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Manpower planning : technical education for planning for regional deverlopment, the case examined for… Hiyobo, Lucia 1968

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MANPOWER PLANNING: TECHNICAL EDUCATION FOR PLANNING FOR REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT, THE CASE EXAMINED FOR TANZANIA  BY LUCIA HTYOBO B.A., (Geography) University of East A f r i c a , 1966.  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the School of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING  We accept t h i s thesis as conforming t o the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s  in p a r t i a l  f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements  f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r Study.  I further  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and  agree that p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e  c o p y i n g of  this  t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h.iis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n  Department of  i s understood t h a t  copying  t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d  permission.  Community and Regional Planning  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada Date  It  A p r i l 30. 1968.  Columbia  (i) ABSTRACT Tanzania i s one of those countries which c a r r i e s the l a b e l of "underdeveloped  or undeveloped".  The c e n t r a l theme of t h i s study i s t o  examine what Tanzania should do i n order t o get started on the road to development.  But before doing so, i t i s e s s e n t i a l to i l l u s t r a t e what  development means t o Tanzania.  Everybody i n the country knows that there are  three enemies t o be fought, poverty, disease and ignorance.  I n other words  the country needs high a g r i c u l t u r a l productivity; industries which w i l l lead to a high per capita income; provision of hospitals and health centres; b u i l d i n g more and b e t t e r houses f o r a healthy l i v i n g i n order t o conquer diseases and t h i r d l y , providing schools, colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s , community centres, transportation and other news media f o r c i r c u l a t i o n of knowledge and ideas i n order t o get r i d of ignorance. Economists have always regarded c a p i t a l natural resources as the basis of economic growth.  This i s a l l true but, among these, one element  takes p r i o r i t y over the others.  This i s labour, which i s termed i n t h i s  study as manpower. For development purposes, no matter how r i c h the country may be i n c a p i t a l and natural resources, i f they are not developed or mobilized they w i l l not be of any benefit t o the people.  One of the world's handicaps i s ,  up t o t h i s time i n i t s history, that man has been the sole agent i n mobilizing c a p i t a l and natural resources f o r development.  I n the f i n a l analysis then,  the development of a country depends on the a b i l i t y of her people t o put c a p i t a l and natural resources i n t o production.  On t h i s basis, manpower plan-  ning i s e s s e n t i a l f o r any country i n the process of developing.  However,  there i s need to specify the type of manpower that i s needed f o r developmental tasks.  I n t h i s case i t i s the q u a l i t y more than the quantity of manpower  (ii) that a country needs.  I t takes s k i l l e d men t o discover and exploit natural  resources, t o mobilize c a p i t a l t o develop technology, t o produce goods and to carry on trade.  I f a country i s unable t o develop i t s human resources i t  cannot b u i l d anything, whether i t be a modern p o l i t i c a l system, a sense of national unity or a prosperous economy.  The development of a country then i s  based upon i t s power t o develop and e f f e c t i v e l y u t i l i z e the innate capacities of i t s people.  The next question t o ask i s , how can t h i s be done?  There i s only one means of equipping people with the s k i l l s and that i s through education and t r a i n i n g . are a l l i n t e r - r e l a t e d .  This involves many elements but they  Education includes formal education at a l l l e v e l s .  I n addition, i t covers on-th-job t r a i n i n g , i n d i v i d u a l self-development correspondence  courses, informal as w e l l as formal adult education.  through  Basic  education equips people with the a b i l i t y t o read, write and count which i s e s s e n t i a l i n communication.  New ideas are being formulated and the people  should be able t o read and understand them.  They should be able t o write and  keep accounts, f o r example on farms, of the products of t h e i r farms.  Most  important, education t r a i n s people t o think and reason so that they can make the r i g h t decisions whether i t be on the farms, i n f a c t o r i e s or i n administration. While every aspect of education and t r a i n i n g i s e s s e n t i a l i n the developing countries, because of t h e i r poverty they cannot afford t o provide a l l at the same time so there i s need t o make s e l e c t i o n on what aspect of education t o put most emphasis  while not ignoring other aspects completely.  I t i s the hypothesis of t h i s thesis that t e c h n i c a l education should be given the emphasis i f a country desires t o develop.  F i r s t , most of these countries  are dependent on agriculture, 85 percent of Tanzanians l i v e d i r e c t l y o f f the land, therefore, a g r i c u l t u r a l production has t o be increased,  which can only  (iii) be done through the use of better implements such as shovels, load c a r r i e r s , straddle c a r r i e r s and bulldozers.  Increase i n a g r i c u l t u r a l production  includes use of f e r t i l i z e r s and improved seeds. important part of agriculture i n Tanzania.  Livestock keeping i s an  I n order to improve the q u a l i t y  of l i v e s t o c k , l i v e s t o c k feeds have to be processed, dams have to be to make water available f o r the animals.  also  constructed  Dipping and innoculation i s essent-  i a l to protect the animals against various diseases.  Second there i s need  to i n d u s t r i a l i z e so that the farm products can be processed within the country. A l l these tasks w i l l require t e c h n i c a l l y capable people. aspect of today's l i f e that has t o be borne i n mind i s that man i n a technological age which at the same time i s not s t a t i c . t h i s change, a country has t o provide technicians who  One  i s living  To cope with  are at the same time  educated to be able to adjust to the technological innovations as w e l l as the r e s u l t s that technological advancement brings.  For the purposes of develop-  ment other people also must understand t h i s need of technicians. The term "technician" i s a c o l l e c t i v e rather than an i n d i v i d u a l description.  I n engineering,  where perhaps greatest c l a r i t y has so f a r been  achieved, i t embraces a wide range of duties, l i n k i n g those of a s c i e n t i s t and technologist on the one hand and the operative on the other.  The  tech-  n i c i a n c a r r i e s out duties which demand a higher l e v e l of s c i e n t i f i c and techn i c a l knowledge than i s needed by the craftsman and operative, but a less comprehensive and more s p e c i a l i z e d understanding than that of the s c i e n t i s t and technologist.  I n t h i s study, however, "technician" w i l l include the  s c i e n t i s t s and technologists.  (iv) Technical engineers engage on some aspects of development and design, on the supervision of manufacture, erection and commissioning,  draft-  ing, inspection and testing, and on the operation, maintenance and r e p a i r of engineering plant and equipment.  These are duties which are s t e a d i l y extend-  ing i n range, and increasing i n complexity and importance with the impact of technological progress on the form and equipment and on the process i n volved i n the i n d u s t r i a l production. In t h i s t h e s i s , i t i s intended t o draw heavily on the experience of other countries, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Soviet Union, United States and B r i t a i n as w e l l as other countries from the developed and underdeveloped  world.  These  are taken as guidelines t o suggestions which w i l l be made as t o what Tanzania can do i n order t o provide the technicians which she needs.  I t i s considered  that i f Tanzania i s t o provide these technicians with the l i m i t e d f i n a n c i a l resources available, she w i l l have t o u t i l i z e a l l the means of providing the s k i l l s - formal t e c h n i c a l education i n secondary schools, technical colleges, u n i v e r s i t i e s ; one-the-job t r a i n i n g , as well as through correspondence  courses.  In order t o do t h i s , the government w i l l have t o encourage public as well as private industries and other establishments t o provide technical t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r employees. F i n a l l y t o implement the manpower plans, each country needs a c e n t r a l manpower planning body which w i l l d i r e c t and supervise the t r a i n i n g programs of a l l the organizations and m i n i s t r i e s .  I f these are l e f t  to train  people as they wish, the national manpower objectives of providing people f o r developmental purposes w i l l not be achieved and t h i s i s l i k e l y t o lead t o a f a i l u r e of the development plans.  v. TABLE OF CONTENTS page ABSTRACT  i  TABLE OF CONTENTS  v  LIST OF TABLES LIST OF MAPS AND CHARTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1  CHAPTER 2  IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT D e f i n i t i o n and Scope of Development The Concept of Planning and i t s Relevance to Manpower Planning f o r Development The Rule of Human Resources f o r Development Contribution of Education to Economic Growth Importance of Manpower quality, Education and S k i l l s Contribution of Education i n Increasing A g r i c u l t u r a l Production Educated Human Resources as an Investment Manpower Planning i n the United States Reasons f o r Manpower Planning i n the United States Manpower Planning i n A f r i c a Strategy f o r Manpower Planning  17 19 21  THE ROLE OF TECHNICIANS IN A CHANGING TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY  23  Technology, Education and the Culture of Man Education and Training f o r Technical Change D i s t i n c t i o n Between Technicians and Technologists The Role of Technicians i n Services - The Expanded Technician Concept f o r Modern Society Technological Opportunities f o r Development i n Tanzania. Goals and Programs f o r Development: agriculture, industry and education Natural Resources and Economic Growth - the Value of Resources  3 7 9 10 12 13.: 16  25 27 32 35  36 42  vi. CHAPTER 2 (continued)  Scope f o r Action i n the Developmental Process i n Tanzania: Scope f o r Water Development  44  The East A f r i c a n Economic Community and Manpower Needs of Tanzania  48  Estimating Manpower Needs i n Tanzania The Volta River Project as the case study  CHAPTER 3  50  Manpower Supply i n Tanzania  53  P r i n c i p a l Lines of Action i n Tanzanian Manpower Aspects of the Plan Training Technicians f o r Local Needs  56 60  MANPOWER PLANNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION  63  Soviet Economic Development Programs t o Stimulate Growth Factors Influencing Growth P r i c e s and Wages Soviet I n d u s t r i a l Labour productivity  65 66 66 67 68  Development of Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union 68 Electricity 70 Plant and Machinery 7 1 Technology 71 Mechanization 72 Natural Resources and Human Labour  73  The Growth of the Number of Women Workers  74  Education i n the Soviet Union  76  Soviet Education System  78  Polytechnical Education Concept i n the Soviet  78  Occupational I n c l i n a t i o n s i n the U.S.S.R.  80  Vocational School  83  Purpose and Form  84  Occupations covered  85  The Soviet Administrative Machinery f o r Development  86  Planning Absorbed i n t o the Economy  86  vii CHAPTER 4  TOWARDS THE PLANNING FOR TECHNICAL MANPOWER IN TANZANIA  89  Technical and Vocational Education i n Tanzania  89  Preparation and Recruitment of Candidates f o r Technical Education Reorganization of the Education System  90  Why the Education System Reorganized  92  The Technical College T r a d i t i o n i n B r i t a i n  CHAPTER 5  BIBLIOGRAPHY  90  96  Counterparts i n Europe  98  E s t a b l i s h i n g Technical S c h o l l s  99  U.S.S.R. Technical Teacher Training  101  Entry t o the Course  102  S p a c i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Colleges  103  Training Program by Williamson Diamond Company Educating the Adults Importance of Adult Education i n Development Programs f o r Adult Education The Costs of Manpower Development  105  CONCLUSION:  108 111 113  MEETING THE NEED FOR TECHNICIANS  AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MANPOWER PLANS  118  Application of manpower concept t o Tanzania  118  Importance of technicians: Lessons from abroad  122  Role of Technicians i n the development of Tanzania  125  Meeting the Need f o r Technicians i n Tanzania  128  A Plan f o r Implementing Manpower Plans  130 133  viii  APPENDICES APPENDIX 1  Composite Index of Human Resource Development and GNP per capita showing the relationship between GNP and per capita: the higher the GNP the higher the Index of human resources  138  APPENDIX 2  European C i v i l Servants i n A f r i c a  139  APPENDIX 3  Higher Manpower - Requirements and Supply i n East A f r i c a  140  APPENDIX 4  Indicators of Technological Progress  141  APPENDIX 5  Structure of the Soviet Educational System Compared with United States  144  APPENDIX 6  Elements of an Assessment of Manpower Resources and Requirements f o r Economic Development  145  APPENDIX 7  Manpower Planning Techniques  149  APPENDIX 8  Industry's view of the Technician  154  ix LEST OF TABLES TABLE 1  2  Page Estimated Value of Resources per Capita Necessary f o r a Country t o Reach Various Levels of Development  5  Training Programs of theB.C. I n s t i t u t e of Technology: and Applications i n Relation to Capacity  34  3  Crop Y i e l d s i n Relation t o Flood  49  4  Manpower Requirements Project  52  5  of the V o l t a River  Employment and Occupational coverage of the 1964 Survey  54  6  Secondary School Outputs Required  55  7  Output S h o r t f a l l i n Category "C"  55  8 9  Demand - Supply Outlook i n Category "A" Growth i n the Proportion of Women Among T o t a l I n d u s t r i a l Workers  57 75  10  Percentage of the T o t a l Number of Women I n d u s t r i a l Workers Engaged i n I n d i v i d u a l Branches  75  11  Occupations of the fathers and i n c l i n a t i o n of the children  81  12  Ranking of Selected Occupations  93  13  Occupational Preferences  . 94  14  Cost of High Level Manpower Production i n Tanzania  113  LIST OF MAPS  Tanzania: R e l i e f and P r i n c i p a l Rivers Tanzania: R a i n f a l l P r o b a b i l i t y and Population Tanzania: Cash crops, Mines, Reserved Areas and Tsetse  xi LIST OF CHARTS CHARTS 1  Diagram of Educational System f o r Africans  2  Composite Index of Human Resource Development and per capita  43  138  3  Indicators of Technological Progress  141  4  Structure of the Soviet Educational System compared with United States  144  5  Chart Showing S e c t o r a l Variables  151  6  D i f f e r e n t Duties and Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Technicians  154  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  Of the many i n d i v i d u a l s who have helped me during my study, my hearty thanks are extended to Dr. H.P.  Oberlander, Director of the  School of Community and Regional Planning at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia.  Through h i s patience, and generosity with his very scarce  resource time, he has been able t o read through my drafts and make i n dispensable c r i t i c i s m s , suggestions and corrections to my grammar. To Dr. Oberlander and the Canadian Government, External A i d O f f i c e i n Ottawa, I owe a debt of gratitude f o r t h e i r deep understanding, concern and involvement i n the manpower problems of the developing countries. Through t h e i r understanding, my study i n Canada has been made possible so that I may turn out to be a u s e f u l cog i n the developmental process of my country, Tanzania. I also wish t o o f f e r my thanks t o Mr. J.L. McCairl, Personnel Training O f f i c e r of Williamson Diamonds Mining Company, Mwadui, Tanzania f o r the valuable material he sent me regarding manpower t r a i n i n g programs of the Company. I wish t o thank Miss Barbara MacKenzie f o r her patience i n typing my drafts and f o r coming t o my rescue when i t seemed t h i s thesis would never be presented because of typing d i f f i c u l t i e s and typing the f i n a l copy as w e l l .  1, CHAPTER I IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF MANPOWER PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT Today the world i s undergoing a revolution and t h i s revolution i s embraced i n the one-word slogan, "development".  This development i s e v i -  dent through the multitude of development plans which are being prepared every day.  I t has been noted that i n the Asian countries, every country but one  has a development plan.  Among the A f r i c a n independent states, Burundi alone  had not formulated a development plan when the study was made.  The trend  has been the same i n L a t i n American countries. D e f i n i t i o n and Scope of Development I t i s not easy to define development because i t means d i f f e r e n t things i n d i f f e r e n t countries, depending on the l e v e l of development of the country i n question.  As Harbison stated, i n many countries development  meant i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  I n some i t symbolized the achievement of p o l i t i c a l ,  and economic.1 independence.  I n others, i t connoted opportunity f o r education,  the construction of a high dam, r u r a l land reform, the b u i l d i n g of skyscrapers, s t e e l m i l l s and t e l e v i s i o n networks or even the creation of a new nation's c a p i t a l i n wilderness.  Development could also mean movement from r u r a l t o  urban areas, and i t c e r t a i n l y included the achievement of instantaneous, world-wide communications and j e t airplane t r a v e l . The sociologists  and p o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s tended t o think of develop-  ment as the process of modernization, and they concentrated t h e i r analyses p r i m a r i l y on the building of s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Economists  tended t o equate i t with economic growth, and they were concerned f o r the most part with the accumulation of savings, investment, national income,  2. productivity and trade balances. requiring rapid innovation.  But, to everyone development meant change,  A country which f a i l e d to adopt and put to work  broad successions of new ideas would i n e v i t a b l y lag behind i n today's march of progress.  I n the end, successful development depended upon making society  1  change-conscious. I t i s noted that the countries of the world which are presently c l a s s i f i e d as "developed", that i s , those which are more advanced technologic a l l y , have undergone the process of development at a comparatively moderate pace, beginning with the I n d u s t r i a l Revolution of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries.  I n contrast t o past modes of communications and media network,  present improvements i n t h i s f i e l d allow the people of the developing nations to observe other nations which are i n a much more advanced state.  As a r e s u l t ,  the developing nations desire t o achieve the benefits of a modern economy with great speed.  I t i s t h i s acceleration of the pace of economic development  that creates additional problems. But the f a c t that the developing countries have taken planning as an important t o o l i n t h e i r developmental process does not mean that the developed nations do not plan t h e i r economies.  I n the United States, there  are many bodies each dealing with d i f f e r e n t sections of the nation?s economy. Amongst these are the U.S. O f f i c e of Manpower P o l i c y , Evaluation and  Research;  Council of Economic Advisers; O f f i c e of Emergency Planning; Bureau of the Budget; and more than t h i r t y boards, commissions and authorities including the Tennessee V a l l e y Authority which i s often referred to e s p e c i a l l y i n the f i e l d of regional planning.  I n Canada, the obvious n a t i o n a l examples are:  The  1 Harbison, Frederick, and Myers, Charles, Education, Manpower, and Economic Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964), pp.1-2  3. Economic Council of Canada; the Treasury Board, the C i v i l Service Commission and the Department of Manpower and Immigration.  Furthermore,  every ministry  and department i n the provinces carries on planning functions. I n B r i t i s h Columbia, to name j u s t a few bodies which carry planning functions, there are the Department of Finance, Department of Lands, Department of Health and Welfare, the B r i t i s h Columbia Federation of Agriculture, B r i t i s h Columbia Hydro and Power Authority, B r i t i s h Columbia Research Council and the Lower Mainland Planning Board.  I n some cases, s p e c i a l bodies are created to deal  with some important issues such as the Peace River Planning Commission. Usually, when development i s discussed, i t i s looked at i n such economic terms as the r a i s i n g of income per capita and c a p i t a l productivity because these aspects of development can be measured. However, development i n the paper i s conceived as including the s o c i a l as w e l l as the economic aspects f o r , as Heilbrouer stated, "... underdevelopment i s not so much a r e f l e c t i o n of nature as of human attitudes and i n s t i t u t i o n s . "  2  At the same time, what was said by Jewkes, although  twenty years ago, i s very relevant here.  He said,  The choice of the best type of economic organization should not turn wholly on material benefits a r i s i n g from i t . There are other relevant c r i t e r i a : the extent t o which the organization commands the moral support of those who work i n i t , the range of i n d i v i d u a l l i b e r t i e s i t makes practicable f o r i t s members. But the poverty of the world i s and always has been so appalling that i t would be i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y to ignore the crying need f o r a rapid increase i n productive power.  3 The Concept of Planning and i t s relevance to manpower Planning f o r Development. Looking at the importance planning has acquired i n national development a l l over the world one may think that t h i s i s the answer to a l l develop2 Heilbrouer, Robert L. The Great Ascent; The Struggle f o r Economic Development i n our Time. (New York: Harper Textbooks, Harper and Row 1963) p.36. 3  Jewkes, John, Ordeal by Planning, (London:McMillan & Co., 1948)  p.149.  4, mental problems.  But planning i s not a means to an end.  Planning i s just a  t o o l , but an important one, which i s used as a guide i n the developmental process.  According to the d e f i n i t i o n by Svennilson, planning was a concept  that applied to most human a c t i v i t i e s .  A f i r s t condition f o r planning was  that an i n d i v i d u a l (or a c o l l e c t i v i t y ) assumed that he had freedom to act i n d i f f e r e n t ways i n the future. I f he attempted t o coordinate h i s immediate steps of action, he became a planner.  A Plan could be defined as a conception of a sequence of  a c t i o n over a series of future periods.  The planner could choose between  4 d i f f e r e n t plans, and h i s choice would determine h i s f i r s t step of action. Planning could be f o r organization which Rao describes as . . . the entire system of techniques employed and p r i n c i p l e s used f o r putting the square peg i n the square hole and providing f o r a continuous movement of squarer pegs i n t o squarer holes.  5 This concept of choices and prerequisites which i s the basis of planning i s shown i n Table 1. following. Here i t i s shown that at d i f f e r e n t stages of development, d i f f e r e n t emphasis i s required on d i f f e r e n t types of resources.  As Matthews pointed out  that, I n preparing a country development plan and i n examining the constraints on national growth, i t might be f r u i t f u l to ask t h i s d i r e c t question: what has been the experience of various countries as to the required increment of human resources trained, natural resources found and c a p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s b u i l t i n order t o move from one l e v e l of development to some higher l e v e l .  6  4 Svennilson, Ingvar. "Planning i n a Market Economy," Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv., V o l . 95, (Settember 1965) p.186. 5 Rao, V.K.R.V. Essays i n Economic Development, (London: A s i a Publishing House, 1964), p.168. 6 Matthews, A l l a n F. "Resources and Norms i n Developing Planning", Internat i o n a l Development Review, V o l . IX, no. 2 (June, 1967), p.11  5.  TABLE 1 ESTIMATED VALUE OF RESOURCES PER CAPITA NECESSARY FOR A COUNTRY TO REACH VARIOUS LEVELS OF DEVELOPMENT  Resources per capita Human Resources  Natural Resources  Capital Facilities  ($000)  Total Resources  Levels of Development (Dollars of GNP per Capita)  .8  .4  .3  1.5  100  1.0  .4  .6  2.0  200  1.6  .5  .9  3.0  300  1.7  .5  1.2  3.4  400  1.8  .6  1.5  3.9  500  2.5  .7  1.8  5.0  600  2.7  1.3  3.0  7.0  1,000  2.9  3.1  9.0  15.0  3,000  Source: Matthews, A l l a n F., "Resources and Norms i n Development Planning", I n t e r n a t i o n a l Development Review, V o l . IX, No. 2 (June 1967;, p.11.  6. These estimates suggest, f o r example, that a t y p i c a l country moving from a gross national product of $100 per capita annually t o a l e v e l of $300 would have t o double i t s human resources, t r i p l e i t s c a p i t a l resources, but improve natural resources only by one-fourth.  On the other hand, moving from the  $1,000 l e v e l t o the $3,000 l e v e l appears t o be conditional on more than doubling natural resources and t r i p l i n g c a p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s with only a f r a c t i o n a l improvement i n human resources.  For purposes of manpower planning f o r development,  the above table brings up s i g n i f i c a n t points.  Under the "human resource"  column, i t i s clear that Matthews was considering the q u a l i t y of manpower. This i s mentioned i n h i s l i s t of the constraints on national growth c i t e d above. On the question of human resources he says "human resources trained".  The  selected quantitative measure of human resources Matthews took was man-years of educational attainment.  The value of one man-year of schooling, was taken as  $500 which, Matthews said, was the average cost of elementary and secondary education i n the United States.  The natural resources measured were land  (arable, pasture and f o r e s t ) , p o t e n t i a l waterpower, and known reserves of eighteen most important minerals (excluding reserves not l i k e l y t o be extracted within t h i r t y years). The minerals were valued at the current prices i n the United States.  The value o f f e c i l i t i e s was assumed f o r each country t o be  t r i p l e i t s gross national product; Matthews says that t h i s was a c o r o l l a r y of the common observation that the most t y p i c a l c a p i t a l f a c i l i t i e s / o u t p u t r a t i o was 3.  I n examining t h i s table, i t should be remembered, and t h i s i s  7 according t o Matthews that none of the numbers presented i n the a r t i c l e was meant t o be u s e f u l i n the form i n which i t was presented. 7  I b i d . , p.13  The numbers were  7. merely i l l u s t r a t i v e of orders of magnitude of u s e f u l numbers that could be devised by research e f f o r t s along the l i n e s suggested  here.  As a conclusion, i t i s intended t o emphasise the importance of planning and i t i s found that Polk covered t h i s very w e l l .  He said,  For even though we now r e a d i l y recognize that national plans are often b r i t t l e and imperfect, and that the heterogeneous circumstances of t h e i r application do not permit broad generalizations of p o l i c y and procedure, there are underlying f u n c t i o n a l characteri s t i c s of national planning a c t i v i t i e s which encourage p r e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s process as a means of achieving progress.  8 The Role of Human Resources f o r Development Lately, economists concerned with problems of economic development have shown that c a p i t a l accumulation i s so c l o s e l y related t o the human factor that a whole new f i e l d of study has grown up. This f i e l d of study aims at explaining the growth of c a p i t a l factors such as innovation, technology, and i n d i c a t i n g the action that should be taken i n r e l a t i o n t o the human f a c t o r . Economists have been analyzing man's contribution t o economic development and how t h i s human resource can be mobilized f o r optimum u t i l i z a t i o n i n the economic developmental process.  These studies have shown that many other  factors of economic development depend on the q u a l i t y and i n t e n s i t y of human e f f o r t s which play an important part i n determining the extent and pace at which natural resources get translated i n t o goods and services that constitute the national income.  Thus, i n s t i t u t i o n s , l e g i s l a t i o n , t r a d i t i o n s , education,  organization, motivation, communication, a l l these have received attention since they a f f e c t the q u a l i t y of the human resource.  The q u a l i t y of the human resource  i n return a f f e c t the degree t o which the other factors are u t i l i z e d quantitatively as w e l l as q u a l i t a t i v e l y .  The role of the human resource i n development was  c l e a r l y pointed out by Schultz i n h i s p r e s i d e n t i a l address t o the American 8 Polk, William R., Developmental Revolution, (Washington, D.C., The Middle East I n s t i t u t e , 1963). pp.60-61.  8. Economic Association i n I960.  He said that,  The f a i l u r e to treat human resources e x p l i c i t l y as a form of c a p i t a l , as a produced means of production, as the product of investment, has fostered the retention of the c l a s s i c a l notion of labour as a capacity to do manual work requiring l i t t l e knowledge and s k i l l , a capacity with which, according t o t h i s notion, labourers are endowed about equally. This notion of labour was wrong i n the c l a s s i c a l period and i t i s atently wrong now counting i n d i v i d u a l s who can and want to work and reating such count as a measure of the quantity of an economic factor i s no more meaningful than i t would be to count the number of a l l manner of machines to determine t h e i r economic importance either as a stock or a flow of productive service.  ?  9 Kuznets also pointed out that measures of c a p i t a l formation based on f i x e d c a p i t a l were d e f i c i e n t because they omitted expenditures f o r education, non-profit research, health, recreation and other elements which contributed  10 to economic growth by increasing the e f f i c i e n c y of a complex productive system. The emphasis of the importance of human resources by Schultz and others has led  to e f f o r t s to incorporate investments i n education i n t o the mainstream of  economic analysis. (1)  The p r i n c i p a l approaches have been the following:  Determination of the relationship between expenditure on growth education and growth i n income or p h y s i c a l c a p i t a l formation over a period of time i n one country;  (2)  The r e s i d u a l approach i n determining the contribution of education to gross n a t i o n a l product;  (3)  Making intercountry correction of school enrolment r a t i o s and gross national product. These approaches w i l l be explained further i n the section on "Educa-  t i o n as an Investment". 9  Vol.  Schultz, T.W.,  51, no. 1,  Appendix 1 shows the relationship between human resource  "Investment i n Human Capital", The American Economic Review,  (March 1901), p . 3 .  10 Kuznets, Simon, S i x Lectures on Economic Growth, (New York: The Press of Glencoe, 1959). p.77.  development and gross national product. Contribution of Education t o Economic Growth To begin with, some d e f i n i t i o n s are necessary i n order to give a better understanding of the relationships.  Education i n t h i s section i s used  i n i t s broadest sense as.-a perceived experience which leads i n future behaviour patterns both external behaviour patterns such as p h y s i c a l action and i n t e r n a l behaviour patterns such as cognition, r e f l e c t i o n and other mental processes. Education i s a process whereby new knowledge i s transmitted or acquired by  11  man.  But the new knowledge must be perceived and i t must a l t e r future be-  haviour patterns.  Economic growth depends to a large extent upon alterations  i n human behaviour patterns because man i s the primary catalyst, i n the producti v e process through h i s managerial a b i l i t y and he i s also a key f a c t o r of production through h i s physical labour.  Education or the learning process i n -  volves a change i n human behaviour and i s therefore c r u c i a l t o economic growth, both from the i n d i v i d u a l and aggregate standpoint.  This i s e s p e c i a l l y true  i n the case of agriculture as w i l l be discussed l a t e r . Another subset of general education might be termed basic education. This includes the s k i l l s of reading, writing and arithmetic. Since education i n e v i t a b l y involves a communicational  process of either seeing or hearing, any  new knowledge or s k i l l which increases the e f f i c i e n c y of transmission i s an i n d i r e c t but important contributor t o subsequent education. Wharton put i t , were somewhat l i k e the economist's  These s k i l l s , as  category of s o c i a l  overhead  12 c a p i t a l , (roads, bridges, dams).  The s k i l l s obtained through basic education  are the i n d i v i d u a l ' s s o c i a l overhead c a p i t a l or i n f r a - s t r u c t u r e which make t h e i r 11 Anderson, C. Arnold and Bowman, Mary Jean (Ed.), Education and Economic Development, (Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company 1963), p.22  10 greatest contribution to increased output or p r o d u c t i v i t y i n an i n d i r e c t fashion. Importance of Manpower Quality - Education and S k i l l s I t i s believed tha today, man  i s Living i n an age i n which numbers,  as f a r as manpower i s concerned, are of l i t t l e importance i f any.  This can  be seen from what automation has done i n reducing the number of workers i n i n dustries.  The most important set of factors that influences e f f i c i e n c y can be  described as the state of s k i l l s .  S k i l l e d labour i s not only more e f f i c i e n t but  i s also becoming a necessary condition of economic growth i n view of the development of science and technology i n i t s a p p l i c a t i o n to p r a c t i c a l l y a l l economic a c t i v i t y . The problem facing the developing skills. was  The same concern was  countries i s how to obtain these  expressed at a Unesco Conference i n 1952.  It  stated, I n a technological age such as ours, how can man t r u l y live? And the answer to t h i s second problem i s to be found l a r g e l y i n the f i e l d of education.  13 I t i s true that education i s the answer but i t i s not enough merely to recognize the importance of education,  leaving i t t o the professional educa-  tor to determine the various constituents of the supply of education.  Education  has a very important r o l e i n economic development and i t i s necessary to get a c l e a r and d e t a i l e d idea of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between education and national development as well as education and development of manpower needed i n the d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s , manual, t e c h n i c a l , s c i e n t i f i c , professional and other work  14 s k i l l s i n the economy.  Rao's  idea confirms t h i s point.  He said that among  13 United Nations Education, S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l Organization, Education i n a Technological Society, A preliminary International Survey of the Nature and E f f i c a c y of Technical Education ( s s . 59/V.2. :a/A( P a r i s ; 2nd impression I960) p.9. 