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Analysis of participants in rural adult education Goard, Dean Sinclair 1968

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ANALYSIS OF PARTICIPANTS IN RURAL ADULT EDUCATION by DEAN SINCLAIR GOARD B. Ed.:, University of British Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in the Faculty of Education (Adult Education) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required .standard -fhlE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t n f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8. C a n a d a D a t e i A B S T R A C T M o s t r e s e a r c h on p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult e d u c a t i o n has d e s c r i b e d p a r t i c i p a n t s u s i n g s t a t i c v a r i a b l e s , however, i t has been suggested that d y n a m i c f a c t o r s w h i c h d e s c r i b e the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the i n d i v i d u a l and the o r g a n i z a t i o n have m o r e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e . T h i s study i n c l u d e d both t y p e s of v a r i a b l e s when a n a l y z i n g the f a c t o r s w h i c h i n f l u e n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult e d u c a t i o n i n a r u r a l C a n a d i a n s e t t i n g . T h e data f o r t h i s study w e r e c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g the s u m m e r months of 1967, when i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o m p l e t e d w i t h 881 h o u s e h o l d heads i n s i x r u r a l r e g i o n s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e 126 r e spondents who w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s and an e q u a l number of r a n d o m l y d r a w n n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e c o m p a r e d u s i n g both s t a t i c and d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h i n the g r o u p s w e r e t e s t e d f o r s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s u s i n g the c h i s q u a r e s t a t i s t i c w h i l e l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e i n d i c a t e d by c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . T o r e m o v e the e f f e c t s of the v a r i a b l e s of age and e d u c a t i o n f r o m the r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x i s t i n g between the two g r o u p s a second s a m p l e of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was m a t c h ed w i t h the p a r t i c i p a n t s on t h e s e v a r i a b l e s . T h e new g r o u p s w e r e th e n c o m p a r e d u s i n g the s t a t i c and d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s on w h i c h the o r i g i n a l groups had d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y . T h e f i r s t and second hypotheses w h i c h p r o p o s e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r -e n ces between the two groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o c e r t a i n s t a t i c and d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s , w e r e t e n t a t i v e l y a c c e p t e d when the o r i g i n a l s a m p l e s of p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e shown to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on t h i r t e e n s t a t i c and eight d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s . T h e t h i r d h y p o t h e s i s w h i c h p r o p o s e d d i f f e r e n c e s between v o c a t i o n a l and n o n - v o c a t i o n a l p a r t i c i p a n t s was o nly p a r t i a l l y a c c e p t e d as the two g r o u p s d i f f e r e d on the v a r i a b l e s of o c c u p a t i o n a l p r e s t i g e and i n c o m e . T h e f i n d i n g s w i t h r e s p e c t to the f i r s t two hypotheses w e r e m o d i f i e d when the m a t c h e d gro u p s w e r e shown to d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y on o nly f i v e s t a t i c and two d y n a m i c v a r i a b l e s . On t h e s e v a r i a b l e s the p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d b e t t e r j o b t r a i n i n g and b e t t e r j o b s , f e w e r but b e t t e r educated c h i l d r e n , and g r e a t e r f o r m a l i i social participation. They also reported a greater felt need for further education and stated more willingness to give up sparetime for this education. A general conclusion was proposed which suggested that the participants exhibited a more favourable attitude to education than did the non-participants. But this conclusion is tentative as the findings of the study emphasize both the need for further research with dynamic variables and the control of age and education variables when comparing participants and non-participants. i i i TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1 Statement of Problem 2 Hypotheses 2 Limitations 3 Definiton of Terms 3 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE 4 Static Factors Related to Participation 4 Dynamic Factors Related to Participation 6 CHAPTER TWO THE STUDY 7 The Study Areas 7 Rural British Columbians 11 Sampling Procedure 12 Instruments 12 Data Processing 14 Data Analysis 14 CHAPTER THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS 16 STATIC FACTORS 16 Personal Characteristics 16 Educational Achievement 20 Formal Training Patterns 24 Occupational Variables 30 Locality Variables 38 ATTITUDES TO CHANGE 45 SUMMARY 48 CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS . . 51 Matching Procedure 51 Findings 52 Significant Variables 55 Summary 65 iv PAGE CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 66 Summary 66 Conclusions 67 Discussion 68 Implications 69 BIBLIOGRAPHY 71 APPENDIX A 74 APPENDIX B 84 LIST OF TABLES PAGE I Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Sex 18 II Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Marital Status 18 III Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Age 19 IV Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Years of Schooling Completed :21 V Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Education of Wife 23 VI Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Education of Children " 25 VII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Education of Father 26 vni Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Occupational Prestige of Formal Training 28 IX Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Occupational Prestige of Wife's Formal Training 29 X Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Prestige of Father's Formal Training 31 XI Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Farmer and Non-Farmer Classifications 33 XII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Prestige of Present Occupation 34 XIII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Job Satisfaction Scores 36 XIV Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Number of Years in Present Occupation 37 XV Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Income from Present Occupation 39 V I PAGE XVI Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Years Lived in Locality 41 XVII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Mean Distance to Service Centers 42 XVIII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Level of Living Scores XIX Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Social Participation Scores 44 46 XX Percentage Distribution of Respondents by Responses to "Would you like to take some further education or training 7' 49 XXI Percentage Distribution of Respondents in the Matched Samples by Age and Education Classifications 53 XXII F Values for Analysis of Variance of Twenty Variables 54 XXIII Mean Number of Children by Respondent Age and Education Classifications 56 XXIV Educational Achievement of Children who Have Left School by Respondent Age and Education Classification 57 XXV Mean Occupational Prestige Scores of Formal Training by Respondent Age and Education Classifications 59 XXVI Mean Occupational Prestige Scores by Respondent Age and Education Classifications 60 XXVII Mean Social Participation Scores by Respondent Age and Education Qassification 62 XXVHI XXIX Mean Scale Scores for Change Statement Six by Respondent Age and Education Classifications 63 Mean Scale Scores for Change Statement Seven by Respondent Age and Education Classifications 64 vii PAGE XXX Product-Moment Correlation Coefficients for Twenty-Seven Variables 75 XXXI Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number One 76 XXXII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Two 77 XXXIII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Three 78 XXXIV Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Four 79 XXXV Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Five 80 XXXVI Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Six 81 XXXVII Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Seven 82 XXXVHI Percentage Distribution of Respondents by the Scale Scores for Change Statement Number Eight 83 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Voluntary participation determines the audience for adult education programs. Thus, it is of prime importance that adult educators understand the participation phenomena. Since participation is an individual decision, a logical study approach is to determine and examine the factors affecting the individual when he makes this decision. It will be from a consideration of these factors that a theory of participation will be developed. In the field of social participation research, Beal has suggested that there are two general types of factors influencing the participation decision which he identified as static and dynamic factors.''' Static factors are the more or less permanent characteristics of an individual including sex^ ; aS e* marital status, education, occupation, and income. Although these factors are easily and accurately collected, Beal argues against the continued and almost exclusive emphasis placed upon them. He argues that since their relative permanence inhibits change, they are of little value to George M. Beal and J.M. Bohlen. The Diffusion Process, Ames: Iowa State College, 1957. 2 change agents desiring to increase participation. On the other hand, the dyn-amic factors, "which define the relationship of the individual to the organiz-2 ation", contain the possibility of change. Because research has shown that changes in these dynamic factors can bring about changes in participation rates consideration of these factors must be included in research about participation in adult education.^ Statement of Problem Adult education is a relatively new discipline so that the theories necessary for its maturation have yet to be developed and one such will be a theory of participation. A valid participation theory requires representative examples of the phenomena which must include the many forms of adult educa-tion programs, the many relevant dynamic and static factors, and the many different cultural settings in which adult education occurs. The problem for this study can be expressed as follows: What static and dynamic factors influence adult education participation in a rural Canadian environment ? Hypotheses Three hypotheses were developed for this study and stated in the null form they are: 1. Participants and non-participants in a rural setting will not differ significantly with respect to the static variables: age, education, occupa-tion, income, social participation, and level of living. 2. Positive attitudes to change will not be related to participation in adult education. 3. Vocational and non-vocational participants will not differ significantly with respect to the previously mentioned variables. Loc. cit. 3 Loc. cit. 3 Limitations This study has several limitations which must be considered when interpreting its findings. One consideration is that the population is a Canadian population, therefore, generalizations to other populations must be made with care as some substantial differences have been reported in the characteristics 4 between Canadian and American participants in adult education. A second consideration is that the universe studied is a rural population and American research on rural and urban populations have reported differences in the char-acteristics of participants. ^  This would suggest that generalizations to urban Canadian populations must be made with care. A third consideration is that only household heads reported on their adult education activities. The majority of household heads are men, consequen-tly, the population studied mirrors neither the rural adult population nor the rural adult education population. Definition of Terms This study uses several terms which require specific definition: -1. Adult education courses:—An adult education course was one included in an an institutionally sponsored adult instructional method. 2. Formal education:—Formal education was defined as years of school completed. Knute B. Buttedahl, "A Comparative Study of Participants in Lecture Classes and Participants in Study Discussion Groups." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1963. p. 72. ^ Edmund de S. Brunner, et. al., An Overview of Adult Education  Research, Chicago: The Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959, p. 97. J.W.C. Johnstone, and Ramone J. Rivera, Volunteers for Learning, Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company, 1965, p. 79. Coolie Verner, A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and  Classification of Processes, Washington: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962. 3. Participant:—An adult education participant was a respondent who reported having participated in an adult education course in the three years pre-ceding the interview. 4. Vocational participant:«—A vocational participant was a participant who reported the course was related to his job while a non-vocational partici-pant reported that the course was not related to his job. 5. Farmer:—A respondent was classified as a farmer if he sold more than $250 worth of products raised on his property in the year preceding the interview. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Most of the research on participation in adult education has descr-ibed the participants using the static factors of age, education, occupation, income, and social participation. The dynamic factors, on the other hand, have rarely been included in studies. This study reviews the previously mentioned static factors and the dynamic factor of attitudes to change and con-siders possible relationships to participation. Static Factors Related to Participation Previous research has shown that formal education is the best 7 predictor of participation in adult education. Those with more education, as measured by years of schooling, tend to participate more frequently. Conver-sely those with less education, the people who could benefit most by participa-tion, infrequently attend. The causes of this disparity are as yet undefined. Brunner, op. cit., p. 92; Johnstone, op. cit., pp. 77-78; Jack London, Robert Wenkert, and Warren O. Hagstrom, Adult Education and Social  Class, Berkeley: Survey Research Center, The University of California, 1963, p. 42; Coolie Verner and John A. Newberry, Jr . , "The Nature of Adult Participation", Adult Education, 8:208-222, (Summer, 1958). Houle suggests that it is not a simple cause and effect relationship only that formal education creates "an awareness of the diversity of life and knowledge" g and from this awareness develops the quest for further knowledge. Age has been shown to be negatively related to participation, and 9 especially to vocational participation. Factors which might be affecting this variable are reduced incomes, limited mobility, decreased vocational interests, less formal education and general disengagement from society. Occupational status and income have been shown to be.positively related to adult education participation. Two studies have shown that much of these relationships can be attributed to the education variable. The social participation exhibited by the individual has also been shown to be a good predictor of participation in adult education. Social partic-ipation can be considered as the degree of involvement of an individual in his society. This involvement can take one or more of several forms. Participation in formal organizations is the form most often studied and the results of these 12 studies are most applicable to adult education participation research. Verner and Newberry in their analysis of social participation research found that sex, education, occupation, income, and age are important factors related to par-13 ticipation behaviour. Since these factors have been shown to influence participation in adult education the positive relationship noted between the two 14 forms of participation could be expected, g Cyril O. Houle, The Inquiring Mind, Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1961, p. 71. 