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Analysis of participants in rural adult education Goard, Dean Sinclair 1968

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ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPANTS IN RURAL A D U L T EDUCATION  by  D E A N SINCLAIR GOARD B. Ed.:, University of British Columbia, 1963  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of Education (Adult Education)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required .standard  -fhlE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968  In  presenting  advanced  Library  agree  this  degree  shall  that  purposes  make  the  it  permission  may  freely  for  understood  gain  shall  by  not  the  that  be  fulfilment  British  available  Head  allowed  Columbia  for  of  my  of  the  Columbia,  reference  copying  copying  nf  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8. Canada  of  extensive  is  financial  partial  University  granted  It  Date  in  be  tatives.  Department  at  thesis  of  this  Department  or  without  requirements  I  agree  and  study.  thesis  or  publication  my w r i t t e n  by  of  for  that  I  an  the  further  for  scholarly  his  represen-  this  thesis  permission.  for  i  ABSTRACT  M o s t r e s e a r c h on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d u l t e d u c a t i o n h a s  described  p a r t i c i p a n t s u s i n g s t a t i c v a r i a b l e s , h o w e v e r , i t has been s u g g e s t e d that d y n a m i c f a c t o r s w h i c h d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n the i n d i v i d u a l and organization have m o r e potential value.  the  T h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e d b o t h t y p e s of  v a r i a b l e s w h e n a n a l y z i n g the f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult education i n a r u r a l Canadian setting. The o f 1967,  data f o r t h i s study w e r e c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the s u m m e r months  w h e n i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o m p l e t e d w i t h 881 h o u s e h o l d h e a d s i n s i x r u r a l  r e g i o n s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a .  The  126 r e s p o n d e n t s who  were classified  p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d a n e q u a l n u m b e r of r a n d o m l y d r a w n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p a r e d u s i n g b o t h s t a t i c and d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s .  The  as  were  distributions within  the g r o u p s w e r e t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s u s i n g t h e c h i s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c w h i l e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e indicated by c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . T o  remove  t h e e f f e c t s of t h e v a r i a b l e s of age a n d e d u c a t i o n f r o m t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g b e t w e e n the two  g r o u p s a s e c o n d s a m p l e of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s  the p a r t i c i p a n t s on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s .  The  new  was  matched with  groups w e r e then compared using  t h e s t a t i c and d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s on w h i c h t h e o r i g i n a l g r o u p s h a d  differed  significantly. The  f i r s t and  e n c e s b e t w e e n the two  second hypotheses which proposed significant d i f f e r -  g r o u p s w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n s t a t i c and d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s ,  w e r e t e n t a t i v e l y a c c e p t e d w h e n t h e o r i g i n a l s a m p l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e s h o w n t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t h i r t e e n s t a t i c a n d dynamic variables.  The  eight  t h i r d hypothesis which proposed differences between  v o c a t i o n a l and n o n - v o c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s was  only p a r t i a l l y a c c e p t e d as the  g r o u p s d i f f e r e d on t h e v a r i a b l e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e a n d The  non-  two  income.  f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to the f i r s t two h y p o t h e s e s w e r e m o d i f i e d  w h e n t h e m a t c h e d g r o u p s w e r e s h o w n t o d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on o n l y f i v e s t a t i c and two d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s .  On t h e s e v a r i a b l e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d b e t t e r  j o b t r a i n i n g a n d b e t t e r j o b s , f e w e r but b e t t e r e d u c a t e d c h i l d r e n , a n d g r e a t e r f o r m a l  ii  social participation. They also reported a greater felt need for further education and stated more willingness to give up sparetime for this education. A general conclusion was proposed which suggested that the participants exhibited a more favourable attitude to education than did the nonparticipants. But this conclusion is tentative as the findings of the study emphasize both the need for further research with dynamic variables and the control of age and education variables when comparing participants and nonparticipants.  iii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS PAGE  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  Statement of Problem Hypotheses Limitations Definiton of Terms REVIEW OF T H E L I T E R A T U R E Static Factors Related to Participation Dynamic Factors Related to Participation CHAPTER TWO  T H E STUDY  The Study Areas Rural British Columbians Sampling Procedure Instruments Data Processing Data Analysis CHAPTER T H R E E  1 2 2 3 3 4 4 6 7 7 11 12 12 14 14  CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS  STATIC FACTORS Personal Characteristics  16 16 16  Educational Achievement Formal Training Patterns Occupational Variables Locality Variables ATTITUDES T O CHANGE  20 24 30 38 45  SUMMARY  48  CHAPTER FOUR  ANALYSIS OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS . .  Matching Procedure Findings Significant Variables Summary  51 51 52 55 65  iv  PAGE CHAPTER FIVE  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Summary Conclusions Discussion Implications  66 66 67 68 69  BIBLIOGRAPHY  71  APPENDIX A  74  APPENDIX B  84  LIST OF TABLES PAGE Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Sex  18  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status  18  III  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Age  19  IV  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Years of Schooling Completed  I II  V  VI  VII  vni  IX  X  XI  XII  XIII  XIV  XV  :21  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Education of Wife  23  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Education of Children "  25  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Education of Father  26  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Occupational Prestige of Formal Training  28  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Occupational Prestige of Wife's Formal Training  29  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Prestige of Father's Formal Training  31  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Farmer and Non-Farmer Classifications  33  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Prestige of Present Occupation  34  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Job Satisfaction Scores  36  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Number of Years in Present Occupation 37 Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Income from Present Occupation  39  VI  PAGE XVI  XVII  XVIII  XIX  XX  XXI  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Years Lived i n Locality  41  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Mean Distance to Service Centers  42  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Level of L i v i n g Scores  44  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Social Participation Scores  46  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Responses to "Would you like to take some further education or training 7'  49  Percentage Distribution of Respondents in the Matched Samples by Age and Education Classifications  53  XXII  F Values for Analysis of Variance of Twenty Variables  54  XXIII  Mean Number of Children by Respondent Age and Education Classifications Educational Achievement of Children who Have Left School by Respondent Age and Education Classification  XXIV  XXV  XXVI  XXVII  XXVHI  XXIX  56 57  Mean Occupational Prestige Scores of F o r m a l Training by Respondent Age and Education Classifications  59  Mean Occupational Prestige Scores by Respondent Age and Education Classifications  60  Mean Social Participation Scores by Respondent Age and Education Qassification  62  Mean Scale Scores for Change Statement Six by Respondent Age and Education Classifications 63 Mean Scale Scores for Change Statement Seven by Respondent Age and Education Classifications  64  vii  PAGE  XXX  XXXI  XXXII  XXXIII  XXXIV  XXXV  XXXVI  XXXVII  XXXVHI  Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients for Twenty-Seven Variables  75  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number One  76  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Two  77  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Three  78  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Four  79  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Five  80  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Six  81  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Seven  82  Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Eight  83  CHAPTER ONE  INTRODUCTION  Voluntary participation determines the audience for adult education programs. Thus, it is of prime importance that adult educators understand the participation phenomena. Since participation is an individual decision, a logical study approach is to determine and examine the factors affecting the individual when he makes this decision. It will be from a consideration of these factors that a theory of participation will be developed. In the field of social participation research, Beal has suggested that there are two general types of factors influencing the participation decision which he identified as static and dynamic factors.''' Static factors are the more or less permanent characteristics of an individual including sex^; S * marital status, education, occupation, and income. Although a  e  these factors are easily and accurately collected, Beal argues against the continued and almost exclusive emphasis placed upon them. He argues that since their relative permanence inhibits change, they are of little value to  George M. Beal and J.M. State College, 1957.  Bohlen. The Diffusion Process, Ames: Iowa  2 change agents desiring to increase participation. On the other hand, the dynamic factors, "which define the relationship of the individual to the organiz2 ation",  contain the possibility of change. Because research has shown that  changes in these dynamic factors can bring about changes in participation rates consideration of these factors must be included in research about participation in adult education.^ Statement of Problem  Adult education is a relatively new discipline so that the theories necessary for its maturation have yet to be developed and one such will be a theory of participation. A valid participation theory requires representative examples of the phenomena which must include the many forms of adult education programs, the many relevant dynamic and static factors, and the many different cultural settings in which adult education occurs. this study can be expressed as follows:  The problem for  What static and dynamic factors  influence adult education participation in a rural Canadian environment ?  Hypotheses  Three hypotheses were developed for this study and stated in the null form they are: 1. Participants and non-participants in a rural setting will not differ significantly with respect to the static variables: age, education, occupation, income, social participation, and level of living. 2. Positive attitudes to change will not be related to participation in adult education. 3. Vocational and non-vocational participants will not differ significantly with respect to the previously mentioned variables.  Loc. cit.  3  Loc. cit.  3 Limitations This study has several limitations which must be considered when interpreting its findings. One consideration is that the population is a Canadian population, therefore, generalizations to other populations must be made with care as some substantial differences have been reported in the characteristics 4 between Canadian and American participants in adult education.  A second  consideration is that the universe studied is a rural population and American research on rural and urban populations have reported differences in the characteristics of participants. ^ This would suggest that generalizations to urban Canadian populations must be made with care. A third consideration is that only household heads reported on their adult education activities. The majority of household heads are men, consequently, the population studied mirrors neither the rural adult population nor the rural adult education population. Definition of Terms This study uses several terms which require specific definition: -1. Adult education courses:—An adult education course was one included in an an institutionally sponsored adult instructional method. 2. Formal education:—Formal education was defined as years of school completed.  Knute B. Buttedahl, "A Comparative Study of Participants in Lecture Classes and Participants in Study Discussion Groups." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1963. p. 72. ^ Edmund de S. Brunner, et. al., An Overview of Adult Education Research, Chicago: The Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959, p. 97. J.W.C. Johnstone, and Ramone J. Rivera, Volunteers for Learning, Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965, p. 79. Coolie Verner, A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and Classification of Processes, Washington: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962.  3. Participant:—An adult education participant was a respondent who reported having participated in an adult education course in the three years preceding the interview. 4. Vocational participant:«—A vocational participant was a participant who reported the course was related to his job while a non-vocational participant reported that the course was not related to his job. 5. Farmer:—A respondent was classified as a farmer if he sold more than $250 worth of products raised on his property in the year preceding the interview.  REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE  Most of the research on participation in adult education has described the participants using the static factors of age, education, occupation, income, and social participation. The dynamic factors, on the other hand, have rarely been included in studies. This study reviews the previously mentioned static factors and the dynamic factor of attitudes to change and considers possible relationships to participation.  Static Factors Related to Participation  Previous research has shown that formal education is the best 7 predictor of participation in adult education.  Those with more education, as  measured by years of schooling, tend to participate more frequently. Conversely those with less education, the people who could benefit most by participation, infrequently attend. The causes of this disparity are as yet undefined. Brunner, op. cit., p. 92; Johnstone, op. cit., pp. 77-78; Jack London, Robert Wenkert, and Warren O. Hagstrom, Adult Education and Social Class, Berkeley: Survey Research Center, The University of California, 1963, p. 42; Coolie Verner and John A . Newberry, J r . , "The Nature of Adult Participation", Adult Education, 8:208-222, (Summer, 1958).  Houle suggests that it is not a simple cause and effect relationship only that formal education creates "an awareness of the diversity of life and knowledge" g and from this awareness develops the quest for further knowledge. Age has been shown to be negatively related to participation, and 9 especially to vocational participation.  Factors which might be affecting this  variable are reduced incomes, limited mobility, decreased vocational interests, less formal education and general disengagement from society. Occupational status and income have been shown to be.positively related to adult education participation.  Two studies have shown that much  of these relationships can be attributed to the education variable. The social participation exhibited by the individual has also been shown to be a good predictor of participation in adult education. Social participation can be considered as the degree of involvement of an individual in his society. This involvement can take one or more of several forms. Participation in formal organizations is the form most often studied and the results of these 12 studies are most applicable to adult education participation research.  