Open Collections

UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Archaeological investigations at Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island. McMillan, Alan D. 1969

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1969_A8 M384.pdf [ 14.39MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104392.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104392-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104392-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104392-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104392-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104392-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104392-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104392-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104392.ris

Full Text

ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS AT NOOTKA SOUND, VANCOUVER ISLAND by ALAN DANIEL McMILLAN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of Saskatchewan 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF . THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. i n the Department of Anthropology We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF*BRITISH COLUMBIA October, 1969 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department o f Anthropology The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Oct. 20, 1969 ABSTRACT The archaeology of the Moachat Nootka t e r r i t o r y , c o n s i s i t i n g of Nootka Sound and Tahsis and Tlupana I n l e t s , was chosen as the s p e c i f i c concern of t h i s t h e s i s . Nootka Sound was an important area i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c f u r trade and a great deal was w r i t t e n by the e a r l y e x p l o r e r s and t r a d e r s about the i n h a b i t a n t s of t h i s r e g i o n . However, l i t t l e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l work has been done. A l a r g e - s c a l e excavation, c a r r i e d out at the main Moachat v i l l a g e of Yukwot i n 1966 by the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Parks Branch, was the only previous a r c h a e o l o g i c a l p r o j e c t . As the m a t e r i a l obtained by t h i s excavation had not been published or f u l l y processed at the time of w r i t i n g , very l i t t l e of the in f o r m a t i o n was a v a i l a b l e f o r the present study. The o b j e c t i v e s of the f i e l d w o r k were: to v i s i t and describe the s i x t e e n v i l l a g e s and camp s i t e s l i s t e d f o r the Moachat by Drucker (1951: 229), to ca r r y out excavations at one of these s i t e s , to v i s i t and describe the b u r i a l caves and pictographs which were known to e x i s t i n the area, and to c o l l e c t whatever e c o l o g i c a l and ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n could be conveniently obtained. No s i t e survey was undertaken, although a few p r e v i o u s l y unrecorded s i t e s were disc o v e r e d . Excavations were c a r r i e d out at Coopte (DkSp 1 ) , the winter v i l l a g e of the Moachat, during the summer of 1968. The excavations were r a t h e r s m a l l i n scope, l a s t i n g only two months and being conducted sometimes by myself only and sometimes w i t h the help of one a s s i s t a n t . Nevertheless, f i f t e e e n t e s t p i t s were excavated which y i e l d e d 273 a r t i f a c t s and a f a i r sample of f a u n a l remains and h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l . This paper i n c l u d e s an account of the excavations at Coopte, as w e l l as d e s c r i p t i o n s of the other s i t e s v i s i t e d . I t i s a l s o an attempt to i n t e g r a t e h i s t o r i c and ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data. The s u b s t a n t i a l body of published and unpublished i n f o r m a t i o n provides a convenient b a s i s f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l . I t i s hoped that t h i s approach w i l l prove u s e f u l i n attempting to d e s c r i b e the way of l i f e of the a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s of Nootka Sound. i TABLE OF CONTENTS Ethnographic S e t t i n g A. I n t r o d u c t i o n . . . . . . . . . . p. 1 B. The Nootka - General View p. 3 C. H i s t o r y of Nootka Sound p. 6 D. Ecology of Nootka Sound p. 10 E. The Moachat Confederacy...., p. 13 F. Economic Cycle ....p. 15 G. Trade p. '-20 H. Subsistence Technology ...p. 23 The Moachat S i t e s A. V i l l a g e and Camp S i t e s . . . p. 31. B. B u r i a l Caves p. 45 C. B u r i a l Canoe p. 51 D. Pictographs p. 53 Excayations at DkSp 1 A. The S i t e 1. D e s c r i p t i o n p. 55 2. Surface Features p. 55 3. L o c a l i z e d Ecology p. 57 4. Excavating Procedure p. 58 5. Notes on Measurements p. 59 6. Excavated U n i t s p. 60 B. The A r t i f a c t C o l l e c t i o n 1. Chipped Stone p. 66 2. Pecked and Ground Stone p. 67 3. Ground Stone p. 68 4. Bone and A n t l e r p. 76 5. S h e l l p. 90 6. Contact Goods p. 92 C. D i s c u s s i o n of the S i t e p. 99 Other A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Work i n Nootka Sound p. 113 Bi b l i o g r a p h y P> 118 Appendix 1 - Account of Each Excavated L e v e l . . . p. 123 Appendix 2 - P r o f i l e s and F l o o r Plans p. 163 Appendix 3 - A r t i f a c t L i s t p. 182 i i Maps The Nootkan T r i b e s .p. 5 Moachat T e r r i t o r y and S i t e s ... p. 30 Yukwot i n 1779 p. 32 Coopte (DkSp 1) p. 63 P l a t e s 1. Yukwot P- 41 2. Yukwot P- ^2 3. Yukwot . .. • p. 42 4. O'wis p. 43 5. Tsawun p. 43 6. Ta c i s p. 43 7. H i s n i t I n l e t P- 44 8. H i s n i t ...p. 44 9. Mowatca . .p. 44 10. rock s h e l t e r -p. 50 11. rock s h e l t e r b u r i a l p. 50 12. p i c t o g r a p h . . . p. 50 13. b u r i a l canoe p. 52 14. b u r i a l canoe.... p. 52 15. Coopte p. 64 16. Coopte... p. 64 17. canoe s k i d s . p. 65 18. posts p. 65 19. bone a r t i f a c t s p. HO 20. bone a r t i f a c t s P- HO 21. hand maul fragments p. H3i 22. chipped pebbles.......... p • H I 23. contact goods p. 112 Figure s 1. composite fish-hook p. 109a 2. composite harpoon head p. 109a 3. salmon t r o l l i n g hook p. 109a 4. h a l i b u t hook. p. 109a ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are due to my a d v i s o r , Mr. Wilson Duff, who has o f f e r e d guidance throughout t h i s p r o j e c t . The a s s i s t a n c e of Dr. C. E. Borden, whose suggestions and comments were i n v a l u a b l e , i s a l s o g r a t e f u l l y acknowledged. For c o n t r i b u t i o n s to the f i e l d w o r k I am indebted to Mr. Bruce Watson, my a s s i s t a n t ; the Chisholm Family of Ta h s i s , f o r t h e i r h o s p i t a l i t y ; Mr. Stan Sharcott of the F i s h e r i e s Department f o r i n f o r m a t i o n on the area; and v a r i o u s members of the Nootka band, f o r t h e i r support and f o r a l l o w i n g me to d i g on reserve la n d . Faunal remains were i d e n t i f i e d w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of Miss Gay C a l v e r t of the Vancouver Centennial Museum and by the use of comparative specimens i n the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Zoology Museum. F i n a n c i a l support f o r f i e l d w o r k came from a U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia F a c u l t y Research Grant obtained through Mr. Wilson Duff. 1 ETHNOGRAPHIC SETTING A. I n t r o d u c t i o n Ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n i s p a r t i c u l a r l y r e l e v a n t to the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of data from the s i t e s i n t h i s area. The time depth seems shallow enough so that the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l remains most l i k e l y are those of the h i s t o r i c occupants described i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e and of t h e i r immediate ancestors. D i r e c t ethnographic analogy can be employed, l o o k i n g to the published m a t e r i a l f o r in f o r m a t i o n on the manufacture and use of the items found during the excavation. O c c a s i o n a l l y t h i s method y i e l d s i n s i g h t s i n t o the s o c i a l or r e l i g i o u s l i f e of the i n h a b i t a n t s , which could never be gained by an a n a l y s i s of the a r t i f a c t s alone. Workers i n t h i s area are p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t u n a t e i n having a comparatively l a r g e body of published and unpublished sources a v a i l a b l e , i n c l u d i n g a number of e a r l y j o u r n a l s . Such i n f o r m a t i o n as the seasonal occupation of the va r i o u s s i t e s i n the area and economic a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out there, which i s f a i r l y w e l l documented f o r the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d , i s of in e s t i m a b l e value i n i n t e r p r e t i n g the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data. The f u l l e s t d e s c r i p t i o n of the a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e , then, i s reached by a sy n t h e s i s of the ethnographic, h i s t o r i c , and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n . Not only does archaeology gain i n t h i s s y n t h e s i s , but the other two d i s c i p l i n e s can a l s o u t i l i z e a r c h a e o l o g i c a l f i n d i n g s . Ethnographic and h i s t o r i c documents are o f t e n incomplete or biased. Informants may not always remember c o r r e c t l y or may a t t r i b u t e to t h e i r group q u a l i t i e s which they d i d not possess. Fieldworkers a l s o may c o l o r the r e s u l t s by t h e i r own preconceptions '. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l data are more d e f i n i t e and may be used to t e s t the v a l i d i t y of ethnographic 2 evidence or h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n s . They can a l s o be used to f i l l i n the blank spots i n h i s t o r i c or ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n . On the other hand, ethnography b e n e f i t s from the temporal depth.which archaeology provides. One approach complements the other. The most e f f e c t i v e use of these three d i s c i p l i n e s , then, would c a l l f o r the excavation of Indian s i t e s w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y shallow time depth, extending i n t o the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . This approach has been used w i t h considerable success by others. The work of F r e d e r i c a de Laguna (1956, 1960, 1964) on the northern coast i s e s p e c i a l l y notable i n t h i s respect. This t h e s i s w i l l be p r i m a r i l y a r c h a e o l o g i c a l , but i t i s hoped that a d e s c r i p t i o n of the ethnographic and h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g w i l l complement the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data and le a d to a more complete p i c t u r e of the l i f e of the a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s . The s e c t i o n on the ethnographic s e t t i n g i s of n e c e s s i t y s e l e c t i v e i n the aspects described. A l a r g e volume could be w r i t t e n on Nootkan ethnography. Two good ethnographies already e x i s t (Drucker 1951$ Koppert 1930). This s e c t i o n w i l l d eal w i t h those aspects of Nootkan ethnography that o f f e r most help i n the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data. Other major aspects of Nootkan l i f e , l e s s u s e f u l f o r t h i s purpose, are e i t h e r not i n c l u d e d or d e a l t w i t h p e r i p h e r a l l y i n . t h e t e x t . 3 B. The Nootka — General View The Nootka t r i b e s i n h a b i t e d the west coast of Vancouver I s l a n d from Cape Cook to the v i c i n i t y of modern Port Renfrew. In a d d i t i o n , the Makah, a Nootkan branch speaking a d i a l e c t mutually i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h that of the Vancouver I s l a n d t r i b e s , occupied the land across the S t r a i t of Juan de Fuca on Cape F l a t t e r y . The neighbors on northern Vancouver I s l a n d were the K w a k i u t l , who were c l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the Nootka. Across the i s l a n d from the c e n t r a l and southern groups l i v e d v a r i o u s d i v i s i o n s of the Coast S a l i s h . The Nootka groups along the west coast were r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous i n c u l t u r e , but some d i f f e r e n c e s d i d a r i s e i n the south due to sustained Coast S a l i s h i n f l u e n c e . The term "Nootka" was erroneously a p p l i e d by Captain Cook i n 1778, when he thought he heard the Moachat use i t to r e f e r e i t h e r to themselves or t h e i r l a n d , He t h e r e f o r e named the entrance Nootka Sound and the people Nootka. A c t u a l l y the word does not seem to occur i n the Nootka language (Mozino 1913: 36; Drucker 1951: 3). L i k e most c o a s t a l I n d i a n s , the Nootka had no conception of themselves as a u n i f i e d " t r i b e " . The only i n c l u s i v e term would r e f e r to those speaking the same language. The Nootka, along w i t h t h e i r K w a k i u t l neighbors, belong to a language stock known as Wakashan. This name was f i r s t a p p l i e d by Cook (1790; 1778), w h i l e v i s i t i n g F r i e n d l y Cove i n 1778. Were I to a f f i x a name to the people of Nootka, I would c a l l them Wakashians; from the word Wakash, which was very f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e i r mouths. I t seemed to express applause, approbation, and f r i e n d s h i p . For when they appeared to be s a t i s f i e d , or w e l l pleased w i t h anything they saw, or any i n c i d e n t that happened, they would, w i t h one v o i c e , c a l l out, "wakash! wakash!" 4 A time depth of twenty-nine c e n t u r i e s e x i s t s f o r the members of t h i s language stock (Swadesh 1954: 362), i n d i c a t i n g that the Nootka and K w a k i u t l c u l t u r e s have only been separated f o r that l e n g t h of time. The l i n g u i s t i c evidence i s borne out by the general s i m i l a r i t y between the two c u l t u r e s . Close r e l a t i o n s between the two groups were s t i l l maintained when g e o g r a p h i c a l l y p o s s i b l e ; the c h i e f s of the K w a k i u t l Nimpkish and Neweetee t r i b e s being frequent v i s t i o r s of the Moachat and other northern Nootka groups. The Nootka had perhaps the most f u l l maritime c u l t u r e on the Northwest Coast. The rugged western c o a s t l i n e of Vancouver I s l a n d l i t e r a l l y f o r c e d them to take to the sea i n t h e i r food quest. This p u r e l y maritime p a t t e r n , p l u s a presumably considerable time depth f o r the Wakashan language on the coast, has l e d Drucker (1955) to charac-t e r i z e the Wakashan c u l t u r e s as most t y p i c a l Northwest Coast c u l t u r e . In h i s paper on the o r i g i n of Northwest Coast c u l t u r e he s t a t e s : I t appears that the Wakashan-speaking segment of the Northwest Coast represents the purest s t r a i n of Coast c u l t u r e , i n the sense of having the l e a s t amount of i n t e r i o r i n f l u e n c e s . Moreover, i t i s j u s t , t h i s province which was the most a c t i v e c u l t u r e focus of the area, e l a b o r a t i n g and developing a r e a l p a t t e r n s to t h e i r maximum. On the bases of these two c o n c l u s i o n s , i t can be i n f e r r e d that tbe Wakashan Province represents the o l d e s t s t r a i n of Northwest Coast c i v i l i z a t i o n . (Drucker 1955: 76) Drucker (1951: 3) d i v i d e s the Nootka language i n t o three d i a l e c t d i v i s i o n s : Nootka proper, spoken by a l l the northern and c e n t r a l Nootka •groups; N i t i n a t , spoken by the southern Nootka; and Makah, spoken by the people of Cape F l a t t e r y . There were a number of major p o l i t i c a l u n i t s p l u s s e v e r a l s m a l l autonomous groups, among the d i v i s i o n s speaking Nootka proper. Beginning i n the north these are: the C h i c k l i s e t , Kyoquot, Msup 1 The Nootkan Tribes (after Drucker 1951) N O R T H E R N N O O T K A N TRIBES C E N T R A L NOQ[T_K.AN TRIBES S O U T H E R N N O OT K A N TRIBES 6 Ehetissat, N u chatlet, Moachat, Muchalat, Hesquiat, Ahousat, Clayoquot, and a:.number of groups i n the Barkley Sound area. Duff (1964: 24) l i s t s these as the U c l u e l e t , Toquat, U c h u c k l i s a t , Hopachisat, T s i s h a a t , and Ohiat. The Kyoquot, Moachat, and Clayoquot t r i b e s were the most powerful at the time of the f i r s t contact. The t r i b a l holdings of these groups are shown i n Map 1. The Moachat, the i n h a b i t a n t s of Nootka Sound, are the s p e c i f i c concern of t h i s t h e s i s . C. H i s t o r y of Nootka Sound The f i r s t European to come i n t o contact w i t h the Nootka was Juan Perez, s a i l i n g from Mexico. He a r r i v e d o f f the west coast of the I s l a n d i n 1774. Although never coming ashore, he conducted a c e r t a i n amount of commerce w i t h the n a t i v e s who came out to h i s s h i p . When Cook a r r i v e d four years l a t e r , he found the n a t i v e s i n possession of s e v e r a l Spanish s i l v e r spoons, which had been s t o l e n from Perez's v e s s e l (Mozino 1913: 36). The h i s t o r i c p e r i o d a c t u a l l y began f o r the Nootka w i t h the a r r i v a l of the famous e x p l o r e r Captain James Cook i n 1778. His v i s i t to F r i e n d l y Cove r e s u l t e d i n an i n t e r e s t i n g account of the i n h a b i t a n t s of Yukwot and of t h e i r c h i e f , Maquinna. The Moachat showed very l i t t l e f e a r of the l a r g e v e s s e l and strange people, f o r they eagerly climbed on board to s t e a l or trade f o r any metal items. In r e t u r n they brought f u r s of many k i n d s , ochre, s m a l l ornaments and other items (Cook 1976: 211). Among the most e x t r a o r d i n a r y of the items o f f e r e d to Cook were human s k u l l s and hands, w i t h some of the f l e s h remaining on them, and showing signs of having been cooked (Cook 1796: 211, 264). S i m i l a r trade items were mentioned by such other e a r l y w r i t e r s as 7 Espinosa (1802: 130), Meares (1790: 124, 255), Strange (1929: 27), Roquefeuil (1823: 33), Mozino (1913: 10), B o i t (Howay 1941: 387), and Martinez (1789: 205). As human remains were used i n whaling r i t u a l s and as war t r o p h i e s , t h e i r presence does not n e c e s s a r i l y mean that cannibalism was p r a c t i c e d , as some w r i t e r s assumed. Neither Sproat's nor Drucker's informants had any memory of such a p r a c t i c e , and v i g o r o u s l y denied i t f o r t h e i r ancestors (Sproat 1868: 187; Drucker 1951: 343). Cook's v i s i t was destined to have important repercussions on the Indians of t h i s area. When i t was learned that the sea o t t e r p e l t s which he had obtained from the Moachat could be r e s o l d i n Canton f o r tremendous p r o f i t s , a rush of t r a d i n g v e s s e l s to the area r e s u l t e d . Meares a r r i v e d i n 1785, c l o s e l y f o l l o w e d by the Boston t r a d e r s , Kendrick and Gray. F r i e n d l y Cove became a f a v o r i t e port of c a l l f o r the e a r l y f u r trade v e s s e l s . This trade continued u n t i l the second decade of the nineteenth century, when the sea o t t e r were a l l but exterminated. This i n f l u x of f o r e i g n v e s s e l s n a t u r a l l y alarmed the Spanish who, a f t e r a l l , had claimed the e n t i r e area i n 1774. Martinez a r r i v e d i n F r i e n d l y Cove i n 1789 and s e i z e d three B r i t i s h t r a d i n g v e s s e l s . C o n s t r u c t i o n of a f o r t was completed i n the same year on the v i l l a g e s i t e of Yukwot, f o r c i n g the Moachat to move s e v e r a l m i l e s up the i n l e t . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the f o r t and the s e i z u r e of the B r i t i s h v e s s e l s brought England and Spain to the b r i n k of war. This s o - c a l l e d "Nootka Controversy" was f i n a l l y s e t t l e d by a r b i t r a t i o n i n favor of the B r i t i s h . Quadra, the Spanish commander, handed over the Spanish possessions to Captain George Vancouver i n 1794. The Moachat at f i r s t handled t h i s trade very w e l l . They set themselves up as middlemen between neighboring groups and the European 8 t r a d e r s . Cook (1796: 119) mentions that the n a t i v e s refused to al l o w any other Indians near h i s v e s s e l . This trade monopoly, p l u s an easy access to such items of European manufacture as f i r e a r m s , gave the Moachat a decidedly s u p e r i o r p o s i t i o n to that of t h e i r neighbors. The p r o x i m i t y of the Europeans, however, was a mixed b l e s s i n g f o r the Moachat. Haswell (Howay 1941: 53) describes the methods used i n t r a d i n g w i t h the Indians i n 1788: On there a r r i v a l at a v i l l a g e to plunder them of a l l the f i s h and o i l they could f i n d and give them perhaps a small pese of copper i n r e t u r n f a r l e s s v a l u a b l e than the p r o v i s i o n s they had taken by f o r s e , and l e a v the poor harmless wretches unprovided f o r a long and rig e r o u s w i n t e r . Several disputes d i d a r i s e , as when Martinez shot a high-ranking Moachat c h i e f f o r a f a n c i e d s l i g h t . The c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Spanish f o r t on the s i t e of t h e i r main v i l l a g e a l s o caused the Moachat some hardship. In s p i t e of t h i s , the Moachat he l d a high regard f o r t h e i r Spanish v i s i t o r s , which i s mentioned i n s e v e r a l e a r l y sources (Espinosa 1802: 17; Mozino 1913: 45; Vancouver 1798: 385). The main hardship which the Indians had to s u f f e r because of t h e i r v i s i t o r s was the i n t r o d u c t i o n of European diseases. S y p h i l i s was the f i r s t to s t r i k e , t a k i n g a great t o l l as e a r l y as 1790. A l a t e r smallpox epidemic f u r t h e r hastened the decimation of the n a t i v e p o p u l a t i o n . With t h i s great d e c l i n e i n po p u l a t i o n the o l d v i l l a g e s i t e s f e l l i n t o d i s u s e , and the s u r v i v o r s began to band together i n t o a confederacy of p r e v i o u s l y independent l o c a l groups. One of the main sources of i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the Moachat dates to the beginning of t h i s p e r i o d of change and d e c l i n i n g p o p u l a t i o n . This i s the j o u r n a l of John R. J e w i t t , a s u r v i v o r of the massacre of 9 the crew of the "Boston" i n 1802. An i n s u l t by the ship's c a p t a i n l e d to the capture of the v e s s e l and the massacre of the crew. J e w i t t was spared by Maquinna out of f r i e n d s h i p and because, as the ship's armorer, he could be of great use to the Indians. He spent n e a r l y three years as Maquinna's s l a v e and h i s d e t a i l e d and i n s i g h t f u l w r i t i n g s have added g r e a t l y to our knowledge of t h i s p e r i o d . As the sea o t t e r had been n e a r l y exterminated by the 1820's, the f u r trade d e c l i n e d , and the Moachat were spared f u r t h e r i n t e n s i v e white contact f o r s e v e r a l decades. A b r i s k trade i n d o g f i s h o i l i n the 1850's brought increased contact. The f u r s e a l became important i n the 1880's. In t h i s p e r i o d Nootka men shipped out on European v e s s e l s to the Bering Sea to hunt the disappearing f u r s e a l herds. This meant a considerably broadened world view f o r the Nootka as w e l l as, f o r some at l e a s t , the amassing of a considerable amount of money. With the c e s s a t i o n of the f i e r c e i n t e r t r i b a l wars, people began t o J t r a v e l f r e e l y up and down the coast. Many found jobs i n V i c t o r i a , i n the Fraser R i v e r canneries, or i n the Puget Sound h o p f i e l d s . The income from these occupations made p o s s i b l e more frequent and s p e c t a c u l a r p o t l a t c h e s . Added to t h i s was the f a c t that the decrease i n p o p u l a t i o n meant almost anyone could c l a i m a p o t l a t c h p o s i t i o n . P o t l a t c h e s , formerly p o s s i b l e only f o r people of high rank and a f t e r a good deal of p r e p a r a t i o n , now became p o s s i b l e f o r anyone who had worked f o r a season to c o l l e c t the money. The t r a d i t i o n a l n a t i v e economy was thus s t r u c k w i t h g a l l o p i n g i n f l a t i o n . G radually even these changed elements of the a b o r i g i n a l c u l t u r e were discontinued to conform to the new ways. P o t l a t c h i n g was abandoned s h o r t l y a f t e r l e g a l measures were taken against i t . The law 10 was a c t u a l l y aimed against the excesses of the Kwakiutl performances, but the Nootka a l s o f e l t the pressure and discontinued the p r a c t i c e . Today, most of the Moachat l i v e i n F r i e n d l y Cove, the t r a d i t i o n a l s i t e of Maquirina's Yukwot. The band holds as reserve land the w i n t e r v i l l a g e s i t e s of Coopte and O'wis, as w e l l as most of the salmon f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s . Modern subsistence 1 a c t i v i t i e s center around a s m a l l f i s h i n g f l e e t of t r o l l e r s . In t h i s r e s p e c t , at l e a s t , l i n k s w i t h the economic p u r s u i t s of t h e i r f o r e f a t h e r s are s t i l l r e t a i n e d . D. Ecology of Nootka Sound The Moachat, along w i t h the other Nootka groups i n h a b i t e d a rugged and harsh environment. The outer coasts were o f t e n impassable f o r months at a time during the stormy w i n t e r s , f o r c i n g the t r i b e s to withdraw i n t o s h e l t e r e d i n l e t s . The Moachat were, however, f o r t u n a t e to have the s h e l t e r e d waterways of Nootka Sound, which became the main port of E n g l i s h , Spanish, and American v e s s e l s as w e l l . The land along the i n l e t s i s extremely rugged and o f f e r s few s u i t a b l e l o c a t i o n s f o r v i l l a g e s i t e s . Mountains r i s e s t r a i g h t out of the water to heights of up to 4,000 f e e t . A dense f o r e s t growth, supported by an annual r a i n -f a l l of 96 to 100 inches, makes t r a v e l over the. land extremely d i f f i c u l t . I t i s no accident that the Nootka are the most maritime Northwest Coast t r i b e , f o r l i v i n g i n t h i s environment, they are v i r t u a l l y f o r ced to take to the sea. The c l i m a t e i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y harsh but i s marked by a heavy annual r a i n f a l l , coming p r i m a r i l y i n the w i n t e r . V i o l e n t storms l a s h the coast from f a l l u n t i l e a r l y s p r i n g , f o r c i n g the Nootka to withdraw up the s h e l t e r e d i n l e t s . Snows of b r i e f d u r a t i o n o c c a s i o n a l l y occur but i n general the Japanese current along the coast keeps the temperature 11 above the f r e e z i n g p o i n t . Summers are m i l d but frequent r a i n s q u a l l s occur and fog banks may r o l l i n from the open ocean day a f t e r day. The heavy r a i n f a l l supports a dense growth i n the c o a s t a l f o r e s t . The woods c o n s i s t predominantly of such c o n i f e r s as Douglas f i r , red and y e l l o w cedar, hemlock, and yew. The Dominion Forest S e r v i c e a l s o l i s t s westemwhite p i n e , lodgepole p i n e , S i t k a spruce, and A m a b i l i s f i r among the conifers f o r t h i s area, as w e l l as such deciduous t r e e s or shrubs as: b l a c k Cottonwood, western white b i r c h , red a l d e r , S i t k a a l d e r , choke cherry, b i t t e r cherry, v i n e maple, broadleaf maple, and blueberry e l d e r . C e r t a i n of these were important! resources to the Moachat. The Western red cedar, which f r e q u e n t l y reaches heights of 150 to 200 f e e t (Dominion Forest S e r v i c e 1949: 76), and has a long s t r a i g h t g r a i n , was e x t e n s i v e l y used by the Indians f o r planks f o r t h e i r houses or storage boxes and f o r canes. In a d d i t i o n , cedar bark was woven i n t o robes, r a i n capes, baskets, and mats. Shredded cedar bark was an important p a r t of the ceremonial p a r a p h e r n a l i a . The tough yew wood was used f o r paddles, digging s t i c k s , spears, and wedges. Hemlock and a l d e r , because of t h e i r somewhat sweet t a s t e , were used f o r spoons and s e r v i n g bowls (Koppert 1930: 40; -Drucker 1951: 90). Poles f o r drying racks and f i s h weirs could be made from any s m a l l t r e e , such as f i r . The sea provided the vast m a j o r i t y of the Moachat food resources. Salmon and h e r r i n g were the main s t a p l e s . A l l f i v e species of P a c i f i c salmon, p l u s steelhead, occurred i n t h i s area. Of these, dog salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) was by f a r the most important. Not only could t h i s f i s h be taken i n great q u a n t i t i e s i n every s i z e a b l e stream and r i v e r , but the time of the runs>early f a l l , was the most s u i t a b l e f o r p r e s e r v i n g i n l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s f o r w i n t e r (Drucker 1951: 36). Drucker's informants 12 also s t a t e d that the f l e s h had l e s s f a t than that of the coho, which run about the same time, and t h e r e f o r e was e a s i e r to cure. The runs of sockeye, s p r i n g , and humpback salmon were not as l a r g e as those of the dog salmon, and were th e r e f o r e of l e s s e r importance. H a l i b u t grounds occur o f f s h o r e , i n the open ocean. These f i s h were of considerable economic importance due to t h e i r l a r g e s i z e — females may reach a weight of over 400 pounds (Clemens and Wilby 1961: 185). Cod was found every-where, but was g e n e r a l l y only f i s h e d when other f r e s h f i s h were scarce. H e r r i n g , as already i n d i c a t e d , were taken i n vast q u a n t i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , the spawn, c o l l e c t e d on evergreen boughs l a i d on prepared platforms i n the spawning grounds, formed a s u b s t a n t i a l food item. According to Drucker (1951: 60), the p i l c h a r d or sardine was not taken by the a b o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s . However, " s a r d i n e s " are mentioned by such e a r l y w r i t e r s as Meares (1790: 245), Mozino (1913: 25), and Strange (1929: 18), and were apparently taken i n great q u a n t i t i e s . Sea mammals were i n t e n s i v e l y hunted f o r p r e s t i g e as w e l l as t h e i r economic v a l u e . Whales of s e v e r a l s p e c i e s , h a i r s e a l , sea l i o n , sea o t t e r , and porpoise were a v i d l y hunted. The sea a l s o y i e l d e d molluscs of v a r i o u s k i n d s , which could always be counted upon to supply a meal. B u t t e r clam, l i t t l e - n e c k e d clam, horse clam, geoduck, c o c k l e s , pecten, l a r g e and s m a l l mussels ( M y t i l u s c a l i f o r n i a n u s and M. e d u l i s ) , abalone, and limpets could be gathered. Cook (1796: 259) s t a t e s t h a t the l a r g e mussel was an e s s e n t i a l food resource, but that the others were of only minor importance. In a d d i t i o n , crabs, sea anemones, sea cucumbers, and l a r g e barnacles were gathered. Marine resources, as can be seen, were v a r i e d and abundant. Land animals c o n t r i b u t e d r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e to the l a r d e r . This i s p a r t i a l l y because of the d i f f i c u l t y i n t r a v e l l i n g through the dense 13 f o r e s t and p a r t i a l l y because the abundant and v a r i e d marine resources l e f t l i t t l e need f o r land hunting. Black bear, w a p i t i , deer, mountain l i o n , w olf, raccoon, land o t t e r , marten, mink, beaver, and s q u i r r e l were the common land animals. The avifauna appears to have been v a r i e d and numerous. Water-fo w l such as ducks and geese c o n t r i b u t e d s u b s t a n t i a l l y to the n a t i v e d i e t . Eagles were apparently sought f o r t h e i r f l e s h as w e l l as t h e i r f e a t h e r s (Drucker 1951: 59). G u l l s were apparently a l s o eaten (Mozino 1913: 9 ). Cook (1796: 236-7) mentions that b i r d s were c o n t i n u a l l y hunted and l i s t s the b i r d s present at F r i e n d l y Cove as crows and ravens, a j a y or magpie, wren, thrus h , eagle, hawk, heron, k i n g - f i s h e r , woodpecker, humming b i r d , g u l l s , and ducks. P l a n t food provided only an i n c i d e n t a l part of the n a t i v e d i e t . Green shoots were eagerly sought i n the s p r i n g . B e r r i e s were picked i n season and provided the only sugar i n the d i e t . S a l a l - b e r r i e s , salmon-b e r r i e s , h u c k l e - b e r r i e s , t h i m b l e - b e r r i e s , b l u e b e r r i e s , and w i l d straw-b e r r i e s were the most common. In a d d i t i o n , c e r t a i n r o o t s , such as the skunk cabbage, the w i l d c l o v e r , and the Camass root were gathered and eaten. Menzies (Newcombe 1923: 116) describes the Moachat women at the v i l l a g e of Tac i s digging w i t h s t i c k s f o r w i l d c l o v e r r o o t s . However, these were only i n c i d e n t a l s i n a d i e t which was l a r g e l y based on f i s h and other animals. Even such food as b e r r i e s was customarily eaten i n eulachon or whale grease. E. The Moachat Confederacy Drucker (1951: 228-31) o u t l i n e s the development of the Moachat confederacy, as obtained from h i s informants. Some id e a of the p o l i t i c a l 14 u n i t s i n v o l v e d i s e s s e n t i a l to an understanding of the seasonal migrations of these groups. O r i g i n a l l y the Moachat were probably a number of independent l o c a l groups, occupying i n d i v i d u a l w i nter v i l l a g e s i t e s on the southern coast of Nootka I s l a n d and up Nootka Sound. Through: the t r a n s f e r of t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s , a t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n g r a d u a l l y developed among the groups i n Nootka Sound and up Tahsis I n l e t . I t was i n t h i s manner that the l o c a l groups on the outer coasts obtained r i g h t s to w i n t e r up the Sound. Yukwot and Coopte became t r i b a l r a t h e r than l i n e a g e v i l l a g e s because the c h i e f s of these v i l l a g e s gave other l o c a l groups the r i g h t to b u i l d houses there. These t r a n s f e r s of t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s r e s u l t e d i n the formation of a s i n g l e t r i b a l group out of a number of p r e v i o u s l y independent l o c a l groups. Some groups, such as the i n h a b i t a n t s of Amitsa, d e c l i n e d i n importance and became e x t i n c t , w h i l e others, such as the owners of Yukwot and Coopte, became very important. The l o c a l groups i n h a b i t i n g Tlupana I n l e t a l s o formed a t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n at about the same time. The main winter v i l l a g e was that of O'wis, near Coopte. This o r g a n i z a t i o n was a l s o formed by the bestowal of t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s . The people who owned O'wis gave the r i g h t to b u i l d w i n t e r houses at that v i l l a g e to t h e i r neighbors i n Tlupana I n l e t , as w e l l as to the people of L u i s , on Tahsis I n l e t . They had no s i n g l e summer v i l l a g e , but e v e n t u a l l y obtained r i g h t s to places along the east shore of lower Nootka Sound, and moved i n summer to a s e r i e s of camps strung along the beach. The b a s i s f o r the confederation of the t r i b e s was e s t a b l i s h e d by the g i v i n g of r i g h t s to summer houses at Yukwot to the Tlupana I n l e t groups. Drucker's informants s t a t e d that these r i g h t s were given i n 15 connection w i t h marriage. This r e s u l t e d i n the modern Moachat confederation. This was a very recent phenomenon, reaching i t s f i n a l form w i t h the a d d i t i o n i n the 1890's of the few Muchalat who had s u r v i v e d the wars w i t h the Moachat. F. Economic Cycle The Moachat had a p a t t e r n of seasonal m i g r a t i o n to c e r t a i n f i x e d v i l l a g e or camp s i t e s . This s e c t i o n describes t h i s p a t t e r n of s h i f t i n g residence and the d i f f e r i n g economic a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d on at each s i t e . Trade, which could a l s o be considered part of the economic c y c l e , i s given a separate heading. The two f a c t o r s of c l i m a t i c change and s c a t t e r e d resources kept the Moachat i n a c o n t i n u a l c y c l e of seasonal movement. During the summer the v a r i o u s groups of Maquinna's t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n were spread out along the outer coast, engaged i n o f f - s h o r e f i s h i n g and sea-mammal hunting, w i t h the bulk of the p o p u l a t i o n being at Yukwot or E'as. In the f a l l , w i t h the f i r s t signs of the approaching storm season, the outer coast groups began t h e i r m i g r a t i o n along the shore back to Yukwot. They stayed at Yukwot f o r the f a l l dog salmon run, which l a s t e d four to s i x weeks. When the dog salmon run was over, they began t h e i r m i g r a t i o n to t h e i r w i n t e r v i l l a g e s of T a c i s and Coopte, up Tahsis I n l e t . The house posts were l e f t standing at each s i t e , but the planks f o r the roof and sides were taken w i t h the group to t h e i r new l o c a t i o n . The planks were lashed to two canoes, about s i x f e e t apart, and thus formed a convenient p l a t f o r m or deck upon which to place the r e s t of the items being moved. This i s described by Sproat f o r the Nootka i n the A l b e r n i area: 16 On the decks are baskets f u l l of preparations of salmon-roe, d r i e d salmon, and other f i s h together