UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Relationships between some elements in rocks, soils and plants of some mineralized areas of British Columbia Barakso, John (Ja'nos) 1967

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1967_A6_7 B35.pdf [ 7.16MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104407.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104407-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104407-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104407-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104407-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104407-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104407-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104407-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104407.ris

Full Text

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SOME ELEMENTS IN ROCKS, SOILS AND PLANTS OF SOME MINERALIZED AREAS OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by J . J . Barakso A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in.the Department of S o i l Science We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard. THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA 1967 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h.iJs r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a i i ABSTRACT The d i s t r i b u t i o n of trace elements i n bedrock, s o i l s and plants, was studied i n twelve areas of B r i t i s h Columbia where m i n e r a l i z a t i o n was known to occur below d i f f e r e n t kinds and depths of overburden. Samples were taken from two s o i l p r o f i l e s and the bedrock at each l o c a t i o n , and second and t h i r d year twigs of the p r i n c i p a l vegetation found within a radius of f i f t y f e e t of each p r o f i l e were also c o l l e c t e d . The bedrock,soil and plant samples were analysed. The s o i l samples were used f o r the deter-mination of pH, organic matter content, percentage of material -=80 mesh, cation exchange capacity, exchangeable heavy metals, and content of Cu, Mo, Zn, Pb, As, Co, Ni, Fe and Hg. The same elements were determined i n the bedrock and vegetation samples. The r e s u l t s were examined g r a p h i c a l l y f o r r e l a t i o n s h i p s between elemental contents of the bedrock, s o i l horizons and vegetation. The data were then s t a t i s t i c a l l y analysed. (a) s o i l horizons and plant r e l a t i o n s h i p with bed-rock . (b) inter-elemental r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n d i v i d u a l horizons of s o i l s and of plants, as w e l l as a l l horizon r e l a t i o n s h i p s . (c) multiple c o r r e l a t i o n study of ca t i o n exchange y capacity, percentage of organic material and 0 -80 mesh of element content of i n d i v i d u a l and a l l s o i l horizons. i i i These studies showed that, although most of the s o i l horizons were developed from transported materials, ( g l a c i a l , a l l u v i a l , e t c . ) , there was a hi g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with B and C horizons and bedrock that confirmed the value of s o i l sampling i n prospecting, since horizon develop-ment includes the upwards migration of the elements from bedrock. The secondary dis p e r s i o n of the halo elements (Mo, Zn, Pb, As, Co, N i , Hg) proved u s e f u l as pathfinders where major economic elements may have been masked during the upward migration process. Secondary dispersion may al s o be i n some degree, h e l p f u l i n i d e n t i f y i n g the o r i g i n of s o i l s and plants. A great divergence i n the a f f i n i t y of various plants f o r d i f f -erent elements, and of the same species at d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s , was noted. I t was al s o observed that plants have a cl o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p to the s o i l s than to the bedrock i t s e l f , but even so, in d i c a t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The important r e l a t i o n s h i p s between elemental d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n s o i l horizons and i n plants with bedrock, indi c a t e d a logarithmic r e l a t -ionship . The multiple c o r r e l a t i o n study indicated that some of the major f a c t o r s of i n f l u e n c i n g the l e v e l of element content i n s o i l s developed on transported material-covered areas, are the s i z e of the s o i l p a r t i c l e s and frequently the pH of the s o i l . i v In gene ra l , the study i nd i ca ted that the d i s t r i b u t i o n of t race elements i s h i gh l y complex and that bedrock, s o i l s , and p l a n t s , should a l l be combined in to one study; s ince the study o f one o f these alone would be incomplete without the o thers . V TABLE OF CONTENTS Page 1 INTRODUCTION 1 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 3 2.1 S o i l and Vegetation Surveys 3 2.2 Dispersion of Elements 7 2.3 Anomalies i n Transported Materials 11 2.4 S o i l Formation and Secondary Dispersion 13 3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 16 3.1 Sampling S i t e s and Methods 16 3.2 Laboratory Methods 18 3.3 S t a t i s t i c a l Methods 22 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 24 4-1 Discussion of Sample S i t e s 24 4-1.1 McBride Creek Prospect 29 4-1.2 Craigmont Mines 31 4.1.3 Copper Mountain Mines 34 4.1-4 Taylor Windfall Prospect 36 4.1.5 Minex-Highland V a l l e y 38 4.1.6 P a c i f i c N i c k e l Mines 41 4.1-7 Skeena S i l v e r Property-Highland V a l l e y 43 4.1.8 Galore Creek Prospect 45 4.1.9 Pioneer Mine 48 4.1.10 Bralorne Mine 50 4.1.11 Endako Mine 53 4.1.12 Carmi Prospect 55 4.2 Discussion by Elements 67 5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 82 6 LITERATURE CITED 88 v i LIST OF TABLES Page 1. Summary of Information Concerning Sample S i t e s 26 2. Elemental Correlations of S o i l Horizons and Plants to Bedrock (Logarithmic Values used, df=22) 60 3. Inter-Elemental Simple Correlations over a l l S o i l Horizons, Bedrocks and S o i l Data (df=130) 62 4. Simple Correlations i n In d i v i d u a l Horizons and Plants 63 5. The Highest S i g n i f i c a n t Independent Variable f o r the Mult i p l e Correlations of Mesh Size, C.E.C. and O.M. with the Elements and Horizons 66 A - l A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r McBride Creek Prospect 97 A-2 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r Craigmont Mines 98 A-3 A n a l y t i c a l Data for Copper Mountain Mines 99 A-4 A n a l y t i c a l Data fo r * T a y l o r Windfall Prospect 100 A-5 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r Minex-Highland V a l l e y 101 A-6 A n a l y t i c a l Data for P a c i f i c Nickel Mines 102 A-7 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r Skeena S i l v e r Property 103 A-8 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r Galore Creek Prospect 104 A-9 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r Pioneer Mines 105 A-10 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r Bralorne Mines 106 A - l l A n a l y t i c a l Data for Endako Mines 107 A-12 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r Carmi Prospect 108 A-13 Elemental Correlations of S o i l Horizons and Plants to Bedrock (Assuming Linear D i s t r i b u t i o n s ) 109 v i i LIST OF FIGURES Page 1. Location of Sample S i t e s 17 2. Sketch of Sampling Method 19 3. Selected Data f o r McBride Creek Prospect, P r o f i l e s 1,2 30 4. Selected Data f o r Craigmont Mines, P r o f i l e s 3,4 32 5. Selected Data f o r Copper Mountain Mines, P r o f i l e s 5,6 35 6. Selected Data f o r Taylor W i n d f a l l Prospect, P r o f i l e s 7,8 37 7. Selected Data f o r Minex-Highland V a l l e y , P r o f i l e s 9,10 39 8. Selected Data f o r P a c i f i c N i c k e l Mines, P r o f i l e s 11,12 42 9. Selected Data f o r Skeena S i l v e r Property-Highland V a l l e y , P r o f i l e s 13,14 44 10. Selected Data f o r Galore Creek Prospect, P r o f i l e s 15,16 46 11. Selected Data f o r Pioneer Mines, P r o f i l e s 17,18 49 12. Selected Data f o r Bralorne Mines P r o f i l e s 19,20 51 13. Selected Data f o r Endako Mines P r o f i l e s 21,22 54 14. Selected Data f o r Carmi Prospect, P r o f i l e s 2 3 , 2 4 56 15. Cu D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 68 16. Mo D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 69 17. Zn D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 71 18. Pb D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 72 v i i i LIST OFJIGUR£S_-_cont«d Page 1 9 . As D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 74 20. Ni D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 77 21. Co D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 75 2 2 . Fe D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 79 23. Hg D i s t r i b u t i o n i n S o i l s and Bedrock 80 A - l A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r S o i l s , Rocks and Plants at McBride Creek Prospect 9 2 A-2 A n a l y t i c a l Data f o r S o i l s , Rocks and Plants at Taylor W i n d f a l l Prospect 93 A-3 Cu Content Relation of Plants and S o i l Horizons 94 A-4 Zn Content Relation of Plants and S o i l Horizons 95 A-5 Hg Content Relation of Plants and S o i l Horizons 96 ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The w r i t e r wishes to express h i s apprec i a t ion to the Graduate Committee f o r t h e i r h e l p f u l advice and c r i t i c i s m : Dr. C. A . Rowles(Chairman), Department of S o i l Sc ience , Dr. L. M. Lavku l i ch , Department o f S o i l Sc ience, Dr . H. V . Warren, Department o f Geology, Dr. R. E. De lavau l t , Department o f Geology, and Dr . E. H. Gardner, p r ev ious l y with the Department of S o i l Sc ience . S incere apprec ia t ion i s extended to Dr. C. W. Roberts and Mr. D. C. Crober, Department of Pou l t r y Sc ience, f o r t h e i r va luable advice and s t a t i s -t i c a l work. Spec i a l thanks are accorded to Kennco Exp lo ra t i ons , (Western) L i m i t e d , and p a r t i c u l a r l y to Dr. J . A. Gower and Mr. C. S. Ney f o r t h e i r he lp and advice throughout the f i e l d work and geology. G ra te fu l acknowledgment i s expressed to Mr. F. Reger and Mr. A. Zo l t a y f o r t h e i r t e c h n i c a l ass i s tance i n e d i t i n g , and to Miss F. Haworth f o r t yp ing of the manuscr ipt . F i n a n c i a l assistance i s also recognized from the National Research Council of Canada. -1-1. INTRODUCTION The rapidly growing demand for metals has led to prospecting for metallic orebodies on an unprecedented scale. Since earlier surveys, made by prospectors using conventional methods, located many of the exposed ore-bodies, new techniques of prospecting are needed to detect those which are buried by soil, organic debris, or other material. Pedo-geochemical and bio-geochemical prospecting are methods which have recently been developed for this purpose. Pedo-geochemical and bio-geochemical prospecting refer to exploration based on systematic measurement of one or more elements occurring in soil or plant material. In order to use these methods effectively, i t i s necessary to have an understanding of the relationships that exist between the elements occurr-ing in buried orebodies, in soil, and in vegetation. The purpose of this study was to obtain a better knowledge of these relationships. In this study, 24 soils were examined, described, and sampled, at 12 locations where buried orebodies were known to occur in British Columbia. Samples of the vegetation and underlying bedrock were also collected and, along with the soil samples, analysed for their content of eight important micro-elements, along with some additional chemical properties. -2-The r e su l t s o f these s tud ies and the r e l a t i onsh ips between the content o f micro-elements i n the bedrock, s o i l s , and vege ta t ion , are r e -ported upon i n the sec t ions which fo l l ow . -3-2. L I T E R A T U R E R E V I E W Geochemical prospecting f o r minerals includes any method of mineral exploration based on systematic measurement of one or more chemical properties of n a t u r a l l y occurring m a t e r i a l . The chemical property measured i s most commonly the content of some trace element or group of elements; the n a t u r a l l y occurring material may be rock, s o i l , gossan, g l a c i a l debris, vegetation, stream sediment or water. The purpose of the measurement i s the discovery o f abnormal chemical patterns or geochemical anomalies r e -l a t e d to m i n e r a l i z a t i o n (15). Pedo-geochemical and bio-geochemical prospecting r e f e r to the use of s o i l and vegetation r e s p e c t i v e l y , and since the work reported here i s concerned with these r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the review o f l i t e r a t u r e w i l l be r e s t r i c t e d accordingly. 2.1 S o i l and Vegetation Surveys The use of plants as i n d i c a t o r s of m e t a l l i c elements dates back to 1753 when Urban Jerne (25), noted the frequent presence of a higher content of heavy metals i n c l u d i n g i r o n , copper, t i n , lead, gold and arsenic, i n plants growing i n c e r t a i n areas of Sweden. - 4 -In 1929, Linstow, mentioned by Malyuga (25), observed an a f f i n -i t y among plant species f o r c e r t a i n elements when grown on d i f f e r e n t geolo-g i c a l formations. He noted e s p e c i a l l y , the high content of zinc i n the v i o l e t s of Germany and Belgium. Pedo-geochemical prospecting was begun about 1930. Goldsmith and h i s associates (26 ,33) were among the f i r s t to conduct trace element a n a l y s i s of s o i l s i n order to i d e n t i f y the o r i g i n of transported s o i l s i n parts of Norway and Finland. During the same period, Fersman and Vemadsky ( 3 3 , 4 0 ) i n Russia, d i d s i m i l a r work to determine the occurrence of d i s p e r -sion of elements i n geochemical cycl e s . They were successful i n using spectrographic analyses f o r trace elements i n s o i l s and plants as a pros-pecting method. Their work l e d to the i n i t i a t i o n o f "Metallometric Surveying" i n the mid -1930 vs, which has since become a standard procedure of prospecting i n Russia. Palmquist and Brundin (25) working i n Sweden i n 1939, used bio-geochemical methods i n routine spectrographic determinations of the ash of grassy plants and the f a l l e n leaves of the. f o r e s t . Occasionally, they also sampled the organic l a y e r s of s o i l s i n areas where there was a p o s s i b i l i t y of f i n d i n g minerals. The occurrence of higher lead, z i n c , and tungsten contents i n some of t h e i r samples, l e d to the discovery of seve r a l mineralized zones. Although these deposits were found to be non-economical f o r mining, t h e i r observations proved the value of t h e i r method. -5-Tooms reported i n 1961 (39) on l a t o s o l s o i l p r o f i l e s developed over g r a n i t i c bedrock i n Northern Rhodesia and descr ibed s o i l s with en -richments o f copper, chromium, vanadium, manganese, and i r o n i n the B h o r i -zon. Beginning about 1945, Warren and h i s assoc ia tes (41 ,42,46) i n B r i t i s h Columbia, undertook an extensive research program on the metal content o f vegeta t ion , and reported the p o s s i b i l i t y o f us ing d i f f e r e n t species o f t rees f o r geochemical prospect ing f o r seve ra l elements. The i r work pioneered t h i s f i e l d and es tab l i shed background values f o r some rocks and p lants as guide l i n e s f o r p rospec t ing . During the l a s t decade, a great dea l more a t t en t i on was g iven to geochemical p rospec t ing . Russian s c i e n t i s t s have done a great dea l of work i n the use o f s o i l and vegetat ion i n surveys. Among the Russian s c i e n t i s t s working i n t h i s f i e l d , Vinogradov and Malyuga (40 ,25) have been outstanding. Vinogradov made a wide study o f the d i s t r i b u t i o n of "Rare" elements i n s o i l s . He examined more than 20 s o i l p r o f i l e s from areas o f the eastern European p l a i n s , and made a complete and de t a i l ed ana l y s i s o f samples co l l e c t ed from the re , summarizing h i s work i n the tex t "The Geochemistry of Rare and Dispersed Chemical Elements i n S o i l s " (40) , publ ished i n 1959. Malyuga studied the chemical composit ion of p lants r e l a t i v e to geochemical p rospec