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Residential environs in the urban area Watty, Anthony John 1968

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RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONS IN THE URBAN AREA Environ 2 I n t r o p o l i s by ANTHONY JOHN WATTY B.A., U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia 1966 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Architecture i n the School of Architecture We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that per-m i s s i o n f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i -c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n p e r mission. Department of Architecture  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, Vancouver 8, Canada. Date May 13 1968 ABSTRACT OF STUDY This t h e s i s i s part of a l a r g e r continuous study which deals with the concept of " L i f e S t y l e " as a force mapping segments of the urban s o c i e t y i n t o reasonably d i s t i n c t areas within a metropolitan d i s t r i c t . This paper then uses the concept of the " L i f e S t y l e " as a s t a r t i n g p o i n t . The l i f e s t y l e chosen here f o r study i s connected with those people who s e l e c t to l i v e i n the dense r e s i d e n t i a l environments associated with the urban core. By examining such an area, i t s context within the metropolis i s found, and the elements c o n s t i t u t i n g i t and t h e i r interconnections are i d e n t i f i e d . From the form g i v i n g forces generated by t h i s information, a r e s i d e n t i a l system i s developed that r e f l e c t s and r e i n f o r c e s the l i f e s t y l e of the population under study. The system i s evolved i n a .•model' abstract area that e x h i b i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and constraints common to many metropoli, and l a t e r applied to a r e a l s i t u a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y to t e s t the e f f i c a c y of the system under t y p i c a l conditions. For the sake of the t h e s i s , I have c a l l e d the model " I n t r o p o l i s " . I t i s suggested that new s k i l l s and new methods w i l l need to be devised to describe the s p e c i f i c segments of the metropolitan area. To describe I n t r o p o l i s I have asked a number of questions. The necessary information to answer these questions has been found from census data, from our own observations, and from a sample a t t i t u d e t e s t undertaken i n the West End of Vancouver. The questions are as follows: 1. Who are the people that congregate i n a s p e c i f i c area and what are t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and a t t i t u d e s ? Mere I have described f a m i l i e s i n the model area, the households, and the a t t i t u d e s of members of the household to each other. I was a l s o concerned with household economics and i t s influence on choices; the sources of family income and the kind of work that procured i t seemed to have an influence on values and choices mads. 2. How i s time used ? Observation of a c t i v i t i e s and t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n space and time becomes as important to the environmental designers as the more normal census data. 3># What are the important forms and t o o l s of communication between people ? The urban area i s often defined as a system of contacts, and i t i s suggested that the pattern of place and space may influence the nature of contacts, and v i c e versa that the nature of the contacts w i l l influence the needs of space. New forms of communication have been a great influence on urban form. I found that these t o o l s must however not be taken f o r granted as they are not equally a v a i l a b l e to a l l groups within the community. A f t e r completing the d e s c r i p t i o n of the model area, information was perceived as a form g i v i n g force from which some of the f a c t o r s which determine the character of the area can be deduced. These are described i n the second part of the t h e s i s . They include a) A basic movement system b) A system of r e l a t i o n s h i p s of housing to i n s t i t u t i o n s such as schools, h o s p i t a l s , churches, public and s o c i a l s e r v i c e s , and commercial and business needs. c) A system of contacts and separations within the area, in c l u d i n g open and enclosed spaces* d) A range of choice and a range of d e n s i t i e s of housing types. The t h e s i s concludes by i n t e g r a t i n g these forces i n t o a diagrammatic whole on the model area. Faculty Advisor VOLUME I - CONTENTS. JUTT3DDUCT1OI0 4 CONTEXT  D<AMll0ATlOKl OP STUK A2EA I. RlVSlCAL h*&cO$ C, PMV61CAL DETCGHIIOAIOtS C. BA&IC 0»oiT% OP PbPotAT'o^ t> OccuPATieviAc <3 SCOPES T. ACADEMIC Lev^ts c^ . DvEtuioq STATUS H. 6CXIAL MOBILITY JST U&6 OP A e s A PbputAFo^ C. U&EOP AHWMTIW ^ PAOUTie^ P. Lire 6TVU£S» I INTRODUCTION; In the preliminary introduction to thi s research project, the concept of " L i f e Style'* as a force mapping segments of the urban society into reasonably d i s t i n c t areas within a metropolis was introduced. This paper then, being one part of the larger project, uses the concept of the L i f e Style as a s t a r t i n g point. The l i f e s t y l e chosen f o r study here i s that connected with those people who select to l i v e i n the dense r e s i d e n t i a l environments associ-ated with the urban core* By examining such an area, i t s context within the metro-p o l i s i s found, and the elements constituting i t and t h e i r i n t e r -connections are i d e n t i f i e d . Prom the form giving forces generated by t h i s information, a r e s i d e n t i a l system i s developed that re-f l e c t s and reinforces the l i f e s t y l e o f the population under study* The system i s evolved i n a !model' abstract area that exhibits c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and constraints common to many metropoli, and la t e r applied to a r e a l s i t u a t i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r c i t y to test the e f f i c a c y of the system under t y p i c a l conditions* 2~ CONTEXT t The tendency for people to associate with others of simi-lar characteristics with respect to interests, occupations, race, values, social position etc*, when manifested into residential I territories is known as Ecological Segregation* This segrega-tion may be voluntary or involuntary, and a segregated territory is often called a 'natural' area, as i t is seldom the result of a preconceived plan* The long term movement of individuals or groups into and between areas is known as Ecological Invasion, and the replacement of the residents of a particular area by others of differing characteristics is called Ecological Succes-sion. In the terms of this project,, such an ecologically seg-regated area at a particular moment in time w i l l define a l i f e style within i t s boundaries* Thus i t can be seen that a l i f e -style i s an exceedingly viable expression formed by a multitude of factors, constantly changing over time and territory* The ebb and flow, contraction and expansion, growth and decay caused by the fluctuations in the ecological system of the metropolis, form patterns of urban growth* There are many the-ories of urban ecology, the three found particularly interesting by sociologists being the "Concentric Zone Theory** by E.W. Burgess, the "Sector Theory" by Homer Hoyt and the "Multiple Nuclei Theory" by Harris and Ullman* Each of these theories 5 e s s e n t i a l l y represents an abstract i d e a l urban agglomeration; the concentric zone theory suggests the modern c i t y assumes a pattern of concentric zones, each with cer t a i n distinguishing 2. c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ; the Sector Theory suggests that sectors radiate out i n pie-shaped cuts from a centre, each cut representing a definable urban c h a r a c t e r i s t i c , ever pushing out towards the periphery by pressures such as population growth, and possibly decaying or changing function from the centre during t h i s pro-cess; the Multiple Nuclei Theory postulates not one centre for a c i t y , but many, with each centre tending to s p e c i a l i s e i n a c e r t a i n functional a c t i v i t y * A l l of these theories have been c r i t i c i s e d and none of them seem complete and universal i n t h e i r a pplication, though the Multiple Nuclei Theory has the most f l e x i b i l i t y * Each of them however, structures the metropolis i n t o approximately equivalent c h a r a c t e r i s t i c areas* For the purpose of t h i s paper then, and to place the problem i n a context, the following component d i v i s i o n s of the metropolis w i l l be used: 1* The Central Business D i s t r i c t (Urban core) and other centres* 2* Manufacturing and i t s a l l i e d i ndustries* 3* Housing with attendant services* 4* Open (unused) land* These di v i s i o n s are intended only as a convenient tool for comparison of basic types of areas, which i n r e a l i t y have THE M E T R O P O L I S • • • « > • • • • • • a • f • f o o l > • • • • • • l • • • • • ' • f o «f i « • o • © « • • • • • f ,© h*w% 0 « « • • « © o f o f © l o f « • • o f o f • I o * ©f f e * f tis*'y'sK°» °© °© °9 3^ ©# ©• •• • •* • I 'rflJ^'P* » • <>• ° f • • • ' • _ . _ . . , j * . * i *> »• • • • •• ••'»Ir'n'tt) o f o f , » , » ( * • © o Oo «• » » « £ c ' o o 0* • • » f ©f . » o© o ' © • o, © o © • ' { » / . • • • • • « • • • • • » • • • , • » o * • « © o • © o© ©• ©• ©• o© o© tff o f * * © © • • • • • • • • • • ©o • • • • • • °© ©• *© * * # * ©f © # • • f • • • f • • « • » •© • © • • © • f • © • ©• ©• ©f ©f • © o* • • f • f • f - 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• f • • • • o o>e f o f e • ^ • • • o f o f c f e f f f o f o f e f f f f f o f o f f f o f o f 9 f f f f f o f f f o • • • • • t i l l • • • • • n i g o • • • osdfJs& • e • a M*r>» • • • - JciJi • » • » • • • • • o f o f • l » t O * O l | f O O f f 0 f 0 0 o o o f o f o f o « * f e f » f f f • ••••••• • • *» f p • • • • ••• • • • • * • • • • o O f » » • • • < • • o • • • • a • •• • • • • • • • < • • • • o •• f» • 9 • • • f « • • 0) O • ••• o f © • f f • f • • • f ' • o •• • • • • • • • • • • • t • • • • • • I • • • • • • • • I • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • I 1« central business district (C.B.D.) 2• manufacturing & allied industries 3> housing & attendant services '•open land i n d i s t i n c t boundaries, being more reasonably defined by t h e i r centres than by t h e i r edges* This paper i s concerned i n general with ( 3 ) Housing with attendant services and i n p a r t i c u l a r where t h i s component adjoins ( 1 ) The Central Business D i s t r i c t (G.B.D.) By the C.B.D. i s meant that part of the metropolis that houses large department stores, s p e c i a l i t y shops, large business o f f i c e s , headquarters of corporations, f i n a n c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , administrative centres, professional o f f i c e s , public r e l a t i o n firms and supporting estab-lishments such as restaurants, drinking places, hotels, conven-t i o n h a l l s , theatres etc*, i n eff e c t the **image" common to the centres of most c i t i e s * I t must be noted here that t h i s paper i s dealing with the North American Metropolis, as other 'foreign' metropoli exhibit c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s more defined by national e c o l -ogy, and thus include other a l i e n factors not common to t h i s con-tinent, as well as excluding many t y p i c a l North Americal metro-p o l i t a n determinants* I t should also be noted that several c l o s e l y l i n k e d metropoli may together form a 'conurbation* or 'ecumenopolis', making the above component d i v i s i o n s yet less d i s t i n c t , and possibly removing e n t i r e l y component ( 4 ) , Open (unused) land, from those metropoli more central to the ecumen* Discontinuously surrounding the urban core of most c i t i e s are areas of r e l a t i v e l y high-density that tend to house two cat-egories o f the population* These are the low income families and those who choose to l i v e i n such areas because of the amen-i t y only the urban core can seem to provide. The low income families are usually segregated i n the older high-density areas and are drawn to these areas for economic reasons such as the cheapness of rents* Their segregation i s involuntary i n as much as given newer low-cost housing elsewhere they w i l l choose t h i s a l t e r n a t i v e * As another part of t h i s research project studies a s i m i l a r low-income family s i t u a t i o n (though further constrained by e t h n i c i t y ) , t h i s paper w i l l focus on the other category: those who associate themselves with the urban core v o l u n t a r i l y * The proximity amenity to the urban core o f the residen-t i a l land close by, usually creates high land values demanding maximum usage i n order to re-imburse the owners and developers of such land* Under current building technology these forces express themselves i n developments of the high-rise v a r i e t y * Nearly every major c i t y i n North America has responded i n t h i s fashion to include one or more of these areas* By examining an e x i s t i n g high density area i n the c i t y of Vancouver, namely the West End, and comparing i t to the Vancouver Metropolitan average, the deviation of such an area from the norm i s demon-strated, the reasons for the ecological segregation of the pop-ula t i o n found and thus a l i f e - s t y l e r e f l e c t e d . It must be noted at t h i s point that as a l i f e - s t y l e expresses the charac-t e r i s t i c s of a p a r t i c u l a r set of the population;,, and as no two corresponding sets i n separate metropoli w i l l be found that are i d e n t i c a l , the application of any system developed i n response to a given l i f e - s t y l e must be altered i n d e t a i l to s u i t other populations* Thus though for s i m i l a r populations i n d i f f e r i n g c i t i e s the p r i n c i p l e o f the system may s t i l l hold v a l i d , there w i l l be variances i n the d e t a i l s of a p p l i c a t i o n . The West End area was chosen f o r study as i t was e a s i l y accessible f o r information and as i t expressed many of the ten-dencies that on the surface l e v e l seem common to other metropoli. It was therefore f e l t that a housing system developed f o r t h i s area might i n p r i n c i p l e be used i n other c i t i e s with s i m i l a r areas. Thus i n summary i t can be stated that the context of this paper i s ** Voluntary High Density Residential Living associated with the Urban Core n In the following pages (p. S to p. 66?) I examine various aspects of the area chosen for study. Unless otherwise stated, s t a t i s t i c a l information comes from the 1961 Census of Canada, Vancouver B u l l e t i n CT-22, census tracts 1, 2, 3 and 4, commonly known as the West End of Vancouver. Much of the written mater-i a l has been extracted verbatim from Appendix "A**, which i s the resu l t of a thorough survey of the area, using the methodology developed and outlined i n the preliminary pages, before s p e c i f i c l i f e styles are chosen f o r study. « • • • • • • • • • • I A • • • • • • • > o . » • • • • • • « • • • • • • • ! •*«.'.>•••*.*• • • • • • • • • • • ! » tp .V • • • • • • • « • ( • • • • • ! • *>tV*V • • • • • • • •*• "". • .•J\\\\V.\\\\w, » • ] • • • • • r • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • - • • • • • »••<• • • 1 .V..V.'J'v• •• • • • • • • • • • *0 • • • * 4 . . . . » V i V . V A * • • • •"»*/. V.V.YsY. w •» • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • . . • I A , . v . x . v . v r « • • • • • • » • • • • ii project context high density residential as-sociated with the urban core" 7 Since, i n the following pages, a p a r t i c u l a r area i s exam-ined i n order to extract the forces describing a s p e c i f i c l i f e s t y l e , and since t h i s area was chosen only i n as much as i t re-presents a reasonably t y p i c a l high density r e s i d e n t i a l environ-ment, and since no two areas are s i m i l a r , the purpose of this examination i s only to generate a model ' l i f e s t y l e ' that can be used subsequently to develop a 'model' area* Therefore, f o r those readers not primarily interested i n the study of a p a r t i c -ular area but rather the methodology of the study that may be applicable to other areas within t h e i r i n t e r e s t , the following pages may be l e f t un-read* CpP S~^^0 B a s i c a l l y the methodology of the following pages may be divided into f i v e sections: i * The f i r s t section studies the h i s t o r i c a l evolution o f the study area i i . The second section describes the physical area and the physical things i n i t , both natural and a r t i f i c i a l * i i i * The t h i r d section describes the people currently using the area, the reasons why thi s p a r t i c u l a r set of people l i v e there now, and what might probably happen i n the future i v * The fourth section describes how the people i n ( i i i ) make use of the area i n ( i i ) * v* The f i f t h section summarises the preceding sections and concludes with some reasons f o r a l t e r i n g the status quo in the area* (I) THE STUDY AREA - HISTORICAL ASPECTS. A) HISTORY OF THE WEST END OF VANCOUVER t The area now known as the West End i s one of the oldest parts of the C i t y of Vancouver, though the o r i g i n a l settlements on Burrard Inlet occurred at G r a n v i l l e Townsite, surveyed by C o l . Moody i n 1855, and at Hastings M i l l , both these areas being to the east of the West End* The town grew slowly at f i r s t , with the logging of trees f o r masts and spars f o r B r i t i s h ships as the main industry. In 1885 businessmen foresaw the advantages of a t t r a c t i n g the Canadian P a c i f i c Railway westward into the town from i t s planned terminal at Port Moody, the location of which had been f i x e d by tide-water considerations* The landowners i n the Vancouver area, including three who owned the 550 acres of the West End, agreed to give up one t h i r d of t h e i r holdings to achieve t h i s end* To t h i s point subdivision of the West End had l a r g e l y occurred only on paper a In 1886, the C i t y of Vancouver was incorporated with a population of two thousand f i v e hundred* Soon, as the c i t y and the railway grew, the C.P.R. developed the area west of Burrard on Georgia Street as residences f o r i t s o f f i c i a l s * This area became known at the time as "Blueblood Alley™* The south slope of the area overlooking English Bay and areas near Stanley Park (dedicated i n 1891) were dotted by scattered houses* In the main these were large houses meant for higher income groups* The population growth rate became extremely rapid so that by 1905 the population had reached f i f t y thousand* The real boom, however, occurred i n the following f i v e years when the population doubled i t s e l f to one hundred thousand* It was a time o f great speculation i n land, and much of t h i s population increase occurred i n the West End where conversion of large single family houses to multiple use was c a r r i e d on, as well as the resubdivision of l o t s fo r further housing* In 1911 the C.P.R., perhaps p a r t l y i n response to the "loss 1* of the "high rent 1* area i n the West End, undertook develop-ment of some o f i t s land south of False Creek, now known as Shaugh-nessy Heights* This move indicated the changing function o f the West End from a b a s i c a l l y family and home ownership area to a renta l d i s t r i c t * By 1930 seventy-eight apartment buildings had been constructed* Since that time there has been a steady replacement of the large, o l d houses i n the West End by further apartment develop-ment, a replacement that continues to t h i s day* The Bartholomew Plan of 1929 recommended that a l l of the area be zoned fo r residen-t i a l buildings of up to s i x s t o r i e s i n height* Adoption of this recommendation consolidated the e x i s t i n g trend towards apartment use* As the character of such development was judged not wholly desirable, many by-law changes have been made, leading to some improvement i n qu a l i t y * With continuing metropolitan growth and L O C A T I O N a n d V I S U A L B O U N D A R Y high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R II (II) THE STUDY AREA - PHYSICAL ASPECTS B) LOCATION OF THE WEST END IN THE . METROPOLITAN SETTING  The map of the metropolitan area shows that the West End i s adjacent to the downtown section of the c i t y , with i t s busi-ness, shopping, c u l t u r a l and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s , and i s bounded on the west by Stanley Park* Its whole southern bound-ary consists of beach and parkland bordering the entrance to False Creek* To the north i s the Coal Harbour section of the Port of Vancouver with i t s shipping industry and small boat bas^s* The r e s i d e n t i a l section to the north i s v i r t u a l l y bounded (with a few exceptions) by Georgia Street which i s a main east-west l i n k between the business d i s t r i c t and the North Shore muni-c i p a l i t i e s * Thus f o r the purposes of t h i s study, the physical area under consideration i s confined almost exclusively to the north, east, south and west by Georgia Street, Burrard Street, the water at the entrance to False Creek and Stanley Park respectively* The v i s u a l boundaries of the West End, as seen from i t s i n t e r i o r , extend over the harbour to the North Shore mountains to the north; to the high-rise skyline o f the business section to the east; over the water of English Bay to K i t s i l a n o h i l l on the south; and across Stanley Park, outer Vancouver Harbour and the S t r a i t of Georgia to the Gulf Islands on the west* C) BASIC PHYSICAL DETERMINANTS OF THE WEST END: The area as defined by thi s study l i e s on the western ha l f of a humped-back ridge adjoining the central c i t y area* The ridge has i t s high point towards the south-east end and slopes gently along a peninsular towards a major park at the western border; there i s a shallow slope to the c i t y ' s main harbour on the north and a steeper slope to the beach park s t r i p on the south. The study area i s 470 acres (0*84 sq. miles) and has over a mile of waterfrontage and s l i g h t l y under half a mile of park frontage to the west* The micro-climate of the area i s sim i l a r to that of the lower mainland region of B r i t i s h Columbia, with p l e n t i f u l r a i n -f a l l and an average f r o s t free period of 218 days/annum. The summers are generally short and the skies overcast and grey* The sea acts as a temperature moderator, consequently the clim-ate i s mild with temperatures seldom above 80°F and seldom below freezing* The area benefits from sunshine due to i t s southerly exposure, and the pr e v a i l i n g winds are westerly from the P a c i f i c blessing the area with unpolluted ocean a i r s * T O P O G R A P H Y a n d C L I M A T E high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R D) NON RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES: 1. LOCAL COMMERCIAL SERVICES The three main commercial streets i n the area are Robson and Davie Streets running east-west and Denman Street running north-south. These streets form a loop through the area and are well chosen i n as much as no point i n the West End i s more than 3 blocks from them* The commercial f a c i l i t i e s on these streets cater mainly to "necessity" shopping, as the adjacent downtown section of the c i t y meets the "comparison" shopping needs of the population such that competition from the study area i s n e g l i g i b l e i n this f i e l d . There are some 35,000 f t * of commercially zoned street frontage of which 22,000 f t , are actually i n use, indicating an existing "over-zoning" i n this category* The character of the r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s varies somewhat on these three s t r e e t s , Davie and Denman Streets being e s s e n t i a l -l y North American i n the s t y l e of t h e i r shops, whereas Robson Street has a d i s t i n c t German ethnic flavour, and as such draws customers on a more regional scale* L O C A L C O M M E R C I A L S E R V I C E S high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R 2. SCHOOLS; There are three schools i n the area with another used by the area but just beyond i t s eastern boundary* Three of these schools are f o r the elementary grades and one i s at the High School l e v e l * The School Board has plans f o r an additional public elementary school even though the numbers of school c h i l -dren i n t h i s category f e l l from 1961 (the peak year) to 1963* A l l these schools are to the Vancouver standard* The High School doubles as an adult educational centre i n the evenings* Two of the schools are of o l d b r i c k construction, one of timber frame and one o f modern design* The older timber framed school w i l l soon be replaced by a more modern counterpart of i t s function* A l l the older schools have small outside play areas (compared with suburban schools), and these are usually grassless blacktopped and bleak i n appearance* For the younger children (pre-school, 0-4 yrs* of age) there are few nursery schools and day care services. Those that do ex i s t are attached to the "Neighbourhood House" and the parochial school, and are e s s e n t i a l l y a by-product and a f t e r -thought of these i n s t i t u t i o n s * P r i v a t e l y run establishments, i n the form of q u a l i f i e d individuals taking i n children for the day to t h e i r homes also e x i s t , f o r the aid of working couples* Such f a c i l i t i e s are however, minimal and generally lack the amen-i t i e s that childr e n usually require* 3. INSTITUTIONS: As well as the Neighbourhood House j u s t mentioned that acts as community centre (a new building i s being planned for th i s s e r v i c e ) , there are within the study area many f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t i t u t i o n s which serve the population on a more regional than l o c a l basis* Examples o f these are: several churches* f i r e h a l l s , a Y.M.C.A., the Veteran's A f f a i r s Building, Unemploy-ment o f f i c e s , a Motor-vehicle Testing s t a t i o n , a large hospital and medical annex* 4. PARKS AND RECREATIONt There are two small neighbourhood parks i n the area, both located towards the north-east section. Along the area's south-ern boundary i s a beach-park s t r i p and the western boundary bord-ers onto Stanley Park. Both the beach-park s t r i p and Stanley Park are regional i n nature and serve a large metropolitan popu-l a t i o n . One o f the small neighbourhood parks and both the region-a l parks have child-play f a c i l i t i e s as well as those directed at adults. Examples of these f a c i l i t i e s are swings, t e e t e r - t o t t e r s , jungle-jims. wading and swimming pools, boat launching ramps, playing f i e l d s , p i t c h and putt courses, walks, rowing boats, a zoo, catering f a c i l i t i e s . 5 , OTHER FACILITIES: There i s one l o c a l cinema that specialises i n "re-runs" and a few restaurants i n the study area. As the neighbouring down-town section i s e a s i l y accessible from the area, the popu-l a t i o n can adequately f u l f i l t h e i r entertainment needs there i n spit e of the l o c a l s c a r c i t y of these f a c i l i t i e s . There are many caterers that s p e c i a l i s e i n the home-delivery o f meals throughout the area, and several of the super-markets s e l l heated pre-cooked meals to be taken home by t h e i r purchasers. Other service f a c i l i t i e s such as gas stations, laundro-mats, e t c . are well represented i n the area. Along the eastern and e s p e c i a l l y along the northern boundaries of the study area are penetrations of o f f i c e buildings. Whereas the professional o f f i c e s located i n the area tend to serve the l o c a l population, those along i t s boundaries tend to employ and serve on a region-a l b a s i s , and include business o f f i c e s usually associated with the urban core as well as professional o f f i c e s . high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R E) RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES: B a s i c a l l y there are three d i s t i n c t types of r e s i d e n t i a l buildings i n the study area. These types relate to t h e i r period of construction which i n turn r e f l e c t s the predominant zoning i n e f f e c t at that p a r t i c u l a r time* The three types are:-1. Converted single family dwellings of frame construction -pre 1930. 2. Low-rise walk-ups. usually of frame construction - 1931 to * 1949. 3. High-rise structures of concrete - 1950 onwards. The t e r r i t o r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of these categories shows a reasonably d i s t i n c t pattern, the newer high-rises forming a band along the southern and western borders of the study area, with an additional concentration towards the north-eastern corner. The central areas are t y p i f i e d by converted single-family dwellings, l i b e r a l l y sprinkled with low-rise walk-ups (which also extend i n -to the high-rise areas). As well as these r e s i d e n t i a l types, there i s a concentra-tion of hotel-motel type overnight accommodation towards the south-western corner with another s i m i l a r concentration, that also i n -cludes rooming houses, towards the urban core i n the north and north-eastern areas. high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R 1>) (III) THE STUDY AREA - POPULATION ASPECTS In the next few pages var ious aspects of the population w i l l be examined i n increasingly p a r t i c u l a r d i v i s i o n s . As s t a t i s t i c s i n themselves tend to "freeze** the population at a ce r t a i n instance i n time, showing l i t t l e sympathy to the com* plex and multiple forces that produce them, the present s t a t i s -t i c s f o r each d i v i s i o n w i l l be given along with the possible causes that formulated them, the present trends and the probable future d i r e c t i o n s they w i l l take* 2o A . GENERAL: The t o t a l population o f the study area was approximately 25,000 i n 1961* This represents 54 persons/gross acre, making the area the most densely populated i n the metropolitan region* The population showed continuous increase up to 1941, where i t l e v e l l e d o f f at approximately the 1961 figure* The recent (post 1961) boom i n apartment construction has probably increased t h i s figure to between 30,000 and 35,000* From 1921 to 1961 the metropolitan population has increas-ed by approximately 3% times, whereas the growth i n the study area has been about 1% times i t s 1921 figu r e , when i t represented 7*5% of the metropolitan population* The study area presently con-s t i t u t e s 3*2% of the metropolitan population, showing the decreas-ing part played by the study area i n housing the metropolitan pop-u l a t i o n . By 1983 the metropolitan population i s expected to double i t s 1961 f i g u r e , whereas the study area presently has a c e i l i n g placed on i t s population by zoning regulations* This c e i l i n g figure wij.1 approach 66,000 persons, or 140 persons/gross acre* H i s t o r i c a l l y , the r e s i d e n t i a l sections of the c i t y close to the urban core have provided the central business function with a labour pool* As the c i t y grew new business enterprises started and old ones expanded, a l l of them tending to group cl o s e l y together, r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r interdependence and t h e i r need f o r close mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y * The growing agglomeration of businesses and t h e i r a f f i l i a t e d services and amenities demanded ever increasing r e s i d e n t i a l densities along t h e i r periphery* In-creasing population mobility, modern means of communication and competition f o r space i n the centre that s p i r a l l e d up property costs combined to make possible the decentralisation o f many functions previously linked to the urban core* Population growth and increasing affluence i n the outlying areas of the metropolis have enabled those areas to support large shopping centres, many businesses and consumer services* Surveys show that i n spite o f the recent p r o l i f e r a t i o n of new o f f i c e skyscrapers i n the centres of c i t i e s , the s i z e of the working population i n the central areas of the largest American metropoli has not act u a l l y increased over the past 30 years* Thus the urban core i s changing i n kind rather than s i z e , with the ex-pansion of those types of businesses that s t i l l require close mut-ual a c c e s s i b i l i t y at the expense of those types that, with the ad-vances i n communication media and transportation, can now locate more p r o f i t a b l y further out* This change i n use of the urban core i s r e f l e c t e d i n the change i n occupational categories of the working population around the core (see page^2.), The increase i n personal mobility has enabled many workers to commute to the core from the suburbs, and to l i v e i n areas around the core yet not work there* Thus presently, of the vehicle t r i p s generated by the study area, only h a l f have as th e i r destination the urban core. The recent re-zoning of several other areas i n the metro-p o l i s for high-rise and the subsequent new construction of high density r e s i d e n t i a l units, has provided additional choices of l o c a t i o n f o r those who choose to l i v e i n high density areas. Thus those who continue to choose the study area as a place of residence do so because of the p a r t i c u l a r amenities the area and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the urban core, consequently a more "voluntary" representative cross-section of society i s being housed i n t h i s area. The following pages w i l l attempt to describe those that are drawn to and make up the s t y l e of l i f e presently being devel-oped i n the study area. z 3 B. AGE GROUPINGS: The comparison of the population pyramid of the study area to that of the metropolitan region shows that the high dens-i t y area i s presently attracting young adults and e l d e r l y at the expense of children. S t a t i s t i c s from previous years show that the e l d e r l y and the young adult population has been s t e a d i l y climbing whereas the numbers of children have been consistently on the decline. The factors contributing to the existing make-up of the population i n the area are many. By examining a t y p i c a l cycle of occupancy, some of the major determinants that select the pop-ulation at any given age grouping w i l l become apparent: Young single adults are drawn into the area by employment opportunities e x i s t i n g i n the C.B.D., by the recreational amenit-ies provided by the core, by the increase i n potential s o c i a l con-tact promised by high density l i v i n g and in search for personal freedom and