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Metaphor, world view and the continuity of Canadian poetry : a study of the major English Canadian poets… Djwa, Sandra 1968

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METAPHOR, WORLD VIEW AND THE . CONTINUITY OF CANADIAN POETRY: A Study of the Major English Canadian Poets With a Computer Concordance to Metaphor by SANDRA ANN DJWA B.Ed., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I 9 6 4 . A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY i n the Department of English We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the required standard (External Examiner) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y available f o r reference and study a f t e r a period of two years from date of submission. I further agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s thesis f o r scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s representatives a f t e r t h i s period. S i m i l a r l y , the computer concordance to metaphor which provides a supplement to t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n i s not to be made available f o r any purpose whatever without my written permission up to a period of two years. I t i s also understood that copying or publication of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department of English The University of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada A p r i l 2, 1968 ABSTRACT This d i s s e r t a t i o n d i f f e r s from previous research i n that i t suggests the continuity of Canadian poetry within a hypothesized four stages of development i n North American poetry. The study i s supported by a supplementary computer concordance to the major works of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, Isabella Valancy Crawford, Archibald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott, E.J. Pratt, Earle Birney and Margaret Avison. The continuity of Canadian poetry i s indicated by a transference of poetic metaphor and world view from the works of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts (the l880»s Group), to those of E.J. Pratt (the 1920's Group), and from Pratt to Earle Birney (the 1 9 4 0 fs Group). Stage One i n the development of North American poetry emerges i n re l a t i o n s h i p to the building up of community. Stage Two i s characterized by a Romantic trans-cending of the land which overleaps e v i l ; Stage Three by an acknowledgement of e v i l i n man and nature and Stage Four by a concentrated inquiry into the e v i l of human nature i n what might be described as the contemporary Black Romantic Movement. Chapter One, "The Forest and The Garden" chronicles the wilderness-garden a n t i t h e s i s i n re l a t i o n s h i p to O l i v e r Goldsmith, Charles Heavysege and Isabella Valancy Crawford. The dominant world view of t h i s group i s that of "garden" as i t r e l a t e s to the c u l t i v a t i o n of the for e s t , and the primary metaphors are from the vegetative world. Chapter Two, i v . "The Dream World", describes the movement away from the dream as a metaphor of romantic transcendentalism i n the works of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, Archibald Lampman and Duncan Campbell Scott. The "dream" i n Roberts' canon emerges as a vehicle f o r transcendence which fuses C h r i s t i a n Romanticism and Darwinian progress; i n the l a t e r works of Duncan Campbell Scott t h i s transcendence i s denied and e v i l i s admitted, and the dream emerges i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the temporal world. Chapter Three, "From Steel To Stone", indicates the transference of metaphor and world view from Roberts to Pratt i n which the e a r l i e r poet's a s p i r i n g Darwinism i s transformed into an a t a v i s t i c a l structure which stresses the p o s s i b i l i t y of human Retrogression to the cave ethic, the s t e e l to stone r e v e r s a l . It i s suggested that t h i s a t a v i s t i c reversal and the dominant metaphor of "blood" which character-ize poetry written from 1920 to 1945 were occasioned by the carnage of two world wars. In E.J. Pratt's early work, the blood metaphor i s associated with the bloodshed of war, and the " t a i n t " or toxin of e v i l i n the bloodstream which pr e c i p i t a t e s war. But i t i s also associated with a structure s i m i l a r to E l i o t ' s f e r t i l i t y cycle and the p o s s i b i l i t y of C h r i s t - l i k e redemption. In Pratt's l a t e r works, the blood metaphor moves d i r e c t l y into the Aryan myth and t h i s also characterizes the writings of A.M. K l e i n . In F.R. Scott, Pratt's " t a i n t " or "toxin", although carrying a l l of i t s previous escatological structure, becomes a r e a l v i r u s . V . Chapter Four, "The F a l l e n World", suggests that the concept of the F a l l dominates poetry written i n Canada from 1950 to 1 9 6 5 . Earle Birney i s introduced as a t r a n s i t i o n a l poet and i t i s suggested that h i s e a r l i e r poetry, which shows the influence of E.J. Pratt, moves from an Auden-inspired humanism, not unlike that of Scott and Pratt, to an ethos verging on the contemporary Black Romantic, which stresses the inversion of t r a d i t i o n a l Romantic myth and morality. Faced with the f a l l e n world, the contemporary poet may decide to set up demons and assign to them a po s i t i v e value (as Leonard Cohen and Daryl Hine do) or he may prefer to assign r e a l i t y to the t r a d i t i o n a l God i n rel a t i o n s h i p to the making of h i s own poetic world (as Margaret Avison does). The works of Avison and Cohen are examined i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to a world view which stresses the f a l l e n world and the primary metaphors of sun-destructive and sun-creative. The Conclusion reviews the dominant metaphors and world views which have characterized Canadian poetry. I t suggests that the development of poetry i n Canada has been sim i l a r to the development of poetry i n the United States i n broad general terms although s p e c i f i c aspects of h i s t o r i c a l and geographical structure have changed some of the d e t a i l s of t h i s development. I t concludes that there i s a continuity of Canadian poetry. v i PREFACE The purpose of t h i s study i s to show that Canadian poetry, to a greater extent than has been previously suggested, has exemplified a continuity of development i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to a series of p a r t i c u l a r world views, imitative of, but s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t from those of the English Romantics and p a r t i c u l a r l y appropriate to the North American c u l t u r a l , h i s t o r i c a l and geographical background. This continuity of development i n Canadian poetry i s r e f l e c t e d through the constructs of the poetry and p a r t i c u l a r l y through the emergence of a complex of metaphors, most e x p l i c i t at the d i c t i o n l e v e l , and handed down by the major poets, especially S i r Charles G.D. Roberts and E.J. P r a t t . At the outset of t h i s study, i t was my b e l i e f that the metaphor of "dream", pinpointed i n the work of Lampman by Roy Daniells i n the L i t e r a r y History of Canada (1966), was not confined to Lampman alone, but originated i n the work of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts and passed on to the works of Archibald Lampman and Duncan Campbell Scott. Further, i t appeared that Roberts' early poetry had provided the general philosophical basis f o r the poets of the 1880's, and that i t was h i s l a t e r sea poetry together with his prose of wild l i f e , i n p a r t i c u l a r the " p r e h i s t o r i c , h i s t o r i c romance", In The Morning of Time (1919), which provided the p o e t i c a l impetus f o r the poets of the 1920»s and 30's, notably E.J. Pratt and F.R. Scott. I f t h i s development could be indicated i n an empirical manner, v i i i t would modify current c r i t i c a l opinion of E.J. Pratt as a poet without antecedents i n previous Canadian work, and would suggest hitherto undiscerned l i n e s of continuity from the poets of the l£80's to' those of the 1920's and 1 9 3 0 's. But although i t would be possible to give examples of s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l influences, such as the passing on of Charles Sangster's " S p i r i t of Song" into the poetry of Roberts, the continuity of the "dream" complex i n the works of Roberts, Lampman and Scott, and the transference from Roberts* poem "The Iceberg" (1931) into Pratt's The T i t a n i c ( 1 9 3 5 ) , i t would not be possible to make larger, more encompassing statements about the metaphoric continuity of Canadian poetry without a detailed study, at the d i c t i o n l e v e l , of each poet's p a r t i c u l a r use of metaphor. Because the proposed f i e l d of study involved approximately 65 books, the major works of twelve authors, and because i t took six and one-half months to prepare by hand a metaphoric index to four slim books by Leonard Cohen, i t soon became apparent that a manual approach to t h i s study was im-practicable i n terms of r e s u l t s achieved f o r time expended. Accordingly, with the co-operation of the Computing Center at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, a computer con-cordance to the major works of seven selected poets, S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, Is a b e l l a Valancy Crawford, Archibald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott, E.J. Pratt, Earle Birney and Margaret Avison, has been compiled as a supplement to t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . These p a r t i c u l a r poets were chosen because readings done v i i i . preparatory to the d i s s e r t a t i o n indicated that t h e i r works were central to an exploration of the four stages i n North American poetry, a hypothesis of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , and to the l i n e s of metaphoric transference which would indicate the con-t i n u i t y of Canadian poetry. In addition, studies of O l i v e r Goldsmith, Charles Heavysege, F.R. Scott, A.M. Klein and Leonard Cohen were undertaken independently to indicate further l i n k s i n t h i s l i n e of development. In t h i s study, the term "metaphor" i s used i n the broad generic sense (analogy) to indicate the p r i n c i p a l parts of recurring patterns of d i c t i o n . By t h e i r continued appearance within a recognized structure of value, which i s delineated by a p a r t i c u l a r d i c t i o n cluster, certain words, such as S i r Charle G.D. Roberts* "dream", E.J. Pratt's "blood" and Margaret Avison "sun", come to take on e x p l i c i t metaphoric s i g n i f i c a n c e . This i s not to suggest that a l l elements of d i c t i o n are active metaphors. Samuel Taylor Coleridge, discussing the Enneads. makes t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n : Images, however b e a u t i f u l , though f a i t h f u l l y copied from nature, and as accurately represented i n words, do not of themselves characterize the poet. They become proofs of o r i g i n a l genius only as f a r as they are modified by a predominant passion; or by associated thoughts or images awakened by that passion ... or l a s t l y , when a human and i n t e l l e c t u a l l i f e i s trans-ferred to them from the poet's own s p i r i t , 'Which shoots i t s being through earth, sea, and a i r ' . In t h i s description, Coleridge uses image as the generic term f o r metaphor, suggesting that such metaphor can only be d i s -tinguished and explored i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the characterizing i x . of the poet (world view) i f the poet has himself assigned personal value to them. Consequently, the c r i t i c ' s f i r s t task i s that of intensive study of a poet's canon u n t i l he becomes s u f f i c i e n t l y sensitive to the poet's work to attempt to i d e n t i f y structures of value. A further q u a l i f i c a t i o n i n r e l a t i o n to the i d e n t i f i -cation of metaphor i s the d i s t i n c t i o n between the public and private uses of a p a r t i c u l a r element of d i c t i o n . Although a poet may assign a private value to a p a r t i c u l a r word, and t h i s word may take i t s place within h i s own mythic structure, he may s t i l l occasionally use t h i s word i n the more general, or non-metaphoric sense. For example, "dream" i s the primary metaphor i n the works of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, but as may be observed with reference to the supplementary concordance, "dream" i s not always an active metaphor. In poems such as "Cuthbert the Monk" from In Divers Tones, the dream i s simply an ordinary night dream without further metaphoric ramifications. S i m i l a r l y , the day dream from "Frogs" i n Songs of the Common Day does not seem to suggest a larger visionary context. "Dream" i s also sometimes used i n the sense of "imagine" or "think" as i n the l i n e "How could I dream that thou wert growing weary?" from "Miriam—1" i n Orion, and Other Poems. Yet, most often, the dream emerges i n context as an i n t e g r a l part of a larger metaphoric structure which d e t a i l s the poet's aspiration i n nature. The construction of t h i s supplementary concordance has X . involved the preparation of some 300,000 computer key-punch cards, one per l i n e of poetic text. A f t e r a series of three proof-reading checks f o r accuracy, each card was then fed into an IBM 7040 Computer f o r the compilation of an alphabetical, word-frequency dictionary f o r each poet. These l i s t i n g s were then manually compared and c l a s s i f i e d . On the basis of dominant frequency patterns apparent i n each poet's dictionary, and with reference to the hypotheses of the d i s s e r t a t i o n , a selected associative thesaurus was then drawn up. I t i s t h i s thesaurus (Word Indices A and B of the supplementary concordance), which provides the basis f o r the present concordance. The composition of t h i s thesaurus i s by thematic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . As some meta-phors, such as "pole" and "polar", appear i n more than one thematic group, they are repeated under separate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . The value of t h i s concordance i s that i t provides an e a s i l y manageable body of empirical data against which the c r i t i c can t e s t h i s own i n t u i t i v e assumptions and through which he can augment h i s understanding of a p a r t i c u l a r poet's work. For example, on the basis of frequency of appearance and context of development, i t i s possible to show that the "dream" metaphor did indeed predominate i n Roberts' work and i t passed on from his work into that of Lampman and Scott. With t h i s v e r i f i c a t i o n of an i n i t i a l hypothesis, i t i s then possible to go on to the c r i t i c ' s proper function of analysis, interpretation, and, where necessary, judgement. x i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Page. CHAPTER I . THE FOREST AND THE GARDEN 1 i . Myth, Metaphor and the American Tradition i i . O l i v e r Goldsmith, Charles Heavysege, Isabella Valancy Crawford. CHAPTER I I . THE DREAM WORLD 57 i . S i r Charles G.D. Roberts i i . Archibald Lampman i i i . Duncan Campbell Scott CHAPTER I I I . FROM STEEL TO STONE 141 i . E.J. Pratt i i . A.M. Klein i i i . F.R. Scott CHAPTER IV. THE FALLEN WORLD 217 i . Earle Birney i i . Leonard Cohen i i i . Margaret Avison CONCLUSION THE CONTINUITY OF CANADIAN POETRY 271 Bibliography 283 Appendix A • 294 x i i . ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This concordance could not have been i n i t i a t e d without the co-operation and active support of the Computing Center and the English Department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia. I am g r a t e f u l to Mr. A.G. Fowler, Chief Analyst, and Mr. John Coulthard, Programmer, f o r t h e i r e f f o r t s to develop a program by which t h i s concordance was established; to Professor William Robbins, Chairman, The Graduate Committee of the English Department, fo r h i s successful e f f o r t s to e s t a b l i s h a precedent by which students i n the Humanities can have access to the f a c i l i t i e s of the Computing Center with the same assistance available to students i n the Sciences; and to Professor Stanley Read, who spoke on behalf of t h i s project to the Koerner Foundation. Above a l l , I am g r a t e f u l to Professors Roy Daniells and George Woodcock, who contributed ways and means of carrying on t h i s project at times when i t appeared that i t might lapse f o r lack of support, and f o r the continued assistance and encouragement of my supervisor, Dr. D.G. Stephens, of the English Department at the University of B r i t i s h Columbia, who channelled a l l of these e f f o r t s into the production of the f i r s t concordance to English Canadian poetry. The mechanical work of key-punching t h i s material has been grpatly assisted'by a Summer Grant from the President's Fund (1967) and by a substantial grant from the Koerner Foundation (1967-68). CHAPTER ONE THE FOREST AND THE GARDEN I. METAPHOR, WORLD VIEW AND THE AMERICAN TRADITION The paper-backed ed i t i o n of William Carlos Williams' introduction to North American l i t e r a t u r e , In the American  Grain, i s i l l u s t r a t e d by an outstretched hand, deeply etched and spiraled.- 1- By implication, t h i s i s the hand of the voyageur and the pioneer, and the grain of America i s the history of the struggle westward, the e f f o r t to make a home out of the wilderness. In t h i s sense, the American grain i s the h i s t o r y of the human element: Christopher Columbus and John Cabot, Cotton Mather and Abraham Li n c o l n . But i n a further and related sense, the North American grain i s also the growth rings which s p i r a l the tree trunks i n the f o r e s t s of the New World. In t h i s i m p l i c i t analogy, the American grain of c u l t u r a l and l i t e r a r y history i s founded upon the i n t e r - a c t i o n of man and nature. This same re l a t i o n s h i p i s made e x p l i c i t i n Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass (1855). The "leaves" to which Whitman re f e r s are both part of organic nature (the grass i t s e l f ) and part of i W i l l iam Carlos Williams, In The American Grain, New York, New Directions, 1956. ( F i r s t published i n 1925). 2 art (the leaves of Whitman's book). I t i s t h i s same i n t e r -dependence of man, nature and art which i s described i n Emerson's essay on "Nature". "Art", he explains, i s the r e s u l t of mixing "human w i l l with nature". 2 "Human w i l l " i n t h i s context would appear to r e f e r to the human capacity f o r organ-i z i n g external nature into s a t i s f y i n g patterns and the t r a n s f e r r i n g of these i n t e r n a l patterns into the work of art created. Accordingly, "a work of art i s an abstract or epitome of the world. I t i s the r e s u l t or expression of nature i n miniature. " 3 In t h i s formulation, art i s a microcosm of the world which the poet sees, and i t i s therefore legitimate to discuss metaphor (the microcosm of art) as a r e f l e c t i o n of the poet's world view. This Emersonian theory of correspondences, b a s i c a l l y an 'Edwardian"Calvinism fused with European Romanticism, would appear to be central to the North American t r a d i t i o n . Although t h i s theory i s modified from a b a s i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s premise (nature i s a r e f l e c t i o n of divine purpose) to one which suggests that external nature has no transcendent meaning and therefore focuses on i n t e r n a l human nature (John Crowe Ransome and Leonard Cohen), the function of nature i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to poetry remains constant. Nature i s described as the basis of Ralph Waldo Emerson, "Nature", The American Tra d i t i o n i n  Literature, eds. Sculley Bradley, Richard Croom Beatty and E. Hudson Long, v o l . I, New York, Norton, 1 9 6 2 , p. 1 0 0 3 . , 3 l b i d . . p. 1 0 1 0 . 3 . the poet's analogies both i n terms of metaphor (image) and structure (the mythology or world view which conditions i t s growth). As Stevens suggests, "a mythology r e f l e c t s i t s region".4 Because the poet's surroundings must necessarily provide part of h i s Weltanschauung, or world view, i t follows that the structure and metaphor of poetry i n the new world w i l l d i f f e r somewhat from that of the old because the nature (landscape) i t s e l f i s d i f f e r e n t . Yet, the new poetry might also be expected to have some a f f i n i t i e s with that produced i n the old country simply because the p r e v a i l i n g climate of ideas, or "structure of r e a l i t y " , w i l l be shared i n common by both countries. In h i s essay, "Nature", Emerson implies that nature has an external and divine order a p r i o r i which may be perceived by the "transparent eyeball". In the l a t e r American Romantic poetry, Wallace Stevens avoids t h i s p o s i t i v e assertion to suggest the more subtle dualism of the Wordsworthian creative, yet perceiving, a r t i s t : a l l the mighty world Of eye and ear, ...both what they half create And what perceive;5 In t h i s poetic philosophy, world view i s a combination of inner ^Wallace Stevens, "A Mythology Reflects i t s Region", Opus  Posthumous: Poems. Plays and Prose by Wallace Stevens, ed. Samuel French Morse, New York, Knopf, 1957, p. 118. ^William Wordsworth, "Lines Composed a Few Miles Above Tintern Abbey, on R e v i s i t i n g the Banks of the Wye During a Tour. July 1 3 , 1798", The Poeti c a l Works of William Wordsworth, v o l . 2, ed. and with textual and c r i t i c a l notes by E. de Selincourt, 2nd ed. Oxford, At the Clarendon Press, 1952, p. 2 6 2 . 4 and outer r e a l i t y , inner and outer nature. Emerson suggests, i n e f f e c t , "God's i n His Heaven, a l l ' s r i g h t with the world", and t h i s i s a formulation l a r g e l y accepted by S i r Charles G.D. Roberts and B l i s s Carman. Stevens, no longer able to avoid the problem of e v i l or to po s i t a transcendent God, i n s i s t s that man must co-operate i n making h i s own order or concept of the world: It was her voice that made The sky acutest at i t s vanishing. She measured to the hour i t s solitude. She was the single a r t i f i c e r of the world In which she sang. And when she sang, the sea, Whatever s e l f i t had, became the s e l f That was her song, f o r she was maker. Then we, As we beheld her s t r i d i n g there alone, Knew that there never was a world f o r her /-Except the one she sang and, singing, made. The g i r l at Key West makes her world, yet, as the context of the poem suggests, there i s a r e l a t i o n s h i p between her voice and the voice of the sea so that, ultimately, there i s some inter-penetration of the external and the i n t e r n a l worlds. In t h i s "blessed rage f o r order", the poetic process becomes a means of exploration of the s e l f and the world outside. This movement i n world views from Ralph Waldo Emerson to Wallace Stevens i n the poetry of the United States i s also that which characterizes the movement from S i r Charles G.D. Roberts to Margaret Avison i n Canadian poetry. For Roberts, as f o r Emerson, nature has an external order which i s good and the poet i s W a l l a c e Stevens, "The Idea of Order at Key West", Poems by  Wallace Stevens, selected and with an Introduction by Samuel French Morse, New York, Vintage, 1 9 4 7 , p. 55 • 5 j u s t i f i e d i n int e r p r e t i n g t h i s nature according to h i s own pre-conceived myth of the universe; f o r Avison, as f o r Stevens, there must be an inter-penetration of the i n t e r n a l and the external, and the opposition of the two produces the tension which r e s u l t s i n the poetic experience. In one of h i s epigrams, Stevens suggests that the modern poet has converted the old theology into a poetic aesthetic: " a f t e r one has abandoned a b e l i e f i n god, poetry i s that essence which takes i t s place as l i f e ' s redemption. 1 1 ? Because the poet of the mid-twentieth century has established h i s own aesthetic, he also has the choice of whether he w i l l set up gods or demons. Stevens chooses the r a t i o n a l i d e a l but Robinson J e f f e r s chooses the demonic. S i m i l a r l y , i n Canadian poetry, E.J. Pratt and A.M. Kl e i n struggle to hold on to the old God.s i n an attempt to create a humane world through t h e i r poetry; but i n contemporary poets such as the American^ S y l v i a Plath, and the Canadians,- Daryl Hine and Leonard Cohen, the primary allegiance i s to the demonic. This t r a n s i t i o n i s from a concern with nature as a r e f l e c t i o n of divine purpose to a preoccupation with the e v i l of human nature, and provides the dominant concern of what might be c a l l e d the contemporary Black Romantic movement. In In The American Grain. Williams expands h i s metaphor of the outstretched human hand i n terms of the i n t e r - a c t i o n of man ^Wallace Stevens, "Adagia", Prose Keys to Modern Poetry, ed. Karl Shapiro, New York, Row Peterson & Co., 1962, p. 155. 6 . and nature. In e f f e c t , Williams presents a hypothesized world view; he suggests that the dominant metaphor of the New World i s that of the f o r e s t : "the whole weight of the wild continent".* The early Puritans, confronted with the wilderness, turned i n upon themselves, upon t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f and i t s c u l t u r a l and community manifestations: Their courage, had they been g i f t e d with a f u l l knowledge of the New World they had h i t upon, could not have stood against the mass of the wilderness; i t took the form, then, f o r the mysterious processes of t h e i r implantation here, of a doctrinaire r e l i g i o n , a form, that i s to say, f i x e d — but small. For the great task God had destined them to perform, they were clipped i n mind, stripped to the physical n e c e s s i t i e s . ° In Northrop Frye's summation at the conclusion of the new L i t e r a r y History of Canada ( 1 9 6 5 ) , Williams 1 primarily r e l i g i o u s -"mental 'palisade" becomes the community-oriented "garrison mentality" of Canadian letters'-: Yet the conquest of nature has i t s own p e r i l s f o r the imagination, i n a country where the winters are so cold and where conditions of l i f e have so often been bleak and comfortless.... I have long been impressed i n Canadian poetry by a tone of deep t e r r o r i n regard to nature.... I t i s not a t e r r o r of the dangers or discomforts or even the mysteries of nature, but a t e r r o r of the soul at something these things manifest. The human mind has nothing but human and moral values to c l i n g to i f i t i s to preserve i t s i n t e g r i t y or even i t s sanity, yet the vast unconsciousness of nature i n front of i t seems an unanswerable denial to those values.10 In Frye's view, the garrisons themselves are the small and i s o l a t e d Canadian communities: % p _ _ c i t . , Williams, p. 6 8 . 9lbid.. p. 1 1 1 . lONorthrop Frye, "Conclusion", L i t e r a r y History of Canada. Canadian Literature i n English, gen. ed. Carl F. Klinck, University of Toronto Press, I965, p. 830. 7. ...Communities that provide a l l that t h e i r members have i n the way of d i s t i n c t l y human values, and that are compelled to f e e l a great respect f o r the law and order which holds them together, yet confronted with a huge, unthinking, menacing and formidable physical setting — such communities are bound to develop what we may p r o v i s i o n a l l y c a l l a g a r r i s o n n mentality. In both examples, fear of the wilderness leads to the e s t a b l i s h -ing of r i g i d communities which can only function by preserving themselves as e n t i t i e s , and both c r i t i c a l "myths" are based on the assumption of a wilderness without Gods? • I t i s important that these hypotheses be established and c r i t i c a l l y examined because i t i s substantially Williams' mental ^ a l l i s a d e " (Frye's "garrison mentality") which provides the dominant c r i t i c a l myth, or world view, i n terms of which the f i r s t steps i n North American poetry are currently evaluated. Corollary to t h i s emphasis on the wilderness and the reaction i t causes i n the pioneer, and s p e c i f i c a l l y i n Canadian c r i t i c i s m , i s the hypothesis that the l i t e r a t u r e of the New World i s permeated by a sense of the cold North and that metaphors of cold and snow abound. C r i t i c s point to the post-1900 works of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, the works of Duncan Campbell Scott and E.J. Pratt, together with selected pieces from Earle Birney, as an in d i c a t i o n that the l i t e r a t u r e of Canada has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been dominated by the forbidding aspects of the North American continent. Frye, i n h i s i : LFrye, "Conclusion", p. 830. 8 s t a n d a r d e s s a y , "The N a r r a t i v e T r a d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n P o e t r y " c i t e s Heavysege's Jephthah's Daughter, C r a w f o r d ' s Malcolm's K a t i e , and D.C. S c o t t ' s s h o r t n a r r a t i v e "At t h e C e d a r s " t o p o s i t a b l a n k f a c e o f n a t u r e f r o m w h i c h God has withdrawn H i s face.-*- 2 i n such a n a t u r e t h e e s s e n t i a l e l ements a r e p r i m i t i v e , t h e p r i m a r y a c t i o n t h a t o f pagan s a c r i f i c e . From t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e 1920's and E . J . P r a t t l o o k i n g backwards, t h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s h i g h l y c o n v i n c i n g ; y e t , when t h e c r i t i c s t a r t s w i t h G o l d s m i t h and The R i s i n g V i l l a g e (1834) and b e g i n s t o work f o r w a r d , t h i s s i n g l e "myth" o f t h e w i l d e r n e s s appears t o o s t a t i c t o t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e e v o l v i n g w o r l d v i e w s i n r e g a r d t o n a t u r e , e x t e r n a l and i n t e r n a l , and t h e m a n i f e s t a t i o n s o f t h e s e w o r l d v i e w s as t h e y a r e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e m e t a p h o r i c c o n s t r u c t s o f t h e p o e t r y . I t does n o t , f o r example, e x p l a i n t h e "dream" metaphor i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h t h e mythos o f t h e g r e a t W o r l d S p i r i t w h i c h dominates t h e p o e t r y o f t h e 1880's, n o r does i t g i v e a r e a s o n f o r t h e p r e -ponderance o f " b l o o d " metaphors i n t h e p o e t r y o f t h e 1920's and 4 0 * s ; f i r s t l y , as a m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l h o r r o r a t t h e carnage o f W o r l d War s e c o n d l y , as a response t o t h e A r y a n myth i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o World War I I . More - " c o n v i n c i n g l y , F r y e ' s i n s i s t e n c e on a s i n g l e w o r l d view, a l t h o u g h d e l i n e a t i n g a Canadian t h e m a t i c c l u s t e r , f a i l s l 2 N o r t h r o p F r y e , "The N a r r a t i v e T r a d i t i o n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n P o e t r y " , Canadian A n t h o l o g y , r e v . ed. eds. C a r l F. K l i n c k and R e g i n a l d E. W a t t e r s , T o r o n t o , Gage, 1966, pp. 526-527. 9 t o acknowledge t h a t t h i s myth o f the No r th l and i s a g e n e r a l i z e d Nor th Amer ican and B r i t i s h concept r a t h e r than one which i s s p e c i f i c a l l y Canad ian and deve loped p r i m a r i l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the Canadian l a n d s c a p e . Y e t , as W i l l i a m s 1 In The Amer ican  G r a i n c o n c l u s i v e l y demons t ra tes , f e a r , l o n e l i n e s s and i s o l a t i o n were not c o n f i n e d t o the Canadian s e c t i o n o f Nor th Amer i ca a l o n e . On the b a s i s o f the r e s e a r c h done f o r t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , i t would appear t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e to d i s c u s s Canadian poe t r y w i thout some r e f e r e n c e t o the l a r g e r c l i m a t e s o f p h i l o s o p h i c a l thought and the c o n t r o l l i n g Nor th Amer ican background . In a d d i t i o n , when d i s c u s s i n g Canadian p o e t r y , i t i s necessa r y to keep i n mind the then contemporary Amer ican p o e t r y and the E n g l i s h stream f rom which both the Amer ican and Canadian l i n e s descend . A l though E .K . Brown, i n h i s f i n e e s say , "The Problem o f a Canadian L i t e r a t u r e " , m a k e s s p e c i a l note t:'. a : o f the c u l t u r a l i s o l a t i o n o f the Canadian w r i t e r , t he r e i s s u f f i c i e n t ev idence i n the p o e t r y i t s e l f t o i n d i c a t e t h a t most o f the Canadian poe ts f rom 1850 onwards were q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i th t h e i r Amer ican c o u n t e r p a r t s . Joseph Howe's A c a d i a (1874) makes a l l u s i o n to L o n g f e l l o w ' s E v a n g e l i n e (1841) wh i l e I s a b e l l a Va l ancy Crawford , f a r f rom be ing the Canadian o r i g i n a l she i s c l a i m e d , a c q u i r e s most o f her I nd i an m y t h o l o g i c a l a l l u s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g p rope r names and modes o f a d d r e s s , f rom L o n g f e l l o w ' s Hiawatha (1855) . S i m i l a r l y , 13E .K. Brown, "The Problem o f a Canadian L i t e r a t u r e " , On  Canadian P o e t r y . T o r o n t o , Rye rson , 1943, p. 26. 10 Roberts' f i r s t four books of the 1880 Ts reveal the influences of Poe, Emerson, Whitman and Sidney Lanier. In a l a t e r anthology, Poems of Wild L i f e , edited by Roberts i n 1888, he mentions William Cullen Bryant, Whitman, Joaquim M i l l e r and Sidney Lanier with evident a f f e c t i o n , as well as ten other, now l a r g e l y unknown, American p o e t s . C a r m a n , although cherishing the l a t e r V i c t o r i a n Romantics, i s s t i l l more famous fo r h i s early allegiance, along with Richard Hovey, to the Whitmanian t r a d i t i o n and the joys of the open road. And Carl F. Klinck has most convincingly demonstrated the influence of Poe's malevolent "magic" upon Wilfred Campbell's loss of f a i t h and the restorative powers of Emerson i n connection with i t s re-establishment.-^ F i n a l l y , the Coleridge-Poe l i n e of fantasy and the macabre are present, with some modification, i n the works of Archibald Lampman and Duncan Campbell Scott. Consequently, when discussing Canadian poetry within the American t r a d i t i o n (and by t h i s i s meant the.whole l i t e r a r y h istory of the r e l a t i o n s h i p between man and nature i n North America), and despite the f a c t that the poetry of the United •^Roberts c i t e s John Cheney, Edgar Fawcett, Ruttan Gilder, Louise Guiney, Charles DeKay, John O'Reilley, Clarence Stedman, Richard Stoddard, Maurice Thompson and Horace Walker. He also mentions the Canadian writers John Duvar:, Arthur Eaton, Agnes Maule Machar, Charles Mair, H. Pocock and Charles Sangster. 1 5 C a r l F. Klinck, Wilfred Campbell. A Study i n Late  P r o v i n c i a l Victoriariism, Toronto. Ryerson. 1942. p. 67. 11. States has progressed to a greater excellence i n a shorter period than has i t s Canadian counterpart, i t i s s t i l l very possible that the coming to terms with the old t r a d i t i o n s and with the land i t s e l f proceeded i n a very s i m i l a r manner i n both countries. This i s primarily because poets i n North America, whether writing from New England or New Brunswick, were s t i l l working out of the same generalized Romantic world view, regardless of whether or not t h i s view was s l i g h t l y modified to describe Lanier's Marshes of Glynn or Roberts' Tantramar l o c a l e . Then too, the l i n e s of c u l t u r a l communication between the United States and Canada were kept open at the formative stage i n Canadian poetry. Richard Hovey v i s i t e d Roberts i n New Brunswick during the summers of the 1880's; by 1900, Roberts was "bidden to Manhattan Island" where h i s fellow Canadian, B l i s s Carman, was already an i n f l u e n t i a l l i t e r a r y editor; by 1910, Roberts himself had taken to the "open road". F i n a l l y , the geographical background of a new continent waiting to be s e t t l e d was the same for the United States as f o r Canada. Consequently, f o r the f i r s t pioneers coming to the New World, the inherited l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l t r a d i t i o n s , as well as the problems to be faced, were much the same in broad general outline, although d i f f e r i n g h i s t o r i c a l and national develop-ment did cause changes i n s p e c i f i c d e t a i l . 16 R .E. Watters, " O r i g i n a l Relations: A Genographic Approach to the L i t e r a t u r e s of Canada and A u s t r a l i a " , Canadian Literature No. 7 (Winter, 196l), notes the influence of the i n s t i t u t i o n of slavery i n the insistence upon personal freedom and the r i s e of Naturalism i n the writings of the United States: "The hero of 12 In t h i s connection, i t i s the hypothesis of t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n that there are four major stages i n the develop-ment of North American poetry and that they are the same f o r the United States as f o r Canada. The f i r s t stage i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the New World might be characterized with reference to William Carlos Williams* concept of the fear of the land (Frye's "garrison mentality"), which manifested i t s e l f i n the early s e t t l e r s by a b l i n d turning inwards to f i n d solace i n the r e l i g i o u s and c u l t u r a l manifestations of the old country. This seventeenth century l i t e r a t u r e of the United States and Canada i s primarily a devotional l i t e r a t u r e characterized by inner meditation i n the manner of an Edward Taylor, an Anne Bradstreet or a Robert Hayman. The following, "A C h r i s t i a n Meditation", was written by Hayman i n Harbour Grace, Newfoundland, i n 1628; I hope, and I doe f a i t h f u l l y beleeue, That God i n loue w i l l me SaluatiQn giue; I hope, and my ajj"ured firme f a i t h i s , God w i l l accept my Loue to him and h i s . I hope, by f a i t h h i s Loue w i l l me afford A l l t h i s only, through Iefus C h r i f t our Lord. 1' ah American novel may be an implausible weakling i f he doesn't cut loose from h i s s o c i a l shackles and take to the open road to seek h i s private New Jerusalem, whereas the Canadian may well prove himself a weakling i f he does." p. 15. •^R.fobert] H. [aymanj Quodlibets, Lately Come Over From New  B r i t a n i o l a . Old Newfound-land. Epigrams and Other Small Parcels. both Morall and Divine. London, Elizabeth All-de f o r Roger M i t c h e l l , 1628, p. 24, Second Book, no. 33. From a xerox copy of an o r i g i n a l contained i n the Memorial University Library, St. John's, Newfoundland. 13. Hayman, although s p e c i f i c a l l y "morall" and "divine" i n the t i t l e of h i s book, nevertheless has time to praise the merits of Newfoundland and her pot e n t i a l as a suitable colony: "so though our Newfound -Land look wild, faluage / she hath much wealth penn'd i n her r u f t i e Cage". A l l that i s required to turn t h i s savage wildness into a suitable home i s human c u l t i v a t i o n , the "neat husbandry" that Hayman advocates. As the strength of the new community becomes manifest and i t expands into the fo r e s t , there i s a tremendous burst of energy celebrating the making over of wilderness into community. It i s at t h i s point that epics such as Longfellow's The Courtship  of Miles Standish, Goldsmith's Rising V i l l a g e . William 0'Grady's "Immigrant", Howe's "Acadia" and Crawford's "Malcolm's Katie" can be written. And when, as i n Canada,there i s the added impetus of possible nationhood ahead, the desire to attest to the colony's maturity i n poetry which proclaims the establishment of community becomes a l l the stronger. Notably, a l l of these works are written from a stance taken a f t e r the event; just as the Theocritan pastoral i s the issue of a sophisticated culture, so the pioneer poetry of North America i s written from the comfortable perspective of successful colonization. The poet, as narrator, looks backward to the d i f f i c u l t pioneer days but outward to a present of some prosperity. In such a structure, there i s a r e a l sense i n which the introduction of the now past, f e a r f u l aspect of the for e s t serves as a f o i l to help illuminate the pioneer industry and virtue required to combat i t . This i s 14 also i m p l i c i t i n the fact that much of t h i s poetry serves as a t r a n s i t i o n a l step to the next stage i n North American poetry i n which there i s a Romantic transcending of the land. "Malcolm"s Katie", f o r example, belongs both to t h i s f i r s t period of pioneer poetry i n i t s concern with the establishment of community and to the second group by virtue of the mythologized landscape by which nature i s successfully i n t e r n a l i z e d and transcended. In the second stage, there i s a transmutation of external nature through Romantic transcendentalism. This step i s i n i t -iated i n North American poetry through Emerson's modification of "Edwardian" Calvinism with Wordsworthian romanticism. Based on the theological premise of the Oversoul (which shares the generic t r a i t s of Wordsworth's great world " s p i r i t " ) , Emersonian transcendentalism functions l a r g e l y by overlooking or bypassing the e v i l of nature i n the transcendental experience. In Canada, North American Romanticism i s introduced i n Henrietta Prescott's verse "To The S p i r i t of Song", (Poems Written i n Newfoundland, 1839) and i n Charles Sangster's long poem, The St. Lawrence _and the Saguenay (1856). In both poems, the darker aspects of nature are quickly overleaped i n favour of the picturesque, or ecs t a t i c moment, and nature functions as the raw material f o r poetry by p r e c i p i t a t i n g the transcending moment heralded by the " S p i r i t of Song". I t i s subst a n t i a l l y t h i s paradigm which l^R.E. Rashley i n hi s book, Poetry i n Canada: The F i r s t Three  Steps, Toronto, Ryerson, 1958, suggests that Canadian poets have f a i l e d to make over t h e i r natural surroundings into s p i r i t u a l substance. dominates the poetry of the 1880's and provides the philosophic basis f o r the works of such poets as S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, B l i s s Carman, Archibald Lampman, Duncan Campbell Scott, and Wilfred Campbell, although i n a l l of these poets, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Scott and Campbell, there are also evidences of the s l i g h t l y diverging "magic" of the Coleridge-Poe t r a d i t i o n . Yet, i n some of the poems of Archibald Lampman and Duncan Campbell Scott, the t h i r d stage i n the approach to nature begins to manifest i t s e l f . Although the poetry indicates a great struggle to r e t a i n a kindly nature, maternal and beneficent, philosophical change permeated the Vi c t o r i a n a i r and events combined to make i t very d i f f i c u l t (for Scott especially) to remain f u l l y persuaded of Romantic transcend-entalism. In p a r t i c u l a r , the Darwinian theory of evolution, anticipated by Tennyson i n h i s evocation of a nature "red i n tooth and claw", together w i t h . i t s c o r o l l a r y that man i s also a part of animal nature, worked i n unison with the new Higher C r i t i c i s m of the Bible to undermine the old world view. Then, to compound the d i f f i c u l t i e s of the poets writing i n the l a t e 1880's i n Canada, there was the physical evidence of the land i t s e l f , that harsh craggy section of the North American continent that constituted Canada and which adapted i t s e l f f a r more convincingly to the new Weltanschauung than i t had to the old. Carman bypassed the problem by adhering s t r i c t l y to a b a s i c a l l y Emersonian philosophy. Roberts stepped around the problem by a theory of c r i t i c a l decorum which allowed him to 16 be "romantic" i n h i s poetry and somewhat " r e a l i s t i c " i n h i s ta l e s of wild l i f e , but Lampman and Scott found i t l e s s easy to avoid d i r e c t confrontation with the new philosophy. Both werecfamiliar with the North country from frequent camping t r i p s , and,in the course of h i s duties connected with the Department of Indian A f f a i r s , Duncan Campbell Scott had an opportunity to see at f i r s t hand the ef f e c t of a harsh nature upon the l i v i n g habits of the Indian people. As a r e s u l t , there begins to emerge i n Scott's poetry traces of a nature, i n t e r n a l and external,which i s often dominantly cruel i n aspect, and i n which e v i l i s to be found. Scott often attempts a mediation between the new concept of nature and the old by presenting a dominantly cruel nature i n the main body of the work, but then concluding with a transcendent C h r i s t i a n moral. This technique i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e x p l i c i t i n such poems as "The Forsaken" and "Night B u r i a l i n the Forest". However, by the time Canadian poetry has reached the "Silences" of E.J. Pratt, nature i s l a r g e l y allowed to speak f o r i t s e l f . In b r i e f , t h i s t h i r d stage i n the development of poetry i n North America i s concerned with the admission of e v i l i n human and external nature. In Pratt's poetry t h i s admission often takes the form of an assertion that a l l men contain within them the duality of savage and c i v i l i z e d ; i n the works of the American poets Edward Arlington Robinson and Robert Frost, t h i s i s often manifested i n a horror of the i r r a t i o n a l element that i s discerned to be a part of human and external nature. 1 7 . I f P r a t t can s t i l l a t t e m p t , a s does K l e i n , t o h o l d onto t h e i d e a l o f t h e o l d humane gods w i t h one hand w h i l e s t i l l a d m i t t i n g t h e new e v i l s w i t h t h e o t h e r , t h i s i s a p o s i t i o n no l o n g e r t e n a b l e f o r t h e contemporary p o e t s o f t h e 1 9 6 0 * s . A s L e o n a r d Cohen w r i t e s i n h i s poem " F o r E . J . P . " , he once b e l i e v e d i n r o m a n t i c b e a u t y : I once b e l i e v e d a s i n g l e l i n e i n a C h i n e s e poem c o u l d change f o r e v e r how b l o s s o m s f e l l And t h a t t h e moon i t s e l f c l i m b e d on t h e g r i e f o f c o n c i s e weeping men t o j o u r n e y o v e r cups o f w i n e . 1 " But now t h e p o e t ' s w o r l d view has c h a n g e d . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h i s poem i s w r i t t e n from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a volume o f p o e t r y e n t i t l e d F l o w e r s F o r H i t l e r , and t h e dominant e x p e r i e n c e s a r e o f i r r a t i o n a l i t y , t e r r o r , t o r t u r e and n i g h t m a r e so t h a t any c o n c e p t o f " b e a u t y " w h i c h emerges from t h e work i s t h e b e a u t y o f t h e f l e u r du m a l . I n t h e p o e t r y o f t h e l a s t f i f t e e n y e a r s , p a r t i c u l a r l y the l a t e 5 0 ' s and e a r l y 6 0 ' s , emphasis has s h i f t e d from an awareness o f t h e e v i l i n e x t e r n a l and human n a t u r e t o a p r e o c c u p i e d i n q u i r y i n t o i t . T h i s f o u r t h stage i n t h e d e v e l o p -ment o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n p o e t r y , l i k e t h o s e w h i c h p r e c e d e d i t , i s v e r y l a r g e l y a r e s p o n s e t o a c h a n g i n g E u r o p e a n W e l t a n s c h a u u n g . T h i s movement, an o u t g r o w t h o f t h e l a t e r F r e n c h R o m a n t i c i s m , i n p a r t i c u l a r t h e works o f B a u d e l a i r e (which i n t u r n were s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by P o e ) , c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e d e s c e n t i n t o H e l l and t h e a d m i s s i o n o f t h e r e a l e v i l and u g l i n e s s o f human 1 9 L e o n a r d Cohen, F l o w e r s F o r H i t l e r , T o r o n t o , R y e r s o n , 1 9 6 4 , p . 6 9 . 