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The need for adult education of married women in the lower socio-economic levels in Vancouver Webster, Daisy 1968

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THE  NEED FOR ADULT EDUCATION OF  MARRIED  WOMEN IN THE LOWER SOCIO-ECONOMIC LEVELS  IN  VANCOUVER  by DAISY  WEBSTER  B.Sc. ( H . E . ) t U n i v e r s i t y o f M a n i t o b a , 1932  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE  REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (Adult Education)  in  We a c c e p t required  THE  this  the F a c u l t y of Education  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH May 1968  COLUMBIA  In presenting  t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the  requirements f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that  the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t  f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference  and study.  that  I further  agree  permission f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r i  s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  I t i s understood  that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n  Department of Adult  Education  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Vancouver 8, Canada Date  Way  1968  Columbia  permission.  ABSTRACT In North American urban s o c i e t y , people of lower socio-economic  s t a t u s have a poor r e c o r d of p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n a d u l t programs.  Vancouver, Canada's t h i r d  largest  m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , was s e l e c t e d f o r study i n t o the needs f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by married women i n t h i s s u b - c u l t u r e .  An  u n s t r u c t u r e d sample of r e s i d e n t s i n three widely d i v e r g e n t areas o f lower socio-economic  index was s t u d i e d to d i s c o v e r  ( l ) why these women do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and  (2) what t h e i r needs i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n a r e . An a n a l y s i s of the data r e v e a l e d that the m a j o r i t y  of the respondents  i n a l l three areas were between the ages  of 15 and 44, married, and had f a m i l i e s of one to f o u r c h i l d r e n . While most of the women i n the study had gone beyond Grade 8, l e s s than one out of three had completed  high s c h o o l .  Most of  those who had p a r t i c i p a t e d or a r e p r e s e n t l y on c o n t i n u i n g e d u c a t i o n programs are high s c h o o l graduates.  Non-partici-  p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs by these women of lower socio-economic  s t a t u s was a t t r i b u t e d to a v a r i e t y of i n t e r -  r e l a t e d reasons.  In order of importance  these reasons were:  l a c k of f a c i l i t i e s f o r care of s m a l l c h i l d r e n ? expenses i n volved i n t u i t i o n f e e s , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and r e l a t e d c o s t s ; and f e e l i n g s of inadequacy requirements.  i n meeting  the standards of course  Some of the women a l s o expressed f e a r of  institutionalized  programs.  This was mainly among new  Canadians  iv of  e t h n i c o r i g i n , other than  B r i t i s h , who tend to c l i n g to  t h e i r own language and c u l t u r e , and were h e s i t a n t to leave t h e i r immediate neighborhood. A c o n f l i c t of p r i o r i t i e s appeared to e x i s t the concepts those  of needs as p e r c e i v e d by resource  p e r c e i v e d by the respondents.  of  personnel  to the o b j e c t i v e s  the i n s t i t u t i o n s that provide s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the  community.  Most o f the women placed h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y on  education f o r f u t u r e employment. ity  personnel and  The resource  had a more g l o b a l approach r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y  between  Although  d i f f e r e d , both groups expressed  the f o l l o w i n g c a t e g o r i e s :  the order of p r i o r -  need f o r education i n  ( l ) c u l t u r a l orientation, (2)  f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , ( 3 ) n u t r i t i o n and home management, (4) c i t i z e n s h i p , and ( 5 ) employment. of  Nevertheless,  success  a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs i s dependent on two c o n d i t i o n s :  ( l ) that these married women should share  i n the planning  process, and ( 2 ) that the choice of the areas of study should be c o n s i s t e n t with the p r i o r i t i e s as s e t by the women. In order to a s s i s t married women of t h i s s u b - c u l t u r e , e f f o r t s must be made to remove b a r r i e r s to o p p o r t u n i t y imposed by t u i t i o n c o s t s and l a c k of c h i l d care  services.  More a t t e n t i o n must be given t o c o u n s e l l i n g , to f l e x i b i l i t y / of  program design and to part-time  study.  TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I;  PAGE INTRODUCTION  .  U r b a n i z a t i o n and Poverty . . . . . . .  1  Lack of Education Related to Poverty  3  Purpose of the Study  8  Procedure . . . . . .  9  Sample • ;  9  Interview Schedule . . . . . . . . .  9  Other Sources of Information . . . .  10  Time and Extent of Study . . . . . .  10  D e s c r i p t i o n of the Three S e l e c t e d Areas . Kitsilano . . . . . . . . Sunrise . . . . . . Skeena Terrace  II.  1  10 11  . . .  13  • • • • •  16  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  19  Cultural Orientation  19  Family  20  Relationships .  N u t r i t i o n and Homemanagement . . * . .  24  Citizenship .  25  Employment.  26  Summary  28  viii CHAPTER III.  PAGE SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS  30  Personal C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  30  Age  30  m a r i t a l Status  31  Number of C h i l d r e n Ethnic  .  32  Origin . . . . . . .  34  Family Income  •  Education and Employment  •  37  P u b l i c School Education  37  Employment  38  Summary  IV/.  36  • • • • • • • • • . . . . . . . . . . .  39  PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES . Academic and V o c a t i o n a l Programs . . . . . . . . .  •  Former P a r t i c i p a t i o n  .  Present P a r t i c i p a n t s Reasons f o r N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n R e s i d e n t i a l Area Income  41 41 41 43  . . . . .  45  • • • •  46  ••  49  Age  52  L e v e l of Education . . . . . . . . . .  53  M a r i t a l Status  57  Children  59  Ethnic  . . . . .  Origin  ••  60  ix CHAPTER  PAGE Summary  V.  •  62  NEEDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION  65  E d u c a t i o n a l Needs as Expressed by the Respondents F uture Employment  65  N u t r i t i o n and Home Management . . . .  66  Language and C u l t u r a l Orientation  67  Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s  67  Citizenship  . . . . . .  67  Areas of Need Designated by Resource Personnel . . . . . . . . . .  68  Family  Relationships •  68  N u t r i t i o n and Home Management . . . .  69  Cultural Orientation . . .  71  Citizenship  71  Employment  •  73  Summary . . .  VI.  65  74  SUMMARY  76  Reasons f o r N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n  . . . . .  77  Economic • • • •  77  Family  77  Responsibilities  F e e l i n g s o f Inadequacy . . . . . . .  77  Language and C u l t u r a l Barriers  78  CHAPTER  P  A  G  E  Fear of I n s t i t u t i o n s of Learning  78  Lack o f I n f o r m a t i o n  78  . . . . . . . . .  L a c k o f Time Age o r H e a l t h  78 Reasons  S a t i s f a c t i o n with a Homemaker Areas of E x i s t i n g Family  their  79 Role as  Need . . . . . . . . .  Relationships  Nutrition Cultural  79  . . *  and Home Management . . . . Orientation  79 80 80 80  Citizenship  81  Employment . . . . . . . .  81  Implications  f o r Education . . . . . . .  81  BIBLIOGRAPHY  85  APPENDIX  A  89  APPENDIX APPENDIX  B C  . . . .  90 91  LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II.  PAGE Age D i s t r i b u t i o n D i s t r i b u t i o n According Status  III. IV.  V. VI. VII. VIII. IX.  • • . to Mental  . . . . . . . . . . . .  Number of C h i l d r e n D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a m i l i e s  According  to Pre-School C h i l d r e n  34  Ethnic Origin  35  Income D i s t r i b u t i o n  37  P u b l i c School  38  Education  Employment H i s t o r y  •  P r i o r Academic or V o c a t i o n a l  Partic-  Education  . . . .  N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n with  42  N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n with to Income  45  Reference  to Area of Residence XII.  39  Participants Currently Enrolled i n Continuing  XI.  32 33  i p a t i o n Beyond Formal Schooling X.  31  48 Reference 51  xii TABLE XIII.  PAGE Non-Participation with  Reference  t o Age XII/.  • . . * •  Non-Participation with  Reference  to Level of Education . . . . . . . . . XV.  Non-Participation with to M a r i t a l  XVI.  54  56  Reference  Status  58  N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n Reference to C h i l d r e n  . .  61  LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE  1.  PAGE  Map of Vancouver  showing  the Three  S e l e c t e d Areas Under Study  12  2.  Kitsilano District  14  3.  Sunrise D i s t r i c t  . . . . .  .  17  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  For t h e i r help i n preparing on which the present  the e a r l i e r work  i s based, the author wishes to  express her deep a p p r e c i a t i o n to her A d v i s e r s , Dr. C o o l i e Verner, and Dr. John A. Niemi, f o r t h e i r  constant  a s s i s t a n c e and encouragement. A p p r e c i a t i o n i s a l s o expressed to the many personnel  resource  who not only submitted themselves to i n t e r v i e w s ,  but a l s o gave f r e e l y of t h e i r the p r e p a r a t i o n of t h i s work.  time and wise counsel i n  DEDICATION  In d e d i c a t i o n to my husband, Arnold whose constant  encouragement, patience  l i n g have s t i m u l a t e d  A. Webster,  and wise c o u n s e l -  the s c h o l a r s h i p that has c o n t r i b u t e d  so g r e a t l y to t h i s present  work.  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Rapid t e c h n o l o g i c a l change has c r e a t e d  an i n c r e a s -  ing demand f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l and s k i l l e d workers, both men and women, i n the p r o f e s s i o n s , business and i n d u s t r y . To prepare themselves to meet these needs, young people are s t a y i n g i n school  longer  and a d u l t s are r e t u r n i n g to  a d u l t c l a s s e s i n night schools programs.  and u n i v e r s i t y  They are beginning to r e a l i z e  extension  that education not  only i n f l u e n c e s t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n the socio-economic s t r u c t u r e but a l s o i n c r e a s e s  t h e i r chance f o r happiness.  Notwithstanding these developments, the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of most Canadians leaves much to be d e s i r e d . are s t i l l  There  too many dropouts i n both elementary and secondary  s c h o o l , and others  f i n d a d u l t programs out of t h e i r  reach.  Most of these are people i n the lower socio-economic  levels  of s o c i e t y . I. Since  URBANIZATION AND  POVERTY  World War II there has been a steady  away from the r u r a l areas i n t o the c i t i e s . created  shift  This has  problems of housing, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , welfare and  educational  f a c i l i t i e s f o r the r a p i d l y growing urban  while the people face  centres,  problems of unemployment and l a c k  2 of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n . continues will  more than one  be l i v i n g  century.  If the present  quarter of the world's  of  the  *  doubled between 1931  and  Vancouver the p o p u l a t i o n more than 1961  the p o p u l a t i o n had  2  to a t o t a l of 790,165. 4  i n c r e a s e d to 892,286,  h a l f of whom l i v e i n Vancouver proper.  3  about  As the c i t y  i n s i z e the more a f f l u e n t moved out to the suburbs. has  shift  population  i n c i t i e s of over 100,000 by the end  In m e t r o p o l i t a n  By 1967  rate of p o p u l a t i o n  r e s u l t e d i n i n c r e a s e d p r o p o r t i o n s of the inner  one-  increased This city's  p o p u l a t i o n being made up of the extreme ends of the income 5 scale,  culminating  i n l a r g e pockets of poverty  mainly around F a l s e Creek and  centering  i n the d i s t r i c t s of Vancouver  East. K i n g s l e y Davis. " O r i g i n and Growth of U r b a n i z a t i o n " , in: E l i a s , et a l , ( e d . ) , M e t r o p o l i s : Values i n C o n f l i c t . (Belmont, C a l i f o r n i a : liladsworth P u b l i s h i n g Co. Inc., 1964), pp. 8-18. 2 Land f o r L i v i n g . Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1963, p. 2. Census of Canada 1961. (Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Vancouver B u l l e t i n CT 22, Cat. 95-537). 4 U n o f f i c i a l f i g u r e s from Vancouver P u b l i c L i b r a r y , Vancouver, B. C. L. I. B e l l , M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver, An Overview f o r S o c i a l Planners, (Vancouver:Research Department, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , 1965).  3 II.  LACK OF EDUCATION RELATED TO POVERTY  There  of  two  i s evidence i n the lower socio-economic group 6 types of poverty. Verner d e s c r i b e s them a s :  1) o b j e c t i v e poverty, as judged by community standards, r e l e v a n t to income, housing and m a l n u t r i t i o n ;  and  2) s u b j e c t i v e poverty, assessed a c c o r d i n g to i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s , r e l a t e d to s e l f - e s t e e m and e d u c a t i o n a l aspiration. Much of the blame f o r the p e r p e t u a t i o n of poverty i n Canada can be placed on the s u b j e c t i v e type.  A vast number of the  poor p a s s i v e l y accept the circumstances i n which they themselves. own  In t h e i r acceptance  to p r o t e c t themselves  what l i t t l e  find  they form a c u l t u r e of t h e i r  from o u t s i d e i n f l u e n c e to maintain  d i g n i t y they have l e f t . 7  Kahl  maintains that the lower c l a s s e s s u f f e r  apathy and tend to become f a t a l i s t i c economic s i t u a t i o n . to  improve  because  from  as a r e a c t i o n to t h e i r  They f e e l a l i e n a t e d and give up the odds are a g a i n s t them.  trying  They l a c k  'success g o a l s ' and become i s o l a t e d from other l e v e l s of society. apathy may  However, he a l s o suggests that some of t h i s be the r e s u l t of  malnutrition,  apparent  causing  ^ C o o l i e Verner, "Human C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of SlowGrowing Regions", i n : Stimulants to S o c i a l Development i n Slow Growing Regions, (Edmonton: A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , l y b v ) , V o l . 1, pp. 16-31. 7 Joseph Kahl, The American C l a s s S t r u c t u r e . (New York: H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1957), p. 211.  4 lack  of  energy  and  poor  physical  condition.  8 Verner they  reject  shy  and  lem  to  the  reach due Many  are  the  repidly  welfare to  a  as  of  lacking  society. them  people  of  life  living.  are  As  stignatized, them.  of  thus  They  It i s often  manner  are  a  prob-  retreat  their  under-educated  they a  are  result,  i t becomes i n which  They  are  i n c h a r a c t e r by  lose  with.  role  Consequently  and  feel  isolated  their  occupations  self-supporting  standard and  of  way  has  of  disappearing. a  poor  from  of s e l f - w o r t h .  these  types  that  because  lack  of  the  to communicate  them to  that  society  difficult  society  while  says  very they  members  they  act  of  i n the  unskilled  qualified  to  once  have  they  difficult can  generally  and  to  maintain  considered other  accepted return  a  decent  inferior  levels  manner  enter  of  expected  of  self-respect.  g Porter education horizons  so of  education relation  believes  highly  because  their  Coolie  they  at  fail  children's  Verner,  the  poor  i t is a  o p p o r t u n i t y , and  themselves, to  that  not  privilege  the to  do  same  time,  value beyond  their  lacking  appreciate i t s value  in  future.  Loc. C i t .  g sity  of  J o h n P o r t e r , The V e r t i c a l M o s a i c , T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 195.  (Toronto:  Univer-  The to Ostry, ^  woman of lower socio-economic s t a t u s , i s i n c l i n e d t o get married  children early.  young and have her  This trend i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d  d i s r u p t i o n o f education  according  with  e i t h e r a t the end of the p e r i o d of  compulsory s c h o o l i n g or a t the completion of high  school,  l e a v i n g her unprepared, e d u c a t i o n a l l y , to q u a l i f y f o r f u t u r e employment.  