14  Rao, V.K.R.V., Op.cit.,  p.168  11. the techniques or machinery thus needing attention f o r optimum organization of the human f a c t o r f o r economic growth, he would l i s t vocational guidance employment exchanges, resettlement and t r a i n i n g , recruitment, personnel r e l a t i o n s and management. There i s a serious argument that because of the assumption from the economic point of view, the relevant object of education has to be " s c i e n t i f i c or t e c h n i c a l or professional or vocational".  This i s r i g h t l y so as everybody  would agree that some degree of l i t e r a c y i s an e s s e n t i a l precondition to the acquiring of s k i l l s .  Besides, what economic development requires i s not merely  s p e c i f i c s k i l l s but also general s k i l l s i n i n d u s t r i a l d i s c i p l i n e and capacity for receiving communication.  Another important consideration i n the improve-  ment of the q u a l i t y of human resources i s the provision of some degree of m o b i l i t y as between d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s and the capacity f o r re-adaptation r e t r a i n i n g from one s k i l l to another.  and  No amount of planning can provide f o r  a perfect balancing of demands and supplies and i t i s of the very nature of growth that f l e x i b i l i t y and accommodation t o change i s required on the part of the workers to the changing needs and content of economic development. The nature of economic development as i t happens to be today requires more than the other types of education, t e c h n i c a l education,  Mankind,irres-  pective of the differences that e x i s t between him and the rest of the world such as developed, undeveloped, developing, colour, r e l i g i o n , or ecological environment, has to accept two fundamental factors about l i f e - simply,  we  are l i v i n g i n a world of change and i t i s a world of t e c h n i c a l change too. J . D. Montgomery writes that: The f e e t of change do not march i n measured cadences. They develop a calloused i n d i f f e r e n c e t o what i s being tramped down, and indeed, against almost any r e a l i t i e s of the immediate environment that seem uncongenial. 15 15 Montgomery, J.D.,"The Challenge of change,"International Review, V o l . IX No. 1(|March 1967), p. 2.  Development  12. To support t h i s argument the author c i t e s cases of countries such as India which, u n t i l recently had preferred no f e r t i l i z e r at a l l to one under private ownership; he also examines the "callousness" of President Sukarno; Who f o r years neglected the welfare of h i s own worshippers i n order to indulge h i s i d e o l o g i c a l fantasies. Or on a gentler plane the r e l i g i o u s p a s s i v i t y of the Buddhist theocracy i n Burma whose ideology has defied change and displayed l i t t l e tolerance f o r any of the worldly progress that might mar the t r a n q u i l i t y of the national poverty.  16 I t i s on the r e a l i z a t i o n of t h i s i n e v i t a b l e technological change that t h i s thesis i s to be written.  I t i s hypothesized that "unless t e c h n i c a l education;;  i s made a prerequisite i n the process of mobilizing human resources f o r development i n any developing  region, plans are l i k e l y to f a i l " .  I t would be a l l very  w e l l to accept the f a c t that technological change i s i n e v i t a b l e but i f the country d i d not have any tools to meet the change a l l the e f f o r t s would be  futile.  Contribution of Education i n Increasing A g r i c u l t u r a l Production I t has been pointed out above that man productive process through his managerial a b i l i t y .  i s the primary catalyst i n  the  This i s true i n a g r i c u l t u r a l  production, perhaps more than i n any other type of economic a c t i v i t y .  I t i s man  who manipulates plants and animals to provide the food and f i b r e s which he requires. I t i s man who  i s the decision maker i n the productive process: what and when to  plant, how to plant, i n what kind of s o i l to plant, how plant and how  to c u l t i v a t e the growing  to protect i t against pests and disease, when to harvest and  to prepare f o r marketing.  Hence, man  how  and his economic behaviour are the c e n t r a l  s t a r t i n g points i n any discussion of a g r i c u l t u r a l growth. Another point i s that man's attitudes toward wealth, work, t h r i f t or p r o f i t s w i l l a f f e c t human economic behaviour. i n s t i t u t i o n s which man  The p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l and economic  creates, also a f f e c t human economic behaviour.  There are  13. other forces and factors which include the "givens" of nature and the l i m i t s imposed by current t e c h n i c a l knowledge.  But man i s the "pure" f a c t o r .  As  a r e s u l t , the c r u c i a l r o l e of education f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l growth i s the impact i t ultimately has upon the economizing behaviour of the farmer and upon the  17 economizing setting i n which he operates.  Anderson conceived that i t i s the  economizing behaviour of the large aggregate of farmers which i n the f i n a l analysis makes f o r economic growth or stagnation of agriculture; and i t i s the economizing setting, i n s t i t u t i o n a l and c u l t u r a l , i n which he operates that c o n t r o l the l i m i t s of economizing behaviour. There are various economies or sub-sectors of economies that display varying degrees of divergence from what may be c a l l e d optimum economization. The most important i s d i f f e r i n g l e v e l s of technological knowledge. When dealing with agriculture e s p e c i a l l y agriculture of the family-farm type, one i s faced with the f a c t that the managerial s k i l l of each farmer constitutes his "state of arts" or h i s technology.  His l e v e l of knowledge therefore i n a fundamental  sense determines the production function. Educated Human Resources as an Investment In t h i s section the main concern i s with the examination of some aspects which render education as a c a p i t a l .  Schultz, i n j u s t i f y i n g his treatment  of education as human c a p i t a l said that, I propose t o t r e a t education as an investment i n man and t o treat i t s consequences as a form of c a p i t a l . Since education becomes a part of the person receiving i t , I s h a l l r e f e r t o i t as human c a p i t a l . Since i t becomes an i n t e g r a l part of a person, i t cannot be bought or sold or treated as property under our i n s t i t u t i o n s . Nevertheless i t i s a form of c a p i t a l i f i t renders a productive service of value t o the economy.  18_  17 I b i d . , p.205 18 Schultz, T.W. ."Capital Formation by Education,"Journal of P o l i t i c a l Economy, Volume 68, (I960), p,5?l.  14. The p r i n c i p a l hypothesis underlying t h i s treatment of education i s that some important increases i n national income are a r e s u l t of additions t o the stock of t h i s form of c a p i t a l . Schultz pointed out that education could be pure consumption or pure investment, or i t could serve both these purposes.  However one wonders  how education can be pure consumption taking i n t o consideration a l l the advantages derived from i t .  Some of these have already been dealt with i n the section on  the r o l e of education i n economic growth.  However, these advantages lead t o  the treatment of education as a human c a p i t a l as well.  Production of human capit-  a l involves expenditure on education and the t r a i n i n g of the people t o enhance not only t h e i r manual s k i l l s and dexterity but also t h e i r a b i l i t y t o comprehend new problems and situations and deal with them i n an imaginative fashion. I t involves too, expenditures on education which f a c i l i t a t e changes i n the c u l t u r a l pattern of a community, or which may r e s u l t i n improvedjprocesses and new forms of s o c i a l and economic organization.  or production  Included i n the growth of  ..knowledge must be advances i n sanitation, medicine and so on, which can do much to enhance the productive capacities of an economy.  S t r i c t l y speaking a l l  forms of education expenditures should be included although i t i s not easy t o q u a l i f y the r e s u l t s of education. Waines was able t o q u a l i f y the return from education by calculating the returns of improved labour. source was labour.  He started by saying that the p r i n c i p a l re-  I t was the c a p a b i l i t y of the labour force that has been  19 improved and these improvements had resulted from a major investment outlay. He estimated that i n the United States, between 1929 and 1957.  at l e a s t 21 per  19 Waines, W.J.,"The Role of Education i n the Development of Underdeveloped Countries", The Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, V o l . XXIX, No. 4 (November 1963). p.439.  15. cent of the increase i n n a t i o n a l income had been the contribution of the education of the labour force.  The r e a l income of the United States rose by-  one hundred and f i f t y - t w o b i l l i o n d o l l a r s , of which a d d i t i o n a l education of the labour force contributed about thirty-two b i l l i o n d o l l a r s . I n another case, Schultz arrived a t the amount of return from educat i o n by c a l c u l a t i n g the salary foregone by students who were of working ages. He also considered the expenditure on b u i l d i n g and services t o the studnets  20 as a form of c a p i t a l . Denison, using a d i f f e r e n t approach found the contribution of educat i o n t o growth i n the same period amounted t o about 23 per cent of the growth 21 rate of the aggregate n a t i o n a l product. A b i l i t y t o use c a p i t a l depends upon available natural and human resources.  The studies by Schultz and Denison emphasized the importance of  the q u a l i t y of human resources as a f f e c t i n g the capacity of the country t o absorb c a p i t a l and of education as very l a r g e l y determining that quality, whether i t be engaged i n the p o l i t i c a l , c u l t u r a l or economic l i f e of the country. I t has been stressed by Waines that i t i s just as important t o have p o l i t i c a l leaders and c i v i l servants of high c a l i b r e as i t i s t o have q u a l i f i e d and s k i l l e d entrepreneurs, professionals, technicians and tradesmen.  The provision  of educational opportunities, therefore should have top p r i o r i t y i n a newly 22 developing country. To i l l u s t r a t e the importance of a background of l i t e r a c y and knowhow i n economic development, Waines gave the example of the speedy recovery of Western Europe with Marshall Plan a i d and Japan's rapid post-war recovery 20 Schultz, T.W., C a p i t a l Formation by Education, Op.cit., p.573. 21 Denison, E.F., "The Sources of Economic Growth i n the United States and the A l t e r n a t i v e s Before Us", Review A r t i c l e by Abramovitz Moses, American Economic Review, V o l . L I I , (1962), p.?64. 22 Waines, W.J., The Role of Education i n the Development of Underdeveloped Countries, Op.cit., p.438.  16 to her present strength.  He said that t h i s must have been due i n large measure  to making e f f e c t i v e use of c a p i t a l with l i m i t e d natural resources but with human resources of great strength. I s r a e l too, was a s t r i k i n g modern example of very rapid development.  I n the eight year period, 1950  t o 1958,  aggregate  national product increased at an annual rate of ten percent and gross national product per capita grew at an average rate of f i v e percent.  Even a s u p e r f i c i a l  comparison of the rate of growth i n I s r a e l and other middle East countries wiich had s i m i l a r f i n a n c i a l resources and were s i m i l a r l y or b e t t e r endowed with natu r a l resources suggested that i t was the q u a l i t y of I s r a e l ' s human resources that had made rapid growth possible.  Notwithstanding i t s l o c a t i o n i n the Middle  East, I s r a e l was c u l t u r a l l y a part of the Western world.  The early immigrants  were mainly Europeans, who had brought with them the knowledge, s k i l l s and conventions which were necessary to make e f f e c t i v e use of the stream of c a p i t a l .  This  Western culture had provided the base from which economic advances could be made each year.  I t had been receptive to education and to new techniques and s k i l l s  and highly adaptable t o new  situations.  Manpower Planning i n the United States I t has already been pointed out that planning has been the concern of developing as w e l l as developed countries. One aspect of t h i s has been manpower planning.  I n the United States the concern with manpower resources  appeared early i n the nation's existence.  This i s indicated by the h i s t o r y of  public p o l i c i e s i n the areas of education, health, immigration.  Manpower resources  determined what the nation could produce and t h i s l a t e r prompted expressions of concern about the adequacy of existing and anticipated future supplies of highly educated and trained manpower. Thus, the President's Commission on Higher Educat i o n , reporting at the end of 1948,  declared that because the United States had  17 f a i l e d t o safeguard i t s s c i e n t i f i c manpower during the war as other nations did,  i t lacked enough trained personnel t o s t a f f the research and development  laboratories of industry, government and the u n i v e r s i t i e s . Reasons f o r Manpower Planning i n the United States. The need f o r manpower planning can a r i s e because of other reasons besides s o c i a l or economic ones.  As i t i s pointed out below, the need f o r  manpower planning arose from p o l i t i c a l or m i l i t a r y considerations. The most important point t o note here i s that when c r i s e s , economic, s o c i a l , or m i l i t a r y occur, planning i s one of the tools which are put i n t o use. I t was the problems facing the United States during the years of cold war that compelled Americans t o objectively appraise the s k i l l s , a b i l i t i e s and competences of t h e i r manpower resources.  As a r e s u l t there exists today a  broader and deeper concern with the state-."of t h e i r manpower resources.  Probably  they have come t o understand better than ever before t o what degree the people of the United States - that i s they themselves - represent the means f o r f u l f i l l i n g t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l purposes and aspirations as w e l l as those shared by the society as a whole. The concern with manpower as a resource i s symbolized i n the provision of the Manpower Development and T r a i n i n g A c t of 1962, requiring the President of the United States t o submit an annual Manpower Report t o the Congress. I n the f i r s t Manpower Report of 1963, the l a t e President John F. Kennedy remarked: Manpower i s the basic resource. I t i s the indispensable means of converting other resources t o mankind's use and b e n e f i t . How well we develop and employ human s k i l l s i s fundamental i n deciding how much we w i l l accomplish as a nation. The manner i n which we do so w i l l , moreover, profoundly determine the kind of nation we become.  ,  22  23 National Manpower Council, Manpower P o l i c i e s f o r a Democratic Society. New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965, P»5»  18 A year l a t e r , i n h i s Manpower Report, President Lyndon B. Johnson had t h i s t o say: This nation i s prosperous, strong, m a t e r i a l l y r i c h e r than any i n history - l a r g e l y because of the knowledge, s k i l l s , competence and c r e a t i v i t y of our people. But we are short of our p o t e n t i a l . Many of our people do not adequately p a r t i c i p a t e i n the national well-being. Much of our human c a p a b i l i t y i s not developed or used Our action or i n a c t i o n toward r e a l i s i n g the f u l l p o t e n t i a l of human resources i s a major f a c t o r i n determining whether we w i l l strengthen j u s t i c e , security, and freedom at home - and enhance America's a b i l i t y to set a proud example t o the world. 2k From the above observations i t should be r e a l i z e d that manpower resource needs are not l i m i t e d t o only one aspect of national purpose - economic development - but t o strength, achievement, as w e l l as i n d i v i d u a l f u l f i l l m e n t and well-being, and t h i s has been the c e n t r a l theme of the National Manpower Council.  I n i t s study of p o l i c i e s f o r " S c i e n t i f i c and P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower",  which appeared i n 1953» i t emphasized that the "economic and s o c i a l well-being" of the United States "and i t s continued progress depend t o a s t r i k i n g degree upon a small group of men and women who work i n s c i e n t i f i c and professional fields," I n the following year, the Council published a book on s k i l l e d manpower p o l i c i e s .  I n t h i s the Council declared,  Only recently we have come t o r e a l i z e that the development and e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n of our human resources cannot be l e f t t o choice . . . . We are sometimes l i k e l y t o forget that the rate of our economic progress depends i n considerable measure i n quantity and q u a l i t y of our a v a i l a b l e s k i l l e d manpower . . . . Our future progress and strength depend upon a conscious and deliberate concern with our manpower resources. Recognition that our most precious single resource consists of the s k i l l s , capacities, and creativeness of our people i s not enough. For the sake of contributing to the greater w e l l being of each i n d i v i d u a l and strengthening the nation as a whole, i t i s also necessary t o assure the f u r t h e r development of our manpower resources and t h e i r more e f f e c t i v e u t i l i z a t i o n .  25  2k  I b i d . , p. 5  25  I b i d . , p.6  19. I n order to achieve t h i s , the United States has established a s p e c i a l o f f i c e to deal with the problem.  This i s c a l l e d the U.S.  o f f i c e of Manpower  P o l i c y , Evaluation and Research. Manpower Problems i n A f r i c a The magnitude of the manpower problem i n A f r i c a i s enhanced by the f a c t that most of A f r i c a n countries have only recently become independent.  Be-  fore independence, most of the jobs requiring s k i l l were performed by foreigners. Upon independence, the A f r i c a n countries found themselves without adequate s t a f f s of q u a l i f i e d nationals and therefore needed substantial numbers of f o r e i g n personnel to keep the governmental and economic machine going and to t r a i n Africans to take over. Appendix 2 gives an idea of the magnitude of the manpower problem i n Africa.  I n the period 1958-1960, there were s t i l l one hundred thousand European  government administrators, t e c h n i c a l experts and educators i n A f r i c a . The desire to have Africans taking over the jobs i s f o r both economic and p o l i t i c a l reasons.  The p o l i t i c a l leaders argued that p o l i t i c a l independence  would not have much meaning i f a l l the key sources of production were c o n t r o l l e d by foreigners.  The Organization f o r A f r i c a n Unity has r a i s e d a great outcry  against neo-colonialism, meaning the colonizing powers were s t i l l r u l i n g the i n dependent countries, t h i s time i n d i r e c t l y through the c o n t r o l of economic means of development.  At a n a t i o n a l l e v e l , there was  f i l l e d by A f r i c a n s .  a desire to have these jobs  I n Tanzania f o r example, " A f r i c a n i s a t i o n " and  "Tanzanisation"  were important p o l i t i c a l issues a f t e r independence. The next question to ask i s , w i l l these newly independent nations be ready to meet the great challenge of manpower independence.  The manpower  surveys which have been done so f a r have indicated that these countries are experiencing severe manpower shortages.  Such surveys have been c a r r i e d on i n  20. Uganda, Ghana, Tanzania and Nigeria.  I n Uganda just a year before the  country  became independent, the Mission organised by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r Reconstruction and Development reported that i n spite of the great e f f o r t to b u i l d an i n d u s t r i a l base and modernise the economy Uganda was  s t i l l f a r from the point  26 where the increase i n c a p i t a l became automatic.  This was because Uganda was  seriously short of trained senior administrators and technicians f o r government posts.  At the end of June 1961,  there were one thousand and seven hundred Europ-  eans, holding professional, semi-professional, t e c h n i c a l and supervisory positions. The Mission therefore recommended early preparation of Ugandans so that they could take up some of the posts a f t e r the country's independence was declared i n the following year.  The s i t u a t i o n was  even worse i n the Congo.  A commentator on  the p o l i t i c a l c r i s e s of the Congo pointed to the f a c t that these arose l a r g e l y because of the inadequacy of e x i s t i n g manpower to take over the running country i n every sector, economic, s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l .  of the  He stated, "The  troubled  h i s t o r y of my country since I960 i s r i g h t l y a t t r i b u t e d to the f a i l u r e of Belgium to f a c i l i t a t e the development cadre of experienced p o l i t i c a l , administrative,  27 t e c h n i c a l and professional leaders, p r i o r to independence."  Appendix 3 w i l l  help to show the manpower problem i n East A f r i c a . The emphasis put on the A f r i c a n s i t u a t i o n i s based on the f a c t that the events following up independence of the A f r i c a n countries have upset the established s i t u a t i o n where i t was  r e l a t i v e l y easy to obtain foreign experts  and  keep the native population quiet i n t h e i r lower p o s i t i o n s . Again i f one compares the s i t u a t i o n i n A f r i c a with that i n other developing countries, Asian countries f o r example, as Karmarck noted, the manpower problems occur at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s . Karmarck said that i t was i n human terms that the difference between A f r i c a on 26 I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Uganda: report of a Mission organized by the I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r Reconstruction at the request of the Government of Uganda, (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1962), p.23. 27 Mabusa, B., "Post Independence Education i n the Congo", A f r i c a Report, V o l . 11, No. 6, (June 1966), p.24.  21. the one hand and the rest of the developing countries became apparent.  Asia  and  L a t i n America were better endowed with educated people and leaders than A f r i c a and most A f r i c a n countries would be unable to function or to develop s a t i s f a c t o r i l y without large scale t e c h n i c a l assistance as i s the case today.  Four-fifths  of the t o t a l number of t e c h n i c a l assistance personnel on duty a l l over the world are on the A f r i c a n continent, although i n terms of population, A f r i c a represents only about one-seventh of the underdeveloped world.  Karmarck concludes that,  without a large scale f i n a n c i a l and human contribution from i n d u s t r i a l i z e d 28 countries, the destiny of the A f r i c a n countries was  scarcely i n doubt.  This i n b r i e f , i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n that i t i s now  high time the  developing countries paid attention to the mobilization of t h e i r human resources or manpower planning f o r economic development.  This r e a l i z a t i o n by leaders that  t h e i r lands w i l l never be t r u l y independent u n t i l t h e i r own c i t i z e n s are capable of conducting and c o n t r o l l i n g a l l aspects of economic and p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s needs no further j u s t i f i c a t i o n . Strategy f o r Manpower Planning There i s some need here to show e s p e c i a l l y planning  of the long-term  investment i n schools, u n i v e r s i t i e s , and t e c h n i c a l colleges, has to be r e l a t e d i n the widest sense to a l l other aspects of s o c i a l and economic planning. country's capacity to absorb persons of d i f f e r e n t educational l e v e l s and  A abilities,  the factors which can be brought to a f f e c t t h i s capacity, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the educational, s o c i a l and economic factors i n productivity - a l l these and many other things have to be borne i n mind when planning the rate of expansion of an educational system, and the p r i o r i t i e s to be assigned within the system t o i t s several parts. 28 Karmarck, A., The Economics of A f r i c a n Development. and Praeger, 1967), p. XI.  (New York: Frederick  22 On the other hand, i t i s , of course, even more damaging t o overspend on education, impoverishing the country, producing people who cannot be employed and making l i t t l e contribution t o the nation's wealth.  This i s an  almost u n i v e r s a l dilemma; a country needs a considerable number of trained and educated persons t o b u i l d up and consolidate i t s development but, u n t i l i t i s developed, i t has not the resources to educate the people.  What can be done,  however, i s t o place heavy emphasis i n i t i a l l y upon such a c t i v i t i e s as w i l l , without great cost, bring about rapid improvements i n the economy.  Such a c t i v i t i e s  would be t r a i n i n g rather than educating i n the broadest sense, vocational rather than general. Both public and private employers would be encouraged to provide i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g t o upgrade t h e i r s t a f f .  To concentrate heavily upon t h i s  form of technological t r a i n i n g i s , of course, a short terra expedient designed to strengthen the economy and to increase the absorptive capacity so that, i n the next phase, the weight can be transferred to the formal system of education. From t h i s w i l l come men and women who cb nt only possess necessary s k i l l s , but also an outlook s u f f i c i e n t l y broad t o contend with the extreme problems of a society undergoing rapid change. I t i s believed that countries are underdeveloped because most of t h e i r people are underdeveloped,  having had no opporhinity of expanding  p o t e n t i a l capacities i n the service of society.  their  The main reason f o r t h i s lack  of opportunity l i e s within the s o c i a l structure and can only be remedied when there are enough people with a new attitude towards society. various forms i s the chief vehicle f o r changing attitudes.  Education i n i t s  I t i s therefore  held that the emphasis should not so much be on using people to b u i l d the resources, but i n using the resources t o produce the people.  23 CHAPTER 2 THE ROLE OF TECHNICIANS IN A CHANGING TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY The f a c t that man i s today l i v i n g i n a world of change cannot be disputed.  Broadly conceived, technology i s the most important single f a c t o r  i n bringing about t h i s change through production,integration and destruction of culture.  Bain i n emphasizing the relationship between technology and other  aspects of human l i f e said that, ...for a l l human a c t i v i t i e s are conditioned by man's b i o l o g i c a l nature, h i s p h y s i c a l environment and the technological and other c u l t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n s t o h i s manipulation of inorganic and organic materials. As a r e s u l t , there i s constant i n t e r a c t i o n both ways between technological and a l l other aspects of culture. Therefore the common d i s t i n c t i o n between material and non-material culture i s u n r e a l i s t i c and u n s c i e n t i f i c .  1 Furthermore DeCarlo c l e a r l y pointed out the problem facing society i n t h i s "Environment of change". He said, We are l i v i n g i n a time i n which science and technology have become pervasive ana have caused the world of "nature" to be removed from our d i r e c t senses. The rhythms of the world beat t o the cycle of machines rather than the c i r c l i n g of the sun. We f e e l that distance between old r i t u a l s grounded i n myth and nature and the new and mancreated r e a l i t y of the c i t y . The steady accumulation of technical accomplishment changes the environment of our value systems. We are i n the modern technological society and i n s t i t u t i o n s derived from e a r l i e r ages change under the stress of i t s continuous shaping and reshaping. No one can ignore the innovations facing us and the consequent loss of t r a d i t i o n a l " s a f e t i e s " , f o r the relentless application of science and technology has changed the quantity and q u a l i t y of life>7 and strained and reshaped i n s t i t u t i o n a l patterns. I t gives further promise of demanding new l i f e styles i n pursuit of work, l e i s u r e and happiness.  2  The most important aspect of the technological society which operates as a background i n the educational environment i s the increased force of the 1 Bain, Read. "Technology and State Governments", American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, V o l . 11(1937), p.860. 2  DeCarlo, C.R.,  "Education Technology and State Governments", American  S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, Vol. I I (1937). p.860.  24. s c i e n t i f i c and t e c h n i c a l community.  3  At the UNESCO Conference i t was pointed  out that despite the f a c t that s c i e n t i s t s , engineers, technicians and teachers of technicians constitute less than three per cent of the labour force, they have an influence f a r beyond proportionate composition i n society. Of the highest importance i s the educational development of people who  can  encompass s c i e n t i f i c and p r o f e s s i o n a l careers. Another aspect of the s c i e n t i f i c and technological community i s that i t deals with things and processes and therefore moves f a s t e r than human a f f a i r s can accommodate.  I t i s very d i f f i c u l t t o change the attitudes  aid institutional practices of people involved but the speed and ease with . which science and technology can move, r e s u l t i n t h e i r being "a p o l i t i c a l l y potent component i n society".  Science and technology w i l l continue to be  a potent force f o r change as they continue t h e i r development of means. I n Appendix 4, the chart shows some of technological advances that have been made and which have affected man's l i f e . Since technology i s moving forward the world over at an increasi n g l y rapid pace, the education system has to be adapted to s u i t the techni-  4 c a l shanges.  According to the UNESCO Conference i f a country's education  remained s t a t i c , tensions were bound to be created, p a r t i c u l a r l y amongst those who might have been prepared by t h e i r early t r a i n i n g to a type of a c t i v i t y which was passing away. I n the unanimous view of the conference, those concerned with education must, therefore, exercise an increased measure of " s o c i a l foresight, using the best knowledge available f o r forecasting technological needs i n r e l a t i o n to educational f a c i l i t i e s .  Otherwise,  the  establishment of a proper balance between education and occupational opportunity 3 United Nations Educational, S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l Organization, Education i n a Technological Society (SS.59/ V.2a/A 1950) (Paris 1950) 4  Ibid.,  p.20  p.15.  25. wouM become i n c r e a s i n g l y d i f f i c u l t , i f not impossible. Technology, Education and the Culture of Man The impact of technological changes on man have been very considerable.  One aspect of t h i s environment  of change has been the "deperson-  a l i z a t i o n of l i f e and the mismatch" between l i f e and machines.  DeCarlo said  that not only could men t r a v e l f a s t e r than ever before, but magnificent extensions of t h e i r muscular systems could be seen i n huge engines capable of the work of a thousand men while d e l i c a t e machines were capable of performing t a c t i l e operations with f a r greater ease and speed than the human hand.  I n the realm of information processing, there were computers whose  elements operated i n a b i l l i o n t h s of a second t o perform wonders of computa-  5 t i o n analysis i n f r a c t i o n s of minutes. Such extensions of sense and a b i l i t y De Carlo observed were being viewed by some as a dehumanizing force. ing  Malik, who,  i n c r i t i c i z i n g the t r a i n -  the western world was providing f o r those who came from A s i a and A f r i c a ,  commented on the f a c t that they were excluding from the educational process much of t h e i r s p i r i t u a l and moral t r a d i t i o n .  He asserted that the process  was i n danger of: Producing - a world of perfect technicians not a world of human beings, l e t alone of being divine. A dreary and boring world where there i s nothing beyond man and h i s mastery over nature, including hlssmasteryE'ov.ecsother technicians through h i s s c i e n t i f i c management of them. Perfect hierarchy, perfect organization, t o t a l e f f i c i e n c y ; but no s p i r i t , no freedom, no joy, no humour and therefore no man.  6  The aspects of the environment of change discussed above w i l l have profound impacts on the ways of l i v i n g of people.  I n the f i r s t place they  w i l l be moving i n t o a world of work i n which d a i l y a c t i v i t y w i l l depend much more upon the a b i l i t y t o think l o g i c a l l y , to handle symbolic and abstract 5  DeCarlo, Op.cit., p.64  6  Ibid.,  p.68  26. material and to be capable of l i f e l o n g learning.  The second requirement that  they w i l l face i s the a b i l i t y to use l e i s u r e i n a meaningful way.  Third,  there w i l l be the requirement to l i v e much of l i f e i n even closer contact with people, contacts which w i l l take place within formal and informal organizations and communities of i n t e r e s t .  As a r e s u l t of t h i s , man w i l l face the problems  of divided l o y a l t i e s as h i s l i f e becomes a complex of overlapping memberships i n d i f f e r e n t organizations and group shared values.  Therefore the problems  of privacy, s o c i a l grace, respect f o r others w i l l become important to him as they have to few others i n h i s t o r y . A f i n a l aspect w i l l be the requirement to l i v e under changing i n s t i t u t i o n a l values.  Because of the continual expansion of l i f e i n a tech-  n o l o g i c a l society, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s w i l l have t o change to keep pace.  For example, there i s l i k e l y to be a continued demand f o r human  rights throughout the world, f o r increased expectations i n the economic systems, for  the development of new methods of productivity, new c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s .  De Carlo makes a point that facing i n s t i t u t i o n a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l change  7 without the guiding l i g h t of sound p r i n c i p l e s w i l l lead to chaos. The c r u c i a l challenge i n order to l i v e i n such a changing world, w i l l be the e a r l i e s t preparation of the c h i l d i n an understanding values.  of the basic  The f i r s t of these values i s the i n t e g r i t y of s e l f ; the q u a l i t i e s of  self-awareness  and self-assurance, of introspection and consciousness.  there must be found new ways to teach the d i g n i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l .  Second, Concepts  of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and respect f o r others, which are the essence of humanity, must be inculcated at every opportunity i n the family and the formal educational  27. environments.  F i n a l l y , and working with the other two, w i l l be the a b i l i t y  to develop l o y a l t y and appropriate commitment t o larger organizational forms. Too often the organization i s seen as a device which destroys the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s d i g n i t y . But t h i s should not be the case because i n the long run i t i s the value systems, as r e f l e c t e d i n s o c i a l organizations and i n s t i t u t i o n a l patterns and shared by the i n d i v i d u a l , which w i l l hold the society together and protect theuultimate freedoms of the i n d i v i d u a l . Education and Training f o r Technical Change The f a c t that technology i s not s t a t i c has been discussed above as w e l l as i t s impact on the culture of man and the f a c t that man must be prepared so he can l i v e i n t h i s world of changing culture. I t was emphasized that the best way t o prepare people f o r t h i s kind of l i v i n g was through education.  