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The effect of diethylstilbestrol implants and ration protein/energy ratios on the water requirements… Thompson, Ann Bernice 1967

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THE EFFECT OF DTETHYLSTILBESTROL IMPLANTS AND RATION PROTEIN/ENERGY RATIOS ON THE WATER REQUIREMENTS OF GROWING SHEEP by ANN BERNICE THOMPSON B.Sc., Bishop's University,1965 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FLn.FILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN AGRICULTURE in the Division of Animal Science We accept this thesis as ODnforming to the required standard The University of British Columbia December, 1967. In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s represen-t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department nf Animal Science The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada e December 29, 1967. ABSTRACT The feeding of 1 meg. diethylstilbestrol (DES) per g. dry matter of feed to mature intact and castrated or ovariectomized male and female Wistar strain rats indicated that hormone treatment tends to reduce the water requirements of rats. Implantation of 3 mg., 6 mg., and 9 mg. DES i n growing wether lambs did not affect the relationship of total water intake to dry matter intake, gross energy intake, apparent digestible energy, nitrogen intake, apparent digestible nitrogen and nitrogen retention. Feeding of rations of differing protein l e v e l , gross energy content, and protein to calorie ratios, did not alter the ratios of tot a l water intake to dry matter intake, apparent digestible energy, nitrogen intake, apparent digestible nitrogen and nitrogen retention i n growing wether lambs. LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page I Proximate analysis of feeds (dry matter basis) 12 I I Experimental animal groups and treatments (Experiment I) 13 III Composition of sheep rations 14. IV Experimental groups and treatments(Experiment II) 14 V Experimental groups and rations (Experiment III) is VI Summary of results of di g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s with male rats (Experiment I) 22 VII Summary of results of di g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s with female rats (Experiment I) 24 VIII Summary of growth data (Experiment II) 27 IX Summary of 24-hour d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s (Experiment II) 28 X Animals used for s t a t i s t i c a l analysis (Experiment II) 30 XI Values associated 1 ml total water intake (Experiment II) 32 XII Summary of growth data (Experiment III) 34 XIII Summary of 24-hour d i g e s t i b i l i t y (Experiment III) 35 XIV Animals used for s t a t i s t i c a l analysis (Experiment III) 36 XV Values associated with 1 ml total water intake 38 (Experiment III) XVI Values associated with 1 ml apparent available water 39 (Experiment III) Appendix I XVII Feed intake, water intake, and body weights of male rats (Experiment I) XVIII Feed intake, water intake, and body weights of female rats (Experiment I) XIX Results of d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s with male rats (Experiment I) XX Results of d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s with female rats (Experiment I) Appendix I I XXI Growth data (Experiment II) XXII Digestibility t r i a l s (Experiment II) Appendix I I I XXIII Growth data (Experiment III) XXIV Digestibility t r i a l s (Experiment III) ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author wishes to express her thanks to Dr. W. D. Ki t t s , Professor and Chairman of the Division of Animal Science, for encouragement and guidance throughout the course of this study. The technical assistance of Miss Diana SMith i s gratefully acknowledged. 1. INTRODUCTION Water i s o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e t o t h e l i v i n g o r g a n i s m b u t i s a l l t o o f r e q u e n t l y t a k e n f o r g r a n t e d . I n modern a n i m a l a g r i c u l t u r e l i t t l e emphasis h a s been p l a c e d on t h e e x a c t r e q u i r e m e n t s o f w a t e r b y a n i m a l s t h a t a r e p r o d u c i n g t o t h e i r g e n e t i c w o r t h . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o a l l o w t h e a n i m a l t o become as e f f i c i e n t a s p o s s i b l e i n i t s r o l e t o p r o d u c e f o o d f o r man. As w a t e r i s one o f t h e s i x main n u t r i e n t s i t must be s t u d i e d i n r e s p e c t t o a n i m a l p r o d u c t i o n , a s a r e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s b e i n g d i r e c t e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e o t h e r f i v e n u t r i e n t s , namely, p r o t e i n s , c a r b o h y d r a t e s , f a t s , m i n e r a l s and v i t a m i n s . T h i s s t u d y was d e s i g n e d t o e x p l o r e t h e q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between w a t e r i n t a k e and d r y m a t t e r i n t a k e , g r o s s e n e r g y i n t a k e , a p p a r e n t d i g e s t i b l e e n e r g y , n i t r o g e n i n t a k e , a p p a r e n t d i g e s t i b l e n i t r o g e n and n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n i n t h e g r o w i n g market lamb. D i e t h y l e s t i l b e s t r o l (DES) i m p l a n t s and r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g v a r i o u s l e v e l s o f p r o t e i n a n d e n e r g y were u s e d . 2. UTEFATURE SURVEY a) Functions of water The unique physical properties of water make i t one of the compounds most important for l i v i n g material. The role of water i n controlling the temperature of the animal body i s well known (5, 6, 16, 23). Water serves to equalize temperatures within the body, transporting heat from one area to another, especially from deep tissues to the surface of the body. The low thermal conductivity and high specific heat of water help to minimize the impact cf changes of environment on the body. The high heat of vaporization of water aids i n the dissipation of heat produced by the body i t s e l f . Water forms the media i n which l i f e exists and as a structural component aids i n maintaining the physical form of the cells and the body. As an excellent solvent i t provides the reaction medium for a great many of the chemical reactions of the body. Most enzymes are water soluble and the high dielectric constant of water promotes the ionization of many compounds, which makes water invaluable i n promoting the i n i t i a t i o n and speed of many reactions. Water takes part as a chemical reactant, particularly i n reactions involving energy changes, such as biological oxidations, hydrolyses, dehydration syntheses and anhydride formation. As the major component of blood plasma and lymph, water forms the transportation system for a l l compounds moving within the body. Urinary water i s most important i n the excretion of chemical wastes, particularly the products of protein metabolism. Last, but not least, water provides a lubricant for the physical movements of the body. 3. b) Water compartments Water i s one of the major components of the animal body making up about 40-90% (16) of the weight. The actual value depends on many factors including species, nutritional state, age and sex. Water content tends to be inversely related to fat storage but when water i s expressed on a fat-free body weight basis, the value approximates 72% for most species (16). Water content i s highest i n the young animal and tends to decrease with increasing.age (6, 13). Water i s distributed throughout the body but i t i s convenient to visualize the body as being portioned into several water compartments, the boundaries of which are somewhat arbitrary. Extracellular water consists of the blood plasma, lymph and i n t e r s t i t i a l fluids which surround the individual c e l l s . Intracellular water i s that which makes up an integral part of the l i v i n g protoplasm. The types of electrolytes in these two compartments, and the mechanisms naintaining their distinctive concentrations are of great physiological importance and are a study i n themselves. Measurements of the volumes of these water conpartments are usually made by dilution techniques. A known amount of a substance, such as deuterium oxide, antipyrine, or Evans blue, which w i l l spread evenly throughout the appropriate water compartment i s injected into the blood stream. Serial samples of blood are analyzed to determine the course of and ultimate level of dilution of the indicator. Total body water and extracellular water are relatively easy to measure but intracellular water can be determined only by difference of total body water and extracellular water. c) Water balance Despite disputes as to the actual magnitude and types of water found i n the body i t i s apparent that there must be some mechanism controlling the levels. It i s thus useful to examine factors involved i n the water balance. Sources of water intake include that consumed as a li q u i d , plus the moisture content of food ingested. The breakdown of dietary nutrients yields metabolic water. For each 100 g. of nutrient (5) protein yields 42 g. water, carbohydrate yields 60 g. water and fat yields 100 g. water. Assuming the conventional Atwater figures of 4,4, and 9 Kcal/g for protein, carbohydrate and fat, this gives 10.5, 15.0, and 11.1 g. metabolic water per 100 Kcal metabolizable energy from protein, carbohydrate and fat respectively (5). When stored body tissue i s metabolized small amounts of "preformed" water become available to the animal.as well. This last water source i s of greater importance to a fasting animal than to one which i s on f u l l feed. The animal loses water through urine, feces, sweat, and through insensible evaporation from the skin and respiratory tract. Studies of water balance have frequently, been performed with humans. Some of the f i r s t work i n this f i e l d was done by Newburgh et a l . (18). He proposed the use of a water balance sheet which included the components l i s t e d above. Metabolic water was calculated i n a manner similar to that described. Preformed water was determined by comparison of the differences of diet and actual metabolic mixture. Insensible weight loss, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide loss were used to compute insensible water loss. 5. Peters et a l . (19) suggested a simplified equation form of Newburgh's work. Lavietes (10) c r i t i c i z e s Newburgh's (18) method of determining insensible water loss because of the restricted conditions under which i t must be used. Morrison (17) uses oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, urinary nitrogen, and total energy production to calculate metabolic water. Mitchel (16) proposes that i n farm animals, as opposed to humans, the vapor:heat ratio varies not only with the environmental temperature but also with the level of heat production. Blaxter and Rook (3) have recommended a method for use i n estimating the water balance of farm animals which involves measuring the sodium and potassium retention. 6. d) Water requirements Studies with fasting animals have been used i n an attempt to determine nrinimum water requirements for maintenance of slightly positive water balance. Early work i s well reviewed by Leitch and Thomson (11). Mitchel (16) uses data of previous workers to compute the water balance of fasting steers. In 1933, Adolph (1) suggested that since water requirements are closely related to those for energy, nitrogen and s a l t , minimum water needs could be calculated by the use of appropriate coefficients with these easily measured values. His values, as quoted by Crampton and Lloyd (5) are 400A for urinary loss, 30A for fecal loss, 250A for basal extra renal loss and 1.73 x O.HE for exercise loss, where A = 0.12 W kg 7 5 and E = 70 x W^75. Adolph concludes that a water intake of 1 ml per calorie of heat produced i s adequate for most needs. Richter (20) found water requirements more closely related to surface area than to body weight. He found that for rates varying from 2 50 to 325 g, water intake per unit calculated surface area (S = 0.091W /^) i s practically constant. Water requirements are also frequently expressed i n relation to dry matter intake of feed. Leitch and Thomson (11) report a ratio for dairy cows of 3.8:1 and for sheep of two parts water to one part feed for voluntary water intake. They did not f e e l , however, that the method was satisfactory for predicting water intake since several other factors are also important i n determining water intake. 