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Examination of the Canada Land Capability Classification for forestry. Quenet, Robin Vincent 1968

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AN EXAMINATION OF THE CANADA LAND CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR FORESTRY  by ROBIN V. QUENET B.S.F., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1966  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE-OF MASTER OF SCIENCE  i n the Faculty of FORESTRY  We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o t h e required standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March, 1968  I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y  a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and  study.  f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g of t h i s t h e s i s s c h o l a r l y purposes may representatives.  be g r a n t e d by  g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my  permission.  Forestry  The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  10 A p r i l  1968  for  Department o r by  I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n of  thesis for financial  Department of  the Head of my  I  written  his  this  i  ABSTRACT A d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e Canada Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r f o r e s t r y , and an a n a l y s i s o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d i n t h e E a s t Kootenay and Vanderhoof D i s t r i c t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia were p r e s e n t e d . A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e c l i m a t e , g e o l o g y , p h y s i o g r a p h y and s o i l s i n t h e E a s t Kootenays was g i v e n . A d e s c r i p t i o n of the objectives and  a survey of the p e r t i n e n t The  of the land c a p a b i l i t y f o r f o r e s t r y  l i t e r a t u r e was  included.  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f F o r e s t Land P r o d u c t i v i t y , and t h e a c c u r a c y o f  a s s i g n e d p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s , were r e v i e w e d .  I t was found t h a t t h e s o u r c e s  of e r r o r i n p r o d u c t i v i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s i n c l u d e d : (2) problems i n d e f i n i n g  'normal' s t o c k i n g ,  (1) i n s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s ,  (3) e x t r a p o l a t i o n  o f MAI t o a base  of 100 y e a r s , (4) a s t r o n g tendency t o s e l e c t p l o t s on n o r t h e r n a s p e c t s , and (5) the e x c l u s i o n  of p l o t s on s o i l s n o t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Two a l t e r n a t i v e methods f o r a s s i g n i n g discussed.  descriptions.  p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s were  They were p o i n t s a m p l i n g and r e g r e s s i o n  s a m p l i n g and r e g r e s s i o n  of s o i l s e r i e s  techniques.  Both t h e p o i n t  t e c h n i q u e s gave r e s u l t s comparable t o t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l  method, i . e . MAI d e t e r m i n a t i o n s based on l / 5 t h a c r e p l o t s , w i t h i n c o n s t r a i n t s , and o n l y i n t h e i n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  prescribed  Results obtained  from p o i n t samples on Vancouver I s l a n d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those o b t a i n e d on o n e - t w e n t i e t h a c r e p l o t s . The  assignment of p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b c l a s s e s was d i s c u s s e d .  o n l y method p r e s e n t l y The  Here t h e  f e a s i b l e i s a v a l u e judgement made by r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s .  r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y r e v e a l e d t h r e e areas where f u r t h e r  would r e s u l t i n a more a c c u r a t e F o r e s t Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  research  These areas  include:  (1) t h e measurement of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s w h i c h determine f o r e s t productivity,  (2) t h e u s e of f i e l d and greenhouse experiments t o e s t a b l i s h methods  ii  f o r determining the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t t r e e growth, techniques  and  (3)  of environmental  influences  a more e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e use  t o get a d i r e c t measure of p r o d u c t i v i t y  in limiting  of v a r i o u s  i n terms of  sampling  MAI.  iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The a u t h o r g r a t e f u l l y acknowledges h i s i n d e b t e d n e s s t o t h e F a c u l t y and S t a f f o f t h e F a c u l t i e s o f F o r e s t r y and A g r i c u l t u r e o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, e s p e c i a l l y Dr. P. G. Haddock, Dr. 0. S z i k l a i , Dr. J . de V r i e s , and Dr. A. Kozak.  T h e i r h e l p f u l a d v i c e and guidance i s g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e d .  The a u t h o r wishes t o e x p r e s s h i s a p p r e c i a t i o n t o t h e Department o f F o r e s t r y and R u r a l Development o f Canada f o r making a v a i l a b l e t h e d a t a used in this  thesis. I n a d d i t i o n t h e a u t h o r extends h i s thanks t o t h e Department  of F o r e s t r y  and R u r a l Development o f Canada f o r e d u c a t i o n a l l e a v e and f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e w h i l e a t t e n d i n g u n i v e r s i t y , and t o the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia f o r f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e form o f a Graduate Student F e l l o w s h i p .  