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The Peripheral journey to work in Vancouver Hickman, Richard Michael 1968

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THE PERIPHERAL JOURNEY TO WORK IN VANCOUVER by RICHARD MICHAEL HICKMAN B.A., University o f London, I963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  i n the School of Community and Regional Planning We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May, 1968  In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study.  I  further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my School or by h i s representatives.  I t i s understood that copying or publication of t h i s thesis  f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission.  School of Community and Regional Planning, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8 , B r i t i s h Columbia. May 1968  (ii)  ABSTRACT  The hypothesis of t h i s study i s that commuter journeys to employment i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t s of large c i t i e s are not representative, i n terms of t r i p length and dispersion, of commuter journeys to employment i n the suburbs. It i s argued that i n some larger c i t i e s , journeys to suburban or peripheral employment form an important and growing proportion of a l l work journeys, and that i f these are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from the journey to work to the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t , t h i s w i l l have important implications i n future transportation planning, and i n d i r e c t l y i n planning the d i s t r i bution of residences and employment. A short review of existing journey to work l i t e r a t u r e i s presented. The majority of previous studies of the journey to work have been concerned p r i m a r i l y with the commuter journey to the downtown area, or are i n such general terms that, without further a n a l y s i s , i t i s not possible to i d e n t i f y the patterns and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the peripheral journey to work. A random sample of employed residents of the City of Vancouver and the Municipality of Burnaby i s used to document the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of peripheral work journeys i n the Vancouver Metropolitan area, and to compare them with downtown work t r i p s .  Vancouver forms a suitable c i t y f o r a study  of the peripheral journey to work as i t shows low development d e n s i t i e s , a high degree of dependence on t r a v e l by car, and a reasonable proportion of employment located i n the suburbs.  The sample drawn i s not large enough and  the information not varied enough to conduct a detailed explanatory  (iii)  investigation of the factors influencing the pattern of peripheral work trips.  However the descriptive material indicates that peripheral work t r i p s  are s i g n i f i c a n t l y shorter i n length than commuter t r i p s to the c e n t r a l area of Vancouver, and that they show a much greater v a r i e t y of t r i p length and t r i p direction. The r e s u l t s suggest that peripheral work t r i p s are composed of a large number of very small zone to zone volumes, forming a r e l a t i v e l y even m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l network of t r i p s throughout the suburban area.  The  present pattern of t r i p s does not appear to be suited to the provision of high or medium volume t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s f o r suburban journeys, and t h i s i n turn i s a constraint upon the formation of large concentrations of jobs i n suburban areas.  The i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s of urban structure i n terms of the  d i s t r i b u t i o n of homes and employment, and the s u i t a b i l i t i e s of a l t e r n a t i v e transportation modes are discussed, and the need f o r e x p l i c i t p o l i c y objectives and coordinated land use and transportation plans i s stressed. In addition, the evidence suggests that a large proportion of persons employed i n the suburbs appear to prefer a more specialised choice:of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n , rather than attempting to minimise the journey to work. I t i s suggested that the descriptive evidence i s s u f f i c i e n t to indicate the distinctiveness of peripheral work journeys from a transportation point of view, and that they are important enough to merit more detailed explanatory planning.  studies and s p e c i a l attention i n transportation  (iv)  TABLE OF CONTENTS  CHAPTER I  PAG-E INTRODUCTION Scope and significance of study  II  III  IV  1 1  Objectives and methods  2  l i m i t a t i o n s of study  4  WORK JOURNEY PATTERNS  6  The  6  separation of workplaces and residences  Descriptive studies  12  Explanatory studies  15  Studies of the peripheral journey to work  19  THE PERIPHERAL JOURNEY TO WORK IN VANCOUVER  23  Method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n  23  Results and findings  26  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  49  Comparison with other studies  ,49  Choices of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n f o r peripheral employment  51  A p p l i c a b i l i t y of g r a v i t y model to peripheral work journeys  53  Implications f o r transportation planning  53  BIBLIOGRAPHY  58  APPENDIX  Sampling procedure  60  (v)  LIST OF TABLES  TABLE I  II  III  IV  V  VI  VII  VIII  PAGE D i s t r i b u t i o n of jobs i n London Metropolitan Region, 1951, 1961, 1981  8  Estimated changes i n employment i n Metropolitan Vancouver, 1955 - 1985  10  Land use at o r i g i n and destination f o r urban t r a v e l i n f i f t y c i t i e s  13  Comparison of employment c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s f o r West Suburban Area and Central Business D i s t r i c t of Chicago  21  Characteristics of sample of work journeys i n Vancouver  25  Mean work-residence separation f o r two Vancouver samples  26  V a r i a t i o n i n work t r i p length by place of employment  29  Direction of peripheral work journeys i n Vancouver  30  (vi)  LIST OF FIGURES  FIGURE 1  2  3  4-13  14  PAGE Dependence on downtown employment by distance from downtown f o r component clusters of sample  27  Percentage frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n s of peripheral and downtown work journeys by t r i p length  28  Key map showing l o c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r s forming work journey sample  33  Cartographic plots of work journeys originating at each of ten r e s i d e n t i a l clusters forming work journey sample Employment by t r a f f i c zones, Vancouver 1965> (simplified).  35-44  46  (vii)  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish to record my appreciation of the advice and suggestions of Professors V Setty Pendakur and Brahm Wiesman, and Mr John Wolforth during the preparation of t h i s  study.  CHAPTER I  INTRODUCTION Scope and significance of study The planning f o r and provision of transportation f a c i l i t i e s f o r the journey between home and workplace has become an i n t e g r a l element i n the preparation and execution of c i t y development plans.  For t h i s purpose  comprehensive descriptive studies of t r a v e l patterns have been carried out i n many major c i t i e s .  Usually, most emphasis has been given to the measure-  ment and analysis of commuter t r i p s to downtown workplaces, f o r i n the large c i t i e s these t r i p s have proved the most d i f f i o u l t to cater f o r adequately, l a r g e l y due to t h e i r concentration into c e r t a i n areas at p a r t i c u l a r times of day.  With a very few exceptions, the commuter journey to workplaces  situated i n the suburbs has been treated only i n a general manner, as a subsidiary component of urban t r a v e l .  There has been l i t t l e attempt to  investigate the underlying factors influencing t h i s type of t r i p , or to compare the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of downtown and non-downtown oriented commuter journeys.  I t i s these commuter journeys to workplaces i n the suburbs, the  peripheral journey to work, that form the main focus of t h i s study, although some consideration of downtown journeys^" has been necessary f o r comparitive 2  purposes.  There i s increasing evidence  i n some larger c i t i e s that these  ^ For the purposes of t h i s study, 'work t r i p ' means the commuter journey between the home and the place of work, and does not include t r a v e l f o r business purposes to other locations or premises. This i s discussed i n Chapter I I .  - 2 -  peripheral or suburban work journeys form not only the larger proportion of a l l commuter t r i p s , but also the f a s t e s t growing sector of work journeys, and that t h i s type of t r i p w i l l be of increasing importance i n the future.  If  t h i s type of journey exhibits s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s from the downtown commuter journey, t h i s w i l l have implications i n terms of transportation requirements, and i n wider planning considerations of urban structure. Objectives and methods This study attempts to satisfy: three major objectives:  ( l ) to  review selected l i t e r a t u r e on the journey to work and to examine the extent to which i t can be adapted to the study of the peripheral journey to work;  (2) to examine the changing d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment i n two  major c i t i e s , London, England, and New York, i n order to assess the importance of the peripheral journey to work, and to evaluate the degree to which similar tendencies may be a f f e c t i n g the metropolitan area of Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia;  (3) to c o l l e c t information on the peripheral  journey to work i n Vancouver, and to compare some of the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of peripheral work journeys with those of commuter t r i p s t o downtown Vancouver. The l a t t e r part of the study i s based on information from the Vancouver C i t y Directory.  A random sample of r e s i d e n t i a l areas i n the City  of Vancouver and the Municipality of Burnaby was used as the basis f o r b u i l d ing up a picture of the destinations of work t r i p s originating i n the sample areas.  Each of the ten r e s i d e n t i a l t r a c t s that formed the sample  ^ For a f u l l description of the sampling procedure see Appendix, and f o r the location of the ten r e s i d e n t i a l areas making up the sample see the key map, Figure 3.  consisted of four or s i x street "blocks, depending on the density of development.  The street section of the d i r e c t o r y was used to i d e n t i f y the names  of a l l employed adults l i v i n g i n the areas sampled, and the alphabetical section of the directory provided t h e i r occupations and the names of t h e i r employers.  