9 Brunner, op. cit., p. 105; London, op. cit., p. 43; Verner and Newberry, op. cit., pp. 208-222. ^ Brunner, op. cit., pp. 96-97; London, op. cit., p. 41; Verner and Newberry, op. cit. Johnstone,, op. cit., pp. 98-100; London, op. cit., pp. 84-86. 12 Brunner, op. cit., pp. 102-114. 13 Verner and Newberry, loc. cit. 14 Brunner, op. cit., pp. 95-98. 6 Dynamic Factors Related to Participation Dynamic factors which are concerned with the causes of particip-ation are difficult to isolate because "each person is unique and his actions spring from a complex interaction of personal and social factors."^ The complexity of the interaction has to a large degree discouraged study in this area. Friedmann has suggested that "value compatibility" is a major dynamic factor involved in participation. He proposes that: Since participation in adult education is voluntary, we would expect it to vary according to the degree of compatibility which exists between the value orient-ations of the program and those of the individual. In considering Friedmann's suggestion the value orientations of adult programs must be considered. Adult education is involved with learning; learning necessarily implies change; therefore, among other factors, par-ticipants could be expected to be more positively oriented to change than non-participants. Assuming that an individual's attitude to change is a dynamic variable those factors which affect it must also be considered. Two factors which could affect this variable are age and education. Since education implies change, those with more schooling will have experienced more success with change. Favourable attitudes usually result from success consequently it can be considered that those with more favourable attitudes to past educational experiences would be more likely to participate than those with less favourable 17 attitudes. London reported this to be the case, although he found no general tendency of participants to place a high value on education. K ^ Houle,. op. cit., p. 80. 16 Friedmann, E.A., "Changing Value Orientations in Adult Life", in Sociological Backgrounds of Adult Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964, p. 44. 17 London, op. cit., pp. 121-125. 7 The second factor which could affect attitudes to change is age. Havighurst, in adapting Buhler's concepts of life cycle states, goals, and related achievements to adult education, proposes that there are "a series of dominant concerns, each of which govern the behaviour of a person (more or less consciously)" during each particular stage in his life cycle. Dominant concerns were suggested for each decade in the life cycle. Generally those adult stages before forty years of age are dynamic and positively oriented to change while those past forty years of age are conservative and negatively oriented to change. Evidence of these stages and concerns can be found in. a study con-19 cerned with aging and vocational goals in which the authors reported that married male school teachers over forty years of age exhibited a decline in the desire to get a new job out of the field of education. After forty-five years of age there was a very rapid decrease in the desire for a different job or promo-tion even within the field of education. This rapid decrease was matched to a rapid increase in the desire to retire. The desire to remain in the same job increased with age. Havighurst reported several factors that might cause variations in his general scheme. These differences result from individual and social status differences. He states that working class people will reach their conservative stages earlier in life and this factor would adversely affect the participation 20 rates of people in this classification. These findings suggest that attitude to change is affected by the variables of age and education and if it is to be considered a dynamic factor affecting participation then the effects of these variables must be considered. 18 Robert J. Havighurst, "Changing Status and Roles during the Adult Life Cycle: Significance for Adult Education. " in Sociological Backgrounds of Adult'Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults,' 1964, pp. 17-38. 19 R.G. Kuhlen and G.H. Johnson, "Changes in Goals with Increasing Adult Age." Journal of Consulting Psychology, 16:1-4, 1952. 20 T T " , ." ' Havighurst,, loc. cit. CHAPTER TWO THE STUDY The participation patterns of the rural residents of British Columbia will result from a combination of the static and dynamic factors suggested previously. This chapter will describe the six study areas and certain charac-teristics of rural British Columbians as well as outlining the sampling techniques and the procedures for collection and analysis of the data. The Study Areas The Province of British Columbia is divided into geographic regions by mountain ranges which occupy most of the province. These ranges determine to a large extent the climate, ecology, industry and settlement patterns of the regions. The six regions which contained the universe used in the study are described below: Fort Nelson Region: The Fort Nelson Region, the northern-most region of settlement in the province, is located in the northeast corner of the province along the Alaska Highway. In 1961, the total population of the area was 2,700 persons, 1,600 of whom lived in the community of Fort Nelson. * Although All references of the descriptions in the study areas are located in the Regional Index of British Columbia. Victoria: Department of Industrial Trade and Commerce, 1966. 9 the economy is based upon forest industries and gas exploration and develop-ment, the service industries along the highway provided the major source of employment. There was no agriculture in the area as a result of a short growing season. t Peace River Region: The Peace River Region is situated on the northern fringe of the Rocky Mountain Trench south of the Fort Nelson Region. Although the western section is mountainous, most of the region is physically and climatically a part of the Interior Plains of North America. In 1961, the total population of the region was 27,700 and the major service centers were Dawson Creek, Pouce Coupe, and Fort St. John. The service industries were the largest employers while the major industries in the area were agriculture, forestry and gas production. The importance of agriculture can be shown by the fact that sixty-eight per cent of the provincial acreage devoted to grain production and over thirty per cent of the total acreage under cultivation occurred in this region. Vanderhoof-Terrace Region: This region, which is situated in north-central British Columbia, is formed by two major sub-regions. The westerly region is characterized by mountainous terrain, coastal climate, and rain forest ecology while the easterly region is characterized by the rolling hills of the Interior Plateau, a dryer climate with greater temperature extremes and more sparse forest growths. The population of the area in 1961 was 24,800 persons most of whom lived in or around the centers of Terrace, Vanderhoofg Burns Lake and Smithers which lie along a major highway and railway. The major industries in the region are forestry, m i n i n g , .and tourism. West Kootenay Region: The West Kootenay Region is a much older area in terms of settlement and is situated in the southeast corner of the province. The topography of the area is characterized by three long narrow valleys separ-ated by rugged mountain ranges. The population in 1961 was 70,700 persons, the majority of whom are located in valley connecting the industrial city of Trail and the distribution center of Nelson. The climate of the area is milder than that of the Interior Plateau but conditions throughout the region vary. The area was 10 developed on a mining economy and the smelting complex at Trail reflects its continued importance, but the forest industries are rapidly assuming greater importance. The little agriculture in the area is primarily concerned with fruit growing and is carried out on the valley benches.. The Salmon Arm Region: The Salmon Arm Region, in south-central British Columbia, lies to the north of the Okanagan Valley. The region is formed by the land within the Shuswap Lake drainage system. In 1961, the major portion of the 10,000 inhabitants were concentrated in and around the distribution center of Salmon Arm. The climate of the area, moderated by the proximity of the lake, is generally mild in winter and warm in summer. The major industries in the area are forestry, tourism, and agriculture. The major agricultural products of the area are fruit and dairy products although there is a trend to beef production. North Thompson Region: This region, which is sometimes referred to as the Kamloops Region, is contiguous to the Salmon Arm Region to the southeast and stretches north occupying the North Thompson River Valley as far north as Blue River. The population of the area in 1961 was 31,500 persons. Most of the population was located in and around the city of Kamloops which, situated at the junction of major railway and highway systems, has developed into the major distribution center for south-central British Columbia. The southern area around Kamloops receives little rain and on the grasslands ran« ching is the primary industry. Changes in the. topography cause more rainfall in the northern areas and forest industries become predominant. These two industries rank second and third in importance in the area after the service industry. Although the regions differ in their geographic location and on several climatic and ecological characteristics, they are similar in that most of the inhabitants worked at primary, simple secondary, and service industries related to forestry, agriculture, tourism, and mining. This primary industry orien-tation is characteristic of rural British Columbia and the six areas can be consid-ered to be representative of the rural areas of the province. 11 Rural British Columbians The rural population can be described in terms of its growth, and the socio-economic characteristics of its members. In 1961, twenty-seven per cent of the total population in British Columbia was classified as rural. This rural population was composed of farmers (5 per cent) and non-farmers (22 per cent). Although the rural population is steadily increasing, the growth rate is slower than that exhibited by the urban population. The growth in the total rural population can be attributed to an increase in the rural non-farm 2 population since the rural farm population is decreasing. The rural population in British Columbia occupies a favourable socio-economic position when compared to the rural populations in other regions of Canada. In British Columbia the rural residents are characterized 3 by: the largest proportion of persons in the productive ages; the highest 4 5 mean educational level; the highest rates of participation in stdult education; the highest mean non-farm family income; the second highest mean farm 7 8 family income; and one of the highest levels of rural living. Although these values indicate relative prosperity in the province they do not show that pockets of poverty and unemployment are found throughout the province in areas where the primary industry has stagnated. Donald R. Whyte, "Rural Canada in Transition", Rural Canada in  Transition: A multidimensional study of the impact of technology and urban- ization on traditional society, eds., M.A. Tremblay and W.J. Anderson, Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1966, pp. 10-13. 3 Ibid., p. 17. 4 Ibid., p. 64-65. ^ Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Education Division, Adult Education Section, Participants in Further Education in Canada, Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1963, pp. 14-16. Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Census of Canada, 1961. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964. (Bulletin 4.1-3). 7 Whyte, op. cit., pp. 36-37. 8 Whyte, op. cit., pp. 39-42. 12 Sampling Procedure The population for this study was drawn from a previous sample of a rural population. The sampling procedure for this original sample has been 9 described in detail elsewhere and will only be summarized here. The original sample was randomly drawn from a universe of all rural pre-empted*^ land holdings in each of six regions in British Columbia. The households residing on these selected lots formed the population base for the study and the household heads were the respondents. The original sample produced 881 completed interviews for the six regions. From this sample of the rural population, the 126 respondents who had participated in an adult education course in the three years prececling the survey were removed and an equal number of non-participants were randomly selected using tables of random numbers. ** A second sample of non-partic» ipants, matched with the participants on the variables of age and education, was drawn at a later date after it was suspected that these variables concealed many of the relationships existing between the two groups. Instruments Data were collected by personal interviews with household heads during the summer months of 1967. In addition to standard socio-economic data, the interview-: schedule contained four standardized measurement instruments: 9 Coolie Verner, Planning and Conducting a Survey: Case Study, Ottawa: Rural Development Branch, Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967. pp, 7-12. Pre-empted lands are lands which are privately owned or leased from the Crown. All land not so pre-empted remains Crown land. ** Kendall, M.G. and S.B. Babington, Tables of Random Sampling  Numbers, London: Cambridge University Press, 1951. 12 Verner, Coolie. Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study, op. cit. pp. 36-37. 13 13 1. A short form of Sewell's Farm Socio-economic Status Scale was used to assess level of living. This scale is composed of fourteen items each of which has been assigned a weighted numerical value. Higher scores on the scale indicate higher levels of living. 2. The degree of social participation exhibited by the individual was measured 14 by Chapin's Social Participation Scale. The Chapin Scale assigns numerical values to both the number of organizations to which the individual belongs and to the degree of involvement in these organizations. A high scale score indicates a high rate of participation. 3. Job satisfaction was measured using a revised form of Brayfield and Rothe's Index of Job Satisfaction.^ The respondent was asked to express agreement or disagreement to nine statements about his job using a five point scale. The scores for each statement were summed and a higher score indi-cated greater satisfaction with present job. 4. A fourth instrument, an occupational status scale constructed for Canadian occupations, was used to rank both the jobs and formal job training reported by the respondents. The scale assigns lower values to jobs of higher prestige 16 and conversely higher values for jobs of lower prestige. 13 W.H. Sewell, "A Short Form of the Farm Family Socio-Economic Status Scale." Rural Sociology, 8:161-170, (June, 1943). 14 F.S. Chapin, Social Participation Scale. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1938. 1 5 A. H. Brayfield and H.F. Rothe, "An Index of Job Satisfaction". Journal of Applied Psychology, 35:307-311, (October, 1951). 16 Bernard Blishen, "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale.", Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 24:519-531. (November, 1958). 14 Also included in the interview schedule were eight statements which concerned three general forms of change: change in residence locality, change in occupation, and change in education. Analysis of variance was completed on the eight questions using the scores of a random sample of all respondents. The analysis indicated that individuals responded to each of the questions in a consistent manner. Data Processing The completed schedules were checked and coded in the field to permit reinterviewing if necessary. They were rechecked and submitted for keypunching onto data cards at the Computing Center of the University of British Columbia. The cards were then prepared for computer analysis. Data Analysis Multivariate tabulations of the data produced tables comparing participants, both vocational and non-vocational, and non-participants against all other characteristics. The distributions within these tables were tested for significant differences using the chi square statistic, under the null hypothesis of no significant difference at either the . 05 or . 01 levels of con-fidence. ^ Tables of product-moment correlations were produced comparing the relationships of each variable studied against each other variable. These correlations were tested for significance under the null hypothesis using both the .05 and .01 levels of confidence. Analysis of variance was used to test for differences in the matched samples using the mean scores obtained by the age-education blocks on variables See, A.L. Edwards, Statistical Methods for the Behavioral  Sciences, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966, pp. 366-398. 