7. Mitchell (16) points out that t h i r s t mechanisms may be only par t i a l l y adequate i n promoting sufficient water intake to maintain water balance. He also indicates that for ruminants much more water i s required for the elimination of fecal wastes, than i s required for the same purpose by the non-ruminant. Mitchell states that, "the excessive usage of water by the ox i n the elimination of fecal wastes i s a function not only of the heat economy of the animal but of the type of ration, high i n ballast, that the animal i s consuming". In studies with steers, Mitchell (16) concluded that i f fecal water i s deducted from total water intake to obtain a figure for "available" water, then Adolph's ratio of 1 ml available water per kilocalorie of heat produced, i s a valid one. The ratio of corrected water intake to dry matter intake i s 1.68:1 for these same animals. The original assumptions were made from data on fasting animals but Mitchell i s of the opinion that "the activity increment i n water expenditure may tentatively be assessed on the same basis". Eelatively l i t t l e work has been done on the practical water require-ments of farm animals, especially those for animals involved i n active production or growth. MacDonald and Bell (12) have studied the effect of ambient a i r temperature on water intake of lactating dairy cows. They found that low fluctuating a i r temperature had l i t t l e effect on the ratio of daily total water intake to dry matter intake which they found to be 4.30:1. Despite the numerous factors which might be expected to influence the ratio, these authors found that their data supported the views of Adolph. Recent work by Holroyd (8) gives "evidence that the water consumption of birds and the moisture content of droppings vary with breed and that some laying birds may only perform at their inherent potential for egg size when water consumption reaches a given level". Thus optimum water intake is a factor which should be considered by the poultry industry as well. 9. e. D i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l I t has been generally accepted that either feeding or implantation of d i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l (DES) w i l l increase the rate of gain i n ruminants (1,2,9,21). The suggested i d e a l l e v e l f o r single lamb implants i s 12 mg DES (2). Gross feed e f f i c i e n c y f o r DES treated animals has been found to be greater than that of control animals, however, Garrett (7) found that the improved feed e f f i c i e n c i e s i n DES-implanted lambs were not r e a l when placed on a c a l o r i c basis. Protein requirements of DES-treated animals have not been found to be increased (9) but nitrogen retention i s found to be greatly increased (22). V i r t u a l l y no work has been done with DES treated ruminants i n r e l a t i o n to t h e i r water metabolism. M i t c h e l l (15), however, noted that steers fed 10 mg DES per steer per day drank an average of 5.44 gallons of water per day while untreated control steers drank an average of 4.93 gallons per day. 10. MATERIALS AND METHODS EXPERIMENT 1. Twenty-six male and 27 female Wistar strain rats weighing 42 to 53 g. were employed i n this study. The animals were housed individually i n a unit similar to that described by Miller and Wood (21), with slight modifications to permit the use of specially designed water bottles. The water system consisted of a half pint milk bottle, f i t t e d with a No. 8 rubber stopper and a length of glass tubing, inverted to provide a "drop system" for cirinking. A catch vessel to collect water lost from the tubing was placed below the system. This vessel consisted of a wide test tube of 8.7 cm. in height and an inside diameter of 27 mm. Approximately one third of one side of each tube was cut away by removal of a diamond shaped piece of glass, and the edges firepolished. The upper edge of each catch tube was firepolished to form a surface such that i t would f i t t ightly into a rubber washer. These tubes were hung on the wire mesh covering the rat pans. The water bottle rested on the catch tube washer and the glass drop tube extended to about the middle of the catch tube opening to allow the animal to obtain the water easily. The entire water system i s shown i n Figure 1. Daily water consumption of the test animals was measured by weighing the watering assembly, the difference i n daily weight being assumed to represent the amount of water consumed. Control systems were weighed to allow correction for losses of water by evaporation. Water was available at a l l times. 11. A basal ration of reground Purina Laboratory Chow was provided ad libitum throughout the experiment. Proximate analysis was performed according to the O f f i c i a l AOAC Methods (22), the results of which are given i n Table I. The experimental ration contained one meg. diethylstilbestrol (DES) per g. dry matter of the feed. The animals weighed approximately 48 g. at the beginning of the experiment and were a l l handled similarly for nine weeks. Individual animal daily feed and daily water intake as well as growth data were recorded. After a six-week adaption period three d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s were conducted with both males and females. The three 24-hour t r i a l s were spread over a 10-day period. At the tenth week of the experiment, half the males were castrated and half the females ovariectomized. Half the animals i n each of these groups were given the experimental ration containing 1 meg. DES per g. dry matter of the feed. Group numbers and treatments are given i n Table I I . After a two week recovery and adjustment period, three d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s were conducted with each animal over a 10-day period, as before. During the d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s feed and water were offered ad  libitum as described above. A l l traces of bedding were removed from the pans at the beginning of each t r i a l and a total feces collection was made at the end of the 24-hour period. No attempt was made to separate the feces and urine. The individual fecal sample were dried, weighed, and stored at 5GC i n a refrigerator. TABLE I. PROXIMATE ANALYSIS OF FEEDS (DRY MATTER BASIS) Ration Rat Chow L-l L-2 . L-3 L-66 Dry matter % 90.6 87.9 87.7 87.8 87.3 Protein % 25.55 13.24 15.64 15.88 15.21 Ether Extract % 6.39 4.43 4.84 5.27 6.95 Crude Fiber % 5.47 7.59 7.80 5.32 8.30 Ash % 7.81 5.57 5.67 5.68 5.55 NFE3 % 54.78 69.17 66.05 67.85 63.99 Gross Energy Kcaly . g 4.50 4.24 4.26 4.25 4.30 Nitrogen free extract. 13 EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL GROUPS AND TREATMENTS (Experiment I) No. of No. of Groups animals Treatment. animals Treatment I 6 Intact Control 7 Intact Control II 6 Castrate Control 6 Ovariectomized Control I I I .7 Intact. DES ( a ) 7 Intact DES TV 7 Castrate DES 7 Ovariectomized DES (a) 1 meg DES per g dry matter feed. 14 Composite samples of the dried feces were prepared from each test group of animals. These samples were ground and gross caloric values determined using a Parr adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter. From these data a dry matter d i g e s t i b i l i t y value was calculated for each animal. The apparent digestible energy of the ration was also computed by the difference between the feed gross caloric value and the fecal gross caloric value. 15. EXPERIMENT I I . Twenty-four crossbred wether lambs weighing 62 to 75 pounds were used i n this study. On arri v a l each animal was treated with 1 cc Derapin C and h. cc Pro-vite. The lambs were divided into four groups of equal weight and placed i n two pens, the three heaviest animals of each group i n one pen, the three lightest i n the other. Ration L-66 (Table III) was given ad libitum throughout the feeding period. A small amount of grass hay was given during the i n i t i a l adjustment period. Proximate analysis was performed on the ration according to O f f i c i a l AOAC Methods (22). After a 16-day adjustment period the animals were implanted subcutaneously i n the ear with 3 mg DES pellets. Experimental groups and treatments are tabulated i n Table IV. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight records were kept starting one week later on ' day 1". Digestibility t r i a l s were started on day 21, although the animals were placed i n the digestion cages for short adaptation periods a few days earlier. One sheep from each of the four groups was placed i n the individual metal metabolism crates for a two-day period. Two such t r i a l s , using sheep from alternate pens, were performed each week, for six weeks. Each animal was tested at two week intervals, giving three t r i a l s per animal at various weights up to market weight of 100 lbs. A similar series of four animals, one from each group, remained i n each pen at a l l times, to TABLE I I I . COMPOSITION OF SHEEP RATIONS Ingredient (lbs) ( Ration L - l L-2 L-3 L-66 Barley 910 910 900 1635 Grass Meal - - - 100 Fish Meal (75%) 30 80 150 90 Molasses 210 170 120 150 Dried Beet Pulp 840 830 820 -Dicalcium Phosphate 10 4 — -Limestone - - - 15 NaCl (iodized) 10 10 10 10 Vitamin Additive 5 5 5 5 TABLE IV. EXPERIMENTAL GROUPS AND TREATMENTS (EXPERIMENT II) Group I II I I I IV Treatment mg DES Control 3.0 6.0 9.0 provide a control measure and indicate the effect of extra handling on the growth of the animals. Thirteen animals were marketed at day 50 at an average body weight of 101 pounds. Animals for the f i n a l two digestion trials plus three animals which had not reached market weight, were kept one week longer. Sheep were placed i n the metabolism crates i n the morning, just before the normal feeding time and were removed 48 hours later. Feed intake and water intake records were kept for each animal. A "control" water dish was set up to allow correction for water losses through evaporation. The metabolism crates were designed to allow separate collection of feces and urine. Two day total collections of both were made. Total urine volume was measured and about 50 mis from each animal treated with toluene and stored i n a stoppered glass test tube i n a refrigerator at 5°C. The moist feces were weighed and samples from each animal retained i n plastic bags. On returning to the laboratory, dry matter determinations were made on the feces samples to allow calculation of the dry matter excreted by each animal. Feces samples from each animal were dried, ground and stored at 5°C. The nitrogen content of the urine samples and of the feces samples was determined by the Macro-Kjeldahl method (22). The gross caloric value of the feces samples was determined with a Parr adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter. The percent digestible dry matter was calculated for each animal. Apparent digestible energy was calculated. A nitrogen balance sheet was prepared for each animal. 