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"Fromm und Frohlich" : the conception of happiness in Eichendorff's Ahnung und Gegenwart Vogel, Betty 1968

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"FROMM UND FROKLICH"; THE CONCEPTION OF HAPPINESS IN EICHSNDORFF'S AHHUNG UND GEGENWART by BETTY VOGEL B.A., University of british Columbia, 1953 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. in the Department of German We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a nd S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e Head o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y n i l s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f .^kA^~<t-^  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e <^tV- , t^^j ABSTRACT In Ahnung und Gegenwart Eichendorff makes no s p e c i f i c reference to the subject of happiness. Because of t h i s , t h i s theme must be explored i n d i r e c t l y through an an a l y s i s of the soc i e t y and characters depicted i n the novel. By abstracting those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which Eichendorff describes as creating happiness i n the so c i e t y and the i n d i v i d u a l one can construct a t h e s i s representing h i s views i n t h i s regard. In t h i s novel Eichendorff contrasts two s o c i e t i e s — the a r t i f i c i a l permissive s o c i e t y of the court, whose a t t i t u d e s he s a t i r i z e s , and the wholesome r u r a l society, whose a t t i t u d e s he condones. The l a t t e r conserves the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n -Germanic v i r t u e s of "treue S i t t e und FrSramigkeit" and, as such, one assumes, represents the author's i d e a l of the t r u l y happy so c i e t y . Eichendorff recognizes i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and r e a l i s e s that human beings seek happiness i n many d i f f e r e n t ways. He r e a l i z e s that men and women d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y i n t h i s respect. Men seek happiness p r i m a r i l y through a career. Women seek i t i n l o v e . Eichendorff also r e a l i z e s the v a r i a t i o n i n human temperament which transcends sexual d i f f e r e n c e s . He r e a l i z e s that extroverts seek happiness a c t i v e l y i n the w o r l d — p o s s i b l y i n some p o l i t i c a l commitment—and are l i k e l y to seek i i f u l f i l l m e n t through marriage. (This i s true of Leont in . ) I n t r o v e r t s , on the other hand, tend to seek f u l f i l l m e n t through t h e i r own inner resources—through the prac t i ce of a r t or r e l i g i o n . They are also more apt to sublimate t h e i r des ire f o r human love i n t o some aesthetic or s p i r i t u a l i d e a l . (This i s t rue of F r i e d r i c h . ) But although Eichendorff does not prescr ibe any p a r t i c u l a r form of human f u l f i l l m e n t , he does prescr ibe the condit ions under which happiness i s to be sought. He i s convinced that there are c e r t a i n inner q u a l i t i e s which the i n d i v i d u a l must possess i f he i s to achieve i t . These are the same q u a l i t i e s which motivate the i d e a l r u r a l soc ie ty , "treue S i t t e und FrOmmigkeit," mora l i ty and r e l i g i o n . Only by subject-i n g himself to these ordering inf luences can the i n d i v i d u a l a t t a i n peace and harmony, the f r u i t s of happiness. I f the i n d i v i d u a l does not subject himself to them, h i s l i f e becomes disordered and he shatters on l i f e . M o r a l i t y i s necessary to protect the i n d i v i d u a l from d i s t u r b i n g emotional experiences which may d is rupt h i s l i f e . S p i r i t u a l i t y i s necessary to ensure the inner equi l ibr ium which i s conducive to happiness. Eichendorff , however, does not present a f a c i l e , V i c t o r i a n view of l i f e . Although he stresses the necessi ty of mora l i ty and r e l i g i o n as bases of an ordered and happy l i f e , he nowhere promulgates the naive view that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s are i i i capable of exercising these virtues. He realizes that a l l individuals are limited by heredity and environment and that, consequently, "will-power" itself is an inherited, or acquired, characteristic. Not a l l individuals, when frustrated in their search for happiness have the capacity to restrain themselves by morality or sublimate themselves in religion. (Thus, Romana commits suicide, Erwin dies of a broken heart, and Rudolf escapes into a l i f e of magic.) Eichendorff does not give preference to any particular form of human fulfillment. Nevertheless i t is not unreasonable to assume that Friedrich, from whose viewpoint the novel is written, represents Eichendorff1s ideal of human development. Friedrich is a contemplative, a self-contained personality able to attain fulfillment through his own inner resources. He is able to experience the joy of creativity and that of an intimate relation-ship with God, profound human experiences unrelated to the vicissitudes of the external world. His happiness is thus more enduring than- that of those who seek i t outside of themselves. And yet, although he is physically isolated from the world, he has the assurance of serving i t in the most meaningful manner. Through his prayers as a religious he hopes to reawaken those forces of morality and religion which alone xd.ll restore happi-ness to his society. TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT i PLOT 1 INTRODUCTION • • 3 PART I. CHARACTERISTICS OF HAPPINESS " . Chapter I. S o c i e t y 7 The i n d i v i d u a l 23 The i n f l u e n c e of nature 32 PART II. ANALYSES OF CHARACTERS II. The unhappy *. 38 V i k t o r 39 Rudolf UU Romana 50 Erwin 60 The Burgerm&dehen 67 L e o n t i n ' s m i s t r e s s 68 III. The unhappy who make some p o s i t i v e adjustment to l i f e . . 70 Marie 71 Angelina 74" Rosa 80 IV. The happy 85 J u l i e 85 L e o n t i n 89 PART III. METHODS OF ACHIEVING HAPPINESS V.'. Through s o c i e t y 96 A. The s t a t e .' 97 B. The war against Napoleon 99 C. Knighthood 105 VI. Through others A. Love 113 B. F r i e n d s h i p 126 VII. Through oneself A. Art 127 B. Philosophy 139 VIII. C. R e l i g i o n HI PART IV. LIMITATIONS OF HAPPINESS IX. Heredity and environment 156 Chance and f a t e 169 CONCLUSION 178 BIBLIOGRAPHY 182 PLOT The young count, Fr iedr ich , returns from the university. He has an amorous adventure with the beautiful young Rosa on the. t r i p up the Danube. He i s attacked and wounded while staying the night i n a forest m i l l , and awakes out of his unconscious-ness i n the castle of the young count Leontin. Here he meets the poet Faber and discovers Rosa to be Leontin 1 s s i s ter . They undertake hunting expeditions together and during one such expedition Fr iedrich and Leontin get to know Jul ie , the daughter of a nobleman, Herr von A . , a f r iend of Leontin's father. They stay a while peacefully at his estate, during which time Friedrich composes countless songs and stories and engages Jul ie i n a f r u i t f u l and l i v e l y exchange of ideas. There i s a f i r e at the castle from which Julie i s rescued by Leontin. On his return to the court, Fr iedrich i s drawn into the c i r c l e of the cabinet minister to whom he has a l e t t e r of recommendation, and gets to know the countess Romana, who, at f i r s t , attracts him exceed-i n g l y . She i s a dazzling southern beauty with unusual i n t e l l e c t u a l g i f t s , but innerly distraught and abandoned to an extravagant l i f e of the senses. She experiences an uncontrollable passion for Fr iedrich , but despairs of ever attaining him. F i n a l l y she commits suicide. At the court Fr iedrich i s surrounded by a c i r c l e of friends which includes the cabinet minister and the crown prince. The la t te r seduces a middle-class g i r l , who then dies shortly afterwards. The prince responds to Friedrich*s 2 reproaches with remorse and wishes to atone for his actions. Shortly afterwards, however, during a chamois hunt, he abducts Rosa, whom he later marries. Meanwhile Friedrich has wandered into a mountainous area of west Germany during the Tyrolean uprising, and joins a local partisan group. He is wounded and his enemies confiscate his lands. Then he meets Leontin, who has also taken part in the uprising. Leontin defended his castle in vain against the enemy and, after being wounded, has been hid by Julie. Friedrich and Leontin ride into the mountains again, during which time they arrive at Friedrich's home and meet his brother Rudolf, who tells them his l i f e story. In the isolation of the mountains Friedrich's spiritual powers develop. He reads the Bible and decides to enter a monastery. He parts with Leontin. Leontin and Julie are wed in the monastery church and leave for the new world. Friedrich becomes a monk, and Faber, who meets them there by chance, returns to his former l i f e . 3 INTRODUCTION What is happiness? It is a spontaneous feeling of trail-being, instantly recognized, by the individual. It is an expansive and all-pervasive sensation, f u l f i l l i n g the whole personality, both mind and feelings. Because of this, i t is impossible to be really happy without being happy in a l l aspects of one's l i f e . A l l one's reactions to l i f e merge in the subconscious to form a generalized emotional state, in which either "happiness" or "unhappiness" predominates. Thus, xriien we speak of a "happy" or an "unhappy" person, we refer not to a temporary but to a permanent attitude, the enduring emotional backdrop of his l i f e . This is not the result of any specific experience, but of the sum total of his experiences, the whole inner organization of his l i f e which has enabled him to react positively to l i f e , and therefore to be "happy", or has prevented him from doing so, and therefore to become "unhappy." Therefore, in order to attain happiness in this profound and more enduring sense, the individual must order his inner l i f e so that he can achieve the harmony which is the basic characteristic of such happiness. In achieving this he will attain peace and contentment, i t s fruits. Similarly, in order for the individual 4 to attain happiness, the environment in which he seeks i t , society, must also be harmoniously ordered. One can say, therefore, that happiness i s dependent upon the harmonious f u l f i l l m e n t of individual capacities i n a conducive environment, a well-ordered society. Its basis i s order and i t s f r u i t i s peace. Within a society these ordering influences are p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l . The government must be stable and the state safe from the threat of agression; the s t a b i l i t y of the society must be maintained by the observance of moral p r i n c i p l e s . Within the individual this ordering force can be any pr inciple which i s broad enough to absorb a l l his a b i l i t i e s and subordinate them to.some higher purpose. This can involve a purposeful relationship to the state (some form of p o l i t i c a l action), to other people (love and friendship) , to.oneself (art) , or to God ( re l ig ion) . In Ahnung und Gegenwart Eichendorff shows how the lack of any general organizing pr inciple has affected both the happi-ness of the society and the i n d i v i d u a l . Like Novalis i n Die  Christenheit oder Europa, he prefers the society of the Middle Ages, the unity and s t a b i l i t y of l i f e based on belief in God, to that of contemporary Germany—its chaotic l i f e based on the cul t of the i n d i v i d u a l . Externally, Germany i s i n turmoil be-cause of a lack of any coherent moral framework. Because of th is , 5 a l l values have declined and become relative and have affected the happiness of the society and the individual . Thus, there i s no guiding principle of justice guiding the state. The war against Napoleon i s not a righteous rel igious cause, but i s based on a local and erratic patriotism which does not inspire courageous action. The lack of a c lear ly defined moral standard has also affected the s t a b i l i t y of society by endangering the honesty and permanence of human relationships and weakening the ins t i tut ion of marriage. This moral relativism has also affected the happiness of the individual by l imi t ing the methods i n which he can attain f u l f i l l m e n t . He can no longer seek i t i n service to the state, i n knighthood, because the state represents no higher principles for which to f i g h t . Women are prevented from finding i t through love because marriage, the stable permanent form i n which i t can be protected, has been threatened in a society which con-dones promiscuity. Unhappiness i s the result of the i n a b i l i t y of the individual to order his inner l i f e , to unify his mind and feel ings , into some purposeful way of l i f e . This may be the f a u l t of the individual , the lack of a conscientious practice of r e l i g i o n , but i t can also be due to factors beyond his control . Thus, happiness i s l imited by unfavorable social conditions, by environment, and also affected by indelible personality t ra i t s within the individual , by heredity. There i s also an extent to which happiness i s beyond our control—at the mercy of chance —some strange confluence of events—or fate. Thus, although Friedrich represents the ideal of human happiness, the calm self-contained happiness of the contemplative impervious to outer events, Eichendorff recognizes that contemplation i s i t s e l f a g i f t of temperament, of heredity, and may be unattain-able to others. 7 PART I CHARACTERISTICS OF HAPPINESS IN SOCIETY AND THE INDIVIDUAL CHAPTER I Happiness'and unhappiness can be the characteristics both of a social group and of an individual. SOCIETY Every social group has an individuality, a composite of various personality traits just as unique as that of a human being. The "personality" of a whole society i s its "Zeitgeist", that collection of cultural attitudes which typifies its age. Every social group also has a predominant emotional tone, a "Stimmung", which enables us to speak of a "happy" or "unhappy" society with as much assurance as we can of a human being. Because society is simply a collection of individuals we can assume that those factors which characterize an unhappy society also characterize an unhappy human being. The personality of a whole society, however, unlike that of an individual, has a much more powerful influence over the behavior of others. Because i t represents the dominating cultural environment of the time i t can form the attitudes and affect the happiness of countless individuals. In Ahnung und Gegenwart Eichendorff describes the characteristics of the two societies of his age which represent 8 opposing sets of values—the unhappy society, disorganized through i t s deification of the individual, representing the spirit of the age, and the happy society, unified by a common moral and religious conviction, representing the medieval spirit. In doing so, Eichen-dorff also describes those characteristics which are indicative of happiness or unhappiness within the individual. Friedrich characterizes the present condition of Germany 1 as extremely unhappy, as an "Elend" (p. 678). Culturally i t is an "ausgebildeter Heidensitze" (p. 678) in which a l l the concrete spiritual and moral values which could unify society have been discarded. According to Leontin Germany has prostituted the old enduring values which gave coherence to medieval society and because of this, has created an intellectual and moral chaos: Die Jungfrau Europa, die so hochherzig mit ihren ausgebreiteten Armen dastand, als wolle sie die ganze Welt umspannen hat die alten, sinnreichen, frommen schdnen, Sitten abgelegt und'ist eine Metzte geworden^ Sie buhlt f r e i mit dem gesunden Menschenverstande, dem Unglauben, Gewalt und Verrat, und ihr Herz ist dabei besonders eingeschrumpft. (p. 288) According to Friedrich, the current confusion of values offers no hope for i t s salvation: Denn wo ist in dem Schwalle von Poesie, Andacht, Deutschheit, Tugend und Vaterlanderei, die jetzt, wie bei der babylon-ischen Sprachverwirrung, schwankend hin und her summen, ein sicherer Mittelpunkt, aus welchem alles dieses zu einem klaren VerstHndnis, zu einem lebendigen Ganzen gelangen kdnnte? (p. 296) He realizes that a l l attempts to reform Germany from 1 Joseph von Eichendorff, "Ahnung und Gegenwart," in his Neue Gesamtausg abe der Werke und Schriften in h BMnden, ed. G-srhard Baumann (Stuttgart, J. G. Co tta, 19^7-58), Bel. 2 , p. 133. A l l references to Ahnung und  Gegenwart refer to this edition. 9 without w i l l be invalid u n t i l i t i s reformed from within, u n t i l the nature of the individual i s so perfected that society w i l l be ready for external changes based on some exalted concept of mans . . . wenn die GemUter auf solche Weise von den gOttlichen Wahrheiten der Religion lange vorbereitet, erweitert, gereinigt und wahrhaft durchdrungen wUrden, dass der Geist Gottes und das Grosse im flffentlichen Leben wieder Raum in ihhen gewtfhne, dann erst wird es Zeit sein, unmittelbar zu handeln, und das alte Recht, die alte Freiheit, Ehre und Ruhra i n das wieder-eroberte Reich zuriickzuftlhren. (p. 297) External action i s therefore impracticable at the present time: Es i s t noch nicht an der Zeit, zu bauen, solange die Backsteine, noch weich und unreif, unter den H&nden zerfliessen. M r scheint i n diesem Elend, wie immer, keine andere HtLlfe als die Religion, (p. 296) Simplicity, a natural honesty of expression, i s the necessary basis of happiness because happiness, a sense of inner well-being, can only be experienced i n spontaneous and self-forgetful moments. I t i s also the basis of morality and piety because these as ideals are dependent upon sincerity of expression. Thus, Friedrich defines the desirable character-i s t i c s of society as "treue Sitte, Frflmmigkeit und Einfalt." These characteristics are discussed by Eichendorff i n the two representative societies of this novel—the unhappy 2 urban society and the happy rural society. 2 Riepe recognizes the consciuus antithesis which Eichendorff intends i n describing these two societies. He says: "(fberhaupt bilden die guten Menschen auf dem Lande und die bdsen Menschen i n der Stadt einen immerwilhrenden Gegensatz." Christian Riepe, Eichendorffs Menschengestaltun% (Berlin, 19^1), p. 18. 10 The Unhappy Society Tamm points out that Eichendorffs description of the 3 Teegesellschaft is a satire against the romantic aestheticism of his age and the relative religious and ethical values i t represented. Schlegel, however, considers such a conception of l i f e to have arisen in the middle of the 18th century. He says: Es ist ein Anblick, der zum Teil mit Staunen, zum Teil mit Wehmut erftilLt, wenn man die von drohenden Anzeichen schwangere, ruinenvolle Geschichte des letzten Jahr-hundert s gegenwSrtig hat, und nun die ersten Geister der Deutschen, fast ohne Ausnahms, seit mehr als fttnfzig Jahr.en einzig und allein in eine bloss Hsthetische  Ansicht der Dinge so ganz verloren, fast alle nur damit beschaftigt sieht, bis endlich jeder ernste Gedanke an Gott und Vaterland, jede Erinnerung des alten Ruhms und mit ihnen der Geist der Starke und Treue meist bis auf die letzte Spur erloschen war. . . . Diese Hsthetische TrHumerei, dieser unmSnnliche pantheistische Schwindel, diese Formenspielerei mtlssen aufhdren; sie sind der grossen Zeit unwurdig und nicht mehr angemessen. Die Erkenntnis der Kunst und das Geftlhl der Natur werden uns wohl bleiben, solange wir Deutsche sind; 3 "Eichendorff wendet sich gegen den ethischen und religiilsen Relativismus des romantischen Aesthetentums." Emil Tamm, Die  Bedeutung des Romans "Ahnung und Gegenwart" fur Eichendorffs  geistige Entwicklung (diss. Hamburg, 1924), p. 7. h Historically the description of the Teegesellschaft is based, according to most critics, upon Eichendorffs acquaintance with Graf von Loeben and his circle in Heidelberg. Darakoff considers i t a satire upon aesthetic teas held by Frau Sander, the wife of a bookdealer in Berlin. Julius Todoroff Darakoff, Eichendorffs  Jugendrama "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (diss. Vienna, 1942), p. 2:1. 11 aber die Kraft und der Ernst der Wahrheit, die feste Rticksicht auf Gott und auf unsern Beruf muss die erste Stelle behaupten und wieder in seine alten Rechte eintreten, wie es den deutschen Charakter gemSss ist.5 For the early romantics the artist represented the highest ideal of human fulfillment and art itself the supreme value in l i f e . Life and art were considered inseparable. Tamm points out, however, that when such conceptions became fashionable, their effect upon society was simply to create a self-conscious, a r t i f i c i a l stance, because most people do not possess the genius to implement them: Die Forderung, dass Dichtung und Leben einander durchdringen, eine synthetische Einheit bilden sollen, ist durchaus fr-Uhromantisch, und es liegt eine merkwiirdige geschichtliche Ironie darin, dass gerade aus der Romantik der lebensfremde Aesthetizismus hervorgegangen i s t . Der Literat sucht auf seine Weise Kunst und Leben zur Einheit zusammen zu zwingen, weil seine Gestaltungskraft nicht ausreicht, um das Leben in seiner dissonanzreichen Mannigfaltigkeit kilnstlerisch zu bewSltigen, versucht er, seine Dichtung ins Leben zu tibersetzen, d.h. sich eine spezifisch aesthetische Umwelt zu schaffen. 6 5 Friedrich Schlegel, Review of Adam Miller's "Vorlesungen liber die deutschen Wissenschaft und Literatur," Heidelbergische  Jahrbiicher (1808), p. 418. 6 Tamm, p. 26. 12 This attempt to relate art to l i f e , to make l i f e i t s e l f a work of art , i s exemplified by "der Schuiachtender" who says, "mein ganzes Leben wird zum Roman." (p. 133) "Treue Si t te , FrSmmigkeit und E i n f a l t " therefore are precisely the characteristics which are lacking i n the "Teegesell-schaft" i n the "Residenz," the representative urban society of this period. The main characteristic of this society i s not naturalness upon which these virtues are based, but i t s opposite, a r t i f i c i a l i t y . The deliberate attempt to create an a r t i f i c i a l aesthetic environment creates i n the individual a self-consciousness which may affect the personality i n two ways. It may i n h i b i t i t , creating the "brit isierendes, eingefrorenes Wesen" of the Minister, or i t may lead to a pretension of sensi t ivi ty one doesn't possess, exhibited i n "der Schmachtende" and "die Sentimentale"—those who 8 are l i k e "einer, der gem f l iegen mSchte und nicht kann." (p. 65) The lack of naturalness of this society i s reflected i n i t s lack of response to a natural environment, to nature i t s e l f . 7 . "Der Schmachtender'' i s a d i r e c t s a t i r e against Loeben, the l e a d e r of the se l f - c o n s c i o u s l i t e r a r y group with, which Ei c h e n d o r f f was associated i n Heidelber •8 Tamm points out that the satire against the "Sentimentale" i s directed against the conterriporary cult of "Empfindsamkeit." He believes i t was influenced by the Intermezzo of the lovers i n Tieck's "Gestiefelter Kater" and i s , i n part icular , meant as a parody of . the romantic novelist Lafontaine. (Tamra, p . 12) 13 Because such people consider themselves above creation rather 9 than a manifestation of i t , they cannot identify themselves with i t . Instead of opening themselves to its influence, they insist upon imposing their own personality upon i t , like the man who uses i t as a backdrop for his own self-dramatization to 10 Schiller's Don Carlos. Such an a r t i f i c i a l attitude to l i f e inevitably leads to relativism. Life, like art, i s a game which can be mani-pulated externally and thus possesses no fixed values. Because l i f e i s not serious there is no compulsion to become involved in i t , an attitude reinforced by romantic irony, an outgrowth of the aesthetic attitude. Tamm says: Eine ausschliesslich an aesthetischen Werten orientierte Lebens&uffassung wird immer geneigt sein, die Welt ledig-l i c h als ein Spiel wechselnder Formen und Gestalten zu betrachten und auf eigenes Handeln und tatiges Eingreifen zu verzichten. So entsteht die romantische Ironie, die dem Streit der Meinungen und der Leidenschaft der KHmpfer mit ilberlegenen LScheln zuschaut. Die jtingere Generation der Eichendorff, Arnim, Fouque ftihlte instinktiv das Un-ethische dieser Geisteshaltung und wandte sich entschlossen dagegen. 11 9 Weihe considers that this attitude is an outgrowth of the nature pantheism of the early romantics which tended to deify man. She says: "Die Welt, die vergisst, dass sie Scho'pfung ist und in ihrem Wahn die Kreatur vergb"ttlicht, ist dem Tode verfalien in einem ganz realen Sinne." Amalie Weihe., Per .junge Eichendorff und Novalis'  Naturpantheismus (Berlin, 1939)» P« 51. 10 Eichendorff may have been referring to the exaggerated self-conscious idealism of Marquis Posa, who attempts to impose his own ideas upon his environment rather than being receptive to it s needs and condition. 11 Tamm, pp. 28-29. 14 Thus, because this society is a r t i f i c i a l , based on fluctuating outer values rather than an honest, consistent expression of i t s members' own personality, its attitudes are unstable and insincere. Its members are faddists, aware of a l l the latest cultural trends and able to accommodate themselves to every new viewpoint. Thus the "Don Carlos Schwarmer" is doubly ridiculous because he represents "eine aus der Mode gekommene Genialitfit." (p. 563) Because they are chameleons and adapt themselves comfortably to every circumstance, they are incapable of "Treue," which demands a consistent adherence to a fixed set of principles. Thus Friedrich says of an officer, a member of this group who hired himself as a mer-cenary for the enemy: Es war einer von jenen leichten halbbUrtigen Brildern, die im Winter zu seinem Kreise gehBrt und bei anbrech-endem Frtthling, Ernst, Ehrlichkeit und ihre gemeinschaft-liche Bestrebungen mit den BSllen und andern Winterunter-haltungen vergessen. (p. 213) Religious values are also relative. Tamm says of the Teegesellschaft: Sie fasste das religiose Erlebnis als Analogen des Aesthetischen auf, weil es nur in symbolischen Formen zum Ausdruck gelangt. Der Gefahr, die Eigenart des ReligiOsen ins Aesthetische aufzultisen, die Grenzen von Religion und Kunst zu verwischen, ist die Romantik nicht entgangen. 24an glaubte, Religion zu haben, weil man den aesthetischen Ausdruckswert geschichtlich tiberlieferter 15 religitfsen Formen zu sch&tzen wusste. . . . Die katholisierende Tendenz der Frtthromantik entspringt, wie A. W„ Schlegel sich ausdrtickt, einer predilection d'artiste, nicht dem Verlangen, eine Renaissance der kiorchlich religiflsen Kultur des Mittelalters heraufzufUhren. . . .12 Thus, they are equally incapable of sincere piety, which is also based on simplicity and honesty of behavior. Religion is not experienced for itself but as a subject for artistic expression, a kind of cultural status symbol. Thus, the hostess presents a tableau representing the conquest of heathenism by Christianity not as an expression of her own faith, but as self-conscious"ktinstlerische Abendandachten" (p. 130). A further reflection of this a r t i f i c i a l i t y is the lack of relation between expressed views and conduct. Thus one man, in an effort to conform to the prevailing "Freigeisterei" condemns religion yet secretly goes to church; s t i l l another, 13 who vehemently supports the church, never attends. 12 Tamm, p. 8?. 13 Eichendorff refers to this attitude in his "Deutsches Adelsleben am Schlusse des 18. Jahrhunderts." He says: "Die vermeintlichen gebildeteren Adelsklassen. . . , denen die LHcherlichkeit jederzeit als die unverzeihlichste Todsunde erschien, hatten, schon langst mit den freigeistrischen Autoren heimlich fraternisierend, die neue AufklHrung als notwendige Mode und Anstandssache, gleichsam als moderne Gasbeleuchtung ihrer Salons, stillschweigend bei sich aufgenommen. . ." Joseph von Eichendorff, Samtliche Werke, Histor^ch-"kritische Ausgabe (Regensburg, 1908-1962) X, 399. (Hereafter cited as H.K.A.) 16 Impiety is also evident in the lack of reverence towards l i f e and a l l expressions of human experience. This is revealed in flippancy, in presumptuous prattle about great authors as i f they were casual, intimate acquaintances. Friedrich is astounded "wie leicht sie mit Namen herumwarfen, die er nie ohne heilige, tiefe Ehrfurcht auszusprechen gewohnt war." (p. 131) Ethics are also relative. They are not based on any absolute principles but are relative to the nature and circum-stances of the individual. Tamm says: . . . Die Gllltigkeit Uberlieferter sittlicher Norman Cwaren] aufgehoben. Das Individuum sah sich in ganz anderer Weise als bisher auf sich selbst gestellt, und die Romantiker bestSltigen nun diese Entwicklung, wenn sie die Individual-ethik zum Prinzip erhoben . . . Dieser Relativismus i s t der Ironie der Romantiker, die aus aesthetischer Grundstimmung erwachsen is t , nahe verwandt. . . . Die von der Romantik propagierte Individualethik konnte in dem Sinne verstanden werden, dass jedermann das Recht, bezw. die Pflicht habe, seinen Trieben und Neigungen unbedingt zu folgen, und die Lebensphilosophie der "Lucinde" i s t zweifellos so ausgelegt worden. 14 Thus their morality is just as false as their religion. It is a disguised immorality in which they retain the terminology 14 Tamm, pp. 32-33. 17 of ethics but disregard its principles. Thus, Friedrich is shocked when the "Don Carlos SchwHrmer" says in praise of his mistress, a married woman: "Er rtthmte viel, wie dieses seelen-volle Weib mit Geschmack, treu und tugendhaft liebe" (p. 181). Leontin points out the sophistry of this position: Ei was! . . . diese Alwinas, diese neuen Heloisen, diese Erbschleicherinnen der Tugend sind pfiffiger als Gottes Wort. Nicht wahr, der Teufel stinkt nicht und hat keine 15 HBrner, und Ehebrechen und Ehebrechen i s t zweierlei. (p. 181) Not only marriage, but a l l human relationships have a false basis. Friendship is also meaningless because i t is not a sincere expression of affection, but simply a social expedient, an attempt to ingratiate oneself momentarily with others. In such a society any honest expression of opinion immediately throws i t into confusion. Friedrich says: Es i s t nichts kilnstlicher und lustiger als die Unterhaltung einer solchen Gesellschaft. Was das Ganze noch so leidlich zusammenhUlt, sind tausend feine, fast unsichtbare FUden von Eitelkeit, Lob und Gegenlob usw., und sie nennen es denn gar zu gern ein goldenes Liebesnetz. Arbeitet dann unverhofft einmal einer, der davon nichts weiss, tilchtig darin herum, geht die ganze Spinnwebe von ewiger Freund-schaft und heiligem Bunde auseinander. (p. 1^5) This society i s incapable of true happiness because i t is a r t i f i c i a l . Any "happiness" i t may possess will also be a r t i f i c i a l , and therefore cannot be real. 15 . Cf. Tamm: "Im Gegensatz zur FrUhromantik sah nun die Generation Eichendorff-Arnim ihre Aufgabe darin aller genialen Libertinage zum Trotz die tiberlieferten kollektiv-ethischen Bindungen wieder in ihr Recht. einzusetzen. Arnims TGrflfin Dolores* i s t eine Apologie des Ehesakraments." (Tamm, p. 33) 18 The Happy Society Those social groups who are happy, however, are always characterized by a natural simplicity. Happiness is most fre-quently found not among the socially privileged who are exposed to the a r t i f i c i a l l i f e at court, but among the lower classes who lead simple unassuming lives. Friedrich describes the natural gaiety of a dance in a small village: Junge, flUchtige b'konomen, wie es schien, in knappen und engzugespitzten Fracken fegten tapfer mit tUchtigen MHdchen, die vor Gesundheit und Freude liber und tiber rot waren. Hin und wieder zogen frOhliche, dicke Gesichter, wie Voll-monde, durch diesen Sternenhimmel. (pp. 63-64) Such people find happiness in natural pleasures—food and drink and casual conversation, rather than in the a r t i f i c i a l pleasures of culture. Similarly, they prefer to enjoy these pleasures in a natural setting rather than in a cultivated interior. Eichendorff describes countless such groups in this novel: An kleinen Tischchen sassen im Freien verschiedene Gesellschaften umher und speisten in lustigem Gesprach. Kinder spielten auf dem Rasen, ein alter Mann spielte die Harfe und sang. (p. 16) The spontaneous gaiety of such social gatherings may, however, be momentary and not an indication of any enduring happiness within the individual. The temperamental basis for a quieter, more enduring form of happiness is nurtured within the family, the basic social group in which the personality of the individual is formed. 19 Happiness is found in those families which stress "treue Sitten, FrOmmigkeit und Einfalt"—"die altdeutschen Tugenden"—which create order and harmony within the individual,, Eichendorff stresses these virtues, like Arnim, in reaction against the subjectivism and relativism of the early romantics which had degenerated into 16 "haltlose Schwarmerei." Eichendorffs religious and moral positi-vism is characteristic of the national renaissance, that movement which attempted to reinspire Germany with the old Christian Germanic ideals. Such virtues can best be developed in an unassuming rural environment in which the natural simplicity and individuality 17 of the child is protected. Thus Friedrich rejects the suggestion that Julie, the daughter of Herr von A., should attend a "finishing school" in the city for this reason: 16 Weihe, p. 51. 17 The character of Frau von A., who makes this suggestion, is based on Eichendorffs mother. Her description in the novel agrees with Stiicklein's description of her: "Eine geistvolle, lebendige, ;ttberall entschieden und tatig eingreifende Dame war dagegen die Mutter, die, von bedeutender SchBnheit. . . . Die Mutter scheint das starker aktive Element gewesen zu sein, sicher das zur Ordnung und Konverxtion drUngende. . ." StiJcklein also points out that Eichendorffs mother recognized herself in the description of Frau von A., and never quite forgave her son for this characterization. Paul Stticklein, Joseph von-. Eichendorff in Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten, (Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1963), ppTlc™31, 37. 20 Ich bin der Meinung. . . dass jmgen FrHulein das Landleben gerade am besten fromme. In jenen berUhmten Instituten wird durch Eitelkeit und heillose Nachahmungssucht die kindliche Eigentumlichkeit jedes Mfidchens nur verallgemeinert und verdorben. (p. 73) In this respect Eichendorff defends the romantic doctrine of individualism against the tendency of the rationalists to desire to mold everyone according to some preconceived social ideal. Tamm says: Eichendorff greift hier die Streitfrage: "rationales Schematismus oder romantischer Individualismus?" die bekanntlich nicht nur auf pedagogischem Gebiet, sondern auch im politischen Leben, in der Kunsttheorie und der wissenschaftlichen Methodik eine Rolle spielte, noch einmal auf, und nimmt entschieden fur die Romantik Partei. 18 Happiness i s found among families who live peaceful, ordered, unassuming lives in a rural environment. It is found on a l l levels of society, in the small family in the forest whom Friedrich visits as a boy and in the home of Herr von A., the owner of a country estate. 19 It is the family l i f e of the latter„ however, which is most intensively described and which provides a model for this 18 Tamm, pp. 12-13. 19 The extent to which Ahming und Gegenwartt like most great novels, is autobiographical, is shown by the large number of characters based on Eichendorff's own acquaintance. K8hler identifies Herr von A. as Eichendorff1 s father and the description of the l i f e on his estate as Eichendorff1s memories of his own childhood at Lubowitz. Willibald Kdhler, Joseph von Eichendorff (Augsburg, 1957), p. 13» 21 way of l i f e . The happiness and purposeful order of t h i s f a m i l y permeates the whole estate : Sie kamen endl ich an das Schloss und ttbersahen auf einmal einen weiten, f reundl ichen und f r B h l i c h wimmelnden Hof. A l l e s war geschHft ig , nett und o r d e n t l i c h und beurkundete eine ta t ige Hauswir t in . (p . 71) The quiet order of t h e i r l i v e s i s r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n the f a m i l y by the order l iness of i t s a c t i v i t i e s and i t s f u r n i s h i n g s , qui te u n l i k e the a r t i f i c i a l disorder of the salon furnishings of the Teegesel lschaft , designed to give the impression of " G e n i a l i t & t . " S i m p l i c i t y and u t i l i t y are the c r i t e r i a of i t s f u r n i s h i n g s . Thus, although they are pleasant and comfortable, they are mixed u n s e l e c t i v e l y , w i t h no a t tent ion to taste and s t y l e , (p . 71) F r i e d r i c h notes the general ly beneficent e f f e c t of t h i s order ly l i f e , " d i e Wohltat der s t i l l e n gleichmUssigen h&uslichen Lebens" (p . 75) and how i t provides peace and secur-i t y : " . . . wie es ttber gutgeartete Gemttter eine Ruhe und einen gewissen festen Frieden v e r b r e i t e t . " (p . 75) When he i s away from there he remembers how peace, order and r e l i g i o u s f a i t h have brought them happiness: Er dachte s i c h , wie s ie a l l e dor t noch immer, wie damals, s e i t hundert Jahren und immerfort zwischen ihren Bergen und WHldern f r i e d l i c h wohnen, im ewig gleichen Wechsel einfOrmiger Tage f r i s c h und arbeitsam Gott lobsn und g l t l c k l i c h s i n d . (p. 193) The order l iness of t h e i r circumscribed way of l i f e , however, has caused "eine gewisse feste.ungelenke Gewohnheit des Lebens" (p. 71). 