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A case for the Danish element in Northern American Woods, Howard Bruce 1969

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A CASE FOR THE DANISH ELEMENT IN NORTHERN AMERICAN by HOWARD BRUCE WOODS B. Sc:. Miami U n i v e r s i t y (Ohio) , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n o f L i n g u i s t i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1969 In presenting th is thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t ion of th is thesis for f i n anc i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of C l a s s i c s D i v i s i o n o f L i n g u i s t i c s The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l 30, 1969 1 1 ABSTRACT L e s s t h a n f o u r decades ago i t was t h o u g h t t h a t t h e r e was no s u b s t r a t u m i n f l u e n c e on t h e E n g l i s h l anguage spoken i n A m e r i c a . I t had been n o t e d t h a t t h e I n d i a n s gave a few words t o E n g l i s h and t h a t t h e r e were s m a l l " p o c k e t " c o l o n i e s formed by t h e Germans i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n P e n n s y l v a n i a , t he F r e n c h i n s o u t h - e a s t e r n L o u i s i a n a , t h e S p a n i a r d s i n t h e S o u t h w e s t , and e t h n i c g roups i n t h e l a r g e c i t i e s . ^ " O n l y more r e c e n t l y have s c h o l a r s begun t o see t h e i m p o r t a n t r o l e t h a t t h e s p e a k e r s o f c o n t i n e n t a l German ic l anguages have had i n f o r m i n g t h e s p e e c h p a t t e r n s o f A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h . More t h a n f i f t e e n m i l l i o n i m m i g r a n t s whose mother tongue was a German ic l anguage o t h e r t h a n . E n g l i s h have s e t t l e d i n what i s now t h e N o r t h A m e r i c a n M i d -l a n d , N o r t h e r n , and C a n a d i a n d i a l e c t a l r e g i o n s . These i m m i g r a n t s and t h e i r many o f f s p r i n g formed t h e major l i n g u i s t i c g roup f o r many towns and v a s t r u r a l a r e a s and were s econd t o t h e E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g g roup i n most o t h e r c i t i e s and a r e a s . Much r e s e a r c h has a l r e a d y been done on t h e German l i n g u i s -t i c i n f l u e n c e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a and t h e r e s u l t s a r e g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d by l i n g u i s t s t o d a y . T h i s t h e s i s w i l l c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n e l e m e n t w h i c h has been s o r e l y n e g l e c t e d t o t h i s d a t e . ^"This v i e w p o i n t i s s t a t e d by E . C . H i l l s i n " L i n g u i s t i c S u b s t r a t u m o f A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h , " A m e r i c a n S p e e c h , 4 . 3 1 - 3 3 ( 1 9 2 9 ) . i i i The methods used have been many. The f i r s t method was much of the nature of c o l l e c t i n g c u r i o s i t y items: during my two years as an English teacher and tra n s l a t o r i n Denmark, I c o l l e c t e d those items which seemed common to Danish and North 2 American. Later, sources concerning Germanic language influence i n America were consulted. In addition, a study of the North American and B r i t i s h d i a l e c t s was made. I t should also be noted that continual contact with the Danish-Canadians i n Vancouver was maintained."^ The mixing and interference of Danish and English here must be clo s e l y reminiscent of the lan-guage contact and interference i n Minnesota one century ago. The problem involved was mainly that of separation of i d e n t i t y . An item might have found i t s source i n German, Dutch, Yiddish, or an English d i a l e c t i f not i n a combination of any of the above. A further separation d i f f i c u l t y comes from the close h i s t o r i c a l a f f i l i a t i o n of Danish and English and the previous mixing of Danish into English during the Viking era. There are minor influences from Danish i n Northern American English phonology, morphology (mainly word-compounding), and syntax (with such cases as the a t t r i b u t i v e noun). The 2 There was a p r a c t i c a l reason for such a c o l l e c t i o n . The Danes expected to be taught a very conservative B r i t i s h English; therefore i t was advantageous i f not absolutely necessary -for me to know those Scandinavian and Germanic items that were acceptable i n Northern American but that had been beaten out of every Danish school-child's English. 3 My wife i s Danish. i v c h i e f c o n t r i b u t i o n s can be "found i n i d i o m a t i c e x p r e s s i o n s formed from l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n s , l o a n s h i f t s , and l o a n c r e a t i o n s Word frequency i s a l s o a f f e c t e d by the Scandinavian substratum as are p e r s o n a l names and place-names. V TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS • . • V CHAPTER I . HISTORICAL BACKGROUND. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I . PHONOLOGY 10 I I I . MORPHOLOGY . 20 IV. SYNTAX 33 V. IDIOMS AND L E X I C A L ITEMS CLASSED AS AMERICANISMS WITH THEIR PROBABLE DANISH PROTOTYPES. . . . 44 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY WITH ABBREVIATIONS . . . 44 IDIOMS AND LEXICAL ITEMS 46 V I . WORD FREQUENCY 97 V I I . LOANWORDS 102 V I I I . PERSONAL NAMES AND PLACE-NAMES 109 IX. SUMMARY-CONCLUSION 118 BIBLIOGRAPHY. " 121. APPENDIX A - STAT I S T I C S 128 APPENDIX B - MAP 131 CHAPTER I HISTORICAL BACKGROUND More than three m i l l i o n Scandinavians have by nov; immigrated to North America. With them they brought t h e i r customs, t r a d i t i o n s , b e l i e f s , aspirations, and t h e i r languages. These languages were not to receive the status of an o f f i c i a l language of any area,* and generally speaking they have f a l l e n into disuse. But, although these languages receded rather r a p i d l y , three m i l l i o n b i l i n g u a l people and t h e i r many descendants created an area of language contact and i n t e r -ference wherein took place the second mixing of Scandinavian into English. The f i r s t mixing of Scandinavian into English took place from the ninth to the twelfth centuries on the east coast of Great B r i t a i n . The Viking raids and invasions, the subsequent reign of the Danish kings, and the f i n a l a ssimilation of the Scandinavians i n the Danelaw resulted i n a very thorough and 2 intimate mixing. This i n i t i a l mixing of the two languages, English and Scandinavian, i s c r u c i a l to the present topic because old Scandinavianisms often cannot be separated from new Scandinavianisms. A Scandinavian item o r i g i n a l l y One exception was i n the Colony of New Sweden where Swedish was the o f f i c i a l language from 1637 to 1655, further see page 3. 2 Even a closed word class was affected; compare our present day pronouns they, t h e i r , them. introduced into the Old English d i a l e c t s and l a t e r recorded i n the standard or i n a d i a l e c t i s often revived, reinforced, or given extended meaning centuries l a t e r i n America by-Scandinavian immigrants. An evaluation of just how much Danish there i s to be found i n eith e r Middle English or Northern American i s further clouded by the f a c t that both Danish and English are Germanic languages. Indeed, s i m i l a r constructions and p a r a l l e l developments have occurred independently and w i l l continue to do so. Here then we have the f i r s t i n d i c a t i o n of the problems of i d e n t i t y of o r i g i n and of separation. We must f i r s t • determine whether an item or structure i s an Americanism. This i s d i f f i c u l t due to the many English back-borrowings and the lack of s u f f i c i e n t data covering a l l of the d i a l e c t s . After determining that an element i s Indeed an Americanism, we must try to f i n d out whether i t i s an independent innovation or whether i t s o r i g i n i s Scandinavian, German, Dutch, Yiddish, French, Spanish, I t a l i a n , etc. Naturally the other Germanic languages influenced English i n a manner very s i m i l a r to the Scandinavian; often they reinforced one another. A single Germanic l i n g u i s t i c sub-stratum would have influenced the English of North America somewhat, but the combination of ethnic groups representing a l l of the Germanic languages forms the largest l i n g u i s t i c sub-stratum to a f f e c t American English. A cursory look at these Germanic members shows us that the German speaking immigrants numbered around eleven m i l l i o n . They were the largest and no doubt the most i n f l u e n t i a l group of non-English speaking immigrants. They far outnumbered 3 the immigrants from Great B r i t a i n or I t a l y from 1820 to 1967. They affected a great number of a c t i v i t i e s i n the United States. L i n g u i s t i c a l l y too, the German element dominates. The German speakers s e t t l e d predominately i n the present Midland Dialect area and i n the Northern Dialect area, i n the large i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s and on r u r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land. 4 The Dutch, while not large m numbers, were very early i n s e t t l i n g t h e i r own colony i n eastern New York and New Jersey. They may have created some of the Americanisms that we associate with the German sub-stratum. Yiddish speakers have been very i n f l u e n t i a l i n the large c i t i e s i n c u l t u r a l and entertainment f i e l d s . Their number i s very d i f f i c u l t to discern. The F r i s i a n s , whose language i s h i s t o r i c a l l y most close l y related to English, are usually numbered among the Dutch. The immigration of Scandinavians to North America began as early as 16 37 with the formation of New Sweden, a colony which was situated at the present location of Wilmington, Delaware, and the surrounding area. Scandinavian immigration Germany 6,879,495 Great B r i t a i n 4,705,489 Austria-Hungary 4,289,215 I t a l y 5,096,204 Switzerland 338,097 TOTAL: 11,506,807 taken from The S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract of the United States, Washington, D.C., 1968, p. 92. 4 Dutch 346,822; Belgians 196,181. Ibid . , p. 92. has continued ever since". The main i n f l u x was i n the 1880's: 1882 saw 105,326 Scandinavians e n t e r the S t a t e s . J u s t b e f o r e the t u r n of the century the Scandinavians were n u m e r i c a l l y i n f e r i o r t o the E n g l i s h speaking and the German speaking groups o n l y . The languages of the Scandinavian immigrants were by no means i d e n t i c a l but n e i t h e r were the speech h a b i t s of German speaking immigrants from South T i r o l or Schleswig. Indeed, Dano-Norwegian was the o f f i c i a l language of both Norway and Denmark and t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s d u r i n g most of the time o f the m i g r a t i o n . Furthermore the d i a l e c t s of southern Sweden i n the p r o v i n c e s of Smaaland, Hall.and, Skaane, and B l e k i n g e are c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o Danish; these p r o v i n c e s have always been sepa r a t e d from the r e s t of Sweden by huge swamps and f o r e s t s and were once a p a r t of Denmark. I t i s f o r these reasons t h a t the Danish language i s used as the r e f e r e n c e language i n t h i s r e s e a r c h . The area i n t o which most of the Scandinavian immigrants s e t t l e d , the "second Danelaw", was the Great Lakes b a s i n , the Upper Midwest, and f i n a l l y the P a c i f i c Northwest. L i n g u i s t s now d e s i g n a t e an almost i d e n t i c a l a rea, the Northern American d i a l e c t a l area. See map on f o l l o w i n g page. 5 T H E D I A L E C T S O F A M E R I C A N E N G L I S H The d i a l e c t of t h i s area has been very productive i n the formation of General American and of Canadian English. In addition, t h i s d i a l e c t i s often considered to be i d e n t i c a l with "Standard American", the language that nation-wide broadcasting corporations and the United States Information Service English teachers use or s t r i v e f o r — a prestige d i a l e c t . The Scandinavians c e r t a i n l y were not alone i n s e t t l i n g t h i s Northern Dialect region, but were accompanied mainly by the Northern English and Scots as well as the Germans. Naturally enough the foundation of the d i a l e c t was formed by the Northern English and Scots who came from t h e i r native homeland or Western New England or Upper Canada. The f a c t t h a t North E n g l i s h and Scots E n g l i s h had been 5 so i n t i m a t e l y mixed.with Norse once b e f o r e , p l u s the h i s t o r i c a l l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between North Germanic and North Sea Germanic (the A n g l i a n s came from J u t l a n d ) , makes our more r e c e n t c o n t a c t and mixing t h a t much more p r o d u c t i v e and i n t e r e s t i n g . For g i v e n c o n t a c t , the more s i m i l a r the languages, the more thorough the mixing t h e r e w i l l be. C e r t a i n l y Danish i s one of the languages most s i m i l a r t o E n g l i s h today. Another l i n g u i s t i c reason f o r the many Danish elements i n Northern American i s t h a t Danish o f t e n had a s i m p l e r form than E n g l i s h had. I f c o n t a c t of two s i m i l a r languages takes p l a c e , the s i m p l e r forms w i l l o f t e n p r e v a i l . Another reason f o r much Danish i n f l u e n c e i s t h a t the f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n Scandinavians spoke, p r i n t e d , p u b l i s h e d , preached, and broadcasted i n E n g l i s h very soon a f t e r a r r i v a l . ^ T h i s c r e a t e d a c u l t u r e group u s i n g and abusing E n g l i s h which was so e s s e n t i a l i n i n f l u e n c i n g the language i n t h i s f r o n t i e r r e g i o n . Many n o n - l i n g u i s t i c reasons f o r the Danish i n f l u e n c e upon the Northern d i a l e c t are l i s t e d as f o l l o w s : 1. There was There are more than 1,000 Scandinavian lo a n words i n Middle E n g l i s h as l i s t e d i n E r i k Bjorkman's Scandinavian Loan-words i n Middle E n g l i s h , H a l l e , 1900. A l b e r t Baugh mentions t h a t over 1,400 Norse p l a c e names can be found i n Great B r i t a i n , A H i s t o r y of the E n g l i s h  Language, New York: 1957, p. 115. 6 Joshua Fishman, Language L o y a l t y i n the U n i t e d S t a t e s , The Hague: 1966, pp. 65-205. 7 a great deal of c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t y between the Northern English and Scots as well as the Scandinavians who worked together to push back the f r o n t i e r i n northern America. 2. The Scandinavians ranked second numerically within the non-English speaking groups and f i r s t i n many areas. 3. They were among the e a r l i e s t s e t t l e r s of t h i s area. 4. They had one of the highest standards of education among the s e t t l e r s . 5. Crime 7 rates and pauper rates were very low. 6. They were quickly assimilated into the community; i n a nation where rapid a s s i m i l a t i o n has been encouraged and even forced, the Danes ,seem to have had a short c u l t u r a l road to t r a v e l and w i l l i n g l y — o f t e n enthusiastically—abandoned t h e i r t r a d i t i o n s i n favor of the new common denominator. Typical of the praises to the Scandinavian immigrants are the following quotations from Carl Wittke's We Who B u i l t America: The Swedes are generally described as even-tempered, serious-minded i n d i v i d u a l i s t s . They have a strong sense of property ownership and a deep r e l i g i o u s sense, which often turns to the p i e t i s t i c and p u r i t a n i c a l , e s p e c i a l l y i n contrast with t h e i r fellow Lutherans among the Germans. The Swedes are noted for t h e i r adaptability to American conditions, for t h e i r a b i l i t y and willingness to work hard, and for t h e i r marvelous physical stamina. They are e s s e n t i a l l y an industrious, law-abiding, simple-minded, honest f o l k . They come to . the United States to stay, and no other immigrant group becomes so quickly Americanized. Swedes are clean and neat, and save for a rainy day. The percentage of home ownership i s high among them. Families are large but, on the whole, well kept. Swedes also have unsurpassed devotion to education, and send t h e i r children to school; the rate of i l l i t e r a c y See Appendix, Table II. 8 among them i s extremely low. In more recent years, many Swedes have gone to the c i t i e s to become success-f u l tradesmen and workmen, es p e c i a l l y i n the lumber and furniture business. Like other Scandinavians, the Swede has l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t y i n adjusting himself to the American democratic system of government, for he comes from a country i n which he has already learned the technique of popular e l e c t i o n s . The Norwegians are a strong, resolute people. P r a c t i c a l l y a l l are Lutherans, and combine a Lutheran piety and sense of duty with a strong desire for material advancement. They are t h r i f t y and eager to acquire a homestead. They are strong and stubborn i n d i v i d u a l i s t s , lovers of freedom, law-abiding, and vigorous defenders of t h e i r Church. As the rate of i l l i t e r a c y i s very low i n Denmark and the people are f a m i l i a r with economic and p o l i t i c a l democracy, the Danes represented in every way a sub-s t a n t i a l and desirable addition to the American population.8 These have been presented to show the high a c c e p t a b i l i t y rating that the Scandinavian immigrants enjoyed. The mixing of the Scandinavians with the North English-Scots was i n many ways s i m i l a r to the mixing of these two peoples during the Viking settlement i n Northumberland, Durham, Lincolnshire, Yorkshire, etc. Economically both groups were approximate equals working together i n an a g r i c u l t u r a l l y based commerce. C u l t u r a l l y they were similary d e f i c i e n t . As i n the Viking age the l i n g u i s t i c influences were not of a superior or l i t e r a r y culture giving new concepts and words, but of cousins who had d i f f e r e n t d i a l e c t s working side by side Cleveland: 1967, pp. 266, 278, 286. exchanging words for household things, confusing sounds, and l e v e l i n g grammar. Let us now look at Danish l i n g u i s t i c influences on Northern American. Only those elements which are understood and used by m i l l i o n s of non-Scandinavians w i l l be presented. The main leve l s of language analysis seem to give the best way of d i v i d i n g up the corpus: phonology, morphology, syntax and lexicon w i l l be taken up i n that order. CHAPTER I I PHONOLOGY When we analyze Danish and American, we can see quite a number of co-occurrences of Danish sounds with sounds t y p i c a l of the Northern American d i a l e c t . These common sounds are contrasted with the Standard Southern B r i t i s h . . . 1 pronunciation. Danish and For the Standard Examples: Northern Amer- Southern B r i t i s h ican have: pronunciation: English Danish [u] [j u j new nu tune Tuborg - l i e u i u t t e r [>] glass glas _ cant kan bath. bad milk maalk [d] I t J c i t y c i t y , kc^ter l i t e r l i t e r d i r t y k^rte Cn J [nd ] band baand hand haand [g ] doggie byge buggie b 0 g e r [w] [hw] when Danish American where [sb ] [sp] spin spinde o spool spole [sd] [s t ] stood stod s t e a l stjaele S t a n d a r d S o u t h e r n B r i t i s h , pe rhaps a more d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m t h a n r e c e i v e d p r o n u n c i a t i o n , i s t he p r i v i l e g e d a c c e n t o f the p u b l i c - s c h o o l e l i t e , see D a v i d A b e r c r o m b i e 1 s "The Way P e o p l e S p e a k " , The L i s t e n e r , BBC 3 r d Programme, S e p t . 6 , 1 9 5 1 . 11 Danish and Northern Amer-ican have: [sg] dark 1 dark r pulmonic ingressive For the Standard Southern B r i t i s h pronunciation: [sk] [1] (East Nor-wegians & West Swedes [r] only) Examples pulmonic egressive a more monoton- a more varied inton-ous intonation ation (esp. among women) English Danish school skole scope skubbe scheme skema blood blod f l e e t flaade dream dr^mme bread brjrfd no ne j yah Oh i t was Nej, hvor var simply det d e j l i g t ! gorgeous.' Explanations and comments: [u] f o r [ju] Standard Southern B r i t i s h [ju] a f t e r alveolar consonants i s unstable and i n a state of change, cf. the older [ s j u t ] (suit) and [In'^juz].(enthuse) with the present [sut] and [In'^uz], However [ju] and [u] are 2 contrastive i n the minimal p a i r dew-do. In Northern American the alveolar consonants [t d n 1 s <©•] are followed by [u] instead of [ j u ] . Danish and German have [u] only. The Scandinavian'and German influence was not strong enough to change the [ju] to [u] after l a b i a l s and velars. Northern American has homonymic clash here. No d i f f i c u l t i e s arise because each belongs to a separate word-cla s s . 12 £cej'for [Q] Old English and Old F r i s i a n had [ ae ] / some Middle English d i a l e c t s retained i t , and now English and Danish are the only two Germanic languages to have [ae ]. The Danish [ ae] has a wider d i s t r i b u t i o n than Standard Southern B r i t i s h and may have been i n f l u e n t i a l i n i t s Northern American occurrence before [ s ] , £0 ] , and nasals plus a consonant. (Note that Northern American has [ ae] before [ f ], modern Danish has [ a ] . ) [ £ ] for I This seems to occur uniquely i n the word milk. Both Danish and Dutch have [£ ]. This may also be an ]L coloring phenomenon, note Northern American [/e£] f o r s h a l l . [ d ]for [ t ] This occurs i n both Danish and Northern Amer-ican i n i n t e r v o c a l i c p o s i t i o n where the t_ i s i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n of the leading s y l l a b l e , i . e . words l i k e Da, f a t a l and fortand or English betake and betide w i l l not have t h i s occurrence. Note also that the r i n d i r t y i s classed as a vowel supporting Jakobson, Fant, and Halle's Preliminaries of Speech Analysis, Cambridge, Mass., 1955. This s u b s t i t u t i o n of d for t takes place not only within words, but between neighboring words where there i s concatenation from, one word to another, e.g. American at a l l [aed'al] or [ s ' d a l ] , put i t ['pvdltj , hat on 13 [ y ] f o r g [w]for [hw] [sb sd sg] v o j f o r [sp s t sk] Dark 1, r f o r 1, r ['hasdcm], and Danish saet af ['sedae] , hat af f h a e d a s ] . The d i s dropped o f f i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n i n Northern American as i n Danish. Danish drops the d of i n t e r v o c a l i c nd, Anders [asnAsD. S i n c l a i r Lewis i n Main S t r e e t has non-Scandinavian Americans pronouncing wonderful 3 as " w o n 1 e r f u l " . T h i s however i s substandard c o l l o q u i a l w h i l e t h i s r e s e a r c h emphasizes the standard c o l l o q u i a l . In both languages, i n t e r v o c a l i c g i s o f t e n pronounced [Y] e s p e c i a l l y i n the environment of back vowels. In Danish t h i s i s o r t h o -g r a p h i c a l l y i n d i c a t e d ; s i n g l e g i s [y], double gg i s [ g ] . Western J u t l a n d e r s , Danish Americans, and E n g l i s h d i a l e c t s a l l have [w] where [hw] i s p r e s c r i b e d . The Danish and Northern American v o i c e l e s s p l o s i v e s when preceded by an i n i t i a l s_ are v o i c e d and l e n i s . These are found i n i n i t i a l and f i n a l p o s i t i o n and are o f t e n s y l l a b i c . Dark 1 and r are t y p i c a l o f E a s t e r n Norwegian d i a l e c t s and Western Swedish d i a l e c t s and Northern American. New York, 1920, p. 227. 