In c o n t r a s t , the more educated a woman i s the  l a t e r she i s l i k e l y  to marry, and the more l i k e l y  she i s  to have fewer c h i l d r e n , l e a v i n g her f r e e r to pursue  educational  advancement by which she can become b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d f o r employment. 11 Chilman and Sussman  c l a i m that f a m i l i e s headed by  women of lower socio-economic s t a t u s are l i k e l y income below s u b s i s t e n c e  level.  This i s f r e q u e n t l y due t o the  f a c t that dependency of pre-school i n the p o s i t i o n of having At present  c h i l d r e n places these mothers  t o seek welfare  28.3 percent  to have an  assistance;  of Canada's l a b o r f o r c e are 12  women, and about h a l f of the women who work are married. Over h a l f of the female heads o f f a m i l i e s i n Canada earn S. Ostry, "The Female Worker: Labour Force and Occupational Trends", i n : Changing. Patterns i n women's Employment, (Ottawa: Women's Bureau, C nada Department of Labour, 1966), p. 16. a  C. Chilman and M. B. Sussman, "Poverty i n the United States i n the M i d - s i x t i e s , " i n : F. Ul. Lanning and Ul. A. Many, (ed.), Basic Education f o r the Disadvantaged A d u l t . (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1966;, p. 164. 12 Women a t Work i n Canada. Women's Bureau (Ottawa: Canada Department of Labour, 1964), pp. 12, 21.  13 l e s s than $2,000 per year. S t a t i s t i c s a l s o show that only 65 percent o f the female population i n Vancouver r e remained i n s c h o o l from age 15 to 19, and only 8.3  percent  14 continued  from age 20 t o 24.  It i s evident, therefore,  that many o f these women have not completed t h e i r  formal  e d u c a t i o n , and have e i t h e r found work i n u n s k i l l e d  occu-  pations or married  very e a r l y .  F a i l u r e o f many Canadians to complete even b a s i c education  i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a s i t u a t i o n that r e q u i r e s 15  correction.  Moon,  referring  t o l i t e r a c y i n Canada  states: The complacent assume that compulsory e d u c a t i o n has long s i n c e banished i l l i t e r a c y . The a p a t h e t i c assume that the opposite of i l l i t e r a c y i s l i t e r a c y . • • C a n a d a s u f f e r s from under education so widespread i n the populace that i t i s c l o g g i n g the economy and condemning Canada to the s t a t u s o f an a l s o - r a n among the i n d u s t r i a l nations. More than two hundred thousand a d u l t Canadians have never been to school a t a l l . Some e i g h t hundred and seventy get past grade 4.  thousand d i d n ' t  13 John P o r t e r , Op. C i t . . p. 121. I b i d . , p. 176. B a r b a r a Moon, "Two M i l l i o n I l l i t e r a t e s : Canada's Obsolete Tenth", i n : J . R. Kidd, ( e d . ) , Learning and S o c i e t y . (Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1963), pp. 301-307. 1 4  1 5  7 Of not q u i t e f o u r hundred thousand Canadian youngsters who enter Grade 2 every year, seventys i x thousand drop out before Grade 8 and a hundred and t h i r t y - t w o thousand - one out of every three - don't go past Grade 8..... F i n a l l y , seven m i l l i o n a d u l t Canadians f i n i s h high s c h o o l .  didn't  In Canada a s t a t e of poverty has r e c e n t l y been desc r i b e d i n economic terms as f o l l o w s : c o n s i d e r e d impoverished  a f a m i l y of f o u r i s  i f i t has an income of l e s s  S3,000 and d e s t i t u t e i f i t has l e s s than $2,000.  than  Single  persons are c l a s s e d as poor with incomes under Si,500 d e s t i t u t e when they r e c e i v e l e s s than Si,000. Many immigrants economic c l a s s .  ^  are a l s o found i n the lower  They may  and  socio-  s t a r t poor, but because of the  p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s of people coming to a new  country, they 17  have very l i t t l e  second g e n e r a t i o n poverty.  However, as  these immigrants  tend to s e t t l e i n communities of t h e i r  own  e t h n i c background i n order to i d e n t i f y with t h e i r native language  and c u l t u r e , the married women must make a s p e c i a l  e f f o r t to l e a r n E n g l i s h . l o n e l i n e s s and  Without  the i n a b i l i t y  t h i s , they s u f f e r  from  to i d e n t i f y with the l a r g e r  community. Along with b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , r e - e d u c a t i o n i s necessary f o r workers i n t h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l age i f they are to  June Graham, "Poverty i n Canada", i n : (Toronto: CBC P u b l i c a t i o n s , 1966), pp. 30-33. 1 7  Ibid.  remain  Media I.  8 employable.  Without t h i s there w i l l be an i n c r e a s i n g amount 18  of unemployment among the uneducated.  Mackenzie,  s t a t e d that i f we are going to continue to l i v e i n a complex, r a p i d l y changing  and developing world, we must have  agencies to help keep the a d u l t p o p u l a t i o n informed these changes and t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n s both to t h e i r and  livelihood.  about lives  We must a l s o m u l t i p l y s a t i s f a c t i o n i n  r e l a t i o n to the l e i s u r e time that t h i s technology has made possible. III.  PURPOSE OF THE STUDY  As e d u c a t i o n i s a s p e c i f i c determinant p o s i t i o n i n the socio-economic  of one's  system, the purpose of  t h i s study i s as f o l l o w s : 1) To d i s c o v e r why married women i n the lower socio-economic  s t r a t a i n Vancouver do not  p a r t i c i p a t e i n adult education. 2) To d i s c o v e r what need f o r a d u l t education by married women e x i s t s i n this, l e v e l of society.  •'•Norman Mackenzie, former P r e s i d e n t of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, c i t e d i n J . K. F r i e s e n , "The Scope of A c t i v i t i e s proper to a U n i v e r s i t y Department of E x t e n s i o n " , i n : J . R. Kidd, ( e d . ) , Learning and S o c i e t y . (Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1963), p. 174.  9 IV.  PROCEDURE  In order to produce a comprehensive sample three widely  d i v e r g e n t areas were s t u d i e d :  the K i t s i l a n o  area,  west of F a l s e Creek, an o l d s e c t i o n of the c i t y , i n s t a t e of t r a n s i t i o n and decay; the Sunrise s u b d i v i s i o n of Vancouver E a s t , a low income, working-class  d i s t r i c t ; and  Skeena T e r r a c e , one of Vancouver's s i x p u b l i c l y s u b s i d i z e d , l o w - r e n t a l housing Sample. sampling, two  projects.  This study  by door-to-door  i s based on u n s t r u c t u r e d  i n t e r v i e w s , made necessary f o r  reasons: 1) i t i s very d i f f i c u l t  to reach many members  of lower socio-economic  s t a t u s because of  t h e i r shyness and u n w i l l i n g n e s s to be i n t e r viewed, and 2) many of the women who were approached refused to be i n t e r v i e w e d because they were not i n t e r e s t e d , or f e l t  thay were too o l d .  19 Interview  Schedule.  An i n t e r v i e w schedule was  drawn up to f a c i l i t a t e a s u b j e c t i v e study areas.  of the s e l e c t e d  This i n f o r m a t i o n was r e q u i r e d to g i v e a b a s i c  background of the women i n t e r v i e w e d .  The remainder of each  i n t e r v i e w was i n the form of personal d i s c u s s i o n r e l a t i n g to a t t i t u d e s and problems concerning See  Appendix A  educational a c t i v i t y .  10 Information from the i n t e r v i e w s was recorded and t a b u l a t e d . Other Sources of Information. broader  20  To o b t a i n a  background of i n f o r m a t i o n regarding married women  i n these s e l e c t e d areas resource  personnel and p r o f e s s i o n a l  workers were a l s o contacted and i n t e r v i e w e d . Time and Extent of Study.  A l l i n t e r v i e w s were  c a r r i e d out between June 15, 1967 and September 15, 1967. A t o t a l of 146 i n t e r v i e w s were conducted;  62 i n K i t s i l a n o ,  35 i n S u n r i s e , and 49 i n Skeena Terrace.  Only married women  were s e l e c t e d f o r the sample.  They can be c l a s s i f i e d  into  two c a t e g o r i e s ! 1) those who a r e married and l i v i n g with  their  spouses, and 2) those who are s i n g l e heads of f a m i l i e s by v i r t u e of being widowed, d i v o r c e d or separated V.  DESCRIPTION OF THE THREE SELECTED AREAS  A d e s c r i p t i v e study of the three s e l e c t e d areas was made.  In the case of K i t s i l a n o and Sunrise t h i s  mation was procured  infor-  from the most recent r e p o r t of the 21 Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s . As the Skeena Terrace  20  See  Appendix B.  21 Census of Canada, 1961, Op.. C i t .  11 housing  p r o j e c t was not opened u n t i l 1962 i n f o r m a t i o n  concerning  t h i s area was developed  through  material  s u p p l i e d by the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y and other sources.  F i g u r e 1 i d e n t i f i e s the l o c a t i o n of the three  selected  areas. Kitsilano.  The area surveyed  between the business and shopping  in Kitsilano  lies  d i s t r i c t s of Fourth  Avenue and Broadway, running from F a l s e Creek to Larch Street.  Alexandra  Neighborhood House used to be one of the  f o c a l p o i n t s i n K i t s i l a n o , but with the western  expansion  of F a l s e Creek i n d u s t r y i t i s now on the e a s t e r n f r i n g e of the r e s i d e n t i a l area, and separated artery.  from i t by a heavy  K i t s i l a n o Night School and K i t s i l a n o  traffic  Community  Centre are to the south-west but not w i t h i n walking  distance.  K i t s i l a n o Beach i s to the north and i t i s a l s o a long walk from the area surveyed.  There i s a p u b l i c l i b r a r y  blocks west of Larch S t r e e t .  Figure 2 i l l u s t r a t e s  three this  data. K i t s i l a n o i s an o l d part of Vancouver, r e v e a l i n g the decay of the o l d inner c i t y , i n which 50 percent of the d w e l l i n g s were b u i l t before 1920, and only 15 percent s i n c e 1945. occupied.  T h i r t y percent of the d w e l l i n g s are owner-  Approximately  o n e - t h i r d are s i n g l e  detached.  Many of the homes are o l d and i n v a r i o u s stages of d e t e r ioration.  Although  some have been renovated  i n the i n t e r i o r  f o r use as rooming houses, 15 percent of the dwellings are  FIGURE IYIAP  OF . / V A N C O U V E R STUDY. •/  SHADED  THE  SECTION  SOCIO-ECONOMIC 1 9 6 1  Key:  SHOWING  ACCORDING  A - Kitsilano B - Sunrise C - Skeena Terrace  THREE  S E L E C T E D  I N D I C A T E S  L E V E L TO  1  IN  THE  FT,REAS  AREAS OF  VANCOUVER ' IN C E N S U S  TRACTS  UNDER,  LOWEST  13 i n need of major r e p a i r . There has been a four percent d e c l i n e i n p o p u l a t i o n i n t h i s area s i n c e 1956.  The census f o r the  district  a l s o show that 25 percent of the people are 55 years of age and over, and only 24 percent are under the age of  20.  This would i n d i c a t e t h a t f a m i l i e s with young c h i l d r e n are not moving i n t o the a r e a . About two  out of every f i v e  people  are of e t h n i c o r i g i n other than B r i t i s h . of t h i s d i s t r i c t ' s 1946  and  p o p u l a t i o n immigrated  in Kitsilano Twenty percent  to Canada between  1961. E d u c a t i o n a l s t a t i s t i c s show that 2.5  percent of the  people have no s c h o o l i n g whatever, and 25 percent have not gone beyond elementary than two  school.  Only 37 percent have more  years of high s c h o o l . The average  wage or s a l a r y income f o r males i s  $3,379, which i s 15 percent below the c i t y average,  while  that of females  average  of $2,265.  is practically  the same as the c i t y  most of the women employed o u t s i d e the home  are i n the s e r v i c e t r a d e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l or c l e r i c a l work. Sunrise.  This i s a r e l a t i v e l y  l y i n g between F i r s t  Avenue East and  from C a s s i a r to Renfrew S t r e e t .  new  subdivision  Broadway, extending  Immediately east of t h i s ,  a c r o s s C a s s i a r , are the s e n i o r c i t i z e n r e s i d e n c e s of Gardens and  Beulah  the p u b l i c l y s u b s i d i z e d l o w - r e n t a l housing  14  FIGURE 2 KITSILANO DISTRICT - SHADED SECTION AREA SURVEYED  INDICATES  A - Kitsilano Library B - K i t s i l a n o Night  School  C - K i t s i l a n o Community Centre D - Alexandra  Neighborhood  House  E - Extension of F a l s e Creek i.  Industry  15 project School of  of  Skeena T e r r a c e .  i s w i t h i n walking  Sunrise. 1)  The  Renfrew Community  2)  Hastings and  across  Community  a corner this  district.  Twenty-Second  Centre,  a t Windermere  Sunrise.  A supermarket  S t r e e t from  grocery,  are,  Avenue  Street  on F i g u r e 3.  Renfrew  section  S t r e e t , and  a c o n s i d e r a b l e d i s t a n c e from  illustrated  south-west  centres  Centre, at  Renfrew  Hastings  T e c h n i c a l Night  d i s t a n c e of the  n e a r e s t community  Avenue and  both  Vancouver  the  there are  A mobile  This i s  i s being  S u n r i s e a r e a , but  no  constructed other  than  stores presently serving  library  visits  the a r e a  once a  week.  Over 50 1945, All  and  the  The  35  the  single  d w e l l i n g s were b u i l t  detached  owner o c c u p i e d .  need o f m a j o r  With o n l y  of  since  o n l y e i g h t p e r c e n t were c o n s t r u c t e d b e f o r e  homes a r e  which a r e in  percent  percent  between age  percent  under 20  of  percent  of  the homes a r e  repairs.  of the  t h e age  t o 55  Approximately Sunrise are  Eight percent  population i n this  17  d w e l l i n g s , 90  1920.  people  o f 20,  i s very  two  area  out  of e t h n i c o r i g i n  has over  the  the  since  age  population  similar  than  five  1955.  o f 55,  and  distribution  to t h a t of  of every other  risen  Kitsilano.  people  British.  in Eleven  16 percent of the p o p u l a t i o n immigrated to Canada s i n c e 1945. In r e l a t i o n to e d u c a t i o n , 2.75 percent of the people  have had no s c h o o l i n g , and another  not gone beyond elementary  school.  more than two years of high s c h o o l .  Only  35 percent have 19 percent have  Thus over 80 percent  have not gone beyond Grade 10. The average wage or s a l a r y income f o r males i s $3,845, which i s 3.4 percent below the c i t y average, but that of female workers i s 81,980, or 12.5 percent below the c i t y average f o r women workers.  As i n K i t s i l a n o , most  of the women who work o u t s i d e the home are i n c l e r i c a l , -1  s e r v i c e or r e c r e a t i o n a l work. Skeena T e r r a c e . c i t y blocks.  Skeena Terrace occupies  three  It i s bounded on the north by the s e n i o r  c i t i z e n r e s i d e n c e s of Beulah  Gardens, on the south and east  by i n d u s t r i a l e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , and on the west by a heavy t r a f f i c a r t e r y which separates i t from the Sunrise subdivision.  Vancouver T e c h n i c a l Night School i s a t a d i s t a n c e  r e q u i r i n g bus t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  Skeena Terrace i s a l s o  i s o l a t e d from community c e n t r e s and shopping  services.  The  nearest park l i e s a c r o s s Rupert S t r e e t i n the Sunrise a r e a . F i g u r e 3 i l l u s t r a t e s these  details.  Skeena Terrace was opened f o r occupancy i n 1962, with 234 s e l f - c o n t a i n e d u n i t s .  A senior c i t i z e n high-rise  17  !  FIGURE 3  SUNRISE DISTRICT, INCLUDING SKEENA TERRACE Key:  A - Sunrise (Shaded Area) B - Skeena Terrace C - Beulah  Gardens  D - Sunrise Park E - Hastings Community Centre F - Renfrew Community Centre G - T e c h n i c a l Night  School  18 apartment block i s the c e n t r a l b u i l d i n g , c o n t a i n i n g 69 units.  The remaining  165 u n i t s are two to f i v e bedroom  apartments i n the form of attached housing apartment b l o c k s .  and small  F a m i l i e s , other than o l d age pensioners,  must have c h i l d r e n to q u a l i f y f o r accommodation.  Only  f a m i l i e s on welfare and low income are accepted, and r e n t s 22 are s c a l e d a c c o r d i n g to income.  Skeena Terrace has a  high d e n s i t y p o p u l a t i o n of over 800 people, 23 which are c h i l d r e n .  nearly 600 of  Skeena T e r r a c e , as the name suggests, i s b u i l t on a terraced slope.  Outdoor play f o r c h i l d r e n i s l i m i t e d  to the paved s t r e e t s and t e r r a c e d lawns.  Only s e r v i c e  v e h i c l e s are permitted i n the enclosed a r e a . a small s i t t i n g  Except f o r  room f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s i n the h i g h - r i s e  apartment, the area i s completely without  recreational  24 facilities.  