15 previously shown, to be related to age and education and on which the par-ticipants and non-participants had differed significantly. The procedure 18 followed was that suggested for correlated groups. The F ratio was tested for significance under the null hypothesis using both the .05 and .01 levels of confidence. F.N. Kerlinger, Foundations of Behavioral Research, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967, pp. 242-249. CHAPTER THREE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARTICIPANTS AND NON-PARTICIPANTS Several groups of static socio-economic characteristics can be used to describe and compare participants and non-participants. In addition, the dynamic variables relating personal attitudes to change with institutional goals can suggest why participants and non-participants differ with respect to their participation. STATIC FACTORS Personal Characteristics The variables of sex, marital..status, and age are three personal characteristics which permit description and comparison of the participants and non-participants. Sex: Since the respondents were household heads a large proportion of males would be expected. Some 84.1 per cent of the participants were male and 15.9 per cent female while 88.1 per cent of the non-participants were male and 11.9 per cent were female. The difference between the two groups was not 17 significant at the .05 level of confidence; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. (Table 1). Some 86.4 per cent of the vocational participants were men compared to 73.9 per cent of the non-vocational participants. The difference was not significant at the .05 level so the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. Marital Status. Non-participants, vocational, and non-vocational participants exhibited similar proportions with respect to marital status. Some seven per cent were single, 88 per cent were married and five per cent were either widowed, separated, or divorced. A chi square value of 0.34 was obtained. This is not significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. (Table II). Age. The participants were younger than the non-participants as their median age occurred in the category of thirty-five to forty-four years of age compared to the forty-five to fifty-four year category for the non-partici-pants. The chi square test was significant at the .1 level of confidence but not at the .05 level. To check this low level of confidence a t-test was com-puted comparing the mean age of the participants (42.4 years) with that of the non-participants (46.4 years). The difference was significant at the .05 level of confidence, thus the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table III). The vocational and non-vocational participants exhibited comparable distributions with respect to age and the chi square value of 0.58 which was obtained is not significant at the .05 level. The null hypothesis of no signif-icant difference is accepted. All tables in this chapter are tested for significance using the chi square statistic. 18 TABLE I PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SEX Non-Participants Participants Sex Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % Men I l l 88.1 106 84.1 89 86.4 17 73.9 Women 15 1.1.9 20 15.9 14 13.6 6 26.1 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X = .83 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the . 05 level. X =2.20 d.f.. = 1 Not significant at the . 05 level. TABLE II PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS Npn» Participants Participants Marital Status Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % Single 10 7. 9 8 6.4 7 6.8 1 4.3 Married 109 86. 6 112 88.8 92 89.3 20 87.0 Other 7 5. 5 6 4.8 4 3.9 2 8.7 Total 126 100. 0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = .345 d.f. =2 Not significant at the . 05 level. 19 TABLE III PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY AGE Non-Participants Participants Age Total Total Vocational Non-•Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % 15 - 24 4 3.2 4 3.2 4 3.9 0 0.0 25 - 34 24 19.0 34 27.0 28 27.2 6 26.1 35 - 44 31 24.6 38 30.2 32 31.1 6 26.1 45 - 54 35 27.8 31 24.6 26 25.2 5 21.7 55 - 64 18 14.3 16 12.7 11 10.7 5 21.7 65 or Over 14 11.1 3 2.4 2 1.9 1 4.3 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 5.78 d.f. =3 X 2 = .58 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the . 05 Not significant at the . 05 level. level. t-value = 2.55 Significant at the .05 level. 20 Although the chi square statistic indicated a lower level of confidence in the significant difference in the distributions of participants and non-partici-2 pants, age is negatively related to participation. A correlation coefficient (r = -. 16) was obtained between age and participation which is significant at the . 05 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant relationship between age and participation is rejected. Educational Achievement Education of Respondent. The educational achievement of the res-pondents indicates that the participants had received significantly more years of schooling than non-participants. The median achievement of the non-partici-pants was eight years compared to the median achievement of nine to eleven years for the participants. The most pronounced differences between the two populations occur at the extremes of educational achievement. Some 13.5 per cent of the non-participants compared to 0.8 per cent of the participants had less than five years of schooling and could be classified as functionally illiterate. On the other hand, 1.6 per cent of the non-participants compared te»15.9 per cent of the participants had received thirteen or more years of schooling. A signif-icant chi square value of 29.47 was obtained which is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table IV). The vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar levels of education but there was no statistically significant difference between the two populations. Statistically significant correlations were found between education and participation (r = .37) and age (r = -.23). Both of these correlations are significant at the . 01 level and the null hypotheses of no significant relationships are rejected. These findings indicate that persons with more education are more likely to participate in adult education activities and that the older respondents had less education than the younger respondents. Both of these fmdings are con-sistent with generalizations from previous research. 2 Correlation coefficients for all variables with all other variables are given in Table XXX, page 75. 21 TABLE IV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS OF SCHOOLING COMPLETED Non-Participants Participants Years of Schooling Total No. % Total No. % Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % 5 or less 17 13.5 1 0.8 1 1.0 0 0.0 6 - 7 19 15.1 14 11.1 12 11.6 2 8.7 8 42 33.3 25 19.9 21 20.4 4 17.4 9-11 32 25.4 38 30.2 30 29.1 8 34.8 12 14 11.1 28 22.3 23 22.3 5 21.7 13-15 2 1.6 12 9.5 9 8.7 3 13.0 16 or More 0 0.0 8 6.4 7. 6.8 1 4.3 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 29.47 d.f. =3 X 2 = .38 d.f. = 2 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .01 level. 22 Education of Wife. The distributions of respondents with respect to wife's education indicates that the wives of the respondents generally had more education than did the respondents. The median educational achievement for the wives of both non-participants and participants occurred in the nine to eleven year category, but the distributions were not similar as the wives of the participants had significantly more education. A chi square value of 13.94 was obtained which is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table V). The median education of the wives of the vocational participants was in the nine to eleven year category compared to the twelve year category for the non-vocational participants. A chi square test of the distributions between those under twelve years of education and those twelve years and over is not significant. The value of 0.34 indicates that the null hypothesis of no significant difference at the .05 level can be accepted. Statistically significant correlations at the . 01 level were obtained between the education of wives and participation (r = . 19), education of respondents (r = .52), and age of respondents (r = -. 19). The negative correl-ations between the age of the respondent and his education and that of his wife when considered with the positive correlation between the education of husband and wife suggest that the respondents have married wives with levels of education similar to their own and that this pattern has existed over a period of time. Education of Children. The non-participant group reported 390 children compared to 344 reported by the participants. Since the non-partici-pants are older this difference could be expected. The non-participants reported that 61.5 per cent of their children were pre-school or still attending school, 12.1 per cent had graduated from grade twelve,, and 26.4 per cent had left school but failed to graduate. The participants, on the other hand, reported that 79.1 per cent were pre-school or still attencling school, 13.9 per cent had graduated from grade twelve, and.7.0 per cent had left school but not graduated. It should be noted that less than 31.4 per cent of the children of non-participants who had 23 TABLE V PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EDUCATION OF WIFE Non-Participants Participants Years of Total Total Vocational Non-Vo cational Schooling No. % No. % No. % No. % 5 or less 8 6.4 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 6 - 7 12 9.5 8 6.4 5 4.8 3 13.0 8 26 20.6 12 9.5 9 8.7 3 13.0 9-11 29 23.0 47 37.3 43 41.8 4 17.4 12 24 19.0 28 22.2 21 20.4 7 30.4 13 - 15 11 8.7 15 11.9 13 12.6 2 . 8.7 16 or more 0 0.0 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 No Response 16 12.7 12 9.5 9 8.7 3 13.0 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 13.94 d.f. = 3 X 2 = ,34 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .05 level. 24 left school had graduated compared to over 66.6 per cent of the children of participants. A chi square value of 48.47 was obtained between the distribu-tions and this value is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. The distributions of children who had left school produced a chi square value of 24.66 which is also significant at the .01 level and the null hypothesis is rejected. (Table VI). The vocational and non-vocational respondents showed similar distributions with respect to both the number of children and their educational achievements. The obtained chi square value of 1.80 is not significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. Education of Father. The educational achievement for the fathers of the respondents was generally lower than that of the respondents in each of the populations. The median achievement for fathers of the non-participants was six to seven years while that for participants was a median of eight years. A chi square value of 0.81 was obtained which is not significant at the . 05 level and the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be accepted. (Table VII). The education of fathers correlated significantly at the .01 level of confidence with the education of the respondent (r = . 35), with the education of the wife of the respondent (r = .22), and with the age of the respondent (r = -.17). These relationships indicate that similar educational patterns exist within families and these patterns have been maintained over a period of time. Formal Training Patterns Training of Respondent. The training patterns of the respondents show that 69.0 per cent of the non-participants reported receiving no formal training after leaving school compared to 43.6 per cent of the participants. Formal occupational training was scaled according to the prestige of the occupa-3 tion. The median score for all groups of respondents was five, but the Blishen, loc; cit. 25 TABLE VI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EDUCATION OF CHILDREN Non-Participants Participants Children's Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational Education No. • % ' No. ' % No. % No. % Pre-school or in school 240 61.5 272 79.1 222 78.2 50 83.3 Left School -Completed Grade 12 47 12.1 48 13.9 41 14.4 7 11.7 Left School -Did not complete Grade 12 103 26.4 24 7.0 21 7.4 3 5.0 Total 390 100.0 344 100.0 284 100.0 60 100.0 x 2 = 48.47 d .f. = 2 x 2 = 1.80 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 01 level. Not significant at the . 05 level. i 26 TABLE VII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY EDUCATION OF FATHER Non-Participants Participants Years of Total Total Vocational Non« •Vocational Schooling •No; % • No. % No. % No. % 5 or less 27 21.4 17 13.5 15 14.6 -2 8.7 6 - 7 10 7.9 14 11.1 12 11.6 2 8.7 8 23 18.2 20 15.9 13 12.6 7 30.4 9 « 11 4 3.2 9 7.2 8 7.8 1 4.4 12 5 4.0 8 6.4 7 6.8 1 4.4 13 - 15 2 1.6 2 1.6 2 1.-9 0 0.0 16 or more 2 1.6 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 Unknown 53 42.1 54- . 42.8 44 42.7 10 43.5 Total- 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = .186 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the .05 level. 27 distributions around these medians were not symmetrical as the participants reported more jobs of higher prestige. This variation is exhibited in the chi square score of 25.25 which is significant at the .01 level and indicates that the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. The vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar job training experiences and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. (Table VIII). A statistically significant correlation at the .01 level between job 4 training and education (r = -.40) indicates that persons with more education received training for more prestigious jobs. There was also a statistically significant correlation between job training and participation (r = .34). This relationship indicates that persons with more prestigious job training are more likely to participate than those with more menial toaining. Training of Wives. The wives of the non-participants had received less training as 74.5 per cent of them had no training compared with 58.4 per cent of the wives of the participants. Of those wives receiving training the median occupational prestige level in all populations was three, but the wives of participants had been trained for more prestigious jobs. The chi square value of 11.37 which was obtained between the participant and non-participant categories is significant at the . 01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the two populations can be rejected. (Table IX). The wives of the vocational and non-vocational participants showed similar levels of training although there were too few in the non-vocational category to permit a statistical test for significance. The training of the wives was significantly correlated with their education (r = .54) and the participation of their husbands (r = .24). These relationships indicate that the wives who received more education also received 4 Since the occupational prestige scale assigns low values to jobs of high prestige a negative correlation is produced for a positive relationship. In all further references the sign of the correlation coefficient will be changed to make it agree with the relationship. 28 TABLE VIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE OF FORMAL TRAINING Blishen Occupational^ Prestige Index Non-Participants Participants Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. No. % No. % 1 0 0.0 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 2 0 0.0 19 15.1 16 15.5 3 13.0 3 3 2.4 3 2.4 2 1.9 1 4.4 4 3 2.4 7 5.6 5 4.8 2 8.7 5 27 21.4 34 27.0 30 29.1 4 17.4 6 4 3.2 5 4.0 4 3.9 1 4.4 7 2 1.6 1 0.8 1 1.0 0 0.0 No formal training 87 69.0 : 55 43.6 ' 43 41.8 12 52.1 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 x 2 = 25.25 d.f. = 2 x 2 = .63 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 01 level. Not significant at the . 05 level. 29 TABLE IX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE OF WIFE'S FORMAL TRAINING T V , . , r> .. , Non-Participants Participants Blishen Occupational r Prestige Index Total Total Vocational Non»Vocational No. % • No. % No. % No. % 1 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 8 6.4 10 7.9 9 8.7 1 4.4 3 14 11.1 15 11.9 12 11.6 3 13.0 4 3 2.4 10 7.9. 9 8.7 1 4.3 5 3 2.4 5 4.0 4 3.9 1 4.4 6 0 0.0 6 4.8 5 4.8 1 4.3 7 0 0.0 1 0.8 0 0.0 1 4.4 No training 82 65.0 66 52.4 54 52.5 12 52.2 No Response 16 .1.2.7 13 10.3 10 9.7 3 13.0 Total 126 100.0 126 100-.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 11.37 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 01 level. 