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UBC Theses and Dissertations

No trifling with love; a record and analysis of a production Wintermans, Adrienne L. 1969

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NO TRIFLING WITH LOVE A Record and Analysis of a Production by ADRIENNE L. WINTERMANS B.A., St. Francis Xavier University, 1967 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of THEATRE We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF A p r i l , BRITISH COLUMBIA 1969 In presenting th is thesis in p a r t i a l f u l f i lment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Un iver s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L ibrary sha l l make i t f r e e l y ava i l ab le for reference and Study. I fur ther agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for s cho la r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representat ives. It is understood that copying or pub l i ca t i on of th is thes,is for f i n a n c i a l gain sha l l not be allowed without my wr i t ten permission. Department of | K*c: h 1 The Un ivers i ty of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date ABSTRACT No T r i f l i n g With Love, a new adaptation by Frank Canino of A l f r e d de Musset's 19th Century French play, was produced and directed by Adrienne Wintermans, i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for a Master of Arts degree i n the Department of Theatre of the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, at the Dorothy Somerset Studio Theatre, from November 20 to 23rd, 196 8. The following i s a detailed record of that production, together with the director's analysis and inter p r e t a t i o n of the s c r i p t . No T r i f l i n g With Love was performed by a predomin-antly student cast, i n costumes and setting designed by Michelle Bjornson, with choreography by Richard Blackhurst and with o r i g i n a l music composed and arranged by Jim Colby and played by three musicians employing f l u t e , piano, guitar and percussion instruments. This record i s divided into three main sections.. The f i r s t i s an essay i n f i v e parts, consisting respectively of:. the biographical and h i s t o r i c a l background of the playwright and the play; the l i t e r a r y influences found i n On he badine  pas avec 1'amour; a comparison of the adaptation used for this production with previous translations of the play; an analysis of No T r i f l i n g With Love i n this adaptation; and f i n a l l y a short section setting forth as simply as possible, the s p e c i f i c d i r e c t o r i a l concept used for this production. The essay i s followed by a short bibliography which i s not intended as a complete l i s t of the works on or by de Musset, but gives an in d i c a t i o n of those which were taken into consideration during the preparation of thi s production. The second section i s made up of the prompt s c r i p t of the production, showing the d i v i s i o n of the play into units, blocking, and music, l i g h t i n g and scenery cues. The s c r i p t i s followed by a unit by unit analysis of each scene, b r i e f l y discussing the d i r e c t o r i a l approach taken i n terms of purpose, action, motivation, dominant emotions, character dominance and p a r t i c u l a r d i f f i c u l t i e s involved. The t h i r d section i s made up of various tables,' records and i l l u s t r a t i o n s r e l a t i n g d i r e c t l y to the production. Included are l i s t s of l i g h t cues, set changes, property and costume l i s t s , cost l i s t s and box o f f i c e reports. Also i n -cluded are transcripts of the music composed for the production samples of the programme and copies of the press reviews. The i l l u s t r a t i o n s include colour photographs of the production, renderings of the sets, costumes and projections, and f i n a l l y blue-prints of the f l o o r plan and working drawings. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Page I n t r o d u c t o r y Essay . . . 1 Notes 56 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . . . . . . . 58 Prompt S c r i p t 60 Scene A n a l y s i s 115 Tables 162 Appendix 181 I l l u s t r a t i o n s 189 V LIST OF TABLES Page Music Cues 162 L i g h t P l o t . l g 6 P r o j e c t i o n P l o t • • 170 Set Change P l o t s . . . . . 172 Pro p e r t y L i s t 173 Costume P l o t 176 Cost Report 178 Box O f f i c e Report 18° INTRODUCTORY ESSAY If INTRODUCTION This essay has been divided into f i v e parts, each one dealing with a d i f f e r e n t type of introductory material, but a l l of them important i n one way or another to this produc-ti o n of No T r i f l i n g , with Love. Part I i s devoted to biographical d e t a i l s of the l i f e of A l f r e d de Musset, i n order to throw some l i g h t on his personality and the forces at work on him personally, s o c i a l l y and as a writer before and during 1834, when he wrote On ne  badine pas avec 1'amour. This section ends with an attempt to analyze his position i n the French theatre, through the use of some c r i t i c a l opinions. Part II i s a p a r t i a l l i s t of the l i t e r a r y influences that have been detected i n the play. This, apart from being i n t e r e s t i n g i n i t s e l f , w i l l help to place the play i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l perspective and at the same time point out some of the s a l i e n t features of the construction and mood of the piece. In Part III Frank Canino's adaptation w i l l be compared to previous translations of On ne badine pas avec 1' amour., i n order to show why i t has been chosen for the production and to point out i t s advantages over the others. 2 Part IV i s an analysis of No T r i f l i n g with Love (hence forth I w i l l use the French t i t l e to refer to the o r i g i n a l , the English one for the adaptation) covering the general features of structure and characterization, the r e l a t i v e im-portance of the various components of the play and an attempt to define i t s meaning, avoiding however a detailed scene-by-scene analysis, which has been l e f t for the notes accompanying the prompt s c r i p t . Part V states the director's concept used for the pro-duction as simply as possible and points out how i t was carried through i n the d i f f e r e n t physical aspects of the production. 3 I . ALFRED DE MUSSET; BACKGROUND The l i f e o f A l f r e d de M u s s e t has been t h o r o u g h l y d o c u -mented i n s e v e r a l b i o g r a p h i e s and volumes o f h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e and o t h e r p e r s o n a l d a t a . And because de M u s s e t based a l l h i s l i t e r a r y work on h i s p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s , h i s b i o g r a p h y i s o f c o n s i d e r a b l e i m p o r t a n c e and i n t e r e s t i n the s t u d y o f h i s p l a y s . I t w o u l d be i m p o s s i b l e even t o summarize the who le s t o r y o f h i s l i f e h e r e , t h e r e f o r e I w i l l l i m i t m y s e l f t o some o f t he most i m p o r t a n t d e t a i l s o f h i s l i f e b e f o r e and a round t h e t i m e o f w r i t i n g On ne b a d i n e pas avec 1 'amour i n 1834 . The r e m a i n d e r o f t h i s p a r t o f t he e s s a y w i l l be a n . a t t e m p t t o p i n down the p o s i t i o n o f A l f r e d de M u s s e t i n F r e n c h l i t e r a t u r e and i n t h e t h e a t r e . De M u s s e t was b o r n i n P a r i s i n 1810 and l i v e d t h e r e a l l h i s l i f e , w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f a f o u r - m o n t h t r i p t o V e n i c e w i t h George S a n d . H i s f a m i l y was happy and w e l l - t o - d o , and A l f r e d was a p r e c o c i o u s , t e m p e r a m e n t a l , p a s s i o n a t e c h i l d , t h o r o u g h l y pampered by h i s d o t i n g mother and h i s o l d e r b r o t h e r P a u l , b o t h o f whom seem t o have r e c o g n i z e d h i s g e n i u s when he was s t i l l an i n f a n t . H i s f a t h e r was o f an o l d F r e n c h f a m i l y , b u t was f o r c e d i n t o u n u s u a l p a t h s by t h e R e v o l u t i o n : he f o u g h t under N a p o l e o n u n t i l t h e B a t t l e o f Marengo and t h e n went i n t o the c i v i l s e r v i c e . He a l s o had l i t e r a r y i n c l i n a t i o n s and p u b l i s h e d a b i o g r a p h y o f J e a n - J a c q u e s R o u s s e a u , f o l l o w e d 4 by an e d i t i o n o f h i s w o r k s . As may be supposed f rom t h e s e i n d i c a t i o n s , t he de M u s s e t f a m i l y was s t a u n c h l y l i b e r a l and B o n a p a r t i s t , and even as s m a l l c h i l d r e n , A l f r e d and h i s b r o t h e r were e n g r o s s e d i n t h e f a t e o f N a p o l e o n . When he l e f t s c h o o l a t t h e age o f 17 A l f r e d had no p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t i n any p r o f e s s i o n . He t r i e d m e d i c i n e b r i e f l y a t t he i n s i s t e n c e o f h i s f a t h e r , b u t was n a u s e a t e d by the d i s s e c t i o n l e s s o n s and had t o g i v e i t u p . He t o o k p a i n -t i n g l e s s o n s a t t he L o u v r e f o r a w h i l e , and m i g h t w e l l have s u c c e e d e d as a p a i n t e r i f he had pe r seve red—some o f h i s work was p r a i s e d by D e l a c r o i x , and many o f h i s e x t a n t s k e t c h e s a re c h a r m i n g . W h i l e s t i l l a t s c h o o l de M u s s e t had been i n t r o d u c e d t o V i c t o r Hugo by h i s f r i e n d P a u l F o u c h i e r , who was H u g o ' s b r o t h e r - i n - l a w . Hugo, though t h e n o n l y i n h i s m i d d l e t w e n t i e s was a l r e a d y a C h e v a l i e r o f t he L e g i o n o f Honor w i t h a g o v e r n -ment p e n s i o n : he was the c e n t r e o f t h e Roman t i c movement i n P a r i s . H i s c i r c l e , known as t h e . C e n a c l e , i n c l u d e d S a i n t e -B e u v e , P r o s p e r M e r i m e e , and A l f r e d de V i g n y , none o f whom were t h e n o v e r t h i r t y . I n s p i r e d by h i s e v e n i n g s a t t he C e n a c l e de M u s s e t t o o began t o w r i t e p o e t r y and was e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y e n c o u r a g e d by the members, e s p e c i a l l y S a i n t e - B e u v e . E a r l y i n 1830 he p u b l i s h e d h i s f i r s t volume o f v e r s e , Con te s d ' E s p a g n e  e t d ' I t a l i e , w h i c h b r o u g h t h im t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f r e a d e r s and c r i t i c s . On the who le t h e s e t a l e s show a heavy Romant i c 5 i n f l u e n c e , b u t a l r e a d y h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c c y n i c i s m and w i t show t h a t he i s n o t a t r u e d e s r j l p l e o f Hugo. He c r e a t e d a s c a n d a l among the Roman t i c s by i r r e v e r e n t l y d e s c r i b i n g t h e moon as t h e d o t on t h e i o f t h e c h u r c h tower i n h i s B a l l a d e a l a . T u n e , and by d e s c r i b i n g i n the same poem some i n d e l i c a t e and b o u r g e o i s scenes w h i c h were n o t c o n s i d e r e d f i t s u b j e c t s f o r p o e t r y . I n 1830 , a t t h e r e q u e s t o f t he d i r e c t o r o f t h e Odeon he w r o t e h i s f i r s t p l a y , L a N u i t V e n i t i e n n e , w h i c h f a i l e d m i s e r a b l y when p r o d u c e d on December 1 s t . The p l a y was weak and a p p a r e n t l y n o t r e a d y t o open ; and i n any ca se i t s chances o f s u c c e s s were s l i m because C l a s s i c i s m was s t i l l v e r y s t r o n g i n t h e F r e n c h t h e a t r e and the s u c c e s s o f H u g o ' s H e r n a n i a t t he C o m e d i e - F r a n c j a i s e n i n e months e a r l i e r s t i l l r a n k l e d w i t h i n the o l d g u a r d . A t t h i s d e f e a t de M u s s e t d e c i d e d t o t u r n h i s back on t h e t h r e a t r e f o r e v e r , and th rew h i m s e l f w h o l e h e a r t e d l y i n t o a l i f e o f p l e a s u r e and d i s s i p a t i o n , d r i n k i n g , g a m b l i n g , and women. He l i v e d i n a s t y l e f a r beyond h i s means and r a n up t remendous d e b t s , w h i c h h i s b r o t h e r h e l p e d h im p a y . N e v e r t h e l e s s he was r e c e i v e d i n the b e s t s a l o n s i n P a r i s and had a r e p u t a t i o n f o r cha rm, w i t , g a i e t y and good c o n v e r s a t i o n . P e r i o d i c a l l y he was overcome w i t h f i t s o f remorse and shame d u r i n g w h i c h he w o u l d l o c k h i m s e l f up i n h i s room f o r d a y s , w e e p i n g and w r i t i n g p o e t r y . 6 The v i o l e n t and passionate nature of A l f r e d de Musset, torn between what seemed to be two p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i s responsible for both that q u a l i t y which makes him unique as a writer, namely his depth of f e e l i n g and s i n c e r i t y , and for the fact that he never accomplished as a poet what was expected of him after his early promise. W. H. Pollock describes him as well as any of his c r i t i c s and biographers when he analyses de Musset's two p e r s o n a l i t i e s : One tender, gentle, quick to f e e l every impression of outside circumstances, to respond to kindness with a l l the warmth of a poet's heart and to grieve at harsh-ness, ingratitude or malice with the sorrow of a c h i l d who cannot believe that the world i s not a l l b e a u t i f u l . The other was hard, suspicious, d i s t r u s t i n g a l i k e of people and the impressions he encountered, treating l i f e as a thing to be made tolerable only by a reck-less abandonment of a l l b e l i e f i n or s t r i v i n g a f t e r high aims—a spectacle for the due enjoyment of which were needed a mind resolved against any serious e n t e r p r i s e — a wit ready to j e s t at scars and a heart prepared to deny the p o s s i b i l i t y of f e e l i n g a wound.1 These two pers o n a l i t i e s i n A l f r e d de Musset were constantly at war with one another, and i n several of his plays he s p l i t s them up into two d i f f e r e n t characters (for example George Sand observed and de Musset admitted that Celio and Octave i n Les  Caprices de Marianne are both the author) and l e t s them act out the c o n f l i c t within himself. Even i n the plays where>itvis less e x p l i c i t , this tendency i s seen, and Camille i s i n a sense the alter-ego of Perdican-Alfred. A l l his characters, male or female^represent i n various degrees aspects of his own person-a l i t y , and i t i s perhaps because of the feminine elements i n his 7 own n a t u r e t h a t he has c r e a t e d so many f a s c i n a t i n g h e r o i n e s . I n h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l n o v e l L a C o n f e s s i o n d ' u n  e n f a n t du s i e c l e (1836) , de M u s s e t h i m s e l f a s c r i b e s h i s p r o -blems and h i s w a s t e d l i f e , as w e l l as t h o s e o f many o t h e r young Frenchmen o f h i s t i m e , t o t h e u n r e a l i s t i c and u n s t a b l e a tmosphere o f h i s c h i l d h o o d : D u r i n g the F ranco -German w a r , w h i l e husbands and b r o t h e r s were i n Germany, a n x i o u s mothers b r o u g h t i n t o the w o r l d a p a l e , n e r v o u s and s p i r i t e d g e n -e r a t i o n . C o n c e i v e d as t h e y w e r e , be tween two b a t t l e s , e d u c a t e d i n m i l i t a r y c o l l e g e s t o the sound o f t he drum, thousands o f c h i l d r e n gazed f i e r c e l y a t t h e m s e l v e s as t h e y t e s t e d t h e i r t i n y m u s c l e s . From t i m e t o t ime t h e i r f a t h e r s r e t u r n e d f rom the s l a u g h t e r , l i f t e d them up t o t h e i r c h e s t s c o v e r e d w i t h m e d a l s , and t h e n p u t them down and rode away. O n l y one man was t h e n a l i v e i n E u r o p e ; t he o t h e r b e i n g s t r i e d t o f i l l t h e i r l u n g s w i t h the a i r he had b r e a t h e d . N e v e r were t h e r e so many s l e e p l e s s n i g h t s as i n t h o s e t i m e s ; n e v e r were t h e r e t o be seen l e a n i n g o v e r c i t y w a l l s so many g r i e f - s t r i c k e n m o t h e r s ; n e v e r was t h e r e such a hush upon t h e crowds who t a l k e d o f d e a t h . Y e t n e v e r was t h e r e so much j o y and l i f e and so many t rumpe t c a l l s i n the h e a r t s o f a l l . N e v e r was the sun so p o w e r f u l as i n t h o s e d a y s , when i t d r i e d up a l l t h i s b l o o d . 2 2 H a v i n g been b r o u g h t up w i t h the i d e a l o f m i l i t a r y h o n o r , t h o s e who were b o r n d u r i n g the h e i g h t o f N a p o l e o n ' s power s u d d e n l y found t h e m s e l v e s w i t h n o t h i n g f o r w h i c h t o l i v e . T h e i r f a i t h was d e s t r o y e d , t h e i r c o u n t r y i n r u i n s , p a s t g l o r y dead and the f u t u r e u n c e r t a i n . I n t h e i r d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t t h e y had l o s t a l l f a i t h i n God and an a f t e r l i f e ; t h o s e who c o u l d 8 afford i t refused to work and t r i e d instead to drown the i r despair i n drink, drugs and other forms of d i s t r a c t i o n . They wanted to enjoy l i f e to the f u l l and get a l l there was to be had out of i t while they could. I t was the fashion among young men to scoff openly at r e l i g i o n , God, love, and a l l other values that they had been taught to revere. What set de Musset apart was that while indulging himself i n t h i s l i f e , he at the same time r e a l i z e d the tragedy of i t . He had to f i n d a substitute for his l o s t f a i t h i n God, and t h i s took the form of a worship of love. He f e l t that i n spite of a l l the pain i t caused him, love was the only thing for which to l i v e . After the f a i l u r e of his f i r s t play i n 1830 de Musset kept his word and for the next 17 years he did not write for the theatre. But because he had a natural g i f t for dialogue, he continued to write i n the dramatic form for publication. Under the t i t l e Le Spectacle dans un f a u t e u i l , he produced a number of plays during t h i s period, including his best and most famous works. But he no longer strove to meet the require-ments for success i n the theatre of the time. He took ele-ments from both Classicism and Romanticism, but adhered s l a v i s h l y to neither one of the trends which were waging battle i n the French theatre. This gave him the freedom which the n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s lacked, but he retained enough form to allow his plays to be e a s i l y staged and to hold together dram-a t i c a l l y . Thus he achieved many of the aims after which the 9 R o m a n t i c i s t s s t r o v e w i t h o u t g o i n g as f a r as t h e y d i d i n t h e r e v o l t a g a i n s t the r u l e s o f n e o - c l a s s i c i s m . He r e a l i z e d t h i s h i m s e l f and i n an a r t i c l e i n L a Revue des Deux-Mondes i n 1838 c o n c e r n i n g t h e pe r fo rmances o f t h e a c t r e s s R a c h e l , he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t he war between C l a s s i c i s m and R o m a n t i c i s m c o u l d n e v e r end i n an a b s o l u t e v i c t o r y f o r e i t h e r s c h o o l , n o r was i t d e s i r a b l e t h a t i t s h o u l d do s o . " I t i s t i m e , " he s a i d , " f o r 3 a t h i r d s c h o o l w h i c h s h o u l d u n i t e the m e r i t s o f e a c h . " Thus i n s p i t e o f t he f a c t t h a t t h e y were n o t w r i t t e n t o be p r o d u c e d , de M u s s e t ' s p l a y s have h e l d the s t a g e i n F r a n c e f rom t h e m i d d l e o f t he 1 9 t h c e n t u r y u n t i l t o d a y , w h i l e the p l a y s o f h i s c o n t e m p o r a r i e s a r e a l m o s t n e v e r p e r f o r m e d now. The f i r s t volume o f h i s Le S p e c t a c l e dans un f a u t e u i 1 (1832) was n o t s u c c e s s f u l , b u t i t r e s u l t e d i n an i n v i t a t i o n . f rom B u l o z , t h e e d i t o r o f L a . Revue des Deux-Mondes t o become a r e g u l a r c o n t r i b u t o r t o t h a t l i t e r a r y m a g a z i n e . La_ Revue pub-l i s h e d a l l h i s works from, t h e n on and e n a b l e d h im t o make a l i v i n g a t w r i t i n g . I n M a r c h 1833 de M u s s e t met George Sand a t a d i n n e r g i v e n by B u l o z f o r t he c o l l a b o r a t o r s o f La_ Revue des : Deux-Mondes , and a l t h o u g h n e i t h e r had r e a l l y wanted t o meet the o t h e r , t h e y i m m e d i a t e l y became f r i e n d s . W i t h i n a few weeks t h e y were l o v e r s and embarked upon what must be one o f t he b e s t p u b l i c i z e d l o v e - a f f a i r s i n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y . I t was the one g r e a t e v e n t o f A l f r e d de M u s s e t ' s l i f e , d u r i n g and imme-10 d i a t e l y a f t e r w h i c h he p r o d u c e d h i s b e s t w o r k , i n c l u d i n g On ne b a d i n e pas avec 1 'amour , and t h e r e f o r e m e r i t s g o i n g i n t o i n some d e t a i l . A l f r e d was a t t h i s t i m e 2 3 , w i t h a r e p u t a t i o n o f a d a s h i n g young p o e t abou t t o w n , who was j u s t b e g i n n i n g t o make a name f o r h i m s e l f i n p o e t r y as w e l l as i n s o c i e t y . George Sand was a l m o s t 3 0 , an e s t a b l i s h e d n o v e l i s t w i t h a r e p u t a t i o n f o r e c c e n t r i c i t y and f r a n k n e s s , and a champion o f women's r i g h t s . She was s e p a r a t e d f rom h e r h u s b a n d , had two c h i l d r e n and had had a s e r i e s o f l o v e r s , a l l o f whivch was w e l l - k n o w n . I n s p i t e o f t h i s she was c o n s i d e r e d r a t h e r a b l u e - s t o c k i n g , n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t i v e and i n many ways c o n s e r v a t i v e and i n h i b i t e d . She a l l o w e d h e r s e l f t o be drawn i n t o the a f f a i r w i t h de M u s s e t r e l u c t a n t l y a t f i r s t , b u t once commi t t ed she l o v e d h i m d e v o t e d l y and p u t up w i t h a g r e a t d e a l o f s u f f e r i n g i n f l i c t e d by h i s a l t e r n a t i n g f i t s o f u n r e a s o n a b l e j e a l o u s y and r a g e , f o l l o w e d by remorse and s l a v i s h d e v o t i o n . A f t e r a s h o r t s u c c e s s f u l h o l i d a y t o g e t h e r i n F o n t a i n e b l e a u , t h e y l e f t f o r a t r i p t o I t a l y on December 1 2 , 1833 . From t h e b e g i n n i n g t h e j o u r n e y seems t o have been a m i s t a k e . A l f r e d was d i f f i c u l t and u n f a i t h f u l , d i d no work and t o o k up g a m b l i n g a g a i n , w i t h G e o r g e ' s money. He was annoyed because she w r o t e i n d u s t r i o u s l y f o r s e v e r a l h o u r s a day t o be a b l e t o send back t o P a r i s t h e segments o f t he n o v e l w h i c h was b e i n g p u b l i s h e d s e r i a l l y i n L a Revue des Deux-Mondes , and w h i c h was f i n a n c i n g t h e i r t r i p . 11 When t h e y f i n a l l y a r r i v e d i n V e n i c e , George t o o k i l l w i t h d y s e n t e r y ^ w h i c h c o m p l e t e l y r e v o l t e d the s e n s i t i v e A l f r e d , and when she had r e c o v e r e d t h i n g s were g o i n g so b a d l y t h a t t hey d e c i d e d t h e y had n e v e r r e a l l y l o v e d each o t h e r and a r r a n g e d t o r e t u r n t o P a r i s . T h e n , however , A l f r e d c o n t r a c t e d t y p h o i d f e v e r , l a t e r c o m p l i c a t e d by b r a i n f e v e r , and George n u r s e d h im day and n i g h t , t h r o u g h more t h a n a month o f i l l n e s s and many days o f d e l i r i u m (some say d e l i r i u m t r e m e n s ) . D u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d she c a l l e d i n a young I t a l i a n d o c t o r , P i e t r o P a g e l l o , who a l s o s p a r e d no p a i n s on b e h a l f o f t h e young g e n i u s f rom P a r i s , and t o g e t h e r t h e y n u r s e d h im back t o h e a l t h . However , some t i m e d u r i n g t h e s e p r o c e e d i n g s P a g e l l o became G e o r g e ' s l o v e r , a t h e r own r e q u e s t . When A l f r e d was s u f f i c i e n t l y r e -c o v e r e d t h e y s e n t h im back t o P a r i s , where he a r r i v e d h e a r t -b r o k e n and e m b i t t e r e d by h i s s h a t t e r i n g e x p e r i e n c e . H i s b r o t h e r P a u l r e p o r t s t h a t he s t a y e d i n h i s room f o r f o u r mon ths , c o n -s t a n t l y w e e p i n g , and o n l y coming o u t a t n i g h t t o p l a y a game o f ches s w i t h h i s m o t h e r . He k e p t up a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h G e o r g e , however , w h i c h was v e r y a f f e c t i o n a t e on b o t h s i d e s , and a f t e r she r e t u r n e d t o P a r i s ( w i t h P a g e l l o ) t h e y were l o v e r s a g a i n b r i e f l y . W h i l e George Sand s u f f e r e d c o n s i d e r a b l y d u r i n g t h e y e a r s o f t h e a f f a i r ( 1 8 3 3 - 3 5 ) , and had many p r o b l e m s , f i n a n c i a l and o t h e r w i s e , she c o n t i n u e d t o w r i t e c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y and f a i r l y s e r e n e l y , m a k i n g no e f f o r t t o r e v e a l t he d e p t h o f h e r s o u l t o h e r r e a d e r s . F o r de M u s s e t i t was the o p p o s i t e . T h i s p e r i o d 12 o f g r e a t e s t u p h e a v a l i n h i s p e r s o n a l l i f e was a l s o a p e r i o d o f g r e a t work f o r h i m . E v e r y t h i n g he w r o t e d u r i n g t h i s t i m e has d e p t h and i n t e n s i t y , d i f f e r i n g f rom h i s s e n t i m e n t a l e a r l i e r w o r k , and the mannered__vampddly e l e g a n t work o f h i s d e c l i n i n g y e a r s . From t h i s p e r i o d come the most o r i g i n a l o f h i s p l a y s , F a n t a s i o , On ne b a d i n e pas avec 1 1 amour and L o r e n z a c c i o , the b e s t o f h i s v e r s e s R o l l a , Les N u i t s de m a i , aou t and O c t o b r e , L e t t r e a L a m a r t i n e , S t a n c e s a l a M a l i b r a n , and the most c h a r m i n g o f h i s t a l e s , Emmeline and Fre*der ic e t B e r n e ' r e t t e . On h i s r e t u r n f rom V e n i c e de M u s s e t owed B u l o z a comedy. He was i n no mood f o r w r i t i n g and d i d n o t know how he w o u l d g e t i t done . He m e n t i o n s i n a l e t t e r t o George Sand t h a t he c a n n o t 4 g e t on w i t h t h a t "malheureuse comedie" f o r B u l o z . B u t B u l o z was a f r i e n d and i n o r d e r n o t t o d i s a p p o i n t h i m , de M u s s e t r e l u c t a n t l y t o o k up a :eomedy i n v e r s e w h i c h he had begun e a r l i e r under the t i t l e o f C ami l i e , e t P e r d i c a n . P a r t o f t he f i r s t scene i n v e r s e s t i l l e x i s t s and was p u b l i s h e d a f t e r the p o e t ' s d e a t h by h i s b r o t h e r . ^ I t b e a r s a c l o s e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e f i n a l d r a f t , b u t he gave up the i d e a o f w r i t i n g the p l a y i n v e r s e , e i t h e r because he c o u l d n o t f i n d the i n s p i r a t i o n , as has been s u g g e s t e d , o r , as seems more l i k e l y , b e c a u s e , h a v i n g s t a r t e d t h e e a r l i e r v e r s i o n w i t h o u t a c l e a r i d e a o f what t he p l a y was t o become, he now d e c i d e d t h a t v e r s e was n o t s u i t e d t o what he w i s h e d t o e x p r e s s i n i t . S e v e r a l c r i t i c s ( P i e r r e G a s t i n e l and H e n r i B i d o u i n p a r t i c u l a r ) have t r i e d t o p r o v e t h a t i n f a c t de M u s s e t had a 13 g r e a t d e a l more t h a n the f i r s t scene done b e f o r e g o i n g t o V e n i c e . They f e e l t h a t t he b r e a k comes be tween scenes 4 and 5 o f A c t II ( scenes 9 and 10 o f A c t I i n t h e a d a p t a t i o n , o r j u s t b e f o r e the f o u n t a i n s c e n e ) , g i v i n g as e v i d e n c e changes i n t he c h a r a c t e r and t h e s t y l e o f w r i t i n g , and the f a c t t h a t t he c lowns a r e s e ldom seen a f t e r t h i s p o i n t (on t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t a f t e r h i s V e n e t i a n a d v e n t u r e he was n o t i n a s t a t e o f mind where he c o u l d have w r i t t e n t h e comedy scenes o f t he b e g i n n i n g o f t he p l a y ) . However t h e r e i s no c o n v i n c i n g p r o o f o f t h i s t h e o r y , s i n c e t h e r e i s s t i l l one l o n g comedy scene a f t e r t h a t p o i n t , and the changes i n s t y l e and i n t h e c h a r a c t e r s a r e p r e -p a r e d f o r e a r l i e r and can be e x p l a i n e d as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t he p l a y . On ne b a d i n e pas avec 1' amour was p u b l i s h e d i n La. Revue  des Duex-Mondes on J u l y 1, 1834, b u t i t was n o t p e r f o r m e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e p l a y w r i g h t ' s d e a t h , when, i n 1861, h i s b r o t h e r P a u l adap t ed i t f o r E d o u a r d T h e i r r y , who p r o d u c e d i t a t t he j C o m e d i e - F r a n c a i s e . He s i m p l i f i e d i t s 15 s e t t i n g s t o 3, a n d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , c e n s o r e d a l l r e l i g i o u s r e f e r e n c e s , t u r n i n g B l a z i u s i n t o a l a y t e a c h e r and B r i d a i n e i n t o a s c r i v e n e r . The p l a y was p e r f o r m e d w i t h o n l y a v e r y modera te s u c c e s s and r e -c e i v e d w i t h some embarrassment by the c r i t i c s , who found i t t o be o v e r l y p o e t i c and l y r i c a l f o r a p r o s e p i e c e , and o b j e c t e d t o t h e use o f t he c h o r u s . B u t n e v e r t h e l e s s On ne b a d i n e pas  avec 1'amour was k e p t i n r e p e r t o r y u n t i l 1895 and seems t o have 14 become more popular as audiences gradually became fa m i l i a r with the play and i t s author. The plays of A l f r e d de Musset are l i t t l e known to English and American audiences, and those who have read them i n trans-l a t i o n are i n c l i n e d to dismiss him with condescension and even contempt. I t i s true that more f a m i l i a r i t y with his personal l i f e and character, and with his lesser known works does not do much to change th i s attitude: he was undisciplined, s e l f -indulgent, over-emotional, lazy and weak; he squandered his money, his time and his talent, and one can almost sense t h i s i n much of his work. Henry James points out that he did nothing i n his l i f e : ". . .he made no important journeys, and i f one excepts his l o v e - a f f a i r s he r e a l l y had no experi-ence. . . . he was in a c t i v e , indolent and i d l e , his record has few dates." He turned down several i n t e r e s t i n g opportunities, including a position as attache* i n the French embassy i n Madrid, because he simply preferred to stay i n Paris. James continues: " I t i s thi s narrowness, and his preoccupation with only one thing that t e l l s against him, not his excesses: he was lax and s o f t , with too l i t t l e energy and c u r i o s i t y . " Swinburne i s s t i l l more cruel and says that i t can be more j u s t l y said of de Musset than of Byron that "his smile i s the smirk of a l i q u o r i s h f r i b b l e , his wail the whimper of a cheated c u l l y . " He continues: . . . at his best Musset i s representative [not of his contemporaries] but of nothing but himself; at 15 h i s w o r s t , i f t he h a r d c l e a r b i t t e r t r u t h must be spoken and i t m u s t — w i t h o u t f l i n c h i n g , he r e p r e s e n t s the q u i n t e s s e n c e o f t h o s e q u a l i t i e s , t he consummation o f t h o s e d e f e c t s , w h i c h made p o s s i b l e i n F r a n c e t h e in famous r i s e , and i n -e v i t a b l y the n o t l e s s in famous f a l l o f t h e Lower E m p i r e . . . . t o o p o e t i c t o be a p a t r i o t , t o o a e s t h e t i c t o be a p a r t i s a n , t o o a r t i s t i c t o s e r v e an e a r t h l y c o u n t r y o r s u f f e r i n a human c a u s e , h i s o n l y c o u n t r y b e i n g A r t and h i s f i n a l cause b e i n g p l e a s u r e . 7 Y e t , t h e F r e n c h c o n s i d e r h im t h e l e a d i n g p l a y w r i g h t o f t he s e c o n d h a l f o f t he 1 9 t h c e n t u r y ; he was one o f t he v e r y few p l a y w r i g h t s a d m i r e d by I b s e n and T u r g e n e v ' s p l a y s a r e d e r i v e d d i r e c t l y f rom h i s w o r k . And n e a r l y e v e r y c r i t i c , though sometimes v e r y r e l u c t a n t l y , a d m i t s t h a t h i s b e s t p o e t r y has n e v e r been s u r p a s s e d i n the F r e n c h l a n g u a g e . I t i s t r u e t h a t he had o n l y one i d e a w h i c h he r e p e a t e d ad i n f i n i t u m : l o v e i s t he most i m p o r t a n t t h i n g i n the w o r l d . Y e t i n t h o s e works i n w h i c h he e x p r e s s e s t h i s i d e a b e s t , he has c r e a t e d a few works o f r e a l g e n i u s . Of h i s p l a y s F a h t a s i o , On he b a d i n e pas avec 1 'amour and L o r e n z a c c i o a r e u s u a l l y c o n s i d e r e d h i s b e s t , and o f t h e s e On ne b a d i n e pas i s by f a r t he most o r i g i n a l , i n t e r e s t i n g . a n d s t a g a b l e w o r k . These t h r e e p l a y s a l o n e r e v e a l a t a l e n t o f c o n s i d e r a b l e v e r s a t i l i t y and w i t , and amaz ing s k i l l and i n s i g h t i n t o c h a r a c t e r , e s p e c i a l l y when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t a l l o f them were w r i t t e n a round h i s 2 3 r d y e a r . U n f o r t u n a t e l y none o f t he E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n a v a i l a b l e up t o now have c a p t u r e d the charm and f l a v o u r o f 16 de Musset's language,.so t h a t the E n g l i s h reader i s always l e f t w i t h a f e e l i n g of vague d i s c o m f o r t a f t e r r e a d i n g them. More w i l l be s a i d about t r a n s l a t i o n s i n P a r t I I I of t h i s essay. At h i s b e s t the a t t r a c t i o n of de Musset's p l a y s i s t w o - f o l d : f i r s t , h i s s k i l l as a p l a y w r i g h t , which i s e s p e c i -a l l y amazing when one c o n s i d e r s t h a t h i s p l a y s were thought to be unstagable by c r i t i c s and by h i m s e l f , and t h a t he never had the b e n e f i t of s e e i n g any of them acted (at l e a s t not d u r i n g the p e r i o d of h i s b e s t p l a y w r i t i n g ) . The f a c i l i t y w ith which he uses the stage and i t s d e v i c e s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n On ne badine  pas avec 1'amour) s t r i k e s us as very modern even today. Secondly, the a t t r a c t i o n of h i s work l i e s i n i t s y o u t h f u l n e s s . Henry James quotes de Musset's German biographer Paul Lindau who expresses t h i s f e e l i n g : He has remained the poet of youth. No one has sung so t r u t h f u l l y and t o u c h i n g l y i t s a s p i r a t i o n s and i t s s e n s i b i l i t i e s , i t s doubts and i t s hopes. No one has comprehended and j u s t i f i e d i t s f o l l i e s and i t s amiable i d i o s y n c r a c i e s w i t h more p o e t i c i r o n y , w i t h a deeper c o n v i c t i o n . His joy was .young, h i s sorrow was young and young was h i s song. To youth he owed a l l happiness and i n youth he sang h i s b r i g h t e s t chants. But the weakness of youth was h i s f a t a l enemy and with youth faded away h i s joy i n e x i s t e n c e and i n creation.** His works are s t i l l p opular i n France and the l e a d i n g r o l e s have always been coveted by a c t o r s and aclaresses, from Delaunay i n 1861 to Gerard P h i l i p e and Suzanne F l o n i n 1959. On ne badine pas avec 1 1 amour was p l a y e d 5 88 times between 1861 and 1961 at the Comedie-Francjaise alone, and countless times by other companies,-including Le Theatre Marigny (1951), Theatre National Populaire (1959) and Theatre l'Ambigue (1964). It has also been made into a movie, and recently a French Canadian musical, E l l e Tournera l a Terre, by Claude L e v e i l l e e was based on i t . 18 I I . LITERARY INFLUENCES On ne b a d i n e pas avec 1' amour, was p u b l i s h e d i n L a Revue  des Deux-Mondes on J u l y 1, 1834, w i t h t h e s u b - t i t l e : " P r o v e r b e . " The P r o v e r b o r i g i n a t e d i n 18 th c e n t u r y F r a n c e as a s a l o n p i e c e c o n s i s t i n g o f some i m p r o v i s e d scenes d e s i g n e d t o p r o v e the t r u t h o f some w e l l - k n o w n s a y i n g . G r a d u a l l y t h e P r o v e r b became a s i m p l e o n e - a c t comedy i n p r o s e c o n t a i n i n g o n l y a few c h a r a c t e r s and e i t h e r h a v i n g t h e a c t u a l p r o v e r b as i t s t i t l e o r as i t s l a s t l i n e . Between 1743 and 1781 C a r m o n t e l l e p u b -l i s h e d e i g h t volumes o f h i s P r o v e r b e s d r a m a t i q u e s . Between 1823 and 1833 Theodore L e c l e r c q w r o t e s e v e r a l s e r i e s o f them and p e r f e c t e d the fo rm i n t o a d r a w i n g room comedy w h i c h e n j o y e d g r e a t s u c c e s s i n P a r i s a t t h i s t i m e . The P r o v e r b e had become a f a v o u r i t e genre among w r i t e r s ( S c r i b e , Romieu , Sauvage , de V i g n y ) , t he r e v u e s p u b l i s h e d them and t h e y were a c t e d e v e r y -. 