A c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system can p r e j u d i c e t h e f u t u r e . I f i t s c r i t e r i a a r e hypotheses w i t h o u t some d e v i c e f o r c o n s t a n t and i n e s c a p a b l e s c r u t i n y i n r e l a t i o n to the f a c t , t h e hypotheses become a c c e p t e d as fact. Such acceptance can mould r e s e a r c h i n t o p a t t e r n s of t h e p a s t and can l i m i t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f even new e x p e r i e n c e s t o concepts based on t h e knowledge o f t h e p a s t . ( C l i n e , 1961).  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  page ABSTRACT  i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF TABLES  i i i v i i viii  INTRODUCTION  1  DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA  3  LOCATION AND EXTENT  3  ELEVATION  3  CLIMATE  3  Precipitation . .  4  Temperature  4  Water S u r p l u s  7  GEOLOGY AND SOIL PARENT MATERIAL Elk River Valley  7 7  Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench  10  Rocky Mountains  11  P u r c e l l Mountains  11  PHYSIOGRAPHY  11  Elk River Valley  11  Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench  12  SOILS  14  TREE SPECIES  18  DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR TREE SPECIES IN RELATION TO CLIMATE AND SOILS  19  V  page LITERATURE REVIEW  19  DETERMINATION OF FOREST LAND PRODUCTIVITY  .  23  DESCRIPTION OF DATA COLLECTION  23  ACCURACY OF ASSIGNED PRODUCTIVITY CLASSES  26  ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR ASSIGNING PRODUCTIVITY CLASSES. .  31  Point  Sampling Techniques  32  R e g r e s s i o n Techniques  41  S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses R e s u l t s and D i s c u s s i o n  43 of Analyses  P o p u l a t i o n Boundaries  45 45  P r e d i c t i o n o f P r o d u c t i v i t y by Use o f R e g r e s s i o n Techniques  50  P r e d i c t i o n s o f P r o d u c t i v i t y Based on t h e E n t i r e Study A r e a  50  P r e d i c t i o n of P r o d u c t i v i t y Based on Geographic Location  51  Elk River Valley  51  Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench  51  P r e d i c t i o n E q u a t i o n s Based on S p e c i e s  52  Ponderosa P i n e  52  Douglas-fir  52  Lodgepole P i n e  53  White Spruce  53  P r e d i c t i o n E q u a t i o n s Based on G r e a t S o i l Groups. . . .  53  Dark Gray  54  Brown Wooded  54  Gray Wooded  54  vi page A c i d Brown Wooded  55  Humic G l e y s o l s and Regosols  55  COMPARISON OF POINT SAMPLING AND REGRESSION TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING FOREST LAND PRODUCTIVITY  56  RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING FOREST LAND PRODUCTIVITY FOR THE ARDA LAND CLASSIFICATION  60  ASSIGNMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY SUBCLASSES  ' . .  62  RECOMMENDATIONS  65  CONCLUSIONS  67  BIBLIOGRAPHY  69  APPENDIX I . MAIs DERIVED ON CONVENTIONAL PLOTS  73  APPENDIX I I .  75  MAIs DERIVED ON POINT SAMPLES  vii  LIST OF FIGURES page F i g u r e 1.  Summary o f C l i m a t o l o g i c a l Data f o r S e l e c t e d Stations  5  F i g u r e 2.  I s o l i n e s f o r P r e c i p i t a t i o n i n Inches.  F i g u r e 3.  I s o l i n e s f o r L e n g t h o f Growing Season i n Days.  F i g u r e 4.  I s o l i n e s f o r Water S u r p l u s i n Inches.  F i g u r e 5.  T o p o g r a p h i c Map  F i g u r e 6.  Modal Great S o i l Group P r o f i l e s .  15  F i g u r e 7.  D i s t r i b u t i o n of Great S o i l Groups  16  F i g u r e 8.  P l o t of H e i g h t over Diameter f o r Lodgepole P i n e on t h e Vanderhoof S o i l S e r i e s  35  of Study A r e a .  6 .  8 9 13  viii  LIST OF TABLES T a b l e 1. T a b l e 2. T a b l e 3.  T a b l e 4. T a b l e 5.  S e l e c t e d C l i m a t i c S t a t i o n s and D u r a t i o n of Measurements f o r P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Temperature.  page .  4  R e l a t i o n s h i p between S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l and S o i l S e r i e s by Great S o i l Group  17  Summary of Mean MAI, Standard D e v i a t i o n , Maximum and Minimum V a l u e s , and Number of P l o t s f o r each S o i l Series  28  Summary o f R e s u l t s Obtained from b o t h C o n v e n t i o n a l and P o i n t Sampling Methods f o r D e t e r m i n i n g MAI. .  37  Comparison of C o n v e n t i o n a l and P o i n t Sampling R e s u l t s on an I n d i v i d u a l P l o t B a s i s of the Vanderhoof S o i l S e r i e s  38  T a b l e 6.  Comparison of C o n v e n t i o n a l and P o i n t Sampling R e s u l t s on an I n d i v i d u a l P l o t B a s i s f o r the Cinema S o i l Series 39  T a b l e 7.  Kramer's M o d i f i c a t i o n of Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range Test A p p l i e d to the Ranked S p e c i e s Means for a l l Variables  47  Kramer's M o d i f i c a t i o n of Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t A p p l i e d t o the P r o d u c t i v i t y C l a s s Ranked Means for a l l Variables  48  E l i m i n a t i o n of Independent V a r i a b l e s from M u l t i p l e R e g r e s s i o n E q u a t i o n s f o r MAI o f the E n t i r e Study Area  57  T a b l e 8.  