30 more prestigious training and the wives of participants had more training and education. Training of Fathers. The fathers of the non-participants received less training as only 17.6 per cent of the non-participants compared to 31.1 per cent of the participants were able to report the training of their fathers. Some 53.9 per cent of the non-participants compared to 46.0 per cent of the participants reported that their fathers had no formal training while the remaining respondents did not know if their fathers had received any formal training. Fathers of the participants were trained for more prestigious occupations than fathers of the non-participants. The obtained chi square value of 6.27 was significant at the .05 level. This would indicate that the null hypothesis of no significant difference may be rejected. (Table X). The vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar proportions with respect to training of fathers although too few respondents could provide this information to allow a statistical test of the data. The relationship between education and training is again illustrated as a statistically significant correlation (r = . 52) was obtained between the education and training of the fathers. Similar correlations were found between the education and training of both the respondents and their wives. Thus, the null hypothesis of no significant correlation between education and training may be rejected. Occupational Variables Farmer and Non-Farmer Classifications. The occupations in a rural setting can be divided by their relationship to farming. There were more farmers among the non-participants with 19.8 per cent in this category and more persons out of work or retired (8.7 per cent) compared to 11.9 per cent and 1.6 per cent for similar categories of participants. Some 54.0 per cent of the non-participants compared to 73.0 per cent of the participants were classified as non-farmers. The obtained chi square value of 12.67 is significant at the .01 31 TABLE X PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PRESTIGE OF FATHER'S FORMAL TRAINING Blishen Occupational Non-Participants Participants Prestige Index Total No. % Total ' No. % Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % 1 0 0.0 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 2 3 2.4 7 5.6 5 4.8 2 8.7 3 4 3.2 3 2.4 3 2.9 0 0.0 4 1 0.8 3 2.4 2 1.9 1 4.4 5 6 4.8 18 14.3 14 13.6 4 17.4 6 8 6.4 6 4.8 4 3.9 2 8.7 7 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 No training 68 53.9 58 46.0 49 47.6 9 39.1 Unknown 36 28.6 29 23.0 24 23.3 5 21.7 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X = 6.27 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 05 level. 32 level and thus the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XI). Vocational and non-vocational participants were similarly dis-tributed among the farmer and non-farmer categories and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Principal Occupation. Some 7.9 per cent of the non-participants reported no job in 1966 compared to 3.2 per cent of the participants. These distributions could be expected as 11.1 per cent of the non-participants were over sixty-five years of age while only 3.2 per cent of the participants were in this category. The participants reported jobs of more prestige than the non-participants as 29.4 per cent reported jobs in the top two categories compared to only 9.5 per cent of the non-participants, while at the other end of the scale 19.0 per cent of the participants occurred in the bottom two categories compared to 40.5 per cent of the non-participants. The mode for both groups was scale category five, but the mean for the participants was 4.1 while that of the non-participants was 5.2. Representative occupations on the scale at the 4.1 level include photographers, manufacturing foremen, and construction inspectors and those at the 5.2 level include telephone operators, switchmen, and signalmen. The distribution produced a chi square value of 28.74 which is significant at the . 01 level so that the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XII). Vocational participants reported holding jobs with mere prestige than did the non-vocational participants. A chi square value of 8.91 was obtained between the two distributions. This value is significant at the .05 level; there-fore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. Statistically significant correlations at the . 01 level were obtained between the jobs of the respondents and their education (r = .47), their training (r - . 52), the education of their wives (r = . 36), participation (r = . 33), and education of their fathers (r = . 19). These correlations indicate that education, training, and occupation are closely related. They also indicate that individuals with better education and better training achieve better jobs and individuals with 33 TABLE XI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY FARMER AND NON-FARMER CLASSIFICATIONS Non-Participants Participants Classification Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % Farmer only 25 19.8 15 11.9 14 13.6 1 4.4 Farmer Principally 5 4.0 3 2.4 1 1.0 2 8.7 Non-Farmer Principally 15 11.9 12 9.5 10 9.7 2 8.7 Non-Farmer only 68 54.0 92 73.0 75 72.8 17 73.9 Setting up Farm 2 1.6 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 No Job - Out of Work 11 8.7 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 12.67 d.f. =2 X 2 = .03 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .01 level. 34 TABLE XII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY PRESTIGE OF PRESENT OCCUPATION ™. , „ .^ , Non-Participants Blishen Occupational • • Prestige Index Total Total Vocational Non* •Vocational No.. % No. % No. % No. % 1 1 0.8 4 3.2 3 2.9 1 4.4 2 11 8.7 33 26.2 30 29.1 3 13.0 3 3 2.4 8 6.3 5 4.-8 3 13.0 4 1 0.8 7 5.6 6 5.8 1 4.-4 5 49 38.9 46 36.5 42 40.8 4 17.4 6 29 23.0 14 11.1 9 8.-7 5 21.7 7 22 17.5 10 7.9 6 5.8 4 17.4 No Job 10 7.9 4 3.2 2 1.9 2 8.7 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 28.74 d.f. = 2 X 2 = 8.91 d.f. =2 Significant at the .01 level. Significant at the .05 level. 35 more prestigious jobs maintain the relationship with education by participation in adult education. Job Satisfaction. The job satisfaction scale scores obtained on the revised form of the Brayfield and Rothe Scale showed a median job satisfaction classification of thirty-three to thirty-six for all respondent categories. The obtained chi square value of 3.38 is not significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. (Table XIII). Vocational and non-vocational participants reported similar levels of job satisfaction and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Job satisfaction and age were significantly correlated (r = . 16) at the . 05 level which suggests that older workers are more satisfied with their jobs.. TMs finding is the opposite of that reported in other literature. ^  Years worked at present job. The median number of years worked at the present job for each of the respondent populations was six to ten years but the distributions around these medians were not similar. Some 22.4 per cent of the non-participants reporting present jobs had worked at this job for more than twenty-five years compared to 9.0 per cent of the participants in the same category. The non-participants were also more heavily represented at the other end of the scale as 41.4 per cent had worked at their job for five years or less while 31.2 per cent of the participants were in that category. The obtained chi square value of 15.46 is significant at the .01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table XIV). Vocational and non-vocational participants did not differ with respect to the length of years worked at present jobs as the median period of association was six to ten years for both populations. The obtained chi square value of 1.68 is not significant at the .05 level; thus, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be accepted. A Socio-Economic Survey..., op. cit., p. 47. 36 TABLE XIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY JOB SATISFACTION SCORE Non-Participants Participants Job Satisfaction Total Total Vocational Non-Vo cational Score No. % No. No. % No. % 9 - 12 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 13 - 16 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 17 - 20 1 0.8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 21 « 24 1 0.8 4 3.2 3 2.9 1 4.4 25 - 28 5 4.0 7 5.6 5 4.8 2 8.7 29 - 32 33 26.2 35 27.8 30 29.1 5 21.7 33 - 36 59 46.8 66 52.4 54 52.4 12 52.2 37 - 40 11 8.7 8 6.3 7 6.8 1 4.4 41 and over 4 3.2 1 0.8 1 1.0 0 0.0 No present job 12 9.5 3 2.4 2 1.9 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 3.38 d.f. = 2 X 2 = .32 d.f. = 2 Not significant at the . 05 Not significant at the . 05 level. level. 37 TABLE XIV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY NUMBER OF YEARS IN PRESENT OCCUPATION Non-Participants Participants Number of Years Total No. % Total No. % Vocational No. % Non-Vocational No. % 2 or less 23 18.3 21 16.7 19 18.5 2 8.7 3 - 5 25 19.8 17 13.5 14 13.6 3 13.0 6-10 17 13.5 33 26.2 25 24.3 8 34.8 11 « 15 12 9.5 17 13.5 15 14.6 2 8;7 16 - 20 9 7.1 15. 11.9 13 12.6 2 8.7 21 - 25 4 3.2 8 6.3 6 5.8 2 8.7 26 and over 26 20.6 11 8.7 9 8.7 2 8.7 Not applicable 10 7.9 4 3.2 2 1.9 2 8.7 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 15.46 d.f. =3 X 2 = 1.68 d.f. = 2 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .05 level. 38 Years worked at present job was significantly correlated with age (r = . 50) and with job satisfaction (r = . 22). These relationships indicate that older workers have worked at their present jobs longer and are more satisfied with their jobs than younger workers. Income from Principal Occupation. The non-participants generally reported lower incomes than the participants as the median annual income for the non-participants was between 3,000 and 3,999 dollars while the median for the participants occurred between 5,000 and 5,999 dollars. A chi square value of 13.94 was obtained for the distributions of income for the two populations. This value is significant at the .01 level of confidence; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XV). Vocational participants reported higher incomes than.the non-vocational participants. The median income for the non-vocational participants was between 3, 000 and 3,999 dollars while the median for the vocational participants occurred between 5,000 and 5,999 dollars. Over twenty-six per cent of the vocational participants earned 7,000 dollars or more compared to zero per cent of the non-vocational participants. A chi square value of 13.93 was obtained and it is significant at the .01 level so that the null hypothesis of ' no significant difference between the two groups can be rejected. Statistically significant correlations were obtained between principal income and the variables of education (r = .28), training (r = .35), participation (r = .23), and job prestige (r = .41). These relationships indicate the financial rewards which accrue to persons with more education and training. Locality Variables Length of Residence. Non-participants tended to have lived in the area longer than participants as 44.4 per cent of the non-participants had lived in the area for more than twenty years compared to 29.4 per cent of the participants. The participants appeared to be slightly more mobile as 36.6 39 TABLE XV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY INCOME FROM PRESENT OCCUPATION Non-Participants Participants Income Total Total Vocational Non-Vo cat i onal No. No. % No. % No. % Nil 12 9 . 5 8 6 . 3 6 5 . 8 2 8 . 7 1 - 499 3 2 . 4 1 0 . 8 0 0 . 0 1 4 . 4 500 - 999 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 6 0 0 . 0 2 8 . 7 1000 - 1999 9 7 . 1 4 3 . 2 3 2 . 9 1 4 . 4 2000 - 2999 18 1 4 . 3 6 4 . 8 4 3 . 9 2 8 . 7 3000 - 3999 21 1 6 . 7 15 1 1 . 9 12 1 1 . 6 3 1 3 . 0 4 0 0 0 - 4999 16 1 2 . 7 15 1 1 . 9 11 1 0 . 7 4 1 7 . 4 5000 - 5999 15 1 1 . 9 21 1 6 . 7 16 1 5 . 5 5 2 1 . 7 6 0 0 0 - 6999 11 8 . 7 22 1 7 . 5 20 1 9 . 4 2 8 . 7 7 0 0 0 - 7999 7 5 . 6 11 V8 . 7 11 1 0 . 7 0 0 . 0 8000 - 8999 3 2 . 4 5 4 . 0 5 4 . 8 0 0 . 0 9 0 0 0 - 9999 0 0 . 0 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 0 1 0 r 0 0 0 - 1 2 , 4 9 9 5 4 . 0 6 4 . 8 6 5 . 8 0 0 . 0 1 2 , 500 and over 1 0 . 8 2 1 . 6 2 1 . 9 0 0 . 0 No Response 3 2 . 4 6 4 . 8 5 4 . 8 1 4 . 4 Total 126 1 0 0 . 0 126 1 0 0 . 0 103 1 0 0 . 0 23 1 0 0 . 0 x 2 = 1 3 . 9 4 d.f. = 3 x 2 = 1 3 . 9 3 d.f. = 2 Significant at the . 0 1 level. Significant at the . 0 1 level. 40 per cent had lived in the area for five years or less compared to 25.4 per cent of the non-participants. The chi square value of 6.70 is significant at the .05 level of confidence; therefore; the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the two populations may be rejected. (Table XVI). Vocational and non-vocational participants exhibited similar patterns of residence and no statistically significant difference occurred between the two populations. Statistically significant correlations occurred between length of residence and the variables of age (r = .28), years worked at occupation (r = .31), education (r =-.24), principal income (r = -.19), and job satisfaction (r = . 18). These relationships suggest that older workers, although they have less education and income, are more satisfied with their present jobs. Perhaps this is why they have held these jobs longer and have lived in the area longer than the younger workers. Distance from Service Centers. Since many of the agencies offering adult education programs are located in rural service centers, this section was included to examine the effect of distance on participation. The median of the mean distance to the various services was six to ten miles for all respondent classifications. Participants and non-participants exhibited similar patterns of residence with respect to the distance variable. The chi square value of 4.67 obtained between the two groups is not significant at.the . 05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be accepted. (Table XVII). The vocational and non-vocational participants did not differ signif-icantly with respect to distance from service centers as some 47.8 per cent of the non-vocational participants lived within five miles of the service centers compared to 36.9 per cent of the vocational participants. Only 8.8 per cent of the non-vocational participants lived more than twenty miles from the centers compared to 21.4 per cent of the participants. The obtained chi square value of 1.07 is not significant at the .05 level, and the null hypothesis of no signif-icant difference between the two populations can be accepted. This finding 41 TABLE XVI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY YEARS LIVED IN LOCALITY Non-Participants Participants Years in Locality Total No. % • Total • No. % Vocational Non« No. % •Vocational No. % 2?or less 20 15.9 26 20.7 23 22.3 3 13.0 3 - 5 12 9.5 20 15.9 16 15.5 4 17.4 6-10 14 11.1 14 11.1 12 11.6 2 8.7 11 - 16 17 13.5 17 13.5 14 13.6 3 13.0 17 - 20 7 5.6 12 9.5 9 8.7 3 13.0 21 or more 56 44.4 37 29.4 29 28.2 8 34.8 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 6.70 d.f. =2 X 2 = .52 d.f. = 2 Significant at the .05 level. Not significant at the .05 level. 42 TABLE XVII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY MEAN DISTANCE TO SERVICE CENTERS Non-Participants Participants Distance in Miles Total No. % Total No. % Vocational No. • % Non-Vocational No. % 0 - 5 34 27.0 49 38.9 38 36.9 11 47.8 6-10 32 25.4 25 19.8 22 21.4 3 13.0 11 - 15 21 16.7 24 19.0 19 18.4 5 21.7 16 - 20 14 11.1 4 3.2 2 1.9 2 8.7 21 - 25 5 4.0 3 2:4 3 2.9 0 0.0 26'- 30 6 4.8 9 7.1 8 7.8 1 4.4 31 - 35 3 2.4 3 2.4 2 1.9 1 4.4 36 - 40 2 1.6 1 0.8 1 1.0 0 0.0 41 or more 9 7.1 8 . 6.4. 8 7.8 0 0.0 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 ' = 4.67 d.f. =2 X 2 = 1.07 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the . 05 Not significant at the . 05 level. level. 43 supports previous work which suggested that distance per se does not appear to affect participation rates in/urban settings. Level of Living. All respondents scored above fifty on the revised 7 form of the Sewell Scale and the median scores for all categories were between eighty-one and ninety. The participants reported significantly higher levels of living as 25.4 per cent of the participants scored over ninety on the scale while only 9.5 per cent of the non-participants achieved that level. The chi square value for these distributions was 21.99 which is significant at the . 01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference can be rejected. (Table XVIII). Vocational and non-vocational participants scored similarly on the scale. The obtained chi square value of 1.48 is not significant at the .05 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. Significant correlations at the . 01 level occurred between level of living and the variable of education (r = .41), participation (r = .31), job prestige (r = .39), income from that job (r = .25), and distance from services (r = ». 