22 a social stiffness and awkwardness in adapting to new acquaintances. This is in contrast to the easy social grace and fluidity which characterizes the life of the court, an indication of its ability to, adapt under all circumstances and therefore to be capable of hypocrisy. This lack of adaptability, therefore, although a social disadvantage, is morally advantageous. It shox^ s how effectively their routined way of life has conditioned them to resist change and therefore how likely they are to maintain "Treue." Such a way of life, however, although i t may instill simplicity and uncompromising moral standards, does not always lead to happiness. Such a routined way of life, with its emphasis on practical activity, tends to extinguish those:- idealizing forces which arise from the imagination and to stultify the development of the personality. It has had this effect upon Herr von A. Just as the over-fluidity of the court society has prevented i t from adhering to any consistent set of principles, so has the over-rigidity of Herr von A. inhibited him from seeing beyond these principles to their non-material source. The court society distorts a l l expressions of human experience which can potentially elevate man—religion and art—into an affected pose; Herr von A. rejects a l l such forms of expression themselves as affectation. Friedrich says of him: Er war einer von jenen, die, durch einseitig Erziehung und eine Reihe schmerzlicher Erfahrungen ermlldet, den lebendigen Glauben an Poesie, Liebe, Heldenmut und alles Grosse und 23 Ungewflhnliche im Leben aufgegeben haben, weil es sich so ungefuge gebardet. . . . Solche Menschen Ziehen sich) nach und nach kalt in sich selbst zurttck und erklaren zuletzt alles fur eitel und Affektation. (p. 76) 20 Because of this, the completely uninhibited behavior of Friedrich and Leontin has a liberating effect upon his person-ality and makes him happy: "er gewann wShrend ihres Aufenthaltes auf dem Schlosse eine ungewShnliche Heiterkeit und Lust an sich selber." (p. 76) The Individual An analysis of Eichendorff's characters shows that the individual can achieve happiness in two ways: actively, through his relationship with the outside world, or passively through his own inner world. In each way, however, his happiness is dependent upon simplicity—an honest response to l i f e regulated by some general principle which will harmonize his personality and create 20 This description is similar to Hermann von Eichendorff*s description of Eichendorff * s father: "Sein Vater war ein Mann von gediegener. doch mehr praktischer Bildung, klarem ruhigen Verstand. . . Empfang-lich fur alles Hohe und SchiJne. . . und nicht seiten Uberraschend genial in seinem Urteil, blieb er einer begeisterten Auffassung doch in gewisser Befangenheit durchaus fremd, alles AussergewiJhnliche im Leben, insbesondere auch die Dichtlcunst, mehr achtend als begreifend. Quoted by Stflcklein, Joseph von Eichendorff in Selbstzeugnissen und  Bilddokumentation, p. 30<> Tamm considers Herr von A. an "AufklUrungs-mensch" similar to the Minister. He says: "Die Nuchternheit, die Unf&higkeit zur Begeisterung teil er mit dem Minister. Die elgentliche aesthetische Sinnrichtung ist , wie bei den meisten "Auf-kiarungsmenschen" wenig ausgebildet—z.B. "Er schien eine heilige Scheu zu haben vor allem, womit es einem Menschen ernst war." (p. 75) Tamm, p. 9 . Tamm points out, however, that despite this, Eichendorff values the virtues of Herr von A. He reserves his satirical scorn for the romantics, the aestheticism of the Teegesellschaft: "Eichendorff lfisst den nUchternen, phantasielosen Menschen um seiner Einfachkeit 24 the.condition for happiness. In the active l i f e — i n any relationship to the outside world—this general principle i s morality and religion, "treue Sitte und FrOmmigkeit." Morality enables one to act i n a way most conducive to the well-being of society and oneself. Religion offers comfort and an alternative form of fulfillment i n case one's desires are frustrated. The necessity of these principles i s not stated directly, but indirectly, by Eichendorff. Those characters i n this novel who are unable to practice morality and religion lead aimless and unhappy lives which often end i n self-destruction. Those who possess these virtues, however, lead harmonious, happy l i v e s . In the passive l i f e , morality—the principle governing one's relationship to others—becomes unnecessary because one lives a self-contained existence of one's own i n which one does not come into contact with others i n a significant active manner. Under such conditions one does not have to adjust to outer circum-stances but only within oneself. Happiness i s therefore dependent on the nature of one's inner being which may by nature be harmonious and not require any conscious organizing principle. In such a temperament religion i s not so much a deliberate attempt to seek a und inneren Festigkeit willen durchaus gelten, wShrend er liber die Aestheten die ganze Schale seines Spottes und Zornes ausgiesst. Die ethische Tendenz des Romans wendet sich v i e l entschiedener gegen den romantischen Individualismus als gegen die AufklHrung." Tamm, p. 11. 25 relationship with a God outside of oneself, but a spontaneous expression of one's inner l i f e . This second kind of happiness, that of the contemplative, can be considered the ideal of human happiness because i t represents an experience superior to the other both in depth and permanence. Its obvious advantages are that i t is not dependent upon other people whose behavior one cannot control, and that its pleasures, inner and spiritual, offer more permanent satisfactions than the immediate physical pleasures one seeks in the external world. Human relationships are also more significant. Instead of being immediate and intense, exhausting themselves in the present, they are analyzed and savored, related in a meaningful way to the whole experience of the individual. This kind of happiness is represented by Friedrich. Happiness, according to Friedrich is not related to outer circumstances, but i s subjective. It is a state of mind, an a t t i -tude to the world, an inner, self-created reality independent of the external world. Friedrich compares the attempt to create happiness by external means, to find i t in the outside world, to a musician who tries to locate a melodie theme in his instrument instead of in himself. He regrets that most people attempt to find i t . in this way: Gestikulieren, quttlen und mUhen sich nicht Uberhaupt alle Menschen ab, die eigentumliche Grundmelodie liusserlich zu gestalten, die jedem in tiefster Seele mitgegeben ist...? (p.6l4) 26 This joy, or harmonious melody, i s , he believes, inherent in every human being and to be equated with divine grace. It per-meates the world about him and gives i t its special significance, i t s inner reality. Happiness is the natural condition of man; unhappiness is a distortion of his true inner nature—delusion— "die wahre Einbildung" which can only be overcome by prayer: Wenn wir von einer inner en Freudigkeit erf till t sind, welche, wie die Morgensonne, die Welt uberscheint und alle Begeben-heiten, Verhaitnisse und Kreaturen zur eigentumlichen Bedeu-tung erhebt, so i s t dieses freudige Licht vielmehr die wahre gOttliche Gnade, in der allein alle Tugenden und grossen Gedanken gedeihen, und die Welt i s t wirklich so bedeutsam, jung und schUn, wie sie unser Gemlit in sich selber anschaut. Der Missmut aber, die tr&ge Neidergeschlagenheit und alle diese Entsauberungen, das i s t die wahre Einbildung, die wir durch GeDet und Mut zu Uberwinden trachten sollen, denn diese verdirbt die ursprUngliche SchUnheit der Welt. (p. 41) Those, on the other hand, who are dependent upon outer reality for their happiness, upon specific events or the actions of particular people, are inevitably disappointed. Thus Rosa does not enjoy her trip through the forest because she anticipated unusual external events, which did not occur, and hoped to see novel objects of interest,which did not materialize. Am sichtbarsten unter alien aber war Rosa verstimmt. Sie hatte sich ganz besonders, unerhOrte Ereignisse und Wunderdinge von der Reise versprochen, und da diese nun nicht erscheinen wollten und auch die Schimraer der Neuheit von ihren Augen gefalien war. . . . hatte (sie] keine Ruhe und keine Lust mehr an den ewigen, langweiligen Steinen und Bitumen, (p. 6l) Similarly, Friedrich rebukes Leontin when he compares Rosa to "ein gemalter FrUhling" because Leontin does not realize that a l l meaning we give to objects outside of ourselves is based on our 27 own definition of them: Was h i l f t dir der schOnste gemalte oder natiirliche Frtihling! Aus dir selber muss doch die Sonne das Bild bescheinen, um es zu beleben. (p. 35) Because true happiness is natural and spontaneous, i t is particularly associated with childhood, that time of l i f e which is the most free of affectation. Friedrich regrets the loss of the freshness and intensity of the child's response to the world: Ach, warum mttssen wir jene unschuldige Betrachtung der Welt, jene wundervolle Sehnsucht, jene geheimnisvollen, unbeschreiblichen Schimmer der Natur verlieren. (p. 48) 21 The happiness of the contemplative is based on the inner l i f e of the individual rather than upon his environment. It is based upon the observation of l i f e rather than upon parti-cipation in i t . Because of this i t is dependent upon rich inner sensitive imagination and a deeply introspective temperament—hereditary gifts which can be nourished by one's environment. The early growth of the imagination is facilitated by exposure to a natural enviroment and to imaginative literature— 21 This child-like quality is also valued by Novalis, who considers i t the distinguishing characteristic of the truly cultured person: "Jede Stufe der Bildung fangt mit Kindheit an. Daher i s t der am meisten gebildete, irdische Mensch dem Kinde so Uhnlich." Quoted by Gerhard MSbus, Der andere Eichendorff; zur Deutung der  Dicthung Joseph von Eichendorffg (Osnabruck, I960), p. 53. 28 myths and legends which can counteract the influence of outer reality: Meine Phantasie hatte auf den waldgrfinen Bergen, unter den Wundern und Helden jener Geschichten Gesunde, freie Luft genug eingesogen, um sich des Anfalls einer ganzen ntlchternen Welt zu erwehren. (p. 55) This created a kind of happiness, a reverent joy, which he has never experienced since: "Mir war nie so fromm und frBhlich zu Mute gewesenc" (p. 5*0 Being frequently alone is a necessary condition of such happiness. The lack of outer distraction intensifies this "inner-lichkeit" and stimulates the imagination. Thus he i s happy by himself in Julie's garden: Seine Seele war dort so ungestSrt und heiter, dass er die gewBhnlichsten Romane mit jener Andacht und Frischheit der Phantasie ergriff, mit welcher wir in unserer Kind-heit solche Sachen lesen. (p. 99) 22 Even as a child he loved the night, whose sounds, unlike those of human activity, did not distract him, but heighten-ed his inner powers: Ich erinnere mich nicht dass als Kind irgend etwas wider-wartiger gewesen ware als das zeitige Schlafengehen, wenn alles draussen sehallte und schwarmte und meine ganze Seele noch so wach war. (p. 433) 22 Weihe discusses the importance of night in relation to Novalis and Eichendorff: "Die Nacht symbolisiert die Kr&fte des Gemlits, die, vom Verstande nicht erkannt und nicht regiert, heilig walten im Dunkel des Unbewussten. Sie bezeichnet das GSttliche nach der Seite des Geheimnisvollen." Weihe, p. 28 29 In adulthood the heightening of such inner powers in solitude not only gives great happiness in itself, but also stimulates the creative process, encouraged by God, which enriches i t : Es i s t wohl gross, . , so mit gdttlichen Gedanken tlber dem weiten, stillen Kreise der Erde zu schweben, Wache, sinne und bilde nur fleissig fort, fro'hliche Seele, wenn alle die andern Menschen schlafen! Gott i s t mit dir in deiner Einsamkeit,23 und er weiss es allein, was ein Dichter treulich will, wenn auch kein Mensch sich um dich bekttmmert. (p, 33) Friedrich values the contemplative pleasures so highly that he wishes to attain a state of continuous inner peace, become totally self-contained, undisturbed by passions which would disturb his inner harmony: Wie glucklich. , . i s t eine beruhigte, s t i l l e Seele, die imstande i s t , so besonnen und gleichfSrmig nach alien Seiten hin zu wirken und zu schaffen, die, von keiner besonderen Leidenschaft mehr gestart, auf der schSnen Erde wie in der Vbrhalle des griJssern Tempels wohnt! (p. 97) Friedrich describes the simplicity and richness of this experience which he has recaptured from childhood. Because i t is based on detachment i t creates a sense of inner freedom and pro-portion, i t is not limited to the immediate moment but can rise 23 That Eichendorff sought this isolation himself i s indicated by an excerpt from one of his letters: "denn auch ich lebe mitten in dem hiesigen Getriebe eigentlich doch ganz vereinsamt." Letter of April 12, 1833, H.K.A., XII, k2. 30 above i t and i s , in this sense, "eternal." His introspection enables him to sink down into what he i s observing so that he can feel i ts inner as well as its surface reality; this sense of the eternal unifies his perception and makes the transient aspects of nature painfully beautiful because they are seen in this more meaningful context: Diese seit seiner Kindheit entbehrte grtine Abgeschie-denheit, alles rief in seiner Brust jenes ewige GefUhl wieder hervor, das uns wie in den Mittelpunkt alles Lebens versenkt, wo alle die Farbenstrahlen, gleich Radien, ausgehn und sich an der wechselnden Oberflache zu dem schmerzlich-schSnen Spiele der Erscheinung gestalten. (p. 75) This feeling of the eternal puts our l i f e in proportion. We see i t , not mindlessly in the ecstasy of the moment, but poign-antly- in relation to our past and future which creates a deeper reality within us: Alles Durchlebte und Vergangene geht noch einmal ernster und wlirdlger an uns vortiber, eine tiberschwengliche Zukunft legt sich, wie ein Morgenrot, bluhend uber die Bilder, und so entsteht aus Ahnung und Erinnerung eine neue Welt in uns, und wir erkennen wohl alle die Gegenden und Gestalten wieder, aber sie sind grBsser, schBner und gewaltiger und wandeln in einem anderen, wunderbaren Lichte. (p. 75) This state of perception belongs to the happiest he has ever known! Und so dichtete hier Friedrich unzUhlige Lieder und wunder-bare Geschichten aus tiefster Herzenslust, und es waren fast die gllicklichsten Stunden seines Lebens. (p. 75) Friedrich 1s happiness i s a natural condition of his being,the fruit of his self-contained personality which finds happiness in its e l f . It can be destroyed by nothing outside 31 itself because i t i s dependent upon nothing external. Such "built-in" happiness, however, is possible only for those who are contemplative by nature—sensitive, introspec-tive spirits who not only possess the potentiality for such dev-elopment, but who are also not destroyed by their environment. Most people do not possess such a temperament. They are neither extroverts, those who achieve happiness solely in outer reality, nor introverts, those who achieve i t solely within a reality of their own, but a combination of the two. Most people, therefore, as evidenced in this novel, try to achieve happiness in a number of different ways determined by their sex and conditioned by their temperament. There is a great difference between the ways in which men and women seek happiness in this novel. The women always seek i t in an immediate personal relationship with someone outside of themselves. They seek i t instinctively through romantic love, but i f this f a i l s they seek i t through spiritual love, through God or some work of charity. The men, on the other hand, seek happiness on two different levels at once. They may seek i t on a personal level, through love, but they seek it. primarily on an impersonal level, through some career or way of l i f e which will f u l f i l l a l l their capacities and give an ultimate purpose to their lives. In Ahnung und Gegenwart the characters seek happiness in a l l the ways in which human beings have traditionally sought i t . They seek i t in the outside world, through society or a personal relationship with another person. They seek i t in their own individual world, through art; or through a higher intellectual or'spiritual world, through philosophy and religion. Nature Happiness, a spontaneous expression of human nature, is intensified in a natural environment. In this novel there are countless references to the happiness nature inspires in those who are receptive to i t . It not only creates happiness but also inner strength: Der plfltzliche Anblick dos freien, grenzenlosen Himmels erfreute und st&rkte rebht sein Herz. (p. 10) Ihre Herzen wurden wieder stark und weit, und voll ktthler Freudenquellen. (p. 2^7) Sometimes i t creates overwhelming emotions: "Ihm war so wohl zum Weinen" (p. 193)• But nature must be experienced in a special way to inspire such happiness. It must not be regarded as a "thing," something external to oneself. A landscape is not something simply visual, a cardboard backdrop, simply a "view" or a "sight" from which one remains separated. Nor is i t something upon which one imposes one^s own feelings like the admirer of Don Carlos; for in such a relationship nature is merely obli-terated rather than appreciated. Rather, i t is something organic which man lives in. It is something three-dimensional 33 which engulfs one. It appeals not just to sight, perhaps the most impersonal of the sense perceptions, but also to one's sense of touch, smell, taste and particularly hearing, the most interior 24 and evocative sense. To really benefit from the effects of nature one must be passive, one must forget oneself and become completely permeated by i t . Thus Leontin advises the Don Carlos SchwHrmer to forget the external, the visual, aspect of nature by closing his eyes and concentrating on the internal, the audible, part of i t : Macht doch die Augen fest zu in der Musik und im Sausen des Waldes, dass Ihr die ganze Welt vergesst und Euch vor allem! (p. 181) Nature can, therefore,only be truly appreciated by the contemplative whose personality does not intrude upon the outer world and who is therefore more receptive to its impressions. This attitude, emphasizing the union of man and nature, 25 i s mystical in conception. Tamm says in reference to Leontin's 24 The belief that hearing affects the emotions more directly than the other senses is expressed in Schopenhauer's thoughts on music: "Weil die Musik nicht, gleich alien anderen Kunsten, die Ideen, oder Stufen der Objektivation des Willens sondern unmittelbar den Willen selbst darstellt, so i s t heraus auch erklUrlich, dass sie auf den Willen, d.h. die GefUhle, Leidenschaften und Affekte des Hirers unmittelbar einwirkt, sodass sie diesselben schnell erhdht oder auch umstimmt. Die Musik i s t die machtigste unter alien Kunsten." Schopenhauer, Samtliche Werke. ed. Arthur HUbscher (Wiesbaden, 1949) II, 512. 25 Eichendorff says in his "Geschichte der poetischen Literatur Deutsch-lands" that nature is "auch mystisch, als ein verhlilltes Ringen nach dem Unsichtbaren tlber ihr." Quoted by NBbus, p. 42. 3^ words: Die Natur erscheint nicht als fertiges Produkt, sondern als unendliche Produktivit&t; nicht das plastische vollendete Naturphaenomen, sondern der Prozess des Werdens und Wachsens dessen fliessende Bewegtheit sich dem Wechsel seelischer Regungen viel inniger und unmittelbarer ansehmiegt. . . Naturschilderung und subjektive Gefllhlsdarstellung sind zu unauflilslicher Einheit erschmolzen, der Gegensatz zwischen Ich und Natur i s t aufgehoben. 26 This attitude was, of course, shared by the early romantics, particularly Novalis. In Die Lehrlinge zu Sais Novalis describes the union of man with nature as something in-stinctive vrhich cannot be taught, and as something so intimate that i t can only be compared with the relationship between a husband and his bride. It leads to a creative, fructifying union which is enduring and eternal: Aber es i s t umsonst, die Natur lehren und predigen zu wollen. Ein Blindgeborner lemt nicht sehen, und wenn man ihm noch soviel von Farben und Lichtern und fernen Gestalten erzahlen wollte. So wird auch keiner die Natur begreifen, der kein Naturorgan, kein innres naturerzeugendes und absonderndes Werk, der nicht, wie von selbst. . . sich mit alien Natur-wesen vermischt, sich gleichsam in sie hineinfilhlt. . . . Wer aber einen richtigen und getibten Natursinn hat, der geniesst die Natur, indem er sie studiert, und freut sich ihrer unendlichen Mannigfaltigkeit, ihrer UnerschtJpflichkeit im Genusse und bedarf nicht, dass man ihn mit unnutzen Worten in seinen Gentlssen sto"re. Ihm dllnkt vielmehr, dass man nicht heimlich genug mit der Natur umgehen, nicht zart genug von ihr reden, nicht ungestBrt und aufmerksam genug sie beschauen kann. Er flihlt sich in ihr wie am Busen seiner zlichtigen Braut und vertraut auch nur dieser seine erlangten Einsichten 26 Tamm, p. 89 35 in sttssen vertraulichen Stunden. Glttcklich preis ich diesen Sohn, diesen Liebling der Natur, dem sie verstattet, sie in ihrer Zweiheit, als erzeugende und gebSLrende Macht, und in ihrer Einheit, als eine unendliche, ewig dauernde Ehe zu betrachten0 27 In this relationship man allows himself to be engulfed by nature, by an element deeper than himself. Eichendorff des-cribes this element in terms of music—one forgets oneself "in der Musilc und im Sausen des Waldes." (p. 181) Novalis describes i t in terms of water, by "die mystische Flut." He says in Die Lehrlinge zu Sais: Wie wenige haben sich noch in die Geheimnisse des Flttssigen vertieft, und manchem i s t diese Ahndung des hOchsten Genusses und Lebens wohl nie in der trunkenen Seele aufgegangen. Im Durste offenbart sich diese Weltseele, siese gewaltige Sehnsuchtnach dem Zerfliessen. 28 Weihe points out that this conception emphasizes the mystical goal of union: "Es i s t der Gedanke der Einheit, den das Symbol des Fliissigen ausdruckt. Eine Wasserflut bildet ein 29 unteilbares ganzes." This passive, unselfconscious attitude of the mystic is a striking contrast to the self-conscious "heroic" attitude of the "Don Carlos Schwarmer," who proudly proclaims that he is a "Verehrer der Natur" (p. 181). Discovering Leontin's delight in 27 Friedrich von Hardenberg, Novalis* Werke. ed. Hermann Friedemann, 2 vols (Berlin, n.d.), II, 4-9. 28 Friedrich von Hardenberg, II, 48. 29 Weihe, p. 27. 36 nature, he greets him in the high-flown language associated with German idealism: Lassen Sie die Gewdhnlichen sich ewig suchen und verfeilen, die Seltenen wirft ein magnetischer Zug einander an die mHnnliche Brust, und der ewige Bund i s t ohne Wort geschlossen in des Eichenwalds heiligen Schatten, wenn die Orgel des Weltbaues gevraltig dahinbraust. (p. 181) Observing that this man has dropped a copy of Don Carlos, Leontin suggests he has lost his "notes." He accuses him of using nature as a "text"—a backdrop against which he can self-consciously practice his ovm feelings of sublimity. He says: Darum. , , weil Euch die ganze Natur nur der Text dazu ist, den Ihr nach den Dingen da aborgelt, und je schwieriger und wttrgender die Koloraturen sind, dass Ihr daran ganz rot und blau im Gesichte werdet und die TrHnen samt den Augen.her-austreten, je begeisterter und gerUhrter seid ihr. (p, 181) Tamm says of the Don Carlos Schwarmer that "er pro-30 jektiert gleichsam das Schillersche Pathos in die Natur heinein." He contrasts Schiller's heroic attitude towards nature with Eichendorff1s conception based on humility. Unlike the mystics, Schiller did not believe that man could attain union with nature. He believed that man could never comprehend nature's sublimity, and was therefore separated from i t . This very separation, how-ever, could enable man to assert the supremacy of his reason over his emotions, which are an expression of the irrational powers of nature,and thus this separation, this independence, could 30 Tamm, p. 14 37 become a source of pride. Tamm says:• Man vergleiche Schillers AbhandTung "Uber das Erhabene" um die weite Distanz zwischen Schillers heroischer und Eichendorffs demtttig-frommer Geisteshaltung zu erkennen. Nach Schiller mllsste das Erhabene, well es unsere Fassungs-kraft tibersteigt und unsere physische Existenz zu vernichten droht, in uns nur das "peinliche Geftthl unserer Grenzen" erregen, wenn nicht eben der Zwiespalt zwischen Vernunft und Sinnlichkeit den Menschen zur moralischen Selbst-besinnung ftihrte und den "reinen Vernunftsbegriff der Freiheit," der mit dem Begriff der Independenz, d.h. der UnabhHngigkeit von den Naturgewalten aufs engste zusammen-Mngt, um so leuchtender hervortreten liesse. An das Absolut-Grosse in uns selbst kann die Natur in ihrer ganzen Grenzenloskeit nicht reichen. 31 This pride in man's supposed moral powers v;as repugnant to Eichendorff. In his Vermischte Schriften he accuses Schiller 32 of a "Mangel an Demut." This heroic attitude, the active masculine assertion of one's powers, was disliked by the romantics who stressed a passive feminine receptivity to nature and experience. Hicarda Huch says that most romantics disliked Schiller because 33 of "die einseitige, starre MSnnlichkeit seines Geistes." In another passage Eichendorff speaks;of Schiller as "jener 3^  Klinger^'sche weltverbessernde Mann von Kraft." 31 Tamm, p. 15, 32 Quoted by Tamm, p. 16. 33 Ricarda Huch, BlUtezeit der Rotcantik (Leipzig, 1920), p. 199. Eichendorff, "Zur Geschichte des Dramas," Cotta, IV, 591. PART II ANALYSES OF CHARACTERS CHAPTER II Eichendorff does not discuss the theme of happiness directly in this novel. What he does do, however, is present a series of characters, some of whom attain happiness and some of whom do not. By analyzing these characters.ih detail we can examine those characteristics which create happiness or unhappiness within the individual. On the basis of these analyses we can then summarize different methods of achieving happiness. THE UNHAPPY The unhappy characters in this novel are Viktor, Rudolf, Romana, Erwin and the BurgermSdchen. They are unable to achieve inner harmony, to resolve the conflict between l i f e as they desire i t and as i t actually i s . They are incapable of subordinating their lives to the ordering influ-ences of morality and religion and thus shatter on l i f e . For the men this conflict i s one between the ideal and the real. Viktor and Rudolf are intense idealists who deplore the world around them as mundane and t r i v i a l . They can only adjust to i t by fleeing i t , Viktor into his world of clock-making, and Rudolf to the mythical world of Egypt. For the women this 39 conflict is between their desire for love and the realization that they cannot attain i t . Thus, Romana and the BUrgermHdchen commit suicide; Erwin dies of a broken heart. This conflict is intensified by hyper self-conscious-ness. The romantics are so aware that they are creating their own reality that they cannot accept i t as valid. Thus, Romana cannot accept the reality of her poetic and religious experience as she is aware of creating i t while she is experiencing i t . This drives her deeper into despair. 35 Viktor Viktor i s , by nature, desperately unhappy. He tells Friedrich in a letter that he cannot endure l i f e : "Ich kann das verdammte traurige Wesen nicht leiden." (p. 191) His unhappiness i s not the result of outer circumstances, but is an intrinsic part of his personality. He is a congenital manic-depressive: Seine Gemlitsart war wirklich durchaus dunkel und melancholisch. Die eine HSlfte seines Lebens hindurch war er bis zum Tode betrtlbt, murriseh und unbehulflich, die andere HSlfte lustig bis zur Ausgelassenheit, witzig, sinnreich und geschickt, so dass die meisten, die sich mit einer gewflbnlichen Betrachtung der menschlichen Natur begntlgen, ihn fur einen zweifachen Menschen hielten. (p. 100) Because of the depth and insight which his anguish creates in him he is unable to find purpose in the endlessly repetitive outer activities of l i f e . He can only laugh at them, 35 The character of Viktor is based on the household chaplain employed by the Eichendorffs, Paul Ciupke, the "Herzenskaplan" of Joseph and Wilhelm's youth. Stiicklein says of him: "Er war rait den Brudern oft tUglich, auch nHchtlich, zusammen als Mitzecher, 40 not with happiness but with horror, because of their triviality in relation to any ultimate purpose: Es war aber eben die Tiefe seines Wesens, dass er sich niemals zu dem ordentlichen, immer gleichfo'rmigen Spiele der andern an der OberflHche bequemen konnte, und selbst seine Lustigkeit, wenn sie oft pLStzlich los-brach, war durchaus ironisch und fast schauerlich, (p. 100) Friedrich compares him to someone who is incarcerated in a crooked room, hung high above the rest of the world, gazing in vain at the calm eternal fields which represent the absorbing, anxiety-free l i f e that he can never attain because of his inner oppression. Instead, he must content himself with the desire to be there. This is symbolized by his lute which, like his contorted personality, i s out of tune and expresses a desperate rending desire rather than an ineffable longing. He expresses this desire with "verzweifelte Lustigkeit"—happiness and desperation—a manifestation of his manic depressive state. But although the philistine may laugh at his disharmony, i t is nevertheless divine because of its goal: Dein Leben i s t mir immer vorgekommen wie ein uraltes, dunkel verbautes Gemach mit vielen rauhen Ecken, das unbeschreiblieh einsam und.hoch steht tlber den gewiJhn-lichen Hantierungen der Menschen. Eine alte verstimmte Laute, die niemand mehr zu spielen versteht, legt Mitsanger, Wanderer, bei jugendlich dionysischen Festen als talentierter Ma"itre de plaisir, Schauspieler und grotesker Tanzer, so wie er frtiher oft der Mitgenosse ihrer wilden Bubenstreiche gewesen war; er war der Vertraute, von dem die Tagebtlcher sehr viel spreehen." Sttfcklein, Joseph von Ei c h e n d o r f f , p. 36. 4 1 verstaubt auf dem Boden. Aus dem finstern Erker siehst du durch bunt und phantastisch gemalte Scheiben tlber das niedere, emsig wimmelnde Land unten weg in ein anderes, ruhiges, vrunderbares, ewig freies Land. Alle die weni-gen, die dich kennen und lieben, siehst du dort im Sonnen-scheine wandeln und das Heimweh befHllt auch dich. Aber dir fehlen Fltlgel und Segel, und du reissest in verz-weifelter Lustigkeit an den Saiten der alten Laute, dass es mir oft das Herz zerreissen wollte. Die gehen unten vorllber und verlachen dein wildes Geklimper, aber ich sage dir, es i s t mehr gOttlicher Klang darin, als in ihrem ordentlichen, allgespriesenen Geleier. (p. 101) Because he considers the common occupations of l i f e t r i v i a l and meaningless he withdraws from society. He lives in a small cottage near the churchyard,escaping from his problems through a frenzy of work: Hier arbeitete und ktinstelte derselbe tSglich, soviel es ihm seine Beruf sgescMf te zuliessen, mit einem unbe-greiflichen Eifer und Fleisse, ohne um die andere Welt draussen zu fragen. (p. 99) 36 Even here he does not make utilitarian objects,but things which will allow a release to his imagination: Ohne jeraals eine Anleitung genossen zu haben, verfertigte er Spieluhren, kilnstliche SchlOsser, neue, sonderbare Instrumente, und sein bei der Stille nach aussen ewig und reger Geist verfiel dabei auf die seltsamsten Erfindun-gen, die oft alle in Erstaunen setzten. (pp. 99-100) With a ruthless honesty he rejects a l l the common social methods used to ingratiate oneself with others, even a l l 36 Ciupke's passion for making things is attested by Ktihler and SttJcklein. Kbhler says: "Er war ein Bastler aus Passion, dem sogar der Bau eines Klaviers gelang, das, aufs Schloss transportiert, von dem musikalischen hochbegabten WilheTm bei der Schlossfeier-lichkeiten benutzt wurde." KHhler, p. 24. He also indulged this passion in his later position as pastor of Antischkau. Sttfcklein says: "Ein einziges Wohnzimmer, ganz grmlich ausgestattet, gentlgte external signs of friendship which, because they are expressed outwardly could possibly be insincere: Dabei waren alle Schmeichelkunste und alltHglichen Hand-griff e, sich durch die Welt zu helfen, seiner spriJden Natur so zuwider, dass er selbst die unschuldigsten, gebrauchlichsten Gunstbewerbungen, ja sogar unter Freunden alle Hussern Zeichen der Freundschaft verschmShte. (p. 100) Because of his rejection of superficial worldy values he particularly feels i l l at ease with complacent men of the world who do not have the insight to understand him, yet insist upon imposing their facile advice upon him: Vor alien sogenannten klugen, gemachten Leuten war er besonders verschlossen, weil sie niemals weder seine Betrttbnis, noch seine Lust verstanden und ihn mit ihrer angebildeten Afterweisheit von alien Seiten beengten. (p. 100) Viktor's art is also an immediate expression of his experience. It is a product of his oppressed mental state, of his manic periods, his joy which is "durchaus ironisch und fast schauerlich" and revenges itself on the world in wild, irre-pressible satire. It is an expression of romantic irony which momentarily overcomes the world by rising above i t . Thus, at a dance, he organizes a "Narrenzug," an expression of his attitude to humanity, through which he discovers and exploits the essential foolishness of each person: ihn, Eine zweite Stube war als Werkstatt eingerichtet, in der er fast alles landwirtschaftliche GerHt fur seinen Bedarf selbst anfertigte." Stifcklein, Joseph von Eichendorff, p. 4-3. 43 . . . jedes war ein Triumph der freiesten und scharfsten Launen denn eines jeden verborgenste, innerste Narrheit lachte erxdst aus den Augen. (p. 86) Friedrich recognizes i t as the profoundest kind of comedy, that of the spontaneous revelation of character rather than the a r t i f i c i a l comedy, that of stereotyped pranks and jokes: Jene ermatten uns rechts mit allgemeinen SpHsschen ohne aller IndividualitHt mit hergebrachten, langst abgemitzten Mienen und SprUngen, und vor lauter klinstlichen Anstalten zum Lachen kommen wir niemals zum Lachen selber. Hier erfindet jeder selbst, wie es ihm die Lust des Augenblickes eingibt, und die Torheit lacht uns unmittelbar und keck ins Gesicht, dass uns recht das Herz vor Freiheit aufgeht. (p. 88) A further reflection of his satirical sense is his attraction to Abraham von Santa Clara, the only author he reads. Friedrich is quick to recognize that Viktor's comic expression is not the fruit of a happy temperament, but that of an unhappy one, of someone who is able to recognize that in the world which deviates from the ideal: Ein Mensch muss sehr kalt oder sehr unglucklich sein, um so zu phantisieren. Viktor kommt mir vor wie jener Prinz in Sizilien der in seinem Garten und Schlosse alles schief baute, so das sein Herz das einzige Gerade der phantastischen Verkehrung war. (p. 88) Because Friedrich and Leontin understand and accept him for what he is, their friendship is of inestimable importance to him and provides his only significant contact with other people: Die beiden Grafen waren die ersten in seinem Leben, die bei alien seinen Xusserungen wussten, was er meine. Denn es is t das Besondere ausgezeichneter Menschen, dass jede Erscheinung in ihrer reinen Brust sich in ihrer ursprunglichen Eigentumlichkeit bespiegelt, ohne dass sie dieselbe durch einen Beischmack ihres eigenen Selbst verderben. Er liebte sie daher auch mit unerschlitterlicher Treue bis zu seinem Tode. (p. 100-101) 44 When he sees them his delight is so intense that i t can only be expressed through riotous music: So oft sie nachmittags zu ihm karaen, warf er sogleich alle Instrumente und GerStschaften welt von sich und war aus Herzensgrunde lustig. Sie musizierten dann in seiner kleinen Stube entweder auf alten halbbespannten Instrumen-ten, oder Friedrich musste einige wilde Burschenlieder auf die Bahn bringen, die Viktor schnell auswendig wusste und mit gewaltiger Stimme raitsang. (pc 101) Despite his loneliness and unhappiness, which is occasionally relieved by visits from Leontin and Friedrich, he is nevertheless able to endure. Thus, when Leontin sees him again he is l i t t l e changed: Er is t noch immer der Alte, noch immer nicht fetter, nicht ruhiger, nicht klliger, und wie sonst wlitend kriegerisch gegen alle Sentimentalitfit, die er ordentlich misshandelt. (p. 236) 37 Rudolf Rudolf's unhappiness is not caused by outer circumstances but by the oppressive feeling of isolation within him, a person-ality trait, which like a l l engrained characteristics of tempera-ment, develops in early childhood. He transforms this sense of isolation to society around him: Da steht auch jeder rait seinen besonderen, eigenen Empfindungen, Gedanken, Ansichten und WU'nschen neben dem andern wieder mit seinem besonderen Wesen, und wie sie sich auch, gleichwie mit Polypenarmen, ktlnstlich betasten und einander recht aus dem Grunde herauszufuhlen trachten, es weiss ja doch am Ende keiner, was er selber ist oder was der andere eigentlich meint und haben will, und so 37 This character is based on Eichendorffs uncle Rudolf von Eichendorff (Ktfhler, p. 156) and reflects "das romantisch-pessi-mistische WeltgefUhl, dass dieser Ansicht zugrunde liegt." (Tamm, P. 46) 45 muss jeder dem andern verrtickt sein, wenn es tlbrigens Narren sind, die liberhaupt noch etwas meinen oder wollen. (p. 263) Like everyone, he attempts to find some compensation, some positive form of fulfillment within his limitations. He tries to find an outlet for his feelings by engaging in war, but is repelled by i t . He falls in love with Angelina, but is deserted by her. He also seeks fulfillment through art, but gives i t up when he discovers that i t does not provide the meaning in l i f e which he seeks. It is his f i r s t attempt to find f u l f i l l -ment in the outside world, "die erste entschiedene Richtung nach aussen" (p. 268). He is unable to find fulfillment in i t , however, because he is never able to express himself fully through i t : Es bliebe immer ein dunkler barter Fleck in mir, der keine Farben annahm und doch mein eigentlicher, inner-ster Kern war. (p. 268) His conception exceeds his ability to express i t . Indeed, the experience he wishes to express seems too oven^helming to be contained in any finite form: Meine Skizzen waren immer besser als die GeraHlde weil ihre Ausftlhrung meistens unmOglich war. Gar oft in guten Stunden is t mir wohl eine solche Glorie von nie gesehenen Farben und unbeschreiblich himmlischer SchSnheit vorge-kommen, dass ich mich kaum zu fassen wusste. Aber dann-war es auch wieder aus, und ich konnte sie niemals aus-drttcken. (p. 268) Only when supported by Angelina's love is he able to paint with more control, during which period his paintings were 46 "weniger hart, angenehmer und sinnreicher in der AusfUhrung," (p. 271) After Angelina leaves him, however, he gives up art. He regards art as a desperate attempt to escape his self-im-prisonment, a useless preoccupation in a l i f e which is so transients So schmttckt sich wohl jede tUchtige Seele einmal ihren Kerker mit Kunsten aus, ohne deswegen zum Klinstler berufen zu sein. Und tiberhaupt is es am Ende doch nur Putz und eitel Spielerei. Oder wurdet Ihr den nicht fur tflricht halten, der sich im Wirtshause, wo er tlbernachtet, eifrig auszieren wollte? (p. 268) He also turns to philosophy. Rudolf is more intellec-tually complex than others and recognizes that a philosophic tendency is innate in his characters "der klihnere Hang zum Tiefsinn war eigentlich mein angeborenes Naturell." (p. 274) This desire to penetrate the mystery of reality is apparent in the questions he asks as a child and is the unconscious motivation of his paintings: Schon als Kind hatte ich oft meinen Hofmeister durch seltsame, ungewdhnliche Fragen in Verwirrung gebracht, und selbst meine ganze Malerei war im Grunde nur ein falsches Streben, das Unaussprechliche auszusprechen, das Undarstellbare darzustellen. (p. 274) But although he dedicates himself to the study of the ancient and modern philosophers, he can find no fulfillment in their systems: "Aber alle Systeme filhrten mich entweder von Gott ab, oder zu einem falschen Gott." (p. 274) That i s , their teachings either rejected a spiritual reality which would give l i f e meaning, or they substituted a false God, lesser 47 realities, which could not f u l f i l l man's essential spiritual nature. Tamm points out that this'inability to find fulfillment through a philosophical system is a Faustian characteristic. He says: Es i s t die Faustische Sehnsucht nach dem Unend-lichen, die ihm treibt, ein religitis-metaphysisches Bedtlrfnis, das durch die Philosophie nicht befriedigt werden kann. 38 At this point he gives up a l l positive attempts at adjustment and turns to negative forms of escape. He gives himself up to a sensual existence in a desperate attempt to forget his agony. This does not help, however, because he has too much contempt for those who share his pleasure: Dabei wurde ich niemals frdhTich, denn mitten im Genuss musste ich die Menschen verhilhnen die, als war en sie Meinesgleichen, halb schlecht und halb furchtsam, nach der V7eltlust hasten und dabei wirklich und in allem Ernst zufrieden und gliicklich waren. (p. 274) He then decides to escape from the world altogether by living with a hermit. So much does he identify himself with the rejects of society that he gathers a group of mentally disturbed people around him into a kind of academy. These people, he insists, are only differentiated from the others, the fools of the world, by the fact that they are happy: "Das einzige Tolle bei jenen Verrlickten von Profession aber i s t nur, dass sie dabei noch 38 Tamm, p. 45. 48 glucklich sind." (p. 263) He is, thus, a kind of malevolent psychiatrist who is able to ferret out the buried meaning in their garbled conversation but who s t i l l laughs at their handicap: Er wusste dem Wahnsinn eines jeden eine Teife und Bedeu-tung zu geben, ttber welche sie erstaunten, und je verrtlck-ter die Narren sprachen, je witziger und ausgelassener wurde er in seinem wunderlichen Humor, (p. 262) He institutes a form of vrork therapy which, combined with the soothing influence of nature, restores many of them to reason. Jeder derselben hatte seine bestimmte Tagesarbeit im Hauswesen. Durch diese fortlaufende BeschUftigung, die Einsamkeit und reine Bergluft kamen viele von ihnen nach und nach wieder zu Vernunft, worauf sie dann Rudolf wieder in die Welt hinaussandte und gerUhrt auf immer von ihnen Abschied nahm. (p. 284) He himself, however,- does not find any fulfillment in this vocation. His laughter is unrelated to happiness: Aber sein Witz war scharf, ohne Heiterkeit, wie Dissonanzen einer grossen, zerstdrten Musik, die keinen Einklang finden kOnnen oder mtfgen. (p. 262) Friedrich is appalled because Rudolf will never attend church. He hopes to help him find in a religious faith some comfort for his desperation and asks him: Ich bitte dich. .