The purpose of the present section i s t o review b r i e f l y the meas-  ures taken on i n prospect i n d i f f e r e n t countries t o secure such a d a p t a b i l i t y p a r t i c u l a r l y of people who have t o work d i r e c t l y with the t e c h n i c a l changes. The concern i s on occupational f l e x i b i l i t y . Education f o r occupational f l e x i b i l i t y operates at three main points: i n the schools providing i n mainly f o r general education; i n the schools with a s p e c i f i c a l l y t e c h n i c a l b a s i s ; and i n industry i t s e l f , both i n i t s general t r a i n i n g and i n i t s schemes of apprenticeship.  The following  i s a survey of what d i f f e r e n t countries are going t o provide occupational f l e x i b i l i t y i n the changing t e c h n i c a l world.  The survey i s based on the  8 information provided at the UNESCO Conference. India The vast projects planned by the Government f o r the Development 8 United Nations Educational and S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l Organization, Education i n a Technological Society, ( s s . 59/V.2 a/A 1952) (Paris 1950)  pp. 43-47.  28 of natural resources and the creation of new i n d u s t r i e s demanded a large number of technologists, techricians and l i t e r a t e s k i l l e d and semi-skilled workers.  At the same time the high schools annually produce some 300,000  entrants to what may be termed the "middle class" of the community.  A class  which during the l a t e war managed to solve i t s unemployment problem, but which i s once more i n grave d i f f i c u l t y now that purely academic studies no longer hold out bright f i n a n c i a l prospects.  Unless, i t was f e l t , a considerable  proportion of these highly-trained young people could be absorbed i n t o work of a t e c h n i c a l character the r e a l income of the middle c l a s s as a wholewwould f a l l disastrously, and at the time of i t s greatest need, the country  will  be deprived of the services of those who might be expected t o play a leading and progressive part.  Turkey. I n Turkey, occupational f l e x i b i l i t y has been encouraged by the development of t e c h n i c a l and academic t r a i n i n g , and the constant r e i t e r a t i o n of the t r u t h that a l l work i s honourable - not merely the type of work designed i n the past t o lead almost exclusively to employment i n the C i v i l Service or the Army. Brazil. I n B r a z i l , the problem of achieving greater f l e x i b i l i t y i n the courses provided by the system of Federal and State vocational schools has been tackled by providing better t r a i n i n g and education f o r the teachers under the auspices of the Brazilian-American Commission f o r i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n ing.  The a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s body have been focused on i n c u l c a t i n g i n the  teachers a better s o c i a l understanding  of t h e i r task on the p u b l i c a t i o n of  29. t e c h n i c a l textbooks, on planned schemes of vocational guidance and on the analysis of l o c a l and regional manpower needs. Australia., A u s t r a l i a , which might be taken as t y p i c a l of a category of countr i e s with vast p o s s i b i l i t i e s of technological development, the considerable stress l a i d upon a sound "General Education" i n early years  has been found  to provide f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability of mind i n the student.  A t the same  time the establishment of apprenticeship, commissions i n each state has been the means of r a i s i n g the standard and widening the f i e l d of technical t r a i n ing.  Under the guidance of these commissions the apprenticeship not only  receives a l l round i n s t r u c t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t aspects of the industry i n which he i s engaged; he i s also educated f o r adaptability t o changing conditions by means of part-time general t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g courses at the t e c h n i c a l college, where the basic course i s designed t o provide a sound foundation from which development i n a number of d i f f e r e n t s p e c i a l i s t directions i s possible.  The Netherlands. In the Netherlands the importance of the general problem of f l e x i b i l i t y and adaptability and f l e x i b i l i t y has been recognized, and considerable study i s being given t o possible solutions.  At the elementary stage and i n  a large measure a t the secondary stage also, the t e c h n i c a l schools have avoided s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and have aimed at broad courses including more technical subjects.  Attempts are being made moreover, t o render i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher  learning and research (including the u n i v e r s i t i e s ) more accessible t o the stuAnt whose early t r a i n i n g has been i n a technical school; thus encouraging occupational f l e x i b i l i t y at the higher l e v e l s of professional training as well as at the " c r a f t " l e v e l .  30. Belgium. I n Belgium s p e c i f i c measures have been taken to promote adaptab i l i t y to changing conditions. Under the authority of the M i n i s t e r i n charge of t e c h n i c a l education, a " c o u n c i l f o r the improvement of Technical education" representative of industry (both managers and trade union leaders) and of the administrative and i n s p e c t o r i a l d i v i s i o n s of the ministry, i s constantly engaged i n adapting the c u r i c u l a of t e c h n i c a l educational establishments to new developments i n t e c h n i c a l education.  I n t e c h n i c a l schools "competence  boards" of managers and workers have been established to see that the curicul a are constantly adapted to t e c h n i c a l progress, and to provide temporary refresher courses i n new technological developments f o r former p u p i l s . France. I n France extreme s p e c i a l i z a t i o n has been strongly opposed i n the t e c h n i c a l schools and industry has been greatly encouraged to develop iceship schemes designed to give broad, t r a i n i n g i n a l l those  apprent-  occupations  which depend on the p r a c t i c a l application of fundamental s c i e n t i f i c p r i n c i p l e s . P a r t i c u l a r mention i s made of the "conservatoire national des arts et metiers", which gives a higher education i n applied sciences free of charge outside working hours.  More than  15,000 young workers attend i t s courses every  year; and although i t s aim i s to enable them to q u a l i f y as t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i s t s , the basis of t r a i n i n g i s f a r from narrow. Taking i n t o consideration the experience of the various countries represented and the problems peculiar to each, the general conclusion that can be reached i s that the challenge of occupational f l e x i b i l i t y i n a techn o l o g i c a l society should be met by a co-ordinated e f f o r t i n three f i e l d s ; i n  31. the schools and educational i n s t i t u t i o n s generally; by means of l i n k s between the schools and industry i n the form of apprenticeships schemes and vocational guidance arrangements; and by developments within industry i t s e l f . A.  In the schools and i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher learning three import-  ant steps could be taken t o prepare young people t o achieve the  necessary  a d a p t a b i l i t y by: 1.  laying stress upon the proper teaching of fundamental subjects and upon as comprehensive a knowledge as possible of such background subjects as mathematics and general science;  2.  Constantly t e s t i n g the t h e o r e t i c a l appreciation of fundamental p r i n c i p l e s against p r a c t i c a l appreciation i n the form of work shop a c t i v i t y of a character which should not be s p e c i f i c a l l y vocational;  3.  Constantly making the i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher learning aware of the relevance of his students i n every s p e c i a l subject to other f i e l d s of study.  The engineering student f o r example, should not  only be encouraged to extend h i s studies i n t o mathematics and the pure sciences beyond the immediate requirements of his chosen f i e l d , but should also be introduced to such subjects as business administration, economics and management. B.  I n view of the narrowness and early s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of much i n d u s t r i a l  t r a i n i n g and c e r t a i n types of apprenticeship schemes, occupational f l e x i b i l i t y may be enhanced by a c a r e f u l l y co-ordinated part-time day and evening educat i o n i n a t e c h n i c a l school or college, a d d i t i o n a l to the t r a i n i n g i n industry. The purpose of the supplementary t e c h n i c a l education f o r the young worker  32. i s twofold: on the one hand he i s able to observe work processes, s p e c i a l machines and advanced methods of production which are not available to him i n the workshop of h i s employer; on the other, he i s introduced to production processes which involve d i f f e r e n t types of work and s k i l l .  Thus, instead of  being trained only within the narrow confines of a s i n g l e c r a f t , the demand of which may fluctuate considerably, he receives an opportunity to master related s k i l l s , so, that at the end of his course, he may be reasonably well prepared f o r more than one type of occupation. C.  F i n a l l y f o r developments within the industry i t s e l f , two type of  approach to the s o l u t i o n of the problem of occupational f l e x i b i l i t y should be considered: 1. Arrangements whereby young workers p a r t i c u l a r l y those attached to medium-size and small firms, could be given greater opportunities, both to broaden t h e i r knowledge by working i n d i f f e r e n t types of undertakings within an industry and t o observe a greater v a r i e t y of manufacturing processes, before f i n a l l y s e t t l i n g upon t h e i r own chosen occupation. 2.  A phenomenon of great importance i s the recognition of the f a c t that  the f l e x i b i l i t y of the labour force i s determined not only by education and t r a i n i n g but also by s o c i a l , economic and t e c h n i c a l conditions. D i s t i n c t i o n Between Technicians and Technologists. The understanding of the differed ces between technicians and technologists f o r t h i s study i s of great signivicance. I t was pointed out i n the section dealing with "the concept of planning that choices and prerequisites are the basis of planning, therefore, to know and understand these differences i s c r u c i a l so that emphasis i s not put on a wrong aspect of manpower by  33. ignorance.  I n order to i l l u s t r a t e these differences, the material used i s  9 based on Dr. Marsh' study.  Dr. Marsh makes a point that the d i s t i n c t i o n  between tradesmen (or s k i l l e d craftsman, s k i l l e d mechanics, etc.) technician and technologist might be established, and was i n f a c t established, by: (1) (2) (3)  the i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g the t r a i n i n g ; j o b s - s p e c i f i c a t i o n set up or recognized by employers; professional and semi-professional bodies which accredit the r i g h t to p r a c t i c e (as well as governmental licences and apprenticeship regulations by trade unions and industry;  (4)  the educational attainments which are required i n order to qualify.  I f some or a l l of these were embodied i n a c e r t i f i c a t e of whatever kind indicated the d i s t i n c t i o n became concrete.  10 Dr. Marsh pointed out  that B r i t i s h Columbia already has Vocational  Schools f o r adults and Vocational courses which were preparatory i n nature. I t had also the B r i t i s h Columbia I n s t i t u t e of Technology with ten or more programs d i r e c t e d s p e c i f i c a l l y to the t r a i n i n g of technologists i n f i e l d s which c l o s e l y compare to the f i r s t two University years of engineering  ( i n various  branches); and some otherswwhich were better described as t e c h n i c a l or occupat i o n a l programs.  The following table shows Training Programs of the  B.C.  I n s t i t u t e of Technology; and i t s applications i n r e l a t i o n to capacity.  The  table also shows the range of f i e l d s covered by technologists. 9 Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College f o r Vancouver Island (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966) pp. 84-89.  34,  TABLE 2 TRAINING PROGRAMS OF THE B.C. INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY: AND APPLICATIONS IN RELATION TO CAPACITY (As at August, 1965)  Applications  Program Area  Building technology C i v i l & s t r u c t u r a l technology Mechanical technology Surveying Chemical and m e t a l l u r g i c a l O i l and gas technology Mining technology Forest technology  37 56 54 34 55 7  17  86 22  Electrical Electronics Instrumentation Broadcasting (technical)  Food processing Forest Products u t i l i z a t i o n TOTAL  30 30  45  30 30 30  30 30  Percent  123 187 120 113 183 23 57 287  125  45 30 12  15  147 287 140 183  125  76  18 120  422 104 113  35 35  30  117  862  575  150  42 22  Broadcasting (production) Business management Hotel and restaurant operation  Capacity  34  30  20  175  Source: Data supplied by B.C. I n s t i t u t e of Technology, s l i g h t l y edited, and regrouped t o show the t r a i n i n g programs i n related groups. Applications by the time of entrance were closer to 1,000. Adapted from Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College f o r Vancouver Island, (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), p.86.  35. The Role of Technicians i n Services - the Expanded Technician Concept f o r Modern Society. The concept of t e c h n i c a l l y - t r a i n e d (and appropriately educated)  11  persons, as Dr. Marsh  emphasized,  production or 'sub-engineering'  "needs to be extended beyond the p h y s i c a l  area which was made i t most f a m i l i a r " .  Dr.  Marsh continues to say that i n the twentieth century, there were just as great needs i n service areas i f not greater; there were i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y an expanding number ofpublic careers of many kinds as w e l l as those i n the private business or manufacturing  fields.  Highly important examples c i t e d  by Dr. Marsh are recreation, and l e i s u r e time a c t i v i t i e s i n c l u d i n g a l l the arts and c r a f t s .  These shaded i n t o various types of community leadership  programs on the one hand, with a l l the a u x i l i a r i e s of the arts i n drama, music b a l l e t , the use of v i s u a l aids, museums, l i b r a r i e s , a r t g a l l e r i e s , etc. on the other hand.Arts and l e i s u r e programs were 'naturals' f o r l o c a l communi t y development whether or not there were already some resources ( i n the developing countries especially, the same as i n the developed countries a poverty of l o c a l resources might w e l l j u s t i f y spedal e f f o r t s on the part of the t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s to help generate them. ) I f there were alreadyl o c a l f e s t i v a l s , committees, theatre groups or orchestras they were welcome a l i i es.  Dr. Marsh pointed out that there might be room f o r complementing  or even r e d i r e c t i n g the adult education f a c i l i t i e s of the areas i n appropriate fields.  The r o l e of adult education w i l l be elaborated i n chapter four. Another f i e l d i n which technicians play a s i g n i f i c a n t role, and  a f i e l d which i s l i t t l e recognized i s the area of research assistance, p a r t i c u l a r l y the areas of study, s t a t i s t i c s , surveys and planning that u t i l i z e the s o c i a l sciences. 11  Ibid.,  p.87.  This need i s even greater i n the new countries  36. where the records of data are very scarce and these are e s s e n t i a l i n f u l f i l l i n g the purposes of planning.  The s o c i a l sciences include not only  economics and psychology, the most f a m i l i a r but even anthropology,  sociology  have been drawn i n t o the service of businesses e s p e c i a l l y i n the giant corporations.  But modern gobernment (which Dr. Marsh points out i s only  very slowly and almost r e l u c t a n t l y u t i l i z i n g the p r o f e s s i o n a l town planner) education welfare services, health services, p r o v i n c i a l and c e n t r a l administrators, voluntary agencies and the various quasi-government bodies that have c o n t i n u a l l y t o be set up t o provide everything from j u d i c i a l or regulatory services t o t e l e v i s i o n broadcasting - a l l these need assessments and appraisals, consultation about public needs, evaluation of t h e i r operations, plans f o r growth and expansion.  I n chapter four and f i v e , some  suggestions w i l l be made as t o how these e s s e n t i a l technicians can be obtained within the means of the countries concerned. Technological Opportunities f o r Development i n Tanzania, Goals and Programs f o r Development Tanzania's present p r i n c i p l e s i n the area of development are defined i n the f i v e year development plan launched i n 1964 and the subsequent declaration made at Arusha i n 1967 now o f f i c i a l l y referred t o as the Arusha Declaration. by 1980. 1.  Outlined  i n the plan are three main objectives t o be accomplished  These are: To r a i s e per c a p i t a income from  19 (approx. $US 55) t o 45 ($128 US)  2.  To be f u l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n trained manpower  3.  To r a i s e the expectation of l i f e from 35 t o 40 years t o an expectation of 50 years.  requirements.  37. I n o u t l i n i n g the menas by which the objectives were to be achieved, the president of the Republic of Tanzania, Dr. J u l i u s Nyerere,  said:  We s h a l l achieve t h i s increased prosperity i f we expand our production of goods. We s h a l l become more wealthy by producing more wealth, by no other method. Under the plan, therefore we s h a l l increase our production of a g r i c u l t u r a l produce - grow more crops to eat ourselves, and more t o s e l l to others. We s h a l l g r e a t l y increase our production of manufactured goods. And we s h a l l re-organize our s o c i a l , economic and commercial structures so as to get the f u l l b e n e f i t from our expanded production.  12  I n order to expand t h i s production, d i r e c t attention would be paid to three determinants  of growth i n Tanzania namely, agriculture, industry and  education, and other related f i e l d s such as communication would be taken i n t o account. Agriculture. Two basic ways by which the people and the government could achieve increased output were outlined i n the P l a n as being the "improvement approach" and the "Transformation Approach".  The former i s an expansion of the present  p o l i c y of assistance and guidance by ensuring that the a g r i c u l t u r a l extension workers and community development o f f i c e r s work together.  Whereas t h i s w i l l  involve the Extension workers helping people t o transform t h e i r method of working on the old lands, current re-settlement on new lands w i l l be the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the M i n i s t r y of Land, Settlement and Water Development. i s what i s termed the "Transformation approach".  This  I t wasstated i n the Plan  that almost a l l the help which the Government can give i n a way of tractors, improved houses, and r u r a l water supplies would be concentrated on these  new  12 Nyerere, J.K., The F i v e Year Development Plan, i n Smith, H.E.(Ed.) Readings on Economic Deveopment and Administration of Tanzania, (London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y  Press, 1966), p.362.  38.  iv\/\P  I : T A  A NIA  RELIEF AND PRINCIPAL RIVERS  Adapted from:  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika Baltimorei The John Hopkins Prese. 1961, Map 6.  39  A P Z: T A N Z A N I A : RAINFALL PR0&ABlLir/-K??UUT10N  Adapted from;  International Bank f o r Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of.Tanganyika, Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, Map 2.  40.  M A P  3:  T A N Z A N I A  CASH CROPS, ItlfflES, RESERVED AREAS A© TSETSE.  Adapted front  International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika, Baltimorej The John Hopkins Press. Map. 4.  13  v i l l a g e settlement schemes. t o become modern farmers. on i r r i g a t i o n schemes.  Volunteers coming t o these new areas were expected  They were expected to use machinery and perhaps carry  I t was r i g h t l y anticipated that the e f f e c t of these  Settlement Schemes would be far-reaching.  Besides the farms, they would require  roads, trading centres, and some l o c a l industries as w e l l as schools f o r children and health centres to help people enjoy the l i f e they were to create. Industry. The p o l i c y toward industry i s the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of i n d u s t r i e s .  It  was argued that simply explanding a g r i c u l t u r a l output would be to condemn  14 the country t o a p o s i t i o n of permanent economic i n f e r i o r i t y i n the world.  It  was therefore emphasized that the country should have more balance i n her economy and end the absolute reliance on the prices of primary commodities.  During  the f i v e years covered by the Plan, i t i s intended t o speed up i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n considerably and the aim i s a rate of growth of the i n d u s t r i a l sector which i s to be more than twice as f a s t as. that of agriculture. Education. I t has already been stated that one of the major long term objectives of Tanzania's planning i s to be s e l f s u f f i c i e n t i n t r a i n e d manpower by  1980.  According to the Plan t h i s meant a c a r e f u l l y planned expansion of education. The purpose of Government expenditure on education i n the following jears was to equip Tanzanians with the s k i l l s and the knowledge which are needed i f the development of the country i s to be achieved.  Two key f i e l d s f o r attention  were said to be adult education and the expansion of formal education i n the secondary and t e c h n i c a l l e v e l s .  15  The Arusha Declaration put further emphasis on  13 I b i d . , p.363. 14 I b i d . , p.364 15 A p o l i c y declaration regarding the p r i n c i p l e s and p o l i c i e s of A f r i c a n socialism. The declaration was made at Arusha i n February 1967.  42, the production of technicians. I t was stated that rather than t r a i n lawyers and Arts graduates accelerated emphasis could be put on turning out i n l a r g er numbers, economists,  a g r i c u l t u r a l i s t s , educators, doctors, engineers  and such other e s s e n t i a l experts. Natural resources and Economic Growth - the Value of Resources I n order to evaluate the need f o r t e c h n i c a l l y s k i l l e d manpower i n Tanzania, i t i s important to make an examination of resources which can 16 be u t i l i z e d .  Meir pointed out that such an assessment of assets should i n -  clude the major f o s s i l fuels such as o i l , coal, hydroelectric power, the chief ferous and non ferous minerals and the a g r i c u l t u r a l s o i l s , timber and other l i v i n g resources.  This i s not a complete l i s t of resources, climate, f o r  example can be exceedingly important, and so i s a c c e s s i b i l i t y to the r e s t of the world.  I t has often been argued that Tanzania's low l e v e l of develop-  ment i s due to the l i m i t a t i o n s created by her p h y s i c a l environment.  It is  17 quite true, as Meir  points out, that a generalization has arisen from theoret-  i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l analysis that a high resource l e v e l has i n the past promoted opportunities f o r economic growth.  Meier continues that when com-  paring one l i s t of nations ranked according to resource l e v e l with another graded according t o the income l e v e l achieved, i t i s u s e f u l to i d e n t i f y the exceptions to the r u l e .  What happened i n those instances?  that hadmanaged to reach unusually high incomes  The countries  ($250 t o $450 per capital)  despite a paucity of p h y s i c a l resources according to Meier were I s r a e l , I t a l y , Japan, Turkey and Lebanon.  He said that, f o r quite d i f f e r e n t reasons,  I s r a e l and Lebanon have found means of obtaining c a p i t a l and s k i l l s from 16  Meier, R.L.,  1965), P.13. 17  Ibid.,  p.20.  Developmental Planning, (New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company,  DIAGRAM 1. DIAGRAM  OF  EDUCATIONAL  SYSTEM FOR AFRICANS, 1959  General  \tMnof  t j. t  * iO*  fcuyil Tcchtucul tull<|l  Form V  •3  Grade I  Dtparimenul  TetfinmJ  Training C " « ' v )  Inn n u't  School CirnAcaia Sund-rUXtl  l>2  C r * k II  Sund-rd IX  | m  "2 r  II  S u r j j r d V||  111.4 -N  * 5  -  i..mljrj V  1 Hakhed J / C J V reprcjcnt " » « t ( i p e " f t i » n previous ,  NUMtfR Of PUPILS  Adapted from:  International Bank f o r Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika. (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1961), p.304.  44. Overseas through the use of family and ethnic t i e s .  I t a l y and Japan have  b u i l t P manufacturing enterprises which compete f o r p r i c e and q u a l i t y anyU  where i n the world, even though almost a l l the value of raw materials other than f u e l i s based upon mechanized a g r i c u l t u r e . On the other hand, i t i s made c l e a r that a l l these countries except Lebanon have received rather large infusions of foreign a i d since World War I I ; countries such as Burma and Ceylon, which had refused a i d ofnany kinds, have not done so w e l l .  An  examination of Tanzania's resources f o r development i s made on the assumption fiat e s s e n t i a l f o r e i g n a i d w i l l be a v a i l a b l e . Scope f o r Action i n the Developmental Process i n Tanzania The purpose of t h i s discussion i s to point out some of the areas i n which t e c h n i c a l l y trained manpower i s needed i n order to achieve the national objectives of increased a g r i c u l t u r a l and i n d u s t r i a l production. Prospects and problems of c e r t a i n major crops. I n 1961,  the i n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o r reconstruction and development  made a thorough study of Tanzania's economy. Most of the material  presented  18 i n t h i s section i s based on the recommendations made by the Mission. Coffee. I n order to increase the quantity of coffee, new be opened.  lands have to  At present, the areas i n which coffee i s grown form the areas of  population pressure.  This i s because of the f e r t i l i t y of the highland s o i l s ,  as w e l l as the c o o l wet climate found i n the areas.  At the same time coffee  has to compete with fo<Jd crops grown on small plots of land.  However, i f new  lands have to be opened, there has to be adequate communication f a c i l i t i e s 18 International Bank f o r Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika, (Baltimore: The John Hopkins Press, 1961) pp.361-401.  *5. which are now confined to the s e t t l e d areas.  Without suitable communication  means, supervision and extension work w i l l be d i f f i c u l t and c o s t l y and the returns to the growers w i l l be reduced by high transport costs.  Another  advantage of good communication w i l l be to enable growers to take t h e i r coffee to c e n t r a l co-operative pulperies where the work can be done e f f i c i e n t l y by trained personnel i n order to upgrade the q u a l i t y of coffee to what has been achieved i n Kenya.  I t has been argued that c e n t r a l pulperies undoubt-  edly produce better q u a l i t y coffee, nevertheless the premium obtainable would not recompense the growers f o r the extra cost of having t h e i r coffee prepared by paid labour instead of family labour.  The other argument points  out that the cost of erecting a c e n t r a l factory to handle 150 coffee i s about •sh. 373  2,500.  to sh. 900,  tons of clean  Factory costs per ton i n Kenya varied widely from  the average being sh. 600 ( 30).  Allowing f o r 20-year  amortization of 2,500 borrowed at 6 per cent, the pulpery cost per ton would not exceed  32,  while, as already mentioned, the difference i n p r i c e between  Tanzanian and Kenyan A f r i c a n grown coffee i n the 1958-59 season was  150  per ton.  Scbpe f o r Water Development. The c h i e f f a c t o r l i m i t e d and shaping the a g r i c u l t u r a l and l i v e stock p o t e n t i a l of the t e r r i t o r y i s r a i n f a l l .  R a i n f a l l over most of the  country i s seasonal and u n r e l i a b l e , varying greatly i n t o t a l from year to year and i n i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n between months within the rainy season.  Thus,  t h i s l i m i t s the production of annual crops to only part of the year.  In  46. some areas, where there are two good r a i n y seasons a year or one long rainy season, perennial crops can be grown and good y i e l d s of annuals are possible. One of the proposals made as a means of transforming agriculture was t o e s t a b l i s h i r r i g a t i o n schemes.  I t was pointed out that i n order that  the f u l l promise of these schemes might be r e a l i z e d , the most c a r e f u l preparation was obviously required.  Consequently, i t was proposed that the  following f i v e years or so i n i r r i g a t i o n and f l o o d c o n t r o l work should be predominantly a period of investigation, planning and b u i l d i n g up t o s t a f f . Irrigation Potential. Tanzania has a great p o t e n t i a l i n i r r i g a t i o n .  This i s because  of the presence of large lakes and r i v e r s which flow from the highlands crossing dry regions.  There are some minor i r r i g a t i o n developments i n the  f l o o d p l a i n s and at some other places i n the more narrow parts of the Ruvu V a l l e y .  These do not exceed 1,000 acres.  They are mainly on estates  and f u r t h e r development i s halted p a r t l y by lack of c a p i t a l and p a r t l y by r i s k of floods.  Perhaps the most important i r r i g a t i o n p o t e n t i a l i s  the Central Region.  This region has some of the r i c h e s t s o i l s i n the country  but with only a short rainy season of less than 35 inches, followed by a long severe dry season, perennial crops are quick-maturing,  drought r e -  s i s t a n t species and y i e l d s are low. I n these areas, pasturage f o r stock i s very meagre during the dry season. p e r s i s t over the area.  On the whole, semi-desert  conditions  From time t o time the Government has indicated i n -  tention of i r r i g a t i n g some parts of t h i s region, bringing the water from Lake V i c t o r i a .  Some of the problems involved i n such a project are the  distance t o be covered, the almost f l a t plateau land f o r pumping problems  47. and most of a l l , because of the hot dry climate, evaporation rate, w i l l be very high.  But through technological applications these d i f f i c u l t i e s  can be overcome. The Lower R u f i j i V a l l e y . This i s a huge empty part of the R u f i j i River Basin and l i e s south of the Kilombero V a l l e y and the Mahenga Plateau. 100 miles long and some 5 to 20 miles wide and lUs flooding.  The Valfey i s  subject t o frequent  The v a l l e y received some 25 to 45 inches of r a i n f a l l average  per annum. A breakdown of groups and r a i n f a l l indicated that 175,000 acres of a l l u v i a l clays are found, of which i 0 percent receive 25 to 30 inches, 25 percent receive 20 to 40 inches and 65 per cent receive 40 inches or s l i g h t l y more mean annual r a i n f a l l . This v a l l e y has a r e l a t i v e l y  dense population by comparison  with the other v a l l e y s and plains of the R u f i j i Basin, the permanent settlements being on the higher grounds.  The superior attractiveness of  the more f e r t i l e v a l l e y f l o o r as against the poorer s o i l surrounding i t , even i n the present conditions of lack of f l o o d control, i s c l e a r l y demonstrated; of a populati on i n the R u f i j i D i s t r i c t of s l i g h t l y over 100,000, 75 percent has s e t t l e d on the valley f l o o r and i t s immediate neighboring slopes, that i s on 16 per cent of the d i s t r i c t .  The type of land use i s  l a r g e l y influenced by hydrographic conditions. The major crop i s paddy r i c e planted on receding floods. Maize i s grown both i n the v a l l e y and outside i t (where cassava i s the other food crop). third, crop i s cotton.  I n the v a l l e y , the  I f 'the paddy planting i s successful no cotton  48. w i l l be planted.  But there are years when paddy cannot be planted because  of lack of floods or suffers washing away by severe f l o o d . planted, sometimes successfully. the  Then cotton i s  An idea of the s i t u a t i o n i s given i n  accompanying table. I t has been stated that i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to decide how improve-  ment can be approached. Complete f l o o d control deprives farmers of the good chance of planting paddy on receding floods or of planting cotton i n the wet s o i l i f the paddy f a i l s or i s washed out. I r r i g a t i o n development has not taken place t o day bit t r i a l s have been undertaken.  However, the two t r i a l farms have both been abandoned  because of flooding d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Thus progress i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g the future  p o t e n t i a l and desirable systems of water control and land use have been blocked. The East A f r i c a n Economic Community and Manpower Needs of Tanzania. The impact of the East A f r i c a n community on Tanzania has not been f e l t or analysed as yet, but few generalizations can be arrived at. The economic community i s an agreement between the three countries - Kenya, Uganda, and Tanzania, whereby the three countries w i l l co-operate t o f o s t e r  19 economic development of each country on equal basis. the  This means that i n  future, much i n d u s t r i a l development w i l l be directed to Tanzania or Uganda  who are f a r behind Kenya i n t h i s aspect.  The purpose therefore w i l l be t o  ensure that "no one country i n the community becomes an i n d u s t r i a l backwater f o r lack of investment". 19  For Tanzania, t h i s agreement i s of great significance  The Standard, (Dar es Salaam), Deeember 2, 1967,  p.l.  49.  TABLE 3. CROP YIELDS IN RELATION TO FLOOD OR RAINFALL CONDITIONS  Year  Flood or r a i n f a l l  1947  I d e a l floods  1943  conditions  T o t a l weight (tons) Paddy Cotton  3,000  600  Heavy i r r e g u l a r floods  300  100  19**9  No floods, f a i l i n g  200  350  1950  Favourable floods  3.500  900  1951  Good r a i n f a l l  7,000  100  1952  Heavy floods  1,000  300  1953  Good r a i n f a l l  4,300  100  1954  Moderate floods  6,300  250  1955  I d e a l floods  9.600  200  1956  Short heavy floods  Source:  rainfall  600  International Bank f o r Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1962), p.365.  1,900  50 since she has the l e a s t share of i n d u s t r i a l establishments.  To be able  to cope with the anticipated i n d u s t r i a l growth, Tanzania w i l l more than ever need a better t e c h n i c a l l y equipped labour force at a l l l e v e l s . Another provision of the agreement which w i l l put pressure on the need of t e c h n i c a l l y trained manpower of Tanzania i s the s e l e c t i o n of Arusha as the Headquarters of the Economic Community. One c l e a r r e s u l t i s the recent f a s t growth of t h i s small town which w i l l d e f i n i t e l y be a c c e l erated further by t h i s provision.  The b u i l d i n g industry t o provide  offices  and accommodation as w e l l as services f o r the administrators of the Community w i l l demand a large labour force with t e c h n i c a l a b i l i t y .  Estimating Manpower needs i n Tanzania - the V o l t a River Project as the case study. I t i s not easy t o estimate or evaluate the manpower needs i n such numerous development projects as Tanzania i s undertaking, but an exami n a t i o n of what the needs have been i n some of the other developing  countries  helps t o give some idea of the magnitude of the t e c h n i c a l l y equipped manpower needs. Although manpower projections f o r Tanzania have been made, these cover the needs i n f i e l d s such as teaching, agriculture, nursing, engineering but no figures are available as t o the number of people that w i l l be required i n the type of projects described above.  