18. EXPEFJMENT I I I . Forty-eight crossbred wether lambs weighing 47 to 78 lbs. and sired by North Country Cheviot or Border Leicester rams were used. The animals were divided into four groups on a weight basis and each group placed i n a separate pen. A 10-day period was allowed for adjustment to the experimental rations, before the start of the experiment. Decreasing amounts of grass hay were fed during this time. Groups and rations are given i n Table V. Composition of the rations i s given i n Table I I I . Proximate analysis (22) was performed on each ration and i s given i n Table I. Daily feed intake and weekly body weight records were kept throughout the experiment. TABLE V. I^ERIMENTAL GROUPS AND RATIONS (EXPFJ&MENT III) Group I I I I I I IV Ration L - l L-2 L-3 L-66 Digestibility t r i a l s were started on day 11. Twelve metabolism crates similar to those of Experiment I I were used. Each group of animals was divided (accor^tlng to weight), into four series of three animals each, the three heaviest animals being i n series A, the next three heaviest animals being i n series B, and so on, i n an attempt to have animals of approximately the same weight i n each d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l . Again, one complete series of 12 animals, including three animals from each of the four treatment groups, was not used i n the t r i a l s 19. and served as a "handling control". One t r i a l was performed per week for six weeks. On day 40, nine animals with which two digestion t r i a l s had been completed, and which had reached market weight, were slaughtered. The renaining animals were marketed on day 53. The warm carcass weight was recorded for each animal and the dressing percentage calculated. A record of the carcass grades was kept. Each digestion t r i a l consisted of a three-day adjustment period, then a 24-hour to t a l collection period. Feed and water intake were measured as i n Experiment I I . Feces and urine were collected, measured and stored as i n Experiment I I . Dry matter determinations were done on the feces and nitrogen determinations were performed on urine samples and feces samples. A composite sample was made of feces from each of the three animals of each group i n each t r i a l . The gross caloric value of each of these samples was determined i n a Parr adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter. Samples of feces were collected from the rectum of each animal at the end of each t r i a l . These samples were placed immediately into covered weighed petrie dishes to avoid loss of moisture. The covers, plates and samples were weighed and the samples dried i n a forced a i r oven at 100°C to determine moisture loss. This value was used to determine the fecal water loss associated with each unit of dry feces excreted, and the total loss of water i n the feces. Water balance tables were compiled for each animal. Dry matter d i g e s t i b i l i t y and apparent digestible energy were determined as i n Experiment I I . Nitrogen balance tables were prepared. 21. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION EXPERIMENT I Weekly group averages for feed intake, water intake and body weights for a l l animals throughout the experiment are given in Tables XVII and XVIII. A summary of the results of the digestibility trials is given in Tables VI and VII. Feeding and water data are calculated on actual consumption during the trials and do not represent weekly averages. Values shown are means for three digestibility trials. A record of results from individual trials is given in Appendix I Tables. In a l l groups, animals lost weight when gives DES although castration appeared to have l i t t l e effect, other than to cause a very temporary slowing of growth. Hormone treatment increased the percent dry matter digestibility and percent apparent digestible energy over that of the untreated animals. The total dry matter and gross energy intakes of the treated animals were markedly reduced as was the dry matter feed intake per unit body weight. Total digestible energy intake and digestible energy intake per unit body weight were reduced. Total water intake was reduced by DES treatment but there was l i t t l e difference in water intake per unit body weight between treated and untreated groups. On the other hand, water intakes per unit dry matter intake, per unit gross energy intake and per unit digestible energy intake were increased. 22. TABLE VI. SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH MALE RATS OF EXPERIMENT I BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT I II I I I IV In- Cas- In- Cas-Group I II I I I IV tact trate tact trate •Treatment - - - - Con-t r o l Con-t r o l DES DES Body wt. (g) 328 329 320 332 436 406 342 333 Water intake (g/day) 37.5 37.0 34.4 36.4 33.1 33.6 22.2 27.6 DM ( b ) Intake (g/day) 26.2 27.0 26.7 26.3 26.0 26.0 15.5 17.4 DM output (g/day) 6.8 7 .4 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.4 4.1 3.8 Gross energy Intake (Kcal /day) 117.9 121.6 120.3 118.4 117.2 117.0 70.6 78.3 Gross energy output (Kcal /day) 26.3 28.5 27.3 27.4 26.3 26.9 15.3 14.6 % DM diges-t i b i l i t y 73.8 72.7 73.6 73.0 72.5 71.6 75.8 77.7 Apparent digestible energy (Kcal /day 91.7 93.1 93.0 91.0 90.9 90.1 55.3 63.7 % apparent digestible energy 77.7 76.6 77.3 76.9 77.6 77.0 78.4 81.4 Water intake /body wt (g/g) 0.115 0,113 0.108 .. 0.110 0.076 0.083 0.065 0.083 23. TABLE VI. SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH MALE PATS OF EXPERIMENT I (continued) BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT I I I I I I IV In- Cas- In- Cas-Group I I I I I I IV tact trate tact trate Con- Con-Treatment - t r o l t r o l DES DES Water intake /DM intake (g/g) 1.43 1.37 1.29 1.38 1.27 1.30 1.44 1.59 Water intake /gross energy intake (g/Kcal) 0.318 0.305 0.287 0.308 0.282 0.289 0.315 0.353 Water intake /digestible energy intake. (g/Kcal) 0.410 0.398 0.371 0.400 0.364 0.375 0.402 0.434 DM intake /body wt. (g/g) 0.0801 0.0822 0.0834 0.0793 0.0598 0.0641 0.0454 0.0522 Digestible energy intake/body wt. (Kcal/g) 0.280 0.284 0.297 0.400 0.209 0.222 0.402 0.192 a l l values given i n this table are averages for three d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s . Values for individual t r i a l s are given i n Appendix I. (b) D.M. = dry matter. TABLE VII. SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH FEMALE RATS OF EXPERIMENT I BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT Group I II I I I IV I In-tact II Ovari-ectom-ized III In-tact IV Ovari-ectom-ized Treatment - - - -Con-t r o l Con-t r o l DES DES Body wt (g) 205 204 201 209 232 263 200 203 Water intake (g/day) 30.7 29.6 28.6 27.4 29.0 29.7 23.9 26.5 D.M.(b) Intake (g/day). 20.6 19.5 18.1 20.1 19.8 22.0 10.8 13.5 D.M. output (g/day) 5.0 4.9 4.4 5.0 4.9 5.3 2.0 2.7 Gross energy intake (Kcal/ day) 90.0 87.9 81.5 90.3 89.1 90.0 48.6 60.6 Gross energy output (Kcal/ day) 18.2 18.1 16.3 18.4 17.6 19.1 7.6 10.3 % D.M. dig e s t i b i l i t y 75.2 75.0 75.7 74.9 75.2 76.2 81.8 80.8 Apparent digestible energy (Kcal /day) 71.9 69.8 65.1 72.0 71.5 80.0 41.0 50.3 % apparent digestible energy 79.8 79.4 80.6 79.6 80.3 80.7 84.4 83.1 25. TABLE VII. SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH FEMALE RATS OF EXPERIMENT I (continued) BEFORE TREATMENT At'i'Kk TREATMENT Group I II I I I IV I In-tact I I I I I IV Ovari- In- Ovari-ectom- tact ectom-ized ized Treatment - -Con-t r o l Con-t r o l DES DES Water intake /body wt (g/g) 0.150 0.145 0.142 0. 132 0.125 0.113 0.120 0.131 Water intake /D.M. intake (g/g) 1.53 1.51 1.58 1. 37 1.47 1.35 2.22 1.99 Water intake /gross energy intake (g/Kcal) 0.341 0.336 0.352 0. 303 0.326 0.301 0.492 0.443 Water intake/ digestible energy intake (g/Kcal) 0.421 0.424 0.440 0. 381 0.407 0.372 0.582 0.532 D.M. intake /body wt. (g/g) 0.0976 0.0957 0.0899 0. 0960 0.0854 0.0837 0.0540 0.0663 Digestible energy intake /body wt (Kcal /g) 0.351 0.342 0.323 0. 344 0.308 0.307 0.205 0.248 (a) A l l values given are averages for three d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s . Values for individual t r i a l s are given i n Appendix I. (b) D.M. = dry matter. 26. I t thus appears that hormone treatments tend to reduce the water requirements of r a t s . As a r e s u l t of t h i s experiment i t was decided to conduct an experiment on the relationship of c i i e t h y l s t i l b e s t r o l water and energy requirements of growing sheep. EXPERIMENT I I A summary of the growth data f o r Experiment I I i s given i n Table VIII. Original data are given i n Appendix I I . Treatment with DES appears to increase the average d a i l y gain and improve the gross feed e f f i c i e n c y but the l e v e l of treatment has no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t . A summary of the 24-hour d i g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l s i s given i n Table IX while o r i g i n a l data i s i n Appendix I I . Animals from the two d i f f e r e n t pens were used i n analysis of variance. Group sizes were reduced by eliminating the animals of lowest body weight. Table X gives animals from which data were used f o r s t a t i s t i c a l analysis. Neither treatment nor pen had a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t on body weight or metabolic body siz e . Water consumption and t o t a l water intake are not affected by treatment or pen but there i s an interaction (P<.05) i n which the control animals of pen 2 have a lower water consumption and t o t a l water intake than the other animals. There are no s i g n i f i c a n t differences between treatments or pens for dry matter intake. Percent dry matter d i g e s t i b i l i t y i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y (P <•01) affected by pen although not by r a t i o n . This i s of interest TABLE Villi;. SUMMARY OF GROWTH DATA (EXPERIMENT I I ) a Group Treatment No. of Animals Wt. when implanted BODY WEIGHT (LBS.) Av. Av. feed daily intake gain Feed e f f i c -iency lbs DAYS ON TEST lbs/ lbs/ day l b / l b 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 KJCLy I Control 6 73.3 77.3 77.8 79.5 79.5 81.5 86.3 91.0 95.3 90.3b 2.37 0.37 7.14 II 3 mg DES 6 69.3 71.7 74.0 77.8 79.5 81.7 86.3 91.0 97.3 99.0° 2.39 0.50 4.90 III 6 mg DES 6 70.0 71.8 72.8 74.7 78.7 81.3 85.3 90.2 97.8 86.0d 2.35 0.52 4.93 TV 9 mg DES 6 71.3 73.7 76.7 80.0 80.0 82.3 86.0 92.0 98.8 93.0d 2.35 0.47 5.39 a) a l l values are averages for the group b) average for three animals c) average for four animals d) average for two animals 28. TABLE IX. SUMMARY OF 24-HOUR DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS, EXPEFJMENT I I GROUP UNITS . I . I I . III rv TREATMENT Control 3 mg DES 6 mg DES 9 mg DES Body wt. lbs. 85.3 86.8 83.2 85.8 Metabolic body size W, .75 kg mis 15.5 15.7 15.2 15.6 Water intake 1273 1452 1646 1597 Feed water mis 194 198 191 201 Total water intake mis 1468 1646 1838 1795 Urine volume mis 612 470 530 543 DM feed intake . g 901 915 889 930 EM feces g 202 201 209 216 k% CM di g e s t i b i l i t y % 73.3 78.2 77.0 ' 76.9 Gross energy feed Kcal 3832 3911 3825 3999 Gross energy feces Kcal 851 855 892 927 ^Apparent digestible energy Kcal 2980 3055 2933 3072 ^% Apparent digestible energy % 77.8 78.2 77.1 76.8 N intake g 21.93 22.28 21.65 26.64 Urine N cone. mg/ml 17.4 18.6 16.7 16.2 Urinary N excret . g 9.64 8.13 9.37 8.61 Feces N cone. mg/g 27.4 27.2 26.7 27.8 Fecal N excret . g 5.55 5.44 5.62 5.97 Total N output g 15.12 13.57 15.04 14.47 ^Apparent digestible N g 16.38 17.67 16.11 16.67 ^% Apparent digestible N % 74.7 75.8 74.8 73.7 §N retention . g 6.96 8.71 6.65 8.08 h % N retention % 31.4 39.6 31.1 36.1 see page 29 for footnotes 2 9 . FOOTNOTES (a) Apparent available water = (water + Feed water) - Fecal water) (ml) (b) % dry matter di g e s t i b i l i t y = dry matter feed - dry matter feces \<QQ% (%) dry matter feed x (c) Apparent digestible energy = gross energy feed - gross energy feces (Kcal) (d) % apparent digestible energy = gross energy feed - gross energy feces x gross energy feed (e) Apparent digestible nitrogen = N intake - Fecal N (g) (f) % apparent digestible nitrogen = N intake - Fecal N „ n n n Q , f9.s r f— t . X l U U - 6 \T>) N intake (g) Nitrogen retained = N intake - (Fecal N + Urinary N) (g) (h) % Nitrogen retained = N intake - (Fecal N + Urinary N) , n n r9.