Verner  and Newberry in their analysis of social participation research found that sex, education, occupation, income, and age are important factors related to par13 ticipation behaviour. Since these factors have been shown to influence participation in adult education the positive relationship noted between the two 14 forms of participation could be expected, g  Cyril O. Houle, The Inquiring Mind, Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1961, p. 71. 9 Brunner, op. cit., p. 105; London, op. cit., p. 43; Verner and Newberry, op. cit., pp. 208-222. ^ Brunner, op. cit., pp. 96-97; London, op. cit., p. 41; Verner and Newberry, op. cit. Johnstone,, op. cit., pp. 98-100; London, op. cit., pp. 84-86. 12 Brunner, op. cit., pp. 102-114. 13 Verner and Newberry, loc. cit. 14 Brunner, op. cit., pp. 95-98.  6 Dynamic Factors Related to Participation  Dynamic factors which are concerned with the causes of participation are difficult to isolate because "each person is unique and his actions spring from a complex interaction of personal and social factors."^ The complexity of the interaction has to a large degree discouraged study in this area. Friedmann has suggested that "value compatibility" is a major dynamic factor involved in participation. He proposes that: Since participation in adult education is voluntary, we would expect it to vary according to the degree of compatibility which exists between the value orientations of the program and those of the individual. In considering Friedmann's suggestion the value orientations of adult programs must be considered. Adult education is involved with learning; learning necessarily implies change; therefore, among other factors, participants could be expected to be more positively oriented to change than nonparticipants. Assuming that an individual's attitude to change is a dynamic variable those factors which affect it must also be considered. Two factors which could affect this variable are age and education. Since education implies change, those with more schooling will have experienced more success with change. Favourable attitudes usually result from success consequently it can be considered that those with more favourable attitudes to past educational experiences would be more likely to participate than those with less favourable 17 attitudes. London reported this to be the case,  although he found no general  tendency of participants to place a high value on education.  K  ^ Houle,. op. cit., p. 80. 16 Friedmann, E.A., "Changing Value Orientations in Adult Life", in Sociological Backgrounds of Adult Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964, p. 44. 17 London, op. cit., pp. 121-125.  7  The second factor which could affect attitudes to change is age. Havighurst, in adapting Buhler's concepts of life cycle states, goals, and related achievements to adult education, proposes that there are "a series of dominant concerns, each of which govern the behaviour of a person (more or less consciously)" during each particular stage in his life cycle.  Dominant  concerns were suggested for each decade in the life cycle. Generally those adult stages before forty years of age are dynamic and positively oriented to change while those past forty years of age are conservative and negatively oriented to change. Evidence of these stages and concerns can be found in. a study con19 cerned with aging and vocational goals  in which the authors reported that  married male school teachers over forty years of age exhibited a decline in the desire to get a new job out of the field of education. After forty-five years of age there was a very rapid decrease in the desire for a different job or promotion even within the field of education. This rapid decrease was matched to a rapid increase in the desire to retire. The desire to remain in the same job increased with age. Havighurst reported several factors that might cause variations in his general scheme. These differences result from individual and social status differences. He states that working class people will reach their conservative stages earlier in life and this factor would adversely affect the participation 20 rates of people in this classification. These findings suggest that attitude to change is affected by the variables of age and education and if it is to be considered a dynamic factor affecting participation then the effects of these variables must be considered. 18 Robert J. Havighurst, "Changing Status and Roles during the Adult Life Cycle: Significance for Adult Education. " in Sociological Backgrounds of Adult'Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults,' 1964, pp. 17-38. 19 R.G. Kuhlen and G.H. Johnson, "Changes in Goals with Increasing Adult Age." Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16:1-4, 1952. 20 " , ." ' Havighurst,, loc. cit. T T  CHAPTER TWO  THE STUDY  The participation patterns of the rural residents of British Columbia will result from a combination of the static and dynamic factors suggested previously. This chapter will describe the six study areas and certain characteristics of rural British Columbians as well as outlining the sampling techniques and the procedures for collection and analysis of the data.  The Study Areas  The Province of British Columbia is divided into geographic regions by mountain ranges which occupy most of the province. These ranges determine to a large extent the climate, ecology, industry and settlement patterns of the regions. The six regions which contained the universe used in the study are described below: Fort Nelson Region: The Fort Nelson Region, the northern-most region of settlement in the province, is located in the northeast corner of the province along the Alaska Highway. In 1961, the total population of the area was 2,700 persons, 1,600 of whom lived in the community of Fort Nelson. * Although All references of the descriptions in the study areas are located in the Regional Index of British Columbia. Victoria: Department of Industrial Trade and Commerce, 1966.  9  the economy is based upon forest industries and gas exploration and development, the service industries along the highway provided the major source of employment. There was no agriculture in the area as a result of a short growing season. t Peace River Region: The Peace River Region is situated on the northern fringe of the Rocky Mountain Trench south of the Fort Nelson Region. Although the western section is mountainous, most of the region is physically and climatically a part of the Interior Plains of North America. In 1961, the total population of the region was 27,700 and the major service centers were Dawson Creek, Pouce Coupe, and Fort St. John. The service industries were the largest employers while the major industries in the area were agriculture, forestry and gas production. The importance of agriculture can be shown by the fact that sixty-eight per cent of the provincial acreage devoted to grain production and over thirty per cent of the total acreage under cultivation occurred in this region. Vanderhoof-Terrace Region: This region, which is situated in north-central British Columbia, is formed by two major sub-regions. The westerly region is characterized by mountainous terrain, coastal climate, and rain forest ecology while the easterly region is characterized by the rolling hills of the Interior Plateau, a dryer climate with greater temperature extremes and more sparse forest growths. The population of the area in 1961 was 24,800 persons most of whom lived in or around the centers of Terrace, Vanderhoof  g  Burns Lake and Smithers which lie along a major highway and railway. The major industries in the region are forestry, m i n i n g , .and tourism. West Kootenay Region: The West Kootenay Region is a much older area in terms of settlement and is situated in the southeast corner of the province. The topography of the area is characterized by three long narrow valleys separated by rugged mountain ranges. The population in 1961 was 70,700 persons, the majority of whom are located in valley connecting the industrial city of Trail and the distribution center of Nelson. The climate of the area is milder than that of the Interior Plateau but conditions throughout the region vary. The area was  10  developed on a mining economy and the smelting complex at Trail reflects its continued importance, but the forest industries are rapidly assuming greater importance.  The little agriculture in the area is primarily concerned with  fruit growing and is carried out on the valley benches.. The Salmon Arm Region: The Salmon Arm Region, in south-central British Columbia, lies to the north of the Okanagan Valley. The region is formed by the land within the Shuswap Lake drainage system. In 1961, the major portion of the 10,000 inhabitants were concentrated in and around the distribution center of Salmon Arm.  The climate of the area, moderated by the  proximity of the lake, is generally mild in winter and warm in summer. The major industries in the area are forestry, tourism, and agriculture. The major agricultural products of the area are fruit and dairy products although there is a trend to beef production. North Thompson Region: This region, which is sometimes referred to as the Kamloops Region, is contiguous to the Salmon Arm Region to the southeast and stretches north occupying the North Thompson River Valley as far north as Blue River. The population of the area in 1961 was 31,500 persons. Most of the population was located in and around the city of Kamloops which, situated at the junction of major railway and highway systems, has developed into the major distribution center for south-central British Columbia. The southern area around Kamloops receives little rain and on the grasslands ran« ching is the primary industry. Changes in the. topography cause more rainfall in the northern areas and forest industries become predominant. These two industries rank second and third in importance in the area after the service industry. Although the regions differ in their geographic location and on several climatic and ecological characteristics, they are similar in that most of the inhabitants worked at primary, simple secondary, and service industries related to forestry, agriculture, tourism, and mining. This primary industry orientation is characteristic of rural British Columbia and the six areas can be considered to be representative of the rural areas of the province.  11  Rural British Columbians The rural population can be described in terms of its growth, and the socio-economic characteristics of its members. In 1961, twenty-seven per cent of the total population in British Columbia was classified as rural. This rural population was composed of farmers (5 per cent) and non-farmers (22 per cent). Although the rural population is steadily increasing, the growth rate is slower than that exhibited by the urban population. The growth in the total rural population can be attributed to an increase in the rural non-farm 2 population since the rural farm population is decreasing. The rural population in British Columbia occupies a favourable socio-economic position when compared to the rural populations in other regions of Canada. In British Columbia the rural residents are characterized 3 by: the largest proportion of persons in the productive ages; the highest 4 5 mean educational level; the highest rates of participation in stdult education; the highest mean non-farm family income; the second highest mean farm 7 8 family income; and one of the highest levels of rural living. Although these values indicate relative prosperity in the province they do not show that pockets of poverty and unemployment are found throughout the province in areas where the primary industry has stagnated.  Donald R. Whyte, "Rural Canada in Transition", Rural Canada in Transition: A multidimensional study of the impact of technology and urbanization on traditional society, eds., M.A. Tremblay and W.J. Anderson, Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1966, pp. 10-13. 3 Ibid., p. 17. 4 Ibid., p. 64-65. ^ Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Education Division, Adult Education Section, Participants in Further Education in Canada, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1963, pp. 14-16. Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Census of Canada, 1961. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964. (Bulletin 4.1-3). 7 Whyte, op. cit., pp. 36-37. 8 Whyte, op. cit., pp. 39-42.  12  Sampling Procedure  The population for this study was drawn from a previous sample of a rural population. The sampling procedure for this original sample has been 9 described in detail elsewhere and will only be summarized here.  The  original sample was randomly drawn from a universe of all rural pre-empted*^ land holdings in each of six regions in British Columbia. The households residing on these selected lots formed the population base for the study and the household heads were the respondents. The original sample produced 881 completed interviews for the six regions. From this sample of the rural population, the 126 respondents who had participated in an adult education course in the three years prececling the survey were removed and an equal number of non-participants were randomly selected using tables of random numbers. ** A second sample of non-partic» ipants, matched with the participants on the variables of age and education, was drawn at a later date after it was suspected that these variables concealed many of the relationships existing between the two groups. Instruments  Data were collected by personal interviews with household heads during the summer months of 1967. In addition to standard socio-economic data, the interview-: schedule contained four standardized measurement instruments:  9 Coolie Verner, Planning and Conducting a Survey: Case Study, Ottawa: Rural Development Branch, Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967. pp, 7-12. Pre-empted lands are lands which are privately owned or leased from the Crown. All land not so pre-empted remains Crown land. ** Kendall, M.G. and S.B. Babington, Tables of Random Sampling Numbers, London: Cambridge University Press, 1951. 12 Verner, Coolie. Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study, op. cit. pp. 36-37.  13  1. A short form of Sewell's Farm Socio-economic Status Scale  13  was used  to assess level of living. This scale is composed of fourteen items each of which has been assigned a weighted numerical value. Higher scores on the scale indicate higher levels of living. 2. The degree of social participation exhibited by the individual was measured 14 by Chapin's Social Participation Scale.  The Chapin Scale assigns numerical  values to both the number of organizations to which the individual belongs and to the degree of involvement in these organizations. A high scale score indicates a high rate of participation. 3. Job satisfaction was measured using a revised form of Brayfield and Rothe's Index of Job Satisfaction.^ The respondent was asked to express agreement or disagreement to nine statements about his job using a five point scale. The scores for each statement were summed and a higher score indicated greater satisfaction with present job. 4. A fourth instrument, an occupational status scale constructed for Canadian occupations, was used to rank both the jobs and formal job training reported by the respondents. The scale assigns lower values to jobs of higher prestige 16 and conversely higher values for jobs of lower prestige. 13 W.H. Sewell, "A Short Form of the Farm Family SocioEconomic Status Scale." Rural Sociology, 8:161-170, (June, 1943). 14 F.S. Chapin, Social Participation Scale. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1938. A. H. Brayfield and H.F. Rothe, "An Index of Job Satisfaction". Journal of Applied Psychology, 35:307-311, (October, 1951). 16 Bernard Blishen, "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale.", Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 24:519-531. (November, 1958). 1 5  14  Also included in the interview schedule were eight statements which concerned three general forms of change: change in residence locality, change in occupation, and change in education. Analysis of variance was completed on the eight questions using the scores of a random sample of all respondents.  The analysis indicated that individuals responded to each of  the questions in a consistent manner.  Data Processing  The completed schedules were checked and coded in the field to permit reinterviewing if necessary. They were rechecked and submitted for keypunching onto data cards at the Computing Center of the University of British Columbia. The cards were then prepared for computer analysis.  Data Analysis  Multivariate tabulations of the data produced tables comparing participants, both vocational and non-vocational, and non-participants against all other characteristics. The distributions within these tables were tested for significant differences using the chi square statistic, under the null hypothesis of no significant difference at either the . 05 or . 01 levels of confidence. ^ Tables of product-moment correlations were produced comparing the relationships of each variable studied against each other variable. These correlations were tested for significance under the null hypothesis using both the .05 and .01 levels of confidence. Analysis of variance was used to test for differences in the matched samples using the mean scores obtained by the age-education blocks on variables  See, A.L. Edwards, Statistical Methods for the Behavioral Sciences, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966, pp. 366-398.  