The name of the employer could then be looked up to give the  l o c a t i o n of the workplace.  This procedure was used to obtain d e t a i l s of  the o r i g i n s and destinations, of about 700 commuter journeys, and t h i s information was then used to compute the d i r e c t i o n , length, and dispersion of downtown and peripheral t r i p s . For t h i s study of the peripheral journey to work, no detailed attempt was made to r e l a t e o r i g i n s and destinations to the s o c i a l class of residents or to the number and composition of job opportunites of work.  at the place  The objectives are l i m i t e d to a comparison of work t r i p s to  downtown and suburban employment on the basis of simple, e a s i l y measured c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s such as length and dispersion of t r i p s .  I f basic differences  are revealed, t h i s would indicate the value of more intensive studies, both d e s c r i p t i v e and explanatory, based on larger samples.  I t would also point  to the importance of attention to the peripheral journey to work i n the planning of land use and transportation systems. For t h i s study, two hypotheses were adopted: (1)  Commuter journeys to suburban locations are l i k e l y to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y shorter than commuter journeys to downtown employment;  (2)  Commuter journeys to suburban locations, are l i k e l y to show greater v a r i e t y , i n terms of t r i p length, dispersion, and d i r e c t i o n , than commuter journeys to downtown employment. Data f o r I963 were used so that the study would be d i r e c t l y comparable  to another study , c h i e f l y r e l a t i n g to the journey to work to downtown Vancouver, based on material f o r the same year. Vancouver forms a suitable subject f o r a study of the peripheral journey to work because the metropolitan area already exhibits a f a i r l y wide d i s t r i b u t i o n of places of employment.  Present patterns of r e s i d e n t i a l  growth and transportation f a c i l i t i e s , i f unchanged, seem l i k e l y to reinforce the growth of suburban employment. Limitations of the study Restrictions of time and resources were the chief constraint on the size and d e t a i l of the investigation that has been undertaken.  I t was  found  that there was l i t t l e published l i t e r a t u r e on the peripheral journey to work, and that there was no s t a t i s t i c a l material on the journey to work i n Vancouver available i n a suitable form f o r a n a l y s i s .  The sample study that  has been carried out i s s u f f i c i e n t l y large f o r broad generalisations, but i s not adequate f o r repeated d i v i s i o n and microanalysis. Thus no attempt has been made to investigate the type of employment , the s o c i a l class of residents, the mode of transport used, or other variables that would probably form important aspects of a more comprehensive explanatory study of the peripheral journey to work.  The primary objective of t h i s study has  been to make a preliminary appraisal of the subject of the peripheral journey to work;  to gather some of the more basic data;  and to make some  simple comparisons with downtown journeys to work to show the d i s t i n c t i v e ness and importance of t h i s type of journey. Chapter I I contains a review of existing l i t e r a t u r e on the journey to  John R. Wolforth, Residential Location and the Place of Work, B.C. Geographical Series No. 4- (Vancouver: Tantalus Research Ltd.,  1965)  work, p a r t i c u l a r l y the few studies that s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e to the peripheral journey to work.  The chapter also includes a b r i e f evaluation of the changing  d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment i n London, New  York, and Vancouver.  In chapter  I I I , the data and findings of the work journey sample from the Vancouver C i t y Directory are presented i n both s t a t i s t i c a l and graphical form.  In  chapter IV, the most s i g n i f i c a n t material contained i n chapters I I and I I I i s drawn together, and the implications f o r transportation planning discussed.  are  CHAPTER I I  WORK JOURNEY PATTERNS The separation of workplaces and  residences  The emergence of the journey to work as a s i g n i f i c a n t aspect of the functioning of c i t i e s i s the r e s u l t of the increasing separation of workplaces and residences.  In mediaeval times, a large proportion of the  population l i v e d a t , or very close t o , the place of work;  f o r example i n  the upper stories of buildings containing shops or workshops at lower l e v e l s . The speed-distance  c a p a b i l i t y of transportation modes a v a i l a b l e placed a  very r e a l constraint on the distance that could separate the dwelling and the workplace.  The emergence of specialised workplaces i n the form of  l a r g e r workshops, facto'ries, and o f f i c e s during the 19th century necessitated a complementary s p e c i a l i s a t i o n of buildings p r i m a r i l y f o r r e s i d e n t i a l use. As more e f f i c i e n t means of transport became a v a i l a b l e , i t was possible f o r an i n c r e a s i n g l y greater distance to separate homes, and workplaces.  At  f i r s t , only the higher income groups could a f f o r d the luxury of homes distant from the noise and d i r t of the f a c t o r i e s and close-packed workmens' dwellings of the i n d u s t r i a l revolution.  However, with the advent of the  tramway during the l a t e 19th century and the i n s t i t u t i o n of cheap workmens' f a r e s , a degree of work residence separation became possible f o r nearly 5  a l l s o c i a l groups.  Rasmussen  has traced the rapid a r e a l growth of  London that resulted from t h i s phenomenon and i l l u s t r a t e s by a series of c  Steen E i l e r Rasmussen, London, the Unique City (London: Cape, 1937), Pelican E d i t i o n , pp. 126-132 -  6  -  Jonathan  maps the rapid extension of the housing areas, p a r t i c u l a r l y during the 1880's and 1890*s.  The development of commuter r a i l services and  automobile  t r a v e l f a c i l i t a t e d a further dispersion of r e s i d e n t i a l areas, and an increasi n g l y s p e c i a l i s e d d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l areas serving d i f f e r e n t socio-economic  groups.  This d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n and s p e c i a l i s a t i o n was  recognised  i n the s t y l i s e d urban structure theory developed by the Chicago, School of Ecologists  i n the mid twenties, and has been w e l l documented.  During the V i c t o r i a n period, the majority of jobs were s t i l l located at or near the o i t y centre, but the dominance of the c e n t r a l c i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment has since been progressively weakened.  In  New  York i n 1889, the core area (as defined f o r the New York Metropolitan Region Study, and covering a much larger area than the central business d i s t r i c t of Manhattan), contained just under threequarters of a l l jobs i n the region^. In London at t h i s period, maps prepared f o r Charles Booth's survey show that jobs were located mainly i n the centre, and i n the adjacent dockside g areas of f a c t o r i e s and warehousing .  However from the turn of the century  onwards i n New York, and from the f i r s t world war onwards i n London, suburban locations began to gain an increasing though r e l a t i v e l y small share of the growth i n employment.  By the outbreak of the second world  war,  the core of New York accounted f o r only 6o$ of jobs i n the region^, while i n London, the inner area covered by the London County Council contained 6  R. E. Park (Ed.), The City (Chicago:  1925)  7  Edgar M. Hoover and Raymond Vernon, Anatomy of a Metropolis (Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1959) Anchor E d i t i o n , p 22 Charles Booth, L i f e and Labour of the People of London (London: 1903) Q  Hoover and Vernon, l o c . c i t .  only 45$ of jobs i n the metropolitan region by 1951  •  The post war period  has witnessed continued growth of jobs i n the suburban and peripheral areas of both c i t i e s , while the inner zones show a stable employment  situation,  with very l i t t l e growth of jobs i n inner London, and an absolute decline i n the core of New Y o r k . 1 1  TABLE I  DISTRIBUTION OF JOBS IN LONDON METROPOLITAN REG-ION', 1951,1961,1981  Change 1951-61 1951  a  1961  Estimated Change I 9 6 I - 8 I  b  absolute  London County ^ Council area  45-4$  42.0$  +11,985  Rest of Greater London Council area  29.6$  29.6$  +lM-,658  $  +1.2$  absolute  $  +87,000  +3.4$  +8.7$ +145,000  +8.0$  Inner and Outer Country Rings, including New Towns  24.9$  28.5$  Outer part of L.T.S. area +333,528 +22.9$ +71,000 +24.0$  LONDON METROPOLITAN REGION  100$  100$  +490,171  (5,633,413)  (6,123,584)  +8.7$ +303,000 +6.0$ (Total f o r L.T.S. area)  ' ' Great B r i t a i n , Registrar General, Census 1951, Census 1961 c  Greater London Council, "New 1981 Planning Estimates f o r Phase I I I of the London Transportation Study", London; May, I967 (Mimeographed)  ^ The London County Council area covers the inner part of London developed p r i o r to 1914« The area i s considerably l a r g e r than the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t .  Great' B r i t a i n , Registrar General, Census, 1951 Hoover and Vernon, l o c . c i t .  - 9  -  Table I shows the changes i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment i n London between 1951 and 1961, and the changes expected to occur by 1981.  The  r a p i d growth of employment i n the outer r i n g s , and the stable s i t u a t i o n at the centre i s evident.  The zone of the region l y i n g outside the Greater  London Council area gained 68$ of a l l growth of jobs i n the region during the decade, while the London County Council area accounted f o r only 2$ of a l l growth.  These figures drawn from two large and well documented c i t i e s  c l e a r l y show the growing importance of jobs situated i n non-central locationsI t i s the commuter journeys attracted to these suburban jobs that form the primary focus of the present study. I t i s d i f f i c u l t to test the extent to which similar trends are a f f e c t ing Vancouver, f o r detailed employment s t a t i s t i c s are not a v a i l a b l e . However, estimates prepared f o r the Vancouver Transportation Study hased on census material f o r 1951 and 1961, and other sources, indicatea-.rapid increase i n employment insuburban l o c a t i o n s , and a progressive decline i n 12  the r e l a t i v e importance of jobs i n the c i t y of Vancouver  .  