w i t h wooden boxes c o n t a i n i n g blankets and household a r t i c l e s . The women and c h i l d r e n s i t i n a s m a l l space purposely l e f t f o r them. I have seen goods p i l e d on these r a f t s as h i g h as fourteen f e e t from the water. (Sproat 1868: 38) J e w i t t , who t r a v e l l e d w i t h Maquinna on these seasonal movements f o r s e v e r a l years, has l e f t us an account of these movements. On the ;third of September, the whole t r i b e q u i t t e d Nootka, according to t h e i r constant p r a c t i s e , i n order to pass the autumn and winter at Tashees and Cooptee, the l a t t e r l y i n g about t h i r t y m i l e s up the Sound i n a deep bay, the n a v i g a t i o n of which i s very dangerous from the great number of rocks and r e e f s w i t h which i t abounds. On these occa-sions every t h i n g i s taken w i t h them, even the planks of t h e i r houses, i n order to cover t h e i r new d w e l l i n g s . ( J e w i t t 1815: 104) Immediately on our a r r i v a l , we a l l went to work very d i l i g e n t l y i n covering the houses w i t h the planks we had brought, the frames being ready erected, these people never pretending to remove the timber. (J e w i t t 1815: 105) The end of the dog salmon run, p l u s o p p o r t u n i t i e s to gather other w i n t e r p r o v i s i o n s , were the main inducements to s e t t l e at T a c i s . J e w i t t (1815: 105-122) describes i n considerable d e t a i l the economic a c t i v i t i e s pursued here. The p r i n c i p a l object i n coming to t h i s p l a c e , i s the f a c i l i t y i t a f f o r d s these people of p r o v i d i n g t h e i r w i nter stock of p r o v i s i o n s , which c o n s i s t s p r i n c i p a l l y of salmon, and the spawn of that f i s h ; to which may be added h e r r i n g and s p r a t s , and h e r r i n g spawn. (J e w i t t 1815: 106) Salmon were taken i n enormous numbers, p r i n c i p a l l y i n pots or w e i r s . J e w i t t (1815: 107) gives the a s t o n i s h i n g f i g u r e of more than seven 17 hundred salmon caught i n the space of f i f t e e n minutes! The great abundance of f i s h at t h i s time i s f u r t h e r shown by another quote from J e w i t t : Such i s the immense q u a n t i t y of these f i s h , and they are taken w i t h such great f a c i l i t y , that I have known upwards of twenty-five hundred brought i n t o Maquinna's house a t once, and at one of t h e i r great f e a s t s , have seen one hundred or more cooked i n one of t h e i r l a r g e s t tubs. ( J e w i t t 1815: 108) F i s h was by f a r the most important, but c e r t a i n l y not the only food source obtained at t h i s s i t e . Black bear are very common i n t h i s area and J e w i t t (1815: 117) mentions s e v e r a l being caught i n d e a d f a l l s . W i ld ducks were numerous and f r e q u e n t l y caught. Kendrick and Hoswell (Howay 1941: 83) v i s i t e d t h i s s i t e to hunt fowl and wrote: "we found Geese ducks and Teel i n p l e n t y B e r r i e s were a l s o abundant i n t h i s area, being gathered by the Moachat women i n great q u a n t i t i e s and eaten w i t h o i l . A number of b e r r i e s grow i n the area, but only one type, which J e w i t t c a l l s "yama" (probably s a l a l ) , was preserved by the Moachat. This was done by p r e s s i n g bunches of the berry between two planks and dr y i n g i t . C e r t a i n t o o t s were a l s o dug by the women. Menzies (Newcombe 1923: 116) describes the Moachat women digging w i t h s t i c k s f o r the roo t s of the w i l d c l o v e r . As can be seen by the e a r l y accounts, f o o d s t u f f s were abundant at t h i s s i t e , a l l o w i n g f o r the storage of a l a r g e amount of p r o v i s i o n s to l a s t the winter months. A f t e r l a y i n g i n t h e i r food s t o r e s , Maquinna's group l e f t T a c i s f o r the t r i b a l w i nter v i l l a g e of Coopte. J e w i t t once again describes the movement: On the 31st. (December) a l l t h e t r i b e s q u i t t e d Tashees f o r Cooptee, whither they go to pass 18 the remainder of the w i n t e r , and complete t h e i r f i s h i n g , t a k i n g o f f every t h i n g w i t h them i n the same manner as at Nootka. ( J e w i t t 1815: 123) Coopte was the great h e r r i n g f i s h e r y of the Moachat. This f i s h was taken i n great q u a n t i t i e s during the f i r s t few weeks at t h i s s i t e , along w i t h some salmon and cod. Jewit (1815: 126) s t a t e s : "The n a t i v e s now began to take the h e r r i n g and sprat i n immense q u a n t i t i e s , w i t h some salmon, and there was nothing but f e a s t i n g from morning t i l l n i g h t . " The h e r r i n g were f i s h e d by means of a h e r r i n g rake - a long wooden s t i c k set w i t h sharp whalebone t e e t h . This was wielded w i t h both hands by the fisherman, who s t r u c k the water w i t h i t , and f l i p p e d the f i s h impaled on the t e e t h i n t o the canoe. The e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h i s implement i s described by J e w i t t : I t i s a s t o n i s h i n g to see how many are caught by those who are dexterous at t h i s k i n d of f i s h i n g , as they seldom f a i l when the shoals are numerous, of t a k i n g as many as ten or twelve at a s t r o k e , and i n a very short time w i l l f i l l a canoe w i t h them. ( J e w i t t 1815: 127) Clams weiealso secured from the o f f s h o r e beds near Coopte. These economic a c t i v i t i e s were a l l c a r r i e d out at the beginning of the winter p e r i o d . The middle and l a t e w i n t e r months were periods of f e a s t i n g and dancing. The winter ceremonial, c a l l e d the Loquana or Shamans' Dance, took place at t h i s time. For the p e r i o d of these dances work was p r o h i b i t e d and f e a s t i n g was continuous. The q u a n t i t i e s of p r o v i s i o n s which had been secured e a r l i e r were q u i c k l y depleted, and o c c a s i o n a l l y the t r i b e was i n a desperate s i t u a t i o n by the time the s p r i n g salmon a r r i v e d . In the e a r l y s p r i n g the t r i b e moved back to Yukwot, where they f i s h e d f o r s p r i n g salmon and h e r r i n g , and c o l l e c t e d l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s 19 of h e r r i n g spawn. Many of the people remained at Yukwot through the summer w h i l e others departed during the warm summer months to the v i l l a g e s of E'as and Tsaxsis, where they d i d o f f s h o r e f i s h i n g and hunted f o r sea mammals. In the f a l l they a l l returned to Yukwot and began the c y c l e once more. This seasonal m i g r a t i o n which has j u s t been o u t l i n e d holds t r u e only f o r Maquinna's l o c a l group, which was the dominant Moachat u n i t , and the only one f o r which there i s adequate documentation. The other Tahsis I n l e t l o c a l groups a l s o spent the winter at Coopte and at l e a s t p a r t of the summer at Yukwot, but spent the f a l l at t h e i r own f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s of Mawun, Amitsa, Tsawun, and Hatoq. The Tlupana Arm l o c a l groups, as i n d i c a t e d i n the previous s e c t i o n , spent the summer at a s e r i e s of camps along the eastern shore of Nootka Sound and spent the w i n t e r at the v i l l a g e of O'wis, near Coopte. In the f a l l they occupied a number of f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s at the head of Tlupana Arm and i n H i s n i t I n l e t . This p a t t e r n l a s t e d u n t i l a l a t e p e r i o d when they r e c e i v e d t e r r i t o r i a l r i g h t s at Yukwot and began to spend t h e i r summers there. This p a t t e r n of s h i f t i n g residence to f i x e d s i t e s , then, served a number of f u n c t i o n s - i t made a v a i l a b l e the g r e a t e s t amount of food resources, i t provided s h e l t e r e d l o c a t i o n s i n the w i n t e r , and according to Sproat (1868: 38), i t gave the b i r d s and the elements a chance to c l e a r away some of the p u t r i d f i s h and other refuse which surrounded the s i t e s . The outer coast w i t h i t s mollusc beds, h a l i b u t banks, and o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r sea mammal hunting and the i n l e t w i t h i t s salmon streams could not both be e x p l o i t e d e f f e c t i v e l y by a completely sedentary group. The u t i l i z a t i o n of a l l seasonal resources was necessary to achieve the e l a b o r a t i o n of c u l t u r e which was obtained by the Indians of t h i s area. 20 G. Trade The Moachat appear to have c a r r i e d on an extensive trade w i t h t h e i r Nootkan neighbors and w i t h the K w a k i u t l groups on the other s i d e of the i s l a n d . Just how widespread t h i s trade was i s i n d i c a t e d by the a b o r i g i n a l presence of metals such as i r o n and copper, which must have reached the Moachat through a s e r i e s of trades from a d i s t a n t source. Cook mentions the presence of i r o n implements among the Moachat: Their implements are almost wholly made of iron....The c h i s s e l and k n i f e are the p r i n -c i p a l forms that i r o n assumes among them.... What we saw among them were about the breadth and t h i c k n e s s of an i r o n hoop; and t h e i r s i n g -u l a r form p l a i n l y proves, that they are not of European make.... (Cook 1790: 1776) Cook a l s o mentions the use of copper t o o l s , which were g r e a t l y valued by the n a t i v e s . They were used only i n t h e i r n a t i v e s t a t e ; that i s hammered i n t o form r a t h e r than smelted, as the Indians had no knowledge of metallurgy. The raw m a t e r i a l f o r these implements must have been traded i n from a considerable d i s t a n c e . Cook a l s o noted that these Indians were no strangers to the a r t of t r a d i n g . Other Indian groups were not allowed to approach h i s v e s s e l , which was h e l d as a s t r i c t trade monopoly by Maquinna's t r i b e . O c c a s i o n a l l y the Moachat would take a number of items which they had r e c e i v e d from Cook and disappear f o r s e v e r a l days, r e t u r n i n g w i t h n a t i v e items they had r e c e i v e d from other groups to trade to Cook. A b o r i g i n a l l y , a considerable trade was c a r r i e d on between the v a r i o u s Nootkan p o l i t i c a l d i v i s i o n s . This was somewhat hampered, how-ever, by constant i n t e r t r i b a l warfare. Martinez (1789: 200) s t a t e s : 21 A l l the n a t i v e s trade among themselves from one v i l l a g e to another. The Coast Indians trade w i t h those of the i n t e r i o r v i l l a g e s ( b a r t e r i n g f i s h to them). Along the coast they c a r r y on a trade i n fox s k i n s and some give more p e l t s f o r an amount of copper or i r o n than do others. J e w i t t (1815: 137) a l s o mentions t h i s i n t e r t r i b a l trade: The trade of most of the other t r i b e s w i t h Nootka was p r i n c i p a l l y t r a i n - o i l , s e a l or whale's blubber, f i s h f r e s h or d r i e d , h e r r i n g or salmon spawn, clams and mussels, and the yama, a species of f r u i t which i s pressed and d r i e d , c l o t h , sea o t t e r s k i n s , and s l a v e s . The Moachat traded most f r e q u e n t l y w i t h the powerful Clayoquot to the south, to whom they were r e l a t e d by a s e r i e s of marriage t i e s , and the Kyuquot to the n o r t h . Foodstuffs were the most f r e q u e n t l y traded commodity, accord-i n g to t h e i r s c a r c i t y . The Moachat may have one year imported d r i e d salmon or h e r r i n g spawn, and attempted to trade t h e i r surplus of the same commodity the next year. Regional d i f f e r e n c e s were a l s o important. One of the most frequent Moachat exports was bear s k i n s , due to the abundance of b l a c k bear at Nootka Sound. Other commodities, which were not p l e n t i f u l at Nootka Sound, had to be imported. D e n t a l i a s h e l l s , which were important orna-mental and p r e s t i g e items, were obtained mainly from the Clayoquot. The Spanish were quick to p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h i s trade system, b r i n g i n g up abalone s h e l l s from C a l i f o r n i a , which were used by the Moachat f o r dress ornament-a t i o n , i n trade f o r f u r s . I n a d d i t i o n to t h i s trade w i t h other Nootkan groups, the Moachat c a r r i e d on an extensive trade w i t h c e r t a i n K w a k i u t l d i v i s i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the Nimpkish. The l a t t e r were reached by an overland t r a i l between Tahsis and Nimpkish R i v e r s . M i l l s ' informants s t i l l remembered making the t r i p w i t h t h e i r f a t h e r s between Yukwot and A l e r t Bay, going by way of Tahsis R i v e r to Woss Lake, north on the Woss 2.2 R i v e r to Nimpkish Lake, and down Nimpkish River to the east coast and A l e r t Bay. Dugouts were l e f t at convenient l o c a t i o n s f o r t r a d i n g e x p e d i t i o n s . The overland t r i p from Yukwot v i l l a g e to A l e r t Bay, a d i s t a n c e of about one hundred m i l e s , only r e q u i r e d twenty-six m i l e s of f o o t t r a v e l ( M i l l s 1955: 75). The name " t a c i s " comes from the word " t a c i " , which means "doorway", and r e f e r s to the f a c t that t h i s over-land t r a i l to the Nimpkish begins there (Drucker 1951: 228). The importance of t h i s Kwakiutl-Nootka contact becomes apparent i n Menzies' j o u r n a l of Vancouver's voyage. Menzies, at Nootka Sound i n 1792, a l s o t r a v e l l e d i n t o K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y . In d i s c u s s i n g these people he noted: They a l s o t a l k e d much of Maquinna the Chief of Nootka Sound w i t h whom they seemed to have kept up a considerable commercial i n t e r c o u r s e as they spoke of having r e c e i v e d from him almost every a r t i c l e of T r a f f i c i n t h e i r possession such as Cloths Muskets &c. These-Muskets d i d not appear to be of E n g l i s h Manufactory as t h e i r b a r r e l s were secured to the Stocks by means of Iron hoops, so that i t appears extremely probable that Maquinna has been the grand agent through which the b a r t e r i n g Commerce of t h i s i n t e r i o r Country has been c a r r i e d on by some i n l a n d communication.... (Newcombe 1923: 80) The Nimpkish apparently a r r i v e d at Yukwot or Tahsis f a i r l y f r e q u e n t l y - much more o f t e n than the r e t u r n t r i p s by the Moachat. On one of these t r i p s they were viewed by J e w i t t , who r e f e r s to them as the "Newchemass" and describes them as "savage l o o k i n g and ugly men". He describes t h e i r items of b a r t e r : They brought w i t h them no f u r s f o r s a l e , excepting a few wolf s k i n s , t h e i r merchandize c o n s i s t i n g p r i n c i p a l l y of the black s h i n i n g m i n e r a l c a l l e d p e l p e l t h , and the f i n e red p a i n t which they c a r e f u l l y kept i n c l o s e mat bags, some small d r i e d salmon, clams, and roes of f i s h , w i t h a l i t t l e coarse matting c l o t h . ( J e w i t t 1815: 95) The "black s h i n i n g m i n e r a l c a l l e d p e l p e l t h " to which J e w i t t r e f e r s i s mica, which was h i g h l y regarded as personal ornamentation (Brown 1896: 117). A f t e r the face and body had been painted w i t h red ochre and grease, mica was s p r i n k l e d on top to give a s p a r k l i n g appearance. The r a t h e r s t r i k i n g e f f e c t t h i s produces i s mentioned as e a r l y as Cook i n 1778. Trade was a l s o p r a c t i s e d w i t h K w a k i u t l groups other than the Nimpkish, but not as f r e q u e n t l y . The Neweetee and Koskimo of the northern t i p of the i s l a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y came down the coast as f a r as Nootka Sound. J e w i t t (1815: 41), l i s t i n g the t r i b e s that a r r i v e d at Yukwot a f t e r the massacre of the "Boston", i n c l u d e s the "Neu - w i t - t i e s " as w e l l as Nootkan t r i b e s . He d i d not mention any r e c i p r o c a l v i s i t s by the Moachat. This p a t t e r n of trade played an important p a r t i n the Moachat economy. Surplus items could be traded f o r food commodities which were scarce i n the Nootka Sound area. A poor salmon run or a low y i e l d of h e r r i n g spawn could be made up f o r i n trade w i t h neighboring groups. In a d d i t i o n , trade w i t h the Kwak i u t l provided economically important items which were not otherwise a v a i l a b l e . H. Subsistence Technology a) Food-gathering technology Since implements of the food quest rank among the most f r e -quently-recovered a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l s , ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n '24 on the food quest technology i s of great value to the a r c h a e o l o g i s t i n i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s f i n d i n g s . This s e c t i o n i s a b r i e f survey of the dominant techniques used i n the food quest. F i s h i n g was the most important economic a c t i v i t y c a r r i e d on by the Nootka. This f a c t i s r e f l e c t e d i n a comparative d i v e r s i t y and complexity of m a t e r i a l items. Salmon, the most important s i n g l e food item, were caught on hooks, by spearing, and w i t h t r a p s . Cook (1796: 268) s t a t e s that " t h e i r hooks, which are made of bone and wood, d i s p l a y no great i n g e n u i t y . . . . " According to Meares (1790: 264), the hooks were of bone or s h e l l . Apparently the change to i r o n hooks came very e a r l y , as evidenced by statements from Mozino and Espinosa: Formerly they had no other hooks than those made from s h e l l s , but now they have aban-doned these f o r those made of i r o n . (Mozino 1913: 25) They formerly used f i s h hooks of wood and s h e l l , made w i t h considerable a r t , but now they use only i r o n hooks. (Espinosa 1802: 134) The salmon hook was u s u a l l y j u s t a sharpened bone or wood s p l i n t e r lashed as a barb onto a wooden shank. The h a l i b u t hook was more complex. I t was of hardwood which had been steamed and bent to a "U" shape, and w i t h a bone barb lashed to i t . S i m i l a r hooks were used f o r cod. Cod were a l s o speared, w i t h the use of s p e c i a l l u r e s to a t t r a c t the f i s h to the surface. Harpoons were f r e q u e n t l y used f o r salmon. These had a wooden s h a f t e i g h t to ten f e e t long w i t h two or three d i v e r g i n g f o r e s h a f t s . Each f o r e s h a f t was tip p e d w i t h the t y p i c a l Northwest Coast composite harpoon head, composed of two bone va l v e s and a bone or s h e l l p o i n t . For sm a l l f i s h , such as perch or rock f i s h , a sma l l piece of bone, sharpened at both ends, was simply b a i t e d and t i e d i n the middle as a gorge. The f i s h i n g l i n e s were of kelp which had been .25 s p l i t , b o i l e d , and d r i e d . Whale sinew was a l s o used f o r t h i s purpose. Herring and other small f i s h were taken i n great numbers by the p r e v i o u s l y mentioned h e r r i n g rake (p.18 above). This implement was described by J e w i t t as: A s t i c k of about seven f e e t long, two inches broad, and h a l f an i n c h t h i c k , i s formed from some hard wood, one s i d e of which i s set w i t h sharp t e e t h , made from whale bone, at about h a l f an i n c h apart. ( J e w i t t 1815: 127) The bone t e e t h of the h e r r i n g rake were replaced by n a i l s i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Herring were a l s o taken i n nets of n e t t l e bark (Koppert 1930: 69). Dogfish , sought f o r t h e i r o i l more than t h e i r f l e s h , were taken on a re g u l a r h a l i b u t hook, on a s p e c i a l hook w i t h a deer a n t l e r barb, or i n nets when they ran i n schools (Koppert 1930: 67). F i s h t r a p s , i n a v a r i e t y of ingenious forms, were used w i t h great success, p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r salmon. Undecorated wooden c l u b s , u s u a l l y of yew, were used to subdue l a r g e f i s h . Sea mammal hunting was a l s o an extremely important a c t i v i t y , both f o r economic and p r e s t i g e purposes. One harpoon type served the hunter f o r s e a l , sea l i o n , porpoise, and i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d f o r sea o t t e r . The s h a f t , about four t e e n f e e t long, ended i n two d i v e r g i n g yew f o r e s h a f t s . Each was ti p p e d w i t h the t y p i c a l Northwest Coast composite harpoon head - s i m i l a r to that used f o r salmon but l a r g e r . The valves were of bone or a n t l e r . The blade was of ground mussel s h e l l which was replaced by i r o n e a r l y i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The head was wrapped i n n e t t l e - f i b r e cord or sinew and covered w i t h p i t c h . The same type of harpoon, only l a r g e r and without the d i v e r g i n g f o r e s h a f t s , was used i n whaling. The sh a f t was of yew and was fourteen to eighteen f e e t long. The head was again the composite type, but considerably l a r g e r than the 26 s e a l i n g harpoon head. The barbs were of w a p i t i a n t l e r or whalebone. The blade was of mussel s h e l l . These were t i e d by sinew and secured w i t h p i t c h . The harpoon lanyard was made of whale sinew covered w i t h bark. The whaling l i n e was formed of whale sinew (Koppert 1930: 61) or cedar withes (Drucker 1951: 29';;, Waterman 1920: 37). To t h i s were attached a number of s e a l s k i n f l o a t s . This completed the whaling harpoon and a c c e s s o r i e s . One f i n a l item was a p a i r of lances w i t h a n t l e r p o i n t s , one w i t h a c h i s e l - l i k e edge f o r hamstringing the whale, the other w i t h a sharp.point f o r k i l l i n g i t (Drucker 1951: 31). Land hunting was r e l a t i v e l y unimportant to most Nootka groups. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n a low l e v e l of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n the technology. Bows and arrows were commonly used. The same bow was used f o r land hunt-i n g , sea o t t e r hunting, and war. I t was about four f e e t i n len g t h and was made of yew w i t h a whale-sinew s t r i n g . The arrows were a foo t and a h a l f to two f e e t long and were tipped w i t h bone or s h e l l p o i n t s . A spear, fashioned from, a f i v e or s i x foo t l e n g t h of yew wood and w i t h a f i r e -hardened t i p , was a l s o used. D e a d f a l l s were used f o r bear, deer, and w a p i t i , as w e l l as f o r such smaller animals as mink, marten, beaver, and raccoon. These v a r i e d somewhat i n c o n s t r u c t i o n . Those f o r bear and the sma l l f u r - b e a r e r s were b a i t e d and were set o f f by the animal e n t e r i n g the trap to get the b a i t . Those f o r deer and w a p i t i were t r i g g e r e d by a t r i p l i n e across a path. Waterfowl a l s o played a part i n the Nootkan d i e t . These were p r i m a r i l y hunted by t o r c h l i g h t w i t h nets. J e w i t t , who witnessed t h i s a c t i v i t y i n 1804, s t a t e s : These....were caught w i t h nets made from bark i n the f r e s h waters of that country. Those who take them, make choice f o r that purpose, 27 of a dark and r a i n y n i g h t , and w i t h t h e i r canoes .Stuck w i t h l i g h t e d torches, proceed w i t h as l i t t l e n o i s e as p o s s i b l e , to the place where the geese are c o l l e c t e d , who, dazzled by the l i g h t , s u f f e r themselves to be approached very near, when the net i s thrown on them, and i n t h i s manner, from f i f t y to s i x t y , or even more, w i l l some-times be taken at one ca s t . ( J e w i t t 1815: 165) The main pole of the net i s about twelve f e e t long. Two crosspieces support a mesh of n e t t l e f i b r e l i n e . The net i s thrown l i k e a spear over the ducks or geese, who become entangled i n the mesh. In a d d i t i o n to the net, s e v e r a l types of traps were used f o r d i v i n g ducks. The multiprong b i r d spears, common among the S a l i s h (Barnett 1955: F i g . 32), and the Makah (Swan 1870: 48) appear not to have been used i n t h i s area. In a d d i t i o n , a number of simple implements were used i n gathering f o o d s t u f f s . Simple digging s t i c k s were used i n digging clams and r o o t s . A long spear was used to gather crabs. A long pronged pole was used to gather sea u r c h i n s . A "fence" of spruce or f i r boughs, weighted near the bottom i n spawning grounds, was used to c o l l e c t h e r r i n g spawn. b) Food-preparing technology Cooking methods were not complex. S t o n e - b o i l i n g , steaming, b r o i l i n g , and r o a s t i n g were the Moachat cooking methods. Of these, b o i l -i n g by hot stones placed i n wooden boxes was the p r i n c i p a l method. J e w i t t gives a good d e s c r i p t i o n : Into one of t h e i r tubs they pour water s u f f -i c i e n t to cook the q u a n t i t y of p r o v i s i o n wanted. A number of heated stones are then put i n to make i t b o i l , when the salmon or other f i s h are put i n without any other p r e p a r a t i o n than sometimes c u t t i n g o f f t h e i r heads, t a i l s , and f i n s , the b o i l i n g i n the meantime being kept up by the a p p l i c a t i o n of the hot stones, a f t e r which i t i s l e f t to 28 cook u n t i l the whole i s n e a r l y reduced to one mass. In a s i m i l a r manner they cook t h e i r blubber and spawn, smoked or d r i e d f i s h , and, i n f i n e , almost everything they eat, nothing going down w i t h them l i k e b r oth. ( J e w i t t 1815: 70) Mozino a l s o g i v e s an account of the s t o n e - b o i l i n g method:. They make f i r e by rubbing two pieces of wood against each other, and when they have i t w e l l going they heat a q u a n t i t y of stones, which they draw out w i t h long wooden tongs and quench i n p a i l s of water c o n t a i n i n g f i s h u n t i l the l a t t e r are cooked. (Mozino 1913: 9) Steaming i s a v a r i a n t of the widespread earth-oven technique. J e w i t t again gives a good d e s c r i p t i o n : When they cook t h e i r f i s h by steam, which are u s u a l l y the heads, t a i l s , and f i n s of the salmon, cod, and h a l i b u t , a l a r g e f i r e i s k i n d l e d , upon which they place a bed of stones, which, when the wood i s burnt down, becomes p e r f e c t l y heated. Layers of green leaves or pine boughs are then placed upon the stones, and the f i s h , clams, e t c . , being l a i d upon them, water i s poured over them, and the whole c l o s e l y covered w i t h mats to keep i n the steam. (J e w i t t 1815: 70) Tales of famous f e a s t s t e l l of p i l e s of food so high that young men had to climb onto the roof to pour on more water to make steam (Drucker 1951: 63). B r o i l i n g was done over coals or a low f i r e and was used c h i e f l y f o r f r e s h f i s h . Roasting was of comparatively minor importance, being used f o r such food items as f e r n roots as w e l l as f i s h . Cook (1796: 259) s t a t e s that an important food item was the l a r g e mussel, which was roasted i n i t s s h e l l . In a d d i t i o n , s m all f i s h such as h e r r i n g were f r e q u e n t l y eaten raw. The p r e s e r v a t i o n of v a r i o u s foods f o r the stormy winter months was the main challenge to the food-preparing technology. During t h i s time the Moachat l i v e d c h i e f l y on d r i e d f i s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y dog salmon. S t r i p s of 29 t h i s f i s h were b r o i l e d over the f i r e , t h e n smoked on drying racks. These were then pressed and s t o r e d i n b a l e s . H a l i b u t and cod were a l s o d r i e d . Herring were s p l i t open and hung to dry e i t h e r i n the house or outdoors. The c u t t i n g implements were m u s s e l - s h e l l knives or long bone kniv e s . The f l e s h of mammals and b i r d s was apparently never d r i e d (Drucker 1951: 65). Clams were steamed, skewered on s m a l l s t i c k s placed over the f i r e , and then d r i e d . They were a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y preserved by p r e s s i n g onto cakes w i t h t h i m b l e b e r r i e s . The only other b e r r i e s to be preserved were s a l a l b e r r i e s . These were crushed between cedar planks and then d r i e d i n t o cakes i n the sun. The camass root was roasted and preserved f o r winter use. A l l d r i e d f o o t s were customarily dipped i n t o whale or f i s h o i l before being eaten. Map 2- Moachat T e r r i t o r y and S i t e s 13- H i s n i t (DkSp5) 14. Tsaxho ' (DkSo3 ) 15. Ta'atis (DkSo2) 16. Mowatca (DkSol) 17. Nisaq (DkSc4) A. b u r i a l cave (DjSt>2) B. rock s h e l t e r b u r i a l and D i c t o g r a p h (DjSol) C. 'bear cave 1 (BkSnA) D. b u r i a l canoe (DlSr2) E. pictograohs (;Dk3p3) 31 THE MOACHAT SITES A. V i l l a g e and Camp S i t e s Drucker (1951) l i s t s s i x t e e n s i t e s f o r the Moachat Nootka. Most of these were v i s i t e d during the f i e l d season. One a d d i t i o n a l small s i t e was recorded. The l o c a t i o n s of these s i t e s are shown on Map 2. Yukwot (DjSp 1) - Nootka I.R. 1 ' Yukwot, "the place where the winds meet", became famous as the F r i e n d l y Cove of the e a r l y t r a v e l l e r s to the Northwest Coast. Cook v i s i t e d here i n 1778 and l e f t us a good account of the i n h a b i t a n t s of that time. The cove i n f r o n t of the v i l l a g e o f f e r e d s h e l t e r to E n g l i s h , Spanish, and American v e s s e l s , many of whose captains recorded much of the way of l i f e of the i n h a b i t a n t s . The j o u r n a l of John R. J e w i t t , during h i s c a p t i v i t y here, g r e a t l y adds to our knowledge of the way of l i f e i n t h i s v i l l a g e . Yokwot has a very f a v o r a b l e p o s i t i o n . I t i s l o c a t e d j u s t i n s i d e the entrance to Nootka Sound. The v i l l a g e stands on a r i s i n g bank, over-l o o k i n g a deep s h e l t e r e d cove. The open ocean i s j u s t a short distance behind the v i l l a g e . North of the v i l l a g e i s a t h i c k l y wooded area, c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l l a r g e l a k e s . I t has a c e n t r a l p o s i t i o n between the outer coast beaches and the s h e l t e r e d v i l l a g e s up the i n l e t s . Yukwot was p o s s i b l y at one time simply the summer v i l l a g e of one of the l i n e a g e s . Drucker (1951: 230) discusses a p e r i o d of t r i b a l c o n s o l i d a t i o n among the Tahsis I n l e t groups, r e s u l t i n g i n Yukwot becoming the summer v i l l a g e of t h i s t r i b a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . L a t e t , w i t h the amalga-32 mation of the Tlupana 'Arm groups, a confederacy,, w i t h i t s center at Yukwot, was formed. According to J e w i t t (Brown 1896: 99), Yukwot c o n s i s t e d of about twenty houses, of v a r y i n g s i z e s , b u i l t n e a r l y i n a l i n e . they vary not much i n w i d t h , being u s u a l l y t h i r t y - s i x to f o r t y f e e t wide, but are of very d i f f e r e n t l e n g t h s , that of the k i n g , which i s much the l o n g e s t , being about one hundred and f i f t y f e e t , w h i l e the s m a l l e s t , which c o n t a i n only two f a m i l i e s , do not exceed f o r t y f e e t i n l e n g t h . Roquefeuil (1823: 29) measured the r i d g e p o l e of Maquinna's house to be 76 f e e t , and noted that i t was supported by two enormous carved posts. King (Beaglehole 1967: 1409), one of Cook's o f f i c e r s , describes the l a r g e s t house as being about 140 f e e t l o n g , w i t h many separate d i v i s i o n s . Meares' sketch map of the v i l l a g e (1790: 108) shows s i x t e e n houses, w h i l e Drucker's informants t o l d him that the v i l l a g e had always had t h i r t e e n houses (1951: 231). Samwell (Beaglehole 1967: 1097), a surgeon w i t h Cook i n 1778, mentions 80 or 90 canoes hauled up on the beach and a p o p u l a t i o n of f i v e or s i x hundred people. J e w i t t (1815: 142) estimated the p o p u l a t i o n of F r i e n d l y Cove to be no l e s s than 1500 persons. Cook (1796: 253) estimated 2000 i n h a b i t a n t s f o r Nootka Sound. Yukwot was t e m p o r a r i l y abandoned by the Indians a f t e r the estab-lishment of a Spanish f o r t i n 1789. Barracks, a s t o r e house, a h o s p i t a l , and.gardens took the place of the Indian v i l l a g e , w h i l e a small gun emplacement was b u i l t on one of the s m a l l i s l a n d s at the entrance to the cove. The Indians meanwhile withdrew up the sound to the v i l l a g e of T a c i s . A f t e r the abandonment of the Spanish f o r t i n 1795, the Indian v i l l a g e was r e b u i l t . By the time Broughton (1804: 50) returned i n 1796, he noted that the Indian v i l l a g e was once more a c t i v e on i t s o r i g i n a l s i t e . 3.4 Yukwot i s s t i l l i n h a b i t e d by descendants of Maquinna's t r i b e . About the same number of houses s t i l l stand, but they are small one-family homes r a t h e r than the l a r g e communal d w e l l i n g s , and many are empty. A b e a u t i f u l s m a l l church, b u i l t to commemorate t h i s h i s t o r i c spot, stands at the rear of the v i l l a g e . One l a r g e p o l e , a carved grave marker, and a number of houseposts have been maintained. F i s h i n g i s the prime occupation and s e v e r a l f i s h boats can u s u a l l y be seen at the wharf. But the p o p u l a t i o n i s q u i c k l y decreasing. Only about f i f t y Indians s t i l l i n h a b i t e d t h i s s i t e at the time t h i s study was made. With the establishment of a government housing program at Gold R i v e r , even t h i s s m a l l number may soon disappear and Yukwot w i l l be unoccupied f o r the f i r s t time i n c e n t u r i e s . Coopte (DkSp 1 ) - Nootka I.R. 9 Coopte was the winter v i l l a g e s i t e f o r a l l the Moachat Nootka except the Tlupana Arm groups, who wintered at nearby O'wis. Located j u s t i n s i d e the entrance to Tahsis I n l e t , and protected from the open waters of Nootka Sound by s e v e r a l i s l a n d s , i t o f f e r e d a r a t h e r s h e l t e r e d p l a c e to spend the w i n t e r months. One of the few e a r l y sources to r e f e r to t h i s s i t e i s J e w i t t (1815: 123-128), but he r e f e r s much more to the great f e a s t s h e l d here than to the s i t e or the h a b i t a t i o n s . Kendrick (Howay 1941: 83) was a l s o at Coopte but does not describe the v i l l a g e . A f u l l d e s c r i p t i o n of t h i s s i t e w i l l be given i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n , along w i t h an account of the excavations c a r r i e d out there. T a c i s (DlSp 1) - Nootka I.R. 11 T a c i s i s l o c a t e d at the head of the i n l e t . I t appears to have 35 been the f i s h i n g v i l l a g e of Maquinna's l i n e a g e , i t was occupied during the f a l l and e a r l y w i n t e r , before they moved down the i n l e t to Coopte. Great s t o r e s of p r o v i s i o n s were gathered at t h i s s i t e to l a s t through the w i n t e r f e a s t s at Coopte. For a time, during the Spanish occupation of F r i e n d l y Cove, t h i s seems to have become the main center of the Moachat. Several of the e a r l y sources mention t h i s s i t e . J e w i t t (1815: 105) describes i t s r a t h e r pleasant and secure p o s i t i o n . He was l e s s impressed w i t h the crowded c o n d i t i o n s : The houses here are placed i n a l i n e l i k e those at Nootka, but c l o s e r together, the s i t u a t i o n being more confined, they are al s o s m a l l e r , i n consequence of which we were much crowded.... ( J e w i t t 1815: 106) Drucker (1951: 74) s t a t e s that the posts and beams were smaller and that some of the houses were set w i t h t h e i r ends so c l o s e together that doorways had to be l e f t i n the s i d e s . Vancouver (1798: v o l . 1: 395) was much more impressed w i t h Maquinna's " r o y a l residence". He estimated the le n g t h of Maquinna's house at one hundred f e e t (1798 v o l . 3: 311). He a l s o mentions a carved house post i n t h i s b u i l d i n g , which i s not mentioned by J e w i t t and s p e c i f i c a l l y denied by Drucker (1951: 74). The p o p u l a t i o n at Taci s was estimated as not much l e s s than eight or nine hundred persons by Vancouver (1798 v o l . 