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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Athenaios Mechanicus West, George Robert 1969-07-19

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ATHENAIOS MECHANICUS by GEORGE ROBERT WEST B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1 9 6 6 A T h e s i s Submitted i n P a r t i a l F u l f i l m e n t o f the Requirements f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department o f C l a s s i c s We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the standard r e q u i r e d from candidates f o r the degree o f Maste/ o f A r t s T'ke U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia May, 1 9 6 9 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r ex t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . George R. West Department of C l a s s i c s The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver B.C., Canada ABSTRACT The work of Athenaios Mechanicus i s a l i t t l e known t r e a t i s e on siege machinery e n t i t l e d r i e p l Mnxavnud-cwv. Although t h i s work, along w i t h o t h e r s on the same t o p i c , i s c o n t a i n e d i n s e v e r a l manuscripts, d u r i n g the l a s t 2 5 0 y e a rs v e r y l i t t l e study has been devoted t o i t . There have been th r e e e d i t i o n s (Thevenot, 1 6 9 3 ; Wescher; 1 8 6 7 ; and Schneider 1 9 1 2 ) and two t r a n s l a t i o n s , one i n French (De Rochas, 188k) and one i n German (Schneider, 1 9 1 2 ) . Schneider has a l s o w r i t t e n a commentary. B i o g r a p h i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s v e r y s l i g h t and s c h o l a r s who have t r i e d to date the work have a r r i v e d at w i d e l y v a r y i n g c o n c l u s i o n s ( t h i r d century B.C. to t h i r d century a f t e r C h r i s t ) . In t h i s t h e s i s my o b j e c t s have been: a) to provide an E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n o f the work based on Wescher fs t e x t , b) t o provide a b r i e f resume o f the o p i n i o n s advan ced concerning the biography of Athenaios and h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p to V i t r u v i u s , c) to w r i t e a b r i e f commentary on s e l e c t e d t o p i c s a r i s i n g from the t e x t . i i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. THE DATING 5 III. THE TEXT 15 IV. THE TRANSLATION 3 6 V. THE COMMENTARY 5 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY . . HI i v . LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 1 . E U ^ U T O V O V and na\tvxovov c a t a p u l t s a c c o r d i n g 6 6 to the d e s c r i p t i o n of E . P . Barker (CQ 1 4 , 8 2 - 8 6 ) . 2 . The Composite Bow Strung and Unstrung (a) as 68 compared w i t h the Self-bow Strung and Unstrung (b): 3 . S a c k u r 1 s ( V i t r u v und d i e P o l i o r k e t i k e r p. 6 7 ) 83 arrangement o f wheels, a x l e s , and a x l e - b l o c k s i n the " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " d e s c r i b e d by Athenaios ( 1 6 . 1 0 ) . 4 . Sackur*s (op_. c i t . p. 6 8 ) arrangement of wheels, 84 a x l e s , and a x l e - b l o c k s i n the " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " d e s c r i b e d by V i t r u v i u s ( 1 0 . 1 4 . 1 ) . 5 . Diagram showing range o f movement p o s s i b l e i n the 8 8 " t o r t o i s e o f Hegetor" when c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h f o u r u p r i g h t s . 6 . Sackur's (OJD. c i t . p. 9 3 ) i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the 9 7 c o n s t r u c t i o n of a np6tpoxo,s d e s c r i b e d by Athenaios ( 3 4 . 1 ) . 7 . My r e s o l u t i o n of 6 . 9 7 8 . "Arete t o r t o i s e " a c c o r d i n g to Sackur 1 s (op_. c i t . 1 0 2 p. 9 5 ) d e s c r i p t i o n . 9 . Manuscript drawings o f v a r i o u s machines d e s c r i b e d by 1 0 6 Athenaios ( f i g s . I - X I I ) . V LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AGW Abhandlung der G e s e l l s c h a f t der Wis sense haft zu Gottingen, P h i l o s . - H i s t . Klasse. B e r l . S i t z . S i t z u n g s b e r i c h t e der Preussischen Akademie der  Wissenschaften.~ CAH The Cambridge Ancient H i s t o r y . CQ The C l a s s i c a l Q u a r t e r l y . DA D i c t i o n n a i r e des A n t i q u i t e s Grecques et Romaines. ed. by C. Daremberg and E. S a g l i o . FGH Die Fragmente der Griechischen H i s t o r i k e r . ed. by F. Jacoby. JS Journal des Savants. K l i o K l i o , Beitr'age zur a l t e n Geschichte. LSJ Liddell-Scott-Jones-McKenzie, A Greek-English Lexicon. N i n t h e d i t i o n , 1940. LSKPh L e i p z i g e r Studien zur k l a s s i s c h e n P h i l o l o g i e . OCD The Oxford C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y . RE Paulys Real-Encyclopadie der c l a s s i s c h e n Altertumswissenschaft t ed. by G. Wissowa et a l . RhM Rheinisches Museum f i i r P h i l o l o g i e . RPh Revue de P h i l o l o g i e . Vorsokr. Die Fragmente der V o r s o k r a t i k e r , ed. by H. D i e l s and W. Kranz. v i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I wish to express my gratitude to Professor James Russell, the d i r e c t o r of t h i s t h e s i s , f o r his guidance and helpful c r i t i c i s m . CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION S i e g e c r a f t came r e l a t i v e l y l a t e t o Greece. Even as l a t e as the f i f t h century B.C., although b a t t e r i n g - r a m s and o t h e r simple s i e g e - d e v i c e s were i n use, the defenders of c i t i e s were u s u a l l y able t o take e f f e c t i v e , i f p r i m i t i v e , countermeasures and the sieges degenerated to mere blockades, the c i t i e s f i n a l l y f a l l i n g to t r e a c h e r y from w i t h i n or s t a r v a t i o n . T h u cydides 1 d e s c r i p t i o n o f the siege o f P l a t a e a (2.71-7& 1 and 3 . 2 0 - 2 4 ) i l l u s t r a t e s most c l e a r l y the s t a t e of siege-warfare a t that time. For t h i s small c i t y , i n s p i t e of rams, siege-mounds, l a d d e r s , undermining, and moveable towers, was a b l e to withstand the siege f o r two years and i n the end succumbed to hunger r a t h e r than to f o r c e of arms. Around 400 B.C. when the Greeks and C a r t h a g i n i a n s c l a s h e d i n S i c i l y some s i g n i f i c a n t advances began t o be made. The i n v e n t i o n o f the c a t a p u l t was probably the most s i g n i f i c a n t . At f i r s t t h i s was employed i n a p u r e l y random f a s h i o n , b u t the advantages of i t s v e r y l o n g range were soon r e a l i z e d . With them i t was p o s s i b l e to c l e a r the w a l l s of defenders and i n the i n t e r v a l b e f o r e the enemy co u l d r e c o v e r to move sappers, towers, battering-rams , and other such d e v i c e s r i g h t up to the w a l l s i n r e l a t i v e s a f e t y . There was then a good chance o f demolishing the w a l l s . The c a t a p u l t was l a t e r m o d i f i e d f o r throwing l a r g e stones so t h a t i t became e f f e c t i v e i n knocking down the w a l l s from a great d i s t a n c e . 2. D i o d o r o s 1 d e s c r i p t i o n o f P h i l i p * s siege of P e r i n t h o s 1 shows siege-warfare i n a w e l l developed s t a t e . F o r P h i l i p made use of towers 80 c u b i t s t a l l , b a t t e r i n g - r a m s , sapping o p e r a t i o n s and v a r i o u s types of c a t a p u l t s — a f a c t o r t h a t he may w e l l have e x p l o i t e d i n h i s d e a l i n g s with the Greek c i t i e s . The campaigns of Alexander (e,£. Tyre — A r r i a n , Anab. 2.16-24) and of Demetrios P o l i o r k e t e s (.§_..£. Rhodes — Diod. 20.81-82 and 91-100) i n c l u d e d some o f the g r e a t e s t f e a t s of s i e g e c r a f t i n a n t i q u i t y . D efensive measures, however, soon caught up with the advances of technique and a balance of power was r e s t o r e d . Once again c i t i e s could s u c c e s s f u l l y withstand a siege and had more t o f e a r from t r e a c h e r y . The Romans, f o r t h e i r p a r t , seem to have made l i t t l e o r i g i n a l c o n t r i b u t i o n to s i e g e c r a f t , which does not change s i g n i f i c a n t l y u n t i l the i n t r o d u c t i o n of gunpowder i n the l a t e Middle Ages. I t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d a c o n s i d e r a b l e corpus of t e c h n i c a l l i t e r a t u r e produced t o r e c o r d the s i g n i f i c a n t advances i n s i e g e c r a f t d u r i n g the f o u r t h and succeeding c e n t u r i e s B.C. The e a r l i e s t extant Greek work d e a l i n g w i t h s i e g e c r a f t i s t h a t of Aeneas T a c t i c u s w r i t t e n ca. 3 6 0 B.C. 2 and concerned w i t h defence r a t h e r than o f f e n c e . An e x c e l l e n t impression of the p o p u l a r i t y of P o l i o r c e t i k s amongst H e l l e n i s t i c 1. D i o d . S i c . 16.74. 2. W.A. O l d f a t h e r , p.5 of i n t r o d u c t i o n t o Loeb o f Aeneas T a c t i c u s . 3. scientists may be derived from Vitruvius* l i s t of those who; have written on the subject before him (7.praef.14)' Non minus de machinationibus, u t i Diades, Archytas, Archimedes, Ctesibios, Nymphodorus, Philo Byzantius, Diphilos, Democles, Charias, Polyidos, Pyrrhos, Agesistratos, Of this l i s t only the names of Philon, Archimedes, and Ctesibios are of any significance today. Our knowledge of the others i s dependent upon scanty fragments of their writings or stray references in later authors. Biton (3rd/2nd century B„C.), Heron (2nd/lst century B.C.), and an anonymous writer usually referred to as Anonymous of Byzantium, should also be included in any l i s t of Hellenistic poliorketifc writers. Archimedes' fame as a physicist and mathematician is well known. Although none of his own writings on siegecraft survive, his s k i l l in inventing siege machines is well attested. It was owing to his machines that Syracuse was able to hold out so long when she was attacked by Marcellus (214-212 B.C.), who himself made great use of sophisticated siege machines. In the end, Syracuse f e l l to blockade and treachery and Archimedes was k i l l e d in the sack that followed. A considerable portion (Bks. 4 and 5) of Philon of Byzantium's treatise Mechanicae Syntaxis survives. Philon lived in the early second century B.C. and was apparently used as a source by Heron. None of Ktesibios 1 writings survive but his fame rests secure. His date is uncertain and even in antiquity there seems to have been some confusion concerning him. He i s best 4 known for hydraulics and pneumatics, but Athenaios describes a siege machine that was invented by him. The Roman contribution to Poliorfcetitas i s modest and appears to consist rather of editing and translating the earlier works of the Greeks — a fact t a c i t l y acknowledged by Vitruvius when he concedes (7.praef.14) in ea re ab Graecis volumina plura edita, ab nostris oppido quam pauca. Certainly the work of Vegetius ( f l . ca. 420 A.D.) on the subject, the only other significant account in Latin, cannot be regarded as anything more than a resume of earlier inventions and theories. Athenaios Mechanicus must belong to the great corpus of Hellenistic poliorketifcs. His date i s completely uncertain and nothing is known about his l i f e , although his work has survived together with other treatises on similar topics. CHAPTER TWO THE DATING The d a t i n g o f Athenaios i s a v e r y complex problem i n e x  t r i c a b l y i n v o l v e d w i t h the i d e n t i t y o f a c e r t a i n M a r c e l l u s 1 to whom* the work i s d e d i c a t e d . As yet no completely s a t i s  f a c t o r y s o l u t i o n has been found, nor do I pretend t o have d i s c o v e r e d one. The best I can do i s to o u t l i n e the argu ments advanced by ot h e r s and gi v e my reasons f o r agreeing o r d i s a g r e e i n g w i t h them. The dates g i v e n by those s c h o l a r s range from the t h i r d century B.C. t o the t h i r d century a f t e r C h r i s t . 1. F o r C l a u d i i M a r c e l l i see Miinzer, RE 3 .2, 2731-2764. " C l a u d i i M a r c e l l i (214ff.)" esp. "C. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s (216)" "C* C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s (217)" and »M. Cl a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s (229)." M. Cl a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s cos. 331* M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s cos. 26*7. M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s cos. 222, 215, 214, 210, 20S. M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s cos. 196; cens. 1&9. M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s cos. 166, 155, 152. M. C l a u d i u s Marcellus- i ; , M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s C. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s - l u n i a aed. cur. 91 pr. SO , 1 . M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s C. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s C. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s cos. 51 cos. 49 ' cos. 50 M. Cl a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s C l a u d i a M a r c e l l a C l a u d i a M a r c e l l a aed. c u r . 23 See a l s o T.R.S Broughton " The M a g i s t r a t e s o f the Roman R e p u b l i c (New York, 1952) pp. 240,247, and~25oT~ — 6. One might think that the work could be dated on linguistic and s t y l i s t i c grounds, but there seems to be no agreement here. H. Diels, on the one hand, says, Denn der S t i l des Buches scheint mir volkommen den Rokokocharakter des 2. Jahrh. n. Chr. an sich zu tragen, womit die handschriftlich erhaltenen Ionismen t r e f f l i c h stimmen.2 August Brinkmann, on the other hand, assures us on linguistic and s t y l i s t i c grounds that the work of Athenaios must date to the f i r s t or second century B.C., before the triumph of Atticism. 3 The linguistic evidence, then, seems open to various interpretations and can therefore lead to no definite conclusions. It i s tempting to take the Marcellus addressed in the preface as the famous M. Claudius Marcellus the besieger of Syracuse (212 B.C.). This has been the prevalent view in the past (see Christ in Miillers Handbuch and Sackur, Vitruvius. 1925, pp. 95-96). One of the reasons for this is obvious. M. Claudius Marcellus carried out what was undoubtedly the most famous siege of antiquity, in which both the Romans and Syracusans made extensive use of siege machinery. Sackur argues from a p o l i t i c a l point of view based on (39.6-7). Makiaxa 6k f)uXv ueupaYjjaxguxai nax& xwv o&x vmo- TaYT)0Ou£vu>v-TOUS HCC\OIS xfjs TiyeuovLas VOUOK • • 2. H. Diels, "Uber das physikalische System des Straton" in Sitzungsoerichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissen- schaft (Berlin. 1%93) vol. 1 p. I l l note 1. 3. See Cichorius, "Das Werk des Athenaeus uber Kriegs- maschinen," RSmische Studien (1922, reprinted 1961) p. 277. 7 T h i s , he says, cannot r e f l e c t a p e r i o d i n which the Roman hegemony was w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d , but must r e f l e c t a time when Rome was f i r s t becoming a c t i v e i n the east. D a t i n g the work t o t h i s p e r i o d i s e n t i r e l y dependent on c i r c u m s t a n t i a l evidence and should t h e r e f o r e be accepted only w i t h r e s e r v a t i o n . De Rochas^ d i s c o u n t s the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the work was ded i c a t e d t o M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s , the conqueror of Syracuse, and p o s i t s as the e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e date the beg i n n i n g of the second century B.C. He does t h i s , f i r s t l y , because he takes the A p o l l o n i o s mentioned to be A p o l l o n i o s o f Perga ( f l . 220 B.C.). A p o l l o n i o s * p u p i l A g e s i s t r a t o s , who i s a l s o mentioned, he argues should then be placed a t the beg i n n i n g of the second century B.C. Secondly,, he dates K t e s i b i o s , whom Athenaios mentions, to the second century B.C. While there i s some evidence f o r t h i s , there i s c o n f l i c t i n g evidence which dates K t e s i b i o s much e a r l i e r . T h i s controversy seems u n r e s o l v a b l e and t h e r e f o r e K t e s i b i o s cannot be dated w i t h any degree of c e r t a i n t y . Having placed the work, a t the e a r l i e s t , i n the second century B.C. De Rochas proceeds to say, i l e s t done assez v r a i s e m b l a b l e de supposer qu' i l s f a g i t i c i de M. C l a u d i u s M a r c e l l u s , un des l i e u t e n a n t s de Pompee q u i commandait avec C. Copronius ( s i c ) l ' e s c a d r e de Rhodes, q u i f u t consul en l * a n 51 av. J.-C. et pour l e q u e l , C i c e r o n composa son p l a i d o y e r Pro M a r c e l l o . 5 4. De Rochas, " T r a d u c t i o n du T r a i t e des Machines d* Athenee," i n Melanges Graux ( P a r i s , p. Ig2. 5. i b i d . While i t i s of l i t t l e importance t o the argument i t should be noted t h a t De Rochas i s somewhat confused here, f o r the M. Claudius M a r c e l l u s who was consul i n 51 B.C. was not the commander of the squadron a t Rhodes but r a t h e r a. By f i x i n g the i d e n t i t y of Marcellus i n th i s manner De Rochas i s then able to place Athenaios i n the middle of the f i r s t century B.C. As we have seen he advances arguments (shaky though they may be) why the Marcellus addressed i s not the besieger of Syracuse, but he has either been unable, or has not seen f i t to advance any reason why the dedication should r e f e r to M. Claudius Marcellus the consul f o r 51 B.C. His argument apparently represents the merest speculation. Conrad Cichorius''7 also dates Athenaios to the f i r s t century B.C. but his reasoning focuses on the person of Apollonios mentioned by Athenaios (£.9) 'AixoWuvioq 6e 6 yeyovojc; auxou (Agesistratps) % 6t6do"Ha\oc; T n X i x a u T a r\yayz yopxia \L$WV ETC! TO Xwua^xb nepl TOV \tueva TOV ev 'Po&w, jljcrte nal anopTjaau TtoXXdnis xovq opwvtac; avxa m><; note etc; xac, yauc; ayeX.du.pave nal xCvi xponq iZ,eC\exo avxa ev xj\ YU Tti 'Podip. From t h i s Cichorius in f e r s that Apollonios was distinguished as a m i l i t a r y engineer famous f o r sieges, partly on the grounds that his pupil Agesistratos was a famous siege engineer and partly by virtue of his accomplishments at Rhodes. He argues that a m i l i t a r y engineer would have no other purpose i n transporting cargoes of stone to Rhodes than f o r reasons of defence. There are two famous sieges of Rhodes recorded i n antiquity, one by Demetrios Poliorketes i n 304 B.C. and the other by Mithridates in &*&y7B.C. In the his brother C. Claudius Marcellus who was consul i n 49 B.C. (cf. note 1 ) . 