chih except those words included in Chih 1. Yu 1 includes words of Grades I and IE, and a l l the words with l a b i a l i n i t i a l s of group Yu. Yu 2 includes words of Grade HE and IV of group Yu except the words with l a b i a l i n i t i a l s . Hsieh; 1. includes words of Grades I and IE of group Hsieh. Hsieh 2 includes words of Grades HI and IV of group Hsieh. 46 I separate each of these three groups Into two divisions according to the rhyme used. If some words are not generally used together, but can be under certain conditions, I try to separate them into different rhyme categories. I w i l l explain this further in discussion of each rhyme. 3.2.1 PPC 8 PPC 8 corresponds to rhyme groups-Chih 1, Ytl 1, and some words of group Liu in Grade HE with l a b i a l i n i t i a l s , and some entering tone words of group T'ung. Groups Chih and Yti should be divided into two parts Chih 1, Chih 2 and Ytl 1, Ytl 2. We have already discussed this in 3.2. Chih 1 and Ytl 1 can be rhymed together, so they are placed in one rhyme category. The words of group Liu with l a b i a l i n i t i a l s are rhymed only with PPC 8. The words , ^  » ^  » % and ^ J ', beginning with the 9th century, are used with group Ytl. In Late T'ang, Po Chti-i's poem, "P'i Pa rising", used the word with group Ytl: ' * I i * f \f & >5 J% ft * f fx Ytl Ytl Ytl Ytl Ytl Ytl Ytl Ytl Liu Ytl 7 We also find in Ytln Ying that the words of group Liu with 47 l a b i a l dental i n i t i a l s have merged with group Yu.^ In PPC, there are six words with labial-dental i n i t i a l s . Five of those six words are rhymed with PPC 8; the other, -^ , is rhymed with group Hsiao and i t had an irregular development which w i l l be discussed in 3 . 2 . 6 . Four entering tone words |^ , ^ , f | and |£ are rhymed only with PPC 8. After their development was complete, ::the four entering tone words were placed in PPC 8. A detailed dis-cussion of the entering tone words w i l l be given in 3 . 3 . In CYYY, Yti 1 is not placed with Chih 1; Chih 1 is included in Chih Ssu; and Yu 1 i s included in YU MO. Although Chih Ssu corresponds to Chih 1, the words in Chih Ssu are not the same as those in Chih 1. The words of group Chih with palatal i n i t i a l s are included in Chih Ssu, but in PPC, these words are placed in PPC 9, not in PPC 8. The following l i s t shows these different wordss PPC rhyme words Rhyme Grade PPC MKTY CYYY Group Category Chih 8 Chih Chih Ssu <<r ^  tA, Chih Chih IT i n Chih Chih Ssu Chih Chih Ssu Chih 3LT 9 Chih Chih Ssu 48 The five words of group Liu have different developments in the MKTY and the CYYY as follows t Rhyme Group PPC MKTY- CYYY Yu Hsiao Hao " Ytl Mo " Ytl Mo " Ytl Mo " (missing) From the above l i s t , i t is evident that MKTY agrees with rhyme group, and CYYY generally agrees with PPC. (Ytl Mo corresponds to PPC 8) The word ^  , which changed into Hsiao  Hao, i s an exceptional case. ^ has two pronunciations in Kwang Yfln, one in f a l l i n g tone rhyme Yu(^)(Karlgren - i u),^ and one in the entering tone rhyme Wu( jk ) (Karlgren -uk) . 1 0 Whether the word ^ i s placed in rhyme Yu or rhyme Wu, i t s transformation into Hsiao Hao(corresponds to group Hsiao) i s irregular. So, I think i t i s an exceptional word in the CYYY. vj7*J i s missing entirely from CYYY. There are three words, ^ % (PPC 9) , (PPC 13) and ? J (PPC 11), which are rhymed with PPC 8. I suppose these three words are cross rhymes. (^.see 3»3«2) 18. Liu PPC 8 4 9 3 . 2 . 2 PPC 9 PPC 9 corresponds to rhyme groups Chih 2, Yu 2 and Hsieh 2 and some entering tone words of groups Chen, Keng and Tseng. As discussed earlier, group Hsieh i s divided into two parts, Hsieh 1 and Hsieh 2 , as are groups Chih and Yu. The rhyme words of Hsieh 2 , Chih 2 , Yu 2 are always rhymed together, so we must consider them as one rhyme category, PPC 9 t in PPC. Some entering tone words of groups Chen, Keng. and Tseng are rhymed with PPC 9 . These words should be placed in this category. From groups Keng, Tseng f & %f $ % ^ ^ From group Chen % $ This w i l l be discussed in detail in Chapter HI, 3 . 3 . In MKTY and CYYY, Hsieh 2 i s merged with Chih 2 , as in PPC, but the words in Grade I, Ho K'ou, of Hsieh 1 are merged with Hsieh 2 in MKTY and CYYY and are kept in Hsieh 1 in PPC. (see 3 . 2 . 3 ) Moreover, Yu 2 does not rhyme with Chih 2 in either MKTY or CYYY. Yu 2 i s included in Yti Mo( Yu ) and Chih * 2 - i s included in Chi Wei ( Chih ). There are some words which are of other categories and are occasionally rhymed with PPC 9 : 50 From PPC 10 From PPC 8 9)C A i# t $ 3-From PPC 11 From PPC 13 4-Because these words are usually rhymed with original cate gories, I treat them as cross rhymes. PPC 10 corresponds to rhyme group Hsieh 1 and some entering tone words. Hsieh 1 includes the words in Grades I and U of group Hsieh. Some words of Grade I, Ho K'ou, of group Hsieh are rhymed with PPC 9, so that we may consider these words to be changed into PPC 9. as indicated in MKTY and CYYY. Nineteen such words can be found in PPC, 13. of them are rhymed with PPC 10 only, 2 are.rhymed with both PPC 10 and PPC 9, but just four are rhymed with PPC 9 only. From such a small figure, we cannot consider these words as changed into PPC 9. Let us check the l i s t below to discover the arrangements in MKTY, CYYY and Modern Wu dia- •-l e c t s . 