19). These relationships indicate that those with more education, better jobs, and more income maintain higher levels of living and that these persons are more likely to participate in adult education programs. The negative correlation with distance from service centers reflects the decreasing services available in the outlying areas. Social Participation. The distribution of respondents with respect to social participation shows that participants in adult education programs were more actively involved in formal social organizations than non-participants. James E. Melton. "The Influence of Alternate Course Locations on Distances Travelled by Participants in Urban Adult Evening Classes." Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of British Columbia, .1966, pp. 62-64; Donald P. McKinnon. "A Comparison of Distances Travelled to Urban Night School Centers." Unpublished M.Ed. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966, p. 77; Terrence Lee, "A Null Relationship Between Ecology and Adult Education." The British  Journal of Educational Psychology, 38:100-102, (February, 1966). 7 Sewell, loc. cit. 44 TABLE XVIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY LEVEL OF LIVING SCORES Non-Participants Participants Level of Living Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational Scores No.' No. % No. % No. % 20 or less 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 21 - 30 0 0.0 0 0,0 0 0.0 0 0.0 31 - 40 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 41 - 50 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 51 - 60 2 1.6 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 61 - 70 15 11.9 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 71 - 80 35 27.8 18 14.3 14 13.6 4 17.4 81 - 90 62 49.2 72 57.1 60 58.2 12 52.2 91 and over 12 9,5 . 32 25.4 27 26.2 5 21.7 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 x 2 = 21.99 d.f. = 2 x 2 = 1.48 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .01 level. f 45 Some 51.6 per cent of the non-participants reported belonging to no formal organization during the past year compared to 34.9 per cent of the participants. The median score for the non-participants was zero and the median for the participants was between six and ten. The obtained chi square value of 17.12 is significant at the . 01 level of confidence and the null hypothesis of no significant difference between the two populations may be rejected. (Table XIX). Vocational and non-vocational participants participated in formal social organizations to a similar degree and no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups. Statistically significant correlations were found between social participation and the variables of education (r = .28), participation in adult education (r = .22), level of living (r = .30), and job prestige (r = .25), These correlations indicate that the respondents with more education, better jobs, and higher levels of living are more involved in formal community organizations. ATTITUDES TO CHANGE It was previously suggested that the degree of compatibility between the value orientations of the individual and the organization would affect partic-ipation. It was also suggested that change is necessarily one of the value orien-tations of educational systems. Therefore, it was proposed that participants and non-participants might differ with respect to attitudes to change. The respondents were asked to reply positively or negatively to eight statements concerning change in location, change in occupation, and change through education. A ninth item questioned the individual on his desire for further education and training. The results of these items are included in this section. The change statements are those statements in Appendix B, pages 92 and 93 which are marked with a C to the right of the statement. 46 TABLE XIX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORES Non-Participants Participants Social Participation Total Total Vocational Non« •Vocational Scores No. No. % No. % No. % 0 65 51.6 44 34.9 35 34.0 9 39.1 1 - 5 7 5.6 10 7.9 9 8.7 1 4.4 6-10 29 23.0 18 14.3 16 15.5 2 8.7 11 - 15 8 6.3 12 9.5 8 7.8 4 17.4 16 - 20 7 5.6 12 9.5 11 10.7 1 4.3 21 - 25 3 2.4 13 10.3 10 9.7 3 13.0 26 - 30 1 0.8 7 5.6 6 5.8 1 4.4 31 - 35 1 0.8 3 2.4 2 1.9 1 4.3 36 and over 5 4.0 .7 5.6 6 5.8 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 17.12 d.f. =3 X 2 = .23 d.f. = 2 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .05 level. 47 All the change statements were positively and significantly inter-9 correlated, with the exception of the statement concerning the difficulty of going to school to learn new skills which did not correlate significantly with either of the two statements concerning leaving the area. These correlations suggest that the respondents tended to respond to most of the statements in a consistent manner. The participants responded more favourably than the non«partici» pants to all the statements with the exception of the statement concerning not leaving the area under any circumstances on which the two groups did not differ significantly. Another measure of this difference is shown by the significant correlations that occurred between these same statements and the variable of participation. ** The vocational and non-vocational participants responded similarly on most of the statements and when the distributions were tested the two groups did not differ significantly. The. eight change statements correlated negatively and significantly with age which suggests that older respondents view change less favourably than younger respondents. This finding is consistent with the suggestions presented.in the review of the literature. The statements concerning wanting a new job with more respon-sibility, the difficulty of learning a new routine, the willingness to go to school to learn new skills, and the willingness to give up sparetime to further education were' positivelyJand significantly related to education which suggested that respondents with more education were more confident in their abilities to attempt more responsible jobs and new routines and they seemed to view the school system as a place where they could learn new skills in their sparetime. The converse would appear true for those with less education. 9 See Table XXX, page 75 1 0 See Tables XXXI to XXXVHI, pages 76 to 83 1 1 See, Table XXX, page 75 48 Another indicant of this desire for new jobs and training is shown by the 68.3 per cent of the participants compared to the 48.4 per cent of the non-participants who stated that they would like some further education or training. A chi square value of 9.66 was obtained between the two distributions. This value is significant at the . 01 level; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is rejected. (Table XX). Some 70.9 per cent of the vocational participants compared to 56.5 per cent of the non-vocational participants indicated that they would like some further training or education. Since the obtained chi square value of 1,81 is not significant at the . 05 level of confidence, the null hypothesis of no significant difference is accepted. SUMMARY On the personal variables of sex, marital status, and age, the two groups differed only on the variable of age with the participants being sig-nificantly younger. The participants and their wives were better educated and trained than the non-participants and their wives. Also, the children of the participants had received more schooling and the fathers of the participants were better trained than the children and fathers of the non-participants. Participants and non-participants also differed significantly on several occupational variables with the participants scoring higher on occupa-tional prestige and income while non-participants had longer job tenure and contained a larger proportion of farmers. Job satisfaction was not a signific-ant variable. The respondents differed significantly on several locality variables as the participants reported more social participation and higher levels of living while the non-participants had lived in the area longer. The variable of dis-tance to services was evenly distributed in the two populations. 49 TABLE XX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY RESPONSES TO "WOULD YOU LIKE TO TAKE SOME FURTHER EDUCATION OR TRAINING?" Non-Participants Participants Response Total Total Vocational Non-•Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % Yes 61 48.4 86 68.3 73 70.9 13 56.5 No 52 41.3 34 27.0 27 26.2 7 30.4 Undecided 7 5.6 6 4.8 3 2.9 3 13.0 Retired 6 4.8 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 9.66 d.f. = 1 X 2 = 1.81 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .05 level. 50 The vocational and non-vocational participants differed significantly on the variable of occupational prestige and income with the vocational parti-cipants reporting better jobs and more income. On the dynamic variables of attitudes to change, the participants were more favourably inclined to advancing to more responsible jobs, learning new routines, and giving up sparetime to attend schools for further education or training. CHAPTER FOUR ANALYSIS OF SIGNIFICANT FACTORS In the preceding chapter it was shown that participants and non-participants differed significantly with respect to twenty-one variables, and that many of these variables correlated significantly with the variables of age and education. Also, age and education correlated with adult education partici-pation and the participants and non-participants differed with respect to these variables. Consequently, a more accurate analysis of the significant variables can be obtained if the interacting effects of age and education are removed. The purpose of this chapter is to remove the influence of the variables of age and education, and to re-examine the variables found to be significant when age and education were included. Matching Procedure Since the participants were younger and better educated than the non-participants, a new sample of non-participants was drawn in order to match two sufficiently large samples on the variables of age and education. The procedure classified the 881 respondents by age and education, then removed the participants and matched them with an equal number of non-participants. 52 Four of the participants could not be matched with non-participants, consequent tly, the sample sizes dropped to 122 in each group. The distribution of all respondents in the two samples by age and education classifications is shown in Table XXI. Analysis of variance was used to compare the two new samples with the variables found significant in the previous samples. Findings The new samples of participants and non-participants did not differ significantly on most of the variables which had been found to be significant when age and education was not held constant. Consequently, it may be assumed that the differences between the two original samples on these variables could be attributed to the differences in age and education of the two groups. The six variables on which the participants and non-participants still differed signific-antly were: the occupational prestige of the formal training and of the principal job, the number of children, the degree of social participation, the attitude to need for further education, and the willingness to gi?e up sparetime for adult education. A seventh variable on which the participants and non-participants differed significantly was the education of their children, but the distributions and frequencies in this variable did not lend themselves to analysis of variance. (Table XXII). Significant differences which occurred between the age-education classifications suggest that the variables of age and education are closely related to the variable under consideration. All but two of the static variables and two of the dynamic variables differed significantly between the age-education groups, which suggests that the age and education variables, singly or in combination, affected the majority of the variables considered. 53 TABLE XXI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS IN THE MATCHED SAMPLES BY AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS Age Years of Schooling Participants Non-Participants No. % No. % 7 or less 3 2.5 3 2.5 34 or less 8 4 3.3 4 3.3 9-11 16 13.1 16 13.1 12 11 9.0 11 9.0 34 or less 13 - 15 2 1.6 2 1.6 16 or more 1 0.8 1 0.8 7 or less 7 5.7 7 5.7 35 - 44 8 8 6.5 8 6.5 9-11 10 8.2 10 8.2 12 8 6.5 8 6.5 35 - 44 13 - 15 3 2.5 3 2.5 16 or more 2 1.6 2 1.6 7 or less 2 1.6 2 1.6 45 - 54 8 9 7.4 9 7.4 9-11 7 5.7 7 5.7 12 5 4.1 5 4.1 45 - 54 13 - 15 2 1.6 2 1.6 16 or more 4 3.3 4 3.3 7 or less 3 2.5 3 2.5 55 or over 8 4 3.3 4 3.3 9-11 5 4.1 •5 4.1 12 3 2.5 • 3 2.5 55 or over 13-15 .3 2.5 3 2.5 Total 122 100.0 . 122 100.0 54 TABLE XXII F VALUES FOR ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF TWENTY VARIABLES Between Between Variable Participants and Non-Participants Age and Education F Significance Level F Significance Level Respondent's Training 23.21 (.01) 4.94 (.05) Occupational Prestige 50. 80 (.01) 64.50 (.01) Years worked at Occupation .30 n.s. 8.36 (.01) Principal Income .01 n.s. 3.86 (.05) Wife's Education 2.75 n.s. 16.75 (.01) Wife's Training 2.37 n.s. 2.87 n.s. Number of Children 17.30 (.01) 11.55 (.01) Father's Training 4.37 n.s. .52 n.s. Lived in Area 0.00 n.s. 7.55 (.01) Level of Living 2.33 n.s. 4.00 (.05) Social Participation 35.77 (.01) 15.61 (.01) Change Statement One 2.00 n.s. 7.75 (.01) Change Statement Two 0.00 n.s. 5.25 (.05) Change Statement Four 4.00 n.s. 1.55 n.s. Change Statement Five 2.28 n.s. .80 n. s. Change Statement Six 10.31 (.01) 2.37 n.s. Change Statement Seven 11.07 (.01) 1.42 n.s. Change Statement Eight .84 n.s. 2.63 n.s. Would you like some further education or training .68 n.s. 1.83 n.s. NOTE: A significant F value in the first column indicates that the participants and non-participants differed significantly on that variable even with the effects of age and education removed. A significant F value in the second column indicates that the age-education groups differed significantly on that variable. 55 S i g n i f i c a n t V a r i a b l e s N u m b e r of C h i l d r e n . T h e n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d 425 c h i l d r e n o r a mean of 3.48 c h i l d r e n p e r respondent. T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s , on the o t h e r hand, r e p o r t e d 334 c h i l d r e n o r a mean of 2.74 c h i l d r e n . In e v e r y age-education c a t e g o r y , except the youngest w i t h l e s s than h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , the non-p a r t i c i p a n t s r e p o r t e d the l a r g e r n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n , but the d i f f e r e n c e i n that one c a t e g o r y was only one c h i l d . In most age c a t e g o r i e s the p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h l o w e r e d u c a t i o n r e p o r t e d m o r e c h i l d r e n than those w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . T h e l a r g e s t mean number of c h i l d r e n f o r both p a r t i c i p a n t s and non-p a r t i c i p a n t s o c c u r r e d i n the a g e-education g r o u p s t h i r t y - f i v e t o f o r t y - f o u r y e a r s of age w i t h l e s s than t w e l v e y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . ( T a b l e XXIII).. S c h o o l i n g of C h i l d r e n . T h e p a u c i t y of c h i l d r e n who had l e f t s c h o o l i n the y o u n g e r age c a t e g o r i e s m a kes a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e of the means d i f f i c u l t , c o n s e q u e n t l y , a c h i s q u a r e v a l u e was computed f o r the d i s t r i b u t i o n s w i t h i n the p a r t i c i p a n t and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t g r o u p s . T h e obtained v a l u e of 4.87 i s s i g n i f i -cant at the .05 l e v e l of confidence; t h u s , the n u l l h y p o t h e s i s of no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i s r e j e c t e d . T h e c h i l d r e n of the r e spondents w i t h m o r e e d u c a t i o n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y t o graduate f r o m h i g h s c h o o l and the c h i l d r e n of p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e t w i c e as l i k e l y t o graduate as not, w h i l e the c h i l d r e n of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s had j u s t l e s s than an even chance of g r a d u a t i o n . ( T a b l e X X I V ) . T r a j j i i n g of Respondent. T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n e v e r y age-education g roup r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g f o r m o r e p r e s t i g i o u s j o b s than the n o n - p a r t i c i -p ants. In e a c h age g r o u p the r e spondents r e p o r t i n g m o r e e d u c a t i o n a l s o r e p o r t e d t r a i n i n g f o r m o r e p r e s t i g i o u s j o b s . T h o s e p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the o l d e s t b e t t e r educated groups r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g t r a i n i n g f o r the most p r e s t i g i o u s j o b s . T h e next best t r a i n e d a g e-education g r o u p s , f o r both p a r t i c i -pants and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , w e r e the youngest g r o u p s w i t h m o r e than t w e l v e y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . A r a n k o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n ( r = .93) was obtained between the p a r t i c i p a n t and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t a g e-education groups w i t h r e s p e c t to the p r e s t i g e of j o b t r a i n i n g . T h i s v a l u e i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .01 l e v e l and i n d i c a t e s that the 56 TABLE XXHI MEAN NUMBER OF CHILDREN BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS Age Years of Schooling Participants Non-Participants Mean Number Mean Number 34 or less 11 or less 2.17 (50) 2.13 (49) 12 or more 1.29 (18) 2.21 (31) 35 - 44 11 or less 4.08 (102) 5.40 (135) 12 or more 2.54 (33) 3.15 (41) 45 - 54 11 or less 3.44 (62) 4.11 (74) 12 or more 3.00 (33) 3.27 (36) 55 or more 11 or less 2.00 (24) 3.08 (37) 12 or more 2.00 (12) 3.67 (22) Total 334 425 Total Variance =16.10 Between Column Variance =2.65 F = 17.30 Significant at the .01 level. Between Row Variance = 12.38 F = 11.55 Significant at the .01 level. Residual (C X R) = 1.08 57 TABLE XXIV EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT OF CHILDREN WHO HAVE LEFT SCHOOL BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS Age Years of Participants Non-Participants Schooling Total Completed Did not Total Completed Did not Complete Complete 34 or less 11 or less 0 0 0 0 0 0 12 or more 0 0 0 0 0 0. 