7. C. Cichorius, opj. c i t . pp. 271-279. 9. case of the l a t t e r , i t i s possible to conclude from Appian's account that loads of stone might have been used when xa xe xeCxn acpwv (the Rhodians) nal TOU? eKpaxuvavxo. 8 In the b e l i e f , then, that these were the a c t i v i t i e s directed by Apollonios, Cichorius advances 88/7 B.C. as the terminus  post quern f o r his pupil Agesistratos and hence f o r Athenaios since he mentions Agesistratos. This argument, so plausible at f i r s t glance and c e r t a i n l y neither more nor l e s s defective than the other theories, contains several flaws. F i r s t l y , there i s no evidence that Apollonios was famous for siege-works or indeed f o r anything else. For unless t h i s Apollonios i s , as De Rochas thinks, Apollonios of Perga t h i s would seem to be the only reference to him. I f indeed he i s to be i d e n t i f i e d with Apollonios of Perga then his fame i s unquestionable, but i t i s a fame based on his mathematical works and not on siege-works. Secondly, Cichorius has assumed that towns are only f o r t i f i e d when sieges take place, but a town may well be f o r t i f i e d as the r e s u l t of a threat that never materialized. There i s l i t t l e j u s t i f i c a t i o n , then, f o r r e l a t i n g Apollonios' a c t i v i t i e s i n Rhodes to the s p e c i f i c siege of B.C. And f i n a l l y , the act of conveying stones to Rhodes gives no hint of the purpose fo r which i t was done. They could just as well have been used f o r some c i v i l project as f o r building defences. 8. Appian, H i s t o r i a Romana; B e l l . Mithr. 24. 10. With Athenaios firmly established in the second half of the f i r s t century B.C.9 Cichorius next turns to the problem of trying to identify Marcellus. He decides that he was probably M. Claudius Marcellus, the nephew and heir apparent of Augustus. This young man was a prominent member of the "royal" household and was much celebrated, notably posthumously by V i r g i l (Aen. 6.860). In 25 B.C., together with Augustus, he took part in the Spanish campaigns (i..£. the Cantabrian war). Granted a date in the late f i r s t century B.C., then i t i s reasonable that Athenaios should dedicate his work to this Marcellus. For here i s a prominent young man about to take part in his f i r s t campaign, a young man with no experience of war to whom advice such as Athenaios gives could well prove useful. Added to this is the fact that the Spanish campaigns were l i k e l y to, and in fact did, involve sieges, since the rebelling tribes were in possession of well-fortified strong holds as various accounts indicate. x a l eiteidf) Ttpoaexwpouv QIJLXZ inl t o i s epfcfivoCs ib ia ipouevoi , . . . . • Tertio Aracelium oppidum magna v i repugnat; captum tamen.-'--1- 9. He thinks that there i s a possibility that Athenaios may have been active in Rome at this time •* mentioned by Strabo 14.670. There i s , however, no evidence to suggest that Strabo*s Athenaios was an engineer or in any way connected with sieges, so i t seems best not to make the identification. 10. Dio 53.25.5-6. 11. Florus 2 .33.50. 1 1 . R e l i q u i a s f u s i e x e r c i t u s v a l d d i s s i m a c i v i t a s Lancea e x c i p i t , u b i cum l o c i s adeo certatum e s t , ut, cum i n captam urbem f a c e s poscerentur, aegre dux i m p e t r a v e r i t veniam, ut v i c t o r i a e Romanae stans p o t i u s e s s e t quam ince n s a monurnenturn.12 But, as we have shown, the b a s i c premise on which t h i s theory- r e s t s , the date o f the A p o l l o n i o s mentioned by Athenaios, i s h i g h l y suspect and few grounds f o r confidence i n t h i s a t t r i  b u t i o n remain. For, eminent though t h i s p a r t i c u l a r M a r c e l l u s c e r t a i n l y was, the f a m i l y was a d i s t i n g u i s h e d one and other members of the house may w e l l have q u a l i f i e d f o r the honour of having a book de d i c a t e d to them. A t h i r d p o s s i b i l i t y may be mentioned. T h i s i s the Athenaios mentioned by T r e b e l l i u s P o l l i o ( S c r i p t o r e s H i s t o r i a e Augustae, V i t a e Gallienorum 1 3 . 6 ) , who, on the s u r f a c e a t l e a s t , appears t o be a good candidate as he was without doubt a m i l i t a r y engineer. I n t e r haec Scythae per Euxinum navigantes Histrum i n g r e s s i multa g r a v i a i n s o l o Romano f e c e r u n t , quibus compe'rtis G a l l i e n u s Cleodamum et Athenaeum B y z a n t i o s i n s t a u r a n d i s urbibus muniendisque prae- f e c i t , pugnatumque es t c i r c a Pbntum, et a B y z a n t i i s ducibus v i c t i sunt b a r b a r i . G a l l i e n u s was emperor from 2 5 3 - 2 6 3 A.D. The r e p a i r and f o r t i  f i c a t i o n of the c i t i e s mentioned a p p a r e n t l y took plac e i n 2 6 7 when G a l l i e n u s l e a r n e d of the i n v a s i o n of the E r u l i . There seem to have been few i f any M a r c e l l i , who, at t h a t time were prominent enough t o have been d e d i c a t e e s of a book. The only person who seems remotely p o s s i b l e i s the emperor 1 2 . F l o r u s , 2 . 3 3 . 5 7 12 Marcus A u r e l i u s Severus Alexander (222-235 A.D.), who was apparently at one time c a l l e d M a r c e l l u s : Hie Marcellum, q u i post Alexander d i c t u s est consobrinum suum Caesarem f e c i t . 1 3 I f he were the M a r c e l l u s to whom the work i s d e d i c a t e d , i t would have been w r i t t e n i n 235 A.D. at the l a t e s t (18 years before G a l l i e n u s ) and probably before he became Caesar i n 221 A.D. (32 years before G a l l i e n u s ) . This would mean that Athenaios would have had to be q u i t e young at the time he wrote t h i s work and would have been f a i r l y o l d at the time he was sent out by G a l l i e n u s . This i d e n t i f i c a t i o n i s not imp o s s i b l e ; i t must be admitted, though,that i t does not seem very l i k e l y . As I i n f e r r e d at the beginning the problem of the date of Athenaios seems i n s o l u b l e . C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to the question of Athenaios 1 date i s t h a t of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of h i s t r e a t i s e t o the t e n t h book of V i t r u v i u s * De, A r c h i t e c t u r a l . I f the work of Athenaios i s compared w i t h V i t r u v i u s (10.13-16) an amazing s i m i l a r i t y i s at once apparent. In f a c t the works are so s i m i l a r t h a t some have thought that they were copies of one another and t h i s has prompted many e d i t o r s to emend the t e x t of V i t r u v i u s to correspond w i t h Athenaios and v i c e - v e r s a . I f one examines the works f a i r l y c a r e f u l l y , however, a number of d i f f e r e n c e s w i l l be found. 13. Anon., E p i t . 'de Caesar. 23 .4 i n S.A. V i c t o r (Teubner) p. 157. 13 These d i f f e r e n c e s are, i n my o p i n i o n , s i g n i f i c a n t enough to i n d i c a t e t h a t the works are not mere copies of one another. In the f i r s t p l a c e , there i s n o t h i n g i n V i t r u v i u s t o compare w i t h Athenaios* i n t r o d u c t i o n (3 .1 - 9 . 3 ) . Secondly, t h e r e a r e the u n i t s o f measurement adopted,apart from those s e c t i o n s d e r i v e d from Diades 11 .4 -15.9 ( c u b i t s ) . T h e r e a f t e r V i t r u v i u s uses f e e t w h ile Athenaios uses c u b i t s and palms (rco6tatos appears o n l y t h r e e times i n A t h e n a i o s ) . With regard to Diades* moveable towers, Athenaios g i v e s a f a i r l y complex formula f o r determining the arrangement of f l o o r s (11.4 - 12 .11) , while V i t r u v i u s merely g i v e s the t o t a l height and the t o t a l number o f f l o o r s (10 .13 .4 -5 ) . In V i t r u v i u s the s m a l l tower e r e c t e d on the top o f the "ram-bearing t o r t o i has c a t a p u l t s set up on i t s t o p s t o r y and s t o r e s of water l o c a t e d i n the o t h e r s (10 .13.6) . In Athenaios, however, the c a t a p u l t s are s i t u a t e d i n the top s t o r i e s and o n l y the bottom one c o n t a i n s water (13 .7 -9 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o V i t r u v i u s the d e f e n s i v e p l a n k i n g f o r the " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " i s b e s t made of holm-oak, but other s t r o n g woods w i t h the e x c e p t i o n of pine and a l d e r may a l s o be used (10 .14.3) . Athenaios says t h a t palm wood i s best and t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to pine and alder, cedar must a l s o never be used (17.14-15) . A t h e n a i o s (15.12 - 16.4) d e s c r i b e s the uses of the " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " ( a c c o r d i n g t o P h i l o n the Athenian), while V i t r u v i u s merely d e s c r i b e s the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h i s machine (10 .15 .1 -3 ) . A l s o , V i t r u v i u s * d e s c r i p t i o n of the 14. arrangement of the wheels and axles of this machine (10.14.1) differs considerably from that of Athenaios (16.8-14). Athenaios then proceeds to describe a second model of the "tortoise for f i l l i n g in ditches" and also a machine which he refers to as a "mining tortoise" (13.8 - 20.3). In Vitruvius the descriptions of these two machines are combined into the description of a single machine (10.15.1). There are also some differences in the accounts of the "tortoise of Hegetor" that I have discussed in the commentary. Vitruvius* paragraphs (10.16.1-3) do not appear in Athenaios although certain of the sentiments expressed there occur either in Athenaios* introduction or epilogue. After the description of the "helepolis" built by Epimachos a l l similarity between the works ceases. If these works are not copies of one another, how can their similarities be explained? The easiest explanation is to say that they were both using a common source. M. Thiel has argued this point of view most convincingly in his article "Quae Ratio Intercedat inter Vitruvium et Athenaeum Mechanicum," LSKPh 17 (1896) pp. 275-328. If they used a common source i t i s impossible to know what i t might have been. The name Agesistratos, mentioned by Schneider and others, seems a plausible conjecture since he is mentioned as a source by both Vitruvius (lO.praef.14) and Athenaios (7.7). l i f 14. Schneider mentions Sontheimer who maintains that there is no close relation between the texts of Athenaios and Vit ruvius and therefore one should not attempt to apply the descriptions of the one in solving the gaps or problems of the other. "Selbstverstandlich darf Athenaios in solchen Fallen nicht zur Gestaltung des Vitruvtextes beigezogen werden." The differences are to be regarded as real differences in design, not variants of a common source. CHAPTER THREE THE TEXT The t e x t g i v e n here i s an exact copy of Wescher's, Those p l a c e s where I do not agree w i t h h i s readings are f u l l y d i s c u s s e d i n the commentary but I have l e f t h i s t e x t unchanged. I t should be noted t h a t c o n t r a r y t o the normal usage [ ] i n d i c a t e s a c o n j e c t u r a l a d d i t i o n r a t h e r than a d e l e t i o n . P r i n c i p a l Manuscripts M Codex P a r i s i n u s v e t u s t i s s i m u s Suppl. Gr. 6 0 7 . V Codex V a t i c a n u s I I 6 4 . P Codex o l i m Medicaeus nunc P a r i s i n u s 2 4 4 2 . C Fragmentum i n codice C o i s l i n i a n o 1 0 1 . F Figagmenta Vindobonensia i n codice ms. p h i l o s o p h . graec. o l i m 1 1 3 (Lambec.) nunc 1 2 0 ( N e s s e l ) . E d i t i o n s Thevenot, M., Mathematicorum Veterum ( P a r i s , 1 6 9 3 ) . Wescher, C , P o l i o r c e t i q u e des Grecs ( P a r i s , I 8 6 7 ) . Schneider, R., G r i e c h i s c h e P o l i o r k e t i k e r I I I (Gbttingen, 1 9 1 2 ) . 16 Contents II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV Introduction a) Do not waste time. b) Greek writers waste time while Oriental writers, specifically Indians, do not. c) Technical subjects not f i t material for rhetoric. Agesistratos a} general precepts b) his long range catapults c) Apollonios, his teacher The Battering-ram a) invention of the battering-ram b) stages of development of battering- ram c) general advances in siegecraft Moveable Towers The "Ram-bearing Tortoise" The "Trypanon" The reputations of engineers and what Diades omitted from his account The "Tortoise for F i l l i n g Ditches" The "Mining Tortoise" The "Tortoise of Hegetor" The "Helepolis" "Sambykai" Models a) models not always practicable b) some practicable things cannot be illustrated with models Machines for Climbing Walls a) theatre-type ladders b) machine of Ktesibios 3-7 7-8 9-10 11- 12 12- 14 14- 15 15 15- 19 19-20 21-26 27 27- 28 28- 29 29- 31 XV Tunnels and Protective Sheds 31 1 7 . XVI Athenaios* Method 3 1 XVII The D i f f i c u l t i e s Connected w i t h 3 2 - 3 3 Mounting Machines on Ships XVIII C o n s t r u c t i o n of Fore-wheel 3 4 - 3 5 XIX The "Chamber" 3 5 - 3 7 XX T r i p l e Spikes 38 XXI Epi l o g u e 3 9 - 4 0 IS "Oaov e c p i x x b v u.ev a v f t p w i i w x o b g u ixep u.r)xav Trououu -evw \6youc; , w a e u v o x a x e M a p x e M e , e\i\>r\o$r\v xoG AeXcpixoG T t a p a y - Y e \ u . a x o s wc; e a x i - f r e i o v x i T O imou.i , uv f ) axov rjuac; x p o v o u t p e i - 6ea6-at* wc; e a x u o*xe6bv e i u e u v a u a v x a xaxaxpwp.e0a acpeuSwe, e t c ; xac; x a x e i t e L y o v a a c ; xQ p LC^ x p e t a c ; . 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"0$ev auvt6u)v xb yevouevov Tuptoc, xtg vauTrnybc;, op ovou,a t)v necppaa i aevoc ; , e v x f i noXtopxta r\v e r t o t o u v x o u-exa x a u x a upbc; XT]V xwv TaSetptxcov T t o X t v , taxbv ax^cac; x a l a \ \ o v du'a u x o u T t X a y t o v dpxriaac;, uapa-nAriatwc; xatc; xwv Cuywv <pd\ay£tv exuuxe xb xetxoc; eXxoov e£ avxtaraxaxou xbv uXdytov. 'Auopajc; 6e xwv evbov 6taxet- nevwv 6ta xb £etvov xou unxavrjuaxoc;, auve|3aivev a u x a utuxetv xaxewc;. rrjpac; 6e |iex' auxbv 6 KapXTloov toc;, imoxpoxov ixofnaac; axe6tav, ene^nxe nAdytov xbv xptbv x a l o u x e£ dvxtandaxoov et\xev, aXk'vno nXr)$ov<; dvSpwv Tcpow-OouVevov efiotnae xt uuoxpoxov axeitaaua. r^pac; 6e upwxoc; 6 eupwv 6ta xrjv Ppa6uxnxa xeXw- vnv TipoaTjyopeuaev. Mexoc x a u x a 6e eTrotnadv xtvec; e-rtl xu\tv6pwv Ttpow&ouu-evov xbv xptbv x a l ouxwc; expwvxo. 'E7it6oo"tv 6e eXapev't) xotauxT) urixavpTipt t a Ttaaa xaxa xrjv Atovuatou xou ZtxeXtwxou xupavvt6a, x a x a xe XT)V <3?t\tTcn;ou xou 'Auuvxou (3aat\etav oxe eiioXtopxet BuCavxtouc; $t\t7iTioc;. Eurmepet 6e x f i xotauxfl xexvT) no\uet6oc; b ®exxa\bc;f o u ol uaftrixal auveaxpaxeuovxo 'A\e£dv6pw Atd6t)c; x a l Xaptac;. Atdorjc; uev ouv auxoc, (prjatv ev xo; U.TJ- Xavtxw auYYPd*uuaxt eupTixevat xouc; xe <popr)xouc, rcupYOUc; x a l xb Xeyouevov xpuuavov x a l xbv xopaxa x a l xrjv eTttpd^pav . 'Expaxo '• 22. 11 6e nal xtp uuoxpoxv xpt£). Fpdcpet y°Gv xrjv xaxaaxeurjv auxou ouxwc, . i KptoG xaxaaxeurj. Tbv uev ouv uupY o v T°v eXaxtaxov, . (prjal, 6et yeveaOat xb ucpoc; TXTJ- : Xwv "S, xb 6e uXaxoc; exovxa urjxetc;- IZ • auvaywyriv 6e xoG uXaxouc; etc; xb avw xb ueuuxov uepoc; • xwv 6e axeXwv xoG Tiupyou xa udxr) . exstv xdxw$ev xptudXataxa, avw-9-ev 6e euxabdxxuXa. 'Eyevexo 6b auxy 6 xnXtxouxoc; ftexdcTxeyoc;, ueptuxepou qua'OS exdaxnc; x^pac;. • ' 0 6b iieytaxoc; auxwv uupyoc, xb annoc; e t x e ^ r ^ e i c ; xb 6e 12 uXdxoc; etve ^XELC KTC * TTIV 6e auvaywyrjv x a l ouxoc; xb ueu-^xov eXdu(3a.vev etc; xa avw uepog • xwv 6e axeXwv . T a • udxr) uo6tata x a l xdxwO-ev xexpdywva etc; e£ 6axxuAouc;xxb uav auvayoueva eul xa ' - avw. l0 6e xr)XtxoGxoc; auxcjj uupyoc; eyevexo etxcadoxeyoc;, ueptopo- JJOUC, exouarjc; exdaxrjc; axeyric; xuxXop uXaxoc; r urjxwv exovxa?; etc; - xr)v expOTi&rjatv xwv euuuptaiiwv. *H 6e upwxrj axeyr) exexw xb u^oc; ^Xetc; 2CV rj 6e 6euxepa uevxe, x a l ewe; uevxe axey^v xb auxb u^oc; Xa>i(3avouawv • at 6'eutXotuot xeaadpwv urix-ov x a l 6uo ua- • Xa'taxwv xb ut^oc; eytvovxo. 1 Otiotwc;'6e x a l eul xou eXaxxovoc, uupyou rj 6tatpeatc; xwv axeywv xbv auxbv Xoyov e\du.(3avev. 'Epupoouv 6e auxac; dpyatc; pupaatc;, Trjc; be x e ^ v r j c ; xfjc; xbv xptbv cpepouanc; t) epyaata rjv rj auxr), 12.11 Read auxouc; f o r auxac;'. i -23. 13 u-ixpfjc, Te x a l U£Y<X\T)S . 'H 6e n e y t a x T i eXau.pave TO 6idaTT)Lia TOU TIXCXTOUS nr\x&i<: A, TO 6E u,f]xos nrixeLS *M, TO 6e u4>os xw~ pLS TT)S deTcoaecos T^ ecpiaTauevr)<g ucrcepov Ttrjxeis IT, Trjc. 6e deTio- aeios auTtis TO v(\>oq dub TOU xaTaaTpcou.aTOs eixl o£uTaTOv Ttrjxeuc, I ? * unepe(3aXXe 6e TTJV ueariv aTeyriv 6 deTog TOuXaxiaTOv UTixetS . 6uo, TtapaxaTaSa.tvcovTTiv eiuaTeyTlv ews TCOV eTx'auTcp 6oxiov OTCCO^  f) u e p i b p o u o s evxuxXos. *E£f)pe 6*ex v.£or)q ir\<; axeyr)^ uupyiov TptaTeyov, x a l etc. uxv Tag avio aTeyas eTU^et xaTandXTa<g, et? 6b TTJV XCCTCO ufiaTOc, uapd$ecav eTioueiTO. 'EytvovTO 6e auTfi %x\ xe^ vn 6p$o- crcaTat,. xuxXtp nepubpouov exouafl • EoTaTat 6e x a l xpuoboxrjv ev auTTl, 14 eqp'fi TOV xu\iv6pov eTu$ei* b i'ou Txpoco^ounevog 6 xpcbc/ 6 1'dvTi- aTtdaTcov evifoyei, TT)V X P E ^ V . 'E(3upaouv 6e x a l TauTnv 6u.oitoc, TOC? T i u p y o t ? . To 6e Tpuixavov XEXIOVTJV uev TT)V auTTjv Ttjj x p i i * ) , Xau.f3d- vei 6e x a l ixaaav TTJV xaTaaxeur)v ouotws exouaav. TI$TICH 6e kn\ TTIS xpTiTitbog aupiYY a uapauXTiaiav xfi ev TOtg eu-&UTOvotg YI-VOUEVT) xaTaudXTat^ x a l uXdytov ovtaxov OLIOWIOS exeivat? exouaav. 'Ex 6e TOU aXXou (aepous KUT'HC, dub TOU axpou Tpox^Xeag euBaXXeu 6uo • 6u'u>v upoco^eu TT^V e7UTU$eu.evTiv ev auTfi xepauav. Kal in\ TOU xaTaaTpwiiaTOs 6e TOU/ev Tip auptYY^V uuxvou^ Tt$r)ca xuXtvbpous, uva euxLVTjTOs uitapxtl • x a l OUTIOS BdXXet TTTV xepaiav ev fl xpto- xoTiet, ecpeXxou-evos au-crjv ex TOU XCCTIO oviaxou xeiuevou. BupaouTai 13,4 Read cnl TO oCuTaxov, - f o r e n l oCuraTov. '• 2 4 . 15 xuxXw auv xaTc; acpLaL xr)v a u p L y y a , I'va axenaCrjtac etc; a u x r j v f, xepaoa "aw$ev. ToG yap £ P Y 0 U xa\wc; 6 taxuTiounevou, xoG apxL- XEHXOVOC; xoG#' supLaxrjTau Eu6oi;La' xaxa 6E \6yov EXXE-S-E LUEVOU xa ' a u v x d y^axa , p E v t a x o v E£EL X\EOC; TOL<; uitouvT)u.aauv. .' Tbv 6E xopaxa 6u ranuL £Lvexu a4Lov xaxaaxeufjc; . TTIV 6*ETU- |3d-t>pav ov x p o u o v 6 E C y E v s a O a L TipoELTtwv EV apxf) 6n\wa£Lv, ou6ev 6UEaacprjvLOEV • oub ' u n b p xwv xaxa ftakaaav 6e auxw u p o a a - yoi.i£vwv E p y w v 6£6r)\.wxai* aAAoc x a l xaGxa Trap £ L x ai, x a L X O L cyo-. 6pa ETcayyEXxLXWC; x a l (.iEyaXwe; n o L n a a u E v o u xouc; \6youc;. 