9 w h e r e . On ne b a d i n e pas avec 1 'amour i s t he f i r s t p l a y by de M u s s e t t o c a r r y the s u b - t i t l e " P r o v e r b e , " b u t i n f a c t i t b e a r s l i t t l e r e s e m b l a n c e t o the s i m p l e m o r a l t a l e o f Carmon-t e l l e , e x c e p t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t i t uses a p r o v e r b f o r the t i t l e o f a s h o r t p i e c e w i t h a m o r a l w h i c h i s ea sy t o u n d e r s t a n d . A p a r t f rom t h a t the p l a y i s f a r t o o c o m p l e x , c o n t a i n s t o o many c h a r a c t e r s and s c e n e s , i t s a tmosphere i s t o o much t h a t o f an u n r e a l w o r l d , i t i s t o o d i f f i c u l t t o p roduce and i t s r e s o l u t i o n t oo t r a g i c and t o o s i m p l y e x p r e s s e d . H i s l a t e r w o r k s , Le 19 C h a n d e l i e r / I I ne f a u t j u r e r de r i e n (1836) , I_l f a u t q u ' u n e  p o r t e s o i t o u v e r t e ou fermge ( 1 8 4 5 ) , Un C a p r i c e ( 1 8 4 7 ) , and On. ne s a u r a i t p e n s e r a t o u t (1948) a r e much more s i m i l a r t o the t r a d i t i o n a l p r o v e r b e . De M u s s e t had r e a d t h e P r o v e r b e s d r a m a t i q u e s o f Carmon-t e l l e and he may have g o t t h e i d e a f o r On ne_ b a d i n e pas avec  1' amour f rom number L X X X I , 1 'Amant m a l g r e l u i , i l l u s t r a t i n g the p r o v e r b : " i l ne f a u t pas j o u e r avec l e f e u , " o r f rom t h e p l a y by F a u b l a s , Les /Amours du C h e v a l i e r , i n w h i c h a c h a r a c t e r has the l i n e : "On ne b a d i n e pas avec l e c o e u r . " ^ B e s i d e s t h a t o f t h e p r o v e r b , t h e p l a y shows an amazing number o f i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h de M u s s e t somehow managed t o weave i n t o a v e r y o r i g i n a l and u n i f i e d w h o l e . A b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e f o l l o w s . From t h e a n c i e n t Greeks he t a k e s the use o f t h e chorus o f e l d e r s and a l t h o u g h t h e y appear r a t h e r d i f f e r e n t f rom t h e Greek c h o r u s ( e s p e c i a l l y i n the a d a p t a t i o n ) , t h e i r f u n c t i o n w h i c h w i l l be d i s c u s s e d i n more d e t a i l l a t e r , i s much the same. From the Greeks comes h i s use o f t he u n i t i e s i n t h e i r t r u e s p i r i t , r a t h e r t h a n l i t e r a l l y as was the f a s h i o n w i t h n e o - c l a s s i c i s t s . The re a r e f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s ( i n the o r i g i n a l ) , b u t r e a l l y o n l y one p l a c e : t h e c h i l d h o o d home o f P e r d i c a n , t h e r e f o r e t h e r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e u n i t y o f p l a c e i s b e i n g o b s e r v e d . S i m i l a r l y , t h e a c t i o n i s s p r e a d o v e r t h r e e d a y s , b u t a l l t h a t t i m e i s t a k e n up w i t h o n l y one s t a t e 20 o f c r i s i s , a s i t u a t i o n w h i c h canno t be p r o l o n g e d i n d e f i n i t e l y . The c r i s i s i s t he who le l i f e o f t he ma jo r c h a r a c t e r s d u r i n g t h o s e t h r e e d a y s , and we a r e t a k e n from one s t a t e o f e q u i l i -b r i u m t o a n o t h e r . S i n c e t h e r e a r e no gaps i n the a c t i o n , i t i s r e a l l y o n l y one d a y . The u n i t y o f a c t i o n i s n o t d i s t u r b e d by the p r e s e n c e o f t he s u b - p l o t i n v o l v i n g t h e g r o t e s q u e s . A l t h o u g h t h e y d i r e c t l y a f f e c t t he ma in p l o t o n l y once (when P e r d i c a n g e t s C a m i l l e ' s l e t t e r t h r o u g h t h e i r s t u p i d i t y ) t h e y a r e c o n s t a n t l y u sed t o p o i n t t o p o s i t i v e q u a l i t i e s i n t h e l o v e r s by the f a c t o f t h e i r l a c k o f them, t o p r o v i d e comic r e l i e f , and t o h e l p t o u n f o l d the p l o t . Thus t hey a r e t h e r e f o r t he sake o f t he c r i s i s a l t h o u g h t h e y a re n o t p a r t o f i t . They u n d e r s t a n d n o t h i n g and a r e d i s c a r d e d a l o n g the way. De M u s s e t seems t o have p u t them i n p a r t l y t o s a t i s f y h i s Romant i c t a s t e f o r m i x i n g the s e r i o u s w i t h the c o m i c . The Roman t i c b a c k g r o u n d i s o b v i o u s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y i n t he r u r a l s e t t i n g s and i d e a l i z a t i o n o f n a t u r e . De M u s s e t may have g o t the i d e a f o r t he p l o t from G o e t h e , whose W e r t h e r he i s known t o have r e a d i n 1834. I n t h i s n o v e l t h e young h e r o r e t u r n s home t o h i s c h i l d h o o d v i l l a g e where he s k i p s s t o n e s on t h e w a t e r (as P e r d i c a n does i n the o r i g i n a l ) and b e a r s a g r e a t d e a l o f r e s e m b l a n c e t o P e r d i c a n r e t u r n i n g home. Or p o s s i b l y i t came from Samuel R i c h a r d s o n ' s n o v e l , C l a r i s s a H a r l o w e (1747-48) w h i c h had a g r e a t i n f l u e n c e on F r e n c h w r i t e r s o f 21 t h a t t i m e , p a r t i c u l a r l y on R o u s s e a u . De M u s s e t was v e r y f a m i -l i a r w i t h the l i t e r a t u r e o f t he 1 8 t h c e n t u r y ( h i s f a t h e r e d i t e d t h e works o f Rousseau) and had r e a d C l a r i s s a B a r l o w e , i n w h i c h L o v e l a c e , i n o r d e r t o seduce C l a r i s s a , among o t h e r t h i n g s , pays c o u r t t o a b a r m a i d o f 17 , i s t o u c h e d by h e r charm and c a l l s h e r h i s " r o s e b u t t o n . " C l a r i s s a becomes j e a l o u s , and r e l u c -t a n t l y g i v e s h e r s e l f t o h i m , s a y i n g : "Love i s a f i r e w i t h w h i c h one does n o t p l a y u n p u n i s h e d . " I n a l l de M u s s e t ' s work a s t r o n g Shakespea rean i n f l u e n c e can be f e l t . I n the P r e f a c e t o Le S p e c t a c l e dans une f a u t e u i l , he a d m i t s t o b e i n g an i n s a t i a b l e r e a d e r o f S h a k e s p e a r e , and he p r o b a b l y had h i s f i r s t chance t o see the p l a y s pe r fo rme d as t h e y had been w r i t t e n i n 1828 , when C h a r l e s Kemble and h i s company v i s i t e d P a r i s w i t h p r o d u c t i o n s o f L e a r , O t h e l l o , Macbe th and H a m l e t . No T r i f l i n g W i t h Love shows S h a k e s p e a r e ' s i n f l u e n c e i n the f reedom w i t h w h i c h t h e s t a g e i s used and the speed w i t h w h i c h t h e d i f f e r e n t scenes f o l l o w each o t h e r . t h e s l i g h t l y f a y a tmosphere o f t h e l o c a l e , somewhere be tween r e a l i t y and t h e l i f e o f d reams , t he s e n s i t i v e , f i n e l y drawn r u r a l c h a r a c t e r s , t he w o r l d o f f i e l d s , f o u n t a i n s , p a t h s and s t r eams remote f rom e a r t h l y v u l g a r i t y a r e r e m i n i s c e n t o f P e r i c l e s and As You L i k e  I t ; t he g l u t t o n y and p h y s i c a l appearance o f B l a z i u s and B r i d a i n e r e s e m b l e s F a l s t a f f ; t h e pedan t s H o l o f e r n e s , N a t h a n i e l and S i r Hugh Evans may have h e l p e d i n the c r e a t i o n o f B l a z i u s ; 22 Dogberry i n Much Ado has something of the Baron's f o l l y and sententious tone; Petruchio's comic a r r i v a l at the church on an ass may have given r i s e to the idea of Bl a z i u s 1 and Pluche's a r r i v a l i n the f i r s t scene; the imaginary blood which Perdican feels on his hands i n the l a s t scene reminds one of Lady Macbeth. Some of these comparisons may seem far-fetched, but the s i m i l a r i t y i n the o v e r a l l impression created cannot be denied. Henry James, otherwise very c r i t i c a l of de Musset, feels t h i s about his work i n general: I t seems at f i r s t a reckless thing to say, but we w i l l r i s k i t : i n the quality of his fancy Musset always reminds us of Shakespeare. His l i t t l e dramas go forward i n the country of As You Like I t and Winter's Tale, the author i s at home there l i k e Shakespeare himself, and he moves with something of the Shakespearean lightness and freedom. His fancy loves to play with human l i f e , and i n the tiny mirror he holds up we f i n d something of the depth and mystery of the object. Musset's dialogue, i n i t s mingled gaiety and melancholy, i t s sweetness and irony, i t s allusions to r e a l things and i t s kinship with the romantic world, has an altogether indefinable magic. To utter i t on stage i s almost to make i t coarse.H The influence of Marivaux i s f e l t i n the fine psycho-l o g i c a l analysis of character, the idea of finding a pure love and the mixture of romanesque fantasy with realism. Between 1820 and 1830 Marivaux's complete works were published i n Paris and they were often acted during t h i s period. Certain character t r a i t s and traces of the clowns from the commedia  d e l l ' a r t e may also originate with Marivaux. 23 The t e n d e n c y t o r e l i g i o u s c r i t i c i s m i n de M u s s e t may be t r a c e d back t o the 1 8 t h c e n t u r y f a s h i o n f o r c r i t i c i z i n g e c c l e s i a s t i c s and m o n a s t e r i e s . The l e c t u r e s o f V o l t a i r e and D i d e r o t , and a s e r i e s o f a n t i - r e l i g i o u s e s s a y s from the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n were found i n de M u s s e t ' s l i b r a r y . George Sand and h i s a f f a i r w i t h h e r can be d e t e c t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y i n s e v e r a l w a y s . De M u s s e t was known t o be c o r r e c t i n g the p r o o f s o f h e r n o v e l Andre ' , i n w h i c h the h e r o , who i s an o r p h a n , and l i k e P e r d i c a n a s c h o l a r , has a l o v e -a f f a i r w i t h a f l o w e r - g i r l . He seduces h e r and f i n a l l y m a r r i e s h e r when she i s p r e g n a n t , b u t she d i e s i n c h i l d b i r t h . Here i s a n o t h e r p o s s i b l e o r i g i n f o r t he P e r d i c a n - R o s e t t e s t o r y . C a m i l l e ' s memories f rom the c o n v e n t come d i r e c t l y f rom George S a n d , who, as A u r o r e D u p i n (her maiden name) s p e n t s e v e r a l y e a r s a t l a . M a i son des Augus t i n e s a n g l a i s e s i n P a r i s . L o u i s e has been g i v e n t h e f i r s t name o f a f r i e n d o f h e r s , L o u i s e R o c h e j a c q u i l e i n , who i s d e s c r i b e d as M a r i e - X a v i e r i n C h a p t e r X I I o f h e r L ' H i s t o i r e de m a . v i e : . . . e l l e e t a i t t o u j o u r s p a l e comme s a gu impe , t r i s t e comme un tombeau. E l l e se d i s a i t f o r t malade e t a s p i r a i t a l a mor t avec i m p a t i e n c e . . . . C ' e s t l a s e u l e r e l i g i e u s e que j 1 a i e vue au de*sespoir d 1 a v o i r p rononce ses v o e u x . E l l e ne s ' e n c a c h a i t guere e t p a s s a i t s a v i e dans l e s s o u p i r s e t l e s l a r m e s . E l l e ne s ' e p a n c h a i t que dans des acce s de c o l e r e , e t comme e x a s p e r d e p a r 1 ' e n n u i . On f a i s a i t b e a u -coup de commenta i res l a - d e s s u s . Les unes p e n s a i e n t q u ' e l l e a v a i t p r i s l e v o i l e p a r ' d e s e s p o i r d ' amour e t q u ' e l l e a i m a i t e n c o r e . 24 De M u s s e t ' s v i o l e n t a t t a c k on C a m i l l e ' s c o n v e n t e d u -c a t i o n and t h e i d e a s g i v e n t o h e r by h e r f r i e n d s t h e r e d e f i n i t e seems t o d e r i v e f r o m h i s f r u s t r a t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n t r a i t s o f r i g i d i t y and p,uritanism i n G e o r g e ' s c h a r a c t e r , w h i c h l a y b e n e a t h h e r f r e e - t h i n k i n g a t t i t u d e . E x a c t l y how much t h e f o u n t a i n s c e n e a t t h e end o f A c t I has t o do w i t h t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between George and A l f r e d i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e t e r m i n e . I f e e l t h a t t h e i n t e n s i t y o f t h e p a s s i o n o f C a m i l l e and P e r d i c a n i s t h a t o f de M u s s e t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d o f h i s l i f e , and t h a t t h e " d e b a t e , " as c e r t a i n c r i t i c s have s e e n f i t t o t e r m t h i s s c e n e , has more i n i t o f A l f r e d de M u s s e t f i g h t i n g w i t h h i s a l t e r - e g o t h a n w i t h G e o r g e Sand. I n any c a s e , i t i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t two s p e e c h e s i n t h i s s c e n e a r e t a k e n a l m o s t l i t e r a l l y f r o m t h e i r c o r r e s p o n -d e n c e . On A p r i l 1 9 t h , de M u s s e t w r o t e t o G e o r g e , who was s t i l l i n V e n i c e : J e me s u i s r e j e t e a c o r p s p e r d u dans mon a n c i e n n e v i e . . . j e s u i s devore' d'un c h a g r i n cjui ne me q u i t t e p l u s . . . . F a i s ce q u i t e p l a i t , m a i s  l e j o u r ou t e r e t r o u v e r a s q u e l q u e p a r t s e u l e e t  t r i s t e . . . e t e n d s l a m a i n a v a n t de m o u r i r e t s o u v i e n s - t o i q u ' i l y a duns un c o i n du monde un e t r e d o n t t u es l e p r e m i e r e t l e d e r n i e r amour. 3 w h i c h i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o one o f C a m i l l e ' s s p e e c h e s t o P e r d i c a n i n A c t I , S c . 10, and on May 12 G eorge w r o t e t o A l f r e d i n P a r i s : M a i s t o n bon c o e u r , t o n bon c o e u r , ne l e t u e pas j e t ' e n p r i e . Q u ' i l s e m e t t e t o u t e n t i e r ou en p a r t i e dans t o u t e s l e s amours de t a v i e w , m a i s q u ' i l y j o u e t o u j o u r s s o n r o l e n o b l e , a f i n qu'un j o u r t u p u i s s e s r e g a r d e r en a r r i e r e e t d i r e 25 comme moi: j ' a i souffert souvent, je me suis  "trompe quelquefois, mais j ' a i aime. C'est ' m o i a i ve'cu et non pas un etre f a c t i c e er^e  par mon orgueil et mon e n n u i . ^ The section I have underlined i s found l i t e r a l l y i n Perdican's last.speech i n the same scene (Act I, Sc. 10), i n the o r i g i n a l . These excerpts indicate that the quality of f e e l i n g expressed i n On ne badine pas avec 1'amour, i s very s i m i l a r to that of de Musset*s personal l i f e at t h i s time. The background material c i t e d i n t h i s section, p a r t i -c u l a r l y that drawn from romantic l i t e r a t u r e and from the cor-respondence and biographies of de Musset and George Sand, have been found very h e l p f u l i n understanding the passionate, emotional nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between Perdican and Camille. I t i s not easy for us to understand today how s e r i -ously love was taken during t h i s period and how f l u e n t l y and emotionally i t was expressed. Feelings were very close to the surface and e a s i l y verbalized and t h i s i s one of the most important keys to making the play work. 26 I I I . THE ADAPTATION As i s probably true of a l l foreign playwrights, i t seems to be very d i f f i c u l t to do j u s t i c e to de Musset i n English t r a n s l a t i o n . Two d i f f e r e n t translations of On ne  badine pas avec 1'amour were available to me besides Frank Canino's adaptation, the f i r s t by Raoul P e l l i s s i e r , also e n t i t l e d NO T r i f l i n g With Love, done apparently i n 1905 and published i n Gassner's Treasury of the Theatre, Volume I, the other by Peter Meyer i n 1962, under the t i t l e Camilie and  Perdican, published i n A l f r e d de Musset, 1_ Plays, a Mermaid Drama Book. The P e l l i s s i e r version, although the language i s d i g n i -f i e d and to some extent captures the f e e l i n g of the period, i s severely hampered by a word for word adherence to the o r i g i n a l . The r e s u l t i s that he misses the flow and beauty of de Musset's language completely and comes up with a t r a n s l a t i o n that i s s t i l t e d and rings untrue, making i t d i f f i c u l t to accept for the purposes of reading, l e t alone acting. Peter Meyer, by taking more freedom with the o r i g i n a l manages a more readable version with a better flow of language, but his modern idiom does not project any f e e l i n g of the period and makes the passionate speeches of the- lovers and the rhetoric of the grotesques f a l l f l a t — s o that r e a l l y he does de Musset no better service than P e l l i s s i e r . 27 F r a n k C a n i n o ' s v e r s i o n , c o n t a i n i n g s e v e r a l new s e c t i o n s , t r a n s p o s i n g o t h e r s and t r a n s l a t i n g t h e r e s t v e r y f r e e l y , i s d e f i n i t e l y an a d a p t a t i o n r a t h e r t h a n a t r a n s l a t i o n , b u t i t c a p t u r e s much more o f t h e s p i r i t o f t h e o r i g i n a l ( i t s p o e t r y , i t s f l u e n c y , i t s comedy) t h a n any s t r a i g h t t r a n s l a t i o n c o u l d . I b e l i e v e he makes i t a b e t t e r p l a y and c e r t a i n l y a g r e a t d e a l more a t t r a c t i v e t o modern a u d i e n c e s . The most i m p o r t a n t change has b e e n made i n t h e h a n d l i n g o f t h e c h o r u s , w h i c h i s one o f t h e p r o b l e m s t h e p l a y p r e s e n t s . C a n i n o has f o u n d he c o u l d c a p t u r e i t s charm b e t t e r by p u t t i n g t h e l i n e s i n v e r s e . As I have a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , de M u s s e t o r i g i n a l l y w r o t e t h e f i r s t ' s c e n e ( t h e a r r i v a l o f B l a z i u s and P l u c h e ) i n v e r s e , and a l t h o u g h i n h i s f i n a l v e r s i o n t h e same s c e n e i s w r i t t e n i n p r o s e , he has c h anged t h e l i n e s v e r y l i t t l e . The v e r s e : S u r s o n m u l e t f r i g a n t doucement b a l l o t e , D a n s - l e s b l u e t s en f l e u r s , m e s s e r B l a z i u s s ' a v a n c e , G r a s e t v e t u de n e u f , l ' e ' c r i t o i r e au c3te*. Son v e n t r e r e b o n d i l e s o u t i e n t en c a d e n c e , Devotement b e r c e s u r ce v a s t e e d r e d o n , I I marmotte un Ave dans s o n t r i p l e menton.l-^ i n t h e f i n a l v e r s i o n has become: Doucement b e r c e s u r e s a mule f r i g a n t e , m e s s e r B l a z i u s s ' a v a n c e dans l e s b l u e t s f l e u r i s , ve*tu de n e u f , l ' e c r i t o i r e au c o t e . Comme un poupon s u r l ' o r e i l l e r , i l s e b a l l o t t e s u r s o n v e n t r e r e b o n d i , e t , l e s yeux a demi f e r m e s , i l marmotte un P a t e r N o s t e r dans s o n t r i p l e menton.16 Mr. C a n i n o has p u t a l l t h e c h o r u s p a r t s t h r o u g h o u t t h e p l a y i n t o v e r s e , and a l l t h e o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s i n p r o s e , as i n 28 t he o r i g i n a l . To o u r modern e a r s the m i x t u r e i s n o t o f f e n s i v e , as pe rhaps i t w o u l d have been t o de M u s s e t and h i s con tem-p o r a r i e s . I n f a c t t he use o f v e r s e i s e x a c t l y r i g h t , because the cho rus i s a t h e a t r i c a l , n o n - r e a l i s t i c e l e m e n t i n the p l a y , and i f t h e y speak i n p r o s e as one p e r s o n , i t s i m p l y does n o t w o r k , as w i l l be seen i n c o m p a r i n g C a n i n o ' s : G e n t l y r o c k i n g on a d rowsy ass Our r e v e r e n d p r o f e s s o r t r a v e l s t h r o u g h t h e g r a s s . Newly ga rbed i n academic b l a c k , W i t h pen and i n k d a n g l i n g a t h i s b a c k . H i s b e l l y bumping a l o v e l y w a l t z , A l u l l i b y rhy thm t h a t n e v e r h a l t z , 3 He m u t t e r s h i s r o s a r y and dreams o f h i s w i n e , Ten A v e 1 s p e r m i l e , n e v e r l o s i n g t i m e . t o P e l l i s s i e r ' s : G e n t l y r o c k i n g on h i s p r a n c i n g m u l e , m a s t e r B l a z i u s advances t h r o u g h the b l o s s o m i n g c o r n -f l o w e r s ; h i s c l o t h e s a r e new, h i s w r i t i n g case hangs by h i s s i d e . L i k e a chubby baby on a p i l l o w , he r o l l s abou t on t o p o f h i s p r o t u b e r a n t b e l l y , and w i t h h i s eyes h a l f c l o s e d mumbles a p a t e r n o s t e r i n t o h i s d o u b l e c h i n . o r Meyer *s: G e n t l y r o c k i n g on h i s s h a r p - e y e d m u l e , F a t h e r B l a z i u s approaches t h r o u g h the s u n l i t v i n e y a r d s , h i s c l o t h e s a l l new, h i s i n k h o r n a t h i s s i d e . L i k e a baby on a c u s h i o n he r o l l s upon h i s rounded s tomach and w i t h eyes h a l f c l o s e d he mumbles a p a t e r n o s t e r i n h i s t r i p l e c h i n . C h e c k i n g back t o de M u s s e t ' s v e r s i o n i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t a l t h o u g h C a n i n o t a k e s many l i b e r t i e s w i t h the t e x t , h i s v e r s i o n approaches the s t y l e and mood o f t h e o r i g i n a l , w h i l e t he o t h e r two do n o t . I t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e t o c i t e e n d l e s s examples i f 29 space a l l o w e d . C a n i n o ' s v e r s e i s n o t a l w a y s i n rhymed c o u p -l e t s as i n the f i r s t s c e n e , b u t v a r i e s t o s u i t t h e mood o f each scene i n w h i c h the c h o r u s a p p e a r s . A s e c o n d change w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c h o r u s has been t o s p l i t i t up i n t o a l e a d e r (an o l d man) and the c h o r u s i t s e l f , a g roup o f y o u n g s t e r s o f t he same age as P e r d i c a n . T h i s a l l o w s f o r l i v e l i e r s t a g i n g o f t h e i r s c e n e s , t o c r e a t e the i l l u s i o n o f t h e happy c a r e - f r e e w o r l d w h i c h P e r d i c a n remembers from h i s c h i l d h o o d , and a t t h e same t i m e s o l v e s t h e p r o b l e m o f t h e age o f t he c h o r u s , w h i c h i s l e f t r a t h e r vague by de M u s s e t ( i n t he o r i g i n a l i t i s s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y a r e v i l l a g e e l d e r s b u t t h i s i s n o t c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t ) . The l e a d e r i s a b l e t o g i v e the l o n g p i e c e s o f e x p o s i t i o n , such as the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o A c t I , S c . 3, w h i c h w o u l d be d i f f i c u l t t o d i v i d e among s e v e r a l s p e a k e r s , o r even t o be spoken by a younge r c h a r a c t e r , and he can f u n c t i o n as the o l d man (Ac t I , Sc .4) who used t o bounce P e r d i c a n on h i s k n e e . I n a d d i t i o n , t he l e a d e r i s g i v e n a p r o l o g u e and made i n t o a k i n d o f n a r r a t o r : he i s t h e o n l y one who speaks d i r e c t l y t o the a u d i e n c e and i s t hus endowed w i t h a l m o s t m a g i c a l q u a l i t i e s . B e s i d e s the changes i n the h a n d l i n g o f t h e c h o r u s the most i m p o r t a n t change i n the a d a p t a t i o n i s i n the c h a r a c t e r o f R o s e t t e , w h i c h , as i t was w r i t t e n by de M u s s e t has become t o o s e n t i m e n t a l f o r modern t a s t e s . I n h i s p l a y R o s e t t e d i e s b e h i n d the a l t a r i n C a m i l l e ' s o r a t o r y when she h e a r s C a m i l l e and P e r d i c a n d e c l a r e t h e i r l o v e f o r each o t h e r , and s i n c e t h e r e 30 i s no o t h e r e x p l a n a t i o n one can o n l y assume t h a t she d i e s o f a b r o k e n h e a r t . I n a d d i t i o n t o the o b v i o u s s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , h e r d e a t h i s n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y p r e p a r e d f o r , and comes n o t o n l y as a s h o c k , as i t s h o u l d , b u t as a comple t e s u r p r i s e . T h i s p r o b l e m i s s o l v e d i n the a d a p t a t i o n f i r s t by h a v i n g h e r commit s u i c i d e , and t h e n by p r e p a r i n g f o r t h i s s u i c i d e i n s t a g e s : P e r d i c a n ' s g i f t t o R o s e t t e , on the o c c a s i o n when he s ays he w i l l ma r ry h e r , i s a g o l d c h a i n w i t h a j e w e l l e d dagger r a t h e r t h a n j u s t a c h a i n . A t f i r s t g l a n c e t h i s may seem a r a t h e r o b v i o u s h i n t and an i n a p p r o p r i a t e g i f t , b u t i t i s no more o b v i o u s t h a n the s y m b o l i s m i n A c t I , s c . 2, w h e r e , w i t h t h e i r backs t u r n e d towards each o t h e r , C a m i l l e becomes a b s o r b e d i n the n u n ' s p i c t u r e and P e r d i c a n i n the f l o w e r s . I t was i n d e e d t h e f a s h i o n f o r l a d i e s i n P a r i s t o wear such j e w e l r y (men a p p a r e n t l y a l s o wore them on t h e i r h a t s ) and t h e r e i s a r e c o r d o f George Sand w e a r i n g a j e w e l l e d dagger on t h e o c c a s i o n o f h e r f i r s t m e e t i n g w i t h de M u s s e t — w h i c h i s where C a n i n o ' s i d e a p r o b a b l y came f r o m . The dagger s e r v e s b o t h as a more p o t e n t symbo l t h a n the c h a i n and as a c o n v e n i e n t means f o r t he s u i c i d e . The n e x t p r e p a r a t i o n , b e s i d e s t h o s e i n the o r i g i n a l , i s a c o m p l e t e l y new s c e n e , A c t I I , S c . 8, i n w h i c h R o s e t t e i s j e e r e d a t and t a u n t e d by the o t h e r v i l l a g e r s f o r " f l i r t i n g w i t h " P e r d i c a n . I t was r i s k y t o i n s e r t a new scene a t a p o i n t 31 i n the s c r i p t where a l l the attention i s on the steadily r i s i n g b a t t l e between.Camille and Perdican and a lag i n the pace would be f a t a l , but on the other hand, i t i s exactly because a l l the attention i s on Perdican and Camille that the audience was not prepared for the ending. The new scene, however, i s completely successful: i t tops the preceding ones i n i n t e n s i t y and violence, thus helping the o v e r a l l shape of the play instead of hindering i t , and i t shows us exactly why Rosette k i l l s h e r s e l f . In addition i t works b r i l l i a n t l y on the stage. The f i n a l step i n the preparation for the suicide i s Rosette's soliloquy at the beginning of Act I I , Sc. 9, also new, which shows that she i s p e r f e c t l y aware of her s i t u a t i o n and of the f a c t that Perdican has only used her. In this speech she c l e a r l y explains her motivations for everything she has done i n the play up to t h i s point. At the end of the soliloquy she goes o f f to look for Camille, so that when she turns up behind the curtain i n the boudoir l a t e r , i t i s e a s i l y explained. Other changes i n the adaptation are comparatively small and are mostly designed to make production and acting easier. The f i f t e e n d i f f e r e n t locations i n and around the chateau and v i l l a g e have been reduced to four: the salon and Camille's boudoir i n the chateau, a v i l l a g e square, and a fountain i n the woods near the chateau. These four are pe r f e c t l y adequate and i n fact help to unify the production. 32 A c t I and A c t I I o f t he o r i g i n a l , w h i c h a r e v e r y s h o r t have been g rouped t o g e t h e r as A c t I o f t h e a d a p t a t i o n , w h i l e A c t I I I o f t he o r i g i n a l becomes A c t I I . T h i s m e r e l y e l i m i n -a t e s one b r e a k o r i n t e r m i s s i o n w h i c h i s u n n e c e s s a r y s i n c e the p l a y i s r a t h e r s h o r t . F u r t h e r s m a l l changes have been made f o r t he pu rpose o f p o i n t i n g t h e comedy i n the g r o t e s q u e s ' s c e n e s , such as the r e p e t i t i o n o f t h e B a r o n ' s e x i t l i n e " Q u i c k , t o my s t u d y b e f o r e I f a i n t , " w h i c h i s n o t i n the o r i g i n a l , and t h e r e a re many speeches w h i c h have been s l i g h t l y changed t o make them r u n more s m o o t h l y o r make them more c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f t he s p e a k e r s ; i n o t h e r words t o make them more a c t a b l e . F o r example the l a s t h a l f o f B r i d a i n e 1 s s o l i l o q u y ( A c t I , Sc .7) i s c l u m s y and l a b o u r e d i n P e l l i s s i e r ' s t r a n s l a t i o n : F a r e w e l l , v e n e r a b l e a r m - c h a i r i n w h i c h many and many a t i m e I have th rown m y s e l f back s t u f f e d w i t h j u i c y d i s h e s I F a r e w e l l s e a l e d b o t t l e s ; f a r e w e l l m a t c h l e s s s a v o r o f v e n i s o n done t o a t u r n ! F a r e w e l l s p l e n d i d b o a r d , n o b l e d i n i n g - h a l l ; I s h a l l s ay g r a c e h e r e no l o n g e r . I r e t u r n t o my v i c a r a g e ; t h e y s h a l l n o t see me confounded among the mob o f g u e s t s ; a n d , l i k e C a e s a r , I w i l l r a t h e r be f i r s t i n the v i l l a g e and s e c o n d i n Rome. and l i t t l e l e s s so i n M e y e r : F a r e w e l l , b e l o v e d c h a i r , where I have so o f t e n c o l l a p s e d when g o r g e d t o the f u l l w i t h s u c c u l e n t d i s h e s ! F a r e w e l l b o t t l e s o f g l o r i o u s v i n t a g e and s c e n t o f v e n i s o n cooked t o p e r f e c t i o n ! F a r e w e l l s p l e n d i d b a n q u e t s , n o b l e d i n i n g room where I s h a l l n e v e r more say g r a c e ! I r e t u r n t o my own h o u s e . I s h a l l n e v e r a g a i n be seen h e r e m i n g l i n g w i t h t h e m u l t i t u d e o f g u e s t s . L i k e C a e s a r , I w o u l d r a t h e r be f i r s t i n a v i l l a g e t h a n second a t Rome. 33 C a n i n o 1 s v e r s i o n , howeve r , i s f l u e n t , smooth and t i g h t : F a r e w e l l , v e n e r a b l e c h a i r where I have s a t so o f t e n f e a s t i n g on s u c c u l e n t d a i n t i e s . F a r e w e l l , s p a r k -l i n g d e c a n t e r o f v i n t a g e w ine and d e l e c t a b l e r o a s t s done t o a t u r n . F a r e w e l l s p l e n d i d t a b l e and n o b l e d i n i n g h a l l where I w i l l no l o n g e r i n t o n e the g r a c e b e f o r e m e a l s . I r e t u r n t o my p a r i s h , f a r f rom the madding c r o w d . No l o n g e r w i l l I be seen t o a s t -i n g and n i b b l i n g among the a r i s t o c r a c y . Oh , t e m p o r a , Oh m o r e s . . . V e n i , V i d i s ed non v i c i . . . and l i k e C a e s a r , I had r a t h e r be f i r s t i n my p a r i s h t h a n second i n Rome. The P e r d i c a n - C a m i l l e scenes a r e so pompous i n the o l d e r t r a n s l a t i o n as t o sound r i d i c u l o u s t o us t o d a y . F o r e x a m p l e , P e l l i s s i e r g i v e s t h e s e l i n e s t o C a m i l l e and P e r d i c a n i n A c t I , C a m i l l e : I do n o t l i k e d e m o n s t r a t i o n s . P e r d i c a n : T a k i n g h e r hand G i v e me y o u r h a n d , C a m i l l e , I beg o f y o u . What do you f e a r o f me? You do n o t choose t h a t we s h o u l d be m a r r i e d . V e r y w e l l ! l e t us n o t m a r r y . I s t h a t a r e a s o n f o r h a t i n g one a n o t h e r ? A r e we n o t b r o t h e r and s i s t e r ? When y o u r mother e n j o i n e d t h i s m a r r i a g e i n h e r w i l l , she w i s h e d t h a t o u r f r i e n d s h i p s h o u l d be u n e n d i n g , t h a t i s a l l she w i s h e d . Why mar ry? There i s y o u r hand and he re i s m i n e , and t o keep them u n i t e d t hus t o o u r l a s t s i g h , do you t h i n k we need a p r i e s t ? We need none b u t G o d . Meyer makes a s l i g h t improvement w i t h : C a m i l l e : I d o n ' t l i k e s h a k i n g h a n d s . P e r d i c a n : t a k i n g h e r hand G i v e me y o u r h a n d , C a m i l l e p l e a s e . What have y o u t o f e a r f rom me? You d o n ' t w i s h us t o mar ry? V e r y w e l l t h e n ; We w o n ' t . I s t h a t any r e a s o n f o r us t o h a t e each o t h e r ? A r e n ' t we b r o t h e r and s i s t e r ? When y o u r mother p r e s c r i b e d t h i s m a r r i a g e i n h e r w i l l , she w i s h e d o u r f r i e n d s h i p t o l a s t 34 f o r e v e r ; t h a t i s a l l she w i s h e d . Why-s h o u l d we m a r r y ? . Here i s y o u r hand and h e r e i s m i n e . F o r them t o s t a y u n i t e d t i l l ou r l a s t b r e a t h , we d o n ' t r e q u i r e a p r i e s t , do we? A l l we need i s God . B u t t h e speeches a r e s t i l l awkward and d i f f i c u l t t o s p e a k . C a n i n o ' s v e r s i o n r i n g s t r u e t o modern e a r s , w h i l e a t t he same t i m e p r e s e r v i n g the Roman t i c o v e r t o n e s : C a m i l l e : I do n o t l i k e t o be t o u c h e d . P e r d i c a n : N o , p l e a s e g i v e y o u r h a n d , C a m i l l e . Why a re y o u a f r a i d o f me? You d o n ' t want t o mar ry me. . . v e r y w e l l , we w o n ' t be m a r r i e d . I s t h a t a r e a s o n f o r h a t i n g each o t h e r ? A r e we n o t . , a l m o s t . . b r o t h e r and s i s t e r ? When y o u r mother a sked f o r o u r m a r r i a g e i n h e r w i l l , she o n l y w i s h e d t h a t we be f r i e n d s f o r e v e r , t h a t ' s a l l . Why must we mar ry? There i s y o u r hand and h e r e i s m i n e . Do we need a p r i e s t t o keep them t o g e t h e r u n t i l we d i e ? N o , we o n l y need G o d . I t w o u l d b e . p o s s i b l e t o c i t e e n d l e s s e x a m p l e , b u t I t h i n k t h e s e few a re s u f f i c i e n t t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e s u p e r i o r i t y o f F r a n k C a n i n o ' s v e r s i o n , and pe rhaps t o show why the p l a y has been done so se ldom i n E n g l i s h . 35 IV. ANALYSIS OF "NO TRIFLING WITH LOVE" After a b r i e f synopsis of the action of the play, most of t h i s section w i l l be devoted to discussing i t s most impor-tant aspects i n the following order: the character and purpose of the grotesques; the function of the chorus leader and the chorus; Rosette and her place i n the play; and the Perdican-Camille re l a t i o n s h i p . This w i l l go a long way towards c l a r i -fying the play's structure. The section w i l l end with an attempt to p u l l the strings together and arrive at some con-clusion as to what the play i s b a s i c a l l y about. B r i e f l y , the action of the play i s as follows: the Baron, Perdican's father and Camille's uncle, has long been p l o t t i n g to unite his son and his niece i n marriage, i n order to d i s p e l l the loneliness of his l i f e as king's deputy. F i n a l l y , the long awaited day has arrived: Camille and Perdican have finished t h e i r education and arrive at the chateau, preceded by the governess, Dame Pluche, and the tutor, Father Blazius, respectively. But to the Baron's great disappointment, although Perdican i s immediately smitten, with his cousin, Camille seems not at a l l interested i n his advances. The Baron is. outraged at the f a i l u r e of his plans and complains about i t to a l l who w i l l l i s t e n . A f t e r trying desperately to in t e r e s t Camille i n the happy memories of th e i r childhood, Perdican, his pride hurt because of her r e f u s a l , gives up and leaves her. This brings 36 about a change o f h e a r t i n C a m i l l e and she a r r a n g e s t o meet h im a t t h e f o u n t a i n i n the a f t e r n o o n , w h i l e c o n t i n u i n g a r r a n g e -ments f o r h e r r e t u r n t o the c o n v e n t t he n e x t d a y . M e a n w h i l e , P e r d i c a n , who has t a k e n r e f u g e w i t h t h e p e a s a n t s i n the v i l l a g e who ado red h im as a c h i l d , has met C a m i l l e ' s f o s t e r - s i s t e r , a p r e t t y p e a s a n t g i r l named R o s e t t e , who l o v e s h i m , and has begun t o f l i r t w i t h h e r . When C a m i l l e and P e r d i c a n meet a t t he f o u n t a i n , she a p o l o g i z e s f o r h e r e a r l i e r c o l d n e s s and t e l l s h im she i n t e n d s t o r e t u r n t o t h e c o n v e n t and become a n u n , b u t wants t o ask h im w h e t h e r she i s r i g h t i n h e r d e c i s i o n . R e l u c t a n t a t f i r s t t o g e t i n v o l v e d i n such a d i s c u s s i o n and r i s k f u r t h e r h u m i l i a -t i o n , he e v e n t u a l l y ag rees t h a t she has no a s s u r a n c e t h a t he w i l l l o v e h e r f o r t he r e s t o f h e r l i f e i f t h e y do m a r r y , b u t t o h im t h i s i s no r e a s o n f o r n o t d o i n g s o . She t h e n t e l l s h im about h e r c o n v e n t f r i e n d , L o u i s e > who has t o l d h e r abou t t he t e r r i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s she has had because o f an u n f a i t h f u l h u s -b a n d , and t h a t many o f the s i s t e r s a t t h e c o n v e n t have a d v i s e d h e r n o t t o mar ry because t h e r e i s no hope o f h a p p i n e s s w i t h a man. I n s t e a d o f a s s u r i n g h e r t h a t t he nuns a r e w r o n g , w h i c h i s what C a m i l l e h o p e s , P e r d i c a n ends t h e scene w i t h a p a s s i o n a t e a t t a c k on t h e nuns f o r p o i s o n i n g a young g i r l w i t h t h e i r e x p e r i -e n c e s , and on C a m i l l e h e r s e l f f o r h e r f e a r and p r i d e w h i c h w i l l p r e v e n t h e r f rom e x p e r i e n c i n g the o n l y w o r t h w h i l e t h i n g i n human l i f e : t he l o v e between a man and a woman. 