A mobile  library visits  Skeena Terrace once  a week. 22  Information from the Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y , Skeena Terrace i s one of s i x s u b s i d i z e d housing p r o j e c t s which c o n t a i n a t o t a l of 761 f a m i l y u n i t s , e x c l u s i v e of those f o r s e n i o r c i t i z e n s . Grace Maclnnis, M.P.. House of Commons Debates, (Ottawa: Hansard, Nov. 7, 1966;, pp. 9855-9857. ^*In the summer of 1967 the f o l l o w i n g improvements were made: ( l ) a basement storage room i n the h i g h r i s e apartment was turned i n t o a r e c r e a t i o n a l a r e a , (2; one of the tenants turned a room i n her home i n t o a playroom f o r t i n y t o t s , and (3) a p l a y - l o t was developed.  CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Married women of lower socio-economic and  s t a t u s can,  must improve t h e i r p o s i t i o n i n today's s o c i e t y .  a great d e a l of l i t e r a t u r e concerning economic and e d u c a t i o n a l standards has been w r i t t e n , very l i t t l e r e l a t e d to married I.  poverty  While  r e l a t e d to  of lower c l a s s  people  information s p e c i f i c a l l y  women i s a v a i l a b l e . CULTURAL ORIENTATION  24 Porter of  ethnic pluralism.  through continued add  suggests  that Canadian s o c i e t y i s a mosaic  While the r e t e n t i o n of i d e n t i t y  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e t h n i c communities may  r i c h n e s s to the c u l t u r a l l i f e  of the country and help  with the a d a p t a t i o n o f these groups to the mass s o c i e t y as part of the ' l o n e l y crowd', he suggests group a f f i l i a t i o n  that some form of  between the mass and the i n d i v i d u a l i s a  p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r mental h e a l t h . 25 In t h i s c o n t e x t , Matthews  claims that many  I t a l i a n women i n A u s t r a l i a have been admitted  to mental  24 John P o r t e r , 0p_. C i t . . pp. 73-74. 25 Vincent Matthews, "The Sad L o n e l i n e s s of the Immigrant", The P r o v i n c e . (Vancouver), October 13, 1967.  20 h o s p i t a l s , s u f f e r i n g from  n e u r o t i c r e a c t i o n s to the common  immigrant problem of i s o l a t i o n .  While  the husband makes  f r i e n d s and c o n t a c t s a t work, and the c h i l d r e n a t s c h o o l become more A u s t r a l i a n than  I t a l i a n , the mother i n the home  r e t a i n s a l l the values and a t t i t u d e s of her home country. Not only i s she a s t r a n g e r i n her new c o u n t r y , but she a l s o becomes separated from her f a m i l y . II. The  FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS  United Nations Commission on the Status of 26  Women suggests  that l a c k o f education f o r married women  may be a t t r i b u t e d to s o c i a l and c u l t u r a l a t t i t u d e s a s s o c i a t e d to  the p r e v a i l i n g view t h a t 'women's place i s i n the home'.  The mother's r o l e i n the home i s l i m i t e d when: s t a t u s w i t h i n the f a m i l y i s i n f e r i o r , e d u c a t i o n , and  (3) she i s overburdened  ( l ) her  (2) she has inadequate with f a m i l y respon-  sibilities. 27 The  P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on the Status of Women  c l a i m s t h a t the e d u c a t i o n a woman r e c e i v e s w i l l have a deeper e f f e c t on her l i f e and s t a t u s than any other i n f l u e n c e o u t s i d e the home.  The education a married woman  r e c e i v e s w i l l not only a f f e c t her own l i f e of  social  but a l s o the l i v e s  her husband and c h i l d r e n . As her r o l e as a mother 26 C i v i c and P o l i t i c a l Education of Women, (New York: Department of Lconomics and s o c i a l rtrrairs, United Nations),1964, pp. 11-18. 27 The P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on the Status of Women. (Washington, D. C : A Report prepared by the Committee on E d u c a t i o n , 1963), pp. 1-40.  21 develops she w i l l transmit and  v a l u e s , and The  her  to her c h i l d r e n her  hopes f o r the  attitudes  future.  l i k e l i h o o d of a s u c c e s s f u l education  to be l e s s f o r c h i l d r e n born to parents who  i s known  themsleves are  28 uneducated. and in and  It i s u s u a l l y the c h i l d r e n from poor homes,  parents with l i t t l e school  due  use is  who  are  the most backward  to l i n g u i s t i c a b i l i t y , l i m i t e d l i f e  space,  l a c k of a s p i r a t i o n . 29 Bernstein  is  education  b e l i e v e s that l i n g u i s t i c  b a s i c to e d u c a t i o n a l both p u b l i c and d e s c r i p t i v e and  success.  formal  performance  Middle c l a s s f a m i l i e s  language.  symbolic, formal  While p u b l i c language language  v e r b a l e l e b o r a t i o n of s u b j e c t i v e i n t e n t .  facilitates  Thus lower c l a s s  homes are f r e q u e n t l y without books which r e q u i r e the standing  of formal The  language.  c o n t r i b u t i o n of the s c h o o l i s important even i n  a home which o f f e r s a r i c h h e r i t a g e , but should even greater is  poor.  under-  part to those f a m i l i e s where the  Wolfle  30  suggests that e d u c a t i o n a l  play  an  background a s p i r a t i o n s of  2 8  C o u n c i l of Economic A d v i s o r s , "What i s Poverty? Who are the Poor?" i n Herman M i l l e r , ( e d . ) : Poverty American S t y l e . (Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth Pub. Co. Inc.; l b b ) , p. yy. 29 B a s i l B e r n s t e i n , " S o c i a l C l a s s and L i n g u i s t i c Development: A Theory of S o c i a l Learning", i n : A. H. Halsey, et. a l . , (ed.): Education. Economy and S o c i e t y . (New York: TTTe Free Press of L'lencoe, l y b A ) , pp. 2yU-2yV. u  30  Dael W o l f l e , " E d u c a t i o n a l Opportunity, Measured I n t e l l i g e n c e and S o c i a l Background", i n : A. H. Halsey, e t . a l . , (ed.): Education. Economy and S o c i e t y . (New York: TTTe Free Press of Llencoe, i y b 4 ; , pp. Zlb-fSV.  22 c h i l d r e n i n lower c l a s s f a m i l i e s are a f f e c t e d by the a t t i t u d e s of the f a m i l y .  Economic pressure  and e n v i r o n -  mental f a c t o r s are uncongenial to the e d u c a t i o n a l  ambitions  of these c h i l d r e n . 31 The  European Conference on Adult Education  the program of a d u l t l e a r n i n g to the f a m i l y . emphasis on parent e d u c a t i o n ,  up the c h i l d r e n .  husband-wife r e l a t i o n s h i p i s o f t e n a source of  f r i c t i o n between the p a r t n e r s , the extent  I t places  as both f a t h e r and mother  share r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b r i n g i n g The  relates  i n t h i s changing world, to  that n e i t h e r i s c e r t a i n of h i s r o l e nor what i s 32  expected of h i s mate.  When the wife  handles the d i s c i p l i n e  of the c h i l d r e n and many of the f i n a n c i a l t r a n s a c t i o n s of the  f a m i l y the husband f r e q u e n t l y f e e l s h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n to  the f a m i l y i s not properly  appreciated.  C u l t u r a l and s o c i a l experience are important i n shaping the d i f f e r e n c e s between the sexes.  This i n no sense  i m p l i e s that one sex i s s u p e r i o r or i n f e r i o r ;  they are simply  33 different.  The r o l e of the mother i s so d i v e r s i f i e d  that  31 Frank Jessup, European Conference on Adult Education. Hamburg Report, (Hamburg: UNESCO I n s t i t u t e f o r Education, 1962), 42 pp. 32 The Family i n a Changing World. C i t i z e n s ' Forum, (Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, Nos. 5-6, 1961), p. 8. 3 3  Ibid.,  p. 9.  23 i n s p i t e of new t e c h n o l o g i e s  to make housework l i g h t e r and  food p r e p a r a t i o n s i m p l e r , she r e q u i r e s a well-balanced understanding  o f home and f a m i l y needs.  She i s the one who  i s e s s e n t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the development of c h i l d r e n who  are happy, good-humored and e m o t i o n a l l y  who  respond to love and a f f e c t i o n , t r u s t and c o n f i d e n c e ,  and  show eagerness to l e a r n and a d j u s t to the processes of  growing up.  well-adjusted,  She i s r e s p o n s i b l e to a great extent  f o r the  f e e l i n g s o f happiness and s e c u r i t y o f her husband. preserve  u n i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p they must grow  e d u c a t i o n a l l y as w e l l as e m o t i o n a l l y , complete understanding resulting  To together  so that there i s a  o f one another's d e s i r e s and needs  i n harmony i n the home. 34  Komarovsky,  sums up the problems of the housewife  i n r e l a t i o n to the t y p i c a l s t r a i n s o f homemaking. the s t r a i n o f 24-hours-a-day, 365-days-a-year for small c h i l d r e n . from other a d u l t s .  One i s  responsibility  Another i s the l o n e l i n e s s o f i s o l a t i o n A . t h i r d i s the ignorance  of even the  elementary p r i n c i p l e s of mental hygiene and the h e l p l e s s n e s s and  a n x i e t y over problems of c h i l d r e a r i n g .  Mirra Komarovsky, "Women i n the Modern World," i n : The Real World o f Woman, A CBC P u b l i c A f f a i r s Conference, (Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n for Adult Education, 1962), p. 10.  24 Any education f o r women to enable  them to take work  o u t s i d e the home should not exclude the need f o r them to secure whatever t r a i n i n g new  they may need i n f a m i l y matters,  forms of housekeeping,  b r i n g i n g up c h i l d r e n and h e a l t h -  35 fui  living. III. One  NUTRITION AND HOME MANAGEMENT  reason f o r what appears  poor may be l a i d  to be apathy  among the  down to poor d i e t , r e s u l t i n g i n m a l n u t r i t i o n 36  and  l a c k of energy.  Orshansky  says t h a t the lower the  income l e v e l the higher the percentage be spent on food.  of money that must  However, where money f o r food i s l i m i t e d  d r a s t i c a l l y , more money i s spent on the l e s s expensive and  foods  l e s s on the more expensive, which are the p r o t e i n foods,  f r e s h f r u i t and vegetables and m i l k .  In other words, the  b a s i c n u t r i e n t s - p r o t e i n , calcium and v i t a m i n C - a r e o f t e n cut  beyond the minimum standards f o r good n u t r i t i o n .  She  c l a i m s that there must not only be s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y but a l s o s u f f i c i e n t v a r i e t y of food to meet recommended  nutri-  t i o n a l g o a l s , and conform t o the customary e a t i n g p a t t e r n s . C a l o r i e s alone a r e not enough.  To be able to provide an  adequate d i e t on a low l e v e l income not only r e s t r i c t s the C i t i z e n s ' Forum, Op. C i t . . pp. 8-10. 3fi M o l l i s Orshansky, "Consumption, Work and Poverty", i n Ben Seligman, ( e d . ) : Poverty as a P u b l i c Issue, (New York: The Free Press, 1965), p. 73.  25 kinds and q u a l i t i e s of food but a l s o r e q u i r e s more s k i l l i n meal p l a n n i n g , marketing,  and food p r e p a r a t i o n .  What  f o r economy i n low income f a m i l i e s u s u a l l y r e f l e c t s  passes  lowering  of d i e t a r y standards. 37 W i l l i e and Riddick  a l s o suggest  of l a c k of e d u c a t i o n , the poor are easy purchases.  t h a t , because  game f o r i n s t a l l m e n t  Not only do t h e i r f a m i l i e s s u f f e r when they t r y  to s t r i v e as equals i n a competitive world, but they are a l s o denied  the b a s i c things money can buy. IV.  CITIZENSHIP  38 Carr,  d e c l a r e d that no government which  denies  or l i m i t s the b a s i c r i g h t s of education to any c i t i z e n be allowed  to a s s e r t concern  should  f o r the other human r i g h t s ,  which education makes p o s s i b l e . The  United Nations Commission on the Status of  39 Women  d e c l a r e s that good c i t i z e n s h i p begins i n the home.  Women should be conscious of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of citizenship.  Too f r e q u e n t l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s f i e l d i s  i n t e r p r e t e d as of i n t e r e s t only to those p a r t i c i p a t i n g a t C . V. W i l l i e and W. R i d d i c k , "The Employed Poor: A Case Study," i n : Ben Seligman, ( e d . ) : Poverty i s a P u b l i c Issue. (New York: The Free Press, 1965), ppl 145-148. 38 Wm. G. C a r r , educator from Washington. D. C , speaking to the World C o n f e d e r a t i o n of O r g a n i z a t i o n s of the Teaching P r o f e s s i o n , c i t e d i n : The Sun (.Vancouver) October 25, 1967. 39 C i v i c and P o l i t i c a l Education of Women, Op. C i t . . pp. 11-19. 3 7  26  a high l e v e l and  not of i n t e r e s t  P a r t i c i p a t i o n i s extremely injustices.  Cooperative  to the o r d i n a r y c i t i z e n .  important  i n overcoming  programs a t the community  social level  can only be made v i a b l e by the e f f o r t s of i n d i v i d u a l members. Good c i t i z e n s h i p not only strengthens f a m i l y but i t a l s o i s very important  the s e c u r i t y of the to the s t r e n g t h of the  community. Governments, i n the view of the Commission, should take the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making a v a i l a b l e more opportunity f o r the education and  t r a i n i n g of women i n such f i e l d s  s o c i a l and economic p l a n n i n g .  Wherever laws e x i s t that  d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t women i n any to change these  as  f i e l d , e f f o r t s must be made  laws. t/.  EMPLOYMENT  40  Recent s t u d i e s attainment  show that people  have great d i f f i c u l t y  of low e d u c a t i o n a l  i n meeting economic and  s o c i a l needs of a modern s o c i e t y j that they are deprived of many o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r personal development and i n community a f f a i r s j and ment and  they are unable  participation  to a v o i d unemploy-  dependency. In Canada the s t r o n g e s t m o t i v a t i o n of married women  r e t u r n i n g to work was  f o r economic reasons, a c c o r d i n g to the  E. W. B r i c e , "Undereducation i n Our American Society',' in: F. W. Lanning and W. A. Many, ( e d . ) : Basic Education f o r the Disadvantaged A d u l t . (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 1 9 6 6 ) , p. 4 .  27 F e d e r a l Department of Labour.  41  This m o t i v a t i o n i n c l u d e d  working to supplement the f a m i l y income f o r n e c e s s i t i e s , but a l s o to purchase luxury items.  Secondary to t h i s  reason were the woman's need to get away from the household, need o f a d u l t companionship, need o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n , and i n t e r e s t i n the work of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n which she was employed. 42 This r e p o r t  showed a c l e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the e d u c a t i o n and t r a i n i n g o f married of employment.  While most married  high s c h o o l standing were mainly  women and t h e i r  women with  incomplete  employed as f a c t o r y workers  or i n u n s k i l l e d s e r v i c e j o b s , most of those with high g r a d u a t i o n were i n c l e r i c a l work. of  type  Those with higher  school levels  e d u c a t i o n were employed as nurses, teachers and s e c r e t a r i e s . 43 A United States Study i n 1964  i n d i c a t e d that  there i s a l s o a d i r e c t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the e d u c a t i o n a l attainment force. age  of women and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the labor  I t showed that 72 percent of a l l women 18 years of  and over who had completed f i v e or more years o f c o l l e g e  were i n the l a b o r f o r c e .  Cities.  For married  women the rate was  ^ M a r r i e d Women, Working f o r Pay i n E i g h t Canadian (Ottawa: Department o f Labour, Canada, 1958), pp. 43-45, 4 2  lbid..  pp. 13-17.  1965 Handbook on Women Workers, (Washington, D. C : Women's Bureau, B u l l e t i n 290, U. S. Department of Labor), pp. 192-193.  28 63 percent.  However, i t dropped to 45 percent f o r those  with high s c h o o l completion and 31 percent f o r women who 44 had in  not gone beyond Grade 8.  In Canada  participation  the l a b o r f o r c e by married women i s 36 percent f o r those  with u n i v e r s i t y t r a i n i n g , 25 percent f o r high s c h o o l completion and 17.5 percent f o r those with Grade 8 or l e s s . VI.  SUMMARY  A review of l i t e r a t u r e  i n d i c a t e s that the needs f o r  e d u c a t i o n o f married women of lower socio-economic can be c l a s s i f i e d  status  into five categories:  1) c u l t u r a l  orientation  2) f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s 3) n u t r i t i o n and home management 4) c i t i z e n s h i p 5) employment It  i s pointed out that e t h n i c communities may add  r i c h n e s s to the c u l t u r a l l i f e o f the c o u n t r y , but without some means of o r i e n t a t i o n i n t o Canadian s o c i e t y the married women i n these communities a r e s u b j e c t to extreme The one  s t a b i l i t y and emotional l i f e  loneliness.  