'HU-ELC; 6 ' eypacpauev upwxov xe^vnc; x w o " t p £ b ° S x a x a a x s u r i v , e t x a xwv a\\wv janxavni idxwv. XEXWVTIC; x^ c^ P LOOS x a x a a x E u r j . ToGxo xb x a x a a x E u a a u a 9 n a l 4>L\.WV 6 ' A^rivaCoc; XP^CLUOV 16 £ £ va u upoc; XE xac; yuvou-Evac; ELC; xr)v upoaaywyrjv nr)xavr)u,d- xwv [uapobouc;] x a l xac; -reapsxxdaELc; xwv axabuwv x a l xac; avyx^oeiq xwv xa9pwv • x a l Lav X L v a aAAov XOTCOV 6ET) X^O"0^* Xp-naiu-ov 6E x a l . . Ttpbc; xag £9£6pLac; xoGxo y i v e x a L . nf iyvuxai , 6b auxr) ELC; s a x d p t o v x E x p d y w v o v , EXOV XT]V TtXeupav E x d a x n v Ttnxwv IA' E X ^ be x a l S i a - Tfnyuaxa x s a a a p a x a l uspuixr)yuaxa 6uo, xa UEV nayj\ e x o v x a S e n a 6 d x x u \ a , xa 6E n\axr\ xpL7idA.ai.axa. A.vd-Txrjyu.a e x a a x o v OCTCEXEXW 6uo TCTJXELC; x a l Tr.a\aLaxr)v £va. Aau|3dv£i 6E aua^o.Tiobac; exdaxr) x^pa x saadpwv xwv EV xaic; ywvtai,c;, EV OLC;' a x p s ^ o v x a L OL. XWV xpox^v dc^ovsc; ditoxXeUOUEVOL audO'auc; atbripaUc; L v a , oxav 8£j] Ttapo6o'/iOL£LV T t p o d y o v x a c ; ( x o u x - s a x u v ELC; xouun;poa^£v T i \ a x u v xouov TIOLELV f] x a l 6p.a\bv up be; xb uo-'V ; \ £ a f ] a a L , ) f) x a l u a p a x L^Evat XLVOC ur jxavr iuaxa , esfi e x a u d a a v x a xouc; xpoxoug u s x a xb ..axcoxXeL'aau xouc; a £ o v a c ; . OL 6e xpoxol YLVOV- after Schneider for ov <pr\\ii. after Graux for axabtwv. after Schneider for xeaadpwv. 1 5 . 5 Read ou cpnat 16.3> Read dxw&Lwv 16.9 Read xeaaapac; 25. 7 xat xeaaape?, T Tlv uev 6 t d u e x p o v xpturjxets, to 6e itdxoc; Tcootatot, 6e6eu£vot a t 6 r i p a t g Xeritat <[>uxpT)Xdxats. 'ETttCeuyvuxat 6e ercl xb eax^P Lov £u.Xa 6 u o exaxepas iiXeupas uixepexovt'a x a $ ' e x d x e - pov uepoc; xou urjxovs TTJTIXELS A* nepl 6b xa? tmepoxa? auxcov Ttep LTCQYVUXCCt aXXa 6 u o £uXu imepexovxa, ex uev xou upoaSev uepoug ixTixets H, ex 6b xou outaco Tir'xet.s A * Ttaxr] 6e exaaxa . Xau(3avet auxcov xal nX&xr) x a auxa xio eaxaptw. AuxaV x' eaTiT)- yvuvxat xtp eaxaptcp eirl xb TxXtv-frtov auxou xtovec; euxaTiiixet£ 6 t a - XetTxovxes au'aXXfiXajv exaaxoc; irrjxuv eva. KaxaxXetet 6e auxous eudvu) xuxXco rcdvxac, eiTtaxuXtov* x a l drr'auxou auaxdxat I'axavxat ets :dXXrjXoug e£epetoovxes, xnv d v d a x a a t v x o u uc^oug Tiotouvxeg inixei-S H* ercl 6e xcov auaxaxcov eTitCeuyvuxat 6 0 x 6 5 . 0^ 6e auaxdxat avxrjpetat x a l TiXeuptouaat 6taXauBavovxat, x a l cppdxxovxat at axeyat rcaaat a a v t 6 c o u a a t , udXtaxa uev cpotvtxtvot?• et 6e ur|, XCOV aXXcov oaa euxovd eaxt £uXa, TTXTIV x e 6 p t v c o v , T i e u x t v i o v x a l x X r ^ p t v c o v • xauxa 8 yap iiupd eaxt x a l euxXaaxa. KaxaXauBavexat 6e avco-i>ev xb aavtPioua ysppots TieTtXeYuevots XeTixots x a l TIUXVOLS tos ext Tipoa- 'cpdxots. ''Ercl 6e xouxots xaxaXaufidvovxat Bupaatg pepauuevatg ouottos xatg axuXats x a l adxxexat ets auxas udXtaxa uev eXeta, r\ xb' xaXouuevov -ftaXaaaoTipaaov, TI axupa o£et peBpeyueva' xauxa 6e etat xP^otua 'ixpos/xe x a g xcov Xt$oj3oXcov TrXrjyas x a l 71:005 xous euTxup tauous . /' "AXXr) 6e xts'eaxl x^^tpls X G A C O V T I , x a uev a\Xa TxapauXr)- attoc; xauxn 7i£7xotr)uevr) x a l xaxaxXetaets xag auxag e'xouaa, 7iXr)v xous auyxuTixas oux e x e f aXXa xuxXw eudvco xcov xtovtov x a l xcov ETTtaxuXtcov -ikopdxtov x a l £TtaX£ts ex a a v t 6 w v x a l ycppwv • x a l eTil xcov aeXudxcov aavtatv taxupatg ireptBep\T)xat* xaxe tXriuxat 6e x a l 7tr)Xw xexptxwfievcp Tidxos exovxt coaxe xb uup ur) evoxXetv. K a l eaxtv duxr) xPTlJturj ou uovov e t g x^atv, dXXa x a l etg xac; etpedpag. Ot y a p axpaxicoxat euBatvovxes ets quxriv npoadyouat Ttpbs xb xetxos u a x e I v x b g (3eXous y G v o u e v o t etpebpeuetv. Auxt) 6e y G v o t x ' a v o x x d - 18.4 Read xuXatg from M f o r axuXatc. 26. xpoxog r) XCXCOVT). 'AUa ToiauTa uT)xavr)uaTa e^eaxu uExaaxEud- Cecv xto T E X V L T T I E|iS \E T C O V X L zi<; -roue, XOTCOUC, TWV TtpoaaYWYwv. I l e p l opuxxpibo's x e ^wvris. To 6E TT)S opuxxpibos x£^wvr]s y e v o s xa U E V aXXa HapaixXT)- aiioc; xa i s upoxepov toxovourixaL , xrjv 6E EUTtpoa^ev 6p$r)v ex^i- npoaaywYTiv, OTTOJC; npooeXbovaa. npoq T O xeix°S airapxiaT) auxtp, xal |J.T) Traps taix L TIT Tl anb T O U xeixcjk xa acpieueva Be \T] , aAA'ao^a- Xcog 61 imopuxxovxes E V auxfl ovxeg epyaCcovxa L . [ 'HYrJTOpog xeXajvr).] Trjs 6e imb 'rlY^Topog T O U BuCavTiou r)upr)uevr)g xeXcovns Y^VE_ Tai, T O U E V ufjxoc; T O U E a x a p i o u -arjxwv MB, if*\axo<; 6b KH. Ta 6 b O X EXT ) TOC ETii T O U E a x a p i o u TrrjYVuueva TEaaapa T E O * U V T L^ETaL , x a l Exacnrov E X 6 u o £u\wv auvnuuEvov, T O urjxoc, uev E X O V T C O V T T H X E I S "KA, t o 6b Tidxos 2 ixaXaiaTas, T O 6E Tt\aToc; Tirixuaia. T p o x o l 6 E Y^vovxaL ev auTfi oxxw, 6i\ov dvaYETau T O auvrcav epyov. To uev v<\>o<; auxwv £ug nf)xeiS AC, T O 6 S raxxog itTixeiy B. EuuBaWovTat xaTa n\d-27. TOC; xal udxoc; au,<paXXa£ xal beaueuovxai Xeuiai <J;uxpr)Xdxai-c; axpetpovxai- 6e ev a|aa£i7i:oaiv. Kiovec, be Tcnyvuvxai. cn\ T O U eaxapLOU booSexanrixe i s, TtXdxoe; uev exovxee; 7taXat.axac;' r , Ttdxoc, 6e 6exa baxxuXouc;. 'Auexei be aXXoc; art'aXXou xcwv TtaXaiaxac, Z, xal eTuCeuyvuvxat. eu'auxwv eiHaxuXia xuxXw TtXdxoe; exovxa naXaiaxocc; A, Ttdxoc; be V. 'ETCI be xwv eTuaxuXiwv Ttfjyvuvxai auvxuTtxai, T O v<i>o<z e£,at,poGvxec; nrixeic; H * xal eTt'auxwv boxbc; eiaur)yvuxai uXa- yia eL.c; fjv uaaai at xopucpal TOJV auvxuuxwv Ttrjyvuvxai - xal ytvovxai buo uXeupal xexX iiievai, • xal Xouubv T O uav epyov aavi- boGxau xal axeuaCexat TtapaTcXrjaiwc; xaic; yj^aipCoi xeXwvaac;. "Exei 6e xal uearjv aTeyrjv eul TOJV O T UXW V a,vaTcauouevr)v, OTCWC; r) (3eXooxa- aia eTi'auxrjc; el'r). "iaxavxai be ouiaw xrjc; xptoboxtl?; axeXr) 6uo au^pe(3Xr)ueva op-^ia ev ueaw xfig xeXwvrjg, exovxa xaxa T O uf]- xoc; T p i d x o v T a Tcnxetc;* T O be udxoc; auxwv TtrixuaCov * xb be TtXd xoe; TpOTcaXataTLaCov. 'EcpapuoCexai, 6e eu'auxb uep ixecpaXov xal ueaov aXXo bia TOJV axeXwv 6ta7xf)yua. Kal avdueaov T O U Te •rcepLxecpaXou xal TOG 6 laTtriyu-axoc; Ttr)yvuxai £uXov op-&tov xal ecp'exaxepou u-epouc; TOG £ U X O U TOG Ttayevxoc; xal TOJV axeXwv eu- pdXXovxai, bviaxoi xexopveuuevoi, eel wv Ta ouXa e£iipxr)xat, xa dve- XOVTa xbv xpeov. 'Eul be xoG uepixetpdXou xal xr}c; xpioboxr)?; uriyvu- xat ftwpdxiov waxe ev auxw aag>aXeaxaxa buvaaftai eaxdvat xouc; ecpoTcxeuovxac; x a duoaxeXXoueva ex xwv evavxLwv upbg xbv xpiov. ToG be xpioG xb auuTtav y^vexai. ufjxoc; Trr^xeLc; PX * ex be Ttxep- vnc; uaxoc; uev Ttobwv B, TtXaxog be E uaXataxwv etc; axpov be t ^ 2 8 . 24 auvrixxai auxou xo uev udxoc; rcobiaCov, xo be TtXdxoe; xp ucaXai,-. ; axiaiov* exet be nal axoua aioripouv buot,ov eupoXw Tcpoufjxei. To 6e awua auXwxbv, xal aTc'auxou eXuxec; dnoxeivouai aibrjpai. upoariXwuevai, xcjj xpioj xeaaapec; ETTL TETIXELC; I. ' YnoCwwuxai 6e bXoc; o xpibc; OTTXOLC; oxxabaxxuXotc; x p i a l , xal 6 LaXaupdvexai,. xaxa ueaov ex xpiwv 6iaXei.u.u.dxwv aXuaeac Ttrixuauatc;. '0 be 6eau.bc;, 6 ev Lieaw xbv xptbv e'xwv, eixl rraXaiaxac; >J Xauj3dvei- xbv C A L Y M - OV ev xw upiqj. Bupaouxat 6e xuxXw, oxav xaxeXix^fit^pupaoae; dp- yaic;* xa. 6e ouXa, dixoxexaiieva ex xwv ovLaxwv xwv ex xfjc; xpio- bbxnc; xal dvexovxa xbv xpubv, e'xei. xac; dpxac; dXuaeat aibripaCe; 25 xexpaTtXaLc; TxercXeY^evac;. K a l vrepu^epupawvxra at dXuaeic; Tipbc; xb UT) bpcia$ai. rCvexat be xal erupd^pa aavCboc; ecprjXw^etarig xfi Ttporpopa xou xpuou, xal £7tl xauxrjc; y^vexau ex xptxrju.optwv btxxuov TieTrXeY- uevov, exov xac; OTCOCC; TiaXaiaxiatac; upbc; xb pgbuwc; dvapatvetv eru, xb xeCxoc; bi ' a u x o u . *Exeu be xal napabelyuaxa e£ exaxepou ue- pouc; b xptbc;, eTtei-br) xa xaCc; xdaai-c; TtapaTtXriai,a . . . . . . . Kivfjaei-c; 26 be xb epYOv Xau(3avei, e£, xrjv etc; xb e u T t p o a & e v , xal xrjv etc; xb O T U O W , xal xac; etc; xa TtXaYia, xal xr)v dvdveuaiv, xal xrjv eniveuai-v. .Ka- •S-atpet be dixb epbo|ir)xovxa7X'nxouc; u^ ou'c;, xal etc; xa uXdyua T t a p a a u p e i eicl nr)xei/t epbourjxovxa • otaxJCexat be UTCO avbpwv P, exouaa xb auu'Ttav (3dpoc; xdXavxa xexpaxuaxuXia. . 2 5 . 6 Read napanf^Yuaxa; after/Thevenot f o r TtapabeLyiiaxa. 2 5 . 7 O b e l i z e eixetbr) xa xauc; xdaaic, tcapaTcXriata. 2 9 . [Kaxaaxeur] eXercoXecog . ] *H 6e unb 'ETtuudxou T O U 'A^rjvatou YEVOuevT) eXeftoAic;, T}V ATlUTITpiOS b 'PobLOUS TtoXlOpXCOV TCpOaT)YaYe XOtCJ TELXEO'l'V au xcov, eaxt xoidbe. TO U E V u^og XauSavsi Tcnxeigcj* xb 6e nXaxoq, TCTIXEK H. TtvExat 6 E xop axiiuati T C U P Y O E 1,61^ uuouevei ob TCXT)YT)V cog TptaxaXavxou Xi-9-ou. 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'ETtav yap noXiv ev^aXaaaov eXetv T t p o a L p w v x a L X L V E C ; xwv dpxLxexxovwv, UTtoCuYuiaavxec; oXxdat xa ur)xavr]p.axa ev xaCc; yaX-qvaiq, eLw-^aaL TtpoadyeLv ev X O L C ; x e L x e a L v eav be xaxaXr)- yQwoiv vno xou itveuuaxoc; xa! xe-9pauu,evov uixobun X O L C; axdcpeaL xuua, dvaitoA-dCeL xb en:r)peLauevov urjxdvnua, xwv axacpwv oux OLtOLav TtOLOUU-evwv XLvrjaLV' o&ev, $pauouevwv xwv u.T)xavriudxwv, vno xf)c; auxeTufSouXeuxou urixavfk X O L C; ex xr\q evavxCac; -f>dpaog xa-&Laxr)aLv. AeC ouy ev xfi eaxdpTl tfi eitepeLOOLievn xatc; oXxdcav dp- LioCeLv ueaov xb AeYoaevov TCL'&'nx.tov, "va n a v x ! xXtuaxL aaXeu- ovxoc; xou xAuowvoc; bp$bv uevn xb ur)xdvr)ua • Ttpbc; b e xouc; dve-32. uouc; xal xb eu i tapdaxeuov exeLv duuvxrjp L O V , uuxpac; TtoLrjaavxac; eXeizoXzLC; xop ueye^ei-. 'ETCCXV aaaov yivtovxai xac 7i\oi>a T O U T E L X O U C J T O T E br) ev auxo ic , 6 La 7io\uaTto;aTOJv dvLaxavxau u-nxavrjuxxxa. Apeaxet be U O L Ttaan x e X w v n xai uavxL urixavnuaxi Ttpo- Tpoxov xaxaaxeuaCeLV X'^ pLv T O U axoXiac; n;oLEua$aL xocc; upoaaYw- yctc;, oTxtog xaxa T O U auxwv axouou O L TtexpopoAoL UT) TtpoaTteu- TtojaLv. KaxaaxeudCexaL be ex T O U eaxaptou xaxa u-eaov xb uexojTcov x a l TxpopdXXeTat r\ Xeyo[i£vr) $epuaaTple;, ufjxoc; exouaa iirixwv Tpiojv, exouaa uaaxdXriv a u v 6 e 6 e u e v r ) v AeTuaL c^ uxpTiXaTaic;, etc; r\v dp-8peu.(3oAeLTa L 6 Xeybuevoc; o6r)Ybc;, op evapuoCeTai 6 upoTpoxoc; a9aLpoeL6"nc;. Ata. be T O U 66T)YOU OTTAOV btojaTat vnua- X L X O V erxxaLbexa6dxxuAov, ov al dp xal evbov xaxaxAe LovxaL Tiepl xbv a£ova, waxe, etp'fjv av pouAwvxaL TtAeupav enLaxpecpou-evou T O U d^ ovoe;, exeC TT)V Ttopeiav T t o L e L a $ a L . 'Apeaxei be U O L xal xb xapx^aLov. nayrjoexaL be enl xfjc; xpLo (popov xeXwvric;' ou xa u.ev aLaybvLa eaovxaL ueAelva, bebeueva 3 3 . Xeniai (liux.pT)\dxau5, Eva ev a£ovt eiipdWwvxai, xaXHtji, axaftuov exovxcc Exaaxov auxwv xd\avxov. Kal el? xauxa a£wv evapuoCexat aibnpous xa\dvxwv xeaadpwv ri be Xeyouevr) yEP^vog ev xouxw Tcnyvuxat I'va eaxl Ttpbg xb u^og xwv uo\i.cpHOUuevwv cbg TJ xa-9-' Tjuag ocHg 6 T } \ O L . Ka&r)A.w#T]acxai 6e eudvw aupLv^t xauc.- pinaLS, c.v w xooAdauaxi. evapuoa-ftrjaexai. xXiuaxcbeatg. 'Enl 6e xou xopufpwuaxos xaxapxiCexai e£aipixls rcep iTCTJHXT) , xdxw&ev e'xouaa xopaxag aubripoug, "va, oxav upoaepetan xaCg Eud\£eau. xb p.r)xdvr)ua xal xc-Cg uuoxovoig LZavvobfl xb xaxaaxeuaaua• fng" e£aipi .xi6oc , oi xopaxec, e 6 p a i w g xwv eud\£ewv euiXaBwv- t a i . *K 6b yipavos uuoCwvvuxai xal pupaoGxai buoujg xw rcpoet- prjueva) xpccjj. 'Enl 6e xr)v pCCav euLxu^exau arjxwuaxog xaAavxa xC\ia, o u 6 b v riaaov EpyaCouEvwv xwv a£,6vwv 61a. xrjg unoaxpo- cpdbog. fioiei 6e xal xouxo xag eC xivnaet£. 'EvxaG-^a xb xapxriaiov. Toig 6b 6 u a x e p e a t xouots xal axpopu\w6eaiv, exet ou npoaaxxeov ur)xdvr|ua 6 toe xr)v buaxepeiav xwv xouwv. MdXicxa 6e OXXOUOLV ouxw* xw xaxaxprjuv tai-iip dub xwv end\£ewv dcptevxwv auxwv uexpag TEauueveS-edris xal acpov6uXoug \ieya.\ov<^ xal exepd xuva xou xo 1.5 napauArjata, axtva 9£p6ueva 6 i a xbv en'auxwv naXiabv / 36.4 Following Schneider obelize Eva eaxl. 36.7 Read nepinxuxxT) a f t e r Schneider f o r nepiTcrjxxr). / / 34. dvunoaxaxov noiouvxai xrjv Slav. Euprjxoxa. ouv 6ei TTJV xouxcov evco- aaa^at 6ia<popdv 6ia xfjg xoiauxrjg epYouoilag• xpipoAoug xa- xaax£uaax£Ov TOIXWV E, udxog Exovxag Cwvtaiov, xw 6b TTAT]-8-EI ixa- voug i v a TO x^ P^ov rcepL£\^couev Exxbg 3eA.oug. 'Ex 6b xrjg xa#' £xdo'Tr)v rjuepav YLYvou£vr)g xtov A.L'&CJOV TCpoaaywYTig, TOJV xpiBoAxov Tcpoa9£pou£vojv, xpin:A.r) r) xal xExpa-nAr} r) T O U T C O V -freaig av y £ - V O L X O . Aid yap xouxo Tiftevxai oi xpi8o\oi, coaxe xa xaxacpEpouEva TcpooiiLTCTELV del xouxoig, xal ouxto 6ei xa&'eva Exaaxov auxcov TCOV TOTCCOV reaptevai. 'Ercav 6b ^eArjacoaiv daaov Y^vea^ai T O U xei'xoug OI TCOXeUOUVTE? , TT)V dpexrjv dvexovxeg xs^vrjv, oi'auxfig Tcpoa$pouai T a g xA.iu.axag. "Eaxi 6b r) dpext) oia xe^vT)vg(p,r)voet6r)g x a l T t e p i - axpoYY u^ 0^ avco^ev tt T ) U I X U X \ C O U , Eva xa TtpoaTtiirxovxa xaxa ue- XCOTCOV auxfjg euxepcog TtEpixu\ir)xai. Mr) imoAdpTig 6b rjuag ouxcojeououg E L vat coaxs auvayaYEiv xoaaud'UTtouvnuaxa rcepl dvaipEaEcog 7ioA.etov xa evavxia 6 e 6 e i £i6£vai. *0 6b Tcpoe iprjuevog AoYog da<pd\eiav T T O Leixai Tc6\ecog • oi yap xauxa e i 6 o x e g cpv\&E,ao&ai' auxa p a 6 i t o g 6uvf]aovxai xd Aunriaovxa. MaXiaxa 6b r)uiv ueTipaYudxEuxaL xaxa xcov oux unoxaYrjao- uevtov xoig xaXoig xfjg r)Yeuovtag vouoig. AioTcep, sav xpivrjg, eaxT)' uaxoYpacpriueva navxa eaxai xd ur)xavr)uaxa • xal xb ev xfi \e£ei buaypaaxov en'auxcov eubrjXov eaxaL . "Oaa 6 e 6 e i npbg xa eipr)U£va dvxiur)xav,na»aa$ai, tdv xiva dva\e£c6ue$a napa xtov dpxaioxEpcov, 7teipaa6ue$d a o t x a - xei v a ypd<\>ai. Touxo 6 b el'pr]xai, cog XLVCOV xp i 6 i a d^gCa uexpouv- xtov xr)v xcov iceXag xaxoTcd^e la v , xal ou cpauevcov eivat ev TCOWCO L ETUyvtoaiv Y£vea&ai TtpaYudxcov, coanep xf)g u^x^ ig rjucov aTtoaxevo- Xcopouvxcov xrjv npo&uuiav xcov ua-&r)udxcov. Index Nominum 35. ' Avnaiaxpaxoc; 7 , 7 'AdnvaCoc; 1 5 , 1 3 ; 2 7 , 2 'A\e£dv6pEta 2 9 , 9 'A\eCav6poc; 5 , 1 3 ; 1 0 , 9 'Auuvxac, 1 0 , 7 'ATCOWOJVLOC; 8 , 9 'ApiaxoxeXnc; 5 , 3 'Apxuxac; 5 , 3 'Aaxpnvoc; 2 9 , 9 B e \ t x d 8 ,5 BuCdvxtov 1 0 , 8 ; 21 ,2 r«6etpa 9 ,5 rabeLpuxnc; 9,11 rrjpscc. 9 , 1 5 ; 1 0 , 3 AeX.91.x6c; 3 , 2 ; 5 , 2 AfVi'uaxoc; 5 , 1 2 AriLiTixptoc; 2 7 , 3 Atd6r|c; 1 0 , 1 0 ; 1 0 , 1 0 AIOVUCTLOC; 1 0 , 6 "EXXnv 5 , 8 'ETTLUKXO?; 2 7 , 2 ' E c r x i a i o c ; 5 , 3 "Eqjeaoc; 2 8 , 8 'Hyrixajp 2 1 , 2 QexxaXoc; 1 0 , 9 ' I v 6 6 g 5 , 8 ' Iaoxpdxnc; 6 , 6 KaXavoc; 5 , 8 KaXXiaSevrjc; 7 , 2 KaXXiaxpaxoc, 2 8 , 7 Kapxnbovtoc; 9 , 4 ; 9 , 15 Kxrjatpuoc; 2 9 , 9 M a x e 6 o j v 6,1 MapxeXXoc. 3 ,2 Mr)X«vuxd 2 8 , 7 'Ouxuxd 2 8 , 6 Ilepcuxa 5 , 1 2 rie9pffiau.ev0c; 9 , 1 0 Ilo\topxT)XLxa 31 ,8 noXueiboc. 1 0 , 9 nuppoc; 5 , 1 3 ; 31 »7 'PO&LOC, 2 7 , 3 *Po6os 8 , 1 1 ; 8 , 1 3 ZuxeXLuixnc; 10 ,6 Zxpdxtov 5 , 3 Tupioc, 9 , 9 'Yttouvnua 2 9 , 1 0 * i \ t n n o s 6 , 7 ; 1 0 , 7 ; 1 0 , 8 <5i*Xojv 1 5 , 1 3 Xaptac; 1 0 , 1 0 Xioc, 27,11 CHAPTER FOUR TRANSLATION 3 Highly esteemed M a r c e l l u s , So f a r as anyone who w r i t e s about machines can g e n e r a l l y f o l l o w i t , I have taken i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n the Delphic precept, that there i s some d i v i n e power th a t reminds us that we should be sparing w i t h time. One might almost say that we always squander i t l a v i s h l y on the pr e s s i n g n e c e s s i t i e s of l i f e . And so, l e t us not devote any casual a t t e n t i o n or concern to money and the other t h i n g s t h a t seem va l u a b l e t o us; but r a t h e r l e t us pay a t t e n t i o n t o the precepts of the a n c i e n t s . At the expense of only a small degree of e f f o r t we s h a l l earn our l i v i n g i n no random way and e a s i l y get a share from others. But in s t e a d we waste time t h a t i s subject to change and flows L away since the end comes a l l too soon. And we do t h i s even though i t i s nature's way to provide us by day w i t h some f a c u l t y f o r a c q u i r i n g each of l i f e ' s n e c e s s i t i e s , and by ni g h t w i t h sleep, though i t be a l t o g e t h e r b r i e f . For the one man who alone has r i g h t l y been c a l l e d a poet does not al l o w sleep (the g i f t of the gods f o r the r e l a x a t i o n of our bodies) t o l a s t a l l n i g h t . In t h i s way he i s c l e a r l y t a k i n g great forethought to prevent the mind from l y i n g i d l e f o r a long time. Those authors who describe some t o p i c or have some i n s t r u c t i o n to give us, even when they seem to be doing i t f o r our b e n e f i t , waste time q u i t e unreasonably i n 37 unnecessary words i n order t o d i s p l a y t h e i r g r e a t l e a r n i n g . F o r they l e a v e behind books f i l l e d with d i g r e s s i o n s , even though the a n c i e n t p h i l o s o p h e r s gave good adv i c e when they s a i d t h a t one should know the measure o f l i f e ' s o p p o r t u n i t y 5 s i n c e t h i s i s the end of wisdom. In t h i s way, i n r e s p e c t to a t r e a t i s e on t e c h n i c a l matters, a man by c a r e f u l l y a p p l y i n g h i m s e l f t o i t , would d e r i v e some b e n e f i t from that D e l p h i c precept r a t h e r than from the w r i t i n g of S t r a t o n , H e s t i a i o s , A rchytas, A r i s t o t l e , and the o t h e r s who have w r i t t e n l i k e them. Fo r while, t o young men eager f o r knowledge, t h e i r w r i t i n g would be u s e f u l i n a c q u i r i n g b a s i c p r i n c i p l e s , t o those who want to accomplish something immediately i t would be completely d i v o r c e d from an i n q u i r y t h a t l e a d s to r e s u l t s . T h e r e f o r e Kalanos the Indian's remark t o them would seem to be r i g h t . He says, "We do not compare o u r s e l v e s to the Greek p h i l o s o p h e r s who waste many words on i n c o n  s e q u e n t i a l matters but we are accustomed to say v e r y l i t t l e about even the g r a v e s t matters so t h a t they may be e a s i l y remembered by a l l . " One can understand v e r y a c c u r a t e l y how g r e a t the d i f f e r e n c e i s between the o r i e n t a l works and the Greek ones from the P e r s i k a o f Deimachos, from those who f o l l o w e d Alexander, and even more from Pyrrhos o f 6 Macedon's work on siege-machines. But so t h a t I myself may not appear verbose I s h a l l r e t u r n t o the matter i n hand adding a few embellishments to s a t i s f y those who are accustomed to examine p e d a n t i c a l l y the s t y l e of 38 e x p r e s s i o n . For I do not assume that i t i s s u i t a b l e f o r a man working out these refinements t o f a l l behind i n h i s purpose. T h i s i s e x a c t l y what happened to the o r a t o r I s o k r a t e s i n the case of the l e t t e r o f advice that he sent t o P h i l i p . The war was r e s o l v e d b e f o r e he had f i n i s h e d h i s ad v i c e . T h e r e f o r e he says, "While I was concerned w i t h t h i s b u s i n e s s you made peace be f o r e I had f i n i s h e d i t . " Furthermore, i t i s my o p i n i o n t h a t 7 we should obey those who gi v e good advice i n such matters. For the h i s t o r i a n K a l l i s t h e n e s says t h a t the man who i s attempting t o w r i t e something must not miss the p o i n t but must arrange h i s words to s u i t both h i m s e l f and h i s sub j e c t matter. I t h i n k t h a t every t r e a t i s e on a t e c h  n i c a l s u b j e c t of