UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Nodular metropolitan concept transportation aspects. Shahani, Ashok Gurmukhdas 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1968_A6_7 S53.pdf [ 5.3MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104307.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104307-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104307-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104307-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104307-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104307-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104307-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104307-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104307.ris

Full Text

THE NODULAR METROPOLITAN CONCERT -TRANSPORTATION ASPECTS by • ASHOK GURMUKHDAS SHAHANI Tech., Indian Institute of Technology, 1966 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE in the Department of COMMUNITY AND REGIONAL 'PLANNING ' - ' We accept this thesis as conforming to the required''standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In presenting t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Li b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by h i s represen-t a t i v e s . It i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department nf Community and R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date A p r i l . 1968. ABSTRACT Rapid u r b a n i z a t i o n i s one of the major problems f a c i n g the more developed nations' of the world today. With technology making great advances and the needs and values of the people changing r a p i d l y , elements of the c i t i e s are.becoming obsolete and there i s need to expand and b u i l d anew; bigger, b e t t e r , and more b e a u t i f u l c i t i e s . To do t h i s , new and b e t t e r p l a n n i n g t o o l s need to be developed to understand urban s t r u c t u r e and i n t e l l i g e n t l y guide p u b l i c investment d e c i s i o n s . One of the important aspects i s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the impact that changes i n land use or the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system have on the t o t a l t r a v e l requirements of the c i t y . P r o f . George C. Hemmens, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of Pla n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a , i n a paper "Experiments i n Urban Form and Structure" proposed a l i n e a r programming model to determine the minimum t r a v e l requirements of a l t e r n a t e landuse p a t t e r n s . He takes as given a l t e r n a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n s among sub-regions of an h y p o t h e t i c a l urban area of the f o l l o w i n g urban elements: work p l a c e , residence, a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems, and an a l l o c a t i o n r u l e which minimizes the t o t a l t r a v e l time between each residence and work place and a shopping p l a c e . i i i -One of h i s main conclusions was that a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems do not e f f e c t the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e landuse p a t t e r n s . The hypothesis of t h i s t h e s i s i s t h a t a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems do e f f e c t the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e landuse p a t t e r n s . Two sets of experiments were conducted, w i t h some m o d i f i -c a t i o n s to P r o f . Hemmens model, the r e s u l t s of which s u b s t a n t i a t e the proposed hypothesis. The f i r s t set of experiments, using a g e o m e t r i c a l l y non-symmetric road network and a one mode t r a n s p o r t system, i n d i c a t e the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e landuse p a t t e r n s remains constant r e g a r d l e s s of the l e v e l of s e r v i c e or the geometric p a t t e r n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. For the second set of experiments two modes of t r a n s p o r t and modal s p l i t f a c t o r s f o r the sub-regions were introduced. I t i s found t h a t the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of the a l t e r n a t e landuse p a t t e r n s now v a r i e s w i t h the l e v e l of s e r v i c e , the type, and the p a t t e r n of the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. Thus there i s j u s t one t r a n s p o r t a -t i o n system most s u i t a b l e f o r a given landuse p a t t e r n . In g e n e r a l , the c o n c e n t r i c r i n g w i t h dispersed work and shopping ( R 2 C 2 W 2 ) p a t t e r n was found to be most e f f i c i e n t i . e . i v f o r a weak commercial and work core the t r a v e l requirements were sm a l l e r i n magnitude than f o r a stronger core and t h a t changes i n the commercial p a t t e r n had a greater impact on t r a v e l time than s i m i l a r changes i n the work p a t t e r n . A l s o , there e x i s t s a trade o f f between landuse and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i . e . landuse changes can be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r improvements i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, or v i s a v ersa, to achieve the same d e s i r e d end r e s u l t . Because of the s i m p l i s t i c assumptions made, the hypothe-t i c a l data used, and c e r t a i n other l i m i t a t i o n s of the model, the v a l i d i t y of some of the con c l u s i o n s may be que s t i o n a b l e . But, i f the r e s u l t s can be taken as c o n c l u s i v e , they are of great s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r p l a n n i n g . Time and l o c a t i o n a l p r i o r i t i e s f o r a l l major renewal and new c o n s t r u c t i o n a c t i v i t y could be guided by the requirements of the R2C2W2 p a t t e r n . The hi g h e s t p r i o r i t y being given to the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the commercial p a t t e r n and the lowest to the r e s t r u c t u r i n g of the r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n . The model could a l s o be used to determine changes i n the t r a v e l requirements due to the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new shopping center or a new freeway. This t h e s i s i s p a r t of a group study d e a l i n g w i t h a concept v of urban growth and development; the "Nodular M e t r o p o l i t a n Concept." The r e s u l t s of the study s u b s t a n t i a t e t h a t the i i "Nodular" p a t t e r n of urban s t r u c t u r e (which by d e f i n i t i o n i s analogous to the R2C2W2 pattern) has the h i g h e s t e f f i c i e n c y i . e . the l e a s t t r a v e l requirements. v i TABLE OF CONTENDS Page ABSTRACT . . i i i LIST OF TABLES . i x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. . x ACKNOWLEDGEMENT x i SECTION I . THE NODULAR METROPOLITAN CONCEPT Chapter THE GROUP STUDY 1 B a s i s of Study Approach The Problem Urban Growth M e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n Megalopolis Urban -Form and S t r u c t u r e T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts Noduler M e t r o p o l i t a n Concept T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Technology B u i l d i n g Systems Urban P a t t e r n S o c i a l a n d s S p a t i a l Systems Group Hypothesis I n d i v i d u a l Topics SECTION I I . THE TRANSPORTATION ASPECTS Chapter I . INTRODUCTION 2.1 General Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Statement of the Hypothesis D e f i n i t i o n of Terms v i i Page I I . HISTORICAL ISSUES IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION . . . 2.8 Impact of T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Systems on Urban St r u c t u r e M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C r i s i s I I I . MODELS IN PLANNING. . . 2.19 I n t r o d u c t i o n D e f i n i t i o n and Purpose of Models L i m i t a t i o n s . IV. A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL 2.28 I n t r o d u c t i o n Mathematical Statement of the Problem Elements of the Model Experimental R e s u l t s and Important Conclusions V. CASE STUDY: THE MODEL APPLIED. . . . . . . . . 2.40 Input Data L i m i t a t i o n s of the Input Data L i m i t a t i o n s of the Model Experimental R e s u l t s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the Re s u l t s V I . CONCLUDING REMARKS. . . . . . . . . . .2.58 Recommendations f o r the Improvement of the Model I m p l i c a t i o n s of the Study BIBLIOGRAPHY 2.68 APPENDIX • . 2.71 - LIST OF TABLES Table Page 2.1 Time Units Required for Minimal Linkages i n Urban Form Experiments 2.37 2.2 Alternate Residential Density D i s t r i b u t i o n Patterns 2.42 2.3 T r i p A t t r a c t i n g Capacities of O f f i c e and Commercial Zones 2.43 2.4 Travel Costs for Alternate Transportation Systems 2.44 2.5 Minimum Travel Costs for the F i r s t Set of Experiments 2.51 2.6 Minimum Travel Costs for the Second Set of Experiments 2.52 2.7 Relative E f f i c i e n c y of Alternate Landuse Patterns 2.53 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 Urban Matrix Variables ' 3 2 The Nodular Metropolitan Concept 26. 2.1- A Simple C l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Models 2.21 ^ 2.2 The Experimental Urban Form 2.31 2.3 Alternate Residential Density Patterns 2.31 2.4 Transportation Alternative 1 '2.35 2.5 Transportation Alternative 2 2.35 2.6 Transportation Alternative 3 ,• • • • 2.35 2.7 Minimum Travel Requirements of Alternate - . Urban Forms 2.38 2.8 Alternate Residential Density Destribution Patterns 2.42 2.9 Transportation Pattern TI 2.45 2.10 Transportation Pattern T2 2.45 2.11 Transportation Pattern T3 2.46 2.12 Transportation Pattern T4 2.46 2.13 Relation Between Travel Time and Location of Work Place 2.50 2.14 The Nodular Concept 2.65 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The author wishes to express h i s s i n c e r e s t thanks to Dr. Robert W. C o l l i e r , A s s i s t a n t P r o f e s s o r of Plan n i n g , f o r h i s guidance and encouragement a t a l l stages of t h i s study. Thanks i s a l s o due to Dr. V. S e t t y Pendakur, A s s o c i a t e P r o f e s s o r of Planning, f o r h i s encouragement and c o n s t r u c t i v e comments. L a s t , but not the l e a s t , the author i s a l s o g r a t e -f u l to Miss Carolyn Moore of the Computing Center f o r her valuable a s s i s t a n c e w i t h the programming and computational aspects of t h i s study. x i SECTION I THE N O D U L A R METROPOLITAN CONCEPT THE GROUP STUDY' Basis of Study . A review of the f o l l o w i n g l i t e r a t u r e emphasises the unco-ordinated s t a t e of c i t y development. I f i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r mankind to a n t i c i p a t e (plan for) the f u t u r e , i t i s important to d i s c o v e r the kinds of changes that may occur. The purpose-of t h i s study i s to i d e n t i f y u n d e r l y i n g v a r i a b l e s that are shaping urban s o c i e t y and s t r u c t u r e ; s p e c i f i c a l l y to explore a form of development which i s becoming evident i n the c i t y today. From t h i s a n a l y s i s i t i s apparent t h a t s p e c i f i c f u n c t i o n a l nodes have formed n a t u r a l l y w i t h i n the present urban system. T h i s study assumes t h a t present growth trends i n the c i t y can be recognized and analysed. Based on t h i s a n a l y s i s , i t i s b e l i e v e d that the most d e s i r a b l e trends can then be r e i n f o r c e d to shape f u t u r e form and s t r u c t u r e . Approach The approach to t h i s study has been i n t e r - and m u l t i -d i s c i p l i n a r y . I t i s a p o s t u l a t e of t h i s research that Community and Regional Planning must operate w i t h i n a comprehensive and co-ordinated framework. In view of t h i s , an attempt has been 2 made to c o n s t r u c t a p r e l i m i n a r y model (see matrix, f i g u r e no 1.1). Because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of time and personnel, o n l y s e l e c t e d components of the conceptual model are explored. A more complete i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and a n a l y s i s of a l l the model's components would r e s u l t i n a b e t t e r understanding of the l a r g e r c o n t i n u i n g urban growth process. The t o p i c s of i n d i v i d u a l s t u d i e s are a r b i t r a r i l y s e l e c t e d on the b a s i s of i n d i v i d u a l researcher's experience and i n t e r e s t . I t i s o n l y on t h i s b a s i s t h a t a s i g n i f i c a n t c o n t r i b u t i o n to the theory and p r a c t i c e of Community and Regional Planning can be made. The Problem By the year 20G0, the urban p o p u l a t i o n of the United States i s expected to be double.^ Moreover, people are expected to be more a f f l u e n t as t h e i r personal income in. constant d o l l a r s o increases by f i f t y percent. While these a n t i c i p a t e d changes have not yet been r e a l i z e d , the c a p a c i t i e s of our c i t i e s are f a s t reaching t h e i r l i m i t s . For example, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s are already congested i n the large m e t r o p o l i t a n 3 . . . areas, conveniently l o c a t e d land f o r housing i s becoming scarce, and costs of p r o v i d i n g p u b l i c s e r v i c e s and u t i l i t i e s are becom-in g p r o h i b i t i v e . The c r u c i a l problem a r i s i n g out of t h i s i s FIGURE NO. 1.1 P o l i t i c a l Science p o l i t i c a l theory public administration . p o l i t i c a l parties leadership & decision-TrnVI ng power & influence Sociology social behavior so c i a l structure Economics toonetary & f i s c a l policy income distribution price theory economic growth Business Ariministratiorj O N O H H C «H JJQ, P - S - O-H cr cr H T J HI O N •H-H -*J as) ai O O O+J Ti a* tt) o OJ 1? 5 3 g o p - -•> O as -H 3 +>«•(-> C OJ -H a 3 marketing finance. ' p o l i c y & ... administration estate management public relations accounting ^Jrban Form architecture landscape c i v i c design land use & zoning Lag municipal lav land & maritime law constitutional law 'torts corporation law Engineering u t i l i t i e s & services systems analysis "transportation cuimnrml cation structural design Urban Geography urban systems . urban processes Social Psychology  S t a t i s t i c s URBAN M A T R I X V A R I A B L E S • x T Chang Cowie Lindeman Mann Shahani 4 how t o p l a n our m e t r o p o l i t a n areas so t h a t they can accommodate the a n t i c i p a t e d growth and change. I t i s estimated t h a t by the 1980's or at l e a s t by the year 2000, we w i l l have to r e b u i l d our c i t i e s t o accommodate the a n t i -c i p a t e d p o p u l a t i o n increase and to s a t i s f y the preferences of a more a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y . By the year 2000, more urban homes, places of business and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s w i l l have to be b u i l t than have been b u i l t since the f i r s t towns were s t a r t e d i n North America. At l e a s t h a l f of todays urban d w e l l i n g s w i l l probably r e q u i r e r e p l a c i n g because they w i l l no longer serve the needs of f a m i l i e s . ^ In a d d i t i o n , h a l f " o f todays urban business and i n d u s t r i a l b u i l d i n g s w i l l r e q u i r e r e p l a c i n g because they w i l l no longer serve changing p r o d u c t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n methods.-' I t i s l i k e l y that our c i t i e s w i l l have to be r e s t r u c t u r e d to accommodate r a d i c a l l y new means of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . High d e n s i t y c i t i e s l i k e New York have a l r a d y found the cost of automobile t r a v e l to the c i t y core p r o h i b i t i v e . In low d e n s i t y c i t i e s , such as Los Angeles, the cost i n money, time and space of r e l y i n g s o l e l y on the automobile i s e q u a l l y p r o h i b i t i v e . For example, two-thirds of Los Angeles' downtown i s given over to the automobile - about one-half of t h i s to p arking l o t s and 5 garages and the r e s t t o roadways and highways. 5 Most of todays c i t i e s have grown w i t h l i t t l e p l a n n i n g . Although they u r g e n t l y need r e b u i l d i n g and r e s t r u c t u r i n g , they have neither, the money nor the a u t h o r i t y . Our l a r g e r c i t i e s are beset w i t h problems of slums, t r a f f i c , congestion, sprawl, u g l i n e s s , housing; w i t h the p r o v i s i o n of inadequate open space; w i t h a i r and water p o l l u t i o n ; w i t h outmoded forms of p u b l i c a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and t a x a t i o n . In a d d i t i o n , most c i t i e s have enormous problems w i t h education, poverty and r a c i a l segregation. Outdated, i n f l e x i b l e p o l i t i c a l boundaries have helped to encourage people and industry' i n t o the lower tax suburbs and to make plan n i n g extremely d i f f i c u l t . The w e a l t h i e r f a m i l i e s have excaped to the suburbs l e a v i n g the c e n t r a l c i t y to deter-i o r a t e . Our c i t i e s continue to use a tax system t h a t p e n a l i z e s improvements and s u b s i d i z e s obsolescence which i n e v i t a b l y leads to b l i g h t , sprawl and spread of slums.^ In s p i t e of a l l these problems, which vary i n degree across North America, our m e t r o p o l i t a n areas continue to grow and c r y out f o r imaginative s o l u t i o n s to making our urban environment more l i v a b l e . Planners l i k e W i l l i a m Wheaton and V i c t o r Gruen b e l i e v e t h a t the essence of urbanism i s v a r i e t y , and t h a t o n l y a v i b r a n t night-and-day "downtown" ( c i t y core) can support the v a r i e t y of shopping, s e r v i c e s , c o n t a c t s , job o p p o r t u n i t i e s , c u l t u r e and r e c r e a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s needed to make a c i t y an a t t r a c t i o n . 0 Any v i a b l e c i t y core needs people l i v i n g w i t h i n and adjacent to the area - not j u s t daytime commutors. The p r o v i s i o n through urban renewal of a f u n c t i o n a l and l i v a b l e h a b i t a t f o r these c e n t r a l c i t y d wellers i s the focus of the group research e f f o r t described i n t h i s t h e s i s . Urban Growth M e t r o p o l i t a n i z a t i o n Before d i s c u s s i n g .the c e n t r a l core area of the c i t y , i t i s important to mention the general forces which have c o n t r i b u t e d t o the growth of our m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. Peter H a l l describes such f o r c e s . ^ The f i r s t i s that t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n has increased at a r a p i d r a t e and threatens to go on i n c r e a s i n g . The second f a c t o r was the s h i f t o f f the land i n t o i n d u s t r y and s e r v i c e occupations, i n the c i t i e s . T h i s , however, i s mo longer a major f a c t o r since over two-thirds of North Americans now l i v e i n urban areas. The t h i r d f a c t o r i s that a large p a r t of the urban growth i s being concentrated i n the a l r e a d y large metro -7 p o l i t a n a r e a s . T h i s c o n c e n t r a t i o n p r o b a b l y i s a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e m o r e d i v e r s e e c o n o m i c a n d s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e l a r g e c e n t r e s . M e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s h a v e g r o w n f a s t e r t h a n r t h e r e s t o f N o r t h A m e r i c a i n e v e r y d e c a d e s i n c e t h e t u r n o f t h e c e n t u r y , e x c e p t f o r t h e d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 4 0 . B y 1 9 6 0 a l m o s t t w o - t h i r d s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s l i v e d i n t h e S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s d e l i n e a t e d b y t h e c e n s u s . I n C a n a d a 8 7 . 