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"Fromm und Frohlich" : the conception of happiness in Eichendorff's Ahnung und Gegenwart Vogel, Betty 1968

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"FROMM UND FROKLICH"; THE CONCEPTION OF HAPPINESS IN EICHSNDORFF'S AHHUNG UND GEGENWART  by BETTY VOGEL B.A., University o f b r i t i s h Columbia, 1953  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M.A. in the Department of German We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA AUGUST, 1968  In  presenting  for  an  that  advanced  thesis  shall  I further  or by  publication  my  Department  nils  <^tV-  i t freely  that  be  representatives.  thesis  Columbia  of  the  British  granted  by  requirements  Columbia,  t h e Head  shall  and  copying  It i s understood  gain  I agree  for reference  for extensive  for financial  permission.  t^^j  of  available  permission  .^kA^~<t-^  ,  fulfilment  the U n i v e r s i t y  make  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  in partial  p u r p o s e s may  of this  written  of  at  agree  for scholarly  Department  without  thesis  degree  the Library  Study.  or  this  of  of  this  my  that  n o t be  copying  allowed  ABSTRACT  I n Ahnung und Gegenwart E i c h e n d o r f f makes no s p e c i f i c reference  to t h e subject o f happiness.  theme must be e x p l o r e d  Because o f t h i s ,  this  i n d i r e c t l y t h r o u g h an a n a l y s i s o f t h e  s o c i e t y and c h a r a c t e r s d e p i c t e d i n t h e n o v e l .  By a b s t r a c t i n g  those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s as c r e a t i n g h a p p i n e s s i n t h e s o c i e t y and t h e i n d i v i d u a l one c a n c o n s t r u c t a t h e s i s r e p r e s e n t i n g h i s views i n t h i s  regard.  I n t h i s n o v e l E i c h e n d o r f f c o n t r a s t s two s o c i e t i e s — the a r t i f i c i a l p e r m i s s i v e  s o c i e t y o f t h e c o u r t , whose a t t i t u d e s  he s a t i r i z e s , and t h e wholesome r u r a l s o c i e t y , whose a t t i t u d e s he condones.  The l a t t e r c o n s e r v e s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n -  Germanic v i r t u e s o f " t r e u e one  assumes, r e p r e s e n t s  S i t t e und FrSramigkeit"  and, as such,  t h e a u t h o r ' s i d e a l o f t h e t r u l y happy  society. Eichendorff recognizes  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and  r e a l i s e s t h a t human b e i n g s seek h a p p i n e s s i n many d i f f e r e n t ways.  He r e a l i z e s t h a t men and women d i f f e r r a d i c a l l y i n t h i s  respect.  Men seek h a p p i n e s s p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h a c a r e e r .  Women seek i t i n l o v e .  Eichendorff also r e a l i z e s the v a r i a t i o n  i n human temperament which t r a n s c e n d s s e x u a l d i f f e r e n c e s .  He  r e a l i z e s t h a t e x t r o v e r t s seek h a p p i n e s s a c t i v e l y i n t h e w o r l d — p o s s i b l y i n some p o l i t i c a l commitment—and a r e l i k e l y t o seek  ii f u l f i l l m e n t through marriage.  (This i s true of L e o n t i n . )  I n t r o v e r t s , on the other hand, tend to seek f u l f i l l m e n t through t h e i r own inner resources—through the p r a c t i c e of a r t or religion.  They are also more apt to sublimate t h e i r d e s i r e  f o r human l o v e i n t o some a e s t h e t i c or s p i r i t u a l i d e a l .  (This  i s t r u e of F r i e d r i c h . ) But although Eichendorff does not p r e s c r i b e any p a r t i c u l a r form of human f u l f i l l m e n t , he does p r e s c r i b e the c o n d i t i o n s under which happiness i s to be sought.  He i s  convinced that there are c e r t a i n inner q u a l i t i e s which the i n d i v i d u a l must possess i f he i s to achieve i t .  These are the  same q u a l i t i e s which motivate the i d e a l r u r a l s o c i e t y , S i t t e und FrOmmigkeit," m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n .  "treue  Only by subject-  i n g himself to these ordering i n f l u e n c e s can the i n d i v i d u a l a t t a i n peace and harmony, the f r u i t s of happiness.  If  the  i n d i v i d u a l does not subject himself to them, h i s l i f e becomes disordered and he shatters on l i f e .  M o r a l i t y i s necessary to  p r o t e c t the i n d i v i d u a l from d i s t u r b i n g emotional which may d i s r u p t h i s l i f e .  experiences  S p i r i t u a l i t y i s necessary to  ensure the inner e q u i l i b r i u m which i s conducive to happiness. E i c h e n d o r f f , however, does not present a f a c i l e , V i c t o r i a n view of l i f e .  Although he stresses the  necessity  of m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n as bases of an ordered and happy l i f e , he nowhere promulgates the naive view that a l l i n d i v i d u a l s are  iii capable of exercising these virtues.  He realizes that a l l  individuals are limited by heredity and environment and that, consequently, "will-power" i t s e l f i s an inherited, or acquired, characteristic.  Not a l l individuals, when frustrated i n their  search for happiness have the capacity to restrain themselves by morality or sublimate themselves i n religion.  (Thus, Romana  commits suicide, Erwin dies of a broken heart, and Rudolf escapes into a l i f e of magic.) Eichendorff does not give preference to any particular form of human fulfillment.  Nevertheless i t i s not unreasonable  to assume that Friedrich, from whose viewpoint the novel i s written, represents Eichendorff s ideal of human development. 1  Friedrich  i s a contemplative, a self-contained personality able to attain fulfillment through his own inner resources. He i s able to experience the joy of creativity and that of an intimate relationship with God, profound human experiences unrelated to the vicissitudes of the external world.  His happiness i s thus more  enduring than- that of those who seek i t outside of themselves. And yet, although he i s physically isolated from the world, he has the assurance of serving i t i n the most meaningful manner. Through his prayers as a religious he hopes to reawaken those forces of morality and religion which alone xd.ll restore happiness to his society.  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT PLOT INTRODUCTION  • PART I.  Page i 1 3  •  CHARACTERISTICS OF HAPPINESS " .  Chapter I. S o c i e t y The i n d i v i d u a l The i n f l u e n c e o f n a t u r e PART I I . II.  III.  IV.  7 23 32  ANALYSES OF CHARACTERS  The unhappy Viktor Rudolf Romana Erwin The Burgerm&dehen Leontin's mistress  *.  38 39 UU 50 60 67 68  The unhappy who make some p o s i t i v e adjustment to l i f e . . Marie Angelina Rosa  70 71 74" 80  The happy Julie  85 85  Leontin  89  PART III. METHODS OF ACHIEVING HAPPINESS V.'. Through A. B. C. VI. Through A. B. VII.  VIII.  Through A. B. C.  society The s t a t e The war a g a i n s t Napoleon Knighthood others Love Friendship  .'  oneself Art Philosophy Religion  96 97 99 105 113 126  127 139 HI  PART I V . LIMITATIONS OF HAPPINESS IX.  H e r e d i t y and environment Chance and f a t e  CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY  156 169 178 182  PLOT  The young count, F r i e d r i c h , returns from the u n i v e r s i t y . He has an amorous adventure with the b e a u t i f u l young Rosa on the. t r i p up the Danube.  He i s attacked and wounded while staying  the night i n a f o r e s t m i l l ,  and awakes out of h i s unconscious-  ness i n the c a s t l e of the young count Leontin.  Here he meets  the poet Faber and discovers Rosa to be L e o n t i n s s i s t e r . 1  They  undertake hunting expeditions together and during one such expedition F r i e d r i c h and Leontin get to know J u l i e , the daughter of a nobleman, Herr von A . , a f r i e n d of Leontin's f a t h e r .  They  stay a while peacefully at h i s estate, during which time F r i e d r i c h composes countless songs and s t o r i e s and engages J u l i e i n a f r u i t f u l and l i v e l y exchange of ideas.  There i s a f i r e at  c a s t l e from which J u l i e i s rescued by Leontin.  On h i s return  to the court, F r i e d r i c h i s drawn into the c i r c l e of the minister to whom he has a l e t t e r of recommendation, to know the countess Romana, who, at f i r s t , ingly.  the  cabinet  and gets  a t t r a c t s him exceed-  She i s a dazzling southern beauty with unusual i n t e l l e c t u a l  g i f t s , but i n n e r l y distraught and abandoned to an extravagant l i f e of the senses.  She experiences an uncontrollable passion  f o r F r i e d r i c h , but despairs of ever attaining him. she commits s u i c i d e .  Finally  At the court F r i e d r i c h i s surrounded by  a c i r c l e of f r i e n d s which includes the cabinet minister and the crown p r i n c e .  The l a t t e r seduces a middle-class g i r l , who then  d i e s shortly afterwards.  The prince responds to F r i e d r i c h * s  2 reproaches with remorse and wishes to atone for his actions. Shortly afterwards, however, during a chamois hunt, he abducts Rosa, whom he later marries.  Meanwhile Friedrich has wandered  into a mountainous area of west Germany during the Tyrolean uprising, and joins a local partisan group. and his enemies confiscate his lands.  He i s wounded  Then he meets Leontin,  who has also taken part i n the uprising. Leontin defended his castle i n vain against the enemy and, after being wounded, has been hid  by Julie.  Friedrich and Leontin ride into the mountains  again, during which time they arrive at Friedrich's home and meet his brother Rudolf, who t e l l s them his l i f e story. In the isolation of the mountains Friedrich's spiritual powers develop. monastery.  He reads the Bible and decides to enter a  He parts with Leontin.  Leontin and Julie are wed  in the monastery church and leave for the new world.  Friedrich  becomes a monk, and Faber, who meets them there by chance, returns to his former l i f e .  3  INTRODUCTION  What i s happiness? It i s a spontaneous feeling of trail-being, instantly recognized, by the individual.  It i s an expansive and all-pervasive  sensation, f u l f i l l i n g the whole personality, both mind and feelings. Because of this, i t i s impossible to be really happy without being happy i n a l l aspects of one's l i f e .  A l l one's  reactions to l i f e merge i n the subconscious to form a generalized emotional state, i n which either "happiness" or "unhappiness" predominates.  Thus, xriien we speak of a "happy" or an "unhappy"  person, we refer not to a temporary but to a permanent attitude, the enduring emotional backdrop of his l i f e .  This i s not the  result of any specific experience, but of the sum total of his experiences, the whole inner organization of his l i f e which has enabled him to react positively to l i f e , and therefore to be "happy", or has prevented him from doing so, and therefore to become "unhappy." Therefore, i n order to attain happiness i n this profound and more enduring sense, the individual must order his inner l i f e so that he can achieve the harmony which i s the basic characteristic of such happiness.  In achieving this he w i l l attain peace and  contentment, i t s f r u i t s .  Similarly, i n order for the individual  4 to a t t a i n happiness, the environment i n which he seeks i t , society,  must also be harmoniously ordered. One can say,  therefore,  that happiness i s dependent  upon the harmonious f u l f i l l m e n t of i n d i v i d u a l capacities conducive environment, a well-ordered society.  in a  Its basis i s  order and i t s f r u i t i s peace. Within a society these ordering influences are p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l .  The government must be stable and the state safe  from the threat of agression;  the s t a b i l i t y of the society must  be maintained by the observance of moral p r i n c i p l e s . Within the i n d i v i d u a l t h i s ordering force can be any p r i n c i p l e which i s broad enough to absorb a l l h i s a b i l i t i e s and subordinate them to.some higher purpose.  This can involve a  purposeful r e l a t i o n s h i p to the state (some form of p o l i t i c a l action),  to other people (love and f r i e n d s h i p ) ,  to.oneself  ( a r t ) , or to God ( r e l i g i o n ) . In Ahnung und Gegenwart Eichendorff shows how the lack of any general organizing p r i n c i p l e has affected both the happiness of the society and the i n d i v i d u a l .  Like Novalis i n Die  Christenheit oder Europa, he prefers the society of the Middle Ages, the unity and s t a b i l i t y of l i f e based on b e l i e f i n God, to that of contemporary Germany—its chaotic l i f e based on the c u l t of the i n d i v i d u a l .  Externally, Germany i s i n turmoil be-  cause of a lack of any coherent moral framework.  Because of t h i s ,  5 a l l values have declined and become r e l a t i v e and have affected the happiness of the society and the i n d i v i d u a l . Thus, there i s no guiding p r i n c i p l e of j u s t i c e guiding the s t a t e .  The war against Napoleon i s not a righteous  r e l i g i o u s cause, but i s based on a l o c a l and e r r a t i c patriotism which does not i n s p i r e courageous a c t i o n .  The lack of a c l e a r l y  defined moral standard has also affected the s t a b i l i t y of society by endangering the honesty and permanence of human r e l a t i o n s h i p s and weakening the i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage. This moral r e l a t i v i s m has also affected the happiness of the i n d i v i d u a l by l i m i t i n g the methods i n which he can a t t a i n fulfillment.  He can no longer seek i t i n service to the state,  i n knighthood, because the state represents no higher p r i n c i p l e s f o r which to f i g h t .  Women are prevented from f i n d i n g i t through  love because marriage, the stable permanent form i n which i t can be protected, has been threatened i n a society which condones promiscuity. Unhappiness i s the r e s u l t of the i n a b i l i t y of the i n d i v i d u a l to order his inner l i f e ,  to u n i f y his mind and  f e e l i n g s , i n t o some purposeful way of l i f e .  This may be the  f a u l t of the i n d i v i d u a l , the lack of a conscientious practice of r e l i g i o n , but i t can also be due to factors beyond h i s c o n t r o l . Thus, happiness i s l i m i t e d by unfavorable s o c i a l conditions, by environment, and also affected by i n d e l i b l e p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s within the i n d i v i d u a l , by heredity.  There i s also an extent  to which happiness i s beyond our control—at —some strange confluence of events—or f a t e .  the mercy of chance Thus, although  F r i e d r i c h represents the i d e a l of human happiness, the calm self-contained happiness of the contemplative impervious to outer events,  Eichendorff recognizes that contemplation i s  i t s e l f a g i f t of temperament, able to  others.  of heredity, and may be unattain-  7 PART I CHARACTERISTICS OF HAPPINESS IN SOCIETY AND THE INDIVIDUAL CHAPTER I  Happiness'and unhappiness can be the characteristics both of a social group and of an individual. SOCIETY Every social group has an individuality, a composite of various personality t r a i t s just as unique as that of a human being. The "personality" of a whole society i s i t s "Zeitgeist", that collection of cultural attitudes which typifies i t s age.  Every  social group also has a predominant emotional tone, a "Stimmung", which enables us to speak of a "happy" or "unhappy" society with as much assurance as we can of a human being. Because society i s simply a collection of individuals we can assume that those factors which characterize an unhappy society also characterize an unhappy human being. The personality of a whole society, however, unlike that of an individual, has a much more powerful influence over the behavior of others.  Because i t represents the dominating  cultural environment of the time i t can form the attitudes and affect the happiness of countless individuals. In Ahnung und Gegenwart Eichendorff describes the characteristics of the two societies of his age which represent  8 opposing sets of values—the unhappy society, disorganized through i t s deification of the individual, representing the spirit of the age, and the happy society, unified by a common moral and religious conviction, representing the medieval s p i r i t .  In doing so, Eichen-  dorff also describes those characteristics which are indicative of happiness or unhappiness within the individual. Friedrich characterizes the present condition of Germany 1 as extremely unhappy, as an "Elend" (p. 678).  Culturally i t i s  an "ausgebildeter Heidensitze" (p. 678) i n which a l l the concrete spiritual and moral values which could unify society have been discarded.  According to Leontin Germany has prostituted the old  enduring values which gave coherence to medieval society and because of this, has created an intellectual and moral chaos: Die Jungfrau Europa, die so hochherzig mit ihren ausgebreiteten Armen dastand, als wolle sie die ganze Welt umspannen hat die alten, sinnreichen, frommen schdnen, Sitten abgelegt und'ist eine Metzte geworden^ Sie buhlt f r e i mit dem gesunden Menschenverstande, dem Unglauben, Gewalt und Verrat, und ihr Herz i s t dabei besonders eingeschrumpft. (p. 288) According to Friedrich, the current confusion of values offers no hope for i t s salvation: Denn wo i s t i n dem Schwalle von Poesie, Andacht, Deutschheit, Tugend und Vaterlanderei, die jetzt, wie bei der babylonischen Sprachverwirrung, schwankend hin und her summen, ein sicherer Mittelpunkt, aus welchem alles dieses zu einem klaren VerstHndnis, zu einem lebendigen Ganzen gelangen kdnnte? (p. 296) He realizes that a l l attempts to reform Germany from 1 Joseph von Eichendorff, "Ahnung und Gegenwart," in his Neue Gesamtausg abe der Werke und Schriften in h BMnden, ed. G-srhard Baumann (Stuttgart, J. G. Co tta, 19^7-58), Bel. 2 , p. 133. A l l references to Ahnung und Gegenwart refer to this edition.  9 without w i l l be i n v a l i d u n t i l i t i s reformed from within, u n t i l the nature of the individual i s so perfected that society w i l l be ready f o r external changes based on some exalted concept of mans . . . wenn die GemUter auf solche Weise von den gOttlichen Wahrheiten der Religion lange vorbereitet, erweitert, gereinigt und wahrhaft durchdrungen wUrden, dass der Geist Gottes und das Grosse im flffentlichen Leben wieder Raum i n ihhen gewtfhne, dann erst wird es Zeit sein, unmittelbar zu handeln, und das alte Recht, die alte Freiheit, Ehre und Ruhra i n das wiedereroberte Reich zuriickzuftlhren. (p. 297) External action i s therefore impracticable at the present time: Es i s t noch nicht an der Zeit, zu bauen, solange die Backsteine, noch weich und unreif, unter den H&nden zerfliessen. M r scheint i n diesem Elend, wie immer, keine andere HtLlfe a l s die Religion, (p. 296)  Simplicity, a natural honesty of expression, i s the necessary basis of happiness because happiness, a sense of inner well-being, can only be experienced i n spontaneous and s e l f - f o r g e t f u l moments. I t i s also the basis of morality and p i e t y because these as ideals are dependent upon sincerity of expression.  Thus, F r i e d r i c h defines the desirable character-  i s t i c s of society as "treue S i t t e , Frflmmigkeit und E i n f a l t . " These characteristics are discussed by Eichendorff i n the two representative societies of this novel—the unhappy 2 urban society and the happy r u r a l society. 2 Riepe recognizes the consciuus antithesis which Eichendorff intends i n describing these two societies. He says: "(fberhaupt bilden die guten Menschen auf dem Lande und die bdsen Menschen i n der Stadt einen immerwilhrenden Gegensatz." Christian Riepe, Eichendorffs Menschengestaltun% (Berlin, 19^1), p. 18.  10 The Unhappy Society Tamm points out that Eichendorffs description of the 3 Teegesellschaft i s a satire against the romantic aestheticism of his age and the relative religious and ethical values i t represented.  Schlegel, however, considers such a conception  of l i f e to have arisen i n the middle of the 18th century.  He says:  Es i s t ein Anblick, der zum T e i l mit Staunen, zum T e i l mit Wehmut erftilLt, wenn man die von drohenden Anzeichen schwangere, ruinenvolle Geschichte des letzten Jahrhundert s gegenwSrtig hat, und nun die ersten Geister der Deutschen, fast ohne Ausnahms, seit mehr als fttnfzig Jahr.en einzig und allein i n eine bloss Hsthetische Ansicht der Dinge so ganz verloren, fast alle nur damit beschaftigt sieht, bis endlich jeder ernste Gedanke an Gott und Vaterland, jede Erinnerung des alten Ruhms und mit ihnen der Geist der Starke und Treue meist bis auf die letzte Spur erloschen war. . . . Diese Hsthetische TrHumerei, dieser unmSnnliche pantheistische Schwindel, diese Formenspielerei mtlssen aufhdren; sie sind der grossen Zeit unwurdig und nicht mehr angemessen. Die Erkenntnis der Kunst und das Geftlhl der Natur werden uns wohl bleiben, solange wir Deutsche sind;  3 "Eichendorff wendet sich gegen den ethischen und religiilsen Relativismus des romantischen Aesthetentums." Emil Tamm, Die Bedeutung des Romans "Ahnung und Gegenwart" fur Eichendorffs geistige Entwicklung (diss. Hamburg, 1924), p. 7.  h  Historically the description of the Teegesellschaft i s based, according to most c r i t i c s , upon Eichendorffs acquaintance with Graf von Loeben and his circle in Heidelberg. Darakoff considers i t a satire upon aesthetic teas held by Frau Sander, the wife of a bookdealer in Berlin. Julius Todoroff Darakoff, Eichendorffs Jugendrama "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (diss. Vienna, 1942), p. 2:1.  11 aber die Kraft und der Ernst der Wahrheit, die feste Rticksicht auf Gott und auf unsern Beruf muss die erste Stelle behaupten und wieder i n seine alten Rechte eintreten, wie es den deutschen Charakter gemSss ist.5 For the early romantics the artist represented the highest ideal of human fulfillment and art i t s e l f the supreme value i n l i f e .  Life and art were considered inseparable.  Tamm points out, however, that when such conceptions became fashionable, their effect upon society was simply to create a self-conscious, a r t i f i c i a l stance, because most people do not possess the genius to implement them: Die Forderung, dass Dichtung und Leben einander durchdringen, eine synthetische Einheit bilden sollen, i s t durchaus fr-Uhromantisch, und es liegt eine merkwiirdige geschichtliche Ironie darin, dass gerade aus der Romantik der lebensfremde Aesthetizismus hervorgegangen i s t . Der Literat sucht auf seine Weise Kunst und Leben zur Einheit zusammen zu zwingen, weil seine Gestaltungskraft nicht ausreicht, um das Leben in seiner dissonanzreichen Mannigfaltigkeit kilnstlerisch zu bewSltigen, versucht er, seine Dichtung ins Leben zu tibersetzen, d.h. sich eine spezifisch aesthetische Umwelt zu schaffen. 6  5 Friedrich Schlegel, Review of Adam Miller's "Vorlesungen liber die deutschen Wissenschaft und Literatur," Heidelbergische Jahrbiicher (1808), p. 418. 6  Tamm, p. 26.  12  This attempt to r e l a t e art to l i f e , to make l i f e i t s e l f a work of a r t ,  i s exemplified by "der Schuiachtender" who says, "mein  ganzes Leben wird zum Roman." (p. 133) "Treue S i t t e , FrSmmigkeit und E i n f a l t " therefore  are  p r e c i s e l y the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which are l a c k i n g i n the " T e e g e s e l l schaft" i n the "Residenz," the representative urban society of this period.  The main c h a r a c t e r i s t i c  of t h i s society i s not  naturalness upon which these v i r t u e s are based, but i t s opposite, artificiality. The deliberate attempt to create an a r t i f i c i a l aesthetic environment creates i n the i n d i v i d u a l a self-consciousness which may a f f e c t the p e r s o n a l i t y i n two ways.  I t may i n h i b i t i t ,  creating the " b r i t i s i e r e n d e s , eingefrorenes Wesen" of the Minister, or i t may lead to a pretension of s e n s i t i v i t y one doesn't possess, exhibited i n "der Schmachtende" and "die Sentimentale"—those who 8 are l i k e "einer, der gem f l i e g e n mSchte und nicht kann."  (p. 65)  The lack of naturalness of t h i s society i s r e f l e c t e d i n i t s lack of response to a natural environment, to nature i t s e l f . 7 . "Der Schmachtender'' i s a d i r e c t s a t i r e a g a i n s t Loeben, the l e a d e r o f the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l i t e r a r y group with, which E i c h e n d o r f f was a s s o c i a t e d i n H e i d e l b e r •8 Tamm points out that the s a t i r e against the "Sentimentale" i s directed against the conterriporary cult of "Empfindsamkeit." He believes i t was influenced by the Intermezzo of the lovers i n T i e c k ' s " G e s t i e f e l t e r Kater" and i s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , meant as a parody o f . t h e romantic n o v e l i s t Lafontaine. (Tamra, p . 12)  13  Because such people consider themselves above creation rather  9 than a manifestation of i t , with i t .  they cannot identify themselves  Instead of opening themselves to i t s influence, they  insist upon imposing their own personality upon i t , like the man who uses i t as a backdrop for his own self-dramatization to  10 Schiller's Don Carlos. Such an a r t i f i c i a l attitude to l i f e inevitably leads to relativism.  Life, l i k e art,  i s a game which can be mani-  pulated externally and thus possesses no fixed values. Because l i f e i s not serious there i s no compulsion to become involved in i t , an attitude reinforced by romantic irony, an outgrowth of the aesthetic attitude. Tamm says: Eine ausschliesslich an aesthetischen Werten orientierte Lebens&uffassung wird immer geneigt sein, die Welt ledigl i c h als ein Spiel wechselnder Formen und Gestalten zu betrachten und auf eigenes Handeln und tatiges Eingreifen zu verzichten. So entsteht die romantische Ironie, die dem Streit der Meinungen und der Leidenschaft der KHmpfer mit ilberlegenen LScheln zuschaut. Die jtingere Generation der Eichendorff, Arnim, Fouque ftihlte instinktiv das Unethische dieser Geisteshaltung und wandte sich entschlossen dagegen. 11  9 Weihe considers that this attitude i s an outgrowth of the nature pantheism of the early romantics which tended to deify man. She says: "Die Welt, die vergisst, dass sie Scho'pfung i s t und i n ihrem Wahn die Kreatur vergb"ttlicht, i s t dem Tode verfalien i n einem ganz realen Sinne." Amalie Weihe., Per .junge Eichendorff und Novalis' Naturpantheismus (Berlin, 1939)» P« 51. 10  Eichendorff may have been referring to the exaggerated self-conscious idealism of Marquis Posa, who attempts to impose his own ideas upon his environment rather than being receptive to i t s needs and condition. 11  Tamm, pp. 28-29.  14 Thus, because this society i s a r t i f i c i a l , based on fluctuating outer values rather than an honest, consistent expression of i t s members' own personality, i t s attitudes are unstable and insincere.  Its members are faddists, aware of a l l  the latest cultural trends and able to accommodate themselves to every new viewpoint.  Thus the "Don Carlos Schwarmer" i s  doubly ridiculous because he represents "eine aus der Mode gekommene Genialitfit." (p. 563)  Because they are chameleons  and adapt themselves comfortably to every circumstance, they are incapable of "Treue," which demands a consistent adherence to a fixed set of principles.  Thus Friedrich says of an  officer, a member of this group who hired himself as a mercenary for the enemy: Es war einer von jenen leichten halbbUrtigen Brildern, die im Winter zu seinem Kreise gehBrt und bei anbrechendem Frtthling, Ernst, Ehrlichkeit und ihre gemeinschaftliche Bestrebungen mit den BSllen und andern Winterunterhaltungen vergessen. (p. 213) Religious values are also relative.  Tamm says of the  Teegesellschaft: Sie fasste das religiose Erlebnis als Analogen des Aesthetischen auf, weil es nur i n symbolischen Formen zum Ausdruck gelangt. Der Gefahr, die Eigenart des ReligiOsen ins Aesthetische aufzultisen, die Grenzen von Religion und Kunst zu verwischen, i s t die Romantik nicht entgangen. 24an glaubte, Religion zu haben, weil man den aesthetischen Ausdruckswert geschichtlich tiberlieferter  15  religitfsen Formen zu sch&tzen wusste. . . . Die katholisierende Tendenz der Frtthromantik entspringt, wie A. W„ Schlegel sich ausdrtickt, einer predilection d'artiste, nicht dem Verlangen, eine Renaissance der kiorchlich religiflsen Kultur des Mittelalters heraufzufUhren. . . .12 Thus, they are equally incapable of sincere piety, which i s also based on simplicity and honesty of behavior. Religion i s not experienced for i t s e l f but as a subject for a r t i s t i c expression, a kind of cultural status symbol. Thus, the hostess presents a tableau representing the conquest of heathenism by Christianity not as an expression of her own faith, but as self-conscious"ktinstlerische Abendandachten" (p. 130).  A further reflection of this a r t i f i c i a l i t y i s the  lack of relation between expressed views and conduct. Thus one man, i n an effort to conform to the prevailing "Freigeisterei" condemns religion yet secretly goes to church; s t i l l another, 13 who vehemently supports the church, never attends.  12 Tamm, p. 8?. 13  Eichendorff refers to this attitude i n his "Deutsches Adelsleben am Schlusse des 18. Jahrhunderts." He says: "Die vermeintlichen gebildeteren Adelsklassen. . . , denen die LHcherlichkeit jederzeit als die unverzeihlichste Todsunde erschien, hatten, schon langst mit den freigeistrischen Autoren heimlich fraternisierend, die neue AufklHrung als notwendige Mode und Anstandssache, gleichsam als moderne Gasbeleuchtung ihrer Salons, stillschweigend bei sich aufgenommen. . ." Joseph von Eichendorff, Samtliche Werke, Histor^ch-"kritische Ausgabe (Regensburg, 1908-1962) X, 399. (Hereafter cited as H.K.A.)  16 Impiety i s also evident i n the lack of reverence towards l i f e and a l l expressions of human experience.  This i s revealed  i n flippancy, i n presumptuous prattle about great authors as i f they were casual, intimate acquaintances.  Friedrich i s astounded  "wie leicht sie mit Namen herumwarfen, die er nie ohne heilige, tiefe Ehrfurcht auszusprechen gewohnt war." (p. 131) Ethics are also relative.  They are not based on any  absolute principles but are relative to the nature and circumstances of the individual.  Tamm says:  . . . Die Gllltigkeit Uberlieferter sittlicher Norman Cwaren] aufgehoben. Das Individuum sah sich i n ganz anderer Weise als bisher auf sich selbst gestellt, und die Romantiker bestSltigen nun diese Entwicklung, wenn sie die Individualethik zum Prinzip erhoben . . . Dieser Relativismus i s t der Ironie der Romantiker, die aus aesthetischer Grundstimmung erwachsen i s t , nahe verwandt. . . . Die von der Romantik propagierte Individualethik konnte i n dem Sinne verstanden werden, dass jedermann das Recht, bezw. die Pflicht habe, seinen Trieben und Neigungen unbedingt zu folgen, und die Lebensphilosophie der "Lucinde" i s t zweifellos so ausgelegt worden. 14 Thus their morality i s just as false as their religion. It i s a disguised immorality i n which they retain the terminology 14 Tamm, pp. 32-33.  17  of ethics but disregard i t s principles.  Thus, Friedrich i s  shocked when the "Don Carlos SchwHrmer" says i n praise of his mistress, a married woman: "Er rtthmte v i e l , wie dieses seelenvolle Weib mit Geschmack, treu und tugendhaft liebe"  (p. 181).  Leontin points out the sophistry of this position: Ei was! . . . diese Alwinas, diese neuen Heloisen, diese Erbschleicherinnen der Tugend sind p f i f f i g e r als Gottes Wort. Nicht wahr, der Teufel stinkt nicht und hat keine 15 HBrner, und Ehebrechen und Ehebrechen i s t zweierlei. (p. 181) Not only marriage, but a l l human relationships have a false basis. Friendship i s also meaningless because i t i s not a sincere expression of affection, but simply a social expedient, an attempt to ingratiate oneself momentarily with others.  In such  a society any honest expression of opinion immediately throws i t into confusion.  Friedrich says:  Es i s t nichts kilnstlicher und lustiger als die Unterhaltung einer solchen Gesellschaft. Was das Ganze noch so l e i d l i c h zusammenhUlt, sind tausend feine, fast unsichtbare FUden von Eitelkeit, Lob und Gegenlob usw., und sie nennen es denn gar zu gern ein goldenes Liebesnetz. Arbeitet dann unverhofft einmal einer, der davon nichts weiss, tilchtig darin herum, geht die ganze Spinnwebe von ewiger Freundschaft und heiligem Bunde auseinander. (p. 1^5) This society i s incapable of true happiness because i t is a r t i f i c i a l .  Any "happiness" i t may possess w i l l also be a r t i f i c i a l ,  and therefore cannot be real.  15  .  Cf. Tamm: "Im Gegensatz zur FrUhromantik sah nun die Generation Eichendorff-Arnim ihre Aufgabe darin aller genialen Libertinage zum Trotz die tiberlieferten kollektiv-ethischen Bindungen wieder i n ihr Recht. einzusetzen. Arnims TGrflfin Dolores* i s t eine Apologie des Ehesakraments." (Tamm, p. 33)  18 The Happy Society Those social groups who are happy, however, are always characterized by a natural simplicity.  Happiness i s most f r e -  quently found not among the socially privileged who are exposed to the a r t i f i c i a l l i f e at court, but among the lower classes who lead simple unassuming l i v e s .  Friedrich describes the natural  gaiety of a dance i n a small village: Junge, flUchtige b'konomen, wie es schien, i n knappen und engzugespitzten Fracken fegten tapfer mit tUchtigen MHdchen, die vor Gesundheit und Freude liber und tiber rot waren. Hin und wieder zogen frOhliche, dicke Gesichter, wie Vollmonde, durch diesen Sternenhimmel. (pp. 63-64) Such people find happiness i n natural pleasures—food and drink and casual conversation, rather than i n the a r t i f i c i a l pleasures of culture.  Similarly, they prefer to enjoy these pleasures i n a  natural setting rather than i n a cultivated interior.  Eichendorff  describes countless such groups i n this novel: An kleinen Tischchen sassen im Freien verschiedene Gesellschaften umher und speisten i n lustigem Gesprach. Kinder spielten auf dem Rasen, ein alter Mann spielte die Harfe und sang. (p. 16) The spontaneous gaiety of such social gatherings  may,  however, be momentary and not an indication of any enduring happiness within the individual.  The temperamental basis for a quieter, more  enduring form of happiness i s nurtured within the family, the basic social group i n which the personality of the individual i s formed.  19 Happiness i s found i n those families which stress "treue Sitten, FrOmmigkeit und E i n f a l t " — " d i e altdeutschen Tugenden"—which create order and harmony within the individual,,  Eichendorff stresses  these virtues, like Arnim, i n reaction against the subjectivism and relativism of the early romantics which had degenerated into 16 "haltlose Schwarmerei."  Eichendorffs religious and moral p o s i t i -  vism i s characteristic of the national renaissance, that movement which attempted to reinspire Germany with the old Christian Germanic ideals. Such virtues can best be developed i n an unassuming rural environment i n which the natural simplicity and individuality  17 of the child i s protected.  Thus Friedrich rejects the suggestion  that Julie, the daughter of Herr von A., should attend a "finishing school" i n the city for this reason:  16 Weihe, p. 51.  17 The character of Frau von A., who makes this suggestion, i s based on Eichendorffs mother. Her description i n the novel agrees with Stiicklein's description of her: "Eine geistvolle, lebendige, ttberall entschieden und tatig eingreifende Dame war dagegen die Mutter, die, von bedeutender SchBnheit. . . . Die Mutter scheint das starker aktive Element gewesen zu sein, sicher das zur Ordnung und Konverxtion drUngende. . ." StiJcklein also points out that Eichendorffs mother recognized herself i n the description of Frau von A., and never quite forgave her son for this characterization. Paul Stticklein, Joseph von-. Eichendorff i n Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumenten, (Reinbek bei ;  Hamburg, 1963), ppTlc™31, 37.  20 Ich bin der Meinung. . . dass jmgen FrHulein das Landleben gerade am besten fromme. In jenen berUhmten Instituten wird durch Eitelkeit und heillose Nachahmungssucht die kindliche Eigentumlichkeit jedes Mfidchens nur verallgemeinert und verdorben. (p. 73) In this respect Eichendorff defends the romantic doctrine of individualism against the tendency of the rationalists to desire to mold everyone according to some preconceived social ideal. Tamm says: Eichendorff greift hier die Streitfrage: "rationales Schematismus oder romantischer Individualismus?" die bekanntlich nicht nur auf pedagogischem Gebiet, sondern auch im politischen Leben, i n der Kunsttheorie und der wissenschaftlichen Methodik eine Rolle spielte, noch einmal auf, und nimmt entschieden fur die Romantik Partei. 18 Happiness i s found among families who l i v e peaceful, ordered, unassuming lives i n a rural environment. I t i s found on a l l levels of society, i n the small family i n the forest whom Friedrich v i s i t s as a boy and i n the home of Herr von A., the owner of a country estate. 19 It i s the family l i f e of the latter„  however, which  i s most intensively described and which provides a model for this 18 Tamm, pp. 12-13.  19 The extent to which Ahming und Gegenwart like most great novels, i s autobiographical, i s shown by the large number of characters based on Eichendorff's own acquaintance. K8hler identifies Herr von A. as Eichendorff s father and the description of the l i f e on his estate as Eichendorff s memories of his own childhood at Lubowitz. Willibald Kdhler, Joseph von Eichendorff (Augsburg, 1957), p. 13» t  1  1  21 way of l i f e .  The happiness and purposeful order of t h i s f a m i l y  permeates the whole e s t a t e : Sie kamen e n d l i c h an das Schloss und ttbersahen auf einmal einen w e i t e n , f r e u n d l i c h e n und f r B h l i c h wimmelnden Hof. A l l e s war g e s c h H f t i g , n e t t und o r d e n t l i c h und beurkundete eine t a t i g e H a u s w i r t i n . ( p . 71) The q u i e t order of t h e i r l i v e s i s r e f l e c t e d w i t h i n the f a m i l y by the o r d e r l i n e s s of i t s a c t i v i t i e s and i t s f u r n i s h i n g s , q u i t e u n l i k e the a r t i f i c i a l d i s o r d e r of the salon f u r n i s h i n g s of the Teegesellschaft, "Genialit&t."  designed to give the impression of  S i m p l i c i t y and u t i l i t y are the c r i t e r i a of i t s  furnishings.  Thus, although they are pleasant and comfortable,  they are mixed u n s e l e c t i v e l y , w i t h no a t t e n t i o n to t a s t e and s t y l e , ( p . 71)  F r i e d r i c h notes the generally beneficent  effect  of t h i s o r d e r l y l i f e , " d i e Wohltat der s t i l l e n gleichmUssigen h&uslichen Lebens" ( p . 75) and how i t provides peace and security:  " . . .  wie es ttber gutgeartete Gemttter eine Ruhe und einen  gewissen f e s t e n Frieden v e r b r e i t e t . "  ( p . 75)  When he i s away from  there he remembers how peace, order and r e l i g i o u s f a i t h have brought them happiness: Er dachte s i c h , wie s i e a l l e d o r t noch immer, wie damals, s e i t hundert Jahren und immerfort zwischen i h r e n Bergen und WHldern f r i e d l i c h wohnen, im ewig g l e i c h e n Wechsel einfOrmiger Tage f r i s c h und arbeitsam Gott lobsn und g l t l c k l i c h s i n d . ( p . 193) The o r d e r l i n e s s of t h e i r circumscribed way of l i f e , however, has caused "eine gewisse feste.ungelenke  Gewohnheit des Lebens" ( p .  71).  22  a social stiffness and awkwardness in adapting to new acquaintances. This i s in contrast to the easy social grace and fluidity which characterizes the l i f e of the court, an indication of its ability to, adapt under a l l circumstances and therefore to be capable of hypocrisy. This lack of adaptability, therefore, although a social disadvantage, i s morally advantageous. It shox^s how effectively their routined way of l i f e has conditioned them to resist change and therefore how likely they are to maintain "Treue." Such a way of l i f e , however, although i t may i n s t i l l simplicity and uncompromising moral standards, does not always lead to happiness.  Such a routined way of l i f e , with its emphasis  on practical activity, tends to extinguish those:- idealizing forces which arise from the imagination and to stultify the development of the personality. It has had this effect upon Herr von A. Just as the over-fluidity of the court society has prevented i t from adhering to any consistent set of principles, so has the over-rigidity of Herr von A. inhibited him from seeing beyond these principles to their non-material source. The court society distorts a l l expressions of human experience which can potentially elevate man—religion and art—into an affected pose;  Herr von A.  rejects a l l such forms of expression themselves as affectation. Friedrich says of him: Er war einer von jenen, die, durch einseitig Erziehung und eine Reihe schmerzlicher Erfahrungen ermlldet, den lebendigen Glauben an Poesie, Liebe, Heldenmut und alles Grosse und  23 Ungewflhnliche im Leben aufgegeben haben, weil es sich so ungefuge gebardet. . . . Solche Menschen Ziehen sich) nach und nach kalt i n sich selbst zurttck und erklaren zuletzt alles fur e i t e l und Affektation. (p. 76) 20 Because of this, the completely uninhibited behavior of Friedrich and Leontin has a liberating effect upon his persona l i t y and makes him happy:  "er gewann wShrend ihres Aufenthaltes  auf dem Schlosse eine ungewShnliche Heiterkeit und Lust an sich selber."  (p. 76)  The Individual An analysis of Eichendorff's characters shows that the individual can achieve happiness i n two ways:  actively, through  his relationship with the outside world, or passively through his own inner world.  In each way, however, his happiness i s dependent  upon simplicity—an honest response to l i f e regulated by some general principle which w i l l harmonize his personality and create  20  This description i s similar to Hermann von Eichendorff*s description of Eichendorff * s father: "Sein Vater war ein Mann von gediegener. doch mehr praktischer Bildung, klarem ruhigen Verstand. . . Empfangl i c h fur alles Hohe und SchiJne. . . und nicht seiten Uberraschend genial i n seinem Urteil, blieb er einer begeisterten Auffassung doch i n gewisser Befangenheit durchaus fremd, alles AussergewiJhnliche im Leben, insbesondere auch die Dichtlcunst, mehr achtend als begreifend. Quoted by Stflcklein, Joseph von Eichendorff i n Selbstzeugnissen und Bilddokumentation, p. 30<> Tamm considers Herr von A. an "AufklUrungsmensch" similar to the Minister. He says: "Die Nuchternheit, die Unf&higkeit zur Begeisterung teil er mit dem Minister. Die elgentliche aesthetische Sinnrichtung i s t , wie bei den meisten "Aufkiarungsmenschen" wenig ausgebildet—z.B. "Er schien eine heilige Scheu zu haben vor allem, womit es einem Menschen ernst war." (p. 75) Tamm, p. 9 . Tamm points out, however, that despite this, Eichendorff values the virtues of Herr von A. He reserves his s a t i r i c a l scorn for the romantics, the aestheticism of the Teegesellschaft: "Eichendorff lfisst den nUchternen, phantasielosen Menschen um seiner Einfachkeit  24  the.condition f o r happiness. In the active l i f e — i n any relationship to the outside w o r l d — t h i s general p r i n c i p l e i s morality and r e l i g i o n , "treue Sitte und FrOmmigkeit."  