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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Athenaios Mechanicus West, George Robert 1969

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ATHENAIOS MECHANICUS  by GEORGE ROBERT WEST B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of B r i t i s h  Columbia, 1 9 6 6  A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l the  Requirements  Fulfilment of  f o r t h e Degree o f  MASTER OF ARTS in  t h e Department  of  Classics  We a c c e p t t h i s standard  thesis  required  as conforming t o the  from c a n d i d a t e s f o r t h e  degree o f Maste/  T'ke  University  of Arts  of British  May, 1 9 6 9  Columbia  In  presenting  this thesis  in partial  f u l f i l m e n t o f the  r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y British freely that  Columbia,  I agree that  available f o r reference  permission f o r extensive  scholarly  p u r p o s e s may  of  the Library  s h a l l make i t  and s t u d y .  I further  agree  copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r  be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my  Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . that  copying or p u b l i c a t i o n  gain  s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  I t i s understood  of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l written  George R.  Department o f C l a s s i c s The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a Vancouver B.C., Canada  permission.  West  ABSTRACT  The  work o f A t h e n a i o s M e c h a n i c u s i s a l i t t l e  treatise  on  Although  t h i s work, a l o n g w i t h o t h e r s on t h e  contained  siege machinery e n t i t l e d  i n several manuscripts,  very l i t t l e  study has been devoted  three  editions  1912)  and  and  one  written  two  (Thevenot,  translations,  have t r i e d  varying after  d u r i n g the to i t .  same t o p i c , last  one  i n French  1 9 1 2 ) .  is  2 5 0 years  T h e r e have b e e n Schneider  (De R o c h a s ,  Schneider  has  188k)  also  commentary.  Biographical who  Mnxavnud-cwv.  1 6 9 3 ; W e s c h e r ; 1 8 6 7 ; and  i n German ( S c h n e i d e r , a  riepl  known  information i s very  t o d a t e the  conclusions (third  slight  work have a r r i v e d c e n t u r y B.C.  and at  scholars widely  to t h i r d  century  Christ). In  this  t h e s i s my  o b j e c t s have b e e n :  a) t o p r o v i d e an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n b a s e d on W e s c h e r s t e x t ,  o f the  work  f  b)  t o p r o v i d e a b r i e f resume o f t h e o p i n i o n s a d v a n c e d c o n c e r n i n g t h e b i o g r a p h y o f A t h e n a i o s and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to V i t r u v i u s ,  c) t o w r i t e a b r i e f a r i s i n g from the  commentary on text.  selected  topics  iii.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I. II. III. IV. V.  PAGE INTRODUCTION  1  THE DATING  5  THE TEXT  15  THE TRANSLATION  3 6  THE COMMENTARY  5 6  BIBLIOGRAPHY . .  HI  iv.  L I S T OF ILLUSTRATIONS  1.  EU^UTOVOV and na\tvxovov catapults according t o t h e d e s c r i p t i o n o f E . P . B a r k e r (CQ 1 4 , 82-86).  66  2.  The C o m p o s i t e Bow S t r u n g a n d U n s t r u n g (a) a s compared w i t h t h e S e l f - b o w S t r u n g a n d U n s t r u n g  68  3.  (b): 83  S a c k u r s ( V i t r u v und d i e P o l i o r k e t i k e r p . 6 7 ) arrangement o f wheels, a x l e s , and a x l e - b l o c k s in the " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n ditches" described 1  by  Athenaios  (16.10).  4.  S a c k u r * s (op_. c i t . p . 6 8 ) a r r a n g e m e n t o f w h e e l s , a x l e s , and a x l e - b l o c k s i n t h e " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " d e s c r i b e d by V i t r u v i u s ( 1 0 . 1 4 . 1 ) .  84  5.  D i a g r a m s h o w i n g r a n g e o f movement p o s s i b l e i n t h e " t o r t o i s e o f H e g e t o r " when c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h f o u r uprights.  88  6.  S a c k u r ' s (OJD. c i t . p. 9 3 ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a np6tpoxo s described by Athenaios ( 3 4 . 1 ) .  97  7.  My r e s o l u t i o n o f 6 .  97  8.  "Arete t o r t o i s e " according p. 9 5 ) d e s c r i p t i o n .  9.  Manuscript drawings o f v a r i o u s Athenaios ( f i g s . I-XII).  ,  cit.  102  machines d e s c r i b e d  by 1 0 6  t o Sackur s 1  (op_.  V  LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AGW  Abhandlung d e r G e s e l l s c h a f t d e r Wis sense h a f t z u Gottingen, P h i l o s . - H i s t . Klasse.  Berl. Sitz.  S i t z u n g s b e r i c h t e d e r P r e u s s i s c h e n Akademie d e r Wissenschaften.~  CAH  The Cambridge A n c i e n t H i s t o r y .  CQ  The C l a s s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y .  DA  D i c t i o n n a i r e des A n t i q u i t e s Grecques e t Romaines. ed. by C. Daremberg and E. S a g l i o .  FGH  D i e Fragmente d e r G r i e c h i s c h e n H i s t o r i k e r . ed. by F. Jacoby.  JS  J o u r n a l des Savants .  Klio  K l i o , Beitr'age z u r a l t e n G e s c h i c h t e .  LSJ  Liddell-Scott-Jones-McKenzie, A L e x i c o n . N i n t h e d i t i o n , 1940.  LSKPh  L e i p z i g e r Studien zur k l a s s i s c h e n P h i l o l o g i e .  OCD  The Oxford C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y .  RE  Paulys Real-Encyclopadie Altertumswissenschaft  t  Greek-English  der c l a s s i s c h e n  ed. by G. Wissowa et a l .  RhM  R h e i n i s c h e s Museum f i i r P h i l o l o g i e .  RPh Vorsokr.  Revue de P h i l o l o g i e . D i e Fragmente d e r V o r s o k r a t i k e r , ed. by H. D i e l s and W. Kranz.  vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I wish t o express my g r a t i t u d e t o P r o f e s s o r James R u s s e l l , the  d i r e c t o r o f t h i s t h e s i s , f o r h i s guidance and h e l p f u l  criticism.  CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION  Siegecraft l a t e as other  the  came r e l a t i v e l y  fifth  simple  l a t e to Greece.  c e n t u r y B.C.,  siege-devices  although  were i n u s e ,  c i t i e s were u s u a l l y a b l e t o t a k e c o u n t e r m e a s u r e s and the  cities finally  the  Thucydides  (2.71-7&  3.20-24)  and  1  siege-warfare  at that  the  defenders  effective,  1  to treachery  this  siege  the  end  able  small c i t y ,  Sicily  At f i r s t  B.C.  o f the t h i s was  i n the  in  probably  moveable  employed i n a p u r e l y long  the  towers, battering-rams  right  t o the w a l l s  up  effective  other  safety.  the w a l l s .  f o r throwing l a r g e stones  The  fashion,but  of  realized. defenders  such  t o move  devices  T h e r e was The  clashed  significant.  enemy c o u l d r e c o v e r , and  in  arms.  made.  r a n g e were soon  in relative  chance o f d e m o l i s h i n g  l a t e r modified  random  p o s s i b l e to c l e a r the w a l l s  i n t e r v a l before  and  Carthaginians  t h e most  of  spite  years  a d v a n c e s began t o be  sappers,  a good  s i e g e f o r two  G r e e k s and  c a t a p u l t was  a d v a n t a g e s of i t s v e r y  W i t h them i t was and  when t h e  some s i g n i f i c a n t  invention  the  the  Plataea  state  succumbed t o h u n g e r r a t h e r t h a n t o f o r c e o f  A r o u n d 400 in  to withstand  or  of  the  o f rams, s i e g e - m o u n d s , l a d d e r s , u n d e r m i n i n g , and t o w e r s , was  of  blockades,  from w i t h i n  i l l u s t r a t e s most c l e a r l y For  and  i f primitive,  d e s c r i p t i o n o f the  time.  as  battering-rams  s i e g e s d e g e n e r a t e d t o mere  falling  starvation.  Even  catapult  so t h a t  i n k n o c k i n g down t h e w a l l s f r o m a g r e a t  then was  i t became distance.  2.  Diodoros  1  d e s c r i p t i o n of P h i l i p * s siege  shows s i e g e - w a r f a r e made use  of towers 80  operations he may  in a well  and  well  cities.  developed  cubits t a l l ,  various  types of  catapults  —  (e,£.  of Demetrios P o l i o r k e t e s  Diod.  91-100) included  Once a g a i n  (.§_..£. Rhodes  some o f t h e  cities  seem t o  siegecraft,  could  have made l i t t l e  w h i c h d o e s not  i s not  technical  The  and  l a t e Middle  produced t o  The  earliest  siegecraft i s that  the  the  f o u r t h and  extant  of  Sic.  the  Diod.  2.  W.A. Oldfather, Tacticus.  the  corpus  of  succeeding  Greek work  dealing  o f Aeneas T a c t i c u s w r i t t e n  popularity of  1.  until  significant  concerned with defence r a t h e r than o f f e n c e .  impression  to  Ages.  a considerable record  and  their  contribution  change s i g n i f i c a n t l y  advances i n s i e g e c r a f t d u r i n g c e n t u r i e s B.C.  the  restored.  Romans, f o r  original  surprising to f i n d  literature  with  s u c c e s s f u l l y withstand a siege  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f gunpowder i n t h e  with  —  greatest  a b a l a n c e o f power was  more t o f e a r f r o m t r e a c h e r y .  It  Greek  siegecraft in antiquity.  a d v a n c e s o f t e c h n i q u e and  part,  that  Arrian,  D e f e n s i v e m e a s u r e s , however, s o o n c a u g h t up  had  sapping  the  Tyre —  1  Philip  a factor with  Anab. 2 . 1 6 - 2 4 ) and  f e a t s of  For  battering-rams,  campaigns o f A l e x a n d e r  2 0 . 8 1 - 8 2 and  Perinthos  state.  have e x p l o i t e d i n h i s d e a l i n g s  The  of  ca. 360  An  of  P o l i o r c e t i k s amongst  i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Loeb o f  2  excellent Hellenistic  16.74.  p.5  B.C.  Aeneas  3.  s c i e n t i s t s may  be derived from Vitruvius* l i s t of those  have written on the subject before him  who;  (7.praef.14)'  Non minus de machinationibus, u t i Diades, Archytas, Archimedes, Ctesibios, Nymphodorus, Philo Byzantius, Diphilos, Democles, Charias, Polyidos, Pyrrhos, Agesistratos, Of t h i s l i s t only the names of Philon, Archimedes, and Ctesibios are of any significance today.  Our knowledge of the others i s  dependent upon scanty fragments of t h e i r writings or stray references i n l a t e r authors.  Biton (3rd/2nd century B„C.),  Heron (2nd/lst century B.C.), and an anonymous writer usually referred to as Anonymous of Byzantium, should also be included in any l i s t of H e l l e n i s t i c poliorketifc writers. Archimedes' fame as a physicist and mathematician i s well known.  Although none of his own writings on siegecraft  survive, his s k i l l i n inventing siege machines i s well attested.  It was owing to his machines that Syracuse was  able to hold out so long when she was (214-212 B.C.), who siege machines.  attacked by Marcellus  himself made great use of sophisticated  In the end, Syracuse f e l l to blockade and  treachery and Archimedes was k i l l e d i n the sack that followed. A considerable portion (Bks. 4 and 5) of Philon of Byzantium's t r e a t i s e Mechanicae Syntaxis survives. l i v e d i n the early second century B.C.  Philon  and was apparently used  as a source by Heron. None of Ktesibios writings survive but his fame r e s t s 1  secure.  His date i s uncertain and even i n antiquity there  seems to have been some confusion concerning him.  He i s best  4  known f o r hydraulics and pneumatics, but Athenaios describes a siege machine that was  invented by  him.  The Roman contribution to Poliorfcetitas i s modest and appears to consist rather of editing and t r a n s l a t i n g the e a r l i e r works of the Greeks —  a fact t a c i t l y acknowledged  by V i t r u v i u s when he concedes (7.praef.14) i n ea re ab Graecis volumina n o s t r i s oppido quam pauca.  plura edita, ab  Certainly the work of Vegetius ( f l . ca. 420 A.D.)  on the  subject, the only other s i g n i f i c a n t account i n Latin, cannot be regarded as anything more than a resume of e a r l i e r inventions and theories. Athenaios Mechanicus must belong to the great corpus of H e l l e n i s t i c poliorketifcs.  His date i s completely uncertain  and nothing i s known about h i s l i f e , although h i s work has survived together with other t r e a t i s e s on similar topics.  CHAPTER TWO THE  The tricably  dating o f Athenaios i n v o l v e d w i t h the  DATING  i sa very  identity  t o whom* t h e work i s d e d i c a t e d . factory  solution  discovered  complex p r o b l e m  of a certain Marcellus 1  As y e t no c o m p l e t e l y  h a s b e e n f o u n d , n o r do I p r e t e n d  one.  The b e s t  I c a n do i s t o o u t l i n e  ments a d v a n c e d b y o t h e r s a n d g i v e my r e a s o n s f o r o r d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h them. range from the t h i r d  t o the t h i r d  satis-  t o have the arguagreeing  The d a t e s g i v e n b y t h o s e  c e n t u r y B.C.  inex-  scholars  century  after  Christ.  1.  F o r C l a u d i i M a r c e l l i s e e M i i n z e r , RE 3 . 2 , 2731-2764. " C l a u d i i M a r c e l l i (214ff.)" e s p . "C. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s (216)" "C* C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s (217)" a n d » M . C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s (229)." M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s c o s .  331*  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s c o s .  26*7.  M. C l a u d i u s  Marcellus  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s  c o s . 222, 215,  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s  c o s . 196;  cens.  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s  c o s . 166,  155,  214,  210,  20S.  1&9. 152.  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s i  ;  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s a e d . c u r . 91  ,  1  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s cos.  ,  C. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s - l u n i a p r . SO  . C. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s  51  M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s a e d . c u r . 23  cos.  49  Claudia Marcella  C. C l a u d i u s '  cos.  Marcellus  50  Claudia Marcella  See a l s o T.R.S B r o u g h t o n " The M a g i s t r a t e s o f t h e Roman — R e p u b l i c (New Y o r k , 1952) p p . 240,247, and~25oT~  6.  One might think that the work could be dated on l i n g u i s t i c and s t y l i s t i c grounds, but there seems to be no agreement here.  H. D i e l s , on the one hand, says, Denn der S t i l des Buches scheint mir volkommen den Rokokocharakter des 2. Jahrh. n. Chr. an sich zu tragen, womit die h a n d s c h r i f t l i c h erhaltenen Ionismen t r e f f l i c h stimmen.2  August Brinkmann,  on the other hand, assures us on l i n g u i s t i c  and s t y l i s t i c grounds that the work of Athenaios must date to the f i r s t or second century B.C., before the triumph of Atticism.  3  The l i n g u i s t i c evidence, then, seems open to  various interpretations and can therefore lead to no d e f i n i t e conclusions. It i s tempting to take the Marcellus addressed i n the preface as the famous M. Claudius Marcellus the besieger of Syracuse (212 B.C.). the past (see  This has been the prevalent view i n  Christ i n Miillers Handbuch and Sackur,  V i t r u v i u s . 1925, pp. 95-96). obvious.  One of the reasons f o r t h i s i s  M. Claudius Marcellus carried out what was undoubtedly  the most famous siege of antiquity, i n which both the Romans and Syracusans made extensive use of siege machinery. Sackur argues from a p o l i t i c a l point of view based on (39.6-7).  o&x  6k f)uXv ueupaYjjaxguxai nax& xwv vmoTaYT)0Ou£vu>v-TOUS HCC\OIS xfjs TiyeuovLas VOUOK • •  Makiaxa  2.  H. D i e l s , "Uber das physikalische System des Straton" i n Sitzungsoerichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaft (Berlin. 1%93) v o l . 1 p. I l l note 1.  3.  See Cichorius, "Das Werk des Athenaeus uber Kriegsmaschinen," RSmische Studien (1922, reprinted 1961) p. 277.  7  This,  he s a y s ,  cannot r e f l e c t  a p e r i o d i n w h i c h t h e Roman  hegemony was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t must r e f l e c t Rome was f i r s t  becoming a c t i v e  D a t i n g t h e work t o t h i s on  c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence  a time  when  i n the east.  period i s entirely  dependent  and s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be a c c e p t e d  only with reservation. De  Rochas^ d i s c o u n t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  dedicated and  the  t o M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s , t h e c o n q u e r o r o f S y r a c u s e ,  p o s i t s as the e a r l i e s t  second  c e n t u r y B.C.  p o s s i b l e date  He d o e s t h i s ,  the beginning  firstly,  argues  B.C.  Secondly,,  mentions, t o t h e second evidence  for this,  he d a t e s  there  Athenaios  W h i l e t h e r e i s some  i s conflicting  evidence  This controversy  t h e r e f o r e K t e s i b i o s c a n n o t be d a t e d Having placed  o f t h e second  K t e s i b i o s , whom  c e n t u r y B.C.  K t e s i b i o s much e a r l i e r .  certainty.  ( f l . 220 B . C . ) .  p u p i l A g e s i s t r a t o s , who i s a l s o m e n t i o n e d , he  should then be placed a t the b e g i n n i n g  century  of t h e  b e c a u s e he t a k e s  A p o l l o n i o s m e n t i o n e d t o be A p o l l o n i o s o f P e r g a  Apollonios*  and  t h a t t h e work was  which  dates  seems u n r e s o l v a b l e  w i t h any d e g r e e o f  t h e work, a t t h e e a r l i e s t ,  i n the  s e c o n d c e n t u r y B.C. De R o c h a s p r o c e e d s t o s a y , i l e s t done a s s e z v r a i s e m b l a b l e de s u p p o s e r q u ' i l s a g i t i c i de M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s , un d e s l i e u t e n a n t s de Pompee q u i commandait a v e c C. C o p r o n i u s ( s i c ) l ' e s c a d r e de Rhodes, q u i f u t c o n s u l en l * a n 51 a v . J . - C . e t p o u r l e q u e l , C i c e r o n composa son p l a i d o y e r P r o M a r c e l l o . 5 f  4.  De R o c h a s , " T r a d u c t i o n du T r a i t e d e s M a c h i n e s d* A t h e n e e , " i n Melanges Graux ( P a r i s , p. I g 2 .  5.  