> N intake x x u u K o ) TABLE X. ANIMALS USED FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS (EXPERIMENT II ) Group I I I I I I IV Treatment mg DES Control 3.0 6.0 9.0 Run + Sheep 1 264 5 288 1 289 1 290 No. 5 264 9 288 5 289 5 290 9 264 3 254 9 289 3 295 Pen 1 7 293 7 254 3 281 7 295 11 293 11 254 7 281 11 295 Run + Sheep 2 298 2 271 2 538 2 255 No. 10 298 6 271 10 538 6 255 4 250 4 267 4 278 10 255 Pen I 8 250 8 267 8 278 8 543 12 250 12 267 12 278 12 543 31. since i t i s the animals from the "heavy" pen which one would suspect of having higher inherent growth capabilities which show the greater digestion of the ration. Gross energy intake and apparent digestible energy are not affected by treatment or pen but percent apparent digestible energy i s significantly (P<..01) greater for the heavy, pen two, animals. A similar relationship holds true with nitrogen values. There are no effects of treatment or pen or apparent digestible nitrogen intake but the heavier animals-show a significantly (P <(.05) greater percent apparent digestible nitrogen. Total nitrogen retention i s not affected by treatment but -there i s a highly significant (P <.001) increase i n retention by the heavier animals. There i s also a very significant (P<.01) ration pen interaction i n that the light animals treated with 6 mg and 9 mg DES have lower nitrogen retention than the heavy animals of the same treatments. Percent nitrogen retention i s much greater (P<(.01) for the heavier pen two animals. Table XI gives the ratios of several parameters to 1 ml of total water intake. Treatment had no significant effect on any of these ratios. A l l values except nitrogen retention showed a significant (P<^.05) treatment pen effect i n which pen two of the control animals gave values consistently higher than a l l others. This may well be due to the much lower water intake of those animals. Ratios for apparent digestible nitrogen (P<.05) and nitrogen retention (P<.01) are significantly higher for the heavier animals. TABLE XI. VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH 1 ML TOTAL WATER INTAKE (EXPERIMENT II) Group I II I I I IV MEAN Treatment DES mg Control 3.0 6.0 9.0 No. of animals 10.. . 10 10 10'" 10 Body wt. lbs 86.6 88.5 83.0 85.1 85.8 ± 7.7 Metabolic Body Size (W. - 7 5) kg -•Kg 15.7 15.9 15.2 15.5 15.6 ± 1.0 Dry Matter intake mg 635 556 514 547 563 ± 111 Gross Energy intake Kcal 2.70 2.35 2.21 2.36 2.41 ± .47 Apparent Diges-t i b l e energy Kcal 2.12 1.83 1.69 1.76 1.85 ± .38 Nitrogen intake 15.4 13.4 12.5 13.3 13.7 ± 2.7 Apparent Diges-t i b l e nitrogen mg 11.8 10.1 9.3 9.6 10.2 ± 2.1 Nitrogen retention mg 4.92 5.01 3.95 4.07 4.49 ± 1.70 33 . EXPERIMENT I I I A summary of the growth data for this experiment i s given i n Table XII. Complete data are found i n Appendix I I I . A summary of the di g e s t i b i l i t y t r i a l results including a l l available data i s given i n Table XIII. Complete data are found i n Appendix I I I . For analysis of variance group sizes were reduced to five animals each on a basis of i n i t i a l body weight. Animals used for analysis are given i n Table XIV. There were no significant differences of ratios for body weight or metabolic body size. However, as i s to be expected t r i a l i e . age had a very highly significant (P<.001) effect on both body weights and metabolic body size. Neither ration nor t r i a l had a significant effect on water consumed, to t a l water intake or apparent available water. Ration differences, appeared to be approaching significance for water consumed and apparent available water indicating that larger sample sizes might be of use. However, the standard errors of the means of water consumed, total water intake and.apparent available water are quite high. Ration had a very highly significant (P< .001) effect on dry matter intake. The effect of t r i a l was also highly significant (P<.01). There i s an indication that ratio t r i a l interaction for dry matter intake might become significant i f larger samples were used. The percent dry matter d i g e s t i b i l i t y i s significantly (P<.05) affected by t r i a l but not by ration. For a l l ratios the percent di g e s t i b i l i t y values are lower for the larger animals. TABLE XII. SUMMARY OF GROWTH DATAa (EXPERIMENT III) Group Ration No. of animals I n i t i a l wt. Final wt. Warm carcass wt. Dressing % Ave.(b) feed intake Ave. daily gain Gross feed efficiency Units lbs lbs lbs % lbs lbs lbs. feed lbs. gain I L - l 12 62.6 94.5 45.5 48.2 2.98 0.64 5.1 II L-2 10 65.6 94.6 45.3 47.9 2.77 0.60 4.95 III L-3 11 64.7 88.6 43.4 49.0 2.67 0.53 5.62 IV L-66 12 62.7 99.8 48.8 48.7 3.11 0.77 4.14 (a) values are group average (b) on a i r dry basis 35. TABLE XI I I . SUMMARY OF 24-HOUR DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS (EXPERIMENT I I I ) Ration Units L - l L-2 L-3 L-66 Runs 21,22,23:24,25,26: : 21,22,23 1:24,25,26:21,22 ,23:24,25 .,26:21,22,23:24 No. of animals 8 9 7 7 6 5 8 9 ' Body wt 74.6 84.9 76.6 87.0 75.8 86.0 76. 5 92.9 Metabolic body size W, kg mis 14.1 15.5 14.3 15.7 14.2 15.6 14. 3 16.5 Water intake 2997 3412 2439 2724 2657 3004 3233 3406 Feed water mis 134 148 139 130 113 133 160 192 Total water intake mis 3130 3560 2578 3216 3330 3137 3393 3598 Fecal water mis 500 631 479 503 313 442 453 532 aApparent a v a i l -able water mis 2631 2912 2099 2402 2457 2695 2940 3066 Urine volume mis 555 964 377 601 543 900 744 708 DM feed intake g 972 1081 948 929 814 958 1103 1299 DM feces output . g 198 241 185 209 148 185 219 306 b % DM digest. % 79.6 78.4 80.6 77.5 82.2 80.3 80. 3 76.7 Gross energy intake Kcal 4119 4582 4038 3959 3459 4072 4742 5586 Gross energy feces Kcal 904 1089 830 953 677 842 972 1342 App.dig.energy Kcal 3216 3669 3208 3006 2782 3230 3774 4262 d 0 j • % app.dig. energy Kcal 78.0 76.9 79.6 75.9 80.8 78.8 79. 8 76.1 N intake g 20.58 22.92 23.72 23.24 20.68 24.35 26. 85 31.62 Urine N cone. mg/ml 9.3 8.6 10.23 13.09 11.7 14.7 12. 4 17.0 Urinary N excret g 4.79 7.74 4.31 7.23 5.85 11.20 7. 94 10.93 Feces N cone. mg/g 37.7 38.9 37.9 41.4 40.1 42.4 32. 1 28.6 Fecal N excret. g 7.39 9,17 . 7.00 8.66 5.99 7.83 7. 03 8.74 Total N output g 12.17 17.04 11.32 15.89 12.35 19.03 14. 97 19.65 eApp. dig. N g 13.19 13.76 16.71 14.59 14.69 16.52 19. 82 22.88 ^% app. dig. N % 63.8 60.7 70.7 62.8 71.8 67.0 74. 0 72.1 % retention . g 8.41 7.66 12.40 7.36 8.33 8.60 10. 63 12.48 ^% N retention % 40.5 29.4 52.1 31.3 39.3 32.5 40. 5 37.5 see page 29 f o r footnotes TABLE XIV. ANIMALS USED FOR STATISTICAL ANALYSIS (EXPERIMENT III) Ration L - l Ration L-2 Ration L-3 Ration L-4 Tr i a l 1 313 337 358 329 327 T r i a l 2 313 337 362 358 309 Tr i a l 1 322 353 355 349 321 T r i a l 2 353 349 361 321 310 Tri a l 1 332 366 356 334 375 T r i a l 2 332 351 356 330 375 T r i a l 1 315 305 308 368 352 Tr i a l 2 315 305 308 368 352 37. Gross energy intake i s affected by dry matter - intake of the feed and by the energy content of the ration. Thus i t i s not surprising that both ration and t r i a l effects are highly significant, (P<.001 and P <.01 respectively). Apparent digestible energy i s significantly affected by ration (P <,001) and by t r i a l (P <.05) as well. The percent apparent-digestible energy, however, i s affected only by t r i a l (P 05). Apparent digestible nitrogen i s significantly (P<.001) affected by ration as might be expected due to the differing protein levels and dry matter intake of the different rations. T r i a l effect only approaches significance but there i s a significant (P<.05) ration t r i a l interaction. The percent apparent digestible nitrogen i s affected by both ration (P <.001) and t r i a l (P<.01) but there i s no significant interaction. Nitrogen retention i s affected by ration i n that Ration L-66 gives a significantly (P<.05) higher nitrogen retention than the other ratios. The heavier animals ( t r i a l 2) on Ration L-66 retained significantly (P<.05) more nitrogen than the lighter ( t r i a l 1) animals. Heavier animals on the barley-beet pulp rations retained less nitrogen than the lighter animals on the same rations. There were, however, no significant differences i n percent nitrogen retention so that the absolute values may have been produced simply because of the higher dry matter intake of Ration L-66. Values associated with 1 ml total water intake and 1 ml apparent available water are given i n Tables XV and XVI. The absolute values for dry matter intake, apparent digestible TABLE XV. VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH 1 ML TOTAL WATER INTAKE (EXPERIMENT III) Ration L - l L-2 L-3 L-66 Grand Mean Gross Energy of Ration Kcal/g 4.24 4.26 4.25 4. 30 Protein Level of Ration % 13.24 15.64 15. 88 15.21 T r i a l 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 No. of animals 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 Body wt. lbs 75.2 87.4 76.0 85.0 74.0 86.0 76.6 96.0 82.1 + 5.9 Metabolic Body Size W, -75 kg kg 14.1 15.8 14.2 15.6 14.0 15.6 14.3 17.0 15.1 ± 0.8 Dry Matter Intake mg 318 340 377 285 255 324 346 405 332 ± 92 Gross Energy Intake Kcal 1.34 1.44 1.61 1.22 1.09 1.38 1.49 1.75 1.41 ± .39 Apparent Diges-t i b l e Energy Kcal 1.05 1.07 1.26 0.92 0.88 1.10 1.19 1.35 1.10 + .32 N Intake mg 6.74 7.21 9.44 7.15 6.49 8.26 8.42 9.87 7.95 + 2.26 Apparent Digestible N ' mg 4.39 4.19 6.49 4.51 4.51 5.68 6.28 7.33 5.43 + 1.72 N Retention mg 2.45 2.11 4.37 2.35 2.73 2.50 3.16 4.50 3.02 ± 1.53 TABLE XVI. VALUES ASSOCIATED WITH 1 ML APPARENT AVAILABLE WATER (EXPERIMENT III) Ration L - l L-2 L-3 L-66 Grand Mean Gross Energy of Ration Kcal/g 4. ,24 4. 26 4. 25 4. ,30 Protein Level of Ration % 13. ,24 15. 64 15. 88 15. ,21 T r i a l 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 No. of animals 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 .5 5 Body wt. lbs 75.2 87.4 76.0 85.8 74.0 86.0 76.6 96.0 82.1 + 5.9 Metabolic Body Size W, -75 kg kg 14.1 15.8 14.2 15.6 14.0 15.6 14.3 17.0 15.1 + 0.8 Dry Matter Intake mg 378 435 486 385 351 383 404 480 412 ± 128 Gross Energy Intake Kcal 1.60 1.84 2.07 1.63 1.49 1.64 1.73 2.07 1.76 ± .54 Apparent Diges-t i b l e Energy Kcal 1.27 1.33 1.61 1.24 1.18 1.31 1.38 1.60 1.37 + .42 N Intake mg 8.01 9.24 12.16 9.65 8.90 9.77 9.82 11.69 9.91 + 3.16 Apparent Digestion N mg 5.18 5.35 8.29 6.07 8.90 9.77 7.32 8.69 7.45 + 2.54 N Retention mg 2.85 2.65 5.50 3.20 3.81 3.03 3.66 5.37 3.76 + 1.89 CO CO 40. energy, nitrogen intake, apparent digestible nitrogen and nitrogen retention a l l show significant differences according to ration. A l l but apparent digestible nitrogen and nitrogen retention show t r i a l effects as well. When these values are related to either total water intake or apparent available water there are no significant differences except for those in apparent digestible nitrogen. 41. CONCLUSIONS Hormone treatment i n prelintinary Experiment I increased percent dry matter d i g e s t i b i l i t y and percent apparent digestible energy. Total dry matter intake, gross energy intake, dry matter feed intake per unit body weight, t o t a l digestible energy intake and digestible energy intake per unit body weight were reduced. Total water intake was reduced but water intake per unit body weight was unaffected by treatment. Water intakes per unit dry matter intake,per unit gross energy intake, and per unit digestible energy intake were increased. Hormone treatments appeared to reduce the water requirements of these rats. Under the conditions of Experiment I I , the ratios of tot a l water intake to dry matter intake, gross energy intake, apparent digestible energy, nitrogen intake, apparent digestible nitrogen and nitrogen retention were not altered by the level of DES implanted. Slightly heavier body weights, possibly due to inherent growth capacities, resulted i n increased ratios of apparent digestible energy and nitrogen retention to t o t a l water intake. In general the faster growing animals were found to be more efficient users of nutrient and to have lower water requirements i n relation to energy and nitrogen metabolism than the slower growing animals. Under the conditions of Experiment I I I , the ratios of t o t a l water i n -take to dry matter intake, apparent digestible energy, nitrogen intake, apparent digestible nitrogen and nitrogen retention are consistent. 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I I : Influence of ambient a i r temperature on water intake of lacting Holstein-Fresian cows. 43. 13. Maynard, L.A., and J.K. Loosli..1962. Animal nutrition. 5th ed. McGraw-Hill Book. Company, INc, Toronto. 14. Mi l l e r , J.R., and A.J. Wood. 1961. An economical laboratory mouse colony. Can. J. Animal Sci. 41: 134-149. 15. Mitchell, G.E., W.W. Albert, D.L. Staheli, and A.L. Newman. 