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UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Manpower planning : technical education for planning for regional deverlopment, the case examined for… Hiyobo, Lucia 1968

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MANPOWER PLANNING: TECHNICAL EDUCATION FOR PLANNING FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, THE CASE EXAMINED FOR TANZANIA BY LUCIA HTYOBO B.A., (Geography) University of East Africa, 1966. A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements fo r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e fo r re ference and Study. I f u r t h e r agree that permiss ion fo r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.iis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s fo r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l lowed wi thout my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Community and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 30. 1968.  (i) ABSTRACT Tanzania i s one of those countries which carries the label of "underdeveloped or undeveloped". The central theme of this study i s to examine what Tanzania should do i n order to get started on the road to development. But before doing so, i t i s essential to i l l u s t r a t e what development means to Tanzania. Everybody i n the country knows that there are three enemies to be fought, poverty, disease and ignorance. In other words the country needs high agricultural productivity; industries which w i l l lead to a high per capita income; provision of hospitals and health centres; building more and better houses for a healthy l i v i n g i n order to conquer diseases and thirdly, providing schools, colleges, universities, community centres, transportation and other news media for circulation of knowledge and ideas i n order to get r i d of ignorance. Economists have always regarded capital natural resources as the basis of economic growth. This i s a l l true but, among these, one element takes p r i o r i t y over the others. This i s labour, which i s termed i n this study as manpower. For development purposes, no matter how rich the country may be i n capital and natural resources, i f they are not developed or mobilized they w i l l not be of any benefit to the people. One of the world's handicaps i s , up to this time i n i t s history, that man has been the sole agent i n mobilizing capital and natural resources for development. In the f i n a l analysis then, the development of a country depends on the a b i l i t y of her people to put capital and natural resources into production. On this basis, manpower plan-ning i s essential for any country i n the process of developing. However, there i s need to specify the type of manpower that i s needed for developmental tasks. In this case i t i s the quality more than the quantity of manpower ( i i ) that a country needs. I t takes skilled men to discover and exploit natural resources, to mobilize capital to develop technology, to produce goods and to carry on trade. I f a country i s unable to develop i t s human resources i t cannot build anything, whether i t be a modern p o l i t i c a l system, a sense of national unity or a prosperous economy. The development of a country then i s based upon i t s power to develop and effectively u t i l i z e the innate capacities of i t s people. The next question to ask i s , how can this be done? There i s only one means of equipping people with the s k i l l s and that i s through education and training. This involves many elements but they are a l l inter-related. Education includes formal education at a l l levels. In addition, i t covers on-th-job training, individual self-development through correspondence courses, informal as well as formal adult education. Basic education equips people with the a b i l i t y to read, write and count which i s essential i n communication. New ideas are being formulated and the people should be able to read and understand them. They should be able to write and keep accounts, for example on farms, of the products of their farms. Most important, education trains people to think and reason so that they can make the right decisions whether i t be on the farms, i n factories or i n administra-tion. While every aspect of education and training i s essential i n the developing countries, because of their poverty they cannot afford to pro-vide a l l at the same time so there i s need to make selection on what aspect of education to put most emphasis while not ignoring other aspects completely. I t i s the hypothesis of this thesis that technical education should be given the emphasis i f a country desires to develop. F i r s t , most of these countries are dependent on agriculture, 85 percent of Tanzanians l i v e directly off the land, therefore, agricultural production has to be increased, which can only ( i i i ) be done through the use of better implements such as shovels, load carriers, straddle carriers and bulldozers. Increase i n agricultural production also includes use of f e r t i l i z e r s and improved seeds. Livestock keeping i s an important part of agriculture i n Tanzania. In order to improve the quality of livestock, livestock feeds have to be processed, dams have to be constructed to make water available for the animals. Dipping and innoculation i s essent-i a l to protect the animals against various diseases. Second there i s need to industrialize so that the farm products can be processed within the country. A l l these tasks w i l l require technically capable people. One aspect of today's l i f e that has to be borne i n mind i s that man i s liv i n g i n a technological age which at the same time i s not static. To cope with this change, a country has to provide technicians who are at the same time educated to be able to adjust to the technological innovations as well as the results that technological advancement brings. For the purposes of develop-ment other people also must understand this need of technicians. The term "technician" i s a collective rather than an individual description. In engineering, where perhaps greatest c l a r i t y has so far been achieved, i t embraces a wide range of duties, linking those of a scientist and technologist on the one hand and the operative on the other. The tech-nician carries out duties which demand a higher level of s c i e n t i f i c and tech-nical knowledge than i s needed by the craftsman and operative, but a less comprehensive and more specialized understanding than that of the scientist and technologist. In this study, however, "technician" w i l l include the scientists and technologists. (iv) Technical engineers engage on some aspects of development and design, on the supervision of manufacture, erection and commissioning, draft-ing, inspection and testing, and on the operation, maintenance and repair of engineering plant and equipment. These are duties which are steadily extend-ing i n range, and increasing i n complexity and importance with the impact of technological progress on the form and equipment and on the process i n -volved i n the industrial production. In this thesis, i t i s intended to draw heavily on the experience of other countries, particularly the Soviet Union, United States and Britain as well as other countries from the developed and underdeveloped world. These are taken as guidelines to suggestions which w i l l be made as to what Tanzania can do i n order to provide the technicians which she needs. I t i s considered that i f Tanzania i s to provide these technicians with the limited financial resources available, she w i l l have to u t i l i z e a l l the means of providing the s k i l l s - formal technical education i n secondary schools, technical colleges, universities; one-the-job training, as well as through correspondence courses. In order to do this, the government w i l l have to encourage public as well as private industries and other establishments to provide technical training for their employees. Finally to implement the manpower plans, each country needs a central manpower planning body which w i l l direct and supervise the training programs of a l l the organizations and ministries. I f these are l e f t to train people as they wish, the national manpower objectives of providing people for developmental purposes w i l l not be achieved and this i s li k e l y to lead to a failu r e of the development plans. v. TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF MAPS AND CHARTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1 IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT Definition and Scope of Development The Concept of Planning and i t s Relevance to Manpower Planning for Development The Rule of Human Resources for Development Contribution of Education to Economic Growth Importance of Manpower quality, Education and S k i l l s Contribution of Education i n Increasing Agricultural Production Educated Human Resources as an Investment Manpower Planning i n the United States Reasons for Manpower Planning i n the United States Manpower Planning i n Africa Strategy for Manpower Planning CHAPTER 2 THE ROLE OF TECHNICIANS IN A CHANGING TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY Technology, Education and the Culture of Man Education and Training for Technical Change Distinction Between Technicians and Technologists The Role of Technicians i n Services - The Expanded Technician Concept for Modern Society Technological Opportunities for Development i n Tanzania. Goals and Programs for Development: agriculture, industry and education Natural Resources and Economic Growth - the Value of Resources page i v 3 7 9 10 12 13.: 16 17 19 21 23 25 27 32 35 36 42 v i . CHAPTER 2 Scope for Action i n the Developmental (continued) Process i n Tanzania: Scope for Water Development 44 The East African Economic Community and Manpower Needs of Tanzania 48 Estimating Manpower Needs i n Tanzania -The Volta River Project as the case study 5 0 Manpower Supply i n Tanzania 53 Principal Lines of Action i n Tanzanian Manpower Aspects of the Plan 56 Training Technicians for Local Needs 60 CHAPTER 3 MANPOWER PLANNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION 63 Soviet Economic Development 65 Programs to Stimulate Growth 66 Factors Influencing Growth 66 Prices and Wages 67 Soviet Industrial Labour productivity 68 Development of Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union 68 El e c t r i c i t y 70 Plant and Machinery 7 1 Technology 71 Mechanization 72 Natural Resources and Human Labour 73 The Growth of the Number of Women Workers 74 Education i n the Soviet Union 76 Soviet Education System 78 Polytechnical Education Concept i n the Soviet 78 Occupational Inclinations i n the U.S.S.R. 80 Vocational School 83 Purpose and Form 84 Occupations covered 85 The Soviet Administrative Machinery for Development 86 Planning Absorbed into the Economy 86 v i i CHAPTER 4 TOWARDS THE PLANNING FOR TECHNICAL MANPOWER IN TANZANIA 89 Technical and Vocational Education i n Tanzania 89 Preparation and Recruitment of Candidates for Technical Education 90 Reorganization of the Education System 90 Why the Education System Reorganized 92 The Technical College Tradition i n Britain 96 Counterparts i n Europe 98 Establishing Technical Scholls 99 U.S.S.R. Technical Teacher Training 101 Entry to the Course 102 Spacial Distribution of Colleges 103 Training Program by Williamson Diamond Company 105 Educating the Adults Importance of Adult Education i n Development 108 Programs for Adult Education 111 The Costs of Manpower Development 113 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION: MEETING THE NEED FOR TECHNICIANS AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MANPOWER PLANS 118 Application of manpower concept to Tanzania 118 Importance of technicians: Lessons from abroad 122 Role of Technicians i n the development of Tanzania 125 Meeting the Need for Technicians i n Tanzania 128 A Plan for Implementing Manpower Plans 130 BIBLIOGRAPHY 133 v i i i APPENDICES APPENDIX 1 Composite Index of Human Resource Development and GNP per capita showing the relationship between GNP and per capita: the higher the GNP the higher the Index of human resources 138 APPENDIX 2 European C i v i l Servants i n Africa 139 APPENDIX 3 Higher Manpower - Requirements and Supply i n East Africa 140 APPENDIX 4 Indicators of Technological Progress 141 APPENDIX 5 Structure of the Soviet Educational System Compared with United States 144 APPENDIX 6 Elements of an Assessment of Manpower Resources and Requirements for Economic Development 145 APPENDIX 7 Manpower Planning Techniques 149 APPENDIX 8 Industry's view of the Technician 154 i x LEST OF TABLES TABLE Page 1 Estimated Value of Resources per Capita Necessary for a Country to Reach Various Levels of Development 5 2 Training Programs of theB.C. Institute of Technology: and Applications i n Relation to Capacity 34 3 Crop Yields i n Relation to Flood 49 4 Manpower Requirements of the Volta River Project 52 5 Employment and Occupational coverage of the 1964 Survey 54 6 Secondary School Outputs Required 55 7 Output Shortfall i n Category "C" 55 8 Demand - Supply Outlook i n Category "A" 57 9 Growth i n the Proportion of Women Among Total Industrial Workers 75 10 Percentage of the Total Number of Women Industrial Workers Engaged i n Individual Branches 75 11 Occupations of the fathers and inclination of the children 81 12 Ranking of Selected Occupations 93 13 Occupational Preferences . 94 14 Cost of High Level Manpower Production i n Tanzania 113 LIST OF MAPS Tanzania: Relief and Principal Rivers Tanzania: Rainfall Probability and Population Tanzania: Cash crops, Mines, Reserved Areas and Tsetse xi LIST OF CHARTS CHARTS 1 Diagram of Educational System for Africans 4 3 2 Composite Index of Human Resource Development and per capita 1 3 8 3 Indicators of Technological Progress 141 4 Structure of the Soviet Educational System compared with United States 144 5 Chart Showing Sectoral Variables 151 6 Different Duties and Qualifications of Technicians 1 5 4 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Of the many individuals who have helped me during my study, my hearty thanks are extended to Dr. H.P. Oberlander, Director of the School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. Through his patience, and generosity with his very scarce resource time, he has been able to read through my drafts and make i n -dispensable criticisms, suggestions and corrections to my grammar. To Dr. Oberlander and the Canadian Government, External Aid Office i n Ottawa, I owe a debt of gratitude for their deep understanding, concern and involvement i n the manpower problems of the developing countries. Through their understanding, my study i n Canada has been made possible so that I may turn out to be a useful cog i n the developmental process of my country, Tanzania. I also wish to offer my thanks to Mr. J.L. McCairl, Personnel Training Officer of Williamson Diamonds Mining Company, Mwadui, Tanzania for the valuable material he sent me regarding manpower training programs of the Company. I wish to thank Miss Barbara MacKenzie for her patience i n typing my drafts and for coming to my rescue when i t seemed this thesis would never be presented because of typing d i f f i c u l t i e s and typing the f i n a l copy as well. 1, CHAPTER I IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT Today the world i s undergoing a revolution and this revolution i s embraced i n the one-word slogan, "development". This development i s evi-dent through the multitude of development plans which are being prepared every day. I t has been noted that i n the Asian countries, every country but one has a development plan. Among the African independent states, Burundi alone had not formulated a development plan when the study was made. The trend has been the same i n Latin American countries. Definition and Scope of Development I t i s not easy to define development because i t means different things i n different countries, depending on the level of development of the country i n question. As Harbison stated, i n many countries development meant industrialization. In some i t symbolized the achievement of p o l i t i c a l , and economic.1 independence. In others, i t connoted opportunity for education, the construction of a high dam, rural land reform, the building of skyscrapers, steel mills and television networks or even the creation of a new nation's capital i n wilderness. Development could also mean movement from rural to urban areas, and i t certainly included the achievement of instantaneous, world-wide communications and jet airplane travel. The sociologists and p o l i t i c a l scientists tended to think of develop-ment as the process of modernization, and they concentrated their analyses primarily on the building of social and p o l i t i c a l institutions. Economists tended to equate i t with economic growth, and they were concerned for the most part with the accumulation of savings, investment, national income, 2. productivity and trade balances. But, to everyone development meant change, requiring rapid innovation. A country which f a i l e d to adopt and put to work broad successions of new ideas would inevitably lag behind i n today's march of progress. In the end, successful development depended upon making society 1 change-conscious. I t i s noted that the countries of the world which are presently cl a s s i f i e d as "developed", that i s , those which are more advanced technologi-cally, have undergone the process of development at a comparatively moderate pace, beginning with the Industrial Revolution of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. In contrast to past modes of communications and media network, present improvements i n this f i e l d allow the people of the developing nations to observe other nations which are i n a much more advanced state. As a result, the developing nations desire to achieve the benefits of a modern economy with great speed. I t i s this acceleration of the pace of economic development that creates additional problems. But the fact that the developing countries have taken planning as an important tool i n their developmental process does not mean that the developed nations do not plan their economies. In the United States, there are many bodies each dealing with different sections of the nation?s economy. Amongst these are the U.S. Office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research; Council of Economic Advisers; Office of Emergency Planning; Bureau of the Budget; and more than thirty boards, commissions and authorities including the Tennessee Valley Authority which i s often referred to especially i n the f i e l d of regional planning. In Canada, the obvious national examples are: The 1 Harbison, Frederick, and Myers, Charles, Education, Manpower, and Economic  Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964), pp.1-2 3. Economic Council of Canada; the Treasury Board, the C i v i l Service Commission and the Department of Manpower and Immigration. Furthermore, every ministry and department i n the provinces carries on planning functions. In Br i t i s h Columbia, to name just a few bodies which carry planning functions, there are the Department of Finance, Department of Lands, Department of Health and Welfare, the B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Agriculture, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council and the Lower Mainland Planning Board. In some cases, special bodies are created to deal with some important issues such as the Peace River Planning Commission. Usually, when development i s discussed, i t i s looked at i n such economic terms as the raising of income per capita and capital productivity because these aspects of development can be measured. However, development i n the paper i s conceived as including the social as well as the economic aspects for, as Heilbrouer stated, "... underdevelopment i s not so much a reflection of nature as of human attitudes 2 and institutions." At the same time, what was said by Jewkes, although twenty years ago, i s very relevant here. He said, The choice of the best type of economic organization should not turn wholly on material benefits arising from i t . There are other relevant c r i t e r i a : the extent to which the organization commands the moral support of those who work i n i t , the range of individual liberties i t makes practicable for i t s members. But the poverty of the world i s and always has been so appalling that i t would be irresponsibility to ignore the crying need for a rapid increase i n productive power. 3 The Concept of Planning and i t s relevance to manpower Planning for  Development. Looking at the importance planning has acquired i n national develop-ment a l l over the world one may think that this i s the answer to a l l develop-2 Heilbrouer, Robert L. The Great Ascent; The Struggle for Economic Develop- ment i n our Time. (New York: Harper Textbooks, Harper and Row 1963) p.36. 3 Jewkes, John, Ordeal by Planning, (London:McMillan & Co., 1948) p.149. 4, mental problems. But planning i s not a means to an end. Planning i s just a tool, but an important one, which i s used as a guide i n the developmental process. According to the definition by Svennilson, planning was a concept that applied to most human ac t i v i t i e s . A f i r s t condition for planning was that an individual (or a collectivity) assumed that he had freedom to act i n different ways i n the future. I f he attempted to coordinate his immediate steps of action, he became a planner. A Plan could be defined as a conception of a sequence of action over a series of future periods. The planner could choose between 4 different plans, and his choice would determine his f i r s t step of action. Planning could be for organization which Rao describes as . . . the entire system of techniques employed and principles used for putting the square peg i n the square hole and providing for a continuous movement of squarer pegs into squarer holes. 5 This concept of choices and prerequisites which i s the basis of planning i s shown i n Table 1. following. Here i t i s shown that at different stages of development, different emphasis i s required on different types of resources. As Matthews pointed out that, In preparing a country development plan and i n examining the constraints on national growth, i t might be f r u i t f u l to ask this direct question: what has been the experience of various countries as to the required increment of human resources trained, natural resources found and capital f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t i n order to move from one level of development to some higher level. 6 4 Svennilson, Ingvar. "Planning i n a Market Economy," Weltwirtschaftliches  Archiv., Vol. 95, (Settember 1965) p.186. 5 Rao, V.K.R.V. Essays i n Economic Development, (London: Asia Publishing House, 1964), p.168. 6 Matthews, Allan F. "Resources and Norms i n Developing Planning", Interna- tional Development Review, Vol. IX, no. 2 (June, 1967), p.11 5. TABLE 1 ESTIMATED VALUE OF RESOURCES PER CAPITA  NECESSARY FOR A COUNTRY TO REACH VARIOUS LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT Resources per capita ($000) Human Resources Natural Resources Capital F a c i l i t i e s Total Resources Levels of Develop-ment (Dollars of GNP per Capita) .8 .4 .3 1.5 100 1.0 .4 .6 2.0 200 1.6 .5 .9 3.0 300 1.7 .5 1.2 3.4 400 1.8 .6 1.5 3.9 500 2.5 .7 1.8 5.0 600 2.7 1.3 3.0 7.0 1,000 2.9 3.1 9.0 15.0 3,000 Source: Matthews, Allan F., "Resources and Norms i n Development Planning", International Development Review, Vol. IX, No. 2 (June 1967;, p.11. 6. These estimates suggest, for example, that a typical country moving from a gross national product of $100 per capita annually to a level of $300 would have to double i t s human resources, t r i p l e i t s capital resources, but improve natural resources only by one-fourth. On the other hand, moving from the $1,000 level to the $3,000 level appears to be conditional on more than doubling natural resources and t r i p l i n g capital f a c i l i t i e s with only a fractional improve-ment i n human resources. For purposes of manpower planning for development, the above table brings up significant points. Under the "human resource" column, i t i s clear that Matthews was considering the quality of manpower. This i s mentioned i n his l i s t of the constraints on national growth cited above. On the question of human resources he says "human resources trained". The selected quantitative measure of human resources Matthews took was man-years of educational attainment. The value of one man-year of schooling, was taken as $500 which, Matthews said, was the average cost of elementary and secondary education i n the United States. The natural resources measured were land (arable, pasture and forest), potential waterpower, and known reserves of eighteen most important minerals (excluding reserves not l i k e l y to be extracted within thi r t y years). The minerals were valued at the current prices i n the United States. The value o f f e c i l i t i e s was assumed for each country to be tr i p l e i t s gross national product; Matthews says that this was a corollary of the common observation that the most typical capital facilities/output ratio was 3. In examining this table, i t should be remembered, and this i s 7 according to Matthews that none of the numbers presented i n the art i c l e was meant to be useful i n the form i n which i t was presented. The numbers were 7 Ibid., p.13 7. merely i l l u s t r a t i v e of orders of magnitude of useful numbers that could be devised by research efforts along the lines suggested here. As a conclusion, i t i s intended to emphasise the importance of planning and i t i s found that Polk covered this very well. He said, For even though we now readily recognize that national plans are often b r i t t l e and imperfect, and that the heterogeneous circumstances of their application do not permit broad generalizations of policy and procedure, there are underlying functional character-i s t i c s of national planning activities which encourage prescription of this process as a means of achieving progress. 8 The Role of Human Resources for Development Lately, economists concerned with problems of economic development have shown that capital accumulation i s so closely related to the human factor that a whole new f i e l d of study has grown up. This f i e l d of study aims at explaining the growth of capital factors such as innovation, technology, and indicating the action that should be taken i n relation to the human factor. Economists have been analyzing man's contribution to economic development and how this human resource can be mobilized for optimum ut i l i z a t i o n i n the economic developmental process. These studies have shown that many other factors of economic development depend on the quality and intensity of human efforts which play an important part i n determining the extent and pace at which natural resources get translated into goods and services that constitute the national income. Thus, institutions, legislation, traditions, education, organization, motivation, communication, a l l these have received attention since they affect the quality of the human resource. The quality of the human resource i n return affect the degree to which the other factors are u t i l i z e d quantitatively as well as qualitatively. The role of the human resource i n development was clearly pointed out by Schultz i n his presidential address to the American 8 Polk, William R., Developmental Revolution, (Washington, D.C., The Middle East Institute, 1963). pp.60-61. 8. Economic Association i n I960. He said that, The failure to treat human resources ex p l i c i t l y as a form of capital, as a produced means of production, as the product of investment, has fostered the retention of the class i c a l notion of labour as a capacity to do manual work requiring l i t t l e knowledge and s k i l l , a capacity with which, according to this notion, labourers are endowed about equally. This notion of labour was wrong i n the class i c a l period and i t i s ?atently wrong now counting individuals who can and want to work and reating such count as a measure of the quantity of an economic factor i s no more meaningful than i t would be to count the number of a l l manner of machines to determine their economic importance either as a stock or a flow of productive service. 9 Kuznets also pointed out that measures of capital formation based on fixed capital were deficient because they omitted expenditures for education, non-profit research, health, recreation and other elements which contributed 10 to economic growth by increasing the efficiency of a complex productive system. The emphasis of the importance of human resources by Schultz and others has led to efforts to incorporate investments i n education into the mainstream of economic analysis. The principal approaches have been the following: (1) Determination of the relationship between expenditure on growth education and growth i n income or physical capital formation over a period of time i n one country; (2) The residual approach i n determining the contribution of education to gross national product; (3) Making intercountry correction of school enrolment ratios and gross national product. These approaches w i l l be explained further i n the section on "Educa-tion as an Investment". Appendix 1 shows the relationship between human resource 9 Schultz, T.W., "Investment i n Human Capital", The American Economic Review, Vol. 51, no. 1, (March 1901), p . 3 . 10 Kuznets, Simon, Six Lectures on Economic Growth, (New York: The Press of Glencoe, 1959). p.77. development and gross national product. Contribution of Education to Economic Growth To begin with, some definitions are necessary i n order to give a better understanding of the relationships. Education i n this section i s used i n i t s broadest sense as.-a perceived experience which leads i n future behaviour patterns both external behaviour patterns such as physical action and internal behaviour patterns such as cognition, reflection and other mental processes. Education i s a process whereby new knowledge i s transmitted or acquired by 11 man. But the new knowledge must be perceived and i t must alter future be-haviour patterns. Economic growth depends to a large extent upon alterations i n human behaviour patterns because man i s the primary catalyst, i n the product-ive process through his managerial a b i l i t y and he i s also a key factor of pro-duction through his physical labour. Education or the learning process i n -volves a change i n human behaviour and i s therefore crucial to economic growth, both from the individual and aggregate standpoint. This i s especially true i n the case of agriculture as w i l l be discussed later. Another subset of general education might be termed basic education. This includes the s k i l l s of reading, writing and arithmetic. Since education inevitably involves a communicational process of either seeing or hearing, any new knowledge or s k i l l which increases the efficiency of transmission i s an indirect but important contributor to subsequent education. These s k i l l s , as Wharton put i t , were somewhat li k e the economist's category of social overhead 12 capital, (roads, bridges, dams). The s k i l l s obtained through basic education are the individual's social overhead capital or infra-structure which make their 11 Anderson, C. Arnold and Bowman, Mary Jean (Ed.), Education and Economic  Development, (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company 1963), p.22 10 greatest contribution to increased output or productivity i n an indirect fashion. Importance of Manpower Quality - Education and S k i l l s I t i s believed tha today, man i s Living i n an age i n which numbers, as far as manpower i s concerned, are of l i t t l e importance i f any. This can be seen from what automation has done i n reducing the number of workers i n i n -dustries. The most important set of factors that influences efficiency can be described as the state of s k i l l s . Skilled labour i s not only more efficient but i s also becoming a necessary condition of economic growth i n view of the develop-ment of science and technology i n i t s application to practically a l l economic act i v i t y . The problem facing the developing countries i s how to obtain these s k i l l s . The same concern was expressed at a Unesco Conference i n 1952. I t was stated, In a technological age such as ours, how can man truly live? And the answer to this second problem i s to be found largely i n the f i e l d of education. 13 I t i s true that education i s the answer but i t i s not enough merely to recognize the importance of education, leaving i t to the professional educa-tor to determine the various constituents of the supply of education. Education has a very important role i n economic development and i t i s necessary to get a clear and detailed idea of the relationship between education and national development as well as education and development of manpower needed i n the different f i e l d s , manual, technical, s c i e n t i f i c , professional and other work 14 s k i l l s i n the economy. Rao's idea confirms this point. He said that among 13 United Nations Education, S c i e n t i f i c and Cultural Organization, Education i n a Technological Society, A preliminary International Survey of the Nature and Efficacy of Technical Education (ss. 59/V.2. :a/A( Paris; 2nd impression I960) p.9. 