ibid. W h i l e i t i s o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e argument i t s h o u l d be n o t e d t h a t De R o c h a s i s somewhat c o n f u s e d h e r e , f o r t h e M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s who was c o n s u l i n 51 B.C. was n o t t h e commander o f t h e s q u a d r o n a t Rhodes b u t r a t h e r  a. By f i x i n g the i d e n t i t y o f M a r c e l l u s i n t h i s manner De Rochas i s then a b l e t o p l a c e Athenaios i n the middle o f the f i r s t century B.C.  As we have seen he advances arguments (shaky  though they may be) why the M a r c e l l u s addressed i s not the b e s i e g e r o f Syracuse, but he has e i t h e r been unable, o r has not seen f i t t o advance any reason why the d e d i c a t i o n should r e f e r t o M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s the consul f o r 51 B.C. His  argument a p p a r e n t l y r e p r e s e n t s the merest Conrad  speculation.  Cichorius'' a l s o dates Athenaios t o the f i r s t 7  century B.C. b u t h i s reasoning f o c u s e s on the person of A p o l l o n i o s mentioned by Athenaios ( £ . 9 ) 'AixoWuvioq 6e 6 yeyovojc; auxou ( A g e s i s t r a t p s ) 6t6do"Ha\oc; T n X i x a u T a r\yayz yopxia \L$WV ETC! TO Xwua^xb nepl TOV \tueva TOV ev 'Po&w, jljcrte n a l anopTjaau TtoXXdnis xovq opwvtac; avxa m><; note etc; xac, yauc; ayeX.du.pave n a l xCvi xponq iZ,eC\exo avxa ev xj\ YU Tti 'Podip. %  From t h i s C i c h o r i u s i n f e r s t h a t A p o l l o n i o s was d i s t i n g u i s h e d as a m i l i t a r y engineer famous f o r s i e g e s , p a r t l y on the grounds t h a t h i s p u p i l A g e s i s t r a t o s was a famous s i e g e engineer and p a r t l y by v i r t u e o f h i s accomplishments a t Rhodes.  He argues that a m i l i t a r y engineer would have no  other purpose  i n t r a n s p o r t i n g cargoes o f stone t o Rhodes  than f o r reasons o f defence. of  There are two famous s i e g e s  Rhodes recorded i n a n t i q u i t y , one by Demetrios  Poliorketes  i n 3 0 4 B.C. and the other by M i t h r i d a t e s i n &*&y7B.C.  In the  h i s b r o t h e r C. Claudius M a r c e l l u s who was consul i n 49 B.C. ( c f . note 1 ) . 7.  C. C i c h o r i u s , opj. c i t . pp. 271-279.  9.  case o f the l a t t e r , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o conclude from Appian's account t h a t l o a d s o f stone might have been used when xa xe  xeCxn acpwv  (the Rhodians)  nal  TOU?  eKpaxuvavxo.  8  In the b e l i e f , then, that these were the a c t i v i t i e s d i r e c t e d by A p o l l o n i o s , C i c h o r i u s advances 88/7 B.C. as the terminus post quern  f o r h i s p u p i l A g e s i s t r a t o s and hence f o r Athenaios  since he mentions A g e s i s t r a t o s . at  first  glance and c e r t a i n l y n e i t h e r more nor l e s s d e f e c t i v e  than the o t h e r t h e o r i e s , c o n t a i n s Firstly, for  T h i s argument, so p l a u s i b l e  several  there i s no evidence t h a t A p o l l o n i o s was famous  siege-works o r indeed f o r anything  Apollonios  flaws.  else.  F o r unless  i s , as De Rochas t h i n k s , A p o l l o n i o s  would seem t o be the only r e f e r e n c e to be i d e n t i f i e d w i t h A p o l l o n i o s unquestionable, but  t o him.  this  o f Perga t h i s  I f indeed he i s  o f Perga then h i s fame i s  i t i s a fame based on h i s mathematical  works and not on siege-works. Secondly, C i c h o r i u s has assumed that towns are o n l y f o r t i f i e d when s i e g e s take p l a c e , b u t a town may w e l l be f o r t i f i e d as the r e s u l t o f a t h r e a t t h a t never m a t e r i a l i z e d . There i s l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n , then, f o r r e l a t i n g  Apollonios'  a c t i v i t i e s i n Rhodes to the s p e c i f i c siege o f And  B.C.  f i n a l l y , the a c t o f conveying stones t o Rhodes  g i v e s no h i n t o f t h e purpose f o r which i t was done. could j u s t as w e l l have been used f o r some c i v i l as f o r b u i l d i n g defences.  8.  Appian, H i s t o r i a Romana; B e l l . M i t h r . 24.  They  project  10.  With Athenaios firmly established i n the second half of the  f i r s t century B.C.9  Cichorius next turns to the problem  of t r y i n g to i d e n t i f y Marcellus.  He decides that he was  probably M. Claudius Marcellus, the nephew and heir apparent of  Augustus. This young man was a prominent member of the " r o y a l "  household and was much celebrated, notably posthumously V i r g i l (Aen. 6.860).  In 25 B.C.,  by  together with Augustus, he  took part i n the Spanish campaigns (i..£. the Cantabrian war). Granted a date i n the late f i r s t century B.C., then i t i s reasonable that Athenaios should dedicate h i s work to t h i s Marcellus.  For here i s a prominent young man about to take  part i n his f i r s t campaign, a young man with no experience of war to whom advice such as Athenaios gives could well prove useful.  Added to t h i s i s the fact that the Spanish campaigns  were l i k e l y to, and i n fact did, involve sieges, since the r e b e l l i n g t r i b e s were i n possession of w e l l - f o r t i f i e d strongholds as various accounts indicate. x a l eiteidf) Ttpoaexwpouv QIJLXZ inl t o i s epfcfivoCs i b i a i p o u e v o i , . . . .• Tertio Aracelium oppidum magna v i repugnat; captum tamen.-'--1  9.  He thinks that there i s a p o s s i b i l i t y that Athenaios may have been active i n Rome at t h i s time •* mentioned by Strabo 14.670. There i s , however, no evidence to suggest that Strabo*s Athenaios was an engineer or i n any way connected with sieges, so i t seems best not to make the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n .  10.  Dio 53.25.5-6.  11.  Florus 2 . 3 3 . 5 0 .  1 1 .  Reliquias f u s i exercitus valddissima civitas L a n c e a e x c i p i t , u b i cum l o c i s adeo c e r t a t u m e s t , u t , cum i n captam urbem f a c e s p o s c e r e n t u r , aegre dux i m p e t r a v e r i t v e n i a m , u t v i c t o r i a e Romanae s t a n s p o t i u s e s s e t quam i n c e n s a monurnenturn.12 But,  a s we  have  rests,  the  highly  suspect  bution  remain.  shown, t h e  date of and  Apollonios  few  grounds f o r c o n f i d e n c e  For,  eminent  the  members o f t h e  house may  well  A t h e n a i o s m e n t i o n e d by Augustae, V i t a e least,  to  p o s s i b i l i t y may  doubt a m i l i t a r y  a good  particular  have q u a l i f i e d  theory-  Athenaios, in this  a distinguished  one  is  attri-  Marcellus  and  f o r the  other honour  them. be  mentioned.  Trebellius Pollio  Gallienorum  a p p e a r s t o be  m e n t i o n e d by  though t h i s  f a m i l y was  h a v i n g a book d e d i c a t e d A third  p r e m i s e on w h i c h t h i s  the  c e r t a i n l y was,  of  basic  1 3 . 6 ) ,  who,  c a n d i d a t e as  This  is  the  (Scriptores Historiae on  the  he  surface  was  at  without  engineer.  I n t e r haec S c y t h a e p e r Euxinum n a v i g a n t e s H i s t r u m i n g r e s s i m u l t a g r a v i a i n s o l o Romano f e c e r u n t , q u i b u s compe'rtis G a l l i e n u s Cleodamum e t Athenaeum B y z a n t i o s i n s t a u r a n d i s urbibus muniendisque praef e c i t , pugnatumque e s t c i r c a Pbntum, e t a B y z a n t i i s ducibus v i c t i sunt b a r b a r i . G a l l i e n u s was fication 2 6 7  emperor f r o m  of the  seem t o  A.D.  The  c i t i e s mentioned a p p a r e n t l y  when G a l l i e n u s  There  2 5 3 - 2 6 3  learned  h a v e b e e n few  of the i f any  invasion  r e p a i r and took place  of  Marcelli,  the who,  fortiin  Eruli. at  that  t i m e were p r o m i n e n t  enough t o h a v e b e e n d e d i c a t e e s  o f a book.  The  seems r e m o t e l y p o s s i b l e  emperor  1 2 .  only  p e r s o n who  Florus,  2 . 3 3 . 5 7  i s the  12  Marcus A u r e l i u s Severus A l e x a n d e r (222-235 A.D.), who  was  a p p a r e n t l y a t one time c a l l e d M a r c e l l u s : Hie M a r c e l l u m , q u i p o s t A l e x a n d e r d i c t u s e s t consobrinum suum Caesarem f e c i t . 1 3 I f he were t h e M a r c e l l u s t o whom t h e work i s d e d i c a t e d , i t would have been w r i t t e n i n 235 A.D. a t t h e l a t e s t (18 y e a r s b e f o r e G a l l i e n u s ) and p r o b a b l y b e f o r e he became Caesar i n 221 A.D.  (32 y e a r s b e f o r e G a l l i e n u s ) .  T h i s would mean t h a t  A t h e n a i o s would have had t o be q u i t e young a t t h e time he wrote t h i s work and would have been f a i r l y o l d a t t h e time he was s e n t out by G a l l i e n u s .  T h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s not  i m p o s s i b l e ; i t must be admitted, t h o u g h , t h a t i t does n o t seem very  likely. As I i n f e r r e d a t t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e problem o f t h e date  of A t h e n a i o s seems i n s o l u b l e . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o the q u e s t i o n o f A t h e n a i o s  1  date  i s t h a t o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f h i s t r e a t i s e t o the t e n t h book o f V i t r u v i u s * De, A r c h i t e c t u r a l . I f t h e work o f A t h e n a i o s i s compared w i t h V i t r u v i u s (10.13-16) an amazing s i m i l a r i t y i s a t once apparent.  In  f a c t t h e works a r e so s i m i l a r t h a t some have thought t h a t t h e y were c o p i e s o f one a n o t h e r and t h i s has prompted many e d i t o r s t o emend t h e t e x t o f V i t r u v i u s t o c o r r e s p o n d w i t h A t h e n a i o s and v i c e - v e r s a .  I f one examines the works f a i r l y  c a r e f u l l y , however, a number o f d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be found.  13.  Anon., E p i t . 'de Caesar. 2 3 . 4  i n S.A. V i c t o r (Teubner) p.  157.  13  These d i f f e r e n c e s a r e ,  i n my  opinion,  i n d i c a t e t h a t the works a r e not In the f i r s t  place, there  the  V i t r u v i u s uses f e e t  regard  i s nothing  while  11.4-15.9  Athenaios  appears only three  to Diades*  times  -  9.3).  With  gives a  s m a l l tower e r e c t e d  on  has  c a t a p u l t s s e t up  i t s top  located  i n the others  c a t a p u l t s are one  is  the top o f the  (13.7-9).  planking f o r the  other  of pine  Athenaios  s a y s t h a t palm wood i s b e s t  pine  and  Athenaios for  alder, cedar  (15.12 - 16.4)  filling  a l s o be  machine  used  must a l s o n e v e r be  only the  (10.15.1-3).  bottom  in ditches" the  that i n addition used  (17.14-15).  uses o f the  "tortoise  Athenian),  construction of  Also, Vitruvius*  the  (10.14.3).  i n d i t c h e s " ( a c c o r d i n g t o P h i l o n the  while V i t r u v i u s merely d e s c r i b e s the  tortoi  t o V i t r u v i u s the  and  d e s c r i b e s the  height  however,  s t r o n g woods w i t h  exception  to  a l d e r may  total  s t o r e s of water  s t o r i e s and  According  floors  "ram-bearing  In Athenaios,  top  fairly  In V i t r u v i u s  "tortoise for f i l l i n g  b e s t made o f holm-oak, b u t and  s t o r y and  (10.13.6).  s i t u a t e d i n the  c o n t a i n s water  defensive  on  arrangement of  (10.13.4-5).  the  Thereafter  i n Athenaios).  while V i t r u v i u s merely g i v e s the  number o f f l o o r s  those  palms  (11.4 - 1 2 . 1 1 ) , the  from  u s e s c u b i t s and  f o r determining  total  Secondly,  (cubits).  complex f o r m u l a  and  another.  i n Vitruvius to  moveable t o w e r s , A t h e n a i o s the  enough t o  o f one  u n i t s o f measurement a d o p t e d , a p a r t  s e c t i o n s d e r i v e d from Diades  (rco6tatos  mere c o p i e s  i n t r o d u c t i o n (3.1  compare w i t h A t h e n a i o s * there are  significant  d e s c r i p t i o n of  this the  14. arrangement of the wheels and axles of t h i s machine (10.14.1) d i f f e r s considerably from that of Athenaios (16.8-14).  Athenaios  then proceeds to describe a second model of the "tortoise f o r f i l l i n g i n ditches" and also a machine which he refers to as a "mining t o r t o i s e " (13.8 - 20.3).  In Vitruvius the descriptions  of these two machines are combined into the description of a single machine (10.15.1).  There are also some differences  i n the accounts of the "tortoise of Hegetor" that I have discussed i n the commentary.  Vitruvius* paragraphs (10.16.1-3)  do not appear i n Athenaios although certain of the sentiments expressed there occur either i n Athenaios* introduction or epilogue.  After the description of the "helepolis" b u i l t  by Epimachos a l l s i m i l a r i t y between the works ceases. I f these works are not copies of one another, how can t h e i r s i m i l a r i t i e s be explained?  The easiest explanation i s  to say that they were both using a common source.  M. T h i e l  has argued t h i s point of view most convincingly i n his a r t i c l e "Quae Ratio Intercedat i n t e r Vitruvium et Athenaeum Mechanicum," LSKPh 17 (1896) pp. 275-328.  I f they used a common source i t  i s impossible to know what i t might have been.  The name  Agesistratos, mentioned by Schneider and others, seems a plausible conjecture since he i s mentioned as a source by both V i t r u v i u s (lO.praef.14) and Athenaios (7.7).  14.  lif  Schneider mentions Sontheimer who maintains that there i s no close r e l a t i o n between the texts of Athenaios and V i t ruvius and therefore one should not attempt to apply the descriptions of the one i n solving the gaps or problems of the other. "Selbstverstandlich darf Athenaios i n solchen F a l l e n nicht zur Gestaltung des Vitruvtextes beigezogen werden." The differences are to be regarded as r e a l differences i n design, not variants of a common source.  CHAPTER THREE THE The  t e x t g i v e n h e r e i s an  Those p l a c e s where I do fully  discussed  unchanged.  i n the  not  exact  copy o f W e s c h e r ' s ,  agree with  commentary b u t  I t s h o u l d be  normal usage than  TEXT  noted  his readings I have l e f t  that contrary to  are  his text  the  [ ] indicates a conjectural addition rather  a deletion.  Principal  Manuscripts  M  Codex P a r i s i n u s v e t u s t i s s i m u s  V  Codex V a t i c a n u s  P  Codex o l i m M e d i c a e u s nunc P a r i s i n u s  C  Fragmentum i n c o d i c e C o i s l i n i a n o 1 0 1 .  F  Figagmenta V i n d o b o n e n s i a graec.  olim 1 1 3  Suppl.  Gr.  607.  I I 6 4 .  2 4 4 2 .  i n c o d i c e ms.  philosoph.  (Lambec.) nunc 1 2 0 ( N e s s e l ) .  Editions T h e v e n o t , M., Wescher, C , Schneider,  Mathematicorum Veterum P o l i o r c e t i q u e des  R.,  Grecs  (Paris,  1 6 9 3 ) .  (Paris,  I 8 6 7 ) .  Griechische Poliorketiker 1 9 1 2 ) .  III  (Gbttingen,  16  Contents Introduction a) Do not waste time. b) Greek writers waste time while Oriental writers, s p e c i f i c a l l y Indians, do not. c) Technical subjects not f i t material for rhetoric.  3-7  II  Agesistratos a} general precepts b) his long range catapults c) Apollonios, his teacher  7-8  III  The Battering-ram a) invention of the battering-ram b) stages of development of batteringram  9-10  c) general advances i n siegecraft IV V VI  Moveable Towers The "Ram-bearing Tortoise"  1 1 - 12 1 2 - 14 14- 15  VII  The "Trypanon" The reputations of engineers and what Diades omitted from his account  VIII  The "Tortoise f o r F i l l i n g Ditches"  15- 19  IX  The  "Mining Tortoise"  19-20  X  The "Tortoise of Hegetor"  21-26  XI  The "Helepolis"  XII  "Sambykai"  XIII  Models a) models not always practicable b) some practicable things cannot be i l l u s t r a t e d with models  XIV  Machines f o r Climbing Walls a) theatre-type ladders b) machine of Ktesibios  XV  Tunnels and Protective Sheds  15  27  27- 28 28- 29  29- 31  31  17.  31  XVI  A t h e n a i o s * Method  XVII  The D i f f i c u l t i e s C o n n e c t e d w i t h M o u n t i n g M a c h i n e s on S h i p s  32-33  XVIII  Construction  34-35  XIX  The  XX  Triple  XXI  Epilogue  of Fore-wheel  "Chamber" Spikes  3 5-37 38 39-40  IS "Oaov  ecpixxbv  u.ev a v f t p w i i w x o b g  w aeuvoxaxe  \6youc;,  MapxeMe,  uixep  e\i\>r\o$r\v  u.r)xav  xoG AeXcpixoG  Ye\u.axos  wc; e a x i  -freiov x i T O imou.i,uvf)axov  6ea6-at*  wc; e a x u  o*xe6bv  etc;  xac; x a x e i t e L y o v a a c ;  a\\wv  xwv  6oxouvxwv  eiueuv  auavxa  eixLaxpoqpTiv  x a l <pu\.axt)v u o i T } a w u e $ a ,  Tipoaex^uev  auvxdYu.aca•  oux  aaxoraoc,  pwuev.  wc;  ToG x p o v o u  euxepes  vau.iv  XpTjcuuwv,  etc;  xr]v  oux  UTcvov  6idvoiav  av  •9-Eiav  xal  uexa^XrixoG ye  xal  xaGxa  vuxxbg  r)M-Lv  eitl  XOG a w u a x o c ;  ril-iuv  xpovov.  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(liux.pT)\dxau5, Eva ev a£ovt eiipdWwvxai, x XHtji, axaftuov  Xeniai  a  exovxcc Exaaxov auxwv xd\avxov. aibnpous xa\dvxwv xeaadpwv Tcnyvuxat  I'va eaxl  Tjuag ocHg  6T}\OL.  Ttpbg  Kal e l ? xauxa a£wv evapuoCexat  ri be Xeyouevr) yEP^vog ev xouxw  xb u^og xwv  uo\i.cpHOUuevwv cbg  xa-9-'  TJ  Ka&r)A.w#T]acxai 6 e eudvw aupLv^t xauc.-  pinaLS, c.v w xooAdauaxi. evapuoa-ftrjaexai. xXiuaxcbeatg.  'Enl 6e  xou xopufpwuaxos xaxapxiCexai e£aipixls rcep iTCTJHXT) , xdxw&ev e'xouaa xopaxag aubripoug, "va, oxav upoaepetan  xaCg Eud\£eau.  xb p.r)xdvr)ua x a l xc-Cg uuoxovoig LZavvobfl xb xaxaaxeuaaua• fng" e£aipi.xi6oc , oi xopaxec, e 6 p a i w g xwv *K 6 b yipavos  tai.  prjueva) xpccjj. xC\ia, cpdbog.  eud\£ewv  euiXaBwv-  uuoCwvvuxai x a l pupaoGxai buoujg xw rcpoet-  'Enl 6 e xr)v pCCav euLxu^exau arjxwuaxog xaAavxa  o u 6 b v riaaov EpyaCouEvwv xwv a£,6vwv 61a. xrjg unoaxpofioiei 6e x a l xouxo xag eC xivnaet£. 'EvxaG-^a xb xapxriaiov.  Toig 6b 6 u a x e p e a t xouots x a l axpopu\w6eaiv,  exet ou npoaaxxeov  ur)xdvr|ua 6 toe xr)v buaxepeiav xwv  xouwv.  ouxw*  end\£ewv dcptevxwv auxwv  xw xaxaxprjuv tai-iip dub xwv  MdXicxa 6e OXXOUOLV  uexpag TEauueveS-edris x a l acpov6uXoug \ieya.\ov<^ x a l exepd xuva xouxo 1.5 napauArjata, axtva 9£p6ueva 6 i a xbv en'auxwv naXiabv /  36.4 F o l l o w i n g Schneider o b e l i z e Eva e a x l .  36.7 Read  nepinxuxxT) a f t e r Schneider f o r /  /  nepiTcrjxxr).  34. dvunoaxaxov  noiouvxai xrjv S l a v .  Euprjxoxa. ouv 6 e i  aaa^at 6ia<popdv 6 i a xfjg xoiauxrjg epYouoilag• xaax£uaax£Ov voug  i v a TO  TOIXWV  TTJV  xouxcov evco-  xpipoAoug xa-  E, udxog Exovxag Cwvtaiov, xw 6 b TTAT]-8-EI i x a -  x^P^ov rcepL£\^couev Exxbg 3eA.oug.  £xdo'Tr)v rjuepav Y Yvou£vr)g xtov L  A.L'&CJOV  'Ex 6 b xrjg  TCpoaaywYTig,  TOJV  xa#'  xpiBoAxov  Tcpoa9£pou£vojv, xpin:A.r) r) x a l xExpa-nAr} r) T O U T C O V -freaig av y £  A i d yap x o u x o Tiftevxai o i x p i 8 o \ o i , coaxe xa xaxacpEpouEva  VOLXO.  TcpooiiLTCTELV TOTCCOV  d e l xouxoig, x a l ouxto 6 e i xa&'eva Exaaxov auxcov  reaptevai.  'Ercav 6 b ^eArjacoaiv daaov Y^vea^ai  TOU  TCOV  xei'xoug OI  TCOXeUOUVTE? , TT)V dpexrjv dvexovxeg x s ^ v r j v , oi'auxfig Tcpoa$pouai Tag  xA.iu.axag.  "Eaxi 6 b r) dpext) o i a x ^vT)vg(p r)voet6r)g x a l  axpoYY ^ ^ avco^ev tt u  XCOTCOV  ,  e  0  auxfjg euxepcog  T)UIXUX\COU,  Eva xa TtpoaTtiirxovxa xaxa ue-  TtEpixu\ir)xai.  Mr) imoAdpTig 6 b rjuag ouxcojeououg E L vat  coaxs auvayaYEiv  xoaaud'UTtouvnuaxa rcepl dvaipEaEcog 7ioA.etov £i6£vai. oi  Ttepi-  xa evavxia 6 e 6 e i  * 0 6 b Tcpoe iprjuevog AoYog da<pd\eiav T T O L e i x a i Tc6\ecog •  yap xauxa e i 6 o x e g  cpv\&E,ao&ai' auxa p a 6 i t o g 6uvf]aovxai xd  Aunriaovxa. MaXiaxa 6 b r)uiv ueTipaYudxEuxaL xaxa xcov oux unoxaYrjaouevtov xoig xaXoig  xfjg r)Yeuovtag v o u o i g .  AioTcep, sav xpivrjg, eaxT)'  uaxoYpacpriueva navxa eaxai xd ur)xavr)uaxa • buaypaaxov  x a l xb ev xfi \e£ei  en'auxcov eubrjXov eaxaL .  "Oaa 6 e 6 e i npbg xa eipr)U£va dvxiur)xav na»aa$ai, tdv x i v a ,  dva\e£c6ue$a napa xtov dpxaioxEpcov, 7teipaa6ue$d a o t x a x e i v a ypd<\>ai.  Touxo 6 b el'pr]xai, cog  XLVCOV  xp i 6 i a  d^gCa uexpouv-  xtov xr)v xcov iceXag xaxoTcd^e l a v , x a l ou cpauevcov e i v a t ev  TCOWCO L  ETUyvtoaiv Y£vea&ai TtpaYudxcov, coanep xf)g Xcopouvxcov xrjv npo&uuiav xcov ua-&r)udxcov.  ^ux^ig  rjucov aTtoaxevo-  35.  I n d e x Nominum  7,7  ' Avnaiaxpaxoc;  15,13; 27,2  'AdnvaCoc;  'A\e£dv6pEta 2 9 , 9 5,13; 10,9  'A\eCav6poc;  10,7  'Auuvxac,  'ATCOWOJVLOC; 8 , 9 'ApiaxoxeXnc;  5,3  29,9  'Aaxpnvoc;  1 0 , 8 ; 21 , 2  BuCdvxtov r«6etpa  'Ouxuxd  28,6  Ilepcuxa  5,12  9,15; 10,3  8 , 1 1 ; 8,13  *Po6os  9,9  Tupioc,  AfVi'uaxoc;  5,12  *i\tnnos  AriLiTixptoc; 2 7 , 3 10,10; 10,10  AIOVUCTLOC; 1 0 , 6 5,8  'ETTLUKXO?; 2 7 , 2 5,3  'Ecrxiaioc;  "Eqjeaoc;  28,8  'Hyrixajp  21,2  'Iv66g  10,9 5,8  ' Iaoxpdxnc; 6 , 6 KaXavoc;  5,8  KaXXiaSevrjc; KaXXiaxpaxoc, Kapxnbovtoc; Kxrjatpuoc;  10,6  5,3  Zxpdxtov 'Yttouvnua  QexxaXoc;  10,9  5 , 1 3 ; 31 »7  nuppoc;  3 , 2 ; 5,2  "EXXnv  31 , 8  Ilo\topxT)XLxa  AeX.91.x6c;  Atd6r|c;  9,10  rie9pffiau.ev0c;  ZuxeXLuixnc;  9,5  rabeLpuxnc; 9 , 1 1 rrjpscc.  28,7  Mr)X«vuxd  'PO&LOC, 2 7 , 3  8,5  Be\txd  3,2  MapxeXXoc.  noXueiboc.  5,3  'Apxuxac;  6,1  M a x e 6 o j v  7,2 28,7 9 , 4 ; 9,15  29,9  <5i*Xojv  29,10 6,7; 10,7; 10,8  15,13  Xaptac; 1 0 , 1 0 Xioc,  27,11  CHAPTER FOUR TRANSLATION 3  H i g h l y esteemed M a r c e l l u s , So f a r as anyone who w r i t e s about machines can generally follow i t ,  I have t a k e n i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the  D e l p h i c p r e c e p t , t h a t t h e r e i s some d i v i n e power t h a t reminds us t h a t we should be s p a r i n g w i t h t i m e .  One might  a l m o s t say t h a t we always squander i t l a v i s h l y on t h e pressing necessities of l i f e .  And s o , l e t us n o t devote  any c a s u a l a t t e n t i o n o r concern t o money and t h e o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t seem v a l u a b l e t o us; b u t r a t h e r l e t us pay a t t e n t i o n t o the precepts  of the ancients.  A t t h e expense  of o n l y a s m a l l degree o f e f f o r t we s h a l l earn o u r l i v i n g i n no random way and e a s i l y g e t a share from o t h e r s .  But  i n s t e a d we waste time t h a t i s s u b j e c t t o change and f l o w s L  away s i n c e t h e end comes a l l t o o soon.  And we do t h i s  even though i t i s n a t u r e ' s way t o p r o v i d e us by day w i t h some f a c u l t y f o r a c q u i r i n g each o f l i f e ' s n e c e s s i t i e s , and by n i g h t w i t h s l e e p , though i t be a l t o g e t h e r b r i e f . F o r t h e one man who a l o n e has r i g h t l y been c a l l e d a poet does not a l l o w s l e e p (the g i f t o f t h e gods f o r t h e r e l a x a t i o n of our bodies) t o l a s t a l l n i g h t . he i s c l e a r l y t a k i n g g r e a t f o r e t h o u g h t mind from l y i n g i d l e f o r a l o n g  I n t h i s way  t o prevent the  time.  Those a u t h o r s who d e s c r i b e some t o p i c o r have some i n s t r u c t i o n t o g i v e u s , even when t h e y seem t o be d o i n g i t f o r our b e n e f i t , waste time q u i t e u n r e a s o n a b l y i n  37  unnecessary  words i n o r d e r t o d i s p l a y t h e i r  F o r they l e a v e b e h i n d books f i l l e d though said 5  one  since this  with digressions,  s h o u l d know t h e measure o f l i f e ' s  i s t h e end  to a t r e a t i s e  o f wisdom.  I n t h i s way,  on t e c h n i c a l m a t t e r s , a man  applying himself to i t ,  Hestiaios,  by  them.  and  carefully from  acquiring basic something an  principles,  immediately  inquiry  i t w o u l d be  that leads to  Therefore Kalanos seem t o be  t o t h o s e who  right.  He  want t o a c c o m p l i s h  completely divorced  One  do n o t  compare o u r s e l v e s  w a s t e many words on  incon-  a r e accustomed t o say v e r y  even the g r a v e s t m a t t e r s all."  useful in  results.  s a y s , "We  s e q u e n t i a l m a t t e r s b u t we  remembered by  men  t h e I n d i a n ' s remark t o them w o u l d  t o t h e Greek p h i l o s o p h e r s who  about  of  the o t h e r s  F o r w h i l e , t o young  e a g e r f o r k n o w l e d g e , t h e i r w r i t i n g w o u l d be  6  i n respect  w o u l d d e r i v e some b e n e f i t  Archytas, A r i s t o t l e ,  have w r i t t e n l i k e  from  even  opportunity  D e l p h i c precept r a t h e r than from the w r i t i n g  Straton, who  learning.  t h e a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s gave good a d v i c e when t h e y  that  that  great  so t h a t t h e y may  can u n d e r s t a n d v e r y  be  little  easily  accurately  how  great the d i f f e r e n c e  and  t h e Greek o n e s f r o m  the P e r s i k a o f Deimachos, from  who  followed Alexander,  and  Macedon's work on may  works  e v e n more f r o m P y r r h o s  siege-machines.  not appear verbose  hand a d d i n g a few  i s between the o r i e n t a l  I shall  But  so t h a t  I  of  myself  r e t u r n t o the matter  embellishments  to s a t i s f y  a r e a c c u s t o m e d t o examine p e d a n t i c a l l y  those  the s t y l e  in  who of  those  38  expression.  F o r I do n o t assume t h a t  a man w o r k i n g o u t t h e s e his  purpose.  Isokrates sent  This  had 7  finished  we s h o u l d  this business  it."  For the h i s t o r i a n  but  Therefore  o f advice  he s a y s ,  t h a t he he h a d  " W h i l e I was  y o u made p e a c e b e f o r e  F u r t h e r m o r e , i t i s my o p i n i o n  obey those  attempting  behind i n  The war was r e s o l v e d b e f o r e  h i s advice.  concerned with  to fall  i s e x a c t l y what happened t o t h e o r a t o r  i n t h e case of t h e l e t t e r  to Philip.  finished  refinements  i ti s suitable f o r  who g i v e  good a d v i c e  i n such  subject  clarity  matters.  s o m e t h i n g must n o t m i s s t h e p o i n t  must a r r a n g e h i s words t o s u i t b o t h h i m s e l f  nical  that  K a l l i s t h e n e s s a y s t h a t t h e man who i s  to write  subject matter.  I  I think that  of this  every  treatise  and h i s  on a t e c h -  s o r t r e q u i r e s c o n c i s e n e s s and  and i s n o t s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r t h e laws o f  rhetoric. For  this  have r e a d  reason  I shall  go t h r o u g h i n d e t a i l what I  i n t h e works o f t h e e n g i n e e r  "Therefore  i t a p p e a r s t o be v e r y  experience  i n blueprints.  for also  Agesistratos.  necessary  t o have  F o r i n t h i s way i t i s p o s s i b l e  someone d e v i s i n g m e a s u r e s f o r a s i e g e t o d e v i s e t h e c o r r e c t countermeasures and c o n v e r s e l y  measures a g a i n s t  the countermeasures.  t o devise  T h i s , however, t h e  common man c a n n o t do e a s i l y b u t o n l y a man who h a s learned mechanics w e l l , i s " s t e e p e d i n a l l t h e s t u d i e s dealing with  them, and h a s c a r e f u l l y  considered the  39. w o r k s w r i t t e n by 8  this  e a r l i e r men  or produced i n r e l a t i o n  matter. For  i t i s often profitable  from the  p a s t and  u n l e s s one  not  i s intent  i n every  t o use case  the  t o be  on d e c e i v i n g t h e  the appearance of t r u t h t o the t r u t h  This  seems t o me  well said.  For  A g e s i s t r a t o s so f a r s u r p a s s e d t h e man  who  proclaims  (7.37  Kg.)  one-half  one,  w h i c h was  innovator,  h i s predecessors  gut  had  (621.60m) and  a p a l i n t o n e , had  prefer-  itself."  that  twelve  a range o f  the  even  easily believed.  s p a n s (0.66m) w i t h  of torsion  stades  an  inventions  i n h i s work B e l i k a  h i s m e r i t s i s not  For h i s catapult of three minas  good  laymen by  ring  and  to  three  four cubit  a range o f f o u r  (1.78m) stades  (710.4m). A p o l l o n i o s , who great  cargo  was  of stones  h i s teacher, brought  such  f o r t h e mound a r o u n d t h e  a  harbour  o f Rhodes t h a t w i t n e s s e s were o f t e n a t a l o s s t o know how  he  again  ever  i n Rhodes.  Apollonios 9  treatise and  loaded  the  i t into After  striving  on  He the  unloaded  i t  something u s e f u l i n h i s  siege-techniques.  seemed t h a t t h e a d v i c e  s h i p s and  this Agesistratos followed  to f i n d  counterdevice  s h o u l d be  the  His  illustrate such  a man  "ram-bearing  this.  tortoise"  Therefore i t  g i v e s about  mechanics  trusted.  said  that the v e r y f i r s t  C a r t h a g i n i a n s a t the  "ram"  was  s i e g e o f Gades.  invented F o r when  by they  40  were s e i z i n g  a certain  o u t p o s t i n a d v a n c e a n d were  knocking  t h e w a l l s down t o t h e f o u n d a t i o n , some y o u n g men, who had no  tools  f o r i t s d e s t r u c t i o n , took  arms a n d b e a t destroyed builder,  h o l d o f a beam i n t h e i r  i t a g a i n s t t h e w a l l and i n t h i s way  a great length of i t .  A certain Tyrian  bjj t h e name o f Pephrasmenos, w i t n e s s e d  In  the siege which they l a t e r  conducted  of  Gades he s e t up a v e r t i c a l beam and f r o m  s u s p e n d e d a n o t h e r beam a t r i g h t to  t h e beams o f a b a l a n c e ,  easily ship-  the event.  against the c i t y t h i s he  angles t o i t ,  similar  and he b e g a n t o s t r i k e t h e  w a l l b y h a u l i n g t h e h o r i z o n t a l beam b y means o f a p u l l e y rope.  Since those  strangeness  o f t h e machine, t h e w a l l s soon f e l l .  t h i s man, G e r a s , 10  i n s i d e were p e r p l e x e d o w i n g t o t h e After  t h e C a r t h a g i n i a n , made a f r a m e on  w h e e l s and p u t t h e "ram" on i t s i d e w a y s .  Rather  hauling  f o r a wheeled  i t w i t h a p u l l e y - r o p e he a r r a n g e d  than  c o v e r t o be p u s h e d f o r w a r d b y a l a r g e number o f men. And  Geras,  on a c c o u n t for it  who f i r s t  invented t h i s ,  o f i t s slowness.  called  After this  t h e "ram" t o be pushed f o r w a r d  i ta  some men  on r o l l e r s  "tortoise" arranged  and u s e d  i n t h e same manner. The  improved Sicily  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f engines  i n g e n e r a l under the tyranny  and u n d e r t h e r e i g n  of P h i l i p  when he was b e s i e g i n g B y z a n t i u m . was s u c c e s s f u l Diades  o f war o f t h i s  i n the f i e l d  kind  of Dionysios of t h e s o n o f Amyntas  Polyeidos the Thessalian  o f m e c h a n i c s and h i s p u p i l s ,  and C h a r i a s , campaigned w i t h A l e x a n d e r .  Diades  a.  himself says, i n his writing on mechanics, that he invented moveable towers, the machine known as the "trypanon," the "crow," and the scaling-ladder. 11  He also made use of the  "ram" mounted on wheels, or at any rate he describes the construction of i t as follows. Construction  of a "Ram"  0followed by Wescher s f i g . I, jcf. commentary 39.93 f  He says that the smallest tower must have a height of 60 cubits (26.60ra) and a width of 17 cubits (7.55m), the width decreasing  by o n e - f i f t h towards the top.  The thick-  ness of the side poles of the tower should be three palms (0.22m) at the bottom and seven fingers (0.13m) at the top. He constructed a tower of t h i s size with ten stories each of which was surrounded by a g a l l e r y . The largest of h i s towers had a height of 120 cubits 12  (53.25m) and a width of 23 1/2 cubits (10.41m).  The width  of t h i s tower also decreased by o n e - f i f t h towards the top. The  side-poles were a foot square at the base  to 6 fingers (0.11m) at the top.  decreasing  His tower of t h i s size  was twenty s t o r i e s t a l l and f o r protection against  fire  each story was surrounded by a parapet, the width of which was three cubits (1.33m).  Let the f i r s t story have  a height of 7 1/2 cubits (3.33m), the second f i v e (2.22m), and those up to the f i f t h story the same, the rest were four cubits and two palms (1.93m) i n height.  But f o r  the smaller tower also the d i v i s i o n of f l o o r s followed  42.  the same proportion.  These towers were covered  with  undressed hides. The construction of the "ram-bearing t o r t o i s e " was 13  the same whether i t was small or large.  The biggest had  a width of 30 cubits (13.30m) and a length of 40 cubits (17.80m), and the height, not including the gabled roof that was put on l a t e r , was 13 cubits (5.77m).  The height  of the pediment i t s e l f , from the f l o o r to the peak, was 16 cubits (7.12m).  The gable rose up above the middle  of the roof at least two cubits (0.88m) projecting the roof timber at the side as f a r as the main beams of the gable i n order to make a g a l l e r y along the sides.  From  the middle of the roof he erected a small three story tower and placed catapults i n the top stories and a supply of water i n the bottom one. Uprights were arranged around the edge of the actual f'tortoise" and i t had a parapet. 14  Inside i t he placed a battering-ram frame on  which he placed the cylinder through which the "ram" was propelled by means of a pulley-rope, thus activating the machine.  And i t was covered with hides i n the same  way as the towers. The "trypanon" has the same " t o r t o i s e " and exactly the same construction as the "ram".  On the frame he places  a b a r r e l very similar to that found i n a euthytone catapult and having a windlass placed across i t just as they do.  At the other end he f i x e s two pulleys by means of  which the beam placed i n the groove i s thrust forward.  43 And on the f l o o r of the groove he places numerous r o l l e r s so that the beam may  move with ease.  And  i n t h i s manner,  by means of the windlass set at the bottom end of the groove, he hurls forward and draws back the beam that 15  batters down the wall.  The groove i s surrounded with  skins arranged on a framework of arches with the intention of protecting the beam inside i t . If the work i s well outlined the engineer may  acquire  a good reputation, but i f he puts down a l l the d e t a i l s i n a f u l l length work he w i l l achieve very great fame thanks to his writings. Diades says that the grappling-hook i s not worth building.  Although at the beginning of his work he  stated that he would describe how  one should  the scaling-ladder, he f a i l e d to do so.  construct  Also no i n f o r -  mation has been given about the machines that he i n t r o duced on the sea.  But they are also passed over, although  he promised most solemnly that he would discuss them. But I f i r s t wrote a description of the "tortoise f o r f i l l i n g up ditches" and then of other machines. Description of "Tortoise f o r F i l l i n g  Ditches  Philon the Athenian says that t h i s machine i s use16  f u l f o r constructing roads f o r the approach of machines, for  laying out sheds, and f o r f i l l i n g up ditches or any  other depressions  that should be f i l l e d  useful for establishing It i s constructed  in.  It i s also  observation-posts.  on a platform 14 cubits (6.22m)  44.  square, which has four cross-bars and two longitudinal bars, a l l ten fingers (0.19m) thick and three palms (0.22m) wide.  Let each crosspiece be located at i n t e r v a l s  of 2 cubits and a palm (1.60m).  Each of the corner  compartments contains four axle-blocks, i n which the axles of the wheels turn, sheathed with iron plates so that whenever one has to move them forward to b u i l d approaches (i,..e. to make a broad and l e v e l area i n front f o r fighting) or set up machines i n l i n e , the wheels maybe drawn out a f t e r disengaging the axles.  There are four  wheels three cubits (1.33m) i n diameter, one foot (0.30m) thick, and reinforced with cold-forged plates of i r o n . To the frame are fixed two pieces of wood projecting 4-cubits (1.78m) from each side of the frame at each end of t h e i r length.  Two other pieces of wood, projecting f o r  a length of 8 cubits (3.55m) at the front and 4 cubits . (1.78m) at the rear, are attached  to these projections.  The thickness and breadth of these are the same as f o r the base. Jointed into the frame i t s e l f on the base are posts seven cubits (3.11m) high and spaced one cubit (0.44m) apart.  At the top a surrounding architrave makes a l l  these posts f a s t .  And to t h i s are connected r a f t e r s  supporting one another and increasing the height by 8 cubits (3.55m). these r a f t e r s .  The ridge-pole i s fastened on top of The r a f t e r s are provided at i n t e r v a l s  45. w i t h props and c r o s s - r a i l s and the whole r o o f i s f o r t i f i e d w i t h p l a n k i n g , p r e f e r a b l y o f palm wood, but i f t h i s i s not a v a i l a b l e o f some o t h e r wood t h a t i s as e l a s t i c as p o s s i b l e , excepting cedar, pine, and a l d e r , which are 18  both inflammable  and e a s i l y broken.  