i d e n t i t y away from parental and educational d i s c i p -l i n e s . Within a few years the s o c i a l contacts w i l l result i n marriage and the doubling up of income of the working couple, who w i l l probably s t i l l remain in the area pursuing together, rather than separately as before, the c u l t u r a l and recreational a c t i v i t i e s generated i n and around the area. When the young working couple has i t s f i r s t c h i l d the ram-i f i c a t i o n s are serious. F i r s t l y , the family income drops by over 30%; secondly, the larger l i v i n g unit now necessary w i l l be more 24 if expensive; and t h i r d l y , there are additional expenses to be met i n regard to medical fees, new fu r n i t u r e , c h i l d accessories etc* Currently there are two possible solutions, a move to a more run-down part of the area where the rents are lower, or a move to suburbia where homes may be bought with a very low down payment* The l a t t e r s o l u t i o n i s usually taken, as i n t h e i r p r e - c h i l d years the couple w i l l have accumulated savings that they are unwilling to see eroded by higher rentals, as the Pr o v i n c i a l Government i n -creases the incentive f o r such a move by o f f e r i n g a $500 * f i r s t home' allowance and as the Federal Government provides low int e r e s t guaranteed mortgages over an extended period of time f o r such new home construction* Other reasons also accumulate to reinforce such a move, such as the promise of a 'new* home, open play space f o r children, good schools and the adverse attitude of landlords i n the study area to children* This choice of move to suburbia has compulsory overtones dictated by economics and involves a d i s -sociation from a former self-chosen s t y l e of l i f e * Old values must be dropped, the previously cherished amenities provided by study area f o r f e i t e d , and new values re-instated i n t h e i r stead* The other al t e r n a t i v e of moving to an older and usually more run-down section of the area i s occasionally chosen by the newly formed nuclear family* These families b a s i c a l l y divide themselves into two categories, those that are too poor to accum-ulate a down-payment on a suburban house and those that f i n d the 2< amenities of the area too a t t r a c t i v e to replace. As the convert-ed single family dwellings are o l d (pre 1930) and as t h e i r only value i s a modest ren t a l to o f f s e t property taxes u n t i l the b u l l -dozer clears the land f o r reconstruction, such dwellings are gen-e r a l l y i n poor repa i r , i n lower amenity areas and are e s s e n t i a l l y only "holding" properties. It i s into such sections of the study area that the c h i l d population must f i t . Recent construction i s further threatening these l a s t bastions of family l i f e i n the area, replacing them by units aimed at the in d i v i d u a l and ultimately providing no choice of habitat f o r these young families other than suburbia. Thus the area w i l l f i n a l l y be homogenised into a t o t a l -l y adtilt part of the c i t y . The nuclear family w i l l probably spend i t s child-rearing years i n suburbia. During t h i s period the study area i s r e t a i n -ing those of t h i s 'middle* age group i n the form of those that re-main unmarried or those that marry but f o r physiological and other reasons choose to remain c h i l d l e s s . Divorcees are also strongly represented. After the childr e n have l e f t home to pursue t h e i r i n d i v i -dual l i v e s , many of the now approaching e l d e r l y couples decide to return to the study area, again f o r the amenities i t provides over other areas. Presently nearly 40% of the area's population i s over 55 years of age. Increased earnings of the family head during the l a s t years before retirement, savings accumulated during a l i f e t i m e , moneys from the sale of the suburban residence, the 1U desire f o r closer s o c i a l contacts at si m i l a r generational l e v e l s , lessening physical mobility, the close mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y of amenities i n the study area, the diminished r e s i d e n t i a l family unit volume requirements, the promise of Federal and Pr o v i n c i a l pensions for both partners i n marriage and the male partner's pension from the business that employed him. prompt the couple to return to the study area and the l i f e - s t y l e of t h e i r choice* Thus i s the cycle ended that r e f l e c t s the present population pyr-amid* The opening up of other areas i n the metropolis f o r high-density r e s i d e n t i a l use, when combined with the approaching sat-uration of that part of the study area presently predominantly housing the el d e r l y (attracted s p e c i f i c a l l y by the proximity of the major park on the western border) w i l l probably r e s t r i c t much further increase i n the population over 55 years of age* This segment of the population might even diminish, as many of the el d e r l y presently included i n t h i s segment are e s s e n t i a l l y 'trapped' i n the older parts of the study area by the change of r e s i d e n t i a l use over time* This group i s presently existing i n low rental rooming houses geared to incomes derived from pensions r e f l e c t i n g an e a r l i e r cost of l i v i n g * These people, unless subsidised, w i l l have to relocate i n other older parts of the metropolis as they w i l l be unable to aff o r d the competitive rents demanded by recon-struction* l l It i s expected that with the expansion of the C.B.D.west-wards along the northern boundary of the study area (a current trend), more young adults w i l l be attracted by the increasing em-ployment opportunities* Further c h i l d l e s s adults w i l l be a t t r a c t -ed by the growing recreational amenity provided both by the area and by the neighbouring urban core* Some of t h i s l a t t e r group* with increasing mobility provided by technology and mounting af-fluence, w i l l use the area i n a 'dormitory' fashion and work i n areas beyond the central d i s t r i c t , i n a reversed sense using the area much as commuters presently use suburbia* Advances i n b i r t h control devices w i l l i n e v i t a b l y expand the duration o f time these young adults w i l l remain i n the area* In summary the young adult segment of the population w i l l probably grow and be housed i n the yet to be reconstructed older areas at high densities* The con-sequence of t h i s w i l l be to t o t a l l y eliminate the remaining f a m i l -ies with children that presently occupy these areas* The male/female r a t i o i n the study area i s 45/55, i n d i c a t -ing a disproportionately large number of females as compared to the metropolitan r a t i o which i s approximately 50/50* The abnorm-a l l y female dominated groups are i n the 20 to 24 years and the over 70 years age groups* The former i s a t t r i b u t a b l e to " o f f i c e " g i r l s and the l a t t e r to "widows", as s t a t i s t i c a l l y wives o u t l i v e t h e i r husbands by several years* j t o lO • E -n o M 0 increasing young adults decreasing children i <• a MALES FEMALES AGE GROUPINGS 20 if C. BASIC UNITS OF POPULATION: The d i v i s i o n of the population into families and non-f a m i l i e s shows that 51% of the study area's population i s i n the former category compared with 85% i n the metropolitan region. The basic deviance o f the study area from the norm i n t h i s aspect i s further magnified by the fact that 32% of the study area's population are included i n non-nuclear ( c h i l d l e s s ) f a m i l i e s * thus the nuclear family represents only 19% of the study area's popula-t i o n as against 68% f o r the metropolitan region* As both partners i n the non-nuclear family are probably wage earners or separate pension recipients* each partner can act as an independent economic unit* The difference between two non-married adults of the opposite sex acting as i n d i v i d u a l s , and the same two adults married* i s only one of degree as the c h i l d l e s s couple has usually f a r more i n common, with respect to i t s style* o f - l i f e , with the 'individuals' of the population than with the nuclear family* Accepting the non-nuclear family couple then as e s s e n t i a l l y two indiv i d u a l s co-habitating, i t can be seen that i n the study area the ' i n d i v i d u a l ' becomes the basic unit of popula-ti o n representing 81% of the people, as compared to the metropol-itan region having as i t s basic population unit the 'nuclear fam-i l y ' , representing 68% of the people* This deviation i n the basic population unit i s one of the major attributes of the study area i n defining i t s s t y l e - o f - l i f e : the people i n the high density area form a set of individuals as opposed to a set of families* population 100% i— i _ F A M I L Y N O N - F A M I L Y 51 FAMIL IES WITH FAMIL IES WITHOUT C H I L D R E N C H I L D R E N - > T R E N D •FAMILY " I N D I V I D U A L < U l oc < >• a 3 F A M I L Y N O N - F A M I L Y B A S I C U N I T S of P O P U L A T I O N 2«f D. OCCUPATIONAL GROUPINGS: The past and current forces i n the study area that have and are decreasing the nuclear family population are manifested by the low school population. Some of these forces have been d i s -cussed and more w i l l be introduced l a t e r . The working population i s high; this again i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the high percentage o f young adults drawn to the area. The approximately equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of males to females i n the area's labour force i s due to the nature of the business c a r r i e d out i n the adjoining urban core, with i t s many o f f i c e buildings, r e t a i l and service f a c i l i t i e s o f f e r i n g greater employment opportunities for females than do most other d i s t r i c t s within the metropolis. The cessation o f employment by the female shortly before a non-nuclear family's f i r s t c h i l d and the subsequent banishment of t h i s family from the area to suburbia, reduces the proportion of the working population i n the l a t t e r area and e f f e c t i v e l y maintains the high proportion of working females i n the study area by the process of replacement. As young male adults are more mobile than females i n the same age group and as the expansion of the urban core continues to o f f e r more female oriented employment, i t i s expected that the current trend towards an ever greater female percentage i n the area's labour force w i l l continue. Of the non-working population not attending school i n the study area, the vast majority are over 55 years of age at the edge of, or i n , retirement. The reasons for t h i s have been stated, as 3c well as the reasons for the p r o b a b i l i t y that the currently i n -creasing percentage o f t h i s age group w i l l soon become s t a t i c or even decline* In contrast to the study area's breakdown, i t can be seen that the non-working population of the metropolitan region i s divided into three approximately equal categories: school c h i l -dren 21%, over 55 years of age 19% and the remainder of 23% being mostly non-working housewives* As the working population of the area i s so high, the at-titude of this segment of the population to t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l em-ployment i s a major l i f e - s t y l e determinant* The young adult males are generally i n the process of establishing careers and con-sequently have a p o s i t i v e attitude towards work. They are attempt-ing to get ahead and raise t h e i r economic status and, unencumbered by family t i e s , they are able to use the r e l a t i v e l y f l u i d labour market s i t u a t i o n to move from one job to another u n t i l s a t i s f a c t o r y employment i s found* Their attitude i s marked by optimism as they have yet to discover the l i m i t a t i o n s of t h e i r c a p a b i l i t i e s * For the working females i n t h i s category, employment i s generally a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f interlude between a previous l i f e of parental authority and a forthcoming l i f e as a wife. As such t h e i r employment tends to lack r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a future, and i s often regarded as a temporary means of income for s e l f - s u f f i c -ient l i v i n g u n t i l a suitable male relieves them of t h i s task* The 31 xecent advances i n b i r t h control techniques and the increasing awareness of women of t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l p a r i t y with males, has already been r e f l e c t e d by the growing numbers of 'career' females, both married and single,, It seems ine v i t a b l e that t h i s trend w i l l continue and become increasingly evident i n the study area, as t h i s area has been t r a d i t i o n a l l y the f o c a l centre i n the metro-p o l i s for the advancement of s o c i a l trends* There i s a high unemployment rate i n the male population of the area, t h i s rate being 11*2% of the male labour force and approximately twice as high as the metropolitan rate of 5*7%* Upon investi g a t i o n t h i s percentage i s not as s t a r t l i n g as i t seems, as i t i s i n f l a t e d by the following i n t e r r e l a t e d reasons:-1* The area at t r a c t s a high percentage of recent immigrants to the metropolis* 2, The area i s t r a n s i t o r y i n nature, with a large percentage of dwellings occupied for less than 1 year* 3* The area abounds with r e l a t i v e l y cheap rooming houses that can be rented by the day, week or month* 4* The area attracts young adults i n search of t h e i r f i r s t em-ployment * 5* The area adjoins the C.B.D. from which employers hi r e f o r th i s d i s t r i c t as well as for most of the Province* Consequently, the unemployed i n t h i s area are a " f l o a t i n g " population with a f a i r l y rapid turn-over and do not represent "hard-core" unemployables• It i s expected that t h i s category of transients w i l l continue to use the area i n the future as a temporary home before and between jobs for the same reasons as have j u s t been enumerated* The change i n use of the urban core i s r e f l e c t e d by the trends of change i n the occupational d i v i s i o n s of the working population i n the study area. Generally speaking the trend i s towards " o f f i c e " and "service" employment at the expense of "pro-duction" employment, with 2/3 of the males and over 9/10 of the females i n the former category. This trend w i l l i n e v i t a b l y con-tinue as more production processes remove themselves further from the metropolitan centre and become more f u l l y automated* p o p u l a t i o n 100% M A L E S F E M A L E S O V E R 55 Y R S . ••••••••••*f.g • [ - T i i i i i i i j — 6 55 39 i X ' '^lioca working /non-working 21 37 42 M A L E S 25 F E M A L E S .11II u III II • •••]• • • • • • • • I • • • ' • • • * • 4 • • • • * / O V E R 55 Y R S . \ \ working pop. 100 £ 28 19 24 17 STUDY A R E A O F F ICEj AND SjERVICE—j-2 8 § I — U J I ^ i | - w I U J U l I (A K i y < I I I U J I 17 / 14 22 U l X I — O 23 M E T R O O C C U P A T I O N A L G R O U P I N G S 3> E. POPULATION INCOME; Comparisons of the income as a percentage of the working population show that there i s a greater d i s p a r i t y of income i n the study area, and that the average income i s lower. These facts are due t o : 1. The preponderance of young males (25 to 35 years of age) i n the process of establishing their careers and consequently earning l e s s . 2. A larger than average percentage of older and r e t i r e d males on pensions. 3. A high unemployment rate due to reasons previously explained. 4. The large female work force, whose incomes are t r a d i t i o n a l l y lower than males. The majority (56.8%) of the male labour force earns less than $4000 i n the study area, whereas the majority (56.4%) i n the metropolitan region earns more than $4000. The higher average female income i s due to the large per-centage of working women i n the labour force. With the continuance i n the re-development of the study area and the resultant changing of the population (see pages2<*»-27) i t can be expected that there w i l l be a lessening i n the d i s p a r i t y of income, as those presently 'trapped 1 i n the older parts w i l l be replaced by a younger and more affluent generation more able to affo r d the increased rents. The replacement o f these 'poorer' segments of the population and the continued increase i n wages at a l l l e v e l s of the labour force w i l l i nevitably raise the average incomes above the present fig u r e s , even taking into account the annual cost of l i v i n g r i s e s * The expected increasing proportion of working females and the proportionately higher wages they are annually demanding fo r "equal" work w i l l yet further increase the income of t h i s segment of the population, removing them even more from their suburban counterparts* 5< F. ACADEMIC LEVELS OF THE POPULATION; The study area has the lowest (6*3%) school population i n the metropolitan region (av«21*4%)* Of those attending school 50,5% are at or above the high school l e v e l , with a very high (16,1%) proportion attending university* This compares with the metropolitan region's 29*8% at or above high school l e v e l and only 5*1% attending university* The negative attitude of landlords to pre-high school age children (see page43)» i s one reason f o r the r e l a t i v e l y low attendance figures of elementary aged students i n the study area* Another fac t o r , beyond those already outlined, i s the parents' attitudes to the schooling of their younger c h i l d -ren: the qu a l i t y of the schools and the danger of t h e i r access (see page5l ) tends to make the parents of younger children l i v e i n outlying areas where these factors are supposedly overcome* Most parents f e e l that child r e n at or above the high school l e v e l are able to fend more ably f o r themselves* The high percentage of students attending univ e r s i t y i s a r e f l e c t i o n of the l i f e s t y l e , the high proportion of out-of-town students that are p a r t i a l l y or wholly self-supporting and the general a v a i l a b i l i t y of units i n the area suitable for university aged c l i e n t e l e * With the declining number of young nuclear families i n the area i t i s expected that the percentage o f the population attend-ing school w i l l f a l l yet lower* This w i l l be e s p e c i a l l y notice-able at the pre-high school l e v e l s * The opening up of other areas 3^ closer to the u n i v e r s i t i e s for high density l i v i n g , the expansion i n and around the campuses of student housing, the increasing rentals being obtained i n the study area and the continued r i s e i n costs to the students for higher education should probably decrease the proportion o f those attending university i n the area* Comparisons of that part of the population not attending school show that the population of the study area has reached academic l e v e l s beyond the metropolitan average* This i s a re-f l e c t i o n o f the change i n type of business i n the adjoining C.B.D. which i s continuously demanding higher background leve l s o f educa-tion from t h e i r employees* The continuance of this trend i n bus-iness w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be r e f l e c t e d by the educational achievements of the population of the study area, which acts as a major labour pool f o r the business d i s t r i c t * The concentration of c u l t u r a l amenities around the area also acts as a magnet f o r that segment of society that i s usually above average i n i t s academic standing, further reinforcing the high educational l e v e l s of the population* WORKING POPULATION % L - — 1=4= H —4 1 1 S T U D Y r A R E A 1 1 O 1 2 3 4 5 6 INCOME x $1,000 Income as a % of working population ADULT POPULATION \ V I 1 or more years ELEMENTARY I STUDY A R E A 1 to 2 years 3 to 5 years HIGH SCHOOL 1 or more years UNIVERSITY •METRO. Academic levels of adult population 37 5? G. DWELLING STATUS OF POPULATION: In the study area, nearly 90% of the dwelling units are rented* This compares with the metropolitan region where 70% of the units are owned* The causes of this dwelling status have been outlined i n the section giving the history of the area (page £ ) * As most of the dwelling units s t i l l owned by the area's residents are e s s e n t i a l l y older houses located towards the centre of the area that have been trapped by the change of the residen-t i a l type over time, these units w i l l soon give way to those of the newer "hig h - r i s e " v a r i e t y as redevelopment continues* Since nearly a l l these newer high density dwellings are owned by groups of people, companies or the very wealthy who l i v e elsewhere, soon the study area should be e n t i r e l y rental accommodation* In the metropolitan region, with the population owning th e i r dwellings, the tendency i s f o r these people to remain at a p a r t i c u l a r address f o r considerable lengths of time* This re-f l e c t s the family status of the region, with i t s c u l t u r a l drive to set down roots and own property* In the study area the maj-o r i t y of the population (57%) l i v e s at one address f o r less than two years, and most o f these people f o r less than one year* There are many factors contributing to t h i s high transiency rate, most of which have been already stated, i . e . , - the removal from the area of newly formed nuclear families - the use of the area by people between jobs i n other parts of the province - the use of the area as a dispersal centre by recent immigrants the movement of people caused by redevelopment - the ease of changing addresses caused by the fac t that most units are rental the inflow o f e l d e r l y with l i m i t e d l i f e spans the use of the area by un i v e r s i t y students - the use of the area by young adults whose housing desires change rapidly with income, the a l t e r a t i o n of personal values, and marital status. It can be expected that t h i s transiency rate w i l l grow slowly up to the time the area i s f u l l y developed. Prom then on, as most of those forces causing transiency w i l l remain, the rate should l e v e l o f f at that higher f i g u r e . The ethnic and r e l i g i o u s backgrounds o f the study area's population are very representative of those found throughout the metropolitan region, and therefore require no comment here other than to note that the study area shows no discrimination with res-pect to these f a c t o r s . I occupied dwellings 100% RENTED OWNED 33 24 20 12 LESS THAN 1 YR. / 1 TO 2 Y R S . / 3 TO 5 /-17 19 22 18 24 RENTED OWNED 30 transiency & dwelling status H. SOCIAL MOBILITY; The problems raised by s o c i a l class tend to be ignored by our society, as t h e o r e t i c a l l y i n a democracy a l l have equal right s * However, recent studies i n thi s f i e l d have pointed out the growing tendency for s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of our society into 7 classes* Classes are formed i n many ways, they may be ethnic, economic, occupational etc* The t e r r i t o r i a l mapping o f s o c i a l class onto the study area shows i t to be exceedingly heterogeneous, encompassing v i r t -u a l l y the en t i r e spectrum of s o c i a l class* Nearly a l l other metropolitan r e s i d e n t i a l neighbourhoods r e f l e c t a homogeneity of s o c i a l class found within t h e i r respective boundaries* The heterogeneity of the study area i s one of the unique features of t h i s area over others. T r a d i t i o n a l l y the metropol-i s has been the 'melting pot* of society, however with s h i f t of the bulk of the national population from r u r a l areas to c i t i e s , the metropolis has structured i t s e l f into r e l a t i v e l y stable areas of population, with the high density areas associated with the urban core as one of the few remaining 'melting pots'* Into this area come the young adults from a l l walks of l i f e , drawn there by the amenity of the area. There they make new s o c i a l contacts and choose th e i r employment, and i n the process e s s e n t i a l l y est-a b l i s h the future directions of t h e i r l i v e s . According to the wisdom of th e i r choices during t h i s r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f interlude of potential s o c i a l m obility, d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of future s o c i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be the outcome. Thus the study area allows for a maximum of p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l interaction (and consequently mobility) between individuals and groups. The opening up i n other parts of the metropolis of high density areas that tend to att r a c t residents of more homogeneous backgrounds, the exclusion of c e r t a i n sections of the population from the study area and the increasingly higher rentals being demanded, should decrease the heterogeneity (and therefore the p o t e n t i a l s o c i a l mobility) of the people i n the study area. None-the-less, the area w i l l probably continue to remain the most heterogeneous area i n the metropolis, and continue to o f f e r t h i s unique feature to the metropolitan society as an amenity. (IV) USE OF STUDY AREA BY THE POPULATION; A. RESIDENTIAL DISTRIBUTION; In response to the basic amenities of the study area, such as view, parks, beaches, commercial location, proximity to the urban core etc., a hierarchy of land values has been established* The l i m i t e d a v a i l a b i l i t y of r e s i d e n t i a l land and the demand placed on t h i s land because of i t s amenity, has resulted i n i t s continual re-zoning for higher d e n s i t i e s over time. Presently the residen-t i a l land i n the area i s the most expensive i n the metropolis, ranging from $600 to $1500/ft, front as against $300 to $600/ft, front i n other areas zoned f o r high density, and $100/ft, front f o r t y p i c a l family r e s i d e n t i a l areas. These values refer to the land only, and do not include the value of buildings. Because of these high values and because i t i s mandatory under existing by-laws to b u i l d multi-storey f i r e p r o o f elevator serviced b u i l d -ings (as opposed to the p o s s i b i l i t y of building 3-storey frame walk-ups i n other high density areas), the cost of bu i l d i n g , i n the study area with respect to volume i s high. These high costs demand the i n t e r i o r break-up of buildings into r e s i d e n t i a l units of small s i z e , as the return i n $ per square foot of these units i s higher. The following table gives sizes of units, t h e i r pro-portional usage i n the study area, the rents obtained and the per sq, f t , return to t h e i r owners. L A N D V A L U E S : per foot frontage $1500 C 3 $900 f J $600 Commercial 15 MINUTE WALK high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R 1^7 Type of unit Size Sq.ft. Proportion i n Area Rents $ Return $/sq.ft./mo. Bachelor 400 25 % $ 80 0.20 1 Bedroom 525 57 % 90 0.18 2 Bedrooms 650 13 % 110 0.17 3* Bedrooms 800 5 % 130 0.16 The f i n a n c i a l incentives to construct small units i s re-f l e c t e d i n the above table, which shows 82% of a l l units unsuit-able f o r children i n as much as they have 1 or less bedrooms. Thus the decision of apartment owners to construct units i n the rat i o s presently available, i s one of the major determinants i n placing l i m i t s on the po t e n t i a l population. The t e r r i t o r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l types was out-l i n e d on page I©. Superimposed on t h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern i s a developing s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n of the study area's population. This i s es p e c i a l l y noticeable i n the newer high r i s e sections. Those buildings presently concentrated towards the urban core are tending to house the lower income young adults (c l e r k s , t y p i s t s , sales personnel etc. and e s p e c i a l l y " o f f i c e " g i r l s ) who are car-less and tend to walk to work. The southern band along the beach park s t r i p tends to cater to the s l i g h t l y more affluent single "men and women-about-town", with a focus being reached f o r t h i s group near the int e r s e c t i o n of Davie with Denman Street towards the south-west corner of the area. The area west of Denman to-\ wards the park tends to house the wealthier but older segments of / f3 the population. These d i s t i n c t i o n s only broadly define t e r r i t -o r i a l l y the mapping of these segments of the population onto the study area, and considerable overlap occurs, however, there are indications that the edges of these sub-areas are hardening. Several apartment blocks west of Denman presently refuse younger unmarried adults on the grounds of t h e i r inherent rowdiness and transiency* There i s a d i s t i n c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the mapping o f the c h i l d population and the newer high-rise areas. There are three major factors that contribute towards such a mapping: (1) Economics (2) Landlords' attitudes (3) S u i t a b i l i t y of habitat f o r ch i l d r e n . The economic factor has already been discussed and needs no f u r t h -er amplification, so taking the remaining two i n order:-(2) Landlords' Attitudes: A telephone survey was c a r r i e d out to ascertain the pre-dominant attitudes of landlords to having children i n the i r apart-ment blocks. Every advertisement i n the major metropolitan d a i l y 8 newspaper f o r rental accommodation i n the study area was answered* Landlords representing the owners of approximately 2,500 suites (1/5 of those i n the area) were polled* A l l t h e i r r e p l i e s were negative as f a r as the allowance of children i n t h e i r suites was concerned, with a small f r a c t i o n of them qu a l i f y i n g t h e i r replies by the age o f children to be accommodated: some would accept 44 90-children under 2 or over 12. However, the majority of responses indicated that t h i s factor was an overwhelming constraint i n lim-i t i n g children i n the area. (3) S u i t a b i l i t y of Habitat: As indicated e a r l i e r i n t h i s section, the majority of units have been aimed primarily at the non-child family or the i n d i v i d u a l . This aim i s also r e f l e c t e d i n t h e i r planning and de-sign, which b a s i c a l l y denies the amenities considered desirable for c h i l d - r e a r i n g . Sound proofing i s often minimal, outdoor public and private spaces are often non-existent or small and often dangerous. The existing zoning i n the study area tends to encourage 'point' developments of high-rise v a r i e t y , t o t a l l y d i s -connected either on the ground plane or three dimensionally one to the next. The stacking of units allows a maximum of in t e r - u n i t privacy but negates Mover-the-fence n neighbourliness often assoc-iated with the suburbs. B a s i c a l l y the structured environment presently existing i n the newer parts of the study area i s a n t i -c h i l d i n concept and design, and i f e x i s t i n g trends continue as seems l i k e l y , a l l children w i l l be eliminated within a very few years. A further survey, using random sampling methods, was per-formed to locate the extent i n the area of those remaining c h i l d -ren. The aggregation of in d i v i d u a l responses defined reasonably c l e a r l y a child-populated area that runs predominantly from the north-west to the south-east, with an e s p e c i a l l y heavy concentra-t i o n i n the l a t t e r corner. This area corresponds d i r e c t l y with that part of the study area that i s predominantly of the residen-t i a l type t y p i f i e d by pre-1930 converted single family dwellings of frame construction. This t e r r i t o r i a l mapping of the various segments of the population i s a d i r e c t r e f l e c t i o n of the forces at work within and around the study area. The basic reasons for t h i s mapping are here summarised: The older population associates i t s e l f in close proximity with the amenity of the park on the west* - The young affluent and more mobile adults associate themselves with the beach-park amenity towards the south. - The young less mobile adults associate themselves i n close proximity with the neighbouring urban core* - The poorer population and the nuclear families associate them-selves with the family type dwellings l e f t i n the area by pre-vious zoning regulations* A l l the population of voluntary standing associate them-selves with the area as a whole because of the close mutual acces s i b i l i t y of people, places and functions that only t h i s high dens i t y area i n conjunction with the urban core can presently provide Once i n the area people tend to be sorted by economics and their i n d i v i d u a l mobility* S O C I A L S T R A T I F I C A T I O N high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R B. MOVEMENT PATTERNS: (1) VEHICLES: The study area i s presently bounded on the north and east by major vehicular l i n k s to the C.B.D. from the outlying residen-t i a l areas* The area also suffers from being a connecting l i n k fo r t r a f f i c between the north shore municipalities and the rest of the metropolitan region. Additionally i t connects the region with the park on the area's western boundary, which i s a heavy t r a f f i c generator* As well as the major l i n k s l i s t e d above, sub-s i d i a r y east-west routes through the area have developed, and these p a r t i c u l a r streets are already saturated during rush hours and drivers are increasingly seeking yet other alternatives with-i n the other intermediate east-west streets i n the area. Con-sequently the area has taken on the appearance of a t r a f f i c ' f i l t e r with t r a f f i c entering at a focus at one end, f i l t e r i n g through the area along the many possible east-west routes, and refocusing at the opposite side. Geographically the study area then acts as a bottleneck and suffers from i t s l o c a t i o n . It has been e s t i -mated that well over 50% of the t r a f f i c i n the area i s not gen-erated l o c a l l y * Being a high density r e s i d e n t i a l area, i t generates a con-siderable volume of l o c a l t r a f f i c * Though the number of cars/ household i s lower than the metropolitan norm (0*4 vs. 0*7), the si z e of the households are smaller (2*1 vs* 3.3 persons), thus the actual number of cars/person i s approximately the same (0,19 4-7 vs* 0*21)* This causes the highest car density i n the metropol-it a n region (6,000 autos per square mile)* The public t r a n s i t system and the servicing of the area by vans, trucks, t a x i s , etc*, only compounds t h i s l o c a l l y generated density. Recent surveys indicate that there i s an average occupancy rate f o r on-street parking of 100% i n large areas of the study area during extended periods of the day, and t h i s i s i n an area where 47% of the land