• . versenke dich nicht so fttrch-terlich in dich selbst. Dort findest du nimmer-mehr Trost. Du gehst niemals in die Kirche. (p. 300 ) But Rudolf has given up a l l hope of any positive adjustment: "In mir" erwiderte Rudolf "ist es wie ein unabseh-barerAbgrund, und alles s t i l l . " (p. 300) Friedrich cannot accept this. He says: 49 0 kdnnt ich alles Grosse wecken. . , was in dir verz-weifelt und gebunden ringt. Hast du doch selber erzHhlt, da dich alle wissenschaftlich Philosophisches nicht befriedigte. . . So wende dich denn zur Religion zurllck, wo Gott selber unmittelbar zu dir spricht, dich sttirkt, belehrt und trdstet!" (p. 301) Rudolf, however, cannot believe: "Du meinst es gut . . . aber das i s t es eben in mir: ich kann nicht glauben." (p. 301) As a last resort, he seeks a final form of escape in magic: Und da mich denn der Himmel nicht mag, so will ich mich der Magie ergeben. Ich gehe nach Agypten, dem Lande der alten Wunder. (p. 301) This desperate turning to a form of superstition is a natural tendency in human experience. It is comparable to Tieck's William Lovell, who turns to spiritism in his desperation. Korff points out: "Und es wiederholt sich auch hier die alte historische Enfahrung, dass, wenn die positive Religion zersetzt und auch die Philosophie am Ende ist, der Mensch sich dem 39 Aberglauben in die Arme wirft." Tamm concludes that Rudolf's personality is too contorted to be saved by the practice of morality and religion, and that Eichendorff recognized this: "Vielleicht ahnte er, dass es ihm nicht mBglich war, die Probleme, die Rudolfs Char-akter und Schicksal ihm aufgaben, auf der Grundlage einer allge-meingtiltigen religiOsen und sittlichen Norm befriedigend auf-39 H. A. Korff, Geist der Goethezeit. 3. Aufl. I l l (Leipzig, 1959), P. 53. 50 40 Zulu's en." Romana Most critics agree that Romana is a representation of those negative, self-destructive forces inherent in romanticism. Keller says: "Unzweifelhaft weist schon der Name Romana auf die Romantik hin. Romana i s t im Werke Eichendorffs die Gestalt, die das Gefahrliche der deutschen Romantik am deutlichsten 41 verkdrpert." Keiter agrees: " . . . wir . . . mtJchten sie foomana) die Syrabolik der falschen, von Gott abgewendeten 42 Romantik nennen." Schulhof links Romana with the demonic women of the Sturm and Drang, but also associates her with the romantic period: "Grafin Romana . . . gehflrt zur Tradition des genial-damonischen Weibes der Sturm und Drangzeit, Bhnelt aber auch der sinnlich und geistig Emanzipierten im romantischen 43 Leben und Dichten." Romana represents the negative aspect of romanticism in that she allows her l i f e to be ruled entirely by her feelings, by the demonic force of nature within her. Tamm says: Damonisch-elementare MHchte haben in Romana Gestalt gewonnen. Sie verkdrpert den sinnlich lockenden 40 Tamm, p„ 48 41 Otto Keller, Eichendorffs Kritik der Romantik (Diss., Zurich, 1954), 42 Quoted by Weihe, p. 34. 43 Quoted by Weihe, p. 33. 51 Naturzauber, der den Menschen in Stlnde und Leidenschaft ers tr ickt , und der hier ganz im Geiste des christ l ichen Mittelal ters als "heidnisch" bezeichnet wird. 44 Romana does not recognize the r e a l i t y of any absolute force outside of herself , but only the r e a l i t y of her own feel ings . Weihe terms this r e a l i t y "Die Kraft der Begeisterung," which she later defines as "die Religion der Phantasie:" Die Kraft der Begeisterung, im GefUhl und Phantasie 45 lebendig, i s t fur sie die Grundkraft des Daseins. . . . Jener romantische Glaube an die im Irdischen verborgene und beschlossene Macht des Unendlichen—die "Religion der Phantasie"—ist der Wahn, i n dem Romana lebt . Die geheimnisvolle Kraft , aus der die Welt ihr Leben emp-fangt, ruht fllr sie i n der Tiefe der Natur. 46 Tamm recognizes, however, that Romana's uninhibited l i f e of the senses does not arise from any posit ive conviction about the beauty of the l i f e of the senses i t s e l f , as i t does with the early roman-t i c s , but only as a protest against the status quo. He says: . . . ihr wildes, ausschweifendes Leben wird nicht getragen von dem Glauben an die Kraft und Schflnheit. . , sinnlicher Leidenschaft; es entspringt aus Ressentiment, aus Empflrung wider die bestehenden s i t t l i c h e n Ordnungen. 47 Keller points out that Romana can f ind no f u l f i l l m e n t through this l i f e of the senses. It gives her l i f e no s t a b i l i t y 44 Tamm, p. 4. 45 Weihe, p . 34, 46 ' Weihe, p . 41. 47 'Tamm, p . 38. 52 or significance, bait only offers her a momentary escape which is followed by depression and boredom. Because such escape is meaningless, l i f e becomes for her merely a kind of game: Seit ihrer Jugend i s t ihr Leben bestimmt von den MSchten der Sinnenwelt. Dabei hat sie nicht etwa versucht, tiefer in diese einzudringen, um in ihr ein Dauerndes zu finden und ihr Dasein neu zu verankern. Von fliichtigen Sinnen-reizen. . . hat sie sich immer wieder hinreissen lassen. Daher folgt bei ihr auf die beseligte Hingabe immer wieder die Ernuchterung. Diese wieder kann sie nur durch neuen Raiisch verdrangen. Aber gerade hier zeigt sich eine Gefahr. . . Ihr ganzes Leben droht zu einem Spiel zu werden, sich gleichsam aufzulHsen. Besonders ihr Verhaitnis zu den Mitmenschen, soweit es uns schon bekannt i s t weist in dieser Richtung. Es scheint fihnlich zu sein wie das zur Sinnenwelt: ein fltlchtiges Sich-Berauschen ohne dauernde Hingabe. 48 Eichendorff describes Romana as "heidnisch"—a pagan. This is because she recognizes only her own feeling as a valid reality, and will not recognize the stabilizing external realities of morality and religion. Keller says: Die unbedingte Hingabe an die Magie der Sinnenweld bezeichnet Eichendorff als "heidnisch," denn sie bedeutet zugleich Heraustreten aus allem Gesicherten und Sichernden, sie bedeutet also auch Verlust der Unendlichkeit, des Ewigen. 49 This irresponsible l i f e of the senses can only lead to destruction. It is opposed to the Christian view which recognizes the limitations and transience of l i f e and which 48 Keller, p. 43. 49 Keller, p. 58. 53 subordinates earthly l i f e to a higher spiritual reality. Weihe says: "Fahre zu! ich mag nicht fragen, wo die Fahrt zu Ende geht!" Der Rausch, der sich das Ende zu verbergen suchtftlhrt auf dem Wege der Schuld diesem Ende zu'. Er tr&gt-in sich den Tod. Der christliche Glaube an den SchOpfer dagegen, in dem allein Heil ist, schliesst das Wissen um die Endlichkeit der Welt und des mensch-lichen Lebens ein. Dieser Glaube weiss, dass niemand frei tlber sein Leben verftigt: er ver stent menschliches Dasein vielmehr gerade im Blick auf die ursprungliche Gebundenheit .und Endlichkeit des Geschaffenen. 50 Romana's mother recognizes the potential danger of her daughter's temperament, and thus realizes the necessity of ordering and preserving her gifts within a protective domestic environment which would control her violent nature by nourishing pleasures of the spirit. She entreats her: Springe neimals aus dem Garten! Er i s t fromm und zierlich umsHumt mit Rosen, Lilien und Rosmarin. . . Denn du sollst mehr Gnade erfahren und mehr g0ttliche Pracht Uberschauen als andere. Und eben, weil du oft friihlich und kllhn sein wirst und Flttgel haben, so bitte ich dich: springe niemals aus dem stillen Garten, (p. 124) Romana, however, is discontent with this traditionally passive existence of women. She does not wish to subordinate her feelings to some circumscribed way of l i f e , but to give herself up to them in the aggressive l i f e of men. Thus, Leontin describes her as "Eine tollgewordene Genialitfit, die in die 50 Weihe, p. 40 54 MHnnlichkeit hineinpfuscht." (p. 12) She exhibits these masculine qualities in many ways. Intellectually she is daring and unconventional. Friedrich praises "die fast unweibliche Ktlhnheit ihrer Gedanken." (P. 158) She also appears to have a homosexual attachment to Rosa: Sie setzte sich neben sie hin und half sie von alien Seiten schmttcken, setzte ihr • bald einen Hut, bald KLumen auf, und riss ebensooft alles wieder herunter, wie ein verliebter Knabe der nicht weiss, wie er sich sein Liebchen wUrdig genug aufputzen soil. (p. 122) Friedrich associates her destructive existence with a loss of simplicity: "Sie hatte die Einfalt, diese Grundkraft aller Tugend leichtsinnig verspielt." Her unassuming existence at home nourished in her an un-selfconsciousness. She loses this when she chooses the self-conscious l i f e of a man. Because such a l i f e is contrary to the natural instinct of a woman, the result of an irresponsible "Mutwilleh," i t is essentially a r t i f i c i a l , a kind of game. Her homosexuality is a r t i f i c i a l , contrary to her instinct as a woman, and so is her intellectuality. Her self-consciousness has made i t impossible for her to think or act naturally. Her feeling and ..thinking is not spontaneous and integrated, but self-conscious and separated. She is unable to follow the conviction of her feelings, but must simultaneously analyze them with her mind. This constant self-dissection, this separ-ation of her feelings and reason, prevents her from taking her-self seriously. Because her mind and feelings cannot be united, 55 she i s incapable of holding any convictions and i s therefore unable to act morally. She remains disunif ied , "zer issen," acting upon the momentary whim of her mind or her feel ings . 51 The consciousness of this disunity makes her a romantic i r o n i s t . Thus, when relat ing a significant incident from her childhood, she i s simultaneously aware of the mysterious mood she i s creating and interrupts herself : "Aber mir scheint gar, du glaubst mir wirkl ich al les das Zeug d a . " (p. 123) It i s perhaps natural that Romana's self-conscious i n t e l l e c t u a l nature should express i t s e l f i n writ ing, the most ref lec t ive of the arts , rather than i n music, as i n the case of Erwin. Her art i s of the opposite nature to Erwin's. Erwin's i s spontaneous and organic, the natural expression of her feel ings . Romana's i s self-conscious and suffers from the s p l i t i n her personality between her feelings and her reason. Her writing i s b r i l l i a n t but arbitrary, a product of her "tollgewordene Genial i tHt . " (p. 62) Thus, although she can write f luent ly and spontaneously by yielding to her imagination, her reason i s simultaneously aware of this pro-cess and censors i t . Because of this she cannot take i t seriously. Thus her writing does not express her real emotional Tamm describes Romana's condition i n the following way: "Jsie] i s t in jenem Stadiums der Bswusstheit eingetreten, i n dem keine reine, einfache Gefllhlsregung mehr aufkeimen kann, ohne von Intellekt seziert zu werden. . . . Der romantische Mensch bringt den Mut zum Handeln nicht mehr auf, denn sein zweites Ich schaut ihm ttber die Schulter und begleitet jeden seiner Schritte mit Ironischer Skepsis." Tamm, p . 40 56 s t a t e — i t is either an imaginative exercise, such as the poem she recites at the Teegesellschaft, or a form of. wish f u l f i l l -ment. Thus she abruptly breaks off her obscure monotonously incantantory poem about the princess-magician when she realizes the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of its sentiments: "Was lachen Sie? Ist die Allegorie schon geschlossen? Ist das nicht die PoesieT" — "Ich weiss nicht, ich weiss nicht, ich weiss nicht," sagte die GrHfin lustig und sprang auf. (p. 140) Like a l l the women in this novel, Romana attempts to find fulfillment f i r s t through love, and when this fails, through religion. Of a l l the women in this novel, Romana is the most gifted. She is the most beautiful physically and the only one who is intellectually gifted. In comparison with Rosa's more restrained northern beauty, her beauty is voluptuous and directly sensual, suggesting a strong passion: Xhre Schilnheit war durchaus verschwenderisch reich, stidlich und blendend und ubs'stehlte Rosas mehr deutsche Bildung weit. . . Ihre Bewegungen waren feurig, ihre grossen, brennenden, durchdringenden Augen, denen es nicht an Strenge fehlte, bestrichen Friedrich wie ein Magnet, (p. 135) Not only has she a penetrating reason, great wit, but also deep sensitivity and insight, a poetic gift which is much rarer: Es war in ihr em Geiste wie in ihr em schiJnen KOrper ein zauberischer Reichtum; nichts schien zu gross in der Welt fur ihr Herz; sie zeigte eine tiefe, begeisterte Einsicht ins Leben wie in alle Ktlnste, . . . (p. 146) 57 Because of her great gifts, her desire to attain happiness through love is unusually handicapped. Because she is by. nature more passionate than the other women, she has a stronger desire for lovej but because she is so gifted i t is difficult for Tier to find a man superior or even equal to herself. In a conversation with Rosa she condemns the infer-iority of a l l the men she has known: . . . solches schmutziges, abgearbeitetes, unverseMmtes Volk, steifleinene Helden, die sich spr.eizen und in allem Ernste glauben, dass sie uns beherrschen, wShrend wir sie auslachen, fleissige StaatsbUrger und ehrliche Ehestand-skandidaten, die, ganz beschwitz von der Berufsarbeit und das Schurzfell noch um den Leib, mit aller Wut ihrer Inbrunst von der Werkstatt zum Garten der Liebe springen, und denen die Liebe ansteht, wie eine umgekehrt auf-gesetzte Perllcke. (p. 122) But because she cannot control her passionate nat\ire she is doomed to have an endless number of unsatisfying affairs which remain purely sensual in nature because such men do not command her admiration and respect. These men are totally opposite from the lover she had envisioned as a young g i r l : Wenn ich bedenke. . . wie ich mir sonst als kleines Madchen einen Liebhaber vorgestellt habe: wunder-sch8n, stark, voll Tapferkeit, wild und doch wieder so milde, wenn er bei mir war. (p. 122) In Friedrich, however, she meets someone superior to herself, someone who possesses depth and sensitivity and yet who has a calm self-containment she has never experienced. Like a l l women, love is for Romana an all-consuming experience; and because she possesses no inner resources, she is unable to protect herself against i t . She is incapable of withstanding i t even when she realizes her passion is useless and must be destroyed by i t . Even before she fall s in love she recognizes this weakness within herself and admires Friedrich's calm self-containment. She confesses: "Wahr-haftig. . . wenn ich mich einmal recht verliebte, es wurde mich gewiss das Leben kostent" (p. 158) Because of her admiration for him, i t is inevitable that she f a l l in love with him. When he stays overnight at her castle and wakes up to find her naked beside him, Friedrich is terrified by her lack of self-control and flees. After this event Romana is awakened to the hollowness of her existence. She realizes that talents mast be absorbed into one's inner unifying moral power, become virtues, in order to be fruitful: "dass alle Talente Tugenden werden mtlssen oder nichts sind." (p. 18?) She turns in despair to religion. She wishes to reform her l i f e because she cannot bear Friedrich's scorn: Friedrich's Verachtung war ihr durchaus unertraglich, obgleich sie sonst die Manner verachtete. Da raffte sie sich innerlichst zusammen, zerriss alle ihre alten Verbindungen und begrub sich in die Einsamkeit ihres Schlosses. (p. 187) She completely changes her way of l i f e . She gives up her frivolous acquaintances and her disordered existence: Sie knllpfte Bekanntsehaften an mit einigen hHuslichen Frauen der Nachbarschaft, die sie sonst unsHglich verachtete 59 und musste beschHmt vor mancher Trefflichkeit stehen, von der sie sich ehedem nichts trfiumen liess. Die Fenster und TUren ihres Schlosses, die sonst Tag und Nacht offen standen, wurden nun geschlossen, sie wirkte s t i l l und fleissig nach alien Seiten und fUhrte eine strenge Hauszucht. (pp. 187-188) But although she is sincere, she is unable to persevere; Es war ihr redlicher Ernst anders zu werden, und noch nie hatte sich ihre Seele so rein triumphierend und frei gefllhlt als in dieser Zeit. Aber es war auch nur ein Rausch, obgleich der schdnste in ihrera Leben. Es gibt nichts Erbarmungswlirdigeres, als ein reiches, verwildertes Gemtit, das in verzweifelter Erinnerung an seine ursprting-liche, alte Gtite sich liederlich an dem Besten und Schlech-testen berauscht, um nur jenes Andenkens loszuwerden, bis es, so ausgehShlt, zugrunde geht. (p. 188) This momentary "Rausch," this temporary intoxication with religious feeling, is similar to the experience of the Markese in Arnim's GrHfin Dolores: . . . er hatte die Laster tiberlebt; jetzt war es nicht bloss Sinn ftlr Frdmmigkeit, die ihn an die Wahlfahrt-sdrter Siziliens, zu alien Geistlichen trieb, er schwin-delte in die FrSmmigkeit hinein, die seiner Frau eigen war, es war ihm ein neuer Reiz, den er aber immer neu steigern musste; die Religion ward ihm eine Art Opium, seine Natur.: forderte immer mehr, bis sie nichts mehr fordern konnte, 52 This inability to lead a meaningful spiritual l i f e is the result of losing her natural simplicity; "die Einfalt, diese Grundkraft aller Tugend," (p, 188) through her irresponsible, 52 Achim von Amirt^ Werke, ed. Reinhold Steig, Vol. II (Leipzig, n„d.), p. 122. 60 precocious behavior. Her over-sophistication has resulted in a division between her mind and feelings which has made i t impossible for her to react to l i f e as a whole person, in a harmonious and purposeful way. Thus, although her feelings may desire to believe in God, her mind cannot accept his existence: Sie kannte gleichsam alle Schliche und Kniffe der Besserung—-und der Teufel sass gegentlber und lachte ihr dabei immerfort insGesicht. In solcher Seelenangst dichtete sie oft die herrlichsten Sachen aber mitten im Schreiben f i e l es ihr ein, wie doch das alles eigent-lich nicht wahr sei. (p. 188) Thus, she is unable to sublimate her feelings into any emotionally satisfying spiritual relationship and shatters on l i f e . Friedrich's rejection of her love drives her to suicide. Erwin Both Erwin and Romana commit suicide because of unrequited love. However, whereas Romana's suicide is voluntary, Erwin*s is involuntary, a psychosomatic reaction created by her will to die. Whereas Romana's anguish is caused by the dominance of her feelings over her reason, Erwin's is caused by a more serious emotional problem, her potential insanity. Thus, although she possesses great depth, like Julie, she does not possess the latter's calm. This depth cannot order her tempera-ment because i t is already disordered by nature: 61 Er entdeckte in wenigen GesprHchen, bald an SchSrfe und Tiefe eine auffallende A'hnlichkeit seines Gemutes mit Julien. Nur mangelte bei Erwin das ruhige Gleichgewicht der KrHfte, die alles beleuchtende Klarheit ganz und gar. Im verborgensten Grunde der Seele schien vielmehr eine geheimnisvolle Leidenschaftlichkeit zu ruhen, die alles verwirrte und am Ende zu zersttfren drohte. (p. 77) This is the result of the impact of her illegitimacy, the "unwillkllrliche, schSndliche Verbindung" (p. 276), the union of Rudolf and Angela, which has oppressed her with guilt and driven her into a l i f e of fantasy. Her mind is further deranged by the unstable promiscuous gypsy l i f e amid which she has been brought up. Thus her appearance is unkempt and immodest when Friedrich f i r s t sees her in the forest hut. Like Romana, her problem does not arise so much from the fact that her love is.unrequited as the fact that she has no inner resources to counteract the destructive effects of 53 this love. It is significant that, like Romana, she is attracted to Friedrich, whose harmonious personality is so in contrast with her own. Her male disguise does not arise, like Romana's, from a desire to live a free, aggressive male l i f e , but rather to hide and cover up her own identity, not Keller comments on her lack of inner resources: "(Er] kennt in seinem Leben auch keine eigene Fuhrung. Wie die Wolken immerfort am Himmel dahinziehen, gelenkt von einem fremden Willen, so fUhlt auch er sich von einem "wunderbarem Schiffer" gefUhrt. Erwin lHsst sich vom Leben tragen. Wie.auf einem Strome gleitet er willenlos dahin." Keller, p. 63 62 just as Friedrich's niece, but as a male human being. This desire to conceal her identity, her past, at a l l costs is emphasized by her reaction when, after Julie discovers her identity, she gives her girl's clothes to wear: Das MMdchen wurde dadurch auch sti l l e r , aber es war eine wahre Grabesstille, von der sie sich nur manchmal im Gesange wieder zu erholen schien. (p. 244) Thus, even i f i t were possible for her love to have been requited, i t is doubtful i f she would be capable of accepting i t because of her extreme withdrawal. She seems doomed to suffer, to long for a love which, even i f she had the opportunity, she would be .incapable of accepting. Thus she is always lonely and restless, "einsam und anteillos" (p. 35). She scribbles, on a sheet of paper "Es ist entzetzlich, allein zu sein" (p. 173). She is "eine wunderbare Laute aus alter Zeit, die jetzt niemand mehr zu spielen verstehlt" (p. 36). Because of her withdrawal and sense of isolation, her desire to hide her "shameful" identity, she can never hope to have a normal love relationship. She can only hope to approach Friedrich as a servant, in a sub-servient relationship, one in which her individuality can be buried. She in undoubtedly attracted by Friedrich's gentle protective personality which soothes and calms her. Her attitude is somewhat similar to that of the Minnesinger, the 63 "servants of love" who reputedly dedicate themselves wholly to the beloved with no thought of reward: Sein einziges Ziel und Augenmerk schien es, seinen Herrn, den Grafen Friedrich, zu bedienen, welches er bis zur geringsten Kleinigkeit aufmerksam, emsig und gewissenhaft tat. (p. 35) This service is her only purpose in l i f e . In a l l other relationships she falls back into her withdrawn behavior: Sonst mischte er sich in keine GeschUfte oder Lust der anderen. Er schien zerstreut, immer frerad, verschlossen und fast hart. (p. 35) Her insecurity is intensified by her jealousy of Rosa: Ich kann nicht lKnger schweigen, der Neid drUckt mir das Herz ab. (p. 173) Religious faith gives her only a temporary security; Unlike Romana, however, she has no intellectual difficulty in accepting Christianity. On the contrary, her intense subjec-tivity makes her particularly responsive to i t . It is rather the world of practical reality which she finds unreal. When :he finds she has received no religious instruction, Friedrich is shocked, and attempts to f i l l this gap: Friedrich liess es sich nun ernstlich angelegen sein, ihn im Christentume zu unterrichten. Alle Morgen, vrenn die Natur in ihrer Pracht vor ihnen ausgebreitet lag, sass er mit ihm im Garten und machte ihn mit dem grossen wunderreichen Lebenswandel des ErltfserR bekannt und fand, ganz dem Gange der Zeit zuwider, das GemUt des Knaben weit empf&nglicher fur das VerstSndnis. des Wunderbaren als des Allt&glichen und GewiJhnlichen. (p.78) 64 The effect of this teaching is beneficial: Seit dieser Zeit schien Erwin innerlich stiller, ruhiger und selbst geselliger zu werden. (p. ?8) Because Erwin is at the mercy of her temperament, however, religion can only provide a temporary comfort, and cannot hinder her approaching insanity. Only when she is able to sublimate her suffering in song does she obtain happiness and regain her equilibrium. Such a self-sacrificial attitude may be evidenced by her "schSnes seelenvolles Gesicht" (p. 35} Erwin expresses herself through both music and literature. The music is a positive, unifying expression of experience. Through, her songs she is able to sublimate her love for Friedrich, to rise above i t and synthesize i t into a vicarious fulfillment. Thus at night she wanders outside and sings love songs to the accompaniment of her guitar: Wenn alles im Schlosse schlief und draussen die Sterne am Himmel prangten, ging er vielmehr rait der Gitarre aus, setzte sich gewShnlich auf die alte Schloss-mauer tlber dem Waldgrunde und tlbte sich dort heimlich auf dem Instrumente. (pp. 35-36) They are lyric outbursts of her longing or of her ecstasy, like the following: Es weiss und r&t es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl i s t , so wohlt Ach, wtlsst1 es nur einer, nur einer, Kein Mensch sonst es wissen sollt'! (p. 174) 65 Or, i f they are sad, they s t i l l provide a comforting inner release: Ich kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frflhlich sei, Doch,heimlich TrHnen dringen Da wird das Herz mir f r e i . (p. 1??) In music and poetry she exalts and resolves her experience by transcending i t . In her prose fragments she analyses and describes i t . Thus her writings, her scrawled fragmentary expression of feeling, describe her melancholy, her loneliness and grief, the destructive emotions which tear her apart. Friedrich describes the desperate fragmentary, unconnected nature of her thoughts: Es waren einzelne Gedanken, so seltsam weit abschweifend von der Sinnes- und Ausdrucksart unsrer Zeit, dass sie oft unverstHndlich wurden, abgebrochene Bemerkungen tlber seine Umgebungen und das Leben, wie fahrende Blitze auf durchaus nfichtlichem, melancholischem Grunde, wunder-schdne Bilder aus der Erinnerung an eine frllher verlebte Zeit und Anreden an Personen, die Friedrich gar nicht kannte, dazwischen Gebete wie aus tiefster Seelenverwir-rung eines gelingstigten Verbrechers, immerwahrende Beziehung auf eine unselige verdeckte Leidenschaft, die sich selber nie deutlich schien, kein einziger Vers, keine Ruhe, keine Klarheit ttberall. (pp. 176-.T77) She describes her feeling of isolation in the lonely immensity of the world: Die VJblken ziehn immerfort, die Nacht is so finster. Wo fuhrst Du mich hin, wunderbarer Schiffer? Die Wolken und das Meer haben kein Ende, die Welt i s t so gross und s t i l l , es i s t entsetzlich, allein zu sein. (p. 173) 66 It is when Erwin is no longer able to sublimate her love, when even in her fantasy she is unable to reach Friedrich through her songs, that she becomes insane and dies. Before she dies she tells Friedrich of this experience: Es war ein tiefes, weites, rosenrotes Meer, dich sah ich darin auf dem Grunde imraer-fort ttber hohe Gebirge gehen, ich sang die besten alten Lieder, die ich wusste, aber du erinnertest dich nicht mehr daran, ich konnte dich niemals erjagen, und unten stand der Alte tief im Meere, ich furchtete mich vor seinen Augen. Manchmal ruhtest du, auf mich zugewendet, aus, da sass ich s t i l l dir gegentlber und sah dich viel hundert Jahre an . . . (p. 241) Her illness seems to be psychosomatic, a desire to die because of unrequited love. It is caused by a heart attack precipitated by Friedrich's presence: Erwin sah indes wie aus einem langen Traume mit ungewiss schweifenden Blicken rings um sich her und dann Friedrich an, wahrend sehr heftige innerliche Zuckungen, die sich immer mehr dem Herzen zu n&hern schienen, durch seinen Kflrper fuhren. . . hier nahmen die Zuckungen in immer engern Kreisen auf einmal sehr heftig zu. Der Knabe nahm Friedrichs Hand, drtlckte sie fest an seine Lippen und sagte: "Mein3ieber Herri" Ein pliJtzlicher Krampf streckte noch einmal seinen ganzen Leib, und ovhOrte auf zu atmen. (p. 241) The BUrgermadchen and Leontin's Mistress Romana and Erwin lose their lives because of unrequited love. The BttrgermHdchen and Leontin's mistress die because of a sense of guilt, a wounded moral consciousness. Romana and Erwin are driven to destruction by their nature, which they can-not control. The BurgermHdchen is driven to destruction by her conscience, a product, not of her passion, but of her pious nature, which has been nurtured in a quiet, orderly Christian environment. She fall s in love with the prince, who is disguised as a student, and gives herself to him, unaware that he has deliberately planned to seduce her. When she discovers his identity during a public procession, she faints and later refuses to see him again, realizing that she will never be able to marry him. In remorse for her sin she turns completely to God, visiting a l l the churches, praying that she may yet be happy in this l i f e . The weight of her sin soon deprives her of a l l hope, however, and she becomes convinced that only death can atone for i t : Nach und nach aber fing sie an zu krBnkeln und wurde melancholisch. Sie sprach sehr zuversichtlich, dass sie bald sterben wurde, und von einer grossen Suhde, die sie abzubtlssen hatte, und fragte die Mutter oft angstlich, ob sie denn noch in den Himmel kommen kOnnte? ( P . W 68 This acceptance of her death, partly psychosomatic in nature and (perhaps) partly caused by her pregnancy, gives her peace: Die letzten Tage vor ihrem Tode wurde sie merklich besser und heiter. Noch den letzten Tag, kam sie sehr frflhlich nach Hause und sagte mit leuchtenden Augen, sie habe den Prinzen wiedergesehen,er sei, ohne sie zu bemerken, an ihr vorbeigeritten. Den Abend darauf starb sie. (p. 19*0 Leontin's girl-friend is also of an in i t i a l l y uncomplicated disposition, "ein gutes, herziges, verliebtes Ding." One evening, however, she receives a vi s i t from some-one who appears to be Leontin. She tells Leontin of this visit, who in turn tells Friedrich of i t : . . . ich sei ja gestern abends noch sehr spat bei ihr gewesen, und da sie mich ktissen wollen, hatte ich sie ermahnt, lieber Gott als die-Manner zu lieben, darauf hfitte ich noch ein Weile sehr streng und ernsthaft mit ihr gesprochen, wovon sie aber nur wenig verstanden, und wSre dann ohne Abschied fortgegan-gen. (p. 255) When she discovers this person was not Leontin, she becomes frightened and begs Leontin never to see her again. When Leontin rides out to see her the following evening or to find out about her from her mother, he sees himself standing by a tree. (This "double" is actually Rudolf, who delights in playing malevolent jokes on lovers.) The same hour the gi r l dies, not of guilt, but of fright. Just as Romana and Erwin are driven to death by the disorder within themselves, so are the BUrgerniHdchen and Leontin's mistress driven to i t by an ordering moral force. In the BUrger~ 69 mHdchen this is an inner force, the piety to which she has been conditioned. In Leontin's mistress i t is an outer force, the inexplicable appearance of Rudolf which drives her to death, not through a desire for, but through a fear of, morality. CHAPTER III The Unhappy Who Make Some Positive Adjustment to Life In this novel Eichendorff depicts love as the primary method for "women to achieve happiness. A l l his femal characters attempt to find fulfillment in love f i r s t , and only turn to other forms of fulfillment when this fail s . So strong is woman's desire for love that, when i t is unre-quited, as in the case of Romana and Erwin, i t can lead to suicide. In Eichendorff's view, however, the happiness of love can only be f u l f i l l e d through the Christian sacrament of marriage. Any expression df love through a sexual re-lationship outside of marriage only leads to promiscuity and results in disharmony within the individual and there-fore to unhappiness. Harmony, the prerequisite of happiness, can only be restored within the individual by the ordering forces of morality and religion. By practising these, Marie, Rosa and Angelina are able to restore order and stability to their lives which had been previously disordered by unhappy extra-marital experiences. Because they do not consummate happy marriages, however, they cannot be said, in Eichendorff view, to attain their highest fulfillment. 71 Marie, Angelina and Rosa a l l lose their happiness through early sexual experiences unprotected by marriage. Through these they lose their self-control, which gave stabi-l i t y to their lives, and with this the charm and innocence which f i r s t made them so attractive. Their lives thus become disordered and inharmonious. Marie As a young g i r l Marie lives in a JHgerhaus next to Leontin's castle. Conditioned by her natural environment,she is fresh and innocent. As a "Naturkind," however, she passion-ately loves freedom. Because of this, although she desires a lover, she senses that such a relationship would destroy her by depriving her of her freedom. This approach-avoidance conflict is the basis of her later problems. It is expressed in a song (pp. 24 - 2 5 ) in which she identifies herself with a deer which is magnetically attracted to the hunter, the aggressive masculine force, although i t knows i t will destroy him: Im dunkelgrllnen Waldrevier Da blitzt der Liebste rosenrot, GefSllt so sehr dem armen Tier, Das Hirschlein wUnscht, es lMge tot. She realizes, however, that this desire for love is stronger than her desire to protect herself: 7 2 Hilt', schSnes Hirschlein, htlte dichl Spricht's Hirschlein selbst in seinem Sinn, Wie soil ich, soil ich htiten mich, Wenn ich so sehr verliebet bin? The hunter, however, because he loves her, does not wish to k i l l , but to tame her: Weil ich so sehr verliebet bin, Wollt' ich das Hirschlein, schdn und wild, Aufsuchen tief im Walde drin Und streicheln, bis es s t i l l e hielt. She realizes, however, that' such taming is a preliminary form of domesticity, a form of incarceration which, as a free creature of nature, is unsufferable to her: Ja, streicheln, bis es stille hielt, Falsch locken so in Stall und Haus! Zum Wald springt 1s Hirschlein frei und wild Undlacht verliebte Narren aus. This conflict vrithin her leads to a series of tragic affairs and is only resolved when, through recognition of her dilemma, she withdraws from men altogether, Marie loses her innocence through the playful affection of the men at Leontin's, who continue to fondle her like a child despite the fact that she has matured: "Jeder behandelte sie aus Gewohnheit als ein halberwaehsenes Kind, fing sie auf und ktisste sie. Friedrich sah wohl, dass sie sich dabei gar kilnstlich straubte, um nur immer fester gehalten 73 zu vrerden, und dass ihre KUsse nicht mehr kindsch war-en." (p. 57) Friedrich realizes that such apparently innocent behavior will eventually result in serious consequences: "Friedrich schmerzte das ganze lose Spiel. . . und sprach laut von Verftihren." (p. 33) Thus, although she f i r s t regards love as a game and delights in rejecting potential lovers, such as Faber, she soon loses her independence. Thus, when she goes to the Residenz, she gives herself up completely to her feelings. When Friedrich notices her uninhibited behavior at the masked ball, he accom-panies her home and reprimands her. He compares her lovers to the black knight who appeared at the ball, outwardly attractive and vital, but inwardly the devil, sexual licence, who causes death by killing the ordering, stable l i f e of the spirit: Wie der schwarze Ritter heute auf dem Balle, t r i t t x tlberall ein freier, wilder Gast ungeladen in das Fest. Er i s t so lustig aufgeschmuckt und ein rustiger THnzer, aber seine Augen sind leer und hohl und seine HHnde totenkalt, und du musst sterben, wenn er dich in die Arme nimmt, denn dein Buhle i s t der Teufel. (p. 117) This lack of self-control is apparent in her attempts to commit suicide during Friedrich's visit. Although she is at the mercy of her feelings, the intensity of her love gives her a capacity for self-sacrifice which eventually saves her. So great is her affection for her lover, an officer who dies in battle, that she acquires 74 s t r e n g t h to c a r r y h i s body up the m o u n t a i n s i d e . F r i e d r i c h , moved by the d e p t h o f h e r l o v e , a t t e m p t s to p e r s u a d e h e r t o c h a n n e l i t i n t o a more f r u i t f u l , s p i r i t u a l , s o u r c e : " I s t i n d i r e i n e s o l c h e Gewalt w a h r h a f t e r L i e b e . . . so wen-de s i e zu G o t t , und du w i r s t n o c h g r o s s e Gnade f i n d e n . " (p.218) P o s s i b l y i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s a d v i c e she j o i n s t h e group o f m e n t a l l y d i s t u r b e d p e o p l e under R u d o l f ' s c a r e . She r e j e c t s a l l f u r t h e r r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h men, r e -a l i z i n g the u n h a p p i n e s s caused by h e r p r o m i s c u i t y a n d , p o s s i b l y , i t s d e e p e r cause - the c o n f l i c t between h e r d e s i r e f o r l o v e and h e r d e s i r e f o r f r e e d o m . T h u s , she s l a p s F a b e r when he a t t e m p t s to k i s s h e r , w h i c h h e , a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a s e x u a l l y l i b e r a l s o c i e t y , c o n s i d e r s i n s a n e . F o r h e r , however , i t u n d o u b t e d l y r e p r e s e n t s a c o n s c i o u s a t tempt to s u b o r d i n a t e h e r f e e l i n g s t o h e r r e a -s o n , a n d , as s u c h , i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f h e r b e g i n n i n g m e n t a l h e a l t h . A n g e l i n a L i k e M a r i e , A n g e l i n a l o s e s h e r s e l f - c o n t r o l and h a p p i n e s s when she i s removed f r o m the p r o t e c t i v e e n v i r o n -ment o f h e r home. H a v i n g known and l o v e d h e r as a c h i l d , R u d o l f meets her a g a i n i n I t a l y and f a l l s i n love w i t h her, a t t r a c t e d by her beauty and feminine p a s s i v i t y - her modesty and t i m i d i t y . V/hen Rudolf l e a r n s t h a t her f a t h e r has consecrated her at b i r t h f o r the r e l i g i o u s l i f e and t h a t she soon must enter a convent, they decide, a f t e r s e v e r a l meetings, t o elope. While she i s alone w i t h Rudolf, p r o t e c t e d by him as s e c u r e l y as she was by her home, she r e t a i n s her feminine dependency and t h e r e f o r e her happiness. Thus, alone w i t h him i n the boat, she f e e l s p r o t e c t e d and i s able t o g i v e h e r s e l f up completely to her l o v e . This ex-p e r i e n c e i n which she l o s e s her own i d e n t i t y i n t h a t of her l o v e r g i v e s her t h a t t o t a l f u l f i l l i n g happiness which a l l women seek i n l o v e . Thus, he i s the s o l e source of her happiness and she i s a b s o l u t e l y dependent upon him: "Die Liebe h a t t e s i e nun ganz i n meine Gewalt gegeben." (p.270) I t g i v e s her a k i n d of happiness t h a t i s not j u s t super-f i c i a l and t r a n s i t o r y but permeates her innermost being -she i s " i n n e r l i c h s t f r o h l i c h . " (p.270) I t does not simply e x c i t e her f e e l i n g s , c r e a t i n g an immediate p h y s i c a l r e -sponse, hut calms and deepens them, c r e a t i n g a profound s p i r i t u a l response. Thus, i t g i v e s her great peace: "Sie wurde nun r u h i g . I n n e r l i c h s t f r o h l i c h , aber s t i l l , sass s i e f e s t an mich gedruckt." (p.270) I t a l s o makes her t h o u g h t f u l and preoccupied: " s i e sah mit den we i t offenen, 76 s i n n i g e n Augen unverwandt i n s Meer h i n a u s . " (p. 270) As soon as t h e y a r e no l o n g e r a l o n e , however, she l o s e s h e r dependency upon him. Her sudden e x p o s u r e t o t h e w o r l d i s t o o v i o l e n t a change from h e r f o r m e r s h e l t e r e d e x i s t e n c e and she succumbs t o the dangers o f h e r raw f r e e -dom. She l o s e s h e r p a s s i v i t y - h e r dependence upon a p r o -t e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t - and becomes i n d e p e n d e n t and s e l f -a s s e r t i v e . I n g a i n i n g t h i s i ndependence she g i v e s h e r s e l f up t o t h e w o r l d as c o m p l e t e l y as she had g i v e n h e r s e l f t o Rudolf.' T h i s "Hingebung," however, does n o t g i v e h e r t h e deep s p i r i t u a l h a p p i n e s s w h i c h h e r l o v e f o r R u d o l f p r o v i d e d , b u t an i m m e d i a t e , sensuous p l e a s u r e - a r e s t l e s s e x c i t e m e n t w h i c h g i v e s no peace. Thus, when she wakes up t h e n e x t m o r n i n g and sees t h e I t a l i a n c o a s t l i n e - h e r f i r s t v i e w o f the w o r l d o u t s i d e h e r home - h e r r e a c t i o n i s v i o l e n t . She u t t e r s a " F r e u d ens c h r e i . " (p. 271) The w o r l d , hov/ever, c a n -n o t o f f e r h e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h h e r home o r h e r l o v e r p r o v i d e d , so t h a t i t e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r o y s h e r . Thus, E i c h e n -d o r f f d e s c r i b e s t h e w o r l d , d e s p i t e i t s b e a u t y , i n t h r e a t e n i n g 5 4 T h i s c a p a c i t y o f l o v e t o change and deepen a woman's p e r -s o n a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d by E i c h e n d o r f f s remarks about h i s w i f e L u i s e i n h i s l e t t e r o f 1816: "Du darfst meine F r a u n i c h t mehr nach E r i n n e r u n g e n aus a l t e r Z e i t b e u r t e i l e n . I h r H i n e i n -l e b e n i n m i c h - s i e s c h r e i b t z.B., ohne dass i c h d a r a n ge-d a c h t , j e t z t e i n e Hand, d i e scho n h a u f i g m i t d e r m e i n i g e n v e r -w e c h s e l t wurde - g r o s s e Kummer und gewaltsames H e r a u s r e i s s e n aus dem h e i m a t l i c h e n Boden und S a u e r t e i g haben i h r e f r u h e r e s i n n l i c h r e i z e n d e , m u t w i l l i g s p i e l e n d e L e b h a f t i g k e i t i n d i e T i e f e v e r s e n k t und i n e i n e u n e n d l i c h m i l d e , s t i l l e l e b e n s -k r a f t i g e Gute v e r w a n d e l t . . . " H.K.A., X I I , 18-19. 