Table I I ,  developed from these estimates, shows that f o r the decade 1955-65* Vancouver C i t y experienced the lowest rate of employment growth of a l l : the municipalities i n the metropolitan area except f o r New Westminster, another old-established centre.  For the period 1965-85» the rate of employment growth i n Vancouver  C i t y i s expected to drop substantially, while Burnaby i s expected to maintain a high growth rate.  The municipalities of the south shore,  Richmond, Delta, and Surrey, are expected to experience even higher rates of growth than during the decade 1955-65'  Thus, while the C i t y of  Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Metropolitan Vancouver, 19551 1965, and 1985: Selected Data from the Vancouver Transportation Study (Vancouver City Council, March 1967), p 28  -  10 -  Vancouver secured over h a l f the growth of jobs i n the metropolitan area during the period 1955-65* i t s share i s predicted to be only about one quarter of a l l employment growth f o r the period 1965-85.  The share of t h i s growth  secured by the south shore i s expected to t r i p l e compared with i t s share of metropolitan growth i n the period 1955-65'  TABLE I I ESTIMATED CHANGES IN EMPLOYMENT IN METROPOLITAN VANCOUVER 1955-1985  Share o f Metropolitan „ , , Employment  Vancouver C i t y Burnaby Rest of Burrard Peninsula  Rate of Growth  Share of Growth  1955  1965  1985  1955-65  1965-85  1955-65  1965- 85  68.1$  64.9$  51-7$  31$  23$  56$  27$  7-9$  8.6$  10.5$  49$  89$  10$  14$  12.3$  36$  57$  12$  12$  12.1$  12.1$  i  North Shore ^  4.6$  5.8$  6.5$  73$  73$  9$  8$  South Shore  7-3$  8.7$  19.0$  61$  238$  12$  38$  METROPOLITAN REGION  100$  100$  100$  100$  100$  100$  100$  Source: Adapted from Metropolitan Vancouver, 1955* 1965» and 1985 (Vancouver: 1967) a  U n i v e r s i t y Endowment Lands, New Westminster, Coquitlam, Port Coquitlam, Port Moody, Fraser M i l l s , and adjacent unorganised territory  13  West Vancouver, C i t y of North Vancouver, D i s t r i c t of North Vancouver  ° Richmond, Delta, Surrey  -  11  -  The o v e r a l l e f f e c t of these predicted changes i s that while nearly 70$ of a l l jobs i n the metropolitan region were located i n Vancouver i n 1955, only a l i t t l e over h a l f of them are l i k e l y to be within the c i t y l i m i t s by 1985 and an even smaller share within the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t .  On  the other hand, the peripheral communities of the south shore are expected to  increase t h e i r share of a l l jobs i n the region from about 7$ to 19$  during the same period. (a)  Two points must be emphasized:  the figures f o r the C i t y of Vancouver are f o r the entire area of  the c i t y , and employment i n the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t represents only a portion of these figures; (b)  and  the s t a t i s t i c a l sources and processing that support these  estimates are open to some c r i t i c i s m i n d e t a i l , but the major trends a f f e c t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment i n the Vancouver area are clear. P r i o r to a d e t a i l e d examination of the peripheral journey to work i n Vancouver, a selected review of the e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e on the journey to work would be u s e f u l .  Comprehensive accounts of the f u l l range of journey  to work studies and surveys of p a r t i c u l a r c i t i e s are available  elsewhere ^' 1  For present purposes, emphasis i s placed on sources summarising the present state of knowledge, both descriptive and explanatory, and on the few studies that r e l a t e to peripheral work t r i p s , so that an o v e r a l l perspective can be obtained.  ^  Wolforth, Op. C i t .  ^  Howard S. Lapin, Structuring the Journey to Work (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 19&t-)  -  12  -  Descriptive Studies Descriptive studies of the journey to work have appeared f o r many years.  Much of the e a r l y work consisted of a purely verbal description and  concentrated  on the s o c i a l and economic costs of the increasing length of  the journey to work.  This was  one of the considerations that l e d to the  decision to form a green b e l t round London during the 1930*s and to the commencement of the o f f i c i a l B r i t i s h New war period saw the beginning  Towns programme i n 194-6.  The  post  of urban transportation studies based on  methodical survey and analysis techniques and, f o r the f i r s t time, i t became possible to describe urban t r a v e l patterns both q u a n t i t a t i v e l y and comprehensively.  15 Curran and Stegmeier  have amalgamated and summarized t r a v e l data  derived from transporation surveys i n f i f t y North American c i t i e s .  Table  I I I , adapted from t h e i r study, shows the land use at o r i g i n and destination f o r nearly 28 m i l l i o n motorised person t r i p s , including t r a v e l by truck, car, t a x i , and public t r a n s i t , but excluding t r a v e l by b i c y c l e or on foot.  Trips  from home to work and business, and i n the reverse d i r e c t i o n , represent  just  under 4-0$ of a l l t r i p s , and t h i s gives an i n d i c a t i o n of the o v e r a l l importance of the commuter journey i n the t o t a l pattern of urban motorised t r i p s .  In  16  a more d e t a i l e d summarizing study, Lapin  finds that the length of work  t r i p increases with the size of the c i t y , and that v a r i a t i o n s i n modal choice are associated with l o c a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of r e s i d e n t i a l areas.  15 Prank B. Curran and Joseph T. Stegmeier, ' T r a f f i c Patterns i n F i f t y C i t i e s ' , Public Roads - A Journal of Highway Research, V o l . 3 0 , No. 5» December, 1958, (Washington: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Public Roads). Lapin, Op. C i t .  -  TABLE I I I  13 -  LAND USE AT ORI&IN AND DESTINATION FOR URBAN TRAVEL IM FIFTY CITIES  LAND USE AT ORI&IN  LAND USE AT DESTINATION  Work & Business  Social & Recreation  Shop  Miscellaneous  Home  Total  Work and Business  4.9$  0.2$  0.3$  2.3$  20.2$  27-9$  S o c i a l and Recreation  0.5$  1.7$  0.4$  0.7$  8.7$  12.0$  Shop  0.7$  0.3$  0.8$  0.5$  5.2$  7-5$  Miscellaneous  2.3$  0.6$  0.4$  1.6$  6.9$  11.8$  Home  19.5$  9-2$  5.6$  6.5$  -  40.8$  TOTAL  27.9$  12.0$  7.5$  11.6$  41.0$  100$  Source:  a  Curran and Stegmeier, Op. Citi.  27*7 m i l l i o n motorised person t r i p s  He also notes the tendency to peaking i n the timing of work journeys, and the low passenger occupancy o f automobiles.  In p a r t i c u l a r , he quotes a  1947 study o f the Philadelphia-Camden area which found that the proportion of persons t r a v e l l i n g to work by car increased with the distance of the workplace from the c i t y centre.  Although Lapin's discussion focusses  primarily on work t r i p s to the central business d i s t r i c t , he emphasises the importance o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n o f employment throughout the urban area as a key influence on the pattern of work t r i p s .  This theme i s taken up by  -  Louis K. Loewenstein^ who  14  -  analyses the d i s t r i b u t i o n of jobs and residences  i n a number of American c i t i e s .  He examines the varying d i s t r i b u t i o n of jobs  of d i f f e r e n t types i n concentric zones superimposed on each urban area, and the corresponding r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of persons employed i n each of the selected categories.  In each concentric zone, the discrepancy between  the number of resident employees and the number of jobs i n each category i s used to compute the estimated zone to zone movements f o r work purposes i n general f i g u r e s .  Employment i n manufacturing  i s found to be widely d i s t r i -  buted throughout the urban area of the c i t i e s examined, and the residences of persons employed i n manufacturing  show a s i m i l a r l y wide dispersion.  Loewenstein i n f e r s from t h i s that work  t r i p s to employment  i n manufacturing  occur mainly i n the suburbs, but he does not have adequate information to make a d e t a i l e d i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the r e s u l t i n g pattern of peripheral work 18 journeys.  Beverly Duncan  , using Chicago material, also f i n d s a close  association between the degree of work/residence separation and occupation, but again there i s no d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of journey patterns, or any discussion of peripheral work t r i p s . The most comprehensive descriptive coverage of suburban work t r a v e l patterns can be derived from the large scale transportation surveys conducted i n many major o i t i e s i n recent years.  These are u s u a l l y based on  sample information c o l l e c t e d i n various t r a f f i c zones which i s expanded and projected to estimate zone to zone t r a v e l desires.  Often these zone to  Louis: K. Loewenstein, The Location of Residences and Work Places i n Urban Areas, (New York"! The Scarecrow Press, I965) 18  Beverly Duncan, 'Factors i n Work-Residence Separation: Wage and Salary Workers, Chicago, 1951'» American S o c i o l o g i c a l Review, (Vol. 21, February, 1956), pp 48-56  -  15  -  zone estimates represent t r i p s f o r a l l purposes and do not d i s t i n g u i s h work trips.  Such surveys do not normally require d e t a i l e d descriptions or  explanations of suburban work journey patterns, and although the o r i g i n a l data, i f reprocessed, can provide valuable descriptive material, the usual form of presentation i s too generalised to be of assistance i n the present study of the p e r i p h e r a l journey to work.  Explanatory The  Studies  studies showing more emphasis on the explanation than the  d e s c r i p t i o n of journey to work patterns f a l l into two main groups:  those  that attempt a d i r e c t explanation of the t r a v e l movements from zone to zone;; and the 'indirect' studies that are more concerned with the factors underlying the l o c a t i o n of residences.  An important  element i n the l a t t e r i s the costs  of the journey to work i n money, time, and inconvenience f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g choice of residence.  as a l o c a t i o n a l  Few of these studies investigate  the f a c t o r s affecting the l o c a t i o n of employment, which tends to be studied as an issue separate and d i s t i n c t from the study of the journey to work. The gravity model, or the modified form of p o t e n t i a l model, has been used as an explanatory t o o l i n many t r a f f i c studies.  