surface i s devoted to vehicular rights-of-way* The following table gives some indicat i o n of the movement pattern generated by vehicles from the area l o c a l l y : Destination 1955 - % of Trips 1976 - % of Trips (Est.) C.B.D. 34% 30% Central area exluding 19% 18% above North Shore 4% 5% Beyond central area 43% 47% 100% 100% In .1955 approximately 35,000 v e h i c l e - t r i p s entered and l e f t the study area d a i l y . To t h i s must be added approximately 20,000 t r a n s i t passenger t r i p s using the Public Transport System* By 1976 the forecasts are f o r a 300% increase i n v e h i c l e - t r i p s and a 175% increase i n t r a n s i t passenger t r i p s * It can be seen that the study area has an accute t r a f f i c problem, that can only be magnified by the swelling o f the present V E H I C U L A R M O V E M E N T high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R 4-e population to the zoned potential of 66,000 persons. (2) PEDESTRIANS t Though precise figures were unavailable, there i s evidence of strong pedestrian movement patterns to and from, and within the study area* There are strong pedestrian l i n k s from the north-east cor-ner of the study area to the immediately adjacent urban core. The extent of t h i s movement diminishes almost proportionately as the distance from the core. Similar 'walk to work' pedestrian patterns are noticeable along the study area's northern boundary, where business o f f i c e s have recently encroached. The young adults l i v i n g towards the southern part of area tend to use pub-l i c t r a n s i t or personal motor vehicles f o r t h e i r journey to work. These same adults however, es p e c i a l l y during f i n e weather, form strong pedestrian l i n k s to the beach park s t r i p along the southern boundary of the study area. The e l d e r l y along the western edge use that bordering section of the park extensively, creating a strong pedestrian east-west pattern across that boundary. The children in the area use the south-east part of beach park s t r i p and also move through the i n t e r i o r of the area to the two small neighbourhood parks and the several schools. Pedestrian shop-ping patterns indicate that residents tend to associate with t h e i r nearest l o c a l commercial centres f o r t h e i r day to day shopping re-quirements, using v e h i c l e t r i p s to the urban core for t h e i r spec-i a l i s e d shopping needs. P E D E S T R I A N M O V E M E N T to work or leisure IS MINUTE WALK high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R 4*1 -. i (3) VEHICULAR-PEDESTRIAN CONFLICTS ; The subdivision of the study area into islands of r e s i -dences surrounded by an incessant flow of t r a f f i c submits the population of the area to constant vehicular-pedestrian c o n f l i c t s , slowing the t r a f f i c and endangering the pedestrian. It has been shown that pedestrians are the main victims of these c o n f l i c t s , approximately 4 pedestrians to every 1 car occupant being the present f a t a l i t y r a t i o . The p a r t i c u l a r sub-sets of the popula-ti o n that come under maximum danger are the e l d e r l y (due to i n -f i r m i t y ) and children (due to t h e i r lack of t r a f f i c sense). Presently children must cross a checkerboard of heavily used t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s on t h e i r d a i l y pedestrian routes to schools, parks, beaches etc., t h e i r morning t r i p being e s p e c i a l l y danger-ous as i t coincides with the rush hour period. The e l d e r l y have s l i g h t l y less of a problem as the entire f i r s t block east of the park borders d i r e c t l y onto i t , involving no crossing of s t r e e t s , however, the f i r s t street i n p a r a l l e l to the park has become a major thoroughfare, endangering those l i v i n g to the east of i t . The perimeter t r a f f i c i n the park i t s e l f , though l i m i t e d i n speed, makes up for t h i s i n volume as i t i s regional i n nature, and con-sequently draws on a large population who journey there by car, further endangering the l o c a l population. (4) OTHER CONFLICTS CAUSED BY VEHICLES I As well as pedestrian-vehicular c o n f l i c t s , the large v o l -ume of t r a f f i c also produces other harmful side effects such as noise, smell and a i r p o l l u t i o n . The f i l t e r i n g of t r a f f i c through the area causes the t o t a l area to be a f f l i c t e d . high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R C. USE OF AMENITIES AND FACILITIES; <' (1) CHILD FACILITIES: The school f a c i l i t i e s q u a n t i t a t i v e l y are more than ade-quate f o r the declining school aged population. Of the parents with children interviewed i n the area a majority expressed the notion that the schooling was of poor quality and that they d i d not wish their own children to mix with "others" i n the area. This factor was a major one i n the decision of parents to re-locate outside the area. An interview with a public relations o f f i c e r from the school board indicated that the older schools lacked the more ad-vanced in t e r n a l f a c i l i t i e s now advocated i n school buildings, thus though adequate i n s i z e , they f a l l short of the present day c r i t e r i a as a place of learning. The doubling up of some of these school f a c i l i t i e s as adult educational centres i n the even-ing has also compromised t h e i r function. The d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern of children indicates that, with few exceptions, a very large percentage of children l i v e more than the % mile maximum standard accepted distance from t h e i r schools. This i s aggravated by the fact that the usual t r i p to school involves the crossing of very heavy t r a f f i c . Another l e s -ser aggravation i s the fact that the child-populated south-eastern part of the study area l i e s on steep slope, involving the children i n that area with a considerable climb to t h e i r schools. It can be seen then that presently, with one exception (the new school towards the west), the school building f a c i l i t i e s are inadequate, backing up the parents' own conclusion of poor schooling services. The locations o f the schools do not r e f l e c t the d i s t r i b u t i o n patterns of children and the play f a c i l i t i e s are minimal. Both the c h i l d 'community' f a c i l i t i e s are small, o l d and located on the fringes of the child-populated areas, thus suffer s i m i l a r functional and i o c a t i o n a l disadvantages with the schools. However, they are well used i n spite o f this f a c t , pointing out the need for t h i s type of f a c i l i t y i n the area. The two small neighbourhood parks within the area are well used i n sp i t e of t h e i r encirclement by t r a f f i c , t h i s usage i s a r e f l e c t i o n i n part of t h e i r central location with respect to the c h i l d populated area. However, the vast bulk of the children l i e outside the range of these parks and hav£ l i t t l e access i n safety to natural settings. Both Stanley Park to the west and the beach-park s t r i p l i e mostly beyond the accepted ranges of c h i l d mobility, and are regional i n nature rather than of the neighbourhood v a r i e t y . The presence of children towards the south-eastern end of the beach-park s t r i p i s r e f l e c t e d by some playing f i e l d s located there, however, these f a c i l i t i e s are shared by adults and to reach them requires the crossing of a major t r a f f i c artery. This p a r t i c u l a r segment o f the park i s also bisected by a boat-launching f a c i l i t y , which involves the i n t r i c a t e manoeuvering of cars with t r a i l e r s , thus p a r t l y negat-ing i t as a 'safe' area for younger children, who none the less use i t frequently. It can be seen then, that with the changeover i n the area from the family to the individual as a unit of population, the needs of the children i n the area are increasingly being relegated to the background* In spite of, or possibly because of, th i s tendency to form the children into a minority group, the children i n the study area show indications of high s o c i a l adjustment i f this be r e f l e c t e d by t h e i r educational achievements and their low rate of juvenile delinquency. An interview with the Youth Pro-gram O f f i c e r of the Vancouver Police Force indicated that the juvenile crime rate i n the area was no higher than elsewhere, and that most of these crimes are committed by youths l i v i n g outside the area. C H I L D R E N & S C H O O L S high density residential study W E S T E N D of V A N C O U V E R (2) ADULT FACILITIES: As previously pointed out, the younger adult segment of the population i s roughly divided into two groups according to i n d i v i d u a l mobility, and that t h e i r r e s i d e n t i a l location r e f l e c t s t h i s . The less mobile young adults are often r e l a t i v e newcomers to the area, and t h e i r non-use of f a c i l i t i e s not e a s i l y accessible because of distance, i s a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r lack of mobility, which i n turn r e f l e c t s t h e i r economic status* Consequently th i s group makes heavy use of the immediate f a c i l i t i e s o f the area and the adjacent urban core, where they probably also work. These nearby f a c i l i t i e s include a l l of those 'natural 1 amenities already l i s t e d i n the area, plus the agglomeration of recreational and c u l t u r a l amenities conveniently located j u s t outside the area* As the majority of t h i s group i s female, th e i r use of amenities further a f i e l d i s mainly a function of the a v a i l a b i l i t y of friends of increased mobility, who can include them i n th e i r plans* The more mobile younger adults, besides using the l o c a l and near l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s , extend t h e i r range further beyond the l o c a l i t y to the region surrounding i t , where there are a wealth of recreational f a c i l i t i e s , mainly the 'open a i r ' v a r i e t y . These include s k i i n g , boating, sxvimming, camping, g o l f i n g , hiking, ten-n i s , etc., some of which are also available l o c a l l y to a more lim i t e d extent. Though possibly the majority of these adults use the neighbouring C.B.D. as a work f a c i l i t y , many of them are drawn s p e c i f i c a l l y to the area by the l i f e - s t y l e i t generates, and work beyond the central d i s t r i c t , as t h e i r mobility allows t h i s . 55 (3) ELDERLY FACILITIES: The e l d e r l y may be approximately divided into three cate-gories:-A) Those unlimited i n movement B) Those l i m i t e d i n movement C) Those needing care. Category (A) use many of the f a c i l i t i e s used by young adults, e s p e c i a l l y the open a i r v a r i e t i e s . They use the adjoining urban core ' n i g h t - l i f e * f a c i l i t i e s less than younger adults, and the f a c i l i t i e s they do use tend to be of the more sedentary and pas-sive v a r i e t y , such as theatres, restaurants, l i b r a r y , art g a l l e r -i e s , etc. The edge o f the park bordering onto the western bound-ary of the study area includes many f a c i l i t i e s d i r e c t l y catering to the e l d e r l y . There are bowling greens, putting courses, p i t c h and putt courses, 'man-sized' checker-boards and many con-venient benches and pleasant walks through both natural settings and botanical gardens to beaches, playing f i e l d s , zoological gardens etc. On f i n e days these amenities are used extensively by e l d e r l y of both categories (A) and (B), th e i r range and part-i c i p a t i o n being only li m i t e d by t h e i r mobility. Though there are a few rest homes i n the study area, the increasing cost of the land i n thi s areaplus the opening up of other higher density areas elsewhere i s tending to remove those e l d e r l y i n category (C) from the area. Those that remain are usually so immobile that t h e i r particpation i n any a c t i v i t y tends to be completely passive and of the v i s u a l type. They may be seen s i t t i n g i n or near t h e i r homes, enjoying v i c a r i o u s l y the a c t i v i t i e s of those more active than themselves. (D) LIFE STYLES: Throughout the preceding pages the l i f e - s t y l e s of the various segments of the population of the study area have been hinted at. A reading of "Appendix A" w i l l further delineate the f i n e r d e t a i l s of these a t t r i b u t e s , which are now here summarised. The predominantly most noticeable l i f e - s t y l e i s that generated by the younger adults. This group represents approx-imately 30% of the population. Their values place importance on mobility, both physical and s o c i a l . This group exudes youth, v i t a l i t y and glamour and places much importance on the portable types of material wealth, such as cars, stereos, T.V., fashions etc. Their ideals may often represent those currently i n vogue, and they are attracted to the area by the amenities, the a v a i l -a b i l i t y of employment nearby, the aura of glamour, the freedom of ideas that pervade, the 'newness' of the area and by the i n t e r -actional p o s s i b i l i t i e s in the s o c i a l l i f e that are maximised i n the area by high d e n s i t i e s . They are seeking freedom from pre-vious d i s c i p l i n e s and are attempting to f i n d t h e i r i d e n t i t y and place i n l i f e . The time l i m i t placed on this period of l i f e by society only further reinforces the pace at which these young adults l i v e , f o r during this period t h i s segment of society must attempt to reconcile previously taught rules, morals and know-ledge with the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e as they see them; they must also make the two major decisions of t h e i r l i v e s , those of choos-ing a mate and a career. This group then tends to work and play hard; be ambit-ious, optimistic and questioning i n t h e i r attitude to l i f e . The l i f e - s t y l e they generate i s epitomised by the search f o r freedom and mobility i n a l l i t s aspects. The next most noticeable l i f e - s t y l e i s that generated by the e l d e r l y . During the week days, when most of the young adults have l e f t the area for work i n the neighbouring business sections, the high percentage of e l d e r l y becomes apparent. Approximately 37% of the population i s over 55 years of age. Their use of amen i t i e s previously examined tends to r e f l e c t their l i f e - s t y l e , which i n contrast with the young adults, i s e s s e n t i a l l y less active. Their values are usually t r a d i t i o n a l and they often express be-musement or bewilderment at the values of the younger generations. However, they often a c t i v e l y seek v i s u a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the events of those younger than them and intr o s p e c t i v e l y enjoy t h e i r antics, i f even on a c r i t i c a l l e v e l . Their pace i s usually ped-estrian i n keeping with the mobility, and th e i r range of contacts i s usually l i m i t e d to a r e l a t i v e l y small group within a small area. This group i s also i n a c e r t a i n sense seeking a new iden-t i t y i n society, as i t has been caught up i n a changing period where there i s a s h i f t i n g of the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the care of o l d people from the family to society. The family has a l l but given them up whereas society has yet to be f u l l y aware of i t s new r o l e . <1 This group has a l i f e time of work behind them, and they have been drawn into the area mainly by the close proximity of the va r i e t y of amenities that w i l l enable them to f i l l out the remainder of t h e i r l i v e s i n a manner in keeping with t h e i r de-creasing mobility and the i r enjoyment of relaxation, a l l the while being kept i n contact with the new forces being generated by younger parts of society. It must be remembered that t h i s group i s not a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l category of stereotypes with d e f i n i t e problems, since within t h i s group may be contained as many as three generations of individuals with great d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s . Consequently the l i f e - s t y l e s they generate vary considerably, from those highly active to those r e l a t i v e l y passive, each cate-gory being further moulded by other multiple vari a b l e s . Generally speaking though, t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any given l i f e - s t y l e i s a function of t h e i r p o t e n t i a l mobility. Whereas i n suburbia the children tend to form their own stratum of society with a reasonably d i s t i n c t sub-culture, i n the study area the children must e s s e n t i a l l y f i t into the adult world. Their lack of numbers makes them an e a s i l y 'policed* minority group, and the i r constant contact with the population older than them tends to make them have a more adult oriented viewpoint of society. This i s esp e c i a l l y noticeable i n the teenagers who seem to have a maturer outlook on l i f e than do t h e i r metropolitan counterparts. The high proportion of l a t e and j u s t past-teenage younger working adults leaves no d i s t i n c t gap between them and the next age group as i s usually found i n suburbia, consequently the breakdown i n communication between generations i s held to a minimum. I f anything, there i s a tendency to emulate their close-elders and to begin to reach for the standards of that age group. The benefits of a higher education are more apparent to them as they are i n close contact with a more educated adult population, and can tangibly see the rewards of such an education. The forces i n the study area that tend to exclude children also tend to divide t h i s group into two categories: the very young children and the teenagers. This i s r e f l e c t e d i n the pop-ulation pyramid which shows the d i s t i n c t lack of children i n the 5 to 15 years age group; the reasons f o r this lack have been pre-vio u s l y documented (see page-V3), The very young children cannot be sai d to generate a l i f e - s t y l e e n t i r e l y independent o f t h e i r parents, though t h e i r physical and psychosocial needs of play, learning, etc. must be met. Generally speaking, these younger children form th e i r s o c i a l contacts i n a defined area c l o s e l y supervised by th e i r elders, as their mobility i s l i m i t e d by age and experience. The teenagers, as has., been pointed out, tend to become quickly independent and e s s e n t i a l l y f i t themselves into the lower echelons of the young adult s t y l e - o f - l i f e previously outlined, and though i n t h e i r early teens they tend to form groups for i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , the duration of these groups i s very l i m i t e d . The l i f e - s t y l e s j u st outlined have been b a s i c a l l y generat-ed around age-groupings, as this factor i s a common denominator Ql shared by the entire population, from which some macro-level generalisations may be readily formed. However, i t must be remembered that, entwined i n amongst the s o c i a l structure formed by these macro-level generalisations, micro-levels of increasingly complex and s p e c i a l i s e d l i f e - s t y l e s are generated, defined more by personal than by group values. Thus within the constraints of a general l i f e - s t y l e f o r a c e r t a i n age group, yet further lower l e v e l constraints w i l l define the l i f e - s t y l e s of sub-groups such as, f o r instance, homosexuals, air-stewardesses or hippies. The very nature of the area as a residence f o r the 'individuals* of our society, makes further subdivisions of l i f e - s t y l e s increas-i n g l y d i f f i c u l t , i f not v i r t u a l l y impossible, as more variables are introduced. Carried to i t s l o g i c a l conclusion, each person generates a p a r t i c u l a r l i f e - s t y l e d i f f e r e n t from the next. Consequently the l i f e - s t y l e s o utlined i n t h i s stud)' are both broad enough i n scope to include the entire population, yet s u f f i c i e n t l y sub-divided to point out the major form-generating differences of the various segments of the population, such that a workable system for structuring the environment and i t s people w i l l r e s u l t , that should s a t i s f y the basic needs at a l l l e v e l s of the population. L-i (V) SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: It can be seen that i f the ex i s t i n g trends of s o c i a l and physical development i n the study area continue, many of the fact ors that contribute to the uniqueness of the area w i l l be irrevoc ably l o s t . The q u a l i t i e s of d i v e r s i t y and heterogeneity i n the population w i l l be lessened by the exclusion of c e r t a i n segments of society; the remaining population, now presently reasonably well integrated across s o c i a l , economic, education and age group-ings, w i l l segregate i t s e l f into two b a s i c a l l y d i s t i n c t groups with l i t t l e or no intercommunication; the t r a f f i c w i l l increas-i n g l y strangle the area, p o l l u t i n g the a i r , saturating i t with noise, endangering the pedestrian population and e f f e c t i v e l y i s o l ating islands of r e s i d e n t i a l units and the people i n them from each other and from the many f a c i l i t i e s and amenities within and flanking the area. The study area would then become p h y s i c a l l y discontinuous, more homogeneous i n i t s population, no longer re-f l e c t i n g the urbane and cosmopolitan l i f e - s t y l e that epitomises a major metropolis. The study area i n effect would become another •specialised* suburb. With the advancing levels of education, the growth of le i s u r e time, the general r i s e i n affluence and the increase i n physical mobility, nearly a l l l e v e l s of our society are becoming more aware of the need f o r ease of access to c u l t u r a l and recreat ional amenities. This growing awareness i s manifesting i t s e l f very noticeably i n the suburbs where 'community1 centres are ex-panding th e i r scope to include c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s such as theatres and g a l l e r i e s , c h i l d and adult l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s such as play-grounds, skating rinks and swimming pools, and educational f a c i l i t -ies i n the form o f 'extension* programmes and c r a f t classes. Un-fortunately many f a c i l i t i e s are such that they need a large popul-ation to support them, and the suburban r e s i d e n t i a l densities w i l l not usually provide t h i s support. These types of f a c i l i t i e s have therefore tended to locate i n or near the urban core, where the surrounding high density population, i n conjunction with the regional drawing power of the metropolitan centre, has been able to provide t h i s necessary support. The mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y of these p a r t i c u l a r amenities from the high density areas close to the urban core, helps define a l i f e s t y l e a t t r a c t i v e to many from a l l walks and a l l segments of society, thus any forces that l i m i t the choice of r e s i d e n t i a l location of p a r t i c u l a r groups i n the population, are contrary to the s o c i a l values of that population. This being the case, every e f f o r t should be made to enable each part of the metropolitan population to sel e c t i t s own p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l l ocation on a voluntary and non-exclusive basis. The major s e l e c t i v e force for the population of the study area i s economics. The type of buildings presently being construc-ted there i s a r e f l e c t i o n of thi s force, and the attitude of the landlords i s again a r e f l e c t i o n of the fac t that these buildings are e s s e n t i a l l y u n f i t f o r children, who supposedly are a nuisance f a c t o r . That children are a nuisance i s not an inherent quality of children, but rather that the type and q u a l i t y of construction i s such that the buildings do not cater to children, who i n con-sequence create a nuisance i n t h e i r attempt to adapt the adult environment to t h e i r l e v e l of l i v i n g . Family environments of r e l a t i v e l y high density have been b u i l t successfully the world over. The problem returns to economics. I f the f i n a n c i a l returns on private c a p i t a l are to be the only c r i t e r i a on which to b u i l d high density environments close to the urban core, then those that are unable to meet the high rents must inevitably be removed from the area. Many sociol o g i s t s note that a society r e s t r i c t e d i n i t s representative age groupings exhibits socio-pathological tendencies, and that therefore any d i s c o n t i n u i t i e s i n the age spectrum are undesirable. The gulf between generations i s l e f t unbridged, causing d i f f e r e n t groupings to become intolerant of each other. This i s true for any groupings that are i s o l a t e d over time i n an area. A healthy society, as well as having i t s basic needs met at every l e v e l , must allow a continuity of repres-entation i n i t s age groupings. Surveys have indicated that the e l d e r l y desire the association of age groups younger than them, II and e s p e c i a l l y the children's group. Responses from interviews in the study area showed that at nearly a l l l e v e l s of the popula-ti o n , children were considered to be desirable, though most people thought that the areaas i t now i s , was unsuitable f o r them. As the suburbs sprawl forever outwards from the metropol-i t a n centre, i t s economies as a r e s i d e n t i a l environment are becom-ing more suspect. Valuable food producing farm lands are encroach-ed upon, sewers, roads, schools and other necessary services are spread over wide areas involving large expenditures. Routes of communication to the metropolitan centres must be enlarged or new ones added. Many of these suburbs are already being supported i n part by the taxes of those l i v i n g in the high density areas. From the residents* viewpoint, the supposed economies of suburbia often 11 f a i l to m a t e r i a l i s e . A recent survey of suburbanites showed that most of them gave ' f i n a n c i a l circumstances' as a primary factor i n t h e i r choice of r e s i d e n t i a l location, and of those l i v -ing i n the lower value areas, over 80% sa i d they did not p a r t i c -u l a r l y want to l i v e i n the suburbs. With the a b i l i t y now for a family to pre-plan the timing and number of i t s children, more families are remaining c h i l d l e s s for extended periods of time, and yet other families are l i m i t i n g the number of t h e i r c h i l d r e n . With the resultant decreasing s i z e of these nuclear f a m i l i e s , smaller r e s i d e n t i a l units are possible, bringing the family closer to the unit area l i m i t s set by specul-ators for viable economic returns on t h e i r building investments. Condominium or co-operative b u i l d i n g , zoning l e g i s l a t i o n , allowing people to invest i n a volume i n space rather than an area or land, has already proved successful in many c i t i e s throughout the world. I f some of the 'pioneer' economic incentives of 'new home' bonuses and extended length low interest government backed mortgages were applied to high density areas as well as the sub-urbs, i t would become yet more economically f e a s i b l e to r e i n t r o -duce some family l i v i n g to the high density area. The renovation of older residential buildings towards the centre of c i t i e s into town houses, and their subsequent success-f u l occupation by f a m i l i e s , points out the need and the f e a s i b i l -i t y of family l i v i n g i n such areas. There i s nothing inherently wrong i n rearing children i n high density areas, i t i s only that most exis t i n g areas of t h i s nature are conceived i n an a n t i - c h i l d framework. In view of the forces just outlined, t h i s project w i l l therefore attempt to develop a r e s i d e n t i a l system that can house successfully a cross section of the population, such that a l l groupings are adequately represented. This system w i l l do t h i s at high densities yet s t i l l meet the basic needs of the population at a l l l e v e l s . A HIGH DENSITY RESIDENTIAL SYSTEM DEVELOPED. A) Introduction: Using the information gathered on the preceding pages about the population of the West End study area as a model, the form giving forces generated by such an area and i t s people w i l l be used to develop a r e s i d e n t i a l system that w i l l better r e f l e c t and reinforce the l i f e s t y l e of that p a r t i c u l a r segment of our society that chooses to l i v e i n high density environments close-l y associated with the urban core. This system w i l l be evolved in a 'model' abstract area that w i l l be b u i l t up to exhibit c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and con-st r a i n t s common to many North American metropoli. B) The Model Abstract Area, In order to proceed with the project, some reasonable assumptions concerning the future of the urban core are i n t r o -duced, these are: 1. The urban core w i l l continue to e x i s t , housing the major business, r e t a i l , recreational and c u l t u r a l amenities and f a c i l i t i e s of the metropolis. 2, The urban core's change and growth trends are presently detectable and w i l l continue approximately i n these d i r e c -tions, 3. The urban core's location i n the context of the c i t y w i l l remain reasonably s t a t i c , 4 , The urban core w i l l continue to require physical avenues of regional access from the surrounding metropolis«. P R E L I M A R Y A S S U M P T I O N S w Some i n i t i a l constants may no/ be stated for the •model' abstract area, these are: 1. The location of the urban core. 2. The urban core's pattern of change. 3. The model's relationship to the urban core. 4 . The model's rela t i o n s h i p to the urban core's avenues of access. 5. The model's rela t i o n s h i p to existing high density residen» t i a l areas. These constants w i l l locate the projected 'model' abstract area. I N I T I A L M O D E L C O N S T A N T S An area may now be chosen f o r the abstract project model: It w i l l fringe on the urban core. It w i l l be between two avenues of access to the urban core from surrounding areas a « Tt w i l l border on existing high density r e s i d e n t i a l areas. An enlargement o f the model area as i t presently exists w i l l show that: 1. Between 25% and 50% of the t r a f f i c i n the area i s not generated l o c a l l y . 2. The area acts as a t r a f f i c f i l t e r between adjoining areas. 3. The vehicular movement system e f f e c t i v e l y disects the t o t a l area into many sub-areas. 4. The vehicular movement system occupies between 33% and 50% of the ground plane. 5. The many 2-dimensional vehicular movement system intersec-tions present many potential t r a f f i c c o n f l i c t s . 6. The 2-dimensional vehicular movement system on the ground plane maximises vehicular«»pedestrian c o n f l i c t s . 7. Vehicular noise and fumes permeate the entire area. URBAN CORE In response to the sub-problems generated by the e x i s t -ing vehicular movement system superimposed on the project area, a goal i s established: "The elimination from the model area of non-locally generated vehicular movement". Implementation of this goal would e n t a i l : 1, Enlargement of the urban core's avenues of access to take into account both present and expected future demands, 2, Establishment of a c o l l e c t o r (or ring) road outside the project to take into account both present and expected future demands for vehicular movement across the model area, 3, Establishment of a l o c a l t r a f f i c artery (or a r t e r i e s ) i n a suitable location across the model area to serve expected l o c a l vehicular movement demands. This would result immediately i n : 1, A reduction of t r a f f i c i n the area, 2, The non-use o f the area as a t r a f f i c f i l t e r between adjoin-ing areas, 3, A more complete u n i f i c a t i o n of the area. 4, Less use of land as vehicular rights-of-way, 5, Less potential t r a f f i c c o n f l i c t s . 