Morality enables one to act i n a way most  conducive to the well-being of society and oneself.  Religion offers  comfort and an alternative form of f u l f i l l m e n t i n case one's desires are frustrated. The necessity of these principles i s not stated d i r e c t l y , but i n d i r e c t l y , by Eichendorff.  Those characters i n  t h i s novel who are unable to practice morality and r e l i g i o n lead aimless and unhappy l i v e s which often end i n self-destruction. Those who possess these v i r t u e s , however, lead harmonious, happy lives. In the passive l i f e , morality—the p r i n c i p l e governing one's relationship to others—becomes unnecessary because one l i v e s a self-contained existence of one's own i n which one does not come into contact with others i n a significant active manner. Under such conditions one does not have to adjust to outer circumstances but only within oneself.  Happiness i s therefore dependent  on the nature of one's inner being which may by nature be harmonious and not require any conscious organizing p r i n c i p l e .  In such a  temperament r e l i g i o n i s not so much a deliberate attempt to seek a  und inneren Festigkeit w i l l e n durchaus gelten, wShrend er liber die Aestheten die ganze Schale seines Spottes und Zornes ausgiesst. Die ethische Tendenz des Romans wendet sich v i e l entschiedener gegen den romantischen Individualismus a l s gegen die AufklHrung." Tamm, p. 11.  25 relationship with a God outside of oneself, but a spontaneous expression of one's inner l i f e . This second kind of happiness, that of the contemplative, can be considered the ideal of human happiness because i t represents an experience superior to the other both i n depth and permanence. Its obvious advantages are that i t i s not dependent upon other people whose behavior one cannot control, and that i t s pleasures, inner and spiritual, offer more permanent satisfactions than the immediate physical pleasures one seeks i n the external world. Human relationships are also more significant.  Instead of being  immediate and intense, exhausting themselves i n the present, they are analyzed and savored, related i n a meaningful way to the whole experience of the individual.  This kind of happiness i s represented  by Friedrich. Happiness, according to Friedrich i s not related to outer circumstances, but i s subjective.  It i s a state of mind, an a t t i -  tude to the world, an inner, self-created reality independent of the external world.  Friedrich compares the attempt to create  happiness by external means, to find i t i n the outside world, to a musician who tries to locate a melodie theme i n his instrument instead of i n himself. He regrets that most people attempt to find i t . i n this way: Gestikulieren, quttlen und mUhen sich nicht Uberhaupt alle Menschen ab, die eigentumliche Grundmelodie liusserlich zu gestalten, die jedem i n tiefster Seele mitgegeben ist...? (p.6l4)  26 This joy, or harmonious melody, i s , he believes, inherent i n every human being and to be equated with divine grace.  I t per-  meates the world about him and gives i t i t s special significance, i t s inner reality.  Happiness i s the natural condition of man;  unhappiness i s a distortion of his true inner nature—delusion— "die wahre Einbildung" which can only be overcome by prayer: Wenn wir von einer inner en Freudigkeit erf till t sind, welche, wie die Morgensonne, die Welt uberscheint und alle Begebenheiten, Verhaitnisse und Kreaturen zur eigentumlichen Bedeutung erhebt, so i s t dieses freudige Licht vielmehr die wahre gOttliche Gnade, i n der allein alle Tugenden und grossen Gedanken gedeihen, und die Welt i s t wirklich so bedeutsam, jung und schUn, wie sie unser Gemlit i n sich selber anschaut. Der Missmut aber, die tr&ge Neidergeschlagenheit und alle diese Entsauberungen, das i s t die wahre Einbildung, die wir durch GeDet und Mut zu Uberwinden trachten sollen, denn diese verdirbt die ursprUngliche SchUnheit der Welt. (p. 41) Those, on the other hand, who are dependent upon outer reality for their happiness, upon specific events or the actions of particular people, are inevitably disappointed.  Thus Rosa does  not enjoy her trip through the forest because she anticipated unusual external events, which did not occur, and hoped to see novel objects of interest,which did not materialize. Am sichtbarsten unter alien aber war Rosa verstimmt. Sie hatte sich ganz besonders, unerhOrte Ereignisse und Wunderdinge von der Reise versprochen, und da diese nun nicht erscheinen wollten und auch die Schimraer der Neuheit von ihren Augen gefalien war. . . . hatte (sie] keine Ruhe und keine Lust mehr an den ewigen, langweiligen Steinen und Bitumen, (p. 6 l ) Similarly, Friedrich rebukes Leontin when he compares Rosa to "ein gemalter FrUhling" because Leontin does not realize that a l l meaning we give to objects outside of ourselves i s based on our  27 own definition of them: Was h i l f t d i r der schOnste gemalte oder natiirliche Frtihling! Aus d i r selber muss doch die Sonne das Bild bescheinen, um es zu beleben. (p. 35) Because true happiness i s natural and spontaneous, i t i s particularly associated with childhood, that time of l i f e which i s the most free of affectation.  Friedrich regrets the loss of the  freshness and intensity of the child's response to the world: Ach, warum mttssen wir jene unschuldige Betrachtung der Welt, jene wundervolle Sehnsucht, jene geheimnisvollen, unbeschreiblichen Schimmer der Natur verlieren. (p. 48) 21 The happiness of the contemplative i s based on the inner l i f e of the individual rather than upon his environment. It i s based upon the observation of l i f e rather than upon participation i n i t .  Because of this i t i s dependent upon rich inner  sensitive imagination and a deeply introspective temperament—hereditary gifts which can be nourished by one's environment.  The early growth of the imagination i s facilitated  by exposure to a natural enviroment and to imaginative l i t e r a t u r e —  21  This child-like quality i s also valued by Novalis, who considers i t the distinguishing characteristic of the truly cultured person: "Jede Stufe der Bildung fangt mit Kindheit an. Daher i s t der am meisten gebildete, irdische Mensch dem Kinde so Uhnlich." Quoted by Gerhard MSbus, Der andere Eichendorff; zur Deutung der Dicthung Joseph von Eichendorffg (Osnabruck, I960), p. 53.  28  myths and legends which can counteract the influence of outer reality: Meine Phantasie hatte auf den waldgrfinen Bergen, unter den Wundern und Helden jener Geschichten Gesunde, freie Luft genug eingesogen, um sich des Anfalls einer ganzen ntlchternen Welt zu erwehren. (p. 55) This created a kind of happiness, a reverent joy, which he has never experienced since: zu Mute gewesen " c  "Mir war nie so fromm und frBhlich  (p. 5*0  Being frequently alone i s a necessary condition of such happiness.  The lack of outer distraction intensifies this "inner-  lichkeit" and stimulates the imagination.  Thus he i s happy by  himself i n Julie's garden: Seine Seele war dort so ungestSrt und heiter, dass er die gewBhnlichsten Romane mit jener Andacht und Frischheit der Phantasie ergriff, mit welcher wir i n unserer Kindheit solche Sachen lesen. (p. 99) 22  Even as a child he loved the night,  whose sounds,  unlike those of human activity, did not distract him, but heightened his inner powers: Ich erinnere mich nicht dass als Kind irgend etwas widerwartiger gewesen ware als das zeitige Schlafengehen, wenn alles draussen sehallte und schwarmte und meine ganze Seele noch so wach war. (p. 433)  22  Weihe discusses the importance of night i n relation to Novalis and Eichendorff: "Die Nacht symbolisiert die Kr&fte des Gemlits, die, vom Verstande nicht erkannt und nicht regiert, heilig walten im Dunkel des Unbewussten. Sie bezeichnet das GSttliche nach der Seite des Geheimnisvollen." Weihe, p. 28  29 In adulthood the heightening of such inner powers i n solitude not only gives great happiness in i t s e l f , but also stimulates the creative process, encouraged by God, which enriches i t : Es i s t wohl gross, . , so mit gdttlichen Gedanken tlber dem weiten, s t i l l e n Kreise der Erde zu schweben, Wache, sinne und bilde nur f l e i s s i g fort, fro'hliche Seele, wenn alle die andern Menschen schlafen! Gott i s t mit d i r i n deiner Einsamkeit,23 und er weiss es allein, was ein Dichter treulich w i l l , wenn auch kein Mensch sich um dich bekttmmert. (p, 33) Friedrich values the contemplative pleasures so highly that he wishes to attain a state of continuous inner peace, become totally self-contained, undisturbed by passions which would disturb his inner harmony: Wie glucklich. , . i s t eine beruhigte, s t i l l e Seele, die imstande i s t , so besonnen und gleichfSrmig nach alien Seiten hin zu wirken und zu schaffen, die, von keiner besonderen Leidenschaft mehr gestart, auf der schSnen Erde wie i n der Vbrhalle des griJssern Tempels wohnt! (p. 97) Friedrich describes the simplicity and richness of this experience which he has recaptured from childhood.  Because i t i s  based on detachment i t creates a sense of inner freedom and proportion, i t i s not limited to the immediate moment but can rise  23 That Eichendorff sought this isolation himself i s indicated by an excerpt from one of his letters: "denn auch ich lebe mitten i n dem hiesigen Getriebe eigentlich doch ganz vereinsamt." Letter of April 12, 1833, H.K.A., XII, k2.  30 above i t and i s , i n this sense, "eternal." His introspection enables him to sink down into what he i s observing so that he can feel i t s inner as well as i t s surface reality; this sense of the eternal unifies his perception and makes the transient aspects of nature painfully beautiful because they are seen i n this more meaningful context: Diese seit seiner Kindheit entbehrte grtine Abgeschiedenheit, alles r i e f i n seiner Brust jenes ewige GefUhl wieder hervor, das uns wie i n den Mittelpunkt alles Lebens versenkt, wo alle die Farbenstrahlen, gleich Radien, ausgehn und sich an der wechselnden Oberflache zu dem schmerzlichschSnen Spiele der Erscheinung gestalten. (p. 75) This feeling of the eternal puts our l i f e i n proportion. We see i t , not mindlessly i n the ecstasy of the moment, but poignantly- i n relation to our past and future which creates a deeper reality within us: Alles Durchlebte und Vergangene geht noch einmal ernster und wlirdlger an uns vortiber, eine tiberschwengliche Zukunft legt sich, wie ein Morgenrot, bluhend uber die Bilder, und so entsteht aus Ahnung und Erinnerung eine neue Welt in uns, und wir erkennen wohl alle die Gegenden und Gestalten wieder, aber sie sind grBsser, schBner und gewaltiger und wandeln i n einem anderen, wunderbaren Lichte. (p. 75) This state of perception belongs to the happiest he has ever known! Und so dichtete hier Friedrich unzUhlige Lieder und wunderbare Geschichten aus tiefster Herzenslust, und es waren fast die gllicklichsten Stunden seines Lebens. (p. 75) Friedrich s happiness i s a natural condition of his 1  being,the f r u i t of his self-contained personality which finds happiness in i t s e l f .  It can be destroyed by nothing outside  31  i t s e l f because i t i s dependent upon nothing external. Such "built-in" happiness, however, i s possible only for those who are contemplative by nature—sensitive, introspective spirits who not only possess the potentiality for such development, but who are also not destroyed by their environment. Most people do not possess such a temperament.  They are neither  extroverts, those who achieve happiness solely i n outer reality, nor introverts, those who achieve i t solely within a reality of their own, but a combination of the two.  Most people, therefore,  as evidenced i n this novel, try to achieve happiness i n a number of different ways determined by their sex and conditioned by their temperament. There i s a great difference between the ways i n which men and women seek happiness i n this novel. The women always seek i t i n an immediate personal relationship with someone outside of themselves.  They seek i t instinctively through romantic love,  but i f this f a i l s they seek i t through spiritual love, through God or some work of charity.  The men, on the other hand, seek  happiness on two different levels at once.  They may seek i t on a  personal level, through love, but they seek it. primarily on an impersonal level, through some career or way of l i f e which w i l l f u l f i l l a l l their capacities and give an ultimate purpose to their lives. In Ahnung und Gegenwart the characters seek happiness in a l l the ways i n which human beings have traditionally sought i t .  They seek i t i n the outside world, through society or a personal relationship with another person.  They seek i t i n their own  individual world, through art; or through a higher intellectual or'spiritual world, through philosophy and religion.  Nature Happiness, a spontaneous expression of human nature, i s intensified i n a natural environment.  In this novel there  are countless references to the happiness nature inspires i n those who are receptive to i t .  I t not only creates happiness  but also inner strength: Der plfltzliche Anblick dos freien, grenzenlosen Himmels erfreute und st&rkte rebht sein Herz. (p. 10) Ihre Herzen wurden wieder stark und weit, und v o l l ktthler Freudenquellen. (p. 2^7) Sometimes i t creates overwhelming emotions:  "Ihm war so wohl  zum Weinen" (p. 193)• But nature must be experienced i n a special way to inspire such happiness.  It must not be regarded as a "thing,"  something external to oneself.  A landscape i s not something  simply visual, a cardboard backdrop, simply a "view" or a "sight" from which one remains separated. Nor i s i t something upon which one imposes one^s own feelings like the admirer of Don Carlos; for i n such a relationship nature i s merely o b l i terated rather than appreciated. organic which man lives i n .  Rather, i t i s something  It i s something three-dimensional  33 which engulfs one.  It appeals not just to sight, perhaps the  most impersonal of the sense perceptions, but also to one's sense of touch, smell, taste and particularly hearing, the most interior 24 and evocative sense.  To really benefit from the effects of  nature one must be passive, one must forget oneself and become completely permeated by i t .  Thus Leontin advises the Don Carlos  SchwHrmer to forget the external, the visual, aspect of nature by closing his eyes and concentrating on the internal, the audible, part of i t : Macht doch die Augen fest zu i n der Musik und im Sausen des Waldes, dass Ihr die ganze Welt vergesst und Euch vor allem! (p. 181) Nature can, therefore,only be truly appreciated by the contemplative whose personality does not intrude upon the outer world and who i s therefore more receptive to i t s impressions. This attitude, emphasizing the union of man and nature, i s mystical i n conception.  25  Tamm says i n reference to Leontin's  24 The belief that hearing affects the emotions more directly than the other senses i s expressed i n Schopenhauer's thoughts on music: "Weil die Musik nicht, gleich alien anderen Kunsten, die Ideen, oder Stufen der Objektivation des Willens sondern unmittelbar den Willen selbst darstellt, so i s t heraus auch erklUrlich, dass sie auf den Willen, d.h. die GefUhle, Leidenschaften und Affekte des Hirers unmittelbar einwirkt, sodass sie diesselben schnell erhdht oder auch umstimmt. Die Musik i s t die machtigste unter alien Kunsten." Schopenhauer, Samtliche Werke. ed. Arthur HUbscher (Wiesbaden, 1949) II, 512.  25 Eichendorff says i n his "Geschichte der poetischen Literatur Deutschlands" that nature i s "auch mystisch, als ein verhlilltes Ringen nach dem Unsichtbaren tlber ihr." Quoted by NBbus, p. 42.  3^ words: Die Natur erscheint nicht als fertiges Produkt, sondern als unendliche Produktivit&t; nicht das plastische vollendete Naturphaenomen, sondern der Prozess des Werdens und Wachsens dessen fliessende Bewegtheit sich dem Wechsel seelischer Regungen v i e l inniger und unmittelbarer ansehmiegt. . . Naturschilderung und subjektive Gefllhlsdarstellung sind zu unauflilslicher Einheit erschmolzen, der Gegensatz zwischen Ich und Natur i s t aufgehoben. 26 This attitude was, of course, shared by the early romantics, particularly Novalis.  In Die Lehrlinge zu Sais  Novalis describes the union of man with nature as something i n stinctive vrhich cannot be taught, and as something so intimate that i t can only be compared with the relationship between a husband and his bride.  It leads to a creative, fructifying  union which i s enduring and eternal: Aber es i s t umsonst, die Natur lehren und predigen zu wollen. Ein Blindgeborner l e m t nicht sehen, und wenn man ihm noch soviel von Farben und Lichtern und fernen Gestalten erzahlen wollte. So wird auch keiner die Natur begreifen, der kein Naturorgan, kein innres naturerzeugendes und absonderndes Werk, der nicht, wie von selbst. . . sich mit alien Naturwesen vermischt, sich gleichsam i n sie hineinfilhlt. . . . Wer aber einen richtigen und getibten Natursinn hat, der geniesst die Natur, indem er sie studiert, und freut sich ihrer unendlichen Mannigfaltigkeit, ihrer UnerschtJpflichkeit im Genusse und bedarf nicht, dass man ihn mit unnutzen Worten in seinen Gentlssen sto"re. Ihm dllnkt vielmehr, dass man nicht heimlich genug mit der Natur umgehen, nicht zart genug von ihr reden, nicht ungestBrt und aufmerksam genug sie beschauen kann. Er flihlt sich i n ihr wie am Busen seiner zlichtigen Braut und vertraut auch nur dieser seine erlangten Einsichten 26  Tamm, p. 89  35  i n sttssen vertraulichen Stunden. Glttcklich preis ich diesen Sohn, diesen Liebling der Natur, dem sie verstattet, sie i n ihrer Zweiheit, als erzeugende und gebSLrende Macht, und i n ihrer Einheit, als eine unendliche, ewig dauernde Ehe zu betrachten 27 0  In this relationship man allows himself to be engulfed by nature, by an element deeper than himself.  Eichendorff des-  cribes this element i n terms of music—one forgets oneself "in der Musilc und im Sausen des Waldes." (p. 181)  Novalis  describes i t i n terms of water, by "die mystische Flut."  He  says i n Die Lehrlinge zu Sais: Wie wenige haben sich noch i n die Geheimnisse des Flttssigen vertieft, und manchem i s t diese Ahndung des hOchsten Genusses und Lebens wohl nie i n der trunkenen Seele aufgegangen. Im Durste offenbart sich diese Weltseele, siese gewaltige Sehnsuchtnach dem Zerfliessen. 28 Weihe points out that this conception emphasizes the mystical goal of union:  "Es i s t der Gedanke der Einheit, den  das Symbol des Fliissigen ausdruckt. 29  Eine Wasserflut bildet ein  unteilbares ganzes." This passive, unselfconscious attitude of the mystic i s a striking contrast to the self-conscious "heroic" attitude of the "Don Carlos Schwarmer," who proudly proclaims that he i s a "Verehrer der Natur" (p. 181).  Discovering Leontin's delight i n  27 Friedrich von Hardenberg, Novalis* Werke. ed. Hermann Friedemann, 2 vols (Berlin, n.d.), II, 4-9. 28 Friedrich von Hardenberg, II, 48.  29 Weihe, p. 27.  36  nature, he greets him i n the high-flown language associated with German idealism: Lassen Sie die Gewdhnlichen sich ewig suchen und verfeilen, die Seltenen wirft ein magnetischer Zug einander an die mHnnliche Brust, und der ewige Bund i s t ohne Wort geschlossen in des Eichenwalds heiligen Schatten, wenn die Orgel des Weltbaues gevraltig dahinbraust. (p. 181) Observing that this man has dropped a copy of Don Carlos, Leontin suggests he has lost his "notes."  He accuses him of using nature  as a "text"—a backdrop against which he can self-consciously practice his ovm feelings of sublimity. He says: Darum. , , weil Euch die ganze Natur nur der Text dazu i s t , den Ihr nach den Dingen da aborgelt, und je schwieriger und wttrgender die Koloraturen sind, dass Ihr daran ganz rot und blau im Gesichte werdet und die TrHnen samt den Augen.heraustreten, je begeisterter und gerUhrter seid i h r . (p, 181) Tamm says of the Don Carlos Schwarmer that "er pro30  jektiert gleichsam das Schillersche Pathos i n die Natur heinein." He contrasts Schiller's heroic attitude towards nature with Eichendorff s conception based on humility. 1  Unlike the mystics,  Schiller did not believe that man could attain union with nature. He believed that man could never comprehend nature's sublimity, and was therefore separated from i t .  This very separation, how-  ever, could enable man to assert the supremacy of his reason over his emotions, which are an expression of the irrational powers of nature,and thus this separation, this independence, could 30  Tamm, p. 14  37 become a source of pride.  Tamm says:•  Man vergleiche Schillers AbhandTung "Uber das Erhabene" um die weite Distanz zwischen Schillers heroischer und Eichendorffs demtttig-frommer Geisteshaltung zu erkennen. Nach Schiller mllsste das Erhabene, well es unsere Fassungskraft tibersteigt und unsere physische Existenz zu vernichten droht, i n uns nur das "peinliche Geftthl unserer Grenzen" erregen, wenn nicht eben der Zwiespalt zwischen Vernunft und Sinnlichkeit den Menschen zur moralischen Selbstbesinnung ftihrte und den "reinen Vernunftsbegriff der Freiheit," der mit dem Begriff der Independenz, d.h. der UnabhHngigkeit von den Naturgewalten aufs engste zusammenMngt, um so leuchtender hervortreten liesse. An das Absolut-Grosse i n uns selbst kann die Natur i n ihrer ganzen Grenzenloskeit nicht reichen. 31 This pride i n man's supposed moral powers v;as repugnant to Eichendorff.  In his Vermischte Schriften he accuses Schiller  32 of a "Mangel an Demut."  This heroic attitude, the active masculine  assertion of one's powers, was disliked by the romantics who stressed a passive feminine receptivity to nature and  experience.  Hicarda Huch says that most romantics disliked Schiller because  33  of "die einseitige, starre MSnnlichkeit seines Geistes." In another passage Eichendorff speaks;of Schiller as "jener Klinger^'sche weltverbessernde Mann von Kraft."  3^  31  Tamm, p. 15,  32 Quoted by Tamm, p. 16.  33  Ricarda Huch, BlUtezeit der Rotcantik (Leipzig, 1920), p. 199. Eichendorff, "Zur Geschichte des Dramas," Cotta, IV, 591.  PART II ANALYSES OF CHARACTERS CHAPTER II  Eichendorff does not discuss the theme of happiness directly i n this novel.  What he does do, however, i s present a  series of characters, some of whom attain happiness and some of whom do not. By analyzing these characters.ih detail we can examine those characteristics which create happiness or unhappiness within the individual.  On the basis of these  analyses we can then summarize different methods of achieving happiness. THE UNHAPPY The unhappy characters i n this novel are Viktor, Rudolf, Romana, Erwin and the BurgermSdchen.  They are unable  to achieve inner harmony, to resolve the conflict between l i f e as they desire i t and as i t actually i s .  They are  incapable of subordinating their lives to the ordering i n f l u ences of morality and religion and thus shatter on l i f e . For the men this conflict i s one between the ideal and the real. Viktor and Rudolf are intense idealists who deplore the world around them as mundane and t r i v i a l .  They can only adjust to  i t by fleeing i t , Viktor into his world of clock-making, and Rudolf to the mythical world of Egypt.  For the women this  39 conflict i s between their desire for love and the realization that they cannot attain i t .  Thus, Romana and the BUrgermHdchen  commit suicide; Erwin dies of a broken heart. This conflict i s intensified by hyper self-consciousness.  The romantics are so aware that they are creating their  own reality that they cannot accept i t as valid.  Thus, Romana  cannot accept the reality of her poetic and religious experience as she i s aware of creating i t while she i s experiencing i t . This drives her deeper into despair.  35 Viktor Viktor i s , by nature, desperately unhappy. He t e l l s Friedrich i n a letter that he cannot endure l i f e :  "Ich kann das  verdammte traurige Wesen nicht leiden." (p. 191) His unhappiness i s not the result of outer circumstances, but i s an intrinsic part of his personality. He i s a congenital manic-depressive: Seine Gemlitsart war wirklich durchaus dunkel und melancholisch. Die eine HSlfte seines Lebens hindurch war er bis zum Tode betrtlbt, murriseh und unbehulflich, die andere HSlfte lustig bis zur Ausgelassenheit, witzig, sinnreich und geschickt, so dass die meisten, die sich mit einer gewflbnlichen Betrachtung der menschlichen Natur begntlgen, ihn fur einen zweifachen Menschen hielten. (p. 100) Because of the depth and insight which his anguish creates i n him he i s unable to find purpose i n the endlessly repetitive outer activities of l i f e .  He can only laugh at them,  35 The character of Viktor i s based on the household chaplain employed by the Eichendorffs, Paul Ciupke, the "Herzenskaplan" of Joseph and Wilhelm's youth. Stiicklein says of him: "Er war rait den Brudern oft tUglich, auch nHchtlich, zusammen als Mitzecher,  40 not with happiness but with horror, because of their t r i v i a l i t y i n relation to any ultimate purpose: Es war aber eben die Tiefe seines Wesens, dass er sich niemals zu dem ordentlichen, immer gleichfo'rmigen Spiele der andern an der OberflHche bequemen konnte, und selbst seine Lustigkeit, wenn sie oft pLStzlich losbrach, war durchaus ironisch und fast schauerlich, (p. 100) Friedrich compares him to someone who i s incarcerated in a crooked room, hung high above the rest of the world, gazing in vain at the calm eternal fields which represent the absorbing, anxiety-free l i f e that he can never attain because of his inner oppression. to be there.  Instead, he must content himself with the desire This i s symbolized by his lute which, like his  contorted personality, i s out of tune and expresses a desperate rending desire rather than an ineffable longing.  He expresses  this desire with "verzweifelte Lustigkeit"—happiness and desperation—a manifestation of his manic depressive state. But although the philistine may laugh at his disharmony, i t i s nevertheless divine because of i t s goal: Dein Leben i s t mir immer vorgekommen wie ein uraltes, dunkel verbautes Gemach mit vielen rauhen Ecken, das unbeschreiblieh einsam und.hoch steht tlber den gewiJhnlichen Hantierungen der Menschen. Eine alte verstimmte Laute, die niemand mehr zu spielen versteht, legt  Mitsanger, Wanderer, bei jugendlich dionysischen Festen als talentierter Ma"itre de p l a i s i r , Schauspieler und grotesker Tanzer, so wie er frtiher o f t der Mitgenosse ihrer wilden Bubenstreiche gewesen war; er war der Vertraute, von dem die Tagebtlcher sehr v i e l spreehen." Sttfcklein, Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f , p. 36.  41  verstaubt auf dem Boden. Aus dem finstern Erker siehst du durch bunt und phantastisch gemalte Scheiben tlber das niedere, emsig wimmelnde Land unten weg in ein anderes, ruhiges, vrunderbares, ewig freies Land. Alle die wenigen, die dich kennen und lieben, siehst du dort im Sonnenscheine wandeln und das Heimweh befHllt auch dich. Aber dir fehlen Fltlgel und Segel, und du reissest i n verzweifelter Lustigkeit an den Saiten der alten Laute, dass es mir oft das Herz zerreissen wollte. Die gehen unten vorllber und verlachen dein wildes Geklimper, aber ich sage d i r , es i s t mehr gOttlicher Klang darin, als i n ihrem ordentlichen, allgespriesenen Geleier. (p. 101) Because he considers the common occupations of l i f e t r i v i a l and meaningless he withdraws from society. He lives i n a small cottage near the churchyard,escaping from his problems through a frenzy of work: Hier arbeitete und ktinstelte derselbe tSglich, soviel es ihm seine Beruf sgescMf te zuliessen, mit einem unbegreiflichen Eifer und Fleisse, ohne um die andere Welt draussen zu fragen. (p. 99) 36 Even here he does not make u t i l i t a r i a n objects,but things which w i l l allow a release to his imagination: Ohne jeraals eine Anleitung genossen zu haben, verfertigte er Spieluhren, kilnstliche SchlOsser, neue, sonderbare Instrumente, und sein bei der S t i l l e nach aussen ewig und reger Geist v e r f i e l dabei auf die seltsamsten Erfindungen, die oft alle i n Erstaunen setzten. (pp. 99-100) With a ruthless honesty he rejects a l l the common social methods used to ingratiate oneself with others, even a l l  36 Ciupke's passion for making things i s attested by Ktihler and SttJcklein. Kbhler says: "Er war ein Bastler aus Passion, dem sogar der Bau eines Klaviers gelang, das, aufs Schloss transportiert, von dem musikalischen hochbegabten WilheTm bei der Schlossfeierlichkeiten benutzt wurde." KHhler, p. 24. He also indulged this passion i n his later position as pastor of Antischkau. Sttfcklein says: "Ein einziges Wohnzimmer, ganz grmlich ausgestattet, gentlgte  external signs of friendship which, because they are expressed outwardly could possibly be insincere: Dabei waren alle Schmeichelkunste und alltHglichen Handg r i f f e, sich durch die Welt zu helfen, seiner spriJden Natur so zuwider, dass er selbst die unschuldigsten, gebrauchlichsten Gunstbewerbungen, ja sogar unter Freunden alle Hussern Zeichen der Freundschaft verschmShte. (p. 100) Because of his rejection of superficial worldy values he particularly feels i l l at ease with complacent men of the world who do not have the insight to understand him, yet i n s i s t upon imposing their f a c i l e advice upon him: Vor alien sogenannten klugen, gemachten Leuten war er besonders verschlossen, weil sie niemals weder seine Betrttbnis, noch seine Lust verstanden und ihn mit ihrer angebildeten Afterweisheit von alien Seiten beengten. (p. 100) Viktor's art i s also an immediate expression of his experience.  I t i s a product of his oppressed mental state, of  his manic periods, his joy which i s "durchaus ironisch und fast schauerlich" and revenges i t s e l f on the world i n wild, i r r e pressible satire.  It i s an expression of romantic irony which  momentarily overcomes the world by rising above i t . Thus, at a dance, he organizes a "Narrenzug," an expression of his attitude to humanity, through which he discovers and exploits the essential foolishness of each person:  ihn, Eine zweite Stube war als Werkstatt eingerichtet, i n der er fast alles landwirtschaftliche GerHt fur seinen Bedarf selbst anfertigte." Stifcklein, Joseph von Eichendorff, p. 4-3.  43 . . . jedes war ein Triumph der freiesten und scharfsten Launen denn eines jeden verborgenste, innerste Narrheit lachte erxdst aus den Augen. (p. 86) Friedrich recognizes i t as the profoundest kind of comedy, that of the spontaneous revelation of character rather than the a r t i f i c i a l comedy, that of stereotyped pranks and jokes: Jene ermatten uns rechts mit allgemeinen SpHsschen ohne aller IndividualitHt mit hergebrachten, langst abgemitzten Mienen und SprUngen, und vor lauter klinstlichen Anstalten zum Lachen kommen wir niemals zum Lachen selber. Hier erfindet jeder selbst, wie es ihm die Lust des Augenblickes eingibt, und die Torheit lacht uns unmittelbar und keck ins Gesicht, dass uns recht das Herz vor Freiheit aufgeht. (p. 88) A further reflection of his satirical sense i s his attraction to Abraham von Santa Clara, the only author he reads. Friedrich i s quick to recognize that Viktor's comic expression i s not the f r u i t of a happy temperament, but that of an unhappy one, of someone who i s able to recognize that in the world which deviates from the ideal: Ein Mensch muss sehr kalt oder sehr unglucklich sein, um so zu phantisieren. Viktor kommt mir vor wie jener Prinz i n Sizilien der in seinem Garten und Schlosse alles schief baute, so das sein Herz das einzige Gerade der phantastischen Verkehrung war. (p. 88) Because Friedrich and Leontin understand and accept him for what he i s , their friendship i s of inestimable importance to him and provides his only significant contact with other people: Die beiden Grafen waren die ersten in seinem Leben, die bei alien seinen Xusserungen wussten, was er meine. Denn es i s t das Besondere ausgezeichneter Menschen, dass jede Erscheinung in ihrer reinen Brust sich in ihrer ursprunglichen Eigentumlichkeit bespiegelt, ohne dass sie dieselbe durch einen Beischmack ihres eigenen Selbst verderben. Er liebte sie daher auch mit unerschlitterlicher Treue bis zu seinem Tode. (p. 100-101)  44 When he sees them his delight i s so intense that i t can only be expressed through riotous music: So oft sie nachmittags zu ihm karaen, warf er sogleich alle Instrumente und GerStschaften welt von sich und war aus Herzensgrunde lustig. Sie musizierten dann i n seiner kleinen Stube entweder auf alten halbbespannten Instrumenten, oder Friedrich musste einige wilde Burschenlieder auf die Bahn bringen, die Viktor schnell auswendig wusste und mit gewaltiger Stimme raitsang. (p 101) c  Despite his loneliness and unhappiness, which i s occasionally relieved by v i s i t s from Leontin and Friedrich, he i s nevertheless able to endure.  Thus, when Leontin sees  him again he i s l i t t l e changed: Er i s t noch immer der Alte, noch immer nicht fetter, nicht ruhiger, nicht klliger, und wie sonst wlitend kriegerisch gegen alle Sentimentalitfit, die er ordentlich misshandelt. (p. 236)  37 Rudolf Rudolf's unhappiness i s not caused by outer circumstances but by the oppressive feeling of isolation within him, a persona l i t y t r a i t , which like a l l engrained characteristics of temperament, develops i n early childhood.  He transforms this sense  of isolation to society around him: Da steht auch jeder rait seinen besonderen, eigenen Empfindungen, Gedanken, Ansichten und WU'nschen neben dem andern wieder mit seinem besonderen Wesen, und wie sie sich auch, gleichwie mit Polypenarmen, ktlnstlich betasten und einander recht aus dem Grunde herauszufuhlen trachten, es weiss ja doch am Ende keiner, was er selber i s t oder was der andere eigentlich meint und haben w i l l , und so  37 This character i s based on Eichendorffs uncle Rudolf von Eichendorff (Ktfhler, p. 156) and reflects "das romantisch-pessimistische WeltgefUhl, dass dieser Ansicht zugrunde liegt." (Tamm, P. 46)  45 muss jeder dem andern verrtickt sein, wenn es tlbrigens Narren sind, die liberhaupt noch etwas meinen oder wollen. (p. 263) Like everyone, he attempts to find some compensation, some positive form of fulfillment within his limitations. He tries to find an outlet for his feelings by engaging i n war, but i s repelled by i t .  He f a l l s i n love with Angelina,  but i s deserted by her. He also seeks fulfillment through art, but gives i t up when he discovers that i t does not provide the meaning i n l i f e which he seeks. I t i s his f i r s t attempt to find f u l f i l l ment i n the outside world, "die erste entschiedene Richtung nach aussen" (p. 268).  He i s unable to find fulfillment i n  i t , however, because he i s never able to express himself f u l l y through i t : Es bliebe immer ein dunkler barter Fleck i n mir, der keine Farben annahm und doch mein eigentlicher, innerster Kern war. (p. 268) His conception exceeds his ability to express i t .  Indeed,  the experience he wishes to express seems too oven^helming to be contained i n any f i n i t e form: Meine Skizzen waren immer besser als die GeraHlde weil ihre Ausftlhrung meistens unmOglich war. Gar oft i n guten Stunden i s t mir wohl eine solche Glorie von nie gesehenen Farben und unbeschreiblich himmlischer SchSnheit vorgekommen, dass ich mich kaum zu fassen wusste. Aber dannwar es auch wieder aus, und ich konnte sie niemals ausdrttcken. (p. 268) Only when supported by Angelina's love i s he able to paint with more control, during which period his paintings were  46 "weniger hart, angenehmer und sinnreicher i n der AusfUhrung," (p. 271)  After Angelina leaves him, however, he gives up art.  He regards art as a desperate attempt to escape his self-imprisonment, a useless preoccupation i n a l i f e which i s so transients So schmttckt sich wohl jede tUchtige Seele einmal ihren Kerker mit Kunsten aus, ohne deswegen zum Klinstler berufen zu sein. Und tiberhaupt i s es am Ende doch nur Putz und e i t e l Spielerei. Oder wurdet Ihr den nicht fur tflricht halten, der sich im Wirtshause, wo er tlbernachtet, e i f r i g auszieren wollte? (p. 268) He also turns to philosophy.  Rudolf i s more intellec-  tually complex than others and recognizes that a philosophic tendency i s innate i n his characters  "der klihnere Hang zum  Tiefsinn war eigentlich mein angeborenes Naturell." (p. 274) This desire to penetrate the mystery of reality i s apparent i n the questions he asks as a child and i s the unconscious motivation of his paintings: Schon als Kind hatte ich oft meinen Hofmeister durch seltsame, ungewdhnliche Fragen i n Verwirrung gebracht, und selbst meine ganze Malerei war im Grunde nur ein falsches Streben, das Unaussprechliche auszusprechen, das Undarstellbare darzustellen. (p. 274) But although he dedicates himself to the study of the ancient and modern philosophers, he can find no fulfillment in their systems:  "Aber alle Systeme filhrten mich entweder  von Gott ab, oder zu einem falschen Gott."  (p. 274)  That i s ,  their teachings either rejected a spiritual reality which would give l i f e meaning, or they substituted a false God, lesser  47 realities, which could not f u l f i l l man's essential spiritual nature.  Tamm points out that this'inability to find fulfillment  through a philosophical system i s a Faustian characteristic. He says: Es i s t die Faustische Sehnsucht nach dem Unendlichen, die ihm treibt, ein religitis-metaphysisches Bedtlrfnis, das durch die Philosophie nicht befriedigt werden kann. 38 At this point he gives up a l l positive attempts at adjustment and turns to negative forms of escape.  He gives himself up to  a sensual existence i n a desperate attempt to forget his agony. This does not help, however, because he has too much contempt for those who share his pleasure: Dabei wurde ich niemals frdhTich, denn mitten im Genuss musste ich die Menschen verhilhnen die, als war en sie Meinesgleichen, halb schlecht und halb furchtsam, nach der V7eltlust hasten und dabei wirklich und in allem Ernst zufrieden und gliicklich waren. (p. 274) He then decides to escape from the world altogether by living with a hermit. So much does he identify himself with the rejects of society that he gathers a group of mentally disturbed people around him into a kind of academy.  These people, he insists,  are only differentiated from the others, the fools of the world, by the fact that they are happy:  "Das einzige Tolle bei jenen  Verrlickten von Profession aber i s t nur, dass sie dabei noch 38  Tamm, p. 45.  48 glucklich sind." (p. 263)  He i s , thus, a kind of malevolent  psychiatrist who i s able to ferret out the buried meaning i n their garbled conversation but who s t i l l laughs at their handicap: Er wusste dem Wahnsinn eines jeden eine Teife und Bedeutung zu geben, ttber welche sie erstaunten, und je verrtlckter die Narren sprachen, je witziger und ausgelassener wurde er i n seinem wunderlichen Humor, (p. 262) He institutes a form of vrork therapy which, combined with the soothing influence of nature, restores many of them to reason. Jeder derselben hatte seine bestimmte Tagesarbeit im Hauswesen. Durch diese fortlaufende BeschUftigung, die Einsamkeit und reine Bergluft kamen viele von ihnen nach und nach wieder zu Vernunft, worauf sie dann Rudolf wieder in die Welt hinaussandte und gerUhrt auf immer von ihnen Abschied nahm. (p. 284) He himself, however,- does not find any fulfillment i n this vocation.  His laughter i s unrelated to happiness:  Aber sein Witz war scharf, ohne Heiterkeit, wie Dissonanzen einer grossen, zerstdrten Musik, die keinen Einklang finden kOnnen oder mtfgen. (p. 262) Friedrich i s appalled because Rudolf w i l l never attend church.  He hopes to help him find i n a religious faith  some comfort for his desperation and asks him: Ich bitte dich. .• . versenke dich nicht so fttrchterlich i n dich selbst. Dort findest du nimmermehr Trost. Du gehst niemals i n die Kirche. (p. 300 ) But Rudolf has given up a l l hope of any positive adjustment: "In mir" erwiderte Rudolf " i s t es wie ein unabsehbarerAbgrund, und alles s t i l l . " (p. 300) Friedrich cannot accept this.  He says:  49 0 kdnnt ich alles Grosse wecken. . , was i n dir verzweifelt und gebunden ringt. Hast du doch selber erzHhlt, da dich alle wissenschaftlich Philosophisches nicht befriedigte. . . So wende dich denn zur Religion zurllck, wo Gott selber unmittelbar zu dir spricht, dich sttirkt, belehrt und trdstet!" (p. 301) Rudolf, however, cannot believe: "Du meinst es gut . . . aber das i s t es eben in mir: ich kann nicht glauben." (p. 301) As a last resort, he seeks a f i n a l form of escape i n magic: Und da mich denn der Himmel nicht mag, so w i l l ich mich der Magie ergeben. Ich gehe nach Agypten, dem Lande der alten Wunder. (p. 301) This desperate turning to a form of superstition i s a natural tendency i n human experience. William Lovell, who Korff points out:  It i s comparable to Tieck's  turns to spiritism i n his desperation. "Und es wiederholt sich auch hier die alte  historische Enfahrung, dass, wenn die positive Religion zersetzt und auch die Philosophie am Ende i s t , der Mensch sich dem  39 Aberglauben i n die Arme wirft." Tamm concludes that Rudolf's personality i s too contorted to be saved by the practice of morality and religion, and that Eichendorff recognized this:  "Vielleicht ahnte er,  dass es ihm nicht mBglich war, die Probleme, die Rudolfs Charakter und Schicksal ihm aufgaben, auf der Grundlage einer allgemeingtiltigen religiOsen und sittlichen Norm befriedigend auf-  39 H. A. Korff, Geist der Goethezeit. 3. Aufl. I l l (Leipzig, 1959), P. 53.  50 40 Zulu's en." Romana Most c r i t i c s agree that Romana i s a representation of those negative, self-destructive forces inherent i n romanticism. Keller says:  "Unzweifelhaft weist schon der Name Romana auf  die Romantik hin. Romana i s t im Werke Eichendorffs die Gestalt, die das Gefahrliche der deutschen Romantik am deutlichsten  41  verkdrpert."  Keiter agrees:  " . . . wir . . . mtJchten  sie foomana) die Syrabolik der falschen, von Gott abgewendeten  42  Romantik nennen."  Schulhof links Romana with the demonic  women of the Sturm and Drang, but also associates her with the romantic period: "Grafin Romana . . . gehflrt zur Tradition des genial-damonischen Weibes der Sturm und Drangzeit, Bhnelt aber auch der sinnlich und geistig Emanzipierten im romantischen  43 Leben und Dichten." Romana represents the negative aspect of romanticism i n that she allows her l i f e to be ruled entirely by her feelings, by the demonic force of nature within her. Tamm says: Damonisch-elementare MHchte haben i n Romana Gestalt gewonnen. Sie verkdrpert den sinnlich lockenden  40 Tamm, p„ 48  41 Otto Keller, Eichendorffs Kritik der Romantik (Diss., Zurich, 1954),  42 Quoted by Weihe, p. 34.  43 Quoted by Weihe, p. 33.  