15  previously shown, to be related to age and education and on which the participants and non-participants had differed significantly. The procedure 18 followed was that suggested for correlated groups.  The F ratio was tested  for significance under the null hypothesis using both the .05 and .01 levels of confidence.  F.N. Kerlinger, Foundations of Behavioral Research, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967, pp. 242-249.  CHAPTER THREE  CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS AND  NON-PARTICIPANTS  Several groups of static socio-economic characteristics can be used to describe and compare participants and non-participants.  In addition,  the dynamic variables relating personal attitudes to change with institutional goals can suggest why participants and non-participants differ with respect to their participation.  STATIC FACTORS  Personal Characteristics The variables of sex, marital..status, and age are three personal characteristics which permit description and comparison of the participants and non-participants. Sex: Since the respondents were household heads a large proportion of males would be expected. Some 84.1 per cent of the participants were male and 15.9 per cent female while 88.1 per cent of the non-participants were male and 11.9 per cent were female. The difference between the two groups was not  17  significant at the .05 level of confidence; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. (Table 1). Some 86.4 per cent of the vocational participants were men compared to 73.9 per cent of the non-vocational participants. The difference was not significant at the .05 level so the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. Marital Status. Non-participants, vocational, and non-vocational participants exhibited similar proportions with respect to marital status. Some seven per cent were single, 88 per cent were married and five per cent were either widowed, separated, or divorced. A chi square value of 0.34 was obtained. This is not significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. (Table II). Age. The participants were younger than the non-participants as their median age occurred in the category of thirty-five to forty-four years of age compared to the forty-five to fifty-four year category for the non-participants. The chi square test was significant at the .1 level of confidence but not at the .05 level. To check this low level of confidence a t-test was computed comparing the mean age of the participants (42.4 years) with that of the non-participants (46.4 years). The difference was significant at the .05 level of confidence, thus the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table III). The vocational and non-vocational participants exhibited comparable distributions with respect to age and the chi square value of 0.58 which was obtained is not significant at the .05 level. The null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted.  All tables in this chapter are tested for significance using the chi square statistic.  18  TABLE I PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX  Non-Participants Sex  Total No. %  Men Women Total  Participants Total No. %  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  Ill 15  88.1 1.1.9  106 20  84.1 15.9  89 14  86.4 13.6  17 6  73.9 26.1  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X =2.20 d.f.. = 1 Not significant at the . 05 level.  X = .83 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the . 05 level.  TABLE II PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS  Npn» Participants Marital Status Single Married Other Total  Total No. %  Participants Total No.  %  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  10 109 7  7. 9 86. 6 5. 5  8 112 6  6.4 88.8 4.8  7 92 4  6.8 89.3 3.9  1 20 2  4.3 87.0 8.7  126  100. 0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = .345 d.f. =2 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  19  TABLE III PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE  Non-Participants Age 15 - 24 25 - 34 35 - 44 45 - 54 55 - 64 65 or Over Total  Participants Vocational Non-•Vocational No. No. % %  Total No. %  Total No. %  4 24 31 35 18 14  3.2 19.0 24.6 27.8 14.3 11.1  4 34 38 31 16 3  3.2 27.0 30.2 24.6 12.7 2.4  4 28 32 26 11 2  3.9 27.2 31.1 25.2 10.7 1.9  0 6 6 5 5 1  0.0 26.1 26.1 21.7 21.7 4.3  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 5.78 d.f. =3 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  t-value = 2.55 Significant at the .05 level.  X = .58 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  20  Although the chi square statistic indicated a lower level of confidence in the significant difference in the distributions of participants and non-partici2 pants, age is negatively related to participation. A correlation coefficient (r = -. 16) was obtained between age and participation which is significant at the . 05 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant relationship between age and participation is rejected. Educational Achievement  Education of Respondent. The educational achievement of the respondents indicates that the participants had received significantly more years of schooling than non-participants.  The median achievement of the non-partici-  pants was eight years compared to the median achievement of nine to eleven years for the participants. The most pronounced differences between the two populations occur at the extremes of educational achievement. Some 13.5 per cent of the non-participants compared to 0.8 per cent of the participants had less than five years of schooling and could be classified as functionally illiterate.  On  the other hand, 1.6 per cent of the non-participants comparedte»15.9per cent of the participants had received thirteen or more years of schooling. A significant chi square value of 29.47 was obtained which is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table IV). The vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar levels of education but there was no statistically significant difference between the two populations. Statistically significant correlations were found between education and participation (r = .37) and age (r = -.23). Both of these correlations are significant at the . 01 level and the null hypotheses of no significant relationships are rejected. These findings indicate that persons with more education are more likely to participate in adult education activities and that the older respondents had less education than the younger respondents. Both of these fmdings are consistent with generalizations from previous research. 2 Correlation coefficients for all variables with all other variables are given in Table XXX, page 75.  21  TABLE IV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING COMPLETED  Non-Participants  Participants  Years of Schooling  Total No. %  Total No. %  5 or less 6-7 8 9-11 12 13-15 16 or More  17 19 42 32 14 2 0  13.5 15.1 33.3 25.4 11.1 1.6 0.0  1 14 25 38 28 12 8  0.8 11.1 19.9 30.2 22.3 9.5 6.4  1 12 21 30 23 9 7.  1.0 11.6 20.4 29.1 22.3 8.7 6.8  0 2 4 8 5 3 1  0.0 8.7 17.4 34.8 21.7 13.0 4.3  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  Total  X = 29.47 d.f. =3 Significant at the .01 level. 2  Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. %  X = .38 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the .01 level. 2  22  Education of Wife. The distributions of respondents with respect to wife's education indicates that the wives of the respondents generally had more education than did the respondents. The median educational achievement for the wives of both non-participants and participants occurred in the nine to eleven year category, but the distributions were not similar as the wives of the participants had significantly more education. A chi square value of 13.94 was obtained which is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table V). The median education of the wives of the vocational participants was in the nine to eleven year category compared to the twelve year category for the non-vocational participants. A chi square test of the distributions between those under twelve years of education and those twelve years and over is not significant. The value of 0.34 indicates that the null hypothesis of no significant difference at the .05 level can be accepted. Statistically significant correlations at the . 01 level were obtained between the education of wives and participation (r = . 19), education of respondents (r = .52), and age of respondents (r = -. 19).  The negative correl-  ations between the age of the respondent and his education and that of his wife when considered with the positive correlation between the education of husband and wife suggest that the respondents have married wives with levels of education similar to their own and that this pattern has existed over a period of time. Education of Children. The non-participant group reported 390 children compared to 344 reported by the participants. Since the non-participants are older this difference could be expected. The non-participants reported that 61.5 per cent of their children were pre-school or still attending school, 12.1 per cent had graduated from grade twelve,, and 26.4 per cent had left school but failed to graduate. The participants, on the other hand, reported that 79.1 per cent were pre-school or still attencling school, 13.9 per cent had graduated from grade twelve, and.7.0 per cent had left school but not graduated. It should be noted that less than 31.4 per cent of the children of non-participants who had  23  TABLE V PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EDUCATION OF WIFE  Non-Participants  Participants  Total No.  5 or less 6-7 8 9-11 12 13 - 15 16 or more No Response  8 12 26 29 24 11 0 16  6.4 9.5 20.6 23.0 19.0 8.7 0.0 12.7  2 8 12 47 28 15 2 12  1.6 6.4 9.5 37.3 22.2 11.9 1.6 9.5  1 5 9 43 21 13 2 9  1.0 4.8 8.7 41.8 20.4 12.6 1.9 8.7  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  Total  %  Total No.  Vocational No. %  Years of Schooling  %  X = 13.94 d.f. = 3 Significant at the .01 level. 2  Non-Vo cational No. % 1 4.4 3 13.0 3 13.0 4 17.4 7 30.4 2 . 8.7 0 0.0 3 13.0 23  100.0  X = ,34 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the .05 level. 2  24  left school had graduated compared to over 66.6 per cent of the children of participants. A chi square value of 48.47 was obtained between the distributions and this value is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. The distributions of children who had left school produced a chi square value of 24.66 which is also significant at the .01 level and the null hypothesis is rejected. (Table VI). The vocational and non-vocational respondents showed similar distributions with respect to both the number of children and their educational achievements.  The obtained chi square value of 1.80 is not significant at the  .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. Education of Father. The educational achievement for the fathers of the respondents was generally lower than that of the respondents in each of the populations. The median achievement for fathers of the non-participants was six to seven years while that for participants was a median of eight years. A chi square value of 0.81 was obtained which is not significant at the . 05 level and the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be accepted. (Table VII). The education of fathers correlated significantly at the .01 level of confidence with the education of the respondent (r = . 35), with the education of the wife of the respondent (r = .22), and with the age of the respondent (r = -.17). These relationships indicate that similar educational patterns exist within families and these patterns have been maintained over a period of time.  Formal Training Patterns  Training of Respondent. The training patterns of the respondents show that 69.0 per cent of the non-participants reported receiving no formal training after leaving school compared to 43.6 per cent of the participants. Formal occupational training was scaled according to the prestige of the occupa3 tion. The median score for all groups of respondents was five, but the  Blishen, loc; cit.  25  TABLE VI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EDUCATION OF CHILDREN  Non-Participants Children's Education  Total No. •  Pre-school or in school 240 Left School Completed Grade 12 47 Left School Did not complete Grade 12 103 Total  390  Participants  Total ' No. %  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  61.5  272  79.1  222  78.2  50  83.3  12.1  48  13.9  41  14.4  7  11.7  26.4  24  7.0  21  7.4  3  5.0  100.0  344  100.0  284  100.0  60  100.0  %  '  x = 48.47 d .f. = 2 Significant at the . 01 level. 2  x = 1.80 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  i  26  TABLE VII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EDUCATION OF FATHER  Non-Participants Years of Schooling  Total •No;  5 or less 6-7 8 9 « 11 12 13 - 15 16 or more Unknown Total-  Participants  %  Total • No.  27 10 23 4 5 2 2 53  21.4 7.9 18.2 3.2 4.0 1.6 1.6 42.1  17 14 20 9 8 2 2 54- .  126  100.0  126  %  13.5 11.1 15.9 7.2 6.4 1.6 1.6 42.8 100.0  X = .186 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the .05 level. 2  Vocational Non«•Vocational No. No. % % 15 12 13 8 7 2 2 44  14.6 11.6 12.6 7.8 6.8 1.-9 1.9 42.7  -2 2 7 1 1 0 0 10  8.7 8.7 30.4 4.4 4.4 0.0 0.0 43.5  103  100.0  23  100.0  27  distributions around these medians were not symmetrical as the participants reported more jobs of higher prestige. This variation is exhibited in the chi square score of 25.25 which is significant at the .01 level and indicates that the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. The vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar job training experiences and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. (Table VIII). A statistically significant correlation at the .01 level between job 4 training and education (r = -.40)  indicates that persons with more education  received training for more prestigious jobs. There was also a statistically significant correlation between job training and participation (r = .34). This relationship indicates that persons with more prestigious job training are more likely to participate than those with more menial toaining. Training of Wives. The wives of the non-participants had received less training as 74.5 per cent of them had no training compared with 58.4 per cent of the wives of the participants. Of those wives receiving training the median occupational prestige level in all populations was three, but the wives of participants had been trained for more prestigious jobs. The chi square value of 11.37 which was obtained between the participant and non-participant categories is significant at the . 01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the two populations can be rejected. (Table IX). The wives of the vocational and non-vocational participants showed similar levels of training although there were too few in the non-vocational category to permit a statistical test for significance. The training of the wives was significantly correlated with their education (r = .54) and the participation of their husbands (r = .24). These relationships indicate that the wives who received more education also received 4 Since the occupational prestige scale assigns low values to jobs of high prestige a negative correlation is produced for a positive relationship. In all further references the sign of the correlation coefficient will be changed to make it agree with the relationship.  28  TABLE VIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE OF FORMAL TRAINING  Blishen Occupational^ Prestige Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No formal training Total  Participants  Non-Participants Total No.  %  Total No.  0 0 3 3 27 4 2 87  0.0 0.0 2.4 2.4 21.4 3.2 1.6 69.0  2 19 3 7 34 5 1 : 55  126  100.0  126  1.6 15.1 2.4 5.6 27.0 4.0 0.8 43.6 ' 100.0  x = 25.25 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 01 level. 2  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % % 2 16 2 5 30 4 1 43  1.9 15.5 1.9 4.8 29.1 3.9 1.0 41.8  0 3 1 2 4 1 0 12  0.0 13.0 4.4 8.7 17.4 4.4 0.0 52.1  103  100.0  23  100.0  d.f. = 2 x = .63 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  29  TABLE IX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE OF WIFE'S FORMAL TRAINING  TV,. , r> .. , Blishen Occupational Prestige Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No training No Response Total  Non-Participants  Participants r  Total No. % •  Total No. %  0 8 14 3 3 0 0 82 16  0 10 15 10 5 6 1 66 13  126  0.0 6.4 11.1 2.4 2.4 0.0 0.0 65.0  .1.2.7 100.0  0.0 7.9 11.9 7.9. 4.0 4.8 0.8 52.4 10.3  0 9 12 9 4 5 0 54 10  0.0 8.7 11.6 8.7 3.9 4.8 0.0 52.5 9.7  0 1 3 1 1 1 1 12 3  0.0 4.4 13.0 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 52.2 13.0  126 100-.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 11.37 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 01 level. 