37 M e a n w h i l e , F a t h e r B l a z i u s and F a t h e r B r i d a i n e ( the l a t t e r i s t he p a r i s h p r i e s t and a member o f t h e B a r o n ' s h o u s e h o l d ) , who have h a t e d each o t h e r f rom the*moment t h e y me t , have b o t h been t r y i n g t o c u r r y f a v o u r w i t h the B a r o n , B r i d a i n e by t e l l i n g h im t h a t B l a z i u s i s a d r u n k a r d and t h a t P e r d i c a n i s f l i r t i n g w i t h a v i l l a g e g i r l , and B l a z i u s by s a y i n g t h a t B r i d a i n e i s a d r u n k a r d and C a m i l l e i s w r i t i n g l o v e - l e t t e r s t o a man. The r e s u l t i s t h a t B l a z i u s has been d i s m i s s e d . I n o r d e r t o p r o v e t o the B a r o n t h a t C a m i l l e was i n d e e d w r i t i n g l o v e - l e t t e r s , he i n t e r c e p t s a l e t t e r t h a t C a m i l l e has w r i t t e n t o L o u i s e , w h i c h by a c c i d e n t f a l l s i n t o t h e hands o f P e r d i c a n , who r e a d s i t . I n i t C a m i l l e t e l l s L o u i s e t h a t she has b r o k e n P e r d i c a n ' s h e a r t , and t h i s i n f u r i a t e s h im so much t h a t i n o r d e r t o show h e r t h a t i t i s n o t t r u e , he a r r a n g e s f o r C a m i l l e t o w a t c h h im d e c l a r e h i s l o v e f o r R o s e t t e and p r o m i s e t o mar ry h e r . C a m i l l e d i s c o v e r s t h a t he has r e a d h e r l e t t e r and I n v i t e s h im t o h e r room where R o s e t t e i s h i d d e n b e h i n d a c u r t a i n . She t r a p s h im i n t o s a y i n g t h a t he l o v e s h e r and t h a t he n e v e r l i e s , and t hen shows h im R o s e t t e , who has f a i n t e d , and i n s i s t s t h a t he must mar ry R o s e t t e . H u m i l i a t e d , he s ays he w i l l , and now p r i d e has so t a k e n h o l d o f b o t h o f them t h a t t h e y keep up a p r e t e n s e o f h a t i n g each o t h e r , i n s p i t e o f t he f a c t t h a t i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t t h e y a re i n l o v e . When f i n a l l y t h e y a d m i t t h e i r l o v e i t i s t o o l a t e , because R o s e t t e , w i t h o u t e i t h e r o f t h e i r k n o w l e d g e , has been h i d d e n b e h i n d the c u r t a i n a g a i n , and because she i s s c o r n e d by h e r 38 friends i n the v i l l a g e , and aware that Perdican has betrayed her, she has k i l l e d herself with a jewelled dagger Perdican had given her as a g i f t . The f i r s t two scenes of the play introduce the comic characters, or the-"grotesques," as they are usually c a l l e d : the Baron, Fathers Blazius and Bridaine and Dame Pluche. They have been referred to as the "fauna" of the play, for they resemble animals more than humans. They are automatons,, no longer genuinely human, unable to think, understand, adapt or change. They are dead, or impotent beings, who can only con-stantly repeat themselves. Within the context of the play they are r i d i c u l o u s because they do not love and never have loved. But the r i d i c u l e they ins p i r e i s gentle because they are harmless, helpless, dehumanized shells p i t i f u l examples of human f a i l u r e . Their r i d i c u l o u s physiques match t h e i r s i l l y , absurd characters. They are a constant reminder of what Camille and Perdican may become i f they f a i l to f i n d love and must l i v e the rest of t h e i r l i v e s without i t . This i s e s p e c i a l l y clear i n the many instances where Blazius and Pluche seem to parody Perdican and Camille. The grotesques have "become" the function they perform i n society and s o c i a l habits have replaced t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . In t h i s sense they represent the subversive thought of de Musset: the Baron stands for the seigneur, who dominated the society under the July monarchy, i n Bridaine and Blazius res-pectively the authority of the Church and the University are 39 s a t i r i z e d , and P l u c h e r e p r e s e n t s the phony c o n v e n t e d u c a t i o n w h i c h de M u s s e t h a t e d so much. The s a t i r e , however , i s n e a r l y a l w a y s g e n t l e , and though i t w o u l d be p o s s i b l e , and pe rhaps i n t e r e s t i n g t o c a r r y t h r o u g h the i d e a s s u g g e s t e d by t h e t e rm " g r o t e s q u e s " and t o make t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s i n t o u g l y , menac ing and pe rhaps p h y s i c a l l y deformed m o n s t e r s , I do n o t f e e l t h e p l a y w a r r a n t s t h i s k i n d o f t r e a t m e n t . One o f t he p rob l ems o f t he p i e c e i s t o u n i f y i t s many a p p a r e n t l y d i v e r s e e l e m e n t s ; i f one were t o e x a g g e r a t e them beyond what t h e s c r i p t c a l l s f o r , t he d i v e r s i t y w o u l d become t o o g r e a t . Of c o u r s e , t he g r o t e s q u e s must be p l a y e d b r o a d l y , b u t g e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g f o r t he sake o f t h e comedy o n l y , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f an o c c a s i o n a l moment, when t h e i r r e a l u g l i n e s s shows t h r o u g h , such as t h e scene be tween B r i d a i n e and B l a z i u s i n A c t I I , S c . 2. The g r o t e s q u e s domina te the f i r s t t h i r d o f t h e p l a y , a f t e r w h i c h t h e y have e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e l v e s t h o r o u g h l y i n o u r minds and a r e seen l e s s and l e s s o f t e n , as t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e m a i n p l o t moun t s . I n the second a c t t h e r e i s o n l y one l o n g scene o f c l o w n i n g , and a f t e r t h a t t h e y make j u s t one o r two v e r y b r i e f appea rances on s t a g e . I n the b e g i n n i n g o f the p l a y t h e y s e r v e t o p r o v i d e humor and i n t e r e s t w h i l e t he C a m i l l e - P e r d i c a n r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s l o w l y g e t t i n g underway . As the m a i n p l o t g a t h e r s momentum t h e a t t e n t i o n s h i f t s away from the g r o t e s q u e s and t h e y d i s a p p e a r e x c e p t f o r t he o c c a s i o n a l r e m i n d e r o r a moment o f comic r e l i e f , and f o r t h e one s p o t where t h e y a c t u a l l y a f f e c t t h e m a i n p l o t . 40 A n o t h e r , v e r y d i f f e r e n t , e l emen t i n t h e p l a y i s t h e use o f t he c h o r u s and i t s l e a d e r . The cho rus l e a d e r i s b o t h a member o f t h e cho rus and a c h a r a c t e r t o t a l l y o u t s i d e o f t h e p l a y , and t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be d i s c u s s e d s e p a r a t e l y . I n the P r o l o g u e he h i m s e l f g i v e s a l l t he n e c e s s a r y e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s f u n c t i o n : Then me, v i l l a g e r and a l s o commenta tor . . . B o t h i n and o u t o f t h e p l a y , a s e c o n d - r a t e D e v i c e p e r h a p s , f o r e x p o s i t i o n and i n t r o d u c t i o n . He appears s p e c i f i c a l l y o n l y t h r e e t i m e s : i n the P r o l o g u e ; i n the I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A c t I , S c . 3 ; and as the o l d man i n A c t I , S c . 4; b u t i t may be assumed t h a t he i s i n a l l t h e o t h e r cho rus 17 s c e n e s , e x c e p t pe rhaps A c t I I , . S c . 8. H i s f u n c t i o n i s m a i n l y t o b r i d g e the gap be tween the a u d i e n c e and the a c t o r s , and i t i s t h e r e f o r e l o g i c a l t h a t he s h o u l d appear m o s t l y nea r the b e -g i n n i n g o f t he p l a y . He d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e s the a u d i e n c e i n two s p e e c h e s : i n t h e P r o l o g u e he s e t s up the c o n v e n t i o n s o f t h e p r o d u c t i o n ( i . e . t he a u d i e n c e must i m a g i n e the s c e n e r y , t h e y must a c c e p t t h e c h o r u s f o r "some d i v e r s i o n " and h i m s e l f i n t h e d o u b l e r o l e o f a c t o r and commen ta to r ) ; i n h i s o t h e r s p e e c h , t h e I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A c t I , S c . 3 , he does two t h i n g s : he q u i c k l y r e v i e w s what has happened so f a r ("and so o u r l o v e r s have m e t / and n o t so h a p p i l y e i t h e r " ) and t h e n r e l a t e s t h e scene o f B r i d a i n e and B l a z i u s a t d i n n e r , w h i c h i s p a r t l y g i v i n g e x p o s i t i o n and p a r t l y a s i m p l e way o f g e t t i n g a round a s c e n e ' " w h i c h w o u l d be v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o s t a g e . Here he a l s o pe r fo rms 41 h i s f u n c t i o n as commenta tor : "Where C h u r c h and s t a t e c o n -f l i c t , t h e r e i n d e e d t h e w o r l d i s s i c k . " F i n a l l y he draws the a u d i e n c e back i n t o t h e p l a y w i t h : " W e l l , t h e r e ' s a lways a s econd m e e t i n g . L i s t e n ! " I t i s t h i s o m n i p o t e n t , somewhat m a g i c a l q u a l i t y he has because o f r emarks such as t h i s , w h i c h i n d i c a t e s the s p e c i a l charm the l e a d e r o f t h e cho rus must h a v e , and p o i n t s t o h i s most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n : t h a t o f d r a w i n g t h e a u d i e n c e i n t o the p l a y . The c h o r u s i t s e l f p e r f o r m s a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t i o n s . The most i m p o r t a n t o f t h e s e , as has a l r e a d y been m e n t i o n e d : t o s u g g e s t t he c a r e f r e e , i d y l l i c a tmosphere P e r d i c a n remembers from h i s y o u t h . T h i s h e l p s t o show what i t i s P e r d i c a n i s l o o k i n g f o r and i s i m p o r t a n t because h i s s e a r c h t o r e d i s c o v e r t h i s s i m p l e h a p p i n e s s i s one o f t h e most r e v e a l i n g keys t o h i s c h a r a c t e r . The c h o r u s p e r f o r m s t h i s f u n c t i o n c h i e f l y i n A c t I where i t a l s o s e r v e s as a c o n t r a s t b o t h t o t h e l o v e r s and the g r o t e s q u e s , and f i n a l l y as s h e e r " d i v e r s i o n . " On a n o t h e r l e v e l i t h e l p s t o b r i d g e the gap be tween the p l a y and t h e a u d i e n c e by a c t i n g as a s o r t o f a u d i e n c e w i t h i n t h e p l a y , w h i c h o b s e r v e s , comments, and r e c a p i t u l a t e s what i s h a p p e n i n g t o the m a i n c h a r a c t e r s . The most i m p o r t a n t f u n c t i o n o f t he c h o r u s i n A c t I I i s t o p r e p a r e the a u d i e n c e f o r t h e s u i c i d e o f R o s e t t e . F o r t h i s pu rpose i t t a k e s on a c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t a s p e c t and becomes c r u e l and t a u n t i n g i n o r d e r t o show the d i s a p p r o v a l o f 42 Rosette's peers, which i s what f i n a l l y drives her to suicide. The staging and other aspects of the Chorus' scenes w i l l be discussed i n more d e t a i l i n Part V and i n the notes following the prompt-book. Rosette emerges from the chorus i n Act I, Sc. 4. She i s a younge peasant l i k e the others, and this makes her seem deceptively simple. She has very few lines and i s almost never able to express her r e a l feelings because no one w i l l l i s t e n to her, but Rosette has far more i n t e l l i g e n c e than a simple peasant g i r l , and she i s far more aware of what i s happening to her and around her than, either Camille or Perdican. In Rosette's scenes almost everything happens between the l i n e s and they often seem to be almost ambiguous. The key to Rosette's motivation i s found i n her soliloquy at the beginning of Act I I , Sc. 9, where she says: I love him but I could have l i v e d without him. I never expected him to marry me, I only wanted to be near him for a while, to see" him again before. . . Oh, blessed v i r g i n , how could I turn him away when he cried for my help? He wept i n my arms and I couldn't turn him away. From th i s speech i t i s obvious that Rosette knew beforehand that nothing could come of her relationship with Perdican, but she consented to i t because she r e a l l y loved him, not because she did not dare contradict him. Therefore i t must be esta-blished i n her f i r s t scene (Act I, Sc. 4) that she has loved Perdican since they were children and that no one has ever been able to take his place. This i s why she has said she wants to 43 d i e an o l d m a i d . I n A c t I , S c . 8, where P e r d i c a n i s f l i r t i n g w i t h h e r t o make h i m s e l f f o r g e t C a m i l l e ' s c o l d n e s s , she t r i e s t o t e l l h im t h a t she d o e s n ' t want h im t o be l i k e a b r o t h e r t o h e r , t o k i s s h e r i n f r o n t o f h e r mother and t h e v i l l a g e r s , b u t he d o e s n ' t even h e a r h e r . The i n c i d e n t she r e f e r s t o when she s a y s : " . . . how c o u l d I t u r n h im away when he c r i e d f o r my h e l p ? " comes a t t he end o f t h i s scene when she sees h im w e e p i n g . By p u t t i n g h e r arms a round h im she makes h e r commitment t o h i m , a l t h o u g h she knows t h a t a l l she can e x p e c t i s " t o be h e a r h i m f o r a w h i l e " u n t i l he m a r r i e s C a m i l l e . When he l a t e r p r o m i s e s t o mar ry h e r she b e l i e v e s h im because she l o v e s h im and she c a n n o t b e l i e v e t h a t he w o u l d l i e t o h e r . She i s s i n c e r e when she s ays t h i s t o C a m i l l e i n A c t I I , S c . 6. I r o n i c a l l y R o s e t t e ' s h a p p i e s t moments come when P e r d i c a n i s i n t e n t i o n a l l y d e c e i v i n g h e r i n t h e scene by the f o u n t a i n w h i c h C a m i l l e o v e r -h e a r s . I t i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t t o r e a l i z e t h a t P e r d i c a n a t no t i m e i n t e n d s R o s e t t e any ha rm. He s i n c e r e l y f i n d s h e r l o v e l y and does n o t r e a l i z e t h a t she f e e l s much more f o r h i m . Even i n t he scene w h i c h C a m i l l e w a t c h e s , a l t h o u g h a t f i r s t he d o e s n ' t c a r e what he s ays as l o n g as i t h u r t s C a m i l l e , he g r a d u a l l y g e t s c a r r i e d away and comes t o b e l i e v e what he i s s a y i n g . C a m i l l e s t a n d s f o r e v e r y t h i n g he h a t e s , because h e r f e a r and p r i d e a r e u n n a t u r a l , and R o s e t t e i s e v e r y t h i n g he l o v e s and had hoped t o f i n d i n C a m i l l e : she i s p u r e , s i m p l e , l o v i n g , t r u s t i n g , and above a l l , i n tune with everything i n nature. At this moment marriage with Rosette r e a l l y seems to be far preferable to marriage with Camille, and the proposal bursts from him as much from these feelings as for the purpose of hurting Camille. Perdican's feelings for Rosette are ambiguous and he does not r e a l l y understand them himself. What he loves i n her i s what he had hoped to f i n d i n Camille, and i n the larger context of the play Rosette represents Camille as she was before she went to the convent, the unspoiled g i r l who no longer exists and can never be re-created. The Camille-Perdican relationship i s complex and deserves careful consideration. Many c r i t i c s share the opinion of Gisselbrecht, who has written of On ne badine pas avec 1'amour i n 1959: C'est une piece d'un cynisme insupportable: l a desinvolture avec laquelle une paysanne est s a c r i f i c e e aux raffinements sentimentaux de deux jeunes aristocrates y est t e l l e qu'on n'en pas idee. Mais de l a a dire que ces raffinements-l a ont v i e i l l i . . .18 But when one considers the youth and background of the p r i n c i p a l characters and the havoc wrought by coincidence, poor judgment and passion, t h e i r actions become pe r f e c t l y human, thoroughly motivated and not at a l l obsolete. I t i s important i n the cases of both Camille and Perdican to begin an analysis of t h e i r characters with a look into t h e i r l i v e s before they arrived at the chateau. In the case of Camille i t i s h e l p f u l to look f i r s t at the revelations she makes i n the fountain scene. Here we learn 45 about her experiences with the nuns i n the convent, es p e c i a l l y the influence of Louise, and the fact that for the l a s t four years she has been l i v i n g i n an imaginary world with Perdican at i t s centre. Therefore, when she arrives at the chateau a f t e r spending a l l those years secretly dreaming of Perdican, she i s f i l l e d with fear and uncertainty because she i s f i n a l l y going to meet him. Afte r t h e i r f i r s t few meetings she becomes more frightened because she does not understand the a t t r a c t i o n she feels for him. Then he suddenly gives up his pursuit of heir and she feels unexpectedly l e t down, not even r e a l i z i n g that she unconsciously did not expect him to accept her r e f u s a l so e a s i l y . She feels that she must see him again and r a t i o n a l -izes that she should not have been so unkind and that she must t e l l him she i s going to become a nun. She sends Pluche o f f with the note for Perdican, but i n the same breath she also t e l l s her to make sure that everything i s ready for t h e i r departure to the convent the next day. This shows that she does not consciously anticipate a change i n her plans and that whatever happens she wants to be able to get away. By the time she arrives at the fountain her r a t i o n a l i -zation has taken her one step further: she w i l l ask Perdican whether he thinks she i s r i g h t i n going into the convent. Camille's sole conscious motive during the early part of t h i s scene i s to get him involved i n an argument about m a r r i a g e — a l l 46 h e r q u e s t i o n s a r e p rompted by t h i s and when he d o e s , she . f l a u n t s b e f o r e h im a l l t he " p r o o f " o f men ' s u n f a i t h f u l n e s s t h a t she has been s t o r i n g u p . B u t she i s n o t p r e p a r e d f o r h i s r e a c t i o n . He does n o t t r y t o change h e r mind b u t s i m p l y t e l l s h e r t o go back t o t h e c o n v e n t . Then he l a u n c h e s i n t o a p a s s i o n a t e t i r a d e a g a i n s t t he nuns f o r what t h e y have done t o h e r and t h e n a g a i n s t C a m i l l e h e r s e l f , t e l l i n g h e r i n e f f e c t t h a t she i s n o t a human b e i n g a t a l l b u t o n l y a " w r e t c h e d p u p p e t , t r e m b l i n g w i t h p r i d e and f e a r . " To u n d e r s t a n d P e r d i c a n i t i s a g a i n n e c e s s a r y t o l o o k i n t o h i s b a c k g r o u n d . He has j u s t r e t u r n e d f rom t h e U n i v e r s i t y a f t e r t e n y e a r s i n P a r i s . He has been a b r i l l i a n t s t u d e n t , has had many m i s t r e s s e s and has l i v e d among t h e s o c i e t y o f f a s h i o n a b l e c y n i c s and d i s i l l u s i o n e d r o m a n t i c s . As de M u s s e t h i m s e l f p e r i o d i c a l l y d i d , he has become d i s e n c h a n t e d w i t h h i s l i f e , w i t h h i s own s u c c e s s and h i s k n o w l e d g e , and has come t o i d e a l i z e t h e memories o f h i s c h i l d h o o d . He comes home h o p i n g t h a t he can once a g a i n become the s i m p l e c h i l d , ado red by t h e happy p e a s a n t s and by the s i m p l e l i t t l e C a m i l l e he l o v e d i n h i s y o u t h . He i s t he r o m a n t i c h e r o , t r y i n g t o l a y a s i d e h i s e x p e r i e n c e and t o r e d i s c o v e r h i s i n n o c e n c e . L i k e C a m i l l e he i s v e r y y o u n g , b u t because o f h i s e x p e r i e n c e and s u c c e s s , he has more c o n f i d e n c e i n h i m s e l f , e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s a t t r a c t i o n f o r women. C a m i l l e ' s r e j e c t i o n o f h im i s a b l o w t o h i s p r i d e 47 which he cannot admit. Therefore he t r i e s to convince himself that he r e a l l y does not care, and quickly removes himself from further danger to his ego by taking his departure. When Camille arranges to meet him at the fountain he i s a f r a i d that she wants to play games with him and i s on his guard. And even though he i s eventually convinced of her s i n c e r i t y he s t i l l does not want to take the r i s k involved i n making her change her mind. Instead he t r i e s to es t a b l i s h his superiority over her by r i d i c u l i n g her fears and t e l l i n g her she i s missing the best thing l i f e has to o f f e r . At the end of Act I both Camille and Perdican have been thoroughly shaken. Camille, whose pride i s completely shattered, finds herself unable to admit to Louise what has happened. She therefore t r i e s to prevent further embarrassment by simply writing to her as i f things had gone as they had both expected. Perdican i s less upset, but he i s now confused about his feelings for Camille and i s therefore i n a comparatively v u l -nerable p o s i t i o n again. He anticipates the next development with excitement and c u r i o s i t y . But just at t h i s moment when Perdican i s unsure of himself he reads Camille's l e t t e r . This incident i s the turning point i n the play: Perdican i s so i n f u r i a t e d by her l i e , which he takes as an i n s u l t , that he i s overcome with a b l i n d desire to prove to Camille that he r e a l l y was not interested i n her. He does the f i r s t thing that comes into his mind and decides to l e t Camille overhear him declaring his love for Rosette. Such a crude, cruel act i 48 c a n o n l y be e x p l a i n e d by t h e p a s s i o n a t e , s e l f i s h p r i d e o f y o u t h f u l i n e x p e r i e n c e . The e f f e c t on C a m i l l e o f w i t n e s s i n g t h e s c e n e a t t h e f o u n t a i n i s v e r y s i m i l a r t o what P e r d i c a n f e l t when he r e a d h e r l e t t e r . F u r y washes o v e r h e r and she t o o s t r i k e s b a c k w i t h t h e f i r s t t h i n g she c a n t h i n k o f : she wants t o h u m i l i a t e him i n f r o n t o f R o s e t t e and p r o v e t o her. t h a t P e r d i c a n does n o t l o v e h e r a t a l l and has l i e d . S t i l l s m a r t i n g f r o m h e r d e g r a d -a t i o n C a m i l l e summons a l l t h e powers a t h e r command, p u t s on a new d r e s s , a d o p t s a f l i r t a t i o u s manner, and d r i v e s him s h r e w d l y i n t o h e r t r a p . P e r d i c a n , s e c u r e i n t h e knowledge t h a t he has t h e u p p e r hand i n t h e b a t t l e , r e f u s e s t o p l a y h e r game a t f i r s t , b u t a t t h e c r u c i a l moment he becomes c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h e r and t e l l s h e r he l o v e s h e r . C a m i l l e u s e s h i s d e c l a r -a t i o n o f l o v e i n o r d e r t o t a u n t him w i t h what he has done t o R o s e t t e and r e f u s e s t o l i s t e n t o any e x p l a n a t i o n s . P e r d i c a n i s l e f t w i t h o n l y one way t o s a v e h i s p r i d e and r e g a i n t h e a d v a n t a g e o v e r h e r : t o c a l l h e r b l u f f and p r o m i s e t o m a r r y R o s e t t e . Now C a m i l l e f i n d s h e r s e l f i n a s t a t e o f d e s p e r a t i o n , b u t she s t i l l does n o t f u l l y r e a l i z e t h a t t h e v i o l e n c e she t h i n k s i s h a t e i s a c t u a l l y c a u s e d by h e r l o v e f o r P e r d i c a n . She c o n t i n u e s t o r i d i c u l e h i s i n t e n t i o n o f m a r r y i n g R o s e t t e , b u t P e r d i c a n i s by t h i s t i m e c o n v i n c e d t h a t he w o u l d much r a t h e r m a r r y R o s e t t e t h a n C a m i l l e and answers a l l h e r t a u n t s 49 m e r c i l e s s l y . F e e l i n g t h a t she i s l o s i n g ' h i m , C a m i l l e a t l a s t i n s t i n c t i v e l y makes h e r f i r s t move towards h im ( " P e r d i c a n , g i v e me y o u r arm t h e n , I"11 go w i t h y o u " ) , b u t t o o l a t e because a t t h a t moment R o s e t t e appears and t a k e s up a l l h i s a t t e n t i o n . C a m i l l e r e t a l i a t e s by g r a n d l y p a t r o n i z i n g R o s e t t e and t r y i n g t o g e t r i d o f h e r q u i c k l y , b u t P e r d i c a n p o i n t e d l y i g n o r e s h e r and l e a v e s w i t h R o s e t t e . F i n a l l y C a m i l l e r e a l i z e s t h a t she l o v e s h i m and c a l l s h im b a c k . He comes, t h i s t i m e s i n c e r e l y w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n , b u t she i s s t i l l u n a b l e t o s w a l l o w h e r p r i d e and l e t s t he moment pass b y . C a m i l l e has now l o s t a l l h e r c o n f i d e n c e and i s d e s p e r -a t e . P e r d i c a n i s t he one who comes t o h i s senses a t l a s t and r e a l i z e s t h a t o n l y h i s p r i d e and h e r f e a r have caused a l l t h i s s u f f e r i n g . He overcomes h i s p r i d e and t h e y a r e f i n a l l y r e c o n c i l e d , b u t t o o l a t e : t h e y a r e p u n i s h e d f o r t h e m o r t a l s i n o f t a k i n g l o v e l i g h t l y ( t h e i r own and R o s e t t e ' s ) and so t h e y l o s e l o v e i n the e n d . The t r a g e d y i s n o t t he d e a t h o f R o s e t t e b u t t he d e a t h o f t h e l o v e o f P e r d i c a n and C a m i l l e . The r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween C a m i l l e and P e r d i c a n forms the c o r e o f t h e p l a y and i n i t l i e s t he key t o i t s " m e a n i n g . " C a m i l l e and P e r d i c a n have b a s i c a l l y t h e same p r o b l e m : t h e y a r e b o t h t r y i n g t o l i v e up t o an i d e a l i z e d image o f t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s f o r c e s them t o h i d e from each o t h e r and from t h e m s e l v e s under a s e r i e s o f mas ks . B u t t h e y t h e m s e l v e s a r e n o t aware t h e y a r e d o i n g t h i s : t h e y t h i n k t h e s e masks a r e t h e i r r e a l 50 p e r s o n a l i t i e s . Thus Camille believes she i s sincere when she talks about the eternal love of Jesus, but i t i s only a mask: another person speaking through her mouth. Perdican thinks he doesn't care about Camille, but this too i s a mask. At other times they themselves believe they are only play-acting when they are also deceiving themselves: Perdican thinks he i s only playing with Rosette when i n fact a r e a l love for her i s developing i n him. Thus No T r i f l i n g With Love i s concerned with the very contemporary problem of what i s truth and what i s imagination, which i s the mask and which i s the r e a l personality. The moment s i j i c ^ r * t y i s l o s t and we have put on a mask, whether i n t e n t i o n a l l y or not, the mask contains a part of ourselves and i t i s impossible to rediscover our former selves i n i t . Camille struggles desperately against a series of masks which are dangerously deceptive because they do not r e a l l y belong to her: f i r s t she i s the r e l i g i o u s convent g i r l whom we do not understand; at the end of Act I she seems to want to explain h e r s e l f , but we know the revelations are prepared, and we are s t i l l not seeing the true Camille; next comes the l e t t e r to Louise, which i s also a mask; at the end we f e e l that her hatred for Perdican must cover a great love, which f i n a l l y turns out to be true. Perdican too, does not r e a l i z e how much he i s affected by Camille's r e f u s a l because he i s hiding under a mask of indifference and cynicism. Like Camille, he doesn't know which i s himself and which i s the mask. 51 Both Camille and Perdican are only t r u l y themselves i n the l a s t scene. They both r e a l i z e that they are much simpler than they had thought, and that a l l they needed to be happy was each other. But i r o n i c a l l y , just at the moment when they had discovered what happiness was for them, they have l o s t t h e i r chance and t h i s simple happiness i s no longer possible for them. When they f i n a l l y understand t h e i r mistake, they are no longer the simple and good beings they were before without r e a l i z i n g i t . Camille has l o s t her chance of love and Perdican's memories of his youth have faded. We are l e f t with th i s paradox at the end. This i s the great irony of the play. One feels i t expresses de Musset's deep regret and bitterness because somewhere i n his own l i f e he has l o s t that s i m p l i c i t y i n d i s s i p a t i o n and sophistication, and when he became aware of the loss i t was too l a t e . I t was impossible to recapture his former s e l f because he could no longer remove the mask. 52 V. DIRECTORIAL CONCEPT For the purpose of the production I have used the following point of view: for de Musset J iove i s the most im-portant thing i n the world. Perdican, who speaks for the playwright himself, expresses his feelings about love i n Act I, Sc. 10. The fact that Perdican has often loved i n spite of being hurt, makes him the most superior character i n the play. I t also explains his pride which brings about the tragedy. Perdican i s superior to the grotesques because they have never loved: Bridaine and Blazius are p r i e s t s ; Pluche i s p r a c t i c a l l y a nun, constantly talking about her v i r t u e ; and the Baron an i n e f f e c t u a l , effeminate character who i s completely unable to cope with r e a l situations and r e a l people. A l l four of them are sexless and impotent, therefore they cannot love. Not one of them undergoes any change or development during the play. They keep on repeating themselves i n a never-ending pattern of ignorance and uselessness: Bridaine and Blazius constantly worry about food and drink and about currying favour with the Baron; the Baron l i s t e n s , wails about his disappointment and escapes to his study without doing anything; Pluche ceaselessly assures everyone of her v i r t u e . This pattern i s t o t a l l y unaffected by what i s happening to Camille and Perdican. The grotesques are dead, empty s h e l l s : i f Camille and Perdican are struggling against the masks super-53 imposed on t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s , i n the case of the grotesques the masks have replaced t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t i e s . This may happen to Camille and Perdican unless love rescues them. Camille and Perdican do not understand what they want or how they f e e l about each other. Perdican thinks he wants to return to his childhood s i m p l i c i t y but he does not r e a l i z e i t i s too late for that ( i . e . he has grown up) u n t i l he has l o s t his chance: he has found i t i n Rosette but has at the same time destroyed i t when he destroyed her. Only afterwards does he r e a l i z e that i t i s r e a l l y Camille he loves. Camille thinks she doesn't want love u n t i l i t i s too late and she has already destroyed i t . Rosette i s the victim. She i s innocent and her death i s not a tragedy except insofar as i t represents the death of the love of Camille and Perdican. Rosette sees what i s happening more objectively than anyone else i n the play, but because of her position no one w i l l l i s t e n to her and she i s unable to a f f e c t the events i n any way. Since l i f e without love i s death for de Musset, i t i s r e a l l y Perdican and Camille who die when Rosette dies. The chorus embodies the green childhood world which Perdican i s hoping to f i n d again, the happy, carefree, innocent world where he can escape his own knowledge and experience. The chorus leader i s the " s t o r y t e l l e r . " 54 I t was f e l t that i n the design of the set, two consider-ations should be uppermost: f i r s t , the scenery i n the exter-i o r scenes, must constantly remind one of the childhood world of Perdican's memory and should have a qua l i t y of the unreality of memory about i t ; secondly the set must be able to be changed as quickly as possible and with a minimum of noise, so as not to disturb the pace of the production. I t was decided that the use of s l i d e projections would answer both these q u a l i f i -cations. For the exteriors the projections alone were used, while for the i n t e r i o r s the two outer screens were connected by a set piece i n order to f i l l some d e f i n i t e requirements, such as the nun's picture i n the salon and the curtain i n Camille's bedroom. The set pieces also gave these scenes a f e e l i n g of " i n t e r i o r . " Beyond this the barest minimum of furniture and props was used. In the exterior scenes the colours green, blue and brown were used i n various combinations for the projections and the costumes of the chorus, to help create the f e e l i n g of nature and the woods. In the salon the more a r t i f i c i a l and s l i g h t l y bizarre colours of purple and deep pink were used to suggest the a r t i f i c i a l , hot-house atmosphere i n which the Baron l i v e s and the grotesques usually appear. The grotesques were dressed completely i n various shades of black and white, as "dead" colours, i n contrast to those worn by the lovers and the chorus. Their costumes were of an e a r l i e r period than those of the lovers, to suggest the idea 55 that they had stopped l i v i n g a long time ago. F i n a l l y they a l l wore white eye-masks which further separated them from the world of the l i v i n g , and which had the additional e f f e c t of making them appear "blind" and "fixed." The difference between the three groups i n the play was shown also by a difference i n t h e i r movement on stage. The grotesques moved i n r i g i d , symmetrical, often c i r c u l a r figures, frequently s t r i k i n g a r t i f i c i a l stances; the lovers moved as naturally as possible, t h e i r movements being largely determined by the emotions of the scenes, while the chorus moved as a group, t h e i r scenes often being choreographed to express emotions v i s u a l l y . In a l l aspects of the production i t was attempted to follow the same s p i r i t : for th i s reason the programmes were sealed with red wax to make them look l i k e l o v e - l e t t e r s , and the colours of pink and purple were used for a l l the p u b l i c i t y . The above only serves to explain some of the ideas behind the design and the physical production of the play. A l l further d e t a i l s may be found i n the section e n t i t l e d "Details of the Production." 56 NOTES •""W.H. Pollock, Lectures on French Poets, C. Kegan Paul & Co., London, 1879, p. 50. 2 A l f r e d de Musset, A Modern Man's Confessions, trans. G.F. Monkshood, Greening & Co., London, p. 3 f f . 3 A l f r e d de Musset, quoted by Pollock, op. c i t . , p. 75. 4 Correspondance de George (Sand et, d'Alfred de Musset, Editions du Rocher, Monaco, 1956, p.>81. ^Alfred de Musset, Theatre Complet, Bibliotheque de l a Pleiade, L i b r a i r i e Gallimard, 1958, p. 804. 6 Henry James, French Poets and ^N o v e l i s t s , Grosset and Dunlap, New York, 1965, p. 3 f f . 7 Algernon Charles Swinburne, Miscellanies, Chatto & Windus, London, 1911, p. 26 f f . g Paul Lindau, quoted by James, op. c i t . , p. 19. 9 . . . . Philippe Van Tieghem, Musset, Boivm & Cie., Paris, 1944, p. 87. """^Maurice Allem, de Musset, Th eat re C omple t, op. c i t . , p. 806. ''""''ilames, op. c i t . , p. 28. 12 Quoted by Raymond Labreau i n Oh -ne badine pas avec 1'amour, L i b r a i r i e Marcel Didier, Paris, 1961, p. 60. (Where no English t r a n s l a t i o n was available I have used the quotation i n French. My own t r a n s l a t i o n i s as follows: .•. . she was always as pale as her s h i f t , sad as a tomb. She always said that she was i l l and im-pa t i e n t l y waited for death. . . . She i s the only nun I have ever seen who was i n despair at having taken her vows. She did not conceal t h i s and spent her l i f e i n sighs and tears. Her feelings 57 were expressed only through f i t s of anger, as though exasperated by boredom. Everyone spoke of t h i s . Some thought that she had taken the v e i l because of frustrated love and that she s t i l l loved. ) 13 Correspondance de George Sand et d'Alfred de Musset, op. c i t . , p. 82-84. (I threw myself without r e s t r a i n t into my former l i f e . . . .1 am devoured by a misery that w i l l not leave me. . . . Do as you l i k e , but when you f i n d yourself deserted and lonely. . . remember be-fore you die, that somewhere, i n some corner of the world, there i s a being for whom you are the f i r s t and l a s t love.) 1 4 I b i d . , p. 105. (But your good heart, your kind heart, do hot harm i t . Throw i t whole or i n part into a l l the loves of your l i f e , but i t must always remain noble, so that one day you w i l l be able to look back and say l i k e me: I have suffered often, I have some-times made mistakes, but I have loved. I t i s I who have l i v e d , not some a r t i f i c i a l being created by my pride and boredom.) "^Alfred de Musset, Theatre Complet, op. c i t . , p. 804. 16 A l f r e d de Musset, On ne badine pas avec T'amour, L i b r a i r i e Marcel Didier, op. c i t . , p. 17. 17 Because of the violence of Act I I , Sc.8 and the impor-tance of fas t movement, the chorus leader did not appear i n that scene i n th i s production. However, the s c r i p t gives no d i r e c t i o n to t h i s e f f e c t , and i t i s quite possible that other directors may wish to include him i n the scene. 1 8 ^ Andre Gisselbrecht, quoted i n On ne badine pas: avec  1'amour, L i b r a i r i e Marcel Didier, op. c i t . , p. 5. (It i s a play of unbearable cynicism: the careless way i n which a peasant g i r l i s s a c r i f i c e d to the sentimental sophistication of two young ar i s t o c r a t s i s hard to believe. But from that to say that those feelings are obsolete. . .) BIBLIOGRAPHY Correspondance de George Sand et Alfred de Musset, Monaco, Editions de Rocher, 1956. Fortier, Alcee. "Alfred de Musset," in Library of the World's  Literature, V. XVIII, ed. CD. Warner, New York, • R.S. Peale & J.A. H i l l , 1967, pp. 10487-510. Haldane, Charlotte. Alfred. London, Anthony Blond, I960. James, Henry. "Alfred de Musset," French Poets and Novelists. New York, Grosset and Dunlap, 1964. Musset, Alfred de. A Modern Man's Confessions, trans. G.F. Monkshood, Greening & Co., London. Musset, Alfred de. Oeuvres completes en prose. Paris, Bibliotheque de laFleiade, Librairie Gallimard, 1960. Musset, Alfred de. On ne badine pas avec 1'amour, notes by Raymond Laubreaux, Paris, Librarie Marcel Didier, 1961. Musset, Alfred de. On ne badine pas avec 1''amour* notes by Maurice Martin, Paris, Bordas (Les PetitesClassiques) 1964.• " Musset, Alfred de. 7 Plays, trans. Peter Meyer, New York, Hi l l and Wang, Mermaid Drama Book, 1962. Musset, Alfred de. Theatre complet. Paris, Bibliotheque de la Pleiade, Librairie Gallimard, 1958. Palgrave, F.T. "The Works of Alfred de Musset", Oxford Essays. London, John W. Parker and Son, 1855. Pollock, W.H. Lectures on French. Poets. London, C. Kegan Paul & Co., 1879. ' Swinburne, A.C. Miscellanies. London, Chatto & Hindus, 1911. NO TRIFLING WITH LOVE by A l f r e d de Musset Translated and Adapted by FRANK CANINO "BEFORE OPtNlWri ftROLOG-UE /n i j i> i £ C\j £ 3 CHORUS LEADER: music music 2-fh v S t c cut. 3 LlfiHT CU t [ 61 ChfrV-i/s does a sK$i~J; dU^ci---Hie.»v -1-hd.s-i Cji-t-up -H-View-iSc.U'f's 0 happy, happy day Dance p a s t o r a l e , s i n g roundelay.x. 4-e c.Y»etru* u/.-.. Vftiere shepherds f r o l i c on the green 7/he.re maidens b l u s h "but to "be seen. painls  Happy wo r l d , E l y s i u m +o «.ucLi"e,>u:6 Where gods and m o r t a l s y e a r n to oome. Here i s the sweetest v i l l a g e on the p l a i n D e s e r t e d once, ah, never found a g a i n . Now watch, w h i l e two l o v e r s caught i n p a s s i o n s s p e l l , T ransform t h i s garden from Eden to H e l l . Your eye must p r o v i d e our p a s t o r a l scene Salon:--and "boudoir, f o r e s t and v i l l a g e green, For some d i v e r s i o n , a c c e n t t h i s chorus. qcs[wes 4 a f They c h a t t e r , dance and s i n g . . . well,° ch-t>\-vU t h e r e c o u l d be worse. -Then me, v i l l a g e r and a l s o comnentator . . ./J-W.t>£. Both i n and out o f the p l a y , a s e c o n d - r a t e Device perlians, f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n and e x p o s i t i o n . But the Greeks had a word f o r me, T h e r e f o r e , perhaps I am a t r a d i t i o n . Enough o f my c h a t t e r , l e t us "be^in. "BiCtiflU T).L.C. Comic characters e n t e r f i r s t , pedant and ^ J * «-XiT fcR..