The p l a n k i n g i s then  covered over w i t h a t h i n compact c o a t i n g o f w a t t l e s as f r e s h as p o s s i b l e .  On top o f these there i s a c o v e r i n g  made o f hides s t i t c h e d t o g e t h e r l i k e mat*resses and s t u f f e d p r e f e r a b l y w i t h marsh-plants, sea-weed, o r c h a f f steeped i n v i n e g a r .  or so-called These coverings  are e f f e c t i v e a g a i n s t both the blows of c a t a p u l t s and fire. There i s another  "tortoise f o rf i l l i n g  i n ditches"  c o n s t r u c t e d i n the same manner as the preceding one and having the same beams except f o r the s l o p i n g r a f t e r s . Instead, surrounding i t , above the posts and a r c h i t r a v e s , i t has a breastwork and battlements b u i l t wattles.  of planks and  Above the timberwork there i s a c o v e r i n g o f  strong planks coated with a mixture  of c l a y and h a i r of  s u f f i c i e n t t h i c k n e s s t h a t f i r e cannot damage i t . And t h i s machine i s u s e f u l not o n l y f o r f i l l i n g but a l s o f o r purposes of o b s e r v a t i o n .  i n ditches  F o r the s o l d i e r s  who enter i t p r o p e l i t towards the w a l l and a r e thus able t o make o b s e r v a t i o n s although they a r e w i t h i n * 19  range o f m i s s i l e s .  T h i s " t o r t o i s e " could w e l l have e i g h t  wheels but the engineer with an eye t o s u i t a b l e routes of  approach may w e l l a l t e r such machines as r e q u i r e d .  46  Concerning the "Mining  Tortoise"  In a l l i t s other p a r t i c u l a r s the type o f " t o r t o i s e " used i n s a p p i n g o p e r a t i o n s  20  i s designed  i n much t h e same  way a s t h e p r e c e d i n g  ones; however, i t h a s a  surface  so t h a t when i t h a s r e a c h e d  it  at the front  can f i t e x a c t l y  from the w a l l s  against  right-angled  i t and t h e m i s s i l e s  may n o t e n t e r  i t from the s i d e  the w a l l  hurled and t h e  m i n e r s i n s i d e i t c a n work i n s a f e t y . 21  The " T o r t o i s e The by  length  o f t h e base o f t h e " t o r t o i s e "  Hegetor o f Byzantium i s  width  28 (12.4m).  i n number.  24  cubits  cubit  22  o f Hegetor"  cubits  The p o s t s j o i n e d  (18.20m)  and t h e  t o the base a r e f o u r  E a c h one i s made o u t o f two p i e c e s  (10.65m)  (0.44m)  long,  wide.  5  (0.37m)  palms  o f wood  t h i c k , and one  The w h o l e m a c h i n e moves on e i g h t  wheels.  These wheels a r e  2  (0.88m)  cubits  42  invented  thick.  4 1/2  cubits  (2.00m)  They a r e made o f wood  h i g h and joined  a l t e r n a t e l y i n w i d t h and t h i c k n e s s  and a r e r e i n f o r c e d  with plates  They t u r n  of cold-forged  metal.  i n axle-  blocks. Posts twelve  cubits  w i d e , and t e n f i n g e r s base. and  8  (0.19m)  Each post i s placed  architraves  4  t h i c k are fastened are  (5.32m)  fastened  cubits  palms  7  high,  palms  (0.22m)  t h i c k , a r e s e t up on t h e palms  (0.30m)  (0.52m)  wide a n d  a l l a r o u n d above them.  on t h e s e a r c h i t r a v e s  (3.55m).  3  raising  3  from the next palms  (0.22m)  Roof-beams the height  And above t h e s e t h e r i d g e - p o l e ,  by  to  47  which a l l t h e e x t r e m i t i e s is  placed  Finally in  o f t h e roof-beams a r e f a s t e n e d ,  h o r i z o n t a l l y so t h a t we have two s l o p i n g  t h e whole machine i s boarded  roofs.  o v e r and p r o t e c t e d  t h e same manner a s t h e " t o r t o i s e s f o r f i l l i n g i n  ditches". It so t h a t Right 23  a l s o has a m i d d l e the b a t t e r y  o f m a c h i n e s may be s e t up on i t .  i n the middle o f the " t o r t o i s e " behind  the battering-ram, cubits three  s t o r y r e s t i n g on t h e u p r i g h t s  two s i d e  (13.3m) i n h e i g h t , palms  poles  their  side poles holding  And a v e r t i c a l  up t h e "ram" a r e f a s t e n e d .  24  o f wood i s  cross-bar  enemy c a n s t a n d  the butt-end  against  i n i t i n perfect  length  so t h a t  safety.  o f t h e "ram" i s 120 c u b i t s  i t i s 2 feet  it  (53.25m).  (0.60m) t h i c k a n d 5 palms diminishes  (0.30m) and t h e w i d t h t o 3 palms (0.22m).  has an i r o n  ship.  those  t h e "ram" b y  (0.37m) w i d e b u t t o w a r d s t h e p o i n t t h e t h i c k n e s s t o one f o o t  through  And a p a r a p e t i s  t o t h e t o p o f t h e ram-frame  The t o t a l At  piece  w i n d l a s s e s from which the ropes  watching the m i s s i l e s dispatched the  cross-bars,  On e a c h s i d e o f t h i s v e r t i c a l b a r and t h e  a r e turned  also attached  Two  i n the middle, are fastened  between t h e t o p and t h e m i d d l e  centres.  thirty  (0.44m) t h i c k , and  (0.22m) w i d e , a r e f a s t e n e d .  through these side poles. fasteened  joined together,  one c u b i t  one a t t h e t o p and t h e o t h e r  t h e frame o f  point  similar to the protruding  And  beak o f a  The b o d y i s p i p e - s h a p e d and f r o m i t e x t e n d  four  4&\ iron the  10  spirals "ram".  (4.44m)  cubits  that are n a i l e d to  The w h o l e 1'ram" i s u n d e r g i r d e d  ropes eight f i n g e r s  (0.15m)  binding  with  three  t h i c k and i s g r a s p e d  (0.44m)  t h e m i d d l e by c u b i t l o n g The  long  chains  i n three  around intervals.  h o l d i n g t h e "ram" i n t h e m i d d l e f o l l o w s t h e  w i n d i n g on t h e beam f o r a d i s t a n c e  of  5  palms  (0.37m).  When i t i s wrapped up i t i s s u r r o u n d e d b y raw h i d e s . the  ropes t h a t s t r e t c h from the w i n d l a s s e s  f r a m e and h o l d up t h e "ram" have t h e i r fourfold with 25  iron  hides  chains.  And t h e c h a i n s  so t h a t t h e y  may n o t be  And  o f t h e ram-  ends b o u n d  with  too a r e surrounded  seen.  T h e r e i s a l s o a s c a l i n g - l a d d e r made o f b o a r d s n a i l e d on t o t h e f r o n t end o f t h e "ram" and a n e t woven f r o m t h i c k rope w i t h fastened on  to t h i s  to the w a l l .  both sides 26  a mesh o f one palm's b r e a d t h so t h a t u s i n g  i t one m i g h t e a s i l y  The "ram" a l s o h a s p i e c e s  backward, r i g h t  and l e f t ,  a w a l l up t o a h e i g h t  of  sideways f o r a range o f managed b y 100  2?  is  climb  attached  to  . . . .  The m a c h i n e a d m i t s o f s i x movements:  talents  (0.07m)  forward,  a n d up and down.  70  70  cubits cubits  (31.05m) (31.05m).  I t can c l e a r and c a n sweep Iti s  men and has a t o t a l w e i g h t o f f o u r  (147,440  thousand  Kg.).  Description of Helepolis The and he  H e l e p o l i s was i n v e n t e d  by Epimachos t h e A t h e n i a n  b r o u g h t t o t h e w a l l s o f Rhodes by D e m e t r i o s when was b e s i e g i n g  follows.  the Rhodians.  I t s height  i s 90  I t i s constructed  c u b i t s (40m)  as  and i t s w i d t h  49 & cubits  (3«55m).  endure t h e impact three t a l e n t s The  It i s like  o f a stone weighing  are not worth d e s c r i b i n g  approximately  often  some p e o p l e  since  w i t h them and I t h i n k t h a t  at  everyone  they d i f f e r  i t i s preferable  Chios, because  the "sambykai" death by f i r e  "sambykai"  i s well  acquainted  t h e y n o t be b u i l t badly.  h i g h e r than t h e c i t y ' s o f t h o s e who a s c e n d e d  t o r e a c h the towers,  lutely  no way t o l o w e r  F o r t h e men  towers,  t h e "sambykai";  with the centre o f g r a v i t y  caused the  them b e c a u s e  and because  s h i p s f r o m w h i c h t h e y were s u s p e n d e d  t h e y were  t h e r e was  abso-  f o r otherwise the  w o u l d have o v e r t u r n e d  of the load being  shifted.  i n common w i t h o t h e r c r a f t s m e n , e n g i n e e r s who  i n t e n d t o make u s e o f s i e g e m a c h i n e s s h o u l d n o t be ant  each  t h e y m i s c a l c u l a t e d and b u i l t  unable  Therefore,  call  so much f r o m  that  a l l r a t h e r t h a n t h a t t h e y be b u i l t  besieging  and c a n  (111 K g . ) .  n a v a l machines t h a t  other that  a tower i n form  ignor-  of optics. A similar  t h i n g happened t o K a l l i s t r a t o s ,  on m a c h i n e s , w h i l e he was d i r e c t i n g stones t o t h e temple that  a t Ephesos.  the w r i t e r  the transportation o f  F o r he d i d n o t r e a l i z e  some t h i n g s r e p r e s e n t e d i n m o d e l s on a s m a l l  produce  an o p t i c a l  reproduced  illusion  on a l a r g e  scale.  since  scale  s u c h t h i n g s c a n n o t be  On t h e o t h e r hand, i t i s  sometimes i m p o s s i b l e t o make s m a l l m o d e l s o f some t h i n g s but  these  size.  c a n o n l y be c o n s t r u c t e d i m m e d i a t e l y  In that  c a s e , f o r example, t h e t r i a n g l e  in life t h a t had  50. 29  served  a s h i s model f o r t h e  seemed q u i t e good, b u t conveyed i n the For ladders the  same  a siege  the  useless.  some men  f o r the  But  erected  actors.  i n the  have a p p e a r e d  who  one He  can  climb  how, on  mortises pieces  on  attempting  to deceive  enter this end  o f wood.  has one  this  the  end  31  should  open t h e  tube  w a l k t o and  end  be  g i v e the  T h i s machine i s o f no  tube can  easily  whichever  tube touches  man  the in  two  whenever t h e  so t h a t t h e  the w a l l , the  d i d not  round  tube r e v o l v e s  And  climb  and  When  each o f i t s  b e e n b r o u g h t up  d o o r o f i t and  fro.  r a i s e d at  o f the  a pivot.  ladder.  upright  places a large  should  Alexandrian  o f wood w i t h  r i s e s because the  against  Ktesibios apparently components.  and  people.  cart  l a r g e enough t h a t a man  i s s u s p e n d e d on  tube i s r i g h t  using a  i n t o two  p i e c e o f wood on  w h e e l e d v e h i c l e has the  square p i e c e  one  that  f o l l o w i n g machine,  a four-wheeled  F o r when one  notches of the  s i d e s and  a  upright  b e e n done, t h e  other  of the  of i t f i t t i n g  a pivot —  wishes.  use  build  Around t h i s  i t standing  ground the the  on  the  c i t y w a l l without  should  e a c h end  s u s p e n d e d on 30  to a  s a y s t h a t one  mount c r o s s w i s e  with  fact  have made m o d e l s  ?  told  be  against  them owing t o t h e  engineers,  wonder, ate  theatres  I n h i s Commentaria . K t e s i b i o s o f A s k r a , engineer,  not  sorts of  However, t h e y  I have m e n t i o n e d  strange  could  have c o n s t r u c t e d  a number o f c o n t e m p o r a r y of t h i s  actual loads  stones  way.  s i m i l a r to those  proskenia  t r a n s p o r t of the  end  four of  inside  onto the  wall.  dimensions of  great worth but  the is  51 designed the it  m e r e l y as a  inventor  And  walls with  and  for this  admiration  reason  I have  described to  for  described  how  Pyrrhos,  to build  them, I d i d n o t  most p e o p l e d o i n g  I have v e r y  carefully  predecessors  additional  information one  fact  f o r the  ought n o t  enthusiastic, to  invent  the  freighters  sea,  and  But  o n l y t o be  are  break over the  propose t o machines  t h e w i n d and  hulls,  so-called  still  to  capture on the  the  not  Then, a s t h e m a c h i n e s b r e a k  s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e character  enemy t a k e  the  oneself.  h u l l s do  because of the  platform  is  them r o l l s a b o u t b e c a u s e t h e  same movement.  t o f i t the  a l s o , s i n c e he  with  machine,  share  the  engines  the  by  design,  contributed  acquainted  s t r a p the  c a u g h t by  my  besides,  i n c a l m w e a t h e r t o push them up  supported the  that  And  I have  whenever they  a r e wont t o  i f they  waves s w e l l and  that  each machine  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  something  some e n g i n e e r s ,  on  everything  gave a good d e s c r i p t i o n o f .  For  walls.  think i t  d i s c u s s i o n on  c l e v e r i n v e n t i o n s of others, but  a city  dealing  in their writing.  considered  I have p r i d e d m y s e l f i n t h e  For  manner o f  i n h i s work P o l i o r k e t i k a ,  c o m p o s i n g an a c c u r a t e  o f war.  the  f o r undermining  c o n t r a d i c t h i s e x c e l l e n t account; which i s  what I see In  c o n s t r u c t i o n of tunnels  o f p r o t e c t i v e s h e d s and  them, a l t h o u g h  proper  up  t o win  fully. Concerning the  has  contrivance  heart.  Therefore  %i$r\*iov  i n t o the  t h a t r e s t s upon t h e  of  i t is  their necessary  middle of  the  s h i p s so t h a t , i n s p i t e  of  the  surging  i n any 33  of the waves, the machine may  weather.  For p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t  a l s o necessary to have a windscreen and p o l e i s t o small dimensions. the w a l l s the machines are  remain  upright  the winds i t i s to l i m i t  Whenever the  hele-  s h i p s approach  set up on them by means of  compound p u l l e y s . Here i s the Boat [ f o l l o w e d by Wescher's f i g . V I I I , c f . commentary I t a l s o seems a good i d e a t o me 34  wheel f o r every " t o r t o i s e " and progress may  •&epuaaTpK the base and  to f u r n i s h a f o r e -  siege-engine so that i t s  f o l l o w a crooked course.  the rock-throwers may  not  T h i s ensures t h a t  h i t t h e i r mark.  i s constructed  The  p r o j e c t s forward three  cubits  (1.33m).  rudder i s i n s e r t e d .  s p h e r i c a l fore-wheel i s then attached  to the  i t s ends are attached  on the  The  rudder.  A p l a i t e d rope 16 f i n g e r s (0.30m) t h i c k i s put  the a x l e  It  bound t o g e t h e r w i t h c o l d -  f o r g e d metal, i n t o which the  the rudder and  so-called  i n the middle of the f r o n t of  i s f i t t e d w i t h a uctaxd\r)v  35  39.9]  through  i n s i d e around  so t h a t as the axle t u r n s the machine moves i n  the d e s i r e d d i r e c t i o n . I t h i n k t h a t the "chamber" i s a l s o a good i d e a . I t w i l l be placed 36  pieces  on the  "ram-bearing t o r t o i s e " , the  of which w i l l be  ash wood bound w i t h  metal p l a t e s so t h a t they may axle. And  the  Each one  be  side  cold-forged  i n s e r t e d i n t o a metal  of them w i l l weigh one  t a l e n t (36.86  i r o n a x l e , which weighs f o u r t a l e n t s (147.5  i s i n s e r t e d i n t o them.  The  Kg,). Kg.),  machine c a l l e d a "crane" i s  53  fixed  into this  e s t i m a t e by Above t h i s  i n s u c h a way  eye  i t reaches  a r e t o be  a w i c k e r mat  will  ladder with iron  be  that  so f a r as one  can  t h e top of the besieged  n a i l e d v a u l t e d tubes, fitted.  At t h e  hooks u n d e r n e a t h  inside  t o p end  a  walls. of which  folding  i s f a s t e n e d so  that  whenever the machine p r e s s e s a g a i n s t t h e c i t y - b a t t l e m e n t s , t h e l a d d e r - a p p a r a t u s may r o p e s and The  t h e h o o k s may  be  firmly  "crane" i s undergirded  same manner a s t h e "ram" weight at  o f one  thousand  t h e r e a r end.  efficiently  The  brought  and  i n t o use by means o f  grab  h o l d o€  covered  the  w i t h s k i n s i n the  already discussed.  talents  A  (36,860 Kg.)  screw.  counter-  i s placed  a x l e s , however, o p e r a t e  b y means o f t h e  battlements  just  T h i s machine  as  can  a l s o move i n s i x d i r e c t i o n s . Here i s t h e  "Chamber"  [ f o l l o w e d b y W e s c h e r ' s f i g . X I I , c f . commentary 39.93 In  difficult  n o t be b r o u g h t  and  forward.  enemy a r e e s p e c i a l l y the battlements other own  similar  impetus,  terrain  t h e machine  For i n these  troublesome,  objects. produce  w i t h the f o l l o w i n g  an one  we  may  the  headlong  s t o n e drums,  from  and  T h e s e m i s s i l e s , b o r n e a l o n g by irresistible  force.  In  must c o u n t e r a c t t h e i r  device.  Triple  surround  the  s e t up  in  thei  such impetus  spikes 5 cubits  a s t h i c k a s a g i r d l e must be  number t h a t  should  circumstances  throwing  immense r o c k s , l a r g e  circumstances, then,  l o n g and  rough  (2.22m)  sufficient  p l a c e out o f m i s s i l e  range.  54 And  s i n c e the t r i p l e spikes are pushed forward  as a  r e s u l t o f the d a i l y rush o f stones the spikes should be placed three o r even f o u r deep.  The reason  for this  arrangement o f t h e spikes i s t o ensure that the m i s s i l e s r o l l i n g down w i l l always h i t them because they have t o pass through s e v e r a l ranks o f them. When the b e s i e g e r s wish t o be nearer t o the w a l l they b r i n g up the " a r e t e t o r t o i s e " and u s i n g t h i s w i l l set up l a d d e r s .  The " a r e t e t o r t o i s e "  and has a p e r f e c t l y hemispherical  i s wedge-shaped  round r o o f above i n the shape o f a  dome so t h a t anything t h a t f a l l s on i t s  roof r e a d i l y r o l l s o f f i t . But do not imagine t h a t I am so harsh as t o b r i n g together a l l these notes f o r the d e s t r u c t i o n o f c i t i e s , when, i n f a c t , the opposite t h a t I have j u s t compiled who a r e acquainted  i s the case.  The t r e a t i s e  makes c i t i e s s a f e , f o r those  w i t h these d e v i c e s w i l l e a s i l y be  able t o guard a g a i n s t the v e r y t h i n g s that a r e l i a b l e to harm them. I have w r i t t e n t h i s e s p e c i a l l y  a g a i n s t those  r e f u s e t o obey the f i n e laws of the realm.  who  Therefore,  i f you approve, a l l the machines w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h f i g u r e s and what i s d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n i n words w i l l thus become obvious. With regard t o what c o n t r i v a n c e s one should make to counteract  those d e s c r i b e d above, when I f i n d any  d e t a i l s i n the works of o l d e r w r i t e r s , I s h a l l attempt to d e s c r i b e them a l s o t o you. T h i s i s s a i d because some  55.  people measure the misery of t h e i r neighbours by their own sloth and claim that a knowledge of p r a c t i c a l a f f a i r s cannot be acquired even over a long period of time, just as i f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge were bound to have a d u l l i n g effect on our enthusiasm.  