5 p e r c e n t w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s u r b a n ( n o n - f a r m ) p o p u l a t i o n . T h i s i s a 1 0 9 p e r c e n t i n c r e a s e . f r o m 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 6 1 . ^ G r o w t h w i t h i n t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s h a s n o t b e e n d i s t r i b u t e d e v e n l y . T h e c e n t r a l a r e a s o f c i t i e s h a v e g r o w n r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e , w h i l e t h e s u b u r b a n r i n g s h a v e g r o w n a t a m u c h h i g h e r r a t e . Some o f t h e l a r g e r c i t i e s c e n t r a l a r e a s h a v e a c t u a l l y l o s t p o p u l a t i o n d u r i n g t h e l a s t d e c a d e . Some o f t h e m a n y r e a s o n s f o r t h e l o s s o f p o p u l a t i o n i n c l u d e a l a c k o f a v a i l a b l e s p a c e f o r f u r t h e r b u i l d i n g , t h e o b s o l e s c e n c e o f h o u s i n g a n d i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t s i n t h e c o r e a r e a s a n d t h e u n a v a i l a b i l i t y o f r a p i d , c h e a p m e t h o d s o f c o m m u n i c a t i o n a n d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . T h e l o s s e s o f p o p u l a t i o n i n t h e c e n t r a l a r e a s d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t e c o n o m i c d e c l i n e b u t r a t h e r t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n o f 8 p o p u l a t i o n and i n s t i t u t i o n s to the suburbs. H i s t o r i c a l l y the n a t u r a l c l u s t e r i n g of commercial, i n d u s t r i a l and r e s i d e n t i a l a c t i v i t i e s was due i n p a r t t o the absence of a w e l l developed t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. M o b i l i t y v/as l i m i t e d since few people had a perso n a l mode of t r a n s p o r t . When mass prod u c t i o n and ownership of automobiles became a r e a l i t y , the form of the c i t y began to change. Since people were not able to t r a v e l longer d i s t a n c e s i n a shorter p e r i o d of time, they began to move to the outer f r i n g e s of the c e n t r a l c i t y . D e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of the residence a l s o brought w i t h i t many r e t a i l and s e r v i c e e n t e r p r i s e s . In a d d i t i o n , there has been a trend towards the d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of manufacturing and wh o l e s a l i n g f i r m s seeking to escape the congestion of the c e n t r a l c o r e . ^ Another f a c t o r which has encouraged r e s i d e n t i a l d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n i s the i n t e r -v e n t i o n of government i n the housing market.' 1 Through the U.S. and Canadian Housing A c t s , long term, low i n t e r e s t loans made s i n g l e f a m i l y home ownership p o s s i b l e on a l a r g e r s c a l e and encouraged the development of suburban s u b - d i v i s i o n s . I t appears th a t the primary i m p l i c a t i o n s of increased m o b i l i t y and government housing p o l i c y on urban form i s a d i s p e r s i o n of a c t i v i t i e s . But wh i l e the c i t y i s becoming more 9 d i s p e r s e d , s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l areas appear to be developing. The d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n of r e t a i l i n g , w h o l e s a l i n g and i n d u s t r y has a l t e r e d the f u n c t i o n of the urban core. The core i s e v o l v i n g from a c e n t r a l business d i s t r i c t to a c e n t r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e d i s t r i c t . That i s to say, t e r t i a r y and quarternary economic a c t i v i t i e s are becoming the predominate land uses. F i n a n c i a l and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e o f f i c e s , research and c o n s u l t a t i v e f i r m s , entertainment and c u l t u r a l f a c i l i t i e s are i n c r e a s i n g i n the core areas of c i t i e s . Those r e t a i l f i r m s which remain downtown are becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y o r i e n t e d to the daytime working p o p u l a t i o n and to those people who l i v e i n or adjacent to downtown.^ W i t h i n the core i t s e l f , s p e c i a l i z e d f u n c t i o n a l d i s t r i c t s can be i d e n t i f i e d . For example, a f i n a n c i a l d i s t r i c t , a high order good shopping d i s t r i c t , and an entertainment s t r i p may be e a s i l y observed. This c l u s t e r i n g of l i k e a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t s the d e s i r e f o r face to face i n t e r a c t i o n o r , as i n the l a t t e r cases, the d e s i r e f o r consumers f o r comparisons. Urbanism Perhaps the f i r s t t h i n g t h a t s t r i k e s an observer of our c i t i e s i s the tremendous change of r u r a l to urban p o p u l a t i o n during 10 the l a s t few decades. Though change ,is constant i t i s the a c c e l e r a t i n g r a t e of change i n the age of automation which has wrought havoc w i t h the "good o l d times" . Changing l i f e s t y l e s are p a r t and p a r c e l of r a p i d l y growing urban areas. The i n c r e a s i n g acceptance of urbanism as a way of l i f e has ushered i n an urban s o c i e t y which e x h i b i t s an i n c r e a s i n g a f f l u e n c e among the greater p r o p o r t i o n of i t s members. The shorter work week, which i s a consequence of automation, i s making i t s appearance f e l t . 1 6 I n c r e a s i n g l e i s u r e time and r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r s u i t s are bywords of a more a f f l u e n t s o c i e t y . The impact t h i s has had so f a r on the urban scene i s the i n c r e a s i n g emphasis t h a t i s p l a c e d on the development of l e i s u r e time amenities and urban open s p a c e s . ^ Another phenomenon of the age of automation i s the i n c r e a s i n g geographic m o b i l i t y of the North American p o p u l a t i o n . I t i s a f a c t t h a t one out o f t f i v e persons i n the U.S. i s now moving every y e a r . ^ 8 This means t h a t a working person i n h i s l i f e i s l i k e l y to change h i s residence e i g h t times and two or three of them would i n v o l v e moves to an e n t i r e l y d i f f e r e n t community. One consequence of t h i s greater m o b i l i t y i s the l o s s of personal contacts w i t h r e l a t i v e s ^ a n d neighbours who are l e f t b e h i n d . ^ 11 In a d d i t i o n to urbanism as a way of l i f e and increased geographic m o b i l i t y , d i f f e r e n c e s i n urban r e s i d e n t i a l l o c a t i o n are becoming more pronounced. The growth of the c i t y under a f r e e e n t e r p r i s e system, or under any non-centralized system, i s l e a d i n g to a h i g h degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l areas by type of s t r u c t u r e , q u a l i t y o f housing and l e v e l s of r e n t a l v a l u e s . Under a market system of a l l o c a t i n g housing, where people l i v e depends i n l a r g e measure on the rent or s a l e s p r i c e -zl: they pay. A considerable degree of r e s i d e n t i a l segregation r e s u l t s between persons i n v a r i o u s income brackets and between persons i n v a r i o u s occupations. However, recent f i n d i n g s c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e t h a t r a c i a l and e t h n i c r e s i d e n t i a l segregation are more than j u s t economic d i s c r i m i n a t i o n . They have a l s o l e d to the high degree of d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of r e s i d e n t i a l areas, because even where economic d i f f e r e n t i a l s are d i m i n i s h i n g , . r a c i a l r e s i d e n t i a l segregation p e r s i s t s . ^ Megalopolis The large s c a l e movement of p o p u l a t i o n i n t o the outer r i n g s of m e t r o p o l i t a n areas i s , according to Jean Gottmann, ushering i n a new phase of m e t r o p o l i t a n development which he c a l l s Megalopolis.^ 1 12 In regions such as the north eastern seaboard of the United States the outer r i n g s of met r o p o l i t a n areas have expanded to overlap w i t h outer r i n g s of other m e t r o p o l i t a n areas. The r e s u l t i s a continuous band of urban and suburban development. T h i s phenomenon i s a l s o c a l l e d " s t r i p c i t y " , " c i t y region" and "super-metropolis". The words megopolis and megalopolis are being heard w i t h i n c r e a s i n g frequency, u s u a l l y a p p l i e d to an almost continuous s t r i n g of c i t i e s running from Washington, D.C. to Boston. . . . The p a t t e r n does not c o n s i s t of a s t r i n g of metro-p o l i t a n areas standing shoulder to shoulder, f i g h t i n g f o r space l i k e a crowd i n a subway, but of me t r o p o l i t a n areas i n a f u n c t i o n i n g group, i n t e r a c t i n g w i t h each other. In the same manner th a t economic development has made the s i z e of the t y p i c a l n a t i o n inadequate and has c a l l e d f o r super-nations, i t seems that soon - at l e a s t i n h i s t o r i c a l time - urban u n i t s w i l l go beyond the s c a l e of the metropolis to the sc a l e of the megalopolis. And j u s t as the metro-p o l i t a n area i s not made up of an accumulation of T i t t l e c i t i e s complete I n themselves but on a system of s p e c i a l i z e d and ther e f o r e d i s s i m i l a r areas, the various m e t r o p o l i t a n u n i t s of megopolis w i l l s p e c i a l i z e and become more d i f f e r e n t from each other than they are today.22 There are over a dozen areas i n North American that could develop the same urban megalopolation form as the north e a s t e r n seaboard. For example, i n C a l i f o r n i a most of the pop u l a t i o n i s i n the densely populated San Fr a n c i s c o Bay areas and i n sprawling Los Angeles. I n d i c a t i o n s now are t h a t people 13 e v e n t u a l l y w i l l f i l l a n a l m o s t s o l i d p o p u l a t i o n b e l t r u n n i n g 23 b e t w e e n t h e t w o a r e a s t h r o u g h t h e C e n t r a l V a l l e y o f C a l i f o r n i a . U r b a n F o r m a n d S t r u c t u r e T h e r e h a v e b e e n m a n y e f f o r t s t o a n a l y s e t h e f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e o f c i t i e s . " F o r m " m e a n s t h e p h y s i c a l p a t t e r n o f l a n d u s e , p o p u l a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n a n d s e r v i c e n e t w o r k s , w h i l e " s t r u c t u r e " s i g n i f i e s t h e s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f h u m a n a c t i v i t i e s a n d i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s . I d e a s s u c h a s E b e n e z e r H o w a r d ' s G a r d e n C i t y m o v e m e n t a n d F r a n k L l o y d W r i g h t ' s B r o a d a c r e C o n c e p t h a v e h a d c o n s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e i n t h e d e c e n t r a l i z a t i o n a r g u m e n t w h i l e o p p o s i n g v i e w s h a v e r e f l e c t e d t h e " S a v e t h e C e n t r a l C i t i e s " m o v e m e n t . A n e x a m p l e o f a s c h e m e d e v e l o p e d f o r t h e i ^ r e t e n t i o n o f t h e c e n t r a l c i t y w a s p u t f o r w a r d b y L . H i l b e r s e i m e r d u r i - n g t h e e a r l y 1 9 4 0 ' s , b a s e d o n a " s e t t l e m e n t u n i t " . S u c h a u n i t c o n t a i n s a l l t h e e s s e n t i a l s o f a s m a l l c o m m u n i t y w i t h i n i t s e l f a n d e a c h u n i t i s i n t u r n c o n n e c t e d t o o t h e r u n i t s t o c r e a t e a n o v e r a l l s y s t e m o f s e l f - c o n t a i n e d c e n t r e s . H i l b e r s e i m e r ' s t u d y a p p l i e s s u c h a s y s t e m t o t h e C i t y o f C h i c a g o . R e c e n t e f f o r t t o a n a l y s e u r b a n f o r m a n d s t r u c t u r e h a v e f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n o n b a s i c t h e o r i e s s i m i l a r t o H i l b e r s e i m e r ' s a p p r a o c h i n s t e a d . , o f b e i n g l a r g e l y i n t u i t i v e a s i n e a r l i e r c o n c e p t s . M o r e s c i e n t i f i c 14 methods of a n a l y s i s u s i n g computer techniques have been developed. With the use of models, many a l t e r n a t i v e forms of growth and change can be examined. Emphasis on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n a l y s i s has l e d to schemes such as the Year 2000 P l a n f o r the N a t i o n a l 26 C a p i t a l Region and more r e c e n t l y to the Penn-Jersey T r a s n p o r t a t i o n Study, where f u t u r e growth p o s s i b i l i t i e s have been presented w i t h c l e a r a l t e r n a t i v e s . In the Penn-Jersey Study, since t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n p o l i c y v/as the f a c t o r most d i r e c t l y under the i n f l u e n c e of the study's p o l i c y committee, a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems were taken as the s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g 27 d i f f e r e n t p o s s i b l e r e g i o n a l growth p a t t e r n s . Many t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and urban form have been made by pl a n n i n g teams, such as the prop o s a l f o r North Buckinghamshire i n England,^8 a n £ by a r c h i t e c t s such as J . Weber i n h i s " L i n e a r C i t y Development" i n 1965,^9 b u t few of these r a d i c a l ideas have been, implemented. On a more academic b a s i s there have been approaches to the t h e o r e t i c a l s t u d i e s of urban form and s t r u c t u r e by use of models as e x e m p l i f i e d by M e l v i n Webber and Kevin Lynch. W e b b e r s u g g e s t s t h a t most of the models used c u r r e n t l y are based on " s t a t i c d e s c r i p t i v e " r e l a t i o n s h i p s such as d e n s i t y g r a d i e n t s of p o p u l a t i o n , r a t e s of d e c l i n e of manufacturing and 15 other r e l a t i o n s h i p s observed i n exist.ing s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s . These models concentrate on the r e s u l t s r a t h e r than on the cause of urban form. He s t r e s s e s the need f o r a n a l y s i s of the "dynamic behaviour" aspects of urban s t r u c t u r e . Lynch and . Rodwin suggest i n t h e i r model,-^ which deals w i t h p h y s i c a l form, that t h i s approach should be fo l l o w e d by s t u d i e s of the " a c t i v i t y p a t t e r n " and i t s e f f e c t on urban form. Recent s t u d i e s f o r the New Town of Columbia i n the State of Maryland takes t h i s approach and o f f e r s a b e t t e r understanding of models i n i n t e g r a t i n g t r a n s p o r t a t i o n and urban form.^2 T h e o r e t i c a l Concepts There are many choices f o r f u t u r e urban form and s t r u c t u r e . Catherine Bauer Wurster o u t l i n e d four broad a l t e r n a t i v e v 3 3 approaches. (a) Present Trends p r o j e c t e d . Region-wide s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w i t h most f u n c t i o n s dispersed but w i t h a push toward greater c o n c e n t r a t i o n of c e r t a i n f u n c t i o n s i n the c e n t r a l c i t i e s . Perhaps unstable, l i k e l y t o s h i f t toward one of the other a l t e r n a t i v e s . . . . (b) General d i s p e r s i o n . Probably toward region-wide s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of c e r t a i n f u n c t i o ns but a con-s i d e r a b l e degree of sub-re g i o n a l i n t e g r a t i o n might be induced. (c) Concentrated s u p e r - c i t y . Probably w i t h a strong tendency toward s p e c i a l i z e d sectors f o r d i f f e r e n t f u n c t i o n s . 16 (d) C o n s t e l l a t i o n of r e l a t i v e l y d i v e r s i f i e d and i n t e - grated c i t i e s . With c i t i e s of d i f f e r i n g s i z e and c h a r a c t e r , a range from moderate d i s p e r s i o n to moderate c o n c e n t r a t i o n would be f e a s i b l e . /Any one of these four a l t e r n a t i v e s could probably apply i n North America, depending on d i f f e r i n g l o c a l c o n d i t i o n s . The c i t y of Los Angeles has r e c e n t l y c a r r i e d out a study on urban form and s t r u c t u r e and the f o l l o w i n g four a l t e r n a t i v e concepts f o r urban growth were o u t l i n e d : 34 (a) Centres Concept. T h i s concept e n v i s i o n s large r e g i o n a l concentrations of residence and employment, which would be the f o c a l p o i n t s f o r s o l i d i f y i n g new growth i n the me t r o p o l i t a n area. I t proposes a c i t y of a h i g h l y urban c h a r a c t e r , w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g s i n g l e -f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l areas and n a t u r a l amenities. I t attempts to minimize t r a v e l d i s t a n c e s between home and places of d a i l y occupation. . . . (b) C o r r i d o r s Concept. T h i s concept proposes a h i g h l y urbanized m e t r o p o l i s , w i t h c o n c e n t r a t i o n of employ-ment, commercial s e r v i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n a l f a v i l i t i . e s and hi g h d e n s i t y apartments l o c a t e d i n c o r r i d o r s extending outward from the . . . . met r o p o l i t a n core. T h i s concept would r e q u i r e a mass t r a n s i t system. . . (c) D i s p e r s i o n Concept. This concept seeks an even d i s t r i b u t i o n of a c t i v i t i e s , which would accommodate growth w h i l e p r e s e r v i n g the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t h a t make Los Angeles unique among major c i t i e s ; decen-t r a l i z a t i o n , ov/ner occupied homes, and the automobile w i t h i t s f l e x i b i l i t y of movement. This concept attempts to keep t r a v e l distance from home to work and other d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s a t a minimum, by having jobs, consumer s e r v i c e s , r e c r e a t i o n and p u b l i c f a c i l i t i e s l o c a t e d c l o s e to the r e s i d e n t p o p u l a t i o n . 