t ing , and gave a summary o f d i f f e r e n t i nd i c a to r p l an t s . He reported experience i n the U.S.S.R. of the use o f p lants f o r b i o --6-geochemical prospecting. The account of h i s work i s found i n h i s book -"Bio-Geochemical Methods of Prospecting " (25), published i n 1964. In comparison, l i t e r a t u r e published i n the western countries on t h i s subject, e s p e c i a l l y i n North America, i s rather l i m i t e d . Some indica-t i o n of the use of s o i l sampling i n mineral prospecting has been given by Hawkes and Lakin (15) . Their e a r l i e r work was mostly on lead-zinc occurr-ences and only the cold extractable metal contents were used as a guide to f u r t h e r study. A more s c i e n t i f i c a l l y designed study was c a r r i e d out by Byers i n the F l i n Flon area of Northern Saskatchewan (4 ) , i n which the extractable heavy metals were compared i n d i f f e r e n t s o i l horizons at z i n c -copper sulphate mineralized and unmineralized areas. I t was noted that the exchangeable heavy metals are highest i n the organic horizon and a l s o enriched i n the B horizon as compared with the parent material. A some-what more elaborate i n v e s t i g a t i o n was c a r r i e d out f o r copper and zinc by Ermergen (12) i n Chibougamau i n Northwestern Quebec. The samples were taken from known mineralized areas of d i f f e r e n t depths down to 15 f e e t ; the metals were extracted with hot HNO3 and determined c o l o r i m e t r i c a l l y . In h i s work, enrichment of the elements varied with depth and the highest r e s u l t s he obtained were i n the Ao horizon. In B r i t i s h Columbia, Clark (&), analysed a number of s o i l s from non-mineralized areas f o r t o t a l and a v a i l a b l e copper. He found the l e v e l s of exchangeable Cu ranged from 1 - 4 ppm and copper accumulation was indicated i n some w e l l developed B horizons. -7-Recently, Presant (29), analysed d i f f e r e n t horizons of Podzolic s o i l s i n New Brunswick and found that the concentration of elements varied i n the d i f f e r e n t horizons represented. Warren and associates (47,48), worked on several of the pathfinder elements, and al s o began i n v e s t i g a t i n g the use of new pathfinder elements such as Hg and As i n plants as i n d i c a -tors of mi n e r a l i z a t i o n . Warren and Delavault defined the pathfinders i n 1956 as follows: "Pathfinder elements may be defined as elements which, because of nome p a r t i c u l a r property or properties, provide anomalies, or halos, more r e a d i l y usable than the sought-a f t e r element with which they are associated." (43) I t i s evident that since 1930, s o i l and vegetation surveys have been widely and e f f e c t i v e l y used i n l o c a t i n g mineralized areas, but that much remains to be learned regarding the r e l a t i o n s h i p s and the l e v e l s of elements i n anomalies, s o i l horizons, and vegetation. 2.2 Dispersion of Elements Goldschmidt (26) noted that geochemistry i s concerned with the determination of the r e l a t i v e and absolute abundance of the elements i n the earth and the study of the d i s t r i b u t i o n and migration of the i n d i v i d -u a l elements i n the various parts of the earth. Pressure, temperature, and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of the most abundant chemical components, are the -8-parameters of the geochemical environment that determine which mineral phases are stable at any given point. On the basis of these v a r i a b l e s , i t i s possible to c l a s s i f y a l l the n a t u r a l environments of the earth i n t o two major groups - primary and secondary (15). (a) Primary environment - extends downward from the lower l e v e l s of c i r c u l a t i n g meteoric water to the deepest l e v e l at which normal rocks can be formed. This i s the environment of high temperature and pressure, r e -s t r i c t e d c i r c u l a t i o n of f l u i d s , and r e l a t i v e l y low free oxygen content. (b) Secondary environment - i s the environment of weather-ing, erosion and sedimentation at the surface of the Earth. C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are low temperature, nearly constant pressure, free movement of s o l u t i o n s , free oxygen, H 20 and CO2 present. The secondary environment i s of most concern i n t h i s study, since i t includes the secondary d i s p e r s i o n of the elements i n weathering and. s o i l formation. The o v e r a l l pattern of the geochemical d i s t r i b u t i o n of elements i n a given area w i l l r e f l e c t the net e f f e c t of a l l the dynamic forces concerned; t h i s pattern i s re f e r r e d to as the geochemical landscape (15). The normal abundance of an element i n each material i s known as the back-ground value f o r that element (15). Background values have been given by several workers f o r rock (14,15) and a range of values f o r a number of important elements i n s o i l s i s given by Hawkes and Webb (15) . However, i t should be noted that i n some cases, background values have been reported to cover a wide range and therefore may be un s a t i s f a c t o r y for, p r a c t i c a l purposes. -9-The enrichment of elements may occur as a r e s u l t of f r a c t i o n a l r e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n of magmas and represents the second geochemical d i f f e r -e n t i a t i o n of the Earth (30). Rocks and s o i l s where they are enriched above the normal contents of dispersed elements are termed anomalous. Dispersion i s generally the r e s u l t of an i n t e r - a c t i o n of chemical and mechanical processes (15). Fundamentally, the di s p e r s i o n of an element i s governed by the m o b i l i t y of that element and i s dependent on i t s e n v i r -onment, and on the mechanical properties of the mobile phase. M o b i l i t y has a very important r o l e i n the primary and secondary d i s p e r s i o n of the e l e -ments, and r e l a t i v e m o b i l i t i e s have been given f o r several groups of e l e -ments under the most common circumstances so f a r encountered by several workers (15). M o b i l i t y of elements plays an important r o l e i n geochemical di s p e r s i o n of elements, e s p e c i a l l y i n the use of pathfinder elements (43)-Pathfinder elements are often c a l l e d " i n d i c a t o r s " (14), or geochemical t r a c e r s . They may be d i s t r i b u t e d i n the form of halos around mineraliza-t i o n . These elements can play a major r o l e i n applied geochemistry, and t h e i r o r i g i n s are very important. They can be classed as primary or secondary: -10-1. Primary d i s p e r s i o n - i s concerned with the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the elements that are preserved i n rocks of d i f f e r e n t formations. In primary dispersion, the elements are disti n g u i s h e d as syngenetic patterns which were formed at the same time as the rock i t s e l f , or epigenetic patterns formed by the material introduced i n some way i n t o a p r e - e x i s t i n g rock matrix. 2. Secondary di s p e r s i o n - i s concerned with the r e d i s t r i b u -t i o n of the elements as rocks weather. The major f a c t o r s of secondary d i s p e r s i o n are chemical, mechanical or b i o -l o g i c a l (15)-Chemical f a c t o r s important i n secondary d i s p e r s i o n are the hydrogen ion concentration (pH), redox p o t e n t i a l (Eh), chemical s t a b i l i t y of the mineral, sorptive capacity of the s o l i d s , and the s t a b i l i t y of the dispersed c o l l o i d a l phase. The important mechanical f a c t o r s are simple g r a v i t y movement, wind actio n , and with l e s s s i g n i f i c a n c e , volcanism. B i o l o g i c a l d i s p e r s i o n f a c t o r s are vegetation and micro-organisms. The nature of the s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the elements has been the subject of study and some controversy. Thus, i n 1954, Ahrens reported that most geochemical d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n rocks appear to be more nearly l o g normal than normal (2). This has been questioned by Chayes, Aubrey and others (34), and the question has not been completely answered. In a recent p u b l i c a t i o n , Saw concluded that .... " I t i s e s s e n t i a l to understand c l e a r l y the nature and l i m i t s of a given population, i n geochemical terms, before t r y i n g to f i n d a model to explain i t . " ... -11-In general, Saw concluded that l o g normal d i s t r i b u t i o n s existed, but no s i n g l e law applies to a l l the s i t u a t i o n s (34)• Hawkes and Webb (15), concerning the d i s t r i b u t i o n problem, state i t i s c e r t a i n l y true that data c o l l e c t e d during the course of geochemical surveys often appear to be d i s t r i b u t e d log-normally. In review of the work done, i t appears that f o r purposes of s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, the d i s t r i b u t i o n of elements may, under some circumstances, be assumed to be l o g normal. In view of t h i s , f o r purposes of the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment used i n the present study, l o g normal d i s t r i b u -t i o n was assumed to occur i n bedrock and s o i l s . 2.3 Anomalies i n Transported Materials An anomaly i s a d e v i a t i o n from the norm, and a geochemical anomaly i s a departure from the geochemical patterns that are normal f o r a given area or geochemical landscape. Anomalies that are r e l a t e d to, or that can be used as guides i n exploration are termed " s i g n i f i c a n t " anoma-l i e s (15). In order to define what constitutes an anomaly, i t i s necess-ary to determine upper l i m i t s of normal background f l u c t u a t i o n before e s t a b l i s h i n g threshold value. The magnitude of anomalies may be expressed -12-i n terras of the c o n t r a s t between the peak or highest values, and the threshold (14,15,26) . Hawkes and Webb (15) state that a f u l l y dependable value from threshold can come only from an o r i e n t a t i o n survey of the area, and at t h i s time there i s no r e a l s ubstitute f o r a v i s u a l estimate of ten t a t i v e threshold values, correlated with the known d i s t r i b u t i o n of metal i n the bedrock. They also noted that s t a t i s t i c a l methods should be used s o l e l y as a d i s c i p l i n a r y guide and never as a replacement f o r q u a l i t a t i v e a p p r a i s a l . There has been considerable controversy i n the geochemical l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i v e to s t a t i s t i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of elements i n rocks. This has been discussed i n some d e t a i l e a r l i e r with the disp e r s i o n of elements. Pedo- and bio-geochemical prospecting are concerned with de-t e c t i n g anomalies where the overburden i s e i t h e r r e s i d u a l or transported (15) . In B r i t i s h Columbia, as i n many other areas of the earth, bedrock anomalies are often blanketed with recent deposits of g l a c i a l debris, alluvium, colluvium, peat, wind-blown material, or volcanic ash, a l l of which present s p e c i a l problems. I t has been found that geochemical anoma-l i e s developed i n transported material have some features i n common, and that d i f f e r e n t patterns occur (15)-(a) Syngenetic patterns which are the e f f e c t of purely mechanical movement of s o l i d p a r t i c l e s . -13-(b) Epigenetic patterns that r e s u l t from hydromorphic and biogenetic f a c t o r s and appear to be the more important. A syngenetic anomaly i s formed at the same time as the deposit of transported material i n which i t occurs; while an epigenetic anomaly i s a dis p e r s i o n pattern introduced subsequent to the deposition of the matrix. The occurrence and nature of syngenetic and epigenetic patterns have been studied i n such materials as g l a c i a l overburden, colluvium, alluvium, lake and marine sediments., and organic deposits (15). However, there appear to be few published studies made of these i n r e l a t i o n to s o i l formation and horizon d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n . 2.4 S o i l Formation and Secondary Dispersion "Weathering and s o i l formation merge and often proceed simult-aneously; weathering paving the way f o r s o i l development. During the weathering of rocks by p h y s i c a l , chemical and b i o l o g i c a l means, the elements are l i b e r a t e d . Minerals which are more r e s i s t a n t to weathering tend to be released from host rocks, while the l e s s r e s i s t a n t ones pro-vide constituents f o r new minerals of d i f f e r e n t composition, as w e l l as solid-form aqueous solutions (15). A great many studies have been made r e l a t i n g to s o i l formation and the behaviour of elements i n the development of s o i l horizons. Hawkes -14-and Webb (15) , w r i t i n g on s o i l formation i n r e l a t i o n to geochemistry, point out that beginning with the work i n Russia, i t has been shown that s o i l formation and the development of horizons are p r i m a r i l y the r e s u l t of c i r c u l a t i o n of s o l i d s and suspension of materials accompanied by a complex seri e s of chemical reactions. Therefore, i t i s evident that secondary di s p e r s i o n of elements w i l l be affe c t e d by soil-forming pro-cesses. Jenny (20) discusses s o i l development at some length i n r e l a t i o n to the f i v e f a c t o rs of s o i l formation — time, parent material, topography, climate and organisms, and points out that a s o i l i n c l u d i n g the material of i t s horizons i s a function of these f a c t o r s . The secondary d i s p e r s i o n of elements, therefore, w i l l a l s o be af f e c t e d by these factors and w i l l be r e l a t e d to the s o i l , as noted by Vinogradov ( 4 0 ) i n h i s studies of the s o i l s of the pla i n s of Eastern Europe. Ginsburg (14) and Hawkes and Webb (15) also provide rather complete reviews of the importance of s o i l s and s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to geochemistry. In spite of i t s importance, the secondary d i s p e r s i o n of elements i n s o i l s i n r e l a t i o n to geochemistry, has not been thoroughly studied. I t can be said that the lack of t h i s kind of study was due i n part to the need f o r a precise d e s c r i p t i v e s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n based on evolution. This was provided r e c e n t l y i n Canada by the National S o i l Survey Committee. The reports of t h i s committee f o r 1963, and 1965 (31,32) , -15-give a complete o u t l i n e of the s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system designed f o r the Canadian environment. The s o i l d e s criptions and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used i n t h i s study were made following t h i s system. - 1 6 -3 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.1 Sampling S i t e s and Methods Twelve sample s i t e s were chosen representing widely separated mineralized areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia. The l o c a t i o n s of these s i t e s are shown i n Figure 1. At each s i t e , two s o i l p r o f i l e s were located within the area of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , as indicated i n Figure 2. The p r o f i l e s were located about 100 fe e t apart, and wi t h i n a radius of 50 fe e t of each the p r i n c i p a l vegetation was i d e n t i f i e d and the shrubs and trees sampled f o r a n a l y s i s . To minimize seasonal v a r i a t i o n s , the second and t h i r d year growth, i n c l u d i n g the needles i n the case of c o n i f e r s , was c o l l e c t e d . At each s i t e the general geology and physiography, i n c l u d i n g the slope, aspect, and drainage, were noted and recorded following the procedure outlined i n U. S. S o i l Survey Manual (33). The s o i l p r o f i l e s were described and c l a s s i f i e d as to group and sub-group following the method of the National S o i l Survey Committee (31,32,38). Approximately a two-pound sample of s o i l was taken from each major horizon. For t h i s purpose, a small trowel was used to obtain a representative sample from the thickness of each major horizon. M a t e r i a l l a r g e r than 2 inches i n diameter was discarded. One to six-pound samples of the underlying bed--13-rock were also taken at each p r o f i l e by c o l l e c t i n g rock chips from the oxidized but unbroken ma t e r i a l . 