1955. Performance of steers with or without s t i l b e s t r o l , when fed to constant weight and when fed equal amounts of concentrate. J. Animal Sci. 14: 1216. 16. Mitchell, H.H. 1962. Comparative nutrition of man and domestic animals. Vol. 1, Academic Press, New York. 17. Morrison, S.D. 1953. A method for the calculation of metabolic water. J. Physiol. 122: 399-402. 18. Newburgh, L.H., H.W.Johnston, and M. Falcon-Lesses. 1930. Measurement of total water exchange. J. Clin. Invest. 8: 161-196. 19. Peters, J.P., D.M. Kydd, and P.H. Lavietes. 1933. A note on the calculation of water exchange. J. Clin. Invest. 12: 689-693. 20. Richter, CP. 1938. Factors determining voluntary ingestion of water i n normals and i n individuals with maximum diabetes insipidus. Am. J. Physiol. 122: 668-675. 21. Trcelsen, J.E., and P.I. Myhr. 1966. Effects of diethylstilbestrol implants on the performance of wether lambs under various schemes of management and nutrition. J. Animal Sci. 25: 161-166. 22. Anonymous, 1960. Association of o f f i c i a l agricultural chemists. Washington, D.C. 9th ed. O f f i c i a l methods of analysis. 23. Whanger, P.D., J.A. Welch, G.C. Anderson, G.A. McLaren and K.M. Barth. Comparative effects of diethylstilbestrol and diallyLhexestrol on digestion and nitrogen metabolism i n sheep. J. Animal Sci. 23: 506-509. 24. White, A., P. Handler, and E.L. Smith. 1967. Principles of biochemistry. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill Company, Toronto. 44. APPENDICES TABLE XVII. FEED INTAKE, WATER INTAKE, AND BODY WEIGHTS OF MALE RATS (EXPERIMENT I) No. of Average Group Animals Treatment (g) WEEK I 6 (Intact) II (Cast-rate) 8 1 0 ( a ) 11 12 l l 14 Feed Intake 11.8 17.0 19.5 22.5 23.3 23.0 25.2 24.8 24.3 25.5 25.6 22.6 28.0 25.0 / day  Control I I I (Intact) Water Intake 17.3 23.6 25.1 28.3 28.3 28.1 31.2 28.9 27.7 28.4 27.9 26.9 28.8 25.8 i d a y . Body wt. 86 136 175 225 268 303 329 353 376 400 414 429 439 442 Feed Intake 11.0 15.9 18.9 22.0 22.8 22.9 26.3 25.3 22.4 20.6 24.8 22.9 27.3 23.4 Control / day  DES (b) Water Intake 17.2 23.7 26.4 27.6 28.4 30.7 32.5 30.5 29.6 30.0 29.3 27.5 32.6 26.7 / day  79 131 172 219 263 300 331 357 378 379 387 400 409 432 wt.  Feed Intake 10.7 15.4 19.2 20.3 21.9 23.3 24.8 28.2 24.7 24.3 17.7 14.4 21.2 21.6 / day  Water Intake 15.5 21.0 23.8 25.6 25.4 28.0 29.6 28.9 27.4 28.0 24.0 18.5 23.3 21.6 / day  ^ y 78 125 164 205 248 292 323 346 369 386 372 347 340 351 wt. cn TABLE XVII. (continued) FEED INTAKE, WATER INTAKE, AND BODY WEIGHTS OF MALE RATS (EXPERIMENT I) No. of Average WEEK Group Animals Treatment (g) 1 0 ( a ) n 1 2 1 3 1 4 IV 7 DES ( b ) Feed Intake 11.7 17.5 20.2 21.7 24.2 24.6 26.6 26.6 25.0 23.7 15.0 17.7 22.5 20.1 / day  ( C +. Water Intake 17.8 24.3 27.1 28.5 29.7 30.7 34.0 31.0 30.3 27.7 23.4 22.5 25.4 22.2 rate) /_day 85 138 174 221 265 303 335 359 379 369 347 331 334 341 wt. (a) First week of treatment (b) 1 meg. DES/g. Dry Matter Feed. TABLE XVIII. FEED INTAKE, WATER INTAKE, AND BODY WEIGHTS OF FEMALE RATS (EXPERIMENT I) No. of Average Group Animals Treatment (g) ^ ^ 3" WEEK 8 10(a) 11 12 13 14" Feed Control Intake 10.3 13.6 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.8 18.7 16.4 15.4 17.3 17.2 17.3 16.9 15.1 / day  (Intact) II (Ovariec-tomized) II I (Intact) Water Intake 14.5 18.4 21.5 22.1 21.4 22.5 22.6 25.9 19.3 22.1 20.8 23.4 21.0 20.9 / day  Body wt. 72 108 136 159 171 190 197 208 210 223 230 232 236 241 Feed Control Intake 9.9 13.7 14.9 16.4 16.5 16.6 18.3 16.7 17.1 16.2 19.0 20.6 21.4 18.6 / day  Water Intake 14.0 18.7 21.0 22.8 - 21.5 22.3 22.3 21.0 22.5 24.2 23.9 21.9 25.0 22.6 / day  72 108 116 157 170 186 195 203 215 229 258 263 265 293 wt.  Feed DES X W Intake 9.3 14.1 15.6 15.8 15.5 15.2 17.2 17.2 16.5 15.6 13.4 12.7 17.3 14.9 / day  Water Intake 15.9 20.7 22.5 22.7 21.2 21.1 22.2 20.8 20.4 21.1 21.6 20.6 22.0 16.3 / day  ^ y 78 114 141 160 171 185 193 202 209 220 207 220 207 206 wt. ,(b) TABLE XVIII. FEED INTAKE, WATER INTAKE, AND BODY WEIGHTS OF FEMALE RATS (EXPERIMENT I) (continued) No. of Average WEEK Group Animals Treatment (g) 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 10(a) 11 12 13 14 Feed IV 7 DESV ; Intake 9.7 13.3 15.7 16.4 16.9 16.9 18.6 17.3 17.8 16.8 13.1 11.8 15.7 16.1 / day  Water (Ovariec- Intake 15.5 17.5 21.4 22.1 21.8 22.9 21.4 19.9 20.9 23.2 22.8 25.3 25.7 21.4 tomized) / day  B°Sy 72.2 106 136 158 172 187 199 211 218 225 216 203 210 213 wt (a) First week of treatment (b) 1 meg DES/g Dry Matter Feed TABLE XIX. RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH MALE RATS (EXPERIMENT I ) ( a ) BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT I I I I I I I V I I I I I I I V Group I n t a c t C a s t r a t e I n t a c t C a s t r a t e T r e a t m e n t C o n t r o l C o n t r o l DES ( b> DES Body wt. . g 303 329 353 300 331 357 292 323 346 303 335 359 429 439 439 400 409 409 347 340 340 331 334 334 A v e r a g e 328 329 320 332 436 406 342 333 Water I n t a k e /day g 37.4 39.4 35.7 36.9 39.0 35.2 32.3 34.2 36.8 34.9 40.2 34.1 35.0 31.4 32.8 31.5 33.1 36.3 22.3 22.3 22.0 26.7 25.6 30.6 A v e r a g e 37.5 37.0 34.4 36.4 33.1 33.6 22.2 27.6 D.M. ( C ) I n t a k e /day . g 26.5 25.6 26.5 25.3 27.6 28.2 24.6 26.4 29.2 24.9 27.1 26.9 27.3 26.3 24.5 26.0 27.6 24.0 14.8 16.7 15.1 16.4 17.7 18.1 A v e r a g e 26.2 27.0 26.7 26.3 26.0 26.0 15.5 17.4 D.M. o u t p u t /day g 6.7 6.7 6.9 6.6 7.7 7.9 6.2 7.4 7.5 6.4 7.4 7.5 7.8 6.7 6.9 7.3 7.7 7.2 3.4 4.0 4.8 3.4 4.1 4.0 A v e r a g e 6.8 7.4 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.7 4.1 3.8 G r o s s E n e r g y I n t a k e K c a l 119.3 115.2 119.3 113.8 124.2 126.9 110.7 118.8 131.4 112.1 122.0 121.1 122.9 118.4 110.3 117.0 124.2 109.8 66.6 75.2 70.0 73.8 79.7 81.5 A v e r a g e 117.9 121.6 120.3 118.7 117.2 117.0 70.6 78.3 G r o s s E n e r g y Output K c a l 26.0 26.0 26.8 25.3 30.0 30.3 24.1 28.7 29.1 24.7 28.6 29.0 28.7 24.7 25.4 26.5 28.0 26.1 12.8 15.0 18.0 13.0 15.6 15.2 A v e r a g e 26.3 28.5 27.3 27.4 26.3 26.9 15.3 14.6 % D.M. D i g e s t i -b i l i t y % 74.5 73.2 73.8 73.9 72.1 72.0 74.8 71.9 74.1 74.1 72.5 72.3 71.5 74.3 71.6 72.3 72.1 70.3 76.4 76.2 74.9 78.6 77.0 77.5 A v e r a g e 73.8 72.7 73.6 73.0 72.5 71.6 75.8 77.7 A p p a r e n t K c a l D i g e s t i b l e E n e r g y I n t a k e 93.3 89.2 92.5 88.5 94.2 96.6 86.6 90.1 102.3 87.4 93.4 92.1 94.2 93.7 84.9 90.5 96.2 83.7 53.8 60.2 50.0 60.8 64.0 66.3 A v e r a g e 91.7 93.1 93.0 91.0 90.9 90.1 55.3 63.7 50. TABLE XIX. RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH (continued) ^ m T S EXPERIMENT I) (a) BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT I I I I I I IV I II I I I IV Group Intact Castrate Intact Castrate Treatment Control Control DES<b) DES % Apparent % 78.2 77.8 78. 2 78.0 76.6 77. 4 80.8 82.4 Digestible 77.4 75.8 75. 8 76.6 79.0 77. 5 80.1 80.4 Energy 77.5 76.1 77. 9 76.1 77.0 76. 2 74.3 81.3 Average 77.7 76.6 77. 3 76.9 77.6 77. 0 78.4 81.4 Water g/g 0.123 0.123 0. 111 0.115 0.082 0. 079 0.067 0.081 Intake .120 .118 106 .120 .072 • 081 .066 .077 /body wt. .110 .099 • 106 .095 .075 • 089 .065 .092 Average 0.115 0.113 0. 108 0.110 0.076 0. 083 0.065 0.083 Water g/g 1.41 1.46 1. 31 1.40 1.28 1. 21 1.51 1.63 Intake 1.54 1.41 1. 30 1.48 1.19 1. 20 1.34 1.45 /D.M. In- 1.35 1.25 1. 26 1.27 1.34 1. 49 1.46 1.69 < take Average 1.43 1.37 1. 29 1.38 1.27 1. 30 1.44 1.59 Water g/Kcal 0.313 0.324 0. 292 0.311 0.285 0. 269 0.335 0.362 Intake .342 .314 288 .330 .265 # 267 .297 .321 /Gross Energy .299 .277 • 280 .282 .297 331 .317 .375 Intake Average 0.318 0.305 0. 287 0.308 0.282 0. 289 0.315 0.353 Water g/Kcal 0.401 0.417 0. 373 0.399 0.372 0. 348 0.414 0.439 Intake .442 .414 380 .430 .335 344 .370 .400 /Digestible .386 .367 360 .370 .386 434 .423 .462 Energy Intake Average 0.410 0.398 0. 371 0.400 0.364 0. 375 0.402 0.434 D.M. g/g 0.0875 0.0843 0. 0842 0.0822 0.0636 0. 0650 0.0427 0.0495 Intake .0778 .0834 0817 .0809 .0599 • 0675 .0491 .0530 /body wt. .0751 .0796 • 0844 .0749 .0558 • 0591 .0444 .0542 Average 0.0801 0.0822 0. 0834 0.0793 0.0598 0. 0641 0.0457 0.0522 Digestible 0.308 0.295 0. 297 0.288 0.226 0. 226 0.155 0.184 Energy intake .271 .285 279 .279 .213 • 235 .177 .192 /body wt.Kcal/g ; .262 .271 296 .257 .193 • 205 .153 .199 Average 0.280 0.284 0. 291 0.275 0.209 0. 222 0.162 0.192 (a) means for separate t r i a l s are given as well as their average value (for three) (b) 1 meg DES per g D.M. feed (c) D.M. = dry matter. 51. TABLE XX. RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH FEMALE RATS OF EXPERIMENT I <a) BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT Group Treatment I I I I I I IV I Intact Con-t r o l I I Ovariecto-mized Control I I I Intact DES (b) IV Ovariecto-mized DES Body wt g 197 208 210 195 203 215 193 202 209 199 211 218 232 232 232 263 263 263 200 200 200 203 203 203 Average 205 204 201 209 232 263 200 203 Water Intake /day . g 31.4 32.4 28.2 32.2 27.5 29.0 28.9 28.0 28.8 29.4 25.1 27.7 29.7 28.8 28.6 29.0 29.5 30.7 22.6 20.3 28.8 26.7 27.2 25.7 Average 30.7 29.6 28.6 27.4 29.0 29.7 23.9 26.5 DM ( C ) Intake /day g 19.7 20.1 20.2 19.5 19.1 20.0 16.8 18.7 18.8 20.7 18.6 20.9 19.5 20.8 19.1 20.9 23.2 21.9 9.3 10.9 12.2 11.7 15.2 13.5 Average 20.0 19.5 18.1 20.1 19.8 22.0 10.8 13.5. D.M. output /day g 5.0 5.2 4.7 4.8 4.7 5.2 4.2 4.5 4.5 5.1 5.0 4.9 4.9 5.3 4.6 5.1 5.7 5.0 1.5 2.3 2.2 2.2 3.4 2.5 Average 5.0 4.9 4.4 5.0 4.9 5.3 2.0 2.7 Gross Energy Intake /day Kcal 88.7 90.5 90.9 87.8 86.0 90.0 75.6 84.2 84.6 93.2 83.7 94.1 87.8 93.6 86.0 94.1 104.4 98.6 41.9 49.1 54.9 52.7 68.4 60.8 Average 90.0 87.9 81.5 90.3 89.1 99.0 48.6 60.6 Gross Energy output / day Kcal 18.3 19.0 17.2. 17.8 17.4 19.2 15.6 16.7 16.7 18.7 18.4 18.0 17.4 18.9 16.4 18.5 20.6 18.1 5.7 8.8 8.4 8.4 13.0 9.6 Average 18.2 18.1 16.3 18.4 17.6 19.1 7.6 10.3 % D.M. Diges-t i b i l i t y % 74.7 74.4 76.6 75.2 75.8 74.1 75.2 75.9 75.9 75.2 72.9 76.7 75.0 74.5 76.0 76.0 75.6 77.0 83.8 79.2 82.4 82.4 78.2 81.8 Average 75.2 75.0 75.7 74.9 75.2 76.2 81.8 80.8 TABLE XX. RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH FEMALE RATS OF EXPERIMENT I < a ) (continued) BEFORE TREATMENT AFTER TREATMENT I I I I I I IV I I I I I I IV Intact Ovariecto- Intact Ovariecto-Group Con- mized DES mized Treatment t r o l Control Cb) DES Apparent Kcal 70.4 70.0 60.0 74.5 70.3 75.6 36.2 44.3 dige s t i b l e 71.5 68.6 67.5 65.3 74.7 83.8 40.3 55.4 energy-intake 73.7 70.8 67.9 76.1 69.6 80.5 46.5 51.2 Average 71.9 69.8 65.1 72.0 71.5 80.0 41.0 50.3 % apparent % 79.4 79.7 79.4 79.9 80.2 80.3 86.7 84.1 dige s t i b l e 79.0 79.8 80.2 78.0 79.8 80.3 82.1 81.0 energy 81.1 78.7 80.3 .80.9 80.9 81.6 84.7 84.2 Average 79.8 79.-7 80.0 79.6 80.3 80.7 84.4 83.1 Water g/g 0.159 0.165 0.150 0.149 0.128 0.110 0.113 0.132 intake .156 .135 .139 .119 .124 .112 .102 .134 /body wt. .134 .135 .138 .127 .123 .117 .144 .127 Average 0.150 0.145 0.142 0.132 0.125 0.113 0.120 0.131 Water g/g 1.59 1.65 1.72 1.42 1.52 1.39 2.43 2.28 intake 1.61 1.44 1.50 1.35 1.38 1.27 1.86 1.79 /D.M. 1.40 1.45 1.53 1.33 1.50 1.40 2.36 1.90 intake Average 1.53 1.51 1.58 1.37 1.47 1.35 2.22 1.99 Water g/Kcal 0.357 0.367 0.382 0.315 0.338 0.308 0.539 0.507 intake .358 .320 .333 .300 .308 .283 .413 .398 /gross .310 .322 .340 .297 .333 .311 .525 .423 energy intake Average . 0.371 0.336 0.352 0.303 0.326 0.301 0.492 0.443 Water g/Kcal 0.446 0.460 0.482 0.395 0.422 0.387 0.624 0.603 intake .453 .401 .415 .387 .387 .352 .504 .491 /digestible .363 .410 .424 .367 .411 .381 .619 .502 ene]g7 intake Average 0.421 0.424 0.440 0.381 0.407 0.372 0.582 0.532 TABLE XX. RESULTS OF DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS WITH FEMALE RATS OF EXPERIMENT I<a) (continued) I I I I I I IV I I I I I I IV Intact Ovariecto- Intact Ovariecto-Group Con- mized DES mized Treatment t r o l Control (b) Control D.M. g/g 0.1000 0.1000 0.0870 0.1040 0.0841 0.0795 0.0465 0.0576 intake .0966 .0941 .0926 .0882 .0897 .0882 .0545 .0749 /body wt. .0962 .0930 .0900 .0959 .0823 .0833 .0610 .0665 Average 0.0976 0.0957 0.0899 0.0960 0.0854 0.0837 0.0540 0.0663 Digestible 0.357 0.359 0.311 0.374 0.303 0.287 0.181 0.218 energy Kcal/ .344 .338 .334 .309 .322 .319 .202 .273 intake g .351 .329 .325 .349 .300 .306 .233 .252 /body wt.  