6, Less potential vehicular-pedestrian c o n f l i c t s , 7, Less t r a f f i c noise and fumes i n the area. These results w i l l d i r e c t l y combat the 7 sub-problems generated on the preceding page. URBAN CORE In order to determine the scale of the movement sys-tems located i n the model area with respect to the context of the model area i n the region, a hierarchy of movement patterns i s established. From the Intercontinental pattern with i t s scale of thousands of miles and t r a v e l l i n g time i n units of 'days', to the Pedestrian pattern with i t s scale of hundreds of yards and •minutes', each movement pattern i s a subset of the one preceding i t , the aggregate forming a t o t a l set of a l l movement patterns. The pattern 'linkages', where d i f f e r e n t subsets of patterns overlap, are examined and some current physical mani-festations of these linkages are shown. Each linkage i s there-fore viewed as a problem involving a change i n scale from one movement pattern to another a I N T E R C O N T I N E N T A L media: air and sea scale- miles x 1000 I N T E R R E G I O N A L media: air and land scale - miles x 100 INTER M E T R O P O L I T A N media: air and land scale- miles x 10 METROPOLITAN PRIMARY media: land scale- miles x i METROPOLITAN DISTRIBUTORY media: land scale- blocks PEDESTRIAN media: land scale - yards x too international airports ports regional airports railway terminals bus depots highway interchanges local airports heliports stations highway interchanges interchanges cross roads subway stops bus transfer points subway stops bus stops parking lots pedestrian crossings M O V E M E N T P A T T E R N S L I N K A G E S The movement p a t t e r n s and t h e i r l i n k a g e s are now sum-marised and i d e n t i f i e d f o r t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p r o j e c t , thus the s c a l e o f the model ar e a i s e s t a b l i s h e d with r e s p e c t to these c o n s t r a i n t s * Having fi x e d both the location o f the model area i n i t s metropolitan setting and the scale of the movement patterns within i t , the actual s i z e of the area must now be determined, A prime reason given for the choice of l i v i n g i n a high-density area i s the potential f o r s o c i a l contact. Since the basic scale of movement in the model area i s pedestrian, since t h i s p a r t i c u l a r movement pattern i s common to the whole population and since i t i s at thi s scale that human contact i s primarily made, i t was decided to l e t the pedestrian movement pattern generate the siz e of the model area. The examination of the study area showed that i t s residents tended to associate themselves with the nearest con-venient r e t a i l centre i n t h e i r day-to-day necessity shopping habits. It also showed, that within definable sub-sections of the t o t a l study area, the pedestrian movement pattern described to these centres was a common denominator across the population spectrum. Since distances over a 2 to 3 minute walk to a nec-essity are generally replaced by the use of a car and the sub-sequent change i n scale of movement pattern, i t was decided to l i m i t the model to an area bounded by a radius equivalent to a 2^ 5 minute adult walk. An area so described w i l l be approximately 25 acres, or 1000 f t , square. The model area may now be s t a t e d i n terms o f : I t s l o c a t i o n i n the m e t r o p o l i t a n s e t t i n g , - I t s movement p a t t e r n s and t h e i r l i n k a g e s . I t s approximate p h y s i c a l a r e a . From t h i s statement the i n t e r - g r i d movement p a t t e r n c o n f l i c t s can be s p e c i f i e d : P e d e s t r i a n v s . M e t r o p o l i t a n d i s t r i b u t o r y - P e d e s t r i a n v s . M e t r o p o l i t a n Primary M e t r o p o l i t a n Primary v s . M e t r o p o l i t a n D i s t r i b u t o r y , URBAN CORE P E D E S T R I A N METROPOLITAN * 2 5 a c r e s z < o a. O oc I I INTER-GRID MOVEMENT PATTERN CONFLICTS Two further goals are now established for the project with respect to i n t e r - g r i d movement pattern c o n f l i c t s , these are 1, C o n f l i c t s between pedestrians and vehicles w i l l be minimised 2. C o n f l i c t s between l o c a l (Metropolitan D i s t r i b u t o r ) and through (Metropolitan Primary) t r a f f i c w i l l be minimised. The solutions to both the sub-problems generated by these goals involved e i t h e r : A, Separation of movement patterns by TIME, or B, Separation of movement patterns by SPACE, As (A) results i n a 2-dimensional solution causing intermittent flows on a l l movement patterns i n c o n f l i c t , (B) was chosen as i t results i n a 3-dimensional solution allowing continuous flows on a l l movement patterns and also an un-ambiguous safety between movement patterns. C O N F L I C T S PEDESTRIANS vs. VEHICLES LOCAL vs. THROUGH TRAFFIC S O L U T I O N S The decision to solve the i n t e r - g r i d movement pattern c o n f l i c t s by a separation of movement patterns i n space neces s i t a t e d an examination of the requirements of in t e r s e c t i o n s . The basic requirements of an intersection are that a p a r t i c u l a r vehicle a r r i v i n g from any dire c t i o n should be able continue through, turn right or l e f t continuously - without c o n f l i c t with respect to other vehicles with a minimum of lane changing - with a minimum reduction i n speed - l o g i c a l l y with respect to intended d i r e c t i o n beyond the in t e r s e c t i o n . requirements at an intersection In response to these requirements of an int e r s e c t i o n , some ' c l a s s i c * solutions were examined with respect to the con-f l i c t s d i c t a t e d by each solution and the respective areas involv ed by these solutions. The Japanese "basket weave" provided the desired combina tion of minimum of c o n f l i c t , l o gic with respect to intended d i r -ection beyond the intersection and area i n i t s sol u t i o n . 2 - D MULTI-CONFLICT 2 - D LESS CONFLICT JAPANESE BASKET WEAVE NO CONFLICT-UNAMBIGUOUS AREA = g 3 - D CLASSIC CLOVERLEAF NO CONFLICT-AMBIGUOUS LARGE AREA The c l a s s i c s o l u t i o n s examined were f o r i n t e r s e c t i o n s o f equal t r a f f i c v a l u e s , thus u s i n g the Japanese system as a b a s i c model, a s o l u t i o n was e v o l v e d more s u i t e d to an i n t e r -s e c t i o n o f unequal v a l u e s , i n v o l v i n g higher speed and volume through t r a f f i c ( M e t r o p o l i t a n Primary) with lower speed and volume l o c a l t r a f f i c ( M e t r o p o l i t a n D i s t r i b u t o r y ) • T h i s s o l u -t i o n , which i s t r i - l e v e l , was a p p l i e d to the v e h i c u l a r movement p a t t e r n i n t e r s e c t i o n s i n the model area* An examination of the d u r a b i l i t y of the various phys-i c a l structures that aggregate to give form to the c i t y showed that a reasonably d i s t i n c t hierarchy of permanence for these structures can be defined* For convenience th i s hierarchy i s broken down into 3 major components, which i n r e a l i t y show considerable overlap: 1. Public f a c i l i t i e s 2. I n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s 3. Private f a c i l i t i e s Public f a c i l i t i e s (roads, bridges, parks, e t c . ) , once assigned a location i n space, tend to become f o c i around which other f a c i l i t i e s lower in the hierarchy of permanence relate to thus reinforcing t h e i r permanence. Thus the various locations of f a c i l i t i e s used i n thi s project w i l l r e f l e c t this hierarchy, such that any change i n the model area over time w i l l not cause c o n f l i c t s between the levels of permanence outlined. For example, private f a c i l i t i e s such as housing would be so placed and constructed to allow for both change and growth away from, rather than i n towards, public f a c i l i t i e s . 16 Combining the concept o f permanence with the s o l u t i o n s evolved f o r the e l i m i n a t i o n o f i n t e r - g r i d movement p a t t e r n con-f l i c t s , the model area may now begin to be s t r u c t u r e d p h y s i c a l l y . - The M e t r o p o l i t a n Primary g r i d , r e p r e s e n t i n g an e x i s t i n g move-ment p a t t e r n with a l a r g e v e s t e d i n t e r e s t i n space and h i g h i n the h i e r a r c h y o f permanence to which many oth e r lower l e v e l f a c i l i t i e s have a l r e a d y r e l a t e d , w i l l be l e f t a t i t s e x i s t i n g s u r f a c e l e v e l . - The M e t r o p o l i t a n D i s t r i b u t o r y g r i d , r epresents a new p a t t e r n as evolved e a r l i e r i n t h i s p r o j e c t . S i n c e i t s v e h i c u l a r movement c a p a c i t y i s d i r e c t l y a f u n c t i o n o f the expected use o f the area and t h e r e f o r e p r e d i c t a b l e and reasonably c o n s t a n t , i t may be o f a predetermined s i z e . I t w i l l be p l a c e d across the model area below grade i n order to l i n k i t s u c c e s s f u l l y with the M e t r o p o l i t a n Primary g r i d , using the i n t e r s e c t i o n e v o l v e d from the Japanese system, thus e l i m i n a t i n g c o n f l i c t s between l o c a l and through t r a f f i c . T h i s w i l l a l s o enable the t o t a l a r e a between the M e t r o p o l i t a n Primary g r i d s to be r e -served s o l e l y f o r p e d e s t r i a n use, thus e l i m i n a t i n g the pedes-t r i a n v s . l o c a l v e h i c u l a r t r a f f i c c o n f l i c t s . Overpasses (or underpasses) as r e q u i r e d w i l l be needed to span the M e t r o p o l i t a n Primary g r i d s i n order t o connect the model area to i t s l a t e r a l neighbours. - P e d e s t r i a n access towards and away from the urban core w i l l be unimpeded u s i n g t h i s s o l u t i o n . METHOD for elimination of CONFLICTS IT? Having evolved a basic physical structure for the model area, the expected population that w i l l use the area must now be extrapolated* It was seen (V - Summary and Conclusion of the examina-tion of the study area) that i f some of the ex i s t i n g trends of s o c i a l and physical development i n the study area are allowed to continue, the area would lose many of the q u a l i t i e s of d i v e r s i t y and heterogeneity that presently make i t unique. It was also shown that the study area excludes certain segments of society that would, given the correct environment, choose to l i v e i n a high density area associated with an urban core. It was further shown that there are currently other forces at work that are tending to a t t r a c t a more heterogeneous cross-section of society to the study area provided that suitable accommodation i s a v a i l -able. In view of these converging determinants i t was decided to create a r e s i d e n t i a l environment i n the model area that would cater to the broad spectrum of the population such that a l l age groupings w i l l remain represented, providing a continuity of age s t r a t i f i c a t i o n throughout the population. At t h i s point the age groupings may therefore be stated for the residents desired i n the model area. I f the metropolitan average represents the norm and the study area represents group-ings that are tending to an extreme, a projected population be-tween these two poles w i l l have the desired effect of 'normalis-ing' the age groupings, while at the same time r e f l e c t i n g the the forces presently generated by the high density area. It should be noted here that this method of selecting a population may not be v a l i d for other similar areas i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s , where the population already existing exhibits factors not common to the area studied in Vancouver, However, as this p a r t i c u l a r method s u f f i c e d f o r the model area where i t re-grouped the pop-ulation into the desired categories, i t was chosen for i t s simp-l i c i t y of ap p l i c a t i o n . To reduce the projected population of the model area from percentages to absolute figures i t i s necessary to consider the population density to be used in the project, DENSITY FACTORS: Under existing technology, the high-density r e s i d e n t i a l areas around the periphery of the urban core tend to house pop-ulation densities of the order of 200 to 300 persons/net acre l o t , when developed f u l l y . For example: Boston 200 p/n,a,l Philadelphia 200 » Toronto 250 Milwaukee 300 *» Seattle 260 » Winnipeg 220 *» Los Angeles 250 *» Edmonton 210 •» Sacramento 350 »,» Many agencies suggest maximum desirable densities of the order of 300 p,/n,a,l. For example: Harvard Research Team U.S. Public Health U.K. Planning authorities C.M.H.C. (1960) 200 p./n.a.l 325 » 240 » 300 •! Existing developments being b u i l t at 300 p./n.a.l, seem to be economically v i a b l e , otherwise building construction would have halted on these projects. This project, i n keeping with the above figures, w i l l accept the maximum figure and attempt to house a population at 300 p./n.a.l, A 'net acre l o t ' includes only the building l o t b u i l t upon, and excludes neighbourhood f a c i l i t i e s such as st r e e t s , lanes, l o c a l parks, schools, commercial buildings, i n s t i t u t i o n s etc., thus 300 p./n.a.l, generally represents a population dens-i t y of approximately 100 persons/gross acre. Consequently this project w i l l house a population at 100 persons/gross neighbourhood acre. As the physical s i z e of the area has already been deter-mined at 25 acres, the population to be housed w i l l number 2500 persons divided into the age groupings given i n the population pyramid, (See also Appendix 'B', Part I ) . In addition to housing 2500 persons, the project must also include other non-residential structures. An examination of the commercial shopping patterns i n the study area showed that there are two basic types of shopping: 1, Comparison (or s p e c i a l i t y ) - "shopping" 2, Necessity (or day-to-day) - "convenience" Comparison shops draw on a regional scale thus locate i n an urban core or a large regional shopping centre. Necessity shops draw on a l o c a l scale thus locate central** l y i n the neighbourhood they serve. The proximity (and therefore the competition) of the urban core to the model area rules out the comparison type shop i n the model area, thus the commercial shopping i n the project w i l l be of the necessity v a r i e t y and i t s quantity and type s t r i c t l y a function of the population. COMPARISON vs. NECESSITY c o m m e r c i a l p a t t e r n s Examination of other non-commercial f a c i l i t i e s showed that they can be broken down into two approximate categories: 1* Local f a c i l i t i e s , and 2, Regional f a c i l i t i e s . As this nomenclature implies, a l o c a l f a c i l i t y caters to l o c a l needs (ex: kindergartens), whereas a regional f a c i l i t y meets both l o c a l and regional needs (ex: churches). Local f a c i l i t i e s that are a d i r e c t function of the l o c a l population w i l l be included in the project* The project w i l l also include i t s "share" of regional f a c i l i t i e s * Professional o f f i c e s serving the l o c a l community are included as a l o c a l fac-i l i t y , whereas the proximity of the urban core w i l l exclude ' o f f i c e * buildings, as those businesses that choose to remain towards the centre of a metropolis generally do so as they re-quire close mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y to each other and to other functions provided within the core* l o c a l & r e g i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s Using the age groupings previously accepted and probab-i l i t y theory, the various housing needs of the population may now be extrapolated. The non-residential l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s may also be projected from the expected population categories. B a s i c a l l y i t was found that the population could be sub-divided into 4 categories of r e s i d e n t i a l units : A» C h i l d oriented units (families with children) B, Adult oriented units (single adults and c h i l d l e s s families) C, E l d e r l y oriented units (elderly limited i n movement) D, Rest homes (eld e r l y needing constant attention) It was further found that, including rest homes, 15 separate types of dwelling units were required, (For a more detailed analysis of how t h i s information was arrived at see Appendix »»B»»). A summary o f b u i l d i n g s t r u c t u r e s to be p l a c e d i n the p r o j e c t area may now be compiled. In a d d i t i o n t o the r e s i d e n t i a l s t r u c t u r e s e x t r a p o l a t e d and t h e i r a s s o c i a t e d l o c a l . s e r v i c e f a c i l i t i e s (both commercial and i n s t i t u t i o n a l ) , w i l l be the r e g i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which are s t r i c t l y a f u n c t i o n o f the area's m e t r o p o l i t a n c o n t e x t . P a r k i n g volumes are i n d i v i d u a l f u n c t i o n s o f each b u i l d -in g type, though s e p a r a t i o n o f parking f u n c t i o n s over time may a l l o w o v e r l a p p i n g o f p a r t s o f these volumes. Having e s t a b l i s h e d the b u i l d i n g requirements f o r the p r o j e c t , t h e i r placement w i t h i n the area must now be a s s i g n e d . (See appendix MB", Part XI f o r a summary o f s t r u c t u r e s to be i n c l u d e d i n the Model A r e a ) . Regional f a c i l i t i e s require both l o c a l and regional access, so they should be placed close to the i n t e r - g r i d movement pattern linkages as indicated. Location of Regional Facilities Local commercial f a c i l i t i e s require l o c a l access for vehicles and pedestrians plus ease of service access, so they should be placed on the l o c a l g r i d towards the centre of the project as indicated,, L o c a l C o m m e r c i a l Facilities Local non-commercial f a c i l i t i e s require l o c a l pedestrian access, service access and possibly some non-local pedestrian access as these f a c i l i t i e s may be "borrowed" p a r t i a l l y by neigh-bourhoods c l o s e l y surrounding the project. Thus such f a c i l i t i e s should be placed as indicated on the diagram. Local Facilities To implement the varying degrees of a c c e s s i b i l i t y re« quirements just stated f o r both l o c a l and regional f a c i l i t i e s , a Mone-way M street system i s introduced. The diagram i l l u s t r a t e s that t h i s common system provides a higher degree of a c c e s s i b i l i t y to those alternate blocks that allow vehicles to c i r c u l a t e t h e i r perimeters without c o n f l i c t , thus permitting ease of penetration on a l l boundaries. Applying t h i s concept of vehicular a c c e s s i b i l i t y to c i r -cumscribed blocks, the l o c a l Metropolitan d i s t r i b u t o r y g r i d i s s p l i t into two one-way streets that l i n k to each other around the Regional f a c i l i t i e s and the local commercial f a c i l i t i e s , providing the higher degree of vehicular a c c e s s i b i l i t y required by such f a c i l i t i e s * Thus the prime locations of a l l the non-residential f a c i l i t i e s may be assigned on the project s i t e , showing the potential areas f o r r e s i d e n t i a l occupancy* SUMMARY OF LOCATIONS OF NON-RESIDENTIAL FACILITIES An examination of the routine day«to-day mobility of the various age groups i n the study area showed that, when related to the range and frequency of movement, mobility varied consid-erably across the population. Thus a c h i l d , being r e l a t i v e l y immobile as an infanct, w i l l increase both i t s range and frequency of mobility as i t learns to crawl, walk, run, pedal a t r i c y c l e , a b i c y c l e etc., and as i t becomes less dependent on i t s parents. The single adult with a vehicle is possibly the most mobile i n the population, marriage bringing children and a smaller c i r c l e of contacts with others in the same category, lessening the frequency i f not the range of mobility. After the child-rearing years are over, mobility increases, f i n a l l y to decline yearly for physiological reasons, u n t i l the cycle i s completed by death and once again t o t a l immobility. It was seen i n the examination of the study area that a major determinant i n the l i f e - s t y l e of the population was the potential for the mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y of both people and places that a high density area associated with an urban core can pro-vide. In order then to maximise the chances for this desired s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , the concept of mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y w i l l be coupled to the concept of the v a r i a b i l i t y of mobility of the population as a f i r s t step i n defining locations for r e s i d e n t i a l usage* The most mobile o f the population w i l l be t e r r i t o r i a l l y mapped onto the model area such that to reach the day-to-day necessities they require, they must pass through a decreasing hierarchy of less mobile persons* This mapping w i l l be the basic r e s i d e n t i a l form giving system* MUTUAL ACCESSIBILITY Translated into r e a l terms, this means that the adult oriented units (those housing c h i l d l e s s young adults and elderly without physical l i m i t a t i o n s ) are placed furthest away from the lo c a l commercial and i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s which are the neighbourhood " n e c e s s i t i e s " . To reach these necessities, these most mobile adults must pass by the c h i l d oriented u n i t s , the el d e r l y (limited in movement) oriented units and f i n a l l y the rest homes housing the el d e r l y i n need of care. This basic concept of the t e r r i t o r i a l mapping of the population as a function of the varying degrees of mobility emphasises the importance of pathways through the project and the r e l a t i o n s h i p of r e s i d e n t i a l units to these pathways e An examination of the model area suggests r e s i d e n t i a l locations as a function of regional, mixed regional and l o c a l , and l o c a l a c c e s s i b i l i t y . Thus these overlapping areas become defined f o r best usage with respect to adult, c h i l d , e l d e r l y oriented units and rest homes as a function of the hierarchy of population mobility. The basic needs of the population spectrum are now examined such that each c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of population has i t r e s i d e n t i a l needs s a t i s f i e d and that the neighbourhood as a unit becomes a suitable environment for l i v i n g . BASIC POPULATION NEEDS EXAMINED A l l dwelling units, regardless of their c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , require as basic standards: « weather protection noise protection sunlight natural v e n t i l a t i o n *• private and common indoor space - private outdoor space access to natural public outdoor space «* access to f a c i l i t i e s according to their r e s i d e n t i a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n « view (~ see also Appendix W B M , Part VII) private and common indoor space noise protection natural ventilation view access to open natural out-door spaces m i n i m u m un i t d w e l l i n g s t a n d a r d s Sunlight: A l l units w i l l have access to sunlight. The duration of exposure i s a function of the unit's o r i e n t a t i o n . Minimum exposure w i l l be i n the form of either morning or a f t e r -noon sun, with maximum day-long exposure wherever possible. Natural v e n t i l a t i o n ; Maximum through unit v e n t i l a t i o n w i l l be aimed at for a l l units, with minimum unit v e n t i l a t i o n through openings at right angles as indicated. Indoor privacy; Indoor space w i l l have i t s functions b a s i c a l l y divided such that i t w i l l always be possible within a unit to retreat from company to a private space. Outdoor privacy; V e r t i c a l and horizontal v i s u a l sep-aration w i l l be provided to a l l outdoor private space, th i s privacy only being l i m i t e d by distance, i . e . i f one unit i s placed such that i t s outdoor space i s v i s u a l l y non-private from the e x t e r i o r , a minimally defined distance w i l l separate this space from the viewpoint intruding into i t . View; As the project area in abstract i s considered f l a t , i t i s "closed" with respect to view. Thus a l l residen-t i a l structures w i l l have a maximum of separation, such that they w i l l i n e f f e c t form s t r u c t u r a l h i l l s and v a l l e y s , with the l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s as f o c i of closer v i s u a l i n t e r e s t . n The accumulation of manyppeople in a high density s i t -uation does not automatically increase the rate of s o c i a l i n t e r -action. In fact i n many of the densest settlements are found the largest proportions of i s o l a t e d and lonely people. The concept of mobility, a c c e s s i b i l i t y and pathways to necessities used i n t h i s project should help to lessen this problem of lack of human contact and make the area more f r i e n d l y and human. However, for s o c i a l contacts and interactions to occur e a s i l y , a 3-part process seems minimally e s s e n t i a l : 1. An individual must be able to i d e n t i f y a potential interaction 2. He must be able to access in privacy whether or not he wishes to i n t e r a c t , and 3. He must be able to f a c i l i t a t e t h i s i n t e r a c t i o n without plac« ing himself i n the p o s i t i o n of an intruder. It seems a 'third party' i s usually necessary for the la s t part of this process should the contact take place within the usually accepted constraints of our culture. E s s e n t i a l l y then, a legitimate and e a s i l y accessible t h i r d party excuse or means for human contact must be present. Thus for example, i f a person wishes to contact another unknown person, a mutual f r i e n d or a mutually used f a c i l i t y must introduce them. This project w i l l therefore be so constructed such that from the privacy of each unit there w i l l be a clear f i e l d of v i s i o n to a set of 'common' f a c i l i t i e s . This set of f a c i l i t i e s w i l l be selected such that there w i l l be at least one sub-set 33 f a c i l i t y f o r mutual use and o f mutual i n t e r e s t at each l e v e l o f the p o p u l a t i o n . T r a n s l a t e d i n t o r e a l terms, t h i s means that f a c i l i t i e s such as playgrounds, swimming p o o l s , p u t t i n g courses, walks, benches, p l a y i n g f i e l d s , shops, e t c . would be p l a c e d on the ' v i s u a l l y common' area s . AO Noise protection: G r i d noise w i l l be blanked o f f from the r e s i d e n t i a l areas by non-livable structures (ex: Parking garages), earth banks and natural vegetation. The l a t t e r w i l l be the minimum form of control due to i t s r e l a t i v e i n e f f e c t i v e -ness . Intra and in t e r - u n i t noise w i l l be controlled by existing conventional mechanical means. Access to natural outdoor spaces : Depending on mobility, a l l units w i l l have access to such spaces. Where possible mul-t i p l e choice pathways leading to these spaces w i l l be provided such that they pass through small areas of semi-natural outdoor spaces• OUTDOOR SPACES ACCESS TO NATURAL SPACES According to the individual needs of the r e s i d e n t i a l categories, unit space standards are drawn up for the v a r i e t i e s of units to be b u i l t on the s i t e . From the aggregation of these unit volumes the t o t a l r e s i d e n t i a l volumes involved i n the project are reached, and the parking volumes required for these units extrapolated. S i m i l a r l y , the commercial volumes with t h e i r required parking volumes are calculated. These volumes, when added to the l o c a l and regional f a c i l i t i e s , form a compendium of physical structures to be placed on the s i t e . (See Appendix **BH, Parts VII to XI). The diagram shows v i s u a l l y and in the correct proportions the r e l a t i v e volumes of r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial volumes to be placed i n the model area. The l a r g e v a r i a t i o n i n income across the p o p u l a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the e x i s t i n g s e l e c t i o n of u n i t s a v a i l a b l e p r e s e n t l y i n the study area* There are 3 b a s i c ways an i n d i v i d u a l may c o r r e l a t e h i s income to h i s d w e l l i n g : 1. By i t s l o c a t i o n (ex: penthouse vs , ground f l o o r ) 2. By i t s age (ex: o l d e r l a r g e r u n i t v s . newer sma l l e r u n i t ) 3. By i t s s i z e i n a p a r t i c u l a r category As the p r o j e c t i s 'new', i n d i v i d u a l s can only r e l a t e t h e i r income to the s i z e or the l o c a t i o n o f the u n i t . L o c a t i o n a l advantages are a u t o m a t i c a l l y b u i l t - i n to any p r o j e c t , however w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r category o f u n i t , v a r i a n c e i n s i z e w i l l be i n c o r p o r a t e d to a l l o w f o r income d i s p a r i t y , thus the u l t i m a t e volume o f the aggregate o f r e s i d e n t i a l u n i t s w i l l l i e w i t h i n a range r a t h e r than be f i x e d . D W E L L I N G CHOISE as a function of I N C O M E 4} As the project isaawdense*» r e s i d e n t i a l area, multi-s t o r i e d structures w i l l be necessary to reach the required dens-i t i e s . The need for di r e c t ground plane a c c e s s i b i l i t y varies as a function of the mobility of the population, the need f o r ease of access to natural surroundings and the reliance on the non-. re s i d e n t i a l f a c i l i t i e s for their d a i l y needs* Thus the e l d e r l y limited in movement require units e a s i l y accessible to the ground plane, families depending on the age of t h e i r children require varying degrees of a c c e s s i b i l i t y , whereas c h i l d l e s s adults, being highly mobile, may be placed furthest away from the ground plane. Thus by pl o t t i n g the need for ground plane a c c e s s i b i l i t y against the height p o s s i b i l i t i e s f or units across the population, the d i v i s i o n of units from single to multistoried structures be-comes more readi l y apparent. HEIGHT POSSIBILITIES ADULTS - single or married without children ELDERLY-without limitations FAMILIES-with children ELDERLY- limited in movement ELDERLY- needing care ROUND PLANE ACCESSIBILITY Presently, multistoried structures are iso l a t e d in space, rend-ering access from one to another i n d i r e c t , requiring the use of the ground plane between structures. The p o s s i b i l i t y of more direc t and 3-dimensional inter-structure a c c e s s i b i l i t y was exam*, ined. It was found that the ratio of young c h i l d l e s s adults to eld e r l y unlimited in movement ( i . e . the most mobile i n the popula-tion) was 4:1, As these el d e r l y w i l l spend more of t h e i r time in the area than the young adults (who must leave for work pur-poses), the concept of mobility was applied to this group by l i n k i n g the structures every fourth f l o o r , on which the elderly would be placed, such that t r i p s from one unit i n a structure to another in another structure (or f a c i l i t y ) would use these fourth floors as pathways. Thus these skyways would p a r a l l e l 3-dimen-si o n a l l y the pathways more common to the ground plane. USE OF M O B I L I T Y C O N C E P T 43, Scale of I d e n t i f i c a t i o n : As i t i s desired to promote the maximum p o s s i b i l i t y for s o c i a l contact across a l l l e v e l s and groupings i n accord-ance with the stated wishes of the population of the high dens-i t y study area, i t was decided that the r e s i d e n t i a l dwelling units would be ordered such that the population of the project would i d e n t i f y at the macro-level with the t o t a l model area, rather than a p a r t i c u l a r segment of i t . This would encourage a more v e r s a t i l e use of a l l parts of the area by a l l segments of the population, with no one p a r t i c u l a r area being " o f f - l i m i t s " , either a c t u a l l y or p r a c t i c a l l y to any category of residents. To accomplish t h i s , the dwelling unit categories pre-viously l i s t e d , w i l l i n actual fact be defined l o c a t i o n a l l y by th e i r centres and overlap or fuse into one another at their edges. Consequently housing p o l i c i e s would be implemented with respect to r e s i d e n t i a l locations within the macro-structure, defining solely ' i d e a l ' locations f o r each housing category i n 'non-specific' terms, allowing for a va r i e t y of individual l o -cation within a general framework. The concept behind row housing, which allows for anon-ymity and choice of neighbourhood friends w i l l be used as op-posed to cluster housing that defines an area with small i d e n t i t y and forced inter-dwelling unit interactions. S C A L E O F I D E N T I F I C A T I O N — neighbourhood vs. segment of neighbourhood Visual Privacy at the Macro-structural Level: By placing exterior view elevations on convex (as opposed concave) surfaces a greater degree of inter-unit v i s u a l privacy w i l l be affordedo By placing high and low structures in conjunction (as opposed to separation), more inter-unit privacy i s obtained as the higher units w i l l over-look, rather than look at, lower units• CONVEX VS. CONCAVE 4 5 The increased population of young families with c h i l d -ren with c u l t u r a l drives to own their own homes w i l l necessitate the fragmentation of a percentage of the macro-structure into l o t s . As the neighbourhood i s a high density area and as f a m i l -ies normally driven to suburbia go there in search of open space for their children, a two-dimensional l o t g r i d i s incompatible with these factors, thus i t i s proposed that c e r t a i n parts of the macro-structure be divided volumetrically, allowing families in t h i s category to purchase a volume i n space compatible to their needs of access to the ground plane, and within t h i s v o l -ume b u i l d to suit t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r housing needs„ ^G The assemblage of the factors just discussed i n t h i s paper res u l t in a system shown by the diagram. It must be remembered that this system i s abstract and does not take into account orientation, topology, climate factors etc, which w i l l i nevitably modify s p e c i f i c applications. Thus the system i s e s s e n t i a l l y a set of general ground rules allowing considerable variations within the l i m i t s of these rules in p a r t i c u l a r cases. The application of this system involves several levels of construction : - Municipal agencies must f i r s t solve the vehicular movement problems, re-routing non-local t r a f f i c , widening existing a r t e r i e s to the core (metropolitan primary grid) and building new l o c a l a r t e r i e s (metropolitan d i s t r i b u t o r y g r i d ) . Having extrapolated the probable and/or desired occupancy, regional and l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s normally provided by non-private agencies must be s p e c i f i e d , assigned locations and b u i l t within the framework of the system. The r e s i d e n t i a l and commercial volumes to be placed on the " s i t e must be calculated along with the expected parking volumes. These volumes must be categorised as to type of occupancy and prime locations must be designated i n accordance with the sys-tem. Private enterprise may be c a l l e d i n to construct the r e s i -d e n tial units catering to the most mobile segments of the population (young c h i l d l e s s adults), the only s t i p u l a t i o n s being that parking structures must be continuous between these multistoried units, that they are so placed to ensure ease of regional and l o c a l movement pattern access and that they also form physical b a r r i e r s against g r i d noise to the s i t e . As the tops of these structures become part of the pedestrian g r i d they must be landscaped. Allowances must be made such that between these multistoried r e s i d e n t i a l units conjunction can occur at s p e c i f i e d levels for skyways housing the elderly unlimited in movement. The increase i n cost of such conjunct tions could be born by l o c a l government. Local government would construct '3-dimensional' real estate volumes in the form of single and double storied platforms (according to expected occupancy) backing onto the parking structures mentioned above. Volumes on these platforms may either be sold or leased to families for self-construction of housing units, or to speculators that could construct certain segments i n the structure to cater to expected occupancy. Allowances for r e s i d e n t i a l parking and a pedestrian network would be included on these platforms, similar to existing 2-dimensional allowances presently provided by zoning regulations. *• Rest homes for the elderly could either be constructed by public or private funds according to l o c a l custom. These homes would be assigned locations towards the base of the r e s i d e n t i a l structures as indicated by the system. The basic c r i t e r i a (sunlight, view, v e n t i l a t i o n etc.) for r e s i d e n t i a l units would be incorporated into a l l the structures mentioned An above that house the expected population. Local commercial f a c i l i t i e s would be b u i l t by private enter-p r i s e , with allowances f o r professional o f f i c e s i n and above them. Part of the added cost of underground commercial parking would be born by l o c a l government as t h i s would be a p a r t i a l offshoot of the l o c a l t r a f f i c system. Lateral pedestrian grids above grade linking the upper levels of the r e s i d e n t i a l areas to the l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s would be b u i l t by government agencies. These agencies would also be responsible for the landscaping of the large central open spaces which would include playgrounds, adult l e i s u r e f a c i l -i t i e s and natural vegetation. SYSTEM ON MODEL AREA APPENDIX "A" This appendix i s the re s u l t of following through, i n a step by step process, the "Methodology" formulated e a r l i e r i n t h i s Research Project, It i s a study i n depth of a p a r t i c u l a r area and i t s population, and i s lim i t e d only by the o r i g i n a l scope of the Methodology i t follows. For those who do not wish to read i t through i n d e t a i l , there i s a 'Point Summary' on the f i n a l pages which w i l l reasonably 'sketch' the body of the work i n the preced-ing pages. Note; Except where sp e c i f i e d , the following s t a t i s t i c s are taken from the 1961 Census of Canada, Vancouver, B u l l e t i n CT-22, Census tracts 1, 2, 3 and 4 (commonly known as the West End of Vancouver), For the sake of comparison, the figures printed i n the right hand columns of any page are the Metropolitan Vancouver s t a t i s t i c s which comprise of 225 census tracts and include -Vancouver c i t y Burnaby New Westminster - West Vancouver North Vancouver ( c i t y and municipality) Coquitlam - Port Moody - Port Coquitlam - Frazer M i l l s Surrey « White Rock - Delta - Richmond - Unorganized areas (A) Social Condition a. Economics ( i i ) Income t Average - male female family family D i s t r i b u t i o n of Income head Males $ 3704 2583 3911 5178 $ 4219 Metro, Av, 2219 4637 5489 Under $1000 p.a. $1000 to $1999 " $2000 to $2999 « $3000 to $3999 " $4000 to $5999 " $6000 and over 10,6% 10,6 14.4 21,2 29.1 14.1 100% 8.3% 7.4 9.7 18.2 38,0 18.4 100% D i s t r i b u t i o n of Income - Females Under $1000 p.a. « 13.1% 22.7% $1000 to $1999 « 16.0 18.8 $2000 to $2999 tt 29.9 27.6 $3000 to $3999 », 28.2 20.9 $4000 to $5999 i* 11.1 8.4 $6000 and over 1.7 1.6 100% 100% The low ($3704) average male income i s due to three main f a c t o r s : 1. the preponderance of young males (25 to 35 years of age) i n the area i n the process of establishing t h e i r careers and consequently earning l e s s . 