18 nature which t r a d i t i o n a l Romanticism had sought to disguise. This stream w a s e x p l i c i t i n French-Canadian poetry by 1900 but then dropped out of sight f o r some t h i r t y years to reappear again by the 1950 fs i n the works of such poets as Anne Hebert and l a t t e r l y , i n the 60 Ts i n the works of Marie-Claire B l a i s . In English-Canadian poetry, t h i s stream f i r s t appeared i n the la t e 1950'Sj and early 1960 ,s i n the works of Daryl Hine, P h y l l i s Webb, and Leonard Cohen. Related to t h i s general discussion of world view as a r e f l e c t i o n of primarily l i t e r a r y thought i s the general question of whether North American poetry i n general, Canadian poetry i n p a r t i c u l a r , has been a genuine response to geographical and c u l t u r a l environment (landscape, weather, s o c i a l l i f e ) or whether the metaphor of poetry i s not most often a r e f l e c t i o n of the pre-conceived "myths" or world views previously discussed. In Canadian poetry, one of the clearest examples of the imposition of a pre-formulated world view as manifested i n the metaphor of poetry occurs i n the optimum Romanticism of the poets w r i t i n g i n the l^SO's. In t h i s group the dominant meta-phors are a cluster associated around the Keatsian "dream" as i t r e l a t e s to the Wordsworthian moment of v i s i o n . Yet, i n t h i s same group, notably i n The Songs of the Common Pay by S i r Charles G.D. Roberts and i n New World L y r i c s and Ballads by Duncan Campbell Scott, there are traces of what would appear to be a r e a l i s t i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Canadian scene. S i m i l a r l y , E.J. Pratt begins with the Wbrdsworthian-inspired "Rachel" but then goes on i n Newfoundland Verses to develop h i s own 19. d i s t i n c t i v e s t y l e . Consequently, the question of "world view" i n Canadian poetry i s a l i t t l e more complex than might f i r s t be assumed. For example, i t i s possible that the metaphors of the "cold North", i n particular, the "white death", of the polar metaphor so often c i t e d by Frye and others as c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Canadian poetry, and presumably a genuine response to the land i t s e l f , may not have been as much a response to the land as i t i s a view or myth of the country p r e c i p i t a t e d by the l o s s of the Franklin expedition, supported by then current Darwinism and only l a s t l y confirmed with reference to the land i t s e l f . Although there have been references to cold and snow i n the conventional Romantic manner of James Thomson's "The Seasons", there do> not appear to be any polar metaphors i n Canadian poetry p r i o r to 1850. This date i s chosen as the demarcation l i n e because i t was i n I846 that news was d e f i n i t e l y received that Franklin and his men had perished i n the cold and snow while attempting to reach the North Pole. This event seems ). to have impressed i t s e l f upon the public imagination. Every schoolboy knew of Tennyson's t r i b u t e to the great explorer ("Sir John Franklin: On The Cenotaph i n Westminster Abbey"), and from t h i s date onwards, polar metaphors began to appear i n North American l i t e r a t u r e . There are polar r e f e r -ences i n Howe, Mair, Heavysege and Crawford, and these culminate i n the works of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts and E.J. Pratt. The polar metaphors of Roberts, Campbell and Pratt are p a r t i c u l a r l y revealing because they can be traced d i r e c t l y 20 to the l o s s of the Franklin expedition, or to the record of t h i s l o s s i n verse. Campbell's dramatic monologue, "The Unabsolved", i s founded on the confession of a man who was part of one of the expeditions sent to save S i r John Franklin. Going ahead, he saw signs of the party, but through cowardice kept t h i s information to himself: " I , since that f a r , f a t a l , a r c t i c night, / have been alone i n some dread, shadowy court, / where 20 I was judge and g u i l t y prisoner too1.' Campbell's descriptions of cold and snow, together with the horrors of freezing, are also evoked i n Charles Mair's "The North Wind's T a l e " . 2 1 The experience of l o s s of l i f e at the North Pole i s also the subject of Mair's poem, but^unlike Campbell, he does not s p e c i f i c a l l y r e f e r to Franklin. In 1888, while compiling an anthology of nature poetry, S i r Charles G.D. Roberts quoted a short piece e n t i t l e d " A r c t i c Heroes", based on the l o s s of the Franklin expedition and written by one of h i s f a v o r i t e authors, Richard Henry ( l a t e r Hengist) Horne. There i s , however, no r e f l e c t i o n of t h i s aspect of the cold north i n h i s poetry of that time. Later, i n 1906, while writing Discoveries and Explorations i n the 19th Century. 2 0 W i l f r e d Campbell, The Dread Voyage: Poems, Toronto, William Briggs, 1893, pp. 5 5 - 7 0 . 21 Charles Mair, Dreamland and Other Poems, Montreal, Dawson Brothers, 1868, pp. 1 9 - 3 5 . This poem i s a curious mixture of r e a l i s t i c reporting (probably augmented by newspaper reports of the l o s s of the Franklin expedition) and Coleridgean Romanticism. Regarding the ship, Mair writes: "each strong b l a s t made her creak and groan, / as 'twere a soul i n misery", p.3 1 . 21 a layman's account of the great events of the century, Roberts was again reminded of F r a n k l i n . Approximately one t h i r d of t h i s book i s devoted to the l o s s of the F r a n k l i n e x p e d i t i o n and to p o l a r e x p e d i t i o n s i n g e n e r a l . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Roberts, i n h i s general d i s c u s s i o n of the search f o r F r a n k l i n , uses s e v e r a l of the phrases coined by Tennyson i n h i s eulogy o f the great hero. I t i s only a f t e r t h i s p e r i o d t h a t p o l a r metaphors f i r s t began to appear i n Roberts' work, (The Iceberg and Other Poems, 1934) and when they d i d appear, they would again seem to be a response to a h i s t o r i c a l event. The events recorded i n "The Iceberg" r e f e r to the l o s s of the T i t a n i c i n 1912, when she was p i e r c e d by an i c e b e r g . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Roberts' poem "The Iceberg", i s phrased i n terms which c a l l up the e a r l i e r poem by Home. Even more important f o r the development of Canadian poetry i s the f a c t t h a t i t i s Roberts' "The Iceberg", f i r s t p ublished i n The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Q u a r t e r l y i n 1931, 2 2 which appears t o have p r e c i p i t a t e d E.J. P r a t t ' s "The Sea Cathedral" (1932) and t o have s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d the i c e b e r g passage i n P r a t t ' s l a t e r poem The T i t a n i c (1935). Home's " A r c t i c Heroes" presents F r a n k l i n ' s death a t the North Pole i n a context of great beauty; the icebergs around 22 I am g r a t e f u l to Dr. D a n i e l l s f o r l i s t e n i n g p a t i e n t l y t o the hypothesis of a Horne-Roberts-Pratt l i n e of i n f l u e n c e and then producing the p r e c i s e copy of The U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto Quarterly, v o l . 1, no. 1 (October, 1931) pp. 77-85, which would suggest documentary evidence f o r the Roberts-Pratt t r a n s f e r e n c e . 2 2 . the dying men are vi s u a l i z e d as "cathedrals" shone down upon by the aurora b o r e a l i s . 2 3 S i m i l a r l y , the sunken metaphor of Roberts 1 poem "The Iceberg" i s that of a sea-cathedral and i t i s developed i n r e l a t i o n to the aurora b o r e a l i s . However, Roberts substitutes the loss of the Ti t a n i c f o r the loss of the Franklin expedition and fuses with Home's description a reference to the submerged "horn" of the iceberg, placing i t within a natural setting which emphasizes the berg's eventual di s i n t e g r a t i o n as a part of the natural cycle. Pratt's poem, "The Sea Cathedral", picks up Roberts' reference to the iceberg and the aurora borealis, but i t i s not u n t i l the iceberg sequence of The T i t a n i c ( 1 9 3 5 ) , that he evokes the iceberg's submerged "spur" and connects the berg with c y c l i c d i s i n t e -gration i n r e l a t i o n to wind, sun and wave. For a more detailed rendering of s p e c i f i c excerpts from the poems of Home, Roberts and Pratt, see Appendix A. As t h i s analysis would indicate the primary metaphor of the cold north i n Canadian poetry was not developed d i r e c t l y as a response to the immediate Canadian landscape, but rather i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to a complex of events which included h i s t o r i -c a l events, a p a r t i c u l a r philosophy (that aspect of Darwinism that stresses the survival of the f i t t e s t ) and a continuing 2 3 R i chard Hengist Home, " A r c t i c Heroes", Cosmo de'Medici : An H i s t o r i c a l Tragedy and Other Poems. London, George Rivers, 1 8 7 5 , pp. 1 1 7 - 1 2 2 . 23. l i t e r a r y inheritance, 2^" a l l of which combined to make up the p a r t i c u l a r world view manifested i n the "iceberg" metaphors of Roberts and P r a t t . In t h i s perspective, Frye's i s o l a t i o n of the "cold north" metaphor as a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c response to the land i s not s u f f i c i e n t l y complex to take into account the varying fa c t o r s which es t a b l i s h a poet's world view and manifest themselves i n the metaphor of h i s poetry. More seriously, t h i s c r i t i c a l myth would seem to be the r e s u l t of an attempt to gain a perspective on Canadian poetry by looking backwards from Birney, Pratt and Roberts rather than forward from Goldsmith, Sangster and Crawford. Accordingly, a more f r u i t f u l approach might be to attempt to chronicle the varying factors that e s t a b l i s h the dominant world views of the major Canadian poets--Goldsmith, Heavysege, Crawford, Roberts, Lampman, D.C. Scott, Pratt, F.R. Scott, Birney, Avison and Cohen—to suggest how t h i s world view i s r e f l e c t e d i n the dominant metaphors of each poet's work and to demonstrate, where possible, how myth (world view) and metaphor have passed along from one poet to another. In t h i s structure, Canadian poetry might be seen i n re l a t i o n s h i p to the four stages of development i n North American poetry: t h i s movement i s from a concept of the world as a r e f l e c t i o n of divine purpose to a concept i n which the order 24Not the l e a s t of these l i t e r a r y inheritances i s Herman M e l v i l l e ' s Moby Dick. Ishmael's meditation on the whiteness of the whale, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s r e f l e c t e d i n Pratt's concept of the iceberg i n The T i t a n i c . 24. of the world i s wholly or p a r t i a l l y created by the poet; from a transcendent Romanticism to the inversion of Romantic myth and morality i n the work of the contemporary Black Romantics. I I . GOLDSMITH*' HEAVYSEGE AND CRAWFORD. In the beginning, as Bacon observes, "God Almightie f i r s t Planted a Garden...the Greatest Refreshment to the S p i r i t s 25 of Man." J And i t i s t h i s l o s t garden of Eden metamorphosed into the Promised Land, the Hesperides, and the E l Dorado which dominates most l 6 t h and 17th accounts of the New World. Many of the accounts i n Hakluyt's Voyages and Purchas, His Pilgrimes r e f e r to the Americas as "the new Eden". Columbus, returning from h i s voyages of discovery, i s reported to have t o l d Queen Isabella that he had found "the Islands of the Bl e s t " . Consequently, many of the pioneers saw themselves as new Adams beginning again i n a t e r r e s t r i a l paradise. This t r a d i t i o n i s re f l e c t e d i n the journals of Emerson and de Crevecour, Whitman's sequence "Children of Adam", the Adamic sequence from Isa b e l l a Valancy Crawford's"Malcolm'_s Katie"and Duncan Campbell Scott's New World L y r i c s and Ballads. 2 5 F r a n c i s Bacon, "Of Gardens", Essayes or Counsels. C i v i l l &  Morall. London, J.M. Dent, 1897. 25 But the new Eden was a wilderness instead of a garden. Impenetrable hinterlands, inhospitable Indians, fever and cold, a l l took t h e i r t o l l of the f i r s t voyagers. Cabot fought against the very physical f a c t of the New World. Instead of gold and diamonds and a passage to India he found only a barren rocky i s l a n d , the newe-founde-lande. Champlain struggled against the land i t s e l f ; the freezing winters, the impassable forests and the gloom of i s o l a t i o n . I t i s against t h i s dark background that William Carlos Williams describes the Pilgrims of the Mayflower as made l i t t l e by God f o r the great task which awaited them; had they understood the f u l l weight of the wilder-ness, they could not have stood against i t . And so, they were strengthened, i f narrowed, by a doctrinaire r e l i g i o n which devoted them to the task of b u i l d i n g up God's settlement i n the New World. For the early explorer and Puritan a l i k e , l i t e r a r y a c t i v i t y was subordinated to the active work of establishing and building up a community out of the wilderness. And any l i t e r a t u r e which does appear,such as Cotton Mather's Magnalia  C h r i s t i Americana (1702) or Alexander MacKenzie's Voyages from  Montreal through the Continent of North America to the Frozen  and P a c i f i c Oceans i n 1789 and 1793,functions as a record and augmentation of t h i s task. I t was not u n t i l the 18th century i n the United States, and the 19th century i n Canada, that occasional pieces began to appear i n any number. However, a f t e r 1850, with the land cleared and settlements established, the popular imagination i n both 26. countries turns back to the primal myth. Whitman's "Children of Adam" sport i n a recreated primal paradise; s i m i l a r l y at the conclusion of Crawford's "Malcolm's Katie", hero and heroine s i t i n bowers happier f a r than those of the older " s e l f i s h " Eden. Yet, concurrent with t h i s s t r a i n i n some passages from Ol i v e r Goldsmith's The Rising V i l l a g e ( 1 8 3 9 ) , i n Charles Heavysege's Jephthah's Daughter ( I 8 6 5 ) , and i n Duncan Campbell Scott's New World L y r i c s and Ballads ( 1 9 0 5 ) , are glimpses of that aspect of America which Williams describes as "the whole weight of the wild continent"—an implacable nature, freezing winters, death without mercy; a nature, i n f a c t , where the brute predominates and where l a s t minute attempts at r e l i g i o u s transcendence are not e n t i r e l y convincing. This aspect of the New World i s sometimes suggested i n O l i v e r Goldsmith's The Rising V i l l a g e , t i t l e poem from a book of the same name, and Canada's f i r s t substantial epic. Structured i n terms of a "then"—"now" d i a l e c t i c , i t stresses the sharp dichotomy between gracious, ordered England which the s e t t l e r s have l e f t behind and the wildness of t h e i r new home in continental America: There nature's vernal bloom adorns the f i e l d , And Autumn's f r u i t s t h e i r r i c h luxuriance y i e l d . There men, i n busy crowds, with men combine, That arts may f l o u r i s h , and f a i r science shine... Compar'd with scenes l i k e these, how lone and drear Did once Acadia's woods and wilds appear; Where wandering savages, and beasts of prey, Displayed, by turns, the fury of t h e i r sway... 27 What dire d i s t r e s s awaits the hardy bands, That venture f i r s t on bleak and desert lands. How gr?eat the pain, the danger and the t o i l , Which marks the f i r s t rude culture of the s o i l . When, looking round, the lonely s e t t l e r sees His home amid a wilderness of trees: How sinks h i s heart i n those deep solitudes, Where not a voice upon his ear intrudes; Where solemn silence a l l the waste pervades, Heightening the horror of i t s gloomy shades. Further, the fear of the wilderness i s contrasted with the reassuring order of the new r i s i n g v i l l a g e . This opposition between cu l t i v a t e d England and the savage "new found world" i s also e x p l i c i t i n the conclusion to The Deserted V i l l a g e (1770) by O l i v e r Goldsmith, and undoubtedly provided the model f o r his Canadian grandnephew. In a dedication to h i s own brother Henry, the Canadian Goldsmith explains that he has wanted to provide a sequel to The Deserted V i l l a g e by showing hhe fate of those English countrymen who were forced"to quit t h e i r native p l a i n " to "seek a refuge i n regions at that time unknown": In The Rising V i l l a g e I have endeavoured to describe the sufferings which the early s e t t l e r s experienced, the d i f f i c u l t i e s which they surmounted, the r i s e and progress of a young country, and the prospects which promise happiness to i t s future possessors. As h i s t i t l e implies, the Canadian Goldsmith i s anxious to stress the progressively "smiling prospects" of the new world, but, i n f a c t , the strongest emotional impression gener-ated by The Rising V i l l a g e i s one of subverted melancholy 2 6 This and a l l further c i t a t i o n s are to O l i v e r Goldsmith, The  Rising V i l l a g e with Other Poems, Saint John, John McMillan, 1834* This same contrast between gracious England and the wilds of the new world i s also made i n Robert Hayman's Quodlibets (1628). 28 rather than that of cheerful optimism. This melancholy, and sometimes r e a l fear, i s most e x p l i c i t i n the continued recurrence of threatening metaphors i n juxtaposition with optimistic statement. The beginning of the poem o f f e r s to lead us "where happier prospects r i s e " , but s i g n i f i c a n t l y , these prospects are immediately located "beneath the sternness of Acadian skies", ( i t a l i c s mine). This technique i s con-sistent throughout the poem, each reference to present joy i s q u a l i f i e d by a reminder of past fear: How f u l l of joy appear The expectations of each future yearI Not f i f t y summers yet have blessed thy clime, How short a period i n the page of time! Since savage t r i b e s , with t e r r o r i n t h e i r t r a i n , Rushed o'er thy f i e l d s , and ravaged a l l thy p l a i n . or present menace: Happy AcadiaJ though round thy shore Is heard the stormy winds t e r r i f i c roar. Goldsmith structures The Rising V i l l a g e to show how the Acadian pioneer overcomes, i n turn, the hazards of wilder-ness, Indian and wild beast; 2? how the f e a r f u l solitude of the fo r e s t i s broken by the f a l l i n g of the trees and the r i s i n g of the settlement; how the tavern and the church make t h e i r appearance as do pedlar', doctor and teacher, f i n a l l y culminating i n the growth of a young v i l l a g e culture patterned on the i d e a l s of mother England. Yet despite t h i s emphasis on progress, i t i s not the taming of the wilderness which Goldsmith 2 ? T h i s sequence of wilderness, Indian and wild beast i s also adapted from The Deserted V i l l a g e . 29. stresses, but rather the r e a l fear which i t occasions i n man. Si m i l a r l y , i t i s not the merits of the new culture which dominates but rather i t s inadequacies. The tavern i s described i n mixed tones and the church would seem to be peripheral. The doctor and schoolteacher, i n marked contrast to the preacher and schoolmaster of The Deserted Village,are incompetently "half-bred". Goldsmith's "neat" church, described primarily by appearance, has a s u p e r f i c i a l place i n the Acadian community as compared with the English Goldsmith's "decent" church which e x p l i c i t l y provides the moral values of the country v i l l a g e . This contrast i s most e x p l i c i t i n the development of the surrounding passages i n The Rising V i l l a g e . The younger Goldsmith omits e n t i r e l y h i s predecessor's godly parson and the Acadian church i s described as surrounded by the "holy gloom" of the f o r e s t . "Gloom" elsewhere i n the poem i s associated with the fear and loneliness of the forest and, as such, t h i s i s a somewhat negative description, although a l l e v i a t e d l a t e r i n the poem by an exposition of God as the d e i s t i c "Great F i r s t Cause". The Canadian Goldsmith's concept of God might s t i l l be described i n terms of ISth Century Neo-Classicism. God, the great clockmaker, has constructed h i s a r t i f a c t , but has now l e f t i t to run independently. This view sometimes verges on the almost Manichean dualism which also characterizes much of the early Puritan writing i n New England. In the sense that i t sometimes f a i n t l y suggests two; almost equal primal powers; God would appear to be associated with the pioneer settlement 30 and h i s a n t i t h e s i s , e v i l , with the wilderness. In Goldsmith's terms, God i s associated with law and c u l t i v a t e d nature and as such he l a r g e l y appears to stand apart from h i s a r t i f a c t , the state of unordered nature, which Goldsmith describes i n re l a t i o n s h i p with fear and t e r r o r . Throughout The Rising Village,the forest i s apostrophized i n threatening terms: Acadia i s "a s i l e n t waste", a "bleak and desert land" where "winter's dreary t e r r o r s reign"; i t i s "a wilderness of trees" menacing with the wild beast and the "bloody footsteps" of the marauding Indian. Cultivated nature, i n marked opposition, provides the "smiling prospects" f o r a "happy peaceful home" overlooking the " f a i r prospects" of "smiling orchards". Not surprisingly, the conclusion of the poem looks forward to the "boundless prospects" f o r the happy future of the Acadian community, illuminated^as i t w i l l be, by the splendour and virt u e of the English i d e a l . Goldsmith's d i c t i o n i s highly conventional when he describes s e t t l e d nature, with the one exception, perhaps, of the second l i n e of t h i s couplet: And where the forest once i t s f o l i a g e spread The golden corn triumphant waves i t s head. which describes the v i c t o r y of se t t l e d nature over the wilder-ness. But the very t r i t e n e s s of Goldsmith's usual expression, and h i s insistence on the word "prospect" meaning both a physical view and a commercial-metaphysical forecast, points out the metaphoric basis of the comparison between the forest and the community. "Prospect", a term from the new 18th century 31 landscape gardening, was used almost exclusively to indicate the harmonious beauties of the man-made garden. The poet's exclusive use of t h i s term to describe the r i s i n g v i l l a g e , together with his emphasis on the c u l t i v a t i o n of the land, indicates that the sunken metaphor which provides the basis of comparison i s that of the opposition between the "garden" and the "wilderness". This hypothesis i s borne out by Goldsmith's habitual use of terms such as "waste", "wilderness" and "desert" to describe the f o r e s t . The s i g n i f i c a n t difference between the garden and the wilderness i s the imposing of order upon nature. And Goldsmith's concept of t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n between ordered and disordered nature, both i n t e r n a l and external, might be elab-orated with a reference to the central narrative of The Rising  V i l l a g e , the love story of the Acadian Flora and Al b e r t . Ostensibly i t i s an example of "Vice" as a warning to "Virtue": How many aching breasts now l i v e to know The shame, the anguish, misery and woe, That heedless passions, by nov laws confined, E n t a i l forever on the human mind. and having served t h i s purpose as an example of disordered nature ("by no laws confined") i s then disclaimed by Goldsmith as a t y p i c a l of the new community. Yet, i n the process of giving t h i s exemplar, Goldsmith again stresses, as he did i n hi s description of the c u l t i v a t i o n of the forest, the need f o r bringing order to nature. This insistence on the dangers of lawless nature and the love story i t s e l f would seem to be derived from Wordsworth's "Ruth". Because Goldsmith i s writing from continental America rather than England, the setting i s reversed, but the concept of the two female characters formed by "nature" and the present-ation of the wild young man from America together with the development of the plot are i d e n t i c a l . Ruth i s described as "an infant of the woods" who grew " i n thoughtless freedom, bold"; Goldsmith's Flora i s also a c h i l d of nature "as blooming as that flower / #ii c h spreads i t s blossom to the A p r i l shower". Each i s wooed by the impetuous young man of nature. On Goldsmith's Albert; The hand of nature had profusely shed Her choicest blessings on h i s youthful head; His heart seemed generous, noble, kind and free ... The same reservation, i m p l i c i t i n the verb "seemed" i s made e x p l i c i t i n Wordsworth's description of the young man from Georgia's shores: Whatever i n those climes he found Irregular i n sight or sound Did to h i s mind impart A kindred impulse, seemed a l l i e d To h i s own powers, and j u s t i f i e d - g The workings of h i s heart. Both are described as weak young men who, upon i r r a t i o n a l impulse, desert t h e i r sweethearts and t h e i r native p l a i n . In each case, the young woman of "nature", without the r e s t r a i n i n g force of reason, goes mad. Albert's betrayal of Flora i s of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t to the Canadian reader as i t takes place at mid-winter, close to the coming of night: 2 % i l l i a m Wordsworth, "Ruth", The Poeti c a l Works of William  Wordsworth, p. 231. 33. 'Twas now at evening's hour, about the time When i n Acadia's cold and northern clime The setting sun, with pale and cheerless glow Extends h i s beams o'er trackless f i e l d s of snow. External nature would seem to be at i t s most p i t i l e s s when the same force i n man betrays. Flora's p r e c i p i t a t i o n into wind and snow would also seem to provide the c l a s s i c pattern f o r the betrayed woman i n Canadian wr i t i n g through D.C. Scott's Keejigo to S i n c l a i r Ross' [Rachel] Bentley. However, Goldsmith does not view unconstrained nature with some admiration,as l a t e r becomes apparent i n both Scott and Ross; indeed such an admiration can only be the r e s u l t of a d i f f e r e n t world view. For the present, Goldsmith, l i k e Wordsworth, views unordered nature as dangerous and p o t e n t i a l l y destructive unless brought into same order by man. When the pioneer i s f i r s t faced with the wilderness, there i s no mention of God. Goldsmith shows the early s e t t l e r , when threatened, as proceeding by his own power and apparently without divine a i d . The Acadian holds the s o i l against a l l dangers by, the alternating procedures of temporary " f l i g h t " and "patient firmness and industrious t o i l " . I t i s only a f t e r the pioneer, god-like, has turned the wilderness into a garden and the wilderness has been metamorphosed into Mother Nature by whom the s e t t l e r i s nourished that he "looks to Heaven and l u l l s h i s cares to r e s t " . I t i s also then that he can f i r s t begin to hypothesize that the troubles which "vex and agitate the mind" are "by gracious Heaven f o r the wisest ends designed": 34 • When danger threatens or when fears invade, Man f l i e s to thee f o r comfort and f o r aid; The soul, impelled by thy all-powerful laws,... Seeks safety, only, i n a Great F i r s t Cause. The problem inherent i n a straightforward acceptance of t h i s conventional deist utterance i s primarily that the imagin-ative basis of the poem does not seem to e n t i r e l y support such a conclusion. The emotional tone of the poem associates fear with the wilderness and God primarily with settled nature. The pioneer i n the wilderness, as he has been presented throughout t h i s poem, does not, i n f a c t , c a l l upon God f o r a i d but rather r e l i e s upon himself. Then too, when the poem might be l o g i c a l l y expected to move on from the statement regarding the primacy of God to an assertion of the comfort which He brings, Goldsmith proceeds to wonder how man could f i n d the courage to admit h i s own inadequacy i n the face of the wilderness. I f such an admission can be expected to be made i n ordered nature, how very strong would be those f e e l i n g s which would cause man to admit h i s own inadequacies when faced with the wilderness: I f , then, amid the busy scene of l i f e , I t s joy and pleasure, care, d i s t r u s t , and s t r i f e ; Man, to h i s God f o r help and succour f l y , And on h i s mighty power to save, r e l y ; I f , then, h i s thoughts can force him.,to confess His errors, wants, and utter helplessness; How strong must be those f e e l i n g s whicjh impart A sense of a l l h i s weakness to the heart, Where not a f r i e n d i n solitude i s nigh^, His home the wild, h i s canopy the sky; , And, f a r removed from every human arm, His God alone can shelter him from harmi. Yet, t h i s statement does not conclude i n f u l l support of the God who does, indeed, stand behind Nature, even i f the nature 35 concerned i s a threatening one. S i m i l a r l y , although there are selections from Heavysege's Jephthah Ts Daughter. Howe's Acadia, and Crawford's "Malcolm's Katie",^ which almost make a case f o r the Manichean view based on an equation of the primal forest and e v i l , they draw back^at what sometimes seems to be the l a s t moment, to an assertion of the primacy of God. Consequently, even when making every e f f o r t to stress the movement towards Manicheanism evident i n early Canadian poetry, i t i s d i f f i c u l t to agree i n f u l l with the concept of the wilderness presented i n Frye's by now, standard; essay, "The Narrative T r a d i t i o n i n English-Canadian Poetry". In B r i e f , Frye suggests that the key to the concept of nature i n Canadian poetry i s to be found i n the withdrawal of God from nature, a withdrawal e x p l i c i t i n such poems as Heavysege's Jephthah's  Daughter. In t h i s poem Heavysege has put together certain e s s e n t i a l ideas: the contrast of human and c i v i l i z e d values with nature's disregard of them i n a primitive country, the tendency i n the r e l i g i o n of such a country f o r God to disappear behind the mask of nature, and the symbolic significance, when that happens, of human s a c r i f i c e and the mutilation of the body .... Once one has c a r e f u l l y read t h i s narrative, the e s s e n t i a l meaning of many fi n e Canadian poems leaps out of i t s derivative and 2 9 conventional context. The contrast of primitive and c i v i l i z e d has already been discussed i n r e l a t i o n to The Rising V i l l a g e : however, t h i s poem 29 No rthrop Frye, "The Narrative T r a d i t i o n i n English-Canadian Poetry", Canadian Anthology, rev. ed., eds. Carl F. Klinck and Reginald E. Watters, Toronto, Gage, 1966, p. 526. 3 6 . does not seem to make as strong a case f o r a wilderness without God, as the hypotheses of Frye and Williams would suggest. God does not seem to e n t i r e l y disappear behind the face of Canadian nature nor does t h i s process seem to occur i n F r y e T s primary examples, Jephthah's Daughter, and "Malcolm's Katie". Furthermore, the s a c r i f i c e of the body does not seem to have e n t i r e l y negative connotations. Yet, inasmuch as Frye's c r i t i q u e i s at the heart of current c r i t i c a l opinion regarding the "wilderness" myth and metaphor and because h i s "garrison mentality", (Williams' "mental palisade") provides the current c r i t i c a l myth f o r viewing t h i s period, i t might be he l p f u l to review Frye's consideration of Jephthah i n d e t a i l : [He] i s r e a l l y man i n the state of nature: he has i d e n t i f i e d h i s God, i f not with nature, at any rate with a mindless force of inscrutable mystery l i k e nature, and a l l Jephthah's questionings and searchings of the s p i r i t are the looks of i n t e l l i g e n c e directed at blankness, the attempts of a r e l i g i o u s pioneer to f i n d a s p i r i t u a l portage through the heart of darkness. The passage i n which Heavysege describes t h i s most c l e a r l y cannot be beaten i n James Thomson f o r the sheer starkness of i t s mood, a grimness that i s f a r deeper than any ghost-haunted horrors. Jephthah prays to be delivered from the blood of his daughter, and asks f o r a sign of divine mercy. There i s a s l i g h t pause, then Jephthah hears: The h i l l - w o l f howling on the neighbouring height, And b i t t e r n booming i n the pool below. That i s a l l the answer he gets.^O Upon re-reading of Frye's commentary, t h i s c r i t i c i s m would appear to make a much greater claim for the blankness of 3°Frye, "The Narrative Tradition i n English-Canadian Poetry", p. 5 2 6 . 37 the wilderness than the poem i t s e l f would suggest. In point of f a c t , Jephthah's prayer i s answered by a God who does manifest himself, even i f negatively. Jephthah's Daughter, a n e o - B i b l i c a l epic written i n Shakespearean blank verse, presents the t r a d -i t i o n a l t r a g i c hero; Jephthah i s a man of great power but also of great hubris. In a rash moment he vows that i f Jehovah w i l l grant him v i c t o r y against the Ammonites he w i l l s a c r i f i c e the f i r s t thing which issues from h i s house upon hi s return. The b a t t l e i s won and Jephthah r e t i r e s i n great joy. Unfortunately, when he returns home, his beloved daughter i s the f i r s t to greet him. F i l l e d with misery he b i t t e r l y repents h i s hubris: Who s h a l l go scatheless and not suffer l o s s That dare attempt to s t i p u l a t e with Heaven, And bribe Jehovah to bestow success? Punish me, people, i n my passing pride;... For I have given my daughter up to death; — 31 S t i l l hoping f o r mercy he r e t i r e s to a wooded glen to pray: God, God, oh, God, demand not, stern, thy duel • • • • — i f I am heir of Abraham, the sad s i r e Who to Moriah went to slay h i s son, But f o r whose need thou didst provide a ram, Oh, hear me now, dispense, or else provide I Behold, I am a rash, imperfect man, With but one cherished c h i l d , a daughter, lamb, Whose l i f e I staked, not knowing what I d i d . Forgive, forego; or say what ransom thou Demand'st, what p r i c e . But although s a c r i f i c e and prayers may be made and mercy may be given, i n few theologies may a man make a bargain with the Gods 3 % h i s and a l l following qubtationsofro.m:.i3harlesa^eay^rs,eget  Jephthah's Daughter. Montreal, Dawson Brothers, I 8 6 5 . 3*. and then successfully conclude a better bargain. In t h i s connection, Jephthah*s invocation of Abraham i s p a r t i c u l a r l y revealing. Abraham i n just such a s i t u a t i o n did not ask f o r mercy but went about the task of doing God's w i l l and i n the wake of t h i s obedience, mercy was given to him. Jephthah, o f f e r i n g a l l h i s fortune as ransom, i s s t i l l e x h i b i t i n g h i s former hubris. Consequently, when the wilderness answers with i t s own loneliness and the Tennysonian clang of a f a l l i n g sword, i t may not necessarily be assumed that God has withdrawn from the scene. Indeed, i t i s more l i k e l y that t h i s i s the stern presence of the Old Testament God of j u s t i c e (rather than the New Testament God of mercy) manifesting himself. This i n t e r -pretation i s most probable because i t i s immediately a f t e r Jephthah's impassioned plea f o r an alternate s a c r i f i c e , that h i s own daughter, the required "lamb",appears beforeuhim. F i n a l l y , i t i s an admission of h i s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and Jehovah's right to t h i s promised s a c r i f i c e that Jephthah f i n a l l y achieves i n the working out of Heavysege's drama: I have sworn, And cannot from my honoured oath go back, For by i t s answer has success been won. Heaven, having i t s p r i v i l e g e to take The highest f o r f e i t , taketh even thee. This conclusion i s confirmed by the report of the high council of p r i e s t s : Thou mayest not go back from thy rash vow, Nor palter with the Holiest i n an oath, ... Nothing, once dedicate to Heaven, returns. F i n a l l y , the s a c r i f i c e of Jephthah's daughter i s not brutal as i s claimed by Frye. Like Milton's Eve, she has a 3 9 dream and sees herself transfigured, walking i n "b l e s t f i e l d s with great Manasseh, patriarch of our t r i b e , / and there encountered Deborah and Jael , / who smiled upon me gracious, and embraced". Her death does not emerge as a bloody s a c r i f i c e to the powers of nature but rather the required due of a stern but righteous God; as such, Jephthah's daughter takes her place within the Old Testament hierarchy of heroic women who s a c r i f i c e d themselves f o r the good of the t r i b e . Consequently, t h i s poem, l i k e Heavysege's f i r s t major work, Saul (1859), presents a vindication of the ways of God to man. I t i s not possible to deny the forbidding aspects of the nature which manifests t h i s God; yet i t i s important to note that t h i s i s not a blank nature without God. In "Malcolm's Katie" (1884), the dark forces of the wilderness do s u p e r f i c i a l l y appear to be dominant at the moment when Max i s struck by a f a l l i n g t ree. A l f r e d , the v i l l a i n of the poem, accepts t h i s event as confirmation of hi s own agnosticism: "Yet we hear much of Gods; — I f such there be, They play at games of chance with thunderbolts," Said A l f r e d , "else on me t h i s doom had come. This seals my f a i t h i n deep and dark unfaith Now Katie, you are mine, f o r Max i s dead— " 3 2 Yet the poem establishes a very e x p l i c i t philosophical structure which indicates that i t i s Max's own moral weakness which has 3 2 T h i s and a l l following c i t a t i o n s to Isabella Valency Crawford, Old Spookses' Pass, Malcolm's Katie, and Other Poems, Toronto, James Bain, 1884-40 p r e c i p i t a t e d h i s d i s a s t e r . Stung by "doubt" (a cardinal l o s s of f a i t h f o r one whose theology i s Love) he threatens to k i l l A l f r e d , c a l l s on "Satan" and i s answered by "God": A voice from God came thro' the s i l e n t woods And answer*d him — f o r suddenly a wind Caught at the great tree-tops, coned with high-pil'd And smote them to and f r o , while a l l the a i r Was sudden f i l l e d with busy d r i f t s , and high White p i l l a r s whirl*d amid the naked trunks, And harsh, loud groans, and smiting, sapless boughs Made h e l l i s h clamour i n the quiet place. With a s h r i l l shriek of tearing f i b r e s , rock'd The half-hewn tree above h i s fated head; And t o t t ' r i n g , asked the sudden blast, "Which way?" And, answ*ring i t s windy arms crash*d and broke Thro* other l a c i n g boughs, with one loud roar Of woody thunder; a l l i t s pointed boughs Pierc'd the deep snow — i t s round and mighty corpse, Bark-flay'd and shudd*ring, quiver'd into death. And Max — as some f r a i l , wither*d reed, the sharp And pier c i n g branches caught at him, As hands i n a death-throe, and beat him to the earth — And the dead tree upon i t s slayer l a y . This whole incident i s set within a moral framework which suggests that the evolution of the highest soul can only occur through the inter-working of good and e v i l as represented by Love and Sorrow; yet Crawford d e f t l y avoids any charges of Dianichaeanism by placing the whole process within the "great Creative Hand". In Crawford's mythological structure, the highest value, Love, i s i d e n t i f i e d with the great creative force, sometimes described as the "Great Worker". Love w i l l put sun, moon and stars into the lover's breast: snow, 41 For Love, once set within a lover's breast, Has i t s own Sun — i t s own peculiar sky, A l l one great d a f f o d i l — on which do l i e The sun, the moon, the stars — a l l seen at once, And never setting; but a l l shining straight Into the faces of the t r i n i t y , — The one belov'd, the lover, and sweet Love I But the love of land which r e s u l t s i n the work of clearing the land and turning of forest into garden w i l l also r e s u l t i n "sun-eyed plenty" which w i l l put t h i s cosmos into the hearts of the s e t t l e r s who have come from such a d i f f i c u l t time i n the old country T i l l the stars and moon, The blessed sun himself, has leave to shine And laugh i n t h e i r dark hearts! A l l i e d to Love, the great creator, i s h i s helper, Sorrow. In a sequence of l y r i c s which runs through the poem we are t o l d , a f t e r Max and Katie pledge t h e i r f a i t h , that Love builds castles i n the a i r . In a l a t e r poem, a f t e r Max's downfall, we are reminded that Love personified as the "rose" grows not alone but with "pain", " p i t y " and "woe": "a thousand blossoms cypress-hued to see". The poem then launches into an exposition of Sorrow and i t s task i n the building up of the human soul: "Who curseth Sorrow knows her not at a l l . Dark matrix she, from which the human soul Has i t s l a s t b i r t h ; whence, with i t s misty thews, Close-knitted i n her blackness, issues out; Strong f o r immortal t o i l up such great heights, As crown o'er crown r i s e through Eternity, Without the loud, deep clamour of her wail, The iron of her hands, the b i t i n g brine Of her black tears; the Soul but l i g h t l y b u i l t Of indeterminate s p i r i t , l i k e a mist Would lapse to Chaos i n soft gilded dreams As mists fade i n the gazing of the sun. Sorrow, dark mother of the soul, a r i s e ! Be crown'd with spheres where thy bless'd children dwell, 42. Who, but f o r thee, were not. No l e s s e r seat Be thine, thou Helper of the Universe, Than planet on planet p i l ' d — thou instrument. Close-clasp'd within the great Creative Hand!" Max, at the start of the poem, i s a " s l i g h t soul" who questions Katie's consistency; l a t e r , and more seriously, i n the debate with A l f r e d he "doubts" and so loses his f a i t h i n Love and assurance of " E t e r n i t y " : A l l the blue heaven was dead i n Max's eyes; Doubt-wounded lay Kate's image i n h i s heart, And could not r i s e to pluck the sharp spear out. This i s a cardinal l o s s of f a i t h on Max's part, f o r , as Kate l a t e r reminds A l f r e d , true love may "fear" but never "doubt". As a r e s u l t Max must endure pain and sorrow to become that "larger soul" which i s revealed i n the f i n a l scene at the 33 l i l y - p o n d . T h e whole process of the growth of the soul i s -'In opposition to t h i s view i s James Reaney's c r i t i c a l com-mentary, " I s a b e l l a Valancy Crawford", Our L i v i n g Tradition (2nd and 3rd series) ed. by Robert L. McDougall, Carleton University i n association with the University of Toronto Press, 1959, p. 272. Reaney argues: " i n Crawford's 'Malcolm's Katie' the forest the hero chops down i s h i s potential unfaithfulness to his.-sweetheart. Since he never gives up his f a i t h the tree that f a l l s upon him cannot k i l l him. The works of art mentioned here show a t y p i c a l reaction on the part of a New World a r t i s t ; faced with the t e r r o r s of a new and unknown world one has to come up with a symbol i n which, as Northrop Frye puts i t , "mind and nature become the same thing"; otherwise the unknown world w i l l never be absorbed into the human consciousness. Crawford's poems are f i l l e d with t h i s sort of symbol; she i s a precursor of Pratt and, therefore, as a poet who has already helped plant the Bible i n our heathen New World and as a poet who helps explain what a l a t e r , better-known poet l i k e Pratt i s r e a l l y t r y i n g to do, she seems to me of p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t . " 43-very much l i k e Dante's exposition of the growth of the higher soul i n the V i t a Nuova and t h i s i s very l i k e l y Crawford's source.^4 The poem i t s e l f i s structured i n terms of three major symbolic scenes converging at the l i l y - p o n d . Interspersed with the main action of the story, the fortunes of Max, A l f r e d and Katie, i s a kind of mythological sub-plot, i n which the land-scape i s personified by the figures of Indian myth i n the manner of Longfellow's Hiawatha. The sub-plot echoes the main action of the poem i n that ! Indian Summer'- i s threatened and apparently k i l l e d by the v i l l a i n ''Worth Wind1 ; yet as events turn out the c y c l i c passage of l i f e and death has been, a l l along, i n the hand of Great Manitou. In the f i r s t scene at the l i l y - p o n d , Katie and Max^in t h e i r canoe, look down into the l i l y - b e d while pledging t h e i r f a i t h . Max sees i n the pond both l i l i e s and roses, the l a t t e r being Katie's "rose face". This imagery, very l i k e l y from the Song of Songs by way of Dante and Tennyson's Maud, Is consistent-l y associated with Kate, but f o r t h i s scene emphasis i s l a i d on that aspect of the heroine as the "pe r f e t t rose". Max fears that some other su i t o r w i l l come along to pluck h i s prize while he i s away i n the West clearing the f o r e s t . But Katie r e t o r t s 34Katherin;e Hale c i t e s Crawford's translations of Dante i n her c r i t i c a l work, Isabella Valency Crawford, Makers of Canadian Literature Series, Toronto, Ryerson, 1925, p. 3. that i f hearts are flowers, then flowers can "bud, blossom d i e — a l l i n the same lov'd s o i l " and that she has made her garden of Max's "heart": I f I am a bud And only f e e l unfoldment — feeble s t i r Within my leaves;; wait p a t i e n t l y ; some June, I ' l l blush a full-blown rose, and queen i t , dear, In your lov'd garden. Thematic emphasis i s l a i d on the fact that Max i s going to clear the land i n order to make a garden f o r Katie. The poem then moves into an exposition of the pioneer's d i f f i c u l t but glorious task of clearing the land. Max r e c a l l s Malcolm's struggles: "I heard him t e l l How the f i r s t f i e l d upon his farm was ploughed. He and h i s brother Reuben, stalwart lads, Yok'd themselves, side by side, to the new plough; Their weaker father, i n the grey of l i f e (But rather the wan age of poverty Than many winters), i n large, gnarl'd hands The plunging handles held; with mighty strains They drew the ripp i n g beak through knotted sod, Thro' tortuous lanes of blacken'd, smoking stumps; And past great flaming brush heaps, sending out Fierce summers, beating on t h e i r swollen brows. 0 , such a b a t t l e ! Had we heard of serfs Driven to l i k e hot c o n f l i c t with the s o i l , Armies had march'd and navies s w i f t l y s a i l ' d To burst t h e i r gyves. But here's the l i t t l e point — The polish'd di'mond pivot on which spins The wheel of Difference — they OWN'D the rugged s o i l , And fought f o r love — dear love of wealth and pow'r, And honest ease and f a i r esteem of men; One's blood heats at i t ! " What emerges from t h i s passage i s the affirmative voice of the pioneer who works, loves and owns the land. Max lauds the "warriors of the Axe" when he says: 45-" I t means — four walls, perhaps a lowly roof; Kine i n a peaceful pasture; modest f i e l d s ; A man and woman standing hand i n hand In hale old age, who, looking o'er the land, Say: 'Thank the Lord, i t a l l i s mine and thine!'" . The second scene at the l i l y - p o n d takes place a f t e r Max has l e f t f o r the f o r e s t and i n i t Katie i s caught, Leander-l i k e , i n a log jam. Frye i d e n t i f i e s t h i s scene with the "sudden glimpse of the trap of Nature" and suggests that "the endless resources i t has f o r suddenly and unconsciously destroying a f r a g i l e and b e a u t i f u l human l i f e i s f a r more eff e c t i v e without the rescue". Yet Katie's encounter with the logs i s more comic than t r a g i c , and p a i n f u l only i n the sense that the encounter i s so e x p l i c i t l y and derivatively/, amorous; Kate, now i d e n t i f i e d with the l i l y , sings a l i l y - s o n g that Max had made, while invoking the lady of the lake: "Chaste Goddess of the sweet, s t i l l shrine": Mild soul of the unsalted wave! White bosom holding golden f i r e ! Deep as some ocean-hidden cave Are f i x ' d the roots of thy desire, Thro' limpid currents stealing up, And rounding to the pearly cup Thou dost desire, With a l l thy trembling heart of s i n l e s s f i r e , But to be f i l l ' d With dew d i s t i l l ' d • • • ' To thee the dew i s — love! F l y i n g fFom log to log, with the waves wallowing and laughing l i k e "brown-scal'd monsters r o l l i n g " under her, Katie spurns each i n turn with her l i t t l e foot and "rose-white sole" u n t i l she reaches the l a s t great l o g : &6. I t reel'd, upstarting, l i k e a column brac'd, A second on the wave — and when i t plung'd R o l l i n g upon the f r o t h and sudden foam, Katie had vanish Td, and with angry grind The vast logs r o l l ' d together. This i s a threatening nature, but the whole Freudian structure of Crawford's 1scene mitigates the p o s s i b i l i t y of Frye's " c r u e l nature" hypothesis.35 Then too, we are l e f t i n no doubt as to Kate's rescue. A l f r e d , p r o v i d e n t i a l l y on the r i v e r bank, s o l i l o q u i z e s only long enough to assure us that h i s soul i s improving and then leaps i n to rescue Nature's " c h i e f t e s t treasure". In due course he hopes that Katie's gratitude may turn to love, but Katie remains chastely true to Max and so affirms her association with the l i l y . In the f i n a l scene at the l i l y - p o n d the diverse elements of the poem are brought together i n the fin e fashion of V i c t o r i a n melodrama. A f t e r a series of events involving A l f r e d and Kate and including soliloquy,,, f a i n t ; a n d attempted suicide, Max staggers from the forest just i n time to rescue Katie (Love) from t h i s p o t e n t i a l rape and to reveal h i s own s p i r i t u a l growth. Yet there i s some evidence of cross purposes between the .author's intent and her f i n a l r e s u l t . Within the structure of "Malcolm's Katie", the f i n a l scene i s perhaps meant to be heroic although i t degenerates into bathos. S i m i l a r l y , the thematic structure posits the need f o r chastity but the unconscious symbolism i s an i n v i t a t i o n to sexual experience. F i n a l l y , Crawford's invocation to the Chaste Goddess of the " s i l v e r ' d shrines" has none of the charm of Milton's invocation to Sabrina because the former i s cloying rather than sensuous and detached. 