Average 0.351 0.342 0.323 0.344 0.308 0.304 0.205 0.248 (a) means f o r separate t r i a l s are given, as wel l as t h e i r average value (for three). (b) 1 meg. DES per g D.M. feed (c) D.M. = dry matter. \ TABLE XXI. GROWTH DATA (EXPERIMENT I I ) Wt. when Days Ave. Ave. Feed Sheep implan- BODY WEIGHT (lbs) on feed d a i l y e f f i c -Group Treatment No. ted t e s t intake : gain iency lbs DAYS ON TEST l b s / l b s / l b / 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 day day l b 250 74 75 77 80 83 80 88 91 97 94 56 2.36 .339 6.96 257 82 84 80 83 85 88 92 97 102 - 49 2.27 .367 6.19 I Control 264 74 76 80 79 82 85 90 95 102 - 49 2.35 .531 4.43 . 273 64 74 70 72 70 75 80 84 87 90 56 2.48 .286 8.67 293 64 . 68 68 70 70 71 76 80 85 87 56 2.48 .339 7.32 289 82 87 92 93 87 90 92 99 99 — 49 2.27 .245 9.27 Average 73.3 77.3 77.8 79.5 79.5 81.5 86.3 91.0 95.3 90.3 52.5 2.37 .351 7.14 +0.09 ± 1.59 253 • 64 68 73 76 76 79 80 85 92 93 56 2.48 .446 5.56 257 64 69 72 80 84 87 94 : 100 107 109 56 2.48 .714 3.47 I I 3 mg DES 267 72 76 77 80 83 81 90 91 100 105 56 2.36 .518 4.46 271 76 76 79 82 82 84 86 91 95 - 49 2.27 .388 5.85 275 78 76 79 82 83 86 90 95 102 - 49 2.27 .531 4.27 288 62 65 64 67 69 73 78 84 88 89 56 2.48 .429 5.78 Average 69.3 71.7 74.0 77.8 79.5 81.7 86.3 91.0 97.3 99.0 53.7 2.39 .504 4.90 ±0.106 +0.89 -P TABLE XXI. GROWTH DATA (EXPERIMENT I I ) (continued) Wt. when Days Ave. Ave. Feed Sheep implan- BODY WEIGHT (lbs) on feed d a i l y e f f i c -Group Treatment No. ted t e s t intake gain iency lbs DAYS ON TEST l b s / l b s / l b / 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 57 day day l b 252 74 77 80 82 86 89 94 102 109 49 2.27 .653 3.48 278 70 69 70 72 75 72 80 80 92 93 56 2.36 .429 5.50 I I I 6 mg DES 281 64 66 64 66 66 65 68 72 80 79 56 2.48 .232 10.69 289 64 72 77 78 78 86 90 94 100 - 49 2.35 .571 4.12 296 72 69 72 74 80 85 88 93 102 - 49 2.35 .673 3.49 538 76 78 74 76 87 91 92 100 104 - 49 2.27 .531 2.27 Average 70.0 71.8 72.8 74 .7 78.7 81.3 85.3 90. 2 97.8 86.0 51.3 2.35 .515 4.93 ± .47 +2.75 255 74 75 79 82 78 82 87 95 95 49 2.27 .408 5.56 266 70 76 77 81 82 86 92 95 103 - 49 2.35 .551 4.26 IV 9 mg DES 277 78 80 78 81 81 82 84 92 95 - 49 2.27 .306 7.42 290 70 74 81 84 87 90 94 102 107 - 49 2.35 .673 3.49 295 64 68 71 74 74 79 80 83 89 87 56 2.36 .339 6.96 543 72 69 74 78 78 75 82 85 104 99 56 2.48 .536 4.63 Average 71.3 73.7 76.7 80.0 80.0 82.3 86.0 92.0 98.8 93 51.3 2.35 .469 5.39 + .13 +1.42 TABLE XXII. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I . GROUP I. CONTROL Appar- U r i -Meta- Total D.M. ent % nary Feces Fecal Total bol. Water water feed % Gross Gross diges Appar. N Urine N N N N Run Sheep Body body i n - Feed i n - Urine i n - D.M. D.M. energy energy t'ible diges. i n - N ex- cone ex- out-no no wt size take water take v o l . take feces digest feed feces energy energy take cone cret cret put . . fw. -75^ . . . . " f / lbs kg ''mis mis mis mis g g % Kcal Kcal Kcal % g ml g g g g 1 264 82 15.1 1250 192 1442 350 889 200 77.5 3823 872 2951 77.2 21.64 26.6 9.31 33.2 6.64 15. 95 5 264 86 15.6 1475 167 1672 335 776 180 76.8 3337 778 2559 76.7 18.89 24.6 8.24 29.2 5.26 13. 50 9 264 94 16.7 1500 234 1734 350 1084 247 77.3 4661 1032 3629 77.9 26.38 29.6 10.36 24.22 5.98 16. 34 3 293 68- 13.1 1025 169 1194 600 784 175 7.7.8 3371 746 2625 77.9 19.08 13.1 7.86 27.4 4.80 12. 66 7 293 76 14.2 1700 193 1893 565 894 230 74.3 3344 961 2383 71.3 21.76 15.4 8.70 28.9 6.65 15. 35 11 293 82 14.1 1875 227 2102 930 1050 247 76.5 4515 1060 3455 76.5 25.56 12.7 11.81 29.1 7.19 19. 00 2 298 90 16.2 650 181 831 830 839 175 79.0 3608 735 2873 79.6 20.42 12.9 10.81 22.3 3.89 14.60 6 298 90- 16.2 787 179 966 - 831 189 73.3 3573 799 2774 77.6 20.23 _ 33.4 6.31 10 298 96 16.9 1900 229 2129 835 1061 281 73.5 4562 1155 3407 74.7 25.82 14.2 11.86 24.4 6.86 18.72 4 250 80 14.8 1225 161 1386 675 747 150 80.0 3212 626 2586 80.5 ' 18.18 13.5 9.11 25.0 3.75 12.86 8 250 88 15.9 950 195 1145 660 901 158 82.5 3874 621 3253 84.0 21.93 15.0 9.90 25.9 4.09 13.99 12 250 92 16.4 950 206 1156 600 954 195 79.6 4102 831 3271 79.7 23.22 13.6 8.16 26.4 5.15 13.31 85.3 15.5 1273 194 1468 612 901 202 77.3 3832 851 2980 77.8 21.93 17.4 9.64 27.4 5.55 15.12 cn cn (continued) TABLE XXII. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I . GROUP I. CONTROL Run no Sheep no Body wt Metabolic body size Apparent di g e s t i b l e N % App. dig. N N Retention % N Ret D.M. ijrtake^, water i n GE water i n ADE vrater""iri N i n water*"iri App. dig N^, "water i n -N r e t ^water lbs (W, , 7 5 ) kg g % g % mg/ ml Kcal/ ml K c a l m l mg/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml 1 5 9 264 264 264 82 86 94 15.1 15.6 16.7 15.00 13.63 20.40 69.3 72.2 77.3 5.69 5.39 10.04 26.3 28.5 38.1 617 473 625 2.65 2.03 2.69 2.05 1.56 2.09 15.01 11.50 15.21 10.40 8.30 11.76 3.95 3.28 5.79 3 7 11 293 293 293 68-76 82 13.1 14.2 15.1 14.28 15.11 18.37 74.8 69.4 71.9 6.42 6.41 6.56 33.6 29.5 25.7 657 472 500 2.82 1.77 2.15 2.20 1.26 1.64 15.98 11.49 12.16 11.96 7.98 8.74 5.38 3.39 3.12 2 6 10 298 298 298 90 90-96 16.2 16.2 16.9 16.53 13.92 18.96 81.0 68.8 73.4 5.82 7.10 28.5 27.5 1010 860 498 4.34 3.70 2.14 3.46 2.87 1.60 24.57 20.94 12.13 19.89 14.41 8.91 7.00 3.33 4 8 12 250 250 250 80 88 92 14.8 15.9 16.4 14.43 17.84 18.07 79.4 81.3 77.8 5.32 7.94 9.91 29.3 36.2 42.7 539 787 825 2.32 3.38 3.55 1.87 2.84 2.83 13.12 19. 15 20.19 10.41 15.58 15.63 3.84 6.93 8.57 85.3 15.5 16.38 74.7 6.96 31.4 655 2.63 2.19 15.95 12.00 4.96 (continued) DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I . GROUP I I - 3 mg DES Appar- U r i -Meta- Total D.M. ent % nary Feces Fecal Total b o l i c Water water feed % Gross Gross diges Appar. N Urine N N N N Run Sheep Body body i n - Feed i n - Urine i n - D.M. D.M. energy energy t i b l e diges. i n - N ex- cone ex- out-no no wt size take water take v o l . take feces digest feed feces energy energy take cone cret cret put (W,.75 mg/ mg/ lbs s mis mis mis mis g g % Kcal Kcal Kcal % g ml g g g g 1" 288 66- 12.8 1250 171 1421 235 792 164 79.3 3406 707 2699 79.2 19.28 16.0 3.76 29.3 4.81 8.57 5 288 74 14.0 1250 168 1418 365 777 185 76.2 3341 801 2540 76.0 18.91 17.0 6.21 24.9 4.61 10.82 9 288 87 15.3 1537 211 1748 330 979 245 75.0 4210 1036 3174 75.4 23.83 23.6 7.79 25.7 6.30 14.09 3 257 86 15.6 1725 170 1895 390 785 225 71.4 3376 981 2395 70.9 19.11 19.4 7.57 27.2 6.12 13.69 7 254 96 16.9 1487 193 1680 . 320 895 183 78.6 3549 774 2775 78.2 21.78 22.8 7.30 24.7 4.52 11.82 11 254 102 17.7 1670 258 1928 775 1195 261 78.2 5139 1109 4030 78.4 29.09 16.7 12.94 26.3 6.86 19.80 2 271 82 15.1 1267 180 1447 515 834 151 82.0 3586 648 2938 81.9 20.30' 11.0' 5.67 26.2 3.96 9.63 6 271 87 15.1 1650 169 1819 420 781 153 80.5 3358 661 2697 80.3 19.0118.8 7.90 28.6 4.38 12.28 10 271 90- 16.2 - 233 - 860 1080 225 79.2 4644 921 3723 80.2 26.29 9.8 8.43 26.9 6.05 14.48 4 267 82 15.1 987 162 1149 410 752 146 80.6 3234 629 2605 80.6 18.30 20.2 8.28 27.6 4.03 12.31 8 267 92 16.4 1550 194 1744 290 898 158 82.4 3861 676 3185 82.5 21.86 30.8 8.93 29.1 4.60 13.53 12 267 100 17.5 1600 262 1862 724 1215 310 74.5 5225 1327 3898 74.6 29.57 17.6 12.76 29.3 9.08 21.84 86.8 15.7 1452 198 1646 470 915 201 78.2 3911 855 3055 78.2 22.28 18.6 8.13 27.2 5.44 13.57 C n C O TABLE XXII. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT II. GROUP II. 3 mg DES N % N -wate^ 3 - N 3 ^ NJ£ _ — mg7 Kcal/ Kcal/ mg7 mg7 mg/ lbs ^kg ; g % g % ml ml ml ml ml ml 1 288 66 12.8 14.47 75.1 10.71 55.5 557 2.46 1.90 13.57 10.18 7.54 5 288 74 14.0 14.30 75.6 8.09 42.8 548 2.36 1.79 13.34 10.08 5.71 9 288 84 15.3 17.53 74.6 4.74 40.9 560 2.41 1.81 13.63 10.03 5.57 3 254 86 15.6 12.99 68.0 5.42 28.4 414 1.78 1.26 10.08 6.85 2.86 7 254 96 16.9 17.26 79.2 9.96 45.7 586 2.11 1.65 12.96 10.27 5.93 11 254 102 17.7 22.23 76.4 9.29 31.9 620 2.67 2.09 15.09 11.53 4.82 2 271 82 15.1 16.34 80.5 10.67 52.6 576 2.48 2.03 14.03 11.29 7.37 6 271 87 15.7 14.63 77.0 6.73 35.4 429 1.85 1.48 10.45 8.04 3.70 10 271 90 16.2 20.24 77.0 11.81 44.9 -4 267 82 15.1 14.27 78.0 5.99 32.7 654 2.81 2.27 15.93 12.42 5.21 8 267 92 16.4 17.26 79.0 8.33 38.1 515 2.21 1.83 12.53 9.90 4.78 12 267 100 17.5 20.49 69.3 7.73 26.1 653 2.81 2.09 15.88 11.00 4.15 86.8 15.7 17.67 75.8 8.71 39.6 556 2.34 1.84 13.41 10.17 5.24 TABLE XXII. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I . GROUP I I I - 6 mg DES (continued) Appar- U r i -Meta- Total D.M. % ent -5 nary Fecal Total b o l i c Water water Ur- Feed D.M. Gross Gross diges- Appar. N Urine N Feces N N lun Sheep Body body i n - Feed i n - ine i n - D.M. dig- ener.ener. t i b l e diges. i n - N ex- N ex- out-10. no. wt. size take water take v o l . take feces est feed feces energy energy take cone cret cone cret put lbs (W,.75. . . kg ) mis mis mls mis . g g % Kcal Kcal Kcal % g Hi g . g g 1 289 78 14.5 1500 201 1701 560 929 305 67.2 3995 1336 2659 66.6 22.61 21.2 11.87 27.7 8.45 20.32 5 289 84 15.3 1375 167 1542 595 776 211 72.8 3337 895 2442 73.2 18.89 18.8 11.89 26.2 5.53 17.42 9 289 92 16.4 1512 234 1746 555 1086 300 72.5 4670 1242 3428 73.4 26.43 25.3 14.04 25.7 7.71 21.75 3 281 70 13.4 1287 109 1396 605 505 82 83.8 2172 358 1814 83.5 12.29 9.8 5.63 29.6 2.43 8.06 7 281 74 14.0 1712 176 1888 450 815 160 80.4 3505 658 2847 81.2 19.84 22.8 10.26 23.9 3.82 14.08 11 281 76- 14.2 2135 195 2330 - 920 201 77.8 3956 854 3102 78.4 22.39 - - 26.6 5.35 -2 538 86 15.6 1925 180 2105 775 833 184 78.0 3582 789 2793 78.0 20.28 11.3 8.76 26.2 4.82 13.58 6 538 92- 16.4 1987 182 2169 - 841 181 78.5 3616 771 2845 78.7 20.47 - — 27.0 4.89 — 10 538 98 17.2 2300 243 2543 940 1124 274 75.6 4833 1228 3605 74.6 27.36 13.1 12.31 25.0 6.85 19.61 4 278 74 14.0 1075 163 1238 320 775 141 81.3 3247 605 2642 81.4 18.38 14.1 4.51 27.8 3.92 8.43 8 278 84 15.3 1250 194 1444 295 898 194 78.5 3861 805 3056 79.2 21.86 17.5 5.16 27.0 5.24 10.40 12 278 90 16.2 1700 257 1957 700 1191 271 77.3 5121 1157 3964 77.4 28.99 13.3 9.31 27.5 7.45 16.76 83.2 15.2 1646 191 1838 530 889 209 77.0 3825 892 2933 77.1 21.65 16.7 9.37 26.7 5.62 15.04 (continued) TABLE XXII. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I . GROUP I I I 6 mg DES Run no. Sheep no Body wt Metabolic body size Apparent digestible N % App. dig. N N Retention % N Ret D.M. jbntake^ water i n GE water i n water i n J4jLn^ water i n App. di g N ret>. 'water i n water lbs ( W k g 7 5 ) . g % . g % mg/ ml Kcal/ ml Kcal/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml mg/ "ml 1 5 9 289 289 289 78 84 92 14.5 15.3 16.4 14.16 13.36 18.71 62.6 70.7 70.8 2.29 1.47 4.68 10.1 7.8 17.7 546 503 622 2.35 2.16 2.67 1.56 1.58 1.96 13.29 12.25 15.14 8.32 8.66 10.72 1.35 0.95 2.68 3 7 11 281 281 281 70 74 76 13.4 17.0 14.2 9.86 16.02 17.04 80.2 80.7 76.1 4.23 5.76 34.4 29.0 362 432 395 1.56 1.86 1.70 1.30 1.51 1.33 8.80 10.51 9.61 7.06 8.49 7.31 3.03 3.05 2 6 10 538 538 538 86 92 98 15.6 16.4 17.2 15.46 15.58 20.51 76.2 76.1 75.0 6.70 7.75 33.0 28.3 396 388 442 1.70 1.67 1.90 1.33 1.31 1.42 9.63 9.44 10.76 7.34 7.18 8.07 3.18 3.05 4 8 12 278 278 278 74 84 90 14.0 15.3 16.2 14.46 16.62 21.54 78.7 76.0 74.3 9.95 11.46 12.23 54.1 54.2 42.2 610 622 609 2.62 2.67 2.62 2.13 2.12 2.03 14.85 15.14 14.81 11.68 11.51 11.01 8.04 7.94 6.25 83.2 15.2 16.11 74.8 6.65 31.1 494 2.12 1.63 12.02 8.95 3.95 (continued) TABLE XXII. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I . GROUP IV - 9 mg DES Appar- U r i -Meta- Total D.M. ent % nary Fecal Total Sheep b o l i c Water water feed % Gross Gross diges Appar. N Urine N Feces N N Run no Body body i n - Feed i n Urine i n - D.M. D.M. energy energy t i b l e diges. i n - N ex- N ex- out no wt s i z e take water take v o l take feces diges.feed feces energy energy take cone cret cone cret put l b s (W, .75 kg ^ILLS mis mis mis g g % Kcal Kcal Kcal % g mg/ ml g mg/ g g g 1 5 9 290 290 290; 86 90 100-15.6-1750 16.2 1175 17.5 -210 168 233 1960 1343 305 375 490 972 776 1080 239 165 232 75.4 78.8 78.6 4180 3337 4644 1025 703 967 3155 2634 3677 75.5 78.9 79.2 23.66 18.89 26.29 24.6 21.4 9.23 10.49 29.4 18.0 28.7 7.03 2.97 6.66 12.20 17.15 3 7 11 295 295 295 72 82 84 13.7 15.1 15.3 1037 1050 1548 169 193 227 1206 1243 1767 400 410 880 785 891 1051 224 279 310 71.5 68.7 70.5 3376 3831 4519 972 1216 1318 2404 2615 3201 71.2 68.3 70.8 19.11 21.69 25.58 15.5 18.3 16.6 6.20 7.50 14.61 33.4 25.7 26.8 7.48 7.17 8.31 13.68 14.67 22.92 2 6 10 255 255 255 84 83 92 15.3 15.2 16.4 1287 1487 1975 181 182 230 1468 1669 2205 720 350 725 837 842 1065 206 209 213 75.4 75.2 80.1 3599 3621 4580 896 918 941 2703 2703 3639 75.1 74.6 7.9.5 20.37 20.49 25.92. 