2. a larger than average percentage of older and r e t i r e d males on pensions. 3. a f a i r l y high unemployment rate (11.2%) due to the transitory nature of the area. For s i m i l a r reasons the average income per family head i s low. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of income for males r e f l e c t s these factors, showing that the bulk of the male labour force (56.8%) earn less than $4000, whereas the bulk of the Metropolitan Vancouver male labour force (56.4%) earn more than $4000. Of these 3 fa c t o r s , only the second i s negative and cause for concern. The majority of "aged" males are existing on incomes (often pensions) geared to a cost of l i v i n g many years out-dated. Though t h e i r needs may be l e s s , t h e i r lack of income i s tending to consolidate them into the lower r e n t a l , and consequently less des-i r a b l e , areas within the t o t a l area. This process i s accelerating due to the rapid reconstruction of the whole area into higher rent-a l apartment units. The high ($2583) average female income i s due to a large percentage of young " o f f i c e " g i r l s , often unrelated i n d i v i d u a l s , who work i n the adjoining business areas. It i s probable that the income of these g i r l s (generally i n excess of $3000 p.a.) counter balances and conceals the low incomes earned by the con-centration of "aged" women in the area. As with their male "aged" counterparts, t h i s i s a negative factor and cause for concern. ( i i ) Occupation: Labour Force: Males - 7308 (51.8% of Total L.F.) 69.3% Females - 6794 (48.2% " " " ) 30.7 Total - 14102 (100%) 100% Looking f o r work: Males - 816 (11.2% of Male L.F.) 5.7 Females - 258 (3,8% of Female L.F.) 3,8 Total - 1074 (7.6% of Total L.F.) 5.1 Occupational D i s t r i b u t i o n of L.F. Males Females Total % of workers % Craftsmen, production process & related 1414 20.4% 255 3.9% 1669 12.4 24.4 Service & Recreation 1099 15.8% 1484 22.6% 2583 19.1 13.6 C l e r i c a l 871 12.6% 2900 44.1% 3771 27.8 16.8 Transport & comm. 472 6.8% 105 1.6% 577 4.2 6.6 Management, profession-a l and technical 1866 26.8% 1365 20.8% 3231 23.8 22.1 Primary (industry) 203 2.9% — 203 1.6 3.2 Sales 754 10.9% 451 6.8% 1205 8.9 9.1 Labourers 266 3.8% 18 0.2% 284 2.2 4.2 Totals 13523 100% 100% Wage earners Self-employed Unpaid family workers 12765 1299 38 90.5 9.2 0.3 88.8 10.7 0.5 14102 100% 100% The approximately equal d i s t r i b u t i o n of males to females i n the area's labour force i s due mainly to the nature of business ca r r i e d out i n the adjoining Central Business D i s t r i c t , which offers greater employment opportunities for females than do most other d i s -t r i c t s within the c i t y . The breakdown of occupational d i s t r i b u t i o n shows that the male labour force i s oriented s l i g h t l y to the managerial, profes-s i o n a l , technical and service occupations at the expense of the craftsmen, production process and the c l e r i c a l occupations. The female labour force i s predominantly oriented to the ••office" and " s e r v i c e " s i t u a t i o n . The high male unemployment figure for the area i s not so s t a r t l i n g as i t f i r s t seems. This figure i s i n f l a t e d mainly due to the following f a c t o r s : -1. The area has a high percentage of recent immigrants 2. The area i s t r a n s i t o r y in nature, with a large percentage of dwellings occupied for less than 1 year 3. The area abounds with r e l a t i v e l y cheap rooming houses that can be rented by the day, week or month 4. The area adjoins the C.B.D. from which employers hire for this d i s t r i c t ' as well as most of the Province, Consequently, the unemployed i n t h i s area are a " f l o a t i n g " population with a f a i r l y rapid turnover and do not generally speak ing represent the "hard-core" unemployables. The area thus be-comes a "staging ground" f o r new employment opportunities, ( i i i ) Attitude to work. Though the proportion of school aged children i s the low-est i n the Metropolitan area (6,3% vs. Metropolitan average of 21,4%), these children are attaining considerably higher levels of education. It would seem then that they have high scholastic i n -centives and vocational ambitions. The r e l a t i v e l y low rate of juvenile delinquency appears to back this up. The adult night school classes recently started are well attended and being expanded to keep up with the demand. Since the area i s possibly the most heterogeneous i n the Metropolitan d i s t r i c t , generalizations become d i f f i c u l t , however, the breakdown of age d i s t r i b u t i o n shows three reasonably d i s t i n c t features: 1, there i s a d i s t i n c t lack of people in the "younger" age groups (up to about 20 yrs. of age), 2, there i s a d i s t i n c t swelling i n the age group between 20 to 35 years of age, 3, there i s a d i s t i n c t swelling i n the "older" age groups (55 yrs of age and up). The 20 to 35 yr. age group consists mainly of unrelated individuals and families without children. Of the unrelated i n -d i v i d u a l s , the males are generally i n the process of establishing t h e i r careers and consequently have a p o s i t i v e attitude towards work. They are attempting to "get ahead" and raise t h e i r econ-omic status, and, unencumbered by family t i e s , they are able to use the r e l a t i v e l y f l u i d labour market s i t u a t i o n to seek around and change jobs u n t i l one that s a t i s f i e s them i s obtained. Their attitude i s marked by optimism, and the l i m i t s of t h e i r own cap-a b i l i t i e s have yet to become known to themselves. Once married, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a wife and knowledge of an impending family tend to decrease job mobility and the die i s soon cast f o r the probable outcome of his career. I f by this time suitable employment has not been found, the male 1s attitude s to work may soon be that his job i s s o l e l y a means to a f i n a n c i a l end, unrelated to a sense of personal achievement* For the females i n t h i s age group, their employment i s generally a r e l a t i v e l y b r i e f interlude of independence between a previous l i f e of parental authority and a forthcoming l i f e as a wife. As such, t h e i r jobs tend to lack a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and a future, and are therefore regarded as a temporary means of keeping body and soul together u n t i l a suitable male relieves them of t h i s task. This does not necessarily mean that t h e i r jobs hold no interest for them, but rather that t h e i r attitude to work i s temp-ered by an expected time l i m i t * The large "older" population are either approaching the ends of t h e i r f i n a n c i a l careers or are on pensions. I f s t i l l working, they may be soon planning, or being forced i n t o , r e t i r e -ment. On retirement one of the more unfortunate facts i s that pensions seldom, i f ever, keep abreast of the annual r i s e i n the cost of l i v i n g . Though this group may not be termed as s t r i c t l y having an attitude to work, none-the-less, many of the advances that society makes around them tends to leave them behind, espec-i a l l y f i n a n c i a l l y . Thus, r e l a t i v e l y speaking, an advance outside t h e i r system i s a retrogression within th e i r system. (iv) Aspirations: From the age d i s t r i b u t i o n s t a t i s t i c s a reasonably clear pattern emerges fo r both males and females. One of the predominant features of t h i s pattern i s the above average concentration of young adults. These adults begin to enter t h i s area, about the age of twenty and tend to remain for approximately ten years. Nearly every c i t y seems to have an area similar to t h i s . The reason for the flow of these adults through t h i s area i s f a i r l y c l e a r : In the l a t e teens and early twenties the younger generations tend to s p l i t away from their parents and become inde-pendent e n t i t i e s , the males to seek t h e i r careers and the females to seek t h e i r males. The amenities catering to newly acquired independence and to newly started careers are grouped f a i r l y c l o s e l y together, and a maximum chance of s o c i a l interaction occurs. Within or i n close proximity to t h i s area are gathered the businesses that supply the career opportunities, the rental structures needed by the newly mobile adult, the d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n of entertainments allowing a gamut of s o c i a l contacts, and consequently the area also gathers the maximum of people attracted to the s t y l e of l i f e that this e n t a i l s . The tapering o f f and e f f l u x of these young adults around the age of 30 to 35 i n t h i s area backs up the above l o g i c . By t h i s time the males w i l l have found th e i r careers and the females w i l l have found their males. These newly established families may remain i n the area for a short while, but with the advent of children they must seek expanded accommodation. Unfortunately the area discriminates against them, both i n higher rentals com-manded by expanded accommodations and i n the attitude of landlords against young c h i l d r e n . In response to these factors the newly enlarged family must seek a l t e r n a t i v e accommodation, which normally means suburbia The aspirations of this age group now become more apparent Their educational backgrounds show them to be more highly educated than the average, and, using a generalization, they might be con-sidered "middle"-middle c l a s s . They generally come from families i n the lower-middle c l a s s , though a sprinkling may be of the upper middle and working c l a s s . They aspire to the upper-middle class though the proportion that actually reaches t h i s l e v e l may be smal1, The high proportion (20,8%) of recent immigrants i n the area may also be assumed to be attempting to "better" themselves, as t h i s aspiration was probably a prime reason f o r immigration. Consequently, with the possible exception of the poor "aged" i n the area, the aspirations of the population are upward oriented. The aspirations of the "aged" poses a d i f f e r e n t problem. A great many of them are attracted to the area by i t s amenities, but also a large proportion are i n r e a l i t y trapped in the area. The r e l a t i v e l y low rents i n the less desirable areas f i t t h e i r economic status, and the proximity of the many public amenities seals t h e i r decision to remain. Many have l i v e d there a l l t h e i r l i v e s , establishing t h e i r homes i n the area when the c i t y approx-imated a small town. High land taxes have slowly been forcing them from th e i r homes, and nostalgia, i n e r t i a and lack of know-ledge of people and places outside the area tend to make them re-main. Their aspirations may be simple; j u s t those of l i v i n g out the remainder of t h e i r l i v e s i n comfort and i n f a m i l i a r surround-ings, along with the f a m i l i a r faces of t h e i r friends and contemp-o r a r i e s . (B) Family Area S t a t i s t i c s : Metro, Total number of families - 5543 196,300 Families as % of population - 51.4% 84.5% Persons/family - 2.35 3.4 Families by number of children 0 73.8% 35.3% 1-2 23.4 43.2 3-4 2.4 18.3 5 and over 0.4 3.2 100% 100% Children/family 0.4 1.4 7 Children i n families by age 0 - 6 34.0% 34.4% 7 - 1 4 36.0 44.5 15 - 18 16.4 13.5 1 9 " 2 4 13.6 7.6 100% 100% Families by age of head - 25 (young) 3.4% 3.8% 25 - 34 18.0 21.2 35 - 44 15.6 25.1 45 - 54 18.4 21.9 55 - 64 16.4 13.1 65 and over (elderly) 28.2 14.9 100% 100% Families with wage earner heads - 58.8% 69.1% One parent families - 8% 6.0% Lodging families - 7% 2.0% ( I ) V a l i d i t y Today. The area s t a t i s t i c s show the deviation of this area from the Metropolitan norm quite c l e a r l y . The basis of the family as a unit of population i s only v a l i d f o r s l i g h t l y over half the population (51.4%), as against the v a l i d i t y of t h i s unit f o r the majority of the Metropolitan population (84.5%). The v a l i d i t y of the "family" unit i s further questioned i n this area by the fact that approximately three quarters of the families are c h i l d l e s s as against only one t h i r d of the Metropolitan family population. In t h i s area i t becomes d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h "cause" from " e f f e c t " . As pointed out previously, the area caters to a large-extent to young adults i n pursuit of a career and subsequent-l y a mate. This attitude i s r e f l e c t e d i n the types of rental units available, which are biased heavily towards the bachelor and one-bedroom s u i t e s . However, once married, an enlarging family w i l l f i n d the preponderance of these types of units a d i s t i n c t l i a b i l -i t y , as the search f o r a two-bedroom unit with a landlord w i l l i n g to accept children w i l l i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y prove arduous i f not f r u i t l e s s . Consequently the new family leaves the area to be replaced by other young adults, either unmarried or married but c h i l d l e s s . Hence the area s t a t i s t i c s are kept i n t a c t . It has often been s a i d that the more urbanized environ-ments do not f u l f i l the needs of a young family. The major cur-rent a l t e r n a t i v e for these new families has been suburbia, however, a recent study points out that a large percentage of suburbanites become quickly disenchanted with t h e i r new surroundings, as the promised child-oriented amenities and a more economical existence f a i l to materialize. " Largely these families who have moved into the area f suburbia) i n recent years have undertaken home ownership not necessarily because they prefer t h i s to renting, but because housing was not available at comparable prices closer to the c i t y . " Young married people with families are often forced to buy a house because of the lack of suitable rented suites, apartments and houses with no discrimination against children. " Herbert J . Gans points out that of the f i v e p r i n c i p a l groups favouring the heterogeneous q u a l i t i e s of areas of high den-s i t y , one o f them may be termed the "cosmopolite**. The cosmopolite i s one who enjoys the amenities that are provided i n or around high density areas. To suggest that on the a r r i v a l of t h e i r f i r s t children, the young cosmopolite families immediately cease to enjoy t h e i r former pursuits i s naive, yet the present s i t u a t i o n almost demands these pursuits be forsaken. The area contains older homes converted into moderate ren-t a l suites that can presently be afforded by low income fa m i l i e s . However, as pointed out previously, the recent and accelerating growth of new apartments i s crowding out these houses, forcing t h e i r inhabitants to move elsewhere, since no provision f o r t h e i r remaining i n the area i s being provided. It should be noted here that the **anti-child" f e e l i n g i s softening s l i g h t l y , not probably due to a moral revaluation of the landlords' attitudes, but due to the increasing competition f o r tenants to f i l l these new apartment blocks. In the space of the l a s t few years, some of the "older" new apartments are beginning to take families with young ch i l d r e n . Though i t i s true that children i n t h e i r f i r s t few years of l i f e need a minimum of amenities outside the immediate proximity of t h e i r homes, i t i s also true that the majority of the apartment blocks now accepting them are o l d and becoming decrepit, and i n their planning many years ago, no allowances were made f o r c h i l d -ren. It might be s a i d then, that t h e i r new roles are e s s e n t i a l l y "makeshift". The s t a t i s t i c s show that families with children in the 0-6 yrs. bracket compared favorably with the Metropolitan average, however, i t must again be noted that families only represent half the entire population, hence on a per capita basis, this figure i s s t i l l very low. The increase i n percentage of "older" (15-24) children should also include the above weighting f a c t o r . This apparent increase i s probably due to the above average educational levels achieved by children i n t h i s area. These 'older' children are reaching the end of t h e i r high school years, are i n the vocation-a l schools and are at the u n i v e r s i t i e s . They often hold down part-time jobs and work during the summer, thus contributing to t h e i r upkeep within families that may not otherwise be able to keep paying their way. <3 The e f f l u x of families from t h i s area i s p a r t i c u l a r l y noticeable i n the 35 to 45 heads of family age group. The reas-ons f o r this have already been well defined. The large percentage (28,2% vs. metro, 14,9%) of e l d e r l y families has also been mentioned, and i t i s this group i n p a r t i c -ular that lowers the percentage of families with wage earner heads (58,8% vs. metro. 69.1%), In summation i t can be seen that: 1. The family as the basic unit of population i s not a v a l i d unit f o r t h i s area. 2. There are few children i n the area. 3. There are a lack of families with heads i n the 35 to 45 age groups, 4. There i s a preponderance of aged f a m i l i e s . (II) Duration as Family Unit. The percentage of families that remains i n the area to run the i r natural course i s small. Rather, the area i s one that ac-cepts or rejects families at di f f e r e n t stages of development. This i s evidenced by the about average acceptance of younger fam-i l i e s (without c h i l d r e n ) , the rej e c t i o n of families with parents i n t h e i r middle years (with children) and the f i n a l re-acceptance of e l d e r l y f a m i l i e s . As a r e s u l t , with respect to the area i t s e l f , the duration of the family unit i s intermittent i n nature. Where the family i s able to overcome the area discrimina-t i o n , have children and develop f a i r l y normally, the children tend to break away, from their parental family groupings as soon as they are able, though to a lesser extent l a t e r than the Metropolitan average, as i s seen by the higher percentage of children i n the 15 to 24 year o l d bracket. As mentioned before, t h i s i s probably due i n the main to the awareness of the values of a higher educa-t i o n , thus making these older children s t i l l dependent to some ex-tent on th e i r family u n i t . The area also has a higher than average (8% vs. Metro. 6%) number of one parent f a m i l i e s , a fa r greater population of divorced (3.1% vs. Metro. 0.9%) and probably a higher than average incidence of common-law relationships encouraged by the i n t r a - s o c i a l anonymity made possible by the area. There is also a high percentage of widowed persons, caused mainly by the high percentage of el d e r l y , (III) Parent-children Relationship. The low juvenile delinquency rate and the high educational levels are indications of the s o c i a l adjustment of the children of the area. This must be tempered by the fact that there i s an ex-tremely low percentage of children i n the area, who i n effect are consequently l i v i n g i n an adult oriented society. Whereas i n many other areas, the neighbourhood children may "take over" the neighbourhood by sheer force of numbers, here they are d e f i n i t e l y io a minority group, hence more e a s i l y "policed" by adults. The high percentage of single parent families often re-sults i n t h e i r children being inadequately cared f o r , e s p e c i a l l y during the day. The high proportion of immigrants must likewise face the problems of ra i s i n g t h e i r children i n an environment that i s a l i e n to them. Breakdowns i n the parent-children r e l a t i o n s h i p are more l i k e l y to occur i n these f a m i l i e s . It should be noted though that the great majority of the recent immigrants i n the area are either c h i l d l e s s and/or unmarried, so the problem i s r e l -a t i v e l y minor. In the vast majority of the population of thi s area there exists no parent-child r e l a t i o n s h i p , as most of this population have no c h i l d r e n . The nature of the area tends to s h i f t any problems of this type to the suburbs, i n the manner previously out-l i n e d . (IV) Number of Generations. As seen e a r l i e r , the area predominates with people of one generation l i v i n g together. The existence of two generational families or units i s i n the minority, and thi s tendency i s present-l y kept i n t h i s state by the physical nature of the housing offered to the population. The generations that predominate are the "young" adults and the " e l d e r l y " adults. There i s l i t t l e i n teraction between these two generations, as they are unrelated both geneologically and i n outlook. Their interests are divergent and seldom overlap at the s o c i a l l e v e l . Perhaps the only bond between them i s v i s u a l accep-tance and the common usage of the t e l e v i s i o n media. (V) Inter-Family Relationships (Neighbours). There i s l i t t l e sense of neighbourhood amongst the majority of the population i n t h i s area. A pocket of European influence exists i n the north-east sector where a f e e l i n g of gregariousness i s evident. The high proportion of younger adults are very mobile and do not tend to form d i s t i n c t p h y s i c a l l y delineated neighbourhoods. The v e r t i c a l separation of the majority of households discourages '•over the fence" types of friendships between families that exist i n the suburbs. There are few problems (such as c h i l d 'rearing etc) that are common grounds for discussion for people l i v i n g i n close proximity. The need f o r neighbourliness i s low and outbid by the need for privacy. As a r e s u l t there i s l i t t l e i nter-family r e l a t i o n -ship. Where friendships between families occur they are more l i k e -l y to be caused by a s i m i l a r i t y of int e r e s t rather than a s i m i l a r i t y of place, consequently 'groups' of families are d i s t i n c t i n place and joined only by mobility ( i . e . telephone and car ) . The e l d e r l y families pose a d i f f e r e n t set of relationships. Being less mobile and less affluent this segment of the society tends to s t i c k together as a minority group (though a large minor-i t y ) . They have an organized centre for s o c i a l contact which i s well usedo These families usually i n t e r r e l a t e within a phy s i c a l l y defined area, i t s boundaries delineated by the mobility of the fam i l i e s within the area, t h i s mobility factor usually being "walking distance". Besides t h e i r ' o f f i c i a l ' centre, there exists a vari e t y of subcentres f o r s o c i a l interchange, namely parks, playgrounds, shop ping precincts e f c . Metro 7. Households t (occupied dwellings) 10,818 = 4.7% of 228,598 Family H.H.* 5,069 = : 46.8% 82.3% 188,114 Non-family H.H. 5,749 = ' 53.2% 17.7 40,484 10,818 100% 100% 228,598 * Total families - 5,543 196,300 ( i . e . some family households have more than one family) one person H.H. 4,257 = 39.4% 13.2% 30,080 2-3 " " 5,582 = 51.6 45.1 103,103 4-5 " " 575 = 5.3 31.0 70,821 6-9 " " 349 = 3.2 10.3 23,618 10 + " " 55 = 0.5 0.4 976 10,818 100% 100% 228,598 Persons/H.H. 2.1 3.3 Households with lodgers - 1310 12.1% 7.7% 17,567 Non-family H.H. 5,749 53.2% 17.7 40,484 one " » 4,921 45.4 79.5 181,740 2 * " " 148 1.4 2.8 6,373 10,818 100% 100% 228,598 (VI) Non-family households Over h a l f of a l l households (53.2%) are non-family as against the metropolitan figure of 17.7%. These non-family house holds are made up of the high proportion of single young adults, the widowed and the divorced without c h i l d r e n . The reasons f o r the high proportion of young adults has already been expounded; the widowed are mainly e l d e r l y on pensions attracted to the area by the a v a i l a b i l i t y of low rental units and the already existing population of s i m i l a r age and i n t e r e s t ; the divorced are a t t r a c t -ed to the area f o r si m i l a r reasons as other young adults and also because of the anonymity and ready acceptance of th e i r status by the majority of people i n the area. There also exists a higher than average proportion of non-legal common law re l a t i o n s h i p s . This group i s also attracted by anonymity and acceptance by th e i r peers. 12 Of these non-family households there are approximately three times as many one person households than the metropolitan average (39.4% vs. metro. 13.2%). The abundance of "bachelor" rental units on the market r e f l e c t s this percentage. C. S t y l e - o f - L i f e : (I) Social Status and S t r a t i f i c a t i o n . The area projects an o v e r a l l middle status to the casual non-residential observer. Being e s s e n t i a l l y the central residen-t i a l d i s t r i c t of the c i t y , i t i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y known to the entire metropolitan region and as such i t presents a d e f i n i t e "image" of c e n t r a l i t y . Its image i s of bustle, vibrance, youth and glamour and dense urbanity. It i s an area of rapid evolution, often distrusted by i t s more conservative suburban counterparts. However, a closer inspection reveals the almost complete va r i e t y of s o c i a l s t r a t a that are housed within i t s confines. Within the space of a few b'locks may be passed the slum and the penthouse. Generally the int e r n a l h i e r a r c h i c a l structure tends to follow geological patterns. The fri n g e "view** areas are almost completely built-up into modern apartment blocks, which rank from "middle" middle class to "upper" middle c l a s s , the l a t t e r being predominantly at the western extreme, which fringes onto the main c i t y park. Recent developments are tending to complete this fringe ring to surround the south, west and north sides of the area, whereas the newly enclosed central areas are tending to become the l a s t refuges of the e l d e r l y and the young marrieds with c h i l d r e n , i . e . those f i n a n c i a l l y incapable of paying the higher rents demanded by the fringe blocks. The main concentration of young unrelated individuals i s on the south f r i n g e , which faces d i r e c t l y onto the beach areas. A secondary smaller (and s l i g h t l y less affluent) concentration of th i s group i s located i n the north-east sector, which i s within walking distance of the downtown business sections. As mentioned before, the extreme western fringe i s pre-dominantly made up of the older and more affl u e n t middle c l a s s . A high percentage of wealthy r e t i r e d couples l i v e on this border, which i s flanked by a p a r a l l e l s t r i p of older and lower apartment blocks catering mainly to the s l i g h t l y less affluent older couples without c h i l d r e n . The image of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r area i s "sedate". < (II) Ethnic Groups: The majority of the population i s of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , and the fact that 99.4% of the population use English as t h e i r common language s i g n i f i e s the homogeneity of l i n g u a l communication. The only detectable ethnic group i s attached mainly to a commercial development running along the north boundary of the area. This i s the German group. Though th i s ethnic group i s predomin-antly German, i t also contains many other "middle" European e l e -ments. The concentration of e t h n i c i t y along t h i s fringe lends a d i s t i n c t l y European flavour to the shopping d i s t r i c t which they monopolise, so much so that the street on which they are located i s c o l l o q u i a l l y known to many of the c i t y residents by i t s German tra n s l a t i o n "strasse". It has become a focal point of inte r e s t for much of the c i t y and draws i t s customers from many areas out-side i t s immediate v i c i n i t y . To the high proportion of recent immigrants i t also pro-vides a l i n k with "home" and a welcome r e l i e f to the usual "Amer-ican" s t y l e of most other commercial areas. To "Canadians", i t provides a s l i c e of Europe i n t h e i r midst. ( I l l ) Occupation. For the young male adults, t h e i r occupation i s usually connected with th e i r i n t e r e s t i n l i f e . The a b i l i t y to change from an uninteresting to an i n t e r e s t i n g occupation i s aided by t h e i r youth and the f l u i d i t y of the employment market i n the neighbouring business section. As pointed out previously, i t i s i n t h i s area that the young l i v e whilst beginning a career, hence occupational morale i s high. For the young females, th e i r occupation i s r e a l l y a means to a matrimonial end, consequently a time l i m i t (though individu-a l l y undefined) tends to make employment more enjoyable. The l i m i t a t i o n s s t i l l presented i:o the emancipated female f o r employ-ment are evident i n the lack of variety of jobs which are readily available to t h i s group. It i s doubtful whether t h e i r employ-ment bears any d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p to t h e i r style of l i f e other than a form of income that enables them to l i v e i t . The main occupation of the el d e r l y may be c l a s s i f i e d as l e i s u r e . (IV ) Leisure. Children to nine years o l d ; This group represents only 4.4% of the population as against the metropolitan average of 20.1%. And of t h i s group the vast majority are under 4 years of age, hence usually under f a i r l y d i r e c t parental supervision. Within the boundaries of the area there i s only one super-vised playground of l i m i t e d s i z e , however, the entire southern fringe i s a park s t r i p running p a r a l l e l to the beaches on the waterfront and the e n t i r e western end borders on the largest park in the c i t y which includes a children's zoo and playgrounds. There are also playgrounds attached to each of the schools, though these are generally of the blacktop v a r i e t y . The beaches have lifeguards during the summer months. With very l i t t l e adjustment, the area could e a s i l y supply more than adequate f a c i l i t i e s for a f a r larger c h i l d population. As mentioned previously, their lack of numbers i s due mainly to lack of suitable accommodation for young f a m i l i e s . Working mothers would require nursery schools and day care services for t h i s age group. Children from ten to fourteen; This group represents only 1.8% of the population as against the metropolitan average of 8.6%. The age group tends to organize t h e i r own play, though there are organized sports ( f o o t b a l l , baseball etc.) for them on the southern park boundary near the beaches. The small size of th i s age group makes further amenities for them u n l i k e l y . Teenagers from f i f t e e n to nineteen: This group represents 3.5% of the population as against the metropolitan average of 6.5%. There are many beaches and two extensive outdoor pools that a t t r a c t this age group (also other age groups of children and adults) dur* ing the summer months i n the park areas. There i s also an enclos-ed pool for year round swimming which i s well attended. The low delinquency rate and the high educational l e v e l s achieved by t h i s group represent them as being reasonably well adjusted to the society they l i v e i n . There are organized programs for this age group and young adults at the two Y's. The Y.M.C.A. i s i n the area and the Y.W.C.A. is only just outside the area. The " u n o f f i c i a l " meeting places tend to be at the beaches and pools during the summer and one or two selected cafes during the winter. The proximity of several c u l t u r a l amenities either i n or next to the area provide chances of enlarging t h e i r c u l t u r a l backgrounds should they so be i n c l i n e d . On the whole the older teenagers seem to have a maturer outlook on the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e than do t h e i r metropolitan counter-parts. There i s no d i s t i n c t gap between them and the next age group, such as i s found i n the suburbs, consequently the breakdown in communication between generations i s held at a minimum. I f anything, there i s a tendency to emulate th e i r close elders and to begin to reach for the standards that these more mature groups hold. The benefits of higher educations are more apparent to them as they are l i v i n g i n amongst a more educated adult population and can tangibly see the expected r e s u l t s . Adults from twenty to s i x t y four: Since the area caters primarily to the needs of adults, this sector of the c i t y has a great va r i e t y of possible adult l e i s u r e amenities. Beyond those already mentioned above, the parks include a p i t c h and putt course, tennis courts, a zoo, many acres of forests and walks, boat launch-ing ramps, etc. Close by there i s an excellent c i v i c marina, many movie houses, restaurants, dance h a l l s , pubs, l i b r a r i e s , auditoria etc. Many of the new apartment blocks have roof-top gardens, heated swimming pools, sauna baths etc. Just about every possible l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y that does not require large acreage ( i . e . g o l f -courses) i s catered to. It can be said that the area i s , or borders on, the centre of the c i t y ' s l e i s u r e section. Adults, s i x t y f i v e and up: As well as the amenities out-l i n e d that may s t i l l appeal to this age group the parks also i n -clude bowling greens and large scale chess and draught boards. The parks are dotted about with benches conveniently placed along the many l e v e l promenades. The extent of this age group*s l e i s u r e a c t i v i t y i s prob-ably proportional to a large degree to each individual's mobility, and since a large proportion of them l i v e i n the center of the area at a maximum distance from the parks, mobility plays an imp-ortant r o l e , consequently a great percentage of them are unable to take f u l l advantage of the amenities t h e o r e t i c a l l y available to them. This mobility factor i s aggravated by the fact that as well as distance, f a i r l y steep i n c l i n e s have to be overcome be-tween the centre and the parks, especially the park on the southern boundary by the sea. There i s an excellent neighbourhood house that caters to this age group as well as others, and i t i s a center of community a c t i v i t y . However, fo r an area the size of t h i s one there i s ob-vious need for a larger and more diverse and dynamic community focus. People - West End, 1961. Metro. Population: Males 11,431 45% 49.8% 393,452 Females 13,928 55 50.2 396,713 Total Fop. 25,359 100% 100% 790,165 3.2% of Metropolitan population (4.2% i n 1951) Age groups Metro M. West End M. Men Women W.E. Metro 0 - 4 10.8 3.1 355 321 2.3 10.2 5 - 9 9.9 1.8 204 241 1.7 9.4 10 - 14 8.8 2.0 226 226 1.6 8.4 15 - 19 6.4 2.7 310 565 4.0 6.5 2© - 24 5.4 6.5 747 1310 9.3 6.1 25 - 34 13.7 20.1 2301 2014 14.4 13.3 35 - 44 14.0 14.5 1656 1862 13.3 15.0 45 - 54 12.1 14.2 1621 2118 15.2 12.0 55 - 64 8.1 12.8 1459 1831 13.1 7.8 65 - 69 3.1 6.3 717 1007 7.6 3.5 70 & over 7.7 16.0 1835 2443 17.5 7.8 100% 100% 11431 13928 100% 100% Single: 0-14 1573 (16.2%) Tnrw (64.4%) 226 ,596 15 + 8157 (83.8%) 100% ( 3 5 < 6 % ) 125 ,819 Total 9730 = 38.4% of W.E. pop. 44.6% 352 ,415 Married: 11606 = 45.8% of W.E. pop. 48.7% 384 ,876 m'd&'WedS: 3212 = 12.7% of W.E. pop. 5.8% 45 ,602 Divorced: 811 = 3.1% of W.E. pop. 0.9% 7 ,272 25359 100% 100% 790 ,165 D. Population and E x i s t i n g Housing. (I) S t a t i s t i c s : The t o t a l population of the study area i s 25,359, which represents 3.2% of the metropolitan population. The population showed continuous increase up to 1941, where i t l e v e l l e d o f f at approximately the existing figure between then and 1961. There i s evidence to believe that the recent boom in apartment construc-tion would show a sharp increase i n population f i g u r e s , to between 30,000 and 35,000. Under the existing zoning regulations the population c e i l i n g for the area would be about 66,000 i f f u l l dev-elopment were to occur. The male/female ra t i o i s 45/55 which indicates a dispro-portionately large number of females as compared to the metropol-i t a n r a t i o which i s approximately 50/50. There are more females than males in every age group from 15 on upwards, except for the 25-34 age group (where i t i s expected that they have recently married and moved to suburbs to raise families for reasons stated e a r l i e r ) . The abnormally female dominated age groups are noticed p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the 20.24 and the 70 and over age groups. The former i s attributed to " o f f i c e 1 * g i r l s and the l a t t e r to "widows". There are 10,818 households on 470 acres (0.84 sq.mi) a l l i n c l u s i v e , t h i s gives densities of 53.9 persons per acre and 23 households per acre. Both these figures are the highest for the metropolitan region. The 0-14 years age group i s well below average (6,2% of area vs. metro, average 28.7%). It i s the lowest percentage f o r the metropolitan region; the over 65 age group i s well above av-erage, being second highest i n the metropolitan region (23.7% vs. metro, average 17.9%). The recent immigrant population i s very high (20.8% vs. Metro. 