4 7 -Kate recognizes i n Max the growth which Sorrow has brought: "she saw within h i s eyes a lar g e r soul than that l i g h t s p i r i t that before she knew". Despite possible danger, Katie does not attempt to keep Max from rescuing A l f r e d but waits on the bank to allow " h i s soul work out i t s greatness". The poem concludes with a return to the domestic scene which Max had anticipated at the start of the poem. Katie, Max and Malcolm s i t i n t h e i r new farm i n the West and look out contentedly at t h e i r c u l t i v a t e d lands. Consequently, "Malcolm's Katie" presents a philosophy of moral and creative achievement which are inte r - j o i n e d ; Max, "the Labourer and the Lover", grows i n both spheres of action as the poem proceeds. Throughout the poem, emphasis i s placed j o i n t l y on the growth of love as well as the working of the land (both love of sweetheart and love of land w i l l each put within the s e t t l e r ' s heart the cosmos of Sun, Moon and Stars) and the concept of a cruel Nature which was hypothesized by Frye and Reaney does not seem to emerge. The s a c r i f i c e of Katie, i n p a r t i c u l a r , has amorous rather than t r a g i c overtones. Above a l l , Crawford's nature i s alx-jays e x p l i c i t l y placed within the Great Creative Hand, be i t God or Manitou. This reading of the poem i s supported by reference to the computer concordance of Crawford's work which supplements t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . "Wilderness", the central word implying the fear and loneliness of the New World, i s used only once i n Crawford's canon and t h i s relevant passage appears i n "Malcolm's Katie": 48. High grew the snow beneath the low-hung sky, And a l l was s i l e n t i n the wilderness; In trance of s t i l l n e s s Nature heard her God Rebuilding her spent f i r e s , and v e i l e d her face While the Great Worker brooded o'er His Work. But as can be seen from t h i s extract, a wilderness that i s under God's hand has l o s t i t s primal f e a r . Furthermore, the very f a c t that Crawford has mythologized t h i s nature indicates that i t has been i n t e r n a l i z e d and transcended. F i n a l l y , a check of Crawford's d i c t i o n f o r closely related words such as "f o r e s t " , "waste", and "trees" indicates that Crawford's concept of nature was not a f e a r f u l one. Upon examination, i t may be seen that " f o r e s t " i s always used i n contexts of the picturesque or i n reference to the task of cl e a r i n g the land. Only i n reference to "The Ghosts of the Trees" i n The Collected Poems of Isabella Valancy Crawford (1905) may i t appear to be used i n a manner i n d i c a t i n g some fear, but upon investigation i t w i l l be seen that t h i s poem i s an-assurance of God's purposes even though they may be hidden to men. The emphasis upon the "garden" in"Malcqlm_'s Katie"may also be noted with reference to the f a c t that the word "garden" occurs only seven times i n Crawford's canon and four of these instances are i n "Malcolm's Katie". Frye has anticipated and f o r e s t a l l e d a l l such objections to the " c r u e l Nature" hypothesis as those preceding by i n s i s t i n g that i t i s not the context of the works concerned but rather the emotional power of p a r t i c u l a r scenes which provides the c r i t i c ' s standard of reference. Yet, arguing on these grounds 4 9 . alone, i t may s t i l l be suggested that the most powerful scene i n Jephthah's Daughter i s not the prayer scene but rather the f i r s t part of the play where Jephthah, i n h i s anguish, frankly admits h i s own f o l l y i n attempting to bribe Jehovah. Si m i l a r l y , i n "Malcolm's Katie", the scenes with the most emotional power, (and i t i s a power incremented by repetition) are those scenes which describe the building up of the land, the turning of the forest into a garden. The f i r s t part of the poem describes Malcolm Graem's struggle against the land and Max's v i s i o n of the value of i t a l l ; a man and woman i n hale old age standing hand i n hand amid t h e i r f i e l d s : "Thank the Lord, a l l i s thine and mine". The middle part of the poem describes the second wave of Canadian immigration, those s e t t l e r s who came to the West from the I r i s h Potato Famine: So shanties grew Other than h i s amid the blacken'd stumps And children ran with l i t t l e twigs and leaves And flung them, shouting, on the forest pyres, Where burn'd the forest kings — and i n the glow Paus'd men and women when the day was done. There the lean weaver ground anew hi s axe, Nor backward look'd upon the vanish'd loom, But forward to the ploughing of h i s f i e l d s ; And to the rose of Plenty i n the cheeks Of wife and children — nor heeded much the pangs Of the rous'd muscles turning to new work The p a l l i d clerk look'd on h i s b l i s t e r ' d palms And sigh'd and smil'd, but girded up h i s l o i n s And found new vigour as he f e l t new hope. The lab'rer with t r a i n ' d muscles, grim and grave, Look'd at the ground and wonder'd i n h i s soul, What joyous anguish s t i r r ' d h i s darken'd heart, At the mere look of the f a m i l i a r s o i l , And found h i s answer i n the words — "Mine ownl" The conclusion of the poem presents the wilderness made garden, the new Eden. Max proclaims 50 "I do t r u l y think that Eden bloom'd Deep i n the heart of t a l l , green maple groves, With sudden scents of pine from mountain sides And p r a i r i e s with t h e i r breasts against the skies. And Eve was only l i t t l e Katie's height." But Katie asserts that t h i s new Eden i n the West; "these wild woods and plai n s are f a i r e r f a r / than Eden's s e l f " : I would not change these wild and rocking woods, Dotted by l i t t l e homes of unbark'd trees, Inhere dwell the f l e e r s from the waves of want, For the smooth sward of .selfish Eden bowers, Nor — Max f o r Adam, i f I knew my mind!" This v i s i o n of the new Eden i s possible f o r Crawford because the s e t t l e r has now conquered the land. As Crawford states i n a l a t e r poem "Canada to England": Gone are the days ... When Nature was a Samson yet unshorn F i l l i n g the land with s o l i t a r y might, Or the Angel of the Apocalypse, One foot upon the primaeval bowered land, One foot upon the white mane of the sea,... The times have won a change. Nature no more Lords i t alone and binds the lonely land A serf to tongueless solitudes; but Nature's s e l f Is led, glad captive, i n l i g h t f e t t e r s r i c h As music-sounding s i l v e r can adorn; And man has forged them, and our s i l e n t God Behind h i s flaming worlds smiles on the deed. "Man hath dominion" — words of primal might; "Man hath dominion" — thus the words of God.34 3 4 l s a b e l l a Valancy Crawford, The Collected Poems of Isa b e l l a  Valancv Crawford ed. by W.J. Garvin with introduction by Ethelwynn Wetherall, Toronto, Briggs, 1 9 0 5 . One of the i r o n i e s of Canadian poetry i s that a phrase from t h i s poem "the lonely land" provided the t i t l e f o r a painting done by one of the Group of Seven and t h i s painting, i n turn, may have been the stimulus f o r A.J.M. Smith's poem of that same name, which presents a point of view diametrically opposed to Crawford's. It i s also possible that Smith was d i r e c t l y influenced by Crawford as he was reading i n the early poets at the same time that he composed "The Lonely Land". 51 In t h i s poem Crawford asserts man's primacy over nature and under God. And i t i s possible f o r the poet to take t h i s p o sition because she was writing a f t e r the main task of conquering the wilderness had been completed. S i g n i f i c a n t l y , The Rising V i l l a g e , "The Emigrant", "Acadia" and "Malcolm's Katie" are a l l written a f t e r the event. Goldsmith, wr i t i n g of the fear of the forest, presents i t primarily as something which menaced: "how lone and drear / did once Acadia's woods and wilds appear" ( i t a l i c s mine). S i m i l a r l y , i n "Malcolm's Katie" Malcolm Graem i s presented as a man whose mind, pendulum-like, swings between the "Then" and "Now". The "Then" i s the past when he and h i s brother yoked themselves to the plow, but i n the present "Now" he looks out to h i s prosperous f i e l d s . S i m i l a r l y , by the end of the poem the second wave of c u l t i v a t i n g the West had been successful. In such a context, the evocation of fear serves as a f o i l to emphasize the industry and hardihood of the early s e t t l e r s . Some fear undoubtedly was present, but the poems here c i t e d do not support the dominantly f e a r f u l nature that present c r i t i c a l theory would suggest. This present reading of "Malcolm's Katie", which gives Love the primary value and associates with "love" a metaphoric cluster of "sun", "moon", "s t a r s " , "heart", "soul", " l i l y " and "rose", may also be confirmed as the central metaphoric complex of Crawford's work with reference to the computer concordance. In Crawford's two published books, the qual i t y which appears most often i s "love" and variants upon i t such as "love's" 52. "lover", "lovers" and "loves". Such words appear 263 times. To give some perspective to t h i s statement, i t might be noted that "hate" appears once and " f e a r " sixteen times. In reference to other emotional states, the one state which comes nearest to love i n terms of frequency of appearance i s the state of " g r i e f " , "sorrow", and t h e i r variants, occurring seventy-one times; and these are often associated with r e f e r -ences to "soul"; " s o u l " i t s e l f appears one hundred and forty-one times. The supplementary concordance also indicates that the state of sorrow i s most often p r e c i p i t a t e d by death (or the nearness of death as i n "Malcolm's Katie"), and i s associated with the building up of the soul. This summary i s a cursory one, but i t does indicate that Crawford does have a central metaphoric structure and that t h i s structure, e x p l i c i t i n "Malcolm's Katie", i s also the c o n t r o l l i n g structure of a l l her work. Inasmuch as t h i s d i c t i o n study reveals that metaphors are markedly dominant and consistent, i t indicates that a l l of her poetry was composed as the r e s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r Weltanschauung or view of experience. It i s d i f f i c u l t to make as strong a case f o r the excellence of Crawford's work as Reaney's c r i t i c a l analysis would suggest. As can be seen from the preceding summary, she often used conventional symbols i n a very conventional way. Nevertheless, she did have the advantage of an organized world view which helped her to shape her poetic. This structure, l a r g e l y derived from Dante, stresses the inter-working of good 53 . and e v i l , joy and sorrow, l i f e and death, l i g h t and dark. Although Crawford does ultimately place a l l of these pairs of opposites within the great Creative Hand, the j o i n i n g of opposites allows her some poetry of considerably more subtlety than that of her predecessor, Mair, or her contemporary, Roberts. Sections from "Malcolm's Katie" regarding the passage of c i v i l i z a t i o n s , the building up of the land, and the nature of Sorrow are memorable. However, i t i s not possible to consider her mythological work i n "Malcolm's Katie" as highly as does Reaney because the bulk of her Indian material i s not, i n f a c t , an o r i g i n a l response to the Canadian landscape but rather derived from Longfellow's Hiawatha. Proper names (Gheezis and Mudjekeewis), place names, and the a t t r i b u t a t i v e form of address ("Esa! esal shame upon you pale face / shame upon you Moon of E v i l Witches"), together with the mythologizing of the land, are a l l taken over, v i r t u a l l y unchanged, from Longfellow. S i m i l a r l y , the action of Crawford's narrative, "The Wooing of Gheezis", i s d i r e c t l y from Longfellow. Furthermore, Crawford's work lacks distance. In "Malcolm's Katie" love i s a cosmic force and as such i t does not impede the action, but i n many of Crawford's other works her emphasis on love and her patent i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with a succession of noble, virtuous, and loving heroines becomes pai n f u l f o r the reader, as i n the poem "My I r i s h Love". Even i n "Malcolm's Katie" there are some evidences of cross purposes between the wish projections of the author and the needs of the work. 54-Yet Crawford was one of the f i r s t poets to attempt a symbolic poetry,and she was the f i r s t to succeed i n mytholog-i z i n g the landscape. I f t h i s landscape i s derivative, i t i s also presented with great charm: The South Wind l a i d h i s moceasins aside, Broke h i s gay calumet of flow'rs, and cast His useless wampum, beaded with cool dews, Far from him, northward; h i s long, ruddy spear Flung sunward, whence i t came, and h i s soft locks Of warm, f i n e haze grew s i l v e r as the b i r c h . His wigwam of green leaves began to shake; The crackling rice-beds scolded harsh l i k e squaws; The small ponds pouted up t h e i r s i l v e r l i p s ; The great lakes ey'd the mountains, whisper'd "Ugh! Are ye so t a l l , 0 chiefs? Not t a l l e r than Our plumes can reach." And rose a l i t t l e way, As panthers stretch to t r y t h e i r velvet limbs, And then retreat to purr and bide t h e i r time. Also a t t r a c t i v e i n t h i s period of serious piety and poeticized platitude i s Crawford's sense of humour. Like Mephibosheth Stepsure, she has a weather eye open f o r the incongruities of sit u a t i o n between the r e l i g i o u s s p i r i t and the l e t t e r of the law which provide the essentials of humour: No, "Parson, 'tain't been i n my sty l e , (N6r none uv my relations) SEew dig about the gnarly roots Uv prophetic spekkleations, Tew see what Malachai meant; Or Solomon wus h i n t i n ' ; Or reound what jog o f futur's road Isaiah was a - s q u i n t i n T . I've l o s t my rest a-keepin' out The hogs from our cowcumbers; But never l o s t a wink, you bet, By ' r a s t l i n ' over Numbers. • • • • Hain't had no time tew disputate, Except with axe an* arm, With stump an' rampike and with stuns, Upon my ha l f c l a r ' d farm. 5 5 . An* when sech argyments as them — F i l l s i x days out uv seven; A man on Sabbath wants tew crawl By quiet ways tew heaven.35 Crawford's awareness of the ludicrous ("The Deacon and His Daughter") has few p a r a l l e l s i n Canadian poetry u n t i l the 1 9 2 0 's and the work of E.J. P r a t t . In the f i n a l analysis^Crawford i s important as the author of the f i r s t mythopoeic Canadian epic. She i s e s s e n t i a l l y a t r a n s i t i o n a l writer, s t i l l echoing the f i r s t concerns of the pioneer, the c l e a r i n g of the land, but she i s also part of the second step, the making of community and the chronicling of t h i s community i n verse. There was a day when Malcolm Graem hitched himself to the plow to clear the land, but now he s i t s i n comfort and surveys h i s w e l l - t i l l e d f i e l d s . S i m i l a r l y , Max ventures into the forest to the song of the axe but before the poem i s f i n i s h e d , the forest i s cleared and Katie's garden, her climbing vines and roses, blooms about the cabin door. I t would appear that i n Goldsmith's The Rising V i l l a g e and i n "Malcolm's Katie'/ as i n Hayman's Quodlibets. the e s s e n t i a l attitude of the pioneer when faced with the wilderness i s the determination that order, must be imposed, that "neat husbandry" which w i l l transform wilderness into garden, the new Eden which Kate v i s u a l i z e s . In t h i s structure, the forest has an admitted darker side,yet i t i s not a wilderness without 3 5 c r a w f o r d "Farmer Stebbins' Opinions", Collected Verse, pp. 2 9 4 - 9 5 . 56. God. Indeed, as Goldsmith, Heavysege and Crawford suggest, i t i s a landscape i n which God i s immanent. In t h i s f i r s t stage of Canadian poetry, emphasis i s primarily placed upon the c u l t i v a t i o n of the land and the building up of community; the metaphors are dominantly from the vegetative world and are related to the wilderness-garden hypothesis. 57 CHAPTER TWO THE DREAM WORLD Weary no more, nor f a i n t , no r g r i e v e d a t h e a r t , no r d e s p a i r i n g , Hushed i n the e a r t h ' s green l a p , l u l l e d to s lumber and dreamsI C h a r l e s G .D. Rober ts f rom "A B r e a t h i n g T i m e " . I t i s p o s s i b l e t ha t a c r i t i c a l r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f S i r C h a r l e s G .D . Rober t s i s ne ces sa r y i n o r d e r to demonstrate h i s i n f l u e n c e on succeed ing Canadian p o e t r y . A l t hough Rober ts i s u s u a l l y g i v e n the t i t l e , " F a t h e r o f Canadian P o e t r y " , t h i s i s o f t e n f o r r easons o f c h r o n o l o g i c a l a c c i d e n t r a t h e r than f o r i n t r i n s i c l i t e r a r y m e r i t . Carman, Lampman, Robe r t s , and Duncan Campbel l S co t t were a l l born w i t h i n a few y e a r s o f one ano the r , but i t was R o b e r t s ' book, O r i o n and Other Poems (1880) ,which f i r s t appeared and so served as a s t i m u l u s t o the o t h e r s . Lampman l a t e r d e s c r i b e d the e f f e c t o f O r i o n upon h i m s e l f and h i s contemporar i es as " a v o i c e f rom some P a r a d i s e o f a r t c a l l i n g us t o be up and d o i n g " . Yet because Rober ts* p o e t r y i s o f t e n i n f e r i o r t o t h a t which f o l l o w e d , l a c k i n g among o t h e r t h i n g s t h a t wh ich P r o f e s s o r Cappon was t o c a l l an " e t h i c a l c e n t e r " 1 , i n b r i e f , a coherent p h i l o s o p h y , much c r i t i c a l ^James Cappon, C h a r l e s G .D . R o b e r t s . Makers o f Canadian L i t e r a t u r e S e r i e s , T o r o n t o , Rye r son , [1925] , P« 123 . 58.. a p p r a i s a l o f Rober ts* p o e t r y beg ins w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the i n t e r e s t e d r e a d e r might more p r o f i t a b l y spend h i s t ime by 2 moving on t o Lampman o r S c o t t . S i m i l a r l y , a l t hough Rober ts* p r o s e , i n p a r t i c u l a r the ske t ch "Do Seek T h e i r Meat From God", i s acknowledged to have e s t a b l i s h e d a new genre , t h a t o f the " r e a l i s t i c " an imal s t o r y , h i s prose i s o f t e n d i s m i s s e d w i t h a p a s s i n g r e f e r e n c e t o Rober ts* once p o p u l a r , " c h i l d r e n * s s t o r i e s " . Yet a c l o s e r e a d i n g o f Rober ts* work, w i t h p a r t i c u l a r r e f e r e n c e t o h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c use o f metaphor, would suggest t h a t bo th p o e t r y and prose have been o f dominant i n f l u e n c e upon the development o f modern Canadian poe t r y and t h a t i t i s p r e c i s e l y Rober ts* p h i l o s o p h y , f e e b l e and d e r i v a t i v e though i t may be , which i s c o n s i s t e n t l y i m i t a t e d by the suc ceed ing poe ts o f the 1880*s . I t i s a g a i n s t t h i s d i l u t e Romantic i d e a l i s m t h a t E . J . P r a t t r e a c t s , a n d , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , he does so by t u r n i n g f rom the i d e a l i s m o f Rober ts* p o e t r y t o the law o f t o o t h and claw which he f i n d s e x p l i c i t i n Rober ts* t a l e s o f the w i l d . P r a t t * s e a r l y p o e t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y h i s e v o c a t i o n o f a savage na tu re popu l a t ed by p r e - h i s t o r i c d i n o s a u r s and r i f e w i t h i n t e r n e c i n e war, where Darw in ian e v o l u t i o n i s c o n s t a n t l y sub j e c t t o Chance as w e l l as W i l l and F a t e , comes d i r e c t l y f rom Rober ts* romances o f n a t u r a l h i s t o r y . Encoun te r s between p r e h i s t o r i c 2 Roy D a n i e l l s "Lampman and R o b e r t s " , Chapte r 20, L i t e r a r y  H i s t o r y o f Canada, Canadian L i t e r a t u r e i n E n g l i s h , gen . e d . C a r l F. K l i n c k , U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto P r e s s , 1966, pp . 391-92. D a n i e l l s a l s o no tes t h a t " R o b e r t s i s n e v e r t h e l e s s , t o ou r t r a d i t i o n ! t , * a n c e s t r a l , i m p o r t a n t , h a u n t i n g * . H i s i n f l u e n c e on o t h e r s was w idespread and e n d u r i n g . He e a r l y became, and l o n g rema ined , a s y m b o l . " p. 403* 59 c r e a t u r e s o f the l a n d and sea such as those o f P r a t t ' s " G r e a t Feud " and "The C a c h a l o t " f i n d t h e i r g e n e s i s i n the f i r s t t h r e e chap te r s o f R o b e r t s ' " p r e - h i s t o r i c , h i s t o r i c a l romance" , In the  Morning o f Time, p u b l i s h e d i n 1919 > j u s t as P r a t t was b e g i n n i n g t o j w r i t e . Then t o o , P r a t t ' s p i c t u r e o f a s o c i e t y i n c r i s i s , w i t h i t s e t h i c o f he ro i sm always sub j e c t t o b ru t e r e v e r s a l , i s a dominant f e a t u r e o f R o b e r t s ' t a l e s o f the w i l d . S i m i l a r l y , an analogue w i t h P r a t t ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h the c r e a t u r e s o f the deeps o f the sea and the h e i g h t s o f the a i r i s t o be found i n R o b e r t s ' e a r l y na tu re s t o r i e s such as The Haunters o f The  S i l e n c e s (1897)• Whole poems from P r a t t , i n c l u d i n g " A p r i l " and "The E a g l e " as w e l l as "The Shark" can be found t o have t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s i n R o b e r t s ' work. In a d d i t i o n , i t i s s u b -s t a n t i a l l y R o b e r t s ' concept o f the n a t i o n a l e p i c and the m i l i t a r y sea poem ( c f . "The Shannon and the Chesapeake" ) wh ich r e c u r s i n P r a t t ' s l a t e r "The Rooseve l t and the A n t i n o e " . F i n a l l y , the whole i c e b e r g s e c t i o n f rom The T i t a n i c (1935 ) , i n c l u d i n g s u g g e s t i o n s o f the b e r g ' s e v e n t u a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n as a pa r t o f a n a t u r a l c y c l e , c a n be shown to be based on R o b e r t s ' poem "The I c e b e r g " f i r s t p u b l i s h e d i n The U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto  Q u a r t e r l y i n 1931 . The p o e t i c " p h i l o s o p h y " which Rober t s passed on t o the poets o f the 1 8 8 0 ' s , i n c l u d i n g B l i s s Carman, A r c h i b a l d Lampman and Duncan Campbel l S c o t t , might be d e s c r i b e d as an amalgamation ^Cha r l e s G .D . R o b e r t s , In the Morn ing o f T ime. London, H u t c h i n s o n , 1919* 6 0 . of the Keatsian v i s i o n of Ideal Beauty which i s Truth ("The Imagination may be compared to Adam's dream—he awoke and found i t truth") with the pantheism of Wordsworth, Shelley and Emersonj which implies the kinship of man and nature. This central view i s most often presented i n terms of the poet's entry into unity with nature, most often i n re l a t i o n s h i p with the metaphor of "dream" v e r i f i e d by an apprehension of the S p i r i t of Beauty (or Song) pervading nature, and then recorded through the creation of poetry. Roberts' f i r s t book, Orion  and Other Poems (1880), begins with an invocation to the s p i r i t of place: "0 beloved Pan, and ye other gods of t h i s place, grant to me to become bea u t i f u l w i t h i n " ^ . The f i r s t poem of t h i s book i s an address to "The S p i r i t of Song": Surely I have seen the majesty and wonder, Beauty, might and splendor of the soul of song; Surely I have f e l t the s p e l l that l i f t s asunder, Soul from body, when l i p s f a i n t , and thought i s strong; Lowly I await the song upon my l i p s conferred. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between Pan and the S p i r i t of Song i s e x p l i c i t i n Roberts' preface to The Poetry of Nature where he explains that the forces of nature were given human q u a l i t i e s by the early Greeks. Consequently, an invocation of Pan, as i n Wordsworth's "Excursion", i s an invocation of the great world s p i r i t • As i n Wordsworth's "Tintern Abbey", Shelley's Alastor t or Keats' "Ode to a Nightingale", Roberts' emphasis i s on the ^-Translated from the Greek by E . M . Pomeroy, S i r Charles G.D. Roberts. A Biography. Toronto, Ryerson, 1943, p. 38. 61 moment of v i s i o n which the poet experiences i n nature when he i s " l a i d asleep i n body" and so empowered "to see into the l i f e of things". In h i s preface to The Poetry of Nature. Roberts explains that t h i s transcendental v i s i o n i s the supreme value of nature poetry: And whosoever follows the inexplicable lure of beauty, i n color, form, sound, perfume, or any other manifestation,—reaching out to i t as perhaps a message from some unfathomable past, or a premonition of the future,—knows that the mystic signal beckons nowhere more imperiously than from the heights of nature poetry.5 In Roberts' poetry, t h i s moment of "mystic v i s i o n " i s associated with the related metaphors of "dream" and " s p e l l " , " v i s i o n " or "sleep", often i n conjunction with "dusk", "mist™, and "stream". I t i s t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c structure which i s to provide the pattern f o r the succeeding poets, Carman, Lampman and Scott. Carman's "Low Tide on Grand Pre", f o r example, uses the metaphor of "dream" to describe the moment of v i s i o n and associates i t , l i k e Roberts, with "stream™• However, Carman's metaphor would often appear to be linear'-"stream", "road" and "path"-whereas Roberts usually sees the quest as one of r e l i g i o u s a s p i r a t i o n upwards/, u n t i l the journey poems of h i s l a t e r work. This whole complex of "sleep" and "dream" as i t i s associated with the moment<of ins i g h t and the poet's public function i s most e x p l i c i t i n Keats' "Sleep and Poetry", which seems to undergird Roberts' own poetic manifesto, 5 S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, The Poetry of Nature. Worldte Best Poetry, Philadelphia, 1904, p. XV. 62. " E p i s t l e to W. B l i s s Carman" ( c f . Keats* " E p i s t l e to John Hamilton Reynolds"). In essence, Keats sees the poet's development as one which moves from the realm of "Flora and Old Pan: sleep i n the grass" to the nobler l i f e of "the agonies, the s t r i f e of human hearts". In his summary of the history of poetry, Keats suggests that i t i s not strength alone, "the burrs and thorns of l i f e " , which makes great poetry but rather that i t s end i s "to soothe the cares and l i f t the thoughts of men". Roberts' " E p i s t l e " also comes to the conclusion that "they s h a l l be accounted poet kings / who simply t e l l the most heart-easing things" but unfortunately without f u l l recognition of Keats' e a r l i e r q u a l i f i c a t i o n s . Like the Wordsworth of "Tintern Abbey" or the Arnold of "Dover Beach", Roberts' stance i s that of the poet looking out upon a troubled sea of humanity: Where some are weary, some are weeping, some Are hungering f o r joys that never come; And some drive on before a b i t t e r fate That bends not to t h e i r prayers importunate; And some say God i s deaf and hears not now, , And speaks not now, some that He i s not now. In such a world complicated by Darwinian pessimism as i t r e l a t e s to the V i c t o r i a n l o s s of f a i t h , Roberts sees the poet's public function as that of receiving i n s p i r a t i o n from nature i n order to minister to the world's sorrow: ^ S i r Charles G.D. Roberts, Orion, And Other Poems, Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1880, p. 112. CJ 6 3 . Though now and then My songs were w a i l i n g s f rom the m ids t o f men, Yet would I deem t h a t i t were eve r b e s t To s i n g them out o f wea r iness t o r e s t . 7 Through h i s songs o f " P eace , and Hope, and T r u t h " the poet hopes t o b r i n g about , { l i ke K e a t s ) , t he new "morn ing o f the w o r l d " . T h i s a d o p t i o n o f one p a r t o f Keats* v i s i o n o f the poet was t o have s e r i o u s consequences i n Rober ts* development as an a r t i s t and f o r the development o f Canadian p o e t r y i n g e n e r a l . I t e s t a b l i s h e s the poe t * s e x c l u s i v e f u n c t i o n as t h a t o f p u b l i c spokesman; t h i s i s t o prove b e n e f i c i a l f o r the cause o f Canad ian n a t i o n a l u n i t y as i t i s g i v e n v o i c e i n Rober ts* p u b l i c odes but i t i s no t a p o i n t o f view t h a t encourages the p r o d u c t i o n o f good p o e t r y . Not o n l y does i t l e a d to the easy f o rmu l a o f p o e t i c i z e d " so r row - f o l l o w e d - by - c o m f o r t " (a f o rmu l a wh ich d e s c r i b e s most o f the p u b l i c i s s u e s d i s c u s s e d i n O r i on ) but i t r v . .,' . 3 a l s o l i m i t s the s e l e c t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s t h a t can be i n c l u d e d i n p o e t r y and sugges ts t h a t such m a t e r i a l s can o n l y be t r e a t e d i n a c e r t a i n manner. T h i s p o e t i c decorum c o n c e n t r a t e s on the " i d e a l ™ and the g u i d i n g o f man to i t s r e a l i z a t i o n ; a n d , by i m p l i c a t i o n , any s e r i o u s t rea tment o f the ha r she r s i d e o f Canadian s o c i e t y o r na tu re i s r e l e g a t e d t o the rea lm o f p r o s e . I t was a l s o impor tan t f o r the f u t u r e o f Canadian p o e t r y t h a t a l t hough Rober t s b e l i e v e d i n a j u d i c i o u s i n f u s i o n o f l o c a l c o l o u r , he d i d not b e l i e v e t h a t i t was the f u n c t i o n o f the Canadian poet t o e s t a b l i s h a new p o e t r y : 7Roberts, O r i o n , p. 112. 64 Now i t must be remembered t h a t the whole h e r i t a g e o f E n g l i s h Song i s ou r s and t h a t i t i s not ou r s t o found a new l i t e r a t u r e . The Amer icans have not done so no r w i l l t h e y . They have s imp l y j o i n e d I n r a i s i n g the s p l e n d i d s t r u c t u r e , E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , t o the b u i l d i n g o f which may come workmen from eve ry r e g i o n o f e a r t h where speaks the E n g l i s h t o n g u e . 8 W i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t , i m i t a t i o n i s a r e c o g n i z e d p o e t i c t h e o r y and the young poet bent on d e v e l o p i n g h i s c a p a c i t i e s would n a t u r a l l y t u r n t o the c u r r e n t E n g l i s h , Amer ican o r Canadian w r i t e r who embodied t h a t which was c o n s i d e r e d the bes t o f the E n g l i s h t r a d i t i o n . I t was t h i s p o s i t i o n which Rober ts a ch i e ved i n Canada w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s f i r s t book, O r i o n and Othe r Poems. in 1880. O r i o n was l auded by Matthew A r n o l d and rev iewed ve r y f a v o u r a b l y by O l i v e r Wendel l Holmes. In Canada, R o b e r t s 1 achievement was soon noted by ano the r young man, A r c h i b a l d Lampman, who was soon t o f o l l o w i n R o b e r t s ' f o o t s t e p s : I sa t up mo st o f the n i g h t r e a d i n g and r e - r e a d i n g O r i o n i n a s t a t e o f the w i l d e s t exc i tement and when I went to bed I c ou ld no t s l e e p . I t seemed t o me a wonder fu l t h i n g t h a t such work c o u l d be done by a Canad ian , a young man, one o f o u r s e l v e s . . . . A l i t t l e a f t e r s u n r i s e I got up and went out i n t o the c o l l e g e g r o u n d s . . . . But e v e r y t h i n g was t r a n s f i g u r e d f o r me beyond d e s c r i p t i o n , bathed i n the o l d - w o r l d r ad i ance o f beau ty , the magic o f the l i n e s was sound ing i n my e a r s , t hose d i v i n e v e r s e s as t hey seemed t o me, w i t h t h e i r Tennyson- l i ke r i c h n e s s and s t r a n g e , e a r t h - l i v i n g G r e e k i s h f l a v o u r . I have neve r f o r g o t t e n t h a t morn ing , and i t s i n f l u e n c e has a lways remained w i t h me.9 8 S i r C h a r l e s G .D . R o b e r t s , "A lumn i O r a t i o n : The Beg inn ings o f a Canadian L i t e r a t u r e " , U n i v e r s i t y Month l y . F r e d e r i b t o n , June , 1883, P» 64. ^ A r c h i b a l d Lampman, c i t e d by E .K . Brown, On Canad ian P o e t r y . r e v . e d . T o r o n t o , Rye r son , 1944, p» 92 . 6 5 . Canadians have g e n e r a l l y a t t r i b u t e d R o b e r t s 1 c r i t i c a l success t o the ach ievement , by a compa ra t i v e l y young man, o f a f a i r l y o r i g i n a l work embodying some p o e t i c p r o m i s e . But i t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t Rober ts* O r i o n r e c e i v e d the warm r e c e p t i o n which i t d i d because the way had a l r e a d y been paved f o r i t by such poems as Keats* Endymion and H y p e r i o n , by Tennyson ' s " T i t h o n u s " and , more i m p o r t a n t l y , by R i c h a r d Heng i s t Horne*s h i g h l y p o p u l a r O r i o n (1843) . A l t hough Home has f aded out o f s i g h t i n the 20th c e n t u r y , h i s O r i o n was " t h e most c o n s i d e r a b l e m y t h o l o g i c a l n a r r a t i v e s i n ce H y p e r i o n " and the book had gone th rough t en e d i t i o n s by 1872-74« 1 ^ In response t o " p o p u l a r demand™, the 1874 v e r s i o n i s p r e f a c e d w i t h Horne*s e x p l a n a t i o n o f the a l l e g o r y o f the poem: O r i o n . the hero o f my f a b l e , i s meant t o p resen t a t ype o f the s t r u g g l e o f man w i t h h i m s e l f , . . . . He i s t r u l y a t r u l y p r a c t i c a l b e l i e v e r i n the g o d s , . . . w i t h a hea r t expand ing towards the l a r g e n e s s and warmth o f Na tu re , and a s p i r i t u n c o n s c i o u s l y a s p i r i n g to the s t a r s . He i s a dreamer o f n o b l e d r e a m s . 1 1 L i k e Keats* Endymion, H o m e ' s O r i o n passes f rom the mere ly s ensua l t o s p i r i t u a l l © v e , and i m p l i c i t i n t h i s movement i s the moment o f h i g h v i s i o n o r " d r e a m " . Horne*s concept o f O r i o n as a "d reamer " and h i s e x p l i c i t s tatement o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the "d reamer " o f h i g h i d e a l s and " n a t u r e " seems to have been one which p a r t i c u l a r l y a t t r a c t e d Rober t s because i t i s t h i s 1 0 D o u g l a s Bush, Mytho logy and The Romantic T r a d i t i o n i n  E n g l i s h P o e t r y . New York , No r ton , 1963, p. 279. 1 1 R i c h a r d Heng i s t H o m e , O r i o n . (10th e d . ) , London, Chat to and Windus, P i c c a d i l l y , 1874, P» v . 66 aspec t o f H o m e ' s poem which Rober t s i s o l a t e s and a m p l i f i e s . There i s no doubt t h a t Rober t s used Horne as a source r a t h e r than Endvmion o r Hyper ion a l o n e , a s has been commonly assumed, because Rober t s adopts s t r u c t u r e and p r o p e r names f rom Horne*s a c c o u n t . The p r o p e r names O i n o p i o n , and Merope and the p l a c e name o f C h i o s a re f rom Horne and i t i s o n l y i n h i s poem t h a t O r i o n g r e e t s Eos the goddess o f the dawn r a t h e r than the r a y s o f A p o l l o , the sun god , as i n the o r i g i n a l myth. F i n a l l y , t he r e i s documentary ev idence o f Rober ts* f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h Horne*s work. He c i t e s Horne when e d i t i n g Poems o f W i l d L i f e (1888) n o t i n g t h a t Horne was the au tho r o f Gregory V I I . Cosmo  de M e d i c i B a l l a d s and Romances, and O r i o n : " H i s m a s t e r p i e c e , " O r i o n " , i s a g rea t poem, c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a severe majes ty and an admi rab l e b read th o f e f f e c t . " 1 2 A l t h o u g h Rober t s was p robab l y most i n t e r e s t e d i n Horne*s concept o f O r i o n as a dreamer , he a l s o appears t o have been a t t r a c t e d t o Horne*s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f O r i o n * s growth f rom the mere ly p h y s i c a l to a h i g h e r form o f e x a l t e d s p i r i t u a l l o v e . The development o f the l o v e theme i n Rober ts* work i s f rom the f i r s t j o y s o f e a r t h l y l o v e t o sorrow a t l b v e * s l o s s t o the i d e a l i z e d l o v e o f The Book o f The Rose (1903). The combinat ion o f the s exua l and the s p i r i t u a l t o be found i n t h i s l a t t e r book i s a l s o e x p l i c i t i n Horne*s concept o f the i d e a l l o v e o f E o s . ^ 1 2 S i r C h a r l e s G .D . Robe r t s , Poems o f W i l d L i f e , London, Wa l t e r S c o t t , 1888, p. 233. 13Horne, o p . c i t . , p. x v i i . 6 7 . Then t o o , Home s t r e s s e s , as w i l l Rober ts and h i s s u c c e s s o r s Lampman, S c o t t and P r a t t , an a p p l i c a t i o n o f the Darw in ian t h e o r y o f p r o g r e s s t o the f i e l d o f human e t h i c s ; " i t i s c l e a r to me, t h a t i n s t e a d o f r e s i s t i n g the i d e a o f Darw in ian ' p r o m o t i o n * , we shou ld g r a t e f u l l y ancfehopefu l ly r ega rd i t as p romisso ry o f a s e r i e s o f h i g h e r grades f o r e v e r - a s p i r i n g human i t y " . H o m e ' s emphasis on the concept o f O r i o n a s an i nnocen t c h i l d o f n a t u r e , d i v i n e l y " w i s e " , i s a n a t u r a l outgrowth o f the Romantic back t o na tu re movement. R o b e r t s , l i k e the e a r l i e r Romant i cs , Wordsworth and S h e l l e y , a n d t h e i r V i c t o r i a n descendan ts , A r n o l d and M e r e d i t h , t u rned t o na tu re as a r e l e a s e : Here i s a b r e a t h i n g t i m e , and r e s t f o r a l i t t l e s ea son . Here have I d r a i n e d deep d raughts out o f the s p r i n g s o f l i f e . He re , as o f o l d , w h i l e s t i l l unacqua in ted ;with t o i l and f a i n t n e s s , S t r e t c h e d a re my v e i n s w i t h s t r e n g t h , f e a r l e s s my hea r t and a t p e a c e . I have come back f rom the crowd, the b l i n d i n g s t r i f e and the t u m u l t , P a i n , and the shadow o f p a i n , sorrow i n s i l e n c e endured ; F i g h t i n g , a t l a s t I have f a l l e n , and sought the b r e a s t o f the M o t h e r , — Qu i t e c a s t down I have c r e p t c l o s e t o the b road sweet e a r t h . L o , out o f f a i l u r e t r i umph1 Renewed the waver ing courage , Tense the uns t rung n e r v e s , s t e a d f a s t the f a l t e r i n g knees ! Weary no more, no r f a i n t , n o r g r i e v e d a t h e a r t , no r d e s p a i r i n g , Hushed i n the e a r t h ' s green l a p , l u l l e d t o s lumber and dreamst !5 Rober t s b e l i e v e d t h a t man i n na tu re c o u l d be put i n touch w i t h U l b i d . . p. x v i . - ^ S i r C h a r l e s G .D . R o b e r t s , "A B r e a t h i n g T i m e " , In D i v e r s Tones . M o n t r e a l , Dawson B r o t h e r s , 1887, p p . 1 0 3 - 1 0 4 . 68 the v i t a l current of being—with the great world s p i r i t , the Pan force, the " S p i r i t " of "Beauty" or "Song". The vehicle f o r the apprehension of t h i s highest sense i s the "dream" or " s p e l l " which the poet, i n nature, f e e l s when "so u l " i s put asunder from "body" (cf "To The S p i r i t of Song") and the poet i s momentarily able to pierce the " v e i l " which separates the v i s i b l e sphere from those i n v i s i b l e . This preoccupation with "dream" has been noted by Roy Daniells i n h i s c r i t i q u e of Lampman1^ but i t has not been indicated that the "dream" provides the dominant metaphoric pattern f o r the poets of the 1880*s or that the philosophy or world view from which t h i s metaphor emerged seems to have had i t s o r i g i n i n the works of S i r Charles G.D. Roberts. For a comparative statement on the importance of the "dream" i n the poetry of the 1880*s, i t might be noted that the computer concordance which provides a supplement to t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n indicates that "dream", "sleep", " v i s i o n " and i t s variants occur 217 times i n Roberts, 368 times i n Lampman and 221 times i n Scott. In each case, i t has the highest frequency of any metaphor occurring and indicates that f o r each poet the metaphor of "dream" has the same primary significance that "love" has i n Crawford's poetic myth. In the works of Roberts and Lampman, the dream i s associated primarily with a s p i r a t i o n , love and comfort although i t does have a nightmare aspect, but by the time that t h i s •^Roy Da n i e l l s , L i t e r a r y History of Canada, pp. 391-92. 6 9 . metaphor f i l t e r s into Scott's work i t has become primarily associated with death. This development i s i m p l i c i t i n the o r i g i n a l metaphor i n the sense that Roberts was following the sleep-dream-joy-sorrow complex to be found i n Shelley, Keats and Tennyson. 1? In t h i s perspective, the dreamer i s empowered to see "high visions",but as these can be of e i t h e r sorrow or joy i t i s often at great cost to the dreamer. I S i r Charles G.D. Roberts I t i s possible that Roberts* great popularity with the l a t e nineteenth and early twentieth century reading public, i n contrast with h i s present c r i t i c a l dismissal, may be related to h i s status as the V i c t o r i a n "public poet", a status which i s now subject to new standards of c r i t i c a l reference. Present c r i t i c a l standards have changed from the V i c t o r i a n emphasis on the " p u b l i c " ramifications of a work to a primary consideration of i t s "private" or i n t e r n a l structure. 3?hetcriirerCoiiuiwhich • ^ I m p l i c i t i n the dream metaphor are suggestions of menace; i n Shelley's Alastor. to which Roberts frequently alludes, the dream v i s i o n of the i d e a l world leads to a n n i h i l a t i o n ; i n Keat's "Ode to a Nightingale" any further stay i n the dream world must lead to death f o r the poet. The whole complex i s most e x p l i c i t i n Tennyson's "The Lotos-Eaters" where sleep i s be a u t i f u l , comforting, but ultimately deadly. I t i s also i n t h i s poem that sleep and dream are given the i s l a n d s e t t i n g which emphasizes the i s o l a t i o n inherent i n t h i s complex, the poet as dreamer separates himself from h i s fellow man. Roberts has several poems on t h i s theme, notably "Lotbs", "Off Pelorus" "A Ballad of Calypso" and "The I s l e s " . 70. focuses upon the poem as an entity and proceeds through a r t i s t i c analysis i s substantially that c r i t e r i o n developed by the l a t e French Romantics and incorporated into the twentieth century philosophies of Bergson and Croce. In such a c r i t i c a l structure, Roberts* often f a c i l e verse and poor craftsmanship cannot, on the whole, be compared with the more polished work of an Archibald Lampman or a Duncan Campbell Scott. I t i s precisely t h i s conclusion that i s reached by E.K. Brown, a c r i t i c greatly influenced by the French school, i n h i s f i n e analysis of the three "masters" of Canadian poetry, Lampman, Scott and Pratt, and there Roberts 1 c r i t i c a l decline i s f i n a l i z e d . Yet, as a "public poet" of the l a t e 19th century, Roberts* influence upon the Canadian reading public, (and ?for that matter, the American reading public) and upon the develop-ment of Canadian poetry i n general, was much greater than that of h i s "better" poetic successors, Lampman and Scott. Accordingly, t h i s section w i l l examine the poetic structure of Roberts 1 work i n terms of h i s status as a public poet and w i l l attempt to show that the poetic myth and metaphor evolved by x The work of the other major poet of t h i s period, B l i s s Carman, i s excluded from t h i s study l a r g e l y f o r purposes of briefness and thematic continuity. Carman's romantic asp i r a t i o n was not s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t from that of Roberts to have made any substantial impact on succeeding Canadian poetry and h i s poetic stance as "the poet of the open road" could be examined more p r o f i t a b l y along with the works of Richard Hovey, Joaquin M i l l e r , and Robert Service i n the minor, but i n t e r e s t i n g , sidetrack of the influence of the Whitmanians i n Canada. 71 Rober t s i n an a t tempt to f i l l t h i s r o l e , passed on i n t o the p o e t r y o f Lampman and S co t t and l a t e r i n t o the work o f E . J . P r a t t . Rober ts b r i n g s t o h i s r o l e as p u b l i c poet the i n h e r i t e d Romantic concept o f a s p i r a t i o n th rough which the p o e t , i n n a t u r e , i s " t h e dreamer o f h i g h dreams" , the gu ide and t e a c h e r o f h i s f e l l o w men, " t h e unacknowledged l e g i s l a t o r o f the w o r l d " . Added t o t h i s concept o f the poet as teacher , i s the Wordsworth ian-A r n o l d i a n c o r o l l a r y t h a t the poet i s a l s o the h e a l e r , the comfo r t e r o f h i s con tempora r i es i n the f a c e o f a l l t h a t "weary b u r t h e n " o f the growing i n d u s t r i a l w o r l d . As l e a d e r and c o m f o r t e r , the p u b l i c poet has the f u r t h e r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f r e p o r t i n g h i s own expe r i ence w i t h the c u r r e n t problems o f the age i n a manner wh ich w i l l h e l p c l a r i f y them f o r h i s f e l l o w men. Tennyson ' s In Memorian (1850) i s the c l a s s i c V i c t o r i a n example . As has been noted i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the poem " E p i s t l e t o W. B l i s s Carman" , Rober ts d i d see h i m s e l f as gu ide and comfo r t e r o f h i s f e l l o w men: " y e t would I deem t h a t i t were eve r b e s t / to s i n g them out o f wea r iness t o r e s t " . What remains i s the n e c e s s i t y o f making some i n d i c a t i o n as t o whether o r not Rober t s d i d at tempt to come t o terms w i t h the problems i n v o l v e d i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f an e s s e n t i a l l y e a r l y 19 th cen tu r y E n g l i s h roman t i c i sm to the r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t g e o g r a p h i c a l and p h i l o s -o p h i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f l i f e i n l a t e 19th cen tu r y Canada. In the l a r g e s t sense , t h i s ques t i on i n v o l v e s the whole q u e s t i o n o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i e t y and a r t i n the p o e t r y o f the 72. 1880*s , l o n g a c o n t e n t i o u s i s s u e i n c r i t i c a l works d e s c r i b i n g t h i s p e r i o d . ^ i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o Robe r t s 'wo rk , and from a s tudy o f h i s use o f "d ream" as i t appears i n the supplementary c o n -co rdance , i t would appear t h a t Rober ts d i d indeed make t h i s at tempt and tha t h i s whole p o e t i c "my th " e vo l ves i n an at tempt to mediate between the " r e a l " wor ld o f Darwin ian s t r u g g l e and e v o l u t i o n which Rober t s saw d a i l y about him i n the New Brunswick c o u n t r y s i d e and the " i d e a l " wor ld s a n c t i o n e d by h i s C h r i s t i a n f a m i l y u p b r i n g i n g and h i s own d e s i r e f o r a s p i r i t u a l haven . E . J . P r a t t , l a t e r f o l l o w i n g i n Rober ts* f o o t s t e p s and f a c e d w i t h e s s e n t i a l l y the same di lemma, d e s c r i b e s the problem as " t h e i r o n i c enigma o f na tu re and i t s r e l a t i o n t o the C h r i s t i a n view o f the w o r l d " . 2 0 In P r a t t * s myth, the med i a t i on between the two wor lds i s a ccomp l i shed th rough a c o n c e n t r a t i o n on the human i d e a l , t ha t mutua l s o l i d a r i t y i n the f a c e o f danger which i s the human e q u i v a l e n t o f d i v i n e l o v e ; but i n Rober t s * wor ld ^ R o y D a n i e l l s , " C o n f e d e r a t i o n to the F i r s t Wor ld War" , Chapte r 1 2 , L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y o f Canada, p . 