In essence, t h i s form  of model assumes that the i n t e r a c t i o n between any two zones i s a function of the population i n each zone, which may be measured i n a v a r i e t y of ways, and i s i n v e r s e l y r e l a t e d to the distance separating the centroids of the two  zones, measured by a i r l i n e distances, route miles, or time.  However,  i t has been found that the l e v e l s of explanation afforded by the g r a v i t y model are often not s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate when applied to i n d i v i d u a l small zones, or when situations are p a r t i c u l a r l y complex.  In these cases i t has  been necessary to introduce such modifications as f r i c t i o n l e s s zones and  - 16  -  an element of randomness i n the process of d i s t r i b u t i n g t r i p s according to 19 population and distance.  Bevis  has used a basic g r a v i t y model to predict  zone to zone t r a v e l desires f o r the Chicago Area Transportation Study, and 20  has obtained good r e s u l t s , while Hansen's  modified g r a v i t y model incorpor-  ating an exponential function of distance provided reasonably  accurate  predictions of r e s i d e n t i a l land use changes f o r Washington D. C.  A further  example of the use of a p o t e n t i a l model f o r explaining and p r e d i c t i n g work 21  journeys i s the work done by Beverly Duncan and Otis Dudley Duncan Chicago.  in  'Workplace p o t e n t i a l ' i s o l i n e maps were prepared f o r various  categories of employment, and these were used to estimate the expected number of employees i n the various categories f o r each of 211 census t r a c t s i n a random sample.  Estimates were compared with census data, and a good  l e v e l of explanation was obtained i n about h a l f of the cases. A more sophisticated model f o r p r e d i c t i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l 22  growth was prepared by Herbert and Stevens  .  This involved a number of  variables incorporated into a complex regression programme.  It was hypo-  thesised that i n d i v i d u a l households endeavour to s a t i s f y a wide range of 19 Howard W. Bevis, 'A Model f o r Predicting Urban Travel Patterns', Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Volume 25, No. 2, 20  (May  1 9 5 9 ) , PP 87-89  Walter G. Hansen, 'How A c c e s s i b i l i t y Shapes Land Use', Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Vol. 25, No. 2, (May 1959) 21  PP  73-76  Beverly Duncan and Otis Dudley Duncan, 'The Measurement of I n t r a C i t y Ideational and Residential Patterns', Journal of Regional 22 Science. V o l . 2, No. 2, ( P a l l , i 9 6 0 ) , pp 37-54 John D. Herbert and Benjamin H. Stevens, 'A Model f o r the D i s t r i bution of Residential A c t i v i t y i n Urban Areas', Journal of Regional Science, V o l . 2, No. 2, ( P a l l i 9 6 0 ) , pp 21-36  - 17 requirements, some of which are mutually exclusive or at best only p a r t l y compatible.  A l i n e a r programme was used that enabled each household to  maximise b e n e f i t s , subject to such exogamous variables as the a v a i l a b i l i t y of land and the number o f households to be a l l o c a t e d , and the r e s u l t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n was i t e r a t e d , on an incremental b a s i s , f o r short time periods. Once again, a s a t i s f a c t o r y l e v e l of explanation was obtained, but the r e s u l t s contribute only i n d i r e c t l y to an analysis of the peripheral journey to work. Kain  , Alonso  , and Wingo  have worked separately on s i m i l a r  investigations of factors influencing r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n .  A oommon  theme i n t h e i r work i s the interchangability of s i t e rents and transportation costs.  Alonso's  'bid rent curve' r e f l e c t s t h i s equilibrium, with an equal  l e v e l of s a t i s f a c t i o n at a l l points on the curve even though t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s based on a varying mix of r e s i d e n t i a l space and job a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Kain's work, developing the same concept, shows that family size and income are the most important variables i n determining where on the equilibrium curve a household's preference w i l l be located. Wingo attempts to place a marginal value on l e i s u r e time as a subtler benefit of a shorter work t r i p . In a l l these cases, employment i n suburban locations allows an i n d i v i d u a l ox John F. Kain, 'The Journey to Work as a Determinant of Residential Location', Paper read before the meeting of the Regional Science Association, December, 1961 William Alonso, 'A Theory of the Urban Land Market', Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association Sixth Annual Meeting, (Washington, 1959), V o l . VI, I960 pp 149-157  Lowdon Wingo Jnr., Transportation and Urban Land (Washington: Resources f o r the Future Inc.,  - 18 household a wider range of choice i n the a l l o c a t i o n of resources f o r r e s i d e n t i a l space and job a c c e s s i b i l i t y , permitting greater a c c e s s i b i l i t y with the same amount of r e s i d e n t i a l space, or conversely a greater amount of space f o r the same degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  The kinds of choices that are  made w i l l influence the length and d i r e c t i o n of peripheral work journeys, and the r e l a t i v e weakening of the space and a c c e s s i b i l i t y constraints w i l l make way f o r other variables, such as recreational opportunities, to exert a greater and more complex influence on r e s i d e n t i a l location. 26  Wolforth's  i n v e s t i g a t i o n of work/residence  separation i n Vancouver  reveals that the distorted pattern of worktrips to the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of Vancouver i s l a r g e l y due to the concentration of employment of p a r t i c u l a r types at the centre, and the s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l areas, r e l e c t i n g h i s t o r i c a l and topographical influences.  In addition, he  finds that workers employed i n the suburbs were more l i k e l y to l i v e closer to t h e i r place of employment than those with downtown jobs.  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  Wolforth emphasises (p 76) that workers with high imcomes tend to l i v e i n high cost housing while workers with low incomes l i v e i n low cost r e s i d e n t i a l areas, i r r e s p e c t i v e of the distances of these areas from the place of work. This suggests that the s p a t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of d i f f e r e n t kinds of jobs and d i f f e r e n t kinds of housing w i l l be important determinants  i n the pattern  of peripheral work journeys as well as f o r downtown journeys. A large proportion of the descriptive and explanatory studies of the journey to work, of which the preceding review i s a selection, concentrate p r i m a r i l y on the onmuter journeys to central business d i s t r i c t s , or are c  2  ^ John R. Wolforth, Residential Location and the Place of Work, B.C. Geographical Series No. 4 (Vancouver: Tantalus Research Ltd., 1965)  - 19 summary studies of a general or abstract nature.  The review provides an  i n d i c a t i o n of the state of current knowledge of the journey to work, and of the scope and depth of the studies that are being undertaken.  Many of the  factors that influence the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the commuter journey to the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t seem l i k e l y to a f f e c t the peripheral work journey i n a s i m i l a r or modified manner, and can form the basis of futher t e s t i n g . However these studies are of l i t t l e assistance i n the more immediate task of documenting and describing the peripheral journey to work, and i n making some simple basic comparisons with the downtown work journey.  Only when  t h i s kind of work has been done can the wider applications o f other be  studies  evaluated.  Studies of the peripheral journey to work 27 C a r r o l l , i n a paper published i n 1 9 5 2 r e l a t i n g to the journey to work:  , t e s t s two hypotheses  (a) that the homes of persons working i n  the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t are d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the c i t y i n a manner s i m i l a r to the t o t a l population, and (b) that the homes of employees working i n suburban areas are clustered c l o s e l y round the place of work. Using data from several c i t i e s , notably information f o r Baltimore f o r the year 1 9 2 5 , C a r r o l l i s able to substantiate these hypotheses. 28 Wolforth's work on Vancouver  However,  while endorsing hypothesis (b) shows that,  i n the case o f Vancouver, hypothesis (a) i s not v a l i d , and that the d i s t r i bution 27 of downtown employees i s subject to major d i s t o r t i n g influences. J. Douglas C a r r o l l Jnr., 'The Relation of Homes to Work Places and the S p a t i a l Pattern of C i t i e s ' , S o c i a l Forces, Vol. 3 0 , No. 3 , (March, pp 271-282  1952),  Wolforth, Op. C i t .  - 20 A study of employment and commuting patterns i n the West Suburban area of Chicago, based on data from the Chicago Area Transportation Study  29  ,  provides further evidence of the d i s t i n c t i v e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the periphe r a l journey to work, compared with downtown commuter journeys.  This work  confirms the r e l a t i v e l y closer association of workplaces and residences f o r suburban employees suggested by C a r r o l l , and the greater importance of automobile t r a v e l f o r peripheral work t r i p s found i n Philadelphia. frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n of journeys by t r i p length f o r the Chicago  The central  business d i s t r i c t approximated a normal curve, but f o r employees t r a v e l l i n g to jobs i n the West Suburban area, the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n showed a very pronounced positive skew.  In a d d i t i o n , i t was found that employment i n the  suburbs showed a l a r g e r proportion of male employees than downtown employment, and a larger proportion of employment i n the categories of craftsmen, operatives, and labourers.  Employment i n the West Suburban area showed a  lower proportion of professional, managerial, c l e r i c a l , and sales employees than the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of Chicago.  (See Table IV)  Employees  working i n the West Suburban area were l i k e l y to l i v e i n the same area, or i n the same sector of the urban area either closer to the centre or further out towards the periphery.  There were few long distance commuter journeys  crossing t a n g e n t i a l l y from one suburb to another. A series of modified gravity models was used to test the effectiveness of these conclusions as a basis f o r predicting commuting patterns f o r peripheral employment centres.  