3: 310). Fi v e houses and two sheds stand along the beach of the s i t e today. Only one of the houses i s occupied. With the completion of the government p r o j e c t i n Gold R i v e r , t h i s s i t e w i l l probably a l s o become uninhabited. A s m a l l area of secondary growth, presumably covering the o r i g i n a l area of h a b i t a t i o n , extends behind the houses. The deposit appears to be dark s o i l w i t h a great d e a l of rock and cannot be very extensive. A survey made by the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Parks crew i n 1966 noted a small deposit of b u l l d o z e d s h e l l i n t h i s area. The deposit i s probably c o n s i d e r a b l y d i s t u r b e d due to recent logging operations. Amitsa (DISp 2) Drucker l o c a t e s t h i s s i t e south of T a c i s , opposite where Esperanza I n l e t j o i n s Tahsis I n l e t . The Amitsa group apparently became e x t i n c t r a t h e r e a r l y (Drucker 1951: 229). This area now i s covered w i t h deciduous f o r e s t and dense brush. A l a r g e stream runs through the center. No evidence of an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l deposit could be found. Hatoq (DkSq 1) This was a s m a l l l i n e a g e f i s h i n g v i l l a g e . I t was o r i g i n a l l y i n an e x c e l l e n t l o c a t i o n , being at'the back of a s h e l t e r e d bay. A small stream ran through the s i t e . However, a l l t r a c e s of an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l deposit have been wiped out by the modern logging town of Blowhole Bay and the logging operations behind the town. Tsawun (DkSp 3) - Nootka I.R. 10 This s i t e i s l o c a t e d on a s m a l l p o i n t , north of the Tsowwin R i v e r , about midway on the east s i d e of Tahsis I n l e t . I t was a small f i s h i n g v i l l a g e . Only a few houses could have stood here due to the small s i z e of the s i t e . The p o i n t i s only about eighty f e e t across at the base. The s i t e i s now l i g h t l y covered w i t h brush and a few small t r e e s . Several Indian houses stood on the p o i n t u n t i l f a i r l y recent times and remains of these can s t i l l be seen. The deposit i s q u i t e shallow; the e l e v a t i o n of the s i t e above high water being only about three f e e t . The matrix was crushed s h e l l , 37 o v e r l a i n by a t h i n l a y e r of t o p s o i l and u n d e r l a i n by g r a v e l . The s h e l l content of the deposit i s mainly clam. Clam s h e l l s abound on the beach. Clam beds are found d i r e c t l y o f f s h o r e . This area i s well-known to l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s as the best p l a c e i n the i n l e t to gather clams and we can assume that t h i s food resource was e x t e n s i v e l y u t i l i z e d by the Indians w h i l e l a y i n g i n t h e i r w i nter s t o r e s of food. L u i s (DkSp 7) This was a l s o a small l i n e a g e f i s h i n g v i l l a g e . I t i s l o c a t e d on the west s i d e of Tahsis I n l e t but was apparently more o l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the Tlupana Arm groups than the other v i l l a g e s i n Tahsis I n l e t (Drucker 1951: 230). Logging operations and logging camp have o b l i t -erated the s i t e . Mawun (DkSp 6) This i s the c l o s e s t of the f i s h i n g v i l l a g e s to F r i e n d l y Cove. I t i s l o c a t e d i n s i d e Boston P o i n t , south of the entrance to Tahsis I n l e t , i n a s h e l t e r e d bay i n t o which a stream f l o w s . However, the s i t e has been destroyed by lo g g i n g operations. E'as (DjSq-1) - Nootka I.R. 3 This s i t e i s l o c a t e d on Bajo. P o i n t , on the south shore of Nootka I s l a n d , about eleven m i l e s west of F r i e n d l y Cove. Such open-ocean s i t e s were occupied during the summer. Off-shore f i s h i n g and sea mammal hunting were the main economic a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out at these s i t e s . T r a d i t i o n c r e d i t s the i n h a b i t a n t s of these open ocean s i t e s w i t h the i n v e n t i o n of the a r t of whaling (Drucker 1951: 228). This area was not v i s i t e d during the 1968 f i e l d season. A N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Parks crew, v i s i t i n g the area i n 1966, described the s i t e as a large s h e l l midden, being 600 to 700 38 f e e t long and eight f e e t high. T s a x s i s (DjSq 2) - Nootka I.R. 2 This i s a l s o an open-ocean s i t e , about s i x mil e s west of F r i e n d l y Cove on the south shore of Nootka I s l a n d . I t i s l o c a t e d at the mouth of Beano Creek. The N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Parks crew r e p o r t s a small cabin on the s i t e , but no evidence of a s h e l l d e p o s i t . DjSp 3 This i s a s m a l l , p r e v i o u s l y unrecorded s i t e about 1% mil e s west of Yuwot, east of Maquinna P o i n t . I t i s not mentioned i n Drucker's l i s t of s i t e s , but would be one of the s m a l l l o c a l group summer camps. The deposit i s s h e l l midden, ranging from about f o u r inches to almost a foot i n depth, and u n d e r l a i n by beach sand. The s h e l l content i s almost e n t i r e l y clam. Some patches of burnt s h e l l were n o t i c e d and f i r e - c r a c k e d rock was abundant. The s i t e appears to extend along the shore f o r only about 35 f e e t . The d i s t a n c e back was not determined but l a r g e trees stand about 25 f e e t from the shore. Three po s t s , each about f i v e f e e t h i g h , are standing i n the bushes at one end of the s i t e . These are square posts w i t h n a i l s . They seem to form a r e c t a n g l e , about s i x f e e t by four f e e t , but missing one corner post. Several planks l a y on the ground. These are p o s s i b l y the remains of a h i s t o r i c grave house. O'wis (DkSp 2) - Nootka I.R. 8 This s i t e was the winter v i l l a g e f o r the groups having f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s i n Tlupana Arm and the l o c a l group at L u i s . I t i s l o c a t e d a 39 short d i s t a n c e east of Coopte, at the mouth of Hoiss Cre.elc. Cook apparently v i s i t e d t h i s s i t e during a survey of the Sound i n A p r i l , 1778. The s i t e was deserted when he a r r i v e d . The houseposts were standing but a l l the planks had been removed. Cook mentions l a r g e f i s h w eirs i n the water at the front of the s i t e (Beaglehole 1967: 304).* These were constructed of small branches, and v a r i e d i n the s i z e of the mesh according to the s i z e of the f i s h which was intended to be caught. The s i t e i s much smaller than Coopte, being q u i t e s m a l l f o r a w i n t e r v i l l a g e site.- I t i s now covered w i t h dense underbrush. Remains of s e v e r a l European houses stand at the back of the s i t e on the west s i d e of the creek. A l a r g e area of sandy beach extends i n front of the s i t e . I t i s on a r a t h e r exposed p a r t of the i n l e t , not being s h e l t e r e d by small i s l a n d s from the open ocean c u r r e n t s , as i s Coopte. Very rough, w a t e r i s o f t e n encountered i n t h i s area. H i s n i t (DkSp 5) - Nootka I.R. 7 This s i t e i s l o c a t e d near the head of H i s n i t I n l e t , on the west s i d e . I t was a small f i s h i n g v i l l a g e , c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the groups f u r t h e r up Tlupana I n l e t . I t i s on a small area of f l a t ground now covered w i t h secondary growth, at the mouth of a stream. The e l e v a t i o n i s only s l i g h t l y above high water l i n e . Tsaxho' (DkSb 3) - Nootka I.R. 6 This f i s h i n g v i l l a g e was l o c a t e d at the head of Tlupana I n l e t , i n Head Bay. I t i s j u s t east of the mouth of Sucwoa R i v e r . The modern lo g g i n g camp of Head Bay i s nearby. *The d e s c r i p t i o n of the f i s h weirs i s omitted from the 1796 e d i t i o n of Cook's j ournals. 40 T a ' a t i s (DkSo 2) This s i t e i s a l s o a t the head of Tlupana I n l e t , between Head Bay and Moutcha Bay. I t i s i n what appears to be an u n l i k e l y spot f o r a s i t e . Apparently s e v e r a l European-type houses stood on the beach and p o i n t u n t i l q u i t e recent times. The p o i n t i s rocky, w i t h no deposit. Two small patches of beach occur. Some secondary growth i s at the back of these, . but l a r g e deciduous trees,:.also occur. These areas are only s l i g h t l y above the high water l i n e . Mowatca (DkSo 1) - Nootka I.R. 5 This s i t e i s on the east s i d e of Moutcha Bay, below the mouth of the Conuma R i v e r . I t i s a sm a l l s i t e , covered i n secondary growth. The f r o n t of. the s i t e i s t i d a l f l a t s , and the s i t e i t s e l f i s only s l i g h t l y e l e v a t e d above t h i s l e v e l . One recent shack stands at the southern end of the s i t e and i s apparently s t i l l used as a hunter's cabin. From the d e s c r i p t i o n of the l o c a t i o n and the s i m i l a r i t y of the name, t h i s s i t e seems to be the "Mooetchee" v i s i t e d by Vancouver i n 1794. Vancouver was not impressed by t h i s s m a l l v i l l a g e "which c o n s i s t e d of a few houses huddled together i n a cove" (1798 v o l . 3: 312). The l a c k of order as w e l l as the small s i z e of t h i s v i l l a g e l e d Vancouver to comment on the s u p e r i o r i t y of Maquinna's v i l l a g e s . Nisaq (DkSo 4) - Nootka I.R. 4 This s i t e i s l o c a t e d at the head of Nesook Bay, j u s t north of the mouth of Tlupana R i v e r . I t was a l s o a small l i n e a g e f i s h i n g v i l l a g e . I t was not v i s i t e d d u r i ng the 1968 season. Yukwot (DjSp 1) 42 P i 3 44 Indian f i s h i n g boat 45 B. B u r i a l Caves This c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n c l u d e s both b u r i a l caves and rock s h e l t e r b u r i a l s . As w e l l as those l i s t e d here, r e p o r t s were gathered of s e v e r a l b u r i a l caves i n the woods behind Yukwot. DjSp 2 This cave i s l o c a t e d on the south-east s i d e of the l a r g e s t i s l a n d of the Saavedra group, a s m a l l c l u s t e r of i s l a n d s l y i n g a short d i s t a n c e up the sound from F r i e n d l y Cove. I t i s w e l l known to the i n h a b i t a n t s of F r i e n d l y Cove and was presumably used by the Moachat w h i l e they were i n residence there. The cave i s e a s i l y a c c e s s i b l e , being l o c a t e d d i r e c t l y at sea l e v e l . I t extends i n a considerable d i s t a n c e but i s f i l l e d at h i g h t i d e except f o r a s m a l l area at the back. The r e s t of the cave i s f i l l e d w i t h washed-in wood. Four or f i v e b u r i a i i n boxes were s t i l l present i n t h i s cave as l a t e as 1966, when the area was i n v e s t i g a t e d by a N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Parks crew. No b u r i a l s or c u l t u r a l m a t e r i a l now remain. The bones may have been gathered by the l o c a l i n h a b i t a n t s f o r interment. DjSo 1 This complex, c o n s i s t i n g of a b u r i a l and p i c t o g r a p h , i s l o c a t e d j u s t out of Moachat t e r r i t o r y near the beginning of Muchalat Arm (see Map 2). I t i s i n c l u d e d here because of i t s p r o x i m i t y to the Moachat area and because the Muchalat b u r i a l p r a c t i c e s are i d e n t i c a l to those of the Moachat. The b u r i a l i s best considered a rock s h e l t e r b u r i a l , r a t h e r than a cave b u r i a l . T his complex i s l o c a t e d on the east s i d e of Hanna Channel, near 46 the south end. I t i s l o c a t e d on a rock face south of the Muchalat v i l l a g e of T c e c i n (Indian Reserve #15). A l a r g e perpendicular f l a t rock face extends f o r most of the p o i n t . On t h i s face i s l o c a t e d a pictograph i n red ochre. This w i l l be discussed i n the s e c t i o n on pictographs. About twenty f e e t to the south of the p i c t o g r a p h , at the edge of the p o i n t , i s a rock ledge. A s m a l l covered area, extending back about s i x f e e t and p a r t i a l l y blocked by rocks, i s formed by the ledge. The remains of a b u r i a l are i n t h i s area. The body had been placed under the ledge, w i t h the l e g s f l e x e d to f i t i n t o the rocks at the back of the cavern and the head extending outward. The s k u l l and most of the bones of the upper body are m i s s i n g . The l e g s , one arm, and an undetermined number of body bones s t i i l remain. These are obscured by h a l f - r o t t e d rags covering the bones. The body was apparently b u r i e d i n a European s h i r t and p o s s i b l y a l s o Europ pants. The b u r i a l was then wrapped i n cedar bark. The cedar bark at the top has l a r g e l y r o t t e d away, but that underneath the body i s i n a s t a t e of r e l a t i v e l y good p r e s e r v a t i o n . See p l a t e s 10, 11, and 12. DkSp 4 - "Bear Cave" This f e a t u r e i s l o c a t e d on the east coast of Nootka I s l a n d , on Tahsis I n l e t . I t i s north of the s i t e of L u i s and south and across the i n l e t from Tsawun, which i s the most a c c e s s i b l e s i t e . The cave i s about 50 f e e t back from the water's edge and about 50 to 75 f e e t i n e l e v a t i o n at the entrance. The cave i t s e l f i s part of a l a r g e f a u l t i n the rock formation, which runs f o r a considerable d i s t a n c e i n t h i s area, at times t a k i n g the form of a very deep f i s s u r e . However, the f i s s u r e i s q u i t e shallow at t h i s p o i n t . The s i d e of the f a u l t overhangs to form a roof. A rock f a l l 47 at each end has closed o f f a chamber about 24 f e e t long, 5 f e e t wide, and 20 f e e t h igh. This chamber i s a c c e s s i b l e by c l i m b i n g down the rock-f a l l , under the overhanging ledge. Despite i t s being i n c l u d e d as a b u r i a l cave, no human remains were discovered i n t h i s chamber. However, i n f o r m a t i o n was obtained from i n h a b i t a n t s of the nearby m i l l town that the cave had contained a b u r i a l at the time of i t s disc o v e r y during hand-logging operations a number of years ago. This b u r i a l had been placed i n a wooden box. Both box and bones were apparently removed by the d i s c o v e r e r s , l e a v i n g no m a t e r i a l evidence f o r such use of the cave. A great number of bones were found i n the cave, however. These were almost e n t i r e l y bear. Bear s k u l l s were p i l e d i n four groups, w h i l e smaller bones l i t t e r e d the f l o o r . There seemed to be a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a t e l y s m a l l amount of limb and body bones i n r e l a t i o n to the s k u l l s . Twenty-two bear s k u l l s were counted, along w i t h four s k u l l s of u n i d e n t i f i e d s m aller c a r n i v o r e s . Nine complete bear p e l v i c bones, t h i r t e e n halves of bear p e l v i c bones, s i x t e e n scapulae, and one mandible were a l s o counted. Smaller bone fragments were numerous. The bones seem to e x h i b i t d i f f e r i n g . amounts of aging and weathering. In a d d i t i o n , the cave contained two l a r g e geoduck clam s h e l l s and s e v e r a l patches of c h a r c o a l . The presence of these bear remains i s not e a s i l y explained. C e r t a i n l y some type of bear ceremonial i s i n d i c a t e d . Perhaps a short d i s c u s s i o n of bear ceremonialism i s necessary here. Bear ceremonalism has a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n , being found among c e r t a i n groups i n North America, A s i a , and Europe ( H a l l o w e l l 1926). Such ceremonies i n v o l v i n g game animals are i n t e l l i g i b l e i n the l i g h t of the general b e l i e f s about nature. The bear i s never regarded as merely food, 48 but i s given c e r t a i n s upernatural a t t r i b u t e s . Often a r i c h mythology develops. The idea that game animals must be respected r a t h e r than mis-t r e a t e d i s almost u n i v e r s a l among p r i m i t i v e groups which depend upon them. These general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c e r t a i n l y apply to the Nootka and the r e s t of the Northwest coast c u l t u r e area. The f i r s t salmon r i t e s p r a c t i s e d i n t h i s area were simply another m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the general p r a c t i c e of honoring game animals upon whom subsistence depended. The presence of a bear ceremonial i s i n t e r e s t i n g because of the minor economic importance of the bear i n t h i s area. However, the bear was very important i n the mythology and was f r e q u e n t l y c r e d i t e d w i t h having human a t t r i b u t e s . Because supe r n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s were attached to the bear, i t seems only l o g i c a l t hat some means of shewing respect to the bear would be undertaken when one was k i l l e d . We know t h i s was the case from the ethnographic data Jewit t ( 1 8 1 5 : 117) describes a ceremony among the Moachat i n which the f r e s h l y - k i l l e d bear i s seated i i i an upright p o s i t i o n , dressed i n a c h i e f ' s head-dress and s p r i n k l e d w i t h eagle down, and r i t u a l l y o f f e r e d a t r a y of p r o v i s i o n s . Drucker (1951: 181) describes a s i m i l a r ceremony. The presence of a well-developed bear ceremonialism, then, would appear to be e s t a b l i s h e d . However, these ceremonies only i m p e r f e c t l y e x p l a i n the presence of the bear s k u l l s i n t h i s cave. J e w i t t does not mention d i s p o s a l of the s k u l l or other bones, w h i l e Drucker s t a t e s that the s k u l l s were not kept, but thrown i n t o the woods. No other sources mention d i s p o s a l of the bones A common f e a t u r e of bear ceremonialism i n general, however, i s the p l a c i n g of the s k u l l i n some s p e c i a l p l a c e , out of the reach of d e f i l i n g animals. Morice ( H a l l o w e l l 1926: 22) w r i t e s that the Dene of the i n t e r i o r placed the s k u l l of the bear on a stump or t r e e out of the reach of animals. 49 This seems to have been a common p r a c t i c e . I would suggest that the use of t h i s cave i n which to place the s k u l l s and c e r t a i n other bones of the bear was a l o c a l v a r i a n t of t h i s general p a t t e r n . The d i f f e r i n g amounts of weathering on the s k u l l s i n d i c a t e s that t h i s p r a c t i c e had been c a r r i e d out over a p e r i o d of time. Rock S h e l t e r B u r i a l and Pict o g r a p h (DjSo 1) 51 C. B u r i a l Canoe O c c a s i o n a l l y among the Nootka a canoe was used i n s t e a d of a wooden box to c o n t a i n the body of a deceased person. This would be p l a c e d on some rocky p o i n t o v e r l o o k i n g the water. While no examples of t h i s have a c t u a l l y been found i n Moachat t e r r i t o r y , one (DISr 2) was examined i n Esperanza I n l e t , i n the t e r r i t o r y of the ' E h e t i s a t , only a short d i s t a n c e out of Moachat t e r r i t o r y . See Map 2. The canoe i s l o c a t e d on a rocky p o i n t about twelve f e e t above mean sea l e v e l . The p o i n t i s q u i t e prominent and the canoe can be e a s i l y seen from the water. The canoe i s about twelve f e e t i n l e n g t h . I t i s of dugout c o n s t r u c t i o n w i t h s e v e r a l thwarts across the i n s i d e . N a i l s and a copper patch are v i s i b l e on the canoe. A number of l a r g e rocks were placed i n s i d e the canoe. No bones were found i n or around the canoe, although i t i s reputed to have been a b u r i a l canoe. I t i s d o u b t f u l that i t could serve any other purpose. The most probable explanation i s t h a t the bones were gathered up l a t e r , p o s s i b l y f o r interment. B u r i a l canoes a l s o s t i l l remain f u r t h e r down Esperanza I n l e t , i n N u c h a t l i t z t e r r i t o r y . Reports were obtained of two b u r i a l canoes on C a t a l a I s l a n d . The canoes are apparently i n a poor s t a t e of p r e s e r v a t i o n but s t i l l c o n t a i n the remains of s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l s . B u r i a l canoes were a l s o used on the other s i d e of Moachat t e r r i t o r y . Moser (1926: 40) mentions a b u r i a l at Hesquiat i n 1875 i n which a small Indian canoe was used as a c o f f i n . Sproat (1868: 259) s t a t e s that worn-out canoes were o c c a s i o n a l l y used as c o f f i n s i n the A l b e r n i area. This t r a i t , then, can be i n f e r r e d f o r the Moachat although there are no known remaining b u r i a l s of t h i s type w i t h i n Moachat t e r r i t o r y . p i . 14 53 Pictographs DjSo 1 This pictograph i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a rock s h e l t e r b u r i a l , d escribed i n "the s e c t i o n on b u r i a l caves. The pictograph i s l o c a t e d on a f l a t p erpendicular rock fa'ce about f i f t e e n f e e t above water l i n e . I t i s painted i n red ochre and i s about three f e e t l i n g . The r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s somewhat d i f f i c u l t to i n t e r p r e t . I t may be a b i r d form. I t may a l s o be a s e a l , w i t h s i d e and rear f l i p p e r s i n d i c a t e d and head toward the water. See p l a t e 12. I t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h the b u r i a l i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I t p o s s i b l y serves as a marker f o r the b u r i a l and may i n d i c a t e the prowess of the dead person as a hunter. DkSp 8 This group of pictographs i s l o c a t e d on the east s i d e of H i s n i t I n l e t , n e a r l y ' o p p o s i t e the s i t e of H i s n i t . The main f i g u r e i s a w e l l -executed eagle or thunderbird form. I t i s l o c a t e d on a f l a t rock.face about ten f e e t above the high water l i n e . About two hundred f e e t north of t h i s f i g u r e i s a s m a l l group of pictographs. They are l o c a t e d on a rock face on a small p o i n t and are about 25 f e e t above hig h water l e v e l . They are d i f f i c u l t to see from the i n l e t . These pictographs are r a t h e r i n d i s t i n c t , being more weathered and l e s s c a r e f u l l y executed than the b i r d form. They seem to be three s m a l l anthropomorphic f i g u r e s , one enclosed i n a c i r c l e . A l l are done i n red ochre. A l a r g e outcrop of ochre i s v i s i b l e on a rock face on the same s i d e near the entrance to H i s n i t I n l e t . This i s a p o s s i b l e source of the ochre used i n the pictographs. A l l pictographs i n the area are of red ochre. 54 No other pictographs were found w i t h i n Moachat t r i b a l boundaries. However, pictographs are common along nearby Muchalat I n l e t . 55 EXCAVATIONS AT DkSp 1 A. The S i t e 1. D e s c r i p t i o n Coopte i s l o c a t e d on Indian Reserve #9 of the Nootka Band, on the east shore j u s t i n s i d e the entrance to Tahsis I n l e t (Map 2). I t i s e a s i l y s potted, being the only r e l a t i v e l y f l a t p iece of land i n the immediate area. The northern part of the s i t e i s on a s m a l l p o i n t , i n f r o n t of which i s a good beach. Washed-in s h e l l s are p i l e d at the top of the beach. The s i t e i s q u i t e l a r g e . I t was paced out to about 230 yards along the beach. Secondary growth and s m a l l bushes, i n places q u i t e dense, cover the s i t e . Large deciduous t r e e s stand immediately behind the s i t e . A . d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e i s a scarp which runs the e n t i r e l e n g t h of the s i t e , d i v i d i n g i t i n t o two t e r r a c e s . The second t e r r a c e i s approx-imately seven to nine f e e t higher than the f i r s t t e r r a c e . The f i r s t t e r r a c e v a r i e s i n e l e v a t i o n but i s g e n e r a l l y f i v e or s i x f e e t above the highest water l i n e . In a d d i t i o n , there i s a s m a l l t h i r d t e r r a c e at the north end of the s i t e , at some d i s t a n c e back from the beach. I t i s not as d i s t i n c t as the others but i s s e v e r a l f e e t higher than the second t e r r a c e . Two streams supply water to the s i t e . One stream runs along the northern boundary of the s i t e : I t i s o f t e n dry during the summer. The other stream i s l a r g e r and runs a l l year. I t n e a r l y b i s e c t s the s i t e . These fe a t u r e s are shown on Map. 4. 2. Surface Features A number of c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s are v i s i b l e on the s i t e . These i n c l u d e canoe s k i d s , house remains and a p o s s i b l e bridge (Map 4). In a d d i t i o n to the house remains, sawn boards and h a n d - s p l i t planks were common on the surface of the s i t e . Pieces of broken p o t t e r y , b o t t l e s , 56 and such miscellaneous items as a l a r g e i r o n pot, an axe head, and a bayonet were found on the surface. Canoe Skids Lines of piled-up rocks i n the i n t e r - t i d a l zone mark areas the Indians have c l e a r e d to b r i n g t h e i r canoes up on the beach. There appear to be seven d i s t i n c t ' s k i d s ' . They s t a r t at approximately S:220' (see s e c t i o n on measurements) and run south past the end of t h e - s i t e , a d i s t a n c e of over 200 f e e t . House Remains 1 The remains c o n s i s t of two standing front p o s t s , one rear post, and s e v e r a l l a r g e s p l i t planks. The two f r o n t posts occur along the beach at S:110' and 130'. They are about 4% f e e t high:: The r i g h t rear post i s m i s s i n g . The l e f t r e ar post i s l o c a t e d a d i s t a n c e of 25 f e e t from the f r o n t post. I t i s about four f e e t high. Several l a r g e s p l i t planks l i e near i t . House Remains 2 This occurs at the f r o n t of the f i r s t t e r r a c e at about S:170' to 190'. I t appears to have been a small recent house or shed. The remains c o n s i s t of t h i n poles and sawn boards, along w i t h rusted metal items such as washbasins. House Remains 3 This occurs at the back of the second t e r r a c e , beyond the area of secondary growth, among the l a r g e deciduous t r e e s . I t i s l o c a t e d at about S:215' to 225', E:70'. The remains c o n s i s t of s e v e r a l s p l i t planks 57 and a number of s m a l l boards, many of the l a t t e r standing u p r i g h t among the t r e e s against a l a r g e l o g . i House Remains 4 This f e a t u r e i s l o c a t e d immediately north of the stream, along an area where the stream backs up to form a s m a l l pond, at a considerable d i s t a n c e back from the beach. The remains c o n s i s t of a few posts and s p l i t p l anks, a l l l y i n g on the ground. Bridge Several l a r g e planks were noted near the mouth of the creek at the northern boundary of the s i t e . The N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Parks crew, here i n 1966, noted t h i s as the remains of a bridge which crossed the creek. 3. L o c a l i z e d Ecology A l l f i v e species of salmon run up Tahsis I n l e t , passing i n f r o n t ' of t h i s s i t e . H e rring are a l s o common and were e x t e n s i v e l y f i s h e d by the n a t i v e s . Coopte became known as the great h e r r i n g f i s h e r y of the Moachat. H a l i b u t and other bottom f i s h could a l s o be taken here. This area i s s t i l l known to the Indians as a good f i s h i n g spot. Indian t r o l l e r s are frequently seen f i s h i n g o f f Coopte P o i n t i n the late> summer and f a l l . Sea mammals a l s o come up the i n l e t , passing by the s i t e . Porpoises and harbour s e a l s are common, and both were seen during the f i e l d season. Sea l i o n s may a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y be seen, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f a l l , when they f o l l o w the salmon run. K i l l e r whales may come i n t o the i n l e t i n the f a l l , feeding mainly on s e a l and sea l i o n . This i n f o r m a t i o n was gained l a r g e l y from Mr. Stan Sharcott, the f i s h e r i e s agent f o r the area. 58 The great number of washed-in s h e l l s along the f r o n t of the s i t e g ives a good idea of the v a r i e t y of s h e l l f i s h a v a i l a b l e to the n a t i v e i n h a b i t a n t s . Butter clam, l i t t l e - n e c k e d clam, horse clam, geoduck, blue mussel, and the o c c a s i o n a l abalone could be gathered, as w e l l as such smaller molluscs as l i m p e t s , t r i t o n , and turban s h e l l s . Barnacles are a l s o abundant. Strangely, there was only a comparatively s m a l l amount of s h e l l a c t u a l l y i n the de p o s i t , i n d i c a t i n g that the Moachat were not h e a v i l y r e l y i n g on s h e l l f i s h w h i l e at Coopte. This s i t e i s a l s o s t i l l known to the Indians as a good place to hunt land mammals. Deer and bear are apparently both common. Several deer were f r e q u e n t l y seen on the s i t e during the f i e l d season, as w e l l as such smaller animals as s q u i r r e l s and raccoons. B i r d s are numerous around the s i t e and were presumably u t i l i z e d as a food resource by the i n h a b i t a n t s . Small d i v i n g ducks f r e q u e n t l y appear i n the i n l e t . Sea g u l l s and w i l d pigeons are a l s o common. Larger b i r d s , such as eagles, ravens, and the great blue heron, are o c c a s i o n a l l y seen. B e r r i e s a l s o played an important r o l e i n the a b o r i g i n a l d i e t . Salmonberries, e l d e r b e r r i e s , h u c k l e b e r r i e s , and b l a c k b e r r i e s grow on the s i t e . However, some of these may have been introduced as were a number of f r u i t t rees on^the s i t e . 4. Excavating Procedure Excavation was c a r r i e d out e n t i r e l y w i t h t r o w e l s . The deposit was t r o w e l l e d i n t o dustpans and then thfown ; to. the si d e of the p i t s . No attempt was made to screen the deposit a f t e r t r o w e l l i n g . I t i s f e l t that the rocky nature of the deposit would render screening i n e f f e c t i v e . 59 A h y d r a u l i c system of checking b a c k d i r t could haveA been devised and may yet be used e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h i s area, but i t i s f e l t that i t would have been p r o h i b i t i v e l y time-consuming i n such a s m a l l operation. As s t r a t i g r a p h y was v i r t u a l l y l a c k i n g i n some areas of the s i t e , the deposit was g e n e r a l l y removed i n a r b i t r a r y s i x i n c h l e v e l s . However, as the surface of the s i t e g e n e r a l l y sloped from east to west, the f i r s t l e v e l s were excavated to a s u f f i c i e n t depth to even out the slope. The appearance of beach sand or g r a v e l a l s o meant a d i s c o n t i n u a t i o n of the p o l i c y of a r b i t r a r y l e v e l s i n order to f o l l o w the n a t u r a l slope. The p o s i t i o n of each a r t i f a c t was c a r e f u l l y measured i n three co-o r d i n a t e s , e s t a b l i s h i n g i t s exact p o s i t i o n i n the deposit. Each a r t i f a c t was then given a number and i t s p o s i t i o n and the m a t r i x recorded. A l l f a u n a l remains and h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l not given a r t i f a c t numbers were c o l l e c -ted and placed i n separate bags f o r each excavated l e v e l . 5. Notes on Measurements For convenience i n measuring, the beach i n f r o n t of the s i t e was considered to run north - south. A c t u a l l y , i t runs NE - SW, except f o r a s m a l l s e c t i o n at the north end of the s i t e which i s almost true north -south. Because of the c e n t r a l l o c a t i o n of a stream which almost b i s e c t s the s i t e , i t was decided to take a l l h o r i z o n t a l measurements from near there. A l a r g e boulder near the mouth of the creek was chosen f o r t h i s purpose. A l l h o r i z o n t a l measurements, then, are e i t h e r north or south of t h i s c e n t r a l p o i n t , and east from an imaginary l i n e drawn along the beach (Map 4 ) . For v e r t i c a l measurements, a separate secondary datum was 60 e s t a b l i s h e d f o r each square. This was the northeast corner at su r f a c e . Each v e r t i c a l measurement w i t h i n the square, then, r e f e r s to the depth below the surface l e v e l of the northeast corner. To t i e a l l the secondary v e r t i c a l datum p o i n t s together and give a common b a s i s to a l l v e r t i c a l measurements, a primary datum of zero sea l e v e l was e s t a b l i s h e d . To e s t a b l i s h t h i s , a l l that was done was to measure the height of the northeast corner f o r each p i t above the water l i n e at a known t i d e (9.6 f e e t i n t h i s case) and to add t h i s height to the height of the t i d e . To reduce any v e r t i c a l measurements given i n t h i s t e x t to a common denominator, a l l that need be done i s to s u b t r a c t the given measurements from the t o t a l height above zero sea l e v e l of the northeast corner of each square. The measurements above zero sea l e v e l f o r each square are as f o l l o w s : T.P.I - 16.8' T.P.2 - 16.1' T.P.3 - 16.6* T.P.4 - 23.3' T.P.5 - 16.6' T.P.6 - 18.8* T.P.7 - 18.8* T.P.8 - 16.6" T.P.9 - 16.6' T.P.10 - 18.8' T . P . l l - 18.6' T.P.12 - 18.8* T.P.13 - 18.8' T.P.14 - 19.0' T.P.15 — 27.3' 6. Excavated U n i t s F i f t e e n f i v e f o o t by f i v e foot t e s t p i t s were excavated at t h i s 61 s i t e . The l o c a t i o n of these i s a l s o shown on Map 4. T h i r t e e n p i t s , i n three c l u s t e r s , were excavated on the f i r s t t e r r a c e . Two p i t s , one at the north end and one at the south end of the s i t e , were excavated on the second t e r r a c e . No excavation was undertaken on the t h i r d t e r r a c e . A l e v e l by l e v e l d e s c r i p t i o n f o r each p i t , g i v i n g the matri x and the m a t e r i a l obtained, i s given i n appendix 1. A general d e s c r i p t i o n w i l l be given here. A f i f t e e n - f o o t ' t r e n c h , composed of t e s t p i t s 8, 3, and 9, i s l o c a t e d from S:105' to 120', E:35' to 40'. I t i s almost e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the bounds of the three posts described as House Remains 1. The surface slopes toward the nearby beach and i s of l i t t l e e l e v a t i o n above i t . The m a t r i x was dark s o i l w i t h a great deal of rock, u n d e r l a i n by g r a v e l . Traces of crushed s h e l l occurred i n the dark s o i l toward the southern s e c t i o n of the trench. The depth of the c u l t u r a l deposit was only about 1.6 f e e t . Another f i f t e e n - f o o t t r e n c h , composed of t e s t p i t s 1, 5, and 2, i s l o c a t e d at S:195' to 210', E:20' to 25'. This i s j u s t south of House Remains 2 and i s i n l a n d from the most n o r t h e r l y of the canoe s k i d s . The m a t r i x was dark s o i l w i t h a great d e a l of rock, u n d e r l a i n by g r a v e l . Occasional s m a l l pieces of s h e l l and s m a l l lenses of ash were noted. The depth of deposit was only 2.2 to 2.5 f e e t . A c l u s t e r of seven p i t s was excavated n o r t h of the stream. This formed a cross composed of t e s t p i t s 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14, as w e l l as t e s t p i t 6, separated from the others by a f i v e f o o t b a l k . The depth ranged from about 3.5 f e e t to 4.9 f e e t i n the c l u s t e r forming the c r o s s , w i t h the g r e a t e s t depth near the edge of the t e r r a c e . Test p i t 6 seems to be a b i t removed from the main deposi t . I t was only 2.7 f e e t deep at the n o r t h , but sloped to 3.3 f e e t at the south. The matrix i n t h i s p i t 62 was only dark s o i l and rocks. The other squares, however, contained two t h i c k s t r a t a of crushed s h e l l . S h e l l from the deepest s t r a t a extended a di s t a n c e of s e v e r a l inches i n t o the g r a v e l u n d e r l y i n g the dark s o i l at the bottom of the p i t . These two s h e l l s t r a t a were a l s o the most productive areas encountered on the s i t e , y i e l d i n g l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s of f a u n a l remains and numerous bone a r t i f a c t s . The two second t e r r a c e p i t s had a very low a r t i f a c t y i e l d . Test p i t 4 was l o c a t e d at S:210' to 215', E:50' to 55'. The matrix was dark s o i l and rock s , w i t h numerous t h i n l a y e r s of ash. A great many t i n y f i s h bones were contained i n s e v e r a l of these ash l a y e r s . The bottom of t h i s p i t had not been reached when work was terminated because of wet c o n d i t i o n s at a depth of f i v e f e e t . Test p i t 15, the other second t e r r a c e p i t , was l o c a t e d at N:60' to 65', E:85' to 90'. The ma t r i x again was l a r g e l y dark s o i l and rocks. A l a r g e hearth f e a t u r e , extending from a depth of one fo o t to four f e e t , was encountered i n t h i s p i t . At the bottom of t h i s f e a t u r e , l a r g e rocks and hard compact ash extended across the square and formed the s o l e m a t r i x f o r that l e v e l . One a r t i f a c t , a cobble t o o l (DkSp 1: 240), was found i n the ash. The northeast quadrant of t h i s square was taken down to a depth of eig h t f e e t before sand was reached. 64 p i . 16 f a c i n g southeast (canoe runways i n distance) Coopte (DkSp 1) 65 p i . 18 posts (house remains 1) 66 B. The A r t i f a c t C o l l e c t i o n 1. Chipped Stone A r t i f a c t s of chipped stone are not common at Coopte. W e l l -executed p r e s s u r e - f l a k e d items, such as p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s and scrapers, are absent from the sample recovered. This i s i n keeping w i t h the ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n and the general recent appearance of the m a t e r i a l . The S t s e l a x phase, the most recent i n the Fraser D e l t a sequence, a l s o has a p a u c i t y of chipped stone a r t i f a c t s (Borden 1968: 21).' Kidd (1969: 50) ^ notes a v i r t u a l absence of chipped stone i n the l a t e component of the F o s s i l Bay S i t e i n the San Juan I s l a n d s , w h i l e Carlson (1960: 581) s t a t e s that chipped stone i s r a r e i n the recent San Juan phase of a l l s i t e s i n that area. The chipped stone a r t i f a c t s from t h i s s i t e c o n s i s t of roughly p e r c u s s i o n - f l a k e d pebbles, which have been d i v i d e d i n t o two c l a s s e s on the b a s i s of s i z e . Small Chipped Pebbles A s e r i e s of s i x crudely-chipped pebbles was recovered from t h i s s i t e (DkSp 1: 83,101,179,205,242,245 - p l a t e 22,b-e). They are a l l rounded beach pebbles, four to f i v e cm. i n diameter,and are b a s a l t or a s i m i l a r m a t e r i a l . A l l have a c e r t a i n amount of f l a k i n g to provide a c u t t i n g edge. These c u t t i n g edges vary c o n s i d e r a b l y , p o s s i b l y having s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s . Several show a l a r g e degree of wear. I t i s suggested that these t o o l s were used i n the manufacture of small wooden implements. Such a p r a c t i c e i s not mentioned i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e . However, the s m a l l c u t t i n g edges on the pebbles would be very s e r v i c e a b l e i n the manufacture of such implements as harpoon and arrow s h a f t s , poles f o r nets and f i s h t r a p s , and p o s s i b l e y even f o r 67 some bone a r t i f a c t s . Larger Pebble Tools Two a r t i f a c t s f a l l i n t o t h i s category. One (DkSp 1: 240 -p l a t e 22a), i s a l a r g e rounded beach cobble of f i n e - g r a i n e d g r a n i t i c rock^ Several l a r g e f l a k e s have been removed from one end, forming a b i f a c i a l chopping edge. This was probably used i n heavy-duty woodwork-i n g . P i t t i n g on the butt end of the rock i n d i c a t e s that i t has been hammered or used as a hammer-stone. J e w i t t (Brown 1896: 124) s t a t e s that woodworking mauls were o f t e n simply "smooth round stones". Such a use would e x p l a i n the p i t t i n g on the butt of t h i s a r t i f a c t . A small amount of p i t t i n g on one face i n d i c a t e s that i t may a l s o have been used as an a n v i l stone. The l a r g e s t diameter i s 13.6 cm. This specimenvcame1. / from the second t e r r a c e of the s i t e , i n a matrix of ash from a l a r g e hearth f e a t u r e . The second a r t i f a c t (DkSp 1: 61) i n t h i s categrory was formed from a l a r g e b a s a l t f l a k e . The edge opposite the bulb of percussion was retouched to form a u n i f a c i a l chopping edge. This was s t i l l sharp, i n d i c a t i n g l i t t l e or no wear. The diameter would be about 12cm.. Found on the beach, t h i s specimen was l o s t during t r a n s p o r t a t i o n from the s i t e . 