14 Rao, V.K.R.V., Op.cit., p.168 11. the techniques or machinery thus needing attention for optimum organization of the human factor for economic growth, he would l i s t vocational guidance employ-ment exchanges, resettlement and training, recruitment, personnel relations and management. There i s a serious argument that because of the assumption from the economic point of view, the relevant object of education has to be " s c i e n t i f i c or technical or professional or vocational". This i s rightly so as everybody would agree that some degree of literacy i s an essential precondition to the acquiring of s k i l l s . Besides, what economic development requires i s not merely specific s k i l l s but also general s k i l l s i n industrial discipline and capacity for receiving communication. Another important consideration i n the improve-ment of the quality of human resources i s the provision of some degree of mobility as between different s k i l l s and the capacity for re-adaptation and retraining from one s k i l l to another. No amount of planning can provide for a perfect balancing of demands and supplies and i t i s of the very nature of growth that f l e x i b i l i t y and accommodation to change i s required on the part of the workers to the changing needs and content of economic development. The nature of economic development as i t happens to be today requires more than the other types of education, technical education, Mankind,irres-pective of the differences that exist between him and the rest of the world such as developed, undeveloped, developing, colour, religion, or ecological environment, has to accept two fundamental factors about l i f e - simply, we are l i v i n g i n a world of change and i t i s a world of technical change too. J . D. Montgomery writes that: The feet of change do not march i n measured cadences. They develop a calloused indifference to what i s being tramped down, and indeed, against almost any r e a l i t i e s of the immediate environment that seem uncongenial. 15 15 Montgomery, J.D.,"The Challenge of change,"International Development  Review, Vol. IX No. 1(|March 1967), p. 2. 12. To support this argument the author cites cases of countries such as India which, u n t i l recently had preferred no f e r t i l i z e r at a l l to one under private ownership; he also examines the "callousness" of President Sukarno; Who for years neglected the welfare of his own worshippers i n order to indulge his ideological fantasies. Or on a gentler plane the religious passivity of the Buddhist theocracy i n Burma whose ideology has defied change and displayed l i t t l e tolerance for any of the worldly progress that might mar the tranquility of the national poverty. 16 I t i s on the realization of this inevitable technological change that this thesis i s to be written. I t i s hypothesized that "unless technical education;; i s made a prerequisite i n the process of mobilizing human resources for develop-ment i n any developing region, plans are l i k e l y to f a i l " . I t would be a l l very well to accept the fact that technological change i s inevitable but i f the country did not have any tools to meet the change a l l the efforts would be f u t i l e . Contribution of Education i n Increasing Agricultural Production I t has been pointed out above that man i s the primary catalyst i n the productive process through his managerial a b i l i t y . This i s true i n agricultural production, perhaps more than i n any other type of economic activity. I t i s man who manipulates plants and animals to provide the food and fibres which he requires. I t i s man who i s the decision maker i n the productive process: what and when to plant, how to plant, i n what kind of s o i l to plant, how to cultivate the growing plant and how to protect i t against pests and disease, when to harvest and how to prepare for marketing. Hence, man and his economic behaviour are the central starting points i n any discussion of agricultural growth. Another point i s that man's attitudes toward wealth, work, t h r i f t or profits w i l l affect human economic behaviour. The p o l i t i c a l , social and economic institutions which man creates, also affect human economic behaviour. There are 13. other forces and factors which include the "givens" of nature and the limits imposed by current technical knowledge. But man i s the "pure" factor. As a result, the crucial role of education for agricultural growth i s the impact i t ultimately has upon the economizing behaviour of the farmer and upon the 17 economizing setting i n which he operates. Anderson conceived that i t i s the economizing behaviour of the large aggregate of farmers which i n the f i n a l analysis makes for economic growth or stagnation of agriculture; and i t i s the economizing setting, institutional and cultural, i n which he operates that control the limits of economizing behaviour. There are various economies or sub-sectors of economies that display varying degrees of divergence from what may be called optimum economization. The most important i s differing levels of technological knowledge. When dealing with agriculture especially agriculture of the family-farm type, one i s faced with the fact that the managerial s k i l l of each farmer constitutes his "state of arts" or his technology. His level of knowledge therefore i n a fundamental sense determines the production function. Educated Human Resources as an Investment In this section the main concern i s with the examination of some as-pects which render education as a capital. Schultz, i n justifying his treatment of education as human capital said that, I propose to treat education as an investment i n man and to treat i t s consequences as a form of capital. Since education becomes a part of the person receiving i t , I shall refer to i t as human capital. Since i t becomes an integral part of a person, i t cannot be bought or sold or treated as property under our institutions. Nevertheless i t i s a form of capital i f i t renders a productive service of value to the economy. 18_ 17 Ibid., p.205 18 Schultz, T.W. ."Capital Formation by Education,"Journal of P o l i t i c a l Economy, Volume 68, (I960), p,5?l. 14. The principal hypothesis underlying this treatment of education i s that some important increases i n national income are a result of additions to the stock of this form of capital. Schultz pointed out that education could be pure consumption or pure investment, or i t could serve both these purposes. However one wonders how education can be pure consumption taking into consideration a l l the advantages derived from i t . Some of these have already been dealt with i n the section on the role of education i n economic growth. However, these advantages lead to the treatment of education as a human capital as well. Production of human capit-a l involves expenditure on education and the training of the people to enhance not only their manual s k i l l s and dexterity but also their a b i l i t y to comprehend new problems and situations and deal with them i n an imaginative fashion. I t involves too, expenditures on education which f a c i l i t a t e changes i n the cultural pattern of a community, or which may result i n improvedjprocesses or production and new forms of social and economic organization. Included i n the growth of ..knowledge must be advances i n sanitation, medicine and so on, which can do much to enhance the productive capacities of an economy. S t r i c t l y speaking a l l forms of education expenditures should be included although i t i s not easy to qualify the results of education. Waines was able to qualify the return from education by calculating the returns of improved labour. He started by saying that the principal re-source was labour. I t was the capability of the labour force that has been 19 improved and these improvements had resulted from a major investment outlay. He estimated that i n the United States, between 1929 and 1957. at least 21 per 19 Waines, W.J.,"The Role of Education i n the Development of Underdeveloped Countries", The Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, Vol. XXIX, No. 4 (November 1963). p.439. 15. cent of the increase i n national income had been the contribution of the education of the labour force. The real income of the United States rose by-one hundred and fifty-two b i l l i o n dollars, of which additional education of the labour force contributed about thirty-two b i l l i o n dollars. In another case, Schultz arrived at the amount of return from educa-tion by calculating the salary foregone by students who were of working ages. He also considered the expenditure on building and services to the studnets 20 as a form of capital. Denison, using a different approach found the contribution of educa-tion to growth i n the same period amounted to about 23 per cent of the growth 21 rate of the aggregate national product. A b i l i t y to use capital depends upon available natural and human resources. The studies by Schultz and Denison emphasized the importance of the quality of human resources as affecting the capacity of the country to ab-sorb capital and of education as very largely determining that quality, whether i t be engaged i n the p o l i t i c a l , cultural or economic l i f e of the country. I t has been stressed by Waines that i t i s just as important to have p o l i t i c a l leaders and c i v i l servants of high calibre as i t i s to have qualified and ski l l e d entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians and tradesmen. The provision of educational opportunities, therefore should have top pri o r i t y i n a newly 22 developing country. To i l l u s t r a t e the importance of a background of literacy and know-how i n economic development, Waines gave the example of the speedy recovery of Western Europe with Marshall Plan aid and Japan's rapid post-war recovery 20 Schultz, T.W., Capital Formation by Education, Op.cit., p.573. 21 Denison, E.F., "The Sources of Economic Growth i n the United States and the Alternatives Before Us", Review Ar t i c l e by Abramovitz Moses, American  Economic Review, Vol. LII, (1962), p.?64. 22 Waines, W.J., The Role of Education i n the Development of Underdeveloped  Countries, Op.cit., p.438. 16 to her present strength. He said that this must have been due i n large measure to making effective use of capital with limited natural resources but with human resources of great strength. Israel too, was a striking modern example of very rapid development. In the eight year period, 1950 to 1958, aggregate national product increased at an annual rate of ten percent and gross national product per capita grew at an average rate of five percent. Even a superficial comparison of the rate of growth i n Israel and other middle East countries wiich had similar financial resources and were similarly or better endowed with nat-ural resources suggested that i t was the quality of Israel's human resources that had made rapid growth possible. Notwithstanding i t s location i n the Middle East, Israel was culturally a part of the Western world. The early immigrants were mainly Europeans, who had brought with them the knowledge, s k i l l s and con-ventions which were necessary to make effective use of the stream of capital. This Western culture had provided the base from which economic advances could be made each year. I t had been receptive to education and to new techniques and s k i l l s and highly adaptable to new situations. Manpower Planning i n the United States I t has already been pointed out that planning has been the concern of developing as well as developed countries. One aspect of this has been manpower planning. In the United States the concern with manpower resources appeared early i n the nation's existence. This i s indicated by the history of public policies i n the areas of education, health, immigration. Manpower resources determined what the nation could produce and this later prompted expressions of concern about the adequacy of existing and anticipated future supplies of highly educated and trained manpower. Thus, the President's Commission on Higher Educa-tion, reporting at the end of 1948, declared that because the United States had 17 f a i l e d to safeguard i t s sc i e n t i f i c manpower during the war as other nations did, i t lacked enough trained personnel to staff the research and development laboratories of industry, government and the universities. Reasons for Manpower Planning i n the United States. The need for manpower planning can arise because of other reasons besides social or economic ones. As i t i s pointed out below, the need for manpower planning arose from p o l i t i c a l or military considerations. The most important point to note here i s that when crises, economic, social, or military occur, planning i s one of the tools which are put into use. I t was the problems facing the United States during the years of cold war that compelled Americans to objectively appraise the s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and competences of their manpower resources. As a result there exists today a broader and deeper concern with the state-."of their manpower resources. Probably they have come to understand better than ever before to what degree the people of the United States - that i s they themselves - represent the means for f u l -f i l l i n g their individual purposes and aspirations as well as those shared by the society as a whole. The concern with manpower as a resource i s symbolized i n the provision of the Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962, requiring the President of the United States to submit an annual Manpower Report to the Congress. In the f i r s t Manpower Report of 1963, the late President John F. Kennedy remarked: Manpower i s the basic resource. I t i s the indispensable means of converting other resources to mankind's use and benefit. How well we develop and employ human s k i l l s i s fundamental i n deciding how much we w i l l accomplish as a nation. The manner i n which we do so w i l l , moreover, profoundly determine the kind of nation we become. , 22 23 National Manpower Council, Manpower Policies for a Democratic Society. New York: Columbia University Press, 1965, P»5» 18 A year later, i n his Manpower Report, President Lyndon B. Johnson had this to say: This nation i s prosperous, strong, materially richer than any i n history - largely because of the knowledge, s k i l l s , competence and creativity of our people. But we are short of our potential. Many of our people do not adequately participatein the national well-being. Much of our human capability i s not developed or used Our action or inaction toward realising the f u l l potential of human resources i s a major factor i n determining whether we w i l l strengthen justice, security, and freedom at home - and enhance America's a b i l i t y to set a proud example to the world. 2k From the above observations i t should be realized that manpower resource needs are not limited to only one aspect of national purpose - economic development - but to strength, achievement, as well as individual fulfillment and well-being, and this has been the central theme of the National Manpower Council. In i t s study of policies for "Scientific and Professional Manpower", which appeared i n 1953» i t emphasized that the "economic and social well-being" of the United States "and i t s continued progress depend to a striking degree upon a small group of men and women who work i n sc i e n t i f i c and professional f i e l d s , " In the following year, the Council published a book on ski l l e d man-power policies. In this the Council declared, Only recently we have come to realize that the development and effective u t i l i z a t i o n of our human resources cannot be l e f t to choice . . . . We are sometimes l i k e l y to forget that the rate of our economic progress depends i n considerable measure i n quantity and quality of our available s k i l l e d manpower . . . . Our future progress and strength depend upon a conscious and deliberate concern with our manpower resources. Recognition that our most precious single resource consists of the s k i l l s , capacities, and creativeness of our people i s not enough. For the sake of contributing to the greater well being of each individual and strengthening the nation as a whole, i t i s also necessary to assure the further development of our manpower resources and their more effective u t i l i z a t i o n . 25 2k Ibid., p. 5 25 Ibid., p.6 19. In order to achieve this, the United States has established a special office to deal with the problem. This i s called the U.S. office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research. Manpower Problems i n Africa The magnitude of the manpower problem i n Africa i s enhanced by the fact that most of African countries have only recently become independent. Be-fore independence, most of the jobs requiring s k i l l were performed by foreigners. Upon independence, the African countries found themselves without adequate staffs of qualified nationals and therefore needed substantial numbers of foreign personnel to keep the governmental and economic machine going and to train Africans to take over. Appendix 2 gives an idea of the magnitude of the manpower problem i n Africa. In the period 1958-1960, there were s t i l l one hundred thousand European government administrators, technical experts and educators i n Africa. The desire to have Africans taking over the jobs i s for both economic and p o l i t i c a l reasons. The p o l i t i c a l leaders argued that p o l i t i c a l independence would not have much meaning i f a l l the key sources of production were controlled by foreigners. The Organization for African Unity has raised a great outcry against neo-colonialism, meaning the colonizing powers were s t i l l ruling the i n -dependent countries, this time indirectly through the control of economic means of development. At a national level, there was a desire to have these jobs f i l l e d by Africans. In Tanzania for example, "Africanisation" and "Tanzanisation" were important p o l i t i c a l issues after independence. The next question to ask i s , w i l l these newly independent nations be ready to meet the great challenge of manpower independence. The manpower surveys which have been done so far have indicated that these countries are ex-periencing severe manpower shortages. Such surveys have been carried on i n 20. Uganda, Ghana, Tanzania and Nigeria. In Uganda just a year before the country became independent, the Mission organised by the International Bank for Recon-struction and Development reported that i n spite of the great effort to build an industrial base and modernise the economy Uganda was s t i l l far from the point 26 where the increase i n capital became automatic. This was because Uganda was seriously short of trained senior administrators and technicians for government posts. At the end of June 1961, there were one thousand and seven hundred Europ-eans, holding professional, semi-professional, technical and supervisory positions. The Mission therefore recommended early preparation of Ugandans so that they could take up some of the posts after the country's independence was declared i n the following year. The situation was even worse i n the Congo. A commentator on the p o l i t i c a l crises of the Congo pointed to the fact that these arose largely because of the inadequacy of existing manpower to take over the running of the country i n every sector, economic, social and p o l i t i c a l . He stated, "The troubled history of my country since I960 i s rightly attributed to the failure of Belgium to f a c i l i t a t e the development cadre of experienced p o l i t i c a l , administrative, 27 technical and professional leaders, prior to independence." Appendix 3 w i l l help to show the manpower problem i n East Africa. The emphasis put on the African situation i s based on the fact that the events following up independence of the African countries have upset the established situation where i t was relatively easy to obtain foreign experts and keep the native population quiet i n their lower positions. Again i f one compares the situation i n Africa with that i n other developing countries, Asian countries for example, as Karmarck noted, the manpower problems occur at different levels. Karmarck said that i t was i n human terms that the difference between Africa on 26 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Devel-opment of Uganda: report of a Mission organized by the International Bank for Reconstruction at the request of the Government of Uganda, (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1962), p.23. 27 Mabusa, B., "Post Independence Education i n the Congo", Africa Report, Vol. 11, No. 6, (June 1966), p.24. 21. the one hand and the rest of the developing countries became apparent. Asia and Latin America were better endowed with educated people and leaders than Africa and most African countries would be unable to function or to develop satisfactori-l y without large scale technical assistance as i s the case today. Four-fifths of the t o t a l number of technical assistance personnel on duty a l l over the world are on the African continent, although i n terms of population, Africa represents only about one-seventh of the underdeveloped world. Karmarck concludes that, without a large scale financial and human contribution from industrialized 28 countries, the destiny of the African countries was scarcely i n doubt. This i n brief, i s a clear indication that i t i s now high time the developing countries paid attention to the mobilization of their human resources or manpower planning for economic development. This realization by leaders that their lands w i l l never be truly independent u n t i l their own citizens are capable of conducting and controlling a l l aspects of economic and p o l i t i c a l affairs needs no further j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Strategy for Manpower Planning There i s some need here to show especially planning of the long-term investment i n schools, universities, and technical colleges, has to be related i n the widest sense to a l l other aspects of social and economic planning. A country's capacity to absorb persons of different educational levels and a b i l i t i e s , the factors which can be brought to affect this capacity, the relationship be-tween the educational, social and economic factors i n productivity - a l l these and many other things have to be borne i n mind when planning the rate of expan-sion of an educational system, and the p r i o r i t i e s to be assigned within the system to i t s several parts. 28 Karmarck, A., The Economics of African Development. (New York: Frederick and Praeger, 1967), p. XI. 22 On the other hand, i t i s , of course, even more damaging to over-spend on education, impoverishing the country, producing people who cannot be employed and making l i t t l e contribution to the nation's wealth. This i s an almost universal dilemma; a country needs a considerable number of trained and educated persons to build up and consolidate i t s development but, u n t i l i t i s developed, i t has not the resources to educate the people. What can be done, however, i s to place heavy emphasis i n i t i a l l y upon such activities as w i l l , without great cost, bring about rapid improvements i n the economy. Such activities would be training rather than educating i n the broadest sense, vocational rather than general. Both public and private employers would be encouraged to provide in-service training to upgrade their staff. To concentrate heavily upon this form of technological training i s , of course, a short terra expedient designed to strengthen the economy and to increase the absorptive capacity so that, i n the next phase, the weight can be transferred to the formal system of education. From this w i l l come men and women who cb nt only possess necessary s k i l l s , but also an outlook sufficiently broad to contend with the extreme problems of a society undergoing rapid change. I t i s believed that countries are underdeveloped because most of their people are underdeveloped, having had no opporhinity of expanding their potential capacities i n the service of society. The main reason for this lack of opportunity l i e s within the social structure and can only be remedied when there are enough people with a new attitude towards society. Education i n i t s various forms i s the chief vehicle for changing attitudes. I t i s therefore held that the emphasis should not so much be on using people to build the re-sources, but i n using the resources to produce the people. 23 CHAPTER 2 THE ROLE OF TECHNICIANS IN  A CHANGING TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY The fact that man i s today l i v i n g i n a world of change cannot be disputed. Broadly conceived, technology i s the most important single factor i n bringing about this change through production,integration and destruction of culture. Bain i n emphasizing the relationship between technology and other aspects of human l i f e said that, ...for a l l human activities are conditioned by man's biological nature, his physical environment and the technological and other cultural limitations to his manipulation of inorganic and organic materials. As a result, there i s constant interaction both ways between technological and a l l other aspects of culture. Therefore the common distinction between material and non-material culture i s unrealistic and unscientific. 1 Furthermore DeCarlo clearly pointed out the problem facing society i n this "Environment of change". He said, We are l i v i n g i n a time i n which science and technology have become pervasive ana have caused the world of "nature" to be removed from our direct senses. The rhythms of the world beat to the cycle of machines rather than the c i r c l i n g of the sun. We f e e l that distance between old rituals grounded i n myth and nature and the new and man-created rea l i t y of the city. The steady accumulation of technical accomplishment changes the environment of our value systems. We are i n the modern technological society and institutions derived from earlier ages change under the stress of i t s continuous shaping and reshaping. No one can ignore the innovations facing us and the consequent loss of traditional "safeties", for the relentless application of science and technology has changed the quantity and quality of life>7 and strained and reshaped institutional patterns. I t gives further promise of demanding new l i f e styles i n pursuit of work, leisure and happiness. 2 The most important aspect of the technological society which operates as a background i n the educational environment i s the increased force of the 1 Bain, Read. "Technology and State Governments", American Sociological  Review, Vol. 11(1937), p.860. 2 DeCarlo, C.R., "Education Technology and State Governments", American  Sociological Review, Vol. II (1937). p.860. 24. 3 s c i e n t i f i c and technical community. At the UNESCO Conference i t was pointed out that despite the fact that scientists, engineers, technicians and teachers of technicians constitute less than three per cent of the labour force, they have an influence far beyond proportionate composition i n society. Of the highest importance i s the educational development of people who can encompass s c i e n t i f i c and professional careers. Another aspect of the s c i e n t i f i c and technological community i s that i t deals with things and processes and therefore moves faster than human affairs can accommodate. I t i s very d i f f i c u l t to change the attitudes aid institutional practices of people involved but the speed and ease with . which science and technology can move, result i n their being "a p o l i t i c a l l y potent component i n society". Science and technology w i l l continue to be a potent force for change as they continue their development of means. In Appendix 4, the chart shows some of technological advances that have been made and which have affected man's l i f e . Since technology i s moving forward the world over at an increas-ingly rapid pace, the education system has to be adapted to suit the techni-4 cal shanges. According to the UNESCO Conference i f a country's education remained static, tensions were bound to be created, particularly amongst those who might have been prepared by their early training to a type of activity which was passing away. In the unanimous view of the conference, those concerned with education must, therefore, exercise an increased meas-ure of "social foresight, using the best knowledge available for forecasting technological needs i n relation to educational f a c i l i t i e s . Otherwise, the establishment of a proper balance between education and occupational opportunity 3 United Nations Educational, Sc i e n t i f i c and Cultural Organization, Education i n a Technological Society (SS.59/ V.2a/A 1950) (Paris 1950) p.15. 4 Ibid., p.20 25. wouM become increasingly d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible. Technology, Education and the Culture of Man The impact of technological changes on man have been very con-siderable. One aspect of this environment of change has been the "deperson-alization of l i f e and the mismatch" between l i f e and machines. DeCarlo said that not only could men travel faster than ever before, but magnificent ex-tensions of their muscular systems could be seen i n huge engines capable of the work of a thousand men while delicate machines were capable of per-forming t a c t i l e operations with far greater ease and speed than the human hand. In the realm of information processing, there were computers whose elements operated i n a billionths of a second to perform wonders of computa-5 tion analysis i n fractions of minutes. Such extensions of sense and a b i l i t y De Carlo observed were being viewed by some as a dehumanizing force. Malik, who, i n c r i t i c i z i n g the train-ing the western world was providing for those who came from Asia and Africa, commented on the fact that they were excluding from the educational process much of their s p i r i t u a l and moral tradition. He asserted that the process was i n danger of: Producing - a world of perfect technicians not a world of human beings, l e t alone of being divine. A dreary and boring world where there i s nothing beyond man and his mastery over nature, including hlssmasteryE'ov.ecsother technicians through his sc i e n t i f i c management of them. Perfect hierarchy, perfect organization, total efficiency; but no s p i r i t , no freedom, no joy, no humour and there-fore no man. 6 The aspects of the environment of change discussed above w i l l have profound impacts on the ways of l i v i n g of people. In the f i r s t place they w i l l be moving into a world of work i n which daily activity w i l l depend much more upon the a b i l i t y to think logically, to handle symbolic and abstract 5 DeCarlo, Op.cit., p.64 6 Ibid., p.68 26. material and to be capable of lifelong learning. The second requirement that they w i l l face i s the a b i l i t y to use leisure i n a meaningful way. Third, there w i l l be the requirement to l i v e much of l i f e i n even closer contact with people, contacts which w i l l take place within formal and informal organizations and communities of interest. As a result of this, man w i l l face the problems of divided loyalties as his l i f e becomes a complex of overlapping memberships i n different organizations and group shared values. Therefore the problems of privacy, social grace, respect for others w i l l become important to him as they have to few others i n history. A f i n a l aspect w i l l be the requirement to l i v e under changing instit u t i o n a l values. Because of the continual expansion of l i f e i n a tech-nological society, p o l i t i c a l and social institutions w i l l have to change to keep pace. For example, there i s l i k e l y to be a continued demand for human rights throughout the world, for increased expectations i n the economic systems, for the development of new methods of productivity, new cultural attitudes. De Carlo makes a point that facing institutional, social and p o l i t i c a l change 7 without the guiding light of sound principles w i l l lead to chaos. The crucial challenge i n order to l i v e i n such a changing world, w i l l be the earliest preparation of the child i n an understanding of the basic values. The f i r s t of these values i s the integrity of self; the qualities of self-awareness and self-assurance, of introspection and consciousness. Second, there must be found new ways to teach the dignity of the individual. Concepts of responsibility and respect for others, which are the essence of humanity, must be inculcated at every opportunity i n the family and the formal educational 27. environments. Finally, and working with the other two, w i l l be the a b i l i t y to develop loyalty and appropriate commitment to larger organizational forms. Too often the organization i s seen as a device which destroys the individual and his dignity. But this should not be the case because i n the long run i t i s the value systems, as reflected i n social organizations and institutional patterns and shared by the individual, which w i l l hold the society together and protect theuultimate freedoms of the individual. Education and Training for Technical Change The fact that technology i s not static has been discussed above as well as i t s impact on the culture of man and the fact that man must be prepared so he can l i v e i n this world of changing culture. I t was emphasized that the best way to prepare people for this kind of l i v i n g was through education. The purpose of the present section i s to review b r i e f l y the meas-ures taken on i n prospect i n different countries to secure such adaptability particularly of people who have to work directly with the technical changes. The concern i s on occupational f l e x i b i l i t y . Education for occupational f l e x i b i l i t y operates at three main points: i n the schools providing i n mainly for general education; i n the schools with a specifically technical basis; and i n industry i t s e l f , both i n i t s general training and i n i t s schemes of apprenticeship. The following i s a survey of what different countries are going to provide occupational f l e x i b i l i t y i n the changing technical world. The survey i s based on the 8 information provided at the UNESCO Conference. India The vast projects planned by the Government for the Development 8 United Nations Educational and Sci e n t i f i c and Cultural Organization, Education i n a Technological Society, (ss. 59/V.2 a/A 1952) (Paris 1950) pp. 43-47. 