14 (dark because the"y are v e l a r i z e d , i . e . retracted, any r e t r o f l e x i o n i s c o i n c i -dental) So t y p i c a l i s t h i s v e l a r i z a t i o n of 1 and r and possibly n that Europeans hear t h i s as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of American speech and des-cribe the sounds by s t a t i n g that Americans have "warm potatoes i n t h e i r mouths." Einar Haugen i n his Beginning Norwegian, Madison, 1956, p. 16 writes: . In East Norwegian the [r] that occurs before dentals [dtnls] i s regularly absorbed by these into simple r e t r o f l e x consonants which phoneticians write [ d t n l s ] . To Americans who pronounce r aiter"vowels t h i s w i l l sound a l i t t l e l i k e t h e i r own rd, r t , rn, r l , and sh; barn ba:rn (child) may sound l i k e 'barn'... Likewise i n "Phonological S h i f t i n g i n American Norwegian" he states on page 115, note 5, "In pronouncing [ r ] and [.1] the tongue elevation i s almost i d e n t i c a l with that of American [r] John Clark explains i n B r i t i s h and American  English Since 1900 that the retained r i s a product of marginality. He states: The resemblance of E American to Southern Western American to to I r i s h English (ma of r) used to be exp hypothesis that the s e t t l e r s of Western of other than Southe astern and Southern B r i t i s h and of Northern B r i t i s h and i n l y i n the treatment lained by the English-speaking America were mainly rn B r i t i s h stock. Language, 14.112-20 (1938) 15 p u l m o n i c i n g r e s s i v e f o r -p u l m o n i c e g r e s s i v e B u t t h i s seems t o be u n a c c e p t a b l e b e c a u s e o f o t h e r t h a n l i n g u i s t i c e v i d e n c e , and s t u d e n t s o f t h e s u b j e c t now more commonly t a k e a n o t h e r v i e w — b r i e f l y , t h a t t h e r e t a i n e d r o f W e s t e r n A m e r i c a and n o n - S o u t h e r n B r i t i s h E n g l i s h i s a r e l i c o f a f e a t u r e t h a t i n t h e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n t u r y was f o u n d w h e r e v e r E n g l i s h was s p o k e n i n c l u d i n g S o u t h e r n E n g l a n d ; t h a t S o u t h E n g l a n d s u b -s e q u e n t l y d r o p p e d t h e r ; t h a t E a s t e r n and S o u t h e r n A m e r i c a ( t h a t i s , t h e A t l a n t i c s e a b o a r d ) , b e i n g i n c l o s e and c o n t i n u o u s c o n t a c t w i t h t h e m o t h e r c o u n t r y and e s p e c i a l l y w i t h London and O x f o r d and C a m b r i d g e , d i d l i k e w i s e ; and t h a t W e s t e r n A m e r i c a , l a c k i n g t h a t c o n -t a c t , p r e s e r v e d t h e s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y r . 5 However, many o f t h e s e r ' s were c o n s o n a n t a l b u r r s , f l a p s o r t r i l l s and v e r y u n l i k e t h e 6 N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n v o c a l i c r . The r e t r a c t e d r o f S t a n d a r d N o r w e g i a n and E a s t e r n N o r w e g i a n and W e s t e r n S w e d i s h d i a l e c t s s h o u l d be c o n -s i d e r e d as a s o u r c e o f r e i n f o r c e m e n t and m o d i f i c a t i o n t o E n g l i s h m a r g i n a l i t y . P u l m o n i c i n g r e s s i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n i s h e a r d o f t e n i n f e m i n i n e s p e e c h i n Denmark and i n N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n . M a l e s who have e x p e r i e n c e d r a t h e r p r o t e c t i v e u p b r i n g i n g may a l s o have t h i s . Due t o t h e m e c h a n i c s i n v o l v e d a p u l m o n i c i n g r e s s i v e u t t e r a n c e i s o f v e r y s h o r t d u r a t i o n . E r i c P a r t i d g e and J o h n W. C l a r k , (London: 1 9 5 1 ) , p. 274 6R.M,S. H e f f n e r i n G e n e r a l P h o n e t i c s , M a d i s o n : 1949, pp. 146-7, w r i t e s t h a t t h e S.S.B. [ J ] i s a d e n t a l f r i c a t i v e a r t i c u l a t e d i n t h e same a r e a as f o r t h e r o l l e d d e n t a l [f*]. The M i d w e s t A m e r i c a n [ J ] i s m e d i o p a l a t a l and t h e t i p i s n o r m a l l y f l a t intonation for a greater range of intonation more frequent stress on i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e 16 A flatness of intonation i s very d i s t i n c t i v e of Danish. Likewise, Northern American has a very f l a t intonational pattern. F.E.L. P r i e s t l e y i n E r i c Partidge's and John Clark's . . . 7 B r i t i s h and American English Since 1900 alludes to t h i s f l a t intonation when he writes "... i n Ontario he would have found a somewhat harsher and f l a t t e r speech, closer i n pro-nunciation to American, but, i n the f a c t , close only to the speech of upper New York State." Although Swedish and Norwegian are both tone languages and very melodious, Swedish and Norwegian-Americans often speak a very f l a t form of English. In reference to feminine intonational patterns i t should be mentioned that Danish-American women f i n d extravagant v a r i a t i o n of intonation against t h e i r nature, and therefore they are reluctant to develop the intonational extremes and the s h r i l l voice so necessary i n projecting competitive compliments. I n i t i a l stress i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of a l l Germanic languages but i s f a r more prevalent behind the front lower i n c i s o r s although r e t r o f l e c t i o n may be produced simultaneously. 7 London: 1951, p. 74. 17 i n t he c o n t i n e n t a l Germanic languages t h a n i n t he more h y b r i d E n g l i s h language. Amer-i c a n E n g l i s h seems t o be r e t u r n i n g t o a more f r e q u e n t i n i t i a l s t r e s s p a t t e r n . Both John C l a r k and B r i a n F o s t e r make o b s e r v a t i o n s about the tendency i n American E n g l i s h , more so t h a n i n B r i t i s h E n g l i s h , t o p l a c e the s t r e s s as f a r f o r w a r d as p o s s i b l e . C l a r k w r i t e s : There i s an a n c i e n t and g e n e r a l tendency i n E n g l i s h t o p u t t h e s t r e s s as e a r l y as p o s s i b l e i n a word, b u t t h i s i s c a r r i e d f u r t h e r i n American E n g l i s h t h a n i n B r i t i s h and f u r t h e r i n u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d American E n g l i s h t h a n i n s o p h i s t i c a t e d : " r e s o u r c e " , „ " r e s e a r c h " , and even " U n i t e d S t a t e s " . F o s t e r i n "Recent American I n f l u e n c e on S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h " s t a t e s : The t y p i c a l American tendency i s t o g b r i n g t h e s t r e s s f o r w a r d : White House, w i t h s t r e s s on t h e f i r s t word, as com-p a r e d w i t h B r i t i s h e q u a l s t r e s s on b o t h words. T h i s i s c o p i e d t o some e x t e n t i n B r i t a i n , p a r t i c u l a r l y by t h e younger g e n e r a t i o n , i n i t i a l s t r e s s b e i n g f r e -q u e n t l y h e a r d i n "magazine", " r e s e a r c h " , " c i g a r e t t e " , " a f t e r a l l " ( t h i s i s v e r y common, as a g a i n s t B r i t i s h " a f t e r a l l " w i t h s t r e s s on the second word).10 I b i d . , p. 329. v 9 T h i s American i n s t i t u t i o n r e c e i v e s s p e c i a l c o n t r a s t i v e s t r e s s and i s t h e r e f o r e a poor example. 1 0 A n g l i a , V o l . 73, p. 357. 18 The following l i s t of words often with American i n i t i a l s y l l a b l e stress w i l l i l l u s t r a t e pronunciation differences; the B r i t i s h pronunciation of these same words frequently or inva r i a b l y has the stress on a s y l l a b l e other than the f i r s t : abdomen absolutely address adult anchovy apple sauce argyle B e r l i n Bureaucrat cigaret(te) c o r o l l a r y coupon cuneiform decretory defense (in sports) detour Detroit d o c t r i n a l expletive finance furore i c e cream i n c l i n e (V. tend) inquiry laboratory miscellany moustache (New) Orleans offense (in sports) optative placate poetaster pogrom quinine recess recluse renaissance research r e v e i l l e rodeo t e l e v i s i o n trachea This l i s t was taken mainly from Margaret Nicholson's Modern American English Usage, New York, 1957, and-Martin S. Allwood's American and B r i t i s h , Habo, 1964. Both l i s t s contained some words (eleven and f i v e respectively) where the B r i t i s h stressed the f i r s t s y l l a b l e and the American did not. F i n a l stress i n American family names with - e l l seems to be an exception to the general 19 trend, c f . Scandinavian surnames, Chapter V I I I , page 111. In conclusion to t h i s phonological discussion i t i s well to mention that the Danish immigrants would have resorted often to s p e l l i n g pronunciations, which are now so character-i s t i c of American Speech. CHAPTER III MORPHOLOGY Within the category of morphology there are some observations to be made: 1. In the main the Scandinavian immigrants conformed rather well to the established norm i n America as they found i t . 2. Most of the English i n f l e c t i o n a l endings had already been leveled by the passage of time and by the intrusions of the Vikings, leaving r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e to be changed, i . e . the threshold of diminishing returns had already been reached as far as the Scandinavian l e v e l i n g of English was concerned. 3. Some Danish i n f l e c t i o n s were, however, simpler and some of these were incorporated. 4. A few Danish s t r u c t u r a l patterns have influenced American morphological preference. 5. P a r a l l e l a f f i x i n g i s apparent. A l i s t of morphological elements which may have been Danish inspired follows: A. In Danish there are no person indicators on verbs; i n Northern the trend i s to drop the person i n d i c a t o r s , e.g. the f i r s t through the t h i r d person singular and p l u r a l of w i l l , would, should, don't, and at least the sungular of says remain the same throughout. The present-day American is_ i n Where' s  my gloves? may also be Danish patterned or re-inforced. 21 B. The g e r u n d morpheme - i n g i s r e p l a c e d by t o p l u s t h e i n f i n i t i v e : 1. We a r e i n t e r e s t e d t o c u l t i v a t e u n d e r s t a n d i n g . V i e r i n t e r e s s e r e d e i a t k u l t i v e r e f o r s t a s e l s e . 2. They w o u l d a p p r e c i a t e t o h e a r f r o m him. De v i l l e s a e t t e p r i s p a a a t hjzJre f r a ham. 3. I l o v e t o w a t c h t h e p o l a r b e a r s . J e g e l s k e r a t s e p a a i s b j ^ r n e n e . 4 . I t aims t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n . D e t t i l s i g t e r a t g i v e en k o r t i n d l e d n i n g . H.W. H o r w i l l w r i t e s i n " A m e r i c a n V a r i a t i o n s " , SPE T r a c t 45, page 194: A few v e r b s a r e u s e d i n A m e r i c a i n a d i f f e r e n t c o n -s t r u c t i o n f r o m t h a t w h i c h i s i d i o m a t i c i n E n g l a n d . T h u s , aim, i n t h e f i g u r a t i v e s e n s e , i s f o l l o w e d ( a c c o r d i n g t o u s a g e now o b s o l e t e i n E n g l a n d ] by to_ w i t h t h e i n f i n i t i v e i n s t e a d o f a t w i t h t h e g e r u n d . T h u s , " I t aims t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Mohammedan law." Here t h e E n g l i s h u s a g e w o u l d be "aims a t p r o v i d i n g . " H. Poutsma i n A Grammar o f L a t e Modern E n g l i s h s t a t e s : A g r e a t many v e r b s a d m i t o f e i t h e r t h e g e r u n d - o r . t h e i n f i n i t i v e - c o n s t r u c t i o n . W i t h some t h e two c o n -s t r u c t i o n s seem t o be u s e d i n d i f f e r e n t l y , w i t h some t h e r e i s a more o r l e s s marked p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r e i t h e r one o r t h e o t h e r , w h i l e w i t h a few a c e r t a i n d i s -t i n c t i o n i s o b s e r v e d . As a g e n e r a l r u l e i t may be s a i d t h a t t h e g e r u n d - c o n s t r u c t i o n i s c h i e f l y met w i t h i n t h e w r i t t e n , t h e i n f i n i t i v e - c o n s t r u c t i o n i n t h e s p o k e n l a n g u a g e ; and a l s o t h a t f r o m m o t i v e s o f r h e t o r i c a l p r o p r i e t y t h e u s e o f two s u c c e s s i v e g e r u n d s o r i n f i n i t i v e s i s a v o i d e d . 1 G r o n i n g e n , 1904, p. 619. Where the two constructions are used i n d i f f e r e n t l y , American preference i s directed towards the i n f i n i t i v e p a r t i c l e plus the i n f i n i t i v e as i s the case i n Danish. Where i n B r i t i s h a certain d i s t i n c t i o n i s made, the trend i n America i s for those, d i s t i n c t i o n s to be reduced or eliminated. Because written American English more frequently approximates the spoken language, the i n f i n i t i v e construction i s favored once more. C. The superlative i s used i n place of the comparative: 1. Who i s t a l l e s t , John or Bob? Hvem er h^jest, Hans e l l e r Lars? 2. Of the two related languages, Lithuanian i s the simplest. j Af de to beslaggtede sprog, l i t a n i s k er det enkelteste. D. The past i s often used where the past perfect i s expected: 1. He taught (had taught) at Western before he taught at Odense. v Han underviste paa Western, f0r han underviste paa Odense Universitet. 2. He said that he saw (had seen) her before the match. Han sagde at han saa hende fjzir kampen. • I 3. She asked whether we were (had been) there yesterday. Hun spu.rgte, om v i var der igaar. 2 The progressive i s used more often than i n B r i t i s h , probably due to over-compensation as Danish does not have t h i s : 1. He i s always coming home late nights. 2. They are making tree decorations every year at t h i s time. 3. She i s never baby s i t t i n g on week-ends. (Other immigrant groups tend to over-compensate here) Less and le a s t are the comparative and superlative of both l i t t l e and few, on analogy with mindre and mindst for both l i l l e and faa; 1. L i t t l e less least l i l l e mindre mindst 2. few less l e a s t faa mindre mindst for few fewer fewest for faa faarre faerrest By the mere process of mixing one finds regular endings more often: 1. accursed, blended, burned, dreamed, hewed, kneeled, leaned, learned, sawed, smelled, spelled, s p i l l e d , winded. These previously had t or n endings, or they were strong verbs. ( A l l immigrant groups would tend to regularize verbs.) The modal verbs have been changed and s i m p l i f i e d : 1. can = permission only: Can I drink t h i s milk? Kan jeg drikke denne maslk?. may = a higher grade of permission: get to = permission w i l l = certainty only: want to = v o l i t i o n only: would = subjunctive only: should = ought to: need i s defective: s h a l l = an o f f e r or May I eat t h i s sandwich? Maa jeg spise denne mellem mad? I got to take the test early? Jeg f i k lov t i l at tage examen t i d l i g e . We w i l l leave tomorrow. Vi er sikker for at forlade byen imorgen. We want to leave tomorrow. Vi v i i afsted imorgen. I would have come, i f ... Jeg v i l l e vaere kommet, hvis... You should not h i t animals. Du burde ikke slog dyre. Need I? Behctfver jeg? No, you needn't. Ne j , du behoVer ikke., Yes, I must. Ja, jeg er no'dt t i l . S h a l l I open the window for you? S k a l l jeg aaben vindoen for dem? 25 10. g o i n g t o = f u t u r e o n l y : 11, must = a l l t h i n g s c o n s i d e r e d , c o n j e c t u r e : 12. •have t o = compel: S h a l l we go? S k a l l v i a f s t e d ? I t i s g o i n g t o be l a t e b e f o r e we are t h r o u g h . Det b l i v e r s e n t i n d e n v i e r f a e r d i . He must be t h e r e by now. Han maa vaere d e r . They had t o have t h e c a r checked. De v a r nodt a t have b i l k o n t r o l l e r e d e . 13. used t o = p a s t He used t o walk down t o t h e r e p e t i t i v e : depot e v e r y F r i d a y . Han p l e j e d e a t gaa ned t i l s t a t i o n e n . R e g a r d i n g t o g e t t o as a modal t y p e v e r b , B r i a n F o s t e r s t a t e s t h e f o l l o w i n g : "To g e t t o " do something i s found i n t h e b e s t l i n g u i s t i c c i r c l e s nowadays. "How are we t o g e t t o see an i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e ? " asked t h e s p e a k e r on a T h i r d .Programme t a l k on P u r c e l l m a n u s c r i p t s . T h i s e x p r e s s i o n was o r i g i n a l l y an A m e r i c a n i s m , presumably o f German prov e n a n c e , s i n c e t h e word k r i e g e n , e q u i v a l e n t t o "get" i s used i n the same way. "To g e t w i s e t o " would a l s o seem t o be German-American i n t h e f i r s t i n s t a n c e , f o r t h e r e i s a German i d i o m w h i c h i s i d e n t i c a l e x c e p t f o r the p r e p o s i t i o n f o l l o w i n g t h e v e r b . I t i s a l s o t r u e t o say t h a t t h i s t y pe o f e x p r e s s i o n i s found i n S c a n d i n a v i a n , and i n v i e w o f S c a n d i n a v i a n i m m i g r a t i o n i n t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s we must not n e g l e c t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y of Scandinavian speech-habits r e i n f o r c i n g German influence.2 Dr. Foster's i n d i c a t i o n of possible Scandinavian influence i s well taken i f somewhat understated. The German kriegen (note etymology!) i s used to mean to get to but i s r e s t r i c t e d to "verbs of sense, e.g. Er kri e g t die Prinzessen zu sehen. The Danish has a s i m i l a r construction Han f i k hende endelig at se which translated would be, He f i n a l l y got to see her. The to  get to construction has the implied meaning of managed to. In addition to t h i s construction Danish also has at faa lov t i l , meaning to get permission. The Norwegians and Swedes have reduced t h i s to the simple modal faa. This modal means may and to get to and appears to have been the stronger motivating force behind the Americanism to get to rather, than the German kriegen. . ,The entire American system of modal verbs follows more clo s e l y than the B r i t i s h a one to one r e l a t i o n s h i p , that i s to say that one modal verb represents fewer meanings. Compare the B r i t i s h English s h a l l , w i l l , should, and would with t h e i r complicated usage; they change meaning i n c o l l o c a t i o n with varying tenses, moods, and persons. When l i n g u i s t i c i n t e r -ference occurs, the b i l i n g u a l people concerned tend to reduce complicated systems such as t h i s to a simpler form. The •n a t u r a l desire i s for one "safe and d e f i n i t e " equivalent for the most frequent usage of a s i m i l a r native expression than.for The Changing English Language. London, 1968, p. 89, a choice of s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s . The framework of the American modal verb scheme shows bias towards accommodating s i m p l i f i c a t i o n processes moulded by interference from the Scandinavian languages and other Germanic languages. Compare get to, must, and s h a l l . Must i n Must you do that? has been l o s t because must has become sp e c i a l i z e d to a speculative aspect. S h a l l , i n d i c a t i n g the future, has been l o s t because of the Scandinavian emphasis on Shall we go? and S h a l l I open  the window? i . e . on an " o f f e r i n g " aspect. 1. The present p a r t i c i p l e morpheme -ing i s often replaced by the past p a r t i c i p l e morpheme ed which stems from i n t e r l i n g u i s t i c transference. G.V. Carey i ^ n American Into English: A Handbook for Trans-l a t e r s c i t e s the following examples: A t h i n , stooped ("stooping"), shabby figure shambled up. En tynd, krumrygget, lurvet skikkelse stavrede hen t i l mig. v He caught a glimpse of men crouched ("crouching") i n the undergrowth. Han f i k et glimt af maend sammenkrobet i underskoven. The dog sat with his tongue l o l l e d ("lolling") out. Hunden sad med tungen stukket ud. This tendency towards i n t e r l i n g u i s t i c i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i l l be further demonstrated i n the chapter on idioms and l e x i c a l items. See page 48, item Almost. Carey c o n t i n u e s : , T h i s i s i n f a c t p a r t o f a more g e n e r a l American tendency to add a t r a n s i t i v e use of i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs and v i c e - v e r s a , o r , to put i t i n another way, t o b l u r the d i s t i n c t i o n between a c t i v e and p a s s i v e (see a l s o b a t t l e , p r o t e s t , r a i s e , r a t e , sprawled i n g l o s s a r y ) . In the above examples "to stoop", ^ o crouch", "to squat", "to l o l l " are a l l i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs and, grammatically, o n l y t h e i r Present P a r t i c i p l e s can be used as a d j e c t i v e s ; f o r Past P a r t i c i p l e s are p a s s i v e i n sense, and i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs have no p a s s i v e sense.4 H o r w i l l notes t h a t "In America the verb stoop seems to be trans, as w e l l as i n t r a n . At any r a t e , i t has a p a s t p a r t i c i p l e stooped = Eng. s t o o p i n g . 'A t a l l , gaunt, stooped m a n . 