The simple gravity model gave only a low  l e v e l of explanation, but the introduction of a f r i c t i o n l e s s zone four 29 Edward J . Taaffe, Barry J . Garner, and Maurice H. Yeates, The Peripheral Journey to Work (Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Northwestern University Press, 1963)  -  21 -  miles i n radius from the place of employment and an element of randomness i n the hypothetical d i s t r i b u t i o n of employees' homes, together with p r e f e r e n t i a l weighting f o r the adjacent suburban areas provided a greatly improved l e v e l of explanation.  Further disaggregation showed the influence  of sex, race, s o c i a l c l a s s , income group, and a l t e r n a t i v e employment opport u n i t i e s on the pattern of suburban work journeys.  TABLE IV COMPARISON OF EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS FOR WEST SUBURBAN AREA AND CENTRAL BUSINESS DISTRICT OF CHICAG-0  Mean length of commuter journey  Chicago CBD  West Suburban Area  6.7 miles  5.2 miles  Proportion of employees t r a v e l l i n g to work by car  2U%  Proportion of female employees  32$  23$  Proportion of professional and managerial employees  25$  :19$  Proportion of c l e r i c a l employees  31$  15$  Proportion of sales employees Proportion of craftsmen, operative, and labourer employees  8fo  29$  Source: Taaffe, Sarner, and Yeates, Op. C i t . adapted from Chicago Area Transportation Study  The Chicago study i s an intensive i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the peripheral journey to work, and shows both the complexity and d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s of t h i s type of journey within the t o t a l t r a v e l pattern.  This i s an i s o l a t e d study  i n one c i t y , and an a d d i t i o n a l examination of the peripheral journey to work would provide further information, and would serve to confirm or  - 22 -  modify the Chicago findings.  I t was with t h i s objective that a sample study  of the journey to work i n Vancouver was undertaken.  In addition, i t was  hoped that a description of the peripheral journey to work i n Vancouver would complement Wolforth's study r e l a t i n g primarily to downtown Vancouver, and that,taken together, the two studies would provide an o v e r a l l description and p a r t i a l explanation of commuting patterns i n the c i t y f o r a p a r t i c u l a r time period.  CHAPTER I I I  THE PERIPHERAL JOURNEY TO WORK IN VANCOUVER  Method of i n v e s t i g a t i o n A detailed i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the peripheral journey to work i n Vancouver was undertaken to provide data on journey length and d i r e c t i o n . Vancouver forms a p a r t i c u l a r l y suitable c i t y f o r a study of the  peripheral  work journey f o r there i s a generally low density of urban development, and a large measure of dependence on automobile t r a v e l .  Mass t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s  play a r e l a t i v e l y minor r o l e i n the t o t a l t r a v e l patterns throughout the metropolitan area although bus are therefore  services are of l o c a l importance.  Conditions  favourable f o r a dispersion of employment, at least:in c e r t a i n  categories, into peripheral suburban areas. High car ownership and easy t r a v e l i n the suburbs should enable places of employment i n the suburbs to attract employees from wide catchment areas, unrestricted by such constraints as the l o c a t i o n and frequency of bus  services.  The d i f f i c u l t i e s of car commuting and parking i n downtown Vancouver are added incentive f o r employment decentralisation where possible.  On  an  the  other hand c e r t a i n kinds of jobs, involving specialised business linkages, w i l l be f i r m l y t i e d to the c e n t r a l area.  The  congestion of t r a f f i c on some  of the bridge bottlenecks acts as an a d d i t i o n a l constraint on long  distance  car t r a v e l i n c e r t a i n d i r e c t i o n s . An examination of the peripheral journey to work i n Vancouver i s timely -  23  -  - 24 from a planning point of view, f o r the importance and c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the peripheral work journey have s i g n i f i c a n t implications i n evaluating the p o t e n t i a l role of mass t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s i n transportation planning f o r Vancouver, and the c i t y i s nearing the size when major decisions and investments w i l l be necessary to provide a transportation system that w i l l permit further growth. The information on the journey to work i n Vancouver i s based on a sample o f r e s i d e n t i a l areas drawn randomly from detailed land use maps o f the metropolitan a r e a ^ .  The sample consists of ten c l u s t e r s , each made up  of several street blocks primarily i n r e s i d e n t i a l use.  The Vancouver C i t y  Directory f o r 1 9 6 3 ^ was used to e s t a b l i s h the i d e n t i t y of a l l  employed  adults l i v i n g i n each c l u s t e r from the l i s t s of persons by address. The alphabetical l i s t of persons and t h e i r occupations was then used to obtain the name of the employer street blocks.  o f each employed person l i v i n g i n the relevant  F i n a l l y , by looking up the name of the employer, i t was  possible to i d e n t i f y the location o f the workplace of each person.  This  lengthy cross-reference procedure was the chief l i m i t a t i o n on the size of the sample.  In approximately 1 7 $ of a l l cases, i t was  not possible to  pinpoint the location o f the workplace, either because no information was given i n the directory, or because the description or nature of the employment prevented the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a precise workplace, as i n the case of schoolteachers, where the p a r t i c u l a r school was not named, or persons such as sales representatives whose work was e s s e n t i a l l y p e r i p a t e t i c .  ^  The  For description of sampling method and processing see Appendix The sample was based on 1 9 & 3 data so that d i r e c t comparisons could be made with Wolforth's work f o r the same year.  -  TABLE V  25 -  CHARACTERISTICS OF SAMPLE OF WORK JOURNEYS IN VANCOUVER  Residential Cluster  1  2  Number of Commuter Journeys to Central Area of Vancouver  27  15  Commuter Journeys to Central Area , w as $ of a l l journeys i d e n t i f i e d  38$  W  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  Total  9  21  24  19  24  8  211  38$ 46$ 19$  28$  26$  28$  25$  11$  30$  26  38  Mean Mean Distance from 4.4m 3'0m 4'3m 4«6m 4.9m 4.7m 4.3m 4.3m 6.0m 9*2m Length Central Area . 4«lm  Number of Commuter Journeys to P e r i pheral Workplaces Mean Length of Peripheral Commuter Journeys  63  498  3-8m 2.7m 3-8m 3.8m 3.5m 3.2m 3.1m 3«3m 3«9m 4.3m  3.6m  41  Cases where Workplace not Identifiable  15  25  9  42  14  ' 45  13  39  7  54  24  69  21  49  10  71  23  7  852  TOTAL EMPLOYED ADULTS  Source:  143  Vancouver C i t y Directory, I963  See Figure 3 f o r the l o c a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l clusters that make up the sample.  workplace was successfully i d e n t i f i e d f o r a t o t a l of 709 persons, about one t h i r d of whom worked i n the c e n t r a l area, of Vancouver  32 .  The e f f e c t i v e  As defined by Vancouver C i t y Engineering Department f o r T r a f f i c Survey purposes: see Figure 3-  -  26  -  sample of persons making peripheral journeys to work was 498.  This figure  i s not large enough to permit complex breakdowns and cross analysis.: , but i s adequate f o r general conclusions, preliminary analysis, and as an i n d i cation of the value of the method and approach used. Results and findings Table V shows the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the sample, including separate information f o r the c e n t r a l area and peripheral work journeys. The mean length of commuter journeys to the c e n t r a l area of Vancouver was found to be approximately 15$ longer than the mean length of peripheral work journeys.  These figures compare very favourably with Wolforth's sample  f o r the same year (Table VT).  There i s , therefore, a degree of c l u s t e r i n g  of homes closer to suburban workplaces than to downtown employment.  A  T-test was applied to the data and t h i s showed conclusively that, i n spite of i n t e r n a l variations i n each of the d i s t r i b u t i o n s , the two groups of t r i p s are s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t i n mean length, and that the difference could not have arisen by chance.  Hypothesis ( l ) , that peripheral work journeys  are l i k e l y to be s i g n i f i c a n t l y shorter than downtown commter journeys can therefore be regarded as substantiated. TABLE VI  MEAN WORK-RESIDENCE"SEPARATION FOR TWO  VANCOUVER SAMPLES  Wolforth sample  Hickman sample  Employed i n Central Area  4 . 0 miles  4*1 miles  Employed outside Central Area  3»4 miles  3.6 miles  825  Source f o r both samples:  persons  Vancouver C i t y Directory, I963  709 persons  - 27 A comparison of the proportion of persons t r a v e l l i n g to the central area and the distance to the c e n t r a l area from each of the ten i n d i v i d u a l c l u s t e r s provides further confirmation of the inadequacy of distance alone i n accounting f o r the varying dependence on employment i n the c e n t r a l area.  Figure 1  shows the scatter of the sample clusters i n terms of distance from the c e n t r a l area of Vancouver and the proportion of persons working i n the central area. The l i n e of best f i t by the least squares method has negative slope, and indicates that there i s a general decrease i n dependence on the c e n t r a l area f o r employment with increasing distance.  However the scatter shows a good  deal of v a r i a t i o n around the l i n e of best f i t , and large residuals remain unexplained.  FIGURE 1 DEPENDENCE ON DOWNTOWN EMPLOYMENT BY DISTANCE FROM DOWNTOWN FOR COMPONENT CLUSTERS OF SAMPLE  slope of l i n e o f best f i t calculated by method of least squares  employed persons working i n central area of Vancouver  y =  -5.2x + 57-3  Distance of r e s i d e n t i a l clusters i n sample from c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of Vancouver (miles)  In addition, a chi-squsared test was used to compare the proportion of downtown employees l i v i n g i n the c l u s t e r s to the west and east of Main Street l y i n g a comparable distance from the central area.  This demonstrated  - 28 -  that the d i f f e r e n t i a l s could not have arisen through chance alone, and that other variables must be present.  