of the f a m i l y i s  of the main c h a l l e n g e s to the woman i n the home.  She not  only c a r r i e s the g r e a t e s t share i n the t r a i n i n g o f the c h i l d ren,  but must a l s o help preserve a balance i n the husband-  44 Changing Patterns i n Women's Employment. (Ottawa: Women's Bureau, Department of Labour, Canada, 1966), p. 22.  29  wife  relationships. Education  i s needed to contend with the p h y s i c a l  needs of the f a m i l y .  The v e r s a t i l i t y of tasks i n monetary  p l a n n i n g , budgeting,  marketing and food p r e p a r a t i o n r e q u i r e  s k i l l and i n t e l l i g e n c e i n order  to o f f s e t low d i e t a r y  standards. Married women must be aware of the laws that e x i s t to p r o t e c t them as w e l l as those which d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t them. Education and t r a i n i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s must be a v a i l able to women who seek employment.  Studies have r e v e a l e d  that the higher the e d u c a t i o n a l background the g r e a t e r the p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the l a b o r f o r c e , and that those  with  l i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n a r e f r e q u e n t l y deprived of work opportunities.  Also married  education a r e mainly  women with incomplete  high  school  employed as f a c t o r y workers or i n  unskilled service jobs.  CHAPTER I I I SOCIO-ECONOMIC  CHARACTERISTICS  In order to g a i n an i n s i g h t i n t o the reasons f o r l a c k of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , a study of the socio-economic conducted.  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents  was  This n e c e s s a r i l y deals with the s p a t i a l  dis-  t r i b u t i o n of married women i n c a t e g o r i e s of age, m a r i t a l s t a t u s , s i z e of f a m i l y , e t h n i c o r i g i n , income and e d u c a t i o n a l background. I. Age. respondents  PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS  Due to the s e l e c t e d sample, most of the  were under the age of 45 as shown i n T b l e I. a  The h e a v i e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n each d i s t r i c t was i n the 25 to 34 year age groupi  Although  age was recorded  year p e r i o d s , none of the respondents 19 years o l d .  claimed  Many e l d e r l y c i t i z e n s i n both  i n ten-  to be below K i t s i l a n o and  Sunrise were approached, but of these only one past the age of 55 agreed  to an i n t e r v i e w .  In the e n t i r e sample 20.5  percent were from 15 to 24 years of age, 39 percent were from 25 to 34 y e a r s , 22.6 percent were 35 to 44 and 10.2 percent were 45 to 54i  Ten respondents  the q u e s t i o n r e l a t e d to age. higher percentage  d i d not r e p l y to  In K i t s i l a n o a s i g n i f i c a n t l y  of the respondents  25 than i n Sunrise or Skeena Tierrace.  were under the age of  31 Due to the s e l e c t e d sample, d i s t r i b u t i o n only s l i g h t l y  i n the three areas concerned.  varied  While  Kitsilano  showed a higher r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of women under 35 years of age,  i n Sunrise and Skeena the l a r g e s t number was i n the 25  to 44 year age group.  TABLE I AGE DISTRIBUTION Age  Kitsilano  Sunrise  No.Percent  No. Percent No. Percent  Skeena  Total No. Percent  15-24  16  25.8  5  14.3  9  18.5  30  20.5  25-34  25  40.3  14  40.0  18  37.0  57  39.0  35-44  7  11.3  7  20.0  19  38.4  33  22.6  45-54  7  11.3  5  14.3  3  6.1  15  10.2  55-64  1  1.6  0  0.0  0  0.0  1  0.7  No r e p l y  6  9.7  4  11.4  0  0.0  10  7.0  62 100.0  35  100.0  100.0  146  100.0  Total  Marital Status.  49  In the sample of 146 married  women, 32 were widowed, d i v o r c e d or separated.  While  this  r e p r e s e n t s only 22 percent of the e n t i r e sample, 25 of the 32 women were i n Skeena T e r r a c e . over h a l f of the respondents of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s .  This i n d i c a t e s that s l i g h t l y  of t h i s area are female  heads  D i s t r i b u t i o n a c c o r d i n g to m a r i t a l  s t a t u s i s shown on Table I I .  32  TABLE II DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO MARITAL STATUS Marital Status Married Widowed, d i v o r c e d or separated Total  Kitsilano  Sunrise  No. Percent  No. Percent No. Percent No. Percent  56  90.3  34  97.1  24  49.0  114  78.1  6  9.7  1  2.9  25  51.0  32  21.9  62  100.0  35  100.0  49  100.0  Number of C h i l d r e n .  Skeena  Total  146 100.0  Less than ten percent of the  women i n t e r v i e w e d r e p o r t e d that  they have no c h i l d r e n .  Most  of these are i n the K i t s i l a n o and the remainder i n S u n r i s e . The l a r g e s t  percentage of f a m i l i e s i n K i t s i l a n o and Sunrise  have two c h i l d r e n or l e s s .  In Skeena Terrace a l l but four  f a m i l i e s have two or more c h i l d r e n , and 17 of these have four or more.  These data are shown on Table  families  I I I . Over  h a l f of the f a m i l i e s i n a l l areas have c h i l d r e n under s c h o o l age; Table  34 i n K i t s i l a n o , 20 i n S u n r i s e , and 29 i n Skeena Terrace. 11/ i l l u s t r a t e s  this.  TABLE I I I NUMBER OF CHILDREN Children  Kitsilano  Sunrise  Skeena  Total  No. Percent  No. Percent  No. Percent  No. Percent  None  10  16.1  4  11.4  0  0.0  14  1 child  19  30.7  7  20.0  4  8.2  30  20.5  2 children  15  24.1  11  31.4  15  30.6  41  28.1  3 children  7  11.3  6  17.2  13  26.5  26  17.8  4 or more  5  8.1  3  8.6  17  34.7  25  17.0  No Reply  6  9.7  4  11.4  0  0.0  10  7.0  Total  62  100.0  35  100.0  49  100.0  146  9.6  100.0  LA  34  TABLE IV DISTRIBUTION OF FAMILIES ACCORDING TO PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN Children  Kitsilano No. Percent  None  10  16.1  4  11.4  With c h i l d r e n but none under s c h o o l age 12  19.4  7  20.0  20  40.8  39  26.6  With C h i l d r e n under s c h o o l age  54,8  20  57.2  29  59.2  83  56.8  4  11.4  No r e p l y  34  9.7  6  Total  62  100.0  Ethnic Oriqin. reveal  Sunrise No. Percent  35  100.0  Skeena No. Percent 0  14  0.0  0  0.0 100.0  49  Both K i t s i l a n o and  Total No. Percent 9.6  10 146  7.0 100.0  Sunrise areas  aspects of a c i t y i ni t r a n s i t i o n ; the former i n the  s t a t e of decay, and the l a t t e r of a new inner c i t y adjacent  to i n d u s t r y .  development  New Canadians of many o r i g i n s have  s e t t l e d i n both areas forming  s m a l l communities of t h e i r own.  Greeks, I t a l i a n s and Germans form the l a r g e s t groups i n kitsilano.  In Sunrise there i s a heavy c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  I t a l i a n s i n the northwest s e c t i o n o f the d i s t r i c t .  Of the  45 new Canadians i n t e r v i e w e d , 13 c o u l d speak very l i t t l e , i f any,  English.  Some r e q u i r e d an i n t e r p r e t e r .  Table  V reveals  the high c o n c e n t r a t i o n of Greek, I t a l i a n and German f a m i l i e s i n the three s e l e c t e d a r e a s .  TABLE V ETHNIC ORIGIN Ethnic  Origin  Kitsilano  Sunrise  Skeena  Total  No. Percent  No. Percent  No. Percent  No. Percent  Canadian  34  54.8  27  77.1  42  85.7  103  70.4  Greek  12  19.4  0  0.0  0  0.0  12  8.2  German  8  12.9  0  0.0  3  6.1  11  7.5  Italian  3  4.9  7  20.0  0  0.0  10  7.0  Polish  2  3.2  0  0.0  0  0.0  2  1.4  Finnish  1  1.6  0  0.0  0  0.0  1  0.7  Oriental  1  1.6  0  0.0  1  2.1  2  1.4  Yugoslav  1  1.6  0  0.0  0  0.0  1  0.7  Hungarian  0  0.0  0  0.0  3  6.1  3  2.0  Portuguese  0  0.0  1  2.9  0  0.0  1  0.7  62  100.0  35  100.0  49  100.0  146  1QQ.0  Total  cn  36 Family  Income*  D e t a i l s regarding d i s t r i b u t i o n  r e l a t e d to f a m i l y income are shown on Table VI. In K i t s i l a n o 29 women d i d not r e p l y to t h i s category e i t h e r because of inability  to communicate f l u e n t l y i n E n g l i s h , because  they d i d  not wish t o , or because  they d i d not know what t h e i r income  was.  15 f a m i l i e s earned l e s s than $4,000  Of the remainder,  y e a r l y , 12 f a m i l i e s earned between $4,000 and $5,999 and s i x f a m i l i e s earned over $6,000. In Sunrise no f a m i l y had an income below $3,000. Nine f a m i l i e s had an income of over $6,000.  In two of these  cases the e d u c a t i o n a l l e v e l of the women was below Grade 7. In another i n s t a n c e a mother of two, with Grade 11 s t a n d i n g , b r i n g i n g up her f a m i l y a l o n e , earned over $6,000 as a f a s h i o n buyer f o r a department  store.  At Skeena Terrace nearly 80 percent of the f a m i l i e s had an income of l e s s than $3,000.  Single-parent f a m i l i e s ,  headed by women, a l l had incomes under $3,000, and 75 percent of these had l e s s than $2,000 f o r a y e a r l y income.  37  TABLE VI INCOME DISTRIBUTION Income  Kitsilano Sunrise No. Percent No. Percent  Skeena No. Percent  Total No. Percent  Under $2,000  6  9.7  0  0.0  22  45,0  28  19.2  2,000-2,999  5  8.1  0  0.0  16  32.6  21  14.4  3,000-3,999  4  6.5  6  17.2  4  8.2  14  9.6  4,000-5,999  12  19.3  14  40.0  7  14.2  33  22.6  6  9.7  9  25.6  0  0.0  15  10.2  No r e p l y  29  46.7  6  17.2  0  0.0  35  24.0  Total  62  100.0  35  100.0  49  100.0 146  100.0  6,000 & over  II.  EDUCATION AND EMPLOYMENT  P u b l i c School Education. to had  Of the women who r e p l i e d  questions concerning e d u c a t i o n only a s m a l l l e s s than Grade 9, except  Skeena Terrace where n e a r l y  o n e - t h i r d had dropped out before a t t a i n i n g t h i s Approximately  percentage  level.  o n e - t h i r d of the women i n K i t s i l a n o and  Sunrise had achieved Grade 12, but only one-fourth of those i n Skeena Terrace had.  In both  K i t s i l a n o and Sunrise a l a r g e  number of women gave no r e p l y i n t h i s category because of language d i f f i c u l t i e s .  Of the e n t i r e sample only four had  l e s s than Grade 5 s t a n d i n g , but q u i t e a number with Grade 6 to  8 l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n asked about b a s i c E n g l i s h and  38 reading improvement c o u r s e s .  A l l the women i n t e r v i e w e d wanted  more e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n than they themselves had obtained.  D e t a i l s regarding p u b l i c s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n are shown  on Table V I I ,  TABLE VII PUBLIC SCHOOL EDUCATION Grade  Kitsilano No. Percent  Sunrise Skeena No. Percent No. Percent  Total No. Percent  Grade 5 or l e s s  2  3.2  0  0.0  2  4.1  4  2.8  Grade 6-7  5  8.1  2  5.7  1  2.0  8  5.6  Grade 8  0  0.0  2  5.7  12  24.6  14  9.6  Grade 9-11  11  17.3  11  31.4  22  44.7  44  30.0  Grade 12 or over  21  33.8  12  34.4  12  24.6  45  30.8  No r e p l y  23  37.6  8  22.8  0  0.0  31  21.2  Total  62  100.0  35  100.0  49  100.0  146  100.0  Employment.  Of the 146 respondents,  65 percent had  worked before they were married but only 30 percent do so now.  However, not a l l the women p r e s e n t l y employed worked  before marriage.  Most of the women now working are doing so  on?.a part-time b a s i s to s u b s i d i z e the f a m i l y income.  Two  of the women i n K i t s i l a n o are h e l p i n g t h e i r husbands with i n t e r i o r r e n o v a t i o n of homes f o r s a l e or r e n t .  A l l the women  39 p r e s e n t l y employed i n o f f i c e work have Grade 12 s t a n d i n g . Another four with  Grade 12 education are i n the s e r v i c e  trades as w a i t r e s s e s or domestics. shown on Table  Employment  history i s  VIII.  TABLE VIII EMPLOYMENT HISTORY Worked Before Marriage  Occupation Registered  nurse  Now  Working  4  0  7  4  31  11  Beauty c u l t u r e  4  1  Sales  8  2  Needle trades  4  5  Factory  15  5  Service  23  16  Total  96  44  Nurse's aide or Technician Clerical  III.  SUMMARY  The m a j o r i t y of the respondents i n a l l three were between the ages of 15 and 44, married, and with The main e x c e p t i o n was Skeena Terrace where over 50  areas children.  percent  40 of the women i n t e r v i e w e d were widowed, d i v o r c e d or separated. In both  K i t s i l a n o and Sunrise a high percentage  were new Canadians with language and c u l t u r a l In both  of the women  problems.  K i t s i l a n o and Sunrise the h i g h e s t p r o p o r t i o n  of the f a m i l i e s had incomes ranging between S3,000 and S5,999. However, i n Skeena Terrace over 75 percent of the incomes were l e s s than  S3,000, and 45 percent were under $2,000.  While most of the women i n a l l three areas had gone to s c h o o l beyond the Grade 8 l e v e l , l e s s than one out of three had  completed high s c h o o l .  g r e a t e r percentage  Data i n d i c a t e d t h a t there was a  o f high s c h o o l completion  i n K i t s i l a n o and  Sunrise than i n Skeena Terrace which showed evidence  of a  high dropout r a t e between grades 9 and 11. Skeena Terrace a l s o r e v e a l e d a much higher of s i n g l e parent under study.  incidence  f a m i l i e s than d i d the other two areas  This area a l s o had more f a m i l i e s with  three or  more c h i l d r e n , and s l i g h t l y more with c h i l d r e n under s c h o o l age. These data lend credence to the evidence female headed f a m i l i e s a r e i n c l i n e d  that  to have marginal  incomes.  45 It a l s o supports  Ostry's  c l a i m s that women with  e d u c a t i o n a l standing are i n c l i n e d  to have l a r g e r  lower  families.  CHAPTER IV PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES Education i s a s i g n i f i c a n t index of one's p o s i t i o n 46  i n the s o c i a l s c a l e a c c o r d i n g to Brunner.  Evidence  also  r e v e a l s that there i s a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i o economic s t a t u s and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t l e a r n i n g . lower a person's  s t a t u s the l e s s l i k e l y he i s to be reached  by a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  I t i s probable that those with more  e d u c a t i o n are motivated I.  The  to continue to l e a r n .  ACADEMIC AND VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS  Former P a r t i c i p a t i o n .  Table IX r e v e a l s that 28 of  the 57 women i n t h i s study who have p r e v i o u s l y p a r t i c i p a t e d i n academic or v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g are Grade 12 graduates, and  15 have a Grade 9 to 11 l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n .  Of those  with Grade 12 s t a n d i n g , 19 were i n K i t s i l a n o , 8 i n Sunrise and  1 i n Skeena T e r r a c e .  This would i n d i c a t e that the  higher the grade l e v e l the g r e a t e r the degree of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The  data i n Table IX f u r t h e r suggest  the married women of lower socio-economic  that most of  status relate  a d u l t education to employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s .  Most of the  4b  E. de S. Brunner, e_t. a l . , An Overview of Adult Education Research. (Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959), pp. 103-105.  TABLE IX PRIOR ACADEMIC OR VOCATIONAL PARTICIPATION BEYOND FORMAL SCHOOLING  Kitsilano  CO CO CD -i  Ul  o  Program University  Areas  TJ CD  i  1  n  VO  CO  CO  CD TJ CO  CD TJ CO  CD T) CO  L3  CJ  CJ  cuio  j  -P  rH rH  cn  o  t-»  u  u  co -p CO CM rH CD TJ CO Ui (J  1  Nursing  1  3  Nurse's Aide  1  1  Commercial  1 10  Course  1  O  z  i  1  in  UD  CO  cr>  CO TJ CO Ul CJ  CD TJ (0 Ui CJ  CD TJ (0 Ui CJ  CD  o  ~o (0 Ul CJ  1  1  TJ CD  •p  r-  CO CM rH CO T) (0 Ui CJ  CD TJ (0 Ul CJ o  z  i  1  in  VO  CO  cn  CD TJ CO Ui CJ  CO TJ (0 Ul CJ  CD TJ (0 Ui CJ  CD TJ  a u  CJ  (0  +>  CO CM rH  CD TJ  CO TJ CO Ui CJ  Ul CJ  to  O  3  0  7 19  1  3  5.3  4  7.0 10.5  1  1  1  6  2  5  24 42.1  1  6  10.5  7  12.3  2  3.5  1  1.8  1  1  0  0  1  1  O Ut CD Q.  7.0  5  4  -p o  c CD  4  1  1 1  rH CO  t—  1  English f o r New Canadians  •P  1  1  2  -P  rH rH  1  1 1  S e r v i c e Trades  totals  U  CJ  ut  Skeena  TJ CO -u CO  rH rH  3  1  Culture  Needlecraft  CD TJ CO  (0 0) CD rH  3  Program  Music or Art  Beauty  Sunrise  8  0  0  1  4  7  1  0  57 100. 0  43 women with l e s s than Grade 12 education had s e l e c t e d vocat i o n a l t r a i n i n g i n areas t h a t d i d not r e q u i r e f u r t h e r academic study.  Approximately  42 percent of the e n r o l l e e s had  r e c e i v e d t h e i r p r i o r t r a i n i n g i n commercial courses* high percentage  A  of these women were Grade 12 graduates.  Nearly a l l the remaining  women with high s c h o o l graduation  had s e l e c t e d areas o f study t h a t asked of academic s t a n d i n g .  for a prerequisite  Four of these were on u n i v e r s i t y  undergraduate programs and three had entered n u r s i n g . the remainder, three had s e l e c t e d study  Of  i n the f i e l d s of  music and a r t . Present  Participants.  At present 11 respondents  i n the sample are e n r o l l e d i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs, as i n d i c a t e d i n Table X. graduates education.  