T a b l e 9.  T a b l e 10.  Comparison of R e s u l t s of C o n v e n t i o n a l and R e g r e s s i o n Techniques f o r D e t e r m i n i n g MAI on the W y c l i f f e ^ S o i l Series 58  T a b l e 11.  Comparison o f R e s u l t s o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l and R e g r e s s i o n Techniques f o r D e t e r m i n i n g MAI on Four S o i l Series  T a b l e 12.  59  Comparison of MAIs D e r i v e d from O n e - t w e n t i e t h A c r e P l o t s and P o i n t Samples i n the Lake Cowichan D i s t r i c t of Vancouver I s l a n d 61  AN EXAMINATION OF THE CANADA LAND CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR FORESTRY  INTRODUCTION The  purpose o f t h i s t h e s i s i s t o :  1)  examine t h e methods and p r o c e d u r e s used t o determine t h e f o r e s t  l a n d c a b a b i l i t y o f t h e l a n d a r e a encompassed by t h e E l k R i v e r V a l l e y and Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench s o u t h o f C a n a l F l a t s t o t h e 49th p a r a l l e l , and 2)  suggest some r e v i s i o n s t o t h e system w h i c h may r e s u l t i n a more  accurate c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . The  Outline  o f t h e Canadian Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r  Forestry  (McCormack, 1965) s t a t e s : "The Canada Land I n v e n t o r y Program o f ARDA ( A g r i c u l t u r a l R e h a b i l i t a t i o n and Development A c t ) was d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e a l t e r n a t i v e uses o f m a r g i n a l and s u b m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l lands. Under t h i s program t h e c a p a b i l i t i e s f o r f o r e s t r y , w i l d l i f e , and r e c r e a t i o n , as w e l l as a g r i c u l t u r e , w i l l be d e t e r m i n e d . " D u r i n g t h e summer o f 1966 a f o r e s t l a n d c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n was c a r r i e d out i n t h e upper Kootenay and E l k R i v e r V a l l e y s under t h e a u s p i c e s of ARDA.  As a r e s u l t , a c o n s i d e r a b l e amount of i n f o r m a t i o n  p r o d u c t i v i t y t o e d a p h i c and t o p o g r a p h i c c o n d i t i o n s  relating forest  was o b t a i n e d .  I n F e b r u a r y o f 1967, a s e r i e s o f t e s t c o p i e s o f c l i m a t i c maps, compiled by t h e Canada Land I n v e n t o r y , ARDA, were r e l e a s e d  and used t o supplement d a t a  made a v a i l a b l e by t h e f o r e s t l a n d c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . Subsequent t o c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y maps t h e p l o t d a t a were summarized by s o i l s e r i e s , w h i c h form t h e b r o a d u n i t s used i n mapping. deviations  were c a l c u l a t e d f o r a l l s o i l s e r i e s t o d e f i n e  i n d i v i d u a l v a l u e s about t h e i r mean.  Standard  the d i s p e r s i o n of  2  Data c o l l e c t e d i n t h e summer o f 1967 were used t o compare r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h e use o f l / 5 t h a c r e p l o t s and p o i n t samples f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f mean annual increment  (MAI).  Data c o l l e c t e d i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1968  were used t o compare t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from o n e - t w e n t i e t h a c r e p l o t s and p o i n t samples f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f MAI. R e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s were used t o d e r i v e p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r MAI based on measured and e s t i m a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s f o r t h e e n t i r e a r e a , i . e . t h e E l k R i v e r V a l l e y and Rocky Mountain T r e n c h , t h e major t r e e s p e c i e s , and t h e Great S o i l Groups  encountered.  The r e s u l t s o f t h e v a r i o u s s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s were compared f o r a c c u r a c y and a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o t h e Canada Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r Forestry.  I t was concluded t h a t a need e x i s t s f o r t h e development o f a s a m p l i n g  system w h i c h w i l l be optimum i n terms o f a c c u r a c y and time o r c o s t . The assignment  o f p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b c l a s s e s , t h a t i s , those f a c t o r s  l i m i t i n g t r e e growth, was d i s c u s s e d .  3  DESCRIPTION OF THE STUDY AREA  LOCATION AND EXTENT The a r e a i s l o c a t e d i n t h e Upper Kootenay and E l k R i v e r V a l l e y s i n t h e s o u t h e a s t e r n c o r n e r o f B r i t i s h Columbia. and, t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t , t h e v a l l e y w a l l s .  I t comprises t h e r i v e r v a l l e y s I n l a t i t u d e i t ranges from 50°9'  n o r t h a t C a n a l F l a t s , s o u t h t o t h e 49th p a r a l l e l , and from 114°45' west t o 116°12' west. The l a n d a r e a , i n excess o f one m i l l i o n a c r e s , g e n e r a l l y c o i n c i d e s w i t h t h a t c o v e r e d by maps 2 t o 6 i n c l u s i v e , of t h e S o i l Survey o f t h e Upper Kootenay and E l k R i v e r s i n t h e E a s t Kootenay D i s t r i c t o f B r i t i s h Columbia. ELEVATION The e l e v a t i o n o f t h e mapped a r e a ranged from 2,400 f e e t i n t h e Kootenay V a l l e y t o 5,500 f e e t i n t h e Upper E l k V a l l e y .  