17 ( d ) Low D e n s i t y C o n c e p t . T h i s , c o n c e p t s e e k s t o p r e s e r v e t h e p r e s e n t r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n s a n d l i f e s t y l e s o f L o s / A n g e l e s . I t e m p h a s i s e s t h e s i n g l e - f a m i l y d e t a c h e d h o u s e w i t h l o w r i s e a p a r t m e n t s i n a b o u t t h e same p r o p o r t i o n s a s now. T h e a u t o m o b i l e w o u l d c o n t i n u e a s t h e p r e d o m i n a n t m e a n s o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . . ... T h e f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e c o n c e p t s f o r t h e u r b a n g r o w t h o f L o s A n g e l e s a r e n o t u n l i k e C a t h e r i n e B a u e r W u r s t e r 1 s f o u r t h e o r e t i c a l a l t e r -n a t i v e s . N o d u l a r M e t r o p o l i t a n C o n c e p t T h e N o d u l a r M e t r o p o l i t a n C o n c e p t i s a n o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e f o r u r b a n g r o w t h a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . T h i s c o n c e p t , w h i c h i s t h e b a s i s o f t h e g r o u p s t u d y , i s f o u n d t o c o m b i n e e l e m e n t s o f b o t h t h e C e n t e r s a n d C o r r i d o r s C o n c e p t a s o u t l i n e d i n t h e L o s A n g e l e s 35 S t u d y . F o r p u r p o s e s o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n a t t h i s s t a g e o f t h e s t u d y t h e f o l l o w i n g a s s u m p t i o n s a r e m a d e : ( a ) L o c a t e d i n a l a r g e N o r t h A m e r i c a n m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n , c o n t a i n i n g a b r o a d b a s e o f v a r i e d l a n d u s e a n d w i d e l y d i v e r s i f i e d e m p l o y m e n t a n d o f f e r i n g a r a n g e o f r e s i -d e n t i a l t y p e s . ( b ) A r e g i o n o f h i g h l y u r b a n c h a r a c t e r w i t h a c o n c e n t r a t e d c e n t r a l c o r e . ( c ) D e v e l o p e d a s a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f g r o w t h n o d e s a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g m a j o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s . T h e s e 18 nodes become c e n t r e s f o r mixed usage or s i n g l e uses of l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s . (d) P r e s e r v a t i o n o f o u t e r s i n g l e f a m i l y r e s i d e n t i a l areas and e x i s t i n g n a t u r a l a m e n i t i e s . (e) Development o f l a r g e areas between nodes as p u b l i c r e c r e a t i o n and open space. (f) Development through a comprehensive p l a n which c o - o r d i n a t e s the t o o l s of c a p i t a l budgeting, proper e n a b l i n g l e g i s l a t i o n and programmed p h a s i n g . I t i s envisaged t h a t t h i s system w i l l b r i n g about a h i g h e r standard o f l i v i n g , c r e a t e more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r the enjoyment o f the c i t y and p r o v i d e an environment which w i l l s t i m u l a t e and support p r e s e n t and f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . To achieve t h i s d e s i r a b l e urban c o n d i t i o n f o r the c i t y , the need f o r i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n by p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s has been ^acknowledged.-^ I t i s l i k e l y t h a t t o t a l l y new means of land use c o n t r o l and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n would be needed. The enormous problem o f r e b u i l d i n g our c i t i e s w i l l most c e r t a i n l y r e q u i r e the most advanced technology, e s p e c i a l l y i n t r a n s p o r -t a t i o n and b u i l d i n g . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Technology There have been i n r e c e n t years many innovations and r e s e a r c h 19 i n t o modes of t r a v e l t h a t , i f implemented, could p o s s i b l y p l a y a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n making our c i t i e s more l i v a b l e . Three recent innovations are: (a) Conveyors or moving sidewalks (b) Automated e l e c t r i c roads (c) M i n i - c a r s . (a) conveyors. The f i r s t p roposal f o r implementing the moving sidewalk was i n 1893 f o r the Columbia E x p o s i t i o n at Chicago and l a t e r a t the B e r l i n . . . 37 E x p o s i t i o n i n 1896 and P a r i s E x p o s i t i o n i n 1900. Because of the problem of low speed and other p r a c t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s i n i t s day to day use, the moving sidewalk has not come i n t o extensive use as an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the urban t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system. I t s a p p l i c a t i o n seems p a r t i c u l a r l y s u i t a b l e where large numbers of people have to move between two l e v e l s or along c o r r i d o r s , e.g. a t b i g a i r p o r t s (Los Angeles, San F r a n c i s c o , Montreal) to save the passengers from a long walk, 'and i n department stores where i t can be used conv e n i e n t l y by t r o l l i e s and prams. Along w i t h e s c a l a t o r s , the conveyor has p o t e n t i a l f o r use i n high d e n s i t y nodular developments, 20 Automated Roads. The General Motors L a b o r a t o r i e s and Radio Corporation of America;.have been e x p e r i -menting w i t h automated roads w i t h considerable success. A s i n g l e cable i s b u r i e d i n a shallow trench j u s t beneath the surface of the road and t h i s cable,, when energized, gives guidance through an e l e c t r o n i c apparatus-connected to the v e h i c l e s s t e e r i n g system. Secondary cables and d e t e c t i o n loops a d j u s t the speed of c a r s , keeping them at safe distance behind the one i n f r o n t . General Motors estimate t h a t v e h i c l e s could c r u i s e i n groups s a f e l y at a c o n t r o l l e d speed of 70 m.p.h., g i v i n g a c a p a c i t y of 9,000 v e h i c l e s per lane per hour, the equ i v a l e n t of b u i l d i n g f i v e a d d i t i o n a l lanes of motorway.38 The cost of c o n s t r u c t i o n of such a system, would compete favourably w i t h contemporary highway 39 c o n s t r u c t i o n . M i n i - c a r s . M i n i - c a r s have come to the f o r e f r o n t o n l y i n recent years. T h e i r sudden importance can be a t t r i b u t e d t o : i . A c r i t i c a l shortage of p a r k i n g space i n the c e n t r a l core 21 i i . The extremely h i g h c o s t s i n v o l v e d f o r p r o v i d i n g a d d i t i o n a l p a r k i n g x i i . An i n c r e a s i n g concern f o r a i r p o l l u t i o n i n our c i t i e s . A lthough no "on the road" model has y e t been developed, many companies have produced p r o t o t y p e s . The most w i d e l y known m i n i - c a r i s the StaRRcar ( f o r s e l f t r a n s i t r a i l and road) invented by W i l l i a m A l d e n . The StaRRcar can be d r i v e n along s t r e e t s u n t i l the d r i v e r r e q u i r e s a f a s t e r speed i n which case he merely d r i v e s up a ramp to an e l e v a t e d t r a c k j o i n i n g , say, a 60 m.p.h. t r a i n o f v e h i c l e s . On p r e s s i n g a dash-board b u t t o n the v e h i c l e i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y e j e c t e d at i t s p r e -s e l e c t e d e x i t . A mass s h i f t t o the use o f StaRRcars would h e l p a l l e v i a t e the c o n g e s t i o n on the road network and would a l s o decrease the problem o f inadequate parking, spaces i n the c e n t r a l core o f the c i t i e s as three StaRRcars can f i t i n t o the space p r e v i o u s l y o ccupied by one c o n v e n t i o n a l car.^0 O;.:^ ;:.".Other modes of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n c l u d e the mo n o r a i l , cushion c r a f t , v e r t i c a l t a k e o f f and l a n d i n g and h e l i c o p t e r s . In r e c e n t 22 years m i l l i o n s of d o l l a r s have been spent on development but t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n has been limited to s p e c i a l purposes l i k e the mini mono-rails for secondary transportation at Expo '67 and the helicopter service between Kennedy Ai r p o r t and downtown Manhattan. For mass passenger transport they apparently s t i l l lack the economies necessary to provide a t r u l y cost competitive corridor service.^1 Building Systems There are numerous i l l u s t r a t i o n s of advanced ideas i n b u i l d -ing systems that could possibly provide for high density core l i v i n g for the future c i t y dweller. Three recent i l l u s t r a t i o n s are: (a) Habitat. With the advent of Canada's Expo '67, the * development of Habitat became a p o s s i b i l i t y . Moshe Safdie, the designer of the project, has used a basic b u i l d i n g unit i n various combinations to develop a number of housing types. Habitat has developed v e r t i c a l and h o r i z o n t a l c i r c u l a t i o n systems creating A p three-dimensional spaces. (b) I n t r o p o l i s . A. Watty, the designer, has developed Intropolis as a system of multi-use blocks that can be connected i n various ways to create higher or 2 3 lower density of l i v i n g spaces which are organized on a r a t i o n a l basis to give maximum f l e x i b i l i t y and i n t e r a c t i o n . Three-dimensional spaces and.circulation systems are evident as i n H a b i t a t . ^ (c) Urbanisme Volumetrique. This system i s based on expanding structures leaving the ground f r e e . A three-dimensional tubular structure with a series of slabs provides terraces for various builders to erect buildings, or to lay out roads and open spaces to create a r t i f i c i a l landscapes The d e t a i l description of any single land use and related b u i l d i n g technique as i t could be applied to the nodular v. metropolitan concept of urban growth i s beyond the scope of t h i s study (see matrix, Figure 1 ) . Urban Pattern With few exceptions, the form of North American c i t i e s i s based on the grid p a t t e r n . C h i c a g o , New York, San Fran-cisco, Montreal and Vancouver are a l l examples of gr i d layout used to subdivide land and i n providing services. It has been a quick solution to rapid development i n any d i r e c t i o n and a d i r e c t r e s u l t of large scale surveying emphasis. Depending 24 on l o c a l physiographic features, the,access to a l l properties i s nearly equal, and t h e o r e t i c a l l y the only factor that a f f e c t s a property's l o c a t i o n a l value i s i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p to the c e n t r a l core. The grid has been applied to such varied t e r r a i n s as f l a t p r a i r i e and steep h i l l s i d e . San Francisco i s a good example of the l a t t e r . S o c i a l and S p a t i a l Systems I t appears that the changing urban form and structure i s a process of continuous urban growth and development. This growth and development i s an expression of the e x i s t i n g socio-47 c u l t u r a l system. There are ce r t a i n s o c i a l indicators, which are not only demographic i n nature, but also of a s o c i a l behavioural nature. Demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are generally an expression of the growth, size and age composition of a population. But underlying t h i s are s o c i a l behavioural c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , namely the practices of a society, which are expressed i n a c t i v i t i e s and responses of the population. These practices of a society to some extent determine the s p a t i a l 48 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the land. Thus, a r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o c i a l and s p a t i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s e x i s t s . VThen changes are introduced i n the urban growth and 25 development process, they u s u a l l y have an impact on the i n t e r n a l s o c i a l and s p a t i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of the urban system.^9 These incremental changes of the i n t e r n a l s t a t e of the urban system may range from " f i x e d " to " v a r i a b l e " s t a t e s . Any s h i f t s of the i n t e r n a l system from one s t a t e to another occur over time. These s h i f t s represent incremental changes., depending on s o c i a l reference s t r u c t u r e s and environmental manipulation. While there may be a number of e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s which a f f e c t the urban system, there are at l e a s t two which should r e c e i v e c l o s e a t t e n t i o n i n urban growth and development o.analysis; namely those as a r e s u l t of chance, where change i s due to aggregate i n d i v i d u a l a c t i o n . Group Hypothesis A review of the preceding concepts i n d i c a t e s t h a t the nodular concept should be s t u d i e d . Therefore the f o l l o w i n g hypothesis i s formulated. That a Nodular M e t r o p o l i t a n Concept provides a u s e f u l  b a s i s to i n i t i a t e a study of urban l i v i n g and p l a n n i n g . 26 T R A N S P O R T A T I O N C O R R I D O R R E S I D E N T I A L AND E M P L O Y M E N T NODE OPEN SPACE S c a l e i i A p p r o x , l i n „ F i g u r e 2 Nodular Metropolitan Concept 27 I n d i v i d u a l Thesis Topics The t o p i c s chosen f o r i n d i v i d u a l research are as f o l l o w s : 1. Ian W. Chang - "The Problem of P r i v a t e Investment i n Urban Redevelopment" . 2. Ashok G. Shahani - "The Nodular M e t r o p o l i t a n Concept: Some T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Aspects." 3. Monica H. Lindeman - "The Nodular M e t r o p o l i t a n Concept: Some S o c i a l and S p a t i a l Aspects." 4 . Ronald E. Mann - "The Role of the Time Element i n the Urban Renewal Process." 5 . A r t h u r R. Cowie - "The P r o v i s i o n and D i s t r i b u t i o n of L o c a l Open Space i n Urban R e s i d e n t i a l Areas." 28 (1) Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, P r o j e c t i o n s  to Years 1976 and 2000: 'Economic Growth, P o p u l a t i o n , Labour Force, L e i s u r e and T r a n s p o r t a t i o n , (Washington, D.C. U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1962), p. 9. (2) Lowdon Wingo, J r . , C i t i e s and Space, (Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1963), p. 11. (3) W i l f r e d Owen, The M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem, (New York: Doubleday & Company Inc., 1966), p. 1 (4) "What Kind of C i t i e s Do We Want", • Nations C i t i e s , ( V o l . 5, No. 4, A p r i l , 1967), p. 18. (5) I b i d . (6) Los Angeles C i t y Planning Department, "Major Issues f o r Los Angeles" May 2, 1966, p. 4. (7) W.R. Thompson, A Preface to Urban Economics, (Baltimore: John Hopkins Pr e s s , 1965), p. 320. (8) Nations C i t i e s , Opv c i t . , pp. 26-27; and V i c t o r Gruen, The Heart of Our C i t i e s , (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964), pp. 292-339. (9) Peter H a l l , The World C i t i e s , (New York: McGraw-Hall, 1967) (10) Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, Toward Sustained and Balanced Economic Growth: 2nd Annual Review, (Ottawa: Queen's P r i n t e r , 1965), p. 110. (11) R. Vernon, M e t r o p o l i s , 1985, (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1960), pp. 116-120. (12) W.R. Thompson, Op. c i t . , p. 355. . (13) Interview w i t h Dr. Edward Highbee, Vancouver, B.C. November, 1967. (14) Interview w i t h Dr. Walter Hardwick, Vancouver, B.C. A p r i l , 1967. 29 ( 1 5 ) W a l t e r H a r d w i c k , T h e V a n c o u v e r S u n , J u l y 8, 1 9 6 7 , p . 6. ( 1 6 ) P r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o n f e r e n c e o n A u t o m a t i o n , F u l l E m p l o y m e n t a n d B a l a n c e d E c o n o m y , (Rome; I t a l y : B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n F o u n d a t i o n s o n A u t o m a t i o n a n d E m p l o y m e n t , 1 9 6 7 ; a n d E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , O p . c i t . , p . 6 4 . ( 1 7 ) N.P. M i l l e r a n d D.M. R o b i n s o n , T h e L e i s u r e A g e : I t s C h a l l e n g e t o R e c r e a t i o n . ( B e l m o n t , C a l : W a d s w o r t h P u b l i s h i n g C o . I n c . , 1 9 6 3 ) , p p . 4 7 2 - 4 7 3 . ( 1 8 ) C. A b r a m s , T h e C i t y i s t h e F r o n t i e r , (New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row, 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1 7 ; a n d E c o n o m i c C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a , O p . c i t . , p . 5 7 . ( 1 9 ) M.B. C l i n a r d , " C o n t r i b u t i o n s o f S o c i o l o g y t o " U n d e r s t a n d i n g D e v i a n t B e h a v i o r " i n C o n t e m p o r a r y S o c i a l P r o b l e m s , M e r t o n & N i s b e t ( e d . ) , (New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d I n c . , 1 9 6 1 ) . ( 2 0 ) K . E . T a e u b e r & A . F . T a e u b e r , N e g r o e s i n C i t i e s , ( C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g C o . , 1 9 6 5 ) ( 2 1 ) J e a n G o t t m a n n , M e g a l o p o l i s , ( C a m b r i d g e : T h e M . I . T . P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p . 1 6 . ( 2 2 ) W i l l i a m A l o n s o , " C i t i e s a n d C i t y P l a n n e r s " i n T a m i n g M e g a l o p o l i s , V o l . I I , H. W e n t w o r t h E l d r e d g e ( e d . ) (New Y o r k , W a s h i n g t o n a n d L o n d o n : F r e d e r i c k A . P r a e g e r , 1 9 6 7 ) , p p . 5 9 5 - 5 9 6 . ( 2 3 ) C. A b r a m s , Op. c i t . , p . 2 8 0 . ( 2 4 ) C a t h e r i n e B a u e r W u r s t e r , " T h e F o r m a n d S t r u c t u r e o f t h e F u t u r e U r b a n C o m p l e x " . C i t i e s a n d S p a c e , L o w d o n W i n g o ( e d . ) , R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e I n c . , ( B a l t i m o r e : T h e J o h n H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1 9 6 6 ) , p . 7 5 . ( 2 5 ) L . H i l b e r s e i m e r , The Nature of C i t i e s , (Chicago: P a u l Theobald & Co., 1 9 5 5 ) , pp. 1 9 2 - 1 9 3 . ( 2 6 ) Gruen, Op. c i t . , p. 2 6 2 , and N a t i o n a l C a p i t a l Regional Planning C o u n c i l , The Regional Development Guide  1 9 6 6 - 2 0 0 0 , (Washington, D.C. June 1 9 6 6 ) , pp. 5 5 - 7 5 . and i n t e r v i e w w i t h Alan Voohrees of Alan M. Voohrees & A s s o c i a t e s Inc., Vancouver, B.C. Mar. 2 2 , 196 30 (27) (28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33) (34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39) (40) P e n n - J e r s e y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Study, P r o s p e c t u s , December 11, 1959, p. 14. M i n i s t r y o f H o u s i n g and L o c a l Government, E n g l a n d , Northampton, B e d f o r d and Bucks Study, (London: Her > -~y M a j e s t y ' s S t a t i o n e r y O f f i c e , 1965). B r i a n R i c h a r d s , New Movement i n C i t i e s , (London: S t u d i o V i s t a and New York: R e i n h o l d P u b l i s h i n g Corp., 1966), p. 47. M.V. Webber, " T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g . Models"- , T r a f f i c  Q u a r t e r l y J u l y , 1961, pp. 373-390. K. Lynch and L. Rodwin, "A Theory o f Urban Form, J o u r n a l o f A m erican I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , Vo1. XXIV (No. 4, 1958), pp. 201-214. Voohrees, Op. c i t . . W u r s t e r , Op. c i t . , pp. 78-79.. Los A n g e l e s Department o f C i t y P l a n n i n g , Concepts f o r Los  A n g e l e s (Summary Pamphlet, September, 1967). I b i d . Op. c i t . , P. 19. Op. c i t . , PP . 