Eight of these women are Grade 12  with a previous r e c o r d of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t Of t h i s group f i v e a r e doing undergraduate work  at u n i v e r s i t y .  One woman i s studying t o become a k i n d e r -  garten teacher and one i s studying f i n e a r t s . Grade 12 graduate  The other  i s a working mother t a k i n g commercial  courses by correspondence  to improve her employment  opportunities. The  two women with Grade 9 to 11 l e v e l of education  are studying to become p r e - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s .  Both are welfare  r e c i p i e n t s , s i n g l e heads of f a m i l i e s with p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n . Their t u i t i o n i s being  paid by a s e r v i c e c l u b , and t h e i r  44  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n by welfare s e r v i c e s . sitting  They exchange baby-  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as one has daytime c l a s s e s and  the other evening  classes.  A p p r e c i a t i o n of the o p p o r t u n i t y  to continue t h e i r education was expressed  i n t h i s manner  by one o f the mothers: You see your f u r n i t u r e get shabby and your c l o t h e s get run down, and you s t a r t wondering how long i t can go on. Since I s t a r t e d t h i s course I f e e l l i k e a new person. You don't know how wonderful i t i s ' My whole a t t i t u d e has changed. I am happier now, and so are my c h i l d ren. I can look forward to g e t t i n g o f f welfare when the baby (aged two years) i s i n k i n d e r g a r t e n . But even i f I never worked i t has done something f o r my s p i r i t . 47 F a i l u r e of married women of e t h n i c o r i g i n to l e a r n E n g l i s h i n e s t a b l i s h e d c l a s s e s provided f o r new Canadians i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that only one respondent i s presently  enrolled.  Interview with a respondent  i n Skeena T e r r a c e .  45 TABLE X PARTICIPANTS CURRENTLY ENROLLED IN CONTINUING EDUCATION Grade  Completion  5 or less  6 to 7  8  9 to 11  University  0  0  0  0  5  0  5  Kindergarten or p r e - s c h o o l teacher  0  0  0  2  1  0  3  Art  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  Commercial course  0  0  0  0  1  0  1  E n g l i s h f o r New Canadians  0  0  0  0  0  1  1  Program Areas  II.  12  No grade T o t a l stated  REASONS FOR NON-PARTICIPATION  Most of the respondents need f o r improving  i n the study recognized a  t h e i r education.  However, s l i g h t l y  over  o n e - t h i r d of the women - 23 i n K i t s i l a n o , 20 i n Sunrise and  10 i n Skeena Terrace - expressed  learning.  These are mainly  work experience  no need f o r c o n t i n u i n g  women who had a background of  and who s a i d they would r e t u r n to t h e i r  former type of employment i f the need a r o s e . In r e p l y i n g to the q u e s t i o n concerning  non-partic-  i p a t i o n the women f r e q u e n t l y gave s e v e r a l i n t e r r e l a t e d  46 reasons. studied  The p o s s i b l e i m p l i c a t i o n s of these reasons are i n r e l a t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g  variables:  1) r e s i d e n t i a l area 2) age 3) income 4) l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n 5) m a r i t a l  status  6) c h i l d r e n 7) e t h n i c  origin  R e s i d e n t i a l Area.  Table XI i n d i c a t e s t h a t , i n  K i t s i l a n o 19 of the respondents gave as t h e i r reasons f o r non-participation  the i n a b i l i t y  English s u f f i c i e n t l y well.  to speak or understand  The response of a Greek woman  i n the K i t s i l a n o area e x e m p l i f i e s  this.  She i s i n t e r e s t e d  i n a course i n dressmaking, but f e a r s her E n g l i s h i s not good enough to enable her to understand what i s being While she i s w i l l i n g f o r an o c c u p a t i o n a l  to leave  her immediate neighborhood  c o u r s e , she i s h e s i t a n t  order to take E n g l i s h f o r new Canadians. associated pattern  taught.  with her husband's a t t i t u d e .  to do so i n  This i s a l s o Their  cultural  places him i n the p o s i t i o n of d e c i s i o n maker.  Whereas, he does not o b j e c t  to her taking  vocational  courses  f o r f u t u r e employment, he f e e l s she should stay a t home with the c h i l d r e n r a t h e r non-participation,  than take language c l a s s e s .  f o r her,  Thus  i n v o l v e s c u l t u r a l and language  problems, lack o f d e s i r e to leave  her neighborhood,  47 r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f s m a l l c h i l d r e n and submission  to male  domination. In r e f e r e n c e t o place of r e s i d e n c e , another to  barrier  a d u l t education p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n K i t s i l a n o i n v o l v e d the  lack of c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s . ment i n t h e i r concerned  T h i r d i n order was content-  perceived r o l e o f homemaker, and the f o u r t h  lack of i n f o r m a t i o n regarding courses and where  they were being o f f e r e d . In Sunrise the most frequent d e t e r r i n g f a c t o r was need of f a c i l i t i e s f o r the care of pre-school c h i l d r e n . This was f o l l o w e d i n importance by lack of i n t e r e s t on the part of women who were s a t i s f i e d i n t h e i r r o l e as homemaker.  The other two most frequent answers i n t h i s  area were l a c k o f time, and postponement through to  indecision  embark on a program of e d u c a t i o n . At Skeena Terrace 37 women gave c o s t s r e l a t e d to  f e e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n as t h e i r primary participation.  reason f o r non-  Lack of c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s came second;  F e e l i n g s o f inadequacy r e l a t e d to meeting standards of course  requirements,  lack o f time, and d i s t a n c e from the  c e n t r e where courses were o f f e r e d f o l l o w e d i n importance as reasons  for failure  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Kitsilano  O  OJ  Cost  OJ CJi  M N)  M OJ  Care of c h i l d r e n  tH  H  4s  .Js-  OJ  Area of Residence  Sunrise  Skeena -0  (fees and / or t r a n s p o r t a t i o n )  F e e l i n g of inadequacy regarding meeting of standards VO  T3 ZD  n  Language and c u l t u r a l difficulties  — t< TJ  5=> —I  cn  a  O  NJ  OJ  Won't leave neighborhood of i n s t i t u t i o n s )  (or f e a r  Domination of husband  t—i CD  —i  3>  Lack of i n f o r m a t i o n  TO  I  m m  m x  F i e l d of i n t e r e s t  m n m  NO  OJ  CD  CH  N3  M  o  cn  ro  Postponement through i n d e c i s i o n  M  cn  cn  Lack of time  ZO  CD  O  cn  NJ  O  OJ  r-"  M  H*  VO  O  O  r-  —i  X  Distance  not c e r t a i n  from c e n t r e  Age or h e a l t h Happy as homemakers (not i n t e r e s t e d ) Too l a t e to s t a r t  3=  m o m cn n  n  CO -  H-i  49 Income.  In reference  to income v a r i a b l e s (Table X11),  cost of fees and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r e c e i v e d  the most responses  by women with incomes under S3,000 as reasons f o r n o n - p a r t i c i pation. children.  This was followed  by lack of care  for  small  Cases concerning income v a r i a b l e s are e x e m p l i f i e d  by the f o l l o w i n g h i s t o r i e s of s e v e r a l respondents: 1) A s i n g l e parent supporting two pre-school c h i l d r e n on an income under $2,000^ would l i k e commercial training. Costs r e l a t e d t o t u i t i o n , c a r f a r e and b a b y - s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s place t h i s type of t r a i n i n g out of reach. 2) A mother of s i x with Grade 8 education would l i k e to complete high school and become a stenographer, i n order to s u b s i d i z e the f a m i l y income. At present she s t u d i e s from her c h i l d r e n ' s school books as she f e e l s that c o s t s e n t a i l e d i n a t r a i n i n g program would be too h i g h . If she waits too long i t would be too l a t e to s t a r t . The family income i s under $6,000. 3) A s i n g l e parent, 45 years of age supports h e r s e l f and one c h i l d i n s c h o o l , on an income under $3,000, doing strenuous i n s t i t u t i o n a l work. She would l i k e stenographic t r a i n i n g but i s worried about the c o s t s , and length of the program. 4) A mother of two supports h e r s e l f and her c h i l d r e n on an income under $2,000. Her ambition i s to become a h a i r d r e s s e r but she i s a f r a i d women on welfare would not be accepted. The c o s t s e n t a i l e d and time r e q u i r e d to q u a l i f y are o t h e r - o b s t a c l e s . 48  Interviews with respondents: ( l ) , (2) and (3) from Skeena Terrace and from (4) K i t s i l a n o .  50 In the $2,000 to $3,999 income group 16 r e p l i e s r e l a t e d to c o s t of f e e s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , 15 to care of c h i l d r e n , and seven to l a c k of time.  This was f o l l o w e d by  s i x r e l a t i n g to a f e e l i n g of inadequacy, and four each to age  or h e a l t h and d i s t a n c e from the centre where courses  were g i v e n . In the $3,000 to $3,999 bracket only seven r e l a t e d n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n to care of c h i l d r e n , while four gave l a c k o f time and f o u r gave u n c e r t a i n t y as to t h e i r of i n t e r e s t as t h e i r  field  cause.  In the $4,000 to $5,999 income bracket there were 11 responses  r e l a t e d to care of c h i l d r e n , s i x claimed  they  were happy as homemakers and not i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n , and s i x s a i d they lacked time.  Three r e p l i e s each  r e f e r r e d t o f e e l i n g s of inadequacy, c o s t s and postponement through  indecision.  In the higher income b r a c k e t s , more  of the women expressed  the f a c t that they were happy as  homemakers and not i n t e r e s t e d i n resuming t h e i r In the D i s t r i c t of Coquitlam, a f t e r removal of t u i t i o n fees attendance  education.  adjacent to Vancouver, has quadrupled,  and married women on welfare have s e i z e d the o p p o r t u n i t y of 49 r e t r a i n i n g f o r employment. The  preceding data appear to i n d i c a t e that a d u l t  Interview with Mr. G. F r y e , Adult Education D i r e c t o r , D i s t r i c t of Coquitlam, B. C , 1967.  2  O  cn  «•  >1 CO  O o o  M  OJ  TJ  •<  3 a.  o < CD 1  CO  o o o  i CJl  N)  o o a  o a o  a CD  i  i  t»  CO  «• VO VO VO  <• VO VO vO  VO VO VO  CJ  OJ  CX>  CO  cn  -o  cn  co  I—'  u  NJ  OJ  NJ  no  CD  o  i-  CJl  O  I—•  O  cn  no  c  OJ  OJ  OJ  o  CJ)  *•  a  o  OJ  1  ho  o 3 CD  a a o  OJ  OJ  CD  OJ  l-H  3 O  OJ  Cost ( f e e s and/or Transportation) Care of c h i l d r e n F e e l i n g of inadequacy i n meeting standards Language and c u l t u r a l difficulties Won't leave neighborhood ( f e a r of i n s t i t u t i o n s ) Domination of husband Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n  i  TJ 3»  TO O TJ 3s>  £  CO  f-n  r-  — i  m  X  M  W  W  no  no  cn  *>•  O  M  F i e l d of i n t e r e s t  not c e r t a i n  O  O  O  Postponement through indecision  -o  M  Lack of time  n  =0  m o m  n o  s  m O  o  T9  O  O  -ts  OJ  Distance from c e n t r e  r-"  M  I—'  J>  no  OJ  cn  i-»  o  o  Happy as a homemaker (not i n t e r e s t e d )  o  a  M  CD  o  Too l a t e to s t a r t  Age or h e a l t h  r-l  52 education,  i n the minds of women of lower socio-economic  s t a t u s , i s c l o s e l y l i n k e d with Age.  f u t u r e employment.  As shown i n Table  X I I I , care of c h i l d r e n , and  c o s t s of t u i t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n were the areas o f g r e a t e s t concern i n the younger age c a t e g o r i e s . In the 15 to 24 year age group care of c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e d 15 r e p l i e s ; c o s t of courses next.  and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n came  This was f o l l o w e d by language problems, f e e l i n g s of  inadequacy, and l a c k of time.  Two women i n the 15 t o 24 age  group mentioned the husband's d e c i s i o n as a determining One of the women expressed  factor.  i t t h i s way:  My husband does not t h i n k I need more s c h o o l i n g . He says he does not want h i s wife to work. He wants me to stay a t home to look a f t e r the c h i l d r e n . 50 In the 25 to 34 age group, 27 r e p l i e s were given f o r care of c h i l d r e n and 15 r e p l i e s r e l a t e d t o c o s t s of t u i t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n .  These two areas of major concern  were f o l l o w e d by such d e t e r r e n t s as c u l t u r a l and language d i f f i c u l t i e s , l a c k of time, f e e l i n g s of inadequacy e d u c a t i o n a l standards  regarding  and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n homemaking.  In the 35 to 44 year age group 17 r e p l i e s r e l a t e d to care of c h i l d r e n and 15 t o c o s t s .  Interview  with a K i t s i l a n o  This was f o l l o w e d by  respondent.  53 n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n due to language  difficulties,  age and  h e a l t h , l a c k of time and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n homemaking. most o f the uiomen over 45 years of age expressed s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e i r r o l e of homemaker, or reasons of age or  h e a l t h as the foremost d e t e r r e n t s f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n  in adult education.  Two women f e l t  inadequate and s e n s i t i v e  about r e t u r n i n g to a classroom s i t u a t i o n . women s a i d she was f i f t y , but would l i k e high s c h o o l . new  Canadians,  to complete her  She expressed i n t e r e s t i n teaching E n g l i s h to The other s a i d i t was too l a t e to s t a r t  L e v e l of E d u c a t i o n . for  One of these  over.  Table XIV r e l a t e s to responses  n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n l e v e l of e d u c a t i o n .  Women with  limited  education gave m u l t i p l e reasons f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult education.  While only four women had l e s s than  Grade 5 e d u c a t i o n , one respondent gave four reasons f o r nonparticipation: This mother of s i x has l e s s than Grade 5 education. The f a m i l y income i s between $2,000 and $3,000. Her d e t e r r e n t s are l a c k of time, l a c k of b a b y - s i t t i n g f a c i l i t i e s , c o s t s e n t a i l e d i n c o u r s e s , and a f e e l i n g of inadequacy about going i n t o formal programs. However she would l i k e to take b a s i c reading courses to help her c h i l d r e n with homework. She would be i n t e r e s t e d i f i n f o r m a l c l a s s e s were h e l d c l o s e r to home. 51  Interview with respondent  i n Skeena Terrace  25 - 34  15 - 24  ro  cn  cn  cn  o  no  r->  fO  -o  -J cn  o  a  co  cn  vo cn  F e e l i n g of inadequacy i n meeting standards  ro  o  M  cn  w  Language and c u l t u r a l difficulties  cn  IO  O  1—• 1—*  W  o  a  a  js- ro  M  M  Age  35 - 44  o  Reply  45 - 54  55 - 64 o  No o  Cost  (fees and/or transportation)  Care of c h i l d r e n  I  XI  Won't leave neighborhood (or f e a r of i n s t i t u t i o n s )  ZO  Domination o f husband  —I  D •—i  3» CD  o  a  a  *>• cn 4s  Lack o f i n f o r m a t i o n  m x  a  o  ro  u  ro  o  a  M  M  w  r->  o  ro  O  O  O  O  O  -6>  ro  o  a  a  PS  cn  F i e l d of i n t e r e s t not c e r t a i n  ro  (-» *>•  Postponement through indecision  from  n n m zo  n O  m  Lack of time Distance  ZO  centre  W  r->  Cn  p-»  O  cn  cn  CD  o  Happy as a homemaker (not i n t e r e s t e d )  H*  o  o  o  Too l a t e to s t a r t  Age or h e a l t h  cn  m  55 The c h i e f reasons  given by women with a Grade 6 t o  7 l e v e l of education f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g were l a c k of i n f o r m a t i o n regarding c o u r s e s , as w e l l as the common complaint  of l a c k of money and c h i l d care f a c i l i t i e s .  Two  women a t t h i s l e v e l s t a t e d that they were happy as homemakers, and thus not i n t e r e s t e d i n f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n .  Uiomen with Grade 8 education placed c o s t s i n v o l v e d i n adult education f i r s t , i n meeting course  f o l l o w e d by f e e l i n g s of inadequacy  requirements.  These were a l s o the most  frequent answers f o r women i n the Grade 9 to 11 l e v e l . of  them a l s o r e f e r r e d to l a c k of time  Many  to p a r t i c i p a t e i n  e d u c a t i o n a l programs. Of those women who had completed Grade 12,six new Canadians.  An example of the problems that they  were  must  overcome i s i n d i c a t e d i n the f o l l o w i n g i n t e r v i e w d a t a : A German woman between 25 and 35 years of age, separated from her husband,has two c h i l d r e n , one of whom i s under s c h o o l age. She i s on welfare with an income under $2,000. This woman worked as a governess i n Germany f o r e i g h t y e a r s . She would l i k e to t r a i n as a s o c i a l aide but her command of E n g l i s h presents a major d i f f i c u l t y . Lack of money and care of the c h i l d r e n are two other o b s t a c l e s to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n her d e s i r e d courses. 