51 Naturzauber, der den Menschen i n Stlnde und Leidenschaft e r s t r i c k t , und der hier ganz im Geiste des c h r i s t l i c h e n M i t t e l a l t e r s a l s "heidnisch" bezeichnet w i r d . 44 Romana does not recognize the r e a l i t y of any absolute force outside of h e r s e l f , but only the r e a l i t y of her own f e e l i n g s . Weihe terms t h i s r e a l i t y "Die K r a f t der Begeisterung," which she l a t e r defines as "die Religion der Phantasie:" Die Kraft der Begeisterung, im GefUhl und Phantasie 45 lebendig, i s t f u r sie die Grundkraft des Daseins. . . . Jener romantische Glaube an d i e im Irdischen verborgene und beschlossene Macht des Unendlichen—die "Religion der Phantasie"—ist der Wahn, i n dem Romana l e b t . Die geheimnisvolle K r a f t , aus der d i e Welt i h r Leben empfangt, ruht fllr sie i n der Tiefe der Natur. 46 Tamm recognizes, however, that Romana's uninhibited l i f e of the senses does not arise from any p o s i t i v e conviction about the beauty of the l i f e of the senses i t s e l f , as i t does with the early romantics,  but only as a protest against the status quo.  He says:  . . . i h r wildes, ausschweifendes Leben wird nicht getragen von dem Glauben an d i e Kraft und Schflnheit. . , s i n n l i c h e r Leidenschaft; es entspringt aus Ressentiment, aus Empflrung wider die bestehenden s i t t l i c h e n Ordnungen. 47 K e l l e r points out that Romana can f i n d no f u l f i l l m e n t through t h i s l i f e of the senses. 44 Tamm, p . 4. 45 Weihe, p . 34,  46  '  Weihe, p . 41.  47  'Tamm, p . 38.  I t gives her l i f e no s t a b i l i t y  52 or significance, bait only offers her a momentary escape which i s followed by depression and boredom.  Because such escape i s  meaningless, l i f e becomes for her merely a kind of game: Seit ihrer Jugend i s t ihr Leben bestimmt von den MSchten der Sinnenwelt. Dabei hat sie nicht etwa versucht, tiefer in diese einzudringen, um i n ihr ein Dauerndes zu finden und ihr Dasein neu zu verankern. Von fliichtigen Sinnenreizen. . . hat sie sich immer wieder hinreissen lassen. Daher folgt bei ihr auf die beseligte Hingabe immer wieder die Ernuchterung. Diese wieder kann sie nur durch neuen Raiisch verdrangen. Aber gerade hier zeigt sich eine Gefahr. . . Ihr ganzes Leben droht zu einem Spiel zu werden, sich gleichsam aufzulHsen. Besonders ihr Verhaitnis zu den Mitmenschen, soweit es uns schon bekannt i s t weist i n dieser Richtung. Es scheint fihnlich zu sein wie das zur Sinnenwelt: ein fltlchtiges Sich-Berauschen ohne dauernde Hingabe. 48 Eichendorff describes Romana as "heidnisch"—a pagan. This i s because she recognizes only her own feeling as a valid reality, and w i l l not recognize the stabilizing external realities of morality and religion.  Keller says:  Die unbedingte Hingabe an die Magie der Sinnenweld bezeichnet Eichendorff als "heidnisch," denn sie bedeutet zugleich Heraustreten aus allem Gesicherten und Sichernden, sie bedeutet also auch Verlust der Unendlichkeit, des Ewigen. 49 This irresponsible l i f e of the senses can only lead to destruction.  I t i s opposed to the Christian view which  recognizes the limitations and transience of l i f e and which  48 Keller, p. 43.  49  Keller, p. 58.  53 subordinates earthly l i f e to a higher spiritual reality. Weihe says: "Fahre zu! ich mag nicht fragen, wo die Fahrt zu Ende geht!" Der Rausch, der sich das Ende zu verbergen suchtftlhrt auf dem Wege der Schuld diesem Ende zu'. Er tr&gt-in sich den Tod. Der christliche Glaube an den SchOpfer dagegen, in dem allein Heil i s t , schliesst das Wissen um die Endlichkeit der Welt und des menschlichen Lebens ein. Dieser Glaube weiss, dass niemand f r e i tlber sein Leben verftigt: er ver stent menschliches Dasein vielmehr gerade im Blick auf die ursprungliche Gebundenheit .und Endlichkeit des Geschaffenen. 50 Romana's mother recognizes the potential danger of her daughter's temperament, and thus realizes the necessity of ordering and preserving her gifts within a protective domestic environment which would control her violent nature by nourishing pleasures of the s p i r i t .  She entreats her:  Springe neimals aus dem Garten! Er i s t fromm und zierlich umsHumt mit Rosen, L i l i e n und Rosmarin. . . Denn du sollst mehr Gnade erfahren und mehr g0ttliche Pracht Uberschauen als andere. Und eben, weil du oft friihlich und kllhn sein wirst und Flttgel haben, so bitte ich dich: springe niemals aus dem s t i l l e n Garten, (p. 124) Romana, however, i s discontent with this traditionally passive existence of women. She does not wish to subordinate her feelings to some circumscribed way of l i f e , but to give herself up to them i n the aggressive l i f e of men.  Thus, Leontin  describes her as "Eine tollgewordene Genialitfit, die i n die  50  Weihe, p. 40  54 MHnnlichkeit hineinpfuscht."  (p. 12)  She exhibits these  masculine qualities i n many ways. Intellectually she i s daring and unconventional.  Friedrich praises "die fast unweibliche  Ktlhnheit ihrer Gedanken."  (P. 158) She also appears to have  a homosexual attachment to Rosa: Sie setzte sich neben sie hin und half sie von alien Seiten schmttcken, setzte ihr • bald einen Hut, bald KLumen auf, und r i s s ebensooft alles wieder herunter, wie ein verliebter Knabe der nicht weiss, wie er sich sein Liebchen wUrdig genug aufputzen s o i l . (p. 122) Friedrich associates her destructive existence with a loss of simplicity:  "Sie hatte die Einfalt, diese Grundkraft  aller Tugend leichtsinnig verspielt." Her unassuming existence at home nourished i n her an un-selfconsciousness.  She loses this when she chooses the self-  conscious l i f e of a man.  Because such a l i f e i s contrary to the  natural instinct of a woman, the result of an irresponsible "Mutwilleh," i t i s essentially a r t i f i c i a l , a kind of game. Her homosexuality i s a r t i f i c i a l , contrary to her instinct as a woman, and so i s her intellectuality. Her self-consciousness has made i t impossible for her to think or act naturally.  Her  feeling and ..thinking i s not spontaneous and integrated, but self-conscious and separated.  She i s unable to follow the  conviction of her feelings, but must simultaneously analyze them with her mind.  This constant self-dissection, this separ-  ation of her feelings and reason, prevents her from taking herself seriously.  Because her mind and feelings cannot be united,  55 she i s incapable of holding any convictions and i s unable to act morally.  She remains d i s u n i f i e d ,  therefore  "zerissen,"  acting upon the momentary whim of her mind or her f e e l i n g s . 51 The consciousness of t h i s d i s u n i t y makes her a romantic i r o n i s t . Thus, when r e l a t i n g a s i g n i f i c a n t incident from her childhood, she i s simultaneously aware of the mysterious mood she i s creating and interrupts h e r s e l f :  "Aber mir scheint gar, du  glaubst mir w i r k l i c h a l l e s das Zeug d a . " (p.  123)  I t i s perhaps natural that Romana's self-conscious i n t e l l e c t u a l nature should express i t s e l f i n w r i t i n g , the most r e f l e c t i v e of the a r t s , rather than i n music, as i n the case of Erwin.  Her a r t i s of the opposite nature to E r w i n ' s .  Erwin's i s spontaneous and organic, the natural expression of her f e e l i n g s .  Romana's i s self-conscious and suffers from  the s p l i t i n her p e r s o n a l i t y between her f e e l i n g s and her reason.  Her w r i t i n g i s b r i l l i a n t but a r b i t r a r y , a product  of her "tollgewordene G e n i a l i t H t . " (p. 62)  Thus, although  she can write f l u e n t l y and spontaneously by y i e l d i n g to her imagination, her reason i s simultaneously aware of t h i s process and censors i t . seriously.  Because of t h i s she cannot take i t  Thus her w r i t i n g does not express her r e a l emotional  Tamm describes Romana's condition i n the following way: "Jsie] i s t i n jenem Stadiums der Bswusstheit eingetreten, i n dem keine reine, einfache Gefllhlsregung mehr aufkeimen kann, ohne von I n t e l l e k t seziert zu werden. . . . Der romantische Mensch bringt den Mut zum Handeln n i c h t mehr auf, denn sein zweites Ich schaut ihm ttber d i e Schulter und b e g l e i t e t jeden seiner Schritte mit Ironischer S k e p s i s . " Tamm, p . 40  56 s t a t e — i t i s either an imaginative exercise, such as the poem she recites at the Teegesellschaft, or a form of. wish f u l f i l l ment. Thus she abruptly breaks off her obscure monotonously incantantory poem about the princess-magician when she realizes the a r t i f i c i a l i t y of i t s sentiments: "Was lachen Sie? Ist die Allegorie schon geschlossen? Ist das nicht die PoesieT" — "Ich weiss nicht, ich weiss nicht, ich weiss nicht," sagte die GrHfin lustig und sprang auf. (p. 140) Like a l l the women in this novel, Romana attempts to find fulfillment f i r s t through love, and when this f a i l s , through religion. Of a l l the women i n this novel, Romana i s the most gifted.  She i s the most beautiful physically and the only one  who i s intellectually gifted.  In comparison with Rosa's more  restrained northern beauty, her beauty i s voluptuous and directly sensual, suggesting a strong passion: Xhre Schilnheit war durchaus verschwenderisch reich, stidlich und blendend und ubs'stehlte Rosas mehr deutsche Bildung weit. . . Ihre Bewegungen waren feurig, ihre grossen, brennenden, durchdringenden Augen, denen es nicht an Strenge fehlte, bestrichen Friedrich wie ein Magnet, (p. 135) Not only has she a penetrating reason, great wit, but also deep sensitivity and insight, a poetic g i f t which i s much rarer: Es war in ihr em Geiste wie i n ihr em schiJnen KOrper ein zauberischer Reichtum; nichts schien zu gross in der Welt fur ihr Herz; sie zeigte eine tiefe, begeisterte Einsicht ins Leben wie in alle Ktlnste, . . . (p. 146)  57 Because of her great gifts, her desire to attain happiness through love i s unusually handicapped.  Because she  i s by. nature more passionate than the other women, she has a stronger desire for lovej but because she i s so gifted i t i s d i f f i c u l t for Tier to find a man superior or even equal to herself.  In a conversation with Rosa she condemns the infer-  i o r i t y of a l l the men she has known: . . . solches schmutziges, abgearbeitetes, unverseMmtes Volk, steifleinene Helden, die sich spr.eizen und i n allem Ernste glauben, dass sie uns beherrschen, wShrend wir sie auslachen, fleissige StaatsbUrger und ehrliche Ehestandskandidaten, die, ganz beschwitz von der Berufsarbeit und das Schurzfell noch um den Leib, mit aller Wut ihrer Inbrunst von der Werkstatt zum Garten der Liebe springen, und denen die Liebe ansteht, wie eine umgekehrt aufgesetzte Perllcke. (p. 122) But because she cannot control her  passionate nat\ire  she i s doomed to have an endless number of unsatisfying affairs which remain purely sensual i n nature because such men do not command her admiration and respect.  These men are totally  opposite from the lover she had envisioned as a young g i r l : Wenn ich bedenke. . . wie ich mir sonst als kleines Madchen einen Liebhaber vorgestellt habe: wundersch8n, stark, v o l l Tapferkeit, wild und doch wieder so milde, wenn er bei mir war. (p. 122) In Friedrich, however, she meets someone superior to herself, someone who possesses depth and sensitivity and yet who has a calm self-containment she has never experienced. Like a l l women, love i s for Romana an all-consuming experience;  and because she possesses no inner resources, she  i s unable to protect herself against i t .  She i s incapable  of withstanding i t even when she realizes her passion i s useless and must be destroyed by i t .  Even before she f a l l s  in love she recognizes this weakness within herself and admires Friedrich's calm self-containment.  She confesses:  "Wahr-  haftig. . . wenn ich mich einmal recht verliebte, es wurde mich gewiss das Leben kostent" (p. 158) Because of her admiration for him, i t i s inevitable that she f a l l i n love with him.  When he stays overnight at  her castle and wakes up to find her naked beside him, Friedrich i s terrified by her lack of self-control and flees. After this event Romana i s awakened to the hollowness of her existence.  She realizes that talents mast be absorbed  into one's inner unifying moral power, become virtues, in order to be f r u i t f u l :  "dass a l l e Talente Tugenden werden mtlssen  oder nichts sind." (p. 18?) She turns in despair to religion.  She wishes to  reform her l i f e because she cannot bear Friedrich's scorn: Friedrich's Verachtung war ihr durchaus unertraglich, obgleich sie sonst die Manner verachtete. Da raffte sie sich innerlichst zusammen, zerriss alle ihre alten Verbindungen und begrub sich i n die Einsamkeit ihres Schlosses. (p. 187) She completely changes her way of l i f e .  She gives  up her frivolous acquaintances and her disordered existence: Sie knllpfte Bekanntsehaften an mit einigen hHuslichen Frauen der Nachbarschaft, die sie sonst unsHglich verachtete  59 und musste beschHmt vor mancher Trefflichkeit stehen, von der sie sich ehedem nichts trfiumen l i e s s . Die Fenster und TUren ihres Schlosses, die sonst Tag und Nacht offen standen, wurden nun geschlossen, sie wirkte s t i l l und f l e i s s i g nach alien Seiten und fUhrte eine strenge Hauszucht. (pp. 187-188) But although she i s sincere, she i s unable to persevere; Es war ihr redlicher Ernst anders zu werden, und noch nie hatte sich ihre Seele so rein triumphierend und f r e i gefllhlt als i n dieser Zeit. Aber es war auch nur ein Rausch, obgleich der schdnste i n ihrera Leben. Es gibt nichts Erbarmungswlirdigeres, als ein reiches, verwildertes Gemtit, das i n verzweifelter Erinnerung an seine ursprtingliche, alte Gtite sich liederlich an dem Besten und Schlechtesten berauscht, um nur jenes Andenkens loszuwerden, bis es, so ausgehShlt, zugrunde geht. (p. 188) This momentary "Rausch," this temporary intoxication with religious feeling, i s similar to the experience of the Markese i n Arnim's GrHfin Dolores: . . . er hatte die Laster tiberlebt; jetzt war es nicht bloss Sinn ftlr Frdmmigkeit, die ihn an die Wahlfahrtsdrter Siziliens, zu alien Geistlichen trieb, er schwindelte i n die FrSmmigkeit hinein, die seiner Frau eigen war, es war ihm ein neuer Reiz, den er aber immer neu steigern musste; die Religion ward ihm eine Art Opium, seine Natur.: forderte immer mehr, bis sie nichts mehr fordern konnte, 52 This inability to lead a meaningful spiritual l i f e i s the result of losing her natural simplicity; "die Einfalt, diese Grundkraft aller Tugend," (p, 188) through her irresponsible,  52  Achim von Amirt^ Werke, ed. Reinhold Steig, Vol. II (Leipzig, n„d.), p. 122.  60 precocious behavior.  Her over-sophistication has resulted  in a division between her mind and feelings which has made i t impossible for her to react to l i f e as a whole person, i n a harmonious and purposeful way.  Thus, although her feelings  may desire to believe i n God, her mind cannot accept his existence: Sie kannte gleichsam alle Schliche und Kniffe der Besserung—-und der Teufel sass gegentlber und lachte ihr dabei immerfort insGesicht. In solcher Seelenangst dichtete sie oft die herrlichsten Sachen aber mitten im Schreiben f i e l es ihr ein, wie doch das alles eigentl i c h nicht wahr s e i . (p. 188) Thus, she i s unable to sublimate her feelings into any emotionally satisfying spiritual relationship and shatters on l i f e .  Friedrich's rejection of her love drives her to suicide.  Erwin Both Erwin and Romana commit suicide because of unrequited love.  However, whereas Romana's suicide i s voluntary,  Erwin*s i s involuntary, a psychosomatic reaction created by her w i l l to die.  Whereas Romana's anguish i s caused by the dominance  of her feelings over her reason, Erwin's i s caused by a more serious emotional problem, her potential insanity. Thus, although she possesses great depth, like Julie, she does not possess the latter's calm.  This depth cannot order her tempera-  ment because i t i s already disordered by nature:  61 Er entdeckte i n wenigen GesprHchen, bald an SchSrfe und Tiefe eine auffallende A'hnlichkeit seines Gemutes mit Julien. Nur mangelte bei Erwin das ruhige Gleichgewicht der KrHfte, die alles beleuchtende Klarheit ganz und gar. Im verborgensten Grunde der Seele schien vielmehr eine geheimnisvolle Leidenschaftlichkeit zu ruhen, die alles verwirrte und am Ende zu zersttfren drohte. (p. 77) This i s the result of the impact of her illegitimacy, the "unwillkllrliche, schSndliche Verbindung" (p. 276), the union of Rudolf and Angela, which has oppressed her with guilt and driven her into a l i f e of fantasy.  Her mind i s further  deranged by the unstable promiscuous gypsy l i f e amid which she has been brought up.  Thus her appearance i s unkempt and immodest  when Friedrich f i r s t sees her i n the forest hut. Like Romana, her problem does not arise so much from the fact that her love is.unrequited as the fact that she has no inner resources to counteract the destructive effects of  53 this love.  I t i s significant that, like Romana, she i s  attracted to Friedrich, whose harmonious personality i s so i n contrast with her own.  Her male disguise does not arise,  like Romana's, from a desire to live a free, aggressive male l i f e , but rather to hide and cover up her own identity, not Keller comments on her lack of inner resources: "(Er] kennt in seinem Leben auch keine eigene Fuhrung. Wie die Wolken immerfort am Himmel dahinziehen, gelenkt von einem fremden Willen, so fUhlt auch er sich von einem "wunderbarem Schiffer" gefUhrt. Erwin lHsst sich vom Leben tragen. Wie.auf einem Strome gleitet er willenlos dahin." Keller, p. 63  62 just as Friedrich's niece, but as a male human being. This desire to conceal her identity, her past, at a l l costs i s emphasized by her reaction when, after Julie discovers her identity, she gives her g i r l ' s clothes to wear: Das MMdchen wurde dadurch auch s t i l l e r , aber es war eine wahre Grabesstille, von der sie sich nur manchmal im Gesange wieder zu erholen schien. (p. 244) Thus, even i f i t were possible for her love to have been requited, i t i s doubtful i f she would be capable of accepting i t because of her extreme withdrawal. She seems doomed to suffer, to long for a love which, even i f she had the opportunity, she would be .incapable of accepting.  Thus she i s always lonely and restless, "einsam  und anteillos" (p. 35). She scribbles, on a sheet of paper "Es i s t entzetzlich, a l l e i n zu sein" (p. 173). She i s "eine wunderbare Laute aus alter Zeit, die jetzt niemand mehr zu spielen verstehlt" (p. 36). Because of her withdrawal and sense of isolation, her desire to hide her "shameful" identity, she can never hope to have a normal love relationship.  She  can only hope to approach Friedrich as a servant, i n a subservient relationship, one in which her individuality can be buried.  She i n undoubtedly attracted by Friedrich's gentle  protective personality which soothes and calms her. Her attitude i s somewhat similar to that of the Minnesinger, the  63 "servants of love" who reputedly dedicate themselves wholly to the beloved with no thought of reward: Sein einziges Ziel und Augenmerk schien es, seinen Herrn, den Grafen Friedrich, zu bedienen, welches er bis zur geringsten Kleinigkeit aufmerksam, emsig und gewissenhaft tat. (p. 35) This service i s her only purpose in l i f e .  In a l l  other relationships she f a l l s back into her withdrawn behavior: Sonst mischte er sich in keine GeschUfte oder Lust der anderen. Er schien zerstreut, immer frerad, verschlossen und fast hart. (p. 35) Her insecurity i s intensified by her jealousy of Rosa: Ich kann nicht lKnger schweigen, der Neid drUckt mir das Herz ab. (p. 173) Religious faith gives her only a temporary security; Unlike Romana, however, she has no intellectual d i f f i c u l t y in accepting Christianity.  On the contrary, her intense subjec-  t i v i t y makes her particularly responsive to i t .  It i s rather  the world of practical reality which she finds unreal. When :he finds she has received no religious instruction, Friedrich i s shocked, and attempts to f i l l this gap: Friedrich liess es sich nun ernstlich angelegen sein, ihn im Christentume zu unterrichten. Alle Morgen, vrenn die Natur in ihrer Pracht vor ihnen ausgebreitet lag, sass er mit ihm im Garten und machte ihn mit dem grossen wunderreichen Lebenswandel des ErltfserR bekannt und fand, ganz dem Gange der Zeit zuwider, das GemUt des Knaben weit empf&nglicher fur das VerstSndnis. des Wunderbaren als des Allt&glichen und GewiJhnlichen. (p.78)  64 The effect of this teaching i s beneficial: Seit dieser Zeit schien Erwin innerlich s t i l l e r , ruhiger und selbst geselliger zu werden. (p. ?8) Because Erwin i s at the mercy of her temperament, however, religion can only provide a temporary comfort, and cannot hinder her approaching insanity. Only when she i s able to sublimate her suffering in song does she obtain happiness and regain her equilibrium. Such a s e l f - s a c r i f i c i a l attitude may be evidenced by her "schSnes seelenvolles Gesicht" (p. 35} Erwin expresses herself through both music and literature.  The music i s a positive, unifying expression of  experience.  Through, her songs she i s able to sublimate her  love for Friedrich, to rise above i t and synthesize i t into a vicarious fulfillment.  Thus at night she wanders outside  and sings love songs to the accompaniment of her guitar: Wenn alles im Schlosse schlief und draussen die Sterne am Himmel prangten, ging er vielmehr rait der Gitarre aus, setzte sich gewShnlich auf die alte Schlossmauer tlber dem Waldgrunde und tlbte sich dort heimlich auf dem Instrumente. (pp. 35-36) They are l y r i c outbursts of her longing or of her ecstasy, like the following: Es weiss und r&t es doch keiner, Wie mir so wohl i s t , so wohlt Ach, wtlsst es nur einer, nur einer, Kein Mensch sonst es wissen s o l l t ' ! (p. 174) 1  65 Or, i f they are sad, they s t i l l provide a comforting inner release: Ich kann wohl manchmal singen, Als ob ich frflhlich sei, Doch,heimlich TrHnen dringen Da wird das Herz mir f r e i . (p. 1??) In music and poetry she exalts and resolves her experience by transcending i t . analyses and describes i t .  In her prose fragments she  Thus her writings, her scrawled  fragmentary expression of feeling, describe her melancholy, her loneliness and grief, the destructive emotions which tear her apart.  Friedrich describes the desperate fragmentary,  unconnected nature of her thoughts: Es waren einzelne Gedanken, so seltsam weit abschweifend von der Sinnes- und Ausdrucksart unsrer Zeit, dass sie oft unverstHndlich wurden, abgebrochene Bemerkungen tlber seine Umgebungen und das Leben, wie fahrende Blitze auf durchaus nfichtlichem, melancholischem Grunde, wunderschdne Bilder aus der Erinnerung an eine frllher verlebte Zeit und Anreden an Personen, die Friedrich gar nicht kannte, dazwischen Gebete wie aus tiefster Seelenverwirrung eines gelingstigten Verbrechers, immerwahrende Beziehung auf eine unselige verdeckte Leidenschaft, die sich selber nie deutlich schien, kein einziger Vers, keine Ruhe, keine Klarheit ttberall. (pp. 176-.T77) She describes her feeling of isolation in the lonely immensity of  the world: Die VJblken ziehn immerfort, die Nacht i s so finster. Wo fuhrst Du mich hin, wunderbarer Schiffer? Die Wolken und das Meer haben kein Ende, die Welt i s t so gross und s t i l l , es i s t entsetzlich, allein zu sein. (p. 173)  66 It i s when Erwin i s no longer able to sublimate her love, when even i n her fantasy she i s unable to reach Friedrich through her songs, that she becomes insane and dies. Before she dies she t e l l s Friedrich of this experience: Es war ein tiefes, weites, rosenrotes Meer, dich sah ich darin auf dem Grunde imraerfort ttber hohe Gebirge gehen, ich sang die besten alten Lieder, die ich wusste, aber du erinnertest dich nicht mehr daran, ich konnte dich niemals erjagen, und unten stand der Alte tief im Meere, ich furchtete mich vor seinen Augen. Manchmal ruhtest du, auf mich zugewendet, aus, da sass ich s t i l l dir gegentlber und sah dich v i e l hundert Jahre an . . . (p. 241) Her illness seems to be psychosomatic, a desire to die because of unrequited love. I t i s caused by a heart attack precipitated by Friedrich's presence: Erwin sah indes wie aus einem langen Traume mit ungewiss schweifenden Blicken rings um sich her und dann Friedrich an, wahrend sehr heftige innerliche Zuckungen, die sich immer mehr dem Herzen zu n&hern schienen, durch seinen Kflrper fuhren. . . hier nahmen die Zuckungen in immer engern Kreisen auf einmal sehr heftig zu. Der Knabe nahm Friedrichs Hand, drtlckte sie fest an seine Lippen und sagte: "Mein3ieber Herri" Ein pliJtzlicher Krampf streckte noch einmal seinen ganzen Leib, und ovhOrte auf zu atmen. (p. 241)  The BUrgermadchen and Leontin's Mistress Romana and Erwin lose their lives because of unrequited love.  The BttrgermHdchen and Leontin's mistress die because of  a sense of guilt, a wounded moral consciousness.  Romana and  Erwin are driven to destruction by their nature, which they cannot control.  The BurgermHdchen i s driven to destruction by her  conscience, a product, not of her passion, but of her pious nature, which has been nurtured i n a quiet, orderly Christian environment. She f a l l s i n love with the prince, who i s disguised as a student, and gives herself to him, unaware that he has deliberately planned to seduce her.  When she discovers his  identity during a public procession, she faints and later refuses to see him again, realizing that she w i l l never be able to marry him. In remorse for her sin she turns completely to God, visiting a l l the churches, praying that she may yet be happy in this l i f e .  The weight of her sin soon deprives her of  a l l hope, however, and she becomes convinced that only death can atone for i t : Nach und nach aber fing sie an zu krBnkeln und wurde melancholisch. Sie sprach sehr zuversichtlich, dass sie bald sterben wurde, und von einer grossen Suhde, die sie abzubtlssen hatte, und fragte die Mutter oft angstlich, ob sie denn noch i n den Himmel kommen kOnnte? ( P . W  68 This acceptance of her death, partly psychosomatic in nature and (perhaps) partly caused by her pregnancy, gives her peace: Die letzten Tage vor ihrem Tode wurde sie merklich besser und heiter. Noch den letzten Tag, kam sie sehr frflhlich nach Hause und sagte mit leuchtenden Augen, sie habe den Prinzen wiedergesehen,er sei, ohne sie zu bemerken, an ihr vorbeigeritten. Den Abend darauf starb sie. (p. 19*0 Leontin's girl-friend i s also of an i n i t i a l l y uncomplicated disposition, "ein gutes, herziges, verliebtes Ding."  One evening, however, she receives a v i s i t from some-  one who appears to be Leontin. She t e l l s Leontin of this v i s i t , who i n turn t e l l s Friedrich of i t : . . . ich sei ja gestern abends noch sehr spat bei ihr gewesen, und da sie mich ktissen wollen, hatte ich sie ermahnt, lieber Gott als die-Manner zu lieben, darauf hfitte ich noch ein Weile sehr streng und ernsthaft mit ihr gesprochen, wovon sie aber nur wenig verstanden, und wSre dann ohne Abschied fortgegangen. (p. 255) When she discovers this person was not Leontin, she becomes frightened and begs Leontin never to see her again. When Leontin rides out to see her the following evening or to find out about her from her mother, he sees himself standing by a tree.  (This "double" i s actually Rudolf, who delights  in playing malevolent jokes on lovers.)  The same hour the  g i r l dies, not of guilt, but of fright. Just as Romana and Erwin are driven to death by the disorder within themselves, so are the BUrgerniHdchen and Leontin's mistress driven to i t by an ordering moral force.  In the BUrger~  69 mHdchen this i s an inner force, the piety to which she has been conditioned.  In Leontin's mistress i t i s an outer force, the  inexplicable appearance of Rudolf which drives her to death, not through a desire for, but through a fear of, morality.  CHAPTER III The Unhappy Who Make Some Positive Adjustment to Life  In this novel Eichendorff depicts love as the primary method for "women to achieve happiness.  A l l his femal  characters attempt to find fulfillment i n love f i r s t , and only turn to other forms of fulfillment when this f a i l s . So strong i s woman's desire for love that, when i t i s unrequited, as i n the case of Romana and Erwin, i t can lead to suicide.  In Eichendorff's view, however, the happiness of  love can only be f u l f i l l e d through the Christian sacrament of marriage.  Any expression df love through a sexual re-  lationship outside of marriage only leads to promiscuity and results in disharmony within the individual and therefore to unhappiness.  Harmony, the prerequisite of happiness,  can only be restored within the individual by the ordering forces of morality and religion.  By practising these, Marie,  Rosa and Angelina are able to restore order and stability to their lives which had been previously disordered by unhappy extra-marital experiences.  Because they do not consummate  happy marriages, however, they cannot be said, i n Eichendorff view, to attain their highest fulfillment.  71  Marie, Angelina and Rosa a l l lose their happiness through early sexual experiences unprotected by marriage. Through these they lose their self-control, which gave stabil i t y to their lives, and with this the charm and innocence which f i r s t made them so attractive.  Their lives thus become  disordered and inharmonious.  Marie As a young g i r l Marie lives i n a JHgerhaus next to Leontin's castle.  Conditioned by her natural  environment,she  i s fresh and innocent. As a "Naturkind," however, she passionately loves freedom.  Because of this, although she desires a  lover, she senses that such a relationship would destroy her by depriving her of her freedom. This approach-avoidance conflict i s the basis of her later problems.  I t i s expressed i n a song (pp.  24-25)  i n which  she identifies herself with a deer which i s magnetically attracted to the hunter, the aggressive masculine force, although i t knows i t w i l l destroy him: Im dunkelgrllnen Waldrevier Da b l i t z t der Liebste rosenrot, GefSllt so sehr dem armen Tier, Das Hirschlein wUnscht, es lMge tot. She realizes, however, that this desire for love i s stronger than her desire to protect herself:  72  Hilt', schSnes Hirschlein, htlte dichl Spricht's Hirschlein selbst in seinem Sinn, Wie s o i l ich, s o i l ich htiten mich, Wenn ich so sehr verliebet bin? The hunter, however, because he loves her, does not wish to k i l l , but to tame her: Weil ich so sehr verliebet bin, Wollt' ich das Hirschlein, schdn und wild, Aufsuchen tief im Walde drin Und streicheln, bis es s t i l l e hielt. She realizes, however, that' such taming i s a preliminary form of domesticity, a form of incarceration which, as a free creature of nature, i s unsufferable to her: Ja, streicheln, bis es s t i l l e hielt, Falsch locken so in Stall und Haus! Zum Wald springt s Hirschlein f r e i und wild Undlacht verliebte Narren aus. 1  This conflict vrithin her leads to a series of tragic affairs and i s only resolved when, through recognition of her dilemma, she withdraws from men  altogether,  Marie loses her innocence through the playful affection of the men at Leontin's, who  continue to fondle her  like a child despite the fact that she has matured:  "Jeder  behandelte sie aus Gewohnheit als ein halberwaehsenes Kind, fing sie auf und ktisste sie.  Friedrich sah wohl, dass sie  sich dabei gar kilnstlich straubte, um nur immer fester gehalten  73 zu vrerden, und dass ihre KUsse nicht mehr kindsch war-en." (p. 57) Friedrich realizes that such apparently innocent behavior w i l l eventually result in serious consequences:  "Friedrich schmerzte  das ganze lose Spiel. . . und sprach laut von Verftihren." (p. 33) Thus, although she f i r s t regards love as a game and delights i n rejecting potential lovers, such as Faber, she soon loses her independence.  Thus, when she goes to the Residenz, she  gives herself up completely to her feelings.  When Friedrich  notices her uninhibited behavior at the masked ball, he accompanies her home and reprimands her. the black knight who  He compares her lovers to  appeared at the ball, outwardly attractive  and v i t a l , but inwardly the devil, sexual licence, who causes death by k i l l i n g the ordering, stable l i f e of the spirit: Wie der schwarze Ritter heute auf dem Balle, t r i t t tlberall ein freier, wilder Gast ungeladen in das Fest. Er i s t so lustig aufgeschmuckt und ein rustiger THnzer, aber seine Augen sind leer und hohl und seine HHnde totenkalt, und du musst sterben, wenn er dich i n die Arme nimmt, denn dein Buhle i s t der Teufel. (p. 117)  x  This lack of self-control i s apparent in her attempts to commit suicide during Friedrich's v i s i t . Although she i s at the mercy of her feelings, the intensity of her love gives her a capacity for self-sacrifice which eventually saves her.  So great i s her affection for her  lover, an officer who dies in battle, that she acquires  74  strength  to  carry  moved by t h e to  channel  "Ist de  sie  b o d y up t h e  mountainside.  depth  of her  love,  into  a more  fruitful,  it  in dir  his  eine  zu G o t t ,  solche  attempts  to  und du w i r s t  persuade  spiritual,  Gewalt w a h r h a f t e r noch grosse  Friedrich, her  source:  L i e b e . . . so Gnade  wen-  finden."  (p.218) Possibly the  group  care.  of mentally  She r e j e c t s  alizing  the  possibly, for  slaps  Faber  love  further  when he of  For her, attempt  son,  as  -  a sexually however,  such,  to  by h e r  the  desire  attempts  it  people  under  to  liberal  Rudolf's  between  her,  joins  w i t h men,  freedom.  kiss  she  promiscuity  conflict  for  Thus,  her she  which he,  society,  her  feelings  an i n d i c a t i o n of h e r  re-  and,  a  considers  undoubtedly represents  subordinate  is  advice  relationship  caused  cause  and h e r  conscious  mental  all  deeper  representative  and,  disturbed  unhappiness  its  desire  insane.  i n f l u e n c e d by t h i s  to  a  her  rea-  beginning  health.  Angelina Like Marie, happiness ment  when she  of her  is  Angelina loses removed  from the  her  self-control  protective  and  environ-  home. H a v i n g known and l o v e d h e r  as  a child,  Rudolf  meets h e r a g a i n i n I t a l y and a t t r a c t e d by h e r b e a u t y and modesty and has  f a l l s i n love with her, feminine p a s s i v i t y - her  t i m i d i t y . V/hen R u d o l f l e a r n s t h a t h e r f a t h e r  c o n s e c r a t e d h e r a t b i r t h f o r the r e l i g i o u s l i f e  t h a t she  soon must e n t e r a c o n v e n t ,  s e v e r a l meetings, While  they decide,  and  after  to elope. she i s a l o n e w i t h R u d o l f , p r o t e c t e d  him as s e c u r e l y as she was f e m i n i n e dependency and  by h e r home, she r e t a i n s  t h e r e f o r e her happiness.  by her  Thus,  a l o n e w i t h him i n the b o a t , she f e e l s p r o t e c t e d and i s a b l e t o g i v e h e r s e l f up c o m p l e t e l y t o her l o v e . T h i s p e r i e n c e i n w h i c h she l o s e s h e r own  ex-  i d e n t i t y i n t h a t of  her l o v e r gives her that t o t a l f u l f i l l i n g  happiness  which  a l l women seek i n l o v e . Thus, he i s the s o l e s o u r c e  of her  happiness  "Die  and she i s a b s o l u t e l y dependent upon him:  L i e b e h a t t e s i e nun It  ganz i n meine Gewalt gegeben." (p.270)  g i v e s her a k i n d of happiness  ficial  and  t h a t i s not j u s t  t r a n s i t o r y but permeates her i n n e r m o s t  she i s " i n n e r l i c h s t f r o h l i c h . "  (p.270) I t does not  superbeing simply  e x c i t e h e r f e e l i n g s , c r e a t i n g an immediate p h y s i c a l r e s p o n s e , hut calms and s p i r i t u a l response. wurde nun sie  deepens them, c r e a t i n g a  profound  Thus, i t g i v e s her g r e a t peace: " S i e  r u h i g . I n n e r l i c h s t f r o h l i c h , aber s t i l l ,  f e s t an m i c h g e d r u c k t . "  t h o u g h t f u l and p r e o c c u p i e d :  sass  (p.270) I t a l s o makes h e r " s i e sah m i t den we i t  offenen,  76 s i n n i g e n Augen unverwandt i n s Meer h i n a u s . " As she  soon as they  (p. 270)  a r e no l o n g e r a l o n e ,  however,  l o s e s h e r dependency upon h i m . H e r sudden e x p o s u r e t o  the world  i s too violent  a change f r o m h e r f o r m e r  sheltered  e x i s t e n c e a n d s h e s u c c u m b s t o t h e d a n g e r s o f h e r raw f r e e dom. She l o s e s h e r p a s s i v i t y tective  e n v i r o n m e n t - a n d becomes i n d e p e n d e n t a n d s e l f -  assertive. up  In gaining this  to the world  Rudolf.' T h i s  independence she g i v e s  as c o m p l e t e l y  herself  as she had g i v e n h e r s e l f t o  "Hingebung," however, does n o t g i v e h e r t h e  deep s p i r i t u a l but  - h e r dependence upon a p r o -  happiness  which h e r love f o r Rudolf  an immediate, sensuous p l e a s u r e  - a restless  provided, excitement  w h i c h g i v e s n o p e a c e . T h u s , when s h e w a k e s u p t h e n e x t m o r n i n g and sees t h e I t a l i a n the world  coastline  view of  o u t s i d e h e r home - h e r r e a c t i o n i s v i o l e n t . She  u t t e r s a " F r e u d e n s c h r e i . " ( p . 271) not  - her first  The w o r l d , hov/ever,  can-  o f f e r h e r t h e p r o t e c t i o n w h i c h h e r home o r h e r l o v e r  provided,  so t h a t i t e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r o y s her. Thus,  dorff describes the world,  despite i t s beauty,  Eichen-  i n threatening  54  T h i s c a p a c i t y o f l o v e t o c h a n g e a n d d e e p e n a woman's p e r s o n a l i t y i s r e f l e c t e d by E i c h e n d o r f f s remarks about h i s w i f e L u i s e i n h i s l e t t e r o f 1816: "Du d a r f s t m e i n e F r a u n i c h t mehr n a c h E r i n n e r u n g e n aus a l t e r Z e i t b e u r t e i l e n . I h r H i n e i n l e b e n i n m i c h - s i e s c h r e i b t z . B . , ohne d a s s i c h d a r a n g e d a c h t , j e t z t e i n e Hand, d i e schon h a u f i g m i t d e r m e i n i g e n v e r w e c h s e l t w u r d e - g r o s s e Kummer u n d g e w a l t s a m e s H e r a u s r e i s s e n a u s dem h e i m a t l i c h e n B o d e n und S a u e r t e i g h a b e n i h r e f r u h e r e s i n n l i c h reizende, mutwillig spielende Lebhaftigkeit i n d i e T i e f e v e r s e n k t und i n e i n e u n e n d l i c h m i l d e , s t i l l e l e b e n s k r a f t i g e Gute v e r w a n d e l t . . . " H.K.A., X I I , 1 8 - 1 9 .  77 t e r m s - as s e d u c t i v e and o f f e r i n g an u n c e r t a i n f u t u r e : "Es war d e r e r s t e U b e r s c h w e n g l i c h e miites i n das f r e i e ,  B l i c k des jungen Ge-  l t i s t e r n l o c k e n d e , r e i c h e , noch unge-  w i s s e Leben." (p.271) I t i s t h r o u g h t h e bohemian l i f e  i n Rome, however,  t h a t she f i n a l l y l o s e s h e r s e l f - c o n t r o l and h a p p i n e s s . I t s l a c k o f d i s c i p l i n e appeals t o her: wunderlichen,  "Wir f u h r t e n e i n e n g a r  z i e m l i c h unordentlichen Haushalt  miteinander,  denn A n g e l i n a gewohnte s i c h s e h r b a l d an das f r e i e ,  sorg-  l o s e K i i n s t l e r w e s e n . " (p.271) Her independence makes h e r masculine.  She soon becomes s e l f - a w a r e and a s s e r t i v e . She  l o s e s h e r f e m i n i n e p a s s i v i t y - h e r s e l f - f o r g e t f u l n e s s and modesty. She becomes c o n s c i o u s o f h e r own b e a u t y : " S i e musste m i r o f t zum M o d e l l s i t z e n , und s i e t a t es g e r n , denn s i e w u s s t e w o h l , w i e schon s i e war." (p.271) I n t o x i c a t e d by h e r new freedom she b e g i n s t o a c t a g g r e s s i v e l y l i k e a man,  an a t t i t u d e s y m b o l i z e d by t h e male c l o t h e s she must  wear a s a d i s g u i s e :  "Indes e n t g i n g es m i r n i c h t , dass Ange-  l i n a a n f i n g , m i t der Madchentracht  n a c h und nach a u c h i h r  m a d c h e n h a f t e s , b e i a l l e r L i e b e v e r s c h a m t e s Wesen  abzulegen,  s i e wurde i n Worten und Gebarden k e e k e r , und i h r e s o n s t so 55  schuchternen  Augen s c h w e i f t e n l l i s t e r n r e c h t s und l i n k s . "  (p.271) Because she i s a woman, she cannot 55  endure  such  Mobus p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e use o f men's c l o t h i n g as a symbol o f decadence and l i c e n c e was a l s o used by N o v a l i s : "Die F r a u i n der Mannerkleidung wird von N o v a l i s a l s symbolischer Ausd r u c k des V e r f a l l s und d e r V e r w a h r l o s u n g v e r s t a n d e n . " Mobus, p. 62.  78 freedom w i t h o u t l o s i n g h e r s e l f - c o n t r o l . She becomes drunk and s e n s u a l :  "Ja, es geschah wohl manchmal...dass s i e s i c h  b e r a u s c h t e , wo s i e dann mit den f u r c h s t s a m d r e i s t e n Mienen und glanzend schmachtenden  Augen e i n ungemein  reizendes  S p i e l d e r S i n n l i c h k e i t gab." (p.271) D u r i n g h e r r e t r e a t a t a landhaus o u t s i d e o f Rome where she goes t o bear h e r c h i l d , happened  she r e a l i z e s what has  t o h e r . She longs f o r the p r o t e c t e d  needs t o m a i n t a i n i n n e r s t a b i l i t y .  e x i s t e n c e she  She becomes melancholy  and d e p r e s s e d and even d e s i r e s the s e c u r i t y of the r e l i g i o u s life:  "War i c h doch l i e b e r  On the o t h e r hand, attracted  i n s K l o s t e r gegangen!"  (p.272)  d e s p i t e i t s i n s e c u r i t y , she i s s t i l l  by h e r new freedom:  "Bin i c h n i c h t e i n schoner  J a g e r ? " (p.272), she asks almost s i m u l t a n e o u s l y .  This  a t t r a c t i o n t o male freedom i s expressed i n a h u n t i n g poem r e p r e s e n t i n g the f r e e r e s t l e s s l i f e  o f the h u n t e r  who i s m a g n e t i c a l l y drawn t o the deer - the l i m i t l e s s  goal  which freedom enables one t o seek. Such freedom, however, is  f r i g h t e n i n g because i t o f f e r s no s e c u r i t y . I t s g o a l  is  e l u s i v e and u n c e r t a i n : Ich hab' gesehn e i n H i r s c h l e i n s c h l a n k Im Waldesgrunde stehn, Nun i s t m i r draussen weh' und bang', Muss ewig nach ihm gehn. (p.272) She succumbs t o h e r d i s o r d e r e d  with her c h i l d to  f e e l i n g s and f l e e s  and a man she has met a t the i n n who, a c c o r d i n g  gypsy prophecy, i s f a t e d  to fight  R u d o l f i n a d u e l . When,  many y e a r s l a t e r ,  R u d o l f meets A n g e l i n a at a costume  ball,  she m i s t a k e s him f o r t h i s man, who, i n j e a l o u s y , a t t a c k s R u d o l f and d i e s when he f a l l s  on R u d o l f ' s o u t s t r e t c h e d  dagger. L i k e M a r i e , A n g e l i n a manages t o r e s t o r e to  her l i f e .  and  society  a v o i d s a l l f u r t h e r c o n t a c t s w i t h men. She devotes h e r  life of  L i k e h e r , she a l s o withdraws from  order  t o r e l i g i o n and good works, a p p e a r i n g o f t e n a t scenes  d i s a s t e r as " d i e schone F r a u " - a f i g u r e dressed i n  white  and r e c o g n i z e d as a good omen by a l l .  