I n order t o have an  i d e a of the magnitude of manpower i n developmental projects such as these, the manpower needs of the V o l t a River Project i n Ghana i s taken as a case study.  51. Manpower Requirements of the V o l t a River Project, The V o l t a River Project was a malti-faceted scheme which was  20  harnessed i n Ghana i n 1967.  The scheme involved mining of bauxite, i t s  reduction t o aluminium, using the power from a hydro-electric development on the V o l t a River, the i r r i g a t i o n of a part of the Accra P l a i n s , improvement of transportation, provision of power f o r urban and i n d u s t r i a l uses and minor a d d i t i o n a l features such as the stocking of f i s h i n the V o l t a dam. The whole project was estimated at the cost of $867 m i l l i o n . During the arrangements f o r the launching of t h i s project, there was complete agreement that the t r a i n i n g of Africans at a l l l e v e l s , and i n a l l professions and skills,would be a most important objective of the scheme.  One way of accomplishing  t h i s was thought t o be by having  each i n d i v i d u a l of the overseas s t a f f assume c e r t a i n t r a i n i n g r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s . However there were negative factors which had t o be borne i n mind.  These  were low t e c h n i c a l s k i l l s i n Ghana, the competition f o r t e c h n i c a l and management t a l e n t , the propensity f o r Ghanaian students t o p r e f e r  non-technical  t r a i n i n g , and the length of time required f o r experience as well as t r a i n i n g .  20 Hance, William A., A f r i c a n Economic Development, (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958), p.64.  52  TABLE 4  MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS OF THE VOLTA RIVER PROJECT  Construction Stage Professional! & Skilled  Africans UnSkilled  Total  Overseer Staff  1,020  535  2,720  4,275  210  4,650  2,340  8,305  15.295  785  1,390  575  2,550  4,515  245  F i r s t Year Sixth(peak) year  SemiSkilled  E i g h t h ( f i n a l ) year  Full-Operating Stage ( A l l S t a f f ) Supervisory  Skilled & SemiSkilled  UnSkilled Total  Mines  40  560  220  820  Power Project  18  67  60  145  400  7,670  1,430  9.500  458  8,297  1,710  10,465  Smelter  TOTAL  Source: Hance, William A., A f r i c a n Economic Development (New York: Harper & Brothers, 1958), p.65  53 Manpower Supply i n Tanzania I n 1964,  a report of the Manpower Planning Unit stated that  i t had been possible from the 1962 Survey t o establish some broad orders of magnitude t o guide educational planning f o r secondry, t e c h n i c a l and u n i v e r s i t y outputs i n the preparation of the Five-year Plan.  However, there  had been and was an urgent need f o r demand and supply projections f o r a l l s p e c i f i c high l e v e l occupations under the conditions l a i d down i n the plan, and f o r the same f i v e years covered by the Plan.  The 1964 survey concentrated  almost wholly on the projections of demand and supply f o r the high l e v e l occupations.  (Table 5)  Secondary School (Form IV) Outputs i n Relation t o Demand. I t has been stated that the output of the secondary school system i s the key t o the problem of bringing i n t o being the number and kinds of high l e v e l manpower t o meet the estimated requirements during the process of development. imately  During the f i v e years of the plan, output would be approx-  25,000 from Form IV.  I n terms of urgency, and p r i o r i t y , i t was stated  that f i r s t claim on t h i s supply would be given t o formal education and t r a i n ing i n s t i t u t i o n s devoted t o providing people f o r jobs normally requiring a u n i v e r s i t y degree and those which normally require from one t o three years of formal post-secondary (Form IV) education and t r a i n i n g .  The p r i n c i p a l  i n s t i t u t i o n a l requirements are shown i n Table 6. Job requirements i n Category "C", that i s , of s k i l l e d o f f i c e workers and the s k i l l e d manual workers i n the "modern c r a f t s " (involving p r e c i s i o n metal working, e l e c t r i c i t y and e l e c t r i c a l machinery) are shown i n Table 7.  54, TABLE 5 EMPLOYMENT AND OCCUPATIONAL COVERAGE OF THE 1964 SURVEY  Total Employment  Employment i n Surveyed Establishments  Percent Surveyed of Total  6,774  3,188  47$  Manufacturing & Processing  23,073  18,280  80$  Construction (private)  12,771  5.197  40$  Commerce D i s t r i b u t i o n  16,676  4,200  2$  Transport  25,300  21,600  85$  Services  22,635  2,200  10$  Utilities  1,720  1,720  100$  82,380  82,380  100$  191,300  138,825  Mining  communication  A l l Government - Central & Local (excluding p a r a s t a l enterprises)  TOTAL  72.3$  Source : Development Plan Quarterly, Employment Report, June 30, 1964, The Manpower Demand Supply Outlook at D i f f e r e n t Levels of Education.  55 TABLE 6 SECONDARY SCHOOL OUTPUTS REQUIRED DURING THE FIVE YEAR PLANS FOR THE PRINCIPAL "PIPELINES" OF FURTHER EDUCATION AND TRAINING. Post-Secondary Education  Output  Grade A Teacher Training To University (Form 5) Engineering Technician Diploma courses Agriculture { f i e l d o f f i c e level) Agriculture (assistant f i e l d o f f i c e r level) Nurses Training (Ex Form 4 beginning i n 1967 with 60 per year) M i n i s t r y of Health Medical School and Health Inspector Pre-Service Training  4,860* 4,820** 700 285 830 180  * Five-Year Plan Volume I I , p.116 ** Five-Year Plan Volume I I , p. 103  12,000 (rounded)  ~  120  Source: Smith, H.E. (Ed.), Readings on Economic Development and Administration i n Tanzania, (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), p.428.  TABLE 7 OUTPUT SHORTFALL IN CATEGORY "C"  Item  Skilled Office Workers  Skilled Modern Craft  I d e a l Requirement  13,000  3,900  Proportionate Share of Form IV  9,880  3,100  Balance Unmet  3,400  900  Source:  Smith, H.E. (Ed.), Readings on Economic Development and Administration i n Tanzania. (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), p.428.  56 The output from Form IV, i t was pointed out, would go a long way towards providing a supply with the proper educational base f o r the requirements of the s k i l l e d o f f i c e worker segment of Category "C".  The  s p e c i f i c s k i l l s would l a r g e l y be acquired on the job, augmented i n some of the occupations by short, formal t r a i n i n g classes, f o r example, stenographers, typists,  bookkeepers.  Category "A" Occupations (University Level) I t has been said that the requirements i n t h i s category, as revealed i n the 1964 Survey of High L e v e l Manpower, are s l i g h t l y lower than the approximation which had t o be estimated f o r the F i v e Year Plan before 21 the Survey had been taken, that i s , 2,905 as against 3,200 shown i n the Plan. In order to have a better p i c t u r e of the demand supply outlook i n t h i s category, the occupations are subdivided i n t o three groups. (Table 8) P r i n c i p a l Lines of Action i n Tanzanian Manpower Aspects of the Plan At the time the Plan was drafted, i t was said that there were only four broad l i n e s of action open t o Tanzania ( o r any country) i n acquiring the necessary high-level human c a p i t a l e s s e n t i a l t o i t s development.  Tanzania was going t o pursue vigorously a l l of them during the  plan period. (a)  Better U t i l i z a t i o n of the High L e v e l Manpower already on the job. An important target set i n the Plan, i t was stated was a substantial increase per annum i n the productivity of Government personnel. While these targets affected performance at a l l l e v e l s of s k i l l ,  21  Five Year Plan, Volume I , p.82.  57. TABLE 8.  DEMAND-SUPPLY OUTLOOK IN CATEGORY "A,"  Occupation  Demand  Science/Maths based occupations ( i . e . Engineers, S c i e n t i s t s , Doctors, et.al)  1,437  Supply  843  -594  -344  Other occupations requiring s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g (Graduate Teachers, S o c i a l Workers, Lawyers, etc.)  943  599  Occupations open t o entrants with nonspecialized Degrees, B.A. (Aministration, government, business executives, etc.)  525  522  2,905  1.964  TOTAL  Source:  Difference  Approx. i n balance  -941  Smith, H.E., (Ed.). Readings on Economic Developments and Administrat i o n i n Tanzania, p. 430.  58. they were p a r t i c u l a r l y important i n the high l e v e l s k i l l s . (b)  Upgrading by means of i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g schemes currently employed  lower s k i l l e d workers.  I t was said that Government f a c i l i t i e s and programs f o r increasing the supply of high l e v e l manpower through t h i s avenue were r e l a t i v e l y well developed and active, forming an excellent base f o r expansion and improvement during the plan. (c)  Expanding Education and Training i n the Schools. The key to increasing the supply of high l e v e l manpower through t h i s basic means revolves around the amount and kind of outputs from the secondary school forms.  The Plan included provision f o r a  very large increase i n the outputs of both Form IV and Form VI. Form IV output would r i s e from 2840 i n 1963/64 t o nearly 6,000 i n 1969» an increase of about 110 percent.  Form VI would r i s e from  258 at the end of 1963 t o 1080 i n 1969. an increase of over 300 percent. The majority of the urgently nedded Class A occupations involve heavily elements of those with s c i e n t i f i c or mathematical a b i l i t y .  I n order  to enter the f a c u l t i e s which turn out engineers, s c i e n t i s t s , doctors and the majority of needed graduate secondary teachers, a Higher C e r t i f i c a t e with a science bias i s required. Up t o very recently, very few of the Higher School C e r t i f i c a t e holders had a science q u a l i f i c a t i o n and as a r e s u l t the output of Tanzanians from A f r i c a n University and elsewhere trained f o r these occupations was n e g l i g i b l e .  59 In order t o remedy t h i s situation, the M i n i s t r y of Education has made moves t o a t t a i n an output of 4 Higher School C e r t i f i c a t e s t o 3 Arts. its  I n order t o f a c i l i t a t e t h i s process, the Government w i l l concentrate  offers of bursaries l a r g e l y i n courses which w i l l prepare Tanzanians  f o r those occupations which the country most urgently needs to f i l l i n order to carry out i t s development program. (d)  Retaining of E x i s t i n g ExpatriateExperts and Recruitment of Others f o r the Shortage Occupations. At the time the plan was drawn, t h i s was said t o be a necessary expedient t o bridge the gap between high l e v e l manpower requirements and supply, u n t i l the preceding three measures have made i t possible t o f i l l a l l such posts with Tanzanian c i t i z e n s .  22 Manpower planning i n Tanzania, as Resnick  points out, arose  from a conviction on the part of theGovernment that the s k i l l e d manpower required f o r the achievement of economic development could best be attained through the a l l o c a t i o n of educational resources t o the production of the s k i l l s most c r i t i c a l l y i n short supply.  I t i s c l e a r l y pointed out by Resnick  that a v a r i e t y of manpower analyses which have been conducted i n the country since 1959» had a l l come t o the same main conclusion: that the expansion of secondary education was urgently required aid was a prerequisite f o r the success of any attempt t o a l l e v i a t e manpower shortages. By a close study of the Manpower Plan, one i s struck by the low emphasis put on what happens a f t e r a student has f i n i s h e d secondary school, apart from the few who go on to U n i v e r s i t i e s .  At t h i s point, i t might be  22 Resnick, I.N., "Manpower Development i n Tanzania", Journal of Modern A f r i c a n Studies, Vol.. 5. No. 1 (May, 1967), p.107.  60. of value t o consider the c r i t i c i s m s which were made i n the Robbins Report on Higher Education.  A comment of Lord Eccles can be taken as an example.  Consider the future demand f o r technicians. Dnder Robbins' proposals, we must contemplate a great increase i n the number of young people with p r o f e s s i o n a l q u a l i f i c a t i o n s - with degrees of one kind or another. Every year we w i l l see more p o t e n t i a l lawyers, teachers, mathematicians, historians, s c i e n t i s t s , engineers, archeologists, and so on. Tailing them a l l together, how w i l l t h i s r i s i n g number of professional men and women make a success of t h e i r careers i f the technicians are not there to support them 23 Some of Tanzania's " l i n e s of action" i n the manpower problems are: better u t i l i z a t i o n of the high l e v e l manpower already on the job and the upgrading of the currently employed lower s k i l l e d workers. i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g have been discussed e a r l i e r .  The problems of  These include the r e l u c -  tance of employers to part with t h e i r needed employees even f o r a short period, and, i n addition, the problems of these people leaving t h e i r f a m i l i e s and most important perhaps are the problems of age and a b i l i t y t o l e a r n . 24 as Young  Besides,  pointed out, a l l technological education possesses to a greater or  l e s s e r extent a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n not found i n other professions; and also, the need to acquire s p e c i f i c vocabularies, t o engage i n long periods of p r a c t i c a l study i n workshop and laboratory, and the c u l t i v a t i o n of habits of thought unusual among layment.  A l l these factors lead to a conclusion  that formal t e c h n i c a l education i s of great importance.  The  upgrading  and i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g systems are e s s e n t i a l but only to supplement the needs and not as the solutions to the problem of shortage i n the supply of technicians. Training Technicians f o r L o c a l Needs Economic development i n the developing countries involves p r i n c i p a l l y the adoption of superior technology i n the economic sense i n the 23 Young, J.T., Technicians Today and Tomorrow. and Sons, 1965), p.177. 24  Ibid.,  p.178  (London: S i r Isaac Pitman  61 various sectors of the economy.  Since technology i s l a r g e l y developed i n  the i n d u s t r i a l countries, i n amy  cases i t w i l l have t o be adapted to the needs  of underdeveloped  countries. Further, since modern technology has developed  i n the context of a c e r t a i n resource-endowment pattern of the developed countries, there w i l l be a need f o r a new type of technology i n some cases, t o s u i t the resources-endowment pattern of the underdeveloped countries. Moreover, no improved technology can be widely adopted without p r i o r development of the appropriate s k i l l s i n the developing countries. Technical change i n the developing countries thus would involve (a) adaptation of the modern technology suited t o t h e i r resources-endowment; and (c) development of approp r i a t e s k i l l s through educational and other i n s t i t u t i o n s . Obviously the underdeveloped  countries would have to create an  i n s t i t u t i o n f o r the purpose of adapting modern technology i f the process i s t o be r a t i o n a l and i s t o be accelerated. Adaptation of technology can be achieved only by knowing how t o use i t f o r s p e c i f i c purposes. i s only through the formulation and implementation that modem technology can be adapted.  Thus i t  of concrete projects  The designing of s p e c i f i c projects  i s the c r u c i a l stage. This a b i l i t y t o design projects i s very rare i n underdeveloped countries.  The need therefore arises f o r technical assistance i n design-  i n g projects as w e l l as f o r t r a i n i n g personnel i n acquiring t h i s a b i l i t y . Each country thus should s t a r t with a project centre, the task of which would be t o design projects i n c e r t a i n f i e l d s , f o r i t would not be possible f o r each counrry to design f o r i t s e l f projects i n a l l the f i e l d s , and t r a i n the personnel necessary f o r the purpose.  Without the t r a i n i n g of the l o c a l per-  sonnel no accelerated development i s possible.  62, As i t has already been noted that modern technology as i t has developed might not s u i t a l l the needs of underdeveloped countries, i t i s necessary also tohave a Technological Research I n s t i t u t e which w i l l s p e c i a l i z e i n evolving an appropriate technology f o r the developing countries. At the same time t h i s w i l l undertake research i n the f i e l d of the patterns of educational systems best suited to quickening the pace of s k i l l ment i n the developing countries.  develop-  What i s necessary i s not so much to take  the existing pattern of education - but to make changes i n the system so as to develop the needed s k i l l e d personnel most economically and at the required rate.  This i s the basic problem i n accelerating t e c h n i c a l change.  63 CHAPTER 3 MANPOWER PLANNING, EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE SOVIET UNION, I t i s generally accepted that the Sovet Union, during the l a s t few decades, has undergone profound economic, s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l transformations and these c u l t u r a l transformations have been of great concern to the free world.  I t i s a w e l l recognized f a c t that, f o r twenty-five years,  the U.S.S.R. has made immense e f f o r t s toward the elimination of i t s economic backwardness and toward the increase of i t s i n d u s t r i a l , m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l power.  F o r the achievement of these aims, the Soviet Union has con-  centrated heavily on education, on the elimination of i l l i t e r a c y , on the wide d i f f u s i o n of t e c h n i c a l knowledge and on the strengthening of the p o l i t i c a l l o y a l t y of i t s c i t i z e n s .  De Witt notes that over the l a s t two decades, under  the slogan "Cadres decide the outcome of everything", the Soviet Union has proceeded with the buildup of i t s s k i l l e d labour and of i t s professional and specialized t e c h n i c a l manpower resources.  I t was r e a l i z e d that the success  of these e f f o r t s was a necessary condition f o r i n d u s t r i a l development technological advance and, ultimately , m i l i t a r y and p o l i t i c a l power. Looking at the s i t u a t i o n i n the United States, WolTle stated that i t was what has been c a l l e d the cold war - or unsettled peace -i and the resp o n s i b i l i t i e s which have f a l l e n upon her as the most powerful nation i n the free world, which have i n s p i r e d a unique concern with the adequacy of her 1 Wolfle, D., America's Resources of S p e c i a l i z e d Talent .(New York: Harper & Brothers, 1954), p.21.  64. resources  of specialized, t e c h n i c a l and professional manpower.  This concern  brought f o r t h a c a r e f u l extensively documented i n q u i r y regarding America's s p e c i a l i z e d manpower by the Commission on Human Resources and Advanced T r a i n ing,  prepared under the d i r e c t i o n of Dael Wdfle as well as several studies of  American p o l i c i e s towards s p e c i a l i z e d manpower by the National Manpower 2 Council whose tasks have already been outlined i n the f i r s t chapter.  These  studies shed new l i g h t on the problem of the adequacy of America's specialized manpower resources and upon the p o l i c i e s which have been described as so i n dispensable f o r the preservation of America's technological and s c i e n t i f i c leadership. One of the consequences of the emergence of a modern, increasingly complex, i n d u s t r i a l and s o c i a l organization, has been t y p i f i e d by a marked d i v i s i o n of labour and s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  Technological advance has been e i t h e r  the cause or the r e s u l t of economic growth.  I n e f f e c t , as De Witt suggested,  i t may have been both. I t i s considered unnecessary t o go i n t o the complexity of the causal relationships between technological advance and economic growth, however, or t o consider the economic factors conditioning the c a p i t a l formation e s s e n t i a l f o r the ahievement of both, i n order to r e a l i z e that the quanti t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e aspects of labour are what have often been described as "unique" and "paramount" determinants of economic growth and technological advance. I t i s an accepted f a c t that economic development, the technological change and the s o c i a l evolution of society under the impact of both, depend upon a large number of people who, i n varying degrees of importance and i n a multitude  of diverse f i e l d s exercise t h e i r occupational s k i l l s .  While the  o v e r a l l quantity of labour i s p r i m a r i l y dependent upon population growth, the 2 National Manpower Council, A P o l i c y f o r S c i e n t i f i c and Professional ManPower. A p o l i c y f o r skilled manpower. U t i l i y.ation o f S c i e n t i f i c and Prof e s s i o n a l Manpower (Mew York: Columbia University Press, 1953,1954,1955). p.6.  65. q u a l i t y of labour i s conditioned by the l e v e l and type of education, the extent and d i r e c t i o n of s p e c i a l i z e d t r a i n i n g and the experience of an i n d i v i d u a l or of diverse groups of i n d i v i d u a l s who comprise the labour force.  These three factors  a f f e c t i n g the q u a l i t y of labour become increasingly important i n a modern industri a l development which undoubtedly i s founded on the application of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge t o the production and d i s t r i b u t i o n of goods and services. Soviet Economic Development I n t h i s chapter i t i s intended to outline the Soviet achievements or f a i l u r e s i n the key i n d i c a t o r s of economic development - i n agriculture, industry and labour productivity.  This f a c t o r has to be borne i n mind when the trends i n  education are considered.  I t has already been pointed out that causal r e l a t i o n -  ships are not easy to determine; however, i n Chapter One under the topics on the r o l e of education i n economic growth and the concept of education as an investment,  an attempt was made to r e l a t e these factors and i t was shown that  education plays an important r o l e i n economic growth. Production of Crops and Livestock Products. Much of the increase i n production of crops that occurred during the past decade i n the U.S.S.R. was attributable to an expansion i n the sown acreage. This expansion was p r i m a r i l y confined to the period 1954 lands were being ploughed.  to 1956  when the  new  The acreage of grain and other crops used p r i m a r i l y  f o r l i v e s t o c k feed increased most. Production of most t e c h n i c a l crops i n the U.S.S.R. increased during the past decade.  The: iamounts of sugar bests, sunflower seeds, and f i b e r f l a x  produced was about double the s i z e of the harvests i n the early 1950*s.  The  increase i n production of sugar beet was l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of an expansion i n  66.  acreage whereas increased y i e l d s accounted f o r most of the increase of sunflower seeds and f i b e r f l a x .  Increases i n the y i e l d of cotton  were achieved l a r g e l y by s h i f t i n g cotton from non-irrigated t o i r r i g a t e d land. Major Programs to Stimulate Growth. I n the e f f o r t to increase a g r i c u l t u r a l production, Mr. Krushchev sponsored four main programs. land program".  One of these was the  The o r i g i n a l goal announced i n early 1954  and seed not less than t h i r t e e n m i l l i o n hectares. i n 1955,  "new  was to reclaim  I t i s reported that  which probably was the most c o s t l y year of the program, the  new land accounted f o r approximately twenty per cent of the t o t a l planned allocations of budgeting expenditures f o r agriculture.  Alloca-  tions of a g r i c u l t u r a l machinery were large and were made at the expense of the older a g r i c u l t u r a l areas.  Other programs i n i t i a t e d by Krushchev  were the corn program; the program to catch up with the United States i n production of meat and milk, and the fourth program which c a l l e d f o r a r a d i c a l change i n the cropping system. Factors Influencing Growth. Two main factors that influenced growth i n the a g r i c u l t u r a l sector were c a p i t a l inputs and p r i c e s and wages.  As i t has been  mentioned above, the percentage of t o t a l productive investment that went to agriculture reached a peak i n  1955*  Much of t h i s was given t o  the construction of a g r i c u l t u r a l machines and production of f e r t i l i z e r s and feeds.  67 P r i c e s and Wages, Wages and salaries were a factor i n influencing growth i n that these had been i n t o l e r a b l y low and had discouraged producers.  But i n  1953 money incentives were prominent among the measures taken t o improve the a g r i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n .  Procurement prices were raised, tax concessions  were made and obligatory d e l i v e r i e s from private plots were decreased and then abolished. Besides these factors, some changes i n a g r i c u l t u r a l organization were made.  These included reorganization of machine t r a c t o r stations.  Whereas machine t r a c t o r stations had controlled nearly a l l the machinery used on the farms, i n 1958 Krushchev proposed that the machines be taken over by farmers because they were "large enough with adequately trained cadres" and the stations would be used as repair and supply depots. I n d u s t r i a l Production i n the U.S.S.R, I n d u s t r i a l Production i n the U.S.S.R, has grown r a p i d l y i n the period 1950 t o 1961.  According t o the calculated index, the average  annual growth from 1950 t o 1955 was 10.1 per cent, from 1955 t o 1961, 8.7 per cent and f o r I960 and 1961, 6.6 per cent. I n a comparison of i n d u s t r i a l growth between the U.S.S.R,, Western countries and Japan, Japan's rate of growth i s the most s t a r t l i n g . I t not only f a r exceeded that of any European country but also of the U.S.S.R. during the growing period from 1928 t o 1937. I n the rapid surge of the f i r s t two 5-year plans Soviet; c i v i l i a n i n dustry grew 11.2 percent annually.  The growth of Soviet industry i n the post-war  68 period was about the same as that of Germany and I t a l y , greater than that of France and considerably greater than that of the United States. Soviet I n d u s t r i a l Labour P r o d u c t i v i t y One c h a r a c t e r i s t i c pointed out by Schroeder i s that papers on labour p r o d u c t i v i t y written by Soviet economists commonly begin with t h i s quotation: The p r o d u c t i v i t y of labour i s i n the l a s t analysis of the greatest impor"feno#t of the utmost importance to the v i c t o r y of the new s o c i a l structure. 3 I n the U.S.S.R., therefore, the f u l f i l l m e n t of plans f o r increased labour p r o d u c t i v i t y i s an important f o r workers and managers a l i k e .  success i n d i c a t o r i n the system of incentives  I n recent years labour p r o d u c t i v i t y i n d i c a t o r s  have been given a key r o l e i n the Soviet Union's assessment of i t s progress i n i t s self-imposed task of overtaking and surpassing the United States i n economic achievement.  Development of Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union  *  5  According t o Zvorykin, production i n the Soviet Union i s based on the Marxist s o c i o l o g i c a l theory that the growth of the productive forces i s the p r i n c i p a l change i n s o c i a l l i f e .  Their l e v e l , and the rate of t h e i r growth  are the basic c r i t e r i a of s o c i a l progress.  Marxist sociologists analyse the  productive forces i n t o the following elements.  F i r s t there are the objects of  labour which include raw materials and semi-finished goods, that i s , everything on which man works.  Second there are the instruments of labour, or those  objects with the help of which man  operates on the objects of labour.  Third,  there are the means of labour or the s p e c i f i c conditions necessary f o r the 3  Schroeder,  G., Soviet I n d u s t r i a l Labour Productivity, op.cit. p . l 4 l .  4 Zvorykin, A.A., "Development of the Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union" i n Osipov, G.V., Ed. Industry and Labour i n the U.S.S.R., (Londond: Tavistock  Publications, I966), p.16.  69. existence of the productive process which include, i n the wider sense, roads and buildings.  Fourth, there i s the worker, necessary f o r carrying out the productive  process, and f i f t h , there are the experience, s k i l l and knowledge (technology and natural science) which are applied i n the productive process.  Zvorykin  points out that no matter how great the r o l e played by objects of labour may they are not the determining element i n production.  be,  The material technical  bases on which production rests are of considerable importance f o r i t s development.  The technique of production, therefore, only serves as the most active,  material element of production.  The existence and functioning of the natural  elements of production are brought about only by tie a c t i v i t y of man who them i n t o motion and c a r r i e s on the production process.  The productive forces  reveal the character of the relations between man and nature. man  sets  They show how  operates en the objects of labour and c a r r i e s on the production process with  the help of instruments and means of labour u t i l i z i n g t h e i r mechanical, p h y s i c a l and chemical properties. I n the period of the t r a n s i t i o n , the productive forces of the Soviet Union were developing i n the following main directions: (1) (ii) (iii) (iv)  the e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n of the whole country; the consequent improvement of machinery, and the improvement of technology; a greater e f f i c i a n c y i n the organization of s o c i a l production i n industry and agriculture;  (v)  the o v e r a l l mechanization  of production;  (vi)  the s t e a d i l y increasing automation of production processes;  (vii)  the wide application of chemistry i n the national economy;  (viii)  the thorough development of new,  economically e f f e c t i v e industries  and new forms of power and materials; ix)  the thorough and r a t i o n a l u t i l i z a t i o n of natural resources;  70. (x)  the increase i n the rate of t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c progress;  (xi)  the closer relations of science t o production;  (xii)  the r i s e i n the c u l t u r a l and technical l e v e l of the people. The study of these factors governing the expansion of the productive  forces would make i t possible t o assess t h e i r importance and bring to l i g h t , t h e i r influence and mutual dependence.  This would be important not only f o r  theory but, also, e s p e c i a l l y f o r practice.  However, f o r t h i s purpose, much  attention w i l l be given t o the relationship between the rate of technical progress and increase i n national productivity. Electrification E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n occupies a place of s p e c i a l importance i n the development of the productive forces i n the Soviet Union.  I n a l l i t s high  d i v e r s i t y and application, modern technology i s based almost e n t i r e l y on e l e c t r i c power.  E l e c t r i c power i s transmitted over enormous distances, and  i s e a s i l y converted i n t o other forms of energy - thermal, l i g h t , chemical, mechanical.  I t serves as the foundation f o r many new technological processes  such as e l e c t r i c smelting, e l e c t r o l y s i s , electrothermy, electro-chemistry, e l e c t r i c welding and e l e c t r i c metal, metalworking.  E l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , therefore,  i s the mainspring of economic growth i n the Soviet Union.  A c o l o s s a l increase  i n the output of e l e c t r i c power had been planned f o r 1961 t o 1980.  5  I t was  stated that towards the close of the second decade, 1980, the Soviet Union w i l l be generating 2,700,000 t o 3,000,000 kilbwatts a year, while i n the t h i r d planning decade, 1961 t o 1970, the per capita consumption of power i n industry w i l l almost t r e b l e . I t was planned that power-consuming i n d u s t r i e s were t o be s w i f t l y expanded and complete e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n would cover 5  I b i d . , pp.17-18.  71 transport, agriculture and urban and r u r a l households.  6 I t was predicted that i n the course of the next wenty years, the c o u n t r y ^ e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n would d i f f e r from the present-day e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , not only quantitatively, but also q u a l i t a t i v e l y .  The Soviet Union was building  ever bigger hydroelectric and thermal power stations such as the 4,500,000 KW Bratsk and the 5»000,000 Krasnoyarsk stations.  A 2,400,000 KW thermal power  s t a t i o n was constructed at K r i v o i Rog and s t i l l bigger thermal power stations were being planned.  Power engineering would develop through the use of  various power resources, including f u e l (gas, l i q u i d and s o l i d ) , water,nuclear and thermo-nuclear power. Plant and Machinery. Plant and machinery which were being developed played a decisive r o l e i n the growth of the productive forces.  The discoveries that had been  made i n the sphere of atomic power had caused some s p e c i a l i s t s to advocate that atomic energy should be made the pivot of the development of productive forces.  Others» argued that the productive forces of future society would depend  on the development of synthetic chemistry. No matter how important these new trends might be i t was emphasized that i t was not they but the means of labour based on the use of e l e c t r i c a l energy, which would determine the most important d i r e c t i o n i n the development of productive forces.  The means of labour i n  p a r t i c u l a r would make possible the use of the opportunities provided by the e l e c t r i c a l energy and synthetic chemistry.  Technology. Zvorykin pointed out that technology formed a l i n k between the i n s t r u ments of labour and the objects of labour, and was the sum t o t a l of methods of operating on the objects of labour. I t was frequently i d e n t i f i e d with tools  6  Ibid.,  p.18  72, and machinery, because, as some economists and s o c i o l o g i s t s argued, every technological process was  formed within a d e f i n i t e system of t e c h n i c a l means.  7 Zvorykin said that t h i s approach could be shown to be wrong.  A technical  task, he argued, l i k e the working of a metal, could be accomplished by  various  technological methods such as cutting, stamping or p r e c i s i o n casting.  Materials  f o r i d e n t i c a l purposes could be produced by means of mechanical or chemical treatment.  Technological processes varied according t o t h e i r degree of  continuity and i n t e n s i t y . Mechanization and Automation One  of the general trends i n the development of the productive  i n the Soviet Union was  reported to be the universal mechanization.  forces  The advance  of technology had been linked up mainly with the improvement of machines i n basic production.  As a r e s u l t , the number of workers engaged i n t h i s prod-  uction decreased r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r than the number of workers engaged i n a u x i l i a r y operations.  I n f a c t , the l a t t e r sometimes had even decreased.  It  had been envisaged i n the Seven Year Plan that t e c h n i c a l improvements had to be made not only i n i n d i v i d u a l enterprises and basic industries but also i n the entire system f o r reception, storage, transportation and d i s t r i b u t i o n of raw materials and f o r the transportation, storage, loading and dispatch of semi-finished products.  I n agriculture as well, o v e r a l l mechanization has  been made the foundation f o r increasing the productivity of farm labour. Universal mechanization was Automation of production was  a new  inseparably linked with automation.  