1 B r i a n F o s t e r observes t h a t under American i n f l u e n c e s p r a w l i n g , s t o o p i n g , s l o u c h i n g , c r o u c h i n g , and heading f o r are being changed i n England to the p a s t p a r t i c i p l e ed form thus e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s change as an Americanism. He a l s o agrees w i t h the p a s s i v e - a c t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e - t r a n s i t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n . T h i s p a r t i c u l a r change i s perhaps b e s t e x p l a i n e d as a case of t r a n s i t i v e usage of i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs or indeed of p a s s i v e s t r u c t u r e of i n t r a n s i t i v e verbs which can have no p a s s i v e sense. At any r a t e i t i s a v a l i d e x p l a n a t i o n of the r e s u l t . That i s not to imply, however, t h a t the Americanism found i t s source i n a c o n f u s i o n of a c t i v e and p a s s i v e or i n a Kingswood, Surrey, 1953, p. 24. ( T r a n s l a t i o n i s mine Modern American Usage, London: 1949, p. 308. The Changing E n g l i s h Language, New York, 1968, p. 192 c o n f u s i o n o f t r a n s i t i v e and i n t r a n s i t i v e . T h i s A m e r i c a n i s m i s r a t h e r a r e s u l t o f i n t e r l i n g u i s t i c t r a n s f e r e n c e . The D a n i s h p a s t p a r t i c i p l e i s u s e d i n c a se s where v e r b s o f p o s t u r e a r e c i t e d , c f . German t o o . The D a n i s h p a s t p a r t i c i p l e used as a v e r b a l a d j e c t i v e i n d i c a t e s a more p e r f e c t i v e a s p e c t w h i l e t h e p r e s e n t p a r t i c i p l e w o u l d s i g n i f y a r e p e t i t i v e and c o n -t i n u o u s a s p e c t . The i m m i g r a n t s t r a n s f e r r e d a c o n s t r u c t i o n f rom 7 t h e i r l a n g u a g e s on to an a s y m m e t r i c a l s t r u c t u r e . A f f i x i n g , t o o , f r e q u e n t l y appea r s t o be German ic i n n a t u r e and f o l l o w s the D a n i s h p a t t e r n . I. S u f f i x e s A . -dom, D a n i s h -dom, E n g l i s h m e a n i n g : p r o v i n c e o r sphere , o f s o m e t h i n g The s u f f i x -dom has been u s e d i n E n g l i s h s i n c e t h e days o f t h e A n g l o - S a x o n C h r o n i c l e . B u t -dom had become n o n -p r o d u c t i v e i n c r e a t i n g new w o r d s . T h i s s u f f i x e x p e r i e n c e d a r e v i v a l i n N o r t h A m e r i c a w h i c h has now s p r e a d t o t h e r e s t o f t h e 8 E n g l i s h s p e a k i n g w o r l d . A l i s t o f new words i n c l u d e s : boredom, b u t l e r d o m , C h r i s t m a s d o m , f i l m d o m , g a n g s t e r d o m , l o b s t e r d o m , N a z i d o m , o f f i c i a l d o m , s t a r d o m , and w a i f d o m . D a n i s h has s u c h f r e q u e n t l y u sed words as f a t t i g d o m , r i g d o m , k r i s t e n d o m , jumfrudom, barndom, e t c . Compare " the d e j e c t e d man" and " i n c l i n e d t o b e " . g B r i a n F o s t e r , The C h a n g i n g E n g l i s h L a n g u a g e , L o n d o n : 1.968, p . 186; and O t t o J e s p e r s e n , A Modern E n g l i s h G r a m m a r , v o l . V I , p . 462 . 30 B. - f e s t , Danish - f e s t , English meaning: celebration p a r t i c i p a t i o n by a large group Songfest, s l u g f e s t , gabfest, t a l k f e s t , bloodfest, are recent American coinages of a rather slangish nature. Compare the Danish brydefest, dobsfest, jubuliumsfest, j u l e f e s t , etc. Louise Pound further l i s t s the American ananiasfest, batfest, blarneyfest, crabfest, e a t f e s t , gabblefest, gadfest, grubfest, j.awfest, s i n g f e s t , smilefest, smokefest, sobfest, spoof f e s t , stuntfest, swatfest, and walkfest. These l a t t e r nouns are not 9 often used nowadays. C. - i s e r e , Danish - i z e , English extended meaning or use: to so treat or handle i This s u f f i x has had a long history i n the English language having come from the Latin izare and the Greek i z o . On the American continent, t h i s s u f f i x has experienced great productivity i n the creation of new words. The impetus here may have been produced by technological development and s o c i a l whim, e.g. newspaper head l i n e s s t y l e and advertising s t y l e , but the c o r r e l a t i o n between American s u f f i x i n g p r i o r i t i e s and Danish morphological structure (along with the morphology of other Germanic languages) i s observably s t r i k i n g . Martin S. Allwood l i s t s i n American and B r i t i s h the following words with the s u f f i x - i z e which have s p e c i a l and novel uses i n American Louise Pound, "Domestication of the Suff i x - f e s t " , D i alect Notes, Vol. 4, part 5, 1916, pp. 353-355. 31 E n g l i s h : b u r g l a r i z e , f i n a l i z e , h o s p i t a l i z e , p e r s o n a l i z e , 10 r u b b e r i z e , and s l e n d e r i z e . B r i a n F o s t e r m e n t i o n s t h a t f i n a l i z e i s e v i d e n t l y an A m e r i c a n i s m i n o r i g i n and adds l i q u i d i z e , v i t a m i n i z e , h o m o g e n i z e , p r e s s u r i z e , A f r i c a n i z e , and s a n f o r i z e . " ^ B r i t i s h i m m i g r a n t s , n e w l y a r r i v e d i n V a n c o u v e r , B.C., o b j e c t i n d i g n a n t l y t o A m e r i c a n i z e , c o m p u t e r i z e , h o s p i t a l i z e and m o d e r n i z e . D. - v i s , D a n i s h - w i s e , E n g l i s h e x t e n d e d m e a n i n g o r u s e : t o t u r n a l m o s t any noun i n t o an a d v e r b The u s e o f ^ w i s e i s by no means new; we have s u c h o l d s t a n d b y s as c l o c k w i s e , c r o s s w i s e , l i k e w i s e , n o w i s e , and o t h e r -w i s e w i t h - w i s e m e a n i n g manner o r d i r e c t i o n . T h i s morpheme, however, a s i d e f r o m s u c h s e t compound words has become a r c h a i c . The A m e r i c a n i n n o v a t i o n g i v e s a new u s a g e t o t h i s s u f f i x , namely t o change nouns i n t o a d v e r b s s i g n i f y i n g s o m e t h i n g o f t h e n a t u r e o f " i n r e g a r d t o " . B r i a n F o s t e r b e l i e v e s t h i s e x t e n d e d u s a g e came f o r t h i n A m e r i c a i n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y due t o u n c o n s c i o u s i n t e r l i n g u a l t r a n s f e r e n c e by German . 1 2 i m m i g r a n t s . S c a n d i n a v i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n was u n d o u b t e d l y a c o n t r i b u t i n g f a c t o r . A l i s t o f s u c h words i s v e r y l o n g ; some t y p i c a l e x a m ples i n c l u d e : a r m c h a i r w i s e , c a s h w i s e , i n c o m e w i s e , moneywise, s p o r t s w i s e , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n w i s e , t i m e w i s e , w e a t h e r w i s e , w e i g h t w i s e . ^ A m e r i c a n and B r i t i s h : A Handbook o f A m e r i c a n - B r i t i s h  Language D i f f e r e n c e s , Habo: 1964, p. 27. ^'''Brian F o s t e r , op. c i t . . , pp. 190-191. 1 2 I b i d . , pp. 94-95. 32 I I . P r e f i x A. u-, Danish un-, English meaning: opposite, negative, not e n t i r e l y extended usage In American English there has been a tendency to f r e e l y place un- i n front of words which previously did not have such prefixes. Compare unclear with uklar and unalike with u l i g e . Even unAmerican has i t s forerunner i n the sixteenth and seven-teenth century Danish udansk and utysk. Brian Foster notes German influence i n American usage of un- and comments on unwasteful l i f e , un-hero, unfunny, un-books, un-radio, unpublicity, unfreedom, unrobust health, unrich, unprofessional, 13 uncola, unlookalikeable. Ibid., pp. 170-5. CHAPTER IV SYNTAX. In the course of t h e i r history both English and Danish have developed a functional syntax very si m i l a r to one another. However, some of the differences between B r i t i s h and Northern American are also found In Danish as seen i n the following l i s t : A. The p o s i t i o n of a word i n a sentence often determines i t s case: 1. I t ' s me. Det er mig. 2. He i s t a l l e r than me. Han er hjzJjere end mig. 3. Karen l i k e s l i c o r i c e Karen elsker ladrids bedre better than me. end mig. Ambiguity occurs with sentences l i k e number 3 above. There has long been a tendency i n both Danish and English for declensional case endings to be dropped, while word positioning has become increasingly s i g n i f i c a n t i n determining inter-word r e l a t i o n s h i p s . Danish has evolved a more d e f i n i t e word order pattern than has English. (Danish scholars did not think that Danish had to conform to Latin and Greek quite as much as English scholars thought that English had to.) The l i n g u i s t i c contact of Danish with English helped to speed up an already e x i s t i n g movement within English. Compare the three sentences above and the demise of the d i s t i n c t i o n of who and whom: Who should I see about my application? 34 D a n i s h l o s t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between who and whom c e n t u r i e s ago. N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n h as i n g e n e r a l l o s t t h e d i s t i n c t i o n t o o . However, due t o t h e w r i t t e n s t a n d a r d , we s t i l l e x p e r i e n c e some i n s t a n c e s o f whom as p r e s c r i b e d f o r w r i t t e n E n g l i s h o r i n t h e f o r m o f h y p e r - u r b a n i s m s . T h i s r e d u c t i o n i n t h e d i s t i n c t i o n o f who/whom t o s i m p l y who may have o c c u r r e d as a r e s u l t o f word o r d e r r e q u i r e m e n t s ; whom, i f p l a c e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f a s e n t e n c e f o u n d i t s e l f i n v a r i a b l y c h anged t o t h e n o m i n a t i v e c a s e . B. The a t t r i b u t i v e noun m o d i f i e s t h e a b s t r a c t noun: The r e a d i n e s s w i t h w h i c h A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h f o r m s com-po u n d nouns has b e e n n o t e d by H.L. Mencken who w r i t e s : German i n f l u e n c e may a l s o have s o m e t h i n g t o do , w i t h t h e e x t r a o r d i n a r y f a c i l i t y v / i t h w h i c h A m e r i c a n forms compound nouns. I n most o t h e r modern l a n g u a g e s t h e p r o c e s s i s r a r e , and E n g l i s h i t s e l f l a g s f a r b e h i n d A m e r i c a n . B u t i n German i t i s a l m o s t un-r e s t r c i t e d . l T h i s i s a v e r y t r u e s t a t e m e n t b u t weak i n t h e s e n s e t h a t i t s l i g h t s t h e o t h e r c o n t i n e n t a l G e r m a n i c l a n g u a g e s . C e r t a i n l y t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n l a n g u a g e s h a ve made an i m p o r t a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h i s phenomenon i n A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h . T h i s t e n d e n c y t o more f r e e l y f o r m compound nouns m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f i n s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t ways i n N o r t h A m e r i c a n . F i r s t t h e r e i s t h e a t t r i b u t i v e noun. The a t t r i b u t i v e noun has l o n g b e e n u s e d i n E n g l i s h p l a c e d i n f r o n t o f a n o t h e r noun i n o r d e r t o m o d i f y i t v e r y much as an a d j e c t i v e m o d i f i e s a noun. The A m e r i c a n L a n g u a g e , New Y o r k : 1937, p. 159. 35 In standard B r i t i s h E n g l i s h , however, the a t t r i b u t i v e noun has been used t o modify o n l y the concrete noun, as i n such expressions as speech organ. The use of the a t t r i b u t i v e noun has been extended i n America to i n c l u d e the m o d i f i c a t i o n o f the a b s t r a c t noun, speech c o n t r o l . T h i s extended usage which B r i t a i n has now imported from America i s a time honored, normal s t r u c t u r e of the Danish language, compare the Danish naestekeerlighed ( c h a r i t y ) , f r o s t s k a d e ( f r o s t i n j u r y ) , e l s k o v s l e g ( d a l l i a n c e ) , v a r i a t i o n s e v n e ( a p t i t u d e f o r v a r i a t i o n ) . , magtomraade (sphere of i n f l u e n c e ) , sprogbehandling ( s t y l e ) , e t c . A l i s t of t y p i c a l American a t t r i b u t i v e nouns i n c l u d e s the f o l l o w i n g : speech therapy p u p i l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n s t a l l m e n t p l a n c h i l d command tense sequence t o o l s u b j e c t s neighborhood p r o j e c t s t o o l a c t i v i t i e s music experiences p i l - s l i c k damage language usage Hoover a g i t a t i o n shop a c t i v i t i e s employee morale teacher e f f o r t employee ownership p u p i l a c t i v i t i e s employee r e s p o n s i b i l i t y p u p i l use energy r e s o u r c e s p u p i l p a r t i c i p a t i o n v e s s e l e x c e l l e n c e Ambiguities become apparent when we see c h i l d guidance a l o n g s i d e of teacher guidance or w i t h s o l d i e r d i s c i p l i n e or the t i t l e The I d i o t Teacher, a book p u b l i s h e d i n B r i t a i n i n 1952. H.W. H o r w i l l w r i t e s of t h i s a d j e c t i v a l use o f s u b s t a n t i v e s s t a t i n g , 2 "This p r a c t i c e i s f a r more common i n America than i n England." SPE T r a c t 45, p. 192. 36 C. A t t r i b u t i v e nouns without the Saxon genitive: There i s a second type of a t t r i b u t i v e noun i n American English which also has i t s Danish forerunner. This a t t r i b u t i v e noun i s i n contrast to i t s counterpart i n B r i t a i n which has the Saxon genitive, e.g. butcher's shop, barber's shop. The neglect of the Saxon genitive i s patterned on the Danish barberstue, skraedderbutik, slagterbod, etc. Thus i n American English we can l i s t barber shop, butcher shop and t a i l o r shop. An extension of t h i s type of compounding may be seen i n sport  coat and sport jacket. " D. The word "half" becomes a p r e f i x : A t h i r d type of compounding i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both Danish and American as opposed to B r i t i s h . Concerning t h i s H.W. Horwill i n "American Variations" writes, "A difference in,the order of words may be noted i n the use of the i n d e f i n i t e 3 a r t i c l e . " An American w i l l say a half mile, a half hour, <a hal f dozen, a half inch, a h a l f pound and the l i k e , whereas a B r i t i s h e r w i l l say ha l f a mile, half an hour, half a dozen, ha l f an inch... The Danish pattern for t h i s construction i s en halvmil, en halvtimer, the not so common en halvdusin, en  halvtommer, and et halvpund. E. The adjective free becomes a s u f f i x : A fourth type of compounding i n American i s simple and d i r e c t ; i t i s the adjective free used as a hyphenated post-posited member of a compound word, some examples are i c e - f r e e , SPE Tract 45, pp. 191-2. 37 germ-free, alcohol-free, n i c o t i n - f r e e , c a f f e i n e - f r e e, sugar- free and rent-free. The Danish pattern i s i s f r i , a l c o h o l f r i , 4 s u k k e r f r i , etc. F. Adverbial extensions: "The adverb, on the whole, has a far more important 5 role i n America than i n B r i t a i n . " In the Scandinavian languages the adverb, more s p e c i f i c a l l y the adverbial p a r t i c l e , has an even greater r o l e , being a part of both separable and inseparable verbs. The strong p o s i t i o n that the adverb enjoys i n the Scandinavian languages has been one of the bases from which the English adverb has received added importance i n America. The adverb with i t s extended usage may now be used to i n t e n s i f y verbs which have endured i n B r i t a i n for centuries without such help. These adverbs may seem useless or added weight to some B r i t i s h observers; nevertheless they f i l l i n a gap for m i l l i o n s of immigrants and t h e i r descendants. We f i n d : add up eat up beat up face up to check up figure out close down get i t over with dust o f f give out load up s t a r t out heat up - s t a r t i n lock up s t a r t up lose out tes t out meet up with t r y out 4 Steven J. Byington i n "The A t t r i b u t i v e Noun Once More" Am. Sp. v o l . 7, p. 74, comments that t h i s construction and that of nouns prefixed by world (World War, world hi s t o r y , and world commerce) smack strongly of "made i n Germany" and thinks the language r i c h e r for t h e i r addition. 5H.W. Horwill, SPE Tract 45, p. 194. 38 miss out on v i s i t with pass up watch out rest up win out shut down wipe o f f sound out wrap up This l i s t was compiled from a multitude of sources, among them' being G.V. Carey, Walther Fischer, Marian Gleason, and H.W. Horwill. ' . G. The American separable verb replaces Romance "impurities": The use of adverbs i n America has another d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e — t h e preference of a combination of a monosyllabic verb and adverb to a p o l y s y l l a b i c verb. (Here we have an example of the movement back to the Anglo-Saxon or purer Germanic at the expense of the Romance elements i n English.) Thus, we ;have go out for collapse, throw down for r e j e c t , pass up for decline, l e t up for d e s i s t , s l i p up for commit an error, put across for secure the adoption of, stand for for to l e r a t e , stand up to for r e s i s t , get away with for succeed, . and get by for manage. H.W. Horwill states: The advantage of the American idiom i s that i t preserves the vividness of the metaphor, while i n the English idiom one has almost come to forget that the term employed involves any metaphor at a l l . 6 I t might be f a i r to mention that American English seems inv a r i a b l y to resort to La t i n and Greek based words when s o c i a l uneasiness or taboo p r e v a i l s , compare mortician, memorial gardens, forward defense, or Department of Defense, Sigma Chi Alpha, and sanitation engineer, with undertaker, churchyard, SPE Tract 45, p. 195. 39 aggression, War O f f i c e , the Club, and plumber or dustman. H. Separable verb syntax pattern follows Danish: A possible Danish influence i s to be seen i n the frequency with which the American language places the adverbial p a r t i c l e of the separable verb aft e r the object of the verb instead of immediately aft e r the verb. Thus we have I took my shoes o f f rather than I took o f f my shoes. The Danish i s Jeg tog mine sko af. Only i n " f o l k e v i s e r " (scaldic poetry) i s a s y n t a c t i c a l transformation possible. I. "So that" construction reinforced by Danish substratum: In America, a consequence clause that follows an adjective by "enough" has a structure which d i f f e r s markedly from the ^standard B r i t i s h . This structure p a r a l l e l s exactly 7 the Danxsh. G.V. Carey l i s t s the following examples: 1. I t was l a t e enough so that wedding guests had already reached the church. Det var sent nok t i l at... I t was late enough for wedding guests to have... 2. ... an exercise gentle enough so that the doctors had not forbidden i t . ( s i ) ... en 0velse mild nok ( t i l ) at laeggerne havde ikke forbud det. ... an exercise gentle enough for the doctors not to have... American into English, London: 1953, p. 25. The Danish i s mine. 40 3. The d r u g s t u p e f i e s them l o n g enough so t h a t t h e y c a n be c a u g h t . D r o g e t b e d r o v e r dem l a n g nok t i l a t . . . The d r u g s t u p e f i e s them l o n g enough f o r them t o be c a u g h t . J. The r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n r e d u c e d t o one i t e m : T h e r e i s a n o t i c e a b l e c o - o c c u r r e n c e r e g a r d i n g t h e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n . R e g a r d l e s s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , i n D a n i s h t h e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n c a n be d e s i g n a t e d w i t h a s i n g l e l e x i c a l i t e m , e . g . som ( e x c e p t f o r t h e g e n i t i v e h v i s ) . L i k e w i s e , N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n t h a t s e r v e s f o r a l l o c c u r r e n c e s o f t h e r e l a t i v e p r o n o u n ( e x c e p t f o r t h e g e n i t i v e w h o s e ) . K. The o m m i s s i o n o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c o n j u c t i o n t h a t : O t t o J e s p e r s e n i n Growth and S t r u c t u r e o f t h e E n g l i s h 8 L a nguage w r o t e o f t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e s u b o r d i n a t e c o n j u n c t i o n t h a t as one o f s e v e r a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s between Modern E n g l i s h and Modern D a n i s h w h i c h he f e l t m i g h t p o s s i b l y d a t e b a c k t o t h e V i k i n g s e t t l e m e n t s . A l t h o u g h t h i s c l a i m c a n n o t be v e r i f i e d , (compare " S c a n d i n a v i a n I n f l u e n c e on E n g l i s h S y n t a x " i n PMLA v o l . 74, pp. 5 0 3 - 5 1 0 ) , t h e i n t i m a t e f u s i o n o f t h e two l a n g u a g e s must c e r t a i n l y h a v e i n f l u e n c e d s y n t a c t i c a l r e l a t i o n s . A r e v i v a l o r r e i n f o r c e m e n t o f t h i s p o s s i b l e S c a n d i n a v i a n i n f l u e n c e may be o b s e r v e d i n t h e f r e q u e n c y o f t h e o m i s s i o n o f t h e c o n -j u n c t i o n t h a t i n t h e " s e c o n d Danelaw". E x a m p l e : I t h i n k i t i s good. J e g s y n e s , d e t e r g o d t . O x f o r d : 1962, pp. 76-77. ' . . 41 L . Danish and German omit and i n f ive hundred f i f t y : Northern American very frequently omits and i n counting and t r a n s c r i b i n g numerals, e .g . s ix hundred t h i r t y , four hundred seven, and three hundred f o r t y - e i g h t . The Danish equivalents are: sex hundrede t r e d i v e , f i r e hundrede syv, t re hundrede otte og f y r r e . Carey on page 26 establ i shes t h i s as an Americanism.^ M. An American anocolthon has a Danish background: The tendency i n American Eng l i sh for one type of sentence to lack grammatical sequence can best be understood by analyzing i t s Danish forerunner. In relaxed Danish speech, the phonetic representat ions of both a t , the i n f i t i v e p a r t i c l e , and og, the coordinat ing conjunct ion, have experienced reduct ion or "Aufhebung" to be an unstressed [3] . Compare (Jens) Otto Jespersen's Modersmalets Fonet ik , Copenhagen, 1966, p, 180. A diagram of the reduct ion of these two words fo l lows: at - to og - and [a?] [o] v 101 ' ' LOl At varying degrees of "carefulness" a l l phonetic representations occur. The fo l lowing examples with t r a n s l a t i o n w i l l further demonstrate th i s s y n t a c t i c a l aberrat ion: o 9 American in to E n g l i s h , London: 1953. .1. I am going downtown and (to) buy a map. Jeg skal i n t i l byen og_ k^rb en landkort. 2. Be sure and (to) watch next week's show. Vasre sikker for _og se naeste uges udsendelse. 