1 1 3.2.3 PPC 10 51 PPC MKTY CYYY Wu Dialects (rhyme with) : Su Chou Wen Chou 9 Chih Ch'i Wei tsE ts'ai 9 n p'E p'a. 9 II t'E t'a 9 II sE sai 10 • i tE tai 10 i t pE pai 10 n * 10 i t IE l a i 10 t i huE vai 10 t i mE mai 10 „ II 10 - r i 10, 9 " II zE zai 10 n 10 i t huE f a i 10 n bE bai 10 i t f 10, 9 » t i huE vai 10 i t huE va The above table would Indicate that the words of PPC could be divided into two parts, but this is very d i f f i c u l t to prove, since the MKTY, the CYYY and Wu dialects have only one 52 rhyme category. Also, from the four words which we have considered to be changed, i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to find a rule to explain what kinds of words are changed into PPC 9. There-fore, a l l the words should be placed in PPC 10 and the four words should be considered as cross rhymes in PPC 9» There are other kinds of words in Grade II of group Hsieh, as mentioned in Chapter H . (2.2, table B; 2.4). These words have been divided into two parts in Kwang Yun; One is rhyme  Chieh(^), reconstructed [ai] by Professor Karlgren; another is rhyme Chladi.) , reconstructed [ a i ] . The problem i s with the words of rhyme Chia, of which there are 14 words in PPC. The following l i s t illustrates the d i f f i c u l t i e s with these words, (see p. 53) 53 PPC Tz'u MKTY CYYY Peking Wu dialects 10 11 Chia Ma Chia Ma Chieh Chia ai a Wen Su Lai Ma yjf L K + + + + + Chou Chou + a IX. L K + % L K + a £ 4 L K + + + + + + + + + a,o Tt?,0 m R K + a R K + (ie) a v £ R K + a & F K + + + a W If F K + a 15 I')- F H + + + o o #i F H + + + o o i l l F H F H + + + o o L=level tone, R=rising tone, F=failing, K=K'ai K'ou, H=Ho K'ou 54 Undoubtedly, the words of Ho K'ou are placed in PPC 11 (corresponds to groups Chia and Kuo) because this type of words i s rhymed only with PPC 11, and, are placed in Chia Ma (MKTY:Ma)(corresponds to PPC 11). For the words of K'ai K'ou, i t i s f a i r l y easy to decide which rhyme should be used, since the three words , i f , are used with PPC 11. One of these words, , is rhymed with both PPC 10 and PPC 11. Checking Yun Ching, Tz'u Lin Cheng Yun and CYYY, we discover t h a t ^ has two pronunciations: one in group Hsieh and one in group Chia. I think PPC has two pronunciations and also placed in two categories. i]% i s another one of the three words which i s used both in PPC 10 and PPC 11. It is placed in two rhyme categories in the Tz'u Lin Cheng Yiin and in one rhyme category (corresponds to group Chia) * in MKTY and CYYY. It i s very hard to prove that  :J% has two pronunciations since the MKTY and the CYYY show only one pronunciation. Most of the words in rhyme Chia are used with PPC 10 a n d i s s t i l l used with PPC 10, too. It would, there-fore, be quite reasonable to place ^  in PPC 10. H i s rhymed with PPC 11 only. This word has an i n i t i a l l a b i a l stop, as does3f| , b u t ^ i s rhymed only with PPC 10. We cannot say that H should be placed in PPC 11 merely because i t has a la b i a l i n i t i a l . In Tz'u Lin Cheng Yiin, f| a n d ^ are placed in Tz'u 5, which corresponds to group Hsieh. In MKTY, ^| and}f| are placed in Chia (corresponds to group Hsieh). In 55 the CYYY, || is placed in Chia Ma, and^f? i s placed in Chieh  Lai. In the Modern Wu dialects, a l l the words of rhyme Chia, K'ai K'ou, have f i n a l [-a] (Wen Chou) or (Ssu Chou). In the Wu dialects, the words of rhyme Chia, K'ai K'ou, can "be placed in group Chia, and according to CYYY, the |* should, therefore, be placed in PPC 11. There are three entering tone words which are used toge-ther in PPC 10. These are J and^L . Because ^ a n d ^ a r e used in PPC 10 only, they placed in PPC 108 the word <g , sometimes, occurs in PPC 10 and sometimes, in PPC 15 t so i t is placed in both categories, (see 3*3) The:.word^%which is of group Chih is an exceptional case since i t i s rhymed only with PPC 10, and i t is placed in Chia in MKTY and Chieh Lai in CYYY, so i t is placed in PPC 10. The words 7 / ^ (PPC 9) and \ (PPC 11) , are sometimes rhymed with PPC 10. They are cross rhymes. 3.2.4 PPC 11 PPC 11 corresponds to rhyme groups Kuo and Chia and some entering tone words of groups Tang, Chiang and Shan. Rhyme groups Kuo.. and Chia have been used together since Late T'ang — the poet L i Ho used them together in his poems. On this point, Dr. Pulleyblank has remarked, 56 "Though there are a few cases of Group ^  (Karlgren -a) used alone and a good many more of Group jfx. (Karlgren -a) used alone, they are very frequently combined. This agrees, with some Sung rhyme tables which treatifK (Grades H, HI, IV) as complementary to %^ (Grade I) and with the rhyming of some Sung poets. Po Chu-i keeps these groups apart."^3 In PPC and in the poems of L i Ho, there are respectively, six songs which use group Kuo alone and three songs which use group Chia alone, but there are 16 songs that combine the two groups. I think that groups Kuo and Chia are merged into one rhyme category, PPC 11, in PPC. There i s a special word, % , which has two pronunciations in Yun Ching and CYYY, as well as in Modern dialects. We have already discussed this in Chapter HI, 3-2.3. One of these pro-nunciations should be placed in PPC 11. Three entering tone words, (group T'ung) , |4j (group Tang), and ^ (group Shan), are rhymed with PPC 11. Because they are used only once with PPC 11 and because they are s t i l l rhymed with original entering tone rhymes, they are placed in both rhymes: one in PPC 11, one in entering tone rhyme. I w i l l discuss this further in 3«3» PPC does not agree with MKTY and CYYY, which divide groups  Kuo and Chia into two or three rhymes. I made a table of these in Chapter H, 2 . 4 , and reproduce i t here; 57 Group Grade PPC MKTY CYYY Kuo I 11 Ko Ko Ko Kuo m 11 Ma Ch'e Che Chia 31 11 Ma Chia Ma Chia 33I,IV 11 Ma Ch'e Che There are two cross rhymes,^ (PPC 8 ) and f£ (PPC 12) , but they seem to be exceptional cases. 