35 - 44 11 or less 7 5 2 6 1 • 5 12 or more 0 0 0 3 3 0 45 - 54 11 or less 17 10 7 29 8 21 12 or more 14 11 3 13 10 3 55 or more 11 or less 20 9 11 31 14 17 12 or more 10 10 0 20 14 6 Total 68 45 23 102 50 52 Note: A chi square value was computed comparing the distributions of the two populations with respect to completion or non-completion of twelve years of schooling. The value obtained was 4.78. This is significant at the . 05 level of confidence; therefore, the null hypothesis of no significant difference may be rejected. 58 rank orders of occupational prestige of formal training by age-education groups were similar for both participants and non-participants. (Table XXV). Occupation of Respondent. The participants in all age-education groups reported jobs with more prestige than did non-participants. Also, within each age group those with more education reported better jobs than those with less education. Both the participants and non-participants with more than twelve years of schooling reported more prestigious jobs with increasing age and those with less than twelve yeaxs of schooling showed similar trends. The rank correlation coefficient (r = . 93) was the same as that obtained for the training patterns of the two groups and is significant at the . 01 level. This correlation indicates that the order of occupational prestige of present jobs is very similar in the age-education groups of both the participant and non- partici-pants. (Table XXVI). The rank orders for the participant and non-participants on prestige of both training and occupation were significantly related as younger respondents had jobs of lower order prestige than their training order indicated while the converse was true for older respondents. A rank correlation coefficient (r = .81) was obtained between the prestige of training and jobs of the participants while a rank correlation (r = . 69) was obtained between those of the non-partici-pants. Both correlations are statistically significant and indicate that prestige of formal training is significantly related to the prestige of the principal job of the respondent. Social Participation. The participants reported more social partici-pation than the non-participants in every age-education group except the youngest with less than twelve years of schooling. Those respondents with more education in each age group reported more social participation than the members of the same age group with less education. The only exception to this occurred among the forty-five to fifty-four year old participants where those with less education reported slightly higher rates than the better educated. The highest participation rates in both groups were found in those fifty-five years and older with more than 59 TABLE XXV MEAN OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE SCORES* OF FORMAL TRAINING BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS Age Years of Schooling Participants Non-Participants 34 or less 11 or less 5.65 6.82 12 or more 4.50 6.07 35 - 44 11 or less 6.72 6.76 12 or more 5.07 6.38 45 - 54 11 or less 6.65 7.27 12 or more 5.18 6.54 55 or more 11 or less 6.83 7.25 12 or more 4.33 6.00 Total Variance = 11.56 Between Column Variance =4.15 F = 23.21 Significant at the .01 level. Between Row Variance = 6.16 F = 4.94 Significant at the .05 level. Residual ( C X R) = 1.25 * Note: Respondents reporting no formal training were assigned a value of eight. This procedure causes the mean scores to be higher than normal. 60 TABLE XXVI MEAN OCCUPATIONAL PRESTIGE SCORES BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS Age Years of Schooling Participants Non»Participants 34 or less 11 or less 4.52 5.17 12 or more 3.85 4.42 35 - 44 11 or less 4.96 5.52 12 or more 3.41 4.23 45 - 54 11 or less 4.61 4.88 12 or more 3.18 4.00 55 or more 11 or less 4.44 4.91 12 or more 2.50 2.66 Total Variance = 11.64 Between Column Variance =1.16 F = 50.80 Significant at the-.01 level. Between Row Variance = 10.32 F = 64.50 Significant at the-.01 level. Residual (C X R). = ,16 61 twelve years of education. The lowest rates reported occurred in the youngest group with less than twelve years of education while the lowest rate for the non-participants occurred in the oldest group with less than twelve years of education. (Table XXVII). Attitude to Adult Education. The low mean scale scores show that only two of the participant age-education groups and none of the non-participant groups felt that they would need further education to ensure themselves adequate employment in the future. The non-participants were more certain about this as they reported lower felt needs than the participants in every age education group but the oldest group reporting less than twelve years of schooling. The younger non-participants and those with less education in each age classification felt greater need for further education than did the older and those with more education. On the other hand, the participants with more education in the two older classifications felt more need for further education while the converse was true for the younger participants. (Table XXVIII). There was a generally stated willingness to give up sparetime for further education reported by every age-education group except the non-partici-pant groups fifty-five years of age and older. The participants in all age-education groups,, the younger respondents, and those with less education generally stated more willingness to give up their sparetime to further their education than the non-participants, the older respondents and those with more education. The most noticeable exception is the better educated participant group, forty-five to fifty-four years of age, who reported the strongest felt need for further education and most willingness to give up their sparetime to get that education. Since they also reported the least prestigious job training of the better educated participant groups while working at the third highest prestige jobs of all respondent groups, it could be suggested that they are finding their lower level of training inadequate for their present occupations or hindering their chances for promotion and it is from these feelings of inadequacy that their positive attitudes to adult education have developed. (Table XXIX). 62 TABLE XXVH MEAN SOCIAL PARTICIPATION SCORES BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATION Age Years of Schooling Participants Non- Participants 34 or less 11 or less 2.13 2.43 12 or more 3.50 2.57 35 - 44 11 or less 3.36 2.60 12 or more 4.23 3.61 45 - 54 11 or less 3^ .77 2.94 12 or more 3.63 3.09 55 or more 11 or less 3.58 2.08 12 or more 5.33 4.00 Total Variance = 10.22 Between Column Variance =2.40 F = 35.77 Significant at the .01 level. Between Row Variance = 7.35 F = 15.61 Significant at the . 01 level. Residual Variance = .,47 63 TABLE XXVIII MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT SIX* BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS Age Years of Schooling Participants Non- Participant s 34 or less 11 or less 3.26 2.95 12 or more 2.85 2.57 35 - 44 11 or less 2.92 2.84 12 or more 2.83 2.15 45 - 54 11 or less 2.83 2.50 12 or more 3.45 2.18 55 or more 11 or less 2.18 2.20 12 or more 2.66 1.80 Total Variance = 2.90 Between Column Variance = .90 F = 10.31 Significant at the .01 level. Between Row Variance =1.39 F = 2.37 Not significant at the . 05 Residual (C X R) = .61 l e V e 1 , * Note: The statement is "I w i l l need further education to ensure myself adequate employment in the future. " 64 TABLE XXIX MEAN SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT SEVEN* BY RESPONDENT AGE AND EDUCATION CLASSIFICATIONS Age Years of Schooling Participants Non»Participants 34 or less 35 - 44 45 - 54 55 or over 11 or less 12 or more 11 or less 12 or more 11 or less 12 or more 11 or less 12 or more 3.78 3.64 3.84 3.67 3.56 4.00 3.64 3.33 3.74 3.50 3.40 3.54 3.17 2.82 2.50 2.60 Total Variance = 2.78 Between Column Variance = 1.10 Between Row Variance = . 99 Residual (C X R) = .69 F = 11.07 Significant at the .01 level. F •= 1.42 Not significant at the .05 level. * Note: The statement is "I would be willing to give up my sparetime to further my education." 65 Summary. After matching the participants and non-participants on the variables of age and education the two samples differed significantly on only seven characteristics. The participants reported fewer children than the non-participants but a higher proportion of their children who had left school had graduated from high school. The participants also reported more pres-tigious formal job training and occupations than the non-participants. The non-participants were less involved with formal social organization in their community, less willing to give up their sparetime to further their education and less likely to feel that they needed any further education. Much of the effect of the other variables considered could be attributed to the variables of age and education rather than the variables themselves. CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary During the summer of 1967, data were collected from a random sample of 881 rural household heads in British Columbia. From this sample a total of 126 reported participation in adult education. An equal number of individuals who reported no participation were randomly selected. Bivariate tables were produced comparing the participants and non-participants by certain socio-economic and attitude variables. A chi square test with the null hypothesis of no significant difference was used to compare the two groups. Correlation coefficients were also computed to test linear relationships between the variables. The two groups were shown to differ significantly on twenty-three of the static and dynamic variables. Two of these variables, age and education, correlated sigiuficantly with participation in adult education and with twenty of the previously significant variables which necessitated selecting a new sample of non-participants. They were matched with the participants to remove the confounding effects of the age and education variables. The new groups were 67 compared by analysis of variance of the mean scores obtained on the previously significant variables by each of sixteen blocks of matched respondents. The resulting variance ratios were tested using the F statistic under the null hypothesis of no significant difference. Conclusions The first experimental hypothesis in the null form proposed that the participants and non-participants would not differ significantly on the variables of age, education, occupation, income, social participation, and level of living. All of these variables except age were significantly different at the . 01 level of confidence and age was significant at the . 05 level of con-fidence. Other variables on which the respondents were found to differ signif-icantly were: number of children, their education, the education of the wives, the training of the respondents, their wives, and their fathers, length of residence, and proportion of farmers. After matching the participants and non-participants on the variables of age and education,. the samples differed significantly on seven variables: occupation, training, number of children, education of children, and social participation. The first hypothesis can be accepted for these seven variables, age and education. It can be conditionally accepted for the other variables realizing that much of their difference can be attributed to the differences in the two populations with respect to age and education. The second hypothesis proposed that the two populations would differ with respect to their attitudes to change. This relationship occurred as the participants were significantly more favourable to change. Since signifi-cant correlations occurred between most of the change statements and the variables of education and age, the responses to the statements by the matched samples were analyzed and the matched groups differed only on need for further education and willingness to attend adult education with the participants being significantly more favourable. Therefore, the second hypothesis is accepted for 68 these two attitudes and may be accepted conditionally for the five others again considering that the differences can be attributed to the differences in age and education levels in the two samples. The third hypothesis proposed that the vocational and non-vocational participants.would differ with respect to certain of the socio-economic variables. The only variables on which the two populations differed significantly were occupations and incomes with the vocational participants reporting better jobs and consequently more income. There were only twenty-three non-vocational participants and testing this small number proved impossible at times. Discussion Vocational and Non-Vocational Participants. The results of this study indicate a strong relationship between occupational prestige and vocation-al participation. A suggested hypothesis is that respondents with better jobs might find it necessary to participate in adult courses as a means of main-taining the level of job skills inherent in their jobs since it is in many of these jobs that occupational obsolescence occurs most rapidly. London* reported similar conclusions in the study of the Oakland population. He also suggested that persons dissatisfied with their present job and desiring to change their job would be more likely to participate but no significant difference or significant correlations were found with respect to job satisfaction and vocational participation. Number of Children. A review of the literature failed to find any mention that number of children affects participation rates. Since more children cause increasing demands on sparetime, increased use of income, and more responsibilities, this factor could be considered an important variable adversely affecting participation. It appears that participants have fewer children than London, op. cit;, p. 146. 69 normal and non-participants more, however, this is a variable which must be given further research. Educational Orientation. There appears to be a general orientation to education in all age and education levels of participants. This assumption results from the better formal traiiiing the respondents have received; the better education their children get; their more positive attitude to need for further education; and their stated willingness to give up future sparetime to further their education. 