2  Vocational Non»Vocational No. No. % %  30  more prestigious training and the wives of participants had more training and education. Training of Fathers. The fathers of the non-participants received less training as only 17.6 per cent of the non-participants compared to 31.1 per cent of the participants were able to report the training of their fathers. Some 53.9 per cent of the non-participants compared to 46.0 per cent of the participants reported that their fathers had no formal training while the remaining respondents did not know if their fathers had received any formal training. Fathers of the participants were trained for more prestigious occupations than fathers of the non-participants. The obtained chi square value of 6.27 was significant at the .05 level. This would indicate that the null hypothesis of no significant difference may be rejected. (Table X). The vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar proportions with respect to training of fathers although too few respondents could provide this information to allow a statistical test of the data. The relationship between education and training is again illustrated as a statistically significant correlation (r = . 52) was obtained between the education and training of the fathers. Similar correlations were found between the education and training of both the respondents and their wives. Thus, the null hypothesis of no significant correlation between education and training may be rejected.  Occupational Variables  Farmer and Non-Farmer Classifications. The occupations in a rural setting can be divided by their relationship to farming. There were more farmers among the non-participants with 19.8 per cent in this category and more persons out of work or retired (8.7 per cent) compared to 11.9 per cent and 1.6 per cent for similar categories of participants. Some 54.0 per cent of the non-participants compared to 73.0 per cent of the participants were classified as non-farmers. The obtained chi square value of 12.67 is significant at the .01  31  TABLE X PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PRESTIGE OF FATHER'S FORMAL TRAINING  Blishen Occupational Prestige Index 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No training Unknown Total  Non-Participants Total No. % 0 3 4 1 6 8 0 68 36  0.0 2.4 3.2 0.8 4.8 6.4 0.0 53.9 28.6  126  100.0  Participants Total ' No. % 7 3 3 18 6 0 58 29  1.6 5.6 2.4 2.4 14.3 4.8 0.0 46.0 23.0  126  100.0  2  X = 6.27 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 05 level.  Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % 5 3 2 14 4 0 49 24  1.9 4.8 2.9 1.9 13.6 3.9 0.0 47.6 23.3  0 2 0 1 4 2 0 9 5  0.0 8.7 0.0 4.4 17.4 8.7 0.0 39.1 21.7  103  100.0  23  100.0  2  32  level and thus the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XI). Vocational and non-vocational participants were similarly distributed among the farmer and non-farmer categories and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Principal Occupation. Some 7.9 per cent of the non-participants reported no job in 1966 compared to 3.2 per cent of the participants. These distributions could be expected as 11.1 per cent of the non-participants were over sixty-five years of age while only 3.2 per cent of the participants were in this category. The participants reported jobs of more prestige than the nonparticipants as 29.4 per cent reported jobs in the top two categories compared to only 9.5 per cent of the non-participants, while at the other end of the scale 19.0 per cent of the participants occurred in the bottom two categories compared to 40.5 per cent of the non-participants. The mode for both groups was scale category five, but the mean for the participants was 4.1 while that of the nonparticipants was 5.2. Representative occupations on the scale at the 4.1 level include photographers, manufacturing foremen, and construction inspectors and those at the 5.2 level include telephone operators, switchmen, and signalmen. The distribution produced a chi square value of 28.74 which is significant at the . 01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XII). Vocational participants reported holding jobs with mere prestige than did the non-vocational participants. A chi square value of 8.91 was obtained between the two distributions. This value is significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. Statistically significant correlations at the . 01 level were obtained between the jobs of the respondents and their education (r = .47), their training (r - . 52), the education of their wives (r = . 36), participation (r = . 33), and education of their fathers (r = . 19). These correlations indicate that education, training, and occupation are closely related. They also indicate that individuals with better education and better training achieve better jobs and individuals with  33  TABLE XI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY FARMER AND NON-FARMER CLASSIFICATIONS  Non-Participants Classification Farmer only Farmer Principally Non-Farmer Principally Non-Farmer only Setting up Farm No Job - Out of Work Total  Total No.  %  Participants Total No.  %  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  25 5  19.8 4.0  15 3  11.9 2.4  14 1  13.6 1.0  1 2  4.4 8.7  15 68 2 11  11.9 54.0 1.6 8.7  12 92 2 2  9.5 73.0 1.6 1.6  10 75 1 2  9.7 72.8 1.0 1.9  2 17 1 0  8.7 73.9 4.4 0.0  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 12.67 d.f. =2 Significant at the .01 level. 2  X = .03 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the .01 level. 2  34  TABLE XII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PRESTIGE OF PRESENT OCCUPATION  ™. , „ ^. , Non-Participants Blishen Occupational • • Total Total Prestige Index No.. No. % % 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 No Job Total  1 11 3 1 49 29 22 10 126  0.8 8.7 2.4 0.8 38.9 23.0 17.5 7.9 100.0  4 33 8 7 46 14 10 4 126  3.2 26.2 6.3 5.6 36.5 11.1 7.9 3.2 100.0  X = 28.74 d.f. = 2 Significant at the .01 level. 2  Vocational Non*•Vocational No. No. % % 3 30 5 6 42 9 6 2 103  2.9 29.1 4.-8 5.8 40.8 8.-7 5.8 1.9 100.0  1 3 3 1 4 5 4 2 23  4.4 13.0 13.0 4.-4 17.4 21.7 17.4 8.7 100.0  X = 8.91 d.f. =2 Significant at the .05 level. 2  35  more prestigious jobs maintain the relationship with education by participation in adult education. Job Satisfaction. The job satisfaction scale scores obtained on the revised form of the Brayfield and Rothe Scale showed a median job satisfaction classification of thirty-three to thirty-six for all respondent categories. The obtained chi square value of 3.38 is not significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. (Table XIII). Vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar levels of job satisfaction and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Job satisfaction and age were significantly correlated (r = . 16) at the . 05 level which suggests that older workers are more satisfied with their jobs.. TMs finding is the opposite of that reported in other literature. ^ Years worked at present job. The median number of years worked at the present job for each of the respondent populations was six to ten years but the distributions around these medians were not similar. Some 22.4 per cent of the non-participants reporting present jobs had worked at this job for more than twenty-five years compared to 9.0 per cent of the participants in the same category. The non-participants were also more heavily represented at the other end of the scale as 41.4 per cent had worked at their job for five years or less while 31.2 per cent of the participants were in that category. The obtained chi square value of 15.46 is significant at the .01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table XIV). Vocational and non-vocational participants did not differ with respect to the length of years worked at present jobs as the median period of association was six to ten years for both populations. The obtained chi square value of 1.68 is not significant at the .05 level; thus, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be accepted.  A Socio-Economic Survey..., op. cit., p. 47.  36  TABLE XIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY JOB SATISFACTION SCORE  Non-Participants Job Satisfaction Score 9 - 12 13 - 16 17 - 20 21 « 24 25 - 28 29 - 32 33 - 36 37 - 40 41 and over No present job Total  Total No.  %  Participants Total No.  Vocational Non-Vo cational No. No. % %  0 0 1 1 5 33 59 11 4 12  0.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 4.0 26.2 46.8 8.7 3.2 9.5  0 0 2 4 7 35 66 8 1 3  0.0 0.0 1.6 3.2 5.6 27.8 52.4 6.3 0.8 2.4  0 0 1 3 5 30 54 7 1 2  0.0 0.0 1.0 2.9 4.8 29.1 52.4 6.8 1.0 1.9  0 0 1 1 2 5 12 1 0 1  0.0 0.0 4.4 4.4 8.7 21.7 52.2 4.4 0.0 4.4  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 3.38 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  X = .32 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  37  TABLE XIV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF YEARS IN PRESENT OCCUPATION  Non-Participants Number of Years 2 or less 3-5 6-10 11 « 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 and over Not applicable Total  Participants  Total No. %  Total No. %  23 25 17 12 9 4 26 10  18.3 19.8 13.5 9.5 7.1 3.2 20.6 7.9  21 17 33 17 15. 8 11 4  126  100.0  126  16.7 13.5 26.2 13.5 11.9 6.3 8.7 3.2  19 14 25 15 13 6 9 2  18.5 13.6 24.3 14.6 12.6 5.8 8.7 1.9  2  3 8 2 2 2 2 2  8.7 13.0 34.8 8;7 8.7 8.7 8.7 8.7  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 15.46 d.f. =3 Significant at the .01 level. 2  Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. %  X = 1.68 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the .05 level. 2  38  Years worked at present job was significantly correlated with age (r = . 50) and with job satisfaction (r = . 22). These relationships indicate that older workers have worked at their present jobs longer and are more satisfied with their jobs than younger workers. Income from Principal Occupation. The non-participants generally reported lower incomes than the participants as the median annual income for the non-participants was between 3,000 and 3,999 dollars while the median for the participants occurred between 5,000 and 5,999 dollars. A chi square value of 13.94 was obtained for the distributions of income for the two populations. This value is significant at the .01 level of confidence; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XV). Vocational participants reported higher incomes than.the nonvocational participants. The median income for the non-vocational participants was between 3, 000 and 3,999 dollars while the median for the vocational participants occurred between 5,000 and 5,999 dollars. Over twenty-six per cent of the vocational participants earned 7,000 dollars or more compared to zero per cent of the non-vocational participants. A chi square value of 13.93 was obtained and it is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of ' no significant difference between the two groups can be rejected. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between principal income and the variables of education (r = .28), training (r = .35), participation (r = .23), and job prestige (r = .41). These relationships indicate the financial rewards which accrue to persons with more education and training.  Locality Variables  Length of Residence. Non-participants tended to have lived in the area longer than participants as 44.4 per cent of the non-participants had lived in the area for more than twenty years compared to 29.4 per cent of the participants. The participants appeared to be slightly more mobile as 36.6  39  TABLE XV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY INCOME FROM PRESENT OCCUPATION  Non-Participants Income  Total No.  Nil  12  Participants Total No. %  Vocational Non-Vo cat i onal No. No. % %  1 - 499  3  9.5 2.4  1  0.8  0  0.0  1  4.4  500 - 9 9 9  2  1.6  2  0  0.0  2  7.1  4  3  2.9  1  8.7 4.4  2 0 0 0 - 2999  9 18  1.6 3.2  14.3  6  4.8  4  2  3 0 0 0 - 3999  21  16.7  4000 - 4999  16  12.7  11.9 11.9  11  10.7  3 4  8.7 13.0 17.4  5 0 0 0 - 5999  15  11.9  15 15 21  12  3.9 11.6  16.7  16  15.5  5  21.7  6000 - 6999  11  8.7  22  17.5  20  19.4  2  7 0 0 0 - 7999  7  5.6  11  V8.7  11  10.7  0  8.7 0.0  8 0 0 0 - 8999  3 0  2.4  0  0.0  1.6  5 2  4.8  0.0  5 2  4.0  9000 - 9999  1.9  0  0.0  10 000 -  12,499  5  4.0  6  4.8  6  5.8  0  0.0  1 2 , 500 and over No Response  1  0.8  2  1.6  2  1.9  0  0.0  3  2.4  6  4.8  5  4.8  1  4.4  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  1000 - 1999  r  Total  8  6.3  6  d.f. = 3 Significant at the . 0 1 level. x  2  = 13.94  5.8  2  8.7  = 13.93 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 0 1 level. x  2  40  per cent had lived in the area for five years or less compared to 25.4 per cent of the non-participants. The chi square value of 6.70 is significant at the .05 level of confidence; therefore; the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the two populations may be rejected. (Table XVI). Vocational and non-vocational participants exhibited similar patterns of residence and no statistically significant difference occurred between the two populations. Statistically significant correlations occurred between length of residence and the variables of age (r = .28), years worked at occupation (r = .31), education (r =-.24), principal income (r = -.19), and job satisfaction (r = . 18). These relationships suggest that older workers, although they have less education and income, are more satisfied with their present jobs. Perhaps this is why they have held these jobs longer and have lived in the area longer than the younger workers. Distance from Service Centers. Since many of the agencies offering adult education programs are located in rural service centers, this section was included to examine the effect of distance on participation. The median of the mean distance to the various services was six to ten miles for all respondent classifications. Participants and non-participants exhibited similar patterns of residence with respect to the distance variable. The chi square value of 4.67 obtained between the two groups is not significant at.the . 05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be accepted. (Table XVII). The vocational and non-vocational participants did not differ significantly with respect to distance from service centers as some 47.8 per cent of the non-vocational participants lived within five miles of the service centers compared to 36.9 per cent of the vocational participants. Only 8.8 per cent of the non-vocational participants lived more than twenty miles from the centers compared to 21.4 per cent of the participants. The obtained chi square value of 1.07 is not significant at the .05 level, and the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the two populations can be accepted. This finding  41  TABLE XVI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS LIVED IN LOCALITY  Non-Participants Years in Locality 2 or less 3-5 6-10 11 - 16 17 - 20 21 or more ?  Total  Total No. %•  Participants  Total • No. %  Vocational Non«•Vocational No. % No. %  20 12 14 17 7 56  15.9 9.5 11.1 13.5 5.6 44.4  26 20 14 17 12 37  20.7 15.9 11.1 13.5 9.5 29.4  23 16 12 14 9 29  22.3 15.5 11.6 13.6 8.7 28.2  3 4 2 3 3 8  13.0 17.4 8.7 13.0 13.0 34.8  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 6.70 d.f. =2 Significant at the .05 level. 2  X = .52 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the .05 level. 2  42  TABLE XVII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MEAN DISTANCE TO SERVICE CENTERS  Non-Participants Distance in Miles 0-5 6-10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26'- 30 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 or more Total  Participants  Total No. %  Total No. %  34 32 21 14 5 6 3 2 9  49 25 24 4 3 9 3 1 8  126  27.0 25.4 16.7 11.1 4.0 4.8 2.4 1.6 7.1 100.0  126  38.9 19.8 19.0 3.2 2:4 7.1 2.4 0.8 . 6.4. 100.0  X ' = 4.67 d.f. =2 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. • % 38 22 19 2 3 8 2 1 8  36.9 21.4 18.4 1.9 2.9 7.8 1.9 1.0 7.8  11 3 5 2 0 1 1 0 0  47.8 13.0 21.7 8.7 0.0 4.4 4.4 0.0 0.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 1.07 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  43  supports previous work which suggested that distance per se does not appear to affect participation rates in/urban settings. Level of Living. All respondents scored above fifty on the revised 7 form of the Sewell Scale and the median scores for all categories were between eighty-one and ninety. The participants reported significantly higher levels of living as 25.4 per cent of the participants scored over ninety on the scale while only 9.5 per cent of the non-participants achieved that level. The chi square value for these distributions was 21.99 which is significant at the . 01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XVIII). Vocational and non-vocational participants scored similarly on the scale. The obtained chi square value of 1.48 is not significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. Significant correlations at the . 01 level occurred between level of living and the variable of education (r = .41), participation (r = .31), job prestige (r = .39), income from that job (r = .25), and distance from services (r = ». 19). These relationships indicate that those with more education, better jobs, and more income maintain higher levels of living and that these persons are more likely to participate in adult education programs. The negative correlation with distance from service centers reflects the decreasing services available in the outlying areas. Social Participation. The distribution of respondents with respect to social participation shows that participants in adult education programs were more actively involved in formal social organizations than non-participants.  James E. Melton. "The Influence of Alternate Course Locations on Distances Travelled by Participants in Urban Adult Evening Classes." Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of British Columbia, .1966, pp. 62-64; Donald P. McKinnon. "A Comparison of Distances Travelled to Urban Night School Centers." Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966, p. 77; Terrence Lee, "A Null Relationship Between Ecology and Adult Education." The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 38:100-102, (February, 1966). 7 Sewell, loc. cit.  44  TABLE XVIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY L E V E L OF LIVING SCORES  Non-Participants Level of Living Scores 20 or less 21 31 41 51 61 71 81  -  30 40 50 60 70 80 90  91 and over Total  Participants Total No.  Total No.' 0 0 0 0 2 15 35 62 12  0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 11.9 27.8 49.2  126  100.0  0.0  9,5  %  0 0 0 0 2 2 18 72 . 32  0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.6 14.3 57.1 25.4  0 0 0 0 1 1 14 60 27  126  100.0  103  d.f. = 2 Significant at the .01 level.  x  2  = 21.99  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  1.0 1.0 13.6 58.2 26.2  0 0 0 0 1 1 4 12 5  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 4.4 17.4 52.2 21.7  100.0  23  100.0  0.0 0.0 0.0  0.0  = 1.48 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the .01 level. x  2  f  45  Some 51.6 per cent of the non-participants reported belonging to no formal organization during the past year compared to 34.9 per cent of the participants. The median score for the non-participants was zero and the median for the participants was between six and ten. The obtained chi square value of 17.12 is significant at the . 01 level of confidence and the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the two populations may be rejected. (Table XIX). Vocational and non-vocational participants participated in formal social organizations to a similar degree and no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. Statistically significant correlations were found between social participation and the variables of education (r = .28), participation in adult education (r = .22), level of living (r = .30), and job prestige (r = .25), These correlations indicate that the respondents with more education, better jobs, and higher levels of living are more involved in formal community organizations.  ATTITUDES TO CHANGE  It was previously suggested that the degree of compatibility between the value orientations of the individual and the organization would affect participation. It was also suggested that change is necessarily one of the value orientations of educational systems. Therefore, it was proposed that participants and non-participants might differ with respect to attitudes to change. The respondents were asked to reply positively or negatively to eight statements concerning change in location, change in occupation, and change through education. A ninth item questioned the individual on his desire for further education and training. The results of these items are included in this section.  The change statements are those statements in Appendix B, pages 92 and 93 which are marked with a C to the right of the statement.  46  TABLE XIX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORES  Non-Participants Social Participation Scores 0 1- 5 6-10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 36 and over Total  Participants  Total No.  Total No.  65 7 29 8 7 3 1 1 5  51.6 5.6 23.0 6.3 5.6 2.4 0.8 0.8 4.0  44 10 18 12 12 13 7 3 .7  126  100.0  126  %  34.9 7.9 14.3 9.5 9.5 10.3 5.6 2.4 5.6  35 9 16 8 11 10 6 2 6  34.0 8.7 15.5 7.8 10.7 9.7 5.8 1.9 5.8  9 1 2 4 1 3 1 1 1  39.1 4.4 8.7 17.4 4.3 13.0 4.4 4.3 4.4  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 17.12 d.f. =3 Significant at the .01 level. 2  Vocational Non«•Vocational No. No. % %  X = .23 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the .05 level. 2  47  All the change statements were positively and significantly inter9 correlated, with the exception of the statement concerning the difficulty of going to school to learn new skills which did not correlate significantly with either of the two statements concerning leaving the area. These correlations suggest that the respondents tended to respond to most of the statements in a consistent manner. The participants responded more favourably than the non«partici» pants to all the statements with the exception of the statement concerning not leaving the area under any circumstances on which the two groups did not differ significantly.  Another measure of this difference is shown by the  significant correlations that occurred between these same statements and the variable of participation. ** The vocational and non-vocational participants responded similarly on most of the statements and when the distributions were tested the two groups did not differ significantly. The. eight change statements correlated negatively and significantly with age which suggests that older respondents view change less favourably than younger respondents. This finding is consistent with the suggestions presented.in the review of the literature. The statements concerning wanting a new job with more responsibility, the difficulty of learning a new routine, the willingness to go to school to learn new skills, and the willingness to give up sparetime to further education were' positivelyJand significantly related to education which suggested that respondents with more education were more confident in their abilities to attempt more responsible jobs and new routines and they seemed to view the school system as a place where they could learn new skills in their sparetime. The converse would appear true for those with less education. 9  See Table XXX, page 75  1 0  See Tables XXXI to XXXVHI, pages 76 to 83  1 1  See, Table XXX, page 75  48  Another indicant of this desire for new jobs and training is shown by the 68.3 per cent of the participants compared to the 48.4 per cent of the non-participants who stated that they would like some further education or training. A chi square value of 9.66 was obtained between the two distributions. This value is significant at the . 01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table XX). Some 70.9 per cent of the vocational participants compared to 56.5 per cent of the non-vocational participants indicated that they would like some further training or education. Since the obtained chi square value of 1,81 is not significant at the . 05 level of confidence, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted.  SUMMARY  On the personal variables of sex, marital status, and age, the two groups differed only on the variable of age with the participants being significantly younger. The participants and their wives were better educated and trained than the non-participants and their wives. Also, the children of the participants had received more schooling and the fathers of the participants were better trained than the children and fathers of the non-participants. Participants and non-participants also differed significantly on several occupational variables with the participants scoring higher on occupational prestige and income while non-participants had longer job tenure and contained a larger proportion of farmers. Job satisfaction was not a significant variable. The respondents differed significantly on several locality variables as the participants reported more social participation and higher levels of living while the non-participants had lived in the area longer. The variable of distance to services was evenly distributed in the two populations.  49  TABLE XX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY RESPONSES TO "WOULD YOU LIKE TO TAKE SOME FURTHER EDUCATION OR TRAINING?"  Non-Participants Response Yes No Undecided Retired Total  Total No.  %  Participants Total No.  %  Vocational Non-•Vocational No. No. % %  61 52 7 6  48.4 41.3 5.6 4.8  86 34 6 0  68.3 27.0 4.8 0.0  73 27 3 0  70.9 26.2 2.9 0.0  13 7 3 0  56.5 30.4 13.0 0.0  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 9.66 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. 2  X = 1.81 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the .05 level. 2  50  The vocational and non-vocational participants differed significantly on the variable of occupational prestige and income with the vocational participants reporting better jobs and more income. On the dynamic variables of attitudes to change, the participants were more favourably inclined to advancing to more responsible jobs, learning new routines, and giving up sparetime to attend schools for further education or training.  CHAPTER FOUR  ANALYSIS OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS  In the preceding chapter it was shown that participants and nonparticipants differed significantly with respect to twenty-one variables, and that many of these variables correlated significantly with the variables of age and education. Also, age and education correlated with adult education participation and the participants and non-participants differed with respect to these variables. Consequently, a more accurate analysis of the significant variables can be obtained if the interacting effects of age and education are removed. The purpose of this chapter is to remove the influence of the variables of age and education, and to re-examine the variables found to be significant when age and education were included.  Matching Procedure  Since the participants were younger and better educated than the non-participants, a new sample of non-participants was drawn in order to match two sufficiently large samples on the variables of age and education. The procedure classified the 881 respondents by age and education, then removed the participants and matched them with an equal number of non-participants.  52  Four of the participants could not be matched with non-participants, consequent tly, the sample sizes dropped to 122 in each group. The distribution of all respondents in the two samples by age and education classifications is shown in Table XXI. Analysis of variance was used to compare the two new samples with the variables found significant in the previous samples.  Findings  The new samples of participants and non-participants did not differ significantly on most of the variables which had been found to be significant when age and education was not held constant.  Consequently, it may be assumed  that the differences between the two original samples on these variables could be attributed to the differences in age and education of the two groups. The six variables on which the participants and non-participants still differed significantly were: the occupational prestige of the formal training and of the principal job, the number of children, the degree of social participation, the attitude to need for further education, and the willingness to gi?e up sparetime for adult education. A seventh variable on which the participants and non-participants differed significantly was the education of their children, but the distributions and frequencies in this variable did not lend themselves to analysis of variance. (Table XXII). Significant differences which occurred between the age-education classifications suggest that the variables of age and education are closely related to the variable under consideration. A l l but two of the static variables and two of the dynamic variables differed significantly between the age-education groups, which suggests that the age and education variables, singly or in combination, affected the majority of the variables considered.  53  TABLE XXI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS IN THE MATCHED SAMPLES BY AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS  Age  Years of Schooling  7 or less 8 9-11 12 13 - 15 16 or more 7 or less 8 9-11 12 13 - 15 16 or more 7 or less 8 9-11 12 13 - 15 16 or more 7 or less 8 9-11 12 13-15  34 or less  34 or less  35 - 44  35 - 44  45 - 54  45 - 54  55 or over  55 or over Total  Participants No. % 3 4 16 11 2 1 7 8 10 8 3 2 2 9 7 5 2 4 3 4 5 3 .3 122  2.5 3.3 13.1 9.0 1.6 0.8 5.7 6.5 8.2 6.5 2.5 1.6 1.6 7.4 5.7 4.1 1.6 3.3 2.5 3.3 4.1 2.5 2.5 100.0  Non-Participants No. % 3 4 16 11 2 1 7 8 10 8 3 2 2 9 7 5 2 4 3 4 •5 • 3 3 . 122  2.5 3.3 13.1 9.0 1.6 0.8 5.7 6.5 8.2 6.5 2.5 1.6 1.6 7.4 5.7 4.1 1.6 3.3 2.5 3.3 4.1 2.5 2.5 100.0  54  TABLE XXII F VALUES FOR ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF TWENTY VARIABLES  Variable  Between Between Participants and Non-Participants Age and Education F Significance Level F Significance Level  23.21 Respondent's Training Occupational Prestige 50. 80 Years worked at .30 Occupation Principal Income .01 Wife's Education 2.75 Wife's Training 2.37 17.30 Number of Children Father's Training 4.37 Lived in Area 0.00 2.33 Level of Living Social Participation 35.77 Change Statement One 2.00 Change Statement Two 0.00 Change Statement Four 4.00 2.28 Change Statement Five 10.31 Change Statement Six Change Statement Seven 11.07 .84 Change Statement Eight Would you like some further .68 education or training  (.01) (.01)  4.94 64.50  (.05) (.01)  n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. (.01) n.s. n.s. n.s. (.01) n.s. n.s. n.s. n.s. (.01) (.01) n.s.  8.36 3.86 16.75 2.87 11.55 .52 7.55 4.00 15.61 7.75 5.25 1.55 .80 2.37 1.42 2.63  (.01) (.05) (.01) n.s. (.01) n.s. (.01) (.05) (.01) (.01) (.05) n.s. n. s. n.s. n.s. n.s.  n.s.  1.83  n.s.  NOTE: A significant F value in the first column indicates that the participants and non-participants differed significantly on that variable even with the effects of age and education removed. A significant F value in the second column indicates that the age-education groups differed significantly on that variable.  55  Significant  Variables  N u m b e r of C h i l d r e n .  The non-participants  a m e a n o f 3.48 c h i l d r e n p e r r e s p o n d e n t .  r e p o r t e d 425 c h i l d r e n o r  T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , on the o t h e r hand,  r e p o r t e d 334 c h i l d r e n o r a m e a n o f 2.74 c h i l d r e n .  In e v e r y age-education  category, except the youngest with less than high school education, the nonp a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d the l a r g e r n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n , but t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n that one  c a t e g o r y w a s o n l y one c h i l d .  In m o s t age c a t e g o r i e s t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n -  participants with l o w e r education reported m o r e children than those with higher education.  T h e l a r g e s t m e a n n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n f o r both p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n -  p a r t i c i p a n t s o c c u r r e d i n the a g e - e d u c a t i o n g r o u p s t h i r t y - f i v e t o f o r t y - f o u r y e a r s of a g e w i t h l e s s t h a n t w e l v e y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g . Schooling of C h i l d r e n . i n the y o u n g e r age categories  ( T a b l e XXIII)..  T h e paucity of c h i l d r e n who had left s c h o o l  m a k e s a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e o f the m e a n s d i f f i c u l t ,  consequently, a chi square value was computed for the distributions within the participant and non-participant  groups.  T h e o b t a i n e d v a l u e o f 4.87 i s s i g n i f i -  c a n t a t t h e .05 l e v e l o f c o n f i d e n c e ; t h u s , t h e n u l l h y p o t h e s i s o f n o s i g n i f i c a n t difference i s rejected.  T h e c h i l d r e n of the r e s p o n d e n t s w i t h m o r e e d u c a t i o n  w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o g r a d u a t e f r o m h i g h s c h o o l and t h e c h i l d r e n of p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e t w i c e as l i k e l y t o g r a d u a t e a s not, w h i l e t h e c h i l d r e n of the had j u s t l e s s t h a n an e v e n chance of g r a d u a t i o n . T r a j j i i n g of Respondent.  non-participants  (Table XXIV).  The participants i n every age-education  g r o u p r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g f o r m o r e p r e s t i g i o u s j o b s t h a n the pants.  non-partici-  I n e a c h age g r o u p the r e s p o n d e n t s r e p o r t i n g m o r e e d u c a t i o n a l s o r e p o r t e d  training for more prestigious jobs.  Those participants and non-participants i n  the oldest b e t t e r e d u c a t e d g r o u p s r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g f o r the m o s t prestigious jobs.  T h e next best t r a i n e d age-education groups, f o r both p a r t i c i -  pants and non-participants, y e a r s of schooling.  w e r e the youngest groups with m o r e than twelve  A r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .93) w a s o b t a i n e d b e t w e e n t h e  participant and non-participant of j o b t r a i n i n g .  age-education groups w i t h r e s p e c t to the prestige  T h i s v a l u e i s s i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e .01 l e v e l a n d i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e  56  TABLE XXHI MEAN NUMBER OF CHILDREN BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS  Age  Years of Schooling  Participants Mean Number  Non-Participants Mean Number  34 or less  11 or less 12 or more  2.17 1.29  (50) (18)  2.13 2.21  (49) (31)  35 - 44  11 or less 12 or more  4.08 2.54  (102) (33)  5.40 3.15  (135) (41)  45 - 54  11 or less 12 or more  3.44 3.00  (62) (33)  4.11 3.27  (74) (36)  55 or more  11 or less 12 or more  2.00 2.00  (24) (12)  3.08 3.67  (37) (22)  Total  334  Total Variance  =16.10  Between Column Variance Between Row Variance Residual (C X R)  425  =2.65  = 12.38  = 1.08  F = 17.30  Significant at the .01 level.  