stage that had been made possible by the  j o i n t development of science and the technology and mainly by putting production on an e l e c t r i c power basis and the use of electronics and new  7  Ibid.,  p.19  improved  73. t e c h n i c a l means. Automation leads to the creation of the new productive apparatus of communist society. As the b u i l d i n g of communism progresses, automatic machine systems w i l l increasingly become the general form of production, they w i l l r a d i c a l l y change man's r o l e i n production and provide the material basis f o r eliminating the e s s e n t i a l differences between p h y s i c a l and mental labour. 8 ffatmsal Resources I n l i s t i n g the factors on which the productive force of labour depends, Zvorykin said that Marx had l a i d stress on natural conditions. 9 Man's p o s s i b i l i t i e s of penetrating i n t o the depths of the earth and making thorough surveys of natural wealth had increased many times over and the more systematic use of natural resources could accelerate the growth of the productive of labour "at an unheard of rate".  To hasten the process, p r i o r i t y  would be given to the use of natural resources that could be r a p i d l y  developed  and y i e l d the greatest economic b e n e f i t . Human Labour The human labour p o l i c y of the Soviet Union i s based on the p r i n c i p l e s that no matter how deep the changes that automation and the use of cybernetic devices w i l l make i n man's a c t i v i t y , he w i l l r e t a i n the leading r o l e i n a l l spheres of s o c i a l production. the l i m i t s  No matter how e f f e c t i v e the machine,  of i t s uses and the ways of improving them w i l l depend wholly  M on man.  The creation of the productive forces of communism, i t was stated,  were leading, not to the disappearance ment and transformation.  of labour but to i t s profound  The entire development of s o c i a l l i f e , the  developexpansion  of i t s material and t e c h n i c a l basis and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , the progress of science and technology, were preparing the ground f o r an organic merging of mental and p h y s i c a l labour i n the productive a c t i v i t y of people. ^Zvorykinr,, A.A., . c i t . , p.21. I b i d . , p.24 1 0  Ibid.,  p.25.  Development of the Productive Forces i n the Soviet Union,  74 I n 1913,  about two-thirds of the t o t a l number of i n d u s t r i a l workers  i n T s a r i s t Russia were employed i n t e x t i l e and clothing f a c t o r i e s and only 2.4 percent i n engineering and metalworking.  Today the corresponding figures  f o r the Soviet Union are 25.3 and 27.5 percent respectively.  Women also  make up a considerable section of the workers employed i n such branches of industry as food, f u r and leather, rubber, footwear, paper, and o i l r e f i n i n g . The Growth of the Number of Women Workers  11 I t was stated by Smimov that the formation and development of the Soviet working class could not be properly understock! without examining the part played by women i n t h i s process.  I n 1963, the number of women workers  and o f f i c e ^employees exceeded 34,300,000 which was 49 percent of the country's total.  I n T s a r i s t Russia, according t o the 1897 census data, 55$ of the women  wage workers were house servants and 25 percent were farm labourers, whereas only 13 percent were employed i n i n d u s t r i a l establishments or on building jobs and 4 percent i n education and public health i n s t i t u t i o n s .  I n the Soviet  Union 39 percent of the t o t a l number of women occupied i n the national economy i n 1961 were employed by industry and construction and 24 percent i n education and public health. Whereas i n 1913 women made 24.5 percent of the t o t a l i n d u s t r i a l labour force, by 1961, the percentage had r i s e n t o 45.  The follow-  ing two tables give an idea of how the percentage of women among t o t a l indust-  12 r i a l workers has increased i n the Soviet Union.  (See Tables 9 and 10)  13  According t o the data of the population census, the number of women employed at power stations increased more than f o u r - f o l d between 1939 and 1959; during t h i s period, the percentage of women among the t o t a l workers i n these stations increasedi'from 23 t o 32 percent. The numbers of women turners, 11 Smimov, G.L. "The Rate of Growth of the Soviet Working Class" i n Ospirov, G.V., Ed., op.cit. p.30 12 S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook, Women and Children i n the Soviet Union, Moscow, 1963, 13 p.105. I b i d . , p.105  75 TABLE 9 GROWTH IN THE PROPORTION OF WOMEN AMONG TOTAL INDUSTRIAL WORKERS (PERCENTAGES)  Branch of Industry  1931 (Mean f o r the year)  1928  1940  (Mean f o r the year)  (As f o r 1 Nov.)  1961 (As f o r 1 Jan.)  24.5  28.6  42.9  45.6  4.2  8*9  31.5  38.9  I n t e x t i l e s & clothing  55.7  61.2  72.6  72.9  I n food processing  22.0  26.0  48.6  54.4  I n industry as a whie I n engineering & metalworking  Source:  S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook, Women aid Children i n the Soviet Union, Moscow,  1963, P.105.  TABLE 10 PERCENTAGE OF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF WOMEN INDUSTRIAL WORKERS ENGAGED IN INDIVIDUAL BRANCHES  Branch of Industry I n industry as a whole of which:  1913 (Mean f o r the year)  100  1928  1940  (Mean f o r (As of the year) 1 Nov.)  100  100  1962 (As of 1 Jan.)  100  2.4  5.5  23.5  27.5  I n the t e x t i l e & clothing i n d u s t r i e s  63.1  64.5  29.5  25.3  I n food processing  12.8  7.2  13.4  10.5  I n engineering & metalworking  Source:  S t a t i s t i c a l Handbook, Women and Children i n the Soviet  1963. p.105  Union, Moscow,  76. m i l l i n g machine operators and other machine t o o l workers increased during t h i s period more than twofold, though the proportion of workers i n these occupations remained constant, at 28 per cent.  Women working at pressing and  stamping machines made up 64 percent of the t o t a l , an increase of 2.8 times,  I chemical workers 57 percent, andincrease of 2.4 times, compositors 78$, an increase of 1.8 times, and drivers of trams, t r o l l e y buses and underground t r a i n s , 57 percent, a threefold increase. Education i n the Soviety Union. Basic Aims of Soviet Education P o l i c y . The basic aims and philosophy of Soviet Union education o f f e r a  14 contrast with those of America.  I n the l a t t e r , De Witt pointed out that t r a i n -  ing was designed f o r the r e a l i z a t i o n of the f u l l capacities of an i n d i v i d u a l while, i n the former, i t was stated, education was not b u i l t around the i n d i v i d u a l but the state, which by " i d e n t i f y i n g i t s e l f with pursuits of the common good" attempted the "ruthless^ subordination of the i n d i v i d u a l - h i s rights, tastes, choices, p r i v i l e g e s and h i s t r a i n i n g - t o i t s own needs. The fundamentals of the Soviet educational philosophy rest on  15 three major premises. (1)  The two which are of i n t e r e s t here are:  that the advancement of science and technology i s best promoted through the c e n t r a l planning of education and research;  (2)  that s c i e n t i f i c and educational e f f o r t s are p r i m a r i l y a means f o r the advancement of the s o c i a l , economic and m i l i t a r y i n t e r e s t s of the nation.  14 De Witt, N., Soviet Professional Manpower,(Washington, D.C. National Science Foundation, 1955)» p.4. 15 Shore, M.J., Soviet Education: I t s Psychology and Philosophy (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l Library, 1944), p.130.  77. 16 De Witt ing  One of the important implications of these maxims i s that as  r i g h t l y stated, there was a quite r e a l i s t i c approach t o the t r a i n -  of personnel f o r an economy i n the process of rapid i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n .  I n such a system, p r o f e s s i o n a l competence and applied t e c h n i c a l know-how was necessary.  The character and kind of t r a i n i n g were determined by the simple  and obvious necessity f o r various types of trained manpower - s c i e n t i s t s , engineers, managers, teachers, supporting personnel and s k i l l e d labour. I n order t o meet the growing demand f o r specialized and s k i l l e d manpower Soviet educational p o l i c y has been increasingly more heavily aimed at a l l educational l e v e l s , toward the promotion of those types of t r a i n i n g which stress concrete knowledge.  Moore said that "because of t h i s stress, the r a t i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l  17 feature became one of the prominent aspects of Soviet education".  Stress  on the mastery of s p e c i f i c subjects and on the a c q u i s i t i o n of technical and s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l has become dominant i n a l l f i e l d s and on a l l l e v e l s of the educational system. Like any other country, the Soviet Union has faced a l l the problems of s k i l l e d manpower supply.  F o r more than two decades, she had been under the  pressure of an ever-increasing demand f o r s p e c i a l i s t s , there has existed a shortage of p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s , of school space, equipment and q u a l i f i e d teaching  personnel.  A l l these conditions have automatically l e d t o enforced selection  at every educational l e v e l .  This process of s e l e c t i o n serves t o channel the  academically g i f t e d rather than the merely competent i n t o more advanced stages of t r a i n i n g .  One r e s u l t of t h i s has been extensive and keen competition f o r  the opportunity t o continue f o r higher education.  I t was s p e c i a l l y noted that  despite the impediments t o the f u l l operation of academic s e l e c t i v i t y , the  16 De Witt, N., Soviet P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower, Op.cit. ,  p.130.  1 7 Moore, B. J r . , Terror and Progress, U.S.S.R. (Cambridge: Harvard Univers i t y Press, p.208.  1954),  78 state-oriented educational p o l i c y has succeeded t o a great extent i n r e c r u i t ing available t a l e n t , which i s then trained and moulded i n such a way as t o maximize i t s u t i l i t y t o the state.  I n t h i s process, however, the i n d i v i d u a l  d i d derive some benefits f o r himself, but these were by no means the primary objectives. The Soviet Educational System. To achieve i t s aims i n i t s planned e f f o r t s t o channel i n d i v i d u a l talert i n t o various occupations, the Soviet Union has very extensive educational facilities.  I n order t o f a c i l i t a t e i t s task, the state also maintains an  extensive administrative system of control, which not only supervises a parti c u l a r s e t of i n s t i t u t i o n s and p a r t i c u l a r type of t r a i n i n g , but also i s d i r e c t l y concerned with the placement p o l i c i e s of educated and trained manpower. Appendix 7 shows the structure of Soviet regular schools as they were a f t e r the school reforms i n the mid-1930's as w e l l as subsequent additions during and a f t e r the war. I n order t o understand better t h i s system, a comparison between the Soviet school system and that i n the United States was made on an age-grade progress basis. Polytechnical Education Concept. Polytechnical education or polytechnism i s an e s s e n t i a l part of the 18 Marxian theory of education.  Marx envisaged that under ommunism every  i n d i v i d u a l should have a many-sided development, which he claimed t o be unattainable under capitalism because of the d i v i s i o n of labour.  Education  was intended t o give each i n d i v i d u a l a broad and thoroughly integrated t r a i n i n g 18 Shore, M.J., Soviet Education: I t s Psychology and Philosophy (New York: P h i l o s o p h i c a l L i b r a r y , 1947)• pp.146-150.  79. i n the theory and practice of a l l branches of production.  Since none of these  v i s i o n s had materialized as Shore noted, the o r i g i n a l Marxian concept of "Unity of theory and practice" had meant a wide v a r i e t y of i n s t r u c t i o n e f f o r t s i n Soviet education. Polytechnic education meant simply a  study of applied subjects,  a study of p r i n c i p l e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l or i n d u s t r i a l techniques, vocational t r a i n i n g of one kind or another, productive work i n school shops, laboratory work i n science courses, the use of v i s u a l aids i n teaching, excursions to i n d u s t r i a l plants - i n f e c t anything short of a text book or a teacher's word had been referred to as "polytechnical i n s t r u c t i o n " at one time or another.  19 I n the 1950's as De Witt reported, contempt f o r what was c a l l e d "naked technism" ing without t h e o r e t i c a l foundation.  there seemed to be unanimous or applied vocational t r a i n -  Up to that period polytechnical i n s t r u c t -  ion had not gained ground i n the U.S.S.R. because of a lack of f a c i l i t i e s , laboratories, equipment, tools and other essentials necessary to i t s proper conduct.  Furthermore, the teachers were not prepared and d i d not know how  to handle the various implements of p&ytechnical education. P o l y t e c h n i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n was an expensive undertaking which frequently d i d not produce as s a t i s f a c t o r y results as were expected of i t .  Verbal i n s t r u c t i o n ,  textbook  learning, classroom explanations were much cheaper and frequently more e f f e c t ive ways of i n s t r u c t i o n .  De Witt concluded by saying that the e f f o r t s which  were being made could overcome some of the obstacles, and industry could perhaps be able to supply the essentials so that Soviet schools could conduct polytechnical t r a i n i n g . 19  T h i s , however, i s s t i l l i n the future.  De Witt, N., Soviet P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower (Washington, D.C.,  Science Foundation, 1955)» P»36.  National  80 Occupational I n c l i n a t i o n i n the U.S.S.R. An occupational i n c l i n a t i o n i n the U.S.S.R., Shubkin said, arose at school acoording to a demand f o r a c e r t a i n type of work. I t f i r s t appears i n 20 the subjects. According to a survey he made, l i t e r a t u r e and mathematics proved to be favourites of the school children interviewed.  The  occupations  which they wanted to take up were often removed from the t r a d i t i o n a l ones i n t h e i r own f a m i l i e s .  I n order of ranking of the chosen groups of occupations,  the f i r s t group included professions demanding primary t e c h n i c a l and physicomathematical t r a i n i n g , the second, a knowledge of natural science and the t h i r d , the humanities.  The degree of preferences i s shown on table 1J.  Shubkin concluded that the t e c h n i c a l progress and the great successes i n the physico-mathematical  sciences i n recent years apparently had a very  strong influence on the formation of p r o f e s s i o n a l i n c l i n a t i o n s , and resulted i n great m o b i l i t y i n the aspirations of d i f f e r e n t groups of young people.  At  the same time, these influences which had a great e f f e c t on boys, t o l d less with g i r l s who wished to s p e c i a l i z e i n the humanities and natural sciences 21 as a r u l e . The e f f e c t of these factors on the formation of p r o f e s s i o n a l leanings i n boys and g i r l s cannot be ignored.  On the one hand, as Shubkin made  clear, as society strove to provide work and education f o r each according t o his i n c l i n a t i o n , i t had to take them i n t o account when deploying both i n d u s t r i a l and educational establishments.  The grouping together i n a given d i s t r i c t or  c i t y , of enterprises and educational establishments with a  physico-mathematical  bias would evidently promote the employment of young men i n keeping with t h e i r 20 Osipov, G.V., Industry and Labour i n the U.S.S.R., (London: Tavistock Publications, 1966), pp.86-98. 21  Ibid.,  p.89  81.  TABLE 11 OCCUPATIONS OF THE FATHERS AND INCLINATIONS OF THE CHILDREN  Fathers* occupations require knowledge of science  (As percentage of t o t a l ) Physico Natural HumaniMathematScience ties ical  Total  P hysi c o-mathemati c a l  5k  22  23  100  Natural Science  57  32  11  100  Humanities  53  17  27  100  84  8  8  100  Sons Physico-mathematical Natural Science  80  20  -  100  Humanities  88  12  -  100  P hysi c o-mathemati c a l  35  32  33  100  Natural Science  31  46  23  100  8  23  61  100  Daughters  Humanities  Source:  Osipov, G.V., Industry and Labour i n the U S,S.R. (London: Tavistock Publications, 1966), p.88 >  82,  i n c l i n a t i o n s and provide them with appropriate further education.  I t would not  be easy f o r g i r l s leaving school i n such areas t o f i n d work t o t h e i r l i k i n g . As a r e s u l t , a d i s t r i c t with s u f f i c i e n t labour resources might f i n d i t s e l f short of workers and some yonng people obliged t o work i n occupations not to t h e i r taste, might move from one enterprise to another.  This would lead t o a  high degree of f l u c t u a t i o n and migration of labour power.  F i n a l l y , the s i t u a t i o n  might a r i s e i n which, despite the large number of young people who wanted t o continue t h e i r education, the enrolment at educational establishments would be below standard.  On the other hand, the differences i n the professional lean-  ings of boys and g i r l s had t o be taken i n t o consideration when gadding the young people's choice of profession. Secondly, there was need t o adjust prof e s s i o n a l d i v i s i o n s between sexes.  The natural sciences and humanities were  f a l l i n g more and more on the women, while men mathematical t r a i n i n g .  chose professions demanding physico  The prospect of such a d i v i s i o n of labour according t o  sex was not s a t i s f a c t o r y .  An i n t e r e s t i n the humanities and natural sciences  evidently had t o be aroused among boys and a l i k i n g f o r ghjsico-mathematical subjects developed i n g i r l s . To i l l u s t r a t e and j u s t i f y the need and importance  of technicians,  22 Langden made the observation that the Russians estimate that t h e i r industry requires about ten s k i l l e d workers f o r four technicians to each technologist. About 2.4 m i l l i o n students were then engaged i n higher technological education which implied a stupendous demand f o r supporting technicians and s k i l l e d workers. Langden said that the whole education system was now geared t o t h i s task. I n 1962 there were about 53 m i l l i o n people or one i n four of the population receiving some form of education - about three-quarters of them i n f u l l time study.  I n B r i t a i n also, the figure was roughly, Langden stated, one  22 Langden, J . , "U.S.S.R. Craft and Technical Training", Journal of Technical Education and I n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g . Vol.4, (June 1962), pp.24-25.  83. i n four but a much smaller proportion were i n f u l l time further study.  The  Russians had achieved t h i s equation i n 40 years. The power of the  drive i n education was w e l l revealed i n the  scheme of t r a i n i n g f o r s k i l l s which was established i n 1940 target of 800,000.  I n 1961,  with an enrolment  well over one m i l l i o n s k i l l e d workers came from  trade schools, the majority of which were not established before 1949 i n many cases 1954.  new  and  Some 12 m i l l i o n workers were said t o have been produced  in all.  Vocational School. At f i f t e e n , students who a t t a i n minimum standards i n the seventh or eighth grade transfer to secondary polytechnical or to trade sihools, from which they emerge as s k i l l e d workers.  A l t e r n a t i v e l y they may go to  s p e c i a l secondary schools to prepare f o r higher education, and some of these s p e c i a l i z e i n the a r t s .  A l l these schools have to engage i n productive work  and have a f u n c t i o n a l part i n the i n d u s t r i a l production of the country.  Those  who do not q u a l i f y f o r entry, receive t r a i n i n g i n industry f o r the less s k i l l e d occupations.  The higher secondary schools are being combined with  the eight-year school to give continuous ten and eleven^year education with training.  On entering industry, s k i l l e d workers can continue general educa-  t i o n at evening schools to meet the entry q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r a technician or higher educational i n s t i t u t e . A l l further education was highly specialized and dealt with a r e l a t i v e l y narrow range of subjects appropriate to an industry. The system was also completely s t r a t i f i e d , so that one type of establishment dealt with c r a f t t r a i n i n g , another with technicians only, and i n nocase d i d a college  84, have a v e r t i c a l s l i d e of further education courses from c r a f t t o technologist as i n B r i t a i n .  S e l e c t i o n was based on progress reports and course r e s u l t s ,  coupled with experience of the students p r a c t i c a l bent i n the eight-year school.  Qualifying examinations and aptitude t e s t s are not permitted.  Purpose and Form. The purpose of secondary polytechnical and trade schools i s t o produce immediately useful s k i l l e d workers and the school i s e n t i r e l y responsible f o r both further education and i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g .  On entering industry from  the school, the trainee i s f u l l y employed at once on the mid-point of a scale of earnings and reaches f u l l y - s k i l l e d rating i n about two years.  Secondary  polytechnical schools usually cover a group of occupations and give continued general education.  The old Trade Schools which had narrower and were p a r t i c u -  l a r l y linked with p a r t i c u l a r industries or economic councils were being reorganized on a broader basis.  A l l vocational schools were being run by  the State Committee f o r Vocational and Technical Education, the Head of which was a member of the Council of Ministers showing the importance and status of t h i s system. Vocational schools have an average enrolment of 250 t o 300 f u l l time students and may also have an evening department. areas, schools with 500 t o 900 students are common. are boarding schools.  I n large i n d u s t r i a l  An increasing number  I n a l l schools, t u i t i o n i s free, books, study material,  overalls, and, i n some cases uniforms are provided.  The student i s paid a  stipend and also earns from the productive work which i s done during t r a i n i n g . At the end of the course he i s directed t o suitable work by a department of  85. the State Committee, which plans and executes the placement of trainees. Schools are c l o s e l y connected with industry, sometimes with p a r t i c u l a r enterp r i s e s , and t h e i r character and d i s t r i b u t i o n follow that industry.  Of more  than 3,700 vocational schools, over 1,000 each are f o r engineering and production, b u i l d i n g and agriculture, whilst others deal with transport, catering, I n 1962  communications and commercial trades.  the c e n t r a l Russian Republic  had over 400 schools, the smallest republic Turkmenistan only eight, ussia, with a population of eight m i l l i o n , had 105  schools offering  trades and i t s c a p i t a l Minsk, had 5,600 trainees i n 20 schools.  Byelor170  The number  of schools was thought to be increasing by about 5 per cent per annum and o f f i c i a l s quoted an aim of doubling the output of s k i l l e d workers by Occupations  1965.  Covered There were said to be about 10,000 registered occupations i n the  U.S.S.R, of which 6,500 were trades requiring some form of t r a i n i n g .  Vocational  schools would provide t r a i n i n g f o r some 2,000 of the most highly s k i l l e d occupations and about 800 trades were accommodated.  The other 4,500 trades would  be dealt with by t r a i n i n g i n industry. A school would not offer more than s i x or eight trades, and often only one or two.  The following are examples of trades offered i n d i f f e r e n t  schools. Moscow:  Trade School No,  9  538 f u l l - t i m e and 200 evening  students  Nominal two-year courses i n the following s p e c i a l t i e s : Fitters Draughtsmen -Designers Turners Adjusters and Assemblers of M i l l i n g Machine Operators automatic l i n e s Technical Inspectors ( i n classes f o r inspectors and draughtsmen, about two-thirds of the students were g i r l s , )  86. Leningrad;  Vocational and Technical School No. k,  600 f u l l - t i m e students and 250 evening Staff:  students.  17 teachers and 37 i n s t r u c t o r s  Assemblers of electronic instruments Radio Set Assemblers Clockwork Assemblers Turners Minsk:  Technical School No. 2  470 fuHLtime students working i n two s h i f t s a t 8 a.m. and 12 noon. Plumbers Electrical installation fitters Painters and decorators E l e c t r i c welders f o r s t e e l erection Steelwork Erectors Drillers Tower Crane Drivers ( A l l graduates go t o the employment of the M i n i s t r y of Building.) Riga;  Technical School of Communications No. 5.  About 250 f u l l - t i m e  students.  Girls residential P o s t a l Agents Post o f f i c e telegraphists T e l e p r i n t e r operators E l e c t r i c i a n s f o r telecommunications (Employed by the Ministry of Communications.) Why some of these should be treated as s k i l l e d trades with f u l l time t r a i n i n g i s because i n the U.S.S.R. as Langden explained, the d e f i n i t i o n of a trade and the boundaries of s k i l l prescribed f o r i t were often quite unfamiliar.  Many  23 s k i l l e d trades were highly s p e c i a l i z e d . The Soviet Administrative Machinery f o r Development. A l l economic planning i n the Soviet Union i s based on the s o c i a l or governmental ownership of a l l natural resources and large scale i n d u s t r i a l 23  Langden, J . , "U.S.S.R. C r a f t and Technical Training", Op.cit., p.25.  87. equipment.  24 I t i s stated that even i n those cases where the t i t l e to land  has been transferred " i n perpetuity organizations of workers "own"  0  to c o l l e c t i v e farms or where cooperative  an i n d u s t r i a l enterprise, a s t i l l more basic  t i t l e to these producers* goods reside i n the ubiquitous state.  This means  that the planning and the owning agencies are the same sovereign body.  This  condition, which has been c a l l e d the f i r s t r e q u i s i t e to e f f e c t i v e economic planning, p r e v a i l s i n the Soviet Union. The terra economic planning, as i t was pointed out, denoted a r e s t r i c t e d scope of plans, t h i s could not be true i n the Soviet economy. I n addition to production schedules, plans f o r c a p i t a l investment, plans f o r domestic and foreign trade, f i n a n c i a l plans, and taxation plans, the F i v e Year Plans had included programs f o r public health, education, recreation and a great v a r i e t y of p r i m a r i l y non-economic s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l phases of the nation's l i f e .  Hence, the expression "social-economic  planning" rather than  merely economic planning was being used i n the Soviet Union.  Since a l l c u l t u r a l  educational, health and s i m i l a r a c t i v i t i e s both require economic goods f o r t h e i r prosecution and p a r t i a l l y determine the p r o d u c t i v i t y of workers, they have a double r e l a t i o n to economic planning.  To neglect them would be to  disregard sectors of the nation's l i f e within which unplanned developments w e l l might throw planned portions of the economy sadly out of balance.  This  broad conception of planning i s a r e f l e c t i o n of A r t i c l e I I of the Soviet Constitution which states that, The economy l i f e of the U.S.S.R. i s determined and directed by the state national economic plan, with the aim of increasing the public wealth, of s t e a d i l y r a i s i n g the material and c u l t u r a l standards of the working people, of consolidating the independence of the U.S.S.R. and strengthening i t s defensive capacity. 26 24  Bergsom, A., The Economics of Soviet Planning (New Haven: Yale University  Press, 1964), p. 15.  25 I b i d . , p.6 26 Loucks, W.N. and Hoot, J.W., Comparative Economic Systems (New York: Harper & Brothers Publishers, 1948), p.566.  88 Planning Absorbed i n t o the Economy. I t has been noted that less i s heard within the Soviet Union than outside about Soviet economic planning, the reason f o r t h i s being that planning has come to be accepted as a part of the system.  There, planning  has become merely one administrative device or procedure within the whole economy, i n t e r r e l a t e d with and dependent upon other devices and procedures and a normal routine part of the functioning of the s o c i a l i z e d economy. has occurred, i t was  This  reasoned, because economic planning must constitute an  inherent part of the s o c i a l i z e d system.  89. CHAPTER k TOWARDS THE PLANNING FOR TECHNICAL MANPOWER IN TANZANIA  Technical and Vocational Education i n Tanzania The problem of t e c h n i c a l and vocational education i n Tanzania was studied i n 1961 by the Mission of the International Bank f o r Reconstruction  1  and Development.  The following are some of the views and recommendations  presented by the Mission.  The Mission stated that the plans existing a t  that time f o r educational expansion i n Tanzania gave a prominent place t o the expansion of f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g at various l e v e l s .  The Mission  considered that the plans were w e l l founded. Technical education i n Tanzania was organized as an a l t e r n a t i v e form of e i t h e r "post-intermediate" or "post-secondary"  education.  two trade schools, one at Ifunda and the other at Moshi.  There were  These provided a  three-year course of trade t r a i n i n g i n various trades connected with the building and engineering i n d u s t r i e s .  Training i n the Moshi trade school which  started i n 1957, was confined t o b u i l d i n g trades.  Admission t o both i n s t i -  tutions took place a f t e r completion of Standard Eight, Technical and vocational education was also provided i n certain i n s t i t u t i o n s and through various courses.  There was the t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e  i n Dar es Salaam and the College of Commerce at Moshi and there were f u l l time r e s i d e n t i a l courses f o r the t r a i n i n g of engineering assistants as w e l l as courses f o r handiwork teachers. The Mission estimated the number of students receiving some techn i c a l and vocational education t o be two thousand. This number, however, i s 1 The I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bank f o Reconstruction and Development, The Economic Development of Tanganyika, Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1961, pp.312-313.  90. open to doubt.  A high percentage must f a l l i n the craftsman category.  The  Mission stated that by comparison with highly i n d u s t r i a l i z e d s o c i e t i e s , techn i c a l education i n Tanzania was i n i t s infancy.  But, as the Country expanded  i t s i n d u s t r i a l enterprises and as i t improved i t s methods of agriculture, more and better trained technologists, craftsmen and technicians would be needed. The Mission recommended three areas of action i n meeting t h i s need: 1.  The completion of the c a p i t a l works program at the Ifunda and Moshi trade schools.  This would provide f a c i l i t i e s f o r  pupils i n a l l i n the b u i l d i n g sections and 480 i n the  720  engineering  sections. 2.  Completion of planned b u i l d i n g at the Technical I n s t i t u t e , Dar es Salaam and increase of the number of courses given there.  3.  The introduction i n townships of part time classes i n English, arithmetic, typing, elementary bookkeeping and possibly shorthand i n selected centres.  Preparation and Recruitment of Candidates f o r Technical Education I f Tanzania has to produce technicians who  are going t o meet the  problems of a technological age, no matter what type of t r a i n i n g system they are going i n to, on-th-job t r a i n i n g , sandwich courses, the major source of t e c h n i c a l education school graduates.  of candidates i s i n e v i t a b l y going to be the secondary This w i l l involve giving subjects which are t e c h n i c a l l y  oriented as w e l l as establishing i n the students the r i g h t attitudes towards such professions.  Reorganization  of the Educational System  2 Tanzania i s fortunate i n that the recent proposals by President Nyerere f o r sweeping changes i n the educational system and philosophy o f f e r 2  Nyerere, J.K.,  Education f o r Self-Reliance, A f r i c a Report, V o l . 12,  (June 1967), pp.72-79.  No.  6  91. a firm foundation on which technical education can be established. President Nyerere has pointed out that Tanzania's education has t o f i t i n with the kind of society the nation i s t r y i n g t o b u i l d .  One of the requirements i s a change  i n s o c i a l values and also the preparation of young people f o r the work they w i l l be c a l l e d upon t o do i n the society which exists i n Tanzania.  He continued  to explain that Tanzania i s a r u r a l society where improvement w i l l depend largel y upon the e f f o r t s of the people i n agriculture and v i l l a g e development. I t was emphasized that t h i s does not mean education i n Tanzania w i l l be designed just t o produce passive a g r i c u l t u r a l workers of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s k i l l who simply carry out plans or directions from above. I t must produce good farmers; .....they have t o be able t o i n t e r p r e t the decisions made through the democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s of our society and t o implement them i n the l i g h t of the peculiar l o c a l circumstances where they happen t o l i v e . 3 The education provided therefore, should encourage the development i n each c i t i z e n of three things: an i n q u i r i n g mind, an a b i l i t y t o learn from what others do and r e j e c t or adapt t h i s t o h i s needs, and a basic confidence i n his own p o s i t i o n as a free and equal member of society who values others and i s valued by them f o r what he does and not f o r what he obtains. These three things were said t o be important f o r both the vocational and s o c i a l aspects of education. I t i s made c l e a r that however much t r a i n i n g f o r example i n agriculture a young person receives, he w i l l not f i n d a book which gives him a l l the answers t o a l l the detailed problems he would encounter on h i s farm.  He would have t o learn the basic p r i n c i p l e s of modern knowledge  i n agriculture and then adapt them t o solve h i s own problems.  92. Why  the Education System was  Reorganized  One of the reasons f o r the sweeping changes i n the educational system was f o r the purpose of changing the attitudes of students towards work.  I t was s a i d that the education provided by the c o l o n i a l government i n  Tanzania had had a d i f f e r e n t purpose.  I t had not intended to prepare young  people f o r the service of t h e i r own country; instead i t had stemmed from the need f o r l o c a l clerks and junior o f f i c i a l s .  As a r e s u l t of t h i s , most students  had attended school i n the hope of eventually obtaining a white c o l l a r job. The aim f o r each student had been t o continue h i s schooling u n t i l he passed his examinations.  But as there were only a few secondary schools, they could  not accommodate a l l those aspiring t o higher education.  I n 1966,  at the  primary l e v e l , only t h i r t e e n percent of thecohildren managed t o gain places i n secondary schools. level.  The same pattern was repeated at the secondary school  The main problem a r i s i n g from t h i s was that those who d i d not have  the opportunity t o continue i n t o higher education suffered a sense of f a i l u r e , and a f e e l i n g that a legitimate aspiration had been denied t o them.  Any jobs  taken at these breaking points were taken as i n e v i t a b l e alternatives.  Pres-  ident Nyerere pointed out that government and party themselves had encouraged the acceptance of a concept of success based on academic achievement.  They  had tended to judge people on the basis ofwhether they had obtained school c e r t i f i c a t e s , degrees or diplomas.  I f a man had these q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , i t  was assumed he could f i l l a post;; otherwise, i t was assumed he could not do a job.  This had resulted i n the children aspiring f o r high professional  qualifications.  This i s c l e a r l y shown on Table 12,  and Table  13.  The r e s u l t s indicated that there i s a f a i r l y even l e v e l of i n t e r e s t on the part of boys and g i r l s i n the various occupations.  