Wolforth's c o n c l u s i o n ^ that a dispropor-  tionate number of c e n t r a l area employees are drawn from the area of the Point Grey peninsula west of Main Street i s therefore endorsed. A detailed breakdown  of commuter t r i p s by distance was prepared,  distinguishing downtown and peripheral journeys.  The two types of work  t r i p show d i s t i n c t differences i n frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n (Figure 2 ) .  While  work t r i p s to downtown are clustered f a i r l y c l o s e l y and symmetrically around the mean f i g u r e , peripheral work t r i p s show a much greater v a r i e t y of t r i p length, forming a low, dispersed frequency curve, with positive skew. FIGURE 2  PERCENTAGE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS OF PERIPHERAL AMD DOWNTOWN WORK JOURNEYS BY TRIP LENGTH  Length of commuter t r i p s i n miles  Wolforth, Op. C i t . p 62  -  29 -  Despite the lower mean distance f o r peripheral work journeys, the effect .of the skewed curve i s to produce a marginally higher proportion of longer journeys (over s i x miles) to peripheral workplaces than to the c e n t r a l area. The differences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n s are r e f l e c t e d i n the r e s u l t i n g standard deviations, shown i n Table VTI. Peripheral work journeys show a larger standard deviation than c e n t r a l area work journeys, and when t h i s i s expressed on a percentage basis as a c o e f f i c i e n t of v a r i a t i o n , peripheral journeys show about twice as much v a r i a t i o n i n t r i p length as downtown journeys.  The size and structure of the sample may tend to p a r t i a l l y reduce  the v a r i e t y o f t r i p length exhibited by work t r i p s to the central area, but the great v a r i e t y of t r i p lengths f o r peripheral work journeys i s unmistakeable, and the hypothesis that t h i s class of t r i p shows more v a r i a t i o n i n length than downtown journeys can be accepted as v a l i d .  TABLE 711  VARIATION IN WORK TRIP LENGTH BY PLACE OF EMPLOYMENT Mean work-residence separation  Standard Deviation  Employed i n Central Area  Source:  Coefficient of v a r i a t i o n  Total trips  27$  211 t r i p s  53$  498 t r i p s  Vancouver C i t y Directory, 1963  In addition to the above analysis of the v a r i a t i o n i n t r i p length, the data also confirm that there i s a good deal of v a r i e t y i n t r i p d i r e c t i o n . In most of the ten clusters that make up the sample, one d i r e c t i o n a l quadrant accounts f o r the majority of peripheral journeys.  Normally, t h i s i s i n the  - 30 same d i r e c t i o n as the c e n t r a l area, r e f l e c t i n g the large number of peripheral job opportunities that are located i n the i n d u s t r i a l and service zones i n the inner urban r i n g surrounding the c e n t r a l area.  However i n nearly a l l  the c l u s t e r s , the remaining quadrants account f o r a substantial share o f peripheral work t r i p s , usually about 40$.  Thus, the peripheral work t r i p ,  although showing a preponderance of t r i p s i n the general d i r e c t i o n of the c e n t r a l area, exhibits a v a r i e t y of t r i p d i r e c t i o n , and there i s a s i g n i f i cant proportion of these t r i p s that are i n other d i r e c t i o n a l quadrants. The proportion of peripheral t r i p s from each of the ten c l u s t e r s occuring i n each quadrant i s summarised i n Table VIII.  TABLE VIII  Residential Cluster  DIRECTION OF PERIPHERAL WORK JOURNEYS IN VANCOUVER  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  Total  43$ 3$ 32$ 22$  39$ 25$ 20$ 16$  Proportion of Peripheral Work T r i p s by Quadrant Northwest Northeast Southwest Southeast  32$ 12$ 17$ 13$ Wo 5 6 $ 6 9 $ 7 0 $ 5$ 0$ 0$ 4$ 17$ 36$ 14$ 13$  51$ 52$ 54$ 29$ 55$ 15$ 9$ 13$ 0$ 10$ 2 1 $ 2 6 $ 34$ 5 7 $ 24$ 1 3 $ 1 3 $ 1 6 $ 14$ 1 1 $  Total t r i p s Source:  Vancouver C i t y Directory,  I963  498  -  31  -  These s t a t i s t i c a l summaries have demonstrated the general v a r i e t y of t r i p length and t r i p d i r e c t i o n of the peripheral work journeys documented i n the sample.  To examine t h i s v a r i e t y i n greater d e t a i l , cartographic  plots  of the documented commuter journeys o r i g i n a t i n g at each r e s i d e n t i a l c l u s t e r have been prepared, and these are reproduced i n Figures 4 to 13, r e l a t i n g to the locations shown i n key map,  Figure 3*  A c a r e f u l inspection of the  cartographic p l o t s , and a comparison with the estimated d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment f o r 1965^" (Figure 14) have resulted i n a number of tentative supplementary conclusions about the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of peripheral work journey destinations: (a)  Even where there are large numbers of employment opportunities  close at hand i n the suburbs, there i s l i t t l e tendency f o r there to be a large number of short t r i p s to these l o c a l destinations.  It has  not been possible to make a detailed analysis of the l o c a t i o n of job opportunities, but the evidence suggests that many nearby opportunities have been ignored.  The v a r i e t y of length and dispersion of peripheral  work t r i p s i s evidently a persistent feature, although the number of t r i p s from c l u s t e r 1 to the University Endowment Lands i s a noticeable and understandable exception to t h i s generalisation.  This i s  p a r t l y due to the l o c a t i o n of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia campus where i t can only be approached from one (b)  side.  Where there i s clustering of the destinations of peripheral t r i p s  into p a r t i c u l a r suburban work zones, f o r example the Broadway/Sranville Street area or the Clark Drive/East Hastings Street i n d u s t r i a l area, Vancouver C i t y Planning Department, Metropolitan Vancouver, 1955 I965, and 1985, (Vancouver, 19^7), based on estimates, Table 14, p 30.  FIGURE 3  KEY MAP SHOWING- LOCATION OF RESIDENTIAL CLUSTERS FORMING WORK JOURNEY SAMPLE, VANCOUVER, 1 9 6 3  FIGURES  4 - 1 3  CARTOGRAPHIC PLOTS OF WORK JOURNEYS ORIGINATING AT. EACH OF TEN RESIDENTIAL CLUSTERS FORMING WORK JOURNEY SAMPLE, VANCOUVER, 1 9 6 3 (unless otherwise indicated, each l i n e represents one work journey)  FIGURE 5 :  RESIDENTIAL CLUSTER 2  FIGURE 10:  RESIDENTIAL CLUSTER 7  FI&URE 14  EMPLOYMENT BY TRAFFIC ZONES, VANCOUVER, 1965 (simplified)  - 47  -  destinations are s t i l l f a i r l y scattered within the zone, f o r suburban employment opportunities tend to occur i n elongated l i n e a r areas along main roads, railways, and water frontages. (c)  The western r e s i d e n t i a l clusters on Point Grey peninsula have a  l i m i t e d range of a l t e r n a t i v e employment zones within easy access.  The  dispersion of peripheral work journeys from these c l u s t e r s i s noticeably more grouped i n pattern than peripheral t r i p s from the eastern c l u s t e r s where employment opportunities are available i n a number of accessible l o c a l i t i e s .  This, together with the s p e c i a l i s e d employment  structure discussed by Wblforth, accounts f o r the greater dependence of these western clusters on downtown employment, and the more random d i s t r i b u t i o n of peripheral work t r i p destinations r e l a t i n g to the eastern c l u s t e r s . In summary, i t can be said that, on the basis of t h i s sample, t r i p s to peripheral employment i n Vancouver tend to be a l i t t l e shorter than t r i p s to downtown employment i n terms of mean length, and show a great deal more v a r i e t y of t r i p length and t r i p d i r e c t i o n .  Movement by car i s f a i r l y easy  i n the suburbs i n most d i r e c t i o n s , and distance does not seem to be a serious constraint on work journey patterns.  Thus, the s p a t i a l d i s t r i b u -  t i o n of employment i s not an . important factor i n d i r e c t l y  determining  journey patterns, and other f a c t o r s , such as job or residence are l i k e l y to be more s i g n i f i c a n t influences.  specialisation,  The r e s u l t i n g pattern of  peripheral work t r i p s i s a random, c r i s s cross network, not suited to easy generalisation or d e s c r i p t i o n , comprising many small zone to zone movements from numerous r e s i d e n t i a l areas to a v a r i e t y of employment  opportunities.  It i s l i k e l y that special features of the road system, such as the embryo  - 48 freeway network, and the r e s t r i c t e d number of water crossings, a t t r a c t large t r a f f i c volumes, but otherwise the pattern o f peripheral work journeys i s an extensive, m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l spread of f a i r l y even t r a f f i c volumes.  This t r a f f i c probably makes r e l a t i v e l y even use of the main  elements of the road system throughout the metropolitan area.  CHAPTER IV  CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS  Comparison with other studies The sample of work journeys i n Vancouver i s not large, and i t i s emphasised that preliminary conclusions resulting from i t should be regarded as t e n t a t i v e , and should form the basis f o r more d e t a i l e d studies. The data presented i n Chapter I I I indicates that the peripheral journey to work i n Vancouver i s shorter i n length than commuter t r i p s to the central business district.  I t also shows a large degree of dispersion i n terms of t r i p  length and d i r e c t i o n .  The difference i n the mean length of downtown and  peripheral work t r i p s i s less than was found i n the West Suburban area: of 35 Chicago  , p a r t l y because the commuter t r i p s to downtown Vancouver are  shorter i n mean length than those to the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of Chicago. This difference i s probably l a r g e l y due to the difference i n the size of the two c i t i e s :  Lapin has noted the increase i n the mean length of the work  journey with increasing c i t y s i z e ^ .  The mean length of the peripheral  journey to work indicated by the Vancouver sample i s almost i d e n t i c a l to the median^ length of peripheral work t r i p s found i n the Chicago  study.  35  Taaffe, Garner, and Yeates, Op. C i t . , p 17 ^ ^  Lapin, Op. C i t . , p 44 In the Chicago study, the frequency d i s t r i b u t i o n by distance of peripheral work journeys was highly skewed, and the median i s a more u s e f u l and r e a l i s t i c indicator of the length of t r i p s than the mean.  - 49 -  - 50 However i n r e l a t i o n to the size of the c i t y , and the mean length of downtown commuter journeys, peripheral work t r i p s i n Vancouver are longer than would have been expected on the basis of the Chicago study.  