t h i s s o r t r e q u i r e s conciseness and c l a r i t y and i s not s u i t a b l e m a t e r i a l f o r the laws o f r h e t o r i c . F o r t h i s reason I s h a l l go through i n d e t a i l what I have read i n the works of the engineer A g e s i s t r a t o s . "Therefore i t appears t o be very necessary t o have experience i n b l u e p r i n t s . For i n t h i s way i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r someone d e v i s i n g measures f o r a siege t o dev i s e a l s o the c o r r e c t countermeasures and c o n v e r s e l y t o devise measures a g a i n s t the countermeasures. T h i s , however, the common man cannot do e a s i l y but onl y a man who has l e a r n e d mechanics w e l l , i s " s t e e p e d i n a l l the s t u d i e s d e a l i n g with them, and has c a r e f u l l y c o nsidered the 39. works w r i t t e n by e a r l i e r men or produced i n r e l a t i o n t o 8 t h i s matter. F o r i t i s o f t e n p r o f i t a b l e to use the good i n v e n t i o n s from the past and not i n every case to be an i n n o v a t o r , u n l e s s one i s i n t e n t on d e c e i v i n g the laymen by p r e f e r  r i n g the appearance of t r u t h t o the t r u t h i t s e l f . " T h i s seems to me w e l l s a i d . For i n h i s work B e l i k a A g e s i s t r a t o s so f a r surpassed h i s predecessors t h a t even the man who proclaims h i s m e r i t s i s not e a s i l y b e l i e v e d . F o r h i s c a t a p u l t of t h r e e spans (0.66m) with twelve minas (7.37 Kg.) o f t o r s i o n gut had a range of three and o n e - h a l f stades (621.60m) and the f o u r c u b i t (1.78m) one, which was a p a l i n t o n e , had a range of f o u r stades (710.4m). A p o l l o n i o s , who was h i s teacher, brought such a g r e a t cargo of stones f o r the mound around the harbour o f Rhodes that w i t n e s s e s were o f t e n a t a l o s s t o know how he ever loaded i t i n t o the ships and unloaded i t a g a i n i n Rhodes. A f t e r t h i s A g e s i s t r a t o s f o l l o w e d A p o l l o n i o s s t r i v i n g t o f i n d something u s e f u l i n h i s 9 t r e a t i s e on s i e g e - t e c h n i q u e s . H i s "ram-bearing t o r t o i s e " and the counterdevice i l l u s t r a t e t h i s . Therefore i t seemed that the a d v i c e such a man g i v e s about mechanics should be t r u s t e d . He s a i d that the v e r y f i r s t "ram" was invented by the C a r t h a g i n i a n s a t the siege o f Gades. For when they 40 were s e i z i n g a c e r t a i n outpost i n advance and were knocking the w a l l s down to the f o u n d a t i o n , some young men, who had no t o o l s f o r i t s d e s t r u c t i o n , took h o l d o f a beam i n t h e i r arms and beat i t a g a i n s t the w a l l and i n t h i s way e a s i l y d estroyed a great l e n g t h of i t . A c e r t a i n T y r i a n s h i p  b u i l d e r , bjj the name o f Pephrasmenos, witnessed the event. In the siege which they l a t e r conducted a g a i n s t the c i t y of Gades he set up a v e r t i c a l beam and from t h i s he suspended another beam a t r i g h t a ngles t o i t , s i m i l a r t o the beams of a balance, and he began t o s t r i k e the w a l l by h a u l i n g the h o r i z o n t a l beam by means of a p u l l e y - rope. Since those i n s i d e were perplexed owing t o the strangeness of the machine, the w a l l s soon f e l l . A f t e r t h i s man, Geras, the C a r t h a g i n i a n , made a frame on 10 wheels and put the "ram" on i t sideways. Rather than h a u l i n g i t w i t h a p u l l e y - r o p e he arranged f o r a wheeled cover t o be pushed forward by a l a r g e number of men. And Geras, who f i r s t i nvented t h i s , c a l l e d i t a " t o r t o i s e " on account o f i t s slowness. A f t e r t h i s some men arranged f o r the "ram" to be pushed forward on r o l l e r s and used i t i n the same manner. The c o n s t r u c t i o n of engines o f war of t h i s k i n d improved i n gen e r a l under the tyranny of D i o n y s i o s o f S i c i l y and under the r e i g n of P h i l i p the son of Amyntas when he was b e s i e g i n g Byzantium. P o l y e i d o s the T h e s s a l i a n was s u c c e s s f u l i n the f i e l d of mechanics and h i s p u p i l s , Diades and C h a r i a s , campaigned w i t h Alexander. Diades a . himself says, in his writing on mechanics, that he invented moveable towers, the machine known as the "trypanon," the "crow," and the scaling-ladder. He also made use of the 11 "ram" mounted on wheels, or at any rate he describes the construction of i t as follows. Construction of a "Ram" 0followed by Wescherfs f i g . I, jcf. commentary 39.93 He says that the smallest tower must have a height of 60 cubits (26.60ra) and a width of 17 cubits (7.55m), the width decreasing by one-fifth towards the top. The thick ness of the side poles of the tower should be three palms (0.22m) at the bottom and seven fingers (0.13m) at the top. He constructed a tower of this size with ten stories each of which was surrounded by a gallery. The largest of his towers had a height of 120 cubits 12 (53.25m) and a width of 23 1/2 cubits (10.41m). The width of this tower also decreased by one-fifth towards the top. The side-poles were a foot square at the base decreasing to 6 fingers (0.11m) at the top. His tower of this size was twenty stories t a l l and for protection against f i r e each story was surrounded by a parapet, the width of which was three cubits (1.33m). Let the f i r s t story have a height of 7 1/2 cubits (3.33m), the second five (2.22m), and those up to the f i f t h story the same, the rest were four cubits and two palms (1.93m) in height. But for the smaller tower also the division of floors followed 42. the same proportion. These towers were covered with undressed hides. The construction of the "ram-bearing tortoise" was 13 the same whether i t was small or large. The biggest had a width of 30 cubits (13.30m) and a length of 40 cubits (17.80m), and the height, not including the gabled roof that was put on later, was 13 cubits (5.77m). The height of the pediment i t s e l f , from the floor to the peak, was 16 cubits (7.12m). The gable rose up above the middle of the roof at least two cubits (0.88m) projecting the roof timber at the side as far as the main beams of the gable in order to make a gallery along the sides. From the middle of the roof he erected a small three story tower and placed catapults in the top stories and a supply of water in the bottom one. Uprights were arranged around the edge of the actual f'tortoise" and i t had a parapet. Inside i t he placed a battering-ram frame on 14 which he placed the cylinder through which the "ram" was propelled by means of a pulley-rope, thus activating the machine. And i t was covered with hides in the same way as the towers. The "trypanon" has the same "tortoise" and exactly the same construction as the "ram". On the frame he places a barrel very similar to that found in a euthytone cata pult and having a windlass placed across i t just as they do. At the other end he fixes two pulleys by means of which the beam placed in the groove i s thrust forward. 43 And on the floor of the groove he places numerous rollers so that the beam may move with ease. And in this manner, by means of the windlass set at the bottom end of the groove, he hurls forward and draws back the beam that 15 batters down the wall. The groove is surrounded with skins arranged on a framework of arches with the intention of protecting the beam inside i t . If the work is well outlined the engineer may acquire a good reputation, but i f he puts down a l l the details in a f u l l length work he w i l l achieve very great fame thanks to his writings. Diades says that the grappling-hook is not worth building. Although at the beginning of his work he stated that he would describe how one should construct the scaling-ladder, he failed to do so. Also no infor mation has been given about the machines that he intro duced on the sea. But they are also passed over, although he promised most solemnly that he would discuss them. But I f i r s t wrote a description of the "tortoise for f i l l i n g up ditches" and then of other machines. Description of "Tortoise for F i l l i n g Ditches Philon the Athenian says that this machine is use- 16 f u l for constructing roads for the approach of machines, for laying out sheds, and for f i l l i n g up ditches or any other depressions that should be f i l l e d i n . It is also useful for establishing observation-posts. It i s constructed on a platform 14 cubits (6.22m) 44. square, which has four cross-bars and two longitudinal bars, a l l ten fingers (0.19m) thick and three palms (0.22m) wide. Let each crosspiece be located at intervals of 2 cubits and a palm (1.60m). Each of the corner compartments contains four axle-blocks, in which the axles of the wheels turn, sheathed with iron plates so that whenever one has to move them forward to build approaches (i,..e. to make a broad and level area in front for fighting) or set up machines in line, the wheels may be drawn out after disengaging the axles. There are four wheels three cubits (1.33m) in diameter, one foot (0.30m) thick, and reinforced with cold-forged plates of iron. To the frame are fixed two pieces of wood projecting 4-cubits (1.78m) from each side of the frame at each end of their length. Two other pieces of wood, projecting for a length of 8 cubits (3.55m) at the front and 4 cubits . (1.78m) at the rear, are attached to these projections. The thickness and breadth of these are the same as for the base. Jointed into the frame i t s e l f on the base are posts seven cubits (3.11m) high and spaced one cubit (0.44m) apart. At the top a surrounding architrave makes a l l these posts fast. And to this are connected rafters supporting one another and increasing the height by 8 cubits (3.55m). The ridge-pole i s fastened on top of these rafters. The rafters are provided at intervals 45. with props and c r o s s - r a i l s and the whole roof i s f o r t i f i e d with planking, preferably of palm wood, but i f t h i s i s not available of some other wood that i s as e l a s t i c as possible, excepting cedar, pine, and alder, which are 18 both inflammable and e a s i l y broken. The planking i s then covered over with a thi n compact coating of wattles as fresh as possible. On top of these there i s a covering made of hides stitched together l i k e mat*resses and stuffed preferably with marsh-plants, or so-called sea-weed, or chaff steeped i n vinegar. These coverings are e f f e c t i v e against both the blows of catapults and f i r e . There i s another " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n ditches" constructed i n the same manner as the preceding one and having the same beams except f o r the sloping r a f t e r s . Instead, surrounding i t , above the posts and architraves, i t has a breastwork and battlements b u i l t of planks and wattles. Above the timberwork there i s a covering of strong planks coated with a mixture of clay and hair of s u f f i c i e n t thickness that f i r e cannot damage i t . And t h i s machine i s useful not only f o r f i l l i n g i n ditches but also f o r purposes of observation. For the sold i e r s who enter i t propel i t towards the wall and are thus able to make observations although they are within* 19 range of miss i l e s . This "tortoise" could well have eight wheels but the engineer with an eye to suitable routes of approach may well a l t e r such machines as required. 46 Concerning the "Mining T o r t o i s e " In a l l i t s other p a r t i c u l a r s the type o f " t o r t o i s e " used i n sapping o p e r a t i o n s i s designed i n much the same way as the pre c e d i n g ones; however, i t has a r i g h t - a n g l e d 20 s u r f a c e a t the f r o n t so t h a t when i t has reached the w a l l i t can f i t e x a c t l y a g a i n s t i t and the m i s s i l e s h u r l e d from the w a l l s may not ent e r i t from the s i d e and the miners i n s i d e i t can work i n s a f e t y . 21 The " T o r t o i s e o f Hegetor" The l e n g t h o f the base of the " t o r t o i s e " invented by Hegetor o f Byzantium i s 42 c u b i t s (18.20m) and the width 28 (12.4m). The pos t s j o i n e d t o the base are f o u r i n number. Each one i s made out of two p i e c e s o f wood 24 c u b i t s (10.65m) l o n g , 5 palms (0.37m) t h i c k , and one c u b i t (0.44m) wide. The whole machine moves on e i g h t wheels. These wheels are 4 1/2 c u b i t s (2.00m) h i g h and 2 c u b i t s (0.88m) t h i c k . They are made of wood j o i n e d 22 a l t e r n a t e l y i n width and t h i c k n e s s and are r e i n f o r c e d w i t h p l a t e s o f c o l d - f o r g e d metal. They t u r n i n a x l e - b l o c k s . P o sts twelve c u b i t s (5.32m) h i g h , 3 palms (0.22m) wide, and ten f i n g e r s (0.19m) t h i c k , are s e t up on the base. Each post i s pl a c e d 7 palms (0.52m) from the next and a r c h i t r a v e s 4 palms (0.30m) wide and 3 palms (0.22m) t h i c k are f a s t e n e d a l l around above them. Roof-beams are f a s t e n e d on these a r c h i t r a v e s r a i s i n g the hei g h t by 8 c u b i t s (3.55m). And above these the r i d g e - p o l e , t o 47 which a l l the e x t r e m i t i e s of the roof-beams are f a s t e n e d , i s p l a c e d h o r i z o n t a l l y so that we have two s l o p i n g r o o f s . F i n a l l y the whole machine i s boarded over and p r o t e c t e d i n the same manner as the " t o r t o i s e s f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " . I t a l s o has a middle s t o r y r e s t i n g on the u p r i g h t s so that the b a t t e r y of machines may be set up on i t . Right i n the middle o f the " t o r t o i s e " behind the frame of 23 the ba t t e r i n g - r a m , two s i d e poles j o i n e d together, t h i r t y c u b i t s (13.3m) i n h e i g h t , one c u b i t (0.44m) t h i c k , and three palms (0.22m) wide, are fa s t e n e d . Two c r o s s - b a r s , one a t the top and the oth e r i n the middle, are fa s t e n e d through these s i d e p o l e s . And a v e r t i c a l piece of wood i s fa s t e e n e d between the t o p and the middle c r o s s - b a r through t h e i r c e n t r e s . On each s i d e of t h i s v e r t i c a l b a r and the s i d e p o l e s are turned w i n d l a s s e s from which the ropes h o l d i n g up the "ram" are f a s t e n e d . And a parapet i s a l s o a t t a c h e d t o the top of the ram-frame so t h a t those watching the m i s s i l e s d i s p a t c h e d a g a i n s t the "ram" by the enemy can stand i n i t i n p e r f e c t s a f e t y . The t o t a l l e n g t h o f the "ram" i s 120 c u b i t s (53.25m). At the butt-end i t i s 2 f e e t (0.60m) t h i c k and 5 palms 24 (0.37m) wide but towards the p o i n t the t h i c k n e s s d i m i n i s h e s to one f o o t (0.30m) and the width t o 3 palms (0.22m). And i t has an i r o n p o i n t s i m i l a r t o the p r o t r u d i n g beak of a s h i p . The body i s pipe-shaped and from i t extend f o u r 4&\ i r o n s p i r a l s 10 c u b i t s (4.44m) l o n g t h a t are n a i l e d t o the "ram". The whole 1'ram" i s undergirded w i t h three ropes e i g h t f i n g e r s (0.15m) t h i c k and i s grasped around the middle by c u b i t l o n g (0.44m) chains i n three i n t e r v a l s . The b i n d i n g h o l d i n g the "ram" i n the middle f o l l o w s the winding on the beam f o r a d i s t a n c e o f 5 palms (0.37m). When i t i s wrapped up i t i s surrounded by raw h i d e s . And the ropes t h a t s t r e t c h from the windla s s e s of the ram- frame and hold up the "ram" have t h e i r ends bound w i t h f o u r f o l d i r o n c h a i n s . And the chains too are surrounded w i t h hides so t h a t they may not be seen. 25 There i s a l s o a s c a l i n g - l a d d e r made of boards n a i l e d on t o the f r o n t end o f the "ram" and a net woven from t h i c k rope w i t h a mesh of one palm's breadth (0.07m) i s fa s t e n e d to t h i s so t h a t u s i n g i t one might e a s i l y climb on to the w a l l . The "ram" a l s o has pi e c e s attached to both s i d e s . . . . 26 The machine admits of s i x movements: forward, backward, r i g h t and l e f t , and up and down. I t can c l e a r a w a l l up to a he i g h t of 70 c u b i t s (31.05m) and can sweep sideways f o r a range of 70 c u b i t s (31.05m). I t i s managed by 100 men and has a t o t a l weight of f o u r thousand t a l e n t s (147,440 Kg.). 2? D e s c r i p t i o n o f H e l e p o l i s The H e l e p o l i s was invented by Epimachos the Athenian and brought t o the w a l l s o f Rhodes by Demetrios when he was b e s i e g i n g the Rhodians. I t i s c o n s t r u c t e d as f o l l o w s . I t s height i s 90 c u b i t s (40m) and i t s width 49 & c u b i t s (3«55m). I t i s l i k e a tower i n form and can endure the impact o f a stone weighing approximately three t a l e n t s (111 Kg.). The n a v a l machines that some people c a l l "sambykai" are not worth d e s c r i b i n g s i n c e everyone i s w e l l acquainted w i t h them and I t h i n k t h a t they d i f f e r so much from each other t h a t o f t e n i t i s p r e f e r a b l e t h a t they not be b u i l t at a l l r a t h e r than t h a t they be b u i l t b a d l y . F o r the men b e s i e g i n g Chios, because they m i s c a l c u l a t e d and b u i l t the "sambykai" h i g h e r than the c i t y ' s towers, caused the death by f i r e o f those who ascended them because they were unable to reach the towers, and because there was abso l u t e l y no way to lower the "sambykai"; f o r otherwise the s h i p s from which they were suspended would have overturned w i t h the centre of g r a v i t y of the l o a d b e i ng s h i f t e d . T h e r e f o r e , i n common w i t h other craftsmen, engineers who i n t e n d t o make use of siege machines should not be i g n o r  ant of o p t i c s . A s i m i l a r t h i n g happened to K a l l i s t r a t o s , the w r i t e r on machines, while he was d i r e c t i n g the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f stones t o the temple a t Ephesos. For he d i d not r e a l i z e t h a t some t h i n g s represented i n models on a small s c a l e produce an o p t i c a l i l l u s i o n s i n c e such t h i n g s cannot be reproduced on a l a r g e s c a l e . On the oth e r hand, i t i s sometimes i m p o s s i b l e to make small models of some t h i n g s but these can only be c o n s t r u c t e d immediately i n l i f e s i z e . In t h a t case, f o r example, the t r i a n g l e t h a t had 50. 