F = 11.55  Significant at the .01 level.  57  TABLE XXIV EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN WHO HAVE L E F T SCHOOL BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS  Age  Years of Schooling  Total  Participants Non-Participants Completed Did not Total Completed Did not Complete Complete  34 or less 11 or less 12 or more  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  0 0  35 - 44  11 or less 12 or more  7 0  5 0  2 0  6 3  1 3  45 - 54  11 or less 12 or more  17 14  10 11  7 3  29 13  8 10  21 3  20 55 or more 11 or less 12 or more 10  9 10  11 0  31 20  14 14  17 6  45  23  102  50  52  Total  68  0 0. •  5 0  Note: A chi square value was computed comparing the distributions of the two populations with respect to completion or non-completion of twelve years of schooling. The value obtained was 4.78. This is significant at the . 05 level of confidence; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference may be rejected.  58  rank orders of occupational prestige of formal training by age-education groups were similar for both participants and non-participants. (Table XXV). Occupation of Respondent. The participants in all age-education groups reported jobs with more prestige than did non-participants. Also, within each age group those with more education reported better jobs than those with less education. Both the participants and non-participants with more than twelve years of schooling reported more prestigious jobs with increasing age and those with less than twelve yeaxs of schooling showed similar trends. The rank correlation coefficient (r = . 93) was the same as that obtained for the training patterns of the two groups and is significant at the . 01 level. This correlation indicates that the order of occupational prestige of present jobs is very similar in the age-education groups of both the participant and non- participants. (Table XXVI). The rank orders for the participant and non-participants on prestige of both training and occupation were significantly related as younger respondents had jobs of lower order prestige than their training order indicated while the converse was true for older respondents.  A rank correlation coefficient  (r = .81) was obtained between the prestige of training and jobs of the participants while a rank correlation (r = . 69) was obtained between those of the non-participants. Both correlations are statistically significant and indicate that prestige of formal training is significantly related to the prestige of the principal job of the respondent. Social Participation. The participants reported more social participation than the non-participants in every age-education group except the youngest with less than twelve years of schooling. Those respondents with more education in each age group reported more social participation than the members of the same age group with less education. The only exception to this occurred among the forty-five to fifty-four year old participants where those with less education reported slightly higher rates than the better educated.  The highest participation  rates in both groups were found in those fifty-five years and older with more than  59  TABLE XXV M E A N OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE SCORES* OF F O R M A L TRAINING BY RESPONDENT A G E AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS  Age  Years of Schooling  Participants  Non-Participants  34 or less  11 or l e s s 12 or more  5.65 4.50  6.82 6.07  35 - 44  11 or less 12 or more  6.72 5.07  6.76 6.38  45 - 54  11 or less 12 or more  6.65 5.18  7.27 6.54  55 or more  11 or less 12 or more  6.83 4.33  7.25 6.00  Total Variance  = 11.56  Between Column Variance Between Row Variance  =4.15 = 6.16  F = 23.21 Significant at the .01 level. F = 4.94  Significant at the .05 level.  Residual ( C X R) = 1.25 * Note: Respondents reporting no formal training were assigned a value of eight. This procedure causes the mean scores to be higher than normal.  60  TABLE XXVI MEAN OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE SCORES BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS  Age  Years of Schooling  Participants  Non»Participants  34 or less  11 or less 12 or more  4.52 3.85  5.17 4.42  35 - 44  11 or less 12 or more  4.96 3.41  5.52 4.23  45 - 54  11 or less 12 or more  4.61 3.18  4.88 4.00  55 or more  11 or less 12 or more  4.44 2.50  4.91 2.66  Total Variance  = 11.64  Between Column Variance Between Row Variance  =1.16  = 10.32  Residual (C X R). = ,16  F = 50.80  Significant at the-.01 level.  F = 64.50  Significant at the-.01 level.  61  twelve years of education. The lowest rates reported occurred in the youngest group with less than twelve years of education while the lowest rate for the non-participants occurred in the oldest group with less than twelve years of education. (Table XXVII). Attitude to Adult Education. The low mean scale scores show that only two of the participant age-education groups and none of the non-participant groups felt that they would need further education to ensure themselves adequate employment in the future. The non-participants were more certain about this as they reported lower felt needs than the participants in every age education group but the oldest group reporting less than twelve years of schooling. The younger non-participants and those with less education in each age classification felt greater need for further education than did the older and those with more education. On the other hand, the participants with more education in the two older classifications felt more need for further education while the converse was true for the younger participants. (Table XXVIII). There was a generally stated willingness to give up sparetime for further education reported by every age-education group except the non-participant groups fifty-five years of age and older. The participants in all ageeducation groups,, the younger respondents, and those with less education generally stated more willingness to give up their sparetime to further their education than the non-participants, the older respondents and those with more education. The most noticeable exception is the better educated participant group, forty-five to fifty-four years of age, who reported the strongest felt need for further education and most willingness to give up their sparetime to get that education. Since they also reported the least prestigious job training of the better educated participant groups while working at the third highest prestige jobs of all respondent groups, it could be suggested that they are finding their lower level of training inadequate for their present occupations or hindering their chances for promotion and it is from these feelings of inadequacy that their positive attitudes to adult education have developed. (Table XXIX).  62  TABLE XXVH M E A N SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORES BY RESPONDENT A G E AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATION  Age  Years of Schooling  Participants  Non- Participants  34 or less  11 or less 12 or more  2.13 3.50  2.43 2.57  35 - 44  11 or less 12 or more  3.36 4.23  2.60 3.61  45 - 54  11 or less 12 or more  3^.77 3.63  2.94 3.09  55 or more  11 or less 12 or more  3.58 5.33  2.08 4.00  Total Variance  = 10.22  Between Column Variance Between Row Variance Residual Variance  =2.40  = 7.35  = .,47  F = 35.77  Significant at the .01 level.  F = 15.61  Significant at the . 01 level.  63  T A B L E XXVIII M E A N S C A L E SCORES FOR CHANGE S T A T E M E N T SIX* BY RESPONDENT A G E AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS  Age  Years of Schooling  Participants  Non- Participant s  34 or less  11 or less 12 or more  3.26 2.85  2.95 2.57  35 - 44  11 or less 12 or more  2.92 2.83  2.84 2.15  45 - 54  11 or less 12 or more  2.83 3.45  2.50 2.18  55 or more  11 or less 12 or more  2.18 2.66  2.20 1.80  Total Variance  = 2.90  Between Column Variance Between Row Variance Residual (C X R)  = .90  =1.39  = .61  F = 10.31  Significant at the .01 level.  F=  Not significant at the . 05  2.37  l e V e 1 ,  * Note: The statement i s "I w i l l need further education to ensure myself adequate employment i n the future. "  64  TABLE XXIX MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT SEVEN* BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS  Age  Years of Schooling  Participants  Non»Participants  34 or less  11 or less 12 or more  3.78 3.64  3.74 3.50  35 - 44  11 or less 12 or more  3.84 3.67  3.40 3.54  45 - 54  11 or less 12 or more  3.56 4.00  3.17 2.82  55 or over  11 or less 12 or more  3.64 3.33  2.50 2.60  Total Variance  = 2.78  Between Column Variance Between Row Variance Residual (C X R)  = 1.10  = . 99  = .69  F = 11.07  Significant at the .01 level.  F •= 1.42  Not significant at the .05 level.  * Note: The statement is "I would be willing to give up my sparetime to further my education."  65  Summary. After matching the participants and non-participants on the variables of age and education the two samples differed significantly on only seven characteristics. The participants reported fewer children than the non-participants but a higher proportion of their children who had left school had graduated from high school. The participants also reported more prestigious formal job training and occupations than the non-participants. The nonparticipants were less involved with formal social organization in their community, less willing to give up their sparetime to further their education and less likely to feel that they needed any further education. Much of the effect of the other variables considered could be attributed to the variables of age and education rather than the variables themselves.  CHAPTER FIVE  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS  Summary  During the summer of 1967, data were collected from a random sample of 881 rural household heads in British Columbia. From this sample a total of 126 reported participation in adult education. An equal number of individuals who reported no participation were randomly selected. Bivariate tables were produced comparing the participants and non-participants by certain socio-economic and attitude variables. A chi square test with the null hypothesis of no significant difference was used to compare the two groups. Correlation coefficients were also computed to test linear relationships between the variables. The two groups were shown to differ significantly on twenty-three of the static and dynamic variables. Two of these variables, age and education, correlated sigiuficantly with participation in adult education and with twenty of the previously significant variables which necessitated selecting a new sample of non-participants. They were matched with the participants to remove the confounding  effects of the age and education variables. The new groups were  67  compared by analysis of variance of the mean scores obtained on the previously significant variables by each of sixteen blocks of matched respondents.  The  resulting variance ratios were tested using the F statistic under the null hypothesis of no significant difference.  Conclusions  The first experimental hypothesis in the null form proposed that the participants and non-participants would not differ significantly on the variables of age, education, occupation, income, social participation, and level of living. All of these variables except age were significantly different at the . 01 level of confidence and age was significant at the . 05 level of confidence. Other variables on which the respondents were found to differ significantly were: number of children, their education, the education of the wives, the training of the respondents, their wives, and their fathers, length of residence, and proportion of farmers. After matching the participants and non-participants on the variables of age and education,. the samples differed significantly on seven variables: occupation, training, number of children, education of children, and social participation. The first hypothesis can be accepted for these seven variables, age and education. It can be conditionally accepted for the other variables realizing that much of their difference can be attributed to the differences in the two populations with respect to age and education. The second hypothesis proposed that the two populations would differ with respect to their attitudes to change. This relationship occurred as the participants were significantly more favourable to change. Since significant correlations occurred between most of the change statements and the variables of education and age, the responses to the statements by the matched samples were analyzed and the matched groups differed only on need for further education and willingness to attend adult education with the participants being significantly more favourable. Therefore, the second hypothesis is accepted for  68  these two attitudes and may be accepted conditionally for the five others again considering that the differences can be attributed to the differences in age and education levels in the two samples. The third hypothesis proposed that the vocational and non-vocational participants.would differ with respect to certain of the socio-economic variables. The only variables on which the two populations differed significantly were occupations and incomes with the vocational participants reporting better jobs and consequently more income. There were only twenty-three non-vocational participants and testing this small number proved impossible at times.  Discussion  Vocational and Non-Vocational Participants. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between occupational prestige and vocational participation. A suggested hypothesis is that respondents with better jobs might find it necessary to participate in adult courses as a means of maintaining the level of job skills inherent in their jobs since it is in many of these jobs that occupational obsolescence occurs most rapidly. London* reported similar conclusions in the study of the Oakland population. He also suggested that persons dissatisfied with their present job and desiring to change their job would be more likely to participate but no significant difference or significant correlations were found with respect to job satisfaction and vocational participation. Number of Children. A review of the literature failed to find any mention that number of children affects participation rates. Since more children cause increasing demands on sparetime, increased use of income, and more responsibilities, this factor could be considered an important variable adversely affecting participation. It appears that participants have fewer children than  London, op. cit;, p. 146.  69  normal and non-participants more, however, this is a variable which must be given further research. Educational Orientation. There appears to be a general orientation to education in all age and education levels of participants. This assumption results from the better formal traiiiing the respondents have received; the better education their children get; their more positive attitude to need for further education; and their stated willingness to give up future sparetime to further their education. 2 London, in the Oakland study, proposed and then rejected a similar hypothesis that participants would tend to place a higher value on education than the non-participants. The different conclusions could be attributed to different definitions of terms, different populations, and different matching procedures.  London matched the participants and non-participants with respect  to age and occupational status but the fmdings of this study suggest that this is not the best procedure. This study found that participants reported significantly more prestigious jobs than the non-participants in the same age-education categories. If the participants and non-participants in this study were matched on age and occupational status variables then the non-participants could be expected to report more education than the participants. It was also shown that education correlated positively and significantly with attitude statements concerning education. Thus, if when matching the respondents on age and occupational prestige the non-participants have more education than the participants, then the true difference between participants and non-participants with respect to attitudes to education will be hidden. Again this is an area for more research using a more rigorous definition of attitudes to education. Implications This study has shown that there were seven variables, other than age and education on which participants differed significantly from non-participants 2  London, op. cit., p. 146  70  Five of these variables can be considered static and can be changed only through participation in adult education. Consequently, these variables are of little use to the adult educator wishing to increase participation. By changing the two dynamic variables, relating the attitude of the individuals to further education, the change agent can possibly increase participation rates. There appears to be two areas of need with respect to increasing participation. First, the discipline of adult education must uncover more dynamic variables relating the value orientations of both the participants and nonparticipants to those assigned to the institutions sponsoring adult education programs. Second, those in the field of adult education must become more active change agents in the community. They must attempt to make the value orientations of the community more compatible with the value orientation of the adult education institutions. Success in these two areas will involve more of the present non-participants in adult education and help to stop "the widening gap between 3 the educated and educationally deprived."  