CHAPTER FIVE COMMENTARY 3.2  MdpxeXXe.  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n of the i d e n t i t y of t h i s  M a r c e l l u s see my 3-.4  3.6  OJC; eaxt.  chapter on the d a t i n g .  Schneider emends t h i s t o i eoTi  which makes  1  e a s i e r sense but i s not s t r i c t l y  necessary.  TOJV aXXojv TOJV 6OXOUVTOJV  ftutv.  Restored by Wescher  from a c o l l a t i o n o f M  TOJV dXXtov TOJV  the o t h e r MSS.  (  (  TJUCV  ) with  TOJV OCXXOJV 6OXOUVTOJV nuav ) > which i s  a l s o what Schneider reads and seems to make p e r f e c t sense.  There i s no reason f o r Wescher*s r e s t o r a t i o n  since the r e a d i n g o f the o t h e r MSS.  seems q u i t e  ' acceptable. 4.3  ' 0 yap  uovoe, HXrc&els bixouojc; iroinTric;.  r e f e r s to Homer and Iliad 2.24 4.12  This certainly  i n p a r t i c u l a r to a passage, o f the  ou X P T ) uavvuxiov  e u b e i v pouXncpopov a v 6 p a .  Clement of A l e x a n d r i a , Stromateis, 1 . 3 6  [II 2 3 , 2 2 St.]  g i v e s Anaxarchos as the source o f t h i s a d v i c e : eu youv x a ! Avd£apxoc; 6 eu6auu.ovt.xbc; ev  TO) negl BaenXetac, ypdtpei . . . . xaipou ueTpa eubevat 009111?; yap opoc.. ( D i e l s , V o r s o k r . 2 . 2 3 9 )  \Ph be  OUTOC;  Anaxarchos of Abdera accompanied Alexander the Great on h i s A s i a t i c campaigns and was  l a t e r put to death  by N i c o c r e o n the t y r a n t of Cyprus because he i n s u l t e d him a t a banquet. and A r r i a n , Anab. 4 . 1 0 - 1 1 .  had  See Diog. L a e r t . 5 8 - 6 O  57 IxpctTcovos nal ' E a T i a i o u x a l 'Apxurou.  The Straton  mentioned here i s probably Straton of Lampsacus, about whom not a great deal i s known. 269 B.C.  He l i v e d ca. 328-  He was a pupil and successor of Theophrastus.  He became head of the school i n the 123rd Olympiad (288-285 B.C.) and continued i n that capacity f o r 18 years leaving the school to Lycon, i n his w i l l , i n the 127th Olympiad (272-269 B.C.). Philadelphos and was known as  He taught Ptolemy  Zxpdnov  $uatx6s.  Diogenes Laertius gives the t i t l e s of 44 of his works and also mentions some lecture notes of dubious authorship and some l e t t e r s (5.59-60).  Polybios, who  has a low opinion of him,says: napartXrjo-iov ydp orj TI TOIOGTO auupe8r)xe xal^ Ztpaxcov 1 T£ cpuaixco x a l yap EKEIVOS oxav eyxEtpnarr t a g TCOV aXXcov 5oia<; 6uaaTeXXea'&at xal cpeu6oTcoL£ty, d a u u d a t o g eaTtv OTav 6' e £ auToG T t TcpocpepnTat x a l <TI>TTU)V t&tcov eutvonuaTtov e^nYtiTat, Tjcapc^ noXu (^atvETat TOIS ETttaTrJiioatv Eun^eaTEpos auroG x a l vco^poxepog.  (Polybios, 12.25 c3) For further information about Straton see Diog. Laert. 5.58-64, Suidas s.v. " ExpaTtov ,« Capelle i n RE 4A1, 278318 s.v. "Straton (13)," and Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenistische Dichtung, v o l . 1, p. 161 (Berlin, 1962). a  P r a c t i c a l l y nothing i s known about Hestiaios  except the fact that he was a pupil of Plato.  This  i s reported by Diogenes Laertius i n Bk. 3.46: MaSirral 6'aOToG Lnevainnoq 'A^rjvatog, SevoHpdxrjs K a X x n 6 o v 1 0 5 , ^ 'Ap taTOTEAny ETayetptTn^, $IXITCTCOS OTcouvTtog, 'EaTtatos nepiv^tog . . . .  53.  Evidently he further developed Plato's 'ideal numbers.' (Theophrastus f r . 12.13).  See Natorp i n RE 3.2,  1314  s.v. "Hestiaios (7)". Archytas i s probably Archytas of Tarentum, the son of Mnesagoras or Hestiaios.  He seems to have  been a very talented man and i s often mentioned throughout antiquity.  He l i v e d i n the fourth century  B.C. and must have been an approximate Plato as he corresponded with him.  contemporary of  He was general f o r  seven years even though there was a 3raw trhat forbade generals to succeed themselves. ing to Diog. Laert. 8.83,  Archytas was, accord-  the f i r s t to bring mechanics  to a system by applying mathematical p r i n c i p l e s .  For  further information on Archytas, see D i e l s , Vorsokr. I. 47; Diog. Laert. 8.79;  and E. Wellmann i n RE  2.1,  600-602 s.v. "Archytas (3)", and Suidas j . y . " 'Apxuxac, The A r i s t o t l e mentioned here i s the famous A r i s t o t l e , pupil of Plato and tutor of Alexander (384-322 B.C.). drcnpTtau-eva  MPV;  airnpxnueva  L^.  LSJ  S>.V. a-rcapxiCw  I I . 2 'to be complete, to f i t exactly, square with, etc.* This seems to be exactly the opposite of what i s intended.  LSJ s.v. anapxdw  II *detach, separate.*  This f i t s the sense of what he i s saying and i s surely the correct reading here. KdA,avoc; 6 'ivdoc;.  Kalanos was an Indian philosopher  who belonged to a group called the gymnosophists  59  (because they went around naked).  He accompanied  Alexander on p a r t o f h i s journey, but when he f e l l i l l he had h i m s e l f burned a l i v e on a f u n e r a l pyre.  The  r e f e r e n c e here i s perhaps t o a l e t t e r t h a t he wrote to  Alexander.  T h i s q u o t e d by P h i l o n A  (Judaeus), Quod  Omnis Probus L i b e r S i t . 14: . ^EXXrJvujv 6e yiXoaocpoiq OUH .eCop.ox.ouu,e^a oaot atrttov e t c ; uavTHYuptv Xovouc; eu-eXexnaav, aXXa Xoyoic; epya Ttap'fiuCv anoXou^a n a l epvoic; Xoyot Bpaxeiav exouau 6uvautv na! uaxaptotnxa na! eXeu^epuav T c e p t T i o t o u v T e c ; . The  s u i c i d e o f Kalanos i s an " o f t t o l d t a l e . "  See  S t r a b . 15.715-718; Diod. 17.107; P l u t . A l e x . 69; Athen. Deipn. 10.437a; L u c i a n Peregr. 25; see a l s o M. Hadas, H e l l e n i s t i c C u l t u r e , pp. 178-179 (1959); K r o l l i n RE 10.2, 1544-1546 s.v. " KdXavog"; A r r i a n Anab. 7.3.  P l u t a r c h t e l l s us t h a t h i s name was not  r e a l l y Kalanos b u t Sphines. c a l l e d Kalanos because with 5.12  xaXe  TWV Anludxov  He says t h a t he was  he greeted everyone  an I n d i a n word o f s a l u t a t i o n nepcuHujv.  Very l i t t l e  he met  ( P l u t . A l e x . 65.3).  i s known about  Deimachos except f o r the f a c t t h a t he was sent by the S y r i a n k i n g Antiochus Soter (293-261 B.C.) to Palimb o t h r a (on the Ganges r i v e r ) as an ambassador to the Indian k i n g Amitrochates 652 o r of  'AXXitpoxd6r|v  ( 'AatTpoxdTrjv  A t h . Deipn.  14.  Strabo 2.70) and wrote a h i s t o r y  I n d i a that was h e l d i n very low repute:  60.  "AreavTEC, LIEV TOIvuv ot Ttspl xr\<; ' Iv.6LHf]c;^p.(x.(t».av_T.e.S. i  OJC; ETCL TO uoXu i\>zv8o\6yoi yeyovaat, xa§' im£p(3o\rtv 6e AntVaxoc;.  He was a p p a r e n t l y a P l a t a e a n ( Aaiuaxoc. 6 nXaTaieuc; P l u t . Comp. S o l , e t P u b l . 4; and Aaiuaxoc; 6*6 nXaTOJvixoc; Diog. L a e r t . 1.30, emended t o Acuuctxoc; 6*o IlXaTateuc; by Casaubon).  Besides h i s h i s t o r y o f I n d i a he a l s o  wrote a work c a l l e d  Ilepl euaepetac;  Stephanos o f Byzantium  and a c c o r d i n g t o  (.s.v. '» Aaxe6aiuojv ") a work on  sieges:  OJC; cpnai Aaitiaxoc;  ev  TcoXtopxnTixoic;  UTCOUV:PLI<XCTI  Xeyoov.  5.12  ex TOJV Ani|idx-ou_llepatxojv x a l TOJV 6t' $ncrdvTojv 'AXe£dv6poj Wescher.  auTOu  axoXou-  ex TOJV ArjiLidxou IIpXiopxnTLxojv x a l TUJV Aud6ou x a l Xapiou TOJV dxoXou^nadvTOJv 'AXe£dv6poj Schwartz.  ~  aeTtxwv MPV.  1  V  c o r r e c t e d i n margin t o Ilepaixwv,  TtepaeTtxojv  Although the MSS. readings appear c l o s e r t o  Ilepatxojv  than t o noXiopxrjTixujv  a noXiopxnTtxd to a nepcuxd. seem t o f a v o u r  we have a r e f e r e n c e t o  o f Deimachos (see above) and no r e f e r e n c e The manuscript evidence, then, would riepcuxojv while the o t h e r evidence  f a v o u r s noXLOpxnTtxojv.  The evidence f o r e i t h e r , tew>®y$ir,  i s r a t h e r scanty and on the b a s i s o f i t no d e f i n i t e c o n c l u s i o n can be reached. and  Xapiou  Schwartz  The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f Aid6ou  from 10.10, however, i s r a t h e r s u s p e c t .  has o b v i o u s l y proposed t h i s because  s i m i l a r i t y between 6u'auxou  and Aid&ou  o f the  and because  61. it  i s v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o see what 61,'auxou  mean.  Furthermore  a t 10.10  should  we are t o l d t h a t Diades  and C h a r i a s campaigned w i t h Alexander, which i n v e r y w e l l w i t h the phrase  dxo\ou$T)advxcov  A f a r s i m p l e r method o f d e a l i n g w i t h the 6t*auxou  presented by the phrase e x c i s e i t and  fits ' A\e£dv6pco.  difficulties  i s simply to  read:  ex xcov Anludxc-u riepaixcov ( o r noXoopxnxi.xtov) xal xcov dxo\ou$T)advxtov 'A\e£dv6pto. 5.13  IIuppou xou M a x e 6 o v o s ypacpevxcov TcoXiopxnxtxiov. Pyrrhos was He was  not r e a l l y a Macedonian but an E p i r o t .  k i n g o f the M o l o s s i a n s and l i v e d 319-273  During h i s e v e n t f u l l i f e w i t h the Macedonians.  he was  He was,  B.C.  s e v e r a l times at  war  however, v e r y popular  w i t h the Macedonian t r o o p s and g r e a t numbers of them went over t o him.  In f a c t a t one time he was  proclaimed  k i n g o f Macedon: eTceXSeov 6 e 6 riuppo? auaxel Tcape\ap\e_xb axpaxonebov xal BaatXeug avTrvopeu$n Maxebovcov. ( P l u t . , Pyr.11.6) He  spent h i s whole l i f e  i n m i l i t a r y e x p l o i t s and  a v e r y capable g e n e r a l who some w r i t i n g s on m i l i t a r y  apparently l e f t  was  behind  matters:  6 e T t e p l xd£eis x a l axpaxTiyCa? eTttaxT)UT)5 auxou xal^6euvoxT)xo<; eveaxi betvuaxa XapeCv ex xcov ypa^xuaxcov a rtepl xouxiov drcoXeXouTce. ( P l u t . , Pyr. 8.2)  TTJS  For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see P l u t . Pyr.; Jacoby 2B, 229;  FGH  and Dietmar K i e n a s t i n RE 24, 108-165 s.v.  "Pyrrhos (13)".  62  6.2  TcapdXXnXov exeivoc; Schwartz.  Schwartz's  i f we  exeivoc;  read  w h e r e a s i f we  uap'aXXnXa exeCva  MSS.;  r e a d i n g i s t o be  i t must s u r e l y r e f e r t o  read exeiva  i t refers  r a t h e r than to the person. the r e s t  xa$aTtep  slightly  the  P h i l i p p o s 7.  works  T h i s agrees b e t t e r  The  with  about  the  authors.  auvepr) ' i a o x p d x e i .  Isokrates*  Kalanos  to the  o f the sentence, as i t i s t a l k i n g  works r a t h e r t h a n a b o u t 6.6  preferred, f o r  T h i s passage text  refers  g i v e n here  from the t e x t which i s found  to  differs  i n editions  of Isokrates:  ovxoc; 6'ouv euou ttep! xrjv n p a y n a x e i d v xauxnv eop^nxe Ttoirjaduevoi TTJV e i p t i v r i v , Ttplv e£epyaa$f]vai xbv Xoyov. 7.1  '0 piev yap  Laxopuoypdcpoc; KaXXta^evr)?; •  K a l l i s t h e n e s was  a nephew o f A r i s t o t l e who  A l e x a n d e r * s e x p e d i t i o n a s an o f f i c i a l q u a r r e l l e d with Alexander o b e i s a n c e and was complicity information  see W.  accompanied  historian.  He  for alleged  against Alexander.  Kroll  historian  over the q u e s t i o n o f  e v e n t u a l l y executed  i n a plot  "Kallisthenes  The  i n RE  10.2,  For  further  1674-1726 .s.v.  (2)"; A r r i a n , Anab. 4.10-11; P l u t .  Alex.  52-55; D i o g . L a e r t t . 5.4-5; and S u i d a s s.v. " KaXXua^evnc; ". 7.3  npoacoTtou.  None o f t h e u s u a l m e a n i n g s o f  seems t o make much s e n s e is,  however, f a i r l y  here.  The  icpoawTtov  meaning  required  obvious from the c o n t e x t .  mean s o m e t h i n g l i k e ' ' p u r p o s e d  I t must  63. 7.7  xou uTjxavuHoG ' AvrjaiaTpciTOU.  8.4  auxots  eueLvai  CXUTOIS  conjectured by Wescher;  F; aOTOtg eixl  auxf)? ercl  See my chapter on dating.  other MSS.  a.%'r\ M;  The simplest  thing to do here i s to obelize the phrase since the sentence makes perfect s e n s e without i t . 8.7  In t h i s thesis, wherever measurements occur, I have adhered to the following system: 1 Tcfjxuq  (cubit) =6  1 nous  (foot) =4  ua\atoTaC TcaXatcrTOu  1 cnufyxuTi  (span) -3  1  (stade) -600  aiabiov  (palms) -=-2L  6<XKXV\OI  (fingers)  -16 ddxTuXot  TcaXoaaTai ft. (  novq)  1 t a l e n t =60 minae =6000 drachmae =36,000 obols. For purposes of conversion I have used the following: 1  Ttfjxus  =44.4 cm.  (W. Becher RE 19.1, 6 s.v. " nr]xvq ")  and 1 talent (Attic-Euboic) - 36.86 Kg. (F.N. Pryce OCD 8.7  s.v.  "Weights").  6 yap Tpicnu$auos  auTou xa%ana\%r)<z.  adjective Tptani^auog but the noun arci^a^f) Tptcnu&auos  The  compound  occurs f i r s t i n Hesiod, 0p_. 426, i s f i r s t used by Herodotus 2.106.  means 'three spans long* (i...e. 66.66cm.).  The question now arises what was three spans long i n a TpianOauos xaTanctXTTis  ?  V i t r u v i u s 10.10.1 t e l l s  us, Omnes proportiones eorum organorum ratiocinatorum ex proposita sagittae longitudine, quam i d organum mittere debet . . . . Thus i t would seem that T p i a T u $ a u o g length of the arrow.  must r e f e r to the  V i t r u v i u s explains how the  64. dimensions of every part to the  l e n g t h of the  r u l e s we of a  can  a r r o w and  c a t a p u l t are t h e r e f o r e by  a r r i v e at a f a i r l y  accurate  related applying  his  representation  catapult. It  i s known f r o m t h e  were b a s i c a l l y and  of the  the  two  types of  palintone.  there  euthytone  t y p e and  most  dart-  e u t h y t o n e t y p e a l t h o u g h some o f  the  d i f f e r e n c e was  The  only  However^ i t i s n o t  b e t w e e n t h e s e two  s t a t e m e n t we  upon t h e  c a t a p u l t s , the  palintone  were a l s o p a l i n t o n e s .  light  sources that  I t i s f u r t h e r known t h a t a l l r o c k -  t h r o w e r s were o f t h e throwers of the  ancient  possess that  situation i s that  these  known what  types of  seems t o  catapult.  shed  o f H e r o n who  any  says,  xd 6e e u ^ u x o v a x d uev aXXa rcdvxa x d auxa e x e i xcp TtaXtvxovop nXrjv S x t x d 6 u o r)ixn6via zlq ev TCXCV^LOV a u Y K e t x a i arcexovxa dXXT)Xcov xb x f k 6iu>axpa<; TtXaxo?. K o c h l y and did  not  Rustow ( G r i e c h i s c h e  t h i n k t h a t t h i s was  t o d i s t i n g u i s h two fore the  ward a t an  o f the  angle  r a n g e and  s h o t s w o u l d be which i s h a r d l y down w a l l s .  o f t h e i r own. palintone  o f 45°  T h i s means t h a t t h e fixed  enough d i f f e r e n c e  c l a s s e s o f m a c h i n e s and  posited a theory HXtuaHLs  a great  Kriegschriftsteller)  and  there-  They s a i d t h a t  c a t a p u l t r a k e d down-  was  palintone  they  fastened  t o the  ground.  c a t a p u l t w o u l d have a  f u r t h e r m o r e i t w o u l d mean t h a t a l l lobbed  i n on  a rather high t r a j e c t o r y ,  s u i t a b l e f o r such t a s k s  This  suggestion  seems q u i t e  as  knocking  ludicrous.  65.  F o r why  would anyone b u i l d such a c o m p a r a t i v e l y  l e s s machine when a much more u s e f u l one  use-  could  be  b u i l t w i t h o n l y minor adjustments? Barker  (" riaXtvcovov n a l EU#UTOVOV  pp. 82-86) t a k e s the statement l i t e r a l l y .  » CQ 14 He  (1920)  says  t h a t a l l a n c i e n t c a t a p u l t s were r e a l l y p a l i n t o n e s by v i r t u e o f the f a c t t h a t t h e i r s p r i n g s worked i n o p p o s i t e directions.  H i s t h e o r y seems t o be t h a t t h e main  d i f f e r e n c e was  one of s i z e , f o r a n c i e n t machines were  c o n s t r u c t e d o f v e r y l a r g e heavy t i m b e r s and were disassembled  for transport.  As the s i z e o f the machines  i n c r e a s e d , the s i z e o f t h e component p a r t s i n c r e a s e d , sometimes t o such an e x t e n t t h a t t r a n s p o r t would become impossible.  I f t h i s happened the p i e c e s would have t o  be m o d i f i e d i n o r d e r t o make t r a n s p o r t p r a c t i c a b l e . Barker  says t h a t i n an euthytone c a t a p u l t the  s p r i n g s were c o n t a i n e d  two  i n a s i n g l e frame ( nXiv&Cov  )  which c o n s i s t e d of: a beam t o p and bottom, each c o m p r i s i n g i n i t s e l f bore-beams and bed o r c o u p l e r s , two s i d e p o s t s , one a t each end. o u t s i d e the s p r i n g s , and two m i d - p o s t s ( ueaoaTdtat ) between the s p r i n g s a t a d i s t a n c e from each o t h e r a l l o w i n g f o r the b r e a d t h o f the 6iu>aTpa o r the auptyC. As such a machine i n c r e a s e d i n s i z e t h i s frame would become unwieldy  and i n o r d e r t o make i t more t r a n s p o r t -  a b l e a method was  d e v i s e d whereby i t c o u l d be  i n t o s e v e r a l p a r t s and t h u s more e a s i l y moved.  separated This,  EY9YT0N0N a n d DAAINTONON C a t a p u l t s according to E P Barker 0  1 .  /  0  A.  \  li  |  I  e $  \  a - spring b = t o p and bottom-beams c = side-posts d= u e a o a T c t T a L e= StojoTpaot* auptyC  h  c  a b c d e f g  = = = •= = = =  spring uep LTprjTa Tiapaaxdxr)^ avxioxdxr)<; x/ULaaxic; xavoveg TpdrceCa  1  67.  Barker says, i s the p a l i n t o n e c a t a p u l t i n which: each s p r i n g has i t s own frame ( nutxovov ), s e p a r a t e l y , b u i l t , c o n s i s t i n g o f two borebeams (TcepLTprjTa ) top and bottom, a s i d e post ( u a p a a T c t T T ) ? ) forming the o u t e r s i d e of the frame w h e ^ t h e gun i s assembled and a counter-post ( avxiaxaxr)<z ) forming the i n n e r sideband f a c i n g , as i t s name i m p l i e s , the avxioxdxr\q of the complementary s p r i n g frame on the o t h e r s i d e o f the xXuuaxig The two frames are then p l a c e d and f i x e d upon a bed (TpdrceCa ) and secured a t the top by two wooden c o u p l i n g - b a r s ( xavoves ). For t r a n s p o r t the whole s t r u c t u r e was u s u a l l y taken t o p i e c e s except the a c t u a l s p r i n g frames ( T l U L T O V t a ) . The more u s u a l view (Lafaye i n DA js.v. "Tormentum" and De Rochas, p. 7^3  note 1) i s t h a t i n the p a l i n t o n e  c a t a p u l t the arms were d i r e c t e d away from the shooter while i n the euthytone toward  the shooter.  comparing  c a t a p u l t the arms were d i r e c t e d  T h i s i s most e a s i l y understood  the compound T a r t a r bow  self-bow where an analagous  by  w i t h the o r d i n a r y  situation exists.  This  e x p l a n a t i o n f i t s i n w e l l w i t h what should be the meanings o f naXuvcovog TcaXtvTovos way  and e u ^ u x o v o g L S J  says »bent backward, i.e_. the o p p o s i t e  to t h a t i n which they were drawn, TO£CI,  of the bow  whether s t r u n g o r unstrung',  m i l i t a r y engines f o r throwing m i s s i l e s = Xi^oSoXa.' f  bent  s.v.  s.v.  raxXivcova  Therefore  euduTovog  i t says *opp. naXivxovoq  to the l i g h t e r t o r s i o n  xa  stones but not pointed  c o r r e c t l y * which LSJ does not g i v e . euduTOvos  i n Horn.  engines.