29 served as h i s model f o r the t r a n s p o r t of the stones seemed q u i t e good, but the a c t u a l loads could not be conveyed i n the same way. For a siege some men have c o n s t r u c t e d s o r t s of l a d d e r s s i m i l a r to those e r e c t e d i n the t h e a t r e s a g a i n s t the p r o s k e n i a f o r the a c t o r s . However, they have appeared u s e l e s s . But I have mentioned them owing t o the f a c t t h a t a number of contemporary engineers, who have made models of t h i s strange wonder, ate attempting to d e c e i v e people. In h i s Commentaria. K t e s i b i o s ? o f Askra, the A l e x a n d r i a n engineer, t o l d how, w i t h the use of the f o l l o w i n g machine, one can climb on to a c i t y w a l l without u s i n g a l a d d e r . He says t h a t one should b u i l d a four-wheeled c a r t and mount crosswise on t h i s a square p i e c e of wood wit h round m o r t i s e s on each end of i t f i t t i n g i n t o two u p r i g h t p i e c e s o f wood. Around t h i s one p l a c e s a l a r g e tube suspended on a p i v o t — l a r g e enough t h a t a man can e a s i l y 30 e n t e r i t standing u p r i g h t and walk to and f r o . When t h i s has been done, the tube should be r a i s e d a t whichever end one wishes. F o r when one end of the tube touches the ground the other end r i s e s because the tube r e v o l v e s i n the notches of the p i e c e o f wood on each of i t s two s i d e s and i s suspended on a p i v o t . And whenever the f o u r wheeled v e h i c l e has been brought up so t h a t the end of the tube i s r i g h t a g a i n s t the w a l l , the man i n s i d e 31 should open the door of i t and climb onto the w a l l . K t e s i b i o s a p p a r e n t l y d i d not give the dimensions of the components. T h i s machine i s of no great worth but i s 51 designed merely as a c o n t r i v a n c e to win admiration f o r the i n v e n t o r And f o r t h i s reason I have d e s c r i b e d i t f u l l y . Concerning the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t u n n e l s f o r undermining w a l l s and of p r o t e c t i v e sheds and the manner of d e a l i n g with them, although Pyrrhos, i n h i s work P o l i o r k e t i k a , has d e s c r i b e d how t o b u i l d them, I d i d not t h i n k i t proper to c o n t r a d i c t h i s e x c e l l e n t account; which i s what I see most people doing i n t h e i r w r i t i n g . In composing an a c c u r a t e d i s c u s s i o n on each machine I have v e r y c a r e f u l l y c o nsidered e v e r y t h i n g t h a t my predecessors gave a good d e s c r i p t i o n o f . And b e s i d e s , I have p r i d e d myself i n the f a c t t h a t I have c o n t r i b u t e d a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of engines of war. F o r one ought not o n l y to be acquainted with the c l e v e r i n v e n t i o n s of o t h e r s , but a l s o , s i n c e he i s s t i l l e n t h u s i a s t i c , t o i n v e n t something o n e s e l f . For some engineers, whenever they propose t o capture a c i t y on the sea, are wont t o s t r a p the machines on f r e i g h t e r s and i n calm weather t o push them up to the w a l l s . But i f they are caught by the wind and the waves s w e l l and break over the h u l l s , the machine, supported by them r o l l s about because the h u l l s do not share the same movement. Then, as the machines break up because of the s e l f - d e s t r u c t i v e c h a r a c t e r of t h e i r design, the enemy take h e a r t . T h e r e f o r e i t i s necessary t o f i t the s o - c a l l e d % i $ r \ * i o v i n t o the middle of the p l a t f o r m t h a t r e s t s upon the s h i p s so that, i n s p i t e of the surging of the waves, the machine may remain upright i n any weather. For protection against the winds i t i s 33 also necessary to have a windscreen and to l i m i t hele- poleis to small dimensions. Whenever the ships approach the walls the machines are set up on them by means of compound pulleys. Here i s the Boat [followed by Wescher's f i g . VIII, c f . commentary 39.9] I t also seems a good idea to me to furnish a fore- 34 wheel f o r every " t o r t o i s e " and siege-engine so that i t s progress may follow a crooked course. This ensures that the rock-throwers may not h i t t h e i r mark. The so-called •&epuaaTpK i s constructed i n the middle of the front of the base and projects forward three cubits (1.33m). It i s f i t t e d with a uctaxd\r)v bound together with cold- forged metal, into which the rudder i s inserted. The spherical fore-wheel i s then attached to the rudder. A p l a i t e d rope 16 fingers (0.30m) th i c k i s put through 35 the rudder and i t s ends are attached on the inside around the axle so that as the axle turns the machine moves i n the desired d i r e c t i o n . I think that the "chamber" i s also a good idea. I t w i l l be placed on the "ram-bearing t o r t o i s e " , the side 36 pieces of which w i l l be ash wood bound with cold-forged metal plates so that they may be inserted into a metal axle. Each one of them w i l l weigh one talent (36.86 Kg,). And the iron axle, which weighs four talents (147.5 Kg.), i s inserted into them. The machine ca l l e d a "crane" i s 53 f i x e d i n t o t h i s i n such a way t h a t so f a r as one can estimate by eye i t reaches t h e top of the besieged w a l l s . Above t h i s are t o be n a i l e d v a u l t e d tubes, i n s i d e of which a wicker mat w i l l be f i t t e d . At the top end a f o l d i n g l a d d e r w i t h i r o n hooks underneath i s f a s t e n e d so t h a t whenever the machine presses a g a i n s t the c i t y - b a t t l e m e n t s , the ladder-apparatus may be brought i n t o use by means of ropes and the hooks may f i r m l y grab h o l d o€ the battlements The "crane" i s undergirded and covered with s k i n s i n the same manner as the "ram" a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d . A counter weight of one thousand t a l e n t s (36,860 Kg.) i s p l a c e d a t the r e a r end. The a x l e s , however, operate j u s t as e f f i c i e n t l y by means of the screw. T h i s machine can a l s o move i n s i x d i r e c t i o n s . Here i s the "Chamber" [f o l l o w e d by Wescher's f i g . X I I , c f . commentary 39.93 In d i f f i c u l t and rough t e r r a i n the machine should not be brought forward. For i n these circumstances the enemy are e s p e c i a l l y troublesome, throwing headlong from the battlements immense rocks, l a r g e stone drums, and o t h e r s i m i l a r o b j e c t s . These m i s s i l e s , borne along by t h e i own impetus, produce an i r r e s i s t i b l e f o r c e . In such circumstances, then, one must counteract t h e i r impetus w i t h the f o l l o w i n g d e v i c e . T r i p l e s p i k e s 5 c u b i t s (2.22m) lon g and as t h i c k as a g i r d l e must be set up i n s u f f i c i e n t number t h a t we may surround the p l a c e out of m i s s i l e range. 54 And since the t r i p l e spikes are pushed forward as a re s u l t of the d a i l y rush of stones the spikes should be placed three or even four deep. The reason for t h i s arrangement of the spikes i s to ensure that the missiles r o l l i n g down w i l l always h i t them because they have to pass through several ranks of them. When the besiegers wish to be nearer to the wall they bring up the "arete t o r t o i s e " and using t h i s w i l l set up ladders. The "arete t o r t o i s e " i s wedge-shaped and has a perf e c t l y round roof above i n the shape of a hemispherical dome so that anything that f a l l s on i t s roof r e a d i l y r o l l s o f f i t . But do not imagine that I am so harsh as to bring together a l l these notes for the destruction of c i t i e s , when, i n fa c t , the opposite i s the case. The tr e a t i s e that I have just compiled makes c i t i e s safe, f o r those who are acquainted with these devices w i l l e a s i l y be able to guard against the very things that are l i a b l e to harm them. I have written t h i s e s p e c i a l l y against those who refuse to obey the f i n e laws of the realm. Therefore, i f you approve, a l l the machines w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d with figures and what i s d i f f i c u l t to explain i n words w i l l thus become obvious. With regard to what contrivances one should make to counteract those described above, when I f i n d any d e t a i l s i n the works of older writers, I s h a l l attempt to describe them also to you. This i s said because some 5 5 . people measure the misery of their neighbours by their own sloth and claim that a knowledge of practical affairs cannot be acquired even over a long period of time, just as i f scientific knowledge were bound to have a dulling effect on our enthusiasm. CHAPTER FIVE COMMENTARY 3 . 2 MdpxeXXe. For a discussion of the i d e n t i t y of t h i s Marcellus see my chapter on the dating. 3-.4 OJC; eaxt. Schneider emends t h i s t o i 1 eoTi which makes easier sense but i s not s t r i c t l y necessary. 3 . 6 TOJV aXXojv TOJV 6OXOUVTOJV ftutv. Restored by Wescher from a c o l l a t i o n of M ( TOJV dXXtov TOJV TJUCV ) with the other MSS. ( TOJV OCXXOJV 6OXOUVTOJV nuav ) > which i s also what Schneider reads and seems to make perfect sense. There i s no reason f o r Wescher*s restoration since the reading of the other MSS. seems quite ' acceptable. 4 . 3 ' 0 yap uovoe, HXrc&els bixouojc; iroinTric;. This cer t a i n l y refers to Homer and i n p a r t i c u l a r to a passage, of the I l i a d 2 . 2 4 ou X P T ) uavvuxiov eubeiv pouXncpopov a v 6 p a . 4 . 1 2 Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis, 1 . 3 6 [II 2 3 , 2 2 St.] gives Anaxarchos as the source of t h i s advice: eu youv xa! Avd£apxoc; 6 eu6auu.ovt.xbc; ev TO) negl BaenXetac, ypdtpei . . . . \Ph be xaipou ueTpa eubevat 009111?; yap OUTOC; opoc.. (Diels, Vorsokr. 2 . 2 3 9 ) Anaxarchos of Abdera accompanied Alexander the Great on his A s i a t i c campaigns and was l a t e r put to death by Nicocreon the tyrant of Cyprus because he had insulted him at a banquet. See Diog. Laert. 5 8 - 6 O and Arrian, Anab. 4 . 1 0 - 1 1 . 57 IxpctTcovos nal 'EaTiaiou x a l 'Apxurou. The Straton mentioned here i s probably Straton of Lampsacus, about whom not a great deal is known. He lived ca. 328- 269 B.C. He was a pupil and successor of Theophrastus. He became head of the school in the 123rd Olympiad (288-285 B.C.) and continued in that capacity for 18 years leaving the school to Lycon, in his w i l l , in the 127th Olympiad (272-269 B.C.). He taught Ptolemy Philadelphos and was known as Zxpdnov $uatx6s. Diogenes Laertius gives the t i t l e s of 44 of his works and also mentions some lecture notes of dubious authorship and some letters (5.59-60). Polybios, who has a low opinion of him,says: napartXrjo-iov ydp orj TI TOIOGTO auupe8r)xe xal^ Ztpaxcov 1 T£ cpuaixco xal yap EKEIVOS oxav eyxEtpnarr tag TCOV aXXcov 5oia<; 6uaaTeXXea'&at xal cpeu6oTcoL£ty, dauudatog eaTtv OTav 6' e£ auToG T t TcpocpepnTat xal <TI>TTU)V t&tcov eutvonuaTtov e^nYtiTat, Tjcapc^  noXu (^atvETat TOIS ETttaTrJiioatv Eun^eaTEpos auroG xal vco^poxepog. (Polybios, 12.25 c3) For further information about Straton see Diog. Laert. 5.58-64, Suidas s.v. " ExpaTtov ,« Capelle in RE 4A1, 278- 318 s.v. "Straton (13)," and Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenistische Dichtung, vol. 1, p. 161 (Berlin, 1962). a Practically nothing i s known about Hestiaios except the fact that he was a pupil of Plato. This i s reported by Diogenes Laertius in Bk. 3.46: MaSirral 6'aOToG Lnevainnoq 'A^rjvatog, SevoHpdxrjs KaXxn6ov105 ,^ 'Ap taTOTEAny ETayetptTn^, $IXITCTCOS OTcouvTtog, 'EaTtatos nepiv^tog . . . . 53. Evidently he further developed Plato's 'ideal numbers.' (Theophrastus f r . 12.13). See Natorp in RE 3.2, 1314 s.v. "Hestiaios (7)". Archytas i s probably Archytas of Tarentum, the son of Mnesagoras or Hestiaios. He seems to have been a very talented man and i s often mentioned throughout antiquity. He lived in the fourth century B.C. and must have been an approximate contemporary of Plato as he corresponded with him. He was general for seven years even though there was a 3raw trhat forbade generals to succeed themselves. Archytas was, accord ing to Diog. Laert. 8.83, the f i r s t to bring mechanics to a system by applying mathematical principles. For further information on Archytas, see Diels, Vorsokr. I. 47; Diog. Laert. 8.79; and E. Wellmann in RE 2.1, 600-602 s.v. "Archytas (3)", and Suidas j.y. " 'Apxuxac, The Aristotle mentioned here is the famous Aristotle, pupil of Plato and tutor of Alexander (384-322 B.C.). drcnpTtau-eva MPV; a i r n p x n u e v a L^. LSJ S>.V. a-rcapxiCw II. 2 'to be complete, to f i t exactly, square with, etc.* This seems to be exactly the opposite of what is intended. LSJ s.v. anapxdw II *detach, separate.* This f i t s the sense of what he is saying and i s surely the correct reading here. KdA,avoc; 6 'ivdoc;. Kalanos was an Indian philosopher who belonged to a group called the gymnosophists 59 (because they went around naked). He accompanied Alexander on part of his journey, but when he f e l l i l l he had himself burned a l i v e on a funeral pyre. The reference here i s perhaps to a l e t t e r that he wrote to Alexander. This Aquoted by Philon (Judaeus), Quod  Omnis Probus Liber S i t . 14: . ^EXXrJvujv 6e yiXoaocpoiq OUH .eCop.ox.ouu,e^ a oaot atrttov etc; uavTHYuptv Xovouc; eu-eXexnaav, aXXa Xoyoic; epya Ttap'fiuCv anoXou^a nal epvoic; Xoyot Bpaxeiav exouau 6uvautv na! uaxaptotnxa na! eXeu- ^epuav T c e p t T i o t o u v T e c ; . The suicide of Kalanos i s an " o f t t o l d t a l e . " See Strab. 15.715-718; Diod. 17.107; Plut. Alex. 69; Athen. Deipn. 10.437a; Lucian Peregr. 25; see also M. Hadas, H e l l e n i s t i c Culture, pp. 178-179 (1959); K r o l l i n RE 10.2, 1544-1546 s.v. " KdXavog"; Arrian Anab. 7.3. Plutarch t e l l s us that his name was not r e a l l y Kalanos but Sphines. He says that he was cal l e d Kalanos because he greeted everyone he met with xaXe an Indian word of salutation (Plut. Alex. 65.3). 5.12 TWV Anludxov nepcuHujv. Very l i t t l e i s known about Deimachos except f o r the f a c t that he was sent by the Syrian king Antiochus Soter (293-261 B.C.) to Palim- bothra (on the Ganges riv e r ) as an ambassador to the Indian king Amitrochates ( 'AatTpoxdTrjv Ath. Deipn. 14. 652 or 'AXXitpoxd6r|v Strabo 2.70) and wrote a history of India that was held i n very low repute: 60. "AreavTEC, LIEV TOIvuv ot Ttspl xr\<; ' Iv.6LHf]c;^ p.(x.(t».av_T.e.iS. OJC; ETCL TO uoXu i\>zv8o\6yoi yeyovaat, xa§' im£p(3o\rtv 6e AntVaxoc;. He was apparently a Plataean ( Aaiuaxoc. 6 nXaTaieuc; Plut. Comp. Sol, et Publ. 4; and Aaiuaxoc; 6*6 nXaTOJvixoc; Diog. Laert. 1.30, emended to Acuuctxoc; 6*o IlXaTateuc; by Casaubon). Besides his history of India he also wrote a work c a l l e d Ilepl euaepetac; and according to Stephanos of Byzantium (.s.v. '» Aaxe6aiuojv ") a work on sieges: OJC; cpnai Aaitiaxoc; e v TcoXtopxnTixoic; UTCOUV:PLI<XCTI Xeyoov. 5.12 ex TOJV Ani|idx-ou_llepatxojv xal TOJV 6t' a u T O u axoXou- $ncrdvTojv 'AXe£dv6poj Wescher. ex TOJV ArjiLidxou IIpXiopxnTLxojv xal TUJV Aud6ou xal Xapiou TOJV dxoXou^nadvTOJv 'AXe£dv6poj Schwartz. ~ 1 aeTtxwv V corrected i n margin to Ilepaixwv, T t e p a e T t x o j v MPV. Although the MSS. readings appear closer to Ilepatxojv than to noXiopxrjTixujv we have a reference to a noXiopxnTtxd of Deimachos (see above) and no reference to a nepcuxd. The manuscript evidence, then, would seem to favour riepcuxojv while the other evidence favours noXLOpxnTtxojv. The evidence f o r either, tew>®y$ir, i s rather scanty and on the basis of i t no d e f i n i t e conclusion can be reached. The introduction of Aid6ou and Xapiou from 10.10, however, i s rather suspect. Schwartz has obviously proposed t h i s because of the s i m i l a r i t y between 6u'auxou and Aid&ou and because 61. i t i s very d i f f i c u l t to see what 61,'auxou should mean. Furthermore at 10.10 we are t o l d that Diades and Charias campaigned with Alexander, which f i t s i n very well with the phrase dxo\ou$T)advxcov ' A\e£dv6pco. A f a r simpler method of dealing with the d i f f i c u l t i e s presented by the phrase 6t*auxou i s simply to excise i t and read: ex xcov Anludxc-u riepaixcov ( or noXoopxnxi.xtov) xal xcov dxo\ou$T)advxtov 'A\e£dv6pto. 5.13 IIuppou xou M a x e 6 o v o s ypacpevxcov TcoXiopxnxtxiov. Pyrrhos was not r e a l l y a Macedonian but an Epirot. He was king of the Molossians and l i v e d 319-273 B.C. During his eventful l i f e he was several times at war with the Macedonians. He was, however, very popular with the Macedonian troops and great numbers of them went over to him. In fact at one time he was proclaimed king of Macedon: eTceXSeov 6e 6 riuppo? auaxel Tcape\ap\e_xb axpaxonebov xal BaatXeug avTrvopeu$n Maxebovcov. (Plut., Pyr.11.6) He spent his whole l i f e i n m i l i t a r y exploits and was a very capable general who apparently l e f t behind some writings on m i l i t a r y matters: TTJS 6e T t e p l xd£eis xal axpaxTiyCa? eTttaxT)UT)5 auxou xal^6euvoxT)xo<; eveaxi betvuaxa XapeCv ex xcov ypa^x- uaxcov a rtepl xouxiov drcoXeXouTce. (Plut., Pyr. 8.2) For further information see Plut. Pyr.; Jacoby FGH 2B, 229; and Dietmar Kienast i n RE 24, 108-165 s.v. "Pyrrhos (13)". 62 6.2 TcapdXXnXov exeivoc; MSS.; uap'aXXnXa exeCva Schwartz. Schwartz's r e a d i n g i s to be p r e f e r r e d , f o r i f we read exeivoc; i t must s u r e l y r e f e r t o Kalanos whereas i f we read e x e i v a i t r e f e r s to the works r a t h e r than to the person. T h i s agrees b e t t e r w i t h the r e s t o f the sentence, as i t i s t a l k i n g about the works r a t h e r than about the authors. 6.6 x a $ a T t e p auvepr) ' i a o x p d x e i . T h i s passage r e f e r s to I s o k r a t e s * P h i l i p p o s 7. The t e x t g i v e n here d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from the t e x t which i s found i n e d i t i o n s o f I s o k r a t e s : ovxoc; 6'ouv euou ttep! xrjv npaynaxeidv xauxnv eop^nxe Ttoirjaduevoi TTJV e i p t i v r i v , Ttplv e£epyaa$f]vai xbv Xoyov. 7.1 '0 piev yap Laxopuoypdcpoc; KaXXta^evr)?; • The h i s t o r i a n K a l l i s t h e n e s was a nephew o f A r i s t o t l e who accompanied Alexander*s e x p e d i t i o n as an o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i a n . He q u a r r e l l e d w i t h Alexander over the q u e s t i o n o f obeisance and was e v e n t u a l l y executed f o r a l l e g e d c o m p l i c i t y i n a p l o t a g a i n s t Alexander. F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see W. K r o l l i n RE 10.2, 1674-1726 .s.v. " K a l l i s t h e n e s (2)"; A r r i a n , Anab. 4.10-11; P l u t . Alex. 52-55; Diog. Laertt. 5.4-5; and Suidas s.v. " KaXXua^evnc; ". 