2. Pecked and Ground Stone Implements formed by pecking and g r i n d i n g do not appear to have been common. Two hand maul fragments are the only examples of t h i s category i n the sample. Hand Mauls The maul was of the unhafted pestle-shaped type of wide d i s t r i -b u t i o n on the Northwest Coast. These t o o l s were made of any hard stone 68 of s u i t a b l e s i z e which could be found on the beach (Drucker 1951: 77). Their manufacture r e q u i r e d a long and l a b o r i o u s process of pecking and g r i n d i n g , done over a considerable p e r i o d of time (Drucker, o p . c i t ; Koppert 1930: 38). They were an important part of the f l o u r i s h i n g woodworking i n d u s t r y , being p r i m a r i l y used f o r d r i v i n g yew wood wedges to s p l i t o f f l a r g e cedar planks. Two hand maul fragments were found at t h i s s i t e . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , only one was found i n s i t u and i t came from a h i s t o r i c l e v e l . The d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s support Drucker's statement that any s u i t a b l e stone would be used. One specimen (DkSp 1: 164 - p l a t e 21,a) was found on the beach. I t i s a b a s a l fragment, w i t h most of the s t r i k i n g head i n t a c t . The m a t e r i a l used was a g r a n i t i c rock, w i t h l a r g e c r y s t a l s of hornblende. I t i s grey i n c o l o r , w i t h a r e d d i s h t i n g e i n pl a c e s . The diameter of the s t r i k i n g head i s 7.5cm., w h i l e the diameter of the remaining sh a f t i s 5.5cm.. The fragment i s 7.2cm. high;. The second specimen.. (DkSp 1: 199 - p l a t e 21,b) i s the cone-shaped top of a hand maul. The fragment c o n s i s t s of a f a i r l y l a r g e cone-shaped p r o j e c t i o n , a bulge or f l a n g e , and the beginning of the s h a f t . I t i s made of dark brown, f i n e - g r a i n e d sandstone. Such a s o f t stone i s unusual and r a t h e r u n s u i t a b l e f o r hand mauls. The height of the fragment i s 7.4cm., w h i l e the diameter at the beginning of the shaf t i s 4.1cm. 3. Ground Stone The ground s l a t e i n d u s t r y , which was extremely important i n the Marpole and S t s e l a x phases of the Fraser D e l t a sequence (Borden 1968: 19, 21), was absent from t h i s sample. The only item of ground stone obtained 69 was a s i l t s t o n e f i s h hook shank. The presence of a considerable number of a b r a s i v e stones, however, would i n d i c a t e that the technique of manu-f a c t u r e by g r i n d i n g was extremely important at t h i s s i t e . F i s h Hook Shank Stone f i s h hook shanks have a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n i n the northern hemisphere. Such implements are not mentioned i n the ethnographic m a t e r i a l concerning the Nootka >• but s e v e r a l were obtained a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y at nearby Yukwot! They are of s o f t stone, u s u a l l y s l a t e , which has been ground to shape. One end i s grooved f o r attachment to the l i n e , w h i l e the other end i s b e v e l l e d and grooved f o r attachment of a bone barb ( f i g . 1). The weight of t h i s implement a l s o serves as a s i n k e r f o r the l i n e . One speciment(DkSpl: 52) was obtained from t h i s s i t e . I t appears to be made of s i l t s t o n e , r a t h e r than the more common s l a t e . I t i s i n fragmentary c o n d i t i o n . The i n t a c t proximal end has a groove and notch f o r attachment to the l i n e . The d i s t a l end i s m i s s i n g . The fragment i s 5.1cm. long, w i t h a th i c k n e s s at the broken end of 1.1cm. Abrasive Stones As i n almost a l l Northwest Coast s i t e s , a brasive stones are numerous at Coopte. Because of t h e i r frequency (43 specimens i n a t o t a l a r t i f a c t y i e l d of 273) and t h e i r presumed importance, they w i l l be d e a l t w i t h at l e n g t h here. These t o o l s were employed i n the manufacture of v i r t u a l l y a l l bone, a n t l e r , and wood a r t i f a c t s . Almost a l l the bone a r t i f a c t s obtained from t h i s s i t e show g r i n d i n g s t r i a t i o n s , i n d i c a t i n g that they had been manufactured i n p a r t by abrasive techniques. Moreover, the a r t i f a c t sample gives d e f i n i t e evidence of the use of abrasive stones i n the manufacture of mussel s h e l l a r t i f a c t s and the p r e p a r a t i o n of pigment. A 70 ground stone f i s h hook shank and two hand maul fragments a t t e s t to the use of abrasive stones on stone a r t i f a c t s as w e l l . Further excavation would l i k e l y have produced other stone a r t i f a c t s , such as adze blades, which had been formed by g r i n d i n g on abrasive stones. I t must be remembered, however, that the abrasive stones which the a r c h a e o l o g i s t f i n d s are merely by-products. The abrasive stones were used u n t i l they were n o i longer s e r v i c e a b l e and then they were discarded. There i s no stage at which they may be considered f i n i s h e d products. This makes them r a t h e r d i f f i c l u t to c l a s s i f y according to any meaningful c r i t e r i a . The c l a s s i f i c a t i o n used here i s based on the type of wear. The main assumption i s that l i n e a r g r i n d i n g w i l l produce a c e n t r a l depression or groove, w h i l e planar g r i n d i n g w i l l r e s u l t i n a f l a t s u r f a ce. There i s no c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n . L i n e a r g r i n d i n g tends to be accompanied by planar g r i n d i n g , and a f l a t face could a l s o be produced by a l i n e a r g r i n d i n g of a f l a t o b j e c t . The c r i t e r i o n used f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i s whether or not a c e n t r a l depression has been produced. The degree of wear i s a l s o important, but as almost a l l examples i n t h i s study show a high degree of wear, i t i s not very u s e f u l as a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y device. The v a r i o u s a t t r i b u t e s used i n t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n are l i s t e d i n Table 1. I am indebted to P. Monahan (n.d.) f o r suggestions i n o r g a n i z i n g t h i s m a t e r i a l . With the exceptions of DkSp 1: 262 and 264, both of s i l t s t o n e , a l l specimens were of v a r i o u s grades of sandstone. These were c l a s s i f i e d according t o coarseness, using the f o l l o w i n g s c a l e of g r a i n s i z e : 0.3 - 0.7 mm. coarse-grained 0.1 - 0.3 mm. medium-grained l e s s than 0.1 mm. f i n e - g r a i n e d 71 Most of t h i s sample was c l a s s i f i e d as medium-grained. Once coarse, f i v e f i n e , and three f i n e to medium specimens were recorded. The shape of the abrasive stones i s i r r e g u l a r and v a r i a b l e , although most approach a roughly r e c t a n g u l a r form. The s i z e a l s o v a r i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y . I r r e g u l a r s l a b s of sandstone, which were the raw m a t e r i a l , were subsequently modified only s l i g h t l y . Only a few appear to have been c a r e f u l l y shaped. Despite the f a c t that almost a l l specimens which were recovered from Coopte are i n fragmentary c o n d i t i o n , a high incidence of shaped or u t i l i z e d edges i s evident. Of the f o r t y - t h r e e specimens, twenty-seven show evidence of g r i n d i n g on the edges. The a c t u a l i n c i d e n c e of shaped or u t i l i z e d edges i s probably higher s i n c e s e v e r a l of the remaining s i x t e e n specimens are only s m a l l medial fragments. A s i m i l a r number of abrasive stones had been ground on one s i d e only as had been ground on both s i d e s . S i x t e e n examples are i n c l u d e d i n the former category and f i f t e e n are i n the l a t t e r . In a d d i t i o n , eleven specimens f a l l i n t o a t h i r d category, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by normal wear on one face and only s l i g h t wear on the other. This may be due to only o c c a s i o n a l use on one face when a coarser surface was d e s i r e d or to handling of the rock during use. One abrader of i r r e g u l a r shape (DkSp 1: 264) i s not i n c l u d e d i n any of these c a t e g o r i e s . A s l i g h t l y l a r g e r number of a r t i f a c t s w i t h f i n i s h e d edges f a l l i n t o the second group, but the sample may be too small f o r t h i s to be s i g n i f i c a n t . The p r o p o r t i o n s are e i g h t out of s i x t e e n i n the group w i t h wear on one face only, eleven out of f i f t e e n i n the group w i t h wear on both f a c e s , and seven out of eleven i n the t h i r d group. Two specimens (DkSp 1: 137, 239) e x h i b i t markings along one 72 edge i n d i c a t i n g that they had been sawn to shape. The saw marks on both specimens are q u i t e shallow. They extend from both faces on DkSp 1: 239 but from only one on DkSp 1: 137. The use of a sawing technique to get slabs of rock to the d e s i r e d shape appears to be f a i r l y common. A bar abrader which was found at Tsawun (DkSp 3: 1) has deep saw marks and a r i d g e produced by t h i s technique. Two specimens (DkSp 1: 204,326) seem to be complete, w i t h three edges ground to a f i n i s h and one edge roughly chipped to shape. Both are r e c t a n g u l a r and of a s i z e that would easily]? f i t i n the hand. The c h i p p i n g may serve the purpose of roughing and b l u n t i n g that edge to provide a g r i p f o r the f i n g e r s . I t would then appear that these abraders were h e l d i n the hand and moved around on the object being abraded, r a t h e r than the object being moved along the abrader. This would suggest work on l a r g e s u r f a c e s , such as woodworking or the manufacture of l a r g e stone a r t i f a c t s . R e l a t i v e l y few specimens show evidence of l i n e a r g r i n d i n g , as manifested by a c e n t r a l depression and/or g r i n d i n g ^ s t r i a t i o n s i n one d i r e c t i o n . Ten examples were c l a s s i f i e d as having depressions or grooves. Two of these a l s o had s t r i a t i o n s i n the depressions and on the r e s t of the s u r f a c e , running the same d i r e c t i o n as the depression. No examples were found of s t r i a t i o n s running the same d i r e c t i o n without a c e n t r a l depression. However, of the ten examples w i t h depressions, i n seven cases the depressions are very shallow and i n d i s t i n c t . Only three examples (DkSp 1: 14,58,140) have well-developed depressions or grooves. One example (DkSp 1: 140) has two p a r a l l e l grooves. Separation of the abrasive stones i n t o those w i t h a c e n t r a l depression or groove and those without i s more than a c l a s s i f i c a t o r y device, 73 because i t a f f o r d s some h i n t as to the use of these o b j e c t s . While l i n e a r and planar g r i n d i n g cannot r i g i d l y be separated, these techniques probably were used f o r d i f f e r e n t purposes. The s i z e of the object being abraded was probably the main f a c t o r . Small o b j e c t s , such as those of bone or s h e l l recovered from t h i s s i t e , would l i k e l y have been placed on the abrader and moved i n a l a r g e l y l i n e a r p a t t e r n , producing a groove on the abrader face. Large o b j e c t s would tend to be moved i n a planar p a t t e r n over the abrader f a c e , or the abrader could be h e l d i n the hand w h i l e g r i n d i n g a l a r g e s t a t i o n a r y o b j e c t . This would be p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p l i c a b l e to woodworking. I t i s thus suggested that the abrasive stones c l a s s i f i e d as having a c e n t r a l depression or groove were used f o r the manufacture of s m a l l items p a r t i c u l a r l y of bone'or s h e l l . The small s i z e of the grooves on most specimens i n t h i s category a l s o supports t h i s hypothesis. "The grooves are g e n e r a l l y narrow and o c c a s i o n a l l y a l s o of s m a l l amplitude (e.g. DkSp 1: 140). One abrader (bkSp 1: 14) i s s t a i n e d dark red along the l e n g t h of the groove and i n s e v e r a l spots on the r e s t of the face. I t i s suggested t h a t t h i s abrader was used to g r i n d s mall b l o c k s of red ochre, a pigment which occurs n a t u r a l l y i n the area. I t s use f o r decorative purposes on the coast i s well-known. I t i s mentioned f o r the Indians of t h i s area by Cook (1796: 243), Meares (1790: 252), and J e w i t t (1815: 77). J e w i t t a l s o mentions.', that a fine-grade ochre was a h i g h l y valued trade item from the Nimpkish K w a k i u t l to the no r t h . As w e l l as i t s decorative use on the human body, ochre was used f o r other purposes, such as the p a i n t i n g of pictographs described i n an e a r l i e r s e c t i o n . This leaves t h i r t y - t h r e e of the f o r t y - t h r e e abraders c o l l e c t e d i n a category having f l a t s u r f a c e s , i n d i c a t i n g planar g r i n d i n g . The high 74 p r o p o r t i o n of a b r a s i v e stones to other a r t i f a c t s suggest that they may have been used on p e r i s h a b l e m a t e r i a l , such as wood, which r a r e l y shows up.in the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l record., of the Northwest Coast. In a d d i t i o n , planar g r i n d i n g i n d i c a t e s work on l a r g e r s u r f a c e s , such as i n woodwork-i n g . I t would appear that a l a r g e coarse-grained abrader such as DkSp 1: 49 would only be s u i t a b l e f o r heavy duty work. We know from the h i s t o r -i c a l and ethnographic m a t e r i a l that woodworking was an important i n d u s t r y among these people. Boas (1966: 29,31) mentions the use of " g r i t -stones" i n woodworking among the K w a k i u t l and Drucker (1951: 79) l i s t s " g r i n d e r s of sandstone" i n h i s inventory of carpentry t o o l s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e evident that abrasive stones played an important p a r t i n the woodworking t r a d i t i o n of the Indians i n t h i s area. "TABLE! S i z e and A t t r i b u t e s af Abrasive Stones +-o a ••+• _c CI c ID — J -c % 1/1 0 u 4 -* » £ <: r-c iA U) <U J . a. 41 D ° c 0 v 0 1 o s V >0 V o a c ^ - *t 5-* (J u +J •* -c N-— CT> • «c 0 -J T> - c ft) Ul 01 c"o 41 u. 41 V, o c <s o S-a \A L 4J C trt * c I. • i -5 5.8 + 5.3 + 1.0 X(s) X med. 8 5.8* 3.7+ 1.6 X X f i n e 14 , 17.5+ 8.1 + 1.2 X X X med. 17 1 7.7+ 7.0 + 0.8 X med. 19 6.2 5.3+ 1.0 X X med. 20 8.0+ 3.9+ 2.0 X med. 21 ! 6.4+ 3.3+ 1.4 X X med. 26 6.0+ 5.0+ 0.7 X X med. 27 6.5 5.7+ 0.9 X X f i n e - med. 28 9.6+ 8.4+ 0.8 X X f i n e 29 4.2+ 2.4 + 0.7 X med. 30 4.8 + 2.8+ 1.2 X X med. 31 9.0+ 5.1+ 1.4 X med. 32 11.8+ 9.6 1.5 X X f i n e - med. 33 4.5+ 4.1+ 0.7 X med. 47 7.4+ 4.2+ 0.4 X X med. 49 9.2+ 5.2+ 4.0 X X coarse 55 8.8+ 7.1 + 1.1 X(s) X X X med. 56 9.6+ 8.6+ 0.9 X X med. 57 15.4+ 8.3+ 1.7 X(s) X X med. 58 14.2+ 11.6 1.2 X X X med. 59 10.0+ 5.2+ 0.9 X(s) X X med. 60 6.4+ 6.4 2.0 X X med. 84 5.8+ 3.5+ 1.1 X X med. 85 6.2+ 5.8+ 0.8 X X med. 89 5.5+ 5.2+ 1.3 X med. 93 6.8+ 5.8 + 0.7 X X med. 120 5.6+ 5.2+ 1.4 X med. 134 10.6+ 9.5+ 1.3 X(s) X X f i n e - med. 137 11.0+ 6.2+ 6.8 X(s) X med. 138 7.8+ 7.6+ 1.2 X X f i n e 140 10.5 + 6.5+ 1.1 X X med. 168 9.5+ 8.3+ 1.4 X med. 202 8.2+ 5.8+ 1.2 X X med. 203 10.5 + 6.1+ 0.9 X X med. 204 11.4 5.5 1.1 X(s) X X f i n e 216 9.2+ 6.5+ 1.0 V X med. 228 9.3+ 7.5+ 1.5 X X med. 236 14.1 7.5 1.6 X X med. 239 5.6 + 4.7+ 0.7 X very f i n e 252 4.8 3.4 1.2 X X med. 262 7.3 + 3.4 1.5 X X s i l t s t o n e 264 8.3+ 2.5 2.7+ X s i l t s t o n e *1 *2 *1 A l l measurements are i n centimeters. A "+" sign i n d i c a t e s the a r t i f a c t i s incomplete i n t h i s d i r e c t i o n . *2 X(s) i n d i c a t e s those that have been c l a s s i f i e d as having a shallow c e n t r a l depression. 76 4. Bone and A n t l e r Bone was the most f r e q u e n t l y - u t l i z e d raw m a t e r i a l f o r a r t i f a c t s found at Coopte. Nearly h a l f of the a r t i f a c t sample f a l l s i n t o t h i s category. A n t l e r , on the other hand, appears to have been only i n f r e q u e n t l y u t i l i z e d . Only one a r t i f a c t of a n t l e r came from t h i s s i t e . The p a u c i t y of a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s seems somewhat s u r p r i s i n g . Deer were common i n the v i c i n i t y of Coopte but t h e i r a n t l e r i s too s m a l l f o r the usual a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s , such as wedges or h a f t s . While w a p i t i d i d not occur i n the immediate area, they were i n t e n s i v e l y hunted along Gold R i v e r by a few groups of the nearby Muchalat (Drucker.1951: 36). W a p i t i hides were traded to the Moachat ( M i l l s 1955: 97), so presumably t h e i r a n t l e r could a l s o be obtained. Perhaps the e x p l anation l i e s i n the a v a i l a b i l i t y of an a l t e r n a t e m a t e r i a l . Eight fragments of worked whalebone, raw m a t e r i a l s u i t a b l e f o r the same type of a r t i f a c t s as were f r e q u e n t l y made of a n t l e r , were recovered. Yew, or a s i m i l a r hard wood, may a l s o have been used. A predominance of bone a r t i f a c t s i s a l s o found i n the l a t e phase of other s i t e s along the Northwest Coast. Bone i s the l a r g e s t a r t i f a c t category i n the S t s e l a x phase of the Fraser D e l t a (Borden 1968 c l a s s notes) and i n the San Juan Phase s i t e s (Carlson 1960: Table 3). Most of the bone a r t i f a c t s i n the sample f a l l i n t o a general p o i n t category. As a considerable range of v a r i a t i o n i s evident w i t h i n t h i s category, i t w i l l be subdivided and some attempt w i l l be made to apply t e n t a t i v e f u n c t i o n a l d e s i g n a t i o n s . The other categories of bone a r t i f a c t s c o n t a i n c o n s i d e r a b l y fewer specimens and t h e i r f u n c t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y e a s i e r to d i s c e r n . 77 Bone P o i n t s (a) P r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s it) Barbed One u n i l a t e r a l l y - b a r b e d p r o j e c t i l e (DkSp 1: 183 - p l a t e 20a) was found a t Coopte. I t has two low barbs which do not protrude past the general o u t l i n e of the a r t i f a c t . I t was found i n s e v e r a l fragments but i s almost complete when pieced together. The len g t h i s 11.5 cm. A carefully-made base, t e r m i n a t i n g i n a rounded b l u n t p o i n t , would suggest that i t was ha f t e d as an end p o i n t , p o s s i b l y f o r an arrow. F i x e d barbed bone and a n t l e r p o i n t s have a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n on the Northwest Coast. They are found i n the Fraser D e l t a (Borden 1951: 14,17,18,20), the San Juan Is l a n d s (Carlson v1960: 579; King 1950: 45-46), and the northern coast (de Laguna 1956: 179-181; 1964: 142-146 f i g . 17). Drucker (1943: 123-125) l i s t s f i x e d barbed p o i n t s as t y p i c a l of the Northern and the S t r a i t s of Georgia - Pudget Sound Aspects, and of ra r e occurrence i n the Milbanke - Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound Aspect. i i ) ' Unbarbed Three specimens were obtained at Coopte which appear to be unbarbed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s . In Drucker's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , they would f a l l i n t o type BLAc (Drucker 1943: 41, f i g . 6c). The o u t l i n e f o r t h i s type has g r a d u a l l y t a p e r i n g sides w i t h an abrupt t i p . In a l l three examples the g r e a t e s t diameter i s a short d i s t a n c e below the t i p . Two specimens (DkSp 1: 136,154 - p l a t e 19a,b) are n e a r l y round i n cross s e c t i o n and have a round f l a t base. One, made from hard mammal bone, comes to a very sharp t i p , w h i l e the other, of sea mammal bone, i s much b l u n t e r . The t h i r d specimen (DkSp 1: 176 - p l a t e 19c) has the same general o u t l i n e 78 but i s f l a t t e n e d i n cross s e c t i o n . The base i s missing. A l l are about the same s i z e , ranging from 4.1 cm. to '4.6 cm. Such p o i n t s seem to have been r a t h e r common on the coast. Kidd (1969: 51, p l a t e V l l l e ) i l l u s t r a t e s a s i m i l a r p o i n t which he considers to have been e i t h e r an arrow p o i n t or an end.:, blade f o r a composite harpoon head. Drucker (1943: 124) l i s t s unbarbed f i x e d bone p o i n t s as common i n the Milbanke - Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound and the S t r a i t s of Georgia - Pudget Sound Aspects. Two other a r t i f a c t s (DkSp 1: ' 139,206) may a l s o be considered under the category of p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t s . Both have sharp p o i n t s , w i t h s t r a i g h t converging sides and an almost round cross s e c t i o n . Both are made from sea mammal bone. The base i s m i s s i n g i n both examples. The shape and s i z e of these specimens would make them very s e r v i c e a b l e as p o i n t s f o r the composite harpoon va l v e s found at t h i s s i t e . However, as they could a l s o have served as h e r r i n g rake t e e t h of f i s h hook barbs, t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n t h i s category i s only t e n t a t i v e . (b) Barbs This i s a r a t h e r heterogeneous c o l l e c t i o n of pointed bone a r t i f a c t s . They are g e n e r a l l y q u i t e s l e n d e r , and complete specimens show some t h i n n i n g at the base. Because of the e t h n o g r a p h i c a l l y a t t e s t e d importance of f i s h -i n g i n the area, i t i s assumed that a r t i f a c t s i n t h i s category were used as f i s h hook barbs. Further d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n on the b a s i s of s i z e and general o u t l i n e i s necessary, but complicated by the fragmentary c o n d i t i o n of most specimens. Only the l a r g e r s i n g l e - p o i n t e d forms are considered here. B i p o i n t s and very s m a l l bone p o i n t s , some of which may a l s o have been barbs on f i s h i n g implements, are t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y , i ) Slender forms w i t h thinned base ( p l a t e 20c-f) 79 19 examples - DkSp 1:10,34,35,50,100,102,104,105,107, 114,135,149,153,157,158,160,211,238,244 A r t i f a c t s i n t h i s category are ra t h e r slender, g e n e r a l l y w i t h s t r a i g h t converging sides and a maximum width near the base. The cross s e c t i o n i s u s u a l l y f l a t t e n e d to ovoid, but n e a r l y round i n a few specimens. Most of the fragmentary examples were in c l u d e d here a f t e r comparison w i t h complete specimens. Lengths of the complete a r t i f a c t s range from 3.5 cm. to 7.0 cm. The l a r g e s t of these would have been s u i t a b l e as barbs f o r h a l i b u t hooks; more l i k e l y they were used on hooks designed f o r salmon or cod. i i ) Large stout forms ( p l a t e 20b) 12 examples - DkSp 1: 18,118,145,148/150,156,185,186 187,208,210,214,243 This s u b d i v i s i o n i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d by t h e i r more massive shape, being wider and t h i c k e r than the specimens i n the previous s u b d i v i s i o n . Although most examples are l a c k i n g t h e i r bases, these do no&pappear to have been as c a r e f u l l y thinned. The cross s e c t i o n s are f l a t t e n e d to ovoid. One complete specimen (DkSp 1: 148/150) i s 10 cm. i n l e n g t h . A r t i f a c t s i n t h i s category may have been stout barbs f o r f i s h hooks or may have been used as barbs on the l a t e r a l prongs of l e i s t e r spears. L e i s t e r s were used by a l l Nootka groups (Drucker 1950, Element 46; 1951: 21). i i i ) Slender a r t i f a c t s t a p e r i n g from center i n two d i r e c t i o n s 5 examples - DkSp 1: 124,146,152,209,212 The widest p a r t of these a r t i f a c t s i s near the center. In s e v e r a l cases the s i d e s are curving and i r r e g u l a r . A l l are sle n d e r , w i t h f l a t t e n e d to ovoid cross s e c t i o n s . The average s i z e i s about 5.0 cm. They most 80 l i k e l y a l s o f u n c t i o n e d as barbs f o r f i s h hooks, (c) B i p o i n t s Twelve examples were found of small bone a r t i f a c t s which taper to sharp p o i n t s at each end. These may have served a number of f u n c t i o n s . Further s u b d i v i s i o n may be u s e f u l i n attempting to .determine the most probable f u n c t i o n of these a r t i f a c t s . i ) Slender, f l a t t e n e d b i p o i n t s - p l a t e 20g-i 9 examples - DkSp 1: 39,128,143,155,178,181,213,237,258 This category c o n s i s t s of s l e n d e r , roughly symmetrical b i p o i n t s , g e n e r a l l y of b i r d bone. The s i z e range i s 3.0 cm. to 4.8 cm. These specimens were most probably used as gorge hooks, not only f o r f i s h but a l s o f o r a q u a t i c b i r d s . Barnett (1955: 85, f i g . 2 7 ) i l l u s t r a t e s a s i m i l a r a r t i f a c t used by the S a l i s h on set l i n e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r catching f l o u n d e r . Swan (1870: 41) s t a t e s that the gorge hook was used by the Makah f o r s m a l l f i s h , such as perch or r o c k - f i s h . Drucker (1951: 34) describes a trap used by the Nootka f o r catching d i v i n g waterfowl as c o n s i s t i n g of many b a i t e d bone gorges t i e d to an anchored pole. The gorge was a l s o used f o r waterfowl at Yakutat Bay (de Laguna 1964: 154). Another p o s s i b l e but l e s s l i k e l y f u n c t i o n f o r these a r t i f a c t s i s as h e r r i n g rake teeth or s m a l l barbs on other f i s h i n g implements. King (1950: 53) t e n t a t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d the s m a l l , symmetrical b i r d bone b i p o i n t s from C a t t l e P o i n t as h e r r i n g rake t e e t h . However, those recovered from Coopte may be • too gnal'l f o r such a use. Two a r t i f a c t s (DkSp 1: 143,237 - p l a t e 20g,h), being s l i g h t l y longer and more carefully-made than the others i n t h i s category, may have had a d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n . They may have been nose-pins, although 81 they seem s l i g h t l y s m all f o r t h i s purpose. Drucker (1950, Element 632) l i s t s bone nose-pins f o r the Nootka, K w a k i u t l , B e l l a Coola, and Tsimshian as w e l l as f o r shamans among the Haida and T l i n g i t . Barnett (1939, Element 1136) adds a l l G u l f of Georgia S a l i s h except the Sechelt and Squamish. i i ) S tout, rounded b i p o i n t s - p l a t e 20j 3 examples - DkSp 1: 159,218,248 These specimens are s t o u t e r than those i n the previous' category and have t h e i r g r e a t e s t w i d t h s l i g h t l y o f f - c e n t e r . A l l are of land mammal bone and are ovoid to round i n cross s e c t i o n . The only complete specimen i s 3.6 cm. l o n g , and the others would have been roughly the same s i z e . These may also have been gorges or barbs, But t h e i r most l i k e l y f u n c t i o n i s as h e r r i n g rake teeth. Carlson Q960, f i g . 4D,e)_ i l l u s t r a t e s s e v e r a l s i m i l a r examples which he i d e n t i f i e s as h e r r i n g rake t e e t h . D e s c r i p t i o n s of the h e r r i n g rake among the Moachat are common i n the e a r l y account (Cook 1790: 1774; Meares 1790: 265; J e w i t t 1815: 1271. The h e r r i n g rake appears to have been a c u l t u r e element common to a l l groups on the Northwest Coast (Drucker 1950, Element 96; Barnet 1939, Element 921. (d) Small pointed Bone 11 examples - DkSp 1: 36, 45,97,117,141,180,182,215,217, 249,254 This category inc l u d e s a number of s m a l l slender pointed o b j e c t s , both fragmentary and complete. Most are of mammal bone, but s e v e r a l are made from b i r d bone s p l i n t e r s . The l e n g t h ranges from 1.7 cm. to 3.4 cm. Only one specimen (DkSp 1: 117 - p l a t e 2 0 k l i s of d i s t i n c t i v e type. I t i s made from a b i r d bone s p l i n t e r which has been c a r e f u l l y worked over the 82 e n t i r e s u r f a c e . One end comes to a sharp po i n t w h i l e the other p r o j e c t s at an .obtuse angle to the main a x i s . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s s i g n a d e f i n i t e f u n c t i o n to these small a r t i f a c t s , but they may have been used as barbs on small f i s h i n g hooks.. T e i t (1900:. 253, f i g 234a,b) i l l u s -t r a t e s two types of sm a l l f i s h hooks, used by the Thompson Indians which were barbed w i t h bone p o i n t s about the s i z e of those i n t h i s category. Numerous s m a l l f i s h were a v a i l a b l e to the i n h a b i t a n t s of Coopte and were presumably taken w i t h s i m i l a r hooks. Bone Awls Only those examples which appear to be d e f i n i t e l y awls are inc l u d e d here. Some specimens from e a r l i e r c a t e g o r i e s may a l s o have been used as awls. Two d i s t i n c t types occur - one made from s p l i n t e r s of mammal bone and one from cut b i r d bones. In a d d i t i o n , unmodified d o g f i s h d o r s a l f i n spines may have been used as awls. These w i l l be t r e a t e d s e p a r a t e l y . A v a r i e t y of bone awl types i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the Milbanke - Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound and the S t r a i t s of Georgia - Pudget Sound Aspects (Drucker 1943: 124). (a) Mammal bone s p l i n t e r awls F i v e examples (DkSp 1: 90,133,184,260,271) of t h i s type were found at Coopte. A l l are made from i r r e g u l a r s p l i n t e r s of mammal bone. Two examples have been l e f t rough except f o r the t i p , which has been sharpened and shows p o l i s h . The other three awls show some o v e r a l l p o l i s h . They range from 3.4 cm. to 5.0 cm. i n len g t h . (b) B i r d bone awls Only one example (DkSp 1: 246) of t h i s type was found. I t i s a 83 complete specimen, made from a b i r d limb bone. The end of the bone has been ground at an angle to form a sharp p o i n t . The len g t h i s 9.2 cm. S i m i l a r specimens are i l l u s t r a t e d by Smith (1903, f i g . 3 5 ) f o r the Marpole s i t e on the lower Fraser R i v e r . Needle One fragment of mammal bone (DkSp 1: 247) was found which may have been part of a needle. One end of the fragment r e t a i n s p a r t of a sma l l groove, which may be the beginning of the eye. I t would be type IIA of Drucker's c l a s s i f i c a t i o n (1943: 52). Harpoon 5 Valves - p l a t e 19d-g 8 examples - DkSp 1: 92,106,194,207,250,253,265,272 Drucker (1943: 39) d i s t i n g u i s h e s two types of val v e s f o r composite harpoon heads ( f i g 2 ). Type I i s channeled to hold a p o i n t w i t h a stem or slender base, w h i l e type I I i s s c a r f f e d to form a s l o t f o r a wide c u t t i n g blade. Only one specimen-:.. (DkSp 1: 253), a small end fragment, appears to belong to type I I . Another (DkSp 1: 106) i s a harpoon v a l v e blank, completely shaped except f o r the a d d i t i o n of the channels or s l o t , so cannot be placed i n e i t h e r type. The remaining specimens belong to type 1. Both types were found at the Yukwot excavation (W.H. Folan, p e r s o n a l communication). Composite harpoon heads were i n common use i n the e a r l y historic-.: p e r i o d along the southern Northwest Coast. Drucker (1943: 124) l i s t s them as common i n the Milbanke - Queen C h a r l o t t e Sound and the S t r a i t s of Georgia - Pudget Sound Aspects. They were used f o r both f i s h i n g and sea-mammal hunting. Even whales were hunted w i t h the same b a s i c type of 84 harpoon as salmon, the only major di f f e r e n c e being s i z e . Koppert (1930: 60) states that harpoon valves f or whaling harpoons were of an t l e r or whalebone and were about f i v e and a h a l f inches long. The examples found here would be about the s i z e f o r salmon or. s i m i l a r sized f i s h - about two to two and a h a l f inches. Pendant One example (DkSp 1: 142) was found which appears to be a pendant. It i s spatulate i n shape, with one end worked down to a small knob, apparently f o r suspension. The other end i s missing. I t i s 4.9 cm. long and 0.9 cm. wide at the widest point. Ground Scapula Fragment One example (DkSp 1: 251) was found of a scapula fragment which appears to have been ground f l a t along one edge. It may o r i g i n a l l y have had a rectangular shape. Deer or wapiti scapulae were ground to a rectangular shape for use as net gauges by the Indians of the lower Fraser River (Dr. C.E. Borden 1968: clas s notes). This fragment i s 6.1 cm. long and 2.2 cm. wide. Wedge Fragment One example (DkSp 1: . 256) i n t h i s category appears to be the butt end of a medium-sized wedge. I t i s made of a wapiti limb bone which has been s p l i t lengthwise and ground. Some p o l i s h i s evident over most of the a r t i f a c t , p a r t i c u l a r l y on the butt. Unfortunately, the b i t i s missing. The fragment i s 7.0 cm. long and 4-5 cm. wide. The presence of only one a r t i f a c t i n t h i s category suggests that 85 wedges were o f t e n made of p e r i s h a b l e m a t e r i a l , such as yew wood. Drucker (1950, Element 420) l i s t s wooden wedges as common to a l l Northwest Coast d i v i s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g the Nootka. A few Nootka groups are shown as unique i n the use of bone or "horn" ( s i c ) wedges (Drucker 1950: Element 424), although Drucker elsewhere (1943: 55) i n d i c a t e s that these are found among other groups as w e l l . I t should a l s o be noted that Drucker's d i s t r i u b t i o n l i s t does not i n c l u d e the Coast S a l i s h . W a p i t i a n t l e r was the main raw m a t e r i a l f o r wedges on the east coast of Vancouver I s l a n d (Barnett 1955: 108). A n t l e r wedges are numerous i n s i t e s i n the Fraser D e l t a (Smith 1903: 161; Borden 1950: 14-15,18-20). Both a n t l e r and bone wedges were found at C a t t l e P o i n t (King 1950: 50). The l a c k of a n t l e r wedges at Coopte, as noted e a r l i e r , probably represents a p r e f e r -ence f o r other m a t e r i a l s . Worked Bone Fragments 15 examples - DkSp 1: 4,40,48,91,99,103,111,126,151,161 177,201,261,266 These are a l l u n i d e n t i f i a b l e fragments of bone a r t i f a c t s . Some sma l l examples are probably fragments of e a r l i e r c a t e g o r i e s , such as bone p o i n t s or awls. Others appear to be fragments of l a r g e r a r t i f a c t s or beginning stages i n the manufacture of some a r t i f a c t . Worked Whalebone Eigh t fragments of worked whalebone were recovered. These are a l l merely l a r g e fragments of bone, probably intended to be worked i n t o a r t i f a c t s . A number of implements are known to have been made of whale-bone. Koppert (1930: 60) mentions the l a r g e whaling harpoon valves of whalebone. He a l s o (p.104) mentions whalebone spear heads that were 86 four t e e n inches i n l e n g t h . Whalebone wedges were made by some Coast S a l i s h groups (Barnett 1939: Element 581), and presumably a l s o occur among the Nootka. Other l a r g e whalebone implements are bark shredders and b e a t e r s , handles f o r D adzes, and the l a r g e Wakashan war clu b s . Four l a r g e fragments (DkSp 1: 16,87,94,259) have one face which has been ground f l a t . None has more than one face worked. They are 8.8 cm., 6.7 cm., 11.4 cm., and 11.6 cm., i n l e n g t h , r e s p e c t i v e l y . One face of another fragment (DkSp 1: 46) has a l a r g e sawing groove running i t s l e n g t h . The two faces p a r a l l e l to the groove a l s o seem to have been formed by sawing. This fragment i s 9.2 cm. long. Two r i b fragments (DkSp 1: 253,257) appear to have b e e n ' s l i g h t l y worked. They are 7.7 cm. and 6.6 cm. i n l e n g t h . The most i n t e r e s t i n g a r t i f a c t i n t h i s category i s a r e g u l a r l y -shaped bar of whalebone (DkSp 1: 147). I t i s 15.8 cm. i n l e n g t h and i s n e a r l y square i n cross s e c t i o n , w i t h an average width of 1.5 cm. and taper-i n g only s l i g h t l y from one end to the other. One s i d e i s smooth w h i l e the e n t i r e l e n g t h of the other three sides i s covered w i t h chopping marks. These chopping marks occur at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s of every two to f i v e centimeters. They are a l l p a r a l l e l to each other and perpendicular t o the l e n g t h of the o b j e c t . The marks are too r e g u l a r to have been made by random chopping, as would be the case i f i t had been used as a chopping block. The use f o r such an a r t i f a c t i s unknown. A n t l e r The p a u c i t y of a n t l e r a r t i f a c t s at Coopte has already been discussed. A n t l e r was of minor importance i n Nootka technology but d i d serve c e r t a i n s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n s . Some val v e s f o r l a r g e composite harpoons were apparently made of a n t l e r (Koppert 1930: 60; Drucker 1951: 87 28). The lances used i n the whale hunt, one w i t h a sharp po i n t f o r k i l l -i n g and the other w i t h a wide c h i s e l - l i k e blade f o r hamstringing, were both t i p p e d w i t h w a p i t i a n t l e r (Drucker 1951: 31). A n t l e r was probably a l s o used f o r c e r t a i n minor purposes, much i n the same way as bone. Only one a n t l e r a r t i f a c t (DkSp 1: 6) was found. This i s a piec e of cor t e x from a w a p i t i a n t l e r . I t appears to be a fragment of a l a r g e r a r t i f a c t . The edges are water-worn and the whole shape i s d i s t o r t e d by warping. I t i s 8.5 cm. long and 1.9 cm. wide. Beaver Tooth Beaver i n c i s o r s were sometimes u t i l i z e d as small woodworking t o o l s . These could be ground to a sharp edge, s p l i t to give a narrower i n c i s i n g edge, or used unmodified. Drucker (1950: Element 432) l i s t s beaver tooth knives as present among some d i v i s i o n s of the K w a k i u t l , Tsimshian, and T l i n g i t . Barnett (1939: Element 614) adds a few Coast S a l i s h d i v i s i o n s . Beaver tooth knives are found a r c h a e o l o g i c a l l y i n T l i n g i t t e r r i t o r y (de Laguna 1960: 118, p l a t e 9o-q; 1964: 105, p l a t e 16a,b), i n the Fraser D e l t a (Borden 1968: c l a s s n o t e s ) , and at C a t t l e P o i n t (King 1950: 51,58). One l a r g e beaver i n c i s o r (DkSp 1: 37) was found a t t h i s s i t e . I t has not been modified. The b i t e edge may show some wear, but i t i s too d e t e r i o r a t e d to be c e r t a i n of t h i s . At any r a t e , i t s presence i n the c u l t u r a l deposit suggest the p o s s i b i l i t y that the Moachat were using beaver i n c i s o r s as sm a l i woodworking t o o l s . Dogfish D o r s a l Spines A t o t a l of 369 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines was obtained at Coopte. 