52 Another case was that of a Hungarian woman who works part-time i n a laundry but would l i k e  to become a k i n d e r -  —  Interview with a respondent  i n Skeena Terrace.  M  M  Grade level  M  Grade 5 or less  -0  VO  6-7  Is) O  t—•  Grade  M  O  Grade 8  Grade M  9-11  Grade 12 or over |  Grade not g i v e n  M M  IS)  fO  Cost (fees and/or  CD  Is)  Is)  Care of c h i l d r e n  00  -0  1—'  Is)  F e e l i n g of inadequacy i n meeting standards  -0  M M  transportation  Language and c u l t u r e difficulties  ->J  Cn  S3  O  M  M  is)  o  no  w  o  M  Won't leave neighborhood (or f e a r of i n s t i t u t i o n s )  cn  O  M  Q  o  o  Domination o f husband  cn  is)  no  M  is)  is)  M  Is)  M  4>»  O  O  F i e l d of i n t e r e s t not c e r t a i n  M  J>  M  M  O  O  Postponement through i n d e c i s i o n  no  vo  O  Is)  M  o  Lack of time  O  W  CJ  Is)  M  O  Is)  CJ  (JI  Is)  O  O  o  cn  w  a  no  M  O  M  o  o  o  o  M  95  M  Lack of i n f o r m a t i o n  Distance from c e n t r e _Age or h e a l t h Happy as homemaker (not i n t e r e s t e d )  Too l a t e to s t a r t  57 garten teacher. properly, her  Inability  to speak and read  and the care of three  from e n t e r i n g  English  small c h i l d r e n p r o h i b i t s  programs of l e a r n i n g .  1  A r e g i s t e r e d nurse, with German background, i s doing housework part-time t o s u b s i d i z e would l i k e better  the f a m i l y  to take E n g l i s h l e s s o n s  income.  She  when her husband i s  established* Seventeen r e p l i e s i n t h i s group d e a l t with care of  c h i l d r e n and 11 r e l a t e d to c o s t s *  Lack of time, s a t i s f a c t -  i o n i n the r o l e o f homemaking and postponement o f d e c i s i o n to enter for  educational  programs were other reasons  given  non-participation. Of those women who d i d not s t a t e t h e i r grade  17 had language d i f f i c u l t i e s . related  to c u l t u r a l f a c t o r s .  e i t h e r Greek or I t a l i a n . s i d e help  level.  Their r e p l i e s were c l o s e l y Most of these women were  Their husbands objected  to out-  i n c a r i n g f o r c h i l d r e n , and expected t h e i r wives  to be home i n the evening.  Ten o f these women a l s o r e p l i e d  t h a t they were happy as homemakers* group asked f o r i n f o r m a t i o n l o c a t i o n of a d u l t  regarding  F i v e women:in t h i s courses and the  centres.  M a r i t a l Status.  As i n d i c a t e d i n Table XV, most  of the r e p l i e s r e l a t e d to n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n adult  programs d e a l t with the care of c h i l d r e n , r e g a r d l e s s of  M  VO  (-• CD  4V W  Marital Status  Carried  Widowed divorced or separated IS)  Cost (fees and/or  transportation)  Care of c h i l d r e n F e e l i n g of inadequacy i n meeting standards Language and c u l t u r a l difficulties  u  cn  Won't leave neighborhood (or f e a r of i n s t i t u t i o n s ) Domination of husband  cn  CD  O  CD  O  -0  cn  -o  xs  Lack of i n f o r m a t i o n F i e l d of i n t e r e s t not c e r t a i n Postponement through indecision Lack of time Distance from centre  Age or h e a l t h O  N> 1—  O  r-«  Happy as homemaker (not i n t e r e s t e d ) Too l a t e to s t a r t  59 marital status.  For married  were l a n g u a g e d i f f i c u l t i e s , inadequacy.  uiomen o t h e r  deterring factors  c o s t s , and f e e l i n g s o f  Twenty-one r e p l i e d  t h a t t h e y were n o t i n t e r -  e s t e d a s they  were happy a s homemakers, a n d 17 gave l a c k  of time  reason.  as a For  those  t h e most f r e q u e n t  who were w i d o w e d , d i v o r c e d o r s e p a r a t e d d e t e r r i n g f a c t o r was c o s t o f f e e s a n d  c a r f a r e , b a b y - s i t t i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s were g i v e n n e x t priority.  highest  Lack o f t i m e , f e e l i n g s o f inadequacy and l a c k  of i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g courses  were m e n t i o n e d a s o t h e r  reasons. Children.  I t i s e v i d e n t from T b l e Xl/I t h a t t h e a  greatest deterrent f o r married  women e n t e r i n g  education  programs i s t h e c a r e o f c h i l d r e n under s c h o o l age.  This  f a c t o r r e c e i v e d 49 r e s p o n s e s c o m p a r e d t o 13 f o r t h o s e had  c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l b u t none u n d e r s c h o o l a g e .  of courses  Costs  a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n came s e c o n d f o r women w i t h  p r e - s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , and f i r s t  f o r women w i t h c h i l d r e n i n  s c h o o l , and o n l y r e c e i v e d 3 r e p l i e s f o r those children.  A high  p e r c e n t a g e o f women w i t h  without  pre-school  c h i l d r e n a l s o had l a n g u a g e a n d c u l t u r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . of time  who  was a n o t h e r  pre-school children.  Lack  d e t e r r e n t on t h e p a r t o f mothers w i t h T h i s was f o l l o w e d by o t h e r  reasons  such a s , a f e e l i n g o f i n a d e q u a c y , and s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the  60 r o l e of homemaker. For women with c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l the c o s t of f e e s and c a r f a r e  took precedence  over other causes, f o l l o w e d by  care of c h i l d r e n , and t h i r d l y by age and h e a l t h .  The woman  without c h i l d r e n gave l a c k of i n t e r e s t due to being happy as homemakers t h e i r most frequent cause, f o l l o w e d by language d i f f i c u l t i e s , c o s t s , age or h e a l t h , i n s u c c e s s i v e order. Ethnic Origin.  Although  43 women were of e t h n i c  o r i g i n s other than Canadian only 27 expressed r e l a t e d to language and c u l t u r e .  problems  In some cases they were  i n t e r p r e t e d by the husband or c h i l d of the respondent.  In-  terviews with women i n t h i s group r e v e a l problems r e l a t e d to c u l t u r a l and language  barriers:  1) An I t a l i a n woman, aged 25 to 34, with one c h i l d i n s c h o o l and one under s c h o o l age, has l i v e d i n Canada 11 y e a r s . The f a m i l y income i s between S3,000 and S3,999. Her husband has taken language courses and became a n a t u r a l i z e d Canadian. Her ambition i s to do the same but the care of her c h i l d r e n i s her f i r s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Her neighbor i s now l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h a t T e c h n i c a l Night School, and she would l i k e to do the same i n two or three years time. 2) An I t a l i a n mother of two c h i l d r e n under s c h o o l age speaks broken E n g l i s h but would l i k e to work properly. Her husband works i n a foundry. He expects her to be home f o r the c h i l d r e n i n the daytime, and f o r him i n the evening. 53  Interviews with respondents  i n Sunrise  VD  LA  p-  LA  O  Children  cn  No children  Children in school  Children under school age  co  Cost  (fees and/or transportation)  Care of c h i l d r e n F e e l i n g of inadequacy i n meeting standards  1  2 :  o 1  T3  VD  JS.  4S.  Language and c u l t u r a l difficulties  S> 30 —1 H  n  -0 Cn  l->  O  O  1—'  r-  cn  O  *s  Won't leave neighborhood (or f e a r of i n s t i t u t i o n s ) Domination of husband Lack of i n f o r m a t i o n F i e l d of i n t e r e s t not certain  cn  M  M  Postponement through indecision  cn  t>  LA  Lack of time  •IS*  W  r-  Distance from c e n t r e  TJ 3=—1  I—i  O  t—i ZD  CO r~ m  -n  X  30  1—1  m m m  •z  o m  —1  o  n IE  t—i  I  -  O  30  O  CD  LA  VO  -Cf  CD  O  19  M  O  Age or h e a l t h  Happy as a homemaker (not i n t e r e s t e d ) Too l a t e to s t a r t  —1 3=>  m 2  «c  62 3) A Greek woman, aged 25 to 34, whose husband gets i r r e g u l a r work as a mechanic, s u b s i d i z e s h i s income by taking i n dressmaking. She would take E n g l i s h courses i f they were o f f e r e d c l o s e to home. Family r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s come f i r s t . She expressed extreme l o n e l i n e s s . 4) A Greek woman, aged 25 t o 34, with Grade 7 e d u c a t i o n , has two c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l and one under s c h o o l age. She sews i n her husband's raincoat factory. She has l i v e d i n Canada nine years and learned E n g l i s h on her own. However, she would l i k e c o u r s e s , not only i n E n g l i s h but a l s o to understand the c u l t u r e and a t t i t u d e s of her new l a n d . She f e e l s the l o n e l i n e s s of living i n a different culture. Lack o f time and l a c k o f i n f o r m a t i o n have been her c h i e f deterrents. 5) A Greek woman, whose husband works i n the Peace River has one c h i l d i n Grade 2. Both her husband and daughter can speak E n g l i s h . She t h i n k s she can l e a r n E n g l i s h from her daughter. She f e e l s i t i s more important f o r her l i t t l e g i r l to r e t a i n her Greek language and c u l t u r e than i t i s f o r her to l e a r n E n g l i s h h e r s e l f . She c l a i m s she i s shy about e n t e r i n g c l a s s e s f o r new Canadians. 54  III.  SUMMARY  Approximately h a l f o f the women i n the three  selected  a r e a s , who have a r e c o r d o f previous p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l and t r a i n i n g  programs, are Grade 12 graduates.  A l s o , e i g h t o f the 11 women c u r r e n t l y i n v o l v e d i n programs have Grade 12 s t a n d i n g , and two others are i n the Grade 9 to 11 group.  This evidence p o i n t s to two p r o b a b i l i t i e s :  54 Interviews with respondents i n K i t s i l a n o  area.  63 1) that there i s more l i k e l i h o o d of i n a d u l t education higher  among married  grade l e v e l s ,  2) the higher  participation uiomen i n the  and  the grade l e v e l the greater the  motivation  for continuing learning. An a n a l y s i s was i n a d u l t education  i n r e l a t i o n to the f o l l o w i n g v a r i a b l e s :  (1) r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a , education,  made of reasons f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n  (2) age,  (3) income, (4) l e v e l of  (5) m a r i t a l s t a t u s , (6) c h i l d r e n , and  (7) e t h n i c  This a n a l y s i s revealed that the g r e a t e s t  inhibitory  origin.  f a c t o r was  not so much the presence of c h i l d r e n , but  need of f a c i l i t i e s f o r pre-school c h i l d r e n . and  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n was The  Cost of fees  the second most common d e t e r r e n t .  lower the income and  s t a n d i n g , the more frequent  the lower the  educational  were m u l t i p l e reasons given  f o r not p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l programs. expressed  the  inadequacy, as w e l l as those with  Those  language  who and  c u l t u r a l b a r r i e r s , s a i d they would p r e f e r programs w i t h i n t h e i r own who  neighborhood, and  i n an i n f o r m a l s e t t i n g .  Those  were d e t e r r e d by c o s t s a l s o mentioned d i s t a n c e to the  c e n t r e and  care of small c h i l d r e n as i n t e r r e l a t e d  Women of s i n g l e parent higher  priority  causes.  f a m i l i e s gave a s l i g h t l y  to c o s t s than to care of c h i l d r e n , as  the  64 foremost  reason f o r f a i l i n g  to enter a d u l t programs,  whereas, the reverse was true f o r married women. Some d i s t i n c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c d i f f e r e n c e s p r e v a i l e d i n r e l a t i o n to the three d i s t r i c t s under 1)  study:  In K i t s i l a n o and S u n r i s e , among new Canadians, t h e i r n a t i v e c u l t u r e and language presented a b a r r i e r to p a r t i c i p a t i o n .  This was not apparent  i n Skeena T e r r a c e . 2) More married women, i n K i t s i l a n o had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a d u l t programs, or were doing s o , than i n the other two areas. 3) In S u n r i s e , a l a r g e r percentage  o f the women were  happy as homemakers and not i n t e r e s t e d i n a d u l t education  programs,  4) In Skeena Terrace, f e e l i n g s of inadequacy i n meeting standards o f the courses i n which they were i n t e r e s t e d was coupled with c o s t s and care of pre-school c h i l d r e n as the major d e t e r r e n t . These f a c t o r s were not as important two a r e a s .  i n the other  CHAPTER \l NEEDS FOR ADULT EDUCATION A review of the l i t e r a t u r e i n d i c a t e d that the f i v e areas of need of a d u l t education f o r married women of lower socio-economic  s t a t u s were:  (l) cultural orientation,  (2) f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , (3) n u t r i t i o n and home management, (4) c i t i z e n s h i p , and (5) employment. In t h i s part of the study two approaches were taken to d i s c o v e r what needs e x i s t f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r women i n t h i s s e c t i o n of s o c i e t y :  I.  1) by i n t e r v i e w i n g  the women i n v o l v e d , and  2) by i n t e r v i e w i n g  resource p e r s o n n e l ,  EDUCATIONAL NEEDS AS EXPRESSED BY THE RESPONDENTS Approximately  two-thirds of the women expressed a  need f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n .  Their areas of i n t e r e s t correspond  c l o s e l y to those suggested i n the l i t e r a t u r e .  The areas of  need as expressed by the women are shown here i n order of priority. Future Employment,  Need f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n programs  i n order to improve o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r f u t u r e employment was  expressed by 54 respondents.  r a i s e t h e i r standard of l i v i n g Approximately  Their o b j e c t i v e was to  by s u b s i d i z i n g the f a m i l y  income.  h a l f of these women were s i n g l e heads of house-  66 h o l d s ; 18 were i n Skeena Terrace and three i n K i t s i l a n o . A l l of the women who were s o l e supporters of t h e i r have incomes under S 3 , 0 0 0 .  In two-parent  families  f a m i l i e s , only  those i n S u n r i s e , who expressed f u t u r e employment needs, had incomes above t h i s  figure.  The areas of a d u l t e d u c a t i o n f o r f u t u r e employment, as expressed by t h i s group, may be c l a s s i f i e d requisite  programs and v o c a t i o n a l programs.  i n t o preThe c l a s s i f i -  c a t i o n o f p r e r e q u i s i t e programs i n c l u d e E n g l i s h f o r new Canadians  (four respondents) and academic upgrading (11  respondents). dents.  V o c a t i o n a l courses were sought by 45 respon-  Of these, 14 women s t a t e d preference f o r commercial  training. Only seven of the women e x p r e s s i n g a need of education r e l a t e d to f u t u r e employment had not gone beyond school.  elementary  Of the remainder, 25 had Grade 9 to 11 l e v e l of  e d u c a t i o n , and 17 had completed  Grade 12.  N u t r i t i o n and Home Management.  The need f o r courses  i n n u t r i t i o n and home management was expressed by 15 women. Of t h i s group, f i v e were i n K i t s i l a n o , four i n Sunrise and s i x i n Skeena T e r r a c e .  A l l except f i v e of t h i s group had  l e s s than Grade 9 e d u c a t i o n . Courses d e s i r e d by these women r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y t o the economic needs of the f a m i l y ; e.g. budgeting of money,  67 food p r e p a r a t i o n , dressmaking and i n t e r i o r d e c o r a t i o n . Language and C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n . respondents  Although 45  i n the sample have e t h n i c backgrounds other  than Canadian, to the extent t h a t language and c u l t u r e pose a b a r r i e r , only 20 expressed  the need f o r l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h .  In Skeena T e r r a c e , four women placed the a b i l i t y  to read and  w r i t e E n g l i s h as a p r e r e q u i s i t e to courses f o r f u t u r e employment. In K i t s i l a n o , 15 women expressed  the need f o r courses  i n E n g l i s h and c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n to overcome l o n e l i n e s s and  isolation.  In S u n r i s e , one respondent  courses i n order to prepare Family  f o r Canadian c i t i z e n s h i p .  Relationships.  Few women expressed  f o r courses i n f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s . own  wanted s i m i l a r  As a r e s u l t of t h e i r  d i s r u p t e d e d u c a t i o n , nine women i n Skeena  expressed  Terrace  need f o r programs toward more i n t e l l i g e n t  i n order to encourage c h i l d r e n i n s c h o o l work. a l s o a matter of major concern  any need  reading  This was  f o r two women i n Sunrise and  three i n K i t s i l a n o . Citizenship.  