} Prude : ^ ( ^ ? ; c k -V/ho e n t e r w i t h happv news to s t a r t our L'p m s + r u M c w i s i n t e r l u d e . a ^ S e r v a n t s f e t c h thein i n . qe*,\\;re', fi\UcAC Cot $ ^ "roil THE ?uRP<i<;es OF BLoc«\ K)£ ^ to o flSSidWmeloT oF LINES ( THE. fn (3.£<, 6T TMt. C"HoCv.'S HfluE BeEM jjoo-iot-iet'D ! -k ic , if\! THE- oeote. wo LOHU.K T H E I R 1 , 2 ,+ 3 fltftr f l " A ^ i . E tfM'O - 1 , ^ , ^ 4 -UN'IT t 62 ACT I, Scene 1 ( V i l l a g e , Wednesday, A;00 p.m.) Mi;Sic Cut V CORO: fluently rocking on a drowsy ass, + ^ J u J u . A ^ U u ^ r i ^ ^ ^ ° 5 Our reverend professor t r a v e l s throi/gVT^Ihe grasfe. < 13 , w r n " diRLStHewly garbed i n academic black, With pen and ink dangling at h i s back. /-{Ll:Kis b e l l y bumping a l o v e l y waltz, £I£LV.A l u l l a b y rhythm that never h a l t z , • ^Lf.He mutters h i s rosary and dreams of h i s wine, Ten ave's per mile, never l e s i n g time. L t~/i£ ETI< ; H a i l , l i g h t of learning, heaving into view, .Just i n time, for the harvest wine i s new. -rWe^ sA-o^ > C. .3LAZI1TS: G-ather. round ? rather round, a l l those who wish to ohcv>m; Mpv^ learn the h^vmy t i d i n g s . But fir.«t a class of vvine A^ o u^^j x>yn for my narohed'throat", i has. « U « ; 5 HAS bo-HW. \ 5 Y\ • ^ C 0 R 0 : £:A glass and a b o t t l e of our f i n e s t wine. ' 'feUiius ftii/sic ci'e '?- r.Drink up Father, ah take your time. t?U-2\os giv-ihks 5:Another glass w i l l do no harm. 5" 'pours cx^s-av. The news can wait i f there's no alarm. fhosic cut. j> Blrt.-i.Ius CUII-,1Cs cgtu'K, BLAZIUS: You know, my dear c h i l d r e n , that perdican, the son of your noble l o r d has .just attained h i s t w e n t y - f i r s t year, and with i t h i s doctorate from the U n i v e r s i t y of P a r i s , ft. He returns t h i s very day, a scholar stuffed c-Ue-eW with such l e ? r n i n g that you cannot even-understand him three-quarters of the tlme.^ He i s indeed a para/ron of tX-KKK.,.. { learning. He no£sooner sees a blade of grass or he gives you i t s genus, i t s species, i t s very name . i n l a t i n , i And whether i t rains or shines, he con &i-\UK ... [ t e l l you why and how. He i s a peerless diamond of knowledge, a .jewel i n the u n i v e r s i t y ' s crown, and be-hold, I am come to announce h i s a r r i v a l to my l o r d , the baron, f You most r e a l i z e how I am honoured, I who c-Kexr-have been hi s tutor since he was but four yesrs old. So, my .<?ood f r i e n d s , heVo me' to get o f f t h i s mule without breaking my neck. /The beast has been, stubborn, the dajr i s hot and I would not refuse another glaps-iKf.w Ke.-uue of your excellent wine. G-ood Lord, the b o t t l e is^'p^.yV'L'Xis I^USK c <t l"i e n i x >^' - r -^'^  ao'i:' think I h?d drunk i t a l l . Farewell,bitilt ^s'.Ae. ———'While wendin-? my way across the ooantryside T have ^Vf'£'-> t't"'"'^  been preparing a jigwel of r h e t o r i c , a eulogy for dur"pu\ls *vt baron i n honour of the occasion. j" s h a l l go to greet S<-*i-e\| him. Let the f;ate~be"l.I of the chateau r i n g f o r my ij CK\\i L. +• en t t p nee. w i n ^  s b*. i 1 p\v$u cot-io L _ e ^ i V B U z i u s L ; 2 + 3 t%'\\- Q. u^H-, UM'+K 0 in m f. rH.5 , cWa.A4-£H*h<\ -— UIV! T J L 2 63 jftUSU' cue 11 a 4-5 <*.fvVet- L. , Utr-ty'lij ?luc-l|f-CORO:flLL-Roughly j o l t e d on a -bony a s s c U u l ^ - j - j o l - h ^ h * i - . Miss Pluche, the governess, "blunders through the g r a s s . c'ltfiv.Her r o s a r y f r a n t i c a l l y c l u t c h e d to h e r "breast, Her t w i t c h i n g l e g s k i c k i n g the "beast. BcV5:With an eye t h a t ' s s t e r n and a c h i n s e v e r e GWrtLv.She s n a r l s a t the world'and c u t s i t w i t h a sneer. t-3<ws:A v e s s e l o f v i r t u e t h a t never l i s t s , tiiKisiShe'll never know what shehas missed. L t ' f l H a i l , l i g h t o f v i r t u e , h e a v i n g i n t o view, J u s t i n time f o r the h a r v e s t wine- i s new. 'Tht-i S-UP C. CUe^u$ PLUCHE: A g l a s s of water, scum, a g l a s s o f water w i t h a tduch° A 3 ' of v i n e g a r f o r my parched t h r o a t . "5 c<e\^ j o c \ <rv.4 e.\r, \ CORO: i-.A f i t t i n g welcome f o r a s p e c i a l guest." 1" 0 ^ r ' ^'.Drink up„ Pluche, v i n e g a r "becomes you b e s t . (syWf^r:\--iu^) PLUCHE: Enow, peasants, t h a t the b e a u t i f u l C a m i l l e , the n e i c e o f your master, the Baron, a r r i v e s today a t h i s cha- cKec-v-teau„ /She has l e f t the convent on the express o r d e r o f h e r u n c l e to come and c o l l e c t the i n h e r i t a n c e h e r dear s a i n t e d mother has l e f t h e r . Her e d u c a t i o n , thank God, i s f i n i s h e d , and those who gaze upon her w i l l have the i n e f f a b l e j o y o f s e e i n g a g l o r i o u s blossom of wisdom and p i e t y , -f ffever was t h e r e such aKKK ...[ a young l a d y , so pure and a n g e l i c , a lamb o f v i r t u e , a dove of d e v o t i o n , f May G-od i n heaven keep h e r ever h U.. ' . Q A U S K c-u£tgthus. Amen. Step back scum, my l e g s a r e s w o l l e n , sue d.v-!»\k-i tiwsic cut, IH Bah, your water s t i n k s o f g a r l i c . Extend your hand cj we i c^p)b'i s o t h a t I may descend from t h i s beast,,,^You a r e an . ^ l g n o r a n t , i l l - m a n n e r e d boor. C O i i O : W e l l , the nephew and n e i c e a r e f i n a l l y a r r i v i n g . KcTTZ (i..Gi-\Du-(i) w j l a - j . 0 t h e r p l a n s i s the Baron c o n t r i v i n g ? u^<i;<? h<'u-.^NiT 3_ £ ( as-.Wait f o r the happy news t h a t ' s coming. C\\cyu<, -p{c\<.& a l l (VAvibtc fuc A c r o s s the v i l l a g e the g o s s i p s a r e humming, "f^ps +c-.k\\s^. fltt-: Wait f o r the happy news t h a t ' s coming. Le eider-1 \e.Q\. -Ltgt-t'T CO fa 2. "P<?^ 3"fccT. TI t) M ifliP 5tfT C if fVJ p; jr. t r^ftXt'ci uTT'cit. ACT I, Scene 2 (Salon) r>\NNtR ~imE I T T J-ION 64 BLAZIUS BARON .Father Bridaine. my dearest friend, allow me to ^ ^ U i s ' i / f f ? ^ present Father Blazius, my son's tutor. Father Blazius, my dearest friend, allow me to present Father Bridaine, the,pastor of our parish. To (sec. pWU*V H) think that yesterday, at 3:27 p.m. precisely, ray son achieved his twenty-first year «. . . and what's more, he has a doctorate with four majors. Four majors exactly, my lord. . . literature, botany, roman law and canon law, BUw.>'u>, u/ftu-U -k> ^ ntmi/e-VuVrt . G-o and refresh yourself } dear Blazius. My son w i l l it any moment now. Qui ok, ga th er yourself. rr 0 3 ready when the b e l l rings. '"^"^ h ," V A ° K" be here atup and beBRIDAINE: UNJVT 2. My I speak to you quite frankly, my lord?j Your son's tutor reeks of wine, PLUCHE: BARON BARON: Impossible! BRIDAINE: I'd swear to i t on my l i f e . Vihen he . . . addressed me a moment ago, he reeked of wine horribly. fi\V<.\C cut \t BARON: No more of this . Is*,. I repeat, i t i s utterly im- X pa^l^Uipc. possible . „ . |ah, here" she i s , my good Miss pluche *fJv- _^{_<v-. . . my niece i s doubtless with you? i-Muct-m. L'. -ie She folllows. my lord. I have preceded her by a few-steps. Fa.therB.rida.ine, my dearest friend, allow me to present Miss Pluche, my niece's governess. Miss Pluche, my dearest . , , that i s , allow me to present Father Bridaine, pastor of our parish and my dearest friend. And to think that yesterday, at 7:00 p.m„ precisely my niece attained her 18th year . . . the prize pupil i n the best convent i n France. PLUCHE: From the best convent, my lord, and may I add, as it s most exempary and devout Christian young lady. PlucW W<S:KTS "jo (TVliiiHi/ft- biii" BARON: Go, Miss Pluche, repair the ravages of the zovtxnetffciVi^^ev?**' My niece should be arriving soon, so be ready to ) ) ^ ^ v \ ^hlcs dine early. - i f f 65 BRIDAINE: BARON: Th i s v e n e r a b l e l a d y seems a t r u e model o f p i e t y . X back 4» "t^KcLuht's I-P i e t y and p r o p r i e t y , l a t h e r . ) She i s a tower, a f o r t r e s s , a b a s t i o n o f v i r t u e . BRIDAINE: Agreed,, But the t u t o r r e e k s o f wine. BARON: Pr. B r i d a i n e , t h e r e a moments when I have doubts about you, grave doubts. Don't c o n t r a d i c t me, n o t s Ivivul*; a- Word. fanr .msnv VRfl-ra T hflvfv rh--fiamprl «nri r»1 n+.t.erl c\'5'*"£••? '"'"^  BRIDAINE: o f m a r r y i n g my son l o v e l y c o u p l e , me 6000 crowns. For, a y y e a r s I ave- dreamed and p l o t t e d ^ ^Jj^ to my n i e c e . They w i l l make a s>.\-* --{Xka , t h e i r e d u c a t i o n a l o n e has cost'x'e*J~^> u.1"' But they a r e c o u s i n s from the ch u r c h . You must have a d i s p e n s a t i o n BARON: I have i t . I t ' s on the desk i n my study t h i s v e r y moment,. Oh, my f r i e n d , you cannot c o n c e i v e how happy I am. You know too w e l l how I cannot bear to be al o n e , a v i c t i m to s o l i t u d e . But my p o s i t i o n as k i n g : s deputy f o r c e s me to remain a t t h i s chateau, a s l a v e to duty„ B i l l s , c o n t r a c t s , a p p e a l s , d e p o s i -t i o n s . . . you can't p l e a s e everybody a l l the time, so what can I- do? 1 must o r d e r my v a l e t to keep everybody o u t a How- a u s t e r e and how r i g o r ? - l s i s the l i f e o f a statesman. And how happy I w i l l be now, w i t h my two wedded c h i l d r e n who s h a l l chase the shadows from t h i s gloomy chateau and l i f t the burden o f my heavy o f f i c e . c i BRIDAINE: W i l l they be m a r r i e d h e r e or a t P a r i s ? B.ARDN: E x a c t l y the q u e s t i o n I was e x p e c t i n g . What would x •{0 "R'r 1Ac\\\\& you say i f your hands. . , . vess vdear Farther ".Bridaine.?; -,- I J . . . i f your v e r y own hands Awei*e d e s t i n e d to b l e s s the l*ac<, oA-BRIDAINE BARON BRIDAINE p i n n a c l e o f my d e a r e s t d e s i r e ? My l o r d Yes I mean you »A. you w i l l marry t h em. a\-o K \vr vtr-* c:lw^.rs-0 s + s |_ , I am s p e e c h l e s s , G-ratitude has s i l e n c e d me. No words can express . . . lock 6u\ o'P U-J! ^  A & L*-> . 66 5 BARON: Look our the window here. Look, my people a r e ^ r ^ a ' " ^ t t ' ^ c l f crowding together a t the entrance gate, My two,,,,,,,,,. W;-Hi-Cl*u«:t-c h i l d r e n are a r r i v i n g a t the same time. Oh happy 4-i/wn ou:Y omen. I have for e s e e n e v e r y t h i n g , arranged every-t h i n g i n advance. My n i e c e w i l l enter from the doorBK^Ui'he on the l e f t , my son from the door on the r i g h t . What«" L ! V^^ do you say to t h i s scene? I'm djdLng to see how they .£)"£^ c.. w i l l g r e et each other, what they w i l l say, a f t e r a l l 6000 crowns i s no l a u g h i n g matter. There must "be no s l i p ups, no faux pas, no „ . I have i t ! "Father B r i d a i n e , BRIDAINE: What? BARON: While we ar-e d i n i n g , you can "bring- up seeming to . c „ you -can "bring up . . . . without w h i l e we're d r i n k i n g a t o a s t you know l a t i n , "Father? BRIDAINE: Of course I do. BARON: I would be very happy i f you c o u l d put the boy to a t e s t . . . oh, d i s c r e e t l y of course . . . i n f r o n t of the b r i d e to be. I t can't h e l p but produce a marvellous e f f e c t . Make him speak a l i t t l e l a t i n , not d u r i n g dinner of cotir s e , not w i t h my bad d i g e s t i o n . . . and I don't understand a. word any-how . . . but a t d e s s e r t , you understand. BRIDAINE: But i f you don't understand l a t i n , and i f your n i e c e doesn't understand l a t i n , then . . . BARON: A l l the more reason? Do you t h i n k a woman admires what she can understand? Where i s your knowledge of the world Father, your i n s i g h t i n t o a woman's h e a r t ? BRIDAINE: I don't have much to do w i t h women or t h e i r h e a r t s , but i t seems to me t h a t i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to admire what you cannot understand. BARON frw<;vf. Cue ~2F Ah, E r . B r i d a i n e , how l i t t l e you know of women, i n -deed. They l o v e to be d a z z l e d , h y p n o t i z e d , over-whelm ed_;__Anji_bhj3_^^ / y o u Good day .&y\a- r£ ;- m;\\ t my dear c h i l d r e n , My dear C a m i l l e , k i s s me, my dear 1>-L' * my God, here they are P e r d i c a n . k i s s me, k i s s each other >.L,t. K.R. * "D. r;.c. H S e e ?.i\c\\ 67 PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN BARON: PERDICAN: BARON: CAMILLE: BARON: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: BTRON: BRIDAINE: BARON: G-o od day, Fa t h e r , and you my d e a r e s t s i s t e r . Howx 0•• <'-> w o n d e r f u l i t i s to be her e , how happy I am . . " ^ J ^ S ? ' My f a t h e r and my c o u s i n , my g r e e t i n g s to you b o t h ^ l ^ e j R % h How t a l l you a r e , C a m i l l e , and l o v e l y as the dawn. When d i d you l e a v e P a r i s , Perdicajn? 4i ' V h s RO.^ -t- si-o ps- Ki in Wednesday, I t h i n k , o r Thursday. Why, you've been t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o a woman. And h e r e I am a man. And i t seems t h a t y e s t e r d a y you were no t a l l e r than t h a t . You must be t i r e d . I t ' s been a l o n g journey, and on such a h o t day. No, n ot a t a l l , but l o o k , F a t h e r , how p r e t t y C a m i l l e i s . . Come, C a m i l l e . k i s s your c o u s i n . You must excuse lae.^ vro$$e$ Iv.i-s^W, A compliment deserves a k i s s . K i s s her, P e r d i c a n . I f my c o u s i n r e t r e a t s when I o f f e r a k i s s , then I must a l s o say excuse me. Love can s t e a l a k i s s , but n ot f r i e n d s h i p . N e i t h e r l o v e nor f r i e n d s h i p s h o u l d take what they cannot r e t u r n . . A bad b e g i n n i n g I f e a r . \ake^ "Br-td^iwe. • An excess o f prudence i s a f a u l t , but a good marriage w i l l remove h e r s c r u p l e s , C n 4 - «YAI>- 4"LM-n SUL^WV ft w-cu-t -from fdfKMkr- - \\e -U .-OCMK^ M-S , BRIDAINE: But I am shocked wounded. What a way to a d d r e s s ^ ^ r ] ^ each o t h e r . . . excuse me . . . and d i d you n o t i c e t h a t she c r o s s e d h e r s e l f ? T h i s i s i m p o s s i b l e . The meeting, the moment I had l o o k e d f o r w a r d to euch d e l i g h t i s c o m p l e t e l y r u i n e d. "Ri-i da. I u e I oaks U < L , Say something to them. Look, they've t u r n e d t h e i r backs on each other,. "Bcire^ -lui-ns -ituh-i. 68 7 (.'WIT S, BAROH W e l l , my c h i l d r e n , what a r e you t h i n k i n g about? Do you l i k e t h a t p i c t u r e , C a m i l l e ? What a l o v e l y p o r t r a i t , u n c l e . I s n ' t i t one o f our g r e a t - a u n t s ? Yes, my c h i l d , i t i s your g r e a t grandmother^ no, t h a t i s to say, your g r e a t grandmother's s i s t e r , f o r the dear l a d y never h e l p e d to i n c r e a s e our f a m i l y ' s o f f s p r i n g . But she was a v e r y h o l y woman. CAMILLE: Yes, I remember now. She was a s a i n t , my g r e a t aunt I s a b e l . . . how a nun's v e i l becomes h e r . CAMILLE: BARON UNIT CI BARON And P e r d i c a n , why a r e you l o o k i n g a t t h a t vase o f f l o w e r s ? PERDICAN: J u s t l o o k i n g a t the f l o w e r s , F a t h e r , such a l o v e l y h e l i o t r o p e . BARON: H e l i o t r o p e . . . what a c o m p l i c a t e d name f o r a s i l l y l i t t l e f l o w e r . . . why, i t ' s no b i g g e r than a f l y . PERDICAN: A l l the same, F a t h e r , i t has a v a l u e , and who's to say how much? BRIDAINE: Do u b t l e s s our d o c t o r i s r i g h t . D o u b t l e s s he c o u l d d i s c o u r s e on i t ' s gender, s p e c i e s , genera, p h y s i c a l t r a i t s , c h e m i c a l elements, and i t s r e l a t i v e p o s i t i o n and importance i n the b o t a n i c a l kingdom. PERDICAN: I don't know about a l l t h a t . I j u s t t h i n k . i t s m e l l s good, t h a t ' s a l l . h\osiC to* 21 U i drij cog S "P£oTEC r i ofM c u t 4 69 8 U g H T ^ c J d l ^ T I, Scene '5 -INTRODUCTION L e a d e r cuVei-', t>.L. LEADER: And so our l o v e r s have met And not so h a p p i l y e i t h e r . How. d i d i t b e g i n t h i s way? What s e t One a g a i n s t the o t h e r ? Fear? P r i d e ? N e i t h e r And both, I s h o u l d say. I t would take the p i t y .of God to plumb the mind o f two young people.  __„••;. ,•• ? But l e t them be„ Now l e t ' s g i v e a nod UNfT2_ °"kher c h a r a c t e r s whe gorge and t i p p l e , Fr.' B l a z i u s and Fx. B r i d a i n e , who both a r e d i n i n g On s u c c u l e n t dainties., g u z z l i n g and w i n i n g . Stop„ R e f l e c t . C o n c i d e r how j u s t and t r u e : What two men, almost e q u a l , n e a r l y always do: They e i t h e r f i n d i n each o t h e r a m i r r o r they can scan R e f l e c t i n g the p e r f e c t i o n o f each man, Or, f a i l i n g to f a l l i n t o a b s o l u t e a d o r a t i o n , I n s t e a d they h o l d each o t h e r i n a b s o l u t e e x e c r a t i o n . Two f o o l s , two drunkards, two g l u t t o n s . . . what's the c h o i c e ? E i t h e r one i s bad-, so who i s worse? 0 no, i t takes a g i a n t to l o v e a dwarf, a f a t l a d y To l o v e a s t r i p l i n g . But j u s t the o p p o s i t e i s happening; With our two f r i e n d s who s i t d i s p u t i n g Over a pheasant wing t h a t cannot be d i v i d e d , r o o t i n g Out the c h o i c e s t t r u f f l e s . F i r s t B r i d a i n e D e s c r i b e d a r a r e j&osel. Then B l a z i u s c o u n t e r e d w i t h a P o l i s h cognac, Sauoe H o l l a n d a i s e was B r i d a i n e ' s next a t t a c k , Sauce L y o n a i s e , p a r r i e d B l a z i u s back. So the c o n v e r s a t i o n f l i e s , a mad c a c k l e Of pedantry and p l o t t i n g . Now B r i d a i n e i n L a t i n T r i e s to t e s t P e r d i c a n , but B l a z i u s won't l e t him g e t t h a t i n E i t h e r . Pedant meets p r i e s t i n head to head combat And n e i t h e r one knows where he's a t . Ah, where church and s t a t e c o n f l i c t , There i n d e e d the w o r l d i s s i c k . But when p r i e s t meets p r i e s t i n h o t debate Then tremble w o r l d f o r your f a t e .  l i M T ,3 Hush, enough o f my t a l k i n g . Dinn r i s over. The Baron L f f l H T Cut Y.Re-r£<-r\o\j Cut. Returns to speak w i t h P l u c h e . B l a z i u s and B r i d a i n e each Stagger to a bed, and as f o r the l o v e r s . . . w e l l , t h e r e ' s Always a second meeting. L i s t e n . ex\\<. c^vu'kl^ b.L-70 ACT I, Scene 3 ( S a l o n , a f t e r d i n n e r ) £n\-t\- T5a.ro n. T? • , BARON: My worthy M i s s P l u c h e , I am d e e p l y shocked-] 6 c • PLUCHE: Is t h i s p o s s i b l e , my l o r d ? BA RON: Ah, yes, more than p o s s i b l e . For G-od knows how x \c her L, many y e a r s I planned t h i s meeting, p l o t t i n g i t w i t h mathematic e x a c t i t u d e . T h i s was to have been the h a p p i e s t , the l o v e l i e s t day o f my l i f e . E v e r y t h i n g was arranged. P e r d i c a n v/as to- marry C a m i l l e . The d i s p e n s a t i o n v/as p r o c u r e d -. -. . F r . B r i d a i n e was to perform the ceremony * . . a l l i n p e r f e c t o r d e r . . „ and what happens? Those two c h i l d r e n w i l l b a r e l y speak to each o t h e r . PLUCHE: Do they know of your p l a n s ? BARON: Of c o u r s e . I've l e t drop a word o f two*, P l u c h e , X tahH-uL \& l o o k , h e r e they are coming- now. I f they are talking - ^ h ' f . ®UiA i t ' s b e s t not to i n t e r r u p t . J",,et us withdraw and| in ti. a\-c.\\. -l i s t e n . £ i o ^ h * sWUK-t- -- '•' - - '- losk< 4 Wy <; k s>, I ?. € , £' PERDICAN: CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE: PSRDICAN: .You know, you r e a l l y weren't j u s t i f i e d i n r e f u s i n g ' ^ ^ - ~fr- r4.ic me a k i s s , C a m i l l e . K~ \>r-*c-<rtr c\td b-But I'm l i k e t h a t . I t ' s my way. Would you l i k e to take a walk i n the v i l l a g e ? No, I'm t i r e d now. You don't want to see your f a v o u r i t e meadow again? Cstc. p i i e ' i t ^ And don't you remember our p i c n i c s on the s a i l b o a t ? Come, w e ' l l go down to the m i l l . I ' l l row and you can s t e e r . I r e a l l y haven't the l e a s t d e s i r e . . . You're h u r t i n g me . . . you know t h a t , don't you?X W U ' p x c L K e . What, C a m i l l e , not one h e a r t b e a t more f o r a l l our +° Iv.v- R . happy c h i l d h o o d so f i l l e d w i t h l o v e l y nonsense? Don't you even want to see the path we r a n down to the farm? CAMILLE: No, not t h i s evening. 71 10 PERDICAN/... CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: .Not t h i s evening? When then? A l l our l i f e i s ou l i f e i s out t h e r e . I am not young enough to p l a y w i t h d o l l s nor o l d enough to r e m i n i s c e about the p a s t . How can you say t h a t ? I'm s a y i n g t h a t a l l these c h i l d h o o d memories a r e not to my t a s t e . They bore you? Yes, they bore me T><u?S*s a s \r -ro j o y Po or c h i l d , how I p i t y you. <*xr\- L, L> w IT 3 BARON: PLUCHE: BARON: PLUCHE: BARON: PLUCHE: BARON PLUCHE BARON We l l , you've seen i t f o r y o u r s e l f . You've h e a r d l U tuv-.A )™ i t f o r y o u r s e l f . I expect a l o v e - d u e t , but they TMoc-W-c a n ' t even s i n g i n the same key. I must c o n f e s s t h a t I cannot c r i t i s i z e C a m i l l e . N o t h i n g i s i n more d o u b t f u l t a s t e than one o f these p i c n i c s i n a boat. Are you s e r i o u s ? My l o r d , any decent young l a d y does not v e n t u r e out on water. But i f her own c o u s i n i s go i n g to marrj' h e r . . . The a m e n i t i e s must be observed. No r e s p e c t a b l e young l a d y l e a v e s t e r r a f i r m a w i t h a young man. But I r e p e a t , i f . . . There i s no a l t e r i n g ; the moral code. Pluohe, you a r e an as piu Sic fi>£  U ri H T c u ir. n 72 ft! y SVC c u e a f 1 -i ' Z &~CT 1,. Scene 4 ( F o u n t a i n - Thursday, e a r l y morn) COEO: i T i l l the f i e l d ~i>u+s T>.M\ b.$. ^ t ) * . ^ ' " 0 ^ *~ V t l f ^ b l «., 3 S p i n the wheel - p-*ns p<i". \ D.e.c.-khetK .yhcy hz^i\\ \o t*>o.sh ^ 5 Prune the v i n e - Si-ta L. <>-<-" -CootyVrt-tK • $-&c&$ (e-4c-2. Weave the wool "Si4<i -P'lcn>,~ A-c , i Tend the sheep 6Milk the cow 5"Herd the goat ^Feed the h o r s e A L L ; T h i s i s the Way - AiMifthCfc. { |>c-^  rvmfh*. cofi-Ue- u n - A\1 We l i v e each dav *+&nd_ <yvVhA>v- VJIAAII-TH H - O V K ctii?i-S:From sun to moon &>is:Through heat and r a i n ct I R K '.Round and round - cprU eUnwy-. ai-cui^l In <x c i v d c The c y c l e runs Bovs;The world s p i n s ALL.-. But we remain Always the same tf ir?iv.Wi th each day's change Qi<-'. The w o r l d s p i n s But we remain . % i l l i : -WHSTA.TT ' * r—i —~rr—. , ? v''<V^  \ M ^ f i l i i - ^ h f J £ L i ^ :L IjERDICM:G-ood day my f r i e n d s . Do you know -who HTa-m?' e\\WJT~^ • , 7x 7 LEADER: My l o r d , you are v e r y l i k e a c h i l d we once knew and ;l o v e d . * He Kis U. C'tQX.) pfERDICAN: Dear o l d f r i e n d i t i s you. You're the one who Cu^r-uc c o m ^ c a r r i e d me on h i s "back, danced me on h i s knees and^'^roJ^f>v'^1> s a t me next to you to share your "bowl o f soup. ? r ^ i « > . k <• LEADER: How w e l l I remember you my l o r d . You were the wic k e d e s t r a s c a l i n the whole c o u n t r y s i d e . C ORO : Hu sh, shame . . . heaven f o r b i d . ( , 1 1 f \~, ) LEADER: And the b e s t boy i n the whole w o r l d . CORO: ^ :The b e s t , v.Vuiei b e s t OAOV-US \i h f s ^ U^ppu B^v.The b r i g h t e s t A l m o h e handsomest a ^ J ^ c•*<jA<><L - \ c < \ V x k § Cuav-And s t i l l he i s l a n d s t i l l he i s . ie'* PERDICAN: Why do y o u s t a n d t h e r e so s t i f f and shy? Come, embrace me., Lau^hnv-,, 4 civ-Is he*-. VA \n\ , h L \ 5 73 12 CORO: 5 God b l e s s him &>w.He ha s n ' t changed 2 God l o v e him rfu-?u$:He's s t i l l the same. PERDICAN: Yes, s t i l l the same, not r e a l l y changed. Of c o u r s e i n 10 y e a r s I've grown a few f e e t c l o s e r to the sun and you have bent a few i n c h e s f u r t h e r to the grave, CORO:f+2They say, they say i •= Blaziu.s s a i d HThat you're a s c h o l a r •?With a degree Cmsti: A P.H.D. PERDICAN: So they've t o l d me. Knowledge i s a won d e r f u l t h i n g . But these t r e e s and f i e l d s t e a c h me something V?rg<iW.s «.UJ^  u, b e t t e r . . . to f o r g e t a l l I've ever l e a r n e d . CORO: 5 But t h e r e have been changes S i n c e you've been gone -r-, \ i i ^, I •Z G i r l s m a r r i e d h ^ - e ^ e v - + « 3 Boys i n the army 4-he.iV n f c l u s • i The i n n burned down y I broke a l e g M The crops were good 5 The crops were bad i3;'V$:But the wine, the wine The wine, thank God, i s always good. 2And a g i r l r a n away wi t h o u t a word fiWVi c c^b f%nd we knov/ why - ^ - i ^ b y e ^ a l l knov/ why PERDICAN: I was e x p e c t i n g so many new t h i n g s , but now I don't want to hear about them. How s m a l l our l o v e l y X £. (vf -Wrttaivv. f o u n t a i n seems now. I thought i t was as wide as a l a k e and as deep as an ocean. But no, I r e t u r n e x p e c t i n g an ocean and I f i n d a t r i c k l e o f water gi\Vr L - ^ c i t c and a patch o f g r a s s . I r e t u r n e x p e c t i n g a f o r e s t ^ ^ - j t r e ^ L and I f i n d . f~. !! v/ho i s t h a t g i r l ? ' LEADER: I t ' s R o s e t t e , C a m i l l e ' s f o s t e r s i s t e r . You remember, R o s e t t e ' s mother nursed them both a t the same time. PERDICAN: Come here, R o s e t t e . \-\c X's \e> t n e c - . f h e i - b.t.O. T K <1 )re<.± o-p C \\C-tv *S ^ i r -eops CLl-oi^i-\^- -Peso sv|- a i t\ l o 74 13 ROSETTE: Y e s , m y l o r d . PERDICAN Here I've been t a l k i n g f o r so l o n g , and you haven't even s a i d h a l l o . What a wicked g i r l . Como-an-d—kanee ROSETTE--—Yea , -B^-3regd. PERDICAN: You remember me, don't, you? ROSETTE: PERDICAN: ROSETTE: 0 yes, my l o r d , v e r y w e l l . How o l d a r e you now? 8 my l o r d . PERDICAN': Of course, the same age as C a m i l l e . And a r e you m a r r i e d y e t ? ROSETTE: 0 no, my l o r d , looks <SUU*K s ' h ^ l ^ . PERDICAN: What, the p r e t t i e s t g i r l i n the v i l l a g e . . . and not m a r r i e d y e t ? We must see about t h a t . C0R0:2She wants to d i e a maid she say; flu-.She says, she says ~ u } { C ^ i - W+fr O l d maid, o l d maid @ose"H«- i s *m\>&v-aW CAv\ci -l(-iVi -if iv»ft.U:fi-riiet.«-'A s p i n s t e r t i l l h e r d y i n g day. PERDICAN ROSETTE PERDICAN ROSETTE PERDICAN Is t h i s t r u e , R o s e t t e ? 0 no. C a m i l l e i s h e r e . Have you seen h e r ye t ? No, my l o r d , she h a s n ' t s e n t f o r me. W e l l , then, q u i c k l y put on your p r e t t i e s t d r e s s and come to d i n n e r a t the chateau. But f i r s t w e ' l l make a t o u r o f the- v i l l a g e . O f f we go. T ^ b s )v.s- h * h A i-'Wieu flmsic cuE- &j U « A chorus G. J COROwHuOff we go, o f f we go. 4 See my hotise f i r s t L- No, my new barn ( i i ( } L s 5 God b l e s s him, Hie has n ' t changed 2.God l o v e h i m ) V h e | s s t i l l the same. 9\\\ J c\\cx.\\tt\\\^ KM* Sic Ci-ir 3ft  PCorjtCT tONJ cot g Sex CHfltfCt 3 7 5 L l lHT Cut; lo 14 ACT I, So one 5 (Salon) ftmmpifl TeuV B/^Tus l\f t-'ra^ BLAZIUS: My l o r d , I must have a word with you. Your parish p r i e s t i s a drunkard BARON: Impossible. BLAZIUS: I'm p o s i t i v e . He polished o f f three bottles of wine at dinner. BARON: Well, that i s a b i t extreme. BLAZIUS: And when he l e f t the chateau he went stumbling through the flower beds. BARON: The flower beds? Good l o r d , t h i s i s strange. Three X \ o C . D o t t l e s of wine f o r dinner and then stumbling through the flower beds. Very strange indeed. Why didn't. . he walk on the path? BLAZIUS: Because he couldn't walk a s t r a i g h t l i n e , my l o r d . BARON: I'm beginning to think that I t . Bridaine was.right. Blazius does reek of wine . . . h o r r i b l y . BLAZIUS: What's more, he couldn't sat f a s t enough. He kept X 4-o belching and hiocuping. varans I couldn't help n o t i c i n g that-Tracks I X . -L> cc<:.p<r.. ' B i d2 , 0 1 ' k « 4 K ' He even muttered some phrases i n L a t i n , but with a-f-jg-v- I ^ A V * ^ abominable grammar. He couldn't even conjugate a verb c o r r e c t l y . c. Lord, Blazius absolutely s t i n k s . My dear tutor, X bark would you please r e a l i z e that I have many affairs^'kppiv5. Iws on my mind so I cannot concern myself with v>-hat'^ai people eat and drink. I leave that to the cook. BARON BLAZIUS BARON: BLAZIUS No ref.lection on you, my l o r d . Your wine i s thecx\\-,'Q^l choicest. roj<-;<h *f+evr „ BARON: ..With, my digestion I T has to. be. Own 2. pAt-oiVS- llH< My lor-d, my l o r d , your son i s playing i n the v i l l a g e X -\o ( ' square, with a l l the r i f f r a f f running a f t e r him. '.:5«»-<! '^-s R 76 15 BARON: BRIDAINE: \ BARON: v. -v \ \ \ BRIDAINE: . i BASON: BRIDAINE: BARON: BRIDAINE BARON Im p o s s i b l e . I saw i t w i t h my own eyes. He has a s l i n g s h o t and he's s h o o t i n g a t some b o t t l e s . A s l i n g s h o t ? 0 l o r d , my head. . . I'm overwhelmed . . . I can't see c l e a r l y . B r i d a i n e you must be. wrong. A d o c t o r o f p h i l o s o p h y doesn't p l a y w i t h s l i n g s h o t s . sV^L^-'.f.vs ftbuiul -I* i-u'i t\jLoi+*tG-} 4-c-.cc <j op S T . Look out the window,jmy' l o r d , you can see him f o r y o u r s e l f . L o r d , B l a z i u s i s r i g h t . B r i d a i n e c a n ' t walk a s t r a i g h t l i n e . Look, my l o r d , t h e r e he i s a t the edge o f the pond. He has a v i l l a g e g i r l on h i s arm.. A v i l l a g e g i r l ? My G-od, has my son r e t u r n e d to X. -ta> L- ^HI-ULUJ debauch my people? A v i l l a g e g i r l on h i s arm and ~ •'5 t ! p S T * a l l the r i f f r a f f around him? I :m g o i n g out o f my mind. T h i s must be stopped, ray l o r d * + 6 BAI-OM-C&me S -Vo C.. Everyone's g o i n g mad. I B r i d a i n e c a n ' t walk a s t a i g h t l i n e , B l a z i u s r e e k s o f wine, and lay son i s s e d u c i n g t h e v i l l a g e g i r l s . . . w i t h a s l i n g s h o t . Quick to my study b e f o r e I f a i n t . ct i-s ~\~o "b. -music- ct.»u *\ ^hid.arh4 ^ - ,s-i-c Cel)c)\ .h'\Yr\ \ v-ovv-> 77 BLAZIUS: PERDICAN: BLAZIUS: PERDICAN: BLAZIUS: PERDICAN: BLAZIUS: PERDICAN: BLAZIUS: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN CAMILLE: 16 ACT I, Scene 6 (Sa l o n - l a t e morning) &>\<zz\v$ t- fer^icAU My son, your f a t h e r i s d e s p e r a t e . "VkrcLicAVK L. Why? You a r e not i g n o r a n t o f h i s n o b l e d e s i g n to u n i t e you w i t h your c o u s i n ? W e l l , I don't ask a n y t h i n g b e t t e r . However, the Baron has observed t h a t your p e r s o n a l -i t i e s seem to c l a s h . Sad but t r u e . . . and I c a n ' t change my p e r s o n a l i t y . But w i l l you t r y to impede the marriage? I t e l l you onoe a g a i n t h a t I don't ask a n y t h i n g b e t t e r than to marry C a m i l l e . Go f i n d the Baron and t e l l him t h a t . My l o r d , I ' l l r e t i r e . Here i s your cousin._fxv{- R . Up so e a r l y c o u s i n ? I must r e p e a t what I s a i d C \ [ P r p y e s t e r d a y . . . you're as l o v e l y as the dawn. L e t us t a l k s e r i o u s l y , Perdican.- Your f a t h e r wishes us to marry'. I s h a l l n ot v e n t u r e an o p i n i o n as to what you t h i n k o f the i d e a , but I f e e l o b l i g e d to warn you t h a t I have a l r e a d y r e a c h e d my d e c i s i o n . What s t u n n i n g r h e t o r i c , C a m i l l e . I beg jrour pardon. I mean so much the worse f o r me i f you d i s l i k e me. No more than anyone e l s e . I s i m p l y do not wish to marry. I t ' s n o t h i n g p e r s o n a l . I mean your p r i d e s h o u l d not be o f f e n d e d . PERDICAN: P r i d e i s not one of my q u a l i t i e s , CAMILLE: I came here to c o l l e c t my mother's i n h e r i t a n c e . I am r e t u r n i n g tomorrow to the convent. 78 17 PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: |>SRDICAN: CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDIC N CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN B e l i e v e me, I a p p r e c i a t e your honesty. Shake hands then, and l e t us p a r t good f r i e n d s . I do not l i k e to he touched. A -l<> 'D,L,C\ 4 a \\ c. v- |1?. 'V A Uc s Vi e. \- K rt w <k. ~ k h ec- k No,_please, g i v e me your hand, fCamille. > Why a r e you a f r a i d o f me? You don't want to marry me . . . v e r y w e l l , we won't "be m a r r i e d . I s t h a t a reason- f o r h a t i n g each o t h e r ? Are we not . . almost . . "brother and s i s t e r ? When your mother asked f o r our mar r i a g e i n h e r w i l l , she o n l y wished t h a t we be f r i e n d s f o r -ever, t h a t ' s , a l l . Why must we marry? There i s your hand and here i s mine. Do we need a p r i e s t to keep them t o g e t h e r u n t i l we d i e ? Oh, no, we need o n l y God. I am happy t h a t my r e f u s a l l e a v e s you i n d i f f e r e n t . .x WhT v^L h itV» "Ve C- i I t does not l e a v e me i n d i f f e r e n t . Your l o v e would 4^ i-n<• d>\ have e n r i c h e d my l i f e , but your f r i e n d s h i p by i t s e l f ^ V ^ , ^ ' ^ . can c o n s o l e me. Dpn't l e a v e the chateau tomorrow.^ e r' \ M ? : r ' A f t e r d i n n e r you r e f u s e d to walk i n the garden * he>-w i t h me because you saw me as a husband you c o u l d not l o v e . Stay h e r e a few days l o n g e r . L e t Die hope t h a t our c h i l d h o o d t o g e t h e r i s not w h o l l y dead i n your h e a r t . I must l e a v e . sV^ <n(c< a.coa^ •[v-i- m V\i Tf\ o 5 i c Co £ Why? That i s my s e c r e t . Do you l o v e someone e l s e ? No, but I w i s h to l e a v e . F o r e v e r ? Yes, f o r e v e r . W e l l , then goodbye. I would have l i k e to have s a t w i t h you beneath the t r e e s and t a l k e d as good f r i e n d s . But i f a l l t h a t d i s p l e a s e s you, n o t a word iaore._* ,xi4-s L. _ _ _ She -Wll ecus <?_ — t p t U u sfep^-Jhf . -v. b<r;<: /c t \}t>^vre, , •rhe'v\ X] Di'" k-JM X. D. U. 4» whilg. h o i . c e l l i n g X ucf\c -79 CAMILLE: PLUCHE: CAMILLE: PLUCHE: CAMILLE: PLUCHE: CAMILLE: PLUCHE: CAMILLE: l\\ USiC . 18 Miss Pluche . . .. Pluche! Yes, my lamb? evvVcv- U. he i - , 4 t-. * -U her R. Is e v e r y t h i n g ready? Are a l l the acc o u n t s s e t t l e d ? Can we l e a v e tomorrow? Yss, my s p o t l e s s dove. I w i l l be most happy to l e a v e t h i s infamous p l a c e . Can you b e l i e v e t h a t l a s t evening the Baron c a l l e d me a . . . w e l l , never mind. J u s t a moment. Here i s note you must take to my c o u s i n P e r d i c a n b e f o r e d i n n e r . beetles ftw<tM a. S-Va.P . I. . you " w r i t i n g - a L o r d G-od,- i s t h i s p o s s i l b e ? l e t t e r . . . to a man? Am I not g o i n g to be h i s w i f e ? I can s a f e l y w r i t e to my own f i a n c e . But P e r d i c a n j u s t l e f t you . . . what can you have to w r i t e to him about? Your f i a n c e . . . heaven h e l p us and have you f o r g o t t e n your d i v i n e spouse? Do what I t e l l you and prepare e v e r y t h i n g f o de p a r t u r e . s MWe. ir • he v- harj<£ r our 80 19 ACT I, Scene 7 (Salon - b e f o r e lunch.) e ^ b j ' k i f £ u BRIDAINE: There's no denying i t . The worst has happened. They've g i v e n t h a t b e a s t the s e a t o f honor a g a i n today. The c h a i r t h a t I have so h a p p i l y o c c u p i e d CM-e iSc<; a t the Baron's r i g h t hand f o r so many y e a r s has ' ^ ' ^ ^ L C ^ been snatched away by t h a t J e s u i t , the t u t o r . Oh/' m i s e r a b l e , t h a t I am. Because o f t h i s d r i b b l i n g a s s , t h i s b a b b l i n g drunkard, I am r e l e g a t e d to the f o o t o f the t a b l e . The b u t l e r - w i l l pour the f i r s t x R \-* g l a s s o f wine f o r him, and when the p l a t t e r s g e t " W t o-f (i to me the f o o d w i l l be h a l f f r o z e n and the b e s t t i t b i t s a l l g o b b l e d up. Oh, Ho l y Mother Church i i>\ivn.t.s -VKi5 I c o u l d see why he would be g i v e n the c h a i r o f honor y e s t e r d a y . He had j u s t a r r i v e d ; i t was the f i r s t time i n s e v e r a l y e a r s t h a t he had s a t a t t h a t t a b l e . G-od, how he devoured every m o r s e l . N o t h i n g was l e f t f o r me except some bones and g r i s t l e . I cannot t o l e r a t e such an i n s u l t . F a r e w e l l , v e n e r a b l e c h a i r , where I have s a t so o f t e n , f e a s t i n g on c&\~e$<,e< e.^c.U s u c c u l e n t d a i n t i e s . F a r e w e l l , s p a r k l i n g decanterVTV*5' v v l v" L\ o f v i n t a g e wine and d e l e c t a b l e r o a s t s done to a t u r n . F a r e w e l l , s p l e n d i d t a b l e and n o b l e d i n i n g h a l l where I w i l l no l o n g e r i n t o n e the grace b e f o r e meals. . I r e t u r n to my p a r i s h , f a r from the X D.fl . madding crowd. No l o n g e r w i l l I be seen t o a s t i n g and n i b b l i n g , amidst the a r i s t o c r a c y . Oh tempora, oh mores . . . V e n i , v e d i sed non v i c i . . . and l i k e Caesar, I had r a t h e r be f i r s t i n my p a r i s h than second i n Rome., <?eil-s T>.£\ M u s i c • (\>e SM LtcJHT Cub l i , HPff 6 TE. C T \ o ftj CUE, (o 81 20 P c' L " ( ' KCT-TT Scene 8 ( V i l l a g e - a f t e r n o o n ) ^ ^ ^ 1 ^ ! ^ ^ PERDICAN: R o s e t t e ? R o s e t t e . . .? x L.C , ROSETTE: Who i s i t ? V . . P e r d i c a n . . . I mean, my l o r d . . . PERDICAN: Is your mother a t home? ROSETTE: No. ,PERDICAN: Then come and take a walk w i t h me. \cike.i h*t- a\rm f -p^\U hci-•{ a C • • k i S < f- S" r>£ v- <: e- k f ROSETTE: Do you t h i n k a l l t h i s i s r e a l l y good f o r me? [ PERDICAN: What? ROSETTE: A l l these k i s s e PERDICAN: What'harm i s t h e r e ? I k i s s you i n f r o n t o f the v i l l a g e r s 3 i n f r o n t o f your mother. A r e n ' t you my god s i s t e r ? Weren't you and C a m i l l e r a i s e d t o g e t h e r l i k e s i s t e r s ? And doesn't t h a t make_me almost your b r o t h e r ? Kris^-c Wei-- 4W<r. tv?^ i<-'(__ ROSETTE: Words a r e words and k i s s e s a r e k i s s e s . I'm not v e r y c l e v e r , every time I open my mouth to speak I r e a -l i z e t h a t . . . a l l these g r e a t l a d i e s know so much, whether a gentleman s h o u l d k i s s your r i g h t hand or your l e f t . T h e i r f a t h e r s k i s s them on the f o r e h e a d , t h e i r mothers on t h e cheek and t h e i r l o v e r s on the l i p s . But me, everybody pecks nie on both cheeks and I c o u l d d i e o f shame. PJERDICAN: How l o v e l y you a r e my dear kte<s-los Auxi^ . ROSETTE: W e l l , i t needn't d i s t r a c t you. How sad you a r e t h i s X. ~U Iv.s morning. I s i t t r u e what they say . . . t h a t your 1 m a r r i a g e has been . . . postponed? PERDICAN: The v i l l a g e r s remember how they l o v e d me; the dogs and even the t r e e s remember, but C a m i l l e does not remember. And you, R o s e t t e , who are you g o i n g to marry? ' ' l o o k s : cA- V\e.t-ROSETTE: L e t ' s not t a l k about me. L e t ' s t a l k about the weather, f l o w e r s , your h o r s e s , my- bonnet . . . 