7.3 npoacoTtou. None o f the u s u a l meanings o f icpoawTtov seems t o make much sense here. The meaning r e q u i r e d i s , however, f a i r l y obvious from the c o n t e x t . I t must mean something like''purposed 63. 7.7 xou uTjxavuHoG ' AvrjaiaTpciTOU. See my chapter on dating. 8.4 auxots eueLvai conjectured by Wescher; CXUTOIS a.%'r\ M; auxf)? ercl F; aOTOtg eixl other MSS. The simplest thing to do here i s to obelize the phrase since the sentence makes perfect sense without i t . 8.7 In this thesis, wherever measurements occur, I have adhered to the following system: 1 Tcfjxuq (cubit) =6 ua\atoTaC (palms) -=-2L 6<XKXV\OI (fingers) 1 nous (foot) =4 TcaXatcrTOu -16 ddxTuXot 1 cnufyxuTi (span) -3 TcaXoaaTai 1 aiabiov (stade) -600 f t . ( novq) 1 talent =60 minae =6000 drachmae =36,000 obols. For purposes of conversion I have used the following: 1 Ttfjxus =44.4 cm. (W. Becher RE 19.1, 6 s.v. " nr]xvq ") and 1 talent (Attic-Euboic) - 36.86 Kg. (F.N. Pryce OCD s.v. "Weights"). 8.7 6 yap Tpicnu$auos auTou xa%ana\%r)<z. The compound adjective Tptani^auog occurs f i r s t in Hesiod, 0p_. 426, but the noun arci^a^f) is f i r s t used by Herodotus 2.106. Tptcnu&auos means 'three spans long* (i...e. 66.66cm.). The question now arises what was three spans long in a TpianOauos xaTanctXTTis ? Vitruvius 10.10.1 t e l l s us, Omnes proportiones eorum organorum ratiocinatorum ex proposita sagittae longitudine, quam id organum mittere debet . . . . Thus i t would seem that TpiaTu$auog must refer to the length of the arrow. Vitruvius explains how the 64. dimensions o f every part o f the c a t a p u l t are r e l a t e d to the l e n g t h o f the arrow and t h e r e f o r e by a p p l y i n g h i s r u l e s we can a r r i v e a t a f a i r l y a c c urate r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a c a t a p u l t . I t i s known from the a n c i e n t sources that there were b a s i c a l l y two types of c a t a p u l t s , the euthytone and the p a l i n t o n e . I t i s f u r t h e r known t h a t a l l rock- throwers were of the p a l i n t o n e type and most d a r t - throwers of the euthytone type although some of these were a l s o p a l i n t o n e s . However^ i t i s not known what the d i f f e r e n c e was between these two types of c a t a p u l t . The o n l y statement we possess t h a t seems to shed any l i g h t upon the s i t u a t i o n i s t h a t of Heron who says, xd 6e eu^uxova xd uev aXXa rcdvxa xd auxa e x e i xcp TtaXtvxovop nXrjv Sxt xd 6uo r)ixn6via zlq ev TCXCV^LOV a u Y K e t x a i arcexovxa dXXT)Xcov xb x f k 6iu>axpa<; TtXaxo?. Kochly and Rustow ( G r i e c h i s c h e K r i e g s c h r i f t s t e l l e r ) d i d not t h i n k t h a t t h i s was a g r e a t enough d i f f e r e n c e to d i s t i n g u i s h two c l a s s e s of machines and they t h e r e  f o r e p o s i t e d a theory of t h e i r own. They s a i d t h a t the HXtuaHLs o f the p a l i n t o n e c a t a p u l t raked down ward at an angle of 45° and was f a s t e n e d to the ground. T h i s means t h a t the p a l i n t o n e c a t a p u l t would have a f i x e d range and furthermore i t would mean that a l l shots would be lobbed i n on a r a t h e r h i g h t r a j e c t o r y , which i s h a r d l y s u i t a b l e f o r such t a s k s as knocking down w a l l s . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n seems q u i t e l u d i c r o u s . 6 5 . For why would anyone b u i l d such a comparatively use l e s s machine when a much more u s e f u l one could be b u i l t w i t h only minor adjustments? Barker (" riaXtvcovov nal EU#UTOVOV » CQ 14 (1920) pp. 82-86) takes the statement l i t e r a l l y . He says t h a t a l l ancient c a t a p u l t s were r e a l l y p a l i n t o n e s by v i r t u e of the f a c t that t h e i r springs worked i n opposite d i r e c t i o n s . His theory seems to be t h a t the main d i f f e r e n c e was one of s i z e , f o r ancient machines were constructed of very large heavy timbers and were disassembled f o r t r a n s p o r t . As the s i z e of the machines increased, the s i z e of the component parts increased, sometimes to such an extent t h a t t r a n s p o r t would become impossible. I f t h i s happened the pieces would have to be modified i n order to make tr a n s p o r t p r a c t i c a b l e . Barker says t h a t i n an euthytone c a t a p u l t the two springs were contained i n a s i n g l e frame ( nXiv&Cov ) which c o n s i s t e d of: a beam top and bottom, each comprising i n i t s e l f bore-beams and bed or couplers, two side posts, one at each end. outside the s p r i n g s , and two mid-posts ( ueaoaTdtat ) between the s p r i n g s at a distance from each other a l l o w i n g f o r the breadth of the 6iu>aTpa or the auptyC. As such a machine increased i n s i z e t h i s frame would become unwieldy and i n order t o make i t more t r a n s p o r t  able a method was devised whereby i t could be separated i n t o s e v e r a l p a r t s and thus more e a s i l y moved. T h i s , EY9YT0N0N and DAAINTONON C a t a p u l t s a c c o r d i n g to E 0 P 0 B a r k e r A. 1 e . $ li I \ | / \ a - spring b = top and bottom-beams c = side-posts d= ueaoaTctTaL e= StojoTpaot* auptyC h c 1 a = spring b = uep LTprjTa c = Tiapaaxdxr)^ d •= avxioxdxr)<; e = x/ULaaxic; f = xavoveg g = TpdrceCa 67. Barker says, i s the palintone catapult i n which: each spring has i t s own frame ( nutxovov ), separately,built, consisting of two bore- beams (TcepLTprjTa ) top and bottom, a side post ( uapaaTctTT) ? ) forming the outer side of the frame whe^the gun i s assembled and a counter-post ( avxiaxaxr)<z ) forming the inner sideband facing, as i t s name implies, the avxioxdxr\q of the complementary spring frame on the other side of the xXuuaxig The two frames are then placed and fixed upon a bed (TpdrceCa ) and secured at the top by two wooden coupling-bars ( xavoves ). For transport the whole structure was usually taken to pieces except the actual spring- frames ( TlULTOVta ) . The more usual view (Lafaye i n DA js.v. "Tormentum" and De Rochas, p. 7^ 3 note 1) i s that i n the palintone catapult the arms were directed away from the shooter while i n the euthytone catapult the arms were directed toward the shooter. This i s most e a s i l y understood by comparing the compound Tartar bow with the ordinary self-bow where an analagous s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s . This explanation f i t s i n well with what should be the meanings of naXuvcovog and e u ^ u x o v o g L S J s.v. TcaXtvTovos says »bent backward, i.e_. the opposite way to that i n which they were drawn, TO£CI, i n Horn. of the bow whether strung or unstrung', raxXivcova xa m i l i t a r y engines f o r throwing stones but not pointed missiles= Xi^oSoXa.' Therefore euduTovog should mean fbent correctly* which LSJ does not give. Instead s.v. euduTOvos i t says *opp. naXivxovoq , term applied to the l i g h t e r torsion engines.* 68 tr The Composite Bow Strung and Unstrung (a) as Compared with the Self-bow Strung and Unstrung (b). a) Lorimer, Homer and the Monuments, f i g . 37 p. 304. ^, 6 9 . Kochly and Rustow*s view (based on no evidence at a l l ) seems almost too ri d i c u l o u s to consider. Barker has taken the passage from Heron and has made good sense of i t but the meanings f o r TCCXXCVTOVOC; and eu$UTOvoc; derived by him seem to be somewhat suspect. The view of Lafaye et a l . seems to have made good sense from the words TtaKivTOvoc; and e&&uTovoc;, but does not accord well with the passage from Heron. As Heron i s the only ancient author who explains anything about the difference between the two types of catapults i t seems best to accept Barker's views, which are based upon Heron-, but t h i s cannot be done without reservation. 8 . 9 ' AnoWwvLOc;. See my chapter on dating. 8 . 1 3 "Os must c e r t a i n l y refer back to Agesistratos. 9 . 4 Kpibv uev £ 9 a a H e v e6pe$rjvai upuktcrrov vno KapxTjbovtajv ev xfi Ttepl rdbetpa-TtoX-LopxLg. This statement i s quite untrue. The appearance of the battering-ram and the "ram-bearing t o r t o i s e " i n ancient Egyptian paintings and i n Assyrian b a s - r e l i e f s (see A.H. Layard, Nineveh and i t s Remains, v o l . 2 , pp. 3 6 6 - 3 7 3 (London, 1 8 4 9 ) ; C. De l a Berge i n DA 1 , 4 2 2 - 4 2 3 s.v. "Aries"; and J.G. Wilkinson, Manners and Customs of the Ancient  Egyptians, pp. 3 5 9 - 3 6 4 (London, 1 8 3 7 ) ) shows that the invention of t h i s machine took place f a r e a r l i e r than 70. Athenaios or V i t r u v i u s , who f o r the most part agrees w i t h Athenaios, had b e l i e v e d . P l i n y (N.H. 7.57) t e l l s us that the b a t t e r i n g - r a m was invented by Epeus d u r i n g the s i e g e of Troy, but t h e r e i s a b s o l u t e l y n o t h i n g i n Homer to support t h i s . Others (App. B e l l . M i t h r . 73; S e r v i u s , Ad Aen. 9.505) have a s c r i b e d the i n v e n t i o n to Artemanes of Clazomenae ( f l . 440 B.C.). I t i s a b s o l u t e l y u s e l e s s to speculate on the i n v e n t i o n of the b a t t e r i n g - r a m f o r i t i s such a simple machine t h a t i t s h i s t o r y must extend f a r back i n t o a n t i q u i t y . As the Renaissance s c h o l a r Justus L i p s i u s so a p t l y remarked: quid opus v e l a Poenis p e t e r e , quod i p s a ubique r a t i o et paene n a t u r a commonstrat? ( P o l i o r k e t i k o n Bk. 3 d i a l . l ) . I t i s , however, obvious t h a t t h i s machine had reached a high degree of s o p h i s t i c a t i o n a t a p e r i o d e a r l i e r than t h a t to which Athenaios a s c r i b e s i t s i n v e n t i o n . 9.4 rd6etpa. T r a d i t i o n a l l y founded somewhere around 1100 B.C. The date of the siege by the C a r t h a g i n i a n s i s unknown. K. Orinsky (RE 19.1, 560 .s.v. "Pephrasmenos") dates i t to the t h i r d century B.C. A. S c h u l t e n (€AH 7 chap. 24) says, F u r t h e r evidence o f the d e s t r u c t i o n of T a r t e s s u s can be found . . . i n the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n by Athenaeus ( V i t r u v i u s 10.13) o f the t a k i n g o f a f o r t near Gades and then of Gades i t s e l f . By Gades must be meant Ta r t e s s u s (a c o n f u s i o n which i s not uncommon), f o r the h i s t o r i c a l Gades was a Phoenician town which must have been a more or l e s s w i l l i n g a l l y of Carthage. The mention of the f o r t , t o o , 71. suggests Tartessus, f o r th a t c i t y could only be besieged a f t e r the capture of the strong hold of Geron which commands the mouth of the Guadalquivir. The d e s t r u c t i o n of Tartessus and Maenace was complete: even t h e i r names were b l o t t e d out, f o r i n l a t e r times Gades was g e n e r a l l y s u b s t i t u t e d f o r Tartessus and Malaca f o r Maenace, a f a c t that a l s o suggests th a t Gades succeeded to the trade of Tartessus, Malaca to t h a t of Maenace. Schulten places t h i s d e s t r u c t i o n i n the c l o s i n g years of the s i x t h century B.C. 9.10 I Ie9paaLtevo5. According to both Athenaios and V i t r u v i u s , he was the f i r s t t o improve the b a t t e r i n g - ram by suspending i t from an u p r i g h t pole and swinging i t back and f o r t h . See V i t r u v . 10.13.2 and Orinsky l o c . c i t . 9 .15 rrjpaq . . . 6 Kapxnoovto?. Apart from what Athenaios and V i t r u v i u s (10.13.2) t e l l us, nothing seems to be known about t h i s man. 10.2 Schneider wants to read as f o l l o w s : d\\'vtib n\r)$ov<z cxy6pu)v Tcpoto&ouuevov enotnae. Tr)paq 6e o Ttptoxiog EUptov to UTCOTPOXOV OHETcaaua o 6cd,Tr)v [JpaduTnTa XEXtovnv TcpOCTT)YopeUCFEv. He has ob v i o u s l y done t h i s to provide an object f o r sOpcov and an antecedent f o r the o t h a t appears i n the MSS. His v e r s i o n c e r t a i n l y seems p r e f e r a b l e to Wesche^s, which has tmoTpoxov . . . axEStav and UTCOTPOXOV crxETtaaua i n the same sentence. However, h i s emendation i s not s t r i c t l y necessary as i t i s p e r f e c t l y evident what the object 7 2 . o f euptov i s even though i t i s not expressed.* A l l the MSS. read eupojv 6 . In Schneider's emendation the o remains, but produces a sentence without a main verb. At any r a t e the meaning i s obvious. A passage i n Josephus ( B e l l . Jud. 3 . 2 1 6 ) i s a c l o s e p a r a l l e l to t h i s : <xv<t)$ouu,evoct 6e uitb TC\TJ&OUC; avbpojv Etc; xb XOCTOTUV, TOJV auxojv oc^ poojc; TtdXiv etc; TOUU- Ttpoa^Ev e TCL {3 pt adv TOJV xunxet TOC xetx*) T<*> •i npoavexovTi at6r]poj. 1 0 . 3 A c c o r d i n g t o Athenaios Geras c a l l e d t h i s machine a " t o r t o i s e " on account of i t s slowness o f movement, but a c c o r d i n g to V e g e t i u s ( 4 . 1 4 ) i t i s c a l l e d a " t o r t o i s e " because the ram protrudes and i s withdrawn i n a manner s i m i l a r to the head of a r e a l t o r t o i s e . 1 0 . 5 Atovuatou TOU E I H EXIWTOU xupavvtba. He l i v e d 4 3 2 - 3 6 7 B.C. and was the son-in-law o f Hermocrates. A f t e r an a b o r t i v e attempt by the Syracusans to r e l i e v e Agrigentum from the C a r t h a g i n i a n s ( 4 0 6 B.C.), w i t h the support of P h i l i s t e u s he was e l e c t e d g e n e r a l . L a t e r he accused h i s c o l l e a g u e s of c o m p l i c i t y with the enemy and managed to get h i m s e l f appointed aTpaTTyyoc; auxoxpaTujp. A f t e r t h i s , by d e c e i t f u l means, he obtained a body guard. He then strengthened the army and e s t a b l i s h e d a tyranny. To c o n s o l i d a t e h i s p o s i t i o n he f o r t i f i e d O r t y g i a and embarked upon a p o l i c y of m i l i t a r y expansion, i n the e x e c u t i o n of 73. which (399 B.C.) he app a r e n t l y made e x t e n s i v e use of war machines. Diodorus S i c u l u s , who i s the c h i e f source f o r the l i f e of D i o n y s i o s , mentions these machines s e v e r a l times: Kal yap t o xaxaneXxixbv eupe$r) xaxa xoGxov xbv xaipbv ev Eupaxouaatgi (Diod. 14.42.1) 6w6rtep dvuneppXrjTov cpiXoxiutav ei.acpepovxes 6i xexvixai noXXa TcpoaertevooGvxo peXrj xal urjxavriuaxa leva xal buvdueva TcapexeaS-ai. \xeya\aq x P E ^ a S « (14.42.2) xaxeaxeuda-&r)aav 6e xal xaxaTteXxai Tcavxotot xal xcov d\\cov peXcov TCOXU? XI? apt^uog. (Diod. 14.43.3) Aiovuauo£ 6e xfi TtoXuxetpCa xcov epyaCouevcov^auvxeXe- aag xb^x^ua, TtpoaTjYaYe navxouas urjxavds XOL£ xeix^ai, xal xoCg uev xptoug exurcxe xoug TtupYOug, xotg 6e xaxaueXxatg aveaxeWe TOUS ercl xcov^eud\£eu)V uaxo- uevou? TcpoarjYaYe 6e xal xoug UTCO XCOV xpox^v TCUPYOUC. xou? xetxeotv, e^copocpoug ovxag .oug xaxaaxeuaae Tcpbg xb xcov otxucov vtyoq. (Diod. 14.51.1) Apart from h i s m i l i t a r y achievements D i o n y s i o s a l s o wrote poetry, and i n 367 B.C. he took f i r s t p r i z e i n the Lenaea a t Athens f o r a pl a y e n t i t l e d The Ransom  of Hector ("Exxopog Xuxpa ). F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see Diodorus S i c u l u s , Bks. 13-15 and D i e t r i c h i n RE 5 .1 , 882-904 s.v. " D i o n y s i o s ( 1 ) " . 10.7 xaxd xe xt)v <£a\i*TCTcou xoG 'Auuvxou paaiXetav. T h i s r e f e r s to P h i l i p II of Macedon who r u l e d from 359- 336 B.C. He was most noted f o r h i s m i l i t a r y e x p l o i t s but a l s o made some important changes i n the govern ment and i n 356 B.C. he in t r o d u c e d a new coinage. In 341/0 B.C. he besieged P e r i n t h o s and i n the f o l l o w i n g year Byzantium. Both these s i e g e s were u n s u c c e s s f u l but the f o l l o w i n g passage from Diodorus S i c u l u s shows to what an extent he had developed 74. siege warfare. auaxnaduevoc; be TtoXiopxtav^xal unxavac; Ttpoaavwv xfi -rcoXet xa^'rinepav ex bLaboxrk itpoaepaXXev xotc; xeix- ECTLV * oybonxovxaTtfiXELc; 6e Ttupvouc; xaxaaxeuaaac;, UTtepaigovxac; rcoXu xwv xaxa xrjv Ilepiv^ov uupywv, e£ OTtepoxT)?; xaxeuoyei xouc; TtoXLOpxouLievouc; buouwc; 6e xat 6 tot xwv xptwv aaXeuwv xa XEIXT) xal^dta" XTJC; u,ex- aXXetac; urcopuxxwv ercl TtoXu tiepoc; xb xeixoc; xaxefiaXev . . .^xptauupiouc; b^e^wv^o-xpaxtwxac; xat 0eXwv xat tirixavuov TtoXtopxnxtxwv TtXr)$oc,, ext be xac; aXXac; p,r)xavac; avuTteppXtixouc; xaxeuovet xouc; TtoXtopxouuevouc,. (Diod. 16.74.2) In 336 B.C. P h i l i p was a s s a s s i n a t e d and h i s son Alexander came to the throne. Alexander, h i m s e l f made use of siege t e chniques. In 332/1 B.C. he a t t a c k e d the c i t y of Tyre, which was extremely w e l l defended: e^ovxec; be TCOXXTJV ba^tXetav xaxaueXxwv xat xu>v aXXwv unxavwv xwv Ttpbc; TtoXtopxtav XP*)- atuwv exepac; TtoXXaTtXaaiouc; xaxeaxeuaaav pgjbtwc; bta xwv ey xfi Tupw urjxavaTtotwv xal xwv aXXwv xexvtxwv TtavxobaTtwv ovxwv. bta^ 6e xouxwv opydvwv T tavxobaTtwv xal £EVWV xatc; eTttvOLaLc; xaxaaxeuaCouevwv aTtac; uev^b T t e p t - PoXoc; xf)c; TtoXewc; eTtXnpw^r) xwv urixavwv. (Diod. 17.41.3-4) Alexander b u i l t a huge mole i n the sea to serve as an . approach f o r h i s machines. When t h i s was completed he brought up h i s machines and put them i n t o a c t i o n , but the T y r i a n s took most e f f e c t i v e countermeasures. In the end Tyre f e l l to siege, but the r e s i s t a n c e she put up was so g r e a t that at one time Alexander was on the p o i n t o f g i v i n g up the siege and s a i l i n g t o Egypt. For f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see Diodorus S i c u l u s , Bks. 16 and 17; A.W. Pickard-Cambridge, i n CAH 6, chaps. g and 9; 75. F r i t z Geyer i n RE 19.2, 2266-2303 s.v. "Philippos (7)" ; K.J. Beloch, Griechische Geschichte 3.2, pp. 49-80. 10.9 no\uei6os 6 QexxaXog. He i s mentioned i n a papyrus fragment'*(Pap. Berol. P. 13044) which i s dated by W. Schubart to the end of the second or beginning of the f i r s t century B.C. It has been transcribed as follows: Mrixavixoi/ 'Enaxpdxris <HpaxXet6-/xos (xn?) 6 xd [e]v 'Pooiot op-/yava noXeutxa not-/ rjoag IIo\ut6os o xt)v/ eXonoXtv ev BuCavxtiot xal xrjv ev 'Pobua xex[pd]xuxXov/ 12 Atdbns 6 uex' ' AXe^dv-/6po[ u] xo[u] gaatXetog/ Tup[o]v xal xaq XotTtdc;/ noXtg noXtopxtov// He i s also mentioned by Philon (Mech.) (Synt. Mech. 5.83.8-9) who credits him with the invention of a saw-like f o r t i f i c a t i o n . V i t ruvius mentions him twice (7 .praef.14; 10 .13.3). 10.10 Atd6ns xalXaptag. Diades i s mentioned i n the papyrus (cf. 10.9) fragment, but Charias i s not. Athenaios and Vitruvius (7 .praef.14; 10.13.3) both mention them, as does Anonymous of Byzantium (238.12). Diades would seem to be the more important, as both Athenaios and Vi t r u v i u s discuss his writings at some length, whereas a l l they t e l l us about Charias i s that he was a pupil of Polyeidos and accompanied Alexander. 10.12 For moveable towers see 11.4 and f o r the "trypanon" see 14 .4 . The "crow", which was apparently some kind of a grappling hook and the scaling-ladder are so 76 simple that they are not worthy of comment. 