CLIMATE The a r e a can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e c l i m a t i c zones based on Koppen's C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ( T r e w a r t h a , 1954).  The zones a r e :  1)  Dsk - Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench f l o o r ,  2)  Dfb - mid e l e v a t i o n s o f t h e w e s t e r n f a c e of t h e Rocky Mountains and l o w e r E l k V a l l e y ,  3)  D f c - mid and upper E l k V a l l e y .  The c l i m a t i c zones c o r r e s p o n d t o Koppen's "cold-snowy f o r e s t c l i m a t e " w i t h t h e average t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e c o l d e s t month below 26.6°F ( F a h r e n h e i t ) and t h e average t e m p e r a t u r e o f t h e warmest month above 50°F.  Precipitation The e n t i r e a r e a i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a w i n t e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n maximum. The p r e c i p i t a t i o n ranges from a p p r o x i m a t e l y 14 i n c h e s i n t h e f l o o r o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench t o about 50 i n c h e s i n t h e upper E l k V a l l e y . The a n n u a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r f o u r s e l e c t e d s t a t i o n s i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1.  T a b l e 1 shows t h e s e l e c t e d  stations  and t h e d u r a t i o n o f measurements f o r p r e c i p i t a t i o n and temperature.  T a b l e 1. S e l e c t e d C l i m a t i c S t a t i o n s and D u r a t i o n o f Measurements f o r P r e c i p i t a t i o n and Temperature. Station  Precipitation Years  Temperature Years  Canal F l a t s  41  6  Cranbrook  30  30  Elko  30  13  Fernie  30  30  The r e l a t i o n s h i p between i s o l i n e s f o r t o t a l p r e c i p i t a t i o n and p l o t l o c a t i o n s i s shown i n F i g u r e 2.  Temperature The Rocky Mountain Trench and, t o a l e s s e r e x t e n t , t h e E l k R i v e r V a l l e y p r o v i d e a pathway f o r c o l d c o n t i n e n t a l a i r masses from t h e n o r t h , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n w i n t e r , and f o r h e a t e d a i r masses from t h e s o u t h e r n p l a t e a u o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n summer.  Thus, i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e a r e a e x p e r i e n c e s  a wide range i n t e m p e r a t u r e , from a p p r o x i m a t e l y -40°F t o 100°F, depending on t h e y e a r and l o c a t i o n . F i g u r e 1 shows t h e mean monthly stations.  temperatures  of the four selected  5  Figure 1.  Summary of Climatological Data for S e l e c t e d  Stations  6  Figure  2.  Isolines for Precipitation  in  inches.  7  The length of growing season depends on the temperature regime.  The  growing season begins at approximately 42° F mean temperature i n spring and stops when the same temperature i s approached i n the f a l l . the  Based on this assumption,  length of growing season varies from 190 to 130 days. The relationship between the length of growing season and plot loca-  tions i s shown i n Figure 3.  Water Surplus (after Thornthwaite) Figure 4 i l l u s t r a t e s the relationship between the i s o l i n e s for water surplus and plot locations.  The water surplus ranges from 2 to more than 16  inches.  GEOLOGY AND  SOIL PARENT MATERIAL  ELK RIVER VALLEY In to  west.  the Elk River area the Rocky Mountains were overthrust from east  Limestone and other rock of Paleozoic age were thrust over younger  Mesozoic formations. The Elk River eroded along f a u l t lines and has cut through the  hard older rocks, exposing the s o f t , younger formations beneath.  The soft  nature of the younger formations i s probably a factor contributing to the size of  the v a l l e y , which averages from one to four miles wide (Kelly and Sprout,  1955). The lower and mid-altitudes of the v a l l e y walls are t i l l capped.  The  t i l l was contributed c h i e f l y by tributary valley g l a c i e r s , and thus there i s some v a r i a t i o n i n i t s composition. of  reaction:  The t i l l can be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d on the basis  some being nonclareous, due to a lack of limestone inclusions or  8  F i g u r e 3.  Isolines  for  L e n g t h of  Growing  S e a s o n in d a y s .  Scale Plot  1 in. = 30 miles Locations >  9 F i g u r e 4.  Isolines  for W a t e r S u r p l u s  »  » * ,  in  v  inches.  *  v  8  4  2  2  4  Scale Plot  1 in.  30 miles  Locations  10 h e a v i e r p r e c i p i t a t i o n , and t h e remainder b e i n g c a l c a r e o u s ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955). Subsequent  t o , and d u r i n g t h e i c e r e t r e a t i n t h e main v a l l e y , t h e  f o l l o w i n g sequence o f events o c c u r r e d : 1)  d e p o s i t i o n o f c a l c a r e o u s sands,  2)  s i l t and c l a y d e p o s i t i o n i n ponded d e p r e s s i o n s and g l a c i a l  3)  kame f o r m a t i o n around t h e margins o f g l a c i a l  4)  e r o s i o n o f s i l t s and c l a y s from t h e t i l l  5)  d e p o s i t i o n o f a l l u v i a l sands, s i l t , and c l a y on t h e t e r r a c e s ,  6)  d e p o s i t i o n o f f i n e - t e x t u r e d m a t e r i a l s , from a few i n c h e s t o s i x  lakes,  lakes,  and d e p o s i t i o n o f outwash,  f e e t i n d e p t h , o v e r t h e g r a v e l bottom l a n d s o f t h e E l k R i v e r V a l l e y , and 7)  d e p o s i t i o n o f numerous a l l u v i a l f a n s a t t h e t o e o f t h e mountain  s l o p e s ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955).  