3.2.5 PPC 12 PPC 12 corresponds to rhyme group Hsiao and includes an entering tone word,||£. PPC agrees with the MKTY and the CYYY. The word Jf£ which i s an entering tone word of group Shan, is rhymed only with PPC 12, so i t i s placed in PPC 12. There are three words, , jfe- and^J from PPC 13 which are rhymed with PPC 12 and are cross rhymes, (see 3.2.6) 3.2.6 PPC 13 PPC 13 corresponds to rhyme group Liu, but some words in Grade 331 , Ho K'ou, with.labial i n i t i a l s have changed into other categories. Group Grade PPC CYYY MKTY (rhyme with) 13 8 12 Yu Yu Hsiao Yu Hou Mo Hao J?] Liu I + + + + -tf- "' I + + + % " I • + **t " HE + + HE HE K " HE \ib " HE ^ ' i " H E + » »T " HE + + * is missing in the CYYY. 59 In this table, MKTY agrees with the rhyme group concerning a l l the words in rhyme Yii, although PPC and CYYY show some changes. The five words, , a n d , with the lab i a l nasal i n i t i a l , may be placed in PPC 13 because they are rhymed with PPC 13. But the-££ is rhymed with PPC 8, too, and i s placed in Yii Mo (corresponds to group Yii) in CYYY. The can serve as a rhyme in two categories in PPC but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to indicate in which category i t belongs. Since i t can be rhymed with PPC 13 i t i s placed in PPC 13, as are other words with l a b i a l i n i t i a l s . The words, , SfJ[ , jc^ , |j . % and &\ , have so-called labial dental i n i t i a l s , except for % , only rhyme with PPC 8 in PPC, and are, therefore, placed in that category. In the CYYY, jt^ , %K and % are placed in Yii Mo; ^ i s placed In Hsiao Hao; &\ i s missing; and ^  has an irregular development. Thus, It i s possible to place the five words in PPC 8. In fact, the word#v^  is rhymed with group Yu, as in Po Chu-i's poems and we find that words with l a b i a l dental i n i t i a l s have merged with rhyme i 7 Mo (group Yti) in the Yun Ying (see 3.2.1). So, we can confi-dently place the five words ^  , &f , || % % andv|j in PPC 8. The word § i s rhymed with PPC 12 and PPC 13, as i s . I think both should be placed in PPC 13 and treated as exceptional or irregular developments in PPC 12. Therefore, the words in the above l i s t would be arranged as followsJ 60 ^ tjf, *f f */ £ 13 The MKTY and the CYYY both primarily agree with PPC with respect to this category, except for the 12 words with la b i a l i n i t i a l s in the above l i s t . 3 . 3 Entering Tone Words In Chapter H we discussed the entering tone words(abbre-viated "ET words"). There are three types of treatment in the ET words. First, some words are matched with yang sheng rhymes, Ytin Ching and Ch'i Yin Ltteh represent this kind. The ET words have kept the f i n a l stops, -k, -t and -p. Second, the ET words are placed in two kinds of rhymes: one i s merged with yin sheng  rhyme which means that the f i n a l stop has been lost; the other is matched with yang sheng rhyme which the ET words s t i l l keep separate from yin sheng rhyme, and which keep the f i n a l stops or a glottal stop, as in Modern Wu dialects. The Tz'u Lin  Cheng Ytln, the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu and the CYCN provide examples. Third, some words are merged into yin sheng rhymes com-61 pletely. MKTY and CYYY are the representative dictionaries i l l u s t r a t i n g this type of change. In PPC, most of the ET words are s t i l l used alone, and only a few words are used with yin sheng rhyme. The following l i s t illustrates this: Rhyme Groups ET words match only with yang sheng rhyme ET words use only with yin sheng rhyme ET words use with both T'ung Lk 3 1 Keng,Tseng 13 10 o Chiang,Tang 19 1 1 Shan 38 2 1 Chen* 3 Total Ilk 19 9 *The ET words of group Chen which are fk. > % > *d have already merged with PPC 9» There are three kinds of the ET words; words which are matched with yang sheng rhyme of which there are Ilk words; those used in yin sheng rhyme — 19 words; and those used in yin sheng rhyme and matched with yang sheng rhyme of which 62 there are 9 words. From the above l i s t , we cannot dispute the f a c t that most of the ET words are s t i l l matched wi t h yang sheng rhyme and used alone. We may regard the ET words as d i f f e r e n t from y i n sheng rhyme, f o r the ET words r e t a i n -p, - t and -k. As opposed to Tz'u L i n Cheng Yun, Tz'u 17 and Tz'u 18 have already i n c l u d e d the words w i t h d i f f e r e n t f i n a l stops; but we can consider the f i n a l s t o p s . l o s t or changed i n t o g l o t t a l stops. However, i n PPC, most ET words are used not only w i t h words of the same f i n a l stop but a l s o w i t h words i n the same group, which reminds us th a t ET words may, i n some cases, r e t a i n the f i n a l stops. There i s only one e x c e p t i o n a l word, , which i s placed i n PPC Ik, but rhymes w i t h PPC 15, and i t i s a cross rhyme, (see 3 . 3 . 2 ) The words which are used only w i t h y i n sheng rhyme should be placed i n y i n sheng rhyme, f o r i f these words keep the f i n a l stops, they cannot be rhymed w i t h y i n sheng rhyme. Also we f i n d t h a t these words change to y i n sheng rhyme i n MKTY and CYYY. For the e i g h t words which are used both w i t h y i n sheng  rhyme and matched wi t h yang sheng rhyme, I f o l l o w the Tz'u L i n Cheng Yiin, the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu and the CYCN i n that those words are placed both w i t h y i n sheng rhyme and w i t h ET rhyme. There are f o u r ET rhymes: those w i t h ending -k — PPC Ik, PPC 15, PPC 16 — and those w i t h ending - t — PPC 17. 63 3.3.1 PPC 14 PPC 14 corresponds to the ET words of group T'ung. We have 44 rhyme words i n PPC 14 which are used by themselves. Of these, the word ^  i s rhymed wi t h PPC 15, which i s an e x c e p t i o n a l case, and i s a cross rhyme i n PPC 15. There are three other ET words, ^  t $3 . ; which, although p a r t of group T'ung, are not placed i n PPC 14. They have changed i n t o PPC 8 since they are rhymed only w i t h PPC 8. Another word jJL i s rhymed w i t h both PPC 14 and PPC 8; i t i s placed i n both c a t e g o r i e s . The ET words of PPC 14 have already changed i n t o y i n  sheng rhyme i n MKTY and CYYY. A l l the words are included i n rhyme Yu i n the MKTY and Yu -Mo i n the CYYY, but some of them are repeated i n rhyme Yu Hou i n CYYY. 3.3.2 PPC 15 PPC 15 corresponds to the ET words of groups Keng and Tseng. In PPC, there are 29 ET words from groups Keng and Tseng, besides 13 words used w i t h the ET words of the same groups. Of these, 16 words can be used wi t h y i n sheng rhyme. ppc 9 % PPC 10 64 PPC 9 , PPC 15 ^ 7 PPC 10, PPC 15 PPC 9 , PPC 8 The e i g h t words, which are rhymed w i t h PPC 9 o n l y , are undoubtedly placed i n PPC 9 . The word which i s rhymed w i t h PPC 1 0.