12.5%); occupancy f o r less than one year i s highest i n the region (32.6% vs. metro, 17.3%); one person households are also highest (39.4% vs, Metro, 13.2%); owner oc-cupied dwellings are lowest (11,5% vs. Metro. 69.7%); male unem-ployment i s very high (11.2% vs, Metro 5.7%); income i s generally s l i g h t l y lower except f o r females - see Part (A) Social Condition. The f e r t i l i t y r a t i o (number of children 0-4 per 1000 f e -males 20-44) i s 130,5, which i s probably the lowest ratio i n the metropolitan region. Of the population 46.8% were born outside Canada - this figure probably shows the area to have the highest immigrant r a t i o in the region. (II) Hierarchy of Values. Although nearly every facet of population i s represented i n this study area (with regard to age, colour and creed), t h i s by no means should be taken to point out the area as being t o t a l l y heterogeneous. Though the area i s i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y the most heterogeneous i n the region, the s t a t i s t i c s previously noted show the d i s t i n c t lack of children, the preponderance of young c h i l d -less adults and the large proportion of e l d e r l y . No a l l encom-\7 passing value system e x i s t s . The manifestly most obvious value system (especially to the outside observer) i s that followed by young adults, both un-rel a t e d and newly married. This group i n a c t u a l i t y only repre-sents approximately 30% of the population. Their values place importance on mobility, both physical and s o c i a l . This group exudes youth, v i t a l i t y and glamour and places much importance on the portable types of material wealth, such as cars, stereo, T.V., dress etc., ( i . e . the currently fashionable objects). S i m i l a r l y t h e i r i deals may often represent those currently i n vogue, and tend to both question and often r i d i c u l e ideals of yore. Their philosophy i s well documented by Hugh Hefner i n his Playboy mag-azine. Young adults are attracted to t h i s area by the availab-i l i t y and mobility of employment nearby, by the aura of glamour and freedom of ideas that pervade, by the "newness" of the area and by the maximum p o s s i b i l i t y of in t e r a c t i o n between l i k e i n d i v -iduals that occurs within the area. This group epitomizes the freedoms available i n that period between the d i s c i p l i n e s of par-ental and educational authority and the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of a car-eer. The adherents of t h i s group usually r e a l i s e that there i s a time l i m i t placed on this period by society, usually marked by marriage and the a r r i v a l of children to the new family. Conse-quently t h i s s t y l e - o f - l i f e often has the "abandon" associated with a " l a s t f l i n g " . Though i t may seem on the surface that the l i v e s of this group are e s s e n t i a l l y shallow and valueless, t h i s i s d e f i n i t e l y not the case. It i s t h i s group i n p a r t i c u l a r that re-assesses old and often obsolete values, re-evaluates them i n the l i g h t of new experiences and often adds new values to the l i s t . The greatest personal decisions must be made by t h i s group, i . e . those of the choice of a mate and a career. In essence this group i s continuing i t s education, attempting to apply previously taught rules, morals and knowledge to the r e a l i t i e s of l i f e . Hopefully from the i n t e r a c t i o n of these various forces, a c e r t a i n amount of wisdom w i l l be gained. During the weekdays, when the majority of young adults have l e f t the area f o r work i n the neighbouring business sections, the high percentage of e l d e r l y becomes more apparent. Their age makes t h i s group the least mobile in the area. On f i n e days they are much i n evidence walking around the streets, both commercial and r e s i d e n t i a l , and also s i t t i n g on the many park and street benches, t a l k i n g , watching children playing, other pedestrians walking or the vehicular t r a f f i c passing by. On the many days of bad weather, they tend to remain indoors, watching T.V. or poss-i b l y v i s i t i n g nearby neighbours. Their values are t r a d i t i o n a l and they often express bemusement or bewilderment of the values of the younger generations. Many of t h e i r cherished values have been shattered, as the r i s i n g property taxes have forced them from t h e i r homes and as t h e i r children and grandchildren have moved away in ever-widening c i r c l e s . Recently surveys of t h e i r needs have pointed out the lack of f a c i l i t i e s of a l l kinds i n the area which might enable many of them to l i v e f u l l e r and more enjoyable l i v e s . That t h i s i s possible has been demonstrated i n several c i t i e s . This group i s unfortunate i n having been caught up i n a changing period of our society, a period i n which there i s a change i n attitude towards s h i f t i n g the care of o l d people from the family to society. The family has a l l but given them up whereas society has yet to be f u l l y aware of i t s new role* In planning and designing for the aged i t i s often common for society to define the aged as a d i s t i n c t s o c i a l category of stereotypes with d e f i n i t e problems. This attitude overlooks the fact that those over 65 may include three generations of i n d i v i d -uals with great d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s . No other s o c i a l category i s defined that covers such a wide range of age and heterogeneity. The majority of those of 65 equate a feeling of indepen-dence with a sense of being part of a larger community, not cat-egorized by age or by ^problems and not concentrated by these categories. Being less mobile, most of t h i s group are greatly con-cerned with the areas i n which they l i v e and many can be assumed to have moved into the area by choice (and not s o l e l y by the lure of low r e n t a l s ) . A recent survey of the area showed that about 70% indicated they l i k e d their present dwellings and would l i k e to remain i n t h e i r neighbourhoods. Half of them preferred s e l f con-tained suites and one quarter preferred a room i n a private home. It has often been assumed that the el d e r l y prefer t h e i r own company. This may not necessarily be the case. A recent survey i n Edmonton showed that 75% l i k e d the company of young people, whereas only 8% objected to them. 40% also expressed the l i k i n g of being with their own kind, a further 18% approved with q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , and only 5% objected. Older people f i n d the company of young stimulating, claiming i t helps them to f e e l young and keep up with the times. It also has been shown that the s o c i a l and psychological factors loom larger than the actual physical conditions. The d i f f i c u l t y they f i n d i n forming new friendships often tends to decrease their s o c i a l mobility and consequently they often remain within groups that are t i g h t l y defined u n i t s . A displaced new-comer may have considerable d i f f i c u l t y entering such a group, and may f e e l unwanted and rejected i n the process. ( I I T 0 Use of Resources. The area i s located adjacent to the c i t y ' s downtown bus i -ness and r e t a i l centres where almost every possible consumer need may be s a t i s f i e d . However, within the area there are some 35,000 f t . of commercial street frontage of which 22,000 f t . are actually i n use. These commercial f a c i l i t i e s are well located on three d i s t i n c t s t r e e t s , which when taken together form a r e c t i -l i n e a r "loop" through the area, the ends of the loop being joined to a main commuter thoroughfare to the C.B.D. There i s no point 19 within the whole area more than three blocks from one of these r e t a i l s t r e e t s , and hence the 'bus route which also uses them. In the centre of the area i s found the occasional corner grocery store, usually run by Chinese. Recently modern r e t a i l f a c i l i t i e s (supermarkets etc.) have been placed towards the end of one of these streets i n the heart of the current apartment construction area. This i s approximately i n the south-western corner. The north-eastern corner contains the ethnic commercial street pre-viously mentioned, and this street runs unbroken into the downtown r e t a i l area, thus providing a continuous commercial l i n k between the two areas. Access to the waterfront on the northern boundary i s ef-f e c t i v e l y cut o f f by a main thoroughfare to the north shore sec-tions of the c i t y and by extensive f a c i l i t i e s such as boat-yards, docks, hotels and business o f f i c e s . The view to the mountains i n the north i s only f u l l y r e a l i s e d from the upper f l o o r s of the newer apartment buildings, as i s the view to the c i t y ' s main har-bour. As new h i - r i s e apartments and o f f i c e s multiply along the northern boundary i t i s expected that t h i s view w i l l eventually be blocked o f f to a l l except those l i v i n g on the northern f r i n g e . Extensive use i s made by the area's residents of the amen-i t i e s and f a c i l i t i e s i n the adjacent downtown area. These i n -clude the usual types generally associated with the l i v e s of c i t y -dwellers, such as: theatres, movie houses, l i b r a r i e s , art g a l l e r -i e s , museums, restaurants, night-clubs, auditoria, business o f f i c e s , r e t a i l functions etc. Within the study area there are many f a c i l i t i e s and i n s t -i t u t i o n s , some serving a more regional than l o c a l function. Ex-amples of both are: schools, Y.M.C.A., churches, f i r e - h a l l s , h o s p i t a l , public pools, beaches, parks, motor-vehicle testing s t a t i o n , veteran's a f f a i r s b u i l d i n g , employment o f f i c e s etc. The topography of the area indicates a humped h i l l towards the eastern edge of the area, with a gradual slope downwards to the west and the park, a less gradual but s t i l l gentle slope to the north and a steeper short slope to the beaches and park s t r i p on the south. The extreme southern and western edges have taken advantage of the sunny view oriented exposures, consequently i t i s these edges that have been the f i r s t to redevelop into the newer apartment areas. The western and south-western views on clear days take the viewers' eyes right across the gulf to the gulf islands and Vancouver Island i t s e l f , a view that can reach upwards of 50 miles. The mild climate i s another a t t r a c t i v e resource, which i s es p e c i a l l y a t t r a c t i v e to those from the i n t -e r i o r of the province and those from other eastern provinces. In summary i t can be said that many of the residents are drawn s p e c i f i c a l l y into the area by the resources i t has to o f f e r , consequently they attempt to make f u l l use of them, enjoying the s t y l e - o f - l i f e thereby obtainable. E. Education t (I) Amount Metro. (A) % of population attending school 6.3% 21.4% (B) »» « « not » 93.7 78.6 100% 100% (A) Attending school - 6.3% Elementary - under 5 yrs. 27.7% 39.2% - 5 and over 21.8 31.0 High school 1 to 2 yrs. 11.0 13.3 3 to 5 yr s . 23.4 11.4 University - 1 or more yrs. 16.1 5.1 100% 100% (B) Not attending school - 93.7% None - including children under 5 yrs. 3.4% 17.0% Elementary - 1 or more yrs. 23.5 24.8 High school 1 to 2 yrs 19.4 19.4 3 to 5 yrs 41.0 30.8 University - 1 or more yrs 12.7 8.0 100% 100% The area has probably the lowest school population i n the metropolitan region due to reasons already expounded. The high proportion (16.1%) of univer s i t y attendance amongst those presently attending school i s caused i n part by s e l f supporting (by work or parental remittance) students being attract ed to the area by the abundance of rental units available and the l i f e s t y l e of the area. In category (B) - those not attending school - there i s a very small percentage of population with no education at a l l , and generally speaking the standards reached are equal i n the middle ranges, to much higher i n the more advanced l e v e l s , to the metro-p o l i t a n average. In summary i t can be said that the adult educational l e v e l of the area i s one of the highest in the region, and in a l l pro-b a b i l i t y i t i s increasing. There are three schools i n the area with another used by the area but j u s t beyond i t s boundary. Three of these schools are elementary grades and one i s high school l e v e l . The school board has plans for an additional public elementary school even though the numbers of school children i n this category f e l l from 1961 (the peak year) to 1963. A l l these schools are to the Van-couver standard and the new high school also holds adult evening courses which are well attended. There i s an extensive vocational school i n the neighbour-ing business section, as well as an excellent school of Art. The art g a l l e r y close by also holds classes for a l l age groups. Generally speaking i t can be said that the population has a healthy r e a l i s a t i o n of the benefits accrued by education, and are w i l l i n g to forgo some o f the temporary benefits of an early s t a r t at a job for the added f r u i t s of future consumption gained by a f u l l e r and longer education. ( I 1 ) Importance to Society. The economic security and the s t a b i l i t y of an area are very often d i r e c t l y related to the l e v e l of education achieved by i t s population. Education has been firmly pinpointed as being one o f the major resources of any society, and education and tech-n i c a l training are becoming, as never before, important i n th i s age of s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . Vocational training i n more and more f i e l d s requires at le a s t some high-school education as a prerequisite. Individuals with only elementary education are therefore not only l i m i t e d with respect to employment opportunities but also li m i t e d with respect to learning a s k i l l valuable i n modern industry. In today's world of increasing automation requiring more s k i l l s and tr a i n i n g of workers at a l l l e v e l s , the necessity and d e s i r a b i l i t y of education has been well established. If the population i s to f u l l y r e a l i s e the f r u i t s of expand-ed l e i s u r e so often quoted as being j u s t around the corner, t h e i r c u l t u r a l and educational values w i l l also have to be expanded to keep the society healthy. A d d i t i o n a l l y , there i s a need f o r the trained people that would r e s u l t from an expanded education. It has been well documented that the benefits of greater education accrue to both the ind i v i d u a l and to society as a whole. Origins : Born i n Canada « o/s " Recent Immigrants (since 1946) E t h n i c i t y : B r i t i s h French German I t a l i a n Netherlands Polish Russian Scandinavian Ukrainian Other European A s i a t i c Others (ind. Indians) West End Metro 0Van. 13 ,487 53.2% 71.4% 563,476 11 .872 46.8 28.6 226,689 25 ,359 100% 100% 790,165 5 ,286 20.8 12.5 99,150 16 ,969 66.9 62.1 491,084 995 3.9 3.9 30,507 1 ,808 7.1 6.5 51,056 254 1.0 2.3 18,300 448 1.8 3.0 23,946 421 1.7 1.6 12,861 258 1.0 1.2 9,324 1 ,293 5.1 5.8 45,140 494 1.9 2.4 18,712 1 ,713 6.8 5.7 45,390 320 1.3 3.2 25,519 386 1.5 2,3 18,326 25 ,359 100% 100% 790,165 2 ^ O f f i c i a l languages; English only French " English and French Neither English or French O f f i c i a l Religions t R.C. C. of E. United Church Others (mainly Presbyterians, Lutherans, also Baptists, Greek Orthodox, Jewish, Ukrainian (Greek) Catholics and others) 23,025 90.8 94.9 750,086 40 0.1 0.2 1,254 2,173 8.6 3.9 30,870 121 0.5 1.0 7,955 25,359 100% 100% 790,165 4,433 17.5 16.3 129,120 7*073 27.9 22.4 177,251 5,825 23.0 30.7 242,010 8,028 31.6 30.6 241,784 25,359 100% 100% 790,165 F. Ethnic Group. The proportion of various ethnic backgrounds c l o s e l y p a r a l l -els that of the metropolitan region. The area could therefore be said to be • t y p i c a l * . There i s a s l i g h t l y larger percentage of B r i t i s h o r i g i n , and the English language i s to a l l respects the universal language of the area. As mentioned previously, one of the three shopping streets has a d i s t i n c t European flavour, notably German. The concentra-tion of t h i s commercial e t h n i c i t y tends to make the casual observ-er believe that the German population i n the area i s large, however, s t a t i s t i c s do not back up t h i s f a c t . This b e l i e f i s probably founded on the observance of so many Europeans i n such a small area. It i s possible to shop i n the area and hear very l i t t l e English spoken; the area acts as a f o c a l point for e t h n i c i t y , and serves the region as much as, i f not more than, the l o c a l i t y . None-the-less the "flavour** of t h i s shopping d i s t r i c t at-tracts a l l classes of the population, whether of ethnic background or Canadian, and i t i s strongly f e l t to be a desirable element i n the_ city-scape. G. S o c i a l mobility. To a l l intents the large " e l d e r l y " population in t h i s area has already s t r a t i f i e d i t s e l f into f a i r l y f i x e d l e v e l s of s o c i a l hierarchy. There i s l i t t l e evidence of mobility between these leve l s which are b a s i c a l l y lower-middle c l a s s , and some upper-middle c l a s s , the remaining small f r a c t i o n being upper and lower c l a s s . Presently the extreme western and south-western bound-aries house the upper and the upper-middle classes of this age group, whereas the central and less desirable areas house the largest proportion of lower-middle c l a s s . The e l d e r l y have gen-e r a l l y selected t h i s area to l i v e i n or remain because they pro-fess to enj*oy the s t y l e - o f - l i f e possible within i t . Considerable s o c i a l mobility i s possible amongst the young-er adults. This generally takes place between the lower-middle and the upper-middle classes. Young adults generally enter the area with the potential necessary for mobility; whether they make use of t h i s or not depends on the i n d i v i d u a l . This p o t e n t i a l i s generally supplied by the above average educational levels pre-viously noted. It i s doubtful whether there i s much mobility be-tween the lower classes and the lower-middle classes, though i t i s probably within this area that a maximum chance of t h i s occurs. The mobility between the upper-middle and upper classes i s neglig-i b l e , for whereas the material wealth, c u l t u r a l and educational q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for such a jump may be obtained, the actual assim-i l a t i o n into t h i s small class generally requires more than one generation. In summary then i t can be said that the s o c i a l mob-i l i t y i n the area i s mainly intra-middle c l a s s , and takes place between younger adults. It could be termed as a " s h u f f l i n g " pro-cess amongst the middle part of the pack. Having defined approximately the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s of classes and the mobility between them in t h i s area, i t should be noted here that of a l l the areas within the region many would consider t h i s area as probably the most c l a s s l e s s . It i s c e r t a i n l y the area i n which the majority of mixing occurs. The concept of s o c i a l class has by many been considered an anachronism and some of the aspirations of democracy are formulat-ed to abet t h i s . Both democracy and communism are founded on the b e l i e f s that a l l men are created equal and have attempted to implement these b e l i e f s . Geneticists point out that the actual chances of even two people being born equal are i n the order of b i l l i o n s to one; psychologists, s o c i o l o g i s t s and related f i e l d s are now stressing the importance of environment on the mental and educational well-being of various segments of the population; recently the r e l a t i o n s h i p of diet on mental a b i l i t i e s of children has been documented. Consequently the chances of being born equal are v i r t u a l l y n i l , and the chances of being raised equally approach that f i g u r e too. No men are equal; normalcy i s an i d e a l i s t i c q u a l i t y only; a l l men are individuals and as such t h e i r mental and physical attributes range through a l l the poss-i b l e spectrum of 'human-ness'. It therefore seems inevitable that man w i l l continue to structure his society j u s t as he has done for many thousands of years; people of l i k e interests and a b i l i t i e s w i l l prefer the company of t h e i r own sort and l i v e a l i f e - s t y l e that suits them. Whereas s o c i a l class once depended on lineage, today's new classes depend more on a b i l i t y , though s t i l l often helped by l i n e -age. Both world idealogies i n t h e i r attempt to create a norm from a structured society have i n actual fact created a new mid-dle c l a s s , drawn both from the previous upper and lower classes, so once where there was previously a two-class society there i s now a three-class society by the s p l i t t i n g up of the middle class into two. Since the upper class s t i l l depends to a great degree 2.4 on lineage and represents the hard core of the o l d upper class that has r e s i s t e d change, and since recent studies have shown that the lower class tends to beget i t s e l f due to reasons just mentioned such as environment, apathy and high b i r t h r a t e , i t i s only amongst this r e l a t i v e l y new middle class that any real soc-i a l mobility i s apparent. This mobility i s t y p i f i e d i n the study area, USE OF TIME. (A) Labour (I) Family Of the 5,543 families i n the study area only 58.8% had wage earner heads as compared to the metropolitan average of 69.1%. where there i s a family head his income i s $3911 (vs. metro. $4637) while the t o t a l family income i s $5178 (vs. metro, $5489), an increase of 32.4% (vs. metro. 18.5%). From these f i g -ures i t can be seen that incomes additional to that of the family head assume considerable importance i n t h i s area as compared to the metropolitan average. It has already been shoxvn that only 51.4% of the area's population are family (vs, metro. 84.5%) and that of these families 73.8% are c h i l d l e s s (vs. metro. 35.3%). This f a c t i s mirrored by the average number of children per fam-i l y which i s 0.4 (vs. metro. 1.4). The high percentage increase of income between family head and family i s caused by the well-above average number of c h i l d l e s s working couples and by the el d e r l y couples who draw two separate pension cheques. When a young couple has i t s f i r s t c h i l d the ramifications can be serious. F i r s t l y , the family income drops by over 30%j secondly, the larger l i v i n g unit now necessary w i l l be more ex-pensive; t h i r d l y , most landlords i n the area discriminate against children; and fourthly, there i s more furniture to be bought. In b r i e f then the new family i s faced with increased expenses to be met with a decreased income i n an area that has become h o s t i l e to t h e i r new status. Currently there are two possible solutions, -a move to a more run-down area where rents are low and children acceptable, or a move to a new suburb where homes may be bought with very low down payments. Both moves involve the d i s s o c i a -tion with a former self-chosen s t y l e - o f - l i f e . Old values must be dropped and new ones reinstated i n t h e i r place. The move has a compulsory overtone rather than a voluntary choice so cherished by our society. Though some may welcome t h i s change of l i f e , there are many who express d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and pine for the amen-i t i e s associated with a c i t y core, as the supposed economies of suburban l i v i n g do not materialize. The family, as i t i s commonly envisioned by our society (mother, father, one or more ch i l d r e n ) , i s consequently not the type of family generated by the study area. Rather i t i s the adult as a unit that defines this segment of the society. The unrelated individuals who work at independent jobs, who then 2 5 marry but continue to work at independent jobs and thus i n one sense remain i n d i v i d u a l s . The coming of children removes them from the area. The elderly i n the area are generally beyond the i r working years, and they return to the area once again with many of the attributes of unrelated i n d i v i d u a l s ; t h e i r children have l e f t them and t h e i r pensions cl o s e l y p a r a l l e l i n context the separate s a l a r i e s earned by the young adult couples with whom they share the area. The transient quality of the area previously mentioned attracts a number of transient workers, such as construction men, salesmen, seasonal labourers etc. They are catered to by the several boarding houses, hotels and motels i n the area. General-l y they are without family and enter the area between jobs and take advantage of the low rentals and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s i n and around the area. In summer when jobs are more p l e n t i f u l they ebb out l i k e a,tide, t h e i r places being quickly taken up by the i n f l u x of summer t o u r i s t s . As mentioned under "Attitude to work" e a r l i e r , most of the working male adults i n the area have a f a i r l y p o s i t i v e i n t -erest i n t h e i r work. Hopefully i t w i l l set the tone for t h e i r l a t e r working l i f e . Young female adults may consider t h e i r em-ployment enjoyable, but mainly as a means to an end. The large majority of workers are wage earners (90.5%) which coincides with the metropolitan trend. S e l f employment represents 9.2% of the population, which again i s f a i r l y average, though the type of s e l f employment i s probably more in the f i e l d s of s e l l i n g , promoting, semi-professional etc. rather than of the service nature (such as small shops and business) found elsewhere. Most of the larger chain stores have r e t a i l outlets either within or close to the area, and they a c t i v e l y r e s t r i c t any large scale encroachment of small self-owned businesses. The previously men-tioned ethnic commercial f a c i l i t i e s i n the north-east corner of the area are an exception to this r u l e , and t h e i r success i s main-l y due to t h e i r e t h n i c i t y which a chain type store cannot usually provide. The other two commercial streets are e s s e n t i a l l y chain owned i n th e i r successful areas, and are fringed with a few marg-i n a l businesses which exist mainly due to the high densities and the fact that t h e i r doors are open for very long hours. B. Leisure. (I) Voluntary. The lower than average male income must be o f f s e t by the fact that many of the male population are single and do not have a wife and/or a family to support. The non-single males are often married to a working wife or to a wife with some form of a pension i f e l d e r l y . Consequently the monies available for the pursuit of the material or physical l e i s u r e pleasures are usually at hand. Generally speaking, a f t e r paying out the necessary ex-penditures for food and shelter, there i s a considerable balance 1 6 of the pay check as of yet unaccounted f o r . The younger adults, having few r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s other than to themselves, have a mul-titude of possible avenues within which this balance may be spent. They have been drawn into the area by the f a c i l i t i e s and amenities in and around the area, and they use them well i n a s t y l e - o f - l i f e that tends to run from pay check to pay check. The range of pos-s i b l e l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s ' has been previously mentioned, and l i t t l e elaboration i s needed here. As noted before the majority of mat-e r i a l l e i s u r e conveniences are of >the portable nature. Cable-v i s i o n has brought multi-channel T.V., to the entire area and i s well used. The lower incidence of cars per household (0.4 vs. metro 0.7) i s o f f s e t by the physical proximity of both business and l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s , by the high proportion of younger female adults and by the large percentage of elderly who do not drive and have l i t t l e need t o . The range of possible l e i s u r e f a c i l i t i e s f o r the small percentage of children i n the area i s large and has already been mentioned. There i s a lack of f a c i l i t i e s directed at this group in the centre of the area, and those gracing i t s edges must be reached by crossing many well used t r a f f i c a r t e r i e s . (II) Unemployment. There are 11.2% of the male labour force unemployed and 3.8% of the female labour force. This compares with the metro-po l i t a n averages of 5.7% and 3.8%. The high male unemployment figures has been accounted f o r under "Occupation* 1, and as pointed out, i s l i t t l e cause for alarm. The female figure i s t y p i c a l for the region. For the e l d e r l y , the old age pension provides s u f f i c i e n t for a basic subsistence l e v e l of l i f e . The attendent degradation of human l i f e at this l e v e l i s as yet an unmeasured s o c i a l cost, though well documented i n "The Other America", the book that spark-ed the war on poverty. The a v a i l a b i l i t y of rooms and apartments in the older central part of the study area at reasonable rentals a l l e v i a t e s some of the f i n a n c i a l burdens of the el d e r l y , and re-ports have indicated that some of this group have yet other private incomes which supplement their pensions. This i s not intended to picture the el d e r l y of t h i s area as afflu e n t , for though this i s indeed the case with some of them, with many i t i s not true. Gen-e r a l l y speaking the el d e r l y of thi s area; are able to maintain standards of l i v i n g s l i g h t l y above the majority of the i r counter-parts i n most other regions. The location of one of the main unemployment government o f f i c e s at the edge of thi s area, coupled with the transient nat-ure of the area which tends to make i t a staging point between jobs for some of the population, gives the area exaggerated male unemployment s t a t i s t i c s . This i s especially noticeable when times are lean and many migrant workers return to the c i t y . 