2 London, in the Oakland study, proposed and then rejected a sim-ilar hypothesis that participants would tend to place a higher value on education than the non-participants. The different conclusions could be attributed to different definitions of terms, different populations, and different matching procedures. London matched the participants and non-participants with respect to age and occupational status but the fmdings of this study suggest that this is not the best procedure. This study found that participants reported significantly more prestigious jobs than the non-participants in the same age-education categories. If the participants and non-participants in this study were matched on age and occupational status variables then the non-participants could be expected to report more education than the participants. It was also shown that education correlated positively and significantly with attitude statements concerning education. Thus, if when matching the respondents on age and occupational prestige the non-participants have more education than the partici-pants, then the true difference between participants and non-participants with respect to attitudes to education will be hidden. Again this is an area for more research using a more rigorous definition of attitudes to education. Implications This study has shown that there were seven variables, other than age and education on which participants differed significantly from non-participants 2 London, op. cit., p. 146 70 Five of these variables can be considered static and can be changed only through participation in adult education. Consequently, these variables are of little use to the adult educator wishing to increase participation. By changing the two dynamic variables, relating the attitude of the individuals to further education, the change agent can possibly increase participation rates. There appears to be two areas of need with respect to increasing participation. First, the discipline of adult education must uncover more dynamic variables relating the value orientations of both the participants and non-participants to those assigned to the institutions sponsoring adult education programs. Second, those in the field of adult education must become more active change agents in the community. They must attempt to make the value orien-tations of the community more compatible with the value orientation of the adult education institutions. Success in these two areas will involve more of the pre-sent non-participants in adult education and help to stop "the widening gap between 3 the educated and educationally deprived." Coolie Verner and John Newberry, op. cit., p. 219. i 71 BIBLIOGRAPHY Beal, George M. and J.M. Bohlen. The Diffusion Process. Ames: Iowa State College, 1957. Blishen, Bernard R. "The Construction and Use of an Occupational Class Scale". Canadian Journal of Economics and Political Science, 24:519-31. (November, 1958). Brayfield, A.H. and H.F. Rothe. "An Index of Job Satisfaction." Journal of  Applied Psychology, 35:307-311, (October, 1951). Brunner, Edmund de S., _et. al., An Overview of Adult Education Research. Chicago: The Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1959. Buttedahl, Knute B. "A Comparative Study of Participants in Lecture Classes and Participants in Study Discussion Groups." Unpublished M.A. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1963. Chapin, F.S. Social Participation Scale. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1938. Dominion Bureau of Statistics. Census of Canada, 1961. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1964. (Bulletin 4.1-3). Dominion Bureau of Statistics, Education Division, Adult Education Section. Participants in Further Education in Canada. Ottawa: Queen's Printer, 1963. Edwards, A. L. Statistical Methods for the Behavioral Sciences. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1966. Friedmann, E.A. "Changing Value Orientations in Adult Life." in Sociological Backgrounds of Adult Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the Study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964. Havighurst, Robert J. "Changing Status and Roles during the Adult Life Cycle: Significance for Adult Education." in Sociological Backgrounds of  Adult Education, ed., Robert W. Burns, Chicago: Center for the study of Liberal Education for Adults, 1964. Houle, Cyril O. The Inquiring Mind. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1961. 72 Johnstone^ J.W.C. and Ramon J. Rivera. Volunteers for Learning. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company,, 1965. Kendall, M.G. and S.B. Babington. Tables of Random Sampling Numbers. London: Cambridge University Press, 1951. Kerlinger, F.N. Foundations of Behavioral Research. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1967. Kuhlen, R.G. and G.H. Johnson. "Change in Goals with Increasing Adult Age." Journal of Consulting Psychologists, 16:1-4, 1952. Lee, Terrence, "A Null Relationship Between Ecology and Adult Education." The British Journal of Educational Psychology, 38:100-102 (February, 1966). London, Jack, Robert Wenkert, and Warren O. Hagstrom. Adult Education and  Social Class. Berkeley: Survey Research Center, The University of California, 1963. McKinnon, Donald P. "A Comparison of Distances Travelled to Urban Night School Centers." Unpublished M.Ed Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966, p. 77. Melton, James E. "The Influence of Alternate Course Locations on Distances Travelled by Participants in Urban Adult Evening Classes". Unpub-lished M.Ed. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1966, pp.62-64. Millerd, Frank W. "An Analysis of the Adoption of Innovations by Okanagan Orchardists." Unpublished M.S.A. Thesis, The University of British Columbia, 1965. Sewell, W.H. "A Short Form of the Farm Family Socio-Economic Status Scale." Rural Sociology, 8:161-170, (June, 1943). A Socio-Economic Survey of the Prince George Special Sales Area. Vancouver: Department of Adult Education, University of British Columbia, 1967. Verner, Coolie. A Conceptual Scheme for the Identification and Classification  of Processes. Washington: Adult Education Association of the U.S.A., 1962. Verner, Coolie. Planning and Conducting a Survey: A Case Study. Ottawa: Rural Development Branch, Department of Forestry and Rural Development, 1967. 73 Verner, Coolie and Peter M. Gubbels. The Adoption or Rejection of Innovations  by Dairy Farm Operators in the Lower Fraser Valley. Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1967. Verner, Coolie and John S. Newberry, Jr. "The Nature of Adult Participation." Adult Education, 8:208-222, (Summer, 1958). Whyte, Donald R. "Rural Canada in Transition", Rural Canada in Transition: A multidimensional study of the impact of technology and urbanization  on traditional society, eds., M.A. Tremblay and W.J. Anderson, Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada, 1966. 74 APPENDIX A TABLE XXX PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR TWENTY-SEVEN VARIABLES* Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 at the ,01 level are underlined. 1 Age 1.00 2 Education -.23 1.00 3 Job Training .08 -.40 1.00 NOTE; 4 Wife's Education -.19 .52 -.23 1.00 5 Wife's Training -.19 .02 .15 -.54 1.00 6 Adult Education -.16 .38 -.34 .20 .25 1.00 7 8 Number of Children Children Who Graduate .17 .28 .16 .19 .25 .11 -.13 -.10 -.02 -.32 -.10 .02 1.00 .23 1.00 9 Children Do Not Graduate : .24 -.07 -.15 -.21 .00 -.32 .37 .21 1.00 10 Father's Education -.17 .35 -.16 .22 -.15 .05 -.02 -.07 -.14 1.00 11 Father's Training -.01 -.28 .16 -.26 .25 -.12 .18 -.05 -.18 -.52 1.00 12 Years of Residence .28 -.25 .10 -.15 -.17 -.13 .02 .38 .14 -.12 .08 1.00 13 Distance -.12 -.01 .14 -.09 .16 -.17 .03 -.15 -.08 .03 .17 -.23 1.00 14 Level of Living. .01 .41 -.11 .53 -.26 .31 -.04 .29 -.07 .08 -.05 ;02 -.19 1.00 15 Social Participation .04 .28 -.24 .17 -.02 .22 -.01 -.24 -.06 -.04 .10 .03 -.09 .31 1.00 16 Job -.04 -.47 -.53 -.36 .15 -.33 .07 -.29 .05 -.19 .20 .12 -.06 -.40 -.26 1.00 17 Years Worked .51 -.15 .05 -.09 -.25 -.05 .21 .24 .36 -.09 .00 .31 -.12 , .06 .10 .01 1.00 18 Job Satisfaction .16 .09 -.04 .13 -.19 -.11 .12 .28 .16 .03 -.01 .18 -.06 .10 .01 -.11 .22 1.00 19 Principal Income -.13 .28 -.35 .25 .07 .22 .01 .10 -.19 .02 .05 -.19 -.01 .26 .12 -.41 -.01 -.00 1.00 20 Scale Score 1 -.32 .03 -.05 .08 .16 .17 .04 .16 -.02 -.02 .06 -.28 .14 .03 .02 -.05 -.16 -.12 .16 1.00 21 Scale Score 2 -.38 .23 .08 .20 .21 .15 -.02 -.1.6 -.20 .11 -.26 -.27 .05 .14 -.00 -.04 -.27 -.15 .10 .32 22 Scale Score 3 -.21 .12 -.01 .15 -.09 .08 .16 .34 -.02 .03 .12 -.15 .05 .13 -.02 -.09 -.14 -.02 .10 .42 23 Scale Score 4 -.32 .38 -.08 .21 -.04 .25 -.15 -.15 -.01 .08 .08 -.12 .05 .22 .12 -.15 -.16 -.06 .08 .19 " 24 Scale Score 5 -.32 .33 -.11 .19 .09 .26 -.07 -.16 .00 -.02 .06 -.13 -.00 .15 .11 -.14 -.11 -.07 .06 .10 ' 25 Scale Score 6 -.26 .13 -.03 .05 .14 .21 -.06 -.06 -.06 .04 -.24 -.05 -.02 .04 -.03 -.08 -.24 -.08 .04 .23 ' 26 Scale Score 7 -.29 .27 -.05 .19 .01 .30 -.05 -.23 .15 .05 -.01 -.18 -.01 .13 .17 -.12 -.21 .01 .05 .18 ' 27 Scale Score 8 -.30 .07 -.00 .11 .14 .16 -.05 -.18 -.13 -.03 -.10 -.10 -.03 -.11 -.02 -.06 -.17 -.15 .02 .22 .00 .24 1.00 .36 .23 1.00 .30 .00 .51 1.00 .26 .17 .-18 .22 1.00 .22 .17 .37 .38 .36 1.00 .25 ..20 .25 .17 .27 .28 1.00 76 TABLE XXXI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER ONE Non-Participants Participants Scale Score Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. •%•• No. No. % No. % 1 4 3.2 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 2 58 46.0 45 35.8 34 33.0 11 47.8 3 14 11.1 10 7.9 9 8.7 1 4.4 4 43 34.1 65 55.5 55 53.4 10 43.5 5 1 0.8 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 No Response 6 4.8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 •= 6.55 d.f. =1 X 2 = 1.33 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. Not significant at the .05 level. NOTE: The statement is: "I would not mind leaving here in order to make a substantial advance in my occupation." 77 TABLE XXXII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER TWO Non-Participants Participants Scale Score Total No. % Total No. % Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % 1 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 37 29.4 29 23.0 22 21.4 7 30.4 3 11 8.7 5 4.0 3 2.9 2 8.7 4 66 52.4 87 69.0 74 71.8 13 56.5 5 2 1.6 3 2.4 3 2.9 0 0.0 No Response .7 5.6 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 4.29 d.f.=l Significant at the .05 level. NOTE: The statement is: "I do not want any new job which involves more responsibility." 78 TABLE XXXIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER THREE Non-Participants Participants Scale Score Total Total Vocational Non«Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 2 1.6 1 0.8 1 1.0 0 0.0 2 19 15.1 10 7.9 9 8.7 1 4.4 3 6 4.8 11 8.7 10 9.7 1 4.4 4 87 69.0 96 76.2 77 74.8 19 82.6 5 6 4.8 6 4.8 5 4.8 1 4.4 No Response 6 4.8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 3.54 d.f. = 1 Not significant at the .01 level. NOTE: The statement is: "I would not leave this area under any circumstances." 79 TABLE XXXIV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER FOUR Non»Participants Participants Scale Score Total Total Vocational Non-Vo cational - - - No.' No; No. % No. % 1 2 1.6 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 27 21.4 10 7.9 10 9.7 0 0.0 3 8 6.3 1 0.8 1 1.0 0 0.0 4 80 63.5 110 87.3 90 87.4 20 87.0 5 3 2.4 3 2.4 1 1.0 2 8.7 No Response 6 4.8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 13.36 d.f. =1 Significant at the .01 level. NOTE: The statement is: "Learning a new routine would be very difficult for me." 80 TABLE XXXV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER FIVE Non-Participants Participants Scale Score Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 5 4.0 0 0.0 0. 0.0 0 0.0 2 41 32.5 23 18.2 17 16.5 6 26.1 3 9 7.1 4 3.2 4 3.9 0 0.0 4 62 49.2 90 71.4 74 71.8 16 69.6 5 3 2.4 7 5.6 7 6.8 0 0.0 No response 6 4.8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 13.66 d.f. = 1 Significant at the .01 level. NOTE: The statement is: "I would find it very difficult to go to school to learn new skills." 81 TABLE XXXVI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER SIX Non-Participants Participants Scale Score Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. No. % No. % No. % 1 4 3.2 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 82 65.1 66 52.4 53 51.5 13 56.5 3 7 5.6 5 4.0 5 4.8 0 0.0 4 25 19.8 51 40.5 42 40.8 9 39.1 5 2 1.6 2 1.6 2 1.9 0 0.0 No Response 6 . 4.8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X2 = 10.93 d.f. = 1 X 2 = .14 d.f. = 1 Significant at the . 01 level. Not significant at the . 05 level. NOTE: The statement i s : "I w i l l not need further education to ensure myself adequate employment in the future." 82 TABLE XXXVII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER SEVEN Non-Participants Participants Scale Score Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 3 2.4 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 2 42 33.3 14 11.1 11 10.7 3 13.0 3 9 7.1 10 7.9 10 9.7 0 0.0 4 64 50.8 98 77.8 80 77.7 18 78.3 5 2 1.6 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 No Response 6 4,8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 x 2 = 23.22 d.f. = 1 Significant at the . 01 level. NOTE: The statement i s : "I would be willing to give up my sparetime to further my education." 83 TABLE XXXVIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS BY THE SCALE SCORES FOR CHANGE STATEMENT NUMBER EIGHT Non-Participants Participants Scale Score Total Total Vocational Non-Vocational No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 3 2.4 1 0.8 0 0.0 1 4.4 2 63 50.0 49 38.9 41 39.8 8 34.8 3 11 8.7 10 7.9 7 6.8 3 13.0 4 43 34.1 64 50.8 54 52.4 10 43.5 5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 No Response 6 4.8 2 1.6 1 1.0 1 4.4 Total 126 100.0 126 100.0 103 100.0 23 100.0 X 2 = 6.22 d.f. = 1 X 2 = . l l d.f. = 1 Significant at the . 05 level. Not significant at the . 01 level. NOTE: The statement is: "I have no desire to learn a new trade." 84 APPENDIX B 85 R e s p o n d e n t ' s N u m b e r C . - L . I . Region A . R . D . A . / U . 8 . C . / 6 7 SOCIO-ECONCWUC INTERVISV SCHEDULE Respondent 's Name , Address , Record of V i s i t s : Date - T i m e ^G~t'nc-.'ts F i r s t ; Second . _ . T h i r d ; :  Enumerated by: F i e l d Check by: ', ; Coded by: Checked by: D i s t r i c t Lot Number, Respondent 's L o c a t i o n on L o t , and Land U s e ( S k e t c h ! . 86 Respondent 's Number 1 , 3 . 4. N . T . S . Map Number 5 , 9 . C . L . I . Region !C,I i . Soc io -economic s u b - r e g i o n 12. Regional D i s t r i c t 13. Sex of Respondent 1. • Male 14. 2 . Female START INTERVIEW HERE I. How many people are l i v i n g In your home at the present t ime? ! . C h i l d r e n under 14 15. •2. Chi Idren 1 4 - 2 1 3 . A d u l t s What i s your m a r i t a l s t a t u s ? I. SIng I e 2 . M a r r i e d ' • 2 3 . Widowed, d i v o r c e d , or separated 3 your a ge? 1 . 15 - 24 1 2 . 25 - 34 --> 3 . 3 5 - 4 4 3 4 . 4 5 - 5 4 4 5 . 5 5 - 6 4 5 6 . 65 o r . o v e r 6 years of s c h o o l i n g d i d you complete? 1 . 5 or less !8. 1 6 - 7 3 . 0 t> 4. 9 - 1 1 4 5 . ' 2 . 5 6 . 13 - 15 ( 1 - 3 years u n i v e r s i t y ) c 7 . 16 or more (degree or above) 7 a.. Did you have any t r a i n i n g a f t e r you l e f t school? I. yes 2 . . no . b. If y e s , . w h a t were you t r a i n e d in? How many years of s c h o o l i n g did your w i f e complete? I . 5 or I ess 2. 6 - 7 3 . 8 . 4 . 9 - 1 1 5 . 12 6 . 13 - 15 ( 1 - 3 years u n i v e r s i t y ) 7 . 16 or more (degree or above) a . Did your w i f e have any o ther t r a i n i n g a f t e r she le schoo l? 1. yes 2 . no f y e s , what was she t r a i n e d i n ' a . Have you taken any a d u l t educat ion courses in the l a s t th ree years? ( In te rv iewer e x p l a i n ) . 1. yes 2 . no b. Was t h i s course r e l a t e d to your Job? 1. d i d n ' t t a k e any courses 2 . yes 3 . no How many c h i l d r e n do you have? Of those c h i l d r e n who have l e f t s c h o o l , a . How many completed grade 12? b. How many d id net complete grade 12? How many of your ch i Idren have moved to another area? What was your f a t h e r ' s occupat ion? 88 10. How many years of school d id your f a t h e r complete? 1. d o n ' t know ? "7 1 . 5 or less 3 . 6 - 7 4 . 8 4 5 . 9 - 1 1 5 6 . 12 o 7 , 1 3 - 1 5 ( - 3 years u n i v e r s i t y ) "7 S . 16 or more (degree or above) 8 a . Did your f a t h e r have any other t r a i n i n g a f t e r he l e f t schoo l? I . d o n ' t know 2 . yes 3 . no b. i f y e s , what was he t r a i n e d in? I I. Where were you born? 1. Th I s area 2 . B r i t i s h Columbia 3 . Canada • 4 . Un i ted States 5 . Un i ted Kingdom 6 . Other (spec i fy) 12. How long have you l i v e d in t h i s area? 1. two years or I ess 2 . 3 - 5 years 3 . 6 - 1 0 years 4 . 1 1 - 1 6 years 5 . 1 7 - 2 0 years 6 . more than 20 years 7 . entI re I i f e t ime 13. Where d id you l i v e b e f o r e coming t o t h i s area? 1. Not app I i cab Ie ( l i v e d in area for l i f e t i m e ) 2 . B r i t i s h Columbia 3 . Canada 4 . Un i ted S ta tes 5 . Un i ted Kingdom 6 . Other ( s p e c i f y ) 89 14. Now I would l i k e t o ask you how f e r you and your f a m i l y t r a v e l , In m i l e s , t o r e c e i v e the f o l l o w i n g s e r v i c e s : 1. food purchases 2. c l o t h i n g purchases 3. medical care 4. church 5. elementary school 6. secondary school 7. post o f f i c e • 8 * work T o t a l Distance D i v i d e d by 1 D i s t a n c e t r a v e l I t>A s r n r f t 45,47. 48,50. 51,53. 54,56. 57,59. 60,62. 63,65. 66,68. = 69,71 1. 0 - 5 ml les 72. 1 2. 6 - 1 0 2 3. II - 15 3 4. 16 - 20 4 5. 2 1 - 2 5 5 6. 26 - 30 6 7. 3 1 - 3 5 7 8. 3 6 - 4 0 8 9. 