10.1 19.7 14.1 7.27 6.90 . 10.22 25.9 28.5 26.1 5.34 5.96 5.56 12.61 12.86 15.78 4 8 12 543 543 543 78-86 92 14.5 15.6 16.4 1875 1812 2575 162 194 161 2037 2006 2836 545 410 900 749 900 1211 101 161 247 86.6 82.2 79.6 3221 3870 5207 431 687 1047 2790 3183 4162 86.6 82.2 79.9 18.23 21.91 29.48 9.9 16.3 11.3 5.40 6.68 10.17 32.6 29.3 28.7 3.29 4.72 7.09 8.69 11.40 17.26 85.8 15.6 1597 201 1795 543 930 216 76.9 3999 927 3072 76.8 26.67 16.2 8.61 27.76 5.97 14.47 (continued) TABLE XXII. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I . GROUP IV. 9 mg DES Run Sheep Body no. no. wt. Metabolic body size Apparent di g e s t i b l e N % App. dig. N N Retention % N Ret D.M. intake,, 'water i n ^ J 3 E _ ^ water i n water i n App. water i n water i n N re£-"wter lbs (Wk.75) g % g % mg/ ml Kcal/ ml Kcal/ ml mg/ ml nig/ ml mg/ ml 1 5 9 290 290 290 86 90 100 15.6 16.2 17.5 16.63 15.92 19.63 70.3 84.3 74.7 6.69 9.14 35.4 34.8 496 578 2.13 2.48 1.61 1.96 12.07 14.07 8.48 11.85 4.98 3 7 11 295 295 295 72 82 84 13.7 15.1 15.3 11.63 14.52 17.27 60.9 66.9 67.5 5.43 7.02 2.66 28.4 32.4 10.4 651 717 595 2.80 3.18 2.56 1.99 2.10 1.81 15.85 17.45 14.48 9.64 11.68 9.77 4.50 5.65 1.51 2b 6 10 255 255 255 84 83 92 15.3 15.2 16.4 15.03 14.53 20.36 73.8 70.9 78.5 7.76 7.73 10.14 38.1 37.2 39.1 570 504 483 2.45 2.17 2.08 1.84 1.62 1.65 13.88 12.28 11.76 10.24 8.71 9.23 5.29 4.63 4.60 4~ 8 12 543 543 543 78 86 92 14.5 15.6 16.4 14.94 17.19 22.39 82.0 78.5 75.9 9.54 10.51 12.22 52.3 48.0 41.5 368 449 427 1.58 1.93 1.84 1.37 1.59 1.47 8.95 10.92 10.39 7.33 8.57 7.89 4.68 5.24 4.31 85.8 15.6 16.67 73.7 8.08 36.1 531 2.29 1.73 12.92 9.40 4.54 TABLE XXIII. GROWTH DATA (EXPERIMENT I I I ) Group Ration Sheep no BODY WEIGHT (lbs) DAY No days on tes t F i n a l wt Warm Dress-wt ing carcass % Ave. Ave. Feed feed d a i l y e f f i c -intake gain iency Carcass grade 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 days lbs l b s % l b s / day l b s / day l b / l b 304 47 45 56 61 66 70 77 76 52 84 41 48.8 3.01 .712 4.23 \ 309 67 73 78 69* 69 77 79* 88 52 94 43 45.7 3.01 .519 5.80 313 67 78 75* 81 86 85* 93 96 52 105 50 47.6 3.01 .731 4.12 I L - l 327 67 59 64 70 70* 72 75 76* 52 82 40 48.8 3.01 .288 10.45 329 64 67 74 74* 81 93 90* 102 52 110 51 46.4 3.01 .885 3.40 337 70 74 78* 87 93 91* - - 38 96 49 51.0 2.80 .684 4.09 \ 341 57 61 67 72 74* 84 89 89* 52 98 46 46.9 3.01 .788 3.82 358 69 70 76 79* 86 92 93* 98 52 104 48 46.2 3.01 .673 4.47 \ 362 73 77 81* 84 92 89* - - 38 97 51 52.6 2.80 .632 4.43 365 55 58 65 70 76 84 87 91 52 98 47 48.0 3.01 .827 3.64 369 61 62 66 70 66* 76 80 72* 52 81 42 51.9 3.01 .385 7.82 371 54 57 64 65 68 71 74 80 52 85 38 44.7 3.01 .596 5.05 B (F) 62.6:65.170.3 73.5 77.3 82.0 83.4 86.8 94.5 45.5 48.2 2.98 .643 5.11 + .168 Animal i n metabolism cage previous four days (continued) TABLE XXIII. GROWTH DATA (EXPERIMENT I I I ) Group Ration Sheep BODY WEIGHT (lbs) No days Warm Dress- Ave Ave. Feed no DAY on t e s t F i n a l wt wt ing carcass % feed intake d a i l y e f f i c -: gain iency Carcass grade 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 days lbs lbs % l b s / day l b s / day l b / l b 310 65 62 64 71 68* 75 80 78* 52 83 40 48.2 2.81 .346 8.12 316 57 55 60 67 74 75 86 90 52 95 43 45.3 2.81 .731 3.84 321 60 58 54 69 70* 76 81 79* 52 84 41 48.8 2.81 .462 6.08 322 71 75 72* 84 95 90* - - 38 101 48 47.5 2.59 .789 3.28 Al I I L-2 323 81 77 79* 82 80 346 51 51 56 62 66 68 74 76 52 82 38 46.3 2.81 .596 4.71 349. 63 67 69 72* 76 80 82* 88 52 87 42 48.3 2.81 .462 6.08 353 83 82 87* 90 90 92* - - 38 102 47 46.1 2.59 .500 5.18 B (F-T) 355 72 75 77 82* 86 90 92* 99 52 102 51 50.0 2.81 .577 4.87 *1 361 71 73 82 82* 94 96 96* 109 52 115 57 49.6 2.81 .846 3.32 A 3 372 59 62 67 75 77* 83 89 88* 52 95 46 48.4 2.81 .692 4.06 A l 376 54 55 58 66 53 56 65 72 65.6 66.0 68.5 75.2 77.4 80.1 82.8 86.6 94.6 45.3 47.9 2.77 + .600 .153 4.95 Animal i n metabolism cage previous four days TABLE XXIII. GROWTH DATA (EXPERIMENT I I I ) (continued) Group Ration Sheep no BODY WEIGHT (lbs) No. days on tes t F i n a l wt Warm wt carcass Dress-ing % Ave. feed intake Ave. d a i l y gain Feed e f f i c -iency Carcass grade DAY 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 days lbs lbs % l b s / day l b s / day l b / l b 303 71 72 74 79* 85 89 81* 86 52 84 39 46.4 2.68 .250 10.72 C1(F-T: 306 57 58 63 70 75 77 83 86 52 82 41 50.0 2.68 .481 5.57 325 65 62 70 70 74 80 86 88 52 88 42 47.7 2.68 .442 6.06 \ 330 61 69 66 70* 64 70 74* 83 52 79 40 50.7 2.68 .346 7.75 B 1(IF) I I I L-3 332 70 76 76* 80 91 88* - - 38 97 49 50.5 2.64 .711 3.71 V 333 51 53 57 62 71 75 83 85 52 85 41 48.2 2.68 .654 4.09 \ 334 60 64 69 76 75* 84 92 90* 52 94 44 46.8 2.68 .654 4.09 h 351 84 87 85* 98 107 98* - - 38 111 55 49.5 2.64 .711 3.71 A 2 356 64 66 71 72* 85 86 80* 92 52 88 45 51.1 2.68 .462 5.80 366 72 75 73* 77 71 68* 70 74 52 74 39 52.7 2.68 - - B1(F-T: 375 62 64 69 75 74* 78 88 90* 52 92 42 45.7 2.68 .577 4.64 377 59 61 71 78 72* 78 - - - - - - - - -64.7 68.9 70.3 75.6 78.7 80.0 81.9 88.6 43.4 49.0 2.67 .529 5.62 * Animal i n metabolism cage previous four days TABLE XXIII. GROWTH DATA (EXPERIMENT I I I ) (continued) No Grou Ration Shee B 0 D Y W E I G H T ^ l b s^ d a y s W a m Dress- Ave. Ave. Feed P ^ on F i n a l wt ing feed d a i l y e f f i c - Carcass ^ DAY t e s t wt carcass % intake gain iency grade l b s / l b s / l b / 1 8 15 22 29 36 43 50 days l b s l b s % day day l b  302 52 52 61 67 72 75 83 85 52 90 43 47.8 3.16 .731 4.32 305 68 71 75* 83 94 97* - - 38 104 51 49.0 2.87 .947 3.03 \ 308 65 69 74 74* 84 88 94* 98 52 106 48 45.3 3.16 .788 4.01 315 73 76 80* 87 94 99* - 38 106 52 49.1 2.87 .868 3.31 B 2(F) 317 60 54 57 64 70* 75 85 84* 52 93 44 47.3 3.16 .635 4.98 h 320 58 59 66 70 80* 83 94 91* 52 97 47 48.5 3.16 .750 4.21 \ 336 77 73 79* 84 89 91* - - 38 96 51 53.1 2.87 .500 5.74 \ 343 50 51 54 60 67 73 83 88 52 94 42 44.7 3.16 .846 3.74 \ 345 60 54 62 71 79 81 92 99 52 105 51 48.6 3.16 .865 3.65 A l 352 67 71 79 81* 89 99 . 100* 108 52 107 55 51.4 3.16 .769 4.11 367 61 65 69 78 79* 81 93 90* 52 96 47 49.0 3.16 .673 4.70 \ A, 368 61 67 71 73* 81 86 90* 96 52 103 52 50.5 3.16 .808 3.91 62.7 63.5 68.9 74.3 81.5 85.7 90.4 93.2 99.8 48.6 48.7 3.11 .765 4.14 Animal i n metabolism cage previous four days. TABLE XXIV. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I I . (a) (b) RATION L - l . (c) (d) Meta-b o l i c RunSheep body body no. no. wt. wt. Appar- Appar-Total ent ent % water a v a i l - Ur- D.M. D.M. % Gross Gross diges Appar. N Water Feed i n - Fecal able ine feed feces D.M. ener. ener. t i b l e digest i n -±n . water take water water v o l . i n out digest feed feces ener. energy take U r i -Urine nary N N con- ex-Fecal Feces N N ex-cent cret cone cret l b s (W. * 7 5) ^ mis mis mis mis mis g Kcal Kcal Kcal mg/ mg/ g g 313 75 21 337 78 362 81 14.1 3340 137 3477 495 2982 690 14.5 3160 137 3297 269 3028 700 .14.9 2780 137 2917 719 2198 170 998 184 81.7 4232 852 3380 79.9 21.14 998 139 86.1 4232 644 3588 84.8 21.14 998 216 78.3 4232 1000 3232 76.4 21.14 6.6 4.55 38.1 7.01 7.4 5.18 39.7 5.52 6.6 1.12 37.5 8.10 22 358 329 309 79 74 14.7 14.0 2675 3950 136 170 2811 4120 381 742 2430 3378 1000 450 990 1237 199 260 79.9 79.0 4198 5245 896 1170 3302 4075 78.7 77.7 20.97 26.20 7.0 8.3 7.00 3.74 36.0 33.1 7.16 8.81 23 369 327 341 66 70 71 12.8 13.4 14.0 2040 2370 3660 87 119 147 2127 2489 3807 198 572 627 1929 1917 3180 150 420 860 633 866 1052 121 236 231 80.9 72.8 78.0 2684 3672 4460 549 1051 1049 2135 2601 3411 79.5 70.8 76.5 13.41 18.34 22.28 10.5 20.4 7.6 1.58 8.57 6.54 42.3 35.4 39.0 5.12 8.35 9.01 74.6 14.1 2997 134 3130 500 2631 555 972 198 79.6 4119 904 3216 78.0 20.58 9.3 4.79 37.7 7.39 24 313 337 262 85 91 89 15.4 16.3 16.0 4330 2380 2610 156 138 136 4486 2518 2746 744 441 944 3742 2077 1802 870 520 970 1136 1004 991 271 203 290 76.1 79.8 70.7 4817 4257 4202 1233 924 1320 3584 3333 2882 74.4 78.3 68.6 24.06 21.26 21.26 7.5 9.6 7.7 6.53 4.99 7.50 41.7 40.2 33.0 11.30 8.16 9.57 '25 358 329 309 93 90 79 16.6 16.2 14.7 3600 4830 3890 174 192 192 3774 5022 4082 689 744 3085 3338 1150 1300 1160 1296 1397 1397 308 281 316 76.2 79.9 77.4 5495 5923 5923 1374 1253 1409 4121 • 4670 4514 75.0 78.8 76.2 27.45 29.59 29.59 8.4 6.7 5.9 9.66 8.71 6.84 40.3 37.1 33.6 12.41 10.43 10.62 26 369 327 341 72 76 89 13.7 14.2 16.0 1960 2110 5000 58 110 177 2018 2220 5177 67 789 1951 4388 510 1230 422 799 1285 47 179 273 88.9 77.6 78.8 1789 3388 5448 215 820 1250 1574 2568 4198 88.0 75.8 77.1 8.94 16.92 27.22 14.6 8.4 7.45 10.2 42.9 45.1 36.3 2.02 8.07 9.91 84.9 15.5 3412 148 3560 631 2912 964 1081 241 78.4 4582 1089 3669 76.9 22.92 8.6 7.74 38.9 9.17 see page 29 f o r footnotes (continued) TABLE XXIV. EXPERIMENT I I I . RATION L - l I m i . i A i\ „ .T In GE dig. In N Ret — —-- — water Total App. App. N N — — — — — - - app. app. app. app. app. app. Run Sheep Body i n - N dig. dig. Reten Reten water water water water water water ave. ave. ave. ave. ave. ave. no. no. wt. take output N N t i o n t i o n In In In In In In water water water water water water lbs mis g g % g mg/ Kcal/ % ml ml Kcal/ ml mg/ ml mg/ mg/ mg/ ml ml ml Kcal/ Kcal/ mg/ ml ml ml mg/ ml mg/ ml 21 313 337 362 75 78 81 3477 3297 2917 11.56 10.70 9.22 14.13 15.62 13.04 66.8 73.9 61.7 9.58 10.44 11.92 45.3 49.4 56.4 287 303 342 1.22 1.28 1.45 0.97 1.09 1.11 6.08 6.41 7.25 4.06 4.74 4.47 2.76 3.17 4.09 335 330 454 1.42 1.40 1.93 1.13 1.18 1.47 7.09 6.98 9.62 4.74 5.16 5.93 3.21 3.45 5.42 22 358 329 309 79 74 2811 4120 14.16 12.55 13.81 17.39 65.9 66.4 6.81 13.65 32.5. 52.1 . 352 300 1.49 1.27 1.17 0.99 7.46 6.36 4.91 4.22 . 2.42 3.31 407 366 1.73 1.55 1.50 1.21 8.63 7.76 5.68 5.15 2.80 4.04 23 369 327 341 66 70 74 2127 2489 3807 6.70 16.92 15.55 8.29 9.99 13.27 61.8 54.5 59.6 6.71 1.42 6.73 50.0 7.7 30.2 298 348 276 1.26 1.46 1.17 1.00 1.04 0.90 6.30 7.37 5.85 3.90 4.01 3.49 3.15 0.57 1.77 328 452 331 1.39 1.92 1.40 1.11 1.36 1.07 6.95 9.57 7.01 4.30 5.21 4.17 3.48 0.74 2.12 74.6 3130 12.17 13.19 63.8 8.41 40.5 313 1.33 1.03 6.64 4.23 2.66 375 1.59 1.25 7.95 5.04 3.16 24 313 337 262 85 91 89 4486 2518 2746 17.83 13.15 17.07 12.76 13.10 11.69 53.0 61.6 55.0 6.23 8.11 4.19 25.9 38.1 19.7 253 399 361 1.07 1.69 1.53 0.80 1.32 1.05 5.36 8.44 7.74 2.84 5.20 4.26 1.39 3.22 1.53 304 483 550 1.29 2.05 2.33 0.96 1.60 1.39 6.43 10.24 11.80 3.41 6.31 6.49 1.66 3.90 2.33 >5 358 329 309 93 90 79 3774 5022 4082 22.07 19.14 17.46 15.04 19.16 18.97 54.8 64.8 64.1 5.38 10.45 12.13 19.6 35.3 41.0 343 278 342 1.46 1.18 1.45 1.09 0.93 1.11 7.27 5.89 7.25 3.99 3.82 4.65 1.43 2.08 2.97 420 419 1.78 1.77 1.34 1.35 8.90 8.86 4.88 5.68 1.74 3.63 369 72 2018 9.47 6.92 77.4 -0.53. -5.9 209 0.87 0.78 4.43 3.43 - 216 0.92 0.81 4.58 3.55 -26 327 76 2220 8.85 52.3 341 89 5177 20.11 17.31 63.6 7.11 26.1 248 1.05 0.81 5.26 3.34 1.37 293 1.24 0.96 6.20 3.94 1.62 84.9 3560 17.04 13.76 60.7 7.66* 29.4* 304 1.29 0.99 6.46 3.94 2.00* 384 1.63 1.20 8.14 4.89 2.13* TABLE XXIV. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS EXPERIMENT I I I RATION L-2 Appar- Appar- U r i -Meta- Total ent ent % Urine nary Fecal b o l i c water a v a i l - Ur- D.M. D.M. % Gross Gross Diges Appar. N N Feces N lun Sheep Body body Water Feed i n - Fecal able ine feed feces D.M. ener. ener. t i b l e digest. N con- ex- N ex-i Q . no. wt. wt. i n water take water water v o l . i n out dige. feed feces ener. energy intake cent, cr e t cone cret 1 lbs (W.'75) kg mis mis mis mis mis mis g g % Kcal Kcal Kcal % g mg/ ml g mg/ g g 21 322 353 323 72 84 79 13.7 15.3 14.4 3460 2990 1480 180 133 124 3640 3123 1604 523 417 441 3117 2706 1163 120 470 230 995 951 882 201 176 158 79.8 81.5 82.1 4239 4051 3757 905 792 711 3334 3259 3046 78.7 80.4 81.1 24.89 23.79 22.07 1.7 7.9 8.7 0.20 3.71 2.00 29.9 39.0 36.3 6.01 6.86 5.74 22 355 349 361 82 72 15.1 13.7 1925 1650 147 113 2072 1763 709 363 1363 1400 470 480 1048 806 275 128 73.8 84.1 4464 3434 1235 575 3229 2859 72.3 83.3 26.22 20.17 14.6 16.0 6.42 7.68 39.4 40.2 10.84 5.15 i '23 372 321 310 77 70 14.4 13.4 3360 2210 161 113 3521 2323 509 389 3012 1934 440 460 1151 803 194 163 83.2 79.7 4903 3421 865 727 4038 2694 82.4 78.7 28.80 20.09 13.0 9.7 5.72 4.46 41.7 38.9 8.09 6.34 76. 