77 terms - as se d u c t i v e and o f f e r i n g an u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e : "Es war der e r s t e Uberschwengliche B l i c k des jungen Ge-miites i n das f r e i e , l t i s t e r n lockende, r e i c h e , noch unge-wisse Leben." (p.271) I t i s through the bohemian l i f e i n Rome, however, t h a t she f i n a l l y l o s e s her s e l f - c o n t r o l and happiness. I t s l a c k of d i s c i p l i n e appeals to her: "Wir f u h r t e n einen gar wunderlichen, z i e m l i c h u n o r d e n t l i c h e n Haushalt miteinander, denn A n g e l i n a gewohnte s i c h sehr b a l d an das f r e i e , s o r g -l o s e K i i n s t l e r w e s e n . " (p.271) Her independence makes her masculine. She soon becomes self-aware and a s s e r t i v e . She l o s e s her feminine p a s s i v i t y - her s e l f - f o r g e t f u l n e s s and modesty. She becomes conscious of her own beauty: "Sie musste mir o f t zum M o d e l l s i t z e n , und s i e t a t es gern, denn s i e wusste wohl, wie schon s i e war." (p.271) I n t o x i c a t e d by her new freedom she begins t o act a g g r e s s i v e l y l i k e a man, an a t t i t u d e symbolized by the male c l o t h e s she must wear as a d i s g u i s e : "Indes entging es mir n i c h t , dass Ange-l i n a a n f i n g , mit der Madchentracht nach und nach auch i h r madchenhaftes, b e i a l l e r Liebe verschamtes Wesen abzulegen, s i e wurde i n Worten und Gebarden keeker, und i h r e sonst so 55 schuchternen Augen sc h w e i f t e n l l i s t e r n r e c h t s und l i n k s . " (p.271) Because she i s a woman, she cannot endure such 55 Mobus p o i n t s out tha t the use of men's c l o t h i n g as a symbol of decadence and l i c e n c e was a l s o used by N o v a l i s : "Die F r a u i n der Mannerkleidung w i r d von N o v a l i s a l s symbolischer Aus-druck des V e r f a l l s und der Verwahrlosung verstanden." Mobus, p. 62. 78 freedom without l o s i n g her s e l f - c o n t r o l . She becomes drunk and sensual: "Ja, es geschah wohl manchmal...dass sie s i c h berauschte, wo sie dann mit den furchstsam d r e i s t e n Mienen und glanzend schmachtenden Augen ein ungemein reizendes S p i e l der S i n n l i c h k e i t gab." (p.271) During her re t r e a t at a landhaus outside of Rome where she goes to bear her c h i l d , she r e a l i z e s what has happened to her. She longs f o r the protected existence she needs to maintain inner s t a b i l i t y . She becomes melancholy and depressed and even desires the secur i t y of the r e l i g i o u s l i f e : "War i c h doch l i e b e r ins Kl o s t e r gegangen!" (p.272) On the other hand, despite i t s i n s e c u r i t y , she i s s t i l l a t t racted by her new freedom: "Bin i c h nicht e i n schoner Jager?" (p.272), she asks almost simultaneously. This a t t r a c t i o n to male freedom i s expressed i n a hunting poem representing the free r e s t l e s s l i f e of the hunter who i s magnetically drawn to the deer - the l i m i t l e s s goal which freedom enables one to seek. Such freedom, however, i s f r i g h t e n i n g because i t of f e r s no s e c u r i t y . I t s goal i s elusive and uncertain: Ich hab' gesehn ein H i r s c h l e i n schlank Im Waldesgrunde stehn, Nun i s t mir draussen weh' und bang', Muss ewig nach ihm gehn. (p.272) She succumbs to her disordered f e e l i n g s and f l e e s with her c h i l d and a man she has met at the inn who, according to gypsy prophecy, i s fated to f i g h t Rudolf i n a duel. When, many years l a t e r , Rudolf meets Angelina at a costume b a l l , she mistakes him f o r t h i s man, who, i n jealousy, attacks Rudolf and dies when he f a l l s on Rudolf's outstretched dagger. Like Marie, Angelina manages to restore order to her l i f e . Like her, she also withdraws from society and avoids a l l further contacts with men. She devotes her l i f e to r e l i g i o n and good works, appearing often at scenes of d i s a s t e r as "die schone Frau" - a figur e dressed i n white and recognized as a good omen by a l l . She rescues people from f i r e s - just as she h e r s e l f had been rescued from the raging uncontrolled f i r e of her f e e l i n g s . This l i f e of contemplative withdrawal resembles the contempla-t i v e l i f e to which she had o r i g i n a l l y been consecrated by her f a t h e r . Like Marie, she also l i v e s a chaste l i f e , p o s s i b l y considering i t an act of atonement f o r her f a i t h -lessness to Rudolf, and also necessary f o r the preservation of her emotional s t a b i l i t y . Her l i f e of serv i c e , although not as necessary f o r her sanity as that of Marie's, i s nevertheless therapeutic i n that she uses the material possessions i n h e r i t e d from her husband's estate to atone fo r her g u i l t i n marrying him. By being a b e n e f i c i a l , and, i n the popular imagination, a supernatural presence at the scenes of f i r e s she atones f o r and counteracts the destructive presence of the gypsy whose p r e d i c t i o n to 80 Rudolf when h i s home burned was l a r g e l y responsible f o r the haunting f e e l i n g of desperation and nemesis which oppressed h i s l i f e . Rosa Like the other women who do not subordinate t h e i r f e e l i n g s to some higher ordering p r i n c i p l e , Rosa i s at the mercy of the men with whom she comes i n contact. Throughout the novel she i s torn between F r i e d r i c h and the Prince,'receptive to the influence of each. Ultimately l i k e a l l women, i t i s not she who makes the choice but the choice i s made f o r her, and i s dependent upon the a t t i t u d e of her lover and the circumstances of the moment. In t h i s sense her destiny i s determined by fate rather than her own free w i l l . It i s Rosa's beauty and modesty - her apparently 56 i d e a l feminity - which f i r s t appeals to F r i e d r i c h . It i s only when he discovers that these q u a l i t i e s are s u p e r f i c i a l -the r e s u l t of the f i r s t f l u s h of love rather than of perma-nent personality t r a i t s , that he loses h i s i n t e r e s t i n her. It i s n a t u r a l , therefore, that these q u a l i t i e s should make the greatest impression upon him when he does not know her we l l - when her beauty i s heightened by the 56 F r i e d r i c h ' s love f o r Rosa i s based, according to most c r i t i c s , upon Eichendorff's r e l a t i o n s h i p v/ith Kathchen von Rohrbach during h i s residence i n Heidelberg i n 1808. Cf. Kohler, p. 116. 81 m y s t e r y o f s t r a n g e n e s s . T h e i r m u t u a l a t t r a c t i o n c a s t s a s p e l l w h i c h t h e y seem t o f e a r t o b r e a k by f a m i l i a r i t y . A t f i r s t , t h e y appear t o one a n o t h e r as i d e a l s r a t h e r t h a n p e o p l e . Thus, when t e n d i n g F r i e d r i c h ' s wounds a t t h e m i l l Rosa a p p e a r s l i k e an " E n g e l s b i l d . " (p.21) S i m i l a r l y , Rosa does n o t t r e a t F r i e d r i c h l i k e an o r d i n a r y human b e i n g , but w i t h a g r e a t t i m i d i t y and d e f e r e n c e . Her modesty i n h i s p r e s e n c e h e i g h t e n s h e r b e a u t y . T h e i r l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h d e v e l o p s a t t h e c a s t l e - a l y r i c a l r e s p o n s e t o l o v e i t s e l f r a t h e r t h a n t o e a c h o t h e r - seems e q u a l l y s u p e r - p e r s o n a l . Thus, Rosa i s n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n the d e s c r i p t i o n o f h i s t r i p but w a i t s , r a p t und s i l e n t , f o r him t o t o u c h h e r . The e x p e r i e n c e t h e y s h a r e t r a n s c e n d s t h e i r i d e n t i t y , w h i c h seems u n i m p o r t a n t . Thus, when F r i e d r i c h d e s c r i b e s l o v e , i t i s p r i m a r i l y t h e e x p e r i e n c e he remembers r a t h e r t h a n Rosa h e r s e l f : Driiben i n i h r e m schonen G a r t e n h a t t e d i e L i e b e i h r t a u s e n d f a r b i g e s Z e i t a u f g e s c h l a g e n , i h r e w u n d e r r e i c h e n F e r n e n a u s g e s p a n n t , i h r e Regen-bogen und g o l d n e n B r u c k e n d u r c h d i e b l a u e L u f t geschwungen und r i n g s d i e Berge und W a l d e r wie e i n e n Z a u b e r k r e i s um i h r morgen-r o t e s R e i c h gezogen. (p. 3 5 ) But a l t h o u g h Rosa i s c a p a b l e o f g r e a t t e n d e r n e s s i n a r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p , she i s e s s e n t i a l l y p r a c t i c a l and h a r d - h e a d e d . T h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c i s a p p a r e n t t o h e r b r o t h e r L e o n t i n who r e f e r s t o h e r as "meine w e l t l i c h e Rosa." (p. 3 7 ) L e o n t i n does n o t even c o n s i d e r h e r p h y s i c a l b e a u t y s p o n t a n e -ous and n a t u r a l but compares i t t o " e i n b e m a l t e r F r u h l i n g , " 82 ( p . 3 5 ) - an a r t i f i c i a l , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s adornment. •When F r i e d r i c h regards Rosa o b j e c t i v e l y r a t h e r than r o m a n t i c a l l y , he soon becomes aware of her l i m i t a t i o n s He n o t i c e s t h a t she l a c k s a s i m p l i c i t y and openness - a r e c e p t i v i t y to experience - which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n a t u r a l u n s p o i l e d p e r s o n a l i t y . This i s i n d i c a t e d by the f a c t that nature bores her. She i s not a t t r a c t e d by the p a s s i v i t y of nature which appeals to the s p i r i t , but by the a c t i v i t y of the world - by "neue S p e k t a k e l " - which i n v o l v e h e r f e e l i n g 5 7 d i r e c t l y . S i m i l a r l y she i s bored by F r i e d r i c h ' s a b s t r a c t d i s c u s s i o n s because they do not r e l a t e to her immediate ex-pe r i e n c e . This l a c k of r e c e p t i v i t y i s revealed i n i t s most negativ e aspect i n her " H a r t n a c k i g k e i t " - her c h a r a c t e r t r a i t which F r i e d r i c h most dep l o r e s . Thus, at the height of her l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h F r i e d r i c h she i n s i s t s upon accom panying L e o n t i n on h i s t r i p even though she r e a l i z e s i t means s e p a r a t i o n from F r i e d r i c h . Rosa has l o s t her s i m p l i c i t y - her c h i l d - l i k e r e c e p t i v i t y to l i f e . L i k e a l l the other "grossgewordene a l t kluge Menschen" her values are l i m i t e d to those of her immediate experience - to the p r a c t i c a l t a n g i b l e values of the wo r l d . This l a t e n t a t t r a c t i o n to the "world" i s c u l t i v a t e d i n the atmosphere of the Residenz. She l o s e s 5 7 This a t t i t u d e i s s i m i l a r to tha t of Graf Gaston i n Eichen d o r f f ' s Die En t fuhrung, who says: "Der Mensch verlange imme etwas Ausserordentlich.es, und wenn es das E n t s e t z l i c h s t e ware, um nur dem u n e r t r a g l i c h e t e n l i b e l , der Langeweile,zu entkommen." Quoted by Riepe, p. 4-2. 83 what n a t u r a l n e s s of e x p r e s s i o n she possessed and develops a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a f f e c t a t i o n which becomes apparent i n her co n v e r s a t i o n : " s i e mischte o f t i n i h r e besten Unterhaltungen so Fremdartiges, a l s h a t t e i h r i n n e r s t e s leben s e i n a l t e s G l e ichgewicht v e r l o r e n . " (p.168) At the Residenz she a t t r a c t s the a t t e n t i o n of the P r i n z who f a l l s i n love w i t h her. Her a f f e c t i o n vac-i l l a t e s between F r i e d r i c h and the P r i n c e , dependent upon who i s a t t e n t i v e to her. Through a s e r i e s of coinc i d e n c e s and misunderstandings which E i c h e n d o r f f a t t r i b u t e s to f a t e she becomes so exposed to the P r i n c e ' s i n f l u e n c e at c r i t i c a l moments that he succeeds i n seducing, and l a t e r , marrying her. Thus, her feminine p a s s i v i t y and the i n t e r -v e n t i o n of f a t e c r i p p l e her f r e e - w i l l , a n d she i s unable t o make an independent choice determining her f u t u r e hap-p i n e s s . By marrying the P r i n c e she a t t a i n s the g o a l to which her p r a c t i c a l nature had always i n c l i n e d . She now possesses those t h i n g s which the world values most h i g h l y - m a t e r i a l wealth and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e : "So h a t t e s i e i h r hochstes Z i e l , die w e l t l i c h e Pracht und H e r r l i c h -k e i t e r r e i c h t . " (p.247) L e o n t i n disparages these v a l u e s and says of her: "Sie taugte niemals v i e l , V / e l t f u t t e r , n i c h t s a l s W e l t f u t t e r . " (p.247) The attainment of t h i s g o a l , however, does not make her happy. When at the end of the n o v e l F r i e d r i c h 8 4 e n t e r s the r e l i g i o u s l i f e she a p p e a r s i n the c h a p e l as a p e n i t e n t . P r e s u m a b l y she r e a l i z e s t h a t m a t e r i a l p o s s e s -s i o n s - the l i m i t e d g o a l s o f t h i s w o r l d - do not g i v e h a p p i n e s s , and has come t o v a l u e the u n l i m i t e d s p i r i t u a l g o a l s which F r i e d r i c h r e p r e s e n t s , t h r o u g h w h i c h h e r i n -t e g r i t y and f r e e d o m c o u l d be p r e s e r v e d . She b e g i n s t o d e v o t e h e r s e l f t o a m e a n i n g f u l p r a c t i c e of the r e l i g i o u s l i f e w i t h i n , one p r e s u m e s , the framework o f h e r m a r r i a g e . I n the c h a p e l she a p p e a r s deep i n c o n t e m p l a t i o n : H u r e i n e h o h e , junge Dame, d i e e i n e n d i c h t e n S c h l e i -er l iber das G e s i c h t g e s c h l a g e n h a t t e , l a g s e i t w a r t s v o r einem einsamen A l t a r e v o l l Andacht auf d e n . K n i e n und s c h i e n v o n a l l e m , was h i n t e r i h r i n d e r K i r c h e v o r g i n g , n i c h t s zu bemerken. ( p . 2 9 0 ) T h u s , a l t h o u g h M a r i e , A n g e l i n a , and Rosa do n o t a t t a i n the h a p p i n e s s o f n a t u r a l f u l f i l l m e n t t h e y n e v e r t h e l e s s a t t a i n ( w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n ' o f M a r i e ) a d e e p e r , s t a b l e more s i g n i f i c a n t way o f l i f e . 85 CHAPTER IV THE HAPPY Only three c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l - J u l i e , L e o n t i n and F r i e d r i c h - a t t a i n s i g n i f i c a n t happiness. They achieve t h i s by s u b o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r l i v e s to the o r d e r i n g i n f l u e n c e s of m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n . Por J u l i e and E r i e d r i c h , however, t h i s harmony i s not achieved as a l a s t desperate measure as i t i s f o r Marie, A n g e l i n a and Rosa, but i s an organic p a r t of t h e i r being. They do not impose i t from without as a necessary act of d i s c i p l i n e t o h o l d t h e i r l i v e s t o g e t h e r . Rather, i t a r i s e s spontane-o u s l y from w i t h i n , and has always been a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . L e o n t i n ' s harmony, on the other hand, r e p r e s e n t s the f i n a l step i n the development of h i s person-a l i t y . H i s exuberance f o r l i f e which was o f t e n m i s d i r e c t e d or handicapped by h i s b i t t e r n e s s , i s now c o n t r o l l e d and channelled f r u i t f u l l y throiigh h i s submission t o God. E i c h e n d o r f f shows through these c h a r a c t e r s t h a t happiness can be obtained both through an a c t i v e l i f e i n the world and the contemplative l i f e of the s o u l . Thus, J u l i e and L e o n t i n marry, and F r i e d r i c h enters the r e l i g i o u s l i f e . T -, • 58 J u l i e The only woman who a t t a i n s happiness i s J u l i e . 58 According to Koh l e r t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s bases upon Ei c h e n -d o r f f s c o u s i n J u l i e von Howerden. K o h l e r , p. 145. 86 This i s because she i s p r o t e c t e d by her home-life - a n a t u r a l r u r a l e x i s t e n c e ordered by r o u t i n e . Such an e n v i -ronment nou r i s h e s the t r a d i t i o n a l moral v i r t u e s which can provide a p u r p o s e f u l way of l i f e f o r her without the ne-c e s s i t y of marriage and v/hich p r o t e c t her a g a i n s t sexual l i b e r a l i t y which could destroy her i n n e r calm. This way of l i f e has g i v e n her an i n n e r harmony - a calm and peace -which i s an i n t r i n s i c p a r t of her p e r s o n a l i t y . I t i s accom-panied by an a t t r a c t i v e c h e e r f u l n e s s and honesty of temper-ament. Thus, d e s p i t e her s o c i a l r e t i c e n c e " v e r b r e i t e t e d i e bestandige H e i t e r k e i t und K l a r h e i t i h r e s Gemtits einen un-w i d e r s t e h l i c h e n E r i i h l i n g liber i h r ganzes Wesen." (p.76) This harmony i s r e f l e c t e d i n the outer order of her l i f e -her p r i d e i n the c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y ordered household r e f l e c t e d i n her room as L e o n t i n rescues her from the f i r e : A l l e s i n dem Zimmer l a g noch s t i l l und f r i e d l i c h umher wie s i e es beim E n t k l e i d e n h i n g e l e g t ; e i n a u f g e s c h l a -genes Gebetbuch l a g an i h r e r S e i t e . (p.93) But, as i n the case of her f a t h e r , the r i g i d i t y of t h i s way of l i f e has made her i n f l e x i b l e and u n r e c e p t i v e to other forms of experience. Thus, l i k e her f a t h e r , she i s s o c i a l l y awkward and cannot e a s i l y partake i n a g e n e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n . In a n e g a t i v e sense t h i s makes her c r u e l and unsympathetic to o t h e r s . Thus, she i s unable to understand Romana's v i o l e n t nature which leads t o her s u i c i d e . ' She condemns i t w i t h h a t r e d . In a p o s i t i v e way such i n f l e x i -b i l i t y , 'while d e p r i v i n g her of i m a g i n a t i v e sympathy, p r o t e c t 87 her a g a i n s t d i s o r d e r which i s the source of i m m o r a l i t y . Thus, she i s unable to understand L e o n t i n ' s s a t i r i c w i t and h i s h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e but grotesque drawings: Er [Leontin] b e g r i f f n i c h t , dass das h e i l i g s t e Wesen des w e i b l i c h e n Gemlites i n der S i t t e und dem Anstande bestehe, dass ihm i n der Kunst, wie im Leben, a l l e s Z u g e l l o s e ewig fremd b l i e b e . " (p.76) On the other hand, the qunet contemplative e x i s t e n c e which she leads has drawn her inward and given her great emotional depth. Thus, she t e l l s F r i e d r i c h about her l i f e and what she has read: und t a t dabei unbewusst rait_einzelnen, abgerissenen, i h r ganz eignen Wort en o f t Ausserungen, d i e eine so l c h e T i e f e und F u l l e des Gemlites aufdeckten und so seltsam w e i t liber den beschrankten K r e i s i h r e s Lebens h i n a u s r e i c h t e n , dass F r i e d r i c h o f t e r s t a u n t v o r i h r stand und durch i h r e gross en blauen Augen i n e i n Wunderreich h i n u n t e r z u b l i c k e n g l a u b t e . (p.77) L i k e others who lead a n a t u r a l , spontaneous l i f e , she i s extremely responsive to nature. She so i d e n -t i f i e s h e r s e l f w i t h i t t h a t she can immerse h e r s e l f i n i t and be deepened by i t . Thus, u n l i k e Rosa, a product of a r t i f i c i a l s o c i e t y , who i s bored by n a t u r e , J u l i e responds t o i t e c s t a t i c a l l y . When she sees an u n u s u a l l y b e a u t i f u l view: t a t s i e einen Freudenschrei tiber den unerwarteten, noch n i e gehabten A n b l i c k und sah dann den ganzen Weg liber mit den grossen, s i n n i g e n Augen stumm i n das wunderbare R e i c h . . . (p.289) Her n a t u r a l innocence i s preserved by her moral s c r u p e l s , i n d i c a t e d by her r e f u s a l to k i s s L e o n t i n on the 08 evening he rescues her from the f i r e . Her p h y s i c a l beauty seems to become s p i r i t u a l i z e d as she matures: F r i e d r i c h bemerkte dabei, wie s i c h i h r e ganze Ge-s t a l t seitdem e n t w i c k e l t h a t t e . A l l e i h r e Zuge waren entschieden und g e i s t r e i c h . (p.229) A f t e r her marriage she a t t a i n s the happiness of the b r i d e who has given h e r s e l f to her husband w i t h i n the secure p r o t e c t i v e bond of marriage: J u l i e sass s t i l l i n d i e Zukunft versenkt und s c h i e n i n n e r l i c h e n t z t i c k t , dass nun e n d l i c h i h r ganzes Leben i n des G e l i e b t e n Gewalt gegeben s e i . (p.291) Of a l l the women who f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t through some form of r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , only J u l i e has been nur-tured i n a s t a b l e C h r i s t i a n l i f e from c h i l d h o o d . She does not t u r n t o r e l i g i o n as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r human lo v e but has always known and p r a c t i c e d i t . Her l i f e i s not con-s c i o u s l y s p i r i t u a l - a d e l i b e r a t e act of the w i l l - an a t t i t u d e which c h a r a c t e r i z e s converts and those who des-p e r a t e l y need to change t h e i r way of l i f e - but unconscious l y so. Her r e l i g i o n i s more moral than s p i r i t u a l , c o n s i s t i n of a n a t u r a l s t a b i l i t y and goodness absorbed from the peace f u i ordered f a m i l y l i f e around her, than from an i n t i m a t e s p i r i t u a l communion w i t h God. But because of the s t a b l e p r o t e c t i v e environment i n which she has been reared and the p u r p o s e f u l r o u t i n e d domestic l i f e she has been t r a i n e d to l e a d , she has developed q u a l i t i e s of temperament - a p e a c e f u l , s t a b l e , r e f l e c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y - which others must s t r i v e f o r by a conscious act of the w i l l . Because 8 9 of t h i s , she i s not only the woman i n t h i s n o v e l who a t t a i n s the most s a t i s f y i n g s p i r i t u a l l i f e - c o n s i s t i n g not i n outer a c t s of good works but i n i n n e r q u a l i t i e s of s p i r i t - a c a p a c i t y to respond more deeply to the beauty of l i f e and a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e -but a l s o the only one who a t t a i n s f u l f i l l m e n t through l o v e , because she i s able to a t t r a c t a s u i t a b l e husband through the enduring s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s she r e p r e s e n t s . L e o n t i n The i n t e n s e , i n t o x i c a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p which women seek i n love i s sought by L e o n t i n i n l i f e i t s e l f . He i s d r i v e n by a r e s t l e s s n e s s i n t o the immediate- world arount him t o which he responds i n t e n s e l y . F r i e d r i c h remarks: "Du s i e h s t so f r i s c h i n d i e Welt h i n e i n , dass a l l e s u n ter d e i -nen Augen bunt und le b e n d i g w i r d . " (p.154) Thus, he does not respond sim p l y to i s o l a t e d e x t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s l i k e the hunt, but p o e t i c a l l y to the f u l l , sensuous e x p r e s s i o n i t invokes: Ich l i e b e an der Jagd nur den f r i s c h e n Morgen, den V/ald, die l u s t i g e n Horner und das g e f a h r l i c h e , f r e i e s o l d a t i s c h e Leben. (p.83) He v a l u e s the experience of the e c s t a t i c person the one who responds most f u l l y to l i f e - as the hig h e s t human experience. He says: "Wo e i n B e g e i s t e r t e r s t e h t i s t der G i p f e l der Welt." (p.180) Because ec s t a s y i s i t s e l f a p o e t i c experience i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t L e o n t i n equate 90 poetry w i t h l i f e : Denn was h i e r Faber H e r r l i c h e s ersann und f l e i s s i g a u f s c h r i e b , suchte L e o n t i n auf seine f r e i e , wunder-l i c h e Weise i n s Leben e i n z u f u h r e n . (p.3 5 ) He does not t r y t o re-form h i s experience i n t o poetry but a l l o w s h i m s e l f t o be governed by the p o e t i c s p i r i t so t h a t the experience i s i t s e l f p o e t i c a l : E r beherrschte n i c h t , wie der besonnene D i c h t e r , das gewaltige Element der P o e s i e , der G l u c k l i c h e wurde von i h r b e h e r r s c h t . (p.81) Because h i s experience i s p o e t i c he can express i t s i m u l -t a n e o u s l y i n poetry but i s unable to re-capture i t l a t e r : Da d i c h t e t e seine f r i s c h e Seele unaufhb'rlich s e l t -same L i e d e r , d i e er s o g l e i c h sang, ohne jemals e i n e i n z i g e s aufzuzeichnen. Denn was er ' a u f s c h r i e b , daran v e r l o r e r s o g l e i c h die f r e i e , unbestimmte L u s t . (p.81) The form of h i s a r t i s thus a t r u e e x p r e s s i o n of h i s per-s o n a l i t y - r i o t o u s songs e x p r e s s i n g h i s d e l i g h t i n l i f e i t s e l f and grotesque drav/ings expressing h i s contempt f o r the l i m i t a t i o n s of other human beings. H i s a t t i t u d e t o a r t i s expressed i n h i s a t t i t u d e to n a t u re. He b e l i e v e s t h a t the experience of nature -l i f e - i t s e l f i s so i n t i m a t e and b e a u t i f u l that any s e l f -conscious attempt to form i t i n t o poetry as an aim i t s e l f -i n t o an a r t i f i c i a l , l e s s v i v i d experience than the o r i g i n a l -i s blasphemous. He says to Faber, the p r o f e s s i o n a l poet: "Ich wiinschte Sie r i t t e n l i e b e r a l l e Morgen mit mir auf d i e Jagd, l i e b e r Faber. Der Morgen g l i i h t S i e wie eine reizende G e l i e b t e an, und S i e k l e c k s e n i h r mit T i n t e i n das schbne G e s i c h t . " ( p . 2 6 ) 91 Not only is the immediate experience of l i f e i t s e l f more intimate and beautiful than i t s secondary expression through poetry, but mystery of l i f e i t s e l f i s violated by the poet who attempts to penetrate i t and impose his own meaning on i t . The poetic licence, in i t s attempt to express the i n -expressible simply confuses the i n t e l l e c t : Ihr verwechselt mit Euren Y/ortwechseleien alles so, dass man am Ende seiner selbst nicht sicher bleibt. Glaubte ich doch einmal in allem Ernst, ich sei die Weltseele und wusste vor lauter Welt nicht, ob ich eine Seele hatte, oder umgekehrt. (p.30) Life i t s e l f , however, remains impenetrable: Das Leben aber, mein bester Herr Faber,-mit seinen bunten Bildern verhalt si ch zum Dichter wie ein un-ubersehbar weitlaufiges Hieroglyphenbuch von einer unbekannten, lange untergegangenen Ursprache zum Leser. Da sitzen von Ewigkeit zu Ewigkeit die red-lichsten, gutmlitigsten Weltnarren, die Dichter, und lesen und lesen. Aber die alten, wunderbaren Worte der Zeichen sind unbekannt, und der Wind weht die Blatter des grossen Buches so schnell und verworren durcheinander, dass einem die Augen ubergehn. (p.30) Like Rudolf, Leontin is a disillusioned i d e a l i s t . Instead of applying his ideals, l i k e Faber and Friedrich, to the inner subjective worlds of poetry and rel i g i o n where they can be practically implemented, he would like to apply them to l i f e . This disillusions him, because he realizes that society cannot be changed: Ihn jammerte seine Zeit v i e l l e i c h t wie keinen, aber er hasste es, davon zu sprechen. Mit der grossten Geisteskraft hatte er schon oft redlich alles ver-sucht, wo es etwas niitzen konnte, aber immer Uber-wiesen wie die Menge reich an Wunschen, aber inner--l i c h dumpf und gleichgultig sei, wo es g i l t ... (p.167) 59 Tamm compares Leontin's disillusionment with that of Despite h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , however, he s t i l l has a d e s i r e f o r p i e t y . He b e l l s F r i e d r i c h : "Ich konnte. so fromm s e i n wie e i n Lammchen und niemals eine Anwandlung von Witz v e r s p i i r e n , wenn n i c h t a l l e s so dumm ginge. " (p.74) F r i e d r i c h t e l l s him t h a t , d e s p i t e h i s disappointment i n the world around him, i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o ma i n t a i n a secure r e l i g i o u s f a i t h w i t h i n h i m s e l f : "Nimm d i c h i n acht mit deinem Ubermute! Es i s t l e i c h t und angenehm zu v e r s p o t t e n , aber m i t t e n i n der Tauschung den grossen, h e r r l i c h e n Glauben and das Bessere f e s t z u h a l t e n und di e andern mit f e u r i g e n Armen emporzuhaben, das gab Gott nur seinen l i e h -s t e n Sohnei." (p.74) I n s p i r e d by F r i e d r i c h ' s f a i t h , he admits h i s own de f e c t s and senses h i s f u t u r e conversion: I c h sage d i r i n vollem Ernst...du w i r s t mich noch einmal ganz bekehren, du seltsamer Mensch. Gott weiss es wohl, mir f e h l t noch v i e l , dass i c h gut ware. (p.74) I t i s h i s nature as an e x t r o v e r t , however, not to seek f u l f i l l m e n t w i t h i n h i m s e l f , but w i t h i n l i f e out-s i d e of h i m s e l f . Because nothing i n the v/orld can s a t i s f y t h i s i d e a l , however, he i s consumed v/ith r e s t l e s s n e s s . When he runs away from J u l i e he cuts a poem i n t o her win-dow which d e s c r i b e s t h i s s t a t e of f e e l i n g : E i n jeder Strom wohl f i n d t s e i n Meer, E i n j e g l i c h S c h i f f kehrt end.lich her, Nur i c h ' t r e i b e und sehne mich immerzu. 0 w i l d e r T r i e b , wann l a s s ' s t du einmal Run? (p.109) R u d o l f 1 s : j (Auch L e o n t i n i s t im Grunde uberzeugt von der Sin n -l o s i g k e i t a l l e s menschlichen Tuns und Trei b e n s , wenn auch s e i n Pessimisraus sehr v i e l r e l a t i v e r und beding t e r e r s c h e i n t , und mehr auf d i e Misere der Z e i t a l s auf das Dasein a l s s o l c h e s bezogen i s t . " Tamm, p. 50. 9 3 At f i r s t he i s unable to f i n d any way of l i f e which v / i l l s a t i s f y t h i s urge f o r the i d e a l . He r e j e c t s marriage as a p r o s a i c bourgeois i n s t i t u t i o n , and a l s o r e -j e c t s work of a p r a c t i c a l nature which others wish to e l e v a t e i n t o an i d e a l . He says: "Ware i c h re c h t arm gewesen, i c h h a t t e aus l a u t e r Langeweile a r b e i t e n kbnnen, um mir Geld zu erwerben, und h i n t e r d r e i n d i e Leute i i b e r r e d e t , es geschehe um des Staates w i l l e n , wie d i e andem t u n . . . " (p.2 2 9-30) L i k e Rudolf, he i s so r e p e l l e d by people t h a t he avoids crowds, and remarks i r o n i c a l l y t o F r i e d r i c h : " i c h habe n i e mehr Menschenliebe a l s wenn i c h w e i t von den Menschen b i n . " (p.230) Because he can f i n d no enduring i d e a l i n the world he i s only happy when he can l i v e f o r the moment. He says: "Wo es wieder so gut, f r i s c h Leben g i b t , wer f r a g t da, wie lange es dauert." (p.2 2 9 ) ^ ° He j o i n s F r i e d r i c h at R u d o l f ' s . But although he i s d i s i l l u s i o n e d i n the wor l d , he i s unhappy away from a c t i v e l i f e . F r i e d r i c h says of him: "Es f e h l t e ihm h i e r a l -l e 'Handhabe, das Leben a n z u g r e i f e n . " (p.285) But because of 60 Most c r i t i c s agree t h a t L e o n t i n i s a p o e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of E i c h e n d o r f f s b r o t h e r Wilhelm. ( K b h l e r , p. 1 3 9 ) Weichberger p o i n t s out t h a t i n h i s a n t i s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t marriage and p o e t i c i m p r o v i s a t i o n s he a l s o resembles Bren-tano whom the E i c h e n d o r f f brothers knew i n H e i d e l b e r g and B e r l i n . (Konrad Weichberger, Untersuchungen zu E i c h e n d o r f f s  Roman "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (Diss.', Jena, 1 9 0 1) p. 1 6 ) This c o n j e c t u r e i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d by E i c h e n d o r f f s m a r g i n a l note i n connection w i t h the passage i n which Leon-t i n t a l k s about Romana: "Leontin s p r i c h t w i l d und u n z t i c h t i g von i h r Romana wie Brentano." (U.K.A., I l l , 5 1 5 ) 94 h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t he decides t o leave Europe and s t a r t l i f e anew i n another p a r t of the w o r l d . F r i e d r i c h approves of t h i s p l a n : "denn er wusste wohl, dass nur e i n f r i s c h e s w e i tes Leben seinen Freund e r h a l t e n konnte, der h i e r i n der allgemeinen Misere durch f r u c h t l o s e Unruhe und Be-strebung nur s i c h s e l b e r v e r n i c h t e t h a t t e . " (p.289) He thus r e g a i n s h i s hope i n the u l t i m a t e betterment of so-c i e t y : Und so w i l l " i c h denn i n dem noch unberiihrten Waldes-griin eines andern W e l t t e i l s Herz und Augen s t a r k e n und mir d i e Ehre und d i e Erinnerung an die vergan-gene grosse Z e i t , sowie den t i e f e n Schmerz uber d i e gegenwartige h e i l i g bewahren, darnit i c h der k i i n f -t i g e n , bessern, d i e w i r a l l e h o f f e n , wiirdig b l e i b e und s i e mich wach und r i i s t i g f i n d e . (p.294) Pie i s supported i n h i s hope by h i s regained r e l i g i o u s f a i t h which he shares w i t h J u l i e , h i s w i f e . He asks her i f she w i l l be able to ask God: "Ziehe h i n ! denn w as du w i l l s t mid s o l l s t , i s t mehr wert a l s d e i n und mein Leben?" (p.294) His sense of s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s i m i l a r to t h a t of F r i e d r i c h ' s and i s i n marked c o n t r a s t to the ab-s o l u t e i n d i v i d u a l i s m of Rudolf, as.Tamm p o i n t s out: L e o n t i n i s t k e i n a b s o l u t e r I n d i v i d u a l i s t wie Rudolf, dem das G e f i i h l s o z i a l e r Verantwortung f e h l t . M i t dem Wunsch, s e i n Leben i n den Dienst seines Volkes und Vaterlandes zu s t e l l e n , i s t es ihm n i c h t weniger e r n s t , a l s dem Helden des Romans. Leo n t i n ' s b e l i e f t h a t he w i l l be able to f i n d some i d e a l s o c i e t y i n the new world i s , however, based on an i r r a t i o n a l optimism i n h e r e n t i n h i s c h a r a c t e r , and i s 61 Tamm, p. 51. 95 t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d r e a l i t y . Tamm says: . . . e i n ebenso unbegriindeter a l s u n e r s c h u t t e r l i c h e r Optimismus, der es um jeden P r e i s mit dem Leben wieder aufnehmen w i l l , gev/innt i n L e o n t i n d i e Ober-hand - e i n Optimismus jedoch, der keine neue Taten zeugt, sondern s i c h im L y r i s c h e n , Stimmungshaften v e r f l i i c h t i g t . L e o n t i n s G e s t a l t w i r d i n die Region des U n w i r k l i c h e n t r a n s p o n i e r t , das s i e an der P r o b l e -matik des gegenwartigen, r e a l e n Lebens zu zerbrechen s c h e i n t . Nur auf diese Weise g e l i n g t es dem D i c h t e r . . .uber den k r i t i s c h e n Punkt hinaus zu f i i h r e n . 62 Tamm p o i n t s out th a t E i c h e n d o r f f has been unable t o r e s o l v e the c o n f l i c t i n g aspects of Le o n t i n ' s c h a r a c t e r -the p a s s i v e , h i g h l y i n d i v i d a l i s t i c v/orld of the romantic u n r e l a t e d to any e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y and the a c t i v e s o c i a l and e t h i c a l consciouness of the n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e : Es i s t E i c h e n d o r f f n i c h t gelungen, die d r e i h e t e r o -genen Elemente i n L e o n t i n s Charakter: die t r a g i s c h e Gebrochenheit seines romantischen N a t u r e l l s , d i e R e i n h e i t und Strenge s e i n e r s o z i a l - e t h i s c h e n Ge-sinnung und die s o r g l o s e H e i t e r k e i t seines w i r k l i c h -k e i t s e n t r i i c k t e n Naturburschentums zur E i n h e i t zu verschmelzen. Der e t h i s c h e Gegensatz zwischen der Romantik und der n a t i o n a l e n R e n a i s s a n c e . . . b l e i b t i n unverminderter Scharfe bestehen. °3 F r i e d r i c h Because F r i e d r i c h ' s experience i s so c e n t r a l t o an understanding of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s thought, i t i s analyzed i n d e t a i l i n the other chapters under i t s v a r i o u s aspects. 62 Tamm, p. 52. 65Tamm, p. 53-54. 96 PART I I I METHODS OE ACHIEVING HAPPINESS CHAPTER V FULFILLMENT THROUGH SOCIETY The new s o c i a l consciousness of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s g e n e r a t i o n c o n t r a s t s w i t h the i d e a l of the c l a s s i c i s t s and the e a r l y romantics who envisioned s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t as the only g o a l of . l i f e . Thus, Ahnung und Gegenwart, i n which F r i e d r i c h seeks to cr e a t e an ordered s o c i e t y d i f f e r s from Wilhelm M e i s t e r i n which the hero p r i m a r i l y seeks h i s own f u l f i l l m e n t . Riepe says: Das I d e a l des Neuhumanismus, es s e i gr o s s , s i c h s e l b s t u n g e s t o r t a u s z u b i l d e n , weicht dem I d e a l der n a t i o n a l e n Romantik, dass es aber g r o s s e r s e i , a l l e s i n den Dienst der A l l g e m e i n h e i t zu s t e l l e n . 64 This new s o c i a l consciousness was the r e s u l t of a reawakened n a t i o n a l i s m , which, although not created by romanticism, was e a s i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o i t . I t was not merely a p a t r i o t i c r e a c t i o n to the a g r e s s i o n of Napoleon but a deeper d e s i r e t o reform Germany from w i t h i n - both p o l i t i c a l l y and s p i r i t u a l l y . This renewal v/as centered i n B e r l i n where Adam M u l l e r formulated h i s p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y , and Southern Germany where C a t h o l i c s p i r i t u a l i t y was r e v i t a l i z e d by Clemens M a r i a Hofbauer and o t h e r s . This new s p i r i t penetrated the a r t s where i t was promulgated by S c h l e g e l , Arnim, Brantano and E i c h e n d o r f f . Tamm says: 64 Riepe, p. 16. 