82 21 PERDICAN: About a n y t h i n g f t h a t p l e a s e s you, about a n y t h i n g your l o v e l y l i p s can c h a t t e r about w i t h o u t l o s i n g t h a t d i v i n e s m i l e t h a t I r e v e r e more than ray l i f e , ROSETTE: What a l o v e l y speech. But i t seems t h a t you r e v e r e frusic: cu£3.s^my s m i l e more than you r e v e r e my l i p s . f Oh, l o o k , a r a i n d r o p on my hand, but the sky i s so c l e a r . PERDICAN: F o r g i v e me. . IOCJVAS his heaeL ROSETTE: What have I done to make you c r y ? k V\ecIs' . i h -SV^ ivV c£~ h < ^  L l Ct H T C. U £ i 83 ACT I, Soono 9 ( S a l o n - immediately a f t e r w a r d s ) BLAZIUS BARON BLAZIUS BARON BLAZIUS BARON BLAZIflS BARON: BLAZIUS BARON BLAZIUS: BARON: BLAZIUS: My l o r d , I hove something o f the utmost importance to t e l l you. Well? w h i l e I was d r i n k i n g a g l a s s o f wine i n the p a n t r y . . . I mean a g l a s s o f water i n the k i t c h e n , I happened to g l a n c e out the window and . . . oh, how can I say i t ? . . . i t touches the honor o f the whole f a m i l y . The honor o f the whole f a m i l y : imposs Vole.T There a r e 37 men and almost as many women h e a r i n g our name from h e r e to P a r i s to America. How c o u l d i t a f f e c t a l l o f them? L e t me continue....I w h i l e I was d r i n k i n g a g l a s s o f • wine, I mean a g l a s s o f water to a i d my s l u g g i s h d i g e s t i o n , whom d i d I see r u n n i n g by the window but Miss P l u c h e , a l l out o f b r e a t h . X I v\ v~ c rt \ o-f- T*>U2 C-J-a L.J Impo s s i b l o . [ P l u o h e never r u n s . I t ' s beneath h e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r e she was, and w i t h h e r l i v i d w i t h anger, was your n i e c e . My n i e c e , l i v i d w i t h anger? I m p o s s i b l e . She's con-v e n t t r a i n e d . She was p r o b a b l y j u s t e x c i t e d , chasing-b u t t e r f l i e s or something. That w e l l may be. A l l I knov; i s she kept screaming, " F i n d him. Do what I t e l l you, you o l d f o o l . I want him." Then she s t r u c k M i s s P l u c h e w i t h her f a n . P l u c h e had to h i d e behind a bush. P;ehind a bush? I m p o s s i b l e . What d i d Pluche, say? X be.kfh^ She s a i d : "I don't want, to go. I c a n ' t f i n d l i i m b * c k anyway. He's out f l i r t i n g w i t h a l l the v i l l a g e g i r l s . And I'm too o l d to c a r r y l o v e - l e t t e r s . I'm a v i r g i n . " I m p o s s i b l e . . . I moan, go on. What e l s e ? X -Vo hilv\ She had a p i e c e o f paper i n her hands and she kept t r y i n g to crumple i t up and throw i t away. 86 23 BARON: BLAZIUS: BARON: BLAZIUS: BARON: BLAZIUS: BARON: BLAZIUS: BARON: BLAZIUS : BARON BLAZIUS BARON: Why s h o u l d she do t h a t ? Don't you un d e r s t a n d what i t means? No, n ot a t a l l . I t means your n i e o e i s o a r r y i n g A a s e c r e t o o r r e s p o n - . 5,<?-lvl i -dence. ' c , v " c l t L ' Do you r e a l i z e ' w h a t you a r e s a v i n g 1 5 I ' l l swear on my s o u l ' s s l a v a t i o n t h a t your n i e c e i s w r i t i n g l o v e - l e t t e r s . . . to a man. Imp o s s i b l e . Then why d i d she g i v e h e r / g o v e r n e s s the l e t t e r * ? Why d i d she scream " f i n d him" w h i l e she beat P l u c h e w i t h h e r fan? But to whom was the l e t t e r addressed? E x a c t l y my p o i n t . . . to whom|was the l e t t e r a d d r e s -sed"? To a man who's f l i r t i n g w i t h the v i l l a g e g i r l s . Now, l e t ' s t h i n k t h i s out l o g i c a l l y . Who f l i r t s w i t h the v i l l a g e g i r l s ? V i l l a g e boys. Good L o r d . Of course i t ' s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t your n i e c e with..Jier background and e d u c a t i o n s h o u l d f a l l i n l o v e w i t h a v i l l a g e boy, but . . . . Good l o r d , t h i s v e r y morning ray n i e c e r e f u s e d t o marry her c o u s i n P e r d i c a n . Can she be i n l o v e w i t h a v i l l a g e boy? 0 my head . . . I ca n ' t see c l e a r l y . •. .The whole w o r l d i s g o i n g mad . . . Qu i c k . . . to my study b e f o r e I f a i n t . S E T Cl-I-^M C € L-o\\e.<~ k i i o-9-f T>. K . TY" J P ( C 6 T ^ ^ T v 0 C-U to I ? I 'PERDICAN 'VIVIT I ICAMILLE: IpEDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN CAMILLE: ACT I, Scene 10 24 ( F o u n t a i n -Tev-idrcA.^ ~t>.t-I d i -l a t e a f t e r n o o n ) o ' c l o c k . What can t h i s 85 Meet me a t the f o u n t a i n a t mean? T h i s morning she i s c o l d and d i s t a n t . She r e f u s e s to k i s s me. She t r e a t s me l i k e an enemy and now, to end i t a l l she asks me f o r a p r i v a t e meeting. I f she wants to speak to me about something i m p o r t a n t , why choose t h i s p l a c e ? C o u l d she want to f l i r t w i t h me? T h i s morning w h i l e I was w a l k i n g w i t h R o s e t t e , I thought I h e a r d a n o i s e b e h i n d us i n the bushes. C o u l d she be p l o t t i n g something? g-K-Ui- CCKH«\U u-g-Good day, c o u s i n . T h i s morning when you l e f t me you X b.L. seemed v e r y sad . . . and perhaps I . . . you took my hand i n s p i t e o f me, so now I have come to ask | - j ^ b • you to g i v e me y o u r s . I r e f u s e d you a k i s s . W e l l $ c { r hnnsL to t a l k l i k e lasses Kim h e r e i t i s . You t o l d me you wanted us o l d f r i e n d s . W e l l , l e t ' s s i t down and t a l k w h i l e . Was I dreaming e a r l i e r or am I dreaming, now? You must f i n d i t s t r a n g e to r e c e i v e a note from me, don't you*? But I-warn you, I'm v e r y u n p r e d i c t a b l e and temperamental. You know, you s a i d something v e r y a c c u r a t e l a s t n i g h t . " S i n c e we must p a r t , l e t us be good f r i e n d s . - You d i d n ' t know why I was l e a v i n g , and I have come t o t e l l you: I am g o i n g to become a nun. Is / t h i s p o s s i b l e ? I s i t you C a m i l l e , t h a t I see next to our f o u n t a i n , j u s t as we used to s i t and talk'? Yes, P e r d i c a n , i t i s me. I came to r e l i v e . a moment of our p a s t l i f e a g a i n . I wanted to t e l l you t h a t i f I appeared c o l d or s t r a n g e , i t ' s s i m p l y because I have renounced the w o r l d . However, b e f o r e leaving,-polls b&c\\ I would l i k e to have your o p i n i o r u Do you t h i n k I ' A t r K«-'-»4s" am r i g h t to become a nun? 3 t h i n g s l i k e t h a t . I c o u l d never ~\cce.<, c^T PERDICAN: You mustn'tatefa me CAMILLE: become a monk. I t ' s been n e a r l y ten y e a r s t h a t we've been a p a r t . And i n t h a t time you must have has some . . . e x p e r i e n c e of l i f e . I knov/ what k i n d o f man jrou a r e and t h a t you must have l e a r n e d a g r e a t d e a l i n a s h o r t time w i t h a h e a r t and mind l i k e y o u r s . T o l l me, have you ever had a m i s t r e s s ? 86 PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAi'ilLLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN CAMILLE: PERDICAN: 'CAMILLE: i I PERDICAN: 2 5 Why do you ask me t h a t ? Answer me w i t h o u t f a l s e modesty or p r i d e . I have had . . . some. D i d you l o v e them? .With a l l my h e a r t . Where a r e they now? Do you know? Now. t h a t ' s a s t r a n g e Question-. What do you want me to say? I'm not t h e i r husband or f a t h e r . They' ve gone whereever they wanted t o . But there must have been one you p r e f e r r e d to a l l . the o t h e r s . How l o n g d i d you l o v e the one you l o v e d b e s t ? You're a funny g i r l . Do you want to be my confessor'? I'm a s k i n g you to anser me f r a n k l y as a g r e a t f a v o u r . You a r e not a l i b e r t i n e and I b e l i e v e you have an honest h e a r t . You must have i n s p i r e d t r u e l o v e i n someone because you a r e worthy o f i t , and I know you would never throw y o u r s e l f a t a . . . f o o l o f a woman. Answer me, I beg you. R e a l l y , I don't remember. r-\<>e.< 4- brv *.)cs I e -P f Do you know any man who has l o v e d o n l y one woman? There must be one, c e r t a i n l y . One o f your f r i e n d s ? T e l l me h i s ijame. I have no name to g i v e you, but I b e l i e v e t h e r e are some men c a p a b l e of l o v i n g one woman o n l y . How many times can an honest man f a l l i n l o v e ? Am I supposed to r e c i t e a l i t a n y o f f a l s e l o v e r s , ! o r a r e you t e a c h i n g me your catechism'? 87 26 CAMILLE: I want to f i n d out i f I am r i g h t or wrong i n becoming a nun. I f I were to marry you, would you not answer' a l l my ques t i o n s h o n e s t l y . . . without- - r.egjer.vations? I r e s p e c t you very much and I t h i n k you are' t e r r i b l y s u p e r i o r to most other men. I'm s o r r y you can't even t r y to answer, because i f you d i d I might go f a r t h e r . PERDICAN: 'CAMILLE: PERDICAN . CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMIL3 uE PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: What are you t r y i n g to get a t ? Speak, I ' l l answer. Answer my q u e s t i o n then: am I r i g h t to s t a y i n the convent? No. I would do b e t t e r to marry you then? Yes. I f a p r i e s t breathed on a g l a s s of water and t o l d you i t was a g l a s s of wine, would you b e l i e v e him? No. I f a p r i e s t breathed on me and t o l d you t h a t you would l o v e me t i l l I d i e d , c o u l d I b e l i e v e him? Yes . . . and no. What would you ad v i s e me to do the day I h r e a l i z e d you don't l o v e me anymore? Take a l o v e r . And what w i l l I do on the day t h a t my l o v e r doesn't l o v e me anymore? Take another. And how long w i l l t h i s go on? T i l l your h a i r i s s i l v e r and mine i s whi t e . yAMILLJi! Do you know wh.?t a convent . . . a c l o i s t e r e d con-vent i s l i k e , Perdican? H s c s , x l>.R.c. x Sects, ouf" PSRDICAN: Yes, I t h i n k so. 88 27 CAMILLE: I have a f r i e n d t h e r e , a s i s t e r who' i s not v e t 30 y e a r s o l d . When she was o n l y 15 she became the h e i r e s s o f a g r e a t f o r t u n e . . . and b e s i d e s , she was the l o v e l i e s t and n o b l e s t c r e a t u r e who ever walked the e a r t h . Her f a m i l y were a r i s t o c r a t s and her husband was one o f the most d i s t i n g u i s h e d men o f France. She had e v e r y t h i n g to l i v e f o r . u n t i l the day she found out t h a t h e r husband was u n f a i t h f u l to h e r . She became d e s p e r a t e and she took a l o v e r . She even t r i e d to k i l l h e r s e l f . F i n a l l y she came to the convent. PERCICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE I t happens t h a t way sometimes. You know we l i v e i n the same room and we've spent whole n i g h t s t o g e t h e r , t a l k i n g o f h e r t r o u b l e s . Why, they've almost become my own. Strange, i s n ' t i t ? I don't know how i t happened, but as she t o l d me the whole s t o r y o f her l i f e , from the h a p p i n e s s o f her wedding day to the q u a r r e l i n g and p a r t i n g . . . I saw m y s e l f doing e v e r y t h i n g she d e s c r i b e d . When she s a i d was happy a t such and such a place"* I saw i t , and when she s a i d "There I wept" then I began to c r y . But can you imgaine something even stranger"? I f i n a l l y c r e a t e d an. i m a g i n a r y w o r l d o f my own out of a l l t h i s . And i t l a s t e d for- n e a r l y ei\ i \\ -Qic^s f o u r y e a r s . And the s t r a n g e s t t h i n g i s . . , the man in'nry i m a g i n a r y w o r l d . . . was you. Me? N a t u r a l l y . You wore the o n l y young man I had ever know. And I r e a l l y d i d l o v e you Perdican.. How o l d a r e you now, C a m i l l e ? 18. Go on, p l e a s e . I'm l i s t e n i n g . There a r e 200 women i n our convent. A few o f these w i l l go out i n t o the w o r l d , but most o f us . . . most o f them . . . a r e p r e p a r i n g themselves to d i e . • More than one o f them has l e f t the convent, young and h o p e f u l , even as I d i d today. They almost a l l r e t u r n . . . o l d b e f o r e t h e i r time, d e s t r o y e d by l i f e , 89 28 CAHILLE: d e s t r o y e d by l o v e . So they come back to the neat (CON'T) l i t t l e c e l l , and the whitewashed w a l l s and the v e i l . t h a t h i d e s your f a c e . Almost every day one d i e s , but her p l a c e i s soon taken by one who has r e t u r n e d . T e l l me P e r d i c a n , te3r3^-ae—!P-e-rfeean, .what do you think*? |a i-ns Are they r i g h t to come back? b ^ K - i "K PERDICAN: I can ' t say.ace* o o f CAMILLE: Some o f them have a d v i s e d me to rema.in unmarried. But I wanted to ask your a d v i s e . Do you t h i n k those women would have done b e t t e r to take a l o v e r and to a d v i s e me to do the same? PERDICAN: I can ' t say. CAMILLE: You promised to answer me. K* c S +• breaks T>L, PERDICAN: I can't now. I t ' s not Camille/who i s a s k i n g the q u e s t i o n s . CAMILLE: Perhaps not, perhaps I'm o n l y a p a r r o t who's l e a r n e d  u w ( -p 5- [ i t s l e s s o n too w e l l , f L i s t e n , i n one of the convent • c o r r i d o r s t h e r e i s a p i c t u r e o f a monk k n e e l i n g by h i s p r a y e r book. Through the window o f h i s c e l l you can a l s o see a shepherd dancing. Which o f these would you admire? PERDICAN: N e i t h e r one and b o t h . They're s i m p l y two men o f f l e s h X, WhitvL and'blood. One i s p r a y i n g and the o t h e r i s dancing J ^ - ^ fi> . „ n o t h i n g e l s e . You're r i g h t to become a nun. CAVOLLE: You s a i d I was wrong a l i t t l e w h i l e ago. 4t>\-y\<5 ~K -fs.ee PERDICAN: D i d I say t h a t ? I t ' s p o s s i b l e , -fgcc<> oo\-CAKILLE: So t h i s i s your a d v i s e . PERDICAN: Yes,' s i n c e you b e l i e v e i n n o t h i n g . fiv>rr G : CAJYILLE: Look a t me P e r d i c a n . ^Vhat p e r s o n b e l i e v e s i n n o t h i n g ? K R " ivT l^cff i K i \v\ 4 u J- n , 4 o. )_ PiiiirtDIOAN:' I f o r one. I don't b e l i e v e i n your b e a u t i f u l l i f e h e r e a f t e r . My dear g i r l , the nuns have t o l d you o f t h e i r t e r r i b l e e x p e r i e n c e s but t h a t k i n d o f l i f e i s not f o r you. You w i l l not d i e w i t h o u t l o v i n g someone. 90 2 9 CAMILLE: Yes, I want to l o v e someone, but I don't Want to s u f f e r . I want to l o v e w i t h an e t e r n a l l o v e , to make a vow which can never be broken. Look, her e S ' w u . ? h f i» i s . my l o v e r . h e v ctoc{+ fx PERDICAN: That l o v e r does not exclude o t h e r s . , CAMILLE: Fo r me he does. Don't laugh P e r d i c a n . I t ' s been 10 y e a r s s i n c e I l a s t saw you and tomorrow I ' l l l e a v e and never see you a g a i n . In a n o t h e r 10 y e a r s , i f we see each o t h e r a g a i n , w e ' l l t a l k o f a l l t h i s q u i t e s e n s i b l y . But I don't want to l i v e i n your memory as a c o l d p l a s t e r saint., L i s t e n to me. R e t u r n to your l i f e . Be happy. Love whomever and whercever you can. F o r g e t me. But i f you a r e ever d e s e r t e d and l o n e l y , i f you cannot f i n d l o v e , i f the a n g e l of l o v e abandons you, i n t h a t moment o f d e s p a i r and darkness, t h i n k o f me, f o r I s h a l l be p r a y i n g f o r you. Here, take t h i s r i n g , i n memory o f me and f o r . a l l the . . . ^ c kinec-ls 4o r-ecelvc. +he- K h c - 'inc. "puis fV *\\ h»f A-1 i-\<-yt'\- J Be c a r e f u l , be v e r y c a r e f u l , my dear, you s t i n k o f p r i d e . •CAMILL \frxat do you mean? c^Kps h . ' s h a ^  c L P|ERDICAN: You a r e o n l y 16 and you don't b e l i e v e i n l o v e .  U N I T n 'CAMILLE: Hot any l e s s than you. Look a t y o u r s e l f , k n e e l i n g I owns +- X . ' by me w i t h the same knees t h a t have worn threadbare ^ the c a r p e t s o f your many mistresses,. And you c a n ' t even remember t h e i r names. You've wept t e a r s o f ,joyX D-L and d e s p a i r , but you know v e r y w e l l t h a t the water o f t h i s f o u n t a i n i s more c o n s t a n t than your t e a r s . Oh yes, you're a v e r y modern young man w i t h the per>-f e o t b l a s e s m i l e when peo l p e t a l k o f d e s e r t e d women. You c a n ' t b e l i e v e t h a t people d i e o f l o v e , you, who've l o v e d so r i c h l j " and always been l o v e d . How you must d e s p i s e the women who take you as you a r e , who embrace you so warmly- w h i l e the k i s s e s o f a n o t h e r man a r e s t i l l on t h e i r l i p s . I asked you e a r l i e r i f you had ever l o v e d and you s a i d y es, l i k e a t r a v e l l e r who's-j u s t been to S p a i n and Germany and, s a y s : "Oh, yes, I've been t h e r e and now I'm t h i n k i n g o f g o i n g to Swi t z e r l a n d . 30 91 PERDICAN: My God, how b e a u t i f u l you are C a m i l l e , when your eyes s p a r k l e . A fotu^> loc \ \ \\e-\- R. CAMILLE: Oh, yes, I'm l o v e l y . I know i t . But what's the good of f l a t t e r y ? The nun who c u t s my h a i r may tremble a t the m u t i l a t i o n of a l l t h i s beauty. But a t l e a s t my h a i r w i l l never be wasted i n l o v e k n o t s • and s o u v e n i r s , passed from hand to hand from bedroom to bedroom. No, not one h a i r w i l l be m i s s i n g when the min c u t s through i t . And when the p r i e s t puts the golden r i n g of my heavenly spouse on my f i n g e r , -the h a i r t h a t I w i l l g i v e him w i l l serve as a c l o a k . PERDICAN: You're r e a l l y angry, a r e n ' t you? CAMILLE: I've s a i d too much. Oh, P e r d i c a n , . d o n 1 t laugh, I can' t bear t h a t . * b ' ^  JP- fts ° h ^ • **T' e a y cf 6u^-l( PERDICAN Poor c h i l d , I've l e t you spoak and now I must answer. You'fee t o l d me about a nun who seems to have had a x AIDOU*?-t e r r i b l e i n f l u e n c e on you. You say t h a t she was*- 0^ ^>-^tC-deceived by her husband, t h a t she deceived him h e r -CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: TLRDICAN: s e l f , and t h a t now she i s i n d e s p a i r . But are you sVcps . sure t h a t , i f her l o v e r , or her husband, r e t u r n e d "^-^ ei~ and s t r e t c h e d h i s hand through the convent g r i l l , t h a t she would not c l u t c h a t i t ? What are you saying? I don't understand. Are you sure t h a t i f her husband or her l o v e r o f f e r e d X \<-- . her the same l o v e and the same s u f f e r i n g ' a g a i n , she * • u*. U would answer no. I b e l i e v e i t . There are 200 women i n your convent. And almost a l l x \-o c a r r y a wounded h e a r t . They've made you touch these'*-"';'J<:' wounds, these p r e c i o u s r e l i c s . They've t a i n t e d y o u r 0 " very mind w i t h t h e i r s i c k blood. Oh, they've l i v e d i n the w o r l d , haven't they? They know what i t ' s a l l about and they've warned you a c c o r d i n g l y . You've crossed y o u r s e l f before t h e i r wounds as i f they were the wounds of Jesus. YouJ-ve walked i n t h e i r sad p r o c e s s i o n s and they've taught you to t u r n away i n t e r r o r when a man walks by. W e l l , are you so sure x -U !_• £>f t h a t i f the man who walked by was the very ono who 11 92 31 PERDICAN: had d e c e i v e d them, the f o r whom they wept and s u f f e r -(CON'T) CAMILLE: PERDICAN: 1 U W I T H ed, a r e you sure t h a t i f they saw him a g a i n they would not break t h e i r c h a i n s and r u n back to t h e i r murderous men? Oh my c h i l d , do you know the dreams of these women who f o r b i d you to dream? Do you know the name they murmer as they r e c e i v e the h o s t each morning? These women who have p o i s o n e d and 6oi r -n?s wcm^ w h i t h e r e d e v e r y t h i n g b e a u t i f u l i n you, t h e s e women'loSVtt?~ who have rung the d e a t h k n e l l o f d e s p a i r i n your youth, who've made you a c o r p s e to s h a r e t h e i r tomb, do you know what they r e a l l y a r e ? You're f r i g h t e n i n g me. Stop i t . -[acci a.u*^ -from 'K\iv\ Do you know what these women have done? They've p a i n t e d the l o v e o f men as a l i e , but do they know t h e r e i s an even worse l i e ? Tho l i e o f d i v i n e l o v e . Do they r e a l i z e the crime they've committed; to p o i s e n a young g i r l w i t h the e x p e r i e n c e o f a woman? How w e l l they've t a u g h t you. How w e l l I foresaw k ^ k & k. a l l t h i s when you stopped to admire the p i c t u r e o f your g r e a t aunt. You were g o i n g to l e a v e w i t h o u t k & c k-4° •seeing our woods or t h i s f o u n t a i n , you were g o i n g to renounce your happy c h i l d h o o d , you were even g o i n g to r e f u s e to k i s s me. But l o o k a t you now, s i t t i n g by our f o u n t a i n , and next to a man . . . a l l a l o n e . l * r ^ S t 6-Si-l l t u r n your back on me . . . WelTj T o they've taught you your l e s s o n too w e l l . I t w i l l x . & W e c o s t me my l i f e ' s h a p p i n e s s . But t e l l them some- -V-& C.c.. t h i n g f o r me: heaven i s not f o r them. 4&c(r<> Key-But s t i l l y CAMILLE: PERDICAN: Nor f c r me e i t h e r , i s t h a t what you're t r y i n g l o t~ i se $ «- -U b. ? h < M Goodb3/-e, C a m i l l e . Go back to your convent and when your p r e c i o u s f r i e n d s mutter t h e i r poisonous s t o r i e s i n your ear, t e l l them what I am g o i n g to t e l l you " A l l men a r e l i a r s , f a i t h l e s s , . w e a k , b o a s t f u l h y p o c r i t i c a l , proud, h a t e f u l and d r i v e n by l u s t ; " 1 a l l women are v i s c i o u s , a r t i f i c i a l , v a i n , scandal-mongering arid depraved; the w o r l d i s a b o t t o m l e s s sewer where s h a p e l e s s monsters t w i s t and c r a w l i n mountains o f mush. But t h e r e i s one h o l y and sublime t h i n g i n t h i s w o r l d and t h a t i s the u n i o n o f two o f t h e s e i m p e r f e c t c r e a t u r e s . Now l i s t e n to mo c a r e f u l l y . I have o f t e n been d e c e i v e d i n l o v e , many times h u r t , i 93 32 and mnay times unhappy, but a t l e a s t I have l o v e d . And when I am s t a n d i n g on the b r i n k o f my grave, I w i l l be a b l e to l o o k back and say: :' I have s u f f e r e d o f t e n and I have been d e c e i v e d o f t e n but I have s t i l l l o v e d . I am a human b e i n g who has l i v e d , n o t some wretched puppet t r e m b l i n g w i t h p r i d e and f e a r . ?oar, ^Ry J cCT l g iV , C a E i fa.. SET CtlANClE 1 C a m i l l e , f e a r , p ^ u $ e . , he e. x~\ \ <f c^UCcklo^ - CcVrrs.\\\ INTERMISSION L I O I - T C o t . 21 H\ 0 S i c C U E 4o 94 ( S a l o n •-- F r i d a y morning) +oms + X ' ».e^T>i '£4M: She l o v e s me . . . she l o v e s me n o t . . . I'd r e a l l y l i k e t o know i f I'm i n l o v e w i t h h e r . T h i n k f o r a moment.. For a g i r l o f 18 she asks too many embar- • r a s s i n g q u e s t i o n s . And then she's had a l l those p r e j u d i c e s d r i l l e d i n t o h e r head, by the nuns; t h e y ' l l be d i f f i c u l t to g e t r i d o f . F i n a l l y she's supposed to l e a v o today. Dammit, I do l o v e h e r and t h a t ' s a l l t h e r e i s to i t . . . But a f t e r a l l , what i f the nuns have taught her too w e l l ? I t ' s obvious she doesn't c a r e f o r me now . .. and however p r e t t y she i s t h a t doesn't p r e v e n t her from b e i n g a p r i g , a prude'and o p i n i o n a t e d . . . 'There's n o t h i n g to t h i n k about. I don't l o v e h e r . But why c a n ' t I g e t t h a t t e r r i b l e t a l k we had y e s t e r d a y out o f my head? I've spent the whole n i g h t t o s s i n g and t u r n i n g . Where was I g o i n g now? Oh, to the v i l l a g e , o f c o u r s e . x" "t>.j£. < exW^ M i ' s i c C u & HI L (£ i-l T Co £ 2,3 S S T C^CfdC % 95 ACT I I , Scene 2 ( V i l l a g e -- noon) D M T t BARON: Sp^V BU-z 4T> His L. Be s i d e s b e i n g a drunkard, you're an a s s , B l a z i u s . The cook saw you sn e a k i n g i n t o the p a n t r y . And a f t e r you had the a u d a c i t y t o s t e a l my b e s t wiiie, you t r y to j u s t i f y y o u r s e l f by a c c u s i n g my n i e o e o f h a v i n g a s e c r e t correspondence . . . w i t h a man. BLAZIUS-: But my l o r d , i f you would be so k i n d as to remem-ber . . . Ak \\ - f i n a l s W H ^ W ' B l be\4 BARON: Get out and never a g a i n darken my.door. I f I had L(CUT Cut as" my way I'd have you hanged. e.x\\ 1V,Y-*IA 1>.£. -9<^U^<^ b«-jo\-BIU'DALJE: What a r e they d o i n g now? I t ' s noon. They're C W T Z. s i t t i n g cit the d i n n e r t a b l e . What a r e they e a t i n g ? I saw, the cook l u g g i n g an enormous t u r k e y a c r o s s h&l-Cfitt4<-the v i l l a g e s quare. And t h e Baron always has °-G> t r u f f l e s w i t h h i s t u r k e y . t> VX^'C \rs "0 • V-• LU rill BLAZIUS: D i s g r a c e d . . . d i s m i s s e d . . . thrown out .". . U'iwc W,--H\t, never to d r i n k a v i n t a g e wine a g a i n . c}rc\e. -U o,r?. ___ • ht\\-£ circAe. \-a "D.L . OK Ii"n<?-j4« oft c-f+irv-BRIDAINE: R e j e c t e d . . . r e b u f f e d . ] . . r e p u l s e d . . . never to see those steaming p l a t e s a g a i n . BLAZIUS: What f a t a l c u r i o s i t y l e d me to ov e r h e a r / M i s s P l u c h e • cAev-and C a m i l l e ? Why d i d I t e l l the Baron a l l t h a t I •had seen? ,5'i-na I \e\- )vc|-C c Iv-c. 1 ' I BRIDAINE: What f a t a l p r i d e l e d me to q u i t t h a t / s p l e n d i d t a b l e ? V \ . *^ Why d i d I c a r e whether I s a t on the r i g h t or t h e _ ( o l 0 ' £ e ' ^ . e H BLAZI US: 0 L o r d , I must have been drunk when I committed svna \ l«r »-t h i s f o l l y . c i r c l e BRIDAINE: 0 God, I must have been t i p s y when I committed t h i s . r a s h deed. yncWer c in- le- -BLAZIUS: 0 L o r d , t h e r e ' s the v i o a r . b h c - ^ l c ? l e P i - b^4 f/e_ BRIDAINE: 0 God, t h e r e ' s the t u t o r . W ^ l c s K, W^V - K«cU c b-he.' BLAZIUS: Ah, my good Er. B r i d a i n e , what a r e you doing here? UfviT 3 : Dfic k -lo c. . 96 35 BRIDAINE BLAZIUS; BRIDAINE: BLAZIUS: 'BRIDAINE: BLAZIUS: BRIDAINE: "UNIT M BLAZIUS: ' PLUCHE BLAZIUS ' PLUCHE BLAZIUS PLUCHE I'm on my way to d i n n e r . A r e n ' t you coming? No, not today, not ever a g a i n . Oh, Pr. B r i d a i n e , i n t e r c e d e .for me. Tho Baron has thrown mo out. kn^cU I m i s t a k e n l y a c c u s e d C a m i l l e o f h a v i n g a s e c r e t -?><v\f « - f » x correspondence, "but as God i s my w i t n e s s , I "believed i t was t r u e . And now I'm i n d i s g r a c e . And I s t o l e o n l y one "bottle o f wine . . . I don't understand. bg-^ns cxi V ,. 1< f 6 -5«r $ h i S Ve ivi I'm bogging you to i n t e r c e d e fox me. i I'm r e a l l y an honest man. Oh, my good Pr. B r i d a i n e , I ' l l be your humble s e r v a n t f o r e v e r i f you h e l p me. Am I dreaming? No. Oh v e n e r a b l e c h a i r , oh steaming p l a t t e r s , once more you w i l l be mine. I would be so g r a t e f u l i f you would j u s t l i s t e n to my s i d e o f the s t o r y . . . I m p o s s i b l e . Tho d i n n e r b e l l has rung and I ' l l b e X 4 h i ' u m -l a t e . I can h a r d l y i n t e r c e d e f o r a drunkard . . ^ . ^ o o & A and a g l u t t o n . (And now to the t a b l e . . . Oh Uv^a^u* worthy stomach, prepare y o u r s e l f f o r another f e a s t . ) M i g o r a b l e P l u c h e , I ' l l make- you pay f o r t h i s . I t i s unds you who have r u i n e d me . . . shameless hussy. O h ~ y - \ ^ £ s h o l y u n i v e r s i t y o f " " a r i s , I'm d i s g r a c e d f o r e v e r i f I can't prove to the Baron t h a t C a m i l l o i s • a r r y i n g on a s e c r e t correspondence . . . w i t h a man. I saw . ^  .__ h e r t h i s morning, w r i t i n g another l e t t e r . Ah, here^.^u,, ~0.i. comes Pluche j P l u c h e , g i v e me th<;-.t l e t t e r . X c What does t h i s mean? T h i s i s a l e t t e r from my m i s t r e s s t h a t I am b r i n g i n g to the v i l l a g e p o s t o i f i c e . I t has n o t h i n g to do w i t h you. g>ce<; -Vo ^ * * ^ • ^  P l uche, t h a t l e t t e r o r your l i f e . ^t>o< her- - s W 4*-i^s f"<> '"^ VvSs- K»*v\ u P ST. ~U<f. sr-H^s J e s u s , Mary and Joseph. I u r i & , w S h Death or t h a t l e t t e r P l u c h e . Now g i v e i t to mo. c K DL/+ h e. l \ •> \ el $ i V a <. .behihcL k ' i b a c k ~ 5V K e l p J e s u s , Mary i_ _-i 5 i \ c k; ^ <; »t-H-c r ke.. h »' h<rC Ke i " „. . . n e i p .,..q ,h ^4.ken- K c ^ - h * . i4- bcrrk.buA- Ke. k*WU 'iV o.oV cv£ W W > i k v . - - , » « v » i » " - N C t N ' n i l jumps' OAck. k«? >CR. L O ^ u i h ^ je.-|4<?-v (' T^e I-C-.L icei. ^  <?. >\4e.r S 5 n<?- -fMlcuAS kirn U 1 ) e~> 97 UNIT L> PERDICAN: PLUCHE: BLAZIUS: PLUCHE: BLAZIUS: PLUCHE: PERDICAN: 3 6 What's g o i n g on here? What a r e you doing to Pl u c h e , F a t h e r ? G i v e mo t h a t l e t t e r , s c o u n d r e l . J u s t i c e , my l o r d . X-bC AWw He r a v i s h e d t h a t l e t t e r from my u n w i l l i n g handsJ£f- C K ^ Don't b e l i e v e h e r . She's a shameless hussy who's d e l i v e r i n g l o v e - l e t t e r s . My l o r d , t h i s l e t t e r i s from C a m i l l e , your f i a n c e . I t ' s a l o v e - l e t t e r to one o f tho v i l l a g e boys. L i a r . . . d o t r a o t o r . . . defa^uer . . . *B) c- -z. \ o <,,l> at , BLAZIUS: PERDICAN; Give me t h a t l e t t e r . I don't u n d e r s t a n d a n y t h i n g about a l l t h i s , but as C a m i l l e ' s f i a n c e I have a r i g h t to r e a d i t . "To S i s t e r L o u i s e o f the convent s-lr.jss \>c, o f . . . •' ( I t ' s Camille»s f r i e n d . . . the one who . . . ) Mis s P l u c h e , r e t u r n to the chateau. l^lue-Ue* x°ftv s -U But my l o r d . . . x\ -b ^e.rA.ccx^ X 4"° L' Shut up B l a z i u s . M i s s P l u c h e i s a woman o f prudence and you're a b a b b l i n g f o o l . I s a i d I w i l l take care o f t h i s l e t t e r . ' > \ u c > e s«m ' .\«s •* ex^-i " D . L , Ufy/iT 1 Why am I t r e m b l i n g ? I know i t ' s a crime to open a l e t t e r . And why s h o u l d I want to know what C a m i l l e w r i t e s to her f r i e n d L o u i s e ? She t o l d me enough of what they t a l k about. Can I s t i l l be i n l o v e w i t h h e r ? Look, B l a z i u s has broken the s e a l . Is i t a crime to u n f o l d i t ? A f t e r a l l i t can ' t change a n y t h i n g . "I'm l e a v i n g today, my dear, and e v e r y t h i n g has happened as expected. I t ' s been t e r r i b l e . P e r d i c a n i s h e a r t b r o k e n . He w i l l never be c o n s o l e d f o r h a v i n g l o s t me. However I have done e v e r y t h i n g I c o u l d to make him ha t e me. God f o r g i v e me f o r h a v i n g thrown him i n d e s p a i r by r e f u s i n g him. A l a s , my dear, -what e l s e c o u l d I do? Pray f o r me. Wo s h a l l see each o t h e r tomorrow and f o r e v e r a f t e r t h a t . C a m i l l e . : :  {y\v<>\c coE. M3 C a m i l l e wrote t h i s ? And i t ' s me she's t a l k i n g about? Me i n d e s p a i r because she r e f u s e d me? By God, w e ' l l see i f t h a t 's t r u e . She's done e v e r y -98 37 UWIT t t h i n g t o make me h a t e her and I'm h e a r t b r o k e n . . . i s t h a t i t ? w h a t r e a s o n c o u l d she- have to i n v e n t such a s t o r y ? Can i t be t r u e ? The s u s p i c i o n I c o u l d n ' t oven admit to m y s e l f l a s t n i g h t ? Oh, C a m i l l o , p i o u s , s a i n t l y C a m i l l e , who g i v e s h e r s e l f to G-od, but she's d e c i d e d f i r s t to l e a v e a h e a r t -broken l o v e r behind h o r . That's i t , she and L o u i s e . . . . they must have agreed to i t b e f o r e she l e f t the convent. They d e c i d e d t h a t C a m i l l o would sco h e r c o u s i n a g a i n , he wo\ild f a l l i n l o v e w i t h h e r and want to marry her, but she would r e f u s e him and l e a v e him . . . a wretched, p i n i n g l o v e r to d e c o r a t e her daydreams i n the convent. I s n ' t t h a t something? a p i o u s young g i r l , who s a c r i f i c e s h e r s e l f and the h a p p i n e s s o f her c o u s i n to G-od. But C a m i l l e , I don't l o v e you . . . and I'm not h e a r t b r o k e n . I am not i n d e s p a i r and I ' l l prove i t to you. Oh yes, y o u ' l l know t h a t I l o v e someone b e f o r e you l e a v e today. Hey t h o r e , you . . . hiaVioos o ? ^ S.JRVANT: My l o r d c a l l e d ? e.vvW cXor^s tYV-m 1?cv PERDICAN: SERVANT PERDICAN ROSETTE PERDICAN ROSETTE PERDICAN G-o to the chateau and t o l l my c o u s i n C a m i l l e to meet me near the f o u n t a i n , our f o u n t a i n immediately. Do you understand? Yes, my l o r d . exi{^ L, Go q u i c k l y . . . Heartbroken am I? R o s e t t e , R o s e t t e . .' ' Is i t you, my l o r d ? I was g o i n g to my f a t h e r ' s m i l l R.^\e-*~ T5-1, Put on your p r e t t i e s t bonnet R o s e t t e and come w i t h mo. But where? I ' l l t e l l you l a t e r . Now, ask your f a t h e r ' s p e r -m i s s i o n , but h u r r y . ROSETTE: Yes, my l o r d , exiVs fc.L, PERDICAN: I've- asked Camillo- to see mo a g a i n , and I'm s u r e s h e ' l l come. But by Goda s h e ' l l f i n d more than she b a r g a i n e d ' f o r . I ' l l make l o v e to R o s o t t o b e f o r e her__ye_ry eyes, SET c-HfliyqE l) 99 L \ £ H T GJ£ 2 ? 38 UtilT P£t> TACTION) C.U& 2.{ I I , Scene 3 ( F o u n t a i n - 1:00 p.m.) CAMILLE: P e r d i c a n has asked me to say goodbye to him near t h i s f o u n t a i n where I had him moot mo. y e s t e r d a y . What can hp have to say to me? I'm n o t s u r e t h a t I s h o u l d have come. Here he comes now and . . . w i t h R o s e t t e . ir. D- U. I suppose-he's g o i n g to l e a v e h e r and come he r o . I ' l l h i d e h e r e . I don't want him to t h i n k I've a r r i v e d sW. sY*Ws f i r s t , what does t h i s mean? He' s making he r s i t ^ T 2 £ A ^ U l 3 < noxt to him. But why has he askod me here, i f he ' V r wants to t a l k PERDICAN R03ETTE: PERDICAN: I l o v e you R o s e t t e . Only you have n o t f o r g o t t e n tho b e a u t i f u l days o f our c h i l d h o o d , o n l y you remember t h a t l i f e t h a t i s no more. But t o g e t h e r w e ' l l make a-new l i f e . Hero . • . take t h i s . g i ^ s Hct- bd-V How l o v e l y . But what i s i t ? A g o l d c h a i n b e l t from I n d i a . . . j u s t l a r g e enough f o r your w a i s t . ROSETTE: PERDICAN: R6SETTE: But what i s t h i s a t tho end o f i t ? A l o v o l y dagger i n a- shoath. See, the handle i s s e t j o i \ w i t h p r e c i o u s s t o n e s sharp. Put i t - o n — — Take- c a r e , the b l a d e i s r ; e a l l y -aewT They're quirte-i-n P a r i s . Everyone i o w e a r i n g I n d i a n j e w e l r y , — d r i n k -ing" • T u r k i s h -o o f f o o everyone i c mad about the o-xotio o r i o n t , — T h o l a d i e s aro ovon wearing harem veils,--"but what good would a v e i l be to your h e a v e n l y faoo? I t ' s so b e a u t i f u l , but my poor dr o s s PERDICAN: Hush, they s u i t o oach o t h e r q u i t e w o l l •perfect v/scs ,-l^lccs Cometav- E-complements. Now l o o k a t t h i s . . . . t i n s . r i n g . ^ cosiq noar the mountain. Look a t us together,' r e i l e c t e d U.?.i-i n the water. Can you see your l o v e l y eyes, your &\>e>o? cot-H -hand i n mine? Now, l o o k how i t d i s a p p e a r s . W c ' r o 5 ^ ^ f i " ^ a l l wa.torrings and shadows, but l i t t l e by littlcNwo'. reappoare. See? Your eyes and your- arm i n mine. "W\V-6u»s \rit)Cj m Another moment and t h e r e won't bo oven a w r i n k l e a c r o s s your f a o o . Sco? That was a r i n g C a m i l l o onco gave mo. Oh R o s o t t o , I l o v o you^and you l o v o 100 39 PERDICAN: me, don't you? No f r i e n d has w i t h e r e d your s m i l e , (CON'T) no good f r i e n d has. d r a i n e d tho b l o o d out o f your h o a r t . You don't want to become a nun. You're a b e a u t i f u l young g i r l i n tho arms o f t h d young man who l o v e s you. Oh R o s o t t o , R o s e t t o , do you know what l o v o i s ? ROSETTE: PERDICAN: ROSETTE: PERDICAN: Oh P e r d i o a n , don't ask me to answer you i n words. Only my h o a r t can speak to you. I l o v o you as b e s t I can, t h a t ' s a l l I can answer. li^-hs H<M- heceL o*\ his As be s t you can . . . t h a t i s tho b o s t . . . much h o t t e r than thoso f r i g i d s t a t u e s f a b r i c a t e d i n con-v e n t s who o n l y emerge to s p r e a d the plague o f t h e i r p r i d o and f e a r . But no ono has f a b r i c a t e d you. You X. D f l c know n o t h i n g . You can b a r e l y r o a d . Y ot when you pray to God, u s i n g words you can b a r e l y u n d e r s t a n d , you u n d e r s t a n d t h a t God b e t t e r than those who know so many f i n e words. Ch my l o r d , how you c a r r y on X ~\o V\ i s L No, you c a n ' t road, but you can u n d e r s t a n d a l l that-4<s.ke< h<M-n a t u r o i s s a y i n g i n ovory r i v e r and t r e e ; l i f e . . . h ^ ^ ^ s and l o v o . Evory f l o w e r , every a n i m a l knows t h i s but people must l o a r n i t . And some peo p l e never l e a r n . Come, R o s e t t e , you w i l l bo my w i f e and w o i y i v t L •p.-.lls w i l l l e a r n to l i v e i n tho w o r l d t o g e t h e r . FM?.\- 6-fC- 0 .u. Cue h < . n ' \ * • C 61 i-vi I \ \ t. - S \\& c\ke. A.. ->C -l-o ^jc'-l\ oh S~E-T d - l f l N ^ E [a 1 0 1 L l l H T Cue, 3c> p£o Tic T1 o (ViC u £ *2-3 «Q ACT I I , So one 4 ( v i l l a g e - 1 : 3 0 p.m.) k*H?. ?/ i T h i s f i t , H t 1 5 C0R0: have you heard? u L^-H\ W.cU\r /bci**: V/hat i s the word? ^ i-\<> t . dceis". C a m i l l e has r e f u s e d to marry P e r d i c a n . " ^ b 5 6 ' '• What? M^eLS.: T h i s v e r y day sho r e t u r n s t o the convent 6 ^ s : Why? fc. But I have h o a r d . . . X "Vo ^ f k t v Si<sU of A flu.: y e s . ••I I have h e a r d t h a t p e r d i c a n i s . . . x. \o c,{V\a- <>',clc^ flu\ Yes, yes? 5 C o n s o l i n g h i m s e l f w i t h R o s e t t e C(«?us-. No. 6/'i',5,. Yes, i t ' s t r u e , ' s a d hut t r u e 2 He's g i v o n her a c h a i n * -ta ofke-r s M t 4 A g o l d e n c h a i n w i t h a j e w e l l e d d a g g e r ^ 4* «.