88 These sharp spines were used by the Indians of the Fraser D e l t a as awls (Borden 1968: c l a s s n o t e s ) . Because of t h e i r r a t h e r frequent occur-rence at Coopte, only the f i r s t three were given a r t i f a c t s numbers. A l l others were placed i n the l e v e l bags. These spines were l a t e r examined f o r evidence of use. A t e s t sample of s i x l e v e l bags, w i t h concentrations of d o g f i s h d o r s a l f i n s p i n e s , was examined. These were taken from two areas of the s i t e , at d i f f e r i n g depths. When fragmentary specimens were dis c a r d e d , t h i s sample c o n s i s t e d of 180 specimens to be examined f o r wear. Three c r i t e r i a were used i n t h i s study. They are: b l u n t i n g of the sharp t i p of the s p i n e , wearing away at the t i p of the shiny surface cover, and p i n c h i n g at the base of the spine. The r e s u l t s of t h i s sample are shown i n Table 2. An average of 50.49% of the spines show wear, suggest-i n g use as awls. I f t h i s percentage i s extended to i n c l u d e those outside the sample, then 186 of the t o t a l 369 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines obtained would be expected to show wear, although t h i s f i g u r e would a c t u a l l y be lower due to the fragmentary specimens. Even those not showing use as awls may have been brought i n t o the s i t e f o r that purpose. Dogfish were taken i n c o nsiderable q u a n t i t y , as i n d i c a t e d by the number of spines i n the d e p o s i t . As t h e i r f l e s h was considered only a s t a r v a t i o n food, they may have been taken p r i m a r i l y f o r the use of t h e i r spines as awls and t h e i r s k i n as an abrasive m a t e r i a l . As w i l l be discussed l a t e r , some of the more recent spines may have been brought i n t o the deposit as a r e s u l t of the h i s t o r i c d o g f i s h o i l trade. 89 Table 2 Incidence of Wear on Dogfish D o r s a l F i n Spines Test L e v e l No. No. % Used P i t Used Unused 3 0-0.8 14 15 48.27 •3 0-1.0 11 13 45.83 8 1.0-1.5 21 26 44.68 9 0.8-1.3 27 33 45 10 3.5-4.0 5 4 55.55 13 3.5-4.0 7 4 63.63 85 95 50.49 90 5. S h e l l The p l e n t i f u l s h e l l s on the beaches of t h i s area were o f t e n picked up and used unmodified f o r a great v a r i e t y of purposes. Large clam s h e l l s were p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l . These were employed as spoons and cups, f o r lamps (Drucker 1951: 108), f o r scraping h i d e s , and even f o r such heavy work as digg i n g post holes (Koppert 1930: 13). M y t i l u s  c a l i f o r n i a n u s , the l a r g e mussel found on the outer beaches, could a l s o be used unmodified f o r a number or purposes. Koppert (1930: 86) mentions a r a t t l e made by p l a c i n g pebbles i n the closed halves of a l a r g e mussel s h e l l . Such unmodified s h e l l s would be d i f f i c u l t to detect i n an a r c h a e o l o g i c a l d e p o s i t . The C a l i f o r n i a mussel was a l s o ground on abrasive stones to produce a v a r i e t y of a r t i f a c t s . The c u t t i n g blades of the l a r g e whaling harpoons were o r i g i n a l l y of t h i s m a t e r i a l , before being replaced by i r o n i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d (Koppert 1930: 60; Meares 1790: 259; Waterman 1920: 31). Adze blades.and c h i s e l s f o r woodworking were a l s o o f t e n of ground mussel s h e l l (Sproat 1868: 86; Swan 1870: 36). The most important implement fashioned of t h i s m a t e r i a l was the woman's f i s h k n i f e . They were used p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r salmon and were indi s p e n s a b l e t o o l s f o r the pr e p a r a t i o n of salmon f o r d r y i n g . Only one a r t i f a c t of ground mussel s h e l l was recovered at Coopte. This may be due to the f a c t that the l a r g e mussel only occurs on the open ocean beaches. However, a few l a r g e patches of mussel s h e l l , which must have been brought from Yukwot, were found i n the deposit. A l s o , i t would be expected that the f i s h knives and other a r t i f a c t s of t h i s m a t e r i a l would be c a r r i e d along by the group during t h e i r seasonal movements. P r e s e r v a t i o n may be a f a c t o r as the edges, which are the only modified 91 surfaces of the a r t i f a c t , are the f i r s t to decompose. The one modified s h e l l . f o u n d (DkSp 1: 175) i s the butt fragment of a l a r g e ground mussel a r t i f a c t . I t i s 6 cm. long and 5.6 cm. wide. Both edges and the end have been ground f l a t . However, only one edge has been e x t e n s i v e l y ground. This edge i s 0.7 cm. t h i c k . Two bevels were produced by the g r i n d i n g . The edge i s roughly f l a t and perpendicular to the main face of the s h e l l . No l a t e r a l c u t t i n g edge i s v i s i b l e . I t probably had a c h i s e l edge on the missing end, making i t s e r v i c e a b l e as a chipping or scraping implement. 92 6. Contact Goods The a r r i v a l of the Europeans on the Northwest Coast meant a new wealth of m a t e r i a l goods f o r the o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s . Metal t o o l s , guns, b l a n k e t s , ornaments, and other Caucasian items were eagerly sought by the Indians. When the European s a i l o r s learned that v a l u a b l e f u r s could e a s i l y be obtained from the n a t i v e s f o r these items, a f l o u r i s h i n g trade began. Contact items q u i c k l y spread up and down the coast by a b o r i g i n a l trade networks, reaching some areas even before the advent of the Europeans. As at a l l s i t e s w i t h a h i s t o r i c component, contact goods are present at Coopte. Some of these, such as gl a s s beads and c l a y pipe fragments, may have been e a r l y trade items. Others, such as n a i l s and fragments of gl a s s and h i s t o r i c pottery, probably represent a l a t e r stage i n the acceptance of Caucasian implements. Glass Beads Glass beads are common i n the h i s t o r i c l e v e l s at Coopte. The Moachat r e c e i v e d great q u a n t i t i e s of such beads during the f u r trade p e r i o d . Glass beads were an i n t e g r a l part of the f u r t r a d e , not only i n t h i s area but across North America. A v a r i e t y of types was found at Coopte. They ranged from r a t h e r l a r g e beads, which were presumably strung on necklaces, to t i n y "seed beads", which were used to make decorative beadwork designs on c l o t h i n g . This l a t t e r type i s q u i t e recent. A l a r g e v a r i e t y of c o l o r s i s a l s o represented i n the sample of beads obtained. Large blue beads of types a and b (see below) appear from t h e i r context to be the o l d e s t . They were a l s o apparently the f a v o r i t e along 93 the coast i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Strange (1929: 37) w r i t e s that c o l o r , r a t h e r than q u a n t i t y , was the important f a c t o r at P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound and that only sky-blue beads would be accepted by the n a t i v e s . Lewis and C l a r k (Woodward 1965: 16) n o t i c e d the same p r e f e r -ence on the Columbia. L a t e r other c o l o r s predominated. As always, fashions were s h o r t - l i v e d and t r a d e r s had to keep abreast of the changes. In the f o l l o w i n g c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l a r g e blue faceted beads and "seed beads" are considered as d i s t i n c t types. The others i n the sample are placed i n t o groups based on c o l o r . D i f f e r e n c e s i n shape and s i z e w i t h i n each c o l o r group are described. The terms s p h e r i c a l , c y l i n d r i c a l , and b a r r e l shaped are used to describe the bead o u t l i n e . The hole i s d e s c r i b e d as l a r g e or s m a l l , i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l s i z e of the bead. (a) Blue faceted beads - p l a t e 23h,i 12 examples - DkSp 1: 3,13,22,43,53,63,68,81,108,123,165,224 These beads range i n c o l o r from medium blue to deep purple and range i n s i z e from 0.4 cm. to 1.0c cm. i n diameter. They are c y c l i n d r i c a l i n shape, w i t h a l a r g e hole. The d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e of t h i s type i s that the o u t s i d e surface i s m u l t i - f a c e t e d . The ends of the bead are f r e q u e n t l y rough as i f broken from a tube during manufacture. This type i s some-times r e f e r r e d to as "Russian beads", and has a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n on the Northwest Coast. I t i s found on the Columbia R i v e r (Woodward 1965: 34-35), l a t e i n the S t s e l a x phase of the Fraser D e l t a (Borden 1968: c l a s s notes) and i n Alaska (Oswalt and Van Stone 1967: 59). Woodward (1965: 10) dates the p e r i o d of p o p u l a r i t y f o r faceted beads at the 1830's to the 1870's (b) L i g h t blue beads i ) S p h e r i c a l - p l a t e 23j,k 94 8 examples - DkSp 1: 15,54,71,82,86,172,197,229 These beads are rob i n ' s egg blue i n c o l o r . They vary i n s i z e from 0.5 cm. to 0.9 cm. i n diameter. A l l are s p h e r i c a l i n shape w i t h a sm a l l h o l e . These a l s o have a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n on the coast. They are found on the Columbia R i v e r (Woodward 1965: 34, type 1 ) , l a t e i n the E s i l a o phase of the Fraser Canyon (Borden 1968a: 24), and may be the "Cook beads" found among the Chugach (de Laguna 1965: 211, p l a t e 43,26). i i ) Barrel-shaped 6 examples - DkSp 1: 1,112,130,170,221,227 These are a l l s m a l l e r than the previous category, averaging about 0.4 cm. They have a short b a r r e l shape, w i t h a sm a l l h o l e . (c) Dark Blue beads 4 examples - DkSp 1: 23,70,77,233 These beads are dark blue i n c o l o r , s p h e r i c a l i n o u t l i n e , and have a s m a l l h o l e . Three examples are about the same s i z e - 0.6 cm. i n diameter. Another (233) i s s l i g h t l y l a r g e r and has ve i n s of l i g h t blue running throughout the bead. (d) Red beads i ) Barrel-shaped - p l a t e 23m,n 27 examples - DkSp 1; 25,38,44,45,65,79,88,110,115,119,129, 132,166,169,171,173,174,190,193,195,196,198, 200,220,225,230,231 This i s the most common type and a l s o appears to be the most recent. Beads of t h i s type are a b r i g h t opaque red w i t h a white i n s i d e l i n i n g . They have a short b a r r e l shape w i t h a small to medium hole . Sizes range from s l i g h t l y l a r g e r than seed beads to 0.7 cm. i n diameter, w i t h the average diameter being about 0.4 cm. These beads appear to be a l a t e v a r i e t y of the famous "Cornaline d'Aleppo" beads, so named 95 because of the a s s o c i a t i o n i n the I t a l i a n export business w i t h the c i t y of Aleppo i n the Near East (Woodward 1965: 19). They have a wide d i s t r i -b u t i o n i n North America. As they were p a r t i c u l a r l y popular at Hudson's Bay Company p o s t s , they became known as "Hudson's Bay Beads" i n the west. The recent, w h i t e l i n e d red v a r i e t y was probably confined to the Northwest (Orchard 1929: 87). i i ) C y l i n d r i c a l 2 examples - DkSp 1: 109,223 These two s m a l l beads have a d u l l reddish-brown e x t e r i o r w i t h a dark l i n i n g . The diameter i s 0.3 cm. They may be a type of Cornaline d'Aleppo bead, described by Woodward (1965: 19), which antedates the! w h i t e - l i n e d red v a r i e t y . These a l s o have a wide d i s t r i b u t i o n , being found from the Columbia (Woodward 1965: 34, type 14) to Alaska (Oswalt and Van Stone 1967: 59). (e) Black bead - p l a t e 23,1 DkSp 1: 72 One l a r g e , round, black bead, 1.3 cm. i n diameter, was found. ( f ) White beads i ) S p h e r i c a l f DkSp 1: 235 One l a r g e , s p h e r i c a l white bead, 1.2 cm. i n diameter, came from t h i s s i t e . i i ) Barrel-shaped - DkSp 1: 5,64,76,131 These aire a l l s m a l l beads, about 0.3 cm. i n diameter, w i t h a short b a r r e l shape. One example (DkSp 1: 64) i s misshapen. (8) Wine col o r e d beads DkSp 1: 113,226,234 Two examples (113,226) are opaque, 0.5 cm. i n diameter, and round 96 w i t h a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e h o l e . The other (234) c o n s i s t s of three small round wine-colored beads fused together by heat. (h) "Seed beads" 11 examples - DkSp 1: 41,62,67,73,78,121,191,222,232 "Seed beads" are considered to be those 0.2 cm. i n diameter and sm a l l e r . They occur i n a l a r g e v a r i e t y of c o l o r s . This sample inc l u d e s s i x b l u e , three pink,one red, and one white bead. They are comparatively recent. S i m i l a r specimens may be purchased at present f o r sewing i n t o beadwork designs. F i s h Lure - p l a t e 23o This specimen (DkSp 1: 198) resembles two opaque wine-colored beads j o i n e d together so the hole goes through the e n t i r e a r t i f a c t . The l e n g t h i s 1.2 cm. I t was probably the l u r e on a recent metal f i s h hook. Tubular Copper F o i l Bead - p l a t e 23g This type of bead was f a i r l y common a l l along the Northwest Coast. Tubular copper ornaments are found on the Columbia (Woodward 1965: 16), i n the E s i l a o phase of the Fraser Canyon (Borden 1968a: 24), at Comox and i n southern K w a k i u t l t e r r i t o r y (Drucker 1943: 122), and among the T l i n g i t (de Laguna 1960: 126, p i . 1 0 ; 1964: 158, f i g . 1 9 g , i ) . Sheet copper, obtained by trade, was cut up and r o l l e d i n t o the s i z e of bead d e s i r e d . Sometimes these were q u i t e l a r g e . They were f r e q u e n t l y used as "spacers" f o r other beads on necklaces. One example (DkSp 1: 42), 2.8 cm. i n l e n g t h , came from Coopte. Clay Pipe Fragments - p l a t e 23b-f 97 12 examples - DkSp 1: .2,9,24,66,69,74,75,80,167,219,255,267 Clay pipes were important trade items i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and are found at many s i t e s i n North America. Those found at Coopte appear to be r a t h e r s m a l l , but due to t h e i r fragmentary c o n d i t i o n the s i z e of the complete pipe cannot be determined. The c o l o r ranges from white to a d u l l grey, w i t h one specimen (DkSp 1: 2) being dark green. Abrasion marks over the e n t i r e surface of one stem fragment (DkSp 1: 9) show th a t i t has been ground to a smaller diameter, probably f o r r e f i t t i n g i n t o the pipe a f t e r breakage. Pipe Stem - p l a t e 23a This specimen (DkSp 1: 188) i s the stem of a r e c e n t - s t y l e p i pe. I t i s b l a c k i n c o l o r and 7.1 cm. i n l e n g t h . The end of the stem which f i t s i n t o the pipe has been broken and re-worked by what appear to be c u t t i n g strokes to f i t back i n t o the pipe bowl. Metal Button - p l a t e 23p Only one button (DkSp 1: 268) of u n i d e n t i f i e d metal was found at Coopte, although a number of the s m a l l white recent v a r i e t y were obtained. Traces of f a b r i c s t i l l adhere to the back of t h i s button. I t i s 2.1 cm. i n diameter. Metal Buckle - p l a t e 23q One example (DkSp 1: 269), 3.9 cm. wide, came from Coopte. I t i s the type used f o r suspenders. Drawer Handle One curved s t r i p of r u s t e d i r o n (DkSp 1: 270), 8.0 cm. i n l e n g t h , 98 was probably the handle f o r a drawer. Key One l a r g e r u s t e d i r o n key (DkSp 1: 273) was found at Coopte. I t i s 7.7 cm, i n le n g t h . Miscellaneous Contact Goods Common h i s t o r i c items from the top of the deposit i n c l u d e n a i l s of both the round and square type and a wide range of s i z e s , buttons of the s m a l l white recent v a r i e t y , broken b o t t l e and window g l a s s , and fragments of h i s t o r i c p o t t e r y . These were not given a r t i f a c t numbers but were placed i n the l e v e l bags. T h e i r frequency can be noted i n appendix 1. 3 99 C. D i s c u s s i o n of the S i t e D e t a i l e d data of excavation are contained i n Appendix 1. For s p e c i f i c references to the faunal remains, f e a t u r e s , and other informa-t i o n obtained by excavation, the reader i s r e f e r r e d to that s e c t i o n . The a r t i f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l i s much as would be expected from c o a s t a l people i n t h i s area. Apart from contact goods, the dominant items were bone p o i n t s , barbs, and gorges used i n the food quest, p r i m a r i l y f o r f i s h i n g . Harpoon v a l v e s , of the s i z e used f o r salmon, were al s o found. Tools used f o r the manufacture of other implements,, such, as. abrasive stones and chipped pebbles w i t h c u t t i n g edges, were a l s o common. The general c o a s t a l woodworking complex of adzes, c h i s e l s , wedges, and hand mauls was only i m p e r f e c t l y represented here, but t h i s i s probably due to inadequate sampling. Two fragments of hand mauls were found. No adzes were uncovered, although s e v e r a l were obtained from the Yukwot excavation. No bone or stone chise l s , were uncovered, although, the l a r g e piece of ground My t l l i i s " c a l i f o f r i l a r i u s . (DkSp 1: 1751 may once have had a c h i s e l edge. The b u t t of one l a r g e w a p i t i bone wedge (DkSp 1: 2561 was obtained. The ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n i n d i c a t e s that most wedges were made of yew wood, which would not be preserved. No a r t i f a c t s were found which c o n f l i c t w i t h the evidence from ethnographic sources. The a r t i f a c t types which are not mentioned i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e tend to be the small or i n s i g n i f i c a n t Items which. are e a s i l y overlooked. Several absences were notedf^however, among the t o o l types which the ethnographic data would lead us to expect. This i s probably a l s o due to inadequate sampling. One notable absence i s the woman's f i s h k n i f e of ground mussel s h e l l . This was an i n d i s p e n s a b l e item of d a i l y use among the Moachat women, p a r t i c u l a r l y when preparing stores of salmon f o r d r y i n g . I t was used u n t i l q u i t e l a t e i n the h i s t o r i c 100 pe r i o d f o r i t was b e l i e v e d the use of s t e e l knives was o f f e n s i v e to the f i s h (Drucker 1951: 91; Moser 1926: 64). Only one item of ground mussel s h e l l was found at Coopte and t h i s does not appear to have had a k n i f e edge. A l s o missing are the bone f i s h k n i v e s , made of a deer u l n a ground to a long s l i m p o i n t . These were used p r i m a r i l y f o r s l i t t i n g h e r r i n g , and th e r e f o r e would be expected at Coopte as the ethnographic data c r e d i t s t h i s s i t e w i t h being the great h e r r i n g f i s h e r y . A l s o l a c k i n g were d e n t a l i a s h e l l s , although most of those found a l l across the Northwest Coast and i n l a n d as f a r as the Great P l a i n s had t h e i r o r i g i n among the Nootka. J e w i t t (1915: 76) mentions that d e n t a l i a , which he c a l l s "Ife-waw", were e x t e n s i v e l y used f o r necklaces and b r a c e l e t s by the upper c l a s s , as w e l l as forming "a k i n d of c i r c u l a t i n g medium among these n a t i o n s . " There were no d e n t a l i a grounds i n Nootka Sound but major beds were l o c a t e d i n E h e t i s a t t e r r i t o r y and i n Barkley Sound (Drucker 1951: 111). D e n t a l i a were apparently traded to the Moachat i n considerable q u a n t i t i e s from both d i r e c t i o n s on the coast ( J e w i t t 1915: 76). Ornaments g e n e r a l l y were l a c k i n g . With the exception of the h i s t o r i c trade beads, the only ornament was the fragment of a p o s s i b l e bone pendant (DkSp 1: 142). The b r a c e l e t s and nose and ear ornaments of copper and s h e l l mentioned by Cook (1796: 243) and J e w i t t (1815: 79) were absent, although i t i s suspected that they would be r a r e i n r e l a t i o n to the t o t a l a r t i f a c t u a l assemblage i n any case. As Coopte was a winter v i l l a g e , w i t h w i n t e r dancing ceremonials to which other t r i b e s were i n v i t e d , i t might be expected that the incidence of ornamentation would be higher at t h i s s i t e . In l i g h t of the heavy emphasis on ornamentation s t r e s s e d i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c a l accounts, the l a c k of ornaments i n the deposit i s s u r p r i s i n g . The f a u n a l remains from t h i s s i t e bear out in f o r m a t i o n from ethnographic and h i s t o r i c a l sources that a great v a r i e t y of food resources 101 was u t i l i z e d . Deer was the only land mammal c o n s i s t e n t l y hunted, which i s to be expected due to the l a r g e number of deer i n the area. Bones of s m a l l mammals, such as beaver, were not common i n the deposit. In a d d i t i o n , a reasonable sample of sea mammal bones was obtained, i n c l u d i n g h a i r or harbour s e a l (Phoca v i t u l i n a ) , porpoise (Phocaenoides d a l l i ) , and a l a r g e c l u s t e r of butchered bone which i s assumed to be whalebone. However, the most common remains were f i s h . Salmon, h e r r i n g , and h a l i b u t vertebrae were i d e n t i f i e d , although probably other types were present. Three p h a r i n g i a l t e e t h of sea perch were found. Dogfish d o r s a l spines were present i n considerable q u a n t i t y . B i r d bones, u s u a l l y found as long bone fragments, were a l s o encountered i n some q u a n t i t y . A l a r g e amount of sea mammal bone, presumably whalebone, came from one l a r g e c l u s t e r . This extended along the east w a l l of t e s t p i t s 10 and 11 and a short distance i n t o t e s t p i t 13, at a depth of between 1.6 f e e t below datum and j u s t past 2.5 f e e t below datum. This c l u s t e r y i e l d e d 737 pieces of whalebone. No complete bones were found. A l l the pieces appear to have been chopped i n t o f a i r l y u n i f o r m l y - s i z e d fragments, which are g e n e r a l l y too small to have been s e r v i c e a b l e f o r a r t i f a c t s . The l a r g e q u a n t i t y found a l s o makes i t u n l i k e l y t h a t the bone had been brought to the s i t e as raw m a t e r i a l f o r a r t i f a c t s . A great many fragments had chop marks on the surface of the bone. As whales were u s u a l l y butchered as soon as they were obtained, i t appears that the Moachat were o c c a s i o n a l l y whaling w h i l e r e s i d i n g at Coopte, or that a dead whale had f l o a t e d ashore nearby. Whaling was u s u a l l y done from Yukwot or the outer coast s i t e s . Dogfish d o r s a l f i n spines were found throughout the deposit at a l l depths. However, a p a r t i c u l a r l y l a r g e number came from the trench formed by t e s t p i t s 8, 3, and 9. Out of a t o t a l of 369 d o g f i s h d o r s a l 102 f i n spines from t h i s s i t e , 274 came from t h i s area. As these p i t s were very shallow, being only about 1.5 f e e t deep, the time depth i n v o l v e d i s comparatively s l i g h t ; I t i s p o s s i b l e that t h i s c o ncentration i s a r e s u l t of the d o g f i s h o i l trade of the 1850's although i t i s d o u b t f u l that t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n has enough time depth to account f o r the bottom l a y e r of even such shallow p i t s . Dogfish d o r s a l spines a l s o occurred i n the deepest l e v e l s of other p i t s . The Nootka apparently ate both) the o i l and the f l e s h i n p r e h i s t o r i c and e a r l y h i s t o r i c times, although at l e a s t the f l e s h appears to have been an emergency food only. Swan (1870: 29) s t a t e s : The Indians on Vancouver Island....make a l u c r a t i v e business of e x t r a c t i n g the o i l , and s e l l l a r g e q u a n t i t i e s to the Makah i n exchange f o r whale o i l , which they eat. The Clyoquots and Nootkans (Moachat) eat d o g f i s h o i l , but p r e f e r whale o i l when they can o b t a i n i t . . . . A f t e r the o i l i s e x t r a c t e d , the f l e s h i s washed i n c o l d water and again squeezed i n the baskets, and i n t h i s s t a t e i t i s eaten by the Indians when other food i s scarce. The l a r g e number of d o g f i s h remains at t h i s s i t e , as discussed e a r l i e r , i s probably a r e s u l t of the use of the spines as awls and the s k i n as an a b r a s i v e m a t e r i a l . A r e l a t i v e p a u c i t y of b i r d bones was noted. In a d d i t i o n to ducks and w i l d geese, such b i r d s as eagles and g u l l s were a l s o eaten (Mozino 1913: 9; Drucker 1951: 59). However, these b i r d s were probably sought more f o r the ornamental value and ceremonial use of t h e i r f e a t h e r s and down than f o r t h e i r f l e s h . Several e a r l y w r i t e r s (Cook 1796: 207; Meares 1790: 112) mention the s t r i k i n g appearance which the Indians produced by s p r i n k l i n g down on t h e i r h a i r and t h e i r p a i nted and greased faces. Cook (1796: 236) mentions that b i r d s were c o n t i n u a l l y harrassed by the n a t i v e s , both f o r food and f o r t h e i r f e a t h e r s . In view of t h i s documentation and a l s o the l a r g e p o p u l a t i o n of avifauna p r e s e n t l y at the s i t e , i t would have been expected that more b i r d remains would be found. 103 The l a r g e s t discrepancy of the f a u n a l remains w i t h the ethnographic data i s i n the type of f i s h remains found. F i s h vertebrae were found throughout'the s i t e and were very numerous i n some s e c t i o n s . The vast m a j o r i t y of these vertebrae were salmon. However, according to the major ethnographic source, Coopte was supposed to have been the great h e r r i n g f i s h e r y of the Moachat. J e w i t t (1815) s t a t e s t h i s s e v e r a l times: "This p l a c e , which i s t h e i r great h e r r i n g and^ sprat f i s h e r y " (p. 123) "The n a t i v e s now began to take the h e r r i n g and sprat in.immense q u a n t i t i e s , w i t h some salmon " (p. 126) "As u s u a l at t h i s season, we found the h e r r i n g i n great p l e n t y " (p. 165) The c o n c e n t r a t i o n of small f i s h bones i n ash l a y e r s on the second t e r r a c e may be h e r r i n g , although they are too sm a l l and fragmentary to be i d e n t i -f i e d . At any r a t e , salmon vertebrae appear to be the major f i s h remains i n the de p o s i t . I t seems l i k e l y that 'Jewitt underestimated the importance of salmon f i s h i n g at Coopte, although t h i s would be unusual f o r such a keen observer. Large s t o r e s of salmon were brought down from T a c i s , where J e w i t t does mention the l a r g e numbers of salmon caught. These would have been already d r i e d and g e n e r a l l y the vertebrae would have been removed. However, Drucker (1951: 63) does describe the p r e s e r v a t i o n of salmon backs, which would s t i l l c o n t a i n the vertebrae. Perhaps l a r g e numbers of these were brought down the i n l e t from T a c i s . During much of t h e i r p e r i o d of residence a t Coopte the Moachat s u b s i s t e d on t h e i r supply of d r i e d food, which may e x p l a i n the concentrations of salmon vertebrae i n some areas of the s i t e . A number of h a l i b u t vertebrae were a l s o obtained, although they were not common. A few of these vertebrae were very l a r g e -104 up to 5.5 cm. i n diameter and 5.0 cm. high. Because of t h e i r l a r g e s i z e , h a l i b u t played an important part i n the Moachat economy. The outer coast s i t e s would have a higher percentage of h a l i b u t bones than does Coopte, as that is where they were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y f i s h e d . They were probably taken r a t h e r i n f r e q u e n t l y at Coopte. A number of s h e l l species were found i n the deposit. Three types of clam — b u t t e r clam (Saxidomus giganteus), l i t t l e — n e c k clam CProtothaca staminea) , and horse clam (Schizothaerus capax). — were i d e n t i f i e d , as w e l l as blue mussel ( M y t i l u s e d u l i s ) , C a l i f o r n i a mussel .(Mytilus c a l i f o r n i a n u s 1 , t r i t o n s h e l l s , and barnacles. A l l are l o c a l , w i t h the exception of the l a r g e mussel, which had to be brought i n from the open ocean shores. In a d d i t i o n , a few land s n a i l s h e l l s were found near the top of the d e p o s i t , but these probably crawled onto the s i t e and do not represent an item of a b o r i g i n a l d i e t . S h e l l was a c t u a l l y not abundant i n the d e p o s i t , Two l a r g e l a y e r s of s h e l l occurred i n the area of the s i t e i n which t e s t p i t s 7,10,11,12,13 and 14 were l o c a t e d , but these p i t s uncovered almost the f u l l extent of the s h e l l . S h e l l was e i t h e r t o t a l l y l a c k i n g or appeared i n a few s m a l l patches i n the other excavated u n i t s . Perhaps the l a r g e supply of d r i e d food brought down from T a c i s , along with, f r e s h f i s h , and deer meat obtained at t h i s s i t e , made i t unnecessary to r e l y h e a v i l y upon s h e l l - f i s h . The occurrence of M y t i l u s c a l i f o r r i l a r i u s at Coopte Is also somewhat p_uzzling. I t had to be brought to t h i s s i t e from Yukwot or the open ocean s i t e s - . , y e t i t appeared i n l a r g e c l u s t e r s i n the two main l a y e r s of s h e l l as w e l l as s p o r a d i c a l l y elsewhere i n the s i t e . While i t i s true that t h i s mussel was an important food item and was d r i e d as part of the w i n t e r p r o v i s i o n s , t h i s does not account f o r the presence of the s h e l l s i n the deposi t . A c l u e to a p o s s i b l e explanation i s given by Drucker Q-951; 911; 105 A provident housewife would keep several knives, or at le a s t the s h e l l s that could merely by sharpening be converted into knives, so that i f one broke she had a substitute at hand. The s h e l l s of the large mussel i n the deposit, then, possibly represent raw material f o r a r t i f a c t s , such as the woman's f i s h k n i f e . The h o r i z o n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of s h e l l and"faunal remains i s rather i n t e r e s t i n g . The second terrace p i t s y i e l d e d no s h e l l and an almost n e g l i g i b l e amount of faunal remains. The trench formed by test p i t s , 8,3, and 9 yi e l d e d a great deal of faunal remains with only a small amount of s h e l l . The trench of test p i t s 1,5, and 2 yie l d e d considerably fewer faunal remains and almost no s h e l l . The most s t r i k i n g contrast i s between test p i t s 6 and 7, separated by only f i v e feet. Test p i t 6 contained no s h e l l and only a few small fragments of bone. Test p i t 7, on the other hand, contained two large bands of s h e l l and a large amount of faunal remains. Test p i t 6 appears to have been j u s t outside a large patch of s h e l l and faunal remains that was l a r g e l y excavated by test p i t s 7,10,11, 12,13, and 14. Large numbers of f i s h bones were associated with the s h e l l l a y e r s . The large c l u s t e r of whale bone described e a r l i e r occurred here. Deer and sea mammal bones were f a i r l y common throughout. This seems to have been a dump area, where refuse such as bones and empty s h e l l s was tossed. Rock features were not common. Only a few were excavated on the f i r s t terrace and even these may have been spurious because of the large amount of rock i n a l l parts of the deposit. However, these rocks were lar g e r than those generally encountered and seem to have a meaningful shape. The only extensive rock feature occurred i n test p i t 15, on the second terrace. This was a massive feature,'- extending from about one foot 106 to j u s t past four f e e t below the sur f a c e . A l a r g e number of ro c k s , some of them massive i n s i z e , formed the f e a t u r e , along w i t h l a r g e areas of hard brown ash (see the appropriate l e v e l notes i n Appendix 1 and f l o o r plans 8 to 14). At the bottom of the fe a t u r e the t o t a l m a t r i x f o r the square was l a r g e rock and ash. A p o s s i b l e explanation f o r t h i s f e a t u r e i s found i n the ethnographic l i t e r a t u r e . Food preparations r e q u i r e d l a r g e numbers of good-sized r o c k s , both f o r the s t o n e - b o i l i n g and steaming techniques (see page 27 above). The a s s o c i a t i o n of l a r g e amounts of ash w i t h the f e a t u r e strengthens the co n c l u s i o n that t h i s f e a t u r e i s a r e s u l t of the Moachat cooking methods. A f u r t h e r c o n c l u s i o n can be drawn from the a s s o c i a t i o n of the l a r g e f e a t u r e i n t h i s p i t and the dump area on the f i r s t t e r r a c e d i r e c t l y below. Cooking i s an a c t i v i t y which was c a r r i e d on i n or near the d w e l l i n g s . I t may be i n f e r r e d that the dwe l l i n g s at t h i s end of the s i t e , f o r at l e a s t part of the p e r i o d of occupation, were l o c a t e d on the second t e r r a c e . The dump area would then be explained as simply r e f u s e from the dwe l l i n g s tossed over the edge of the bank. The e a r l y j o u r n a l s give us v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n the i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of c e r t a i n other items from t h i s s i t e . Four s m a l l f l e c k s of mica were found i n the deposit ( t e s t p i t 2, l e v e l s 0 - 1.4; t e s t p i t 7, l e v e l 1.5 - 2.0; t e s t p i t 12, l e v e l s 0 - 0.5 and 1.0' - 1.5'). Mica was h i g h l y p r i z e d by the Moachat f o r i t s ornamental valu e . A f t e r the face had been pa i n t e d w i t h red ochre and grease, mica was s p r i n k l e d on top to gi v e a s p a r k l i n g appearance. The s t r i k i n g ; appearance t h i s produces was mentiond by such e a r l y w r i t e r s as Cook (1796: 243), J e w i t t (1915: 78), and Haswell (Howay 1941: 6 l ) . No red ochre was; found i n the dep o s i t , but one abra s i v e stone (DkSp 1: 14) i s s t a i n e d dark red along the le n g t h of a groove worn i n t o one face. I t i s suggested that t h i s abrader had been 107 used to g r i n d s m a l l blocks of ochre i n t o powder, which could then be mixed w i t h grease to form a p a i n t . I t s decorative purpose on the coast i s widespread and well-known. I t s use f o r face and body p a i n t -i n g among the Moachat i s a t t e s t e d to by n e a r l y a l l of the e a r l y j o u r n a l s . The pictographs which are o c c a s i o n a l l y found i n t h i s area were a l s o executed w i t h red ochre and i t i s assumed th a t a number of t h e i r Wooden u t e n s i l s were a l s o decorated w i t h t h i s m a t e r i a l . Some ochre does occur n a t u r a l l y i n t h i s area. An outcrop of ochre i n H i s n i t I n l e t was noted during the f i e l d season. J e w i t t (1815, pages 78 and 95), however, s t a t e s that h i g h - q u a l i t y ochre, as w e l l as mica, was a highly-regarded trade item from the "Newchemass" or Nimpkish K w a k i u t l . No burial s were discovered during excavation. This i s i n keeping w i t h the ethnographic evidence, which i n d i c a t e s that interment was not p r a c t i s e d by the Moachat. The dead were u s u a l l y placed i n wooden boxes which were then lashed to the branches of tre e s or placed i n caves or r o c k , s h e l t e r s . Tree b u r i a l appears to have been the most common p r a c t i c e . An important person may simply have been placed i n a box on a prominent p o i n t and some type of memorial placed beside i t . Canoe b u r i a l has already been i n f e r r e d to have been o c c a s i o n a l l y p r a c t i s e d by the Moachat, as i t was by t h e i r neighbors. Slaves and unimportant people were simply wrapped i n cedar-bark matting and l e f t i n the woods. Inhumation was not p r a c t i s e d u n t i l very l a t e i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d and was l a r g e l y due to missionary i n f l u e n c e . In l i g h t of t h i s , the absence of b u r i a l s at t h i s s i t e i s har d l y s u r p r i s i n g . However, a few s c a t t e r e d human bones, i n c l u d -i n g s e v e r a l s k u l l fragments, were uncovered. Scattered human remains are not uncommon i n c o a s t a l s i t e s . The probable explanation can a l s o be found i n the types of b u r i a l . The boxes c o n t a i n i n g t r e e b u r i a l s decay and the bones f a l l to the ground. Added to t h i s are bodies l e f t i n the 108 woods or other places which are a c c e s s i b l e to animals, i n p a r t i c u l a r dogs. The a c t i v i t i e s of these animals would s c a t t e r the bones, which, i n the case of dogs, would then l i k e l y be c a r r i e d back to the v i l l a g e s i t e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to a s s i g n a guess date f o r the length of occupation of the e n t i r e s i t e , but i n general i t seems q u i t e recent. The trench formed by t e s t p i t s 8,3, and 9 i s l o c a t e d on a shallow slope up from the beach and may p o s s i b l y f a l l e n t i r e l y w i t h i n the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . The trench formed by t e s t p i t s 1,5, and 2 has presumably a s l i g h t l y l a r g e r time depth. However, as the deposit was f a i r l y shallow and h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l was found f o r about h a l f t h i s depth, the time depth here would a l s o not be great. The seven t e s t p i t s dug i n or near the dump area at the no r t h of the s i t e o f f e r more i n t e r e s t i n g s p e c u l a t i o n . The deposit ranged from 3.5 f e e t to 4.9 f e e t deep i n t h i s area. However, as t h i s seems to have been a dump area, t h i s build-up may have been comparatively r a p i d . H i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l extended a depth of j u s t over one f o o t , but t h i s makes a poor dat i n g device due to the d e f i n i t e p o s s i b i l i t y of discontinuous build-up of the underlying l a y e r s . Several c h a r c o a l samples, which would give a d e f i n i t e date f o r t h i s p a r t of the s i t e , were taken from j u s t above beach sand but these have not been analyzed. The second t e r r a c e p i t s presumably have a greater time depth. Test p i t 15 was taken down eigh t f e e t before beach sand was reached. However, the deepest a r t i f a c t was found at 3.8 f e e t below surface and the rock f e a t u r e ended j u s t below four f e e t deep. A charcoal sample, which a l s o has not been t e s t e d , was taken at a depth of 4.2 f e e t . An examination of the t o t a l a r t i f a c t y i e l d from the s i t e i n d i c a t e s no great time depth. The a r t i f a c t s appear to be homogeneous throughout the deposit. The a r t i f a c t s found at the great e s t depths ( s e v e r a l s m a l l pointed bones, a bone p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t fragment, and a harpoon v a l v e fragment) are 109 i d e n t i c a l to others found at l e s s e r depths and to. ethnographic d e s c r i p t i o n s . On the b a s i s of t h i s evidence, a rough guess date of no e a r l i e r than 1000 A.D. f o r the beginning of the p e r i o d of i n t e n s i v e occupation can be made. However, i t i s extremely probable that evidence f o r an e a r l i e r date could be found on the second or t h i r d t e r r a c e . More work needs to be done, p a r t i c u l a r l y on the upper t e r r a c e s . P i s h i n g Implements f i g . 