people  from f i r e s  - just  as she h e r s e l f had been rescued  from the r a g i n g u n c o n t r o l l e d f i r e life  of contemplative withdrawal  tive l i f e  of her f e e l i n g s . This resembles  the contempla-  t o which she had o r i g i n a l l y been c o n s e c r a t e d by  her f a t h e r . L i k e M a r i e , possibly  She r e s c u e s  she a l s o l i v e s a chaste  life,  c o n s i d e r i n g i t an a c t of atonement f o r h e r f a i t h -  l e s s n e s s t o R u d o l f , and a l s o n e c e s s a r y f o r the p r e s e r v a t i o n of  h e r e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . Her l i f e  of s e r v i c e ,  although  not as n e c e s s a r y f o r h e r s a n i t y as t h a t o f M a r i e ' s , i s nevertheless therapeutic i n that possessions inherited for in  her g u i l t  she uses the m a t e r i a l  from h e r husband's e s t a t e t o atone  i n m a r r y i n g him. By b e i n g a b e n e f i c i a l , and,  the p o p u l a r i m a g i n a t i o n , a s u p e r n a t u r a l presence a t  the scenes  of f i r e s  d e s t r u c t i v e presence  she atones  f o r and c o u n t e r a c t s the  o f the gypsy whose p r e d i c t i o n t o  80 R u d o l f when h i s home burned was l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the h a u n t i n g f e e l i n g  of desperation  and nemesis which  oppressed h i s l i f e .  Rosa  L i k e the other women who do not t h e i r f e e l i n g s t o some h i g h e r  subordinate  ordering p r i n c i p l e ,  Rosa  i s a t the mercy o f the men w i t h whom she comes i n c o n t a c t . Throughout the n o v e l Prince,'receptive  she i s t o r n between F r i e d r i c h and t h e  t o t h e i n f l u e n c e o f each. U l t i m a t e l y  l i k e a l l women, i t i s n o t she who makes the c h o i c e but t h e choice  i s made f o r her,  and i s dependent upon the a t t i t u d e  o f h e r l o v e r and the c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e moment. I n t h i s sense h e r d e s t i n y own f r e e  i s determined by f a t e r a t h e r than h e r  will. It  i s Rosa's beauty and modesty - h e r a p p a r e n t l y 56  i d e a l f e m i n i t y - which f i r s t  appeals t o F r i e d r i c h .  It i s  o n l y when he d i s c o v e r s t h a t these q u a l i t i e s a r e s u p e r f i c i a l the r e s u l t  of the f i r s t  nent p e r s o n a l i t y t r a i t s , It should  f l u s h o f l o v e r a t h e r than o f permat h a t he l o s e s h i s i n t e r e s t i n h e r .  i s n a t u r a l , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t these  make the g r e a t e s t  impression  qualities  upon him when he does  not know h e r w e l l - when h e r beauty i s heightened by the 56 F r i e d r i c h ' s l o v e f o r Rosa i s based, a c c o r d i n g t o most c r i t i c s , upon E i c h e n d o r f f ' s r e l a t i o n s h i p v/ith Kathchen von Rohrbach d u r i n g h i s r e s i d e n c e i n H e i d e l b e r g i n 1808. C f . K o h l e r , p. 1 1 6 .  81 mystery  of strangeness. T h e i r mutual  s p e l l which At  first,  people.  they  they  seem t o f e a r t o b r e a k by  appear  t o one  a n o t h e r as  does not  like  treat  an  "Engelsbild."  Friedrich like  but w i t h a g r e a t t i m i d i t y presence  each not  an  and  heightens her  - a lyrical  rather  interested  r a p t und  i n the  silent,  transcends  their  (p.21) S i m i l a r l y ,  d e f e r e n c e . Her  Rosa  modesty i n  develops  to love i t s e l f  at  rather  the  than  to  s u p e r - p e r s o n a l . Thus, Rosa i s of h i s t r i p  t o t o u c h h e r . The  identity,  which  T h u s , when F r i e d r i c h d e s c r i b e s l o v e , e x p e r i e n c e he  mill  o r d i n a r y human b e i n g ,  description  f o r him  than  beauty.  response  o t h e r - seems e q u a l l y  share  familiarity.  ideals  Their love r e l a t i o n s h i p which castle  casts a  T h u s , when t e n d i n g F r i e d r i c h ' s wounds a t t h e  Rosa appears  his  attraction  remembers r a t h e r  but  waits,  experience  seems  unimportant.  i t i s primarily  t h a n Rosa  they  the  herself:  Driiben i n i h r e m schonen G a r t e n h a t t e d i e L i e b e i h r tausendfarbiges Zeit aufgeschlagen, ihre w u n d e r r e i c h e n Fernen ausgespannt, i h r e Regenb o g e n und g o l d n e n B r u c k e n d u r c h d i e b l a u e L u f t g e s c h w u n g e n und r i n g s d i e B e r g e und W a l d e r w i e e i n e n Z a u b e r k r e i s um i h r m o r g e n r o t e s R e i c h gezogen. (p.35) But in  a romantic  a l t h o u g h Rosa i s capable relationship,  she  hard-headed. This c h a r a c t e r i s t i c L e o n t i n who  refers  L e o n t i n does not ous  and  t o h e r as  of great  i s essentially i s apparent  "meine w e l t l i c h e  tenderness  practical  to her brother Rosa."  even c o n s i d e r h e r p h y s i c a l beauty  n a t u r a l but  compares i t t o  and  "ein bemalter  (p.37)  spontaneFruhling,"  82 (p.35)  - an a r t i f i c i a l ,  self-conscious  adornment.  •When F r i e d r i c h r e g a r d s Rosa o b j e c t i v e l y r a t h e r t h a n r o m a n t i c a l l y , he soon becomes aware o f h e r l i m i t a t i o n s He n o t i c e s t h a t she l a c k s a s i m p l i c i t y and openness - a r e c e p t i v i t y t o experience - which c h a r a c t e r i z e s the n a t u r a l unspoiled  p e r s o n a l i t y . This  nature bores her.  i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e f a c t t h a t  She i s n o t a t t r a c t e d by t h e p a s s i v i t y o f  n a t u r e w h i c h a p p e a l s t o t h e s p i r i t , b u t by t h e a c t i v i t y o f the world  - by "neue S p e k t a k e l "  - which i n v o l v e h e r f e e l i n g  5 7  directly.  S i m i l a r l y she i s bored by F r i e d r i c h ' s a b s t r a c t  d i s c u s s i o n s because t h e y do n o t r e l a t e t o h e r immediate e x perience. negative  This l a c k of r e c e p t i v i t y i s revealed aspect i n h e r "Hartnackigkeit"  t r a i t w h i c h F r i e d r i c h most d e p l o r e s .  i n i t s most  - her character  Thus, a t t h e h e i g h t o f  h e r l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p , w i t h F r i e d r i c h she i n s i s t s upon accom panying Leontin means s e p a r a t i o n  on h i s t r i p even though she r e a l i z e s i t from F r i e d r i c h .  Rosa has l o s t h e r s i m p l i c i t y - h e r c h i l d - l i k e r e c e p t i v i t y to l i f e . Like a l l the other k l u g e Menschen" h e r v a l u e s  "grossgewordene a l t  are l i m i t e d t o those o f h e r  immediate e x p e r i e n c e - t o t h e p r a c t i c a l t a n g i b l e of the w o r l d . cultivated 5 7  values  This l a t e n t a t t r a c t i o n t o the "world" i s  i n t h e atmosphere o f t h e R e s i d e n z . She l o s e s  This a t t i t u d e i s s i m i l a r t o that of Graf Gaston i n E i c h e n d o r f f ' s D i e En t f u h r u n g , who says: "Der Mensch v e r l a n g e imme etwas A u s s e r o r d e n t l i c h . e s , und wenn es das E n t s e t z l i c h s t e ware, um n u r dem u n e r t r a g l i c h e t e n l i b e l , d e r L a n g e w e i l e , z u entkommen." Quoted by R i e p e , p. 4-2.  83 what n a t u r a l n e s s o f e x p r e s s i o n she p o s s e s s e d  and d e v e l o p s  a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a f f e c t a t i o n which becomes a p p a r e n t conversation:  " s i e mischte  o f t i n i h r e besten  i n her  Unterhaltungen  so F r e m d a r t i g e s , a l s h a t t e i h r i n n e r s t e s l e b e n s e i n  altes  G l e i c h g e w i c h t v e r l o r e n . " (p.168) At t h e R e s i d e n z the P r i n z who f a l l s illates  she a t t r a c t s t h e a t t e n t i o n o f  i n l o v e w i t h h e r . Her a f f e c t i o n  vac-  between F r i e d r i c h and t h e P r i n c e , dependent upon  who i s a t t e n t i v e t o h e r . Through a s e r i e s o f c o i n c i d e n c e s and m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  which E i c h e n d o r f f a t t r i b u t e s t o  f a t e she becomes so exposed t o t h e P r i n c e ' s i n f l u e n c e a t c r i t i c a l moments t h a t he succeeds  i n s e d u c i n g , and l a t e r ,  m a r r y i n g h e r . Thus, h e r f e m i n i n e p a s s i v i t y and t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n o f f a t e c r i p p l e h e r f r e e - w i l l , a n d she i s u n a b l e to  make an i n d e p e n d e n t  c h o i c e d e t e r m i n i n g h e r f u t u r e hap-  piness. By m a r r y i n g t h e P r i n c e she a t t a i n s t h e g o a l to  w h i c h h e r p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e had always  now p o s s e s s e s  those t h i n g s which  i n c l i n e d . She  t h e w o r l d v a l u e s most  h i g h l y - m a t e r i a l w e a l t h and s o c i a l p r e s t i g e : sie  i h r hochstes  keit erreicht." and  Ziel,  "So h a t t e  d i e w e l t l i c h e P r a c h t und H e r r l i c h -  (p.247) L e o n t i n d i s p a r a g e s t h e s e v a l u e s  says o f h e r :  "Sie taugte niemals v i e l ,  V/eltfutter,  n i c h t s a l s W e l t f u t t e r . " (p.247) The  a t t a i n m e n t o f t h i s g o a l , however, does  n o t make h e r happy. When a t the end o f t h e n o v e l F r i e d r i c h  8 4  enters a  the  religious  penitent.  sions  -  goals  devote  In  she  she  l i m i t e d goals and h a s  realizes of  come t o  appears  this  value  which F r i e d r i c h r e p r e s e n t s ,  tegrity  life  Presumably  the  happiness,  life  and  freedom  herself  within,  the  to  one  chapel  she  i n the  that  world the  appears  deep  as posses-  give  spiritual  through which her She b e g i n s of  framework in  do n o t  unlimited  a meaningful practice the  material -  c o u l d be p r e s e r v e d .  presumes,  chapel  the  into  religious  of her  marriage.  contemplation:  H u r e i n e h o h e , j u n g e Dame, d i e e i n e n d i c h t e n S c h l e i er l i b e r das G e s i c h t g e s c h l a g e n h a t t e , l a g s e i t w a r t s v o r einem einsamen A l t a r e v o l l Andacht auf d e n . K n i e n und s c h i e n v o n a l l e m , was h i n t e r i h r i n d e r K i r c h e v o r g i n g , n i c h t s zu bemerken. (p.290) Thus, not  attain  the  nevertheless a  deeper,  a l t h o u g h M a r i e , A n g e l i n a , and R o s a  happiness  attain  stable  (with  more  of n a t u r a l the  fulfillment  possible  significant  way  they  exception'of of  life.  do  Marie)  85 CHAPTER IV THE HAPPY Only t h r e e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l - J u l i e , L e o n t i n and F r i e d r i c h  - attain  significant  happiness.  They a c h i e v e t h i s by s u b o r d i n a t i n g t h e i r l i v e s t o t h e o r d e r i n g i n f l u e n c e s o f m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n . P o r J u l i e and E r i e d r i c h ,  however, t h i s harmony i s n o t a c h i e v e d as  a l a s t desperate and  measure as i t i s f o r M a r i e ,  Angelina  Rosa, b u t i s an o r g a n i c p a r t o f t h e i r b e i n g . They do  n o t impose i t f r o m w i t h o u t  as a n e c e s s a r y  to hold t h e i r l i v e s together. Rather, o u s l y from w i t h i n ,  a c t of d i s c i p l i n e  i t arises  and has always been a  spontane-  characteristic  o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . L e o n t i n ' s harmony, on t h e o t h e r hand, r e p r e s e n t s t h e f i n a l s t e p i n t h e development o f h i s  person-  a l i t y . H i s exuberance f o r l i f e w h i c h was o f t e n m i s d i r e c t e d o r h a n d i c a p p e d by h i s b i t t e r n e s s , channelled  i s now c o n t r o l l e d  f r u i t f u l l y throiigh h i s submission E i c h e n d o r f f shows t h r o u g h  and t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e  life  t o God.  these c h a r a c t e r s that  h a p p i n e s s c a n be o b t a i n e d b o t h t h r o u g h the world  and  an a c t i v e  life in  of the s o u l .  Thus,  J u l i e and L e o n t i n m a r r y , and F r i e d r i c h  enters the r e l i g i o u s  life. JT u l-,i•e The  58  o n l y woman who a t t a i n s  happiness i s J u l i e .  58 A c c o r d i n g t o K o h l e r t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s bases upon E i c h e n d o r f f s c o u s i n J u l i e v o n Howerden. K o h l e r , p. 145.  86 T h i s i s because she i s p r o t e c t e d by her h o m e - l i f e n a t u r a l r u r a l e x i s t e n c e ordered ronment n o u r i s h e s  - a  by r o u t i n e . Such an e n v i -  t h e t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l v i r t u e s w h i c h can  p r o v i d e a p u r p o s e f u l way  of l i f e  f o r her without  the  c e s s i t y o f m a r r i a g e and v/hich p r o t e c t h e r a g a i n s t  ne-  sexual  l i b e r a l i t y w h i c h c o u l d d e s t r o y h e r i n n e r calm. T h i s way l i f e has g i v e n h e r an i n n e r harmony - a calm and  of  peace -  w h i c h i s an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f h e r p e r s o n a l i t y . I t i s accompanied  by an a t t r a c t i v e c h e e r f u l n e s s and h o n e s t y of temper-  ament. Thus, d e s p i t e h e r s o c i a l r e t i c e n c e " v e r b r e i t e t e d i e bestandige  H e i t e r k e i t und  K l a r h e i t i h r e s Gemtits e i n e n  un-  w i d e r s t e h l i c h e n E r i i h l i n g liber i h r ganzes Wesen." (p.76) T h i s harmony i s r e f l e c t e d i n the o u t e r o r d e r of h e r l i f e h e r p r i d e i n the c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y o r d e r e d h o u s e h o l d i n h e r room as L e o n t i n r e s c u e s h e r from the  -  reflected  fire:  A l l e s i n dem Zimmer l a g noch s t i l l und f r i e d l i c h umher wie s i e es beim E n t k l e i d e n h i n g e l e g t ; e i n a u f g e s c h l a genes Gebetbuch l a g an i h r e r S e i t e . (p.93) B u t , as i n the case of h e r f a t h e r , t h e of t h i s way  o f l i f e has made h e r i n f l e x i b l e and  to  o t h e r forms of e x p e r i e n c e .  is  s o c i a l l y awkward and  unreceptive  Thus, l i k e h e r f a t h e r , she  cannot e a s i l y p a r t a k e  c o n v e r s a t i o n . In a negative  rigidity  i n a general  sense t h i s makes h e r c r u e l and  u n s y m p a t h e t i c t o o t h e r s . Thus, she  i s unable to understand  Romana's v i o l e n t n a t u r e w h i c h l e a d s t o h e r s u i c i d e . ' She condemns i t w i t h h a t r e d . I n a p o s i t i v e way  such  inflexi-  b i l i t y , ' w h i l e d e p r i v i n g h e r of i m a g i n a t i v e sympathy, p r o t e c t  87 her a g a i n s t d i s o r d e r which Thus, she i s u n a b l e  i s the source of i m m o r a l i t y .  t o understand  Leontin's s a t i r i c w i t  and h i s h i g h l y i m a g i n a t i v e b u t g r o t e s q u e  drawings:  E r [ L e o n t i n ] b e g r i f f n i c h t , dass das h e i l i g s t e Wesen des w e i b l i c h e n Gemlites i n d e r S i t t e und dem Anstande b e s t e h e , dass ihm i n d e r K u n s t , wie im Leben, a l l e s Z u g e l l o s e ewig fremd b l i e b e . " (p.76) On t h e o t h e r hand, t h e qunet c o n t e m p l a t i v e e x i s t e n c e w h i c h she l e a d s has drawn h e r i n w a r d and g i v e n h e r g r e a t e m o t i o n a l d e p t h . Thus, she t e l l s F r i e d r i c h about h e r l i f e and what she has r e a d : und t a t d a b e i unbewusst rait_einzelnen, abgerissenen, i h r ganz e i g n e n Wort en o f t Ausserungen, d i e e i n e s o l c h e T i e f e und F u l l e des Gemlites aufdeckten und so s e l t s a m w e i t liber den b e s c h r a n k t e n K r e i s i h r e s Lebens h i n a u s r e i c h t e n , dass F r i e d r i c h o f t e r s t a u n t v o r i h r s t a n d und d u r c h i h r e g r o s s en b l a u e n Augen i n e i n W u n d e r r e i c h h i n u n t e r z u b l i c k e n g l a u b t e . (p.77) L i k e o t h e r s who l e a d a n a t u r a l , life,  spontaneous  she i s e x t r e m e l y r e s p o n s i v e t o n a t u r e . She so i d e n -  t i f i e s h e r s e l f w i t h i t t h a t she c a n immerse h e r s e l f i n i t and be deepened by i t . Thus, u n l i k e R o s a , a p r o d u c t o f artificial to  s o c i e t y , who i s bored by n a t u r e , J u l i e  responds  i t e c s t a t i c a l l y . When she sees an u n u s u a l l y b e a u t i f u l  view: t a t s i e e i n e n F r e u d e n s c h r e i tiber den u n e r w a r t e t e n , noch n i e gehabten A n b l i c k und s a h dann den ganzen Weg liber m i t den g r o s s e n , s i n n i g e n Augen stumm i n das wunderbare R e i c h . . . (p.289) Her n a t u r a l i n n o c e n c e  i s p r e s e r v e d by h e r m o r a l  s c r u p e l s , i n d i c a t e d by h e r r e f u s a l t o k i s s L e o n t i n on t h e  08  e v e n i n g he r e s c u e s h e r from t h e f i r e . H e r p h y s i c a l b e a u t y seems t o become s p i r i t u a l i z e d as she matures: F r i e d r i c h bemerkte d a b e i , w i e s i c h i h r e ganze Ges t a l t s e i t d e m e n t w i c k e l t h a t t e . A l l e i h r e Zuge waren e n t s c h i e d e n und g e i s t r e i c h . (p.229) A f t e r h e r m a r r i a g e she a t t a i n s t h e h a p p i n e s s o f the  b r i d e who has g i v e n h e r s e l f t o h e r husband  w i t h i n the  s e c u r e p r o t e c t i v e bond o f m a r r i a g e : J u l i e s a s s s t i l l i n d i e Z u k u n f t v e r s e n k t und s c h i e n i n n e r l i c h e n t z t i c k t , dass nun e n d l i c h i h r ganzes Leben i n des G e l i e b t e n Gewalt gegeben s e i . (p.291) Of a l l t h e women who f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h some f o r m o f r e l i g i o u s p r a c t i c e , o n l y J u l i e h a s been n u r tured i n a stable C h r i s t i a n l i f e not  f r o m c h i l d h o o d . She does  t u r n t o r e l i g i o n as a s u b s t i t u t e f o r human l o v e b u t  has a l w a y s known and p r a c t i c e d i t . Her l i f e  i s n o t con-  s c i o u s l y s p i r i t u a l - a d e l i b e r a t e a c t o f t h e w i l l - an a t t i t u d e w h i c h c h a r a c t e r i z e s c o n v e r t s and t h o s e who d e s p e r a t e l y need t o change t h e i r way o f l i f e  - but unconscious  ly  s o . Her r e l i g i o n i s more m o r a l t h a n s p i r i t u a l ,  of  a n a t u r a l s t a b i l i t y and goodness  fui  ordered f a m i l y l i f e  consistin  a b s o r b e d from t h e peace  around h e r , t h a n f r o m an i n t i m a t e  s p i r i t u a l communion w i t h God. B u t because o f t h e s t a b l e p r o t e c t i v e e n v i r o n m e n t i n which s h e has been r e a r e d and the to  p u r p o s e f u l r o u t i n e d domestic l i f e  she has been t r a i n e d  l e a d , she has d e v e l o p e d q u a l i t i e s o f temperament - a  peaceful, s t a b l e , r e f l e c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y - which others must s t r i v e f o r by a c o n s c i o u s a c t o f t h e w i l l .  Because  89  of t h i s , she i s n o t o n l y t h e woman i n t h i s n o v e l who a t t a i n s the most s a t i s f y i n g s p i r i t u a l l i f e not  - consisting  i n o u t e r a c t s o f good works but i n i n n e r q u a l i t i e s o f  s p i r i t - a c a p a c i t y t o r e s p o n d more d e e p l y of l i f e  t o the beauty  and a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e -  but a l s o t h e o n l y one who a t t a i n s f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h l o v e , because she i s a b l e t o a t t r a c t a s u i t a b l e husband the e n d u r i n g  through  s p i r i t u a l q u a l i t i e s she r e p r e s e n t s . Leontin  The i n t e n s e , i n t o x i c a t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p w h i c h women seek i n l o v e i s sought by L e o n t i n i n l i f e is  i t s e l f . He  d r i v e n by a r e s t l e s s n e s s i n t o t h e immediate- w o r l d  arount  h i m t o w h i c h he r e s p o n d s i n t e n s e l y . F r i e d r i c h r e m a r k s : "Du s i e h s t so f r i s c h i n d i e Welt h i n e i n , dass a l l e s u n t e r d e i nen Augen bunt und l e b e n d i g w i r d . "  (p.154) Thus, he does  not respond s i m p l y t o i s o l a t e d e x t e r n a l a c t i v i t i e s the h u n t , b u t p o e t i c a l l y t o t h e f u l l , sensuous it  like  expression  invokes: I c h l i e b e an d e r Jagd n u r den f r i s c h e n Morgen, den V/ald, d i e l u s t i g e n H o r n e r und das g e f a h r l i c h e , f r e i e s o l d a t i s c h e Leben. (p.83) He v a l u e s t h e e x p e r i e n c e  of the e c s t a t i c person  the one who r e s p o n d s most f u l l y t o l i f e human e x p e r i e n c e .  He says:  - as t h e h i g h e s t  "Wo e i n B e g e i s t e r t e r s t e h t i s t  d e r G i p f e l d e r W e l t . " (p.180) Because e c s t a s y i s i t s e l f a p o e t i c experience  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g that Leontin  equate  90  poetry with  life:  Denn was h i e r Faber H e r r l i c h e s e r s a n n und f l e i s s i g a u f s c h r i e b , s u c h t e L e o n t i n a u f s e i n e f r e i e , wunderl i c h e Weise i n s Leben e i n z u f u h r e n . ( p . 3 5 ) He  does n o t t r y t o r e - f o r m h i s e x p e r i e n c e  into poetry  a l l o w s h i m s e l f t o be governed by the p o e t i c s p i r i t the e x p e r i e n c e  is itself  but  so t h a t  poetical:  E r b e h e r r s c h t e n i c h t , wie der besonnene D i c h t e r , das g e w a l t i g e Element d e r P o e s i e , der G l u c k l i c h e wurde von i h r b e h e r r s c h t . (p.81) Because h i s e x p e r i e n c e  i s p o e t i c he can e x p r e s s i t s i m u l -  t a n e o u s l y i n p o e t r y but i s u n a b l e  to re-capture i t l a t e r :  Da d i c h t e t e s e i n e f r i s c h e S e e l e u n a u f h b ' r l i c h s e l t same L i e d e r , d i e e r s o g l e i c h sang, ohne j e m a l s e i n e i n z i g e s a u f z u z e i c h n e n . Denn was e r ' a u f s c h r i e b , d a r a n v e r l o r e r s o g l e i c h d i e f r e i e , unbestimmte L u s t . (p.81) The  form of h i s a r t i s thus a t r u e e x p r e s s i o n of h i s per-  s o n a l i t y - r i o t o u s songs e x p r e s s i n g h i s d e l i g h t i n l i f e i t s e l f and g r o t e s q u e  drav/ings e x p r e s s i n g h i s contempt f o r  t h e l i m i t a t i o n s o f o t h e r human b e i n g s . His a t t i t u d e to a r t i s expressed to  i n his attitude  n a t u r e . He b e l i e v e s t h a t the e x p e r i e n c e o f n a t u r e  life  - i t s e l f i s so i n t i m a t e and b e a u t i f u l t h a t any  conscious attempt i n t o an a r t i f i c i a l , i s blasphemous. He "Ich auf wie mit  self-  t o form i t i n t o p o e t r y as an aim i t s e l f less vivid  -  e x p e r i e n c e t h a n the o r i g i n a l -  says t o F a b e r , the p r o f e s s i o n a l p o e t :  wiinschte S i e r i t t e n l i e b e r a l l e Morgen m i t m i r d i e J a g d , l i e b e r F a b e r . Der Morgen g l i i h t S i e e i n e r e i z e n d e G e l i e b t e an, und S i e k l e c k s e n i h r T i n t e i n das schbne G e s i c h t . " ( p . 2 6 )  91  Not only i s the immediate experience of l i f e i t s e l f more intimate and b e a u t i f u l than i t s secondary expression through poetry, but mystery who  attempts  of l i f e i t s e l f i s v i o l a t e d by the poet  to penetrate i t and impose h i s own meaning on  i t . The poetic l i c e n c e , i n i t s attempt to express the i n expressible simply confuses the i n t e l l e c t : Ihr verwechselt mit Euren Y/ortwechseleien a l l e s so, dass man am Ende seiner selbst nicht s i c h e r b l e i b t . Glaubte i c h doch einmal i n allem Ernst, i c h s e i die Weltseele und wusste vor lauter Welt n i c h t , ob i c h eine Seele hatte, oder umgekehrt. (p.30) L i f e i t s e l f , however, remains impenetrable: Das Leben aber, mein bester Herr Faber,-mit seinen bunten B i l d e r n verhalt si ch zum Dichter wie e i n unubersehbar w e i t l a u f i g e s Hieroglyphenbuch von einer unbekannten, lange untergegangenen Ursprache zum Leser. Da s i t z e n von Ewigkeit zu Ewigkeit die redl i c h s t e n , gutmlitigsten Weltnarren, die Dichter, und lesen und lesen. Aber die a l t e n , wunderbaren Worte der Zeichen sind unbekannt, und der Wind weht die B l a t t e r des grossen Buches so schnell und verworren durcheinander, dass einem die Augen ubergehn. (p.30) Like Rudolf, Leontin i s a d i s i l l u s i o n e d Instead of applying h i s i d e a l s , l i k e Faber and  idealist.  Friedrich,  to the inner subjective worlds of poetry and r e l i g i o n where they can be p r a c t i c a l l y implemented, he would l i k e to apply them to l i f e . This d i s i l l u s i o n s him, because he r e a l i z e s that society cannot be changed: Ihn jammerte seine Zeit v i e l l e i c h t wie keinen, aber er hasste es, davon zu sprechen. Mit der grossten G e i s t e s k r a f t hatte er schon o f t r e d l i c h a l l e s versucht, wo es etwas niitzen konnte, aber immer Uberwiesen wie die Menge r e i c h an Wunschen, aber inner-l i c h dumpf und g l e i c h g u l t i g s e i , wo es g i l t ... (p.167) 59  Tamm compares Leontin's disillusionment with that of  D e s p i t e h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t , however, he s t i l l has  a d e s i r e f o r p i e t y . He b e l l s F r i e d r i c h : " I c h konnte.  so fromm s e i n wie von  e i n Lammchen und n i e m a l s e i n e  Anwandlung  W i t z v e r s p i i r e n , wenn n i c h t a l l e s so dumm g i n g e . " (p.74)  F r i e d r i c h t e l l s him t h a t , despite h i s disappointment i n the w o r l d around him,  i t is still  secure r e l i g i o u s f a i t h w i t h i n  possible t o maintain a  himself:  "Nimm d i c h i n a c h t m i t deinem Ubermute! Es i s t l e i c h t und angenehm z u v e r s p o t t e n , aber m i t t e n i n d e r Tauschung den g r o s s e n , h e r r l i c h e n G l a u b e n and das B e s s e r e f e s t z u h a l t e n und d i e a n d e r n m i t f e u r i g e n Armen emporzuhaben, das gab G o t t n u r s e i n e n l i e h s t e n S o h n e i . " (p.74) I n s p i r e d by F r i e d r i c h ' s f a i t h , he a d m i t s h i s own d e f e c t s and  senses h i s f u t u r e  conversion:  I c h sage d i r i n v o l l e m E r n s t . . . d u w i r s t m i c h noch e i n m a l ganz b e k e h r e n , du s e l t s a m e r Mensch. G o t t w e i s s es w o h l , m i r f e h l t noch v i e l , dass i c h g u t ware. (p.74) It  i s h i s n a t u r e as an e x t r o v e r t , however, n o t  t o seek f u l f i l l m e n t w i t h i n h i m s e l f , side of himself.  Because n o t h i n g  but w i t h i n l i f e  out-  i n the v/orld c a n s a t i s f y  t h i s i d e a l , however, he i s consumed v/ith r e s t l e s s n e s s . When he r u n s away from J u l i e he c u t s a poem i n t o h e r dow  which describes  win-  t h i s state of f e e l i n g :  E i n j e d e r Strom wohl f i n d t s e i n Meer, E i n j e g l i c h S c h i f f k e h r t end.lich h e r , Nur i c h ' t r e i b e und sehne mich immerzu. 0 w i l d e r T r i e b , wann l a s s ' s t du e i n m a l Run? (p.109) R u d o l f s : Auch L e o n t i n i s t im Grunde u b e r z e u g t von d e r S i n n l o s i g k e i t a l l e s m e n s c h l i c h e n Tuns und T r e i b e n s , wenn auch s e i n Pessimisraus s e h r v i e l r e l a t i v e r und b e d i n g t e r e r s c h e i n t , und mehr a u f d i e M i s e r e d e r Z e i t a l s a u f das D a s e i n a l s s o l c h e s bezogen i s t . " Tamm, p. 50. 1  j(  93  At f i r s t he i s u n a b l e t o f i n d any way o f l i f e w h i c h v / i l l s a t i s f y t h i s urge f o r t h e i d e a l . He r e j e c t s m a r r i a g e as a p r o s a i c b o u r g e o i s  i n s t i t u t i o n , and a l s o r e -  j e c t s work o f a p r a c t i c a l n a t u r e w h i c h o t h e r s w i s h t o e l e v a t e i n t o an i d e a l . He  says:  "Ware i c h r e c h t arm gewesen, i c h h a t t e aus l a u t e r L a n g e w e i l e a r b e i t e n kbnnen, um m i r Geld z u erwerben, und h i n t e r d r e i n d i e L e u t e i i b e r r e d e t , es geschehe um des S t a a t e s w i l l e n , wie d i e a n d e m t u n . . . " ( p . 2 2 9 - 3 0 ) L i k e R u d o l f , he i s so r e p e l l e d by p e o p l e t h a t he a v o i d s crowds, and remarks i r o n i c a l l y t o F r i e d r i c h :  " i c h habe n i e  mehr M e n s c h e n l i e b e a l s wenn i c h w e i t von den Menschen b i n . " (p.230) Because he c a n f i n d no e n d u r i n g he  i d e a l i n the world  i s o n l y happy when he can l i v e f o r t h e moment. He s a y s :  "Wo es w i e d e r so g u t , f r i s c h Leben g i b t , wer f r a g t d a , wie  lange  es d a u e r t . "  (p.229)  ^°  He j o i n s F r i e d r i c h a t R u d o l f ' s . But a l t h o u g h he is  disillusioned  active l i f e .  i n t h e w o r l d , he i s unhappy away from  F r i e d r i c h s a y s of h i m : "Es f e h l t e ihm h i e r a l -  l e 'Handhabe, das Leben a n z u g r e i f e n . " 60  (p.285) But because o f  Most c r i t i c s agree t h a t L e o n t i n i s a p o e t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f E i c h e n d o r f f s b r o t h e r W i l h e l m . ( K b h l e r , p. 1 3 9 ) W e i c h b e r g e r p o i n t s out t h a t i n h i s a n t i s e n t i m e n t a l i t y , p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t m a r r i a g e and p o e t i c i m p r o v i s a t i o n s he a l s o r e s e m b l e s B r e n t a n o whom t h e E i c h e n d o r f f b r o t h e r s knew i n H e i d e l b e r g and B e r l i n . (Konrad W e i c h b e r g e r , U n t e r s u c h u n g e n z u E i c h e n d o r f f s Roman "Ahnung und Gegenwart" (Diss.', J e n a , 1 9 0 1 ) p. 1 6 ) T h i s c o n j e c t u r e i s a l s o s u b s t a n t i a t e d by E i c h e n d o r f f s m a r g i n a l n o t e i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e passage i n w h i c h Leont i n t a l k s about Romana: " L e o n t i n s p r i c h t w i l d und u n z t i c h t i g v o n i h r Romana w i e B r e n t a n o . " (U.K.A., I l l , 5 1 5 )  94 his  d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t he d e c i d e s t o l e a v e Europe and  life  anew i n a n o t h e r  start  p a r t of the w o r l d . F r i e d r i c h approves  o f t h i s p l a n : "denn er w u s s t e w o h l , dass n u r e i n f r i s c h e s w e i t e s Leben s e i n e n Freund e r h a l t e n k o n n t e ,  der h i e r i n  d e r a l l g e m e i n e n M i s e r e durch f r u c h t l o s e Unruhe und  Be-  s t r e b u n g n u r s i c h s e l b e r v e r n i c h t e t h a t t e . " (p.289) He t h u s r e g a i n s h i s hope i n the u l t i m a t e b e t t e r m e n t  of so-  ciety: Und so w i l l " i c h denn i n dem noch u n b e r i i h r t e n Waldesg r i i n e i n e s a n d e r n W e l t t e i l s H e r z und Augen s t a r k e n und m i r d i e Ehre und d i e E r i n n e r u n g an d i e v e r g a n gene g r o s s e Z e i t , sowie den t i e f e n Schmerz u b e r d i e g e g e n w a r t i g e h e i l i g bewahren, darnit i c h d e r k i i n f t i g e n , bessern, d i e wir a l l e hoffen, wiirdig b l e i b e und s i e m i c h wach und r i i s t i g f i n d e . ( p . 2 9 4 ) Pie  i s supported  i n h i s hope by h i s r e g a i n e d  religious  f a i t h w h i c h he s h a r e s w i t h J u l i e , h i s w i f e . He a s k s if  she w i l l be a b l e t o ask God:  w i l l s t mid  sollst,  "Ziehe h i n ! denn w s  i s t mehr w e r t a l s d e i n und  a  her du  mein L e b e n ? "  ( p . 2 9 4 ) H i s sense o f s o c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f F r i e d r i c h ' s and  i s i n marked c o n t r a s t t o the  ab-  s o l u t e i n d i v i d u a l i s m of R u d o l f , as.Tamm p o i n t s out: L e o n t i n i s t k e i n a b s o l u t e r I n d i v i d u a l i s t wie R u d o l f , dem das G e f i i h l s o z i a l e r V e r a n t w o r t u n g f e h l t . M i t dem Wunsch, s e i n Leben i n den D i e n s t s e i n e s V o l k e s und V a t e r l a n d e s z u s t e l l e n , i s t es ihm n i c h t w e n i g e r e r n s t , a l s dem H e l d e n des Romans. L e o n t i n ' s b e l i e f t h a t he w i l l be a b l e t o f i n d some i d e a l s o c i e t y i n the new an i r r a t i o n a l o p t i m i s m 61 Tamm, p.  51.  w o r l d i s , however, based  on  i n h e r e n t i n h i s c h a r a c t e r , and i s  95  t o t a l l y u n r e l a t e d r e a l i t y . Tamm s a y s : . . . e i n ebenso u n b e g r i i n d e t e r a l s u n e r s c h u t t e r l i c h e r Optimismus, d e r es um j e d e n P r e i s m i t dem Leben w i e d e r aufnehmen w i l l , gev/innt i n L e o n t i n d i e Oberhand - e i n Optimismus j e d o c h , d e r k e i n e neue T a t e n z e u g t , s o n d e r n s i c h im L y r i s c h e n , Stimmungshaften v e r f l i i c h t i g t . Leontins G e s t a l t wird i n die Region des U n w i r k l i c h e n t r a n s p o n i e r t , das s i e an der P r o b l e m a t i k des g e g e n w a r t i g e n , r e a l e n Lebens z u z e r b r e c h e n s c h e i n t . Nur auf d i e s e Weise g e l i n g t es dem D i c h t e r . . .uber den k r i t i s c h e n Punkt h i n a u s z u f i i h r e n . 62 Tamm p o i n t s o u t t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f has been u n a b l e to resolve the c o n f l i c t i n g aspects  of Leontin's character -  t h e p a s s i v e , h i g h l y i n d i v i d a l i s t i c v/orld o f the  romantic  u n r e l a t e d t o any e x t e r n a l r e a l i t y and t h e a c t i v e s o c i a l and  e t h i c a l consciouness  o f the n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e :  Es i s t E i c h e n d o r f f n i c h t g e l u n g e n , d i e d r e i h e t e r o genen Elemente i n L e o n t i n s C h a r a k t e r : d i e t r a g i s c h e Gebrochenheit seines romantischen N a t u r e l l s , d i e R e i n h e i t und S t r e n g e s e i n e r s o z i a l - e t h i s c h e n Ges i n n u n g und d i e s o r g l o s e H e i t e r k e i t s e i n e s w i r k l i c h k e i t s e n t r i i c k t e n Naturburschentums zur E i n h e i t z u v e r s c h m e l z e n . Der e t h i s c h e Gegensatz z w i s c h e n d e r Romantik und der n a t i o n a l e n R e n a i s s a n c e . . . b l e i b t i n u n v e r m i n d e r t e r S c h a r f e b e s t e h e n . °3 Friedrich Because F r i e d r i c h ' s e x p e r i e n c e an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of E i c h e n d o r f f ' s thought, i t i s analyzed  i n d e t a i l i n the o t h e r c h a p t e r s  62 Tamm, p. 52. 65  Tamm, p. 53-54.  i s so c e n t r a l t o  under i t s v a r i o u s  aspects.  96 PART I I I METHODS OE ACHIEVING HAPPINESS CHAPTER V FULFILLMENT THROUGH SOCIETY The new s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s  of Eichendorff's  g e n e r a t i o n c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e i d e a l o f t h e c l a s s i c i s t s and the e a r l y r o m a n t i c s  who e n v i s i o n e d s e l f - f u l f i l l m e n t as t h e  o n l y g o a l o f . l i f e . Thus, Ahnung und Gegenwart, i n w h i c h F r i e d r i c h s e e k s t o c r e a t e an o r d e r e d Wilhelm  society differs  from  M e i s t e r i n w h i c h t h e h e r o p r i m a r i l y s e e k s h i s own  f u l f i l l m e n t . Riepe  says:  Das I d e a l des Neuhumanismus, es s e i g r o s s , s i c h s e l b s t u n g e s t o r t a u s z u b i l d e n , w e i c h t dem I d e a l d e r n a t i o n a l e n Romantik, dass es a b e r g r o s s e r s e i , a l l e s i n den D i e n s t der A l l g e m e i n h e i t z u s t e l l e n . 64 T h i s new s o c i a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s  was t h e r e s u l t  o f a reawakened n a t i o n a l i s m , w h i c h , a l t h o u g h n o t c r e a t e d by r o m a n t i c i s m ,  was e a s i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o i t .  I t was  not merely a p a t r i o t i c r e a c t i o n t o the a g r e s s i o n o f Napoleon but a deeper d e s i r e t o r e f o r m Germany from w i t h i n - b o t h politically  and s p i r i t u a l l y . T h i s r e n e w a l v/as c e n t e r e d i n  B e r l i n where Adam M u l l e r f o r m u l a t e d and  his political  philosophy,  S o u t h e r n Germany where C a t h o l i c s p i r i t u a l i t y was  r e v i t a l i z e d by Clemens M a r i a H o f b a u e r and o t h e r s . T h i s new s p i r i t penetrated  t h e a r t s where i t was p r o m u l g a t e d by  S c h l e g e l , A r n i m , B r a n t a n o and E i c h e n d o r f f . Tamm s a y s : 64  R i e p e , p. 16.  97  S i e waren i i b e r z e u g t von der N o t w e n d i g k e i t e i n e r das ganze V o l k e r g r e i f e n d e n s i t t l i c h - r e l i g i o s e n E r n e u e r u n g , e i n e r R e g e n e r a t i o n aus den gemeinschaftsbildenden K r a f t e n des Glaubens und d e r S i t t e . 65 Ahnung und  Gegenwart r e f l e c t s the v a r i o u s move-  ments i n E i c h e n d o r f f s s o c i e t y and  the way  i n d i v i d u a l s of  his  age  a t t e m p t e d t> a f f e c t i t and  it.  The  t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s merely wish to preserve  quo  - t o defend i t - t h e e a s i e s t method because i t i s n a t -  u r a l f o r human b e i n g s which they  find fulfillment  t o l o v e the c o u n t r y  i d e n t i f y t h e m s e l v e s . The  and  the  however, w i s h t o r e f o r m  spirit  and  status  culture with  l o v e of c o u n t r y  p a t r i o t i s m - i s s i m p l y an e x t e n s i o n of the l o v e of Those i n s p i r e d by t h e new  through  self.  of the n a t i o n a l r e n a i s s a n c e ,  improve i t - a d i f f i c u l t  because i t i s t h e n a t u r a l t e n d e n c y o f human b e i n g s r e s i s t change. B o t h methods are r e p r e s e n t e d t h e d e f e n d e r s by the p o l i t i c i a n s and  in this  s o l d i e r s ; the  method  to novel: reform-  e r s by the k n i g h t - f i g u r e s . A. The The discourages  State  c a u t i o u s p e d e s t r i a n a t t i t u d e of the s t a t e  F r i e d r i c h from c o n s i d e r i n g a p o l i t i c a l  as a method o f a c h i e v i n g h a p p i n e s s .  career  Lofty idealism i s  u n c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l w o r k i n g s of government w h i c h must be c a r r i e d out t h r o u g h the cumbersome machi n e r y of the c i v i l s e r v i c e . Thus, when the M i n i s t e r t e l l s him  t h a t t h e b e s t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r government s e r v i c e i s  65 Tamm, p.  65.  98 a t h o r o u g h l e g a l e d u c a t i o n he l o s e s h i s a s p i r a t i o n immediately,, F r i e d r i c h i s also appalled l i f e has  by the d e a d e n i n g e f f e c t s u c h a  upon the p e r s o n a l i t y - the  "britisierende, ein-  g e f r o r e n e Wesen" of the M i n i s t e r . This reflected  a t t i t u d e towards government s e r v i c e i s a l s o  i n D i c h t e r und  ihre Gesellen.  Eichendorff  desribes  the d e b i l i t a t i n g e f f e c t of government s e r v i c e upon the of i t s employees and a d v o c a t e s who  a l s o exposes t h e . p r e t e n s i o n s  w i s h t o g l o r i f y i t as some l o f t y  soul  of i t s .  ideal:  K e i n e r hat Z e i t zu l e s e n , zu denken, zu b e t e n . Das nennt man P f l i c h t t r e u e ; a l s h a t t e der Mensch n i c h t auch d i e hohere P f l i c h t , s i c h auf Erden auszumausern und d i e s c h a b i g e n F l u g e l zu p u t z e n zum l e t z t e n g r o s s e n F l u g e n a c h dem H i m m e l r e i c h , das eben a u c h n i c h t wie e i n W i r t s h a u s an der b r e i t e n L a n d s t r a s s e l i e g t , s o n d e r n t r e u und e r n s t l i c h und mit g a n z e r , u n g e t e i l t e r S e e l e e r s t i i r m t s e i n w i l l . J a , i c h habe schon o f t n a c h g e d a c h t tiber den Grund d i e s e r z a r t l i c h e n L i e b e so v i e l e r zum S t a a t s d i e n s t . Hunger i s t es n i c h t immer, noch s e l t e n e r D u r s t n a c h N u t z l i c h k e i t . I c h f t i r c h t e , es i s t b e i den m e i s t e n der R e i z der B e q u e m l i c h k e i t , ohne I d e e n und s o n d e r l i c h e A n s t r e n g u n g g e w a l t i g und m i t grossem S p e k t a k e l zu a r b e i t e n , d i e S a t i s f a k t i o n , f a s t a l l e Stunden etwas Rundes f e r t i g zu machen, wahrend d i e K u n s t und d i e W i s s e n s c h a f t e n auf E r d e n n i e m a l s f e r t i g werden, j a i n a l l e E w i g k e i t k e i n Ende absehen. 66 Thus, a l t h o u g h the group of r o m a n t i c s who around S c h l e g e l w i s h e d t o f u r t h e r the  "national  renaissance"  t h e y a l s o wished t o r e t a i n t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and the i n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n c e p t of the  formed  s t a t e w h i c h would  rejected deprive  them of t h i s . Tamm s a y s : V / e s e n t l i c h i s t , dass d i e s o z i a l e B i n d u n g durchaus a l s P r o d u k t g e i s t i g e r W a h l v e r w a n d t s c h a f t e r s c h e i n t und 66  Cotta,  II,  508.  99  dass d i e i n d i v i d u e l l e L e b e n s g e s t a l t u n g d a d u r c h k e i n e B e s c h r a n k u n g e r f a h r t . D i e Gemeinschaft a l s objektives, iiberindividuelles geistiges Gebilde, a l s I n s t i t u t i o n , d e r s i c h der E i n z e l n e z u unterwerf e n h a t . . . e x i s t i e r t f u r d i e Romantik n i c h t . 67  B.  The war a g a i n s t N a p o l e o n  Tamm p o i n t s o u t t h e v a r i o u s f a c t o r s w h i c h made t h e war a g a i n s t N a p o l e o n so a t t r a c t i v e t o E i c h e n d o r f f and h i s g e n e r a t i o n . I t was m o t i v a t e d n o t o n l y by a d e s i r e t o d e f e a t an o p p r e s s o r , but had i t s r o o t i n deeper s o c i a l , c u l t u r a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l f a c t o r s . As an a r i s t o c r a t  there  were few v o c a t i o n s open t o E i c h e n d o r f f and t h o s e o f h i s s o c i a l c l a s s - - b u s i n e s s was t o o " b o u r g e o i s " and u n d i g n i f i e d , the m i l i e u o f the "Krautjunkerturn" ^as t o o narrow f o r many o f them t o a c c e p t , and t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e seemed t o o d u l l and m e c h a n i z e d . More s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e i d e a l s o f t h e e a r l y r o m a n t i c s had f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e . Tamm s a y s : D i e P r U h r o m a n t i k h a t t e im u b e r s c h w e n g l i c h e n O p t i m i s mus den G r u n d r i s s e i n e s neuen K u l t u r s y s t e m s e n t w o r f e n , a b e r an dem V e r s u c h , d i e s e s g e n i a l s k i z z i e r t e Schema d u r c h p o s i t i v e L e i s t u n g e n a u s z u f i i l l e n , war s i e g e s c h e i t e r t . 