3. I would recommend that you try and Cto) do that. Jeg v i l l e anbefale at du prov og_ g#re det. In each of the above sentences, the Danish og_ should p r e s c r i p t i v e l y be at. The r e s u l t of t h i s "Aufhebung" followed by the unitary i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of og_ and at_ as og_ i s v i v i d l y observable i n Danish English and i n Danish American and Danish Canadian speech. This phenomenon i s now widely spread i n American English. • N . Danish and American have simpler syntax than B r i t i s h : In general, Danish and American are more e a s i l y read than B r i t i s h because the sentences are not as long and involved, i . e . B r i t i s h English has more r e l a t i v e clauses, embedded structure and U c o l l o c a t i o n " ^ than has eithe r Danish or American. This results from s o c i a l conditions and national character more than any l i n g u i s t i c c r i t e r i a . In B r i t a i n , a more formal, l i t e r a r y s t y l e i s expected i n more sit u a t i o n s . Perhaps, the t r a d i t i o n of excellence i n scholarship i n B r i t a i n i n the "public schools" and u n i v e r s i t i e s has fostered a Alan S.C. Ross' "U and non-U" i n Noblesse Oblige, p. 31 writes: "Among European languages English i s , surely, the one most suited to the study of l i n g u i s t i c class d i s t i n c t i o n . " The implication i s that B r i t i s h English contains more l i n g u i s t i c markers of class d i s t i n c t i o n than any other European language. The upper class accent and d i a l e c t i s unavailable to the lower classes. c u l t i v a t e d s t y l e among those who w i l l l a t e r come to publish or" broadcast. In Denmark and even more so i n America the national p r i o r i t i e s have been towards universal and uniform education with the resultant l e v e l i n g of excellence and of class d i a l e c t s . Denmark and America are by no means s i m i l a r ; Denmark, thoroughly European, has experienced uniformity i n education and l e v e l i n g of class d i a l e c t s p o l i t i c a l l y through social-democracy; America's r e l a t i v e lack of class d i a l e c t s can best be explained by the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t that i n a f r o n t i e r republic class differences were d i f f i c u l t to create or main-t a i n . CHAPTER V IDIOMS AND LEXICAL ITEMS CLASSED AS AMERICANISMS WITH THEIR PROBABLE DANISH PROTOTYPES SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Books and a r t i c l e s f r e q u e n t l y r e f e r r e d t o i n t h i s c h a p t e r a r e l i s t e d below w i t h a b b r e v i a t i o n s u sed: ALW A l l w o o d , M a r t i n S. American and B r i t i s h : A Handbook o f A m e r i c a n - B r i t i s h Language D i f f e r e n c e s . Habo: 1964. CAR C a r e y , G.V. American i n t o E n g l i s h : A Handbook f o r T r a n s l a t o r s . London: 1953. COD C o n c i s e O x f o r d D i c t i o n a r y . O x f o r d : 1964. HDAM : C r a i g i e , S i r W i l l i a m . H i s t o r i c a l D i c t i o n a r y o f American E n g l i s h . C h i c a g o : 1936-44. SWC . "The Growth o f American E n g l i s h " . S.P.E., T r a c t 56-7, pp. 199-264. DEO Dansk E n g e l s k Ordbog. Copenhagen: 1966. EVN Evans, Bergen and C o r n e l i a . A D i c t i o n a r y o f Con-temporary American Usage. New Y o r k : 1957. EDO E n g e l s k Dansk Ordbog. Copenhagen: 1964. BF F o s t e r , B r i a n . "Recent American I n f l u e n c e on S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h . " A n g l i a , V o l . 73 (1956), pp. 328-60. NBF . The Changing E n g l i s h Language. New York: 196 8. FOW F o w l e r , H.W. Modern E n g l i s h Usage. Second E d i t i o n by S i r E r n e s t Gowers. New York: 19 65. GLEN G l e n d e n i n g , P.J.T. Beyond t h e D i c t i o n a r y i n E n g l i s h f o r Swedish S p e a k e r s . London: 1966. 45 TOR H o l t e r , Thorwald E. "Twenty Idioms I l l u s t r a t i n g the I n f l u e n c e of Swedish on E n g l i s h . " American Speech, V o l . 6 (1930-31), pp. 216-17. HWH H o r w i l l , H.W. "American V a r i a t i o n s . " S.P.E. T r a c t 45, Oxford: 1936. MAU H o r w i l l , H.W. Modern American Usage. Oxford: 1949. MAT Mathews, M i t f o r d M. A D i c t i o n a r y of Americanisms. Chicago: 1951. OODS Ordbog Over Det Danske Sprog. Copenhagen: 1918. OED Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . Oxford: 1933. NIC N i c h o l s o n , Margaret. American-English Usage. New York, 1957. Nu 0 Nudansk Ordbog. Copenhagen: 1964. PAR P a r t r i d g e , E r i c and John W. C l a r k . B r i t i s h and American E n g l i s h Since 1900. London: 1951. SED S h o r t e r Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . Oxford: 1939. II ST Stone, Ruth M. St u d i e n uber den deutschen E i n f l u s s auf das amerikanische E n g l i s c h . D i s s e r t a t i o n f o r Doc t o r a t e . Marburg: 1934. P r i n t e d at Bochum-Langendreer, 1934. 46 The D a n i s h i n f l u e n c e i n N o r t h e r n American i s most e v i d e n t n o t i n the l e v e l o f morphology o r s y n t a x b u t i n t h e p a t t e r n i n g o f i d i o m s and l e x i c a l i t e m s . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o r p us o f i d i o m s and l e x i c a l i t e m s , the c i t a t i o n i s f i r s t g i v e n f o l l o w e d by i t s meaning o r extended usage. Then t h r e e s e n t e n c e s w i l l f o l l o w : 1. The N o r t h e r n American s e n t e n c e ; 2. The B r i t i s h S t a n d a r d E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t - ( B r . S t d . ) 1 ( i f no B r i t i s h e q u i v a l e n t i s a v a i l a b l e , the B r i t i s h e x p r e s s i o n i s e x p l a n a t o r y i n s t e a d o f i d i o m a t i c ) ; 3. The D a n i s h e x p r e s s i o n from w h i c h t h e American may have been d e r i v e d . Next w i l l come a comment whi c h w i l l a t t e m pt t o e s t a b l i s h t h e e x p r e s s i o n as an A m e r i c a n i s m , accompanied by any a d d i t i o n a l comment on t h e usage, h i s t o r i c a l b ackground, and s o u r c e s t o be compared. The N o r t h e r n American e x p r e s s i o n i s g i v e n f o r a number o f r e a s o n s : 1. The S c a n d i n a v i a n s s e t t l e d i n the n o r t h e r n a r e a o f A m e r i c a and i n f l u e n c e d speech i n t h a t a r e a t h e most. 2. N o r t h e r n American i s one o f the two d i a l e c t s w h i c h a re b a s i c t o G e n e r a l A m e r i c a n , t h e c o l l o q u i a l speech o f more r e c e n t l y s e t t l e d a r e a s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . 3. The N o r t h e r n American D i a l e c t , a p r e s t i g i o u s d i a l e c t , i s b e i n g used f r e q u e n t l y as a l i t e r a r y d i a l e c t a t t h i s t i m e when a u t h o r s and i n d e e d s o c i e t y make l i t t l e d i s t i n c t i o n between a c o l l o q u i a l s t y l e and l i t e r a r y s t y l e . Here t h e s t a n d a r d w r i t t e n language i s meant; the a c c e n t i s n o t i m p o r t a n t h e r e though u s u a l l y i t w i l l be S.S.B. o r an a p p r o x i m a t i o n , see page 10. ALL IN ALL Meaning: a l l things considered. Northern: Taken a l l i n a l l t h i s was a pretty good day. Br. Std.: A l l things considered t h i s was a pretty good day. Danish: A l t i a l t dagen var gasnske god. Comment: NBF pp. 92-3: The B r i t i s h usage died out sometime af t e r Shakespeare. This was revived or re-created i n America by 1851 i n M e l v i l l e ' s Moby Dick. Note the less equivalent German aires i n allem genommen. ALL MORNING, SUMMER, WEEK Meaning: Omission of the. Northern: People had waited a l l morning for the sun. Br. Std.: People had waited a l l the morning for the sun. Danish: Folket ha ventet hele morgen for solen. Comment: HWH p. 191: Although the B r i t i s h may say a l l day and a l l night, American has a l l morning, a l l week, etc. without the. This may be due to (a) in t e r n a l symmetrical!zation, (b) immigrants making English more regular, and (c) Scandinavian t r a n s l a t i o n loans of the post-posited d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e . Compare CAR p. 26, NBF p. 232, and MAU p. 6. ALL TIME Meaning: Northern: ever These are the greatest Pan Am Games of a l l time. This i s the worst cold s p e l l ever. De er a l l e r t i d e r s beste Pan Am Games.. Det er a l l e r t i d e r s kolde v i har nu. BF p. 331: notes that t h i s idiom came to B r i t a i n from American f i l m advertising. Head-l i n e writers and ad-men have patterned much from the terse continental Germanic languages. nearly, a l l but, next to, l i t t l e short of, p r a c t i c a l l y , v i r t u a l l y , so to speak, as good a: pretty well, just about, etc. He i s almost through. He has nearly f i n i s h e d . 1 Han er naesten fasrdig. Burroughs, G.E.R. i n A Study of the Vocabulary  of Young Children (London: 1937) , l i s t s t his as one of f i v e words' which are found i n a l l f i r s t thousand word frequency l i s t s i n America and not within the f i r s t thousand i n B r i t a i n . Thus we have an Americanism on frequency credentials only. The Danish c o r r e l a t i o n i s pointed out by the DEO, Vol. I I , pp. 39 and 60 "N.B. naesten kan gengives paa mange Maader". The Danish neesten can be translated into Engli i n many ways; the p r a c t i c a l immigrants found one "safe and d e f i n i t e " t r a n s l a t i o n for t h e i r 49 word and became ob l iv ious to the other s t y l i s t i c v a r i a t i o n s . Compare with comment on modal verbs p. 27. AND DO Be sure and do Try and do I'm going upsta irs and get See SYNTAX, Paragraph M. ANGLE Meaning: Northern: B r . Std . : Danish: Comment: ANY Meaning: Northern: B r . S t d . : Danish: Comment: viewpoint, perspective Look at medicare from my angle. Look at medicare from my point of view. Betragte sygekassen f r a min synsv inkle . E r i c Partr idge i n Usage and Abusage (London: 1965), p. 35, says that angle i s an Americanism. The f i r s t known recorded usage of Synvinkle i s dated 1799 by OODS. at a l l That d i d n ' t help him any. That d i d n ' t help him at a l l . Det hja.lp ham ikke noget. NIC p. 28 s ta tes , "any used for at a l l i s a (USl construct ion to be avoided." This Danish loan t r a n s l a t i o n to American occurs only i n f i n a l p o s i t i o n of a phrase, whereas B r i t i s h has "That 50 d i d n ' t a t a l l h e l p . " German has n o t a c l o s e e q u i v a l e n t . Compare EVN p. 36. a p r o n o u n u s e d i n s t e a d o f t h e a d v e r b i a l p h r a s e a t a l l . 8. ANYPLACE M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . : D a n i s h : Comment: N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . : D a n i s h : N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . : D a n i s h : anywhere I c a n ' t go a n y p l a c e . I c a n ' t go anywhere. J e g kan i k k e g a a nogen s t e d e r hen. EVN s a y s , " T h i s u s a g e i s n o t a c c e p t a b l e i n G r e a t B r i t a i n b u t o c c u r s t o o o f t e n i n t h e U.S. i n w r i t t e n as w e l l as s p o k e n E n g l i s h , t o be c a l l e d n o n s t a n d a r d . " Compare CAR p. 30 NIC p. 28, FOW p. 31. The - p l a c e morpheme seems t o be b a s e d i n p a r t a t l e a s t on a S c a n d i n a v i a n l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n o f s t e d f o u n d so s y m m e t r i c a l i n D a n i s h and N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n : p l a c e a n y p l a c e e v e r y p l a c e n o p l a c e p l a c e anywhere e v e r y w h e r e nowhere s t e d n o g l e s t e d e r a i l e s t e d e r i n g e n s t e r e d s o m e p l a c e somewhere n o g l e s t e d e r a n o t h e r p l a c e a n o t h e r p l a c e e t a n d e t s t e d 9. ANYMORE M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n : any l o n g e r They d o n ' t work t h e r e anymore. 51 Br. Std.: They no longer work there. Danish: De arbejder ikke der mere. Comment: E r i c Partride, Usage and Abusage (London: 1965), p. 37 and many grammar teachers t e l l us to avoid anymore as a synonym for now(adays). M i l l i o n s of immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany never heard t h i s admonition. Webster III c i t e s i t and quotes Ernest Hemingway and Betty Grable. The Scandinavian sememic preference would naturally be more and the syntactic preference would be subject, verb, adverb of place, adverb of time. 10. AROUND Meaning: about, approximately Northern: We l e f t around ten o'clock. Br. Std.: We l e f t about ten o'clock. Danish: V i tog afsted omkring klokken t i . Comment: EVN p. 41, states that i n America, I t i s used to mean within a certain area as i n They Traveled around Europe, and approx-imately, as i n He_ is_ worth around a m i l l i o n . These uses have been standard i n the U.S. for at least seventy-five years. (Dated 1957) The Danish omkring may have been the source of the Americanism and i f not then i t c e r t a i n l y reinforced around to i t s high frequency rating . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g here also to note that Northern American approximately i s not r e s t r i c t e d to indicate approaching c l o s e l y , coming near to, 52 b u t a l s o mean t o e x c e e d s l i g h t l y , i . e . a synonym o f a r o u n d : I have t w e n t y - t h r e e d o l l a r s , I have a p p r o x i m a t e l y t w e n t y d o l l a r s . 11. ASIDE FROM M e a n i n g : a p a r t f r o m , i n a d d i t i o n t o , e x c e p t f o r N o r t h e r n : A s i d e f r o m t h e m a t e r i a l , i t c o s t $200. B r . S t d . : I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e m a t e r i a l , i t c o s t $200. D a n i s h : Ved s i d e n a f m a t e r i a l e t k o s t e d e d e t 200 k r . Comment: The Dansk E n g e l s k Ordbog d e s i g n a t e s t h i s u s a g e as U.S. and t r a n s l a t e s i t v e d s i d e n a f . T h i s • - j t r a n s l a t i o n may a l s o i n d i c a t e i t s s o u r c e . HDAM d e s i g n a t e s t h i s as an A m e r i c a n i s m b u t d a t e s i t 1818, a b i t t o o e a r l y f o r l i k e l y S c a n d i n a v i a n i n f l u e n c e . Compare CAR 33, SWC 219, FOW 39, NIC 36. 12. AUTOMOBILE M e a n i n g : m o t o r - c a r N o r t h e r n : a u t o m o b i l e , a u t o • B r . S t d . : m o t o r - c a r D a n i s h : a u t o m o b i l , o r b i l Comment: FOW p. 43 comments, " I n s p i t e o f ' o u r g e n e r a l d i s p o s i t i o n t o b o r r o w words f r o m A m e r i c a we have f i r m l y r e j e c t e d t h e U.S. a u t o m o b i l e i n f a v o u r o f o u r m o t o r - c a r , m o t o r , o r now more g e n e r a l l y c a r . . . " Of i n t e r e s t h e r e i s t h e c o n t i n u e d u s e o f a u t o -m o b i l e i n A m e r i c a . One e x p l a n a t i o n must w e l l be 53 the German use of Auto and the Scandinavian use b i l . Together these German languages have kept automobile a l i v e . • 13. BACKED M e a n i n g : r e v e r s e d N o r t h e r n : I b a c k e d t h e c a r . B r . S t d . : I r e v e r s e d t h e c a r . S w e d i s h : J a g b a c k a d e b i l e n . Comment: ALW p. 123 o n l y l i s t s t h e above s e n t e n c e s . T h i s i t e m o c c u r s o n l y i n m o t o r i n g . 14. BACK OF M e a n i n g : b e h i n d N o r t h e r n : (In) b a c k o f t h e s t o r e . B r . S t d . : B e h i n d t h e sh o p . S w e d i s h : Bakom a f f a r e n . Comment: ALW p. 123 g i v e s o n l y t h e s e p h r a s e s . NIC p. 44 w r i t e s , b a c k o f as a p r e p o s i t i o n i s an A m e r i c a n , n o t a B r i t i s h , i d i o m . Much as i t . i s d e p l o r e d by many US s c h o l a r s , i t i s s e e m i n g l y e s t a b l i s h e d , a t l e a s t c o l l o q u i a l l y , as I n Back, o f ( i . e . b e h i n d ) t h e h o u s e i s a w i d e l a w n b o r d e r e d by f l o w e r s . I n b a c k o f , however, I s l e s s r e s -s p e c t a b l e , e v e n i n US. I n b a c k o f i s no d o u b t f o r m e d on a n a l o g y w i t h i n f r o n t o f and i s p r e f e r r e d sometimes t o t h e t o t h e c l i p p e d b a c k o f . P u r i t a n i c a l t a b o o may be a t work r e g a r d i n g b e h i n d . The S w e d i s h bakom i s a p o s s i b l e s o u r c e . Compare FOW p. 46 and CAR p . 34. 54 15. BAGGAGE Meaning: Northern: Br. S t d . : Danish: Comment: luggage l a y your baggage here. Lay your luggage here. Laag bagagen her. FOW p. 47 comments, "Englishmen t r a v e l by l a n d w i t h luggage and by sea and a i r w i t h baggage. Americans, more s e n s i b l y t r a v e l everywhere w i t h baggage." CAR p. 34 notes t h a t luggage i s more freq u e n t i n E n g l i s h and very r a r e i n American. Danish has onl y bagage which may have swayed American usage. American p u r i t a n taboo may again be p r e s e n t , c f . baggage (a saucy g i r l ) . 16. BAKERY Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: a baker's e s t a b l i s h m e n t Did you buy i t at the bakery? Did you buy i t a t the baker's? K0bte du den v i d b a g e r i e t . SWC p. 228 s t a t e s , " p o s s i b l y from the Dutch b a k k e r i j , noted as a n o v e l t y by E n g l i s h v i s i t o r s t o the Un i t e d S t a t e s as l a t e as 1846." The f i r s t d a t i n g i s giv e n as 1827. 17. BARBER SHOP, BUTCHER SHOP, TAILOR SHOP See Syntax paragraph C. CAR pp. 26 and 34. ST 86, HWII 176. 5 5 18. BEAN POLE Meaning: a reference for something very thin Northern: He i s as thin as a bean pole. Br. Std..: He i s as thin as a l a t h . Danish: Han er saa tynd som en b^nnestage. Comment: a good co r r e l a t i o n not commented on by others yet. 19. BELONG Meaning: Northern: Br. Std, Danish: a new meaning i n c o l l o c a t i o n with prepositions i n , with, among or no preposition at a l l ; being an i n t e g r a l part of something, or member of some group, and of being accepted or expected. Before 1932 the B r i t i s h usage was invar i a b l y :. followed by to. This tape doesn't belong here. She actually belongs i n a higher grade. This book belongs among the reserve c o l l e c t i o n . This pan belongs with the other t e f l o n s . This tape shouldn't be here. She actually should be placed i n a higher class This book belongs to the reserve c o l l e c t i o n . This pan should be with the other t e f l o n s . Dette baand hjzJrer ikke hjemme her. Hun h^rer fak t i s k hjemme i naeste klasse. Denne bog hearer t i l blandt de reserverede bfzSger. Denne pande h^rer hjemme blandt de andre Teflon-pander. Comment: OED f i r s t d a t i n g 1861 i n O.W. Holmes E l s i e Vernier. HWH p. 196: The e x p l a n a t i o n of the American use of i n , w i t h , and among a f t e r belong, which i n England i s i n v a r i a b l y f o l l o w e d by to_, seems to be t h a t belong may be used i n America i n a sense unknown i n England. The Danish h0re hjemme and htfre t i l are p o s s i b l e p r e c u r s o r s to t h i s American usage. Compare NBF p. 86. BETTER Meaning: more than Northern: He needs i t b e t t e r than I do. Br. S t d . : He needs i t more than I do. Swedish: Han behofver d e t b a t t r e and j a g . Comment: TOR p. 217 l i s t e d only t h i s example. Another example from a TV show f o l l o w s : I love my world b e t t e r than yours. Jeg kan l i d e min verden bedre end d i n . BLADE Meaning: newspaper name Northern: Blade Br. S t d . : Telegraph, Times, Observer, e t c . Danish: B l a d . Comment: W i n i f r e d Gregory i n American Newspapers: A Union L i s t (New York: 19 37), l i s t s the B r o w e r v i l l e Blade, the Hokah Blade, and the P e l i c a n Rapids Blade i n Minnesota alone. W i l d West movies sometimes have a "Blade" i n the mining town f o r l o c a l c o l o r . BLANK Meaning: a form Northern: F i l l out the blank on the counter. Br. S t d . : F i l l i n the form on the counter. Danish: U d f y l d b l a n k e t t e n paa d i s k e n . Comment: OED p. 902 marks o b s o l e t e "A document 'paper' or form w i t h spaces l e f t blank t o be f i l l e d up at the p l e a s u r e o f the person to whom i t i s g i v e n . " The q u o t a t i o n dates range from 1586 to 1780. T h i s i s most probably a case o f m a r g i n a l i t y but some re i n f o r c e m e n t from the Danish b l a n k e t i s c e r t a i n . Compare MAU p. 30 and f i l l out. BOAT Meaning: ocean-going v e s s e l Northern: Boats from a l l over the world pass by here. Br. S t d . : Ships from a l l over the world pass by here. Danish: Baade f r a h e l e verden s e j l e r f o r b i her. Comment: The Dansk-Engelsk Ordbog notes under baad (ogs om s t o r r e Skib) e s t a b l i s h i n g t h i s usage as standard Rigsdansk. I t i s t y p i c a l i n language c o n t a c t t h a t the m i n o r i t y language standard form w i l l . i n f l u e n c e o n l y the c o l l o q u i a l form o the m a j o r i t y language. 58 BOOK BINDERY Meaning: a book b i n d e r ' s e s t a b l i s h m e n t Northern: Take i t down to the book b i n d e r y . Br. S t d . : Take i t down t o the book b i n d e r ' s . Danish: Tag det ned t i l b o g b i n d e r i e t . Comment: SWC p. 228 dates t h i s as e a r l y as 1810 p o s s i b l y a f t e r the Dutch b i n d e r i j and i t i s e s t a b l i s h e d . r as an Americanism by the Penny C y c l o p e d i a i n 1833. The Danish b o g b i n d e r i and the German Buchbinderei undoubtedly r e i n f o r c e d t h i s usage. BY: s h o r t f o r good-bye—by analogy from H i ; see HI. CANDY Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: sweets I l o v e candy. I l o v e sweets. Jeg e l s k e r k a n d i s . In the n i n e t e e n t h century Danish kandis was the only sweets Danish c h i l d r e n c o u l d normally buy; i t became a g e n e r i c term f o r a l l sweets i n Danish and p o s s i b l y t r a n s f e r r e d t o Northern American. T h i s item i s common European from A r a b i c gand. Br. Std. has sugar candy.. The Swedish form and the o l d e r Danish form i s kandi CAR pp. 38, 39 e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s usage as an Americanism. 59 27. CLOUDBURST , M e a n i n g : a downpour o f r a i n . N o r t h e r n : The c l o u d b u r s t f l o o d e d t h e s t r e e t s , B r . S t d , D a n i s h : Comment: 28. COME BY M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . : D a n i s h : Comment: The downpour f l o o d e d t h e s t r e e t s . S k y b r u d e t oversv^mmede g a d e r n e . HDAM g i v e s i t an i n i t i a l d a t e o f 1817, t h e n e x t i s 1872 and t h e "+" he g i v e s i t i n d i c a t e s " t h a t t h e word o r s e n s e c l e a r l y o r t o a l l a p p e a r a n c e o r i g i n a t e d w i t h i n t h e p r e s e n t l i m i t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " D a n i s h s k y means c l o u d . T h e r e was a s e m a n t i c mix-up d u r i n g t h e V i k i n g e r a ; t h e A n g l i a n s b o r r o w e d t h e word b u t ch a n g e d t h e me a n i n g , a l o a n - s h i f t . c a l l , l o o k , l o o k s . o . up, v i s i t I t was n i c e t o have h i m come by a f t e r c h u r c h . I t was n i c e o f h i m t o c a l l a f t e r c h u r c h . Det v a r r a r t a t han komme f o r b i e f t e r g u d s t j e n e s t e . MAU p. 74 e s t a b l i s h e s i t as an A m e r i c a n i s m . The EDO t r a n s l a t e s come by as komme f o r b i and g i v e s t h e example: N e x t t i m e y o u ' r e o v e r h e r e come by. 29. COOKBOOK M e a n i n g : c o o k e r y book N o r t h e r n : Cookbook 60 Br. S t d . : Cookery book. Danish: Kogebog. Comment: MAU and Dansk Engelsk Ordbog e s t a b l i s h i t as an Americanism. Compare HWH p. 176 and NBF p. 101, and cookstove. 