11.2 The ill u s t r a t i o n in the text (cf. 39.9 Wescher's f i g . I) under the heading xptou xaxaoxeuT) i s certainly not of a "ram" but rather of a "trypanon" (cf. 14.4). Sackur (p.102) reckons that this i s the oldest of the i l l u s  trations, because i t differs so drastically from a l l the others in that i t is far clearer and much more informative. 11.4 This section presents some very great problems. * t deals with two different sizes of towers (one 60 cubits high, the other 120 cubits high), but says that the division of floors follows the same pattern in both, namely that the f i r s t story should have a height of 7.5 cubits, the next five stories a height of 5 cubits, and the remainder a height of 4.3 cubits. It further states that the 60 cubit tower had 10 stories and the 120 cubit one 20 stories. If we work out the heights of these towers in accordance with the above stated scheme we find that the answers we arrive at dif f e r drastically from the heights of 120 cubits and 60 cubits which appear in the text. 60 Cubit Tower 120 Cubit Tower 1x7.5 cubits =7.5 cubits 1x7.5 cubits =7.5 cubits 5x5.0 -25.0 5x5.0 =-25.0 4x4.3 =17.2 14x4.3 = 60.2 49.7 92.7 77. Something is obviously wrong, but just what i t i s is unclear. Sackur (pp. 103-112) has presented two solutions,to the problem, neither of which is completely satisfactory. He suggests that where our texts read 23 1/2 cubits and 17 cubits we should emend them to read 22 l/2 cubits and 15 cubits. Then we have a basic unity of 7*5 cubits (the figure given by Athenaios for the height of the f i r s t story). For the larger tower we then have the following scheme: width 3x7.5 cubits=22.5 cubits height 16x7.5 cubits=120 cubits basic unit -=.7.5 cubits tapering 3x7".5 1 - 2.25 cubits = 54 fingers 5 2 tapering of 19 floors above base = j>4_ -2.84 fingers 19 total height of 19 stories i f the height=width 19x7.5 cubits - 2.84 (l*-2 + 3 . . . 19) fingers = 142.5 cubits - 2.84 x 190 fingers =.142.5 cubits - 22.48 cubits -120 cubits Similarly for the small tower we get a height of 60 cubits. The method, while i t produces the correct solution, bears no relation to the data given in the text. Furthermore i t requires an emendation of the text. His second method follows the text more closely. It i s as follows: 5x7.5 cubits ^ 37.5 cubits 5x5.0 =25.0 78. 9 x 4.3 =38.7 total 101.2 cubits However, on the authority of Anon, of Byzantium (244.3-11) TO TE auurcaxov TOU xaTaoTptouaTOs TCOV OTEYIOV x a l TO xctTco&ev TOU eaxaptou auv T<+> avco^ev aeTcoucxTi Tcp u^et auvr)pi$uouv. he assumes a thickness of one cubit for each floor and arrives at the following: 5 x 8 . 5 cubits =42.5 cubits 5 x 6.0 =30.0 9 x 5.3 =-47.7 total 120.2 cubits In the f i r s t place, the Greek cannot be construed to mean that the f i r s t five stories rather than the f i r s t story alone had a height of 7.5 cubits, and in the second place i f we apply this method to the smaller tower we get the following result: 5 x 8 . 5 cubits =42.5 cubits 4 x 6.0 =24.0 total =66.5 cubits which gives us an error of over 10%, far too large to be allowed. Sackur may be on the right track when he suggests the basic module,as there i s a considerable amount of evidence (e.g. Vitruvius 10.10) that things were constructed according to such modules, but i f he is right, something is obviously wrong with the text. 11.7 On the b a s i s of V i t r u v i u s (10.13.4) which reads semi- p e d a l i a , Schneider wants to change euxabdnxuXa to OHxabdHxu\.a. There are s e v e r a l o t h e r p l a c e s i n the t e x t (17.8 and 24.5) where he makes s i m i l a r a l t e r a t i o n s because o f the r e a d i n g i n V i t r u v i u s . I do not r e a l l y see t h a t the change i s necessary, s i n c e there i s no reason why Athenaios and V i t r u v i u s should agree on e v e r y t h i n g and the d i f f e r e n c e between the two measure- ments here {1.0*5 cm.) i s so s m a l l . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t i n a t l e a s t one p l a c e ( V i t r u v i u s 10.15.6) e d i t o r s have emended V i t r u v i u s on the b a s i s of Athenaios ( c f . 24.5). 12.11 auxdc;. Wescher has s u p p l i e d t h i s by c o n j e c t u r e from M which reads auxaic;. The other MSS. read auxouc; which c e r t a i n l y must be c o r r e c t as i t r e f e r s t o the towers and uupyoc; i s a masculine noun. 13.4 eul o£uxaxov M; eul xb o£uxaxov o t h e r MSS. The r e a d i n g o f the o t h e r MSS. seems b e s t as i t g i v e s a p a r a l l e l c o n s t r u c t i o n to dub xou Haxaaxpojuaxoc;. 13.10 Eaxaxai , be. Wescher reads t h i s from F. The other MSS. read " l a x a b e . There seems to be l i t t l e to choose between the two as both mean 'he p l a c e d ' . As M's readings are g e n e r a l l y t o be p r e f e r r e d perhaps - " l a x a be should be read. T h i s would conform w i t h the other I o n i c forms that! occur throughout the t e x t . 80. 1 4 . 4 Diades* "trypanon" i s r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t from the one described by Apollodoros (Wescher 148.2). Apollodoros' "trypanon" was a r o t a r y machine which d r i l l e d holes i n the walls>while Diades' machine worked b a s i c a l l y i n the same manner as a battering-ram. The p r i n c i p i . 4 d i f f e r e n c e between t h i s machine and the battering-ram was t h a t i t rested on r o l l e r s supported d i r e c t l y upon the base, w h i l e the battering-ram was suspended from the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e . Wescher*s f i g . I ( c f . 3 9 . 9 ) shows very c l e a r l y how Diades* "trypanon" worked, or at l e a s t i t coincides e x a c t l y w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n given i n the t e x t . 14 .6 xou? eu^uxovois . . . -naxanaXxaK;. See comments on 8.7. 1 5 . 5 Schneider wants to read ou cpnai f o r Wescher* s ou cpnLU. This i s probably the b e t t e r reading. F i r s t l y , V i t r u v i u s (10.14.8) has Diades as the subject and secondly, Diades i s the subject of the r e s t of the paragraph and therefore i t makes f o r b e t t e r c o n t i n u i t y to have him as the s u b j e c t . 1 5 . 1 3 3a\iov 6 'AdnvaCos. Ch. Graux, " P h i l o n de Byzance," RPh 3 (1879) p.99, maintains that t h i s must s u r e l y be a mistake and that i t i s P h i l o n of Byzantium who i s a c t u a l l y r e f e r r e d t o . T h i s , i n f a c t , i s almost Si c e r t a i n , s i n c e i n the t e x t of P h i l o n of B y z a n t i u m (5.97.25) we r e a d : n a l xac; crxoac; o i x o 6 o u e i x a l xouc; en IXT)— de iouc; TOTIOUC; uiropuxxe, eav Lit) uTtouppoc; fi 6 TOTCOC; f] XEkajvac; xaxaaxeuaaduevoc; x^c;- xpt&ac;, xac; xdcppouc; x^vvue XT)V x^pav LIT) cp$eipwv. P h i l o n of B y z a n t i u m i s a f a i r l y w e l l known m e c h a n i c i a n who wrote a t t h e end of the t h i r d o r t h e b e g i n n i n g of t h e second c e n t u r y B.C. A p o r t i o n ( d e a l i n g w i t h war machines) of h i s work, Mechanicae S y n t a x i s . i s p r e s e r v e d . F o r f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n see O r i n s k y , Neugebauer, Drachmann i n RE 20.1, 53-54 s.v. " P h i l o n ( 4 8 ) " . 16.1 Graux, l o c . c i t . . r eads -rcpoc; xe xac; Y<-vouevac; rcpoa- aYwydc; xwv u,r)Xavr)udxwv xal xag Ttapexxdaetc; xwv axwoiwv x a l . . . S c h n e i d e r r e a d s Ttpog xe XTJV TtpoaaYwyTiv xwv uiT)X avT)udxwv x a l xac; nap exxdae LC; XWV a x w i 6 i w v x a l ... B o t h t h e s e r e a d i n g s , as w e l l as W e s c h e r 1 s , r e q u i r e only s l i g h t emendations of t h e t e x t and as t h e meaning of a l l t h r e e i s t h e same t h e r e i s l i t t l e t o choose between them. Wescher 1s oxa6iwv, however, cannot s t a n d as i t i s p r a c t i c a l l y m e a n i n g l e s s i n t h i s c o n t e x t . Graux*s axw6Cwv makes v e r y good sense and s h o u l d c e r t a i n l y be read here. The word axw'i6iov o r ax$6iov also appears elsewhere i n the t e x t ( A t h . Mech. 31.6). 16.9 TEo-adpwv. The MSS. r e a d A here and i t i s u n c l e a r whether t h i s goes w i t h au.a£tTto6ac; o r x^pa. Wescher r e a d s xeoadpwv p u t t i n g i t w i t h x^pa , 'each compartment 82. of the four i n the corners . . . * Schneider reads Teaaapag making i t agree with auaEuTco6as, »each compartment of the ones i n the corners holds four axle blocks*. Both these readings seem possible and i f one examines the diagram (cf, 3 9 . 9 Wescher*s f i g . II) i t w i l l be seen that both can be supported. For while the four corner compartments each contain the axle blocks, each one contains four, so the question must remain i n doubt. Personally I am i n c l i n e d to agree with Schneider since i t seems to me to be some what redundant to say *each compartment of the four i n the corners*. There are only four i n the corners and the same meaning i s conveyed by saying *each of the not _ , , corner compartments*. I f we db Atake A with aua£nto6cts we have no way of knowing (apart from the diagram) that there were four axle blocks i n each corner. Thus, although i t s position may be rather unorthodox the A should be taken with aua£iTco&a<;. Taken i n t h i s way i t contributes to our information; taken with X^pct i t i s redundant. 16.10 Schneider (p.60) says that the axle-blocks ( auaEoTcobes) have a semi-circular form and open upwards. Sackur (p.67) agrees on the semi-circular form but has them opening downwards. This seems a more l o g i c a l arrange ment. For i f the axle were placed i n semi-circles opening upward, the t o t a l weight of the machine would 6*3 tend t o l i f t the a x l e out of the a x l e - b l o c k s and some method that would r e q u i r e a r e l a t i v e l y s t r o n g s t r u c t u r e would have t o be found t o stop the a x l e from coming out of the a x l e - b l o c k . I f , on the oth e r hand, the a x l e - b l o c k s opened downwards as Sackur suggests the e n t i r e weight of the machine would tend to keep the ax l e i n the a x l e - b l o c k . Both Sackur and Schneider agree t h a t sideways motion of the axle i n the a x l e - b l o c k s was prevented by i r o n p l a t e s . With Sackurs arrangement i t would be an easy matter t o disengage the i r o n p l a t e s , t u r n the a x l e 9 0 ° and r e a t t a c h the i r o n p l a t e s . The machine co u l d then move a t r i g h t angles to i t s o r i g i n a l l i n e of t r a v e l . 'iii •;! -;:< i 'M 'a !V •'1 r-.J.) ~ L. . .-, *V...._ ^ 5 " - ~ .—_- ~ 1:1 a. Abb. 3 0 . The machine d e s c r i b e d by V i t r u v i u s (10.1A.1) seems to be a somewhat r e f i n e d model of t h a t d e s c r i b e d by Athenaios. His machine was capable of oblique move ment as well as of sie^ways and forwardand backward motion. Sackur has devised a simple method whereby t h i s might be accomplished and furthermore t h i s method i s i n accordance with that described by V i t r u v i u s . 85. 17.2 <J>uxpr)\d-touc; M; u^xpr)\dxo».c; F.; Wescher follows M but Schneider follows F. The adjective is clearly- supposed to agree with XenCoi which, according to LSJ js.v. " Xe-rtK # is a feminine noun. ¥uxpTi\axoc; iSi.v, in LSJ) i s an adjective of two terminations and therefore the dative feminine plural form would normally be ^uxpnXdxotc; and F's reading should be accepted. 17.2 Choisy (Vitruve, Paris, 1909, PI..31 and p.282) thinks that the beams described here served as a kind of outrigger to help balance the machine on rough terrain. Sackur (p.66) has projected his roof-timbers down to these projecting pieces presumably so that the machine w i l l present no f l a t , easily broken sides to the enemy but only angular ones which missiles, rams, etc. w i l l tend to glance off. While Sackur may be right, i t should be noted that, using the dimensions given in the text or even emending eitxaTCTjxGL?; to e£airr)xetc; (cf. 17.8), his restoration i s mathematically impossible. The roof beams w i l l not meet the side-extensions. 17.8 eTixaurixetc; Ms Schneider, following Rose, reads e£afrf)xetc; on the basis of Vitruvius (10.14.2) "Cardines pedum V i l l i . " Applying the conversion factors (ofj 8.7) nine feet i s found to be equal to six cubits. The difference between the two figures i s not very large and there i s no reason why one of these machines could not be built with p i l l a r s seven cubits higkand another with p i l l a r s six cubits high. 86. The MSS. are unanimous i n favour of seven cubits and there seems to be no v a l i d reason why t h i s should not be accepted (£f. 11.7 and 24 .5) . 18.4 OLiOLOje; xatg aTuXatc; nal adxxexai F. Schneider, following M reads xvXaiq. Why Wescher prefers the r i d i c u l o u s reading of F to the reading of M, which he generally prefers, i s a complete mystery. His text i s translated into English as 'stitched together l i k e p i l l a r s ' , a patently r i d i c u l o u s statement. Reading xuXcuc; instead of oxvXaiq we get the eminently more t sensible 'stitched together l i k e matresses' (cf. Diod. 17.45.4) . 20.1 TTIV be etiTcpoa^ev 6p$r)v £ X e t npoaayuyr)v. This means that the "mining-tortoise" has a plane surface at the front and i s i n d i r e c t contrast to what Vitruvius says (10.15.1); frontes vero earum f i u n t quemadmodum anguli trigoniorum, u t i a muro t e l a cum i n eas mittantur, non planis frontibus excipiant plagas sed ab l a t e r i b u s labentes, sine periculoque fodientes, qui intus sunt, i n - tuentur. Athenaios' machine then comes right up to the wall and f i t s t i g h t l y (dTtapTLon ) against i t . A front end such as V i t r u v i u s describes would be useless i n such a s i t u a t i o n , -however, i f for some reason i t was impos s i b l e f o r the machine to come right up to the walls h i s design would be i n f i n i t e l y better. 87 21.1 The d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n of the " t o r t o i s e of Hegetor" does not g i v e us a c l e a r p i c t u r e of the machine. Sackur (pp. 75-85) on the b a s i s of V i t r u v i u s and Athenaios has attempted a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h i s machine. His r e c o n s t r u c t i o n has a p p a r e n t l y been accepted by Granger, the e d i t o r of the Loeb, although he does not make the t e x t u a l emendations necessary to support t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . The r o o f , however, i s not i n accordance w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n g i v e n i n the t e x t . A s p l i t r o o f such as Sackur imagines would r e q u i r e two r i d g e - p o l e s and the t e x t mentions on l y one. I f we r e j e c t S a c k u r 1 s r o o f we are s t i l l l e f t w i t h the q u e s t i o n o f where the ram was s i t u a t e d . Was i t i n s i d e the " t o r t o i s e " as A.A. Howard (Morgan, V i t r u v i u s , 1926, f a c i n g p. 312) and Wescher*s f i g . IV ( c f . 39.9) suggest, or was i t above the r o o f as Choisy (PI. 84) and Wescher*s f i g . V (^f. 39.9) suggest? The q u e s t i o n seems i n s o l u b l e . Athenaios (21.2-3) t e l l s us that the ram c o u l d sweep sideways 70 c u b i t s . Sackur c l a i m s t h a t f o u r u p r i g h t s make sideways motion i m p o s s i b l e . S t r i c t l y speaking, t h i s i s not t r u e . Four u p r i g h t s do, to be sure, r e s t r i c t sideways motion but they do not prevent i t . In f a c t , w i t h the f o u r u p r i g h t s p l a c e d as i n the f o l l o w i n g diagram a sideways motion o f almost 80 c u b i t s i s p o s s i b l e . Sackur b e l i e v e s t h a t the f o u r p i e c e s c a l l e d u p r i g h t s are not a c t u a l l y u p r i g h t s at a l l but r a t h e r cross-members of the base. He bases 8 3 . 89 t h i s b e l i e f on the t e x t o f V i t r u v i u s (10.15.2): a r r e c t a r i a , quae supra compactionem erant quattuor c o n l o c a t a , ex b i n i s t i g n i s f u e r a n t compacta, i n a l t i t u d i n i b u s s i n g u l o pedum ;<XXXVI, c r a s s i t u d i n e palmopedali, l a t i t u d i n e s e s q u i p e d a l i , which he says i s o b v i o u s l y c o r r u p t s i n c e V i t r u v i u s does not use c o n l o c a t a f o r u p r i g h t posts but r a t h e r would have s a i d postes or a r r e c t a r i a e r i g u n t u r and secondly, he does not use i n a l t i t u d i n i b u s but the g e n i t i v e f o r l e n g t h s . On these grounds he emends the t e x t t o : t r a n s v e r s a r i a , quae supra compactionem erant quattuor c o n l o c a t a , ex b i n i s t i g n i s f u e r a n t compacta, s i n g u l a pedum XXXVI, c r a s s i t u d i n e palmopedali, l a t i t u d i n e s e s q u i p e d a l i . The d e s c r i p t i o n i s now o r d e r l y ; e v e r y t h i n g proceeds i n the proper s u c c e s s i o n — base, wheels, and super s t r u c t u r e , whereas b e f o r e we jumped from base t o super s t r u c t u r e and back a g a i n . Furthermore, we meet the same system f o r b u i l d i n g foundations elsewhere ( c f . " T o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " ) . These f o u r up r i g h t s having been disposed o f , two more remain ( c f . 22.12-23.3). We now have a machine such as Sackur and Granger draw. Such a machine i s no doubt p o s s i b l e but one w i t h f o u r u p r i g h t s i s by no means so i m p o s s i b l e as Sackur would have us b e l i e v e . The t r e a d m i l l s i n Sackur's r e s t o r a t i o n are, as he h i m s e l f admits, pure c o n j e c t u r e , but they are j u s t as ijood a way of o p e r a t i n g the ram as any other, so 90. we need not quarrel with him on that ground. The dimensions of t h i s machine are extremely large and i n one case, at l e a s t , almost completely impossible. According to our text, t h i s machine weighed four thousand talents (147,440 Kg.) and was operated by a t o t a l of 100 men. This means that each man would have had to push 40 talents (1,474.40 Kg.) which i s c l e a r l y impossible as anyone who has ever t r i e d to push an automobile (weight approx. 1,000 Kg.) can t e s t i f y . How much more d i f f i c u l t must i t have been to push a lumbering machine such as t h i s on woodon wooden wheels over rough t e r r a i n than to push an automobile with rubber t i r e s and well lubricated bearings along a smooth asphalt road? As f o r the ram i t s e l f , while the description i s somewhat confused, i t i s clear that i t was bound up with various ropes and chains to reinforce i t and prevent i t from shattering. The forward end was apparently equipped with ladders and a net so that i t could be used as a scaling-ladder as well as as a ram. The s i x movements are i l l u s t r a t e d very well by Sackur and the way i n which they were effected i s also shown c l e a r l y . The movements obviously refer to the ram i t s e l f rather than to the machine as a whole since i t apparently had fixed wheels and axles and could only be made to change d i r e c t i o n with great d i f f i c u l t y . 