28 of natural resources and the creation of new industries demanded a large number of technologists, techricians and literate skilled and semi-skilled workers. At the same time the high schools annually produce some 300,000 entrants to what may be termed the "middle class" of the community. A class which during the late war managed to solve i t s unemployment problem, but which i s once more i n grave d i f f i c u l t y now that purely academic studies no longer hold out bright financial prospects. Unless, i t was f e l t , a considerable proportion of these highly-trained young people could be absorbed into work of a technical character the real income of the middle class as a wholewwould f a l l disastrously, and at the time of i t s greatest need, the country w i l l be deprived of the services of those who might be expected to play a leading and progressive part. Turkey. In Turkey, occupational f l e x i b i l i t y has been encouraged by the development of technical and academic training, and the constant reiteration of the truth that a l l work i s honourable - not merely the type of work designed i n the past to lead almost exclusively to employment i n the C i v i l Service or the Army. Brazi l . In Brazil, the problem of achieving greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the courses provided by the system of Federal and State vocational schools has been tackled by providing better training and education for the teachers under the auspices of the Brazilian-American Commission for industrial train-ing. The ac t i v i t i e s of this body have been focused on inculcating i n the teachers a better social understanding of their task on the publication of 29. technical textbooks, on planned schemes of vocational guidance and on the analysis of local and regional manpower needs. Australia., Australia, which might be taken as typical of a category of count-ries with vast po s s i b i l i t i e s of technological development, the considerable stress l a i d upon a sound "General Education" i n early years has been found to provide f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability of mind i n the student. At the same time the establishment of apprenticeship, commissions i n each state has been the means of raising the standard and widening the f i e l d of technical train-ing. Under the guidance of these commissions the apprenticeship not only receives a l l round instruction i n different aspects of the industry i n which he i s engaged; he i s also educated for adaptability to changing conditions by means of part-time general technical training courses at the technical college, where the basic course i s designed to provide a sound foundation from which development i n a number of different specialist directions i s possible. The Netherlands. In the Netherlands the importance of the general problem of flex-i b i l i t y and adaptability and f l e x i b i l i t y has been recognized, and considerable study i s being given to possible solutions. At the elementary stage and i n a large measure at the secondary stage also, the technical schools have avoided specialization and have aimed at broad courses including more technical sub-jects. Attempts are being made moreover, to render institutions of higher learning and research (including the universities) more accessible to the stu-Ant whose early training has been i n a technical school; thus encouraging occupational f l e x i b i l i t y at the higher levels of professional training as well as at the "craft" level. 30. Belgium. In Belgium specific measures have been taken to promote adapta-b i l i t y to changing conditions. Under the authority of the Minister i n charge of technical education, a "council for the improvement of Technical education" representative of industry (both managers and trade union leaders) and of the administrative and inspectorial divisions of the ministry, i s constantly engaged i n adapting the curicula of technical educational establishments to new developments i n technical education. In technical schools "competence boards" of managers and workers have been established to see that the curicu-l a are constantly adapted to technical progress, and to provide temporary refresher courses i n new technological developments for former pupils. France. In France extreme specialization has been strongly opposed i n the technical schools and industry has been greatly encouraged to develop apprent-iceship schemes designed to give broad, training i n a l l those occupations which depend on the practical application of fundamental s c i e n t i f i c principles. Particular mention i s made of the "conservatoire national des arts et metiers", which gives a higher education i n applied sciences free of charge outside working hours. More than 15,000 young workers attend i t s courses every year; and although i t s aim i s to enable them to qualify as technical special-i s t s , the basis of training i s far from narrow. Taking into consideration the experience of the various countries represented and the problems peculiar to each, the general conclusion that can be reached i s that the challenge of occupational f l e x i b i l i t y i n a tech-nological society should be met by a co-ordinated effort i n three f i e l d s ; i n 31. the schools and educational institutions generally; by means of links be-tween the schools and industry i n the form of apprenticeships schemes and vocational guidance arrangements; and by developments within industry i t s e l f . A. In the schools and institutions of higher learning three import-ant steps could be taken to prepare young people to achieve the necessary adaptability by: 1. laying stress upon the proper teaching of fundamental subjects and upon as comprehensive a knowledge as possible of such back-ground subjects as mathematics and general science; 2. Constantly testing the theoretical appreciation of fundamental principles against practical appreciation i n the form of work shop activity of a character which should not be specifically vocational; 3. Constantly making the institutions of higher learning aware of the relevance of his students i n every special subject to other fields of study. The engineering student for example, should not only be encouraged to extend his studies into mathematics and the pure sciences beyond the immediate requirements of his chosen f i e l d , but should also be introduced to such subjects as business administration, economics and management. B. In view of the narrowness and early specialization of much industrial training and certain types of apprenticeship schemes, occupational f l e x i b i l i t y may be enhanced by a carefully co-ordinated part-time day and evening educa-tion i n a technical school or college, additional to the training i n industry. The purpose of the supplementary technical education for the young worker 32. i s twofold: on the one hand he i s able to observe work processes, special machines and advanced methods of production which are not available to him i n the workshop of his employer; on the other, he i s introduced to production processes which involve different types of work and s k i l l . Thus, instead of being trained only within the narrow confines of a single craft, the demand of which may fluctuate considerably, he receives an opportunity to master related s k i l l s , so, that at the end of his course, he may be reasonably well prepared for more than one type of occupation. C. F i n a l l y for developments within the industry i t s e l f , two type of approach to the solution of the problem of occupational f l e x i b i l i t y should be considered: 1. Arrangements whereby young workers particularly those attached to medium-size and small firms, could be given greater opportunities, both to broaden their knowledge by working i n different types of undertakings within an industry and to observe a greater variety of manufacturing processes, before f i n a l l y settling upon their own chosen occupation. 2. A phenomenon of great importance i s the recognition of the fact that the f l e x i b i l i t y of the labour force i s determined not only by education and training but also by social, economic and technical conditions. Distinction Between Technicians and Technologists. The understanding of the differed ces between technicians and technologists for this study i s of great signivicance. I t was pointed out i n the section dealing with "the concept of planning that choices and prerequisites are the basis of planning, therefore, to know and understand these differences i s crucial so that emphasis i s not put on a wrong aspect of manpower by 33. ignorance. In order to i l l u s t r a t e these differences, the material used i s 9 based on Dr. Marsh' study. Dr. Marsh makes a point that the distinction between tradesmen (or s k i l l e d craftsman, sk i l l e d mechanics, etc.) technician and technologist might be established, and was i n fact established, by: (1) the institutions offering the training; (2) jobs-specification set up or recognized by employers; (3) professional and semi-professional bodies which accredit the right to practice (as well as governmental licences and apprenticeship regulations by trade unions and industry; (4) the educational attainments which are required i n order to qualify. I f some or a l l of these were embodied i n a certificate of whatever kind indicated the distinction became concrete. 10 Dr. Marsh pointed out that B r i t i s h Columbia already has Vocational Schools for adults and Vocational courses which were preparatory i n nature. I t had also the B r i t i s h Columbia Institute of Technology with ten or more pro-grams directed specifically to the training of technologists i n fields which closely compare to the f i r s t two University years of engineering ( i n various branches); and some otherswwhich were better described as technical or occupa-tional programs. The following table shows Training Programs of the B.C. Institute of Technology; and i t s applications i n relation to capacity. The table also shows the range of f i e l d s covered by technologists. 9 Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College for Vancouver Island (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966) pp. 84-89. TABLE 2 34, TRAINING PROGRAMS OF THE B.C. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: AND APPLICATIONS IN RELATION TO CAPACITY (As at August, 1965)  Program Area Applica- Capac- Per-tions i t y cent Building technology 37 30 123 C i v i l & structural technology 56 30 187 Mechanical technology 54 45 120 Surveying 34 30 113 Chemical and metallurgical 55 30 183 O i l and gas technology 7 30 23 Mining technology 17 30 57 Forest technology 86 30 287 E l e c t r i c a l 22 15 147 Electronics 125 45 287 Instrumentation 42 30 140 Broadcasting (technical) 22 12 183 Broadcasting (production) 76 18 422 Business management 125 120 104 Hotel and restaurant operation 34 30 113 Food processing 35 20 175 Forest Products u t i l i z a t i o n 35 30 117 TOTAL 862 575 150 Source: Data supplied by B.C. Institute of Technology, slightly edited, and regrouped to show the training programs i n related groups. Applications by the time of entrance were closer to 1,000. Adapted from Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College for Vancouver Island, (Vancouver: University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1966), p.86. 35. The Role of Technicians i n Services - the Expanded  Technician Concept for Modern Society. The concept of technically-trained (and appropriately educated) 11 persons, as Dr. Marsh emphasized, "needs to be extended beyond the physical production or 'sub-engineering' area which was made i t most familiar". Dr. Marsh continues to say that i n the twentieth century, there were just as great needs i n service areas i f not greater; there were i n a l l probability an expanding number ofpublic careers of many kinds as well as those i n the private business or manufacturing f i e l d s . Highly important examples cited by Dr. Marsh are recreation, and leisure time activities including a l l the arts and crafts. These shaded into various types of community leadership programs on the one hand, with a l l the auxiliaries of the arts i n drama, music ballet, the use of visual aids, museums, libraries, art galleries, etc. on the other hand.Arts and leisure programs were 'naturals' for local commun-i t y development whether or not there were already some resources ( i n the developing countries especially, the same as i n the developed countries a poverty of l o c a l resources might well j u s t i f y spedal efforts on the part of the technical institutions to help generate them. ) I f there were already-lo c a l festivals, committees, theatre groups or orchestras they were welcome a l i i es. Dr. Marsh pointed out that there might be room for complementing or even redirecting the adult education f a c i l i t i e s of the areas i n appropriate f i e l d s . The role of adult education w i l l be elaborated i n chapter four. Another f i e l d i n which technicians play a significant role, and a f i e l d which i s l i t t l e recognized i s the area of research assistance, particularly the areas of study, st a t i s t i c s , surveys and planning that u t i l i z e the social sciences. This need i s even greater i n the new countries 11 Ibid., p.87. 36. where the records of data are very scarce and these are essential i n f u l -f i l l i n g the purposes of planning. The social sciences include not only economics and psychology, the most familiar but even anthropology, sociology have been drawn into the service of businesses especially i n the giant corporations. But modern gobernment (which Dr. Marsh points out i s only very slowly and almost reluctantly u t i l i z i n g the professional town planner) education welfare services, health services, provincial and central administrators, voluntary agencies and the various quasi-government bodies that have continually to be set up to provide everything from j u d i c i a l or regulatory services to television broadcasting - a l l these need assessments and appraisals, consultation about public needs, evaluation of their opera-tions, plans for growth and expansion. In chapter four and five, some suggestions w i l l be made as to how these essential technicians can be obtained within the means of the countries concerned. Technological Opportunities for Development i n Tanzania, Goals and Programs for Development Tanzania's present principles i n the area of development are defined i n the five year development plan launched i n 1964 and the subsequent declaration made at Arusha i n 1967 now o f f i c i a l l y referred to as the Arusha Declaration. Outlined i n the plan are three main objectives to be accomplished by 1980. These are: 1. To raise per capita income from 19 (approx. $US 55) to 45 ($128 US) 2. To be f u l l y self-sufficient i n trained manpower requirements. 3. To raise the expectation of l i f e from 35 to 40 years to an expectation of 50 years. 37. In outlining the menas by which the objectives were to be achieved, the president of the Republic of Tanzania, Dr. Julius Nyerere, said: We shall achieve this increased prosperity i f we expand our production of goods. We shall become more wealthy by producing more wealth, by no other method. Under the plan, therefore we shall increase our production of agricultural produce - grow more crops to eat ourselves, and more to s e l l to others. We shall greatly increase our production of manufactured goods. And we shall re-organize our social, economic and commercial structures so as to get the f u l l benefit from our expanded production. 12 In order to expand this production, direct attention would be paid to three determinants of growth i n Tanzania namely, agriculture, industry and education, and other related fields such as communication would be taken into account. Agriculture. Two basic ways by which the people and the government could achieve increased output were outlined i n the Plan as being the "improvement approach" and the "Transformation Approach". The former i s an expansion of the present policy of assistance and guidance by ensuring that the agricultural extension workers and community development officers work together. Whereas this w i l l involve the Extension workers helping people to transform their method of working on the old lands, current re-settlement on new lands w i l l be the re-sponsibility of the Ministry of Land, Settlement and Water Development. This i s what i s termed the "Transformation approach". I t wasstated i n the Plan that almost a l l the help which the Government can give i n a way of tractors, improved houses, and rural water supplies would be concentrated on these new 12 Nyerere, J.K., The Five Year Development Plan, i n Smith, H.E.(Ed.) Readings on Economic Deveopment and Administration of Tanzania, (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), p.362. 38. iv\/\P I : T A A N I A RELIEF AND PRINCIPAL RIVERS Adapted from: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika Baltimorei The John Hopkins Prese. 1961, Map 6. 39 A P Z: T A N Z A N I A : RAINFALL PR0&ABlLir/-K??UUT10N Adapted from; International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of.Tanganyika, Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, Map 2. 40. M A P 3 : T A N Z A N I A CASH CROPS, ItlfflES, RESERVED AREAS A© TSETSE. Adapted front International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika, Baltimorej The John Hopkins Press. Map. 4. 13 village settlement schemes. Volunteers coming to these new areas were expected to become modern farmers. They were expected to use machinery and perhaps carry on i r r i g a t i o n schemes. I t was rightly anticipated that the effect of these Settlement Schemes would be far-reaching. Besides the farms, they would require roads, trading centres, and some lo c a l industries as well as schools for children and health centres to help people enjoy the l i f e they were to create. Industry. The policy toward industry i s the diversification of industries. I t was argued that simply explanding agricultural output would be to condemn 14 the country to a position of permanent economic i n f e r i o r i t y i n the world. I t was therefore emphasized that the country should have more balance i n her econ-omy and end the absolute reliance on the prices of primary commodities. During the five years covered by the Plan, i t i s intended to speed up industrializa-tion considerably and the aim i s a rate of growth of the industrial sector which i s to be more than twice as fast as. that of agriculture. Education. I t has already been stated that one of the major long term objectives of Tanzania's planning i s to be self sufficient i n trained manpower by 1980. According to the Plan this meant a carefully planned expansion of education. The purpose of Government expenditure on education i n the following jears was to equip Tanzanians with the s k i l l s and the knowledge which are needed i f the development of the country i s to be achieved. Two key fields for attention were said to be adult education and the expansion of formal education i n the 15 secondary and technical levels. The Arusha Declaration put further emphasis on 13 Ibid., p.363. 14 Ibid., p.364 15 A policy declaration regarding the principles and policies of African socialism. The declaration was made at Arusha i n February 1967. 42, the production of technicians. I t was stated that rather than train lawyers and Arts graduates accelerated emphasis could be put on turning out i n larg-er numbers, economists, agriculturalists, educators, doctors, engineers and such other essential experts. Natural resources and Economic Growth - the Value of Resources In order to evaluate the need for technically s k i l l e d manpower i n Tanzania, i t i s important to make an examination of resources which can 16 be u t i l i z e d . Meir pointed out that such an assessment of assets should i n -clude the major f o s s i l fuels such as o i l , coal, hydroelectric power, the chief ferous and non ferous minerals and the agricultural soils, timber and other li v i n g resources. This i s not a complete l i s t of resources, climate, for example can be exceedingly important, and so i s accessibility to the rest of the world. I t has often been argued that Tanzania's low level of develop-ment i s due to the limitations created by her physical environment. I t i s 17 quite true, as Meir points out, that a generalization has arisen from theoret-i c a l and hi s t o r i c a l analysis that a high resource level has i n the past promoted opportunities for economic growth. Meier continues that when com-paring one l i s t of nations ranked according to resource level with another graded according to the income level achieved, i t i s useful to identify the exceptions to the rule. What happened i n those instances? The countries that hadmanaged to reach unusually high incomes ($250 to $450 per capital) despite a paucity of physical resources according to Meier were Israel, Italy, Japan, Turkey and Lebanon. He said that, for quite different reasons, Israel and Lebanon have found means of obtaining capital and s k i l l s from 16 Meier, R.L., Developmental Planning, (New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965), P.13. 17 Ibid., p.20. DIAGRAM 1. DIAGRAM OF EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM FOR AFRICANS, 1959 \tMnof t t j. * iO* School CirnAcaia | m Form V •3 Sund-rUXtl l>2 Sund-rd IX Sur j j rd V|| 111.4 -N -i..mljrj V Grade I C r*k II 1 Dtparimenul Training C " « ' v ) "2 r II * 5 General fcuyil Tcchtucul tull<|l TetfinmJ Inn n u't Hakhed J/CJV reprcjcnt " » « t ( i p e " , f t i » n previous NUMtfR Of PUPILS Adapted from: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of  Tanganyika. (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1961), p.304. 44. Overseas through the use of family and ethnic t i e s . I t a l y and Japan have bu i l t UP manufacturing enterprises which compete for price and quality any-where i n the world, even though almost a l l the value of raw materials other than fuel i s based upon mechanized agriculture. On the other hand, i t i s made clear that a l l these countries except Lebanon have received rather large infusions of foreign aid since World War I I ; countries such as Burma and Ceylon, which had refused aid ofnany kinds, have not done so well. An examination of Tanzania's resources for development i s made on the assumption fiat essential foreign aid w i l l be available. Scope for Action i n the Developmental Process i n Tanzania The purpose of this discussion i s to point out some of the areas i n which technically trained manpower i s needed i n order to achieve the national objectives of increased agricultural and industrial production. Prospects and problems of certain major crops. In 1961, the international Bank for reconstruction and development made a thorough study of Tanzania's economy. Most of the material presented 18 i n this section i s based on the recommendations made by the Mission. Coffee. In order to increase the quantity of coffee, new lands have to be opened. At present, the areas i n which coffee i s grown form the areas of population pressure. This i s because of the f e r t i l i t y of the highland soils, as well as the cool wet climate found i n the areas. At the same time coffee has to compete with fo<Jd crops grown on small plots of land. However, i f new lands have to be opened, there has to be adequate communication f a c i l i t i e s 18 International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic  Development of Tanganyika, (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1961) pp.361-401. *5. which are now confined to the settled areas. Without suitable communication means, supervision and extension work w i l l be d i f f i c u l t and costly and the returns to the growers w i l l be reduced by high transport costs. Another advantage of good communication w i l l be to enable growers to take their cof-fee to central co-operative pulperies where the work can be done ef f i c i e n t l y by trained personnel i n order to upgrade the quality of coffee to what has been achieved i n Kenya. I t has been argued that central pulperies undoubt-edly produce better quality coffee, nevertheless the premium obtainable would not recompense the growers for the extra cost of having their coffee pre-pared by paid labour instead of family labour. The other argument points out that the cost of erecting a central factory to handle 150 tons of clean coffee i s about 2,500. Factory costs per ton i n Kenya varied widely from •sh. 373 to sh. 900, the average being sh. 600 ( 30). Allowing for 20-year amortization of 2,500 borrowed at 6 per cent, the pulpery cost per ton would not exceed 32, while, as already mentioned, the difference i n price between Tanzanian and Kenyan African grown coffee i n the 1958-59 season was 150 per ton. Scbpe for Water Development. The chief factor limited and shaping the agricultural and l i v e -stock potential of the territory i s r a i n f a l l . Rainfall over most of the country i s seasonal and unreliable, varying greatly i n t o t a l from year to year and i n i t s distribution between months within the rainy season. Thus, this limits the production of annual crops to only part of the year. In 46. some areas, where there are two good rainy seasons a year or one long rainy season, perennial crops can be grown and good yields of annuals are possible. One of the proposals made as a means of transforming agriculture was to establish ir r i g a t i o n schemes. I t was pointed out that i n order that the f u l l promise of these schemes might be realized, the most careful pre-paration was obviously required. Consequently, i t was proposed that the following fiv e years or so i n irrigation and flood control work should be predominantly a period of investigation, planning and building up to staff. Irrigation Potential. Tanzania has a great potential i n irr i g a t i o n . This i s because of the presence of large lakes and rivers which flow from the highlands crossing dry regions. There are some minor irr i g a t i o n developments i n the flood plains and at some other places i n the more narrow parts of the Ruvu Valley. These do not exceed 1,000 acres. They are mainly on estates and further development i s halted partly by lack of capital and partly by risk of floods. Perhaps the most important i r r i g a t i o n potential i s the Central Region. This region has some of the richest soils i n the country but with only a short rainy season of less than 35 inches, followed by a long severe dry season, perennial crops are quick-maturing, drought re-sistant species and yields are low. In these areas, pasturage for stock i s very meagre during the dry season. On the whole, semi-desert conditions persist over the area. From time to time the Government has indicated i n -tention of irrigating some parts of this region, bringing the water from Lake Victoria. Some of the problems involved i n such a project are the distance to be covered, the almost f l a t plateau land for pumping problems 47. and most of a l l , because of the hot dry climate, evaporation rate, w i l l be very high. But through technological applications these d i f f i c u l t i e s can be overcome. The Lower R u f i j i Valley. This i s a huge empty part of the R u f i j i River Basin and l i e s south of the Kilombero Valley and the Mahenga Plateau. The Valfey i s 100 miles long and some 5 to 20 miles wide and lUs subject to frequent flooding. The valley received some 25 to 45 inches of r a i n f a l l average per annum. A breakdown of groups and r a i n f a l l indicated that 175,000 acres of a l l u v i a l clays are found, of which i0 percent receive 25 to 30 inches, 25 percent receive 20 to 40 inches and 65 per cent receive 40 inches or sli g h t l y more mean annual r a i n f a l l . This valley has a relatively dense population by comparison with the other valleys and plains of the R u f i j i Basin, the permanent settlements being on the higher grounds. The superior attractiveness of the more f e r t i l e valley floor as against the poorer s o i l surrounding i t , even i n the present conditions of lack of flood control, i s clearly demon-strated; of a populati on i n the R u f i j i D i s t r i c t of slightly over 100,000, 75 percent has settled on the valley floor and i t s immediate neighboring slopes, that i s on 16 per cent of the d i s t r i c t . The type of land use i s largely influenced by hydrographic conditions. The major crop i s paddy rice planted on receding floods. Maize i s grown both i n the valley and outside i t (where cassava i s the other food crop). In the valley, the third, crop i s cotton. I f 'the paddy planting i s successful no cotton 48. w i l l be planted. But there are years when paddy cannot be planted because of lack of floods or suffers washing away by severe flood. Then cotton i s planted, sometimes successfully. An idea of the situation i s given i n the accompanying table. I t has been stated that i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to decide how improve-ment can be approached. Complete flood control deprives farmers of the good chance of planting paddy on receding floods or of planting cotton i n the wet s o i l i f the paddy f a i l s or i s washed out. Irrigation development has not taken place to day bit t r i a l s have been undertaken. However, the two t r i a l farms have both been abandoned because of flooding d i f f i c u l t i e s . Thus progress i n investigating the future potential and desirable systems of water control and land use have been blocked. The East African Economic Community and Manpower Needs  of Tanzania. The impact of the East African community on Tanzania has not been f e l t or analysed as yet, but few generalizations can be arrived at. The economic community i s an agreement between the three countries - Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, whereby the three countries w i l l co-operate to foster 19 economic development of each country on equal basis. This means that i n the future, much industrial development w i l l be directed to Tanzania or Uganda who are far behind Kenya i n this aspect. The purpose therefore w i l l be to ensure that "no one country i n the community becomes an industrial backwater for lack of investment". For Tanzania, this agreement i s of great significance 19 The Standard, (Dar es Salaam), Deeember 2, 1967, p . l . 49. TABLE 3. CROP YIELDS IN RELATION TO FLOOD OR RAINFALL CONDITIONS Year Flood or r a i n f a l l conditions Total weight (tons) Paddy Cotton 1947 Ideal floods 3,000 600 1943 Heavy irregular floods 300 100 19**9 No floods, f a i l i n g r a i n f a l l 200 350 1950 Favourable floods 3.500 900 1951 Good r a i n f a l l 7,000 100 1952 Heavy floods 1,000 300 1953 Good r a i n f a l l 4,300 100 1954 Moderate floods 6,300 250 1955 Ideal floods 9.600 200 1956 Short heavy floods 600 1,900 Source: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1962), p.365. 50 since she has the least share of industrial establishments. To be able to cope with the anticipated industrial growth, Tanzania w i l l more than ever need a better technically equipped labour force at a l l levels. Another provision of the agreement which w i l l put pressure on the need of technically trained manpower of Tanzania i s the selection of Arusha as the Headquarters of the Economic Community. One clear result i s the recent fast growth of this small town which w i l l definitely be accel-erated further by this provision. The building industry to provide offices and accommodation as well as services for the administrators of the Community w i l l demand a large labour force with technical a b i l i t y . Estimating Manpower needs i n Tanzania - the Volta River  Project as the case study. I t i s not easy to estimate or evaluate the manpower needs i n such numerous development projects as Tanzania i s undertaking, but an exam-ination of what the needs have been i n some of the other developing countries helps to give some idea of the magnitude of the technically equipped manpower needs. Although manpower projections for Tanzania have been made, these cover the needs i n fields such as teaching, agriculture, nursing, engineer-ing but no figures are available as to the number of people that w i l l be required i n the type of projects described above. In order to have an idea of the magnitude of manpower i n developmental projects such as these, the manpower needs of the Volta River Project i n Ghana i s taken as a case study. 51. Manpower Requirements of the Volta River Project, The Volta River Project was a malti-faceted scheme which was 20 harnessed i n Ghana i n 1967. The scheme involved mining of bauxite, i t s reduction to aluminium, using the power from a hydro-electric development on the Volta River, the irr i g a t i o n of a part of the Accra Plains, improve-ment of transportation, provision of power for urban and industrial uses and minor additional features such as the stocking of f i s h i n the Volta dam. The whole project was estimated at the cost of $867 million. During the arrangements for the launching of this project, there was complete agreement that the training of Africans at a l l levels, and i n a l l professions and skills,would be a most important objective of the scheme. One way of accomplishing this was thought to be by having each individual of the overseas staff assume certain training responsibilities. However there were negative factors which had to be borne i n mind. These were low technical s k i l l s i n Ghana, the competition for technical and manage-ment talent, the propensity for Ghanaian students to prefer non-technical training, and the length of time required for experience as well as training. 20 Hance, William A., African Economic Development, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958), p.64. 