93* " I n Canada, d u r i n g the f o u r decades f o l l o w i n g 1880, p o e t r y i s the supreme a r t , y e t a d i r e c t c o n n e c t i o n between the bes t poems and c o n -temporary events h a r d l y e x i s t s " . Desmond Pacey, C r e a t i v e W r i t i n g  i n Canada. A Short H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h Canadian W r i t i n g , T o r o n t o , Rye rson , pp 1-2: " A t eve ry s tage o f i t s deve lopment , Canadian l i t e r a t u r e has responded t o the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l and p h y s i c a l env i ronment o f C a n a d a " . R . E .Rash l e y , Poe t r y i n Canada. The F i r s t Three S t e p s , Rye r son , T o r o n t o , 1958, p. x i : " Canad i an p o e t r y has been , f rom the b e g i n n i n g , a p r o p e r and adequate v o i c e o f i t s t i m e s " . Rober t Weaver, e d . , The F i r s t F i v e Y e a r s . A S e l e c t i o n f rom the Tamarack Review, T o r o n t o , Ox fo rd U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962, p. 181 "The dream o f a d i s t i n c t i v e l y Canadian c u l t u r e s t i l l possesses u s . I t i s a n x i d l e d ream" . 2 0 E . J . P r a t t , as quoted by G . M . S t o r e y , "The Newfoundlander Who i s Canada*s G r e a t e s t P o e t " , The Newfoundland Record , v o l . 1, No. 6, p. 7. 73 view, the focus i s ultimately placed on the world beyond and the distance between the everyday temporal world and the "real" world beyond can only be mediated through the experience of dream. In Roberts* work, the dream f i r s t emerges as a metaphor describing the poet*s aspiration in nature and i t later expands to take in a whole myth or Weltanschauung of man*s place in nature and in the universe. 2 1 The typical setting for such a dream experience i s the poet, in nature, and confronted with some physical object such as the flower, the wind, or the f i r trees a l l of which come to take on higher significance, and ultimately- to symbolize the "secret" of l i f e beyond. In "A Blue Blossom", Roberts catches glimpses of that " c e l e s t i a l dream" which created flower and earth; similarly, the wind becomes a "mystic rune", a sign of that "inexplicable" secret beyond man*s understanding. 2 2 The f i r trees, almost always in ^ I t might be observed from reference to the supplementary concordance that the "dream" i s not always used in the meta-phoric sense. In poems such as "Cuthbert the Monk" from Divers  Tones the dream i s simply an ordinary night dream without further visionary ramifications. Similarly, the day dream from "Frogs" in Songs of The Common Day does not seem,to have a larger metaphoric context. "Dream" i s also sometimes used in the sense of "imagine" or "think" as in the line "How could I dream that thou wert growing weary?" from "Miriam—1" in Orion, and Other Poems. Yet, most often, the dream emerges in context as a part of larger metaphoric structure in reference to the poet*s aspiration in nature. 2 2Roberts, "A Blue Blossom", Orion, and Other Poems, p. 7. The wind metaphor i s to be found in the poem "In September" from In Divers'Tones, p. 3 2« 74 Roberts 1 work, serve as a vehicle f o r that higher ndream t t which puts man i n touch with the i d e a l world. 23 Roberts seems to have two sets of terminology r e l a t i n g to the dream experience; one i s primarily associated with magic and enchantment and incorporates some of the concepts of Darwinian evolution while the other i s primarily r e l i g i o u s i n nature. In one set of terminology the creator i s a "wise enchanter", and h i s creation "magic"; i n the other, the creator i s God, h i s creation "wondrous" and the poet's experience s p i r i t u a l i z e d , he catches "gleams" of " c e l e s t i a l l i g h t " . However, i n both cases l i f e i s v i s u a l i z e d as a "sleep" and the whole temporal processes of the world, including eternity, conceived as a "dream" of God. ( c f . "The Night Sky"). In such a structure, communion with the higher r e a l i t y , the "dream" of God which i s Eternity, or with God himself, can only be through the higher v i s i o n attained i n human dream when man i s given a glimpse of the i d e a l world beyond. And inasmuch as Roberts' myth incorporates both day and night dream, t h i s may be described as ei t h e r "waking v i s i o n " or "visioned s l e e p " . 2 / f I t might be hypothesized that Roberts has dual sets of terminology to describe h i s most dominant theme - the creation of the world and the evolution of l i f e - because he i s attempt-ing to reconcile the two philosophies of Ch r i s t i a n creation and 23Roberts, "The F i r Woods" and "The Cicada i n the F i r s " , Songs of the Common Day, p. 9, p« 16. 2Z*-Roberts, "Ballad of The Poet's Thought", Orion, p. 5 0 . 75. Darwinian evolution by presenting both as e s s e n t i a l l y ithe same experience. I f an attempt were made to diagram the complement-ary terms of Roberts' myth i t might look something l i k e t h i s : God, Creator enchanter, a r t i f i c e r soul germ of l i f e f a i t h , s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n desire some predestination b l i n d chance The poet i n nature undergoes a magic, mystic or r e l i g i o u s experience The two systems are not r e a l l y separate because God i s the great enchanter and the root experience i s the same i n both cases. This process i s quite e x p l i c i t i n a poem such as "Origins" where the "germ" of l i f e emerges from Time; "out of the dreams that heap - the hollow hand of sleep"» Tt then develops by evolutionary processes; "through the pregnant s t i r where death and l i f e confer", only to return at the conclusion t i t s divine maker, God. S i m i l a r l y , i n h i s poem "The Marvellous Work", Roberts praises the evolutionary God whose "Eternal Cause" Is graven i n granite-moulding aeons' gloom; Is t o l d i n stony record of the roar Of long S i l u r i a n storms, and tempests huge Scourging the c i r c u i t of Devonian seas; Is whispered i n the noiseless mists, the gray Soft drip of clouds about rank fern-forests, Through dateless terms that stored the layered coal; Is uttered hoarse i n strange T r i a s s i c forms Of monstrous l i f e ; or stamped i n ice-blue gleams Athwart the d e a t h - s t i l l years of g l a c i a l sleep! Down the stupendous sequence, age on age, Thro' storm and peace, thro' shine and gloom, thro' warm And pregnant periods of teeming b i r t h , and seething realms of thunderous overthrow, -76. I n t h e obs c u r e and f o r m l e s s dawn o f l i f e , I n g r a d u a l march from s i m p l e t o complex, From l o w e r t o h i g h e r forms, and l a s t t o Man. ^ I n t h i s poem as i n " O r i g i n s " and " K i n s h i p " , t h e germ o f l i f e moves t h r o u g h t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s e s o n l y t o complete the c y c l e , a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e poem, i n a r e t u r n t o t h e E t e r n a l C a u s e . 2 ^ A l l t h i n g s s t r i v e upward, r e a c h toward g r e a t e r good; T i l l c r a v i n g b r u t e , i n f o r m e d w i t h s o u l , grows Man, And Man t u r n s homeward, y e a r n i n g back t o God. Because t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y s p a r k i s a l s o equipped w i t h t h e d i v i n e e s s e n c e , i t r e t u r n s u l t i m a t e l y , l i k e P l a t o ' s v o y a g i n g s o u l s , t o d i s s o l v e i n t h e g r e a t w o r l d soul. 2'' 7 The whole p r o c e s s o f t h e s o u l ' s emergence f r o m d i v i n e knowledge i n t o f o r g e t f u l n e s s when i t i s born i n t o t h i s w o r l d — a s d e s c r i b e d i n R o b e r t s ' poems "A B l u e Blossom" and " O r i g i n s " — i s v e r y much l i k e t h e d e s c e n t o f s o u l s d e s c r i b e d i n P l a t o ' s Timaeus: P l a t o n i c a l s o i s R o b e r t s ' d i s t i n c t i o n between t h e r e a l w o r l d beyond Time and s l e e p and t h e u n r e a l "dream" w h i c h man e x p e r -i e n c e s i n t h i s w o r l d . I n R o b e r t s ' p o e t i c myth, as i n S h e l l e y ' s ^ T h i s and a l l f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n s u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e n o t e d t o S i r C h a r l e s G.D. R o b e r t s . "The M a r v e l l o u s Work", I n D i v e r s Tones, pp. 60-62. 2 6 S i r C h a r l e s G.D. R o b e r t s , " K i n s h i p " and " O r i g i n s " , The Book  o f t h e N a t i v e . T o r o n t o , Copp C l a r k e , 1896, p. 11, p. 16. 2 ? R o b e r t s seems t o l i k e t h e a n a l o g y i n which t h e p a r t u l t -i m a t e l y d i s s o l v e s i n t o t h e whole w h i c h c r e a t e d i t . The c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s poem "The I c e b e r g " f r o m The I c e b e r g and Other  Poems. T o r o n t o , R y e r s o n , 1934, P» 11, i s based on t h e same metaphor: " I b r e a t h e d up my s o u l i n t o t h e a i r / and merged f o r e v e r i n t h e a l l - s o l v e n t s e a " . 77 Al a s t o r . sleep i s the " v e i l " which separates man from the eternal world and i t i s only through the moment of high v i s i o n , most often associated with the Keats&an "dream of truth", that t h i s v e i l can be pierced. Although t h i s l a t t e r d i s -t i n c t i o n involving the u n r e a l i t y of temporal l i f e i s also a feature of C h r i s t i a n theology, Roberts* frequent a l l u s i o n s to Plato (without precise d e t a i l ) suggest that the Platonic basis of Wordsworth*s "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of E a r l y Childhood" and the Platonic a l l u s i o n s of Shelley*s Alastor may have provided the source of Roberts* Platonism,although he may very well have turned to the o r i g i n a l at a l a t e r date. Roberts* myth appears to be an attempt to meet the r e l i g i o u s and philosophical problems of h i s time through an incorporation of Darwinian evolution under the C h r i s t i a n world view. In h i s poem "The Marvellous Work", he discusses with some sympathy the confrontation between r e l i g i o n and science, d i s -tinguishing three possible reactions to the contemporary dilemma. Those whose creeds are too hard and f a s t to change, Roberts dismisses; with those who attempt to patch out t h e i r old f a i t h with the new b e l i e f s , "a strange discordant motley", he has some sympathy: But 0 rare motley, - starred with t h i r s t of truth, Patched with desire of wisdom, zoned about, With passion f o r fresh knowledge, and the quest Of r i g h t . Such motley may be made at l a s t , Through grave s i n c e r i t y , a dawn-clear garment. But he reserves h i s highest praise f o r those "enfranchised s p i r i t s " who can see i n the great aeons of geological time j u s t r e v e a l e d by s c i e n c e the m a n i f e s t a t i o n o f the " E t e r n a l Cause" and i n the Darwin ian p r o g r e s s i o n o f l i f e f rom s imple t o complex the a s p i r a t i o n o f each atom towards the Godhead. In t h i s wo r ld v iew, s c i e n t i f i c p r o g r e s s i o n i s u l t i m a t e l y G o d ' s purpose and the g r e a t dream o f Time the t h e a t r e i n which h i s w i l l i s f u l f i l l e d . Rober t s seems t o v iew l i f e as a " d r e a m " , emerging f rom the g r ea t s t ream o f t ime which i s s l e e p ( " O r i g i n s " ) ; the u n i v e r s e i t s e l f i s conce i v ed as a s l e e p o r dream t h a t proceeds th rough G o d ' s t h o u g h t : " o u r w o r l d s , our suns , our ages , these but s t ream/ th rough t h i n e a b i d i n g l i k e a d a t e l e s s dream" . 2 ** Be fore b i r t h i n t o t h i s wor ld the s o u l b e g i n s t o f o r g e t i t s c e l e s t i a l pa s t and when born i n t o the t empora l w o r l d , which i s s l e e p , appears to proceed under b l i n d chance : " t h e r u l e s o f the game they do not unde r s t and/ but they go as i n a dream, and are dumb", 29 but a c t u a l l y , f rom the h i g h e r p e r s p e c t i v e , chance i s under G o d ' s w i l l . The new form o f l i f e , p r o p e l l e d by the e v o l u t i o n a r y spark ( "Au toch thon " f rom Songs o f The Common Day and "The U n s l e e p i n g " i n The Book o f The Na t i v e ) i s a p p a r e n t l y qu i e s cen t u n t i l reminded o f i t s heaven ly past(!*A B lue B l o s s o m " ) . ^ ® T h i s e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g l e upwards o f t h a t " c aged b r i g h t b i r d , d e s i r e " i s seen i n the lower fo rms o f l i f e as s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n ( " Impulse" ) and i n man as a combina t ion o f p o e t i c 2 8 S i r C h a r l e s G .D . R o b e r t s , "The N i g h t Sky " , Songs o f the  Common Dav. p. 31* 2 9 R o b e r t s , "The W r e s t l e r " , Book o f The N a t i v e , p. 118 . P l a t o n i s m o f t h i s poem i s s t r o n g l y r e m i n i s c e n t o f Wordsworth 's " O d e " . 7 9 and s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n ("The P i p e s o f P a n " ) . A f t e r the p u b l i c a t i o n o f New York Nocturnes (1898) s p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n i n Rober t s * work becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i d e a l i z e d e a r t h l y l o v e , wh i ch , i n t h e o r y a t l e a s t , p r e f i g u r e s the heaven l y (as i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y poem "On the Upper Deck" f rom The Book o f The Rose ) , and a l s o w i t h an i n c r e a s i n g s t r a i n o f " m y s t i c " communion r e l a t e d t o what would appear to be dream o r v i s i o n con t a c t w i t h h i s b r o t h e r , Goodr idge B l i s s R o b e r t s , who d i e d i n 1 8 9 2 . 3 1 One o f the most i n t e r e s t i n g examples o f p o e t i c a s p i r -a t i o n and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p t o na tu re and the s e c r e t wor ld and God beyond na tu re i s t o be found i n Rober ts* poem "The P i p e s o f P a n " . Here i s the " s e c r e t " wor ld o f Keats* "Tempe, v a l e o f the g o d s " : Wa l l ed f rom the wor ld f o r e v e r under a vapor o f d r e a m s , — H i d by the shadows o f dreams, not found by the c u r i o u s f o o t s t e p , . . . 3 2 To Tempe comes Pan, t h a t f a m i l i a r V i c t o r i a n p r o t o t y p e f o r the s p i r i t o f Nature and Poe t r y w i t h h i s " w e i r d ea r th-me lody " . Becoming d i s s a t i s f i e d w i t h h i s o l d f l u t e , he throws i t away i n t o the s t r eam. D i s p e r s e d by Peneus, the f ragments o f Pan*s r eed f l o a t t o a l l t he " s e c r e t s p o t s " o f the w o r l d . But as " g o d - b r e a t h l u r k s i n each f ragment f o r e v e r " , the Pan f o r c e i s 3 ! s i r C h a r l e s G .D . Robe r t s , "Dream F e l l o w s " . New York Noc tu rnes . and O the r Poems. B o s t o n , Lamson W o l f f e , 1898, p p . 55-60. 3 2 T h i s and f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n s u n l e s s o the rw i se i n d i c a t e d to R o b e r t s , "The P i p e s o f P a n " , In D i v e r s Tones , p. 2 1 . 80 a l s o d i s p e r s e d th roughout n a t u r e : "what the god b r ea thes o n , the god neve r can w h o l l y e v a d e " . Consequen t l y , when the poe t s o f the wor ld wander i d l y by and f i n d some fragment o f t h i s d i s c a r d e d r eed ("comes no t the god , though he come d e c l a r e d i n h i s wo rk ings " ) t hey a r e i n f e c t e d by the Pan f o r c e : A s e c r e t madness t a k e s them, - a charm-struck P a s s i o n f o r woods and w i l d l i f e , the s o l i t u d e o f the h i l l s . The r e fo r e t hey f l y the h e e d l e s s t h rongs and t r a f f i c o f the c i t i e s , Haunt mossed cave rns , and w e l l s b u b b l i n g i c e - c o o l ; And t h e i r s o u l s Ga ther a m a g i c a l gleam o f the s e c r e t o f l i f e , and the g o d ' s v o i c e C a l l s t o them, not f rom a f a r , t e a c h i n g them wonder fu l t h i n g s . Perhaps the most impor tan t concept i n t h i s poem f o r the d e v e l o p -ment o f Canadian p o e t r y i s the f i g u r e o f Pan as poet and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the h i g h e r God f o r c e and the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a na tu re i n which t h i s Pan f o r c e i s m a n i f e s t e d and th rough which the human poet may c a t ch " a m a g i c a l gleam o f the s e c r e t o f l i f e " . 3 3 i t i s s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h i s paradigm which u n d e r l i e s Carman 's work, The P i p e s o f Pan (1902-1905), and which p r o v i d e s the p ro to t ype o f the p i p e r - p o e t f o r Lampman and S c o t t , i n p a r t i c u l a r f o r S c o t t ' s f i n e and e l u s i v e " P i p e r o f A r i l " . Rober ts i n v a r i a b l y a s s o c i a t e s the dream w i t h the c r e a t i o n and f u n c t i o n o f p o e t r y . In h i s " E p i s t l e " he s t a t e s 33ihe ana logy wh i ch Rober ts makes i n r e f e r e n c e to S idney L a n i e r a l s o e n t e r s i n t o t h i s complex. See "On Reading the Poems o f S idney L a n i e r " In D i v e r s Tones , p. 97: " Poe t and F l u t e - P l a y e r , t h a t f l u t e o f t h i n e / to me must ever seem the p e r f e c t s i g n I " 81 t h a t i t w i l l be h i s f u n c t i o n t o comfort h i s f e l l o w men by "weav ing them dreams o f waves and s k i e s and h i l l s " , a n d Rober t s a l s o d e s c r i b e s Carman 's work a p p r o v i n g l y as " t h r o n g e d w i t h d reams " . S i m i l a r l y , Keats "dreamed a l l beau t y " and S h e l l e y i s l auded f o r f o r m u l a t i n g " t h e dream b e n i g n " . Robe r t s a l s o sugges ts the f a m i l i a r Romantic ana logy between God and a r t i s t based on the s u p p o s i t i o n t h a t each i s a c r e a t o r . God i n "An O b l a t i o n " i s the a r t i f i c e r o f " s o u l s and deeds and dreams" w h i l e S h e l l e y i s the poet r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , " a v a t a r / o f Song, Love , Dream, D e s i r e and L i b e r t y " . S p i r i t u a l a s p i r a t i o n as i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h human l o v e i s a l s o a theme which runs th rough R o b e r t s ' work f rom O r i o n (1880) t o The I c ebe rg (1934)» h i s l a s t major work . However t h i s theme does not become dominant u n t i l New York Nocturnes (1898) and The Book o f The Rose (1903) . As bo th o f t he se books were composed j u s t a f t e r the p o e t ' s s e l f - i m p o s e d e x i l e f rom New Brunswick t h i s would seem t o suggest t h a t a f t e r removal f rom f a m i l i a r su r round ings the poet t u rned t o a s p i r a t i o n th rough human l o v e j u s t as he had f o r m e r l y tu rned t o a s p i r a t i o n th rough n a t u r e . T h i s i n s i s t e n c e upon a s p i r a t i o n o f one s o r t o r a n o t h e r , d o e s , o f c o u r s e , weaken R o b e r t s ' work. J u s t as t h e r e i s o f t e n i n h i s na tu re poems a s t r a i n i n g f o r " t h e go lden moment", so i n h i s l o v e p o e t r y , the r eade r has no s t r o n g sense o f a r e a l pe rson i n o t h e r than the i d e o l o g i c a l s e n s e . On the who le , the " i d e a l woman" appears t o serve p r i m a r i l y as a peg f o r a p r e conce i v ed p h i l o s o p h y . As a r e s u l t , R o b e r t s ' p o e t r y l o s e s the c o n v i n c i n g d e t a i l s o f r e a l expe r i ence a f t e r The Book o f The N a t i v e . (1896) . 82 In the primarily'"mystic" Book of The Rose. Roberts presents the "rose of desire" s- "dark blossom of ancient dream"-a metaphor conglomerating what would appear to be h i s own world view, Dante's "mystic" rose, a s p r i n k l i n g of Rosicrucian l o r e ("0 rose of L i f e " ) , and the red rose of hedonistic l i f e as presented by the Omar Khayyam of Naishapur .34 The Rubaivat«from which Roberts takes the essentials of h i s rose metaphor, also o f f e r s an i n t e r e s t i n g p a r a l l e l to Roberts' evolutionary myth. In Fitzgerald's account, souls emerge from the dark unknown which i s "secret" and hidden by the " v e i l " from human eyes; they l i v e f o r a time not knowing the "Why" of t h e i r coming or the "Whence" of t h e i r going and then f a l l back into the great "sleep" which i s death. Because the only way into the i d e a l world (God's dream) from the temporal world i s through the moments of "waking v i s i o n " 34Rober ts has several poems r e f e r r i n g to the Rubaiyat and only i n t h i s work have I been able to f i n d the red rose with the golden center which Roberts repeatedly stresses; c f . Fitzgerald's notes to the 5 th edition of The Rubaivat. I t i s also possible that Roberts gravitated to the rose metaphor because of i t s use by Crawford, but I have not been able to f i n d any documentary evidence or poetic evidence which would suggest t h i s connection. On the whole, i t would seem that Roberts may be simply r e f l e c t i n g the p r e v a i l i n g V i c t o r i a n i n t e r e s t i n the rose as a symbol of love and passion (cf. Tennyson's Maud and l y r i c s from The  Princess) with overtones of mystic l o r e . This l a t t e r aspect of Dante's rose was one of the preoccupations of the Pre-Raphaelite group which passed into the C e l t i c t w i l i g h t and was then augmented by Yeats' interest i n Rosicrucian l o r e . This same period also saw the i l l u s t r a t i o n of Dante's Comedy and of Chaucer's Book of The Rose. Roberts may not have been privy to a l l of t h i s , but we do know of h i s i n t e r e s t i n magic and the occult, and i f the rose was i n the poetic a i r as a mystic symbol at the turn of the century, he might w e l l be expected to know of i t . 83 o r " v i s i o n e d s l e e p " , much o f R o b e r t s 1 p o e t r y i s a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the wo r l d beyond as i t i s r e v e a l e d th rough " d r e a m " . From Rober ts* t h i r d book onward t h e r e i s a whole sequence o f poems r e l a t i n g t o the p o e t * s momentary g l impses o f h i s dead b r o t h e r . 3 5 The poem "Dream-Fe l lows " f rom New York Nocturnes i s a good example o f t h i s sequence . The poet goes " b e h i n d t h a t v e i l t h a t men c a l l s l e e p " t o f i n d a " g o l d e n land™ where h i s l o s t comrade comes r u n n i n g t o meet h im . The r a t i o n a l e o f t h i s poem i s c o m f o r t i n g ; i n the go lden wor ld t o come, p r e f i g u r e d now i n s l e e p , a l l p a i n s w i l l be h e a l e d , f r i e n d s u n i t e d . The development o f the Tantramar theme i n Rober ts* p o e t r y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i th a vague sorrow u n t i l a f t e r the dea th o f the p o e t * s b r o t h e r ; i t i s then ( beg inn ing w i t h the p u b l i c a t i o n o f Songs o f the Common Dav i n 1893) t h a t the poet beg ins to i d e n t i f y i t w i t h dea th ( c f . "The T ide i n Tant ramar " ) as w e l l as the l o s s o f c h i l d h o o d h a p p i n e s s . H i t h e r t o , he had made a n a l o g i e s between the ebb and f l ow o f the t i d e on the Tantramar and h i s own p e r s o n a l changes o f f o r t u n e , " A v e : An Ode f o r the Centenary o f S h e l l e y * s B i r t h " , and l i n k e d the Tantramar w i t h the vague sorrow wh ich seems t o be a t t a c h e d t o h i s l a c k o f success i n a t t a i n i n g the h i g h "d reams" o f c h i l d h o o d which were made by the Tant ramar . The development o f Rober ts* poe t r y sugges t s t h a t the poet f e l t t h a t the " g o l d e n t i m e " o f h i s l i f e was h i s 35see " S e v e r a n c e " , " G r e y Rocks and Greye r Sea " f rom Songs o f  The Common Dav: "The L i t t l e F i e l d o f P e a c e " , " B e s i d e The W in te r Sea" and " T w i l i g h t " f rom The Book o f The N a t i v e : " E v e n i n g Communion" and "Dream-Fe l lows " f rom New York Noc turnes and "The P l a c e o f H i s R e s t " f rom New Poems. 84 c h i l d h o o d a t home and h i s young manhood a t c o l l e g e when he was among f r i e n d s and a l l the wo r ld l a y b r i g h t be fo re h i m . Poems subsequent t o those o f Songs o f The Common Day i n v a r i a b l y a s s o c i a t e happ iness w i t h the "memory™, "d ream" o r day-dream which can p u l l back f rom the m i s t s o f t i m e , p a s t j o y s , and so suppress the p a i n o f pas t o r p r e sen t sorrow o c c a s i o n e d by the changes made by t i m e . The development o f t h i s complex may be seen i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o one o f R o b e r t s 1 f i n e r poems, "The Tantramar R e v i s i t e d " : Summers and summers have come, and gone w i t h the f l i g h t o f the swa l low; Sunshine and thunder have been , s torm, and w i n t e r , and f r o s t ; Many and many a sorrow has a l l but d i e d f rom remembrance, Many a dream o f j o y f a l l * n i n the shadow o f p a i n . Hands o f chance and change have marred , o r molded, o r b roken , Busy w i t h s p i r i t o r f l e s h , a l l I most have a d o r e d ; Even the bosom o f E a r t h i s s t rewn w i t h h e a v i e r shadows,-O n l y i n those green h i l l s , a s l a n t t o the s e a , no , changeI3° Because memory has become k i n d e r than r e a l i t y the poet p r e f e r s t o "muse" o r "remember" f rom a d i s t a n c e r a t h e r than go too c l o s e and see t h a t " t h e o l d - t i m e " wor ld has changed: 7^ 3^This and f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n s u n l e s s o therw ise i n d i c a t e d t o R o b e r t s , In D i v e r s Tones , p p . 53-58. 37This i n t e r p r e t a t i o n assumes t h a t Rober t s was a l r e a d y b e g i n n i n g t o f e e l s t r o n g l y t h a t he c o u l d not l i v e up t o the h i g h a s p i r a t i o n s o f " E p i s t l e t o W. B l i s s Carman" but i t i s a l s o c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t Roberts- i s here g i v i n g an e x p o s i t i o n o f a p r i m a r i l y romant ic me lancho ly which a l s o expressed h i s own vague d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . "The Tantramar R e v i s i t e d " i s a l s o one o f Rober t s * more i n t e r e s t i n g poems f rom the p o i n t o f view o f the j o i n t Amer ican and E n g l i s h i n f l u e n c e s upon the Canadian poe t , inasmuch as t h i s poem seems t o r e v e a l an i ndeb tedness to S idney L a n i e r as w e l l as to W i l l i a m Wordsworth. Rober ts* s tance d5.. Yet w i l l I stay my steps and not go down to the marsh-land,-Muse and r e c a l l f a r o f f , rather remember than see, -Lest on too close sight I miss the darli n g i l l u s i o n , Spy at t h e i r task even here the hands of chance and change. In the poems of "dream" or "memory" communion with the past or with the s p i r i t u a l world, Roberts sometimes invokes the related metaphors of " v e i l " or "door". In "My Garden" a love poem from New York Nocturnes, the "magic doors" of the garden open to reveal the sweetheart who brings with her evocations of "uncharted realms of mystery". It i s also here that the poet breathes "such a i r s of rapture" as "those blest dreamers know in Paradise". And, as noted i n "Dream-Fellows", the golden world of reunion with l o s t loved ones i s to be found "behind the v e i l that men c a l l sleep". This concept of entrance into the i s primarily Wordsworthian, p a r t i c u l a r l y the Wordsworth of "Tintern Abbey". The introduction of the passage of time at the s t a r t of the poem, the l i n e "those green h i l l s , aslant to the sea" and the concern of the poem, the disenchantment which time brings, are a l l similar to Wordsworth's "Tintern Abbey". But unlike Wordsworth who finds solace i n the assurance of the continuing i n s p i r a t i o n of nature as i t i s manifested i n h i s s i s t e r Dorothy, nature can only comfort Roberts i f i t i s viewed from a distance and through the poetic day-dream. Yet, i f Roberts' stance i s Wordsworthian, h i s lo c a l e i s North American i n what would seem to be a fusion of the New Brunswick Tantramar region with the A t l a n t i c marshlands of Sidney Lanier's "Marshes of Glynn". This poem was f i r s t published i n 1878 but was l a t e r reprinted i n Section IV of The Poems of Sidney Lanier which Roberts t e l l s us l a t e r i n the same volume which contains "The Tantramar Revisited" that he had read ( c f . "On Reading the Poems of Sidney Lanier"). Locale, subject and s p i r i t u a l unrest are common to both poems and some of Lanier's l i n e s may have pro-vided the example f o r Roberts' celebrated innovation i n verse length: "A league and a league of marsh-grass, waist-high, broad . i n the blade" or "That the length and the breadth and the sweep of the marshes of Glynn / W i l l work me no fear l i k e the fear they have wrought me of yore". 86. o t h e r wo r l d as i t i s r e l a t e d t o the open ing " d o o r " i s to prove a p e r s i s t e n t theme i n Canadian p o e t r y . I t i s l a t e r t o be p i c k e d up and e l a b o r a t e d by Lampman, S c o t t and P r a t t , a n d i n each case the d e s i r e to see beyond the tempora l i s r e l a t e d t o the l o s s o f a l o v e d one . I t might be suggested t h a t i n Rober ts* work the dream appears t o emerge i n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the d e s i r e to mediate between two w o r l d s , and , r e l a t e d t o t h i s , i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the p o e t * s own d e s i r e f o r comfor t and assurance when f a c e d w i t h the d i f f i c u l t i e s o f l i f e . I f r e a l i t y i s too p a i n f u l , t he daydream f rom a d i s t a n c e w i l l comfor t ("The Tantramar R e v i s i t e d " ) ; i f memory i s too p a i n f u l , the l o v e dream w i l l m i t i g a t e ( " M o o n l i g h t " , Songs o f the Common Dav) : i f human l i f e i n g e n e r a l i s f i l l e d w i t h m i s e r y , the poe t * s h i g h "d ream" w i l l b r i n g r e l i e f ( " E p i s t l e t o W. B l i s s Carman" , O r i o n ) . In the c o s m o l o g i c a l s ense , even the p a i n o f e v i l may be r e l i e v e d , f o r i f l i f e i s a " d r eam" the e v i l which we know i s i t s e l f u n r e a l . Rober t s * d e s i r e t o comfor t and be comfor ted may e x p l a i n why he adopted a t heo r y o f p o e t i c a l decorum which g e n e r a l l y f o rbade him to i n t r o d u c e d i s t r e s s i n g s u b j e c t s i n t o h i s work (such as a r e a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c u r r e n t s o c i a l prob lems) , because i t i s the p u b l i c p o e t * s f u n c t i o n t o comfo r t , y e t which a l l owed him to p r e s e n t w i th gus to i n h i s p rose o f w i l d l i f e the r a v e n i n g s o f t o o t h and c l aw . Perhaps t h i s i s p o s s i b l e because Rober t s was a b l e t o h y p o t h e s i z e t h a t the young ravens do u l t i m a t e l y f eed on: " H i m " , t h a t i s , the n a t u r a l law i s a lways i n a c co rd w i t h t h a t o f the d i v i n e . In 8 7 . t h i s frame o f r e f e r e n c e , what seems i n the wo r ld to be i n t e r -nec ine savagery may be j u s t i f i e d i n the g r e a t e t e r n a l p l a n . I t i s a l s o worth n o t i n g t h a t when danger o r f e a r a r e , as i t sometimes seems, i n a d v e r t e n t l y , i n t r o d u c e d i n R o b e r t s ' p o e t r y , they a lways proceed f rom " s l e e p " o r " d r e a m " . The b l i n d i n g o f O r i o n , the cap tu re o f L a u n c e l o t , the d r i f t i n g boat o f "Wh i t ewa te r s " and "The F o r e s t F i r e " a l l b eg in under the a e g i s o f s l e e p , a lmost as does the n i gh tma re , and indeed t h i s i s the i m p l i c i t sugges t i on made i n h i s poem "The T i d e on Tant ramar " where a young w i f e , w a i t i n g on the p i e r f o r he r s a i l o r husband, dreams o f h i s r e t u r n . But as she w a i t s the storm b r e a k s , the " b r u t e s e a " surges i n and the dyke f a l l s ; " t h e s a l t sea whips he r f a c e , and wakes / the dreamer f rom he r d ream" : The g r ea t f l o o d l i f t s . I t thunders i n . The broad marsh foams, and s i n k s . The d i n Of waves i s where h e r wor ld has b e e n ; -I s t h i s - i s t h i s the dream? - One moment i n t h a t s u r g i n g h e l l The o l d wharf shook, then c r i n g e d a n d - f e l l . T h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n , i n which t e r r o r as w e l l as beauty emerge f rom the dream e x p e r i e n c e , i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the dream metaphor . I f the p r imary f u n c t i o n o f the dream i s t o a l l e v i a t e p a i n , R o b e r t s ' c h o i c e o f the "d ream" metaphor was p a r t i c u l a r l y u n f o r t u n a t e as i t c a r r i e s w i t h i t i t s own b u i l t - i n n e g a t i o n — t h a t o f the n igh tmare . 38Roberts, Songs o f the Common Day, p. 48. 88. Keats e x p l o r e s t h i s aspec t o f the dream i n h i s memorable " E p i s t l e t o John Hami l ton R e y n o l d s " : 0 t h a t our dreamings a l l , o f s l e e p o r wake, Would a l l t h e i r c o l o u r s f rom the sunset t a k e : From something o f m a t e r i a l s ub l ime , Ra the r than shadow o u r own s o u l ' s day-t ime In the dark v o i d o f n i g h t . F o r i n the wor ld QQ f e j o s t l e . * y Because o u r waking l i v e s a re compounded o f good and e v i l , so a l s o a re ou r dreams. Consequen t l y , even those who, l i k e R o b e r t s , a re f o l l o w i n g Kea t s and would l i k e t o r e s t r i c t t h e i r dreams to the " Enchan ted C a s t l e " , s t i l l f i n d t h a t they must f a c e the " l a p l a n d h a g " o f n i g h t m a r e . As Rober t s admi ts a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f h i s "Ode t o D rows ihood " : "I know thy f a v o r s but I f e a r t h y t r e a s o n " . T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p between the dream and the n ightmare might a l s o e x p l a i n the " u n u s u a l " poems o f Rober ts* canon such as "The F l i g h t " and "One N i g h t " f rom O r i o n . ^ 0 Both poems seem t o p r e s e n t the n ightmare e x p e r i e n c e ; i n "The F l i g h t " a murderess f l e e s t o what appears t o be a Witches ' Sabbath l e a v i n g beh ind a dead c h i l d and i t s unknowing p a r e n t s t o whom she s p i t e f u l l y w ishes "sweet d r eams " . In "One N i g h t " , a poem s t r o n g l y evok ing consc i ousnes s o f what W i l l i a m James c a l l s " t h e s f i ck s o u l " , the poet appears to meet h i s dream s e l f i n a f o r e s t p o o l . He i s c o n s c i o u s o f h i s own l o a t h l i n e s s but he cannot p ray o r weep ^ E r n e s t de S e l i n c o u r t , e d . The Poems o f John K e a t s . London, Methuen, V th e d . 1926, p p . 271-72. ^Desmond Pacey , i n h i s book, Ten Canadian P o e t s : A Group o f  B i o g r a p h i c a l And C r i t i c a l E s s a y s . T o r o n t o , Rye r son , 1958, p. 45* i s o l a t e s those poems as showing an unusua l development i n Rober t s * work. 89. u n t i l the o t h e r s e l f meets h i s eye i n r e c o g n i t i o n ; " i t s dead eyes woke and w i t h mine met / f a m i l i a r l y " . A t t h i s r e c o g n i t i o n the dreamer weeps, but because i t i s he who i s the source o f e v i l , h i s t e a r s i n c r e a s e the i n f e c t i o n s And more I wept more f o u l i t grew; A l l e l s e grew b l a c k , and my h e a r t dropped down. I had l a i n t h e r e f o r an age , I knew, And must l i e t he r e t i l l the body sank d o w n .41 But then the dreamer i s g i v e n mercyS Then One came by me t o where I l a y ; . . . He had heard my t e a r s ( f o r I c o u l d not pray ) And p i t i e d me, and had come t o me. He touched the body, and i t sank down Beyond my s i g h t , though the p o o l was c l e a r . The p o e t , l i k e the A n c i e n t M a r i n e r , i s redeemed: "He s tood me up upon my f e e t . . . and my hands were c l e a n ••• and he l e f t me i n t h a t p l e a s a n t s c e n e . " The c o n s c i o u s n e s s o f s i n and g u i l t and the need f o r redempt ion a re ex t r eme l y s t r o n g i n t h i s poem and seem t o p o i n t out the n i g h t m a r e ' s p r e d i l e c t i o n f o r b r i n g i n g out the " l a p l a n d h a g " which we would exc lude f rom ou r day-t ime i m a g i n i n g s . The f a c t t h a t mercy i s u l t i m a t e l y g i v e n t o the s u f f e r e r would a l s o seem to c o n f i r m the dream's m e d i a t i n g f u n c t i o n . Re l a t ed t o t h i s d u a l a spec t o f the dream i s the sequence o f i s l a n d poems t o be found i n R o b e r t s ' work; the dream i s l e o f p o e t r y t o be found i n "The I s l e s " , the dangerous s l eep-wor ld o f " L o t u s " and i t s r e j e c t i o n i n " O f f P e l o r u s " , and the romant i c n o s t a l g i a f o r the l o s s o f comfor t and s e c u r i t y as i t i s 4 1 R o b e r t s , O r i o n , p. 7 4 . 9 0 . a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i s l a n d o f l o v e and p l e a s u r e i n ttA B a l l a d o f Calypso".42 R e l a t ed to t h i s complex i s the poem " A f l o a t " which sugges t s the p r o x i m i t y o f the dream to d e a t h . ^ Running th rough a l l o f these poems i s the g rea t a t t r a c t i o n o f the p o e t r y - s l e e p - p l e a s u r e i s l a n d and the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h which i t i s r e j e c t e d . ^ * Joseph Warren Beach i n h i s f i n e s tudy o f metaphor and symbol i n 20th c en tu r y Amer ican p o e t r y d i s t i n g u i s h e s t h i s i s l a n d complex i n the p o e t i c mys t iques o f s e v e r a l contemporary poe t s as a V i c t o r i a n i n h e r i t a n c e by way o f Auden and i s o l a t e s the p s y c h o l o g i c a l syndrome as " t h e s i l v e r chord complex " , the a d o l e s c e n t d e s i r e f o r comfo r t , p r o t e c t i o n and s e c u r i t y as i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the f i g u r e o f the m o t h e r . ^ There i s no doubt t h a t t h i s complex i s dominant i n Rober ts* work, p a r t i c -u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to "Mo the r Na tu r e " who i s invoked i n a d e s i r e f o r c o m f o r t ^ and l a t e r w i th r e f e r e n c e t o the f i g u r e o f the " i d e a l woman". T h i s d e s i r e seems t o a l t e r n a t e w i t h the d e s i r e f o r independence , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to the j ou rney o r quest theme. The quest theme, which i s f i r s t p r esen ted i n 4 2 Robe r t s , In D i v e r s Tones , p . 41, p . 69, p . 46, p . 49. 43lbid., p . 73. 44"The I s l e s " a r e , i n f a c t , no t r e j e c t e d and the q u e s t i o n i s l e f t open a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f " A f l o a t " . 45joseph Warren Beach, O b s e s s i v e Images: Symbolism i n Poe t r y o f the 1930*s and 1940*s. e d . W i l l i a m Van 0*Connor, M i n n e a p o l i s , U n i v e r s i t y o f M inneso ta P r e s s , i960, p . 138. ^ S e e such poems as " K i n s h i p " i n The Book o f The N a t i v e , p . l i s "Take me, Mother , - i n compass ion / a l l t h y h u r t ones f a i n t o h e a l " . 9 1 . te rms o f the s e a r c h f o r the " S p i r i t o f Beau t y " , then moves i n t o an at tempt t o sea rch out the e v o l u t i o n a r y c r e a t o r beh ind na tu re and , f i n a l l y , emerges a f t e r The Book o f The Na t i ve as an e x p l i c i t s tatement o f the quest a l o n g the open r o a d . I t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p o e t i c a s p i r a t i o n , the l o s t b r o t h e r and the i d e a l l o v e : Long the quest and f a r the end ing Where my way fa re r i s wending, -When d e s i r e i s once a f o o t , Doom beh ind and dream a t t e n d i n g ! S h u t t l e - c o c k o f i n d e c i s i o n , Spor t o f c h a n c e ' s b l i n d d e r i s i o n , Ye t he may not f a i l n o r t i r e T i l l h i s eyes s h a l l win the V i s i o n . 4 7 The a l t e r n a t i n g d e s i r e s f o r s e c u r i t y and independence a re perhaps not too d i s s i m i l a r i n R o b e r t s ' thought because each o f the quest poems ends w i t h the wanderer merging w i t h h i s c r e a t o r , i n e f f e c t e n t e r i n g a secure s p i r i t u a l i s l a n d . T h i s p r o c e s s i s d e s c r i b e d i n the t i t l e poem from one o f R o b e r t s ' l a t e r books , The Vagrant o f T ime. ( 1 9 2 7 ) . The p o e t ' s work c o n c l u d e s , as i t began, w i t h an a f f i r m a t i o n o f the p o e t ' s a s p i r a t i o n i n na tu re and h i s quest f o r the " S p i r i t o f B eau t y " : S ince f i r s t these eyes cou ld see S t i l l t hey have sought y o u . S ince f i r s t my s o u l knew dream My dreams have wrought y o u . 4 8 4 7 R o b e r t s , . " .Afoot" , The Book o f The N a t i v e , p. 2 9 . ^ R o b e r t s , The I cebe rg and Othe r Poems, p. 2 4 . 9 2 . I I A r c h i b a l d Lampman The t r a n s i t i o n f rom Rober ts to Lampman i s a smooth one i n t h a t bo th poe t s share the p r imary metaphor o f "d ream" as a means o f d e s c r i b i n g the p o e t i c expe r i ence i n n a t u r e ; y e t , t he re i s a g r ea t d i f f e r e n c e i n the way t h a t the dream f u n c t i o n s as a p a r t o f each p o e t ' s p r i v a t e myth. A l t h o u g h Lampman*s f i r s t book o f p o e t r y Among the M i l l e t (1888) and h i s l a t e r L y r i c s o f  E a r t h (1895) c l e a r l y show the i n f l u e n c e o f Rober ts* na tu re p o e t r y , i n p a r t i c u l a r the i n f l u e n c e o f In D i v e r s Tones . Songs  o f The Common Dav and The Book o f The N a t i v e , and a l t hough Lampman does adapt a g r ea t d e a l o f Rober ts* dream mythology ( the " s l e e p " o f t ime and w i n t e r , the "d r eam" o f some human l i v e s , the Pan myth as i t r e l a t e s t o p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n , the e v o l u t i o n a r y s o u l , g l impses o f a dreamer*s a f t e r w o r l d , the emphasis on a c o m f o r t i n g mother n a t u r e , the h i g h e r v i s i o n o f l o v e , and the poe t * s sea r ch f o r Beauty i n and beyond na tu re ) the "d r eam" f o r Lampman does not s i g n i f y the a c t i v e p o e t i c a s p i r a t i o n t h a t i t does f o r R o b e r t s . Fu r the rmore , Lampman i s concerned w i t h the e v o l u t i o n o f the s o u l , whereas Rober ts* p r imary a t t e n t i o n i s d i r e c t e d t o the e v o l u t i o n o f the germ o f l i f e . A compar ison o f two poems on the same theme, Rober ts* "The M a r v e l l o u s Work" and Lampman*s "The C l e a r e r S e l f " (which appears t o have been i n f l u e n c e d by the e a r l i e r work) shou ld make t h i s d i s t i n c t i o n e v i d e n t . In 93. "The M a r v e l l o u s Work" f rom In D i v e r s Tones* f o c u s i s p l a c e d on the germ o f l i f e emerging f rom S i l u r i a n storms and Devonian seas and o n l y f i n a l l y r e t u r n i n g t o i t s c r e a t o r , God. In Lampman*s v e r s i o n , i t i s the e v o l u t i o n o f the s o u l i t s e l f which c o n s t i t u t e s the m a r v e l l o u s work: Be fo re me grew the human s o u l And a f t e r I am dead and gone, Through grades o f e f f o r t and c o n t r o l The ma r ve l l ous work s h a l l s t i l l go on.^9 In t h i s e v o l u t i o n , emphasis i s p l a c e d , as i t i s i n A r n o l d * s work, on man*s own r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n the e v o l u t i o n o f h i s h i g h e r s o u l and the poem c o n c l u d e s , no t w i th the t r anscenden t v i s i o n as i t does i n Rober ts* v e r s i o n , but r a t h e r w i t h a f o c u s s i n g on the tempora l p o e t : "The c l e a r e r s e l f , the g rande r me" . T h i s development i s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the two poe ts* d i f f e r i n g a t t i t u d e s t o n a t u r e . R o b e r t s , i n h i s na tu re sonne t s , u s u a l l y ends w i t h a t r anscenden t mora l , ("A Vesper S o n n e t " ) , a m o r a l i z i n g c o n c l u s i o n ("The F u r r o w " ) , o r w i t h a dream-wish c o n -c l u s i o n by which the b l eakness o f the p r e s e n t scene , u s u a l l y w i n t e r , i s t r ans fo rmed i n t o the g l o r y o f summer ("In an O l d B a r n " ) . Lampman, on the o t h e r hand, v e r y r a r e l y m o r a l i z e s o r t r a n s c e n d s i n h i s na tu re poe t r y j the t y p i c a l s t r u c t u r e o f a Lampman poem i s a r e c o r d i n g o f the p o e t * s i m p r e s s i o n s o f na tu re c o n c l u d i n g w i t h a r e t u r n t o the poet h i m s e l f . T h i s d i f f e r e n c e might be seen by a compar ison o f Lampman*s e a r l y sonnet " I n November" ^ A r c h i b a l d Lampman, "The C l e a r e r S e l f " , A l c y o n e . Ot tawa, O g i l v y , 1899, p . 34. 94-wi th Rober ts* sonnet "The W in te r F i e l d s " . Both poems d e s c r i b e the w i n t r y l a n d s c a p e , but R o b e r t s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s f a i t h f u l t o the p r e s e n t exper i ence o n l y f o r the f i r s t t en l i n e s ; he then d e s e r t s the l andscape t o p r o j e c t the f u t u r e : Beneath the scourge and c h a i n , Lu rk s h i d the germ o f e c s t a s y - the sum Of l i f e t h a t wa i t s on summer, t i l l the r a i n ' Whisper i n A p r i l and the c ro cus come. 50 Lampman, i n o p p o s i t i o n , b r i n g s the r e a d e r back to the s t i l l f i g u r e s o f the p o e t : I a l one Am n e i t h e r s ad , n o r s h e l t e r l e s s , n o r g rey Wrapped round w i t h t hough t , con ten t t o watch and d r e a m . ^ 1 Both c o n c l u s i o n s a re i n t e r r u p t i o n s i n t h a t t h e y p r o j e c t human r e a s o n i n g ove r the f a c e o f n a t u r e , ye t Lampman*s s tance i s perhaps p r e f e r a b l e because h i s c o n c l u s i o n d e a l s w i t h the p r e s e n t , no t an e s c a p i s t i d e a l i z e d f u t u r e o r a s u p e r n a t u r a l beyond, and because the f i g u r e o f the poet ceases to be an i n t r u s i o n when we come t o r e a l i z e t h a t the poem i t s e l f has come about because the p o e t , as o b s e r v e r , has s tood and " d r e a m e d " . In t h a t sense , h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s a low modulated a f f i r m a t i o n o f the i m p a r t i a l " t r u t h " o f the expe r i ence j u s t d e s c r i b e d . A r c h i b a l d Lampman*s p o e t i c s tance i s p r i m a r i l y t h a t o f a "w i se p a s s i v e n e s s " by which the poet i n na tu re obse rves and r e p o r t s the wor ld about h im . The c h a r a c t e r i s t i c mood i s t h a t ^ R o b e r t s , Songs o f The Common Day, p . 24* 5 l A r c h i b a l d Lampman, " In November", Among the M i l l e t And  Other Poems. Ot tawa, D u r i e , 1888, p. 144* 95. o f " r e v e r i e ™ o r " d r eam" i n which the poet a l l ows h i m s e l f t o be impressed upon by the powers o f n a t u r e ; n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s a l s o a s tance i n wh ich the poet has some r e s p o n s i b i l i t y because i t i s one which i n s i s t s upon s e l f - e d u c a t i o n , the n e c e s s i t y o f c u l t i v a t e d see ing and h e a r i n g ; " l e t us c l e a r ou r eyes , and break / th rough the c l oudy c h r y s a l i s . . . too b l i n d we a r e , t oo l i t t l e see."52 S i m i l a r l y , i n " A s p i r a t i o n " , those wander ing poet ma r i ne r s "whose winds are songs t h a t eve r gus t and f l e e / whose shores a re dreams t h a t tower but come not n e a r " a re to be judged h a p p i e r f a r than " t h a t d im-hear ted e a r t h l y r a c e " who are " d e a f and b l ind " .53 T h i s same thought i s g i v e n e x p r e s s i o n i n "An A then i an R e v e r i e " where the na r r a to r-wandere r wonders a t those e a r t h l y s o u l s who neve r r e a l l y see the marve l s o f na tu re around them and spend t h e i r e x i s t e n c e i n some " d i m dream".54 The k i n d o f educa t i on suggested to remedy such d e f e c t s i s no t n e c e s s a r i l y book l e a r n i n g n o r does i t emphasize menta l c o g i t a t i o n ; i t i s r a t h e r educa t i on th rough the c l a s s i c s o r a s tudy o f the moderns, which l e a d s t o a he igh tened "knowledge o f l i f e " , " t o t i l l the o l d w o r l d ' s wisdom t i l l i t grow / a garden f o r the wander ing o f ou r feet" .55 In t h i s same sonne t , 5 2 A r c h i b a l d Lampman, " W i n t e r - S t o r e " , L y r i c s o f E a r t h . Bos ton , Cope land and Day, 1895, P* 48. 