27 (III) Age Group. The range of possible l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s for the various age groups has been discussed, i t remains here, once again, to stress the importance of r e a l i z i n g that each of these age groups have p a r t i c u l a r l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s which though occasionally over-lapping, may often need to be separated by both place and time. (IV) S o c i a l Group. There i s evidence to suggest that s o c i a l grouping does occur amongst peoples of s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s . These groups can be considered loosely defined, overlapping and open ended. The sim-i l a r interests that loosely bind them are a r e f l e c t i o n of many reasonably d i s t i n c t features, such as age, income, personal l i k e s and d i s l i k e s , ethnic background, etc. Though proximity of hab-i t a t may i n d i r e c t l y help form some of these groupings, usually, and e s p e c i a l l y i n the case of the younger adults, the s o c i a l group i s not a p h y s i c a l l y bound group, i t s a f f i l i a t i o n s with other mem-bers of the group may be f a r flung with primary li n k s v i a the t e l e -phone and the c a p a b i l i t y of personal mobility. The e l d e r l y are more defined by physical proximity. Gen-e r a l l y i t could be sa i d that the compactness of any s o c i a l group i s p r i m arily a function of the mobility of i t s members, (V) S t y l e - o f - L i f e , The s t y l e of l i f e i s d i r e c t l y related to the l e i s u r e act-i v i t i e s , and to a lesser extent the type of employment possible i n and near the study area. It i s the f a c i l i t i e s and the amenities provided i n and around the area that are the prime drawing cards for the majority of the population. The range of possible a c t i v -i t i e s i s vast and has been previously l i s t e d ; the l i f e - s t y l e of the various segments of the society i n the area has been broadly hinted at and needs no further d e f i n i t i o n . S u f f i c e i t to mention here now that i t i s a way of l i f e a c t i v e l y sought aft e r by a large and growing proportion of the population and attempts to imitate some of i t s aspects are r e f l e c t e d i n the suburbs. It i s essen-t i a l l y an active l i f e - s t y l e , generating a maximum of s o c i a l i n t e r -action i n which freedom of thought i s encouraged more than i n any other area, except possibly i n s t i t u t i o n s of higher learning, and in which i t i s the i n d i v i d u a l who forms the basic population u n i t . It revolves around the hub of the business, transportation and com-munication centres of the c i t y , and as such new ideas are quickly assimilated and exchanged between the individuals of t h i s p a r t i c -ular cosmopolitan segment of society, ff©m whence they percolate out to the surrounding areas i n the region. It i s the human nerve centre of the region and i t i s cl o s e l y linked to other similar nerve centres both nationally and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . In a hoped for era of world unity i t w i l l be the peoples of such areas that w i l l probably be the f i r s t converts to such an international dogma. If any one area can be said to r e f l e c t the aspirations of our society i t i s an area such as t h i s , consequently i t can be re-garded as a focus and a prototype where new patterns are tested and old patterns re-assessed i n the l i g h t of new knowledge. MOBILITY AND COMMUNICATION. A. Physical M o b i l i t y . (I) and (II) Pedestrian and Vehicular The area i s presently bounded on the north and east by major vehicular l i n k s to the C.B.D. from outlying r e s i d e n t i a l areas. These form e f f e c t i v e pedestrian deterrents on those bound-ar i e s , and since a large proportion of the people i n the area must cross these a r t e r i e s to reach t h e i r place of work, considerable pedestrian t r a f f i c c o n f l i c t s occur. Future proposed r e s i d e n t i a l developments across the north t r a f f i c l i n k at the north-west corn-er of the area w i l l i n e v i t a b l y have either pedestrian overpasses or underpasses l i n k i n g i t with the study area. The proposals have suggested t h i s . As pointed out by a recent study, the area suffers from being a connecting l i n k f o r t r a f f i c between the north shore and the rest of Vancouver. It also connects Vancouver with the park on the area's west boundary, which i s a heavy t r a f f i c generator. Presently, as well as the major east-west artery on i t s northern boundary, subsidiary east-west routes are developing, due to increasing congestion, along the south boundary (forming a ped-est r i a n hazard between the most heavily populated zones and the area's major park-beach s t r i p ) , along both the commercial streets previously mentioned and along an inter n a l exclusively r e s i d e n t i a l street from which parking has recently been banned and onto which most north-south streets must give up the right-of-way. These p a r t i c u l a r streets are already becoming saturated during rush hours and drivers are increasingly seeking alternatives within the other intermediary east-west streets i n the area. Consequently the area i s taking on the appearance of a t r a f f i c " f i l t e r " , i . e . t r a f f i c enteres in a focus at one end, f i l t e r s through the area along i t s many possible east-west routes and refocuses at the op-posite end. This aspect of the area i s increasingly causing nuisance to i t s residents, both i n the form of noise, odours and personal pedestrian hazards. With the large population of e l d -e r l y the pot e n t i a l t r a f f i c hazards are mult i p l i e d , as studies have shown that t h i s age group i s f a r more prone to accidents than the younger adult population, whose t r a f f i c sense and re-flexes are fa s t e r . There i s a good public transportation system ( t r o l l e y buses) which traverses the three main commercial streets in the form of a loop previously described. As mentioned, no point i n the area i s more than 3 blocks from th i s route which l i n k s the area with the C.B.D. The service varies between 4 and 8 minute i n t e r v a l s during most, of the day, enlarging these intervals over the slack times u n t i l no service i s offered between 2,30 a.m. and 4.30 a.m. each day. It i s apparent that the streets i n the study area are supporting a f a r heavier volume of t r a f f i c than any r e s i d e n t i a l area should have to bear. The f i l t e r i n g e f f e c t during rush-hours has already been described, and i s caused by the fact that most of the heavy t r a f f i c flow through the area i s generated by through t r a f f i c not d i r e c t l y associated with the area. Geo-graphically the study area acts as a bottle-neck for t r a f f i c moving east and west and suffers from i t s location. It i s against t h i s through t r a f f i c that the considerable volume of purely l o c a l t r a f f i c must compete. It should be noted here that although the number of cars per household i s lower than the metropolitan average (0 .4 vs. 0.7), the size of the households are much smaller (2,1 vs. 3.3 persons), thus the actual number of cars per person i s approximately the same (0.19 vs. 0.21). Admittedly many of the area's residents either walk to work or use the public t r a n s i t systems, but none-the-less the area can and does generate a large l o c a l volume of t r a f f i c . The t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n i s again aggravated by the high density of the area, which causes a concentration of autos which means that the available parking f a c i l i t i e s are heavily taxed. Consequently, the area's narrow streets with a severe parking load r e s t r i c t the e f f i c i e n t movement of v e h i c l e s . Future development under proposed zoning regulations a n t i -cipate an -ultimate population of between 45,000 and 66,000. It thus becomes apparent that should t h i s f u l l development be r e a l -ized at either density, the resultant t r a f f i c volumes i n the study area would be out of a l l proportion to the existing c i r c -u l a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s . To t h i s dismal fact must be added the fact that growth over the whole metropolitan region w i l l generate a tremendous t r a f f i c movement between land uses east and west of the study area. S t a t i s t i c a l l y i n 1955 i t was estimated that approxim-ately 33,300 vehicle t r i p s entered and l e f t the study area d a i l y . To t h i s must be added the estimated 19,500 t r a n s i t passengers using the public transport system. By 1976 the forecasts are for an approximate 300% increase i n vehicle t r i p s and a 175% increase i n t r a n s i t passenger t r i p s . The following table gives some indication of the t r i p d i s t r i b u t i o n pattern generated from the area: Destination 1955 - % of Trips 1976 - % of Trips (es C.B.D. 34% 30% Central area excluding C.B.D. 19 18 North Shore 4 5 Beyond central area 43 47 100% 100% The public t r a n s i t pattern indicates that a considerable proportion (47%) of" the t o t a l t r a n s i t t r i p s to and from the study area are associated with the C.B.D. The estimated 1976 data i n -dicates that the same proportions w i l l apply regardless of popula-tion s i z e . The parking problems have already been hinted at. Recent surveys indicate that there i s an average occupancy rate for on-street parking of 100% in large areas of the study area during extended periods of the day. Parking i n the area i s very sens-i t i v e to a l l the following f a c t o r s : v i s i t o r s to the area, r e s i -dents, proximity to downtown, time of year and day, density dev-elopment and nearness to saturation of parking f a c i l i t i e s in d i f f e r e n t locations. In summary i t can be said that the vehicular problem in the study area i s a major problem which i n turn d i r e c t l y aggrav-ates the problems of pedestrian mobility throughout the area, the only exceptions being the v i r t u a l l y complete freedoim of pedestrian movement i n the park areas - once they manage to get there. ( I l l ) Travel Increasing affluence, higher educational l e v e l s , decreas-ing travel costs and increasing job mobility are emphasizing the growth of travel in our society. The high proportion of the area's population born outside Canada and the high percentage of recent immigrants point out the people of this area to be a r e l -a t i v e l y highly t r a v e l l e d segment of our society. Amongst the younger generation of adults i n the area there are but few who have not or do not express the desire for t r a v e l , both nation-a l l y and i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y . It i s a f u l l y accepted method of l e i s u r e and business a c t i v i t y that may often be linked with ed-ucational and c u l t u r a l overtones. The >.coming assurance of even cheaper yet fast forms of transportation promised by the next generation of super-sized j e t passenger planes w i l l inevitably increase yet further the desire and fulfilment of these desires for t r a v e l . It seems inevitable that as progress i n the f i e l d of mass transportation continues, the whole of our society, and e s p e c i a l l y the segment under consideration, w i l l broaden their travel horizons. The group under discussion have the added ad-vantages of being more highly educated than the average, of having fewer r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and of being younger, thus more easi l y accepting and adapting to new methods of t r a v e l . Travel agencies are already well integrated into the area and are presently doing a booming business. The central o f f i c e s of many of the leading a i r l i n e s and shipping lines l i e within a few blocks of the area and are thus e a s i l y accessible. B. Communicat ions. Communications i s the most rapidly advancing front i n our society. Presently transportation holds the banner for import-ance as measured by the economic system. Communications i s rap-i d l y catching up and recent studies by the Rand Corporation state 2.1 that t h i s new medium w i l l overtake transporation and lead industry by 1975. F i n a l l y the wheel i s being overcome by the electron. Already the telephone has become a substitute for many face to face confrontations that previously required physical proximity. Closed c i r c u i t T.V. i s further eroding the necessity of other such confrontations and the newly developed science of Lazer-holography promises to yet further advance the concept of bringing items to the viewer rather than the viewer physically moving to the item (be i t animate or inanimate). Already our patterns of movement have been r a d i c a l l y influenced by the elec-tronics media, and this influence i s only beginning to be f e l t . Though i t i s indeed doubtful that the electronic image w i l l ever completely displace the real image, the value of being able to "see and hear" almost instantaneously any spot on our globe i s inestimable. It i s rapidly becoming evident that these new media increase the rate of contacts between people, so though p o t e n t i a l l y and t h e o r e t i c a l l y they have the a b i l i t y to reduce t r i p s , they are as yet not a substitute for a l l face to face i n t e r a c t i o n . It i s evident that not a l l such interactions can be successfully accomplished v i a an intermediatory medium. Elec-tronics merely increases the p o t e n t i a l of contact and idea ex-change, and i n doing so a new hierarchy of values must be estab-l i s h e d , and the previously lower echelons of physical contact necessary may be now relegated to the use of these new media. At some p a r t i c u l a r point i n the spectrum of possible confrontation of individuals or groups, a l i n e i s drawn. Above th i s l i n e physical contact i s necessary and expedient, below this l i n e the electronic voice or image contact i s s u f f i c i e n t . As the elec-tronic communications media are perfected and enlarged i n scope, this l i n e w i l l i n e v i t a b l y be drawn higher up. This i s s e l f -evident, for whereas once a l l messages required face to face i n t e r a c t i o n , now only a certain proportion do. This proportion has been decreasing (with respect to type) over the years. (I) Radio and T e l e v i s i o n . Of the numerous radio stations that vie1, for audiences and saturate the a i r waves of this area, the majority are dominated by teen-age values. There are one or two exceptions to this rule which manage to obtain reasonably large audiences. Though no s t a t i s t i c s are at hand, i t i s possible that this area, being e s s e n t i a l l y low on teen-age population, has thus a li m i t e d choice of stations i n tune with their s t y l e - o f - l i f e . It i s known that a new semi-cultural radio station has a considerable audience i n the area, however, many of the values held by the young adults i n the area are probably offsprings of t h e i r recently quitted teen-age past, thus i t i s possible that the whole band of possible wave lengths provide areas of l i s t e n i n g . It should be noted however, that the younger adult population i s e s s e n t i a l l y a work-ing population, absent from th e i r radio sets during the day. ^-2 This being so i t i s probable that the T.V, media plays a f a r more dominant r o l e . It i s doubtful whether the radio plays a very important information giving role nowadays i n t h i s area. B a s i c a l l y the stations bombard the l i s t e n e r with advertising, broken occasionally by mainly l o c a l news and the currently fash-ionable musical forms. Televi s i o n appears to have become the dominant media for the impartation of both knowledge, culture and news. Its v i s u a l and auditory message being more powerful than the s o l e l y auditory message of the radio. Though the area has less T.V. sets per household than the metropolitan average (72.5% vs. 87.0%), this again must be o f f s e t by the smaller s i z e of households. Consequently the per capita number of sets i s higher than the average. The age group just entering the area and those of the f a i r l y recently arrived have been weaned on t e l e v i s i o n , which i s not the case of the elderly to whom i t was introduced part way through t h e i r l i v e s . This has caused a certain estrangement of values, which though usual between recent generations, i s more pronounced l a t e l y . Whereas the younger generation unquestion-ably accept and i d e n t i f y to a large degree with the i d e a l i s e d version of l i f e depicted on T.V., the elderly tend to enjoy the watching of i t but place i t beyond their own way of l i f e . It has been stated that the pre-electronic generations e s s e n t i a l l y gathered t h e i r information from the printed word. This usually implies a beginning l o g i c a l l y concluding i t s e l f to an end, and i n an uninterrupted manner. T.V. on the other hand, presents an array of b i t s of information, usually unrelated. For instance, any s p e c i f i c program may have one hour every two days, so the viewer must wait two days before the sequence i s c a r r i e d further. In the meantime there are many other such sequences running concurrently, thus information i s imparted by many sep-arate pulses which are linked by other s i m i l a r pulses to form a d i s j o i n t e d continuum. This basic change i n the information gathering process has drawn an intangible b a r r i e r between the pre and post T.V. generations. A di f f e r e n t way of thinking has been evolved. This i s the message of the T.V. medium, and a l -ready teaching aids based on these new p r i n c i p l e s have proven e f f e c t i v e i n the education of post-T.V. children who found the "older" methods quite a l i e n to t h e i r thought patterns. (II) Newspapers, Magazines and Movies. There are two major newspapers serving the area, one i n the morning and one i n the evening. Since they are owned by a single company (and a c t u a l l y share the f a c i l i t i e s of the same building) they e s s e n t i a l l y mirror one another's by-lines. A choice between the two i s e s s e n t i a l l y a choice between a va r i e t y of syndicated columnists and comic s t r i p authors, with a possible preference for the time of day best l i k e d for reading i t s con-tents. The evening paper has the larger c i r c u l a t i o n and con-^3 sequently carries more advertising, otherwise there i s l i t t l e difference except that the morning paper's e d i t o r i a l s often tend to be more l i b e r a l . There i s also a weekly l o c a l paper which e s s e n t i a l l y deals with the. exchange of goods and facts within a very small segment of the area's population. It i s occasionally used as a forum when some p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the area i s threatened, though i t s probable effectiveness i s small© The magazines available i n the area are the usual ones di s t r i b u t e d a l l over North America. There i s one store that deals with e s s e n t i a l l y left-wing p e r i o d i c a l s and since i t i s prob-ably unique to the metropolitan region i t i s possible to look on both sides of the coin of world a f f a i r s more easily from this area. The ethnic commercial s t r i p mentioned previously has sev-era l shops that gather together newspapers and other periodicals from the world over, though mainly o f Western European o r i g i n . These are bought and read by a li m i t e d segment of the population and probably on a more regional scale. There i s one movie house i n the area which usually shows re-runs, however, the neighbouring central d i s t r i c t i s the movie centre of the region and also of the province. It i s s u f f i c i e n t -l y high i n status that a l l major films are premiered i n i t . This d i s t i n c t i o n i s not the case with most North American c i t i e s , some with larger populations. From the multitude of movie houses i n the adjoining area i t i s possible to view any type of f i l m passed by the national censor, from horror movies to " a r t s " movies. Every cinematic taste i s catered to. The population of the study area probably makes f u l l use of these f a c i l i t i e s as they are a prime means of l e i s u r e and conveniently situated to them. GOVERNMENT. A . Level. The study area l i e s within the boundaries of the c i t y of Vancouver. It has no di r e c t representation on the c i t y council beyond the voice of each voter i n choosing aldermen from the c i t y as a whole. As most aldermen come from the west side of the c i t y i n which t h i s area i s situated and since the area represents a large voting body of the population, the area has a voice i n the governing of the c i t y . However, as the majority of residents are renters (88.5% of dwellings are tenant occupied vs. metro, average 30.3%), those allowed to vote on money by-laws are few of those who act u a l l y l i v e i n the area, but mainly absentee landlords. Recently there have been indications that this might change, as i n fact renters i n d i r e c t l y pay the taxes of the dwellings they occupy. None-t h e l e s s renters s t i l l occupy the l e v e l of second class c i t i z e n s with respect to money by-laws. 34 There i s a Ratepayers Association which, though comprised mainly of the older segments of the population (since the younger segments are e s s e n t i a l l y t r a n s i t o r y and therefore normally unwil-l i n g to commit much time to such p u r s u i t s ) , has had a moderately e f f e c t i v e voice i n p l o t t i n g the course of change i n the area* Generally they react against stated proposals and seldom on t h e i r own i n i t i a t i v e promote new changes. E s s e n t i a l l y they act as a 'brake' for the area, however, i f pressed hard enough, they are usually over-ruled. There are indications of other organizations which occasionally attempt to voice the c i t i z e n s ' ideas as to physical changes i n the area. These are usually i n e f f e c t u a l and do l i t t l e more than sew the seeds of ideas into the councils' ears. Of these organizations the community council i s probably the most representative organ of the area, as well as being the most active and i n f l u e n t i a l . This group has as i t s objectives the development of the community and community f a c i l i t i e s and protection of the area and i t s major park against freeways and t h e i r damaging e f f e c t , i n order to preserve the many advantages of both. It i s composed of representatives of church groups, parent-teacher associations, business associations, p o l i t i c a l parties etc. whether i t i s representative of tenants of the new apartment developments i s not known, but i t i s l i k e l y that i t i s weighted i n favour of the older residents and property owners of the area. At any rate i t i s an important vehicle i n the forma-tion and expression of attitudes of an important proportion of the area's residents. As such i t has waged a continuing f i g h t for moreparks (in the central area), against freeways or express-ways either i n the major park (on the west boundary) or cutting through the area in any way, against tree removals on street boulevards, against recent proposals for a major apartment-shop-ping complex at the north-west corner of the area and for senior c i t i z e n s * housing. Presently under consideration i s a senior c i t i z e n ' s com-munity centre and a senior c i t i z e n ' s block of housing, being spon-sored by Federal a u t h o r i t i e s . Q u a l i f i c a t i o n s for government assistance i n the form of family allowances, old age pensions, unemployment insurance and hospital benefits are a l l dependent on resident q u a l i f i c a t i o n s , that except for a minority, are f u l f i l l e d by the population. The control of landnsse i n the area has had the dominant eff e c t on the physical q u a l i t y of the area. Prior to 1956, the primary zoning controls regulating the form of apartment development were based on yard, height and some-what crude density controls* Height was limited to 6 storeys and density was controlled by the yard and height envelope and a min-imum suite s i z e . The existing Zoning and Development By-law, adopted i n 1956, that introduced changes i n the zoning regulations resulted in a d i s t i n c t improvement in apartment development in the area. Other zoning revisions since 1956 have produced further improvements. Examples of the improved form of development can be seen throughout the area in the many new "tower" and "slab-type' buildings which have lesser s i t e coverage and better daylighting than t h e i r forerunners. There presently exists a duality i n the possible methods of further development. Under the " o l d " method, a developer may r i g i d l y follow the existing code and zoning r e s t r i c t i o n s and have his proposed development accepted on the l e t t e r of the law bas i s . B a s i c a l l y the density i s gov-erned by the f l o o r space r a t i o index which relates the permis-s i b l e f l o o r space to the l o t area. Certain bonuses f o r corner s i t e s , less s i t e coverage, concealed parking etc. may be obtained* A zoning envelope i s defined mainly related to l o t si z e and day-l i g h t i n g , and a maximum height i s sp e c i f i e d (80 f t . i n 1961) ex-cept where approval i s granted by the Technical Planning Board. Provided this height i s not exceeded by a certain proportion of the bui l d i n g , approvals are usually granted. Previously balcon-ies over a certa i n very minimum width had been included i n f u l l into the permissible F.S.R., with the consequence that many blocks have balconies of between 12" and 18" i n depth, hardly enough f o r a planter. Recently these regulations have been relaxed allow-ing for a certa i n excess/area over the permissible F.S.R. to be used by balconies, with the re s u l t that balconies i n the l a t e r buildings are now usable. Under th i s method of development s t r i c t front, rear and side yard requirements are adhered to. The a l t e r n a t i v e method b a s i c a l l y encourages the developer to consolidate several l o t s and to propose a comprehensive devel-opment on these l o t s , bonuses being possible by point blocks with minimum s i t e coverage. The "older" method tended to create an apartment wall around the fringe of the area, r e s t r i c t i n g views to those not on t h i s f r i n g e . This newer method has already re-sulted i n v a s t l y improved land use and more sensitive s i t i n g , and i s d e f i n i t e l y a step i n the right d i r e c t i o n . Off street parking i s compulsory to a l l new developments and i s mainly a function of the rentable f l o o r space. With respect to arc h i t e c t u r a l design, i t i s a p o l i c y of the Technical Planning Board to have a l l apartment buildings re-viewed f o r design, and where they f a l l below a certain standard they are referred to the c i t y ' s design panel for advice. As f a r as commercial development i s concerned, generally the area i s considered to be commercially over-zoned. This i s evidenced by commercial sprawl and the present lack of f u l l usage of commercially zoned areas. Presently many of the r e t a i l f a c i l -i t i e s are scattered and inconveniently placed for many of the residents. New multiple zoning p o s s i b i l i t i e s have created com-mercial establishments on the lower f l o o r s of some r e s i d e n t i a l blocks* These have been well received by the residents, prob-ably because of greatly increased convenience to them. The zoning regulations as presently defined have r e s u l t -ed i n private enterprise quickly manipulating them to their advan-tage. The recent and continuing apartment boom has been geared almost t o t a l l y to the younger generations at the expense of the young families with children and the large e l d e r l y population. It i s doubtful' that the l a t t e r categories can presently have the i r needs met by private enterprise under the existing s i t u a t i o n . Any proposals f o r redevelopment i n the area would thus become a l o c a l government r e s p o n s i b i l i t y with financing arranged by the National Housing Act. Because of the necessity of providing the necess-ary f a c i l i t i e s f o r such groups i n addition to housing, i t i s rec-ommended that the act be enlarged to encompass these needs* B. Agencies. (I) National Employment O f f i c e and Unemployment Insurance. It has already been shown that the high unemployment rate, rather than being a r e f l e c t i o n on the category and work habits of the majority of the residents, i s i n actual fact a r e f l e c t i o n on the transient nature of segments of the area's population. The employment o f f i c e i s one of the major of such o f f i c e s i n the reg-ion and caters d i r e c t l y to these transients, acting i n most cases as a mediator between employees and employers, the l a t t e r who often have head o f f i c e s . i n the adjoining central C.B.D. areas* The high proportion of recent immigrants i n the area may amplify the d i f f i c u l t y i n securing employment f o r some, as lang-uage and custom may pose problems* The most recent immigrants are also i n many cases i n e l i g i b l e for unemployment insurance ben-e f i t s . (II) Immigration and C i t i z e n s h i p Branches* It i s the function of the Immigration Branch to o f f i c i a l l y welcome immigrants and see to their immediate welfare. Informa-tion on the Canadian way of l i f e and sources of assistance are given and councelling on immediate problems i s offered and depend-ing on the terms of immigration, employment may be found. The main body of immigrants are referred to the National Employment O f f i c e , and presently, as times are good, suitable employment i s usually found f a i r l y quickly. The c i t i z e n s h i p o f f i c e r a s s i s t s and advises l o c a l organ-izations and agencies engaged i n integrating newcomers. He pro-motes Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p by a s s i s t i n g i n some aspects programs for adult education. These functions are of i n d i r e c t service to the newcomer and there i s no o f f i c e that supplies i n d i v i d u a l atten-tion or treatment to their problems * Generally the new immigrant has some r e l a t i v e or f r i e n d whom they contact on entering the area. This softens the new-comer's landing, and with this personal form of welcome he i s more e a s i l y assimilated into the society. Contacts for jobs may be quickly arranged through acquaintances or he may be directed pers-onally to the correct agencies. The rapid turnover of such new-comers i h the area gives credence to the e f f e c t i v e forms of o f f i -c i a l or personal welcome afforded to each new immigrant. The system seems to function reasonably well, and those of English tongue seem to have r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e d i f f i c u l t i n finding t h e i r way into the Canadian way of l i f e . ( I l l ) Local Welfare Agencies. The C i t y of Vancouver has broad well-established welfare services. However, these services are divided into public and private sectors and further sub-divided by r e l i g i o n and type. To the outsider this may present a bewildering experience, especial-l y from those unaccustomed to professional help. In many cases the newcomer may be unaware of the services offered, ignore them or become resentful of t h e i r i n t r a c a c i e s . Occasionally the new-comer may be d i s q u a l i f i e d from these services by his resident status. The l o c a l welfare agencies i n thi s area generally cater to English speaking c l i e n t s . A large proportion of these are eld e r l y , a small proportion are of the "beatnik" category (able but unwilling) and the rest are hard-core unemployables (who i n -habit pockets of degeaerate housing) and those genuinely out of luck. There are other areas i n the c i t y with f a r more pressing welfare problems, and generally speaking the agencies i n this study area- have the i r own problems under reasonably good con t r o l . Occupied Dwellings Metro 10,818 Average 228,598 Single detached 958 9.2% 78.3% 171,620 Apartments 9,417 90.8 21.7 47,630 10,375 100% 100% 219,250 Rooms/dwelling 3.35 5 Persons/room 0.6 0i7 Crowded dwellings 3.2 8.3 % owner occupied 11.5 69.7 Median value $21,900 $13,900 % tenant occupied 88.5 30.3 Average contract rent $87/mo. $75 Length of occupancy 1 yr. 3,352 32.6 (recent) 17.3 39,620 1 - 2 " 2*662 24.6 18.5 42,212 3 - 5 »« 2,143 19.8 22.0 50j160 6 -10 » 1,313 12.2 18.4 42*126 10 * «» 1*168 10.8 23.8 54*480 10,818 100% 100% 228,598 Period of construction . -before 1920 3*153 29.1% 16.2% 36*920 1921 - 1944 2,537 23.4 34.2 78,199 after 1945 5,128 47.5 49.6 113,479 10,818 100% 100% 228,598 Lacking e x c l . f l u s h t o i l e t " " bath or shower Furnace heating Frigs« T.V. Cars/H.H. i . e . 1 car per 5.6 people 13.7% 11.6 97.0 93.0 72.5 0.4 Area: Densities: Density/sq.mile 1921 19,915 31 24,188 41 30,632 51 28i433 61 30,189 470 acres (0.84 sq.mi.) 220 acres (47%) are rights of way % of Metro 7.5 6.0 6.5 4.2 3.2 population 16,729 20,318 25,731 23,884 25,359 8.5% 5.8 84.0 96.0 87.0 0.7 4.8 Hous ing A. Economics ( i ) Average wage family head M, male female ** family wage % tenant occupied dwellings Average contract rent Average rents (approx 3j911 3*704 2*583 5,178 88.5% $87 per month 80 per month 90 110 130 180 11.5% $ 21,900 rt n t i r i figures 1961) Bachelor suites 1 bedroom 2 Bedrooms 3 bedrooms (or more) penthouses % owner occupied dwellings Average dwelling cost Lot sizes 131 f t . deep x 66 f t or 30 f t frontage generally Approximate foot frontage costs :-Waterfrontage on southern edge $1500/ft Western blocks close to park 880/ft Inner central areas 450 to 600/ft Commercial streets 1000/ft (Note: Each l o t may vary due to l o c a l conditions, so the above figures are only approximate and average). B. Types of Housing. Of the households in-the area 53.2% are non-family (metro-po l i t a n average i s 17.7%). There are on an average 2.1 persons/ household (metropolitan average i s 3.3) and 2.4 persons/family (vs. metropolitan average of 3.4) giving 0.4 children/family (vs. metropolitan average of 1.4). 73.8% of a l l families have no children (vs. metropolitan average of 35.3%); 23.4% have 1 to 2 children (vs. metropolitan average of 43.2%); 2.8% have over 3 children (vs. " •» " 21.5%). 51.4% of the population belong to a family (vs. metropolitance 84.5%). 