57-62. Op. c i t . , P- 77. Op. c i t . , P- 78 (41) B r i a n R i c h a r d s , Op. c i t . , p. 73, and A.R. W o l f , Elements  o f a F u t u r e I n t e g r a t e d Highway Concept, P r e s e n t e d a t the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h Seminar, March 17-18, 1965, (Washington,' D.C. U.S. Department o f Commerce. A.R. R i c e , P o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r F a s t S u r f a c e T r a n s p o r t : The Case f o r F a s t R a i l S e r v i c e , P l a n n i n g 1966. S e l e c t -ed papers from A.S.P.O. N a t i o n a l P l a n n i n g C o n f e r e n c e P h i l a d e l p h i a , Pa., ( A p r i l 17-21, 1966), pp. 240. 3 1 (42) Moshe Safdie and David B a r o t t , " H a b i t a t * 67", A r c h i -t e c t u r a l Design (March, 1967), pp. 111-119. (43) V7olfgang Gerson, " R e s i d e n t i a l Environs i n the Urban Area" A r c h i t e c t u r a l Canada, (Voo. 44, No. 11, Nov., 1967), pp. 39-41. (44) R. Anger and M. Heymann, "Urbanisme Volumetrique" L ' A r c h i t e c t u r e d'Aujourd'hui. No. 132 (June-July, 1967), pp. 36-37. (45) Paul D. Spreigregen, The A r c h i t e c t u r e of Towns and C i t i e s , (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1965), pp. 174-176. (46) Ernest Landauer. From h i s Seminar and Research i n t o Urban S o c i a l Areas. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965-1968. (47) W. F i r e y . Man, Mind and Land: A Theory of Resourse Use. ( I l l i n o i s : Free Press of Glencoe, 1960), pp. 207-241. (48) I b i d . , pp. 207-245. (49) W. Buckley. Sociology and Modern Systems Theory. (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l Inc., 1967). and L. B e r t a l a n f f y , "General Systems Theory: A C r i t i c a l Review". General Systems. V o l . 7, 1962, p. 3. SECTION I I THE NODULAR METROPOLITAN CONCEPT TRANSPORTATION ASPECTS CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION G e n e r a l Statement o f t h e Problem W i t h t h e p r o s p e c t s o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n A m e r i c a and Canada d o u b l i n g by t h e ye a r 2000 A.D. and t h e urban w e a l t h i n c r e a s i n g a l m o s t f o u r f o l d , ' ' ' t h e w o r l d i n g e n e r a l and p l a n n e r s i n p a r t -i c u l a r , a r e f a c e d w i t h a problem o f c o n s i d e r a b l e magnitude: t h a t o f p r o v i d i n g s h e l t e r and o t h e r urban f a c i l i t i e s f o r t h e p e o p l e a t s t a n d a r d s t h a t w i l l be s o c i a l l y , e c o n o m i c a l l y and a e s t h e t i c a l l y a c c e p t a b l e t o them. The magnitude o f t h i s p roblem i s more v i v i d l y u n d e r s t o o d when i t i s e x p r e s s e d i n terms o f f i g u r e s and numbers. Homer Hoyt i n h i s paper "Changing P a t t e r n s o f Urban Growth, 1959-1975" s u g g e s t s t h a t "between 1958 and 1975 t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e by f i f t y m i l l i o n o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o u r t e e n m i l l i o n new h o u s e h o l d s w i l l have t o be c o n s t r u c t e d . " T h i s , he says i s not a l l . Because o f t h e c h a n g i n g h a b i t s o f l i v i n g , new i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e t e c h n o l o g y o f t r a n s p o r t , and new i n v e n t i o n s i n o t h e r r e l a t e d f i e l d s , b u i l d i n g s t e n d t o become o b s o l e t e a f t e r a physical l i f e of fourty to a hundred years. To balance the physical obsolesence of buildings, he estimated, w i l l require the construction of at least another ten m i l l i o n new households. In a l l , he estimated that, ". . . by the year 2 0 0 0 A.D., . . . ., there would be a demand for f i f t y m i l l i o n a d d i t i o n a l units i n 3 excess of the present supply." In terms of c a p i t a l investment there i s no doubt that almost astronomical sums w i l l have to be spent. "Between now and the 2 0 0 0 , someone w i l l have to put up close to one thousand f i v e hundred b i l l i o n d o l l a r s for new and renewal nonfarm housing alone: One thousand b i l l i o n d o l l a r s for new replacement commercial, i n d u s t r i a l and u t i l i t y construct-ion; and at least another thousand b i l l i o n d o l l a r s for a l l of the new and better community f a c i l i t i e s needed to go with the new and better housing."^ Our problems would be hard enough to solve i n a s t a t i c urban economy, with a s t a t i c urban population, a s t a t i c s o c i a l mix, and a s t a t i c transportation method and system - but our urban economy and population i s anything but s t a t i c and i s undergoing great simultaneous changes. But, regardless of the magnitude: of these d i f f i c u l t i e s , the problems have to be over-come and within the next generation we w i l l not only have to 2 . 3 b u i l d new towns and expand our e x i s t i n g ones, but, also to some extent, reconstruct and restructure segments of the e x i s t i n g ones to s u i t changes i n technology and human values. The approach taken w i l l have to be an a l l i n c l u s i v e comprehensive one because we want the c i t i e s of the future to be far better places to l i v e i n than the c i t i e s of today. The planner then, before he sets out on t h i s tremendous task of designing for the future, must f u l l y understand and be aware of the people he i s planning f o r , t h e i r needs and desires, and what makes them and t h e i r c i t y t i c k . To achieve the desired r e s u l t s he must also understand the e x i s t i n g trends and factors influencing and shaping urban structure and growth. As i n t e r e s t i n g as t h i s may be, i t i s too vast a topi c to be s a t i s f a c t o r i l y dealt with under the e x i s t i n g l i m i t a t i o n s of time and space. The r o l e that transportation plays i n shaping the urban environment i s no doubt a very major one. I t i s also r e a l i z e d that economic, technological, topographical and c e r t a i n other f a c t o r s play an important role too. To investigate f u l l y the impact of the several facets of transportation on urban form i s once again too vast a subject to be covered i n t h i s t h e s i s . 2.4 The f a c t t h a t t r a f f i c a t t r a c t i o n and generation i s a f u n c t i o n of land use, f a c t o r s l i k e car ownership, f a m i l y income, f a m i l y s i z e , r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y , e t c . , has been w e l l documented by Voorhees, Blumenfeld, M i t c h e l l , Rapkin and o t h e r s . But what has not been researched and s u f f i c i e n t l y documented i s the i n f l u e n c e t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s have on urban s t r u c t u r e and urban growth. Purpose of the Thesis P r o f e s s o r G.C. Hemmens, A s s ' t . P r o f , of P l a n n i n g , U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a , i n h i s paper "Experiments i n Urban Form and S t r u c t u r e " , 5 has developed a l i n e a r programming model f o r studying the impact of a l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on d i f f e r e n t urban s t r u c t u r e s . One of h i s conclusions i s ". . . A l t e r n a t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems do not e f f e c t the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e land use p a t t e r n s and so ; s p a t i a l p a t t e r n s of land use and the p a t t e r n s of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e can be planned somewhat more independently than i s commonly thought" . These conclusions appear to be c o n t r a -d i c t o r y to the w i d e l y accepted r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t the supply and demand of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s i s a f u n c t i o n of the land use (the a c t i v i t i e s ) . 2 . 5 .This t h e s i s , using the model as developed by P r o f . G.C. Hemmens, w i l l t r y to show that the above c o n c l u s i o n i s q u e s t i o n -able and tha t i n f a c t a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems do have a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t on the e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e land use p a t t e r n s . Hypothesis: " A l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems do e f f e c t the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e land use p a t t e r n s . " D e f i n i t i o n s To achieve a c e r t a i n amount of consistency i n expression, a few of the terms used o f t e n i n the t h e s i s are defined below: C i t i e s : i s used synonymously w i t h m e t r o p o l i s . Land use: when used-refers t o the a c t i v i t y and not the p h y s i c a l use. A c c e s s i b i l i t y : i s used as f u n c t i o n of t r a v e l time. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t y : when used w i t h reference t o P r o f . Hemmen's paper i m p l i e s the road network. Urban form: i s the p h y s i c a l arrangement of residences, work p l a c e s , e t c . 2.6 Urban structure: i s the pattern formed by the connection of these elements i n the d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s of the area's residents. Urban Growth: involves an increase in size and also an adjustment to s i z e . It may be measured i n the following ways .-i ) Increase i n population density i i ) Increase i n dwelling units/acre i i i ) Increase i n business units/acre iv) Increase i n employment, v) Increase i n r e t a i l sales. E f f i c i e n c y : i s used i n the context of minimizing t r a v e l l i n e . 2.7 Nations's C i t i e s , "What Kind of C i t y Do We Want?", V o l . 5, No. 4, ( A p r i l 1967), p. 18. Hoyt, Homer, "Changing P a t t e r n of Urban Growth, 1959-1975. Urban Land: News and Trends i n C i t y Develop-ment, Volume 18, Number 4, ( A p r i l 1959), p. 3 I b i d . , p. 3. Nation's C i t i e s , op. c i t . p.20. Hemmens, G.C., "Experiments i n Urban Form and S t r u c t u r e " , Paper presented at the 46th Annual Meeting of the Highway Research Board, Washington, D.C, (January 16-20, 1967). I b i d . , p. 9. CHAPTER II HISTORICAL ISSUES IN URBAN TRANSPORTATION Impact of Transportation Systems on Urban Structure Transportation has always played a very important role i n the growth and development of t h i s world. Were i t not for an extensive and e f f i c i e n t system of roads the great Roman empire would never have become united.^ Were i t not for revolutionary developments i n the technology of shipping, man's horizon may s t i l l have been lim i t e d to h i s near surroundings and the treas-ures of the 'new world' evaded him forever. Were i t not for the development of f a s t automated transport, l i k e the streetcars and the automobile, our settlements would not have been the large, diverse, and exc i t i n g c i t i e s that they are today The r o l e that transportation (railroads, a i r , roads and pipelines) has played i s nowhere more evident than'in Canada where the Canadians have succeeded in building a nation i n defiance of a l l the f a c t s of geography, of history, of economics and ethnic and c u l t u r a l differences. Transportation has played an equally important role i n uniting and sustaining the c i t y and helping to serve the reason 2.8 2 . 9 f o r i t s (the c i t y ' s ) e x i s t e n c e ; mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y - p r i m a r i l y , though by no means e x c l u s i v e l y , mutual a c c e s s i b i l i t y of place of residence and place of work. Each new inn o v a t i o n i n the technology of t r a n s p o r t , from the days of walking as the only means of locomotion t o the present days of the automobile, has had a r e v o l u t i o n a r y impact on the form and s t r u c t u r e of man's settlements and i t s l o c a t i o n . The f o l l o w i n g paragraphs w i l l d i s c u s s the impact of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n on urban s t r u c t u r e and not i t s i n f l u e n c e on the l o c a t i o n of c i t i e s . In the e a r l y days when walking was the only means of t r a n s -p o r t , the settlement was l i m i t e d to a s i z e which c o u l d conven-i e n t l y be covered by walking w i t h i n a reasonable p e r i o d of time. People l i v e d where they worked or a t l e a s t very c l o s e t o i t and the settlement tended t o be unifo r m l y dispersed and the land 3 uses mixed. The s t r e e t c a r s , from t h e i r horse-drawn o r i g i n i n the f i r s t h a l f of the nineteenth century, were an inexorable f o r c e i n moulding the American c i t y . With an average speed of four m i l e s an hour the p r a c t i c a l r a d i u s from the core o f the c i t y t o i t s outermost b u i l t - u p p o i n t increased t o roughly two 4 m i l e s during the horse-car p e r i o d . The e l e c t r i c s t r e e t c a r w i t h an average speed of ten m i l e s an hour permitted expansion out to a distance of about f i v e 2.10 miles from the c i t y core. This expansion was not uniformly dispersed in a l l d i r e c t i o n s and was i n f a c t r e s t r i c t e d to narrow s t r i p s on both sides of the streetcar l i n e s and with spaces of undeveloped land i n between, r e s u l t i n g i n finger l i k e patterns of development. The coming of the suburban r a i l r o a d brought another change i n urban structure. As the technology of steam r a i l r o a d dictated few and widely spaced stations, a pattern of small settlements developed, strung out over a considerable length of r a i l r o a d l i n e with a small commercial center at each s t a t i o n . ^ This i s to some extent evident i n Chicago where r e s i d e n t i a l areas grew up along the suburban r a i l r o a d routes and also i n New York where the commuter t r a i n s led to the development of suburban homes in Montclair, the Oranges, Maplewood i n Jew Jersey, Bronxville i n Westchester, 7 and Hampstead on Long Island. With the e l e c t r i c streetcar, stops were far more frequent, so the dots merged into s o l i d and short bands with commercial concentrations at t h e i r i n t e r -sections. With the coming of the automobile the mobility of the people increased considerably and the s t r u c t u r a l pattern of developed and open-land, which had begun to emerge i n the r a i l -8 road and streetcar eras, was submerged i n universal sprawl. 2.11 In c i t i e s where car ownership and roads are so u n i v e r s a l as t o make a c c e s s i b i l i t y merely a f u n c t i o n of a s t r a i g h t l i n e d i s t a n c e , the impact of the l o c a t i o n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s on the s t r u c t u r e of land use becomes q u i t e modest and l i m i t e d and any s u b s t a n t i a l m o d i f i c a t i o n of the p a t t e r n of ubiquitous sprawl can be brought about o n l y by co n s i d e r a b l e changes i n p u b l i c o p i n i o n and p u b l i c p o l i c y . Thus i t seems t h a t the r o l e t h a t t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems have played i n determining the s p e c i f i c shape of a m e t r o p o l i t a n area has depended on the number of d i f f e r e n t types of t r a n s p o r t modes tha t have served the area and the d i f f e r e n c e between t h e i r speeds. Where the d i f f e r e n c e has been very great, a p a t t e r n of i s o l a t e d developments has r e s u l t e d . But whenever a means of i n d i v i d u a l t r a n s p o r t has predominated, and a c c e s s i b i l i t y has been uniform i n a l l d i r e c t i o n s , urban growth has a l s o tended t o be uniformly d i s t r i b u t e d . Residences and i n d u s t r i e s have tended t o s c a t t e r out and occupy a l l the a v a i l a b l e land. Of course, economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , and, s o c i a l , t e c h n o l o g i c a l , geographical a n d , c l i m a t i c f a c t o r s a l s o p l a y t h e i r due r o l e i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e i r choice of l o c a t i o n . In f a c t , these f a c t o r s have become i n c r e a s i n g l y more important i n t h i s day and age of a f f l u e n c e and increased m o b i l i t y and f l e x i b i l i t y which the automobile has provided. 2.12 To conclude t h i s d i s c u s s i o n without mentioning the r o l e t h a t the i n h e r i t e d urban p a t t e r n has played i n shaping the present day American and Canadian c i t y would be a gross mistake. Perhaps, one of the most s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t o r s which has i n f l u -enced the urban form of present day American c i t i e s i s the 9 i n h e r i t e d g r i d i r o n system of s t r e e t s . But, on the whole, the present urban form i s not the r e s u l t of any s i n g l e f a c t o r but of s e v e r a l i n t e r a c t i n g f o r c e s and the superimposition of urban forms of the past e r a s . M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n C r i s i s A l v i n Hansen, a prominent economist, i n a s s e s s i n g the economic problem l i k e l y t o confront the United S t a t e s during the next twenty years f e l t t h a t the most important ones would be those c r e a t e d by the r a p i d i ncrease i n u r b a n i z a t i o n . ^ The t r u t h of t h i s o b s e r v ation i s even now being borne out by the ever presence of numerous s t r e e t congestion, t r a f f i c deaths, t r a n s i t s t r i k e s , housing shortages, r a c i a l r i o t s and the problems of p o l l u t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n of the n a t u r a l environment. The important r o l e of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n moulding the urban environment was recognized by P r e s i d e n t John F. Kennedy i n h i s message t o the Congress on t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , A p r i l 6, 1962. 2.13 Our national welfare. . . requires the provision of good urban transportation with the proper use of private vehicles and modern mass transport to help shape, as w e l l as serve, urban growth. . . . ^ I t i s perhaps not inappropriate at t h i s stage to stress that although the metropolitan transportation problem i s a c r i t i c a l one facing c i t i e s today, i t i s a c t u a l l y just one of the several problems a r i s i n g from rapid urbanization. The sheer v a r i e t y of needed urban services r e f l e c t s the fact that the sources of urban problems are much more complex than a c l e a r -cut inadequacy of transportation f a c i l i t i e s . Even the metro-p o l i t a n transportation problem i s multi-dimensional and i n i t s e l f a set of several problems. One facet of the problem i s the r a p i d l y increasing urban population and t h e i r increasing affluence and car ownership rates. This has increased the mobility of the people and also t h e i r freedom in the choice of location of households and industry. Residences, o f f i c e s and industries have been moving out of the congested central c i t i e s and to the suburbs. Open countryside has r a p i d l y been replaced by single family resident-i a l subdivisions r e s u l t i n g i n what has come to be c a l l e d "urban sprawl". This separation of the place of residence from the place of work has resulted in heavy pendulum l i k e u n i - d i r e c t -i o n a l t r a f f i c flows, often far i n excess of the street 2 . 