68 U l t i m a t e l y , t h i s d e s i r e f o r war v/as m o t i v a t e d by t h e r e s t l e s s n e s s o f y o u t h w h i c h y e a r n s f o r some v i o l e n t h e r o i c e x p r e s s i o n . Tamm s a y s : Die Kriegssehnsucht d e r Generation A r n i m - K l e i s t Fouque-Eichendorff i s t n i c h t a l l e i n aus d e r 67 Tamm, p. 64. 68 Tamm, p. 78.  100  p o l i t i s c l i e n Lage, dem Druck d e r Franzosenherrschaft, den E i c h e n d o r f f i n Wien j a g a r n i c h t empfand, zu e r k l a r e n , s o n d e r n auch aus dem t i e f e n G e f i i h l p e r s o n l i c h e n U n b e f r i e d i g t s e i n s , dem e i g e n t l i c h j e d e r K r e i s mens.chlicher T a t i g k e i t zu b e s c h r a n k t i s t . S i e sahen im K r i e g das e i n z i g e E l e m e n t , i n dem s i c h i h r ungestumes T a t v e r l a n g e n e n t f a l t e n k o n n t e . 6§ Thus, R u d o l f , L e o n t i n f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h war cause - the disappointed  and  F r i e d r i c h seek  - t h r o u g h commitment t o a  ful-  righteous  l i b e r a t i o n of Germany. They a r e , however, a l l i n t h e i r a t t e m p t . They a r e  horrible reality  of war  saddened by  the  w h i c h so c o n f l i c t s w i t h the  ab-  s t r a c t i d e a l s f o r w h i c h i t i s f o u g h t . They o b s e r v e  this  not  also  o n l y i n the  i n the  c r u e l t y and  s t u p i d i t y and  d e s t r u c t i o n of war  but  l a c k of h o n o r . o f t h e i r own  They are a l s o d i s i l l u s i o n e d by the  comrades.  l a c k of any  enduring  values, which j u s t i f i e d ,  o r , at l e a s t , r a t i o n a l i z e d , war  i n the M i d d l e Ages. T h i s  l a c k of any  consistent  ideal is  soon made a p p a r a n t by the v a c i l l a t i n g a t t i t u d e of government w h i c h i s more d e t e r m i n e d t o p r e s e r v e t h a n the  country i t  the itself  represents.  R u d o l f , however, becomes a s o l d i e r not out  so much  of i d e a l i s m as t o f i n d a l e g i t i m a t e o u t l e t f o r h i s  i n n e r v i o l e n c e . He triviality  i s , however, soon d i s g u s t e d  of h i s comrades, and,  the t o t a l d i s r e g a r d  by  more p a r t i c u l a r l y ,  f o r the i n d i v i d u a l under such an  t h o r i t a r i a n regime: "Der  p l a t t e L e i c h t s i n n , das  69 Tamm, p.  78.  the  Prahlen  und  der  by au-  101 g e s c h a f t i g e M i i s s i g g a n g e k e l t e mich an, b e s o n d e r s u n e r t r a g l i c h a b e r war m i r , dass e i n e i n z i g e r unbes c h r e i b l i c h e r W i l l e das Ganze wie e i n d u n k l e s Fatum r e g i e r e n s o l l t e , dass i c h im Grunde n i c h t mehr wert s e i n s o l l t e a l s mein P f e r d . . . " (p.267) When he awakens f r o m u n c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h e dead b o d i e s and  d u r i n g b a t t l e and  b u r n i n g v i l l a g e s around him he  r e a l i z e s t h e s e n s e l e s s b r u t a l i t y of war: l i c h e s G r a u s e n i i b e r f i e l m i c h v o r dem s p i e l . .."  sees  fully  "Ein unbeschreib-  wahnwitzigen  Jammer-  (p.268) L e o n t i n i s a l s o s i c k e n e d by h i s a c t u a l e x p e r i e n c e  o f war,  and  f u l l y a p p r e c j a t e s , by c o n t r a s t , the p e a c e f u l  e x i s t e n c e a t H e r r n von  A's:  " I c h kann es n i c h t b e s c h r e i b e n , mit w e l c h e r Empfindung i c h aus d e r k r i e g e r i s c h e n W i l d n i s meines emporten Gemiits so a u f e i n m a l i n d i e f r i e d e n s - und s e g e n s r e i c h e Gegend v o l l a l t e r E r i n n e r u n g e n und Anklange h i n a u s s a h . . . " (p.230) He and  i s a l s o d i s g u s t e d by the v a c i l l a t i n g n a t u r e o f the s t a t e o f f i c i a l s . He  of the  i s reminded o f V i k t o r ' s  words when he sees t h e t r o o p s r e t r e a t i n a p r e t e n c e bravery:  troops  of  " B e s s e r U h r e n machen, a l s S o l d a t e n s p i e l e n . "  When, a f t e r peace i s d e c l a r e d , he i s accused by the v e r y s t a t e he f o u g h t so h a r d t o defend  (p.237)  of t r e a s o n he  decides  t o l e a v e Germany f o r e v e r . F r i e d r i c h i s , however, the one who  e n t e r s the  70  war w i t h t h e h i g h e s t i d e a l s i s most d i s i l l u s i o n e d . He  and  t h e r e f o r e t h e one wixo,  i s i n s p i r e d by the p r i n c e ' s  g l i b d e f e n c e o f the a c t i v e l i f e d e d i c a t e d t o the s t a t e i n 70 Tamm sees F r i e d r i c h ' s d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r the war as a r e f l e c t i o n of E i c h e n d o r f f s own i n n e r development i n t h e  102 p r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e l i f e devoted ual  to  individ-  fulfillment: "Es i s t g r o s s , s i c h s e l b e r , von a l l e r Welt l o s g e s a g t fromm und f l e i s s i g a u s z u b i l d e n . . . a b e r es i s t g r o s s e r , a l l e Freud en, a l l e e i g n e n Wunsche und Bestrebungen wegzuwerfen f i i r das R e c h t , a l l e s . . . " (p. 163)  In t h i s  enthusiasm  F r i e d r i c h j o i n s the "Landsturm,"  a  g u e r r i l l a band o p e r a t i n g i n t h e A u s t r i a n a l p s . He i s , however, soon d i s i l l u s i o n e d .  On h i s way  t o a s e c r e t c o n c l a v e of a l l the g u e r r i l l a t r o u p s he i s d i s g u s t e d by the s i g h t of a young o f f i c e r , a member of the Teeg e s e l l s c h a f t who  has  j o i n e d t h e enemy:  "Ihn empbrte d i e s e s E l e n d ohne Treue und wie er m i t vornehmer Z u f r i e d e n h e i t s e i n e n b a r t s t r i c h und auf s e i n e n S a b e l s c h l u g , v i e l f i i r was oder gegen wen e r i h n z o g . "  Gesinnung, Schnauzgleich(p.213)  T h i s d i s i l l u s i o n m e n t i n h i s countryman i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s r e v u l s i o n upon h e a r i n g him s i n g S c h i l l e r ' s  "Reiterlied"  "das f i i r c h t e r l i c h e L i e d " w h i c h , u n d e r such  circumstances  -  71 sounds " w i d e r l i c h und  h b l l i s c h g u r g e l n d . " (p.213)  y e a r s between 1808-12 - - a change of committment from the h i g h l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c a e s t h e t i c i s m of e a r l y r o m a n t i c i s m t o the s o c i a l l y conscious n a t i o n a l i s m of the Napoleonic w a r s . He s a y s : " H i e r s i n d d i e v / e s e n t l i c h e n Momente des G e s i n n u n g s w a n d e l s , der s i c h i n E i c h e n d o r f f i n den J a h r e n 1808-12 v o l l z o g , d e r Ubergang vom a e s t h e t i s c h e n I n d i v i d u a l i s m u s der F r u h r o m a n t i k z u r n a t i o n a l - s o z i a l e n G e i s t e s h a l t u n g d e r E r h e b u n g s z e i t f e s t g e h a l t e n : Das I n d i v i d u u m o r d n e t s i c h a l s dienendes G l i e d der G e m e i n s c h a f t u n t e r . " (Tamm, p. 75) 71 E i c h e n d o r f f s a n t i p a t h y towards been n o t e d . (See p. 36-37)  S c h i l l e r has a l r e a d y  103 T h i s d i s g u s t , however, i s o n l y momentary. H i s f a i t h i n t h e r i g h t e o u s n e s s o f h i s cause and t h e i n t e g r i t y o f h i s c o m p a t r i o t s remains f i r m and i s r e f l e c t e d "by t h e h e r o i c s t y l e i n which h i s f o l l o w i n g experiences are des72 cribed. Thus, h i s f i r s t g l i m p s e is  o f t h e assembled band  " e i n f r e u d e n s r e i c h e r A n b l i c k . " (p. 213)  mountain h e i g h t s , a w a i t i n g the r i s i n g  Seated  on t h e  sun i t seems s u f f u s e d  w i t h noble purpose: Die ganze u n u b e r s e h b a r e Schar s a s s d o r t , a n i h r e Waff en g e s t i i t z t , a u f den Z i n n e n i h r e r ewigen B u r g , d i e g r o s s en Augen g e d a n k e n v o l l nach d e r S e i t e h i n g e r i c h t e t , wo d i e Sonne a u f g e h n s o l l t e . (p.213-14) There i s a l m o s t  a r e l i g i o u s hush as they a w a i t b a t t l e -  "eine f e i e r l i c h e erwartungsvolle S t i l l e . "  (p.214) T h e i r  cause i s g o d l y and t h e y a r e s u s t a i n e d by o l d Germanic virtues: " G l e i c h w i e d i e Stamme i n dem Wald W o l l ' n w i r zusammenhalt en', Ein f e s t e Burg, T r u t z ' d e r Gewalt, Verbleiben treu die Alten . . . i n G o t t e s Namen!" (p.214) 1  The  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e b a t t l e i s j u s t as u n -  r e a l i s t i c , and i s r e m i n i s c e n t o f a H e l d e n s a g e w i t h i t s 72 F r i e d r i c h ' s i d y l l i c a t t i t u d e towards war i s p r o b a b l y e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f had n e v e r had any p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e o f i t . Tamm s a y s : " D i e s e r p s y c h o l o gischen Darstellung l i e g e n keine Erlebnis.se, keine pers o n l i c h e n E r f a h r u n g e n E i c h e n d o r f f s zugrunde - - denn e r s e l b s t h a t t e j a weder am o s t e r r e i c h i s c h e n K r i e g e v o n 1809 n o c h am T i r o l e r A u f s t a n d teilgenommen - - s o n d e r n d i e H o f f n u n g e n und E r w a r t u n g e n ^ m i t denen e r dem n a t i o n a l e n B e f r e i u n g s k a m p f e e n t g e g e n s a h . " (Tamm, p.77)  1 0 4  emphasis on " K r i e g e s l u s t " and the apparent of  i t s hero.  begins.  invincibility  Thus, everyone i s d e l i g h t e d when the b a t t l e  F r i e d r i c h f i g h t s with almost s u p e r n a t u r a l prowess:  " F r i e d r i c h war u b e r a l l zu sehen, wo es am g e f a h r l i c h s t e n herging,  s e l b e r mit B l u t i i b e r d e c k t . " (p.215) A f t e r the  b a t t l e he s c a r c e l y f e e l s h i s wounds i n h i s e l a t i o n . He f e e l s a sense o f w e l l - b e i n g t h a t he has never b e f o r e experienced:  "Ererinnerte s i c h n i c h t , dass ihm jemals  nem Leben so wohl gewesen." (p.216) S t i l l a s s u r e d  inseithat h i s  cause i s h o l y , he g i v e s thanks i n c h a p e l , fie i s convinced that h i s l i f e finally  has reached  i t s consummation - t h a t he has  d i s c o v e r e d the n o b l e ,  u n i f y i n g purpose which w i l l  g i v e i t meaning: E r war v o l l i g uberzeugt, dass e r das Rechte w o l l e , und s e i n ganzes v o r i g e s Leben, was e r s o n s t e i n z e l n v e r s u c h t , g e s t r e b t und geubt h a t t e , kam ihm nun n u r wie e i n e lange V o r s c h u l e v o r zu d e r s i c h e r e n , k l a r e n und g r o s s e n Gesinnung, d i e j e t z t s e i n Tun und Denken r e g i e r t e . (p.216) Only, however, when h i s f o r t u n e s are r e v e r s e d and  he i s d e p r i v e d  o f h i s lands through the peace t r e a t y ,  does he q u e s t i o n the v a l i d i t y  of h i s p r i n c i p l e s . R e a l i z i n g  t h a t the s t a t e a u t h o r i t i e s a r e simply motivated faith  by any h i g h c o n c e p t i o n  o p p o r t u n i s t s un-  o f p a t r i o t i s m , he l o s e s  i n h i s i d e a l s which i s i n e f f e c t u a l without  official  any  support.He s i n k s i n t o despondancy:  "Er a c h t e t e s e i n Leben n i c h t , es s c h i e n ihm nun zu n i c h t s mehr n l i t z e . " (p. 220)  105  Tamm p o i n t s out t h a t t h i s g e n e r a l  disillusion-  ment a f t e r t h e war was n o t due m e r e l y  to political  but had a deeper c a u s e .  c o n s i d e r e d the war  The r o m a n t i c s  factors  a g a i n s t N a p o l e o n t o be f o u g h t n o t o n l y f o r n a t i o n a l - p a t r i o t i c reasons—-but  for  a r e l i g i o u s crusade  religious  ones. They c o n s i d e r e d i t  o u t o f w h i c h a new Germany would  and when i t was exposed t o the c o n t r a r y t h e y were and  arise,  crushed  d i s i l l u s i o n e d . He quotes Werner v o n H a x t h a u s e n : Man f a n d s i c h d u r c h den Gedanken g e s t a r k t und ermut i g t , a l s e i n Kampfer f u r d i e h e i l i g e Sache a u f z u s t e h e n , j a man l i b e r r e d e t e s i c h , es s e i d i e Sache des C h r i s t e n t u m s s e l b s t , d i e man v e r t e i d i g e n wolle...» W i r konnen es uns s e l b s t n i c h t weismachen, dass das C h r i s t e n t u m a l s s o l c h e s v o n den P r a n z o s e n i n G e f a h r g e b r a c h t wurde. A l l e Tendenzen d i e s e s bewunderungsw i i r d i g e n K r i e g e s waren v i e l m e h r ganz n a t i o n a l . Es war e i n Kampf um d i e U n a b h a n g i g k e i t und P r e i h e i t des H e r d e s , womit das C h r i s t e n t u m , waLches s e i n e K r a f t s e l b s t b e i den n i e d r i g s t e n S k l a v e n noch b e w a h r t , n i c h t s zu t u n h a t t e . . . E b e n w e i l e i n e Tauschung zugrunde l a g , w e l c h e i n i n n e r s t e r S e e l e und m i t a l l e r K r a f t des Gedankens e i n e n V o l k s k r i e g f u r e i n e n R e l i g i o n s k r i e g g e h a l t e n , konnte d e r Zustand n a c h dem F r i e d e n n i c h t b e f r i e d i g e n . 73  C. The  Knighthood  s o c i e t y o f E i c h e n d o r f f * s time as r e p r e s e n t e d  by the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t has no e s t a b l i s h e d v a l u e s w h i c h c a n be a t t a c k e d because i t s v a l u e s a r e t h e m s e l v e s  r e l a t i v e . The  T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t a l s o seems s e l f - s a t i s f i e d \-/ith human n a t u r e — a h e r i t a g e o f h u m a n i s m — s o t h a t any s u g g e s t i o n o f i t s improvement i s c o n s i d e r e d  repugnant.  73 Werner v o n H a x t h a u s e n , D i e K i r c h e und i h r e I n s t i t u t i o n e n im V e r h a i t n i s z u den Tendenzen d e r Z e i t , quoted by Tamm, p. 71-72.  106 Because o f t h i s any p e r s o n who  s e r i o u s l y accepts  the o l d f a s h i o n e d v i r t u e s and w i s h e s t o i n s t i t u t e them i n society i s considered insane: Z i e h t dann von Z e i t zu Z e i t e i n m a l e i n w u n d e r b a r e r , a l t f r a n k i s c h e r G - e s e l l , d e r es noch e h r l i c h und e r n s t h a f t m e i n t , w i e Don Q u i x o t e v o r i i b e r , s o sehen H e r r e n und Damen nach d e r T a f e l g e b i l d e t und g e m a c h l i c h zu den P e n s t e r n h i n a u s . . . u n d meinen, e r s e i e i n e r e c h t i n t e r e s s a n t e E r s c h e i n u n g , wenn e r n u r n i c h t e i g e n t l i c h v e r r i i c k t ware. (p. 293) 1  A l l s u c h i d e a l i s t s w i l l be unhappy because t h e i r own v a l u e s will of  i n e v i t a b l y c o n f l i c t w i t h t h o s e of the w o r l d . Because  t h i s , t h i s age cann produce no t r u e k n i g h t s - o n l y  " i r r e n d e R i t t e r " - comic f i g u r e s who  are not taken s e r i o u s -  ly. A l a r g e number o f k n i g h t f i g u r e s appear i n t h i s n o v e l . They c o n s i s t o f t h o s e who  a c t u a l l y attempt, or pre-  tend t o a t t e m p t , t o p r a c t i c e k n i g h t h o o d , and a r e l a u g h e d at  by s o c i e t y  and t h o s e who  (the pseudo-knight  and I r r e n d e r R i t t e r ) ; '  are p o t e n t i a l k n i g h t s , but w i t h d r a w  from,  and t h e m s e l v e s ] a u g h a t , a s o c i e t y t h e y c o n s i d e r i r r e d e e m able.  ( V i k t o r , L e o n t i n and R u d o l f ) . Only E r i e d r i c h , v/ho i s  s a t i s f i e d to reform s o c i e t y i n d i r e c t l y , i s able to pract i c e the v i r t u e s o f k n i g h t h o o d w i t h s i n c e r i t y and y e t able to r e t a i n h i s reason. The  insincere, a r t i f i c i a l attitude  toward  v i r t u e e x e m p l i f i e d by. t h i s e r a i s r e f l e c t e d i n the pseudoknight ^  whom E r i e d r i c h meets a t R u d o l f ' s . He d a b b l e s i n  74  T h i s f i g u r e i s c o n s i d e r e d t o be a s a t i r e a g a i n s t the k n i g h t l y c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l s of Pouque. E i c h e n d o r f f  107 knighthood  j u s t as  the  dilettantes  dabble i n r e l i g i o n and ted  by  the  morality, l i k e  Teegesellschaft  them, he  o u t e r a s p e c t s of such i d e a l s r a t h e r  inward p r i n c i p l e s . I t i s the a t t r a c t s him, it  of the  not  the  of a d a p t i n g the  terest  " a l t d e u t s c h e T r a c h t " and  wears  merely takes an  principles  he  " f l e i s s i g e Tugendubung" to  he  heathen. He  i s not  ideals  lacks  the  and  a tragic figure Like  the  actually  finds  in-  hopes  by  fight because  society  s i m p l i c i t y to b e l i e v e  of knighthood which he  of  antiquarian  become a k n i g h t  doesn't take h i m s e l f s e r i o u s l y .  r e p r e s e n t s , he  than t h e i r  glamour of knighthood which  k n i g h t h o o d t o h i s age,  a g a i n s t the  attrac-.  r i g o r o u s code of conduct upon which  i s based. Thus, i n s t e a d  i n i t . He  is  in  he the  absurd  and  boring: "Seht, i c h mocht wohl e i g e n t l i c h e i n R i t t e r s e i n , aber, a u f r i c h t i g gesprochen, das i s t doch im Grunde a l l e s n a r r i s c h e s Zeug, w e l c h e r g e s c h e i t e Mensch w i r d im E r n s t e an so etwas glauben! l i b e r d i e s ware es auch s c h r e c k l i c h l a n g w e i l i g , so s t r e n g e auf Tugend und Ehre zu h a l t e n . " (p.254) The  most t r a g i c of these f i g u r e s  " i r r e n d e r R i t t e r " who seek  "the  fill  his  earnestly  goes out  stone of wisdom". H i s ideals within  s u c h an  i s the  i n t o the  attempt so  insane  world  seriously  to  ful-  u n r e c e p t i v e environment i s  both a symptom of h i s i n s a n i t y and unsympathetic manner i n which he  also  the  i s treated  result by  of  the  society.  s a y s : "Bei Eouque e r b l i c k e n w i r den K a t h o l i z i s m u s schon a l s b l o s s e D e k o r a t i o n und V e r s c h n o r k e l i m g e i n e s g r b s s t e n t e i l s gemachten R i t t e r t u m s . " (Quoted by Tamm, p.62)  108  D e s p i t e t h i s , however, the v a l i d i t y apparent  of many o f h i s i d e a s i s  i n h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n - " e i n w u n d e r l i c h e r Chaos von  S i n n und U n s i n n , das o f t d i e h e r r l i c h s t e n Gedanken d u r c h blitzten."  (p.486) V i k t o r , L e o n t i n and R u d o l f a l s o i n i t i a l l y  knightly characteristic apply i t a c t i v e l y  possess the  o f i d e a l i s m but never attempt t o  i n the world t o any e x t e n t . These men  are so a p p a l l e d by the s o c i e t y i n which they l i v e  that  they  can o n l y a d j u s t t o i t by l a u g h i n g a t i t - by means o f r o mantic  i r o n y . Thus, they have the same e s t i m a t e o f the world  as the world has of themselves  - that  i t i s f o o l i s h and  insane. Thus, V i k t o r  does not b o t h e r t o pursue h i s  t h e o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s but g i v e s them up f o r a s e c u l a r p r o f e s s i o n — a sheltered  e x i s t e n c e as a t e a c h e r on t h e e s t a t e  of H e r r n von A. He e x p r e s s e s h i s contempt f o r the s t u p i d i t y of humanity through the "Narrenzug"  he o r g a n i z e s a t a  c o u n t r y dance, which s y m b o l i z e s the i d i o c y  o f mankind.  L e o n t i n , h a v i n g been d i s i l l u s i o n e d by h i s war e x p e r i e n c e seeks f u l f i l l m e n t  through a l i f e  i n the new w o r l d . T h i s  w o r l d , however, w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of the n o v e l , the i d e a l i s t i c world implication  remains  o f h i s i m a g i n a t i o n , n o t the p r a c t i c a l  o f h i s dreams. A f t e r h i s war e x p e r i e n c e R u d o l f  a l s o f l e e s a l l p r a c t i c a l attempts  to reform  society.  A f t e r h i s u n s u c c e s s f u l marriage he f l e e s t o h i s mountain r e t r e a t and f i n a l l y  t o Egypt.  109 F r i e d r i c h i s the only happy and  successful  k n i g h t l y f i g u r e i n the s t o r y . T h i s i s because h i s hood i s not  knight-  based on e x t e r n a l i m i t a t i o n of m e d i e v a l  knight-  75  hood but upon i t s i n t e r n a l p r i n c i p l e s .  He  deutsches Ansehen" - permanent q u a l i t i e s which suggest k n i g h t l y v i r t u e s . U n l i k e sesses  a deep and  of  the  has-an " a l t character  o t h e r s , he  c o n s i s t e n t s p i r i t u a l i t y - an  i b l e peace. U n l i k e V i k t o r , L e o n t i n  and  pos-  indestruct-  R u d o l f , he  still  r e t a i n s hope f o r the betterment of s o c i e t y , the b a s i s any  i d e a l i s t i c endeavour. F r i e d r i c h admonishes L e o n t i n : "Nimm d i c h i n achtmit deinem tibermute! Es i s t l e i c h t . und angenehm, zu v e r s p o t t e n , aber m i t t e n i n der Tauschung den g r o s s e n , h e r r l i c h e n Glauben an das B e s s e r e f e s t z u h a l t e n und d i e andern mit f e u r i g e n Armen emporzuheben, das gab Gott n\ir s e i n e n l i e b s t e n Sohnen." (p.74)  Therefore, others, and  of  he does not  because he has  makes him  but not  s h a t t e r on o u t e r r e a l i t y l i k e h i s own  the  i n n e r r e a l i t y which s u s t a i n s  impervious to i t . L i k e S t . P a u l , he  is "in,  of, t h i s w o r l d . " This inner r e a l i t y also provides  sense of r e a l i s m . He  recognizes  Germany from w i t h o u t w i l l be  him  with  a  t h a t a l l attempts to r e f o r m  i n v a l i d u n t i l i t i s reformed  from w i t h i n — u n t i l the nature of the i n d i v i d u a l i s so perfected  t h a t s o c i e t y w i l l be  ready f o r e x t e r n a l changes .  75 Tamm p o i n t s out t h a t knighthood was anaspect of m e d i e v a l i s m which had a p a r t i c u l a r appeal t o E i c h e n d o r f f : "Besonders das R i t t e r t u r a , dlas nach s e i n e r A u f f a s s u n g a r i s t o k r a t i s c h e s S e l b s t b e w u B t s e i n und r e l i g i o s e Demut und Hingabe i n s i c h v e r e i n i g t e zog i h n machtig an." (Tamm, p, 59)  110  based  on some e x a l t e d  concept  of  man:  " . . . w e n n d i e Gemiiter a u f s o l c h e Weise v o n den g o t t l i c h e n Wahrheiten der R e l i g i o n lange vorbereitet, e r w e i t e r t , v e r e i n i g t und w a h r h a f t d u r c h d r u n g e n w i i r d e n , d a s s d e r G e i s t G o t t e s und das G r o s s e im b f f e n t l i c h e n l e b e n w i e d e r Raum i n i h n e n g e w o n n e , d a n n e r s t w i r d es Z e i t s e i n , u n m i t t e l b a r z u h a n d e l n , und das a l t e R e c h t , d i e a l t e F r e i h e i t , E h r e u n d Ruhm i n d a s w i e d e r e r o b e r t e R e i c h z u r u c k z u f u h ren." (p.297) External  action  is  therefore  impracticable  at  the  present  time: " E s i s t n o c h n i c h t an d e r Z e i t , z u b a u e n , solange d i e B a c k s t e i n e , n o c h w e i c h und u n r e i f , u n t e r den Handen z e r f l i e s s e n . " (p.296) Because of out  into  the  directly. ly  -  der were  world l i k e  He i s ,  -  of  the so  this  he  of  christianized  does not  i n the  problems the  ideas  of  Middle -  Germany i n t h e  of h i s the  age,  to  out to  attempt to  affect  life  of a  Ages,  the dark  that  offer  at the  but  go  it  indirect-  religious. preaching  reform an  or-  movements  enclosed  Benedictines,  who  first  ages. this  time  the  Church  only s o l u t i o n to  r e p l a c i n g by a r e l i g i o u s  national  to  affect it  e n t e r an a c t i v e  contemplatives  Eichendorff  up h i s  o r D o m i n i c a n s whose  Tamm p o i n t s seemed t o  content  through the  Franciscans  successful  community  -  he g i v e s  a medieval knight  instead,  through prayer  Because  this  the  universalism  renaissance:  I n der M i s e r e d e r R e s t a u r a t i o n s z e i t b l i e b ihm n i c h t s G r o s s e s und E h r w i i r d i g e s a u s s e r d e r K i r c h e , d e r e i n z i g e n I n s t i t u t i o n des M i t t e l a l t e r s , d i e v o n d e r a l l gemeinen Z e r s e t z u n g n i c h t e r g r i f f e n wurde. Die Idee d e r v o l k i s c h - n a t i o n a l e n R e n a i s s a n c e wurde a b g e l o s t  111 d u r c h den k a t h o l i s c h e n U n i v e r s a l i s m u s .  76  E i c h e n d o r f f repeats t h i s c o n t e n t i o n i n Deutschlands  kunf-  t i g e r R e t t e r : "Wenn d i e Welt i n s c h a u d e r n d e n V e r w i l d e r n v e r g e h t , b l e i b t auf den Triimmern das K r e u z . . . e i n s a m hen."  7  ste-  7  The  attempt  t o renew Germany i n t e r n a l l y by a s p i r -  i t u a l c o n v e r s i o n r a t h e r t h a n e x t e r n a l l y by p o l i t i c a l a c t i o n was v e r y c u r r e n t a t t h i s t i m e . K o h l e r s a y s : Clemens M a r i a H o f b a u e r , d e r g e w a l t i g e B u s s p r e d i g e r Wiens, den e r r E i c h e n d o r f f j b e i S c h l e g e l s kennengel e r n t hatte...mahnte z u r i n n e r e n E i n k e h r ; wie Gottl i e b E i c h t e i n B e r l i n i n norddeutscher Erommigkeit z u r E r n e u e r u n g d e r N a t i o n a u f g e r u f e n h a t t e , so l e h r t e auch Adam M u l l e r d i e E r n e u e r u n g des S t a a t e s d u r c h e i n e n neuen Menschen. E i n s o l c h e s E r n e u e r u n g s werk b r a u c h t e aber l a n g e Z e i t , und so l a s s t d e r D i c h t e r den H e l d e n E r i e d r i c h zwar im Lande bleiben. aber das K r e u z s t a t t des S c h w e r t e s e r g r e i f e n . . . . ' 8  This contemplative s p i r i t - t h i s  " I n n e r l i c h k e i t " - i s what  E i c h e n d o r f f v a l u e s most i n Germany h e r s e l f . I n h i s Ges c h i c h t e der poetischen l i t e r a t u r Deutschlands  he d e f i n e s  Germany a s : d i e g r i i n d l i c h s t e , i n n e r l i c h s t e , f o l g l i c h auch b e s c h a u l i c h s t e u n t e r den e u r o p a i s c h e n N a t i o n e n , mehr e i n V o l k d e r Gedanken a l s der T a t . Wenn aber d i e T a t n i c h t s i s t ohne den zeugenden Gedanken und n u r e r s t d u r c h den Gedanken i h r e w e l t h i s t o r i s c h e Bedeutung e r h a l t , so d l i r f e n w i r w o h l sagen, dass d i e s e b e s c h a u l i c h e Nat i o n dennoch e i g e n t l i c h d i e W e l t g e s c h i c h t e gemacht h a t . 79 76 Tamm, p . 7 1 . 77 Quoted by R i e p e , p. 46. 78 K o h l e r , p. 157-8. 79  C o t t a , I V , p. 11.  112 Mbbus defends F r i e d r i c h * s d e c i s i o n t o e n t e r t h e p r i e s t h o o d w h i c h has been opposed by some c r i t i c s  who  f e e l i m p e l l e d t o judge a work from a m o r a l r a t h e r t h a n a l i t e r a r y p o i n t of view: D i e s e E n t s c h e i d u n g i s t i n den Deutungen s e i n e r D i c h tungen a l s W e l t f l u c h t o d e r s o g a r a l s G e s t a n d n i s l e t z t e r R a t l o s i g k e i t aufs schwerste missverstanden worden. I n W a h r h e i t i s t s i e f u r E i c h e n d o r f f Ausdruck der u n b e d i n g t e n Hingabe an das Ewige. Denn d i e Ges t a l t e n des g e i s t l i c h e n B e r u f e s und des P r i e s t e r tums s i n d i n s e i n e r D i c h t u n g Symbole, i n denen s i c h das D a s e i n des Menschen v e r g e g e n w a r t i g t i n seinem r e i n s t e n Wesen. E i c h e n d o r f f s a g t e i n m a l von i h n e n , s i e s e i e n g l e i c h s a m d i e ewigen Wachter und Boten des P a r a d i e s e s , denen a u f g e t r a g e n i s t , das Heimweh a u f Erden z u e r n e u e r n . 80  80  Mbbus, p. 162-3;  113  CHAPTER V I FULFILLMENT THROUGH OTHERS A.  Love  Love i s perhaps the most u s u a l way beings to attempt to achieve  f o r human  happiness. F r i e d r i c h regards  i t as the u l t i m a t e human i d e a l : "Es g i b t n i c h t s H e r r l i c h e r e s auf E r d e n , a l s der Mann, und n i c h t s S c h o n e r e s , a l s das Weib, das ihm t r e u e r g e b e n b i s zum Tod...." (p.1o9-10) • Because l o v e i s s u c h an i n t e n s e e m o t i o n , i t i s c a p a b l e o f g r a n t i n g the most s u b l i m e h a p p i n e s s and greatest  also  the  despair. F r i e d r i c h d e s c r i b e s t h i s h a p p i n e s s i n a poem  (p.34) i n s p i r e d by h i s l o v e f o r Rosa. I t i s a heady, l e s s j o y w h i c h no  other experience  Ich Lie Und Von I t has and  can  effort-  provide:  b i n so wach und l u s t i g , Seele i s t so l i c h t , eh' i c h l i e b t ' , da w u s s t i c h s o l c h e r Freude n i c h t .  a l i b e r a t i n g e f f e c t which d i s p e r s e s a l l p e t t y  cares  ambitions: I c h f i i h l ' mich so b e f r e i e t Von e i t l e m T r i e b und S t r e i t , N i c h t s mehr das Herz z e r s t r e u e t In seiner F r o h l i c h k e i t .  I t c r e a t e s a new strange  perception  of r e a l i t y - an e x p e r i e n c e  t h a t , t o the l o v e r , i t appears u n i q u e t o  so  himself:  114  M i r i s t , a l s musst' i c h s i n g e n So r e c h t aus t i e f s t e r L u s t Von wunderbaren D i n g e n , Was niemand s o n s t bewusst. Ultimately i t i s inexpressible: 0 k o n n t ' i c h a l l e s sagen! 0 war' i c h r e c h t g e s c h i c k t ! So muss i c h s t i l l e r t r a g e n , Was mich so hoch b e g l i i c k t . L o v e , however, when u n r e q u i t e d , can cause a n g u i s h so i n t e n s e t h a t i t may t e l l s o f a woman he once met  lead to i n s a n i t y .  an  Friedrich  on the r o a d :  . . . i c h habe e i n m a l an einem k a l t e n , s t u r m i s c h e n H e r b s t t a g e e i n Frauenzimmer d r a u s s e n im F e l d e s i t z e n gesehen, d i e war v e r r i i c k t geworden, w e i l s i e i h r L i e b h a b e r , der s i c h l a n g e m i t i h r herumgeherzt, v e r l a s s e n h a t t e . Er hatte i h r versprochen, noch an demselben Tage wiederzukommen. S i e g i n g nun s e i t v i e l e n J a h r e n a l l e Tage a u f das F e l d und sah i m m e r f o r t auf d i e L a n d s t r a s s e h i n a u s . S i e h a t t e n o c h immer das K l e i d an, d a s s i e damals g e t r a g e n h a t t e , das war schon z e r r i s s e n und s e i t d e m ganz a l t m o d i s c h geworden. S i e z u p f t e immer an dem A r m e l und sang e i n a l t e s L i e d zum Rasendwerden. (p.117-18) But a l t h o u g h a l m o s t everyone  i n this novel  attempts to achieve happiness  through love, only L e o n t i n  and J u l i e a c t u a l l y a t t a i n i t .  T h i s i s because r o m a n t i c  l o v e , by i t s n a t u r e , i s i r r a t i o n a l . t u a l and  I t i s not based  enduring p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i k e  s h i p , but on a m y s t e r i o u s a t t r a c t i o n over w h i c h one  on  mu-  friendhas  no c o n t r o l and w h i c h o f t e n b i n d s one a g a i n s t one's w i l l . T h i s a t t r a c t i o n , s e x u a l i n o r i g i n , i s based  on  physical  and t e m p e r a m e n t a l q u a l i t i e s w h i c h have a s p e c i f i c - a r o m a n t i c - a p p e a l and a r e t h e r e f o r e o f t e n u n r e l a t e d t o the  115  actual personality is,  o f the i n d i v i d u a l . Such an a t t r a c t i o n  t h e r e f o r e , e s s e n t i a l l y i m p e r s o n a l , h u t , because i t i s  o r g a n i c - a r i s i n g below the l e v e l  o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s - can-  not be c o n s c i o u s l y c o n t r o l l e d . Because o f t h i s ,  i t is  f r e q u e n t l y u n r e q u i t e d and t h e r e f o r e l e a d s t o unhappiness. This  irrational quality  by the s t u d e n t who f a l l s a travelling him  of l o v e i s i l l u s t r a t e d  i n love with a f r i v o l o u s g i r l i n  c i r c u s . Although  she i s f i r s t  attracted to  by h i s g e n t l e n e s s she l a t e r becomes bored w i t h him  and runs away. He f o l l o w s h e r , r e c o g n i z i n g h i s mistake but unable  t o do o t h e r w i s e :  "Ich w e i s s , dass i c h e i n  N a r r b i n und kann doch n i c h t a n d e r s . "  (p.151) L a t e r ,  when she runs away w i t h h i s money he j o i n s a g u e r r i l l a band, h o p i n g  t o f i n d h i s end i n death.  Because l o v e i s so s u b j e c t i v e - o f t e n r o o t e d more i n the i m a g i n a t i o n o f the p e r s o n e x p e r i e n c i n g i t then i n the a c t u a l r e a l i t y  o f the o t h e r p e r s o n ,  be v e r y d i s i l l u s i o n i n g when t h i s  i t can  discrepancy i s d i s -  covered. Because l o v e o f t e n a t t r a c t s  t h o s e , who, as  i n d i v i d u a l s , have n o t h i n g i n common, i t can c r e a t e  seri-  ous problems i n communication. I t c r e a t e s a s i t u a t i o n of g r e a t i r o n y - i n which the l o v e r must admit p e r s o n he l o n g s t o be c l o s e s t isolated  t o w i l l always  from him. T h i s r e c o g n i t i o n can l e a d  t h a t the  remain t o a des-  116  perate  loneliness. F r i e d r i c h recognizes t h i s l a c k of meaningful  communication i n h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Rosa when she f a l l s a s l e e p as he i s r e l a t i n g the e x p e r i e n c e s  of h i s  c h i l d h o o d which means so much t o him. T h i s s h a t t e r s h i s happiness inspired  by s h a t t e r i n g the i d e a l o f l o v e which she had i n him. He expresses  t h i s unhappiness i n a  poem which negates t h e e a r l i e r poem about the happiness l o v e can i n s p i r e : Ich Die Von Das  hab' manch L i e d g e s c h r i e b e n , Seele war v o l l L u s t , treuem Tun und L i e b e n , b e s t e , was i c h wusst'.  • • •  L i e b c h e n wusst's n i c h t zu deuten Und l a c h t mir i n s G e s i c h t , Dreht s i c h zu andern Leuten Und a c h t e t ' s w e i t e r n i c h t .  ...  Ach Gott, wem s o i l i c h trauen? W i l l s i e mich n i c h t v e r s t e h n , Tun a l l ' so fremde schauen, Und a l l e s muss vergehn, Und Sie Ich War Not experiences  alles i r r t zerstreuet— i s t so schon und r o t — hab' n i c h t s , was mich f r e u e t , i c h v i e l l i e b e r t o t ! " (p.56-57)  o n l y i s l o v e o f t e n b l i n d , i t ' s most e x a l t e d  are o n l y momentary and e r r a t i c . Romantic l o v e  i s based on f e e l i n g s , which, by n a t u r e , are c o n s t a n t l y i n a s t a t e o f f l u x . I t can t h e r e f o r e not p r o v i d e a s t a b l e p l a t e a u o f happiness  l i k e the p l e a s u r e s  based on the c o n s c i o u s l y  willed  of  contemplation  powers o f the s p i r i t , but  117 a l w a y s f l u c t u a t e s . E x a l t e d emotions of e c s t a s y "because o f t h e i r v e r y i n t e n s i t y cannot be m a i n t a i n e d . f i r s t love experience,  however b l i s s f u l ,  Thus, F r i e d r i c h ' i s only temporary:  Da nahm er s i e i n b e i d e Arme und k t i s s t e s i e u n z a h l i g e m a l , und a l l e Freud en d e r Welt v e r w i r r t e n s i c h i n d i e s e n e i n e n A u g e n b l i c k , der n i e m a l s zum z w e i t e n Male w i e d e r k e h r t . (p.29) Thus, a l t h o u g h content,  i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r l o v e r s t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y  i t i s impossible  f o r them t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y sub-  lime - t o m a i n t a i n the e x a l t e d experience  which f i r s t i n -  s p i r e d them - the k i n d of h a p p i n e s s w h i c h p e o p l e have.alway sought i n l o v e and highest  w h i c h , i n a s e n s e , can be c o n s i d e r e d i t s  expression. A f u r t h e r disadvantage  no  of l o v e i s t h a t one  c o n t r o l over the a c t i o n s o f the o t h e r p e r s o n .  so i d e n t i f i e s h i m s e l f w i t h the b e l o v e d  t h a t he  t h a t she l e a d s an i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e . She an i n t r i n s i c p a r t o f h i s e m o t i o n a l  life  The  has lover  forgets  becomes s u c h  t h a t he  imagines  t h a t she must resj>ond t o h i s t h o u g h t s and needs even when he i s n ' t t h e r e . When t h i s i r r a t i o n a l a s s u m p t i o n i s d i s proved i t can l e a d not o n l y t o f r u s t r a t i o n but a l s o t o a b i t t e r disappointment.  Thus, t h e r e are c o u n t l e s s  when F r i e d r i c h o r Rosa l o n g and but  are crushed  occasions  e x p e c t t o see one  by the absence o f the o t h e r . On  another  one  oc-  c a s i o n F r i e d r i c h i s a l m o s t annoyed a t Rosa when she i s not at the Residenz.  He  f e e l s t h i s way  t h a t she d i d not know he would come:  d e s p i t e the  fact  118 Es war ihm v o r Preude gar n i c h t e i n g e f a l i e n , dass e r s i e v e r f e h l e n kbnnte, und er h a t t e beinahe l u s t zu ziirnen, dass s i e i h n n i c h t zu Hause e r w a r t e t habe. (p.112) It  i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t ,  of the  men,  the  student attempts to f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t through l o v e  Men  by n a t u r e are  Love does not  permeate t h e i r e x i s t e n c e as  t h e i r o t h e r r e s p o n s e s . Por  this, sex  or may  not  i t i s natural  be  men  f o r men  time and  casual  mores condoned by practiced  on  lighthearted  the  court  petuous a f f a i r s  of the  one's a c t i o n s , trol not  and  j u s t i n the  i n t h e i r v/hole  love  The  of  attitude  function,  to  unconnected  i s encouraged at  society. love  Prince.  The  of  this  sexual  S e x u a l freedom i s relationship - in L e o n t i n and  the  r e s t r i c t i o n of  the im-  sexual  i d e a l of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y been d i s c a r d e d  the  -  feelings  i n a sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r  s e l f d i s c i p l i n e - the  one's a c t i o n s .  activity  Because  general relaxations  been d i s c a r d e d . With i t has  o f g u i l t which r e s u l t e d  to sex  of Paber and  e x p r e s s i o n t o marriage - the  love.  from  obligations.  a l l l e v e l s of the dalliances  of  i t is isolated  t o have a c a s u a l  attitude  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the  i t does t h a t  is a physical  accompanied by  or demanding m o r a l This  has  sex  - t o r e g a r d i t s i m p l y as a n a t u r a l  with love  alone.  a b l e to compartmentalize t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e .  a woman because, as a s e x u a l a c t i v i t y ,  which may  only  lack  ability  to  of such q u a l i t i e s are  conreflected  r e l a t i o n s h i p of such i n d i v i d u a l s  character.  but  119 Thus, t h e P r i n c e , a l t h o u g h he i s c o n s t a n t l y p e n i t e n t about h i s b e h a v i o r ,  makes no a t t e m p t t o c o n t r o l  h i s p a s s i o n s . T h i s i s because he does n o t c o n s i d e r t i o n a s i n b u t an a r t - a b e a u t i f u l n a t u r a l  seduc-  experience  u n q u a l i f i e d by any l a s t i n g sense o f g u i l t o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s c o n s e q u e n c e s . Thus, i n a s o n n e t , he d e s c r i b e s t h e s e d u c t i o n o f t h e " b i i r g e r l i c h e s Madchen" i n such a manner that  " F r i e d r i c h g r a u t e , w i e schon s i c h da d i e Slinde a u s -  nahm. " (p.195) A f t e r t h e Biirgermadchen k i l l s h e r s e l f t h e p r i n c e admits h i s c h a r a c t e r defects i n a s h o r t - l i v e d b u r s t o f remorse: " B e t r i i g e r i s c h , v e r b u h l t , f a l s c h und e r b a r m l i c h b i n i c h g a n z , " (p.195) His behavior, t h a t these  however, has so c o n d i t i o n e d h i s c h a r a c t e r  q u a l i t i e s have become i n g r a i n e d and permanent:  "Der M a s s i g u n g , d e r G e r e c h t i g k e i t , d e r g r o s s e n , schonen E n t w l i r f e , und was w i r da zusammen b e s c h l o s sen, g e s c h r i e b e n und b e s p r o c h e n , dem b i n i c h n i c h t gewachsen, s o n d e r n irn I n n e r s t e n v o l l e r N e i d , dass i c h ' s n i c h t b i n . Es war m i r n i e E r n s t damit und m i t n i c h t s i n der W e l t . " (p.196) E r i e d r i c h i s a p p a l l e d a t the p r i n c e ' s i n a b i l i t y t o reform  -  a t "der g e f a l l e n e E i i r s t , d e r n i c h t e i n m a l e i n Mann s e i n konnte." 81  (p.196)  8 1  Tamm says of t h e p r i n c e : "Es i s t ihm e i n B e d i i r f n i s , bes t a n d i g i n einem G e f u h l s r a u s c h e i r g e n d w e l c h e r A r t z u l e b e n , denn n u r i n d i e s e n R a u s c h z u s t a n d e n g e l a n g t e r z u k o n z e n t r i e r t e r Ich-Empfind.ung und d i e Momente n u c h t e r n e r S e l b s t b e s i n n u n g m e i d e t e r m i t i n s t i n k t i v e r E u r c h t . " (Tamm, p. 3637) He d e s c r i b e s him as "der Typus des i m p r e s s i o n i s t i s c h e n A e s t h e t e n , d e r aus jedem E r l e b n i s e i n e n m o g l i c h s t s u b l i m e n  120 Men f i n d  love too l i m i t e d a goal f o r f u l f i l l -  ment and p r e f e r t o seek t h e i r g r e a t e s t happiness some o t h e r concept life  through  - some p u r p o s i v e a c t i v i t y r e l a t e d t o  i n g e n e r a l r a t h e r than an e x p e r i e n c e l i m i t e d  l o v e r and b e l o v e d a l o n e . Por men, romantic  t o the  l o v e i s not  o n l y s u b o r d i n a t e t o some o t h e r purpose but, under some circumstances  can be c o m f o r t a b l y s a c r i f i e d  t o something  e l s e . Thus, the M i n i s t e r p r e f e r s t o renounce t h e g i r l he t r u l y l o v e s f o r a " f r e u d e n l o s e Ehe" - an a l l i a n c e which is  more p o l i t i c a l l y  advantageous t o thim.  Por many men l o v e i s a n e g a t i v e f o r c e , f e r i n g w i t h h i g h e r human purpose.  inter-  I t i s a force inhibiting  the f r e e development o f the p e r s o n a l i t y . R u d o l f , l i k e the s t u d e n t , r e g a r d s l o v e as a magnetic f o r c e which b i n d s one against  one's w i l l :  "So e r b a r m l i c h e s Zeug i s t d i e l i e b e ,  d i e s e l i e d e r l i c h e Anspannung der S e e l e ! " (p.273) F r i e d r i c h c o n s i d e r s i t a r e l a t i o n s h i p which i n h i b i t s the l a r g e r , expansive  life  o f the s o u l by c h a n n e l l i n g i t s d e s i r e s  toward one person: Sind d i r denn d i e F l u g e l gebrochen, g u t e r , mutiger G e i s t , der i n d i e Welt h i n a u s s c h a u t e , wie i n s e i n angeborenes Reich? Das Auge h a t i n s i c h Raum genug f i i r eine ganze Welt, und nun s o l l t e es e i n e k l e i n e Madchenhand bedecken und zudriicken konnen?" (p. 56)  S e l b s t g e n u s s heraus zu d e s t i l l i e r e n s u c h t . " ( i b i d . , p.37) E i c h e n d o r f f s own d e s c r i p t i o n o f the p r i n c e a l s o suggests t h a t he i s an a e s t h e t e w i t h no s u b s t a n t i a l i n n e r r e a l i t y of h i s own:."Der P r i n z s o i l n u r e i n b l o s s e r , w i r k l i c h e r Nachahmer des E r d i c h t e t e n , Gelesenen s e i n . " (HKA, X I I I , 60)  12.1  J u s t as F r i e d r i c h c o n s i d e r s  love a threat to h i s  i n n e r f r e e d o m so does l e o n t i n c o n s i d e r his  outer  freedom. He  i t threatening  to  r e a l i z e s t h a t d o m e s t i c i t y would  end  the u n i n h i b i t e d vagabond l i f e t h r o u g h w h i c h he  seeks  f i l l m e n t . Thus, a l t h o u g h  i s also re-  p e l l e d by i t . V/hen he he  a t t r a c t e d by l o v e , he  ful-  sees the i s o l a t e d home o f H e r r von  A.  says:"Wie f u r c h t e r l i c h s c h o n , h i e r m i t einem g e l i e b t e n  Weibe e i n ganzes l e b e n  l a n g zu wohnen! I c h mochte m i c h  a l l e W e l t n i c h t v e r l i e b e n . " (p.80) He  associates  um  himself  w i t h the r e s t l e s s f o r c e s of n a t u r e w h i c h are i n i m i c a l  to  domestic l i f e : R i i c k t m i r n i c h t a u f den H a l s m i t eurem s o l i d e n , h a u s l i c h e n , l a n g w e i l i g e n G l i i c k . . . H e i r a t e n und f e t t werden, m i t der S c h l a f m i i t z e a u f dem Kopfe h i n a u s s e h e n , w i e . d r a u s s e n A u r o r a s c h e i n t , W a l d e r und S t r o me noch immer ohne Ruhe f o r t r a u s c h e n mussen....