Both Asian and  A f r i c a n boys show c l o s e l y similar patterns of preferences and the g i r l s from  TABLE 12  NUMBER AND PER CENT OF TIMES SELECTED OCCUPATIONS WERE RANKED FIRST OR SECOND IN ORDER OF PREFERENCE BY A SAMPLE OF 2096 BOYS AND 1050 GIRLS ENROLLED IN TANZANIAN SECONDARY SCHOOLS, 1966  Or* r i i n ^ i t "f o n  Ranked F i r s t Boys %  Accountant A i r l i n e Stewardess Barber Carpenter Clerk i n an o f f i c e Doctor Dressmaker Engineer Factory supervisor Factory worker Housewife Labourer Lawyer Modern farmer Motorcar mechanic Nurse Officer i n defence forces Policeman (woman) Politician Primary School Teacher Radio Announcer Secondary School Teacher Secretary Shop sales g i r l Traditional Farmer University Teacher Source:  Ranked Second  Girls %  5.2 •  8.7 29.0 .6  .6 2.3 18.2  1.5 .2 7.8 6.9 1;3  8.8 18.2 1.5  -  1.6  9.0 5.7 7.3 9,8  .1 5.3  11.2  14.9 4.3 1.0  29.9 2.4' .5  4.2 .5 3.4 2.7 3.7 5.2  Girls %  4.9 13.2  .2 .1 2.1 18.8  Boys %  1.1 3.8 9.5 7.6 6.5 .3 8.4  8.9 4.2 1.5 5.32.3 4.6 6.0  1.2 6.5  1.6 4. 1 11.4 9.0 9.6 .4 8.0  Klingelhofer, E., Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School Pupils, The Journal of Social Psychology, Volume 72, (Second Half, August, 1967), p. 151.  94.  TABLE 13  HIGHER LEVEL MANPOWER AND OCCUPATIONAL PREFERENCES SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN TANZANIA, 1966  Category and Occupation  Required i n Manpower Survey % of % of Total Category  Students F i r s t or Second Choices .  CATEGORY A OCCUPATIONS (N = 2905) Accountant (professional) Engineer ( a l l types) Lawyer Physician Secondary School Teacher University Teacher  10.9 .4 1.3. .3 1.2 2.6 . .3  CATEGORY B OCCUPATIONS (N = 6555)  24.5  Accountant, non-certif. Nurse, professional Nurse, s t a f f & duty Radio announcer Primary School Teacher  1.0 .9 3.3 .1 10.1  CATEGORY C OCCUPATIONS S k i l l e d C l e r i c a l (N = 13,282)  49.7  Stenographers-Secretaries C l e r i c a l Workers  1.4 41.1  CATEGORY C OCCUPATIONS Skilled Manual (N = 3980)  14.9  Automobile Mechanic  %  2.9  4.0 12.0 2.8 11.2 24.1 3.0  10. l 49.6° 16.7° 38.8 12.7 13.4  4.1 3.7 ) 13.3 ) .4 41.3  28.8 12.5 6.0  2.9 82.7  16. l 8.8*  19.8  8.6  c  e  e  e  C  £  €  c  c Occupations responded to by 2096 boys. d Occupations responded to by 1050 g i r l s . e Occupations responded to by both g i r l s and boys. Source:  Klingelhofer, E., "Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School Pupils", The Journal of Social Psychology, V o l . 72, (Second Half, August 1967) p. 152.  95. 4 Klingelhofer, the analyst of  both groups also agree i n t h e i r preferences.  the figures, observed that the reason f o r t h i s consistency i n attitude probably r e f l e c t e d i n two ways the influence of the secondary schools - the competitive s e l e c t i o n of entrants i n t o higher education and the influence of foreign educat i o n systems on both groups of studemts.  One may say that perhaps t h i s problem  of students preferences i s overemphasized.  This can be learned from the exper-  iences of students who take up t e c h n i c a l jobs i n B r i t a i n . I n B r i t a i n , experience had shown that i n factnany children found t h e i r f i r s t job much more s a t i s f a c t o r y than they had expected.  They found that  they possessed personal q u a l i t i e s which were either unnoticed at school, or i f noticed, d i d not contribute to academic success, and these q u a l i t i e s were appreciated i n the new environment of work.  Moreover, the weekly wages were  a very p o s i t i v e acknowledgement by the community that the young person's services were regarded as having a r e a l value. Besides the increased wage or salary and perhaps more, the increased status had a most powerful e f f e c t on students' progress and success.  But i n  addition to money incentives, more important would be a genuine human i n t e r e s t shown by them e s p e c i a l l y the educational s t a f f concerned with the apprentices and trainees. I t has been stated that there was no abuse of terras to t a l k of a family atmosphere and l o y a l t i e s .  To prove one's worth, i f not to shine i n  such company, has been considered a great incentive.  I n order to be able t o  do t h i s , however, the colleges have t o be w e l l equipped with s t a f f so that they could spare time f o r t h i s informal communication with the students.  Besides,  they would have to be l o c a l l y recruited i n order to understand the home conditions i n which t h e i r students have grown.  4 Klingelhofer, E. "Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School P u p i l s " , The Journal of S o c i a l Psychology. Vo. 72 (Second Half, August 1967),  pp. 149-159.  96. The Technical College T r a d i t i o n I n order to f i n d out what w i l l be the future of t e c h n i c a l colleges, a more d e t a i l e d discussion of the t e c h n i c a l college's t r a d i t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i s considered desirable. According to the p o l i c y statement by the Association of Teachers i n 5 Technical I n s t i t u t i o n s i n B r i t a i n college t r a d i t i o n .  there are two d i s t i n c t elements i n the technical  The f i r s t i s a large professional or vocational content to the  syllabus, combined with i n d u s t r i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  The second i s a high degree  of f l e x i b i l i t y i n length of the course, entry q u a l i f i c a t i o n and method of study. I n the f i r s t case, the maintenance of close t i e s with industry, commerce and the professions, and the provision of p r o f e s s i o n a l l y oriented syllabuses are considered n e c e s s i t i e s .  This i s because they are a p o s i t i v e i n s p i r a t i o n i n which  the content of the course acquires more v i t a l i t y and greater substance i n the eyes of the student.  This i s made possible by the course's immediate a p p l i c a b i l i t y to  a job that he has a c t u a l l y begun t o do.  I t was recommended that courses should  be designed with reference to i n d u s t r i a l and s o c i a l needs so that the student gains purpose i n his study. The Association had favourable views towards part time, evening, f u l l time day, thick and t h i n sandwich and block release systems, and therefore put great emphasis on the f l e x i b i l i t y of courses.  I n addition, i t was pointed  out  that f l e x i b i l i t y of course length and f l e x i b i l i t y of entry standards, had also been part of the t e c h n i c a l college t r a d i t i o n .  This had been to a large extent  a r e s u l t of the r e a l i z a t i o n that boys and g i r l s often dropped out of f u l l time education f o r reasons which had nothing to do with lack of a b i l i t y .  The  colleges r e a l i z e d that i f the a b i l i t y that many of these young people possessed was  not t o be wasted, a way back i n t o higher education had t o be found.  The  Association gave some very sound reasons f o r t h i s p o l i c y and these are worth considering here. 5 Association of Teachers i n Technical I n s t i t u t i o n s , The Future of Higher Education within the Further Education System, Association's Annual Conference, June 1965 , p.7 1  1  97. F u l l time higher education immediately following upon f u l l time schooling, i t was argued, does not necessarily r e a l i z e the true p o t e n t i a l of every student.  For reasons of temperament, or of s o c i a l necessity, many go  i n t o employment at a r e l a t i v e l y early age and they can reach the top only i f a route other than f u l l time education with standard entry q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i s open to them. t h i s route.  In the past, the colleges had d e l i b e r a t e l y set out t o provide  They had therefore been prepared t o look f o r entry q u a l i f i c a t i o n s  that were d i f f e r e n t from those that had arisen from the f u l l time system and had provided courses of varying length t o s u i t those q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . There were two other aspects of f l e x i b i l i t y .  One was the greater  ease with which a student could t r a n s f e r from one course t o another within the college.  A student who found himself engaged upon a course that was  beyond h i s c a p a b i l i t i e s could e a s i l y transfer t o a less exacting course.  He  could thus avoid the humiliation of completing his studies with nothing tangible to  show f o r them when he might have completed with d i s t i n c t i o n a less exacting  course, or even an equally exacting course with a d i f f e r e n t content. fer was also worked the other way.  The trans-  Students, p a r t i c u l a r l y i f they had an  unorthodox educational background, often developed unexpectedly i n the college atmosphere and the t r a d i t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y easy transfer enabled them to proceed without unnecessary b a r r i e r s t o more advanced studies than had at f i r s t  appeared  to be within t h e i r power. F i n a l l y , there had always been greater f l e x i b i l i t y s t a r t i n g a course.  i n the age f o r  To require more time to complete a recognized course, or  to come l a t e r t o i t a f t e r having temporarily dropped out of the educational process, was not regarded as a serious impediment to success i n the technical college t r a d i t i o n . itself  The college had therefore been very ready t o accommodate  t o the needs of older studieits or t o students f o r whom s p e c i a l arrange-  98. ments had t o be made. I n p a r t i c u l a r , the mature student had been able to f i t i n t o the t e c h n i c a l college with remarkable  ease.  Technical College Counterparts i n Europe Although i t i s r e a l i z e d that no one solution applied i n one countrycan work with equal success i n another country, nevertheless the value of learning from other countries* experiences i s indisputable.  Even countries  such as the United States, which i s considered very advanced i n the system of Junior Colleges, have continually been examining what other countries have done  6 on these l i n e s .  The following i s a report by F i e l d s who v i s i t e d various  schools i n Europe t o study what they were doing.  The experiences of the European  countries could be of value t o Tanzania as well. When F i e l d s was i n P a r i s , he v i s i t e d three types of i n s t i t u t i o n s , a college of applied a r t , a t e c h n i c a l college, and three s p e c i a l schools or i n s t i t u t e s f o r technical workers, one i n furniture design, one i n s c i e n t i f i c glasswork and one i n watchmaking. According t o F i e l d s , the a r t college i l l u s t r a t e d quite well several c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of French education of t h i s specialized type.  The students  were c a r e f u l l y selected, both i n terms of a b i l i t y and of desire, f o r a career i n commercial a r t . They had been chosen through a series of s e l e c t i v e examinations and interviews which, i t was said, were quite rigorous. T u i t i o n was free and government a i d was available t o enable the student t o attend. P r a c t i c a l l y the entire curriculum was devoted t o a r t , supplemented by p h y s i c a l education and the study of French language and culture.  I n the  f i r s t year, there were common requirements i n a r t subjects, and then there was intensive work i n the major area i n the following four years. 6  This system,  F i e l d s , Ralph R., Community College Counterparts i n Europe, Junior College  Journal, V o l . 23 (September 1952 t o May 1953), pp.77-86.  99. i n i t s l e v e l , most c l o s e l y resembled States.  a four-year junior college i n the United  The student age range was between sixteen and twenty years.  The  bulk of the i n s t r u c t i o n consisted of intensive studio and laboratory type courses. Another school v i s i t e d by the author was College.  Four major l i n e s of work were offered:  i n d u s t r i a l design and watchmaking.  the Siderot Technical  construction, e l e c t r i c i t y ,  A few engineering  students were earned  on through to u n i v e r s i t y . Quite a number of the teachers i n these i n s t i t u t i o n s were graduates of the schools themselves, having been brought back a f t e r becoming established as workers i n t h e i r f i e l d s .  This indicated that almost a l l these had  long  been established and that successful t e c h n i c a l vocational experience was considered important f o r the teacher of t e c h n i c a l courses.  S e l e c t i v i t y and  early s p e c i a l i z a t i o n were the basis of the system and the study seemed to be intensive, of high standard, and almost completely  v o c a t i o n a l l y oriented.  E s t a b l i s h i n g Technical Schools The question of a l l o c a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l colleges or that of a good s i z e f o r a college or whether there i s an optimum s i z e has found no simple answer.  Rather there i s the question of the form of organization which would  best serve i t s purpose, namely, the education to industry and community.  of i t s students and i t s service  I n order to f u l f i l l t h i s purpose, the question  of  s t a f f i n g the technical colleges i s considered of prime importance. This involves two elements, the quantity and q u a l i t y of technical teachers.  I n the f i r s t instance, one can l i s t several reasons as to why most  of the teaching posts i n t e c h n i c a l colleges remain vacant. three:  Venables mentioned  low salary scales, unrecognized status and the heavy teaching load.  1  100. The second v a r i a b l e considered i s the q u a l i t y of the teacher.  7 Venables has remarked that the good technical teacher i s no mere technician; he i s also an i n t e r p r e t e r of the modern world. This means that the teacher must be an educated teacher.  On t h i s  aspect, Venables has made i t c l e a r that education and t r a i n i n g are not mutually exclusive, without i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p ; education i s seldom achieved or received without training and t r a i n i n g i s seldom without educative value. exceptionally educated man  Though the  could teach exceptionally well, most would gain  from t r a i n i n g . For Tanzania, although no data are available regarding the educational backgrounds of the one hundred and thirty-seven members of the s t a f f i n the country's t e c h n i c a l colleges, one would not be very wrong to assume that only a few of them have been trained s p e c i f i c a l l y to teach i n t e c h n i c a l colleges. I n addition, those who might have had t h i s t r a i n i n g took i t i n colleges outside Tanzania because up to t h i s time, there i s not a single technical teacher t r a i n i n g college i n Tanzania.  As i s the case i n many other countries, some of  these teachers came with arts or science degrees from u n i v e r s i t i e s through the department of education.  The greater number of them may have joined the  s t a f f of t e c h n i c a l colleges d i r e c t from industries or commerce, perhaps a f t e r a s p e l l of part time teaching i n the evenings and t h i s a f t e r acquiring a l i k i n g f o r teaching.  The t h i r d category of t e c h n i c a l colleges' s t a f f , the  Technical Assistants, are undoubtedly mainly q u a l i f i e d technicians or even students who have done w e l l i n t h e i r student career and are prospective teachers. The issue of providing enough trained t e c h n i c a l teachers i s considered so important that i t should be given f i r s t preference. 7  I f the country establishes.'  Venables, P.F.R., Technical Education, London: G. B e l l and Sons, Ltd.,  1956.  101. at l e a s t one t e c h n i c a l teacher t r a i n i n g college, t h i s w i l l form the source of the needed teachers to s t a f f the existing colleges.  At the same time, the  teachers w i l l form a foundation upon which to plan f o r new I t cannot be said f o r c e r t a i n that when the new  t e c h n i c a l colleges.  technical colleges are  these w i l l generate more students to take up technical careers.  established,  But i t i s quite  natural f o r a person to think i n terms of u t i l i z i n g existing f a c i l i t i e s since these have been very few,  i t may  be that i s why  and  l i t t l e thought has been  given t o entering them, U.S.S.R. Technical Teacher Training During his study of the s i t u a t i o n of t e c h n i c a l teachers i n the  8  U.S.S.R, Longden observed that the Soviet Union faced the same problem as B r i t a i n , the United States or any other country i n her shortage of trained t e c h n i c a l teachers,  I n order to meet the problem, the U.S.S.R. had issued a  decree that a l l s t a f f had t o have t r a i n i n g and had to be graduates of the higher t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e or of the technicum. The instructors were produced i n the many t e c h n i c a l colleges. proportion  of these technicums had been established e s p e c i a l l y to t r a i n i n s t r u c -  tors f o r vocational schools.  These technicums are administered by the Depart-  ment of Vocational and Technical Education which also controlled the The  A  school administration  schools.  thus had c o n t r o l of the t r a i n i n g of i t s own i n s t r u c -  tors. Longden stresses that these changing attitudes towards recruitment of s t a f f and toward control of methods of teaching were of considerable ance.  In vocational and t e c h n i c a l schools there were two categories  ing s t a f f : teachers, and i n s t r u c t o r s of i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g .  import-  of teach-  Teachers dealt  8 Longden, J . , "U.S.S.R. Technical Teacher Training", Journal of Technical Education and I n d u s t r i a l Training, V o l . 4, no. 9 (September, 1962), p.27.  102 with t h e o r e t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n subjects such as mathematics, t e c h n i c a l mechanics, e l e c t r i c a l theory and history of the U.S.S.R.  Instructors dealt  mainly with p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g , but also lectured i n t h e i r s p e c i a l technologies.  As i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g was the main aim of the school, i n s t r u c t o r s  enjoyed prestige at l e a s t equal t o that of teachers, although they were the product of the technicum rather than the Higher t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e or university.  But as Longden pointed out, i t seemed c l e a r that teachers and i n s t r u c t o r s  had a d i f f e r e n t status; teachers f o r example received two months holiday per annum, while i n s t r u c t o r s received only one.  A Leningrad school with a nominal  r o l e of s i x hundred f u l l time trainees had seventeen teachers and thirty-seven instructors. Part time teachers were also drawn from industry.  These part time  teachers made a substantial contribution t o the schools but i t was c l e a r that the main teaching was being increasingly drawn from s p e c i a l l y trained s t a f f . V i s i t i n g s p e c i a l i s t s from industry had another important function as extrac u r r i c u l a r lecturers and also, f o r instance, by t a l k i n g t o students i n school engineering s o c i e t i e s .  Entry t o the Course Entrants t o the technicum i n the U.S.S.R. were drawn l a r g e l y from the ranks of s k i l l e d workers who had graduated from the vocational school and subsequently had at l e a s t two years of i n d u s t r i a l service.  They were  therefore f a m i l i a r from the s t a r t with the kind of work f o r which they were training.  Entrants could apply f o r technicum t r a i n i n g , or could be nominated'  by the i n d u s t r i a l enterprise or by the d i s t r i c t department of vocational and t e c h n i c a l education, which kept account a f t e r t h e i r c r a f t t r a i n i n g of students showing exceptional promise.  103. To q u a l i f y f o r entry* the trainee had to have seventh or tenth grade general education and be rated at l e a s t a Grade Three s k i l l e d worker i n a f i v e grade system or Grade Four i n a s i x grade system. Trainees were said to be fulfcr supported by the state. They received h o s t e l accommodation, uniform or overalls, food and study materials. I n addition, they could receive a small stipend of up to four pounds per month and were paid f o r t h e i r i n d u s t r i a l production during the course.  S p a t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n of Colleges A map  of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of secondary schools i n Tanzania would  show that there are some regions which are b e t t e r endowed with schools than others.  Even then, these schools tend to be i n the areas where there are  population concentrations - towns i n most cases.  I t would be d i f f i c u l t to  s p e l l out s p e c i a l c r i t e r i a to be followed i n establishing t e c h n i c a l colleges i n Tanzania since there are very many variables to be taken i n t o consideration. 9 A study of p o l i c i e s used i n the United States f o r establishing Junior College D i s t r i c t s w i l l show how complicated the problem would be i n establishing any s p e c i f i c a t i o n s f o r Tanzania. 1.  The minimum population of a Junior College D i s t r i c t should be 40,000.  2.  The minimum number of post-secondary  18-21 year old p o t e n t i a l  should be 1,000. 3.  The minimum property valuation i n the Junior College D i s t r i c t should be f o r t y m i l l i o n d o l l a r s with an average tax of a quarter million dollars.  4.  The minimum t o t a l school population i n the ninth through twelfth grades of the proposed Junior College D i s t r i c t should be  two  thousand. 9 Clark, J.T.,"Junior College D i s t r i c t s " , Junior College Journal, V o l . 31, (September-May, 1960-61), pp.184-185.  104, 5.  The Junior College D i s t r i c t s boundaries should be based upon the county unit where possible.  6.  Each Junior College should be state-aided but controlled and operated within the established d i s t r i c t .  7.  Junior College students Living i n a given d i s t r i c t should be permitted to attend a Junior College i n another d i s t r i c t of the state i f t h e i r home d i s t r i c t d i d not o f f e r adequate courses and they would request t h e i r home d i s t r i c t t o pay the t u i t i o n . In Tanzania, as education at t h i s l e v e l i s the concern of the Central  Government, many of these p o l i c i e s do not apply.  The main concerns are: i n  which areas of the country should the colleges be located and how many does the country need. According  t o the United States c r i t e r i o n of a college per f o r t y  thousand people, t h i s would mean that Tanzania, a country of twelve m i l l i o n people, would need three hundred colleges.  This would be quite u n r e a l i s t i c  but there should be at l e a s t about f i v e colleges of the status of the present Dar es Salaam Technical I n s t i t u t e .  I n s p i t e of the p r a c t i c a l advantages of  the colleges being near the i n d u s t r i e s , i t has been pointed out that Tanzania i s mainly an a g r i c u l t u r a l country which means that most of the technicians w i l l be required t o l i v e i n the r u r a l areas i n order to help with the development i n the d i f f e r e n t f i e l d s .  I t would be advantageous, therefore, i f the  technicians were trained i n the p a r t i c u l a r environment i n which they intend to work. 10 Dr. Leonard Marsh  i n his report on "A Regional College f o r Vanc-  ouver Island" pointed out the contributions that a college can make towards 10 Marsh, Leonard: Regional College f o r Vancouver Island (Vancouver: University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966), pp. 90-91.  105. the development of the area i n which i t i s located. The college can act as a population generator and at the same time the people l i v i n g i n the area can use the college f a c i l i t i e s f o r educational and recreational purposes a f t e r the usual school hours. The parts of the country i n which the colleges can be located are of importance f o r Tanzania, e s p e c i a l l y i n regard t o the p o l i c y of det r i b a l i s a t i o n which the country i s pursuing.  There are no regional movement  b a r r i e r s and the more mobile the people could be encouraged t o be, the better f o r p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l aspects of the country.  I f the need arose,  there i s no reasnn why the students should not be able t o switch from one college t o another i n order to take s p e c i f i c courses which are not offered i n a p a r t i c u l a r college.  The Training School at Williamson Diamond Mines has  successfully developed t h i s sytem.  The students spend s i x months at their*  school at Mwadie and the other s i x months are spent at the Dar es Salaam Technical I n s t i t u t e . Training Program by Williamson Diamond Company Almost every country that has been mentioned i n t h i s report i n connection with technical education, has given heavy weight t o the r o l e played by i n d u s t r i e s and private firms.  This applies also i n Tanzania.  I f the  government were l e f t with the whole task of t r a i n i n g technicians, the country would be i n a worse s i t u a t i o n c h i e f l y because of f i n a n c i a l reasons.  Industries  and private companies have been the other t r a i n i n g partners, although t h e i r contributions have varied.  The Williamson Diamonds Limited, a mining company,  has played such an important role that i t has been considered necessary to record i t s t r a i n i n g program as an i l l u s t r a t i o n and challenge to other firms.  106. However, the f i n a n c i a l issue has been taken i n t o consideration. The following i s a report regarding manpower t r a i n i n g p o l i c y prepared by the Personnel and Training o f f i c e r of the Companny. The tasks of the company were said t o be, f i r s t , to maintain the e f f i c i e n t operation of the mine and, second, to select and t r a i n Tanzanians to perform the work now done by expatriates "with the same e f f i c i e n c y and reliability". The t o t a l labour force of the mine, two thousand f i v e hundred i n 1964,  included two hundred and s i x t y - f o u r expatriates and t h i s had been  reduced to one hundred and nineteen at the end of  196?.  The company had a f o u r - t i e r t r a i n i n g program: T i e r 1:  Recruitment of candidates f o r professional t r a i n i n g  was made from Form VI secondary school leavers.  The company had f o r some  time provided employment f o r secondary school boys and g i r l s .  This p r a c t i c e  had given the company the opportunity to assess the q u a l i t y of these p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s and had given the p o t e n t i a l r e c r u i t s an opportunity to l e a r something about career prospects i n the industry.  The trainees,  \  a f t e r completing t h e i r Form VT» had been sponsored f o r a degree course at a u n i v e r s i t y or a r t i c l e s to a professional o f f i c e such as accountancy. I n t h i s same top t i e r , there was a section of Form IV  graduates.  Some of these were t r a i n i n g as technicians f o r the engineering branches of the industry and others were taking courses at a College of Commerce i n preparation f o r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s i n accountancy, secretaryship or commerce. T i e r 2 (a)  Engineering:  There was a five-year t r a i n i n g program  f o r t e c h n i c a l apprentices i n e l e c t r i c a l and mechanical engineering. were from Form IV leavers.  Recruits  The trainees spent s i x months of the year at  107. the Technical College i n Dar es Salaam and s i x months i n the industry at Mwadui with day release t o the company's own t r a i n i n g centre. (b)  Commerce - Accountancy, Stores Assistants (Men):  These  r e c r u i t s came from the same source as the technical apprentice trainees. attended day release and evening classes and were assisted with  They  correspondence  courses f o r various q u a l i f y i n g examinations. (c)  Stenographers;  The company had experimented with the t r a i n i n g  of g i r l s , mainly as stenographers.  The g i r l s recruited had conpleted Form IV  and trained either i n London f o r f i f t e e n months or at a Commercial I n s t i t u t e i n the nearest township. reasons.  The t r a i n i n g of these g i r l s was mainly f o r s o c i a l  I t was hoped that a great number of them would marry some of the  young senior o f f i c i a l s at the mine. i n quite that  However, the plans d i d not work out  way.  The company was also s t i l l t r a i n i n g some g i r l s to become nurses and nursing s i s t e r s . T i e r 3; Craftsmen were recruited from Government Trade Schools a f t e r successfully completing a three year course.  They served f o r two years  at Mwadie i n t h e i r respective trades, and day release and evening classes were provided f o r them.  They prepared f o r and wrote Kenya Government Trade  Tests and intermediate C i t y and G u i l d C r a f t examinations. While on t r a i n i n g , the trainees were paid four hundred s h i l l i n g s per month during the f i r s t year and four hundred and f i f t y s h i l l i n g s i n t h e i r second year.  Upon completion of the apprenticeship, and a f t e r having  passed a trade test, they received a starting salary of s i x hundred s h i l l i n g s . This was about twice what t h e i r friends working elsewhere were receiving.  108 T i e r 4:  Labourers r e c r u i t e d f o r work i n the p i t s , and the extraction  plant, were selected on ratings i n an aptitude test and were given on the job training. Educating the Adults. Importance of Adult Education i n Development. In the developing countries taking i n t o consideration the small percentage of the population that has received some kind of education,  develop-  ment w i l l be a long process i f the whole load i s l e f t on these people.  Neither  can the knowledge, attitudes, s k i l s and a c t i v i t i e s which are necessary i n the process of development be l e f t to the oncoming generation because these factors are needed now i f the objectives which are expressed i n the development plans are t o be f u l f i l l e d .  One  of the greatest c a l l s the President of Tanzania  makes to the nation i s that every Tanzanian, old andyoung, has a part to play and that the nations objectives can only be f u l f i l l e d i f every Tanzanian plays h i s part.  This being the case, adults must be provided with the essent-  i a l t o o l s f o r development - education and s k i l l s .  The importance of adult  education i s made even more important by the f a c t that i t i s adults who engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e which i s one of the bases of development. young educated men  are  Most of the  are employed i n government services and i n d u s t r i e s .  In  order to increase a g r i c u l t u r a l production, the farmers must be educated.  The philosophy f o r adult education. 11 The basic idea of adult education can be summarized i n Bergevin s 1  explanation of the philosophy f o r adult education.  He said that b a s i c a l l y  11 Bergevin, Paul, A philosophy f o r Adult Education (New York: The Seabury Press 1967), pp. 4-5.  109. adult education pointed toward the use of adult education f o r the development of free, creative and responsible persons i n order to advance the human maturation process.  He continued that, adult learning programs, carefully-  prepared to meet human needs, might play an important r o l e i n successfully exploiting t h e i r learning p o t e n t i a l so that they became the mature persons i t was possible f o r them to become. I f they were to r e a l i z e t h e i r p o t e n t i a l , the adult learning process had to become a creating, releasing experience rather than a d u l l i n g series of p o s i t i v e l y attended i n d o c t r i n a t i o n exercises.  Goals of Adult Education. B r i e f l y , the goals of adult education are; (1)  To help the learner achieve a degree of happiness and meaning i n life;  (2)  To help the learner understand himself, his talents and l i m i t a t i o n s and h i s relationship with other person;  (3)  To help adults recognize and understand the reed f o r l i f e - l o n g learning;  (4)  To provide conditions and opportunities to help the adult i n the developmental process c u l t u r a l l y , physically, economically, p o l itically  (5)  and vocationally;  To provide where needed, education f o r s u r v i v a l , i n l i t e r a c y , vocational s k i l l s and health measures. I t i s considered that the goals stated above are a l l very important  i n the developing countries and separating one from the other would be debasing the important r o l e an adult may and has to play i n the process.  developmental  I f an adult i s to contribute to the development of a country, he  must know the d i r e c t i o n i n which h i s society i s moving, i n s p e c i f i c as w e l l  110. as broad terms.  As f a r as he i s able, he must know what the general objectives  of his society are and what he can do c u l t u r a l l y , vocationally, physically, p o l i t i c a l l y , economically - t o help i n maintaining and furthering s o c i a l objectives.  This was put c l e a r l y by Bergevin when he said,  Therefore, we as adults need to know. We need to act i n t e l l i g e n t l y on what we know. We need to learn t o d i s c i p l i n e ourselves, to accept r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and have something t o say about some forces that shape us.12 Bergevin concluded that adult education must then have a purpose greater than that of learning the skills of the craftsman, and the physician and entrepsneur, important as these were.  No one would argue with Bergevin on  t h i s point, however, f o r planning purposes one has to e s t a b l i s h p r i o r i t i e s . Adult education i n the developing countries, has to be what has been termed above "education f o r s u r v i v a l " .  This encompasses l i t e r a c y and s k i l l s .  The a f f l u e n t society becomes more concerned with so-called c u l t u r a l a f f a i r s , when people have more time to spend i n nonvocational pursuits, and when they have money t o spend beyond what i s needed to keep a l i v e . This i s generally not the case i n the developing countries. I n these countries the majority of the people either do not have the means t o carry on above a submarginal l e v e l or they do not know how to make the best use of what they have.  I n terms of importance and numbers of people served, one  of the major goals of adult education should be t o help people learn to develop and use s k i l l s basic f o r s u r v i v a l .  Adult education i n the develop-  ing countries should be as the M i n i s t e r of Education f o r Tanzania put i t , "education f o r service-men only". The importance  13  of agriculture and industry i n increasing the  per capita income i n the developing countries was stressed e a r l i e r , so was ibid., 9 13 Elittfoo, S.N., "Education f o r Service-men only; Tanzania Government p o l i c y f o r Higher Education *, East A f r i c a n Journal, V o l . IV, No. 8 (December, 1967) pp. 23-25. A statement delivered i n the form of an address by Hon. S.N. Elit&foo, M.P., t o the conference on the University of East A f r i c a , ^< ;taking place i n Nairobi from October 23 to October 26, 1967. 1  2  P o  1  111. the f a c t that a great percentage of the population i n developing cannot read or write.  countries  And since industry and agriculture f o r development  involves the use of technological implements, technical t r a i n i n g must be offered to adults, as w e l l as the basic  education.  Programs f o r Adult Education I n programming adult education,  the contents of the programs  must be broad and appropriate t o the v a r i e t y of objectives pursued.  Secondly  methods used must be within the capacity of the learner, therefore long hours of lectures may lead t o a decrease of i n t e r e s t i n the subject. There are many techniques and channels through which adult educat i o n can be provided.  The obvious one i s through community development  programs where evening or day classes areheld f o r adults covering as many aspects of education as possible, from the basic reading and writing classes t o advanced classes o f f e r i n g basic p r i n c i p a l s of economics, sociology and other s o c i a l sciences.  The community development programs would also o f f e r vocation-  a l s k i l l s such as serving, home economics f o r women, carpentry, b r i c k l a y i n g and other c r a f t s f o r men.  