30. CONDUCTOR Meaning: Northern: Br. S t d . : Danish: Comment: guard, an o f f i c i a l on a t r a i n The conductor punched my t i c k e t . The guard punched my t i c k e t . Kondukt^ren k l i p p e d e min b i l l e t . HDAM c i t e s i t as an Americanism and g i v e s 1839 as the i n i t i a l date. Compare MAU p. 79 and Glen p. 35. 31. COWORKER Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: a f e l l o w worker, a c o l l e a g u e Coworker. Co-worker, f e l l o w worker, c o l l e a g u e . Medarbejder. HWH p. 176 comments on the American omission of the hyphen. Danish has no hyphen i n n a t i v e compound words. Co- i t s e l f seems t o be an Americanism, perhaps a l o a n - c r e a t i o n from the Danish med- and the German mit-. 32 DOCTOR Meaning: t i t l e f o r Ph.D., M.D., Surgeon, .Dentist, D r u g g i s t , e t c . 61 Northern: Good morning, Dr. Lee; may I h e l p you? Br. S t d . : Good morning, Mr. Lee; may I h e l p you? Danish: God morgen Dr. Jensen, e r De b l i v e t b e t j e n t ? Comment: Glen p. 46 w r i t e s : In England, you may be a d o c t o r of s c i e n c e or music or p h i l o s o p h y , or almost anything but medicine, ye t be p l a i n 'Mr.' j u s t the same. Even d e n t i s t s are not r e f e r r e d t o as ' d o c t o r 1 . I t i s a s a f e bet t h a t anyone known as 'Doctor Someone' i s e i t h e r a medical d o c t o r , or e l s e a f o r e i g n s c h o l a r (probably of economics or p h i l o s o p h y ) . In America as i n c o n t i n e n t a l Europe g e n e r a l l y , i t seems one i s more t i t l e c o n s c i o u s . See t i t l e s . Compare PAR p. 314 and ST pp. 64, 65. 33. DOLLAR Meaning: 5 a monetary unit. Northern: D o l l a r . (a l a r g e u n i t of currency) Br. S t d . : Pound. (a l a r g e u n i t of currency) Danish: D a l e r . (a l a r g e u n i t of currency) Comment: F r i e d r i c h Kluge, i n Etymologisches Worterbuch  der deutschen Sprache ( B e r l i n : 1963) , s t a t e s t h a t t a l e r , the o r i g i n a l German form, i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n o f J o a c h i m s t a l e r which i n t u r n was a coinage (note pun) meaning "of the s i l v e r mined i n the Joachim V a l l e y . " ST p. 19 t e l l s us t h a t the usage d o l l a r was a p p l i e d to a c o i n i n the Spanish c o l o n i e s of America and used i n the B r i t i s h North American c o l o n i e s . The Danish 62 d a l e r t o g e t h e r w i t h i t s German and D u t c h e q u i v a l e n t s s e r v e d t o r e i n f o r c e t h i s usage, 34. -DOM: See C h a p t e r I I I , p a r a g r a p h I . A. 35. DUMB M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n ; B r . S t d . : D a n i s h : Comment: s t u p i d He i s r e a l l y dumb. He i s r a t h e r s t u p i d . Neg, h v o r e r han dum. N e a r l y a l l o u r s o u r c e s comment on dumb. ST pp. 20-22 makes t h e l o n g e s t comment and n o t e s t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f dumb i n : d u m b - b e l l , dumb-r o c k , dumb-Dora, dumb-head, dumb e g g , rum-dumb, dumb c l u c k , dumb b l o n d e s and o t h e r s . NBF p. 93 m e n t i o n s t h a t " d e a f and dumb" i s b e i n g p h a s e d - o u t and r e p l a c e d by "a d e a f mute" Compare MAU pp. 113-4, HWH p. 176 and W e b s t e r who c r e d i t s German P e n n s y l v a n i a n D u t c h and D u t c h b u t n e g l e c t s t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n s . 36. EAT M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . : D a n i s h : Comment: t a k e one's m e a l s D i d y o u e a t y e t ? ^i'.^)tfet ] ( r a p i d s p e e c h ) Have y o u h a d ( b r e a k f a s t ) ( l u n c h ) ( d i n n e r ) y e t ? Har du i k k e s p i s t endu? MAU p. 115: T h e r e a r many p a s s a g e s i n t h e A u t h o r i z e d V e r s i o n o f t h e B i b l e where e a t = t a k e one's m e a l s . T h i s m e a n i n g , now o b s c u r e i n E n g l a n d , 63 p e r s i s t s i n America. (One may compare the use of the German e s s e n ) . • • ' The Danish s p i s e probably r e i n f o r c e d t h i s s u r v i v a l . Com-pare Swedish a t a and HWH p. 176. 37. -ERY See bakery and book-bindery. -Ery has become p r o d u c t i v e i n America. Mencken i n American  Language, Supp. I, pp. 348-349 l i s t s groggery, creamery, g r o c e r y , wiggery, stemmery, c o b b l e r y , renewry, f i x e r y , j u i c e r y , c a t t e r y , r a b b i t r y , c y c l e r y , condensery, c h i c k e r y , bowlery, sweetery, beanery, eggery, r e f r e s h e r y , henry, e a t e r y , cakery, car-washery, doughtnutery, l u n c h e r y , mendery, s t i t c h e r y , n u t t e r y , chow-meinery, d r i n k e r y , dancery, h a t t e r y , d e a n e r y , d r i l l e r y , squabery, snackery, b r e a k f a s t e r y , s m e l t e r y , and skunkery. 38. IN THE EVENT THAT Meaning: i f Northern: In the event t h a t he comes t e l l him a l i e . Br. S t d . : I f he comes t e l l him a l i e . Danish: I t i l f a e l d e t af at han kommer, f o r t a a l ham en 10gn. Comment: NBF p . 5 7 : American i s sometimes more pompous and long-winded than B r i t i s h , as i s the cumbersome i n the event t h a t f o r ' i f ' , a ponderous phrase which i s g a i n i n g ground i n B r i t a i n though v e r y s l o w l y . 39. EVERYPLACE: see Anyplace. -FEST: See Chapter I I I , paragraph I. B. FEVER Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: an abnormally high body temperature She had a pretty bad fever. She had a rather high temperature. Hun havde en ganske slem feber. Glen p. 136: When i n Swedish you say that someone har feber ( l i t e r a l l y "fever"), we say i n English that 'he has a b i t of a temperature' or 'a high temperature'. EVN p. L76 indicates that temperature probably began as a euphemism to avoid the once-frightening fever. Scandinavian and other Germanic languages served to keep the o r i g i n a l usage. FILL OUT Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: to write information on a form F i l l out t h i s form i n BLOCK LETTERS. F i l l i n this form. Please P r i n t . Udfyld blanketten med blokbogstaver. Walther Fischer i n "Amerikanisches Englisch" in Handbuch der Amerikakunde (Berlin: 1931): Gelegentlich scheinen beim Amerikanischen deutsche E i n f l u s s e die Wahl der Praposition zu bestimmen (etwa amer. to f i l l out a blank, b i t Engl. to f i l l i n a form....). The Scandinavian influence was present too. Compare CAR p. 50. 65 43, FINALLY Meaning: a t l a s t , a t l e n g t h Northern: F i n a l l y the n o r t h wind gave up. Br. S t d . : At l a s t the no r t h wind gave up. Danish: E n d e l i g gav nordenvinden op. Comment: CAR p. 50: In E n g l i s h t h i s adverb normally marks the l a s t stage i n a s e r i e s f u l l y s t a t e d : 'He stopped, s t a r e d at me, stammered something, and f i n a l l y turned and ran.' American uses i t f a r more f r e e l y , o f t e n w i t h l i t t l e t o l e a d up t o i t , and o c c a s i o n a l l y where 'at l e n g t h ' or 'at l a s t ' would be the n a t u r a l E n g l i s h phrase:. I s t a r e d at him f o r a moment. F i n a l l y I s a i d . . . / I t h i n k I f i n a l l y understand what went w r o n g . / F i n a l l y you're here./So you f i n a l l y came ('so you have come at l a s t ' ) . The Danish e n d e l i g would f i t i n p e r f e c t l y i n each case o f f i n a l l y above. Compare NBF p. 210, the f o o t n o t e . 44. FIRE ( v . t r . and absol.) Meaning: d i s m i s s from p l a c e o f employment Northern: Joan got f i r e d y e s t e r d a y . Br. S t d . : Joan was sacked y e s t e r d a y . Danish: Johanne b l e v f y r e t i g a a r . Comment: HDAM p.975 i n d i c a t e s i t t o be an Americanism and l i s t s 1887 as the f i r s t date. OODS says t h i s i s probably the same word as the s i x t e e n t h century Danish f y r e loaned from P l a t t d e u t s c h f i r e n a c t u a l l y the same word as f y r e , t o c e l e b r a t e , c f . f y r a f t e n and German Feierabend. 66 45. FIRST NAME * Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: • Danish: Comment: Chr i s t i a n name or given name Remember: l a s t name f i r s t and f i r s t name la s t , Remember: surname f i r s t and Ch r i s t i a n name l a s t . Husk nu at anbringe efternavet f ^ r s t og fornavnet s i d s t . CAR p. 51 says that f i r s t name i s more usual than "Christian name" i n America; i n England t h i s frequency rating i s reversed. This con-s t i t u t e s another case for Scandinavian r e i n -forcement. Last name and surname also have t h i s frequency r e l a t i o n . Compare Glen p. 96. 46. FLOOR (numbering) Meaning: storey, l e v e l Only i n North America and Norway of the Western world does one f i n d that the ground l e v e l f l o o r and the f i r s t f l o o r are synonyms. Thus the tenth f l o o r i n America and Norway i s the ninth f l o o r i n England. 47. .-FREE; See Chapter IV paragraph E, 48. FREEZING Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: uncomfortable due to the low temperature I am freezing. I am so cold, i t ' s quite c h i l l y . Jeg f r y s e r . 67 Comment: This idiom i s used with great frequency i n both Denmark and Northern America. Often the temperature can be quite comfortable, e.g. ' 20°C, 72°F but s t i l l one hears I'm freezing, Jeg f r y s e r . TOR p. 217 points out the p a r a l l e l structure and usage of the Swedish expression and i t s equivalent i n America. 4 9 . FRESH Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: cheeky, impudent He i s awfully fresh. He i s very cheeky. Han er meget f raek. NBF p. 93 comments that fresh Is an example of the process whereby the errors of German-Americans have enlarged the scope of the English dictionary. Foster continues, In German the equivalent word for fresh as in fresh a i r i s f r i s c h , but there Is another word frech, 1 cheeky 1, 'impudent' which Is vaguely s i m i l a r i n sound to the English fresh. I t appears that German immigrants i n the U.S.A. must have taken fresh to be equivalent not only to f r i s c h but also to frech. Hence to get fresh equals to make amorous advances. Substitute Scandinavian for German, f r i s k for f r i s c h , and frask for frech and a good case for Scandinavian influence i s made. Also, Danish humor and coversation i s far more oriented towards sex than i s that of the earnest Germans; Danish, therefore, may be a more 68 l o g i c a l source o f t o get f r e s h . . Compare ST pp. 29-30 and HWH p. 176. 50. GET ANYTHING OUT OF Meaning: t o reap b e n e f i t s from Northern: Are you g e t t i n g anything out of your club? Br. S t d . : Do you f e e l your c l u b i s worth while? Danish: Faar du noget ud af d i n klub? Comment: The p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e i s s t r i k i n g . 51. GET TO See modal v e r b s , Chapter I I I , paragraph H. 52. HOW IS IT GOING? . Meaning: a g r e e t i n g i n p h a t i c speech Northern: H i , how's i t going? Br. S t d . : Good morning, how are you? Danish: Davs, hvordan gaar det? Comment: The American i s a l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of the Danish. Ger: Wie geht es Ihnen? or b e t t e r Wie geht's? i s an obvious c o u n t e r p a r t . 53. GOOD (adv.) Meaning: w e l l ' Northern: We know i t good. Br. S t d . : We know i t w e l l . Danish: V i ved det godt. Comment: T h i s i s supported by other Germanic languages. 69 54 . .You've NEVER HAD IT SO GOOD Meaning: t h i n g s are b e t t e r than ever Northern: You've never had i t so good. Br. Std..: Things have never been b e t t e r . Danish: Du har a l d r i g h a f t det saa godt. Comment: During a two-year stay i n Germany I may have heard the l i t e r a l t r a n s l a t i o n of t h i s American-ism a h a l f dozen times, but i n Denmark I heard t h i s e x p r e s s i o n s e v e r a l times a month. In Vancouver, today, t h i s e x p r e s s i o n i s common i n Danish, German and a m u l t i t u d e of other l a n -guages . I t i s a popular a c t i v i t y of immigrants t o compare the m a t e r i a l advantages of Canada w i t h those of the Old Country. Goethe once used t h i s idiom, compare NBF p. 89. 55. GIVE Meaning: Northern: Br. S t d . : Danish: Comment: y i e l d , produce T h i s farm w i l l g i v e f o r t y bushels per acre. T h i s farm w i l l y i e l d f o r t y bushels per a c r e . Denne gaard v i i g i v e f y r r e skaapper pr hektar. Jesse W. H a r r i s , "German Language I n f l u e n c e s , St . C l a i r Co., I l l i n o i s " , Am. Sp_. v o l . 23, p. 106, e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s as a Germanism i n America. T h i s usage i s widespread. 56. be GRADUATED from Meaning: to r e c e i v e a degree from an i n s t i t u t i o n 70 Northern: He was graduated from M.S.U. i n 1930. Br. S t d . : He graduated from Edinburgh i n 1930. Danish: Han b l e v d i m i t t e r e t (promoveret) f r a M.S.U. i 1930. Comment: HWH p. 181 notes t h a t Americans p r e f e r t o say be graduated and on page 19 8 observes t h a t graduate from i s u n - E n g l i s h . 57. GREET Meaning: g i v e my regards t o Northern: Greet my f r i e n d s f o r me. Br. S t d . : Give my regards to my f r i e n d s . Danish: H i l s mine venner f r a mig. Comment: TOR p. 216 shows the s i m i l a r i t y i n s t r u c t u r e between Swedish and Northern. 58. HALF See compound nouns, Chapter IV, paragraph D. 59. HALTER Meaning: a b r a designed f o r a more p u b l i c d i s p l a y . Northern: She was i n h a l t e r and s h o r t s . Br. S t d . : She was i n b r a and s h o r t s . Danish: Hun var kl a ^ d t 1 b u s t e h o l d e r og s h o r t s . Comment: NBF p. 87 notes t h i s i s an Americanism. 60. HANS CHRISTIAN ANDERSEN NBF p. 22 informs us t h a t t h i s form i s an Americanism. In England, t h i s g r e a t f a i r y - t a l e w r i t e r i s known as Hans Andersen. A t r u l y 71 A m e r i c a n f o r m w o u l d be Hans C. A n d e r s e n b u t t h i s i s r u l e d o u t by D a n i s h A m e r i c a n s who s a y e i t h e r H.C. A n d e r s e n o r Hans C h r i s t i a n A n d e r s e n . HELP M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . ; D a n i s h : Comment: d o m e s t i c s e r v a n t The h e l p w i l l be m o v i n g s o o n . The ( d o m e s t i c ) s e r v a n t s w i l l be m o v i n g s o o n . H u s h j a ^ l p e r n e f l y t t e r s n a r t . EDO marks t h i s as an A m e r i c a n i s m . H e l p i s an euphemism f o r s e r v a n t . Danes and A m e r i c a n s a r e r e l u c t a n t t o show c l a s s d i s t i n c t i o n s i n t h e i r homes. Compare HWH p. 185. HEX (v. and n.) M e a n i n g : t o c a s t a s p e l l ; a w i t c h ; a s p e l l N o r t h e r n : He c a n hex y o u . B r . S t d . : He c a n c a s t a s p e l l on y o u . D a n i s h : Han k a n f o r h e k s e d i g . Comment: W e b s t e r c r e d i t s t h i s t o P e n n s y l v a n i a D u t c h . The noun i s a s t r a i g h t l o a n f r o m t h e G e r m a n i c l a n g u a g e s . Compare ST p. 36 and Math p. 79 8. HI M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . : S w e d i s h : a g r e e t i n g H i , how's i t g o i n g ? H e l l o , how a r e you? H e j ; Hej p a a d i g ! 72 64. Comment: Webster t e l l s us that i t comes from M.E. hy which he does not gloss. OED states: [a p a r a l l e l form to Hey]. Hi enjoys very high frequency among students today. The American usage of Hi_ i s more clos e l y patterned on the Swedish greeting than on the M.E. i n t e r j e c t i o n , HOME (syntactically) Meaning: at place of residence No.one was home when I c a l l e d . Northern Br. Std. Danish: Comment: 65. HOPEFULLY Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: No one was.at home when I c a l l e d . Der var ingen hjemme, da jeg ringede. CAR p. 56 establishes this usage as d i s -t i n c t i v e l y American. The deletion of at i n American has i t s forerunner i n the Danish post-posited adverbial p a r t i c l e . Thus we have hjem, (home) and hjemme (at home): the schwa ending i s reduced further to a zero grade i n Jutlandish o p t i m i s t i c a n t i c i p a t i o n Hopefully a decision w i l l be made soon. We hope that a decision w i l l be made soon. Forhaabentlig b l i v e r en afgjzfrelse snart t r u f f e t . The B r i t i s h usage of hopefully i s very infrequent and always much l a t e r i n the sentence OED c i t e s : He set to work hopefully. This i s an adverb modifying the verb work. The 73 American usage allows h o p e f u l l y t o be the m o d i f i e r o f the whole sentence. A s i m i l a r s y n t a c t i c a l p a t t e r n i s found w i t h f i n a l l y , e n d e l i g ; s t r a n g e l y , m a e r k e l i g t v i s ; and l u c k i l y , h e l d i g v i s , 66. IN BACK OF: See back o f . 67. IN-BUILT Meaning: - Northern; Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: c o n s t r u c t e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of There i s an i n - b u i l t c o o l e r i n t h i s u n i t . . T h i s u n i t c o n t a i n s a c o o l e r . Der er en indbygget k o l e r i den her tingest,. Both b u i l t - i n and i n - b u i l t may have been modelled on the Danish. NBF p. 106 p o i n t s t o , G, eingebaut. 68. INSIDE OF Meaning: P r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase o f time Northern: T h i s paper i s due i n s i d e of two weeks Br. S t d . : T h i s paper i s due i n l e s s than a f o r t n i g h t , Danish: Denne a f h a n d l i n g s k a l a f l e v e r e s inden to uger. Comment: T h i s p r e p o s i t i o n a l phrase i s d e s c r i b e d as an Americanism by EVN p. 244 and OED. Both a l s o mention t h a t i t i s c o l o n i a l . Although i t f o l l o w s a Danish usage, i t may be a m a r g i n a l i t y as w e l l w i t h c o - i n c i d e n t a l Danish p a r a l l e l form or Danish r e i n f o r c e m e n t . Compare German i n n e r h a l b . 74 69. IN TWO Meaning: Northern Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: break to pieces, to smithereens The window pane broke i n two. The window pane broke to pieces. Vinduesruden gik j t u . The Dansk Engelsk Ordbog translates i t u to a l l i n pieces. The Danish and the American both mean the same but the B r i t i s h English i n two must be taken l i t e r a l l y . 70. IN YEARS See Prepositions 7 1 . -IZE See Morphology Chapter I I I , paragraph I..C, 72. JUSl1 (how, that, when, where, why, etc.) Meaning: how exactly, p r e c i s e l y that... Northern: Just when d i d you come home? When exactly did you come home? Just nar kam n i hem? Br. Std. Swedish: Comment: NBF p. 46 c a l l s these "American compounds". Norwegian and Swedish use these expressions often, c f . just nar han kom (just when he came) The Danish usage of these expressions seems to be an obvious imitation of Swedish. 7 3 . LAST NAME See f i r s t name. 74, LOAN (v.) Meaning: to lend Northern: He loaned his pen to me. 75 Br. S t d . : He l e n t h i s pen to me. -Danish: Han l a a n t e mig s i n pen. Comment: . OED says t h a t t h i s usage i s now c h i e f l y U.S. T h i s verb, o r i g i n a l l y a form i n M.E. from the V i k i n g i n f l u e n c e , l o s t i t s u s e f u l n e s s i n B r i t a i n but continues i n North America. T h i s m a r g i n a l i t y was r e i n f o r c e d by the second mixing of Danish i n t o E n g l i s h . Compare CAR p. 61, EVN p. 281, FOW p. 341, and D.E.0. 75 LONESOME Meaning: Northern: Br. ;Std. : Danish: Comment: having the f e e l i n g of l o n e l i n e s s I f e e l lonesome these days. I f e e l l o n e l y these days. Jeg f o l e r mig ensom i d i s s e dage. . c -NBF p. 85 g i v e s the c r e d i t f o r the tremendous p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s word t o the German einsam. Given a c h o i c e between l o n e l y and lonesome the German-American would p r e f e r the l a t t e r because i t s second s y l l a b l e would remind him of h i s own -sam. The Scandinavian-American would be reminded of h i s even more s i m i l a r -som. OED i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h i s i s from the Scotch; perhaps a Scandinavian loan to s t a r t w i t h . 76. LOUSY Meaning: mean, contemptible 76 Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Comment: I t was lou s y o f him to do t h a t . I t was t e r r i b l e o f him to do t h a t . Det var l u s e t g j o r t af ham. SED observes, "Now r a r e " . In North America and Denmark t h i s usage i s ' n o t r a r e " . Used wit h high frequency by Danish-Canadians and t Danish-Americans. 77. MAD Meaning: angry, annoyed Northern: Are you mad a t me? Br. S t d . : Are you angry w i t h me? Danish: Er du g a l paa mig? Comment: OED notes, "Now only c o l l o q u i a l , (In many d i a l e c t s i n Great B r i t a i n and the U.S. the o r d i n a r y word i s 1 angry 1 ) . " . The American mad and the Danish g a l both have d u a l meanings of angry and r a b i d . 78. MAKE DINNER Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.: Danish: Domment: to prepare dinner. Did you make di n n e r y e t ? Have you cooked d i n n e r yet? Har du i k k e l a v e t aftensmad endnu? Jesse W. H a r r i s , "German Language I n f l u e n c e s , " Am. Sp., v o l . 23, p. 106, c i t e s t h i s as a Germanism. Danish has the same s t r u c t u r e . T h i s i s the p r e f e r r e d e x p r e s s i o n i n Northern American. 77 79, MAN Meaning: a husband Northern: I am proud of my man. Br. Std. : I am proud of my husband. Danish: Jeg er s t o l t af min mand. Comment: OED p. 101: "Now only Scotch and d i a l e c t a l ^ except i n phrase man and wife. In Danish, mand i s the usual word for husband and i t i s i n f l u e n t i a l i n the su r v i v a l or r e v i v a l of t h i s form i n America. Compare S i n c l a i r Lewis, Main  Street, p. 30. 80, MAYBE Meaning: Northern: Br. Std.; Danish: Comment: perhaps Maybe he i s t i r e d . Perhaps he i s t i r e d . Maaske er han traet. Maybe i s the word that Danish-Americans most e a s i l y choose to express t h e i r maaske. OED categorizes t h i s as archaic and d i a l e c t a l . BF p. 336 writes: (. . .It i s a fac t that at a time when i t was l i t t l e - u s e d i n the standard speech of southern England "maybe" never quite died out of the vocabulary of good speakers i n the north. But i n the U.S.A. i t has always had a very wide popularity; indeed many Americans consider "perhaps" to be a B r i t i c i s m . "Maybe" i s now in general usage i n B r i t a i n , though even now i t receives only an i n c i d e n t a l mention i n the Concise Oxford Dictionary). Although the dictionary does not la b e l i t as of U.S. o r i g i n i t can hardly be doubted that the r e v i v a l of th i s word i s due to the American example, and 78 does not come from n o r t h e r n England, where i n any case i t i s more o f t e n than not pronounced "mebbe",... Compare a l s o CAR p. 63, FOW p. 355, NIC p. 336. 