3.2 Laboratory Methods The laboratory methods used were a combination of those used i n geochemistry (33,17), and i n standard s o i l and plant a n a l y s i s (36). The 1 analysis was c a r r i e d out i n the la b o r a t o r i e s of the Department of S o i l Science, and i n the geochemical laboratory of Kennco Explorations, (Western) Limited. A l l the samples were taken to the laboratory and following mix-ing, a sub-sample was removed from each f o r the determination of mercury. These sub-samples were placed i n p l a s t i c containers to prevent drying. The balance of each sample was dr i e d i n an e l e c t r i c oven by slowly r a i s i n g the temperature to 100°C. The samples of bedrock were crushed and pulverized using ceramic plates to pass a 100-mesh sieve (minus 0.16 mm). The s o i l samples were pounded, mixed and quartered. One quarter was screened through a screen with 2 mm openings. The material passing was used f o r the determination of pH, cation exchange capacity, and percent organic material. -20-The remaining three-quarters were weighed and screened using an 80-mesh screen (minus 0.205 mm). The m a t e r i a l passing was weighed also and i t s percentage of the t o t a l sample calculated ( >80, mesh % ) . This material was used f o r the determination of the exchangeable and t o t a l element contents, as t h i s i s the s i z e f r a c t i o n generally used i n geochem-i c a l work (15). The plant samples were d r i e d at 95°C, ground with a Wiley m i l l , and representative samples used f o r analyses. The methods of analyses used were as follows: Reaction: (pH) was measured using a 1:2 s o i l to water r a t i o and a Zeromatic pH meter. Cation Exchange Capacity: (C.E.C. me/100 gms) was determined using 2.5 or 5-gram samples and Na ! to replace the exchangeable ions (neutral normal sodium acetate). C e n t r i f u g a l techniques were employed and for washing, ethanol was used; Na" was determined using a flame photo-meter (17). Organic Matter Percentage: (0.M.$) of the samples was deter-mined using 0.25 grams or l e s s of samples and wet combustion using N. ^Cr^Oy- and b a c k - t i t r a t i n g with 0.5N ferrous sulphate i n the presence of orthophenonthroline i n d i c a t o r (17). Organic matter percentage was found by m u l t i p l y i n g the organic carbon percentage by the f a c t o r 1.724. -21-Exchangeable Heavy Metals and Exchangeable Copper: (Exch. H.M. and Exch. Cu ppm). Blooms method (36,21) was followed f o r Exch. H.M. and Holman fs method f o r Exch. Cu using MH^ ions to exchange the metals. Diphenyl-Dithiocarbazone (Dithizone) 0.001$ was used as reagent i n the presence of a weak acetate b u f f e r . T o t a l Metals: (ppm) were determined following d i g e s t i o n of 1 gram of < 80-mesh s o i l or < 100-mesh rock i n a beaker. The samples were f i r s t treated with concentrated HNO3 and then digested with 11% HCIO^. To release metals from s i l i c a l a y e r s , a few drops of HF were added during d i g e s t i o n . The digested samples were made up to volume of 50 ml and al i q u o t s taken f o r each element determination. Colorimetric methods were used as i n d i c a t e d below, using a "Spectronic 20" spectrophotometer. Molybdenum: (Mo ppm) was determined by ammonium- t h i o -cyanate-stannous-chloride method (33,21). Copper: (Cu ppm) 2»-2 b i q u i n o l i n e was used as reagent dissol v e d i n iso-amyl a l c o h o l and extracted from the buffered media at pH 4-5 (33,21). Zinc:(Zn ppm) a mixed, coloured dithizone method was used where previously copper had been extracted from the sample s o l u t i o n to reduce interference (33 }21). Lead: (Pb ppm) a f t e r Zn and B i interference eliminations by complexing with KCN, th« monocolour dithizone method was employed (33,21). - 2 2 -Nickel: (Ni ppm) was determined with dimethyl-glyoxine as reagent i n buffered media ( 3 3 , 2 1 ) . Cobalt: (Co ppm) was determined a f t e r i t was buffered to 6 .2 by the 2-Witroso - 1 -Maphtol method ( 3 3 , 2 1 ) . Arsenic; (As ppm) the modified Gutzeit method was followed and the h i g h l y s e n s i t i v e silver-diphenyl-dithiocarbamate used as reagent i n pyridine ( 9 , 4 7 )• Plants were set-ashed and followed with the same procedure. Mercury: (Hg ppb) unscreened samples were used and 1-3 grams of s o i l s and rocks, and 0 . 5 - 1 . 0 of plants were taken. A f t e r d i g e s t i o n , the mercury was amalgamated on copper and measured by a si n g l e beam U. V. instrument i n the mercury vapour form ( 1 9 , 2 3 , 3 5 ) . Plant Analysis: 5 g samples were weighed i n t o a porce-l a i n c r u c i b l e and ashed at 550°C f o r about two hours. A f t e r ashing, the treatment and procedure were the same as f o r s o i l and rock, with the exception of the determination of arsenic and mercury. These were wet-ashed before determination. 3 . 3 S t a t i s t i c a l Methods The data was s t a t i s t i c a l l y analysed using an I.B.M. 7040 computer at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. The following tests were conducted: -23-1. Simple c o r r e l a t i o n s were made of the elemental content i n the bedrock with that of the major s o i l horizons. Both l i n e a r and logarithmic c o r r e l a t i o n s were c a r r i e d out. 2. Simple c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n d i v i d u a l elements and between i n d i v i d u a l elements and the a n a l y t i c a l s o i l data. 3. M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n s were determined among cation ex-change capacity, organic material percent, and minus 80 mesh percent with each element and with each r e -cognized s o i l horizon. - 2 4 -4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4-1 D iscuss ion o f Sample S i t es The l oca t i ons of the 24 p r o f i l e s studied are shown on the ou t -l i n e map of B r i t i s h Columbia, F igure 1. From t h i s f i gu re i t may be noted that the l oca t i ons are wide ly d i s t r i b u t e d from south to nor th . Information r e l a t i v e to the l o c a t i o n s , with respect to econo-mic m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , bedrock parent ma te r i a l , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the s o i l s , i s summarized i n Table I. From Table I i t may be noted that the p r o f i l e s were se lected to represent d i f f e r e n t types o f economic m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Economic min -e r a l i z a t i o n r e f e r s to m ine ra l i z a t i on i n areas where minerals are being mined or may be mined at some future date . Seven of the s i t e s se lected f o r study conta in copper as the major economic minera l (1 ,2 ; 3 , 4 ; 5,6; 7 ,8 ; 9,10; 13 ,14; 15,16) . Two represent s i g n i f i c a n t molybdenum major m ine r a l i z a t i on (21,22; 2 3 , 2 4 ) . At three other s i t e s , molybdenum occurs as an assoc ia ted important element (1 ,2 ; 7,8; 9,10).. Gold i s represented by two s i t e s (17,18; 19,20) and n i c k e l by one at P a c i f i c N i cke l mine, at present the only producing n i c k e l mine i n B r i t i s h Columbia (11,12) . -25-Bedrock i n Table I r e f e r s to the sometimes ox id ized but s o l i d l a ye r of consol idated rock which occurs under the overburden. The nature o f t h i s was determined by reference to geo log i c a l and other reports (4,5, 8,9,23,33), and by observat ions at the s i t e s . Parent mate r i a l i s the unconsol idated mass from which the s o i l developed;, and the terms used i n Table I, r e f e r to i t s mode of o r i g i n . From t h i s tab le i t may be noted that at a l l s i t e s except 9-10, parent mater ia ls have been t ransported or moved to a greater or l e s s e r extent. Thus, co l luv ium, re fe r s to poor l y sorted mate r i a l near the base o f steep slopes that has been moved by g r a v i t y , f r o s t a c t i o n , s o i l creep or l o c a l wash (38) . I ts nature , the re fo re , should be c l o s e l y r e l a ted to the mate r i a l occur r ing above i t on the s lope . G l a c i a l d r i f t cons i s t s o f a l l the mate r i a l p icked up, mixed, d i s i n t e g r a t e d , t ransported and deposi ted through the a c t i on of g l a c i a l i c e or water r e s u l t i n g p r i m a r i l y from the mel t ing of g l a c i e r s . G l a c i a l t i l l inc ludes that part o f the g l a c i a l d r i f t deposi ted d i r e c t l y by the i c e with l i t t l e or no t r anspor ta t ion by water (38) . A l luv ium cons i s t s of sediments moved and re-deposited by streams. Res idua l parent mater ia l s can be def ined as those which are formed i n p lace through the d i s i n t e g r a t i o n and decomposition of country rocks (38) . Of course, the above mentioned parent mater ia ls may occur i n combinations, such as at S i t e 5,6 where a mixture o f co l luv ium and TABLE 1: Summary of Information Concerning Sample S i t e s Sample S i t e s S o i l Order S o i l Subgroup Parent M a t e r i a l Bedrock Economic Mineral 1,2 McBride Creek Prospect B r u n i s o l i c Degraded Acid Brown Wooded Colluvium (some volcanic ash layers) Granite Porphyry & Rhyolites P y r i t e Chalcopyrite Molybdenite 3,4 Craigmont Mines Podzolic Gleyed Gray Wooded G l a c i a l D r i f t Nicola Volcanic Beds of Limestone Chalcopyrite Magnetite Hematite 5,6 Copper Mountain Mines Br u n i s o l i c O r i h i c Acid Brown Wooded Colluvium & Residual Mixed Ni c o l a Volcanics (Tuffaceous) Chalcopyrite Magnetite Hematite _ Taylor W i n d f a l l Prospect B r u n i s o l i c Degraded Acid Brown Wooded Alluvium & Colluvium Granite I n t r . & S i l i c i f i e d T u ffs P y r i t e Chalcopyrite Molybdenite 9,10 Minex Highland V a l l e y B r u n i s o l i c Orthic Acid Brown Forest Residual & Colluvium Hornblende Granodiorite Chalcopyrite P y r i t e Molybdenite 11,12 P a c i f i c N i c k e l Mines Br u n i s o l i c Orthic Concretionary Brown G l a c i a l D r i f t Colluvium U l t r a b a s i c (Dunite,Norite, and D i o r i t e ) Ni Sulphide Chalcopyrite 13,14 Skeena S i l v e r Property i_ . . . ,,, B r u n i s o l i c Degraded Brown Wooded G l a c i a l T i l l Skeena Granodiorite Chalcopyrite P y r i t e cont'd TABLE 1: cont'd _Sample_ S i t e s S o i l Order J S o i l Subgroup Parent M a t e r i a l Bedrock Eoonomic Mineral 15,16 Galore Creek Prospect Br u n i s o l i c Orthic Acid Brown Wooded G l a c i a l D r i f t Volcanic & Sedi-ments with Syenite Intrus. Chalcopyrite Bornite P y r i t e 17, IB Ficneer Mine Podzolic Dark Gray Wooded G l a c i a l D r i f t Granodiorite Quartz v e i n Gold Arsenopyrite P y r i t e 19,20 Bralorne Mines Brun i s o l i c Orthic Brown Forest G l a c i a l D r i f t Granodiorite Quartz veins Gold Arsenopyrite P y r i t e 21,22 Bndako Mines Brun i s o l i c Degraded Acid Brown Forest G l a c i a l D r i f t Topley Granodiorite Molybdenite P y r i t e 23,24 Carnd. Prospect Br u n i s o l i c Orthic Acid Brown Wooded G l a c i a l T i l l Granodiorite Gneiss Molybdenite P y r i t e -28-r e s i d u a l m a terial was found, and at S i t e 11,12 where a mixture of g l a c i a l d r i f t with c o l l u v i a l m a t erial from the steep mountain slopes occurred. The s o i l s were c l a s s i f i e d according to the l a t e s t report of the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada (32) i n t o the following categories - "order", "great group", and "subgroup". From Table 1 i t may be noted that with the exception of p r o f i l e s 3,4 and 17,18, the s o i l s were classed as belonging to the B r u n i s o l i c order. These are w e l l to imperfectly drained s o i l s developed under f o r e s t , mixed f o r e s t and grass, grass and fern, or heath and tundra vegetation, with brownish-coloured sola and without marked e l u v i a l horizons (N.S.S.C. p.51). In regard to t h i s group, i t i s important to note that they are a l l s o i l s without marked e l u v i a l horizons, and therefore a major r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of elements within the p r o f i l e would not be expected. P r o f i l e s 3,4 and 17,18 are classed i n the Podzolic order, which are w e l l and imperfectly drained s o i l s developed under f o r e s t or heath, having under v i r g i n conditions organic surface horizons (L-H), l i g h t coloured eluviated horizons (Ae) and i l l u v i a l (B) horizons with accumulations of organic matter, sesquioxides or clay, or any combinations of these (N.S.S.C, p.38). Due to the greater horizon d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n these s o i l s , more marked r e - d i s t r i b u t i o n of micro-elements would be ex-pected . -29-In the taxonomic system of s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , the next l e v e l i s the "great group" which includes groups of s o i l s having c e r t a i n morphological features i n common that r e f l e c t a s i m i l a r pedogenic environ-ment. The subgroup which i s given f o r each s o i l i n Table 1 defines the c e n t r a l concept of the "great group" and v a r i a t i o n s from t h i s c e n t r a l concept. The number of subgroups i n the above mentioned two orders i n t h i s survey, i s nine; almost as many as the sample s i t e s . Diagrams i d e n t i f y i n g the major horizons present i n each pro-f i l e are given i n Figures 3 - 1 4 . The horizon nomenclature used i s that accepted by the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada (1965) on the l e f t , and the U.S.D.A. (1951) on the r i g h t . These f i g u r e s also show the d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n the s o i l horizons and the plants, of elements considered to be most s i g n i f i c a n t at each l o c a t i o n . With reference to these f i g u r e s , Tables A l to A12 i n the Appendix should be used concomitantly. Each l o c a t i o n i s described i n d i v i d u a l l y i n the sections that follow. A..-Jk'l_„ McBride Creek Prospect, P r o f i l e s 1,2 These p r o f i l e s , located about 35 miles southeast of Princeton on a low grade porphyry copper-type mi n e r a l i z a t i o n , occur at an eleva-t i o n of 5200 feet on a normal convex slope of 28-29° to the southeast. Both p r o f i l e s are classed as Degraded Acid Brown Wooded s o i l s , of sandy Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus contorta var. lat. Vaccinium scoparium I— - 3 0 -Cu p p m L - H Ah Aej (A2) B f 1:10 IIIC (01) (Al) (B) (C) IIC .(IIC) (IIIC) (R) ii-'i-.'i.'ili.'i'.i.' + -i + - • - i - + ;1 i ! i - 4- 1.+ - 1 : i • i i r M <*> K § M o p p m o 1 0 ^ ^ ^ ° CM ^ t< 5 H g Ppb n — i — i § ? 1 « \ •+ ' o 800 C u p p m M o p p m ® L - H -(01) Ah T(AI) Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus contorta var. lat. Vaccinium scoparium A n r Aej Bf 1:10 R (A2) ( B ) (C) (R) - - f — | _ +• - i + -- I + - ! •h - ! - - r ! i ! M • : i H g p p b 5 Fig.3 S e t e c t e d D a t a f o r M c B r i d e C r e e k P r o s p e c t P r o f i l e s 1,2 -31-loam texture and f r i a b l e to f i r m consistency, developed from c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l . There i3 some evidence of erosion and p r o f i l e 1 i s considered to have buried Bf and C horizons. I t i s also thought that the Aej h o r i -zon has been influenced by volcanic ash which i s known to occur i n the area. The a n a l y t i c a l data i n d i c a t e a high c o r r e l a t i o n between Cu i n the bedrock and the s o i l horizons, and the pathfinder elements Mo, As and Hg i n the s o i l horizons also provide good evidence of the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n due to secondary d i s p e r s i o n . The plant samples i n d i c a t e the Pinus contorta has noticeably c o l l e c t e d Cu, Zn, Pb, N i and Co, while Pseudotsuga menziesii has 2 0 to 2 5 times the concentration of As, than do the other two species. Anoma-lous amounts of As and Mo are indicated by Vaccinium scoparium. 4 . 1 . 