The community centres would also provide  X  libraries  and reading rooms. Besides attending these formal classes, reading groups can be formed based on the ten-houses c l u s t e r s idea now i n existance i n Tanzania. These can form groups f o r l i s t e n i n g t o radio programs, news reading which 4  waaLd be followed by discussions.  The r o l e of T e l e v i s i o n i n the educational  process, from the experiences of the developed countries, has been tremendous. However, most of the people i n the developing  countries cannot afford T e l e v i s i o n  112 sets.  I t i s recommended that whenever possible t h i s device should be  i n t o use.  put  The T e l e v i s i o n sets can be owned on a communal basis. Other methods of providing supplemental adult education include:  (a)  Running experimental farms on which demonstrations can be held.  (b)  Tours to other parts of the country even to other countries to study a g r i c u l t u r a l methods used as well as learning from successful l o c a l farmers.  (c)  For i n d u s t r i a l purposes, professional associations can be established to which a person can go f o r lectures, use of books and to seek advice when he comes across d i f f i c u l t i e s which he cannot overcome.  (d)  Supplementary education can be obtained by touring i n d u s t r i a l establishments. Because of the long distances people may  have t o t r a v e l to the  established community centres, etc. the most e f f e c t i v e means of bringing educat i o n can be through the use of mobile units of instructors and demonstrators on the use of machinery, etc.  As already introduced i n many parts of Tanzania,  movies are being shown i n the v i l l a g e s ;  Usually they cover the health aspects  of the peoples l i v i n g but t h i s can be extended to include t e c h n i c a l education as well. Administration  of Adult Education. 14  The administration of adult education can be based on the Swedish example where the "Workers* Educational Association" i s organized on national basis with d i s t r i c t and l o c a l branches functioning a l l over the 14 C o i t , Eleanor, G., Government Support of Workers Education (New York: American Labor Education Service Inc., 1940) p.21,  113. country.  Each looiL group would have control over the planning of i t s c u r r i c u -  lum according t o the needs of the area.  The national office would be responsible  and cooperate i n providing lecture series and preparing material on d i f f e r e n t subjects - outlines, bibliographies, study plans and f a c t u a l pamphlets, magazine publications, books f o r l i b r a r i e s , radio educational programs,; correspondence  courses, conferences and tours.  I n these programs, cooperative  and labour unions contributions w i l l be v i t a l . Whatever means are devised f o r providing education t o adults the task of r e c r u i t i n g them and keeping them interested i n the program s t i l l remains.  Guidance and counselling even of i n d i v i d u a l adults must be made  a v i t a l aspect i n the whole process.  15  S e t t i n g up a body f o r t h i s task w i l l  be necessary. The Costs of Manpower Development In any development program, the f i n a n c i a l aspect has t o play an important r o l e f o r implementation 16 ment i n Tanzania, Resnick  purposes.  I n a study of manpower develop-  made i t c l e a r that h i g h - l e v e l manpower development  i n Tanzania could not be an inexpensive proposition. Education s share of 1  c e n t r a l government planned expenditure during the Five-Year Plan i s twenty-four per cent and current expenditures represent about four per cent of monetary Gross Domestic Product.  The 14.3 m i l l i o n planned f o r education i s located  i n the following proportions:  primary education, 19 per cent,  secondary  education, eighteen per cent, technical education, ten per cent, teacher t r a i n i n g , fourteen per cent, and u n i v e r s i t y and adult education, twenty-nine per cent. 15, K l e i n , Paul E,, and M o f f i t , Ruth E,, Counselling Techniques i n Adult Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1946. 16 Resnick, I d r i a n N. "Manpower Development i n Tanzania", The Journal of Modem A f r i c a n Studies, V o l . 1 No. 1, (May 1967), pp. 107-123.  113A  TABLE 14 THE COST OF HIGH-LEVEL MANPOWER PRODUCTION IN TANZANIA DURING THE FIVE-YEAR PLAN (IN £000)  Recurrent Costs'*" Educational Group  Total Enrolment 1964-65 1968-69  Plan Total  %  1964-5  Increase by 1968-9  Total Capital Costs 1964-5 1968-9  Total Current and Capital Costs  Forms I - IV  109,513  9,890  1,701  33  2,084  11,974  .Forms V - VI  8,144  1,596  211  103  568  2,164  Grade A .Teachers  /  6,720  1,039  434  272  2,000  3,039  >  "University of East A f r i c a  Total  Source:  1.  3,887  3,887  407  253  4,996  8,883  128,262  16,412  2,753  84  9,648  26,060  Five-Year Plan, Tanzania Manpower Planning Unit, Volume II, Ch. 10, p. 64.  Figures do not include interest on loans but do include maintenance costs.  114, Recurrent costs per c h i l d per year i n primary schools range from fourteen pounds, sixteen s h i l l i n g s f o r lower primary, t o twenty-eight pounds seven s h i l l i n g s f o r upper primary boarding schools; and between seventy-three pounds and one hundred and two pounds i n secondary schools and one thousand pounds f o r students at the University College. The recurrent cost i n 1966-6? to the Government f o r Tanzanians i n the University of East A f r i c a f o r the academic year 1966-67 was twelve per cent of the t o t a l M i n i s t r y of Education vote. From Table 14 which summarizes the cost of producing manpower l o c a l l y during the Five-Year Plan, i t i s shown that the recurrent cost per student (Form 1 through university) was about one hundred and twenty-eight pounds per year.  I t was stated by Resnick that the large percentage increases i n r e -  current costs from 1964 t o 1969 r e f l e c t e d the d r a s t i c change i n the structure of education output i n Tanzania which had been brought about by the manpower plan.  I n view of the increasing rate of expenditure, Resnick proposed three  solutions.  F i r s t , he said that i f twenty per cent of monetary Gross Domestic  Product was devoted t o Government recurrent expenditures, rather than eighteen per cent, the Gross Domestic Product would only have to increase at an annual rate of 7,9 per cent.  Second, the M i n i s t r y of Education's share of t o t a l  recurrent expenditures could be increased,while the t o t a l as a proportion of monetary Gross Domestic Product remained constant.  Third, the manpower  portion of educational expenditures (as opposed t o the welfare portion primary education) could be expanded at the expense of the c e n t r a l government's contribution t o education. contributions.  The gap could be f i l l e d by l o c a l government  I t was made clear that a l l these were possible solutions  and perhaps only the second was improbable.  I t was conclude! that there d i d  not appear t o be any/ r e a l danger of the manpower program running i n t o  115. f i n a n c i a l constraints i n the near future. However, i t was made c l e a r that the costs of education i n Tanzania could have been substantially lower without a reduction i n either the q u a l i t y or the quantity of output.  The University College f o r example had  17 been b u i l t i n the t r a d i t i o n of new A f r i c a n u n i v e r s i t i e s - expensively. The c a p i t a l cost per student room was one thousand and s i x t y pounds, as compared t o two hundred pounds per room at Dar es Salaam Technical College. On accommodation alone, the University had spent about 1.3 m i l l i o n pounds more than i t needed, even by Dar es Salaam standards.  Moreover, the decision  to make the u n i v e r s i t y f u l l y r e s i d e n t i a l had increased the cost considerably. About sixteen per cent of the annual recurrent costs per student were f o r food and rooms, a large proportion of which were single u n i t s .  Resnick  stated that i t cost twenty-five per cent less t o send students overseas even when the Government had t o pay the t o t a l cost.  I n spite of a l l the i n d i r e c t  b e n e f i t s the country received from the presence of theCollege, notably research, there was considerable evidence t o suggest that Tanzania was paying more than i t had t o f o r t h i s form of manpower development.  Resnick's  statement seems t o suggest that Tanzania would be better o f f withouth the University College, but many arguments have been given i n support of the presence of the College. However, i f the cost were cut down, the money could go i n t o the b u i l d i n g of t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s .  Of course, the students  were offered a bursary i n the f i e l d s i n which manpower requirements existed and they d i d not have t o accept i t .  They gg&ld go t o the u n i v e r s i t y and take  any course they chose, i f they paid t h e i r way. Furthermore, the manpower 17 Brown, J.C. "The Cost of A f r i c a n U n i v e r s i t i e s " , The Journal of Modern A f r i c a n Studies, V o l . 1, No. 2 (August, 1962), p.21.  116. needs and the s c a r c i t y of available resources commanded the controlledbursary system i n Tanzania.  Resnick continued that with such a large pro-  portion of Form VI leavers being directed t o Education, f o r t y per cent i n  1967-1968, the question of preference was extremely important, on two counts. F i r s t , since students were bonded f o r only f i v e years a f t e r they graduated, there x*as a r e a l problem i n that many would leave the profession at the end of that time. i n Tanzania.  This would create numerous problems f o r manpower development Second, and perhaps more important, i t was d i f f i c u l t to see  how students who accepted bursaries i n education because they had no other avenue t o the University could become e f f e c t i v e teachers. i n s t r u c t i o n has dep implications f o r manpower planning.  The q u a l i t y of  Since i t i s i m p l i c i t l y  assumed that outputs from the secondary school system are homogeneous, i f they are not (because some are taught by poor teachers) calculations of how many years of further education are required t o prepare people f o r p a r t i c u l a r occupations and how many studnetsjwill pass t h e i r examinations, w i l l be incorrect.  Moreover, estimates of the manpower requirements implied by  s p e c i f i e d output increases would be too low i f the q u a l i t y of the student fell.  A serious example of t h i s could already have manifestad i t s e l f i n the  secondary schools where, owing to the stress on science, the number of places available f o r Form IV students continuing i n t h i s f i e l d was greater than i n arts subjects. They were thus induced to take science i n order to get i n t o From V.  The f a i l u r e rate ( f a i l u r e to q u a l i f y f o r the University of East  A f r i c a ) at the end of Form VI f o r science students was f o r t y per cent i n  1965 and f o r t y - s i x per cent i n I966.  The f a i l u r e rates f o r arts students  was only f i f t e e n per cent and nineteen per cent respectively.  117  Resnick recommended a softer approach, while s t i l l maintaining the bursary system; an e f f o r t should be made t o convince students that science and teaching had the kind of opportunities that they would f i n d rewarding.  I t was also desirable that students should not be directed i n t o careers  f o r which they were not suited, and i n which they would probably f a i l or perform at substandard l e v e l s .  To t h i s end a system of career t e s t i n g  and guidance should be quickly developed and introduced i n t o the secondary schorl program and a s p e c i a l e f f o r t should be made t o ensure that students who went i n t o high p r i o r i t y f i e l d s received adequate t r a i n i n g .  118. CHAPTER 5 MEETING THE NEED FOR TECHNICIANS AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MANPOWER PLANS I n t h i s section, i t i s intended t o give a general view of the whole concept of manpower planning i n development and why t h i s manpower planning concept applies t o Tanzania as w e l l as any other developing country. To s t a r t with, the developing countries, Tanzania included, are said t o be nations i n a hurry.  Having observed how the people i n other countries  l i v e , the developing countries desire t o reach the same l e v e l s of the standards of l i v i n g as quickly as possible.  This hurry i s exemplified by the bold goals  established by Tanzania f o r the f i v e year development plant established i n 1964.  Within the short period of f i v e years, the country aims at more than  doubling her per capita income; being f u l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n trained manpower; and r a i s i n g the expectation of l i f e of the people from t h i r t y - f i v e t o f i f t y years.  Within t h i s period the country w i l l have conquered the three enemies,  poverty, ignorance and disease.  I t can be seen that these goals are economic,  c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l .  The main f i e l d s of action are t o increase  a g r i c u l t u r a l production since the highest percent of the people i n the developing countries are d i r e c t l y dependent on agriculture.  I n Tanzania, 85 percent  of the people depend on agriculture f o r t h e i r l i v e l i h o o d .  Therefore i n order  to r a i s e t h e i r per capita income, the people must produce more so that they have enough t o eat as w e l l as t o s e l l . The second f i e l d of action i s t o d i v e r s i f y industries so that the raw materials produced from the farms can be processed.  The t h i r d l i n e of  action i s t o improve and increase service industries such as construction i n d u s t r i e s so that better roads can be b u i l t f o r the people t o move t h e i r  119. farm produce t o the markets, construction industries which can put up more houses and houses which have the necessary f a c i l i t i e s f o r a healthy l i v i n g environment.  The country aims at improving the peoples* d i e t so that they eat  foods which help the body t o l i v e longer.  Hospitals and health services  w i l l be necessary to treat those who f a l l  ill.  As discussed i n the f i r s t chapter, i t i s only man who can put capit a l and natural resources i n t o production. I n the case of Tanzania, the government i s aiming at having Tanzanians take over a l l the jobs i n t h i s task.  developmental  This i s why the country desires t o be f u l l y s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n trained  manpower by 1980.  At the time being, Tanzania does not have enough trained  people to take over these jobs.  This was made clear i n chapters one and two  and substantiated by appendix 2 which shows the number of expatriates s t i l l working i n the country.  Even i n the f i v e year development plan i t was  that Tanzania w i l l have t o r e l y on foreign experts f o r a long time.  stated  I f the  goal of being s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t i n manpower i s t o be attained, Tanzania must mobilize her human resources. The shortage of manpower however, i s not equally acute i n the d i f ferent occupations.  I t has been seen that the demand-supply outlook of  Category "A" manpower, that i s , the u n i v e r s i t y graduates with or without prof e s s i o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , shows an acute shortage i n the people with sciencemaths based occupations such as engineers, s c i e n t i s t s , doctors, veterinarians aid others. Another f i e l d i n which there i s a b i g gap i s i n occupations requiring s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g such as graduate teachers, s o c i a l workers and lawyers. The demand-supply outlook of the people to f i l l occupations requiring nonspecialized degrees such as administrators, government and business executive jobs shows an approximate balance. the people Tanzania needs most?  But the important question i s , are these  120. The developing countries need people t o work on the farms, c u l t i v a t e the s o i l and r a i s e crops.  People are needed who can discover where the minerals  l i e , dig them out and process them, she needs people to work i n f a c t o r i e s , make c l o t h or can the food, or process the o i l .  For t h i s reason more than  anything else, i f these countries want t o develop, they have to produce quali f i e d people to work i n these f i e l d s .  The r o l e of technicians i n the develop-  ment of Tanzania i s discussed i n d e t a i l below but here the main point i s that Tanzania has to make some choice on what type of manpower i s most c r u c i a l t o put her c a p i t a l land, agriculture, minerals i n t o productivity.  I t i s for this  reason that manpower poanning must be an essential part of the planning process f o r development so that emphasis can be put on the type of manpower which i s needed and people can be made available. I n the e a r l i e r chapters i t has been pointed out that the best way to improve the q u a l i t y of manpower i s through education.  For Tanzania which  needs people who can work on farms, mines, f a c t o r i e s , t e c h n i c a l s k i l l i s a c r u c i a l need.  This i s e s s e n t i a l on the ground that Tanzania, just l i k e any  other country i s undergoing a technological change. Day a f t e r day more machinery i s being unloaded i n t o the country, the hoe i s being replaced by t r a c t o r s , the axe i s being replaced by powerful saws, the mortar i s being replaced by m i l l i n g machines and a l l these are important i n the development process. and foot transportation means.  The automobile i s replacing the head  I f Tanzania has t o keep up with t h i s technolog-  i c a l change, she must produce people with technical machinery which i s becoming more complicated every day as appendix 4 shows.  I n t h i s view then the basis  of the whole developmental process l i e s i n the provision of technical education through which people w i l l be equipped with techniques e s s e n t i a l i n the keeping  121. up with technological changes.  These are the measures as i t has been seen,  the Soviet Union decided t o take when she had declared that she was going to increase her farm production, i n d u s t r i a l i z e and provide amenities such as e l e c t r i c i t y t o her people.  Technical education was given emphasis at a l l  l e v e l s of education - primary, secondary and u n i v e r s i t y . indicates the same process.  The case of I s r a e l  On her decision t o turn the desert lands of  I s r a e l i n t o productive a g r i c u l t u r a l land, heavy emphasis has been put on producing technicians, people who can use machinery i n digging up trenches over wide areas of the country, put the pipes down and see t o the proper working of the flow of water t o i r r i g a t e the dry land. By emphasizing technical t r a i n i n g t o t h i s extent, i t does not mean that the basic formal education should be neglected.  Even i n the product-  ion side of the economy, an i l l i t e r a t e person can be taught, f o r example, how to use a t r a c t o r but t h i s i s not the complete basis f o r increasing farm producti v i t y which w i l l lead t o the r a i s i n g of the economy of the country.  The people  have t o know how t o read so that they can keep up t h e i r knowledge with what i s going on. The r o l e of education t o the Tanzanian farmers was emphasized i n the text that i n Tanzania which i s a r u r a l society, her improvements w i l l depend l a r g e l y upon the e f f o r t s of the people i n agriculture and i n v i l l a g e development.  This d i d not mean that education i n Tanzania should be designed just  to produce passive a g r i c u l t u r a l workers of d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s k i l l , who simply c a r r i e d out plans or directions received from above.  I t must produce  good farmers, i t has also t o prepare people f o r t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as free workers and c i t i z e n s i n a free and democratic society, a l b e i t a largely r u r a l society.  They have t o be able t o think f o r themselves, t o make judgements  122.  on a l l the issues a f f e c t i n g them, they have t o be able t o interpret the decisions made through the democratic i n s t i t u t i o n s of the Tanzanian society and t o implsnent them. The concept of education f o r development advances a stage further. I t i s concerned with the c a p a b i l i t y f o r production of the developed t a l e n t . I t i s therefore important t o examine how education adds t o production capacity. Another contribution of education i s that i t increases the c a p a b i l i t y of people t o adjust t o changes i n job opportunities associated with economic growth. When an established worker faces such adjustment he may have t o leave his present occupation and enter i n t o another and he also may have t o migrate out of one area t o another with better job opportunities. I f farm production i s going t o be increased and machinery replaces man labour on the farms, there w i l l be need f o r some Tanzanians  t o take up jobs i n other f i e l d s such as industries  and services and they w i l l be required t o make adjustments i n t h e i r jobs and ways of l i v i n g i f they happen to move t o towns.  Economic growth, under modern  conditions brings about vast changes i n job opportunities. Education i n t h i s connection i s valuable because i t i s the source of f l e x i b i l i t y i n making these  occupational and s p e c i a l  adjustments.  Importance of Technicians: Lessons from Abroad One general lesson that should be learnt from other countries i s that there i s no u n i v e r s a l formula f o r technicians - t h e i r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s or duties they perform.  These factors have t o be considered i n r e l a t i o n to  the needs of the d i f f e r e n t countries. I t has been seen that B r i t a i n , being an i n d u s t r i a l country, has, following the Education Act of 1944, undertaken a program of growth and change "without p a r a l l e l i n i t s history".  This  123. growth made good a long-standing  deficiency i n education and presented an over-  due acceptance of the importance of science and technology i n the l i f e welfare of the nation.  and  Moreover these were accompanied by an increase i n the  f a c i l i t i e s f o r t e c h n i c a l studies of a l e s s academic kind such as were required to meet regional, area and l o c a l needs.  The l a s t twenty years then have ushered  i n a revolution which w i l l ultimately encompass a l l l e v e l s of education and a l l kinds of manual s k i l l s .  To meet the needs of technicians B r i t a i n has put emphasis  not only on technological t r a i n i n g at u n i v e r s i t y l e v e l but on t e c h n i c a l colleges and t e c h n i c a l schools, i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g , sandwich courses, courses and adult  education.  Another example the developing Union.  correspondence  countries-can l e a r n from i s the Soviet  The Soviet Union, finding herself confronted with programs f o r i n d u s t r i a l  i z a t i o n - e l e c t r i f i c a t i o n , mechanization, automation and replacing of manual labour by technology, reached a decision that education should be aimed at the advancement of science and technology.  Because of t h i s , the r a t i o n a l - t e c h n i c a l  feature has become one of the prominent aspects of Soviet education.  Stress  on the a c q u i s i t i o n of t e c h n i c a l and s c i e n t i f i c s k i l l has become dominant i n a l l f i e l d s and on a l l l e v e l s of the education system.  The Sovet Union, also demon-  strated that occupational i n c l i n a t i o n s of students can be changed.  What i s  needed i s to make the public aware of the national problems and objectives. Another lesson the Soviet Union has to o f f e r i s the importance of the r o l e of women i n t e c h n i c a l tasks.  At Moscow Trade School No. 9, i t has been shown that  i n classes f o r inspectors and draughtsmen, about two-thirds were g i r l s .  of the students  This f a c t o r i s of p a r t i c u l a r importance to Tanzania where female  employment i n t e c h n i c a l jobs, even s e c r e t a r i a l jobs i s almost n i l . t r a i n i n g i s offered at d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of education.  Technical  The cost of t r a i n i n g i n  124. the Soviet Union i s covered by the government, an important aspect i n a Tanzanian society i n which only very few people can a f f o r d to pay f o r t h e i r education.  The Soviet Union, l i k e B r i t a i n offers supplementary education  through evening schools, adult education and i n d u s t r i a l t r a i n i n g . I n the United States, there i s a system i n which there i s co-ordination between schools providing basic general education and those giving t e c h n i c a l instruction.  This sytem provides complete equality of importance and frequent  opportunities f o r interchange between one kind of school and another at d i f ferent stages of the student's development.  This would help to remove they  bias that exists between t e c h n i c a l jobs and white-collar jobs which exists i n Tanzania.  The movement of Junior Colleges i n the United States which  em-  phasizes t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g i s a c l e a r i n d i c a t i o n of the national r e a l i z a t i o n of the importance of technicians i n any society. I n Canada, the counterpart of the Junior Colleges i s found i n d i f f e r e n t colleges i n accordance with the Provincial policies.  I n B r i t i s h Columbia there i s the B r i t i s h Columbia 1  I n s t i t u t e of Technology and the new concept of Regional Colleges. Turkey, India, B r a z i l , a l l have important lessons f o r the developing countries i n c l u d i n g Tanzania.  I n Turkey, s p e c i a l classes devoted to manual  a c t i v i t i e s have been introduced i n secondary schools.  In rural d i s t r i c t s ,  v i l l a g e i n s t i t u t e s have been set up to o f f e r p r a c t i c a l t e c h n i c a l knowledge as w e l l as general knowledge.  The middle schools organize p r a c t i c a l classes  devoted t o wood and metal work and commercial subjects f o r the benefit of those who are unable to continue t h e i r studies a f t e r the middle school age.  1 Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College f o r Vancouver I s l a n d (Vancouver: The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966)  125. Role of Technicians i n the Development of Tanzania Increasing A g r i c u l t u r a l Productivity. I n order t o increase a g r i c u l t u r a l productivity Tanzania aims at opening new lands.  This i s one approach the Soviet Union has taken f o r  increasing her a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i v i t y . This process involves the clearing of the land - removal of bushes, stumps, roots, rocks, which requires the use of machinery.  The people involved i n these tasks therefore have t o know  how t o work the machines, how t o repair them when they break down.  The farmers  themselves, i f they are t o farm large areas must use t r a c t o r s , shovels, load c a r r i e r s , bulldozers and so on f o r c u l t i v a t i n g the s o i l , weeding and i n some cases, harvesting as w e l l as processing as was seen t o be the need i n the coffee growing areas of the country.  A l l these machines w i l l require people  with proper t e c h n i c a l education i n order t o operate them and maintain them. I n the e a r l y stages of development i n the Soviet Union i t was found e s s e n t i a l t o have communla places where a l l the machinery used i n one area was kept and a team of technicians had t o check them. this p r a c t i c e was abandoned.  As the number of technicians increased,  For these tasks therefore Tanzania w i l l need  mechanics and operational technicians.  S t i l l within t h i s f i e l d of agriculture  the country needs a g r i c u l t u r a l extension o f f i c e r s , s o i l analysts, and others. These w i l l help and advise the farmers, a high percentage of whom are i l l i t e r a t e and most important lack the knowledge of the basic essentials f o r increasing farm productivity. This includes means of s o i l improvement by use of f e r t i l i z e r s what types of crops and seeds to sow; when and how; what t o do i n case of crop diseases; when t o harvest crops such as cotton or coffee which can be  126. e a s i l y damaged by harvesting at a wrong time and need p a r t i c u l a r care i n preparing them f o r marketing.  Drought i s one of the l i m i t i n g factors f o r the  extension of a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n Tanzania. to establish i r r i g a t i o n schemes©  I t i s the intention of Tanzania  The technical needs of i r r i g a t i o n schemes  are discussed below under the heading of construction services.  Dam  building  projects are also mentioned i n that section.  I n d u s t r i a l i z a t i on I n the i n d u s t r i a l sector, Tanzania aims at d i v e r s i f y i n g the industries i n order to be able to process the raw materialsproduced i n the country instead of exporting them.  The f i r s t thing that comes to mind as e s s e n t i a l f o r indust-  r i a l establishment i s power.  I n Tanzania the major source of power i s hydro.  Since the p o t e n t i a l areas f o r hydro power are not d i s t r i b u t e d evenly i n the country, t h i s means the power w i l l have to be transmitted over long distances. I n t h i s aspect the countrywill need a large number of e l e c t r i i a n s to supervise the working capacities of the generating plants, power l i n e s and i n the industries themselves.  I n addition t o e l e c t r i c i a n s , the country w i l l need  engineers and mechanics and other technicians to supervise the working of machined and maintenance.  I n order to f i g h t ignorance, there i s need f o r c i r -  culation of newspapers and books.  P r i n t i n g i s therefore an important aspect  i n the industry of Tanzania, so i s radio operation.  This requires printers,  mechanics, radio operators. I n raining, the l i s t of types of technical jobs f o r which people are being trained by the Williamson Diamonds Mining Company atMwadui i s very i n d i c a t i v e of the needs of technicians i n t h i s f i e l d .  i n Tanzania  These range  from b r i c k l a y e r s , miners, t o e l e c t r i c i a n s , t y p i s t s and uriversity and engineers.  graduate  The country needs surveyors, s o i l , mineral analysists t o discover  where the minerals l i e , these have to be dug out, using a variety of machines  127 and they have t o be processed by even more complicated machines. working on these tasks have t o be f e d and housed.  The people  A l l aspects of a c t i v i t y  requiring t e c h n i c a l competence. I n the services sector, there are many f i e l d s i n which technical s k i l l w i l l be needed.  To name a few of these projects, they are construction  which includes road, dams and a l l i r r i g a t i o n schemes andhousing.  Another  f i e l d i n t h i s section i s housing and the t h i r d i s o f f i c e s t a f f , that i s clerks, t y p i s t s and stenographers and telephone operators.  Transportation i s  one of the key elements i n development with e f f i c i e n t means of transport, movement of farm products i s made easier at the same time, the people i n r u r a l areas can obtain some of the goods which are available i n towns only. The same applies t o movement of raw materials t o i n d u s t r i a l centres and the supplying t o people i n r u r a l areas of processed goods f o r consumption - mining. One of the problems Tanzania faces i n agriculture i s the inadequacy of r a i n f a l l .  This l i m i t s the amount of land that can be c u l t i v a t e d .  The  country aims at i r r i g a t i n g some of the p o t e n t i a l l y productive areas of the country.  With the long distances t o be covered between the sources of water  and the lands t o be i r r i g a t e d , there w i l l be need to use machinery i n digging the i r r i g a t i o n channel. on these tasks. country needs.  Engineers, plumbers, joiners w i l l be needed t o carry  The same applies i n the construction of dams which the The construction of dams i s of s p e c i a l importance t o Tanzania.  The sources of protein foods i n the country are limited, but i f many dams are constructed, t h i s w i l l provide breeding places f o r f i s h which i s an important part of peoples the  people.  1  d i e t , and which i s available t o a small percentage of  128 Meeting the Need f o r Technicians i n Tanzania, I f Tanzania and other developing countries have to provide enough and q u a l i f i e d technicians who are needed i n industries, agriculture, government services, health programs and so on, the countries concerned must use a l l available means to meet the needs.  But as was pointed out f o r Tanzania,  which applies t o many other new countries, the education systems i n operation were established by people who had d i f f e r e n t objectives.  In order t o provide  the people needed t o f u l f i l the present national objectives, the education system must be changed, that i s education aimed at providing "servicemen only should be established. (a)  41  Changes i n the education system should include,  changes i n the curriculum to provide subjects which prepare students f o r technical careers and everyday domestic  activities.  Subjects such as sciences, commerce, and c r a f t s should be emphasized.  At the same time the students must be made t o under-  stand the country's problems and objectives f o r development. (b)  Counselling i n schools should be introduced and where possible personnel experts i n t h i s f i e l d should be used.  (a)  System of incentives f o r promising students such as bursaries and scholarships should be  (d)  adopted.  High recognition of t e c h n i c a l careers should be shown through salary scales and status accorded to both teachers i n t e c h n i c a l f i e l d s and technicians.  The question of i n t e r e s t and s a t i s f a c t i o n  i n peoples' careers as technicians i s very important i f t h e i r e f f o r t s have t o be of value to the country. to be offered t o boys and g i r l s equally.  A l l these opportunities  129 The formal channels through which technical t r a i n i n g should be provided were discussed i n the text. n i c a l colleges and u n i v e r s i t y .  These include schools at a l l l e v e l s , tech-  Considering the inadequacy of these i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  provisions should be made f o r capable students, through f o r e i g n a i d programs, to attend t e c h n i c a l courses outside t h e i r own country. Adult education should be made a national p r i o r i t y and not l e f t to the i n t e r e s t e d i n d i v i d u a l s .  Adult t r a i n i n g programs f o r everyday needs  and f o r job purposes have been discussed i n chapter four.  These include  f u l l - t i m e , part-time and everning classes organized by community development centres.  Through the community centres, booklets and magazines on d i f f e r e n t  aspects of education and t e c h n i c a l s k i l l improvement can be provided.  Other  supplementary methods f o r the people, of any age should include the formation of p r o f e s s i o n a l associations such as mechanical, e l e c t r i c a l or farmers associations which would provide lectures, demonstrations problems related t o t h e i r f i e l d s .  and hold discussions on  A c t i v i t i e s involving technical aspects  should be included i n clubs such as the boy scouts, g i r l guides, and national youth league programs.  These organizations should organize tours of industries,  dam b u i l d i n g projects, i r r i g a t i o n schemes and d i f f e r e n t kinds of farms. organizations should also arrange programs where groups can v i s i t and help with farm work as i s done through self-help schemes.  These  farmers  More use of  the radio f o r educational programs should be made as the very important media of mobile movie u n i t s t o carry the message t o remote v i l l a g e s .  I n order t o  carry a l l these educational and t r a i n i n g programs, industries, labour unions co-operatives and other organizations and i n s t i t u t i o n s have an important r o l e t o play.  139. A Plan f o r Implementing Manpower Plans  In the preceding chapters, great emphasis was put on the overwhelming importance  of developing understanding of national objectives among the p u b l i c .  This applies also t o the small groups of people engaged i n manpower and educational planning  inaEjy  country.  