^should be placed i n PPC 1 0 . The f i v e words, , & * ify » and£f , which can be used...with both. PPC 9 and PPC 15, should be placed i n both PPC 9 and PPC 15, a y i n sheng  rhyme and an e n t e r i n g tone rhyme. The Tz'u L i n ..Cheng Yun, the Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu and the CYCM have already done t h i s (see Chapter 31, 2 . 3 ) . The word & , l i k e the f i v e words mentioned before, i s rhymed w i t h PPC 10 and PPC 15 and i s to be placed i n both PPC 10 and PPC 15. The word i% , i s rhymed wi t h PPC 8 and PPC 9 , and i t i s never used w i t h PPC 1 5 . Since a l l the ET words of groups Keng and Tseng are placed i n PPC 9 , i t i s an e x c e p t i o n a l case i f they are rhymed w i t h PPC 8 . Thus, f j ^ should be placed i n PPC 9 , too. In a r a t h e r unusual ease, a song has in c l u d e d PPC 14, 15 and PPC 9 : %<a h • *ff )g % Jj PPC 15 15 9 14 15 15 65 ^ and IJ^ should be regarded as cross rhymes. Otherwise, t h i s would be very d i f f i c u l t to e x p l a i n . PPC 15 i s i n c l u d e d i n Ch'i Wei and Chieh L a i i n CYYY as w e l l as i n Chih and Chia i n MKTY. 3.2.3 PPC 16 PPC 16 corresponds to the ET words of rhyme groups Chiang and Tang. There are 19 words i n PPC 16 which are used by them-s e l v e s . There are two other words: j | , i s placed i n PPC 8, since i t i s rhymed w i t h PPC 8 only; it, i s placed i n both PPC 8 and PPC  16, because i t i s rhymed w i t h both rhymes. PPC 16 i s in c l u d e d i n Hsiao Hao and Ko Ko i n the CYYY and i n Hsiao i n the MKTY. Some ET words of Hsiao Hao are the same as Ko Ko i n the CYYY. 3.2.4 PPC 17 PPC 17 corresponds to the ET words of group Shan. There are 38 words i n PPC 17 which are used alone. A few words, y a n d ^ , are rhymed only w i t h y i n sheng rhyme, and they may change i n t o y i n sheng rhyme. T h e r e f o r e , ^ i s placed i n PPC 1 0 i s placed i n PPC 12. Another word^ fis placed i n PPC 11 and PPC 17 both because i t i s rhymed w i t h both rhymes. PPC 17 i s in c l u d e d i n Chia Ma, Ko Ko and Ch'e Che i n CYYY and i n Ko and Ma i n MKTY. 66 NOTES 1. Han YU Fang Yin Tzu Hui ( $ f t # - f f % ) , by Yiian Chia-hua 1962, Peiking, p. 270,271. 2. Han Yii Fang Yin Tzu Hui, op.cit., p. 2 4 4 . 3. Dr. Pulleyblank, 1968. 4 . Han Yii Fang Yin Tzu Hui, op.cit., p. 209, 222. 5. Dr. Pulleyblank, 1968. 6. The i n i t i a l s of Middle Chinese, according to Dr. Pulleyblank (1969c) are as follows: k k» kfi 9 t t« th n tr t r ' trn nr > nj(?) P p' pn m f f fn V ts ts" tsn s sh tsr tsr' (t)srfi sr srfi ? X xft • T 1 7. Yun Ying(ffl^ ), by Yuan T»ing-chien(K$L ) t It i s a missing rhyme dictionary which can be reconstructed from Huel Lin I Ch'ieh Ching Yin I( j t f i M ^ ) , and which is representative of Northwest Chinese in the T'ang Dynasty. See Hwang Ts'ui-po(^?^"l&) , Huei Lin I  Ch'ieh Ching Yin I Fan Ch'ieh K ' a o ( — f o v / 7 # ) , Chung Yang Yen Chiu Yuan L i Shih~Yu Yen Yen Chiu Suo  Chuan K'an 6 (193H 67 8. Chou Tsu-mo (b) ( ) , p. 479-481. 9. Barnhard Karlgren, Etudes sur l a phonologie chinoise, Chinese translation, p.516. 10. Karlgren, op.cit., p. 523. 11. Han Yii Fang Yin Tzu Hui, op.cit., p. 113-125. 12. Karlgren, op.cit., p. 4 8 8 . 13. Dr. Pulleyblank 1968. CHAPTER IV RHYME LISTS 4.1 Key to the Lists 1. The number of the scene i s based on the Llu-Shih Chung  Ch'tL. Ch'ien Nan-yang's edition does not have the eighth scene while the Liu-Shih Chung Ch'tl does have the f o r t y - f i r s t scene of Ch'ien's edition. Thus numbers from f i r s t to the seventh scenes are the same in both but from the ninth to the f o r t y - f i r s t scenes the numbers are different. Then, when we talk about Ch'ien's edition, we must remember to substract one; for example,' the thirteenth scene of Liu-Shih Chung Ch'tt is the twelveth scene of Ch'ien's edition. 2. The number after the songs represent the song's number; for example, 18.3 is the third-song of the eighteenth scene in Liu-Shih Chung Ch'tt,. but i t i s the third song of the seventeenth scene in Ch'ien's edition. The ipilogue of every scene i s given the number 50; for example, 3.50 i s the epilogue of the third scene. 3. If the songs of Ch'ien's edition were not in the Liu-Shih  Chung Ch'tt, I have marked them with " Ch ", and i f some songs were only in the Liu-Shih Chung Ch'u, I marked them in the footnotes. 4. With a l l the ending words, I used the Chiu-Kung Ta- Ch'eng Nan-Pei Tz'u Kung-P'u to check each pattern whether they rhymed or not. The pattern of a drama's song is a very important factor in deciding the rhyme words. 5 . When the rhyming words between Ch'ien's and Liu-Shih  Chung Ch'u showed some differences, I checked Ch'en Chi-ju's edition and Chiu-Kung Ta-Ch'eng to decide which is the correct one and put a footnote at the end of each rhyme category. 6. The 34.11 (Buddhist Chuan) of Liu-Shih Chung Ch'u, which did not exist in Ch'ien's edition, was cut off because i t was not easy to find the pattern to t e l l us which word was in rhyme. The 40.2 was cut off, too, because i t has only two sentences. 7 . A l l the Ch'u(songs) and epilogues were included in the rhyme l i s t ; other poems were arranged in the additional l i s t . 