The need f o r education i n order to under-  stand and p a r t i c i p a t e i n p u b l i c a f f a i r s was expressed by only three women i n the e n t i r e sample. respondents  The i n a b i l i t y  of the  to perceive a need i n t h i s area i s evidenced  68  by the f o l l o w i n g f i n d i n g s : 1) approximately  20 percent of the women s a i d  were i n t e r e s t e d i n p u b l i c 2) 30 percent s a i d they  they  affairs  voted  3) l e s s than f o u r percent had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p o l i t i c a l a f f a i r s beyond v o t i n g a t e l e c t i o n time 4) only seven  percent had belonged  to parent-  teacher o r g a n i z a t i o n s , II.  AREAS OF NEED IDENTIFIED BY RESOURCE PERSONNEL The c h i e f areas of need f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n as  i d e n t i f i e d by the resource personnel were s i m i l a r to those of  the respondents.  Resource personnel placed  priority  on e d u c a t i o n f o r f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s , and n u t r i t i o n and homemaking. to  C o n s i d e r a t i o n of other areas of need was given  problems where they  existed.  Family r e l a t i o n s h i p s . i n the f i e l d  One of the most p r e s s i n g needs  of education f o r lower c l a s s women i s the  e n t i r e area of parent e d u c a t i o n and f a m i l y s o l i d a r i t y . 55 Corness,  suggested  that unless both parents are i n v o l v e d  i n an e d u c a t i o n a l program there i s danger of f a m i l y c o n f l i c t . He suggested  that while the woman i n the home should  r e c e i v e the b e n e f i t s of c o n t i n u i n g education and should not 55 Interview with Rev. D. Ul. Corness, S a i n t s A n g l i c a n Church, Vancouver East.  Pastor of A l l  69 lag it  behind while her husband and c h i l d r e n continue to grow, i s e q u a l l y important  that the wife should not advance  too r a p i d l y ahead of her husband e d u c a t i o n a l l y .  In the  lower  c l a s s f a m i l y , educating the wife f o r employment o u t s i d e the home c o u l d present one  of the problems of f a m i l y breakdown.  Family breakdown and delinquency are two of the most s e r i o u s problems of the lower socio-economic  group.  Another area of great importance w e l f a r e workers was children.  as seen by the  r e l a t e d to the care and education of  C u l t u r a l l y disadvantaged  young women who  struggle  on low incomes f r e q u e n t l y f a i l to reach f o r o p p o r t u n i t i e s for  t h e i r c h i l d r e n because they do not recognize them. 56  Ulhiten,  c l a i m s that the l i f e  broadened i n one of two ways. garten enrichment in  space One  of the c h i l d can  method i s through  programs such as are now  both K i t s i l a n o and  Sunrise.  mother and i n c r e a s e her l i f e  being  kinder-  offered  The other i s to educate  space.  the  This can do much to  prevent young people from  s e t t l i n g f o r less education  t h e i r a b i l i t i e s warrant.  I t can a l s o be one  than  of the p r e l i m -  i n a r y steps i n p r e v e n t i o n of j u v e n i l e delinquency deviant  be  and  behavior. N u t r i t i o n and Home Management.  The concern of the  p u b l i c h e a l t h nurse and welfare workers, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  Alexandra  Interview with George Ulhiten, S o c i a l worker at Neighborhood House i n the K i t s i l a n o area.  70 Sunrise and Skeena Terrace was f o r the poor standards of n u t r i t i o n , and the d i f f i c u l t i e s low income f a m i l i e s  encounter-  57 ed with money management.  Many of these women are not aware  that they are i n e f f i c i e n t housekeepers and do not i d e n t i f y home management and n u t r i t i o n as areas of e d u c a t i o n a l need. Poor e a t i n g h a b i t s and meal patterns of c h i l d r e n i n elementary tal  s c h o o l s i n that d i s t r i c t  s t i m u l a t e d an experimen-  program on money management, food purchasing and food  preparation.  This program was accomplished  through the  e n l i s t e d c o o p e r a t i o n of the Young Women's C h r i s t i a n  Assoc-  i a t i o n , m e t r o p o l i t a n Health and other s e r v i c e groups.  Of  the 63 women who attended, a survey s i x months l a t e r r e v e a l e d that nine had b e n e f i t t e d by t r y i n g out new r e c i p e s and apply58 ing new i n f o r m a t i o n of food purchasing. A second experimental utilized  p r o j e c t , i n these  areas  t e l e v i s i o n as an i n f o r m a t i o n medium, with the 59  a s s i s t a n c e of p r o f e s s i o n a l group l e a d e r s . women on low incomes f e l t program, e s p e c i a l l y  S e v e r a l of the  they had b e n e f i t t e d from the  through  improved methods of budgeting,  Interviews with Mrs. J . Laking, ( P u b l i c Health Nurse), and Mrs. R. Chisholm and Miss M. M a r t i n , ( S o c i a l Workers). 58 Rosamund Ross, Food F a r e . Canadian N u t r i t i o n Notes, V o l . 23:1, January 1967, pp. 7-9. 59 Getting the Most Out of Your Food D o l l a r , a mimeographed r e p o r t from M e t r o p o l i t a n Health, Vancouver, 8. C.  71 and i n the buying of food products. Cultural Orientation.  The problem  of language and  c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n i s another need among the married women of lower socio-economic  s t a t u s i n a l l three d i s t r i c t s .  F a i l u r e of many of these women to l e a r n E n g l i s h has prevented them from making use of t h e i r previous e d u c a t i o n . I t i s a l s o c r e a t i n g a problem their i n a b i l i t y  of l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n i n  to i d e n t i f y with the l a r g e r community.  i s due to two causes:  This  ( l ) the f e a r these women possess of  l e a v i n g t h e i r own neighborhood,  and  (2) n a t i v e c u l t u r a l  p a t t e r n s by which the woman's place i s i n the home, and that s m a l l c h i l d r e n are her p e r s o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . Serious attempts have been made to reach these women.  In K i t s i l a n o , programs f o r married women are o f f e r e d  at Alexandra Neighborhood  House where s u p e r v i s e d play  f a c i l i t i e s a r e provided f o r s m a l l c h i l d r e n .  Effectiveness  of t h i s program i s p r e s e n t l y l i m i t e d as t h i s  Neighborhood  House i s i s o l a t e d from the r e s i d e n t i a l area by a heavy  traffic  60 artery.' ilar  In the nearby  Chinese community, however, a sim-  program a t the Pender Young Women's C h r i s t i a n  Association  i s proving very s u c c e s s f u l f o r young married women with children. Citizenship.  Lack of communication and the f a i l u r e  to f e e l a sense of community i s a s e r i o u s problem lower socio-economic Op.  groups.  C i t . , Whiten.  among these  Most o f the women are not  72 auiare of the community resources a v a i l a b l e to them, and can only l e a r n to a p p r e c i a t e them through  education.  p r e s s i n g need e x i s t s f o r the development of good s h i p on the part of uiomen i n a l l three areas. to  A  citizen-  Distances  s c h o o l s and community c e n t r e s coupled uiith t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  problems i n t e n s i f y communication  difficulties.  At Skeena Terrace, the need of community development was  met,  i n 1967,  through  an experimental  p r o j e c t i n which  welfare personnel sought the c o o p e r a t i o n of the Company of  Young Canadians;  to  improve the l e i s u r e a c t i v i t i e s f o r young people,  play areas and  Many u s e f u l p r o j e c t s were i n i t i a t e d  produce more e q u i t a b l e r e n t s f o r tenants,  The most important  b e n e f i t r e a l i z e d was  learned to work t o g e t h e r . experience  improve  that the  tenants  Leadership r o l e s proved  to these s o c i a l l y disadvantaged  a  women who  new found  themselves i n p o s i t i o n s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as s u p e r v i s o r s of  play areas or as e x e c u t i v e s of the newly-formed  Tenants'  Association. This program was  d e s c r i b e d by  Bolton:  CYC doesn't do t h i n g s f o r people; i t l i s t e n s , suggests and encourages. The community i t s e l f makes t h i n g s happen; P o l i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s have w r i t t e n about the urban phenomenon of p o l i t i c a l apathy induced by f u t i l i t y f e e l i n g s - the my-vote-doesn't-make-anyd i f f e r e n c e syndrome. At Skeena.... the e l e c t o r a t e i s s u f f u s e d with a moving sense of d i g n i t y , of s e l f - r e s p e c t and s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e .  73 The Company of Young Canadians doesn't monuments; i t b u i l d s human beings. 61 Resource personnel a l s o f e l t areas should be informed  that uiomen i n these  on i s s u e s concerning  h e a l t h , w e l f a r e and e d u c a t i o n .  build  They cannot  housing,  expect changes  i n t h e i r c o n d i t i o n s i f they are not aware o f the laws which e x i s t to p r o t e c t them or those that d i s c r i m i n a t e a g a i n s t them. Employment.  Although  education f o r f u t u r e employment  i s important, i t should not supercede  other areas of  e d u c a t i o n a l need f o r the married woman with s m a l l c h i l d r e n ; Women who are the heads of s i n g l e parent f a m i l i e s are encouraged to stay home with t h e i r c h i l d r e n even i f i t means a c c e p t i n g welfare during the time of g r e a t e s t dependency.  V o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i s not discouraged.  Where the need i s apparent, and the mental h e a l t h and a t t i t u d e of the woman, may be a f f e c t e d , a s much c o u n s e l l i n g and  f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e as p o s s i b l e i s provided.  However,  p r o v i s i o n of f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i s not a v a i l a b l e to women on sub-marginal  independent  incomes.  This i s one of the 62  most c r u c i a l problem areas as seen by w e l f a r e p e r s o n n e l .  -|Ylike B o l t o n , "This Isn't N i h i l i s m , " (Vancouver), August 28, 1967. OJ  Interview with Mrs. R. Chisholm, at Skeena T e r r a c e ) .  The Province  ( S o c i a l Worker  74  III.  SUMMARY  An a n a l y s i s of needs that e x i s t i n a d u l t education f o r married women of lower socio-economic  status revealed  that the women i n t e r v i e w e d , and the resource personnel i n each d i s t r i c t  identified  the same areas of need but placed  a d i f f e r e n t emphasis on p r i o r i t y . The women placed p r i o r i t y on e d u c a t i o n f o r employment i n order t o supplement the f a m i l y income and to improve the standard of l i v i n g .  Resource personnel f e l t  that added  income alone would not n e c e s s a r i l y improve home c o n d i t i o n s measurably i f i t was not accompanied by more e f f i c i e n t home management.  While  they d i d not o b j e c t to education  f o r f u t u r e employment of these women, i t should not i n t e r f e r e with the proper care of s m a l l c h i l d r e n . First  p r i o r i t y was given to f a m i l y r e l a t i o n s h i p s as  a f i e l d of e d u c a t i o n a l need by resource p e r s o n n e l . need o f good husband-wife r e l a t i o n s , and improved child  The parent-  r e l a t i o n s to prevent f a m i l y breakdown and d e l i n q u e n t  behavior were looked upon as important married women.  f i e l d s of study f o r  However, t h i s area of need was not p e r c e i v e d  by the respondents.  Few o f them were able to i d e n t i f y a  g r e a t e r need than that o f a s s i s t i n g c h i l d r e n with s c h o o l work to prevent  dropout.  75 Education f o r the improvement of n u t r i t i o n of the f a m i l y was  a l s o of much more importance  personnel than to the  to the resource  respondents.  Resource personnel looked upon p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n community a f f a i r s as an e d u c a t i o n a l need i n r e l a t i o n to good c i t i z e n s h i p . socio-economic and  They f e l t  t h a t married women of  lower  s t a t u s should l e a r n more about the i s s u e s  laws that a f f e c t them d i r e c t l y .  c i t i z e n s h i p represented v o t i n g .  To most of the women  While, only 30  e x e r c i s e d t h i s p r i v i l e g e , and a few i t y a f f a i r s , only three expressed  percent  p a r t i c i p a t e d i n commun-  a need of education f o r  citizenship; The f o r new and  need of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and E n g l i s h  Canadians was  expressed  the resource personnel;  by both the  I t was r e q u i r e d :  1) to overcome l o n e l i n e s s and 2) to help new  respondents  isolation,  Canadians make b e t t e r use of  e d u c a t i o n and  their  i n c r e a s e t h e i r employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s ,  3) to become n a t u r a l i z e d Canadians and e x e r c i s e t h e i r f u l l citizenship Experimental  programs have been developed  areas of f a m i l y l i v i n g are being met  rights.  and community development.  with l i m i t e d  success.  i n the These  CHAPTER VI SUMMARY The o b j e c t i v e s o f t h i s study were to d i s c o v e r , (1) why married women i n the lower  socio-economic  strata  i n Vancouver do not p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n , and (2) what need f o r a d u l t education by married women e x i s t s i n t h i s l e v e l of s o c i e t y .  In order to g a i n t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n  a study was made o f 146 married women i n the three s e l e c t e d areas o f K i t s i l a n o , Sunrise and Skeena Terrace.  Resource  personnel were a l s o i n t e r v i e w e d . An a n a l y s i s of the socio-economic  characteristics  of the sample r e v e a l e d that the m a j o r i t y of respondents were mothers between the ages o f 15 and 44, with children.  Although  pre-school  most of the women had gone beyond Grade  8, l e s s than one out o f three had completed high s c h o o l . The  respondents  i n two areas reported f a m i l y incomes that  ranged from 83,000 to $5,999.  In the t h i r d a r e a , the m a j o r i t y  of f a m i l i e s had incomes under $3,000 and s i n g l e parent had  incomes under $2,000.  families  Most of the women p r e s e n t l y em-  ployed were doing so on a part-time b a s i s i n c l e r i c a l work or the s e r v i c e t r a d e s , i n order to s u b s i d i z e the f a m i l y income. Approximately  o n e - t h i r d o f the women were new Canadians o f  e t h n i c o r i g i n other than B r i t i s h , the l a r g e s t groups being I t a l i a n , Greek and German.  77 In t h i s study, was  non-participation i n adult  education  most p r e v a l e n t among women with d i s r u p t e d high  education.  Most of those  on c o n t i n u i n g  school  who p a r t i c i p a t e d or are p r e s e n t l y  programs of education  are high school  graduates.  This would suggest that there i s greatertmotivation to l e a r n among those  of higher I.  grade  levels.  REASONS FOR NON-PARTICIPATION  In a n a l y z i n g  the r e s u l t s of the study  reasons f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n of married  the f o l l o w i n g  women of lower  socio-economic s t a t u s were d i s c o v e r e d : 1) Economic.  This i s probably  the g r e a t e s t d e t e r r e n t .  For most women t h i s i n c l u d e s c o s t of the c o u r s e s , p o r t a t i o n , and b a b y - s i t t i n g s e r v i c e s .  trans-  It i s closely  inter-  r e l a t e d t o the d i s t a n c e from the centre where courses are held.  However t u i t i o n c o s t s appear to come f i r s t .  discovered  t h a t i n cases where t h i s item was removed  I t was married  women were more i n c l i n e d t o take advantage of the opportunities available. 2) Family  Responsibilities.  Although t h i s item  deals  mainly with s m a l l c h i l d r e n , i t a l s o has to do with husbandwife  relationships.  In t h i s s e c t i o n of s o c i e t y the man of  the house i s f r e q u e n t l y the decision-maker. 3) F e e l i n g s of Inadequacy.  L i m i t e d e d u c a t i o n a l back-  ground and absence from the s c h o o l s e t t i n g make many  78 married women f e e l that they would not be able to meet the r e q u i r e d standards of the c o u r s e . 4) Language and C u l t u r a l B a r r i e r s . a problem  This was mainly  i n c l o s e l y k n i t e t h n i c communities where they  had the p r o t e c t i o n of t h e i r own group and tended to r e j e c t the s o c i e t y a t l a r g e .  However, i t a l s o had an e f f e c t on  i s o l a t e d women whose command o f E n g l i s h was i n s u f f i c i e n t to be able to understand what was being taught i n d e s i r e d vocational courses. 5 ) Fear of I n s t i t u t i o n s of L e a r n i n g .  