52 TABLE 4 MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS OF THE VOLTA RIVER PROJECT Construction Stage Africans  Professional! Semi- Un- Overseer & S k i l l e d S k i l l e d Skilled Total Staff F i r s t Year 1,020 535 2,720 4,275 210 Sixth(peak) year 4,650 2,340 8,305 15.295 785 Eighth(final) year 1,390 575 2,550 4,515 245 Full-Operating Stage ( A l l Staff) Supervisory Skilled Un-& Semi- Skilled S k i l l e d Total Mines 40 560 220 820 Power Project 18 67 60 145 Smelter 400 7,670 1,430 9.500 TOTAL 458 8,297 1,710 10,465 Source: Hance, William A., African Economic Development (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958), p.65 53 Manpower Supply i n Tanzania In 1964, a report of the Manpower Planning Unit stated that i t had been possible from the 1962 Survey to establish some broad orders of magnitude to guide educational planning for secondry, technical and university outputs i n the preparation of the Five-year Plan. However, there had been and was an urgent need for demand and supply projections for a l l specific high level occupations under the conditions l a i d down i n the plan, and for the same five years covered by the Plan. The 1964 survey concentrated almost wholly on the projections of demand and supply for the high level occupations. (Table 5) Secondary School (Form IV) Outputs i n Relation to Demand. I t has been stated that the output of the secondary school system i s the key to the problem of bringing into being the number and kinds of high level manpower to meet the estimated requirements during the process of development. During the five years of the plan, output would be approx-imately 25,000 from Form IV. In terms of urgency, and priority, i t was stated that f i r s t claim on this supply would be given to formal education and train-ing institutions devoted to providing people for jobs normally requiring a university degree and those which normally require from one to three years of formal post-secondary (Form IV) education and training. The principal institutional requirements are shown i n Table 6. Job requirements i n Category "C", that i s , of sk i l l e d office workers and the skilled manual workers i n the "modern crafts" (involving precision metal working, e l e c t r i c i t y and el e c t r i c a l machinery) are shown i n Table 7. 54, TABLE 5 EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATIONAL COVERAGE OF THE 1964 SURVEY Total Employ-ment Employ-ment i n Surveyed Establish-ments Percent Surveyed of Total Mining 6,774 3,188 47$ Manufacturing & Processing 23,073 18,280 80$ Construction (private) 12,771 5.197 40$ Commerce Distribution 16,676 4,200 2 $ Transport communication 25,300 21,600 85$ Services 22,635 2,200 10$ U t i l i t i e s 1,720 1,720 100$ A l l Government - Central & Local (excluding parastal enterprises) 82,380 82,380 100$ TOTAL 191,300 138,825 72.3$ Source : Development Plan Quarterly, Employment Report, June 30, 1964, The Manpower Demand Supply Outlook at Different Levels of Education. 55 TABLE 6 SECONDARY SCHOOL OUTPUTS REQUIRED DURING THE FIVE YEAR PLANS FOR THE PRINCIPAL "PIPELINES" OF FURTHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING. Post-Secondary Education Output Grade A Teacher Training 4,860* To University (Form 5) 4,820** Engineering Technician Diploma courses 700 Agriculture { f i e l d office level) 285 Agriculture (assistant f i e l d officer level) 830 Nurses Training (Ex Form 4 beginning i n 1967 with 60 per year) 180 Ministry of Health Medical School and Health Inspector Pre-Service Training 120 * Five-Year Plan Volume II, p.116 ~ 12,000 (rounded) ** Five-Year Plan Volume II, p. 103 Source: Smith, H.E. (Ed.), Readings on Economic Development and Administration  i n Tanzania, (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), p.428. TABLE 7 OUTPUT SHORTFALL IN CATEGORY "C" Item Skil l e d Skilled Office Modern Workers Craft Ideal Requirement 13,000 3,900 Proportionate Share of Form IV 9,880 3,100 Balance Unmet 3,400 900 Source: Smith, H.E. (Ed.), Readings on Economic Development and Administration  i n Tanzania. (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), p.428. 56 The output from Form IV, i t was pointed out, would go a long way towards providing a supply with the proper educational base for the requirements of the sk i l l e d office worker segment of Category "C". The specific s k i l l s would largely be acquired on the job, augmented i n some of the occupations by short, formal training classes, for example, stenographers, typists, bookkeepers. Category "A" Occupations (University Level) I t has been said that the requirements i n this category, as revealed i n the 1964 Survey of High Level Manpower, are slightly lower than the approximation which had to be estimated for the Five Year Plan before 21 the Survey had been taken, that i s , 2,905 as against 3,200 shown i n the Plan. In order to have a better picture of the demand supply outlook i n this category, the occupations are subdivided into three groups. (Table 8) Principal Lines of Action i n Tanzanian  Manpower Aspects of the Plan At the time the Plan was drafted, i t was said that there were only four broad lines of action open to Tanzania (or any country) i n acquiring the necessary high-level human capital essential to i t s develop-ment. Tanzania was going to pursue vigorously a l l of them during the plan period. (a) Better Utilization of the High Level Manpower already on the job. An important target set i n the Plan, i t was stated was a substantial increase per annum i n the productivity of Government personnel. While these targets affected performance at a l l levels of s k i l l , 21 Five Year Plan, Volume I, p.82. 57. TABLE 8. DEMAND-SUPPLY OUTLOOK IN CATEGORY "A," Occupation Demand Supply Difference Science/Maths based occupations ( i . e . Engineers, Scientists, Doctors, 1,437 843 -594 Other occupations requiring special training 943 (Graduate Teachers, Social Workers, Lawyers, etc.) 599 -344 Occupations open to entrants with non-specialized Degrees, B.A. (Aministration, government, business executives, etc.) 525 522 Approx. i n balance TOTAL 2,905 1.964 -941 Source: Smith, H.E., (Ed.). Readings on Economic Developments and Administra- tion i n Tanzania, p. 430. 58. they were particularly important i n the high level s k i l l s . (b) Upgrading by means of in-service training schemes currently employed lower sk i l l e d workers. I t was said that Government f a c i l i t i e s and programs for increasing the supply of high level manpower through this avenue were relative-l y well developed and active, forming an excellent base for ex-pansion and improvement during the plan. (c) Expanding Education and Training i n the Schools. The key to increasing the supply of high level manpower through this basic means revolves around the amount and kind of outputs from the secondary school forms. The Plan included provision for a very large increase i n the outputs of both Form IV and Form VI. Form IV output would rise from 2840 i n 1963/64 to nearly 6,000 i n 1969» an increase of about 110 percent. Form VI would rise from 258 at the end of 1963 to 1080 i n 1969. an increase of over 300 percent. The majority of the urgently nedded Class A occupations involve heavily elements of those with sc i e n t i f i c or mathematical a b i l i t y . In order to enter the faculties which turn out engineers, scientists, doctors and the majority of needed graduate secondary teachers, a Higher Certificate with a science bias i s required. Up to very recently, very few of the Higher School Certificate holders had a science qualification and as a result the output of Tanzanians from African University and elsewhere trained for these occupa-tions was negligible. 59 In order to remedy this situation, the Ministry of Education has made moves to attain an output of 4 Higher School Certificates to 3 Arts. In order to f a c i l i t a t e this process, the Government w i l l concentrate i t s offers of bursaries largely i n courses which w i l l prepare Tanzanians for those occupations which the country most urgently needs to f i l l i n order to carry out i t s development program. (d) Retaining of Existing ExpatriateExperts and Recruitment of Others for the Shortage Occupations. At the time the plan was drawn, this was said to be a necessary expedient to bridge the gap between high level manpower require-ments and supply, u n t i l the preceding three measures have made i t possible to f i l l a l l such posts with Tanzanian citizens. 22 Manpower planning i n Tanzania, as Resnick points out, arose from a conviction on the part of theGovernment that the ski l l e d manpower required for the achievement of economic development could best be attained through the allocation of educational resources to the production of the s k i l l s most c r i t i c a l l y i n short supply. I t i s clearly pointed out by Resnick that a variety of manpower analyses which have been conducted i n the country since 1959» had a l l come to the same main conclusion: that the expansion of secondary education was urgently required aid was a prerequisite for the success of any attempt to alleviate manpower shortages. By a close study of the Manpower Plan, one i s struck by the low emphasis put on what happens after a student has finished secondary school, apart from the few who go on to Universities. At this point, i t might be 22 Resnick, I.N., "Manpower Development i n Tanzania", Journal of Modern  African Studies, Vol.. 5. No. 1 (May, 1967), p.107. 60. of value to consider the criticisms which were made i n the Robbins Report on Higher Education. A comment of Lord Eccles can be taken as an example. Consider the future demand for technicians. Dnder Robbins' proposals, we must contemplate a great increase i n the number of young people with professional qualifications - with degrees of one kind or another. Every year we w i l l see more potential lawyers, teachers, mathematicians, historians, scientists, engineers, archeologists, and so on. Tailing them a l l together, how w i l l this rising number of professional men and women make a success of their careers i f the technicians are not there to support them 23 Some of Tanzania's "lines of action" i n the manpower problems are: better u t i l i z a t i o n of the high level manpower already on the job and the up-grading of the currently employed lower sk i l l e d workers. The problems of in-service training have been discussed earlier. These include the reluc-tance of employers to part with their needed employees even for a short period, and, i n addition, the problems of these people leaving their families and most important perhaps are the problems of age and a b i l i t y to learn. Besides, 24 as Young pointed out, a l l technological education possesses to a greater or lesser extent a characteristic specialization not found i n other professions; and also, the need to acquire specific vocabularies, to engage i n long periods of practical study i n workshop and laboratory, and the cultivation of habits of thought unusual among layment. A l l these factors lead to a conclusion that formal technical education i s of great importance. The upgrading and in-service training systems are essential but only to supplement the needs and not as the solutions to the problem of shortage i n the supply of technicians. Training Technicians for Local Needs Economic development i n the developing countries involves princ-i p a l l y the adoption of superior technology i n the economic sense i n the 23 Young, J.T., Technicians Today and Tomorrow. (London: S i r Isaac Pitman and Sons, 1965), p.177. 24 Ibid., p.178 61 various sectors of the economy. Since technology i s largely developed i n the industrial countries, i n amy cases i t w i l l have to be adapted to the needs of underdeveloped countries. Further, since modern technology has developed i n the context of a certain resource-endowment pattern of the developed countries, there w i l l be a need for a new type of technology i n some cases, to suit the resources-endowment pattern of the underdeveloped countries. Moreover, no improved technology can be widely adopted without prior develop-ment of the appropriate s k i l l s i n the developing countries. Technical change i n the developing countries thus would involve (a) adaptation of the modern technology suited to their resources-endowment; and (c) development of appro-priate s k i l l s through educational and other institutions. Obviously the underdeveloped countries would have to create an institution for the purpose of adapting modern technology i f the process i s to be rational and i s to be accelerated. Adaptation of technology can be achieved only by knowing how to use i t for specific purposes. Thus i t i s only through the formulation and implementation of concrete projects that modem technology can be adapted. The designing of specific projects i s the crucial stage. This a b i l i t y to design projects i s very rare i n underdeveloped countries. The need therefore arises for technical assistance i n design-ing projects as well as for training personnel i n acquiring this a b i l i t y . Each country thus should start with a project centre, the task of which would be to design projects i n certain fields, for i t would not be possible for each counrry to design for i t s e l f projects i n a l l the f i e l d s , and train the personnel necessary for the purpose. Without the training of the local per-sonnel no accelerated development i s possible. 62, As i t has already been noted that modern technology as i t has developed might not suit a l l the needs of underdeveloped countries, i t i s necessary also tohave a Technological Research Institute which w i l l specialize i n evolving an appropriate technology for the developing countries. At the same time this w i l l undertake research i n the f i e l d of the patterns of educational systems best suited to quickening the pace of s k i l l develop-ment i n the developing countries. What i s necessary i s not so much to take the existing pattern of education - but to make changes i n the system so as to develop the needed sk i l l e d personnel most economically and at the required rate. This i s the basic problem i n accelerating technical change. 63 CHAPTER 3 MANPOWER PLANNING, EDUCATION AND  DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION, I t i s generally accepted that the Sovet Union, during the last few decades, has undergone profound economic, social and cultural trans-formations and these cultural transformations have been of great concern to the free world. I t i s a well recognized fact that, for twenty-five years, the U.S.S.R. has made immense efforts toward the elimination of i t s economic backwardness and toward the increase of i t s industrial, military and p o l i t -i c a l power. For the achievement of these aims, the Soviet Union has con-centrated heavily on education, on the elimination of i l l i t e r a c y , on the wide diffusion of technical knowledge and on the strengthening of the p o l i t i c a l loyalty of i t s citizens. De Witt notes that over the last two decades, under the slogan "Cadres decide the outcome of everything", the Soviet Union has proceeded with the buildup of i t s skilled labour and of i t s professional and specialized technical manpower resources. I t was realized that the success of these efforts was a necessary condition for industrial development technol-ogical advance and, ultimately , military and p o l i t i c a l power. Looking at the situation i n the United States, WolTle stated that i t was what has been called the cold war - or unsettled peace -i and the res-ponsibilities which have fallen upon her as the most powerful nation i n the free world, which have inspired a unique concern with the adequacy of her 1 Wolfle, D., America's Resources of Specialized Talent .(New York: Harper & Brothers, 1954), p.21. 64. resources of specialized, technical and professional manpower. This concern brought forth a careful extensively documented inquiry regarding America's specialized manpower by the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced Train-ing, prepared under the direction of Dael Wdfle as well as several studies of American policies towards specialized manpower by the National Manpower 2 Council whose tasks have already been outlined i n the f i r s t chapter. These studies shed new light on the problem of the adequacy of America's specialized manpower resources and upon the policies which have been described as so i n -dispensable for the preservation of America's technological and scie n t i f i c leadership. One of the consequences of the emergence of a modern, increasingly complex, industrial and social organization, has been typified by a marked division of labour and specialization. Technological advance has been either the cause or the result of economic growth. In effect, as De Witt suggested, i t may have been both. I t i s considered unnecessary to go into the complexity of the causal relationships between technological advance and economic growth, however, or to consider the economic factors conditioning the capital form-ation essential for the ahievement of both, i n order to realize that the quant-i t a t i v e and qualitative aspects of labour are what have often been described as "unique" and "paramount" determinants of economic growth and technological advance. I t i s an accepted fact that economic development, the technological change and the social evolution of society under the impact of both, depend upon a large number of people who, i n varying degrees of importance and i n a multitude of diverse fields exercise their occupational s k i l l s . While the overall quantity of labour i s primarily dependent upon population growth, the 2 National Manpower Council, A Policy for Scientific and Professional Man- Power. A policy for skilled manpower. U t i l i y.ation of Scientific and Pro-fessional Manpower (Mew York: Columbia University Press, 1953,1954,1955). p.6. 65. quality of labour i s conditioned by the level and type of education, the extent and direction of specialized training and the experience of an individual or of diverse groups of individuals who comprise the labour force. These three factors affecting the quality of labour become increasingly important i n a modern industr-i a l development which undoubtedly i s founded on the application of scientific knowledge to the production and distribution of goods and services. Soviet Economic Development In this chapter i t i s intended to outline the Soviet achievements or failures i n the key indicators of economic development - i n agriculture, industry and labour productivity. This factor has to be borne i n mind when the trends i n education are considered. I t has already been pointed out that causal relation-ships are not easy to determine; however, i n Chapter One under the topics on the role of education i n economic growth and the concept of education as an investment, an attempt was made to relate these factors and i t was shown that education plays an important role i n economic growth. Production of Crops and Livestock Products. Much of the increase i n production of crops that occurred during the past decade i n the U.S.S.R. was attributable to an expansion i n the sown acreage. This expansion was primarily confined to the period 1954 to 1956 when the new lands were being ploughed. The acreage of grain and other crops used primarily for livestock feed increased most. Production of most technical crops i n the U.S.S.R. increased during the past decade. The: iamounts of sugar bests, sunflower seeds, and fiber flax produced was about double the size of the harvests i n the early 1950*s. The increase i n production of sugar beet was largely the result of an expansion i n 66. acreage whereas increased yields accounted for most of the increase of sunflower seeds and fiber flax. Increases i n the yi e l d of cotton were achieved largely by shifting cotton from non-irrigated to irrigated land. Major Programs to Stimulate Growth. In the effort to increase agricultural production, Mr. Krushchev sponsored four main programs. One of these was the "new land program". The original goal announced i n early 1954 was to reclaim and seed not less than thirteen million hectares. I t i s reported that i n 1955, which probably was the most costly year of the program, the new land accounted for approximately twenty per cent of the t o t a l planned allocations of budgeting expenditures for agriculture. Alloca-tions of agricultural machinery were large and were made at the expense of the older agricultural areas. Other programs i n i t i a t e d by Krushchev were the corn program; the program to catch up with the United States i n production of meat and milk, and the fourth program which called for a radical change i n the cropping system. Factors Influencing Growth. Two main factors that influenced growth i n the agricultural sector were capital inputs and prices and wages. As i t has been mentioned above, the percentage of t o t a l productive investment that went to agriculture reached a peak i n 1955* Much of this was given to the construction of agricultural machines and production of f e r t i l i z e r s and feeds. 67 Prices and Wages, Wages and salaries were a factor i n influencing growth i n that these had been intolerably low and had discouraged producers. But i n 1953 money incentives were prominent among the measures taken to improve the agricultural situation. Procurement prices were raised, tax concessions were made and obligatory deliveries from private plots were decreased and then abolished. Besides these factors, some changes i n agricultural organization were made. These included reorganization of machine tractor stations. Whereas machine tractor stations had controlled nearly a l l the machinery used on the farms, i n 1958 Krushchev proposed that the machines be taken over by farmers because they were "large enough with adequately trained cadres" and the stations would be used as repair and supply depots. Industrial Production i n the U.S.S.R, Industrial Production i n the U.S.S.R, has grown rapidly i n the period 1950 to 1961. According to the calculated index, the average annual growth from 1950 to 1955 was 10.1 per cent, from 1955 to 1961, 8.7 per cent and for I960 and 1961, 6.6 per cent. In a comparison of industrial growth between the U.S.S.R,, Western countries and Japan, Japan's rate of growth i s the most startling. I t not only far exceeded that of any European country but also of the U.S.S.R. during the growing period from 1928 to 1937. In the rapid surge of the f i r s t two 5-year plans Soviet; c i v i l i a n i n -dustry grew 11.2 percent annually. The growth of Soviet industry i n the post-war 68 period was about the same as that of Germany and Italy, greater than that of France and considerably greater than that of the United States. Soviet Industrial Labour Productivity One characteristic pointed out by Schroeder i s that papers on labour productivity written by Soviet economists commonly begin with this quotation: The productivity of labour i s i n the last analysis of the greatest impor"feno#t of the utmost importance to the victory of the new social structure. 3 In the U.S.S.R., therefore, the fulfillment of plans for increased labour productivity i s an important success indicator i n the system of incentives for workers and managers alike. In recent years labour productivity indicators have been given a key role i n the Soviet Union's assessment of i t s progress i n i t s self-imposed task of overtaking and surpassing the United States i n economic achievement. Development of Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union * 5 According to Zvorykin, production i n the Soviet Union i s based on the Marxist sociological theory that the growth of the productive forces i s the principal change i n social l i f e . Their level, and the rate of their growth are the basic c r i t e r i a of social progress. Marxist sociologists analyse the productive forces into the following elements. F i r s t there are the objects of labour which include raw materials and semi-finished goods, that i s , everything on which man works. Second there are the instruments of labour, or those objects with the help of which man operates on the objects of labour. Third, there are the means of labour or the specific conditions necessary for the 3 Schroeder, G., Soviet Industrial Labour Productivity, op.cit. p . l 4 l . 4 Zvorykin, A.A., "Development of the Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union" i n Osipov, G.V., Ed. Industry and Labour i n the U.S.S.R., (Londond: Tavistock Publications, I966), p.16. 69. existence of the productive process which include, i n the wider sense, roads and buildings. Fourth, there i s the worker, necessary for carrying out the productive process, and f i f t h , there are the experience, s k i l l and knowledge (technology and natural science) which are applied i n the productive process. Zvorykin points out that no matter how great the role played by objects of labour may be, they are not the determining element i n production. The material technical bases on which production rests are of considerable importance for i t s develop-ment. The technique of production, therefore, only serves as the most active, material element of production. The existence and functioning of the natural elements of production are brought about only by tie activity of man who sets them into motion and carries on the production process. The productive forces reveal the character of the relations between man and nature. They show how man operates en the objects of labour and carries on the production process with the help of instruments and means of labour u t i l i z i n g their mechanical, physical and chemical properties. In the period of the transition, the productive forces of the Soviet Union were developing i n the following main directions: (1) the electrification of the whole country; ( i i ) the consequent improvement of machinery, and ( i i i ) the improvement of technology; (iv) a greater efficiancy i n the organization of social production i n industry and agriculture; (v) the overall mechanization of production; (vi) the steadily increasing automation of production processes; ( v i i ) the wide application of chemistry i n the national economy; ( v i i i ) the thorough development of new, economically effective industries and new forms of power and materials; ix) the thorough and rational u t i l i z a t i o n of natural resources; 70. (x) the increase i n the rate of technical and sci e n t i f i c progress; (xi) the closer relations of science to production; (xii) the rise i n the cultural and technical level of the people. The study of these factors governing the expansion of the productive forces would make i t possible to assess their importance and bring to light , their influence and mutual dependence. This would be important not only for theory but, also, especially for practice. However, for this purpose, much attention w i l l be given to the relationship between the rate of technical progress and increase i n national productivity. E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n occupies a place of special importance i n the development of the productive forces i n the Soviet Union. In a l l i t s high diversity and application, modern technology i s based almost entirely on electric power. Electric power i s transmitted over enormous distances, and i s easily converted i n to other forms of energy - thermal, light, chemical, mechanical. I t serves as the foundation for many new technological processes such as electric smelting, electrolysis, electrothermy, electro-chemistry, electric welding and electric metal, metalworking. Elec t r i f i c a t i o n , therefore, i s the mainspring of economic growth i n the Soviet Union. A colossal increase i n the output of electric power had been planned for 1961 to 1980. I t was 5 stated that towards the close of the second decade, 1980, the Soviet Union w i l l be generating 2,700,000 to 3,000,000 kilbwatts a year, while i n the third planning decade, 1961 to 1970, the per capita consumption of power i n industry w i l l almost treble. I t was planned that power-consuming industries were to be swiftly expanded and complete electrification would cover 5 Ibid., pp.17-18. 71 transport, agriculture and urban and rural households. 6 I t was predicted that i n the course of the next wenty years, the country^ e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n would d i f f e r from the present-day electrification, not only quantitatively, but also qualitatively. The Soviet Union was building ever bigger hydroelectric and thermal power stations such as the 4,500,000 KW Bratsk and the 5»000,000 Krasnoyarsk stations. A 2,400,000 KW thermal power station was constructed at Krivoi Rog and s t i l l bigger thermal power stations were being planned. Power engineering would develop through the use of various power resources, including fuel (gas, li q u i d and solid), water,nuclear and thermo-nuclear power. Plant and Machinery. Plant and machinery which were being developed played a decisive role i n the growth of the productive forces. The discoveries that had been made i n the sphere of atomic power had caused some specialists to advocate that atomic energy should be made the pivot of the development of productive forces. Others» argued that the productive forces of future society would depend on the development of synthetic chemistry. No matter how important these new trends might be i t was emphasized that i t was not they but the means of labour based on the use of e l e c t r i c a l energy, which would determine the most import-ant direction i n the development of productive forces. The means of labour i n particular would make possible the use of the opportunities provided by the el e c t r i c a l energy and synthetic chemistry. Technology. Zvorykin pointed out that technology formed a link between the instru-ments of labour and the objects of labour, and was the sum total of methods of operating on the objects of labour. I t was frequently identified with tools 6 Ibid., p.18 72, and machinery, because, as some economists and sociologists argued, every technological process was formed within a definite system of technical means. 7 Zvorykin said that this approach could be shown to be wrong. A technical task, he argued, like the working of a metal, could be accomplished by various technological methods such as cutting, stamping or precision casting. Materials for identical purposes could be produced by means of mechanical or chemical treatment. Technological processes varied according to their degree of continuity and intensity. Mechanization and Automation One of the general trends i n the development of the productive forces i n the Soviet Union was reported to be the universal mechanization. The advance of technology had been linked up mainly with the improvement of machines i n basic production. As a result, the number of workers engaged i n this prod-uction decreased relatively faster than the number of workers engaged i n auxiliary operations. In fact, the latter sometimes had even decreased. I t had been envisaged i n the Seven Year Plan that technical improvements had to be made not only i n individual enterprises and basic industries but also i n the entire system for reception, storage, transportation and distribution of raw materials and for the transportation, storage, loading and dispatch of semi-finished products. In agriculture as well, overall mechanization has been made the foundation for increasing the productivity of farm labour. Universal mechanization was inseparably linked with automation. Automation of production was a new stage that had been made possible by the joint development of science and the technology and mainly by putting pro-duction on an electric power basis and the use of electronics and new improved 7 Ibid., p.19 73. technical means. Automation leads to the creation of the new productive apparatus of communist society. As the building of communism progresses, automatic machine systems w i l l increasingly become the general form of production, they w i l l radically change man's role i n production and provide the material basis for eliminating the essential differences between physical and mental labour. 8 ffatmsal Resources In l i s t i n g the factors on which the productive force of labour depends, Zvorykin said that Marx had l a i d stress on natural conditions. 9 Man's po s s i b i l i t i e s of penetrating into the depths of the earth and making thorough surveys of natural wealth had increased many times over and the more systematic use of natural resources could accelerate the growth of the pro-ductive of labour "at an unheard of rate". To hasten the process, p r i o r i t y would be given to the use of natural resources that could be rapidly developed and yi e l d the greatest economic benefit. Human Labour The human labour policy of the Soviet Union i s based on the prin-ciples that no matter how deep the changes that automation and the use of cybernetic devices w i l l make i n man's activity, he w i l l retain the leading role i n a l l spheres of social production. No matter how effective the machine, the limits of i t s uses and the ways of improving them w i l l depend wholly M on man. The creation of the productive forces of communism, i t was stated, were leading, not to the disappearance of labour but to i t s profound develop-ment and transformation. The entire development of social l i f e , the expansion of i t s material and technical basis and, i n particular, the progress of science and technology, were preparing the ground for an organic merging of mental and physical labour i n the productive activity of people. ^Zvorykinr,, A.A., Development of the Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union, . c i t . , p.21. Ibid., p.24 1 0 I b i d . , p.25. 