8. In the additional l i s t , the prologue of each scene was given the mark " A ". If the poem or tz'u was not the beginning, then I marked i t from " B ", regardless of place of appearance; for examples 19A is the prologue in the nineteenth scene, 10B i s the f i r s t poem of the tenth 7 0 scene. The number after A, B, C... indicated the section of rhymes; for examples 27A3 is the section 3 of prologue in the twenty-seventh scene. 9. The abbreviations and notations are used in the rhyme l i s t s are as follows: L Level tone (P'ing Sheng) R Rising tone (Shang Sheng) F Falling tone (Ch'ii Sheng) E Entering tone (Ju Sheng) Ho K'ou word The word comes from other rhyme category in PPC. 1 0 . The abbreviations used in the notes are as follows: A. Book's abbreviations KY Kwang Yfln  CYN Chi Yfln  MKTY Meng Ku Tzu Yiin  CYYY Chung Yuan Yin Ytln M The PPC in Mao Chin's Liu-Shih Chung Ch'fl Ch Ch'ien Nan-yang edited PPC J Ch'en Chi-ju's P'ing Ting Chuan P'i Pa Chi  CKTC Chiu-Kung Ta-Ch'eng Nan-Pai Tz'u Kung-P'u B. Term's abbreviations no means that the word i s not in this book. For example: "KY: no", none means that the song is not in this edition. opps two words or two songs were in opposite positions in that edition of PPC. mg means two songs merged as one song in that edition. For example: " CKTC: 7.1, 7.2 mg " means the 7.1 and 7.2 merged together in CKTC. sp one song s p l i t into two songs in that edition. For example: " 37.11 sp " 72 4.2 Rhyme Lists . PPC 1 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme ^ L ^ ^ t ^ t l ^ f & Rhyme -Jr R Rhyme & F f Rhyme L ^ Grade II Rhyme ^ L ^ Grade III Rhyme £ L f % t% % % j£ V f i t J& Rhyme ^ F j g . Rhyme ^ L %%%^$J^%W^ Rhyme j | R | | Rhyme ^ F ^ Grade IV Rhyme F 73 Rhyme L Rhyme flf R ?jfj Rhyme F £g )f| Rhymes 5.6 10.7 10.8 ' ^ J j l i i 10.9 #Ws#iffl&$L% 10.10 >S*ig^ ^^ Sg i o . i l !tt>ta^ if lo.ia ^ ^ p i - ^ ^ ^ ^ i i 1 0 . i 3 }t|E«i24fi*^KItt' 10.14 &,to§^t^4i^ 10.15 j^s&ft&^flfe 10.16 13.50 "^f Jt 1^.2 4£flLjBfij& l 4 . 5 0 » 16.50 ilCR 19.1 &%W<&M-35.50 24 36.1 EtPH* 36.2 36.3 ^g^ffr^ 37.50 <j£27f Ch4 .5 f'£$A% Notes 74 1. 10.7, 10.8 2 . \ 3 . 4. ^ 5. 6. f 7. £ M M M M M M M sp Ch:mg Ch: •It Ch: yf Ch: f i t * A Ch: Ch: -§ *.. Ch: £ PPC 2 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme f ?# Rhyme Grade II Rhyme ^ L Rhyme Rhyme Grade III Rhyme M. L Rhyme « B A Rhyme Rhyme A A ^ Rhyme Rhyme U P Rhyme * L Rhyme Grade IV Rhyme >f L T i t t l e s * Rhyme • - f i t ! * Rhyme Rhyme Rhyme Rhyme <&& „ l i F Rhyme s 5.18* g ^ * 5.20 > £ ^ 4 C ^ i 12.4 ^iLiA^jt 27.50 28.3 28 . 5 £ # * £ £ # / t 5.19 tfj&'t^ T^l 5.21 f l 7.50 ' f f j & t f 12.3 *ffcf£ft;Ufc 12.5 ^ * > ^ 5 t J l 28 . 1 # * 8 ? f > § - * £ € S 28.4 ^ ^ i i ^ t t y t 28.6 j^Jjj? 28.7 ^ * ^ « i ^ t t « * « « t ^ t 28.8 7 7 2 8 . 9 3 9 . 7 4 * f c 3£ff 3 9 . 8 fttfft&pgg 3 9 . 9 ^ % | f y | ^ g 39.10 3 9 . 1 1 f $ f ^ 40.50 5 £ ^ Rhyming between groups PPC 2 and PPC 1 3 9 . 6 4 % % i f t Notes ! • $ M l n o CYN: n o Chung Chou Yin Yun Chi Yao: in Keng T'lng 2 . 5 . 1 8 Ch: none 3 . f# Mt Ch: ^ * Mi ft Ch: f 5 . 3^ . Mi i | _ Ch: 1£ CKTC 1 ^ 6 . 9^ M: ej| Ch: 78 7 . iJ Mi 77 C h : 8 . i f M: C h : 9. 39.9. 39.10 C h : o p p s 10. % Mi | C h : | 11. »fl M: % C h : 12. ^ Mi ffc C h : 4- J s 79 PPC 3 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme L Rhyme 7% R Rhyme % F Grade II Rhyme *jX~ L n Rhyme f||. R Rhyme F Rhyme f j | L Rhyme )%^ F Grade III * i A ^ Rhyme j $ L »*f*JL*»S«^ !*ff*|l8* f^* :^ Rhyme ^ R ± f Rhyme }£ F f ^ S ^ ^ & i t ^ Grade IV Rhyme f^j L Rhyme R ft|Hll Rhyme 7 ^ F Rhymes 8.2 - $ K £ * f 17.1 \ f \t&m$r 17.3 / i ^ ^ n i i 22.2 8.3 - f t^s 17.2 24.1 21.50 s f c f - S | 22.9 31.50 37.1 37.2 37.3 37.^ i < i f & £ k w r M 37.5 ^ f ? M ? l f f i 3 ^ ta.50 4 81 Notes 1. 8.2, 8.3 C h : none 2. Mi C h : ft| J : $ 3.. I | M: || C h : 4 . *S M: f C h : 1# 5. $ M : C h : i PPC 4 Grade II Rhyme Words Grade I •Rhyme & L # 8 ^ & ^ £ ^ / & £ | Rhyme ^ R Rhyme % F $ ^ M m ^fjf Rhyme $g L tftMt />•.£. ^ A A A n A Rhyme ^ R >v$T? 4lf * i £ A A .A A-Rhyme ^ F H^&**£ & A A - A ^ A A A Rhyme #| L A A <a £ A i A Rhyme 7t R H A Rhyme F 1 A Rhyme L Rhyme /I R Rhyme F Grade III Rhyme 7L L t $f ^  iflMfl ^ 83 Rhyme ^ R falk¥^fc& A A A A A Rhyme j g l F $ ' A A A A A Rhyme ^ L if iMlS f A A Rhyme J'^ R %^%^$L»% A A a Rhyme F A A A A A Grade IV Rhyme ^ L l | j | t f « « ^ j t ) i W ? i ^ M 1 ' A A A A A A Rhyme <fj| R i t ^ ^ S . A Rhyme * t F V § 7 ^ & l f e S f e Rhyme ^ L %A % § *8 ^ t ^ f f j i l ^ A A Rhyme ^ R Rhyme ^ F f ^ & ^ t . Rhymes 5 . 5 ^4.%%f&f 5 . 7 5.8. f » M 1 f $ 5.9- %m&lfM% 5.10 -f^thM 5 . i i JtWii^fiWt 5.12 u ^ s H W r 5.13 |t«*tt§*#*asjis 5.14 i M - ^ f f &ffliB 5.15 «t*ffl^X>i 7 5.16 * - £ & & | l y * ' 5.17*&&1* 8 . i A i t t * . i o . 4 m^^i i 5 . 2 I j t W ^ r u 15.3 -&&£«j'&7ti 15.4 £ J f - & « , - f 15.5 7 U S 4 f W - 5 f -15.50 "&$H& 16.1 | | | 16.2 f i ® ^ h ^ i f 4 ^ | 2 i 7 . 6 J t ^ j i R i 17.8 ^ m ^ i t , 1?.9 S a f f l j j l f ^ 17.10 17.11 17.12 17.13 t>t|^^k^ 17.14 t^^l> 17.16 4li"|7||f 22.1 22.3 M d j 22.4 t i ^ i i P ^ f 22.5 22.6 . 22.7 ^tl^fl^F^J 22.8 t f j f t S t t A a i ^ 22.10 j * ^ X M f ^ t * | A 22.11 22 •12 22.13 Uf, 22.15 * * J & £ & ^ # # 22.14 % 22.16 \ ? f | ( v ^ 26.2 J S f a| X i W i ^ f t « t « g 5 d a t t ^ 26.5 ^ i ' k i P l * 26.4 iji 26.6 26.8 f f P f ^ M * ^ 28.50 l i l l t j f ^ Rhyming between groups PPC 4 and PPC 7 zl 26.7 C h 2 6 . 9 / f ^ 1 - f t 1 l f \ f y * l » Ch42.50 ^ ^ ^ f X 27.4,7 17.17* i T ^ ^ " ^ ^ PPC 4 and PPC 5 it ^ a 5.2 7 C v ^ ^ 7 ^ ^ 13.3 ^ itlrli] 5.3 - f ^ ^ g . Notes 1. 3.2, 3.3. 3.4 Ch: none 2. iff Mi #f Ch: #|-3. tiff 'Mi flg Ch: ^ 4. f M: f Ch, lfK 5. afc M: no Chi v£ 6. f M: f Ch: ffc 7. >$, M: ^ C h « *f 8. 5.16 Ch: none 9. 5.17 Ch: none 10. & Mi & Ch: & 11, 15.50 Ch: none 12. % M: ffl Ch, * 13. ] J M: i l l Ch: 1 14. ^ Mi ^ Ch: £ 87 CKTC : 1'^  & ^  & 16. i ' l i t e ^ i ^ f M. t f i $ 17. # . Mi ^ Chs |-18. 