81. MEAN Meaning: Northern: Br. S t d . : Danish: Comment: c r u e l , e v i l , nasty He i s a w f u l l y mean. He i s t e r r i b l y nasty. Han e r r i g t i g gemen. CAR p. 63, NIC p. 336, and the Dansk Engelsk  Ordbog agree t h a t the American a d j e c t i v a l usage i s synonymous w i t h c r u e l , e v i l , n a s t y , and bad; t h i s usage i s p a r a l l e l t o the Danish gemen. The B r i t i s h usage s i g n i f i e s s t i n g y , p e t t y , i n f e r i o r , or humble. 82. (to be) NOT MUCH FOR Meaning: t o be e n t h u s i a s t i c about Northern: I am not much f o r pi n k . Br. S t d . : I don't care f o r pink. Danish: Jeg e r ik k e meget f o r l y s e r ^ d t . Comment: No one has commented on t h i s co-occurrence, 83. NAMED Meaning: Northern: Br. S t d . : Swedish: appointed Nixon named L a i r d S e c r e t a r y o f Defense. Nixon appointed L a i r d M i n i s t e r of Defence. Nixon utnamnde L a i r d t i l l f o r s v a r s m i n i s t e r 79 Comment: ALW p. 137 demonstrates the s i m i l a r i t y of these two idioms. 84. NEARBY (adj.) Meaning: c l o s e by, i n the v i c i n i t y N orthern: A nearby h o t e l was r a i d e d . A n e i g h b o r i n g h o t e l was r a i d e d . E t naerliggende h o t e l b l e v angrebet. OED c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s as c h i e f l y U,S. NIC p. 358 and Fowler p. 382 a l s o d e s i g n a t e t h i s , usage as an Americanism. Br. Std Danish: Comment 85. i n the NEIGHBORHOOD •, Meaning: about Northern: I t c o s t i n the neighborhood of 5,000 d o l l a r s . Br. S t d . : I t c o s t about 5,000 d o l l a r s . Danish: Det kostede i nasrheden af 5,000 d o l l a r s . Comment: EVN p. 315 w r i t e s : Those B r i t i s h l i o n s , Fowler, H o r w i l l , and P a r t r i d g e , u n i t e i n r o a r i n g at the American use of i n the neighborhood o f (The work w i l l c o s t  i n the neighborhood of. two m i l l i o n d o l l a r s ) f o r about or n e a r l y . Fowler c a l l s I t "a r e p u l s i v e combination o f p o l y s y l l a b i c humor and p e r i p h r a s i s . " P a r t r i d g e f e e l s i t t o be "a bad and wholly unnecessary s u b s t i t u t e . " And H o r w i l l notes w i t h alarm t h a t the e x p r e s s i o n has caught on i n England. In the Un i t e d S t a t e s i t i s c e r t a i n l y standard, though i t does seem awkward, vague, and unnecessary. Naerheden i s the u s u a l "Rigsdansk" form f o r the E n g l i s h e q u i v a l e n t neighborhood. 8 6 . NOPE Meaning: a r e p l y i n the negative Northern: Nope, he d i d n ' t come. Br. Std.: No, he d i d not come. Danish: N ej, han kom i k k e . Comment: Nope i s of i n t e r e s t t o t h i s research only i n s o f a r as nope could have been an analogy of yep. See Yep. 8 7 . NOPLACE: See anyplace. 8 8 . NUMBERS (omission of and): See Chapter IV, paragraph L. 8 9 . ON: See P r e p o s i t i o n s . 90. OUT FRONT, OUT BACK Meaning: l o c a t i o n Northern: He i s out f r o n t , out back. Br. Std.: He i s i n f r o n t of the house, behind the house. Danish: Han er ude f o r a n , ude bagved. Comment: The s i m i l a r i t y i s s t r i k i n g . 91. PHRASAL VERBS: See Chapter IV,. paragraph F. 92. PREPOSITIONS The f o l l o w i n g p r e p o s i t i o n s are found to vary from the B r i t i s h Standard E n g l i s h usage wh i l e at the same time they agree w i t h Rigsdansk: She l i v e s on Maple Steet. She l i v e s In Maple S t r e e t . Hun bor paa Ahornvej; 81 I p a s s e d him on t h e s t r e e t . I p a s s e d him i n t h e s t r e e t . J e g g i k f o r b i ham paa gaden. (Ask t h e man on t h e s t r e e t . ) I t ' s t e n t i l l s i x / I t ' s t e n t o s i x / -(analogy t o o t h e r cases) I drove t i l l Ann A r b o r , t h e n he took o v e r . I d r o ve t o Ann A r b o r , t h e n he took o v e r . J e g k0rte t i l Ann A r b o r , saa o v e r t o g han k ^ r s l e Don't w a i t on me / Don't w a i t f o r me / Vent i k k e paa mig. I h a v e n ' t seen him i n y e a r s . I haven't seen him f o r y e a r s . J e g h a r i k k e s e t ham i _ a a r e v i s . I n most c o n t i n e n t a l Germanic languages (e.g. Danish) f o r i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h ago. Perhaps t h e r e i s r e p u l s i o n w o r k i n g h e r e . i She has a new l e a s e on l i f e . She has a new l e a s e o f l i f e . Hun h a r n y t mod paa l i v e t . " S t a n d a r d O i l had a monopoly on r e s o u r c e s . " S t a n d a r d O i l had a monopoly o f r e s o u r c e s . S t a n d a r d O i l havde monopol paa naturrigdomme. QUIT (v. t r . and a b s o l . ) Meaning: t o g i v e up, abandon, cease t r y i n g . N o r t h e r n : Don't q u i t now, t h e term i s alm o s t o v e r . B r . S t d . : Don't g i v e up now, t h e term i s n e a r l y f i n i s h e d . D a n i s h : K v i t I k k e nu, s e m e s t e r e t e r n a e s t e n o v r e . Comment: HWH p. 339 w r i t e s : Newpaper usage has r e v i v e d t h e v e r b " t o q u i t " , u n t i l r e c e n t l y r e g a r d e d as a r c h a i d i n B r i t a i n , e x c e p t f o r some s t o c k p h r a s e s , " n o t i c e t o q u i t " , " t o q u i t t h e s e r v i c e " , e t c . In t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h i s i s a v e r y v i g o r o u s 82 word, and so i n i m i t a t i o n o f American u s e , B r i t i s h j o u r n a l i s t s g i v e i t the meanings o f "abandon" (an a r e a ) , " t e r m i n a t e one's membership o f an o r g a n i s a t i o n " , o r e l s e i n t r a n s i t i v e l y , " t o s u r r e n d e r , g i v e up, cease t o do something". Though o f t e n used i n s e r i o u s B r i t i s h newspaper w r i t i n g , i t i s f e l t t o be an A m e r i c a n i s m i n t h e s e s e n s e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n th e spoken language. Thus, f o r example, when . an American airman appeared b e f o r e a c o u r t d u r i n g t h e Mai d s t o n e A s s i z e s a q u e s t i o n put t o him i l l u s t r a t e s t h i s f a c t ; "At what p o i n t d i d you d e c i d e t o q u i t '•— t o use y o u r own word?" The D a n i s h k v i t t e had t h e s e meanings w h i c h a re c o n s i d e r e d Americanisms i n the E n g l i s h language. OODS d a t e s t h i s usage back t o t h e 1820's. Wildhagen German-English and  English-German D i c t i o n a r y ( C h i c a g o : 1965), a l s o des-i g n a t e s t h i s usage as Ameri c a n . American newspaper usage i s s h o r t and p r e f e r s t e r s e forms n ot o n l y t o save space b u t because i t wants t o t a k e advantage o f the l i n g u i s t i c sub-s t r a t u m p r o v i d e d by the S c a n d i n a v i a n s and the Germans. American newspapers use t h e s e forms because t h e y are i n th e spoken language. 94. RED UP, meaning t o t i d y up, an o r i g i n a l V i k i n g i n f l u e n c e on M.E., i s found i n A m e r i c a and r e c o g n i z e d by S c a n d i n a -v i a n s . I t s usage i s q u i t e l i m i t e d i n N o r t h e r n American. 95. RIGHT (away, a f t e r , a c r o s s , now, t h e r e , e t c . ) Meaning: used as an i n t e n s i v e a d v e rb. N o r t h e r n : I c a n ' t answer r i g h t now. B r . S t d . : I c a n ' t answer a t t h e moment. Norwegian: J e g kan i k k e s v a r r e t t naa. Comment: CAR p. 77, NIC p. 493, FOW p. 528, and BF p. 342 e s t a b l i s h t h i s usage as an Am e r i c a n i s m . The Norwegian r e t t 83 and the Danish l i g e have had t h i s i n t e n s i v e adverb usage f o r c e n t u r i e s . Compare Haugen's Norwegian-English  D i c t i o n a r y (Oslo: 1965). 96. ROUNDTRIP Meaning: t o go somewhere and come back Northern: We bought a r o u n d t r i p t i c k e t t o Chicago. Br. S t d . : We bought a r e t u r n t i c k e t t o Chicago. Danish: V i kjzfote en r u n d f a r t s b i l l e t t i l Silkeborgs0en. N. Comment: Note t h a t r o u n d t r i p and r u n d f a r t do not necessar-i l y mean the same t h i n g . The Danish r u n d f a r t i m p l i e s s a i l i n g around the e n t i r e l a k e ; the American r o u n d t r i p may mean onl y t o go and r e t u r n i n the same path. NBF p. 101 informs us t h a t t h i s form,is an Americanism of Germanic fo r m a t i o n . 97. SAIL-BOAT Meaning: Northern: Br. S t d . : Danish: Comment: s a i l i n g - b o a t The s a i l - b o a t has sunk, The s a i l i n g - b o a t has sunk. Sejlbaaden e r sunket. HWH p. 176 e s t a b l i s h e s the d e l e t i o n of the - i n g as an Americanism. Compare CAR p. 79. 98. SCANDIHOOVIAN Meaning: a term d e s i g n a t i n g a person as a member of a Scandinavian e t h n i c group Comment: Webster I I I claims t h i s term i s used disparag-i n g l y ; perhaps a b e t t e r d e s c r i p t i o n i s t o say i t i s used 84 jocosely. A Scandinavian i n North America does not f e e l the derogatory associations which accompany Bohunk, Chink, Dago, Heinie, Limey, Polack, Wop, etc. 99. SCARED, SCAREDY - cat, -pants Meaning: frightened; a timid person Northern: He c a l l e d John "scaredy-pants." Br. Std.: He c a l l e d John a coward. Danish: Han kaldte Hans en bangebuks. Comment: OODS dates bange buchs back to the seventeenth century. The Scandinavian forms skjerra (Norwegian) and skjarra, (Swedish) seem to have influenced the frequency of these forms. A recent utter.ance heard at the University of B.C. was, "I get scareder and scareder every time I think of the exams." . 100. We'11 SEE YOU Meaning: phatic communication uttered while parting company Northern: We'll see you. Br. Std.: Cheerio. Danish: V i ses, ikke? Comment: Observe that the We_ can be said by the f i r s t person singular. This may be a case of the Scandinavian substratum coming to l i g h t . The Danish r e f l e x i v e passive i s extremely useful here as i t blurs the i n i t i a t o r and leaves the action to happenstance. The American usage of 85 see upon t a k i n g l e a v e may be a l o a n - c r e a t i o n based on t h e D a n i s h paa gensyn and v i ses as w e l l as t h e German auf  Wiedersehen. 101. SEMESTER Meaning: a u n i t o f the academic y e a r ( f i v e months) \ N o r t h e r n : T h i s semester has j u s t begun. B r . S t d . : T h i s term has j u s t begun. (term = one o f t h r e e d i v i s i o n s ) D a n i s h : D e t t e semester e r l i g e begyndt. Comment: The DEO e s t a b l i s h e s t h i s i t e m t o be an American-i s m and n o t e s t h e s i m i l a r i t y between t h e American and D a n i s h usage. Compare ST p. 64. 102. (German) SHEPHERD Meaning: a r a c e o f dogs N o r t h e r n : German Shepherds a r e v e r y o b e d i e n t . B r . S t d . : A l s a t i a n s are v e r y o b e d i e n t . D a n i s h : En s c h a e f e r h u n d e r meget l y d i g . Comment: The o c c u r r e n c e o f German s i g n i f i e s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h c e r t a i n t y t h a t someone o t h e r t h a n t h e Germans named t h i s r a c e i n A m e r i c a . The c o - o c c u r r e n c e o f shepherd and s c h a e f e r makes a good case f o r S c a n d i n a -v i a n i n f l u e n c e . 103. SHOULD: See modal V e r b s , C h a p t e r I I I 104. SICK Meaning: i l l 86 Northern: My husband i s s i c k . Br. S t d . : My husband i s i l l . D anish: Min mand e r syg. Comment: FOW p. 555 t e l l s us t h a t s i c k used t o mean s u f f e r i n g from any b o d i l y d i s o r d e r ; t o be s i c k l a t e r came to be an E n g l i s h euphenism f o r vomit. The o r i g i n a l meaning s t i l l a p p l i e s i n S c o t l a n d and America and i n England a t t r i b u t i v e l y . The m a r g i n a l i t y i n America was r e i n f o r c e d by the Danish syg. Compare NIC pp. 517-18. \ • 105. (I can) SO Meaning: i n r e t o r t i t i v e r e p l y Northern: You can't s i n g ! I can so! Br. S t d . : You can't s i n g ! Yes I can! Danish: Du kan i k k e synge! Jo, j e g kan saa? Comment: The Danish and Northern American forms are s t r i k i n g l y p a r a l l e l . T h i s usage occurs i n B r i t i s h d i a l e c t ; a case f o r Scandinavian r e i n f o r c e m e n t can be made. 106. (Is that) SO? Meaning: used when doubting o r q u e s t i o n i n g Northern: I'm Lord Nelson! — So? Is t h a t so? Br. S t d . : I'm Lord Nelson! — Indeed?/Yes? Danish: Jeg e r Lord Nelson! — Saa? Comment: The DEO observes t h a t Is t h a t so? i s p a r t i c u l a r -. l y American. Saa i s pronounced w i t h a long vowel w i t h a r i s i n g p i t c h . The Northern So? and Is t h a t so" may be d e r i v e d from, or r e i n f o r c e d by, Danish saa. 107. SO LONG Meaning: an utterance sometimes coincidental with parting Northern: See you tomorrow. Yeah, so long. Br. Std.: Cheerior. Toodaloo. Danish: Farvel saa laenge. \Corament: Steven Byington states that the American farewell, so long, i s recognized to be derived from the Arabic 1 2 salaam. H. B. Wells offers instead the Hebrew sholom. OODS v o l . 13, c o l . 412, dates the Danish farewell saa lenge back to 1731. Saa laenge i s a plausible source for so long • \ • • es p e c i a l l y when i t i s seen as one of a group of words demonstrating intimate fusion, e.g. Hi, yep, greet, how's i t g'oing, etc. Compare Glen p. 128. 108. SO THAT: See Chapter IV, paragraph I. 109. SO WHAT Meaning: a rejoinder Northern: Petersen chose you! So what! Br. Std.: Petersen chose you! He di d , did he? Danish: Petersen valgte dig! Og hvad saa! Comment: Although the co-occurrences of saa and so are often p a r a l l e l i n Danish and Northern American/ Yiddish i s most often considered the o r i g i n a t i n g source. Compare PAR p. 253. "Yea bo", Am.Sp., v o l . 2, p. 332. So-Long, Am.Sp., v o l . 2, p. 460. 88 110. SOMEPLACE: See a n y p l a c e . 111. -SKI A p a r a l l e l t r e a t m e n t o f the j o c u l a r s u f f i x - s k i i s found i n N o r t h e r n American and D a n i s h . I t may w e l l be t h a t the D a n i s h f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the patronyms o f t h e i r P o l i s h n e i g h b o r s has been t r a n s f e r r e d t o N o r t h A m e r i c a . D a n i s h examples o f t h i s phenomenon are s l u t s k i , ( f i n i s h e d ) 3 hun e r s k i dum, s i k k e noget p j a t s k i (such r i d i c u l o u s n e s s ) nu s k a l du s t a a op s k i (get u p ) . American examples are a l l r i g h t s k i , bumsky, h u r r y u p s k i , and y o u b e t s k i . 112. STANDPOINT Meaning: a p o i n t o f v i e w N o r t h e r n : He sees t h i n g s from a C a t h o l i c s t a n d p o i n t . B r . S t d . : He sees t h i n g s from a C a t h o l i c p o i n t o f v i e w . D a n i s h : Han s e r t i n g f r a e t K a t o l s k s t a n d p u n k t . Comment: A l l s c h o l a r s agree t h a t t h i s i s a c a i q u e from t h e German Standpunkt. However, d i s a g r e e m e n t c o n t i n u e s as t o whether i t was f i r s t used i n A m e r i c a o r E n g l a n d . The Danish s t a n d p u n k t i s a cognate o f German St a n d p u n k t , not a b o r r o w i n g . Compare ST pp. 70-71; Mencken p. 108; FOW p. 458; NIC pp. 430 and 544. The awkwardness of the  p o i n t o f view o f h i s t o r y w i t h two o f ' s has g i v e n impetus t o a n g l e , s t a n d p o i n t and v i e w p o i n t . The l a t t e r A m e r i can-i s m may stem from t h e D a n i s h s y n s p u n k t . 3 "Hun e r s k i dum" i s a m i l d form f o r "hun e r sgu dum" (She i s damn dumb). 'Sgu' (God damned) i s o f t e n u t t e r e d i n m a s c u l i n e c o n v e r s a t i o n . 'Sgu' has d e v e l o p e d from saagu and t h e e a r l i e r saa Gud (so God). Women o f t e n b e g i n speech w i t h t h e i n t e r j e c t i o n Gud t o show s u r p r i s e o r t o i n d i c a t e emphasis "Gud h v o r d e t r e g n e r ! " (God i t ' s p o u r i n g ! ) 89 113. STEM FROM Meaning: ( u s u a l l y f i g u r a t i v e ) d e s c e n d f r o m , s p r i n g f r o m , o r i g i n a t e i n N o r t h e r n : C l e a r l y a l l t h e s e words s t e m f r o m a common s o u r c e , B r . S t d . : C l e a r l y a l l t h e s e words o r i g i n a t e i n a common s o u r c e . . D a n i s h : D e t e r k l a r t , a t a l l e d i s s e o r d stammer f r a en - f a e l l e s k i l d e . ' Comment: T h i s i s a c a s e o f an e x t e n s i o n i n m e aning due t o l a n g u a g e i n t e r f e r e n c e . E n g l i s h h a s l o n g h a d t o stem m e a n i n g t o s t o p , d e l a y , dam up; t o make headway a g a i n s t , b u t s t e m f r o m i s a r e c e n t c a i q u e f r o m t h e N o r t h e r n E u r o p e a n l a n g u a g e s . T h i s l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n h a s g a i n e d w i d e a c c e p t a n c e i n p a r t a t l e a s t due t o i t s t r a n s p a r e n c y . Compare Mathews p. 1648, SED p. 2013, and NBF p. 93. 114. T E L L ME M e a n i n g : N o r t h e r n : B r . S t d . : an i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a q u e s t i o n T e l l me, what d i d y o u t h i n k o f K r a g ? ( C o u g h i n g and c l e a r i n g o f t h r o a t ) What d i d y o u t h i n k o f K r a g ? D a n i s h : S i g mig e n g a n g , h v a d mente du om K r a g ? Comment: A c o n v e r s a t i o n a l i n t r o d u c t i o n t o a q u e s t i o n h a s b e e n l a c k i n g i n B r i t i s h E n g l i s h . (I s a y , ... does n o t s i g n a l a q u e s t i o n e x c l u s i v e l y . ) I n A m e r i c a t h e i m m i g r a n t s f r o m t h e c o n t i n e n t s i m p l y t r a n s l a t e d t h e i r e x p r e s s i o n s ; t h i s l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n has a c h i e v e d w i d e a c c e p t a n c e . The S c o t t i s h u s a g e may h a v e o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e V i k i n g and 90 been r e i n f o r c e d by S c a n d i n a v i a n i n f l u e n c e i n A m e r i c a . Compare BF 341 and C a r r o l l Reed, D i a l e c t s o f A m e r i c a n . E n g l i s h ( S e a t l e : 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 27. 115. THE ( o m i s s i o n o f ) : See a l l m o r n i n g . 116. THEM THERE and THIS HERE ( m a i n l y r u r a l ) T h e r e i s a t e n d e n c y t o u s e t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s f a r more i n A m e r i c a t h a n i n B r i t a i n . The D a n i s h dem d e r and dem h e r have b e e n t h e s o u r c e o f t h i s i n c r e a s e i n f r e q u e n c y , 117. T I L L : See P r e p o s i t i o n s . 118. T I T L E S I n S c a n d i n a v i a and N o r t h A m e r i c a one's p o s i t i o n may s e r v e as a t i t l e . I n B r i t a i n t h i s i s n o t s o . I n Denmark e v e r y a d u l t i s g i v e n a t i t l e i n t e l e p h o n e , b o o k s , newspaper w r i t e - u p s , e t c . An e x p l a n a t i o n i s t h a t t h e r e i s n o t a l a r g e enough v a r i e t y o f names i n t h e i r c l o s e d c u l t u r e . The i m m i g r a n t s w i t h n o n - p r e s t i g i o u s t i t l e s d r o p p e d t h e i r s upon a r r i v a l t o t h e New W o r l d b u t t h e u p p e r c l a s s e s c o u l d n o t be e x p e c t e d t o do t h e same. Examples a r e Congressman H a r t , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r B l i s s , V i c e P r e s i d e n t V a n c e , D i r e c t o r Shrum. Compare HWH p. 176. 119. TWO TIMES M e a n i n g : t w i c e N o r t h e r n : I was t h e r e two t i m e s t h i s week. B r . S t d . : I h a v e b e e n t h e r e t w i c e t h i s week. 91 D a n i s h : J e g v a r d e r t o gange i denne u g e . Comment: The p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e i s s t r i k i n g . T h i s may be an i n t e r n a l a n a l o g y on f o u r t i m e s , f i v e t i m e s , e t c . in a d d i t i o n t o t h e l o a n t r a n s l a t i o n f rom t o gange and German z w e i m a l . N o r t h e r n A m e r i c a n m u l t i p l i c a t i o n has two t i m e s i n s t e a d o f t w i c e . T w i c e i s l o s i n g g round because i t i s b e i n g r e p l a c e d by a s t r o n g e r i t e m . 120 . TWO WEEKS M e a n i n g : f o u r t e e n days N o r t h e r n : We s t a y e d a t B a n f f f o r two w e e k s . B r . S t d . : We s t a y e d a t B a n f f f o r a f o r t n i g h t . D a n i s h : V i b l e v i B a n f f i t o u g e r . Comment: Two weeks may i n p a r t be a l o a n - t r a n s l a t i o n o f t o u g e r . However , t h e a n a l o g y o f t h r e e w e e k s , f o u r weeks may have been t h e s t r o n g e r f o r c e . No te t h a t s e n n i g h t r e t r e a t e d t o o b l i v i o n w i t h o u t c o n t i n e n t a l German ic a s s i s t a n c e The c a r e f u l s p e a k e r i n the U . S . can no l o n g e r d i s t i n g u i s h . two ( s e p a r a t e ) weeks f rom a f o r t n i g h t . BF p . 336 . 1 2 1 . UNCLEAR: See C h a p t e r I I I , P r e f i x e s . 122 . UPRISING M e a n i n g : an i n s u r r e c t i o n N o r t h e r n : The re i s an u p r i s i n g on A n g u i l l a . B r . S t d . : There i s a r i s i n g on A n g u i l l a . 92 Danish: Der var upfjzSr paa Anguilla. Comment: This i s a frequency c o r r e l a t i o n , i . e . both Danish and American always have op-, up- where B r i t i s h English has r i s i n g . Compare ALW p. 149 and Dansk Engelsk  Ordbog. 123. VIEWPOINT: See Standpoint. 124. WAIT ON: See Prepositions. 125. WANT (down, i n , o f f , out', up, etc.) Meaning: an expression for the desire to be either l e t down or helped down Northern: He wants down, i n , out, up. Br. Std. : He wants to go down, i n , on, . ... Danish: Han v i i ned, ind, ud, op. Comment: OED sp e c i f i e s t h i s e l i p s i s as c h i e f l y Scotch, North I r i s h , and U.S. c o l l o q u i a l . This widespread usage must have been strengthened i f not revived by Scandinavian s e t t l e r s i n the Middle West. Compare ST pp. 76-77. 126. (Do you) WANT TO Meaning: would you please Northern: Do you want to go down i n the basement and get my wrench? Br. Std.: Would you please go down i n the c e l l a r and get my spanner? Danish: V i i du gerne gaa ned i kaelderen og hente min skruen^gle? Comment: This i s another excellent co-occurrence. This "imperative" takes advantage of an informal r e l a t i o n s h i p between two persons; a negative reply i s never expected and i s seldom given. 127. WARM. Meaning: hot Northern: That plate i s too warm, don't touch i t . Br. Std.: That plate i s too hot, don't touch i t . Danish: Den ta l l e r k e n er for varm, rjzSr ikke ved den. ; Comment: Danish "lacks" an equivalent for English hot. The Danish immigrant substituted warm for varm and m i l l i o n s of non-Scandinavians followed s u i t . 128. WAY OF LIFE Meaning: national outlook, values, temperament, tempo, etc. x Northern: The American way of l i f e i s f a s t and competitive. Br. Std.: The pace of things i n America i s fa s t and competitive. Danish: Den amerikanske levevis er hu r t i g t og konkurrence-f u l d . Comment: BF p. 333 establishes t h i s expression to be an Americanism. The Danish levevis has long denoted what t h i s Americanism expresses. Way of l i f e i s a possible loan creation from levevis and the German Lebensweise. 