74 In 1913, about two-thirds of the t o t a l number of industrial workers i n Tsarist Russia were employed i n textile and clothing factories and only 2.4 percent i n engineering and metalworking. Today the corresponding figures for the Soviet Union are 25.3 and 27.5 percent respectively. Women also make up a considerable section of the workers employed i n such branches of industry as food, fur and leather, rubber, footwear, paper, and o i l refining. The Growth of the Number of Women Workers 11 I t was stated by Smimov that the formation and development of the Soviet working class could not be properly understock! without examining the part played by women i n this process. In 1963, the number of women workers and office ^ employees exceeded 34,300,000 which was 49 percent of the country's tot a l . In Tsarist Russia, according to the 1897 census data, 55$ of the women wage workers were house servants and 25 percent were farm labourers, whereas only 13 percent were employed i n industrial establishments or on building jobs and 4 percent i n education and public health institutions. In the Soviet Union 39 percent of the total number of women occupied i n the national economy i n 1961 were employed by industry and construction and 24 percent i n education and public health. Whereas i n 1913 women made 24.5 percent of the t o t a l industrial labour force, by 1961, the percentage had risen to 45. The follow-ing two tables give an idea of how the percentage of women among total indust-12 r i a l workers has increased i n the Soviet Union. (See Tables 9 and 10) 13 According to the data of the population census, the number of women employed at power stations increased more than four-fold between 1939 and 1959; during this period, the percentage of women among the total workers i n these stations increasedi'from 23 to 32 percent. The numbers of women turners, 11 Smimov, G.L. "The Rate of Growth of the Soviet Working Class" i n Ospirov, G.V., Ed., op.cit. p.30 12 S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook, Women and Children i n the Soviet Union, Moscow, 1963, p.105. 13 Ibid., p.105 75 TABLE 9 GROWTH IN THE PROPORTION OF WOMEN AMONG TOTAL INDUSTRIAL WORKERS (PERCENTAGES) Branch of Industry 1931 (Mean for the year) 1928 (Mean for the year) 1940 (As for 1 Nov.) 1961 (As for 1 Jan.) In industry as a whie 24.5 28.6 42.9 45.6 In engineering & metalworking 4.2 8*9 31.5 38.9 In textiles & clothing 55.7 61.2 72.6 72.9 In food processing 22.0 26.0 48.6 54.4 Source: S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook, Women aid Children i n the Soviet Union, Moscow, 1963, P.105. TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF WOMEN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS ENGAGED IN INDIVIDUAL BRANCHES Branch of Industry 1913 (Mean for the year) 1928 (Mean for the year) 1940 (As of 1 Nov.) 1962 (As of 1 Jan.) In industry as a whole of which: 100 100 100 100 In engineering & metalworking 2.4 5.5 23.5 27.5 In the tex t i l e & clothing industries 63.1 64.5 29.5 25.3 In food processing 12.8 7.2 13.4 10.5 Source: S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook, Women and Children i n the Soviet Union, Moscow, 1963. p.105 76. milling machine operators and other machine tool workers increased during this period more than twofold, though the proportion of workers i n these occupations remained constant, at 28 per cent. Women working at pressing and stamping machines made up 64 percent of the total, an increase of 2.8 times, I chemical workers 57 percent, andincrease of 2.4 times, compositors 78$, an increase of 1.8 times, and drivers of trams, trolley buses and underground trains, 57 percent, a threefold increase. Education i n the Soviety Union. Basic Aims of Soviet Education Policy. The basic aims and philosophy of Soviet Union education offer a 14 contrast with those of America. In the latter, De Witt pointed out that train-ing was designed for the realization of the f u l l capacities of an individual while, i n the former, i t was stated, education was not bu i l t around the i n d i -vidual but the state, which by "identifying i t s e l f with pursuits of the common good" attempted the "ruthless^ subordination of the individual - his rights, tastes, choices, privileges and his training - to i t s own needs. The fundamentals of the Soviet educational philosophy rest on 15 three major premises. The two which are of interest here are: (1) that the advancement of science and technology i s best promoted through the central planning of education and research; (2) that sci e n t i f i c and educational efforts are primarily a means for the advancement of the social, economic and military interests of the nation. 14 De Witt, N., Soviet Professional Manpower,(Washington, D.C. National Science Foundation, 1955)» p.4. 15 Shore, M.J., Soviet Education: Its Psychology and Philosophy (New York: Philosophical Library, 1944), p.130. 7 7 . One of the important implications of these maxims i s that as 16 De Witt rightly stated, there was a quite r e a l i s t i c approach to the train-ing of personnel for an economy i n the process of rapid industrialization. In such a system, professional competence and applied technical know-how was necessary. The character and kind of training were determined by the simple and obvious necessity for various types of trained manpower - scientists, engineers, managers, teachers, supporting personnel and sk i l l e d labour. In order to meet the growing demand for specialized and ski l l e d manpower Soviet educational policy has been increasingly more heavily aimed at a l l educational levels, toward the promotion of those types of training which stress concrete knowledge. Moore said that "because of this stress, the rational-technical 17 feature became one of the prominent aspects of Soviet education". Stress on the mastery of specific subjects and on the acquisition of technical and sc i e n t i f i c s k i l l has become dominant i n a l l fields and on a l l levels of the educational system. Like any other country, the Soviet Union has faced a l l the problems of s k i l l e d manpower supply. For more than two decades, she had been under the pressure of an ever-increasing demand for specialists, there has existed a shortage of physical f a c i l i t i e s , of school space, equipment and qualified teach-ing personnel. A l l these conditions have automatically led to enforced selection at every educational level. This process of selection serves to channel the academically gifted rather than the merely competent into more advanced stages of training. One result of this has been extensive and keen competition for the opportunity to continue for higher education. I t was specially noted that despite the impediments to the f u l l operation of academic selectivity, the 16 De Witt, N., Soviet Professional Manpower, Op.cit. , p . 1 3 0 . 1 7 Moore, B. Jr., Terror and Progress, U.S.S.R. (Cambridge: Harvard Univer-s i t y Press, 1 9 5 4 ) , p.208. 78 state-oriented educational policy has succeeded to a great extent i n recruit-ing available talent, which i s then trained and moulded i n such a way as to maximize i t s u t i l i t y to the state. In this process, however, the individual did derive some benefits for himself, but these were by no means the primary objectives. The Soviet Educational System. To achieve i t s aims i n i t s planned efforts to channel individual talert into various occupations, the Soviet Union has very extensive educational f a c i l i t i e s . In order to f a c i l i t a t e i t s task, the state also maintains an extensive administrative system of control, which not only supervises a part-icular set of institutions and particular type of training, but also i s directly concerned with the placement policies of educated and trained man-power. Appendix 7 shows the structure of Soviet regular schools as they were after the school reforms i n the mid-1930's as well as subsequent additions during and after the war. In order to understand better this system, a com-parison between the Soviet school system and that i n the United States was made on an age-grade progress basis. Polytechnical Education Concept. Polytechnical education or polytechnism i s an essential part of the 18 Marxian theory of education. Marx envisaged that under ommunism every individual should have a many-sided development, which he claimed to be unattainable under capitalism because of the division of labour. Education was intended to give each individual a broad and thoroughly integrated training 18 Shore, M.J., Soviet Education: Its Psychology and Philosophy (New York: Philosophical Library, 1947)• pp.146-150. 79. i n the theory and practice of a l l branches of production. Since none of these visions had materialized as Shore noted, the original Marxian concept of "Unity of theory and practice" had meant a wide variety of instruction efforts i n Soviet education. Polytechnic education meant simply a study of applied subjects, a study of principles of agricultural or industrial techniques, vocational training of one kind or another, productive work i n school shops, laboratory work i n science courses, the use of visual aids i n teaching, excursions to industrial plants - infect anything short of a text book or a teacher's word had been referred to as "polytechnical instruction" at one time or another. 19 In the 1950's as De Witt reported, there seemed to be unanimous contempt for what was called "naked technism" or applied vocational train-ing without theoretical foundation. Up to that period polytechnical instruct-ion had not gained ground i n the U.S.S.R. because of a lack of f a c i l i t i e s , laboratories, equipment, tools and other essentials necessary to i t s proper conduct. Furthermore, the teachers were not prepared and did not know how to handle the various implements of p&ytechnical education. Polytechnical instruction was an expensive undertaking which frequently did not produce as satisfactory results as were expected of i t . Verbal instruction, textbook learning, classroom explanations were much cheaper and frequently more effect-ive ways of instruction. De Witt concluded by saying that the efforts which were being made could overcome some of the obstacles, and industry could per-haps be able to supply the essentials so that Soviet schools could conduct polytechnical training. This, however, i s s t i l l i n the future. 19 De Witt, N., Soviet Professional Manpower (Washington, D.C., National Science Foundation, 1955)» P»36. 80 Occupational Inclination i n the U.S.S.R. An occupational inclination i n the U.S.S.R., Shubkin said, arose at school acoording to a demand for a certain type of work. I t f i r s t appears i n 20 the subjects. According to a survey he made, literature and mathematics proved to be favourites of the school children interviewed. The occupations which they wanted to take up were often removed from the traditional ones i n their own families. In order of ranking of the chosen groups of occupations, the f i r s t group included professions demanding primary technical and physico-mathematical training, the second, a knowledge of natural science and the third, the humanities. The degree of preferences i s shown on table 1J. Shubkin concluded that the technical progress and the great successes i n the physico-mathematical sciences i n recent years apparently had a very strong influence on the formation of professional inclinations, and resulted i n great mobility i n the aspirations of different groups of young people. At the same time, these influences which had a great effect on boys, told less with g i r l s who wished to specialize i n the humanities and natural sciences 21 as a rule. The effect of these factors on the formation of professional lean-ings i n boys and g i r l s cannot be ignored. On the one hand, as Shubkin made clear, as society strove to provide work and education for each according to his inclination, i t had to take them into account when deploying both industrial and educational establishments. The grouping together i n a given d i s t r i c t or city, of enterprises and educational establishments with a physico-mathematical bias would evidently promote the employment of young men i n keeping with their 20 Osipov, G.V., Industry and Labour i n the U.S.S.R., (London: Tavistock Publications, 1966), pp.86-98. 21 Ibid., p.89 81. TABLE 11 OCCUPATIONS OF THE FATHERS AND INCLINATIONS OF THE CHILDREN Fathers* occupations require knowledge of science (As percentage of total) Physico Natural Mathemat- Science i c a l Humani-ties Total P hysi c o-mathemati cal 5k 22 23 100 Natural Science 57 32 11 100 Humanities 53 17 27 100 Sons Physico-mathematical 84 8 8 100 Natural Science 80 20 - 100 Humanities 88 12 - 100 Daughters P hysi c o-mathemati cal 35 32 33 100 Natural Science 31 46 23 100 Humanities 8 23 61 100 Source: Osipov, G.V., Industry and Labour i n the U>S,S.R. (London: Tavistock Publications, 1966), p.88 82, inclinations and provide them with appropriate further education. I t would not be easy for g i r l s leaving school i n such areas to find work to their l i k i n g . As a result, a d i s t r i c t with sufficient labour resources might find i t s e l f short of workers and some yonng people obliged to work i n occupations not to their taste, might move from one enterprise to another. This would lead to a high degree of fluctuation and migration of labour power. Finally, the situation might arise i n which, despite the large number of young people who wanted to continue their education, the enrolment at educational establishments would be below standard. On the other hand, the differences i n the professional lean-ings of boys and g i r l s had to be taken into consideration when gadding the young people's choice of profession. Secondly, there was need to adjust pro-fessional divisions between sexes. The natural sciences and humanities were f a l l i n g more and more on the women, while men chose professions demanding physico mathematical training. The prospect of such a division of labour according to sex was not satisfactory. An interest i n the humanities and natural sciences evidently had to be aroused among boys and a l i k i n g for ghjsico-mathematical subjects developed i n g i r l s . To i l l u s t r a t e and ju s t i f y the need and importance of technicians, 22 Langden made the observation that the Russians estimate that their industry requires about ten sk i l l e d workers for four technicians to each technologist. About 2.4 million students were then engaged i n higher technological education which implied a stupendous demand for supporting technicians and s k i l l e d workers. Langden said that the whole education system was now geared to this task. In 1962 there were about 53 million people or one i n four of the population receiving some form of education - about three-quarters of them i n f u l l time study. In Britain also, the figure was roughly, Langden stated, one 22 Langden, J., "U.S.S.R. Craft and Technical Training", Journal of Technical  Education and Industrial training. Vol.4, (June 1962), pp.24-25. 83. i n four but a much smaller proportion were i n f u l l time further study. The Russians had achieved this equation i n 40 years. The power of the drive i n education was well revealed i n the new scheme of training for s k i l l s which was established i n 1940 with an enrolment target of 800,000. In 1961, well over one million s k i l l e d workers came from trade schools, the majority of which were not established before 1949 and i n many cases 1954. Some 12 million workers were said to have been produced i n a l l . Vocational School. At fifteen, students who attain minimum standards i n the seventh or eighth grade transfer to secondary polytechnical or to trade sihools, from which they emerge as sk i l l e d workers. Alternatively they may go to special secondary schools to prepare for higher education, and some of these specialize i n the arts. A l l these schools have to engage i n productive work and have a functional part i n the industrial production of the country. Those who do not qualify for entry, receive training i n industry for the less sk i l l e d occupations. The higher secondary schools are being combined with the eight-year school to give continuous ten and eleven^year education with training. On entering industry, sk i l l e d workers can continue general educa-tion at evening schools to meet the entry qualifications for a technician or higher educational institute. A l l further education was highly specialized and dealt with a relatively narrow range of subjects appropriate to an industry. The system was also completely st r a t i f i e d , so that one type of establishment dealt with craft training, another with technicians only, and i n nocase did a college 84, have a ve r t i c a l slide of further education courses from craft to technologist as i n Britain. Selection was based on progress reports and course results, coupled with experience of the students practical bent i n the eight-year school. Qualifying examinations and aptitude tests are not permitted. Purpose and Form. The purpose of secondary polytechnical and trade schools i s to pro-duce immediately useful skilled workers and the school i s entirely responsible for both further education and industrial training. On entering industry from the school, the trainee i s f u l l y employed at once on the mid-point of a scale of earnings and reaches f u l l y - s k i l l e d rating i n about two years. Secondary polytechnical schools usually cover a group of occupations and give continued general education. The old Trade Schools which had narrower and were particu-l a r l y linked with particular industries or economic councils were being re-organized on a broader basis. A l l vocational schools were being run by the State Committee for Vocational and Technical Education, the Head of which was a member of the Council of Ministers showing the importance and status of this system. Vocational schools have an average enrolment of 250 to 300 f u l l time students and may also have an evening department. In large industrial areas, schools with 500 to 900 students are common. An increasing number are boarding schools. In a l l schools, tuition i s free, books, study material, overalls, and, i n some cases uniforms are provided. The student i s paid a stipend and also earns from the productive work which i s done during training. At the end of the course he i s directed to suitable work by a department of 85. the State Committee, which plans and executes the placement of trainees. Schools are closely connected with industry, sometimes with particular enter-prises, and their character and distribution follow that industry. Of more than 3,700 vocational schools, over 1,000 each are for engineering and pro-duction, building and agriculture, whilst others deal with transport, catering, communications and commercial trades. In 1962 the central Russian Republic had over 400 schools, the smallest republic Turkmenistan only eight, Byelor-ussia, with a population of eight million, had 105 schools offering 170 trades and i t s capital Minsk, had 5,600 trainees i n 20 schools. The number of schools was thought to be increasing by about 5 per cent per annum and o f f i c i a l s quoted an aim of doubling the output of sk i l l e d workers by 1965. Occupations Covered There were said to be about 10,000 registered occupations i n the U.S.S.R, of which 6,500 were trades requiring some form of training. Vocational schools would provide training for some 2,000 of the most highly sk i l l e d occu-pations and about 800 trades were accommodated. The other 4,500 trades would be dealt with by training i n industry. A school would not offer more than six or eight trades, and often only one or two. The following are examples of trades offered i n different schools. Moscow: Trade School No, 9 538 full-time and 200 evening students Nominal two-year courses i n the following specialties: Fitters Draughtsmen -Designers Turners Adjusters and Assemblers of Milling Machine Operators automatic lines Technical Inspectors ( i n classes for inspectors and draughtsmen, about two-thirds of the students were girls,) 86. Leningrad; Vocational and Technical School No. k, 600 full-time students and 250 evening students. Staff: 17 teachers and 37 instructors Assemblers of electronic instruments Radio Set Assemblers Clockwork Assemblers Turners Minsk: Technical School No. 2 470 fuHLtime students working i n two shifts at 8 a.m. and 12 noon. Plumbers E l e c t r i c a l i n s t a l l a t i o n f i t t e r s Painters and decorators Elec t r i c welders for steel erection Steelwork Erectors D r i l l e r s Tower Crane Drivers ( A l l graduates go to the employment of the Ministry of Building.) Riga; Technical School of Communications No. 5. About 250 full-time students. Girls residential Postal Agents Post office telegraphists Teleprinter operators Electricians for telecommunications (Employed by the Ministry of Communications.) Why some of these should be treated as skilled trades with f u l l time training i s because i n the U.S.S.R. as Langden explained, the definition of a trade and the boundaries of s k i l l prescribed for i t were often quite unfamiliar. Many 23 skilled trades were highly specialized. The Soviet Administrative Machinery for Development. A l l economic planning i n the Soviet Union i s based on the social or governmental ownership of a l l natural resources and large scale industrial 23 Langden, J., "U.S.S.R. Craft and Technical Training", Op.cit., p.25. 87. 24 equipment. I t i s stated that even i n those cases where the t i t l e to land has been transferred " i n perpetuity 0 to collective farms or where cooperative organizations of workers "own" an industrial enterprise, a s t i l l more basic t i t l e to these producers* goods reside i n the ubiquitous state. This means that the planning and the owning agencies are the same sovereign body. This condition, which has been called the f i r s t requisite to effective economic planning, prevails i n the Soviet Union. The terra economic planning, as i t was pointed out, denoted a restricted scope of plans, this could not be true i n the Soviet economy. In addition to production schedules, plans for capital investment, plans for domestic and foreign trade, financial plans, and taxation plans, the Five Year Plans had included programs for public health, education, recreation and a great variety of primarily non-economic social and cultural phases of the nation's l i f e . Hence, the expression "social-economic planning" rather than merely economic planning was being used i n the Soviet Union. Since a l l cultural educational, health and similar activities both require economic goods for their prosecution and pa r t i a l l y determine the productivity of workers, they have a double relation to economic planning. To neglect them would be to disregard sectors of the nation's l i f e within which unplanned developments well might throw planned portions of the economy sadly out of balance. This broad conception of planning i s a reflection of Art i c l e II of the Soviet Constitution which states that, The economy l i f e of the U.S.S.R. i s determined and directed by the state national economic plan, with the aim of increasing the public wealth, of steadily raising the material and cultural standards of the working people, of consolidating the independence of the U.S.S.R. and strengthening i t s defensive capacity. 26 24 Bergsom, A., The Economics of Soviet Planning (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964), p. 15. 25 Ibid., p.6 26 Loucks, W.N. and Hoot, J.W., Comparative Economic Systems (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1948), p.566. 88 Planning Absorbed into the Economy. I t has been noted that less i s heard within the Soviet Union than outside about Soviet economic planning, the reason for this being that planning has come to be accepted as a part of the system. There, planning has become merely one administrative device or procedure within the whole economy, interrelated with and dependent upon other devices and procedures and a normal routine part of the functioning of the socialized economy. This has occurred, i t was reasoned, because economic planning must constitute an inherent part of the socialized system. 89. CHAPTER k TOWARDS THE PLANNING FOR TECHNICAL  MANPOWER IN TANZANIA Technical and Vocational Education i n Tanzania The problem of technical and vocational education i n Tanzania was studied i n 1961 by the Mission of the International Bank for Reconstruction 1 and Development. The following are some of the views and recommendations presented by the Mission. The Mission stated that the plans existing at that time for educational expansion i n Tanzania gave a prominent place to the expansion of f a c i l i t i e s for technical training at various levels. The Mission considered that the plans were well founded. Technical education i n Tanzania was organized as an alternative form of either "post-intermediate" or "post-secondary" education. There were two trade schools, one at Ifunda and the other at Moshi. These provided a three-year course of trade training i n various trades connected with the building and engineering industries. Training i n the Moshi trade school which started i n 1957, was confined to building trades. Admission to both i n s t i -tutions took place after completion of Standard Eight, Technical and vocational education was also provided i n certain institutions and through various courses. There was the technical institute i n Dar es Salaam and the College of Commerce at Moshi and there were f u l l time residential courses for the training of engineering assistants as well as courses for handiwork teachers. The Mission estimated the number of students receiving some tech-nical and vocational education to be two thousand. This number, however, i s 1 The International Bank fo Reconstruction and Development, The Economic  Development of Tanganyika, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961, pp.312-313. 90. open to doubt. A high percentage must f a l l i n the craftsman category. The Mission stated that by comparison with highly industrialized societies, tech-ni c a l education i n Tanzania was i n i t s infancy. But, as the Country expanded i t s industrial enterprises and as i t improved i t s methods of agriculture, more and better trained technologists, craftsmen and technicians would be needed. The Mission recommended three areas of action i n meeting this need: 1. The completion of the capital works program at the Ifunda and Moshi trade schools. This would provide f a c i l i t i e s for 720 pupils i n a l l i n the building sections and 480 i n the engineering sections. 2. Completion of planned building at the Technical Institute, Dar es Salaam and increase of the number of courses given there. 3. The introduction i n townships of part time classes i n English, arithmetic, typing, elementary bookkeeping and possibly shorthand i n selected centres. Preparation and Recruitment of Candidates for Technical Education I f Tanzania has to produce technicians who are going to meet the problems of a technological age, no matter what type of training system they are going i n to, on-th-job training, sandwich courses, the major source of technical education of candidates i s inevitably going to be the secondary school graduates. This w i l l involve giving subjects which are technically oriented as well as establishing i n the students the right attitudes towards such professions. Reorganization of the Educational System 2 Tanzania i s fortunate i n that the recent proposals by President Nyerere for sweeping changes i n the educational system and philosophy offer 2 Nyerere, J.K., Education for Self-Reliance, Africa Report, Vol. 12, No. 6 (June 1967), pp.72-79. 91. a firm foundation on which technical education can be established. President Nyerere has pointed out that Tanzania's education has to f i t i n with the kind of society the nation i s trying to build. One of the requirements i s a change i n social values and also the preparation of young people for the work they w i l l be called upon to do i n the society which exists i n Tanzania. He continued to explain that Tanzania i s a rural society where improvement w i l l depend large-l y upon the efforts of the people i n agriculture and village development. I t was emphasized that this does not mean education i n Tanzania w i l l be designed just to produce passive agricultural workers of different levels of s k i l l who simply carry out plans or directions from above. I t must produce good farmers; .....they have to be able to interpret the decisions made through the democratic institutions of our society and to implement them i n the light of the peculiar local circumstances where they happen to l i v e . 3 The education provided therefore, should encourage the development i n each citizen of three things: an inquiring mind, an a b i l i t y to learn from what others do and reject or adapt this to his needs, and a basic confidence i n his own position as a free and equal member of society who values others and i s valued by them for what he does and not for what he obtains. These three things were said to be important for both the vocational and social aspects of education. I t i s made clear that however much training for example i n agriculture a young person receives, he w i l l not find a book which gives him a l l the answers to a l l the detailed problems he would encounter on his farm. He would have to learn the basic principles of modern knowledge i n agriculture and then adapt them to solve his own problems. 92. Why the Education System was Reorganized One of the reasons for the sweeping changes i n the educational system was for the purpose of changing the attitudes of students towards work. I t was said that the education provided by the colonial government i n Tanzania had had a different purpose. I t had not intended to prepare young people for the service of their own country; instead i t had stemmed from the need for l o c a l clerks and junior o f f i c i a l s . As a result of this, most students had attended school i n the hope of eventually obtaining a white collar job. The aim for each student had been to continue his schooling u n t i l he passed his examinations. But as there were only a few secondary schools, they could not accommodate a l l those aspiring to higher education. In 1966, at the primary level, only thirteen percent of thecohildren managed to gain places i n secondary schools. The same pattern was repeated at the secondary school level. The main problem arising from this was that those who did not have the opportunity to continue into higher education suffered a sense of failure, and a feeling that a legitimate aspiration had been denied to them. Any jobs taken at these breaking points were taken as inevitable alternatives. Pres-ident Nyerere pointed out that government and party themselves had encouraged the acceptance of a concept of success based on academic achievement. They had tended to judge people on the basis ofwhether they had obtained school certificates, degrees or diplomas. I f a man had these qualifications, i t was assumed he could f i l l a post;; otherwise, i t was assumed he could not do a job. This had resulted i n the children aspiring for high professional qualifications. This i s clearly shown on Table 12, and Table 13. The results indicated that there i s a f a i r l y even level of interest on the part of boys and g i r l s i n the various occupations. Both Asian and African boys show closely similar patterns of preferences and the g i r l s from TABLE 12 NUMBER AND PER CENT OF TIMES SELECTED OCCUPATIONS WERE RANKED FIRST OR SECOND IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE BY A SAMPLE OF 2096 BOYS AND 1050 GIRLS ENROLLED IN TANZANIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 1966 Or* r i i n ^ i t "f on Ranked First Ranked Second Boys % Girls % Boys % Girls % Accountant 5.2 • 4.9 Airline Stewardess 13.2 11.2 Barber .2 -Carpenter .1 .6 Clerk in an office 2.1 8.7 2.3 8.8 Doctor 18.8 29.0 18.2 18.2 Dressmaker .6 1.5 Engineer 29.9 14.9 Factory supervisor 2.4' 4.3 Factory worker .5 1.0 Housewife 1.5 1.6 Labourer .2 -Lawyer 7.8 9.0 Modern farmer 6.9 5.7 Motorcar mechanic 1;3 7.3 Nurse 9,8 8.9 Officer in defence forces 4.2 4.2 Policeman (woman) .5 1.1 1.5 1.6 Politician 3.4 5.3-Primary School Teacher 2.7 3.8 2.3 4. 1 Radio Announcer 3.7 9.5 4.6 11.4 Secondary School Teacher 5.2 7.6 6.0 9.0 Secretary 6.5 9.6 Shop sales g i r l .3 .4 Traditional Farmer .1 1.2 University Teacher 5.3 8.4 6.5 8.0 Source: Klingelhofer, E., Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School Pupils, The Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 72, (Second Half, August, 1967), p. 151. 94. TABLE 13 HIGHER LEVEL MANPOWER AND OCCUPATIONAL PREFERENCES SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN TANZANIA, 1966 Category and Occupation Required in Manpower Survey % of Total % of Category Students First or Second Choices . % CATEGORY A OCCUPATIONS (N = 2905) Accountant (professional) Engineer ( a l l types) Lawyer Physician Secondary School Teacher University Teacher CATEGORY B OCCUPATIONS (N = 6555) Accountant, non-certif. Nurse, professional Nurse, staff & duty Radio announcer Primary School Teacher CATEGORY C OCCUPATIONS Skilled Clerical (N = 13,282) Stenographers-Secretaries Clerical Workers CATEGORY C OCCUPATIONS Skilled Manual (N = 3980) Automobile Mechanic 10.9 .4 1.3. .3 1.2 2.6 . .3 24.5 1.0 .9 3.3 .1 10.1 49.7 1.4 41.1 14.9 2.9 4.0 12.0 2.8 11.2 24.1 3.0 4.1 3.7 ) 13.3 ) .4 41.3 2.9 82.7 19.8 10. l c 49.6° 16.7° 38.8e 12.7e 13.4e 28.8C 12.5£ 6.0€ 16. l c 8.8* 8.6 c Occupations responded to by 2096 boys. d Occupations responded to by 1050 g i r l s . e Occupations responded to by both g i r l s and boys. Source: Klingelhofer, E., "Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School Pupils", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 72, (Second Half, August 1967) p. 152. 95. 