1?1 Ms 't£ Ch» /J. lv9, Ch26.9 Mi none 20. Ch42.50 Ms none Ji none 21. %, Ms Chs # 22. 17.17 Chs none 23. ^ Ms Chs * j 24. ^ Mi ^ Chs ^ 25. Ms i £ Chs JjJ, PPC 5 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme ^  L Rhyme ^ F Rhyme L A A A A A A Rhyme 1% R A A A Rhyme F A A A A Grade III Rhyme % L Rhyme R <SJg«l Rhyme ^ F Rhyme L A A Rhyme 2^ . R A >-Rhyme _X- L A A A A A A Rhyme R A Rhyme fv|j F A Rhyme ^ L 89 Rhyme f t R Grade IV Rhyme J| L Rhyme % ^ R Rhyme ^ F Rhyme $\ L 11 | i t Rhymes 6.2 7.2 ^ l ^ f f l 7.4 &Hj$t#f!J$f[4 7.6 M } $ M ? 1 f 9 17.4 ##6fl** « K 5 i7.8 y^^&'i-23.50 A. 25.50 32.2 W > 1 I | | , $ ^ ® A 42.2 m^w--^ 6-50 H SA 7.3 mi\t^^n^ 7.5 5if,i^A«nt^ 7.7 17.5 17.19 A ^ X S i l 17.50 $ ' p i f 25.1 %*&'£kXt 29.50 *f[j|L)ll 32.50 42.3 S J M S t f l f f l * 42.2 A R f # V f 8 f 42.5 42.3 f r j 42.8 Rhyming between groups PPC 5 and PPC 1 25.4 A f / ^ i l ^ p i A X PPC, 5 and PPC 6 7.1 ' ^ A ^ # ' 2 PPC 5, PPC 4 and PPC 1 32.3 f t t t & l ^ l t i f ' U PPC 5. PPC 4 and PPC 2 32.1 Motes 1. 2. ^ KY: no KY: # CYN: CYN: t& CKTC: 91 3. 7.1, 7.2 Mi sp Ch: sp CKTC: mg 4. )% M: / f Ch: K 5. %\ Mi I*]" Ch: no 6 . ^ Mi fg| . Ch: 't$ig)ji 1'f*| CKTC:lf|)lf 7. fi) M: § Ch: f£] J: ^ 8 . f M: % Ch: $ J: 9 . M: fr^ Ch: 4 10. ^ M: Ch: j% CKTC: 11. 7.1. 7.2 M: sp Ch: sp CKTC: mg 12. \% * M: Ch: f% CKTC: ^ 13. 42.1 The,-first half i s at the PPC 13. the second half i s at the PPC 5. 14. ^ M: 1£ Ch: 1^ CKTCi PPC 6 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme L Grade II Rhyme ^ L , ^ ^ i T P t ^ ^ f ^ Rhyme f f i ^ # * f £ Rhyme ^ F %*t\^$2* Grade III Rhyme ^ L '^j^-Rhymes 30.7 30.8 4 f l f & £ * « $ ^ * M $ f c ^ 26.50 33.50 - ^ t r/v^ Rhyming between groups PPC 6 and PPC 5 14.1 M ^ g ^ ^ Notes %• • Mi Chi Jf f t - f i M: no Chi f.£ £ J , f f £ £ Mi & Chi -f M: -f . Chi 13]" Rhyme Words Grade IV Rhyme yf$l L Rhyme ffi P PPC 7 PPC 8 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme $2. I A A A A A A' -A ^ A A A a & Rhyme R .ig j L ^ ^ f /$$J#i & A A A A ^ A A A A ^ J A A A A 4 A A 4 A A A A A A A A A A ^ A A Rhyme Jg. F Grade II Rhyme L Rhyme f t R Rhyme * R ft A Rhyme * F Rhyme i t R Grade : III Rhyme L A A A A Rhyme R A A A Rhyme 55. F A A A Rhyme ^ R Rhyme % F Rhyme r% E Grade IV Rhyme R Rhyme F % Rhyme L Rhyme R Rhyme L Rhyme Ik R 4 fa Rhyme F % Rhyme E Rhymes 3.1 -^ $H| 9.1 *l|£lL& 9.2 ftWiiiajifS.S^/Bi 9.3 m ^ ^ ^ t ^ ^ i ^ 11.50 - f - ^ - S 21.7 i i ^ i - ^ ^ 97 21.8 j t ' f c f y 2 1 . 9 2 i . i o #vte»*r 23*7 23.8 ih#k<?r%fo 23.9 j t - ^ J C ^ - d f f 23.10 i f t 3 4 . 3 i f t £ # £ * 6 t e H * 34.4 ^ R ^ f t # t w 34.5 f i i ^ r $ - M - % 34.6 3 4 . 8 % & l t A 38.2 f%%?$JkZ. 38-3 41.4 ' i f ^4|i^ 7544| & - £ c h 4 l . 4 j b f t , " ! tff« % * l - 5 l l l f i t ^ f ^ ^ ^ ^ 4 1 . 6 « r * ^ | L ^ 5 € Rhyming between groups PPC 8 and PPC 13 23.5 & $ % & * $ f 34.7 * J L * $ ^ & ^ ^1.2 ^ f c ^ M t M ^ PPC 8 and PPC 9 98 PPC 8 and PPC 11 Notes 1 . M: H Cht J : ^ 2 . Mi g Ch: J : 3C 3 . M: Ch: 4 . 3^.8 C h i none 5. 4 1 . 3 Ch: none 6 . M: 4 1 . 4 Ch: 4 . 3 7 . f M: \% Ch: f 8 . 9. Mi ^ Ch: if PPC 9 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme ^ E Grade III Rhyme *$!kjL Rhyme ^ R Rhyme ^ F Rhyme JL^ L Rhyme R Rhyme J | F Rhyme $§ L Rhyme & R Rhyme S~ F Rhyme -2, L Rhyme j i ^ R i Rhyme F Rhyme F A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A Rhyme &x L Rhyme R Rhyme F Rhyme j j | L Rhyme ) J | R Rhyme F Rhyme ^ E Rhyme 1jf§ E Rhyme -gf E Grade IV Rhyme L Rhyme J f F Rhyme |§f L Rhyme ^ R Rhyme 2 - F Rhyme ^ L Rhyme ^ R Rhyme ^jp F A A A i A A A H % 101 Rhyme ^ F Rhyme | f " R Rhyme F Rhyme L Rhyme ^| E Rhyme #^ 7 E Rhyme •% E Rhyme Jfjj E Rhymes 4.10 ft 4.12 4.50 flfl&ft 10.1 3fa 10.5 SfttWH 3.50 * f e f # 4.13 *%M.y$fc 5.50 fiiifn MO .2 10? .6 102 n . i H i f f l H r 1 1 • 2 / l ^ f v f a * 11.3 % \ m w * 11 .^ ttWW&%Wri$k 14.6 * 4 # E £ ° % * f 1^.7 5 f § ' l f 15.1 ^ t | 3 ? * I $ $ l 16.7 16.8 ^ f ^ T K f f d t 16.10 - i & ^ t S f f | f 16.11 # g K i ^ f f * * 16.12 I I £ 2 . 18.50 $ f l ^ i t 19.50 S l ^ - ^ 21.3 $ 21.5 &V3%.1&% 21.6 ^ ! ^ $ t A A & 4 f 23.1 J^SL^/t 23.4 j R £ f e # 23.11 1 f f c & # £ ± 23.12 ^ l l f i ^ l f 26.1 K»5t^l|I 26.3 27.5 27.6 tffeftMS" 27.10 *i 27.11 - 2 7 .12 A A*9£*f«fc 28.2 " t - ^ I 30.1 fH#!# 30.50 fe^ 31.1 f i l l 103 31.2 31.5 ' f # - 2 L ^ 34.12 36.50 ^ 15-9% 39.1 n ^ T i T j - ^ ' - ^ /o 39.50 & -Ch4i.l S t t W B * . Ch4l.50 I t 42.11*1 i f Rhyming between groups PPC 9 and PPC 10 4.9 § 10.3 i # / f & & f f c I 4 . 3 * t - f ® ^ f * | 31.3 | , ^ 31.6 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 3^.13 34.15 38.50 fttfg^ 39.2 l ^ t P ^ ^ l Ch4l.2 i j g ^ l t 42.9 g X ^ b b g J J R j f * 8.6 t^&v$j3jjr|( i i . 8 ±$a^& 20.50 J< 31.4 I^tff-S^f^ PPC 9 and PPC 8 8.8 f ^ f L l f ! | ^ x 2 3 . i 3 ^ ^ / 4 4 8 | 4 31.7 ^ ^ § > f # f £ 39.4 i - ^ J t M - f & 4 ^ i t m i f ^ f m f t f t PPC 9> PPC 8 and PPC 10 38.6 f)d{k^t PPC 9 and PPC 11 39.3 mi£t(if PPC 9 and PPC 13 N o t e s 105 1. KY: no CYN: no Chung Chou Yin Yun Chi Yao: ^ 2. 4.5 Ch: none 3. i£f Mi 1^ Ch: 4^ 4. M: Ch: ^ £ 5. ^ M: Ch: ^ 6 . | | M: f l Ch: ^ 7 . ffl Mi ff] Ch: f | 8. 34.13 M: 34.13 Ch: 33.11 9 . 34.14 M: 34.14 Ch: 33.14 10. 39.50 Ch: none 11. f Hi t Cht 12. Mi Ch: \$j 13. M: £ Ch: *% 14. $ Mi %\ Ch: #f PPC 10 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme L Rhyme R Rhyme F Rhyme L Rhyme R Rhyme F Rhyme & F Rhyme & E Grade II Rhyme L Rhyme F Rhyme L Rhyme % R Rhyme F Rhyme ^ F A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A ' A A A. A H Rhyme E %-<d Grade III Rhyme Rhymes 6.3 *%&t£.m$L 6.4 f,t^f^ 1.50 ^ S ? 6.5 jet|*M£#&4 6.6 1kt%?mf&tk 6.7 4^«sit*Ra*^ 6-8 8.50 V^fgJ 12.50 i J U ' i f c . 20.1 ^ l l ^ H 20.6.7 "ft**? 25.7 ttmktB. 