The Vanvouver  peripheral work journeys show the same s p a t i a l pattern as was found i n Chicago, with emphasis on the same sector of the c i t y both closer towards the centre and out towards the periphery, and on the adjacent  sectors.  In  addition, an examination of the cartographic p l o t s of t r i p destinations suggests that peripheral t r i p s are r e l a t i v e l y more dispersed i n Vancouver than i n Chicago.  There appears to be a higher proportion of t r i p s that are  not to destinations i n the same or adjoining sectors, but which cut across two or three sectors, and form tangential suburban t r i p s of considerable length.  This more dispersed pattern of peripheral journeys i s expected to JO  occur i n Chicago i n the future  .  It may be that f o r various reasons, Vancouver i s at a more advanoed stage i n the d i s p e r s a l process, showing r e l a t i v e l y larger and more divergent peripheral work t r i p s .  F i r s t , because Vancouver i s a newer c i t y that has  grown mainly i n the automobile era, i t shows lower development d e n s i t i e s , and the dispersed pattern of t r a v e l may be a response to the ease of and dependence on car t r a v e l .  Second, due to i t s r e l a t i v e l y rapid and recent  growth, the c i t y shows f a r less of the radial-concentric r i n g structure that i s so noticeable i n Chicago.  I t i s l e s s l i k e l y that t r i p patterns w i l l  have been conditioned by a long period of dependence on the c e n t r a l area f o r employment and on r a d i a l routes f o r transportation.  Third, a v a r i e t y  of topography i n Vancouver, due to i t s mountain and coastal s i t e , may have produced more powerful influences on r e s i d e n t i a l location than are present Taafe, Garner, and Yeates, Op. C i t . , Figure VI - 2, p 117  - 51 i n Chicago.  The a t t r a c t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l s i t e s i n the west of the c i t y  a t t r a c t some residents who  may  have to make long compensating work t r i p s to  employment i n other parts of the area.  The s o c i a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of  housing, as indicated by the median value of dwellings, i s a basic east/west d i v i s i o n , rather than the f i n e textured mosaic of heterogeneous housing groups t y p i c a l of older c i t i e s where topography has exerted l e s s influence. In general, the Vancouver findings substantiate the r e s u l t s of the Chicago study of the peripheral journey to work.  Suburban work journeys form  a d i s t i n c t i v e and growing element i n the t o t a l urban t r a v e l pattern.  I f the  Chicago and Vancouver patterns of peripheral t r i p s also occur on the fringes of London and New  York, where very large increases i n employment are pre-  dicted, the r e s u l t w i l l be complex and unusual t r a v e l patterns involving very large numbers of t r i p s .  Specialised knowledge and techniques w i l l be  required to plan f o r the necessary transportation systems.  Choices of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n f o r peripheral employment . The Vancouver data have shown that even when persons are employed i n the suburbs, and have many employment opportunities available close to the place of residence, the f a i r l y long journey to work i s a persistent feature of t r a v e l patterns.  Transportation planners have tended to assume that  households endeavour to minimise the separation of residence and workplace, subject to constraints of space preferences  and purchasing power, e s p e c i a l l y  i n the l a r g e r c i t i e s where very long commuting distances are involved.  It  i s argued that the s p a t i a l separation of workplaces and residences i s the r e s u l t of these f a c t o r s , together with the time lag i n the adjustment of residences to workplaces.  Thus, i f persons tend to change jobs more often  - 52 than they change homes, the separation of the home and workplace may vary i n a random manner.  I f persons change homes more often than they change  jobs, i t might be assumed that the new home w i l l be chosen closer to the- place of work.  In theory, suburban employment widens the choice of housing and  a c c e s s i b i l i t y available to an employee by enabling him to purchase greater space with the same degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y or greater a c c e s s i b i l i t y .  In  addition, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to establish f o r what proportion of the population there i s a genuine 'choice' of housing, and to what extent many groups are constrained by purchasing power and space  requirements.  However the present data suggest that a peripheral journey to work of four or f i v e miles, probably by car, i s a common undertaking.  In at least  some of these cases, an element of choice i n housing l o c a t i o n must e x i s t , and journeys of t h i s length are apparently not regarded as overly arduous. Some persons choose to continue to make journeys of t h i s length even when they are employed i n the suburbs and many work opportunities are available close at hand.  These individuals appear to prefer to r e a l i s e the b e n e f i t s  of suburban employment i n terms of a wider and more specialised choice of r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n rather than i n minimising the journey to work. Benefits of r e s i d e n t i a l location such as space, amenity, and s o c i a l prestige may  be  emphasised even more i n the future as the amount of leisure time increases. Conversely, the drawbacks of a long journey to work may be reduced as transportation improvements are made, and when, eventually, the working week f a l l s from f i v e to four days.  C i t y development plans should therefore  ensure that aspirations concerning the style and l o c a t i o n of residence can be achieved, rather than attempting to s a c r i f i c e residence advantages so that supposed transportation problems can be  minimised.  - 53 A p p l i c a b i l i t y of gravity model to peripheral work journeys The g r a v i t y model assumes that the f r i c t i o n of t r a v e l time or distance i s minimised, but i t has been shown that i n the case of suburban employment, other considerations besides the length of the work t r i p appear to influence residential location.  Thus i t has been found necessary to introduce  such  devices as f r i c t i o n l e s s zones and Monte Carlo d i s t r i b u t i o n methods i n other studies.  To a c e r t a i n extent, the d i s t o r t i n g e f f e c t of other l o c a t i o n a l  f a c t o r s can be reduced by refined adjustments to the f r i c t i o n f a c t o r s applied to each zone to zone component i n the g r a v i t y model.  These adjust-  ments must be based on detailed survey material, and become increasingly cumbersome.  In addition, these rigorous survey requirements r e s t r i c t  the  usefulness of the g r a v i t y model when attempting to predict zone to zone t r a v e l volumes i n new  urban areas that do not yet e x i s t , or i n areas where  a great deal of change i s expected.  With the growing significance and  complexity of the peripheral journey to work, the simple gravity model w i l l be l e s s and less able to provide an adequate prediction of t r a v e l patterns. In i t s place, a series of more sophisticated explanatory models w i l l be required.  These must be based on a more thorough knowledge of the motiv-  ations that underlie t r i p making so that assumptions and predictions w i l l be based on s t r u c t u r a l relationships rather than on measures of association and other more complex empirical methods.  Implications f o r transportation  planning  The combination of three f a c t o r s , extensive low density r e s i d e n t i a l development, a wide and s p a t i a l l y scattered range of job opportunities, complex r e s i d e n t i a l a s p i r a t i o n s , has produced i n Vancouver a dispersed  and  - 54 pattern of peripheral work t r i p s .  Apart from the freeways and bridges, there  appears to be a r e l a t i v e l y even t i d a l spread of t r a f f i c onto a l l the main components of the road system.  Nearly a l l zone to zone t r a v e l desires are  probably of modest dimensions, and i t i s only where large concentrations occur that high corridor volumes are accumulated.  This dispersed pattern  of small flows of t r i p s to peripheral destinations does not appear to be 39  suited to high capacity urban t r a v e l modes such as mass t r a n s i t r a i l systems f o r both the number of t r i p origins i n any r e s i d e n t i a l zone and t r i p destinations i n any employment zone i s low.  I f the present pattern continues, and  c e r t a i n peripheral zones emerge as large concentrations of employment, the flows to these zones can best be served by a f l e x i b l e mediumvolume t r a n s i t system, such as buses.  A greater degree of r e s i d e n t i a l and employment  dispersion, producing a more random m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l flow of work t r i p s to peripheral employment would result i n a more e f f i c i e n t use of the road system as t i d a l i n e f f i c i e n c i e s would be  reduced.  On the other hand, i f i t i s thought desirable that there should be large concentrations of jobs, or high density 'urban' centres, or the provision of a public t r a n s i t system f o r other reasons, the most economical arrangement would be to have a medium or high capacity mass t r a n s i t system of some kind, with large concentrations of t r i p a t t r a c t i o n s , such as employment nodes or shopping centres, at i n t e r v a l s along the route, set i n a c o r r i d o r of f a i r l y high density r e s i d e n t i a l development. C l e a r l y a 'concentrated' transportation system would be an i n e f f i c i e n t 39  These statements do not apply to the c e n t r a l buiness d i s t r i c t of Vancouver or other c i t i e s : transportation f a c i l i t i e s f o r these areas must be adjusted to the volume, concentration, and growth prospects of downtown employment.  ,  - 55 way of serving a 'dispersed' r e s i d e n t i a l or employment pattern, and a 'dispersed' transportation pattern would be an equally i n e f f i c i e n t method of serving a 'concentrated'  employment pattern.  I t i s important that the  kind of employment/residential density pattern developed i s appropriate to the c i t y , and that the transportation pattern i s appropriate to the employment/ r e s i d e n t i a l pattern.  Both of these requirements involve an element of  f o r e s i g h t , planning, and control. A system of p o l i c y formulation and implementation i s required to ensure that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of employment and residences, and the transporta t i o n f a c i l i t i e s that l i n k them are consistent with the long term requirements of the community.  