(p.103) Even v/hen he  does marry J u l i e and  h a p p i n e s s he  cannot take  a t t a i n s some measiire o f  i t s e r i o u s l y - he p e r s i s t s i n  a s s o c i a t i n g love - p a r t i c u l a r l y married  love - with  irra-  t i o n a l i t y - a k i n d o f i n s a n i t y . Thus, when F a b e r remarks t h a t t h e y a l l seem c r a z y he  replies:  "Das  kann w o h l s e i n . . .  denn i c h b i n v e r h e i r a t e t . " (p.291) Because men  do n o t  t h r o u g h l o v e they are not  seek t h e i r g r e a t e s t  destroyed  because of t h e i r p h y s i c a l n a t u r e ,  by i t . Women, hov/ever,  a r e dominated by  d e s i r e f o r l o v e w h i c h permeates t h e i r Because men  happiness  the  experience.  a r e not a b l e t o i s o l a t e s e x u a l  activi  122 from t h e r e s t  o f t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e , i t has no permanent  e f f e c t upon t h e i r emotions. nature i s d i r e c t l y related  Women, however, whose s e x u a l to t h e i r f e e l i n g s , are incapable  of  any s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p without e m o t i o n a l  It  c r e a t e s a "Hingehung"- an e m o t i o n a l dependency i n the  woman, which,  i f she i s r e a l l y  i n love, w i l l  involvement.  cause h e r  g r e a t i n s e c u r i t y u n l e s s i t i s p r o t e c t e d by m a r r i a g e . I f she i s n o t i n l o v e , the f e e l i n g s aroused by t h i s will  d i s r u p t and confuse h e r i n n e r l i f e .  this  s e x u a l l y l i b e r a l age appears  experience  Thus, what i n  t o L e o n t i n and F a b e r  as harmless d a l l y i n g - i s , f o r g i r l s l i k e M a r i e , a conf u s i n g and t u r b u l e n t e x p e r i e n c e which soon unleashes instinct  their  over which they have no c o n t r o l . L e o n t i n r e c o g n i z e s  the o b s e s s i v e n a t u r e o f t h i s i n s t i n c t  i n women and t h e  need t o c o n t r o l i t c o n s c i o u s l y by s u b o r d i n a t i n g i t t o some h i g h e r p r i n c i p l e when he asks  Julie:  W i l l s t du ganz e i n Weib s e i n , und, wie Shakespeare s a g t , d i c h dem T r i e b e hingeben, d e r d i c h z i i g e l l o s e r g r e i f t und d a h i n oder d o r t h i n r e i s s t , oder w i r s t du immer Mut genug haben, d e i n Leben etwas Hoherem unterzuordnen? (p.294) It  i s thus i n e v i t a b l e t h a t a l l the women i n  t h i s novel should f a l l  in. l o v e . Because they f a l l  i n love  w i t h i n a s o c i e t y which condones p r o m i s c u i t y , hov/ever, they a r e n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y  p r o t e c t e d and they l o s e  control  op  of  their lives.  Thus, M a r i e and A n g e l i n a l e a d  unfulfilled  82 K e l l e r , i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n o f the female c h a r a c t e r s o f t h i s n o v e l s a y s : "Ausserhalb a l l e s G i i l t i g e n und z u g l e i e h  123  promiscuous l i v e s . Rosa m a r r i e s h e r , but her marriage l o v e . Romana and  the p r i n c e who  i s not happy. Erwin  has  seduced  d i e s of u n r e q u i t e d  the Burgermadchen commit s u i c i d e .  Only  J u l i e , whose r i g i d but wholesome r u r a l u p b r i n g i n g has vided a s t a b l e u n i f y i n g center f o r her l i f e , c o n t r o l h e r e x i s t e n c e , and  pro-  i s a b l e to  e v e n t u a l l y becomes h a p p i l y  married. Although through  women seek t h e i r g r e a t e s t  happiness  l o v e , t h e i r c h o i c e of a mate i s n e v e r t h e l e s s  se-  v e r e l y r e s t r i c t e d . In o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h e i r f e m i n i n i t y t h e i r i n t u i t i v e s u b o r d i n a t i o n to the male - they actively  seek out and  cannot  pursue a l o v e r , t h e i r c h o i c e  can  n e v e r be a b s o l u t e but always r e l a t i v e . I t i s dependent upon who  seeks them out. T h e i r r e a c t i o n s are a l s o depend-  ent upon when they seek h e r out - upon t h e i r  emotional  c o n d i t i o n a t the moment. Thus, t h e i r c h o i c e of a l o v e r cannot be c o n s c i o u s l y planned a result  but i s i n a l a r g e measure  of chance. I f however, they wish t o overcome t h i s r e -  s t r i c t i o n and  g a i n the freedom of men,  i s i n t e n s i f i e d . In an age s e x u a l e q u a l i t y w i t h men  t h e i r unhappiness  of freedom they w i s h t o but do not r e c o g n i z e the  attain essential  d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r n a t u r e . As soon as they l o s e the  Einzuschrankenden f i n d en s i e e i n Neues: d i e beriickende Gew a l t a l l e s Z a u b e r h a f t e n der Sinnenwelt wird f i i r i h r Leben e n t s c h e i d e n d . I h r geben s i e s i c h v o r b e h a l t l o s h i n , v e r f i i h r t von i h r e r b e s t r i c k e n d e n Magie." ( K e l l e r , p 61) 0  124 natural  reserve  unrestricted Jagertracht the  they  has  They l o s e  has  passive  abducted her  w h i c h once gave  to  love  desires,  through the  personality.  romantic  a stable  married  upon A n g e l i n a a f t e r  "Weiber  ertragen  these  feelings  and a r e  unable,  and h a p p i n e s s  independence to  their  lives.  women c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l s  o f h e r home.  assures her  sexual relationship,  of  the  through an  u n m a r r i e d woman,  personal  expressed  is  that  Hove o f God f o r  f o r the  can p r o v i d e the  s e c u r i t y which alone  solche  "freedom"  o f men. T h u s ,  routined l i f e  he  to g a i n  s u c h h a r m o n y c a n be r e g a i n e d  c a n be  restlessly  i n the  love  relation-  in a practicable Por the  C h r i s t i a n i n s t i t u t i o n of marriage  needs i n the  - symbolizing  d i f f i c u l t y , t o r e g a i n the  and  the  (p.272)  their  order,  in  and become  by s u b s t i t u t i n g a c o n s i s t e n t  spiritual life  woman t h e  effect  nicht."  peace,  o n l y way t h a t  s h i p she  upon t h e i r  traditional role  of E i c h e n d o r f f s  irresponsible the  occasions  receptivity  i n an a t t e m p t  only with great  religion,  effect  this  women become e n s l a v e d  the  reflected  the  o f men. T h i s m a s c u l i z i n g  and c o n c l u d e s :  Lebensweise  An a n a l y s i s  long for  and m a k i n g them u n s u i t e d f o r  Thus,  or  life  r e v e r s i n g the  Rudolf observes  kuhnere  is  on v a r i o u s  aggressive  their  relationship life.  assume  a destructive  aggressive,  them t h e y  f r e e d o m o f men. T h i s  unfettered  process  which protects  way.  married  provides  protection  the  she  a r e l a t i o n s h i p which  125 makes h e r so dependent upon the  \  The  man.  r e s t r i c t i o n of sexual e x p r e s s i o n to  marriage  n o t o n l y p r o t e c t s the e m o t i o n a l w e l l - b e i n g o f women, but a l s o t h e s t a b i l i t y o f s o c i e t y . Because s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n s , however b e n e f i c i a l , are c o n t r a r y t o i n s t i n c t , o n l y religious-principles  are capable  o f e n f o r c i n g them. Such  p r i n c i p l e s , however, s h o u l d be i n h e r e n t i n t h e  individual  c o n c e r n e d and n o t be e n f o r c e d e x t e r n a l l y , o t h e r w i s e may  moral-  they  be n e g a t i v e i n e f f e c t . Thus, R u d o l f , d i s g u i s e d as  L e o n t i n , a d v i s e s L e o n t i n ' s m i s t r e s s " l i e b e r Gott a l s d i e Manner zu l i e b e n " (p.255) a shock f r o m w h i c h she r e c o v e r s and w h i c h i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h e r  never  death.  R e l i g i o n as a n e g a t i v e f o r c e , o f f e a r , however, i s o f t e n s a l u t a r y . Thus, L e o n t i n , on m e e t i n g R u d o l f i n t h i s d i s g u i s e c o n s i d e r s him a s u p e r n a t u r a l b e i n g and, t e r r o r , g i v e s up h i s p r o m i s c u o u s l i f e . He  in  a d v o c a t e s such  an e x p e r i e n c e f o r a l l c o n f i r m e d p l a y b o y s : "Und so w o l l e G o t t j e d e n Schnapphahn k u r i e r e n , denn i c h habe m i c h s e i t d e m g e b e s s e r t , das kann i c h r e d l i c h sagen!" (p.256) K e l l e r considers t h i s experience i n n e r development. He  decisive f o r Leontin's  says:  D i e s e Begegnung w i r d f i i r L e o n t i n e n t s c h e i d e n d , s i e w i r d ihm zum e i n d r u c k l i c h e n Bev/eis, dass es hb'here Machte g i b t , v o r denen d i e m e n s c h l i c h e n K r a f t e v e r s a g e n , und e r u n t e r w i r f t s i c h einem h o h e r e n W i l l e n .  83  K e l l e r , p.  67.  126 B.  Friendship  A l t h o u g h f r i e n d s h i p doesn't p r o v i d e the i n t i m a t e fulfilling  "bond o f marriage i t can p r o v i d e a much more  s e c u r e one. Many p e r s o n a l i t i e s such as V i k t o r a r e so contorted  and u n s u i t e d f o r the demanding r e l a t i o n s h i p of  m a r r i a g e t h a t they can f i n d  t h e i r o n l y s a t i s f y i n g human  r e l a t i o n s h i p i n t h i s way. Thus, a l t h o u g h f r i e n d s h i p i s a more c a s u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p than m a r r i a g e , V i k t o r ' s  relation-  s h i p w i t h F r i e d r i c h and l e o n t i n o f f e r s him the o n l y s o l a c e , t h e o n l y p o s i t i v e human r e l a t i o n s h i p he e x p e r i ences. V/hat M e h l i s says o f l o v e can a l s o be a p p l i e d to  friendship: Jedes Individuum i s erganzungsbediirf t i g . A l l e Trennung und A b g e s c h i e d e n h e i t bedeutet Sclimerz. Das Individuum muss v e r s u c h e n , aus s e i n e r Begrenzung herauszukommen. D i e g e f l i h l t e I s o l a t i o n und Begrenzung g i b t s i c h a l s Sehnsucht kund, tind nur der Mensch vermag d i e Sennsucht des Menschen zu s t i l l e n . 84  84  Quoted by Tamm, p. 48.  127 CHAPTER V I I FULFILLMENT THROUGH ONESELF A. A r t  A r t i s a l s o a form t h r o u g h w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s seek h a p p i n e s s .  I t i s s i g n i f i c a n t , however, t h a t o n l y t h e  men even seek i t as an end i n i t s e l f . The women u s e i t o n l y t o r e l i e v e t h e i r f e e l i n g s - as a form o f c a r t h a r s i s . Most p e o p l e ,  however, do n o t have t h e c a p a c i t y  or the desire f o r a r t i s t i c  e x p r e s s i o n . T h i s i s o n l y found  among i n t r o v e r t s - complex, r e f l e c t i v e p e o p l e who c a n f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n a v i c a r i o u s experience  of life. I t  i s more p a r t i c u l a r l y found among t h e e m o t i o n a l l y who a r e f o r c e d i n t o t h e i r own i n n e r w o r l d  disturbed  because t h e y c a n  85  f i n d no f u l f i l l m e n t o u t s i d e o f i t . 85  T h i s v i e w o f c r e a t i v i t y does n o t c o n f l i c t w i t h t h a t o f H e r d e r and t h e r o m a n t i c s - t h a t a r t i s a n a t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n of a c h i l d - l i k e nature. F o r a r t i s not the product o f a n a l y s i s - the s t e r i l e a b i l i t y o f the a d u l t t o d i s s e c t exp e r i e n c e i n i n t e l l e c t u a l terms - b u t o f s y n t h e s i s - t h e f r u i t f u l a b i l i t y o f t h e c h i l d t o c r e a t e a new w o r l d o u t o f f r a g m e n t s o f e x p e r i e n c e . The a b i l i t y t o s y n t h e s i z e one's experience i s a c h i l d - l i k e q u a l i t y which a l l c r e a t i v e a r t i s t s must p o s s e s s . I t i s r e l a t e d t o an i n n e r s i m p l i c i t y and t o t a l i t y o f r e s p o n s e w h i c h i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h i l d . These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , however, a r e i n no v/ay incomp a t i b l e ' w i t h t h e complex, h i g h l y n e u r o t i c p e r s o n a l i t y . I n d e e d , t h e y a r e more l i k e l y t h e r e s u l t o f i t s s u b l i m a t i o n t h e s u c c e s s f u l r e s u l u t i o n o f i t s c o n f l i c t s by c o n s e c r a t i n g i t s e n e r g i e s t o t h e i n n e r w o r l d o f t h e i m a g i n a t i o n . Thus, a r t i s t s a r e " c h i l d - l i k e " because t h e y p o s s e s s t h e c r e a t i v e p o t e n t i a l i t y o f a c h i l d . They a r e n o t , however, " c h i l d - l i k e " i n t h e sense o f p o s s e s s i n g a n o r m a l , u n c o m p l i c a t e d persona l i t y . A study of the l i v e s of great a r t i s t s r e v e a l s only  128 Thus, of t h e women - M a r i e , A n g e l i n a r e l a t i v e l y uncomplex and  extroverted  and  p e r s o n a l i t i e s - do  not have a d e s i r e t o e x p r e s s t h e m s e l v e s i n t h i s O n l y the more t o r m e n t e d and E r w i n and  Rosa -  way.  introverted personalities -  Romana - a r e i n s p i r e d i n t h i s manner. E r w i n ' s a r t i s t w o - f o l d . I n h e r songs she  l i m a t e s her love f o r F r i e d r i c h i n l y r i c o r g r i e f . I n h e r p r o s e she  outbursts  of  subjoy  expresses her c h a o t i c f e e l i n g s  t o o c l e a r l y t h a t a s e v e r e n e u r o s i s (however w e l l d i s g u i s e d o r s u b l i m a t e d ) i s an e s s e n t i a l element o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y . I t i s a l s o u n d o u b t e d l y the e s s e n t i a l p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r s i g n i f i c a n t c r e a t i v i t y , and e x p l a i n s the r e l a t i v e d e a r t h of c r e a t i v e g e n i i i n p r o p o r t i o n t o the w o r l d popu l a t i o n . Por a l t h o u g h i t i s g e n e r a l l y assumed t h a t t e n p e r c e n t of human b e i n g s s u f f e r f r o m some e m o t i o n a l h a n d i c a p o n l y a f r a c t i o n of t h e s e a p p e a r t o have the c a p a c i t y t o s u b l i m a t e t h e m s e l v e s i n a r t , and, of t h e s e , v e r y few seem t o be a b l e t o overcome t h e s e v e r e l y i n h i b i t i n g e f f e c t s o f t h e i r n e u r o s i s - i t s o p p r e s s i v e t e n s i o n and a n x i e t y t o a t t a i n f u l l e x p r e s s i o n i n a r t . I f one equates a " c h i l d l i k e " n a t u r e w i t h a "normal u n c o m p l i c a t e d " p e r s o n a l i t y one would be a t a l o s s t o e x p l a i n why the m a j o r i t y of uncomplex human b e i n g s a r e so a r t i s t i c a l l y u n c r e a t i v e . "Normal" p e o p l e f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n l i f e , n o t a r t . That E i c h e n d o r f f a l s o s u f f e r e d f r o m an e m o t i o n a l d i s t u r b a n c e i s a p p a r e n t from W i l h e l m ' s l e t t e r of 1814 i n w h i c h he d i s c u s s e s a l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p he h i m s e l f i s i n v o l v e d i n : " I c h k n i e t e i n e i n e r Nebenkapelle. v o r einem M a r i e n b i l d h i n und b e t e t e aus dem i n n e r s t e n Grund des Herz e n s , d i e s e s arme g u t e K i n d aus den K l a u e n des T e u f e l s z u e r r e t t e n , und s i e n i c h t m i t h i n e i n i n den Zauberkreis s i n k e n zu l a s s e n , mit dem der bb'se G e i s t mich und D i c h s e i t J a h r e n umzogen h a t , und der uns u n s t e t und a r m s e l i g d u r c h d i e ganze V/elt p e i t s c h t . " (Quoted by S t b c k l e i n , p.118) T h i s e m o t i o n a l i n s t a b i l i t y was shared by E i c h e n d o r f f s s i s t e r L u i s e , who went i n s a n e i n l a t e r y e a r s . She s a y s i n a l e t t e r of 1858 t o h e r nephew Herman: "Es s c h e i n t i n d e r Tat e i n P l u c h tiber a l i e n geborenen E i c h e n d o r f f i n n e n zu w a l t e n . . . . " (Quoted by S t b c k l e i n , p. 119)  129  in  t o r t u r e d fragmentary  passages.  E r w i n ' s a r t i s d e e p l y f e l t and an honest p r e s s i o n o f h e r e m o t i o n a l s t a t e . Romana's i s j u s t o p p o s i t e . . I t i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s and a r t i f i c i a l . because she s u f f e r s from a s p l i t between h e r  ex-  the  This i s  feelings  and h e r r e a s o n . What h e r f e e l i n g s a c c e p t , h e r r e a s o n s i d e r s r i d i c u l o u s , and'thus she can t a k e n e i t h e r  con-  herself  n o r h e r a r t s e r i o u s l y . Thus, h e r a r t becomes m e r e l y  an  imaginative e x e r c i s e without s i g n i f i c a n t content - l i k e the n a r r a t i v e poem she r e c i t e s a t t h e T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t which  she i n t e r r u p t s i n the m i d d l e , o r h e r  spiritual  w r i t i n g s w h i c h so i m p r e s s h e r c o n f e s s o r , but whose p r e c e p t s she cannot  believe.  More men  than women a t t e m p t  to find  fulfillment  t h r o u g h some form o f a r t . B u t , l i k e the women, l e o n t i n and V i k t o r use i t n o t as an end i n i t s e l f but s i m p l y t o e x p r e s s t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e o f l i f e . They do not p o s s e s s detachment t o f i n d i n i t a s i g n i f i c a n t form o f  the  fulfill-  ment f o r i t s ov/n s a k e . L e o n t i n f i n d s p o e t i c f u l f i l l m e n t i n the p e r i e n c e of l i f e  ex-  i t s e l f . He a l s o composes songs, but does  n o t w r i t e them down, c o n s i d e r i n g them v a l i d m e r e l y as a joyous response of  t o t h e moment. He  does n o t c o n s i d e r them  any s e c o n d a r y , l i t e r a r y , s i g n i f i c a n c e because he  de-  p l o r e s a r t as a p a l t r y i m i t a t i o n of l i f e . L e o n t i n e x p e r i e n c e s a joyous u n i o n w i t h which  life  e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n song. V i k t o r e x p e r i e n c e s a  1 3 0  p a i n f u l s e p a r a t i o n from l i f e w h i c h e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f i n s a t i r e . I n h i s manic the  contempt  s t a t e s he i s a b l e t o e x p r e s s a l l  he f e e l s f o r t h e t r i v i a l s u p e r f i c i a l p e o p l e  who remind him o f t h i s i s o l a t i o n and i n c r e a s e h i s d e p r e s s i o n . He uses t h e i n s i g h t w h i c h t h i s oppressed has c r e a t e d i n him t o expose t h e i r i n m o s t with a riotous  state  limitations  delight.  R u d o l f , F a b e r and F r i e d r i c h , however, seek art  as a g o a l i n i t s e l f and p r a c t i c e i t p r o f e s s i o n a l l y . R u d o l f s e e k s i n a r t some r e s o l u t i o n o f h i s  t o r m e n t e d e x i s t e n c e . He does n o t f i n d his  experience of l i f e  i t , however, because  i s so o p p r e s s i v e i t s t i f l e s h i s  power t o e x p r e s s i t . H i s c o n c e p t i o n exceeds h i s t e c h n i q u e . F u r t h e r m o r e , he doubts t h e v a l u e o f a r t . He c o n s i d e r s life  a form o f i n c a r c e r a t i o n t o o b r i e f t o j u s t i f y a r t -  a mere a t t e m p t t o d e c o r a t e t h e p r i s o n w a l l . F a b e r and F r i e d r i c h Faber and F r i e d r i c h a r e t h e o n l y ones who  find  f u l f i l l m e n t i n a r t , although t h e i r conception of i t i s d i a m e t r i c a l l y opposed.  1  Faber i s a s a t i r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e s e l f c o n s c i o u s a r t i f i c i a l w r i t e r i n t h e c l a s s i c a l s t y l e t o whom 86 life  i s not only u n r e l a t e d t o , but s u b o r d i n a t e t o a r t .  86 E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s him t h u s : "Faber s o i l e i n m a n i e r t e r K e r l s e i n , und k e i n I d e a l des vollkommenen Mannes, was k e i n e r i s t , d e r b l o s s D i c h t e r i s t . " (HKA, X I I I , 61) K o h l e r  131  Thus, he i s r i d i c u l e d by L e o n t i n and h i s c i r c l e ,  "well  er immer m i t d e r Feder h i n t e r m Ohr so e r b a r m l i c h a u s sah."  (p.29) F o r h i m a r t i s n o t a spontaneous  of h i s l i f e but a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s re-working w h i c h he s t a n d s is  overflow  of l i f e t o  i n complete detachment. Thus., F r i e d r i c h  d i s a p p o i n t e d t o f i n d no c o n s i s t e n c y between F a b e r ' s  p o e t r y , much o f w h i c h he a d m i r e s ,  and h i s p e r s o n a l i t y :  E r t F r i e d r i c h ^ b e t r a c h t e t e i h n rait a l i e n S i n n e n , a l s w o l l t e e r a l l e d i e G e d i c h t e von ihm, d i e ihm am b e s t e n g e f a l l e n , i n seinem G e s i c h t e a b l e s e n . Aber da war k e i n e Spur davon z u f i n d e n . (p.26) H i s a i m i s t o submerge h i s i d e n t i t y i n a r t . He does n o t e x i s t as an i n d i v i d u a l because he c o n s i d e r s art  i s h i g h e r t h a n h i s i n d i v i d u a l i t y . Because o f t h i s  l a c k o f s e l f - i d e n t i t y he does n o t seek t o a t t a i n any g o a l f o r h i m s e l f as an i n d i v i d u a l . He r u t h l e s s l y subjects everything i n l i f e  t o h i s a r t . As a member o f s o -  c i e t y he c o n s i d e r s h i m s e l f a b s o l v e d  from t h e n e c e s s i t y  o f s o c i a l a m e n i t i e s . Thus, he i s rude t o F r i e d r i c h when he d i s t u r b s him u n i n t e n t i o n a l l y a t work. S i m i l a r l y he does n o t c o n s i d e r h i m s e l f s u b j e c t t o any m o r a l r u l e s and  attempts  t o have an a f f a i r w i t h M a r i e . He does n o t  a l l o w h i m s e l f the l u x u r y of e x p e r i e n c i n g l i f e  unself-  c o n s c i o u s l y , b u t w a i t s e a g e r l y , p o u n c i n g on h i s  experience  e l a b o r a t e s on t h i s : "Joseph war zwar das n u r d i c h t e n d e Leben z u w e n i g . I n Wien machte e r s i c h iiber Theodor K o r n e r l u s t i g , d e r n i c h t s t u e , a l s n u r d i c h t e n . F u r das l e b e n s fremde 'Dichter turn und das b l u t l e e r e A s t h e t e n t u m h a t t e e r n i e etwas i i b r i g . E r fand es f u r d i e P o e s i e h e r a b w i i r d i g e n d , aus i h r e i n e n B r o t e r w e r b z u machen...In D i c h t e r und i h r e  132 in  o r d e r t o t r a n s f o r m i t as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e i n t o a r t .  Thus, when he i s enraged and  as a h u n t e r d i s t u r b s h i s work,  Faber b e g i n s t o c u r s e him, he soon t r a n s f o r m s  c u r s i n g i n t o a c r e a t i v e a c t which at  this  i s no l o n g e r d i r e c t e d  t h e h u n t e r b u t i s i t s own f u l f i l l m e n t : F a b e r aber h a t t e i n d e s , so b o s h a f t er a u c h aussah, schon l a n g s t d e r Z o r n v e r l a s s e n , denn es waren ihm m i t t e n i n d e r Wut e i n e Menge w i t z i g e r S c h i m p f w o r t e r und k o m i s c h e r G r o b h e i t e n i n den S i n n gekommen, und er s c h i m p f t e t a p f e r f o r t , ohne mehr an den J a g e r zu denken. (p.30)  U n l i k e L e o n t i n who c o n s i d e r s a r t a poor i m i t a t i o n of l i f e , Faber  c o n s i d e r s l i f e a p o o r i m i t a t i o n o f a r t . Thus, he  becomes i n c e n s e d when a h u n t e r i n t e r r u p t s h i s c o m p o s i t i o n of  a "Waldhornecho" by s o u n d i n g  a r e a l one. H i s method  of  composition also r e f l e c t s h i s formal, a r t i f i c i a l  t u d e t o p o e t r y . He does n o t w r i t e l y r i c a l l y - l i k e r i c h , s t i m u l a t e d by t h e beauty  attiFried-  of n a t u r e , but s e l f - c o n -  s c i o u s l y - s t r u g g l i n g w i t h h i s s u b j e c t i n an i n t e l l e c t u a l manner: "denn da s i t z t H e r r F a b e r wie d i e l o w i n tiber i h r e n J u n g e n , und s c h l a g t g r i m m i g um s i c h . " Faber  (p.26)  d i f f e r e n t i a t e s between b e i n g animated  by t h e p o e t i c  s p i r i t and b e i n g a p o e t . F o r him, p o e t r y i s n o t a d i r e c t e x p r e s s i o n of l i f e but a m a n i p u l a t i o n of i t : " P o e t i s c h s e i n und P o e t s e i n " , f u h r e r f o r t , "das s i n d z w e i s e h r v e r s c h i e d e n e D i n g e , man mag dagegen sagen, was man w i l l . B e i dem l e t z t e r e n i s t , w i e s e l b s t  G e s e l l e n s c h r e i b t e r : " P r o f e s s i o n vom D i c h t e n machen, das i s t tiberhaupt l a c h e r l i c h , a l s wenn e i n e r b e s t a n d i g v e r l i e b t s e i n w o l l t e und noch o b e n d r e i n a u f o f f e n t l i c h e r S t r a s s e . " ( K o h l e r , p. 140)  133 u n s e r g r o s s e r M e i s t e r Goethe e i n g e s t e h t , immer e t was T a s c h e n s p i e l e r e i , S e i l t a n z e r e i usw. m i t im S p i e l e . " (p.31) Because he r e m a i n s detached many o p p o s i n g  from l i f e ,  he can  express  p o i n t s o f v i e w i n h i s work because he  be-  l i e v e s i n none o f them. Thus, a l t h o u g h he has a s s i d u o u s l y a v o i d e d f i g h t i n g a g a i n s t N a p o l e o n he can w r i t e a  stirring  p a t r i o t i c poem An d i e D e u t s c h e n , a d v o c a t i n g o t h e r s t o do s o . (p.31) Av/are o f t h i s , however, he a l s o w r i t e s poem s a t i r i z i n g h i s own  another  p o s i t i o n , although t h i s a l s o i n -  c l u d e s p a s s a g e s o f g r e a t s e r i o u s n e s s . However, F r i e d r i c h does n o t r e g a r d t h i s chameleon l i k e a b i l i t y as an a s s e t , b u t as a l i a b i l i t y  - i n d i c a t i n g a l a c k of honesty  a u t h o r and a r o u s i n g s u s p i c i o n i n the r e a d e r *  i n the  Friedrich  says: Wie ten, Ihr und und  w o l l t I h r , d a s s d i e Menschen Eure Werke h o c h a c h s i c h d a r a n e r q u i c k e n und e r b a u e n s o l l e n , wenn E u c h s e l b e r n i c h t g l a u b t , was I h r s c h r i e b t , d u r c h schone Worte und k l i n s t l i c h e Gedanken G o t t Menschen zu u b e r l i s t e n t r a c h t e t ? ( p . 3 1 ) ^7 When F r i e d r i c h e n t e r s t h e r e l i g i o u s l i f e ,  e v e r , Faber s u d d e n l y  how-  and w i t h o u t m o t i v a t i o n changes h i s  c o n c e p t i o n o f p o e t r y and a d m i t s he has wasted h i s l i f e a  "reizende S p i e l e r e i . "  (p.297) He  on  r e a l i z e s t h a t h i s work  87 E i c h e n d o r f f r e p e a t s t h i s same i d e a i n h i s poem " A p p e l l " ( C o t t a , I , 143): • Ich h o r t v i e l D i c h t e r klagen Von a l t e r Ehre r e i n , Doch v/enige mochten's wagen Und s e l b e r s c h l a g e n d r e i n ,  Me i n H e r z w o l l t ' m i r z e r s p r i n g e n , Sucht' m i r e i n a n d e r Z i e l , Denn a n d e r s s e i n und s i n g e n , Das i s t e i n dummes S p i e l .  134 has  l a c k e d p r o p o r t i o n because i t has  e x t e r n a l e v e n t s - "das, was occupations  dealt with  eben v o r g e h t "  specific,  - transient pre-  o f a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d of h i s t o r y - i n s t e a d  of experience  of e n d u r i n g  human s i g n i f i c a n c e :  "Denn das Haschen der P o e s i e n a c h a u s s e n , das g e i s t i ge V e r a r b e i t e n und Bekummern um das, was eben v o r g e h t , das R i n g e n und A b a r b e i t e n an der Z e i t , so g r o s s und l o b e n s w e r t a l s Gesinnung, i s t doch immer u n k u n s t l e r i s c h . " (p.297) He  a l s o r e j e c t s t h e d i d a c t i c p o e t r y w h i c h he has  because he now  r e a l i z e s that poetry  i s i t s own  written justification:  D i e P o e s i e mag w o h l W u r z e l s c h l a g e n i n demselben Boden der R e l i g i o n und N a t i o n a l i t a t , a b e r unbekummert, b l o s s um i h r e r h i m m l i s c h e n S c h o n h e i t w i l l e n , a l s Wunderblume zu uns h e r a u f w a c h s e n . S i e w i l l und s o i l zu n i c h t s b r a u c h b a r s e i n . (p.297) 88 However,- F a b e r may  be  s a i d t o have a t t a i n e d  happi-  n e s s t h r o u g h h i s p r o f e s s i o n as a poet b e c a u s e , w i t h i n i t , 88 T h i s r e f l e c t s the r o m a n t i c d o c t r i n e of the autonomy o f a r t as p r o m u l g a t e d by S c h l e i e r m a c h e r , T i e c k and Wackenroder. Tamm s a y s : "Die r o m a n t i s c h e D o k t r i n von d e r Autonomic der Kunst und des K i i n s t l e r t u m s w i r d h i e r e n t w i c k e l t , und d i e p e r s o n l i c h e Warme und K r a f t des A u s d r u c k s l e g t d i e Vermutung nahe, dass F a b e r des D i c h t e r s e i g e n e Anschauungen v e r t r i t t . E i c h e n d o r f f mochte s e l b s t e m p f i n d e n , dass d i e A n s i c h t s e i n e s H e l d e n s , des G r a f e n F r i e d r i c h , der d i e Kunst nur s o w e i t g e l t e n l a s s e n w i l l , a l s von i h r d i e K r a f t e s i t t l i c h e r und r e l i g i o s e r E r n e u e r u n g ausgehen, zu e i n s e i t i g war und d i e E i g e n g e s e t z l i c h k e i t des k l i n s t l e r i s c h e n S c h a f f e n s b e e i n t r a c h t i g t e . E r s t e l l t e ihm daher i n F a b e r e i n e n V e r t r e t e r des r e i n e n , a b s o l u t e n K i i n s t l e r t u m s gegeniiber, d e r j e d o c h a l s C h a r a k t e r h a r t an der Grenze des L a c h e r l i c h e n s t e h t und an der h o c h s t e n s i t t l i c h e n Norm gemessen, u n z u l a n g l i c h e r s c h e i n t . " (Tamm, p. 30-31)  135 he has l o s t h i s own i d e n t i t y and found F r i e d r i c h ' s conception to that o f Faber*s i n i t i a l tor  and E r w i n , who c r e a t e  fulfillment.^  of poetry  conception.  i s opposite  Like Leontin,  i n v o l u n t a r i l y , and l i k e  Vik-  Rudolf  who was once a p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t , he b e l i e v e s t h a t a r t is  a spontaneous e x p r e s s i o n  it  a detached m a n i p u l a t i o n  honest expression  o f l i f e . He does n o t c o n s i d e r o f r e a l i t y l i k e F a b e r , but an  of f e e l i n g :  Das i s t e i n e i t l e s , n i c h t s n u t z i g e s S p i e l und es h i l f t Euch doch n i c h t s , denn es i s t n i c h t s g r o s s Q a l s was aus einem e i n f a l t i g e m H e r z e n kommt. (p.32) U n l i k e F a b e r who b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e poet s h o u l d  Q  be d e t a c h e d  f r o m r e a l i t y and t h e r e f o r e e x p r e s s many d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s o f v i e w v/ithout b e i n g considers The  committed t o any o f them, F r i e d r i c h  t h e p o e t i c v o c a t i o n an e x a l t e d r e l i g i o u s c a l l i n g .  poet i s a d e d i c a t e d  missionary  who p r o c l a i m s h i s  message with, words i n s t e a d o f deeds: Denn so w i e s i e den ewigen G e i s t G o t t e s a u f E r d e n d u r c h T a t e n a u s d r i i c k t e n , so s o l i e r i h n a u f r i c h t i g i n einer v e r w i t t e r t e n , f e i n d s e l i g e n Z e i t durch rechte Worte und g o t t l i c h e E r f i n d u n g e n v e r k i i n d e n und v e r h e r r l i c h e n . (p.32) 91 89  Cf. Tamm: "Das D i c h t e n a l s Kunsthandwerk, das n a c h s e i n e r Meinung v o r a l l e m t e c h n i s c h e S c h u l u n g und k r i t i s c h e Besonnenh e i t e r f o r d e r t , nimmt e r w i r k l i c h e r n s t und d e r F l e i s s , den er d i e s e r B e s c h a f t i g u n g widmet, gewahrt ihm b e i a l l e r B i z a r r e r i e e i n e n g e w i s s e n i n n e r e n H a l t , "jene Rulie, welche das B e w u s s t s e i n eines. r e d l i c h e n , e r n s t h a f t e n S t e h e n s g i b t . " (Tamm, p. 29) 90 I n h i s l e t t e r t o Loeben o f June 1809 E i c h e n d o r f f speaks o f "der schonen U n s c h u l d , d e r S e e l e a l l e r P o e s i e . " (HKA, X I I , 4-) 91  Eichendorff  s a y s i n a l e t t e r t o l o e b e n of June 1809: " N e i n ,  136  H i s purpose i s , t h r o u g h h i s u n i q u e p e r c e p t i o n , t o e x p r e s s the h i d d e n meaning o f t h e w o r l d p o r a l - and  - b o t h s p i r i t u a l and  tem-  b r i n g i t t o the a t t e n t i o n of r e s t l e s s humanity-  i n v o l v e d i n f r i v o l o u s d i v e r s i o n s but. l o n g i n g f o r s o m e t h i n g more  meaningful: D i e Menge, n u r a u f w e l t l i c h e Dinge e r p i c h t , z e r s t r e u t und t r a g e , s i t z t g e b u c k t und b l i n d d r a u s s e n im warmen S o n n e n s c h e i n e und l a n g t r i i h r e n d n a c h dem ewigen l i c h t e , das s i e n i e m a l s e r b l i c k t . Der D i c h t e r h a t einsam d i e schonen Augen o f f e n ; mit Demut und F r e u d i g k e i t b e t r a c h t e t e r , s e l b e r e r s t a u n t , Himrnel und E r d e , und das H e r z gent ihm a u f b e i der uberschwenglichen Aussicht....(p.32) T h i s f u n c t i o n o f the poet - t o i n t e r p r e t l i f e  meaningfully r i c h met  to others - i s i l l u s t r a t e d  by t h e man  a t t h e T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t whose l i f e had  by r e a d i n g Arnim's G r a f i n D o l o r e s . He I c h l e r n e t a g l i c h i n m i r und i n gen um m i c h v i e l e s e i n s e h e n und w o h l u n b e g r e i f l i c h war und m i c h driickte. Ich befinde mich j e t z t  Fried-  been changed  says t o F r i e d r i c h : den Menschen und D i n I b s e n , was m i r s o n s t u n b e s c h r e i b l i c h bev i e l w o h l e r . (p. 14-4)  Thus, i n o r d e r t o f u l f i l l h i s s p i r i t u a l f u n c t i o n , the poet h i m s e l f must become s p i r i t u a l . H i s i d e n t i t y as i n d i v i d u a l i s important s p i r i t u a l t r a i t s . He  an  because he must d e v e l o p c e r t a i n  cannot s t a n d  above r e a l i t y and  u l a t e i t but must r e m a i n w i t h i n i t , r e s p o n d i n g  manip-  to i t with  "Demut und F r e u d i g k e i t " i n a C h r i s t i a n a t t i t u d e of t h a n k s qp giving. He i s o b l i g e d t o p r a c t i c e the m o r a l i t y - the  d i e s e s u n e n d l i c h e S t r e b e n , G o t t h a t es n i c h t b l o s s darum i n d i e B r u s t d e r D i c h t e r g e s e n k t , damit s i c h d i e s e wenigen d a r a n e r f r e u e n , es s o i l , wie es i n l e b e n d i g e r P r e i h e i t t r i u m p h i e r t , die Welt umarmen und i h r d i e F r e i h e i t w i e d e r g e b e n . " (HKA, XII, 92  C f . S t b c k l e i n : "...Nur in. der w o h l v e r s t a n d e n e n ,  innigen  137 p r a c t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s p i r i t u a l i t y - which  he  preaches: Wo s o i l d i e r e c h t e , s c h l i c h t e S i t t e , das t r e u e Tun, das scheme L i e b e n , d i e deutsche E h r e und a l l e d i e a l t e h e r r l i c h e S c h o n h e i t s i c h h i n f l u c h t e n , wenn es i h r e angebornen R i t t e r , d i e D i c h t e r , n i c h t w a h r h a f t e h r l i c h , a u f r i c h t i g und r i t t e r l i c h m i t i h r meinen? (p.32) F o r him the a c t of c r e a t i o n i s the r e s u l t o f the act  religious  o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n - t h e s e l f - f o r g e t f u l p e n e t r a t i o n of 93  t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h i t s e s s e n t i a l meaning i s a s c e r t a i n e d . T h i s e s s e n t i a l c o n t e n t o f p o e t r y i s more i m p o r t a n t  than  the f o r m i n w h i c h i t i s e x p r e s s e d .  atti-  Through s u c h an  tude t h e p o e t can e x p r e s s the f r u i t s o f c o n t e m p l a t i o n  -  t h e u n i f i c a t i o n of a l l e x p e r i e n c e : D i e P o e s i e l i e g t v i e l m e h r i n e i n e r f o r t w a h r e n d beg e i s t e r t e n Anschauung und B e t r a c h t u n g d e r W e l t und der m e n s c h l i c h e n D i n g e , s i e l i e g t e b e n s o s e h r i n d e r Gesinnung a l s i n den l i e b l i c h e n T a l e n t e n , d i e e r s t d u r c h d i e A r t i h r e s Gebrauches g r o s s werden. Wenn i n einem s i n n r e i c h e n , e i n f a c h s t r e n g e n , m a n n l i c h e n Gemiit a u f s o l c h e Weise d i e P o e s i e w a h r h a f t l e b e n d i g w i r d , dann v e r s c h w i n d e t a l l e r Z w i e s p a l t : M o r a l , S c h o n h e i t , Tugend und P o e s i e , a l l e s w i r d e i n s i n den a d e l i g e n Gedanken, i n d e r g o t t l i c h e n s i n n i g e n L u s t und F r e u d e . . . . ( p . 1 4 2 ) F a b e r o b j e c t s t o t h i s c o n c e p t i o n on two He  grounds.  r e j e c t s F r i e d r i c h ' s sense of purpose - h i s d i d a c t i c i n -  t e n t i o n - because he b e l i e v e s t h a t p o e t r y s h o u l d e x i s t f o r  E i n t r a c h t von P o e s i e und R e l i g i o n . i s t H e i l ; denn d i e wahre P o e s i e i s t d u r c h a u s r e l i g i b s , und d i e R e l i g i o n p o e t i s c h , und eben d i e s e g r o s s e g e h e i m n i s v o l l e D o p p e l n a t u r b e i d e r d a r z u s t e l l e n war d i e g r o s s e Aufgabe der Romantik." ( S t o c k l e i n , J o s e p h von E i c h e n d o r f f , p. 105) 93  Cf. S t r i c h :  " A l l e Kunst i s t s c h l i e G l i c h doch E r l b s u n g  von  138 itself:  " S i e w i l l und s o l i 94  zu n i c h t s brauclibar  sein."  ( p . 6 7 9 ) He a l s o f e a r s t h a t i n e n t e r i n g t h e r e l i g i o u s life  - by g i v i n g up a t e m p o r a l l i f e  F r i e d r i c h w i l l have t o renounce of  f o r an e t e r n a l one -  t h e immediate  pleasures  sensuous e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h form t h e b a s i s o f p o e t r y : ^5 Denn wer d i e Gegenwart a u f g i b t w i e F r i e d r i c h , wem d i e f r i s c h e L u s t am Leben und seinem uberschwengl i c h e n Reichtume gebrochen i s t , m i t dessen P o e s i e i s t es aus. E r i s t w i e e i n M a l e r ohne F a r b e n . (p.297)  F r i e d r i c h , however, c o n s i d e r s t h e l o v e o f God an i n s p i r i n g f o r c e w h i c h s t i m u l a t e s c r e a t i v i t y . I t c r e a t e s i n him a d i v i n e compassion  - an e m o t i o n a l strength - w h i c h  e n a b l e s h i m t o t r a n s c e n d t h e chads around h i m and become a meaningful center of the world: Der D i c h t e r kann n i c h t m i t verarmen; Wenn a l l e s um i h n h e r z e r f a l l t , Hebt i h n e i n g o t t l i c h e s Erbarmen Der D i c h t e r i s t das H e r z d e r W e l t . (p.298) S i m i l a r l y , t h e poet does n o t become i m p e r v i o u s t o t h e sensuous  b e a u t y o f n a t u r e b u t becomes h i m s e l f t h e b e l o v e d  of n a t u r e by r e v e a l i n g t h r o u g h l o v e , n a t u r e ' s  essential  divinity:  dem e i g n e n I c h und w i l l es i n e i n e n t i e f e r e n und a l l g e m e i n e r e n Grund v e r s e n k e n . " ( S t r i c h , p. 134) 94  Cf. F r a n z S t e r n b a l d : "Wann h a t s i c h j e das Grosse und Schone so t i e f e r n i e d r i g t um z u n u t z e n ? " (Ludwig T i e c k , F r a n z S t e r n b a l d s Wanderungen ( S t u t t g a r t , 1966), p. 176) 95  Cf. S t o c k l e i n : " . . . e i n e k r a f t i g e S i n n e n w e l t i s t das unabweisbare M a t e r i a l a l l e r Kunst." ( S t o c k l e i n , Joseph von E i c h e n d o r f f , p. 1o5)  139 Den b l o d e n W i l l e n a l l e r We sen, Im I r d i s c h e n des H e r r e n S p u r , S o l i er durch L i e b e s k r a f t e r l o s e n , Der schone L i e b l i n g d e r N a t u r . (p.298) F i n a l l y , h i s p o e t r y cannot be lyrical.  " d i d a c t i c " because i t i s t o o  I t does n o t e x p r e s s an a b s t r a c t system o f i d e a s  but i s a s p o n t a n e o u s e x p r e s s i o n o f f e e l i n g . I t does not try  t o impose a r e l i g i o u s c r e e d , b u t , t h r o u g h  s p i r a t i o n , unables  divine i n -  him t o more f u l l y r e v e a l h i s t r u e n a t u r e :  Den l i e b e n G o t t l a s s i n d i r w a l t e n , Aus f r i s c h e r B r u s t n u r t r e u l i c h s i n g ' ! Was wahr i n d i r , w i r d s i c h g e s t a l t e n , Das andre i s t e r b a r m l i c h D i n g . (p.299) ^ Because a r t i s s i m p l y an e x p r e s s i o n of h i s r e l i g i o u s however, F r i e d r i c h does n o t , l i k e F a b e r , a t t a i n through  faith,  fulfillment  a r t a l o n e . Through the g r e a t i n s i g h t and  sense of  p u r p o s e t h a t h i s p o e t i c c a l l i n g g i v e s him, however, he experiences  an u n s p e a k a b l e  happiness:  Drum h a t ihm G o t t das Wort gegeben, Das kuhn das D u n k e l s t e b e n e n n t , Den frommen E r n s t im r e i c h e n l e b e n , d i e F r e u d i g k e i t , d i e k e i n e r k e n n t . (p.298)  B. One  Philosophy  can a t t a i n h a p p i n e s s by c r e a t i n g a u n i f i e d  world w i t h i n o n e s e l f - through  a r t . One  can a l s o a t t a i n i t  96 C f . R i e p e : "Der w a h r h a f t s c h o p f e r i s c h e Mensch w i l l n i c h t s a n d e r e s s e i n , a l s was e r s e i n kann, und b e t e t e i n z i g i n diesem Sinne um g o t t l i c h e Gnade f i i r das G e l i n g e n s e i n e s Tuns." ( R i e p e , p. 11-12)  HO by r e l a t i n g o n e s e l f t o some p o s i t i v e u n i f i e d the world  concept o f  outside of oneself - through philosophy  of  religion. Of a l l t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l R u d o l f i s t h e o n l y one who seeks h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h p h i l o s o p h y .  