4 both groups also agree i n their preferences. Klingelhofer, the analyst of the figures, observed that the reason for this consistency i n attitude probably reflected i n two ways the influence of the secondary schools - the competitive selection of entrants into higher education and the influence of foreign educa-tion systems on both groups of studemts. One may say that perhaps this problem of students preferences i s overemphasized. This can be learned from the exper-iences of students who take up technical jobs i n Britain. In Britain, experience had shown that i n factnany children found their f i r s t job much more satisfactory than they had expected. They found that they possessed personal qualities which were either unnoticed at school, or i f noticed, did not contribute to academic success, and these qualities were appreciated i n the new environment of work. Moreover, the weekly wages were a very positive acknowledgement by the community that the young person's services were regarded as having a real value. Besides the increased wage or salary and perhaps more, the increased status had a most powerful effect on students' progress and success. But i n addition to money incentives, more important would be a genuine human interest shown by them especially the educational staff concerned with the apprentices and trainees. I t has been stated that there was no abuse of terras to talk of a family atmosphere and loyalties. To prove one's worth, i f not to shine i n such company, has been considered a great incentive. In order to be able to do this, however, the colleges have to be well equipped with staff so that they could spare time for this informal communication with the students. Besides, they would have to be loc a l l y recruited i n order to understand the home conditions i n which their students have grown. 4 Klingelhofer, E. "Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School Pupils", The Journal of Social Psychology. Vo. 72 (Second Half, August 1967), pp. 149-159. 96. The Technical College Tradition In order to find out what w i l l be the future of technical colleges, a more detailed discussion of the technical college's traditional characteristics i s considered desirable. According to the policy statement by the Association of Teachers i n 5 Technical Institutions i n Britain there are two distinct elements i n the technical college tradition. The f i r s t i s a large professional or vocational content to the syllabus, combined with industrial participation. The second i s a high degree of f l e x i b i l i t y i n length of the course, entry qualification and method of study. In the f i r s t case, the maintenance of close ties with industry, commerce and the professions, and the provision of professionally oriented syllabuses are considered necessities. This i s because they are a positive inspiration i n which the content of the course acquires more v i t a l i t y and greater substance i n the eyes of the student. This i s made possible by the course's immediate applicability to a job that he has actually begun to do. I t was recommended that courses should be designed with reference to industrial and social needs so that the student gains purpose i n his study. The Association had favourable views towards part time, evening, f u l l time day, thick and thin sandwich and block release systems, and therefore put great emphasis on the f l e x i b i l i t y of courses. In addition, i t was pointed out that f l e x i b i l i t y of course length and f l e x i b i l i t y of entry standards, had also been part of the technical college tradition. This had been to a large extent a result of the realization that boys and g i r l s often dropped out of f u l l time education for reasons which had nothing to do with lack of a b i l i t y . The colleges realized that i f the a b i l i t y that many of these young people possessed was not to be wasted, a way back into higher education had to be found. The Association gave some very sound reasons for this policy and these are worth considering here. 5 Association of Teachers i n Technical Institutions, The Future of Higher  Education within the Further Education System, Association's Annual Conference, June 19651, p.7 1 97. F u l l time higher education immediately following upon f u l l time schooling, i t was argued, does not necessarily realize the true potential of every student. For reasons of temperament, or of social necessity, many go into employment at a relatively early age and they can reach the top only i f a route other than f u l l time education with standard entry qualifications i s open to them. In the past, the colleges had deliberately set out to provide this route. They had therefore been prepared to look for entry qualifications that were different from those that had arisen from the f u l l time system and had provided courses of varying length to suit those qualifications. There were two other aspects of f l e x i b i l i t y . One was the greater ease with which a student could transfer from one course to another within the college. A student who found himself engaged upon a course that was beyond his capabilities could easily transfer to a less exacting course. He could thus avoid the humiliation of completing his studies with nothing tangible to show for them when he might have completed with distinction a less exacting course, or even an equally exacting course with a different content. The trans-fer was also worked the other way. Students, particularly i f they had an unorthodox educational background, often developed unexpectedly i n the college atmosphere and the tradition of relatively easy transfer enabled them to proceed without unnecessary barriers to more advanced studies than had at f i r s t appeared to be within their power. Finally, there had always been greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the age for starting a course. To require more time to complete a recognized course, or to come later to i t after having temporarily dropped out of the educational process, was not regarded as a serious impediment to success i n the technical college tradition. The college had therefore been very ready to accommodate i t s e l f to the needs of older studieits or to students for whom special arrange-98. ments had to be made. In particular, the mature student had been able to f i t into the technical college with remarkable ease. Technical College Counterparts i n Europe Although i t i s realized that no one solution applied i n one country-can work with equal success i n another country, nevertheless the value of learning from other countries* experiences i s indisputable. Even countries such as the United States, which i s considered very advanced i n the system of Junior Colleges, have continually been examining what other countries have done 6 on these lines. The following i s a report by Fields who visited various schools i n Europe to study what they were doing. The experiences of the European countries could be of value to Tanzania as well. When Fields was i n Paris, he visited three types of institutions, a college of applied art, a technical college, and three special schools or institutes for technical workers, one i n furniture design, one i n scientific glasswork and one i n watchmaking. According to Fields, the art college il l u s t r a t e d quite well several characteristics of French education of this specialized type. The students were carefully selected, both i n terms of a b i l i t y and of desire, for a career i n commercial art. They had been chosen through a series of selective examina-tions and interviews which, i t was said, were quite rigorous. Tuition was free and government aid was available to enable the student to attend. Practically the entire curriculum was devoted to art, supplemented by physical education and the study of French language and culture. In the f i r s t year, there were common requirements i n art subjects, and then there was intensive work i n the major area i n the following four years. This system, 6 Fields, Ralph R., Community College Counterparts i n Europe, Junior College  Journal, Vol. 23 (September 1952 to May 1953), pp.77-86. 99. i n i t s level, most closely resembled a four-year junior college i n the United States. The student age range was between sixteen and twenty years. The bulk of the instruction consisted of intensive studio and laboratory type courses. Another school visited by the author was the Siderot Technical College. Four major lines of work were offered: construction, electricity, industrial design and watchmaking. A few engineering students were earned on through to university. Quite a number of the teachers i n these institutions were graduates of the schools themselves, having been brought back after becoming established as workers i n their f i e l d s . This indicated that almost a l l these had long been established and that successful technical vocational experience was considered important for the teacher of technical courses. Selectivity and early specialization were the basis of the system and the study seemed to be intensive, of high standard, and almost completely vocationally oriented. Establishing Technical Schools The question of allocation of technical colleges or that of a good size for a college or whether there i s an optimum size has found no simple answer. Rather there i s the question of the form of organization which would best serve i t s purpose, namely, the education of i t s students and i t s service to industry and community. In order to f u l f i l l this purpose, the question of staffing the technical colleges i s considered of prime importance. This involves two elements, the quantity and quality of technical teachers. In the f i r s t instance, one can l i s t several reasons as to why most of the teaching posts i n technical colleges remain vacant. Venables mentioned1 three: low salary scales, unrecognized status and the heavy teaching load. 100. The second variable considered i s the quality of the teacher. 7 Venables has remarked that the good technical teacher i s no mere technician; he i s also an interpreter of the modern world. This means that the teacher must be an educated teacher. On this aspect, Venables has made i t clear that education and training are not mutually exclusive, without interrelationship; education i s seldom achieved or received without training and training i s seldom without educative value. Though the exceptionally educated man could teach exceptionally well, most would gain from training. For Tanzania, although no data are available regarding the educational backgrounds of the one hundred and thirty-seven members of the staff i n the country's technical colleges, one would not be very wrong to assume that only a few of them have been trained specifically to teach i n technical colleges. In addition, those who might have had this training took i t i n colleges out-side Tanzania because up to this time, there i s not a single technical teacher training college i n Tanzania. As i s the case i n many other countries, some of these teachers came with arts or science degrees from universities through the department of education. The greater number of them may have joined the staff of technical colleges direct from industries or commerce, perhaps after a spell of part time teaching i n the evenings and this after acquiring a li k i n g for teaching. The third category of technical colleges' staff, the Technical Assistants, are undoubtedly mainly qualified technicians or even students who have done well i n their student career and are prospective teachers. The issue of providing enough trained technical teachers i s considered so important that i t should be given f i r s t preference. I f the country establishes.' 7 Venables, P.F.R., Technical Education, London: G. B e l l and Sons, Ltd., 1956. 101. at least one technical teacher training college, this w i l l form the source of the needed teachers to staff the existing colleges. At the same time, the teachers w i l l form a foundation upon which to plan for new technical colleges. I t cannot be said for certain that when the new technical colleges are established, these w i l l generate more students to take up technical careers. But i t i s quite natural for a person to think i n terms of u t i l i z i n g existing f a c i l i t i e s and since these have been very few, i t may be that i s why l i t t l e thought has been given to entering them, U.S.S.R. Technical Teacher Training During his study of the situation of technical teachers i n the 8 U.S.S.R, Longden observed that the Soviet Union faced the same problem as Britain, the United States or any other country i n her shortage of trained technical teachers, In order to meet the problem, the U.S.S.R. had issued a decree that a l l staff had to have training and had to be graduates of the high-er technical institute or of the technicum. The instructors were produced i n the many technical colleges. A proportion of these technicums had been established especially to train instruc-tors for vocational schools. These technicums are administered by the Depart-ment of Vocational and Technical Education which also controlled the schools. The school administration thus had control of the training of i t s own instruc-tors. Longden stresses that these changing attitudes towards recruitment of staff and toward control of methods of teaching were of considerable import-ance. In vocational and technical schools there were two categories of teach-ing staff: teachers, and instructors of industrial training. Teachers dealt 8 Longden, J., "U.S.S.R. Technical Teacher Training", Journal of Technical  Education and Industrial Training, Vol. 4, no. 9 (September, 1962), p.27. 102 with theoretical instruction i n subjects such as mathematics, technical mechanics, ele c t r i c a l theory and history of the U.S.S.R. Instructors dealt mainly with practical training, but also lectured i n their special technolog-ie s . As industrial training was the main aim of the school, instructors enjoyed prestige at least equal to that of teachers, although they were the product of the technicum rather than the Higher technical institute or univers-i t y . But as Longden pointed out, i t seemed clear that teachers and instructors had a different status; teachers for example received two months holiday per annum, while instructors received only one. A Leningrad school with a nominal role of six hundred f u l l time trainees had seventeen teachers and thirty-seven instructors. Part time teachers were also drawn from industry. These part time teachers made a substantial contribution to the schools but i t was clear that the main teaching was being increasingly drawn from specially trained staff. V i s i t i n g specialists from industry had another important function as extra-curricular lecturers and also, for instance, by talking to students i n school engineering societies. Entry to the Course Entrants to the technicum i n the U.S.S.R. were drawn largely from the ranks of skilled workers who had graduated from the vocational school and subsequently had at least two years of industrial service. They were therefore familiar from the start with the kind of work for which they were training. Entrants could apply for technicum training, or could be nominated' by the industrial enterprise or by the d i s t r i c t department of vocational and technical education, which kept account after their craft training of students showing exceptional promise. 103. To qualify for entry* the trainee had to have seventh or tenth grade general education and be rated at least a Grade Three skilled worker i n a five grade system or Grade Four i n a six grade system. Trainees were said to be fulfcr supported by the state. They re-ceived hostel accommodation, uniform or overalls, food and study materials. In addition, they could receive a small stipend of up to four pounds per month and were paid for their industrial production during the course. Spatial Distribution of Colleges A map of the distribution of secondary schools i n Tanzania would show that there are some regions which are better endowed with schools than others. Even then, these schools tend to be i n the areas where there are population concentrations - towns i n most cases. I t would be d i f f i c u l t to spell out special c r i t e r i a to be followed i n establishing technical colleges i n Tanzania since there are very many variables to be taken into consideration. 9 A study of policies used i n the United States for establishing Junior College Districts w i l l show how complicated the problem would be i n establishing any specifications for Tanzania. 1. The minimum population of a Junior College D i s t r i c t should be 40,000. 2. The minimum number of post-secondary 18-21 year old potential should be 1,000. 3. The minimum property valuation i n the Junior College D i s t r i c t should be forty million dollars with an average tax of a quarter million dollars. 4. The minimum tot a l school population i n the ninth through twelfth grades of the proposed Junior College D i s t r i c t should be two thousand. 9 Clark, J.T.,"Junior College Districts", Junior College Journal, Vol. 31, (September-May, 1960-61), pp.184-185. 104, 5. The Junior College Districts boundaries should be based upon the county unit where possible. 6. Each Junior College should be state-aided but controlled and operated within the established d i s t r i c t . 7. Junior College students Living i n a given d i s t r i c t should be permitted to attend a Junior College i n another d i s t r i c t of the state i f their home d i s t r i c t did not offer adequate courses and they would request their home d i s t r i c t to pay the tuition. In Tanzania, as education at this level i s the concern of the Central Government, many of these policies do not apply. The main concerns are: i n which areas of the country should the colleges be located and how many does the country need. According to the United States criterion of a college per forty thousand people, this would mean that Tanzania, a country of twelve million people, would need three hundred colleges. This would be quite unrealistic but there should be at least about five colleges of the status of the present Dar es Salaam Technical Institute. In spite of the practical advantages of the colleges being near the industries, i t has been pointed out that Tanzania i s mainly an agricultural country which means that most of the technicians w i l l be required to l i v e i n the rural areas i n order to help with the develop-ment i n the different f i e l d s . I t would be advantageous, therefore, i f the technicians were trained i n the particular environment i n which they intend to work. 10 Dr. Leonard Marsh i n his report on "A Regional College for Vanc-ouver Island" pointed out the contributions that a college can make towards 10 Marsh, Leonard: Regional College for Vancouver Island (Vancouver: University of Br i t i s h Columbia, 1966), pp. 90-91. 105. the development of the area i n which i t i s located. The college can act as a population generator and at the same time the people liv i n g i n the area can use the college f a c i l i t i e s for educational and recreational purposes after the usual school hours. The parts of the country i n which the colleges can be located are of importance for Tanzania, especially i n regard to the policy of de-tribalisation which the country i s pursuing. There are no regional movement barriers and the more mobile the people could be encouraged to be, the better for p o l i t i c a l and cultural aspects of the country. I f the need arose, there i s no reasnn why the students should not be able to switch from one college to another i n order to take specific courses which are not offered i n a particular college. The Training School at Williamson Diamond Mines has successfully developed this sytem. The students spend six months at their* school at Mwadie and the other six months are spent at the Dar es Salaam Technical Institute. Training Program by Williamson Diamond Company Almost every country that has been mentioned i n this report i n connection with technical education, has given heavy weight to the role played by industries and private firms. This applies also i n Tanzania. I f the government were l e f t with the whole task of training technicians, the country would be i n a worse situation chiefly because of financial reasons. Industries and private companies have been the other training partners, although their contributions have varied. The Williamson Diamonds Limited, a mining company, has played such an important role that i t has been considered necessary to record i t s training program as an i l l u s t r a t i o n and challenge to other firms. 106. However, the financial issue has been taken into consideration. The following i s a report regarding manpower training policy pre-pared by the Personnel and Training officer of the Companny. The tasks of the company were said to be, f i r s t , to maintain the efficient operation of the mine and, second, to select and train Tanzanians to perform the work now done by expatriates "with the same efficiency and r e l i a b i l i t y " . The t o t a l labour force of the mine, two thousand five hundred i n 1964, included two hundred and sixty-four expatriates and this had been reduced to one hundred and nineteen at the end of 196?. The company had a four-tier training program: Tier 1: Recruitment of candidates for professional training was made from Form VI secondary school leavers. The company had for some time provided employment for secondary school boys and g i r l s . This practice had given the company the opportunity to assess the quality of these potential recruits and had given the potential recruits an opportunity to lear something about career prospects i n the industry. The trainees, \ after completing their Form VT» had been sponsored for a degree course at a university or articles to a professional office such as accountancy. In this same top t i e r , there was a section of Form IV graduates. Some of these were training as technicians for the engineering branches of the industry and others were taking courses at a College of Commerce i n preparation for qualifications i n accountancy, secretaryship or commerce. Tier 2 (a) Engineering: There was a five-year training program for technical apprentices i n el e c t r i c a l and mechanical engineering. Recruits were from Form IV leavers. The trainees spent six months of the year at 107. the Technical College i n Dar es Salaam and six months i n the industry at Mwadui with day release to the company's own training centre. (b) Commerce - Accountancy, Stores Assistants (Men): These recruits came from the same source as the technical apprentice trainees. They attended day release and evening classes and were assisted with correspondence courses for various qualifying examinations. (c) Stenographers; The company had experimented with the training of g i r l s , mainly as stenographers. The g i r l s recruited had conpleted Form IV and trained either i n London for fifteen months or at a Commercial Institute i n the nearest township. The training of these g i r l s was mainly for social reasons. I t was hoped that a great number of them would marry some of the young senior o f f i c i a l s at the mine. However, the plans did not work out i n quite that way. The company was also s t i l l training some g i r l s to become nurses and nursing sisters. Tier 3; Craftsmen were recruited from Government Trade Schools after successfully completing a three year course. They served for two years at Mwadie i n their respective trades, and day release and evening classes were provided for them. They prepared for and wrote Kenya Government Trade Tests and intermediate City and Guild Craft examinations. While on training, the trainees were paid four hundred shillings per month during the f i r s t year and four hundred and f i f t y shillings i n their second year. Upon completion of the apprenticeship, and after having passed a trade test, they received a starting salary of six hundred shillings. This was about twice what their friends working elsewhere were receiving. 108 Tier 4: Labourers recruited for work i n the pits, and the extraction plant, were selected on ratings i n an aptitude test and were given on the job training. Educating the Adults. Importance of Adult Education i n Development. In the developing countries taking into consideration the small percentage of the population that has received some kind of education, develop-ment w i l l be a long process i f the whole load i s l e f t on these people. Neither can the knowledge, attitudes, skils and activities which are necessary i n the process of development be l e f t to the oncoming generation because these factors are needed now i f the objectives which are expressed i n the development plans are to be f u l f i l l e d . One of the greatest calls the President of Tanzania makes to the nation i s that every Tanzanian, old andyoung, has a part to play and that the nations objectives can only be f u l f i l l e d i f every Tanzanian plays his part. This being the case, adults must be provided with the essent-i a l tools for development - education and s k i l l s . The importance of adult education i s made even more important by the fact that i t i s adults who are engaged i n agriculture which i s one of the bases of development. Most of the young educated men are employed i n government services and industries. In order to increase agricultural production, the farmers must be educated. The philosophy for adult education. 11 The basic idea of adult education can be summarized i n Bergevin 1s explanation of the philosophy for adult education. He said that basically 11 Bergevin, Paul, A philosophy for Adult Education (New York: The Seabury Press 1967), pp. 4-5. 109. adult education pointed toward the use of adult education for the development of free, creative and responsible persons i n order to advance the human maturation process. He continued that, adult learning programs, carefully-prepared to meet human needs, might play an important role i n successfully exploiting their learning potential so that they became the mature persons i t was possible for them to become. I f they were to realize their potential, the adult learning process had to become a creating, releasing experience rather than a dulling series of positively attended indoctrination exercises. Goals of Adult Education. Briefly, the goals of adult education are; (1) To help the learner achieve a degree of happiness and meaning i n l i f e ; (2) To help the learner understand himself, his talents and limitations and his relationship with other person; (3) To help adults recognize and understand the reed for life-long learning; (4) To provide conditions and opportunities to help the adult i n the developmental process culturally, physically, economically, p o l -i t i c a l l y and vocationally; (5) To provide where needed, education for survival, i n literacy, vocational s k i l l s and health measures. I t i s considered that the goals stated above are a l l very important i n the developing countries and separating one from the other would be debasing the important role an adult may and has to play i n the developmental process. I f an adult i s to contribute to the development of a country, he must know the direction i n which his society i s moving, i n specific as well 110. as broad terms. As far as he i s able, he must know what the general objectives of his society are and what he can do culturally, vocationally, physically, p o l i t i c a l l y , economically - to help i n maintaining and furthering social objectives. This was put clearly by Bergevin when he said, Therefore, we as adults need to know. We need to act intelligently on what we know. We need to learn to discipline ourselves, to accept responsibility for and have something to say about some forces that shape us.12 Bergevin concluded that adult education must then have a purpose greater than that of learning the skills of the craftsman, and the physician and entrepsneur, important as these were. No one would argue with Bergevin on this point, however, for planning purposes one has to establish p r i o r i t i e s . Adult education i n the developing countries, has to be what has been termed above "education for survival". This encompasses literacy and s k i l l s . The affluent society becomes more concerned with so-called cult-ural affairs, when people have more time to spend i n nonvocational pursuits, and when they have money to spend beyond what i s needed to keep alive. This i s generally not the case i n the developing countries. In these countries the majority of the people either do not have the means to carry on above a submarginal level or they do not know how to make the best use of what they have. In terms of importance and numbers of people served, one of the major goals of adult education should be to help people learn to develop and use s k i l l s basic for survival. Adult education i n the develop-ing countries should be as the Minister of Education for Tanzania put i t , "education for service-men only". 13 The importance of agriculture and industry i n increasing the per capita income i n the developing countries was stressed earlier, so was 1 2 i b i d . , P o 9 13 Elittfoo, S.N., "Education for Service-men only; Tanzania Government policy for Higher Education1*, East African Journal, Vol. IV, No. 8 (December, 1967) pp. 23-25. A statement delivered i n the form of an address by Hon. S.N. Elit&foo, M.P., to the conference on the University of East Africa, <^ ;taking place i n Nairobi from October 23 to October 26, 1967. 111. the fact that a great percentage of the population i n developing countries cannot read or write. And since industry and agriculture for development involves the use of technological implements, technical training must be offered to adults, as well as the basic education. Programs for Adult Education In programming adult education, the contents of the programs must be broad and appropriate to the variety of objectives pursued. Secondly methods used must be within the capacity of the learner, therefore long hours of lectures may lead to a decrease of interest i n the subject. There are many techniques and channels through which adult educa-tion can be provided. The obvious one i s through community development programs where evening or day classes areheld for adults covering as many aspects of education as possible, from the basic reading and writing classes to advanced classes offering basic principals of economics, sociology and other social sciences. The community development programs would also offer vocation-a l s k i l l s such as serving, home economics for women, carpentry, bricklaying X and other crafts for men. The community centres would also provide libraries and reading rooms. Besides attending these formal classes, reading groups can be formed based on the ten-houses clusters idea now i n existance i n Tanzania. These can form groups for listening to radio programs, news reading which 4 waaLd be followed by discussions. The role of Television i n the educational process, from the experiences of the developed countries, has been tremendous. However, most of the people i n the developing countries cannot afford Television 112 sets. I t i s recommended that whenever possible this device should be put into use. The Television sets can be owned on a communal basis. Other methods of providing supplemental adult education include: (a) Running experimental farms on which demonstrations can be held. (b) Tours to other parts of the country even to other countries to study agricultural methods used as well as learning from successful local farmers. (c) For industrial purposes, professional associations can be established to which a person can go for lectures, use of books and to seek advice when he comes across d i f f i c u l t i e s which he cannot overcome. (d) Supplementary education can be obtained by touring industrial establishments. Because of the long distances people may have to travel to the established community centres, etc. the most effective means of bringing educa-tion can be through the use of mobile units of instructors and demonstrators on the use of machinery, etc. As already introduced i n many parts of Tanzania, movies are being shown i n the villages; Usually they cover the health aspects of the peoples l i v i n g but this can be extended to include technical education as well. Administration of Adult Education. 14 The administration of adult education can be based on the Swedish example where the "Workers* Educational Association" i s organized on national basis with d i s t r i c t and local branches functioning a l l over the 14 Coit, Eleanor, G., Government Support of Workers Education (New York: American Labor Education Service Inc., 1940) p.21, 113. country. Each looiL group would have control over the planning of i t s curricu-lum according to the needs of the area. The national office would be responsible and cooperate i n providing lecture series and preparing material on different subjects - outlines, bibliographies, study plans and factual pamphlets, magazine publications, books for libraries, radio educational programs,; correspondence courses, conferences and tours. In these programs, cooperative and labour unions contributions w i l l be v i t a l . Whatever means are devised for providing education to adults the task of recruiting them and keeping them interested i n the program s t i l l remains. Guidance and counselling even of individual adults must be made a v i t a l aspect i n the whole process. Setting up a body for this task w i l l 15 be necessary. The Costs of Manpower Development In any development program, the financial aspect has to play an important role for implementation purposes. In a study of manpower develop-16 ment i n Tanzania, Resnick made i t clear that high-level manpower development i n Tanzania could not be an inexpensive proposition. Education 1s share of central government planned expenditure during the Five-Year Plan i s twenty-four per cent and current expenditures represent about four per cent of monetary Gross Domestic Product. The 14.3 million planned for education i s located i n the following proportions: primary education, 19 per cent, secondary education, eighteen per cent, technical education, ten per cent, teacher training, fourteen per cent, and university and adult education, twenty-nine per cent. 15, Klein, Paul E,, and Moffit, Ruth E,, Counselling Techniques i n Adult  Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1946. 16 Resnick, Idrian N. "Manpower Development i n Tanzania", The Journal of  Modem African Studies, Vol. 1 No. 1, (May 1967), pp. 107-123. 