25.8 25.9 f 4 W H * l . & $ : 30.3 i S f ^ l & W X 30.4 30.5 30.6, % . & m i f m & 34.2 m m ^ t 34.9 **3fc*t- 34.10 I H ^ f " 34.16 34.50 38.4 38.5 38.7 ^ £ i e x f 38.8 \ 3 K * $ ^ f J : J t ^ # Rhyming between groups PPC 10 and PPC 9 25.10 f f o f ^ t M . PPC 10 and PPC 11 3 * . l X\%W\®f x Notes 1. KY: no CYNi 2. K Y i no CYNi 3. KY: no CYN: 4. tt M: $ Ch: 5. Mi /,|- Ch: 109 6. 8.50 Ch: none 7. Mi Ch:^t-| 8. % Mi ? J C h i ^ 9. 20.3,4,5 Ch: mg 10. 20.6,7 Ch: mg 11. |^ Mi t | Ch: || CKTC: f 12. £ M: £ Ch. £ 13. M: Ch: jfo 1^. ^ | M: ?f Ch: 15. ftf M: ^ 16. 34.50 Ch: none 17. 34.8 Chi sp (two) Ch: % PPC 11 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme ^ L |£i«J yuj $ Sfrf&Jtfl H Rhyme ^ R ^ $ ^ * * f Rhyme ff| F Rhyme L &&&^$8**W>7£ A A A A A A A A Rhyme & R A J W f * * A A A A A Zi A A A A A Rhyme & F $M^1k&Y A A A A A Rhyme |L F ^ A Rhyme Grade II Rhyme J^ L & & / ^ * t # # £ ^ & ^ & A A A Rhyme Rhyme * | F S l l F f c ^ ^ f ^ 13 ^f'2 I t Rhyme ^ R Rhyme A A A A Rhyme F It A I l l Grade III Rhyme j£p R ]fc Rhyme jj E ^ Rhyme E ^ Grade IV Rhyme fjjfa L ^ | Rhyme v ^ R A£> I Rhyme F Rhymes 2.1 XS^^T^ 2 - 5 o f « 0 9 . 5 0 t ^ j , 12.2 % m i ^ \ t m & 17.7 T H A \ g ^ ^ ^ ^ 18.2 ^/g^jfc 22.50 1^1^ 25.6 | [ l f i i g ^ / | ^ 3 1 . 8 f i ^ ^ « | 3 1 . 9 ^ j £ | & t £ 3 i . i o ^ ^ a ^ | g i § 3 i . i l 31.12 & | | } ^ | | ^ J l ^ 35.1 I t^^T^ T 35.2* 112 35.3 3 5. 7 >«T-&j8*&Ji^ 35.9 42.1 f^ F i Bhyming "between groups PPC 13 and PPC 8 35.5 -$1R44fc*.£W PPC 11 and PPC 12 35.4 % 35.8 ^ f A f * T M ^ ^ 35.10 ^ % ^ ^ | U S t 39 . 1 2 ^ 35.6 Notes 1. KY: no CYNt no CYYY: ffi Ch: 2. J§ KY: no CYN: \\ 3. ^ KY: ^ CYN: ^ (1^) 113 4. i$j KY: no CYN: no CYYY: 5 . *f KY: no CYN: no CYYY: 6. 12.2 M: Ch: CKTC: g p t g f t 7 . j£ H i # T Ch: g 8 . -Mi V*J Ch: ^ 9. 31.8, 31.9 Ch: mg 10. ^\ Mi ft Ch: no 11. $ 6 M u It) Ch: 1 6 12. £ g M: | | Ch: q 13. f t Mi ft Ch: %% 14. 35.2, 35.3 Ch: mg 15. Mi f| Ch: 5k 16. £ M: # Ch: ^ 114 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme \gr L Rhyme <3% R Rhyme F Rhyme ^ E Grade II Rhyme ^| L Rhyme *5 R Rhyme ftp Grade III Rhyme Hf L Rhyme A|n R Rhyme ^ F Grade IV Rhyme '|f L PPC 12 115 Rhyme R Rhyme ^  P Rhyme Rhyme ^ R Rhyme *ff\ F. Rhymes 6 - i i o . 5 0 ^ f v ^ i6.5 H«^ii*ffe 16.16 l 6 . 2 0 * f S 3 & # 27.2 27.3 A \ ^ # ^ M ^ ^ 3 ^ i 6 . 4 $S§IJIS&*&*& 16.13 ^ ^ ' i l l f f 16.17 J t ^ it« I 6 . 2 i ' « $ # 20.2 ^ftffc^M* 27.8 >>^< 37.6 3 7 . 7 & * ^ £ « J M $ & 5 37.8 f > | * j f t i $ 1 $ $ ; 3 37.9 37.W ^ ^ f ' W W ^ ^ ^ * M 3 7 . i 5 f i ^ J c i i ' t i f i f ^ > 37.16 ifc\&.£ 38.1 3>> 40.3 * f f 3 ? ! j i i 40.4 M L f S S i i Rhyming between groups PPC 12 and PPC 13 16.15 Jk-$r%>\ 16.18-19 37,^ty*t^£$mWv% Notes 1. i% KY: no CYN: 2. ^ KY: no CYN: 4 11? 3. 4fy KY: CYN: tip 4. KY: no CYN: no CYYY: 5. 5 f t M: 5J£j Ch: 6. 16.20, 16.21 M: sp Ch: mg 7. 20.2 Chj none 8. M: »$8 Ch: #t 9. % Mi f Ch: -f 10. M: ^ Ch: ^ 11. 37.HA, 37.HB Ch: sp M: mg 12. i% Mi f t . Ch: 13. Mi ^ Ch: 4 14. M: % Ch: no 15. \% M: ^ Ch: 4r 16. ^ M: $ Ch: j | 17. i l Mi 3^ Ch: jj,] 18. 16.18, 16.19 M: sp Ch: mg 19. KY: no CYN: no 2 0 . ou| M: C h : no CKTC : »LJ 2 1 . \ ^ Mi d j t C h : 5 119 PPC 13 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme L Rhyme ^ R Rhyme F Grade II Rhyme j[± L Rhyme 'iff F Grade III Rhyme Rhyme 7|| R Rhyme ^ F Grade IV Rhyme j£± L Rhyme ^ R Rhyme ^ F Rhyme L a , Rhyme F f f -Rhymes 2.2 - f l t l l y g 2.3 $ . i , f # p g f # 2 . * #itlfJ!-)©-* 2.5 f ^ t ^ $ i i * # 2-6 2.7 f f ^ ^ f f ^ f 2 ' 8 W ^ ^ ' t f 2.9 2-10 %ZJA 2.11 3.5 3.6 > M H 3.7 t*J&%ffl$ 3.8 3.9 ^ f f ' J U l l l 5.23 5 . 5 / > ^ | f . 8 . 4 8'5 ^ %AJM} 2 l . l l 21.12 f / g 21.13 & X 2 ^ $ i f c $ 23.2 # ^ £ $ 1 • 23.3 29.1 i ^ ^ C 29.2 ^ i U f J C i U S l ' I ^ J B l ^ ^ 29.3 * 5 t l K « 6 t x Z ^ ^ 5 « ^ 1 i 29.4 121 Notes 1. IJL KY; Jr CYN; J£ 2. - j | M: - J | Ch: i | CKTC: ^ 3. Mt #| Ch: #| J: $|{ 4. 5.51 Ch: none 5. 8 . 4 Ch: none 6 . 8 . 5 Ch; none 7. 21.23 Ch: none 8 . ^ , Mi JJ- Ch: ||-PPC 14 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme £ l E ^if^A^ Y # 5 H # * I ^ Rhyme E Grade II Rhyme ^ E Grade III Rhyme ^ E W ^ l l ^ f | ^ ^ | # ^ ^ p Rhyme * f E / f ^ A A A A A A A A A Grade I V Rhyme ^ E ^ Rhyme * g E 4£l^f f X Rhymes 19.2 ' i i f l ^ S l 3 19.3 19.4 ^ £ $ * f 19.5 * t * i - f # * l 19.6 J.*f 19.7 19.8 19.9 19.10 M^m^mz& 19.12 1 9 . 1 3 ^ * ^ 19.11 3 P Notes 1. $\ KY: no CYN: ^ 2. 19.2, 19.3 Ch: mg 3. I| Mi H|. Ch: II 4 . ] i Mi Ch: | i 5. 19.13 Ch: none PPC 15 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme \% E Grade II Rhyme E Rhyme E Rhyme E Grade III Rhyme -"gf E Rhyme ^ E Grade IV -jt Rhyme "0 E Rhyme E Rhyme fj!$ E Rhyme s A O 33.1 33.3 egjUifcAS 125 33.^ tfmVl 33.5 *4ffc«|# 33.6 jjB&^fy Rhyming between groups PPC 15. PPC 9 and PPC 14 27.9 X X)( Notes 1. ^ Mi K C h i 2. 6 Mt 0 Cht 4* 3. Ms "vjp Chs -$| PPC 16 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme g E Grade II Rhyme E ^ Grade III Rhyme $k E %) Iff Grade IV Rhyme £ E ^ Rhymes 29.5 29.6 *t,*&*9**& 29.7 *g£pf9#ftjg.^  29.8 f i U ^ t M Note PPC 17 Rhyme Words Grade I Rhyme E Rhyme ^ E A A A A A A Grade I I Rhyme |& E 'VlFX^ R Grade I I I Rhyme J E ^Jj&gKJ Grade IV Rhyme W E 4t$"tfc$* A L 13.1A a t i tTM Rhyme ^ E ft tt • 8 ^ * 2 ^ f W A A Rhymes I 3 . I B ' ^ ' J^9;%1 13.3 i&m$i; 13.4 SJfclrJttfrt&ffe 13.5 13.6 3M 'V«*T# 13.7 & & S L » B*fci* „ . 8 fl8*\ISl«LS*fc Notes 13.1 Mi /3, / Ch: sp(two) Vfl M: »i£J Ch: ^7 13.9 Chi no 129 4 . 3 A d d i t i o n a l Rhyme L i s t s PPC 1 Rhymes 3D 4^J84^I$» 29B 22A>M.^ PPC 2 Rhyme s 13A2 Rhyming between groups PPC 2,. PPC 1 and PPC 5 3C It PPC 3 Rhymes 9 A * c £ * 1 3 0 10A <f$3$ 1 0 C ^ PPC 4 t Rhymes 3B KM^M 8A I O B iM^A^- 11A2 12A *&*s^ . 