The  o t h e r s seek f u l f i l l m e n t i n more i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l ways t h e women t h r o u g h l o v e and t h e men t h r o u g h a r t and r e ligion. A p h i l o s o p h i c t e n d e n c y has a l w a y s been l a t e n t i n Rudolf's  temperament. I t was a p p a r e n t i n the p r o b i n g  q u e s t i o n s he a s k e d as a c h i l d and formed t h e u n c o n s c i o u s m o t i v a t i o n o f h i s a r t . But a l t h o u g h he a s s i d u o u s l y s t u d i e s philosophy  he e v e n t u a l l y r e j e c t s i t because i t o f f e r s no  s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . He d i s c o v e r s t h a t a l l p h i l o s o p h i c s y s t e m s e i t h e r l e a d away from God o r s u b s t i t u t e g o a l s w h i c h he cannot  accept.  unspiritual  141  CHAPTER V I I I C.  Religion  R e l i g i o n - the ordering accordance t o a higher  o f one's l i f e i n  s p i r i t u a l r e a l i t y - also  f u l f i l l m e n t and u n i t y t o one's e x i s t e n c e .  gives  The p r a c t i c e  o f r e l i g i o n c a n be outward and a c t i v e - t h e p r a c t i c e o f good w o r k s : an e t h i c a l l i f e  f o l l o w i n g moral  precepts;  o r i n w a r d and s p i r i t u a l - an i n t u i t i v e p e r s o n a l  rela-  t i o n s h i p w i t h God w h i c h t r a n s c e n d s m o r a l i t y by so i n f u s i n g goodness i n t o t h e p e r s o n a l i t y t h a t i t a c t s by  i n s t i n c t without consciously  r u l e s . The k i n d in  morally  subscribing t o a set of  of r e l i g i o n through which the c h a r a c t e r s  t h e n o v e l a t t e m p t t o f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t depends upon  t h e i r temperament. The e x t r o v e r t s  choose an a c t i v e  o f good w o r k s ; t h e i n t r o v e r t s , t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e  life  life.  9 7  E i c h e n d o r f f r e c o g n i z e s t h e s e two approaches t o r e l i g i o n i n h i s Abhandlung l i b e r den d e u t s c h e n Roman des 18. J a h r h u n d e r t s . Tamm s a y s : " I n d e r R e l i g i o n , d'ie n a c h E i c h e n d o r f f a l s U r s p r u n g und M i t t e l p u n k t a l l e r K u l t u r anzusehen i s t , e r s c h e i n e n . . . a l s zwei s i c h w e c h s e l s e i t i g erganzende Grundk l a n g e : das S t r e b e n e i n e r s e i t s n a c h a u s s e n , das W e l t l i c h m i t dem r e l i g i b ' s e n Element z u d u r c h d r i n g e n und z u v e r k l a r e n ; und a n d r e r s e i t s , wo d i e s e s Element an der a u s s e r s t e n P e r i p h e r i e s i c h z u z e r s p l i t t e r n s c h e i n t , d i e hbhere S e l b s t b e s c h e i d u n g und erwachende Sehnsucht des W e l t l i c h e n s e l b s t , zu seinem g o t t l i c h e n U r q u e l l z u r i i c k z u f u h r e n . " (Tamm, p.  9 4 - 9 5 )  H2 Because t h e p r a c t i c e o f r e l i g i o n i n v o l v e s a p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p - a l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e s o u l and God - i t i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e  that i t i s p a r t i c u l a r -  l y a t t r a c t i v e t o women who seek f u l f i l l m e n t p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h l o v e . Thus, women i n s t i n c t i v e l y t u r n t o God - t o a s u p e r n a t u r a l l o v e r e l a t i o n s h i p - when t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o a t t a i n f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h human l o v e . Thus, t h r o u g h t h e p r a c t i c e o f r e l i g i o n o r r e l i g i o u s p r e c e p t s , many c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l a r e a b l e t o a t t a i n a s t a b l e and m e a n i n g f u l l i f e which they could experience way.  Others,  i n no o t h e r  however, a r e u n a b l e t o s u b l i m a t e  their  f e e l i n g s i n t h i s manner and a r e d e s t r o y e d  by them. F o r  still  f o r c e which,  o t h e r s , r e l i g i o n becomes a n e g a t i v e  instead of comforting giveness  them t h r o u g h t h e d o c t r i n e o f f o r -  d r i v e s them t o s u i c i d e by c r e a t i n g i n them an  oppressive  sense o f g u i l t a n d an O l d Testament  conception  o f t h e vengeance of God. Of a l l t h e women c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l , J u l i e i s t h e o n l y one who p o s s e s s e s an i n n a t e  spirituality.  B r o u g h t up i n t h e wholesome r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t on H e r r n v o n A's  e s t a t e , she was i n f l u e n c e d a t an e a r l y age by h e r  p a r e n t s ' m o r a l and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s . These d e v e l o p e d i n h e r permanent q u a l i t i e s - a g e n t l e , r e f l e c t i v e p e r s o n a l i t y and  an i n n e r s t a b i l i t y and detachment w h i c h t h e o t h e r  women i n t h i s n o v e l do n o t p o s s e s s .  Her m o r a l r e s t r a i n t  c  143 p r o t e c t s her from a p a i n f u l emotional involvement  with  l e o n t i n a t a time he d i d n o t w i s h t o marry. Her s p i r i t u a l i t y o f f e r s h e r c o m f o r t and an a l t e r n a t i v e form o f f u l f i l l m e n t . Because o f t h e s e q u a l i t i e s J u l i e i s a b l e t o a t t r a c t a s u i t a b l e husband and sonsummate a happy m a r r i a g e - t h e form o f f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h w h i c h d o r f f b e l i e v e s women a t t a i n t h e g r e a t e s t F o r Marie', A n g e l i n a ,  Eichen-  happiness.  and Rosa, however, t h e  p r a c t i c e o f r e l i g i o n does n o t r e p r e s e n t  a natural  ful-  f i l l m e n t o f t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y , b u t a d e s p e r a t e measure t o r e s t o r e some measure o f s t a b i l i t y t o t h e i r  life.  They t u r n t o i t o n l y when t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o a t t a i n . f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h human l o v e . I t i s t h e i r e x u b e r a n t e x t r o v e r s i o n which f i r s t  d r i v e s them out i n t o t h e w o r l d  t o seek l o v e - a r e c k l e s s abandonment t o t h e w o r l d  around  them v/hich c a u s e s them t o l o s e t h e i r c h a s t i t y , and, w i t h it,  the s t a b l e emotional l i f e which i s the b a s i s of  h a p p i n e s s and f u l f i l l m e n t . . Because t h e y a r e e x t r o v e r t s who n a t u r a l l y f i n d immediate s a t i s f a c t i o n i n t h e w o r l d around them, r a t h e r t h a n i n t r o v e r t s , l i k e J u l i e , who f i n d s a t i s f a c t i o n t h r o u g h an i n n e r l i f e it  o f t h e i r own -  i s n a t u r a l that t h e i r p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n  c o n s i s t i n r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h other  should  people - outer  acts  of c h a r i t y - r a t h e r t h a n i n n e r - m y s t i c a l - communion. These c h a r i t a b l e a c t i v i t i e s a r e i n a s e n s e an a c t o f  144  atonement - a method t h r o u g h w h i c h t h e i r l i f e may a t t a i n some coherence  - some o r d e r and purpose  happy n a t u r a l f u l f i l l e d  life  - r a t h e r than a  o f t h e s p i r i t . They a r e a  s u b s t i t u t e f o r t h e h a p p i e r l i v e s t h e y c o u l d have l e a d in  an o r d e r e d m a r r i a g e had t h e i r i n n e r l i v e s n o t been  c o n f u s e d and deranged rie is  becomes deranged  by p r o m i s c u i t y . Thus, a l t h o u g h Maa f t e r t h e d e a t h of h e r l o v e r , she  a b l e t o a t t a i n some k i n d o f s t a b i l i t y by j o i n i n g Ru-  d o l f ' s s e c l u d e d c o l o n y o f m e n t a l l y i l l p e o p l e - by r e j e c t i n g a l l forms o f s e x u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and o c c u p y i n g h e r s e l f w i t h the d u t i e s of a servant - simple e x t e r n a l t a s k s w h i c h have a t h e r a p e u t i c v a l u e because t h e y  distract  h e r from h e r g r i e f y e t a r e n o t t o o demanding t o p e r f o r m . A n g e l i n a withdraws devoted  t o a secluded existence  t o works o f c h a r i t y . Rosa f i n d s c o m f o r t i n h e r  unhappy m a r r i a g e t o t h e p r i n c e by t u r n i n g t o God and a s e r i o u s p r a c t i c e of the s p i r i t u a l  life.  Thus, a l t h o u g h M a r i e , A n g e l i n a and Rosa do n o t a t t a i n the happiness  of n a t u r a l f u l f i l l m e n t they  t h e l e s s a t t a i n a deeper,  never-  stable, more s i g n i f i c a n t way o f  life. B o t h , Romana and E r w i n a l s o a t t e m p t  t o order  t h e i r f e e l i n g s t h r o u g h r e l i g i o n , b u t a r e u n a b l e t o do s o . They a r e a t t h e mercy o f t h e i r emotions d e s t r o y them.  which e v e n t u a l l y  145 R e l i g i o n can a l s o have a n e g a t i v e stead of p r o v i d i n g a solace f o r tragedy  effect. In-  i t can i n t e n s i f y  s u f f e r i n g i n c e r t a i n temperaments by c r e a t i n g i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l a sense o f g u i l t o r o f f e a r w h i c h may e v e n t u a l l y d e s t r o y h i m . Thus, a f t e r h e r s e d u c t i o n by t h e p r i n c e , t h e Burgermadchen i s so oppressed eventually k i l l s  by a sense o f g u i l t t h a t i t  her. l e o n t i n s m i s t r e s s i s so t e r r i f i e d 1  a f t e r r e c e i v i n g an a d m o n i t i o n  about h e r b e h a v i o r  from  L e o n t i n * s d o u b l e ( R u d o l f ) t h a t she d i e s o f f r i g h t .  The  Men  Of t h e men o n l y F r i e d r i c h a t t a i n s any p r o f o u n d p r a c t i c e o f r e l i g i o n . L i k e E r w i n , V i k t o r l i v e s i n a deluded world to  o f h i s own and i s t o o c o n t o r t e d a p e r s o n a l i t y  make any c o n t a c t w i t h a power o u t s i d e o f h i m s e l f . F a b e r  f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t i n h i s v o c a t i o n as a poet and i s u n i n t e r e s t e d i n r e l i g i o n . L i k e Romana, R u d o l f cannot b e l i e v e , L e o n t i n , once he has overcome h i s d i s g u s t f o r t h e w o r l d , is his  a b l e t o l i v e an a c t i v e l i f e  i n the world  supported  by  C h r i s t i a n b e l i e f . F r i e d r i c h f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t i n the  contemplative  life. True R e l i g i o n  True r e l i g i o n , l i k e a l l f u l f i l l i n g forms o f human e x p e r i e n c e  i s by n a t u r e n a t u r a l and s p o n t a n e o u s .  146 I t a r i s e s f r o m the d e p t h s o f one's b e i n g and i n v o l v e s a t o t a l r e s p o n s e of t h e p e r s o n a l i t y - b o t h mind, and f e e l i n g s to  God. T h i s w h o l e - h e a r t e d i n t u i t i v e r e s p o n s e v/hich  c h a r a c t e r i z e s t r u e r e l i g i o n i s i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t v/ho i n s i s t upon l i m i t i n g r e l i g i o u s  ex-  p e r i e n c e t o s p e c i f i c f a c u l t i e s of t h e mind. They see i t s i m p l y as an e x e r c i s e of the i m a g i n a t i o n - a f o r m o f p o e t i c expression, r a t h e r than a man  r e s p o n s e o f t h e v/hole  - o f the " s o u l . " Thus, t h e y w i l l n o t b e l i e v e t h e  s i n c e r i t y of Romana's i n n e r s t r u g g l e s but c o n s i d e r h e r d e s c r i p t i o n o f them as " G r u n d r i s s e z u einem Roman." T h i s l a c k o f comprehension  l e a d s t o an a t t e m p t  t o r a t i o n a l i z e and i n t e r p r e t r e l i g i o n t o f i t ovm  (p.189)  i n t o one's  l i m i t e d range of e x p e r i e n c e . R e l i g i o u s f i g u r e s  cannot  be a c c e p t e d f o r t h e m s e l v e s but o n l y as symbols. Thus, the " g e n i a l i s c h e r R e i s e n d e r " c o n s i d e r s t h e s u b j e c t o f Romana's extemporaneous  poem t o be  "Die J u n g f r a u M a r i a a l s d i e g r o s -  se W e l t l i e b e . " (p.140) F r i e d r i c h condemns t h i s v i e w o f r e l i g i o n w h i c h would remove i t s s u p e r n a t u r a l n a t u r e and r e d u c e i t t o s p e c i f i c , common, forms o f human e x p e r i e n c e : "Wer aber h o c h m u t i g und s c h l a u d i e s e G e h e i m n i s s e und. e i n f a l t i g e n Wahrheiten a l s b e l i e b i g e n D i c h t u n g s s t o f f z u u b e r s c h a u e n g l a u b t , wer d i e R e l i g i o n , d i e n i c h t dem Glauben, dem V e r s t a n d e oder d e r P o e s i e a l l e i n , s o n d e r n a l i e n d r e i e n , dem ganzen Menschen, a n g e h o r t , b l o s s mit der P h a n t a s i e i n i h r e n e i n z e l n e n Schonheit e n w i l l k v u r l i c h z u s a m m e n r a f f t , d e r w i r d ebenso g e r n an den g r i e c h i s c h e n Olymp g l a u b e n , a l s an das  147  C h r i s t e n t u m , und e i n s m i t dem andern v e r w e c h s e l n und v e r s e t z e n , b i s der ganze Himmel f u r c h t b a r ode und l e e r w i r d . " (p.141) 98 True r e l i g i o n i s synonymous w i t h h a p p i n e s s . I t r e l i e v e s the i n d i v i d u a l of a l l  s e l f i s h concerns, which  y e t l i b e r a t e s him and makes him c a r e - f r e e and happy. Thus, t h e term "fromm" and  " f r o h l i c h " a r e o f t e n used t o g e t h e r .  (p.54) I t a l s o g i v e s a n a t u r a l wisdom w h i c h r e s u l t s a d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e of God and d i f f e r s f r o m t h e artificial  from  external  "knowledge" o f the T e e g e s e l l s c h a f t . Romana's  s p i r i t u a l d i r e c t o r embodies t h e s e  qualities:  S i e e r s t a u n t e , wie der Mann so e i g e n t l i c h ohne a l l e B i l d u n g und doch so h o c h g e b i l d e t war. E r s p r a c h i h r o f t s t u n d e n l a n g von den t i e f s i n n i g s t e n W a h r h e i t e n s e i n e r R e l i g i o n und war d a b e i immer so h e r z l i c h h e i t e r , j a , o f t v o l l l u s t i g e r Schwanke, wahrend s i e dab e i jedesmal i n eine p e i n l i c h e , gedankenvolle Traur i g k e i t v e r s a n k . (p.188) W i t h i n the f l u c t u a t i n g v a l u e s of F r i e d r i c h ' s age, however, t h e r e a r e few p e o p l e who 98  are  consistently  In h i s Die g e i s t l i c h e Poesie i n Deutschland E i c h e n d o r f f d i s c u s s e s t h i s " r e l i g i o n of p h a n t a s y " - a p r o d u c t o f the a e s t h e t i c i s m of t h e r o m a n t i c movement: "dass d i e w i e d e r e n t f e s s e l t e P h a n t a s i e , welche s i c h b e i K l o p f s t o c k noch s c h u c h t e r n m i t d e r g r w i s s e n h a f t e s t e n Ausshmuckung i h r e s S t o f f e s b e g m i g t e , j e t z t m a c h t i g e r und t i e f e r g r e i f e n d d i e g o t t l i c h e n W a h r h e i t e n s e l b s t i n i h r e r Weise urnzudeuten unternahm, b i s s i e b e i einem, i h r z u a l i e n Z e i t e n b e s o n d e r s zusagenden P a n t h e i s m u s a n g e l a n g t . E i n - l i b e l , das im Keime schon b e i Nov a l i s s i c h a n d e u t e t . " ( G o t t a , IV, p. 84) Weihe s a y s : Der " R e l i g i o n d e r P h a n t a s i e " f e h l t . c\er v o i l e E r n s t ; s i e w i r d z u r a s t h e t i s c h e r S p i e l e r e i , d i e im m y s t i s c h e n Dunkel geheimn i s v o l l e r S y m b o l i k d i e e i g e n e Armut zu v e r b e r g e n s u c h t und h i n t e r l e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h e r Begeisterung einen t i e f e n S k e p t i z i s m u s v e r s t r i c k t . (Weihe, p. 47)  148 devout. R a t i o n a l i s m  and  p i e t i s m b o t h p r e d o m i n a t e so  that  many i n d i v i d u a l s are i n d e c i s i v e about t h e i r b e l i e f s . F r i e d r i c h describes "typify t h i s  two  kinds  of " R e l i g i o n s n a r r e n "  ^9  which  age:  Die e i n e n p r a h l t e n da, dass s i e das ganze J a h r n i c h t i n die Kirche gingen, verspotteten f r e i g e i s t e r i s c h a l l e s H e i l i g e und h i n g e n auf a l l e Weise, d i e G o t t s e i Dank! b e r e i t s a b g e n u t z t e und s c h a b i g e P a r a d e d e c k e . d e r A u f k l a r u n g aus, Aber es war n i c h t wahr, denn s i e s c h l i c h e n h e i m l i c h v o r T a g e s a n b r u c h , wenn der K u s t e r a u f s c h l o s s , zum H i n t e r p f o r t c h e n i n d i e K i r c h e n h i n e i n und b e t e t e n f l e i s s i g . Die a n d e r n Hel e n dagegen g a r w e i d l i c h l i b e r d i e s e h e r , v e r f o c h t e n d i e R e l i g i o n und b e g e i s t e r t e n s i c h d u r c h i h r e e i g e nen schbnen R e d e n s a r t e n . Aber es war auch n i c h t wahr, denn s i e g i n g e n i n k e i n e K i r c h e und g l a u b t e n h e i m l i c h s e l b e r n i c h t , was s i e s a g t e n . (p.190)  Friedrich True r e l i g i o n - a w h o l e - h e a r t e d r e s p o n s e of i n d i v i d u a l t o God  - f i n d s i t s most f r u i t f u l e x p r e s s i o n  the  p e r s o n a l i t y - i n the i n t r o v e r t -  contemplative  p e r s o n who who  already  t h e r e f o r e has  the e x t e r n a l  himself  in  the  f i n d s f u l f i l l m e n t through h i m s e l f , no d i f f i c u l t y d e t a c h i n g  the  and  from  world.  99 I n h i s e s s a y about S t . Hedwig, E i c h e n d o r f f p o i n t s out t h a t o n l y l o v e and h u m i l i t y - the v i r t u e s of the i n t e r i o r l i f e - can r e s o l v e t h i s c o n f l i c t between mind and f e e l i n g w h i c h so c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i s age: "Wie k b n n t e n w i r i n uns e r e r Z e i t h e i l i g . werden? E b e n f a l l s d u r c h g r o s s a r t i g e E n t sagung. B e i uns a b e r wurde d i e k b r p e r l i c h e Z i i c h t i g u n g d u r c h G e i s s e l n , F a s t e n e t c . w e n i g f r u c h t e n , oder doch k e i n e s w e g s geniigen. Wir haben and ere L a s t e r : Hochmut, D l i n k e l , das Wissen, e t c . D i e L i e b e und Demut i s t es d i e uns n o t t u t . . . . Die ganze Sache i s t der j e t z t wie n i e m a l s f r l i h e r h e f t i g e n t b r a n n t e Kampf z w i s c h e n Ver s t a n d und Gemiit, d e r e n Versohnung d i e Demut i s t . ' (HKA, X, 138) 1  149 The for  source  i t s unpopularity)  of a l l true r e l i g i o n i s the n e c e s s a r y  (and t h e cause  detachment o f t h e  i n d i v i d u a l f r o m a l l forms o f s a t i s f a c t i o n e x c e p t God. is  t h e e s s e n c e o f the New Testament t e a c h i n g o f the "new  " b i r t h " - the v o l u n t a r y g i v i n g up o f e v e r y t h i n g i n the to  This  f i n d a new r e a l i t y  and  i n God.  i t s consequent e x p e r i e n c e  expressed  This necessary  world  s e l f - s a c i ' i f ice  o f r e b i r t h and l i b e r a t i o n i s  i n F r i e d r i c h ' s dream o f t h e C h r i s t C h i l d who  a p p e a r s t o h i m and s a y s : L i e b s t du m i c h r e c h t , so gehe mit m i r u n t e r , a l s Sonne w i r s t du dann w i e d e r a u f g e h e n , und d i e Welt i s t f r e i . (p.166) Although life  i t i s only a f t e r a v a r i e d experience o f  t h a t F r i e d r i c h r e c o g n i z e s h i s r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n , he  i s by n a t u r e  contemplative,  and p o s s e s s e s t h e k i n d o f p e r -  s o n a l i t y i n v/hich a r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n would be meet e a s i l y developed. The  first  d e s c r i p t i o n of F r i e d r i c h i n the  emphasizes h i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e b e s c h a u l i c h e r F r e u d e . " (p.9) not enjoy  nature:  "er s t a n d . . . i n s t i l l e r ,  As an i n t r o v e r t he does  the immediate e x p e r i e n c e  contemplation  novel  o f l i f e so much as t h e  o f i t . L i k e many p e o p l e o f t h i s temperament,  100 T h i s d e s c r i p t i o n o f F r i e d r i c h a g r e e s w i t h the d e s c r i p t i o n o f E i c h e n d o r f f i n W i l h e l m Budde's j o u r n a l o f 1807: "Sein ganzes D a s e i n i s t L i e b e und Gute una s t i l l e r Genuss i n s i c h s e l b s t . " (Quoted by Tamm, p. 20) Tamm comments on E i c h e n d o r f f ' i n a t u r e : "Der D i c h t e r v e r h a l t s i c h ganz p a s s i v . L e i d e n s c h a f t und T a t e n d r a n g s c h e i n e n s i c h i n r u h i g e Anschauung und v o r dammernde Sehnsucht a u f g e l o s t z u haben." (Tamm, p. 20)  150 he i s so unassuming and with l i t t l e  s i m p l e t h a t he c o u l d , by someone  i n s i g h t , be c o n s i d e r e d m e n t a l l y  deficient:  Er sprach wenig, sondern e r g b t z t e s i c h vielmehr s t i l l i n s i c h an den A u s g e l a s s e n h e i t e n der l u s t i g e n G e s e l l e n : . e i n gemeiner M e n s c h e n s i n n h a t t e i h n l e i c h t f i i r e i n f a l t i g g e h a l t e n . (p.9) H i s c o n t e m p l a t i v e n a t u r e was c l u d e d c h i l d h o o d and  n u r t u r e d by h i s s e -  the r e f r e s h i n g presence  of n a t u r e .  H i s a t t r a c t i o n to r e l i g i o n i s apparent liest  c h i l d h o o d . He  i s so moved by the n a r r a t i v e o f C h r i s t ' s  p a s s i o n t h a t he c a n n o t i m a g i n e to  i n ear-  i t w i t h no a p p a r e n t  impact  how  o t h e r s can have l i s t e n e d  upon t h e i r  lives:  Ich kann es n i c h t mit V/orten b e s c h r e i b e n , was i c h dab e i empfand. I c h w e i n t e aus H e r z e n s g r u n d e , dass i c h s c h l u c h z t e . M e i n ganzes Wesen war davon e r f i i l l t und d u r c h d r u n g e n , und i c h b e g r i f f n i c h t , v/ie mein H o f m e i s t e r 1 0 1 und. a l l e l e u t e im Hause, d i e doch das a l l e s s c h o n l a n g e w u s s t e n , n i c h t ebenso g e r u h r t waren und a u f i h r e a l t e Weise so r u h i g f o r t l e b e n k o n n t e n . (p.55-56) The v e r y memory o f h i s c h i l d h o o d i n w h i c h h i s r e l i g i o u s p u l s e s were f i r s t formed i n t e n s i f i e s t h i s i m p u l s e  im-  i n him  as an a d u l t : D i e s e ganze, s t i l l e Z e i t l i e g t w e i t h i n t e r a l l dem S c h w a l l e d e r s e i t d e m d u r c h l e b t e n Tage, wie e i n u r a l t e s , wehmtitig s u s s e s l i e d , und wenn mich o f t n u r e i n e i n z e l n e r Ton davon w i e d e r b e r i i h r t , f a s s t m i c h e i n unbes c h r e i b l i c h e s Heimweh, n i c h t n u r nach j e n e n G a r t e n und B e r g e n , s o n d e r n nach e i n e r v i e l f e r n e r e n und t i e f e r e n Heimat, von w e l c h e r jene m i r e i n l i e b l i c h e r W i d e r s c h e i n zu s e i n s c h e i n t . (p.48) 101  S t b c k l e i n , l i k e most c r i t i c s , c o n s i d e r s the c h a r a c t e r o f the H o f m e i s t e r t o be based upon t h a t of H e r r H e i n k e , the e d u c a t o r of E i c h e n d o r f f and h i s b r o t h e r . He s a y s : "Daraus f o l g t , dass H e r r H e i n k e das gewesen i s t , was man e i n e n a u f g e k l a r t e n Mann genannt h a t . . . . B e s o n d e r s im nahen O s t e r r e i c h war da.mals u n t e r den W e l t p r i e s t e r n . .. d i e s e r Typus ungemein h a u f i g v e r t r e t e n . " ( S t b c k l e i n , J o s e p h von E i c h e n d o r f f , p. 33)  151 F r i e d r i c h i s by n a t u r e  s p i r i t u a l . He  a l w a y s of a s u p e r n a t u r a l f o r c e s u s t a i n i n g the  is  conscious  universe:  es i s t , a l s h o r t e d i e S e e l e i n der F e r a e u n a u f h o r l i c h e i n e g r o s s e h i m m l i s c h e M e l o d i e , wie von einem unbekannten Strome, der d u r c h d i e Welt z i e h t . . . . (p.295-96) However., because the i m p r e s s i o n s a l w a y s more immediate and it  i n t e n s e t h a n those  i s n a t u r a l that F r i e d r i c h should  first  o f the w o r l d of the  are  spirit,  t r y to f i n d  ful-  f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h the immediate l i f e around him.  His  v o c a t i o n does not d e v e l o p u n t i l l a t e r - when he  discovers  t h a t n o t h i n g i n the w o r l d  religious  can s a t i s f y h i s l o n g i n g f o r the  ineffable. T h i s d e s i r e f o r the i n e f f a b l e i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t of F r i e d r i c h ' s p e r s o n a l i t y . I t prompts L e o n t i n t o ize  him  crushed  as an i m p r a c t i c a l i d e a l i s t who by the  i s bound t o  characterbe  world:  "Kommst du auch angezogen, n e u m o d i s c h e r Don Q u i x o t e , Lamm G o t t e s , du s a n f t e r V o g e l , der immer v o l l schemer Weisen i s t , haben s i e d i r noch n i c h t d i e F l u g e l geb r o c h e n ? " (p.148) T h i s l o n g i n g f o r the i n e f f a b l e i n s p i r e s a l l F r i e d r i c h ' s a t t e m p t s a t f u l f i l l m e n t . When, on each o c c a s i o n ,  this  l o n g i n g remains u n f u l f i l l e d , he becomes d i s i l l u s i o n e d . It life  i s t h i s force which motivates  - h i s t r a v e l s w i t h L e o n t i n , F a b e r , and  h i s adventurous Rosa. He  soon  r e a l i z e s t h a t s u c h a l i f e i s u n f u l f i l l i n g , however, because it  l a c k s p u r p o s e . He  s a y s , when he  discovers t h a t Rosa shows  152 no  interest i n his inner  life:  Was t u ' i c h h i e r . . . s i n d das meine E n t s c h l l i s s e , meine g r o s s e n H o f f n u n g e n und E r w a r t u n g e n , von denen meine S e e l e so v o l l war, a l s i c h a u s r e i s t e ? V/as z e r s c h l a g e i c h den b e s t e n T e i l mei2ies Lebens i n u n n i i t z e A b e n t e u e r ohne a l i e n Zweck, ohne a l l e r e c h t e T a t i g k e i t ? D i e s e r L e o n t i n , Faber und Rosa, s i e werden mir doch ewig fremd b l e i b e n . (p.56) T h i s l o n g i n g i s the f o r c e w h i c h had s p i r e d h i s l o v e f o r Rosa. L i k e a l l men, l o v e o n l y p a r t of a much b r o a d e r  however, he  considers  search f o r f u l f i l l m e n t .  L a t e r on he d i s c o v e r s t h a t r o m a n t i c inhibits this  previously i n -  l o v e even s t i f l e s  and  search:  Habe i c h es oben a u f d e r Hohe n i c h t g e s a g t , dass du i n d e i n Grab h i n a b s t e i g s t ? Wenn d i e S c h o n h e i t m i t i h r e n f r i s c h e n Augen, mit den j u g e n d l i c h e n Gedanken und Wunschen u n t e r euch t r i t t , und, wie s i e d i e e i g e n e , g r o s s e r e L e b e n s l u s t t r e i b t , s o r g l o s und l l i s t e r n i n das l i e bewarme Leben h i n a u s l a n g t und s p r o s s t - s i c h an d i e f e i nen S p i t z e n , d i e zum Himmel s t r e b e n , g i f t i g anziisaugen und z u r Erde h i n a b z u z e r r e n , b i s d i e ganze p r a c h t i g e S c h o n h e i t , f a h l und i h r e s h i m m l i s c h e n Schmuckes ber a u b t , u n t e r euch d a s t e h t wie e u r e s g l e i c h e n . (p.107-8) Next he t r i e s t o f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t t h r o u g h  some  p r a c t i c a l f o r m o f a c t i o n - by e n g a g i n g i n the r e v o l u t i o n a g a i n s t Napoleon: Die unbestimmte Knabensehnsucht. . .verwandelte sich i n e i n e . h e i l i g e L i e b e und B e g e i s t e r u n g f i i r den bestiramten und f e s t e n Zweck. Es geniigte ihm n i c h t mehr, s i c h an s i c h a l l e i n zu e r g o t z e n , er w o l l t e l e b e n d i g e i n d r i n g e n . (p.165) But a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g the h o r r o r o f war and  the  inconstancy  i n g r a t i t u d e of h i s c o m p a t r i o t s , he r e a l i z e s how  s i b l e i t i s to f u l f i l l  i d e a l s through  A f t e r the war his  and  j o u r n e y . He has  the  impos-  world.  he r e t u r n s t o where he had  begun  t r i e d a l l t h e common human ways of  153  f i n d i n g f u l f i l l m e n t and has He has l o s t h i s  found them a l l u n s a t i s f a c t o r y .  "Wanderlust":  J e t z t s t a n d er an demselben O r t e , wo er begonnen, wie nach einem miihsarn b e s c h r i e b e n e n Z i r k e l , f r i i h z e i t i g an dem a n d e r n , e r n s t e r n und s t i l l e r n Ende s e i n e r R e i s e und h a t t e k e i n e Sehnsucht mehr nach dem P l u n d e r h i n t e r den Bergen und w e i t e r . (p.225-26) He  f i n d s no more f u l f i l l m e n t i n p o e t r y or a c a r e e r i n the  w o r l d . H i s l o v e f o r Rosa has been a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o l o v e o f God, had  who  now  fulfills  i n him  the  the h i d d e n meaning he  a l w a y s sensed i n l i f e : Die P o e s i e , s e i n e d a m a l i g e , s i i s s e R e i s e g e f a h r t i n , genugte ihm n i c h t mehr, a l l e s e i n e e r n s t e s t e n , h e r z l i c h s t e n P l a n e waren an dem N e i d e s e i n e r Z e i t ges c h e i t e r t , s e i n e M a d c h e n l i e b e musste, ohne dass e r es s e l b s t bemerkte, e i n e r h o h e r e n L i e b e w e i c h e n , und j e n e s g r o s s e , r e i c h e Geheimnis des Lebens h a t t e s i c h ihm e n d l i c h i n G o t t g e l b s t . (p. 226) A t R u d o l f ' s h i s i n n a t e r e l i g i o u s power, w h i c h  was  always p r e s e n t  i n h i s other a c t i v i t i e s , i s  strengthened:  In P r i e d r i c h e n t w i c k e l t e d i e s e A b g e s c h i e d e n h e i t endl i c h die urspriingliche, r e l i g i o s e K r a f t seiner Seele, d i e s c h o n im W e l t l e b e n durch g u t m u t i g e s Staunen geb l e n d e t , d u r c h den Drang der Z e i t e n o f t v e r s c h l a g e n und f a l s c h e Bahnen suchend, aus a l i e n s e i n e n B e s t r e bungen, T a t e n , P o e s i e n und I r r t i i m e r n h e r v o r l e u c h t e t e . (p.284) He  r e g a i n s the r e l i g i o u s s i m p l i c i t y of h i s c h i l d h o o d  begins  and  t o read the B i b l e a g a i n : J e t z t h a t t e e r a l l e s e i n e P l a n e , T a l e n t c h e n , Ktinste und W i s s e n s c h a f t e n u n t e n z u r i i c k g e l a s s e n und l a s w i e der d i e B i b e l , v/ie er schon e i n m a l a l s K i n d a n g e f a n gen. (p.284)  He  f i n d s comfort  rifice  and  and meaning i n the power of C h r i s t ' s s a c -  purpose i n h i s v o c a t i o n as a C h r i s t i a n  "knight:"  154 Da f a n d e r T r o s t tiber d i e V e r w i r r u n g der Z e i t und das e i n z i g e Recht und H e i l a u f E r d e n i n dem h e i l i g e n K r e u z e . E r h a t t e e n d l i c h den p h a n t a s t i s c h e n , t a u s e n d f a r b i g e n P i l g e r m a n t e l abgeworfen und s t a n d nun i n b l a n k e r Rustung a l s Kampfer G o t t e s g l e i c h s a m an d e r Grenze z w e i e r W e l t e n . (p.284) He f i n d s peace and h a p p i n e s s i n h i s v o c a t i o n , and  tells  Leontin: Locke mich n i c h t noch e i n m a l h i n a b i n d i e W e l t , m i r i s t h i e r oben u n b e s c h r e i b l i c h w o h l , und i c h b i n kaum e r s t r u h i g geworden. (p.286)  155  PART IV LIMITATIONS OP HAPPINESS CHAPTER IX  Although  E i c h e n d o r f f appears t o  in Eriedrich his ideal  incorporate  o f human f u l f i l l m e n t , he i n no  way-  assumes t h a t such an i d e a l w i l l be s u i t e d t o e v e r y o n e . A l t h o u g h the h a p p i n e s s a t t a i n e d by the poet and t h e i s more s e c u r e and permanent t h a n t h a t o f t h o s e who  religious must  r e l y on c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n the e x t e r n a l w o r l d , i t i s by no means t h e form o f f u l f i l l m e n t f o r e v e r y o n e . Such h a p p i n e s s i s s e c u r e and permanent because i t a r i s e s from the deep c r e a t i v e s o u r c e s w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l h i m s e l f , but i t i s a l s o dependent  upon such f o r c e s f o r i t s e x i s t e n c e .  Not  everyone has t h e a b i l i t y t o become a poet n o r t h e w i l l detachment  to  and the c a p a c i t y f o r s u b l i m a t i o n t o become a  religious. Thus, E i c h e n d o r f f o f f e r s no easy f o r m u l a f o r h a p p i n e s s . L i k e a l l g r e a t a r t i s t s he i s aware o f the u n i q u e 102 ness of every i n d i v i d u a l the p o t e n t i a l i t y ,  and i s a l s o aware, n o t o n l y  of  but also of the l i m i t a t i o n s , w h i c h s u c h  u n i q u e n e s s s u g g e s t s . He does n o t b e l i e v e , l i k e the f a c i l e 102 I n h i s l e t t e r o f Nov. 14,.1853, E i c h e n d o r f f s t r e s s e s t h i s u n i q u e n e s s and s u g g e s t s t h a t everyone must f i n d h i s own s o l u t i o n t o l i f e ' s problems: "Es muss doch am Ende e i n j e d e r s e i n e n e i g e n e n , ihm gewiesenen Weg gehen und d a r f n i c h t a l l z u v i e l n a c h anderen f r a g e n . " (Quoted by R i e p e , p. 44)  156 positivist,  t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l has  t h i n g he w i s h e s .  He  the power t o do any-  r e a l i z e s t h a t the i n d i v i d u a l i s  hampered b o t h by h i s i n t e r n a l environment - h i s ovm  per-  s o n a l i t y - and a l s o by h i s e x t e r n a l e n v i r o n m e n t - by f a t e and  chance.  H e r e d i t y and Although w i n , Ereud and  E i c h e n d o r f f was  Jung f o r m u l a t e d  s i g h t as a n o v e l i s t l e d him He  Environment born long before  t h e i r perceptions, his i n -  intuitively  to such t h e o r i e s .  r e c o g n i z e s , f o r example t h a t the u n h a p p i n e s s o f  s t u d e n t who  Dar-  the  i s i n l o v e w i t h the c i r c u s p e r f o r m e r i s not  caused by e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s , but a r i s e s f r o m the  limi-  t a t i o n s of h i s own p e r s o n a l i t y : "Wie g l u c k l i c h " , s a g t e l e o n t i n , "konnte der S t u d e n t sein...wenn er nur T a l e n t f u r s Gluck h a t t e , aber er h a t e i n e e i n f o r m i g e N i e d e r g e s c h l a g e n h e i t i n s i c h , d i e e r n i c h t n i e d e r s c h l a g e n kann, und d i e i h n d u r c h s Leben n u r so h i n s c h l e p p t . " (p.151) Although as r i g i d l y  E i c h e n d o r f f does not  i n h i b i t e d by h e r e d i t y and  create  characters  e n v i r o n m e n t as  those  o f the s c h o o l of n a t u r a l i s m , he does c r e a t e them w i t h s u c h w e l l d e f i n e d p e r s o n a l i t i e s t h a t one them d e v e l o p i n g t h e i r own  i n any  o t h e r way.  f a t e w i t h i n them. He  cannot i m a g i n e  They c a r r y , i n a s e n s e ,  seems t o r e a l i z e t h a t  human p e r s o n a l i t y i s formed by i t s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d periences  and  t h a t the way  i n which these  the  ex-  characters  157 r e s p o n d t o t h e i r environment  i s c o n d i t i o n e d by t h e n a t u r e  o f t h e i r ovm p e r s o n a l i t y .  The V/omen  The v/omen a r e l i m i t e d p r i m a r i l y by t h e i r s e x . A l t h o u g h t h e y may s t r i v e t o a t t a i n freedom  o f men,  like  A n g e l i n a and Romana, t h e y a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s p o w e r l e s s t o seek h a p p i n e s s i n any o t h e r way t h a n t h r o u g h l o v e - as women have a l w a y s sought  it.  M a r i e , Rosa and A n g e l i n a M a r i e , Rosa and A n g e l i n a a r e a l l m a l l e a b l e p e r s o n a l i t i e s . They do n o t a f f e c t t h e i r environment as t h e y a r e a f f e c t e d by i t .  so much  This p a s s i v i t y i s i n t e n s i f i e d  by t h e i r n a t u r a l s u b m i s s i v e n e s s as women. I t i s t h e i r m i s f o r t u n e t o l i v e i n an age where s e x u a l mores a r e r e l a x e d , and, t h e r e f o r e , where i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o e s t a b l i s h a s a t i s f y i n g permanent m a r r i a g e r e l a t i o n s h i p . M a r i e becomes " v e r w i l d e r t " t h r o u g h a s e r i e s o f promiscuous  relation-  s h i p s and e v e n t u a l l y seeks s t a b i l i t y among R u d o l f ' s c o l o n y of d i s t u r b e d p e o p l e . Rosa i s seduced by t h e p r i n c e i n a moment o f p a s s i o n , b u t f i n d s h e r m a r r i a g e w i t h him u n fulfilling.  She i s d r i v e n t o seek s o l a c e i n r e l i g i o n .  S i m i l a r l y , Angelina loses c o n t r o l of her l i f e  through her  158 bohemian r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h R u d o l f , and sate f o r t h i s through  a life  seeks t o compen-  o f good w o r k s .  Romana  Romana, on the o t h e r hand, i s n o t d e s t r o y e d much by h e r o u t e r environment as by h e r own i n t e n s e p e r s o n a l i t y . F r i e d r i c h speaks o f t h e R e i c h t u m " o f h e r body and  spirit,  g i f t s and  so her  "zauberischer  (p. 146) Her mother a l s o  r e c o g n i z e s h e r p a s s i o n a t e r e c e p t i v i t y t o e x p e r i e n c e and b e f o r e h e r death:  "Denn du s o l l s t mehr Gnade e r f a h r e n  mehr g o t t l i c h e P r a c h t i i b e r s c h a u e n a l s a n d e r e . " She  says und  (p.124)  a l s o r e c o g n i z e s the danger o f such c a p a c i t y - t h a t  she w i l l r u s h t o b r e a k out and  s o a r above h e r p r o t e c t i v e  home e n v i r o n m e n t : Und eben, w e i l du o f t f r o h l i c h und kuhn s e i n w i r s t und F l u g e l haben, so b i t t e i c h d i c h : S p r i n g e n i e mals aus dem s t i l l e n G a r t e n ! (p.124) Romana, hov/ever,  i s pov/erless t o c o n t r o l  p a s s i o n a t e d e s i r e f o r e x p e r i e n c e . She  her  reacts intensely to  a l l e x p e r i e n c e s . Thus, i n r e g a r d t o a dance, she  says:  Wie i h r a n d e r n n u r a l l e l u s t so g e l a s s e n e r t r a g e n und aus dem Tanze s c h n u r s t r a c k s i n s B e t t s p r i n g e n konnt und der schonen Welt so a u f e i n m a l e i n Ende machen! I c h b i n Immer so ganz d u r c h k l u n g e n , a l s s o l l t e d i e M u s i k n i e m a l s a u f h b r e n . (p.121-122) She to  feels that l i f e itself:  i s a p o w e r f u l r i v e r w h i c h draws h e r  159 Und das W i r r e n bunt und b u n t e r Wird e i n magisch w i l d e r F l u s s , I n d i e schone Welt h i n u n t e r L o c k t d i c h d i e s e s Stromes G r u s s . She  i s incapable  (p.124)  of r e s i s t i n g i t :  Und i c h mag mich n i c h t bewahren! Weit von euch t r e i b t m i c h der Wind, Auf dem Strome w i l l i c h f a h r e n , Von dem G l a n z e s e l i g b l i n d ! (p.125) Because she she  d e s i r e s t h e i n e f f a b l e , however,  i s d i s g u s t e d w i t h mundane r e a l i t y : D i e W e l t , d e r g r o s s e T o l p e l , der n i e m a l s g e s c h e i t e r w i r d . . . E r i s t j a doch n i c h t s a l s Magen und Kopf und noch dazu e i n r e c h t b r e i t e r , u b e r m i i t i g e r , s e l b s t g e f a l l i g e r , e i t l e r , u n e r t r a g l i c h e r , den es e i n e r e c h t e G o t t e r l u s t i s t a u f s M a u l zu s c h l a g e n . ( p . 1 5 7 - 1 5 8 )  Because she art,  cannot a t t a i n the i n e f f a b l e , e i t h e r t h r o u g h  l o v e , o r r e l i g i o n she has  allowed  h e r s e l f to  swept up i n t o a r e s t l e s s , s e n s u a l , e r r a t i c l i f e . Leontin, although d e s c r i b e s her any  r e c o g n i z i n g h e r g i f t s and  She  Thus,  potentiality,  e s s e n t i a l weakness - h e r i n a b i l i t y t o g i v e  d i r e c t i o n to her l i f e ,  worthless.  be  w h i c h u l t i m a t e l y makes i t  says i t i s h i s o p i n i o n t h a t :  i c h s e i wie e i n e F l o t e , i n der v i e l h i m m l i s c h e r . K l a n g i s t , aber das f r i s o h e H o l z habe s i c h g e w o r f e n , habe e i n e n g e n i a l i s c h e n Sprung, und so tauge doch am Ende das ganze I n s t r u m e n t n i c h t s . (p.125)  Erv/in  Of a l l the. women i n the n o v e l E r w i n i s most d i s t o r t e d by  her e a r l y c h i l d h o o d  experiences.  Her d i s t u r -  160 bance l i e s  c h i e f l y i n h e r f e e l i n g s o f g u i l t about h e r  i l l e g i t i m a t e b i r t h . V/hen F r i e d r i c h asks about h e r p a s t she s a y s :  " I c h muss s t e r b e n , wenn es jemand  (p.539) T h i s g u i l t  erfahrt."  c r e a t e s a f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n and  r e j e c t i o n by t h e w o r l d w h i c h i s i n t e n s i f i e d  by t h e l a c k  o f s e c u r i t y i n h e r u p b r i n g i n g by t h e gypsy woman who a b d u c t e d h e r f r o m A n g e l i n a . T h i s sense o f i s o l a t i o n and i n s e c u r i t y r e s u l t s i n l a c k of emotional e q u i l i b r i u m : Nur mangelte b e i E r w i n das r u h i g e G l e i c h g e w i c h t d e r K r a f t e , d i e a l l e s beleuchten.de K l a r h e i t ganz und g a r . (p.77) Her d e s i r e f o r l o v e , however, i s so i n t e n s e t h a t i t cann o t a c c e p t t h e s e f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n . These two f o r c e s c o n f l i c t w i t h i n h e r , c r e a t i n g an i n n e r c o n f u s i o n : Im v e r b o r g e n s t e n Grunde d e r S e e l e s c h i e n v i e l m e h r e i n e g e h e i r n n i s v o l l e L e i d e n s c h a f t l i c h k e i t z u ruhen, d i e a l l e s v e r w i r r t und am Ende zu z e r s t o r e n d r o h t e . (p.77) The  only o u t l e t f o r her f e e l i n g s are h e r love of nature  and h e r e x p r e s s i o n o f them i n song. L i k e Romana she i s eventually k i l l e d  by h e r u n r e q u i t e d l o v e f o r F r i e d r i c h .  Instead of committing  s u i c i d e , however, she i s d r i v e n  deeper i n t o h e r i n n e r c o n t o r t e d w o r l d and goes i n s a n e . I n t h i s w o r l d h e r sense o f i s o l a t i o n i s so h e i g h t e n e d she f e e l s even p h y s i c a l l y s e p a r a t e d  that  from t h e w o r l d :  L i e L e u t e s a g t e n , i c h s e i v e r r i i c k t , i c h h o r t e es w o h l und h o r t e auch d r a u s s e n d i e U h r e n s c h l a g e n und d i e Welt o r d e n t l i c h gehn und s c h a l l e n w i e d u r c h G l a s , a b e r i c h konnte n i c h t m i t h i n e i n . (p.241)  161 Julie Of a l l t h e women c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e n o v e l J u l i e is  t h e most f o r t u n a t e i n h e r e a r l y u p b r i n g i n g . She was  b r o u g h t up i n a wholesome r u r a l environment w h i c h emphas i z e d p r a c t i c a l h o u s e h o l d t a s k s and s t r e s s e d s i m p l e m o r a l v i r t u e s . A l t h o u g h t h i s c i r c u m s c r i b e d l i f e made h e r somewhat s h y and s o c i a l l y i l l a d e p t , i t more t h a n  compensated  for  t h i s by g i v i n g h e r an i n n e r s t a b i l i t y and d e p t h l a c k -  ing  i n t h o s e b r o u g h t up i n a more f r i v o l o u s ,  atmosphere.  