•>{-key- s icie-st ce-. Have you ever? zWhat's more, I "believe . . . I h c u <s* m-Vo a. <z.i\A\. . •--••'•' - - rv\v$\c c : u £ 0^\-j [ ih - f er i -op+f *<• . P L U C H E : Q u i c k l y , scum, s a d d l e my donkov.^^'-We. lo^» c^\e-\'S " L. CORO: but what i s happening? Why a r e you l e a v i n g ? -|-kc^ ~fu<:k PLUCHE: God ho p r a i s e d I s h a l l not d i e among your l i k e , s c u m . CORO: 6. Die whorcever you wish, M i s c P l u c h e Cie<.s;But f i r s t t e l l us what's the matter? e. r,4e •,- C*VI i \ U • L . PLUCHE: Behold, my m i s t r e s s approaches. /iDacuC-Camille, a l l i s ready f o r our d e p a r t u r e . The Baron has s e t t l e d your e s t a t e and the mule i s "being s a d d l e d . •CAMILLE: Go to h e l l , you and your damned mule. I'm not l e a v i n g . P\uS\c Cu£4Jr <?K\\sv k. CORO: 3 What can t h i s moan? T W h & -fW^H - i s c^rM- U, CU-IU 5 M i s s p l u c h G i s w h i " t c cK^V-os uoKf 90+ kev- ^  W 4 e i — — — 1 fcHcr- h a i r stands on und a c r c i K m -Kme -h> ke-v- |;nc. L/ Her hands a r c t r e m b l i n g A n ' , What can t h i s moan? PLUCHE: J e s u s , Mary and Joseph . . . C a m i l l o swore a t mo! L i g H T CUE 3 I C&A>gk+ 102 L 1 £HT Cut 3 z BRIDAINE: BARON: BRIDAINE: BARON: BRIDAINE; BARON: BRIDAINE: BARON: 4 1 B a b n m "D.C s ACT I I , So one 5 ( S a l o n - 2:00 p.m.) x fc«.hi*«k +° . T^^roh's L. My l o r d , I must speak w i t h you. Your son i s making l o v e to a v i l l a g e g i r l . I m p o s s i b l e . I d i s t i n c t l y saw them w a l k i n g t o g e t h e r . . . near the wood. . . . She was l o a n i n g on h i s arm and he was w h i s p e r i n g i n h e r ' o a r . The whole v i l l a g e i s s a y i n g he's proposed m a r r i a g e to h e r . Monstrous. But t r u e . What's more, he's g i v e n h e r a p r e s e n t , a l o v e - t o k e n o f g r o a t v a l u e . G-od, how v a l u a b l e ? A g o l d c h a i n w i t h a j e w e l l e d dagger . . . from I n d i a . 0 my head . . , my head . . . h e l p me to my study, B r i d a i n o . Now I am g o i n g mad. be<l^ s -Yo -fo-i ^ + -, . )-1 etc i V\ <L CT^ A-ck«?f 103 LjdHT cue 32. 42 UNIT I CAMILLE: PLUCHE: CAMILLE: ACT I I , Scene (C'cmillt's heAireom 1>iude - U W Ci. Ho took my l e t t e r away from you? c u r W i n . Yes, my c h i l d , ho s a i d ho would have i t d e l i v e r e d h i m s e l f . M iss P l u c h e , go and f i n d P e r d i c a n w h e r o e v o r h c i s and t o l l him to come here immediately, t h a t I'm l ^ o c - h r cs/iU e x p e c t i n g him to come. Ke d i d r e a d my l e t t e r , that's" V , c e r t a i n . That l i t t l e scone by tho f o u n t a i n was a l l x l.c. f o r my b e n e f i t . Ho wanted to prove to mo t h a t ho c o u l d l o v o someone e l s e , t h a t ho c o u l d be i n d i f f e r e n t to iac. Ho wanted to s p i t e me. But why w i t h R o s e t t e ?  Could ho . . . c o u l d ho r e a l l y l o v o her' Are you UNIT 3> ROSETTE: CAMILLE: ROSETTE: CAMILLE: th e r e R o s e t t e ? Yes, s h a l l I come out? Ycs, q u i c k l y . Now l i s t e n , P e r d i c a n j h a s been making l o v e to you, h a s n ' t ho? I'm s o r r y . . . but y e s . What do you t h i n k o f what ho t o l d you e a r l i e r t h i s a f t e r n o o n ? ROSETTE: T h i s a f t e r n o o n . . , but wher CAMILLE: ROSETTE: CAMILLE: ROSETTE: CAMILLE; ROSETTE: Don't be a h y p o c r i t e , R o s e t t e . T h i s a f t e r n o o n by our f o u n t a i n . You saw us t h e r e ? Of c o u r s e not, but I . . . poor c h i l d , now t e l l mo tho t r u t h : ho- d i d make a l l k i n d s o f p r e t t y speeches and promises, d i d n ' t he? Ho promised you jewels and d r o s s e s . . . and perhaps he even s a i d he'd Eiarj you, How do you know a l l t h i s ? What does i t ma t t e r ? Do you b e l i e v e what he promised you, R o s e t t e ? How can I not b e l i e v e him? Would he d e c e i v e me? 1 0 4 43 CAMILLE: P o r d i c a n w i l l never marry you, my c h i l d . ROSETTE: How do you know t h a t ? How . . . CAMILLE: Poor g i r l , you do l o v o him don't you? But h e ' l l never marry you and I ' l l prove i t to you r i g h t now. Hide b e i n d the c u r t a i n a g a i n . L i s t e n c l o s e l y and  t. / come i n when I c a l l . (Oh, God, i s t h i s revenge or ka•>e fte K<cU5 .UN' i ~ r> k i n d n e s s ? She r e a l l y i s i n l o v e w i t h him. L e t t h i s ^k^'. II*- X bo the r i g h t t h i n g to do, God l o t t h i s he . " . . ) , L ' f " • Good day. por d i can. S i t down, won't you? t K + i r cm L. PERDICAN: How changed you a r c tody, /aid f o r whoso b e n e f i t , may I ask? X U_>. UUJ> iv.v-' sn-s oh CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN• CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: Eor y o u r s , perhaps. I'm so s o r r y I wasn't a b l e to make our appointment y e s t e r d a y . D i d you have some-t h i n g i m p o r t a n t to t e l l me? (What a l o v e l y l i a r ! I saw h e r b e h i n d tho t r e e l i s t e n i n g a l l tho w h i l e . ) N o t h i n g p a r t i c u l a r , o n l y goodbye, C a m i l l o . I thought you wore l e a v i n g today. However, I SGG your h o r s o i s not s a d d l e d and you don't seem to bo p*©4§#d. c^\-e•>$<:.A -PoV- l l f . Yon know, I r e a l l y l i k e a good d i s c u s s i o n l i k o tho K -U K.5 one v/e h a d ' y e s t e r d a y . I'm n o t s u r e I wouldn't l i k o L ' to argue w i t h you a l l over a g a i n . Why s h o u l d wc arguo when you knov/ wo can never agree? Tho o n l y f u n i n a r g u i n g i s i n a g r e e i n g f i n a l l y . A rc you q u i t e sure I don't want to agree? Don't p l a y w i t h me, C a m i l l o . I'm not s t r o n g , not c o l d enough to enjoy t h a t s o r t o f game. Oh, but I'd l o v o to be made love. t o . I-Taybo i i • s ? h t w , j u s t because I've l o f t the convent, or maybe because I have a nov/ d r e s s , but I'm d y i n g f o r some amuse-ment. You asked mo t o go to the v i l l a g e . W e l l , l e t ' s go. I'd r e a l l y l i k e t o . Or we can take a b o a t - r i d e , i f you p r e f e r . Or a p i c n i c , o r a walk-i n tho woods. "-'Jill t h e r e bo a f u l l moon t o n i g h t ? ^ V ^ f * ft-h^l How s t r a n g e , y o u : r o not wearing tho r i n g I gave you 5 its-to y e s t e r d a y . fKis <z. -1 0 5 4 4 PERDICAN: I l o s t i t . CAMILLE: R e a l l y ? How odd, because I found i t . Look. P e r d i c a n , . here i t i s . PERDICAN: But whore d i d you f i n d i t ? CAMILLE: PERDICAN CAMILLE: PERDICAN: W e l l , my hands a r e n ' t wot anymore, but I n e a r l y d i d r u i n t h i s d r o s s to got t h i s l i t t l e t r i n k e t from the w e l l . The dros s i s the same, but perhaps I've changed, G-o on, take i t , put i t on your, f i n g e r . You f i s h e d t h i s r i n g our o f tho w e l l ? You c o u l d have f a l l e n i n y o u r s e l f . Am I dreaming? No, hero |>o4s hi *^ you a r e , p u t t i n g tho r i n g back on my f i n g e r . Oh, ^ C a m i l l e , why a r e you r e t u r n i n g t h i s p a t h e t i e symbol J o f a happiness which i s no more? T o i l me, a r c you f l i r t i n g w i t h mo now? You l e a v e , then you s t a y . Every moment you change your mind. Do ^you r e a l l y know what women a r e l i k o , P e r d i c a n ? N>c * X Are you q u i t e c e r t a i n o f t h e i r i n c o n s t a n c y ? t h e i r b ^ h r ^ c , i n f i d e l i t y ? Do you r e a l l y t h i n k they change t h o i r minds j u s t because they say something d i f f e r e n t ? Some people say they don't. Sometimes wo women must p l a y a p a r t , sometimes we must even l i e . I 'm b e i n g x krfxIm-p e r f e c t l y h o nest nov/. Are you q u i t e c e r t a i n t h a t +vTu-><rur*is H/m the whole woman l i e s when she l i e s w i t h h e r tongue? Have you ever thought what i t ' s l i k e to be a woman, a weak c r e a t u r e , r u l e d by p a s s i o n ? But t h i s same weak c r e a t u r e i s governed, judged and condemned by tho h a r s h e s t o f laws. And i f she's f o r c e d to scheme and to l i e i n o r d e r to s u r v i v e , why s h o u l d n ' t she enjoy l y i n g ? In f a c t , why s h o u l d n ' t she l i e f o r p l e a s u r e a s ^ w e l l , a s f o r n e c e s s i t y . "Vi hi 4-e K; 3 !<?.£ V-I don't u n d e rstand a word you're s a y i n g . I never r i s e s -\-l i e . But I do l o v e you C a m i l l e and t h a t i s a l l I know. t*_k<'S Kev- h o ^ ^ l 4VorA W-kin<^ c CAMILLE: PERDICAN: rou say t h a t you l o v o mo and t h a t you never l i e ? y. L. Never. 106 UfVlT "5" 4 5 C AM ILLE: Wc 11, he r o ' s someone who can prove you're a l i a r , o pe v\ s ^  What a r e you g o i n g to say to t h i s poor g i r l when sM"~ ^ ' asks you what you r e a l l y meant, i f you r e a l l y l o v e h e r ? I f you never l i e why d i d she f a i n t when she he a r d you say you l o v e d me? I ' l l l e a v e you a l o n e w i t h h e r . I'm not sur e I can hear your t o l l i n g tho t r u t h a l l over a g a i n . . X L, PERDICAN: CAMILLE: Wait, l i s t o n to rac C a m i l l o . 'X 4o R.C Why s h o u l d I? I t ' s R o s o t t o you s h o u l d "be s p e a k i n g SUJIh3>" t o . I don't l o v e you, do you und e r s t a n d , I d o n ' t ^ l o v o you. You laughed a t mo when I t o l d you I hadn't gone to the f o u n t a i n . Very w e l l , I was t h e r e and I ho a r d e v e r y t h i n g . . . e v e r y t h i n g . But as God i s my w i t n e s s , P e r d i c a n , I would not have dared to l i e as you l i o d . What w i l l you do w i t h t h i s poor g i r l when she comes c r a w l i n g back to you, your k i s s e s s t i l l warm on h e r l i p s ? You wanted to h u r t mo, d i d n ' t you? . . . to p u n i s h me f o r tho l e t t e r I wrote to L o u i s e . You wanted to h u r t mo so much, n o t h i n g c o u l d s t o p you. You wanted to s t r i k e me and you d i d n ' t c a r o i f you h u r t someone e l s e , p r o v i d e d I was h u r t . I s n ' t t n a t tho t r u t h ? I admit I wanted to make you l o v o mo b e f o r e I l e f t , to break your h e a r t a l i t t l e . . . my one w o r l d l y conquest to l a s t me a l l my days i n the convent. But t h a t h u r t your p r i d o , d i d n ' t i t ? You c o u l d n ' t boar to l o s e i n your game o f l o v o . W e l l then l e t me t o l l you something: you l o v o mo, do you under-sta n d , you l o v o no. But now you w i l l marry t h i s p<  g i r l but you're n o t h i n g but a coward. £«$e K-VS -h rte. OMIT fa PERDICAN I ' 1 1 marry h e r . CAMILLE: As w e l l you s h o u l d . PERDICAN: Yes, as w e l l , and so much b e t t o r than m a r r y i n g you. \ *fp C a m i l l e , perhaps I d i d l i e once i n my l i f e . I t ' s ° 4 C<c<»ilU-v e r y p o s s i b l e , but y o u ' l l never know when, C a m i l l o , y o u ' l l never r e a l l y know whon. £ x r f L . ^o\c.U\^ U f l r i T CO 107 46 U & H T Cut 3fc  'pft ^  .T£c- T f o i\i C u £ 3l1 ACT I I , Soone 7 (Salon - 4:00 p.m.) BARON CAMILLE: BARON: CAMILLE: .BARON: CAMILLE BARON: CAMILLE: BARON: I f ho m a r r i e s h e r I s h a l l go out o f my mind. Then you must s t o p him, you must . . . I s h a l l go q u i t e mad. What's more, I s h a l l r e f u s e my consent. You must t a l k to him and t o l l him . . . I ' l l never dare show my f a c e a t c o u r t a g a i n . T h i s i s unheard o f . . . to marry tho f o s t e r s i s t e r o f your c o u s i n ; i t passes a l l l i m i t s . I don't even know the g i r l ' s f a m i l y name. C a l l him and t o l l him tho marr i a g e i s a g a i n s t your wishes. B e l i e v e me i t ' s o n l y a p a s s i n g f a n c y and h e ' l l never d i s o b e y you. I ' l l wear mourning f o r tho r o s t o f my l i f e i f t h i s marriage takes p l a c e . Then speak to him now, f o r God's sake. There's no time to be l o s t . I f ho says h e ' l l do i t , he w i l l . I'm g o i n g to shut m y s e l f i n my study and go i n t o mourning immediately. T o l l him i f ho asks f o r me that'I'm g o i n g i n t o mourning because he's m a r r y i n g a g i r l w i t h o u t a proper f a m i l y name. <?xi'i<. IS. , w^opp.'n^ CAMILLE: Oh my God, i s t h e r e no one who can s t o p him? Thoy'l>r^k< l?.r. .UMnr 'L. vo a l l d e s e r t e d me, l e f t me a l o n e . And what can I ^ do by m y s e l f ? How can I porsuado him . . . W e l l ,T^-.rflfct^ U c o u s i n , when w i l l the wedding take p l a c e " *~,c. PERDICAN As soon as p o s s i b l e . I've a l r e a d y spoken to tho no-t a r y , the p r i o s t and a l l the v i l l a g e . CAMILLE: Then you r e a l l y mean to marry R o s e t t e . PERDICAN: A b s o l u t e l y . CAMILLE: What w i l l your f a t h e r say? 108 47 PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: PERDICAN: CAMILLE: Whatever he w i s h e s . I want to marry t h i s g i r l . I must thank you f o r the s u g g e s t i o n and now I i n t e n d to f o l l o w i t , I don't havo to t e l l you how much X D - i , we havo i n common. She i s young and b e a u t i f u l and i n n o c e n t . . . and she l o v e s me. That's as much as we need and more. Whether she's i n t e l l i g e n t o r n o t , I c o u l d have found worse. L e t people say what they l i k e , I don't g i v e a damn. • Of course you'ro d o i n g tho b e s t t h i n g to marry h e r . But I am s o r r y f o r you i n one way . . . people w i l l say you've done i t out o f s p i t e . You're s o r r y about t h a t ? I h a r d l y t h i n k s o e Oh but I am r e a l l y . I t ' s sad to see someone throw away h i s f u t u r e . . . and a l l out o f s p i t e . Then be s o r r y . I c o u l d n ' t c a r e l o s s . But you c a n ' t bo s e r i o u s . She 's a l i t t l e nobody. S h e ' l l be somebody when she's my w i f e . X \t> K<?-v-S h e ' l l bore you to death w i t h i n t h r e e days. Y o u ' l l be t i r e d o f h e r b e f o r e the wedding i s o v e r . i f she h a s n ' t been w e l l educated by the dear nuns, e l -even i f she doesn't speak a word o f l a t i n . What a p i t y u n c l e wasted so much money oil t e a c h i n g you l a t i n . There's 3000 crowns l o s t . Yes, he would have done b e t t o r to g i v e i t to the X iy\ -froK4" erf poor. K I F - ^ -D.«e. I t ' s you v/ho a r e g i v i n g i t to the poor, the poor i n s p i r i t . And i n r e t u r n she w i l l g i v e me the kingdom o f heaven, f o r i t i s h e r s . How much l o n g e r i s t h i s f a r c o g o i n g to go on? 109 48 PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE: PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN CAMILLE PERDICAN What f a r c e ? - f u h n s - U \oo\< h e r Your marriage w i t h R o s e t t e . A v e r y s h o r t time. I t h i n k w e ' l l havo 30 or 40 y e a r s , more or l e s s . Thon I ' 11 oomo to dance a t your wedding . . . and X. 1 0 K Jw-\, see your l o v e l y "bride t r i p on h e r f i r s t l o n g d r e s s . ci.a-ncix\£ CAMILLE That's enough o f t h a t . I've j u s t begun. Then I ' l l l e a v e . I've had enough o f / t h i s b e f o r e . Go on, r u n o f f to your l i t t l e p easant. That's j u s t whore T'm g o i n g . sV*p< — rui-n$ f ^haoH i n i P e r d i c a n . . . g i v e mo your arm then, j I ' l l go w i t h ^ H ^ i ? ^ you. U N I T S ROSETTE: PERDICAN; ROSETTE: CAMILLE: My l o r d , P e r d i c a n , my l o r d . . . e n-Ve..t-s l>• ^ - - Ca.vv\ \ \\e-There you a r c my l o v o . Come, I want you to moot my f a t h e r ^,\U -It ^ .C, 1^ R . K ^ u i My l o r d , I must ask a f a v o u r - o f you. Everyone I'vo*5\bf>5 t a l k e d to has t o l d mo you s t i l l l o v e your cousin. . ^itv% . . and t h a t you've o n l y made l o v o to mo out o f N ^ m i We. s p i t e . Everyone's l a u g h i n g a t mo wherever I g o . ' 6 o t s u" P Now I ' l l never be a b l e to f i n d a husband, a f t e r b e i n g a l a u g h i n g s t o c k o f tho whole v i l l a g e . L o t me r e t u r n the c h a i n you gave me. Then l e t mo l i v e i n peace w i t h my mother. Poor c h i l d , keep the c h a i n . |I g i v e i t to you. I p - ' I's have one j u s t l i k o i t I can g i v e P e r d i c a n m y s e l f . ^ < 2 r ^  As f o r a husband, don't worry about t h a t . I promise to f i n d you one. ' PERDICAN That's e a s i l y done. Come, Ro s o t t o ,1 we'11 go to see -j c, ST. ft, my f a t h e r . CAMILLE: But why . . . i t ' s u s e l e s s . . . h e ' l l never consent. 110 49 PERDICAN: You'ro r i g h t o f c o u r s e Wo must g i v e him a l i t t l e s\tps _ time to got over the shock o f the news, R o s e t t e . -roirtn^ Come w e ' l l go hack to the v i l l a g e . Won't i t he funny lessor when a l l the g o s s i p s see us m a r r i e d tomorrow? By God. t h a t w i l l shut thorn up.. --l-^kY* lv*v- /,-f-F L CAMILLE; What's happening to mo? Ho k i s s e d her i n f r o n t o f X Ac c. mo and : t h e n walked away so c a l m l y . My God, can ho r e a l l y moan to marry her? M i s s p l u c h e . . . Plu c h e , where are you? Is t h e r e no one hore? . . . r u n a f t e r etvlci-P e r d i c a n . . . t o l l him to come hack immedatoly. I ^ 1 ^ ^ / " have something i m p o r t a n t to t o l l him . . . Oh, „ ^. L b l e s s e d v i r g i n , I c a n ' t boar i t any l o n g e r . H e l p ^ °C~ l£~ mo. I don't know what's g o i n g on and I c a n ' t bear . PERDICAN CAMILLE: PERDICAN: You s e n t f o r me? No no. How p a l e you a r e . Are you sure you d i d n ' t c a l l f o r s4f.f>> . me? Are you sure you don't want mo? -Yuu&rds /vi-CAMILLE: No you no m u s i c CuE S 3 Oh, my God. <&iC\\- " f e - r - A i L , C<c±y\ '< \ le U c ^ i n c k<2.v-- k ^ - ^ J »v\ A-ears I l l MUSK C q E 5<-\ L |£ HT COG- 3^ 50 •pgo j E - C - T l orj C O C A*? ACT II, Scene 8 ( V i l l a g e - 4:30) ON IT \ CORO: I Have you hoard? ^ i M , 1 . an A. L* arc (?.c, 3 I t ' s absurd. ^b/'.sP^(> h 3 c ^ - , ~ L ' crH^What's the word? ^ J ^ t " C , • 3 I t ' s unheard of. d ' &Ttfc/?s-. Fray t e l l us I Well, guess c iwe<?-<> ; Yes? I-J-? Rosette i s going to marry eTrieier. Yes? l-f-3 Perdican our l o r d . &T*Ba$: No. I4-3-. ' 5 Rosette, tho m i l l e r ' s daughter? Yes. ^ The wife of Perdican? 0 \W^ 5'" flu.- No Dover never na „ . n L>i\MT -2. Here she comes Hero she comes " ^ 3 ^ - " V ^ • * ' RTCE"-With her gold chain and her jewelled dagger H -3 Too good to speak to the l i k e s of us- J?oSe--\"b_. en4dr? L. LN~<p Showing o f f her lover's g i f t s . * ,+Ke. ^  t>.(?, 5 I t ' s only a j e s t • "^'-^ PI'* ..4-^ Only a t r i c k . /(VA ' sKe: t(of " 5 v\'4" *Ho must be mad h&*4fc<: &-{- ~PTt-s \-: |4" ?- Then so i s she S'h* s4uwVVle.5 «• X 3 Look at her stumbling o.c. 1^ 2-. She's distraught SLaughing,t( crying- o \ i / CICLS- No, she's dazed. K^-se.i'le. ovnts b n c k ROSETTE: f r i e n d s , whore i s my mother? She i s not at home. I can't f i n d her anywhere. dtl i<; -U ndt- t-, C0R0:= ^ She's l e f t the houseZ she's gone to the f i e l d s Weeping and w a i l i n g so Doing, and moaning ; 2 My d/aughtor i s mad she says shV says ^y^.* h*2-*" ^ \ 2. A shameless t r o l l o p who f l i r t s with a lorct'sho says •3^5. Disgraced our family^ L La.irtied our name x \ c ^ev- ^ ROSETTE: No, i t ' s not true . . . i t ' s not true . . . * £. 4 * CORO:HzEvoryono' s t a l l q o v o r y o n o ' s gossiping d i-vvrt?-:r)iusi<r. CuS.. Chatter chat ter '""'have you heard? b « c . k i _ . . ^  Lord and l a s s P e r f e c t l y absurd s lit- 4 o h h ^ 4 e e- p pe r~ I 4-6 b o ^  s j ROSETTE: But I didn't f l i r t with him. I only . . . 4 Ktp * W l c -)-6 3 , H i 112 51 /VMJSIC cot CORO : C , e6n'attor c l a t t e r fe';l'rom house to house K***-^** 4onns L o r d and l a s s p e r f e c t l y a b s urd ^ £ p < n 5 m K 3 3 ROSETTE: But I'm not g o i n g to marry him . . . 4-urns \>A.CM 4O cii-ls Music cob. ' 3 ^ J CORO : C " ' f l a t t e r c l a t t e r i n every mouth 4kt - s *iv> <m hct-^ L L ^ L o r d and l a s s p e r f e c t l y a b s u r d ROSETTE: P l e a s e , 3>-ou must l e t mo e x p l a i n . . . 4 - o giv-U CORO: / C h a t t e r c l a t t e r B d w S ' - s h a m e l e s s t r o l l o p (?c-seik X. bu4 diiei-iv D i s g r a c e to h e r f a m i l y d i s g r a c e to tho v i l l a g e 9 u H H u s s y ^ h a r l o t ^ s c h e m i n g s l u t C^<^ ^k*4* # 1 J du^ LS", C h a t t e r c l a t t e r Throw her out Out o f the house out o f our v i l l a g e ti?<*$eM~^ i run-s p.,1-' zWho would have thought i t ? Who would have s a i d ? ) " J l \ ! C u ' B"^:The l o r d and the l a s s p e r f e c t l y a b s u r d fnos\c ^ l t ? L S : C h i t t o r c h a t t e r ' c h a t t e r c l a t t e r n i t t e r n a t t e r Cue '5^ ^tf?«-'Porfoctly/^p^r o c t l y * p e r f e c t l y a b s u r d . "TV-.-'i ex".4- i h • to u pic. s -^i-tv^ .*n ROSETTE: No, no . . . . p l e a s e l e t mo e x p l a i n ....!<-> c 0 it , d i d n ' t t r y to . . . p l e a s e come b a c K and l e t meH\e.ivv+- c c - c ^ i h < e x p l a i n . . . . C a m i l l o , C a m i l l o . . . . I must, \>c-c.k 4* c . see C a m i l l e . <e*,'4<s L . , v - o n n i he /V\ostc CuB L>o L i ^ H T CaE. Ho s~£T CHa<\i de: i<-( 113 ih . .Scone 9 ( C a m i l l e ' s bedroom ~ 5 : 0 0 p.m.)"^'1" 5 P UN\-[ f ROSETTE: Oh God, I beg you l i s t e n to me. I l o v o him but I c o u l d have l i v e d w i t h o u t him. I never expected him to marry mo, I o n l y wanted to be.near him f o r a while, to see him a g a i n b e f o r e . . . Oh B l e s s e d V i r g i n , Kow5i}s c o u l d I t u r n him away when he c r i e d f o r my h e l p ? H e ^ g j S o h wept i n my arms and I c o u l d n ' t t u r n him away. But why d i d ho use me? h i e s , l i e s , i t was a l l a l i e , sife, <>h And nov/ no one b e l i e v e s mo. But I must make some- I»<»*"" one u n d e r s t a n d . . . . I must make C a m i l l o under- ^'Sf-5 * s t a n d . . . . r .,, j, Ll£|(T cue 4 l _ LtmiWe Wndtk «W t> • . • CAMILLE: Oh God, why have you abandoned me? You know v e r y uiyyti 2, w e l l I swore to bo f a i t h f u l to you f o r e v e r b e f o r e I l e f t the convent. And when I r e f u s e d to marry anyone but you, I b e l i e v e d I was s i n c e r e . But ever s i n c e I a r r i v e d I don't u n d e r s t a n d m y s e l f , I c a n ' t c o n t r o l my h e a r t or my thoughts . . . I don't know what I'm doing anymore or why . , . why have you t u r n e d the t r u t h a g a i n s t me? And why am I .so weak, so weak . . . . L l f t l T T COG 4 3 Tfer^Uc^ PERDICAN: P r i d e . . . c u r s e d , c u r s e d , c u r s e d p r i d e , why d i d ^ ^ ^ ,^p^^'' l^> N 'T 3 you have to come between t h i s g i r l and mo? She might have l o v e d mo. We were born f o r each o t h e r , but no . . . she was a f r a i d and I was too proud. My God, why c o u l d n ' t v/e say; "I l o v e you and no o t h e r " ? Why was I a f r a i d ? P l e a s e God g i v e me the s t r e n g t h to say i t . I must t o l l h e r b e f o r e she l o a v e s . H e l p  tlrfHTcut-'-H me to say i t t h i s onoo. ( C a m i l l e , whore are you, I ><£• . Tgo-.yteCT^6M must spoak w i t h you, I must t e l l you something V>Jff — c ^ : J'— don't run away from me . . . I must -see you . . .bul'^ he. ' ? v f ^ 1 1 L' C a m i l l o , f o r p i t y ' s sake, l i s t e n . . . I may n e v e r ^ - k - k ^ ' v v " be a b l e to say t h i s a g a i n . . . l i s t e n . What f o o l s ^ k t^-»<t. we've been, u t t e r l y mad f o o l s . Wo l o v e each o t h e r ,^ , v~' '75 ti 5 we ao. But we've made a nightmare xor o u r s e l v e s r lou>u 4t;ms i n s t e a d o f a dream. What f o o l i s h words, what i n s a n e A-z> ce p l o t t i n g we've used a g a i n s t each o t h e r . But which k.fh-» o f us r e a l l y wanted to h u r t the o t h e r ? L i f e can- be such a nightmare. Why do we make i t worse w i t h our f i g h t i n g ? Oh God, h a p p i n e s s i s such a r a r e t h i n g i n t h i s t e r r i b l e w o r ld, and He's g i v e n i t to us w i t h o u t our a s k i n g or demanding. And what have we done w i t h i t ? Smashed i t , d e s t r o y e d i t , thrown i t away l i k e a s p o i l e d c h i l d w i t h h i s t o y . A l l our - rUc^\ H-^ce. l i f e has l e d us towards each o t h e r , and now i n two e^eK irlher-114 53 PERDICAN: (CON'T) CAMILLE; PERDICAN; days we've d e s t r o y e d i t w i t h our p r i d e and anger. Oh God, can we do n o t h i n g but h u r t each, o t h e r w h i l e we a r e human beings? What fool s - w e ' v e been, u t t e r l y mad f o o l s . She <aul I s Yes, wo do l o v e each o t h e r . Take mo i n your arms,Kov\M-o hej-p o r d i c a n , l e t me f e c i your h e a r t b e a t i n g a l s o . -^^^v^/'nA God who sees us now c a n ' t be angry w i t h us. He a h ^ s ^ l f " wanted me to l o v e you and I have l o v e d you over s i n c e I can remember. 4IUM L i s * - fcW-f+c' Oh C a m i l l e , you r e a l l y a r e mine now. (SCREAM) _U N t T S CAMILLE: PERDICAN: That's R o s e t t e ' s v o i c e . V/hat i s she doing here? I l e f t h e r i n the v i l l a g e . She must have f o l l o w e d Die. CAMILLE: She's behind the c u r t a i n . The scream came from t h e r e , (PERDICAN: What's wrong w i t h mo? I f o o l as i f my hands!were c o v e r e d w i t h b l o o d . CAmlLLE: PERDICAN:' The poor c h i l d , she was s p y i n g on us and she f a i n t e d a g a i n when she h e a r d . . . come we must h e l p h e r . No, I c a n ' t go back t h e r e . P l e a s e , C a m i l l e , t r y to mako. her come mit, . . . . PloasoGod, don't make Cc. \Ws 1 \c,'K J}-i£tiT cugM^me a murderer. You can see what's happened. ' W e « v V ^ ^ ^ " ^ _ been two mad f o o l i s h c h i l d r e n , and we've t r i e d t o ^ v - f s -l-Ke-n^  p l a y w i t h l i f e and death. But we d i d n ' t mean t o ° - K ^ l e £ , i ^ h u r t anyone. P Tloase God, don't k i l l R o s e t t e . I T^-r^.v.^^ swear, I ' l l f i n d h e r a husband. I ' l l make up f o r kt\ Is what I've done to h e r . There's s t i l l time. Only ono more chance, I beg you, o n l y . . . What i s i t , ( p a ^ s e ) C a m i l l o ? „, ' n Goodbye, P e r d i c a n ^ 1 i|<e_ 6- itun i K CAMILLE: She's dead . hnusic CuB fc\ UtC H T fu£ H i p£o TtLCT ( Di'O tUt> 3 2- CURTAIN L ' C H T cues 5 o , s i , 115 SCENE ANALYSIS Opening Dance The purpose of the dance, which i s i n progress when the curtain opens, i s to set the happy, carefree, r u s t i c scene i n which the peasants l i v e . This mood i s very important i n the understanding of the character of Perdican. It i s a simple country dance of about 60 seconds' dur-ation, danced by the three couples placed Up Centre, Down Right and Down L e f t . They meet occasionally i n c i r c l e s or i n the centre, and end up i n the same formation with which they began. When the dance ends they laugh, clap hands and talk together, working themselves into position for a tableau into which they freeze when the cymbal crash sounds for the Leader's entrance. The tableau (see photograph 1) i s intended to sug-gest the f e e l i n g of "the sweetest v i l l a g e i n the p l a i n , " which the Chorus Leader mentions i n the Prologue. Prologue The purpose of the Prologue i s f i r s t to underline the mood which has been established by the chorus, the not-quite-r e a l world of make-believe, and secondly, to establish the conventions of the production, such as the purpose of the chorus and the leader himself, the n o n - r e a l i s t i c scenery etc. 116 The leader must establish a rapport with the audience i n order to bridge the gap between audience and players. Having thus established a pleasant atmosphere, he gets the play on i t s way and fades into the chorus and into the play. Act Ty Scene 1 This scene continues the mood already established, introduces two important characters and offers some expository information. A technical problem which this scene presents i s the requirement of a donkey or ass. This was solved by making a "donkey" out of a large b a r r e l , with handle-bars i n front and back, and four "legs" underneath so that i t could stand alone. I t was carr i e d by two chorus members who played at being the donkey, hee-hah-ing and stamping t h e i r feet when the others cheered. Blazius rode "astride,' 1 Pluche "side-saddle." In t h i s scene Blazius and Pluche present a kind of parody of Perdican and Camille whom they describe, and the scene i s i n comic juxtaposition with t h e i r entrance i n the next scene. The symmetry of the two halves of thi s scene a l -ready indicates that the grotesques are l i k e puppets. Unit 1 Blazius i s introduced to the audience. The chorus must project a somewhat mocking but affectionate and indulgent attitude towards him. They know he i s f a t , drinks too much and takes himself more seriously than his r e l i g i o n , but he i s harmless—they can forgive his fa u l t s because he i s kind to them. 117 Blazius announces the a r r i v a l of Perdican and gives certain information about him, exposing more of his own stup-i d i t y than of Perdican's knowledge. We are intended to doubt the picture he gives of Perdican, but to see Blazius' pomposity, love of rhetoric and his a f f i n i t y for wine. Unit 2 . Dame Pluche i s introduced. The chorus r i d i c u l e s her much more than they did Blazius: they hate her sharpness and bitterness and cannot forgive her scornful attitude towards them. Pluche announces the imminent a r r i v a l of Camille, and we doubt her exaggerated picture of Camille's piety as much as we do the p o r t r a i t of Perdican. Her phony virtu e i s shown.lin the contrast between her story about Camille and her contemptu-ous attitude towards the peasants. Both Blazius and Pluche wish to take c r e d i t for the success of t h e i r charges and both are only concerned with the externals of that success. Unit 3 . A mood of excitement and an t i c i p a t i o n i s created by the chorus and the leader, who once more steps b r i e f l y out of his character as v i l l a g e r to lead the audience further into the play. This mood w i l l be continued by the Baron i n the next scene, and i t must ste a d i l y r i s e u n t i l the entrance of Camille and Perdican. 118 Act I, Scene 2 The purpose of t h i s scene i s mainly expository: i t i n -troduces the remaining characters (with the exception of Rosette) and gets the action under way by the unexpected re-action of Camille to Perdican. Unit 1 The Baron appears for the f i r s t time. The symmetry and cliches of his f i r s t speech are t y p i c a l of his personality, as i s his "managing" of Blazius. His p o s i t i o n U.C. with Blazius and Bridaine on either side of him enforces t h i s symmetry. I t i s important that the Baron establishes his effeminateness immediately. In t h i s production this was done .through gestures, l i g h t dance-like movements and through his costume. The Baron i s t o t a l l y occupied with regulating everything that happens so that the a r r i v a l of Camille and Perdican and t h e i r subsequent marriage w i l l happen according to plan. Unit 2 Two important motifs appear here for the f i r s t time: the hatred of the two p r i e s t s for each other and the c h i l d i s h tendency they have to " t e l l on" each other to the Baron. They are jealous of each other's p o s i t i o n i n the Baron's household. The Baron on this part establishes his habit of ignoring whatever he doesn't want to see, or what does not f i t into his plans. 119 Unit 3 The entrance of Pluche presents a p a r a l l e l to Blazius' entrance and was therefore blocked i n the same way, except that Pluche enters l e f t , the entrance which i s l a t e r used by Camille, so that the tutor's and governess' entrances parody the l a t e r entrances of Perdican and Camille. The Baron greets Pluche and makes introductions exactly as he did before, which i s underlined by his s l i p i n almost c a l l i n g Pluche "my dearest f r i e n d . . . " He then gets r i d of her quickly, again just as he did with Blazius, i n order to get everything ready for the a r r i v a l of the lovers. Unit 4 This p a r a l l e l s Unit 2: Bridaine"s comment on the new-comer. He voices his approval of Pluche because he i s s a n c t i -monious and wants to appear to champion v i r t u e . In addition she presents no threat to his pos i t i o n i n the Baron's household as Blazius does. Unit 5 The bulk of the exposition i s presented by the Baron and the remainder of the scene i s thus prepared f o r : the marriage of Perdican and Camille has been planned down to the l a s t de-t a i l . The characters of Bridaine and the Baron are revealed further. The Baron l i v e s i n a world where everybody and every-120 thing obeys his command, a t o t a l l y unreal, make-believe world, completely out of touch with r e a l i t y . He has not even con-sidered the a c t u a l i t y of the personalities of Camille and Perdican (which t h e i r expensive education has no doubt given them) or the p o s s i b i l i t y of his plan not working out. Like Pluche and Blazius i n Sc. 1, he i s only concerned with outward things, and thi s i s shown i n his request of Bridaine to make Perdican speak some Lat i n , though "neither he nor Camille understands i t . Bridaine i s greedy, s e r v i l e and i n g r a t i a t i n g . During t h i s unit too, the tension and the Baron's ex-citement should b u i l d gradually to prepare for the anticipated entrance of Camille and Perdican. Unit 6 I t i s very important that the actual entrance of Camille and Perdican tops t h i s excitement and that the scene does not drop at thi s point. Perdican behaves as the Baron had expected: he i s de-lighted to be home and i s immediately taken with Camille's beauty. I t must be quite obvious, however, from the beginning that Camille does not return his feeli n g s . She avoids physical contact with him, and seems nervous and a f r a i d . His reaction i s one of surprise, but he does not force himself on her. Unit 7 Here we see the Baron's reaction when r e a l i t y does not comply with his wishes: he cannot believe i t and considers i t a personal af f r o n t . 121 B r i d a i n e t r i e s t o c r e a t e the i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he u n d e r -s t a n d s such t h i n g s , b e i n g a p a r i s h p r i e s t . U n i t 8 T h i s u n i t s y m b o l i c a l l y p r e s e n t s C a m i l l e ' s p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h the c o n v e n t and fo reshadows what we a r e t o l e a r n abou t h e r . U n i t 9 T h i s i s a p a r a l l e l t o U n i t 8 and s y m b o l i c a l l y shows P e r d i c a n ' s c h a r a c t e r : he l o v e s n a t u r e and the f l o w e r s as he l a t e r l o v e s R o s e t t e , s i m p l y because t h e y a r e l o v e l y . B r i d a i n e , s e e i n g an o p p o r t u n i t y t o p u t ~ P e r d i c a n t o the t e s t a l r e a d y (as t h e B a r o n a s k e d h im t o e a r l i e r ) g i v e s h im the c u e , b u t P e r d i c a n ' s r e a c t i o n p r o v e s t h a t he t o o , does n o t c o n -form t o what i s e x p e c t e d o f h i m . H i s l i n e s h o u l d be spoken s o f t l y and t h o u g h t f u l l y . A c t I , Scene 3 I n t r o d u c t i o n The Chorus Leader , s t e p s once more o u t o f t h e p l a y t o a d d r e s s t h e a u d i e n c e i n h i s f u n c t i o n as n a r r a t o r and commen-t a t o r . T h i s scene i s s t i l l e x p o s i t i o n i n t h a t i t adds t o ou r knowledge o f t h e two p r i e s t s . I t b r i d g e s the t i m e gap be tween S c . 2 and 3 . U n i t 1 He q u i c k l y summarizes what has happened i n the p l a y so f a r and p o i n t s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f t he cause o f C a m i l l e and P e r d i c a n ' s f a i l u r e t o g e t a l o n g : t h e i r f e a r and p r i d e . 122 Unit- 2 He elaborates further on the characters of Blazius and Bridaine, pointing out that they hate each other because they are so a l i k e . The scene he narrates i s too complicated to be staged, but the information i s important i n the development and understanding of the characters of the two p r i e s t s . In the l a s t four l i n e s he voices the already implied c r i t i c i s m of the r e l i g i o n and clergy of the period, which de Musset expresses i n the play. Unit 3 He leads the audience back into the frame of the play and disappears. Act T, Sc. 3 In this scene Perdican suffers his f i r s t serious defeat at the hands of Camille.. We are also made to see the contrast between the grotesques, who are the only ones concerned with externals and who cannot understand, and the loversjwho have s e n s i t i v i t y and depth. Unit 1 The Baron repeats his grievance and his f e e l i n g of personal i n s u l t to Pluche, i n some degree blaming her for Camille's behavior. Pluche i s i n g r a t i a t i n g , but can hardly hidehher disapproval of him and of his intention of marrying her "spotless dove" to a man. 123 Unit 2 . I t should be clear when the lovers appear that Camille has been sought out against her w i l l by Perdican; he t r i e s to reach her by reminding her of t h e i r happy childhood together: th i s i s the second time he reveals his 'yearning for nature. Camille becomes even more nervous and upset than i n her previous scene. She i s frightened by his physical pre-sence, and because she cannot express her r e a l feelings she i s unnecessarily cold i n her r e f u s a l to have anything to do with him. She i s very aware of her resolution to return to the convent immediately and does not want anything to happen to change this plan. Perdican i s hurt by her r e f u s a l but he t r i e s not to admit i t even to himself and establishes his superiority by c a l l i n g her "poor c h i l d " and saying that he " p i t i e s " her. Unit 3 This i s again a grotesque parody juxtaposed to the previous unit. Pluche can no longer contain her disapproval of the Baron's intentions. The Baron i s so i n t o l e r a n t of anything that thwarts his plans that i n a paroxysm of anger he c a l l s her an "ass." This shows that his gallant manners of the f i r s t scene are only on the surface, l i k e everything else about him. 124 Act I, Scene 4 Snubbed by Camille, Perdican goes to the v i l l a g e to be comforted by the friendship of the peasants. Already i n t h i s scene we get a glimpse of the fact that things are no longer as Perdican remembers them. In t h i s scene Rosette i s introduced to the audience for the f i r s t time. Unit 1 The purpose of t h i s unit i s to once again e s t a b l i s h the r u r a l peasant atmosphere of the f i r s t scene.' I t i s early the next day and the peasants have just come outside—they are s t i l l sleepy and are setting about t h e i r d a i l y chores. They gradually wake up and when they are awake they are happy to be a l i v e , laughing and greeting each other at the beginning of another day. For them th i s i s routine. They go through this every day, but to Perdican i t looks marvellous and d e l i g h t f u l . Unl t 2 Perdican has l e f t the chateau very early to f i n d comfort with his old friends i n the v i l l a g e . The peasants are at f i r s t not quite sure of what to do or say, but when they r e a l i z e he hasn't changed they become excited and f r i e n d l y . I t i s a happy reunion for Perdican too, who has been waiting for just t h i s . He repeats to them again his most important wish: to forget a l l he has ever learned. But i n t h i s scene he also begins to r e a l i z e that things are no longer as he remembered them: even the fountain seems very small. 