*  should mean Instead  , term  applied  68  tr  The Composite Bow  Strung and Unstrung  (a) as Compared w i t h  the Self-bow Strung and Unstrung ( b ) .  a) Lorimer, Homer and the Monuments, f i g . 37 p. 304. ^,  69.  Kochly and Rustow*s view (based on no evidence at a l l ) seems almost t o o r i d i c u l o u s t o c o n s i d e r . Barker has taken the passage from Heron and has made good sense o f i t but the meanings f o r and  eu$UTOvoc;  suspect.  TCCXXCVTOVOC;  d e r i v e d by him seem t o be somewhat  The view o f Lafaye et a l . seems t o have  made good sense from the words TtaKivTOvoc;  and  e&&uTovoc;,  but does not accord w e l l w i t h t h e passage  from Heron.  As Heron i s t h e o n l y a n c i e n t author who  e x p l a i n s a n y t h i n g about the d i f f e r e n c e between the two types o f c a t a p u l t s i t seems b e s t t o accept Barker's views, which a r e based upon Heron-, but t h i s cannot be done without 8.9  ' AnoWwvLOc;.  8.13  "Os  9.4  Kpibv uev  reservation. See my chapter on d a t i n g .  must c e r t a i n l y r e f e r back t o A g e s i s t r a t o s .  £9aaHev  e6pe$rjvai upuktcrrov vno KapxTjbovtajv  ev xfi Ttepl rdbetpa-TtoX-LopxLg. q u i t e untrue.  T h i s statement i s  The appearance o f the b a t t e r i n g - r a m  and the "ram-bearing  t o r t o i s e " i n ancient Egyptian  p a i n t i n g s and i n A s s y r i a n b a s - r e l i e f s  (see A.H. Layard,  Nineveh and i t s Remains, v o l . 2 , pp. 3 6 6 - 3 7 3 1849);  (London,  C. De l a Berge i n DA 1 , 4 2 2 - 4 2 3 s.v. " A r i e s " ;  and J.G. W i l k i n s o n , Manners and Customs of the Ancient E g y p t i a n s , pp. 3 5 9 - 3 6 4 (London, 1 8 3 7 ) )  shows t h a t the  i n v e n t i o n o f t h i s machine took p l a c e f a r e a r l i e r  than  70.  Athenaios  o r V i t r u v i u s , who  with Athenaios, tells  us  Mithr.  believed.  Pliny  that the battering-ram  d u r i n g the nothing  had  f o r t h e most p a r t  s i e g e o f Troy, b u t  i n Homer t o s u p p o r t  73;  S e r v i u s , Ad  Aen.  was  agrees 7.57)  (N.H.  i n v e n t e d by  Epeus  there i s absolutely this.  Others  (App.  9.505)  have a s c r i b e d t h e ( f l . 440  i n v e n t i o n t o A r t e m a n e s o f Clazomenae  Bell.  B.C.).  It  i s a b s o l u t e l y u s e l e s s t o s p e c u l a t e on t h e i n v e n t i o n  of  the battering-ram  that As  f o r i t i s such  i t s h i s t o r y must e x t e n d  the Renaissance  a simple  f a r back i n t o  scholar Justus L i p s i u s  machine  antiquity. so  aptly  remarked: q u i d opus v e l a P o e n i s p e t e r e , quod i p s a u b i q u e r a t i o e t paene n a t u r a commonstrat? ( P o l i o r k e t i k o n Bk. 3 d i a l . l ) . It  i s , however, o b v i o u s  a high degree of  t h a t t h i s m a c h i n e had  sophistication  than t h a t t o which Athenaios  9.4  rd6etpa.  Traditionally  1100  The  is  B.C. unknown.  dates  K.  i t to the  c h a p . 24)  date  third  (RE  earlier  ascribes i t s invention.  founded  of the  Orinsky  at a period  reached  somewhere a r o u n d  s i e g e by 19.1,  c e n t u r y B.C.  the  560  Carthaginians  .s.v. "Pephrasmenos") A.  Schulten  (€AH  7  says, F u r t h e r evidence o f the d e s t r u c t i o n of T a r t e s s u s can be f o u n d . . . i n the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n b y A t h e n a e u s ( V i t r u v i u s 10.13) o f t h e t a k i n g o f a f o r t n e a r Gades and t h e n o f Gades itself. By Gades must be meant T a r t e s s u s (a c o n f u s i o n w h i c h i s n o t uncommon), f o r t h e h i s t o r i c a l Gades was a P h o e n i c i a n town w h i c h must have b e e n a more o r l e s s w i l l i n g a l l y of Carthage. The m e n t i o n o f t h e f o r t , t o o ,  71.  s u g g e s t s T a r t e s s u s , f o r t h a t c i t y could o n l y be b e s i e g e d a f t e r t h e c a p t u r e o f t h e s t r o n g h o l d o f Geron w h i c h commands t h e mouth o f t h e G u a d a l q u i v i r . The d e s t r u c t i o n o f T a r t e s s u s and Maenace was complete: even t h e i r names were b l o t t e d o u t , f o r i n l a t e r t i m e s Gades was g e n e r a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r T a r t e s s u s and Malaca f o r Maenace, a f a c t t h a t a l s o s u g g e s t s t h a t Gades succeeded t o t h e t r a d e o f T a r t e s s u s , M a l a c a t o t h a t o f Maenace. S c h u l t e n p l a c e s t h i s d e s t r u c t i o n i n the c l o s i n g y e a r s o f t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B.C. 9.10  IIe9paaLtevo5.  A c c o r d i n g t o b o t h A t h e n a i o s and  V i t r u v i u s , he was t h e f i r s t t o improve t h e b a t t e r i n g ram by suspending i t from an u p r i g h t p o l e and s w i n g i n g i t back and f o r t h .  See V i t r u v . 10.13.2 and O r i n s k y  loc. c i t . 9.15  rrjpaq . . . 6 Kapxnoovto?.  A p a r t from what A t h e n a i o s  and V i t r u v i u s (10.13.2) t e l l u s , n o t h i n g seems t o be known about t h i s man. 10.2  S c h n e i d e r wants t o r e a d as f o l l o w s : d\\'vtib n\r)$ov<z cxy6pu)v Tcpoto&ouuevov enotnae. EUptov t o  UTCOTPOXOV  Tr)paq 6 e o Ttptoxiog  OHETcaaua o 6cd,Tr)v  XEXtovnv TcpOCTT)YopeUCFEv.  He has o b v i o u s l y done t h i s  t o p r o v i d e an o b j e c t f o r sOpcov the  [JpaduTnTa  o t h a t appears i n t h e MSS.  and an a n t e c e d e n t f o r His version  seems p r e f e r a b l e t o W e s c h e ^ s , which has . . . axEStav sentence.  and UTCOTPOXOV crxETtaaua  certainly  tmoTpoxov i n t h e same  However, h i s emendation i s n o t s t r i c t l y  n e c e s s a r y as i t i s p e r f e c t l y e v i d e n t what t h e o b j e c t  7 2 .  of  euptov  i s even  o  verb. in  i t i s not  r e a d eupojv 6 .  t h e MSS. the  though  remains, b u t A t any  Josephus  expressed.* A l l  In S c h n e i d e r ' s  produces  emendation  a sentence without a main  r a t e the meaning i s o b v i o u s .  (Bell.  Jud.  i s a close  3 . 2 1 6 )  A  passage  parallel  to  this: <xv<t)$ouu,evoc 6 e uitb TC\TJ&OUC; avbpojv Etc; xb XOCTOTUV, TOJV auxojv oc^poojc; TtdXiv etc; T O U U Ttpoa^Ev e TCL {3 pt adv TOJV xunxet TOC xetx*)<*> •i n p o a v e x o v T i at6r]poj. t  T  1 0 . 3  A c c o r d i n g t o Athenaios Geras "tortoise"  on a c c o u n t  in  1 0 . 5  because  Atovuatou  TOU  B.C.  4 3 2 - 3 6 7  and was  A f t e r an a b o r t i v e Agrigentum the  from  p r o t r u d e s and  t o t h e head  the  attempt  by  the C a r t h a g i n i a n s ( 4 0 6  to  B.C.),  relieve with  elected general.  he a c c u s e d h i s c o l l e a g u e s o f c o m p l i c i t y w i t h  auxoxpaTujp. obtained  After this,  a body g u a r d .  established  position policy  lived  Hermocrates.  enemy and managed t o g e t h i m s e l f a p p o i n t e d  and  tortoise.  the Syracusans  s u p p o r t o f P h i l i s t e u s he was  Later  He  son-in-law of  a  i s withdrawn  of a real  xupavvtba.  EIHEXIWTOU  o f movement,  i t i s called  ( 4 . 1 4 )  t h e ram  a manner s i m i l a r  t h i s machine a  o f i t s slowness  but a c c o r d i n g to Vegetius "tortoise"  called  he  He  a tyranny.  fortified  of m i l i t a r y  by  aTpaTTyyoc;  d e c e i t f u l means,  he  then strengthened the To  consolidate  O r t y g i a and  expansion,  the  his  embarked upon a  i n the e x e c u t i o n of  army  73. which  (399 B.C.)  war m a c h i n e s .  he a p p a r e n t l y made e x t e n s i v e u s e o f  D i o d o r u s S i c u l u s , who i s t h e c h i e f  source f o r the l i f e machines  several  o f D i o n y s i o s , mentions these  times:  Kal yap t o x a x a n e X x i x b v eupe$r) xaxa xoGxov xbv xaipbv ev E u p a x o u a a t g i ( D i o d . 14.42.1) 6w6rtep dvuneppXrjTov cpiXoxiutav ei.acpepovxes 6 i x e x v i x a i noXXa TcpoaertevooGvxo peXrj x a l urjxavriuaxa leva x a l buvdueva TcapexeaS-ai. \xeya\aq x P ^ S « (14.42.2) E  a  xaxeaxeuda-&r)aav 6e x a l xaxaTteXxai T c a v x o t o t x a l xcov d\\cov peXcov TCOXU? XI? a p t ^ u o g . ( D i o d . 14.43.3) Aiovuauo£ 6e xfi TtoXuxetpCa xcov epyaCouevcov^auvxeXeaag xb^x^ua, TtpoaTjYaYe navxouas urjxavds XOL£ xeix^ai, xal xoCg uev xptoug exurcxe xoug TtupYOug, x o t g 6e xaxaueXxatg aveaxeWe TOUS ercl xcov^eud\£eu)V uaxouevou? TcpoarjYaYe 6e x a l xoug UTCO XCOV xpox^v TCUPYOUC. xou? x e t x e o t v , e^copocpoug ovxag.oug xaxaaxeuaae Tcpbg xb xcov otxucov vtyoq. ( D i o d . 14.51.1) Apart  from h i s m i l i t a r y  wrote  p o e t r y , a n d i n 367 B.C.  the of  he t o o k f i r s t  Lenaea a t Athens f o r a p l a y  entitled  H e c t o r ("Exxopog Xuxpa ) . F o r f u r t h e r  see  also  prize i n  The Ransom information  D i o d o r u s S i c u l u s , B k s . 13-15 a n d D i e t r i c h i n RE  5.1, 10.7  achievements Dionysios  882-904 s . v . " D i o n y s i o s ( 1 ) " .  xaxd xe xt)v <£a\i*TCTcou xoG 'Auuvxou p a a i X e t a v . refers toPhilip 336 B.C. but  I I o f Macedon who r u l e d  This  f r o m 359-  He was most n o t e d f o r h i s m i l i t a r y  exploits  a l s o made some i m p o r t a n t c h a n g e s i n t h e g o v e r n -  ment a n d i n 356 B.C. he i n t r o d u c e d a new c o i n a g e . In  341/0 B.C.  he b e s i e g e d P e r i n t h o s a n d i n t h e  f o l l o w i n g year Byzantium.  B o t h t h e s e s i e g e s were  u n s u c c e s s f u l b u t the f o l l o w i n g passage from D i o d o r u s Siculus  shows t o what an e x t e n t he h a d d e v e l o p e d  74.  siege warfare.  auaxnaduevoc; be TtoXiopxtav^xal unxavac; Ttpoaavwv xfi -rcoXet xa^'rinepav ex bLaboxrk itpoaepaXXev xotc; x e i x ECTLV * oybonxovxaTtfiXELc; 6e Ttupvouc; xaxaaxeuaaac;, U T t e p a i g o v x a c ; rcoXu xwv xaxa xrjv Ilepiv^ov uupywv, e£ OTtepoxT)?; xaxeuoyei xouc; TtoXLOpxouLievouc; buouwc; 6e xat 6 tot xwv xptwv aaXeuwv xa XEIXT) x a l ^ d t a " XTJC; u,exaXXetac; urcopuxxwv ercl TtoXu tiepoc; xb xeixoc; xaxefiaXev . . .^xptauupiouc; b^e^wv^o-xpaxtwxac; xat 0eXwv xat tirixavuov TtoXtopxnxtxwv TtXr)$oc,, ext be xac; aXXac; p,r)xavac; avuTteppXtixouc; xaxeuovet xouc; TtoXtopxouuevouc,. ( D i o d . 16.74.2) I n 336  B.C.  P h i l i p was  a s s a s s i n a t e d and h i s son  A l e x a n d e r came t o t h e t h r o n e . A l e x a n d e r , h i m s e l f made use o f s i e g e t e c h n i q u e s . I n 332/1  B.C.  he a t t a c k e d t h e c i t y  extremely w e l l  o f Tyre, w h i c h  was  defended:  e^ovxec; be TCOXXTJV ba^tXetav xaxaueXxwv xat xu>v aXXwv unxavwv xwv Ttpbc; TtoXtopxtav XP*)atuwv exepac; TtoXXaTtXaaiouc; xaxeaxeuaaav pgjbtwc; bta xwv ey xfi Tupw urjxavaTtotwv x a l xwv aXXwv xexvtxwv T t a v x o b a T t w v ovxwv. b t a ^ 6e xouxwv opydvwv T t a v x o b a T t w v x a l £EVWV xatc; eTttvOLaLc; xaxaaxeuaCouevwv aTtac; uev^b T t e p t PoXoc; xf)c; TtoXewc; eTtXnpw^r) xwv urixavwv. ( D i o d . 17.41.3-4) Alexander b u i l t  a huge mole i n t h e s e a t o s e r v e as an .  approach f o r h i s machines.  When t h i s was  he b r o u g h t up h i s m a c h i n e s and  p u t them i n t o  b u t t h e T y r i a n s t o o k most e f f e c t i v e I n t h e end T y r e f e l l p u t up was  and 17;  A.W.  action,  countermeasures.  t o s i e g e , but the r e s i s t a n c e  so g r e a t t h a t  a t one  information  s a i l i n g to  see D i o d o r u s S i c u l u s ,  Pickard-Cambridge,  she  t i m e A l e x a n d e r was  t h e p o i n t o f g i v i n g up t h e s i e g e and For f u r t h e r  completed  i n CAH  6,  on  Egypt.  Bks.  16  c h a p s . g and  9;  75. F r i t z Geyer i n RE 19.2,  2266-2303 s.v. " P h i l i p p o s  K.J. B e l o c h , G r i e c h i s c h e Geschichte 3.2, 10.9  no\uei6os 6 QexxaXog.  (7)";  pp. 49-80.  He i s mentioned i n a papyrus  fragment'*(Pap. B e r o l . P. 13044) which i s dated by W. the  Schubart to the end o f the second o r b e g i n n i n g o f first  century B.C.  I t has been t r a n s c r i b e d as f o l l o w s :  Mrixavixoi/ 'Enaxpdxris HpaxXet6-/xos (xn?) 6 xd [e]v 'Pooiot op-/yava noXeutxa not-/ rjoag IIo\ut6os o xt)v/ eXonoXtv ev BuCavxtiot xal xrjv ev 'Pobua xex[pd]xuxXov/ 12 Atdbns 6 uex' ' AXe^dv-/6po[ u] xo[u] gaatXetog/ Tup[o]v xal xaq XotTtdc;/ noXtg noXtopxtov// <  He i s a l s o mentioned by P h i l o n (Mech.) (Synt. Mech. 5.83.8-9) who  c r e d i t s him with the i n v e n t i o n o f a  saw-like f o r t i f i c a t i o n .  V i t r u v i u s mentions him twice  ( 7 . p r a e f . 1 4 ; 10.13.3). 10.10  Atd6ns x a l X a p t a g . ( c f . 10.9)  Diades i s mentioned  fragment, but C h a r i a s i s not.  and V i t r u v i u s (7.praef.14;  i n the papyrus Athenaios  10.13.3) both mention  them, as does Anonymous o f Byzantium (238.12).  Diades  would seem to be the more important, as both Athenaios and V i t r u v i u s d i s c u s s h i s w r i t i n g s a t some l e n g t h , whereas a l l they t e l l us about C h a r i a s i s that he was a p u p i l o f P o l y e i d o s and accompanied 10.12  For moveable towers see 11.4 see 1 4 . 4 .  Alexander.  and f o r the "trypanon"  The "crow", which was a p p a r e n t l y some k i n d  of a g r a p p l i n g hook and the s c a l i n g - l a d d e r are so  76 simple that they are not worthy of comment. 11.2  The i l l u s t r a t i o n i n the text (cf. 39.9 Wescher's f i g . I) under the heading  xptou xaxaoxeuT) i s c e r t a i n l y not of  a "ram" but rather of a "trypanon" (cf. 14.4).  Sackur  (p.102) reckons that t h i s i s the oldest of the i l l u s trations, because i t d i f f e r s so d r a s t i c a l l y from a l l the others i n that i t i s f a r clearer and much more informative. 11.4  This section presents some very great problems. * t deals with two d i f f e r e n t sizes of towers (one 60 cubits high, the other 120 cubits high), but says that the d i v i s i o n of f l o o r s follows the same pattern i n both, namely that the f i r s t story should have a height of 7.5 cubits, the next f i v e s t o r i e s a height of 5 cubits, and the remainder a height of 4.3 cubits.  I t further  states that the 60 cubit tower had 10 stories and the 120 cubit one 20 s t o r i e s .  I f we work out the heights  of these towers i n accordance with the above stated scheme we f i n d that the answers we arrive at d i f f e r d r a s t i c a l l y from the heights of 120 cubits and 60 cubits which appear i n the text. 60 Cubit Tower 1x7.5  cubits =7.5 cubits  5x5.0  -25.0  4x4.3  =17.2  49.7  120 Cubit Tower 1x7.5  cubits =7.5 cubits  5x5.0  =-25.0  14x4.3  = 60.2 92.7  77. Something i s obviously wrong, but just what i t i s i s unclear.  Sackur (pp. 103-112) has presented two  solutions,to the problem, neither of which i s completely satisfactory.  He suggests that where our texts read  23 1/2 cubits and 17 cubits we should emend them to read 22 l/2 cubits and 15 cubits.  Then we have a  basic unity of 7*5 cubits (the figure given by Athenaios f o r the height of the f i r s t story).  For the larger  tower we then have the following scheme: width 3x7.5 cubits=22.5 cubits height 16x7.5 cubits=120 cubits basic unit -=.7.5 cubits tapering  3x7".5 1 - 2.25 cubits = 54 fingers 5 2  tapering of 19 f l o o r s above base = j>4_ -2.84 fingers 19 t o t a l height of 19 s t o r i e s i f the height=width 19x7.5 cubits - 2.84 (l*-2 + 3  . . . 19) fingers  = 142.5 cubits - 2.84 x 190 fingers =.142.5 cubits - 22.48 cubits -120 cubits S i m i l a r l y f o r the small tower we get a height of 60 cubits.  The method, while i t produces the correct  solution, bears no r e l a t i o n to the data given i n the text.  Furthermore i t requires an emendation of the  text. His second method follows the text more closely. It i s as follows: 5x7.5 cubits ^37.5 cubits 5x5.0  =25.0  78. 9 x 4.3 =38.7 total  101.2 cubits  However, on the authority of Anon, of Byzantium (244.3-11)  TO TE auurcaxov TOU xaTaoTptouaTOs TCOV OTEYIOV x a l TO xctTco&ev TOU eaxaptou auv T<+> avco^ev aeTcoucxTi Tcp u^et auvr)pi$uouv.  he assumes a thickness of one cubit f o r each f l o o r and arrives at the following: 5 x 8 . 5 cubits =42.5 cubits  5 x 6.0  =30.0  9 x 5.3  =-47.7  total  120.2 cubits  In the f i r s t place, the Greek cannot be construed to mean that the f i r s t f i v e stories rather than the f i r s t story alone had a height of 7.5 cubits, and i n the second place i f we apply t h i s method to the smaller tower we get the following r e s u l t : 5 x 8 . 5 cubits =42.5 cubits  4 x 6.0  =24.0  total  =66.5 cubits  which gives us an error of over 10%, f a r too large to be allowed.  Sackur may be on the right track when he  suggests the basic module,as there i s a considerable amount of evidence (e.g. V i t r u v i u s 10.10) that things were constructed according to such modules, but i f he i s r i g h t , something i s obviously wrong with the text.  11.7  On  the b a s i s o f V i t r u v i u s  pedalia,  Schneider  OHxabdHxu\.a. text  (17.8  24.5)  because o f the see  t h a t the  reason  why  semi-  euxabdnxuXa  to  s e v e r a l other places i n the  where he makes s i m i l a r I do  alterations not  change i s n e c e s s a r y , s i n c e t h e r e  Athenaios  and  Vitruvius  i s so  that i n at least  small.  one  It is  place  e d i t o r s have emended V i t r u v i u s  on  really  i s no  should agree  t h e d i f f e r e n c e between t h e  {1.0*5 cm.)  ments h e r e  which reads  reading i n V i t r u v i u s .  e v e r y t h i n g and  to note  w a n t s t o change  There are  and  (10.13.4)  two  on  measure-  interesting  (Vitruvius  10.15.6)  the b a s i s of  Athenaios  ( c f . 24.5). 12.11  auxdc;.  W e s c h e r has  M which reads  s u p p l i e d t h i s by  auxaic;.  The  w h i c h c e r t a i n l y must be t o w e r s and 13.4  uupyoc;  e u l o£uxaxov  M;  r e a d i n g o f the parallel  13.10  read  between t h e  " l a x a be  o£uxaxov  o t h e r MSS.  are  dub  two  There  g e n e r a l l y t o be read.  as  the  The  i t gives a  Haxaaxpojuaxoc;.  little  placed'.  The  other  to  choose  As  MSS.  M's  p r e f e r r e d perhaps -  T h i s would  o t h e r I o n i c forms t h a t ! o c c u r  auxouc;  o t h e r MSS.  t h i s f r o m F.  'he  from  noun.  seems t o be  a s b o t h mean  s h o u l d be  xou  read  i t refers to  seems b e s t  Wescher r e a d s  "laxa be.  readings  c o r r e c t as  construction to  Eaxaxai, be.  o t h e r MSS.  i s a masculine e u l xb  conjecture  conform w i t h  throughout  the  text.  the  80. 