2 composite harpoon head f o r salmon ( a f t e r Drucker, 1951, p.20) f i g . 1 composite fish-hook with stone shank f i g . 3 salmon t r o l l i n g hook f i g . 4 h a l i b u t hook Bone A r t i f a c t s 110 p l . 20 a barbed p r o j e c t i l e p o i n t DkSp 1:183 b-f barbs DkSp 1:185,135,102,238,157 g-j b i p o i n t s DkSp 1:143,237,128,248 k small bone barb DkSp 1:117 p i . 21 hand maul fragments DkSp 1:164,199 p i . 22 chipped pebbles DkSp 1:240,83,242,101179 112 Contact Goods p i . 23 a pipe stem b-f c l a y pipe fragments g t u b u l a r copper f o i l bead h-n g l a s s beads o f i s h l u r e p metal button q metal buckle 11*3 OTHER ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORK IN NOOTKA SOUND Very l i t t l e archaeology has been done i n the Nootka Sound area compared to the a t t e n t i o n given to h i s t o r i c documents. The only a c t u a l excavations p r i o r to t h i s study were c a r r i e d out i n the summer of 1966 by the N a t i o n a l H i s t o r i c Parks Branch under the d i r e c t i o n of W. H. Folan. Their excavation was c a r r i e d out at the main v i l l a g e s i t e of Yukwot, a l -though p a r t of t h i s crew d i d conduct a survey of the Nootka Sound area and excavated four t e s t p i t s at Coopte. These t e s t p i t s were a l l l o c a t e d at the north end of the s i t e and y i e l d e d very l i t t l e i n the way of e i t h e r f a u n a l remains or a r t i f a c t s . The Yukwot excavation was a m u l t i - d i s c i p l i n a r y p r o j e c t . Extensive study of the h i s t o r i c documentation i s to be combined w i t h a c a r e f u l a n a l y s i s of the a r t i f a c t s , f a u n a l remains, types of s h e l l i n the deposit, and other i n f o r m a t i o n gained by excavation. This should r e s u l t i n a f a i r l y exhaustive p i c t u r e of the s i t e of Yukwot, from e a r l i e s t times to the present. When pu b l i s h e d , i t w i l l supercede some of the i n f o r m a t i o n presented i n t h i s study. The major p o r t i o n of the Yukwot excavation was undertaken i n the center of the modern v i l l a g e . A 60 foo t long t r e n c h , reaching a maximum width of 15 f e e t , was excavated. A maximum depth of 18 f e e t was reached, showing d e f i n i t e s t r a t i g r a p h y . In a d d i t i o n , a number of t e s t p i t s were excavated i n the shallow deposit of San Miguel I s l a n d , the small i s l a n d at the entrance to the cove, on which the Spanish had erected a s m a l l gun b a t t e r y . -More than 5000 p r e h i s t o r i c and h i s t o r i c a r t i f a c t s were obtained during the excavation.* The implements of n a t i v e manufacture i n c l u d e d the component p a r t s of composite harpoons, barbed f i x e d p o i n t s , stone f i s h -hook shanks, maul fragments, many bone p o i n t s , deer ulna f i s h k n i v e s , 114 l a r g e awls, some ground M y t i l u s c a l i f o f r i l a r i u s , and s e v e r a l s m a l l carvings. H i s t o r i c goods included n a i l s , pieces of window and b o t t l e g l a s s , p o r c e l a i n fragments, beads, p i p e s , metal fish-hooks, and spoons. A few were Spanish i n o r i g i n . A s mall cannonball was found on San Miguel I s l a n d . In a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e q u a n t i t y of faunal remains was unearthed, as w e l l as s e v e r a l s t o n e - l i n e d hearth features and a few post h o l e s . A few b u r i a l s were encountered but they a l l belonged to the h i s t o r i c p e r i o d . Over twenty carbon samples were taken during the excavation. However, only a few of these had t h e i r t e s t s completed and the r e s u l t s known at the time of w r i t i n g . These preliminary- dates i n d i c a t e a time span of approximately 4200 years. This e a r l y date makes Yukwot of more than l o c a l i n t e r e s t , and of s i g n i f i c a n c e to a l l Northwest Coast s p e c i a l i s t s . Some inferences could be made as to the contents of unexcavated s i t e s on the b a s i s of the known economic a c t i v i t i e s c a r r i e d out there. For example, the outer coast s i t e s could be expected to y i e l d the bones of sea mammals and f i s h , p a r t i c u l a r l y h a l i b u t . While Coopte a l s o y i e l d e d both sea mammal and h a l i b u t bones, i t i s expected that the percentage of these would be much higher on the outer coast. Salmon and deer remains, so common at Coopte, would be.found l e s s f r e q u e n t l y . The a r t i f a c t s would i n c l u d e harpoons, p a r t i c u l a r l y of the l a r g e composite v a r i e t y . S h e l l c u t t i n g blades and knives might a l s o be found. A s m a l l face was c l e a r e d by the author to determine the deposit at DjSp 3, a s m a l l s i t e on the outer coast. Large clam s h e l l s , which,.had been eroded from the midden, were used to c l e a r away a s m a l l area which was being eroded at ;the h i g h t i d e l e v e l . The deposit was almost e n t i r e l y _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ , , , | , . , — • _ t _ _ • „ , . , | _ , — . . . ir, _ — i , i , — , . , — — • — • — • — . _ _ • - _ , • _ _ _ . Information concerning the Yukwot excavation was taken from a mimeographed research program and i n t e r i m report and from a paper given by W.H. Folan at the 1969 Northwest A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Conference i n V i c t o r i a , B.C.• 115 clam s h e l l , ranging from about four inches to. almost a fo o t i n depth, and u n d e r l a i n by beach sand. Patches of burnt s h e l l and f i r e - c r a c k e d rock were encountered. No a r t i f a c t s were found but a s m a l l q u a n t i t y of f a u n a l remains was obtained. One s m a l l phalange was the only mammal bone encountered. The i d e n t i f i a b l e f i s h bones were four h a l i b u t v e r t e b r a e , two sea perch p h a r i n g i a l t e e t h , and one hypural p l a t e from a tuna. The presence of the tuna hypural p l a t e ( i d e n t i f i c a t i o n by Dr. D.E. M c A l l i s t e r , N a t i o n a l Museum of Canada) i n the deposit i s q u i t e i n t e r e s t i n g . Two species of tuna, the albacore (Thunnus alalunga) and the b l u e f i h tuna (Thunnus thynnus or T. s a l i e n s ) , which grow to lengths of 4 f e e t and 7 f e e t , r e s p e c t i v e l y , occur on the B r i t i s h Columbia coast, more f r e q u e n t l y i n the years when the water i s warmer. They are not common and could not have he l d a v i t a l r o l e i n the Moachat d i e t . No ethnographic references were encountered concerning u t i l i z a t i o n of t h i s food'resource by the Moachat. H a l i b u t and sea perch remains are only to be expected from a s i t e i n t h i s area. Further i n v e s t i g a t i o n would have undoubtedly produced bones of sea mammals as w e l l . The f a l l f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s up the i n l e t would give a d i f f e r e n t p i c t u r e . Salmon vertebrae would form the bulk of the f a u n a l remains. Deer, which abound along the i n l e t , would a l s o be well-represented i n the d e p o s i t . Sea mammals which came up the i n l e t would be o c c a s i o n a l l y taken but these would not be as common as i n the open ocean s i t e s . T y p i c a l a r t i f a c t s would be p a r t s of composite harpoons of the s i z e used f o r salmon, barbs f o r fish-rhooks, and f i s h knives of s h e l l or bone. Large mauls or ba t t e r e d cobbles, used f o r pounding i n stakes f o r f i s h traps and w e i r s , might a l s o be found. The s i t e of Tsawun (DkSp 3) was a l s o t e s t e d i n s e v e r a l places 116 during the 1968 f i e l d season to determine m a t r i x and depth of depos i t . The deposit i s q u i t e shallow, being under one fo o t deep i n plac e s . Under a t h i n l a y e r of t o p s o i l , the m a t r i x of the deposit was almost e n t i r e l y crushed s h e l l . One a r t i f a c t (DkSp 3:1), a fragment of sandstone bar abrader, was obtained. I t i s 6.5 cm. by 1.7 cm. by 1.5 cm. A rough r i d g e , formed by the technique of sawing from both sides and then snapping o f f the a r t i f a c t , runs the e n t i r e l e n g t h of one edge. The h i s t o r i c m a t e r i a l obtained i n c l u d e d a metal Winchester r i f l e c a r t r i d g e and the s i d e of an i r o n pot, The mammal bones obtained were one deer scapula and 14 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments. The f i s h bones in c l u d e d 11 salmon vertebrae and one- bone which has been i d e n t i f i e d as the quadrate of a l a r g e f i s h - p o s s i b l y tuna, although i t may be salmon. One b i r d bone fragment was a l s o found. The p r i o r assump-t i o n that salmon and deer remains would predominate seems to be j u s t i f i e d . Going i n t o Muchalat t e r r i t o r y , to the east of the Moachat along Muchalat Arm, we f i n d much the same s i t u a t i o n . However, a few groups l i v e d i n l a n d along Gold R i v e r and seldom ventured down to the s a l t water. Deer and w a p i t i were the main food items. P r e s e r v a t i o n would probably be a problem at these s i t e s as there would be no s h e l l to n e u t r a l i z e the a c i d i t y of the s o i l . Thus f o r s e v e r a l reasons we would not expect to f i n d the many bone p o i n t s , gorges, and harpoon components which are common i n the other s i t e s of the Nootka Sound region.", The yew wood spears used i n hunting by these groups would a l s o not be preserved. Nevertheless, the excavation of these s i t e s would provide an i n t e r e s t i n g comparison w i t h the s a l t water s i t e s . Few of the s i t e s v i s i t e d during the f i e l d season, however, would appear to repay extensive excavation. The s i t e s are g e n e r a l l y very shallow, o f t e n only a fo o t or two above the high water l e v e l . Yukwot 117 appears to be the only s i t e w i t h a great time depth, although i n t e r e s t i n g dates may yet be obtained from Coopte and O'wis. The f i s h i n g s t a t i o n s , i n g e n e r a l , are shallow i n depth and sm a l l i n s i z e . In a d d i t i o n , a l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n have been destroyed by recent logging operations. However, few areas o f f e r such p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r the d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n of ethnographic i n f o r m a t i o n to the a r c h a e o l o g i c a l data. The e a r l y h i s t o r i c documents give a great deal of i n v a l u a b l e information' f o r the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l . The shallow time depth of most s i t e s and the homogeneity of c u l t u r a l items uncovered i n d i c a t e that these remains were l e f t by the groups described i n the j o u r n a l s and t h e i r immediate ancestors. The p a t t e r n of seasonal movement to f i x e d v i l l a g e s i t e s i n p u r s u i t of v a r y i n g economic resources allows s p e c u l a t i o n as to what would be found at a s i t e w i t h inadequate documentation. Much of the wealth of in f o r m a t i o n on the i n h a b i t a n t s of F r i e n d l y Cove i n the e a r l y h i s t o r i c p e r i o d can a l s o be a p p l i e d to a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l from other s i t e s i n Nootka Sound and up Tahsis I n l e t as the i n h a b i t a n t s of these s i t e s were the same people at a d i f f e r e n t time of the year and engaged i n d i f f e r e n t economic a c t i v i t i e s . In a d d i t i o n , some i n f o r m a t i o n can be obtained from the modern descendents of these people, who are s t i l l hunting and f i s h i n g i n much the same area. An amalgamation of the ethnographic, h i s t o r i c , and a r c h a e o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l , then, gives us an uncommon opportunity f o r the f a i r l y - c o m p l e t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the t o t a l way of l i f e of these people. Present knowledge of t h i s area forms a good b a s i s f o r f u t u r e research, which w i l l give f u r t h e r i n s i g h t s i n t o the c u l t u r e of the p r e h i s t o r i c and h i s t o r i c i n h a b i t a n t s of Nootka Sound. 118 BIBLIOGRAPHY Asher, Robert 1961 Analogy i n A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Southwestern J o u r n a l of Anthropology 17:4:317-325. Barn e t t , Homer G. 1939 Cul t u r e Element D i s t r i b u t i o n s : I X , Gulf of Georgia S a l i s h . U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Records 1:5. 1955 The Coast S a l i s h of B r i t i s h Columbia. U n i v e r s i t y of Oregon Press. Beaglehole, J.C. (ed.) 1967 The Journ a l s of Captain James Cook on His Voyages of Discovery. Volumes 1-3. Cambridge, U n i v e r s i t y Press. Boas, Franz 1966 K w a k i u t l Ethnography (ed i t e d by Helen Codere). Chicago; U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press. Borden, Charles E. 1950 P r e l i m i n a r y Report on A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s i n the Fraser D e l t a Region. Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia 1:13-27. P r o v i n c i a l Museum of B r i t i s h Columbia, V i c t o r i a . 1968a P r e h i s t o r y of the Lower Mainland. Chapter 1 i n Lower Fraser V a l l e y : E v o l u t i o n of a C u l t u r a l Landscape. B.C. Geographical S e r i e s , Number 9. Vancouver. 1968b Class Notes Broughton, W i l l i a m R. 1804 A Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c Ocean. London. Brown, Robert 1896 The Adventures of John J e w i t t . London, C. Wilson. C a r l s o n , Roy L. 1960 Chronology and Cultu r e Change i n the San Juan I s l a n d s , Washington. American A n t i q u i t y 25:4:562-586. Clemens, W.A. and G.V. Wilby 1961 Fishes of the P a c i f i c Coast of Canada. F i s h e r i e s Research Board of Canada, B u l l e t i n No. 68 (second e d i t i o n ) . Cook, Captain James 1796 A Voyage to the P a c i f i c Ocean, f o r Making D i s c o v e r i e s i n the 119 Northern Hemisphere, Under the D i r e c t i o n of Captains. Cook, C l e r k e , and Gore, i n the Years 177'6,1777,177'8,1779, and 1780. ( many e d i t i o n s ) C u r t i s , E.S. 1916 The North American Indian: 11. Cambridge, U.S.A.; The U n i v e r s i t y Press Drucker, P h i l i p 1943 A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Survey on the Northern Northwest Coast. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 133. 1950 Cul t u r e Element Distributions:XXV>I, Northwest Coast. U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Records 9:3. 1951 The Northern and C e n t r a l Nootkan T r i b e s . Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 144. 1955 Sources of Northwest Coast C u l t u r e . New I n t e r p r e t a t i o n s of A b o r i g i n a l American Cul t u r e H i s t o r y ; 59-81. Washington. Duff, Wilson 1964 The Indian H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h Columbia: 1. The Impact of the White Man. Anthropology i n B r i t i s h Columbia Memoir No. 5. V i c t o r i a . Espinoza y T e i l o , Jose 1802 Account of the Voyage made by the Schooners S u t i l and Mexicana i n the year 1792 to survey the S t r a i t of Fuca. ms., Madrid ( T r a n s l a t i o n i n U.B.C. L i b r a r y ) . H a l l o w e l l , A. I r v i n g 1926 Bear Ceremonialism i n the Northern Hemisphere. American An t h r o p o l o g i s t 28:1-175. Howay, F r e d e r i c W. (ed.) 1941 Voyages of the "Columbia" to the Northwest Coast 1787-1790 and 1790-1793. The Massachusetts H i s t o r i c a l S o c i e t y , Boston. J e w i t t , John R. 1815 A n a r r a t i v e of the Adventures and S u f f e r i n g s of John R. J e w i t t ; Only Survivor of the Crew of the Ship Boston, during a C a p t i v i t y of Nearly Three Years Among the Savages of Nootka Sound. Middletown, Conn.; S. Richards. K i d d , R.S. , 1969 The Archaeology of the F o s s i l Bay S i t e , Sucia I s l a n d , North-western Washington S t a t e , i n R e l a t i o n to the Fraser D e l t a Sequence. N a t i o n a l Museums of Canada B u l l e t i n 232. i:20 King. Arden R. 1950 C a t t l e P o i n t : A S t r a t i f i e d S i t e i n the Southern Northwest Coast Region. Memoirs of the Soci e t y f o r American Archaeology:7. Koppert, Vincent A. 1930 C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Clayoquot Ethnography. C a t h o l i c U n i v e r s i t y of America, A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l Series 1. Laguna, F r e d e r i c a de 1956 Chugach P r e h i s t o r y : The Archaeology of P r i n c e W i l l i a m Sound, Ala s k a . U n i v e r s i t y of Washington P u b l i c a t i o n s i n Anthropology 13. 1960 The Story of a T l i n g i t Community: A Problem i n the R e l a t i o n s h i p between A r c h a e o l o g i c a l , E t h n o l o g i c a l , and H i s t o r i c a l Methods, Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Bureau, of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 172. 1964 Archaeology of the Yakutat Bay Area, Alaska. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 192. Ma r t i n e z , Don Estevan Josef 1789 Diary of a Voyage.... ( t r a n s l a t e d by W.L. Schwig from a manuscript i n Bancroft L i b r a r y , B e r k l e y ) . Mayne, R.C. 1862 Four Years i n B r i t i s h Columbia and Vancouver I s l a n d . London; J . Murray. Meares, John 1790 Voyages Made i n the Years 1788 and 1789 From China to the North West Coast of America. London. M i l l s , John E. 1955 The Ethnohistory of Nootka Sound, Vancouver I s l a n d . Ph.D t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington. Monahan, P a t r i c k n.d. A r c h a e o l o g i c a l I n v e s t i g a t i o n s at DhRt3, a P r e h i s t o r i c S i t e on the Musqueam Indian Reserve, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia. Moser, Rev. Chas. 1926 Reminiscences of the West Coast of Vancouver I s l a n d . V i c t o r i a . Mozino Suarez de Figueroa, Joseph Mariano 1913 N o t i c i a s de Nutka. Mexico ( t r a n s l a t i o n by N.H. Bain i n U.B.C. l i b r a r y , ms.) Newcombe, C.F. (ed.) 1923 Menzies' J o u r n a l of Vancouver's Voyage 1792. Archives of B r i t i s h 121 Columbia, Memoir no.V. N i c h o l s o n , George 1962 Vancouver Island's West Coast, 1762-1962. V i c t o r i a , B.C.; M o r r i s P r i n t Co. Orchard, W i l l i a m C. 1929 Beads and Beadwork of the American Indians. C o n t r i b u t i o n s from the Museum of the American Ind i a n , Heye Foundation, Volume XI. New York. Oswalt, Wendell H. and James W. Van Stone 1967 The Ethnoarchaeology of Crow V i l l a g e , A l aska. Smithsonian I n s t i t u t i o n , Bureau of American Ethnology B u l l e t i n 199. Reagan, A l b e r t B. 1925 Whaling of the Olympia Pe n i n s u l a Indians of Washington. N a t u r a l H i s t o r y 25:25-32. R o q u e f e u i l , C a m i l l e de 1823 A Voyage Round the World. London. S a p i r , Edward 1911 Some Aspects of Nootka Language and C u l t u r e . American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 13:15-28. S a p i r , Edward and M o r r i s Swadesh 1955 Native Accounts of Nootka Ethnography. I n t e r n a t i o n a l J o u r n a l of American L i n g u i s t i c s 21:4. Smith, Harlan I . 1903 S h e l l Heaps of the Lower Fr a s e r R i v e r , B.C. Memoirs of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y : 4. Sproat, G i l b e r t Malcolm 1868 Scenes and Studies of Savage L i f e . London; Smith, E l d e r and Co. Strange, James 1929 James Strange's J o u r n a l and N a r r a t i v e of the Commercial E x p e d i t i o n from Bombay to the North-west Coast of America. Madras, Govern-ment Press . Swadesh, M o r r i s 1948 M o t i v a t i o n s i n Nootka Warfare. Southwestern J o u r n a l of Anthropology 4:76-93. 1954 Time Depths of Amercian L i n g u i s t i c Groupings. American A n t h r o p o l o g i s t 56:361-364. Swan, James G. .122 1870 The Indians of Cape F l a t t e r y . Smithsonian C o n t r i b u t i o n s to Knowledge VI. T e i t , James 1900 The Thompson Indians of B r i t i s h Columbia (ed. by Franz Boas). Memoirs of the American Museum of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y . V o l . I I . New York. Vancouver, Captain George 1798 A Voyage of Discovery to the North P a c i f i c Ocean. London. Waterman, T.T. 1920 The Whaling Equipment of the Makah Indians. S e a t t l e , U n i v e r s i t y of Washington Pres s . Wike, Joyce 1958 S o c i a l S t r a t i f i c a t i o n Among the Nootka. Ethnohistory 5:3:219-41. W i l l e y , Gorden R. and P h i l i p P h i l l i p s 1962 Method and Theory i n American Archaeology. Chicago; U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press. Woodward, Arthur 1965 Indian Trade Goods. Oregon A r c h a e o l o g i c a l Society P u b l i c a t i o n . P o r t l a n d ; B i n f o r d s & Mort. 123 Appendix 1 Account of Each Excavated L e v e l Test P i t 1 S: 195'-200' E: 20'-25' L e v e l O ' - l . l * Cdepth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n A r t i f a c t s The surface of the s i t e slopes somewhat to the west i n t h i s area. The f i r s t l e v e l evened out t h i s slope w i t h i n the p i t . Consequently, w h i l e the bottom of the w a l l at the end of t h i s l e v e l was 1.1' below s u r f a c e , the west w a l l was only 0.2' below s u r f a c e . The matrix was a dark b l a c k s o i l w i t h a great number of rocks. A few pieces of clam s h e l l and one'piece of mussel s h e l l were encountered. DkSp 1:1 trade bead 2 c l a y pipe fragment 3 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l -. 1 t h i n metal p l a t e 10 pieces of h i s t o r i c p o t t e r y 5 fragments of gl a s s Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 l a r g e mammal v e r t e b r a (deer?) 1 deer phalange 1 mammal l e g bone fragment 9 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 18 vertebrae 3 spines Other - 1 p i e c e of M y t i l u s calif<3rrila.ri.us L e v e l l . l ' V L . 7 * D e s c r i p t i o n - The- matrix continued to be dark s o i l w i t h a l a r g e number of rocks. Occasional pieces of broken clam s h e l l were spread throughout the p i t . Several s m a l l areas of s c a t t e r e d crushed clam and mussel s h e l l were encountered, mainly along the n o r t h w a l l , A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:4 worked bone 5 abrasive stone 6 a n t l e r cortex 7 do g f i s h d o r s a l spine 8 abrasive stone 9 clay pipe fragment 10 bone point 11 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spine 12 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spine 13 trade bead 14 abrasive stone 15 trade bead 124 H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 3 t h i n metal pieces 8 fragments of p o t t e r y 2 pieces of g l a s s 1 square n a i l 1 button Faunal Remains Mammal - 2 sm a l l vertebrae 2 phalanges, 6 r i b fragments 26 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 74 vertebrae 18 spines 12 other 1 sea perch p h a r i n g i a l t o o t h 5 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines B i r d — 7 long bone fragments L e v e l 1.7'-2.3' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l w i t h a l a r g e amount of rock. Even more rock than i n previous l e v e l s was encountered. S h e l l was almost e n t i r e l y absent except f o r a few very small patches of blue mussel on the n o r t h w a l l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:16 worked whalebone 17 abrasive stone 18 bone point 19 abrasive stone 20 abrasive stone Faunal Remains Mammal — 11 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 5 vertebrae 2 spines 5 other 4 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines B i r d - 3 fragments L e v e l 2.3' to bottom D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l w4."th_ a great d e a l of rock. No s h e l l was encountered. This; l e v e l was terminated when g r a v e l was reached i n a l l t h e square. This sloped somewhat, f o l l o w i n g t h e o r i g i n a l s u rface slope of east to west. Gravel occurred a t : 2.5'b.d. i n NE corner 2.5'b.d. i n SE corner 2.7'b.d. i n W corner 2.9'b.d. i n SW corner A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:21 abrasive stone Faunal Remains - none 125 Test P i t 2 S: 205'-210' E: 20'-25' L e v e l 0'-1.4' (depth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n - This t e s t p i t was opened south of t e s t p i t one, l e a v i n g a f i v e foot b a l k between them. The surface again sloped from east to west. The f i r s t l e v e l evened out t h i s slope. At the completion of t h i s l e v e l the bottom of the east w a l l was 1.4' below the s u r f a c e , w h i l e the bottom of the west w a l l was only 0.2' below the s u r f a c e . The matrix was dark s o i l w i t h a small, amount of rock. Occasional pieces of clam s h e l l were encountered. A patch of brown sandy ash occurred at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l i n the NE corner. A r t i f a c t s DkSp 1:22 23 24 25 trade bead trade bead c l a y pipe fragment trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 5 pieces of p o t t e r y 4 pieces of g l a s s 6 n a i l s 2 pieces of scrap metal 2 small buttons Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 r i b fragment 2 small u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 2 vertebrae B i r d - 1 fragment Other - 1 s m a l l f l e c k of mica L e v e l 1.4'-1.9' D e s c r i p t i o n - The m a t r i x continued to be dark s o i l and rocks. Rocks were more abundant than i n the previous l e v e l . S e v e r a l l a r g e rocks were c l u s t e r e d i n the SW corner. A s m a l l patch of charcoal appeared at the top of t h i s l e v e l near the middle of the east w a l l . This charcoal patch contained some ash w i t h a great many t i n y f i s h bones throughout. Patches o f . g r a v e l occurred i n the center of t h i s square at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:26 a b r a s i v e stone 27 a b r a s i v e stone 28 abrasive stone 29 abrasive stone 30 abrasive stone 33 a b r a s i v e stone H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 3 pieces of p o t t e r y 1 p i e c e of g l a s s Faunal Remains - 7 small mammal bone fragments 126 L e v e l 1.9 to bottom D e s c r i p t i o n - The m a t r i x continued to be dark s o i l and rock, w i t h rocks becoming more abundant w i t h depth. This l e v e l was continued u n t i l g r a v e l was reached i n a l l the square. An uneven f l o o r r e s u l t e d , being highest i n the NW quadrant. Measurements f o r each corner were: NE corner - 2.2* SE corner - 2.2* SW corner - 2.5' NW corner - 2.1' A r t i f a c t s Faunal Remains — none DkSp 1:31 32 abrasive stone abrasive stone Test P i t 3 S: 110-115* E: 35 '-40 '-' L e v e l 0'-0.8' (depth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n - This p i t i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n the bounds of House Remains 1. The s u r f a c e of the ground slopes s l i g h t l y from east to west. The f i r s : t l e v e l evened out t h i s s l o p e , being .0.8*- below s u r f a c e at the east w a l l and 0.3* below s u r f a c e at the west w a l l . The matrix was dark s o i l with, some rock. DkSp 1:34 hone p o i n t 35 bone poi n t 36 small pointed bone. 37 beaver i n c i s o r 38 trade bead 39 s m a l l pointed bone. 40 bone poi n t fragment 41 trade head 42 r o l l e d copper bead 43 trade Bead 44 t r a d e Bead 45 trade Bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 5 pieces, of pottery* 1 p i e c e of g l a s s 7 n a i l s 1 Button Faunal Remains Mammal 1 humerus d i s t a l end fragment (deer?! 2 deer t a i l v e r t eBrae 1 scapula fragment 1 small mammal ulna fragment 1 deer molar 1 s m a l l c a r n i v o r e molar 1 u n i d e n t i f i e d molar 5 small r i B fragments 86 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 127 F i s h - 67 vertebrae (mainly salmon; some h e r r i n g and h a l i b u t ) 14 spines 10 other 1 sea perch p h a r i n g i a l tooth 37 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines B i r d - 28 fragments Other - 3 sm a l l t h i c k pieces of clam s h e l l L e v e l 0.8'-1.3' D e s c r i p t i o n The l e v e l continued to be dark s o i l , but w i t h a great d e a l more rock than i n the previous l e v e l . A t h i n lens of greylsh-v': ash, c o n t a i n i n g crushed clam s h e l l , appeared i n the NE corner. The SW quadrant contained a l a r g e t h i n patch of matted mussel and clam s h e l l , w i t h a l a r g e number of f i s h bones. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:46 47 48 49 50 250 251 worked whalebone abrasive stone worked bone fragment abrasive stone bone p o i n t harpoon v a l v e ground scapula fragment Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 human a x i s v e r t e b r a 2 sea mammal vertebrae (porpoise) 1 s e a l humerus 1 deer astragolus 1 deer canon bone fragment 1 deer phalange 1 deer t a l u s 1 piece of a n t l e r 4 small mammal r i b fragments 1 beaver (or muskrat) molar 4 s e a l canines 117 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 66 vertebrae ( i n c l u d i n g one very l a r g e h a l i b u t v e r t e b r a measuring 4.5 cm. i n diamter, 3;?3 cm. i n h e i g h t , w i t h a spine 9.0 cm. long) 22 spines 24 other 38 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines B i r d - 3 complete long bones 33 fragments L e v e l 1.3' to bottom D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l w i t h a great deal of rock. This l e v e l was continued u n t i l g r a v e l was reached i n a l l the square. This occurred f i r s t along the east w a l l , being j u s t below the end of the l a s t l e v e l . There was: a marked s l o p e to the west, being deepest i n the SW" corner. Measurements f o r each corner were: 128 NE corner - 1.3'' SE corner - 1.3' SW corner - 1.9' NW corner - 1.7* A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal — 1 l a r g e sea mammal canine 15 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 1 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spine B i r d - 2 fragments Test P i t 4 S: 210'-215* E: 50'-55' L e v e l 0'-0.7' (depth Below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n This p i t i s on the second t e r r a c e , at the southern end of the s i t e . I t stands at an e l e v a t i o n of ahout 7.2 f e e t ahove the f i r s t t e r r a c e p i t s Below i t . The surface of t h i s square slopes s l i g h t l y * from east to west, w i t h a Q.4 foot d i f f e r e n c e Between the s u r f a c e of these two w a l l s . The matrix of the f i r s t l e v e l was dark s o i l , with, a small, amount of rock. A patch of Brown ash., c o n t a i n i n g crushed clam s h e l l , appeared at the Bottom of t h i s l e v e l i n the SE corner. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l 1:51 trade Bead 52 f i s h hook shank 53 trade Bead 54 trade Bead -r 1 piece of p o t t e r y 2 pieces of g l a s s 1 Button Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 0.7 VI.3'' D e s c r i p t i o n T- The m a t r i x f o r t h i s l e v e l was dark s o i l , with, a sma l l amount of.rock. Several l a r g e Boulders were encountered. A t h i n l a y e r of Brown ash, c o n t a i n i n g crushed clam s h e l l , occurred i n the SE corner at 0.7* Below datum. A t h i n l a y e r of sand, u n d e r l a i n By small patches of c h a r c o a l , appeared i n the same corner at 1.1' Below datum. Large chunks- of charcoal came from the NW corner. A r t i f a c t s *- none Faunal Remains ^ none L e v e l 1.3'-1.8' D e s c r i p t i o n The matrix from t h i s l e v e l was a dark s o l i , w;ith_ a l a r g e number of rocks. A patch of ash., c o n t a i n i n g very s m a l l f i s h bones, occurred i n the SE corner at 1.7* Below datum. 129 A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:55 abrasive stone 59 abrasive stone Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 1.8'-2.4' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l and r o c k s , but w i t h l a r g e patches of ash. One l a r g e patch of ash f i l l e d the e n t i r e SE quadrant from about 2.0' to 2.2' below datum. I t was u n d e r l a i n i n places by-cha r c o a l . I t seemed to contain a great number of small f i s h bones. Occasional pieces of broken clam s h e l l were also found i n t h i s area. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:56 abrasive stone 57 abrasive stone 58 abr a s i v e stone Faunal Remains - none (other than the many very small f i s h b o n e s i n the ash l a y e r ) L e v e l 2.4'-3.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l and rocks. Patches of ash al s o continued but were not as l a r g e as i n the preceding l e v e l . A t h i n patch of g r a v e l , u n d e r l a i n by ash, was uncovered i n the SE corner at 2.4' below datum. A l a r g e area of charcoal occurred along the south h a l f of the p i t at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . I t was l a r g e l y underneath a l a y e r of ash. A charcoal sample was taken at S: 213.7', E: 57.5', 3.0' below datum. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - 2 small fragments of mammal bone L e v e l 3.0^3.5'"-D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l and rock s , w i t h patches of ash. A l a r g e patch of ch a r c o a l occurred i n the NW corner at 3.2 * below datum. Charcoal and ash occurred i n the SE corner. Occasional pieces of broken clam s h e l l were found i n the area. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 3.5'-4.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l and rock s , w i t h small patches of ash. A s m a l l h o l e was uncovered i n the NE corner at 3.9' below datum. I t was 0,3*' i n diameter and had a depth of about 0.6*', Another hol e appeared at S: 113.8% E: 50.6', 3.91' below datum. I t was 0.2' i n diameter and had a depth of about 0.5'. 130 A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:60 abrasive stone Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 4.0'-4.