125 Unit 3 The rest of this scene i s most important i n that i t introduces Rosette for the f i r s t time and must t e l l a great deal about her immediately. Rosette i s pretty but quiet and unassuming. I t must be made obvious that she adores Perdican and has been watching him, but was too shy to come to him. She has loved him since they were children and no other man has ever been able to win her; t h i s i s why she has said she wants to die a maid. When the other peasants t e l l Perdican that Rosette wants "to die a maid," she i s deeply embarrassed. Perdican's attitude towards Rosette i s also very impor-tant. He does not notice how she feels but i s charmed by her shyness and blushes. He must show that she i s nothing but a pretty l i t t l e thing to him. For that reason a small change was made i n the scene so that he pecks her on the cheek,, catch-ing her by surprise, rather than t e l l i n g her to come and kiss him. This shows more c l e a r l y that she i s only a plaything for him, and her combined pleasure and embarrassment w i l l reveal her confusion more c l e a r l y than i f she i s made to go over and kiss him. At the end of the scene the peasants have accepted Perdican i n t h e i r midst again and a l l go o f f happily to explore the v i l l a g e , every chorus member eager to show something to Perdican. Perdican no longer seems to be troubled by anything and i n this we have a s l i g h t h i n t of Rosette's l a t e r r o l e . 126 Act I, Scene 5 This scene returns us to the grotesques who continue t h e i r childishness without interruption. Their interpretation of the innocent scene we just witnessed once more emphasizes the fact that they are always on the outside looking i n and never understand anything. Unit 1 Blazius comes to t e l l the Baron that Bridaine was drunk after dinner, a l l the while breathing his own foul breath into the Baron's face. He does not r e a l i z e that Bridaine has a l -ready t o l d on him and he hopes to esta b l i s h his superiority over Bridaine. The Baron, as usual, t r i e s to ignore the problem, but f i n a l l y driven beyond endurance he t e l l s Blazius he doesn't care and cannot be bothered about such things. Blazius, immediately a f r a i d of the Baron's disfavour, changes quickly and humbly compliments the Baron on his fine wine. He exits bowing so many times that he bumps into Bridaine who i s rush-ing on. Unit 2 An obvious p a r a l l e l to the preceding unit, i n order to emphasize the ridiculousness of both p r i e s t s , t h e i r c h i l d i s h games and t h e i r p r e d i c t a b i l i t y . Bridaine comes to improve his standing i n the Baron's eyes by t e l l i n g him that Perdican has been seen with a v i l l a g e g i r l . The Baron, becoming more 127 upset, now notices that Bridaine too i s drunk; everything becomes too much for him and he takes the way out which i s t y p i c a l of his i n a b i l i t y to face r e a l i t y : he goes into a dramatic f a i n t and demands to be taken into his study, where he can escape from his problems. From now on whenever pressure threatens he takes this way out. Thus i t i s important that the e x i t i s blocked i n such a way as to make i t possible for i t to happen i n the same or a sim i l a r way i n subsequent scenes. Act I, Scene 6 The tension begins to r i s e . The Camille-Perdican r e l a -tionship takes a turn i n this scene, so that i n e f f e c t at the end i t i s Camille who i s pursuing Perdican, instead of vice versa. Unit 1 Blazius, now i n his role of tutor to Perdican, takes i t upon himself to t ry to improve Perdican's behavior, hoping no doubt to show the Baron his benign influence on his son. We are reminded that Perdican i s not at a l l against the marriage. Blazius i s again juxtaposed with Perdican, as Pluche i s with Camille at the end of thi s scene. Unit 2 This time Camille seeks out Perdican—she had decided to t e l l him to his face that she does not wish to marry and has her speech prepared when she enters. His reaction, however, 128 catches her by surprise: she had expected him to be heartbroken and to beg her to change her mind. Her newfound confidence i s shattered by his cool, matter-of-fact reaction, and she feels again threatened by his physical presence, not r e a l i z i n g that i t i s a t t r a c t i o n she feels for him. When she knows he i s going to leave her she unconsciously prepares for another meeting by a l i t t l e coyness i n refusing to t e l l him why she must return to the convent. Perdican does not r e a l i z e how disappointed he i s at her re f u s a l . He supresses his hurt feelings with a few gallant speeches which come e a s i l y to him and give the impression that he r e a l l y doesn't care. When he says: "Pride i s not one of my q u a l i t i e s " i t i s i r o n i c a l that he r e a l l y thinks this i s true. He takes her at her word, and i n his concern for the figure he cuts i n his own eyes, he does not see that she i s subconsciously hoping for a d i f f e r e n t reaction from him. Unit 3 Camille i s l e f t alone with her confusion and the d i f f e r -ent feelings which are tearing at her. Her impulse i s to c a l l him back, but she i s sincere i n her desire to return to the convent and she cannot reconcile the two feeli n g s . She begins to r a t i o n a l i z e and after a short struggle decides to t e l l Perdican she i s planning to become a nun, hoping that they can then part as good friends. However, to convince herself that t h i s i s a l l there i s to her decision she makes sure that 129 everything i s ready for departure the next day. She questions Pluche about th i s even while she i s writing the note asking Perdi'can to meet her at the fountain. Her choice of the foun-t a i n (which has so many childhood memories for both of them) as a meeting place i s not i n t e n t i o n a l l y romantic at t h i s point, but shows again her unconscious yearning for something to happen. Pluche thoroughly disapproves of the l e t t e r and t h i s serves to underline for the audience that Camille i s breaking away from her former behavior. But Pluche i s only a servant and must carry out orders, she therefore reluctantly takes the l e t t e r out. As an afterthought, and for double assurance of her way to escape whatever may happen, Camille c a l l s a f t e r her to make sure everything i s ready for departure. Act I, Scene 7 Bridaine's soliloquy i s a parody of a c l a s s i c a l scene of farewell (note the "heroic" exclamations: "Oh, miserable that I am," "Oh Holy Mother Church" and the l y r i c a l r e p e t i t i o n of "Farewell. . . " ) . I t implies that he thinks of himself as a great man, forced by fate to depart from his home, and makes him look even more the ridiculous buffoon that he i s . The scene again s a t i r i z e s the clergy. Bridaine must show that for him food and wine merit the noblest sentiments and the most 130 elevated, language. He relish e s a l l his c l a s s i c a l cliches as i f they were the highest wisdom. Within the framework of the play the purpose of t h i s scene i s provide comic r e l i e f from the more or less serious, but not yet p a r t i c u l a r l y e x c i t i n g scenes involving the lovers which precede and follow i t . I t also serves as a reminder that the grotesques have no conception of what i s going on—they are as preoccupied with t h e i r own petty grievances as ever. Act I, Scene 8 This deceptively simple scene i s extremely important i n that i t marks Rosette's commitment to Perdican and i s therefore c r u c i a l to the development of her character. Perdican, however has no i n k l i n g of t h i s and continues to see her as a lovely plaything. The scene contains much more than one would think at f i r s t glance. I t i s important i n the f i r s t place to establish Perdican's mood at the beginning of the scene as one of sadness and dejection caused by Camille's coldness. Suddenly he thinks of Rosette and decides to take her for a walk to give his s p i r i t s a l i f t — h e does not want to l e t himself get depressed because of Camille. Rosette's reaction when she answers his c a l l betrays her: "Perdican," she says i n happy surprise, and only then she remembers her station and corrects h e r s e l f : "I mean, my lor d . . ." This should show once more that she loves him, but shows also that she knows he i s not taking her seriously by 131 her: "Do you think a l l t h i s i s r e a l l y good for me?" In her longer speech about the kisses she t r i e s to t e l l him that she doesn't want to be kissed on the cheeks and i n front of her mother, and to be l i k e a s i s t e r to him: "kisses are kisses" and she wants to know what they mean. If he wants to f l i r t with her he should take her seriously and kiss her on the l i p s l i k e lovers do. Rosette i s too shy and modest, and not elo-quent enough to come r i g h t out and say a l l t h i s to Perdican, but her speeches betray a l l these f e e l i n g s . But Perdican i s oblivious to a l l t h i s — h e thinks she has nothing to worry about as long as a l l i s above board. He i s so enchanted with her loveliness and her c h i l d l i k e inno-cence that he doesn't even l i s t e n to what she has to say—he merely watches her and answers with: "How lovely you are^ my dear." At t h i s Rosette forgets about herself and comments on his sadness, and hesitantly asks i f i t i s true that his marriage has been postponed, f e e l i n g a l i t t l e r e l i e f at this news. I t should be pointed out,however, that although Rosette i s i n love with Perdican she hasn't the s l i g h t e s t expectation, that he w i l l marry her because that would be impossible i n view of t h e i r d i f f e r e n t stations i n l i f e . Nor i s she f l i r t i n g with him. Her love for him i s so great that whatever time she can spend with him before his marriage i s very precious to her. However,she would not be able to put a l l these feelings into 132 words and she i s too shy even to t e l l him that she loves him. This i s also why she quickly changes the subject when he asks her who she w i l l marry—at t h i s moment she doesn't care what happens to her after he i s gone. Perdican makes another speech about her pretty smile, moved to tears now by her natural, uncomplicated love l i n e s s , her oneness with nature and by his own sadness. Again Rosette t r i e s to t e l l him that she would rather have him kiss her l i p s than talk about her smile. Suddenly she r e a l i z e s that he i s crying ; ;, and i s aware that i t i s somehow because of her, although she doesn't understand what she has done. P i t y , love and shock mingle to make her forget her shyness and she puts her arms around him to comfort him. I t has been necessary to go into considerable d e t a i l i n this scene because i t i s of great importance i n the further development of the play, and of Rosette's character i n p a r t i -cular. As i t i s written the scene i s a l i t t l e ambiguous i n that i t could be interpreted simply as Rosette somewhat coyly r e s i s t i n g Perdican's advances. This interpretation would make Rosette incomprehensible i n the rest of the play, however. I t i s to the end of this scene that Rosette l a t e r refers when she says: "How could I turn him away when he c r i e d for my help," and a l l the feelings discussed so far must be shown between the lines because Rosette does not r e a l l y manage to get her point across i n words. Verbal eloquence i s a s o p h i s t i -133 cation which Camille and Perdican have acquired, and i t i s the lack of this s o p h i s t i c a t i o n which contrasts Rosette with them. Act I, Scene 9 Abruptly we go back to the grotesques for comic r e l i e f a fter this slow, quiet scene and i n preparation for the next which i s very long and talky. They continue to play t h e i r endless games, and t h i s emphasizes the contrast between them and the lovers, whose relationships are more genuine. Blazius, again under the influence of wing, rushes i n , barely able to contain his delight at being able to bring the Baron another b i t of disturbing news, which w i l l serve to con-t r a s t B l a z i u s 1 own cleverness with someone else's bad behavior. This time he has come across Camille screaming at Pluche to go back and look for Perdican to give him the note.(Apparently Pluche had returned with the mission unaccomplished.) The Baron greets the hews i n his usual way: he repeats the word "impossible" i n almost every l i n e , and f i n a l l y escapes to his study, again at his wits' end. The main purpose of t h i s scene i s obviously i n i t s comedy and irony but i n addition i t t e l l s us a few things about Camille and these must be stressed: f i r s t , she has apparently changed from the pious l i t t l e convent g i r l to a woman who, " l i v i d with anger," shouts at her governess, c a l l i n g her an "old fooili" and beating her with a fan. Even allowing 134 for some exaggeration on the part of Blazius, t h i s i s i n d i c a -t i v e of a considerable urge on her part to see Perdican again. Secondly, we know from th i s that Camille has also been t o l d by Pluche that Perdican has been out f l i r t i n g with v i l l a g e g i r l s . Act I, Scene 10 This long and important scene ends with the climax of Act I. For the f i r s t time Camille and Perdican confront each other r e l a t i v e l y honestly and a great deal of what i s keeping them apart i s brought out into the open. The tension must b u i l d very gradually u n t i l the scene ends on a very high p i t c h of i n t e n s i t y , with Perdican i n obvious control. Unit 1 Perdican's speech brings us back to the Camille-Perdican s i t u a t i o n . The meeting, i s about to take place. Perdican i s surprised at the change i n Camille and wonders i f she i s up to something. I t i s important to show that Perdican i s somewhat on his guard and i s going to be careful not to be taken i n by anything that may hurt his pride again. Unit 2 Camille's conscious intention here i s s t i l l what i t was when she wrote the note: to t e l l Perdican the truth and to part from him as friends. But her r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n has taken her one step further now; she has decided to ask him i f he 135 thinks she i s r i g h t i n her decision to become a nun. She naturally expects him to answer "no," and then she plans to throw at him a l l the arguments against marriage and the love of men which she has learned at the convent, and which she does not think he can possibly defeat. Thus she i s p e r f e c t l y sincere i n what she i s doing: she i s simply t r y i n g to provoke him into an argument on love so that she can have the s a t i s -f a c t i o n of proving to him that she i s r i g h t i n becoming a nun and that the blame belongs more with him than with her. Her subconscious intention i n t h i s scene i s to give him a chance to talk away a l l her fears, to swear that he w i l l love her forever and to persuade her to give up her idea of becoming a nun and to marry him. But i t i s important to understand that she i s not consciously aware that she wants t h i s . Perdican, on guard as he i s against any t r i c k e r y , and suspecting'an u l t e r i o r motive, at f i r s t refuses to become involved. As her questions become more and more personal he becomes annoyed and quite brusque. A l l Camille's questions are intended to provoke the argument mentioned above, and, never getting the answer she wants,'she.'finally loses a l i t t l e of the composure with which she began the interview and the r e a l urgency of her cause begins to show. 136 Unit 3 Perdican senses for the f i r s t time the s i n c e r i t y of her pleas, and r e a l i z i n g she i s serious, he changes his approach and decides to answer her questions honestly. Now that she i s getting what she wants Camille pushes her point quickly and she gets the answers she needs i n order to launch into her convent s t o r i e s . Unit 4 Camille f i n a l l y has a chance to t e l l Perdican (and the audience) about her frie n d i n the convent whose b i t t e r experi-ences she has shared. She gets so carried away and wants so much to make Perdican understand how much these stories have affected her that before she r e a l i z e s i t , she has confessed that she has b u i l t up an imaginary world with Perdican at i t s centre. This i n i t s e l f does much to explain her e a r l i e r be-havior i n his presence. What she says almost amounts to a declaration of love, but Perdican, who i s s t i l l on the defen-sive, ignores i t and once again • establishes his superiority over her with: "How old are you now, Camille?" Camille con-tinues her story, a l l of which i s pe r f e c t l y sincere, and f i n a l l y almost begs him to contradict her and t e l l her the nuns are wrong. Perdican l i s t e n s a t t e n t i v e l y to a l l she says. He re-al i z e s she i s sincere but does, not respond for two reasons: 137 f i r s t , the world of the convent and stories of the women are so repulsive and so foreign to him that he doesn't even want to try and prove them wrong. This i s why he says: "I can't now. It's not Cammile who i s asking the questions." Secondly, he i s s t i l l guarding his wounded pride and therefore makes himself believe that he doesn't r e a l l y care what Camille does. Thus he doesn't f u l l y r e a l i z e he i s missing his chance to win her. Unit 5 Camille t r i e s another approach and f i n a l l y provokes him into saying that she i s r i g h t to become a nun, just to make her stop needling him. She confronts him with his contradiction and i n order to brush i t o f f , he blurts out what he r e a l l y f e e l s : "You believe i n nothing" 1—^because for him love i s the only thing worth believing i n . Unit 6 Faced with t h i s accusation, which seems completely untrue to her because she believes i n God and she knows he does not, Camille confronts him with i t : "Look at me Perdican, what person believes i n nothing?" Perdican has become very involved i n the argument now, i n spite of himself, and can no longer pretend that he doesn't know what she i s t a l k i n g about. Every-think she says makes sense and she has proven that she w i l l not l e t him get away with anything but the truth. He f i n a l l y blurts out what has been i n his mind a l l along, and what i s 138 the obvious answer to her question and the answer she has been l o o k i n g f o r : " t h e i r , l i f e i s not f o r you." But C a m i l l e too has become p a s s i o n a t e l y i n v o l v e d and her p r i d e i s a l i t t l e h u r t . She overshoots the mark when she answers him and i n s u l t s him w i t h her show of s u p e r i o r i t y . The r e s u l t i s h i s s "you s t i n k of p r i d e / " and again he draws secur-i t y from making her f e e l t h a t she i s younger and l e s s experienced than he i s . unit 7 Her p r i d e r e a l l y h u r t t h i s time, Camille h u r l s at him a l l the accusations she has been suppressing and r i d i c u l e s h i s " r e l i g i o n " as he has done hers. I t i s obvious now that she does want l o v e , but she wants the i d e a l or n o t h i n g — n o t the k i n d she t h i n k s she can expect from Perdican, which i s l i k e d i r t y money, passed on from one person to another. In t h i s u n i t C a m i l l e i s once more pushed to the p o i n t of desper-a t i o n where she shows her r e a l face and her r e a l f e e l i n g s . As he was e a r l i e r i n the scene, Perdican i s touched by her s i n c e r i t y and t h r i l l e d by the r e a l C a m i l l e , who i s coming through at l a s t . unit 8 Perdican i s now f i n a l l y moved to take the i n i t i a t i v e and to make a move towards her. He wants to make her see the whole t h i n g from h i s p o i n t of. view,, to t e l l her t h a t these women would l i k e the same.suffering again i f theyhhad the 139 chance, because i n spite of a l l the suffering they would want ence again the experience of whatever love was associated with i t . The s i s t e r s have taken refuge behind the convent walls to hide t h e i r bitterness i n a pretended love of God. In th e i r d i s -honesty they have poisoned the mind of Camille and have pre-vented her from experiencing the Pnly thing i n l i f e that i s worthwhile. Camille i s at l a s t getting the reaction she o r i g i n a l l y wanted, but i r o n i c a l l y she i s frightened by the passion with which Perdican expresses himself. She i s more than ever threatened by his presence and instinctively turns her back to him when he draws her attention to the fact that she i s alone with him by the fountain. Camille has l o s t the argument she wanted to have and was so sure she could win. She can fin d nothing more to say, but neither can she swallow her pride and t r u s t him enough to believe him and thus give up a l l her plans for her future. Unit 9 Having given her a chance to change her mind and being snubbed again, Perdican gathers new momentum and gives complete vent to his anger. He r a i l s against the nuns, addressing himself to Camille personally to some extent, and t e l l s her that she i s not a human being at a l l but only a "wretched puppet, trembling with pride and fear." These accusations are 140 prompted by his anger at what he considers her cowardice: she has gone back into her s h e l l , after having shown momentarily that she i s a r e a l and passionate human being. Camille i s shattered by what he i s saying to her, and her reaction i s one of utter t e r r o r . Perdican's long speech i s the crux of the whole play, as well as the key to his character. Everything that he believes i n i s at stake here and Camille and her convent ideas are diametrically opposed to everything he stands f o r . His disturbance i s heightened by the a t t r a c t i o n he feels for her, i n spite of himself. Perdican's tirade against the nuns i s also a vicious.-attack on the convent education of his period and on r e l i g i o u s communities i n general. Act IT, Scene 1 The purpose of this short scene i s to show Perdican's state of mind the next morning. He has been deeply affected by what happened at the fountain, but he t r i e s to shrug i t o f f l i g h t l y . The important thing i n this scene i s to show that Perdican i s confused about how he feels about Ca m i l l e — h e thinks he may be i n love with her but he doesn't want to admit i t , and he i s not sure about how she feels about him either. But i n spite of his confusion he i s cheerful at the prospect 141 of what may be i n store, and he has managed to shake o f f the desperate seriousness of his mood when we. l a s t saw him. This scene, r e l a t i v e l y unimportant as i t i s , allows the audience a l i t t l e time to get back "into" the play after the break. Act I I , Scene 2 The turning point of the play comes at the end of this scene, when through the bungling of the grotesques Perdican reads Camille's l e t t e r to her f r i e n d . This i s the only point i n the play at which the grotesques a f f e c t the main p l o t , and i t means disas t e r . Unit 1 This short scene i n which the Baron dismisses Blazius i s actually not connected to the rest of Act.II, Sc. 2 and does not take place i n the same location as the r e s t of the scene (the Salon would be the most l i k e l y place). I t was played i n a spotlight, as were several short scenes throughout the play, which did not necessitate a change i n scenery. The only apparent purpose of the scene i s to set up the meeting of Blazius and Bridaine i n the v i l l a g e , and the subsequent episode with the l e t t e r . Some of the comedy i s derived from the juxtaposition of th i s scene, i n which the Baron has f i n a l l y discovered some-thing, with Perdican's preceding speech i n which he i s for the 142 f i r s t time confused. In the production the Baron discovered another b o t t l e on Blazius' b e l t before his l i n e "Get out and never darken my door." Blazius i s very humiliated and would try to get himself out of the si t u a t i o n with a clever excuse, but he doesn't have the chance to defend himself. Unit 2 This section i s again a parody of the c l a s s i c a l t r a g i c s t y l e . Both p r i e s t s are completely preoccupied with t h e i r great loss of the p r i v i l e g e of the Baron's table and they are cursing themselves for t h e i r " f a t a l flaws"; Bridaine's pride, B l a z i u s 1 c u r i o s i t y . The comedy of the scene l i e s i n the anti c i p a t i o n of the inevitable meeting of the two, and the fact that they almost echo each other, apparently without knowing i t . The scene was blocked so that the two pr i e s t s move around the stage i n pro-gressively smaller c i r c l e s u n t i l they met i n the centre. Unit 3 Here the true extent of the gluttony of both Bridaine and Blazius i s revealed, as well as the r e a l ugliness of Bridaine, who i s the more unattractive of the two. When he i s put on the spot by his foe, Bridaine's pride w i l l not l e t him admit that he was planning to leave (and i n any case he already regrets his decision), so his gluttony f i n a l l y wins out over his pride, and he turns around to return to the chateau. Gluttony too, makes Blazius grovel at the 143 feet of Bridaine, whom he hates, and beg him to put i n a good word for him, just on the chance that he may be able to get him back into the chateau. This i s Bridaine's moment of glory; now he can put down Blazius, his "superior" i n education at lea s t , and get back his place i n the Baron's graces at the same time. He makes the most of the opportunity. Blazius i s on his knees, begging, and Bridaine cuts him dead with a l l the viciousness and zeal he can muster. Unit 4 In his soliloquy Blazius i s concerned with how he can get back into the chateau, and he decides the only way i s to prove to the Baron that Camille i s indeed writing l o v e - l e t t e r s . Since i t was Pluche who got him into t h i s s i t u a t i o n , he decides he doesn't care what he has to do to her to make her show him one of Camille's l e t t e r s . Unit 5 The r e a l purpose of the scramble between Blazius and Pluche over the l e t t e r i s to allow i t f i n a l l y to f a l l into Perdican's hands, which i s v i t a l to the p l o t . But the scene presents a marvellous opportunity for comedy. Pluche cannot understand why Blazius should want the l e t t e r so she thinks he i s afte r her v i r t u e . In fact she defends the l e t t e r as she would her v i r t u e , as i s shown i n her imagery ("he ravished that l e t t e r from my unwilling hands"). 144 Blazius i s hal f drunk as usual, and quite ready to use force to get the l e t t e r from her (he of course, thinks i t i s a love-l e t t e r ) . He chases her and gets i t . Unit 6 Perdican, having heard Pluche's screams, comes to see what i s going on. He uses the pretext of being Camille's fiancetv: to get the l e t t e r away from them i n order to stop the quarrel. As soon as he enters Pluche feels safe and accuses Blazius e n e r g e t i c a l l y , sure that Perdican w i l l protect her, since she has r i g h t on her side. She i s very smug when he does take her part. Blazius i s thwarted again, but must obey Perdican. He i s now d e f i n i t e l y dismissed and must leave. Unit 7 In his state of confusion and excitement, caused by his ambiguous feelings towards Camille, Perdican cannot r e s i s t the temptation to read her l e t t e r . He does i t almost against his better judgement,, but cannot help i t . Perdican's reading of the l e t t e r i s the turning point of the play: a l l the subsequent misery i s brought about because of the unhappy coincidence of the c h i l d i s h vanity which w i l l not l e t Camille admit the truth to Louise/ and the youthful ardor which causes Perdican to do something he knows i s wrong. 145 At t h i s moment, when he i s once again vulnerable,. Perdican's pride receives a great blow. Camille's story i s obviously untrue, i n the sense that as far as she knows he i s not at a l l heartbroken, but yet i t has a l o t of truth i n i t . He cannot stand the idea that she has almost read his mind, and i t also i n f u r i a t e s him to think that she took i t for granted that he would f a l l i n love with her before she even l e f t the convent. Blinding fury sweeps over him at the thought of being taken i n l i k e t h i s by Camille and her despised nun-fr i e n d , and he doesn't care what he does as long as Camille i s hurt as she has hurt him. He makes an impulsive decision, without a moment's r e f l e c t i o n , to make her watch him make love to Rosette, because i t i s the most obvious way of showing that he doesn't care about her. Unit 8 He immediately puts his plan into action by sending a servant to get Camille and getting hold of Rosette. There i s not a moment's time for r e f l e c t i o n . The thought of what might happen to.Rosette doesn't even occur to him at t h i s point: she i s simply there and available. Act IT, Scene 3 From th i s point on i n the play the tension r i s e s steadily u n t i l the l a s t scene, and the action comprises a series of v i c t o r i e s and defeats by Camille and Perdican. In thi s scene Perdican i s dealing Camille a vicious blow and •gains:;:/ the ad-vantage for the time being. 146 Unit 1 Camille has received Perdican's message. She i s sur-prised and excited about a further meeting, but not at a l l comfortable about having come, sensing that something is" wrong. She s t i l l intends to return to the convent, but she wears a bea u t i f u l new dress, which shows that unconsciously she i s s t i l l hoping that something may happen. The purpose of the speech i s to make sure that the audience knows Camille i s watching the subsequent scene, and to remind them that she knows nothing of what i s going to happen or why. Unit 2 Perdican begins the scene with the intention of courting Rosette for the benefit of Camille, and i n doing so to hurt Camille as much as possible. He gives Rosette the chain and dagger, a b e a u t i f u l g i f t and makes a big production of throwing the r i n g which Camille had given him the previous day into the well. I t i s very important to establish at the beginning of the scene that he i s intensely conscious of Camille's presence. Rosette i s unaware of a l l t h i s and i s unaware there i s an u l t e r i o r motive. She i s t h r i l l e d with the g i f t , puts i t on and t w i r l s around to show Perdican how i t looks. When he says he loves her and kisses her (on the l i p s t h i s time), she can no longer contain her secret and t e l l s him that she loves him too, "as best she can." Rosette believes the things he 147 says to her, but she i s disturbed by his feverish passion, which she does not understand. The d i f f i c u l t y i n this scene i s that Perdican's speeches to Rosette are much more than a mere pretense for the sake of Camille, and thi s must be shown. Rosette i s b e a u t i f u l , simple, sweet and innocent—everything that Perdican loves and that he was hoping to fi n d i n Camille. Camille i s now to him "a f r i g i d statue, fabricated i n a convent," who has hurt him. At this moment Rosette seems by far the more at t r a c t i v e of the two, i n spite of the fac t that she i s a peasant, because she loves him and presents no threat to him. . Therefore there i s a great deal of true f e e l i n g i n everything he says from the beginning, and by the end of the scene he has become so carried away that he i s deeply moved and feels everything he says quite sincerely. The chain and dagger which Perdican gives to Rosette symbolize his love and the e f f e c t i t w i l l have on her. I t w i l l become l i k e a chain from which she cannot get free and i t w i l l be the dagger'with which she w i l l k i l l h e r s e l f . It i s symbolic too that the ring which Perdican has thrown away i s retrieved as soon as he leaves by Camille. The ring symbolizes her love and she intends to give i t back to him and does so l a t e r — h e cannot get r i d of i t . When Camille goes to the fountain at the end of this scene the audience i s also reminded of her presence and prepared for some posit i v e re-action from her l a t e r . 148 Act I I I , Scene 4 This scene provides a few moments of r e l i e f from the building tension, while at the same time furthering the p l o t . . Unit 1 The purpose of the gossiping of the chorus i s to reca-p i t u l a t e what has happened up to now i n the main plot and to show that the peasants know everything that i s going on at the chateau. This prepares us for Act I I , Sc. 8 where they make th e i r presence f e l t much more strongly i n r e l a t i o n to Rosette. Unit. 2 Pluche i s delighted to be leaving for the convent. She takes out her frust r a t i o n , and the d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n which she dare not show to her superiors, on the chorus, who respond by r i d i c u l i n g her as i n the f i r s t scene. From the fact that everything r e a l l y was ready for the departure we know that Camille was s t i l l intending to leave today, and when she c a l l s the whole thing o f f we know that she must have made her decision after, the scene at the fountain. The language she uses i s most unladylike and confirms again the fact that she does not have the temperament of a nun. I t also shows that she i s now passionately involved with Perdican and no longer cares for appearances. She i s i n f u r i a t e d by what she has witnessed at the fountain and cannot leave u n t i l she has done something about i t . 149 This scene i s b a s i c a l l y comic but i t i s very short and fast-moving, and i t contains undertones of tension and even menace. Act I I , Scene 5 This i s the l a s t comic scene i n the play. I t i s very short and was played i n a s p o t l i g h t . I t says nothing new about the grotesques: they are s t i l l following what goes on but at the same time t o t a l l y removed from i t and understanding nothing. Bridaine offers more disturbing information and the Baron retreats to his study, as has happened several times before. This i s the l a s t reminder of what becomes of the unloved and unloving before Camille and Perdican face the f i n a l c r i s i s . This scene and the previous one must both move very quickly, so that i n spite of the fact that they are funny they also help to b u i l d the pace and increase the tension. Thus these scenes o f f e r comic r e l i e f , but at the same time prepare the audience for the dramatic scenes ahead. Act I I , Scene 6 We return to the b a t t l e between Camille and Perdican and now i t i s Camille's turn to gain the upper hand. She does i t very c l e v e r l y , and under the pretext of looking after Rosette. She gains her objective of establishing her strength, but her vi c t o r y i s s h o r t - l i v e d . 150 Unit 1 Camille has just heard from Pluche that Perdican has got hold of her l e t t e r and she now understands that the scene at the fountain was an attempt to humiliate her. She must get back at him for t h i s , and immediately sends the s t i l l r e l u c -tant Pluche to summon Perdican. At this point, although the audience doesn't know i t , Rosette has already been c a l l e d i n and i s waiting behind the curtain. Thus even before she knew Perdican had read her l e t t e r Camille had decided to warn Rosette not to believe Perdican, a pretext which she used to r a t i o n a l i z e the fac t that she wanted to fin d out from Rosette what was going on, and i f possible to break up the rel a t i o n s h i p . I t i s important to bring out Camille's suspicion that Perdican r e a l l y may love Rosette. I t shows that she i s not so sure of herself as she seems to be l a t e r i n the scene, and also that she has some awareness of the at t r a c t i o n Rosette has for Perdican. Unit 2 In her fury at Perdican, Camille can barely make herself be c i v i l with Rosette. She f i r e s questions at her without even waiting for an answer, obviously not r e a l l y caring about Rosette's feelings at a l l . She i s only interested i n j u s t i f y i n g what she wants to do to Perdican: to humiliate him i n front of Rosette, supposedly i n order to rescue her from his clutches. 151 Rosette i s a l i t t l e frightened of Camille and stunned at how much"she seems to know. When asked whether she believes Perdican, i t does not occur to her to answer i n the negative, simply because she cannot and does not want to believe that he has l i e d to her. This l i t t l e scene between Camille and Rosette must be played rather quickly because of the expected a r r i v a l of Perdican at any moment. If i t i s played slowly the tension drops badly at t h i s point and i t w i l l be d i f f i c u l t for Camille to get up to the pitch required of her l a t e r i n this scene. Unit 3 Camille's short prayer shows that she i s r e a l l y convinced that she i s acting for the good of Rosette, and means her no harm. Unit 4 Camille i s the dominant character i n t h i s scene and her motive from the beginning i s to prove that the whole scene at the fountain has been staged by him i n order to hurt her, because she had hurt his feelings by her l e t t e r to Louise. She i s l i k e a cunning l i t t l e spider, c a r e f u l l y weaving a web to ensnare him. She fawns over him, f l i r t s with him, pretends to confess frankly that she may. have l i e d to him and uses a l l her charms, but i t i s a l l designed to make him f a l l i n love with her again. 