9 7 S i e waren iiberzeugt von der Notwendigkeit e i n e r das ganze Volk e r g r e i f e n d e n s i t t l i c h - r e l i g i o s e n Erneue-rung, e i n e r Regeneration aus den g e m e i n s c h a f t s b i l d e n -den K r a f t e n des Glaubens und der S i t t e . 65 Ahnung und Gegenwart r e f l e c t s the v a r i o u s move-ments i n E i c h e n d o r f f s s o c i e t y and the way i n d i v i d u a l s of h i s age attempted t> a f f e c t i t and f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t through i t . The t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s merely wish to preserve the s t a t u s quo - t o defend i t - the e a s i e s t method because i t i s n a t -u r a l f o r human beings to love the country and c u l t u r e w i t h which they i d e n t i f y themselves. The l o v e of country -p a t r i o t i s m - i s simply an e x t e n s i o n of the love of s e l f . Those i n s p i r e d by the new s p i r i t of the n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e , however, wish to reform and improve i t - a d i f f i c u l t method because i t i s the n a t u r a l tendency of human beings t o r e s i s t change. Both methods are represented i n t h i s n o v e l : the defenders by the p o l i t i c i a n s and s o l d i e r s ; the reform-ers by the k n i g h t - f i g u r e s . A. The State The c a u t i o u s p e d e s t r i a n a t t i t u d e of the s t a t e discourages F r i e d r i c h from c o n s i d e r i n g a p o l i t i c a l c areer as a method of a c h i e v i n g happiness. L o f t y i d e a l i s m i s unconnected w i t h the p r a c t i c a l workings of government which must be c a r r i e d out through the cumbersome mach-i n e r y of the c i v i l s e r v i c e . Thus, when the M i n i s t e r t e l l s him t h a t the best p r e p a r a t i o n f o r government s e r v i c e i s 65 Tamm, p. 65 . 98 a thorough l e g a l education he l o s e s h i s a s p i r a t i o n immediately,, F r i e d r i c h i s a l s o a p p a l l e d by the deadening e f f e c t such a l i f e has upon the p e r s o n a l i t y - the " b r i t i s i e r e n d e , e i n -g efrorene Wesen" of the M i n i s t e r . T h i s a t t i t u d e towards government s e r v i c e i s a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n D i c h t e r und i h r e G e s e l l e n . E i c h e n d o r f f d e s r i b e s the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of government s e r v i c e upon the s o u l of i t s employees and a l s o exposes th e . p r e t e n s i o n s of i t s . advocates who wish to g l o r i f y i t as some l o f t y i d e a l : K e i n e r hat Z e i t zu l e s e n , zu denken, zu beten. Das nennt man P f l i c h t t r e u e ; a l s h a t t e der Mensch n i c h t auch d i e hohere P f l i c h t , s i c h auf Erden auszumausern und d i e schabigen F l u g e l zu putzen zum l e t z t e n grossen Fluge nach dem Himmelreich, das eben auch n i c h t wie e i n Wirtshaus an der b r e i t e n Landstrasse l i e g t , son-dern t r e u und e r n s t l i c h und mit ganzer, u n g e t e i l t e r Seele e r s t i i r m t s e i n w i l l . J a , i c h habe schon o f t nachgedacht tiber den Grund d i e s e r z a r t l i c h e n Liebe so v i e l e r zum S t a a t s d i e n s t . Hunger i s t es n i c h t im-mer, noch s e l t e n e r Durst nach N u t z l i c h k e i t . I c h f t i r c h -t e , es i s t b e i den meisten der Reiz der Bequemlichkeit, ohne Ideen und s o n d e r l i c h e Anstrengung g e w a l t i g und mit grossem Spektakel zu a r b e i t e n , die S a t i s f a k t i o n , f a s t a l l e Stunden etwas Rundes f e r t i g zu machen, wahrend die Kunst und d i e Wissenschaften auf Erden niemals f e r t i g werden, j a i n a l l e E w i g k e i t k e i n Ende absehen. 66 Thus, although the group of romantics who formed around S c h l e g e l wished to f u r t h e r the " n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e " they a l s o wished to r e t a i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and r e j e c t e d the i n s t i t u t i o n a l concept of the s t a t e which would deprive them of t h i s . Tamm says: V/esentlich i s t , dass die s o z i a l e Bindung durchaus a l s Produkt g e i s t i g e r Wahlverwandtschaft e r s c h e i n t und 66 C o t t a , I I , 508. 99 dass d i e i n d i v i d u e l l e Lebensgestaltung dadurch keine Beschrankung e r f a h r t . Die Gemeinschaft a l s o b j e k t i v e s , i i b e r i n d i v i d u e l l e s g e i s t i g e s G e b i l d e , a l s I n s t i t u t i o n , der s i c h der E i n z e l n e zu unterwer-fen h a t . . . e x i s t i e r t f u r d i e Romantik n i c h t . 67 B. The war aga i n s t Napoleon Tamm p o i n t s out the v a r i o u s f a c t o r s which made the war a g a i n s t Napoleon so a t t r a c t i v e t o E i c h e n d o r f f and h i s g e n e r a t i o n . I t was motivated not only by a d e s i r e t o defeat an oppressor, but had i t s r o o t i n deeper s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . As an a r i s t o c r a t there were few v o c a t i o n s open to E i c h e n d o r f f and those of h i s s o c i a l c l a s s - - business was too "bourgeois" and undig-n i f i e d , the m i l i e u of the "Krautjunkerturn" ^ as too narrow f o r many of them t o accept, and the c i v i l s e r v i c e seemed too d u l l and mechanized. More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , the i d e a l s of the e a r l y romantics had f a i l e d to m a t e r i a l i z e . Tamm says: Die PrUhromantik h a t t e im uberschwenglichen Optimis-mus den Grundriss eines neuen Kultursystems ent-worfen, aber an dem Versuch, dieses g e n i a l s k i z z i e r t e Schema durch p o s i t i v e L e i s t u n g e n a u s z u f i i l l e n , war s i e g e s c h e i t e r t . 68 U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s d e s i r e f o r war v/as motivated by the r e s t -l e s s n e s s of youth which yearns f o r some v i o l e n t h e r o i c e x p r e s s i o n . Tamm says: Die Kriegssehnsucht der Generation A r n i m - K l e i s t -Fouque-Eichendorff i s t n i c h t a l l e i n aus der 67 Tamm, p. 64. 68 Tamm, p. 78. 100 p o l i t i s c l i e n Lage, dem Druck der F r a n z o s e n h e r r s c h a f t , den E i c h e n d o r f f i n Wien j a g a r n i c h t empfand, zu e r k l a r e n , sondern auch aus dem t i e f e n G e f i i h l per-s o n l i c h e n U n b e f r i e d i g t s e i n s , dem e i g e n t l i c h j e d e r K r e i s mens.chlicher T a t i g k e i t zu beschrankt i s t . Sie sahen im K r i e g das e i n z i g e Element, i n dem s i c h i h r ungestumes Tatverlangen e n t f a l t e n konnte. 6§ Thus, Rudolf, L e o n t i n and F r i e d r i c h seek f u l -f i l l m e n t through war - through commitment to a r i g h t e o u s cause - the l i b e r a t i o n of Germany. They are, however, a l l d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e i r attempt. They are saddened by the h o r r i b l e r e a l i t y of war which so c o n f l i c t s w i t h the ab-s t r a c t i d e a l s f o r which i t i s fought. They observe t h i s not only i n the c r u e l t y and d e s t r u c t i o n of war but a l s o i n the s t u p i d i t y and l a c k of honor.of t h e i r own comrades. They are a l s o d i s i l l u s i o n e d by the l a c k of any enduring v a l u e s , which j u s t i f i e d , o r, at l e a s t , r a t i o n a l i z e d , war i n the Middle Ages. This l a c k of any c o n s i s t e n t i d e a l i s soon made apparant by the v a c i l l a t i n g a t t i t u d e of the government which i s more determined to preserve i t s e l f than the country i t r e p r e s e n t s . Rudolf, however, becomes a s o l d i e r not so much out of i d e a l i s m as to f i n d a l e g i t i m a t e o u t l e t f o r h i s i n n e r v i o l e n c e . He i s , however, soon disg u s t e d by the t r i v i a l i t y of h i s comrades, and, more p a r t i c u l a r l y , by the t o t a l d i s r e g a r d f o r the i n d i v i d u a l under such an au-t h o r i t a r i a n regime: "Der p l a t t e L e i c h t s i n n , das Prahlen und der 69 Tamm, p. 78. 101 g e s c h a f t i g e Miissiggang e k e l t e mich an, besonders u n e r t r a g l i c h aber war mir, dass e i n e i n z i g e r unbe-s c h r e i b l i c h e r W i l l e das Ganze wie e i n dunkles Fatum r e g i e r e n s o l l t e , dass i c h im Grunde n i c h t mehr wert s e i n s o l l t e a l s mein P f e r d . . . " (p.267) When he awakens from unconsciousness d u r i n g b a t t l e and sees the dead bodies and burning v i l l a g e s around him he f u l l y r e a l i z e s the senseless b r u t a l i t y of war: "Ein unbeschreib-l i c h e s Grausen i i b e r f i e l mich v o r dem wahnwitzigen Jammer-s p i e l . .." (p.268) L e o n t i n i s a l s o sickened by h i s a c t u a l experience of war, and f u l l y apprecjates, by c o n t r a s t , the p e a c e f u l e x i s t e n c e at Herrn von A's: "Ich kann es n i c h t beschreiben, mit welcher Empfindung i c h aus der k r i e g e r i s c h e n W i l d n i s meines emporten Gemiits so auf einmal i n die f r i e d e n s - und segens-r e i c h e Gegend v o l l a l t e r Erinnerungen und Anklange hinaussah..." (p.230) He i s a l s o d i s g u s t e d by the v a c i l l a t i n g nature of the troops and of the s t a t e o f f i c i a l s . He i s reminded of V i k t o r ' s words when he sees the troops r e t r e a t i n a pretence of bravery: "Besser Uhren machen, a l s Soldaten s p i e l e n . " (p.237) When, a f t e r peace i s d e c l a r e d , he i s accused of t r e a s o n by the v e r y s t a t e he fought so hard to defend he decides t o leave Germany f o r e v e r . F r i e d r i c h i s , however, the one who enters the 70 war w i t h the h i g h e s t i d e a l s and t h e r e f o r e the one wixo, i s most d i s i l l u s i o n e d . He i s i n s p i r e d by the p r i n c e ' s g l i b defence of the a c t i v e l i f e d edicated to the s t a t e i n 70 Tamm sees F r i e d r i c h ' s d e c i s i o n to enter the war as a r e f l e c t i o n of E i c h e n d o r f f s own inner development i n the 102 p r e f e r e n c e t o the contemplative l i f e devoted t o i n d i v i d -u a l f u l f i l l m e n t : "Es i s t g r o s s , s i c h s e l b e r , von a l l e r Welt l o s g e s a g t fromm und f l e i s s i g auszubilden...aber es i s t g r o s s e r , a l l e Freud en, a l l e eignen Wunsche und Bestrebungen wegzuwerfen f i i r das Recht, a l l e s . . . " (p. 163) In t h i s enthusiasm F r i e d r i c h j o i n s the "Landsturm," a g u e r r i l l a band o p e r a t i n g i n the A u s t r i a n a l p s . He i s , however, soon d i s i l l u s i o n e d . On h i s way to a s e c r e t conclave of a l l the g u e r r i l l a troups he i s d i s -gusted by the s i g h t of a young o f f i c e r , a member of the Tee-g e s e l l s c h a f t who has j o i n e d the enemy: "Ihn empbrte dieses Elend ohne Treue und Gesinnung, wie er mit vornehmer Z u f r i e d e n h e i t s e i n e n Schnauz-b a r t s t r i c h und auf seinen Sabel s c h l u g , g l e i c h -v i e l f i i r was oder gegen wen er i h n zog." (p.213) This d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n h i s countryman i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s r e v u l s i o n upon h e a r i n g him s i n g S c h i l l e r ' s " R e i t e r l i e d " -"das f i i r c h t e r l i c h e L i e d " which, under such circumstances 71 sounds " w i d e r l i c h und h b l l i s c h gurgelnd." (p.213) years between 1808-12 - - a change of committment from the h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a e s t h e t i c i s m of e a r l y romanticism t o the s o c i a l l y conscious n a t i o n a l i s m of the Napoleonic wars. He says: "Hier sind d i e v/esentlichen Momente des Gesinnungswandels, der s i c h i n E i c h e n d o r f f i n den Jahren 1808-12 v o l l z o g , der Ubergang vom a e s t h e t i s c h e n I n d i v i -dualismus der Fruhromantik zur n a t i o n a l - s o z i a l e n G e i s t e s -h a l t u n g der Erhebungszeit f e s t g e h a l t e n : Das Individuum ordnet s i c h a l s dienendes G l i e d der Gemeinschaft u n t e r . " (Tamm, p. 75) 71 E i c h e n d o r f f s a n t i p a t h y towards S c h i l l e r has a l r e a d y been noted. (See p. 36-37) 103 T h i s d i s g u s t , however, i s only momentary. His f a i t h i n the righteousness of h i s cause and the i n t e g r i t y of h i s compatriots remains f i r m and i s r e f l e c t e d "by the h e r o i c s t y l e i n which h i s f o l l o w i n g experiences are des-72 c r i b e d . Thus, h i s f i r s t glimpse of the assembled band i s "ein f r e u d e n s r e i c h e r Anblick." (p. 213) Seated on the mountain h e i g h t s , a w a i t i n g the r i s i n g sun i t seems suffused w i t h noble purpose: Die ganze unubersehbare Schar sass d o r t , an i h r e Waff en g e s t i i t z t , auf den Zinnen i h r e r ewigen Burg, die gross en Augen gedankenvoll nach der S e i t e h i n -g e r i c h t e t , wo d i e Sonne aufgehn s o l l t e . (p.213-14) There i s almost a r e l i g i o u s hush as they await b a t t l e -"eine f e i e r l i c h e e r w artungsvolle S t i l l e . " (p.214) T h e i r cause i s godly and they are s u s t a i n e d by old Germanic v i r t u e s : "Gleichwie d i e Stamme i n dem Wald Woll'n w i r zusammenhalt en', E i n 1 f e s t e Burg, T r u t z ' d e r Gewalt, V e r b l e i b e n t r e u die A l t e n . . . i n Gottes Namen!" (p.214) The d e s c r i p t i o n of the b a t t l e i s j u s t as un-r e a l i s t i c , and i s re m i n i s c e n t of a Heldensage w i t h i t s 72 F r i e d r i c h ' s i d y l l i c a t t i t u d e towards war i s probably e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f had never had any p e r s o n a l experience of i t . Tamm says: "Dieser psycholo-gischen D a r s t e l l u n g l i e g e n k e ine Erlebnis.se, k e i n e per-s o n l i c h e n Erfahrungen E i c h e n d o r f f s zugrunde - - denn er s e l b s t h a t t e j a weder am o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n K r i e g e von 1809 noch am T i r o l e r Aufstand teilgenommen - - sondern die Hoffnungen und Erwartungen^ mit denen er dem n a t i o n a l e n Befreiungskampfe entgegensah." (Tamm, p.77) 1 0 4 emphasis on "Kriegeslust" and the apparent i n v i n c i b i l i t y of i t s hero. Thus, everyone i s delighted when the b a t t l e begins. F r i e d r i c h f i g h t s with almost supernatural prowess: " F r i e d r i c h war u b e r a l l zu sehen, wo es am ge f a h r l i c h s t e n herging, selber mit Blut iiberdeckt." (p.215) After the ba t t l e he scarcely f e e l s his wounds i n his e l a t i o n . He f e e l s a sense of well-being that he has never before ex-perienced: "Ererinnerte s i c h n i c h t , dass ihm jemals i n s e i -nem Leben so wohl gewesen." (p.216) S t i l l assured that h i s cause i s holy, he gives thanks i n chapel, fie i s convinced that his l i f e has reached i t s consummation - that he has f i n a l l y discovered the noble, u n i f y i n g purpose which w i l l give i t meaning: Er war v o l l i g uberzeugt, dass er das Rechte wolle, und s e i n ganzes voriges Leben, was er sonst einzeln versucht, gestrebt und geubt hatte, kam ihm nun nur wie eine lange Vorschule vor zu der sicheren, klaren und grossen Gesinnung, die j e t z t sein Tun und Denken r e g i e r t e . (p.216) Only, however, when h i s fortunes are reversed and he i s deprived of h i s lands through the peace treaty, does he question the v a l i d i t y of h i s p r i n c i p l e s . R e a l i z i n g that the state a u t h o r i t i e s are simply opportunists un-motivated by any high conception of patriotism, he loses f a i t h i n h i s i d e a l s which i s i n e f f e c t u a l without any o f f i c i a l support.He sinks i n t o despondancy: "Er achtete s e i n Leben n i c h t , es schien ihm nun zu nichts mehr nlitze." (p. 220) 105 Tamm p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s general d i s i l l u s i o n -ment a f t e r the war was not due merely t o p o l i t i c a l f a c t o r s but had a deeper cause. The romantics considered the war aga i n s t Napoleon to be fought not only f o r n a t i o n a l - p a t r i -o t i c reasons—-but f o r religious ones. They considered i t a r e l i g i o u s crusade out of which a new Germany would a r i s e , and when i t was exposed to the c o n t r a r y they were crushed and d i s i l l u s i o n e d . He quotes Werner von Haxthausen: Man fand s i c h durch den Gedanken g e s t a r k t und ermu-t i g t , a l s e i n Kampfer f u r d i e h e i l i g e Sache a u f z u -stehen, j a man liberredete s i c h , es s e i d i e Sache des Christentums s e l b s t , d ie man v e r t e i d i g e n wolle...» Wir konnen es uns s e l b s t n i c h t weismachen, dass das Christentum a l s solches von den Pranzosen i n Gefahr gebracht wurde. A l l e Tendenzen dieses bewunderungs-wiirdigen K r i e g e s waren vielmehr ganz n a t i o n a l . Es war e i n Kampf um die Unabhangigkeit und P r e i h e i t des Herdes, womit das Christentum, waLches s e i n e K r a f t s e l b s t b e i den n i e d r i g s t e n Sklaven noch be-wahrt, nicht s zu tun hatte...Eben w e i l eine Tauschung zugrunde l a g , welche i n i n n e r s t e r Seele und mit a l -l e r K r a f t des Gedankens einen V o l k s k r i e g f u r einen R e l i g i o n s k r i e g g e h a l t e n , konnte der Zustand nach dem F r i e d e n n i c h t b e f r i e d i g e n . 73 C. Knighthood The s o c i e t y of E i c h e n d o r f f * s time as represented by the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t has no e s t a b l i s h e d v a l u e s which can be a t t a c k e d because i t s values are themselves r e l a t i v e . The T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t a l s o seems s e l f - s a t i s f i e d \-/ith human na-t u r e — a h e r i t a g e of humanism—so th a t any suggestion of i t s improvement i s considered repugnant. 73 Werner von Haxthausen, Die K i r c h e und i h r e I n s t i t u t i o n e n  im V e r h a i t n i s zu den Tendenzen der Z e i t , quoted by Tamm, p. 71-72. 106 Because of t h i s any person who s e r i o u s l y accepts the o l d fashioned v i r t u e s and wishes to i n s t i t u t e them i n s o c i e t y i s considered insane: Z i e h t dann von Z e i t zu Z e i t einmal e i n wunderbarer, a l t f r a n k i s c h e r G-esell 1 , der es noch e h r l i c h und e r n s t -h a f t meint, wie Don Quixote v o r i i b e r , so sehen Herren und Damen nach der T a f e l g e b i l d e t und gemachlich zu den Penstern hinaus...und meinen, er s e i eine r e c h t i n t e r e s s a n t e Erscheinung, wenn er nur n i c h t e i g e n t l i c h v e r r i i c k t ware. (p. 293) A l l such i d e a l i s t s w i l l be unhappy because t h e i r own v a l u e s w i l l i n e v i t a b l y c o n f l i c t w i t h those of the w o r l d . Because of t h i s , t h i s age cann produce no true k n i g h t s - only " i r r e n d e R i t t e r " - comic f i g u r e s who are not taken s e r i o u s -l y . A l a r g e number of k n i g h t f i g u r e s appear i n t h i s n o v e l . They c o n s i s t of those who a c t u a l l y attempt, or p r e -tend t o attempt, t o p r a c t i c e knighthood, and are laughed at by s o c i e t y (the pseudo-knight and I r r e n d e r R i t t e r ) ; ' and those who are p o t e n t i a l k n i g h t s , but withdraw from, and themselves ]augh a t , a s o c i e t y they c o n s i d e r irredeem-a b l e . ( V i k t o r , L e o n t i n and R u d o l f ) . Only E r i e d r i c h , v/ho i s s a t i s f i e d t o reform s o c i e t y i n d i r e c t l y , i s able to prac-t i c e the v i r t u e s of knighthood w i t h s i n c e r i t y and yet able t o r e t a i n h i s reason. The i n s i n c e r e , a r t i f i c i a l a t t i t u d e toward v i r t u e e x e m p l i f i e d by. t h i s era i s r e f l e c t e d i n the pseudo-k n i g h t ^ whom E r i e d r i c h meets a t R u d o l f ' s . He dabbles i n 74 This f i g u r e i s considered to be a s a t i r e a g a i n s t the k n i g h t l y c h a r a c t e r s i n the novels of Pouque. E i c h e n d o r f f 107 knighthood just as the d i l e t t a n t e s of the Teegesellschaft dabble i n r e l i g i o n and morality, l i k e them, he i s a t t r a c - . ted by the outer aspects of such i d e a l s rather than t h e i r inward p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s the glamour of knighthood which a t t r a c t s him, not the rigorous code of conduct upon which i t i s based. Thus, instead of adapting the p r i n c i p l e s of knighthood to h i s age, he merely takes an antiquarian i n -t e r e s t i n i t . He wears "altdeutsche Tracht" and hopes by " f l e i s s i g e Tugendubung" to become a knight and f i g h t against the heathen. He i s not a t r a g i c f i g u r e because he doesn't take himself s e r i o u s l y . Like the society he represents, he lacks the s i m p l i c i t y to believe i n the i d e a l s of knighthood which he a c t u a l l y finds absurd and boring: "Seht, i c h mocht wohl e i g e n t l i c h ein R i t t e r sein, aber, a u f r i c h t i g gesprochen, das i s t doch im Grunde a l l e s narrisches Zeug, welcher gescheite Mensch wird im Ernste an so etwas glauben! liber-dies ware es auch s c h r e c k l i c h langweilig, so strenge auf Tugend und Ehre zu halten." (p.254) The most t r a g i c of these figures i s the insane " i r r e n d e r R i t t e r " who earnestly goes out i n t o the world to seek "the stone of wisdom". His attempt so s e r i o u s l y f u l -f i l l h is i d e a l s within such an unreceptive environment i s both a symptom of h i s i n s a n i t y and also the r e s u l t of the unsympathetic manner i n which he i s treated by s o c i e t y . says: "Bei Eouque er b l i c k e n wir den Katholizismus schon a l s blosse Dekoration und Verschnorkelimg eines g r b s s t e n t e i l s gemachten Rittertums." (Quoted by Tamm, p.62) 108 Despite t h i s , however, the v a l i d i t y of many of h i s ideas i s apparent i n h i s conversation - " e i n wunderlicher Chaos von Sinn und Unsinn, das o f t die h e r r l i c h s t e n Gedanken durch-b l i t z t e n . " (p.486) V i k t o r , Leontin and Rudolf also i n i t i a l l y possess the knightly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of idealism but never attempt to apply i t a c t i v e l y i n the world to any extent. These men are so appalled by the society i n which they l i v e that they can only adjust to i t by laughing at i t - by means of ro-mantic irony. Thus, they have the same estimate of the world as the world has of themselves - that i t i s f o o l i s h and insane. Thus, Viktor does not bother to pursue h i s t h e o l o g i c a l studies but gives them up for a secular pro-f e s s i o n — a sheltered existence as a teacher on the estate of Herrn von A. He expresses h i s contempt f o r the s t u p i d i t y of humanity through the "Narrenzug" he organizes at a country dance, which symbolizes the id i o c y of mankind. Leontin, having been d i s i l l u s i o n e d by his war experience seeks f u l f i l l m e n t through a l i f e i n the new world. This world, however, within the context of the novel, remains the i d e a l i s t i c world of his imagination, not the p r a c t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n of his dreams. After his war experience Rudolf also f l e e s a l l p r a c t i c a l attempts to reform soci e t y . A f t e r h i s unsuccessful marriage he f l e e s to h i s mountain r e t r e a t and f i n a l l y to Egypt. 109 F r i e d r i c h i s the only happy and successful knightly f i g u r e i n the story. This i s because hi s knight-hood i s not based on external i m i t a t i o n of medieval knight-75 hood but upon i t s i n t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e s . He has-an " a l t -deutsches Ansehen" - permanent q u a l i t i e s of character which suggest knightly v i r t u e s . Unlike the others, he pos-sesses a deep and consistent s p i r i t u a l i t y - an i n d e s t r u c t -i b l e peace. Unlike V i k t o r , Leontin and Rudolf, he s t i l l r e t a i n s hope f o r the betterment of society, the basis of any i d e a l i s t i c endeavour. F r i e d r i c h admonishes Leontin: "Nimm dich i n achtmit deinem tibermute! Es i s t l e i c h t . und angenehm, zu verspotten, aber mitten i n der Tauschung den grossen, h e r r l i c h e n Glauben an das Bessere f e s t z u h a l t e n und die andern mit feurigen Armen emporzuheben, das gab Gott n\ir seinen l i e b -sten Sohnen." (p.74) Therefore, he does not shatter on outer r e a l i t y l i k e the others, because he has h i s own inner r e a l i t y which sustains and makes him impervious to i t . Like St. Paul, he i s " i n , but not of, t h i s world." This inner r e a l i t y also provides him with a sense of realism. He recognizes that a l l attempts to reform Germany from without w i l l be i n v a l i d u n t i l i t i s reformed from w i t h i n — u n t i l the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l i s so perfected that society w i l l be ready for external changes . 75 Tamm points out that knighthood was anaspect of medievalism which had a p a r t i c u l a r appeal to Eichendorff: "Besonders das Rittertura, dlas nach seiner Auffassung a r i s t o k r a t i s c h e s SelbstbewuBtsein und r e l i g i o s e Demut und Hingabe i n s i c h v e r e i n i g t e zog ihn machtig an." (Tamm, p, 59) 110 b a s e d on some e x a l t e d c o n c e p t o f man: " . . . w e n n d i e Gemi i te r a u f s o l c h e W e i s e v o n den g o t t -l i c h e n W a h r h e i t e n d e r R e l i g i o n l a n g e v o r b e r e i t e t , e r w e i t e r t , v e r e i n i g t und w a h r h a f t d u r c h d r u n g e n w i i r d e n , d a s s d e r G e i s t G o t t e s und das G r o s s e im b f f e n t l i c h e n l e b e n w i e d e r Raum i n i h n e n gewonne , d a n n e r s t w i r d es Z e i t s e i n , u n m i t t e l b a r z u h a n -d e l n , und das a l t e R e c h t , d i e a l t e F r e i h e i t , E h r e u n d Ruhm i n d a s w i e d e r e r o b e r t e R e i c h z u r u c k z u f u h -r e n . " ( p .297) E x t e r n a l a c t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e i m p r a c t i c a b l e a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e : "Es i s t n o c h n i c h t an d e r Z e i t , z u b a u e n , s o l a n g e d i e B a c k s t e i n e , n o c h w e i c h und u n r e i f , u n t e r den Handen z e r f l i e s s e n . " ( p .296) B e c a u s e o f t h i s he g i v e s up h i s a t t e m p t t o go o u t i n t o t h e w o r l d l i k e a m e d i e v a l k n i g h t t o a f f e c t i t d i r e c t l y . He i s , i n s t e a d , c o n t e n t t o a f f e c t i t i n d i r e c t -l y - t h r o u g h p r a y e r - t h r o u g h t h e l i f e o f a r e l i g i o u s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s he does n o t e n t e r a n a c t i v e p r e a c h i n g o r -d e r - t h e F r a n c i s c a n s o r D o m i n i c a n s whose r e f o r m movements w e r e so s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e M i d d l e A g e s , b u t an e n c l o s e d c o m m u n i t y o f c o n t e m p l a t i v e s - t h e B e n e d i c t i n e s , who f i r s t c h r i s t i a n i z e d Germany i n t h e d a r k a g e s . Tamm p o i n t s o u t t h a t a t t h i s t i m e t h e C h u r c h seemed t o E i c h e n d o r f f t o o f f e r t h e o n l y s o l u t i o n t o t h e p r o b l e m s o f h i s a g e , r e p l a c i n g by a r e l i g i o u s u n i v e r s a l i s m t h e i d e a s o f t h e n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e : I n d e r M i s e r e d e r R e s t a u r a t i o n s z e i t b l i e b i h m n i c h t s G r o s s e s und E h r w i i r d i g e s a u s s e r d e r K i r c h e , d e r e i n -z i g e n I n s t i t u t i o n des M i t t e l a l t e r s , d i e v o n der a l l -g e m e i n e n Z e r s e t z u n g n i c h t e r g r i f f e n w u r d e . D i e I d e e d e r v o l k i s c h - n a t i o n a l e n R e n a i s s a n c e wurde a b g e l o s t 111 76 durch den k a t h o l i s c h e n U n i v e r s a l i s m u s . E i c h e n d o r f f repeats t h i s c o n t e n t i o n i n Deutschlands kunf-t i g e r R e t t e r : "Wenn d i e Welt i n schaudernden V e r w i l d e r n vergeht, b l e i b t auf den Triimmern das Kreuz...einsam s t e -hen." 7 7 The attempt t o renew Germany i n t e r n a l l y by a s p i r -i t u a l c o n v e r s i o n r a t h e r than e x t e r n a l l y by p o l i t i c a l ac-t i o n was very c u r r e n t at t h i s time. Kohler says: Clemens M a r i a Hofbauer, der gewaltige Bussprediger Wiens, den e r r E i c h e n d o r f f j b e i S c h l e g e l s kennenge-l e r n t hatte...mahnte zur inneren E i n k e h r ; wie Gott-l i e b E i c h t e i n B e r l i n i n norddeutscher Erommigkeit zur Erneuerung der N a t i o n aufgerufen h a t t e , so l e h r t e auch Adam M u l l e r die Erneuerung des Staates durch einen neuen Menschen. E i n solches Erneuerungs-werk brauchte aber lange Z e i t , und so l a s s t der D i c h t e r den Helden E r i e d r i c h zwar im Lande bleiben. aber das Kreuz s t a t t des Schwertes e r g r e i f e n . . . . ' 8 This contemplative s p i r i t - t h i s " I n n e r l i c h k e i t " - i s what E i c h e n d o r f f v a l u e s most i n Germany h e r s e l f . I n h i s Ge- s c h i c h t e der poetischen l i t e r a t u r Deutschlands he d e f i n e s Germany as: d i e g r i i n d l i c h s t e , i n n e r l i c h s t e , f o l g l i c h auch beschau-l i c h s t e unter den europaischen Nationen, mehr e i n Volk der Gedanken a l s der Tat. Wenn aber die Tat n i c h t s i s t ohne den zeugenden Gedanken und nur e r s t durch den Gedanken i h r e w e l t h i s t o r i s c h e Bedeutung e r h a l t , so d l i r f e n w i r wohl sagen, dass diese b e s c h a u l i c h e Na-t i o n dennoch e i g e n t l i c h die Weltgeschichte gemacht hat. 79 76 Tamm, p.71. 77 Quoted by Riepe, p. 46. 78 K o h l e r , p. 157-8. 79 C o t t a , IV, p. 11. 112 Mbbus defends F r i e d r i c h * s d e c i s i o n t o enter the p r i e s t h o o d which has been opposed by some c r i t i c s who f e e l i m p e l l e d t o judge a work from a moral r a t h e r than a l i t e r a r y p o i n t of view: Diese Entscheidung i s t i n den Deutungen s e i n e r D i c h -tungen a l s W e l t f l u c h t oder sogar a l s Gestandnis l e t z t e r R a t l o s i g k e i t aufs schwerste missverstanden worden. In Wahrheit i s t s i e f u r E i c h e n d o r f f Ausdruck der unbedingten Hingabe an das Ewige. Denn d i e Ge-s t a l t e n des g e i s t l i c h e n Berufes und des P r i e s t e r -tums s i n d i n s e i n e r Dichtung Symbole, i n denen s i c h das Dasein des Menschen vergegenwartigt i n seinem r e i n s t e n Wesen. E i c h e n d o r f f sagt einmal von ihnen, s i e s e i e n gleichsam d i e ewigen Wachter und Boten des P a r a d i e s e s , denen aufgetragen i s t , das Heim-weh auf Erden zu erneuern. 80 80 Mbbus, p. 162-3; 113 CHAPTER VI FULFILLMENT THROUGH OTHERS A. Love Love i s perhaps the most u s u a l way f o r human beings to attempt to achieve happiness. F r i e d r i c h regards i t as the u l t i m a t e human i d e a l : "Es g i b t n i c h t s H e r r l i c h e r e s auf Erden, a l s der Mann, und n i c h t s Schoneres, a l s das Weib, das ihm t r e u ergeben b i s zum Tod...." (p.1o9-10) • Because love i s such an i n t e n s e emotion, i t i s capable of g r a n t i n g the most sublime happiness and a l s o the g r e a t e s t d e s p a i r . F r i e d r i c h d e s c r i b e s t h i s happiness i n a poem (p.34) i n s p i r e d by h i s l o v e f o r Rosa. I t i s a heady, e f f o r t -l e s s joy which no other experience can p r o v i d e : I c h b i n so wach und l u s t i g , L i e Seele i s t so l i c h t , Und eh' i c h l i e b t ' , da wusst i c h Von s o l c h e r Freude n i c h t . I t has a l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t which d i s p e r s e s a l l p e t t y cares and ambitions: Ich f i i h l ' mich so b e f r e i e t Von e i t l e m T r i e b und S t r e i t , N i c h t s mehr das Herz z e r s t r e u e t In s e i n e r F r o h l i c h k e i t . I t c reates a new p e r c e p t i o n of r e a l i t y - an experience so strange t h a t , to the l o v e r , i t appears unique to h i m s e l f : 114 M i r i s t , a l s musst' i c h singen So r e c h t aus t i e f s t e r Lust Von wunderbaren Dingen, Was niemand sonst bewusst. U l t i m a t e l y i t i s i n e x p r e s s i b l e : 0 konnt' i c h a l l e s sagen! 0 war' i c h r e c h t g e s c h i c k t ! So muss i c h s t i l l e r t r a g e n , Was mich so hoch b e g l i i c k t . Love, however, when u n r e q u i t e d , can cause an anguish so i n t e n s e t h a t i t may l e a d to i n s a n i t y . F r i e d r i c h t e l l s of a woman he once met on the road: . . . i c h habe einmal an einem k a l t e n , sturmischen Herbsttage e i n Frauenzimmer draussen im Felde s i t z e n gesehen, die war v e r r i i c k t geworden, w e i l s i e i h r Liebhaber, der s i c h lange mit i h r herum-geherzt, v e r l a s s e n h a t t e . Er h a t t e i h r versprochen, noch an demselben Tage wiederzukommen. Sie g i n g nun s e i t v i e l e n Jahren a l l e Tage auf das Feld und sah immerfort auf d i e Landstrasse hinaus. S i e hat-te noch immer das K l e i d an, das s i e damals getragen h a t t e , das war schon z e r r i s s e n und seitdem ganz al t m o d i s c h geworden. Sie z u p f t e immer an dem Armel und sang e i n a l t e s L i e d zum Rasendwerden. (p.117-18) But although almost everyone i n t h i s n o v e l attempts to achieve happiness through l o v e , only L e o n t i n and J u l i e a c t u a l l y a t t a i n i t . This i s because romantic l o v e , by i t s n a t u r e , i s i r r a t i o n a l . I t i s not based on mu-t u a l and enduring p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i k e f r i e n d -s h i p , but on a mysterious a t t r a c t i o n over which one has no c o n t r o l and which o f t e n binds one a g a i n s t one's w i l l . T his a t t r a c t i o n , sexual i n o r i g i n , i s based on p h y s i c a l and temperamental q u a l i t i e s which have a s p e c i f i c - a romantic - appeal and are t h e r e f o r e o f t e n u n r e l a t e d to the 115 actual p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l . Such an a t t r a c t i o n i s , therefore, e s s e n t i a l l y impersonal, hut, because i t i s organic - a r i s i n g below the l e v e l of consciousness - can-not be consciously c o n t r o l l e d . Because of t h i s , i t i s frequently unrequited and therefore leads to unhappiness. This i r r a t i o n a l q u a l i t y of love i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the student who f a l l s i n love with a f r i v o l o u s g i r l i n a t r a v e l l i n g c i r c u s . Although she i s f i r s t a t t r a c t e d to him by his gentleness she l a t e r becomes bored with him and runs away. He follows her, recognizing h i s mistake but unable to do other wise: "Ich weiss, dass i c h e i n Narr b in und kann doch nicht anders." (p.151) Later, when she runs away with his money he joins a g u e r r i l l a band, hoping to f i n d h i s end i n death. Because love i s so subjective - often rooted more i n the imagination of the person experiencing i t then i n the actual r e a l i t y of the other person, i t can be very d i s i l l u s i o n i n g when t h i s discrepancy i s d i s -covered. Because love often a t t r a c t s those, who, as i n d i v i d u a l s , have nothing i n common, i t can create s e r i -ous problems i n communication. I t creates a s i t u a t i o n of great irony - i n which the lover must admit that the person he longs to be closest to w i l l always remain i s o l a t e d from him. This recognition can lead to a des-116 perate l o n e l i n e s s . F r i e d r i c h recognizes t h i s lack of meaningful communication i n his r e l a t i o n s h i p with Rosa when she f a l l s asleep as he i s r e l a t i n g the experiences of h i s childhood which means so much to him. This shatters his happiness by shattering the i d e a l of love which she had i n s p i r e d i n him. He expresses t h i s unhappiness i n a poem which negates the e a r l i e r poem about the happiness love can i n s p i r e : Ich hab' manch Lied geschrieben, Die Seele war v o l l Lust, Von treuem Tun und Lieben, Das beste, was i c h wusst'. • • • Liebchen wusst's nicht zu deuten Und lac h t mir ins Gesicht, Dreht s i c h zu andern Leuten Und achtet's weiter n i c h t . ... Ach Gott, wem s o i l i c h trauen? W i l l s i e mich nicht verstehn, Tun a l l ' so fremde schauen, Und a l l e s muss vergehn, Und a l l e s i r r t z e r s t r e u e t — Sie i s t so schon und r o t — Ich hab' n i c h t s , was mich freuet, War i c h v i e l l i e b e r t o t ! " (p.56-57) Not only i s love often b l i n d , i t ' s most exalted experiences are only momentary and e r r a t i c . Romantic love i s based on f e e l i n g s , which, by nature, are constantly i n a state of f l u x . I t can therefore not provide a stable plateau of happiness l i k e the pleasures of contemplation based on the consciously w i l l e d powers of the s p i r i t , but 117 always f l u c t u a t e s . E x a l t e d emotions of ecstasy "because of t h e i r v e r y i n t e n s i t y cannot be maintained. Thus, F r i e d r i c h ' f i r s t l o v e experience, however b l i s s f u l , i s only temporary: Da nahm er s i e i n beide Arme und ktisste s i e u n z a h l i g e mal, und a l l e Freud en der Welt v e r w i r r t e n s i c h i n d i e sen einen Augenblick, der niemals zum zweiten Male w i e d e r k e h r t . (p.29) Thus, although i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r l o v e r s to be c o n s i s t e n t l y content, i t i s i m p o s s i b l e f o r them to be c o n s i s t e n t l y sub-lime - t o m a i n t a i n the e x a l t e d experience which f i r s t i n -s p i r e d them - the k i n d of happiness which people have.alway sought i n l o v e and which, i n a sense, can be considered i t s h i g h e s t e x p r e s s i o n . A f u r t h e r disadvantage of l o v e i s t h a t one has no c o n t r o l over the a c t i o n s of the other person. The l o v e r so i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the beloved t h a t he f o r g e t s t h a t she l e a d s an independent e x i s t e n c e . She becomes such an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f h i s emotional l i f e t h a t he imagines t h a t she must resj>ond to h i s thoughts and needs even when he i s n ' t t h e r e . When t h i s i r r a t i o n a l assumption i s d i s -proved i t can l e a d not only t o f r u s t r a t i o n but a l s o t o a b i t t e r disappointment. Thus, there are c o u n t l e s s occasions when F r i e d r i c h or Rosa lo n g and expect to see one another but are crushed by the absence of the o t h e r . On one oc-c a s i o n F r i e d r i c h i s almost annoyed at Rosa when she i s not at the Residenz. He f e e l s t h i s way d e s p i t e the f a c t t h a t she d i d not know he would come: 118 Es war ihm vor Preude gar nicht e i n g e f a l i e n , dass er s i e verfehlen kbnnte, und er hatte beinahe l u s t zu ziirnen, dass sie ihn nicht zu Hause erwartet ha-be. (p.112) It i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that, of the men, only the student attempts to f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t through love alone. Men by nature are able to compartmentalize t h e i r experience. Love does not permeate t h e i r existence as i t does that of a woman because, as a sexual a c t i v i t y , i t i s i s o l a t e d from t h e i r other responses. Por men sex i s a p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t y which may or may not be accompanied by love. Because of t h i s , i t i s n a t u r a l f o r men to have a casual a t t i t u d e to sex - to regard i t simply as a n a t u r a l function, unconnected with love or demanding moral o b l i g a t i o n s . This casual a t t i t u d e to sex i s encouraged at t h i s time and i s r e f l e c t e d i n the general relaxations of sexual mores condoned by the court s o c i e t y . Sexual freedom i s practiced on a l l l e v e l s of the love r e l a t i o n s h i p - i n the l i g h t h e a r t e d d a l l i a n c e s of Paber and Leontin and the im-petuous a f f a i r s of the Prince. The r e s t r i c t i o n of sexual expression to marriage - the i d e a l of C h r i s t i a n morality -has been discarded. With i t has been discarded the f e e l i n g s of g u i l t which r e s u l t e d i n a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r one's actions, and s e l f d i s c i p l i n e - the a b i l i t y to con-t r o l one's actions. The lack of such q u a l i t i e s are r e f l e c t e d not just i n the love r e l a t i o n s h i p of such i n d i v i d u a l s but i n t h e i r v/hole character. 