1 4 c a p a c i t i e s , r e s u l t i n g i n severe peak hour congestion problems. And often, for the remaining part of the day these f a c i l i t i e s are under-utilized. Also, the road network being used i s of the pre-automobile era and was never designed for the automobile. I n short, these roads are often outdated, outmoded and i n -adequate, and wrongly used for both l o c a l c i r c u l a t i o n and through t r a f f i c . Another facet contributing to the problem has been the decreasing patronage of the public for mass t r a n s i t . This has had a four f o l d impact on the problem. One, that of increasing the t r a f f i c and so the congestion on the roads; two, increase i n the demand of terminal parking f a c i l i t i e s ; three, that of u n d e r - u t i l i z i n g the greater capacity of t r a n s i t for carrying t r a f f i c ; and four, making i t more d i f f i c u l t for the t r a n s i t companies to replace old stock because of f i n a n c i a l problems. The t r a n s i t industry i s therefore facing a serious f i n a n c i a l c r i s i s and many t r a n s i t companies have had to close down and others are not making enough to even cover operating costs leave alone replacing o l d stock. Very often demands are made for the t r a n s i t companies to be s e l f - s u s t a i n i n g and at the same time r e s t r i c t i o n s are imposed on them against r a i s i n g fares so as to enable them to meet costs. On:some occasions when fares 2.15 have been increased the r i d e r s h i p has,decreased, thus, extending the "second-order" e f f e c t s . There are of course some c i t i e s where the t r a n s i t companies are not facing a c r i s i s . The t r a n s i t a u t h o r i t i e s i n Houston and Dallas are making p r o f i t s . But t h i s i s at t r i b u t e d to the rapid increase i n the i r population since 1940. This has led to 12 the increased t r a n s i t patronage. Cleveland i s another c i t y where the t r a n s i t authority i s f i n a n c i a l l y well o f f . To some extent t h i s success can be attributed to the high parking rates in downtown Cleveland and to the timely purchase of the t r a n s i t system by the c i t y at a low price i n 1942. The heavy war-time t r a f f i c that followed helped to write o f f the debt by 1952. Later, i n 1958, the t r a n s i t authority was exempted from paying taxes and i t also appropriated thirteen miles of e l e c t r i f i e d 13 track at a very low r a t e . In addition to these boosts the t r a n s i t authority has made considerable e f f o r t s to provide for the convenience of the r i d e r s . Suburban stations have been provided with convenient and adequate park-n-ride f a c i l i t i e s and s i m p l i f i e d and automated t i c k e t vending machines have been provided for the passengers. An important factor, but one that has been d i f f i c u l t to explain, i s the c u l t u r a l conditioning of the people of Cleveland which makes them quite w i l l i n g to t r a v e l 2.16 by t r a n s i t . These are some of the problems of urban transportation. They c a l l for a consolidation of'the t r a n s i t industry under a metropolitan wide organization and for f i n a n c i a l and administ-r a t i v e r e f o r m s . ^ Equally important, they c a l l for an o v e r - a l l comprehensive approach towards transportation planning and f u l l coordination with a l l other aspects of urban planning. . . "the t r a f f i c engineer who only t r i e s to accommodate the private auto i s doomed to inevitable f a i l u r e . . . the better he does h i s job 1 5 the greater w i l l be h i s f a i l u r e . " Constructing freeways, expressways, and the necessary terminal f a c i l i t i e s i s extremely expensive and they i n v a r i a b l y get used to f u l l capacity, and more, long before the design period of the f a c i l i t y . This should not mean that mass t r a n s i t alone i s the answer to the problem. The d i f f e r e n t types of transport modes are suitable for d i f f e r e n t circimstances. For the t o t a l metropolitan transportation system a l l modes, the auto, the t r a n s i t and walking must be used i n a balanced fashion. And, balance i s said to be achieved when ". . . each of the several transportation modes y i e l d the greatest net benefits after the c a p i t a l and operating costs of the p a r t i c u l a r transportation modes are deducted from the value of user and non-user ben e f i t s that can be r e a l i z e d . . ."16 2.17 (1) Lee, Norman E., T r a v e l and Transport Through the Ages, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, (1951), p. 50. (2) T h i s i s a l s o expressed by A.M. Carr-Saunders i n h i s Forward t o Dr. Kate Kieppmann's "The Journey t o Work", London, Kegan, P a u l , Traubner. & Co. L t d i l , (1944) p. v. (3) For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n r e f e r t o : 1 Lewis Mumford, The C i t y i n H i s t o r y , Harcourt. Brace & World, Inc., New York, (1961). (4) Smerk, G.M., "The S t r e e t c a r : Shaper of American C i t i e s , " T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y , volume XXI, number 4, (October 1967), p. 570. (5) I b i d . , p. 572. (6) Blumenfeld, H., "The Urban P a t t e r n " , The Modern M e t r o p o l i s , ed., P.D. Spreiregen, The M.I.T. Press, (1967), p. 56. (7) Hoyt, Homer, "The P a t t e r n of Movement of R e s i d e n t i a l R e n t a l Neighborhoods," Readings i n Urban Geography, Ed. H.M. Mayer and C.F. Kohn, The U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Pre s s , (1959), p. 505. (8) Blumenfeld, op. c i t . , p. 55. (10) Hansen, A.H., Economic Issues of the 1960's, McGraw H i l l , New York, (1960), pp. 181-182. (11) Meyer, J.P., Kain, J.F., Wohl, M., The Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, Cambridge, Massachu-s e t t s , (1965), p. 1. (12) Owen, W i l f r i d , The M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem, The Brookings I n s t i t u t e , Washington, D.C., (1966), p. 108. 2.18 . (13) I b i d . , p. 109. (14) For a f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of the c r i s i s f a c i n g the t r a n s i t i n d u s t r y r e f e r t o : W i l f r i d Owen, op. c i t . (15) Blucher, W., "Moving P e o p l e — P l a n n i n g Aspects of Urban ' T r a f f i c Problems," V i r g i n i a Law Review, V o l . 36. (November 1950), p. 849. (16) Wilbur Smith and A s s o c i a t e s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and Parking f o r Tomorrow's C i t i e s , New Haven, Connecticut, (1966), p. CHAPTER I I I MODELS IN PLANNING I n t r o d u c t i o n As the urban planning p r o f e s s i o n matures, the need f o r r e v i s i o n , improvement and refinement of techniques i s becoming i n c r e a s i n g l y evident. Experience has i n d i c a t e d t h a t the planning techniques of the past are not always r e l i a b l e and have o f t e n m i s l e d the planner. Recent resear c h i n d i c a t e s t h a t people's behaviors assume l i m i t e d p a t t e r n s and ©ften mathematical formulae can be developed t o express t r a v e l behavior and f o r e c a s t land -use p a t t e r n s . ^ T h i s has encouraged the development of the new f i e l d of 'models' and i t s a p p l i c a t i o n t o s e v e r a l d i s c i p l i n e s e.g. c i t y planning, t r a f f i c engineering, r e g i o n a l science, economics, s o c i o l o g y , e t c . People i n these f i e l d s have reacted d i f f e r e n t l y to t h i s new technique. Some, s u s p i c i o u s and unable to f u l l y comprehend the mathematics and t e c h n i c a l jargon, have r e j e c t e d i t on the argument t h a t 'models' are not r e a l i s t i c . Others, f a s c i n a t e d by the computer hardware used and the mech-a n i c a l s i m p l i c i t y of s o l v i n g long tedious problems, have got c a r r i e d away. The r e a l value of course l i e s somewhere i n between, 2.19 2.20 and p r o f e s s i o n a l s are beginning to r e a l i z e the advantages o f f e r e d by the use of models i n c i t y planning and r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s . What i s important i s t o f u l l y understand the l i m i t a t i o n s of the process, the input data and the assumptions before e v a l u a t i n g the output from the model. D e f i n i t i o n and Purpose of Model The term 'model' seems to mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f -erent people. B r i t t o n H a r r i s d e f i n e s a model as " . . . i n 2 general a somewhat s i m p l i f i e d a b s t r a c t i o n of the r e a l world". More s p e c i f i c a l l y , a model can be defined as ". . . a way to express s i g n i f i c a n t c a u s a l and s t r u c t u r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s s t r i p p e d of the i r r e l e v a h c i e s and c o m p l e x i t i e s of the r e a l world, so t h a t they may be more r e a d i l y understood." Thus, models do not n e c e s s a r i l y have t o be mathematical equations. Block diagrams, flow c h a r t s , and a c t i v i t y a n a l y s i s diagrams can a l s o be considered as models. Models can be of s e v e r a l types and an attempt t o c l a s s i f y and e x p l a i n a l l the d i f f e r e n t types i n an o r d e r l y manner i s beyond the scope of t h i s chapter. Nevertheless, a s i m p l i s t i c approach as shown i n f i g u r e 2.1 has been suggested. At the most general l e v e l models can e i t h e r be mathe-m a t i c a l or non-mathematical i n nature. "A mathematical model MATHEMATICAL MODELS NON-MATHEMATICAL MODELS DESCRIPTIVE MODELS PRESCRIPTIVE MODELS PLANNING MODELS LAND USE MODELS TRANSPORTATION MODELS REGIONAL GROWTH MODELS ECONOMIC MODELS POLITICAL DECISION MAKING MODELS FIGURE NO. 2'. 1 A SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF MODELS 2,22 i s a s e t o f q u a n t i t a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p s e x p r e s s e d i n the l a n g -uage o f mathematics and d e s c r i b i n g the i n t e r a c t i o n o f phen-omena." ^  V7hereas, a non-mathematical model e x p r e s s e s r e l a t i o n -s h i p s between e v e n t s v e r b a l l y i n t h e form o f s t a t e m e n t s o r g r a p h i c a l l y i n t h e form o f d i a g ^ i r a s . Models can f u r t h e r be c l a s s i f i e d as d e s c r i p t i v e models, p r e s c r i p t i v e models and p l a n n i n g m o d e l s . 5 D e s c r i p t i v e models are used o n l y t o h e l p s i m u l a t e the r e l e v a n t f e e i t u r e s o f an e x i s t i n g urban e n v i r o n -ment o r o f an a l r e a d y o b s e r v e d p r o c e s s o f urban change. They are' t h e r e f o r e s t a t i c i n n a t u r e . The p r e s c r i p t i v e models d e a l w i t h the i m p o r t a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban form and the urban p r o c e s s . The model s p e c i f i e s a c a u s a l sequence and knowing the f u t u r e v a l u e o f t h e " c a u s e " , t h e f u t u r e v a l u e o f t h e " e f f e c t " can be p r e d i c t e d . P l a n n i n g , models go a s t e p f u r t h e r and e v a l u a t e the " e f f e c t " i n terms o f t h e p l a n n e r ' s g o a l s . F i n a l l y , t h e r e a r e l a n d use models, t r a f f i c models* r e g i o n a l growth models, economic models, and p o l i t i c a l d e c i s i o n making models.^ L i m i t a t i o n s John D a k i n i n h i s a r t i c l e "Models and Computers i n P l a n n i n g " s t a t e s t h a t " t h e purpose o f such models i s to d i s c o v e r o r d e r i n • the'.data o b t a i n e d so t h a t some u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f the s t r u c t u r e and f u n c t i o n i n g of the r e g i o n can be reached." Here, of course he i s r e f e r r i n g only t o d e s c r i p t i v e models. In a broader sense models can not only help us to understand the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p -between s e v e r a l v a r i a b l e s , but a l s o t o h i g h l i g h t the more s i g n i -f i c a n t one's, and the impact changes i n these v a r i a b l e s w i l l have on urban growth and s t r u c t u r e . For example, models can help us to p r e d i c t f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y the consequence of v a r i e d governmental p o l i c i e s on land development. Such a model has g been developed by P r o f . S. Czamanski. They can help us t o evaluate the impact t h a t r i s i n g income, improved t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e s , extension of sever and water systems, zoning laws, e t c . , w i l l have on land development. A p p r o p r i a t e l y set up and a p p l i e d , models g i v e the planner a f a c t u a l b a s i s f o r planning and help him evaluate and t e s t 9 a l t e r n a t e p lans. Thus, he can estimate t r a f f i c volumes, and p a t t e r n s r e s u l t i n g from d i f f e r e n t arrangements of land use or f o r v a r i o u s t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s o l u t i o n s . In short, w i t h the i n t e l l i g e n t use of models, the planner can o u t l i n e a l t e r n a t i v e s more c l e a r l y and develope plans which are cognizant of changes i n technology, urban s t r u c t u r e and human values, and, at the same time, are e x p l i c i t , dependable and complete i n a l l r e s p e c t s 2.24 T h e i r use a l s o r e s u l t s i n s u b s t a n t i a l economies because o f t h e l e s s e r t i m e and man-power r e q u i r e m e n t s . The s u p e r f i c i a l s i m p l i c i t y o f models i s o f t e n m i s l e a d i n g . T h e i r r e s u l t s must be e v a l u a t e d w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e and c a u t i o n . "The f a c t t h a t any model i s imbedded i n judgement, i n t u . i t i o n and guess-work s h o u l d be remembered when we examine t h e r e s u l t s t h a t come ( w i t h h i g h p r e c i s i o n ) f rom t h e model. O f t e n , s o c i a l f a c t o r s because o f t h e i r n o n - q u a n t i f i a b l e n a t u r e c a n not be i n c l u d e d i n t h e m a t h e m a t i c a l e q u a t i o n s o f the model. The r e s u l t s o f t h e model have t h e r e f o r e t o be s u i t a b l y m o d i f i e d by t h e p l a n n e r and: t h e i r q u a l i t y w i l l depend on t h e i n d i v i d u a l p l a n n e r s judgement, e x p e r i e n c e and b i a s e s . A t t i m e s , t o make th e model l e s s cumbersome, a c e r t a i n amount o f a c c u r a c y i s l o s t by u s i n g l i n e a r i n s t e a d o f n o n - l i n e a r r e l a t i o n s h i p s . And a l s o , s i n c e p a s t d a t e i s g e n e r a l l y used as t h e i n p u t f o r t h e model, t h e danger o f p e r p e t u a t i n g e x i s t i n g t r e n d s a l w a y s e x i s t s . I t i s t h e r e f o r e o f c r i t i c a l i m p o r t a n c e t o remember t h a t the q u a l i t y o f the o u t p u t from t h e model w i l l o n l y be as good as t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e d a t a f e d i n , and " r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e m a c h i n e r y used i t i s t o t h e a s s u m p t i o n s and t h e l i m i t s o f t h e p r o b l e m t h a t we must t u r n t o when we ask f o r an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f the s 2.25 model" i l In a d d i t i o n , an adequate knowledge of the mathematics and mechanics of the model i s necessary to be able to f i n d i t s weak l i n k s , f o r a s i n g l e u n s a t i s f a c t o r y element i n the chain of reasoning w i l l be enough to c a l l i n t o question the value of the whole model. 2.26 V o o r h e e s , A.M.,, T h e N a t u r e a n d U s e o f M o d e l s i n C i t y P l a n n i n g , J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . X X V , N o . 2, ( M a y 1 9 5 9 ) , p . J H a r r i s , B r i t t o n , New T o o l s f o r P l a n n i n g , J o u r n a l o f t h e  A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . X X X I , N o . 2., (May 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 9 0 . W i n g o , L o w d o n , J r . , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n a n d U r b a n L a n d R e s o u r c e s f o r t h e F u t u r e , I N C . , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. ( 1 9 6 1 ) . p . 9. I b i d . , p . 9. L o w r y , I r a . S., A S h o r t C o u r s e i n M o d e l D e s i g n , J o u r n a l c f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . X X X I , N o . 2, ( M a y 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1 5 9 . F o r a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e v e r a l t y p e s o f m o d e l s r e f e r t o : ( a ) J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o l . X X V , N o . 2, ( M a y 1 9 5 9 ) . ( b ) J o u r n a l o f t h e A m e r i c a n I n s t i t u t e o f P l a n n e r s , V o 1 . • X X X I , N o . 2, ( M a y 1 9 6 5 ) . p a k i n , J o h n , Mpdel-s" .and C o m p u t e r . s i n P l a n n i n g , P L A N , V o l . 6, N o . l , ( J u l y 1 9 6 5 ) , p . 1 2 . C z a m a n s k i , S., a n d C h a t t e r j i , M., R e g i o n a l P l a n n i n g M o d e l o f o f N o v a S c o t i a E c o n o m y , I n s t i t u t e o f P u b l i c A f f a i r s , D a l h o u s i e U n i v e r s i t y , H a l i f a x , C a n a d a ( A u g u s t 1 9 6 7 ) . T h e a p p r o a c h o f d e v e l o p i n g a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n s a n d e v a l u a t i o n e a c h u s i n g a s e t o f m o d e l s w a s u s e d b y t h e P e n n - J e r s e y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d y g r o u p i n p r e p a r i n g a n o v e r - a l l r e g i o n a l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n f o r t h e C a m d e n - P h i l a d e l p h i a - T r e n t i o n a r e a . F o r d e t a i l s a b o u t t h e a p p r o a c h a n d t e c h n i q u e s u s e d r e f e r t o : ( i ) P e n n - J e r s e y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d y : P r o s p e c t u s , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a , ( D e c . 1 9 5 9 ) . ( i i ) P e n n - J e r s e y T r a n s p o r t a t i o n S t u d y , P J R e p o r t s " , V o l u m e s 1 t o 3. P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y l v a n i a . 2.27 ( 1 0 ) Specht, R.D., The Why and How of Model B u i l d i n g , A n a l y s i s f o r M i l i t a r y D e c i s i o n s , Ed., E.S. Quade, Rand Cor p o r a t i o n , Santa Monica, C a l i f o r n i a , ( 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 7 7 . ( 1 1 ) S i d . , p . 