2 Craigmont Mines, P r o f i l e s 3,4 Craigmont Mine i s a major operating copper mine i n B r i t i s h Columbia, located about 7 miles northwest from M e r r i t t i n the Ni c o l a volcanic rock formations of Upper T r i a s s i c age. The sample s i t e s are located at the edge of the orebody and are of p o s s i b l y lower grade, but s i m i l a r i n nature and environment to the orebody. © Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus conrorta var. lat. Juniperus communis Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi L-Hr(OI) Ah (Al) Aeg IIBtg i-30 IIC (A2) (MB) (IIC) (R) i • I • i. i - i • i . In - + 1. I • + - + -355. -32-Cu ppm 0 <a 1 J I I Zn ppm 9 5 1 vx>A v \ \ 7 l / 3 15 Hg ppb Hg ppb © Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus Ponderosa Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi L-H Ah Aegj ilBtgj 1:30 II Ck R F i g . A Selected Data for Craigmont Mines Prof i les 3,4 -33-The bedrock i s covered by several f e e t of g l a c i a l d r i f t and t i l l but s o i l horizon d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i s quite noticeable. The s o i l i s c l a s s i f i e d as Gleyed Gray Wooded and has a f i r m , s i l t y c l a y Btg horizon. The texture of the horizons v a r i e s from sandy loam i n the surface t o s i l t y c l a y loam texture i n the Btg, with 10 - 25$ stones above one inch i n diameter. The a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s are qu i t e s t r i k i n g i n these s o i l s , and p a r t i c u l a r l y so f o r p r o f i l e 3. This s o i l has a strongly developed t e x t -u r a l Btg horizon, which apparently has trapped the upward and downward movement of elements such as Zn and Hg. This e f f e c t i s not as n o t i c e -able i n p r o f i l e 4, i n which the Btg horizon i s not as w e l l developed. In t h i s s o i l the highest amount of Hg i s i n the Ah horizon while i n the former i t i s i n the Btg. Some contamination by copper and other elements of the L-H horizons may have occurred as a r e s u l t of the open p i t opera-tions of the nearby mine. The analyses of the plants, whose roots penetrated the Btg horizons, show i n d i c a t i o n s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . Figure 4 suggests that mercury and p o s s i b l y zinc are path-f i n d e r s f o r copper. - 3 4 -4-1-3 Copper Mountain Mines, P r o f i l e s 5 ,6 This i s another major copper orejbody i n the v i c i n i t y of the N i c o l a volcanic group, s i t u a t e d about 15 miles southeast of Princeton. The majority of the known orebodies have been mined. The sample s i t e was chosen near the underground operated mine to avoid problems of contamination. I t has a depressional r e l i e f with 7 ° slopes at an e l e v a t i o n of 4000 f e e t . The s o i l s are developed from a mixture of c o l l u v i a l and r e s i d u a l m a t e r i a l , and were c l a s s i f i e d as Orthic Acid Brown Wooded. The p r o f i l e s are of a sandy loam texture with f r i a b l e consistency. The most common plants at the s i t e are Lodge-pole pine and Douglas f i r . A n a l y t i c a l data i n d i c a t e a c o r r e l a t i o n between the orebody and s o i l horizons, as i n d i c a t e d by Figure 5 . I t i s also noted i n p r o f i l e 5 that the L-H horizon shows abnormal amounts of copper, p o s s i b l y due to contamination. The i n d i c a t i v e pathfinders. Zn and Hg, were chosen to demon-s t r a t e the v e r t i c a l secondary di s p e r s i o n of halo elements. Plants again, gave a good clue to the presence of m i n e r a l i z a -t i o n i n the bedrock. © P i n u s c o n l o r t a var. lat. P s e u d o l s u g a menz i e s i i L-H i (Of ) Ah ::(AI) Bfj |(B) (C) 1-20 (R) Cu ppm 1 r i 1 2 o ° Z n p p m 1927 o $ 2 * 1 ^ S! <* it) "fl J I Hg ppb Fig.5 S e l e c t e d D a t a f o r C o p p e r M o u n t a i n M i n e s P r o f i l e s 5,6 - 3 6 -U.l.U Taylor W i n d f a l l Prospect. P r o f i l e s 7,8 Near an o l d gold mine on the southern side of Taseko River, there i s a small copper prospect. I t i s located about 75 miles southwest of Williams Lake. The gold mine, which was a small producer of e l u v i a l m aterial, i s on the southeast side of Battlement Creek Canyon. The bed-rock formation i s v o l c a n i c t u f f . The copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n occurs with granodiorite i n t r u s i o n s . The Degraded Acid Brown Wooded s o i l i s developed mostly on a l l u v i a l deposits of the Taseko River, and some c o l l u v i a l m a terial i s mixed i n at some places from the mountain sides. The general r e l i e f consists of complex slopes with l i t t l e erosion at the sample s i t e s . P r o f i l e 7 has a 2 . 0 inch t h i c k buried Ah horizon. The s o i l consists of w e l l developed horizons of sand and s i l t y sand with 2 - 3 $ stones above one inch i n diameter, and a d i s t i n c t B horizon. A n a l y t i c a l data i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l horizons and bedrock m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y with the B horizon. The data from L-H and Ah horizons are very e r r a t i c and they do not give c l e a r anomalous r e s u l t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with copper. I t i s evident from Figure 6 , that i f the B or C horizons were not sampled f o r copper, the m i n e r a l i z a t i o n could be missed. Molybdenum, p o s s i b l y djie to i t s higher m o b i l i t y , shows a more even d i s t r i b u t i o n . Fig.6 Selected Data for Taylor Windfall Prospect Profiles 7 , 8 -38-The d i s t r i b u t i o n of As i n the p r o f i l e shows i t to be a good pathfinder f o r Cu, as w e l l as Co and N i , which can a l s o be i n d i c a t i v e but at a somewhat lower scale. In plant sampling, a l l the noted elements show anomalous amounts i n d i c a t i n g the presence of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The complete a n a l y t i c a l data f o r the s i t e are given i n Figure A - 2 . 4.1.5 Minex-Highland V a l l e y , P r o f i l e s 9.10 Minex property i s located on the southern side of Highland V a l l e y , along the side of Gnawed Mountain, as shown on Figure 1. I t i s a low grade copper mineralized area with minor amounts of molybdenum and gold. The bedrock i s of the Bethsaida-type granodiorite with some introduced quartz veins, e s p e c i a l l y along f r a c t u r e s . The economical m i n e r a l i z a t i o n consists mostly of chalcopyrite, bornite and p y r i t e . Molybdenum occurs as M0S2. The s o i l has developed from decomposition of bedrock, and some c o l l u v i a l m a t e r i a l covers the surface. The surface has been planed down by g l a c i a l movement from the higher elevations which l e f t behind p r a c t i c a l l y no g l a c i a l debris on the mountain slopes and tops. © Pinus contorta var. lat. Pseudotsuga menziesii L - H r ( O I ) A h B f h - ( A l ) ( B ) 1:10 R ( C ) (R) — + — i — + — i - + — i — i — i -+ - i - - + -— + — / -i - + — + / I : i ; i • i M o p p m A s p p m C u p p m ® Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus contorta var. lat. L - H . A h B f (01) ( A l ) ( B ) 1:10 ( O R (R) 4- - - I--- I - H — I — +-H I . i - l I ; ! • M o p p m A s p p m 1 (5 1 i s 1 Fig.7 Selected Data for Mine x-Highland Valley Prof i ler g 10 -40-The sampling area has an B° s lope , a southwest aspect wi th s l i g h t e ros ion , medium dra inage, and moderate permeab i l i t y o f the p r o f i l e . The p r o f i l e s have a sandy loam to loamy sand texture with a medium, granular to subangular b locky s t ruc ture i n the lower hor izons with mod-e r a t e l y so f t cons is tency . The s o i l i s c lassed as Or th i c Ac id Brown Wooded. The a n a l y t i c a l data f o r t h i s s i t e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g and ind i ca tes that the B hor izon i s markedly enriched with elements as shown i n F igure 7- From t h i s f i gu re i t i s evident that the B hor izon has a h igher content of micro-elements than any other ho r i zon , i n c lud ing the C ho r i zon . Th is d i s t r i b u t i o n i s thought to be assoc ia ted with the r e s i d u a l nature of the s o i l . S im i l a r r e l a t i onsh ips can be noted with exchangeable heavy metals and exchangeable copper (Table A-V). I t i s be l i eved that these e f f e c t s are r e l a t ed to the we l l developed B hor izon (10YR 5/4 dry) of t h i s r e s i d u a l s o i l , where accumulations of the elements take place on a h igher sca le . As pathf inder elements i n v e r t i c a l d i s p e r s i o n , Mo, As, Hg, and Zn may be s i g n i f i c a n t . Outstanding anomalous r e su l t s can be observed by the sampled t rees (Douglas f i r and Lodgepole pine) f o r molybdenum, z inc and copper. Douglas f i r i s again much higher i n a rsen ic than the other p lant species s tud ied . -41-4.1.6 P a c i f i c N i c k e l Mines, P r o f i l e s 11,12 P a c i f i c N i c k e l Mines are located about 7 miles northeast of Hope i n the rugged mountain areas of u l t r a b a s i c i n t r u s i v e s . The Orthic Concretionary Brown s o i l has developed i n the th i c k c o l l u v i a l deposits which o r i g i n a t e from the steep mountain slopes. The s o i l p r o f i l e s i n d i c a t e f a i r l y good development, but the thickness of the p r o f i l e s and horizons can vary a great d e a l because of l i t h o l o g i c a l changes. The sample s i t e has an 11° slope with a normal convex r e l i e f . The s o i l contains about 5% stones over on inch i n diameter and the g r a v e l l y sandy loam texture i n the Bfh and C horizons exhibits a blocky structure with f i r m consistency. Root d i s t r i b u t i o n i s down to the C horizon. The laboratory data show that i n order t o detect the mineral-i z a t i o n , a l l s o i l sampling must be from B or C horizons, e s p e c i a l l y f o r copper. The metal values p l o t t e d i n Figure 8 show a t y p i c a l example of micro-elemental d i s t r i b u t i o n i n transported s o i l s ; as one can observe a decreasing metal value from bedrock upwards. The observed pathfinders f o r Ni appear to be Co and Zn which generally follow the pattern of the major mineral elements, with charact-e r i s t i c higher m o b i l i t y . In t h i s case, the use of mercury as a path-f i n d e r appears somewhat doubtful. Fig.8 S e l e c t e d D a t a f o r P a c i f i c N i c k e l M i n e ? ? P r o f i l p c l l 1? -43-The plants gave very high Variations i n metal content by d i f f e r e n t species, but some of them indicated m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , such as Abies montana (which has the deep hart root system). The other species can a l s o be u s e f u l to in d i c a t e the major elements, such as Cu, Ni and Co. This i s w e l l presented i n Figure 8 and Table A-VI. 4.1.7 Skeena S i l v e r Property-Highland V a l l e y , P r o f i l e s 13,14 This s i t e i s located on the southwest side of Highland V a l l e y opposite to Bethlehem Copper, as shown i n Figure 1. The surrounding bedrock i s Guichon quartz d i o r i t e and the area, where the mi n e r a l i z a t i o n occurs, i s known as Skeena Granodiorite, a phase of the Guichon quartz d i o r i t e . The Degraded Brown Wooded s o i l i s developed from t h i c k g l a c i a l d r i f t and t i l l which cover the bedrock. The r e l i e f has a convex slope with a northwest aspect. Permeability and drainage are moderate. The texture v a r i e s from loamy sand to loamy coarse sand, with some layers of s i l t y c l a y m a terial ( g l a c i a l o r i g i n ) . The plant coverage consists mostly of trees and some shrubs. The laboratory data show Cu as the main element, which i s high i n each horizon, and i s anomalous i n B and C horizons. In p r o f i l e 13 the high copper content of the L-H horizon i s thought to be the r e s u l t of contaminations caused by some d r i l l i n g and trenching i n the v i c i n i t y of the sampling area. Fi s.9 S e l e c t e d D a t a f o r S k e e n a S i l v e r P r o p e r t y - H i g h l a n d V a l l e y P r o f i l e s H U -45-The observed pathfinders, Zn and Hg, of the mineralized zones, again define very w e l l v e r t i c a l d i s p e r s i o n of a secondary nature of the halo elements. S i m i l a r l y , plants e x h i b i t the projections of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n but the element content varies with the species. The plants a l s o show the occurrences of molybdenum veins, which were not indicated by the s o i l sampling. Alnus sinuata (S i t k a alder) yielded very high mercury values as compared to other species (see Table A-VIII), which i n d i c a t e i t may have a high a f f i n i t y f o r mercury. 4.1.8 Galore Creek Prospect, P r o f i l e s 15.16 This s i t e i s located i n the northwest part of B r i t i s h Columbia close to the Alaskan border, about 10 miles east of the S t i k i n e River, as shown i n Figure 1. The bedrock consists of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of presumed T r i a s s i c age, with a complex of small syenite porphyry i n t r u s -ions. The s o i l s are developed from one of the youngest g l a c i a l t i l l s of the sampled areas. The s o i l i s c l a s s i f i e d as Orthic Acid Brown Wooded. I t must be pointed out that the s o i l cover of the area i s not very uniform because of sudden topographical and l i t h o l o g i c a l changes, and i t s closeness to the timberline. Fig .10 S e l e c t e d D a t a f o r G a l o r e C r e e k P r o s p e c t P m f M P C m 1K -47-The area has a complex r e l i e f with t i l l foot slope physio-graphy and an elevation of 2500 feet . The sampled area has 21° slopes on the northeast aspect of Galore Creek. Some frozen lenses were seen i n June; however, the root d i s t r i b u t i o n i s s a t i s f a c t o r y throughout the p r o f i l e . The p r o f i l e s have a loamy texture, although stony c l a y loam i s indicated by the minus 80 mesh f r a c t i o n s i n the B and C horizons, which o r i g i n a t e from g l a c i a l d e p o s i t i o n . Structure increased i n strength with depth from granular to blocky i n the C horizon. In contrast to the youthfulness of the s o i l p r o f i l e , the horizons indicated a very i n t e r e s t i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of micro-elements. Copper i s the main element of the mineralized bedrock and t h i s anomaly i s shown by the r e s u l t s f o r each horizon, and a very sharp increase i n Cu with depth. Exchangeable heavy metals also show some increase with depth, although not so d i s t i n c t i v e , and also show the presence of the anomaly. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of pathfinders As and Hg are p l o t t e d on Figure 10. Zinc, and p o s s i b l y cobalt and n i c k e l , may also be given some consideration as pathfinder elements, as r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h e i r presence. (See Table A-VIII). A l l the plants gave i n d i c a t i o n s of the major elements and pathfinders, but the i n d i v i d u a l species gave considerable v a r i a t i o n s ; - 4 3 -i . e . , Abies l a s i o c a r p a (Mountain f i r ) had only one-third as much copper as was present i n Alnus sinuata (Scrub a l d e r ) . 4 . 1 . 9 Pioneer Mine, P r o f i l e s 17,, 13 Pioneer gold mine i s located i n southern B r i t i s h Columbia, about 1 2 5 miles northwest of Vancouver, as indicated on Figure 1 . The s i t e l o c a t i o n i s near numerous veins of quartz with some gold m i n e r a l i z a -t i o n . Besides being a sample s i t e of gold m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , the area serves as one to study pathfinders g i v i n g secondary d i s p e r s i o n halos f o r other elements. The bedrock consists of i n t r u s i v e masses of augite d i o r i t e -soda granite. The gold-quartz f i s s u r e veins are re l a t e d to and developed w i t h i n the i n t r u s i v e masses. The Dark Gray Wooded s o i l i s developed i n g l a c i a l d r i f t on the southwest slopes. The quartz veins are on a mountainside at an eleva t i o n of 4 2 0 0 f e e t . Erosion i s notice^able on slopes and i n exposed g u l l i e s . The s o i l s contain 5 - 8 $ stony material over one inch i n s i z e . S o i l texture i s loamy and g r a v e l l y sandy loam with a medium granular to blocky structure. The consistency v a r i e s with depth from f r i a b l e , through loose, to firm. F i g . 