6 14.3 2439 139 2578 479 2099 377 948 185 80.6 4038 830 3208 79.6 23.72 10.23 4.31 37.9 7.00 24 322 353 323 94 16.7 2730 113 2843 418 2425 1180 804 186 76.9 3425 843 2582 75.4 20.12 8.4 9.91 41.3 7.68 ,25 I 1 355 349 361 92 82 96 16.4 15.1 16.9 2410 2220 3460 140 131 149 2550 2351 3609 551 723 1800 2886 510 230 550 999 932 1066 229 208 270 77.1 77.7 74.7 4256 3970 4541 1035 940 1220 3221 3030 3321 75.7 76.3 73.1 24.99 23.32 26.67 18.4 15.1 14.9 9.38 3.47 8.20 43.1 40.5 39.3 9.87 8.42 10.61 372 88 15.9 3450 166 3616 605 3011 720 1181 247 79.1 5041 1136 3895 77.4 29.55 10.9 7.85 42.1 10.40 26 321 79 14.7 2420 108 2528 373 ' 2155 620 772 159 79.4 3289 731 2558 77.8 19.32 10.2 6.32 40.8 6.49 310 78 14.5 2380 105 5013 348 2137 400 749 167 77.7 3191 768 2434 75.9 18.74 13.7 5.48 42.7 7.13 82.0 15.7 2724 130 3216 503 2402 601 929 209 77.5 3958 953 3006 75.9 23.24 13.09 7.23 41.4 8.66 (continued) TABLE XXIV. EXPERIMENT I I I . RATION L-2 APP- App. App. D.M. d i g . N dig. N D.M. App. N d i g . N In GE E In N Ret. . m . -, « » », M i n (6h dig. i n N Ket - — —• —• .. — water Total App. App. N N — — . - „- app. app. app. app. app. app. Run Sheep Body i n - N dig. dig. Rete Reten water water water water water water ave. ave. ave. ave. ave. ave. no no wt. take output N N ntion t i o n In In In In In In water water water water water water lbs mis g g % g mg/ % ml Kcal/ ml Kcal/ mg/ ml ml mg/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml Kcal/ ml Kcal/ mg/ ml ml mg/ ml mg/ ml 322 72 3640 6.21 18. 88 75.9 18. 68 75.1 273 1.16 0.92 6.84 5.19 5.13 319 1.36 1.07 7.99 6.06 5.99 21 353 84 3123 10.57 16. 93 71.2 13. 22 55.6 305 1.30 1.04 7.62 5.42 4.23 351 1.50 1.20 8.79 6.26 4.89 323 79 1604 7.74 16. 33 74.0 14. 33 64.9 550 2.34 1.90 13.76 10.18 8.93 758 3.23 2.62 18.98 14.04 12.32 22 355 349 82 72 2072 1763 17.26 12.83 15. 15. 38 02 58.7 74.5 8. 7. 96 34 34.2 36.4 .. 506 457 2.15 1.95 1.56 1.62 12.66 11.44 .. 7.42 8.52 4.32 4.14 769 576 3.28 2.45 2.37 19.24 2.04 14.41 11.28 10.73 6.57 5.24 361 372 77 3521 13.81 20.71 71.9 14.99 52.0 327 1.39 1.15 8.18 5.88 4.26 382 1.63 1.34 9.56 6.88 4.98 23 321 70 2323 10.80 13.75 68.4 9.29 46.2 346 1.47 1.16 8.65 5.92 4.00 415 1.77 1.39 10.39 7.11 4.80 310 76.6 2578 11.32 16.71 70.7 12.40 52.1 395 1.68 1.34 9.88 6.93 5.00 510 2.17 1.72 12.77 8.91 6.40 322 24 353 94 2843 17.59 12.44 61.8 2.53 12.6 283 1.20 0.91 7.08 4.38 0.89 332 1.41 1.06 8.30 5.13 1.04 323 355 92 2550 19.25 15.12 60.5 5.74 23.0 392 1.67 1.26 9.80 5.93 2.25 518 25 349 82 2351 11.89 14.90 63.9 11.43 49.0 396 1.69 1.29 9.92 6.34 4.86 518 2.21 1.68 12.96 8.28 6.35 361 96 3609 18.81 16.06 60.2 7.86 29.5 295 1.26 0.92 7.39 4.45 2.18 369 1.57 1.15 9.24 5.56 2.72 372 88 3616 18.25 19.15 64.8 11.30 38.2 327 1.39 1.08 8.17 5.30 3.13 392 1.67 1.29 9.81 6.36 3.75 26 321 79 2528 12.81 12.83 66.4 6.51 33.7 305 1.30 1.01 7.64 5.08 2.58 358 1.53 1.19 8.97 5.95 3.02 310 78 5013 12.61 11.61 62.0 6.13 32.7 149 0.64 0.49 3.74 2.32 1.22 350 1.45 1.14 8.77 5.43 2.87 87.0 3216 15.89 14.59 62.8 7.36 31.3 307 1.31 0.99 7.68 4.83 2.44 387 1.64 1.25 9.68 6.12 3.29 TABLE XXIV. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I I . RATION L-3 (a) (b) (e) (d) Appar- Appar- Urd-Meta- Total ent ent % Urine nary Fecal b o l i c water a v a i l Ur- D.M. D.M. % Gross Gross diges Appar. N N N Feces N un Sheep Body body Water Feed i n - Fecal able ine feed feces D.M. ener. ener. t i b l e diges. i n - con- ex- N ex-p. no. wt. wt. i n water take water water v o l . i n out diges.feed feces ener. energy take cent, cret cone cre t _ — _ nig/: ~ lbs kg mis mis mis mis mis mis g g % Kcal Kcal Kcal % g ml g g g 332 76 14.2 3410 139 3549 356 3193 700 996 160 83.9 4233 734. 3499 82.7 25.31 10.1 7.07 44.1 7.06 21 351 85 15.4 3570 139 3709 242 3467 1170 996 165 83.3 4233 757 3476 82.1 25.31 9.1 10.65 34.3 5.66 366 73 13.8 1790 43 1929 80 1753 300 313 44 85.9 1330 202 1128 84.8 7.95 13.4 4.02 37.1 1.64' 356 72 13.7 1900 108 2008 342 1666 460 775 141 81.8 3294 644 2650 80.4 19.69 9.2 4.23 39.6 5.58 22 303 330 377 23 334 375 75 74 14.1 14.0 3130 2140 136 114 3266 5520 430 428 2836 1826 340 290 980 823 191 184 80.5 77.6 4165 3498 877 845 3288 2653 78.9 75.8 24.90 20.91 19.5 8.7 6.63 2.52 46.1 39.2 8.81 7.21 75.8 14.2 2657 113 3330 313 2457 543 814 148 82.2 3459 677 2782 80.8 20.68 11.7 5.85 40.1 5.99 24 332 351 366 88 98 15.9 17.2 3550 4380 155 155 3705 4535 508 660 3197 3875 630 1520 1116 1116 225 249 79.8 77.7 4743 4743 1015 1123 3728 3620 78.6 76.3 28.36 28.36 14.3 10.0 9.01 15.20 42.0 43.2 9.45 10.76 25 356 303 330 80 74 14.8 14.0 2030 1580 61 127 2091 1707 196 363 1895 1344 740 320 441 917 103 146 76.6 84.1 1874 3897 477 676 1397 3221 74.5 82.7 11.21 23.30 19.5 21.6 14.43 6.91 44.4 40.8 4.57 5.96 26 377 334 375 90 16.2 3480 167 3647 485 3162 1290 1201 201 83.3 5104 919 4185 82.0 30.52 8.1 10.45 41.8 8.40 86.0 15.6 3004 133 3137 442 2695 900 958 185 80.3 4072 842 3230 78.8 24.35 14.7 11.20 42.4 7.83 see page 29 f o r footnotes , . . .v TABLE XXIV. EXPERIMENT I I I . RATION L-3 (continued) App. App. App. D.M. d i g . N dig. N g, o D.M. App. N d i g . N In GE E In N Ret. 2 m * -, A / xi In. GE dig. In N Ret — — ' - — — — ^ — water Total App. App. N N _____ _____-- — - app- app. app. app. app. app. Run Sheep Body i n - N dig. dig. Reten Ret en water water water water water water ave. ave. ave. ave. ave. ave. In In In In In In water water water water water water l b s mis £ £ % £ mg/ Kcal/ % ml ml Kcal/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml Kcal/ ml Kcal/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml mg/ ml 21 332 351 366 76 85 73 3549 3709 1929 14.13 16.31 5.65 18.25 19.65 6.32 72.1 77.6 79.5 11.18 9.00 2.30 44.2 35.6 28.9 281 269 162 1.19 1.14 0.69 0.99 0.94 0.58 7.13 6.82 4.12 5.14 5.30 3.28 3.15 2.43 1.19 312 287 179 1.33 1.22 0.76 1.10 1.00 0.64 7.93 7.30 4.54 5.72 5.67 3.61 3.50 2.60 1.31 22 356 303 330 72 2008 9.81 14.11 71.7 9.88 50.2 386 1.64 1.32 9.81 7.03 4.92 465 1.98 1.59 11.82 8.47 5.93 23 377 334 375 75 74 3266 5520 15.44 12.73 16.09 13.70 64.6 65.5 9.46 8.18 38.0 39.1 300 149 1.28 0.63 1.01 0.48 7.62 3.79 4.93 2.48 2.90 1.48 346 451 1.47 1.92 1.16 1.45 8.78 11.45 5.67 7.50 3.34 4.49 75.8 3330 12.35 14.69 71.8 8.33 39.3 258 1.10 0.89 6.55 4.69 2.68 340 1.45 1.16 8.64 6.11 3.53 24 332 351 366 88 98 3705 4535 18.46 25.96 18.91 17.60 66.7 62.1 9.90 2.40 34.9 8.5 301 246 1.28 1.05 1.01 0.80 7.65 6.25 5.10 3.88 2.67 0.53 349 288 1.48 1.22 1.17 0.93 8.87 7.32 5.91 4.54 3.10 0.62 25 356 303 330 80 74 2091 1707 19.00 12.87 6.64 17.34 59.2 74.4 -7.79 10.43 -6.95 48.3 211 537 0.90 2.28 0.67 1.89 5.36 13.65 3.18 10.16 6.11 217 682 0.99 2.90 0.74 2.40 5.65 17.34 3.50 12.90 7.76 26 377 334 375 90 3647 18.85 22.12 72.5 11.67 38.2 329 1.40 1.15 8.37 6.07 3.20 380 1.61 1.32 9.65 7.00 3.69 86.0 3137 19.03 16.52 67.0 8.60* 32.5* 325 1.38 1.10 8.26 5.68 3.13* 383 1.64 1.31 9.77 6.77 3.79* CO TABLE XXIV. DIGESTIBILITY TRIALS. EXPERIMENT I I I . RATION L-66 (a) (b) (c) (d) Appar- Appar- U r i -Meta- Total ent ent % Urine nary Fecal b o l i c water a v a i l Ur- D.M. D.M. % Gross Gross diges Appar. N N N Feces N un Sheep Body body Water Feed i n - Fecal able ine feed feces D.M. ener. ener. t i b l e diges. i n - con- ex- N ex-o. no. wt. wt. i n water take water water v o l . i n out diges feed feces ener. energy take cent, cr e t cone cre t _ _ _ . mg7 mg7 lbs 'kg mis mis mis mis mis mis g g % Kcal Kcal Kcal % g ml g g g 315 80 14.8 3010 139 3149 416 2733 840 958 202 78.9 4119 899 3220 78.2 23.32 6.1 5.12 33.2 6.71 21 305 75 14.1 3180 139 3319 289 3030 470 958 134 86.0 4119 596 3550 86.2 23.32 12.8 6.02 31.5 4.22 336 79 14.7 2780 139 2919 387 2532 520 958 159 83.4 4119 708 3411 82.8 23.32 12.2 6.34 33.9 5.39 22 308 368 352 74 73 81 14.0 13.8 14.9 3950 3300 1950 179 179 148 4129 3479 2098 583 504 373 3546 2975 1725 1340 630 460 1228 1228 1021 283 222 220 77.0 81.7 78.5 5280 5280 4390 1242 975 966 4038 4305 3424 76.5 81.5 78.0 29.89 29.89 24.85 7. 13. 20. 6 7 0 10.18 8.63 9.20 33.5 29.3 29.7 9.48 6.50 6.53 23 320 317 367 80 70 14.8 13.4 4690 3000 202 158 4892 3158 651 419 4241 2739 1280 410 1387 1085 295 238 78.7 78.1 5964 4665 1322 1066 4642 3599 77.8 77.1 33.76 26.41 8. 18. 3 1 10.62 7.42 30.5 35.2 9.00 8.38 76.5 14.3 3233 160 3393 453 2940 744 1103 219 80.3 4742 972 3774 79.8 26.85 12.4 7.94 32.1 7.03 315 99 17.3 3490 219 3709 557 3152 1450 1506 387 74.3 6475 1652 4823 74.5 36.66 10.4 15.08 26.9 10.41 24 305 97 17.1 3860 219 4079 724 3355 190 1506 378 74.9 6475 1614 4861 75.1 36.66 14.2 2.70 29.0 10.96 336 91 16.3 2750 164 2914 453 2461 630 1127 274 75.1 4846 1170 3676 75.9 27.43 21.1 13.29 25.1 6.88 308 94 16.7 4740 216 4956 687 4269 1180 1487 334 77.5 6394 1450 4944 77.3 36.19 9.9 11.68 29.8 9.95 25 368 90 16.2 4030 216 4246 485 3761 630 1487 281 81.1 6394 1220 5174 80.9 36.19 22.3 14.05 29.4 8.26 352 100 17.5 2090 200 2290 408 1882 470 1377 281 79.6 5921 1220 4701 79.4 33.52 18.2 8.55 26.4 7.42 320 91 16.3 4240 165 4405 524 3881 - 1132 277 75.5 4867 1219 3648 75.0 27.55 - - 32.1 8.89 26 317 84 15.3 3390 195 3585 598 2987 610 1138 304 77.3 4893 1338 3555 72.7 27.70 19.3 11.77 29.0 8.82 367 90 16.2 2060 136 2196 351 1845 500 932 235 74.8 4007 1034 2973 74.2 22.68 20.6 10.30 30.0 7.05 92.9 16.5 3406 192 3598 532 3066 708 1299 306 76.7 5586 1342 4263 76.1 31.62 17.0 10.93 28.6 8.74 see page 29 f o r footnotes (continued) TABLE XXIV. EXPERIMENT I I I . RATION L-66 Total water Total App. Run Sheep Body i n - N dig. no. no. wt. take output N D.M. In GE ApP-dig. N In App. dig. N N Ret App. N N dig. Reten Ret en water water water water water water ave. D.M. In app. GE app. ave. App. dig . E app. ave. N In app. ave. App. dig. N N Ret. app. ave. app. ave. N t i o n t i o n In In In In mg/ Kcal/ Kcal/ mg/ In mg/ ml In mg/ ml water water water water water water mg/ Kcal/ Kcal/ mg/ ml ml ml lbs mis g g g ml ml ml ml ml mg/ ml mg/ ml 315 80 21 305 75 336 79 3149 3319 2919 11.83 10.24 11.73 16.61 19.10 17.93 71.2 81.9 76.9 11.49 13.08 11.59 49.3 56.1 49.7 304 289 328 1.31 1.24 1.41 1.02 1.07 1.17 7.41 7.03 7.99 5.27 5.75 6.14 3.65 3.94 3.97 351 316 378 1.51 1.36 1.63 1.18 1.17 1.35 8.53 7.70 9.21 6. 6. 7. 08 4.20 30 4.32 08 4.58 308 74 4129 19.66 20.41 68.3 10.23 34.2 297 1.28 0.98 7.24. .4.94. 2.48 346 1.49 1.14 8.43 5.76 2.88 22 368 73 3479 15.13 23.39 78.3 4.76 15.9 353 1.52 1.24 8.59 6.72 1.37 413 1.77 1.45 10.05 7.86 1.60 352 81 2098 15.73 18.32 73.7 9.12 36.7 487 2.09 1.63 11.84 8.73 4.35 592 2.54 1.98 14.41 10.62 5.29 23 320 317 367 80 70 4892 3158 19.62 15.80 24.76 18.03 73.3 68.3 14.14 10.61 41.9 40.2 284 344 1.22 1.48 0.95 1.14 6.90 8.36 5.06 5.71 2.89 3.36 327 396 1.41 1.70 1.09 1.31 7.96 9.64 5.84 6.58 3.33 3.87 76.5 3393 14.97 19.82 74.0 10.63 40.5 336 1.44 1.15 8.17 6.04 3.25 390 1.68 1.33 9.49 7.02 3.76 24 315 305 336 99 97 91 3709 4079 2914 24.49 13.66 20.17 26.25 25.70 20.55 71.6 70.1 74.9 11.17 23.00 7.26 30.5 62.7 26.5 406 369 387 1.75 1.59 1.66 1.30 1.19 1.26 9.88 8.99 9.41 7.08 6.30 7.05 3.01 5.64 2.49 478 449 458 2.05 1.93 1.97 1.53 1.45 1.49 11.63 10.93 11.15 8.33 7.66 8.35 3.54 6.86 2.95 25 308 368 352 94 90 100 4956 4246 2290 21.63 22.31 15.97 26.24 27.93 26.10 72.5 77.2 77.9 14.56 13.88 17.55 40.2 38.4 52.4 300 350 601 1.29 1.51 2.59 1.00 1.22 2.05 7.30 8.52 14.64 5.29 6.58 11.40 2.94 3.27 7.66 348 395 732 1.50 1.70 3.15 1.16 1.38 2.50 8.48 9.62 17.81 6.15 7.43 13.87 3.41 3.69 9.33 320 91 4405 - 18.66 67.7 - - 257 1.10 0.83 6.25 4.24 - 292 1.25 0.94 7.10 4.81 -26 317 84 3585 20.59 18.88 68.2 7.11 25.7 317 1.36 0.99 7.93 5.27 1.98 381 1.67 1.19 9.27 6.32 2.38 367 90 2196 17.35 15.63 68.9 5.33 23.5 424 1.82 1.35 10.33 7.12 2.43 505 2.17 1.61 12.29 8.47 2.89 92.9 3598 19.65 22.88 72.1 12.48 37.5 379 1.63 1.24 9.23 6.70 3.68 449 1.93 1.47 10.92 7.93 4.38 

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