53Lampman, " A s p i r a t i o n " Among The M i l l e t , p . 137. ^Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p . 113• ^Lampman, "Knowledge " , Among The M i l l e t , p . 132. 96 "Knowledge " , Lampman d e s c r i b e s the l i f e which he would l i k e t o l i v e as one " o f l e i s u r e and broad hours / to t h i n k and d ream" . I t i s t h i s f i g u r e o f the poet as apparent i d l e r and dreamer which appears throughout Lampman's poems, n o t a b l y i n such poems as "Among The T imothy " and " A t The F e r r y " : "I l o o k f a r out and dream o f l i f e " . 5 6 Yet the poet as o b s e r v e r w i l l no t a l l ow h i m s e l f t o be impressed w i t h j u s t s e n s a t i o n — the o u t e r l u x u r i o u s forms o f t h ings--wh i ch p r o v i d e s c o m f o r t , but he w i l l a l s o at tempt t o i n q u i r e i n t o t h e i r deeper , more s e r i o u s s i g n i f i c a n c e : I do rebuke m y s e l f , Too l i t t l e g i v e n t o probe the i n n e r h e a r t , But r a t h e r wont, w i t h the l u x u r i o u s eye , To c a t c h f rom l i f e i t s o u t e r l o v e l i n e s s , Such t h i n g s as do but s t o r e the joyous memory W i th f o o d f o r so l a ce r a t h e r than f o r t h o u g h t . 5 7 In a l a t e r poem he sugges ts t h a t the t r u e l i f e i s " n o t , t o be conquered by these head long d a y s " but to keep the mind a t brood " o n l i f e ' s deep mean ings " : "what man, what l i f e , what l o v e , what beauty i s , / t h i s i s to l i v e and win the f i n a l p r a i s e " . 5 8 In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , the p o e t ' s deeper m e d i t a t i o n o f t e n t akes p l a c e a t a t ime a f t e r he has f i r s t had the p r imary expe r i ence i n n a t u r e . T h i s expe r i ence i s no ted p a r t i c u l a r l y i n "An A then i an R e v e r i e " and i n "W in t e r Hues R e c a l l e d " where the p r o c e s s o f the p o e t ' s thought would seem to suggest ^Lampman, L y r i c s o f E a r t h , p. 3 5 • 5 7 Lampman, "An A then i an R e v e r i e " , Among The M i l l e t , p. 114* 5 8 Lampman, " O u t l o o k " , Among The M i l l e t , p. 128 . 9 7 . Wordsworth's formulation of his poetic as the "spontaneous overflow" of feelings "recollected in tranquility". Emphasis should be placed on the spontaneity and lack of conscious thought associated with this, process because throughout Lampman's work there runs a "conscious"—"unconscious" antithesis in which the unconscious creatures of Nature, the frogs, the cicada and the flowers, are often associated with the natural knowledge, or "dream", which underlies creation; hence they are happy, while the conscious creature, such as man, i s made miserable by his own petty consciousness. Consequently, in "An Old Lesson From the Fields" the poet advocates the putting away of conscious care to be joyous l i k e the creatures of earth: What power and beauty l i f e indeed might yield, Could we but cast away i t s conscious stress, Simple of heart, becoming even as you.59 It i s this process which has been accomplished in "The Solitary Woodsman"^ and which i s commented upon in the poem "The Sweetness of L i f e " . Here the poet, in characteristic stance, stands apart from himself while his other self, " l i k e a ghost", reminds him that the happiness of l i f e comes in accepting human l i f e as a part of the natural order, that i s , by giving up the consciousness which distinguishes man from the other orders of nature• 59Lampman, Among The Millet, p. 134. 6^Roy Daniells, in his review of Roberts and Lampman in The  Literary History of Canada, f i r s t noted that the woodsman was associated with unconscious nature. 98. " Thou a r t born as the f l o w e r s , and w i l t l i n g e r Th ine own sho r t space and d i e : Thou dream*st and a r t s t r a n g e l y h a p p y , 6 l But thou cans t no t answer why . " 1 The p o e t * s a t t i t u d e i n na tu re i s p r i m a r i l y o f the dream o r r e v e r i e i n which he g i v e s h i m s e l f up t o the " b e a u t y " which i s the r e c e i v e d s e n s a t i o n s o f n a t u r e . These i m p r e s s i o n s a re ana logous w i t h h i g h t r u t h because i n Lampman, as i n the e a r l y K e a t s , Beauty i s T r u t h . Fu r the rmore , i t i s a t r u t h which i s spon taneous l y g i v e n : . . . I w i l l s e t no more mine o ve r t a sked b r a i n To ba r r en sea r ch and t o i l t h a t bea re th nought , F o r e v e r f o l l o w i n g w i t h s o r e f o o t e d p a i n The c r o s s i n g pathways o f unbourned t h o u g h t ; But l e t i t go , as one t h a t ha th no s k i l l , To take what shape i t w i l l , An ant s low-burrowing i n the e a r t h y g loom, A s p i d e r b a t h i n g i n the dew a t morn, O r a brown bee i n wayward f a n c y borne 6 3 From h idden bloom to b loom. S i m i l a r l y i n " A m b i t i o n " and "The C h o i c e " he d e c l a r e s t h a t f o r Lampman, the poet and " d r e a m e r " , i t i s enough t o " s i t me i n the windy g r a s s and grow / as wise as age , as joyous as a child".64 The romant i c i n h e r i t a n c e f rom which Lampman d e r i v e d t h i s "w i s e p a s s i v e n e s s " i s a lmost s u r e l y Wordsworth 's " E x p o s t u l a t i o n and Rep l y " where the p o e t , a t ease i n n a t u r e , i s rebuked by h i s f r i e n d W i l l i a m H a z l i t t ("Matthew") f o r no t a t t e n d i n g to h i s 6lLampman, L y r i c s o f E a r t h , p . 6 . ^ A r c h i b a l d Lampman, " B e a u t y " , L y r i c s o f E a r t h , Sonnets and  B a l l a d s , w i t h an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Duncan Campbel l S c o t t , T o r o n t o , Musson, 1925, p . 119. ^Lampman, "Among The T i m o t h y " , Among The M i l l e t , p . 1 5 . ^ A r c h i b a l d Lampman, "The C h o i c e " , A,t The Long S a u l t and O the r  New Poems. I n t r o d u c t i o n by E .K . Brown, Ryerson , 1943, P» 17* 99. b o o k s . But t h e p o e t r e p l i e s t h a t t h e t o i l w h i c h . Matthew advoca tes i s not as e s s e n t i a l o r as f r u i t f u l as t h a t "w i se p a s s i v e n e s s " by which the poet l e a v e s h i m s e l f open t o the powers o f n a t u r e : "The e y e — i t cannot choose but s e e : We cannot b i d the e a r be s t i l l : Our bod i e s f e e l , w h e r e ' e r they be , A g a i n s t o r w i t h our w i l l . Nor l e s s I deem t h a t t h e r e a re Powers Which o f themse lves ou r minds i m p r e s s ; That we can f e e d t h i s mind o f ours^c In a wise p a s s i v e n e s s . " Wordswor th ' s c o n c l u s i o n , " T h i n k y o u . . . t h a t n o t h i n g o f i t s e l f w i l l come,/ but we must s t i l l be s e e k i n g ? " would seem to u n d e r l i e Lampman's a s s e r t i o n t h a t he w i l l " l e t i t g o . . . t o take what shape i t w i l l " . The i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h i s s tatement i n r e l a t i o n t o Lampman's p o e t r y would seem to be t h a t he w i l l no l o n g e r at tempt t o impose h i s w i l l e d s t r u c t u r e on the wor ld o u t s i d e and so shape the p o e t i c happening (as d o , f o r example, Heavysege, Crawford and Rober t s ) but t h a t he w i l l r a t h e r s i t p a s s i v e l y and so a l l o w the powers o f na tu re t o impress themse lves upon him and i n h i s ar<fc ( the a n t , s p i d e r and bee o f the p r e c e d i n g s e l e c t i o n f rom "Among The T i m o t h y " ) . And t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n would seem to be a f a i r l y a c cu r a t e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Lampman*s na tu re p o e t r y . Whereas i n Roberts* work t h e r e i s most o f t e n an a c t i v e s t r a i n i n g f o r a s p i r a t i o n and p o e t i c apotheo~s'3£S c on t a i ned w i t h i n an e x p l i c i t myth ic s t r u c t u r e and c o n c l u d i n g w i t h a d e f i n i t i v e m o r a l , Lampman*s poems are more 6 5 w i l l i a m Wordsworth, " E x p o s t u l a t i o n and Rep l y " The P o e t i c a l  Works o f W i l l i a m Wordsworth, e d s . E r n e s t de S e l i n c o u r t and He len D a r b i s h i r e , v o l . IV, O x f o r d , A t The C l a r endon P r e s s , 1 9 4 7 , p. 5 6 . 100. o f t e n a s e r i e s o f a s s o c i a t i o n s t i e d t o g e t h e r by t h e i r n a t u r a l sequence as an event happening i n na tu re and by the f a c t t h a t they a re the r e l a t e d p e r c e p t i o n s o f the Emersonian p e r c e i v i n g p o e t . Perhaps one o f the most u s e f u l poems i n Lampman*s canon f o r e x p l i c a t i n g t h i s a spec t o f the p o e t i c p r o c e s s i s the mono-l o g u e , "An A then i an Rever ie ' * . T h i s poem deve lops th rough a s e r i e s o f low-keyed s u c c e s s i v e r e m i n i s c e n c e s which impress themse lves upon the mind o f the n a r r a t o r - m a r i n e r . I f the c r i t i c were to a t tempt a metaphor s u g g e s t i n g t h i s p r o c e s s perhaps the ana logy might be made between the poet as obse r ve r-r e c o r d e r and a v e r y f i n e l y a d j u s t e d camera f i l m . The f i l m p a s s i v e l y r e c o r d s even ts w i th accu racy and i n sequence . A t t h i s p o i n t , o f c o u r s e , the ana logy b reaks down because the poet goes on to c o n s i d e r the expe r i ence i n depth a t a l a t e r t i m e , something which the f i l m cannot d o . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h i s ana logy i s perhaps a u s e f u l one because i t sugges ts the c a t c h i n g o f mot ion i n s t i l l n e s s , the " f r i e z e " f o r m , and t h i s i s an impor tan t metaphor i n Lampman*s work as i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h i s f i n e sonne t , " S o l i t u d e " : How s t i l l i t i s here i n the woods. The t r e e s Stand m o t i o n l e s s , as i f t h e y d i d not dare To s t i r , l e s t i t shou ld b reak the s p e l l . The a i r Hangs q u i e t as spaces i n a marble f r i e z e . Even t h i s l i t t l e b rook , t h a t runs a t e a se , Wh i spe r ing and g u r g l i n g i n i t s kno t t ed bed , Seems but to deepen w i t h i t s c u r l i n g t h r e a d Of sound, the shadowy sun-p i e r c ed s i l e n c e s . 101 Sometimes a hawk screams o r a woodpecker S t a r t l e s the s t i l l n e s s f rom i t s f i x e d mood W i th h i s l o u d c a r e l e s s t a p . Sometimes I hea r The dreamy wh i t e- th roa t f rom some f a r o f f t r e e P i pe s l o w l y on the l i s t e n i n g s o l i t u d e H i s f i v e pure no t e s succeed ing p e n s i v e l y . b b In t h i s poem, the essence o f Lampman*s a r t i s the l i v i n g f r i e s e o f n a t u r e ; s i m i l a r l y i n such poems as " S l e e p " , and " J une " t h e r e i s an at tempt t o b r i n g moving a b s t r a c t i o n s such as g r i e f , s l e e p , and t ime i n t o the s t i l l fo rm o f a r t . ^ 7 Lampman*s emphasis on p a s s i v e n e s s i n na tu re would seem to be r e l a t e d t o the i d e a t h a t the p o e t , s t a n d i n g a l i t t l e apa r t f rom both na tu re and h i m s e l f , i s no t o n l y i n a p o s i t i o n t o be impressed upon by the moving f r i e z e o f n a t u r e , but i s a l s o enab led t o see i n t o the f i x e d p l a n o r " d r e a m " , which Lampman h y p o t h e s i z e s as u n d e r l y i n g the a c t i v e s u r f a c e mot ion o f na tu re and the u n i v e r s e . Throughout Lampman*s work, the " f r o g s " have a s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n as p o e t i c e m i s s a r i e s o f t h i s **dream" which u n d e r l i e s the u n i v e r s e and which cannot be reached by menta l c o g i t a t i o n . In the poem "The F r o g s " , they a re s p e c i f -i c a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l a c k o f c o n s c i o u s t h o u g h t : ° ° L ampman , Among The M i l l e t , p . 149. 6 ? See a l s o the f r i e z e o f which D iana i s a p a r t i n "An A then i an R e v e r i e " and the f r i e z e which d e p i c t s " t h e woe and s i c k n e s s o f an age o f f e a r made known", i n "The Land o f P a l l a s " . In the f i r s t example, the p o e t * s i n t e r e s t seems t o l i e i n the f a c t t h a t the u n r e a l f r i e z e ( a r t ) can be more r e a l than the r e a l (as i n Kea t * s "Ode t o A N i g h t i n g a l e " ) and i n the l a t t e r example the f r i e z e fo rm i s the a r t which c o n t r o l s the n ightmare exper i ence i n the same way the Lampman*s Utopian poem c o n t r o l s the " C i t y a t the End o f T h i n g s " which l i e s a t i t s h e a r t . 102 B rea the r s o f Wisdom won w i thou t a q u e s t , Qua in t uncouth dreamers , v o i c e s h i g h and s t r a n g e , F l u t i s t s o f l a n d s where beauty ha th no change, And w i n t r y g r i e f i s a f o r g o t t e n g u e s t , 5 3 Sweet murmurers o f e v e r l a s t i n g r e s t . Lampman*s d e s c r i p t i o n o f the f r o g s as " f l u t i s t s " and t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h r e s t and dream i s v e r y l i k e l y d e r i v e d f rom Rober ts* work, i n p a r t i c u l a r the sonnets " F r o g s " and "When M i l k i ng-T ime i s Done " ; i n the l a t t e r poem the f r o g s a re d e s -c r i b e d as " c o o l - f l u t i n g m i n i s t e r s o f d r e a m " . ° ^ However, Lampman*s p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the f r o g s as the spokesmen f o r the e t e r n a l " d ream" o f n a t u r e , i s a new concept i n Canadian p o e t r y : O f t e n t o me who heard you i n your day , W i th c l o s e wrapt e a r s , i t c o u l d not choose but seem That e a r t h , ou r mother , s e a r c h i n g i n what way, Men*s h e a r t s might know he r s p i r i t * s inmost dream, E v e r a t r e s t beneath l i f e * s change and s t i r , Made you he r s o u l , and bade you p ipe f o r h e r . ™ T h i s s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the e t e r n a l "d ream" l i e s under the f l u x o f s u r f a c e e x i s t e n c e i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Lampman*s use o f " f r i e z e " and "weav ing " metaphors . L a t e r i n "The F r o g s " , t he a i r i s p r e sen t ed as i n a " n o o n - t i d e r e v e r i e " among f l o w e r s , meadows and b i r d s i n the same f r i e z e fo rm as i t i s i n " S o l i t u d e s " . The weaving metaphor becomes e x p l i c i t i n a ^Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p. 6 . 69Roberts, Songs o f The Common Day, p . 6 . 70Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p . 6 . I t might a l s o be n o t e d , i n p a s s i n g , t h a t e a r t h , the w ise mother , l a t e r i n Lampman*s p o e t r y becomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h P a l l a s A t h e n a . Through t h i s co r respondence , the poet i s a b l e t o f u s e some a s p e c t s o f c o n s c i o u s and unconsc ious t hough t , a l t h o u g h Lampman*s P a l l a s i s u s u a l l y t o be found i n n a t u r e , wrapt i n some " t h o u g h t l e s s " r e v e r i e as i n the poem " I n t e r - V i a s " . 103 l a t e r poem, "One D a y " . Here , the a c t i v e s u r f a c e o f l i f e i s d e s c r i b e d — a m o t h e r ' s o u t g o i n g l o v e , a c h i l d ' s d e a t h , the l i v e s o f h e r m i t , l a b o u r e r and begga r—but the poem conc ludes w i t h a f o c u s s i n g on the wise man who s tands a s i d e f rom a c t i o n : The wise man marks the f l ow and ebb Hidden and h e l d a l o o f : In h i s deep mind i s l a i d the web,7^ S h u t t l e s a re d r i v i n g the woof. In t h i s poem, the wise man i s perhaps r e l a t e d to the p h i l o s o p h e r poet w h i l e the ana logy between web and woof i s the same as t h a t between the e t e r n a l dream and the a c t i v e s u r f a c e o f l i f e . Lampman, th roughout h i s work, sugges ts t h a t t r u e happ iness comes o n l y th rough the s t o i c - l i k e s tance by which man removes h i m s e l f f rom p e r s o n a l concerns w i t h the wor ld and broods o n l y on i t s " d e e p e r mean ings " . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n o f expe r i ence i s p r e s e n t e d i n "The Weaver" , where the a p p a r e n t l y humble weaver i s g i f t e d w i t h more fchan o r d i n a r y u n d e r s t a n d i n g : " G r a y dreams l i k e f r o z e n m i s t s a re se t / i n the hush o f the weave r ' s e y e " . Because he sees i n t o the u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n o f e x i s t e n c e he i g n o r e s the s u r f a c e c lamor about him and r e f u s e s t o a t tempt t o 72 f l y f rom e v i l . The whole weaving complex as i t i s r e l a t e d t o the web o f l i f e so o f t e n found i n V i c t o r i a n l i t e r a t u r e i s perhaps i n f l u e n c e d by C a r l y l e ' s S a r t o r Resa r tus w i t h i t s weaving o f wor ld-garments analogy.73 7lLampman, Among The M i l l e t » p. 48. 72ibid., p. 67 73Roberts a l s o uses the weaving metaphor o c c a s i o n a l l y . I t i s a l s o t o be found i n Tennyson ' s " Lady o f S h a l l o t " and l a t e r , i n the Web o f L i f e chap te r i n Moby D i c k . S ince the d i v i s i o n o f web and woof i n the l a t t e r i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t which i s used by Lampman, t h e r e may be a common source o r a r e l a t i o n s h i p between the two. 104. To r e t u r n t o "The F r o g s " , they become, f o r Lampman the p o e t , communicat ion w i t h the e t e r n a l dream: And s l o w l y as we heard y o u , day by day , The s t i l l n e s s o f enchanted r e v e r i e s Round b r a i n and s p i r i t and h a l f - c l o s e d eyes , In some d i v i n e sweet wonder-dream a s t r a y ; To us ho sorrow o r up rea red dismay Nor any d i s c o r d came, but evermore The v o i c e s o f mankind, the o u t e r r o a r , Grew s t range and murmurous, f a i n t and f a r away. Morn ing and noon and midn igh t e x q u i s i t e l y , Wrapt w i t h your v o i c e s , t h i s a lone we knew, C i t i e s might change and f a l l , and men might d i e , Secure were we, con ten t t o dream w i t h y o u , Than change and p a i n are shadows f a i n t and f l e e t , And dreams are r e a l , and l i f e i s o n l y sweet . In e f f e c t , the peace and comfor t o f the (eternal dream, u n -c o n s c i o u s l y known by the f r o g s , i s passed on t o the poet who l a y s h i m s e l f open t o t h i s e x p e r i e n c e . In " F a v o r i t e s o f P a n " , Lampman adapts Rober ts* poem "The P i p e s o f Pan" t o suggest t h a t the p o e t i c v o i c e o f Pan ( the dream) i s c a r r i e d by the f r o g s ; consequen t l y they become a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p o e t i c Pan v o i c e as w e l l a s the e t e r n a l dream u n d e r l y i n g e x i s t e n c e . The dream, i n "The F r o g s " , b r i n g s comfor t which overcomes the sorrows o f chance , and the c i t y wor ld o f "An Age o f F e a r " . Wh i le p a r t i c -i p a t i n g i n the dream expe r i ence i n n a t u r e , the poet i s a ssu red o f the n e g a t i o n o f t h i s f e a r , o f the r e a l i t y o f the dream and o f the goodness o f l i f e . I f the v o i c e s o f the f r o g s can b r i n g assurance o f the e t e r n a l p l a n , the "d ream" which u n d e r l i e s the f l u x o f e x i s t e n c e , t he re a re o t h e r v o i c e s which remind Lampman o f the f e a r and 74-Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p. 8. 105. sorrow which are a l s o a p a r t o f human l i f e . The v o i c e which comes out o f the d e p t h , " t h e c r y i n g i n t he n i g h t " o f Lampman fs much a n t h o l o g i z e d " M i d n i g h t " would seem to be p a r t o f a l a r g e r sequence o f poems d e a l i n g w i t h the f e a r f u l a s p e c t s o f e x i s t e n c e . In t h i s sense , the c o m f o r t i n g noon- t i de dream has i t s complement i n the m idn igh t s l e e p l e s s n e s s which w i l l not a l l ow dream, o r , as i n R o b e r t s , i n the n ightmare which grows out o f the dream i t s e l f . The p o e t i c v o i c e s o f f r o g and c i c a d a have t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t i n the f e a r f u l and o f t e n unknown v o i c e s wh ich come out o f dark and w i n t e r . In the poem " W i n t e r " , s t range v o i c e s rave among the p i n e s , " somet imes i n w a i l s , and then / i n w h i s t l e d l a u g h t e r , t i l l a f f r i g h t e d men / draw c l o s e " . The p r o t a g o n i s t , W i n t e r , becomes a f e a r f u l a r t i s t p r o t o t y p e : . . . F a r away the W in te r dreams a l o n e , R u s t l i n g among h i s s n o w - d r i f t s , and r e s i g n s C o l d f o n d l i n g e a r s t o hear the cedars moan In d u s k y - s k i r t e d l i n e s S t range answers o f an a n c i e n t r u n i c c a l l ; And somewhere watches w i t h h i s an t ique e y e s , G r a y - c h i l l w i t h f r o s t y - l i d d e d r e v e r i e s , The s i l v e r y moonshine f a l l In m i s t y wedges th rough h i s g i r t h o f p i n e s . The v o i c e o f h i s " a n c i e n t r u n i c c a l l " becomes a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c r u e l t y and d e a t h : " t h e s h i n i n g majes ty o f him t h a t smi tes / and s l a y s you w i t h a s m i l e " , and the whole development o f t h i s poem, l i k e t h a t o f Wa l l ace S t e vens " "One Must Have a Mind o f W i n t e r " , i s the f e a r f u l n e s s o f i c e , c o l d and s o l i t u d e . In " S t o r m " , ^Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p . 29* 106 the " b l i n d t hough t " which i m p e l s the w ind*s c r y i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e p r e s s i o n ; " A l l e a r t h * s moving t h i n g s i n h e r i t / the same cha ined might and madness o f the s p i r i t / t h a t none may q u i t e fo rgett»: You i n your cave o f snows, we i n our narrow g i r t h Of need and sense , f o r e v e r chafe and p i n e ; O n l y i n moods o f some demonic b i r t h Our s o u l s t ake w ings , ou r f l a s h i n g wings up tw ine ; Even l i k e y o u , mad w ind , above ou r broken p r i s o n Wi th s t r eaming h a i r and maddened eyes uprisen,76 We dream o u r s e l v e s d i v i n e . In " M i d n i g h t " , the l andscape i s aga in u t t e r l y d e s o l a t e , a s s o c i a t e d w i t h c o l d and snow, and the poet a lone and s l e e p l e s s a t m i d n i g h t , hea r s some u n i d e n t i f i e d " w i l d t h i n g " c r y i n g out o f the d a r k . Because the scene i s so u t t e r l y b e r e f t o f comfor t and becauseoof the p o e t * s i m p l i e d s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o specu l a t e t h a t the v o i c e wh ich the poet hea r s i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the u n u t t e r a b l e d e s o l a t i o n which the poet f e e l s . Yet i t i s perhaps not adequate t o d i s m i s s the v o i c e s imp l y as p s y c h o -l o g i c a l p r o j e c t i o n because i t does seem t o have a deve lopmenta l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the e x t e r n a l l a n d s c a p e . T h i s d e s o l a t i o n , and hence the v o i c e , i s unnameable because u n u t t e r a b l e i n i t s f u l l e s t e x t e n t , and t h e r e f o r e can o n l y be d e f i n e d i n n e g a t i o n . In a l a t e r poem, "The L o o n s " , happ iness i s aga in a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the "d ream" and the agon i zed e n t r e a t i e s which p i e r c e the n i g h t w i t h the d e s o l a t i o n , l o n e l i n e s s and s l e e p l e s s -ness which come* when the dream i s removed. However, i t i s i n ^Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p . 36. The a s s o c i a t i o n o f wind and the p o e t ' s s p i r i t i s undoubted ly i n f l u e n c e d by S h e l l e y * s "Ode To The West W ind " . 107. the poem " W i n t e r - S t o r e " t h a t t h i s e thos o f s p i r i t u a l l o n e l i n e s s , u t t e r d e s o l a t i o n and i t s c o n t r a s t t o fo rmer happ iness i s made most e x p l i c i t s A l l those s l e e p , Lthe c i t y ] , and th rough the n i g h t , Comes a p a s s i o n and a c r y , W i th a b l i n d sorrow and a might I know no t whence, I know not why, A something I cannot c o n t r o l , A nameless hunger o f the s o u l . I t h o l d s me f a s t . In v a i n , i n v a i n , I remember how o f o l d I saw the ruddy race o f men Through the g l i t t e r i n g wor ld o u t r o l l e d , A g a y - s m i l i n g m u l t i t u d e , A l l i m m o r t a l , a l l d i v i n e , T r e a d i n g i n a wreathed l i n e By a pathway th rough a w o o d . ' ' T h i s whole sequence o f poems d e a l i n g w i t h s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n ( the l o s s o f the dream) and the c r y wh ich comes th rough the d a r k , o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a f e a r f u l v o i c e f rom the w i l d e r n e s s , seems to i n i t i a t e a new s t a t e i n Canadian p o e t r y — a stage i n which f e a r b e g i n s t o m a n i f e s t i t s e l f i n connec t i on w i t h n a t u r e . There does not seem to be any r e a l f e a r i n G o l d s m i t h ' s s tance as he l o o k s out a t n a t u r e , n e i t h e r does t h e r e seem t o be f e a r i n the p o e t r y o f Heavysege, Crawford and R o b e r t s ; and t h i s i s pe rhaps because f o r a l l o f these p o e t s t h e r e was s t i l l the c o m f o r t i n g r eassu rance o f a God who u l t i m a t e l y c o n t r o l s n a t u r e . However, b e g i n n i n g i n the works o f A r c h i b a l d Lampman, a new e thos beg ins to m a n i f e s t i t s e l f ; i t i s an e thos i n which the poet i s no l o n g e r a lways a ssu red o f a good and b e n e f i c e n t God and one i n which he i s f r e e t o admit 77Lampman, L y r i c s o f E a r t h , p p . 5 5 - 5 6 . 108. f e a r i n na tu re as w e l l as e v i l i n man. The l a t t e r admiss ion i s much s t r o n g e r than the temporary , e v o l u t i o n a r y s l i p s which Rober ts a l l o w s ( c f . "The A im" ) and sugges ts t h a t e v i l i s a power i n i t s e l f . T h i s l a s t admiss i on i s q u i t e e x p l i c i t i n the poem "The Three P i l g r i m s " where the p r o t a g o n i s t s come seek ing C h r i s t ( "peace and the b read o f p i t y " ) but f i n d i n s t e a d a n ightmare o f t o r t u r e and e v i l : A h , we were s imp le o f mind, no t knowing, How d r e a d f u l the hea r t o f a man might b e ; But the knowledge o f e v i l i s mighty o f g row ing ; yg On l y the deaf and the b l i n d a r e f r e e . T h i s n ightmare v i s i o n i n Lampman's work i s most o f t e n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h what he sees t o be the h o r r o r s o f the p resen t day , the e v i l which man has made o f h i m s e l f and the u n i v e r s e ( " W i n t e r - S t o r e " ) , the h i s t o r i c a l and con t i nued misuse o f C h r i s t i a n i t y ("New Y e a r ' s Eve " ) and the growing machine wor ld ("The C i t y o f The End o f T h i n g s " ) . The n ightmare wor ld a l s o grows out o f the dream as i n the power fu l sonne t s , " A F o r e c a s t " and " W i n t e r E v e n i n g " : Soon, soon s h a l l f l y The g l o r i o u s v i s i o n , and the hou r s s h a l l f e e l A m i g h t i e r mas t e r ; soon f rom h e i g h t to h e i g h t , W i th s i l e n c e and the sharp u n p i t y i n g s t a r s , S t e rn c r e e p i n g f r o s t s , and winds t h a t t ouch l i k e s t e e l , Out o f the dep th beyond the e a s t e r n b a r s , G l i t t e r i n g and s t i l l s h a l l come the awfu l n i g h t . 7 9 In "New Y e a r ' s E v e " , t he poet " a s i n a dream" sees a f e a r f u l v i s i o n o f h i s t o r i c a l mankind as " v a s t s e e t h i n g compan i e s " : 7 8Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p. 71 7^Lampman, A l c y o n e , p. 97* 109 That evermore w i t h hoarse and t e r r i b l e c r i e s And despe ra te encounte r a t mad f e u d P lunged onward, each i n i t s i m p l a c a b l e mood Borne down over the t r amp led b l a z o n r i e s Of o t h e r f a i t h s and o t h e r p h a n t a s i e s , Each f o l l o w i n g f u r i o u s l y , and each p u r s u e d . Yet beh ind t h i s h o r r o r the poet s e e s : Whi te-ha loed groups t h a t sought p e r p e t u a l l y The f i g u r e o f one crowned and s a c r i f i c e d ; And f a i n t , f a r f o r w a r d , f l o a t i n g t a l l and d i m , r t n The banner o f ou r L o r d and Mas t e r , C h r i s t . ° u The d i f f e r e n c e i n mood o f the two d e s c r i p t i o n s would suggest t h a t Lampman makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between C h r i s t , the s a c r i f i c e d / L o r d and Mas t e r , and the t r a i n o f o r g a n i z e d C h r i s t i a n i t y which has f a l l e n f a r i n the wake o f the i d e a l . T h i s same d i s t i n c t i o n seems t o be made i n "The S t o r y o f An A f f i n i t y " where the s imp le f a i t h o f R i c h a r d ' s p a r e n t s i s d e s c r i b e d i n f a v o u r a b l e tones wh i l e a l a t e r passage c a s t i g a t e s the h y p o c r i s i e s o f the e s t a b l i s h e d c h u r c h . There has been much c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n o f Lampman*s r e l i g i o u s e t h i c ; he has been d e s c r i b e d as h o l d i n g bo th C h r i s t i a n i t y and Panthe ism by one c r i t i c and as b e i n g c l o s e r 81 t o a more C l a s s i c a l b e l i e f by a n o t h e r . U n l i k e R o b e r t s , who was a b l e t o m a i n t a i n a l a r g e l y unshaken f a i t h , Lampman f r e q u e n t l y doubts and he does not h e s i t a t e t o compare r e l i g i o u s p h i l o s -o p h i e s , as might be i n d i c a t e d by a b r i e f rev iew o f some o f the t i t l e s o f h i s r e l i g i o u s poems: "The M a r t y r s " , " H e d o n i s t and S t o i c " , " I bn M o k b i l " , " To An U l t r a P r o t e s t a n t " . However, the ^Lampman, Among The M i l l e t , p. 4 4 . ^ P a c e y , " A r c h i b a l d Lampman", Ten Canadian P o e t s , p p . 126-128 and D a n i e l l s "Lampman and R o b e r t s " , Chapte r 20 , L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y  o f Canada, p. 398 . 110 pr imary d i f f i c u l t y i n coming t o terms w i t h t h i s a spec t o f Lampman*s Weltanschauung i s t h a t he seems t o h o l d i n suspens ion Wordsworthian Panthe ism w i t h h i s own C h r i s t i a n v e r s i o n o f Swinburne*s " P a l e G a l i l e a n " . He seems t o be work ing backwards and fo rwa rds i n E n g l i s h Romant ic ism t o harmonize two c o n f l i c t -i n g myth ic v iews w i t h i n h i s own v e r s i o n o f S t o i c C h r i s t i a n i t y . In Lampman*s p o e t r y , the o l d gods have not e n t i r e l y depa r ted ("The F a v o u r i t e s o f P a n " ) ; c onsequen t l y , the p o e t , i n n a t u r e , i s put i n touch w i t h the g r e a t wor ld s p i r i t . S e cond l y , he does not share Sw inburne ' s d i s t a s t e f o r the p a l e G a l i l e a n but r a t h e r g l o r i f i e s h i s s u f f e r i n g . The v i r t u e f o r t h i s s tand seems t o be e s t a b l i s h e d i n the sonnet "The M a r t y r s " — " W h i t e s o u l s whose beauty made t h e i r wo r ld d i v i n e " , w h i l e the r a t i o n a l e i s g i v e n i n " A V i s i o n o f T w i l i g h t " ; They d e c l a r e the ends o f b e i n g And the sac red need o f p a i n . F o r t he y know the sweetest r e a s o n s ^ F o r the p roduc t s most m a l i g n . Lampman seems t o have an a f f i n i t y f o r t h a t aspec t o f C h r i s t i a n i t y which e x t o l s " s e l f - a b n e g a t i o n , L o v e " and " h u m i l i t y " and i n which the meek endure t h e i r s u f f e r i n g w i t h s t o i c a l f o r t i t u d e and composure; s u f f e r i n g which i s admi rab le because i t i s under taken f o r a h i g h e r cause ( c f . t h e " c e l e s t i a l dreams™ o f " V i v i a P e r p e t u a " ) . T h i s i s p o s s i b l y why t h e r e i s such a l a r g e preponderance o f r e l i g i o u s poems which c e l e b r a t e t o r t u r e **2Lampman, A l c y o n e . p . 31. Lampman*s f u s i o n o f pan the i sm, s t o i c i s m and C h r i s t i a n i t y i n t o a c e n t r a l " e a r t h " metaphor i s i n d i c a t e d by two complementary poems, " E a r t h , The S t o i c " and "An Ode to the H i l l s " . 111. and s u f f e r i n g , such as "The Three P i l g r i m s " and " V i v i a P e r p e t u a " . These poems,which are i n many ways unp leasan t t o the modern psy che , seem to have formed a dominant p a r t o f Lampman*s own r e l i g i o u s e t h i c . Lampman*s n ightmare v i s i o n i n "The C i t y o f The End o f T h i n g s " i s perhaps too w e l l known t o need comment; however i t might be no ted t h a t t h i s i s a n ightmare c i t y "named i n d reams" , and t h a t the th r ee personages o f Lampman's mechan i ca l c i t y owe much t o the c l a s s i c a l judges o f Hades . I t i s perhaps s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t the f i n a l guard a t the gate i s "An I d i o t " . The c l a s s i c a l Greek i d i o s r e f e r s t o the i n s u l a r man who cannot see beyond h i s own s t a t e and inasmuch as the g rea t d e f e c t o f the mechan i ca l wor ld i s t h a t i t has no " h i g h v i s i o n " , t h i s usage seems p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e . The poem i t s e l f i s c o n t a i n e d i n Lampman*s A l c y o n e , which s t r e s s e s the h i g h e r v i s i o n o f man. The complement to the n ightmare v i s i o n i s "The Land o f P a l l a s " where the c i t y o f machines i s con t a i ned i n the a r t o f a f r i e z e ( a l s o guarded) as i t i s a l s o con t a i ned w i t h i n the U top ian l a n d which p r a c t i c e s "The p r i e s t l e s s worsh ip o f the a l l - w i s e M o t h e r " . However, when the poet r e t u r n s t o o r d i n a r y l i f e and p r o c l a i m s the wisdom o f P a l l a s A thena , none w i l l l i s t e n . T h i s p a r a b l e seems p a r t i c u l a r l y a p p r o p r i a t e t o Lampman*s work; th roughout h i s p o e t r y he preaches a g a i n s t c r u e l t y , a g a i n s t war, a g a i n s t excess and a g a i n s t e v i l i n a l l f o r m s . He advoca tes the h i g h i d e a l s o f the s u f f e r i n g C h r i s t , p a i n endured i n p a t i e n c e and w i t h f o r t i t u d e and the h i g h a s p i r i n g " d r e a m " . Shou ld t h i s 112. dream f a i l , then he advoca tes the c o n t i n u a l l y re-made dream which a d j u s t s t o the s t r i c t u r e s o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s . The h i g h dreams o f Margaret i n "The S t o r y o f An A f f i n i t y " and those o f A b i g a i l i n " D a v i d and A b i g a i l " a re put a s i d e w i t h p a t i e n c e i n f a v o u r o f the l o w l i e r i d e a l s which c i r cums tances e n f o r c e . Yet d e s p i t e a l l d i s appo in tmen t s "me t o o , changes , b i t t e r and f u l l o f e v i l , / dream by dream have p lunde red and l e f t me n a k e d , / g rey w i t h so r row" , Lampman seems to have r e t a i n e d h i s f a i t h i n the a s p i r i n g s o u l and the good which i t might a c c o m p l i s h . The a s p i r i n g dreams o f " D a v i d and A b i g a i l " and those o f " A S t o r y o f an A f f i n i t y " a re V i c t o r i a n p a r a b l e s o f the dream s t r u g g l e d i n t o p e r f e c t i o n . In Lampman as i n R o b e r t s , the "d ream" i s the p r imary p o e t i c expe r i ence and i t i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the comfor t o f n a t u r e . O p p o s i t e , y e t complementary t o the dream, i s the n i g h t -mare wh i ch most o f t e n d e t a i l s contemporary e v i l s o r s p i r i t u a l i s o l a t i o n . However, Lampman, u n l i k e R o b e r t s , i s s t r o n g l y aware o f the p o s s i b l e d i f f e r e n c e between the "d ream" ( the p o e t ' s v i s i o n ) and the " r e a l " ( the wor ld o u t s i d e ) . The c l a s s i c statement on t h i s theme f rom K e a t s ' "Ode To A N i g h t i n g a l e " : "Was i t a v i s i o n o r a waking dream?" ( i . e . "was my v i s i o n o f the n i g h t i n g a l e a r e a l v i s i o n o f beauty which i s t r u t h o r was i t s imp l y a day dream p r e c i p i t a t e d by c h e a t i n g f a n c y ? " ) i s g i v en a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f Lampman's " V i s i o n o f T w i l i g h t " : 113 Comes my q u e s t i o n back a g a i n — Which i s r e a l ? the f l e e t i n g v i s i o n ? g o - Or the f l e e t i n g wor ld o f men? T h i s i s an ex t reme ly impor tan t q u e s t i o n f o r the development o f Canadian p o e t r y because i t means t h a t Rober ts* easy acceptance o f the dream i s no l o n g e r t e n a b l e and the s p l i t between " t h e r e a l " and " t h e i d e a l " which Lampman i s b e g i n n i n g t o e l u c i d a t e passes on f rom him ( a l ong w i t h h i s S t o i c e t h i c ) i n t o the p o e t r y o f Duncan Campbel l S c o t t * T h i s q u e s t i o n i s a l s o i m p o r t a n t , as i s demonstra ted i n Lampman*s works , because i t marks the b e g i n n i n g o f the b e l i e f , i n Canadian p o e t r y , t h a t the a r t must have an i n t e g r i t y o f r e l a t i o n w i t h the wor ld o u t s i d e . On the whole , Lampman, l i k e S c o t t , i s a poet o f t r a n s i t i o n , a d a p t i n g some a s p e c t s o f Rober ts* thought and a n t i c i p a t i n g P r a t t i n h i s concept o f the d u a l but a s p i r i n g s o u l : Yet the eyes a re d im, n o r w h o l l y Open t o the go lden g leam, And the b ru t e s u r r e n d e r s s l o w l y To the godhead and the dream. From h i s cage o r ba r and g i r d e r S t i l l a t moments mad w i t h murder , Leaps the t i g e r , and h i s demong^ Re igns supreme. I l l Duncan Campbel l S c o t t Duncan Campbel l S c o t t * s s i g n i f i c a n c e i n t h i s group i s p r i m a r i l y t h a t o f the Canad ian t r a n s i t i o n a l f i g u r e i n the 8 3Lampman, A l c y o n e , p . 3 2 . ^Lampman, "War " , A l c y o n e , p. 1 0 2 . 114. movement f rom .Romanticism t o the "new r e a l i s m " o f the t w e n t i e s . U n l i k e Carman and Rober t s and d e s p i t e a deep l y r o o t e d Romantic tendency f o r t r a n s c e n d i n g n a t u r e , S c o t t does p r e sen t the Canadian w i l d e r n e s s . Fu r the rmore , h i s remarks on i m i t a t i o n and o r i g i n a l i t y would i n d i c a t e t h a t he i s aware o f the n e c e s s i t y o f r e m a i n i n g w i t h i n the c e n t r a l E n g l i s h stream as w e l l as f i n d i n g a new i d i om f o r the Canad ian f a c t s O r i g i n a l i t y i s the p r o o f o f g e n i u s , but a l l g en iu ses have i m i t a t e d . P o e t r y i s an e n d l e s s cha i n o f i m i t a t i o n , but gen ius comes d r o p p i n g i n add ing i t s own p e c u l i a r f l a v o u r i n d e g r e e . . . . The d e s i r e o f c r e a t i v e minds everywhere i s t o express the age i n terms o f the age , and by i n t u i t i o n t o f l a s h l i g h t i n t o the f u t u r e . The b e g i n n i n g o f t h i s t r a n s i t i o n f rom Romant ic ism t o a k i n d o f r e a l i s m i s e v i den t i n S c o t t ' s f i r s t book o f v e r s e , The Magic House and O the r Poems (1893) . D e s p i t e the K e a t s i a n l a n g o u r o f such p i e c e s as " N i g h t and the P i n e s " and "The H i l l P a t h " , and the p l a i n bad p o e t r y o f " S o n g " : I am l i k e a weary l i n n e t , F o r my t h r o a t has no song i n i t , g £ I have had my s i n g i n g m inu te . t he r e i s an e n t i r e l y new e thos i n h i s n a r r a t i v e " A t The C e d a r s " . The poem i s deco ra t ed w i t h a few s u r f a c e Romant i c i sms, but on the whole the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i s s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and the a c t i o n ^ D u n c a n Campbel l S c o t t , The C i r c l e o f A f f e c t i o n and Other  P i e c e s i n Prose and V e r s e . T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S tewar t , 1947, p . 142. O D D u n c a n Campbel l S c o t t , The Magic House and O the r Poems. London, Methuen, 1893, p. 3 2 . 115. i s d i r e c t . The l o g jam i s seen as a p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n o f b ru te na tu res The l o g s gave a g r i n d L i k e a w o l f ' s jaws b e h i n d . And I saac Dufour , the sweetheart o f one o f B a p t i s t e ' s daugh t e r s , i s k i l l e d . Immediate ly , the g i r l l aunches he r canoe i n t o the rush o f water to d i e w i t h he r swee thea r t . S c o t t ' s c o n c l u s i o n i s an a t tempt a t unders ta tement which sugges ts t ranscendences B a p t i s t e l -He had two g i r l s , One i s V i r g i n i e , What God c a l l s the o t h e r g 7 I s no t known to me. ' " A t The Cedars'* i s an impor tan t p a r t o f the Canadian t r a d i t i o n , p r i m a r i l y because o f i t s a t t i t u d e t o na tu r e which i s t o prove more dominant as the Amer ican stream p r o g r e s s e s , and a l s o because o f the n a r r a t i v e fo rm which r eappea r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n the works o f S e r v i c e , F r o s t , J e f f e r s , P r a t t and B i r n e y . " A t The C e d a r s " i s a l s o the s o l e example o f a p redominan t l y n a t u r a l -i s t i c scene i n a whole volume o f f e e b l y d e r i v a t i v e Romantic v e r s e , b u t i n S c o t t ' s l a t e r p o e t r y , e s p e c i a l l y New Wor ld L y r i c s  and B a l l a d s (1905 ) , i t i s t h i s element which grows. S c o t t ' s work might be c h a r a c t e r i z e d by two d i s t i n c t s t r a i n s which may::: be l o o s e l y c l a s s i f i e d as the " r e a l " and the " i d e a l " — t h e Romantic " i d e a l " which h i s l i t e r a r y t a s t e s l e d him to advocate and the Canadian f a c t o r " r e a l " which he encounte red i n h i s f r e q u e n t t r i p s t o the Canadian Nor th l and as 8 ? S c o t t , The Magic House, p. 53-116. I n s p e c t o r o f I nd ian A f f a i r s . The d ichotomy between the two i s e v iden t i n S c o t t * s add ress " P o e t r y and P r o g r e s s " d e l i v e r e d t o the Roya l S o c i e t y o f Canada i n 1922. Here S co t t c i t e s h i s p o e t i c t o u c h s t o n e s . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , one i s a passage f rom Keats* "Ode To a N i g h t i n g a l e " r " m a g i c casements open ing on the foam o f p e r i l o u s seas i n f a e r y l a n d s f o r l o r n " - w h i l e the o t h e r i s Shakespeare*s "I am d y i n g , Egyp t , d y i n g " , Anthony*s l a s t speech f rom Anthony and C l e o p a t r a . The fo rmer S c o t t admires f o r i t s " r o m a n t i c p a s s i o n " , " b a l a n c e " , and " c o m p l e t i o n " , the l a t t e r f o r i t s " i n t e n s i t y " and " m o d e r a t i o n " . * ^ But i t i s a l s o e v i d e n t , f r o m a s tudy o f S c o t t * s work, t h a t he was a t t r a c t e d t o the themat i c s t r u c t u r e s as w e l l as the d i f f e r i n g s t y l i s t i c and emot iona l con ten t s o f these two p o e t i c t o u c h s t o n e s . Keats* "Ode To A N i g h t i n g a l e " p r e s e n t s the moment o f v i s i o n when the n a t u r a l scene g i v e s way, th rough the i m a g i n a t i v e f a n c y , t o the i d e a l wor ld beyond. And i t i s t h i s concept o f the " i d e a l " and the i m a g i n a t i v e moment o f v i s i o n which S c o t t p r e s e n t s when he p h i l o s o p h i z e s " o n man, on n a t u r e , and on Human L i f e " . Such poems as "The November P a n s y " , "The He ight o f Land " and " L i n e s i n Memory o f Edmund M o r r i s " a re cen te red about the moment o f v i s i o n o r "d ream" by which the poet a t tempts t o p i e r c e beyond the n a t u r a l scene t o the " s e c r e t " o f l i f e and beau t y . S co t t i The C i r c l e Of A f f e c t i o n , p . 142. 1 1 7 . And f a r above t h i s t r a g i c world of ours There i s a world of diviner fashion; A mystic world, a world of dreams and passion That each as p i r i n g thing creates and dowers With i t s own l i g h t ; Where even the f r a i l s p i r i t s of trees and flowers * Pause, and reach out, and pass from height to height. As i s apparent i n t h i s selection from "The November Pansy", Scott's idealism i s a d i l u t e Platonism and very probably a Romantic heritage by way of Coleridge, Shelley's Alastor ( p a r t i c u l a r l y the search f o r i d e a l beauty beyond phenomenal forms), and Emerson's explication of the aspiring forms i n "Nature". And inasmuch as a l l of these influences are also to be found i n Roberts and Lampman, they would now seem to have taken t h e i r place i n the stream of Canadian Romanticism. Yet despite t h i s quasi-Platonic formulation, Scott, unlike Roberts, i s never s u f f i c i e n t l y assured of the transcendental experience to describe i t with the definiteness which Roberts employs when he states that he has met his God face to face. Indeed, f o r Scott, the attempt at transcendence most often f a i l s and the "secret" beyond nature remains "inappellable", "unutterable" or, i n Lampman's terms, " i n e x p l i c a b l e " . In t h i s extract from "The Height of Land" i t i s a "Something": ... Here i s peace, and again That Something comes by flashes Deeper than peace, - a s p e l l Golden and inappellable That gives the i n a r t i c u l a t e part Of our strange being one moment of release That seems more native than the touch of time, •'Duncan Campbell Scott, Lundy's Land and Other Poems, Toronto, McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, 1916, pp. 6 5 - 6 6 . 118. And we must answer i n ch ime; Though ye t no man may t e l l The s e c r e t o f t h a t s p e l l Go lden and i n a p p e l l a b l e . " 0 R e l a t e d t o the moment o f v i s i o n , but more d i r e c t l y connected w i t h the Fancy, i s a s e r i e s o f " m a g i c " o r f a n t a s y poems i n which the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l v i s i o n i s connected w i t h "magic s p e l l " and d ream- l i ke t r a n c e . In a lmost a l l o f these f a n t a s y p i e c e s , the at tempt t o r each i n t o the s e c r e t o f na tu r e i s s u c c e s s f u l , b u t , as i n Kea ts* Lamia , i t r e s u l t s i n dea th f o r the m o r t a l conce rned . In "The P i p e r o f A r i l " , "By The Wi l low S p r i n g " , " A v i s " , and "Amanda", the m o r t a l comes under the " s p e l l " o f the good , o r e v i l , beh ind e x i s t e n c e and i s d e s t r o y e d by i t . Fu r the rmore , j u s t as i n Keats* " O d e " i t i s the sound o f the n i g h t i n g a l e which p r e c i p i t a t e s the t r a n c e e x p e r i e n c e , so i n S c o t t * s p o e t r y i t i s dominan t l y the sound o f mus i c , some-t imes apostrnqp'h'iizeH.as " a dream o f sound" which bea r s the charmed e x p e r i e n c e . T h i s p a t t e r n i s c o n s i s t e n t i n "The Reed-P l a ye r " , "The P i p e r o f A r i l " and " A v i s " . In a few i n s t a n c e s , as i n the poems "By The Wi l low S p r i n g " and "Amanda" ,a p r i m a r i l y demonic i n f l u e n c e i s conveyed by a " s p r i n g " o r " p o o l " i n the manner o f Hawthorne*s B l i t h e d a l e Romance. I t might a l s o be no ted f o r f u t u r e r e f e r e n c e i n connec t i on w i th S c o t t ' s p o e t i c , t h a t i n each case the v i s i o n o r sound i s a " r e f l e c t i o n " o f the s e c r e t beyond n a t u r e . 9 0 s c o t t , Lundy*s Lane , p p . 70-71. 