119 Thus, the P r i n c e , although he i s constantly-p e n i t e n t about h i s behavior, makes no attempt to c o n t r o l h i s p a s s i o n s . This i s because he does not c o n s i d e r seduc-t i o n a s i n but an a r t - a b e a u t i f u l n a t u r a l experience u n q u a l i f i e d by any l a s t i n g sense of g u i l t or r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s consequences. Thus, i n a sonnet, he d e s c r i b e s the se d u c t i o n of the " b i i r g e r l i c h e s Madchen" i n such a manner that " F r i e d r i c h g r a u t e , wie schon s i c h da die Slinde aus-nahm. " (p.195) A f t e r the Biirgermadchen k i l l s h e r s e l f the p r i n c e admits h i s c h a r a c t e r d e f e c t s i n a s h o r t - l i v e d b u r s t of remorse: " B e t r i i g e r i s c h , v e r b u h l t , f a l s c h und e r b a r m l i c h b i n i c h ganz," (p.195) H i s behavior, however, has so c o n d i t i o n e d h i s c h a r a c t e r t h a t these q u a l i t i e s have become i n g r a i n e d and permanent: "Der Massigung, der G e r e c h t i g k e i t , der grossen, schonen Entwlirfe, und was w i r da zusammen b e s c h l o s -sen, geschrieben und besprochen, dem b i n i c h n i c h t gewachsen, sondern irn I n n e r s t e n v o l l e r Neid, dass i c h ' s n i c h t b i n . Es war mir n i e Ernst damit und mit n i c h t s i n der Welt." (p.196) E r i e d r i c h i s a p p a l l e d at the p r i n c e ' s i n a b i l i t y t o reform -at "der g e f a l l e n e E i i r s t , der n i c h t einmal e i n Mann s e i n konnte." ( p . 1 9 6 ) 8 1 81 Tamm says of the p r i n c e : "Es i s t ihm e i n B e d i i r f n i s , be-s t a n d i g i n einem Gefuhlsrausche irgendwelcher A r t zu leben, denn nur i n diesen Rauschzustanden gelangt er zu konzen-t r i e r t e r Ich-Empfind.ung und d i e Momente nuchterner S e l b s t -besinnung meidet er mit i n s t i n k t i v e r E u r c h t . " (Tamm, p. 36-37) He d e s c r i b e s him as "der Typus des i m p r e s s i o n i s t i s c h e n Aestheten, der aus jedem E r l e b n i s einen moglichst sublimen 120 Men fi n d love too l i m i t e d a goal f o r f u l f i l l -ment and prefer to seek t h e i r greatest happiness through some other concept - some purposive a c t i v i t y r e l a t e d to l i f e i n general rather than an experience l i m i t e d to the lover and beloved alone. Por men, romantic love i s not only subordinate to some other purpose but, under some circumstances can be comfortably s a c r i f i e d to something e l s e . Thus, the M i n i s t e r prefers to renounce the g i r l he t r u l y loves f o r a "freudenlose Ehe" - an a l l i a n c e which i s more p o l i t i c a l l y advantageous to thim. Por many men love i s a negative force, i n t e r -f e r i n g with higher human purpose. I t i s a force i n h i b i t i n g the free development of the per s o n a l i t y . Rudolf, l i k e the student, regards love as a magnetic force which binds one against one's w i l l : "So erbarmliches Zeug i s t die l i e b e , diese l i e d e r l i c h e Anspannung der Seele!" (p.273) F r i e d r i c h considers i t a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i n h i b i t s the l a r g e r , expansive l i f e of the soul by channelling i t s desires toward one person: Sind d i r denn die Flugel gebrochen, guter, mutiger Geist, der i n die Welt hinausschaute, wie i n sein angeborenes Reich? Das Auge hat i n s i c h Raum genug fi i r eine ganze Welt, und nun s o l l t e es eine kleine Madchenhand bedecken und zudriicken konnen?" (p. 56) Selbstgenuss heraus zu d e s t i l l i e r e n sucht." ( i b i d . , p.37) E i c h e n d o r f f s own d e s c r i p t i o n of the prince also suggests that he i s an aesthete with no s u b s t a n t i a l inner r e a l i t y of his own:."Der Prinz s o i l nur ein blosser, w i r k l i c h e r Nachahmer des Erdichteten, Gelesenen s e i n . " (HKA, XIII, 60) 12.1 J u s t as F r i e d r i c h c o n s i d e r s love a t h r e a t t o h i s i n n e r freedom so does l e o n t i n c o n s i d e r i t t h r e a t e n i n g t o h i s outer freedom. He r e a l i z e s t h a t d o m e s t i c i t y would end the u n i n h i b i t e d vagabond l i f e through which he seeks f u l -f i l l m e n t . Thus, although a t t r a c t e d by l o v e , he i s a l s o r e -p e l l e d by i t . V/hen he sees the i s o l a t e d home of Herr von A. he says:"Wie f u r c h t e r l i c h schon, h i e r mit einem g e l i e b t e n Weibe e i n ganzes leben l a n g zu wohnen! I c h mochte mich um a l l e Welt n i c h t v e r l i e b e n . " (p.80) He a s s o c i a t e s h i m s e l f w i t h the r e s t l e s s f o r c e s of nature which are i n i m i c a l to domestic l i f e : Riickt mir n i c h t auf den Hals mit eurem s o l i d e n , h a u s l i c h e n , l a n g w e i l i g e n G l i i c k . . .Heiraten und f e t t werden, mit der Schlafmiitze auf dem Kopfe h i n a u s -sehen, wie.draussen Aurora s c h e i n t , Walder und S t r o -me noch immer ohne Ruhe f o r t r a u s c h e n mussen....(p.103) Even v/hen he does marry J u l i e and a t t a i n s some measiire of happiness he cannot take i t s e r i o u s l y - he p e r s i s t s i n a s s o c i a t i n g l o v e - p a r t i c u l a r l y married l o v e - w i t h i r r a -t i o n a l i t y - a k i n d of i n s a n i t y . Thus, when Faber remarks t h a t they a l l seem crazy he r e p l i e s : "Das kann wohl s e i n . . . denn i c h b i n v e r h e i r a t e t . " (p.291) Because men do not seek t h e i r g r e a t e s t happiness through love they are not destroyed by i t . Women, hov/ever, because of t h e i r p h y s i c a l n a t u r e , are dominated by the d e s i r e f o r l o v e which permeates t h e i r experience. Because men are not able t o i s o l a t e s e x u a l a c t i v i 122 from the res t of t h e i r experience, i t has no permanent e f f e c t upon t h e i r emotions. Women, however, whose sexual nature i s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d to t h e i r f e e l i n g s , are incapable of any sexual r e l a t i o n s h i p without emotional involvement. I t creates a "Hingehung"- an emotional dependency i n the woman, which, i f she i s r e a l l y i n love, w i l l cause her great i n s e c u r i t y unless i t i s protected by marriage. I f she i s not i n love, the f e e l i n g s aroused by t h i s experience w i l l disrupt and confuse her inner l i f e . Thus, what i n t h i s sexually l i b e r a l age appears to Leontin and Faber as harmless d a l l y i n g - i s , f o r g i r l s l i k e Marie, a con-f u s i n g and turbulent experience which soon unleashes t h e i r i n s t i n c t over which they have no c o n t r o l . Leontin recognizes the obsessive nature of t h i s i n s t i n c t i n women and the need to c o n t r o l i t consciously by subordinating i t to some higher p r i n c i p l e when he asks J u l i e : W i l l s t du ganz ein Weib sein, und, wie Shakespeare sagt, dich dem Triebe hingeben, der dich ziigellos e r g r e i f t und dahin oder dorthin r e i s s t , oder wirst du immer Mut genug haben, dein Leben etwas Hoherem unterzuordnen? (p.294) It i s thus i n e v i t a b l e that a l l the women i n t h i s novel should f a l l in. love. Because they f a l l i n love w i t h i n a soc i e t y which condones promiscuity, hov/ever, they are not s u f f i c i e n t l y protected and they lose c o n t r o l op of t h e i r l i v e s . Thus, Marie and Angelina lead u n f u l f i l l e d 82 K e l l e r , i n h i s discussion of the female characters of t h i s novel says: "Ausserhalb a l l e s Giiltigen und zugleieh 123 promiscuous l i v e s . Rosa marries the prince who has seduced her, but her marriage i s not happy. Erwin dies of unrequited love. Romana and the Burgermadchen commit s u i c i d e . Only J u l i e , whose r i g i d but wholesome r u r a l upbringing has pro-vided a stable u n i f y i n g center f o r her l i f e , i s able to c o n t r o l her existence, and eventually becomes happily married. Although women seek t h e i r greatest happiness through love, t h e i r choice of a mate i s nevertheless se-v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d . In order to r e t a i n t h e i r f e mininity -t h e i r i n t u i t i v e subordination to the male - they cannot a c t i v e l y seek out and pursue a l o v e r , t h e i r choice can never be absolute but always r e l a t i v e . I t i s dependent upon who seeks them out. Their reactions are also depend-ent upon when they seek her out - upon t h e i r emotional condition at the moment. Thus, t h e i r choice of a lover cannot be consciously planned but i s i n a large measure a r e s u l t of chance. I f however, they wish to overcome t h i s r e -s t r i c t i o n and gain the freedom of men, t h e i r unhappiness i s i n t e n s i f i e d . In an age of freedom they wish to a t t a i n sexual equality with men but do not recognize the e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r nature. As soon as they lose the Einzuschrankenden f i n d en sie ein Neues: die beriickende Ge-walt a l l e s Zauberhaften der Sinnenwelt wird f i i r i h r Leben entscheidend. Ihr geben sie s i c h vorbehaltlos hin, verfiihrt von i h r e r bestrickenden Magie." ( K e l l e r , p 0 61) 124 n a t u r a l r e s e r v e w h i c h p r o t e c t s them t h e y l o n g f o r t h e u n r e s t r i c t e d f r e e d o m o f men. T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e J a g e r t r a c h t t h e y assume on v a r i o u s o c c a s i o n s - s y m b o l i z i n g t h e u n f e t t e r e d a g g r e s s i v e l i f e o f men. T h i s m a s c u l i z i n g p r o c e s s h a s a d e s t r u c t i v e e f f e c t u p o n t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . They l o s e t h e i r p a s s i v e r e c e p t i v i t y and become r e s t l e s s l y a g g r e s s i v e , r e v e r s i n g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r o l e i n t h e r o m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p and m a k i n g them u n s u i t e d f o r a s t a b l e m a r r i e d l i f e . R u d o l f o b s e r v e s t h i s e f f e c t u p o n A n g e l i n a a f t e r he h a s a b d u c t e d h e r and c o n c l u d e s : " W e i b e r e r t r a g e n s o l c h e k u h n e r e L e b e n s w e i s e n i c h t . " ( p . 2 7 2 ) T h u s , i n an a t t e m p t t o g a i n " f r e e d o m " t h e s e women become e n s l a v e d t o t h e i r f e e l i n g s and a r e u n a b l e , o r o n l y w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y , t o r e g a i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e w h i c h once gave p e a c e , o r d e r , and h a p p i n e s s t o t h e i r l i v e s . A n a n a l y s i s o f E i c h e n d o r f f s women c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l s t h a t t h e o n l y way t h a t s u c h harmony c a n be r e g a i n e d i s t h r o u g h r e l i g i o n , by s u b s t i t u t i n g a c o n s i s t e n t Hove o f God f o r an i r r e s p o n s i b l e l o v e o f men. T h u s , f o r t h e u n m a r r i e d woman, t h e s p i r i t u a l l i f e c a n p r o v i d e t h e p e r s o n a l l o v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p she d e s i r e s , a n d c a n be e x p r e s s e d i n a p r a c t i c a b l e way. t h r o u g h t h e r o u t i n e d l i f e o f h e r home. P o r t h e m a r r i e d woman t h e C h r i s t i a n i n s t i t u t i o n o f m a r r i a g e p r o v i d e s t h e s e c u r i t y w h i c h a l o n e a s s u r e s h e r o f t h e p r o t e c t i o n she n e e d s i n t h e s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , a r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h 125 makes her so dependent upon the man. \ The r e s t r i c t i o n of s e x u a l e x p r e s s i o n t o marriage not only p r o t e c t s the emotional w e l l - b e i n g of women, but a l s o the s t a b i l i t y of s o c i e t y . Because such r e s t r i c t i o n s , however b e n e f i c i a l , are c o n t r a r y t o i n s t i n c t , o n l y moral-r e l i g i o u s - p r i n c i p l e s are capable of e n f o r c i n g them. Such p r i n c i p l e s , however, should be i n h e r e n t i n the i n d i v i d u a l concerned and not be enforced e x t e r n a l l y , otherwise they may be n e g a t i v e i n e f f e c t . Thus, Rudolf, d i s g u i s e d as L e o n t i n , a d v i s e s L e o n t i n ' s m i s t r e s s " l i e b e r Gott a l s d i e Manner zu l i e b e n " (p.255) a shock from which she never r e c o v e r s and which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her death. R e l i g i o n as a negative f o r c e , of f e a r , however, i s o f t e n s a l u t a r y . Thus, L e o n t i n , on meeting Rudolf i n t h i s d i s g u i s e c o n s i d e r s him a s u p e r n a t u r a l being and, i n t e r r o r , g i v e s up h i s promiscuous l i f e . He advocates such an experience f o r a l l confirmed playboys: "Und so w o l l e Gott jeden Schnapphahn k u r i e r e n , denn i c h habe mich seitdem gebessert, das kann i c h r e d -l i c h sagen!" (p.256) K e l l e r c o n s i d e r s t h i s experience d e c i s i v e f o r L e o n t i n ' s i n n e r development. He says: Diese Begegnung w i r d f i i r L e o n t i n entscheidend, s i e w i r d ihm zum e i n d r u c k l i c h e n Bev/eis, dass es hb'here Machte g i b t , vor denen d i e menschlichen K r a f t e v e r -sagen, und er u n t e r w i r f t s i c h einem hoheren W i l l e n . 83 K e l l e r , p. 67. 126 B. Friendship Although f r i e n d s h i p doesn't provide the intimate f u l f i l l i n g "bond of marriage i t can provide a much more secure one. Many p e r s o n a l i t i e s such as Vi k t o r are so con-torted and unsuited f o r the demanding r e l a t i o n s h i p of marriage that they can f i n d t h e i r only s a t i s f y i n g human r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s way. Thus, although f r i e n d s h i p i s a more casual r e l a t i o n s h i p than marriage, Viktor's r e l a t i o n -ship with F r i e d r i c h and l e o n t i n o f f e r s him the only solace, the only p o s i t i v e human r e l a t i o n s h i p he experi-ences. V/hat Mehlis says of love can also be applied to f r i e n d s h i p : Jedes Individuum i s erganzungsbediirf t i g . A l l e Trennung und Abgeschiedenheit bedeutet Sclimerz. Das Individuum muss versuchen, aus seiner Begrenzung herauszukom-men. Die geflihlte I s o l a t i o n und Begrenzung gibt s i c h a l s Sehnsucht kund, tind nur der Mensch vermag die Sennsucht des Menschen zu s t i l l e n . 84 84 Quoted by Tamm, p. 48. 127 CHAPTER V I I FULFILLMENT THROUGH ONESELF A. A r t A r t i s a l s o a form through which i n d i v i d u a l s seek happiness. I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, t h a t only the men even seek i t as an end i n i t s e l f . The women use i t only t o r e l i e v e t h e i r f e e l i n g s - as a form of c a r t h a r s i s . Most people, however, do not have the c a p a c i t y or the d e s i r e f o r a r t i s t i c e x p r e s s i o n . This i s only found among i n t r o v e r t s - complex, r e f l e c t i v e people who can f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n a v i c a r i o u s experience o f l i f e . I t i s more p a r t i c u l a r l y found among the e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d who are f o r c e d i n t o t h e i r own i n n e r world because they can 8 5 f i n d no f u l f i l l m e n t o u t s i d e of i t . 85 This view of c r e a t i v i t y does not c o n f l i c t w i t h t h a t of Herder and the romantics - t h a t a r t i s a n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n of a c h i l d - l i k e n a t ure. For a r t i s not the product of a n a l y s i s - the s t e r i l e a b i l i t y of the a d u l t to d i s s e c t ex-pe r i e n c e i n i n t e l l e c t u a l terms - but of s y n t h e s i s - the f r u i t f u l a b i l i t y of the c h i l d t o create a new world out of fragments of experience. The a b i l i t y t o s y n t h e s i z e one's experience i s a c h i l d - l i k e q u a l i t y which a l l c r e a t i v e a r t -i s t s must possess. I t i s r e l a t e d to an i n n e r s i m p l i c i t y and t o t a l i t y of response which i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the c h i l d . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , however, are i n no v/ay incom-p a t i b l e ' w i t h the complex, h i g h l y n e u r o t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . Indeed, they are more l i k e l y the r e s u l t of i t s s u b l i m a t i o n -the s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l u t i o n of i t s c o n f l i c t s by c o n s e c r a t i n g i t s energies to the i n n e r world of the i m a g i n a t i o n . Thus, a r t i s t s are " c h i l d - l i k e " because they possess the c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i t y of a c h i l d . They are not, however, " c h i l d - l i k e " i n the sense of possessing a normal, uncomplicated person-a l i t y . A study of the l i v e s of great a r t i s t s r e v e a l s only 128 Thus, of the women - Marie, A n g e l i n a and Rosa -r e l a t i v e l y uncomplex and e x t r o v e r t e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s - do not have a d e s i r e to express themselves i n t h i s way. Only the more tormented and i n t r o v e r t e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s -Erwin and Romana - are i n s p i r e d i n t h i s manner. Erwin's a r t i s t w o - f o l d . In her songs she sub-l i m a t e s her love f o r F r i e d r i c h i n l y r i c o utbursts of joy or g r i e f . I n her prose she expresses her c h a o t i c f e e l i n g s too c l e a r l y t h a t a severe n e u r o s i s (however w e l l d i s g u i s e d or sublimated) i s an e s s e n t i a l element of t h e i r person-a l i t y . I t i s a l s o undoubtedly the e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c r e a t i v i t y , and e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i v e d e a r th of c r e a t i v e g e n i i i n p r o p o r t i o n to the world pop-u l a t i o n . Por although i t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed th a t t e n percent of human beings s u f f e r from some emotional handicap only a f r a c t i o n of these appear to have the c a p a c i t y to sublimate themselves i n a r t , and, of these, v e r y few seem to be able to overcome the s e v e r e l y i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t s of t h e i r n e u r o s i s - i t s oppressive t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y -t o a t t a i n f u l l e x p r e s s i o n i n a r t . I f one equates a " c h i l d -l i k e " nature w i t h a "normal uncomplicated" p e r s o n a l i t y one would be at a l o s s t o e x p l a i n why the m a j o r i t y of uncomplex human beings are so a r t i s t i c a l l y u n c r e a t i v e . "Normal" people f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n l i f e , not a r t . That E i c h e n d o r f f a l s o s u f f e r e d from an emotional d i s t u r b a n c e i s apparent from Wilhelm's l e t t e r of 1814 i n which he d i s c u s s e s a l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p he h i m s e l f i s i n -volved i n : "Ich k n i e t e i n e i n e r Nebenkapelle. vor einem M a r i e n b i l d h i n und betete aus dem i n n e r s t e n Grund des Her-zens, d i e s e s arme gute Kind aus den Klauen des T e u f e l s zu e r r e t t e n , und s i e n i c h t mit h i n e i n i n den Zauberkreis s i n k e n zu l a s s e n , mit dem der bb'se G e i s t mich und Dich s e i t Jahren umzogen hat, und der uns unstet und a r m s e l i g durch d i e ganze V/elt p e i t s c h t . " (Quoted by S t b c k l e i n , p.118) This emotional i n s t a b i l i t y was shared by E i c h e n -d o r f f s s i s t e r L u i s e , who went insane i n l a t e r y ears. She says i n a l e t t e r of 1858 to her nephew Herman: "Es s c h e i n t i n der Tat e i n P l u c h tiber a l i e n geborenen E i c h e n d o r f f i n n e n zu walten...." (Quoted by S t b c k l e i n , p. 119) 129 i n t o r t u r e d fragmentary passages. Erwin's a r t i s deeply f e l t and an honest ex-p r e s s i o n of her emotional s t a t e . Romana's i s j u s t the o p p o s i t e . . I t i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and a r t i f i c i a l . This i s because she s u f f e r s from a s p l i t between her f e e l i n g s and her reason. What her f e e l i n g s accept, her reason con-s i d e r s r i d i c u l o u s , and'thus she can take n e i t h e r h e r s e l f nor her a r t s e r i o u s l y . Thus, her a r t becomes merely an i m a g i n a t i v e e x e r c i s e without s i g n i f i c a n t content - l i k e the n a r r a t i v e poem she r e c i t e s at the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t which she i n t e r r u p t s i n the middle, or her s p i r i t u a l w r i t i n g s which so impress her confessor, but whose pre-cepts she cannot b e l i e v e . More men than women attempt to f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t through some form of a r t . But, l i k e the women, l e o n t i n and V i k t o r use i t not as an end i n i t s e l f but simply to express t h e i r experience of l i f e . They do not possess the detachment to f i n d i n i t a s i g n i f i c a n t form of f u l f i l l -ment f o r i t s ov/n sake. L e o n t i n f i n d s p o e t i c f u l f i l l m e n t i n the ex-perience of l i f e i t s e l f . He a l s o composes songs, but does not w r i t e them down, c o n s i d e r i n g them v a l i d merely as a joyous response to the moment. He does not c o n s i d e r them of any secondary, l i t e r a r y , s i g n i f i c a n c e because he de-p l o r e s a r t as a p a l t r y i m i t a t i o n of l i f e . L e o n t i n experiences a joyous union w i t h l i f e which expresses i t s e l f i n song. V i k t o r experiences a 1 3 0 p a i n f u l s e p a r a t i o n from l i f e which expresses i t s e l f i n s a t i r e . I n h i s manic s t a t e s he i s able t o express a l l the contempt he f e e l s f o r the t r i v i a l s u p e r f i c i a l people who remind him of t h i s i s o l a t i o n and in c r e a s e h i s depres-s i o n . He uses the i n s i g h t which t h i s oppressed s t a t e has created i n him to expose t h e i r inmost l i m i t a t i o n s w i t h a r i o t o u s d e l i g h t . Rudolf, Faber and F r i e d r i c h , however, seek a r t as a g o a l i n i t s e l f and p r a c t i c e i t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . Rudolf seeks i n a r t some r e s o l u t i o n of h i s tormented e x i s t e n c e . He does not f i n d i t , however, because h i s experience of l i f e i s so oppressive i t s t i f l e s h i s power t o express i t . H i s conception exceeds h i s technique. Furthermore, he doubts the value of a r t . He c o n s i d e r s l i f e a form of i n c a r c e r a t i o n too b r i e f to j u s t i f y a r t -a mere attempt t o decorate the p r i s o n w a l l . Faber and F r i e d r i c h Faber and F r i e d r i c h are the only ones who f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n a r t , although t h e i r conception of i t i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed. 1 Faber i s a s a t i r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the s e l f -c onscious a r t i f i c i a l w r i t e r i n the c l a s s i c a l s t y l e t o whom 86 l i f e i s not only u n r e l a t e d t o , but subordinate to a r t . 86 E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s him thus: "Faber s o i l e i n manierter K e r l s e i n , und k e i n I d e a l des vollkommenen Mannes, was k e i -ner i s t , der b l o s s D i c h t e r i s t . " (HKA, X I I I , 61) Kohler 131 Thus, he i s r i d i c u l e d by L e o n t i n and h i s c i r c l e , " w e l l er immer mit der Feder hinterm Ohr so e r b a r m l i c h aus-sah." (p.29) For him a r t i s not a spontaneous overflow of h i s l i f e but a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s re-working of l i f e t o which he stands i n complete detachment. Thus., F r i e d r i c h i s d i s a p p o i n t e d to f i n d no c o n s i s t e n c y between Faber's p o e t r y , much of which he admires, and h i s p e r s o n a l i t y : E r t F r i e d r i c h ^ b e t r a c h t e t e i h n rait a l i e n Sinnen, a l s w o l l t e er a l l e d i e Gedichte von ihm, d i e ihm am besten g e f a l l e n , i n seinem Gesichte ablesen. Aber da war ke i n e Spur davon zu f i n d e n . (p.26) H i s aim i s to submerge h i s i d e n t i t y i n a r t . He does not e x i s t as an i n d i v i d u a l because he considers a r t i s hi g h e r than h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Because of t h i s l a c k of s e l f - i d e n t i t y he does not seek t o a t t a i n any g o a l f o r h i m s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l . He r u t h l e s s l y sub-j e c t s e v e r y t h i n g i n l i f e to h i s a r t . As a member of so-c i e t y he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f absolved from the n e c e s s i t y of s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s . Thus, he i s rude to F r i e d r i c h when he d i s t u r b s him u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y at work. S i m i l a r l y he does not con s i d e r h i m s e l f s u b j e c t t o any moral r u l e s and attempts to have an a f f a i r w i t h Marie. He does not a l l o w h i m s e l f the l u x u r y of e x p e r i e n c i n g l i f e u n s e l f -c o n s c i o u s l y , but w a i t s e a g e r l y , pouncing on h i s experience e l a b o r a t e s on t h i s : "Joseph war zwar das nur dichtende Leben zu wenig. I n Wien machte er s i c h iiber Theodor Korner l u s t i g , der n i c h t s tue, a l s nur d i c h t e n . Fur das leb e n s -fremde 'Dichter turn und das b l u t l e e r e Asthetentum h a t t e er n i e etwas i i b r i g . Er fand es f u r d i e Poesie herabwiirdigend, aus i h r einen Broterwerb zu machen...In D i c h t e r und i h r e 132 i n order to transform i t as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e i n t o a r t . Thus, when he i s enraged as a hunter d i s t u r b s h i s work, and Faber begins to curse him, he soon transforms t h i s c u r s i n g i n t o a c r e a t i v e a ct which i s no lo n g e r d i r e c t e d at the hunter but i s i t s own f u l f i l l m e n t : Faber aber h a t t e i n d e s , so boshaft er auch aussah, schon l a n g s t der Zorn v e r l a s s e n , denn es waren ihm m i t t e n i n der Wut eine Menge w i t z i g e r Schimpfworter und komischer Grobheiten i n den Sinn gekommen, und er schimpfte t a p f e r f o r t , ohne mehr an den Jager zu denken. (p.30) U n l i k e L e o n t i n who c o n s i d e r s a r t a poor i m i t a t i o n of l i f e , Faber c o n s i d e r s l i f e a poor i m i t a t i o n of a r t . Thus, he becomes incensed when a hunter i n t e r r u p t s h i s composition of a "Waldhornecho" by sounding a r e a l one. H i s method of composition a l s o r e f l e c t s h i s f o r m a l , a r t i f i c i a l a t t i -tude t o poetry. He does not w r i t e l y r i c a l l y - l i k e F r i e d -r i c h , s t i m u l a t e d by the beauty of na t u r e , but s e l f - c o n -s c i o u s l y - s t r u g g l i n g w i t h h i s s u b j e c t i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l manner: "denn da s i t z t Herr Faber wie d i e l o w i n tiber i h r e n Jungen, und s c h l a g t grimmig um s i c h . " (p.26) Faber d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between being animated by the p o e t i c s p i r i t and being a poet. For him, poetry i s not a d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n of l i f e but a m a n i p u l a t i o n of i t : " P o e t i s c h s e i n und Poet s e i n " , f u h r er f o r t , "das s i n d zwei sehr verschiedene Dinge, man mag dagegen sagen, was man w i l l . B e i dem l e t z t e r e n i s t , wie s e l b s t G e s e l l e n s c h r e i b t e r : " P r o f e s s i o n vom D i c h t e n machen, das i s t tiberhaupt l a c h e r l i c h , a l s wenn e i n e r bestandig v e r l i e b t s e i n w o l l t e und noch obendrein auf o f f e n t l i c h e r S t r a s s e . " ( K o h l e r , p. 140) 133 unser g r o s s e r M e i s t e r Goethe e i n g e s t e h t , immer e t -was T a s c h e n s p i e l e r e i , S e i l t a n z e r e i usw. mit im S p i e l e . " (p.31) Because he remains detached from l i f e , he can express many opposing p o i n t s of view i n h i s work because he be-l i e v e s i n none of them. Thus, although he has a s s i d u o u s l y avoided f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t Napoleon he can w r i t e a s t i r r i n g p a t r i o t i c poem An d i e Deutschen, advocating others t o do so. (p.31) Av/are of t h i s , however, he a l s o w r i t e s another poem s a t i r i z i n g h i s own p o s i t i o n , although t h i s a l s o i n -cludes passages of great s e r i o u s n e s s . However, F r i e d r i c h does not regard t h i s chameleon l i k e a b i l i t y as an a s s e t , but as a l i a b i l i t y - i n d i c a t i n g a l a c k of honesty i n the author and a r o u s i n g s u s p i c i o n i n the reader* F r i e d r i c h says: Wie w o l l t I h r , dass die Menschen Eure Werke hochach-te n , s i c h daran erquicken und erbauen s o l l e n , wenn I h r Euch s e l b e r n i c h t g l a u b t , was I h r s c h r i e b t , und durch schone Worte und k l i n s t l i c h e Gedanken Gott und Menschen zu u b e r l i s t e n t r a c h t e t ? (p . 3 1 ) ^7 When F r i e d r i c h enters the r e l i g i o u s l i f e , how-ever, Faber suddenly and without m o t i v a t i o n changes h i s conception of poetry and admits he has wasted h i s l i f e on a "reizende S p i e l e r e i . " (p.297) He r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s work 87 E i c h e n d o r f f repeats t h i s same i d e a i n h i s poem " A p p e l l " ( C o t t a , I , 143): • I c h h o r t v i e l D i c h t e r klagen Me i n Herz w o l l t ' mir z e r s p r i n g e n , Von a l t e r Ehre r e i n , Sucht' mir e i n ander Z i e l , Doch v/enige mochten's wagen Denn anders s e i n und singen, Und s e l b e r schlagen d r e i n , Das i s t e i n dummes S p i e l . 134 has l a c k e d p r o p o r t i o n because i t has d e a l t w i t h s p e c i f i c , e x t e r n a l events - "das, was eben vorgeht" - t r a n s i e n t p r e -occupations of a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d of h i s t o r y - i n s t e a d of experience of enduring human s i g n i f i c a n c e : "Denn das Haschen der Poesie nach aussen, das g e i s t i -ge V e r a r b e i t e n und Bekummern um das, was eben v o r -geht, das Ringen und A b a r b e i t e n an der Z e i t , so gross und lobenswert a l s Gesinnung, i s t doch immer u n k u n s t l e r i s c h . " (p.297) He a l s o r e j e c t s the d i d a c t i c poetry which he has w r i t t e n because he now r e a l i z e s t h a t poetry i s i t s own j u s t i f i c a t i o n : Die Poesie mag wohl Wurzel schlagen i n demselben Bo-den der R e l i g i o n und N a t i o n a l i t a t , aber unbekummert, b l o s s um i h r e r himmlischen Schonheit w i l l e n , a l s Wunderblume zu uns heraufwachsen. Sie w i l l und s o i l zu n i c h t s brauchbar s e i n . (p.297) 88 However,- Faber may be s a i d to have a t t a i n e d h a p p i -ness through h i s p r o f e s s i o n as a poet because, w i t h i n i t , 88 This r e f l e c t s the romantic d o c t r i n e of the autonomy of a r t as promulgated by Schleiermacher, Tieck and Wackenroder. Tamm says: "Die romantische D o k t r i n von der Autonomic der Kunst und des Kiinstlertums wird h i e r e n t w i c k e l t , und d i e p e r s o n l i c h e Warme und K r a f t des Ausdrucks l e g t die Vermutung nahe, dass Faber des D i c h t e r s eigene Anschauungen v e r t r i t t . E i c h e n d o r f f mochte s e l b s t empfinden, dass d i e A n s i c h t seines Heldens, des Grafen F r i e d r i c h , der die Kunst nur soweit g e l -ten l a s s e n w i l l , a l s von i h r d i e K r a f t e s i t t l i c h e r und r e -l i g i o s e r Erneuerung ausgehen, zu e i n s e i t i g war und d i e E i g e n g e s e t z l i c h k e i t des k l i n s t l e r i s c h e n Schaffens b e e i n t r a c h -t i g t e . Er s t e l l t e ihm daher i n Faber einen V e r t r e t e r des r e i n e n , a b s o l u t e n Kiinstlertums gegeniiber, d e r jedoch a l s Charakter h a r t an der Grenze des L a c h e r l i c h e n s t e h t und an der hochsten s i t t l i c h e n Norm gemessen, u n z u l a n g l i c h e r -s c h e i n t . " (Tamm, p. 30-31) 135 he has l o s t h i s own i d e n t i t y and found f u l f i l l m e n t . ^ F r i e d r i c h ' s conception of poetry i s opposite t o that of Faber*s i n i t i a l conception. L i k e L e o n t i n , V i k -t o r and Erwin, who create i n v o l u n t a r i l y , and l i k e Rudolf who was once a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t , he b e l i e v e s t h a t a r t i s a spontaneous e x p r e s s i o n of l i f e . He does not con s i d e r i t a detached m a n i p u l a t i o n of r e a l i t y l i k e Faber, but an honest e x p r e s s i o n of f e e l i n g : Das i s t e i n e i t l e s , n i c h t s n u t z i g e s S p i e l und es h i l f t Euch doch n i c h t s , denn es i s t n i c h t s gross QQ a l s was aus einem e i n f a l t i g e m Herzen kommt. (p.32) U n l i k e Faber who b e l i e v e s t h a t the poet should be detached from r e a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e express many d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s of view v/ithout being committed t o any of them, F r i e d r i c h c o n s i d e r s the p o e t i c v o c a t i o n an e x a l t e d r e l i g i o u s c a l l i n g . The poet i s a dedicated m i s s i o n a r y who proclaims h i s message with, words i n s t e a d of deeds: Denn so wie s i e den ewigen G e i s t Gottes auf Erden durch Taten a u s d r i i c k t e n , so s o l i e r i h n a u f r i c h t i g i n e i n e r v e r w i t t e r t e n , f e i n d s e l i g e n Z e i t durch recht e Worte und g o t t l i c h e Erfindungen verkiinden und v e r -h e r r l i c h e n . (p.32) 91 89 Cf. Tamm: "Das Dichten a l s Kunsthandwerk, das nach s e i n e r Meinung vor a l l e m t e c h n i s c h e Schulung und k r i t i s c h e Besonnen-h e i t e r f o r d e r t , nimmt er w i r k l i c h e rnst und der F l e i s s , den er d i e s e r Beschaftigung widmet, gewahrt ihm b e i a l l e r B i -z a r r e r i e e i n e n gewissen inneren H a l t , "jene Rulie, welche das Bewusstsein eines. r e d l i c h e n , e r n s t h a f t e n Stehens g i b t . " (Tamm, p. 29) 90 In h i s l e t t e r t o Loeben of June 1809 E i c h e n d o r f f speaks of "der schonen Unschuld, der Seele a l l e r P o esie. " (HKA, X I I , 4-) 91 E i c h e n d o r f f says i n a l e t t e r to loeben of June 1809: "Nein, 1 3 6 H i s purpose i s , through h i s unique p e r c e p t i o n , t o express the hidden meaning of the world - both s p i r i t u a l and tem-p o r a l - and b r i n g i t t o the a t t e n t i o n of r e s t l e s s humanity-i n v o l v e d i n f r i v o l o u s d i v e r s i o n s but. l o n g i n g f o r something more meaningful: Die Menge, nur auf w e l t l i c h e Dinge e r p i c h t , z e r s t r e u t und t r a g e , s i t z t gebuckt und b l i n d draussen im war-men Sonnenscheine und l a n g t riihrend nach dem ewigen l i c h t e , das s i e niemals e r b l i c k t . Der D i c h t e r hat einsam d i e schonen Augen o f f e n ; mit Demut und F r e u -d i g k e i t b e t r a c h t e t e r , s e l b e r e r s t a u n t , Himrnel und Erde, und das Herz gent ihm auf b e i der uberschweng-l i c h e n A u s s i c h t . . . . ( p . 3 2 ) This f u n c t i o n of the poet - to i n t e r p r e t l i f e m e a n i n g f u l l y t o others - i s i l l u s t r a t e d by the man F r i e d -r i c h met at the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t whose l i f e had been changed by r e a d i n g Arnim's G r a f i n Dolores. He says to F r i e d r i c h : Ich l e r n e t a g l i c h i n mir und i n den Menschen und D i n -gen um mich v i e l e s einsehen und Ibsen, was mir sonst wohl u n b e g r e i f l i c h war und mich u n b e s c h r e i b l i c h be-d r i i c k t e . I c h befinde mich j e t z t v i e l wohler. (p. 14-4) Thus, i n order to f u l f i l l h i s s p i r i t u a l f u n c t i o n , the poet h i m s e l f must become s p i r i t u a l . H i s i d e n t i t y as an i n d i v i d u a l i s important because he must develop c e r t a i n s p i r i t u a l t r a i t s . He cannot stand above r e a l i t y and manip-u l a t e i t but must remain w i t h i n i t , responding t o i t w i t h "Demut und F r e u d i g k e i t " i n a C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e of thanks-qp g i v i n g . He i s o b l i g e d t o p r a c t i c e the m o r a l i t y - the d i e s e s unendliche Streben, Gott hat es n i c h t b l o s s darum i n di e Brust der D i c h t e r gesenkt, damit s i c h diese wenigen daran e r f r e u e n , es s o i l , wie es i n l e b e n d i g e r P r e i h e i t t r i u m p h i e r t , die Welt umarmen und i h r d i e F r e i h e i t wiedergeben." (HKA, X I I , 92 Cf. S t b c k l e i n : "...Nur in. der wohlverstandenen, i n n i g e n 137 p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s p i r i t u a l i t y - which he preaches: Wo s o i l d i e r e c h t e , s c h l i c h t e S i t t e , das treue Tun, das scheme Lieben, d i e deutsche Ehre und a l l e d i e a l t e h e r r l i c h e Schonheit s i c h h i n f l u c h t e n , wenn es i h r e angebornen R i t t e r , d i e D i c h t e r , n i c h t wahrhaft e h r l i c h , a u f r i c h t i g und r i t t e r l i c h mit i h r meinen? (p.32) For him the act of c r e a t i o n i s the r e s u l t of the r e l i g i o u s ac t of contemplation - the s e l f - f o r g e t f u l p e n e t r a t i o n of 93 the world i n which i t s e s s e n t i a l meaning i s a s c e r t a i n e d . T h i s e s s e n t i a l content of poetry i s more important than the form i n which i t i s expressed. Through such an a t t i -tude the poet can express the f r u i t s of contemplation -the u n i f i c a t i o n of a l l experience: Die Poesie l i e g t v i e l m e h r i n e i n e r fortwahrend be-g e i s t e r t e n Anschauung und Betrachtung der Welt und der menschlichen Dinge, s i e l i e g t ebensosehr i n der Gesinnung a l s i n den l i e b l i c h e n T a l e n t e n , d i e e r s t durch die A r t i h r e s Gebrauches gross werden. Wenn i n einem s i n n r e i c h e n , e i n f a c h strengen, mannlichen Gemiit auf solche Weise d i e Poesie wahrhaft l e b e n d i g w i r d , dann verschwindet a l l e r Z w i e s p a l t : M o r a l , Schonheit, Tugend und P o e s i e , a l l e s w ird e i n s i n den a d e l i g e n Gedanken, i n der g o t t l i c h e n s i n n i g e n Lust und Freude....