A rejection  of these i n s t i t u t i o n s was more apparent among women with very low incomes,  very low l e v e l s of e d u c a t i o n , or e t h n i c  other than Canadian, where language were a l s o a f a c t o r .  and c u l t u r a l  origins  barriers  These women r e l a t e d t h i s cause  to a  f e e l i n g of inadequacy, and the d e s i r e to remain w i t h i n own immediate  their  neighborhood.  6) Lack of Information.  Many women of lower  socio-  economic s t a t u s are unaware of the f a c i l i t i e s a v a i l a b l e t o them and do not know where to go f o r i n f o r m a t i o n .  As a r e s u l t  they very o f t e n do not know what courses a r e a v a i l a b l e , but a l s o do not know where t h e i r i n t e r e s t s l i e ,  or what p r e r e q u i -  s i t e s are r e q u i r e d . 7 ) Lack of Time. For both working  mothers and women  with f a m i l i e s , lack of time was an apparent reason f o r non-  79 participation.  I t was a l s o suggested as a cause by women  who had other i n t e r e s t s such as gardening, h a n d i c r a f t s or community  interests.  8) Age or Health Reasons.  Although few women i n the  sample used age or poor h e a l t h as reasons f o r n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n , many of the women who had been approached but r e f u s e d to be i n t e r v i e w e d , d i d so f o r these reasons, 9) S a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r Role as a Homemaker. This reason was given by women who had previous work experience o u t s i d e the home and who r e c e i v e d s a t i s f a c t i o n i n a c t i v i t i e s allied  to homemaking.  S a t i s f a c t i o n as a homemaker was a l s o  s t a t e d by women who because  of t h e i r low l e v e l s of education  were not able to a p p r e c i a t e the obvious b e n e f i t s of f u r t h e r training. 10) I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with Program. many women f a i l  to p a r t i c i p a t e because  to them a r e not of t h e i r choosing.  It i s clear  that  the programs a v a i l a b l e  While they place p r i o r i t y  on e d u c a t i o n f o r f u t u r e employment, these programs are una t t a i n a b l e because educational  of c o s t s i n v o l v e d , and d i s t a n c e from  institutions. II.  AREAS OF EXISTING NEED  Review of the l i t e r a t u r e  r e v e a l e d that the areas  of concern f o r a d u l t e d u c a t i o n by married women of lower socio-economic  status are: family r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  nutrition  and home management, c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n , c i t i z e n s h i p and employment.  80 These areas of need c o i n c i d e with those expressed by the respondents  i n the three d i s t r i c t s i n t h i s  study.  1) Family R e l a t i o n s h i p s . Family breakdown, d e l i n quency and p a r e n t - c h i l d r e l a t i o n s i n the lower l e v e l s o f s o c i e t y are of grave concern.  socio-economic  I t i s the mother  i n the home who has the g r e a t e s t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r b r i n g ing up the c h i l d r e n .  While most married women of t h i s  group were not a p p a r e n t l y aware that improving  t h e i r own  e d u c a t i o n can do much to improve the r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h i n a f a m i l y , from was  the standpoint of resource personnel i t  c o n s i d e r e d of prime  importance.  2) N u t r i t i o n and Home Management. Experimental programs attempted  i n Sunrise and Skeena Terrace provided  i n s i g h t i n t o problems of i n e f f i c i e n t housekeeping  methods,  poor money management and l a c k of knowledge df basic ion.  These a r e f r e q u e n t l y the cause  of d e s t i t u t e c o n d i t i o n s  and m a l n u t r i t i o n among the poor and f o r keeping i n the lower s t a t u s group.  nutri-  people  Many of the respondents  i n the  study s t a t e d need o f more education i n income management, n u t r i t i o n and food p r e p a r a t i o n . 3) C u l t u r a l O r i e n t a t i o n . was  expressed  by the new Canadians  I s o l a t i o n and l o n e l i n e s s i n t h i s study.  f o r e d u c a t i o n i n E n g l i s h and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l was  Need  orientation  p e r c e i v e d r e a d i l y by women who were not i n c l o s e - k n i t  communities.  I t a l i a n and Creek women who have c l o s e e t h n i c  81  community t i e s d i d not r e a l i z e the apparent need.  However,  as resource personnel pointed out, the need o f language and c r o s s - c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n of these groups i s v i t a l i n order to make them become part of the broader  Canadian  Community. 4) C i t i z e n s h i p .  Another  need i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  f o r these married women i s f o r c i t i z e n s h i p .  Only three  respondents s t a t e d they needed courses i n c i t i z e n s h i p and public a f f a i r s .  Married women of lower socio-economic  status  should be taught about i s s u e s that concern them, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the f i e l d s of housing, h e a l t h , welfare and e d u c a t i o n , to make them c o n s c i o u s of t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s as c i t i z e n s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o o p e r a t i v e programs a t the community was  inadequate among the women i n t e r v i e w e d .  level  Experimental  programs i n community development focussed need i n t h i s a r e a . 5) Employment.  Education f o r f u t u r e employment was  c o n s i d e r e d the area of primary concern by the respondents. Without  i t only u n s k i l l e d occupations are Open to them.  Education i n t h i s area i s c l a s s i f i e d a s : programs, and (2) v o c a t i o n a l programs. i n c l u d e E n g l i s h f o r new Canadians III.  ( l ) prerequisite  Prerequisite  and academic  programs  upgrading.  IMPLICATIONS FOR ADULT EDUCATION  The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study i d e n t i f y areas of educat i o n a l need f o r married women of lower socio-economic  status.  The i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h are d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to the  82 program planning process i n developing a d u l t e d u c a t i o n  courses  f o r t h i s group. Two  p r e r e q u i s i t e s necessary  programs a r e :  f o r planning s u c c e s s f u l  ( l ) that members of t h i s s u b - c u l t u r e should  have the o p p o r t u n i t y to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the planning and  process,  (2) t h a t they should be able to c o n t r o l the c h o i c e of  study i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r i d e n t i f i a b l e area of e d u c a t i o n a l needs.  M o t i v a t i o n to enter i n or to continue with programs  are c o n t i n g e n t to these c o n d i t i o n s . In t h i s study, a c o n f l i c t of p r i o r i t i e s appeared to e x i s t between the concepts of needs as p e r c e i v e d by personnel and  those  p e r c e i v e d by the respondents.  p e r s o n n e l , n e c e s s a r i l y , had a more g l o b a l approach directly  resource The  resource  related  to the o b j e c t i v e s of the i n s t i t u t i o n s that provide  s e r v i c e s w i t h i n the community.  Most of the women placed  h i g h e s t p r i o r i t y on e d u c a t i o n f o r f u t u r e employment. Adult educators these women have had  should be made aware t h a t , because  t h e i r e d u c a t i o n or employment d i s r u p t e d  while b r i n g i n g up t h e i r f a m i l i e s , they w i l l r e q u i r e expert counselling.  They lack i n f o r m a t i o n regarding types of  v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r c o u r s e s , and  job  opportunities.  to s t a r t ,  As a r e s u l t , they are e i t h e r a f r a i d  or they f e e l i n s e c u r e i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r own  qualifications.  83  More thought should a l s o go i n t o program arrangements* Institutionalized women.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  expressed borhoods. of  programs f a i l  to appeal to some of these  true of new Canadians who  d e s i r e f o r language c l a s s e s w i t h i n t h e i r own neighThere should a l s o be more f l e x i b i l i t y  i n the design  program areas r e l a t i n g to content, length of c o u r s e s ,  part-time study, and types of teaching techniques.  Prerequi-  s i t e s should be more e a s i l y f u l f i l l e d to s t i m u l a t e m o t i v a t i o n .  The choice and arrangement of programs alone are not s u f f i c i e n t . t h e i r primary that they  The married women of the sample recognized  responsibility for their children.  In order  p a r t i c i p a t e i n a d u l t programs, t h e r e f o r e , s a t i s -  f a c t o r y c h i l d care s e r v i c e s a r e r e q u i r e d to f r e e these mothers, at  l e a s t , f o r part-time study.  neighborhood-organized of  A f a m i l i a l approach of  c e n t r e s , where c h i l d r e n r e c e i v e s e r v i c e s  p r e - s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s while mothers study, c o u l d r e s o l v e  c o n f l i c t s of perceived p r i o r i t y of needs.  Another i m p l i c a t i o n that may be drawn i s r e l a t e d d i r e c t l y to the expenses of the programs.  As i l l u s t r a t e d i n  t h i s study, i n i n s t a n c e s where t u i t i o n fees were no longer a b a r r i e r , the women took advantage of the programs of t h e i r choice.  F u r t h e r research i s r e q u i r e d i n t o the e d u c a t i o n a l  84  needs of married uiomen of lower socio-economic  status.  S o l u t i o n s must be found to remove b a r r i e r s to o p p o r t u n i t y , and thus motivate these women to achieve t h e i r  goals.  BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Bernstein, B a s i l . " S o c i a l C l a s s and L i n g u i s t i c Development: A Theory of S o c i a l L e a r n i n g " , E d u c a t i o n , Economy and Society. A. H. Halsey, e t . al_., e d i t o r s , New York: The Free Press of Glencoe, Inc., 1964. B r i c e , E. Ul. "Undereducation i n our American S o c i e t y , " Basic Education f o r the Disadvantaged A d u l t . F. Ul• Lanning and Ul. A. Many, e d i t o r s , Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1966; Brunner, E. de S., e t . a l . An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: Adult Education A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959. Chilman, C , Sussman, M. B. "Poverty i n the United States i n the M i d - S i x t i e s , " Basic Education f o r the Disadvantaged A d u l t ; F. Ul. Lanning and Ul. A. Many, e d i t o r s , Boston: Houghton, M i f f l i n , Inc;, 1966; C o u n c i l of Economic A d v i s o r s . "What i s Poverty? Who Are the Poor?" Poverty American S t y l e . Herman M i l l e r , e d i t o r , Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth Pub; Co., Inc., 1966. D a v i s , K i n g s l e y . " O r i g i n and Growth of U r b a n i z a t i o n , " M e t r o p o l i s : Values i n C o n f l i c t . Elias, et. a l . , e d i t o r s , Belmont, C a l i f . : Wadsworth Pub. Co. Inc., 1966. F r i e s e n , JohnT "The Scope U n i v e r s i t y Department Society. J . R. Kidd, A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult  of A c t i v i t i e s Proper to a of E x t e n s i o n , " Learning and e d i t o r , Toronto: Canadian Education, 1963.  K a h l , Joseph A. The American C l a s s S t r u c t u r e . H o l t , Rinehart and Winston, 1957.  New  York:  86 Moon, Barbara. "Two M i l l i o n I l l i t e r a t e s : Canada's Obsolete Tenth," Learning and S o c i e t y . J . R. Kidd, e d i t o r , Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1963. Orshansky, M o l l i s . "Consumption, Work and Poverty," Poverty as a P u b l i c Issue. Ben Seligman, e d i t o r , New York: The Free Press, 1965. P o r t e r , John. The V e r t i c a l Mosaic. of Toronto Press, 1965.  Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y  Verner, C o o l i e . "Human C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Slow-Growing Regions," Stimulants to S o c i a l Development i n Slow Growing Regions. Edmonton: A l b e r t a Department of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1967. W i l l i e , C. V., R i d d i c k , W. "The Employed Poor: A Case Study," Ben Seligman ( e d . ) : Poverty i s a P u b l i c Issue. New York: The Free Press, 1965. Wolfle, Dael. " E d u c a t i o n a l Opportunity, Measured I n t e l l i gence and S o c i a l Background." A. H. Halsey, §_t. a l . . e d i t o r , E d u c a t i o n . Economy and S o c i e t y . The Free Press o f Glencoe, Inc., 1964.  B.  CANADIAN GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS  Census of Canada 1961. Ottawa: Dominion Bureau of S t a t i s t i c s , Vancouver B u l l e t i n CT 22, Cat. 95-537. Women's Bureau. Married Women Working f o r Pay i n Eight Canadian C i t i e s . Ottawa: Department of Labour, Canada, 1958. Maclnnis, Grace. "Housing - Request f o r A s s i s t a n c e i n B u i l d i n g R e c r e a t i o n a l F a c i l i t i e s , " Ottawa: House of Commons Debates. Hansard, November 7, 1966. Women's Bureau. Changing Patterns i n Women's Employment Ottawa Department of Labour, Canada, 1966.  87  Women's Bureau. Women a t Work i n Canada. ment o f Labour, Canada, 1966.  Ottawa: Depart-  C. OTHER PUBLICATIONS B e l l , L. I. M e t r o p o l i t a n Vancouver. An Overview f o r S o c i a l Planners . Research Department, Community Chest and C o u n c i l s , Greater Vancouver, 1965. C i v i c and P o l i t i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r Women. New York: Department o f Economics and S o c i a l A f f a i r s , United Nations, 1964. Jessup, Frank W. European Conference on Adult E d u c a t i o n . Hamburg Report, Hamburg: UNESCO I n s t i t u t e f o r E d u c a t i o n , 1962. Komarovsky, M i r r a . "Women i n the Modern World," The Real World of Woman. Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult Education, 1962. Land f o r L i v i n g . Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board of B r i t i s h Columbia, June 1963. The P r e s i d e n t ' s Commission on the Status o f Women; Washington, D. C : A Report prepared by the Committee on E d u c a t i o n , 1963. Women's Bureau. 1965 Handbook on Women Workers. Washington: U. S. Department o f Labour, B u l l e t i n 290.  D. PERIODICALS C i t i z e n s ' Forum. The Family i n a Changing World. Toronto: Canadian A s s o c i a t i o n f o r Adult E d u c a t i o n , Nos; 5-6, 1961. Graham, June. "Poverty i n Canada," CBC P u b l i c a t i o n , 1966.  Media I . Toronto:  88  Ross, Rosamund. "Food F a r e , " Canadian N u t r i t i o n 23:1, 1967, Queen's P r i n t e r , Ottawa.  E. UNPUBLISHED  Notes.  MATERIALS  M e t r o p o l i t a n H e a l t h , (Vancouver). G e t t i n g the Most out of Your Food D o l l a r . 1967. (Mimeographed m a t e r i a l ) .  F. NEWSPAPERS B o l t o n , M. "This Isn't N i h i l i s m , " Aug. 28, 1967;  The Province  (Vancouver),  Matthews, Vincent; "The Sad L o n e l i n e s s of the Immigrant," The Province (Vancouver), Oct. 13, 1967. The  Sun (Vancouver), Oct. 25, 1967.  8 9  APPENDIX  A  QUESTIONNAIRE  1.  Age.:  15-24  2.  Income:  , 25-34_  , 35-44  , 45-54  , $2,000-$3,000  Under $2,000_  , 55-64 ,  $4,000-$6,000  S3,000-84,000  ,  Over $6,000 3.  Family s i z e :  Adults  , Children i n school  s c h o o l age 4.  Schooling:  •  Gr. 5 or l e s s Gr. 9-11  , Gr. 6-7  , Gr. 12 or over  5.  Training since leaving school.  6.  Did you work before marriage?  7.  Did you work s i n c e marriage?  8.  What do you work a t now?  9.  Do you f e e l handicapped  , Gr. .  due to  lack of t r a i n i n g ? 10.  , Under  Plans f o r f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n and other comments:  8  ,  90 APPENDIX  B  Interviews c a r r i e d out with  resources  personnel  are as f o l l o w s :  »  1)  Mrs. R. Chisholm, ANSA , S o c i a l Worker a t Skeena Terrace.  2)  Miss M. M a r t i n , ANSA, S o c i a l Worker a t Skeena Terrace.  3)  Mrs. J . Laking, P u b l i c Health Nurse, M e t r o p o l i t a n Health.  4)  Miss R. Ross, N u t r i t i o n S p e c i a l i s t , Health.  5)  Mr. G. Whiten, S o c i a l Worker, and D i r e c t o r of Alexandra Neighborhood House.  Metropolitan  6 ) Miss M. Hancy, Company o f Young Canadians. 7)  Mrs.  E. MacDonald, YWCA.  8)  Mr.  9)  Rev. D. Corness, Vancouver East;  C. G. Sutherland, Vancouver Housing A u t h o r i t y . A l l S a i n t s A n g l i c a n Church,  10)  Rev.  A. Ananiadis, Greek Orthodox Church, K i t s i l a n o .  11)  Mr. L. Monash, A s s i s t a n t D i r e c t o r of Adult Vancouver.  12)  Mr. G. F r y e , D i r e c t o r o f Adult Education, of Coquitlam.  Education District  13) Miss L. Johnson, Manpower C o u n s e l l o r ;  ANSA - Alexandra  Neighbourhood S e r v i c e s A s s o c i a t i o n .  YWCA - Young Women's C h r i s t i a n A s s o c i a t i o n .  

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