1 1 Selected Data f o r Pioneer M i n e s P r o f i l e s 17,18 -50-The micro-elemental r e s u l t s shown i n Figure 11 and Table A-9 are p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l to study possible pathfinders f o r gold i n the vein-structured bedrock and the presence of primary and secondary halos. They indi c a t e d that some of the pathfinder elements can be very u s e f u l i n prospecting f o r gold deposits, even i n transported s o i l s . The s o i l horizons show that d i s p e r s i o n of halo elements of the bedrock i s more widely dispersed i n the secondary halo, than i n the primary halo, as indicated by the Cu, Zn, As and Hg i n Table A-9- Although Hg i s only moderately promising, i t may a l s o be considered as a halo element. Plants were also u s e f u l i n d i c a t o r s at t h i s s i t e . The high concentration of arsenic i n Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas f i r ) , which c o l l e c t s about 100 times more arsenic than the other sampled plants, i s very noticeable. 4.1-10 Bralome Mine, P r o f i l e s 19,20 Bralorne Mine i s at present the producing part of Pioneer-Bralorne Gold Mines. I t i s about 120 miles from Vancouver, as indicated on Figure 1. The sample s i t e s are i n the v i c i n i t y of Ida-May veins. The bedrock i s s i m i l a r to that at the Pioneer Mine, i n t r u s i v e masses of augite-diorite-soda granite, containing gold-quartz f i s s u r e veins. The veins vary i n width from a few inches up to 10 f e e t . - 5 2 -The Orthic Brovm Forest s o i l was developed from g l a c i a l d r i f t a t the s i t e s . Well developed Ah (A^) and Bf horizons are noticeable on the northeast si n g l e mountain slope r e l i e f , at an elevation of 4 1 0 0 feet. Root d i s t r i b u t i o n i s down to bedrock. The texture of the horizons varies from sandy loam to g r a v e l l y sand, with estimated 6 - 8 $ pebbles, above one inch i n s i z e . The most massive looking horizon i s the B, which exhibits the hardest consistency. Plant coverage i s s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r sampling over t h i s logged area where second growth timber with some shrubs are found. The a n a l y t i c a l data indicated, as they d i d at s i t e s 1 7 and 18, that pathfinder elements occur which i n d i c a t e the mineralized zones i n s o i l and plant samples. Those p l o t t e d i n Figure 12 are Cu, As, and Hg. The v a r i a t i o n of lead content i n the horizons indicated that i t must have originated from g l a c i a l t i l l rather than from the bedrock. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e that As i s the most promising pathfinder i n the area, but the use of the others would a s s i s t i n confirming the presence of a mi n e r a l i z a t i o n . At t h i s l o c a t i o n of gold m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , plants are very i n d i c a t i v e of the s o i l ' s element content. With regard to arsenic values, i t can be noted that not only Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas f i r ) , but Pachystima myrsinites (False Box) show high a f f i n i t y f o r arsenic. -53-4 . 1 . 1 1 Endako Mine, P r o f i l e s 2 1 , 2 2 Endako mine i s the l a r g e s t producing molybdenum mine i n B r i t i s h Columbia. I t i s located about 115 miles northeast of Prince George, as shown on Figure 1 . The bedrock of the mineralized zone consists of Topley Granite of e a r l y Jurassic age. Pre-ore a p l i t e s and quartz feldspar porphyry dykes, as w e l l as post-ore lamprophyre dykes are found i n the v i c i n i t y . The Degraded Brown Forest s o i l i s developed from g l a c i a l d r i f t . The sample s i t e was on a mountain side with a s i n g l e mountain slope r e -l i e f bearing southwest 8 ° at an elevation of 3 0 0 0 f e e t . P r o f i l e 2 1 had a very t h i n l a y e r of gray-brown ( 1 0 Y R 5/2 dry) Aej horizon, but i t was not measureable at p r o f i l e 2 2 . The texture of the s o i l i s sandy loam with a mixture of gravels. L i t h o l o g i c discontinuations were noted i n both p r o f i l e s . The structures i n the B and II-C horizons are prismatic with f i r m consistency. M a t e r i a l above one inch i n s i z e amounted to 7 - 9%. The elemental a n a l y t i c a l data c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d molybdenum as the most important element of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w e l l above the background l e v e l i n each horizon. Populus tremuloides (Trembling aspen) was sampled. I t gave an excellent i n d i c a t i o n of the molybdenum mi n e r a l i z a t i o n , and i t also showed a high a f f i n i t y f o r zinc, mercury and lead, as well as molybdenum. ® Populus tremuloides L - H A h j A e j Bfj 1:20 IIC R (01) (Al) (A2) (B) (IIC) (R) i • - • • i • + _ - i - + - - + + - i - + 7 + + -I 'Ai. I 1 .• N i p p m H g p p b " i — i 8 i <3 ? Populus tremuloides L - H Ahj IIBfj /•io R i Mo p p m N i p p m H g p p b T 15 Fig.13 Selected Data for Endako Mines Prof i l es 21,22 4 . 1 . 1 2 Carmi Prospect, P r o f i l e s 2 3 , 2 4 This molybdenum prospect i s located i n the southeast part of B r i t i s h Columbia, about 3 0 miles north of the U. S. Border and about 5 miles northwest from Carmi, as indi c a t e d on Figure 1 . The bedrock of t h i s s i t e i s br e c c i a of granodiorite gneiss cemented by quartz and by minor pegmatitic m a t e r i a l . The Orthic Acid Brown Wooded s o i l was developed from g l a c i a l t i l l and varies g r e a t l y i n thickness with topography. The sample s i t e was on a mountain slope physiography with 14° northeast slope at an elev a t i o n of 4 1 0 0 f e e t . The profiles had 5 - 1 0 $ p a r t i c l e s coarser than one inch i n s i z e . At p r o f i l e 2 3 , the bedrock was not reached by digging, so that samples were not obtained f o r R (bedrock). The a n a l y t i c a l data f o r both s o i l s and plants f o r p r o f i l e 2 4 c l e a r l y indicated the presence of mi n e r a l i z a t i o n . However the r e s u l t s of p r o f i l e 2 3 were inconclusive because bedrock was not found, as t h i s s i t e i s probably located i n a b l i n d g u l l y which has been f i l l e d by gl a c -i a l m a t e r i a l . I t i s evident i n t h i s p r o f i l e that secondary di s p e r s i o n of the molybdenum and also the halo elements such as zinc, n i c k e l , and mercury, etc. have not been noticeably a f f e c t e d v e r t i c a l l y from the bedrock. The sampled plants are a l l i n d i c a t i v e of the presence of molybdenum mi n e r a l i z a t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the halo elements are i n d i c a t i v e of an anomaly, even though they vary a great deal i n the d i f f e r e n t species. M o p p m N i p p m H g p p b L a r i x o c c i d e n t a l i s P s e u d o t s u g a menz i e s i i L - H A h I I B f 1 = 20 II C R ( 0 1 ) ( A l ) (HB) (HC) i-t - i—i- +• -— + -1 — _ i - + - - - i -i - + — i - - * -+ - - j - t - i — H + — I Fig.K S e l e c t e d D a t a f o r C a r m i P r o s p e c t P r o f i l e s 73.71, -57-In the previous section, the a n a l y t i c a l r e s u l t s were discussed b r i e f l y f o r each l o c a t i o n , and they w i l l now be considered c o l l e c t i v e l y f o r a l l l o c a t i o n s . To f a c i l i t a t e comparison and e s t a b l i s h r e l a t i o n s h i p s , Figures 1 5 to 2 3 were prepared showing the amount of each element present i n the bedrock and the major s o i l horizons at a l l l o c a t i o n s . The r e s u l t s of the s o i l and micro-elemental analyses were also treated s t a t i s t i c a l l y with the a i d of computer programming and the r e s u l t s are shown i n Tables 2 to 5 . In Figures 1 5 to 2 3 , the sample lo c a t i o n s are arranged on the h o r i z o n t a l axis i n order of the increasing amount of the element found i n the bedrock and the amount of each element found i n the major s o i l horizons i s shown on the v e r t i c a l a x i s . In these f i g u r e s , each point represents the average elemental content of the two s i t e s sampled at each l o c a t i o n . Figures 1 5 to 2 3 also suggested background values of each element f o r bedrock and s o i l s . These values were estimated using back-ground values given i n l i t e r a t u r e ( 1 4 , 1 5 ) , the r e s u l t s obtained i n t h i s study and the author's experience gained i n other studies. Values obtained above background f o r each element i n d i c a t e m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , and i n general the higher the values are above background, the more p o s i t i v e i s the evidence that m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s present at a l o c a t i o n . Background values f o r vegetation are not suggested, as i t was f e l t that the information a v a i l a b l e was not s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h i s purpose. However, i t i s thought that the background values f o r vegetation would be somewhat lower than those indicated elsewhere ( 2 5 , 4 6 ) , as the r e s u l t s i n the present study were obtained following ashing at 4 5 0 ° C f o r three hours, and not d i r e c t l y comparable to other published r e s u l t s . The amount of elements i n vegetation i s generally reported i n ash and the weight of ash depends on the temperature and time of i g n i t i o n . In Figures 1 5 to 2 3 , the c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s f o r the amount of each element found i n the bedrock and i n each major horizon at a l l s i t e s , i s also given. In the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment, i n d i v i d u a l p r o f i l e values rather than the averages of the two p r o f i l e s at the same l o c a t i o n , were used. This was done a f t e r comparisons had been made using both i n d i v i d u a l and average r e s u l t s i n which i t was found that using averages increased the c o r r e l a t i o n s noted between the elemental content of the bedrock and major s o i l horizons, but at the same time reduced the degrees of freedom. Therefore, i t was assumed each p r o f i l e represents .a random sample, because the p r o f i l e s were selected i n a random manner at known mineralized areas. - 5 9 -The s t a t i s t i c a l treatments were of the following types: 1 . Simple c o r r e l a t i o n s of the elemental content of the bed-rock with that of the major s o i l horizons. For t h i s study, four major horizons were used - - L-H(O-l), Ah(A-l), B and C, and the plants were considered as a f i f t h "bio-horizon" without separation as to species. F i r s t , no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n was found between the elemental content of the bedrock and some major horizons. (See Table 2 and A-13). A f t e r that, the data were subjected to p a r t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n s , and repeated several times, f o r the mineralized and unmineralized s i t e s , f o r the i n d i v i d u a l elements. The r e s u l t s , however, were s t i l l i n s i g n i f i -cant and therefore i t was decided to use the logarithm of the elemental values. In t h i s case, using copper f i r s t s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n s were obtained. A f t e r that, logarithmic values were used f o r the other elements as w e l l . Levels of s i g n i f i c a n c e of c o r r e l a t i o n values were obtained. From t h i s , i t was assumed the d i s t r i b u t i o n of trace elements are not j u s t l o g normal ( 1 2 , 3 0 ) , but the r e l a t i o n s h i p e x i s t s between bedrock, s o i l s and plants, which are also logarithmic rather than l i n e a r . The r e s u l t s of the simple c o r r e l a t i o n s are shown i n Table 2 . I t should be noted that these were obtained using s i n g l e logarithmic values of the elements. These c o r r e l a t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s are also shown i n Figures 1 5 to 2 3 . TABLE 2: Elemental Correlations of S o i l Horizons and Plants to Bedrock (Logarithmic Values used, df - 2 2 ) . Horizon L-H Ah B C Plants Element Corr. Coeff.(r) Corr. Coeff. (ar) Corr. Coeff. (if) Corr. Coeff.(r) Corr. Coeff (r) Cu 0 . 5 6 * * 0.63-"-* 0.78-"-* 0.81-** 0 . 3 8 Mo 0 . 8 5 * * 0 . 8 5 * * 0 . 7 6 * - * 0 . 8 7 * * 0 . 6 6 * - * Zn 0 . 0 6 0 . 0 9 - 0 . 1 0 0 . 2 0 0 . 2 2 Pb O.46* 0 . 5 9 * * 0 . 5 8 * - * 0 - 4 5 - * 0 . 1 2 As 0 . 8 4 * * 0.89** 0 . 8 6 - * * 0.89** 0 . 8 7 * - * Co 0 . 4 6 * 0 . 4 3 * 0.80** 0 . 8 3 * - * 0 . 4 0 Ni 0 . 4 4 * 0 . 6 6 * * 0 . 8 8 * - * 0 . 9 0 - * * 0 . 8 3 * * Fe - 0 . 1 1 < 0 . 0 1 - 0 . 1 6 0 . 1 1 0 . 2 0 Hg 0 . 0 5 0 . 2 5 0 . 0 1 0 . 5 7 * - * 0 . 3 9 S i g n i f i c a n t Correlation > 0 . 4 0 (p < 0 . 0 5 ) Highly S i g n i f i c a n t C o r r e l a t i o n ^ 0 . 5 2 (p < 0 . 0 1 ) -61-2. Simple c o r r e l a t i o n s were a l s o determined between i n -d i v i d u a l elements and between the elements and the s o i l a n a l y t i c a l &a±&... These are presented i n Tables 3 and k- This study provided u s e f u l i n -formation on pathfinders i n general, and showed that Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, Cu-Co, Mo-Zn, Pb-Zn, Co-Zn, Pb-Fe(negative), Co-Ni and Ni-Fe are correlated and therefore could be used as pathfinders. 3. M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n was made of C.E.C., OM.% and -80 mesh %, with each element separately and with each horizon. The r e s u l t s are given i n Table 5- Generally, i t can be concluded that the most important c o n t r o l l i n g f a c t o r i s -80 mesh % and the elemental content of the s o i l samples. -62-TABLE 3 : Inter-Elemental Simple Correlations S_ _ . o v e r a l l S o i l Horizons, Bedrocks, and S o i l Data (df = 130)  C o r r e l a t i o n Between Corr. Coeff. (t) pH MESH 0 . 7 2 * * PH H.M. 0 . 3 4 * * pH Cu -0.28** pH Zn - 0 . 3 5 * * pH As - 0 . 2 3 * * pH Co -0.29** -80 MESH$ C.E.C. 0.28** -80 MESH$ O.M. 0.18* -80 MESH$ Cu - 0 . 2 4 * * -80 MESH# Zn - 0 . 3 3 * * -80 MESH$ As - 0 . 2 0 * -80 MESH# Co - 0 . 2 2 * -80 MESH$ Fe - 0 . 2 3 * C.E.C. O.M. 0 . 8 3 * * C.E.C. Zn - 0 . 2 2 * C.E.C. Pb 0 . 2 4 * * C.E.C. Fe - 0 . 3 6 * * O.M. Pb 0.28** O.M. Co -0.19* O.M. Fe - 0 . 4 5 * * Ex.Cu H.M. 0 . 9 3 * * Cu Zn 0 . 3 2 * * Cu Pb 0 . 4 9 * * Cu Co 0 . 5 0 * * Mo Zn 0 . 2 5 * * Zn Pb 0 . 3 0 * * Zn Co 0 . 2 5 * * Pb Fe - 0 . 2 5 * * Co Ni 0 . 5 2 * * Ni Fe 0 . 6 2 * * * S i g n i f i c a n t (p £ 0 . 0 5 ) ** Highly s i g n i f i c a n t (p £ 0 . 0 1 ) -63-TABLE 4: Simple Correlations i n I n d i v i d u a l Horizons and Plants  Correlations Between Corr. Coeff.frJ L-H (01) Horizon pH C.E.C. -0 .69** pH O.M. -0 .78** pH Zn 0 .46* PH Pb -0 .43* C .E • C • O.M. 0.60** C.E.C. H.M. -O.46* C.E.C. Zn -0 .44* Ex.Cu H.M. 0 .87** Ex.Cu Cu 0.75** H.M. Cu 0 .49* Mo Zn 0 .68** As Ni 0 .42* Ah(A^) Horizon! PH O.M. -0 .53** -80 MESH$ H.M. 0 .43* -80 MESH# Co 0 .43* H.M. Ex.Cu 0.80** H.M. Cu 0 .60** H.M. Pb 0.61** H.M. Co 0 .48* Mo Zn 0.79** Co Ni O.67** Ae(A 2) Horizon pH -80 MESH$ 0 .67* PH C.E.C. -0 .63* pH O.M. -0 .74** -80 MESH# O.M. -0 .58* -80 MESH.% As 0 .83** C.E.C. Ni 0 .71* H.M. Ex.Cu 0.97** H.M. Cu O .63* Zn Pb 0 .65* Ae Horizon Zn Hg 0 .79** Fe Pb -0 .74** - 6 4 -TABLE 4 - cont'd Cor re la t ions Between Corr . Coef f . f r ) In "B" Hor izon O.M. C .E .C . 0 .64** C .E .C . Ni 0.44* C .E .C . Fe 0 .53** O.M. Ex.Cu 0.48* O.M. Mo 0.48* H.M. Ex.Cu 0 .97** Cu H.M. 0 .82** Ex.Cu Cu 0 .75** Mo Cu 0 .53** Mo Zn 0 . 4 0 * Zn Pb 0.57** Co Ni 0 . 4 2 * Ni Fe 0 . 5 2 * * In " C " Hor izon pH Ni -0 .59* pH Fe -0 .51* C . E .C . O.M. 0 .49* C .E .C . Fe 0.53* O.M. Mo 0.74** H.M. Ex.Cu 0 .97** H.M. Cu 0.64** Ex.Cu Cu 0 .68** Ex.Cu Co -0 .53* Ex.Cu Fe - 0 . 5 0 * Cu Mo 0 . 5 0 * Cu Zn 0.68** Cu Pb 0.58* Mo Co -0.50* Zn Pb 0.88** As Hg 0 . 5 0 * Co Ni 0.53* Co Fe 0.62** Ni Fe 0 .87** In II-C Horizons pH Fe "6 .65* -80 MESH$ Mo -0.74* H.M. Ex.Cu 0 .87** H.M. Hg 0.66* Ex.Cu Zn 0.65* Cu As 0 .98** Cu Mo 0.79** Mo Zn 0.75* As Hg 0.75* - 6 5 -TABLE 4 - cont'd Correlations Between Corr. Coeff.^rj In "R» Bedrock Cu Pb O.76** Cu Co 0 . 5 4 * * Hg Mo O.46* Co Ni 0 . 6 1 * * Co Fe 0 . 5 2 * - * Ni Fe 0 . 7 6 * * In Plants Pb As 0 . 4 7 * * Co Ni 0 . 