119 One o f the bes t known examples o f a dominant l y b e n e f i c e n t merging w i th na tu re i s S c o t t ' s " P i p e r o f A r i l " . P r e l i m i n a r y t o t h i s poem i n S c o t t ' s canon i s "The Reed-P l a y e r " , and as the two a re t h e m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d , the e a r l i e r poem might be f i r s t c o n s i d e r e d . ^ The n a r r a t o r o f "The Reed-P l a y e r " d e s c r i b e s h i m s e l f as go ing "beyond the t u m u l t , ba rken ing / f o r some d i v i n e r t h i n g " . He then hea r s the " m a g i c " p i p e r : He gave l u r i n g note amid the f e r n ; I t s en igmat i c f a l l Haunted the ho l l ow dusk w i th go lden t u r n And a rgent i n t e r v a l . I c o u l d not know the message t h a t he b o r e , The s p r i n g s o f l i f e f rom me H i d d e n ; h i s incommunicable l o r e o ^ As much a mys t e r y . T h i s e x t r a c t would seem t o suggest t h a t the p i p e r ' s a r t c a r r i e s a message a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " t h e s p r i n g s o f l i f e " . But because t h i s i n s i g h t i s no t g ran ted t o the l i s t e n i n g n a r r a t o r , he i s unab le t o unders tand and the p i p e r ' s message remains " i n c o m m u n i c a b l e " . In "The P i p e r o f A r i l " , the p r o t a g o n i s t i s aga in a p i p e r a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the " s e c r e t " beyond phenomenal n a t u r e . The poem b e g i n s w i t h an ana logy between the l i t t l e cove where the p i p e r d w e l l s which i s f a i t h f u l t o the hea r t o f the g r e a t ocean and the P i p e r whose " h e a r t was swayed w i t h f a i t h f u l l o v e / f rom the s p r i n g s o f God ' s o c e a n " . In e f f e c t , the cove i s p a r t o f the 91"The Reed-P laye r " i s d e d i c a t e d to B . T l i s s ] C.Jarmanj and as such might be c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t o f the p i p e r - p o e t theme which runs th rough Canadian p o e t r y o f the 1 8 8 0 ' s and 9 0 ' s . 9 2 S c o t t , The Magic House, p. 5 7 . 120 g rea t ocean as the P i p e r * s l o v e i s a p a r t o f the g r ea t ocean o f God*s l o v e . And inasmuch as "heart** and " o c e a n " a re terms used i n both p a r t s o f the ana logy the re i s an i m p l i c i t r e l a t i o n s h i p between the ocean o f God*s l o v e and the p h y s i c a l ocean and , by e x t e n s i o n , between the P i p e r and the l i t t l e cove . When a g h o s t l y s h i p f i r s t appears i n the " l o n e l y " cove which had neve r seen sh i p b e f o r e , the P i p e r and " t h e dreaming h i l l s " pause t o l i s t e n t o the s t range melody the s a i l o r s s i n g . The P i p e r responds w i t h a " t r a n q u i l me lody" o f " l o n e l y l o v e and l onged f o r d e a t h " . In te rms o f the f i r s t se t o f a n a l o g i e s , t h i s i s no l o n g e r the s e l f - c e n t e r e d dea th w ish t h a t f i r s t r e a d i n g might imp ly because such death sugges ts the m y s t i c a l un ion o f the l o n e l y i n d i v i d u a l w i th the ocean o f God*s l o v e . F o l l o w i n g the exchang ing o f messages th rough t h e i r mus i c , P i p e r and crew s l e e p , and the s h i p remains " s t i l l a s a dream" u n t i l n e a r l y dawn. Wi th the dawn, the P i p e r awakes and d i s c o v e r s t h a t the s h i p has gone . He i s a t f i r s t d i s t r a u g h t and b reaks h i s "human-throated r e e d " ; but w i t h t i m e , peace r e t u r n s , and he a t tempts t o mend i t and p l a y a g a i n . The poem then sugges t s t h a t the P i p e r has passed i n t o more than human power; the new melody which he p l a y s i s a combina t ion o f r e v e a l e d v i s i o n (the song f rom the ghost sh ip ) and the f o r c e o f a s o u l which no l o n g e r a b i d e s by i t s own w i l l but has come under the i n f l u e n c e o f a h i g h e r power. 121. A melody began t o d r i p That ming led w i t h a g h o s t l y t h r i l l The v i s i o n - s p i r i t o f the sh i p The s e c r e t o f h i s broken w i l l . 9 3 The P i p e r becomes h i s " s o u l and what he p l a y e d / immor ta l f o r a happy h o u r " : He, s i n g i n g i n t o N a t u r e ' s h e a r t , G u i d i n g h i s w i l l by the w o r l d ' s w i l l W i th deep , u n c o n s c i o u s , c h i l d l i k e a r t Had sung h i s s o u l out and was s t i l l . In e f f e c t the P i p e r has merged w i th the g rea t wo r ld s p i r i t , so t h a t when the s h i p r e t u r n s a t e ven ing , the " l o n g e d f o r d e a t h " which o c c u r s i s no l o n g e r the r e s u l t o f human w i l l but t h a t o f a h i g h e r power. T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s con f i rmed i n the next few s t anzas o f the poem when the " m a g i c " s a i l s wh ich had charmed o t h e r seas r e f u s e to move f rom the l i t t l e cove and by the f a c t t h a t the s a i l o r s , l i k e those o f C o l e r i d g e ' s " A n c i e n t M a r i n e r " o r Tennyson ' s " L o t o s E a t e r s " , a r e unable t o move t o s top the g rea t f i r e which s i n k s the s h i p : " t h e y c o u l d no t c r y , they cou ld not move,/ they f e l t the l u r e f rom the charmed s e a " . The c o n c l u s i o n o f the poem when the upward g a z i n g " P i p e r and the dreaming crew" are k e e l e d under the water p r e s e n t s a scene o f s t range beau t y : T h e i r eyes a re ruby i n the green Long s h a f t o f sun t h a t spreads and r a y s , And upward w i t h a w i z a r d sheen A f a n o f s e a - l i g h t l e a p s and p l a y s . And a t the k e e l a v i n e i s q u i c k , That spreads i t s b i n e s and works and weaves O ' e r a l l the t imbe r s v e i n i n g t h i c k A p l e n i t u d e o f s i l v e r l e a v e s . 9 3 T h i s and f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n s u n l e s s o therw ise no ted t o Duncan Campbel l S c o t t , Labour and The A n g e l . Bos ton , Cope land and Day, 1898, p p . 29-35. 122 In e f f e c t , P i p e r and crew have merged w i t h the " s e c r e t " o f l i f e and beauty beyond na tu re and have l o s t t h e i r i d e n t i t i e s i n so d o i n g . In t h i s poem, the emphasis on the " b e a u t y " o f the expe r i ence sugges ts t h a t t h i s i s a d e s i r a b l e s t a t e ; i n o t h e r poems o f the f a n t a s y s e r i e s such as "Amanda" o r " A v i s " the expe r i ence has ove r tones o f the demonic . Opposed t o the Keatsean " m a g i c " o f t h i s s e r i e s o f v i s i o n and f a n t a s y poems i s S c o t t ' s o t h e r p o e t i c t o u c h s t o n e , the " m o d e r a t i o n " o f A n t h o n y ' s l a s t speech f rom Shakespea re ' s Anthony and C l e o p a t r a . Anthony comes to h i s death as a man who has l i v e d w e l l and who d i e s w i t h honour : " t h e g r e a t e s t p r i n c e o ' the w o r l d , / the n o b l e s t ; and do now not b a s e l y d i e " . 9 4 H i s a t t i t u d e , " t h e m i s e r a b l e change now a t my end / lament n o r Sorrow a t " , 9 5 i s e s s e n t i a l l y s t o i c . And i t i s p r e c i s e l y t h i s s t o i c i s m , t o g e t h e r w i t h a modera t ion o f e x p r e s s i o n , w i t h which S co t t endows h i s major I nd i an f i g u r e s . The t r a p p e r o f "On The Way t o The M i s s i o n " , the o l d woman i n "The F o r s a k e n " , and Akoose o f " L i n e s i n Memory o f Edmund M o r r i s " a l l f a c e t h e i r dea ths w i t h s t o i c d i g n i t y and cou rage . The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the I n d i a n and S c o t t ' s concept o f the way i n which a man shou ld f a c e l i f e and dea th seems t o be exp ressed i n the l a t t e r poem c i t e d , " L i n e s i n Memory o f Edmund M o r r i s " . S c o t t i s m e d i t a t i n g on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between l i f e , 9 4 v / i l l i a m Shakespeare , Anthony and C l e o p a t r a . A c t IV , s c . x v , p p . 5 4 - 5 5 * e d . and w i t h no t e s by George Lyman K i t t r e d g e , G i n n , New York , 1 9 4 1 . 9 5 Shakespeare , Anthony and C l e o p a t r a . IV , x v , p p . 5 1 - 5 2 . 123. death and a r t and he makes one o f h i s p e r s o n a l s ta tements on the na tu re o f human l i f e when he sugges ts " p e r s i s t e n c e i s the 96 master o f t h i s l i f e " : " t o the e n d — e f f o r t — e v e n beyond the e n d " . ^ Akoose , o l d and f e e b l e , u s e l e s s by h i s t e p e e , i s sudden ly roused up b e f o r e dea th perhaps by "pagan f a n c y and f r e e dreams o f f o r a y " t o g a l l o p away ove r the p r a i r i e s to the p l a c e where as a young man he had once proved h i s cou rage . There he s l i p s f rom h i s ho rse and d i e s where d i n o s a u r s had d i e d b e f o r e h i m . Musing on the g r ea t space o f t ime which sepa ra t e s the dea th o f the d i n o s a u r s f rom the death o f Akoose , S c o t t goes on t o specu l a t e about the age o f the wor ld and hopes t h a t i t , t o o , might demonstrate t h i s " e f f o r t " be fo re i t s d e a t h : What we may t h i n k , who brood upon the theme, I s , when the o l d w o r l d , t i r e d o f s p i n n i n g , has f a l l e n A s l e e p , and a l l the f o r m s , t h a t c a r r i e d the f i r e Of l i f e , a re c o l d upon he r marble h e a r t -L i k e ashes on the a l t a r - j u s t as she s t o p s , That something w i l l escape o f s o u l o r e s sence , The sum o f l i f e , to k i n d l e o the rwhere . S c o t t ' s metaphor f o r c o n t i n u i n g l i f e , l i k e t h a t o f R o b e r t s 1 , i s dominant l y f rom the v ege t ab l e k ingdom. In the poem to Edmund M o r r i s , as i n "The November Pansy " , he sugges t s t h a t a 9 6 r h i s and a l l f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n s u n l e s s o the rw i se no ted t o Duncan Campbel l S c o t t , L u n d v ' s Lane and O the r Poems. London, Methuen and C o . , 1893, p p . 179-194. The statement t h a t t h i s i s one o f the few examples o f S c o t t ' s p e r s o n a l p h i l o s o p h y i s no t meant t o imp l y t h a t S co t t does not sometimes make the c o n v e n t i o n a l s ta tements r e g a r d i n g the h i g h dream and the a s p i r i n g s o u l . "The I d e a l " , "The B u i l d e r " and "The H e r o i c S o u l " a l l suggest t h i s e t h o s . But because these poems are so d e r i v a t i v e , the f i r s t s u g g e s t i n g R o b e r t s , the second Emerson, L o n g f e l l o w and Holmes and the t h i r d , Lampman, they do no t c a r r y the p e r s o n a l v i ewpo in t which seems t o be p resen t i n " L i n e s i n Memory o f Edmund M o r r i s " . 124 " s e e d " might be dropped f rom the o l d wor ld j u s t as a r i p e f r u i t " l o o s e s a k e r n e l t o the m o u l d " : So the o l d w o r l d , hang ing l o n g i n the sun , And deep e n r i c h e d w i t h e f f o r t and w i t h l o v e , S h a l l , i n the mot ions o f m a t u r i t y , W i t h e r and p a r t , and the k e r n e l o f i t a l l E s c a p e , a l o v e l y w r a i t h o f s p i r i t . T h i s l i n k i n g o f human death w i t h the s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the e a r t h i s growing o l d i s t o prove more dominant i n S c o t t ' s l a t e r work and i t seems t o mark the end o f a c y c l e i n which Rober ts* e v o l u t i o n a r y " s e e d " o f l i f e has b u r s t up i n t o f r u i t i o n and i s now d e c a y i n g . T h i s i s q u i t e a new development i n Canadian p o e t r y because p r e v i o u s : emphasis had bypassed dea th t o dwe l l on the c o n f r o n t a t i o n o f the i n d i v i d u a l s p i r i t w i t h God. But i n S c o t t * s work, the emphasis i s p l a c e d on the dea th i t s e l f and the i m p o s s i b i l i t y f o r o r d i n a r y m o r t a l s t o p e r c e i v e the " s e c r e t " beyond n a t u r e . In the o n l y cases where such knowledge i s g i v e n , the " d r e a m " , " v i s i o n " o r " t r a n c e " which l e a d s man t o t h i s knowledge i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " m a g i c " and l e a d s t o h i s d e a t h . In e f f e c t , S c o t t i s b r i n g i n g the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l b a s i s o f the dream metaphor down t o e a r t h ; o r d i n a r y v i s i o n cannot b r i n g the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e , and those poems where such expe r i ence o c c u r s are s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h f a n c y , and so d i v o r c e d f rom the " r e a l " . The d i s t i n c t i o n between the r e a l and the dream which beg ins i n Lampman i s con f i rmed i n S c o t t where he i n s i s t s t h a t h i s c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h h i g h e r powers i s a " s o m e t h i n g " which comes i n " f l a s h e s " r a t h e r than a s p e c i f i c encounte r w i t h God . In a l a t e r poem he sugges t s t h a t such expe r i ence i s t o be a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the i n t u i t i o n : 125 ••• What we g a i n f rom l i v i n g , When we posses s our s o u l s o r seem t o own, I s no t the peak o f knowledge, but the tone Of f e e l i n g , i s no t the problem s o l v e d , but j u s t The hope o f s o l v i n g opened out and t h r u s t o ^ A l i t t l e f u r t h e r i n t o the s p i r i t a i r . In S c o t t ' s e a r l i e r p o e t r y f rom The Magic House (1893) th rough Labour and The A n g e l (1898) and New Wor ld L y r i c s (1905) t he r e was r eassu rance f o r the a s p i r i n g s o u l as i n the poem "From Shadow" where the poet f e e l s " t h e hand o f the ange l C o n t e n t " . S i m i l a r l y , dea th had been p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the p e a c e f u l "d ream" o f " r e s t " ("In a Count ry Churchya rd " ) and sometimes w i t h C h r i s t i a n t r anscendence ("The M i s s i o n o f The T r e e s " , " N i g h t B u r i a l i n The F o r e s t " and "The F o r s a k e n " ) . But a f t e r New Wor ld L y r i c s , dea th l o s e s much o f the comfort o f the "d ream" expe r i ence and becomes i n c r e a s i n g l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n e g a t i o n . In the l a t e r I nd i an poems, "Scene A t Lake M a n i t o u " and " A t G u l l L ake " t he r e i s no sugges t i on o f a C h r i s t i a n c o n -c l u s i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the Eden mythos o f "when the wor ld was young" i n New Wor ld L y r i c s i s l a t e r undercut by S c o t t ' s p r e -o c c u p a t i o n w i t h dea th and by h i s new myth o f the A n t i - E d e n — a concept o f a weary wor ld which has grown o l d and w i l l soon d i e w i thou t d e f i n i t e hope o f s p i r i t u a l r e n e w a l . One o f the c l e a r e s t examples o f the dominance o f the dea th s t r u c t u r e i n S c o t t ' s l a t e r work i s h i s " V a r i a t i o n s on a Seventeenth Cen tu ry Theme". T h i s poem i s p r e f i x e d w i th an 9 7 Duncan Campbel l S c o t t , "The Fragment o f A L e t t e r " , Beauty  and L i f e . T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d & S tewar t , 1921, p. 3 1 . 126. ep ig r aph f rom Henry Vaughan: " I t was h i g h s p r i n g , and a l l the way / P r imrosed and hung w i t h s h a d e " . In S c o t t ' s work the " p r i m r o s e " comes t o r ep r e sen t the f l o w e r s o f y o u t h , q u i c k l y f a d i n g i f l e f t unp lucked , s t i l l d y i n g i f t aken up , wh i l e the " shadow" , as i n much o f S c o t t ' s work, comes t o be synonymous w i t h death.98 The poem, i n e f f e c t , becomes a s e r i e s o f mod-u l a t i o n s on the b r i e f n e s s o f l i f e and the i n e v i t a b i l i t y o f d e a t h , the f a m i l i a r 17th Cen tury c a m e diem m o t i f • The poem beg ins w i t h Eden and o r i g i n a l s i n , p roceeds th rough s e v e r a l v a r i a t i o n s on the p l e a s u r e - d e a t h m o t i f and conc ludes w i t h an ,5@hti-Eden d e p i c t i n g the end o f the w o r l d ; " t h e e a r t h w i l l pass i n f r o s t , t hey s a y " : Adam and Eve . . . Happy a lone i n t h e i r f r o z e n ga rden , And a P r imrose h i d i n the w i t he r ed f o l i a g e F a l l e n down f rom the Tree o f Knowledge . . . They w i l l l o v e i n a f i n a l f a s h i o n , The q u i n t e s s e n t i a l human p a s s i o n , The summation o f a l l v an i shed l o v e Wi th beauty as the b r e a t h t h e r e o f , Love t h e i r l a s t word , and human b l i s s Rounded on a marble k i s s . F o r c o l d w i l l s top t h e i r b r e a t h i n g there.99 The development o f t h i s poem i s p a r t i c u l a r l y sugges t i v e when the e p i g r a p h i s d i s c o v e r e d t o be a q u o t a t i o n f rom Vaughan ' s " R e g e n e r a t i o n " i n S i l e x S c i n t i l l i a n s (1655). Vaughan a l s o a s s o c i a t e d s p r i n g and death ( s i n ) but the whole pu rpo r t o f h i s poem i s an a f f i r m a t i o n o f f a i t h con f i rmed by the m y s t i c 9^See " L i n e s i n Memory o f Edmund M o r r i s " where L i z a ' s i n s i g h t i n t o the " o t h e r " wor ld b r i n g s the " shadow" : "Was Death d r i v i n g the shadow?" 99scott, Beauty and L i f e , p . 29. 127. v i s i o n . Y e t , i n deve lopment , Vaughan ' s Be the l becomes S c o t t ' s an t i -Eden and the e a r l i e r 17 th cen tu r y assurance o f f a i t h and G o d ' s covenant ( " Regene ra t i on " ) i s r e p l a c e d by the 20th cen tu ry i n s i s t e n c e upon human l o v e . In t h i s c o n c l u s i o n , S co t t i s moving towards P r a t t and away f rom Rober t s as w e l l as away f rom h i s own e a r l y work o f The Magic House. In summary, the "d ream" i n S c o t t ' s work i s f i r s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s t , death and mag i c . In connec t i on w i t h the l a t t e r t e rm , i t appears t h a t S c o t t p i c k e d up R o b e r t ' s i n s i s t -ence on the " m y s t i c " and " m a g i c " i n r e l a t i o n t o the t r a n s -c enden ta l e x p e r i e n c e . "The Magic House " , f rom the book o f the same name, i s p r i m a r i l y a "house o f dreams" (poe t ry ) and o f " m a g i c " ; th rough t h i s s t r u c t u r e S c o t t e s t a b l i s h e s a "home" f o r the "d reams " o r f a n t a s y p i e c e s such as " I n The House Of Dreams" and "By The Wi l low S p r i n g " . A l t hough the i n c l u s i o n o f p i e c e s r e l a t i n g t o the demonic would suggest a g r e a t e r awareness o f p o t e n t i a l e v i l i n na tu re than i s e v i d e n t i n the works o f Rober ts o r the e a r l y works o f Lampman, the f a c t t h a t t hey are con t a i ned w i t h i n the r ea lm o f the "mag i c dream" p a r t l y m i t i g a t e s t h i s s ta tement . I t i s o n l y l a t e r , i n such poems as " N i g h t Hymns on Lake Nep igon " where the human element i s swal lowed up i n the w i l d e r n e s s t h a t t h i s e thos becomes d o m i n a n t . 1 ^ 0 As i n Rober ts 1 ( ^ 0 Duncan Campbel l S c o t t , New World L y r i c s and B a l l a d s . T o r o n t o , Morang, 1905. In t h i s poem the f a c t t h a t a l l t r a c e s o f the human are u l t i m a t e l y r e c e i v e d "down i n t o d a r k n e s s " and u l t i m a t e l y swal lowed up i n t o a storm l i t u r g y o f the w i l d e r n e s s would seem to suggest the overcoming o f the human element i n the w i l d s o f na tu re• 128 and Lampman, the dream has i t s opposites of beneficent v i s i o n ("The Sleeper") and nightmare ("The Spider and The Rose"). The dream i s also the metaphor f o r poetry ("Ode For The Keats Centenary") and art i t s e l f . The trance-like song of the "Piper  of A r i l " , l i k e the "dream" of Roberts' "Pipes of Pan" and Lampman*s "Favourites of Pan" becomes the way of mediation between the r e a l and the i d e a l worlds. Scott's poetry moves about the two poles of the " r e a l " and the " i d e a l " . Associated with the i d e a l world i s the recurring figure of the "Angel"; associated dominantly with the r e a l world i s the "Indian". Angels may variously represent loving counsel ("Labour and The Angel") content ("From Shadow"), the guardian s p i r i t who gathers the souls of men ("Night B u r i a l i n the Forest"), the s p i r i t of valour ("The Battle of Lundy's Lane"), the s p i r i t of l i f e ("The Apparition"), and l i t t l e children ("Madonna with Two Angels"), as well as the more con-ventional Angels of the Annunciation ("A Legend of Christ's Nativity") and the Apocalypse ("Variations on a Seventeenth Century Theme"). The Angel i s primarily associated with hope and comfort; often with C h r i s t i a n overtones, however, i t i s a figure which appears l e s s and l e s s i n Scott's l a t e r works. As previously noted, the Indian i s associated with the stoic endurance and courage demanded by t h i s world. In addition, the Indian woman whose parentage i s both white and Indian i s associated with the s p l i t between the r e a l and the i d e a l (the dream) within the i n d i v i d u a l . For the protagonist 129 o f "The Ha l f -B r eed G i r l " , " h e r dreams a re u n d i s c o v e r e d / shadows t r o u b l e he r b r e a s t " . Torn between vague dreams o f the i d e a l wor ld o f he r S c o t t i s h f a t h e r which she cannot a t t a i n and the r e a l i t y o f l i f e w i t h he r I nd i an mother which she cannot a c c e p t , she c r i e s out f o r " l i f e " ( the i d e a l wor ld ) o r " d e a t h " . S i m i l a r l y , K e i j i g o , " d a u g h t e r o f Launay / the Normandy hun te r / and Oshawan o f the S a l t e a u x " i s t r o u b l e d by f u g i t i v e v i s i o n s ; " f l u t t e r i n g s o f c o l o u r . . . / dreams o f sounds u n h e a r d . T h e s e " e choes o f echo" which K e e j i g o hears augur both w e l l and ominous l y ; the v o i c e o f the " s t a r o f m o r n i n g " , he r namesake, would suggest beauty a lone but t h a t i s a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " t h e beauty o f t e r r o r " ; " v o i c e s o f s t o r m — / wind-rush and l i g h t n i n g " . In e f f e c t , the v o i c e o f beauty i s p l a c e d w i t h i n a n a t u r a l c a l enda r s u g g e s t i n g the r i s e o f storm f o l l o w e d by what would appear to be the peace o f d e a t h . D e s p i t e t h i s , the f a i n t " p r e m o n i t i o n s o f l o v e and beauty / vague as shadows cas t by a shadow" are s u f f i c i e n t t o impe l K e e j i g o t o seek out N a i r n e , the wh i te t r a d e r . And f o r he r t o o , the s p l i t between the r e a l i t y o f he r p o s i t i o n as Tabashaw's w i f e and the dream o f b e i n g l o v e d by her i d e a l , N a i r n e , l e a d s t o he r d e a t h . " A t G u l l L a k e : A u g u s t , 1810" i s a l s o a good example o f S c o t t ' s concept o f the p o e t i c p r o c e s s . E s s e n t i a l l y , t h i s p r o c e s s would seem t o be the p e r c e p t i o n o f i d e a l beauty as i t i s r e v e a l e d i n i t s r e f l e c t i o n - the P i p e r ' s song , K e e j i g o ' s 1 0 1 S c o t t , " A t G u l l L a k e : August 1 8 1 0 " , The Green C l o i s t e r . L a t e r Poems, T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d & S tewar t , 1 9 3 5 , P» 5 5 . 130. "shadows c a s t by a shadow". The concept i s no t too d i f f e r e n t f rom the P l a t o n i c b a s i s o f R o b e r t s ' thought but i n a d d i t i o n i t b l ends some a s p e c t s o f the Wordsworthian " emot ions r e c o l l e c t e d i n t r a n q u i l i t y " w i t h K e a t s ' a s s e r t i o n t h a t the me lod i es o f the s p i r i t a re more sweet than those o f t empora l h e a r i n g : Heard me lod i es are sweet, but those unheard A re sweete r ; t h e r e f o r e , ye s o f t p i p e s , p l a y o n : Not t o the s ensua l e a r , b u t , more endear 'd , iQ2 P ipe t o the s p i r i t d i t t i e s o f no t o n e . In S c o t t ' s "Ode F o r The K e a t s ' Cen tena ry " he i m p l o r e s Keats t o t each the modern poe t s " b e a u t y i n l o n e l i n e s s " u n t i l / on these men o f t r u t h " b r e a k s the immorta l form foreshadowed i n t h e i r d ream" . S c o t t ' s metaphor f o r the p o e t i c p r o c e s s i s t h a t o f a r e f l e c t i o n i n a mountain l a k e wh i ch , a l t hough i t changes , may r e t u r n , l i k e a melody, more b e a u t i f u l t han b e f o r e : The p r o f i l e o f the goddess o f the h e i g h t , F l o a t i n g i n water w i t h a curve o f c r y s t a l l i g h t ; When the a i r , env ious o f the l o v e l i n e s s , Rushes downward t o s u r p r i s e , C o n f u s i o n p l a y s i n the c o n t a c t , The p i c t u r e i s overdrawn Wi th a rdent r i p p l e s , But when the b r e e z e , warned o f i n t r u s i o n , Draws b r e a t h l e s s upward i n f l i g h t , n The v i s i o n reassembles i n t r a n q u i l i t y . 1 U 3 In t h i s e x c e r p t , the a r t ( the v i s i o n i n the l ake ) i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f the i d e a l beauty o f the h e i g h t . In " P r a i r i e Wind" a s i m i l a r s t r u c t u r e o f momentary r e f l e c t i o n o f a s t a r i n the wa te r , f r e t t e d by the w ind , i s a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d . But the v i s i o n i s now a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the " s e c r e t " o f beauty when the poet add resses 1 0 2 K e a t s "Ode On A G r e c i a n U r n " , C o l l e c t e d Poems, p. 194. 1 0 3 S c o t t , Beauty and L i f e , p . 14. 131 the w ind , "The v i s i o n you found i n the t w i l i g h t / you c o u l d never a g a i n r e c a p t u r e " ; Do you t h i n k , had you o n l y been q u i e t , The c o l o u r and s t a r were c o n s p i r i n g To t e l l you t h e i r s e c r e t o f beauty And now - o n l y dreams and d e s i r i n g . 1 0 ^ In deve lopment , the " s e c r e t " o f phenomenal beau t y , p r e v i o u s l y a s s o c i a t e d above and beyond n a t u r e , i s b e g i n n i n g t o emerge i n r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t he a r t i s t i c p r o c e s s . T h i s development becomes much more e x p l i c i t i n the poem " R e v e r i e " where the s e c r e t o f beauty and i t s r e f l e c t i o n i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d w i t h a c t i o n i n s i d e the mind : Then something moves i n the unqu i e t m ind , Something impalpable and ha rd t o b i n d , The double o f the thought o r the t h o u g h t ' s essence •••• Thus the unqu i e t mind i s charmed and caught When comes t o Beauty B e a u t y ' s a f t e r t h o u g h t , The shadow ra inbow, t h a t the ra inbow f l i n g s On the t o r n s torm-breas t underneath h i s w i n g s . 1 0 5 T h i s poem i s impor tan t because the " Someth ing " o f the e x t e r n a l wor ld has now been i d e n t i f i e d w i th the work ings i n s i d e the m ind . I t s i g n i f i e s the movement i n Canadian p o e t r y f rom a p r e o c c u p a t i o n w i t h e x t e r n a l na tu r e as a v e h i c l e f o r some h i g h e r r e a l i t y t o a f o c u s on the i n t e r n a l r e a l i t y o f the mind i t s e l f . I t i s t h i s same movement f rom e x t e r n a l n a tu r e t o the i n t e r n a l t a b u l a r a s a which i s e x p l i c i t i n the o f t e n c i t e d "En R o u t e " , "The t r a i n has s topped f o r no apparent reason / i n the w i l d s " : 1 0 ^ D u n c a n Campbel l S c o t t , The Poems o f Duncan Campbel l S c o t t . T o r o n t o , M c C l e l l a n d and S tewar t , 1926, p. 271 . 1 Q 5 S c o t t . Beauty and L i f e , p p . 47-48. 132 Traces t h e r e are o f w i l d t h i n g s i n the snow -P a r t r i d g e a t p l a y , t r a c k s o f the f o x e s * paws That broke a pa th t o sun them i n the t r e e s . They*re g o i n g f a s t where a l l i m p r e s s i o n s go On a f r a i l substance - images l i k e t h e s e , V a g a r i e s the unconsc ious mind r e c e i v e s From nowhere, and l e t s go t o no th ingness ,• With the l o s t f l u s h o f l a s t y e a r * s autumn l e a v e s . 1 0 " In t h i s l a s t poem, Duncan Campbel l S c o t t demonst ra tes h i s t r a n s i t i o n a l p o s i t i o n as a poet who moves f rom the optimum Romant ic ism o f the p o e t r y o f the 1880*s t o the new " r e a l i s m " o f the 1920*s and E . J . P r a t t . In r e t r o s p e c t , i t appears t h a t the "d ream" as the p r imary metaphor o f the poets . o f the 1880*s i s a romant i c i n h e r i t a n c e , emerging f i r s t i n the p o e t r y o f C h a r l e s Sangs te r and C h a r l e s M a i r . Rober ts* p o s i t i o n i s p i v o t a l i n the t r a n s -f e r e n c e o f t h i s metaphor i n t h a t he absorbed the i n f l u e n c e s o f the e a r l i e r Canadian poe ts but was a l s o i n f l u e n c e d by the dream metaphor as i t appeared i n the major r oman t i c s and t h e i r V i c t o r i a n descendan t , R i cha rd Heng i s t Horne . From Rober ts the metaphor passed on i n t o the p o e t r y o f Lampman and S c o t t , i n c o r p o r a t i n g some sea changes i n the t r a n s f e r e n c e . The na tu re o f the dream metaphor i s i n v a r i a b l y d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n t o a t r anscenden t myth o r wor ld v i ew . I t emerges i n Rober ts* work a s a v i a media which combines C h r i s t i a n i t y and Darwinism and p r o v i d e s the v e h i c l e by which t he a s p i r i n g poet moves f rom the r e a l t o the i d e a l w o r l d . In Lampman, the v i s i o n b a s i s o f the dream i s l e s s s t r e s s e d , but i t i s n e v e r t h e l e s s 1 0 6 S c o t t , The Green C l o i s t e r , p . 4 2 . 133 the means by which the poet i s put i n touch with the eternal r e a l i t y (the "dream" of Nature) which underlies the surface f l u x of the temporal world. In Scott's early work the dream i s associated with a "magic" transcendental experience which suggests that such connection with the id e a l world i s no longer to be considered within the realm of the " r e a l " . Scott seems to suggest the basic separateness of man and nature; man i n ordinary circumstances cannot know'the inappellable secret". The nearest he can come to' i t i s through i n t u i t i o n ("0 L i f e , i s i n t u i t i o n the measure of knowledge?") 1^? or through the r e f l e c t i o n s of a r t which create t h e i r own beauty. When the merging of man and nature does occur under the aegis of the charmed experience i t i n e v i t a b l y leads to the death of the human, and , s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i t i s t h i s pattern of merging followed by death which i s to provide the motif f o r Pratt and fo r many of Birney's poems such as "David" and "Bushed". In Scott's formulation of the poem " R e a l i t y " the "dreams" which are poetry become the only r e a l i t y . In t h i s sense, the development of poetry i n Canada i s s i m i l a r to that of i t s development i n America, and Scott's statement i n " R e a l i t y " has the same basis as Wallace Stevens' statement that when one has l o s t r e l i g i o u s f a i t h ( i . e . , b e l i e f i n the i d e a l world) poetry takes i t s place. Such a conversion i s perhaps inevitable when we consider that both poets are w r i t i n g out of the 1 0 7 S c o t t , "The Height of Land", Lundy's Lane, p. 76. 134 Wordsworthian-Keatsean heritage and attempting to reconcile t h i s heritage with the nature of r e a l i t y i n the 20th century. The function of the dream i n Roberts' work i s primarily to provide comfort to the dreamer whether he be poet or reader. Through contact with the Pan force (a metaphor f o r the Great S p i r i t , God) as revealed i n the transcendental experience and i n combination with Roberts' theory of p o e t i c a l decorum, e v i l i s l a r g e l y ignored or overleaped except when i t s l i p s i n , almost against h i s w i l l , under the nightmare experience. Nature, i n p a r t i c u l a r , i s considered e n t i r e l y good and continually evolving towards a better state. As a r e s u l t , much of Roberts* poetry, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n h i s l a t e r books (with the exception of The  Iceberg) censors experience to f a l l i n l i n e with h i s poetic. As a r e s u l t , the emotional burden of the poetry i s recognizably f a l s e . Lampman, on the other hand, consciously admits good and e v i l both i n nature and i n man. Although he recognizes the comfort of the dream experience as i t i s manifested i n the voices of the frogs he also admits other voices of fear both from the wilderness and from within the human heart. Lampman i s also aware that there i s a d i s t i n c t i o n between the high v i s i o n and the world of men and r a i s e s the question that perhaps the dream might not be real—*an issue which i s never raised by Roberts. In t h i s sense, Lampman moves the dream from the area of evolutionary Darwinism as a manifestation of a s p i r i n g C h r i s t i a n i t y to a more down-to-earth lo c a l e where i t could deal with such contemporary s o c i a l issues as war, poverty and 135-the dangers o f a machine c i v i l i z a t i o n . In S c o t t ' s e a r l y work, the f u n c t i o n o f the dream i s aga in c o m f o r t , but i t i s now the comfor t o f " r e s t " and " d e a t h " . The t r a n s c e n d e n t a l dream i s s u c c e s s f u l o n l y i n h i s poems o f " m a g i c " and t h e r e f o r e i m p l i c i t l y removed f rom the rea lm o f the r e a l . Moreover , i n h i s l a t e r work, K e a t s ' h i g h v i s i o n a r y dream i s brought down t o the s t a t u s o f a s imp le n i g h t dream i n the poem " E a r l y M o r n i n g " : I l i e too ' w i l d e r e d t o say Whether I wake o r s l e e p ; Do I hear the r i l l o r c a t ch , n g The sound o f my dream again? In t h i s poem the d i s t i n c t i o n between the dream and r e a l i t y i s no l o n g e r the d i v i s i o n between the v i s i o n o f " h i g h t r u t h " and the daydream o f " c h e a t i n g f a n c y " but s i m p l y the d i v i s i o n between a b i r d ' s song as heard i n an o r d i n a r y n i g h t dream and the b i r d ' s song as heard upon awakening. The f o c u s on the beauty o f the song has not changed, but the wo r l d view which c o n d i t i o n s the na tu re o f the r e a l i t y o f the expe r i ence h a s . In f a c t , the development o f the dream metaphor i n Canad ian p o e t r y f rom the h i g h v i s i o n a r y dream o f Rober t s to the s c a t t e r e d r e f e r e n c e s t o the d ream 's " c h e a t s and d e l u s i o n s " i n S c o t t i s b a s i c a l l y p a r a l l e l t o the development o f t h i s same metaphor i n the works o f John K e a t s . K e a t s ' p o e t r y moves f rom a y o u t h f u l p r eoc cupa t i on w i t h the h i g h dream t o a l a t e r awareness t h a t t he dream o f beauty S c o t t , Poems, p . 276. 136 cannot a lways be equated w i t h the r e a l o r the t r u e . 1 0 ^ C o n -s e q u e n t l y , i n h i s l a s t work, "The F a l l o f H y p e r i o n " , t he r e i s a v i o l e n t condemnat ion o f ".the dreamer t r i b e " . The wo r ld view c a r r i e d by the dream metaphor i s e s s e n t i a l l y one o f a t w o - t i e r e d u n i v e r s e w i t h heaven above and e a r t h below and the dream as a way between. F o r R o b e r t s , the myth i s e v o l u t i o n a r y i n n a t u r e ; the germ o f l i f e e vo l v e s upward f i n a l l y r e t u r n i n g t o God. In t h i s s t r u c t u r e , the g rea t aeons o f g e o l o g i c a l t ime r e v e a l e d by s c i ence serve as a r eassu rance o f God ' s g r ea t and e v o l v i n g p l a n . Fo r Lampman, f o c u s i s p l a c e d i n the e v o l u t i o n o f the s o u l here on e a r t h th rough which man a t tempts t o improve h i m s e l f and the g r e a t spaces o f g e o l o g i c a l t ime are a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the m a r v e l l o u s work wh ich i s the upward movement o f the s o u l and a l s o w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l misuse o f C h r i s t i a n i t y . In t h i s schema"; i, Lampman e x h i b i t s a d u a l awareness ; he can no l o n g e r b o l d l y a s s e r t assurance o f G o d ' s p l a n as c o u l d R o b e r t s ; the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l b a s i s o f the dream i s not den i ed but emphasis i s l a i d on the dream as the p o e t ' s way, here on e a r t h , o f apprehend ing e x p e r i e n c e . A s p e c t s o f bo th R o b e r t s ' and Lampman's thought meet i n S c o t t ' s p o e t r y . H i s wor ld i s s t i l l e s s e n t i a l l y t w o - t i e r e d , t h a t o f the r e a l and the i d e a l , but l i k e Lampman., he i s chary o f the t r a n s c e n d e n t a l e x p e r i e n c e , a n d i n h i s l a t e r p o e t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y The Green C l o i s t e r , the i d e a l comes w i t h i n the ^^A ve ry c o n v i n c i n g case f o r t h i s p o i n t o f view i s made i n The P r e f i g u r a t i v e Imag ina t ion o f John Kea ts by Newel l F. F o r d , Archon Books, Hamden, C o n n e c t i c u t , 1966. 137. c o n f i n e s o f the r e a l . H i s p r ima r y p o s i t i o n as a t r a n s i t i o n a l w r i t e r between the Romant ic ism o f the 1880*s and the new " r e a l i s m " o f the 1920*s i s emphasized by the f a c t t h a t t he r e i s no meet ing between the two main f i g u r e s o f h i s p o e t r y , the I nd i an and the A n g e l . T h i s , t o g e t h e r w i th the f a c t t h a t the poet as a s p i r i n g s o u l cannot d i s c o v e r the " i n a p p e l l a b l e s e c r e t " would suggest t h a t the two wo r l d s o f the r e a l and the i d e a l can o n l y be b r i d g e d th rough the " m a g i c " o f a r t . I t i s r e v e a l i n g t o o , t h a t the g r e a t spaces o f the w o r l d ' s t i m e , which had p o s i t i v e c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r Rober t s and d u a l c o n n o t a t i o n s f o r Lampman, a re p r i m a r i l y n e g a t i v e i n S c o t t . The g r e a t spaces o f the w o r l d ' s t ime i n d i c a t e f o r S c o t t t h a t the w o r l d i s growing o l d and w i l l soon d i e . The e v o l u t i o n a r y wor ld has become a d y i n g w o r l d . Pe rhaps , f o r a poet work ing w i th a p a r t i c u l a r metaphor which a l r e a d y c a r r i e d a p r e- fo rmu l a t ed wor ld v iew, no o t h e r development was p o s s i b l e . When a poet works w i t h i n a metaphor i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t i d e n t i f i e s the e a r t h w i t h a growing t h i n g , once f r u i t i o n has been r e c o g n i z e d , t h i s metaphor o f growth must complete the n a t u r a l p r o c e s s and " d i e " . I t i s e s s e n t i a l l y t h i s s t r u c t u r e which S c o t t p r e s e n t s a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f " L i n e s i n Memory o f Edmund M o r r i s " and "The November P a n s y " . S i g n i f i c a n t -l y , i n bo th these poems, the hope o f new l i f e i s no l o n g e r a metaphor t aken f rom the i d e a l wor ld s u g g e s t i n g r e l i g i o u s a f t e r -l i f e , but r a t h e r a " s e e d " o r " k e r n e l " s u g g e s t i n g t h a t c o n t i n u i n g l i f e i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the v e g e t a t i v e o r r e a l w o r l d . S i m i l a r phenomena i n r e f e r e n c e to the metaphor o f growth and decay can 138. be no ted i n r e f e r e n c e t o the E l i z a b e t h a n " g o l d e n age " o f l anguage ; i t i s d e s c r i b e d i n works o f the p e r i o d as r e a c h i n g i t s " f r u i t i o n " a t the t u r n o f the 17th century , but l a t e r i n t o the c e n t u r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the w r i t i n g s o f the C i v i l War, i t i s d e s c r i b e d as " d e c a y i n g " . I t might be suggested t h a t something o f t h a t na tu re happens i n the r e l a t i o n between the dream metaphor and the wor ld i n Canadian p o e t r y . As l o n g as the p o e t ' s r e l i g i o u s f a i t h remains cons tan t and the wor ld does no t g r e a t l y impinge upon h im, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o h o l d to the concept o f an e v o l v i n g wor ld where a l l i s under G o d ' s g r ea t p l a n . But w i t h the t u r n i n t o the 20th C e n t u r y , the pess imism engendered by World War I and the movement away f rom C h r i s t i a n i t y i n the p o p u l a r m ind , i t was no l o n g e r p o s s i b l e t o b e l i e v e t h a t the wor ld was g e t t i n g b e t t e r and b e t t e r every day . The metaphor o f decay o r r e t r o g r e s s i o n i s a l o g i c a l next s t e p , and i t i s one which comes t o be p a r t i c u l a r l y s t r e s s e d i n the major work o f t h i s p e r i o d , E . J . P r a t t ' s T i t a n i c . Wi th r e f e r e n c e t o the p o e t r y produced under the a e g i s o f the dream metaphor , i t has some obv i ous d i s a d v a n t a g e s . A l t hough i t d i d p r o v i d e Rober ts w i t h a conven ien t v i a media f o r d e a l i n g w i t h contemporary p h i l o s o p h i c a l p rob lems , i t a l s o a l l owed an escape f rom l i f e by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the " i d e a l " ; o n l y i n Rober ts* poems o f the New Brunswick c o u n t r y s i d e i s t he re a c o n s i s t e n t at tempt to b r i n g i n d e t a i l s o f contemporary r e a l i t y . E s s e n t i a l l y , I agree w i t h Wa l l a ce S tevens when he s t a t e s f l a t l y t h a t a l l p o e t r y i s " e s c a p e " f rom the wo r ld i n 139. the sense t h a t p o e t r y i s a r t , " a c o n s t r u c t o f the i m a g i n a t i o n " , and not conc re t e r e a l i t y . 1 1 0 Y e t , p a r a d o x i c a l l y , one o f the pr ime v a l u e s o f p o e t r y i s t h a t t h i s escape f rom l i f e a l s o p r o v i d e s the chance f o r a c l o s e r g r i p on r e a l i t y . P o e t r y , i n o r d e r t o be c o n v i n c i n g , must d e a l w i t h what we r e c o g n i z e as the " r e a l " ; i t has the o p p o r t u n i t y t o do t h i s by i s o l a t i n g the i s s u e s o f l i f e f rom t h e i r u s u a l c o n t e x t s and p r e s e n t i n g them i n such a way t h a t t hey may be examined more c l o s e l y than i s p o s s i b l e under the p r e s s u r e o f every day r e a l i t y . Consequen t l y , p o e t r y , the escape f rom r e a l i t y , u l t i m a t e l y becomes a way o f c o n f r o n t i n g t h i s same r e a l i t y . Rober ts* p o e t i c myth o f the " d r eam" i s based on the premise t h a t escape f rom a l l t h a t "weary b u r t h e n " o f the 19th cen tu ry wo r ld was p o s s i b l e and indeed d e s i r a b l e . He a c cep ted i K e a t s ' y o u t h f u l f o r m u l a t i o n w i thout r e a l i z i n g t h a t t h i s metaphor had changed w i th the p o e t ' s m a t u r i t y i n t o an a s s e r t i o n t h a t p o e t r y t o be mean ing fu l must d e a l w i t h the " r e a l " i s s u e s t h a t t r o u b l e man and s o c i e t y . Consequen t l y , R o b e r t s ' p o e t r y c o n -c e n t r a t e s on the d ream's escape va lue w i thou t r e g a r d t o the more i n t e n s i f i e d r e a l i t y which Keats had r e c o g n i z e d i n Shakespeare . T h i s development i s p a r t i c u l a r l y e v i den t i n "The * ? Tantramar R e v i s i t e d " where Rober ts adop ts the Wordsworthian stance o f " T i n t e r n Abbey" ye t r e f u s e s to f a c e up t o the main i s s u e — t h e cause o f h i s vague so r row—as Wordsworth d i d . l l u W a l l a c e S tevens , The Necessary A n g e l , Faber and Fabe r , London, 1951, p . 30. 140. Instead he prefers to "dream" from a distance. "The Tantramar Revisited" succeeds despite t h i s , because of i t s charm of description and the vague nostalgia of the ubi sunt motif, but the great bulk of Roberts* verse i s not redeemed i n t h i s manner. This i s not to suggest that Roberts might have been a Wordsworth had he evolved a better metaphor; nevertheless, he might have written more poetry of the qua l i t y of h i s f i r s t book (Orion  _and Other Poems) and h i s l a s t (The Iceberg and Other Poems) had he not s a c r i f i c e d a l l else to the comfort of the dream and so imposed upon the external world h i s own i n t e r n a l poetic myth. Lampman, on the other hand, does see the world outside, and hi s poetry i s a combination of both external and i n t e r n a l v i s i o n . He circumnavigates most of the dangers of the dream by anchoring i t securely to earth i n association with the poet*s stance i n nature. S i m i l a r l y , Scott, although he explo i t s the supernatural "magic" of the dream more than Roberts, ultimately recognizes that the dream i s not r e a l i t y . We remember Roberts as the h i s t o r i c a l "public poet" and f o r the charm of "The Tantramar Revisited"? but we remember Scott, as we do Lampman, f o r h i s statements on the e f f o r t and persistence required i n human l i f e by a d i f f i c u l t world which i s r e a l , not dream, and not to be evaded. 141. CHAPTER THREE FROM STEEL TO STONE New P r o v i n c e s (1936) , the Canad ian p o e t i c man i f es to o f the 1930*s , i s p r e f a c e d by an account o f the ach ievements o f the "new p o e t r y " and an e x p l a n a t i o n o f i t s r e l a t i o n w i t h s o c i e t y : . . . t h e "new p o e t r y " i s now a q u a r t e r o f a c en tu r y o l d . I t s two main ach ievements have been a d e v e l o p -ment o f new t e c h n i q u e s and a w iden ing o f p o e t i c i n t e r e s t beyond the narrow range o f the l a t e Romantic and e a r l y Georg ian p o e t s . Equ ipped w i t h a f r e e r d i c t i o n and more e l a s t i c f o rms , the mode rn i s t s sought a conten t which would more v i v i d l y exp ress the wor ld about them. T h i s sea r ch f o r new content was l e s s s u c c e s s f u l than had been the sea r ch f o r new t e c h n i q u e s , and by the end o f the l a s t decade the mode rn i s t s movement was f r u s t r a t e d f o r want o f d i r e c t i o n . In t h i s , p o e t r y was r e f l e c t i n g the a im l e s sness o f i t s s o c i a l env i ronment . In c o n f r o n t i n g the wo r ld w i t h the need t o r e s t o r e o r d e r out o f s o c i a l chaos , the economic d e p r e s s i o n has r e l e a s e d human e n e r g i e s by g i v i n g them a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . i Of the s i x poe t s i n c l u d e d i n t h i s a n t h o l o g y — R o b e r t F i n c h , Leo Kennedy, A . M . K l e i n , E . J . P r a t t , F .R. S c o t t and A . J . M . S m i t h -P r a t t , K l e i n and S c o t t a re p a r t i c u l a r l y n o t a b l e f o r t h e i r c o n t i n u i n g p o e t i c i n f l u e n c e . From the p e r s p e c t i v e o f the 1960*s , the dominan t l y " a r t i s t i c " p o e t r y o f F i n c h and Kennedy has dropped out o f s i g h t , •^ -New P r o v i n c e s . Poems o f S e v e r a l A u t h o r s , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1936, p. v . 142. while Smith's t e c h n i c a l i n t e r e s t s , although r e f l e c t e d i n the metaphysical wit of P.K. Page, and, l a t t e r l y , P h y l l i s Webb, have been superseded by the more d i r e c t influence of h i s mentor, T.S. E l i o t , i n the works of contemporaries such as Leonard Cohen and Daryl Hine. As a r e s u l t , Smith's primary influence i s now that of m a s t e r - c r i t i c - i n - e x i l e . But the stronger, more nationally-minded voices of Pratt, Klein, and Scott are s t i l l to be heard i n the contemporary works of Earle Birney, Leonard Cohen and Margaret Avison. As the preface to New Provinces indicates, the concerns of t h i 3 group r e f l e c t the s h i f t i n B r i t i s h poetry from the misty l a t e Romantic landscape of the Georgians to the stark landscapes of an Owen or an E l i o t where the world i s the bleak-ness of the human condition made large. A f t e r the 1930's, t h i s human landscape i s interpreted primarily i n terms of man i n h i s s o c i a l , often urban, environment and with reference to h i s ri g h t to economic j u s t i c e . Together with t h i s new world f o r poetry, there i s a corresponding desire to f i n d new techniques, new st y l e s and new metaphors, which would adequately express t h i s world. The major work of the 1920's and 30»s i n Canadian poetry begins with E.J. P r a t t . His f i r s t major book, Newfoundland Verse (1923), i s a curious blend of the Georgians and Wilfred Owen i n that i t combines Wordsworthian pastoral ("Rachel'') with a confrontation of the horrors of war, p a r t i c -u l a r l y i n reference to the metaphor of blood ("Ode to December, 1917"). There also emerges i n Newfoundland Verse a strong 143. native stream characterized by a convincing picture of a hard landscape, a brutal nature of which man i s a part, yet against which he must struggle, both i n t e r n a l l y and externally. This e x i s t e n t i a l grappling with the environment i s most often assoc-iated with the human capacity f o r e v i l . The s o c i a l landscape i s always present i n Pratt, but he most often prefers, as does E l i o t i n h i s use of a dominantly B i b l i c a l landscape i n The  Waste Land, to use the older poetic forms of nature such as "wilderness" and "sea" as analogues f o r the contemporary s o c i a l s i t u a t i o n . A.M. Klein, l i k e Pratt, i s also writing out of the E l i o t t r a d i t i o n , but i n addition he brings to h i s work the r i c h heritage of Judaism. As a r e s u l t , the landscapes of h i s poetry, such as that of "Design For a Medieval Tapestry", are most often from events or myths i n the Jewish past and serve to illuminate the position of the persecuted Jew just p r i o r to and during World War I I . Like Pratt, K l e i n speaks out against the a t a v i s t i c b r u t a l i t y of man and c r i e s f o r understanding and the restoration of f a i t h . F.R. Scott, the t h i r d poet of t h i s group, i s one whose orientation i s primarily entre l e s guerres. Like Auden, he i s able to view the e v i l s of economic depression and world war with more equanimity than can either Pratt or K l e i n f a s he sees such events as an "overture" to a new world. In t h i s con-nection, i t i s ill u m i n a t i n g to compare two poems from New  Provinces, Pratt's "Seen On The Road" and Scott's "Overture". 