ROCKY MOUNTAIN TRENCH The f l o o r o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench i s comprised m a i n l y o f g l a c i a l d r i f t , s i l t s , s a n d s , and g r a v e l s ( R i c e , 1917). The major f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench i n c l u d e : 1)  g r a y i s h - w h i t e , loamy, s t r o n g l y c a l c a r e o u s t i l l  containing  grit,  g r a v e l , s t o n e s and b o u l d e r s up t o f i f t y f e e t t h i c k . 2)  s m a l l a r e a s o f weakly c a l c a r e o u s t o n o n - c a l c a r e o u s t i l l  derived  from t h e P u r c e l l M o u n t a i n s , 3)  g l a c i a l r i v e r c h a n n e l s composed c h i e f l y o f rounded g r a v e l and  s t o n e s c o a t e d w i t h a t h i n l a y e r o f s i l t and v e r y f i n e sand b e f o r e t h e channels were abandoned, and 4)  s m a l l areas o f l o c a l l y d e p o s i t e d s t r o n g l y c a l c a r e o u s s i l t s i n  temporary ponds o r l a k e s ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955).  11  F o l l o w i n g t h e i c e r e t r e a t , t h e Kootenay V a l l e y became t h e d r a i n a g e way  o f g l a c i a l r i v e r t r i b u t a r i e s which r e s u l t e d i n t h e deepening  Subsequently,  fans developed  of the v a l l e y .  a t t h e mouths o f t r i b u t a r i e s , f i l l i n g t h e bed o f  t h e Kootenay R i v e r t o i t s p r e s e n t  level.  P r i o r t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f v e g e t a t i o n , h i g h winds r e s u l t e d i n a loess capping o f non-calcareous M o u n t a i n Trench of  floor.  r o c k f l o u r over t h e P u r c e l l Mountains and Rocky  High i n t e n s i t y p r e c i p i t a t i o n r e s u l t e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n  a l l u v i a l f a n s a t t h e t o e o f t h e mountain s l o p e s ( K e l l y and S p r o u t ,  1955).  ROCKY MOUNTAINS The main f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e Rocky Mountains i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i n c l u d e the K i t c h e n e r F o r m a t i o n , d o l o m i t i c a r g i l l i t e , and t h e Eager F o r m a t i o n , (Rice,  argillite  1917). PURCELL MOUNTAINS The main f o r m a t i o n s o f t h e P u r c e l l Mountains i n t h e s t u d y a r e a i n c l u d e  the K i t c h e n e r F o r m a t i o n , d o l o m i t i c a r g i l l i t e , t h e C r e s t o n F o r m a t i o n ,  argillaceous  q u a r t z i t e , and t h e A l d r i d g e F o r m a t i o n , a r g i l l i t e and a r g i l l a c e o u s q u a r t z i t e (Rice,  1917).  PHYSIOGRAPHY  ELK RIVER VALLEY The g l a c i a t e d E l k R i v e r V a l l e y extends n o r t h from N a t a l between two mountain r a n g e s , and s o u t h e a s t from N a t a l , c u t t i n g a c r o s s s e v e r a l mountain ranges and e n t e r i n g t h e Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench a t E l k o . h a l f t o f o u r m i l e s wide.  The v a l l e y i s from one  On each s i d e o f t h e v a l l e y t h e mountains r i s e t o h i g h  12 r i d g e s and summits, e x c e e d i n g 9,000 f e e t . l i n e d w i t h a s e r i e s of t e r r a c e s .  The c h a n n e l of t h e E l k R i v e r i s  A t the mouths o f the s i d e v a l l e y s t h e r e a r e  masses of r o l l i n g moraines o r i g i n a l l y d e p o s i t e d i n t h e main v a l l e y by  tributary  g l a c i e r s ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955). The v a l l e y f l o o r i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the presence o f l a c u s t r i n e d e p o s i t s , a l l u v i a l d e p o s i t s i n the r i v e r c h a n n e l , and a l l u v i a l cappings on t h e terraces.  ROCKY MOUNTAIN TRENCH South o f C a n a l F l a t s t h e Rocky Mountain Trench c o n s i s t s o f a g l a c i a t e d v a l l e y from 3 t o 17 m i l e s w i d e , w i t h t h e Rocky Mountains r i s i n g a b r u p t l y from the  v a l l e y f l o o r t o the e a s t ; w h i l e t o the w e s t , the P u r c e l l Mountains b e g i n as  rounded f o o t h i l l s w h i c h g i v e way  t o rugged mountains.  The Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench F l o o r i s o c c u p i e d by a b r o a d g e n t l y s l o p i n g c h a n n e l o f t h e Kootenay R i v e r , w h i c h f o l l o w s a s l i g h t l y meandering c o u r s e .  This  c h a n n e l i s from one h a l f t o two m i l e s w i d e , w i t h banks up t o 100 f e e t h i g h ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955).  The r i v e r c h a n n e l i s comprised of t r e e c o v e r e d second bottoms,  t r e e d l e v e e s , and g r a s s y and swampy f l o o d p l a i n s . the  On b o t h s i d e s of t h e c h a n n e l  topography c o n s i s t s of a r o l l i n g t i l l - p l a i n , eroded by f l a t bottomed  glacial  r i v e r c h a n n e l s and s c a r r e d by more d e e p l y c u t c o u r s e s o f t r i b u t a r y streams. The t i l l - p l a i n i s marked by s c a t t e r e d h i l l s and r i d g e s of exposed b e d r o c k , numerous d r u m l i n s , kames, and e s k e r s , and o c c a s i o n a l k e t t l e h o l e s and deposits.  