14.4  Diades*  " t r y p a n o n " i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t from the  d e s c r i b e d by A p o l l o d o r o s (Wescher 148.2). " t r y p a n o n " was  one  Apollodoros'  a r o t a r y machine which d r i l l e d  holes  i n the w a l l s > w h i l e D i a d e s ' machine worked b a s i c a l l y i n the same manner as a b a t t e r i n g - r a m .  The p r i n c i p i . 4  d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s machine and the b a t t e r i n g - r a m was  t h a t i t r e s t e d on r o l l e r s supported d i r e c t l y upon  the base, w h i l e the b a t t e r i n g - r a m was the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e .  suspended from  Wescher*s f i g . I ( c f . 3 9 . 9 )  shows v e r y c l e a r l y how Diades*  " t r y p a n o n " worked, o r  at l e a s t i t coincides e x a c t l y w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n i n the t e x t . 14.6  xou? eu^uxovois . . . -naxanaXxaK;.  See comments on  8.7. 15.5  S c h n e i d e r wants t o read  ou cpnai f o r Wescher* s ou cpnLU.  T h i s i s p r o b a b l y the b e t t e r r e a d i n g .  Firstly,  V i t r u v i u s (10.14.8) has Diades as t h e s u b j e c t and s e c o n d l y , Diades i s the s u b j e c t o f the r e s t of the paragraph  and t h e r e f o r e i t makes f o r b e t t e r c o n t i n u i t y  t o have him as t h e s u b j e c t . 15.13  3a\iov 6 'AdnvaCos. RPh 3 (1879) p.99,  Ch. Graux, " P h i l o n de Byzance," m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s must s u r e l y be  a m i s t a k e and t h a t i t i s P h i l o n of Byzantium who actually referred to.  T h i s , i n f a c t , i s almost  is  Si c e r t a i n , s i n c e i n t h e t e x t of P h i l o n of B y z a n t i u m ( 5 . 9 7 . 2 5 ) we r e a d : n a l xac; crxoac; o i x o 6 o u e i x a l xouc; en IXT)— d e i o u c ; TOTIOUC; uiropuxxe, eav Lit) uTtouppoc; fi 6 TOTCOC; f] XEkajvac; xaxaaxeuaaduevoc; x^c;xpt&ac;, xac; xdcppouc; x^vvue XT)V x^pav LIT) cp$eipwv. P h i l o n o f B y z a n t i u m i s a f a i r l y w e l l known m e c h a n i c i a n who  w r o t e a t t h e end of t h e t h i r d  the  s e c o n d c e n t u r y B.C.  A portion  o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of (dealing w i t h war  machines) of h i s work, Mechanicae S y n t a x i s . i s p r e s e r v e d . For  further information  see O r i n s k y , N e u g e b a u e r ,  i n RE 20.1, 53-54 s . v . " P h i l o n 16.1  Graux, l o c . c i t . . reads  Drachmann  (48)".  -rcpoc; xe xac; Y<-vouevac; rcpoa-  aYwydc; xwv u,r)X vr)udxwv x a l x a g T t a p e x x d a e t c ; xwv axwoiwv a  xal.  . .  Schneider reads  Ttpog xe XTJV TtpoaaYwyTiv xwv  uiT)X vT)udxwv x a l xac; nap exxdae LC; XWV a x w i 6 i w v x a l ... a  B o t h t h e s e r e a d i n g s , as w e l l as W e s c h e r s , r e q u i r e 1  o n l y s l i g h t e m e n d a t i o n s o f t h e t e x t a n d as t h e m e a n i n g of a l l t h r e e i s t h e same t h e r e i s l i t t l e between them.  Wescher s 1  t o choose  oxa6iwv, however, cannot  s t a n d as i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s i n t h i s Graux*s  axw6Cwv makes v e r y g o o d s e n s e a n d s h o u l d  c e r t a i n l y be read h e r e .  The w o r d  also appears elsewhere i n t h e t e x t 16.9  TEo-adpwv.  context.  T h e MSS. r e a d  w h e t h e r t h i s goes w i t h r e a d s xeoadpwv  A  axw'i6iov  o r ax$6iov  ( A t h . Mech. 31.6).  h e r e and i t i s u n c l e a r  au.a£tTto6ac;  o r x^pa.  Wescher  p u t t i n g i t w i t h x^pa , ' e a c h c o m p a r t m e n t  82. o f the f o u r i n the corners  . . . *  Schneider reads  making i t agree w i t h a u a E u T c o 6 a s ,  Teaaapag  »each  compartment of the ones i n the corners h o l d s axle blocks*. and  i f one  fig.  Both these  seem p o s s i b l e  examines the diagram ( c f , 3 9 . 9 Wescher*s  II) i t w i l l be  For w h i l e  readings  seen t h a t both can be  the f o u r corner  the a x l e b l o c k s , each one must remain i n doubt.  what redundant to say the c o r n e r s * .  c o n t a i n s f o u r , so the  P e r s o n a l l y I am  inclined  I f we  db take A A  i t s p o s i t i o n may  should be taken w i t h  16.10  to be  with  the ,  diagram)  i n each corner.  Thus,  be r a t h e r unorthodox the  aua£iTco&a<;.  Taken i n t h i s  c o n t r i b u t e s to our i n f o r m a t i o n ; taken w i t h  is  redundant.  Schneider (p.60) says that the a x l e - b l o c k s have a s e m i - c i r c u l a r form and  A way  X^pct i t  ( auaEoTcobes)  open upwards.  (p.67) agrees on the s e m i - c i r c u l a r form but opening downwards.  and  aua£nto6cts  it  ment.  some-  *each of ,  of knowing (apart from the  t h a t t h e r e were f o u r a x l e b l o c k s although  to  There are o n l y f o u r i n the corners  compartments*.  have no way  question  *each compartment of the f o u r i n  the same meaning i s conveyed by s a y i n g not _  we  supported.  compartments each c o n t a i n  agree w i t h Schneider s i n c e i t seems t o me  corner  four  Sackur has  T h i s seems a more l o g i c a l  them  arrange-  F o r i f the a x l e were placed i n s e m i - c i r c l e s  opening upward, the t o t a l weight of the machine would  6*3  tend  to l i f t  the axle  out of the axle-blocks  method t h a t would r e q u i r e a r e l a t i v e l y w o u l d have t o b e f o u n d out  axle-blocks  strong  t o stop the a x l e from  of the axle-block.  I f , on t h e o t h e r  axle i n the axle-block.  hand, t h e  B o t h S a c k u r and  t o keep t h e Schneider  by i r o n  plates.  W i t h Sackurs arrangement  w o u l d be an e a s y m a t t e r t o d i s e n g a g e t h e i r o n  plates, The  coming  sideways motion o f the a x l e i n t h e a x l e - b l o c k s  was p r e v e n t e d it  structure  opened downwards a s S a c k u r s u g g e s t s t h e  e n t i r e w e i g h t o f t h e machine would t e n d  agree t h a t  and some  machine c o u l d  original  9 0 ° and r e a t t a c h t h e i r o n  t u r n the axle  line  t h e n move a t r i g h t  angles  plates.  to i t s  of t r a v e l .  'iii  !V;  -;:< i  'M  r-.J.) ~  '*aV...._  L^.5. .-,  " -~  ••'•1!  .—_-  1:1  ~  a.  Abb.  The  30.  m a c h i n e d e s c r i b e d b y V i t r u v i u s (10.1A.1) seems  t o be a somewhat r e f i n e d  model o f t h a t d e s c r i b e d  by  Athenaios.  H i s machine was capable of o b l i q u e move-  ment as w e l l as of sie^ways and forwardand backward motion.  Sackur has d e v i s e d a simple method whereby  t h i s might be accomplished and furthermore t h i s method i s i n accordance w i t h t h a t d e s c r i b e d by V i t r u v i u s .  85. 17.2  <J>uxpr)\d-touc; M; ^uxpr)\dxo».c; but Schneider follows F. supposed to agree with  F.  ;  Wescher follows M  The adjective i s clearly-  XenCoi  which, according to  LSJ js.v. " Xe-rtK # i s a feminine noun. iSi.v,  ¥uxpTi\axoc;  i n LSJ) i s an adjective of two terminations and  therefore the dative feminine p l u r a l form would normally be ^uxpnXdxotc; 17.2  and F's reading should be accepted.  Choisy (Vitruve, Paris, 1909, PI..31 and p.282) thinks that the beams described here served as a kind of outrigger to help balance the machine on rough t e r r a i n . Sackur (p.66) has projected h i s roof-timbers down to these projecting pieces presumably so that the machine w i l l present no f l a t , e a s i l y broken sides to the enemy but only angular ones which m i s s i l e s , rams, etc. w i l l tend to glance o f f .  While Sackur may be r i g h t , i t  should be noted that, using the dimensions given i n the text or even emending  eitxaTCTjxGL?; to e£airr)xetc;  (cf. 17.8), h i s restoration i s mathematically  impossible.  The roof beams w i l l not meet the side-extensions. 17.8  eTixaurixetc;  e£afrf)xetc;  Ms  Schneider, following Rose, reads  on the basis of V i t r u v i u s (10.14.2)  "Cardines pedum V i l l i . "  Applying the conversion  factors (ofj 8.7) nine feet i s found to be equal to six cubits.  The difference between the two figures  i s not very large and there i s no reason why one of these machines could not be b u i l t with p i l l a r s seven cubits higkand another with p i l l a r s s i x cubits high.  86. The MSS. there  are unanimous i n favour  seems to be no v a l i d reason why  be accepted (£f. 18.4  of seven c u b i t s  11.7  and  t h i s should  f o l l o w i n g M reads xvXaiq.  F.  Why  Schneider,  Wescher p r e f e r s  of F to the r e a d i n g o f M,  g e n e r a l l y p r e f e r s , i s a complete mystery. i s t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h as  i n s t e a d of oxvXaiq  the  which he  His  text  ' s t i t c h e d together  p i l l a r s ' , a p a t e n t l y r i d i c u l o u s statement. xuXcuc;  not  24.5).  OLiOLOje; xatg aTuXatc; nal adxxexai  r i d i c u l o u s reading  and  we  like  Reading  get the eminently more t  s e n s i b l e ' s t i t c h e d together  l i k e matresses' ( c f . Diod.  17.45.4). 20.1  TTIV  be e t i T c p o a ^ e v 6p$r)v £ X  t h a t the " m i n i n g - t o r t o i s e " f r o n t and  says  e t  npoaayuyr)v. has  T h i s means  a plane surface a t  the  i s i n d i r e c t c o n t r a s t to what V i t r u v i u s  (10.15.1); f r o n t e s vero earum f i u n t quemadmodum a n g u l i trigoniorum, u t i a muro t e l a cum i n eas m i t t a n t u r , non p l a n i s f r o n t i b u s e x c i p i a n t plagas sed ab l a t e r i b u s l a b e n t e s , sine p e r i c u l o q u e f o d i e n t e s , q u i i n t u s sunt, i n tuentur.  A t h e n a i o s ' machine then comes r i g h t up t o the w a l l fitstightly  (dTtapTLon ) against  i t . A front  and  end  such as V i t r u v i u s d e s c r i b e s would be u s e l e s s i n such a s i t u a t i o n , -however, i f f o r some reason i t was s i b l e f o r the machine t o come r i g h t up to the h i s design would be i n f i n i t e l y  better.  imposwalls  87  21.1  The d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n not  give  (pp. has  of the " t o r t o i s e  us a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f the machine.  75-85) on t h e b a s i s attempted  been a c c e p t e d  emendations n e c e s s a r y  The  roof,  description  Sackur  a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s machine.  e d i t o r o f t h e Loeb, a l t h o u g h  textual  he d o e s n o t make t h e  t o support  this  situated.  given  i n the text.  one.  A split  l e f t with  I f we r e j e c t  the question  roof  such as  IV ( c f . 39.9)  as  Choisy  suggest?  1  o f where t h e ram was  f a c i n g p . 312)  and W e s c h e r * s f i g . V  The q u e s t i o n  (21.2-3)  sweep s i d e w a y s 70  a s A.A. Howard and Wescher*s  s u g g e s t , o r was i t above t h e r o o f  ( P I . 84)  Athenaios  ( ^ f . 39.9)  seems i n s o l u b l e . tells  cubits.  us t h a t  t h e ram c o u l d  Sackur c l a i m s  that  u p r i g h t s make s i d e w a y s m o t i o n i m p o s s i b l e . speaking, sure, it.  this  restrict  i s not t r u e .  Strictly  do n o t p r e v e n t  the four uprights placed  as i n the  f o l l o w i n g diagram a sideways motion o f almost cubits i s possible.  all  called  four  F o u r u p r i g h t s do, t o b e  sideways motion but they  In f a c t , with  pieces  and t h e  S a c k u r s r o o f we  Was i t i n s i d e t h e " t o r t o i s e "  (Morgan, V i t r u v i u s , 1926, fig.  reconstruction.  however, i s n o t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e  t e x t mentions only still  His  by G r a n g e r ,  S a c k u r i m a g i n e s w o u l d r e q u i r e two r i d g e - p o l e s  are  does  o f V i t r u v i u s and A t h e n a i o s  r e c o n s t r u c t i o n has a p p a r e n t l y the  of Hegetor"  80  Sackur b e l i e v e s t h a t the f o u r  uprights are not a c t u a l l y uprights at  b u t r a t h e r cross-members o f t h e b a s e .  He b a s e s  83.  89 this belief  on  the  t e x t o f V i t r u v i u s (10.15.2):  a r r e c t a r i a , quae s u p r a compactionem e r a n t q u a t t u o r c o n l o c a t a , ex b i n i s t i g n i s f u e r a n t compacta, i n a l t i t u d i n i b u s s i n g u l o pedum ;<XXXVI, c r a s s i t u d i n e p a l m o p e d a l i , latitudine sesquipedali, w h i c h he  says i s o b v i o u s l y  does not  use  conlocata  w o u l d have s a i d secondly,  for upright  use  genitive f o r lengths.  On  text  since V i t r u v i u s posts b u t  or a r r e c t a r i a  does not  the  he  postes  corrupt  rather  eriguntur  and  i n a l t i t u d i n i b u s but  the  these  g r o u n d s he  emends  to: t r a n s v e r s a r i a , quae s u p r a compactionem e r a n t q u a t t u o r c o n l o c a t a , ex b i n i s t i g n i s f u e r a n t compacta, s i n g u l a pedum XXXVI, c r a s s i t u d i n e palmopedali, l a t i t u d i n e s e s q u i p e d a l i .  The in  d e s c r i p t i o n i s now the  proper  orderly; everything  succession  —  s t r u c t u r e , whereas b e f o r e s t r u c t u r e and  proceeds  b a s e , w h e e l s , and we  back a g a i n .  super-  jumped f r o m b a s e t o  F u r t h e r m o r e , we  meet  superthe  same s y s t e m f o r b u i l d i n g f o u n d a t i o n s  elsewhere ( c f .  "Tortoise  These f o u r  rights  for filling  having  been d i s p o s e d  ( c f . 22.12-23.3). S a c k u r and  The he  We  now  G r a n g e r draw.  p o s s i b l e but impossible  in ditches").  as  one  with  o f , two  more r e m a i n  have a m a c h i n e s u c h  as  Such a m a c h i n e i s no  four uprights  up-  i s by  no  doubt  means  S a c k u r w o u l d have us b e l i e v e .  t r e a d m i l l s i n Sackur's r e s t o r a t i o n are,  himself  admits,  a s ijood a way  so  pure c o n j e c t u r e , but  of operating  the  ram  as  they  any  are  as just  o t h e r , so  90. we need not q u a r r e l w i t h him on t h a t ground. The  dimensions  l a r g e and i n one impossible.  of t h i s machine are  case, a t l e a s t , almost  completely  According t o our t e x t , t h i s machine t a l e n t s (147,440 Kg.)  weighed f o u r thousand  operated by a t o t a l o f 100 men. man  extremely  and  T h i s means t h a t each  would have had to push 40 t a l e n t s (1,474.40  which i s c l e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e as anyone who t r i e d to push an automobile can t e s t i f y .  How  was  has  Kg.)  ever  (weight approx. 1,000  much more d i f f i c u l t  Kg.)  must i t have  been t o push a lumbering machine such as t h i s on woodon wooden wheels over rough t e r r a i n than to push an automobile  w i t h rubber t i r e s and w e l l l u b r i c a t e d  b e a r i n g s along a smooth a s p h a l t As f o r the ram somewhat confused,  i t s e l f , while the d e s c r i p t i o n i s i t i s c l e a r that i t was  with v a r i o u s ropes and  bound up  chains t o r e i n f o r c e i t and  prevent i t from s h a t t e r i n g . a p p a r e n t l y equipped  road?  The forward end  was  with l a d d e r s and a net so t h a t i t  could be used as a s c a l i n g - l a d d e r as w e l l as as a The  ram.  s i x movements are i l l u s t r a t e d very w e l l by  Sackur and the way a l s o shown c l e a r l y . to the ram  i n which they were e f f e c t e d i s The movements o b v i o u s l y r e f e r  i t s e l f r a t h e r than t o the machine as a  whole s i n c e i t a p p a r e n t l y had f i x e d wheels and a x l e s and c o u l d o n l y be made t o change d i r e c t i o n w i t h great  difficulty.  91. 22.1  ^uxpTjXctTats  M; (buxpTiXaxois  23.8  'Enl 6e xou 7iepcxe<pd\ou.  FPVC.  See comment on 17.2.  The MSS.  euLXE<pd\ou  read  w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g t o L S J .s.v. » emx£<pa\ov, " means 'the head o f a b a t t e r i n g - r a m .  This i s obviously  T  wrong.  F i r s t l y , t h e entxE9a\ov  belongs  t o a xpi.o66xT)»  'the frame o f a b a t t e r i n g - r a m ' , and i t i s c l e a r l y nonsense t o say 'the head o f a b a t t e r i n g - r a m o f the frame o f a b a t t e r i n g - r a m ' . f i g . IV ( c f . 39«9) t h e  Secondly,  euixeqpdXT)  head o f the b a t t e r i n g - r a m .  i n Wescher's  i s c l e a r l y not t h e  I t seems t o r e f e r t o the  w i n c h s t r u c t u r e t h a t i s l o c a t e d a t the t o p o f the two t a l l u p r i g h t s ( 2 3 . 1 ) . t h a t nepuxe^ocXov  I t s h o u l d be n o t e d , however,  w h i c h appears i n l i n e s 3 and 5  ( w i t h no apparent MS. d i f f i c u l t i e s ) does not appear on the diagram. and 23.10  enixecpaXov  Perhaps the two words are i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e .  ecponxeuovxas MF; ETCOHXEUOVXOCS p. 247)  nepiH£<pa\ov  PV. M i l l e r (JS.1868,  says t h a t t h e f i r s t form i s known o n l y by a  g l o s s w h i l e the second form, used by a l l w r i t e r s , i s I o n i c , as du'ou  f o r dcp'ou and d u T i a e t v  f o r dcprjaeiv.  As Wescher h i m s e l f t h i n k s t h a t the t e x t was w r i t t e n i n I o n i c and i n many p l a c e s has p r e f e r r e d t h e I o n i c forms i t i s a mystery why he has chosen t o read £<poux£uovxas, 24.5  I n place of x p t o i reads X E x p a a t .  S c h n e i d e r , f o l l o w i n g J.G.  T h i s r e a d i n g i s based on V i t r u v i u s  (10.15.6) where funes I I I I . reads  Schneider,  x p u o l axotvCoug.  Anon, o f Byz.  (230.6)  As I have s t a t e d p r e v i o u s l y  92 (11.7)  t h e r e i s no  should agree in  r e a s o n why  i n every d e t a i l  and  the t r a d i t i o n of Athenaios xpiai  anything other than  that favours  i t can  stand.  to note  Morgan, and  Granger) o f V i t r u v i u s ,  The  somewhat o b s c u r e .  reading It i s  that several editors  have emended t h a t t e x t  TpiTnixoptojv•  Athenaios  as t h e r e i s n o t h i n g  interesting  Athenaios, 25.4  V i t r u v i u s and  (Rose,  Krohn,  on t h e b a s i s o f to funes I I I .  m e a n i n g o f t h i s word, h e r e ,  is  S c h n e i d e r makes what seems t o  be  a v e r y good s u g g e s t i o n , namely, t h a t i t r e f e r s t o t h i c k n e s s o f t h e r o p e t h a t was He  compares t h i s w i t h t h e way  " t w o - p l y " and  25.6  * E X E L 6e  x a l TtapaSetyM-aTa  25.7  MSS.  