At present, the pace and l o c a t i o n of employment  growth i n the Vancouver area i s not r e l a t e d to the planning of transportation f a c i l i t i e s , nor e x p l i c i t l y to an o v e r a l l view of the future form and function of the c i t y .  Present trends i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l and employment  growth, and i n transportation planning appear to be p a r t l y inconsistent with the Vancouver C i t y Council's emphasis on the long term importance and growth of the downtown area.  The provision of transportation f a c i l i t i e s to serve  the commuter flows to the downtown area must be r e l a t e d to the volume and concentration of t r i p s attracted to the area, and must r e f l e c t the long term intentions of the community.  In c e r t a i n circumstances, the absence of mass  t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s to serve the downtown area may act as a very r e a l constraint on the growth of the entire metropolitan  area as i t may be  impossible to accommodate growth of c e r t a i n kinds of employment f o r which a downtown l o c a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l . On the other hand, much of the new employment growth may not demand :. the close business linkages and face to face contact that characterises  - 56 c e n t r a l area employment, or can substitute telephone contact i n i t s place. In t h i s case, the r e s t r i c t i o n of suburban employment, and the forcing of an u n r e a l i s t i c proportion of businesses to locate within or adjacent to the central area w i l l perhaps impose unnecessary b u i l d i n g , r e n t a l , s e r v i c i n g , and transportation costs on the community as a whole.  Yet i f the growth of  suburban employment continues on an unplanned b a s i s , and very large concent r a t i o n s of jobs b u i l d up i n p a r t i c u l a r l y favourable peripheral locations, fresh transportation problems w i l l be created which would perhaps be more d i f f i c u l t to cope with than i f the growth were i n the c e n t r a l business district. The  study of the peripheral journey to work i n Vancouver has confirmed  the Chicago work.  The commuter journey between suburban homes and suburban  employment i s a large and growing element i n the t o t a l t r a v e l pattern of the city.  These t r i p s show a v a r i e t y of t r i p length and t r i p d i r e c t i o n , and  produce a dispersed, m u l t i d i r e c t i o n a l network of peak hour t r i p s , usually by car.  This system of many low zone to zone flows i n many directions i s  d i f f i c u l t to serve by mass t r a n s i t f a c i l i t i e s , and t h i s i n turn impedes the growth of large job concentrations,  e i t h e r at central or peripheral locations.  I f present unplanned trends continue, the d i s t i n c t i v e transportation requirements of the peripheral work journey w i l l impose themselves on the  structure  of the c i t y , and, f o r b e t t e r or f o r worse, w i l l be a powerful influence on the form and function of the c i t y .  These trends are not necessarily  consistent with the most b e n e f i c i a l long term growth of Vancouver, or with the requirements of the c i t i z e n s . Specific and e x p l i c i t p o l i c i e s are required:  f i r s t , to i d e n t i f y the  broad form and functions that the c i t y should f u l f i l l ;  second, to work out  - 57 the pattern of r e s i d e n t i a l and employment d i s t r i b u t i o n that these functions demand;  and t h i r d , to devise a transportation system that w i l l adequately  serve these d i s t r i b u t i o n s .  It i s one of the key r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of c i t y  government and the planning profession to formulate such p o l i c i e s so that the f u l l development potential of the c i t y i s r e a l i s e d , and so that the aspirations of c i t i z e n s can be achieved.  - 58 -  SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY  Alonso, William. Theory of the Urban Land Use Market', Papers and Proceedings of the Regional Science Association, Vol. VI, pp 1  i960,  149-157.  Bevis, Howard W. 'A Model f o r Predicting Urban Travel Patterns', Journal of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Vol. 2 5 , No. 2 , May, 1 9 5 9 ,  PP 8 7 - 8 9 -  C a r r o l l , J Douglas, Jnr. 'The Relation of Homes to Work Places and the S p a t i a l Pattern o f C i t i e s ' , Social Forces, Vol. 3 0 , No. 3 , March,  1952,  pp 271-282.  Curran, Frank B, and Stegmeier, Joseph T. 'Traffic Patterns i n F i f t y C i t i e s ' , Public Roads - A Journal of Highway Research, V o l . 3 0 , No. 5 , December, 1 9 5 8 . Duncan, Beverly. 'Factors i n Work-Residence Separation: Wage and Salary Workers, Chicago, 1 9 5 1 , American Sociological Review, Vol. 21, February, pp 48-56.  1956,  Duncan, Beverly, and Duncan, Otis Dudley. 'The Measurement of Intra-City Locational and Residential Patterns', Journal of Regional Science, Vol. No. Fall, pp  2,  Hansen, Walter G.  2,  i960,  37-54-  'How A c c e s s i b i l i t y Shapes Land Use', Journal of the  American I n s t i t u t e of Planners, Vol.  25,  No.  2,  May,  1959»  PP  73-76.  Herbert, John D, and Stevens, Benjamin H. 'A Model f o r the D i s t r i b u t i o n of Residential A c t i v i t y i n Urban Areas', Journal o f Regional Science, Vol. No. Fall, pp  2,  2,  i960,  Hoover, Edgar M, and Vernon, Raymond. University Press,  1959*  21-36.  Anatomy of a Metropolis, Harvard  Kain, John F. 'The Journey to Work as a Determinant of Residential Location', Paper read before the meeting of the Regional Science Association, December, I96I. Lapin, Howard S. Structuring the Journey to Work, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1 9 6 4 . Loewenstein, Louis K. The Location of Residencesr.and Work Places i n Urban Areas, New York: The Scarecrow Press, I965. Park, Robert E. (Ed.).  The City,  Chicago, 1 9 2 5 -  - 59 Rasmussen, Steen E i l e r .  193.7.  London, The Unique City,  London: Jonathan Cape,  Taaffe, Edward J , Garner, Barry J , and Yeates, Maurice H. The Peripheral Journey to Work, Evanston, I l l i n o i s : Northwestern University Press,  1963.  Vancouver C i t y Planning Department. Metropolitan Vancouver, 1955, 1965. and Vancouver: Vancouver City Council,  1985,  1967.'  Wingo, Lowdon, Jnr.' Transportation and Urban Land, Washington: f o r the Future Inc., 1 9 6 1 .  Resources  Wolforth, John R. Residential Location and the Place o f Work, (B.C. Geographical Series No. 4 ) , V a n c o u v e r : T a n t a l u s Research Ltd.,  1965.  APPENDIX  SAMPLING- METHOD AND PROCEDURE  The objective was to draw a random sample of employed persons l i v i n g i n the suburban areas of the C i t y of Vancouver and the Municipality of Burnaby i n order to document work t r i p s to suburban employment.  I t was decided to  exclude the West End r e s i d e n t i a l area from the sampling frame as i t was close to the c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t of Vancouver, and previous studies indicated that only a small proportion of West End residents could be expected to work i n the suburbs.  With t h i s exception, a l l areas p r i m a r i l y i n resident-  i a l use within the study area were included i n the sampling frame.  A cluster  sample was used so that the process of documentation would be s i m p l i f i e d , and so that a picture of commuting patterns at each of the clusters could be b u i l t up. A d e t a i l e d land use map of the study area was used as an i n i t i a l sampling frame, and a l l g r i d squares p r i m a r i l y i n r e s i d e n t i a l use were numbered.  A l l g r i d squares with more than 2 0 $ of t h e i r land area i n non-  r e s i d e n t i a l use were excluded. g r i d squares were i d e n t i f i e d .  Using random numbers tables, ten r e s i d e n t i a l Each street block mainly i n r e s i d e n t i a l use  within these squares was numbered, and one street block i n each of the ten squares i d e n t i f i e d by random number methods.  In each square, t h i s street  block was used as the o r i g i n to assemble a, group of four or s i x r e s i d e n t i a l street blocks clustered as c l o s e l y as possible round the o r i g i n block. The number of street blocks used depended on the density of r e s i d e n t i a l development.  - 60 -  - 61 I t was hoped to obtain approximately 1 0 0 employed persons i n each of the ten c l u s t e r s .  A sample of about 1 0 0 0 employed persons would represent  a l i t t l e under 1 $ of the t o t a l labour force l i v i n g i n the study area at that time.  A sample of t h i s s i z e , a f t e r loss through non-response,  i s too  small f o r detailed disaggregation, but provides adequate figures suitable f o r broad generalisations. Having obtained the addresses of the dwellings that formed the b a s i s of the sample, the employed residents at these dwellings were i d e n t i f i e d  , 40 from the street section of the Vancouver C i t y Directory f o r 1 9 6 3  • The  alphabetical index of persons and employers i n the d i r e c t o r y was then used to obtain the name of each person's employer.  The: alphabetical index also  provided the address of the workplace under the name o f the employer. In approximately 1 7 $ of a l l cases, i t was not possible to locate the workplace, either because no information was given i n the directory or because the description or nature of the occupation d i d not permit the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of a precise workplace. The workplace was successfully i d e n t i f i e d f o r a, t o t a l of 7 0 9 persons, of whom 2 1 1 worked i n the c e n t r a l area of Vancouver as defined by the City of Vancouver Engineering Department.  The remaining 4 9 8 persons worked i n  locations outside the central area, and formed the sample f o r the analysis of the peripheral journey to work.  The locations of a l l residences and  workplaces were plotted on a series of maps, and the a i r l i n e distance f o r each work t r i p was measured.  A duration of journey measure would have been  Data f o r 1 9 6 3 were used so that the study would be d i r e c t l y comparable to a study of the journey to work to the c e n t r a l area of Vancouver based on material f o r the same year.  -  62 -  more desirable, but i t was not possible i n the time available to measure peak hour t r a v e l times i n a l l directions from each of the ten r e s i d e n t i a l clusters.  The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of downtown work journeys were then compared  with those of peripheral work journeys.  

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