129. WENT UP Meaning: ripped 94 Northern: My s k i r t went up i n the seam. Br. Std.: My s k i r t ripped along the seam. Danish: . Min nederdel gik op i sjzJmmen. Comment: Another loan t r a n s l a t i o n spoken by mi l l i o n s of non-Scandinavians i n the Northern Dialect area. Compare TOR p. 217. 130. WHAT FOR? Meaning: Why? This usage seems to be much more frequent i n America than i n B r i t a i n and may have some c o r r e l a t i o n with the Danish hvad . . . for and hvorfor. Hvad gjorde du det for? What did you do that f o r " 131. -WISE: See Chapter I I I , Suffixes, Paragraph I.D. 132. WITHIN Meaning: extended to include time Northern: We'll be back within a week. Br. Std.: We'll be back before the end of the week. Danish: V i kommer tilbage inden en uge. Comment: This extended usage i n America follows the Danish precedent. 133. WORD FREQUENCY: See chapter.VI. 134. WORLD WAR: See page 37, footnote 4, 95 135. YEH Meaning: affirmative Northern Br. Std. Danish: Comment: Yehl Yes? Ja! The Danish and the Northern American forms sound i d e n t i c a l . OODS dates j_a back to 1749, and i t i s the standard form with which to answer a p o s i t i v e question, This form yeh and yep (see below) both seem to be l i k e l y Danish t r a n s f e r r a l s . Compare Louise Pound, "Popular Variants of 'Yes'", Am. Sp., v o l . 2, p. 132. 136. YEP Meaning: affirmative Northern: Yep, I agree. Br. Std.: Yes, I agree. Danish: Jep, jeg er enig med dig. Comment: OED labels t h i s item d i a l e c t a l e s p e c i a l l y U.S. Jep i s not l i s t e d i n OODS. I t i s used c o l l o q u i a l l y by perhaps a l l Danes and a l l Northern Americans. Nope may have been from an analogy with yep. 137. YES to replace nay meaning rather or indeed Meaning: Northern; Br. Std.: Danish: It i s d i f f i c u l t , yes impossible, to comprehend that. I t i s d i f f i c u l t , nay impossible, to comprehend that. Det er vanskeligt, j_a uimiligt at forsta a det. 96 Comment: This co-occurrence i s found i n l i t e r a r y usage i n Danish and American. L i t e r a r y usage has not been affected much by Scandinavian influence; i t i s usually the c o l l o q u i a l usage that has experienced the most interference and mix-ture. Compare Glen p. 97. 138. YOU KNOW Meaning: a p a r t i c l e of "obviousness" Northern: He i s , you know, kind of t a l l . Br. Std.: He i s rather t a l l . Danish: Han er, du ved, jo temmelig hjzSgt, _ Comment: Americans appear to say you know much more often than B r i t i s h e r s because so many m i l l i o n s of ijnmigrants from Europe had a p a r t i c l e of "obviousness" i n t h e i r languages, e.g. German jja., French done, Russian ved' f Danish jo. The European p a r t i c l e of obviousness s i g n i f i e s a c u l t u r a l l y accepted " f a c t " , and i s directed toward an i n d e f i n i t e hearer. You know seems to be a poor t r a n s l a t i o n of these obviousness p a r t i c l e s because i t may unwillingly involve the second person. Nevertheless most ethnic groups and Americans i n general use you know too f r e e l y . Compare U r i e l Weinreich, Universals of Language, (Cambridge, Mass.: 1963) p. 123. CHAPTER VI WORD FREQUENCY The v o c a b u l a r i e s o f A m e r i c a n E n g l i s h and B r i t i s h E n g l i s h a r e n o t g r e a t l y d i v e r g e n t f r o m one a n o t h e r . However, e v e n t h e c a s u a l o b s e r v e r knows t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n p r e f e r e n c e f o r one word i n l i e u o f a n o t h e r i s o f t e n d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h e B r i t i s h p r e f e r e n c e . The c a s e f o r S c a n d i n a v i a n i n f l u e n c e i n A m e r i c a c o u l d be immensely e n h a n c e d i f one c o u l d show a c o r r e l a t i o n between word f r e q u e n c y and S c a n d i n a v i a n and c o n t i n e n t a l G e r m a n i c s u b s t r a t u m . One w o u l d s u r m i s e , f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t a S c a n d i n a v i a n i m m i g r a n t and t h o s e he i n f l u e n c e d may c h o o s e t o u s e a word o f S c a n d i n a v i a n o r i g i n , f r o m t h e V i k i n g e r a o r l a t e r , b e f o r e he w o u l d c h o o s e a word o f F r e n c h , L a t i n , o r e v e n n a t i v e E n g l i s h o r i g i n . One w o u l d e x p e c t t h e S c a n d i n a v i a n i m m i g r a n t t o c h o o s e e l k o v e r moose, c r a s h o v e r c o l l i s i o n , and s l y i n s t e a d o f c u n n i n g . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e r e i s no e x t e n s i v e c o m p a r a t i v e word f r e q u e n c y s t u d y between A m e r i c a n and B r i t i s h E n g l i s h . ^ " G.E.R. B u r r o u g h s ' A S t u d y o f 2 t h e V o c a b u l a r y o f Young C h i l d r e n and H e n r y D. R i n l a n d ' s A B a s i c 3 V o c a b u l a r y o f E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l C h i l d r e n c a n be compared f o r B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n word f r e q u e n c y s t u d i e s f o r c h i l d s p e e c h . However, B u r r o u g h s ' l i s t o f words i s v e r y s h o r t , c o n t a i n i n g a b o u t t h r e e t h o u s a n d f i v e h u n d r e d w o r d s . On t h e o t h e r hand "*"Martin S. A l l w o o d , A m e r i c a n and B r i t i s h ; A Handbook o f  A m e r i c a n - B r i t i s h Language D i f f e r e n c e s (Habo: 1 9 6 4 ) . 2 > L o n d o n : 1957. 3New Y o r k : 1945. 98 t h e r e i s s u f f i c i e n t i n f o r m a t i o n as to Scandinavian words which have been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o E n g l i s h p r e v i o u s l y . E r i k Bjorkman's Scandinavian Loan Words i n Middle E n g l i s h ( H a l l e : 1900); W.W. Skeat's " D i s t r i b u t i o n of Words", page 750 of E t y m o l o g i c a l  D i c t i o n a r y of the E n g l i s h Language (Oxford: 1882); and V i g -fusson and Powell's l i s t on page 559 of I c e l a n d i c Prose Reader (Oxford: 1879). These books g i v e us a l i s t o f words, most o f which Scandinavian immigrants t o North America would r e c o g n i z e and tend to use more so than t h e i r non-Scandinavian synonyms. A l i s t of the more common words f o l l o w s : a l o f t , a l r e a d y , anger, as, awe. ' b a f f l e , b a i t , b a l d e r d a s h , bang, bark, bask, b a s t e , bat, bawl, beach, beck, b i g , b i l l o w , b i n g , b l a b , b l e a r , b l o a t , bloom, b l o t , b l u e , b l u n d e r , b l u n t , b l u r , b l u s t e r , boon, booth, booty, bore, both, boulder,.boun d, bout, bow, box, b r i n k , b r u n t, bubble, b u i l d , b u l k , bulkhead, bulwark, bunch, bungle, bunk, bush, b u s t l e , by-law. ca r p , c a s t , champ, churn, c l a p , c l e f t , c l i p , c l o g , clown, c l u b , clumsy, cock, cow, cower, crab, c r a s h , craw, c r a w l , c r a z e , crew, c u f f , cunning. d a i r y , dangle, dash, d a s t a r d , daze, d a z z l e , d i e , d i r t , dogcheap, down, dowse, doze, drag, d r a g g l e , d r i b b l e , d r i p , droop, dug, dun. eddy, egg, e i d e r d u c k , e l k . 99 f a s t , fawn, f e l l , f e l l o w , f i l c h , f i l l y , f i r t h , f i t , f i z z , f l a b b y , f l a g , f l a g - s t o n e , f l a k e , f l a r e , f l a s h , f l a t , f l a u n t , f law, f l e c k , f l e d g e , f l e e , f i l i n g , f l i p p a n t , f l i t , f l u r r y , f l u s h , f l u s t e r , fond, f o r c e , f o s s , f r a u g h t , f r e c k l e , f r o , f r o t h , f r y . gad, g a i n , g a i n l y , g a i t , g a l e , gang, g a r i s h , gasp, gaunt, gaze, g i n g e r l y , g l a d e , g l a n c e , glimmer, glimpse, g l i n t , g l i t t e r , g l o a t , g l o s s , glum, gnash, grab, gravy, greaves, grey-hound, grime, g r o i n , g r o v e l , gruesome, guess, gush, gust. h a i l , h a l e , happen, harbour, harsh, h a s t e , hasten, haze, hinge, h i t , hoot, how, hug, hurrah , h u r r y , husband. i l l , i n k l i n g , i r k . jabber, jam, j a u n t , j e r s e y , j i b e , jumble, jump. k e e l , keg, k i d , kidnap, kidney, k i l l , k i l t , k n e e l . l a s h , l a t h e , l e a k , ledge, l e e , l e e c h , l e g , l i f t , l i k e n , l i n g , l i t t e r , l o s t , l o g , loom, l o o n , low, l u g , l u l l , lumber, lump, l u n c h , luncheon, l u r c h , l u r k . mane, mash, maze, meek, mess, mis-, mistake, m i s t r u s t , mouldy, much, muck, muff, muggy. nab, nag, nasty, nay, n i g g a r d , Norse, nudge. oaf, odd, outlaw. pad, p a l t r y , peddle, p e d l a r , p i d d l e , plough, pod. quandary. / .. 100 rack, r a f t , r a i d , r a i s e , rake, ransack, rap, rape, rash, rate, r i d i n g , r i f e , r i f l e , r i f t , r i g , r i p , r i p p l e , rowan-tree, rock, roe, root, rotten, rouse, row, rug, rugged, rump, rush, r u s t l e . saga, sale, scald, scant, scar, scare, scarf, scoop, scotch, scout, scowl, scraggy, scrap, scrape, scratch, scream, schreech, s c u f f l e , s c u t t l e , seat, seemly, shallow, sheer, shelve, shingle, s h i r t , shiver, shore, shriek, s h r i l l , s h r i v e l , shrug, s h u f f l e , shunt, shy, s i l t , simper, s i s t e r , skid, s k i l l , skim, skin, s k i r t , s k u l l , sky, slab, slam, slang, s l a n t , slaughter, sleave, s l e d , sledge, s l e i g h , sleek, s l i c k , sleeper, s l e e t , s l e i g h t , slop, s l o t , slouch, slough, slug, s l u r , s l u t , s l y , smash, smattering, smelt, smile, smug, smuggle, smut, sneer, s n i f f , snipe, s n i v e l , snob, snort, snout, snub, snuff, snug, spark, spick and span-new, spash, s p l i n t , s p l i t , s p l u t t e r , spout, sprawl, spray, spry, spurt, sputter, squabble, s q u a l l , squander, squeak, squeal, squint, s q u i r t , stack, stag, stagger, s t a l e , steak, steep, stern, s t i l t , stoat, streak, struggle, strum, s t r u t , stumble, stump, s t u t t e r , swagger, swain, swamp, sway, s w i r l . tackle, tag, take, tang, tangle, t a t t e r , teem, t h e i r , they, t h r a l l , t h r i f t , t h r i v e , thrush, thrust, thwart, t i d i n g s , t i g h t , t i k e , t i l l , t i p , t i p s y , t i t , t i t for t a t , tram, trap, trash, t r i l l , t r u s t , t u f t . ugly. i 101 V a l h a l l a , v i k i n g . wad, wag, w a i l , wake, wall-eyed, wand, want, wapentake, weak, weld, whim, w h i r l , whisk, whore, wick, w i n d l a s s , window wing. yap. CHAPTER VII LOANWORDS The expressions and idioms of chapter f i v e demonstrate an intimate fusion of the Scandinavian languages into English. In contrast to these expressions and idioms which became a part of American English by means of loan t r a n s l a t i o n , loan creation, loan s h i f t , and i n t e r l i n g u i s t i c transference, one finds loan-words. Loanwords by t h e i r nature are set apart from the normal, native, and the indigenous portion of a language. A loanword i s usually only p a r t i a l l y naturalized and assimilated and e a s i l y recognized by unusual s p e l l i n g . The majority of loanwords i n America are probably designations for food and drink somehow foreign to the American kitchen and palate. Other loanwords are found i n the professional jargon of certa i n occupations and f i e l d s of a c t i v i t y . Some Scandinavian loanwords follow: Akvavit - a co l o r l e s s or s l i g h t l y yellow a l c o h o l i c liquor pro-duced by r e d i s t i l l i n g potato s p i r i t s flavored with caraway seeds. Comment: a seventeenth century loan made to B r i t a i n and America and continually reinforced i n America. Angst - a term used i n psychology to indicate a f e e l i n g of un-easiness brought about by the thought of a threat. Comment: This loanword i n the r e s t r i c t e d meaning noted above i s thought to have been borrowed from : 103 SjzSren Kierkegaard (1813-55) by Sigmund Freud. Freud made t h i s an int e r n a t i o n a l term used i n psychology. Dynamite - a s o l i d b l a s t i n g explosive. Comment: This coinage was f i r s t made by a Swedish s c i e n t i s t . Eiderdown - a q u i l t or comforter f i l l e d with the. sof t l i g h t feathers of the female of the northern ducks. Comment: Icelandic. F j a l l - a Swedish breed of small white polled dairy c a t t l e with red or black points and fl e c k i n g on the sides. Comment: Swedish. F j e l d - a barren plateau of the Scandinavian uplan. Comment: Danish. Fjord - a narrow generally deep and steep i n l e t of the sea. Comment: Dano-Norwegian. Geyser - a spring that throws f o r t h i n t e r m i t t e n t l y escaping jets of hot water. Comment: Icelandic. Iceberg - a large mass of ice broken from a g l a c i e r at the edge of a sea which f l o a t s with nine-tenths of i t s mass submerged. „ Comment: Dano-Norwegian. Kraken - a fabulous sea monster imagined on the basis of chance sightings of giant squids. Comment: Norwegian d i a l e c t a l . 104 Krans - a wreath. Comment: Originating from Dutch or Scandinavian. Landgang - a ladder for going from a f i s h i n g boat to shore and vice versa; a gangplank. Comment: Norwegian and Danish. Landsmaal - a l i t e r a r y form of Norwegian based on the spoken d i a l e c t s of Norway. Comment: Norwegian. Ombudsman - a man appointed by the government to hear and r e c t i f y public grievances. (The pronunciation i s s t i l l unstable with the stress on either the f i r s t or second s y l l a b l e ) . 'Comment: This word not l i s t e d i n Webster's III i s about four years old now. I t i s of Swedish o r i g i n . This w i l l be a most i n t e r e s t i n g loanword to observe. Loan-words of a p o l i t i c a l nature indicate that someone considers t h i s idea superior to any alternative offered by one's own society. Are there any other words whose concepts we might use? The f i r s t ombudsman i n North -America was appointed i n A p r i l 10, 1967 i n Alberta. Riksmaal - a l i t e r a r y form of Norwegian developed by the gradual reform of written Danish i n conformity to Norwegian usage. Comment: Norwegian. 105 Saga - a prose narrative sometimes of legendary content but t y p i c a l l y dealing with prominent figures and events of the heroic age of Scandinavia. Comment: This loanword was introduced to English by the Vikings; more recently, Scandinavian immigrants to North America have popularized i t . Many films of the Old West are c a l l e d Sagas. Skaal (Skoal) - an i n t e r j e c t i o n to toast to someone's health, well-being, happiness. This i s said just before a drink. Comment: This Danish loanword l i t e r a l l y means bowl. Sloyd - a system of manual t r a i n i n g by means of graded courses i n wood-working, etc. Comment: This sytem was developed i n Sweden and was the forerunner to the American programs to r e - t r a i n the unemployed, or Seattle's Job Corps. Smorgasbord - a luncheon or supper buffet o f f e r i n g a variety of hot and cold foods and dishes. Comment: This i s a Swedish custom. The majority of Danes do not knov; what i s meant by t h i s term. L i t e r a l l y i t i s smear + goose + table. Vancouver o f f e r s a Chinese Smorgasbord. Sm^rrebrod - a fancy open faced sandwich, i . e . hors d'oeuvre on one s l i c e of buttered bread. Comment: Danish. Snaps - an a l c o h o l i c beverage consisting of ethyl alcohol flavored with various herbs. Comment: Danish and Swedish. j 106 A few t r i p s to the l o c a l Danish bakery gave the follow-ing words: • Butter cake - sm^rkage Copenhagen squares - Fransk smjzSrkage A Danish - wienerbr^d (but i n a round shape l i k e a " d a r l i g t 0je" A Danish pastry - the long form for a Danish, the same round bun Ambiguity arises when one wishes to ta l k about Danish pastry i n general. A Danish Kringle - Kringle, wienerbr^d i n the form of a baker's sign, i . e . d$D ,. Danish s t r i p s - Staenger, en stang. i Kleiner - klejner. Brian Foster i n The Changing English Language p. 83 writes that the iced birthday cake appears to have spread to America from Northern Germany i n the middle of the nineteenth century and l a t e r to have been introduced to England. The f0dselsdagkage (birthday cake) of Denmark, an iced layer cake, resembles the American birthday cake more than the German Geburtstagtorte (birthday t a r t ) . Perhaps Northern Germany was actually Senderjylland (South Jutland); the i n t e r n a t i o n a l border has been unstable. Skiing terms have also enriched the English language. The terms used i n America frequently have t h e i r o r i g i n s i n Norway although some may have been translated to alpine German 107 and introduced to America through that language. The following are Norwegian loanwords or Norwegian loan t r a n s l a t i o n s : English Braking s k i Corn snow C h r i s t i a n i a Herringbone Langlauf Planks Ski S k i j o r i n g Ski:, lauf ing Slalom Snow ploughing Norwegian bremseski kornsne C h r i s t i a n i a f i s k e s s k i t t e t or fiskeben langrennet planker ski s k i j o r i n g or sn^rekj^ring s k i lopning slalaam sneplogen Stem stemm Meaning The s k i with which one stops or retards speed. Granulated snow. A sk i i n g turn used for a l t e r i n g the d i r e c t i o n of h i l l descent usually from one diagonally transverse -d i r e c t i o n to the other or for checking or stopping and executed usually at r e l a t i v e l y high speed larg e l y by s h i f t i n g the body weight forward and skidding into a turn with p a r a l l e l skies. A manner of walking up h i l l with skis on. A cross country s k i tour. Cf. German Langlauf. Slang for s k i s . A s k i . A manner of sk i i n g i n which one i s pulled by a horse, a tr a c t o r , etc. To s k i . Cf. German Skilaufen. Skiing i n a zigzag or wavy course between upright ob-st a c l e s . L i t e r a l l y , a sloping track. A type of turn or stopping maneuvre i n which the t i p s are placed close together and the ends are spread far apart. To turn or retard oneself by forcing the heel of one s k i or of both skis outward from the l i n e of progress. 108 Stem C h r i s t i a n i a Stemm s k i S t i c k r i d i n g Telemark C h r i s t i a n i a sving Stemmski stavridning telemarksving A turn i n ski i n g begun by the stemming of one s k i and completed by bringing the skis p a r a l l e l into a c h r i s t i a n i a during the turn. That s k i which i s placed outward from the l i n e of progress. Skiing with one's weight on one's poles. A turn or stop i n which the ski that i s to be on the outside of the turn i s advanced considerably ahead of the other s k i . l Scandinavian furniture has been accepted with great popularity i n North America. However, only two words have been discovered. Danish modern refers to a type of l i g h t weight (usually teak) f u r n i t u r e . Danish design i s a t r a n s l a t i o n of Dansk design, and i t designates Danish s t y l e knick-knacks. Other professions which may have some Scandinavian loans are lumbering and the industry of forest products, northern and west coast f i s h i n g , and carpentry. Herbert R. Liedke, "The evolution of the s k i - l i n g o i n America", Monatshefte 35.116-124 (1943). CHAPTER VIII PERSONAL NAMES AND PLACE-NAMES Surnames The surnames of Scandinavian immigrants were changed less d r a s t i c a l l y and less often than were the surnames found i n most other n a t i o n a l i t y groups. The surnames Andersen, Hansen, Jensen, Petersen, Nielsen, Madsen, Mathiesen, Rasmussen, S^rensen, Svendsen, Johansen, Karlsen, Larsen, Olsen, etc. are immediately recognizable to any American and regarded as a native element i n American patronymics. The Wisconsin census of 1850 showed that 93% of a l l Norwegian surnames ended i n -sen or -son as i n the names l i s t e d above. The Danes would have had a somewhat lower percentage due to German influence and larger c i t i e s . ^ " There were minor adaptations to be made, among which would be the substitution of o for 0, as i n c Sprensen, e for ae, as xn Kjaer, and o or oh for a as i n Assen. There were however hundreds of thousands among the Danes, the Norwegians, and e s p e c i a l l y the Swedes who did not have these surnames which ended i n -sen or -son. Roy Swanson i n The German influence introduced new "trade-names" into Denmark, e.g. M i l l e r , Kaufman, and Smidt. The Germans also contributed many "Adelsnavne" names of the n o b i l i t y , many of these names end i n -dorf. In the larger c i t i e s there were so many Jensens, Nielsens, and Hansens that people were compelled to seek d i s t i n c t i v e names. Nowadays many Scandinavians use t h e i r middle name. 110 2 "The S w e d i s h Surname i n A m e r i c a " comments on how t h e s e names were changed o r m o d i f i e d ; a summary f o l l o w s , 1. Some Swedes o r t h e i m m i g r a t i o n o f f i c e r t r a n s l a t e d t h e i r names, e . g . Gron t o G r e e n , S t e n t o S t o n e , O s t t o E a s t , N o r d t o N o r t h , H j o r t t o H a r t , S t a r k t o S t r o n g , S j o s t r a n d , . t o S e a s h o r e , e t c . 2 . O t h e r Swedes adop ted t h e n e a r e s t s o u n d i n g " A m e r i c a n name so t h a t Bondega rd became B e n d e r , B e n g t s s o n became B e n s o n , M o d i g became Moody, and N y s t r o m became Newsome. A l s o L j u n g (hea the r ) was i n v a r i a b l y changed t o Y o u n g , hence the S w e d i s h - A m e r i c a n h y b r i d s Y o u n g b e r g , Y o u n g d a h l , Y o u n g r e n , e t c . Gren meaning " b r a n c h " o r "bough" was o f t e n changed t o G r a i n o r G r e e n . Gran ( p i n e ) was c o n v e n i e n t l y u p - g r a d e d t o G r a n d , e . g . G r a n d q u i s t . B l a d ( l e a f ) was a l t e r e d t o B l a d e , and Bo ( i n h a b i t a n t ) was l e n g t h e n e d t o Bow hence Bowman. - K v i s t , q v i s t , and - q u i s t a l l e x p e r i e n c e d s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n t o - q u i s t w h i c h f o l l o w s A m e r i c a n o r t h o g r a p h y ; a few chose t h e de l u x e model - q u e s t . 3 . Many S c a n d i n a v i a n s found t h e i r surname t o o awkward o r t o o common, t h e y t h e r e f o r e c r e a t e d new names f rom the f i r s t p o r t i o n o f t h e i r home-town p l u s t h e t e r m i n a t i o n - i n g . Thus an i m m i g r a n t who h a i l e d f rom A l f v e s t a c r e a t e d A l f v i n g . 4. I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e umlau t changes a l r e a d y c i t e d f o r Danes and N o r w e g i a n s , t he Swedes u s u a l l y s i m p l i f i e d b j , h j , 1 j , l i l j , and s j t o b , h , 1, l i l , and s h , s c h , o r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 5 . The S w e d i s h w (pronounced [ v ] ) was r e t a i n e d and p ronounced [w] by t h e f i r s t g e n e r a t i o n t h a t c o u l d manage i t . 6 . S p e l l i n g 2 A m . S p . 