7 3 * * TABLE 5: The Highest S i g n i f i c a n t Independent V a r i a b l e f o r the Mult i p l e Correlations of Mesh Size C.E.C. and P.M. with the Elements and Horizons Horizons Elements L-H Ah Ae B C II-C A l l Horizons H.M. C.E.C. MESH .MESH MESH ' MESH MESH MESH X Cu CE.C . MESH MESH MESH MESH O.M. O.M. Cu MESH MESH MESH O.M. C.E.C. O.M. MESH Mo MESH MESH C.E.C. O.M. O.M. MESH MESH Zn C.E.C. C.E.C. C.E.C. MESH C.E.C. O.M. MESH Pb O.M. MESH O.M. C.E.C. O.M. MESH O.M. J>3 O.M. O.M. MESH MESH O.M. O.M. MESH Co MESH MESH O.M. O.M. O.M. O.M. MESH Ni O.M. C.E.C. C.E.C. C.E.C. MESH MESH MESH Fe C.E.C. O.M. C.E.C. C.E.C. C.E.C. O.M. O.M. Hg MESH MESH MESH O.M. C.E.C. O.M. MESH C.E.C. : Cation Exchange Capacity MESH : Minus 80 Mesh % O.M. : Organic M a t e r i a l % X Cu : Exchangeable Copper -67-4.2 Discussion by Elements Coppert The d i s t r i b u t i o n of copper i n the bedrock and the major s o i l horizons i s shown i n Figure 15. I t may be noted from t h i s f i g u r e that the background values suggested are 4 0 ppm f o r s o i l and 6 0 ppm f o r bedrock. These values may be af f e c t e d by the f a c t that the non-economic mineralized areas sampled were somewhat higher i n copper than would be t y p i c a l of completely unmineralized areas. Figure 1 5 and the c o r r e l a t i o n values show that the content of copper i n a l l the horizons i s h i g h l y correlated with that i n the bed-rock and the c o r r e l a t i o n s are highest f o r the B and C horizons. Copper i n almost every case i s lower i n the s o i l horizons than i n the bedrock, the exception being s i t e s 5 , 6 and 9, 1 0 , i n which modified r e s i d u a l m a t e r i a l e x i s t s , and where copper accumulation i s very high i n the B horizon. Molybdenum: The background values f o r molybdenum, 1 . 0 ppm fo r s o i l and 1 . 5 ppm f o r rock, are suggested. Molybdenum i s a h i g h l y mobile element i n the upward migration i n the s o i l s and plants. Figure 1 6 i n d i c a t e s high c o r r e l a t i o n between bedrock content with that i n each horizon and plant. - 6 8 -sites 21,22 23,24 19,20 17,18 3,4 11,12 13,14 5,6 1,2 7,8 9,10 15,16 Incr. Cu in Bedrock 1000 1000 19,20 5,6 13,14 15,16 3,4 11,12 1,2 17,18 . 9,10 7,8 23,24 21,22 Incr. Mo in Bedrock _ -70-The p e r s i s t e n t good c o r r e l a t i o n s of molybdenum with s o i l s and plants i s p r i n c i p a l l y due to i t s m o b i l i t y and consequent d i s t r i b u t i o n , i n general, s i m i l a r to copper i n B r i t i s h Columbia s o i l s . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that mercury gave s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with Mo i n bedrock. (See Table 4)• Zinc: In Figure 17 the background values are indicated as 50 ppm f o r s o i l and 70 ppm f o r bedrock. Zinc was included i n t h i s study as a good pathfinder, because i t provides a good secondary halo. Zinc accumulation i s noticeable i n the organic horizons L-H and Ah, which i s probably due to plant uptake. Plants show high a f f i n i t y f o r zinc, e s p e c i a l l y the common tree of the area, Pinus contorta, var. l a t i f o l i a . Zinc showed negative c o r r e l a t i o n with pH and -SO mesh %, but was h i g h l y c o r r e l a t i v e with Cu, Mo, Pb, and Co (see Tables 3 and 4). Lead: Lead was also considered as a pathfinder or halo element i n t h i s study, since none of the mineralizations contained economical lead minerals. Background values f o r s o i l were set at 1.0 ppm and f o r bedrock at 1.5 ppm. Lead gave s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n i n most of the s o i l horizons and showed high contents i n organic horizons g i v i n g h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n with QM.% (Table 3), which r e l a t e s to the plants' a f f i n i t y f o r lead. In addition, lead was p o s i t i v e l y correlated with Cu and Zn, but gave a negative c o r r e l a t i o n with Fe. 1000 e a. a. c N 100 50 10 1 -71-Fig.17. Zn Distribution in Soils and Bedrock \ 1/ ^Ah' \ ^ / \ , BedrocM^ckgrounchy^s ~ ._/ 7 0 ' . . . . Soil 1 Bo ck-v'g round ~ 5 0 R Bedrock CorrelationCoeff. to Bedrock C c Horizon-O.20 B B Horizon :-O.IO Ah Ah Horizon = 0.85 E-OI 1000 500 100 5H 10 1 sites19.20 23,24 17.18 9.10 4.5 7.8 11.12 21.22 1.2 13.14 5.6 15.16 Incr. Zn in Bedrock 1000 -72-E CL CL -Q CL 100 50 10 5 -Fig . 18 : Pb Distribution in Soils and Bedrock R Bedrock Corr.lotion cCo.ff. C C Horizon • 0.45 * * B B Horizon• 0 . 5 7 * * Ah Ah Horizon^ 0.59 * * Rock Background .5_ ! ' r \" SoiI Background ~ I.0 1000 100 50 s i t e s 3,4 5,6 11,12 19,20 21,22 13,14 9,10 17,18 23,24 7,8 1,2 15,16 Incr. P b i n Bedrock -73-Arsenic: Arsenic i s one of the most important gold pathfinders, since i t gave good i n d i c a t i o n s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n at s i t e s 17, 18 and 19, 20, but i t i s present i n other mineralized areas such as s i t e s 1, 2; 15, 1 6 ; and 9, 10; as an i n d i c a t i o n of copper m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , where minor amounts of s i l v e r and gold are also present. The inter-elemental c o r r e l a t i o n (Table 3) i n d i c a t e d highly-negative c o r r e l a t i o n s with pH and -80 mesh %. A high c o r r e l a t i o n i s noticeable i n the C horizons between As and Hg (Table 4). The plant r e l a t i o n s h i p i s quite f a s c i n a t i n g . Looking at the i n d i v i d u a l plants, the species are very s e l e c t i v e about arsenic, but f o r some unexplained reason, Pseudotsuga menziesii has more than 100 times the amount of t h i s element than other plants at the same s i t e . I n t e r -elemental c o r r e l a t i o n i n plants indicated that Pb and As are h i g h l y c o r r e l a t i v e . (Table 3). Cobalt: Cobalt i s another element which has not been consid-ered as an economical element i n t h i s work, but i t i s rather s u r p r i s i n g that i t i s found i n the f i e l d of halo elements, with high pathfinder c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . The s t r i k i n g c o r r e l a t i o n of bedrock and the B and C horizons can be noted i n Figure 21, with the s o i l background value of 3.0 and bedrock 4.0 ppm. Inc. As in Bedrock 1000 -75-500 £ CL. C L O CJ 100 50 10 1 Fig.21: Co Distribution in Soils and Bedrock - R Bedrock Correlation Coeff. To Bedrock •- C C Horizon ' 0 . 8 3 * * - B B Horizon • 0.80 * * - Ah Ah Horizon^ Q.43 * * 1000 500 100 sites 9jo 13,14 7,8 21,22 1,2 3,4 5,6 23,24 19,20 17,18 11,12 15,16 Jncr. Co in Bedrock -76-In inter-elemental c o r r e l a t i o n s , pH, -80 mesh %, Cu, Zn, and Ni are found to be h i g h l y c o r r e l a t i v e with cobalt. Also i t i s n o t i c e -able that a very s i m i l a r pattern i s obtained with n i c k e l , not only at nickel-bearing deposits ( P a c i f i c N i c k e l Mines 11,12), but also at other s i t e s as w e l l . Plants absorb cobalt without apparent d i f f i c u l t y , and the high m o b i l i t y of the element encourages t h i s uptake; however, the c o r r e l a -t i o n s between bedrock and plants d i d not give s i g n i f i c a n t values but were h i g h l y correlated with s o i l horizons, which act as suppliers of the element to the plants. This element should be given more a t t e n t i o n as a pathfinder i n geochemical a p p l i c a t i o n s . Nickel: Nickel i s of high economic importance at P a c i f i c N i c k e l Mines 11, 12, but l i k e cobalt, i t can be considered on a somewhat lower l e v e l as a pathfinder, at s i t e s 15,16; 17,18; and 19,20. However i t must be noted that to make use of i t i n transported material, one should be c a r e f u l because a g l a c i a l deposit o r i g i n a t i n g from nearby volcanic-covered areas could have a higher n i c k e l content than the bed-rock i t s e l f . N i ckel i s h i g h l y correlated with a l l major s o i l horizons and plants i n r e l a t i o n to bedrock (Table 2). Also, the inter-elemental c o r r e l a t i o n was h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t between Co and Fe (Table 3). -77-1000 500r-E a 100 h bO 10 r 1000 Fig.20: Ni Distribution in Soils and Bedrock R Bedrock Correlation Coeff. to Bedrock C C Horizon - 0.90 * * B B Horizon = 0.87 * * A h Ah Horizon 1 0.65 * * 1 . , , sites 21,22 TT2 37 9?T0 13\TZ 23^Z 5^ 6 7^8 19,20 17,18 15,16 11,12 Incr. Ni in Bedrock -78 Plants can be good i n d i c a t o r s of n i c k e l , as t h i s l i m i t e d work in d i c a t e s . In a sense, plants vary by species i n n i c k e l content, but a l l of them are i n d i c a t i v e at a s p e c i f i c s i t e (see Tables A-I to A-XII). Iron: The a n a l y t i c a l data on i r o n was used as a guiding f a c t o r i n s o i l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , but d i d not give any geochemical informa-t i o n . However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g that Fe gave a h i g h l y s i g n i f i c a n t negative c o r r e l a t i o n with C.E.C. and OM.% (Table 3). Mercury: Mercury was one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g elements included i n thie work, since i t s pathfinder behavior is not yet s c i e n t i f i c a l l y established. Some observations have been given i n the discussion of the i n d i v i d u a l s i t e s , but i t i s d i f f i c u l t to generalize or to give f i n a l conclusions. Mercury shows a very complex d i s t r i b u t i o n i n nature, and i n elemental studies Hg demonstrates the meaning of the dynamic complex-io n of trace elements i n d i s p e r s i o n studies. In the c o r r e l a t i o n studies (Figure 23, Tables 3,4,5), i t i s seen that mercury d i f f e r s a great deal from other elements. Since bed-rock generally shows the lowest amounts present i n the p r o f i l e s , t h i s i l l u s t r a t e s w e l l the f a c t of v e r t i c a l migration of mercury. In some cases, the Ah(A]_) horizon i s enriched, except when other absorbing 100.0 -79- 100.0 o u. 10.0 5.0 1.0 0.5 0.1 F i g , 2 2 : Fe Distribution in Soils and Bedrock R R p H m r k C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f . B e d r o c K t Q B e d r o c k — C C H o r i z o n • O. I I B B H o r i z o n ' 0 .15 — Ah Ah H o r i z o n ' 0 . 1 7 E- 0 2 R o c k y^ackqround~2.5| u. 10.0 / 1 / \ J 5 o i l / B a c k g r o u n d ~ 1.7 1.0 0.5 sites 7,8 13,U 23,24 1,2 21,22 1 5,16 9,10 1 9,20 1 7,16 5,6 3,4 11,12 I n c r . i n Bedrock w 0.1 -80-Q. Q. 1000 500 100 50 10 Fig .23 : Ha Distribution in Soils and Bedrock R BedrocK C o7 ei aJi°" ?? e f f' to Bedrock C C Horizon -0.57 * * B B Horizon' 0.95 E-OI Ah Ah Horizon^ 0.25 Soil Background — 6 0 Rock Background ~ 50 1000 500 100 50 10 sites 23,24" 2 V 2 9/I0 15716 576 778 19^0 11/12 \213^U 17,18 Incr. Hg content of Bedrock, -81-substances, such as clay, r e s t r i c t i t to the lower horizons. An out-standing example i s seen at the Craigmont s i t e (3,4)- I f not much clay i s present i n the lower horizons, the mercury enrichment i s found i n the Ah horizon. The elemental c o r r e l a t i o n of horizons and bedrock gave s i g n i -f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n only between bedrock and the C horizon, which are also of a s i m i l a r low l e v e l i n Hg content. Plants show Hg accumulation as t h e i r background i s generally higher than the s o i l s which support t h e i r growth. Plants can a l s o solve sampling and sample preparation problems which are present with s o i l s , since mercury i n plants i s generally i n unvarying f i x e d forms. Some plant species show a higher a f f i n i t y f o r Hg than others, but general conclusions cannot be reached at t h i s stage because frequency of sampling of species were i n s u f f i c i e n t (see Tables A-I to A-XIII). -82-5 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS One of the main objectives of the study was to determine whether or not l e v e l s of c e r t a i n elements i n s o i l s formed from trans-ported materials, could be used as a p r a c t i c a l basis f o r detecting mineralized areas covered by overburden. When the f i e l d observations and laboratory data are considered, i n r e l a t i o n to the known mine r a l i z a -t i o n at the 12 s i t e s studied, i t i s concluded that t h i s has been shown to be possible. However, the study has also demonstrated that s o i l samples must be c a r e f u l l y taken from s p e c i f i c horizons, and that samples taken a r b i t r a r i l y by depth would not be s a t i s f a c t o r y f o r t h i s purpose. For a l l the elements studied the c o r r e l a t i o n s between the amounts present i n the d i f f e r e n t horizons and the bedrock, i t i s concluded that, i n general, the most su i t a b l e horizon to use f o r l o c a -t i n g m i n e r a l i z a t i o n i s the B horizon. The r e s u l t s also show that the C horizon i s quite s a t i s f a c t o r y , e s p e c i a l l y where the s o i l i s f a i r l y shallow, and i n s o i l s where there i s no B horizon, or where i t i s d i f f i c u l t to recognize. In these l a t t e r cases the C horizon should be used. There are exceptions to t h i s general conclusion, and when there i s doubt, p i l o t sampling and a n a l y s i s should be done. This i s -83-true e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of Hg. Use of L-H, Ah, or Ae horizons was shown to give e r r a t i c r e s u l t s . Also, predictions based upon Ae horizons may be i n c o r r e c t because of eluvjgbion of elements and the s u s c e p t i b i l i t y of t h i s horizon to erosion and/or deposition. As would be expected i n s o i l s formed from transported materials, the micro-elemental content of the s o i l s was i n general lower than that of the bedrock i n the mineralized areas. This was r e f l e c t e d i n back-ground values which, with the exception of Hg, were lower i n the s o i l s than the bedrock. In a considerable number of cases, elemental content of s o i l horizons was higher than that of the bedrock. The r e s u l t s suggested that upward migration of elements through g l a c i a l , c o l l u v i a l and a l l u v -i a l materials i s important. This migration can be the r e s u l t of four f a c t o r s . (a) Water table f l u c t u a t i o n s . (b) C a p i l l a r y a c t i o n . (c) Plant a c t i o n ( b i o c y c l i n g ) . (d) D i f f u s i o n of elements and p h y s i c a l mixing. These factors were not studied i n r e l a t i o n to movement of elements, but i t i s believed that t h e i r r e l a t i v e importance v a r i e s considerably i n d i f f e r e n t s o i l s . -84-Dispersion upward in t o s o i l s i s most common i n the case of pathfinder elements (Mo, As, Co and Hg), as these elements are r e l a t i v e l y greater i n amount i n the upper section of the p r o f i l e s than the other elements which have l e s s m o b i l i t y (Figures 5, 9, 10). This suggests that i n transported materials, pathfinder elements can play an important r o l e i n l o c a t i n g areas of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . In the case of upward migra-t i o n of elements i n s o i l s , the pathfinders may act d i f f e r e n t l y , which can be used i n l o c a t i n g the orebodies. For example, the major element can undergo several transformations by d i f f e r e n t reactions, such as p r e c i p i t a t i o n , i n t e r - a c t i o n s , chelation, etc., and never i n d i c a t e anoma-lous amounts. At the same time, the pathfinders may not go through the same processes, or w i l l show completely d i f f e r e n t behavior i n the same environment. For example, copper w i l l p r e c i p i t a t e i n basic media i n lower horizons, while molybdenum's m o b i l i t y w i l l increase; or i n the case of an a c i d i c media, molybdenum can have i n t e r - a c t i o n s with i r o n and thereby lose mobility> while zinc and cobalt may be h i g h l y mobile, or mercury may d i f f u s e through the s o i l without any major d i f f i c u l t i e s . The upward migration of Hg was p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable and i t i s thought that t h i s may have been l a r g e l y the r e s u l t of d i f f u s i o n . In general, background values for the elements i n s o i l s were lower than those suggested f o r bedrock. -85-In t h i s study, consideration was given to the p o s s i b i l i t y of c o r r e l a t i o n between s o i l development and the elemental content of the major horizons; e.g. of the B horizon. However, the range of develop-ment i n the s o i l s studied appeared to be too l i m i t e d , because with the exception of two s o i l s , a l l of them belong to the B r u n i s o l i c order, and therefore d i d not give wide enough range to work with. Also, for t h i s type of c o r r e l a t i o n , each soil-forming f a c t o r should be considered i n the s t a t i s t i c a l treatment and should be s t a t i s t i c a l l y weighed accord-ing to i t s importance i n s o i l