7 7 . CHAPTER IV * A LINEAR PROGRAMMING MODEL I n t r o d u c t i o n The model developed by P r o f . Hemmens i n h i s paper "Experiments i n Urban Form and S t r u c t u r e " t r i e s t o examine the impact of changes i n the components of urban form on urban s p a t i a l structure.*' He takes as given the a l t e r n a t e d i s t r i -b u t i o n s among sub-regions of an urban area of each of the f o l l o w i n g urban e l e m e n t s — work-place, shopping-place, r e s i d e n c e ; a l t e r n a t e systems of . t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e ; and ~o>Xc. an a l l o c a t i o n - - s i t e which s p e c i f i e s the way i n which residences w i l l be l i n k e d up v/ith work p l a c e s and shopping p l a c e s . He then asks what i s the impact of changes i n the components of urban form on urban s p a t i a l s t r u c t u r e ? The a l l o c a t i o n i s done by a simple l i n e a r programming f o r m u l a t i o n t o minimize t o t a l t r a v e l time r e q u i r e d f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a linka g e between each residence and a work-place and a shopping-place. The c r i t e r i a f o r e v a l u a t i n g the a l t e r n a t e urban forms a r e : -(a) The e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t i v e urban forms i n terms of minimum t r a v e l time requirements. (b) The eq u i t y of a l t e r n a t i v e urban forms i n terms of the l o c a t i o r i a l advantages of residence l o c a t i o n . 2.28 2 . 2 9 F o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d t o s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e h y p o -t h e s i s p r o p o s e d i n t h i s t h e s i s t h e m o d e l i s u s e d i n b a s i c a l l y t h e same f o r m a s s e t u p b y P r o f . H e mmens. B u t , d u e t o c e r t a i n 2 l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e c o m p u t e r p r o g r a m m e u s e d t h e n u m b e r o f r e s i d e n c e s i n t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l u r b a n a r e a h a v e b e e n r e d u c e d t o 1 0 , 0 0 0 f r o m 3 0 0 , 0 0 0 . T h i s h o w e v e r w i l l . n o t c h a n g e t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e s u l t s . I n . t h e f i r s t s e t o f e x p e r i m e n t s c o n d u c t e d t h e a p p r o a c h d i f f e r s f r o m P r o f . Hemmens i n t h a t t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s s u p e r i m p o s e d o n t h e t w e l v e a l t e r n a t e u r b a n f o r m s a r e n o t g e o -m e t r i c a l l y s y m m e t r i c . F o r t h e s e c o n d s e t o f e x p e r i m e n t s a n a t t e m p t i s m a d e t o r e f i n e t h e m o d e l . T h i s i s d o n e b y i n t r o -d u c i n g -two m o d e s o f t r a n s p o r t ( t h e p r i v a t e a u t o a n d t r a n s i t ) a n d m o d a l s p l i t f a c t o r s f o r a l l t h e r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . A l t h o u g h t h i s i s a r e f i n e -m e n t o n t h e m o d e l a s p r o p o s e d b y P r o f . Hemmens b u t i t i s s t i l l v e r y s i m p l i s t i c i n n a t u r e . M a t h e m a t i c a l S t a t e m e n t o f t h e P r o b l e m F i n d t h e X i j s u c h t h a t L ZL C i j X i j = T o t a l t r a v e l t i m e = a m i n i m u m ( 1 ) 2.30 n Subject to: £ X i j = Oi ' i = 1 . . . m (2) m £ X i j = Dj j = 1 . . . n (3) x i j > o f c i j \ o and X. O i j = L D i j i = 1 3= 1 where : C i j = t r a v e l time from zone i to zone j X i j = t r i p s from zone i to zone j Oi = t r i p o r i g i n s i n zone i Dj = t r i p d e s t i n a t i o n s i n zone j The Dual Proglero i s : -Z, r 3 v 3 ~ ]L s i u ^ = l e c a t i o n a l advantage = a maximum where the .constraints a r e : v j - u i ^ Cir j i - 1 . . .m, j «* 1 . . ,n and u i , v j ^ 0 s i ~ t r i p s sent from zone i r j = t r i p s r e c e i v e d at zone j u i = r e n t a l value of l o c a t i o n s i n zone i v j = value to the t r i p maker of a c t i v i t i e zone j Note: The 'Dual' i s not d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s t h e s i s . © A c _ — -o A © o O A ©' COMMERCIAL CENTERS A WORK CENTERS 2 . 3 1 2.32 Elements of the Model For the purpose of the experiment P r o f . Hemmens chooses a h y p o t h e t i c a l urban area as shown i n f i g u r e no. 2.2. There are t h i r t y seven zones of equal s i z e and only t h i r t y two of these may c o n t a i n r e s i d e n c e s . There are f i v e work c e n t e r s . One i s i n the center of the urban area and the others are r e g u l a r l y spaced around the c e n t e r . No residences are permitted i n zones c o n t a i n i n g work-centres. S i m i l a r l y , there are seven commercial ce n t e r s . One i s i n the center of the urban area and the other s i x a r e d i s t r i b u t e d r e g u l a r l y around the center. There are three zones which c o n t a i n both work-centers and commercial-center s. There are three a l t e r n a t e r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y p a t t e r n s , two a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s of commercial-center and work-center c a p a c i t y and three a l t e r n a t e systems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e . The a l t e r n a t e r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y p a t t e r n s are: R I - uniform d e n s i t y throughout the urban area. R2 - high c e n t r a l d e n s i t y d e c l i n i n g r e g u l a r l y w i t h distance from the center, and R3 - c r e s t e d d e n s i t y , r i s i n g from a low value i n the center t o a highpoint and then d e c l i n i n g (See f i g u r e No. 2.3 ) The a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s o.f work-center and commercial-center c a p a c i t y are: 2.35 Wl and C I - 70% o f t h e j o b s and 70% o f t h e shopping o p p o r t -u n i t i e s a r e i n t h e ( g e o g r a p h i c ) c e n t e r zone. The r e m a i n i n g 30% each o f j o b and sho p p i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e e q u a l l y d i v i d e d among t h e f o u r o u t l y i n g j o b - c e n t e r s and s i x o u t l y i n g s h o p p i n g -c e n t e r s r e s p e c t i v e l y . W2 and C2 - T h i s i s r e v e r s e o f t h e above a l t e r n a t i v e , w i t h 30% o f the j o b s and shopping o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n th e c e n t e r and t h e r e m a i n i n g 70% b e i n g e q u a l l y d i s t r i b u t e d among the o u t l y i n g c e n t e r s . The t h r e e a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems a r e : -T l - U n i f o r m l e v e l o f t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e t h r o u g h out the urban a r e a . The t r a v e l c o s t o f a l l zone t o zone l i n k s i s g i v e n t h e same a r b i t r a r y v a l u e o f 2 t i m e u n i t s . I t i s assumed t h a t s u f f i c i e n t c a p a c i t y t o m a i n t a i n t h i s l e v e l o f s e r v i c e w i l l be p r o v i d e d , (see f i g u r e no. 2.4) T2 - Superimposed on T I a r e n o r t h - s o u t h and e a s t -• -west l i n k s t h r o u g h t h e c e n t r a l zone from t h e p e r i p h e r y w i t h a t r a v e l c o s t o f 1 t i m e u n i t (see f i g u r e no. 2 .5) T3 - F u r t h e r superimposed on T2 i s a r i n g o f h i g h s e r v i c e l e v e l a l s o h a v i n g a t r a v e l c o s t o f 1 tim e u n i t (see f i g u r e nol 2.6) The t h r e e r e s i d e n t i a l a l t e r n a t i v e s , two c o m m e r c i a l - c e n t e r a l t e r n a t i v e , and two w o r k - c e n t e r a l t e r n a t i v e s can be combined i n t o 12 d i f f e r e n t urban forms: R I , C I , Wl - spre a d c i t y w i t h s t r o n g c o r e R I , C I , W2 - spre a d c i t y w i t h s p r e a d employment b u t s t r o n g c o m m e r c i a l c o r e R l , C2, Wl - s p r e a d c i t y w i t h s p r e a d c o m m e r c i a l b u t s t r o n g employment c o r e R l , C2, W2 - spre a d c i t y ^ 2.34-R 2 , C I , V J l - c o n c e n t r i c c i t y R 2 , C I , W2 - c o n c e n t r i c c i t y w i t h d i s p e r s e d e m p l o y m e n t R 2 , C 2 , W l - c o n c e n t r i c c i t y w i t h d i s p e r s e d c o m m e r c i a l R 2 , C 2 , W2 - c o n c e n t r i c c i t y w i t h d i s p e r s e d c o m m e r c i a l a n d e m p l o y m e n t R 3 , C I , W l , - R i n g c i t y w i t h s t r o n g c o m m e r c i a l a n d e m p l o y m e n t c o r e R 3 , C I , W2 - R i n g c i t y w i t h c o m m e r c i a l c o r e R 3 , C 2 , W l - R i n g c i t y w i t h e m p l o y m e n t c o r e R 3 , C 2 , W2 - R i n g c i t y w i t h w e a k c o r e T h e s e t w e l v e u r b a n f o r m s a l o n g w i t h t h e t h r e e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m a l t e r n a t i v e s r e s u l t i n t h i r t y s i x d i f f e r e n t c a s e s . T h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l u r b a n a r e a i s a s s u m e d t o b e o n e m i l l i o n p e r s o n s (300,000 r e s i d e n c e s ) a n d o n e t r i p i s m a d e f r o m e a c h r e s i d e n c e t o a w o r k - p l a c e a n d t o a s h o p p i n g -p l a c e . F o r t h e s a k e o f c o n v e n i e n c e i t i s a l s o a s s u m e d t h a t r o a d s a r e t h e : , o n l y e l e m e n t s o f t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m a n d a l l t r a v e l i s d o n e b y i n d i v i d u a l s i n p r i v a t e v e h i c l e s . A l s o , t h e o n l y r o u t e s p e r m i t t e d a r e i n t h e n o r t h - s o u t h a n d e a s t - w e s t d i r e c t i o n s f r o m t h e c e n t e r o f o n e z o n e t o t h e c e n t e r o f a n a d j a c e n t z o n e . S o a d i a g o n a l p a t h t h r o u g h t h e a r e a i s c o m p o s e d o f z i g - z a g r i g h t a n g l e l i n k s . T h e t r a v e l t i m e ^ p f c o s t o f t r a v e l f r o m o n e z o n e t o a n o t h e r i s d e f i n e d i n t e r m s o f l e v e l o f s e r v i c e p r o v i d e d r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r m s o f t h e d e s i g n c a p a c i t y a n d s p e e d o f p h y s i c a l f a c i l i t i e s . F I G U R E 2.4 T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A L T E R N A T I V E 1 T R A V E L T I M E ON E A C H L I N K = 2 4 + t -4-r + + + - t — 4-4--4-+ i -- t --4 •• + -- -}-+• -+• 4 + 1-• V F I G U R E 2.5 T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A L T E R N A T I V E 2 T R A V E L . T I M E ON MAJOR LI N K S - - 1 A L L OTHERS = 2 F I G U R E 2.6 T R A N S P O R T A T I O N A L T E R N A T I V E 3 T R A V E L T I M E ON MAJOR L I N K S = 1 A L L OTHERS =2 2.35 2.36 Experimental R e s u l t s and Conclusions The impact of the three" a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems on the d i f f e r e n t urban forms i n terms of minimum t r a v e l require-ments, i s given i n t a b l e no.2.1. The impact of the f i r s t t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n system (Tl) on the twelve d i f f e r e n t urban forms i s a l s o sketched i n f i g u r e no. 2.7. On the b a s i s of these r e s u l t s P r o f . Hemmens f e e l s that the most important f i n d i n g i s that the general ranking of urban forms by t r a v e l requirements found w i t h uniform t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e holds f o r a l l t r a n s p o r t a t i o n a l t e r n a t i v e s . T h i s means that at l e a s t f o r the p a r t i c u l a r a l t e r n a t i v e s examined the system of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e has l i t t l e i n f l u e n c e on the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e urban forms. He a l s o f e e l s t h a t the obvious i m p l i c a t i o n s - f o r urban planning i s t h a t the s p a t i a l p a t t e r n of land use and the p a t t e r n of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s e r v i c e can be planned somewhat more independ-e n t l y than i s commonly thought. The r e s u l t s do not imply t h a t land use p a t t e r n and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system are not i n t e r -r e l a t e d . They imply t h a t the e v a l u a t i o n of a l t e r n a t i v e land use p a t t e r n s may be considered without reference t o p a r t i c u l a r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems. T a b l e N o . 2.1 TIMS UNITS REQUIRED FOR MINIMAL LINKAGES IN URBAN FORM EXPERIMENTS * URBAN FORM EXPERIMENT COMMERCIAL WORK TOTAL RANK TI R l C2 W2 027,500 960,000 1,707,500 3 TI R l C2 Wl 027,500 1,440,000 2,267,500 7 TI R l CI W2 1,320,000 960,000 2,280,000 0 TI R l CI Wl 1,320,000 1,440,000' 2,760,000 11 TI R2 C2 W2 600,000 'J . 900,000 1,580,000 1 TI R2 C2 Wl 680,000 1,240,000 1,920,000 4 TI R2 G l W2 1,112,000 900,000 2,012,000 5 TI R2 CI Wl 1,112,000 1,240,000 2,352,000 10 TI R3 C2 W2 760,000 980,000 ^ • 1,740,000 2 TI R3 C2 Wl 760,000 1,460,000 ' 2,220,000 6 TI R3 CI W2 1,340,000 980,000 2,320,000 9 TI R3 CI Wl 1,340,000 . 1,460,000 2,800,000 12 T2 R l C2 W2 629,375 742,500 1,371,875 2 T2 R l C2 Wl 629,375 982,500 1,611,875 5 T2 R l CI W2 894,375 742,500 1,636,875 6 T2 R l CI Wl 894,375 982,500 1,876,875 o T2 R2 C2 W2 . 580,000 700,000 1,280,000 . 1 T2 R2 C2 Wl 580,000 • 880,000 1,460,000 3 T2 R2 C i W2 815,000 700,000 1,515,000 4 • T2 R2 CI Wl 815,000 880,000 1,695,000 - 8 T2 R3 C2 Wl 612,000 1,040-, 000 1,652,000 7 ' T3 R l C2 W2 545,000 592,500 1,137,500 2 T3 R l C2 Wl .. 545,000 ' 832,500 1,377,500 7 T3 R l CI W2 772,500 592,500 1,365,000 6 T3 R l CI Wl 772,500 832,500 1,605-, 000 9 T3 R2 C2 W2 460,000 540,000 1,000,000 1 T3 R2 C2 Wl 460,.000 ' 720,000 1,180,000 3 T3 R2 CI W2 690,000 540,000 1,230,000 4 T3 R2 CI Wl 690,000 ' . 720,000 1,410,000 8 T3 R3 C2 Wl 495,000 800,000 1,295,000 -5 * F r o m : Hemmens, C.G., E x p e r i m e n t s i n U r b a n F o r m a n d S t r u c t u r e , • A P a p e r P r e s e n t e d a t t h e 4 6 t h A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C., ( J a n u a r y , 1 9 6 7 ) . 2 . 3 7 Minimum Travel Requirements of Alternate Urban Forms • l.(o tLlCT. wi 2.0 2.4 52.1 CT. U»J R-l c a toi a.i c-i w i -I- i i i c i w i . ( i l c i Wl E t_ o u. c a JL R_t c-l wi 2.. 38 2 . 3 9 * T h i s c h a p t e r p r e s e n t s t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e m o d e l a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s e x t r a c t e d f r o m P r o f . H.G. Kemmens p a p e r , " E x p e r i m e n t s i n U r b a n F o r m a n d S t r u c t u r e . " ( 1 ) H e r e t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e t e r m s " U r b a n F o r m " a n d " U r b a n S t r u c t u r e " i s a s d e f i n e d i n C h a p t e r I . ( 2 ) UBC L i b r a r y P r o g r a m m e , UBC T R A N , . T h e T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P r o b l e m , R e s t r i c t i o n s : . . . ( i i ) T h e m a x i m u m c o s t o f s h i p p i n g a u n i t a m o u n t o f g o o d s i s 9 9 9 . ( i i i ) T h e m a x i m u m s i z e o f a n y s o u r c e o r ( 3 ) F r o m : Hemmens, G.C„ E x p e r i m e n t s i n U r b a n F o r m a n d S t r u c t u r e , A P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e 4 6 t h A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C , ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 ) CHAPTER V CASE STUDY: THE MODEL APPLIED To s u b s t a n t i a t e the proposed hypothesis t h a t " a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems do e f f e c t the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e land use patterns" two sets of experiments were conducted w i t h the l i n e a r programming model described i n Chapter IV. The minimum t r a v e l time f o r each of the twelve a l t e r n a t e land use pa t t e r n s was t e s t e d , v/ith d i f f e r e n t t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n systems and d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s e r v i c e as v a r i a b l e s . (These issues were t e s t e d and analyzed w i t h the a i d of Computer Program UBCTRAN found i n Appendix 2.A) Input Data I t must be emphasized th a t the data used f o r the model i s e n t i r e l y h y p o t h e t i c a l and so not t r u l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r e a l world. Although the exact numerical values chosen are debatable/, they are nevertheless q u i t e r a t i o n a l . For a l l the experiments the h y p o t h e t i c a l m e t r o p o l i t a n area c o n s i s t e d of t h i r t y seven square zones. Twenty-eight of these were s o l e l y r e s i d e n t i a l , two s o l e l y o f f i c e zones, three o f f i c e -2.40 cum-commercial zones, and four being residential-cum-commercial zones. For a l l cases, the geometric shape of the m e t r o p o l i t a n area and the l o c a t i o n of o f f i c e . a n d commercial centers has been f i x e d . , The v a r i a b l e inputs f o r each set of experiments are the three a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s of r e s i d e n t i a l d e n s i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , the two a l t e r n a t e patterns of o f f i c e c a p a c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n , and the two a l t e r n a t e p a t t e r n s of shopping center c a p a c i t y d i s t r i b u t i o n . D e t a i l s of the numerical values are given i n t a b l e No. 2.2 and t a b l e no. 2.3 r e s p e c t i v e l y . Two a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems TI and T2, as shown i n f i g u r e No. 2;9 and f i g u r e No. 2.10 r e s p e c t i v e l y , were used f o r the f i r s t set of experiments. And f o r the second set of experiments another two systems of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n T3 and T4, as shown i n f i g u r e No. 2.11 and f i g u r e No. 2.12, v/ere used. The time cost of t r a v e l , modes of t r a n s p o r t , and the d i f f e r e n t l e v e l s of s e r v i c e o f f e r e d by each one of the a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems i s given i n t a b l e no. 2.4. T A B L E NO. 2.2: A L T E R N A T E R E S I D E N T I A L D E N S I T Y D E S T R I B U T I O N P A T T E R N S R e s i d e n t i a l T o t a l N u m b e r N u m b e r o f R e s i d e n c e s o f p e r Z o n e P a t t e r n s R e s i d e n c e s R i n g 1 R i n g 2 R i n g 3 1 0 0 1 6 3 1 3 , 3 1 3 3 1 3 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 3 3 4 1 6 6 1 0 0 0 4 2 5 0 5 0 0 1 6 7 R l R2 R3 L 2 . 4 2 TABLE NO..2.3 TRIP ATTRACTING CAPACITIES OF OFFICE AND SHOPPING ZONES Patterns Zonal T r i p Destributions Re s i d e n t i a l Commercial B4 D4 F4 C2 D2 E2 C6 D6 E6 Rl Wl 752 7008 752 - 752 _ 752 _ W2 1753 3004 1753 - 1753 - - 1753 -CI 502 7004 502 502 _ 502 502 _ 502 C2 1168 3008 1168 1168 - 1168 1168 - 1168 R2 - Wl 750 7000 750 _ 750 — _ 750 _ ' W2 1750 3000 1750 -• 1750 -' - 1750 -CI 500 7000 500 500 - 500 500 - 500 C2 .1167 2998 1167 1167 - 1167 1167 1167 R3 Wl 750 7004 750 • - 750 • - _ _ _ W2 1750 3004 1750 - 1750 - - -CI 500 7004 500 500 _ 500 500 _ 500 C2 1167 3002 1167 1167 . - 1167 1167 - 1167 2 . 4 4 T A B L E NO. 2.4 - T R A V E L COSTS FOR A L T E R N A T E T R A N S P O R T A T I O N S Y S T E M S . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n L e v e l s o f T i m e C o s t o f T r a v e l S y s t e m S e r v i c e A u t o T r a n s i t T I , T 2 C o l l e c t o r S t r e e t s 2 F r e e w a y 1 C o l l e c t o r S t r e e t s 4 6 T 3 , T 4 M a j o r A r t e r i a l s 3 4 F r e e w a y 1 2 . I , H . J T h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s y s t e m s u s e d a r e g e o m e t r i c a l l y n o n -s y m m e t r i c w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c e n t e r o f t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . T h i s h a s b e e n d o n e d e l i b e r a t e l y i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h a t i m p a c t , i f a n y , i t h a s o n t h e r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y o f t h e a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d u s e p a t t e r n s . A l s o , f o r t h e s e c o n d s e t o f e x p e r i m e n t s , s i x r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s ( C 4 , D 3 , D 5 , D 7 , E 4 , G4) a r e a s s u m e d t o b e p r e d o m i n a n t l y t r a n s i t o r i e n t e d . F o r t h e s e s i x z o n e s e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e w o r k t r i p s a n d s h o p p i n g t r i p s a r e d o n e b y t r a n s i t a n d t h e r e m a i n i n g t w e n t y p e r c e n t b y a u t o . F o r t h e r e m a i n i n g t w e n t y s i x z o n e s e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f t h e , t r i p s a r e d o n e b y a u t o a n d t w e n t y p e r . c e n t b y t r a n s i t . L i m i t a t i o n s o f D a t a A s a r e s u l t o f t h e h y p o t h e t i c a l n a t u r e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t s t h e d a t a u s e d o b v i o u s l y h a s m a n y s h o r t - c o m i n g s . T h e s e h a v e t o = A A 0 A A © © © A FIGURE NO. 2.9 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM TI 0 © A 0 FIGURE NO. 2.10 TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM T2 A Freeways L o c a l Roads O f f i c e Complex Commercial Complex 2.45 F I G U R E N O . 2.11 T R A N S P O R T A T I O N S Y S T E M T3 F I G U R E N O . 2.12 T R A N S P O R T A T I O N S Y S T E M T4 Freeway Major Artery Transit Oriented Residential Area Commercial and Office Complex 2.47 be thoroughly understood to safeguard a g a i n s t any m i s i n t e r -p r e t a t i o n of the r e s u l t s . To s t a r t w i t h , the m e t r o p o l i t a n area i s d i v i d e d i n t o a very s m a l l number of r e l a t i v e l y homogeneous zones. There are j u s t t h i r t y - t w o zones of o r i g i n and nine zones of d e s t i n a t i o n (con-s i d e r i n g o n l y out bound t r i p s from r e s i d e n t i a l zones). No competition f o r t r i p s e x i s t s between s i m i l a r land uses, i . e . a l l the f i v e o f f i c e s o f f e r the same range of jobs o p p o r t u n i t i e s and s i m i l a r l y the seven shopping centers provide e x a c t l y the same goods and s e r v i c e s . A homogeneous topography has a l s o been assumed f o r the e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n and so there i s no one p a r t i c u l a r r e s i d e n t i a l - zone more a t t r a c t i v e than any other zone. Such unique zones ( l i k e the West End of Vancouver, f o r example) e x i s t i n almost every c i t y a t t r a c t i n g to them a s p e c i a l group of people w i t h a s p e c i a l s e t - o f - t r a v e l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , , adding to the c i t y ' s d i v e r s e and hetrogeneous c h a r a c t e r . Secondly, i t i s assumed that one work t r i p and one shopping t r i p o r i g i n a t e from each household. This may not always be true and more o f t e n the number of work t r i p s o r i g i n a t i n g from a r e s i d e n t i a l area are l a r g e r than the number of shopping t r i p s from the same area. In a d d i t i o n , t r i p s are a l s o made f o r 2 . 4 S b u s i n e s s , s o c i a l a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s . T h e s e t r i p s h a v e b e e n n e g l e c t e d i n t h i s m o d e l , a l t h o u g h t h e y a c c o u n t f o r a p p r o x -i m a t e l y f i f t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t r i p s s t a r t i n g f r o m a r e s i d e n t i a l a r e a . - 1 T h i r d l y , t h e q u e s t i o n o f m o d a l c h o i c e h a s b e e n g r e a t l y s i m p l i f i e d . F o r t h e f i r s t s e t o f e x p e r i m e n t s , t r a v e l l i n g i s d o n e o n l y b y a u t o m o b i l e s , a n a s s u m p t i o n w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n p r o v e d v a l i d e v e n f o r t h e a u t o o r i e n t e d c i t y o f L o s A n g e l e s . F o r t h e s e c o n d s e t o f e x p e r i m e n t s , t r a n s i t a s a s e c o n d mode o f t r a n s p o r t , h a s b e e n i n t r o d u c e d a n d s i x o f t h e t h i r t y - t w o r e s i d e n t i a l z o n e s a s s u m e d t o b e t r a n s i t o r i e n t e d i . e . e i g h t y p e r c e n t o f a l l t r i p s a r e d o n e b y t r a n s i t a n d t w e n t y p e r c e n t b y a u t o . F o r t h e - a u t o o r i e n t e d z o n e s t w e n t y p e r c e n t o f t h e t r i p s a r e d o n e b y t r a n s i t a n d e i g h t y p e r c e n t b y a u t o . T h e s e m o d a l s p l i t f a c t o r s a r e c o n s t a n t f o r a l l t h e z o n e s . I n a c t u a l f a c t t h e s e f a c t o r s w i l l c h a n g e f r o m z o n e t o z o n e a n d b e a f u n c t i o n o f f a m i l y i n c o m e , c a r o w n e r s h i p , l e n g t h a n d p u r p o s e o f t r i p , a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d c o s t o f p a r k i n g a t d e s t i n a t i o n , a v a i l a b i l i t y a n d c o n v e n i e n c e o f t r a n s i t s e r v i c e , e t c . L a s t l y , t h e r o a d n e t w o r k a n d t h e t r a n s i t s y s t e m a r e a s s u m e d t o h a v e i n f i n i t e l y f l e x i b l e c a p a c i t i e s . T h u s , some r o u t e s c a r r y a v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e t r a f f i c w h e r e a s c e r t a i n o t h e r 2 . 4 9 routes do not carry any t r a f f i c a f a l l . In e f f e c t t h i s assump-t i o n means that the l e v e l of service offered by the transport f a c i l i t y does not f a l l with an increase i n the t r a f f i c beyond the "service volume" i . e . the time cost for t r a v e l also does not increase as t r a f f i c volumes r i s e . This i s a very c r i t i c a l assumptior and only v a l i d up to the point where the "service volume" for the 2 transportation f a c i l i t y has been reached. Limitation of the Model The drawback of t h i s linear programming model, when used to evaluate the e f f i c i e n c y of alternate land use patterns, l i e s i n i t s a l l o c a t i o n r u l e . It subsumes that people w i l l work at the closest job opportunities and shop at the nearest shopping center.. This i s c l e a r l y not the case as people often work and shop at places which are not the nearest to their residence. In f a c t , as shown i n figure No. 2~13, a non-linear r e l a t i o n s h i p exists between t r a v e l time and the location'of work place. Thus the a l l o c a t i o n rule of minimizing the li n e a r cost function C i j X i j i s u n r e a l i s t i c and w i l l d i s t o r t the r e s u l t s . 2.50 20 o 3 15 rt rt 10 CO 5 0 0 5 10 15 20 FIGURE NO. 2.13. RELATIONSHIP, BETWEEN TRAVEL TIME AND LOCATION The minimum t r a v e l time computed f o r the four a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n "systems and twelve a l t e r n a t e land use p a t t e r n s was obtained from the computor output sheets and re p o r t e d i n t a b l e No. 2.5 and t a b l e No. 2.6. These r e s u l t s were f u r t h e r reorganized and f o r each t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system the twelve land use a l t e r n a t i v e s were ranked according to t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y i n t a b l e No. 2i7 W i t h i n the r e s t r a i n t s of the model and the nature of the assumption the r e s u l t s are encouraging and support the hypo-theses that a l t e r n a t e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems do e f f e c t the OF WORK PIACE Experimental R e s u l t s I n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the R e s u l t s TABLE NO. 2.5 MINIMUM TRAVEL COST FOR THE FIRST SET OF EXPERIMENTS Work TI Shopping Total Work T2 Shopping Total R1C1W1 41430 37589 79019 36987 33461 70448 R1C1W2 28794 . 37589 66383 26353 33461 59814 R1C2W1 41430 22773 64203 36987 21582 5856.9 R1C2W2 28794 22773 51567 26353 21582 47935 R2C1W1 35830 .32164 67994 32500 29000 61500 R2C1W2 26998 32164 59162 25168 29000 54168 R2C2W1 35830 19324 55154 32500 18325 50825 R2C2W2 26998 19324 46322 25168 18325 43493 R3C1W1 42275 38608 80883. .38438 34938 73376 R3C1W2 29356 38608 67964 27770 34938 62708 R3C2W1 42275 20932 63207 38438 19764 58202 • R3C2W2 29356 20932 50288 27770 19764 47535 TABLE NO. 2.6 MINIMUM TRAVEL COST FOR THE SECOND SET OF EXPERIMENTS , T3 _ T4 ' 1 Work Shopping Total Work Shopping Total | R1C1W1 69725 61448 131200 65116 57440 122556 R1C1W2 56240 61448 117688 49852 • 57440 107292 R1C2W1 69752 44384 114136 65116 41006 106122 J R1C2W2 I R2C1W1 56240 44384 100624 49852 41006 90858 60829 51989 112818 59746 51672 111418 R2C1W2 52333 51989 104322 49616 51672 101288 1 R2C2W1 60829 38709 99538 59746 36288 96034 ; | R2C2W2 52333 38709 91042 49616 36288 : 85904 | | R3C1W1 70194 61198 131392 69658 61091 130749 j R3C1W2 57688 61198 118886 54456 61091 115547 j R3C2W1 70194 39618 109812 69658 38082 107740 | R3C2W2 57688 ... 39618 97306 54456 38082 92538 TABLE NO. 2.7 RELATIVE EFFICIENCY OF ALTERNATE LANDUSE PATTERNS Ranking TI T2 T3 T4 1 R2C2W2 R2C2W2 R2C2W2 R2C2W2 2 R3C2W2 R3C2W2 R3C2W2 R1C2W2 3 R1C2W2 R1C2U2 R2C2W1 R3C2W2 4 R2C2W1 R2C2W1 R1C2W2 R2C2W1 5 R2C1W2 R2C1W2 R2C1W2 R2C1W2 6 R3C2W1 R3C2W1 R3C2W1 R1C2W1 7 R1C2W1 R1C2W1 R2C1WT R1C1W2 8 R1C1W2 R1C1W2 R1C2W1 R3C2W1 9 R3C1W2 R2C1W1 R1C1W2 R2C1W1 10 R2C1W1 R3C1W2 R3C1W2 R3C1W2 11 R1C1W1 R1C1W1 R1C1W1 R1C1W1 12 R3C1W1 R3C1W1 R3C1W1 R3C1W1 2.54 e f f i c i e n c y of alternate land use patterns. The f i r s t set of experiments show that f o r : a one mode transportation system the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of the twelve a l t e r n a t i v e land use patterns remains constant regardless of the l e v e l of service or the geometric pattern of the trans-portation network. 4 This i n d i c a t e s e t h a t , under the given assumptions, there appears to be just one land use pattern most suitable for a given transportation system. As expected, th i s pattern i s the concentric r i n g , with dispersed work and shopping (R2C2W2). The r e s u l t s of the second set of experiments show that for a two mode transportation system the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of alternate land use patterns i s not constant.^ I t varies with changes i n the l e v e l of service, .and the type and pattern of the transportation system. Therefore, d i f f e r e n t land use alternatives w i l l require quite d i f f e r e n t transportation systems. A closer look at the ranking of the alternate land use patterns for the four transportation systems reveals that the variations i n r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y are l o c a l i n nature, with the extreme ends of the spectrum remaining unchanged. This 2.55 i s because of the aggregate nature of the data and other l i m i t -a t i o n s o f the model which dampen the e f f e c t of changes i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system on the r e l a t i v e e f f i c i e n c y of a l t e r n a t e land use p a t t e r n s . A study of t a b l e No. 2.7 a l s o r e v e a l s t h a t w i t h the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n system remaining constant, a weaker commercial and o f f i c e core (a C2W2 pattern) i s more e f f i c i e n t t h a t a concent-r a t e d core (C1W1 p a t t e r n ) . F u r t h e r , w i t h the r e s i d e n t i a l p a t t e r n and the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system remaining constant, a change i n the commercial p a t t e r n from d i s p e r s a l (C2) to concent r a t i o n (Cl) increases the t r a v e l requirements more than a s i m i l a r change i n the work p a t t e r n ( i . e . a change from W2 to Wl) Therefore, changes i n the p a t t e r n of commercial areas seem to have a greater impact on the t o t a l t r a v e l requirements than changes i n the p a t t e r n of work l o c a t i o n s . Whereas, changes i n the r e s i d e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n p atterns appear to have the l e a s t impact on changes i n t r a v e l requirements. Although these conclusions are borne out by the experimental r e s u l t s , because of the l i m i t a t i o n s of the model, t h e i r v a l i d i t y i s questionable F i n a l l y , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t there e x i s t s a t r a d e - o f f between land use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . At times, land use change 2 .56 c o u l d be s u b s t i t u t e d f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvement to achieve the same d e s i r e d end r e s u l t . Voorhees, A., A General Theory.of T r a f f i c Movement, The 1955 Past P r e s i d e n t ' s Award Papery I n s t i t u t e of T r a f f i c Engineers, Connecticut;- (1955), p.8 Cleveland, D.E.. Ed., Manual of T r a f f i c Engineering S t u d i e s , I n s t i t u t e of T r a f f i c Engineers, Washington, D.C, (1964) , p. 103. Voorhees, A., Op. c i t . The e f f i c i e n c y of the a l t e r n a t e land use pat t e r n s f o r t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems T l and T2 are given i n Table No. 2.7. As can be seen, the ranking of the land use pat t e r n s f o r both these cases i n the same. I t i s a l s o s i m i l a r to the ran k i n g obtained by P r o f . Hemmens (given i n t a b l e No. 2.1). The e f f i c i e n c y of the a l t e r n a t e land use p a t t e r n s f o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n systems T3 and T4 are given i n Table No. 2.7. As can be seen, the ran k i n g of the a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r these two cases i s not the same. This ranking a l s o d i f f e r s from t h a t f o r T l and T2. Th i s may be because the number of commercial centers assumed (7) i s greater than the number of work centers„(5). CHAPTER VI , CONCLUDING COMMENTS Recommendations f o r Improvement of the Model"*-To t h i s date l i t t l e work has been done on t r y i n g to under-stand urban s t r u c t u r e and analyze the impact that changes i n land use have on the t o t a l urban system. This i s necessary to help p l a n f o r b e t t e r c i t i e s i n the fu t u r e and a l s o improve the q u a l i t y of p u b l i c investment d e c i s i o n s . Because i t i s r e l a t i v e -l y d i f f i c u l t to r e c o n s t i t u t e c i t i e s or change the behavior of the people i n order to evaluate unexplored a l t e r n a t i v e s , the problem can be approached through a form of l a b o r a t o r y exper-iment r a t h e r than by observations or trend estimates alone. This model presents a technique which helps to understand and evaluate the impact that changes i n land use (or the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n system) w i l l have on the t r a f f i c p a t t e r n aid t r a v e l requirements of the e n t i r e m e t r o p o l i t a n r e g i o n . Thus, not o n l y can a l t e r n a t e urban forms be evaluated'for t h e i r t r a v e l r e q u i r e -ments, but changes i n the t r a f f i c p a t t e r n due to a new shopping center or the c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new freeway can a l s o be estimated. 2.58 2.59 This model i s very easy to understand and a l s o very easy to apply to an urban area. This i s the main advantage of the model. But, i t a l s o has i t s drawbacks. The tv/o important ones are: a) The model does not r e f l e c t competition f o r t r i p s between s i m i l a r land uses i . e . the t r i p s are d i s t r i b u t e d l i n e a r l y i n accordance to t r a v e l costs o n l y . And, b) There are no c a p a c i t y r e s t r a i n t s on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network. Thus, refinements are necessary to increase the s e n s i t i v i t y of the model and improve the q u a l i t y of the output. The f i r s t drawback could be.overcome by us i n g a t r i p a l l o c a t i o n r u l e t h a t r e l e c t s competition f o r t r i p s between s i m i l a r land uses.. One such a l l o c a t i o n r u l e would be the g r a v i t y p r i n c i p l e which d i s t r i b u t e s t r i p s from any zone to a l l other zones i n accordance w i t h : a) The number of t r i p s o r i g i n a t i n g i n that zone, b) The a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e of the other zones, and c) The t r a v e l cost ( r e s i s t a n c e ) between the corresponding zones. This a l l o c a t i o n r u l e i s o b v i o u s l y more r e a l i s t i c than the one used and w i l l y i e l d b e t t e r r e s u l t s w h i l e s t i l l not making the model too complicated. 2.60 To overcome the second drawback, c a p a c i t y r e s t r a i n t s on the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n network w i l l have to be i n t r o d u c e d . T h i s c o u l d be done i n an i n d i r e c t way by assuming t h a t o n l y a c e r t a i n percentage of work t r i p s and shopping t r i p s are done d u r i n g the peak hours, the remaining b e i n g spread out over the r e s t of the day. A h i g h e r t r a v e l c o s t c o u l d then be a s s i g n e d to a l l peak hour t r a v e l to account f o r c o n g e s t i o n 'costs and c a p a c i t y l i m i -t a t i o n s . I t i s a l s o true t h a t the l e v e l o f s e r v i c e and t r i p l e n g t h b e i n g the same, the t r a v e l c o s t s w i l l be d i f f e r e n t i f the purpose o f the t r i p i s d i f f e r e n t i . e . a shopping t r i p from A to B would p r o b a b l y have a lower t r a v e l c o s t than a work t r i p from A to B done at the same time. Thus, t r a v e l c o s t s should be a f u n c t i o n o f : a) mode of t r a v e l (auto or t r a n s i t ) , b) road f a c i l i t y used ( c o l l e c t o r s t r e e t , major a r t e r y or freeway), c) time o f t r a v e l (peak hour or non-peak h o u r ) , d) purpose of t r i p (work or shopping). Other refinements t h a t c o u l d be q u i t e e a s i l y i n c o r p o r a t e d i n the model are: a) i n c r e a s e the number of zones and l a n d uses i n the hypo-t h e t i c a l m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Thus, i n a d d i t i o n to r e s i d e n t i a l , shopping, and work areas, parks and o t h e r o t h e r r e c r e a t i o n a l s i t e s c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d . 