152 When he enters Perdican i s on his guard because he has reason to suspect that she i s up to something and he i s not taken i n with her t r i c k s r i g h t away because he i s t i r e d of the game. But when she produces the ring she has pulled out of the well he shows that he r e a l l y does care about her s t i l l , by his concern that she might have f a l l e n into the well, and by trying to get at the bottom of her strange behavior. He i s confused by her long speech about l y i n g , but the s p e l l f i n a l l y works and he gives up arguing and simply admits that he loves her. At th i s point they could be reconciled, but Camille i s now only interested i n humiliating him, and she knows she has won her chance to do i t . Unit 5 Drunk with her fury and with pride at f i n a l l y getting back at him for everything he has made her su f f e r , Camille now rip s into him with a l l the passion and fury that has been pent up inside her. She knows she has Perdican at her mercy now and cannot stop u n t i l she has t o l d him that she knows he loves her, but that now he must marry Rosette. Perdican makes one attempt to make her l i s t e n to reason but she ignores i t . Everything she says i s true and he i s thoroughly beaten and humiliated, and furious at her for having done this to him. As her accusations continue he gets more and more angry u n t i l i t becomes impossible for him to admit that i t i s Camille he r e a l l y loves. At this moment he hates her. 153 Unit 6 Perdican strikes back i n the only way he s t i l l can: by c a l l i n g her b l u f f and saying that he w i l l marry Rosette; he r e a l l y intends to do i t and means everything he says. He now has the upper hand i n the battle again, but Camille does not yet r e a l i z e i t because she doesn't know that he i s serious. Act I I , Scene 7 In t h i s scene i t f i n a l l y becomes very obvious that t h i s v i o l e n t b a t t l e between Camille and Perdican masks a deep love which has been at the bottom of the rel a t i o n s h i p a l l the time. We f e e l that they themselves are becoming aware of i t too, but pride and fear prevent them from admitting i t to each other, although several opportunities to do so a r i s e . Unit 1 By t h i s time i t has penetrated to Camille that Perdican seriously intends to marry Rosette and she has r e a l i z e d that she has gone too f a r . She wants to undo what she has done but she i s too proud to go to Perdican and t e l l him she i s sorry for what she has done, so she prevails on the Baron to stop the marriage. The Baron can only see the problem from the outside, and worries about what people at court w i l l think of him i f his son marries a peasant. He i s completely oblivious to Camille's anguish, and even now does not do anything about the 154 problem: he merely decides to wear mourning for the res t of his l i f e to try to rescue his reputation. Unit 2 Camille's short soliloquy confirms that she has at l a s t r e a l i z e d that she has made a big mistake, and that she would do anything to stop the marriage. Unit 3 At th i s moment Perdican comes i n and Camille has another chance to t e l l him honestly that she has made a mistake, i f only she could swallow her pride. But when she i s confronted with him"she cannot, and instead of seriously t r y i n g to d i s -suade him she angrily r i d i c u l e s the marriage. The more vicious her taunts become the more c r u e l l y he answers her and the more he feels forced to st i c k with his plan, i f only so that he does not have to give i n to her. As long as he continues the plan to marry Rosette he has the upper hand. The f i g h t i s out in the open now and they are both s t r i k i n g out at each other with a l l t h e i r strength and t h e i r wits. This exchange must be f a s t , passionate, even v i c i o u s - -Camille i s too proud to give i n and Perdican too angry, because of they way she has humiliated hiitu-Unit 4 When she sees that he i s leaving her again, Camille suddenly cannot keep up the f i g h t any longer. Her "Perdican" 155 i s a scream of desperation, to stop him from going away. When he has stopped she cannot f i n d the words to express her f e e l -ings, and can only say "give me your arm then. I ' l l go with you." Perdican i s poised at the e x i t , undecided what to do, when Rosette enters. Unit 5 The entrance of Rosette turns the tide against Camille. Seeing her there and confronted with the choice, Perdican picks Rosette and i s ready to turn his back on Camille and go to introduce Rosette to his father. Rosette has come into the chateau to return the chain and dagger Perdican had given to her. After what she has heard i n Camille's bedroom she knows that what the v i l l a g e r s have t o l d her i s true and that Perdican has only made love to her out of s p i t e . She does not blame him for anything, but only t e l l s him why she wants to return the chain. Camille, scorned again by Perdican, t r i e s to patronize Rosette and to get r i d of her quickly, but Perdican ignores her e f f o r t completely. She stops him from going to the Baron by saying that he w i l l never consent, but instead he goes o f f with Rosette to the v i l l a g e . The references to the chain are of course symbolic: Camille w i l l give her chain to Perdican as the symbol of her love which has now come to have the same deadly implication as Perdican's love for Rosette. 156 Unit 6 Camille i s h o r r i f i e d because she r e a l i z e s again that Perdican r e a l l y does intend to marry Rosette. She i s torn by c o n f l i c t i n g feelings of love and hate for Perdican and she cannot cope with them or understand them, because she has never experienced anything l i k e this before. On impulse she sends Pluche to t e l l Perdican to come back. She wants him to come back, but when he comes she cannot even admit that she sent for him. Perdican i s now genuinely concerned about her because he sees that she i s r e a l l y s u f f e r i n g : he would l i k e her to make the f i r s t step but he cannot do i t for her. As she i n s i s t s that she doesn't want him he leaves again, and Camille collapses i n tears of despair. Act IT, Scene 8 The purpose of th i s scene i s twofold: i n the f i r s t place i t prepare 7^ the audience for the l a t e r suicide of Rosette; i n the second place i t increases the tension even further by the simple fa c t that a large number of people on stage can create a greater "e f f e c t " than Perdican and Camille could by themselves. Unit 1 The chorus once again gathers on stage to gossip about what has happened to Rosette and this time they are angry. For a peasant to marry a lord i s just as scandalous to them as i t i s to the Baron. The anger i s increased, at least on the part of the women, by jealousy, and they cannot forgive Rosette 157 for l e t t i n g this happen. Unit 2 Rosette has been looking for her mother, and not finding her at home she comes out to look for her. From the moment she appears the chorus members begin to taunt her and r i d i c u l e her. At f i r s t she doesn't even notice i t and when she r e a l i z e s they are following her around she cannot understand i t and becomes frightened. The chorus members gather courage from each other, and what started as whispered sniggers becomes louder and louder u n t i l they are chanting accusations at her. They become more and more vi o l e n t and they, confront her whereyerLshertries totg.o, shouting i n s u l t s at her. Rosette becomes very frightened and begs them to l e t her explain that she has not f l i r t e d with Perdican, but they refuse to l i s t e n to her. The scene i s a v i o l e n t demonstration of the disapproval of the community when one of t h e i r members has disobeyed the rules. The purpose of i t i s to show why the future has become impossible for Rosette and why she l a t e r k i l l s h e rself. Her peers have turned on her, and she has no alternative to this community now that Perdican has betrayed her. Even her mother has l e f t the house, no longer w i l l i n g to accept her. But she sees one more p o s s i b i l i t y : to try to get Camille to protect her, because Camille aft e r a l l has so far appeared to have Rosette's i n t e r e s t at heart. 158 Act I I , Scene 9 In the f i n a l scene of the play the lovers are reconciled, but i t turns out to be a fa l s e resolution which i s immediately destroyed by the f i n a l climax. In an almost wordless denoue-ment Camille leaves to go back to the convent and Perdican i s l e f t alone. The f i r s t three units of this scene were played i n spotl i g h t s , so that the characters were not r e a l l y i n the bed-room, or i n any d e f i n i t e location. Each soliloquy i s actually a closeup of the character concerned i n which they expressed t h e i r feelings a f t e r what has happened in.the play so f a r , at the point just before the f i n a l resolution. The scene i t s e l f does not s t a r t u n t i l the beginning of Unit 4, when the l i g h t s come up and Camille and Perdican are discovered i n the bedroom. The s c r i p t offers no d i r e c t i o n on thi s point, but i n the o r i -g i n a l version a si m i l a r scene was located i n an oratory where each character was saying a private prayer. Unit 1 Rosette confides a l l her. woes, to God and the Blessed Virgin,, j u s t i f y i n g what she has done i n the best way she can, because no one else was w i l l i n g to l i s t e n to her. At the end of the prayer she goes o f f to look for Camille, s t i l l f e e l i n g the need to explain to her that she intended no harm, and thinking that Camille w i l l understand. 159 Unit 2 Camille's prayer to God reveals her s i n c e r i t y and the desperate confusion she feels a f t e r everything that has hap-pened to her. In her prayer she, too, honestly j u s t i f i e s everything she has done: she has become involved i n an uncontrollable and to her, unexplainable passion. Unit .3 Perdican has f i n a l l y come to his senses and he now completely understands and cor r e c t l y analyzes what has hap-pened. He shows his basic honesty and s i n c e r i t y i n a prayer to the God he has professed not to believe i n , asking for the strength to t e l l Camille that he loves her. Unit 4 As the scene proper begins Perdican finds Camille and begins to t e l l her everything that i s i n his mind and that has just become clear to him. He i s driven to say these things to her because the solution to a l l this anguish suddenly^ seems so simple to him and so r i g h t that he cannot understand why the truth has eluded him for so long. Camille's f i r s t reaction i s to run away from him again, as she did at the beginning of the play. She s t i l l cannot r e a l l y give herself to him, but as he talks she understands that he i s r i g h t , and that she does love him. Very gradually during his speech she turns towards him, 160 u n t i l when she begins to speak she has accepted him completely. The union i s f i n a l l y complete and they k i s s . Unit 5 At t h i s moment Rosette's scream i s heard and i t forces them apart l i k e a wedge. They separate slowly but stea d i l y . F i n a l l y , CaSJi&iL'fe goes to see what has happened; Perdican imme-dia t e l y has a premonition so that he cannot make himself go to look at her. Rosette's scream has suddenly made him r e a l i z e that i n t h e i r pride and anger they not only ignored each other's suf f e r i n g , but have been completely oblivious to the feelings of Rosette. Rosette has of course k i l l e d herself when she heard Camille and Perdican declare t h e i r love for each other. And symbolically the love of Camille and Perdican has been k i l l e d because they have " t r i f l e d with" love. With the body of Rosette between them, they know by unspoken agreement that there can be no future for them together. Camille knows she must return to the convent where she w i l l become one of the nuns, d i s i l l u s i o n e d and embittered by love, and Perdican i s l e f t alone with a l l his shattered i l l u s i o n s . DETAILS OF PRODUCTION 162 Music Cues A l l the music was composed and arranged by Jim Colby with the exception of the "Baron's theme" which was written by P h y l l i s Surges. The music was played by three musicians seated i n the wings stage r i g h t , with piano, f l u t e , guitar, gong, tambourine, cymbal, " s i z z l e " block and a whistle. Some of the smaller instruments were occasionally played by members of the chorus during t h e i r scenes on stage. Cue 1. Prologue (two minutes before curtain opens) 2. Transition into dance music 3. Dance 4. Cymbal crash before Leader's entrance 5. Four chimes on gong (church b e l l , four o'clock) 6. Woodblock and finger cymbals played on stage to: suggest rhythm of Blazius entrance on donkey 7. Whistle going up^ then down i n p i t c h , as Blazius raises the cup and swallows 8. Same as Cue 7 9. Same as Cue 7 10. B e l l , o f f l e f t (entrance b e l l of chateau) 11. Small drum and woodblock played on stage suggest rhythm of Pluche's entrance on donkey 12. Whistle up and down as Pluche drinks and swallows 13. Same as Cue 12 14. Tambourine r a t t l e as chorus member raises Pluche's s k i r t 163 15. Cymbal crash as Pluche exits 16. S i z z l e cymbal and tambourine accompany chatter of chorus as they e x i t . 17. Dance theme (flute and tambourine) 18. One chime on gong (b e l l to announce Pluche's entrance) 19. Chorus cheers o f f stage as Camille and Perdican arrive at the chateau 20. One chime on gong (bel l to announce entrance of Perdican and Camille) Entrance music (flute) 21. Love theme (hummed) 22. Cymbal crash on entrance of Chorus Leader. 23. Cymbal crescendo 24. "Bird C a l l s " (flute) Six chimes on gong (church b e l l , six o'clock a.m.) 25. Dance theme (sung by male and female voice) 26. Finger cymbals played on stage accompany chorus speech 27. Cymbal tapped with drumstick accompanies l a s t two li n e s of chorus speech 28. Cowbell chimes on "maid," "maid," "dying" and "day" 29. Tambourine during chorus l a s t speech and e x i t 30. Dance theme (flute) 31. Baron's theme (flute) 32. Love theme (flute) continues u n t i l Camille c a l l s Pluche 33. Cymbal crescendo 34. B e l l s (three times to sound l i k e sanctus bells) Love theme (whistled with guitar) continues u n t i l Perdican c a l l s Rosette i n Sc. 8. 35. Plucked strong (guitar) to sound l i k e raindrop 164 36. Love theme (guitar) 37. Baron's theme (flute) 38. Four chimes on gong (church b e l l , f o u r o'clock) 39. Very slow cymbal crescendo 40. Intermezzo (one minute) 41. Dance theme (flute) 42. Twelve soft chimes on gong (noon) 43. Cymbal crescendo 44. Cymbal crescendo 45. Slow cymbal crescendo 46. Crash on " s i z z l e " cymbal. S i z z l e continues under chorus' f i r s t speech 47. Cymbal crash 48. Tambourine r a t t l e 49. Whistle, f a l l i n g i n pitch as Pluche f a i n t s 50. Whistle as Pluche f a i n t s again Cymbal crash 51. Cymbal crescendo 52. Cymbal crescendo 53. Cymbal crescendo 54. Very soft beat on large drum continues throughout the scene 55. Tambourine r a t t l e accompanies chatter of chorus 56. Tambourine 57. Tambourine 58. Tambourine 165 59. Short cymbal crashes on each "perfectly" and on "absurd" 60. Cymbal crescendo 61. Gong (slow death t o l l ) 166 Light Plot Lights were focused i n such a way as to throw a minimum of l i g h t on the projection screens. Therefore i n the exterior scenes they were concentrated on the center and down stage area completely, while i n the i n t e r i o r scenes more l i g h t could be thrown upstage because the center screen was not i n use. For t h i s reason cues c a l l for "exterior" or " i n t e r i o r " l i g h t s . Apart from these s p e c i a l considerations general stage l i g h t i n g was used i n the scenes where the acting area consis-ted of the whole stage. Occasionally a short scene was played i n a spot down stage r i g h t or l e f t , but except for these very l i t t l e area l i g h t i n g was used. The amount of l i g h t varied s l i g h t l y from scene to scene, depending on such consid-erations as mood, time of day, whether the scene was comic or serious, etc. Act I After 75 seconds of music fade house l i g h t s and curtain warmers to l e v e l 3 i n 30 seconds. After a 10 second pause fade house to black i n 5 seconds. Curtain opens. Cue 1. Exterior l i g h t s up to f u l l on f i r s t beat of dance music 2. Quick fade to black as chorus exits 3. Inte r i o r l i g h t s up to f u l l 4. Fade to black i n f i v e seconds 167 5. Down l e f t spot up to f u l l 6. Interi o r up to f u l l 7. Quick fade to black 8. Exterior up to f u l l 9. Fade to black 10. I n t e r i o r up to f u l l 11. Fade to l e v e l 7 12. Fade to black i n three seconds 13. Exterior to f u l l 14. Slow fade to l e v e l 4 15. Fade to black i n f i v e seconds. 16. I n t e r i o r to f u l l i n f i v e seconds 17. Fade to black i n two seconds 18. Exterior up to l e v e l 7 19. A l l l i g h t s fade out slowly except r i g h t center area where Camille stands 20. Without a break the remaining l i g h t s fade slowly to black 21. House l i g h t s and curtain warmers up Act II After 20 seconds of music, fade house l i g h t s and cur-t a i n warmers to l e v e l three i n 20 seconds. After a three-second pause fade to black i n 3 seconds. Curtain opens. Cue 22. I n t e r i o r up to f u l l 23. Quick fade to black 24. Down r i g h t spot up to f u l l 168 25. Q u i c k f a d e t o b l a c k 26. E x t e r i o r up t o f u l l 27. Q u i c k f a d e t o b l a c k 28. E x t e r i o r up t o l e v e l 7 i n f i v e s e c o n d s 29. Fade t o b l a c k i n f i v e s e c o n d s 30. E x t e r i o r up t o f u l l 31. Q u i c k f a d e t o b l a c k 32. Down r i g h t s p o t up t o f u l l 33. Fade t o b l a c k 34. I n t e r i o r up t o l e v e l 8 35. Slow f a d e t o b l a c k 36. I n t e r i o r up t o l e v e l 8 37. Slow f a d e t o l e v e l 5 38. Slow f a d e t o b l a c k 39. E x t e r i o r up t o l e v e l 5.5 40. Fade t o b l a c k 41. Down l e f t s p o t up t o f u l l 42. C r o s s f a d e down r i g h t s p o t t o f u l l , down l e f t t o b l a c k 43. C r o s s f a d e down l e f t s p o t t o f u l l , down r i g h t t o b l a c k 44. I n t e r i o r up t o l e v e l 7.5 45. S l o w l y f a d e o u t a l l e x c e p t down r i g h t and down L l e f t s p o t s 46. Fade i n up c e n t r e s p e c i a l d u r i n g Q45 47. Fade o u t up c e n t r e s p e c i a l 48. Fade down l e f t s p o t s l o w l y t o b l a c k ; b e g i n t o r i g h t s p o t s l i g h t l y f a d e down Fade down rig h t spot to black very slowly Houselights up aft e r f i v e second blackout F u l l stage l i g h t s up for curtain c a l l Houselights 170 Projection Plot Four sets of projections were used to suggest the four d i f f e r e n t locations required by the s c r i p t . The set consisted of three permanent paper screens i n ornamental frames. For the exterior scenes i d e n t i c a l pictures were projected on each of the three screens, while i n the i n t e r i o r scenes only the two outside ones were used (in both cases to suggest wall paper), while a set piece was f i t t e d between them and i n front of the center screen. Slides were changed during the short blackouts between scenes, and were gradually faded i n and out together with the l i g h t s at the beginning and end of the scenes. Occasionally i n the exterior scenes (for example at the very beginning of the play) projections were brought up s l i g h t l y before the l i g h t s i n order to create the desired atmosphere. S i m i l a r l y they were sometimes allowed to linger at the end of a scene. The three projectors were operated by two operators, one of whom was responsible for bringing them a l l i n and out to-gether on a dimmer. The images were shot backwards into a mirror and bounced back onto the screens, in,order to double the distance between projector and screen. Sketches of the projections are included with the set designs. Projections are named according to the scene i n which they appear. 171 Cue Cue 1. fade i n v i l l a g e 17. fade i n salon 2. fade out v i l l a g e 18. fade out salon 3. fade i n salon 19. fade i n v i l l a g e 4. fade out salon 20. fade out v i l l a g e 5. fade i n salon 21. fade i n fountain 6. fade out salon 22 . fade out fountain 7. fade i n fountain 23. fade i n v i l l a g e 8. fade out fountain 24. fade out v i l l a g e 9. fade i n salon 25. fade i n bedroom 10. fade out salon 26. fade out bedroom 11. fade i n v i l l a g e 27. fade i n salon 12. fade out v i l l a g e 28. fade out salon 13. fade i n salon 29. fade i n v i l l a g e 14. fade out salon 30. fade out v i l l a g e 15. fade i n fountain 31. fade i n bedroom 16. fade out fountain 32. fade out bedroom 172 Set Change Plots The settings for the salon and bedroom each included a set-piece which locked between the two outside screens. In the case of the bedroom the piece consisted of a wall panel on which hung the nun's picture and a large window on either side of i t , while for the bedroom i t was a frame i n which hung a brown velvet curtain. In each case several properties also had to be changed. (These are included i n the properties plot.) For the fountain scenes a small fountain was brought on, and i n the v i l l a g e scenes the stage was bare (except for the screens). A l l the set changes were accomplished by the members of the chorus during blackouts and varied i n time from 4 to 9 seconds. Cue Cue 1. set salon 8. s t r i k e salon 2. s t r i k e salon; set fountain 9. set fountain 3. s t r i k e fountain; set salon 10. s t r i k e fountain 4. s t r i k e salon 11. set bedroom 5. set salon 12. s t r i k e bedroom; set salon 6. s t r i k e salon; set fountain 13. s t r i k e salon 7. s t r i k e fountain; set salon 14. set bedroom 173 Property L i s t Prologue Walking s t i c k (Chorus Leader) Act I - Scene 1 Tambourine, finger cymbals, wood block, small drum, water pitcher, jug of wine and cup (Chorus - set up l e f t ) Cow b e l l (Chorus) Large rosary (Blazius) Q u i l l and ink bottle on cord (Blazius) S c r o l l (Blazius) Small rosary (Pluche) Parasol (Pluche) "Donkey" (set o f f right) 2 White masks (Blazius and Pluche) Act I - Scenes 2 and 3 Small table (set down l e f t ) Vase of flowers (set on table) Q u i l l , ink and paper (set on table) Chair (set down right) S c r o l l (Blazius) Handerchief, rings and lorgnette (Baron) 4 Masks (Baron, Bridaine, Blazius, Pluche) Gold c r u c i f i x (Camille) Walking s t i c k (Chorus Leader) Act I - Scene 4 Fountain (set l e f t centre) Hoe (Chorus) 2 Buckets (Chorus) Finger cymbals (Chorus) Walking s t i c k (Chorus Leader) 174 Act I - Scenes 5, 6 and 7 Small table (set down l e f t ) Vase with flowers (set on table) Q u i l l , ink and paper (set on table) Chair (set down right) 4 Masks (Baron, Blazius, Bridaine, Pluche) Handkerchief, rings, lorgnette (Baron) Gold c r u c i f i x (Camille) Act I - Scene 8 Bonnet (Rosette) Act I - Scene 9 Small table (set down l e f t ) Vase of flowers (set on table) Chair (set down right) 2 Masks (Baron, Blazius) Handkerchief, rings, lorgnette (Baron) Act I - Scene 10 Fountain (set l e f t centre) Letter (Perdican) Gold c r u c i f i x (Camille) Ring (Camille) Act II - Scene 1 Small table (set down l e f t ) Vase of flowers (set on table) Chair (set down right) Act II - Scene 2 4 Masks (Baron, Blazius, Bridaine, Pluche) Handkerchief, rings, lorgnette (Baron) 2 Bottles of wine (Blazius) Chicken bone (Bridaine) Letter (Pluche) Act II - Scene 3 Fountain (set l e f t centre) Gold chain b e l t with jewelled dagger (Perdic Ring (Perdican) Act II - Scene 4 Walking s t i c k (Chorus Leader) Parasol (Pluche) Act II - Scene 5 2 Masks (Baron, Bridaine) Handkerchief, rings, lorgnette (Baron) Act II - Scene 6 Bench (set r i g h t centre) Gold c r u c i f i x (Camille) Ring (Camille) Gold chain and dagger (Rosette) Act II - Scene 7 Small table (set down l e f t ) Vase of flowers (set on table) Chair (set down right) Mask, handkerchief, rings, lorgnette (Baron) Gold c r u c i f i x (Camille) Gold chain b e l t and dagger (Rosette) Act II - Scene 8 Gold chain b e l t and dagger (Rosette) Act II - Scene 9 Bench (set r i g h t centre) Gold chain b e l t and dagger (Rosette) Gold c r u c i f i x (Rosette) 176 Costume P l o t C a m i l l e : B l u e d r e s s w i t h o u t d o o r j a c k e t (I 2 , I 10) B l u e d r e s s w i t h i n d o o r b o d i c e (I 3 , I 6) Y e l l o w d r e s s w i t h c a p e , p u r s e , g l o v e s ( I I 3 , I I 4) Y e l l o w d r e s s ( I I 6 , I I 7 , I I 9) P e r d i c a n : L i g h t g r e y j a c k e t , d a r k g r e y p a n t s , w h i t e s h i r t w i t h f l y c o l l a r , o f f - w h i t e v e s t , g r e y c r a v a t w i t h p i n , b l a c k a n k l e l e n g t h b o o t s ( A c t I ) Dark brown j a c k e t , b e i g e p a n t s , l i g h t brown v e s t and c r a v a t , w h i t e s h i r t , b l a c k a n k l e l e n g t h b o o t s ( A c t I I ) R o s e t t e : R u s t d r e s s w i t h d a r k brown t r i m , b e i g e u n d e r s k i r t , ' brown s h o e s . B a r o n : B l a c k v e l v e t s u i t w i t h s i l v e r b u t t o n s , w h i t e l a c e c r a v a t , c u f f s and h a n d k e r c h i e f , w h i t e s t o c k i n g s , b l a c k s l i p p e r s , w h i t e mask and g r e y w i g . B l a z i u s : B l a c k p a n t s , s h o r t c a s s o c k , academic gown, b l a c k c l e r i c a l h a t w i t h w i d e b r i m , b l a c k shoes and s t o c k i n g s , r o s a r y a t t a c h e d t o b e l t , w h i t e mask B r i d a i n e : Long b l a c k c a s s o c k , F r e n c h c l e r i c a l c o l l a r , b l a c k s k u l l - c a p , b l a c k shoes and s o c k s , w h i t e mask P l u c h e : C h a r c o a l s k i r t , w h i t e b l o u s e w i t h b l a c k bow a t n e c k , w h i t e mask and g r e y w i g . B l a c k l a c e , p a r a s o l and g l o v e s (I 1, 2 ; I I 4) Chorus L e a d e r : Brown p a n t s and v e s t , g r e y s h i r t , b e i g e t o q u e , brown s c r a f , w h i t e s t o c k i n g s , brown b o o t s , g n a r l e d wood w a l k i n g s t i c k 1 s t Chorus Member: L i g h t g r e e n d r e s s w i t h y e l l o w t r i m , g o l d o v e r -b o d i c e , brown s t o c k i n g s , b l a c k s l i p p e r s 2nd Chorus Member: B l u e - g r e e n d r e s s , l i g h t b l u e b l o u s e , brown s t o c k i n g s , b l a c k s l i p p e r s 3 r d Chorus Member: B l u e d r e s s w i t h g r e e n u n d e r s k i r t and b l o u s e , b e i g e s t o c k i n g s , b l a c k s l i p p e r s 4 t h Chorus Member: Brown p a n t s , l i g h t g r e e n u n d e r s h i r t , d a r k - g r e e n o v e r s h i r t , brown s t o c k i n g s , b l a c k s l i p p e r s 177 5th Chorus Member: Grey pants, medium green jacket, blue-green s h i r t , dark green toque, brown stockings, beige boots. 6th Chorus Member: Brown pants, l i g h t green s h i r t , brown jacket, stockings and hat, black slippers 178 Cost Report P u b l i c i t y The Ubyssey - 2 ads. 2 cols x 2" Nov. 15 and 19 2 ads. 1 cols x 1-1/2" Nov. 21 and 22 21.01 J.W. Boyd Ltd. - 100 posters 27.64 Scenery Materials Best grade Spruce 18.00 Materials from Stock 29.47 Stores 8.52 Projections B.C. Camera Supply - rental of 2 s l i d e projectors 8.00 DTJ Projection Lamps 10.00 Processing of photos and s l i d e s - Winston Wai 37.30 Costume Materials Vancouver Textiles Ltd. - t a f f e t a , organdy, lace, wool 67.13 Gold's Linen Co. Ltd., - lace, ribbon, buttons, f a b r i c 15.06 Materials from Stock 8.00 Programmes BenwelT Atkins - Announcing O f f i c i a l Ceremonies 3.36 Gestetner - 2 ele c t r o n i c s t e n c i l s 6.72 Tickets 1 Rubber stamp 2.27 Anderson P r i n t i n g Co. Ltd. - 3 sets of tic k e t s 3.02 House Management Penny Irwin 10.00 179 Music Williams Piano House - additional rental of Eterna Piano from Nov. 18-25 10.50 Make-up University Pharmacy Ltd. - Kleenex and Coldcream 5.87 Actor's Insurance Richard Blackhurst 6.00 Petty Cash Items Props ( a r t i f i c i a l flowers) - C. Briggs 3.36 Costumes - G. Richardson 3.70 Cleaning B i l l - G. Richardson 2.00 Cleaning B i l l - M. Bjornson 2.00 Buttons - G. Richardson .41 6 Coll a r s starched - G. Richardson 2.10 Set (blades for cutting) - S. Hargrave 8.82 Set (8 yds. 54") - S. Hargrave 7.53 Bookstore - M. Bjornson 2.50 Out-of-Pocket Expenses Curtain rod - A. Wintermans 7.30 Curtains - R. Vale 31.26 I l l u s t r a t i o n board and paper - M. Bjornson 25.22 Meals and Transportation - Richard Blackhurst 20.00 $414.07 Ticket sales - $254.50 Loss $159.57 180 Box O f f i c e Report House Sold Sold Capacity Date Unsold 1.50 1.00 Comps Total 83 Wed. INVITED AUDIENCE ONLY (OPENING OF Nov.20 DOROTHY SOMERSET STUDIO) 83 Thurs. 0 13 38 32 57.50 Nov.21 19.50 38.00 87 F r i . 0 33 50 4 99.50 Nov.22 49.50 50.00 87 Sat. 0 29 54 4 97.50 Nov.23 43.50 54.00 75 142 40 0 112.50 142.00 254.50 Deposits 254.50 HBCC fr'f. /UP 4—— 1 ^ V 1 — i 1 1 1 , , 1 ' & a — 5 V 1 ^ * c c s i -Til r- t> -o 1 T g~—y T ^ ^ i I f , / V p -rr, i2_ J F t , \ 4o—cz 1 b i z ^ F F l U ^ F TH c l , / i ' n s r r — ^ i — * n—* ? 1 tV,1' 1 1 ' _| -\ _ 4 (_ 1/ / -f : 1 * , •/: j - t K- - , • • r \ K \ { ( t f r \ — 3 V V " J 1 —L~--Lj \ (> -• \ J> r\ \ . — t v — — — 1 , • •. i r-A-fe-fer—# ^ \ :T 1 --x -—z-i : : 1 * 4 — _ 4 _ _ ! ^ V ' " \ ' \ {r — ^ 1  i /—' > > / > —f ~—/ 7> ^ ±vi. IS} _4 • i \. \ TT\ * 4: . 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' ' x A 1 ' 1 ' i ! y L / ^ — r r ^ w ^ ; , ; , — - - - — r - v - — > rH —* i &_< ' • ' i t - , / ' - ^ — A — i i—4- w - P ! -/-. .—. -/- < _ • ^ . 1—• , N |—• ' N. >— ' 'N r~ \ < '-fli' / '11 / / , 1 1 1 ! 4AV-4 ,^-4 V ^ • A-H " 7 " " _ t — ^ = — ^ | VI. ' « ^ ' M / 1 1 — i. 1 ^ ' i , < <•• r — r r 4 ^ -jc^Nc- ^ ^ ri \ — * — ft—?-b 3*—r 1 0 [ f f —v -l -I— n — r \ ~ , '-Zi £ : L 1 1, „. .. ) U- ° - \ Wf-^f——A— — I — \ — -4 v~ — 1 — * £ l^ -^MfflrT^ T ! — -"^—r~n ^ ,2 — 1 &—1 — '-if— U ^ — 1 - + — r — \ 1 1 = \ H fcj 1 | r " \ \ i a ^. r ' 1 ' 1 h 1 ' 1 / 1 \ 1. 1 H ' " I I I ' — \ u l _ \— _ J j—p / tr \ t, 1' \ 1 f C> ' • J Program (sealed) I 186 (_ < J Camille, SirkJN UA(2C-12AV&. L I O N E L DouceTre t'uLnsIa.tecL and adapted &y Ukan£ Canine •STAGE rtme«G(ec L-AUGEMC6 A6&&TANT PI2-GCT;OC3& J I M C01-6T % BlaziuS JOAM 'Svitfi v^Ai Perce-3oM.ee> -set A ^ ^ T ^ q " 0 C U A J Z P &U*CVOWG<Ssr* 8AJ2BM2&. AA<&»U H/M2&W2€T "SHITU ALK>»C Confofegp AMP AeefcMSgD ar Jin GSL&V Cuoe6oe*ZM>uY Br HCUAJZP E>u>ctau>i2&T UAHNAH VAKCZCC KArfp AND 'ffeovjewee Program . (open) 187 Live, Commanding Theatre | fin This Staging of De Musset By LLOYD DYKK *• The Dorothy Somerset Studio *was of f ' ic i a 1 l;y opened ''Wednesday with'Adrienne Win-"jtermans' production of Alfred -,de Musset's No Trifling with ^Love, her masters thesis pro-ject, and no less than masterly '.in conception and direction. *> Part of the challenge was. that <*de Musset did not, write his '^plays with the intention of hav-•ing them staged. And then iFrank Canino's translation from *the French and adaptation for .theatre unavoidably sacrifices *much of the text's rhetoric to *the immediacy of'the stage situ-Ration. «? Even the title, translated from .'.On ne Badine pas avec 1'Amour to No Trifling with Love has all *the rhetoric of a subway sign. Miss Wintermaris though must »be credited for fashioning a live, "commanding piece of theatre, clearly and probingly conceiv-; ed and economically handled. The play belongs to a genre %for which de Musset is well known — the comic or dramatic proverb in which the writer theatrically illustrates the con-tent of a proverb. De M u s s e t deals with Romantic thought modes with a stylistic intermingling including the use of Grecian choruses and the comic of the commedia delle' arte. These elements are present in No Trifling in which a pompous, officious baron busily plots the marriage of his son Perdican and his niece, Camille, who for the past 10 years have been at school. Their first meeting is a cold one. Love is a threat to Camille who has heard the hard-luck stories of the recluses from life who inhabit her convent and call their lives betrothals to God. But she is too human to a c c e p t Perdican's pretended indifference and d e v i s e d a number of plots that sustain Perdican's interest while leav-ing her pride inviolate. To save face, Perdican feigns love for Rosette, a village girl. When the games are over and j Camille and Perdican have expressed their love, Rosette, who represents the sacrilege of love that has been trifled with, dies of a broken heart and pre-sents an impasse to the lovers. In her thesis Miss Wintermans was aware of the Romantic sympathies for the purity of the peasant spirit' as opposed to the sham of the institution, repre-sented by the two petty clerics, the self-righteous governess and the ineffectual gentry. This was obvious from the white eye-masks that only the fatuous elders wore and the 19th century social cartoon stances and attitudes into which they froze. It was also obvious from Michelle Bjornson's set consist-ing of ornately fluted backdrops with images of pastoral life pro-jected onto them. Jim Colby's music, wedding period style and p e a s a n t undertones, carried the idea one step further. The cast for the most part were inextricably a part of a solid production: Susan Cadman (Camille), Lionel D o u c e t t e (Jerdican), Jim Colby (a very good baron), Gary Rupert (Fr. Blazius), Ellis Pryce-Jones (Fr. Bridaine), Geli Lukin Johnston (Dame Pulche). and Brenda Sheerin (a minimally tedious ingenue). On the negative side, though, the stage hands will have to find a way to move the props b e t w e e n scenes i without sounding like a Herd of drugged j elephants, and the lighting will have to be more precisely cued, i No Trifling With Love runs to Nov. 23, beginning at 8:30. The Vancouver Sun November 21, 1.968. 188 The Ubyssey .'" ' November 21, 1968. By KEITH FRASER With really a paucity of English drama in the nineteenth century, as seen especially in the untheatrical kind written by the eminent Roman-tics like Byron and Shelley, it was de-lightful to discover at the Dorothy Somerset Studio on Wednesday night (its official opening, evidence that French drama from approximately the same period couldn't be blanketed with quite a similar generalization. I Alfred de Musset's No Trifling With Love, which received a commendable production by cast and director alike, left me with no doubt that the French reaction against its strict classical in-heritance in theatre was worthwhile so far as it went, and meaningful in-sofar as the adaption by Frank Canino was a good approximation of de Mus-set's original conception. Considered one of the four great French Romantics, de Musset gave us a play equipped with a narrator and a chorus comprised of village lads and lasses who comment on the action in a manner that is freer than their Greek predecessors both in language and in movement — the latter thanks largely to the choreography of Rich-ard Blackhurst in the local produc-tion. This tragical comedy, unlike many plays under thesis production, was not plagued by untrained voices that grit like sandpaper across the script. The players here were cast with care by the director, Miss Adrienne Winter-mans, and costumed with help from Miss Josephine Patrick, both duties accomplished through eyes of an im-mediate audience rapport. This immediacy was achieved by the assistance of the chorus which en-gaged initial attention with a frolic and dance that are characteristic of English drama — especially that of the Restoration — primarily at the produc-tion's conclusion when the cow is safe-ly in the stall. Since No Trifling With Love ends in a suicide, any similar embellishment its conclusion would have been ob-viously inappropriate. Instead, the death of the simple Rosette (Brenda Sheebin), occasioned by the aristo-cratic Perdican's' (Lionel Doucette) in-souciant disregard for her feelings after Jie has pledged love, becomes more pathetic if one considers the pur-poseful juxtaposition of the play's pre-lude and resolution. No less appropriate was the opposi-tion of the natural scenes outdoors where Perdican reminisced in true Ro-mantic fashion about his younger days' spent in nature, and the artificial drawing room inside which the likes of the foppish Baron (Jim Colby) schemed for Perdican's marriage to Camille (Susan Cadman). Camille's refusal-acceptance-refusal of her cousin in marriage, and her ultimate decision to withdraw to a protective convent in face of Rosette's suicide for which she shares responsi-bility, were paralleled for the most part in this production by music com-posed and arranged by Mr. Colby. This music added an intelligent lyri-cism to the play "and, together with smooth scene transitions, was respons-ible for a crisply-paced production. Outstanding performances, while not easy to highlight in this fine cast, would have to go-finally to Miss Cad-man and to Ellis Pryce-Jones who cap-tured, as he generally does, particular enthusiasm from the audience for his marvellous portrait of the obese Fa-ther Bridaine — one of two priests responsible for the comic subplot. Miss Cadman can only remain a talent to watch for: in the future; in-stead of rendering another nancy-pants heroine, often the case with young actresses, she explored the nu-ances of her role with tenderness and perception. It is never simple to determine the director's share in ; the success of a role, but from what I've seen previous-ly of Miss Winterman's work (Orion, a one-act play she directed last term) it's a good bet she aided Miss Cadman, at least, in her stage movement, and, at most, in the modulation of this actress's fine voice. Mr. Pryce-Jones, on the other hand, was likely most responsible for his own role's success: his timing and reactions, always pro-fessional, appeared intuitive. My-reservations, brief indeed, might be summed up as follows: the produc-tion could have done with a slightly less effeminate voice by Mr. Colby, who appeared occasionally to play only for laughs, and whose asides were not always so. And too, the play itself is perhaps marred by Perdican's gift to Rosette, a dagger, which seemed gratuitous at best and an obvious indi-cation of the suicide to follow. But it was to the credit of a sound production ;-that melodrama was never permitted to intrude here. This play, to recapitulate, was very well done and is quite worth your patronage. It runs until Saturday evening. 189 Production Photographs 2. "Drink up, Father, ah, take your time." (1,1) 190 4 . " . . . F a t h e r B r i d a i n e , t he p a s t o r o f ou r P a r i s h " (1 ,2) 7 . "She's l e f t the house, She's gone to the f i e l d s . . ." (II, 8) What fools we've been, u t t e r l y mad fo o l s " (II, 9) l i t 1 ALJ. Z t -pgof? ft I 4 V J'-O' 7 4. FLOOR P U f f e •S£f\L* = 74" - I KiO\). •1/ X> C up • / Si ( _ _ J ! V J , J ^ r IT -71 .a 7"4" ;4)PiL.hi>t&> ^ Of /K?SS ; 2P# -> 3 W Hi>OZ of \ J-d' r •i & F< C y \ T ua.se * 

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