(p.142) Faber o b j e c t s to t h i s conception on two grounds. He r e j e c t s F r i e d r i c h ' s sense of purpose - h i s d i d a c t i c i n -t e n t i o n - because he b e l i e v e s that poetry should e x i s t f o r E i n t r a c h t von Poesie und R e l i g i o n . i s t H e i l ; denn d i e wahre Poesie i s t durchaus r e l i g i b s , und d i e R e l i g i o n p o e t i s c h , und eben diese grosse g e h e i m n i s v o l l e Doppelnatur b e i d e r dar-z u s t e l l e n war d i e grosse Aufgabe der Romantik." ( S t o c k l e i n , Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f , p. 105) 9 3 Cf. S t r i c h : " A l l e Kunst i s t s c h l i e G l i c h doch Er l b s u n g von 138 i t s e l f : "Sie w i l l und s o l i zu n i c h t s brauclibar s e i n . " 94 (p.6 7 9 ) He a l s o f e a r s t h a t i n e n t e r i n g the r e l i g i o u s l i f e - by g i v i n g up a temporal l i f e f o r an e t e r n a l one -F r i e d r i c h w i l l have to renounce the immediate p l e a s u r e s of sensuous experience which form the b a s i s of poetry: ^5 Denn wer d i e Gegenwart a u f g i b t wie F r i e d r i c h , wem di e f r i s c h e Lust am Leben und seinem uberschweng-l i c h e n Reichtume gebrochen i s t , mit dessen Poesie i s t es aus. E r i s t wie e i n Maler ohne Farben. (p.2 9 7 ) F r i e d r i c h , however, c o n s i d e r s the l o v e of God an i n s p i r i n g f o r c e which s t i m u l a t e s c r e a t i v i t y . I t creates i n him a d i v i n e compassion - an emotional strength - which enables him t o transcend the chads around him and become a meaningful center of the world: Der D i c h t e r kann n i c h t mit verarmen; Wenn a l l e s um i h n her z e r f a l l t , Hebt i h n e i n g o t t l i c h e s Erbarmen -Der D i c h t e r i s t das Herz der Welt. (p.298) S i m i l a r l y , the poet does not become impervious to the sensuous beauty of nature but becomes h i m s e l f the beloved of nature by r e v e a l i n g through l o v e , nature's e s s e n t i a l d i v i n i t y : dem eignen Ich und w i l l es i n einen t i e f e r e n und allgemeineren Grund versenken." ( S t r i c h , p. 134) 9 4 Cf. Franz S t e r n b a l d : "Wann hat s i c h je das Grosse und Schone so t i e f e r n i e d r i g t um zu nutzen?" (Ludwig T i e c k , Franz Sternbalds Wanderungen ( S t u t t g a r t , 1966), p. 176) 95 Cf. S t o c k l e i n : "...eine k r a f t i g e Sinnenwelt i s t das unab-weisbare M a t e r i a l a l l e r Kunst." ( S t o c k l e i n , Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f , p. 1o5) 139 Den bloden W i l l e n a l l e r We sen, Im I r d i s c h e n des Herren Spur, S o l i er durch L i e b e s k r a f t e r l o s e n , Der schone L i e b l i n g der Natur. (p.298) F i n a l l y , h i s poetry cannot be " d i d a c t i c " because i t i s too l y r i c a l . I t does not express an a b s t r a c t system of ideas but i s a spontaneous expre s s i o n of f e e l i n g . I t does not t r y to impose a r e l i g i o u s creed, but, through d i v i n e i n -s p i r a t i o n , unables him t o more f u l l y r e v e a l h i s t r u e nature: Den l i e b e n Gott l a s s i n d i r walten, Aus f r i s c h e r Brust nur t r e u l i c h s i n g ' ! Was wahr i n d i r , wird s i c h g e s t a l t e n , Das andre i s t e r b a r m l i c h Ding. (p.299) ^ Because a r t i s simply an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h , however, F r i e d r i c h does n o t , l i k e Faber, a t t a i n f u l f i l l m e n t through a r t alone. Through the great i n s i g h t and sense of purpose t h a t h i s p o e t i c c a l l i n g g i v e s him, however, he experiences an unspeakable happiness: Drum hat ihm Gott das Wort gegeben, Das kuhn das Dunkelste benennt, Den frommen Ern s t im r e i c h e n l e b e n , die F r e u d i g k e i t , die k e i n e r kennt. (p.298) B. Philosophy One can a t t a i n happiness by c r e a t i n g a u n i f i e d world w i t h i n o n e s e l f - through a r t . One can a l s o a t t a i n i t 96 Cf. Riepe: "Der wahrhaft s c h o p f e r i s c h e Mensch w i l l n i c h t s anderes s e i n , a l s was er s e i n kann, und betet e i n z i g i n diesem Sinne um g o t t l i c h e Gnade f i i r das Gelingen s e i n e s Tuns." (Riepe, p. 11-12) HO by r e l a t i n g o n e s e l f t o some p o s i t i v e u n i f i e d concept of the world o u t s i d e of o n e s e l f - through philosophy of r e l i g i o n . Of a l l the c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l Rudolf i s the only one who seeks happiness through philosophy. The other s seek f u l f i l l m e n t i n more i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l ways -the women through l o v e and the men through a r t and r e -l i g i o n . A p h i l o s o p h i c tendency has always been l a t e n t i n Rudolf's temperament. I t was apparent i n the probing questions he asked as a c h i l d and formed the unconscious m o t i v a t i o n of h i s a r t . But although he a s s i d u o u s l y s t u d i e s p h i l o s o p h y he e v e n t u a l l y r e j e c t s i t because i t o f f e r s no s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . He d i s c o v e r s t h a t a l l p h i l o s o p h i c systems e i t h e r l e a d away from God or s u b s t i t u t e u n s p i r i t u a l g o a l s which he cannot accept. 141 CHAPTER V I I I C. R e l i g i o n R e l i g i o n - the o r d e r i n g of one's l i f e i n accordance t o a higher s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y - a l s o g i v e s f u l f i l l m e n t and u n i t y to one's e x i s t e n c e . The p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n can be outward and a c t i v e - the p r a c t i c e of good works: an e t h i c a l l i f e f o l l o w i n g moral p r e c e p t s ; or inward and s p i r i t u a l - an i n t u i t i v e p e r s o n a l r e l a -t i o n s h i p w i t h God which transcends m o r a l i t y by so i n -f u s i n g goodness i n t o the p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t i t a c t s m o r a l l y by i n s t i n c t without c o n s c i o u s l y s u b s c r i b i n g t o a set of r u l e s . The k i n d of r e l i g i o n through which the c h a r a c t e r s i n the n o v e l attempt to f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t depends upon t h e i r temperament. The e x t r o v e r t s choose an a c t i v e l i f e o f good works; the i n t r o v e r t s , the contemplative l i f e . 9 7 E i c h e n d o r f f r e c o g n i z e s these two approaches t o r e l i g i o n i n h i s Abhandlung liber den deutschen Roman des 18. Ja h r - hunderts. Tamm says: "In der R e l i g i o n , d'ie nach E i c h e n d o r f f a l s Ursprung und M i t t e l p u n k t a l l e r K u l t u r anzusehen i s t , e r s c h e i n e n . . . a l s zwei s i c h w e c h s e l s e i t i g erganzende Grund-klange: das Streben e i n e r s e i t s nach aussen, das W e l t l i c h mit dem r e l i g i b ' s e n Element zu durchdringen und zu v e r k l a r e n ; und a n d r e r s e i t s , wo die s e s Element an der au s s e r s t e n P e r i -p h e r i e s i c h zu z e r s p l i t t e r n s c h e i n t , d i e hbhere S e l b s t b e -scheidung und erwachende Sehnsucht des W e l t l i c h e n s e l b s t , zu seinem g o t t l i c h e n U r q u e l l z u r i i c k z u f u h r e n . " (Tamm, p. 9 4 - 9 5 ) H2 Because the p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n i n v o l v e s a per s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p - a love r e l a t i o n s h i p between the s o u l and God - i t i s understandable that i t i s p a r t i c u l a r -l y a t t r a c t i v e to women who seek f u l f i l l m e n t p r i m a r i l y through l o v e . Thus, women i n s t i n c t i v e l y t u r n to God - to a s u p e r n a t u r a l l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p - when they are unable t o a t t a i n f u l f i l l m e n t through human l o v e . Thus, through the p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n or r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t s , many c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l are able t o a t t a i n a s t a b l e and meaningful l i f e which they could experience i n no other way. Others, however, are unable t o sublimate t h e i r f e e l i n g s i n t h i s manner and are destroyed by them. For s t i l l o t h e r s , r e l i g i o n becomes a negative f o r c e which, c i n s t e a d of comforting them through the d o c t r i n e of f o r -g iveness d r i v e s them to s u i c i d e by c r e a t i n g i n them an oppre s s i v e sense of g u i l t and an Old Testament conception of the vengeance of God. Of a l l the women c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l , J u l i e i s the only one who possesses an in n a t e s p i r i t u a l i t y . Brought up i n the wholesome r u r a l environment on Herrn von A's e s t a t e , she was i n f l u e n c e d at an e a r l y age by her parents' moral and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . These developed i n her permanent q u a l i t i e s - a g e n t l e , r e f l e c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y and an i n n e r s t a b i l i t y and detachment which the other women i n t h i s n o v e l do not possess. Her moral r e s t r a i n t 143 p r o t e c t s her from a p a i n f u l emotional involvement w i t h l e o n t i n at a time he d i d not wish to marry. Her s p i r i t -u a l i t y o f f e r s her comfort and an a l t e r n a t i v e form of f u l f i l l m e n t . Because of these q u a l i t i e s J u l i e i s able to a t t r a c t a s u i t a b l e husband and sonsummate a happy marriage - the form of f u l f i l l m e n t through which E i c h e n -d o r f f b e l i e v e s women a t t a i n the g r e a t e s t happiness. F o r Marie', A n g e l i n a , and Rosa, however, the p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n does not represent a n a t u r a l f u l -f i l l m e n t of t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y , but a desperate measure t o r e s t o r e some measure of s t a b i l i t y to t h e i r l i f e . They t u r n to i t only when they are unable to a t t a i n . f u l -f i l l m e n t through human l o v e . I t i s t h e i r exuberant ex-t r o v e r s i o n which f i r s t d r i v e s them out i n t o the world t o seek love - a r e c k l e s s abandonment to the world around them v/hich causes them to l o s e t h e i r c h a s t i t y , and, w i t h i t , the s t a b l e emotional l i f e which i s the b a s i s of happiness and f u l f i l l m e n t . . Because they are e x t r o v e r t s who n a t u r a l l y f i n d immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n i n the world around them, r a t h e r than i n t r o v e r t s , l i k e J u l i e , who f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n through an inner l i f e of t h e i r own -i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t t h e i r p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n should c o n s i s t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other people - outer a c t s of c h a r i t y - r a t h e r than i n n e r - m y s t i c a l - communion. These c h a r i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s are i n a sense an act of 1 4 4 atonement - a method through which t h e i r l i f e may a t t a i n some coherence - some order and purpose - r a t h e r than a happy n a t u r a l f u l f i l l e d l i f e of the s p i r i t . They are a s u b s t i t u t e f o r the happier l i v e s they could have l e a d i n an ordered marriage had t h e i r i n n e r l i v e s not been confused and deranged by p r o m i s c u i t y . Thus, although Ma-r i e becomes deranged a f t e r the death of her l o v e r , she i s able t o a t t a i n some k i n d of s t a b i l i t y by j o i n i n g Ru-d o l f ' s secluded colony of m e n t a l l y i l l people - by r e -j e c t i n g a l l forms of s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and occupying h e r s e l f w i t h the d u t i e s of a servant - simple e x t e r n a l t a s k s which have a t h e r a p e u t i c value because they d i s t r a c t her from h e r g r i e f yet are not too demanding t o perform. A n g e l i n a withdraws t o a secluded e x i s t e n c e devoted to works of c h a r i t y . Rosa f i n d s comfort i n her unhappy marriage t o the p r i n c e by t u r n i n g t o God and a s e r i o u s p r a c t i c e of the s p i r i t u a l l i f e . Thus, although M a r i e , A n g e l i n a and Rosa do not a t t a i n the happiness of n a t u r a l f u l f i l l m e n t they never-t h e l e s s a t t a i n a deeper, stable, more s i g n i f i c a n t way of l i f e . Both, Romana and Erwin a l s o attempt t o order t h e i r f e e l i n g s through r e l i g i o n , but are unable to do so. They are at the mercy of t h e i r emotions which e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r o y them. 145 R e l i g i o n can a l s o have a negative e f f e c t . I n -stead of p r o v i d i n g a solace f o r tragedy i t can i n t e n s i f y s u f f e r i n g i n c e r t a i n temperaments by c r e a t i n g i n the i n -d i v i d u a l a sense of g u i l t or of f e a r which may e v e n t u a l l y destroy him. Thus, a f t e r her s e d u c t i o n by the p r i n c e , the Burgermadchen i s so oppressed by a sense of g u i l t t h a t i t e v e n t u a l l y k i l l s her. l e o n t i n 1 s m i s t r e s s i s so t e r r i f i e d a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an admonition about her behavior from L e o n t i n * s double (Rudolf) t h a t she d i e s of f r i g h t . The Men Of the men only F r i e d r i c h a t t a i n s any profound p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n . L i k e Erwin, V i k t o r l i v e s i n a de-luded world of h i s own and i s too contorted a p e r s o n a l i t y to make any contact w i t h a power outside of h i m s e l f . Faber f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t i n h i s v o c a t i o n as a poet and i s u n i n t e r -ested i n r e l i g i o n . L i k e Romana, Rudolf cannot b e l i e v e , L e o n t i n , once he has overcome h i s d i s g u s t f o r the wor l d , i s able to l i v e an a c t i v e l i f e i n the world supported by h i s C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f . F r i e d r i c h f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t i n the contemplative l i f e . True R e l i g i o n True r e l i g i o n , l i k e a l l f u l f i l l i n g forms of human experience i s by nature n a t u r a l and spontaneous. 146 I t a r i s e s from the depths of one's being and i n v o l v e s a t o t a l response of the p e r s o n a l i t y - both mind, and f e e l i n g s -t o God. This whole-hearted i n t u i t i v e response v/hich c h a r a c t e r i z e s t r u e r e l i g i o n i s incomprehensible t o the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t v/ho i n s i s t upon l i m i t i n g r e l i g i o u s ex-p e r i e n c e t o s p e c i f i c f a c u l t i e s of the mind. They see i t simply as an e x e r c i s e of the i m a g i n a t i o n - a form of p o e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , r a t h e r than a response of the v/hole man - of the " s o u l . " Thus, they w i l l not b e l i e v e the s i n c e r i t y of Romana's i n n e r s t r u g g l e s but c o n s i d e r her d e s c r i p t i o n of them as "Grundrisse zu einem Roman." (p.189) This l a c k of comprehension leads t o an attempt t o r a t i o n a l i z e and i n t e r p r e t r e l i g i o n to f i t i n t o one's ovm l i m i t e d range of experience. R e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s cannot be accepted f o r themselves but only as symbols. Thus, the " g e n i a l i s c h e r Reisender" con s i d e r s the s u b j e c t of Romana's extemporaneous poem t o be "Die Jungfrau M a r i a a l s d i e g r o s -se W e l t l i e b e . " (p.140) F r i e d r i c h condemns t h i s view of r e l i g i o n which would remove i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l nature and reduce i t to s p e c i f i c , common, forms of human experience: "Wer aber hochmutig und s c h l a u diese Geheimnisse und. e i n f a l t i g e n Wahrheiten a l s b e l i e b i g e n D i c h t u n g s s t o f f zu uberschauen g l a u b t , wer d i e R e l i g i o n , d i e n i c h t dem Glauben, dem Verstande oder der Poesie a l l e i n , sondern a l i e n d r e i e n , dem ganzen Menschen, angehort, b l o s s mit der Phantasie i n i h r e n e i n z e l n e n Schonhei-te n w i l l k v u r l i c h zusammenrafft, der w i r d ebenso gern an den g r i e c h i s c h e n Olymp glauben, a l s an das 147 Christentum, und e i n s mit dem andern verwechseln und v e r s e t z e n , b i s der ganze Himmel f u r c h t b a r ode und l e e r w i r d . " (p.141) 98 True r e l i g i o n i s synonymous w i t h happiness. I t r e l i e v e s the i n d i v i d u a l of a l l s e l f i s h concerns, which y e t l i b e r a t e s him and makes him c a r e - f r e e and happy. Thus, the term "fromm" and " f r o h l i c h " are o f t e n used t o g e t h e r . (p.54) I t a l s o g i v e s a n a t u r a l wisdom which r e s u l t s from a d i r e c t experience of God and d i f f e r s from the e x t e r n a l a r t i f i c i a l "knowledge" of the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t . Romana's s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t o r embodies these q u a l i t i e s : S ie e r s t a u n t e , wie der Mann so e i g e n t l i c h ohne a l l e B i l d u n g und doch so hochgebildet war. Er sprach i h r o f t stundenlang von den t i e f s i n n i g s t e n Wahrheiten s e i n e r R e l i g i o n und war dabei immer so h e r z l i c h h e i -t e r , j a , o f t v o l l l u s t i g e r Schwanke, wahrend s i e da-b e i jedesmal i n eine p e i n l i c h e , gedankenvolle Trau-r i g k e i t versank. (p.188) W i t h i n the f l u c t u a t i n g v a l u e s of F r i e d r i c h ' s age, however, there are few people who are c o n s i s t e n t l y 98 I n h i s Die g e i s t l i c h e Poesie i n Deutschland E i c h e n d o r f f d i s c u s s e s t h i s " r e l i g i o n of phantasy" - a product of the a e s t h e t i c i s m of the romantic movement: "dass die wieder ent-f e s s e l t e P h a n t a s i e , welche s i c h b e i K l o p f s t o c k noch schuch-t e r n mit der g r w i s s e n h a f t e s t e n Ausshmuckung i h r e s S t o f f e s begmigte, j e t z t machtiger und t i e f e r g r e i f e n d d i e g o t t l i c h e n Wahrheiten s e l b s t i n i h r e r Weise urnzudeuten unternahm, b i s s i e b e i einem, i h r zu a l i e n Z e i t e n besonders zusagenden Pantheismus angelangt. E i n - l i b e l , das im Keime schon b e i No-v a l i s s i c h andeutet." (Gotta, IV, p. 84) Weihe says: Der " R e l i g i o n der P h a n t a s i e " f e h l t . c\er v o i l e E r n s t ; s i e w i r d zur a s t h e t i s c h e r S p i e l e r e i , d i e im mystischen Dunkel geheim-n i s v o l l e r Symbolik die eigene Armut zu verbergen sucht und h i n t e r l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h e r Begeisterung einen t i e f e n S k e p t i -zismus v e r s t r i c k t . (Weihe, p. 47) 148 devout. R a t i o n a l i s m and p i e t i s m both predominate so that many i n d i v i d u a l s are i n d e c i s i v e about t h e i r b e l i e f s . ^9 F r i e d r i c h d e s c r i b e s two kinds of " R e l i g i o n s n a r r e n " which "typify t h i s age: Die einen p r a h l t e n da, dass s i e das ganze Jahr n i c h t i n d i e K i r c h e gingen, v e r s p o t t e t e n f r e i g e i s t e r i s c h a l l e s H e i l i g e und hingen auf a l l e Weise, d i e Gott s e i Dank! b e r e i t s abgenutzte und schabige Parade-decke.der A u f k l a r u n g aus, Aber es war n i c h t wahr, denn s i e s c h l i c h e n h e i m l i c h v o r Tagesanbruch, wenn der Kuster a u f s c h l o s s , zum H i n t e r p f o r t c h e n i n d i e K i r c h e n h i n e i n und beteten f l e i s s i g . Die andern H e -l e n dagegen gar w e i d l i c h liber diese her, v e r f o c h t e n d i e R e l i g i o n und b e g e i s t e r t e n s i c h durch i h r e e i g e -nen schbnen Redensarten. Aber es war auch n i c h t wahr, denn s i e gingen i n keine K i r c h e und glaubten h e i m l i c h s e l b e r n i c h t , was s i e sagten. (p.190) F r i e d r i c h True r e l i g i o n - a whole-hearted response of the i n d i v i d u a l t o God - f i n d s i t s most f r u i t f u l e x p r e s s i o n i n the contemplative p e r s o n a l i t y - i n the i n t r o v e r t - the person who a l r e a d y f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t through h i m s e l f , and who t h e r e f o r e has no d i f f i c u l t y detaching h i m s e l f from the e x t e r n a l w o r l d . 99 In h i s essay about St. Hedwig, E i c h e n d o r f f p o i n t s out t h a t only love and h u m i l i t y - the v i r t u e s of the i n t e r i o r l i f e - can r e s o l v e t h i s c o n f l i c t between mind and f e e l i n g which so c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s age: "Wie kbnnten w i r i n un-s e r e r Z e i t h e i l i g . werden? E b e n f a l l s durch g r o s s a r t i g e Ent-sagung. B e i uns aber wurde d i e k b r p e r l i c h e Ziichtigung durch G e i s s e l n , Fasten e t c . wenig f r u c h t e n , oder doch keineswegs geniigen. Wir haben and ere L a s t e r : Hochmut, Dlinkel, das Wis-sen, e t c . Die Liebe und Demut i s t es d i e uns n o t t u t . . . . Die ganze Sache i s t der j e t z t wie niemals f r l i h e r h e f t i g entbrannte Kampf zwischen Ver stand und Gemiit, deren Ver-sohnung d i e Demut i s t . ' 1 (HKA, X, 138) 149 The source of a l l t r u e r e l i g i o n (and the cause f o r i t s u n p o p u l a r i t y ) i s the necessary detachment of the i n d i v i d u a l from a l l forms of s a t i s f a c t i o n except God. This i s the essence of the New Testament t e a c h i n g of the "new "b i r t h " - the v o l u n t a r y g i v i n g up of ev e r y t h i n g i n the world to f i n d a new r e a l i t y i n God. This necessary s e l f - s a c i ' i f i c e and i t s consequent experience of r e b i r t h and l i b e r a t i o n i s expressed i n F r i e d r i c h ' s dream of the C h r i s t C h i l d who appears t o him and says: L i e b s t du mich r e c h t , so gehe mit mir u n t e r , a l s Sonne w i r s t du dann wieder aufgehen, und d i e Welt i s t f r e i . (p.166) Although i t i s only a f t e r a v a r i e d experience of l i f e t h a t F r i e d r i c h r e c o g n i z e s h i s r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n , he i s by nature contemplative, and possesses the k i n d of per-s o n a l i t y i n v/hich a r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n would be meet e a s i l y developed. The f i r s t d e s c r i p t i o n of F r i e d r i c h i n the n o v e l emphasizes h i s contemplative nature: "er s t a n d . . . i n s t i l l e r , b e s c h a u l i c h e r Freude." (p.9) As an i n t r o v e r t he does not enjoy the immediate experience of l i f e so much as the contemplation of i t . L i k e many people of t h i s temperament, 100 This d e s c r i p t i o n of F r i e d r i c h agrees w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n of E i c h e n d o r f f i n Wilhelm Budde's j o u r n a l of 1807: "Sein ganzes Dasein i s t Liebe und Gute una s t i l l e r Genuss i n s i c h s e l b s t . " (Quoted by Tamm, p. 20) Tamm comments on E i c h e n d o r f f ' i nature: "Der D i c h t e r v e r h a l t s i c h ganz p a s s i v . L e i d e n s c h a f t und Tatendrang scheinen s i c h i n ruhige Anschauung und v o r -dammernde Sehnsucht a u f g e l o s t zu haben." (Tamm, p. 20) 150 he i s so unassuming and simple t h a t he c o u l d , by someone w i t h l i t t l e i n s i g h t , be considered mentally d e f i c i e n t : Er sprach wenig, sondern e r g b t z t e s i c h v i e lmehr s t i l l i n s i c h an den Ausgelassenheiten der l u s t i g e n Gesellen:. e i n gemeiner Menschensinn h a t t e i h n l e i c h t f i i r e i n f a l t i g g e h a lten. (p.9) H i s contemplative nature was n u r t u r e d by h i s se-cluded childhood and the r e f r e s h i n g presence of nature. His a t t r a c t i o n to r e l i g i o n i s apparent i n ear-l i e s t c h i l d h o o d . He i s so moved by the n a r r a t i v e of C h r i s t ' s p a s s i o n t h a t he cannot imagine how others can have l i s t e n e d to i t w i t h no apparent impact upon t h e i r l i v e s : Ich kann es n i c h t mit V/orten beschreiben, was i c h da-b e i empfand. Ich weinte aus Herzensgrunde, dass i c h s c h l u c h z t e . Mein ganzes Wesen war davon e r f i i l l t und durchdrungen, und i c h b e g r i f f n i c h t , v/ie mein Hofmei-ster101 und. a l l e l e u t e im Hause, d i e doch das a l l e s schon lange wussten, n i c h t ebenso geruhrt waren und auf i h r e a l t e Weise so r u h i g f o r t l e b e n konnten. (p.55-56) The very memory of h i s childhood i n which h i s r e l i g i o u s im-pulses were f i r s t formed i n t e n s i f i e s t h i s impulse i n him as an a d u l t : Diese ganze, s t i l l e Z e i t l i e g t weit h i n t e r a l l dem Schwalle der seitdem d u r c h l e b t e n Tage, wie e i n u r a l t e s , wehmtitig susses l i e d , und wenn mich o f t nur e i n e i n -z e l n e r Ton davon wieder b e r i i h r t , f a s s t mich e i n unbe-s c h r e i b l i c h e s Heimweh, n i c h t nur nach jenen Garten und Bergen, sondern nach e i n e r v i e l f e r n e r e n und t i e -f e r e n Heimat, von welcher jene mir e i n l i e b l i c h e r Widerschein zu s e i n s c h e i n t . (p.48) 101 S t b c k l e i n , l i k e most c r i t i c s , c o nsiders the c h a r a c t e r of the Hofmeister to be based upon th a t of Herr Heinke, the educator of E i c h e n d o r f f and h i s b r o t h e r . He says: "Daraus f o l g t , dass Herr Heinke das gewesen i s t , was man einen auf-g e k l a r t e n Mann genannt hat....Besonders im nahen O s t e r r e i c h war da.mals unter den W e l t p r i e s t e r n . .. die ser Typus ungemein h a u f i g v e r t r e t e n . " ( S t b c k l e i n , Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f , p. 33) 151 F r i e d r i c h i s by nature s p i r i t u a l . He i s conscious always of a s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s u s t a i n i n g the u n i v e r s e : es i s t , a l s horte die Seele i n der Ferae unaufhor-l i c h eine grosse himmlische Melodie, wie von einem unbekannten Strome, der durch d i e Welt z i e h t . . . . (p.295-96) However., because the impressions of the world are always more immediate and i n t e n s e than those of the s p i r i t , i t i s n a t u r a l t h a t F r i e d r i c h should f i r s t t r y to f i n d f u l -f i l l m e n t through the immediate l i f e around him. His r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n does not develop u n t i l l a t e r - when he d i s c o v e r s t h a t n o t h i n g i n the world can s a t i s f y h i s l o n g i n g f o r the i n e f f a b l e . This d e s i r e f o r the i n e f f a b l e i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of F r i e d r i c h ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . I t prompts L e o n t i n t o c h a r a c t e r -i z e him as an i m p r a c t i c a l i d e a l i s t who i s bound to be crushed by the world: "Kommst du auch angezogen, neumodischer Don Quixote, Lamm Gottes, du s a n f t e r Vogel, der immer v o l l schemer Weisen i s t , haben s i e d i r noch n i c h t d i e F l u g e l ge-brochen?" (p.148) This l o n g i n g f o r the i n e f f a b l e i n s p i r e s a l l F r i e d -r i c h ' s attempts at f u l f i l l m e n t . When, on each o c c a s i o n , t h i s l o n g i n g remains u n f u l f i l l e d , he becomes d i s i l l u s i o n e d . I t i s t h i s f o r c e which motivates h i s adventurous l i f e - h i s t r a v e l s w i t h L e o n t i n , Faber, and Rosa. He soon r e a l i z e s t h a t such a l i f e i s u n f u l f i l l i n g , however, because i t l a c k s purpose. He says, when he discovers that Rosa shows 152 no i n t e r e s t i n h i s i n n e r l i f e : Was t u ' i c h h i e r . . . s i n d das meine E n t s c h l l i s s e , meine grossen Hoffnungen und Erwartungen, von denen meine Seele so v o l l war, a l s i c h a u s r e i s t e ? V/as zerschlage i c h den besten T e i l mei2ies Lebens i n unniitze Abenteuer ohne a l i e n Zweck, ohne a l l e rechte T a t i g k e i t ? Dieser L e o n t i n , Faber und Rosa, s i e werden mir doch ewig fremd b l e i b e n . (p.56) This l o n g i n g i s the f o r c e which had p r e v i o u s l y i n -s p i r e d h i s l o v e f o r Rosa. Like a l l men, however, he considers l o v e only p a r t of a much broader search f o r f u l f i l l m e n t . L a t e r on he d i s c o v e r s t h a t romantic love even s t i f l e s and i n h i b i t s t h i s search: Habe i c h es oben auf der Hohe n i c h t gesagt, dass du i n d e i n Grab h i n a b s t e i g s t ? Wenn d i e Schonheit mit i h r e n f r i s c h e n Augen, mit den j u g e n d l i c h e n Gedanken und Wun-schen unter euch t r i t t , und, wie s i e die eigene, g r o s -sere Lebenslust t r e i b t , s o r g l o s und l l i s t e r n i n das l i e -bewarme Leben h i n a u s l a n g t und s p r o s s t - s i c h an die f e i -nen S p i t z e n , d i e zum Himmel s t r e b e n , g i f t i g anziisaugen und zur Erde h i n a b z u z e r r e n , b i s d i e ganze p r a c h t i g e Schonheit, f a h l und i h r e s himmlischen Schmuckes be-r a u b t , unter euch dasteht wie e u r e s g l e i c h e n . (p.107-8) Next he t r i e s t o f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t through some p r a c t i c a l form of a c t i o n - by engaging i n the r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t Napoleon: Die unbestimmte Knabensehnsucht. . .verwandelte sich i n eine . h e i l i g e Liebe und Begeisterung f i i r den bestiramten und f e s t e n Zweck. Es geniigte ihm n i c h t mehr, s i c h an s i c h a l l e i n zu ergotzen, er w o l l t e l e b e n d i g e i n d r i n g e n . (p.165) But a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g the h o r r o r of war and the inconstancy and i n g r a t i t u d e of h i s c o m p a t r i o t s , he r e a l i z e s how impos-s i b l e i t i s to f u l f i l l i d e a l s through the world. A f t e r the war he r e t u r n s to where he had begun h i s journey. He has t r i e d a l l the common human ways of 153 f i n d i n g f u l f i l l m e n t and has found them a l l u n s a t i s f a c t o r y . He has l o s t h i s "Wanderlust": J e t z t stand er an demselben Orte, wo er begonnen, wie nach einem miihsarn beschriebenen Z i r k e l , f r i i h -z e i t i g an dem andern, e r n s t e r n und s t i l l e r n Ende s e i n e r Reise und h a t t e keine Sehnsucht mehr nach dem Plunder h i n t e r den Bergen und w e i t e r . (p.225-26) He f i n d s no more f u l f i l l m e n t i n poetry or a career i n the world. His l o v e f o r Rosa has been a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the l o v e of God, who now f u l f i l l s i n him the hidden meaning he had always sensed i n l i f e : Die P o e s i e , seine damalige, siisse R e i s e g e f a h r t i n , genugte ihm n i c h t mehr, a l l e seine e r n s t e s t e n , h e r z -l i c h s t e n Plane waren an dem Neide s e i n e r Z e i t ge-s c h e i t e r t , seine Madchenliebe musste, ohne dass e r es s e l b s t bemerkte, e i n e r hoheren Liebe weichen, und jenes grosse, r e i c h e Geheimnis des Lebens h a t t e s i c h ihm e n d l i c h i n Gott g e l b s t . (p. 226) At Rudolf's h i s innate r e l i g i o u s power, which was always present i n h i s other a c t i v i t i e s , i s strengthened: In P r i e d r i c h e n t w i c k e l t e diese Abgeschiedenheit end-l i c h d i e u r s p r i i n g l i c h e , r e l i g i o s e K r a f t s e i n e r Seele, d i e schon im Weltleben durch gutmutiges Staunen ge-b l e n d e t , durch den Drang der Z e i t e n o f t v e r s c h l a g e n und f a l s c h e Bahnen suchend, aus a l i e n seinen B e s t r e -bungen, Taten, Poesien und I r r t i i m e r n h e r v o r l e u c h t e t e . (p.284) He r e g a i n s the r e l i g i o u s s i m p l i c i t y of h i s childhood and begins t o read the B i b l e again: J e t z t h a t t e er a l l e seine P l a n e , Talentchen, Ktinste und Wissenschaften unten zuri i c k g e l a s s e n und l a s wie-der d i e B i b e l , v/ie er schon einmal a l s Kind angefan-gen. (p.284) He f i n d s comfort and meaning i n the power of C h r i s t ' s sac-r i f i c e and purpose i n h i s v o c a t i o n as a C h r i s t i a n "knight:" 154 Da fand e r Trost tiber d i e Verwirrung der Z e i t und das e i n z i g e Recht und H e i l auf Erden i n dem h e i l i g e n Kreuze. Er h a t t e e n d l i c h den p h a n t a s t i s c h e n , tausend-f a r b i g e n P i l g e r m a n t e l abgeworfen und stand nun i n b l a n k e r Rustung a l s Kampfer Gottes gleichsam an der Grenze zweier Welten. (p.284) He f i n d s peace and happiness i n h i s v o c a t i o n , and t e l l s L e o n t i n : Locke mich n i c h t noch einmal hinab i n d i e Welt, mir i s t h i e r oben u n b e s c h r e i b l i c h wohl, und i c h b i n kaum e r s t r u h i g geworden. (p.286) 155 PART IV LIMITATIONS OP HAPPINESS CHAPTER IX Although E i c h e n d o r f f appears to i n c o r p o r a t e i n E r i e d r i c h h i s i d e a l of human f u l f i l l m e n t , he i n no way-assumes t h a t such an i d e a l w i l l be s u i t e d t o everyone. Although the happiness a t t a i n e d by the poet and the r e l i g i o u s i s more secure and permanent than t h a t of those who must r e l y on circumstances i n the e x t e r n a l w o r l d , i t i s by no means the form of f u l f i l l m e n t f o r everyone. Such happiness i s secure and permanent because i t a r i s e s from the deep c r e a t i v e sources w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f , but i t i s a l s o dependent upon such f o r c e s f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e . Not everyone has the a b i l i t y to become a poet nor the w i l l t o detachment and the c a p a c i t y f o r s u b l i m a t i o n t o become a r e l i g i o u s . Thus, E i c h e n d o r f f o f f e r s no easy formula f o r happiness. L i k e a l l great a r t i s t s he i s aware of the unique-102 ness of every i n d i v i d u a l and i s a l s o aware, not only of the p o t e n t i a l i t y , but also of the l i m i t a t i o n s , which such uniqueness suggests. He does not b e l i e v e , l i k e the f a c i l e 102 In h i s l e t t e r of Nov. 14,.1853, E i c h e n d o r f f s t r e s s e s t h i s uniqueness and suggests that everyone must f i n d h i s own s o l u t i o n to l i f e ' s problems: "Es muss doch am Ende e i n j e d e r s e i n e n eigenen, ihm gewiesenen Weg gehen und d a r f n i c h t a l l -z u v i e l nach anderen f r a g e n . " (Quoted by Riepe, p. 44) 156 p o s i t i v i s t , t hat the i n d i v i d u a l has the power to do any-t h i n g he wishes. He r e a l i z e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s hampered both by h i s i n t e r n a l environment - h i s ovm per-s o n a l i t y - and a l s o by h i s e x t e r n a l environment - by f a t e and chance. H e r e d i t y and Environment Although E i c h e n d o r f f was born long before Dar-win, Ereud and Jung formulated t h e i r p e r c e p t i o n s , h i s i n -s i g h t as a n o v e l i s t l e d him i n t u i t i v e l y t o such t h e o r i e s . He r e c o g n i z e s , f o r example th a t the unhappiness of the student who i s i n l o v e w i t h the c i r c u s performer i s not caused by e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s , but a r i s e s from the l i m i -t a t i o n s of h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y : "Wie g l u c k l i c h " , sagte l e o n t i n , "konnte der Student sein...wenn er nur Talent f u r s Gluck h a t t e , aber er hat eine einformige N i e d e r g e s c h l a g e n h e i t i n s i c h , d i e e r n i c h t n i e d e r s c h l a g e n kann, und die i h n durchs Leben nur so h i n s c h l e p p t . " (p.151) Although E i c h e n d o r f f does not c r e a t e c h a r a c t e r s as r i g i d l y i n h i b i t e d by h e r e d i t y and environment as those of the s c h o o l of n a t u r a l i s m , he does create them w i t h such w e l l d e f i n e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t one cannot imagine them developing i n any other way. They c a r r y , i n a sense, t h e i r own f a t e w i t h i n them. He seems to r e a l i z e t h a t the human p e r s o n a l i t y i s formed by i t s e a r l y childhood ex-p e r i e n c e s and t h a t the way i n which these c h a r a c t e r s 157 respond to t h e i r environment i s c o n d i t i o n e d by the nature of t h e i r ovm p e r s o n a l i t y . The V/omen The v/omen are l i m i t e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r sex. Although they may s t r i v e t o a t t a i n freedom of men, l i k e A n g e l i n a and Romana, they are n e v e r t h e l e s s powerless to seek happiness i n any other way than through l o v e - as women have always sought i t . M a r i e , Rosa and A n g e l i n a M a r i e , Rosa and An g e l i n a are a l l m a l l e a b l e per-s o n a l i t i e s . They do not a f f e c t t h e i r environment so much as they are a f f e c t e d by i t . This p a s s i v i t y i s i n t e n s i f i e d by t h e i r n a t u r a l submissiveness as women. I t i s t h e i r mis-f o r t u n e t o l i v e i n an age where s e x u a l mores are r e l a x e d , and, t h e r e f o r e , where i t i s d i f f i c u l t to e s t a b l i s h a s a t i s -f y i n g permanent marriage r e l a t i o n s h i p . Marie becomes " v e r w i l d e r t " through a s e r i e s of promiscuous r e l a t i o n -s h i p s and e v e n t u a l l y seeks s t a b i l i t y among Rudolf's colony of d i s t u r b e d people. Rosa i s seduced by the p r i n c e i n a moment of p a s s i o n , but f i n d s her marriage w i t h him un-f u l f i l l i n g . She i s d r i v e n to seek solace i n r e l i g i o n . S i m i l a r l y , A n g e l i n a l o s e s c o n t r o l of her l i f e through her 158 bohemian r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Rudolf, and seeks to compen-sate f o r t h i s through a l i f e of good works. Romana Romana, on the other hand, i s not destroyed so much by her outer environment as by her own g i f t s and her i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i t y . F r i e d r i c h speaks of the "zauberischer Reichtum" of her body and s p i r i t , (p. 146) Her mother a l s o r e c o g n i z e s her passionate r e c e p t i v i t y to experience and says before her death: "Denn du s o l l s t mehr Gnade erfahren und mehr g o t t l i c h e Pracht iiberschauen a l s andere." (p.124) She a l s o r e c o g n i z e s the danger of such c a p a c i t y - t h a t she w i l l rush to break out and soar above her p r o t e c t i v e home environment: Und eben, w e i l du o f t f r o h l i c h und kuhn s e i n w i r s t und F l u g e l haben, so b i t t e i c h d i c h : Springe n i e -mals aus dem s t i l l e n Garten! (p.124) Romana, hov/ever, i s pov/erless to c o n t r o l her p a s s i o n a t e d e s i r e f o r experience. She r e a c t s i n t e n s e l y t o a l l e x p e r i e n c e s . Thus, i n regard to a dance, she says: Wie i h r andern nur a l l e l u s t so gelassen e r t r a g e n und aus dem Tanze sc h n u r s t r a c k s i n s B e t t springen konnt und der schonen Welt so auf einmal e i n Ende machen! I c h b i n Immer so ganz durchklungen, a l s s o l l t e d i e Musik niemals aufhbren. (p.121-122) She f e e l s t h a t l i f e i s a powerful r i v e r which draws her t o i t s e l f : 159 Und das Wirren bunt und bunter Wird e i n magisch w i l d e r F l u s s , I n die schone Welt h i n u n t e r Lockt d i c h dieses Stromes Gruss. (p.124) She i s incapable of r e s i s t i n g i t : Und i c h mag mich n i c h t bewahren! Weit von euch t r e i b t mich der Wind, Auf dem Strome w i l l i c h f a h r e n , Von dem Glanze s e l i g b l i n d ! (p.125) Because she d e s i r e s the i n e f f a b l e , however, she i s d i s g u s t e d w i t h mundane r e a l i t y : Die Welt, der grosse T o l p e l , der niemals g e s c h e i t e r w i r d . . . E r i s t j a doch n i c h t s a l s Magen und Kopf und noch dazu e i n r e c h t b r e i t e r , ubermiitiger, s e l b s t g e -f a l l i g e r , e i t l e r , u n e r t r a g l i c h e r , den es eine rechte G o t t e r l u s t i s t aufs Maul zu schlagen. (p.157-158) Because she cannot a t t a i n the i n e f f a b l e , e i t h e r through a r t , l o v e , or r e l i g i o n she has allowed h e r s e l f t o be swept up i n t o a r e s t l e s s , s e n s u a l , e r r a t i c l i f e . Thus, L e o n t i n , although r e c o g n i z i n g her g i f t s and p o t e n t i a l i t y , d e s c r i b e s her e s s e n t i a l weakness - her i n a b i l i t y to g i v e any d i r e c t i o n to her l i f e , which u l t i m a t e l y makes i t w o r t h l e s s . She says i t i s h i s o p i n i o n t h a t : i c h s e i wie eine F l o t e , i n der v i e l himmlischer . Klang i s t , aber das f r i s o h e Holz habe s i c h geworfen, habe einen g e n i a l i s c h e n Sprung, und so tauge doch am Ende das ganze Instrument n i c h t s . (p.125) Erv/in d i s t o r t e d Of a l l by her the. women i n the n o v e l Erwin i s e a r l y childhood experiences. Her most d i s t u r -160 bance l i e s c h i e f l y i n her f e e l i n g s of g u i l t about her i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h . V/hen F r i e d r i c h asks about her past she says: "Ich muss sterben, wenn es jemand e r f a h r t . " (p.539) This g u i l t c r e a t e s a f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n and r e j e c t i o n by the world which i s i n t e n s i f i e d by the l a c k of s e c u r i t y i n her u p b r i n g i n g by the gypsy woman who abducted her from A n g e l i n a . This sense of i s o l a t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y r e s u l t s i n l a c k of emotional e q u i l i b r i u m : Nur mangelte b e i Erwin das ruhige Gleichgewicht der K r a f t e , d i e a l l e s beleuchten.de K l a r h e i t ganz und gar. (p.77) Her d e s i r e f o r l o v e , however, i s so i n t e n s e that i t can-not accept these f e e l i n g s of r e j e c t i o n . These two f o r c e s c o n f l i c t w i t h i n her, c r e a t i n g an i n n e r c o n f u s i o n : Im verborgensten Grunde der Seele s c h i e n vielmehr eine geheirnnisvolle L e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h k e i t zu ruhen, d i e a l l e s v e r w i r r t und am Ende zu z e r s t o r e n drohte. (p.77) The only o u t l e t f o r her f e e l i n g s are her love of nature and her e x p r e s s i o n of them i n song. L i k e Romana she i s e v e n t u a l l y k i l l e d by her unrequited love f o r F r i e d r i c h . Instead of committing s u i c i d e , however, she i s d r i v e n deeper i n t o her i n n e r contorted world and goes insane. I n t h i s world her sense of i s o l a t i o n i s so heightened t h a t she f e e l s even p h y s i c a l l y separated from the world: L i e Leute sagten, i c h s e i v e r r i i c k t , i c h horte es wohl und horte auch draussen die Uhren schlagen und die Welt o r d e n t l i c h gehn und s c h a l l e n wie durch G l a s , aber i c h konnte n i c h t mit h i n e i n . (p.241) 161 J u l i e Of a l l the women c h a r a c t e r s i n the nov e l J u l i e i s the most f o r t u n a t e i n her e a r l y u p b r i n g i n g . She was brought up i n a wholesome r u r a l environment which empha-s i z e d p r a c t i c a l household t a s k s and s t r e s s e d simple moral v i r t u e s . Although t h i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d l i f e made her some-what shy and s o c i a l l y i l l adept, i t more than compensated f o r t h i s by g i v i n g her an inn e r s t a b i l i t y and depth l a c k -i n g i n those brought up i n a more f r i v o l o u s , e r r a t i c , atmosphere. These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are r e f l e c t e d i n "die bestandige H e i t e r k e i t und K l a r h e i t i h r e s Gemiits." (p.76) Her p r o t e c t e d l i f e a l s o gives h e r a reserve and r e t i c e n c e towards men which prevents her from g i v i n g h e r s e l f up t h o u g h t l e s s l y to them, and thus preserves her emotional s t a b i l i t y . Her i n n e r s p i r i t u a l resources developed i n t h i s environment a l s o enables her t o endure and accept p e r s o n a l tragedy such as her supposed unrequited l o v e f o r L e o n t i n . The Burgermadchen I t i s the Burgermadchen's e a r l y u p b r i n g i n g which has i n s t i l l e d i n her a deep, q u i e t s p i r i t u a l i t y . L i k e J u l i e she has been brought up i n " e i n s t i l l e s ordent-l i c h e s Haus" (p . 