lacustrine  The average t i l l - p l a i n e l e v a t i o n i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2,800 f e e t , r a n g i n g  from 2,600 f e e t a t t h e 49th p a r a l l e l t o 3,400 f e e t a t C a n a l F l a t s . F i g u r e 5 shows the t o p o g r a p h i c f e a t u r e s and p l o t l o c a t i o n s of the study area.  13 Figure  5.  Topographic  8, 000ft. +  Map of  Study  Area.  14 SOILS The s o i l s i n the s t u d y a r e a were s u r v e y e d by t h e B. C. Department of A g r i c u l t u r e .  A report, published  i n 1955, i s now out of date as f a r as  the nomenclature i s concerned. The s u r v e y i n v o l v e d i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , mapping, d e s c r i p t i o n , and c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of s o i l s w h i c h o c c u r i n t h e a r e a . each s e r i e s b e i n g a s o i l d e r i v e d  The s o i l s were mapped as s e r i e s ,  from one k i n d of p a r e n t m a t e r i a l t h a t o c c u p i e s  one d r a i n a g e p o s i t i o n ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955). The major Great S o i l Groups found i n the a r e a i n c l u d e Dark Gray, Brown Wooded, Gray Wooded, A c i d Brown Wooded, Humic G l e y s o l s , and R e g o s o l s . As complete d e s c r i p t i o n s o f t h e s o i l s e r i e s p r o f i l e s a r e i n c l u d e d i n the s o i l Survey Report ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955), they w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d  in  detail. Figure  6 i l l u s t r a t e s t h e modal s o i l p r o f i l e s f o r each Great S o i l Group  as found i n the f i e l d .  No attempt was made t o d i v i d e t h e Great S o i l Groups i n t o  s e r i e s , b u t the p r o f i l e s c o v e r t h o s e most commonly found. The d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o i l s i n the mapped a r e a i s shown i n F i g u r e The s o i l s a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two b r o a d c l a s s e s :  u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Dark Gray  7. and  Brown Wooded S o i l s , and u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Gray Wooded and A c i d Brown Wooded Soils.  Humic G l e y s o l and R e g o s o l s a r e n o t shown on the map  as they comprise a  v e r y narrow s t r i p a l o n g t h e b o r d e r s of t h e E l k and Kootenay R i v e r s and do not c o v e r a s u f f i c i e n t a r e a t o be mapped.  D e t a i l e d maps showing t h e l o c a t i o n of  the s o i l s e r i e s a r e c o n t a i n e d i n the S o i l Survey Report ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955). T a b l e 2 i l l u s t r a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l s o i l s e r i e s by G r e a t S o i l Group. Report ( K e l l y and S p r o u t , 1955).  The T a b l e i s adapted from the S o i l  Survey  and  15 F i g u r e 6.  I  30"  Modal  Great  Soil Group  '  Profiles.  1  Dark  Gray  1  1  1  Brown Wooded  Gray  •3 0" Acid Brown Wooded  Humic GleysoI  Regosol  Wooded  16  Figure  7.  Distribution  of  Soils.  ..._..<^L 17° W  " °  .  1|.. ™ 4  115°  6  H4°W  U.SA. Scale Plot  Undifferentiated  Dark Gray and  Brown Wooded  1 in. - 30 miles Locations •  Soils  Undifferentiated Gray W o o d e d and A c i d Brown Wooded Soils  17  T a b l e 2. R e l a t i o n s h i p between S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l s and S o i l S e r i e s by G r e a t S o i l Group SOIL PARENT MATERIAL  GREAT SOIL GROUP G l a c i a l Parent M a t e r i a l s Dark Gray  Brown Wooded  Gravelly Glacial River Deposits  Elko,. Hyak,  Elko 1 Hyak Michel,  Sandy G l a c i a l Deposits  Flagstone^  Flagstone^  Craha^  Crahan^ Oldtown,. Wardrop  Glacial  Wycliffe2  Wycliffe^ Wycliffe^ Wycliffe^  Hosmer Kinbasket Flatbpw  Cocatoj Cocato,. Soil k Soil C Soil D Soil E  Mayook^  Abruzzi^ Mayook^ Abruzzi_ Hornickle^ Hornickle2 Mayook2 Sparwood  Till  S i l t and C l a y G l a c i a l River and Lake D e p o s i t s  Mayook^  Gray Wooded  A c i d Brown Wooded  Podzol  Elko Michel„ 3  2  Soil B  z  Post G l a c i a l Parent M a t e r i a l s  A l l u v i a l Fans  Key:  Brown Wooded  Gray Wooded  A c i d Brown Wooded  Regosol  Humic G l e y s o l s and Regosols  Wigwamj Wigwam^  Wigwam^  Wigwam^  Wigwam  Crowsnest Salishan^ Salisha^ Wigwam2  1 o r no s u b s c r i p t  -  corresponds t o t h e type p r o f i l e  2, 3, 4, 5, and 6  -  mapped as a s i n g l e s o i l s e r i e s on t h e s o i l s map but h a v i n g a p r o f i l e t h a t d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o the type p r o f i l e  18  TREE SPECIES The a r e a can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e f o r e s t r e g i o n s based on Rowe's F o r e s t Regions o f Canada (Rowe, 1959).  The r e g i o n s a r e :  1)  G r a s s l a n d - s o u t h e r n Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench  2)  Montane  floor,  - n o r t h e r n Rocky Mountain Trench f l o o r and s l o p e s of the P u r c e l l and Rocky  3)  Columbia  lower  Mountains,  - Elk River Valley.  T h i r t e e n t r e e s p e c i e s were encountered c o v e r i n g any a p p r e c i a b l e a r e a .  