Coolie Verner and John Newberry, op. cit., p. 219.  i  71  BIBLIOGRAPHY  Beal, George M. and J.M. Bohlen. The Diffusion Process. Ames: Iowa State College, 1957. Blishen, Bernard R. "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale". Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 24:519-31. (November, 1958). Brayfield, A.H. and H.F. Rothe. "An Index of Job Satisfaction." Journal of Applied Psychology, 35:307-311, (October, 1951). Brunner, Edmund de S., _et. al., An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: The Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959. Buttedahl, Knute B. "A Comparative Study of Participants in Lecture Classes and Participants in Study Discussion Groups." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1963. Chapin, F.S. Social Participation Scale. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1938. Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Census of Canada, 1961. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964. (Bulletin 4.1-3). Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Education Division, Adult Education Section. Participants in Further Education in Canada. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1963. Edwards, A. L. Statistical Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966. Friedmann, E.A. "Changing Value Orientations in Adult Life." in Sociological Backgrounds of Adult Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964. Havighurst, Robert J. "Changing Status and Roles during the Adult Life Cycle: Significance for Adult Education." in Sociological Backgrounds of Adult Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964. Houle, Cyril O. The Inquiring Mind. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1961.  72  Johnstone^ J.W.C. and Ramon J. Rivera. Volunteers for Learning. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company,, 1965. Kendall, M.G. and S.B. Babington. Tables of Random Sampling Numbers. London: Cambridge University Press, 1951. Kerlinger, F.N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. Kuhlen, R.G. and G.H. Johnson. "Change in Goals with Increasing Adult Age." Journal of Consulting Psychologists, 16:1-4, 1952. Lee, Terrence, "A Null Relationship Between Ecology and Adult Education." The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 38:100-102 (February, 1966). London, Jack, Robert Wenkert, and Warren O. Hagstrom. Adult Education and Social Class. Berkeley: Survey Research Center, The University of California, 1963. McKinnon, Donald P. "A Comparison of Distances Travelled to Urban Night School Centers." Unpublished M.Ed Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966, p. 77. Melton, James E. "The Influence of Alternate Course Locations on Distances Travelled by Participants in Urban Adult Evening Classes". Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966, pp.62-64. Millerd, Frank W. "An Analysis of the Adoption of Innovations by Okanagan Orchardists." Unpublished M.S.A. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1965. Sewell, W.H. "A Short Form of the Farm Family Socio-Economic Status Scale." Rural Sociology, 8:161-170, (June, 1943). A Socio-Economic Survey of the Prince George Special Sales Area. Vancouver: Department of Adult Education, University of British Columbia, 1967. Verner, Coolie. A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and Classification of Processes. Washington: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962. Verner, Coolie. Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study. Ottawa: Rural Development Branch, Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967.  73  Verner, Coolie and Peter M. Gubbels. The Adoption or Rejection of Innovations by Dairy Farm Operators in the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967. Verner, Coolie and John S. Newberry, Jr. "The Nature of Adult Participation." Adult Education, 8:208-222, (Summer, 1958). Whyte, Donald R. "Rural Canada in Transition", Rural Canada in Transition: A multidimensional study of the impact of technology and urbanization on traditional society, eds., M.A. Tremblay and W.J. Anderson, Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1966.  74  APPENDIX A  TABLE XXX PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS  Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11  12  13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27  1  Age 1.00 Education -.23 Job Training .08 Wife's Education -.19 Wife's Training -.19 Adult Education -.16 Number of Children .17 Children Who Graduate .28 Children Do Not Graduate: .24 Father's Education -.17 Father's Training -.01 Years of Residence .28 Distance -.12 Level of Living. .01 Social Participation .04 Job -.04 Years Worked .51 Job Satisfaction .16 Principal Income -.13 Scale Score 1 -.32 Scale Score 2 -.38 Scale Score 3 -.21 Scale Score 4 -.32 Scale Score 5 -.32 Scale Score 6 -.26 Scale Score 7 -.29 Scale Score 8 -.30  2  3  4  5  1.00 -.40 .52 .02 .38 .16 .19 -.07 .35 -.28 -.25 -.01 .41 .28 -.47 -.15 .09 .28 .03 .23 .12 .38 .33 .13 .27 .07  1.00 -.23 .15 -.34 .25 .11 -.15 -.16 .16 .10 .14 -.11 -.24 -.53 .05 -.04 -.35 -.05 .08 -.01 -.08 -.11 -.03 -.05 -.00  1.00 -.54 .20 -.13 -.10 -.21 .22 -.26 -.15 -.09 .53 .17 -.36 -.09 .13 .25 .08 .20 .15 .21 .19 .05 .19 .11  1.00 .25 -.02 -.32 .00 -.15 .25 -.17 .16 -.26 -.02 .15 -.25 -.19 .07 .16 .21 -.09 -.04 .09 .14 .01 .14  6  7  8  9  10  11  FOR TWENTY-SEVEN VARIABLES*  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  23  24  25  26  27  NOTE; at the ,01 level are underlined. 1.00 -.10 .02 -.32 .05 -.12 -.13 -.17 .31 .22 -.33 -.05 -.11 .22 .17 .15 .08 .25 .26 .21 .30 .16  1.00 .23 .37 -.02 .18 .02 .03 -.04 -.01 .07 .21 .12 .01 .04 -.02 .16 -.15 -.07 -.06 -.05 -.05  1.00 .21 -.07 -.05 .38 -.15 .29 -.24 -.29 .24 .28 .10 .16 -.1.6 .34 -.15 -.16 -.06 -.23 -.18  1.00 -.14 -.18 .14 -.08 -.07 -.06 .05 .36 .16 -.19 -.02 -.20 -.02 -.01 .00 -.06 .15 -.13  1.00 -.52 -.12 .03 .08 -.04 -.19 -.09 .03 .02 -.02 .11 .03 .08 -.02 .04 .05 -.03  1.00 .08 .17 -.05 .10 .20 .00 -.01 .05 .06 -.26 .12 .08 .06 -.24 -.01 -.10  1.00 -.23 ;02 .03 .12 .31 .18  -.19 -.28 -.27 -.15 -.12 -.13 -.05 -.18 -.10  1.00 -.19 -.09 -.06 -.12 -.06 -.01 .14 .05 .05 .05 -.00 -.02 -.01 -.03  1.00 .31 -.40 , .06 .10 .26 .03 .14 .13 .22 .15 .04 .13 -.11  1.00 -.26 .10 .01 .12 .02 -.00 -.02 .12 .11 -.03 .17 -.02  1.00 .01 -.11 -.41 -.05 -.04 -.09 -.15 -.14 -.08 -.12 -.06  1.00 .22 -.01 -.16 -.27 -.14 -.16 -.11 -.24 -.21 -.17  1.00 -.00 1.00 -.12 .16 1.00 -.15 .10 .32 .00 -.02 .10 .42 .24 1.00 -.06 .08 .19 " .36 .23 1.00 -.07 .06 .10 ' .30 .00 .51 1.00 -.08 .04 .23 ' .26 .17 .-18 .22 1.00 .01 .05 .18 ' .22 .17 .37 .38 .36 1.00 -.15 .02 .22 .25 ..20 .25 .17 .27 .28 1.00  76  TABLE XXXI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER ONE  Non-Participants  Participants  Scale Score  Total No. •%••  Total No.  1 2 3 4 5 No Response  4 58 14 43 1 6  2 45 10 65 2 2  Total  126  3.2 46.0 11.1 34.1 0.8 4.8 100.0  126  1.6 35.8 7.9 55.5 1.6 1.6 100.0  X •= 6.55 d.f. =1 Significant at the .01 level. 2  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % % 2 34 9 55 2 1 103  1.9 33.0 8.7 53.4 1.9 1.0 100.0  0 11 1 10 0 1 23  0.0 47.8 4.4 43.5 0.0 4.4 100.0  X = 1.33 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the .05 level. 2  NOTE: The statement is: "I would not mind leaving here in order to make a substantial advance in my occupation."  77  T A B L E XXXII P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY T H E S C A L E SCORES FOR CHANGE S T A T E M E N T NUMBER  Non-Participants Total No.  Scale Score 1 2 3 4 5 No Response Total  %  TWO  Participants Total No.  %  Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. %  3 37 11 66 2 .7  2.4 29.4 8.7 52.4 1.6 5.6  0 29 5 87 3 2  0.0 23.0 4.0 69.0 2.4 1.6  0 22 3 74 3 1  0.0 21.4 2.9 71.8 2.9 1.0  0 7 2 13 0 1  0.0 30.4 8.7 56.5 0.0 4.4  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 4.29 d.f.=l Significant at the .05 level. 2  NOTE: The statement is: "I do not want any new job which involves more responsibility."  78  TABLE XXXIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER THREE  Non-Participants Total No.  Scale Score 1 2 3 4 5 No Response Total  %  Participants Total No. %  Vocational Non«Vocational No. No. % %  2 19 6 87 6 6  1.6 15.1 4.8 69.0 4.8 4.8  1 10 11 96 6 2  0.8 7.9 8.7 76.2 4.8 1.6  1 9 10 77 5 1  1.0 8.7 9.7 74.8 4.8 1.0  0 1 1 19 1 1  0.0 4.4 4.4 82.6 4.4 4.4  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  X = 3.54 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the .01 level. 2  NOTE: The statement is: "I would not leave this area under any circumstances."  79  TABLE XXXIV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER FOUR  Non»Participants  Participants  Scale Score -- -  Total No.'  1 2 3 4 5 No Response  2 27 8 80 3 6  1.6 21.4 6.3 63.5 2.4 4.8  0 10 1 110 3 2  0.0 7.9 0.8 87.3 2.4 1.6  0 10 1 90 1 1  0.0 9.7 1.0 87.4 1.0 1.0  0 0 0 20 2 1  0.0 0.0 0.0 87.0 8.7 4.4  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  Total  Total No;  Vocational Non-Vo cational No. No. % %  X = 13.36 d.f. =1 Significant at the .01 level. 2  NOTE: The statement is: "Learning a new routine would be very difficult for me."  80  TABLE XXXV P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY T H E S C A L E SCORES FOR CHANGE S T A T E M E N T NUMBER FIVE  Non-Participants Total No.  Scale Score 1 2 3 4 5 No response Total  %  Participants Total No.  %  5 41 9 62 3 6  4.0 32.5 7.1 49.2 2.4 4.8  0 23 4 90 7 2  0.0 18.2 3.2 71.4 5.6 1.6  126  100.0  126  100.0  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No.  %  0. 17 4 74 7 1 103  %  0.0 16.5 3.9 71.8 6.8 1.0  0 6 0 16 0 1  0.0 26.1 0.0 69.6 0.0 4.4  100.0  23  100.0  X = 13.66 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. 2  NOTE: The statement i s : "I would find it very difficult to go to school to learn new skills."  81  TABLE XXXVI P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY T H E S C A L E SCORES FOR CHANGE S T A T E M E N T NUMBER SIX  Non-Participants Scale Score 1 2 3 4 5 No Response Total  Participants  Total No.  Total No.  4 3.2 82 65.1 7 5.6 25 19.8 2 1.6 6 . 4.8  0 66 5 51 2 2  0.0 52.4 4.0 40.5 1.6 1.6  0 53 5 42 2 1  0.0 51.5 4.8 40.8 1.9 1.0  0 13 0 9 0 1  0.0 56.5 0.0 39.1 0.0 4.4  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  126 X  100.0 = 10.93  %  d.f. = 1 Significant at the . 01 level. 2  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  X = .14 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the . 05 level. 2  NOTE: The statement i s : "I w i l l not need further education to ensure myself adequate employment in the future."  82  T A B L E XXXVII P E R C E N T A G E DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY T H E S C A L E SCORES FOR CHANGE S T A T E M E N T NUMBER S E V E N  Non-Participants Total No.  Scale Score  1 2 3 4 5 No Response Total  3 42 9 64 2 6  %  2.4 33.3 7.1 50.8 1.6 4,8  126  100.0  x  = 23.22  2  Participants Total No.  0.0 11.1 7.9 77.8 1.6 1.6  0 14 10 98 2 2 126  %  100.0  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  0 11 10 80 1 1 103  0.0 10.7 9.7 77.7 1.0 1.0 100.0  d.f. = 1  Significant at the . 01 level. NOTE: The statement i s : "I would be willing to give up my sparetime to further my education."  0 3 0 18 1 1 23  0.0 13.0 0.0 78.3 4.4 4.4 100.0  83  TABLE XXXVIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER EIGHT  Non-Participants  Participants  Scale Score  Total No. %  Total No.  1 2 3 4 5 No Response  3 63 11 43 0 6  50.0 8.7 34.1 0.0 4.8  1 49 10 64 0 2  0.8 38.9 7.9 50.8 0.0 1.6  0 41 7 54 0 1  0.0 39.8 6.8 52.4 0.0 1.0  1 8 3 10 0 1  4.4 34.8 13.0 43.5 0.0 4.4  126  100.0  126  100.0  103  100.0  23  100.0  Total  2.4  X = 6.22 d.f. = 1 Significant at the . 05 level. 2  %  Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % %  X = .ll d.f. = 1 Not significant at the . 01 level. 2  NOTE: The statement is: "I have no desire to learn a new trade."  84  APPENDIX B  85  Respondent's  Number  C . - L . I . Region  A.R.D.A./U.8.C./67  SOCIO-ECONCWUC INTERVISV SCHEDULE R e s p o n d e n t ' s Name  ,  Address  Record of  ,  Visits: Date  -Time  ^G~t'nc-.'ts  First  ;  Second  .  Third  ;  _  .  :  Enumerated by: F i e l d Check by:  ',  ;  Coded by: Checked by: District  Lot Number, R e s p o n d e n t ' s L o c a t i o n on L o t , and Land U s e  (Sketch!.  86  R e s p o n d e n t ' s Number  1,3. 4.  N . T . S . Map Number  5,9.  C . L . I . Region  !C,I  i.  Socio-economic sub-region  12.  Regional D i s t r i c t  13.  Sex of  Respondent 1. 2.  • Male Female  14.  START INTERVIEW HERE I.  How many p e o p l e a r e l i v i n g t ime? !. •2. 3.  C h i l d r e n under 14 Chi Idren 1 4 - 2 1 Adults  What i s your m a r i t a l I. 2. 3.  In your home at the  present  15.  status?  SIng I e Married ' Widowed, d i v o r c e d ,  or  • 2 3  separated  your a ge? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  15 25 35 45 55 65  1  - 24 - 34 -44 -54 -64 or.over  -->  3 4 5 6  y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g d i d you complete? 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  5 or l e s s 6 - 7 0 9-11 '2 . 13 - 15 ( 1 - 3 y e a r s u n i v e r s i t y ) 16 or more (degree or above)  !8.  1 t>  4 5  c 7  a.. D i d you have any t r a i n i n g a f t e r you l e f t I. 2.. b.  If  school?  yes no .  y e s , . w h a t were you t r a i n e d  in?  How many y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g d i d your w i f e complete? I.  2.  3. .4. 5.  6. 7. a.  or I ess 6 - 7 8 9 - 1 1 12 13 - 15 (1-3 years u n i v e r s i t y ) 16 o r more (degree or above) 5  Did your w i f e have any o t h e r t r a i n i n g a f t e r she school? 1. 2.  yes no  f y e s , what was she t r a i n e d  a.  b.  le  in'  Have you t a k e n any a d u l t e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s i n t h e last three years? (Interviewer explain). 1.  yes  2.  no  Was t h i s c o u r s e r e l a t e d t o your Job? 1. 2.  d i d n ' t t a k e any c o u r s e s yes  3.  no  How many c h i l d r e n do you have? Of t h o s e c h i l d r e n who have l e f t s c h o o l , a.  How many completed grade 12?  b.  How many d i d net complete grade 12?  How many of your c h i Idren have moved t o another area? What was your f a t h e r ' s o c c u p a t i o n ?  88  10.  How many y e a r s of s c h o o l d i d your f a t h e r complete? 1.  .  3. 4. 5. 6. 7, S. a.  I I.  1  5  o 5 ( - 3 years u n i v e r s i t y ) (degree o r above) more  "7  8  d o n ' t know yes no  Th I s a r e a B r i t i s h Columbia Canada • United States U n i t e d Kingdom Other (spec i fy)  How long have you l i v e d i n t h i s area? two y e a r s o r I ess 3 - 5 years 6 - 1 0 years 1 1 - 1 6 years 1 7 - 2 0 years more t h a n 20 y e a r s entI r e I i f e t ime  Where d i d you l i v e b e f o r e coming t o t h i s area? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.  "7  4  Where were you born?  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 13.  ?  i f y e s , what was he t r a i n e d in?  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 12.  know less  Did your f a t h e r have any o t h e r t r a i n i n g a f t e r he l e f t school? I. 2. 3.  b.  don't 5 or 6 - 7 8 9-11 12 13-1 16 or  Not a p p I i c a b Ie ( l i v e d B r i t i s h Columbia Canada United States U n i t e d Kingdom Other ( s p e c i f y )  in area for  lifetime)  89  14.  Now I would l i k e t o ask you how f e r you and your f a m i l y t r a v e l , In m i l e s , t o r e c e i v e t h e f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s : 1. food p u r c h a s e s 2. c l o t h i n g p u r c h a s e s 3. m e d i c a l c a r e 4. church 5. e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l 6. secondary school 7. p o s t o f f i c e • 8 * work  45,47. 48,50. 51,53. 54,56. 57,59. 60,62. 63,65. 66,68. Total Distance Divided  1  D i s t a n c e t r a v e l I t>A  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 15. - 28.  by  =  69,71  srnrft  72.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  73.  5 3  (3) (5) (7)  74.  3 5 7  electric (8J g a s , m a n t l e , o r p r e s s u r e (6) o l I lamps, o t h e r o r none (3)  75.  8 6 3  0 - 5 ml l e s 6-10 II - 15 16 - 20 21-25 26 - 30 31-35 36-40 41 o r more  (SEWELL SCALE, SHORT FORM)  The n e x t few Items a r e c o n c e r n e d w i t h some o f t h e t h i n g s t h a t your f a m i l y owns.  urns 15.  C o n s t r u c t i o n of a. b,  16.  b r i c k , s t u c c o , o r frame In good c o n d i t i o n (5) u n p a l n t e d frame o r o t h e r In poor c o n d i t i o n (3)  Room-person r a t i o : Number o f m o m s d i v i d e d by number o f p e r s o n s Ratio:  17.  house:  Lighting  a  . b. c.  below 1.00 1.00 - 1.99 2.00 and up  equaIs  factlltles: a. b. c.  START  R e s p o n d e n t ' s Number  18.  Water p i p e d  into.house: a. b.  19.  21.  22.  23.  yes no  (8) -'(4)  yes no  (6) (3)  Power washer: a. b.  20.  I,  Refrigeration:., a. , b. c.  mechanl.ca I (8) i ce (55 o t h e r or none <3)  a. b.  yes no  (6) (3)  a. b.  yes no  (6)  Radio:  Telephone:  Automobile ( i n c l u d e s  (3) pickup  a . . yes  (6)  b.  (2)  no  2 4 . • Fami ly t a k e s d a i l y or weekly  25.  truck):  newspaper:  a. yes (6) b. no (3) W i f e ' s e d u c a t i o n : grades completed (See Q u e s t i o n . # 5 ) a. b. c. d. e.  0 to 7 (2) (4) 8 : 9 - 1 1 . :• (65 (7) 12 13 and up (8)  91  c  Husband's E d u c a t i o n : grades completed (See Q u e s t i o n /M)  26.  a. . b. c. d. e.  . 0 to 7 .8 9 - 1 1 12 . . 1 3 and  (3) (5) (6) (7) (8)  up  3 5 6 7 7  Husband a t t e n d s c h u r c h o r Sunday School a t a month:  27.  a. b.  yes no  (5)  14.  (2)  W i f e a t t e n d s c h u r c h or Sunday School a month:  28.  a. b.  l e a s t once  yes no  l e a s t once  (5)  o  (2)  2  Total Percentage Score  16, 18.  I.  Under 20  2.  2 1 - 3 0  2  3. 4.  3 1 - 4 0  3 4  % Score:  5. 6.  19.  4 1 - 5 0 5 1 - 6 0  ^  6 1 - 7 0  i  7 1 - 8 0  8. 9.  8 1 - 9 0  6 7 8 9  Over 90  (CHAPiN SCALE)  29.  Would you p l e a s e t r y t o r e c a l l t h e names of a l l t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t you have belonged t o i n t h e p a s t y e a r . (Do not i n c l u d e a t t e n d a n c e at c h u r c h ) . •" "•• 1" 4 Member 1 5 . j Name of 2. A t t e n - s 3 . F i n a n of Commits O f f i c e s Score 20,21. Organi z a t i o n dance f c i a 1 con tee | held j t r i but icn p jj 1 .ar.ti-c.!.p,gt,i on, Sec 1. I /L • ! **>  •  3.  I-  4. 5. 6. .7.  8  ••  I  •  Total  1 (XI)  .j (X3)  5 10 II15 16 20 2 1 - 2 5 2 6 - 3 0 3 1 - 3 5  1 1  I  (X2)  0 I 6 -  si 1 1  J  (X4)  Over 35  (X5)  22.  2 3 A M-  5 6 7  8  G  3 0 . - 49.  I would l i k e t o ask you a few q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g how you f e e l about r u r a l - l i f e and t h i s a r e a . P l e a s e g i v e your r e a c t i o n t o each s t a t e m e n t , u s i n g the f i v e responses on the c a r d .  30.  Rural  l i f e i s too i s o l a t e d and too  31.  Since c i t y people.have educational o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n easy r e a c h , I t h i n k they have an advantage over r u r a l p e o p l e .  32.  T h i s a r e a i s a d e s i r a b l e one in which t o  33.  I would not mind l e a v i n g here i n o r d e r s u b s t a n t i a l advance i n my o c c u p a t i o n .  34.  I. do not want any new job which i n v o l v e s more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .  35.  I would not  36.  L e a r n i n g a new r o u t i n e would be v e r y d i f f i c u l t  lonesome.  live.  to'make a  leave t h i s a r e a under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s .  3 7 . ' The f u t u r e of t h i s a r e a looks  f o r me.  bright.  38.  I would f i n d i t v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o go t o s c h o o l I earn new s k i l l s .  39.  The people here f i n d i t very easy t o get t o g e t h e r community p r o j e c t s .  40.  There a r e not enough jobs a v a i l a b l e h e r e .  41.  I b e l i e v e the r u r a l of t h e c i t y .  42.  I w i l l need f u r t h e r e d u c a t i o n t o ensure m y s e l f adequate >employment i n t h e f u t u r e .  43.  No one seems t o c a r e how t h i s a r e a l o o k s .  44.  I b e l i e v e t h a t people who want new and e x c i t i n g e x p e r i e n c e s must leave t h e r u r a l a r e a s and go t o t h e c i t i e s .  45.  I would be w i l l i n g t o g i v e up my s p a r e t i m e t o f u r t h e r my education.  46.  This area w i l l  47.  The c o u n t r y o f f e r s more enjoyment of the c i t y .  environment  to  on  i s h e a l t h i e r than t h a t  never seem l i k e heme t o me. l i v i n g than does  93  3;  CT)  (0 c:  o  O CD  •o  —  LT. b  '!)  •1) CD  <  48.  I have no d e s i r o to learn a new trade.  49.  I t h i n k t h a t , on t h e a v e r a g e , t h e s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g of r u r a l p e o p l e i s below t h a t of o t h e r s i n Canada.  4^  (3)  T o t a l Area Score  (Al-  l o t a I Change Score (C) What was your p r i n c i p a l o c c u p a t i o n i n 1965?  51.  Were you s e l f - e m p l o y e d ? ' I.  2. 52.  53.  4 3 , 4A  47,4  d i d you work?  agr i c u I t u r e forestry mining s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n secondary a g r i c u l t u r e secondary f o r e s t r y recreation construction other  4. 5. 6.  2 or I ess 3 - 5 6 - 10 I I - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25  7.  26 and over  3.  y  o 6  Is t h i s t h e same job you a r e w o r k i n g In now? I.  2. 55..  1  How many y e a r s had you been w o r k i n g i n t h i s o c c u p a t i o n ?  1. 2.  54.  *  yes no  In what i n d u s t r y 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  "O cr  1  T o t a l R u r a l Score  50.  <J 0)  If not:  a.  yes no ' What job a r e you w o r k i n g i n now?  56,53.  0) 0 U CD CO  01  •—  Q  —  CD c  o  to  4  5  4  5  94  55.  b.  c.  56.  Are you s e l f - e m p l o y e d ? 1.  yes  2.  no  What i n d u s t r y  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Did you have a i n 1966? (For I. 2. If  2 a r e you w o r k i n g  58*  59.  60.  I 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 9  yes no  6K  ! 2  y e s , what was your secondary o c c u p a t i o n ? -  62,64.  .  .Were you s e l f - e m p l o y e d i n your secondary o c c u p a t i o n ? 1.  yes  2.  no  65.  I 2  In what i n d u s t r y was your secondary o c c u p a t i o n ? 1. . f o r e s t r y 2. . agr i c u I t u r e 3. mining 4. s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 5. secondary a g r i c u l t u r e 6. secondary f o r e s t r y 7. recreation 8. construction 9. other Did you have a t h i r d Job i n 1966? ' (For farmers o f f-farm job). 1. 2.  60.  in?  agriculture forestry • mi n i ng s e r v i c e , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n secondary a g r i c u l t u r e secondary f o r e s t r y r e c r e a t i on construction "other secondary o c c u p a t i o n or s o u r c e of income farmers - P r i n c i p a l o f f - f a r m j o b ) .  . 57.  I  59.  yes no  How many months d i d you work i n  1966?  66.  I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  67.  I 2  secondary  68.  95 10  (FOR INTERVIEWER USE ONLY) Respondent may be c l a s s i f i e d a s : 1. 2.  farmer on Iy farmer p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h secondary o f f - f a r m job n o n - f a r m e r p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h farming as secondary job non-farmer only no |ob o r o u t of work  3. 4. 5.  69.  I 2  a>  4  D  O) CO w  OJ \-  61. - 69.  (BRAYFIELD AND ROTH'S.INDEX  A\y job i s  l i k e "a hobby t o me.  62.  t seems t h a t my f r i e n d s a r e more i n t e r e s t e d In jobs than I am.  •<uo  >* —  I would l i k e t o f i n d o u t how you f e e l about your j o b . P l e a s e r e p l y t o each statement u s i n g the f i v e phrases on t h i s c a r d . (Hand respondent c a r d ) . 61.  .—  <  OF JOB SATISFACTION - REVISED)  • their li.  co c  G>  -r-  Ci  5  4  •j  I  2  3  Ql  —  <j  Oi •a  c r>  63.  enjoy my work more than my l e i s u r e t i m e .  12  64.  am o f t e n bored w i t h my j o b .  73.  I  .2  3  65.  feel  74.  5  4  66.  f e e l t h a t my job i s no more i n t e r e s t i n g than o t h e r s couId g e t .  75.  f a i r l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h my j o b .  67.  I definitely  d i s l i k e my w o r k .  68.  Each day of work seems l i k e I t w i l l  69.  I f i n d r e a l enjoyment  never end.  •  O  &  <i>  i_ CO (C (.0  •—  Q  2  9 - 1 2 13 - 16 17-20 • •21 - 24 . 25-23 29 - 32 '33 - 36 37 - 40 4 1 and over  -r—  CO  1  I  j  2 3  4  5  76.  I  2  3  4  5  77.  I  2  3  4  5  2  I  4.  T o t a l , Scfal.3. S c o r e :  c  3  1,3.  f o t a I Score  CD  4 i 2  START DATA CARD 3 R e s p o n d e n t ' s Number  >-  —  •?- ->  78.  i n my w o r k .  a  3  i?,6. 7.  6  3  70.  Have you worked a t any job o t h e r thai": the o n e ' s ) you a r e now working a t ?  I. 2. 71.  yes no  i f y e s , what s p e c i f i c j o b s have you had f o r more than s i x months:  r! .  P r e v i o u s job Next P r e v i o u s job Next P r e v i o u s job  _._  ! ~  15, ! 7.  .  Next P r e v i o u s job . _., Next P r e v i o u s job  I £.  id, 20.  ,., __ ._ .  21,  What was your approximate net income from your p r i n c i p a l Amy. o c c u p a t i o n i n 1966? ( f o r farmers - n e t farm income) ucce« 73.  What was your approximate net income frev. your o t h e r o c c u p a t i o n s i n 1966?  74.  Did any o t h e r f a m i l y members l i v i n g a t home earnIncome i n 1966? i f y e s , how much was t h i s income? a.  wife  b.  sons o r  c.  others  Ami . 36,40. Code. 41. -  daughters  Amt. Code.  42,46. 47*  nmt. Code.  43,^2« 53,  97  R e s p o n d e n t ' s number  76.  Did you or members of your f a m i l y r e c e i v e income from o t h e r s o u r c e s In 1966? If y e s , how much was t h i s income? a.  rent,  i n t e r e s t , or  dividends  AtTit .  Code, b.  77.  unemployment Insurance or payments  welfare Code.  15. 16.  Amt. :ode.  17,21. • 22.  What would you e s t i m a t e was t h e v a l u e of produce r a i s e d and consumed by y o u r s e l f l a s t year? quantlty  va 1 ue  ml Ik butter eggs meat  j  garden produce Total 78.  J  Have you been unemployed d u r i n g t h e p a s t 3 y e a r s ? (For farmers - Have you sought o f f - f a r m work In. the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s and been unable t o o b t a i n any?)  A. 8.  • • yes 2. no  23.  ( 2  f o r how long? 1. l e s s than a month 2 . 1 - 6 3. 6 - 12 4. 13-18 5. 18 - 24 6. 24 - 30 .7.' .'30 - 36  24.  !  2 3 4. 5 6 7  (3  79.  If you were unemployed, what was the cause or of your unemployment? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  80.  If  81.  Do you own t h i s It e n t i r e l y ? .  further  yes no undec i ded  26, 1  l a n d , own p a r t and r e n t p a r t , or  27,29.  rent  own own more than h a l f and r e n t the remainder r e n t more than h a l f and own t h e remainder rent i t e n t i r e l y manager other  30.  ;  How d i d you a c q u i r e t h i s 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. '  83.  25.  y e s , what k i n d of t r a i n i n g would you be i n t e r e s t e d in?  1. 2. 3. 4.. 5. 6. 82.  seasonal l a y o f f s h e a I t h d i sab i I [ t i es no work a v a i l a b l e work a v a i l a b l e , but i n s u f f i c i e n t sk fI I t o g e t work fami ly reasons s e e k i n g new p o s i t i o n other  Would you l i k e t o t a k e some k i n d of e d u c a t i o n or t r a i n i n g ? 1. 2. 3.  nature  land?  do not own land from t h e C r o w n - p u r c h a s e from t h e C r o w n - p r e - e m p t or homestead bought as i s i n h e r i t e d as a g o i n g c o n c e r n through m a r r i a g e p r i v a t e unimproved i n a c t i v e improved other  How many a c r e s of  land do you own here?  31.  Amt. Code.  32,35. 36.  99  84.  How many a c r e s have not been c l e a r e d but a r e g r a s s meadows or n a t u r a l p a s t u r e s ? ' N  Amt. Code.  37,40. 41.  85.  How many a c r e s have been c l e a r e d ?  Amt. Code.  42,45. 46.  86.  How many a c r e s a r e i n bush o r t i m b e r ?  Amt. Code.  47,50. 51.  (FOR AREAS AFFECTED BY FLOODING ONLY) 87.  Do you e x p e c t t o be r e l o c a t e d because of from dam s t o r a g e r e s e r v o i r s ?  flooding  1. . yes 2. no 88.  If  s o , where do you expect t o be moved t o ?  52.  I  2 53,57.  THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE TO BE. ASKED OF FARMERS ONLY 89.  What i s your p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l , p r o d u c t s o l d ? ( t h a t i s , t h e p r o d u c t from which you o b t a i n e d the largest gross revenue.) A.  B.  (I)  I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.  d a i r y produce ( m i l k or cream s h i p p e r ) beef sheep other livestock f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s ( i n c l u d i n g p o t a t o e s ) other f i e l d crops mixed wood l o t p r o d u c t s eggs o r p o u l t r y  58.  What o t h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s do you s e l l ? (!f more than one r e s p o n s e , check second response in B (2). I. 1. 2. "7 J  .  4. 5.  6..  7. 3. 9.  d a i rry y produce dai beef sheep other 1 i vestock f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s f i e l d crops mi xed wood l o t p r o d u c t s other  59.  o  7  o G  15  89.  3.  (2)  I. 1.  2. 5. 4.  5.  6. 7. 8.  9.  90.  d a i rry y products dal beef sheep other 1 i vestock ' f r u i t and v e g e t a b l e s f i e l d crops ml xed wood l o t p r o d u c t s other  60.  What was t h e average number of a n i m a l s on your farm l a s t year? djyry animals cows hei f e r s calves bulls  T o t a l Animal Units Tot  cows hei f e r s year 1 i rig's, calves bulls •  PI  I  An  I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.. S.. 9.  j mai  Un  61,63.  i  no a n i m a l s l e s s than !0 10 - 19 20 - 29 30-39 40 - 49 50 - 59 . 60 - ' 79 80 and o v e r  64.  horses sheep  •  • .  swine chickens 91.  'What was your a p p r o x i m a t e g r o s s  92.  Would you c o n s i d e r 1966 a . t y p i c a l y e a r , o r was b e t t e r o r poorer than average w i t h r e s p e c t t o net farm income?  . '.  1. 2. 3. 4.  farm income i n 1966?  typ i caI b e t t e r than average poorer than average not farming p r e v i o u s t o 1966  Ami. Code.  65,70. 7 I.  It  7 2  .  101  9 3 . . What would you be w i l l i n g t o pay t o own and o p e r a t e • t h i s farm as a goTng concern ( e v e r y t h i n g i n c l u d e d ) ? 94.  Arr.t. Code.  73,78. 79.  Do you use h i r e d labour for your farm o p e r a t i o n , and, i f s o , on what b a s i s do you h i r e l a b o u r ? , 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.  no h i r e d labour used h i r e d labour used o n l y on a s e a s o n a l b a s i s f o r l e s s than one man-month h i r e d labour used o n l y on' a s e a s o n a l b a s i s f o r more than one man-month h i r e d - labour on a y e a r - r o u n d b a s i s some yeai—round l a b o u r , some s e a s o n a l  SO.  I 2.  '  3 45  DATA CARD R e s p o n d e n t ' s number  95.  •  D i d you work o f f your farm l a s t year? If y e s , how many weeks d i d you spend w o r k i n g o f f farm? 1. no o f f - f a r m work 2 . . l e s s than 4 weeks 4 - 9 3. 4. 10 - 13 5. 13-25 6. 26 - 39 7. 40 - 52 .  96.  97.  >  Do you use unpaid f a m i l y I f y e s , how much?' I. 2.  b.  I. l e s s than I man-day per month 2. I - 5 3. 6 - 10 4 . 1 1 - 1 5 5 . more than 15  I. 2. 3.  yes no  Agriculturist?  r ight wrong d o n ' t know  i 3 4o 6 7  labour In your far  a.  Who i s your D i s t r i c t  5.  6.  I 2-  7.  I 2  3  4 5  102 17  90.  Have you v i s i t e d your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t In h i s o f f i c e d u r i n g t h e post year? If s o , how many t i m e s ? I. 2. ' 3. 4.  99.  10.  ! 2  3  4-  None I or 2 3 or 4 5 o r more  None' I or 2 3 or 4 5 or more  Did you read c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , m a i l e d announcements, b u l l e t i n s on an a g r i c u l t u r e s u b j e c t d u r i n g t h e p a s t year? If s o , how o f t e n ? 1. 2. 3. 4.  103.  None I or 2 3 or i 5 o r more  II.  I 2 3 4  12.  I 2 3 4  Have you a t t e n d e d l o c a l m e e t i n g s o r f i e l d days sponsored by t h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t d u r i n g t h e p a s t year? If s o , how many? 1. 2. 3. 4.  102.  ! 2 3 4  Did your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t v i s i t ycu d u r i n g the p a s t year about a farm m a t t e r ? If s o , how many t i m e s ? 1. 2. 3. 4.  101.  9.  Have you c o n s u l t e d your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t about a farm m a t t e r over t h e t e l e p h o n e d u r i n g t h e p a s t year? If s o , how many t i m e s ? 1. 2. 3. 4.  100. '  None I or 2 3 or 4 5 or more  Never rarely sometimes often  Have you l i s t e n e d t o farm r a d i o o r t e l e v i s i o n d u r i n g t h e p a s t year? If s o , how o f t e n ?  2. 3. 4.  or  never rarely somet imes often  1  3  .  1 2 3 4  programs  3 4  18  104-.  D i d you read any farm newspaper a r t i c l e s d u r i n g t h e past year? If s o , how o f t e n ? I . never 2. ' r a r e Iy 3. sometimes 4. often  105.  15.  Have you ever t a k e n any a g r i c u l t u r e c o u r s e s ?  If  so,  • where? 1. no c o u r s e s 2. h i g h s c h o o l 3. v o c a t f o n a ! or a g r i c u l t u r e 4 . • a g r i c u l t u r a l c o l lege 5. university . 6 . ' adult education 106.  school  D u r i n g t h e next f i v e y e a r s do you have any d e f i n i t e p l a n s t o change your f a r m i n g a c t i v i t i e s or o p e r a t i o n s ? 1. 2.  107.  16.  yes no  17,  What k i n d of change(s) do you hope t o make? 1. i n c r e a s e farm s i z e 2. change e n t e r p r i s e 3. c l e a r and/or d r a i n l a n d . 4.. change b u i l d i n g s 5. education ' 6 . • t a k e an o f f - f a r m job 7. i n c r e a s e o f f - f a r m work 8. retire 9. • increase stock J. s e I I farm K. decrease stock L. d e c r e a s e farm s i z e M. r e n t out farm N. d e c r e a s e o f f - f a r m work P. other ' •  108.  IS. 1.9. 20,  What do you t h i n k would improve a g r i c u l t u r e  i n t h i s area? 2! . 22.  Present  land use  (9 c o l s )  '  23,31.  Land c a p a b i l i t y  for a g r i c u l t u r e  (10 c o l s )  32,41 .  Land c a p a b i l i t y  for  ( 6 cols)  42.47.  forestry  

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