113A TABLE 14 THE COST OF HIGH-LEVEL MANPOWER PRODUCTION IN TANZANIA DURING THE FIVE-YEAR PLAN (IN £000) Total Enrolment 1964-65 1968-69 Recurrent Costs'*" Total Capital Costs 1964-5 1968-9 Total Current and Capital Costs Educational Group Plan Total 1964-5 % Increase by 1968-9 Forms I - IV 109,513 9,890 1,701 33 2,084 11,974 .Forms V - VI 8,144 1,596 211 103 568 2,164 Grade A .Teachers 6,720 1,039 434 272 / 2,000 3,039 "University of East Africa 3,887 3,887 > 407 253 4,996 8,883 Total 128,262 16,412 2,753 84 9,648 26,060 Source: Five-Year Plan, Tanzania Manpower Planning Unit, Volume II, Ch. 10, p. 64. 1. Figures do not include interest on loans but do include maintenance costs. 114, Recurrent costs per child per year i n primary schools range from fourteen pounds, sixteen shillings for lower primary, to twenty-eight pounds seven shillings for upper primary boarding schools; and between seventy-three pounds and one hundred and two pounds i n secondary schools and one thousand pounds for students at the University College. The recurrent cost i n 1966-6? to the Government for Tanzanians i n the University of East Africa for the academic year 1966-67 was twelve per cent of the total Ministry of Education vote. From Table 14 which summarizes the cost of producing manpower locally during the Five-Year Plan, i t i s shown that the recurrent cost per student (Form 1 through university) was about one hundred and twenty-eight pounds per year. I t was stated by Resnick that the large percentage increases i n re-current costs from 1964 to 1969 reflected the drastic change i n the structure of education output i n Tanzania which had been brought about by the manpower plan. In view of the increasing rate of expenditure, Resnick proposed three solutions. F i r s t , he said that i f twenty per cent of monetary Gross Domestic Product was devoted to Government recurrent expenditures, rather than eighteen per cent, the Gross Domestic Product would only have to increase at an annual rate of 7,9 per cent. Second, the Ministry of Education's share of total recurrent expenditures could be increased,while the tot a l as a proportion of monetary Gross Domestic Product remained constant. Third, the manpower portion of educational expenditures (as opposed to the welfare portion -primary education) could be expanded at the expense of the central government's contribution to education. The gap could be f i l l e d by local government contributions. I t was made clear that a l l these were possible solutions and perhaps only the second was improbable. I t was conclude! that there did not appear to be any/ real danger of the manpower program running into 115. financial constraints i n the near future. However, i t was made clear that the costs of education i n Tan-zania could have been substantially lower without a reduction i n either the quality or the quantity of output. The University College for example had 17 been bu i l t i n the tradition of new African universities - expensively. The capital cost per student room was one thousand and sixty pounds, as compared to two hundred pounds per room at Dar es Salaam Technical College. On accommodation alone, the University had spent about 1.3 million pounds more than i t needed, even by Dar es Salaam standards. Moreover, the decision to make the university f u l l y residential had increased the cost considerably. About sixteen per cent of the annual recurrent costs per student were for food and rooms, a large proportion of which were single units. Resnick stated that i t cost twenty-five per cent less to send students overseas even when the Government had to pay the t o t a l cost. In spite of a l l the indirect benefits the country received from the presence of theCollege, notably research, there was considerable evidence to suggest that Tanzania was paying more than i t had to for this form of manpower development. Resnick's statement seems to suggest that Tanzania would be better off withouth the University College, but many arguments have been given i n support of the presence of the College. However, i f the cost were cut down, the money could go into the building of technical institutions. Of course, the students were offered a bursary i n the fields i n which manpower requirements existed and they did not have to accept i t . They gg&ld go to the university and take any course they chose, i f they paid their way. Furthermore, the manpower 17 Brown, J.C. "The Cost of African Universities", The Journal of Modern  African Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2 (August, 1962), p.21. 116. needs and the scarcity of available resources commanded the controlled-bursary system i n Tanzania. Resnick continued that with such a large pro-portion of Form VI leavers being directed to Education, forty per cent i n 1967-1968, the question of preference was extremely important, on two counts. F i r s t , since students were bonded for only five years after they graduated, there x*as a real problem i n that many would leave the profession at the end of that time. This would create numerous problems for manpower development i n Tanzania. Second, and perhaps more important, i t was d i f f i c u l t to see how students who accepted bursaries i n education because they had no other avenue to the University could become effective teachers. The quality of instruction has dep implications for manpower planning. Since i t i s implicitly assumed that outputs from the secondary school system are homogeneous, i f they are not (because some are taught by poor teachers) calculations of how many years of further education are required to prepare people for particular occupations and how many studnetsjwill pass their examinations, w i l l be incorrect. Moreover, estimates of the manpower requirements implied by specified output increases would be too low i f the quality of the student f e l l . A serious example of this could already have manifestad i t s e l f i n the secondary schools where, owing to the stress on science, the number of places available for Form IV students continuing i n this f i e l d was greater than i n arts subjects. They were thus induced to take science i n order to get into From V. The failure rate (failure to qualify for the University of East Africa) at the end of Form VI for science students was forty per cent i n 1965 and forty-six per cent i n I966. The failure rates for arts students was only fifteen per cent and nineteen per cent respectively. 117 Resnick recommended a softer approach, while s t i l l maintaining the bursary system; an effort should be made to convince students that science and teaching had the kind of opportunities that they would find reward-ing. I t was also desirable that students should not be directed into careers for which they were not suited, and i n which they would probably f a i l or perform at substandard levels. To this end a system of career testing and guidance should be quickly developed and introduced into the secondary schorl program and a special effort should be made to ensure that students who went into high pr i o r i t y fields received adequate training. 118. CHAPTER 5 MEETING THE NEED FOR TECHNICIANS  AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MANPOWER PLANS In this section, i t i s intended to give a general view of the whole concept of manpower planning i n development and why this manpower plan-ning concept applies to Tanzania as well as any other developing country. To start with, the developing countries, Tanzania included, are said to be nations i n a hurry. Having observed how the people i n other countries l i v e , the developing countries desire to reach the same levels of the standards of l i v i n g as quickly as possible. This hurry i s exemplified by the bold goals established by Tanzania for the five year development plant established i n 1964. Within the short period of five years, the country aims at more than doubling her per capita income; being f u l l y self-sufficient i n trained manpower; and raising the expectation of l i f e of the people from thirty-five to f i f t y years. Within this period the country w i l l have conquered the three enemies, poverty, ignorance and disease. I t can be seen that these goals are economic, cultural, social and p o l i t i c a l . The main fields of action are to increase agricultural production since the highest percent of the people i n the develop-ing countries are directly dependent on agriculture. In Tanzania, 85 percent of the people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. Therefore i n order to raise their per capita income, the people must produce more so that they have enough to eat as well as to s e l l . The second f i e l d of action i s to diversify industries so that the raw materials produced from the farms can be processed. The third line of action i s to improve and increase service industries such as construction industries so that better roads can be built for the people to move their 119. farm produce to the markets, construction industries which can put up more houses and houses which have the necessary f a c i l i t i e s for a healthy liv i n g environment. The country aims at improving the peoples* diet so that they eat foods which help the body to l i v e longer. Hospitals and health services w i l l be necessary to treat those who f a l l i l l . As discussed i n the f i r s t chapter, i t i s only man who can put capi-t a l and natural resources into production. In the case of Tanzania, the govern-ment i s aiming at having Tanzanians take over a l l the jobs i n this developmental task. This i s why the country desires to be f u l l y self-sufficient i n trained manpower by 1980. At the time being, Tanzania does not have enough trained people to take over these jobs. This was made clear i n chapters one and two and substantiated by appendix 2 which shows the number of expatriates s t i l l working i n the country. Even i n the five year development plan i t was stated that Tanzania w i l l have to rely on foreign experts for a long time. I f the goal of being self-sufficient i n manpower i s to be attained, Tanzania must mobilize her human resources. The shortage of manpower however, i s not equally acute i n the d i f -ferent occupations. I t has been seen that the demand-supply outlook of Category "A" manpower, that i s , the university graduates with or without pro-fessional specialization, shows an acute shortage i n the people with science-maths based occupations such as engineers, scientists, doctors, veterinarians aid others. Another f i e l d i n which there i s a big gap i s i n occupations requir-ing special training such as graduate teachers, social workers and lawyers. The demand-supply outlook of the people to f i l l occupations requiring non-specialized degrees such as administrators, government and business executive jobs shows an approximate balance. But the important question i s , are these the people Tanzania needs most? 120. The developing countries need people to work on the farms, cultivate the s o i l and raise crops. People are needed who can discover where the minerals l i e , dig them out and process them, she needs people to work i n factories, make cloth or can the food, or process the o i l . For this reason more than anything else, i f these countries want to develop, they have to produce qual-i f i e d people to work i n these f i e l d s . The role of technicians i n the develop-ment of Tanzania i s discussed i n detail below but here the main point i s that Tanzania has to make some choice on what type of manpower i s most crucial to put her capital land, agriculture, minerals into productivity. I t i s for this reason that manpower poanning must be an essential part of the planning process for development so that emphasis can be put on the type of manpower which i s needed and people can be made available. In the earlier chapters i t has been pointed out that the best way to improve the quality of manpower i s through education. For Tanzania which needs people who can work on farms, mines, factories, technical s k i l l i s a crucial need. This i s essential on the ground that Tanzania, just like any other country i s undergoing a technological change. Day after day more machinery i s being unloaded into the country, the hoe i s being replaced by tractors, the axe i s being replaced by powerful saws, the mortar i s being replaced by milling machines and a l l these are im-portant i n the development process. The automobile i s replacing the head and foot transportation means. I f Tanzania has to keep up with this technolog-i c a l change, she must produce people with technical machinery which i s becoming more complicated every day as appendix 4 shows. In this view then the basis of the whole developmental process l i e s i n the provision of technical education through which people w i l l be equipped with techniques essential i n the keeping 121. up with technological changes. These are the measures as i t has been seen, the Soviet Union decided to take when she had declared that she was going to increase her farm production, industrialize and provide amenities such as e l e c t r i c i t y to her people. Technical education was given emphasis at a l l levels of education - primary, secondary and university. The case of Israel indicates the same process. On her decision to turn the desert lands of Israel into productive agricultural land, heavy emphasis has been put on pro-ducing technicians, people who can use machinery i n digging up trenches over wide areas of the country, put the pipes down and see to the proper working of the flow of water to irrigate the dry land. By emphasizing technical training to this extent, i t does not mean that the basic formal education should be neglected. Even i n the product-ion side of the economy, an i l l i t e r a t e person can be taught, for example, how to use a tractor but this i s not the complete basis for increasing farm product-i v i t y which w i l l lead to the raising of the economy of the country. The people have to know how to read so that they can keep up their knowledge with what i s going on. The role of education to the Tanzanian farmers was emphasized i n the text that i n Tanzania which i s a rural society, her improvements w i l l de-pend largely upon the efforts of the people i n agriculture and i n village develop-ment. This did not mean that education i n Tanzania should be designed just to produce passive agricultural workers of different levels of s k i l l , who simply carried out plans or directions received from above. I t must produce good farmers, i t has also to prepare people for their responsibilities as free workers and citizens i n a free and democratic society, albeit a largely rural society. They have to be able to think for themselves, to make judgements 122. on a l l the issues affecting them, they have to be able to interpret the decisions made through the democratic institutions of the Tanzanian society and to implsnent them. The concept of education for development advances a stage further. I t i s concerned with the capability for production of the developed talent. I t i s therefore important to examine how education adds to production capacity. Another contribution of education i s that i t increases the capability of people to adjust to changes i n job opportunities associated with economic growth. When an established worker faces such adjustment he may have to leave his pre-sent occupation and enter into another and he also may have to migrate out of one area to another with better job opportunities. I f farm production i s going to be increased and machinery replaces man labour on the farms, there w i l l be need for some Tanzanians to take up jobs i n other fields such as industries and services and they w i l l be required to make adjustments i n their jobs and ways of l i v i n g i f they happen to move to towns. Economic growth, under modern conditions brings about vast changes i n job opportunities. Education i n this connection i s valuable because i t i s the source of f l e x i b i l i t y i n making these occupational and special adjustments. Importance of Technicians: Lessons from Abroad One general lesson that should be learnt from other countries i s that there i s no universal formula for technicians - their qualifications or duties they perform. These factors have to be considered i n relation to the needs of the different countries. I t has been seen that Britain, being an industrial country, has, following the Education Act of 1944, undertaken a program of growth and change "without par a l l e l i n i t s history". This 123. growth made good a long-standing deficiency i n education and presented an over-due acceptance of the importance of science and technology i n the l i f e and welfare of the nation. Moreover these were accompanied by an increase i n the f a c i l i t i e s for technical studies of a less academic kind such as were required to meet regional, area and local needs. The last twenty years then have ushered i n a revolution which w i l l ultimately encompass a l l levels of education and a l l kinds of manual s k i l l s . To meet the needs of technicians Britain has put emphasis not only on technological training at university level but on technical colleges and technical schools, industrial training, sandwich courses, correspondence courses and adult education. Another example the developing countries-can learn from i s the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union, finding herself confronted with programs for industrial ization - electrification, mechanization, automation and replacing of manual labour by technology, reached a decision that education should be aimed at the advancement of science and technology. Because of this, the rational - technical feature has become one of the prominent aspects of Soviet education. Stress on the acquisition of technical and sci e n t i f i c s k i l l has become dominant i n a l l fields and on a l l levels of the education system. The Sovet Union, also demon-strated that occupational inclinations of students can be changed. What i s needed i s to make the public aware of the national problems and objectives. Another lesson the Soviet Union has to offer i s the importance of the role of women i n technical tasks. At Moscow Trade School No. 9, i t has been shown that i n classes for inspectors and draughtsmen, about two-thirds of the students were g i r l s . This factor i s of particular importance to Tanzania where female employment i n technical jobs, even secretarial jobs i s almost n i l . Technical training i s offered at different levels of education. The cost of training i n 124. the Soviet Union i s covered by the government, an important aspect i n a Tanzanian society i n which only very few people can afford to pay for their education. The Soviet Union, l i k e Britain offers supplementary education through evening schools, adult education and industrial training. In the United States, there i s a system i n which there i s co-ordination between schools providing basic general education and those giving technical instruction. This sytem provides complete equality of importance and frequent opportunities for interchange between one kind of school and another at d i f -ferent stages of the student's development. This would help to remove they bias that exists between technical jobs and white-collar jobs which exists i n Tanzania. The movement of Junior Colleges i n the United States which em-phasizes technical training i s a clear indication of the national realization of the importance of technicians i n any society. In Canada, the counterpart of the Junior Colleges i s found i n different colleges i n accordance with the Provincial policies. In B r i t i s h Columbia there i s the B r i t i s h Columbia 1 Institute of Technology and the new concept of Regional Colleges. Turkey, India, Brazil, a l l have important lessons for the develop-ing countries including Tanzania. In Turkey, special classes devoted to manual activities have been introduced i n secondary schools. In rural d i s t r i c t s , village institutes have been set up to offer practical technical knowledge as well as general knowledge. The middle schools organize practical classes devoted to wood and metal work and commercial subjects for the benefit of those who are unable to continue their studies after the middle school age. 1 Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College for Vancouver Island (Vancouver: The University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966) 125. Role of Technicians i n the Development of Tanzania Increasing Agricultural Productivity. In order to increase agricultural productivity Tanzania aims at opening new lands. This i s one approach the Soviet Union has taken for increasing her agricultural productivity. This process involves the clearing of the land - removal of bushes, stumps, roots, rocks, which requires the use of machinery. The people involved i n these tasks therefore have to know how to work the machines, how to repair them when they break down. The farmers themselves, i f they are to farm large areas must use tractors, shovels, load carriers, bulldozers and so on for cultivating the s o i l , weeding and i n some cases, harvesting as well as processing as was seen to be the need i n the coffee growing areas of the country. A l l these machines w i l l require people with proper technical education i n order to operate them and maintain them. In the early stages of development i n the Soviet Union i t was found essential to have communla places where a l l the machinery used i n one area was kept and a team of technicians had to check them. As the number of technicians increased, this practice was abandoned. For these tasks therefore Tanzania w i l l need mechanics and operational technicians. S t i l l within this f i e l d of agriculture the country needs agricultural extension officers, s o i l analysts, and others. These w i l l help and advise the farmers, a high percentage of whom are i l l i t e r a t e and most important lack the knowledge of the basic essentials for increasing farm productivity. This includes means of s o i l improvement by use of f e r t i l i z e r s what types of crops and seeds to sow; when and how; what to do i n case of crop diseases; when to harvest crops such as cotton or coffee which can be 126. easily damaged by harvesting at a wrong time and need particular care i n preparing them for marketing. Drought i s one of the limiting factors for the extension of agricultural land i n Tanzania. I t i s the intention of Tanzania to establish i r r i g a t i o n schemes© The technical needs of i r r i g a t i o n schemes are discussed below under the heading of construction services. Dam building projects are also mentioned i n that section. Industrializati on In the industrial sector, Tanzania aims at diversifying the industries i n order to be able to process the raw materialsproduced i n the country instead of exporting them. The f i r s t thing that comes to mind as essential for indust-r i a l establishment i s power. In Tanzania the major source of power i s hydro. Since the potential areas for hydro power are not distributed evenly i n the country, this means the power w i l l have to be transmitted over long distances. In this aspect the countrywill need a large number of electriians to supervise the working capacities of the generating plants, power lines and i n the industries themselves. In addition to electricians, the country w i l l need engineers and mechanics and other technicians to supervise the working of machined and maintenance. In order to fight ignorance, there i s need for c i r -culation of newspapers and books. Printing i s therefore an important aspect i n the industry of Tanzania, so i s radio operation. This requires printers, mechanics, radio operators. In raining, the l i s t of types of technical jobs for which people are being trained by the Williamson Diamonds Mining Company atMwadui i n Tanzania i s very indicative of the needs of technicians i n this f i e l d . These range from bricklayers, miners, to electricians, typists and uriversity and graduate engineers. The country needs surveyors, s o i l , mineral analysists to discover where the minerals l i e , these have to be dug out, using a variety of machines 127 and they have to be processed by even more complicated machines. The people working on these tasks have to be fed and housed. A l l aspects of activity requiring technical competence. In the services sector, there are many fields i n which technical s k i l l w i l l be needed. To name a few of these projects, they are construction which includes road, dams and a l l i r r i g a t i o n schemes andhousing. Another f i e l d i n this section i s housing and the third i s office staff, that i s clerks, typists and stenographers and telephone operators. Transportation i s one of the key elements i n development with efficient means of transport, movement of farm products i s made easier at the same time, the people i n rural areas can obtain some of the goods which are available i n towns only. The same applies to movement of raw materials to industrial centres and the supplying to people i n rural areas of processed goods for consumption - mining. One of the problems Tanzania faces i n agriculture i s the inadequacy of r a i n f a l l . This limits the amount of land that can be cultivated. The country aims at irrigating some of the potentially productive areas of the country. With the long distances to be covered between the sources of water and the lands to be irrigated, there w i l l be need to use machinery i n digging the ir r i g a t i o n channel. Engineers, plumbers, joiners w i l l be needed to carry on these tasks. The same applies i n the construction of dams which the country needs. The construction of dams i s of special importance to Tanzania. The sources of protein foods i n the country are limited, but i f many dams are constructed, this w i l l provide breeding places forfish which i s an import-ant part of peoples 1 diet, and which i s available to a small percentage of the people. 128 Meeting the Need for Technicians i n Tanzania, I f Tanzania and other developing countries have to provide enough and qualified technicians who are needed i n industries, agriculture, government services, health programs and so on, the countries concerned must use a l l available means to meet the needs. But as was pointed out for Tanzania, which applies to many other new countries, the education systems i n operation were established by people who had different objectives. In order to provide the people needed to f u l f i l the present national objectives, the education system must be changed, that i s education aimed at providing "servicemen only41 should be established. Changes i n the education system should include, (a) changes i n the curriculum to provide subjects which prepare students for technical careers and everyday domestic a c t i v i t i e s . Subjects such as sciences, commerce, and crafts should be emphasized. At the same time the students must be made to under-stand the country's problems and objectives for development. (b) Counselling i n schools should be introduced and where possible personnel experts i n this f i e l d should be used. (a) System of incentives for promising students such as bursaries and scholarships should be adopted. (d) High recognition of technical careers should be shown through salary scales and status accorded to both teachers i n technical fields and technicians. The question of interest and satisfaction i n peoples' careers as technicians i s very important i f their efforts have to be of value to the country. A l l these opportunities to be offered to boys and g i r l s equally. 129 The formal channels through which technical training should be pro-vided were discussed i n the text. These include schools at a l l levels, tech-ni c a l colleges and university. Considering the inadequacy of these institutions, provisions should be made for capable students, through foreign aid programs, to attend technical courses outside their own country. Adult education should be made a national p r i o r i t y and not l e f t to the interested individuals. Adult training programs for everyday needs and for job purposes have been discussed i n chapter four. These include full-time, part-time and everning classes organized by community development centres. Through the community centres, booklets and magazines on different aspects of education and technical s k i l l improvement can be provided. Other supplementary methods for the people, of any age should include the formation of professional associations such as mechanical, e l e c t r i c a l or farmers associa-tions which would provide lectures, demonstrations and hold discussions on problems related to their f i e l d s . Activities involving technical aspects should be included i n clubs such as the boy scouts, g i r l guides, and national youth league programs. These organizations should organize tours of industries, dam building projects, ir r i g a t i o n schemes and different kinds of farms. These organizations should also arrange programs where groups can v i s i t farmers and help with farm work as i s done through self-help schemes. More use of the radio for educational programs should be made as the very important media of mobile movie units to carry the message to remote villages. In order to carry a l l these educational and training programs, industries, labour unions co-operatives and other organizations and institutions have an important role to play. 139. A Plan for Implementing Manpower Plans In the preceding chapters, great emphasis was put on the overwhelming importance of developing understanding of national objectives among the public. This applies also to the small groups of people engaged i n manpower and educational planning inaEjy country. I t i s indeed important that the industries, labour unions, co-operatives and different ministries each of which carry on manpower training programs understand and develop a common way of thinking about problems they are dealing with. But for the purposes of carrying out the ideal of manpower planning for development, this set up i s not adequate. I t i s essential to have one body which w i l l be responsible for manpower planning for the whole conntry. Manpower planning for development as specified i n chapter One entails the identification of the most important types of manpower needed to develop the country and then devoting the country's energies towards the f u l -filment of this goal, even at the expense of the other needs of the country. In order to accomplish this, there i s the need to have one administrative body to see that these plans are followed. I f the whole task i s l e f t to the many institutions, industries and organizations, there i s no way to ensure that these people w i l l direct their efforts towards these objectives at the expense of their own interests therefore co-ordination and control of their activities by one central body i s essential for effective implementation. Experiences from other countries show how important the role of a central administrative body i s . In the United States, i t was found that the State Employment Services were not effective manpower administrative bodies because of the inter-state freedom of movement by people i n search of employment. I t was therefore decided to set up the Federal-State Employment 131. Service. (The duties of the Employment Service are not merely the placement of people into jobs as the name may suggest. A l l aspects of manpower planning are carried on by the Employment Service). The United States now has a national organization dealing with manpower planning. This i s the United States Office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research. Infflunope a number of countries converted communal or state services into national employment services after World War I I . A l l European countries except Denmark, It a l y and Switzerland now have nationwide employment services with their staffs a l l employees of the national agency. This promotes unity and co-ordination i n manpower policies and operations. The policies of allocating manpower planning to the Ministry of Labour or the Ministry of Internal Affairs as i s practiced i n some countries, s t i l l leaves manpower decision at the mercy and favours of one interested body and so jeopardizing national interests and objectives. In the Soviet Union, important educational policy decisions are reached not by individual educational establishments, but by a central body of the central governmental structure. Individual educational establishments or groups of f a c i l i t i e s joined under certai branches of the educational administration have only limited autonomy, i n day to day operational decisions. Such decisions are merely tools i n the implementa-tion of a certain aspect of manpower policy, and the overall effort remains centrally coordinated and centrally supervised. In the same manner manpower planning i n the developing countries, Tanzania as well, i s too important to be l e f t at the mercy of petty administrative r i v a l r i e s , personal whims, biases and intellectual confusion. What i s needed therefore i s a central manpower planning body to coordinate and direct the activities of a l l other manpower planning units. 132 The operations of the national manpower planning body would involve the identification of the types of skills needed for development, the actual and prospective effects of technological change on occupations and training, the educational and training qualifications for different s k i l l s , and inventories of workers who possess particular s k i l l s i n an area. After arriving at the type of s k i l l s needed and how they can be obtained, then the other institutions concerned with manpower programming would be instructed as to what kinds of s k i l l s to offer to their trainees. For effective implemenation the body would have to control the important channels of training - colleges, university training scholarships offered by different institutions such as industries and churches. Only through these measures can a country hope to achieve man-power needs for development objectives. Without proper manpower planning, the development plans are l i k e l y to f a i l . BIBLIOGRAPHY 133. BOOKS Anderson, C, Arnold and Mary Jean Bowman, (Ed.) Education and Economic  Development. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965. Bergson, Abrahm, The Economics of Soviet Planning. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1964. Bright, James R., Research, Development and Technological Innovation. Homewood: Richard D. Irwin Inc., 1964. Carter, C.F. and Williams B.R., Industry and Technical Progress. London: Oxford University Press, 1957. Colgrove, S.F., Technical Education and Social Change. London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd., 1958. Counts, George S., The Challenge of Soviet Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1957. Cowan, L. Gray, Education and Nation Building i n Africa. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965. Curie, Adam, Some Aspects of Educational Planning i n Underdeveloped Countries. Reprinted from Harvard Educational Review Vol. 32, No. 3, Summer 1962. Denison, Edward F., The Sources of Economic and the Alternatives Before Us. New York: Committee of Economic Development, 1962. De Witt, Nicholas, Soviet Professional Manpower, Washington, D.C. National Science Foundation, 1955. E l l i o t , J., The Technological Society. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1964. Fledderus, M.L. and M. Kleeck, Technology and Livelihood. New York: Russel Sage Foundation, 1944. Furtado, Celso, Development and Underdevelopment. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964. Galkin, K., The Training of Scientists i n the Soviet Union. Moscow: Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959. Ginzberg, E l i and Smith, Herbert A., Manpower Strategy for Developing  Countries: Lessons from Ethiopia. New York: Columbia Univer-si t y Press, 1967. 134. Grant, Nigel, Soviet Education. London: Cox and Wyman Ltd., 1964, Gross, B.M.,(Ed.)» Action Under Planning: The Guidance of Economic  Development^ Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967 Halsey, A.H., Floud, Jean and Anderson, C. Arnold, Education, Economy  and Society. New York: Free Press Glencoe, 1961. Hambidge, Gove, (Ed.), Dynamics of Development: An International Development Reader. New York: Frederick and Praeger, 1964, Harbison, Frederick and Myers, Charles A. Education, Manpower and Economic Growth . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964. _- , Manpower and Education. New York: McGraw-H i l l Book Company, 1965. Holmes, A., Problems i n Education. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1963: Hunter, Guy, Education for a Developing Region. New York: George Allen and Unwin, 1963. Hug, M.S., Education and Development Strategy i n South and South East  Asiau Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1965. Kamarck, Andrew M., The Economics of Development. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965. Kerber, August and Smith, Wilfred R., Education Issues i n a Changing  Society. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1962. Lester, Richard A., Manpower Planning i n a Free Society. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1966. MacLennan, A., Technical Teaching and Instruction. London: Oldbourne Book Co. Ltd. 1963. Mallows, E.W.H., Teaching a Technology. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press, 1965. Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College for Vancouver Island. Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966. Mclrvine, E. (Ed.), Dialogue on Technology. New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc., 1967. Meir, R.L., Developmental Planning. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 19651 Novack, David E., and Lekachman, (Ed.), Development and Society: The Dynamics of Economic Change. New York: St. Martirfe Press, 1964. 135 Osipov, G.V. (Ed.), Industry and Labour i n the U.S.S.R. London: Tavistock Publications, 1966. Phelps, EdmundS., (Ed.), The Goal of Economic Growth: Problems of the Modern Economy. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 19oZ Phelps-Stockes, Report on Education i n Africa, Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1962. Rao, V.K.R.V., Essays i n Economic Development. London: Asia Publishing House, 1964. Robinson, E.A.G., and Vaizey, J.E., The Economics of Education. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1966. Smith, Hadley E., Readings on Economic Development and Administration  i n Tanzania. London: Oxford University Press, 1966. Venables, P.F.R., technical Education. London: A. B e l l & Sons, Ltd., 1956. Venables, P.F.R., Sandwich courses for Training Technologists and  Technicians. London: Max Parrish and Co. Ltd., 1959. Venables, P.F.R. and Williams, The Smaller Firm and Technical Education. London: William Clowes and Sons Ltd., 1961. Williams, G., Recruiting to Sk i l l e d Trades. New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1957. Wilson, Thomas, Planning and Growth. London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd., 1964. Yeung, J.T., Technicians. Today and Tomorrow. London: S i r Isaac Pitman and Sons Ltd., 1965. Zaleski, Eugene, Planning Reforms i n the Soviet Union. 1962-1966. Chapel H i l l : The University of North Carolina Press, 1967. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS Joint Economic Committee Congress of the United States, Dimensions of Soviet Economic Power. Eighty-seventh Congress, Second Session. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1962. Shapovalenko, S.G., (Ed.) Polytechnical Education i n the U.S.S.R. Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, ED.62/X VI.3/A, Paris, 1963. United Nations Educational, Scient i f i c and Cultural Organization, Education i n a Technological Society, SS59/V. 2.a/A 1952 Paris, 1952. 136 United Nations - Science and Technology for Development, Volume 5- People and Living. New York: 1963. United States Education Association, Manpower and Education. Washington, D.C., June, 1956. United States National Manpower Council, Manpower Policies for a Demo- cratic" Society, Columbia University Press, 1965. JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS Bowman, Mary Jean, "The Human Investment Revolution i n Economic Thought", Sociology of Education, Vol. 39, No. 2 (Spring 1966) iii-137. Brazziel, William F., "Effects of General Education i n Manpower Programs", The Journal of Human Resources, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Summer 1966) 39-44. Dreeben, Robert, "Contribution of Schooling to the Learning of Norms", Harvard Educational Review, Vol. 37, No. 2(1967) 211-237. Eliufoo, S.N., "Education for Service-men only: Tanzania Government Policy for Higher Education". A statement delivered i n the form of an address by Hon. S.N. Eliufoo, M.P., to the conference on the University of East Africa, taking place i n Nairobi from October 23 to October 26, 1967, East Africa  Journal, Vol. IV, No. 8 (December 1967), 23-24. H i l l , F.F., Education The Need for Constructive Ideas: Problems and Prospects i n Developing Countries", International Development Review, Vol. 4, No. 4 (December 1962) 4 - 12. Klingelhofer, E.» "Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School Pupils", The Journal of Social Psychology, Vol. 72 (Second half, August 1967), 149-159. Langden, J., "U.S.S.R. Craft and Technical Training", Technical Education  and Indsutrial Training, Vol. 4, No. 6 (June, 1962) 12-13. Newmann, F.M. and D.W. Oliver, "Education and Community" Harvard  Educational Review, Vol. 37, No. 1 (1967) 17-22. Nyerere, J.K., "Education for Self-Reliance". Africa Report, Vol. 12, No. 6 (June, 1967) 73-79. Pantyeleymon, D., "Education Techniques and Problems of Programmed Instruction" International Review of Education, Vol. 13, No. 1 (1967), 26-30. 137 Resnick, Idrian N., "Manpower Development i n Tanzania", The Journal of Modem African Studies, Vol. 5, Mo. 1 (May 1967). 107-123. Schultz, Theodore W., "Investment i n Human Capital", The American Economic Review, Vol. 51, No. 1 (March 1961) 365-371. Waines, W.J., "The Role of Education i n Development of Underdeveloped Countries" - Presidential Address delivered at Quebec, June 7. 1963. at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science Association, The Canadian Journal of Economics and  P o l i t i c a l Science, Vol. 29, No. 4 (November 1963), 437-445. Weisbrod, Burton A., "Investing i n Human Capital", Journal of Human  Resources, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Summer 1966), 5-21. Welch, Finis, "Measurement of the Quality of Schooling1.', American  Economic Review, Vol. 2 (May 1966), 379-385. Wi l l i s , Jackson, S i r , "Priorities i n Technical Education". Technical  Education and Industrial Training, Vol. 6, No. 10 (October 1964) 485-487. UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL McGairl, J.L. Manpower Training Programs of Williamson Diamonds Company, Annual Report, 1966. NEWSPAPERS The Standard (Dar es Salaam), December 2, 1967, p . l A P P E N D I X . I' C f / A C T 2 COMPOSITE INDEX OF HUMAN RESOURCE J>EV£LOPMErtT AND GNP PER CAPITA (US ..DOLLARS) 50 20 .0 ill ¥ > I A # •SOUTH KOREA .IRAN' GREECC COSTA RICA' SPAIN* iOUTH AFRICA ^ ,g ev*rTA-|CA-1 ' -MALAYA gRAZJL-TUN . J_ i_ f "DOMINICAN REPUBLIC BOLIVIA •GUATEMALA INDONESIA ENSZUEXA y P/e ipc \ IK aid AN 0 ; A N >A> y / NK A •HAM 1 , / ^ ~ > <EW ,LAER A / • CO r i NCO / TANGANYIKA SAl AR / •*— s UJA' —Af^ HANlST* P J U Y A C A I Aur\ -1 / •^ THIOPIA \ zoo 100 200 300 400 500 • 600 TOO 6NP PER CAPITA (US. bOLLARS) 600 900 1000 «0O f+OO Showing the relationship between manpower and GNP per capita: the higher the NGP, the higher the index of human resource development. Adapted from: Harbison, Frederick and Myers, Charles, Education, Manpower and Economic  Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964), p.43. " APPENDIX 2 EUROPEAN CIVIL SERVANTS IN AFRICA I1958-1960) Indicating African Manpower Shortages Country Number British East Africa 2,900 Gambia 100 Kenya 3,400 Nigeria 4,000 Malawi 800 Zambia 1,300 Sierra Leone 430 Somaliland 170 Tanganyika 2,800 Uganda 1,800 Zanzibar 140 Other 600 Sub-total 18,440 French Central African Republic 1,500 Chad 1,000 Congo 2,000 Dahomey 500 Gabon 500 Ivory Coast 3,000 Madagascar 1,000 Niger 3,000 Senegal-Soudan 6,500 Tunisia - Morocco 1,000 Upper Volta 2,000 Sub-total 22,000 Belgian Congo 11,000 Ruanda-Urundi 1,000 Sub-total 12,000 Portuguese Mozambique 12,000 Total British, French, Belgian Portuguese 64,440 Others 35,560 TOTAL 100,000 Appendix 2 (continued) 139A Total estimate for Africa does not include South African, Ghanaian, Egyptian, Ethiopian, American or U.N. personnel. This estimate covers only c i v i l servants working for African Governments under the forms of agreement of co-operation or through colonial administration. Source: Moran, B., Handbook of African Economic Development (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. 1962), p.61 140. APPENDIX 3 HIGHER MANPOWER - REQUIREMENTS AND SUPPLY IN EAST AFRICA 1961-1966 1966-1971 Lower R Higher R Supply Lower R Higher R Supply KENYA Cat I 6,650 6,550 2,500 Cat II 16,800 20,700 11,000 4,400 7,700 5,000 17,000 32,300 21,000 Total 22,450 27,250 13,500 21,400 40,000 26,000 UGANDA Cat I 2,430 2,850 700 Cat II 6,180 7,800 5,850 2,000 3,500 1,500 6,900 13,100 8,500 Total 8,610 10,650 6,550 8,900 16,600 10,000 TANZANIA Cat I 2,500 2,950 1,650 Cat II 7,500 9,350 8,200 2,160 3,780 2,000 8,250 15,670 12,000 Total 10,000 12,300 9^,850 10,410 19,450 14,000 Source: Hunter, Guy Education for a Developing Region (New York George Allen and Unwin 1963), p. 64. Cat I - The highest level - professional men of graduate or equivalent level, senior administrators, senior managers i n industry and commerce. Cat II - Next layer - technicians and sub-professional grades (for example, the second echelon i n agricultural extension work) executive grades i n the C i v i l Service middle management i n industry and commerce, teachers with secondary education but without a university education. Lower R - Lower requirements Higher R - Higher requirements APPENDIX 4 Chart 3» Technological Advances Affecting Man's L i f e and for which he must prepare himself to cope with. G R O W I N G M E C H A N I Z A T I O N O F I N T E L L E C T U A L P R O C E S S E S Areas of Advance Some Typical Means Some Results D i r e c t i o n o f l o n g , i n t r i c a t e m a c h i n e r y a c t i o n s Information processing Problem solving F e e d b a c k c o n t r o l o f process e q u i p m e n t P u n c h c d - c a r d c o n t r o l o f b u l k - m a t e r i a l s b a t c h i n g N u m e r i c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d m a -c h i n e t o o l s P u n c h c d - r a p c c o n t r o l o f t y p e w r i t e r s a n d so o n C o m p u t e r s a n d bus iness m a c h i n e r y to a c q u i r e , s o r t , m a n i p u l a t e , i n t e r -p r e t , s t o r e , a n d d i s p l a y se lected d a t a M e c h a n i c a l r e p r o d u c t i o n o f se lec ted d a t a , f o r m s , c h e c k s , a n d so o n C o m p u t e r s o l u t i o n s o f c o m -plex s c i e n t i f i c , e n g i n e e r -i n g , a n d business c a l c u l a -t i o n s C o m p u t e r s i m u l a t i o n o f . business a n d m i l i t a r y p r o b l e m s O p e r a t i o n s r e s e a r c h p r o b - , l e m a n a l y s i s b y c o m p u t -ers I n c r e a s e d a c c u r a c y , r e d u c e d setup t i m e , i m p r o v e d u n i -f o r m i t y , r e d u c t i o n i n o p e r -a t o r t r a i n i n g , need for p r o -g r a m m e r s I n c r e a s e i n e q u i p m e n t u t i l i -z a t i o n I n c r e a s e d c o s t p e r u n i t o f e q u i p m e n t R e d u c t i o n o f c l e r i c a l l a b o r Increased speed i n p r e p a r i n g papers o f a l l t y p e s I m p r o v e d a c c u r a c y S p e e d i n s u m m a r i z i n g b u s i -ness c o n d i t i o n s B e t t e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r m a n -a g e m e n t F a s t e r response t o m a n a g e -m e n t d e c i s i o n s S o l u t i o n o f p r o b l e m s o t h e r -w i s e u n f e a s i b l e E x p l o r a t i o n o f c o m p l e x p r o b -lems D e c i s i o n - m a k i n g a s s i s t a n c e o n m a j o r business a n d m i l i -t a r y p o l i c i e s a n d strateg ies A b i l i t y to test effect o f t e n t a -t i v e s o l u t i o n s t o p r o b l e m s APPENDIX 4, Chart 3 (continued) I N C R E A S E D A B I L I T Y T O A L T E R T H E C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F M A T E R I A L S Areas of Advance Some Typical Means Some Results N e w propert ies f o r o l d m a -terials S y n t h e t i c m a t e r i a l s C o m b i n a t i o n s o f m a t e r i a l s t o p r o v i d e u n i q u e c h a r a c -terist ics C h e m i c a l a n d m e t a l l u r g i c a l k n o w l e d g e a p p l i e d t o a l -ter p r o p e r t i e s o f m a -t e r i a l s B e t t e r c o n t r o l o f p u r i t y , a d -d i t i v e s , and processes N e w p r o d u c t i o n processes T y p i c a l e x a m p l e s : a l u -m i n u m e n g i n e b l o c k s , p a -per and p l a s t i c r e p l a c e -m e n t o f . t e x t i l e c l o t h S y n t h e t i c f ibers, r u b b e r , o i l , and food F i b c r g l a s , p r c s t r c s s c d c o n -c r e t e , c e r a m i c - m e t a l l i c c o m p o u n d s , l a m i n a t e d w o o d b e a m s , a n d panels o f a l u m i n u m - p l a s t i c h o n e y c o m b c o n s t r u c t i o n I m p r o v e m e n t o f p r o p e r t i e s s u c h as s t r e n g t h ; w e i g h t , heat r e s i s t a n c e , a n d c o r -r o s i o n r e s i s t a n c e E n d users r e q u i r e d i f f e r e n t p r o d u c t i o n processes a n d w o r k - f o r c e s k i l l s N e w p r o d u c t d e s i g n o p p o r -t u n i t i e s L o w e r c o s t f o r m a n y m a -t e r i a l s a n d / o c e n d p r o d -ucts N e w a n d s p e c i a l i z e d p r o -d u c t i o n f a c i l i t i e s f o r p r o -d u c e r a n d f a b r i c a t o r H i g h l y s e l e c t i v e m a t e r i a l s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s I N C R E A S E D T R A N S P O R T A T I O N C A P A B I L I T Y Areas of Advance Sonic Typical Means Some Results M a s t e r y o f g r e a t e r d i s t a n c e s i n less t i m e a n d / o r c o s t M o v e m e n t a n d o p e r a t i o n s i n n e w m e d i u m s : J . S p a c e 2. U n d c r s e a s 3 . A r c t i c areas J e t t r a n s p o r t s , h e l i c o p t e r s , g r o u n d effects m a -c h i n e s " P i g g y - b a c k " r a i l t r a n s -p o r t , c o n t a i n e r ships a n d t r a i n s P i p e l i n e s S u p e r t a n k e r s , h y d r o f o i l boats P a s s e n g e r ' c o n v e y o r s M i s s i l e s a n d r o c k e t s A e r o s p a c e v e h i c l e s S u b m a r i n e s , b a t h y s c a p e s , a n d aqua lungs A r c t i c h o u s i n g , u t i l i t i e s , t r a c k l e s s t ra ins L i f e s u p p o r t s y s t e m s i n space, the A r c t i c , ^ a n d u n d e r w a t e r W o r l d - w i d e c o m m e r c i a l a n d p l e a s u r e t r a v e l o f u p to t h r e e t h o u s a n d m i l e s in e ight h o u r s O v e r n i g h t f r e i g h t s e r v i c e n a -t i o n a l l y a n d to m o s t i n t e r n a t i o n a l c e n t e r s S p e c i a l i z e d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s f o r h i g h - v o l -u m e i t e m s o r d e n s e . traff ic pat terns S p e c i a l i z e d h a n d l i n g d e v i c e s l i n k e d to these t r a n s -p o r t s y s t e m s W a r f a r e i n n e w m e d i u m s , w i t h assoc ia ted at-t a c k , defense , s u r v e i l -l a n c e , a n d c o m m u n i -c a t i o n s d e v i c e s D e v e l o p m e n t o f n e w s u p p o r t d e v i c e s A c q u i s i t i o n o f s c i e n t i f i c k n o w l e d g e B e g i n n i n g s o f n e w c o m m e r -c i a l o p e r a t i o n s (e .g . , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s a t e l -l i t e s , w e a t h e r s t a -t i o n s ) APPENDIX 4, Chart 3 (continued) 143. G R O W I N G M E C H A N I Z A T I O N O K P H Y S I C A L A C T I V I T I E S Areas-of Advance Sotue Typical Means Sn/ne Results P r o d u c t i o n : P o w e r h a n d t o o l s , n u m e r i - L a r g e r m a c h i n e c o n t e n t a n d D i r e c t l a b o r t a s k s c a l l y c o n t r o l l e d i n v e s t m e n t W o r k f e e d i n g tools C h a n g e in w o r k - f o r c e s k i l l s M a t e r i a l s h a n d l i n g V i b r a t o r y feeders ( u s u a l l y ) A s s e m b l y L i f t t r u c k s , c r a n e s , c o n - R e d u c t i o n in l a b o r per u n i t T e s t i n g a n d i n s p e c t i o n v e y o r s o f o u t p u t P a c k a g i n g A s s e m b l y m a c h i n e s I n c r e a s e d m a i n t e n a n c e ( u s u -E l e c t r o n i c , e l e c t r i c a l , p n e u - a l l y ) m a t i c , a n d o t h e r i n - G r e a t e r c a p a c i t y ' s p e c t i o n d e v i c e s L e s s f l e x i b i l i t y ( u s u a l l y ) A u t o m a t i c p a c k a g i n g m a - E a s t e r response to d e m a n d s c h i n e r y o n p r o d u c t i o n sys-t e m D i s t r i b u t i o n : L i f t t r u c k s , c r a n e s , c o n - B e t t e r c u s t o m e r s e r v i c e S h i p p i n g a n d r e c e i v i n g v e y o r s , a u t o m a t i c I m p r o v e d q u a l i t y W a r e h o u s i n g pa.Hcti/.crs, a u t o - L e s s s c r a p and w a s t e C a r r i e r l o a d i n g m a t e d m a r c r i a l L e s s i n v e n t o r y a n d w o r k i n m o v e m e n t and c o n - process t r o l s y s t e m s based o n c o n v e y o r s and re-t r i e v e r s ) P n e u m a t i c b u l k l o a d i n g C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and c o n t r o l : A i r - r u b e c a r r i e r s , f a c s i m i l e M o v e m e n t o f p a p e r s , b l u e - t r a n s m i t t e r s , w i r e d p r i n t s , m a i l T V , v e r t i c a l se lec-R e c o r d i n g a n d a s s e m b l y o f t i v e c o n v e y o r s , t w o -d a t a w a y r a d i o , d i c t a t i n g a n d t r a n s c r i b i n g e q u i p m e n t , t e l e t y p e -w r i t e r s a n d t c l c -s c r i b c r s E x t r a c t i v e i n d u s t r i e s a n d c o n - H e a v y - d u t y . c r o s s - c o u n t r y s t r u c t i o n : c o n v e y o r s , o n c - h u n -E a r t h m o v i n g d r e d - t o n p o w e r M i n i n g ' s h o v e l s , spread o f L u m b e r i n g s p e c i a l p u r p o s e A g r i c u l t u r e v e h i c l e s such as t r a c -t o r s h o v e l s , l o a d c a r -r i e r s , s t r a d d l e c a r r i e r s , b u l l d o z e r s , a n d so o n o APPENDIX 5. Chart 4 Soviet Union Education Compared to United States. Source: De Witt, Nicholas, Soviet Professional Manpower, Washington, D.C., National Science Foundation, 1955» pp06-7 APPENDIX ^ ELEMENTS OF AN ASSESSMENT OF MANPOWER RESOURCES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Population characteristics (A) Age (B) Sex (C) Education (D) Health (E) Geographical distribution Labour force characteristics: (A) Composition by (1) Size, (2) Sex, (3) Age (B) Industrial distribution by (1) Agriculture, by major types; (2) Non-agricultural a c t i v i t i e s , by major types; (3) Region or state. (C) Occupation s k i l l s , principally (1) Technological manpower (scientists and engineers); (2) Teachers at a l l levels; (3) Health personnel; (4) Administrative personnel (government); (5) Execu-tives, managers, and technical support personnel (industry, private and public); (6) Agricultural personnel (highly trained); (7) Social scientists (highly trained); (8) Craftsmen and skilled industrial workers. (D) Quality and motivation: (1) Aptitudes as demonstrated in existing industrial enterprises; (2) Social and geographical mobility; (3) Motivation toward change and economic improvement; (4) Literacy and educational achievement pattern. Employment and unemployment: (A) Trend i n employment by major ac t i v i t i e s ; Appendix 6 ( c ont»d) 1 (B) Manpower shortages, i f any; (C) Unemployment and underemployment: (1) Agriculture; (2) Non-agricultural a c t i v i t i e s ; (3) By special classes of personnel or by geographical areas. Growth factors at work in the economy: (A) Programmed expansion goals for planned economic growth (1) By industry (including agriculture), (2) By time table. (B) Current and prospective trend in "unplanned" economic growth from (1) Domestic, private capital investment; (2) Foreign capital investment. (C) Major basic resource assets and limitations. Trained manpower producing institutions: (A) Educational system: (1) Elementary and secondary; (2) Vocational and technical; (3) College and post-graduate; (4) Estimates of quality at each level; (5) Numbers and distribution of students; (6) Foreign training by numbers, fields, and country; (7) Employ-ment experience and expectations of products of each level of education. (B) Government, industry, and professional associations: (1) In-service training and development of government administrative and technical personnel; (2) In-service training and development of executive, managerial, and technical personnel in industry; (3) Efficiency of systems of recruiting, training, and u t i l i z i n g trained personnel - government and industry; (4) Effectiveness of collateral institutions, such as management associations and professional societies. > Organization, objectives, and activities of the labor movement: (A) Major units, numbers and orientation; Appendix 6 (cont'd) : 1*7 \ (B) Activities conducted by each in fields of union organiztion,, worker education, and development of responsible unions; (C) Management attitudes toward labor organizations and collective bargaining; (D) Industrial relations experience in major sectors of economy and outlook for future. (VII) Organization of government for manpower planning and administration: (A) Basic governmental organization for planning and conducting econo-mic development; (B) Awareness of the manpower problem and sense of urgency in solving i t ; . (C) Extent and kinds of arrangements for building manpower plans into economic development programs; (D) Extent and kinds of organizations to conduct manpower resources-requirements studies and to help manage manpower resources; (E) Extent and quality of co-operating nongovernmental and quasi-governmental organizations available to contribute to manpower planning. (VIII) Evaluation of manpower resources and requirements for anticipated economic growth by (A) Present adequacy of resources; (B) Estimated requirements by time periods; (C) Resources and f a c i l i t i e s for meeting requirements within lead time available; (D) Measures required to meet requirements and to adjust imbalances in resources and requirements. (IX) Inter-country comparisons: (A) Comparison of basic resources characteristics of countries in Appendix & (cont'd) regional grouping by s o i l , water, climate, minerals, power, trans-portation, industry, agriculture, and manpower; (B) Comparison of attitudes toward and explicitness of plans for economic development; (C) Construction of a "comparison grid" to show basic similarities . and differences; (D) Identification of human resource (or other) development programs in which regional co-operation is practical and mutually advan-tageous. APPENDIX 1 MANPOWER PLANNING TECHNIQUES * Much has already been said about the importance of adequate man-power planning in the developing countries. But a development plan is a work of f i c t i o n i f the planners do not provide for the executive capacity needed to implement the plan. The most crucial step in development planning is therefore long range projection of the manpower requirements of every sector of the economy and the accompanying internal and external training f a c i l i t i e s to ensure that the manpower demands are going to be satisfied. Ratio Analysis: Isolation of the Dependent Variable To forecast manpower in any sector one must isolate an accurate measure of activity in the sector and then determine the relationship between the level of activity i n the sector and the personnel of various grades and s k i l l s required to maintain that activity. The independent variable i s there-fore the level of activity and the dependent variable is the number of persons required. The relationship between these two variables is usually expressed as a manpower ratio, that i s , the amount of activity of a given kind that can be handled by a single man of given qualifications. Mathematically this is expressed as, Ratio = r = unit of activity man It may take several persons of different s k i l l s to maintain one unit of activity in a given sector. Thus, for each independent variable, there may be a number of manpower ratios. For example one design engineer may be able to handle £100,000 worth of new road design each year. He may need, however, two tech-nicians, four draftsmen and one surveyor to execute his duties. The manpower ratios of new road design would, therefore, be £100,000 : 1, £50,000 : 1, £25,000 : 1 and £100,000 : 1 for engineers, technicians, draftsmen and surveyors respectively. Appendix 1C (continued) In general two types of independent variables w i l l be found in man-power planning. These are: (a) Economic Variables. In certain sectors for example, public works and construction - expenditure is an accurate measure of activity. One would therefore find the amount of expenditure of a given type that a single man of given qualifications can handle, and express this as a manpower ratio (£/man). Once expenditure (the independent variable) i s projected over a number of years, i t is easy to divide expenditure by the manpower ratio to find a number of people of a given grade needed. (b) Social Variables. In other sectors of the economy, there is no clear cut relationship between level of activity, productivity and the man-power required. For example, there is no correct ratio of agricultural extension agents to the farm population, and one is forced to set qualitative "target" ratios. In this case, the independent variable is farm population. The number of extension workers would be determined by projecting the number of farmers and applying the target ratio of extension workers to farmers to find the number of extension workers needed in a given year. Similar examples are found in the f i e l d of community development, health and education. The following chart shows the economic and social variables that might be used in making manpower projections in various sections of the economy. Appendix 1.) ( continued) Chart 5. CHART SHOWING SECTORAL ACTIVITY VARIABLES • Sector Economic Variable Social Variable 1.(a) Construction (capital) Expenditure man (b) Construction current ii _ 2. Agriculture (a) Extension Work (b) Crops or Plantation men acre Extension Workers farm family (c) Livestock or Poultry man 100 head 3. Education Student Teacher 4. Health j men Unit Population 5. Industry Expenditure man Unit Production man 6. Trade & Commerce Unit Volume man Expenditure man Appendix 70 (continued) 151. 1 The Q-B-C-DL Technique of Manpower Planning The O-B-C-DL formula was developed for local application in Venezuela. It provides a simple analysis of the organization of human motiva-tions for discovering reasons for human reactions i n any given situation. It provides for an automatic non-antagonistic personnel selection process, the means which permit a group of individuals to organize the idle mental resources of the participants, and a means by which continuity can be established through institutionalization. In brief the technique involves the following variables: Orientation (0)'; Benefits to be derived (B); Co-operation necessary (C); and Division of Labour (DL). The following is an example il l u s t r a t i n g how this technique was applied in Venezuela. 0 - Several employers had asked the local power company to supply electricians to i n s t a l l machines and repair motors, but no trained personnel were available. So the Manager, because of the demand from eployers, decided to train his people as elec-tricians. B - Employers were asked to co-operate. Employees were recruited as students with offers of better paying jobs. Employers were so impressed that they offered to finance the training costs. C - Instructors, course-organizers, administrative help, classroom space and o f f i c i a l recognition of the courses, were obtained from co-operating employers and local education organizations. If International Development Review, The 0-B-C-DL Technique of Human Resource  Mobilization. Ekker, Charles, Volume VIII - Number 1, March 1966 pp. 19 - 22. Appendix ?. (cont'd) DL - Instructors selected the date, time and content of the courses. Employers sent their personnel to be trained. Employers' repres-entatives handed out the diplomas and raised trainees' wages at least thirty-five per cent after six months. Resources mobilized amounted to $10,000 arid the specialists mobilization ratio was 4000 : 1, financial mobilization ratio for the specialist's work was $200 : 1. APPENDIX 8 , Chart b' •Showing Different Duties and  Qualifications of Technicians, I N D U S T R Y ' S V I E W O F T H E T E C H N I C I A N Some of the posts advertised between October 1961 and October 1963for "Technicians'" Description of post Main business of employer Details of post (summary) Qualifications required* D e v e l o p m e n t t e c h n i c i a n F u r n a c e s E r e c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n test-i n g , a n d d i s m a n t l i n g p r o t o t y p e f u r n a c e s ; s e r v i c i n g E x p e r i e n c e , O . N . C . ( m e c h a n i c a l e n -g i n e e r i n g ) a n a d -v a n t a g e L a b o r a t o r y t e c h n i c i a n ( female) P e t r o l e u m H o s p i t a l I . M . L . T . i n b a c -t e r i o l o g y o r h a e -m a t o l o g y w i t h c o n -s i d e r a b l e e x p e r i e n c e T e c h n i c i a n s S t e e l S e q u e n c e t e s t i n g b o t h h e a v y a n d l i g h t c u r r e n t c o n t r o l systems, a n d p r o -t e c t i v e d e v i c e s ; t r a c i n g f a u l t s i n e l e c t r o n i c a p -p a r a t u s O . N . C . ( m i n i m u m ) b u t c o u l d h a v e e x p e r i e n c e o n l y Q u a l i t y c o n t r o l t e c h n i c i a n F o o d p r o d u c t s H . N . C . o r e q u i v a -l e n t ; e x p e r i e n c e i n stat ist ical q u a l i t y c o n t r o l a n a d v a n -tage A i r c r a f t t e c h n i c i a n A i r c r a f t P r e p a r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f r e q u i r e m e n t s for i t e m s o f e q u i p m e n t H . N . C . o r e q u i v a -l e n t p l u s e x p e r i e n c e D e v e l o p m e n t t e c h n i c i a n P h o t o g r a p h i c a p p a r a t u s a n d e q u i p m e n t D e v e l o p p r o d u c t i o n m e t h o d s a n d e q u i p m e n t G r a d u a t e i n p h y s i c s o r e n g i n e e r i n g ( e l e c t r o n i c s ) Q u a l i t y c o n t r o l t e c h n i c i a n / f o o d t e c h n o l o g i s t F o o d p r o d u c t s — H . N . C . ( c h e m i s t r y ) o r e q u i v a l e n t o r q u a l i f i e d i n f o o d t e c h n o l o g y S a l e s t e c h n i c i a n N o t g i v e n M u s t b e p r e p a r e d to t r a v e l S o m e e n g i n e e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e a n d p r e -f e r a b l y s o m e p r a c -t i c a l k n o w l e d g e o f p h y s i c s o r i n d u s t r i a l c h e m i s t r y S e n i o r t e c h n i c i a n F o o d p r o d u c t s Q u a l i t y c o n t r o l t e s t i n g o f a n o n - r o u t i n e n a t u r e Passes i n c h e m i s t r y a n d / o r p h y s i c s a t least a t G . C . E . ( O ) l e v e l ( p r e f e r a b l y A -level) . S o u n d m a t h e -m a t i c a l a b i l i t y * O . N . C . = O r d i n a r y N a t i o n a l C e r t i f i c a t e H . N . C . = H i g h e r N a t i o n a l C e r t i f i c a t e I . M . L . T . = I n s t i t u t e o f M e d i c a l L a b o r a t o r y T e c h n o l o g i s t s Source: Young, J.T., Technicians, Today and Tomorrow, (London: S i r Isaac pitman and Sons Ltd., I9S5), p.2c 


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