erratic,  These c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a r e r e f l e c t e d i n " d i e  b e s t a n d i g e H e i t e r k e i t und K l a r h e i t i h r e s Gemiits." Her p r o t e c t e d l i f e  (p.76)  a l s o g i v e s h e r a r e s e r v e and r e t i c e n c e  t o w a r d s men w h i c h p r e v e n t s h e r f r o m g i v i n g h e r s e l f up t h o u g h t l e s s l y t o them, and t h u s p r e s e r v e s h e r e m o t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y . Her i n n e r s p i r i t u a l r e s o u r c e s d e v e l o p e d i n t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t a l s o e n a b l e s h e r t o endure and a c c e p t p e r s o n a l t r a g e d y s u c h as h e r supposed  The  It  unrequited love f o r Leontin.  Burgermadchen  i s t h e Burgermadchen's e a r l y u p b r i n g i n g  w h i c h has i n s t i l l e d  i n h e r a deep, q u i e t  spirituality.  L i k e J u l i e she has been b r o u g h t up i n " e i n s t i l l e s o r d e n t l i c h e s Haus" ( p . 1 6 9 ) and i s used t o a q u i e t  circumscribed  d o m e s t i c e x i s t e n c e . U n l i k e J u l i e , hov/ever, she i s n o t s h y  162 and  r e t i c e n t w i t h the o p p o s i t e sex and  thus, the p r i n c e  f i n d s i t easy t o t a k e advantage o f h e r i n n o c e n c e .  It is  t h i s v e r y i n n o c e n c e w h i c h makes her so a t t r a c t i v e  to  the p r i n c e . A f t e r h e r a b d u c t i o n , hov/ever, h e r  god-fearing  u p b r i n g i n g makes i t i m p o s s i b l e f o r h e r t o a c c e p t  her  ov/n b e h a v i o r w h i c h she r e g a r d s as an u n f o r g i v e a b l e s i n . I n t h i s v/ay she d i f f e r s f r o m A n g e l i n a , Rosa and  Marie  v/ho were ( p r e s u m e a b l y ) n o t b r o u g h t up i n a s t r o n g l y r e l i g i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t and who  are thus able to accept  r e c o n c i l e t h e i r b e h a v i o r . The  and  Burgermadchen's sense of  g u i l t i s so s t r o n g , hov/ever, t h a t i t overcomes her C h r i s t i a n c o n v i c t i o n o f God's f o r g i v e n e s s . I t i s t h i s which i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r her  The  obsession  death.  Men  Of a l l the male c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l , V i k t o r and  R u d o l f are. the most c r i p p l e d by t h e i r ov/n t r a g i c  per-  s o n a l i t i e s.  Viktor Although  the o r i g i n of V i l c t o r ' s n e u r o s i s i s not  c l e a r , i t i s a p p a r e n t t h a t i t i s so s e v e r e mines a l l h i s a c t i o n s and He  d e p r i v e s him  that i t deter-  of h i s f r e e w i l l .  s u f f e r s f r o m a s p l i t p e r s o n a l i t y . Thus, he  163 is  e i t h e r w i l d l y e x t r o v e r t e d - e.g. a t t h e dance when he  "mit e i n e r i r o n i s c h e n Wut g e t a n z t  und m u s i z i e r t h a t t e "  (p.70) o r numbly w i t h d r a w n - "er s a h s c h l i c h t , und  t r a u r i g und war v e r l e g e n  still  im G e s p r a c h e . " (p.70) Only  F r i e d r i c h and L e o n t i n r e l i z e t h a t V i k t o r i s n o t , as J u l i e ' s aunt c o n s i d e r s him: " e i n p u d e l n a r r i s c h e r l u s t i g e r Mensch," (p.88) b u t t h a t h i s s p u r t s o f w i l d e x t r o v e r s i o n , are d e s p e r a t e  a t t e m p t s t o r i s e above t h e t r a g e d y  of l i f e  by s a t i r i z i n g i t . He i s u n a b l e t o f r e e l y engage i n l i f e , b u t o n l y t o a d j u s t t o t h e l i m i t a t i o n s imposed by h i s o p p r e s s i v e f e e l i n g o f i s o l a t i o n f r o m i t . Thus, he seeks t o d u l l the p a i n o f l i f e occupation  by b u r y i n g h i m s e l f i n c l o c k - m a k i n g ,  an  e x a c t i n g enough t o f o r c e him t o c o n c e n t r a t e  on  s o m e t h i n g o u t s i d e o f h i s own u n h a p p i n e s s and one w h i c h r e l i e v e s him o f t h e d i s c o m f o r t  o f human c o n t a c t . Only  v/hen he i s a b l e t o b r e a k t h r o u g h h i s i s o l a t i o n - t o make some c o n t a c t w i t h o t h e r human b e i n g s who u n d e r s t a n d h i m as he does i n h i s f r i e n d s h i p w i t h L e o n t i n and F r i e d r i c h does he g a i n some measure o f h a p p i n e s s .  Rudolf The  cause o f R u d o l f ' s  unhappiness i s t r a c e d i n  g r e a t d e t a i l i n t h e n o v e l . I t shows i t s o r i g i n s i n h i s e a r l y c h i l d h o o d and i t s l a t e r development i n him as an  164 adult. R u d o l f ' s f i r s t memory i s o f a t r a u m a t i c n a t u r e "eine g r o s s e E e u e r s b r u n s t "  (p.264) w h i c h d e s t r o y e d h i s  f a t h e r and h i s home - a h o r r i b l e e x p e r i e n c e w h i c h made an i n d e l i b l e i m p r e s s i o n upon h i m and which c o n d i t i o n e d a l l his  l a t e r e x p e r i e n c e . A s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s was t h e memory  o f a boy h i s own age who danced i n f r o n t o f t h i s and l a u g h e d  holocaust  him t o s c o r n . On t h i s n i g h t he a l s o saw h i s  mother f o r t h e l a s t time and went t o l i v e w i t h h i s f o s t e r p a r e n t s . Thus, he l o s e s a l l s o u r c e s  of s e c u r i t y - a t once.  Worst o f a l l , he l o s e s t h e r e a s s u r i n g l o v e o f h i s p a r e n t s t h e most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r i n t h e a d j u s t m e n t of a c h i l d . The  d e s t r u c t i o n o f h i s home g i v e s him an added sense o f  t h e i n s e c u r i t y o f t h e w o r l d around h i m , and t h e s c o r n o f the boy a c o n v i c t i o n o f t h e enmity  o f a l l o t h e r human  beings. T h i s l a c k o f s e c u r i t y and f e e l i n g o f r e j e c t i o n is  i n t e n s i f i e d ' i n h i s new e n v i r o n m e n t . He does n o t r e c e i v e  the reassurance  he needs f r o m h i s "neue, k l e i n e ,  l i c h e und d i c k l i c h e M u t t e r "  wirtschaft-  (p.265) b u t f e e l s r e p e l l e d by  h e r and w i l l n o t k i s s h e r hand. T h i s i n s e c u r i t y i s a p p a r ent i n h i s l a c k o f s o c i a l a d e p t n e s s - "das sogenannte gew i s s e Etwas i n G e s e l l s c h a f t e n " (p. 265)  which f u r t h e r pre-  j u d i c e d o t h e r s a g a i n s t h i m . H i s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s and s e n s i t i v i t y g i v e s him g r e a t i n s i g h t i n t o t h e weaknesses and p r e t e n s i o n s o f o t h e r s , such as the H o f m e i s t e r , who r e s e n t  165 his  h o n e s t assessment o f t h e i r c h a r a c t e r . T h i s f e e l i n g  r e j e c t i o n d r i v e s him fully  deeper i n t o h i m s e l f and  d e v e l o p e d p e r s e c u t i o n complex. He  of  results in a  says t o F r i e d -  rich: I c h wurde dadurch n u r noch immer t i e f s i n n i g e r und e i n s a m e r und t r a u m t e u n a u f h o r l i c h von e i n e r g e h e i men Verschworung a l l e r gegen m i c h , s e l b s t d i c h n i c h t ausgenommen, w e i l du m i t den m e i s t e n im Hause gut s t a n d e s t . (p.265-6) His l a t e r behavior  r e f l e c t s these  e a r l y methods  o f r e s p o n s e . H i s sense o f r e j e c t i o n by the w o r l d him  t o r e s p o n d i n two ways - by a g g r e s s i o n  h i m s e l f a g a i n s t i t ; and  -  causes  defending  by r e v u l s i o n - s e e k i n g s o l i t u d e t o  a v o i d s u c h c o n t a c t s . Thus, v/hen the boy  laughs  at  him  s c o r n f u l l y as h i s home b u r n s , he h u r l s a stone a t V/hen h i s g u a r d i a n s  w i s h t o d i s c i p l i n e him he  defends h i m s e l f a g a i n s t any aggression war  and  him.  desperately  physical attack. Later  this  s e e k s an o u t l e t i n v i o l e n c e - i n h i s g o i n g  i n h i s s h o r t l i v e d u n i n h i b i t e d sensual  H i s e x c u r s i o n s as the  existence.  " b l a c k k n i g h t " are a l s o a macabre  a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e o t h e r p e o p l e ' s a c t i o n s , and, sense, represent  to  in this  an e i g g r e s s i v e a c t .  M o s t l y , however, he r e s p o n d s by c o w e r i n g away f r o m a l l human c o n t a c t s . J u s t as he i s r e p e l l e d by  the  t h o u g h t of k i s s i n g h i s "Vormunderin," so i s he r e p e l l e d by a l l human c o n t a c t s . T h i s w i t h d r a w a l s i n n i g und  e i n s a m " - t h e two  makes him  q u a l i t i e s necessary  "tieffor  166  c r e a - t i v e endeavour, and l a t e r d e v e l o p i n t o h i s d e s i r e t o be an a r t i s t . T h i s same i n s i g h t i s responsible "for h i s success  i n t r e a t i n g t h e group o f e m o t i o n a l l y  disturbed  p e o p l e around h i m i n t h e m o u n t a i n s . T h i s w i t h d r a w a l i s a l s o r e s p o n s i b l e f o r him s e e k i n g s e c l u s i o n as a h e r m i t i n h i s m o u n t a i n r e t r e a t and u l t i m a t e l y i n s e e k i n g s e c l u s i o n i n t h e strange remote l a n d o f magic - E g y p t .  Leontin  Nothing  i s told of Leontin's  childhood  which  would e x p l a i n t h e l a t e r development o f h i s p e r s o n a l i t y . Nevertheless,  l i k e Romana, he has such an i n t e n s e and  s h a r p l y defined p e r s o n a l i t y , i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o imagine him  r e a c t i n g i n any o t h e r way t h a n he does. I n t h i s  sense,  l i k e Romana, he i s c o n d i t i o n e d - l i m i t e d - by t h e n a t u r e o f h i s ov/n p e r s o n a l i t y . L i k e R u d o l f , he i s r e v o l t e d by r e a l i t y .  Unlike  R u d o l f , however, he does n o t s u f f e r from a sense o f r e j e c t i o n by t h e w o r l d .  I n s t e a d , he h i m s e l f r e j e c t s i t be-  cause o f t h e t r i v i a l i t y  o f human b e i n g s  and, more p a r t i c -  u l a r l y , because of the i n c a p a c i t y o f h i s s o c i e t y t o a c t according  t o any c o n s i s t e n t i d e a l i s t i c But  a l s o he r e j e c t s t h e w o r l d  motives. intellectually,  he cannot reject i t e m o t i o n a l l y . He f i n d s h i s o n l y  fulfill-  ment t h r o u g h an u n i n h i b i t e d and u n l i m i t e d enjoyment o f  167 life  itself,  experienced  he i s a b l e t o a c c e p t  as a form o f p o e t r y . Only when  some l i m i t a t i o n s o f h i s freedom i s  he a b l e t o r e s o l v e h i s p r o b l e m - t o r e c o n c i l e h i s h a t r e d o f the p e t t i n e s s o f l i f e and h i s l o v e of l i f e He  itself.  does t h i s by a c c e p t i n g the supremacy o f God  which  m i t i g a t e s h i s d i s g u s t of t h e p r e s e n t by a hope f o r some u l t i m a t e s p i r i t u a l f u l f i l l m e n t . The  comfort  of J u l i e ' s  l o v e a l s o r e l i e v e s t h i s d i s g u s t and more t h a n compens a t e s f o r h i s l o s s o f freedom t h r o u g h  marriage.  Friedrich  F r i e d r i c h emphasizes t h e d e c i s i v e e f f e c t t h e p e r s o n a l i t y - "das  i n n e r e l e b e n " - upon the l i f e  the i n d i v i d u a l . T h i s i n n e r l i f e life  i n t u i t i v e l y - unconsciously  p l a n s he had  of  forms and  of  directs his  - b e l y i n g the  conscious  p r e v i o u s l y made f o r i t . O n l y i n r e t r o s p e c t  does h i s l i f e  r e v e a l i t s own  ordered s t r u c t u r e :  Es r u h r t e i h n , wie da a l l e Wege so genau v o r a u s b e stimmt waren, und wie n a c h h e r a l l e s a n d e r s gekommen war, wie das i n n e r e Leben u b e r a l l d u r c h d r i n g t und, s i c h an k e i n e v o r b e r e c h n e t e n P l a n e k e h r e n d , g l e i c h einem Baume aus f r e i e r , g e h e i m n i s v o l l e r W e r k s t a t t s e i n e A s t e nach a l i e n R i c h t u n g e n h i n s t r e c k t und t r e i b t , und e r s t a l s Ganzes e i n e n P l a n und Ordnung e r w e i s t . (p.126) Thus, F r i e d r i c h ' s o u t e r l i f e his  inner l i f e  i s determined  by  - h i s p e r s o n a l i t y formed e a r l y i n c h i l d h o o d .  F r i e d r i c h ' s deepest impulse  - h i s l o n g i n g f o r the i n e f f a b l e  -  168 is  already present  i n h i s childhood  thought of which f i l l s  experience,  t h e mere  h i m , l a t e r i n l i f e , w i t h an "unbe-  s c h r e i b l i c h e s Heimweh" ( p . 4 8 ) . He c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s memory as " e i n u r a l t e s wehmutig s u s s e s  L i e d " (p.48) -  " u r a l t " because h i s l o n g i n g i s f o r s o m e t h i n g e t e r n a l and therefore age-old-  "wehmutig" because t h e i n e f f a b l e i s  u n a t t a i n a b l e - " s u s s " because the o b j e c t o f t h e l o n g i n g is  so s u b l i m e . The  d e s i r e f o r the i n e f f a b l e t y p i f i e s the i n -  d i v i d u a l who does n o t seek f u l f i l l m e n t i n t h e w o r l d him  around  - i n o t h e r p e o p l e - b u t w i t h i n h i s own s u b j e c t i v e ,  w o r l d - w i t h i n h i m s e l f . Although  F r i e d r i c h g i v e s no i n d i c a t i o n  o f what f a c t o r s i n h i s environment d e v e l o p e d t h i s to l i f e ,  response  he does d e s c r i b e t h e c o n d i t i o n s u n d e r w h i c h  were n o u r i s h e d .  He grew up w i t h i n t h e "grune A b g e s c h i e d e n -  h e i t " - the s o l i t u d e - of nature templative  they  w h i c h encouraged h i s c o n -  s p i r i t and f e d h i s l o v e o f b e a u t y . Thus, i t i s  the n i g h t w h i c h he l o v e s - swarming w i t h sound - b u t purged of the t r i v i a l ,  human sounds o f day. H i s i n n e r l i f e  i s also  s t i m u l a t e d by r e a d i n g , w h i c h d e v e l o p s and i n t e n s i f i e s h i s imagination. This capacity i s l a t e r released through h i s poetry - an attempt t o express his  childhood  velops  h i s longing. I t i s also i n  t h a t h i s s e n s i t i v i t y t o r e l i g i o n f i r s t de-  - he v/eeps v/hen he h e a r s t h e P a s s i o n n a r r a t i v e . T h i s  c a p a c i t i y i s l a t e r developed i n h i s v o c a t i o n t o the r e l i g i o u s  1 69 l i f e w h i c h g r a n t s him  f u l f i l l m e n t by r e p l a c i n g h i s vague  d e s i r e f o r the i n e f f a b l e w i t h a conscious  Chance and  own  God.  Fate  Eichendorff recognizes the i n d i v i d u a l i s not  desire for  t h a t the h a p p i n e s s of  o n l y l i m i t e d by t h e n a t u r e  of h i s  p e r s o n a l i t y - the c h a r a c t e r t r a i t s c o n d i t i o n e d by h i s  h e r e d i t y and  i n f l u e n c e d by h i s immediate e n v i r o n m e n t -  but a l s o by i m p e r s o n a l chance and  f o r c e s o u t s i d e of h i m s e l f - by  fate.  Chance  Chance - the a r b i t r a r y i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p  of  o u t e r e v e n t s - o f t e n a f f e c t s the d e s t i n y of a p e r s o n . does not a f f e c t t h o s e who own  find  It  fulfillment within their  s u b j e c t i v e w o r l d where e x t e r n a l f o r c e s have no  effect.  Thus, chance p l a y s no r o l e i n the development of F a b e r ' s artistic  c a r e e r or i n F r i e d r i c h ' s r e l i g i o u s v o c a t i o n . I t  does, however, a f f e c t t h o s e who  f i n d f u l f i l l m e n t i n the  o u t s i d e wold . I t p a r t i c u l a r l y e f f e c t s Rosa w h o s e - e s t r a n g e 103 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note i n t h i s connection that E i c h e n d o r f f does not d i f f e r e n t i a t e between chance and f a t e u s i n g the terms " Z u f a l l " o r " G e s c h i c k " t o d e s c r i b e e v e n t s s i m i l a r i n nature.  170 merit f r o m F r i e d r i c h and whose a b d u c t i o n depends l a r g e l y on a s e r i e s o f chance  by t h e p r i n c e events.  The r e l a t i o n s h i p o f Rosa and F r i e d r i c h i s p l a g u e d by t h e i r i n a b i l i t y t o meet one a n o t h e r when t h e y most w i s h t o . Thus, when F r i e d r i c h f i r s t a r r i v e s a t t h e residence  and i s most e a g e r t o see Rosa, she i s n o t a t  home a t t h e t i m e he v i s i t s h e r . He l o o k e d  forv/ard t o  s e e i n g h e r so much t h a t i t seems i n c r e d i b l e t o him t h a t she i s n o t t h e r e : "Es war ihm v o r Freude g a r n i c h t e i n g e f a l l e n , dass e r s i e v e r f e h l e n k b n n t e , und e r h a t t e b e i n a h e L u s t z u z i i r n e n , dass s i e i h n n i c h t z u Hause e r w a r t e t h a t t e . " (p.112) Rosa's a b d u c t i o n  i s also d i r e c t l y related to  the f a c t t h a t she i s u n a b l e t o see F r i e d r i c h when she l o n g s f o r him. F r i e d r i c h has n o t v i s i t e d h e r s i n c e t h e e v e n i n g she had p r o m i s e d t o meet him, but had gone t o the m i n i s t e r ' s b a l l i n t h e company o f t h e p r i n c e (p.172) On t h e e v e n i n g she i s t o a t t e n d h e l d by Romana, she d e c i d e s beg h i s f o r g i v e n e s s feminine  instead.  t h e chamois hunt  she must see F r i e d r i c h and  even i f she has t o s a c r i f i c e h e r  r e t i c e n c e t o do s o . She r u s h e s t o h i s house, b u t  chance p r e v e n t s h e r from s e e i n g him: "Aber das U n g l u c k w o l l t e , dass er eben n i c h t zu Hause war." (p.198) She r u s h e d away, f e a r f u l o f b e i n g alone.  But a g a i n  recognized  and o f b e i n g  chance ( f a t e ) i n t e r v e n e s :  "Aber das  S c h i c k war i n s e i n e r t e u f l i s c h e n Laurie." (p.199)  Ge~  Around  171 t h e c o r n e r , d i r e c t l y i n f r o n t o f h e r she sees t h e p r i n c e who o f f e r s t o accompany h e r home. When t h e y a r r i v e a t h e r home he a s k s f o r a k i s s . She a c q u i e s e s  i n c o n f u s i o n . As  he k i s s e s , h e r , however, a n o t h e r chance event o c c u r s . A man c h a r g e s towards t h e p r i n c e and the l a t t e r q u i c k l y seeks refuge den  i n a neighbouring  house: "Es war E r i e d r i c h ,  d e r Z u f a l l eben h i e r v o r b e i g e f u h r t h a t t e . "  He does n o t r e c o g n i z e  (p.199)  the p r i n c e , but i s f i l l e d w i t h the  " w i l d e s t e n Gedanken" about Rosa. It  i s a l s o p a r t i a l l y c o i n c i d e n t a l t h a t Rosa  succumbed t o t h e p r i n c e a t t h i s moment. Because o f h e r shame i n b e i n g d i s c o v e r e d unaccompanied a t n i g h t , she i s i n a s t a t e o f c o n f u s i o n . The p r i n c e ' s k i n d l i n e s s i n o v e r l o o k i n g h e r i n d i s c r e t i o n f i l l s h e r w i t h g r a t i t u d e : "Noch niemals  war e r i h r so b e s c h e i d e n ,  so g u t , so schon und  l i e b e n s w t i r d i g vorgekommen. " (p. 199)  This gracious  tude i n t e n s i f i e s t h e e f f e c t o f h i s k i s s :  atti-  "und s e i n Kuss  b r a n n t e d i e ganze Nacht v e r f i i h r e r i s c h a u f i h r e n schonen Lippen  fort."  (p.199)  During r o l e i n Rosa's  t h e chamois hunt chance p l a y s a l a r g e  abduction:  "Rosa w a r , a l s s i c h Tag und Jagd z u Ende n e i g t e n , von Romana und a l l e r Begieitung w i e d u r c h Z u f a l l v e r l a s s e n warden." (p.206) The  p r i n c e o b s e r v e s h e r c o n s t a n t l y and e n c o u n t e r s h e r  r e p e a t e d l y . F i n a l l y she d e c i d e s  t o f l e e h i m . As she r u n s  172 away she by chance meets F r i e d r i c h . T h i s f r i g h t e n s h e r as i t r e m i n d s h e r o f a r e c e n t dream i n w h i c h she had met  F r i e d r i c h dressed  landscape.  as a k n i g h t i n a s i m i l a r  barren  She r u s h e s down the m o u n t a i n and, i n h e r con-  fusion, f a l l s  i n t o t h e arms o f t h e p r i n c e who, a g a i n by  chance, i s s i t t i n g below. The combined e f f e c t o f h e r estrangement f r o m F r i e d r i c h , t h e s t r a n g e  song she h e a r s  i n t h e d i s t a n c e and t h e t u r b u l e n t r e s u r g i n g memories o f F r i e d r i c h move h e r d e e p l y .  She c o n f i d e s h e r a n g u i s h t o  the p r i n c e and y i e l d s t o t h e r e a s s u r a n c e  o f h i s embraces.  When t h e p r i n c e a r r i v e s w i t h h e r a t h i s c a s t l e she i s a l r e a d y so i n f l u e n c e d by h i m t h r o u g h t h i s s e r i e s o f chance e v e n t s t h a t she f o l l o w s h i m "halb gezwungen und h a l b v e r f i i h r t . " (p. 207)  Fate  I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e chance e v e n t s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e the l i v e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h i s n o v e l , t h e r e a r e a l s o some c h a r a c t e r s who, i n t h e m s e l v e s , seem t o e x e r t some f a t a l i n f l u e n c e o v e r o t h e r s . Endowed v/ith a p p a r e n t l y  inex-  p l i c a b l e powers they a p p e a r a s means t h r o u g h w h i c h f a t e e x presses  itself.  I n t h i s n o v e l t h e y appear i n two forms -  the pagan c h a r a c t e r s whose a c t i o n s appear u n m o t i v a t e d the Z i g e u n e r i n - and the C h r i s t i a n c h a r a c t e r s whose a c t i o n s  173 are motivated weisse  by m o r a l o r s p i r i t u a l p r e c e p t s - " d i e  F r a u " and The  Rudolf.  Z i g e u n e r i n appears t o have a s u p e r n a t u r a l  power o f f o r e k n o w l e d g e .  She a p p e a r s one  day when the  young R u d o l f i s t a l k i n g w i t h A n g e l i n a i n the g a r d e n aid demands t o t e l l t h e i r f o r t u n e . A young man, p a s s e s by and  g r e e t s them p o l i t e l y . The  a  traveller,  gypsy s a y s :  " E i n e s von euch d r e i e n w i r d den  anderen ermorden." (p.266)  R u d o l f r e c o g n i z e s the young man  as the c h i l d v/ho danced  up and  down and mocked him as h i s home was  consumed  by"°  f i r e . H i s o l d anger i s r e k i n d l e d . Whether o r n o t the g y p s y ' s powers a r e meant t o be t r u l y s u p e r n a t u r a l , h e r p r o p h e c y n e v e r t h e l e s s has profound  e f f e c t upon R u d o l f . A l r e a d y obsessed  with  a  feel-  i n g s o f p e r s e c u t i o n , he i s f u r t h e r tormented by t h e  con-  v i c t i o n of God's h a t r e d f o r him: " i c h b l i e b e a l l e i n i n dem g r o s s e n G a r t e n und glaub.te f e s t nun a l s H o r d e r a u c h s o g a r von G o t t v e r l a s s e n zu s e i n ; n i e m a l s f u h l t e i c h mich so f i n s t e r und so l e e r . " (p.266) R u d o l f meets t h i s f a t e d enemy three-more t i m e s . As he escapes w i t h A n g e l i n a he sees him i n V e n i c e as g l i d e s s i l e n t l y p a s t i n the n e x t b o a t . A l t h o u g h  he  Angelina  i s a s l e e p , she senses h i s n e a r n e s s w i t h f o r e b o d i n g : so wachte doch A n g e l i n a i n demselben A u g e n b l i c k von s e l b e r auf und s a g t e m i r e r s c h r o c k e n , es habe i h r etwas F u r c h t e r l i c h e s getraurut. (p.270-271 )  174 T h i s man i s t h e same p e r s o n who a b d u c t s a f t e r she has borne R u d o l f a c h i l d  Angelina  and she i s l i v i n g  alone  i n t h e c o u n t r y . When R u d o l f v i s i t s h e r and d i s c o v e r s t h i s he r e c o g n i z e s t h e o l d woman who l o o k s a f t e r t h e house as the Z i g e u n e r i n . A n g e l i n a had l e f t a heap o f g o l d  behind:  D i e A l t e t a n z t e u n t e n m i t w i d r i g v o r Staunen und G i e r v e r z e r r t e n Gebarden w i e e i n e Hexe z w i s c h e n dem G o l d r e g e n herum, und i c h g l a u b t e da a u f einmal i n i h r e n Zugen d i e s e l b e Z i g e u n e r i n z u e r k e n n e n , d i e m i r damals an dem G a r t e n g i t t e r p r o p h e z e i t h a t t e . I c h e l i t e z u i h r h i n a b , aber s i e h a t t e s i c h b e r e i t s m i t dem Golde v e r l o r e n . (p.273) R u d o l f l o a d s h i s p i s t o l s and d e c i d e s t o pursue A n g e l i n a ^ , and h e r l o v e r , d e t e r m i n e d  t o k i l l h i m . But he cannot  find  them and g i v e s up t h e p u r s u i t . In h i s f r u s t r a t i o n he t u r n s t o a l i f e o f t r i v i a l and  s e n s u a l p l e a s u r e s . One t i m e as he i s g a m b l i n g  the l a s t  o f h i s money i n a game o f P h a r o , he r e c o g n i z e s h i s enemy i n the person  of the  croupier  who c r i e s  " v e r l o r e n " as  he l o s e s t h e game. He l u n g e s towards h i m b u t t h e man e s capes. Rudolf then  j o i n s a group o f g y p s i e s and, among  them, r e c o g n i z e s t h e o l d Z i g e u n e r i n . She r e a d s h i s palm and  says: "Es i s t hoch an d e r Z e i t , d e r E e i n d i s t n i c h t mehr w e i t , h i i t e d i c h , h i i t e d i c h ! " (p.276) With  t h e o t h e r s he a t t e n d s a c e l e b r a t i o n a t t h e  c a s t l e of a r i c h c o u n t . Here he d i s g u i s e s h i m s e l f i n t h e costume of a b l a c k k n i g h t . A n g e l i n a , t h e l a d y of t h e house,  175 m i s t a k e s him f o r h e r husband ( R u d o l f ' s enemy) and to  R u d o l f . Suddenly the husband a p p e a r s ,  i d e n t i c a l costume. The  mask f a l l s  dressed  speaks i n an  from h i s f a c e and  Ru-  d o l f r e c o g n i z e s him. He  a t t a c k s R u d o l f w i t h a sword  i n his confusion, f a l l s  i n t o R u d o l f ' s o u t s t r e t c h e d dagger,  and  falls  dead. The The  prophecy i s f u l f i l l e d .  two C h r i s t i a n forms o f f a t e a r e  by R u d o l f , who,  but,  as the b l a c k k n i g h t , may  suggested  represent  the  O l d Testament c o n c e p t i o n o f a v e n g e f u l d e i t y and by "weisse New  F r a u " ( A n g e l i n a ) who  Testament c o n c e p t i o n o f  may  represent the  the  redemptive  God.  l i k e the Z i g e u n e r i n , R u d o l f ' s c h a r a c t e r a l s o assumes s u p e r n a t u r a l a s p e c t s . I n h i s m o u n t a i n r e f u g e  even  the sounds o f n a t u r e r e f l e c t the i n s i s t e n t n a t u r e o f f a t e : ein. s e l t s a m e s Sausen, das n i c h t vom Walde herzukommen s c h i e n , s o n d e r n wie f e i n e r W e l l e n s c h l a g t o n t e , b r a u s t e d i e ganze Nacht h i n d u r c h . (p.257) It  i s i n h i s a p p e a r a n c e s as the b l a c k k n i g h t , however,  that t h i s aspect  o f h i s c h a r a c t e r i s most f r e q u e n t l y ex-  pressed. H i s appearances are motivated  by an extreme  m o r a l s e v e r i t y , e s p e c i a l l y i n h i s a t t i t u d e t o l o v e . He d e l i g h t s i n showing' the u n c o m p r o m i s i n g n a t u r e m o r a l i t y by a p p e a r i n g as  "der Tod von B a s e l "  of C h r i s t i a n  s o l e m n l y as the b l a c k k n i g h t - even (p.115):  Die G e s t a l t war hoch und s c h l a n k , s e i n Warns r e i c h mit G o l d , d e r Hut m i t hohen F e d e r n geschmiickt, d i e ganze P r a c h t doch so u r a l t , fremd und f a s t g e s p e n s t i s c h ,  176 dass jedera u n h e i m l i c h zumute ward, an dem i i b e r s t r e i f t e . - (p.113)  er v o r -  By f l i r t i n g w i t h the g i r l s i n t h i s a t t i r e he makes them aware of the f r i v o l i t y  o f t h e i r own  behavior  and  the  t r a n s i e n c e of l o v e : E r war i i b r i g e n s g a l a n t und w u s s t e zu l e b e n . E r i e d r i c h sah i h n f a s t mit a l i e n Schonen b u h l e n . Doch a l l e machten s i c h g l e i c h n a c h den e r s t e n Wort en s c h n e l l w i e d e r von ihm l o s , denn u n t e r den S p i t z e n d e r R i t t e r a r m e l l a n g t e n d i e Knochenhande e i n e s TotengeV r i p p e s h e r v o r . (p.113) Such f r i v o l o u s l o v e i s s i n f u l and and  r e l a t e d t o the  t o d e a t h , as E r i e d r i c h e x p l a i n s t o  devil  Marie:  Wie der schwarze H i t t e r heute auf dem B a l l e , t r i t t u b e r a l l e i n f r e i e r , w i l d e r Gast ungeladeii i n das F e s t . E r 1 s t so l u s t i g aufgeschmiickt und e i n r t i s t i g e r T a n z e r , aber s e i n e Augen s i n d l e e r und h o h l und s e i n e Hand.e t o t k a l t , und du musst s t e r b e n , wenn e r d i c h i n d i e Arme nimmt, denn d e i n B u h l e i s t der T e u f e l . (p.117) H i s most s e r i o u s a c t , however, i s h i s r e s p o n s i bility  f o r the d e a t h of l e o n t i n ' s m i s t r e s s . T a k i n g advan-  t a g e of h i s uncanny p h y s i c a l r e s e m b l a n c e t o L e o n t i n , a p p e a r s t o h e r and  a d v i s e s her  he  " l i e b e r G o t t a l s d i e Manner  zu l i e b e n . " . (p.255) When t h e g i r l l a t e r sees b o t h o f them together,  she  f a i n t s and  ever, i s impenitent his  a t t i t u d e . He  and  says:  how-  does not r e g r e t the h a r s h n e s s of "Besser t o t a l s e i n e Hure. " (p.  In t h i s sense, although i d e a l moral standard,  l a t e r d i e s of shock. R u d o l f ,  h i s a t t i t u d e i s motivated  by  h i s a c t i o n s can be c o n s i d e r e d  255)  an those  of a m a l e v o l e n t r a t h e r t h a n a b e n e f i c i a l form of f a t e .  1 7 7  "Die w e i s s e E r a u " a l s o seems endowed w i t h s u p e r n a t u r a l powers. She appears scene  almost m i r a c u l o u s l y a t the  of f i r e s : S i e i s t im S t i l l e n s e h r w o h l t a t i g , und, s e l t s a m genug, b e i Tag und b e i N a c h t , wo immer e i n Eeuer a u s b r i c h t , s o g l e i c h b e i der Hand, wobei s i e dann d i e armen V e r u n g l u c k t e n mit a n s e h n l i c h e n Suminen u n t e r s t t i t z t . (p.95)  The  p e a s a n t s a t t r i b u t e t o h e r the power t o e x t i n g u i s h  fire:  D i e B a u e r n g l a u b e n nun ganz z u v e r s i c h t l i c h , s o b a l d s i e nur e r s c h e i n t , miisse das Eeuer s i c h l e g e n , wie beim A x i b l i c k e i n e r H e i l i g e n . (p. 9 5 ) ' The mystery w i t h w h i c h she s u r r o u n d s h e r l i f e adds t o t h i s image w h i c h has been c r e a t e d around  her:  t i b r i g e n s empfangt und e r w i d e r t s i e k e i n e Besuche, und niemand' w e i s s e i g e n t l i c h r e c h t , wie s i e h e i s s t und woher s i e gekommen; denn s i e s e l b e r s p r i c h t n i e mals v o n i h r e m v e r g a n g e n e n l e b e n . ( p . 9 5 ) Because h e r a c t i o n s a r e m o t i v a t e d by a d e s i r e t o h e l p - t o redeem - r a t h e r t h a n , l i k e R u d o l f - t o d e s t r o y and t o condemn, she can be s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t a b e n e f i c i a l of  form  fate. I t i s , p e r h a p s , n o t n e c e s s a r y t o e n q u i r e whether  E i c h e n d o r f f intended these c h a r a c t e r s to possess  super-  n a t u r a l a t t r i b u t e s and t o be e x p r e s s i o n s o f some f o r c e o f f a t e i n the u n i v e r s e . The c h a r a c t e r s who  important f a c t i s that those  a c c e p t t h e s e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s as such a r e i n -  f l u e n c e d and p e r m a n e n t l y  a f f e c t e d by them.  178 CONCLUSION  I n Ahnung und  Gegenwart E i c h e n d o r f f  attempts  t o p r o v i d e a p i c t u r e o f Germany d u r i n g the N a p o l e o n i c "jene s e l t s a m e , g e w i t t e r s c h w i i l e Z e i t d e r E r w a r t u n g , 104 s u c h t und  Schmerzen. "  Y/hat he a c t u a l l y  Sehn-  for all'time.  P o r E i c h e n d o r f f ' s c h a r a c t e r s a r e not mere r o m a n t i c 105 less allegorical figures,  r e c o g n i z a b l e human b e i n g s whose p e r s o n a l i t i e s are  to determine  "types",  "but a wide v a r i e t y  d e s c r i b e d . As s u c h , t h e y can be used as  -  provides,-Jiow-  ever, i s a study of a s o c i e t y which i s v a l i d  still  war  of  minutely  "case s t u d i e s "  i n what ways human b e i n g s have sought h a p p i -  n e s s i n the p a s t and w i l l  c o n t i n u e t o seek i t .  A s t u d y of t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s r e v e a l s t h a t E i c h e n d o r f f c o n s i d e r s o r d e r and harmony t o be r e q u i s i t e s happiness.  T h i s harmony can o n l y be a t t a i n e d by  d i n a t i n g one's l i f e  of  subor-  t o the f o r c e s of m o r a l i t y and  religion.  T h i s harmony i s an unassuming q u a l i t y b e s t n u r t u r e d i n a n a t u r a l environment. E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s the s o c i e t y o f h i s t i m e in  as much d e t a i l as he does h i s human b e i n g s . The  s o c i e t y , r e p r e s e n t e d by the a r t i f i c i a l is  life  u n s t a b l e and v a c i l l a t i n g beca\ise i t has  urban  o f the c o u r t , lost  the  104 E i c h e n d o r f f i n a l e t t e r t o Fcuque, (H.K.A., X I I , 9 ) 105  C f . R i l e y ' s r a t h e r i r r e s p o n s i b l e c r i t i c i s m : Thomas A. R i l e y , "An a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f E i c h e n d o r f f ' s Ahnung und Gegenwart," MLR, LIV ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 204-13.  179 t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l and politically  r e l i g i o u s values. I t i s unstable  because i t l a c k s the i d e a l i s m t o u n i t e  itself  i n a c o n s i s t e n t e f f o r t t o oppose N a p o l e o n . I t i s u n s t a b l e m o r a l l y because i t condones p r o m i s c u i t y and the  s a n c t i t y of marriage.  thus  In order to reform  threatens  these  ills  E i c h e n d o r f f a d v o c a t e s a r e t u r n t o " a l t d e u t s c h e Tugend" t r a d i t i o n a l m o r a l i t y and is  realistic  r e l i g i o n . However, E i c h e n d o r f f  enough t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e s e  ills  be combatted i n d i r e c t l y . I n t h i s c y n i c a l age to  reform  can  any  only  attempt  s o c i e t y d i r e c t l y by a r e v i v a l of " C h r i s t i a n -—;  knighthood"  i s doomed t o f a i l u r e . Thus, F r i e d r i c h  a monastery i n order to reform  enters  society indirectly  p r a y e r . As a c o n t r a s t t o the c o u r t s o c i e t y and  through  as  an  example o f the i d e a l s o c i e t y E i c h e n d o r f f d e s c r i b e s s t a b l e unassuming r u r a l s o c i e t y w h i c h has  found peace  h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h the p r a c t i c e o f m o r a l i t y and "Altdeutsche  the  religion.  Tugend" ~ C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y  r e l i g i o n - a r e a l s o the o n l y f o r c e s which can  do  not p o s s e s s t h e s e v i r t u e s l e a d d i s o r d e r e d l i v e s and  and  They can o n l y f l e e l i f e  V i k t o r ) or d i e , (Romana, E r w i n and  and a t t a i n some measure of h a p p i n e s s  M a r i e , and  Rosa). In s t i l l  even-  (Rudolf  the Burgermadchen).  Through t h e s e v i r t u e s o t h e r s are a b l e t o s a l v a g e lives  and  restore  o r d e r w i t h i n the i n d i v i d u a l . Those i n d i v i d u a l s who  t u a l l y s h a t t e r on l i f e .  and  their  (Angelina,  o t h e r s t h e s e v i r t u e s were  • developed ity  180  e a r l y i n l i f e and r e p r e s e n t permanent p e r s o n a l -  traits.  These p e r s o n s a r e t h e h a p p i e s t o f a l l because  t h e y have a l w a y s e x p e r i e n c e d peace and harmony w i t h i n t h e m s e l v e s . They a r e s e c u r e w i t h i n and a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d m i s f o r t u n e s w h i c h may be imposed upon them by t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d . ( F r i e d r i c h and J u l i e ) E i c h e n d o r f f shows t h a t human b e i n g s seek h a p p i n e s s i n many ways. Men and"wornen d i f f e r i n the ways i n w h i c h t h e y seek h a p p i n e s s . Women s e e k c i t p r i m a r i l y love. I f this f a i l s ,  t h e i r unhappiness  may be m i t i g a t e d  by t h e p r a c t i c e of r e l i g i o n b u t i t w i l l n e v e r for  through  compensate  t h e l o v e t h e y have l o s t . On t h e o t h e r hand, men seek  l o v e o n l y as a s e c o n d a r y  s o u r c e o f h a p p i n e s s . They  h a p p i n e s s p r i m a r i l y t h r o u g h some a c t i v i t y w h i c h lated to l i f e  seek  i s re-  i n g e n e r a l - i n the p r a c t i c a l world of  p o l i t i c s o r w a r f a r e o r i n t h e i d e a l i s t i c v/orld o f a r t o r religion. Although E i c h e n d o r f f b e l i e v e s that the i n d i v i d u a l can o n l y a c h i e v e h a p p i n e s s t h r o u g h t h e p r a c t i c e of  m o r a l i t y and r e l i g i o n he i s n o t n a i v e enough t o s u g g e s t  t h a t everyone  i s c a p a b l e o f e x e r c i s i n g t h e s e v i r t u e s . He  r e a l i z e s t h a t the happiness and d e t e r m i n e d  of a l l  individuals i s limited  i n t e r n a l l y - by t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e  i n d i v u d u a l formed e a r l y i n l i f e , by t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f h e r e d i t y and e n v i r o n m e n t ,  and e x t e r n a l l y - by chance and  181 fate. E i c h e n d o r f f a l s o shows t h a t h a p p i n e s s  can be  a t t a i n e d b o t h i n . t h e a c t i v e and i n t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e Thus, h a p p i n e s s is  can be o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e ,  life  as i t  f o r J u l i e and L e o n t i n ; o r t h r o u g h t h e r e l i g i o u s  life,  as i t i s f o r F r i e d r i c h . F r i e d r i c h , hov/ever, human h a p p i n e s s . impervious  represents the i d e a l of  He i s s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c o n t e m p l a t i v e ,  t o t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d , who seeks  fulfillment  o n l y t h r o u g h h i s own r e s o u r c e s . T h i s f r e e s him f r o m dependence upon o t h e r human b e i n g s , so v a c i l l a t i n g i n n a t u r e , and p e r m i t s him t o a c h i e v e u n i o n w i t h God, who is  u n c h a n g i n g and e t e r n a l . I n t h i s sense, t h e h a p p i n e s s  o f t h e c o n t e m p l a t i v e c a n be s a i d t o be s u p e r i o r t o t h a t o f o t h e r s because i t i s more s t a b l e and s e c u r e .  182 BIBLIOGRAPHY  E i c h e n d o r f f , J o s e p h P r e i h e r r von. Neue Gesamtausgabe d e r Werke und S c h r i f t e n .in 4 Banden, e d . Gerhard Baumann. 4 v o l s . S t u t t g a r t , J.G. C o t t a , 1 9 4 7 - 5 8 . . '.•  S&ntllche  Werke, H i s t . - k r i t .  A r n i m , Achim von. Aurora:  Ausg. Bd. 3,10,12,13. Regensburg, 1908-62',  Werke, e d . R e i n h o l d  S t e i g . L e i p z i g , n.d.  E i c h e n d o r f f Almanach. Bd. 13-24, 1 9 5 3 - 6 4 .  B i a n c h i , Lorenzo. I t a l i e n i n Eichendorffs Dichtung; Untersuchung. Bologna, 1 9 3 7 .  eine  B o r c h e r d t , Hans H e i n r i c h . P e r Roman d e r G o e t h e z e i t . Urach, 1 9 4 9 . D a r a k o f f , J u l i u s T o d o r o f f . E i c h e n d o r f f s Jugendroman "Ahnung und Gegenwart." D i s s . , V i e n n a , 1 9 4 2 . Hagelstange, Rudolf. Huldigung; Droste, E i c h e n d o r f f , Wiesbaden, 1 9 6 0 .  Schiller. <{  H a r d e n b e r g , F r i e d r i c h v o n . N o v a l i s ' Werke. ed. Hermann F r i e d e m a n n . 2 v o l s . , B e r l i n , n.d. H e i n z e l m a n n , J a c o b H a r o l d . The i n f l u e n c e o f t h e German V o l k s l i e d on E i c h e n d o r f f s l y r i c , l e i p z i g , 1 9 1 0 . Huch, R i c a r d a . B l i A t e z e i t d e r Romantik. L e i p z i g ,  1920.  Jahn, G i s e l a . Studien zu E i c h e n d o r f f s P r o s a s t i l . L e i p z i g ,  1937c  K e l l e r , O t t o , E i c h e n d o r f f s K r i t i k d e r Romantik. D i s s . , Zurich, 1954. K i l l y , W a l t h e r . "Der Roman a l s r o m a n t i s c h e s Buch; E i c h e n d o r f f s "Ahnung und Gegenwart." I n h i s W i r k l i c h k e i t und Kunstcharakter. Munich, 1 9 6 3 . K o h l e r , W i l l i b a l d . J o s e p h v o n E i c h e n d o r f f . Augsburg, 1 9 5 7 . K o r f f , H.A. G e i s t d e r G o e t h e z e i t .  5 v o l s . L e i p z i g , 1959-62*  Kunz, J o s e f . E i c h e n d o r f f ; Hohepunkt und K r i s e d e r S p a t romantik. Oberursel, 1 9 5 1 . Meyer, Hermann. D e r S o n d e r l i n g Munich, 1 9 6 3 .  i n der deutschen  Dichtung.  183 Mobus, G e r h a r d . Der D i c h t u n g J o s e p h von  andere E i c h e n d o r f f ; zur Deutung E i c h e n d o r f f s . 0 s n a b r u c k , 1960.  P e u c k e r t , W i l l E r i c h . Der unbekannte E i c h e n d o r f f ; Schwarmen z u r Bewahrung. M u n i c h , 1958.  vom  Radner, L a u r e n c e R. "The g a r d e n symbol i n Ahnung und genwart , " MLQ_, XXI ( 1 9 6 0 ) , 253-60. Rehm, W a l t h e r . J a c o b B u r c k a r d t und E i c h e n d o r f f . i . B. , 1960. _. Spate S t u d i e n . B e r n , 1964.  der  Ge-  Freiburg  Requadt, P a u l . " E i c h e n d o r f f s Ahnung und Gegenwart," Der P e u t s c h u n t e r r i c h t , H e f t 2 ( 1 9 5 5 ) , 79-92. Riepe, C h r i s t i a n . Eichendorffs B e r l i n , 1941.  Menschengestaltung.  R i l e y , Thomas A. "An a l l e g o r i c a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of E i c h e n d o r f f s Ahnung und Gegenwart," MLR, LIV ( 1 9 5 9 ) , 204-213. . " E i c h e n d o r f f und S c h i l l e r : the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of a p a r a g r a p h i n Ahnung und Gegenwart," M o n a t s h e f t e , (March 1958), 119-128. ."Joseph G o r r e s und d i e A l l e g o r i e i n Ahnung und Gegenwart," A u r o r a , XXI ( 1 9 6 1 ) , 57-63. ."Wann wurde 'Ahnung und Gegenwart' v o l l e n d e t ? " A u r o r a , XIX ( 1 9 5 4 ) , 65-67. S c h l e g e l , F r i e d r i c h . Review of Adam M u l l e r ' s " V o r l e s u n g e n i i b e r d i e d e u t s c h e W i s s e n s c h a f t und L i t e r a t u r , " H e i d e l b e r g i s c h e J a h r b i i c h e r , (1808), 418. S c h n e i d e r , R e i n h o l d . " E i c h e n d o r f f : s e i n e Ahnung und u n s e r e Gegenwart." I n Akademie der W i s s e n s c h a f t e n und L i t e r a t u r , M a i n z , K l a s s e der L i t e r a t u r . Abhandlungen, ( 1 9 5 1 - 5 5 ) , 1 4 9 - 5 8 . Schopenhauer, A r t h u r . Wiesbaden, 1949.  Samt1iche Werke, ed. A r t h u r H u b s c h e r .  S t o c k l e i n , P a u l . E i c h e n d o r f f h e u t e ; Stimmen der F o r s c h u n g m i t e i n e r B i b l i o g r a p h i e . M u n i c h , 1960. . J o s e p h von E i c h e n d o r f f i n SelJ)st^zeugnissen und B i l d d o k u m e n t a t i o n . R e i n b e k b e i Hamburg, 1963. S t r i c h , F r i t z . D i c h t u n g und  Z i v i l i z a t i o n . Munich,  1928.  Tamm, E m i l . Die Bedeutung des Romans "Ahnung und Gegenwart" f u r E i c h e n d o r f f s g e i s t i g e E n t w i c k J u n g . D i s s . , Hamburg, 1924. Tieck,-Ludwig, Franz Sternbalds  Wanderungen. S t u t t g a r t ,  1966.  184 W e i c h b e r g e r , K o n r a d . Untersuchungen zu E i c h e n d o r f f s Roman "Ahnung und Gegenwart." D i s s . , J e n a , 1 9 0 1 . V/eihe, A m a l i e . Der junge E i c h e n d o r f f und M o v a l i s ' N a t u r pantheismus. B e r l i n , 1 9 3 9 .  

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