3 .468 - 77 ( 1 9 2 8 ) . I l l changes were employed to preserve the o r i g i n a l Swedish sound so that Blom was changed to Bloom, Ros to Roos, Cron to Croon, S t r i d to Streed, and Kilgren to Chilgren as Swedish K i s palato-alveolar before front vowels. 7 . Many Scandinavians changed t h e i r names to. an orthographic representation of an American s p e l l i n g pronunciation. Thus hr. Yman became Mr. 3 Wyman. 8. Fortunately the "borgerliganamn" was only p a r t i a l l y translated or anglicized. A complete l i t e r a l trans-l a t i o n would have resulted i n a more foreign impression. Mr. Eklof found that Eklof was more r e s p e c t f u l l y received than was Oakleaf; likewise Mr. Fagerdahl preferred his Swedish name to the somewhat comical f a i r v a l l e y . , ' Many upper-class Swedes have French influenced names, e.g. Lmne, Loven, Munktell, Traner, Sylvan, M e l l i n , Almen, / / / Boren, Fromen, Noren, and Oden. Although many Swedish-Americans dropped th i s accent mark others preserved i t or at least i n s i s t e d upon a stress of the f i n a l s y l l a b l e . This c e r t a i n l y i s one of the contributing forces to the American respect for stress on the f i n a l s y l l a b l e . Compare the Swedish A x e l l , Engzell, B r u s e l l , L i n d e l l , M a r t e l l , Rydell, One's surname i n Scandinavia was a century ago, a sure sign of one's sta t i o n i n l i f e . At the top was the "adelsnamn" (the n o b i l i t y name), the Tadelsnamn' often ended ^ n ~ s k i o l d ( s h i e l d ) , -brand ( f i r e ) , or -hammar (hammer). Second was the "prastnamn" (the p r i e s t name) which invariably ends i n either -ius Or ander. The "fransknamn" (the french name) was next i n order and was the property of the upper middle c l a s s . This was followed by the soldatsnamn; these names are derived from adjectives of s o l d i e r l y v i r t u e , e.g. Modig (brace), Stark (strong), Rask (daring) and Tapper (courageous). The "borgerlignamn" (the c i v i l name) was for R u s e l l , S o n d e l l , and Wendell a l l with f i n a l s t r e s s t o the 4 American Lidde11, R i d d e l l , and Mac D o n n e l l . I t was n a t u r a l t h a t those of h i g h s o c i a l s t a t i o n i n S c a n d i n a v i a should want to t r a n s f e r the c l a s s system to America upon t h e i r a r r i v a l t o the new world. I t was a l s o n a t u r a l t h a t c e r t a i n "pretenders" took advantages of the s i t u a t i o n . These two types o f people gave America the "Prastnamn" ( p r i e s t names) ending i n - i u s and -ander, and the even l e s s common "noble name". A l l the above comments made by Roy W. Swanson and H.L. 5 Mencken no longer apply to immigrants from S c a n d i n a v i a . Now-adays the Scandinavian immigrants change on l y the umlauted vowels. One reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t three m i l l i o n Scandinavians have a l r e a d y c o n d i t i o n e d North America t o Scandinavian names. Another reason i s t h a t the s i t u a t i o n has changed; no longer i s the humble immigrant herded from the boat onto E l l i s I s l a n d but he disembarks from a shiny j e t a i r l i n e r . the middle c l a s s , the b o u r g e o i s , these names r e f e r r e d to nature. The tradesman had h i s own "erhvervsnamn" (tradesman name), e.g. M i l l e r . The common f o l k had v i r t u a l l y no name, -son or - d o t t e r was simply added to the f a t h e r ' s f i r s t name. 4 . . See E r i c P a r t r i d g e B r i t i s h and American E n g l i s h Since 1900, London, 1951, pp. 329-330 and Chapter I I , p, 18'. 5 The American Language: Supplement I I , Chapter 10, pp. 396-525, New York: 1948. 113 Middle Names In respect to t h e i r waning Scandinavian heritage, parents give t h e i r children a Scandinavian middle name. I t i s expected that only the i n i t i a l w i l l be used and often the children never learn to pronounce i t properly. Typical i s Harold S. Palmer, of the University of Hawaii who writes: My mother was born i n Norway and her maiden name was Schj^th which I cannot pronounce properly, though i t i s my middle name and also my older brother's. I usually use only the middle i n i t i a l . . . . 6 F i r s t Names Unlike the surname, the f i r s t name i s l o s t within a few generations. Scandinavian boy's names include Sven, Gunner, N i l s , Ingerval, Lars, Otto, Jens, Hans, Knut, J0rgen, S0ren, K a r l , J u l i u s , Ole, Anders, Kai, L e i f , F r i t j o f , Harold, Henrik, Hjalmar, Olaf, E r i k , Thorvald, BjzSrge, Halvor, Holger, Volmer, etc. Only Harold and E r i k , anglicized to E r i c , have been adopted by non-Scandinavian Americans. Scandinavian g i r l ' s names include Solveg, Helma, Magdalene, Gerd, Ingeborg, Lisbeth, G u r l i , Irene, Edith, Hanne, Hedvig, Kirsten, Dagmar, Ragna, Birthe, S i g r e i d , Anna, Irma, B r i g i t t e , Emma, E l s a , Charlotte, Lotte, B o d i l , Suzanne, Johanne, Olga, Poula, Grethe, K i r s t i n e . Of the above l i s t e d 7 g i r l ' s names, Mencken t e l l s us that Helma, Karen, and 6 I b i d . , p. 434. 7 I b i d . , p. 520. 114 8 Ingeborg have been added to the American repertoire. In note 4 of the same page he writes, "In 1947 Dr. C l i f f o r d R. Adams, of Pennsylvania State College, reported that Karen was the f a v o r i t e of the co-eds there assembled...." In t h i s same sub-chapter Mencken mentions that other ethnic groups have adopted the given name Karen, among them the Slavs and the Jews. The fa c t that these more recent immigrants have chosen a Scandinavian name may support the b e l i e f that they also followed some Scandinavian-American l i n g u i s t i c patterns. Place Names That region "East and north of Watling Street", i t has already been noted, contains over 1400 Danish place-names. The second Danelaw i n northern North America has, i t must be assumed, well over that number. Unfortunately an extensive study on t h i s subject i s not av a i l a b l e . Roy Swanson's 9 "Scandinavian Place-Names i n the American Danelaw" gives us a good i f not complete look at the State of Minnesota. He notes that place names of Scandinavian o r i g i n f a l l into f i v e groups: 1. Those based on personal names. 2. The transplanted Scandinavian place-names. 3. The poetic-p a t r i o t i c names. 4. The place-names which indicate an American la b e l i n g of a predominantly Scandinavian region, and 5. The 8 The Scandinavians nat u r a l l y reinforced some of the Inter-Germanic and International names as well. 9 Swedish-American H i s t o r i c a l B u l l e t i n 3.5-17 (.1929) . lis place names fabricated by the Scandinavian s e t t l e r from his own language. Swanson counted over four hundred place-names of Scandinavian o r i g i n i n Minnesota. E a s i l y one half of the names are Norwegian; one quarter are Swedish. F e w e r ' s t i l l are the Danish words. The remainder are names whose exact n a t i o n a l i t y i s not determinable. S i x t y - f i v e per cent of a l l names were derived from personal names, e.g. (Norwegian) Kagero township, Arnesen v i l l a g e , Barsness Lake, Breda s t a t i o n , Torgerson post o f f i c e , S o r l i e r M i l l s , Knutsen Lake, etc. (Swedish) the v i l l a g e s Kost, Lindsbom, Stark, Almelund, Strandquist, Lengby, and Palmville, (Danish) Borup.^ Just as the English s e t t l e r s transplanted place-names from England, e.g. Boston, New York, Portsmouth, Norfolk, etc., so the Norwegians transplanted C h r i s t i a n i a , Bergen, Trondhjem, Stavanger, etc. The Swedes transplanted Stockholm, Upsala, Malmo, Lund, Mora, Karlstad, and so on, while the Danes chose Askov, Skagen, and Torning; there are f i f t e e n Denmarks i n the U.S.A. The p o e t i c - p a t r i o t i c names are representative of an immigrant's pride for the old country he has l e f t behind. Nidaros and Oslo were Viking names used i n Minnesota i n memory of the then Trondhjem and C h r i s t i a n i a . Tordenskjold, St. Olaf, ^The main reason for the paucity of Danish place-names l i e s i n the Danes' practice of s e t t l i n g independently, not c o l l e c t i v e l y , scattering widely, and mixing f r e e l y , factors not favorable to the creation of place-names but conducive to idiomatic l i n g u i s t i c influence. 116 E i d v o l d and Wergeland are a l s o c i t e d . The Swedes honored Sweden w i t h Svea, Scandia, Oscar, C h r i s t i n a , Vasa, Lutsen, Runeberg, Tegner, Dopelius, and Lindbergh. The Danes con-t r i b u t e d Danebod. When a n a t i o n a l i t y i s c i t e d i n the form of an a t t r i b -u t i v e a d j e c t i v e one can guess t h a t some other n a t i o n a l i t y has l a b e l l e d the p l a c e . The American neighbors named such places as Norwegian Bay, Norwegian Grove township and Norwegian Lake The l a s t group i s made up of f a b r i c a t i o n s e n t i r e l y Scandinavian i n form, e.g. Westerheim (home i n the west), Langhei (a long h i g h l a n d ) , E c k v p l l (oak v a l e ) , and Espelee (popular s l o p e ) . There are a l s o h y b r i d place-names and completely a n g l i c i z e d names. One once more encounters the problem of sep a r a t i o n of i d e n t i t y when d e a l i n g w i t h place-names ending i n -by. There may w e l l be E n g l i s h t r a n s f e r r a l s o r i g i n a t i n g i n the V i k i n g era or they may have come d i r e c t l y from Scandinavia to Northern America. Although only four hundred place-names of Scandinavian o r i g i n have been counted thus f a r i n Minnesota, one would expect a lar g e i n crease i n th a t number i f one were to i n v e s t i g a t e s c h o o l s , b u i l d i n g s , s t r e e t s , ponds, creeks, h i l l s f i e l d s and ten thousand l a k e s . Canada has a number of towns w i t h Scandinavian names. Most of these place-names are more recent than the Scandinavian-American place-names; they i n c l u d e Ymir, Salmo, Hagensborg, Holberg, Lund, Osland, Engen, Danskin and Poulson 117 i n B r i t i s h Columbia. Alberta has New Norway, Scandia, Hanna, and Viking. Saskatchewan has Bjorkdale, Hallonquist, and Jensen. Manitoba has Gimli, Reykjavik, Hnausa, and Hecla of Icelandic extraction, plus Arborg and Norway House. Copenhagen, Dane, Birkdale, Finmark, Finland, and Hager are found within the p r o v i n c i a l borders of Ontario. The sixteenth Denmark i n North America i s found i n Nova Scotia. \ CHAPTER IX SUMMARY-CONCLUSION The Danish l i n g u i s t i c element i s intimately mixed into the Northern American d i a l e c t for a number of reasons:' 1. The Danes (here representing the Dano-Norwegian l i n g u i s t i c community and the southwestern Swedes) were the second largest immigrant group to the United States before the twentieth century. 2. These Scandinavian immigrants were an industrious, l i t e r a t e , clean, moral, and ambitious group highly acceptable to the Americans. 3. They s e t t l e d a vast area near the great lakes westward to the P a c i f i c i n which they created a p a r t i a l sub-stratum region, which would i n -timately influence the speech patterns of a l l people i n that region. 4. Eecause English and Danish have a common h i s t o r i c a l background and are so closely related, mixing f r e e l y took place; i t often occurred unknowingly. 5. Another important l i n g u i s t i c reason for Danish influence was that Danish had already experienced some changes which one could expect English and other Germanic languages to experience, e.g. the added emphasis on word order and the loss of some i n f l e c t i o n a l endings; Danish spurred Northern American on i t s "natural" way. Phonologically, the Danish influence i s minor. Reinforcement of marginal archaic items as well as some reinforcement of native innovation i s present. 119 In morphology, one can see certai n paradigmatical co-occurrences i n Danish and Northern American. The Danish developments pre-date the Northern American. Some a f f i x e s also follow a Danish pattern. Danish influence on Northern American syntax i s best i l l u s t r a t e d by the compound words formed by the a t t r i b u t i v e nouns which are so common i n Northern American. This and other s y n t a c t i c a l elements may well be from the 1 influence of a l l the continental Germanic languages. Danish and the other Scandinavian languages would best be considered second i n rank a f t e r German but placed i n importance i n front of Dutch, Yiddish, F r i s i a n and any other immigrant language found i n English-speaking North America. The most s i g n i f i c a n t influence of Danish upon Northern American i s found i n idiomatic expressions where loan trans-lati o n s , loan s h i f t s and loan creations have caused the idiomatic patterns to d i f f e r from standard B r i t i s h English usage. Often the continental Germanic languages have p a r a l l e l idiomatic patterns which, when translated i n America mutually reinforce one another. In addition there seems to be a co r r e l a t i o n between Scandinavian prototypes and preferences and Northern American word frequency. 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"Norsk Talemal i Amerika," Syn og Segn. 55.193-203 (1949) Ordbog Over Det Danske Sprog. Copenhagen: 1918. Oxford E n g l i s h D i c t i o n a r y . Oxford: 1933. Page, Eugene R. " E n g l i s h i n the P e n n s y l v a n i a German Area," Am. Sp.,12.203-6 (1937). P a r t r i d g e , E r i c and John W. C l a r k . B r i t i s h and American E n g l i s h  S i n c e 1900. London: 1951. P a r t r i d g e , E r i c . Usage and Abusage. London: 1957. . Slang and Unconventional E n g l i s h . London:1961. Pound, L o u i s e . " M i s c e l l a n e o u s Notes, Odd Formations," D i a l e c t  Notes, 4.353-55 (1916) P a r t V. _ _ . "Popular V a r i a n t s of 'Yes'", Am.Sp. 2.132 (1926) Poutsma, Hendrik. A Grammar of Late Modern E n g l i s h . Vols.1-4. Groningen: 1904-26. P y l e s , Thomas. Words and Ways of American E n g l i s h . New York 1952. Reed, C a r r o l l E. "The A d a p t a t i o n of E n g l i s h t o P e n n s y l v a n i a German Morphology," Am. 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"German D i a l e c t s Spoken i n the United S t a t e s and Canada and Problems of German-English Language Contact E s p e c i a l l y i n North America: a B i b l i o g r a p h y , " O r b i s , 16.549-568 (1967). No. 2. V i g f u s s o n , Gudbrandur and Powell, F.York. I c e l a n d i c Prose Reader. Oxford: 1879. 127 Wall, Arnold. " A Contribution towards the Study of the Scandinavian Element i n the English D i a l e c t s , " Anglia, 20.45-135 (1898). Webster's Third New International Dictionary. S p r i n g f i e l d : 1965 Weinreich, U r i e l . Languages i n Contact. New York: 1953. Wells, H.B. "Notes on Yiddish". Am. Sp_. 4.58-66 (1928) ' _. "So Long". Am. Sp. 2.460 (1926). Wesley, Edgar B. Wesley's H i s t o r i c a l Atlas of the United  States. Chicago: 1956. Wildhagen German-English and English-German Dictionary. Chicago: 1965. Wittke, C a r l . We Who B u i l t America. Cleveland: 1967. 128 APPENDIX A STATISTICS 1 The table on the following page has been taken from the S t a t i s t i c a l Abstract of the United States. Washington, D.C.: 1968, p. 92. TABLE I 129 92 Imini<rration and Naturalization No. 327. IMMIGRANTS, BY CO U N T R Y OF L A S T P E R M A N E N T R E S I D E N C E : 1820 TO 1 9 C 7 (For years ending June 30. l>at» prior to 1906 refer to country from which aliens cirao. Tlecauso of boundary changes and changes in list of countries separately reportet], data for certain countries not comparable through-out. See also Historical Statistics, Colonial Times to 1957, series C 8.3-114] All countries.. Europe. Albania -Austria i Hungary _ Belgium Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Denmark Estonia Finland , France Germany > Great Britain '.. England Scotland Wales Greece Ireland 1 Italy Latvia Lithuania Luxembourg Netherlands Norway Poland 1 Portugal Romania..: Spain , Sweden Switzerland.. Turkey in Europe U.S.S.R.i Yugoslavia Other Europe Asia I China i India Japan Turkey in Asia Other Asia < America Canada and Newfound-land Mexico _ Central America South America West Indies Other America. Africa Australia and New Zealand Pacific Islands ' All other countries Total 14S yrs., 1S20-I957 1911-1950, total 1951-I9C0, total 19G3 19G1 1905 1966 19G7 43. 970, 2S5 1,035,039 2,515,-179 30C. 2i"0 292,2 IS 290,697 323,010 361,972 35,350,575 2, 257 4,2S9,215 100,181 $21,704 85 / 24, SCO \ 3,409 12, ISO 1,328,293 59 67,100 30,037 IS, 575 109.0CC 9 1,526 635 022 10S,2t5 8 1,311 619 1,290 101,4GS 10 1,743 510 1,155 115. SOS 10 1,440 627 SS7 128,775 15 1,45-1 - 582 802 6G. 832 130. SCO 358, 333 1.03S 30.00S 375 8,347 5,393 212 2,503 104 91S 10,9S4 185 4,925 36 111 1,070 8 35S 261 190 970 15 495 29 3S9 1.03S 14 332 67 286 953 24 374 43 297 991 17 449 718.430 6,879. 495 4, 735. 4S9 3, 034. 619 807,373 93.73S 3S.809 220, 578 131,592 112,252 16,131 3,209 51,121 477,765 195.49S 150, 171 32,854 2.5S9 4,926 24,727 22,807 18,314 4,139 255 5,593 24,49-1 25,897 21,007 4,403 2S3 5,573 22,432 24,279 19, 413 4,440 252 4,173 17,661 10,439 10.01S 2,573 184 4,904 16. 595 23, 778 20,257 2,552 195 528.894 4, 70S, S15 6,090. 204 2, 295 3,582 8, 973 20,967 57,661 361 6S3 47,60S 57,332 185,491 352 242 4,744 5,746 16,175 48 58 3,993 6,055 12,709 40 50 3,016 5.187. 10,874 37 59 8,221 2,603 20,449 67 63 14,19-1 1,991 28,4S7 62 49 2.4S1 346. 822 851.093 478,026 319, 244 820 14,860 10,100 7,571 7,423 6S4 52,277 22, 935 9, 9S5 19,588 52 4.0S6 1,931 6,735 2,911 63 2,039 2,145 7,097 2,000 85 2,353 2,179 7,093 1,937 59 1,922 1, 620 8,470 8, 481 60 1, 736 1,282 4.356 13,400 1C0.63S 200. 478 1, 263, 590 338,097 1,076 2,833 10,665 10,517 1,039 7,894 21, 697 17, 675 120 2,909 2,056 1,952 287 4,069 2,190 2,119 434 3,929 2.413 2,360 241 4.944 1,863 1,995 . 179 4.5G2 1,822 2,279 163, 0S9 3,345, 909 76,347 50,791 530 543 1,576 3.9S3 2,653 584 8, 225 8,155 834 119 972 304 500 163 1,093 326 390 190 1,051 321 579 259 1,611 514 677 299 2,753 530 1,299.763 420, 761 22,631 352, 748 208,900 283,7)7 31.780 16, 709 1,761 1, 555 218 11,537 147,453 9,657 1,973 46,250 866 SS.707 23.2)2 1,605 965 4,147 307 16,218 21,279 2.6S4 4SS 3,774 331 14,002 20,040 1,611 407 3,294 365 14,303 40,112 2, 9-18 2,293 3,403 365 31,038 57.574 7,118 4,129 4,125 491 41,711 6,8SI,081 354,804 9S6, 914 169,966 153,641 171,019 162,552 170.235 3,870,839 I, 457, 307 186.503 419,483 839,309 107,575 171,71,3 60, 539 21,665 21,831 49,725 29,276 377, 952 299,811 44,751 91, 628 123,091 59,711 50,509 55,9S0 10,700 27,759 22,951 2,055 51,114 3-1,443 11,829 34,891 24,067 2,295 50,035 40, 686 12, 730 33,757 31,141 2,604 37, 273 47,217 9,839 28,113 37,999 2,001 34,708 43,034 8,862 18, 502 61.9S7 3,022 61.694 92,056 22,454 2CS, 602 7,367 13, 805 5,437 142 14.092 11,501 4,693 12, 493 1.9S2 1,642 136 226 2,015 1,707 8S 240 1,949 1,803 155 203 1.907 1,800 177 444 2,577 2,123 149 534 * 1933 to 1015, Austria included with Germany; 1S99 to 1919, Poland included with Austria-Hungary, Germany, and U.S.S.U. > Beginning 1952, includes data for United Kingdom not specified, formerly included in "Other Europe." * Comprises Eire and Northern Ireland. * Philippines included in "Other Asia" beginning 1952 and Ln "Pacific Islands*' 1931 "to 1951, Prior to 1931, recorded separately as insular travel. * Beginning 1957, includes Taiwan. Source: Dept. of Justice, Immigration and Naturalization Service; Anr.uat Report. TABLE II • 130 2 T A B L B I X . SHOWING T H E NUMBER AND P L A C E OF HIKTH o r THIS DEFECTIVE AND CRIMINAL CLASSES IN THIS COUNTRY, " T O G E T H E R WITH T H E FOREIGN AND NATIVE BORN POPULATION—ACCORDING TO T H E UNITED S T A T E S CENSUS OF 1S60, 1S70, ISSO, AND 1S00. - . v - -.\ ' COUNTRIES. Austria.... Belgium Bohemia British America., China Denmark England Frauce Germany Holland : Hungary Ireland Italy Mexico Norway Poland Portugal Russia Scotland Spain Sweden Switzerland United States Wales Total Population in the U.-S 1SGO. Deaf and Insane Dumb and Blind 17 1 194 4 6 3-15 82 3S9 11 1,117 2 43 21 4 19,' and Idiotic 6 15 261 19 9 600 1S3| 1,434 O K 3,469 14 30 33 7 8 2 47 8 34 91 33,3-13 Popula-tion. 25,061 9,072 249,970 35,565 9,962 433,494 109,870 1,270,075 2S.2S1 1,611, 10, 27, 43, 7, 4, 3, 108; 4, 18, 53. !3,353, 45, 304 51S 4C6 995 298 116 160 518 244 OS 327 3S6 763 .31,443,421 1870. Deaf and Dumb and Blind. 18 13 25 432 6 2 564 121 ,149 20 3 ,771 71 51 75 14 3 31 98 6 62 121 912 63 Insane and Idiotic 34 17 70 459 40 32 950 306 3,631 63 5 6,002 37 6 203 7 15 7 244 14 119 190 49,08 106 Popula-tion. 30, 1-2, 40, 493, 63, 30, 555, 116, 1,690, 4G, 3, 1.1S5, 17, 42, 114, 14, 4, 4, 140, 3, 97, 75, 32,991, 74, 508 555 2S9 •1 64 042 008 040 402 533 S02 737 S27 157 435 243 436 542 044 835 764 327 1 53 142 533 3S,55S,371 1SS0. Pris-oners. 13 1,215 526 1,453 247 2,270 42 5,309 170 330 47 10 39 414 31 69 4G.S02 71 Popula-tion. ,7S3 1890. Pris-oners. 195 33 43 2,032 5 124 2,90S 518 4,993 84 1311 14,592 604 741 243 169 18 191 90S 50 3S7 192 171 Pau-pers. 95 40 174 1,006 4 120 2,344 4S0 7,814 154 54 16,210 158 51 398 238 27 68 696 16 GS4 327 295 Popula-tion. 123,271 22,639 118,106 9S0.93.S 100,6SS 132.543 909,092 113,174 2,784,S94 81 ,S28 62,435 1,871 ,509 1S2.5S0 77,853 322,665 147,440 15,990 1S2.G44 242,231 6,185 47S.041 104,009 3,372,703 100,079 . 02,622,250 to Xfi •3 O w *! O w M (ft O > a Si > > tfi w The number of prisoners born in Dcmiiaek. Norway and Sweden is not given separately for the year of 1880, but together they all had 280. . . This table has been taken from 0. Nelson's History of Scandinavians and Biographies U.S. Minneapolis: 1893, p. 262 131 APPENDIX B MAP3 The following map has been taken from Edgar Wesley 1 Wesley's H i s t o r i c a l Atlas of the United States. Chicago: 1956, p. 49. 100 90 80 Mtitnjjpijnso " UH t,„ r* ~ \ FOREIGN B O R N " • V ENGUSH.WELSH. SCOTCH f AND CANADIANS. 1920 J&96im -c 33,866 i § / . 9 9 3 c 25,443 . •' <.W c 34.0,0 . L%± 1 1.000 Canadians o 1,000 English and Scolcn • / n / i " 100 90 80 FOREIGN BORN GERMANS 1920 QQ u/o.176 C2B39 > r:'0l.217 c7.623 '.*•*•* "*. • • •'>' •*.'. 'p£/'.m '•i/0Jf' ...«*» 14  N. 10/.512 170 995 / '..OOOpeoo'e • ^QOfi,lif,n 5 0 3 ^ 137.711 20 6,234 5 194.170 FOREIGN BORN I R I S H 1920 46C A C,l» Si Paul . Midneapoijr " st iW Indianapol15." 1.000 people . . . . in 154.969 •., 121.740 yi&ZO 24.441 '.21 l"j 98515 FOREIGN BORN SCANDINAVIANS 1920 I FOREIGN BORN ITALIANS 1920 184650 9 533 [851 55 15511 185660 9169 186165 16.738 .• 109 654 Hi! .'5 119.688 1H7'^) 123328 ' 1 1 . • 149J80 ? ! " 54 072 35 124 C24 (4'IN Kansas CJ»< . J, ^ " • ! - ^ - - T { - - - I 7 C • •• 8277 109.504 27.060 1^7.805 28699 . .~s1 :^ Itfi'^i' 363^58 FOREIGN BORN RUSSIANS 1920 k n i l 1 Ulft C.Iy IT D A M , ' Kansas^C'lv* St LoiAT -1/ 11866-70 1.883 1871 75 15.395 '-0 151.567 187680 23.889 O D-G Co. 1188185 61,715 ,246,432 no !H%-00 ?58.8'J8 106 •:,-<•:': !00 90 80 Made in U.S.A. IMMIGRATION OF VARIOUS PEOPLES TO 1925 Map guide on reverse page. Mop W A 50r ' 

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