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The m a t r i x continued to be dark s o i l and rock, A number of the rocks were q u i t e l a r g e , A few small patches of ash occurred. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 4.5'-5.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The m a t r i x continued to be dark s o i l w i t H a l a r g e amount of rock. Several huge boulders appeared i n t h i s l e v e l . A s mall p a t c h of ash i n the SE corner i n d i c a t e d that t h i s l e v e l i s s t i l l c u l t u r a l . The p i t was terminated at t h i s l e v e l because of f l o o d i n g . A r t i f a c t s - none• Faunal Remains - none Test P i t 5 S: 200'-2O5' E:20<-25' L e v e l 0'-1.2' (depth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n - This p i t was opened between t e s t p i t s 1 and 2, forming a 15 foot trench. The surface sloped con s i d e r a b l y from east to west. There was a d i f f e r e n c e of 1.1' between the s u r f a c e of the east and west w a l l s . The f i r s t l e v e l evened out t h i s slope. The bottom of t h i s l e v e l was 1,2* below the surface of the east s i d e , w h i l e only 0.1' below the surface at the west s i d e . The matrix was dark s o i l . A s m a l l lens of ash occurred along the east w a l l at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . Occasional pieces of broken clam s h e l l were encountered. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:62 trade bead 63 trade bead 64 trade bead 65 trade bead 66 c l a y pipe fragment 67 trade bead 68 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 5 pieces of p o t t e r y 8 pieces of glass 6 n a i l s 1 screw 3 l a r g e pieces of metal 131 Faunal Remains Mammal - 9 fragments F i s h - 3 vertebrae 2 spines L e v e l 1.2'-1.7' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l . Patches of charcoal were encountered along the east w a l l under the l a y e r of ash at the bottom of the previous l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:69 70 71 72 73 c l a y pipe fragment trade bead trade bead trade bead trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l -Faunal Remains 2 pieces of g l a s s 1 copper s t r i p 1 l a r g e p i e c e of metal 1 button Mammal -F i s h -B i r d -Other 1 l a r g e mammal (b e a r ? l t a l u s bone 6 fragments 3 vertebrae 3 spines 1 other 1 fragment 3 pieces of clam s h e l l 1 piece of u n i d e n t i f i e d s h e l l L e v e l 1.7'-2.1' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l w i t h a great d e a l more rock than i n previous l e v e l s . S everal l a r g e boulders appeared i n t h i s l e v e l . Patches of g r a v e l occurred along the south end of t h i s square at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:74 c l a y pipe fragment H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 3 pieces of pot t e r y Faunal Remains Mammal - 6 fragments F i s h - 1 v e r t e b r a B i r d - 1 fragment L e v e l 2.1' to bottom D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix continued to be dark s o i l with, a great deal of rock. T h e . l e v e l was taken down u n t i l g r a v e l was reached i n a l l the square. This sloped from east to west, f o l l o w i n g the o r i g i n a l s u rface s l o p e , but w i t h a r a i s e d area i n the SW corner. Measurements 132 f o r each corner were: NE SE NW SW A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none Test P i t 6 N: 65'-70' E: 35'-40' L e v e l 0'-0.7' (depth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n - This i s the f i r s t p i t to be opened north of the h o r i z o n t a l datum p o i n t . The surface i s r e l a t i v e l y f l a t at t h i s part of the s i t e . The matrix was dark s o i l and a small amount of rock. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:76 trade bead 77 trade bead 78 trade bead 79 trade bead 80 c l a y pipe fragment 81 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 5 n a i l s 1 piece of p o t t e r y 1 piece of g l a s s Faunal Remains - none Other - 1 piece of clam s h e l l L e v e l 0.7'-1.2* D e s c r i p t i o n , - The matrix was dark s o i l w i t h a considerable amount of rock. Several s m a l l ash patches occurred i n t h i s l e v e l . One of these, l o c a t e d toward the n o r t h of the p i t at 0.75' below datum, contained a great many very s m a l l f i s h bones, along w i t h f l e c k s of charcoal. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - 1 sm a l l mammal bone fragment L e v e l 1.2VL.7* D e s c r i p t i o n — The matrix continued to be dark s o i l and rocks. Several patches of ash occurred i n t h i s l e v e l --i n the NW quadrant at 1.3" below datum, i n the SE quadrant at 1.4 r below datum, and i n the SW quadrant at 1.5' below datum. A l l contained a great many very s m a l l f i s h bones. A l l were associated w i t h small patches of ch a r c o a l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:82 trade bead 83 chipped pebble 84 abr a s i v e stone Faunal Remains — none - 2.2' - 2.4' - 2.8' - 2.1' 133 L e v e l 1.7'-2.2' D e s c r i p t i o n — The matrix continued to be dark s o i l and rocks. Several ash l a y e r s occurred i n the south h a l f of the p i t . These again contained very small f i s h bones, along w i t h a few l a r g e r pieces of burnt bone. A brown, sandy g r a v e l occurred i n the NE corner at 2.0' below datum. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp.'i 1:252 abrasive stone Faunal Remains - 8 s m a l l fragments of mammal bone Other - 1 piece of clam s h e l l L e v e l 2.2'-2.7' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l w i t h a great d e a l of rock. Gravel patches occurred along the north, w a l l . One sm a l l patch of ash occurred i n the NW quadrant. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:85 abrasive stone Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 2.7' to bottom D e s c r i p t i o n - The matri x was dark s o i l and a great deal of rock, along w i t h patches of brown sandy g r a v e l . This l e v e l was continued u n t i l b a s a l g r a v e l was reached i n a l l the square. This r e s u l t e d i n a marked s l o p e from NE to SW. Measurements f o r each corner were: NE - 2.7' SE - 3.3' SW - 3.7' NW - 3.2' A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none Test P i t 7 - N: 55'-60' E: 35'-40' L e v e l 0'-0.5' (depth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n - This p i t i s lo c a t e d south of t e s t p i t 6, l e a v i n g a f i v e foot baulk between them. The matrix was dark s o i l w i t h a s m a l l amount of rock. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:86 trade bead 87 worked whalebone H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 6 pieces of p o t t e r y 1 piece of g l a s s 5 n a i l s Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 0.5'-1.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matri x was dark s o i l and rock. A s m a l l patch of 134 crushed mussel s h e l l occurred i n the SE corner from 0.8' to 1.0' below datum. A number of patches of crushed mussel and clam s h e l l occurred at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . The large s t occupied almost the e n t i r e SW quadrant. I t also contained some ash, charcoal f l e c k s , and f i s h bone. • > A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:88 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 1 piece of glass 1 button Faunal Remains Mammal - 2 fragments F i s h - 5 vertebrae 9 spines 6 other Level 1.0'-1.5' Description - This l e v e l consisted of dark s o l i and rocks w i t h large patches of crushed mussel and clam s h e l l . The patches of s h e l l which appeared on the f l o o r of the previous l e v e l extended down i n t o t h i s l e v e l . The smaller patches were only about 0,1' deep, but In the SW corner s h e l l extended for the e n t i r e depth of t h i s l e v e l . Almost the e n t i r e SW quadrant was s h e l l . This s h e l l contained small flecks of charcoal and a great many f i s h bones. Salmon vertebrae were commonly found a r t i c u l a t e d . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:89 abrasive stone 90 bone awl 91 worked bone fragment 92 harpoon valve 93 abrasive stone 94 worked whalebone 253 worked bone fragment Faunal Remains Mammal - 9 fragments 3 fragments of sea-mammal bone Fi s h - 532 vertebrae (almost e n t i r e l y salmon) 56 spines 16 mandible fragments 70 other 5 dogfish dorsal spines Other - 1 t r i t o n s h e l l Level 1.5 »-2:0' Description -- The matrix for t h i s l e v e l was dark s o i l and rocks, except for the SW quadrant where crushed mussel and clam s h e l l continued from the previous l e v e l . The crushed s h e l l was mixed w i t h dark s o i l , rather than forming a d i s t i n c t lens. 136 Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer scapula 1 mandible fragment (seal?) 1 l a r g e mammal v e r t e b r a 1 s e a l b u l l a 44 fragments F i s h - i l 18 vertebrae ( a l l salmon) 8 spines 7 other B i r d - 2 complete long bones 3 fragments L e v e l 3.0'-3.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l and rock. Scattered crushed mussel and clam s h e l l spread throughout the depth of t h i s l e v e l along the south w a l l . The l a r g e boulder mentioned i n the two previous l e v e l s extended f u r t h e r during t h i s l e v e l to occupy the e n t i r e n o r t h h a l f of the p i t , except f o r a s m a l l space i n the NW corner. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:103 bone point fragment 104 bone p o i n t t i p 152 bone point Faunal Remains Mammal -• 1 deer scapula 1 r i b fragment (deer?) 1 l a r g e mammal mandible fragment 1 b u l l a 1 deer phalange 2 small mammal phalanges 1 s m a l l c a r n i v o r e canine 33 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 125 vertebrae (almost a l l salmon) 25 spines 35 other 1 d o g f i s h d o r s a l s p i n e B i r d - 1 s m a l l b i r d s k u l l 10 long bone fragments L e v e l 3.5' to bottom D e s c r i p t i o n - Only the south h a l f of t h i s p i t could be f u l l y excavated because of the l a r g e boulder occupying the n o r t h h a l f , The matrix was dark s o i l and rocks with, crushed s h e l l s c a t t e r e d throughout along the south, w a l l . This was removed to g r a v e l , which occurred about 3.5* below, datum beside the boulder and was s l o p i n g toward the south. Along the south w a l l , however, t h i s g r a v e l d i d not occur as a d i s t i n c t lens and the crushed s h e l l and f a u n a l remains extended down to the Beach.sand at ahout 4.2' Below datum. The crushed s h e l l and fau n a l remains even extended a short d i s t a n c e i n t o the sand. A patch of charcoal occurred i n the SW corner at 4.2' Below datum. I t occurred i n a matrix of crushed 137 s h e l l and dark s o i l , immediately above a t h i n l a y e r of g r a v e l above the beach sand. A charcoal sample was taken. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:105 bone p o i n t fragment 106 harpoon va l v e blank 157 bone poi n t Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 l a r g e mammal phalange 1 l a r g e mammal v e r t e b r a 1 human s k u l l fragment 1 u n i d e n t i f i e d s k u l l fragment 49 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 12 vertebrae (salmon) 10 spines 11 other 2 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines B i r d - 9 long bone fragments Test P i t - 8 S: 105'-110' E: 35'-40' L e v e l 0'-1.0» (depth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n - This p i t was opened immediately n o r t h of t e s t p i t 3, forming a ten foot trench. The sur f a c e of the square slopes from east to west and toward the n o r t h . This l e v e l evened out the slope. The bottom of t h i s l e v e l was 1.0' below su r f a c e along the east w a l l , 0.3' below surface i n the SW corner and j u s t at sur f a c e i n the NW corner. The matrix was dark s o i l and rocks. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:107 bone p o i n t fragment 108 trade bead 109 trade bead 110 trade bead 111 worked bone fragment 112 trade bead 113 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 1 p i e c e of po t t e r y 6 pieces of gl a s s 11 n a i l s 1 metal drawer handle 1 metal button 1 metal b e l t buckle Faunal Remains Mammal - 2 deer molars 3 deer phalanges 1 deer canon bone fragment 1 sea mammal phalange 1 human (?) molar 1 s e a l (?)_ canine 39. u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 1 sea mammal bone fragment 138 F i s h - 18 vertebrae (14 salmon, 2 herring, 2 halibut) 4 spines 6 other 30 dogfish dorsal spines B i r d - 9 fragments Other - 1 land s n a i l several pieces of broken clam s h e l l Level 1.0'-1.5f Description - The l e v e l consisted of dark s o i l and rocks. The f l o o r of t h i s l e v e l along the eastern w a l l was mainly rock, with gravel appearing i n places. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:114 bone point 115 trade bead 116 trade bead 117 small pointed bone 118 bone point 119 trade bead 120 abrasive stone H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 2 pieces of pottery 2 n a i l s Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 sea mammal humerus fragment 1 vertebra disk 1 deer phalange 1 deer molar 6 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 5 pieces of sea mammal bone F i s h - 30 vertebrae (22 salmon, 7 herring and one large halibut) 3 spines 3 other 55 dogfish dorsal spines B i r d - 1 large claw (eagle ?) 34 long bone fragments Level 1.5' to bottom Description - The matrix consisted of dark s o i l with a great deal of rock. This was taken down to gravel. A marked slope from east to west, following the o r i g i n a l surface slope, resulted. Measurements i n each corner were: NE - 1.6* SE - 1.5' SW - 1.7' NW - 2.1* A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal - 3 fragments F i s h - 1 salmon vertebra 2 dogfish, dorsal spines 139 Test P i t 9 S: 115'-120' ' E: 35'-40* Level 0'-0.8' (depth below datum) Description - This p i t was opened immediately south of test p i t 3, forming a 15 foot trench. The surface sloped s l i g h t l y from east to west. This l e v e l evened out the slope. The bottom of t h i s l e v e l was 0.8' below surface along the east w a l l and 0.3' below surface along the west w a l l . The matrix was dark s o i l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1: H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l -Faunal Remains 121 trade bead 122 worked bone fragment 123 trade bead 124 worked bone fragment 125 trade bead 255 clay pipe fragment 1 piece of pottery 4 pieces of glass 3 n a i l s 6 h e r r i n g , 6 halibut). Mammal - 1 human s k u l l fragment (temporal bone including ear opening) 1 deer molar 1 carnivore molar 1 t i b i a of small mammal 1 deer astragolus 1 deer phalange 1 metatarsal 30 fragments Fis h - 34 vertebrae (22 salmon, 7 spines 7 other 22 dogfish dorsal spines Bi r d - 27 long bone fragments Level 0.8'-1.3' Description - The matrix consisted of dark s o i l and rocks. Thin patches of crushed s h e l l were scattered throughout. The s h e l l patches sloped from east to west, following the o r i g i n a l surface slope. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:126 127 worked bone worked bone fragment H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 1 metal s t r i p Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 1 1 F i s h vertebra (porpoise?) large u n i d e n t i f i e d bone wolf or dog molar 102 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments ^274 vertebrae (mainly salmon but some herring and halibut) 9.7 spines (including about 20 very large spines -»- up to 20 cm. or 8 i n . l o n g ! 14Q 4 mandible fragments 110 other 76 dogfish dorsal spines Bir d - 61 long bone fragments Level 1.3' to bottom Description - The matrix consisted of dark s o i l with a great deal of rock. This was taken down to gravel. This resulted i n a slope from east to west, following the o r i g i n a l surface slope. Measurements for each corner were: NE corner - 1.5' SE corner - 1.6' SW corner - 2.1* NW corner - 2.1' A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:128 bone fragment Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 metacarpal (human?) 1 deer phalange 1 large mammal humerus fragment 15 fragments - 16 vertebra (salmon, h e r r i n g , and halibut1 6 spines 4 other 13 dogfish dorsal spines - 10 fragments F i s h B i r d Test P i t 10 N: 50'-55' E: 35*-40* Level 0*-0.5' (depth below datum) Description - This p i t was opened immediately south of tes t p i t 7, forming a ten foot trench.. The surface of the square was r e l a t i v e l y even. Numerous decaying boards from an h i s t o r i c house were embedded i n the sod. The matrix for the l e v e l was dark s o i l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:129 trade bead 130 trade bead 131 trade bead 132 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 6 pieces of pottery 3 n a i l s Faunal Remains - 2 small fragments of mammal bone Level 0.5'-1.0' Description - The matrix was dark s o i l and rock for most of t h i s l e v e l . The SW corner contained a great deal of rock. Crushed and matted clam and mussel s h e l l appeared along the north and east w a l l s , extending i n t o the center of the p i t , toward the bottom of th i s l e v e l . The appear-ance of s h e l l sloped somewhat, occurring at 0.8* below 141 datum along the n o r t h and east w a l l s , 1.0' below datum In the center, and not at a l l on the SW quadrant, The s h e l l l a y e r contained t r i t o n s h e l l s as w e l l as clam and mussel. Patches of g r a v e l a l s o appeared i n the s h e l l area. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:133 bone awl 134 abrasive stone H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 1 n a i l Faunal Remains Mammal - 2 s m a l l fragments F i s h - 5 vertebrae 11 spines 11 other L e v e l 1.0'-1.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix f o r most of t h i s l e v e l was crushed s h e l l w i t h some dark s o i l . The s h e l l extended throughout the p i t except f o r an area around the SW corner. The matrix i n t h i s area was dark s o i l w i t h a great deal of rock and patches of t h i c k brown ash-. S h e l l appeared i n t h i s area on the f l o o r of t h i s l e v e l except i n the extreme SW corner. The matrix f o r the r e s t of the square i n t h i s l e v e l was crushed clam and mussel s h e l l , w i t h the o c c a s i o n a l occurrence of whole s h e l l , T r i t o n s h e l l s were a l s o common. Some of the l a r g e r mussel s h e l l s appeared to b e- My t i l l i s c a l i ^ b i r h ^ a i m s , r a t h e r than M. e d u l i s ; Patches of charcoal a l s o o c c a s i o n a l l y occurred i n the s h e l l . One l a r g e patch of c h a r c o a l , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a great many f i s h bones, occurred i n the NE corner j u s t under the surface of t h i s l e v e l . The end of t h i s l e v e l c o i n c i d e d w i t h the end of s h e l l i n the NE corner, but s h e l l continued i n the NW and SE quadrants. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:135 bone p o i n t 136 bone poi n t Faunal Remains Mammal - 8 fragments 1 pi e c e of sea-rmammal bone F i s h - 206 vertebrae (almost e n t i r e l y salmon) 34 spines 18 mandible fragments 32 other B i r d - 5 complete or fragmentary long bones L e v e l 1.5*-2.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was l a r g e l y dark s o i l and rocks with, some of the s h e l l l a y e r from the previous l e v e l extending i n t o i t . In the NE quadrant the end of the s h e l l l a y e r c o i n c i d e d w i t h the beginning of t h i s l e v e l . S h e l l extended 0.1' or 0.2' i n t o t h i s l e v e l i n the 142 NW and SE quadrants. In the SW quadrant the dark s o i l and thick brown ash described f or the previous l e v e l extended through most of t h i s l e v e l , with s h e l l appearing at the bottom. This i s the. same lens of s h e l l which appeared i n the l a s t l e v e l , making a considerable dip i n th i s area. A large c l u s t e r of sea mammal bones was encountered i n t h i s l e v e l . A l l the bones were broken or cut, and extended i n a cl u s t e r from the SE corner to about the center of the p i t , and from about 1.6' below datum (the end of the s h e l l i n th i s area) to the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . F i s h bones were also common i n t h i s area. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:137 abrasive stone 138 abrasive stone 139 bone point Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 large r i b fragment 12 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 153 fragments of butchered whalebone F i s h - 130 vertebrae (almost e n t i r e l y salmon) 15 spines 3 mandible fragments 23 other 2 dogfish dorsal spines B i r d - 8 long bone fragments Level 2.0'-2.5' Description - The matrix for t h i s l e v e l was mainly dark s o i l and rocks. The crushed s h e l l from the previous l e v e l s appeared i n the SW corner. I t did not l a s t the thickness of the l e v e l and was underlain by dark s o i l . Some sea mammal bones, from the c l u s t e r described i n the previous l e v e l , occurred along the south w a l l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:140 abrasive stone 141 small pointed bone Faunal Reamins Mammal - 1 scapula fragment 1 deer astragolus 1 small r i b fragment 22 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 48 whalebone fragments F i s h - 77 vertebrae (mainly salmon, some halibut). 11 spines 10 other 2 dogfish dorsal spines Bi r d - 5 fragments Level 2.5'-3.0' Description - This l e v e l was composed of dark s o i l and rocks. Scattered t h i n patches of crushed s h e l l occurred occasionally. S h e l l apeared on the NE quadrant at 143 A r t i f a c t s -the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . A rock feature, composed of larger rocks than generally found i n the deposit, was uncovered along the west w a l l . See f l o o r plan 1. This feature may be spurious, due to the large amount of rock i n a l l parts of the deposit. DkSp 1:142 bone pendant 143 bone b i p o i n t 144 worked bone fragment 256 wapiti bone wedge fragment Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer p e l v i s fragment 2 deer ulna fragments 1 deer vertebra 1 deer talus 1 deer astragolus 1 w a p i t i astragolus 6 deer long bone fragments 1 large mammal r i b fragment 2 deer molars 1 u n i d e n t i f i e d molar 1 small tooth (seal?) 1 large a n t l e r (?) fragment 1 sea mammal (sea otter?) humerus 1 sea mammal phalange 3 fragments of sea mammal bone 54 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 54 vertebrae (mainly salmon, some h a l i b u t l 22 spines 28 other 4 dogfish dorsal spines Bi r d - 15 fragments Level 3.0'-3.5' Description - The matrix was mainly dark s o i l and rocks. Scattered crushed s h e l l appeared throughout the square i n th i s l e v e l . The amount of s h e l l present was greater i n the NE quadrant than i n the SW quadrant. The end of t h i s l e v e l nearly coincided with the end of dark s o i l and the beginning of gravel. Gravel began at 3.4' below datum i n the NE corner. S h e l l and faunal remains extended from the dark s o i l r i g h t i n t o the gravel. Gravel appeared on the f l o o r of th i s l e v e l at several other places i n the square. A rock feature occurred along the west w a l l , below the rock feature described fo r the previous l e v e l . See f l o o r plan 2. This may also be spurious as a great many rocks occurred i n t h i s l e v e l . However, the rocks comprising the two features are generally much larger than those o r d i n a r i l y encountered. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:145 bone point 146 bone point 147 worked whalebone 144 148 bone p o i n t 149 bone p o i n t fragment 150 bone p o i n t 151 worked bone fragment 153 bone poi n t t i p 257 worked whalebone Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer scapula fragment 1 deer p e l v i c bone fragment 1 deer ulna 1 deer humerus fragment 1 deer t i b i a fragment 1 deer canon bone 1 deer or w a p i t i canon bone 1 deer t a l u s 1 l a r g e mammal t a l u s 2 deer long bone fragments 6 deer vertebrae and 2 fragments of deer vertehrae 2 u n i d e n t i f i e d v e r t e b r a l d i s k s 1 deer molar 1 s e a l canine 1 s m a l l mammal molar 1 sea mammal humerus fragment 1 phalange 1 l a r g e u n i d e n t i f i e d bone 1 sea mammal bone fragment 100 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 83 vertebrae (mainly salmon, some h e r r i n g and h a l i b u t ) 18 spines 32 other 6 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines B i r d - 25 fragments L e v e l 3.5'-4.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was crushed s h e l l and g r a v e l . G r a v e l occupied the e n t i r e square, w i t h f a u n a l remains and a l a r g e amount of crushed s h e l l extending through i t . A few patches of dark s o i l appeared i n the g r a v e l . A t h i n l a y e r of char c o a l appeared along the west w a l l at 4.0' below datum. Beach sand appeared i n s e v e r a l places along the east w a l l at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l , A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:154 bone p o i n t 155 bone point 156 bone b i p o i n t 158 bone poi n t 159 bone b i p o i n t 160 bone point Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer phalange 1 land mammal v e r t e b r a 90 fragments 145 F i s h - 16 vertebrae (13 salmon, 1 h a l i b u t , 2 herring) 20 spines 20 other 10 dogfish dorsal spines 1 sea perch p h a r i n g i a l tooth B i r d - 1 large claw (eagle?) 20 long bone fragments Level 4.0' to bottom Description - The gravel was e n t i r e l y removed, as were the f i r s t few inches of beach sand underlying the gravel. Crushed s h e l l and faunal remains extended throughout the gravel and a short distance into the beach sand. This l e v e l ended at the l a s t appearnce of s h e l l and faunal remains. This sloped somewhat from NE to SW, being 4.1' below datum i n the NE corner and 4.5' below datum i n the SW corner. The s h e l l was clam and mussel. Large pieces of Mytilus califorriiarius were encountered. A patch of charcoal appeared i n the SW quadrant. A charcoal sample was taken from N:57', E:36', and 4.1' below datum. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:161 worked bone fragment 162 bone point t i p 258 small pointed bone Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 small canine 38 fragments F i s h - 3 salmon vertebrae 4 dogfish dorsal spines B i r d - 8 fragments Test P i t 11 N: 45*-50' Et 35'-40' Level 0'-0.5' (depth below datum) Descr i p t i o n —-. This p i t was opened immediately south of t e s t p i t 10, forming a 15 foot trench. The surface of the square sloped s l i g h t l y from the south to the north. Planks of an h i s t o r i c b u i l d i n g were embedded i n the sod, The matrix was dark s o i l , often h e a v i l y compacted, with a quantity of rock. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:169 trade bead 170 trade bead 171 trade bead 172 trade bead 173 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 7 pieces of pottery 4 pieces of glass 5 n a i l s 2 buttons Faunal Remains - 2 mammal bone fragments 146 Level 0.5'-1.0' Description - The matrix f o r most of th i s l e v e l was dark s o i l , h eavily compacted, and with a great deal of rock. Thick brown ash occurred throughout the l e v e l near the NE corner. Crushed s h e l l appeared on the f l o o r of t h i s l e v e l i n the NE corner. A small hole appeared at N: 47.7', E: 35.3', and 0.9' below datum. I t was 0.2' i n diameter and about 0.7' deep. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:174 trade bead Faunal Remains - none Level 1.0'-1.5' Description - The matrix was mainly dark s o i l and rocks. The s o i l was heavily compacted, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the SW corner where there was also a great deal of rock. Several large rocks appeared i n th i s area. See f l o o r plan 3. Sh e l l appeared i n the NE corner. I t only extended a short distance into the p i t . A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none Level 1.5'-2.0' Description - S h e l l extended further i n t o the p i t during t h i s l e v e l . I t occupied most of the NE quadrant and extended a short distance i n t o the square along the e n t i r e north, w a l l . I t was over l a i n By patches of thick Brown . ash. The matrix f o r the rest of the l e v e l continued to be dark s o i l and rocks. A c l u s t e r of sea mammal Bones occurred i n the NE corner. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal - 2 u n i d e n t i f i a h l e fragments 57 sea mammal Bone fragments F i s h - 18 verteBrae ( a l l salmon) 3 spines 4 other B i r d - 1 small B i r d s k u l l 2 long Bone fragments Level 2.0'-2.5' Description - The layer of crushed s h e l l extended across the p i t i n t h i s l e v e l . I t sloped from NE to SW, appearltig only at the top of t h i s l e v e l i n the NE corner and at the Bottom i n the SW corner. Brown ash o v e r l a i d the s h e l l . The matrix for the rest of the l e v e l was dark s o i l . The crushed s h e l l contained clam and Blue mussel, as wel l as some Mytilus c a l i f o r h i a n u s . Patches of Barnacle appeared i n the s h e l l i n the NW and SE quadrants, A large c l u s t e r of sea mammal bones-, extending from the 147 clu s t e r s described f o r the previous l e v e l and f o r test p i t 10, occurred i n th i s l e v e l . They appear to be butchered whalebone. They extended i n a c l u s t e r from the NE corner to the center of the p i t and along most of the north and east w a l l s . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:176 bone point 177 worked bone fragment 179 chipped pebble 259 worked whalebone 260 bone awl Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 large sea mammal phalange 1 humerus fragment 16 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 350 pieces of whalebone F i s h - 61 vertebrae C a l l salmon) 12 spines 11 other B i r d - 2 long bone fragments Level 2.5'-3.0' Description - The matrix was mainly dark s o i l and rocks. The crushed s h e l l lens extended a short distance i n t o t h i s . l e v e l along the south w a l l . The c l u s t e r of sea mammal bones, described i n the previous l e v e l s , extended a short distance into t h i s l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal - 20 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 115 sea mammal bone fragments F i s h - 8 vertebrae C a l l salmon) 3 spines 3 other 3 dogfish f o r s a l spines B i r d - 6 long bone fragments Level 3.0'-3.5' Description A r t i f a c t s The matrix was dark s o i l and rocks. Crushed s h e l l appeared at the northern end of the square. This did not form a d i s t i n c t lens but was scattered through-out the dark s o i l . A small patch of ash occurred at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l near the center of the square. Several large rocks appeared i n the southern h a l f of the square. Gravel appeared at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l i n the NE corner. - DkSp 1:185 186 187 bone point worked bone fragment bone point fragment 148 Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 Fi s h -Bird -deer phalange 40 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 31 vertebrae ( a l l salmon) 17 spines 24 other 2 dogfish dorsal,spines 1 p e l v i c bone fragment 1 breastbone 1 complete and 9 incomplete long bones Level 3.5»-4.0* Description - The matrix f o r t h i s l e v e l was l a r g e l y gravel. Gravel began at the surface of t h i s l e v e l i n the NE corner and sloped toward the south of the square where i t appeared near the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . Crushed s h e l l and faunal remains extended r i g h t through the gravel, p a r t i c u l a r l y at the north end of the square. Very l i t t l e s h e l l and only a few bones appeared i n the gravel at the southern end. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal -F i s h B i r d -2 1 5 1 1 1 26 5 5 6 1 1 4 human ulna or radius fragments deer phalange s m a l l mammal r i b fragments s m a l l mammal long bone fragment porpoise v e r t e b r a l d i s k long bone epiphesis u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments vertebrae C a l l salmon) spines other d o g f i s h d o r s a l spine s m a l l s k u l l long bone fragments Level 4.0' to bottom Description - This square was excavated to a depth of 4.5* below datum. The gravel was removed and beach sand was excavated for a short distance. A small amount of crushed s h e l l and faunal remains extended into the beach sand a short distance at the north end of the square, but the beach sand at the south was s t e r i l e . A charcoal s t a i n appeared at the beginning of beach sand i n the NE corner. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:194 harpoon valve fragment Faunal Remains Mammal -• 1 F i s h -B i r d -small rodent mandible fragment 14 fragments 2 spines 1 dogfish dorsal spine 2 long bone fragments 149 Test P i t 12 N: 50'-55* E: 45'-50' Level 0'-0.5' (depth below datum) Description - This p i t was opened f i v e feet east of test p i t 10. The surface was r e a l t i v e l y even. The matrix was dark s o i l and small rocks. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:166 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 4 pieces of pottery 5 pieces of glass 1 n a i l Faunal Remains - none Other - 1 small f l e c k of mica Level 0.5'-1.0* Description - The matrix was dark s o i l and rocks. Small lenses of ash occurred at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l i n the SE corner and j u s t west of center. A boulder, appearing on the bottom of the l a s t l e v e l , extends along the north w a l l to a length of 4 feet and an average width of 1.5 feet. An abrasive stone was found leaning at an angle against t h i s boulder. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:167 clay pipe fragment 168 abrasive stone H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 2 pieces of pottery 2 n a i l s Faunal Remains - 1 salmon vertebra Level 1.0'-1.5' Description - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was dark s o i l and rock, Several small lenses of ash were encountered, The boulder on the north face extended further Into t h i s l e v e l , reaching a s i z e of 4* by 2*. A row of rocks, extending to the SE corner, was also encountered. See f l o o r plan 4, A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none Other - 1 small f l e c k of mica Level 1.5'-2.0l Description - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was dark s o i l and rock-. A lens of crushed mussel s h e l l was encountered. The l a r g e s t extent of the boulder on the north w a l l was reached during this l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s none 15Q Faunal Remains Mammal - 5 fragments Fis h - 1 salmon vertebra B i r d - 1 fragment Other - 1 t r i t o n s h e l l Level 2.0'-2.5' Description - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was l a r g e l y dark s o i l and rock. A large patch of crushed s h e l l occurred i n the SE corner. Gravel, mixed with dark s o i l , appeared at the bottom of this l e v e l i n the NE corner. Four large horseclam s h e l l s , each measuring 0.5 feet across, were found f i t t e d together and leaning against a rock. Several other large rocks appeared i n the NE quadrant. See f l o o r plan 5. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:175 ground mussel s h e l l 178 small pointed bone Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 F i s h -B i r d -sea l m a x i l l a fragment deer humerus d i s t a l end deer t a i l vertebra large u n i d e n t i f i e d bone sea mammal bone fragment 20 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 44 vertebrae (31 salmon, 13 herring)/ 34 spines other dogfish dorsal spines breast bone u n i d e n t i f i e d bone complete and 3 fragmentary long hones 1 1 1 1 35 6 1 1 2 Other - several pieces of Mytilus californiarius Level 2.5'-3.0' Description - S t e r i l e gravel was reached i n the NE corner. Gravel, mixed with dark s o i l and some s h e l l , occupied the SE quadrant. Crushed s h e l l , with some ash, extended throughout the rest of the square during t h i s l e v e l . Several large rocks also occurred i n t h i s l e v e l . See f l o o r plan 6. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1 Faunal Remains :180 small pointed bone 181 bone b i p o i n t 182 small pointed bone 261 worked bone fragment Mammal - 51 fragments F i s h - 22 vertebrae (18 salmon, 44 spines 13 other 6 dogfish dorsal spines 3 h e r r i n g , 1 halibut) 151 B i r d - 2 complete and 16 fragmentary long bones Other - 1 piece of Mytilus c a l i f o r n i a n u s 1 t r i t o n s h e l l Level 3.0' to bottom Description - This l e v e l was taken down to 3.5' below datum. The crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l , and ash were removed and the s t e r i l e gravel below excavated f o r a short distance. The s h e l l ended about 3.1* below datum across most of the square but extended almost to the bottom of t h i s l e v e l i n the SW corner. The larger boulder which occupied the northern section of the p i t was found to rest on the beach gr a v e l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:183 barbed bone point 184 bone awl Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 sea mammal phalange 1 sea mammal long bone fragment 1 large mammal r i b fragment 10 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 2 vertebrae (1 salmon, 1 herring) 11 spines 7 other 1 dogfish d o r s a l spine B i r d - 4 long bone fragments Test P i t 13 N: 50'-55' E:40'-45* Level 0*-0.5' (depth below datum) Description - This p i t was opened between test p i t s 10 and 12, forming a 15 foot trench. The surface of t h i s area i s r e l a t i v e l y f l a t . The matrix was dark s o i l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1; H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l 188 pipe stem 189 double bead 19Q trade bead 191 trade bead 192 trade bead 193 trade bead 197 trade bead 198 trade bead 2 pieces of pottery 2 pieces of gla s s 3 n a i l s 1 f l a t p i ece of metal 1 broken button Faunal Remains -- none Other - 1 t r i t o n s h e l l 1 piece of ba s a l t X52 Level 0.5'-1.0' Description - The matrix was dark s o i l . Crushed s h e l l appeared i n the SW corner at 0.9' below datum. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:195 trade bead 196 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 2 pieces of pottery 1 piece of glass 2 n a i l s Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer t i b i a proximal end 3 fragments of sea mammal bone 4 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 1 vertebra (salmon) 1 spine 1 other Level 1.0'-1.5' Description - The matrix was dark s o i l with a large amount of rock. A patch of crushed s h e l l occurred i n the SW corner but was not very extensive. A small amount of crushed s h e l l occurred along the west w a l l but only extended a short distance into the square. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:199 hand maul fragment 200 trade bead 201 small pointed bone 202 abrasive stone Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer molar 4 deer t a i l vertebrae 1 large mammal phalange 1 small epiphesis 2 pieces of sea mammal bone 4 fragments F i s h - 13 vertebrae (12 salmon, 1 h a l i b u t ) 2 spines 1 mandible fragment 5 other B i r d - 1 complete and 1 incomplete long bone Level 1.5'-2.0' Description - The matrix was dark s o i l and rocks. A small amount of crushed s h e l l extended i n t o the SW corner from the l a s t l e v e l . A few small patches of ash occurred i n t h i s l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:203 abrasive stone 262 abrasive stone Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 sea mammal phalange 1 s e a l ear b u l l a 153 1 unidentified vertebral disk 14 pieces of sea mammal bone 8 unidentified fragments Fish - 3 salmon vertebrae 2 spines 3 other Level 2.0'-2.5l Description - The matrix was dark s o i l and rocks. A large patch of brown ash extended from the middle of the north, trail to s l i g h t l y north of center. It extended from approximately 2.0' below datum to 2.2* below datum. Numerous very small f i s h bones were scattered throughr-out the ash. Artifacts - DkSp 1:204 abrasive stone 205 chipped pebble Faunal Remains Mammal - 5 unidentified vertebral disks 22 unidentified fragments Fish - 4 vertebrae (3 salmon, 1 halibut! 1 spine 1 other Bird - 2 fragments Other - 1 piece of Mytilus califdrniatfus Level 2.5'-3.0* Description - The matrix was dark s o i l and rocks. Scattered crushed shell occurred in the dark s o i l i n the SW corner hut only extended a short distance into the s<piare. Artifacts - DkSp 1:206 bone point Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 land mammal (deer?) vertebra 1 porpoise vertebra 1 femur fragment (sea mammal?) 1 canine (seal?) 24 unidentified fragments Fish - 22 vertebrae ( a l l salmon) 3 spines 5 other 2 dogfish dorsal spines Bird - 9 fragments Other - 1 large piece of clam shell (horse clam or geoduckl Level 3.0'-3.5' Description - The matrix was mainly dark s o i l and rocks. Scattered crushed shell extended throughout the dark s o i l toward the bottom of this level. Artifacts - DkSp 1:207 harpoon valve 208 Bone point fragment 2Q9 bone point 263 worked whalebone 154 Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer scapula fragment 1 deer pelvic bone fragment 3 large mammal rib fragments 3 land mammal vertebrae 1 small mammal vertebra fragment 1 long bone fragment 3 small skull fragments 1 large skull fragment 80 unidentified fragments Fish - 130 vertebrae (mainly salmon; a few herringl 34 spines 18 other 4 dogfish dorsal spines Bird - 1 bird vertebra 1 bird rib fragment 29 long bone fragments Other - 1 triton shell 1 piece of Mytilus califorriidrius Level 3.5'-4.0' Description • The dark s o i l ended near the top of this level. It was underlain by gravel at the western end of the p i t . The gravel extended to the bottom of this level, where beach sand appeared. Gravel did not appear at the eastern end of the p i t ; beach sand being directly under the dark s o i l . Crushed shell was scattered throughout the dark s o i l and extended down through the gravel and into the beach sand. At the end of this le v e l , s t e r i l e beach sand was reached in the eastern half of the p i t . Crushed shell s t i l l continued along the western section. Artifacts - 1:210 bone point fragment 211 bone point fragment 212 bone point 213 bone bipoint 214 bone point 215 small pointed bone 216 abrasive stone 264 abrasive stone 265 harpoon valve fragment Faunal Remains Mammal -Fish -Bird -1 hair seal bulla 1 seal canine 1 seal incisor 1 seal premolar (?) 1 porpoise vertebra 1 small epiphesis (deer?) 86 unidentified fragments 15 vertebrae (11 salmon, 4 40 spines 24 other 12 dogfish dorsal spines 26 long bone fragments herringl 155 Other - 1 piece of Mytilus c a l i f o f h i a n u s s e v e r a l large pieces of clam s h e l l Level 4.0' to bottom Description - Excavation was continued i n t o the beach sand at the western end of the p i t . The Beach sand was removed u n t i l faunal remains and crushed s h e l l no longer appeared. This occurred at 4.3* below datum at the center of the p i t . The eastern h a l f was not excavated as s t e r i l e beach sand had already been reached. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:217 small pointed bone 218 small pointed bone Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 s e a l mandible fragment 1 s e a l premolar 18 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 2 vertebrae (1 salmon, 1 herring) 3 spines 1 other 2 dogfish dorsal spines B i r d - 10 fragments Test P i t 14 N: 50'-55' E: S O ' ^ ' Level 0'-0.5' (depth below datum) Description - This p i t was opened immediately west of test p i t 10, forming a 20 foot trench. The p i t i s located almost at the edge of the f i r s t t errace. There i s a drop of about four feet down to the high water l i n e j u s t past the western edge of the square. The surface i s some-what i r r e g u l a r , with a general slope from west to east, away from the edge of the terrace. The f i r s t l e v e l evened out the slope. The west side of the p i t was about 0.9* below surface at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . The matrix was dark s o i l . The western edge of the p i t contained a great deal of rock. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:230 trade bead 231 trade bead 232 trade bead 233 trade bead 234 fused trade beads 235 trade bead H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 2 pieces of pottery 3 pieces of glass 1 broken button 7 n a i l s ... _ 1 large metal key Faunal Remains 1 deer scapula 156 L e v e l 0.5--1.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l w i t h a great deal of rock. The s o i l was h e a v i l y compacted at the west edge of the p i t . Patches of ash occurred i n t h i s area. A r t i f a c t s - none H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 3 n a i l s Faunal Remains - s e v e r a l small fragments of burnt mammal bone Other - 1 sm a l l p i e c e of clam s h e l l L e v e l 1.0'-1.5* D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l , o f t e n h e a v i l y compacted, w i t h a great deal of rock. A number of sm a l l patches of ash occurred. Crushed s h e l l appeared i n the NE corner at the bottom of t h i s l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s - none. H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l - 1 square n a i l 1 piece of glass . Faunal Remains - 1 sm a l l fragment of burnt mammal hone Le v e l 1.5'-2.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was mainly dark s o i l with, a l a r g e amount of rock. A l a r g e patch of ash. occurred near the w:est w a l l . Crushed s h e l l extended through, t h i s l e v e l i n the NE corner. The s h e l l sloped south, and west,, appearing along most of the east w a l l f l o o r by the end of t h i s l e v e l . The s h e l l contained a l a r g e amount of M y t i l u s c a l i f b r r i i a r i u s , as w e l l as, clam, h l u e mussel, and t r i t o n s h e l l s . Small patches of charcoal appeared i n the s h e l l . The small amount of fa u n a l remains c o l l e c t e d came e n t i r e l y from the s h e l l area. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:237 bone b i p o i n t 238 bone p o i n t Faunal Remains F i s h - 11 spines 6 other B i r d - 2 fragments L e v e l 2.0'-2.5* D e s c r i p t i o n - Dark s o i l formed the m a t r i x f o r most of t h i s l e v e l . The crushed s h e l l described i n the previous, . l e v e l extended f u r t h e r i n t o the p i t . I t sloped south, and west from the NE corner, appearing on the f l o o r of t h i s l e v e l i n a l l the p i t except along the west w:all. Dark s o i l was reached I n the NE corner where the s h e l l lens terminated. Thin patches of ash. o v e r l a i d much, of the s h e l l area. Four l a r g e a r t i c u l a t e d v e rtebrae appeared i n the SW quadrant at 2.3' below datum, In an ash l a y e r j u s t above crushed s h e l l . They appear to he 157 the vertebrae of a very l a r g e f i s h , probably h a l i b u t . The vertebrae are up to 5.5 cm. across and 5.0 cm. high. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 F i s h B i r d -sm a l l scapula fragment piece of sea mammal bone u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments 43 salmon vertebrae 5 l a r g e h a l i b u t vertebrae 2 mandible fragments 2 spines 12 other 5 fragments 1 4 Le v e l 2.5'-3.0' D e s c r i p t i o n -. The ma t r i x f o r t h i s l e v e l was mainly the crushed s h e l l lens described i n the two previous l e v e l s . I t extended across the p i t i n t h i s l e v e l . " ' M y t i l u s ' c a l l f 6 r n i a n u s was common, as were clam, b l u e mussel, and t r l t o n s h e l l s . Patches of charcoal appeared i n the s h e l l . Dark s o i l was the matrix i n the NE corner as the s h e l l lens had already terminated i n t h i s area. At the bottom of t h i s l e v e l the s h e l l seems to have terminated across the r e s t of the p i t , except along the west w a l l . A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer scapula fragment 1 deer molar 1 metacarpal (human?) 3 land mammal vertebrae fragments 12 pieces of sea mammal bone 20 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 87 vertebrae ( a l l salmon) 3 mandible fragments 7 spines 9 other 1 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spine B i r d - 1 l a r g e claw (eagle?) 5 long bone fragments L e v e l 3.0'-3.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l and rock. The crushed s h e l l from the l a s t l e v e l extended a short d i s t a n c e i n t o t h i s l e v e l along the west w a l l . A s m a l l amount of crushed s h e l l a l s o appeared on the f l o o r of t h i s l e v e l along the west w a l l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1: 241 bone p o i n t fragment 242 chipped pebble 243 bone p o i n t fragment 244 bone point fragment 245 chipped pebble 158 Faxon a l Remains Mammal -r 1 deer molar 1 s e a l humerus 1 sea mammal v e r t e b r a l d i s k 1 u n i d e n t i f i e d t a l u s 3 pieces of sea mammal bone 26 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 25 vertebrae (almost e n t i r e l y salmon) 5 spines 5 other 5 do g f i s h d o r s a l spines B i r d - 6 fragments L e v e l 3.5'-4.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was dark s o i l and ro c k s , w i t h s m a l l amounts of s c a t t e r e d crushed s h e l l . Gravel was reached at the end of t h i s l e v e l i n the NE corner. A number of l a r g e rocks appeared i n t h i s l e v e l . See f l o o r p l an 7. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:246 b i r d bone awl 247 bone poi n t fragment 248 bone b i p o i n t Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 s e a l m a x i l l a fragment 2 sea mammal phalanges 1 sea mammal long bone'fragment 1 deer ulna d i s t a l end 1 deer p e l v i c g i r d l e fragment 1 land mammal v e r t e b r a (deer?) 1 s m a l l land mammal phalange 1.epiphesis 39 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 54 vertebrae (50 salmon, 4 h a l i b u t l 8 spines 14 other 2 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spines 6 s a g g i t a l o t i l i t h s C?l of large. f i s h -B i r d - 20 long bone fragments L e v e l 4.0'-4.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix f o r t h i s l e v e l was mainly; g r a v e l , although. dark s o i l extended a d i s t a n c e i n t o t h i s l e v e l i n the western h a l f of the p i t . Crushed s h e l l and fa u n a l remains extended i n t o the g r a v e l . A patch of charcoal appeared between«ithe dark s o i l and the g r a v e l at the beginning of t h i s l e v e l along the east w a l l . Beach sand appeared on the f l o o r of t h i s l e v e l along the east w a l l . A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains Mammal - 1 deer humerus d i s t a l end 1 deer v e r t e b r a spine 1 a x i s v e r t e b r a (deer?) 159 3 pieces of sea mammal bone 27 u n i d e n t i f i e d fragments F i s h - 8 vertebrae ( a l l salmon) 10 spines 5 other 1 d o g f i s h d o r s a l spine B i r d - 7 long bone fragments Le v e l 4.5' to bottom D e s c r i p t i o n - The p i t was excavated to a depth of about 4.9' below datum. A l l the g r a v e l was removed and the beach sand was excavated u n t i l no t r a c e of fa u n a l remains or crushed s h e l l appeared. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:249 small pointed bone Faunal Remains Mammal - 9 fragments F i s h — 1 spine 1 other 1 d o g f i s h d o r s a l s p i n e Test P i t 15 N: 60'-65' E: 85<-90' L e v e l 0'-0.5' (depth below datum) D e s c r i p t i o n - This t e s t p i t was l o c a t e d near the edge of the second t e r r a c e , at the n o r t h of the s i t e . The s u r f a c e was r e l a t i v e l y even. The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was dark s o i l . A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1 H i s t o r i c M a t e r i a l :219 c l a y pipe fragment 220 trade bead 221 trade bead 222 trade bead 223 trade bead 224 trade bead 225 trade bead 226 trade, bead 227 trade bead 8 pieces of p o t t e r y 4 pieces of gl a s s 2 l a r g e spikes 5 n a i l s Faunal Remains - none Other - 1 piece of clam s h e l l L e v e l 0.5'-1.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was dark s o i l and rock: Scattered pockets of ash appeared throughout but were l a r g e r near a number of rocks which appeared around the center of the square. The rock formation c o n s i s t s of two l a r g e rocks and s e v e r a l f l a t r o c k s , forming an arc. See f l o o r p l an 8. 160 A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:228 abrasive stone 229 trade bead Faunal Remains — none L e v e l 1.0'-1.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix was mainly d a r k . s o i l and rock. A pocket of ash was l o c a t e d i n the SE corner. The c o n f i g u r a t i o n or rocks increased considerably i n s i z e during t h i s l e v e l . The center of the f e a t u r e appears to be the l a r g e rocks from the previous' l e v e l , with, l i n e s of smal l e r rocks extending from them. See f l o o r plan 9. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:236 abrasive stone Faunal Remains — none L e v e l 1.5'-2.0' D e s c r i p t i o n — The ma t r i x was dark s o i l and rock. S e v e r a l s m a l l patches of ash and charcoal'occurred. The rock f e a t u r e continued i n t o t h i s l e v e l , with, the a d d i t i o n of a number of l a r g e rocks. See f l o o r p l a n 10. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - 8 fragments of burnt mammal bone L e v e l 2.0'-2.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was dark s o i l and rock, except f o r a l a r g e area of hard brown ash. around t h e -rock f e a t u r e . A number of a d d i t i o n a l large- rocks- appeared In t h i s l e v e l , c l u s t e r i n g from t h e center to the north, w a l l . See f l o o r p l an 11. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:239 abrasive stone. Faunal Remains — s e v e r a l s m a l l fragments of burnt bone Other - s e v e r a l s m a l l pieces of clam s h e l l L e v e l 2.5'-3.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was very hard brown ash. oyer most of the square and dark s o i l i n the NW corner. More l a r g e rocks appeared i n the rock f e a t u r e , c l u s t e r i n g around the NE corner. See; f l o o r p l a n 12. Several s m a l l deep holes, were noted I n the ash.. Charcoal was discovered i n l a r g e q u a n t i t y under the. rocks i n the NW corner. A charcoal sample was taken. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - 1 fragment of burnt mammal hone. L e v e l 3.0*-3.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l was compact brown ash:, w^th. dark s o i l continuing i n the NW; quadrant. The dark s o i l contained a great deal of c h a r c o a l . Large rocks? continued to appear. See f l o o r p l a n 13. 161 A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none Le v e l 3.5'-4.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - A mass of a d d i t i o n a l l a r g e rocks appeared i n t h i s l e v e l . They were c l u s t e r e d mainly around the center of the p i t . See f l o o r p l a n 14. The matrix was hard Brown ash through most of the p i t . Dark s o i l continued i n the NE quadrant. Ash came to an end along the east w a l l and was u n d e r l a i n By Black s o i l (mainly charcoal).. A r t i f a c t s - DkSp 1:240 coBBle t o o l Faunal Remains — none L e v e l 4.0'-4.5' D e s c r i p t i o n - The l a y e r of hard Brown ash came, to an end near the top of t h i s l e v e l , Being replaced By dark s o i l across the square. Thin lenses of loose white ash. and charcoal occurred. A l l traces of the rock f e a t u r e disappeared w i t h the end of the ash l a y e r . A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains — none L e v e l 4.5'-5.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The matrix of t h i s l e v e l ' was dark s o i l . Scattered patches of. l o o s e white ash o c c a s i o n a l l y occurred. A carBon sample was taken from the SW quadrant at 5.2' Below datum. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none Le v e l 5.C-5.5' D e s c r i p t i o n — The matri x f o r this- l e v e l was dark, s o i l with, some g r a v e l . Some s c a t t e r e d ash and charcoal s t i l l occurred. A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 5.5'-6.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - The m a t r i x continued to Be dark, s o i l , with some, s c a t t e r e d ash. and c h a r c o a l . A r t i f a c t s — none Faunal Remains - none L e v e l 6.0'-8.0' D e s c r i p t i o n - Only the NE quadrant was excavated. This.. w,as taken down to the appearance of Beach sand. The matrix was 162 dark s o i l w i t h a great deal of g r a v e l . One l a y e r of ash appeared at 7.5' below datum. Sand was reached j u s t above the 8 r below datum l e v e l . A r t i f a c t s - none Faunal Remains - none 163 Appendix 2 P r o f i l e s and F l o o r Plans The w a l l s of the two i n t e r s e c t i n g t e s t trenches, composed of t e s t p i t s 6, 7, 11, 12, 13, and 14, are shown here, as are the north and east w a l l s of the two second'terrace p i t s . The remaining s i x u n i t s were shallow i n depth and almost homogeneous i n matrix. Few f l o o r plans were drawn. Rock features were r a r e or d i f f i c u l t to d i s c e r n i n a m a t r i x of dark s o i l and rocks. Half of the f l o o r plans (numbers 8 to 14) r e f e r to the l a r g e rock f e a t u r e that extended through much of t e s t p i t 15. Each f e a t u r e shown i n the f l o o r p l a n i s described i n the appropriate l e v e l notes i n Appendix 1. T E S T PIT 5- ZIO'- ZI5 £• 50'-55 ' NORTH WALL CAST W A L L S: 210 E- SO' ash. ask Jar k So ' / , ro.e.k S £• 5-5' J o^r k SO''', r<?c.& S • 2 / 5 TEST PIT 15 N- GO'- (,5' E- 55'- °lO NORTH WALL CAST W/UL £ to St,aU '• l'= I Cm. FLOOR P L A N I T E S T PIT I O N- 5o'- S5 ' £-• - 5 5 - ^ 0 ' F L O O R DEPTH - 3-o' FLOOR P L A N Z T E S T " P I T 10 N • 5 O '- B 5 E •••*>':•'- £f o ' rLOOR OB. PTH - 1.5 ' Scale.' - i 1' > FLOOR FLAN 3 T £ 5 T RFF II N • H 5"' '-- 5"1 o ' ET : 3 S '- H O F L O O R D E P T H — I S ' FLOOR PLAN .4-TEST ri T 12 AV • 5"<9 ' - 5" 5" ' E • •HG ' - SO' r LO o F; P £? P T H - 1-5 ' FLOOR FLAN 5 T E S T FIT ) 2 N- so' - 6 s ' r - ^ 5'- so' ri_ooFK O E f T H — Z.5"' d a. r U soil t r i i s U J S lie II •f <i 5 h scale |'—>• FLOOR T f S T N- SO' - 55 ' F L O O R DB PLAN h PIT /2_ r H ••- _<. o ' F L O O R PLAN 7 TI.'^T PIT" J '/ w • s LJ GT< ' r • 3 o '- 5 ' F- I. <>o H L'F. {•' ">' H -- 't- o ' „ N t 5cale : - < )' FLOOR PL/} A S T E S T " FIT 1.5 N : 6 o ' - £, 5 ' £ •  Si' ' - °l 0 ' F L O O R DE P TH — /. O ' r v t <, c a. I & '• •<• FLOOR P L A N 9 T r s T P/T" 15" N • &o '- ' E : 2 5'- 9 0 ' FLOOR DEPTH — '5' Nt FLOOR FL A N 11 T E S T P / T 15" N • L o ' — £ S ' E •• ?t. riu ' FLOOR PBPTH — 2.5' F L O O R F L A N / Z T E S T P r r 15~ A/ • t o ' - 6 5 ' E ; V 5 ' - 9* ' f l o o r OKFTH — s.o' 2. FLOOR P L F\ N ) 3 " T E S T PIT 13" /V : 6 o' — 6 s ' E~ '• is '— no ' Ft- a o f\ p B p TH — '3.5 sees ie'. -=—r—>• FLOOR PL A N \4r TF ST FIT 15 SI • &o dS ' fT : ? £ '- ?o ' 182 Appendix 3 Artifact L i s t Number Description Test Pit Co-ordinates (in feet) Matrix DkSp 1: N or S E Depth b«d. 1 trade beads 1 S:195.5 23.3 0.6 dark s o i l 2 clay pipe frag. 1 S:197 24.3 0.8 dark s o i l 3 trade bead 1 S:199.1 24.4 1.0 dark s o i l 4 worked bone 1 S:195.9 24.4 1.2 dark s o i l 5 abrasive stone 1 S:196.4 23.7 1.3 dark s o i l 6 antler cortex 1 S:195 25 1.3 dark s o i l 7 dogfish spine 1 S:195.8 24.7 1.5 dark s o i l 8 abrasive stone 1 S:196.2 23.3 1.4 dark s o i l 9 clay pipe frag. 1 S:195.9 21.7 1.6 dark s o i l , some shell 10 bone point 1 S:196.7 24.8 1.4 dark s o i l 11 dogfish spine 1 S:196.9 23.6 1.5 dark s o i l 12 dogfish spine 1 S:196.9 23.6 1.5 dark s o i l 13 trade bead 1 S:199 22.3 1.5 dark s o i l 14 abrasive stone 1 S:199.6 24 1.3 dark s o i l 15 trade bead 1 S:199 21.8 1.4 dark s o i l 16 worked whalebone 1 S:196.1 23.6 2.0 dark s o i l 17 abrasive stone 1 S:197.5 23.9 2.0 dark s o i l 18 bone point 1 S:196.6 22.9 1.9 dark s o i l 19 abrasive stone 1 S:196 23.4 2.1 dark s o i l 20 abrasive stone 1 S:195.5 22.5: 1.9 dark s o i l 21 abrasive stone 1 S:196.6 21.8 2.6 dark s o i l 22 trade bead 2 S:205.2 22.9 0.7 dark s o i l 23 trade bead 2 S:209.9 22.5 1.2 dark s o i l 24 clay pipe frag. 2 S:206.3 20.9 1.4 dark s o i l 25 trade bead 2 S:206.1 20.2 1.4 dark s o i l 26 abrasive stone 2 S-.207.9 21.7 1.7 dark s o i l 27 abrasive stone 2- . S:207.5 21.4 1.7 dark s o i l 28 abrasive stone 2 S:207.2 21.5 1.9 dark s o i l 29 abrasive stone 2 S:206.1 20.5 2.0 dark s o i l 30 abrasive stone 2 S:210 23.3 1.7 dark s o i l 31 abrasive stone 2 S:207.9 23.9 2.0 dark s o i l 32 abrasive stone 2 S:208.7 20.4 2.3 dark s o i l 33 abrasive stone 2 1.4-1.9 dark s o i l 34 bone point 3 S:112.1 39.5 0.5 dark s o i l 35 bone point 3 S:111.4 38.2 0.4 dark s o i l 36 small pointed bone 3 S:113.1 37.8 0.7 dark s o i l 37 beaver incisor 3 S:113.6 37 0.4 dark s o i l 38 trade bead 3 S:113 37.3 0.8 dark s o i l 39 small pointed bone 3 S:113 37.6 0.8 dark s o i l 40 bone point frag. 3 S:111.2 35.9 0.8 dark s o i l 41 trade bead 3 S:113 35.6 0.6 dark s o i l 42 rolled copper bead 3 S:112.5 37 0.8 dark s o i l 43 trade bead 3 S:113.3 35.9 0.8 dark s o i l 44 trade bead 3 S:113.6 35.5 0.7 dark s o i l 45 trade bead 3 S:114.4 35.4 0.7 dark s o i l 46 worked whalebone 3 S:110.1 39.5 0.9 dark s o i l 47 abrasive stone 3 S:114 39.5 0.8 dark s o i l 48 worked bone frag. 3 S:114.4 38.3 1.1 dark s o i l 183 Appendix 3 (cont'd) A r t i f a c t L i s t Number D e s c r i p t i o n Test P i t Co-ordinates ( i n f e e t ) M a t r i x DkSp 1: N or S E Depth b.d. 49 abr a s i v e stone 3 S:112.4 35.7 1.3 dark s o i l , some s h e l l 50 bone p o i n t 3 S t i l l . 7 35.1 1.1 dark s o i l 51 trade bead 4 S:211.5 54.5 0.5 dark s o i l 52 f i s h hook shank 4 S:210.9 53.3 0.5 dark s o i l 53 trade bead 4 S:214.3 54 0.3 dark s o i l 54 trade bead 4 S:211.3 51.9 0.6 dark s o i l 55 abrasive stone 4 S:211.5 50.5 1.8 dark s o i l 56 ab r a s i v e stone 4 S:212.6 51.1 2.4 dark s o i l 57 abra s i v e stone 4 S:2.4.3 51.6 2.1 dark s o i l 58 abra s i v e stone 4 S:113.7 50 2.3 dark s o i l 59 ab r a s i v e stone 4 S:114.7 55 1.7 dark s o i l 60 ab r a s i v e stone 4 S:111*4 52.4 3.6 dark s o i l 61 b a s a l t chopper from beach 62 trade bead 5 S:200.8 24 0.5 dark s o i l 63 trade bead 5 S:202.1 24.4 0.5 dark s o i l 64 trade bead 5 S:200.7 23.6 0.5 dark s o i l 65 trade bead 5 S:201.4 24.6 0.9 dark s o i l 66 c l a y pipe f r a g . 5 S:202.8 24.4 0.8 dark s o i l 67 trade bead 5 S:203.3 21 1.2 dark s o i l 68 trade bead 5 S:203.1 23.4 1.2 dark s o i l 69 c l a y p i p e f f r g g . 5 S:201.2 20.8 1.7 dark s o i l 70 trade bead 5 S:200.3 20.5 1.6 dark s o i l 71 trade bead 5 s:202.2 20.4 1.7 dark s o i l 72 trade bead 5 S:202.6 20.3 1.7 dark s o i l 73 trade bead 5 S:203.2 21 1.5 dark s o i l 74 c l a y pipe:*frag. 5 S:201.4 20.8 1.9 dark s o i l 75 c l a y pipe f r a g . from beach 76 trade bead 6 N:69 35.2 0.3 dark s o i l 77 trade bead 6 N:69.1 36.8 0.4 dark s o i l 78 trade bead 6 N-.69.6 36.6 0.5 dark s o i l 79 trade bead 6 N:69.2 35.2 0.4 dark s o i l 80 c l a y pipe f r a g . 6 N:67 37.2 0.7 dark s o i l 81 trade bead 6 N:66.6 39 0.7 dark s o i l 82 trade bead 6 N:67.1 37.2 1.5 dark s o i l 83 chipped pebble 6 N:68.6 36.1 1.7 dark s o i l 84 abra s i v e stone' 6 N:67.6 36.7 1.7 dark s o i l 85 abra s i v e stone 6 N:66.8 35.7 2.7 dark s o i l 86 trade bead 7 N:58.7 36 0.4 dark s o i l 87 worked whalebone 7 N:56.2 36.5 0.3 dark s o i l 88 trade bead 7 N:55.8 39.3 0.8 dark s o i l 89 abrasive stone 7 N:57.8 39.8 1.1 dark s o i l 90 bone awl 7 N:57.7 37.7 1.3 dark s o i l 91 worked bone f r a g . 7 N:57.3 37.8 1.4 dark s o i l 92 harpoon v a l v e 7 N:56.3 38.4 1.5 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 93 a b r a s i v e stone 7 N:57.7 36.8 1.4' dark s o i l 94 worked whalebone 7 N?56.4 35.9 1.4 crushed s h e l l 95 s m a l l pointed bone 7 N;58.9 35.8 1.7 dark s o i l 96 bone p o i n t t i p 7 N:56.9 36.8 1.9 dark s o i l 97 sm a l l pointed bone 7 N:57.1 37.2 1.8 dark s o i l 184 Appendix 3 (cont'd) A r t i f a c t L i s t Number D e s c r i p t i o n Test Co-ordinates ( i n f e e t ) M a t r i x DkSp 1: P i t N or S E Depth b.d. 98 l a r g e pointed bone 7 N:58.4 35.4 1.7 dark s o i l 99 worked bone f r a g . 7 N:56.1 36.3 1.9 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 100 bone p o i n t 7 N:55.6 37.1 1.6 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 101 chipped pebble 7 N:55.9 39.4 2.4 dark s o i l 102 bone p o i n t 7 N:55 35.6 2.2 dark s o i l 103 bone p o i n t f r a g . 7 N:55.7 38.5 3.1 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l , 104 bone poi n t t i p 7 N:56.9 37.5 3.1 dark s o i l 105 bone p o i n t f r a g . 7 N:56.1 38.3 3.7 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 106 harpoon v a l v e blank 7 N:55 37.1 3.9 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 107 bone p o i n t f r a g . 8 S:109.6 37.7 0.7 dark s o i l 108 trade bead 8 S:107.5 37.5 0.9 dark s o i l 109 trade bead 8 S:107.3 37.4 0.9 dark s o i l 110 trade bead 8 S:106.3 37.8 1.0 dark s o i l 111 worked bone f r a g . 8 S:107.1 37 0.9 dark s o i l 112 trade bead 8 S:l09.8 37.9 0.9 dark s o i l 113 trade bead 8 S:105.4 36.9 0.9 dark s o i l 114 bone p o i n t 8 8.1' SSU09.4 36.9 1.1 dark s o i l 115 trade bead 8 S:105.6 37.3 1.4 dark s o i l 116 trade bead 8 S:106 37 1.2 dark s o i l 117 small pointed bone 8 S:106.8 37.3 1.4 dark s o i i 118 bone p o i n t 8 S:106.1 36.3 1.3 dark s o i l 119 trade bead 8 S:107.9 35 1.2 dark s o i l 120 abra s i v e stone 8 S:105.5 39.5 1.5 dark s o i l 121 trade bead 9 S:117.8 38.6 0.3 dark s o i l 122 worked bone f r a g . 9 S:116.6 37.6 0.7 dark s o i l 123 trade bead 9 S:116.9 36.9 0.6 dark s o i l 124 worked bone f r a g . 9 S:119.3 36.6 0.8 dark s o i l 125 trade bead 9 S:119.5 35.8 0.7 dark s o i l 126 worked bone 9 S:116.3 36.9 1.1 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 127 worked bone f r a g . 9 S:117.9 36.2 1.3 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 128 bone b i p o i n t 9 S:116.4 37.6 1.4 dark s o i l 129 trade bead 10 N:54.4 38.7 0.2 dark s o i l 130 trade bead 10 N:57.1 39.6 0.3 dark s o i l 131 trade bead 10 N:50.2 39.2 0.3 dark s o i l 132 trade bead 10 N:50.8 37.1 0.2 dark s o i l 133 bone awl 10 N:52.3 38 0.9 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 134 abrasive stone 10 N:50.8 36.3 0.7 dark s o i l 135 bone p o i n t 10 N:54.6 37.8 1.4 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 136 bone poi n t 10 N:53 39.6 1-5 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 137 ab r a s i v e stone 10 N:53.9 39.5 1.6 dark s o i l 138 abra s i v e stone 10 N:53.7 39.7 1.6 dark s o i l 139 bone poi n t 10 N:52.8 38.7 1.8 dark s o i l 140 abra s i v e stone 10 N:53.4 39.2 2.4 dark s o i l 141 sm a l l pointed bone 10 N;55 36.3 2.3 dark s o i l 142 bone pendant 10 N:54.2 37.3 2.7 dark s o i l 143 bone b i p o i n t 10 N:54.1 36.5 2.7 dark s o i l 144 worked bone f r a g . 10 N:53.9 36.4 2.9 dark s o i l , some s h e l l 185 Appendix 3 (cont'd) A r t i f a c t L i s t Number D e s c r i p t i o n Test P i t Co-ordinates ( i n f e e t ) M a t r i x DkSp 1: N or S - E Depth b.d. 145 bone p o i n t 10 N:54.9 36.9 3.1 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 146 bone p o i n t 10 N:53.8 37.3 3.4 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 147 worked whalebone 10 N:55 38.3 3.5 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 148 bone p o i n t 10 N:54 39.6 3.2 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 149 bone p o i n t f r a g . 10 N:54 39.7 3.3 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 150 bone p o i n t 10 N:54 39.7 3.3 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 151 worked bone f r a g . 10 N:53.1 38.4 3.2 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 152 bone p o i n t 7 N:55.2 35.5 3.1 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 153 bone p o i n t t i p 10 N:50.7 35.7 3.3 dark s o i l 154 bone p o i n t 10 N:54.8 39.8 3.8 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 155 bone b i p o i n t 10 N:53.8 36.7 3.7 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 156 bone p o i n t 10 N:57.9 39.7 3.7 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 157 bone p o i n t 7 N:55.2 35.6 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 158 bone p o i n t 10 N:50.2 39 3.8 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 159 bone b i p o i n t 10 N:50.6 37.1 3.8 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 160 bone p o i n t 10 N:50.3 37 3.8 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 161 worked bone f r a g . 10 N:54.9 35.5 4.1 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 162 bone p o i n t t i p 10 N: 3.5 36.7 4.2 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 163 f r e e number 164 hand maul'frag. from beach 165 trade bead from beach 166 trade bead 12 N:53.7 46.1 0.2 dark s o i l 167 c l a y pipe f r a g . 12 N:56.7 47.3 0.7 dark s o i l 168 abra s i v e stone 12 N.-58.9 46.8 0.9 dark s o i l 169 trade bead 11 N-.46.6 38.2 0.2 dark s o i l 170 trade bead 11 N.-49.3 36.4 0.4 dark s o i l 171 trade bead 11 N-.46.7 36.2 0.1 dark s o i l 172 trade bead 11 N:47.3 35.2 0.5 dark s o i l 173 trade bead 11 N:45.1 37.4 0.4 dark s o i l 174 trade bead 11 N;47.4 38.4 0.8 dark s o i l 175 ground mussel s h e l l 12 N:53.2 47.9 2.5 dark s o i l , broken s h e l l 176 bone p o i n t 11 N:49.8 38.5 2.1 crushed s h e l l , dark s o i l 177 worked bone f r a g . 11 N:48.8 37.9 2.1 crushed s h e l l 178 s m a l l pointed bone 12 N:51.5 47.8 2.4 crushed s h e l l 179 chipped pebble 11 N:48.3 39.7 2.5 dark s o i l 180 sm a l l pointed bone 12 N:52.2 47.3 3.0 crushed s h e l l 181 bone b i p o i n t 12 N:51.3 48 2.9 crushed s h e l l 182 sm a l l pointed bone 12 N:51.7 50 2.9 dark s o i l , some s h e l l 183 barbed bone poi n t 12 N:50.7 45 3.1 crushed s h e l l 184 bone. awl 12 N:52.2 45.5 3.5 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 185 bone poi n t 11 N:50 39.5 3.1 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 186 worked bone f r a g . 11 N:48.5 39.5 3.2 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 187 bone p o i n t f r a g . 11 N:49.3 35.5 3.2 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 188 pi p e stem 13 N-.54.8 44.8 0.3 dark s o i l 189 double bead 13 N:52.2 43.7 0.5 dark s o i l 190 trade bead 13 N:53.2 43.5 0.4 dark s o i l 191 trade bead 13 N:54.8 44 0.4 dark s o i l 186 Appendix 3 (cont'd) A r t i f a c t L i s t Number D e s c r i p t i o n Test Co-ordinates ( i n f e e t ) M a t r i x DkSp 1: P i t N or S' E Depth b.d. 192 trade bead 13 N:51.8 43.2 0.5 dark s o i l 193 trade bead 13 N:50.6 43 0.4 dark s o i l 194 harpoon v a l v e f r a g . 11 N:47.8 38.2 4.3 g r a v e l , crushed s h e l l 195 trade bead 13 N:50.6 41.1 0.6 dark s o i l 196 trade bead 13 N:51.3 40.6 0.9 dark s o i l 197 trade bead 13 N:53.8 40.8 0.5 dark s o i l 198 trade bead 13 N:55 40.9 0.4 dark s o i l 199 hand maul f r a g . 13 N:50.9 41.3 1.1 dark s o i l 200 trade bead 13 N:50.4 42.6 1.1 dark s o i l 201 s m a l l pointed bone 13 N:51.6 40.4 1.2 crushed s h e l l 202 abrasive stone 13 N:53.5 42.4 1.3 dark s o i l 203 ab r a s i v e stone 13 N:52.3 43.2 1.6 dark s o i l 204 ab r a s i v e stone 13 N:52.3 44.6 2.1 dark s o i l 205 chipped pebble 13 N:54.7 41.4 2.0 dark s o i l 206 bone p o i n t 13 N:51.7 40.2 2.7 dark s o i l 207 harpoon v a l v e 13 N:51.7 43.5 3.4 crushed s h e l l 208 bone p o i n t f r a g . 13 N:52.8 41.2 3.2 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 209 bone p o i n t 13 N:53.5 40.5 3.4 cark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 210 bone p o i n t f r a g . 13 N:51.6 41 3.7 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 211 bone p o i n t f r a g . 13 N:51.1 40.6 4.0 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 212 bone p o i n t 13 N:50.6 41.1 3.6 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 213 bone b i p o i n t 13 N:53 40.4 3.9 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 214 bone p o i n t 13 N:53.2 40.4 3.7 dark s o i l , crushed s h e l l 215 small pointed bone 13 N:51.4 42.9 3.9 crushed s h e l l , sand 216 ab r a s i v e stone 13 N:54.7 40.7 3.8 crushed s h e l l , g r a v e l 217 sm a l l pointed bone 13 N:54.1 40.9 4.1 crushed s h e l l , sand 218 small pointed bone 13 N:52.7 41.9 4.1 crushed s h e l l , sand 219 c l a y p i pe f r a g . 15 N:61.9 88.2 0.4 dark s o i l 220 trade bead 15 N:61.2 87.6 0.4 dark s o i l 221 trade bead 15 N:60.5 87.6 0.4 dark s o i l 222 trade bead 15 N:62 87.7 0.5 dark s o i l 223 trade bead 15 N:62.9 98.3 0.5 dark s o i l 224 trade bead 15 N-.63.8 98.8 0.5 dark s o i l 225 trade bead 15 N:63.9 89.8 0.4 dark s o i l 226 trade bead 15 N:62.8 87.3 0.4 dark s o i l 227 trade bead 15 N:64.5 85.5 0.2 dark s o i l 228 ab r a s i v e stone 15 N:61.4 87.7 1.0 dark s o i l 229 trade bead 15 N:63 89.2 0.7 dark s o i l 230 trade bead 14 N:54.5 34.5 0.3 dark s o i l 231 trade bead 14 N:51.2 34.1 0.2 dark s o i l 232 trade bead 14 N:51.2 34.4 0.4 dark s o i l 233 trade bead 14 N:54.4 30.9 0.3 dark s o i l 234 fused trade beads 14 N:51.4 31.3 0.4 dark s o i l 235 trade bead 14 N:51.3 30.9 0.5 dark s o i l 236 ab r a s i v e stone 15 N:61 89.2 1.2 dark s o i l 237 bone b i p o i n t 14 N:54.6 35 1.8 crushed s h e l l 238 bone p o i n t 14 N:54 34.1 1.9 crushed s h e l l 187 Appendix 3 (cont'd) A r t i f a c t L i s t Number D e s c r i p t i o n Test P i t Co-ordinates ( i n f e e t ) M a t r i x DkSp 1: N or S E Depth b.d. 239 abr a s i v e stone 15 N:62.2 89.2 2.3 loose ash 240 cobble t o o l 15 N:63.3 88.5 3.8 compact ash 241 bone p o i n t f r a g . 14 N:54.3 35 3.3 dark s o i l 242 chipped pebble 14 N:51.9 33.7 3.2 dark s o i l 243 bone p o i n t f r a g . 14 N:52.4 32 3.1 dark s o i l 244 bone p o i n t f r a g . 14 N:52.9 31.9 3.4 dark s o i l 245 chipped pebble 14 N:52.3 30.3 3.0 dark s o i l 246 b i r d bone awl 14 N:54 34.6 3.9 dark s o i l 247 bone p o i n t f r a g . 14 N:54.1 32.9 3.7 dark s o i l 248 bone b i p o i n t 14 N:53.2 32.5 3.7 dark s o i l 249 s m a l l p o inted bone 14 N:53 34.6 4.8 sand 250 harpoon v a l v e f r a g . 3 0.8-1.3 dark s o i l 251 ground scapula f r a g . 3 0.8-1.3 dark s o i l 252 ab r a s i v e stone 6 1.7-2.2 253 worked bone f r a g . 7 1.0-1.5 254 sma l l pointed bone 7 2.0-2.5 255 c l a y pipe f r a g . 9 0-0.8 256 wedge f r a g . 10 2.5-3.0 257 worked whalebone 10 3.0-3.5 258 s m a l l p o inted bone 10 4.0-4.5 259 worked whalebone 11 2.0-2.5 260 bone awl 11 2.0-2.5 261 worked bone f r a g . 12 2.5-3.0 262 abr a s i v e stone 13 1.5-2.0 263 worked whalebone 13 3.0-3.5 264 abras i v e stone 13 3.5-4.0 265 harpoon v a l v e f r a g . 13 3.5-4.0 266 worked bone 8 0-1.0 267 c l a y pipe f r a g . 8 0-1.0 268 metal button 8 0-1.0 269 metal buckle 8 0-1.0 270 metal drawer handle 8 0-1.0 271 bone awl 9 0.8-1.3 272 harpoon v a l v e f r a g . 10 3.5-4.0 273 metal key 14 0-0.5 T E S T P I T S 6,7,10,11 EAST W A L L S i ^ rave I W E S T W A L L S rJ:i>o , S'S5 .rushed sAe// sK&ZT! d a r k S o i l A/: 65 S a i l t k r o u 0 i k extend inj T n G ^ I a n d ; H t o L £••'35' d a r k & a , j r o c k S a y\ J M A P 4 C O O P T E ( D k S p 1) scale • t cm.*. - 1.0 ft. ex C ava t -ed units _ s e M l ! M S I SECoNP "V TERRA C£-(ca. Z ^ . ^ ' a ^ e 0 ' se a /s ve/ ^  F/RST £>' sea /eve/J) house. 3 a Z 1 5 2 Appro*. I i rn i f~s o / site. (j>-S i n d i c a t e d by & re <a /' Secondary <j rowf A^) \ni <g A fide. 9- # i> ves Z e Set _L level TEST - PITS 10,12,13,14 H--55', N O R J H W A L L S IT 3C dark Soil 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104392/manifest

Comment

Related Items