11A 20A2 24A 4lA2 Rhyme s 27A3 3 0 A 34A,36A PPC 6 Rhymes 22A ^ f l ^ f ^ f 3 9 B M ^ PPC 7 Rhymes PPC 8 Rhymes 20A i % # Rhyming between groups PPC 8 and PPC 9 32A 3fe * $ . i ^ & « # PPC 9 Rhymes 3C #^*t ;.3F 17B2 | ^ l | j f i j | ^ 9 f ^ ^ 4 4 l ^ t % ^ 27A1 i t % v ^ ^ -27B 28A ^ ^ C ^ ^ / C J ^ 31B 36B2 41A Rhyming between groups PPC 9 and PPC 14 i7Bi k ^ f £ « PPC 9 and PPC 8 4i A3 £btf3L PPC 10 Rhymes 1- 3 2 PPC 11 Rhymes 3E %$%%X)i&r 13A4 PPC 12 Rhymes ISA i f t ^ f * f # M l J ^ 27A Rhyming between groups PPC 12 and PPC 13 1 3 A 3 3 % 38A 9 & $ M f c x x > PPC 17 Rhymes l u i 25* J f t f c * * * f f J3 Rhyming between groups PPC 1? and PPC 9 20A ^ 9 <f 133 Notes 1. 22A c, • ^ 3. 23B 4. 3^A, 36A 5 . 39B 6. 6A 7 . 27B Ch: none Mi ,t-Ch* none M: none Ch: none Ch: none Ch: none 134 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION In the present study, we have seen that the rhyme categories of PPC di f f e r , in some major ways, from phonolo-gical works earlier than as well as contemporary with, PPC, So, PPC represents a somewhat different speech pattern than that of such works as MKTY, CYYY. That i s , PPC cannot, by any stretch of the imagination, be regarded in the same light as the Northern dramas of the same period. Rather, we must place PPC in i t s proper context* the Chekiang d i s t r i c t . The author was born in Chekiang, did o f f i c i a l work in Chekiang, and wrote PPC for the people of Chekiang: In light of this, as well as the rhyme category differences, we can guess that PPC i s more a representative of a dialect of the Chekiang d i s t r i c t , perhaps the Chekiang dialect. Although there is not real, conclusive evidence to support this hypothesis, we can certainly regard the rhymes of PPC as a key to understanding the Chekiang dialect of the l 4 t h century. P 1 i Pa Chi's rhyme categories, of course, cannot provide the whole picture of the dialect, but they do indicate certain speech differences, which give important clues to any understanding of the dialect. 135 BIBLIOGRAPHY Chang Ching (bk&.). Ming Ch'ing Ch'uan Ch'i Tao Liin ( Vfi :4 \%%tyl%>) , Taiwan, 1961. Chang Shih-lu ( 5i&i& ) . Chung Kuo Yin Yiin Hsueh Shih ( <f ^ ^ W f ^ L ) , Shanghai, 1938, 2 Vols; Taiwan, 1965. Chao Yin-t'ang( $\{%% ). Chung Yuan Yin Ytln Yen Chiu f f . ^ ^ ^ f ! ) , Shanghai, 1936, 1965. Chao Yuan-ren( ). Hsien Tai Wu Yii Yen Chlu(^H'^t^^,) . Peking, 1928. Ch' en Chi - ju (f $ «fs1$) . P'ing Ting Chuan P'i Pa Chi ( £f $ f # *v % f G) , Ming Dynasty, reprinted in Peking, 195^. Ch'en P'eng-nien( \%\!',^  ) .-.and Ch'iu Yung(£j>^.). Kwang Y u n ( ) . 1 0 0 8 . ' i Cheng Ch'iao ($J$ , ) . Ch'i Yin Lueh , collected in T'ung Chih(ii4» ) , 12th century. Ch'ien Nan-yang{r^\%%) . P'i Pa Chi (t-t% sO ) , Shanghai, i960, 1965. Chiu Kung Ta Ch'eng Nan Pei Tz'u Kung P'u( fu% fc.fi v$7^ t *| £ v $) , Chou Hsiang-ytiO ^ H i ) , Hsu Hsing-hua( ) etc., 17^6, 82 Volumes. Chou Fa-kao ( $ >fc\% ). Lun Chung Kuo Yii Yen Hsiieh Ti Kuo Ch'u  Hsien Tsai Ho Wei Lai (tfy <f \t\ f\ % v f ^ ^ Hong Kong, 1966. 136 Chou T e - c h ' i n g ^ i ^ ) . Chung Yiian Yin Y u h ( ^ . ^ ) . 1324. Chou Tsu-mo(a) ((^ K&tf). "Ch'ieh Yun Ti Hsing Chih Ho T'a Ti Yin Hsi Chi Ch'u" ( f a "JL&H % %$$L) , collected in Wen Hsu'eh Chi(fj\^& ) t ..Peking, 1966, pp. 434-473. Chou Tsu-mo(b). "Ch'ieh Yun Yu Wu Yin" £ ^ ), collected in Wen Hsu'eh Chi, pp. 474-482. Chu Tsung-wen ( ^ t l ) * Meng Ku Tzu Yiin( t %$9 ) , 1308. Hattori S h i r o o ( ^ ^ \ ^ t f ) and Toodoo Akiyasu( jf^ £tf\ %). Chuugen on'in no kenkyuu( t \&A%k °) fr^ffj , Tokyo, 1958. Hsu Wei(1f,7|j ). Nan Tz'u Hsu Lu(ffi . 1559. Huang Ts'ui-po(if^'ftJ ) . Huei Lin I Ch'ieh Ching Yin I Fan Ch'ieh K'ao ( % - ^  ti % fytetfl ft) * '•• Peking, 1932. I shyama Fuku J i ( ^ U-1 \h'A). Kootei Chuugen on'in {%%^ ) » Tokyo, 1925. Karlgren, Bernhard. Etudes sur l a phonologie chinoise, Leiden, 1915-16. 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Lu K 1 an- ju ( f % ) • and Feng Yuan-chun (y&j>^ % ). Chung Kuo Shih  Shih(^\j?£&) , ..Peking, 1957. Lung Yu-ch'en . ( f £ ^ f^)'s Yun Ching Chiao ChuC^tf f j f e l ) , Taiwan, 1953. Mao C h i n ^ ^ t ) . L i u Shih Chung Ch'u(-£ +#\ff ) , Vol. 1, P'l Pa Chi, 17th century. P'i Pa Chi T'ao Lun Chuan K'an( 1% & f agf l f r j^j) , edited by Chu Pen Yu'eh K'an She( %\$ f\^\H ) , -Peking, 1956. Pulleyblank, E. G. 1963 "The Consonantal System of Old Chinese," Asia Major, New Series 9 pp. 58-144, 206-265 (1962-1963). Pulleyblank. 1964 "An interpretation of the vowel system," A s i a Major, New Series 10 pp. 200-221 (1964). Pulleyblank. 1968 "The rhyming categories of Hi Ho," Ch'ing Hua Journal of Chinese Studies, New Series, Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. 1-25 (1968). Pulleyblank. 1969a "The semivowel i i n Vietnamese and Mandarin." 138 (forthcoming). Pulleyblank. 1969b "Notes on the hP:'-ags-pa Alphabet for Chinese" (forthcoming). Pulleyblank. 1969c "The four grades" AOS meeting in New York, 1969, (forthcoming). Ssu Sheng Teng Tzu(Q2J ^ % ^ ) , edited in Sung Dynasty, reprinted in Ts'ung Shu Chi Ch'eng Ch'u Pien(^ f % \~\w^fj) , Shanghai, 1937. ' Stimson, Hugh M. The Jongyuan in yunn, New Haven, Conn., 1966. Tai Pu-fan(^/f'Jl ). Lun Ku Tien Ming Chti P'i Pa Chi ( l v | £ ^ ^ S ' | i - £ f o ) , : Peking, 1957. Ting Sheng-shu(1^fllt ). Ku Chin Yin Tuei Chao Shou Ts'e . ( t ^ t f ^ f ) , .-Peking, 1958. Toodoo Akiyasu. "Development of Mandarin from l 4 t h century to 19th century," Acta Asiatica 6 pp. 31-40 (1964). Tung T'ung-ho ( - % . Chung Kuo Yii Yin Shlh(vf $ f t ^ X ) , Taiwan, 1954. Wang C h i n g - c h ' a n g ) • Ch'u Yiin Wu Shu(y#f^ 1z1E; ), Taiwan, 1961. Wang Chun (5- ). Chung Chou Yin Yiin Chi Yao ( *f -| t| ^ - f ) , 1781. Wang Kuo-Wei(3-(H*#). Sung Yuan Hsi Ch'ii Shih( £ ). Taiwan, 1968. * ' Wang L i {ift ). Han Yii Shih Kao (->f It 1tfo) , Peking;, 1958. Wang L i . Han Yii Shih" Lu Hsiieh( t\l^) , Shanghai, 1958,1964. 139 Wu Mei(^;f#). Ku Ch'u Chu T ' a n ( M&itlk) , reprinted in Taiwan, 1962. Yuan Shih Hsiian( fj?As$ ) , edited by Ku Ssu-li ( / f ^ H ) • Yuan Chia-hua( ) • Han Yu Fang Yin Tzu Hui ( >f Hh^^f), Peking, 1962. 

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