The  i n the a r e a , w i t h o n l y f o u r  f o u r major s p e c i e s found were P i n u s ponderosa  Laws., P i n u s c o n t o r t a Dougl. v a r l a t i f o l i a Engelm., Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i ( M i r b . ) F r a n c o , and P i c e a g l a u c a (Moench) Voss.  The minor s p e c i e s i n c l u d e d L a r i x  o c c i d e n t a l i s N u t t . , Thuj a p l i c a t a Donn, P i n u s m o n t i c o l a D o u g l . , ]?.  albicaulis  Engelm., A b i e s l a s i o c a r p a (Hook.) N u t t . , B e t u l a p a p y r i f e r a Marsh.,  Populus  t r e m u l o i d e s M i c h x . , P_. t r i c h o c a r p a T o r r . , and Gray, and J u n i p e r u s scopulorum Sarg. The  f o u r major s p e c i e s can be s e p a r a t e d on t h e b a s i s of  l o c a t i o n and Great S o i l Group. D o u g l a s - f i r (Pseudotsuga  geographic  G e n e r a l l y ponderosa p i n e (Pinus ponderosa) and  m e n z i e s i i ) were found i n the Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench on  t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Dark Gray and Brown Wooded Great S o i l Groups, w h i l e l o d g e p o l e p i n e ( P i n u s C o n t o r t a v a r . l a t i f o l i a ) and w h i t e s p r u c e  ( P i c e a g l a u c a ) were  found on t h e u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d Gray Wooded and A c i d Brown Wooded Great S o i l Groups. White spruce and deciduous  s p e c i e s were found on t h e Humic G l e y s o l and  Great S o i l Groups (Table 7 ) .  Regosol  19  DISTRIBUTION OF MAJOR TREE SPECIES IN RELATION TO CLIMATE AND  SOILS  I n a study of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of D o u g l a s - f i r , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , ponderosa p i n e and w h i t e s p r u c e i n the Kootenay and E l k R i v e r V a l l e y s (Quenet, i t was  found t h a t the a v a i l a b i l i t y of s o i l w a t e r was  f a c t o r determining was  the range of t h e s e s p e c i e s .  t h e s i n g l e most  I t was  important  a l s o noted that  a s t r o n g c o r r e l a t i o n between s p e c i e s d i s t r i b u t i o n and g r e a t s o i l  1967)  there  group.  These f i n d i n g s s u b s t a n t i a t e the works of Daubenmire (1943) and McLean and Holland  (1958).  LITERATURE REVIEW The  Canada Land I n v e n t o r y was  on the a l t e r n a t i v e uses of m a r g i n a l  designed to provide t e c h n i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n  and s u b m a r g i n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d .  m i n a t i o n of the l a n d c a p a b i l i t y f o r i n v e n t o r y  (McCormack, 1965).  .... As a g e n e r a l r u l e the f o l l o w i n g p r o c e d u r e s are recommended: 1. The s e p a r a t i o n of the l a n d s u r f a c e i n t o homogenous u n i t s f o r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be on the b a s i s of p h y s i c a l characteristics. 2. Assignment of each u n i t t o a c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s w i l l be on the b a s i s of a l l known or i n f e r r e d i n f o r m a t i o n about the u n i t i n c l u d i n g s u b - s o i l , s o i l p r o f i l e , s o i l d e p t h , m o i s t u r e , f e r t i l i t y , l a n d f o r m , c l i m a t e , and vegetation. 3. For c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s 1 no l i m i t i n g f a c t o r s w i l l be shown. For a l l o t h e r c l a s s e s the i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s t o growth w h i c h account f o r the placement i n a g i v e n c l a s s w i l l be s t a t e d i n the symbol. The degree of l i m i t a t i o n , and not the k i n d , w i l l d e t e r m i n e the c l a s s : a g i v e n c l a s s may embrace u n i t s of l a n d w i t h a wide v a r i e t y of l i m i t a t i o n s but the degree of l i m i t a t i o n t o growth of each o f them w i l l be the same. Thus the c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i n d i c a t e s the degree of l i m i t a t i o n and the s u b c l a s s i n d i c a t e s the n a t u r e of the l i m i t a t i o n . 4.  Both m i n e r a l and o r g a n i c s o i l s w i l l be  classified.  Deter-  20 5. A s s o c i a t e d w i t h each c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i s a product i v i t y c l a s s based on the mean a n n u a l increment of the b e s t s p e c i e s or group of s p e c i e s adapted t o the s i t e , a t o r n e a r r o t a t i o n age. P r o d u c t i v i t y classes are e x p r e s s e d i n g r o s s merchantable c u b i c f o o t volume t o a minimum d i a m e t e r of f o u r i n c h e s i n s i d e b a r k . The p r o d u c t i v i t y h e r e s h o u l d be t h a t of "normal"; t h a t i s , f u l l y s t o c k e d s t a n d s . T h i n n i n g s , b a r k , and b r a n c h wood w i l l not be i n c l u d e d . 6. Since t h i s i s a c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , l o c a t i o n , a c c e s s , or p r e s e n t s t a t e w i l l not i n f l u e n c e the c l a s s designation. Present production, unless i t r e f l e c t s p r o d u c t i v i t y , w i l l o n l y be used as a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h w h i c h to r a t e the c a p a b i l i t y . 7. The i n d i c a t o r t r e e s p e c i e s , o r group of s p e c i e s , w h i c h are expected t o y i e l d the p r o d u c t i v i t y w i l l be shown, when p o s s i b l e . 