1 6 9 ) and i s used to a q u i e t c i r c u m s c r i b e d domestic e x i s t e n c e . U n l i k e J u l i e , hov/ever, she i s not shy 162 and r e t i c e n t w i t h the opposite sex and thus, the p r i n c e f i n d s i t easy to take advantage of her innocence. I t i s t h i s very innocence which makes her so a t t r a c t i v e t o the p r i n c e . A f t e r her abduction, hov/ever, her g o d - f e a r i n g u p b r i n g i n g makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r her to accept her ov/n behavior which she regards as an u n f o r g i v e a b l e s i n . In t h i s v/ay she d i f f e r s from A n g e l i n a , Rosa and Marie v/ho were (presumeably) not brought up i n a s t r o n g l y r e -l i g i o u s environment and who are thus able to accept and r e c o n c i l e t h e i r behavior. The Burgermadchen's sense of g u i l t i s so s t r o n g , hov/ever, t h a t i t overcomes her C h r i s -t i a n c o n v i c t i o n of God's f o r g i v e n e s s . I t i s t h i s obsession which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her death. The Men Of a l l the male c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l , V i k t o r and Rudolf are. the most c r i p p l e d by t h e i r ov/n t r a g i c per-s o n a l i t i e s. V i k t o r Although the o r i g i n of V i l c t o r ' s n e u r o s i s i s not c l e a r , i t i s apparent that i t i s so severe t h a t i t d e t e r -mines a l l h i s a c t i o n s and d e p r i v e s him of h i s f r e e w i l l . He s u f f e r s from a s p l i t p e r s o n a l i t y . Thus, he 163 i s e i t h e r w i l d l y e x t r o v e r t e d - e.g. at the dance when he "mit e i n e r i r o n i s c h e n Wut getanzt und m u s i z i e r t h a t t e " (p.70) or numbly withdrawn - "er sah s c h l i c h t , s t i l l und t r a u r i g und war ver l e g e n im Gesprache." (p.70) Only F r i e d r i c h and L e o n t i n r e l i z e t h a t V i k t o r i s not, as J u l i e ' s aunt considers him: " e i n p u d e l n a r r i s c h e r l u s t i g e r Mensch," (p.88) but t h a t h i s s p u r t s of w i l d e x t r o v e r s i o n , are desperate attempts to r i s e above the tragedy of l i f e by s a t i r i z i n g i t . He i s unable to f r e e l y engage i n l i f e , but only to a d j u s t to the l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by h i s oppres-s i v e f e e l i n g of i s o l a t i o n from i t . Thus, he seeks to d u l l the p a i n of l i f e by bu r y i n g h i m s e l f i n clock-making, an occupation e x a c t i n g enough t o f o r c e him to concentrate on something outside of h i s own unhappiness and one which r e l i e v e s him of the discomfort of human con t a c t . Only v/hen he i s able to break through h i s i s o l a t i o n - t o make some contact w i t h other human beings who understand him -as he does i n h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h L e o n t i n and F r i e d r i c h -does he g a i n some measure of happiness. Rudolf The cause of Rudolf's unhappiness i s t r a c e d i n great d e t a i l i n the n o v e l . I t shows i t s o r i g i n s i n h i s e a r l y childhood and i t s l a t e r development i n him as an 164 a d u l t . R u dolf's f i r s t memory i s of a traumatic nature -"eine grosse Eeuersbrunst" (p.264) which destroyed h i s f a t h e r and h i s home - a h o r r i b l e experience which made an i n d e l i b l e i m p r e s s i o n upon him and which c o n d i t i o n e d a l l h i s l a t e r experience. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s was the memory of a boy h i s own age who danced i n f r o n t of t h i s h o l o c a u s t and laughed him t o scorn. On t h i s n i g h t he a l s o saw h i s mother f o r the l a s t time and went to l i v e w i t h h i s f o s t e r p a r e nts. Thus, he l o s e s a l l sources of s e c u r i t y - at once. Worst of a l l , he l o s e s the r e a s s u r i n g l o v e of h i s parents -the most important f a c t o r i n the adjustment of a c h i l d . The d e s t r u c t i o n of h i s home gi v e s him an added sense of the i n s e c u r i t y of the world around him, and the scorn of the boy a c o n v i c t i o n of the enmity of a l l other human beings. This l a c k of s e c u r i t y and f e e l i n g of r e j e c t i o n i s i n t e n s i f i e d ' i n h i s new environment. He does not r e c e i v e the reassurance he needs from h i s "neue, k l e i n e , w i r t s c h a f t -l i c h e und d i c k l i c h e Mutter" (p.265) but f e e l s r e p e l l e d by her and w i l l not k i s s her hand. This i n s e c u r i t y i s appar-ent i n h i s l a c k of s o c i a l adeptness - "das sogenannte ge-wisse Etwas i n G e s e l l s c h a f t e n " (p. 265) which f u r t h e r pre-j u d i c e d others a g a i n s t him. H i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y g i ves him great i n s i g h t i n t o the weaknesses and pr e t e n s i o n s of ot h e r s , such as the Hofmeister, who resent 165 h i s honest assessment of t h e i r c h a r a c t e r . This f e e l i n g of r e j e c t i o n d r i v e s him deeper i n t o h i m s e l f and r e s u l t s i n a f u l l y developed p e r s e c u t i o n complex. He says to F r i e d -r i c h : I c h wurde dadurch nur noch immer t i e f s i n n i g e r und einsamer und traumte u n a u f h o r l i c h von e i n e r g e h e i -men Verschworung a l l e r gegen mich, s e l b s t d i c h n i c h t ausgenommen, w e i l du mit den meisten im Hause gut s t a n d e s t . (p.265-6) H i s l a t e r behavior r e f l e c t s these e a r l y methods of response. H i s sense of r e j e c t i o n by the world causes him to respond i n two ways - by a g g r e s s i o n - defending h i m s e l f a g a i n s t i t ; and by r e v u l s i o n - seeking s o l i t u d e to avoid such c o n t a c t s . Thus, v/hen the boy laughs at him s c o r n f u l l y as h i s home burns, he h u r l s a stone a t him. V/hen h i s guardians wish to d i s c i p l i n e him he d e s p e r a t e l y defends h i m s e l f a g a i n s t any p h y s i c a l a t t a c k . L a t e r t h i s a g g r e s s i o n seeks an o u t l e t i n v i o l e n c e - i n h i s going to war and i n h i s s h o r t l i v e d u n i n h i b i t e d sensual e x i s t e n c e . H i s e x c u r s i o n s as the "black k n i g h t " are a l s o a macabre attempt to i n f l u e n c e other people's a c t i o n s , and, i n t h i s sense, represent an eiggressive a c t . M o s t l y , however, he responds by cowering away from a l l human c o n t a c t s . J u s t as he i s r e p e l l e d by the thought of k i s s i n g h i s "Vormunderin," so i s he r e p e l l e d by a l l human c o n t a c t s . This withdrawal makes him " t i e f -s i n n i g und einsam" - the two q u a l i t i e s necessary f o r 166 crea-tive endeavour, and l a t e r develop i n t o h i s d e s i r e to be an a r t i s t . This same i n s i g h t i s responsible "for h i s success i n t r e a t i n g the group of e m o t i o n a l l y d i s t u r b e d people around him i n the mountains. This withdrawal i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r him seeking s e c l u s i o n as a hermit i n h i s mountain r e t r e a t and u l t i m a t e l y i n seeking se-c l u s i o n i n the strange remote l a n d of magic - Egypt. L e o n t i n Nothing i s t o l d of Le o n t i n ' s childhood which would e x p l a i n the l a t e r development of h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , l i k e Romana, he has such an in t e n s e and s h a r p l y d e f i n e d p e r s o n a l i t y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e to imagine him r e a c t i n g i n any other way than he does. I n t h i s sense, l i k e Romana, he i s c o n d i t i o n e d - l i m i t e d - by the nature of h i s ov/n p e r s o n a l i t y . L i k e Rudolf, he i s r e v o l t e d by r e a l i t y . U n l i k e Rudolf, however, he does not s u f f e r from a sense of r e -j e c t i o n by the world. I n s t e a d , he h i m s e l f r e j e c t s i t be-cause of the t r i v i a l i t y of human beings and, more p a r t i c -u l a r l y , because of the i n c a p a c i t y of h i s s o c i e t y t o a c t acc o r d i n g to any c o n s i s t e n t i d e a l i s t i c motives. But a l s o he r e j e c t s the world i n t e l l e c t u a l l y , he cannot reject i t e m o t i o n a l l y . He f i n d s h i s only f u l f i l l -ment through an u n i n h i b i t e d and u n l i m i t e d enjoyment of 167 l i f e i t s e l f , experienced as a form of poetry. Only when he i s able to accept some l i m i t a t i o n s of h i s freedom i s he able to r e s o l v e h i s problem - to r e c o n c i l e h i s hatred of the p e t t i n e s s of l i f e and h i s l o v e of l i f e i t s e l f . He does t h i s by a c c e p t i n g the supremacy of God which m i t i g a t e s h i s d i s g u s t of the present by a hope f o r some u l t i m a t e s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . The comfort of J u l i e ' s l o v e a l s o r e l i e v e s t h i s d i s g u s t and more than compen-sates f o r h i s l o s s of freedom through marriage. F r i e d r i c h F r i e d r i c h emphasizes the d e c i s i v e e f f e c t of the p e r s o n a l i t y - "das innere l e b e n " - upon the l i f e of the i n d i v i d u a l . This i n n e r l i f e forms and d i r e c t s h i s l i f e i n t u i t i v e l y - u n c o n s c i o u s l y - b e l y i n g the conscious plans he had p r e v i o u s l y made f o r i t . Only i n r e t r o s p e c t does h i s l i f e r e v e a l i t s own ordered s t r u c t u r e : Es r u h r t e i h n , wie da a l l e Wege so genau vorausbe-stimmt waren, und wie nachher a l l e s anders gekommen war, wie das innere Leben u b e r a l l d u r c h d r i n g t und, s i c h an keine vorberechneten Plane kehrend, g l e i c h einem Baume aus f r e i e r , g e h e i m n i s v o l l e r Werkstatt seine Aste nach a l i e n Richtungen h i n s t r e c k t und t r e i b t , und e r s t a l s Ganzes einen P l a n und Ordnung e r w e i s t . (p.126) Thus, F r i e d r i c h ' s outer l i f e i s determined by h i s i n n e r l i f e - h i s p e r s o n a l i t y formed e a r l y i n c h i l d h o o d . F r i e d r i c h ' s deepest impulse - h i s l o n g i n g f o r the i n e f f a b l e -168 i s a l r e a d y present i n h i s childhood experience, the mere thought of which f i l l s him, l a t e r i n l i f e , w i t h an "unbe-s c h r e i b l i c h e s Heimweh" (p.48). He c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s memory as " e i n u r a l t e s wehmutig susses L i e d " (p.48) -" u r a l t " because h i s l o n g i n g i s f o r something e t e r n a l and t h e r e f o r e age-old- "wehmutig" because the i n e f f a b l e i s u n a t t a i n a b l e - "suss" because the ob j e c t of the l o n g i n g i s so sublime. The d e s i r e f o r the i n e f f a b l e t y p i f i e s the i n -d i v i d u a l who does not seek f u l f i l l m e n t i n the world around him - i n o t h e r people - but w i t h i n h i s own s u b j e c t i v e , w o r l d - w i t h i n h i m s e l f . Although F r i e d r i c h g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n of what f a c t o r s i n h i s environment developed t h i s response t o l i f e , he does d e s c r i b e the c o n d i t i o n s under which they were no u r i s h e d . He grew up w i t h i n the "grune Abgeschieden-h e i t " - the s o l i t u d e - of nature which encouraged h i s con-t e m p l a t i v e s p i r i t and fed h i s love of beauty. Thus, i t i s the n i g h t which he l o v e s - swarming w i t h sound - but purged of the t r i v i a l , human sounds of day. H i s i n n e r l i f e i s a l s o s t i m u l a t e d by r e a d i n g , which develops and i n t e n s i f i e s h i s i m a g i n a t i o n . This c a p a c i t y i s l a t e r r e l e a s e d through h i s poetry - an attempt to express h i s l o n g i n g . I t i s a l s o i n h i s childhood t h a t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y to r e l i g i o n f i r s t de-velops - he v/eeps v/hen he hears the P a s s i o n n a r r a t i v e . This c a p a c i t i y i s l a t e r developed i n h i s v o c a t i o n to the r e l i g i o u s 1 69 l i f e which grants him f u l f i l l m e n t by r e p l a c i n g h i s vague d e s i r e f o r the i n e f f a b l e w i t h a conscious d e s i r e f o r God. Chance and Fate E i c h e n d o r f f r e c o g n i z e s that the happiness of the i n d i v i d u a l i s not only l i m i t e d by the nature of h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y - the c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s h e r e d i t y and i n f l u e n c e d by h i s immediate environment -but a l s o by impersonal f o r c e s o u t s i d e of h i m s e l f - by chance and f a t e . Chance Chance - the a r b i t r a r y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of outer events - o f t e n a f f e c t s the d e s t i n y of a person. I t does not a f f e c t those who f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t w i t h i n t h e i r own s u b j e c t i v e world where e x t e r n a l f o r c e s have no e f f e c t . Thus, chance p l a y s no r o l e i n the development of Faber's a r t i s t i c c a r e e r or i n F r i e d r i c h ' s r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n . I t does, however, a f f e c t those who f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n the o u t s i d e wold . I t p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t s Rosa whose-estrange-103 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n t h i s connection t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between chance and f a t e -u s i n g the terms " Z u f a l l " or "Geschick" to d e s c r i b e events s i m i l a r i n nature. 170 merit from F r i e d r i c h and whose abduction by the p r i n c e depends l a r g e l y on a s e r i e s of chance events. The r e l a t i o n s h i p of Rosa and F r i e d r i c h i s plagued by t h e i r i n a b i l i t y to meet one another when they most wish t o . Thus, when F r i e d r i c h f i r s t a r r i v e s at the re s i d e n c e and i s most eager to see Rosa, she i s not at home at the time he v i s i t s her. He looked forv/ard to seeing her so much t h a t i t seems i n c r e d i b l e t o him t h a t she i s not t h e r e : "Es war ihm v o r Freude gar n i c h t e i n g e f a l l e n , dass er s i e v e r f e h l e n kbnnte, und e r hatte beinahe Lust zu ziir n e n , dass s i e i h n n i c h t zu Hause er-wartet h a t t e . " (p.112) Rosa's abduction i s a l s o d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o the f a c t t h a t she i s unable to see F r i e d r i c h when she longs f o r him. F r i e d r i c h has not v i s i t e d her s i n c e the evening she had promised to meet him, but had gone t o the m i n i s t e r ' s b a l l i n the company of the p r i n c e i n s t e a d . (p.172) On the evening she i s t o attend the chamois hunt held by Romana, she decides she must see F r i e d r i c h and beg h i s f o r g i v e n e s s even i f she has to s a c r i f i c e her feminine r e t i c e n c e to do so. She rushes t o h i s house, but chance prevents her from seeing him: "Aber das Ungluck w o l l t e , dass er eben n i c h t zu Hause war." (p.198) She rushed away, f e a r f u l of being recognized and of being alone. But again chance ( f a t e ) i n t e r v e n e s : "Aber das Ge~ Schick war i n s e i n e r t e u f l i s c h e n Laurie." (p.199) Around 171 the corner, d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t of her she sees the p r i n c e who o f f e r s to accompany her home. When they a r r i v e at her home he asks f o r a k i s s . She acquieses i n c o n f u s i o n . As he k i s s e s , her, however, another chance event occurs. A man charges towards the p r i n c e and the l a t t e r q u i c k l y seeks refuge i n a neighbouring house: "Es war E r i e d r i c h , den der Z u f a l l eben h i e r v o r b e i g e f u h r t h a t t e . " (p. 1 9 9 ) He does not rec o g n i z e the p r i n c e , but i s f i l l e d w i t h the " w i l d e s t e n Gedanken" about Rosa. I t i s a l s o p a r t i a l l y c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t Rosa succumbed t o the p r i n c e at t h i s moment. Because of her shame i n being d i s c o v e r e d unaccompanied at n i g h t , she i s i n a s t a t e of c o n f u s i o n . The p r i n c e ' s k i n d l i n e s s i n over-l o o k i n g h e r i n d i s c r e t i o n f i l l s her w i t h g r a t i t u d e : "Noch niemals war er i h r so bescheiden, so gut, so schon und li e b e n s w t i r d i g vorgekommen. " (p. 1 9 9 ) This g r a c i o u s a t t i -tude i n t e n s i f i e s the e f f e c t of h i s k i s s : "und s e i n Kuss brannte d i e ganze Nacht v e r f i i h r e r i s c h auf i h r e n schonen Lippen f o r t . " (p. 1 9 9 ) During the chamois hunt chance p l a y s a l a r g e r o l e i n Rosa's abduction: "Rosa war, a l s s i c h Tag und Jagd zu Ende n e i g t e n , von Romana und a l l e r Begieitung wie durch Z u f a l l v e r l a s s e n warden." (p.206) The p r i n c e observes her c o n s t a n t l y and encounters her r e p e a t e d l y . F i n a l l y she decides to f l e e him. As she runs 172 away she by chance meets F r i e d r i c h . This f r i g h t e n s her as i t reminds her of a recent dream i n which she had met F r i e d r i c h dressed as a k n i g h t i n a s i m i l a r barren landscape. She rushes down the mountain and, i n her con-f u s i o n , f a l l s i n t o the arms of the p r i n c e who, again by chance, i s s i t t i n g below. The combined e f f e c t of her estrangement from F r i e d r i c h , the strange song she hears i n the d i s t a n c e and the t u r b u l e n t r e s u r g i n g memories of F r i e d r i c h move her deeply. She con f i d e s her anguish t o the p r i n c e and y i e l d s t o the reassurance of h i s embraces. When the p r i n c e a r r i v e s w i t h her at h i s c a s t l e she i s al r e a d y so i n f l u e n c e d by him through t h i s s e r i e s of chance events t h a t she f o l l o w s him "halb gezwungen und halb v e r f i i h r t . " (p. 207) Fate In a d d i t i o n to the chance events which i n f l u e n c e the l i v e s of the c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l , there are a l s o some c h a r a c t e r s who, i n themselves, seem to exert some f a t a l i n f l u e n c e over oth e r s . Endowed v/ith a p p a r e n t l y i n e x -p l i c a b l e powers they appear as means through which f a t e ex-presses i t s e l f . I n t h i s n o v e l they appear i n two forms -the pagan c h a r a c t e r s whose a c t i o n s appear unmotivated -the Z i g e u n e r i n - and the C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r s whose a c t i o n s 173 are motivated by moral or s p i r i t u a l precepts - "die weisse Frau" and Rudolf. The Z i g e u n e r i n appears to have a s u p e r n a t u r a l power of foreknowledge. She appears one day when the young Rudolf i s t a l k i n g w i t h A n g e l i n a i n the garden aid demands to t e l l t h e i r f o r t u n e . A young man, a t r a v e l l e r , passes by and greets them p o l i t e l y . The gypsy says: "Eines von euch d r e i e n wird den anderen ermorden." (p.266) Rudolf r e c o g n i z e s the young man as the c h i l d v/ho danced up and down and mocked him as h i s home was consumed by"° f i r e . H i s o l d anger i s r e k i n d l e d . Whether or not the gypsy's powers are meant to be t r u l y s u p e r n a t u r a l , her prophecy n e v e r t h e l e s s has a profound e f f e c t upon Rudolf. Already obsessed w i t h f e e l -i ngs of p e r s e c u t i o n , he i s f u r t h e r tormented by the con-v i c t i o n of God's hatred f o r him: " i c h b l i e b e a l l e i n i n dem grossen Garten und glaub.te f e s t nun a l s Horder auch sogar von Gott v e r l a s s e n zu s e i n ; niemals f u h l t e i c h mich so f i n s t e r und so l e e r . " (p.266) Rudolf meets t h i s f a t e d enemy three-more times. As he escapes w i t h A n g e l i n a he sees him i n Venice as he g l i d e s s i l e n t l y past i n the next boat. Although A n g e l i n a i s a s l e e p , she senses h i s nearness w i t h f o r e b o d i n g : so wachte doch A n g e l i n a i n demselben Augenblick von s e l b e r auf und sagte mir erschrocken, es habe i h r etwas F u r c h t e r l i c h e s getraurut. (p.270-271 ) 174 This man i s the same person who abducts A n g e l i n a a f t e r she has borne Rudolf a c h i l d and she i s l i v i n g alone i n the country. When Rudolf v i s i t s her and d i s c o v e r s t h i s he r e c o g n i z e s the old woman who look s a f t e r the house as the Z i g e u n e r i n . A n g e l i n a had l e f t a heap of gold behind: Die A l t e t a n z t e unten mit w i d r i g vor Staunen und G i e r v e r z e r r t e n Gebarden wie e i n e Hexe zwischen dem Goldregen herum, und i c h glaubte da auf einmal i n i h r e n Zugen d i e s e l b e Z i g e u n e r i n zu erkennen, die mir damals an dem G a r t e n g i t t e r p r o p h e z e i t h a t t e . -I c h e l i t e zu i h r hinab, aber s i e h a t t e s i c h b e r e i t s mit dem Golde v e r l o r e n . (p.273) Rudolf loads h i s p i s t o l s and decides to pursue Angelina^, and her l o v e r , determined t o k i l l him. But he cannot f i n d them and g i v e s up the p u r s u i t . In h i s f r u s t r a t i o n he tur n s t o a l i f e of t r i v i a l and s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s . One time as he i s gambling the l a s t of h i s money i n a game of Pharo, he recogni z e s h i s enemy i n the person of the c r o u p i e r who c r i e s " v e r l o r e n " as he l o s e s the game. He lunges towards him but the man es-capes. Rudolf then j o i n s a group of gypsies and, among them, re c o g n i z e s the o l d Z i g e u n e r i n . She reads h i s palm and says: "Es i s t hoch an der Z e i t , der Eeind i s t n i c h t mehr w e i t , hiite d i c h , hiite d i c h ! " (p.276) With the others he attends a c e l e b r a t i o n at the c a s t l e of a r i c h count. Here he d i s g u i s e s h i m s e l f i n the costume of a b l a c k k n i g h t . A n g e l i n a , the la d y of the house, 175 mistakes him f o r her husband (Rudolf's enemy) and speaks to Rudolf. Suddenly the husband appears, dressed i n an i d e n t i c a l costume. The mask f a l l s from h i s f a c e and Ru-d o l f r e c o g n i z e s him. He a t t a c k s Rudolf w i t h a sword but, i n h i s c o n f u s i o n , f a l l s i n t o Rudolf's o u t s t r e t c h e d dagger, and f a l l s dead. The prophecy i s f u l f i l l e d . The two C h r i s t i a n forms of f a t e are suggested by Rudolf, who, as the b l a c k k n i g h t , may represent the Old Testament conception of a v e n g e f u l d e i t y and by the "weisse F r a u " (Angelina) who may represent the redemptive New Testament conception of God. l i k e the Z i g e u n e r i n , Rudolf's c h a r a c t e r a l s o assumes s u p e r n a t u r a l a s p e c t s . In h i s mountain refuge even the sounds of nature r e f l e c t the i n s i s t e n t nature of f a t e : ein. seltsames Sausen, das n i c h t vom Walde herzukom-men s c h i e n , sondern wie f e i n e r Wellenschlag t o n t e , brauste d i e ganze Nacht h i n d u r c h . (p.257) I t i s i n h i s appearances as the black k n i g h t , however, t h a t t h i s aspect of h i s c h a r a c t e r i s most f r e q u e n t l y ex-pressed. H i s appearances are motivated by an extreme moral s e v e r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s a t t i t u d e to l o v e . He d e l i g h t s i n showing' the uncompromising nature of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y by appearing solemnly as the b l a c k k n i g h t - even as "der Tod von B a s e l " (p.115): Die G e s t a l t war hoch und schlank, s e i n Warns r e i c h mit Gold, der Hut mit hohen Federn geschmiickt, d i e ganze Pracht doch so u r a l t , fremd und f a s t g e s p e n s t i s c h , 176 dass jedera u n h e i m l i c h zumute ward, an dem er v o r -i i b e r s t r e i f t e . - (p.113) By f l i r t i n g w i t h the g i r l s i n t h i s a t t i r e he makes them aware of the f r i v o l i t y of t h e i r own behavior and the t r a n s i e n c e of l o v e : Er war i i b r i g e n s g a l a n t und wusste zu leben. E r i e d r i c h sah i h n f a s t mit a l i e n Schonen buhlen. Doch a l l e machten s i c h g l e i c h nach den e r s t e n Wort en s c h n e l l wieder von ihm l o s , denn unter den S p i t z e n d e r R i t -t e r a r m e l l a n g t e n d i e Knochenhande eines TotengeV r i p p e s hervor. (p.113) Such f r i v o l o u s l o v e i s s i n f u l and r e l a t e d to the d e v i l and to death, as E r i e d r i c h e x p l a i n s t o Marie: Wie der schwarze H i t t e r heute auf dem B a l l e , t r i t t u b e r a l l e i n f r e i e r , w i l d e r Gast ungeladeii i n das F e s t . Er 1st so l u s t i g aufgeschmiickt und e i n r t i s t i -ger Tanzer, aber seine Augen sind l e e r und h o h l und seine Hand.e t o t k a l t , und du musst st e r b e n , wenn er d i c h i n die Arme nimmt, denn d e i n Buhle i s t der T e u f e l . (p.117) H i s most s e r i o u s a c t , however, i s h i s r e s p o n s i -b i l i t y f o r the death of l e o n t i n ' s m i s t r e s s . Taking advan-tage of h i s uncanny p h y s i c a l resemblance to L e o n t i n , he appears to her and advises her " l i e b e r Gott a l s d i e Manner zu l i e b e n . " . (p.255) When the g i r l l a t e r sees both of them to g e t h e r , she f a i n t s and l a t e r d i e s of shock. Rudolf, how-ever, i s impenitent and does not r e g r e t the harshness of h i s a t t i t u d e . He says: "Besser t o t a l s eine Hure. " (p. 255) In t h i s sense, although h i s a t t i t u d e i s motivated by an i d e a l moral standard, h i s a c t i o n s can be considered those of a malevolent r a t h e r than a b e n e f i c i a l form of f a t e . 1 7 7 "Die weisse Erau" a l s o seems endowed w i t h super-n a t u r a l powers. She appears almost m i r a c u l o u s l y at the scene of f i r e s : S i e i s t im S t i l l e n sehr w o h l t a t i g , und, seltsam ge-nug, b e i Tag und b e i Nacht, wo immer e i n Eeuer aus-b r i c h t , s o g l e i c h b e i der Hand, wobei s i e dann d i e armen Verungluckten mit ansehnlichen Suminen u n t e r -s t t i t z t . (p.9 5 ) The peasants a t t r i b u t e to her the power to e x t i n g u i s h f i r e : Die Bauern glauben nun ganz z u v e r s i c h t l i c h , sobald s i e nur e r s c h e i n t , miisse das Eeuer s i c h l e g e n , wie beim Axiblick e i n e r H e i l i g e n . (p. 9 5 ) ' The mystery w i t h which she surrounds her l i f e adds to t h i s image which has been created around her: tibrigens empfangt und e r w i d e r t s i e keine Besuche, und niemand' weiss e i g e n t l i c h r e c h t , wie s i e h e i s s t und woher s i e gekommen; denn s i e s e l b e r s p r i c h t n i e -mals von ihrem vergangenen l e b e n . (p.9 5 ) Because her a c t i o n s are motivated by a d e s i r e t o help - t o redeem - r a t h e r than, l i k e Rudolf - t o destroy and t o condemn, she can be s a i d to represent a b e n e f i c i a l form of f a t e . I t i s , perhaps, not necessary t o enquire whether E i c h e n d o r f f intended these c h a r a c t e r s to possess super-n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s and t o be expressions of some f o r c e of f a t e i n the u n i v e r s e . The important f a c t i s t h a t those c h a r a c t e r s who accept these m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as such are i n -f l u e n c e d and permanently a f f e c t e d by them. 178 CONCLUSION In Ahnung und Gegenwart E i c h e n d o r f f attempts to p r ovide a p i c t u r e of Germany durin g the Napoleonic war -"jene seltsame, g e w i t t erschwiile Z e i t der Erwartung, Sehn-104 sucht und Schmerzen. " Y/hat he a c t u a l l y provides,-Jiow-ever, i s a study of a s o c i e t y which i s v a l i d f o r a l l ' t i m e . Por E i c h e n d o r f f ' s c h a r a c t e r s are not mere romantic "types", 105 s t i l l l e s s a l l e g o r i c a l f i g u r e s , "but a wide v a r i e t y of r e c o g n i z a b l e human beings whose p e r s o n a l i t i e s are m i n u t e l y d e s c r i b e d . As such, they can be used as "case s t u d i e s " to determine i n what ways human beings have sought h a p p i -ness i n the past and w i l l continue to seek i t . A study of these c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l s t h a t E i c h e n -d o r f f considers order and harmony to be r e q u i s i t e s of happiness. This harmony can only be a t t a i n e d by subor-d i n a t i n g one's l i f e to the f o r c e s of m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n . This harmony i s an unassuming q u a l i t y best nurtured i n a n a t u r a l environment. E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s the s o c i e t y of h i s time i n as much d e t a i l as he does h i s human beings. The urban s o c i e t y , represented by the a r t i f i c i a l l i f e of the c o u r t , i s u n s t a b l e and v a c i l l a t i n g beca\ise i t has l o s t the 104 E i c h e n d o r f f i n a l e t t e r to Fcuque, (H.K.A., XII,9) 105 Cf. R i l e y ' s r a t h e r i r r e s p o n s i b l e c r i t i c i s m : Thomas A. R i l e y , "An a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s Ahnung und Gegenwart," MLR, LIV (1959), 204-13. 179 t r a d i t i o n a l moral and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . I t i s unstable p o l i t i c a l l y because i t l a c k s the i d e a l i s m t o u n i t e i t s e l f i n a c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t to oppose Napoleon. I t i s u n s t a b l e m o r a l l y because i t condones p r o m i s c u i t y and thus threatens the s a n c t i t y o f marriage. In order to reform these i l l s E i c h e n d o r f f advocates a r e t u r n t o "altdeutsche Tugend" -t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n . However, E i c h e n d o r f f i s r e a l i s t i c enough to r e a l i z e that these i l l s can only be combatted i n d i r e c t l y . I n t h i s c y n i c a l age any attempt to reform s o c i e t y d i r e c t l y by a r e v i v a l of " C h r i s t i a n -—; knighthood" i s doomed to f a i l u r e . Thus, F r i e d r i c h enters a monastery i n order to reform s o c i e t y i n d i r e c t l y through prayer. As a c o n t r a s t t o the court s o c i e t y and as an example of the i d e a l s o c i e t y E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s the s t a b l e unassuming r u r a l s o c i e t y which has found peace and happiness through the p r a c t i c e of m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n . "Altdeutsche Tugend" ~ C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n - are a l s o the only f o r c e s which can r e s t o r e order w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Those i n d i v i d u a l s who do not possess these v i r t u e s lead d i s o r d e r e d l i v e s and even-t u a l l y s h a t t e r on l i f e . They can only f l e e l i f e (Rudolf and V i k t o r ) or d i e , (Romana, Erwin and the Burgermadchen). Through these v i r t u e s others are able to salvage t h e i r l i v e s and a t t a i n some measure of happiness ( A n g e l i n a , Marie, and Rosa). In s t i l l others these v i r t u e s were • 180 developed e a r l y i n l i f e and represent permanent p e r s o n a l -i t y t r a i t s . These persons are the happiest of a l l because they have always experienced peace and harmony w i t h i n themselves. They are secure w i t h i n and able to withstand misfortunes which may be imposed upon them by the outside world. ( F r i e d r i c h and J u l i e ) E i c h e n d o r f f shows t h a t human beings seek h a p p i -ness i n many ways. Men and"wornen d i f f e r i n the ways i n which they seek happiness. Women s e e k c i t p r i m a r i l y through l o v e . I f t h i s f a i l s , t h e i r unhappiness may be m i t i g a t e d by the p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n but i t w i l l never compensate f o r the l o v e they have l o s t . On the other hand, men seek l o v e only as a secondary source of happiness. They seek happiness p r i m a r i l y through some a c t i v i t y which i s r e -l a t e d to l i f e i n g e n e r a l - i n the p r a c t i c a l world of p o l i t i c s or warfare or i n the i d e a l i s t i c v/orld of a r t or r e l i g i o n . Although E i c h e n d o r f f b e l i e v e s that the i n d i -v i d u a l can only achieve happiness through the p r a c t i c e of m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n he i s not naive enough to suggest t h a t everyone i s capable of e x e r c i s i n g these v i r t u e s . He r e a l i z e s t h a t the happiness of a l l i n d i v i d u a l s i s l i m i t e d and determined i n t e r n a l l y - by the p e r s o n a l i t y of the i n d i v u d u a l formed e a r l y i n l i f e , by the i n t e r a c t i o n of h e r e d i t y and environment, and e x t e r n a l l y - by chance and 181 f a t e . E i c h e n d o r f f a l s o shows that happiness can be a t t a i n e d both i n . the a c t i v e and i n the contemplative l i f e Thus, happiness can be obtained through marriage, as i t i s f o r J u l i e and L e o n t i n ; or through the r e l i g i o u s l i f e , as i t i s f o r F r i e d r i c h . F r i e d r i c h , hov/ever, r e p r e s e n t s the i d e a l of human happiness. He i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d contemplative, impervious to the ou t s i d e w o r l d , who seeks f u l f i l l m e n t only through h i s own res o u r c e s . T h i s f r e e s him from de-pendence upon other human beings, so v a c i l l a t i n g i n na t u r e , and permits him to achieve union w i t h God, who i s unchanging and e t e r n a l . I n t h i s sense, the happiness of the contemplative can be s a i d t o be s u p e r i o r to t h a t of others because i t i s more s t a b l e and secure. 182 BIBLIOGRAPHY E i c h e n d o r f f , Joseph P r e i h e r r von. Neue Gesamtausgabe der Werke und S c h r i f t e n .in 4 Banden, ed. Gerhard Baumann. 4 v o l s . S t u t t g a r t , J.G. C o t t a , 1 9 4 7 - 5 8 . . '.• S & n t l l c h e Werke, H i s t . - k r i t . Ausg. Bd. 3,10,12,13. Regensburg, 1908 - 6 2 ' , Arnim, Achim von. Werke, ed. Reinhold S t e i g . L e i p z i g , n.d. 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L e i p z i g , 1937c K e l l e r , Otto, E i c h e n d o r f f s K r i t i k der Romantik. D i s s . , Z u r i c h , 1 9 5 4 . K i l l y , Walther. "Der Roman a l s romantisches Buch; Ei c h e n -d o r f f s "Ahnung und Gegenwart." In h i s W i r k l i c h k e i t und  Kunstc h a r a k t e r . Munich, 1 9 6 3 . K o h l e r , W i l l i b a l d . Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f . Augsburg, 1 9 5 7 . K o r f f , H.A. G e i s t der Goet h e z e i t . 5 v o l s . L e i p z i g , 1959-62* Kunz, J o s e f . E i c h e n d o r f f ; Hohepunkt und K r i s e der Spat-romantik. O b e r u r s e l , 1 9 5 1 . Meyer, Hermann. Der So n d e r l i n g i n der deutschen Dichtung. Munich, 1 9 6 3 . 183 Mobus, Gerhard. Der andere E i c h e n d o r f f ; zur Deutung der  Dichtung Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f s . 0snabruck, 1960. Peuckert, W i l l E r i c h . Der unbekannte E i c h e n d o r f f ; vom  Schwarmen zur Bewahrung. Munich, 1958. Radner, Laurence R. 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