28.2% of the population i s over 65 (vs. metropolitance average of 14.9%) Many of the aged are poorly housed and the services they require are inadequate. There i s a lack of housing for families with children, and what exists i s generally i n poor condition, 88,5% of the dwellings are tenant occupied with an average contract rent of $87 per month. The present density of the area i s 30,189 persons per square mile and increasing. Of the dwellings i n the area 29.1% were b u i l t before 1920, 23.4% between 1921 and 1944 and the remaining 47.5% since 1945. Of these dwellings 78% erected before 1915 are i n poor or very poor condition; 46% erected between 1916 and 1930 are i n poor or very poor condition, while those b u i l t after 1931 are i n either good or f a i r condition. As previously stated, the majority of recent apartment development has occurred on the south and west fringe areas, leaving a large older central area. Bachelor suites have the lowest vacancy rates, as do suites b u i l t since 1959. Bachelor, one bedroom and two bedroom suites comprise 25%, 57% and 13% respectively, of a l l suites in the study area. Existing l o t s are 66% of frontage 33' or l e s s , the remain-der being predominantly 66' frontage, _ Generally speaking, private enterprise has catered f a i r l y well with units f o r the younger generations and families without ch i l d r e n . The poorer e l d e r l y are predominantly being forced into the cheaper, older and more central areas and young families with children are usually forced out of the area altogether either into low rent d i s t r i c t s that allow for children or to the newly devel-oping suburbs. The attitudes of both of these groups concerning this state of a f f a i r s has been previously documented, D. T r a f f i c . The t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n both as existing and as speculated has been entered into i n d e t a i l under "Mobility and Communication Physical Mobility - Pedestrian and Vehicular". S u f f i c e i t to be stated here that any development under consideration must f i r s t attempt to solve the growing problems of t r a f f i c . No solutions can be advanced with s i n c e r i t y u n t i l the t r a f f i c problem has been solved. This i s d e f i n i t e l y a pre-requisite that may not be ne-glected. The problem i s a dual one, as i t involves a large l o c -a l t r a f f i c s i t u a t i o n and also one of catering to the majority of t r a f f i c that i s s t r i c t l y through-traffic and not d i r e c t l y con-nected to the study area, other than using i t as a right of way. Presently 47% of the t o t a l area under study i s given over to rights of way. Ao E. Physical Character of the Area, The area as defined by t h i s study l i e s on the western half of a humped-back ridge adjoining the central c i t y area. The ridge has i t s high point towards the south-east end and slopes gently along a peninsula towards a major park at the western border; there i s a shallow slope to the c i t y ' s main harbour on the north and a steeper slope to the beach-park s t r i p on the south. A view is thus afforded to the south across a narrow neck of water to further r e s i d e n t i a l parts of the c i t y ; to the west over the park to sea, where on f i n e days an unobstructed view of Vancouver I s l -and's mountains 50 miles away can be seen; and to the north across the harbour to the north shore communities of the c i t y , topped by mountains. Only on the south east are the slopes s u f f i c i e n t l y steep to make walking u p h i l l strenuous for o l d people. The study area i s 470 acres (0.84 sq.mi.) and has over a mile of waterfront-age and s l i g h t l y under half a mile of park frontage to the west. The s o i l s underlying the area belong to a group known as " g l a c i a l and i n t e r g l a c i a l " . A thick mantle of Newton Stony clay overlies the Surrey T i l l which i s prevalent throughout the Van-couver area. Surface drainage i s good because of the sloping nature of the s i t e and Surrey T i l l i s classed as a good foundation material, but Newton Stony clay i s classed as poor. As the l a t t e r covers the area to a considerable depth, great care has to be taken i n designing adequate foundations for multi-storied b u i ldings. There are four main types of buildings in the area. 1. Modern high-rise apartments of masonry (concrete) construction. A l l of these are of recent vintage and t h i s type presently ap-pears to indicate the future trend of development. 2. Four to six-storey brick and masonry apartment buildings which were the .'high-rise' apartment buildings of the previous era. 3. Two-and-a-half storey wood frame, basement and penthouse apartment walk-ups. 4. Converted single-family dwellings o f wood-frame construction. In addition to these four main types there are also some stone-built mansions, a few box-Tike rooming houses of a type com-mon in an e a r l i e r era of t h i s century and some commercial, i n s t i t -utional and o f f i c e buildings of the usual type i n the areas zoned for commercial use. One of the c i t y ' s major hospitals i s on the eastern boundary. The age type and conditions of these buildings have pre-viously been documented. The area i s presently (1966) involved i n an apartment building boom, mainly along the southern and western boundaries. There i s some in d i c a t i o n that t h i s boom i s slackening, though many expect the pace to resume. The type and densities of the population have already been well documented. F. Geography and Climate. The geography was dealt with i n the previous section. The study area has a micro-climate almost i d e n t i c a l with that of the downtown area except that most of the area benefits from sun-shine due to i t s southerly exposure. The pre v a i l i n g winds are from the west which means that the area i s blessed with unpoluted sea a i r s ; r a i n f a l l i s p l e n t i f u l and the average f r o s t free period i s 218 days per annum. Before being b u i l t up, the area supported a t y p i c a l west coast r a i n forest, i t s type can s t i l l be determined by the large forested park on the western boundary. The area i s situated i n a zone which i s subject to severe damage by earthquake. This p a r t i c u l a r earthquake bel t i s one which starts up north in Alaska and passes through Vancouver on i t s way to C a l i f o r n i a and beyond. This fact has implications f o r the type of buildings suited f o r the area. The summers are generally short and the skies overcast and grey. The sea acts as a temperature moderator, consequently the climate i s mild, temperatures seldom above 80°F and seldom much below freez i n g . Snowfall i s generally b r i e f and s e t t l i n g snow quickly turns into slush and drains away. Occasionally i n l a t e autumn there i s an "Indian summer" which may l a s t f o r a few weeks. G. Growth. From 1921 to 1961 Metropolitan Vancouver has grown from 223,194 to 790,165 which i s approximately 3^ times the 1921 f i g u r e . During the same period the study area has grown" approximately 1% times, from 16,729 (7.5% of the metropolitan population) to 25,359 (3.2% o f the metropolitan population). By 1983 the metropolitan population i s expected to double to 1,600,000 whereas the study area's population has an expected c e i l i n g of 6t),000 under proposed zoning. Being li m i t e d i n area, any growth beyond this f i g u r e must be upwards rather than h o r i z o n t a l l y , increasing densities and not areas. Presently several other areas i n the c i t y have been zoned for high-rise. This has to some extent taken the pressures o f f the study area and i t i s expected that i t s r e l a t i v e importance population-wise to the rest of the metropolitan area w i l l continue to diminish, increasingly so as saturation i s approached i n the area. The following i s a point summary of the previous pages; 1. The study area i s one of the oldest parts of the metropolis, the largest i n the Province, 2. It has always been a r e s i d e n t i a l area a f t e r settlement, con-s i s t e n t l y increasing i t s r e s i d e n t i a l densities over time. Al 3. Its ex i s t i n g population (1961) i s approximately 25,500 persons l i v i n g at 54 persons/acre, making i t the densest area i n the metro-p o l i s . 4. It i s presently almost exclusively zoned for high density, with commercial and recreational intrusions.-. 5. It adjoins the urban core, which contains the metropolis* main recreational* r e t a i l and business d i s t r i c t s . 6. It i s 470 acres i n size and bounded by water to the north and south, and by a large regional park to the west. 7. Further expansion must be by increasing r e s i d e n t i a l densities v e r t i c a l l y , o f to the east which i s presently a decaying commer-c i a l - r e s i d e n t i a l area. 8. Its v i s u a l boundaries (as seen from i t s centre) extend to a panoramic view to the north, south and west. 9. Its proximity to f i n e natural features (parks, beaches) and the urban core, and the abundance of f a c i l i t i e s and amenities i n and around i t , help define an urbane s t y l e - o f - l i f e , and make the area a highly desirable r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i c t s . 10. Land ownership i s widely d i s t r i b u t e d . 11. Land values are high demanding maximum usage. 12. The change i n r e s i d e n t i a l densities and type over time has resulted i n a mixture of older houses and newer apartment blocks. 13. The newer apartment buildings presently command the select amenity locations, creating pockets of older dwellings i n the cen-t r a l area, surrounded by a wall of high-rise dwellings. 14. The trend i s towards larger high-rise blocks with less s i t e coverage. 15. Present r e s i d e n t i a l developments are reducing the range of re s i d e n t i a l accommodation. 16. Dwellings are mainly r e n t a l . 17. Maximum densities, under existing zoning regulations, are 140 persons/acre, considered by many to be excessively high. 18. Recent high-density developments elsewhere i n the c i t y are slowing the growth in the area, and tending to select a residen-t i a l population s p e c i f i c a l l y i n tune with the area's p a r t i c u l a r amenities. 19. The population i s s t i l l increasing, though at a lower rate than the metropolis. 20. There are several hotels, motels, boarding houses, etc. that cater to the transients of the area. 21. There i s a lack of open space i n the central areas. 22. Modern o f f i c e buildings are encroaching upon the northern boundary. 23. Professional o f f i c e s serving the l o c a l community are included i n the three commercial s t r i p s through the area. 24. The shops on these commercial s t r i p s are of the 'necessity' or 'day-to-day needs' v a r i e t y . 25. One of these shopping streets has an 'ethnic' flavour, and draws customers regionally. 26. Schooling f a c i l i t i e s are quantitatively s u f f i c i e n t for the declining school aged population, but q u a l i t a t i v e l y inadequate. 27. C h i l d play f a c i l i t i e s are minimal. 28. Community f a c i l i t i e s are minimal. 29. Many of the i n s t i t u t i o n s i n the area serve the regional popu-l a t i o n (hospitals, churches etc.) 30. E x i s t i n g commercial areas are subject to sprawl and not yet f u l l y u t i l i s e d . 31. - The population i s characterised by a low proportion of c h i l d -ren, and a high proportion of both young adults and e l d e r l y . 32. The area discriminates against people economically. 33. The area discriminates against children. 34. The population i s characterised by transiency, e s p e c i a l l y at the younger adult age l e v e l s . 35. The ' i n d i v i d u a l ' forms the basic population u n i t , as opposed to the 'family' i n otherresidential areas. 36. There are more females than males i n the population. 37; The number of females employed exceeds that of males. 38. A large proportion Of the population forms a labour pool for the adjoining urban core. 39. There i s a d i s t i n c t c o r r e l a t i o n between the mapping of popula-tion t e r r i t o r i a l l y i n the area and the types of dwellings a v a i l a b l e . 40. This t e r r i t o r i a l mapping i s linked to economic and physical mobility f a c t o r s . 41. The affluent younger adults l i v e i n the south-west high view amenity area. 42. The less affluent younger adults l i v e i n the north-east within walking distance o f the urban core. 43. The affluent e l d e r l y l i v e adjoining the park on the western boundary. 44. The poorer e l d e r l y and the families with children inhabit the older converted single family dwellings i n the centre and the south east. 45. Most newly formed nuclear families move to suburbia. 46. The exclusion of nuclear families has compulsory overtones involving a change i n self-chosen l i f e - s t y l e values. 47. Most suburbanites from the area d i s l i k e t h e i r new enforced environment. 48. The younger age groups without children are presently being suitably housed by private enterprise. 49. The population increase i s being accommodated i n new apart-ments of the high-rise v a r i e t y . 50. The population i s predominantly of English o r i g i n , and English i s the universal spoken language. 51. Increasing population mobility enables many residents of the area to work beyond the central urban d i s t r i c t s . 52. The population i s highly mobile, except f o r the e l d e r l y . 53. The population i s e s s e n t i a l l y 'middle-class' and displays a high rate of s o c i a l mobility within these l i m i t s . 54. Religious a f f i l i a t i o n s follow the metropolitan averages. 55. Employment i s mainly of the 'white c o l l a r * o f f i c e variety as opposed to 'blue c o l l a r ' production processes v a r i e t y . 56. Educational l e v e l s are higher than the metropolitan averages. 57. The most noticeable l i f e - s t y l e i s e s s e n t i a l l y active and pur-sued by the younger adults. 58. The large proportion of e l d e r l y have a more passive l i f e - s t y l e . 59. S o c i a l f o c i exist in the form of churches, clubs and i n s t i t u -tions, but those most evident are unorganised and associated with the active younger generation l i f e - s t y l e ( i . e . beaches, pools, dances, p a r t i e s , restaurants and entertainment f a c i l i t i e s , etc.) 60. The climate i s mild, a t t r a c t i n g many 'out of province' r e s i -dents, especially r e t i r e d e l d e r l y . 61. T r a f f i c i s a major and growing problem. 62. Presently 47% of the area i s i n rights-of-way. 63. Over h a l f the t r a f f i c in the area i s not generated l o c a l l y . 64. The area presently suffers from being a connecting l i n k be-tween other metropolitan f o c i . Basic Conclusions. A. THE POPULATION IS ATTRACTED TO THE AREA FOR 'PROXIMITY' REASONS THE CLOSE MUTUAL ACCESSIBILITY OF BOTH PEOPLE AND PLACES. B. ONCE IN THE AREA, THE POPULATION IS MAPPED ACCORDING TO PHYSI-CAL MOBILITY. ] APPENDIX »B' This appendix includes the calculations from which the various r e s i d e n t i a l and non-residential needs of the expected population of the model area are formulated. Part I Age groupings - % and absolute Part II - Children ~ divided into age and school groupings Part III Family categories - families as a % of population, persons/family, children/family, t o t a l number of fam i l i e s , families by the number of children Part IV m Children i n families - divided into those over and those under 10 years of age Part V - E l d e r l y - divided into 4 categories of mobility Part VI mm Households - divided into family and non-family and 1, 2 and 3 person non-family households Part VII - Dwelling standards Part VIII m Dwellings required - also checked with existing Part IX MM Parking requirements, - Residential, commercial and i n s t i t u t i o n a l Part X *• Commercial requirements Part XI *# Summary of structures Part I - Age Groupings % of Popu- % of Popu- % Number of Age Group l a t i o n i n l a t i o n in Used i n Persons i n Years Study Area Metropolis Model Area Age groups A B A * B 2 0 to 4 2.7 10,5 6.6 165 5 to 9 1*8 9,7 5.8 145 10 to 14 1.8 8,6 5.2 130 15 to 19 3.3 6,4 4.8 120 20 to 24 7.9 5,8 6.9 172 25 to 34 17.3 13.5 15,4 385 35 to 44 13.9 14.5 14,2 355 45 to 54 14.7 12.0 13,3 333 55 to 64 12,9 8.0 10,4 260 65 to 69 6,9 3.3 5.1 127 70 & over 16.8 7.7 12.3 308 Totals 100% 100% 100% 2500 Part II ~ Children Age group Years Number i n Age group (Part I) Age Year Number School Grouping Number in school grouping 0 35 1 34 Pre-school 118 0 to 4 165 2 33 3 32 4 31 Nursery 47 5 30 Kindergarten 30 6 30 5 to 9 145 7 29 8 28 9 28 Elementary 195 10 27 11 27 10 to 14 130 12 26 13 25 14 25 Junior high 74 15 24 16 23 15 to 19 120 17 23 Senior high 70 18 24 19 26 • University or 50 Total 0 to 19 560 • Vocational Children i n a families (from • Part III 527 • Total school pop. 466 Independent 33 • From c a l c u l a t i o n s : Local f a c i l i t i e s needed Several 'Day care.' centres for working mothers - At least 2 nursery schools 1 kindergarten • 1 elementary school Junior high and above beyond model area Part III - Family Categories Families as % of population, Study area + Metropolis 2 51.4 + 84.5 Persons per family , = 1700 persons Study area •* Metropolis 2 Children/family 2.4 + 3.4 = 0.9 = 2.9 Total number of families = ^7®P = 586 Total number of children in families 2.9 0.9 x 586 = 527 Families by number of children i n categories: A) Number of Study Area + Metro. Children 2 73.8 + 35.3 1 to 2 3 to 4 5 and over 2 23.4 + 43.2 2 2.4 + 18.3 2 0.4 3.2 % i n Category = 54.5 = 33.3 = 10.4 = 1.8 = 68% Families Category 320 195 61 10 Totals 100% 586 Families by Number of Children: C) Number of Children (in categories) Families i n Each Category (Table A) Families by Number of Children (Graph B) Number of Children 0 320 320 0 1 to 2 3 to 4 195 61 115 80 44 17 1 2 3 4 5 and over 10 8 2 5 6 Totals 586 586 From Part I Family children 0 - 9 *» » 10 - 19 = 310 = 250 - 33 (Part II) = 217 Total number of children in families = 527 % of children i n families under 10 years of age i s x 100% = 60% (This figure of 60% i s used to calculate the l a s t column i n Table D, Part IV) A Part IV - Children i n Families D) Number of Children i n Family D i v i s i o n of Children by age 10 »10 1 2 2 1 3 2 3 1 4 1 2 1 2 2 1 3 Probability of Family D i s t r i b u t i o n (320) 70' 45 Total number of children (115) 40 28 12 (80) 25 10 6 3_ (44) 9 6 1 1_ 17 10 70 40 56 50 10 18 18 18 1 4 •10 45 40 24 25 20 18 6 3 5 6 Totals 3 2 2 3 6 2 (8) (2) 586 18 4 12 6 313 214 (60%) (40%) Information from t h i s table i s used l a t e r in calcul a t i n g unit volumes 527 (100%) Part V ••• E l d e r l y Data; * 2/3 of men are married 2/3 of women are widowed 1/4 of men are employed • mostly part time 1/10 of women are employed - mostly part time 90% of goods have to be imported 1/2 2/3 of the economic resources of a younger group are i n th e i r possession. Data; ** A) « 5% are bedridden B) S2 15 25% (say 20%) are able to move in sheltered outdoor space either with or without assistance C) « 15 30% (say 20%) are EITHER able to walk short distances (one block or so) and able to use a ta x i OR are able to walk several blocks but are unable to use public transport-ation D) *» 50 60% (say 55%) are able to walk several blocks and use public transportation or have no unusual l i m i t a t i o n s Summary: - Approx, 25% need care (categories (A) and (B)) - Approx, 20% are li m i t e d and must be close to the amenities and f a c i l i t i e s they need (category (C)) - Approx, 55% can be thought of as "normal" (category (D)) •Ralph Goldman, "Attitudes Towards Aging", Meeting the Challenge (Van: The Community Chest and Councils of the Greater Vancouver Area, 1960), **R.L. Wilson, Urban Living Q u a l i t i e s for the El d e r l y , University of North Caroline, 1960, ELDERLY STATISTICS FOR PROJECT. Population over 65 = 435 2552 5 Existing r a t i o of males/females = 3 4 5 Q 7 % of males 40% = 175 435 % of females 60% = 260 Married males = 2/3 of 175 = 117 (say 120) » females = 1/3 of 260 = 120 of the population of Elderly Married couples = 120 = 240 persons Single males = 55 " Single females = 140 Total 435 '» Those i n Categories (A) and (B) 30 married couples 25% 14 single males = 109 35 single females Those i n Category (C) 24 married couples 20% 11 single males = 87 28 single females Those i n Category (D) 66 married couples 55% 30 single males = 239 77 single females Total 435 Size of Old Age Home: Staff/inmate r a t i o , 1:3 - Max, 50 persons -Gov. of Alberta, Dept. of Public Welfare, Homes for the Aged, Alberta (Edmonton, Jan. 1964), Max, 25 persons - Dr. J . Newman, N.2. Family Doctor, Apl, 1962) Approx. 4 homes needed, s t a f f in each 9, Part VI - Households From Part III there are 586 Family households containing 1700 persons. Non-Family households account for (2500 - 1700) = 800 persons ( i . e . unrelated i n d i v i d u a l s ) . Of these 800 persons 36 are on the s t a f f of the elde r l y rest homes and 49 belong to categories (A) and (B) i n these rest homes, leaving a to t a l of 715 Non-family households needing l i v i n g u n i t s . The existing r a t i o of 1 person households to 2-3 person house-holds . 39.4 51.6 4 5 in the study area 1 and 2-3 person households d i r e c t l y cater to - unrelated individuals (alone and sharing) - families of 2-3 persons In t h i s type of household w i l l be: 715 unrelated individuals 320 c h i l d l e s s couples 115 couples with 1 c h i l d Assuming the 4/5 ra t i o (above)is a reasonable r e f l e c t i o n of the demand for dwellings in th i s category, the following equations must be s a t i s f i e d : ( i ) 4 _ x where x = 1 person households 5 (320 # 115) + y and y = 2 to 3 non-family households ( i i ) x ( l ) * y = 715 Solving, x 445 '•• ' y H 5 Breaking down the y value into 2 and 3 person non-family house-holds into the same approximate r a t i o as calculated for 2 and 3 bedroom family u n i t s , we get y 115 4 0 - 3 person non-fam.H.H. = 120 persons 7 5 - 2 " " " = 150 " & x 445 445 - 1 " »» n n = 445 " Total 715 »» Part VII - Dwelling Standards (Minimum) 1. General: For Every Unit: View - either an extended view and/or a view of v i s u a l interest to unit l i v i n g spaces - Sunlight - to l i v i n g spaces (indoor and outdoor) for 1/3 of day Daylighting - to l i v i n g spaces - to sleeping spaces Natural cross v e n t i l a t i o n - to a l l units A private outdoor l i v i n g space An indoor space to include - private indoor space - common indoor space A separate entry space A separate l i v i n g space A separate sleeping space A separate t o i l e t space A separate food preparation space A separate storage space P o l i c y ; re Single and Two-storey u n i t s . For a 2-storey space to be economically j u s t i f i e d , the areas of each storey must be approximately equal to avoid overlap. Gen-e r a l l y speaking, LIVING, DINING, FOOD PREPARATION and ENTRY SPACES need be c l o s e l y linked to be e f f i c i e n t , thus as a guide-l i n e p o l i c y a l l units w i l l remain single s t o r i e d u n t i l the areas of such spaces approximately equal the areas of the SLEEPING and TOILET SPACES. At t h i s point the dwelling unit can be reason-ably placed on two l e v e l s . This policy w i l l not be implemented i n the case of the ELDERLY i n Categories (A), (B) or (C) as problems of v e r t i c a l mobility become the c r i t e r i a for single l e v e l dwelling. 2. In P a r t i c u l a r : Outdoor Spaces (Permanent) - C h i l d l e s s dwellings, 10% of indoor space, width 5'0" - Dwellings with children, 200 width 10'0 M  Indoor Spaces - C e i l i n g heights as per CMHC-standards. Sleeping Spaces: - Single sleeping spaces, 100 ', width 7'0n Shared sleeping spaces, 120 !, width 10'0 n - Category (A) and (B) E l d e r l y couples 140 I, width 10'0" Bedroom closet space/person 10 ' T o i l e t Spaces: - Up to and included 2 sleeping spaces, 1 needed, 40 ' 3 sleeping spaces and over, 2 needed © 40 1 - Category (A) and (B) Eld e r l y couples, 80 • Entry Spaces; Included coat c l o s e t , 20 1  Specialized Storage Spaces « 5% of indoor space (net) C i r c u l a t i o n Space 10% of indoor space (net) Living/Dining and Food Preparation Spaces as a function of the number of Sleeping spaces (taken from Federal Public Housing Administration - P.H.A.) # Sleeping Spaces Living/Dining 1 170 » 2 185 3 205 4 220 5 230 (6 240 Food Preparation 50 » 60 75 90 100 110) Extrapolated 3, Project Dwelling Areas for E l d e r l y : Categories (A) and (B) - See Part V, Sleeping; <§ 140 ' <§ 100 • @ 100 ' <§ 10 » 30 couples 49 singles 36 s t a f f 145 closets Entry Spaces : 4 <§ 100 • Food Preparation : 4'(§.250 ' Living and Dining Spaces: (Includes s t a f f and inmate lounges and dining spaces) 25 '/person, 145 persons T o i l e t Spaces: .6 couples with wheelchairs and own t o i l e t (80 1) 24 couples with own t o i l e t (40 ') 85 single persons sharing (40 •) Specialized Storage 10% C i r c u l a t i o n 10% 20% Special Rooms (operation etc) say 4 <§ 150 Total indoor area say 4200 * 4900 3600 1450 14150 400 1000 4000 480 960 1680 22670 4500 600 27770 ' 28000 ! Each home = 7000 • Outdoor space, 20% 1400 Total, each home 8400 ' say 8500 (Type 15) 16 4. Survey o f E x i s t i n g D w e l l i n g U n i t Minimum Areas * « Areas o f u n i t s i n square f t , as c l a s s i f i e d by number o f bedrooms. Source Bachelor 1 B.R 2 B.R 3 B.R 4 B.R 5 B.R A.P.H.A. 400 750 1000 1400 - M l E x i s t i n g US Dwellings * 385 540 775 1025 1100 1230 P.H.A. ** 300 450 575 700 900 1100 Study Area *** 400 525 650 800 •* * F i g u r e s a r r i v e d at by averaging out a l l the u n i t s compiled i n ' H a b i t a t i o n 3', E d i t e d by J.H. van den Brock at the request o f the I.U.A., p u b l i s h e d 1964 by E l s e v i e r P u b l i s h -i n g Co., N.Y. ** Estimated from the minimum s i z e s given by the P.H.A. p l u s 10% f o r c i r c u l a t i o n . *** See IV, A - ' R e s i d e n t i a l D i s t r i b u t i o n ' i n examination o f Study Area. X JO o ro 3 (fl (0 r+ (fl Ln 4*. LO to M LO to M tO to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to to LO tO LO M LO tO H LO to to M LO LO tO LO M tO LO tO M tO M M 4* LO 4^  to LO M to LO H to M O O O O o O o O O O o O O O o o o o O o O o to to M to r-« LO to M to H H to 4>. to ON to 4* to to O O o O o O o o o O O oo 0^ ON Ln ON Ln 4* LO 4* LO to to O O o o O o O O O o O O O o to to to to to to to to to to to to to to O O o o O o O O C o O O c o H M ' M o o vO vO N j -3' ON ON ON Ln Ln O c o o . O. Ln Ln Ln Ln o o o O O to to to to to to to to to M M H M 4*. - LO LO to to O O O O 00 00 oo O O O o o Ln Ln Ln Ln Ln Ln Ln o o 00 oo 00 00 00 00 00 00 03 4=. 4^  4^  4* o o o o o O o O O O O O o O M M M H o o vO 00 00 -0. Ln Ln Ln *>. LO 4^  M M oo o -J *> M 00 Ln to to NO o O o o o o o O o Ln Ln Ln O O M (—1 M M M H M M M Ln Ln U> LO to H M O NO 00 00 O ON Ln Ln O Ln O o Ln o Ln O Ln O o O ->) M H H M M o LO M M o o vO 03 03 00 ON ON ON 4* o vO Ov 4^  to 00 Ln M 4*. O 00 Ln o Ln Ln O Ln o o Ln O Ln Ln O Ln o O M 4* to to to to to to to to to to O O O o O O o O O 00 O G ON Ln 4>. O O O o O o o O O o C O O O Ln 03 H< M y-> H H H M M tn Ln LO LO to W H o o 03 00 00 ON Ln O vO ON 4^  to 03 Ln vO ON to vO O Ln Ln O Ln O o Ln O Ln Ln O Ln O Ln H M H M M M 4* LO to M o VO 00 4^ ON Ln 4* LO to M # Bedrooms Single adults , Married adults Children<10 Children>10 ro H (fl 0 3 (fl Shared C/) (f) H PJ ro o *a ro H* (/) 3 vQ Food Prep. Spaces Living & Dining spaces Subtotals Spec.storage & c i r c u l a t i o n 5% + 10% Min. Total Indoor Area Outdoor spaces Min. Total Unit Area w I o o r r M S 'Type" c o t o H O v o c o v j o v c n ^ c o t o H Unit Type (VII) Single 53 A & B 8 a Couples £ A & B 5 t—• to to Single S r CO VO ~J -vj Q O y. "X to Couples 3 a 00 c f+ ^ ui to 00 00 Sxngle ^ w _ D a M ^ rr 2 Couples o tO 0> r> * w " H -(0 3 "T* K, Chi l d l e s s £ »^ to . , , . ro o o Adult a S ° Couples cj 3 H " M —* co co Single w M VJJ co co » - , O O co \o Cn Cn Aaults ^-v M to M C O H Families Cn -—- V O M O M - — Cn CO O Cn H to J i H • + . 0 \ o o o > M O C n c n C O O M C n ( - ' C o t o t o c o C n C n witn w ~ ^ ^ ^ ^ — — Children M t O M M C O M C n ^ Total of Cn vo O C n O W r - ' ^ C n C D ^ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ O v O O t n O U i C O O M U i O ' O C n , psop-1-® in type M to Js. T o t a l n f M M C o c n ^ t O H v j v O J i - x o x a x 0 1 o o r - ' C n C O H M t o o o o c n c n o c n Units 5 B.R 4 B.R 3 B.R 2 B.R 1 B.R H» H • O <D 0) ro H .Q M W *Q (0 t—' C M M M CO Cn CO to vO Cn to s >—• (D H -H 00 Cn M CO Cn vO O 0 rK H- H •» « <* <• *• «• » » rr 3 O ro H CO Ov M 0 O 00 Cn Ov 00 00 to * vQ 3 " a O O ^1 CO to CO O 0 O 0 O O O Cn 0 O Cn O 0 O 0 Ul O Cn ( £ £ Unit Type (VII) Single z ^ * A & B ^ o —» Couples o cu O* Co r+ O A & B K H> ^ ( D O 3 Single ^ r 0 to r O H - < ° Couples § & 81 to r <+ 4* v -£ Single > ° D & O c* Couples H D ffi ^ 2. vO ^ ° M Childless §, O Adult c ° Couples 3 3 tn H £ Z Single ^ •*> o Adults 0 1 to to Families & f> c* to . with w Children £ H Total of g ft S people in type M Total of to to O o to Units E 6B.R tn to *> to » to o o to o *o o O o H O H> H > H >< S O <D H O ( « 13 (8 M 43 IS i+ H (D h c 5» Ji • H j H" r J t-h H- JU rl rf 3 O (0 « lO. 3" O. Residential Check: Existing Residential Floor space i n Study Area (1965) i s 10,000,000 s q . f t . divided into 12,500 un i t s . 10,000,000 Average unit size = f ' = 800 s q . f t . including v e r t i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n Population of Study Area (1965) = 30,000 persons Residential Area/person = 333 s q . f t . including v e r t i c a l c i r c -u l a t i o n The Model Area w i l l have 751,220 s q . f t . i n 1,120 units Model Residential Area/unit = 700 sq. f t . excluding v e r t i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n Taking v e r t i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n at 10% Model Residential Area/unit = 770 s q . f t . including v e r t i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n Population of Model Area = 2500 persons Residential Area/person = 330 s q . f t . including v e r t i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n This l a s t figure compares favourably with the e x i s t i n g figure above of 333 s q . f t . Part IX «• Parking Requirements. 1. Residential Cars/Household, Study Area + Metropolis 2 = ° « 4 * °' 7 = 0.55 Persons/Household = 2 5 0 0 = 2.2 1120 Persons/car = 7^%- = 4 Examination o f Study Area showed that t h i s figure was low and l i a b l e to increase. For t h i s project a figure of 3 persons/car i s used. Exi s t i n g standards allow 250 sq.ft./car which i s proving inad-equate. For t h i s project a figure of 300 sq.ft./car i s used, 3 x 300 „ , Ratio l i v i n g area to car storage area = = 3:1 y y 300 , . . 750.000 Parking required for residences = ^ = 250,000 s q . f t . 2 « Commercial, Accepted r a t i o 3:1 * * Shopping centre Trends, May 1965, Pub,: Lebhar-Friedman Publications Inc., Connecticut, 3, I n s t i t u t i o n a l a Depends on i n s t i t u t i o n s i n Model Area. Part X - Commercial Requirements Existi n g Residential Floor space (1965) i n the study area = 10,000,000 s q . f t . E x i s t i n g Commercial Areas * •» R e t a i l "A" (Retail and Service outlets) = 280,000 - O f f i c e •'A'-' (Local Professional etc.) = 30,000 Automotive (Service Stations i n c . l o t ) = 215,000 525,000 s q . f t . Ratio Commercial^Residential = 1:20 Using these proportions i n Model Area - R e t a i l *»An = 21,000 - O f f i c e L'A" = 3,000 *» Automotive = 16,000 40,000 s q . f t . * Source: Vancouver C i t y Planning Department Part XI - Summary of Structures i n s q . f t . 1. Residential: a) Edl e r l y needing care (A) and (B) - 34,000 b) E l d e r l y l i m i t e d in movement (C) - 31,830 c) Adult oriented units ( i ) For e l d e r l y (D) - 93,360 ( i i ) For adults - 331,560 424,920 d) C h i l d oriented units 260,470 Total of Residential Structures 751,220 Residential parking 250,000 2. Commercial: a) R e t a i l »»An. 21,000 b) O f f i c e «A*' 3,000 24,000 c) Automotive 16,000 Total of Commercial structures 40,000 Commercial parking for (a) and (b) 72,000 3. I n s t i t u t i o n s ; The following areas have not been calculated, and are only i n -cluded so that an approximate idea of the building requirements can be formed, a) Local -4 day care centres 4,000 2 nursery schools 3,000 1 kindergarten 1,500 1 elementary school for 200 students 12,000 1 small community centre 4,000 24,500 b) Regional - Selected at random for thi s model area - ' r e a l ' s i t u a t i o n would select according to metropolitan context - 2 @ 12,500 25,000 Total of Institutions 49,500 Parking (say) <US,000 Subtotal 1,177,720 C i r c u l a t i o n i n structures <@ 15% 176,650 Total of A l l Structures approx 1,350,000 ADDRESS TYPE OF DWELLING - High Rise Low Rise House 1. RENT OR OWN 2. AGE GROUP OF PERSON BEING INTERVIEWED 3 . DO YOU HAVE CHILDREN? YES NO (a) AGE(S) (a) WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE CHILDREN IN AREA? (b) SEX(ES) YES WHY? NO WHY NOT? (b) WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE CHILDREN IN BUILDING? YES WHY? NO WHY NOT? (c) WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE MORE CHILDREN IN NEXT DOOR UNIT? YES WHY? NO WHY NOT? 4. DO YOU LIKE LIVING IN WEST END? YES NO WHY? F a c i l i t i e s WHY NOT? F a c i l i t i e s Personal Personal Economic Economic Other : Other 5. ARE YOU INTENDING TO MOVE? YES WHEN? NO BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. N.P. Gist and S.F. Fava, "Urban Society", 5th e d i t i o n , Thomas Y. Crowell Co,, N.Y., 1965. 2. E.W. Burgess, "The Growth of the C i t y " , i n R.E. Park and E.W. Burgess, "The C i t y " (1925) p.51. 3. C D . Harris and E.L. Ullman, "The Nature of C i t i e s " , the Annals, 242 (Nov. 1945), pp.7-17. 4. H. Blumenfeld, "The Modern Metropolis", a r t i c l e i n the S c i e n t i f i c American Book on " C i t i e s " , A l f r e d A. Knopf, N.Y., 1966. 5. "West End Development Study - C i t y of Vancouver, Canada", An unpublished report prepared by Students of the School of Community and Regional Planning, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1963. 6. "Vancouver's Changing Population", C i t y of Vancouver Research and Planning Department, Pub. 1964. 7. J.A. Kahl, "The American Class Structure", Rinehart, N.Y., 1957. 8. Vancouver Sun Newspaper, Vancouver, January 23, 1967. 9. " T r a f f i c i n Towns", Reports of the Steering Group and Working Group appointed by the B r i t i s h Minister of Transport, Her Majesty's Stationery O f f i c e , London, 1963. 10. R.L. Wilson, "Urban Living Q u a l i t i e s for the E l d e r l y " , University of North Carolina, i960. 11. "Children in a High Density Environment", Group Study by Students of Prof. Landauer's Urban Sociology Course at University of B.C. i n May, 1967. 12. "The Urban Frontier", Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, B.C. from 'Land for Living ' , Parts 1 and 2, 1963. 13. 1961 Census of Canada, Vancouver, B u l l e t i n CT-22, 14« J.C. Donaldson, "An Urban Environment for the E l d e r l y " , Thesis B. Arch., University of B.C., School of Arch-i t e c t u r e , May, 1966. 15. R. Jensen, "High Density L i v i n g " , Grampian Press Ltd., London, 1966. See also the Bibliography i n Environ 1 (D. Rapanos) i n this report. 

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