41 or more 9 15. - 28. (SEWELL SCALE, SHORT FORM) The next few Items are concerned w i t h some of the t h i n g s t h a t your f a m i l y owns. urns 15. C o n s t r u c t i o n of house: a. b r i c k , s tucco, or frame In good c o n d i t i o n (5) b, unpalnted frame or other In poor c o n d i t i o n (3) 16. Room-person r a t i o : Number of moms d i v i d e d by number of persons R a t i o : a . below 1.00 (3) b. 1.00 - 1.99 (5) c. 2.00 and up (7) 17. L i g h t i n g f a c t l l t l e s : 73. equaIs 74. a. e l e c t r i c (8J b. gas, mantle, or pressure (6) c. o l I lamps, 75. other or none (3) 5 3 3 5 7 8 6 3 S T A R T Respondent 's Number I, 18. Water p iped i n t o . h o u s e : a . yes (8) b. no -'(4) 19. Power washer: a . yes (6) b. no (3) 2 0 . R e f r i g e r a t i o n : . , 2 1 . R a d i o : a. , mechanl.ca I (8) b. i ce (55 c . o ther or none <3) a . yes (6) b. no (3) 2 2 . Telephone: a . yes (6) b. no (3) 2 3 . Automobi le ( i n c l u d e s p ickup t r u c k ) : a . . yes (6) b. no (2) 2 4 . • Fami ly takes d a i l y or weekly newspaper: a . yes (6) b. no (3) 2 5 . W i f e ' s e d u c a t i o n : grades completed (See Quest ion.#5) a . 0 t o 7 (2) b. 8 : (4) c . 9 - 1 1 . :• (65 d . 12 (7) e . 13 and up (8) c 91 26. Husband's E d u c a t i o n : grades completed (See Quest ion /M) a . . . 0 t o 7 (3) b. . 8 (5) c . 9 - 1 1 (6) d . 12 . (7) e. .13 and up (8) 27. Husband at tends church or Sunday School at l e a s t once a month: 3 5 6 7 7 a . b. yes (5) no (2) 14. 28. Wi fe a t tends church or Sunday School a month: a . yes (5) b. no (2) l e a s t once Tota l o 2 Percentage Score % Score : 16, 18. I. Under 20 19. 2 . 2 1 - 3 0 2 3 . 3 1 - 4 0 3 4 . 4 1 - 5 0 4 5 . 5 1 - 6 0 ^ 6 . 6 1 - 7 0 6 i 7 1 - 8 0 7 8 . 8 1 - 9 0 8 9 . Over 90 9 29. (CHAPiN SCALE) Would you p l e a s e t r y to r e c a l l the names of a l l the o r g a n i z a t i o n s t h a t you have belonged to in the past y e a r . (Do not i n c l u d e attendance at c h u r c h ) . Name of Organi z a t i o n •" "•• 1" 2. A t t e n - s 3 . F inan dance f c i a 1 con j t r i but icn 4 Member 1 5 . j of Commits O f f i c e s tee | he ld 1 . jj 1 **> /L • I ! 3 . • J I-4 . s 5 . i 6 . 1 1 . 7 . • • I . j 1 8 • 1 I 1 T o t a l ( X I ) (X2) (X3) (X4) (X5) Score 2 0 , 2 1 . p.ar.ti-c.!.p,gt,i on, Sec 0 2 2 . I - 5 6 - 10 I I - 15 16 20 2 1 - 2 5 2 6 - 3 0 3 1 - 3 5 Over 35 2 3 A M-5 6 7 8 G 30. - 49. I would l i k e to ask you a few quest ions regard ing how you fee l about r u r a l - l i f e and t h i s a r e a . P l e a s e g i v e your r e a c t i o n to each s tatement , us ing the f i v e responses on the c a r d . 3 0 . Rura l l i f e i s too i s o l a t e d and too lonesome. 3 1 . S ince c i t y people .have educat iona l o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n easy r e a c h , I t h i n k they have an advantage over r u r a l p e o p l e . 32 . Th is area i s a d e s i r a b l e one in which to l i v e . 3 3 . I would not mind leav ing here in order to'make a s u b s t a n t i a l advance in my o c c u p a t i o n . 34 . I. do not want any new job which i n v o l v e s more r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . 3 5 . I would not leave t h i s area under any c i r c u m s t a n c e s . 36 . Learn ing a new r o u t i n e would be very d i f f i c u l t for me. 3 7 . ' The fu ture of t h i s area looks b r i g h t . 3 8 . I would f i n d i t very d i f f i c u l t to go to school to I earn new s k i l l s . 3 9 . The people here f i n d i t very easy to get together on community p r o j e c t s . 4 0 . There are not enough jobs a v a i l a b l e h e r e . 4 1 . I b e l i e v e the r u r a l environment i s h e a l t h i e r than t h a t of the c i t y . 4 2 . I w i l l need f u r t h e r educat ion to ensure myself adequate >-employment in the f u t u r e . 4 3 . No one seems to care how t h i s area l o o k s . 4 4 . I b e l i e v e t h a t people who want new and e x c i t i n g exper iences must leave the r u r a l areas and go to the c i t i e s . 4 5 . I would be w i l l i n g to g i ve up my sparet ime to f u r t h e r my e d u c a t i o n . 4 6 . Th is area w i l l never seem l i k e heme to me. 4 7 . The country o f f e r s more enjoyment of l i v i n g than does the c i t y . 48. I have no d e s i r o to learn a new trade. 49. I t h i n k t h a t , on the average, the standard of l i v i n g of r u r a l people i s below t h a t of o t h e r s in Canada. T o t a l Rura l Score ( 3 ) Tota l Area Score (Al-l o t a I Change Score (C) 50. What was your p r i n c i p a l occupat ion in 1965? 4^ 4 3 , 4A 4 7 , 4 93 3; CT) o (0 c: O CD 0) — •o 0 — LT. U CD '!) < J CD c b •1) 0) CO o "O 01 CD cr •— < Q to 1 * 4 5 1 4 5 51. Were you s e l f - e m p l o y e d ? ' I . yes 2. no 52. In what i n d u s t r y d i d you work? 1. agr i c u I t u r e 2. f o r e s t r y 3. min ing 4. s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 5 . secondary a g r i c u l t u r e 6 . secondary f o r e s t r y 7. r e c r e a t i o n 8. c o n s t r u c t i o n 9. o the r y 53. How many years had you been working in t h i s occupat ion? 1. 2 or I ess 2. 3 - 5 3. 6 - 10 4. I I - 15 5. 16 - 20 6. 21 - 25 7. 26 and over 54. Is t h i s the same job you are working In now? I . yes 2. no ' o 6 55.. I f n o t : a . What job are you working in now? 5 6 , 5 3 . 94 5 5 . b. Are you s e l f - e m p l o y e d ? 1. yes 59. I 2. no 2 c . What i n d u s t r y are you working in? 1. a g r i c u l t u r e 60. I 2. f o r e s t r y • 2 3 . mi n i ng 3 4 . s e r v i c e , and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 4 5. secondary a g r i c u l t u r e 5 6. secondary f o r e s t r y 6 7. r e c r e a t i on 7 8 . c o n s t r u c t i o n 3 9 . "other 9 5 6 . Did you have a secondary o c c u p a t i o n or source of income in 1966? (For farmers - P r i n c i p a l o f f - f a r m j o b ) . I . yes 6 K ! 2. no 2 If yes , what was your secondary occupat ion? . - 62,64. . 5 7 . .Were you s e l f - e m p l o y e d in your secondary occupat ion? 1. yes 65. I 2. no 2 58* In what i n d u s t r y was your secondary occupat ion? 1. . f o r e s t r y 66. I 2. . agr i c u I t u r e 2 3 . min ing 3 4. s e r v i c e and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 4 5 . secondary a g r i c u l t u r e 5 6. secondary f o r e s t r y 6 7 . r e c r e a t i o n 7 8 . c o n s t r u c t i o n 8 9 . o ther 9 5 9 . Did you have a t h i r d Job in 1966? ' (For farmers - secondary o f f - f a r m j o b ) . 1. yes 6 7 . I 2. no 2 6 0 . How many months d i d you work in 1966? 68. 95 10 (FOR INTERVIEWER USE ONLY) Respondent may be c l a s s i f i e d a s : 1. farmer on Iy 6 9 . 2 . farmer p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h secondary o f f - f a r m job 3 . non- farmer p r i n c i p a l l y w i t h farming as secondary job 4 . non- farmer on ly 5 . no |ob or out of work 6 1 . - 6 9 . (BRAYFIELD AND ROTH'S.INDEX OF JOB SATISFACTION - REVISED) I would l i k e to f i n d out how you f e e l about your j o b . P l e a s e r e p l y to each statement us ing the f i v e phrases on t h i s c a r d . (Hand respondent c a r d ) . 6 1 . A\y job i s l i k e "a hobby to me. • 6 2 . 6 3 . 6 4 . 6 5 . 6 6 . t seems t h a t my f r i e n d s are more i n t e r e s t e d In t h e i r jobs than I am. enjoy my work more than my l e i s u r e t i m e . am o f t e n bored w i th my j o b . f e e l f a i r l y w e l l s a t i s f i e d w i t h my j o b . fee l t h a t my job i s no more i n t e r e s t i n g than o t h e r s couId g e t . 6 7 . I d e f i n i t e l y d i s l i k e my work. 6 8 . Each day of work seems l i k e I t w i l l never end. 6 9 . I f i n d r e a l enjoyment in my work. Respondent 's Number l i . 12 • 7 3 . 74 . 7 5 . 76 . 77. 7 8 . I 2 4 a> D O ) OJ CO \- w .— < a •o >* <u & >-— <i> — co — i_ CD G> <j CO c Ql Oi (C c •a (.0 -r- Ci c •— -r— r> Q CO 5 4 •j 2 1 I 2 3 O •?- -> I .2 3 5 4 3 j 2 3 I 2 3 I 2 3 4 3 i 2 I 4 5 4 5 4 5 2 I START DATA CARD 3 1 , 3 . 4 . 3 fota I Score i ? , 6 . Tota l , Scfal.3. Score : 9 - 1 2 13 - 16 1 7 - 2 0 • •21 - 24 . 2 5 - 2 3 29 - 32 '33 - 36 37 - 40 4 1 and over 7 . 6 70. Have you worked at any job other thai": the one 's ) you are now working at? I . yes 2. no 7 1 . i f yes , what s p e c i f i c jobs have you had f o r more than s i x months: P r e v i o u s job r! . Next P r e v i o u s job _ ._ ! ~ I £. Next P r e v i o u s job . 15, ! 7. Next P r e v i o u s job . _., , . , i d , 2 0 . Next P r e v i o u s job __ ._ . 21, What was your o c c u p a t i o n in approximate net income from your p r i n c i p a l 1966? ( f o r farmers - net farm income) Amy. ucce« 73. What was your approximate net income frev. your o ther o c c u p a t i o n s in 1966? 74. Did any other f a m i l y members l i v i n g at home earn-Income in 1966? i f yes , how much was t h i s income? a . w i f e Ami-. 36,40. Code. 41. b. sons or daughters c . o t h e r s Amt. 42,46. Code. 47* nmt. 43,^2« Code. 53, 97 Respondent 's number 76 . Did you or members of your f a m i l y r e c e i v e income from other sources In 1966? If yes , how much was t h i s income? a . r e n t , i n t e r e s t , or d i v i d e n d s AtTit . Code, b. unemployment Insurance or w e l f a r e payments Code. 15. 16. 7 7 . What would you e s t i m a t e was the va lue of produce r a i s e d and consumed by y o u r s e l f l a s t year? q u a n t l t y va 1 ue ml Ik b u t t e r eggs meat j garden produce To ta l J 7 8 . Have you been unemployed dur ing the past 3 years? (For farmers - Have you sought o f f - f a r m work In. the l a s t t h r e e years and been unable to o b t a i n any?) Amt. 17 ,21 . : ode . • 22. A. 8. • • yes 2 3 . ( 2 . no 2 fo r how long? 1. less than a month 24 . ! 2 . 1 - 6 2 3 . 6 - 12 3 4 . 1 3 - 1 8 4. 5. 18 - 24 5 6 . 24 - 30 6 .7. ' . '30 - 36 7 (3 7 9 . If you were unemployed, what was the cause or nature of your unemployment? 1. seasonal l a y o f f s 25. 2 . heaIth d i sab i I [ t i es 3 . no work a v a i l a b l e 4 . work a v a i l a b l e , but i n s u f f i c i e n t sk fI I to get work 5 . fami ly reasons 6 . seek ing new p o s i t i o n 7 . o ther 80. Would you l i k e t o take some k i n d of f u r t h e r educat ion or t r a i n i n g ? 1. yes 26, 2 . no 1 3 . undec i ded If y e s , what k i n d of t r a i n i n g would you be i n t e r e s t e d in? 2 7 , 2 9 . 81. Do you own t h i s land , own par t and rent p a r t , or rent I t e n t i r e l y ? . 1. own 30 . 2. own more than h a l f and rent the remainder 3 . r e n t more than h a l f and own the remainder 4 . . ren t i t e n t i r e l y 5 . manager 6 . o t h e r ;  82. How d id you a c q u i r e t h i s land? 1. do not own land 3 1 . 2 . from the Crown-purchase 3 . from the Crown-pre-empt or homestead 4 . bought as i s 5 . i n h e r i t e d as a going concern 6 . through mar r iage 7 . p r i v a t e unimproved 8 . i n a c t i v e improved 9 . ' o ther 8 3 . How many acres of land do you own here? Amt. 3 2 , 3 5 . Code. 36. 99 84. How many acres have not been c l e a r e d but are grass meadows or n a t u r a l pastures? Amt. 3 7 , 4 0 . N' Code. 4 1 . 85. How many acres have been c l e a r e d ? Amt. 4 2 , 4 5 . Code. 46 . 86. How many ac res are in bush o r t imber? Amt. 4 7 , 5 0 . Code. 5 1 . (FOR AREAS AFFECTED BY FLOODING ONLY) 87. Do you expect to be r e l o c a t e d because of f l o o d i n g from dam s to rage r e s e r v o i r s ? 1. . yes 5 2 . 2 . no 2 88. If s o , where do you expect to be moved to? 5 3 , 5 7 . THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS ARE TO BE. ASKED OF FARMERS ONLY 89. What i s your p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l , product so ld? ( t h a t i s , the product from which you ob ta ined the l a r g e s t gross revenue. ) A . I. d a i r y produce (mi lk or cream sh ipper ) 5 8 . 2 . beef 3 . sheep 4 . o ther l i v e s t o c k 5 . f r u i t and vegetab les ( i n c l u d i n g potatoes) 6. o ther f i e l d crops 7. mixed 8 . wood lo t products 9 . eggs o r p o u l t r y B. What o ther a g r i c u l t u r a l products do you s e l l ? (!f more than one response, check second response in B ( 2 ) . ( I) I. d a i r y produce 5 9 . 1. i ry 2 . beef "7 J . sheep 4. o ther 1 i vestock 5 . f r u i t and vegetab les 6.. f i e l d crops 7 . mi xed 3 . wood lo t products 9 . o ther I o 7 o G 15 89. 3. (2) I. d a i r y products 60. 1. l ry 2. beef 5. sheep 4 . other 1 i vestock 5. ' f r u i t and vegetab les 6 . f i e l d crops 7 . ml xed 8 . wood l o t products 9. other 90. What was the average number of animals on your farm l a s t year? d j y r y animals To ta l Animal U n i t s 6 1 , 6 3 . cows hei fe rs c a l v e s Tot PI I An j mai Un i b u l l s I . no animals 6 4 . 2. l ess than !0 cows hei f e r s year 1 i rig's, c a l v e s b u l l s • horses sheep • • . swine ch ickens 3 . 10 - 19 4 . 20 - 29 5 . 3 0 - 3 9 6 . 40 - 49 7 . . 50 - 59 . S . . 60 - ' 79 9 . 80 and over 91. 'What was your approximate gross farm income i n 1966? Ami. 6 5 , 7 0 . Code. 7 I. 92. Would you c o n s i d e r 1966 a . t y p i c a l y e a r , or was I t b e t t e r o r poorer than average w i t h respec t to net farm income? 1. typ i caI 7 2 . 2. b e t t e r than average . '. 3 . poorer than average 4 . not farming p rev ious to 1966 101 9 3 . . What would you be w i l l i n g to pay t o own and operate • t h i s farm as a goTng concern ( e v e r y t h i n g inc luded)? Arr.t. 7 3 , 7 8 . Code. 7 9 . Respondent 's number 9 5 . Did you work o f f your farm l a s t year? If y e s , how many weeks d id you spend working o f f farm? I . r i ght 2 . wrong 3 . d o n ' t know 9 4 . Do you use h i r e d labour for your farm o p e r a t i o n , and, i f s o , on what b a s i s do you h i r e labour? , 1. no h i r e d labour used SO. I 2 . h i r e d labour used on ly on a seasonal b a s i s for less than one man-month 2. 3 . h i r e d labour used on ly on' a seasonal b a s i s for more than one man-month 3 4 . h i red - labour on a year - round b a s i s 4-5 . some yeai—round labour , some seasonal ' 5 DATA CARD • > 1. no o f f - f a r m work 5 . i 2 . . l ess than 4 weeks 3 . 4 - 9 3 4 . 10 - 13 4-5 . 1 3 - 2 5 o 6 . 26 - 39 6 7 . 40 - 52 . 7 9 6 . Do you use unpaid f a m i l y labour In your far I f yes , how much?' a . I . yes 6 . I 2 . no 2-b. I. less than I man-day per month 7 . I 2 . I - 5 - 2 3 . 6 - 10 3 4 . 1 1 - 1 5 4 5 . more than 15 5 9 7 . Who i s your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ? 17 102 9 0 . Have you v i s i t e d your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t In h i s o f f i c e dur ing the post year? If s o , how many t imes? I . None 9 . ! 2 . I or 2 2 ' 3 . 3 or 4 3 4 . 5 or more 4 99. Have you c o n s u l t e d your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t about a farm matter over the te lephone dur ing the past year? If s o , how many t imes? 1. None 10. ! 2 . I or 2 2 3 . 3 o r i 3 4 . 5 or more 4-100. ' Did your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t v i s i t ycu dur ing the past year about a farm matter? If s o , how many t imes? 1. None I I . I 2 . I o r 2 2 3 . 3 or 4 3 4 . 5 or more 4 101. Have you attended l o c a l meetings or f i e l d days sponsored by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t dur ing the past year? If s o , how many? 1. None' 12. I 2 . I or 2 2 3 . 3 or 4 3 4 . 5 or more 4 102. Did you read c i r c u l a r l e t t e r s , m a i l e d announcements, or b u l l e t i n s on an a g r i c u l t u r e s u b j e c t d u r i n g the past year? If s o , how o f t e n ? 1. Never 1 3 . 1 2 . r a r e l y 2 3 . sometimes 3 4 . o f t e n 4 103. Have you l i s t e n e d to farm r a d i o or t e l e v i s i o n programs d u r i n g the past year? If s o , how o f ten? never 2 . r a r e l y 3 . somet imes 3 4 . o f t e n 4 1 8 104-. Did you read any farm newspaper a r t i c l e s dur ing the past year? If s o , how o f ten? I . never 15. 2. ' r a r e Iy 3 . sometimes 4 . o f t e n 105. Have you ever taken any a g r i c u l t u r e courses? If s o , • where? 1. no courses 16. 2. h igh school 3 . v o c a t f o n a ! or a g r i c u l t u r e school 4 . • a g r i c u l t u r a l co l lege 5 . u n i v e r s i t y . 6 . ' a d u l t educat ion 106. Dur ing the next f i v e years do you have any d e f i n i t e p lans to change your farming a c t i v i t i e s or o p e r a t i o n s ? 1. yes 17, 2. no 107. What k i n d of change(s) do you hope to make? 1. i n c r e a s e farm s i z e IS. 2. change e n t e r p r i s e 3 . c l e a r and/or d r a i n land . 1.9. 4. . change b u i l d i n g s 5 . educat ion ' 20, 6 . • t a k e an o f f - f a r m job 7 . i n c r e a s e o f f - f a r m work 8 . r e t i r e 9 . • i n c r e a s e s tock J . seI I farm K. decrease s tock L. decrease farm s i z e M . ren t out farm N. decrease o f f - f a r m work P. o ther ' • 108. What do you t h i n k would improve a g r i c u l t u r e in t h i s area? 2! . 22. Present land use (9 c o l s ) ' 2 3 , 3 1 . Land c a p a b i l i t y for a g r i c u l t u r e (10 c o l s ) 32,41 . Land c a p a b i l i t y for f o r e s t r y ( 6 c o l s ) 4 2 . 4 7 . 

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