Not  emending  something  uapaSe CyM-a™  o n l y d o e s t h e p a s s a g e now  TETpdyojva,  xa^dtTcep a i a y o v L a ,  Anon. B y z .  (259.19).  rope  with  and  rcapa-  make sense> 6uo  which i s found  in  This i s absolutely  T h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y no way  emending i t t o make s e n s e to o b e l i z e i t .  to  t o iin-nfty\xaxa  TOC ic; xdauac; TtapaTcXriaua.  incomprehensible.  is  imagines  terms  This i s absolutely  i t i s also a close parallel  eTteibn x a  the  a s i t s t a n d s , b u t T h e v e n o t has made some  o u t o f i t by  nfjYuaTa. but  strands,  He  use  net.  are a l l f a m i l i a r .  meaningless sense  t o make t h e  i n w h i c h we  "three-ply" f o r yarn.  composed o f t h r e e d i s t i n c t w h i c h we  used  the  of  t h e r e f o r e the b e s t  course  93. 27.2  'Ettiudxc-u TOU 'A^nvatou.  Nothing more than what  Athenaios and V i t r u v i u s (10.16.4) t e l l us i s known about Epimachos. 27.3  6  AnufjTpLog  'Pobious TcoXiopxiov.  10.5  See  and  my  chapter on d a t i n g .  27.5  Ttfjxeis H  MPV;  Tercets  OHTCU F.  Wescher, n o t i c i n g  that V i t r u v i u s reads l a t i t u d o pedum LX the  Greek should  read M.  reads N i n s t e a d o f H.  21.1) i s as f o l l o w s : TcXeupctv Diodoros  OHTU) n a l  urceaTT)aaTO  De Rochas, f o l l o w i n g Graux,  Plutarch's exdcrTnv  says  TCTIXWV axe6bv  obvious t h a t the MSS.  d e s c r i p t i o n (Demetr.  XCXTIO  exouaa tou  TeaaapdxovTa  (20.91.2)  1  suggests t h a t  t  (MH) Ttrjxwv  and  TTJV uev nXeupdv TtevTT)xovTa (N).  rcXatatov  exaaTTiv  I t appears  of Athenaios must be i n e r r o r .  The d i s c r e p a n c y  between the e i g h t c u b i t s which they  g i v e and the 40  t o 50 c u b i t s which other  sources g i v e  i s too l a r g e t o be accounted f o r by i t s b e i n g a d i f f e r e n t example of the same machine. f i g u r e somewhere between 40 27.7  At  . . . uTixavaC,  Pblybios  mounted  (N) must be read.  ag T Lveg aauSuxac; TcpoaayopeuouaLv... - -  (8.4.3-11)  g i v e s a d e t a i l e d account of the  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a "sambyka" name.  (M) and 50  Clearly a  and the reason f o r i t s  B a s i c a l l y t h i s seems t o have been a tower on a ship i n such a way t h a t i t could l i e  f u l l l e n g t h on the deck,  protruding  at the bow  and  94 thus n o t tend t o t i p t h e s h i p over by making i t t o p heavy.  When t h e s h i p was brought up t o t h e w a l l s o f  a c i t y t h e "sambyka" could be r a i s e d a n d by means o f t h i s men could p a s s from t h e s h i p s o n t o t h e w a l l s o f t h e besieged 27.11  city.  ev xfi fiep! X i o v TioXtopHia.  T h i s s i e g e i s mentioned  by both Athenaios and V i t r u v i u s b u t does n o t appear to be w e l l known.  The only siege of Chios o f which  I could f i n d mention was t h e one of 358 B.C., by Chares and Chabrias  (Diod. 16.7.3).  These men besieged t h e  c i t y by both l a n d and s e a and were soundly  defeated.  There i s no mention o f "sambykai" i n t h e account o f this  siege, 6  6e Xapptac; TtpooTtXeuaac; x^-Xiuevt  xf)g  VEUJC;  xoCc; eiipoXoic; avappaYEiaric; xaxeTtoveuxo so there i s no way o f knowing f o r c e r t a i n whether or not 23.7  t h i s i s t h e siege b e i n g r e f e r r e d t o .  KaWtaxpdxw.  T h i s seems t o be t h e only time t h a t  t h i s man i s mentioned i n a n c i e n t l i t e r a t u r e .  Vitruvius  (10.16.5) c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l s t h e passage concerned w i t h the  e f f e c t i v e n e s s of models b u t makes no mention o f  Kallistratos.  29.4  Sackur (p. 91) t h i n k s that these must have been s t e p ladders.  H i s reason f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t  step-ladders  must have been used i n the t h e a t r e i s v e r y s e n s i b l e .  95  He  says t h a t by u s i n g a s t e p - l a d d e r an a c t o r would be  a b l e to climb on stage without p r e s e n t i n g h i s back t o the audience  and thus making h i m s e l f a comic f i g u r e ,  e s p e c i a l l y when he was The  not supposed to be  e a r l i e s t occurrence of the word  one. Ttpoo-nnviov,  r e f e r r i n g t o a p a r t of a t h e a t r e would seem t o be t h i r d century B.C.  (IG 11(2)  153.14):  T0IC THN [CKjHNHN EPrOAABHC A CI KAI TO HPOCKHNION HHHHA  '  ;;  Permanent stone  TcpocrHf)vi.a  do not seem to have come  i n t o e x i s t e n c e u n t i l H e l l e n i s t i c times (^a.  the  second  century B.C.).  29.9  KTncaPuoc; 6e  6 'AdHpnvbc; o*£v ''A\-eclav6peta  K t e s i b i o s was  q u i t e famous i n a n t i q u i t y .  Archimedes he was,  perhaps,  inventions.  Next  to  the most famous engineer.  He l i v e d i n A l e x a n d r i a and was nonetheless was  unxavuKos .  a b a r b e r by trade, but  h i g h l y esteemed f o r h i s mechanical  H i s main i n t e r e s t s were h y d r a u l i c s and  pneumatics and h i s most famous i n v e n t i o n was the water-organ.  probably  He a l s o made w a t e r - c l o c k s , pumps,  and i s even s a i d t o have made a rhyton t h a t sounded a shrill  note when the spout was  f l o w i n g wine. date. B.C. B.C.)  There i s some c o n t r o v e r s y about h i s  Some want to date him to the t h i r d  century  i n the r e i g n of Ptolemy P h i l a d e l p h o s (285-247 and o t h e r s to the second  r e i g n o f Ptolemy Euergetes  Ath.  opened f o r the  century B.C.  ( 1 79- 1 1 6 B . C ) .  i n the See  Deipn. 11.497d and 4.174b; P l i n y , NH 7.125;  96. V i t r u v i u s 1.1.7, 9.8.2, and 1 0 . 7 . 4 ; and P h i l o n (Mech.) Synt. Mech. 4 . 7 7 . 1 2 . 31.6  T h i s passage i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f 8.1-14 where A t h e n a i o s says t h a t i t i s o f t e n b e t t e r t o yse the good i n v e n t i o n s of o t h e r s and n o t i n e v e r y case t o be an i n n o v a t o r . Here he i s s a y i n g t h a t he d i d not t h i n k i t proper t o contradict Pyrrhos  1  good work j u s t because everyone These o t h e r s , t h e n , are not  e l s e was d o i n g so.  the good i n v e n t i o n s o f the 31.7  nuppou.  32.5  ev xoic. Tei'xeaiv.  See  using  past.  5.13.  The ev  ( P o l i o r c e t i q u e des G r e c s ,  i s e x c i s e d by E. M i l l e r JS, 1868,  p. 248) who  argues t h a t t h e s t o c k phrase Tcpoactyeiv unxavocs, unxavnua-ra, epya x . x . \ .  i s always f o l l o w e d by t h e  dative without a p r e p o s i t i o n .  He c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g  examples: unxavdg TcpoarJYOv xfi u o X e i . unxavfjg ueAAoucrris  (Thuc. 2.76)  npoact£ea$ou auxoCs. (Thuc. 4.115)  6uo oviov TcpoadyoiTO TOIS TIOV evavttiov Tetxeca. (Ath. Deipn . 14.634a)  (1>S  34.1  rcpoTpoxov.  QCTtb  The d e s c r i p t i o n t h a t f o l l o w s i s o b v i o u s l y  f o r some k i n d o f a s t e e r i n g mechanism.  Wescher*s f i g . X  and f i g . X I ( c f . 39.9) are r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r and a d e v i c e such as t h e y d e p i c t c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be u s e d t o s t e e r a machine.  However, a s Sackur (pp. 92-94) p o i n t s  out, the ropes mentioned (34.6) can h a r d l y have been  97. 16 f i n g e r s (0.30m) t h i c k .  The  EXHOC I6EX<X6(XHTU\OV  then, must r e f e r t o the l e n g t h r a t h e r than t h e t h i c k ness o f the ropes.  C l e a r l y the ropes i n Wescher*s  f i g u r e s are much more than 16 f i n g e r s l o n g .  Sackur  proposes another method as  illustrated,  a •=, ^epLUXcnrpLc;  b r: uaaxdXn c « r 66T)Y6C; d =• t u r n i n g e =16  platform  f i n g e r rope Abb. 48.  H i s method does not e x a c t l y f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n i n the t e x t e i t h e r . Exxai6exa6dxi;u\.ov  He has solved  the problem o f the  rope, but has created c  What i s the f u n c t i o n o f the In Wescher* s f i g u r e s the  a new one.  obnvoc; and the naaxaXri ?  obnyoc; as i t s name i m p l i e s  serves as a rudder; i n Sackur*s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i t seems t o serve no purpose a t a l l . his  I cannot see t h a t  system would be e s s e n t i a l l y changed i f i t were  constructed  as f o l l o w s :  98. I n t h i s case many o f t h e p i e c e s mentioned i n t h e t e x t a r e m i s s i n g ( o n l y t h e $epuacrxpis and t h e rope b e i n g p r e s e n t ) , b u t t h e system i s not r e a l l y changed a t a l l . Both t h e system i n Wescher*s diagrams and t h e system proposed by Sackur a r e p o s s i b l e b u t n e i t h e r o f them a g r e e s c o m p l e t e l y w i t h t h e d e s c r i p t i o n i n the text.  The system shown i n Wescher*s diagrams,  however, conforms b e t t e r w i t h my u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the t e x t . 34.5  <l>uxpn\dTtxK.  34,7  6iwaxou  See 17.2.  Wescher from  6ieaxai  MV  2  and biwaxe PVF.  S c h n e i d e r , a f t e r Schwartz, r e a d s d i e W x a i . 6tcoaxai  and 6(.eWxai  Both  a r e w e l l a t t e s t e d forms, so  t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o choose between them. 36.1  (^uxpttXctTcus.  36.4  ^  v  a  See 17.2.  T h i s i s d i f f i c u l t i f not i m p o s s i b l e t o  £crc!.  make any sense o f . I have o b e l i z e d 36.6  x\iuax66eai,<;  it.  F; x\uuaxo6eaeLS  According t o LSJ mat*, xXtuaxodeatg •ladder*.  Therefore, f o l l o w i n g Schneider,  PV; x\r)uaxo6eaets  M.  x\r)uax66eaus means ' w i c k e r h u r d l e o r i s o b v i o u s l y connected w i t h x\Cua£  C o n s i d e r i n g the context, e i t h e r o f these  i s possible.  The purpose o f t h e x \ n u a x 6 6 e a K / x \ i u a x 6 6 e a i s  i s t o p r o v i d e f o o t i n g f o r t h e men who a r e g o i n g t o walk up t h e s l a n t e d beam.  As w i c k e r mats and l a d d e r s  99. could both serve reading  seems e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e .  agree w i t h  this  interpretation.  was u s e d a s a b r i d g e ladder  purpose q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y  this  could  S c h n e i d e r does n o t He t h i n k s  c e r t a i n l y be used f o r t h i s  36.7  seems somewhat  purpose b u t  TcepinnHTTi.  s u p e r i o r t o Wescher*s,  * f i x round, fence  TteptTixuHTf]  to LSJ.  hand means  IlepLTiTUXTT)  e^otipiTtc;  than does  diagram  see  how t h i s l a d d e r  a manner t h a t to which  36.9  eSavoLX&f)  Ttepu-rcnxxii.  with  I f one c o n s i d e r s  appears t o be f a s t e n e d  one c a n on i n s u c h  i t c a n be r a i s e d o r l o w e r e d , a s i t u a t i o n  TteptTtxuxTf) a p p l i e s  PV; e£avo«.ar$Tl  i s unattested.  The  e^atpUTtc;  makes much more s e n s e  ( W e s c h e r * s f i g . X I I , _cf. 39.9)  the  round*.  *folding*.  a d j e c t i v e , w h a t e v e r i t may b e , a g r e e s w i t h *ladder'.  exactly.  M; e£avua£f)  The r e a d i n g s  F.  M*s r e a d i n g  o f PV a n d F a r e b o t h  legitimate  f o r m s a n d b o t h make s e n s e i n c o n t e x t ,  e^avoox^fl  i s f r o m eZavoCyui  means  s  nepLTcnxTrj  r o u n d ; make c o n g e a l  on t h e o t h e r  ^±  seems d e f i n i t e l y  uepiTcinvuu.1 w h i c h , a c c o r d i n g  comes f r o m means  suited to i t  suspect.  TCEPLUTUHTT)  Schneider's reading,  A  HXnLiaTodeotc;  as Schneider p r e f e r s the reading  interpretation  that i t  f r o m t h e beam t o t h e w a l l .  a w i c k e r mat does n o t seem p a r t i c u l a r l y and  either  which, a c c o r d i n g  * t o l a y open* o r i n t h e p a s s i v e  t o LSJ  * t o be e x p o s e d * .  100.  e^avuco,  on t h e o t h e r hand, can mean ' t o make e f f e c t u a l ' .  Thus w h i c h e v e r r e a d i n g i s a c c e p t e d , the same.  the end r e s u l t i s  I f t h e l a d d e r ' i s made e f f e c t u a l ' i t i s  l e t down so t h a t i t can be used, and l i k e w i s e i f t h e l a d d e r ' i s exposed' i t i s l e t down so t h a t i t can be e a s i l y seen. i s accepted,  T h e r e f o r e , r e g a r d l e s s o f which r e a d i n g t h e meaning o f t h e phrase i s s i m p l y  •the l a d d e r was l e t down'.  Presumably w h i l e t h e  machine was b e i n g pushed up t o t h e w a l l s t h e l a d d e r was i n a r e t r a c t e d p o s i t i o n , b u t onee t h e machine had reached t h e w a l l t h e l a d d e r was l e t down by ropes so t h a t i t c o u l d be u s e d , ( c f . 39.9 Wescher's f i g . X I I ) . 37.5  ox^oucav.  The s u b j e c t o f t h i s v e r b i s presumably  the d e f e n d e r s o f t h e b e s i e g e d 38.3  xpuBoXoi..  city.  These were used by t h e a t t a c k e r s as a  means o f defence a g a i n s t r o c k s r o l l e d down on them by the b e s i e g e d .  They were s i m i l a r t o the t a n k t r a p s  w i t h w h i c h we a r e f a m i l i a r .  They c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e  p i e c e s o f wood s e t i n t o t h e ground and j o i n e d t o g e t h e r at t h e t o p t o make a pyramid-type s t r u c t u r e .  The i d e a  was t o s e t up rows o f these around t h e machines so t h a t t h e y would s t o p any r o c k s r o l l e d down by t h e enemy and thus keep t h e machines s a f e .  Apollodoros  (140.3) g i v e s a d e t a i l e d account o f them.  101. 38.10  TT)V dpexriv xe^wvriv. think that apexrj Latin a r i e s .  Both Schneider and Sackur (p.95)  i s probably a Greek version of the  This, however, i s as f a r as the agreement  between them goes.  Schneider thinks of the  apexr)  xe\wvr) as a " t o r t o i s e " similar to the "ram-bearing t o r t o i s e " while Sackur takes the x s ^ v n  literally  and v i s u a l i z e s a beam with a cross section l i k e that of a t o r t o i s e .  to prop the ladders up against the w a l l .  I f this i s  so i t seems that there should have been something i n the text to c l a r i f y the s i t u a t i o n as nowhere else i n the whole work does  x £ ^ v n refer to an actual t o r t o i s e .  Schneider thinks that the sections dealing with the "arete t o r t o i s e " and the xpCpoXot  are l a t e r additions  because no diagrams of them appear i n the MSS.  and  Athenaios (39.9) says that he w i l l i l l u s t r a t e a l l the machines.  There are, however, other machines which  are described and not i l l u s t r a t e d  (e.£. moveable  towers (11-12) and the "ram-bearing t o r t o i s e " (10)). Furthermore the fact that Athenaios says he w i l l i l l u s t r a t e everything does not mean that he did so. He himself gives us the example of Diades who  promised  to discuss certain things and did not do so.  Perhaps  Athenaios thought that these things were f a m i l i a r  102 enough t o e v e r y b o d y t h a t  i l l u s t r a t i o n s were n o t  required.  a - wall b =ladder c= "arete  tortoise"  103 39.9  The d i a g r a m s i n t h e MSS. o f A t h e n a i o s a r e , very  b a d and s h e d l i t t l e  light  t r u c t i o n o f t h e machines.  i n general,  upon t h e a c t u a l  An e x c e p t i o n  to this i s  W e s c h e r s f i g . I, w h i c h S a c k u r r e g a r d s a s b e i n g 1  o l d e r a n d h a v i n g a much b e t t e r  cons-  tradition  much  ( c f . 11.2).  It  i s c e r t a i n l y much b e t t e r t h a n a n y o f t h e o t h e r s and  he  may w e l l be r i g h t on t h i s  the  point,  other  diagrams a r e Byzantine.  The  diagrams i n Wescher s t e x t  part,  1  t a k e n f r o m MS. M b u t t h e r e  I  II  structure in  Kpiou  From MS. M  that a l l  f o r t h e most exceptions.  follows:  F r o m MS. F ( f o i . 28 v e r s o ) .  t o go w i t h t h e t i t l e Fig  are,  are several  A d e s c r i p t i o n o f Wescher's f i g u r e s Fig.  ^e t h i n k s  I t seems  KaxaaKevi].  ( f o i . 21 r e c t o ) .  I t shows t h e  o f the base o f the " t o r t o i s e f o r  d i t c h e s " and t h e " m i n i n g t o r t i o s e " .  filling  The f o l l o w i n g  are l a b e l l e d :  YTcepoxn TtTJxetS H YnepoxT) ^ T J x e i S A 'Aua^inouq neptTCTyvua  AtctTCTiYua Fig.  I l l  superstructure and  From MS. M ( f o i . 21 v e r s o ) .  Shows t h e  of the "tortoise f o r f i l l i n g  i n ditches"  "mining t o r t o i s e " .  I t i s preceded by the f o l l o w i n g :  TOCS xeoaapag nkevpaq xr\<; x e ^ v r K voet TO OTtoxeiLievov ax^ua TCOV XLOVCOV.  Etg  104.  F i g . IV  From MS. M ( f o i . 23 recto).  of Hegetor".  The following are l a b e l l e d :  The "tortoise  n u p y t o v r r r o t doapooaov 'ErciKecpaXfi n x d y t o v C u X o v t i e a o v TOJV OHEXOJV 'EUUOT'&XLOV KecpaXbv KptodoxT) XeXwvTj  Fig. V  From MS. P ( f o i . 58 verso and 59 recto).  Also the " t o r t o i s e of Hegetor'.'* F i g . VI  From MS. M ( f o i . 24 recto).  The machine  of Ktesibios. F i g . VII From MS. P ( f o i . 60 recto).  Supposedly  the machine of Ktesibios but the drawing bears no resemblance whatever to the description contained i n the text. Fig. title  VIII  From MS. P ( f o i . 61 recto).  Has the  'EVTOCU^OC TO TCXOLOV. F i g . IX Fig. X  From MS. F ( f o i . 9 recto). From MS. P ( f o i . 61 verso).  the fore-wheel described  by Athenaios.  B Illustrates The following  are l a b e l l e d : b6T)v6c; TpCXTCT)^  F i g . XI  From MS. F ( f o i . 9 verso).  fore-wheel of Athenaios.  Also the  This i s unlabelled.  105  Fig. Chamber".  XII  From MS.  M ( f o i . 25 v e r s o ) .  It i s entitled  the f o l l o w i n g  are  napxTiatov 'ECeptTtg "A£iuv Tepavos.  "The  'EvxaGaa TO K a p x n a t o v  labelled:  (e£aipLTLs)  and  106.  Ki % :  "T/*L.  '•-'SiisK-i—  ^T"i  15!  VTT  6 fOXll  IT  H  f>  Kin- »•  I.  107.  ClC T U C Td-CCKf.\C TrXCV?KC TIlC X C M U H I l C  108.  109  110.  •l'  "ft  v  '  i\. XII.  BIBLIOGRAPHY Ancient Authorities Anonymous of Byzantium, i n Wescher*s Poliorcetique des Grecs (Paris, 1867) PP.135-193. Apollodoros, i n Wescher*s Poliorcetique des Grecs (Paris, 1867) pp. 137-193. Appian, H i s t o r i a Romana. ed. P. Viereck and A.G. Roos (Leipzig, 1962). Arrian, Alexandri Anabasis, ed. A.G. Roos (Leipzig, 1967). Athenaios, Dipnosophistae. 3 v o l s . ed. G. Kaibel (Leipzig, 1887-1890 and Stuttgart, 1965). Athenaios (Mechanicus), i n Wescher*s Poliorcetique des Grecs (Paris, 1867) pp. 3-40. Archytas, Vorsokr.. 3 vols. ed. H. Diels and W. Kranz (Zurich, and B e r l i n , 1952-1956). 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