development at any p a r t i c u l a r s i t e . I t should be noted, however, that the development of a s o i l p r o f i l e may give the f i r s t clue as to what can be expected from s o i l sampling as an i n d i c a t i o n of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n . The more strongly developed B horizons w i l l normally show much higher accumulations of the elements, as a r e s u l t of greater migration. Sampling and a n a l y s i s of the vegetation at the 12 s i t e s showed that the occurrence of elements i n the vegetation was more c l o s e l y correlated with the amount i n the s o i l s than i t was with amounts i n the bedrock. This substantiates the obvious f a c t that s o i l horizons are the major source of plant n u t r i e n t s , rather than the bedrock. The f a c t that Hg and Pb i n the L-H horizons are h i g h l y correlated with the amounts i n the vegetation (higher than with other -86-horizons), shows the importance of vegetation i n bio-geochemical c y c l i n g , as the main source of Hg and Pb i n these horizons. This l i k e l y occurs by plant residues f a l l i n g on the s o i l surface. A s i m i l a r e f f e c t i s noted i n the case of Zn i n the Ah horizons. This also i n d i c a t e s the general higher a f f i n i t y of plants f o r Hg, Pb and Zn. The r e s u l t s confirmed that elemental content of vegetation varied a great deal with the d i f f e r e n t species studied, and i n d i f f e r e n t environments the uptake by any one species may a l s o vary. However, the r e s u l t s a l s o showed that vegetation can be very u s e f u l i n l o c a t i n g mineralized areas, as none of the mineralized areas included i n the study would have been missed, i f a l l species at each s i t e had been sampled and analysed. The conclusions above i n d i c a t e that elemental d i s t r i b u t i o n s i n transported s o i l and plants growing i n t h i s s o i l , are most dynamic "compexum", and without a complete cross-section study, i n c l u d i n g bed-rock, s o i l s , and plants, the complicated laws which may apply to locate m i n e r a l i z a t i o n w i l l not be understood. The major conclusions are: 1 . The l e v e l s of c e r t a i n elements, i n s o i l s and plants from transported materials ( g l a c i a l , a l l u v i a l , c o l l u v i a l ) , can be used as guides f o r detecting mineralized areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia. -87-2. In. s o i l sampling f o r geochemical prospecting, the most s a t i s f a c t o r y horizon to sample i s generally the B, or i n cases of weaker developed horizons, the C. These horizons give the best c o r r e l a t i o n of element content with bedrock. 3. S o i l development i n transported material includes v e r t i c a l migration of elements. The processes thought to be involved are c a p i l l a r y a c t i o n , water t a b l e f l u c t u a t i o n s , b i o c y c l i n g , and d i f f u s i o n . These pheno-mena make i t possible to use s o i l horizons f o r i n d i c a -t i o n of mineralized bedrock. 4. The stage of s o i l development can always give the f i r s t clue as to what we can expect to f i n d from s o i l sampling as an i n d i c a t o r of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n under trans-ported parent materials. 5. Pathfinders and t h e i r study have greater importance i n s o i l s developed from transported material, than i n s o i l s developed from r e s i d u a l material; since path-finders may not s u f f e r transformations i n the upward movement. 6. Plants are generally good i n d i c a t o r s of m i n e r a l i z a t i o n , but they vary widely i n element content by species -s p e c i a l i n d i c a t o r plants should be sought i n each area. Element content of vegetation correlates with s o i l horizons more than with bedrock. 7. In s o i l s and plants, the r e l a t i o n to bedrock content of the elements was found to be more c o r r e l a t i v e using logarithmic than l i n e a r values. This i s an i n d i c a t i o n of the r e l a t i o n s h i p not being l i n e a r , but logarithmic s i m i l a r l y to the trace element d i s t r i b u t i o n s reported elsewhere. 8. In the transported s o i l s studied, the most c o r r e l a t i v e f a c t o r of element content was found to be Mesh s i z e and pH. -88-6 LITERATURE CITED 1. Abelson, P.H. 1959. Researches i n Geochemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York. 2. Ahrens, L.H., 1954. The Lognormal D i s t r i b u t i o n of the Elements. Geochem. et Cosmochem. Acta. 5: 49-73. 3. Barakso, J . J . 1964. Some pathfinders v e r t i c a l d i s p e r s i o n espec-i a l l y arsenic i n s o i l p r o f i l e s and some plants. Fulfilment of Geol. 524. U.B.C. Unpublished. 4. Byers, A.R. 1956. Geochemical Investigations i n the F l i n Flon Area, Northern Saskatchewan. Can. Min. Journ. A p r i l 1956, p. 83-86. 5. Cairnes, C.E. 1937. Geology and Mineral Deposits of Bridge River Mining Camp, B.C. Geol. Surv. of Can., Mem. 213. 6. Canada, Department of Forestry. 1961. Native Trees of Canada. Queen's Prin t e r & C o n t r o l l e r of Stationery, Ottawa. 7. Carr, J.M. 1960. Geology and Ore Deposits of Craigmont Mines. Annual Report of Minister of Mines, B.C. 8. Cavender, S..W. 1964. Arsenic i n Geochemical Gold Explorations. Annual Meetings of A.I.M., Met. and Petr. Eng. Inc., New York. 9. Clark, J.S. 1950. A Method for the Estimation of Copper i n S o i l s and i t s Applications i n B r i t i s h Columbia. (Master's Thesis, U.B.C). 10. Dolmage, V. 1934. Geology and Ore Deposits of Copper Mountain, B.C. Geol. Surv. of Can., Mem. 171. 11. Dolmage, V. 1924. Chilko Lake and V i c i n i t y . Geol. Surv. of Can., Summary Report 1924, Part A, p. 59. 12. Ermengen, S.V* 1957. Geochemical Prospecting in Chibougamau. Can. Min. Journ. A p r i l 1957, p. 99 - 104. -89-13. Farstad, L and Rowles, C.A. 1960. S o i l s of the C o r d i l l e r a n Region. A g r i c u l t u r a l I n s t i t u t e Review, March-April. 14. Ginzburg, I.I. 1960. P r i n c i p l e s of Geochemical Prospecting. Pergamon Press. 15. Hawkes, H.E. and Webb, J.S. 1962. Geochemistry i n Mineral Exploration. Harper and Row, New York and Evaston. 16. Hawkes, H.E. and W i l l i s t o n , S.H. 1962. Mercury Vapor as a Guide to Lead, Zinc, S i l v e r Deposits. Mining Congress Journal, December. 17. Jackson, M.L. 1958. S o i l Chemical A n a l y s i s . Prentice H a l l Inc., Englewood C l i f f s , N.J. 18. James, C.H. 1964. The Pote n t i a l Role of Mercury i n Modern Geo-chemical Prospecting. Mining Magazine, J u l y 1964. 19. James, C.H. and Webb, J.S. 1964. S e n s i t i v e Mercury Vapour Meter for Use i n Geochemical Prospecting. 20. Jenny, Hans. 1941. Factors of S o i l Formation. McGraw-Hill, New York. 21. Kennco Explorations, (Western) Limited. 1966. Laboratory Pro-cedures. Unpublished. 22. Legget, R.F. 1961. S o i l s i n Canada. The Royal Society of Canada, Sp e c i a l Publications No. 3. 23. Lemaire Instruments. 1963. Instructions f o r Type S-^  Mercury Detector (634). 24. Lyons, C P . 1954. Trees, Shrubs and Flowers to know i n B r i t i s h Columbia. J.M. Dentand Sons (Canada) Ltd., Vancouver. 25. Malyuga, D.P. 1964. Biogeochemical Methods of Prospecting. Consultant Bureau, New York. 26. Mason, B. P r i n c i p l e s of Geochemistry. John Wiley & Sons Inc., New York. 27. Ney, C.S. 1960. McBride Creek, Report of Kennco Explorations, (Western) Limited. -90-28. Norman, A.G. 1957. S o i l Plant Relationships and Plant N u t r i t i o n . Amer. Journ. Botany, Vol. 44 29. Persant, E.W. 1964. Geochemical Study of S o i l P r o f i l e s from the Bathurst N.B. Area, G.S.A. Meeting, Miami, November. 30. Rankama, K. and Sahama, Th.G. 1949. Geochemistry. The Univers-i t y of Chicago Press. 31. Report on the F i f t h Meeting of the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada. Ottawa, 1963. 32. Report on the Sixth Meeting of the National S o i l Survey Committee of Canada, Laval University, Quebec, 1965. 33. Sandell, E.B. 1950. Colorimetric Determination of Traces of Metals. Interscience Publisher, New York. 34. Shaw, D.M. 1960. Element D i s t r i b u t i o n Laws i n Geochemistry. Cosmoch. et Geochem. Acta. I960, p. 116. 35. Sergeyev, Y.A. 1957. Metodology of Mercurometric Investigations. The Geochemical Prospecting of Ore Deposits i n the U.S.SkR-. 36. Smales, A.A. and Wager, L.R. 1960. Methods i n Geochemistry. Interscience Publisher, New York. 37. Stevenson, J.S. 1940. Molybdenum i n B.C., S t e l l a Property. B.C. Department of Mines. B u l l . No. 9. 38. S o i l Survey Manual, U.S. Gov't P r i n t i n g O f f i c e . S o i l s Survey S t a f f . 1951. Agri c u l t u r e , Handbook 18. 39. Tooms, J.S. and Webb, J.S. 1961. Geochemical Prospecting I n v e s t i -gations i n the Northern Rhodesian Copper B e l t . Econ. Geol. Vo l . 56, p. 815-846. 40. Vinogradov, A.P. 1959. The Geochemistry of Rare and Dispersed Chemical Elements i n S o i l s . Consultants Bureau, New York. 41. Warren, H.V. and Delavault, R.E. 1953. Further Studies i n Bio-geochemistry. Geol. Soc. Americ. B u l l . , V o l . 60, p. 539. -91-42. Warren, H.V. and Delavault, R.E. 1957. Biogeochemical Prospect-ing f o r Cobalt. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada. V o l . L l , Series I I I , June 1957. 43. Warren, H.V. and Delavault, R.E. 1959. Pathfinding Elements in Geochemical Prospecting. 44. Warren, H.V. and Delavault, R.E. 1959. Readily Extractable Copper i n Eruptive Rocks as a Guide for Prospecting. Econ. Geol. V o l . 54, No. 7. 45. Warren, H.V. and Delavault, R.E. 1960. Trace Element Variations i n Related Rocks. International Geological Congress. XXI Session, Norden, Part I I . 46. Warren, H.V. 1962. Background Data f o r Biogeochemical Prospect-ing i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, T h i r d Series, V o l . LVI, Section I I I . 47. Warren, H.V., Delavault, R.E. and Barakso, J . J . 1964. The Role of Arsenic as a Pathfinder i n Biogeochemical Prospecting. Econ. Geol. V o l . 59, No. 7. 48. Warren, H.V., Delavault, R.E. and Barakso, J . J . 1966. Some Observations on the Geochemistry of Mercury as Applied to Prospecting^. Econ. Geol., V o l . 61, No. 6. Pseudotsuga menziesii Pinus contorta var.lat. Vaccinum scoparium jVg ppi L-H f(01) Ah Aej 1:10 Bf C IIC IIIC R (Al) (A2) (B) (C) i IIC) (IIIC) (R ) + 1 - 1 - + — I : I •-I : I : I : I : I : l I : I I : : I I : : I I : Pseudotsuga menziesii (?) Pinus contorta var.lot. Vaccinum scoparium L-H; Ah • Aej-Bf /.•JO £icji. Copper 1 1 1 1 _ l I I Cu ppm ^ 1—1 1 $ « IR I _ i 1 1 Mo ppm Zft ppm Pi ppm As ppm Co ppm Nj ppm Hf ppi ft U M a s « » I in 1 1 1 Fig.A-1 Analytical Data for Mc Bride Creek Prospect Fig. A- I - 9 3 -Pinus contorto var.lat P i e ea Engelmanni Empetrum nigrum L-H T (01) Ahe.(AI) • Bfj IIAhbpAlb) IIC Ni ppm. i—i—x— 5 * * ftq ppi $ s $ s -I I 1 O.M. Vo £xcA.MA/s. Pinus contorta var.lat. ( 8 ) Abies l a s i o ca rpa Empetrum nigrum SxcA. Copper Pb ppm I CO PP1" | Mppm I BLEU: Fig.A-2 Analytical Data for Taylor Windfall Prospect F ig . A- 2 1000 1000 10 1000 500 u m 100 -50 in UJ SI z < Ul ID Z o in t— o Q Ul in 0. <° in 3 z z E < a. o u jrio Z U < > in ui < r ^ < Z » U J L O Z >— o o 3 UJ in SI z ,_• (J > in 3 in z 3 Z z Ul O D O Ct UJ «* 3 * tn i-o a 3 UJ w a cc*-o o u > in u > in 3 Z CL < £ I- iJ Z o o > u in 3 Z > X CL o oc Ul < Ul o x 3 in z 3 Ul u < z < z £ i £ — Ul « Z o < > < o r— *• Ct Z O O I— • s ° o > u in 3 Z a Fig . A - 4 Zn Content Relation of  Plants and Soil Horizons Ah Hor izons Zn Content in Relative % to Bedrock i Plants Zn Content in Relative % to Bedrock o B a C 0) > a> or 10 Iz — UJ <-> z o < > in UJ , M < z ID UJ < ° o > u in 3 <-uiZ m ui o z 3 U J m z y— o a 3 Ul < in 5> t - Z in >-x u < a. 3 Z l/)UI 3 C C z Ul Q U O < in ui < Z 19 u l 1,2 3 . 4 5.6 7.8 9.10 11 .12 13 .14 15 .16 17.18 19 .20 21, 22 23,24 1000 500 100 50 10 1000 Fig. A- 5 Hg Content Relation of 10 Plants and Soil Horizons C Horizons Hg Content in Relative % to Bedrock Plants Hg content in Relative % to Bedrock Ah o B cn u is z < LU CD Z 3 cn o a 3 111 cn a. 2 ° i s o > 3 cn ce LU < rsi a. < z o C9 LU o 3 Z z <n in 3 9— Z o Q u 3 u UJ < cn > CL 1 , 2 < o t-»-cc-z o o i—• Z i _ O o o > cn 3 Z cn z 3 Z z o in o ct UJ a. z 3 3 . 4 in LU N <5 in t-LU a 3 Ul in a. a r— «*-c t -o o t-—' z O o (_) > cn 3 Z 5,6 O O I-Z <-O O u * in 3 Z < z a. z < < z o o LU in CD < z _ i < in UJ LU o CD a_ < 7,8 in UJ NI ll cn y— o Q 3 UJ If O — I— i_ o * u in 3 9.10 o z cn UJ co < >-i a. o at LU <U1 O I 3 cn z 3 .LU O < z < II r LU u z u < > 11 ,12 o < £ o 2 i i CJ cn 3 13 , U < z 3 CCI a < o LU \— 1 1 A U A (AC N <z K O a Z ISLU t— • in £ ° O > 3 CD (_) IUS z z o IUS — LU « Z on US o LU z < to < > a. a! 15 ,16 z 3 _ l O LL UI i <-> y z X o < 17,18 <2 cn 2-r— O Q 3 Ul s in > x u 2 19 ,20 3 c n z 3 L U 2" o a. \Z\T 22 LU O CJ O X O ce < < o h- *• EC ^ O O —; u cn 3 tn UJ < N CD Z 3 UJ i n z t-o a 3 in a. 23,24 Analytical Data for McBride Creek Prospect ^ PROFILE No. 1 & 2 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species rhick-less of forizon pH -80 Mesh % C .£.C • m.e/ /100g O.M. % Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg * ppb B- 1 L-H (01) Degraded Acid Brown Wooded 0.8" 5.2 24.7 62.6 60.0 28 1 121 4 214 16 3 2 6 0.15 250 B-2 Ah (Al) Brunisolic s o i l 1.0" 5.1 25.3 93.9 23.5 24 2 176 5 115 10 13 3 5 0.80 250 B- 3 Aej (A2) Developed on 1.7" 5.2 20.4 6.1 3.6 20 12 224 6 115 8 5 2 8 0.20 200 B- 4 Bf (B ) colluvial deposits 7.0" 5.4 27.0 4.3 0.4 14 16 588 7 90 7 17 4 5 1.50 108 B- 5 C (C ) with a buried B and 4.6" 5.3 26.0 6.1 0.9 20 28 422 10 70 1 37 4 4 2.00 175 B- 6 II-C(B ) C horizon. 1.9" 5.5 33.2 4.3 1.6 40 32 1650 3 70 2 22 3.5 5 1.50 800 B- 7 rii-r,(c ) 8.7" 5.4 25.8 4.3 0.3 40 36 530 9 50 2 37 4 6 2.00 150 B- 7A R 24.0" 900 6 470 42 26 6 4 3.0 83» 400 1 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) 97.25 200 1 173 52 500 8 12 0.60 2 Pinus contorta var. l a t i f o (Lodgepole Pine) Lia 95.2 404 8 935 21 5 15 6P 0,30 250 3 Vaccinium scoparium (Red Alpine Blueberry) 89.1 _ _ 101 3 763 58 23 5 30 0.60 200 B- 8 L-H (01) Degraded Acid Brown Wooded 0.8" 5.0 26.4 52.1 59.3 12 0 41 4 69 16 2 3.5 4 0.50 150 B- 9 Ah (Al) Brunisolic s o i l 1.2" 5.1 32.3 34.8 9.4 8 1 95 4 136 4 11 5 6 1.50 550 B-10 Aej (A2) Developed on 1.8" 4.7 25.8 7.8 4.1 6 2 69 4 130 8 5 4 5 1.50 125 B - l l ' Bf (B ) colluvial deposits 6.0" 5.4 27.9 6.1 0.8 4 0 236 4 100 4 13 4 7 1.50 150 B-12 C (C ) without buried horizons. 8.0" 5.6 23.0 2.6 0.2 4 0 178 5 28 1 35 3.5 4 1.50 125 B-12A 8 17.0" _ _ _ 784 5 96 10 26 6 9 2.70 75 4 5 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) _ _ _ 95.2 _ _ 204 1 546 60 400 4 15 0.50 150 Pinus contorta v a r . l a t i f o j (Lodgepole Pine) i a 97.3 189 3 1243 100 3 7 SO 0.60 450 6 Vaccinium scoparium (Red Alpine Blueberry) — _ _ 89.3 - - 229 6 502 50 27 6 30 0.40 200 * Plants are ppm in ash, except mercury ppb in oven dry plants. TABLE A - l Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species Thick-ness of Horizo i pH -80 Mesh % C •£ aC a m.e/ /100g O.M. % Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb B-13 L-H (01) <3> Gleyed Graywooded 1.5" 6.1 35.3 38.3 6.3 16 1 86 0 68 2 0 2 6 2.00 150 B-14 Ah (Al) Podzolic Soil 3.5" 5.2 33.0 8.7 0.4 4 0 46 1 40 1 0 3 8 2.00 75 B-l 5 Aeg (A2) Developed from 23.0" 5.5 36.2 6.9 0.3 2 0 64 0 46 0 0 2 5 4.00 100 B-l 6 II-Btg (B) Glacial Drift 11.0" 6.1 16.9 18.2 0.2 20 20 240 1 90 2 1 4 8 4.00 1400 B-17 II-C(C) 35.5" 6.5 16.9 19.9 0.7 28 36 396 1 35 0 2 3 S 4.00 125 B-18 R. 75.0" - - - - - - 432 3 195 1 5 7 6 4.00 95 7 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) 95.5 825 2 700 66 15 14 30 2.00 200 8 Pinus contorta v a r . l a t i f o l (Lodgepole Pine) a _ _ _ 96.5 248 2 1470 84 0 20 30 4.00 150 9 Juniperus communis (Dwarf Juniper) 93.7 1264 50 816 41 2 10 37 3.00 250 10 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinnikinnick) — _ _ _ 95.0 - - 966 12 960 54 1 6 27 0.90 200 B-l 9 L-H (01) ^ Gleyed Graywooded 1.7" 6.7 43.0 64.3 11.3 24 20 477 2 50 5 0 5 5 3.00 125 B-20 (U\ (Al) Podzolic S o i l - a lot 4.3" 6.6 32.4 17.4 3.3 20 8 142 2 47 0 0 6 8 4.00 1350 B-21 Aegj (A2) thinner gley zone 9.2" 6.5 28.4 16.5 0.8 16 12 137 0 39 0 0 8 9 4.00 62 B-22 II-Btgj (B) in p r o f i l e . 