144 In Pratt's work, the world i s old and dying, "the wastrel", "tattered and planet-wise and f a r from w e l l " , being drawn by a tumbril and "heading f o r an ammunition dump". In Scott's poem, the happenings of the old world, symbolized by music, are dismissed: But how s h a l l I hear ol d music? This i s an hour Of new beginnings, concepts warring f o r power, Decay of systems - the tissue of art i s t o r n 3 With overtures of an era being born. Like Auden and Spender, Scott o f f e r s the e x p l i c i t s o c i a l land-scape of poems such as " E f f i c i e n c y " , and, l i k e E l i o t , the r e l i g i o u s - s o c i a l structure of poems such as "Calvary" and "March F i e l d " . Yet running through h i s work i s a s t r a i n of Northern landscapes, which, l i k e P r a t t ' s primaeval sea,are associated with geological timelessness,and l i k e Birney's derivative "Ellesmereland", a're'eimpervdousrtio.man. I E.J. Pratt Along the a r t e r i a l highways, Through the cross-roads and t r a i l s of the veins They are ever on the move -Incarnate s t r i f e , Reflecting i n v i c t o r y , deadlock and defeat, The outer campaigns of the world, But without t a c t i c s , without strategy. 2New Provinces, p. 46 ^ I b i d . . p. 61. 145 C r e a t u r e s o f p r i m a l f o r c e , W i th s a u r i a n impact And v i r u s o f the hamadryads, The mic robes war w i t h leucocytes. Once i t was f l o o d and d rough t , l i g h t n i n g and storm and ea r thquake , Those hoary execu to r s o f the w i l l o f God, That p l anned the monuments f o r human f a i t h . Wow, r a t h e r , i t i s t hese s i l e n t and i n v i s i b l e m i n i s t e r s , T e a s i n g the ea r o f P rov idence And l e v e l l i n g out the ho l l ows o f H i s hands , That pose the q u e r i e s f o r H i s mora l government. E . J . P r a t t , f rom "Under the L e n s " . E . J . P r a t t ' s ode The I r on Door (1927) p r o v i d e s a good t r a n s i t i o n f rom the poe t s o f the 1880 ' s t o those o f the 1920*s and 1930 ' s because i t i s a poem which has i t s r o o t s i n the e a r l i e r g roup , y e t i n development i t sugges ts the fundamenta l concerns o f P r a t t ' s l a t e r work . L i k e i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s , S i r C h a r l e s G .D . R o b e r t s ' poem "Beyond the Tops o f T ime" and Duncan Campbel l S c o t t ' s "The C l o s e d D o o r " , The I r on Door was o c c a s i o n e d by the dea th o f a c l o s e r e l a t i v e , i n P r a t t ' s case by the dea th o f h i s mother . In deve lopment , The I ron Door combines a s p e c t s o f bo th e a r l i e r works ; i t i s a dream v i s i o n as i s R o b e r t s ' poem, and i t deve lops the p r imary concern o f S c o t t ' s l y r i c , the q u e s t i o n o f whether o r no t the c l o s e d door (death) w i l l open t o r e v e a l l o v e d ones . Rober ts a f f i r m s t h a t such r e v e l a t i o n can take p l a c e , but S c o t t ' s p o s i t i o n i s w i thou t hope : 146. The dew f a l l s and the s t a r s f a l l , The sun f a l l s i n the west , But never more Through the c l o s e d d o o r , S h a l l the one t h a t I l o v e d b e s t ^ Re turn to me. P r a t t ' s ode does a f f i r m t h a t the door w i l l open , but p a r a d o x -i c a l l y h i s a f f i r m a t i o n i s made i n the absence , r a t h e r than i n the p r e s e n c e , o f hope . The s e t t i n g o f P r a t t ' s poem, l i k e t h a t o f R o b e r t s ' , i s on a h i g h c l i f f where a p p e l l a n t s come t o ques t i on the v a l u e s they have l i v e d b y . P r a t t ' s i ndeb tedness t o Rober t s i s e x p l i c i t i n the f o l l o w i n g c i t a t i o n f rom "Beyond The Tops o f T i m e " : A sea o f f a c e s then I saw, Of men who had been , men l o n g dead . F i g u r e d w i t h dreams o f j o y and awe The heavens u n r o l l e d i n lambent r e d ; Whi le f a r below the f a c e s c r i e d -" G i v e us the dream f o r which we d i e d l " ? In P r a t t ' s v e r s i o n , the hopes o f the p e t i t i o n e r s a t the i r o n door a re a s s o c i a t e d w i t h " v a i n c r e d u l i t i e s " , whereas Rober ts* poem p r e s e n t s the more p o s i t i v e "d ream" o f e t e r n a l v a l u e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , the a p o c a l y p t i c dream s e t t i n g , the p o e t * s p e r -s p e c t i v e and the development o f bo th poems a r e the same a l t hough P r a t t does deve lop the theme o f p o s s i b l e i m m o r t a l i t y w i t h more s u b t l e t y than does R o b e r t s . The I ron Door a l s o d i f f e r s f rom S c o t t * s work i n t h a t the p e r s o n a l g r i e f which p r e c i p i t a t e d the ^•Duncan Campbel l S c o t t , Lundy*s Lane , p. 145. ^Char l e s G .D . R o b e r t s , New York Noc tu rnes , p . 50 147. poem i s no t a l l owed t o dominate but i s subo rd i na t ed t o an e x p o s i t i o n o f the P a u l i n e "hope 1* o f redempt ion as i t p e r t a i n s to the g e n e r a l human c o n d i t i o n . In P r a t t ' s ode , the p o e t - n a r r a t o r comes t o a p o r t a l which i s wrought " c r u c i f o r m " but above which i s ca rved as i f i n " i r o n i c j e s t " a s k u l l . The c r o s s i s the t r a d i t i o n a l C h r i s t i a n hope o f i m m o r t a l i t y ; th rough C h r i s t ' s dea th on the c r o s s man i s a s su red t h a t he w i l l no l o n g e r d i e . Yet t h i s symbol superseded by the d e a t h ' s head i s a g r im reminder o f human dea th and m o r t a l i t y . By t h i s combina t ion o f symbols , P r a t t e s t a b l i s h e s a d u a l i s m i m p l i c i t i n h i s view o f the i r o n door which i s d e a t h . The major concern o f the poem would seem to be e s c h a t o l o g i c a l , " I s t he r e immor ta l l i f e beyond d e a t h ? " . A l l o f the a p p e l l a n t s a t the door express a s p e c t s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n . The s m a l l boy w i t h h i s dog i s c o n f i d e n t t h a t h i s " f a t h e r " can r e s t o r e i t t o l i f e , the Mas te r M a r i n e r wants to know what " c o d e s " p r e v a i l i n t h a t unknown s e a , does redempt ion go on t he r e as i t does on the h i g h seas o f l i f e ? The woman whom we b e l i e v e t o r e p r e s e n t P r a t t ' s mother i s a s s o c i a t e d w i th f a i t h . She b e l i e v e s t h a t beyond the i r o n door she w i l l f i n d those who have gone b e f o r e . The young man who has s a c r i f i c e d h i s l i f e t o save ano the r , d o u b t s , and he p u t s the q u e s t i o n d i r e c t l y : 148 L i f e f o r a l i f e I The g r im e q u i v a l e n t Was vouched f o r by a sac red p r e c e d e n t ; But why the one who shou ld have been redeemed Shou ld a l s o pay the p r i c e In the mutual s a c r i f i c e , Was what he wished to know, , And urged upon the i r o n , blow by b low. In one s e n s e , why shou ld the young man he had g i v e n h i s l i f e t o save , a l s o d ie? In the l a r g e r p e r s p e c t i v e o f the poem, why shou ld man d i e i f C h r i s t has a l r e a d y p a i d the p r i c e and d i e d f o r him? The young man, a s s o c i a t e d w i t h C h r i s t i a n i t y , i s f o l l o w e d a t the doo r by an a g n o s t i c and D e i s t . The D e i s t a r t i s t c o n -c l u d e s t h a t the C r e a t o r * s power, now spen t , has run down i n the absence o f a p l a n . In h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , the whole concept o f C h r i s t i a n hope and i m m o r t a l i t y i s now r e p r e s e n t e d i n the i r o n door as " a grave s tone and an i r o n monument**. The p h i l o s o p h e r a g n o s t i c who has pursued a l l p h i l o s o p h i c systems i n an at tempt to f i n d " t r u t h " f i n d s assurance i n no sys tem; a l l pathways c o n -verge a t the i r o n d o o r , the u l t i m a t e u n k n o w a b i l i t y o f d e a t h . He conc ludes w i t h s t o i c f o r t i t u d e t h a t " t h e whole cosmic l i e was p r e d i s p o s e d " . T h i s e x p o s i t i o n o f wo r ld systems i s f o l l o w e d by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e humani ty , c r y i n g out t o " t h e unhea r ing ea r s o f God" and knock ing i m p o r t u n a t e l y upon the i r o n d o o r : " I t might have been the g rea t / c rescendo f rom the wor ld o f human s o u l s " ^ ^Th i s and a l l succeed ing r e f e r e n c e s t o E . J . P r a t t , The I ron  Door . An Ode . T o r o n t o , M a c M i l l a n , 1927. 149. ••• a woman's f a c e E roded w i th much p e r i s h i n g . The same dark burden under which the r a ce Reaches o l d age l a y s t r apped upon he r s o u l : -That which c o l l e c t s i n s i l e n c e a l l the shame, Through h idden passages o f t ime and b l o o d , That pu t s the open s t igma o f the blame Upon a s p o t l e s s name. Why i s i t t h a t good comes e v i l , t h a t f rom the dawn o f the human r a c e , " t h r o u g h h idden passages o f t ime and b l o o d " the " t o r t u o u s o s t ream" o f human g e n e r a t i o n has the c a p a c i t y f o r p r o d u c i n g a " C a i n " ? Fu r the rmore , why i s i t t h a t a l l he r " p a i n " and " l o v e " cannot atone f o r the g rea t " s t a i n " o f e v i l i n the b l o o d l i n e ? In the l a r g e s t sense , t h i s passage sugges ts the u n i v e r s a l problem o f e v i l and i t ha rks back t o the e a r l i e r query o f the young man. Why i s t he r e e v i l i n the wo r ld as r e p r e s e n t e d by s i n and death? why i s i t so i n e x p l i c a b l y c a r r i e d a l ong the human b l o o d s t ream,and can i t e ve r be redeemed? The p o e t ' s s tance as he obse rves the woman's c r y i s compass ionate but s k e p t i c a l ; " b u t what a v a i l e d . 1 / a woman's c r y a g a i n s t the a r r e s t / o f hope when every r u b r i c p a l e d / b e f o r e the Theban mockery o f the c r e s t " ? In e f f e c t , how can one c o n -t i n u e t o hope i n C h r i s t i a n i m m o r t a l i t y when f a c e d w i th the g r im presence o f death? Yet i n t h i s da rkes t moment, even as the poet watches , " i n my dream the door began t o move" . He wonders i f i t was a s p e l l b roken , " a f o o l ' s b e l i e f i n the i n c r e d i b l e , / j o i n e d up t o the sound ing magic o f a name" which makes up the " s t u f f o f m i r a c l e " ? Was i t t he young man 's c l a i m on l i f e , the o l d C a p t a i n ' s h a i l , the woman's f a i t h , the c h i l d ' s e n t r e a t y o r 150. t h a t l a s t despe ra te argument: " I t s s t r ange unreason might be made t o prove / the case f o r l i f e b e f o r e the th rone o f dea th " ? The poet q u a l i f i e s t h i s s tatement by s a y i n g "I do not know", but h i s emphasis on the " s t r a n g e un reason " o f the woman's p l e a coup led w i t h he r e a r l i e r i n s i s t e n c e a g a i n s t the " a r r e s t o f hope" when eve ry C h r i s t i a n d o c t r i n e p a l e d a g a i n s t the f a c t o f the s i n and d e a t h , e s t a b l i s h e s the framework o f the P a u l i n e f o r m u l a t i o n o f " h o p e " i n r e l a t i o n t o the redempt ion o f the body . Fo r we are saved by hope: but hope t h a t i s seen i s no t hope : f o r what a man s e e t h , why doth he ye t hope f o r ? Romans 8:24 There i s no hope , ye t p a r a d o x i c a l l y man must i n s i s t on hope " f o r we a re saved by h o p e " . The r e p r e s e n t a t i v e woman c r y i n g out f o r " h o p e " when t he r e i s no hope i s saved by hope when the door opens to h e r . In t h i s o p e n i n g , redempt ion and a t o n i n g l o v e a re a f f i r m e d and the p r imary s t r u c t u r e o f The I ron Door can be seen t o be a s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d e x p o s i t i o n o f P a u l i n e t h e o l o g y . I t i s pe rhaps not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t P r a t t quotes Pau l i n r e f e r e n c e t o an e s c h a t o l o g i c a l q u e s t i o n when i t i s r e c a l l e d t h a t he completed the r equ i r ements f o r h i s d o c t o r a t e i n P h i l o s o p h y w i th a d i s s e r t a t i o n on P a u l i n e e s c h a t o l o g y . 7 A l though the development o f The I ron Door , l i k e t h a t o f Rober ts* poem "Beyond The Tops o f Time*1, conc ludes w i t h the 7 E . J . P r a t t , S t u d i e s i n P a u l i n e E s c h a t o l o g y and i t s Background. T o r o n t o , W. B r i g g s , 1917. 151. transcendent v i s i o n , i t i s not possible to ignore the ambiguity of Pratt's p o s i t i o n . The whole experience i s s p e c i f i c a l l y contained i n a "dream", and i t i s a dream which i s undercut by contrast with the r e a l i t y of " t e r r e s t r i a l day". Furthermore the affirmation of The Iron Door i s not one i n which the poet can share. Although he sees " l i g h t " and "immortal l i f e " on the transfigured faces of those who enter, i t i s not given to him to read "the faded symbols of the page which keeps / t h i s hoary r i d d l e of the dead". In effect, with the closing of the door, he i s l e f t behind as are those who s i t at the bedside of a loved one who has just died with f a i t h : And I was l e f t alone, aware Of blindness f a l l i n g with t e r r e s t r i a l day Of sight enfeebled by the solar glare. The importance of The Iron Door i n E.J. Pratt's work i s two-fold. In the f i r s t place, i t suggests a continuity of development i n Canadian poetry between the poets of the 1880»s and those of the 1920's hitherto not c r i t i c a l l y suggested. Secondly, i t points up the recurrent concerns of Pratt's work, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n rel a t i o n s h i p to his modified Chr i s t i a n world view and also with reference to his primary metaphor of the blood l i n e as i t i s associated with human e v i l and the hope of redemption. Pratt has usually been regarded as a "sport" i n Canadian poetry, a roast-beef-and-whiskey mutant of epic proportions whb came from places of l i t e r a r y unknown to produce an e n t i r e l y o r i g i n a l poetry. Corollary to t h i s i s the concept that the 152. p o e t r y o f the 1 9 2 0 , s and 3 0 * s i n d i c a t e d an e n t i r e l y new d i r e c t i o n i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n p o e t r y . Yet t h i s t h e o r y does not seem t o be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h p o e t i c f a c t . T . S . E l i o t ' s i n f l u e n c e on P r a t t and the A u d e n - E l i o t i n f l u e n c e on A . J . M . Smi th , F.R. S c o t t , P.K. Page and Leonard Cohen i s no s t r o n g e r than t h a t o f the Wordsworth-Keats-Emerson-Poe i n f l u e n c e s on R o b e r t s , Carman, Lampman, Campbel l and D .C . S c o t t . Fu r the rmore , t h i s does not i n i t s e l f c o n s t i t u t e a "new" k i n d o f p o e t r y when t h e r e i s r u n n i n g p a r a l l e l t o i t a c o n t i n u i n g " n a t i v e " t r a d i t i o n which seems t o pass a l o n g th rough R o b e r t s , Lampman and S c o t t , i n t o P r a t t and th rough P r a t t i n t o F.R. S c o t t , E a r l e B i r n e y , A . M . K l e i n , Leonard Cohen and Margare t A v i s o n . C e r t a i n l y , E . J . P r a t t was q u i t e f a m i l i a r w i t h h i s p o e t i c p r e d e c e s s o r s and the concerns o f h i s p o e t r y , a l t hough more s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e o l o g i c a l i n f o r m u l a t i o n than those o f R o b e r t s , Lampman and S c o t t , i n d i c a t e t h a t he c o n s i d e r e d h i m s e l f p a r t o f the c o n t i n u i n g t r a d i t i o n . E . J . P r a t t comes t o Canadian p o e t r y w i t h d u a l f rames o f r e f e r e n c e ; t he h e r o i c awareness and s t r o n g r e l i g i o u s f a i t h which i s the b i r t h r i g h t o f a m i n i s t e r ' s son growing up i n a sma l l Newfoundland o u t p o r t i n the e a r l y 1 9 0 0 ' s , and the s c i e n t i f i c c u r i o s i t y and s k e p t i c a l frame o f mind which i s almost i n v a r i a b l y the l o t o f a young man who l e a v e s a remote f i s h i n g v i l l a g e i n Western Bay f o r the f a i t h - s h a t t e r i n g e x p e r -i ence o f a modern e d u c a t i o n i n the twentiethucenturyiniachineoSge o f " u p a l o n g " i n T o r o n t o , ?.•?-•• . i . I t was a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toron to t h a t P r a t t f i r s t became i n t e r e s t e d i n the new t w e n t i e t h cen tu ry p s y c h o l o g y , 153. s p e c i f i c a l l y the dominan t l y m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y o f Wi lhe lm Wundt. Wundt moved the t h e o r y o f m o t i v a t i o n f rom the e x t e r n a l wor ld ( c ausa t i on ) t o the i n t e r n a l p h y s i o l o g i c a l wo r ld by sugges t i ng t h a t human response was ve r y l i k e t h a t o f the machine except i n comp lex i t y o f mechan i ca l f u n c t i o n . The importance o f t h i s concept t o the young t h e o l o g i a n P r a t t , a l r e a d y h i g h l y d i s t u r b e d by the human e v i l man i f e s t ed by World War I (and i f t he re i s a God, why does He permi t e v i l ? ) ^ i s s imp l y t h a t i f Wundt*s m e c h a n i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y i s t o be accep ted and human responses can be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y e x p l a i n e d by p h y s i o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , the mora l law has become m e c h a n i s t i c a l l y i n t e r n a l -i z e d and a wor ld view has been e s t a b l i s h e d i n which God i s no l o n g e r r e q u i r e d . I t seems p o s s i b l e t h a t Wundt*s p h i l o s o p h y as w e l l as P r a t t * s own r e l i g i o u s doubts t o g e t h e r combined t o conv ince the poet t h a t he no l o n g e r had a c a l l i n g t o the m i n i s t r y . T h i s l e d t o h i s d e c i s i o n t o change h i s f i e l d o f s t u d i e s f rom t h e o l o g y t o p s y c h o l o g y . In 1919, a t the i n v i t a t i o n o f Pelham Edgar , P r a t t j o i n e d the E n g l i s h Department o f V i c t o r i a C o l l e g e a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f Toronto and remained the re f o r h i s whole p o e t i c c a r e e r . P r a t t * s d e c i s i o n t h a t he might f i n d a more c o n g e n i a l home i n the human i t i e s r a t h e r than i n p sy cho logy was perhaps *HiTilhelm Wundt, L e c t u r e s on Human and An ima l P s y cho logy . T r a n s l a t e d f rom the 2nd German e d . by J . E . C r e i g h t o n and Edward T i c h e n e r , New York , 1901 . Fo r Wundt*s m e c h a n i s t i c e x p o s i t i o n o f m o r a l i t y , see E t h i c s : An I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f the F a c t s and Laws o f  The Mora l L i f e . T r a n s l a t e d f rom the 2nd German e d . (1892) by Edward T i c h e n e r , J u l i a G u l l i v e r and Margare t Washburn, New York , M a c m i l l a n , 1897-1901. 9E . J . P r a t t , " F l a s h l i g h t s and Echoes f rom the y ea r s o f 1914 and 1915" Newfoundland V e r s e . T o r o n t o , Rye rson , 1923, p p . 99-107. 154 conditioned i n part by h i s growing awareness of the weaknesses of Wundt*s psychology. Even i f Wundt Ts system did explain human motivation at the phys i o l o g i c a l and i n s t i n c t i v e l e v e l , Pratt was s t i l l l e f t with the dilemma of man's unfathomable acts, the "strange unreason" of The Iron Door, the i n t e g r a l "something" which may cause the human organism to ac t — e v e n apparently against i t s own advantage. In t h i s process, the i n s t i n c t i v e , mechanistic response of self-preservation i s over-ridden to t r i g g e r a s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g a c t i o n : And some Wavered a moment with the panic urge, But r a l l i e d to attention on the verge Of f l i g h t as i f the r a t t l e of a drum From quarters f a i n t but unmistakable Had put the s t i f f e n i n g i n the blood to check The impulse of the feet, leaving the w i l l No choice between the l i f e b o a t s and the deck.l° In t h i s excerpt from one of the l a s t scenes of The T i t a n i c ( 1935 ) the metaphor i s s t i l l mechanistic, but i t i s a mechanism q u a l i f i e d by reference to a higher i d e a l . In The T i t a n i c the intangible something i s associated with "the r a t t l e of a drum / from quarters f a i n t but unmistakable", and t h i s p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s carried along the bloodstream i n mechanistic response. In Brebeuf and His Brethren ( 1940 ) t h i s same phenomenon i s specif-i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with C h r i s t i a n i t y . The Iroquois, t o r t u r i n g Brebeuf, ravage h i s body " h i s blood...his heart" i n an attempt to seek out the source of h i s motivation. But the poem affirms that the martyr's strength i s not to be found i n human physiology alone: 1 0 E . J . Pratt, The T i t a n i c . Toronto, MacMillan, 1 9 3 5 , p. 3 7 155 But i n the sound of i n v i s i b l e trumpets blowing Around two slabs of board, right-angled, hammered-Q By Roman n a i l s and hung on a Jewish h i l l . The mechanistic response, i n i t s e l f , i s not adequate to explain human motivation although i t may have some r e l a t i o n to the implementation of the action. Consequently, i t i s t h i s e x i s t -e n t i a l "why" which Pratt continually explores. I t i s t h i s impulse which seems to be contained i n the c o n f l i c t of instince and reason (The T i t a n i c ) , savage and c i v i l i z e d (Brebeuf and His Brethren), and the wars of warm and cold-blooded creatures ("The Great Feud"). The primary metaphor f o r t h i s e x p l i c a t i o n i s that of the blood l i n e . In Pratt's published books of poetry, "blood", which appears 265 times, i s the primary noun and has the same significance i n Pratt's poetic myth as that of "dream" i n Roberts' world view. Clustered about the metaphor of blood are a series of related nouns: "vein", "artery", "love", "hate", " i n s t i n c t " and "reason". As might be expected, "red" (with variants of "crimson" and "sca r l e t " ) i s the dominant colour i n Pratt's work. In Pratt's poetic structure the blood l i n e not only determines the "breed" or "pedigree" of the creature but also the physiological p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r "good" (as i t does, f o r example, f o r such diverse creatures as Carlo, the part-Newfoundland dog, and the Cachalot, and f o r Brebeuf) but i t also ca r r i e s with i t the e v i l or " t a i n t " of the blood or race (Tom, the sea-cat from Zanzibar). I t i s t h i s aspect of the 1 : L E . J . Pratt, Brebeuf and His Brethren, Toronto, MacMillan, 1940, p. 6 4 . 156. b l o o d metaphor , s u g g e s t i n g the B i b l i c a l " s i n s o f the f a t h e r s " , which i s evoked by the woman r e p r e s e n t i n g u n i v e r s a l humanity a t the i r o n door when she asks why " b l o o d " and " t i m e " shou ld always b r i n g f o r t h a " C a i n " . Newfoundland Verse p r e s e n t s s e v e r a l a s p e c t s o f t h i s q u e s t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n s h i p t o the ravages o f Wor ld War One. In " A Fragment f rom a S t o r y " i t i s suggested t h a t such human e v i l i s a " t a i n t " o r " t o x i n " i n the b l o o d , p r e c i p -i t a t e d a t i n t e r v a l s by some s t range c a t a l y s t t o f l o o d the e a r t h w i t h human s a c r i f i c e . 1 2 Yet f rom t h i s s p i l l e d b l o o d , E l i o t -f a s h i o n , w i l l come a new c y c l e o f v e g e t a t i v e and s p i r i t u a l g rowth : "G r an t you not as w e l l / a v a l ue t o a l i f e t h a t ' s l o s t ! " The worst o f human e v i l can a l s o b r i n g f o r t h the h i g h e s t examples o f human h e r o i s m . The poem a f f i r m s t h a t the s e l f - s a c r i f i c i a l b l o o d o f t hose who have g i v e n themse lves w i l l r e s t o r e a new o r d e r . And as i n E l i o t ' s The Waste Land (1922), t he r e i s an a s s o c i a t i o n between s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and the r e s t o r a t i o n df.et&e^l-and. The p r o t o t y p e o f h e r o i c s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i s t h a t o f C h r i s t , but i t i s impor tan t t o note t h a t P r a t t emphasizes p r i m a r i l y the God i n man. As H a r o l d Horwood w r i t e s , " n o t o n l y a l l Gods, but a l l g o d l i n e s s d w e l l s i n the human b r e a s t " . ^ But aga in the c o r o l l a r y t o t h i s might be a d m i t t e d , " n o t o n l y a l l d e v i l s , but a l l demonism can dwe l l i n the human b r e a s t " . U n l i k e Rober t s and. many o f the 1 2 E . J . P r a t t , Newfoundland V e r s e , p . 133. •^Haro ld Horwood, " E . J . P r a t t and W i l l i a m B l a k e : An A n a l y s i s " , The D a l h o u s i e Review. No. 39 (Summer), 1959, p p . 197-207. 157. group o f t h e 1880's P r a t t a d m i t s e v i l b o t h i n man and i n n a t u r e and w i t h h i s work Canadian p o e t r y e n t e r s i n t o i t s t h i r d s t a g e . As i s suggested by t h e s e examples, P r a t t i n t e r n a l i z e s b o t h good and e v i l and a s s o c i a t e s them w i t h a p h y s i o l o g i c a l metaphor o f t h e b l o o d stream. Faced w i t h t h e "storms'* o f l i f e w h i ch P r a t t v a r i o u s l y i d e n t i f i e s w i t h World War One ("December, 1917"), t h e human b a t t l e a g a i n s t t h e sea (The R o o s e v e l t and The A n t i n o e ) , i n t e r n e c i n e a n i m a l c o n f l i c t (The F a b l e o f The G o a t s ) , o r i n t e r n a l human c o n f l i c t (The T i t a n i c ) t h e i n d i v i d u a l c r e a t u r e seems t o have a c h o i c e between the "good" and " e v i l " o f h i s i n h e r e n t n a t u r e : t h e female a n t h r o p o i d ape o f "The G r e a t Feud" p e r v e r t s " r e a s o n " i n h e r d e s i r e f o r revenge, but C y r u s o f The F a b l e o f The Goats f i n d s t h e good i n h i s h i g h e r " r e a s o n " . C o n s e q u e n t l y , as has been e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f o r m u l a t i o n s o f N o r t h r o p F r y e and Desmond Pacey, P r a t t ' s p o e t r y moves "from stone t o s t e e l " o r between t h e e t h i c a l norms o f " t h e temple and t h e c a v e " . - ^ However, t h e p o i n t might be made t h a t t h i s i s not a new d i r e c t i o n i n Canadian p o e t r y ; P r a t t ' s p r o g r e s s i s c o n t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e framework o f t h e o l d e r Darwinism as i t was e s t a b l i s h e d by R o b e r t s and Lampman. The d i f f e r e n c e between P r a t t and h i s p r e d e c e s s o r s (and i n p a r a l l e l development t o t h e l a t e r p o e t r y o f S c o t t ) i s t h a t he c o n t i n u a l l y uses t h e e a r l i e r p r e - f o r m u l a t e d • ^ N o r t h r o p F r y e , E d i t o r ' s I n t r o d u c t i o n , The C o l l e c t e d Poems  o f E . J . P r a t t , r e v i s e d , T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1962, P x x i i i , Desmond Pacey, " E . J . P r a t t " , Ten Canadian P o e t s , pp. 173-175. 158. wor ld view t o suggest i t s o p p o s i t e . "The Great Feud" , as w i l l be l a t e r demons t ra ted , i s a dominant l y a t a v i s t i c s t r u c t u r e emerging f rom the e v o l u t i o n a r y Darwinism o f one o f R o b e r t s 1 l a t e r romances ( In the Morn ing o f T ime. 1919 ) . Rober ts was w r i t i n g o f the e v o l u t i o n o f human p r o g r e s s j u s t as P r a t t was r e c o v e r i n g f rom the e f f e c t s o f Wor ld War I and coming t o the c o n c l u s i o n t h a t man was not p r o g r e s s i n g but perhaps r e t r o -g r e s s i n g . 5^ As a r e s u l t , R o b e r t s 1 a s p i r i n g germ o f l i f e emerges i n P r a t t ' s p o e t r y as a b l o o d c e l l w i t h the p o t e n t i a l f o r a t a v i sm as w e l l as e v o l u t i o n . S i m i l a r l y , the e v o l v i n g wor ld o f Rober ts* The Book o f the Na t i v e (1896) emerges i n P r a t t ' s Newfoundland V e r s e , as i t does i n the l a t e r work o f S c o t t , as a d y i n g wor ld i n danger o f r e v e r s a l t o p r i m i t i v e chaos . A second d i f f e r e n c e between Rober t s and P r a t t i s t h a t the l a t t e r s h i f t s the f o c u s f rom e x t e r n a l t o i n t e r n a l n a t u r e : " t h e f i g h t / w i t h na tu re growing s i m p l e r eve ry hou r , / he r ways b e i n g k n o w n " . M a n , u s i n g the f u l l r e s o u r c e s o f h i s courage , r e a son , and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , c a n r e s i s t the p r i m a l f o r c e s o f the s e a , However, when the p r i m i t i v e f o r c e s o f e x t e r n a l na tu re are i n t e r n a l i z e d w i t h i n man, " t h e s e b l i n d e d r o u t e s " a re a lmost 17 wi thout c u r e ; " t h e t a i n t i s i n the b l o o d " . So t h a t where !5E. J . P r a t t , "Ode t o December, 1 9 1 7 " , Newfoundland V e r s e , p p . 77-8'6. 1 6 E . J . P r a t t , "A Fragment From A S t o r y ? Newfoundland V e r s e , p . 133. * 1 7 I b i d . , p. 133 . 159. Roberts searches external nature f o r the "secret" of "beauty" or " l i f e " , Pratt turns inward i n an attempt to f i n d the e x i s t e n t i a l "why" of human behavior. Because he can no longer f i n d s a t i s f a c t o r y answers i n r e l i g i o u s thought alone t h i s search emerges as an amalgam of r e l i g i o u s a l l u s i o n with con-temporary myth (Darwinism) c a r r i e d by a dominantly mechanistic structure. For example, i n the poem "A Fragment From a Story" the subject matter i s the primal retrogressive carnage of World War I, the encompassing structure i s s i m i l a r to that of the quasi-religious f e r t i l i t y myth of The Waste Land;while the dominant metaphor i s phys i o l o g i c a l , the blood that f e r t i l i z e s the f i e l d s , the " t a i n t " i n the blood which pr e c i p i t a t e d e v i l , the "tangled s a c r i f i c i a l scourge" of the whole event which o f f e r s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r redemption. The debate of t h i s poem i s c a r r i e d on between " J u l i a n " and "Thaddeus". Inasmuch as Thaddeus was the tenth apostle, i t i s not surprising that i n t h i s poem he advocates the Ch r i s t i a n world view, nor i s i t surprising that J u l i a n (the Apostate) i s not able to be e n t i r e l y convinced. The whole structure of t h i s poem would suggest that Pratt was f a m i l i a r e i t h e r with the concept of Jessie L. Weston's From Rit u a l to Romance ( 1920) or that the interworking of h i s own r e l i g i o u s and l i t e r a r y backgrounds spontaneously produced an analagous combination. The t h i r d , and perhaps most important d i s t i n c t i o n to be made between Pratt and h i s predecessors i s that Pratt can no longer see nature e n t i r e l y as a r e f l e c t i o n of God's purpose: 160 0 w i l d , tumul tuous s e a l Thy waters mock our l i t u r g y , Fo r thou dos t take the t h r e a d s o f f a i t h a p a r t , Wherewith the c ab l e s o f our l i f e a re spun , S t rand upon s t r a n d u n r a v e l l i n g ; - thou dos t hea r , R e c i t e d f rom a t ide-wet sho re , Our c r e e d s . Each hope and f e a r F i l t e r e d f rom l i f e ' s c o n f e s s i o n s - one by one , Out o f the dumb c o n f u s i o n s o f the h e a r t , A re spread b e f o r e t h y s i g h t - thou A r c h - I n q u i s i t o r I How i n a r u t h l e s s moment dost t hou s t r i p The v e i l i n g s f rom ou r e y e s ? and b i d us c a s t i g Our g l a n c e s on a l a b y r i n t h i n e p a s t . T h i s q u o t a t i o n f rom " S e a - V a r i a t i o n s " , which i s g i v e n i n connec t i on w i th the sea as a d e a t h - b r i n g i n g d e s t r o y e r , seems t o evoke t h a t aspec t o f na tu re which P r a t t was l a t e r t o d e s c r i b e as " t h e i r o n i c enigma o f na tu re and i t s r e l a t i o n to the C h r i s t i a n v iew o f the wor ld " .^9 The poem's r e f e r e n c e t o a " l a b y r i n t h i n e p a s t " seems t o suggest the e n d l e s s p r o c e s s i o n o f l i f e and death which i s a s s o c i a t e d w i th the s e a . In the f i r s t p a r t o f t h i s poem, the sea i s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h g r e a t " a g e " and w i t h " t h e waters o f the s t a r l e s s f i rmament " wh ich i m p l i e s the v o i d be fo r e c r e a t i o n as d e s c r i b e d i n G e n e s i s . But the development o f the poem i s a reminder o f the t e r r o r (death) as w e l l as the beauty ( l i f e ) o f the s e a . T h i s a s s o c i a t i o n i s c o n s i s t e n t th roughout P r a t t ' s work, on the one hand the sea b r i n g s " t h e b read o f l i f e " , on the o t h e r hand i t i s " t h e waters o f d e a t h " . 1 8 E . J . P r a t t , Newfoundland V e r s e , p p . 12-13. P r a t t , quoted by G . M . S t o r y , "The Newfoundlander who i s Canada ' s G r e a t e s t P o e t , " The Newfoundland Reco rd . V o l . 6, 1962, p p . 7-8. 161. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between the sea and the evolutionary structure i s quite e x p l i c i t . From the sea came a l l l i f e i n the beginning ("The Great Feud") but i t i s now the primary b a t t l e -ground on which man demonstrates h i s moral evolution. By h i s reaction to the p o s s i b i l i t y of death he demonstrates h i s kinship with the cold-blooded creatures of the underwater cave ( s e l f -concern) or with those warm-blooded creatures of the land who hold as t h e i r i d e a l , s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . The passengers of The  Titanic* just before the ship goes down, display t h i s internecine c o n f l i c t of s e l f - i n t e r e s t with other-directed concern: And there were many deeds envisaging V o l i t i o n s where self-preservation fought I t s red primordial struggle with the "ought",20 Evolution i n the sea and i n man i s connected by the metaphor of the blood stream;,and again, the suggestion f o r t h i s formulation seems to have come from Roberts' work. In the poem "Ave: An Ode For The Shelley Centenary" Roberts f i r s t suggests an analogy between the ebb and flow of the Tantramar and the wild t i d e s of f e e l i n g i n the heart of Shelley. In a l a t e r series of poems dealing with the Tantramar l o c a l e and dream-vision communication with h i s dead b r o t h e r , 2 1 Roberts modifies t h i s metaphor s l i g h t l y to suggest that the t i d e s of the Tantramar 2 0 P r a t t , The T i t a n i c , p. 41. 21curiously, Pratt also has a series of dream-vision poems dealing with the death of a male f r i e n d . The general theme f o r both Roberts and Pratt may well have come from Tennyson's "In Memorian", yet the association of sea and "dream" to be found i n both Roberts and Pratt might suggest continuity. 1 6 2 are to be found i n h i s (Rober ts* ) own hea r t and v e i n s . I t i s t h i s same s t r u c t u r e which c h a r a c t e r i z e s P r a t t * s "Newfoundland" , the t i t l e poem f rom Newfoundland V e r s e : Here the t i d e s f l o w . And here they ebb ; Not w i t h t h a t d u l l , unsinewed t r e a d o f waters He ld under bonds t o move Around unpeopled shores - . . . But w i t h a l u s t y s t r oke o f l i f e Pounding a t s tubborn g a t e s , That they might run W i t h i n the s l u i c e s o f men*s h e a r t s . . . T i d e and wind and c r a g , Sea-weed and s e a - s h e l l And broken rudder -And the s t o r y i s t o l d Of human v e i n s and p u l s e s , Of e t e r n a l pathways o f f i r e Of dreams t h a t s u r v i v e the n i g h t o o Of doors h e l d a.iar i n s to rms . In t h i s metaphor , the t i d e s o f the sea a re i n t e r n a l i z e d w i t h i n the h e a r t s o f Newfoundlandersz . T h i s i s a n a t u r a l ana logy to express the Newfoundlander*s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h the s e a , bu t , more i m p o r t a n t l y , i t i s a l s o a n a t u r a l metaphor i n terms o f P r a t t * s m o d i f i e d Darw in i sm. Man, e v o l v i n g f rom the s e a , s t i l l c a r r i e s p a r t o f the sea w i t h i n h im . S i m i l a r l y , i n Towards the  L a s t Sp ike the r a i l r o a d crew through the c a t a l y s t o f the " o a t m e a l " i n t h e i r b l o o d a re metamorphosed i n t o " c l i f f s " , " j u t s " , " g o r s e " and " t h i s t l e s " . P r a t t i s perhaps b e i n g f a c e t i o u s , y e t d e s p i t e t h i s , the s t r u c t u r e o f bo th t h i s and the e a r l i e r metaphor suggests a r e l a t i o n between man and na tu re 2 2 P r a t t , Newfoundland V e r s e , p . 8 7 , p . 9 0 . 163 which i s more pronounced thaf l the Emersonian " k i n s h i p " o f Rober t s and Carman. In P r a t t ' s p o e t i c metaphor, man i s not " l i k e " n a t u r e , o r a " p a r t " o f n a t u r e , o r the "transparent" e y e b a l l " t h a t c o n t a i n s n a t u r e . Man i s c o n s t i t u t e d o f the same e lements t h a t c o n s t i t u t e n a t u r e : i n s h o r t , man i s n a t u r e . In t h i s c o n n e c t i o n , i t i s impor tan t t o see t h a t f o r P r a t t the whole p r o c e s s o f l i f e f rom m i c r o s c o p i c spore t o man c o n s t i t u t e s the e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s . In h i s s t r u c t u r e , C h r i s t i a n i t y i s the evo l ved p i n n a c l e o f human conduct and when man f a l l s away f rom the i d e a l he can o n l y f a l l i n t o a t a v i s m : But what made our f e e t miss the road t h a t brought The wor ld t o such a go lden t r o u v e , In our so b r i e f a span? How may we g rasp aga in the hand t h a t wrought Such l i g h t , such f r a g r a n c e , and such l o v e , 9 3 0 s t a r I 0 r o s e i 0 Son o f Man? However, some a s p e c t s o f l i f e have a lways been—even a t the t ime o f the v o i d — a n d when they r e c u r they f o r c e man, w i l l y -n i l l y , back i n t o a r e c o g n i t i o n o f h i s p r e h i s t o r i c p a s t . T h i s concept o f t e n seems t o c o n d i t i o n P r a t t ' s p o e t i c p r o c e s s . In poems such as "The G round-Swe l l " , "The P r i z e C a t " o r "Come Away Dea th " the development o f the work i s f rom the sudden apprehens ion o f an event (most o f t e n the t h r e a t o f death) wh i ch , i n o r i g i n , p recedes human apprehens ion o r means o f comfo r t : 2 3 E . J . P r a t t , "The Highway" , Many Moods. T o r o n t o , M a c M i l l a n , 1932, p . 2 8 . Nor th rop F rye i n h i s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o P r a t t ' s C o l l e c t e d Poems i n t e r p r e t s t h i s poem by s u g g e s t i n g tha t C h r i s t i a n i t y i s an o l d e r concept than e v o l u t i o n , t h a t i s , t h a t the e v o l u t i o n a r y p r o c e s s i s con t a i ned w i t h i n C h r i s t i a n i t y . 164. Three times we heard i t c a l l i n g with a low, Insistent note; at ebb-tide on the noon; And at the hour of dusk, when the red moon Was r i s i n g and the t i d e was on the flow; Then, at the hour of midnight once again, Though we had entered i n and shut the door And drawn the blinds, i t crept up from the shore And smote upon a bedroom window-pane; Then passed away as some d u l l pang that grew Out of the void before Eternity Had fashioned out an edge f o r human g r i e f ; Before the winds of God had learned to strew His harvest-sweepings on a winter sea p. To feed the primal hungers of a r e e f . 4 The subterranean murmur of the earth under the sea, "the d u l l pang" which l a t e r comes to be associated with death, was before God separated the earth and the heavens, was before the fa c t of death was a l l e v i a t e d by the promise of eternity, was before earth and sea were separated and death of t h i s inherent, cataclysmic nature was confined primarily to the winter sea. Death always was and s t i l l i s . This kind of awareness would seem to be the keynote of Pratt's poetic apprehension,-the prize cat leaps into the jungle-tab, the "wordless hate" of "Silences" merges into the primaeval death struggle under the sea while the airplane drone of "Come Away Death" i s a p r e c i p i t a t i o n back into time which evolves as a horrid anti-apocalypse. Pratt's fusion of Darwinism and C h r i s t i a n i t y almost leads to a kind of Manicheanism because i f death has always been, does t h i s not also presuppose the external existence of an e v i l p r i nciple? The only way out of t h i s dilemma, and i t i s one given i n "The Ground Swell", i s 2 4 E . J . Pratt. Newfoundland Verse, p. 17 165 . that death as well as l i f e i s controlled by God's w i l l ; "the winds of God" are described as blowing "to feed the primal hungers of a reef". Nevertheless t h i s l a s t l i n e almost suggests an organism with appetites of i t s own, and,in point of f a c t , i t i s t h i s demonic aspect of the iceberg which i s developed i n Pratt's poem The T i t a n i c (1935)• Pratt's awareness of the demonism latent i n man and i n nature recurs continually throughout h i s poetry. I t i s t h i s latent primaeval "something" that opposes the crew of The Roosevelt and The Antinoe and which emerges i n the invocation of the darker powers by both Brebeuf and h i s brethren. Pratt's own awareness of t h i s aspect of existence i s e x p l i c i t i n h i s scholarly writings. Although he completed his doctorate with a d i s s e r t a t i o n on Pauline eschatology, the ends of man, h i s Master's t h e s i s was written on the subject of demonology (Toronto, 1912 ) . Pratt's f i r s t sustained consideration of the demonic i n h i s poetry appears i n The Witches* Brew (1924) which was published just a f t e r Newfoundland Verses. This successful venture into the comic epic has long puzzled Pratt*s reviewers, much to the poet*s d e l i g h t : I was greatly amused by some of the English r e v i e w s — The Edinburgh Bookman laboriously t r y i n g to extract a "meaning" out of i t , and another Scottish paper coming to the conclusion that i t was a l i q u o r advertisement, and s t i l l another claiming that i t was a l i b e l on25 the brandsI 2 5 E . J . Pratt as quoted by W.R. Benet i n h i s Introduction to The Collected Poems of E . J . Pratt. New York, Knopf, 1944, pp.ix-xiv. 166 The poem i s , we are l e d to believe, a moment of comic release when the poet sees the world "backside up" and i s not necessarily to be interpreted as having any r e l a t i o n to the world which i t so c o n t o r t s . 2 6 Yet even the mirror picture of a r e f l e c t e d image has a v a l i d i t y of form i n r e l a t i o n s h i p to the object which i t r e f l e c t s , even supposing we were able to turn the picture upside down, or, to use Pratt's metaphor, to see the world; "backside up". This implies, perhaps, the comic, incongruous perspective i n which the poet i s cut free from ordinary structures of value. From t h i s point of view, i t i s possible to see The Witches 1 Brew as the incongruous reversal of Newfoundland Verse. In the e a r l i e r work he had viewed rampant e v i l from the perspective of good and had been appalled, here he focuses on the abounding energy of e v i l to the exclusion of good. I t i s no accident that E.J. Pratt's comic epic The Witches* Brew i s a demonic inversion of Milton's Paradise Lost although i t i s possible that the poet himself was not consciously aware of t h i s f a c t : The general tone of my work seems to have been subtly a l t e r e d . I cannot say that t h i s sprang out of a conscious e f f o r t on my part f o r i t was r a r e l y deliberated. I t may have developed out of a hidden desire to mix phantasy with realism, a desire t h a t 2 7 has never l e f t me. i ^ i d . , Benet also c i t e s Pratt's poetic theory: "The expression of a grand binge, making f o r healthy psychological release, where the world f o r a time i s seen backside up and the poet becomes g l o r i o u s l y emancipated from the thralldom of day-by-day routine." 2 7 E . J . Pratt, "My F i r s t Book", Canadian Author and Bookman. x x v i i i , 1952-53, pp. 5-7. 167. E s s e n t i a l l y , The Witches 1 Brew i s an account of a t r i a l conducted f o r t h e i r "black a r t s " by the three r u l e r s of the sea (the witches, Lulu, Ardath and Maryan) on the primary representative of the demonic, f i s h y race (Tom, the sea-cat from Zanzibar) which concludes i n h i s expulsion from an aquatic, i f a l c o h o l i c , Eden. The development of Pratt's epic, l i k e that of Milton's, begins i n medias res with a v i s i o n of H e l l . However H e l l i s now Heaven-Eden and the three witches are described as prepar-ing t h e i r underwater kingdom, uneducated to the "warm-blooded" ways of "human sinning", f o r the great t r i a l . A brew i s con-cocted to determine " f o r t h e i r black a r t s " : The true e f f e c t of alcohol Upon the cold aquatic mind. 2° In the preparation of t h e i r brew they are careful to include " a l l the things most edible / on which the souls of f i s h have dined / that f i s h would s e l l t h e i r souls to f i n d " . To t h i s aquatic Eden i s summoned "the Parliament of fish", but the i n v i t a t i o n i s confined to the cold-blooded kingdom alone. The combination guardian-fiery angel and representative mortal which guards t h i s Eden with i t s a l c o h o l i c apple i s Tom, the sea-cat from Zanzibar. Like Milton's denizens of H e l l , h i s breed and station are impeccable: ... who ... of mortal creatures Could claim more f e a r f u l derivation Than Tom with h i s Satanic features And h i s spontaneous conflagration? *°This and a l l following c i t a t i o n s unless noted are to E.J. Pratt, The Witches' Brew. London, Selwyn & Blount, 192$. 168. To the scene o f t h i s t r i a l comes Sa t an , l u r e d , l i k e h i s p r o t o t y p e , by the emanat ions f rom E d e n . 2 ^ i n t r u e M i l t o n i c f a s h i o n , the Roya l P r i n c e r e a l i z e s t h a t the W i t ches ' Eden o f f e r s a new rea lm t o be added t o h i s p r i n c i p a l i t i e s : P r i n c e o f the Power o f the a i r , L o r d o f t e r r e s t i a l t h i n g s as w e l l As sub te r ranean l i f e i n H e l l , He had t i l l now not been aware How t h i s g r ea t watery domain Might be e n c l o s e d w i t h i n h i s r e i g n . Such t h i n g s as c o l d - b l o o d e d f i s h had h i t h e r t o se r ved no purpose o f h i s : The f i s h t r a n s g r e s s e d no mora l law They had no p r i n c i p l e s , no c r e e d , No p r a y e r s , no B i b l e s and no Church , No Reason's h o l y l i g h t t o r e ad The t r u t h and no d e s i r e t o s e a r c h . Hence f rom Dame N a t u r e ' s a n c i e n t way T h e i r f i n s had never l e a r n e d t o s t r a y . "When the zes t was on they s l ew" but t h i s had neve r been p r e j u d i c e d by " m o r a l s " . Consequent l y t hey had remained " f i s h w i th c o l d b l o o d no s k i l l had t r a i n e d / t o the warm a r t s o f human s i n n i n g " . But i n the w i t c h e s ' brew Satan r e c o g n i z e s a s u i t a b l e a p p l e : "now by my h o o f , t h i s r e c i p e / i s worth a m i l l i o n s o u l s t o me" . Satan sees i n Tom one o f the same k i n d as "Heaven ' s f i n e s t , f a l l e n b r e e d " and u rges t h a t the i n i t i a l t e s t be made on h i m . What emerges f rom the c a t a c l y s m i c brew i s the f a l l f rom " c o l d - b l o o d e d " t o "warm-blooded" s i n n i n g . H i t h e r t o , Tom 2 9 j o h n M i l t o n , " P a r a d i s e L o s t " , i v , 153-171, Complete Poems  and Ma.ior P r o s e , e d . M e r r i t t Y . Hughes, New Yo rk , Odyssey P r e s s , 1 9 5 7 , p. 281 . 