I t i s indeed important that the industries,  labour unions, co-operatives and d i f f e r e n t ministries each of which carry on manpower t r a i n i n g programs understand and develop a common way of thinking about problems they are dealing with.  But f o r the purposes of carrying out the  i d e a l of manpower planning f o r development, t h i s set up i s not adequate. I t i s e s s e n t i a l t o have one body which w i l l be responsible f o r manpower planning f o r the whole conntry. Manpower planning f o r development as s p e c i f i e d i n chapter One e n t a i l s the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the most important types of manpower needed t o develop the country and then devoting the country's energies towards the f u l filment of t h i s goal, even at the expense of the other needs of the country. In  order t o accomplish t h i s , there i s the need t o have one administrative body  to see that these plans are followed.  I f the whole task i s l e f t t o the many  i n s t i t u t i o n s , industries and organizations, there i s no way t o ensure that these people w i l l d i r e c t t h e i r e f f o r t s towards these objectives at the expense of t h e i r own i n t e r e s t s therefore co-ordination and c o n t r o l of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s by one c e n t r a l body i s e s s e n t i a l f o r e f f e c t i v e  implementation.  Experiences from other countries show how important the role of a c e n t r a l administrative body i s .  I n the United States, i t was found that  the State Employment Services were not e f f e c t i v e manpower administrative bodies because of the i n t e r - s t a t e freedom of movement by people i n search of employment.  I t was therefore decided t o set up the Federal-State Employment  131. Service. (The duties of the Employment Service are not merely the placement of people i n t o jobs as the name may  suggest.  A l l aspects of manpower planning  are c a r r i e d on by the Employment S e r v i c e ) . The United States now has a national organization dealing with manpower planning. O f f i c e of Manpower P o l i c y , Evaluation and Research.  This i s the United States Infflunope a number of  countries converted communal or state services i n t o n a t i o n a l employment services a f t e r World War I I . A l l European countries except Denmark, I t a l y and Switzerland now have nationwide employment services with t h e i r s t a f f s a l l employees of the national agency. and operations.  This promotes unity and co-ordination i n manpower p o l i c i e s The p o l i c i e s of a l l o c a t i n g manpower planning to the M i n i s t r y  of Labour or the M i n i s t r y of I n t e r n a l A f f a i r s as i s practiced i n some countries, s t i l l leaves manpower decision at the mercy and favours of one i n t e r e s t e d body and so jeopardizing national i n t e r e s t s and objectives. In the Soviet Union, important educational p o l i c y decisions are reached not by i n d i v i d u a l educational establishments, but by a c e n t r a l body of the central governmental structure. I n d i v i d u a l educational establishments or groups of f a c i l i t i e s joined under c e r t a i branches of the educational administration have only l i m i t e d autonomy, i n day to day operational decisions. Such decisions are merely tools i n the implementat i o n of a c e r t a i n aspect of manpower p o l i c y , and the o v e r a l l e f f o r t remains c e n t r a l l y coordinated and c e n t r a l l y supervised.  I n the same manner manpower  planning i n the developing countries, Tanzania as well, i s too important to be l e f t at the mercy of petty administrative r i v a l r i e s , personal whims, biases and i n t e l l e c t u a l confusion.  What i s needed therefore i s a c e n t r a l manpower  planning body to coordinate and d i r e c t the a c t i v i t i e s of a l l other manpower planning u n i t s .  132 The operations of the national manpower planning body would involve the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the types of skills needed f o r development, the actual and prospective effects of technological change on occupations and t r a i n i n g , the educational and t r a i n i n g q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s , and inventories of workers who possess p a r t i c u l a r s k i l l s i n an area.  A f t e r a r r i v i n g at the  type of s k i l l s needed and how they can be obtained, then the other i n s t i t u t i o n s concerned with manpower programming would be instructed s k i l l s t o o f f e r to t h e i r trainees.  as t o what kinds of  For e f f e c t i v e implemenation the body would  have t o control the important channels of t r a i n i n g - colleges,  university  t r a i n i n g scholarships offered by d i f f e r e n t i n s t i t u t i o n s such as industries and churches.  Only through these measures can a country hope t o achieve man-  power needs f o r development objectives.  Without proper manpower planning,  the development plans are l i k e l y t o f a i l .  133.  BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS  Anderson, C, Arnold and Mary Jean Bowman, (Ed.) Education and Economic Development. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965. Bergson, Abrahm, The Economics of Soviet Planning. University Press, 1964.  New Haven: Yale  Bright, James R., Research, Development and Technological Innovation. Homewood: Richard D. Irwin Inc., 1964. Carter, C.F. and Williams B.R., Industry and Technical Progress. London: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1957. Colgrove, S.F., Technical Education and S o c i a l Change. George A l l e n and Unwin Ltd., 1958. Counts, George S., The Challenge of Soviet Education. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., 1957.  London: New York:  Cowan, L. Gray, Education and Nation B u i l d i n g i n A f r i c a . Frederick A. Praeger, 1965.  New York:  Curie, Adam, Some Aspects of Educational Planning i n Underdeveloped Countries. Reprinted from Harvard Educational Review V o l . 32, No. 3, Summer 1962. Denison, Edward F., The Sources of Economic and the A l t e r n a t i v e s Before Us. New York: Committee of Economic Development, De Witt, Nicholas, Soviet P r o f e s s i o n a l Manpower, Washington, National Science Foundation, 1955. E l l i o t , J . , The Technological Society.  1962.  D.C.  New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf,  Fledderus, M.L. and M. Kleeck, Technology and Livelihood . Russel Sage Foundation, 1944. Furtado, Celso, Development and Underdevelopment. of C a l i f o r n i a Press, 1964.  New York:  Berkeley:  Galkin, K., The Training of S c i e n t i s t s i n the Soviet Union. Foreign Languages Publishing House, 1959.  1964.  University Moscow:  Ginzberg, E l i and Smith, Herbert A., Manpower Strategy f o r Developing Countries: Lessons from E t h i o p i a . New York: Columbia Univers i t y Press, 1967.  134. Grant, Nigel, Soviet Education.  London: Cox and Wyman Ltd.,  1964,  Gross, B.M.,(Ed.)» Action Under Planning: The Guidance of Economic Development^ Toronto: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1967 Halsey, A.H., Floud, Jean and Anderson, C. Arnold, Education, Economy and Society. New York: Free Press Glencoe, 1961. Hambidge, Gove, (Ed.), Dynamics of Development: An International Development Reader. New York: Frederick and Praeger, 1964, Harbison, Frederick and Myers, Charles A. Education, Manpower and Economic Growth . New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964. _-  , Manpower and Education. H i l l Book Company, 1965.  Holmes, A., Problems i n Education.  1963:  New York: McGraw-  New York: Routledge and Kegan Paul,  Hunter, Guy, Education f o r a Developing Region. and Unwin, 1963.  New York: George A l l e n  Hug, M.S., Education and Development Strategy i n South and South East Asiau Honolulu: East-West Center Press, 1965. Kamarck, Andrew M., The Economics of Development. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1965. Kerber, August and Smith, Wilfred R., Education Issues i n a Changing Society. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1962. Lester, Richard A., Manpower Planning i n a Free Society. Princeton University Press, 1966. MacLennan, A., Technical Teaching and I n s t r u c t i o n . Book Co. L t d . 1963. Mallows, E.W.H., Teaching a Technology. University Press, 1965.  Princeton:  London:  Oldbourne  Johannesburg: Witwatersrand  Marsh, Leonard, A Regional College f o r Vancouver Island. University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966.  Vancouver:  Mclrvine, E. (Ed.), Dialogue on Technology. New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company Inc., 1967. Meir, R.L., Developmental Planning.  19651  New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company,  Novack, David E., and Lekachman, (Ed.), Development and Society: The Dynamics of Economic Change. New York: St. Martirfe Press, 1964.  135 Osipov, G.V. (Ed.), Industry and Labour i n the U.S.S.R. London: Tavistock Publications, 1966. Phelps, EdmundS., (Ed.), The Goal of Economic Growth: Problems of the Modern Economy. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.,  19oZ  Phelps-Stockes, Report on Education i n A f r i c a , Nairobi: Oxford University Press, 1962. Rao, V.K.R.V., Essays i n Economic Development. House, 1964.  London: A s i a Publishing  Robinson, E.A.G., and Vaizey, J.E., The Economics of Education. York: S t . Martin's Press, 1966.  New  Smith, Hadley E., Readings on Economic Development and Administration i n Tanzania. London: Oxford University Press, 1966. Venables, P.F.R., t e c h n i c a l Education.  London: A. B e l l & Sons, Ltd.,  1956. Venables, P.F.R., Sandwich courses f o r Training Technologists and Technicians. London: Max P a r r i s h and Co. Ltd., 1959. Venables, P.F.R. and Williams, The Smaller Firm and Technical Education. London: William Clowes and Sons Ltd., 1961.  Williams, G., Recruiting to S k i l l e d Trades. Kegan Paul,  1957.  Wilson, Thomas, Planning and Growth.  1964.  New York: Routledge and  London: Macmillan and Co. Ltd.,  Yeung, J.T., Technicians. Today and Tomorrow. Pitman and Sons Ltd., 1965.  London:  S i r Isaac  Z a l e s k i , Eugene, Planning Reforms i n the Soviet Union. 1962-1966. Chapel H i l l : The U n i v e r s i t y of North Carolina Press, 1967. GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS AND REPORTS J o i n t Economic Committee Congress of the United States, Dimensions of Soviet Economic Power. Eighty-seventh Congress, Second Session. Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962. Shapovalenko, S.G., (Ed.) Polytechnical Education i n the U.S.S.R. P a r i s : United Nations Educational, S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l Organization, ED.62/X VI.3/A, P a r i s , 1963. United Nations Educational, S c i e n t i f i c and C u l t u r a l Organization, Education i n a Technological Society, SS59/V. 2.a/A 1952 Paris, 1952.  136  United Nations - Science and Technology f o r Development, Volume 5People and L i v i n g . New York: 1963. United States Education Association, Manpower and Education. D.C., June, 1956.  Washington,  United States National Manpower Council, Manpower P o l i c i e s f o r a Democratic" Society, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965.  JOURNALS AND PERIODICALS Bowman, Mary Jean, "The Human Investment Revolution i n Economic Thought", Sociology of Education, V o l . 39, No. 2 (Spring 1966) i i i - 1 3 7 . B r a z z i e l , William F., " E f f e c t s of General Education i n Manpower Programs", The Journal of Human Resources, V o l . 1, No. 1 (Summer 1966)  39-44.  Dreeben, Robert, "Contribution of Schooling to the Learning of Norms", Harvard Educational Review, V o l . 37, No. 2(1967) 211-237. E l i u f o o , S.N., "Education f o r Service-men only: Tanzania Government P o l i c y f o r Higher Education". A statement delivered i n the form of an address by Hon. S.N. E l i u f o o , M.P., t o the conference on the U n i v e r s i t y of East A f r i c a , taking place i n Nairobi from October 23 to October 26, 1967, East A f r i c a Journal, V o l . IV, No. 8 (December 1967), 23-24. H i l l , F.F., Education The Need f o r Constructive Ideas: Problems and Prospects i n Developing Countries", International Development Review, V o l . 4, No. 4 (December 1962) 4 - 12. Klingelhofer, E.» "Occupational Preferences of Tanzanian Secondary School P u p i l s " , The Journal of S o c i a l Psychology, V o l . 72 (Second half, August 1967), 149-159. Langden, J . , "U.S.S.R. C r a f t and Technical Training", Technical Education and I n d s u t r i a l Training, V o l . 4, No. 6 (June, 1962) 12-13. Newmann, F.M. and D.W. Oliver, "Education and Community" Harvard Educational Review, V o l . 37, No. 1 (1967) 17-22. Nyerere, J.K., "Education f o r Self-Reliance". No. 6 (June, 1967) 73-79.  A f r i c a Report, V o l . 12,  Pantyeleymon, D., "Education Techniques and Problems of Programmed Instruction" International Review of Education, V o l . 13,  No. 1 (1967), 26-30.  137  Resnick, I d r i a n N., "Manpower Development i n Tanzania", The Journal of Modem A f r i c a n Studies, V o l . 5, Mo. 1 (May 1967). 107-123. Schultz, Theodore W., "Investment i n Human C a p i t a l " , The American Economic Review, V o l . 51, No. 1 (March 1961) 365-371. Waines, W.J., "The Role of Education i n Development of Underdeveloped Countries" - P r e s i d e n t i a l Address delivered at Quebec, June 7. 1963. at the Annual Meeting of the Canadian P o l i t i c a l Science Association, The Canadian Journal of Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, V o l . 29, No. 4 (November 1963), 437-445. Weisbrod, Burton A., "Investing i n Human C a p i t a l " , Journal of Human Resources, V o l . 1, No. 1 (Summer 1966), 5-21. Welch, F i n i s , "Measurement of the Quality of Schooling .', American Economic Review, V o l . 2 (May 1966), 379-385. 1  W i l l i s , Jackson, S i r , " P r i o r i t i e s i n Technical Education". Technical Education and I n d u s t r i a l Training, V o l . 6, No. 10 (October  1964) 485-487.  UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL McGairl, J.L. Manpower Training Programs of Williamson Diamonds Company, Annual Report, 1966.  NEWSPAPERS The Standard (Dar es Salaam), December 2, 1967, p . l  APPENDIX.  I'  2  Cf/ACT  COMPOSITE INDEX OF HUMAN RESOURCE J>EV£LOPMErtT AND GNP PER CAPITA (US ..DOLLARS)  •SOUTH KOREA 50  GREECC COSTA RICA'  ENSZUEXA  iOUTH AFRICA  SPAIN* ¥ > I A #  y  ^  , g *rT - - ' A  g  |CA  1  ev  0  ;AN  MALAYA 20  .0 ill  gRAZJL-  .IRAN' .  TUN J _ i _ f "DOMINICAN REPUBLIC BOLIVIA •GUATEMALA INDONESIA  P/e ipc \ IK  aid AN  /  /  /  /  •*—  s  ,/  UJA'  >A> ^ ~  /  y  NK <EW  >  •HAM 1  A  ,LAER A r i • CONCO  TANGANYIKA —Af^HANlST* PJUYACAI  •^THIOPIA  Aur\  -  SAl  1  AR  \  zoo  100  200  300  400  500 • 600 TOO 6NP PER CAPITA (US. bOLLARS)  600  Showing the relationship between manpower and GNP per capita: higher the index of human resource development. Adapted from:  900  1000  «0O  f+OO  the higher the NGP, the  Harbison, Frederick and Myers, Charles, Education, Manpower and Economic Growth, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1964), p.43. "  APPENDIX 2  EUROPEAN CIVIL SERVANTS IN AFRICA I1958-1960) Indicating A f r i c a n Manpower Shortages Country  Number  British East A f r i c a Gambia Kenya Nigeria Malawi Zambia S i e r r a Leone Somaliland Tanganyika Uganda Zanzibar Other  2,900 100 3,400 4,000 800 1,300 430 170 2,800 1,800 140 600 Sub-total  French Central A f r i c a n Republic Chad Congo Dahomey Gabon Ivory Coast Madagascar Niger Senegal-Soudan Tunisia - Morocco Upper Volta Sub-total Belgian Congo Ruanda-Urundi  18,440  1,500 1,000 2,000 500 500 3,000 1,000 3,000 6,500 1,000 2,000 22,000 11,000 1,000  Sub-total  12,000  Portuguese Mozambique  12,000  Total B r i t i s h , French, Belgian Portuguese Others  64,440 35,560  TOTAL  100,000  Appendix 2 (continued)  139A  Total estimate for A f r i c a does not include South African, Ghanaian, Egyptian, Ethiopian, American or U.N. personnel.  This estimate covers only  c i v i l servants working for A f r i c a n Governments under the forms of agreement of co-operation or through c o l o n i a l administration.  Source:  Moran, B., Handbook of A f r i c a n Economic Development Frederick A. Praeger, Inc. 1962), p.61  (New York:  140.  APPENDIX 3  HIGHER MANPOWER - REQUIREMENTS AND SUPPLY IN EAST AFRICA  1961-1966 Lower R  1966-1971  Higher R  Supply  Lower R  Higher R  Supply  KENYA Cat I Cat II  6,650 16,800  6,550 20,700  2,500 11,000  4,400 17,000  7,700 32,300  5,000 21,000  Total  22,450  27,250  13,500  21,400  40,000  26,000  Cat I Cat II  2,430 6,180  2,850 7,800  700 5,850  2,000 6,900  3,500 13,100  1,500 8,500  Total  8,610  10,650  6,550  8,900  16,600  10,000  2,500 7,500  2,950 9,350  1,650 8,200  2,160 8,250  3,780 15,670  2,000 12,000  10,000  12,300  ^9,850  10,410  19,450  14,000  UGANDA  TANZANIA Cat I Cat II  Total  Source:  Hunter, Guy Education f o r a Developing Region George A l l e n and Unwin 1963), p. 64.  Cat I -  (New York  The highest l e v e l - professional men of graduate or equivalent l e v e l , senior administrators, senior managers i n industry and commerce. Cat I I - Next layer - technicians and sub-professional grades ( f o r example, the second echelon i n a g r i c u l t u r a l extension work) executive grades i n the C i v i l Service middle management i n industry and commerce, teachers with secondary education but without a u n i v e r s i t y education. Lower R - Lower requirements Higher R - Higher requirements  APPENDIX 4 Chart 3»  Technological Advances A f f e c t i n g Man's L i f e and f o r which he must prepare himself t o cope with.  G R O W I N G  M E C H A N I Z A T I O N  Areas of Advance Direction o f long, intricate machinery actions  O F I N T E L L E C T U A L  Some Typical Means Feedback c o n t r o l o f process equipment Punchcd-card control o f bulk-materials batching Numerically controlled m a chine tools Punchcd-rapc control o f t y p e w r i t e r s and so o n  Information processing  C o m p u t e r s and business machinery to acquire, sort, manipulate, interpret, store, a n d display selected data Mechanical reproduction o f selected data, forms, checks, and so on  PROCESSES  Some Results Increased accuracy, reduced setup t i m e , i m p r o v e d u n i formity, reduction in operator t r a i n i n g , need for p r o grammers Increase i n equipment zation Increased cost equipment  per unit o f  Reduction o f clerical labor I n c r e a s e d speed i n p r e p a r i n g papers o f all t y p e s Improved accuracy Speed i n s u m m a r i z i n g business c o n d i t i o n s Better information for m a n agement Faster response t o ment decisions  Problem solving  C o m p u t e r solutions o f c o m plex scientific, engineeri n g , a n d business c a l c u l a tions Computer simulation o f . business a n d m i l i t a r y problems Operations research prob-, lem analysis b y computers  utili-  manage-  Solution o f problems  other-  wise unfeasible Exploration o f complex problems Decision-making assistance on major business and m i l i t a r y policies and strategies A b i l i t y t o test e f f e c t o f t e n t a tive solutions to problems  APPENDIX 4, Chart 3 (continued)  INCREASED  ABILITY  T O OF  Areas of Advance N e w properties for o l d m a terials  Synthetic materials  ALTER  T H E CHARACTERISTICS  MATERIALS  Some Typical Means  Some Results  C h e m i c a l and metallurgical knowledge applied to alter properties of materials  Improvement  of  Better control o f purity, additives, and processes N e w production processes  E n d users r e q u i r e  properties  s u c h as s t r e n g t h ;  weight,  heat r e s i s t a n c e , a n d rosion  cor-  resistance different  production processes and work-force skills N e w product design opportunities  Combinations o f materials to provide unique characteristics  T y p i c a l examples: alum i n u m engine blocks, paper and plastic replacement of.textile cloth S y n t h e t i c fibers, r u b b e r , o i l , and food Fibcrglas, prcstrcsscd concrete, ceramic-metallic compounds, laminated w o o d b e a m s , a n d panels of aluminum-plastic honeycomb construction  INCREASED  T R A N S P O R T A T I O N  Areas of Advance M a s t e r y o f greater distances i n less t i m e a n d / o r cost  transports, helicopters, g r o u n d effects m a chines  "Piggy-back" rail transport, container ships and trains P i p e lines Supertankers, hydrofoil boats Passenger'conveyors Missiles and rockets  N e w and specialized p r o duction facilities for p r o ducer and fabricator H i g h l y selective materials specifications  CAPABILITY  Sonic Typical Means Jet  L o w e r cost for m a n y m a terials and/oc end p r o d ucts  Some Results W o r l d - w i d e commercial and pleasure travel o f u p to three thousand miles in eight hours O v e r n i g h t freight service nat i o n a l l y and to m o s t international centers Specialized transportation systems for h i g h - v o l ume items or dense . traffic p a t t e r n s Specialized handling devices l i n k e d to these transport systems  M o v e m e n t and operations i n new mediums: J . Space 2.  Undcrseas  Aerospace vehicles Submarines, bathyscapes, and aqua lungs Arctic housing, utilities,  3 . A r c t i c areas Life ^  trackless trains support systems in space, the Arctic, and under water  W a r f a r e in n e w mediums, with associated attack, defense, s u r v e i l lance, and c o m m u n i cations devices Development of new devices Acquisition of knowledge  support scientific  Beginnings o f new commercial operations (e.g., communications satellites, weather stations)  143.  APPENDIX 4, Chart 3 (continued)  G R O W I N G  M E C H A N I Z A T I O N  Areas-of Advance  OK  PHYSICAL  Sn/ne Results  Sotue Typical Means Power  Production: Direct labor tasks W o r k feeding Materials handling  hand tools, n u m e r i -  L a r g e r machine content and  cally controlled  investment C h a n g e in w o r k - f o r c e s k i l l s  tools V i b r a t o r y feeders  Assembly T e s t i n g and inspection Packaging  Lift  trucks, cranes, conveyors A s s e m b l y machines Electronic, electrical, pneumatic, and other i n ' spection devices Automatic chinery  Distribution: Shipping and receiving Warehousing  Lift  packaging  ma-  trucks, cranes, conveyors, automatic pa.Hcti/.crs, a u t o -  Carrier loading  mated marcrial m o v e m e n t and c o n t r o l s y s t e m s based o n c o n v e y o r s and retrievers Pneumatic bulk loading  ) C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and c o n t r o l : M o v e m e n t o f papers, blueprints, m a i l Recording and assembly  ACTIVITIES  Air-rube carriers, facsimile transmitters, wired TV,  of  vertical  tive conveyors,  data  selectwo-  w a y radio, dictating and transcribing equipment, teletypew r i t e r s and tclcscribcrs  Extractive industries and c o n struction: Earth m o v i n g Mining ' Lumbering  Heavy-duty  .cross-country  conveyors, onc-hundred-ton power shovels, spread of special purpose v e h i c l e s s u c h as t r a c tor shovels, load car-  Agriculture  riers, straddle carriers, bulldozers, a n d so o n  o  (usually) R e d u c t i o n in labor per u n i t o f output Increased maintenance (usuGreater  ally) capacity  Less flexibility (usually) Easter response to demands o n p r o d u c t i o n system Better customer service Improved quality L e s s scrap and w a s t e Less inventory and w o r k i n process  APPENDIX 5. Chart 4 Source:  Soviet Union Education Compared to United States.  De Witt, Nicholas, Soviet Professional Manpower, Washington, D.C., National Science Foundation, 1955» pp 6-7 0  APPENDIX ^ ELEMENTS OF AN ASSESSMENT OF MANPOWER RESOURCES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT Population c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s (A)  Age  (B)  Sex  (C)  Education  (D)  Health  (E)  Geographical  distribution  Labour force c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (A)  Composition  by (1) Size, (2) Sex, (3) Age  (B)  I n d u s t r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n by (1) Agriculture, by major types; (2) Non-agricultural a c t i v i t i e s , by major types; (3) Region or state.  (C)  Occupation s k i l l s , p r i n c i p a l l y (1) Technological manpower ( s c i e n t i s t s and engineers); (2) Teachers at a l l l e v e l s ; (3) Health personnel; (4) Administrative personnel (government); (5) Execut i v e s , managers, and technical support personnel (industry, private and p u b l i c ) ; (6) A g r i c u l t u r a l personnel (highly trained); (7) Social s c i e n t i s t s (highly trained); (8) Craftsmen and s k i l l e d i n d u s t r i a l workers.  (D)  Quality and motivation: (1) Aptitudes as demonstrated i n existing i n d u s t r i a l enterprises; (2) Social and geographical mobility; (3) Motivation toward change and economic improvement; (4) Literacy and educational achievement pattern.  Employment and unemployment: (A)  Trend i n employment by major a c t i v i t i e s ;  Appendix 6 ( c ont»d)  1  (B)  Manpower shortages, i f any;  (C)  Unemployment and underemployment: (1) Agriculture; (2)  Non-  a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s ; (3) By s p e c i a l classes of personnel or by geographical areas. Growth factors at work i n the economy: (A)  Programmed expansion goals for planned economic growth (1) By industry (including a g r i c u l t u r e ) , (2) By time table.  (B)  Current and prospective trend i n "unplanned" economic growth from (1) Domestic, private c a p i t a l investment; capital  (C)  investment.  Major basic resource assets and l i m i t a t i o n s .  Trained manpower producing (A)  (2) Foreign  institutions:  Educational system: (1) Elementary and secondary; (2) Vocational and technical; (3) College and post-graduate;  (4) Estimates of  quality at each l e v e l ; (5) Numbers and d i s t r i b u t i o n of students; (6) Foreign t r a i n i n g by numbers, f i e l d s , and country; (7) Employment experience and expectations of products of each l e v e l of education. (B)  Government, industry, and professional associations: (1) Inservice t r a i n i n g and development of government administrative and technical personnel; (2) In-service training and development of executive, managerial, and technical personnel i n industry; (3) E f f i c i e n c y of systems of r e c r u i t i n g , t r a i n i n g , and u t i l i z i n g trained personnel - government and industry; (4) Effectiveness of c o l l a t e r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , such as management associations and professional s o c i e t i e s .  >  Organization, objectives, and a c t i v i t i e s of the labor movement: (A)  Major units, numbers and o r i e n t a t i o n ;  Appendix 6 (cont'd)  1*7  : \  (B)  A c t i v i t i e s conducted by each i n f i e l d s of union organiztion,, worker education, and development of responsible unions;  (C)  Management attitudes toward labor organizations and c o l l e c t i v e bargaining;  (D)  I n d u s t r i a l relations experience  i n major sectors of economy and  outlook for future. (VII)  Organization of government for manpower planning and administration: (A) Basic governmental organization for planning and conducting  econo-  mic development; (B)  Awareness of the manpower problem and sense of urgency i n solving it;.  (C)  Extent and kinds of arrangements for building manpower plans into economic development programs;  (D)  Extent and kinds of organizations to conduct manpower resourcesrequirements studies and to help manage manpower resources;  (E)  Extent and quality of co-operating nongovernmental and quasigovernmental organizations available to contribute to manpower planning.  (VIII)  Evaluation of manpower resources and requirements f o r anticipated economic growth by (A)  Present adequacy of resources;  (B)  Estimated  (C)  Resources and f a c i l i t i e s for meeting requirements within lead  requirements by time periods;  time available; (D)  Measures required to meet requirements and to adjust imbalances i n resources and requirements.  (IX)  Inter-country (A)  comparisons:  Comparison of basic resources  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of countries i n  Appendix & (cont'd)  regional grouping by s o i l , water, climate, minerals,  power, trans-  portation, industry, agriculture, and manpower; (B)  Comparison of attitudes toward and explicitness of plans f o r economic development;  (C)  Construction  of a "comparison g r i d " to show basic s i m i l a r i t i e s  . and differences; (D)  I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of human resource (or other) development programs i n which regional co-operation tageous.  i s p r a c t i c a l and mutually advan-  APPENDIX 1  MANPOWER PLANNING TECHNIQUES * Much has already been said about the importance of adequate manpower planning i n the developing  countries.  But a development plan i s a work  of f i c t i o n i f the planners do not provide f o r the executive capacity needed to implement the plan.  The most c r u c i a l step i n development planning i s therefore  long range projection of the manpower requirements of every sector of the economy and the accompanying i n t e r n a l and external t r a i n i n g f a c i l i t i e s to ensure that the manpower demands are going to be s a t i s f i e d . Ratio Analysis:  I s o l a t i o n of the Dependent Variable  To forecast manpower i n any sector one must i s o l a t e an accurate measure of a c t i v i t y i n the sector and then determine the relationship between the l e v e l of a c t i v i t y i n the sector and the personnel of various grades and s k i l l s required to maintain that a c t i v i t y .  The independent variable i s there-  fore the l e v e l of a c t i v i t y and the dependent variable i s the number of persons required.  The relationship between these two variables i s usually expressed  as a manpower r a t i o , that i s , the amount of a c t i v i t y of a given kind that can be handled by a single man of given q u a l i f i c a t i o n s .  Mathematically this i s  expressed as, Ratio = r = unit of a c t i v i t y man It may take several persons of d i f f e r e n t s k i l l s to maintain one unit of a c t i v i t y i n a given sector. of manpower r a t i o s .  Thus, for each independent variable, there may be a number For example one design engineer may be able to handle  £100,000 worth of new road design each year.  He may need, however, two tech-  nicians, four draftsmen and one surveyor to execute his duties.  The manpower  r a t i o s of new road design would, therefore, be £100,000 : 1, £50,000 : 1, £25,000 : 1 and £100,000 : 1 f o r engineers, surveyors respectively.  technicians, draftsmen and  Appendix 1C (continued) In general two types of independent variables w i l l be found i n manpower planning.  These are:  (a) Economic Variables.  In certain sectors f o r example, public works  and construction - expenditure i s an accurate measure of a c t i v i t y .  One would  therefore find the amount of expenditure of a given type that a single man of given q u a l i f i c a t i o n s can handle, and express this as a manpower r a t i o (£/man). Once expenditure (the independent variable) i s projected over a number of years, i t i s easy to divide expenditure by the manpower r a t i o to find a number of people of a given grade needed. (b)  S o c i a l Variables.  In other sectors of the economy, there i s  no clear cut relationship between l e v e l of a c t i v i t y , productivity and the manpower required.  For example, there i s no correct r a t i o of a g r i c u l t u r a l  extension agents to the farm population, and one i s forced to set q u a l i t a t i v e "target" r a t i o s .  In this case, the independent variable i s farm population.  The number of extension workers would be determined by projecting the number of farmers and applying the target r a t i o of extension workers to farmers to find the number of extension workers needed i n a given year.  Similar examples  are found i n the f i e l d of community development, health and education. The following chart shows the economic and s o c i a l variables that might be used i n making manpower projections i n various sections of the economy.  Appendix 1.) ( continued) Chart 5. CHART SHOWING SECTORAL ACTIVITY VARIABLES •  Sector 1.(a)  Construction (capital)  (b)  Construction current  2.  Economic Variable Expenditure man ii  Extension Workers farm family  (b) Crops or Plantation  men acre  (c) Livestock or Poultry  man 100 head  3.  Education  4.  Health  Student Teacher  men Unit Population  j  Industry  Expenditure man Unit Production man  6.  _  Agriculture (a) Extension Work  5.  Social Variable  Trade & Commerce  Unit Volume man Expenditure man  151. Appendix 70  (continued)  The Q-B-C-DL Technique of Manpower Planning  1  The O-B-C-DL formula was developed for l o c a l application i n Venezuela.  It provides a simple analysis of the organization of human motiva-  tions for discovering reasons for human reactions i n any given s i t u a t i o n .  It  provides for an automatic non-antagonistic personnel selection process, the means which permit a group of individuals to organize the i d l e mental resources of the participants, and a means by which continuity can be established through institutionalization.  In b r i e f the technique involves the following variables:  Orientation (0)'; Benefits to be derived (B); Co-operation necessary (C); and D i v i s i o n of Labour (DL). The following i s an example i l l u s t r a t i n g how  this technique  was  applied i n Venezuela. 0 -  Several employers had asked the l o c a l power company to supply e l e c t r i c i a n s to i n s t a l l machines and repair motors, but no trained personnel were available.  So the Manager, because of  the demand from eployers, decided to t r a i n his people as electricians. B -  Employers were asked to co-operate.  Employees were recruited  as students with offers of better paying jobs.  Employers were  so impressed that they offered to finance the t r a i n i n g costs. C -  Instructors, course-organizers, administrative help, classroom space and o f f i c i a l recognition of the courses, were obtained from co-operating employers and l o c a l education organizations.  If  International Development Review, The 0-B-C-DL Technique of Human Resource Mobilization. Ekker, Charles, Volume VIII - Number 1, March 1966 pp. 19 - 22.  Appendix ?. (cont'd) DL - Instructors selected the date, time and content of the courses. Employers sent their personnel to be trained.  Employers' repres-  entatives handed out the diplomas and raised trainees' wages at least t h i r t y - f i v e per cent after s i x months.  Resources mobilized amounted  to $10,000 arid the s p e c i a l i s t s mobilization r a t i o was 4000 : 1, f i n a n c i a l mobilization r a t i o f o r the s p e c i a l i s t ' s work was $200 : 1.  APPENDIX 8 , Chart b' •Showing D i f f e r e n t Duties and Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s of Technicians,  INDUSTRY'S  VIEW  O FT H E  TECHNICIAN  Some of the posts advertised between October 1961 and October 1963for "Technicians'" Description of post  Details of post (summary)  Main business of employer  Qualifications required*  Development technician  Furnaces  E r e c t i o n , o p e r a t i o n testing, a n d dismantling prototype furnaces; servicing  Experience, O . N . C . (mechanical engineering) an advantage  Laboratory technician (female)  Petroleum  Hospital  I.M.L.T. i n bacteriology or haematology with considerable experience  Technicians  Steel  S e q u e n c e testing both heavy and light current c o n t r o l systems, a n d p r o tective devices; tracing faults i n electronic a p paratus  O.N.C. (minimum) but could have experience only  Quality control technician  Food products  Aircraft technician  Aircraft  P r e p a r e specifications o f requirements for items of equipment  H . N . C . or equivalent plus experience  Development technician  Photographic apparatus and equipment  Develop production methods and equipment  G r a d u a t e i n physics or engineering (electronics)  Quality control technician/food technologist  Food products  Sales  Not  technician  Senior technician  given  Food products  H . N . C . or equivalent; experience i n statistical quality control a n advantage  to  Some engineering experience a n d preferably some practical knowledge o f physics or industrial chemistry  Q u a l i t y c o n t r o l testing of a non-routine nature  Passes i n c h e m i s t r y and/or physics a t least a t G . C . E . ( O ) level (preferably A level) . S o u n d m a t h e matical ability  Must travel  be prepared  * O . N . C . = O r d i n a r y N a t i o n a l Certificate H . N . C . = H i g h e r National Certificate I. M . L . T . = Institute o f M e d i c a l L a b o r a t o r y  Source:  H . N . C . (chemistry) or equivalent or qualified i n food technology  —  Technologists  Young, J.T., Technicians, Today and Tomorrow, (London: S i r Isaac pitman and Sons Ltd., I9S5),  p.2  c  

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