2.61 b) Topographic f e a t u r e s such as: i ) R i v e r s , thus r e s t r i c t i n g c r o s s movement to b r i d g e l o c a t i o n s , c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d . A l s o , i i ) p r e s t i g e zones w i t h s p e c i a l t r i p p r o d u c t i o n and mode s p l i t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c o u l d be i n t r o d u c e d . In f a c t , t r i p g e n e r a t i o n and mode s p l i t f a c t o r s ' c o u l d be made to v a r y between zones as d e s i r e d . c) The t r a n s i t s e r v i c e c o u l d be r e s t r i c t e d to c e r t a i n f i x e d r o u t e s . Major t r a n s f e r p o i n t s c o u l d a l s o be l o c a t e d a l o n g these r o u t e s and a c e r t a i n percentage of the t r i p assumed to be a combination of auto and t r a n s i t t r a v e l . T h i s percentage c o u l d a l s o v a r y between zones. I m p l i c a t i o n s o f the Study A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t t h a t people have o f t e n f a i l e d to rec o g n i z e i s t h a t " t r a n s p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g i s not so much a l i n k i n a c h a i n as i t i s a s t r a n d i n the unseparable m u l t i -3 dimensional web of urban p l a n n i n g " . The i n a b i l i t y o f the human -mind ( i n t h i s case the planners) to comprehend and d e a l w i t h t h i s v a s t "unseparable m u l t i - d i m e n s i o n a l web" a t the metro-p o l i t a n l e v e l i s p r o b a b l y one of the f a c t o r s which has l e d to the uncoordinated f a s h i o n t h a t p l a n n i n g , be i t land use or t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , i s b e i n g done today. An a n a l y s i s of some of the l i t e r a t u r e reviewed a l o n g w i t h the experimental r e s u l t s of t h i s study leads to the f o l l o w i n g con-c l u s i o n s which are of c o n s i d e r a b l e importance to p l a n n i n g : 2 . 6 2 That l a n d use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n are i n t e r r e l a t e d and as such each s h o u l d compliment the o t h e r . A l s o , changes i n t he l a n d use p a t t e r n can be t r a d e d - o f f a g a i n s t changes i n the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system, o r v i s a - v e r s a , t o a c h i e v e the same l e v e l o f improvement i n the minimum t r a v e l r e q u i r e -ments. That t h e impact o f changes i n the l a n d use p a t t e r n o r the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system a re not l o c a l i n n a t u r e , o n l y . And t h a t the d i s p e r s e d r a m i f i c a t i o n s must a l s o be r e c o g n i s e d and p l a n n e d f o r i f the d e s i r e d o v e r a l l community o b j e c t i v e s a r e t o be a c h i e v e d . That t h e model p r o v i d e s a s i m p l e t o o l f o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y s i s , on a comprehensive b a s i s , o f the i n t e r -r e l a t i o n s h i p between the t r a n s p o r t a t i o n system and the l a n d use p a t t e r n s o f a m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . Thus, a l t e r n a t i v e l o c a t i o n s f o r o f f i c e s , s h o p p i n g c e n t r e s , urban freeways and i n t e r c h a n g e s can be e v a l u a t e d f o r t h e i r e f f i c i e n c y i n terms o f t h e i r t r a v e l r e q u i r e m e n t s and f o r t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on the o v e r a l l t r a f f i c f l o w p a t t e r n . T h i s would g i v e the p l a n n e r an a n a l y t i c t o o l f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a t r a d e - o f f between t r a n s p o r t a t i o n e f f i c i e n c y and s o c i a l b e n e f i t s . He c o u l d t h e n choose t h a t a l t e r n a t i v e w h i c h would make the maximum c o n t r i b u t i o n towards f u r t h e r i n g the d e s i r e d o v e r a l l community o b j e c t i v e s . The model c o u l d h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h comprehensive p o l i c i e s f o r the development o f l a n d use and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e f o r t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a , i . e . f o r l a n d use and t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n p l a n n i n g . These would a c t as a common ground t o c o o r d i n a t e and i n t e g r a t e the a c t i v i t i e s o f the d i f f e r e n t a g e n c i e s i n v o l v e d i n the p l a n n i n g and development o f the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a . The e x p e r i m e n t a l r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y a l s o show t h a t the c o n c e n t r i c r i n g w i t h d i s p e r s e d o f f i c e and comm e r c i a l p a t t e r n (R2C2W2) i s t h e most e f f i c i e n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t o t a l t r a v e l r e q u i r e m e n t s . They, t h e r e f o r e , s u g g e s t s a l a n d use s t r u c t u r e 2.63 c for a future metropolitan area. Thus, with the objective of restructuring the metropolitan area to th i s e f f i c i e n t pattern, these r e s u l t s serve as a guide-line for making the necessary changes i n the e x i s t i n g land use pattern and transportation system, i . e . i n set t i n g p r i o r i t i e s for the timing, s e l e c t i o n , and location of nev; construction and other redevelopment . . . 4 a c t i v i t i e s . Since a change i n the pattern of commercial areas has been shown to have a greater impact on t r a v e l requirements than a change i n the work location pattern, f i r s t p r i o r i t y should be given to the restr u c t u r i n g of commercial areas to the dispersed (C2) pattern. Next p r i o r i t y should be given to the reorganization of work centers and f i n a l l y to the restructuring of r e s i d e n t i a l areas. At each stage the alternate choices could be evaluated for the i r e f f i c i e n c y and the more b e n e f i c i a l one adopted. Also, each change would have to be accompanied by appropriate complimentary changes i n the transportation system. With reference to the "Nodular Concept" discussed i n Section I of t h i s thesis, one of the basic c r i t e r i a of such an urban system i s : 2 .64 " . . . a c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f growt^h nodes a t i n t e r v a l s a l o n g major t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o r r i d o r s . These nodes become c e n t e r s f o r mixed usage o f s i n g l e use o f l a r g e p r o p o r t i o n s . " 5 On the b a s i s o f t h i s c r i t e r i a the 1 n o d u l a r concept' would be analogous t o the c o n c e n t r i c r i n g w i t h d i s p e r s e d work and s h o p p i n g p a t t e r n (R2C2W2) as used i n the second s e t o f e x p e r i m e n t s T h i s n o d u l a r system o f urban s t r u c t u r e (shown i n f i g u r e No; 2.14) would t h e r e f o r e be more e f f i c i e n t , i n terms o f t r a v e l r e q u i r e m e n t s t h a n most o f t o d a y ' s m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s . Thus, i f t h i s i s the t y pe o f f u t u r e urban environment t h a t p e o p l e want, the j o b o f f o r m u l a t i o n o f the a p p r o p r i a t e g u i d i n g p o l i c i e s i s g r e a t l y c l a r i f i e d and s i m p l i f i e d . (% \ -o • o (\ 1 /. / r f \ \ -0 /•' V o tr.y x— FIGURE NO. 2.14 THE NODULAR CONCEPT R e s i d e n t i a l Node V ( " 1 ^ O f f i c e Node Of f i ce/Commerc ia l Node 2.65 2 .66 (1) Because of the l i m i t e d time a v a i l a b l e , the p r a c t i c a l i t y of these recommendations has not been t e s t e d . Although i t i s f e l t they can be q u i t e e a s i l y i n c orporated without making the model very complicated and cumbersome. (2) Sj D i j x T i j = T i . .. S, + S„ + Sn D i l * Di2X D i n x Where T i j = present t r i p s between zone i and zone j ( i / j , = 1, 2, . . . . , n) due to an a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e l o c a t e d i n zone j . T i = present v e h i c l e t r i p s o r i g i n a t i n g i n zone i , where n y \ T i j = T i j = 1 Sj = the a t t r a c t i v e f o r c e on zone j ( s i z e depends upon land use c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of zone j and t r i p purpose under c o n s i d e r a t i o n ) . D i j = the t r a v e l time or distance between zone i and zone j . X = distance exponent (value dependent upon t r i p purpose). 2.67 Fagin, Henry, Comprehensive Urban Planning, T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Design Considerations,. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Research Conference, N a t i o n a l Academy of Science, N a t i o n a l Research C o u n c i l , P u b l i c a t i o n 841, Washington, D.C. (1961). This should not i n any way imply an "end s t a t e " p l a n . S e c t i o n I , p. 17-18. BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Automobile Manufacturers A s s o c i a t i o n , I nc. The Dynamics of Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . A N a t i o n a l Symposium, October, 1962. Blumenfeld, Hans. The Modern M e t r o p o l i s . E d i t e d by P.D. Spreiregen, Cambridge, The M.I.T. Pr e s s , 1967. Cleveland, D.E. (ed) Manual of T r a f f i c Engineering S t u d i e s . I n s t i t u t e of T r a f f i c Engineers, Washington, 1964. Gass, S.I. Lin e a r Programming Methods and A p p l i c a t i o n s . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1958. Gilmore, H.W. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and the Growth of C i t i e s . Glencoe, I l l i n o i s , The Free Press, 1965. Lee, Norman E. T r a v e l and Transport Through the Ages. London, Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1955. M a r t i n , B.V., Memmott, F.W., and Bone, A.J. P r i n c i p l e s and Techniques of P r e d i c t i n g Future Demand f o r Urban Area T r a n s p o r t a t i o n . M.I.T. Report No. 3, Cambridge, The M.I.T. Pre s s , 1961. Mayer, H.M. and Kohn, C.F. (ed). Readings i n Urban Geography. U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1959. Mayer, J 0R. Kain, J.F. and Wohl, M. The Urban T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem. Cambridge, Harvaird U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965. M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n 1980. Comprehensive Planning O f f i c e , The Port of New York A u t h o r i t y . 1963. M i t c h e l l , R.B. and Rapkin, C. Urban T r a f f i c : A Function of Landuse. New York, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1954. 2.68 2.69 Mumford, Lewis. The C i t y i n H i s t o r y . New York, Harcourt, Brace and World, Inc., 1961. Owen, W i l f r e d . The M e t r o p o l i t a n T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem. The Brookings I n s t i t u t e , Garden C i t y , New York, Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1966. Quade, E.S. (ed) A n a l y s i s f o r M i l i t a r y D e c i s i o n s . The Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, C a l i f o r n i a , 1964. Smith, Wilbur and A s s o c i a t e s . Future Highways and Urban Growth. New Haven, Connecticut, 1961. . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n and P a r k i n g f o r Tommorrow's C i t i e s . New Haven, Connecticut, 1966. Wingo, L. (Jr) Transportation, and Urban Land. Resources f o r the Future, Inc., 1961. P e r i o d i c a l s and Reports Cooper, W.W., and Charnes, A. L i n e a r Programming. S c i e n t i f i c  American, V o l . 191, No. 2, August 1954. Dakin, John. Models and Computers i n P l a n n i n g . P l a n , V o l . 6 No. 1, J u l y 1965. J o u r n a l of the American I n s t i t u t e of Planners. i ) V o l . XXV, No. 2, May 1959. i i ) V o l . XXVI, No. 2, November 1960. i i i ) V o l . XXXI, No. 2, May 1965. L i f e . V o l . 59, No. 26, December 24, 1965. Manheim, M.L. P r i n c i p l e s of Transport System A n a l y s i s . H.R.R. No. 180, Highway Research Board, Washington, 1967. What Kind of a C i t y Do We Want? Nation's C i t i e s . V o l . 5, No. 4, A p r i l 1967. 2.70 S m i t h , J . Some S o c i a l A s p e c t s o f M a s s T r a n s i t i n S e l e c t e d A m e r i c a n C i t i e s . I n s t i t u t e f o r C o m m u n i t y D e v e l o p m e n t a n d S e r v i c e s , M i c h i g a n , 1 9 5 9 . T r a f f i c Q u a r t e r l y . T h e ENO F o u n d a t i o n f o r H i g h w a y T r a f f i c C o n t r o l , i ) V o l u m e X I I I , N o . 4, O c t o b e r 1 9 5 9 . i i ) V o l u m e X V , N o . 3, J u l y 1 9 6 1 . i i i ) V o l u m e X I X , N o . 2, A p r i l , 1 9 6 5 . i v ) V o l u m e X X , N o . 1, J a n u a r y 1 9 6 6 . v ) V o l u m e X X I , N o . 3, J u l y 1 9 6 7 . v i ) V o l u m e X X I , N o . 4, O c t o b e r 1 9 6 7 . T r a n s p o r t a t i o n D e s i g n C o n s i d e r a t i o n s , T r a n s p o r t a t i o n R e s e a r c h C o n f e r e n c e , N a t i o n a l A c a d e m y o f S c i e n c e s , N a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , P u b l i c a t i o n 8 4 1 , W a s h i n g t o n , D.C. 1 9 6 1 . U r b a n L a n d . T h e U r b a n L a n d I n s t i t u t e . i ) V o l u m e 1 5 , N o . 1 1 , D e c e m b e r 1 9 5 6 . i i ) V o l u m e 1 8 , N o . 4, A p r i l 1 9 5 9 . V o o r h e e s , A.M. A G e n e r a l T h e o r y o f T r a f f i c M o v e m e n t . T h e 1 9 5 5 P a s t P r e s i d e n t s ' A w a r d P a p e r , I n s t i t u t e o f T r a f f i c E n g i n e e r s , W a s h i n g t o n , 1 9 5 5 . V o o r h e e s , A.M. T r a n s p o r t a t i o n P l a n n i n g a n d U r b a n D e v e l o p m e n t . P l a n , V o l . 4, N o . 3, 1 9 6 3 . U n p u b l i s h e d M a t e r i a l C u r t i s , W.H. T h e R e l a t i o n B e t w e e n T r a n s i t a n d U r b a n S t r u c t u r e . A t h e s i s p r e s e n t e d i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f t h e P l a n n i n g I n s t i t u t e o f B.C., M a r c h , 1 9 6 3 . Hemmens, C G . E x p e r i m e n t s i n U r b a n F o r m a n d S t r u c t u r e . A P a p e r P r e s e n t e d a t t h e 4 6 t h A n n u a l M e e t i n g o f t h e H i g h w a y R e s e a r c h B o a r d , W a s h i n g t o n , J a n u a r y 1 9 6 7 . APPENDIX 2.A UBC COMPUTING CENTRE H3 UBC TRAN VANCOUVER 8, B.C. September, 1967 THE TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM W i l s o n Baker ( M o d i f i e d by A.G. F o w l e r and G. A l l a r d ) UBC Computing C e n t e r Type o f Program: S e l f C o n t a i n e d FORTRAN IV program. Purpose: To compute an o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n o f the t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n p r oblem, a s p e c i a l case o f t h e g e n e r a l l i n e a r programming p r o b l e m . Method: See R e f . 1. A l l c a l c u l a t i o n s a r e done u s i n g i n t e g e r a r i t h m e t i c . How t o Use: L e t : M = no. o f rows ( s u r p l u s o r s o u r c e s ) N = no. o f columns ( s h o r t a g e s o r s i n k s ) • K ^ j = the c o s t o f s h i p p i n g 1 u n i t o f goods from s o u r c e i t o s i n k j . A^ = the amount o f goods i n i t i a l l y a t s o u r c e i B j = be the amount o f goods needed a t s i n k j T h e ' i n p u t r e q u i r e d by t h e program i s M, N, A^, B j , K ^ j as w e l l as a T i t l e C a r d . (See a l s o Data P r e p a r a t i o n ) . P r i n t - O u t : 1. The T i t l e o r Heading ( t h i s i s i n p u t i n f o r m -a t i o n ) . 2. The c o s t M a t r i x K ^ j and the v a l u e s o f A^ and B j ( a g a i n t h i s i s i n p u t d a t a ) . 3. The t o t a l c o s t a s s o c i a t e s w i t h the o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n . 4. The o p t i m a l s o l u t i o n . 2.71 2 . 7 2 R e s t r i c t i o n s : 1. B o t h t h e n u m b e r o f s o u r c e s a n d t h e n u m b e r o f s i n k s a r e l i m i t e d t o 1 0 0 . 2 . T h e m a x i m u m c o s t o f s h i p p i n g a u n i t a m o u n t o f g o o d s i s 9 9 9 . 3 . T h e m a x i m u m s i z e o f a n y s o u r c e o r s i n k i s 9 9 9 9 . ( T h e s e l a s t t w o r e s t r i c t i o n s c a n b e r e m o v e d b y m o d i f y i n g t h e o u t p u t f o r m a t o f t h e p r o g r a m ) .'. 4 . A l l i n p u t m u s t b e i n i n t e g e r f o r m . T i m i n g s : S a m p l e : E x e c u t i o n t i m e ( i n c l u d i n g p r i n t i n g ) 2 0 r o w s ( s o u r c e s b y 25 c o l u m n s ( s i n k s ) . = 4 . 7 s e e s . C o r e S t o r a g e : E s s e n t i a l l y a l l o f c o r e s t o r a g e i s u s e d . D a t a P r e p a r a t i o n : I n d e s c r i b i n g how. t h e i n p u t m u s t b e r e c o r d e d o n t h e d a t a s h e e t s t h e n u m b e r o f c o l u m n s a l l o t t e d t o e a c h n u m b e r ( c a l l e d t h e f i e l d w i d t h ) w i l l b e g i v e n . I t i s i m p l i e d t h a t t h e n u m b e r p u t i n t h e s e c o l u m n s m u s t b e p l a c e d i n c o l u m n s a s f a r t o t h e r i g h t a s p o s s i b l e ( t h i s i s c a l l e d r i g h t j u s t i f i e d ) . T h u s , f o r e x a m p l e , w h e n i t i s s t a t e d t h a t t h e v a l u e o f N . i s t o b e r e c o r d e d i n c o l u m n s 6 t o 1 0 , a n d i f N = 7, t h e n t h e n u m b e r 7 m u s t b e r e c o r d e d i n c o l u m n n u m b e r 1 0 . ( I f i t w e r e p u t i n c o l u m n n u m b e r 9 t h e c o m p u t e r w o u l d i n t e r p r e t i t a s 70 r a t h e r t h a n 7 ) . DATA CARD # 1 H e a d i n g C a r d , s h o u l d c o n t a i n a d e s c r i p t i o n o f p r o b l e m b e i n g s o l v e d . C o l u m n s F o r m a t V a r i a b l e Name DATA CARD # 2 1 t o 5 15 N N o . o f S o u r c e s ( N o . o f r o w s i n t h e C o s t M a t r i x ) 6 t o 10 15 N N o . o f S i n k s ( N o . o f c o l u m n s i n t h e C o s t M a t r i x ) . 2 . 7 3 DATA CARD #3 1 t o 5 6 t o 1 0 , e t c . 1 6 1 5 . S i A m o u n t o f s u r p l u s a t t h e i t h s o u r c e ( i f M 16 t h e r e w i l l b e m o r e t h a n o n e D a t a C a r d #3) DATA CARD #4 1 t o 5, 6' t o 1 0 , e t c . 1 6 1 5 A m o u n t o f S h o r t a g e a t t h e j t h s i n k ( i f N 16 t h e r e w i l l b e m o r e t h a n o n e D a t a C a r d #4) DATA CARD #5 1 t o 5, 6 t o 1 0 , e t c . 1 6 1 5 K ID T r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o s t f r o m t h e i t h s o u r c e t o t h e j t h s i n k ( i f N 16 t h e r e w i l l b e m o r e t h a n o n e d a t a c a r d p e r s o u r c e ) . R e p e a t DATA CARD #5 f o r e a c h s o u r c e ( e a c h r o w o f t h e c o s t M a t r i x ) N O TE: A l w a y s s t a r t a new r o w o f t h e c o s t m a t r i x o n a nev; D a t a C a r d , E x a m p l e : A s s u m e t h a t t h e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c h a r g e s f r o m t h e 4 s o u r c e s t o t h e 6 s i n k s a r e a s f o l l o w s : S HORTAGES S U R P L U S 3 8 4 2 8 12 8 17 8 9 6 10 5 13 9 2.74 TRANSPORTATION COST MATRIX The deck s e t up i n c l u d i n g d a t a c a r d s would be: C o l . l C o l . 8 C o l . 1 6 $JOB . JOB NUMBER Your name •$EXECUTE TRAN Co l . 5 Col.10 Col.15 C o l . 2 0 CARD #1 SAMPLE TRANSPORTATION PROBLEM Col.25 C o l . 3 0 CARD #2 CARD #3 CARD #4 CARD #5's 5 6 4 3 3 6 8 2 6 7 12 3 10 8 2 3 5 4 5 1 .8 7 8 13 17 2 9 R e f e r e n c e : 1. L.R. FORD, J r . , D.R. FULKERSON " S o l v i n g - the T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Problem" Management S c i e n c e V o l . 3, 1956, pp. 24-32. 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104307/manifest

Comment

Related Items