1 6 9 . had k i l l e d when the zest was on him, now he acquires a moral sense and engages i n a human kind of epic avenging foray. He determines to exterminate a l l those sea creatures of h i s own kind who had become warm-blooded: His stock were t r a i t o r s to the sea, Had somehow learned the ways of earth, The need of a i r , the mystery Of things warm-blooded, and of b i r t h . The t r i a l ends with the sea-cat ravaging the already warm-blooded creatures while the brew k i l l s or paralyzes the r e s t . In e f f e c t , the cold-blooded world comes under Satan's sway and the poem ends with Tom's expulsion from Eden: Then suddenly, as i f aware, By a deep ferment i n h i s soul Or something psychic i n h i s h a i r , Of some u l t e r i o r , mystic goal, He sharply turned, began a lo n e l y Voyage pregnant of immortal r a i d s And epic plunder. The Witches' Brew po s i t s a f a r c i c a l demonic universe where e v i l i s already present and where no Christ i s offered as a redeemer. The f a l l which occurs involves untrammeled f e r o c i t y p r e c i p i t a t e d by an a l c o h o l i c catalyst i n the blood. I t i s not, s t r i c t l y speaking, the Mil t o n i c f a l l into sin because sin i s already present; yet the f a l l i s M i l t o n i c i n the sense that the descent from cold-blooded to warm-blooded sinning involves reason and the moral law and so invokes consciousness. I t i s t h i s aspect of the struggle between warm-blooded and cold-blooded creatures which appears i n Pratt's next work, The Titans. (1926). The two companion poems which make up t h i s book, "The Cachalot" and "The Great Feud" appear to have been 170 s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by Rober ts* work. The f i r s t poem o f t h i s vo lume, "The C a c h a l o t " , deve lops the s t r u g g l e between a warm-b looded ( the c a c h a l o t ) and c o l d - b l o o d e d c r ea tu r e ( the kraken) i n the dominant l y h e r o i c manner o f Rober ts* Haunters o f The  S i l e n c e s (1907) .-^ The s t r u g g l e between c r e a t u r e s and the f i n a l b a t t l e between whale and wha l i ng s h i p i s not q u a l i f i e d . In f a c t , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between "The C a c h a l o t " and "The Grea t Feud " i s ana lagous t o t h a t between The Rooseve l t and The A n t i n o e (1930) and The T i t a n i c (1935 ) . In the f i r s t example o f each p a i r , the s t r u g g l e d e s c r i b e d i s p r i m a r i l y h e r o i c and i n t r o d u c e s two s h a r p l y opposed f o r c e s , one o f which i s o f a h i g h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y s c a l e than the o t h e r . Fo r example, i n The Rooseve l t and The  A n t i n o e the courage , f a i t h and r eason o f the s h i p * s crew i s p i t t e d a g a i n s t the pagan, p r i m o r d i a l s t r e n g t h o f the s e a . The two f o r c e s are a lmost e q u a l l y p i t t e d and the f i n a l outcome f o r 3 0 T he s t r u g g l e between kraken and whale i n Rober ts* sho r t s t o r y "The T e r r o r o f the Sea Caves " f rom The Haunters o f The  S i l e n c e s ( Bos ton , Page, 1907, pp .314 - 3 1 5 ) i s ana lagous t o t h a t d e s c r i b e d i n P r a t t * s poem "The C a c h a l o t " . From Rober ts* i n t r o -d u c t i o n and P r a t t * s no tes t o a book o f the l a t t e r * s v e r s e s i n t ended f o r s c h o o l c h i l d r e n , V e r s e s o f The Sea ( To ron to , M a c m i l l a n , 1930) i t would appear t h a t Rober ts might have i n t r o -duced P r a t t t o the works o f F rank B u l l e n , i n p a r t i c u l a r h i s book The C r u i s e o f The C a c h a l o t : Round The Wor ld A f t e r Sperm  Whales (London. Sm i th . E l d e r & C o . 1898 ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , P r a t t may have d i s c o v e r e d B u l l e n on h i s own. In any e ven t , B u l l e n * s work f i l l s i n a gap i n c r i t i c a l commentary o f P r a t t * s work. I t has o f t e n been no ted t h a t the c o n c l u s i o n o f P r a t t * s poem "The C a c h a l o t " where the A l b a t r o s s goes down i s markedly s i m i l a r t o the s i n k i n g o f the Pequod i n Herman M e l v i l l e * s Moby D i ck (1841) . But P r a t t has a lways den ied r e a d i n g Moby D i ck u n t i l a f t e r the comp le t ion o f "The C a c h a l o t " . I f B u l l e n , the common source f o r Rober ts and P r a t t , was i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d by M e l v i l l e , the resemblance between P r a t t * s poem and M e l v i l l e * s work becomes e x p l i c a b l e . 1 7 1 . both Albatross and Antinoe i s determined very l a r g e l y by "luck™. However, i n the second poem of each p a i r , "The Great Feud" and The T i t a n i c , the primitive forces of e v i l are i n t e r n a l i z e d i n each protagonist, and there are suggestions of retrogressive " f a l l " which r e s u l t s from the misuse of "reason". Pratt's poem, "The Great Feud", seems to have had i t s genesis i n the f i r s t two chapters of Roberts* " p r e - h i s t o r i c , h i s t o r i c romance", In The Morning of Time ( 1 9 1 9 ) . From Chapter One of Roberts* work, Pratt takes the s e t t i n g of "The Great Feud", an estuary of f l a t land which continues f o r about a mile inland, overlooked by high red c l i f f s . Here on the estuary are the evolutionary creatures whom Pratt describes as moving i n -land from the sea to the land, and the ravaging between warm-and cold-blooded creatures which Pratt i s to use as the "cause" of the great feud. Roberts describes the great l i z a r d s with t h e i r bony plates, shining scales and shambling g a i t — t h e prototypes of Tyrannosaurus Rex—and the bloody spectacle of internecine combat: " i n the f i n a l melee fof a ravaging dinner on foesj one of the smaller r e v e l l e r s was himself pounced upon and d e v o u r e d " 1 I t i s also i n Chapter One that Pratt may have found the germ of "The Great Feud" i n the description of the estuary: " t h i s b i t of open beach, overlooked by the deep green be l t of jungle, appeared to be a sort of arena f o r t i t a n i c combat".^2 ^ C h a r l e s G.D.Roberts, In The Morning of Time, London, 1 9 2 3 , p. 8 . 3 2Roberts, In The Morning of Time, p. 1 3 . 172 The incident of a dinosaur trapped i n a sand p i t seems to have pre c i p i t a t e d Pratt*s version of the " p i t c h p i t " from which Tyrannosaurus Rex i s hatched out of an egg l a i d by a trapped dinosaur. In Chapter Two of Roberts* work, Pratt seems to have found h i s anthropoid ape i n the brown, hairy mother with her c h i l d who takes to the trees f o r safety. She i s a member of the species of "apelike man" or "manlike ape" and her mate, G r 6 m , i s associated with the rudiments of reason.33 Pratt*s female anthropoid ape seems to blend elements of both Grom and the ape-mother. Pratt*s poem, "The Great Feud", l i k e the e a r l i e r Witches* Brew, describes a war between warm and cold-blooded creatures which i s augmented by an a l c o h o l i c catalyst i n the blood. In addition, the moral law i s now more s p e c i f i c a l l y invoked. The anthropoid ape, whose c h i l d had been k i l l e d by a crocodile, has seen t h i s same crocodile most f o r t u i t o u s l y die when h i t on the head by a coconut. Drumming her breast, she ponders the incident and begins to s n i f f "the moral law" and the rudiments of "reason". The moral law which she perceives i s c l e a r l y revenge, an eye f o r an eye. Subsequently, her private grievance impels her to become spokesman f o r the land animals. In t h i s p o s i t i o n she proposes universal war between the warm and cold-blooded animals. Her two reasons are those of the t e r r i t o r i a l imperative and moral j u s t i c e i n opposition 3 3 f t o b e r t s , In The Morning of Time, p. 2 7 . 173. to the development of the poem which suggests that there i s no r e a l r a t i o n a l e f o r war. Nevertheless, the land animals are carried away by her rh e t o r i c , a date f o r war i s f i x e d and a covenant i s established between the land animals. No creature i s to eat the f l e s h or blood of another. At the appointed day the animals arrive at the l i s t s , among them Tyrannosaurus Rex, a p r o v i d e n t i a l l y non-extinct dinosaur, who has been r a l l i e d to the land cause by h i s foster-mother, a cassowary. Unfortunately, h i s enforced, yeasty, vegetable diet has ju s t combined with the contents of a vinery and he a r r i v e s , l i k e Tom, the sea-cat, with "an awful jag on". In addition to t h i s general fuddling of the senses, t h i s a t a v i s t i c dinosaur, without reason, does not understand the d i s t i n c t i o n between f r i e n d and foe. As a r e s u l t he s t r i k e s out b l i n d l y at a l l who come within range. F i n a l l y , mortally wounded and bleeding to death, he recognizes h i s cold-blooded kinship with the creatures of the primal sea and returns to i t . In the meantime, the "wild unreason" of h i s manner of battle has broken the covenant between the land animals and when night f a l l s they forget t h e i r common foe to f a l l upon each other. The holocaust of t h i s "Pleiocene Armageddon" i s complete when the volcano, Jurania, overflows and inundates the combatants. Only the female anthropoid ape escapes: She gathered up her residue Of w i l l to blot out from her view The : awful f i c t i o n of the night.34 34E. J. Pratt, The Titans. London, Macmillan, 1926, p. 6 8 . 174-Rega in ing he r b r o o d , she s i t s and p o n d e r s : " t h e h e r a l d s o f the day were moans / and c roons and drummings o f the b r e a s t " . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i s ominous because i t was t h i s same c roon ing and drumming which accompanied he r f i r s t f o r m u l a t i o n o f " t h e mora l l a w " . As s h e . i s s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d as a too lmaker ( the " e o l i t h " ) and i s t h e r e f o r e the p r e d e c e s s o r o f man, the d e v e l o p -ment o f the poem sugges ts t h a t the p e r v e r s i o n o f " r e a s o n " has a l r e a d y begun and ends w i t h an i m p l i e d s p e c u l a t i o n as t o the f u t u r e o f " r e a s o n " and the human r a c e . The two p o s s i b i l i t i e s , p r o g r e s s i o n t o a h i g h e r i d e a l (The I ron Door) and a tav i sm (The  T i t a n i c ) . a re r a i s e d i n P r a t t * s succeed ing works . In t h i s s t r u c t u r e Tyrannosauros Rex, l i k e the co ld-b looded sea c r e a t u r e s o f The W i t c h e s 1 Brew (be fo re the f a l l ) y r e p r e s e n t s i n s t i n c t u a l n a t u r e , whereas the female ape demonstra tes the f a r more dangerous d e s t r u c t i o n by r e a s o n . The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f R o b e r t s 1 c o n t r i b u t i o n t o P r a t t * s "The Great Feud " i s n o t , pe rhaps , the i n d i v i d u a l d e t a i l s c i t e d , but r a t h e r t h a t the l i n e o f i n f l u e n c e f rom In The Morn ing o f  Time t o "The Great Feud " e s t a b l i s h e s d e f i n i t i v e l y t h a t the major poet o f the 1920*s was f o l l o w i n g d i r e c t l y i n the f o o t s t e p s o f the major poet o f the 1880*s and t h a t Rober ts* i n f l u e n c e on P r a t t , c o n t r a r y t o p o s s i b l e e x p e c t a t i o n , was dominan t l y th rough h i s p rose o f w i l d l i f e ^ " r e d i n t o o t h and c l aw" , Rober ts* p rose p r o v i d e d P r a t t w i th a s t r u c t u r e o f immense f e r o c i t y embodied i n an ima l form which p e r f e c t l y expressed P r a t t * s f e e l i n g s r e g a r d i n g the b l o o d y , b r u t a l and unreasoned p r e c i p i t a t i o n o f 175. World l a r I. Furthermore, Roberts' work provided Pratt with an i d e a l jumping-off point i n that the former's stress on "reason" and evolutionary "progress" indicated to Pratt the precise l i n e s of argument with which he must disagree. "The Great Feud", with i t s perversion of reason and the moral law, i t s bloody internecine combat and the concluding implications of c y c l i c recurrence, i s Pratt's a t a v i s t i c answer to Roberts' evolutionary progress. Opposed to the human capacity f o r retrogression i s the higher i d e a l (although not s p e c i f i c a l l y achieved by the poet) of The Iron Door (1927) and the human courage and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e of The Roosevelt and The Antinoe ( 1 9 3 0 ) . I t i s not u n t i l The  Ti t a n i c (1935) that Pratt again deals with the a t a v i s t i c f a l l . The T i t a n i c , the representative 2 0 t h century Canadian poem on the ambiguity of human "progress", i s e s s e n t i a l l y an incorpor-ation of cycles. I t depicts the hi s t o r y of Western c i v i l i z a t i o n ; i n man, from Prometheus to "modern day Caesars"; i n r e l i g i o n , from Zeus to the 2 0 t h century machine; i n culture, from Greek Carytids to the buildings of the Wall Street Exchange; i n love, from the s e l f - s a c r i f i c e of the Captain of the Carpathia to the primal selfishness of a T i t a n i c stoker who would k i l l another to s t e a l h i s l i f e - j a c k e t . I t i s a stone (berg) to s t e e l (ship) progression. But i t i s a progression subject to instant r e v e r s a l : man i s a dua l i t y , both savage and c i v i l i z e d , i n s t i n c t i v e and reasonable, warm-and cold-blooded. The poem begins with the ship at the high point of Fortune's wheel but i t i s associated with the hubris of technology: 176. Through wireless waves as yet unstaled by use, The wonder of the eth er had begun To f o l d the heavens up and reinduce That ancient hubris i n the dreams of men, Which would have s l a i n the c a t t l e of the sun, And f i l c h e d the lightnings from the f i s t of Zeus.35 Through the development of the poem, the wheel proceeds downward. Hubris leads to over-confidence, and over-confidence to an a t a v i s t i c f a l l occasioned by the dispensing of reason. The wheel reaches i t s nadir i n the sinking of The T i t a n i c . In r e l a t i o n s h i p to the poem and to the modern world i t i s Pratt*s exposition of h i s c y c l i c view of human progress—twentieth century man i n a l l h i s glory and a l l h i s f a i l u r e . In t h i s poem, the forces of evolutionary good and e v i l are i n t e r n a l i z e d i n both major protagonists, the ship and the iceberg. The berg i s f i r s t introduced i n a l l i t s cathedral beauty "of inward a l t a r s and steepled b e l l s / ringing the passage of the p a r a l l e l s " , but i t disintegrates into "the brute and p a e l i o t h i c outline of a face" concealing beneath the water "a sloping spur that tapered to a claw". S i m i l a r l y , the T i t a n i c i s "the primate of the l i n e s " , the "perfect ship at l a s t " . However, technological hubris leads to her downfall when she neglects to post a watch i n dangerous waters: "the judgement stood i n l i t t l e need of reason". A f t e r t h i s point, the ship i s associated primarily with animal imagery, she i s a "whippet" or "mastiff". S i m i l a r l y , a f t e r the berg has l o s t i t s cathedral glory i t i s associated with a "plantigrade". The 3 5 E . J . Pratt, The T i t a n i c , p. 4 . 177. analagous change to animal imagery would suggest that both ship and berg are of the same "breed" and, i n point of f a c t , when the ship f a l l s from "reason" she loses the one character-i s t i c which separates man from the animals. Accordingly, when ship and berg merge, the encompassing structure i s one of sexual union. The contact of ship and berg i s also an a t a v i s t i c f a l l from s t e e l (the ship) to stone (corundum berg). As i n The Witches?. Brew and "The Great Feud", the misuse of "reason" leads to primordial d i s a s t e r . This p o s s i b i l i t y f o r atavism i s also present i n the passengers of the ship, many of whom go through the disaster under the "delusion" that there i s no danger. S i m i l a r l y , many, once danger i s r e a l i z e d , revert to primordial self-concern; p a r t i c u l a r l y notable i s the selfishness of the woman i n the l i f e b o a t and the murderous stoker. But there are others/ who^ despite possible death f o r themselves, s a c r i f i c e s e l f f o r the common good. The Captain of the Carpathia determines "to redeem / errors of the brain by hazards of the heart". S i m i l a r l y , the courage and s e l f - c o n t r o l of M i l l e t , Astor and Guggenheim serve as examples to the waiting crowd. For many others that unknown something "from quarters f a i n t but unmistakable / had put the s t i f f e n i n g i n the blood to check / the impulse of the fe e t " . There i s no doubt that Pratt refused a s p e c i f i c a l l y C h r i s t i a n answer to t h i s "something". This i s e x p l i c i t i n h i s use of source material and i n h i s i r o n i c a l concept of the 178. na tu re o f the T i t a n i c d i s a s t e r . The major sources o f P r a t t * s poem The T i t a n i c were the s e r i a l i z e d newspaper r e p o r t s o f A p r i l 16th t o 2 1 s t , 1912 and a book w r i t t e n by one o f the s u r v i v o r s , Lawrence Bees l e y , The Loss o f the T i t a n i c . 3 6 P r a t t m o d i f i e s the u n q u a l i f i e d he ro i sm o f the newspaper a c c o u n t s , and wh i l e he f o l l o w s Beese l e y * s n a r r a t i v e v e r y c l o s e l y , he makes t h r e e impor tan t themat i c changes . P r a t t i n t r o d u c e s a t g r e a t l e n g t h r e f e r e n c e s t o magic and the s u p e r n a t u r a l which exp ress h i s own concept o f the d i s a s t e r as one wh ich o c cu r s w i t h the a i d o f a ma l ignan t f a t e : . . . So comp l e t e l y i n v o l v e d was the s h i p i n what we c a l l the Web o f F a t e , t h a t i t seemed as i f the o r d e r o f events had been d e f i n i t e l y c o n t r i v e d a g a i n s t a o y human ar rangement . S e cond l y , P r a t t r e f u s e s B e e s l e y * s o v e r t C h r i s t i a n r i t u a l . In Bees l e y * s a c coun t , the passengers o f the T i t a n i c were much comfor ted by a "hymn s i n g - s o n g " conducted by a Rev. Mr . C a r t e r , and he s p e c u l a t e s t h a t the f i n a l calm o f some o f the passengers o f the deck might have been o c ca s i oned by " t h e sound o f hymns" s t i l l r i n g i n g i n t h e i r e a r s . 3 8 P r a t t , however, d e s c r i b e s t h i s same calm w i t h r e f e r e n c e to " i n v i s i b l e t r umpe t s " which 3 6 The case f o r B e e s l e y * s book, The L o s s o f The T i t a n i c . ( N a u t i l u s L i b r a r y , 2nd e d i t i o n , 1926} as the major source f o r P r a t t * s poem The T i t a n i c i s made i n an u n p u b l i s h e d g r a d u a t i n g essay by Sandra Djwa, "A Study o f The T i t a n i c by E . J . P r a t t " , The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia , F eb rua r y 19o4» pp« 17-27. 3 7 E . J . P r a t t , no t es t o Ten S e l e c t e d Poems, T o r o n t o , M a c m i l l a n , 1947, p. 133 . 3 8 Lawrence B e e s l e y , The L o s s o f The T i t a n i c . New Yo rk , N a u t i l u s L i b r a r y , 2nd e d . , 1926, p. 44» 179. p r e c i p i t a t e a s t i f f e n i n g i n the blood stream. Further, Pratt omits the much reported f i n a l hymn sung before the T i t a n i c went down ("Nearer My God to Thee") i n favour of a l i t a n y of pr o g r e s s — a jazz tune played by the band. Pratt's poem The T i t a n i c i s , on the whole, a very care-f u l following of Beesley's story. Consequently, h i s complete omission of the Rev. Mr. Carter and h i s t h i r d major substitution, at the heart of the poem, of a poker game which i s only mentioned b r i e f l y by Beesley, points out the poet's concept of the secular gamble represented by the T i t a n i c tragedy. Not surp r i s i n g l y , the poker game i s won by the cautious, inscrutable "Mac" who puts h i s f u l l resources of reason to the enterprise of the game. Mac also appears to be associated with the dark powers which govern the T i t a n i c d i s a s t e r . In the changes which Pratt makes i n h i s source material there i s a conscious attempt to move the e x i s t e n t i a l "why" of human behavior and of the Ti t a n i c d i s a s t e r away from the realm of the s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l i g i o u s . Instead there i s an evocation of the darker powers of Fate and magic; the poem's a l l u s i o n s to "whirling shags", the stoker's "head", the "mummy" from the Valley of Kings, together with the malevolent force associated with the d i r e c t i o n of the berg, suggests a perspective purposely outside that of Chr i s t i a n b e l i e f . Brebeuf and His Brethren (1940) i s Pratt's most repres-entative poem i n that i t gathers up a l l the major concerns of the poet's work: the struggle between savage and c i v i l i z e d ( i n t e r n a l and external) as i t r e l a t e s to the t r i a d of " w i l l " , " f a i t h " and "reason"; the suggested perversion of reason leading to demonism; and an emphasis on the metaphor of the blood l i n e as i t r e l a t e s to lineage, s a c r i f i c e and as a means of redemption. Although the major concern of t h i s poem, the analogy between Christ the Redeemer, and Brebeuf the redeeming man, i s not d i f f e r e n t i n outline from the s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g heroism of the young man of The Iron Door. Pratt*s presentation d i f f e r s markedly. Where the action of the young man i s heroic and unqualified (except by self-doubt) a l l of the events which lead up to Brebeuf*s martyrdom are highly q u a l i f i e d and suggest a much more ambiguous i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Brebeuf, as depicted by Pratt*s poem, i s a man of immense stature and great r e l i g i o u s zeal displaying the dual human co n d i t i o n — a n opposition between s e l f - s a c r i f i c e (a martyrdom w i l l e d by God) and self-concern (a martyrdom w i l l e d by Brebeuf). We are f i r s t introduced to Brebeuf as a praying novice who has a v i s i o n of the redeeming C h r i s t : ... a bleeding form F a l l i n g beneath the instrument of death, Rising under the quickening of the thongs,on Stumbling along the V i a Dolorosa. This i s , we are assured "no play upon the fancy ...,/ but the Real Presence to the naked sense". At the same time, Brebeuf*s fingers are described as "at h i s breast / closing and tightening on a c r u c i f i x " . In e f f e c t , the Christ of the cross i n h i s 3 9 E . J . Pratt, Brebeuf and His Brethren, pp. 2 - 3 . 181 v i s i o n merges with the c r u c i f i x he wears and there i s an i m p l i c i t suggestion of mechanical, psychological, causation. In t h i s context, Brebeuf's v i s i o n i s associated with h i s own desire f o r martyrdom. There i s also some hubris i n h i s statement: "I s h a l l be broken f i r s t before I break them" and the development of the poem stresses the metaphor of the broken host i n which the p r i e s t ' s body and blood i s offered as a substitute f o r that of God's. Brebeuf's hubris i s pointed up when h i s v i s i o n i s followed by a reminder of the Jesuit formulation of the "end of man": "to seek and f i n d the w i l l of God, to act / upon i t f o r the ordering of l i f e , / and f o r the soul's beatitude"'i ' . Brebeuf has assumed that his v i s i o n expresses the w i l l of God, but Pratt's introduction points out the p o s s i b i l i t y of some human causation. Throughout the poem, Pratt displays great sympathy f o r Brebeuf's p o s i t i o n — t h e r e i s no attempt to seriously undercut the r e a l i t y of h i s f a i t h — n e v e r t h e l e s s i t i s a sympathy tempered by the poet's own awareness of the r e a l ambiguities i n human motivation. Consequently, Pratt does not neglect to point out when Brebeuf ignores apparently " p r o v i d e n t i a l " doors of escape, or when he, unlike Jogues, does not ask f o r God's w i l l i n r e l a t i o n to the difference between the martyrdom of "duty" and self-induced " s u i c i d e " . Then^too, Brebeuf i s associated with the perversion of reason and with suggestions of demonism. The p r i e s t i s aware that success i n h i s new mission depends as much upon "mental apprehension" as "the d i s p o s i t i o n of the heart". Accordingly 182. he sets himself to learn the Indian language, watching with forboding "the sorcery of the Huron rh e t o r i c / exerting bribes f o r cures". Yet, i n time, he too resorts to magic and bribes as "a basis of persuasion". The Jesuit fathers invoke "kind s p i r i t s and exorcising demons", the clock becomes god. They induce the Bird of Thunder and allow the Hurons to believe that the p r i e s t s have power to bring l i g h t from the darkness of the universe. In t h i s presentation, there i s a perversion of C h r i s t i a n theology; r e l i g i o n has become magic. This ultimately leads to demonism when Brebeuf consents to the use of pictures of Urnes damnees. "the horned Satan...the l i c k / of flames upon a naked Saracen". In t h i s substitution of the d e v i l f o r God, the Fathers not only take advantage of the " r a c i a l past" of the Indians, they enter into i t themselves and l a y themselves open to charges of black magic by the Indians. I t i s t h i s which Brebeuf admits i n one of h i s l e t t e r s r e c r u i t i n g p r i e s t s f o r the mission; "of a l l calamities you are the cause": ... we s t r i v e to bring to God A race so unlike men that we must l i v e D a i l y expecting murder at t h e i r hands, Did we not open up the skies or close Them at command, giving them sun or rain.4 ° But, as Brebeuf f i r s t announces, "you must sincerely love the savages / as brothers ransomed by the blood of Chr i s t " , there i s l i t t l e difference between Indian and p r i e s t . As the t i t l e of the poem suggests, Brebeuf*s brothers are both Indian and 4°E.J. Pratt, Brebeuf. p. 25. 183. P r i e s t , i n the i r o n i c , as w e l l as i n the C h r i s t i a n s e n s e . The same tendency towards demonism i s p r e sen t i n p r i e s t as i n I n d i a n , as w e l l as i s the w i l l t o endure , be i t on the t r a i l o r th rough t o r t u r e . B r e b e u f 1 s martyrdom, which he endures as a " l i o n " , r a t h e r than a " l a m b " , i s g i v e n and r e c e i v e d w i t h a l l the accout rements o f a brave I nd i an d e a t h . The metaphor o f the b l o o d l i n e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y impor tant i n t h i s poem from the f i r s t . r e f e rence to the b l e e d i n g C h r i s t th rough B rebeu f * s assurance t h a t he too w i l l be b r o k e n , t o the p o i n t where he m e t a p h o r i c a l l y becomes b l o o d and h o s t . The u n i f y i n g metaphor i s t h a t o f the broken body o f C h r i s t . Mus ing i n Rennes, Brebeuf c o n t r a s t s the peace o f the home a l t a r s w i t h the expec ted f u r y o f those i n New F r a n c e ; "But i n the o t h e r would be broken a l t a r s / and broken b o d i e s o f bo th Host and P r i e s t " . As the poem d e v e l o p s , B rebeuf vows h i s b l o o d even as C h r i s t gave H i s b l o o d f o r h i m . In the f i n a l c o n s e c r a t i o n scene be fo re the martyrdom, B rebeu f , body and b l o o d , m e t a p h o r i c a l l y merges w i t h the hos t and w ine ; " G r a c i o u s l y r e c e i v e My l i f e f o r H i s l i f e as he gave H i s l i f e F o r mine . . . T h i s i s my body . In l i k e manner . . . Take ye and d r i n k - the c h a l i c e o f my b l o o d " . In the f i n a l t o r t u r e scene when Brebeuf i s mar ty red we are reminded o f the e a r l i e r death o f a c a p t i v e I r o q u o i s and o f B r ebeu f * s comment on the d i f f e r e n c e between an ima l s and humans; ^ E . J . P r a t t , B rebeu f . p. 6 0 . 184. They had not l e a r n e d the s p o r t Of d a l l y i n g around the ne rves t o h a l t A qu i ck d i s p a t c h . A human a r t was t o r t u r e , Where Reason c r ep t i n t o the v e i n s , mixed t a r42 W i th b l ood and brewed i t s own i n t o x i c a n t . B r e b e u f 1 s deathj which emulates the dea th o f the I r o q u o i s i n courage and endurance , i s a l s o the h i g h e s t t e s t o f C h r i s t i a n " F a i t h " : A l l t h a t t o r t u r e And death c o u l d do to the body was done . The W H I 4 3 And the Cause i n t h e i r t r iumph s u r v i v e d . D e s p i t e the p o s s i b l e amb igu i t y o f B r ebeu f * s m o t i v a t i o n , t he re i s no doubt about the h e r o i c s a c r i f i c e o f h i s d e a t h , C h r i s t -l i k e , which i s f o r the g r e a t e r g l o r y o f God and the cause o f C h r i s t i a n i t y i n New F r a n c e . In t h i s f o r m u l a t i o n , B rebeuf i s the c u l m i n a t i o n o f P r a t t * s h e r o i c s a c r i f i c i n g man, who f a l l s ye t redeems h i m s e l f . I I . A . M . K l e i n . . . Hath not a Jew eyes? ha th not a Jew hands , o r g a n s , d imens ions , s enses , a f f e c t i o n s , pass ions ? f e d w i t h the same f o o d , hu r t w i t h the same weapons . . . I f you p r i c k u s , do we not b leed? i f you t i c k l e u s , do we not laugh? i f you p o i s o n u s , do we not d i e ? Abraham K l e i n » s f i r s t book, Hath Not A Jew . . . (1940) t akes as ep ig raph the prece& ingg q u o t a t i o n f rom Shakespeare*s 4 2 E . J . P r a t t , B rebeu f . p. 2 1 . 43From a r e v i s e d v e r s i o n con ta ined i n The C o l l e c t e d Poems  o f E . J . P r a t t , p . 297 . 185. p l a y The Merchant o f Ven i ce * L i k e P r a t t , K l e i n ' s concerns a re p r i m a r i l y e s c h a t o l o g i c a l , a d e f i n i t i o n o f man and h i s ends , but where P r a t t ' s terms o f r e f e r e n c e are most o f t e n those o f a m o d i f i e d P a u l i n e C h r i s t i a n i t y , K l e i n ' s a re those o f a m o d i f i e d J u d a i s m . ^ F o r b o t h p o e t s , the human e v i l r e l e a s e d by wor ld war becomes an a t t a c k on f a i t h which n e c e s s i t a t e s an i n v e n t o r y o f r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f . From t h i s p o i n t o f v iew, Hath Not A Jew . . . emerges not o n l y as a defence o f the d i s t i n g u i s h e d h e r i t a g e o f Juda i sm, "when he f o r s a k e s you , Shakespeare , f o r a space , / . . . t h i s Jew / be takes him to no p h a r i s a i c c r e w " ^ and a p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the Jew 's h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n as s capegoa t : Always and ever have I been the Jew Bew i l de r ed , and a man who has been t r i c k e d , Examin ing A p a s s p o r t o f p o l y g l o t d e c i s i o n -To Espe ran to from the e a r l i e s t rune -When c a n c e l l a t i o n f rowns away p e r m i s s i o n , And t u r n i n g i n d e s p a i r , To seek an aud ience w i t h the c o n s u l o f the moon .4 ° ^ I n h i s e a r l i e r poem "Out o f the P u l v e r and the P o l i s h e d L e n s " f rom New P r o v i n c e s (1936), K l e i n ' s Judaism would seem to b l end e lements o f S p i n o z a ' s concept o f the wor ld as c o n s i s t i n g o f " G o d " and h i s emanat ion " Though t " w i t h the H a s s i d i c t e a c h i n g o f the Baa l Shem Tov which s t r e s s e s l o v e i n o p p o s i t i o n t o law, and the harmony and u n i t y o f a l l c r e a t e d t h i n g s . Thus the poet Can w r i t e : " F o r thou God are the w o r l d , and I am a p a r t t h e r e o f ; t hou are the b lossom and I i t s f l u t t e r i n g p e t a l . . . " . A d i r e c t l i n e o f i n f l u e n c e f rom the o p p o s i t i o n o f l o v e and law e s t a b -l i s h e d i n t h i s poem may be drawn t o Leonard Cohen ' s " L i n e s From My G r a n d f a t h e r ' s J o u r n a l " i n The Spice-Box o f E a r t h ( 1 9 6 l ) . 45 A.M . K l e i n , "Ave Atque V a l e " , Hath Not A J e w . . . . New York , Behrraan's Jewish Book House, 1940, p. 5 « ^ 6 K l e i n , "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage". Hath Not a Jew, p. 6. 186 but also an inventory of r e l i g i o u s heritage and s p i r i t u a l quest f o r K l e i n , the i n d i v i d u a l . Klein*s concern with the eschatological nature of the predicament of the 2 0 t h century Jew i s e x p l i c i t i n h i s present-ation of the quest f o r understanding i n "Childe Harold*s Pilgrimage". The protagonist of t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l quest ponders the reasons which might be given f o r the Jew*s h i s t o r i c a l p o s i t i o n as victim; i s i t h i s "wealth", h i s "thought", perhaps h i s "heresy"? Is he too "forward"? For I w i l l dwarf myself, and l i v e i n a hut Upon the o u t s k i r t s df nowhere, receive no mail,._ And speak so low that only God s h a l l hear meI 4 7 But even t h i s w i l l not do, "he {.the enemy] does not l i k e my blood i n a state u n s p i l l e d " : Stranger and foeman, I know well your wishl My blood, my blood! Shall I, then, sever a vein, Drain o f f an artery, open the valves Of my much too-Semitic heart, and be That blond cadaver pleasing to your e y e ? 4 ° In such a predicament, what i s the Jew to do? This only i s mine wherewith to face the horde: The frozen patience waiting f o r i t s day, The stance long-suffering, the s t o i c word, The bright empirics that know well that the Night of the cauchemar comes and goes away, -A b a l e f u l wind, a baneful nebula, overdo A secular imperturbability. In e f f e c t , Hath Not A Jew.... i s an assertion of the human worth and s p i r i t u a l d ignity of the Jewish cause. 4 ? K l e i n , Hath Not A Jew.... p. 1 0 . 4 8 K l e i n , Hath N< 4 9 i b i d . . p. 1 3 . ot A Jew.... p. 1 0 . 1 8 7 . "Ave Atque Vale" establishes the distinguished heritage of Judaism, "Childe Harold's Pilgrimage" the h i s t o r i c a l Jewish predicament, while " P o r t r a i t of a Minyan" presents thumbnail descriptions of the ten men who make up the r e l i g i o u s service and hence the Jewish culture. K l e i n presents h i s represent-atives with some wit, the "landlord" i s a learned man "but none the l e s s , h i s tenants pay / or meet the b a i l i f f " . S i m i l a r l y , the "Junk-dealer" i s etched with some a c i d : While l i t a n i e s are clamored, His loud voice brags A Hebrew most ungrammared.50 He s e l l s God rags. Nevertheless, Klein's a f f e c t i o n f o r the kindness of "His Was An Open Heart" and the meekness of "the l i t t l e Jew / Homunculus" of the poem "And the Man Moses Was Meek" i s most evident. Throughout t h i s book, the figure of the l i t t l e man, sometimes homunculus, sometimes dwarf, re-appears. From the holy man "who loved God and feared women" ("Sonnets Semitic") through the "good, l i t t l e Jew" of "Mourners" ("Kith and Kin") to "Doctor Dwarf" ("Of Sundry Fol k " ) , he i s most often a figure associated with loving kindness and meekness. This prototype of goodness has no defence against oppression as i s described i n the poem "Biography": A l i t t l e Jew l i v e d i n a l i t t l e straw hut; There was thatch on h i s roof; on h i s f l o o r s there was not; There was smoke i n h i s chimney, and dun on h i s cot; But There was nothing i n h i s pot. 5°Klein, Hath Not A Jew.... p. 20. 188. So, hungry and l i t t l e i n a world that was wide, He t r i e d to get used to not eating; he t r i e d The f i r s t day, the second. "A habit!" he c r i e d . Then sighed. And thus the l i t t l e Jew died.5 1 The dwarf, homunculus, or "good l i t t l e Jew" i n K l e i n 1 s f i r s t book would seem to represent the poet*s concept of the good man, small i n stature and i n e f f e c t u a l against his oppressors, who nevertheless embodies a l l the good of the race. In t h i s sense, the good l i t t l e man might be interpreted as K l e i n 1 s metaphor fo r h i s view of the Jew*s po s i t i o n i n the world. The a n t i t h e s i s to the l i t t l e man i s the "golem", a Frankenstein-like automaton. In t r a d i t i o n a l legend he i s a savior created to protect the Jewish nation from i t s persecutors. But K l e i n discerns i n the golem a capacity f o r mindless e v i l which causes him to re j e c t t h i s kind of black magic. In the poem "Talisman i n Seven Shreds" Kl e i n considers the nature of the golem and i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p with God and man. The f i r s t section of t h i s poem i s e n t i t l e d "Syllogism": I f golem i s the e f f i g y of man, and man the simulacrum of the Lord, the sequitur - I blanch to mouth the word, the blasphemous equation framed to span,-? chasm between the Lord and Caliban! 3 I f A s B and B = C, then A s C, that i s , golem equals God. Such l o g i c , K l e i n i n s i s t s , reduces the godhead to absurdity. Golem, that Caliban-like creature^ i s not of, or like,God, but 5!Klein, Hath Not A Jew.... p. 8 5 . 5 2 T h i s and following quotations from Klein, "Talisman i n Seven Shreds", Hath Not A Jew.... pp. 37-41. 1 8 9 . i s rather one with "Kismet" and "Ananke". A l l are implacable automata that are not moved by human wish. From t h i s point of view, the golem, l i k e Pratt's Great Panjandrum, i s associated with the implacable r u l e r of the universe, but he i s not to be confused with the God of Mercy. In Jewish myth, the golem has the po t e n t i a l f o r both good and mindless e v i l . As long as the s l i p of paper with God's name on i t (the tetragrammaton) i s held under h i s tongue, he w i l l serve good. But should t h i s charm be l o s t or destroyed, as i t does i n part three of Klein's poem, then the golem becomes demonic. Part Four "Fons Vitae", describes the genesis of golem: "mud and mire of Moldau, that was the sperm / that nurtured him". There, rabbi and sextons beheld the miracle of creation: "that which before was not, to be". Some learned men of the past have understood the secret of l i f e , but t h i s understanding i s no longer given: "how can I pry / behind that mystic chromosome?" In part five ?"Eni;gma", the poet poses a question. If,, as they say, the Jews are leagued-i with the D e v i l : " C h r i s t i a n infants are t h e i r food and drink", so that rumors grow into "feud": "even the palest Slovene blood b o i l s red", how i s i t that they are enabled to o u t l i v e "Judeophobic" wrath: It i s the fi n g e r of the Lord's r i g h t hand?. Or i s the golem savior, t h i s rude goth Whose earthy paw i s l i k e a magic wand? I f one accepts golem as savior then, "Lord God i s a myth" 190 What, t h e n , i s good and t r u e and b e a u t i f u l ? The tongue i s b i t t e r when i t must d e c l a r e ! Ma t t e r i s chaos , mind i s chasm, f o o l , She work o f golems s t a l k i n g i n n ightmare ••• Without God, a l l i s undone, o r d e r and r eason v a n i s h f rom the w o r l d . And y e t , even i n t h i s a n g u i s h , i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o suppress " i m m o r t a l y e a r n i n g s " . P a r t seven a l l u d e s to Shakespeare*s Macbeth " T o s l e e p , perchance to dream" 9 and s p e c u l a t e s i f " w o r d " a lone can b r i d g e the two wor lds o f the s p i r i t u a l and the t e m p o r a l : " w i t h these neat ph rases l e a p a c a t a r a c t ? " . But no , even the magic o f a word w i l l no t a c comp l i sh t h i s , t he r e i s no w i t c h o f En-dor t o invoke and golem cannot be t r u s t e d . U l t -i m a t e l y man cannot know and must r e l y on h i m s e l f : But I w i l l t ake a p rong i n hand, and go ove r o l d graves and t e s t t h e i r h o l l o w n e s s : be i t the s p i r i t o r the dus t I hoe o n l y a t doomsday 's s u n r i s e w i l l I know.53 T h i s poem i s a good example o f the e s c h a t o l o g i c a l concerns which dominate K l e i n * s work. L i k e P r a t t * s I ron Door . i t exp resses K l e i n * s concern w i t h i m m o r t a l i t y and l i k e the P r a t t o f The T i t a n i c and B r e b e u f and H i s B r e th ren t he r e i s a s t r ong element o f demonism p r e s e n t . K l e i n * s go lem, l i k e P r a t t * s human c r e a t u r e , has the c a p a c i t y f o r bo th good and e v i l but when the i n f l u e n c e o f God i s removed he r e v e r t s i n a p r i m i t i v e a t a v i s t i c f a s h i o n . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t the metaphors o f K l e i n and P r a t t , each combin ing demonism w i t h p r i m i t i v e 53A.M. K l e i n , The H i t l e r i a d . New York , New D i r e c t i o n s , 1944, p . 2 5 . P r a t t * s f o r m u l a t i o n o f an i n t o x i c a t i n g a d u l t e r a n t i n the b l ood a l s o r eappea rs i n K l e i n * s d e s c r i p t i o n o f H i t l e r " t h a t h e a r t , where no b l o o d i s , but h i g h o c t a n e " , p . 5* 191 atavism were precipitated by the spectacle of world war. This i s suggested i n Klein's work by h i s p o r t r a i t of Hitler^which combines aspects of the golem (the automaton) with those of the beast: Fed thus with native quarry, f l e s h and gore He l i c k e d h i s whiskers, crouched, then stalked f o r more. H i t l e r i s also s p e c i f i c a l l y i d e n t i f i e d with an a t a v i s t i c f a l l and the concept of inherited e v i l : Judge not the man f o r h i s face Out of NeanderthalI 'Tis true ' t i s commonplace, Mediocral, But the e v i l of the race,,. Informs that s k u l l I The world of golem and dwarf, h o r r i f y i n g i n The  H i t l e r i a d ? i s not a pleasant one i n Hath Not A Jew.... The world of the Jewish homunculus i s diminutive because that i s the dark comedy of h i s s i t u a t i o n i n the world. But t h i s dwarfing does not seem to imply, as T . A . Marshall suggests, that "Mfe's problems are scaled down".55 Rather, the element of f a i r y - t a l e emphasizes the tragedy of the l i t t l e man's position, only i n B i b l i c woods can the small boy hunt 5 4 K l e i n , The H i t l e r i a d . pp. 6 - 7 . 55T .A. Marshall, "Theorems Made Flesh: Klein's Poetic Universe", Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , no. 28. (Summer, 1965) p. 4 6 • "The fig u r e that dominates Klein's e a r l i e s t poetry i s c e r t a i n l y the Jew as dwarf or clown, and more important, as martyr and wanderer.... This dwarfing process can be seen i n the creation of the comic and charming f a i r y t a l e world that takes up the l a t t e r j p a r t of Hath Not A Jew. Here i s a pleasant diminutive world peopled by dwarfs, children, homunculi and elves. Love pr e v a i l s and l i f e ' s problems are scaled down." 192 " t h e b e a s t , Nebuchadnezza r " . On ly i n the f a i r y - t a l e s e t t i n g can the P r i n c e s s be made happy and the p e r s e c u t o r Pan S t a n i s l a u s be moved t o good by a Jewish c lown, " a danc ing b e a r " . The paradox i s s t a t e d i n the P r i n c e s s * song o f "God*s i l l u n -f a vou red t h i n g s " Kingdoms i n remote l a n d s won By a d i s i n h e r i t e d s o n ; Imps i n pandemonium , Cower ing be fo r e Tom Thumb.5 ° S i m i l a r l y , i n the l a t e r poem "Yehuda Ha-Lev i , H i s P i l g r i m a g e " o f Poems, the p r i n c e s s , J e rusa l em, i s a v i s i o n seen i n dream and neve r f u l l y a c h i e v e d . The hope, a l t hough r e a l , can o n l y be expressed i n terms o f the make-be l ieve u n t i l i t f i n d s o b j e c t i f i c a t i o n i n the s t a t e o f I s r a e l , the New Je rusa lem o f The Second S c r o l l (1951). " T a l i s m a n i n Seven Sh reds " i s a l s o a good example o f K l e i n * s p o e t i c t e c h n i q u e . L i k e the T . S . E l i o t o f The Waste Land. K l e i n uses an e x t e r n a l myth, i n t h i s case the Jewish myth o f the golem, t o p r o v i d e the s t r u c t u r a l myth o f h i s poem and t o comment on the contemporary s i t u a t i o n . As i n " D e s i g n Fo r A Med i e va l T a p e s t r y " and "Haggadah" f rom Hath Not A J ew . . . and "A V o i c e Was Heard i n Ramah" f rom Poems. K l e i n uses the myths and events o f the Jewish pas t t o comment on contemporary p e r s e c u t i o n . " T a l i s m a n i n Seven S h r e d s " , l i k e "The So i r e e o f V e l v e l K l e i n b u r g e r " ( c f . "The Love Song o f J . A l f r e d P r u f r o c k " ) 56Kiein, " B a l l a d o f the Danc ing B e a r " , Hath Not A J e w . . . . p . 95 . 193. also employs the technique of a l l u s i o n to modify and enlarge the central s t r u c t u r a l myth. Klein's invocation of Macbeth's speech i n the l a s t section of t h i s poem "to sleep, perchance  to dream ... death does not end the act" and the a l l u s i o n to the witch of En-dor help;, to enrich the presentation of Klein's own dilemma between the c o n f l i c t i n g claims of r e l i g i o n and magic. "The Psalter of Avran Haktani" i n Poems (1944), l i k e P ratt's Newfoundland V e r s e ? i s a record of the poet's s p i r i t u a l anguish i n the face of the e v i l of war: Since prophecy has vanished out of I s r a e l , And since the open v i s i o n i s no more, Where i n these dubious days s h a l l I take counsel?5-7 Who i s there to resolve the dark, the doubt? Instead, Baal i s worshipped, "only the painted heathen dance and sing". In psalm IV, the poet from "pastures green" would l i f t up h i s eyes to praise God but can only see "the f i e r c e carnivorous Messerschmidt, / the Heinkel on the k i l l " . Psalm V, also voicing Pratt's concern with the b e s t i a l i t y of man, would seem to have been d i r e c t l y influenced by Pratt's i r o n i c l i t a n y of progress, "A Prayer-Medley": "How wonderful i s the power of 58 man; how great h i s knowledge I" But where Pratt mocks the 57 This and further c i t a t i o n s unless noted are to A.M. K l e i n , Poems. Philadelphia, The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1944, p - 1 . p o E . J . P r a t t , The Fable of the Goats and Other Poems. Toronto, Macmillan, 1937, p. 27. 194 s c i e n t i f i c and humanitarian progress which has been put to the a t a v i s t i c service of war, Kl e i n d i r e c t l y states man's return to b e s t i a l i t y . We are urged to "consider the son of man, how he doth get him knowledge and wisdomI": The beasts of the f i e l d are h i s teachers; feather and f u r h i s inst r u c t o r s , teaching him the way that he s h a l l go therein. Before t h e i r hooves he s i t s , a d i s c i p l e ? to t h e i r eyrie, he climbs, crying, Master, Master. The animals i n s t r u c t him "how the enemy may be abashed": "yea, at t h i s very instant, he gapes at the eagle's talons dropping volcanic rock." For those who would seek to f e r r e t out the source of t h i s e v i l i n man, Kl e i n suggests^like Pratt, that they go to the blood i t s e l f : A song f o r hunters. In that wood, That whispering jungle of the blood Where the carnivorous midge seeks meat, And yawns the sinuous spirochete, And roars the small f i e r c e unicorn, The white-robed hungers sound the horn. May they have goodly hunting. May Their quarry soon be brought to bay. The wedding section of psalm XV to psalm XXI provides a respite from g r i e f , but with psalm XXII there i s a prayer to be preserved from "madness" and i n psalm XXIII the poet c r i e s out against a figure of autocratic j u s t i c e much l i k e Pratt's Great Panjandrum. The problem of the age, as i t i s stated i n Psalm XXV, i s the explication of "the folded present". Why should such e v i l e x i s t , what i s the meaning of l i f e ? Psalm XXX suggests a p a r t i a l answer when i t suggests, l i k e Pratt's Iron Door, that 195. time ( l i f e ) has i t s value i n the heroic deeds which men accomplish: But, t r u l y , i n what smithy was i t [time) forged? In what alembic brewed? By what b i r d hatched? I, but a stammerer, by the s p i r i t urged, Having approached the Door, found i t unlatched, Say Time i s vacuum, save i t be compact Of men*s deeds imitating godly act. Klein again returns to h i s awareness of atavism i n psalm XXXIV when he pleads f o r understanding of e v i l : "unriddle me the chapter of the week / show me the wing, the hand, behind the claw, / the human mouth behind the vulture beak". The sequence closes with an acknowledgement of genealogy and the blood-line: Not sole was I born, but entire genesis: For to the fathers that begat me, t h i s Body i s residence. Corpuscular, They dwell i n my veins. ! Klein's l a s t book of poetry, The Rocking Chair and Other Poems (1948) i s , l i k e h i s f i r s t , an anatomy. But i t i s now the anatomy of a place (Quebec) and i t s people rather than that of a r e l i g i o n and i t s people. Klein c a r e f u l l y establishes h i s t o r y and symbol ("The Rocking Chair" )^  geography and r e l a t i o n s h i p ("The Provinces") 3 and then begins an i n t e r n a l exploration. Landmarks are established ("Grain Elevator 1*, "Universite de Montreal", "Indian Reservation: Caughnawaga", "Pawnshop", "Commercial Bank", "Quebec Liquor Commission Store", "The Mountain", " L i b r a i r i e Delorme"