91. 22.1 ^uxpTjXctTats M; (buxpTiXaxois FPVC. See comment on 17.2. 23.8 'Enl 6e xou 7iepcxe<pd\ou. The MSS. read euLXE<pd\ou which, according to LSJ .s.v. » emx£<pa\ov, " means 'the head of a ba t t e r i n g - r a m T . This i s o b v i o u s l y wrong. F i r s t l y , the entxE9a\ov belongs to a xpi.o66xT)» 'the frame of a battering-ram', and i t i s c l e a r l y nonsense to say 'the head of a battering-ram of the frame of a battering-ram'. Secondly, i n Wescher's f i g . IV ( c f . 39«9) the euixeqpdXT) i s c l e a r l y not the head of the battering-ram. I t seems to r e f e r t o the winch s t r u c t u r e that i s l o c a t e d at the top of the two t a l l u p r i g h t s (23.1). I t should be noted, however, tha t nepuxe^ocXov which appears i n l i n e s 3 and 5 (with no apparent MS. d i f f i c u l t i e s ) does not appear on the diagram. Perhaps the two words nepiH£<pa\ov and enixecpaXov are interchangeable. 23.10 ecponxeuovxas MF; ETCOHXEUOVXOCS PV. M i l l e r (JS.1868, p. 247) says that the f i r s t form i s known only by a gloss while the second form, used by a l l w r i t e r s , i s I o n i c , as du'ou f o r dcp'ou and duTiaetv f o r dcprjaeiv. As Wescher hi m s e l f t h i n k s t h a t the t e x t was w r i t t e n i n I o n i c and i n many places has p r e f e r r e d the I o n i c forms i t i s a mystery why he has chosen to read £<poux£uovxas, 24.5 In place of x p t o i Schneider, f o l l o w i n g J.G. Schneider, reads XExpaa t. This reading i s based on V i t r u v i u s (10.15 .6) where funes I I I I . Anon, of Byz. (230 .6) reads xpuol axotvCoug. As I have stated p r e v i o u s l y 92 (11.7) t h e r e i s no reason why V i t r u v i u s and Athenaios should agree i n every d e t a i l and as there i s n o t h i n g i n the t r a d i t i o n of Athenaios t h a t f a v o u r s r e a d i n g a n y t h i n g o t h e r than x p i a i i t can stand. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t s e v e r a l e d i t o r s (Rose, Krohn, Morgan, and Granger) o f V i t r u v i u s , on the b a s i s of Athenaios, have emended t h a t t e x t to funes I I I . 25.4 TpiTnixoptojv• The meaning of t h i s word, here, i s somewhat obscure. Schneider makes what seems to be a v e r y good suggestion, namely, that i t r e f e r s to the t h i c k n e s s of the rope t h a t was used t o make the net. He compares t h i s w i t h the way i n which we use the terms " t w o-ply" and " t h r e e - p l y " f o r yarn. He imagines rope composed of t h r e e d i s t i n c t strands, something w i t h which we are a l l f a m i l i a r . 25.6 *EXEL 6e x a l TtapaSetyM-aTa MSS. T h i s i s a b s o l u t e l y meaningless as i t stands, but Thevenot has made some sense out of i t by emending uapaSe CyM-a™ to rcapa- nfjYuaTa. Not o n l y does the passage now make sense> but i t i s a l s o a c l o s e p a r a l l e l t o iin-nfty\xaxa 6uo TETpdyojva, xa^dtTcep aiayovLa, which i s found i n Anon. Byz. (259.19). 25.7 eTteibn xa TOC ic; xdauac; TtapaTcXriaua. T h i s i s a b s o l u t e l y incomprehensible. There i s a b s o l u t e l y no way of emending i t t o make sense and t h e r e f o r e the b e s t course i s to o b e l i z e i t . 93. 27.2 'Ettiudxc-u TOU 'A^nvatou. Nothing more than what Athenaios and Vitruvius (10.16.4) t e l l us i s known about Epimachos. 27.3 AnufjTpLog 6 'Pobious TcoXiopxiov. See 10.5 and my chapter on dating. 27.5 T t f j x e i s H MPV; Tercets OHTCU F. Wescher, notic i n g that Vitruvius reads l a t i t u d o pedum LX t suggests that the Greek should read M. De Rochas, following Graux, reads N instead of H. Plutarch's description (Demetr. 21.1) i s as follows: e x d c r T n v exouaa tou XCXTIO rcXatatov TcXeupctv OHTU) nal TeaaapdxovTa (MH) Ttrjxwv and Diodoros 1 (20.91.2) says TTJV uev nXeupdv exaaTTiv urceaTT)aaTO TCTIXWV axe6bv TtevTT)xovTa (N). It appears obvious that the MSS. of Athenaios must be i n error. The discrepancy between the eight cubits which they give and the 40 to 50 cubits which other sources give i s too large to be accounted f o r by i t s being a d i f f e r e n t example of the same machine. Clearly a figure somewhere between 40 (M) and 50 (N) must be read. 27.7 At . . . uTixavaC, ag T Lveg aauSuxac; TcpoaayopeuouaLv... - - Pblybios (8.4.3-11) gives a detailed account of the construction of a "sambyka" and the reason f o r i t s name. B a s i c a l l y t h i s seems to have been a tower mounted on a ship i n such a way that i t could l i e f u l l length on the deck, protruding at the bow and 94 thus not tend to t i p the ship over by making i t top heavy. When the ship was brought up to the walls of a c i t y the "sambyka" could be raised and by means of th i s men could pass from the ships onto the walls of the besieged c i t y . 27.11 ev xfi fiep! Xiov TioXtopHia. This siege i s mentioned by both Athenaios and Vitruvius but does not appear to be w e l l known. The only siege of Chios of which I could find mention was the one of 358 B.C., by Chares and Chabrias (Diod. 16.7.3). These men besieged the c i t y by both land and sea and were soundly defeated. There i s no mention of "sambykai" i n the account of th i s siege, 6 6e Xapptac; TtpooTtXeuaac; x^-Xiuevt xf)g VEUJC; xoCc; eiipoXoic; avappaYEiaric; xaxeTtoveuxo so there i s no way of knowing f o r certain whether or not t h i s i s the siege being referred to. 23 .7 KaWtaxpdxw. This seems to be the only time that t h i s man i s mentioned i n ancient l i t e r a t u r e . V i t r u v i u s (10.16.5) closely p a r a l l e l s the passage concerned with the effectiveness of models but makes no mention of K a l l i s t r a t o s . 29.4 Sackur (p. 91) thinks that these must have been step- ladders. His reason f o r thinking that step-ladders must have been used i n the theatre i s very sensible. 9 5 He says that by using a step-ladder an actor would be able to climb on stage without presenting his back to the audience and thus making himself a comic figure, e s p e c i a l l y when he was not supposed to be one. The e a r l i e s t occurrence of the word Ttpoo-nnviov, r e f e r r i n g to a part of a theatre would seem to be t h i r d century B.C. (IG 11(2) 153.14): T0IC;;THN [CKjHNHN EPrOAABHC A CI KAI TO ' HPOCKHNION HHHHA Permanent stone TcpocrHf)vi.a do not seem to have come into existence u n t i l H e l l e n i s t i c times (^a. the second century B.C.). 29.9 KTncaPuoc; 6e 6 'AdHpnvbc; o*£v ''A\-eclav6peta unxavuKos . Ktesibios was quite famous i n antiquity. Next to Archimedes he was, perhaps, the most famous engineer. He l i v e d i n Alexandria and was a barber by trade, but nonetheless was highly esteemed f o r his mechanical inventions. His main inte r e s t s were hydraulics and pneumatics and his most famous invention was probably the water-organ. He also made water-clocks, pumps, and i s even said to have made a rhyton that sounded a s h r i l l note when the spout was opened f o r the flowing wine. There i s some controversy about his date. Some want to date him to the t h i r d century B.C. i n the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphos (285-247 B.C.) and others to the second century B.C. in the reign of Ptolemy Euergetes ( 1 79- 116B.C) . See Ath. Deipn. 11.497d and 4.174b; Pliny, NH 7.125; 96. V i t r u v i u s 1.1.7, 9.8 .2, and 10.7.4; and P h i l o n (Mech.) Synt. Mech. 4.77.12. 31.6 This passage i s reminiscent of 8.1-14 where Athenaios says t h a t i t i s o f t e n b e t t e r t o yse the good i n v e n t i o n s of others and no t i n every case to be an innovator. Here he i s saying t h a t he d i d not t h i n k i t proper to co n t r a d i c t P y r r h o s 1 good work j u s t because everyone e l s e was doing so. These others, t h e n , are not using the good i n v e n t i o n s of the past. 31.7 n u p p o u . See 5.13. 32.5 ev xoic . Tei'xeaiv. The ev i s excised by E. M i l l e r ( P o l i o r c e t i q u e des Grecs, JS, 1868, p. 248) who argues that the stock phrase Tcpoactyeiv unxavocs, unxavnua-ra, epya x . x . \ . i s always f o l l o w e d by the d a t i v e without a p r e p o s i t i o n . He c i t e s the f o l l o w i n g examples: unxavdg TcpoarJYOv xfi uoXei. (Thuc. 2.76) unxavfjg ueAAoucrris npoact£ea$ou auxoCs. (Thuc. 4.115) (1>S QCTtb 6uo oviov TcpoadyoiTO TOIS TIOV evavttiov Tetxeca. (Ath. Deipn. 14.634a) 34.1 rcpoTpoxov. The d e s c r i p t i o n that f o l l o w s i s obviously f o r some k i n d of a s t e e r i n g mechanism. Wescher*s f i g . X and f i g . XI ( c f . 39.9) are r e l a t i v e l y c l e a r and a device such as they d e p i c t could c e r t a i n l y be u s e d to steer a machine. However, as Sackur (pp. 92-94) p o i n t s out, the ropes mentioned (34.6) can hardly have been 97. 16 fingers (0.30m) thick. The EXHOC I6EX<X6(XHTU\OV then, must ref e r to the length rather than the thick ness of the ropes. Clearly the ropes i n Wescher*s figures are much more than 16 fingers long. Sackur proposes another method as i l l u s t r a t e d , a •=, ^ epLUXcnrpLc; b r: uaaxdXn c « r 66T)Y6C; d =• turning platform e =16 finger rope Abb. 48. His method does not exactly f i t the description i n the text either. He has solved the problem of the Exxai6exa6dxi;u\.ov rope, but has created a new one. c What i s the function of the obnvoc; and the naaxaXri ? In Wescher* s figures the obnyoc; as i t s name implies serves as a rudder; i n Sackur*s reconstruction i t seems to serve no purpose at a l l . I cannot see that h i s system would be e s s e n t i a l l y changed i f i t were constructed as follows: 98. In t h i s case many of the pieces mentioned i n the t e x t are m i s s i n g (only the $epuacrxpis and the rope being present), but the system i s not r e a l l y changed at a l l . Both the system i n Wescher*s diagrams and the system proposed by Sackur are p o s s i b l e but n e i t h e r of them agrees completely w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n i n the t e x t . The system shown i n Wescher*s diagrams, however, conforms b e t t e r w i t h my understanding of the t e x t . 34.5 <l>uxpn\dTtxK. See 17.2. 34,7 6iwaxou Wescher from 6 i e a x a i MV2 and biwaxe PVF. Schneider, a f t e r Schwartz, reads d i e W x a i . Both 6tcoaxai and 6(.eWxai are w e l l a t t e s t e d forms, so there i s l i t t l e to choose between them. 36.1 (^uxpttXctTcus. See 17.2. 36.4 ^ v a £ c r c ! . This i s d i f f i c u l t i f not impossible t o make any sense of. Therefore, f o l l o w i n g Schneider, I have o b e l i z e d i t . 36.6 x\iuax66eai,<; F; x\uuaxo6eaeLS PV; x\r)uaxo6eaets M. According to LSJ x\r)uax66eaus means 'wicker hurdle or mat*, xXtuaxodeatg i s obviously connected w i t h x\Cua£ •ladder*. Considering the context, e i t h e r of these i s p o s s i b l e . The purpose of the x\nuax66eaK/x\iuax66eais i s to provide f o o t i n g f o r the men who are going t o walk up the sla n t e d beam. As wicker mats and ladders 99. could both serve t h i s purpose q u i t e e f f e c t i v e l y e i t h e r r e a d i n g seems e q u a l l y p o s s i b l e . Schneider does not agree w i t h t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . He t h i n k s t h a t i t was used as a br i d g e from the beam t o the w a l l . A la d d e r c o u l d c e r t a i n l y be used f o r t h i s purpose but a wicker mat does not seem p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t e d to i t and as Schneider p r e f e r s the rea d i n g HXnLiaTodeotc; ^ ± s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n seems somewhat suspect. 36.7 Schneider's r e a d i n g , TCEPLUTUHTT) seems d e f i n i t e l y s u p e r i o r t o Wescher*s, T c e p i n n H T T i . nepLTcnxT r j comes from uepiTcinvuu.1 which, a c c o r d i n g t o LSJ . means * f i x round, fence round; make congeal round*. TteptTixuHTf] on the othe r hand means * f o l d i n g * . The a d j e c t i v e , whatever i t may be, agrees w i t h e^atpUTtc; *ladder'. I l epLTiTUXTT) makes much more sense w i t h e^otipiTtc; than does Ttepu-rcnxxii. I f one c o n s i d e r s the diagram (Wescher*s f i g . X I I , _cf. 39.9) one can see how t h i s l a d d e r appears t o be fa s t e n e d on i n such a manner t h a t i t can be r a i s e d or lowered, a s i t u a t i o n to which TteptTtxuxTf) a p p l i e s e x a c t l y . 36.9 eSavoLX&f) PV; e£avo«.ar$Tl M; e£avua£f) F. M*s rea d i n g i s u n a t t e s t e d . The readings of PV and F are both l e g i t i m a t e forms and both make sense i n context, e^avoox^fl i s from eZavoCyui which, a c c o r d i n g t o LSJ means *to l a y open* o r i n the pas s i v e *to be exposed*. 100. e^avuco, on the other hand, can mean 'to make e f f e c t u a l ' . Thus whichever reading i s accepted, the end r e s u l t i s the same. I f the ladder ' i s made e f f e c t u a l ' i t i s l e t down so that i t can be used, and l i k e w i s e i f the ladder ' i s exposed' i t i s l e t down so tha t i t can be e a s i l y seen. Therefore, r e g a r d l e s s of which reading i s accepted, the meaning of the phrase i s simply •the ladder was l e t down'. Presumably while the machine was being pushed up to the w a l l s the ladder was i n a r e t r a c t e d p o s i t i o n , b u t onee the machine had reached the w a l l the ladder was l e t down by ropes so t h a t i t could be used,(cf. 39.9 Wescher's f i g . X I I ) . 37.5 ox^oucav. The subject of t h i s verb i s presumably the defenders of the besieged c i t y . 38.3 xpuBoXoi.. These were used by the a t t a c k e r s as a means of defence against rocks r o l l e d down on them by the besieged. They were s i m i l a r to the tank t r a p s w i t h which we are f a m i l i a r . They consisted of three pieces of wood set i n t o the ground and j o i n e d together at the top to make a pyramid-type s t r u c t u r e . The idea was to set up rows of these around the machines so t h a t they would stop any rocks r o l l e d down by the enemy and thus keep the machines safe. Apollodoros (140.3) gives a d e t a i l e d account of them. 101. 38.10 TT)V dpexriv xe^wvriv. Both Schneider and Sackur (p.95) think that apexrj i s probably a Greek version of the Latin aries. This, however, is as far as the agreement between them goes. Schneider thinks of the apexr) xe\wvr) as a "tortoise" similar to the "ram-bearing tortoise" while Sackur takes the xs^vn l i t e r a l l y and visualizes a beam with a cross section like that to prop the ladders up against the wall. If this i s so i t seems that there should have been something in the text to c l a r i f y the situation as nowhere else in the whole work does x£^vn refer to an actual tortoise. Schneider thinks that the sections dealing with the "arete tortoise" and the xpCpoXot are later additions because no diagrams of them appear in the MSS. and Athenaios (39.9) says that he w i l l i l l u s t r a t e a l l the machines. There are, however, other machines which are described and not illustrated (e.£. moveable towers (11-12) and the "ram-bearing tortoise" (10)). Furthermore the fact that Athenaios says he w i l l illustrate everything does not mean that he did so. He himself gives us the example of Diades who promised to discuss certain things and did not do so. Perhaps Athenaios thought that these things were familiar of a tortoise. enough to everybody t h a t i l l u s t r a t i o n s were not r e q u i r e d . 102 a - w a l l b = l a d d e r c = " a r e t e t o r t o i s e " 103 39.9 The diagrams i n the MSS. o f Athenaios are, i n g e n e r a l , v e r y bad and shed l i t t l e l i g h t upon the a c t u a l cons t r u c t i o n o f the machines. An exce p t i o n t o t h i s i s Wescher 1s f i g . I, which Sackur regards as be i n g much o l d e r and having a much b e t t e r t r a d i t i o n ( c f . 11.2). I t i s c e r t a i n l y much b e t t e r than any of the others and he may w e l l be r i g h t on t h i s p o i n t , ^e t h i n k s t h a t a l l the o t h e r diagrams are By z a n t i n e . The diagrams i n Wescher 1s t e x t are, f o r the most p a r t , taken from MS. M but there are s e v e r a l exceptions. A d e s c r i p t i o n of Wescher's f i g u r e s f o l l o w s : F i g . I From MS. F ( f o i . 28 v e r s o ) . I t seems to go w i t h the t i t l e Kpiou KaxaaKevi]. F i g I I From MS. M ( f o i . 21 r e c t o ) . I t shows the s t r u c t u r e of the base of the " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " and the "mining t o r t i o s e " . The f o l l o w i n g are l a b e l l e d : YTcepoxn TtTJxetS H YnepoxT) ^ T J x e i S A 'Aua^inouq neptTCTyvua AtctTCTiYua F i g . I l l From MS. M ( f o i . 21 v e r s o ) . Shows the s u p e r s t r u c t u r e of the " t o r t o i s e f o r f i l l i n g i n d i t c h e s " and "mining t o r t o i s e " . I t i s preceded by the f o l l o w i n g : Etg TOCS xeoaapag nkevpaq xr\<; x e ^ v r K voet TO OTtoxeiLievov ax^ua TCOV XLOVCOV. 104. Fig. IV From MS. M ( f o i . 23 recto). The "tortoise of Hegetor". The following are labelled: n u p y t o v r r r o t doapooaov 'ErciKecpaXfi n x d y t o v CuXov t ieaov TOJV OHEXOJV 'EUUOT'&XLOV KecpaXbv KptodoxT) XeXwvTj Fig. V From MS. P (f o i . 58 verso and 59 recto). Also the "tortoise of Hegetor'.'* Fig. VI From MS. M (foi . 24 recto). The machine of Ktesibios. Fig. VII From MS. P ( f o i . 60 recto). Supposedly the machine of Ktesibios but the drawing bears no resemblance whatever to the description contained in the text. Fig. VIII From MS. P (f o i . 61 recto). Has the t i t l e 'EVTOCU^ OC TO TCXOLOV. Fig. IX From MS. F (f o i . 9 recto). B Fig. X From MS. P ( f o i . 61 verso). Illustrates the fore-wheel described by Athenaios. The following are labelled: b6T)v6c; TpCXTCT)^ Fig. XI From MS. F ( f o i . 9 verso). Also the fore-wheel of Athenaios. This i s unlabelled. 105 F i g . XII From MS. M ( f o i . 25 v e r s o ) . "The Chamber". I t i s e n t i t l e d 'EvxaGaa TO Kapxnatov and the f o l l o w i n g are l a b e l l e d : napxTiatov 'ECeptTtg (e£aipLTLs) "A£iuv Tepavos. 106. "T/*L. ^T"i '•-'SiisK-i— 1 5 ! Ki : % I. VTT 6 f O X l l IT H f> Kin- »• 107. ClC TUC Td-CCKf.\C TrXCV?KC TIlC XCMUHI lC 108. 109 110. • l ' " f t v ' i\. XII. BIBLIOGRAPHY Ancient Authorities Anonymous of Byzantium, in Wescher*s Poliorcetique des Grecs (Paris, 1867) PP.135-193. Apollodoros, in Wescher*s Poliorcetique des Grecs (Paris, 1867) pp. 137-193. Appian, Historia Romana. ed. P. Viereck and A.G. Roos (Leipzig, 1962). Arrian, Alexandri Anabasis, ed. A.G. Roos (Leipzig, 1967). Athenaios, Dipnosophistae. 3 vols. ed. G. Kaibel (Leipzig, 1887-1890 and Stuttgart, 1965). 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