22.5" 8.1 14.6 26.9 3.2 30 28 342 0 50 0 1 11 9 3.00 100 B-23 II-3k (C) 38.0" 8.7 17.4 8.6 0.1 28 42 391 0 28 1 2 9 11 5.00 120 B-24 11 R. 74.0" _ _ _ 412 2 150 1 2 7 9 5.00 100 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) _ 96.4 850 6 580 100 12 10 20 2.00 100 12 Pinus ponderosa (Pondersoa Pine) 96.4 750 6 832 113 1 12 60 1.50 150 13 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinnikinniok) 96.0 _ 744 25 930 60 1 14 40 2.00 200 TABLE A-2 Analyt i c a l Data for COPPER MOUNTAIN MINES PROFILE No. 5 & 6 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species Thick-ness of forizon PH -80 Mesh % ii. e./ /100g O.M. X Exch. Heavy Petals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb £-25 L-H (01) Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 1.5" 5.2 49.9 139.1 22.6 32 28 608 2 40 10 1 6 7 1.00 200 B-26 Ah (Al) Brunisolic S o i l 2.0" 5.9 55.2 59.1 24.3 28 20 304 2 50 2 0 4 6 2.00 170 B-27 Bfj (B ) Developed from mixture 9.0" 5.7 42.1 26.1 1.8 36 2 362 0 75 3 1 3 8 3.00 100 B-28 C (C ) of colluvial and 27.5" 6.1 32.3 18.2 1.0 4 46 966 2 40 1 3 9 9 4.00 50 B-29 R residual materials. 35.5" _ _ — _ _ _ 934 2 410 1 5 8 9 3.00 50 14 Pseudotsuga menziezii (Douglas Fir) _ 96.0 188 3 503 75 15 9 22 0.30 100 B-30 L-H (01) Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 1.0" 5.2 43.0 187.8 37.3 28 28 568 2 100 16 0 6 9 1.00 225 B-31 Ah (Al) Brunosolic S o i l 1.5" 5.9 56.4 53.5 10.8 36 28 312 1 240 4 0 8 8 4.00 125 B-32 Bfj (B ) Developed same as #5 5.0" 6.3 42.1 28.7 1.2 12 12 553 3 100 4 2 7 9 4.0C 50 B-33 C (C ) 14.5* 6.2 35.1 26.1 1.2 36 50 1028 2 70 0 3 7 7 4.00 100 B-34 R 21.0" _ . _ 762 1 300 1 4 7 12 4.00 100 15 Pinus contorta var. l a t i f c (Lodgepole Pine) l i a 97.7 409 5 1927 172 1 10 . 40 0.60 200 16 Pseudotsuga menziezii (Douglas Fir) _ mm _ 95.8 193 3 400 69 19 8 31 0.40 100 TABLE A-3 Analytical Data for TAYLOR WINDFALL PROSPECT PROFILE No. 7 & 8 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Names of Species Thick-iess-of iorizon pH -80 Mesh % 0 «£ «C < m.e/ /100g O.M. 1. Exch. Heavy Metala ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo -ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb B-35 L-H (01) Degraded Acid Brown Woodec 1.5" 4.8 27.1 86.9 38.6 8 4 33 8 57 6 3 4 6 6.00 100 B-36 Ahe (Al) s o i l . Developed from 5.5" 5.0 22.6 15.6 2.1 4 4 19 5 57 4 0 5 6 1.50 150 B-37 Bf (B ) al l u v i a l deposition and 15.5" 5.1 17.0 15.6 3.7 10 6 453 51 100 2 20 8 8 3.00 50 B-39 II Ahb(Alb) collubial material in 2.0" 5.2 21.3 32.1 4.2 4 4 402 84 45 7 15 6 9 3.00 50 B-38 II C (C ) places. 16.0" 5.1 30.3 19.1 1.1 6 8 606 36 115 5 9 11 9 3.00 150 B-40 R 37.0" _ — 1308 149 240 10 6 6 14 1.50 75 17 Pinus contorta var. l a t i f o (Lodaepole Pine) l i a 97.5 168 96 960 48 9 18 120 0.30 100 18 Picea Engelmanni (Engelmann Spruce) 95.9 115 29 274 36 15 7 45 0.15 150 19 Empertum nigrum (Crowberrv) _ _ _ 92.3 _ _ 497 194 220 58 13 21 50 1.00 500 B-41 L-H (01) Degraded Acid Brown Woodec 1.2" 4.1 25.1 163.4 54.6 16 2 89 36 61 8 1 2 4 0.15 112 B-42 Ah (Al) s o i l . Developed from 2.3" 4.3 30.0 31.3 8.3 8 2 109 32 77 4 0 2 5 1.50 300 B-43 Bfh (B ) al l u v i a l deposition. 15.2" 5.0 25.0 30.4 7.6 20 14 1216 62 70 10 9 3 12 3.00 133 B-44 II C (C ) 13.5" 5.0 33.2 12.1 1.0 20 14 1304 33 80 23 19 4 13 3.00 125 B-45 R 31.0" 3810 59 180 8 7 3 13 1.50 80 20 21 Pinus contorta var. l a t i f i (Lodgepole Pine) >lia _ 97,8 _ 235 235 1104 110 5 15 50 0.40 350 Abies lasiocarpa (Alpine Fir) 96.2 179 437 780 62 4 14 18 0.15 250 22 Empertum nigrum (Crowberry) _ — _ 93.1 _ 379 408 504 43 9 20 65 1.50 250 TABLE A-k Sample No. horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species Thick-ness of Horizoi pH -80 Mesh 7. C.E.C m.e/ /100g O.M. % Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg PPb B-46 L=H (01) © Orthic Acid Brown Forest 1.0" 4.1 28.4 168.7 60.7 12 2 90 78 77 12 2 3 3 0.30 125 B-47 <Ui (Al) s o i l Developed from granodioriti >. 1.5" 4.3 25.3 36.5 21.5 10 4 360 62 140 3 16 2 6 3.00 150 B-48 3fh (B ) modified residual s o i l 7.5" 6.1 20.4 37.4 6.7 140 140 3660 295 190 4 185 3 12 4.00 125 B-49 C (C ) mixed with some coll u v i a l debris on places 10.0" 6.0 24.0 25.2 2.4 90 100 1590 82 320 8 100 4 8 2.00 100 B-50 R 19.0" 1900 70 190 3 235 2 8 1.50 75 23 Pinus contorta var. lati f o ! (Lodgepole Pine) i a 96.7 171 80 1620 99 12 25 68 0.75 250 24 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) 95.6 _ 117 200 476 83 470 7 30 0.50 150 • N. B-51 L-H (01) Orthic Acid Brown Forest 2.0" 4.1 26.5 173.9 43.5 12 1 90 64 66 9 6. 1 8 0.50 150 B-52 Ah (Al! s o i l modified residual s o i l 3.0" 4.4 33.2 52.2 10.8 10 2 196 55 115 3 14 2 5 3.00 100 B-53 Bf (B ) on granodicrite. 8.0" 5.9 25.8 36.5 2.1 100 100 2170 71 170 0 100 2 3 4.00 50 B-54 C (C ; 11.0" 5.8 19.9 30.4 2.1 100 100 1408 54 100 0 45 1 3 1.50 100 B-55 R 22.0" _ _ _ — 4750 44 84 4 275 3 8 4.00 50 25 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) _ _ 95.3 _ - 126 183 397 107 280 4 20 6.00 250 26 Pinus contorta var. latifoi (Lodgepole Pine) .ia 97.1 _ 173 428 1101 92 9 20 63 5.00 300 TABLE A-5 Analytical Data for PACIFIC NICKEL MINES Profile No. 11 & 12 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Names of Species Thick-ness of Horizor PH -80 Mesh 7. C.E.C m.e/ /100g O.M. 7. Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Exch, Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb B-56 L-H (Oi; ^-Orthic concretionary 3.5" 3.5 18.9 253.8 62.1 2 1 78 2 50 24 0 6 17 0.50 150 B-57 Ah (Ai; brown s o i l . Developed 2.0" 3.6 25.1 135.6 18.5 4 1 44 0 52 4 6 6 82 3.00 175 B-58 Aej (A2; on co l l u v i a l deposits 1.5" 4.1 22.5 49.5 2.6 2 8 16 0 54 4 2 5 57 4.00 125 B-59 Bfoc(B ) from mountain sides 19.5" 4.8 17.1 70.4 5.4 1 1 80 1 126 4 19 9 144 4.00 150 B-60 C (C ) ultrabasic rocks. 30.0'' 4.8 12.7 25.2 0.4 0 0 178 1 175 0 8 19 750 8.00 75 B-61 R 53.0" _ 430 3 195 1 13 47 420 8.00 100 27 Abies montana (Alpine Fir) - - - - 96.6 - - 30 0 102 29 15 40 300 2.0 150 28 Vaccinium membraneceum (Black Mountain Huckleberry) _ _ — 97.1 _ 40 0 343 106 9 37 449 1.5 250 29 Tsuga heterophylla (Western Hemlock) _ _ _ _ 98.8 — _ 166 0 324 66 3 60 274 1.0 100 B-62 L-H (01) Orthic concretionary 4.2" 3.4 14.9 188.6 65.5 2 0 18 0 55 17 0 1 9 0.10 150 B-63 Ah (Al) brown s o i l . Developed 3.5" 3.4 22.6 96.1 62.1 2 0 15 0 30 5 0 1 18 0.10 125 B-64 Aej (A2) on co l l u v i a l deposits. 4.5" 3.8 21.7 30.8 4.0 2 0 23 0 51 8 2 4 39 3.00 100 B-65 • Bfco (B ) Same as #11 16.0" 4.6 20.7 42.6 4.5 2 1 135 1 98 2 14 8 220 5.00 125 B-66 ... B-67 C (C ) 33.0" 4.9 17.7 32.1 0.8 1 0 190 1 112 1 10 19 450 8.0 125 R 59.0" _ _ 500 3 275 1 7 67 1280 8.0 100 30__. 31 Abies montana (Alpine Fir) _ _ 97.0 109 0 604 89 3 61 317 2.0 130 Tsuga heterophylla (Western Hemlock) _ _ _ _ 97.2 _ _ 84 0 315 119 4 14 336 1.50 250 32 Vaccinium membraneceum (Black Mountain Huckleberry ) - - - - 98.7 - - 30 0 280 170 11 16 150 0.5 275 TABLE A-6 Analytical Data for SKEENA SILVER PROPERTY - HIGHLAND VALLEY Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species Thick-ness of horizon PH -80 Mesh % C E .C m.e/ /100g O.M. % Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Excha. Dopper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm (Do ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb B-68 L-H (01) ^Degraded Brown Wooded 1.5" 5.9 20.5 14.4 34.2 160 120 572 3 115 9 0 3 7 1.0 125 B-69 Ah (Al) s o i l developed on 3.0" 6.0 23.8 12.8 9.4 40 36 354 2 170 10 0 4 8 1.5 250 B-70 Aej (A2) gl a c i a l t i l l setting 9.0" 5.7 20.4 5.4 0.3 6 0 318 1 215 8 1 8 20 2.00 250 B-71 Bm (B ) on Skeena granodiorite 13.0" 6.3 8.4 4.9 0.4 16 12 416 6 35 4 3 4 9 4.00 150 B-72 C (C ) 25.0" 6.8 29.1 10.6 0.4 160 140 680 1 95 2 2 6 15 2.0 100 B-73 R 52.0" _ 700 2 390 2 2 4 8 2.0 125 33 Pinus contorta var. l a t i f (Lodgepole Pine) olia 96.5 311 34 1646 84 5 6 18 0.3 200 34 Salix caudata (Whiplash Willow) 92.8 109 16 780 8 7 8 12 0.5 250 B-74 L-H (01) ^ Degraded Brown Wooded 2.0" 5.2 28.0 53.9 31.7 20 0 130 10 128 10 0 3 3 2.0 150 B-75 Ah (Al) s o i l . Same as 2.0" 5.9 22.8 13.6 3.3 20 0 92 5 144 7 1 4 8 1.0 125 B-76 Aej (A2) #13. 9.0" 6.0 33.3 9.6 0.8 16 8 160 1 121 8 2 5 10 2.0 81 B-77 Bm (B ) 11.0" 6.3 12.6 11.7 0.5 120 160 766 4 115 1 4 3 6 2.0 100 Bw78 C (C ) 19.0" 6.6 14.7 11.6 0.5 160 160 786 2 95 4 6 3 7 1.5 i U u B-79 R 43.0" 800 2 200 3 3 3 8 2.0 125 35 Pinus contorts, var. l a t i f (LodaeDole Pine) o l i a 97.3 184 11 1760 119 4 6 23 0.2 400 36 Alnus sinuata (Sitka Alder) 94.1 216 77 854 43 9 6 20 0.1 1250 37 Salix caudata (Whiplash Willow) - - - - 91.1 — _ 112 20 277 23 3 12 21 0.4 200 TABLE A. -7 Analytical Data for GALORE CREEK PROSPECT PROFILE No. 15 & 16 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species Thick-ness of horizon pH -80 Mesh 7. C.E.C m.e/ /100g Q.M. % Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb B-80 L-H (01) ^ O r t h i c Acid Brown Wooded 3,0" 4,9 22.7 53.9 25.7 40 32 384 3 175 24 6 4 20 0.9 200 B-81 Ah (Al) s o i l . Developed on 2.1" 5.0 42.5 36.5 6.4 60 40 375 3 115 20 10 15 60 3.0 125 B-82 Bfj (B ) glacial t i l l with 13.9" 5.8 38.5 12.2 0.8 60 60 500 3 195 25 8 15 80 3.0 350 B-83 C (C ) underlying bedrock of 12.0" 6.4 23.2 18.8 0.4 120 100 2339 3 520 25 16 20 70 4.0 200 B-84 R syenite porph. intrus. 27.0" _ » 27000 2 420 13 80 60 24 3.0 70 38 Abies lasiocarpa (Mountain Fir) __ _ 96.9 _ 260 2 3534 65 3 10 167 0.5 250 39 Alnus sinuata (Scrab Alder) _ — _ _ 98.1 _ 612 109 1224 153 7 43 398 0.2 280 B-85 L-H (01) ^ D r t h i c Acid Brown Wooded 2.0" 4.2 36.3 60.8 36.4 36 20 310 6 160 32 3 7 7 4.0 275 B-86 Ah (Al) s o i l . Same as 3.5" 4.3 42.4 45.2 12.7 40 20 180 9 100 35 5 7 40 3.0 250 B-87 Bfj (B ) #15. 9.5" 5.0 24.5 11.3 1.2 40 36 462 4 280 24 8 20 60 4.0 125 B-88 C (C ) 36.0" 6.7 37.5 10.8 0.4 40 44 398 2 220 16 10 20 150 3.0 100 B-89 R 49.0" 40500 2 70 11 60 120 2.0 65 40 Abies lasiocarpa (Mountain Fir) _ _ 96.7 "400 19 1079 102 4 21 170 0.6 250 41 Vaccinium membraneaeum (Black Mountain Huckleberry) _ 93.7 558 72 666 117 11 8 117 0.2 250 * TABLE A-8 Analytical Data for PIONEER MINES ^ . PROFILE No. 17 & 18 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Names of Species Thick-ness of Horizon pH -80 Mesh % C.E.C m.e/ /100g O.M. % Exch. Seavy Metals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppb Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb B-90 L-H (oi; ^bark Gray Wooded 2.5" 6.5 44.4 79.1 28.4 12 0 57 0 85 13 19 60 15 0.6 225 B-91 Ah (Al] Podzolic s o i l , developed 4.3" 6.8 30.2 27.8 7.2 6 0 31 1 57 7 12 8 7 1.0 100 B-92 Aej (A2) from glacial d r i f t . 11.2" 6.8 49.7 10.9 0.8 4 0 17 0 55 .4 21 7 40 2.0 100 B-93 Bt (B ) Bedrock augite diorite. 18.3" 6.6 24.4 13.9 0.4 6 4 79 3 77 4 270 20 60 3.0 100 B-94 C (C ) 31.0" 6.6 22.4 13.4 0.8 8 8 83 0 92 4 65 20 150 3.0 250 B-95 R 65.0" 400 12 114 4 170 60 40 4.0 150 42 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) - - - - 96.4 - - 113 2 948 138 1250 9 73 0.4 200 43 Pinus contorta var. l a t i i (Lodgepole Pine) o l i a 97.7 _ _ 290 5 1789 164 19 8 69 0.3 250 B-96 L-H (01) (18) Dark Gray Wooded 3.7" 6.6 33.9 48.7 18.5 60 0 45 0 155 15 110 5 30 1.0 200 B-97 Ah (Al) Podzolic s o i l . 3.5" 7.0 40.5 34.8 5.8 24 0 34 0 104 4 40 8 50 1.5 125 B-98 Aej (A2) Same as #17 9.0" 6.8 43.2 7.3 0.3 2 0 17 0 65 3 23 9 40 3.0 50 B-99 Btf (B ) 19.5" 6.8 41.5 20.8 0.8 12 12 119 3 104 2 400 15 90 4.0 75 B-100 C (C) 27.0" 6.8 32.3 12.9 0.7 4 6 102 0 134 1 175 15 100 4.0 200 B-101 R 59.0" 116 1 139 4 2000 20 40 3.0 100 44 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) _ _ 96.0 _ 90 3 443 263 3500 9 53 0.3 200 45 Achillea millefolium (Yarrow) _ - 91.9 - - 101 25 194 36 15 5 29 0.1 1250 TABLE A-9 Analytical Data for BRALORNE MINES _ _ _ _ _ PROFILE No. 19 & 20 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type to Name of Species Thick-ness of iorizon pH -80 Mesh % C.E.C m.e/ /100g 0_i. % Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ' ppb B-102 L-H (01) Orthic Brown Forest 2.7" 6.6 30.6 42.5 14.9 16 0 34 0 112 4 12 7 60 1.5 100 B-l 03 Ah (Al) s o i l developed from 5.2" 6.7 49.6 14.3 4.1 8 0 45 0 135 1 10 10 60 2.0 100 B-l 04 Bf (B ) gla c i a l d r i f t s on augite 11.9" 6.8 46.2 9.9 1.8 2 0 31 6 139 1 18 15 30 2.0 92 B-105 C (C ) diorite with gold-guartz 45.9" 6.7 25.7 13.1 1.6 4 4 90 1 100 2 155 20 90 4.0 200 B-l 06 R fissure veins. 63.0" 45 1 69 1 30 19 19 3.5 110 46 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (Kinnikinnick) 91.9 104 15 1296 36 22 4 14 0.4 300 47 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) _ _ - - 98.1 - - 352 1 414 45 200 5 72 0.5 200 B-107 L-H (01) ^ O r t h i c Brown Forest 4.5" 6.7 41.4 70.4 24.3 36 0 37 0 152 7 8 5 30 0.8 68 B-108 Ah (Al) s o i l , developed from 4.0" 6.7 49.7 43.5 7.5 24 0 •32 1 104 4 8 15 50 2.0 62 B-109 Bf (B ) glacial d r i f t . 7.0" 6.5 36.1 10.9 0.9 2 0 40 0 98 4 20 15 50 3.0 125 B-110 C (C ) 23.0" 6.3 30.9 17.4 1.7 4 2 42 1 100 2 85 15 90 3.0 50 B - l l l R 34.0" 93 1 69 1 700 19 23 3.0 50 48 49 Pachystima myrsinites (False Box) _ _ 91.7 _ 137 22 270 32 200 5 25 1.0 350 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) _ _ _ 97.6 _ - 80 3 465 42 400 6 30 0.3 200 — - -TABLE A-10 Analytical Data for ENDAKO MINES PROFILE No. 2 1 & 2 2 Sample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species Thick-ness of Horizo i pH -80 Mesh % C.E.C m.e/ /100g O.M % Exch. Heavy Metals ppm Exch, Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb B-112 L-H (01) *Si)egraded Brown Forest 2.5" 6.8 29.9 75.6 26.5 40 0 18 56 173 9 0 3 5 0.3 250 B-113 Ahj (Al) so i l developed 7.8" 6.9 39.4 50.4 11.3 8 0 19 48 80 8 0 3 4 0 .9 100 B-114 Aej (A2) from glacial d r i f t s 1.1" 6.7 29.2 8.9 1.8 2 0 6 20 53 6 1 3 6 1.5 75 B-115 Bfj (B ) on the Topley 14.1" 6.5 25.7 7.3 0.7 0 0 25 65 88 6 2 4 9 2.0 50 B-116 [I-C (C ) Granite. 41.0" 6.7 12.9 6.8 0.8 0 0 44 229 67 8 2 3 5 2.0 75 B-117 R 64.0" _ . _ 28 176 290 1 1 7 3 2 . 1 60 50 Populus tremuloides (Trembling Aspen) 91.5 _ 215 373 1373 33 4 4 14 0.4 600 B-118 L-H (01 i Degraded Brown Forest 3.7" 7.2 22.4 53.0 20.1 20 0 40 230 382 6 1 2 3 0.7 275 B-119 Aej (Al) s o i l . Same as 4.5" 6.4 22.4 52.1 9.1 20 0 39 253 432 1 1 4 4 1.5 75 B-120 II-Bfj (B) #21 4.4" 6.3 9.2 27.8 3.5 8 0 21 315 212 4 X 6 8 3.0 75 B-121 II-C (C) 18.1" 6.2 6.4 21.7 1.5 2 0 30 437 174 2 1 5 7 3.0 75 B-122D R 27.0" _ 37 288 250 4 2 3 4 2.7 58 51 Populus tremuloides (Trembling Aspen) _ _ 90.3 _ _ 90 240 1290 24 3 5 13 0.2 350 J TABLE A-.-11 i c a l Data for CARMI PROSPECT _ _ _ _ _ _ PROFILE No. 23 & 24 ; ample No. Horizon S o i l Type or Name of Species Thick-ness of iorizon PH -80 Mesh % C.E.C m.e/ /100g O.M. % ixch. teavy Petals ppm Exch. Copper ppm Cu ppm Mo ppm Zn ppm Pb ppm As ppm Co ppm Ni ppm Fe p/o Hg ppb p-123 L-H (01) Orthic Acid Brown Wooded 3.7" 5.2 39.2 114.7 28.7 2a- 0 28 21 105 41 1 2 4 0.3 125 B-124 Ah (Al) s o i l developed from 1.5" 5.4 49.2 38.2 9.1 28 0 7 6 138 18 1 3 6 1.0 75 B-125 Bf (B ) glacia l t i l l on grano- 11,7" 6.2 60.6 25.2 1.7 4 0 34 4 176 8 1 5 10 2.0 50 B-126 II-C (C ) diorite gneiss. 45. C" 6.2 35.9 6.4 0.3 4 2 27 2 62 6 1 6 6 3.0 50 52 Larix occidentalis (Western Larch) 96.9 _ 221 19 1152 125 2 4 24 0.15 150 53 Pinus contorta var. l a t i f (Lodoepole Pine) ;1; a _ _ 97.8 276 41 2305 193 1 6 43 0.5 250 B-127 L-H (01) Orthic Acid Brown 5.5" 5.3 24.8 78.2 25.4 40 0 28 58 208 20 1 2 3 0.9 100 B-128 Ah (Al) Wooded s o i l developed 2.5" 5.7 57.2 35.6 3.2 28 0 28 83 204 16 1 4 4 1.5 50 B-129 Bf (B ) from two different 20.5" 6.4 48.8 37.4 0.4 4 0 40 23 147 6 1 6 8 3.0 200 B-130 II-C (C ) layers of glacia t i l l s 42.0" 6.0 34.5 7.6 0.1 20 8 64 8 80 9 1 5 7 3.0 50 B-131 R on granodiorite gneiss. 65.0" _ _ _ _ • _ _ 71 248 70 4 1 8 9 2.0 50 54 Larix occidentalis (Western Larch) 96.5 277 34 874 126 2 12 30 0.5 200 55 Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas Fir) mm 95.7 117 35 725 110 7 14 45 0.2 300 TABLE A-12 TABLE A-13: Elemental Correlations of S o i l Horizons and Plants ^o^^ro^_J^ss\s^ng^IA^ar D i s t r i b u t i o n s ) Single - Correlation C o e f f i c i e n t - P a r t i a l Element L-H Ah B C & II-C Plants L-H Ah B C & II-C Plants Cu 0.25 0.34 0.06 0.37 .31 -0.26 0.27 -0.32 0.18 0.32 Mo 0.80** 0.82** 0.61** 0 . 7 6 * * 0.53** -0.59** 0.65** 0.41* 0.26 0.59** Zn 0.18 0.02 0.01 0.29 0.32 0.24 -0.15 - 0 . 2 3 0.23 0.13 Pb 0 . 6 0 * * 0.78*-* 0.67** 0.36 0.06 0.04 0.48* 0.25 -0.33 -0.18 As 0 . 9 4 * * 0.85** 0.79 0 . 7 2 * * 0.94* 0.21 0.14 -0.39 0.06 0 . 4 2 * Co 0.43* 0.33 0 . 7 1 * * 0.86** 0.58**- 0.28 - 0 . 2 9 0.21 0.45* 0 . 5 5 * * Ni 0.01 0.25 0.89** 0.77** 0 . 7 0 * * 0.26 - 0 . 6 5 * * 0.80** 0.45* 0.17 Fe -0.16 0.10 0.43* 0.85** 0.37 -0.41* -0.17 -0.32 0 . 9 2 * * 0.71** Hg -0.11 0.09 0.07 0.38 0.05 0.09 0.08 0.04 0.36 0.03 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104407/manifest

Comment

Related Items