8. I t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t , w i t h improved f o r e s t management and p r a c t i c e s , the p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s may change; however, s i n c e the c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s e s are based p r i m a r i l y on permanent p h y s i c a l l i m i t a t i o n s to growth they s h o u l d not change. A g e n e r a l d e s c r i p t i o n of the p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s w i l l be i n c l u d e d the d i s c u s s i o n  of the b i o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s o f the r e s u l t s of the  A b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n of the l a n d c a p a b i l i t y s u b c l a s s e s  in  analyses.  follows:  S u b c l a s s e s a r e c l a s s d i v i s i o n s t h a t have the same k i n d of l i m i t a t i o n s to f o r e s t growth. I t must be s t r e s s e d t h a t o n l y l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t growth a r e to be c o n s i d e r e d and r e c o g n i z e d o n l y as they a f f e c t growth. For convenience of d e s c r i p t i o n the s u b l c a s s e s may be grouped i n t o l i m i t a t i o n s due t o c l i m a t e , s o i l m o i s t u r e , p e r m e a b i l i t y and r o o t i n g d e p t h , f e r t i l i t y o r h i g h l e v e l s of t o x i c e l e m e n t s , s t o n i n e s s and i n n u n d a t i o n . Numerous systems f o r the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o r e s t l a n d have been p r o p o s e d , u s i n g many approaches.  F o r e s t l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n systems and  proaches have been d i s c u s s e d by Brown (1953), Carmean (1954), C o i l e C o i l e and  Schumacher (1953), Heimberger (1941), H i l l s  (1949, 1950,  ap-  (1952), 1952,  1960,  21 1966), H i l l s and P i e r p o i n t (1960), Holmes (1961), K r a j i n a (1959), L i n t e a u (1955), L a c a t e (1961, 1965, 1966), L a c a t e , S p r o u t , A r l i d g e and Moss (1965), LaFond (1958), Lemieux (1961), Long (1953), L u t z (1958), McCormack (1965), Rennie (1962), Rowe (1959, 1962), S p i l s b u r y and Smith (1942), and Warrack and F r a s e r (1955). The works o f Auten (1945), B a j z a k (1960), Copeland  (1958), Cox and  McConnel and Mathew (1958), D e l l a - B i a n c a and O l s o n (1961), D u f f y (1965), D o o l i t t l e  (1957), E i n s p a h r (1951), E i s (1962), L i n n a r t z (1963), Meyers and VanDeusen (1960), R a l s t o n (1951), Smith and K e r (1956), and S t e i n b r e n n e r (1965) have shown r a t h e r c o n c l u s i v e l y t h a t p r o d u c t i v i t y c a n be p r e d i c t e d from q u a n t i t a t i v e measurements of  environmental f a c t o r s .  The v a r i a b l e s measured i n c l u d e t o t a l s o i l  depth,  e f f e c t i v e s o i l depth, s o i l h o r i z o n depth, s o i l organic matter content, t e x t u r e , p e r m e a b i l i t y , d r a i n a g e , w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y , depth t o w a t e r t a b l e , and topog r a p h i c f a c t o r s such as s l o p e , p o s i t i o n on s l o p e , exposure, a s p e c t , and microtopography. I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s on p r o d u c t i v i t y v a r i e s w i t h t h e g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n and s p e c i e s . To d e s i g n a t e p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s i n a p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , i t i s n e c e s s a r y to sample t h e p o p u l a t i o n o f t r e e s o c c u r r i n g on t h e a r e a .  As i t i s i m p r a c t i c a l ,  as w e l l as f i n a n c i a l l y i m p o s s i b l e , t o c a r r y o u t a 100-per cent i n v e n t o r y o f t h e l a n d c a p a b i l i t y f o r f o r e s t r y a sample o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d i n o r d e r to o b t a i n a r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n . The c e n t r a l c o n c e p t i o n o f such a s a m p l i n g problem i s t h e e x i s t e n c e of  a p o p u l a t i o n , where a p o p u l a t i o n i s an aggregate o f u n i t v a l u e s , t h e u n i t  b e i n g t h e o b j e c t upon w h i c h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n i s made, and t h e v a l u e t h e p r o p e r t y  22.  observed on t h a t o b j e c t  (USDA, 1962).  I t would appear t h a t the g r e a t e s t problem i n o b t a i n i n g a r e l i a b l e sample f o r d e t e r m i n i n g and  f o r e s t l a n d c a p a b i l i t y i s t o d e f i n e the u n i t of s a m p l i n g  the v a r i a b l e s t o be sampled.  I n s h o r t , t o d e f i n e the  I f a sample r e p r e s e n t i n g  a s p e c i f i c population  from a d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n , i t w i l l no l o n g e r r e p r e s e n t because i t w i l l f a i l t o g i v e a r e l i a b l e e s t i m a t e  population. contains i n d i v i d u a l s the o r i g i n a l  of the o r i g i n a l  population,  population.  G i v e n a t r a c t of l a n d , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o d e f i n e the p o p u l a t i o n s t r e e s t h e r e o n , i n a number of ways.  The v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n s  can be d e f i n e d  the b a s i s of p h y t o c o e n o c e s , c l i m a t i c zones, s o i l s , p h y s i o g r a p h y , and so The  s e l e c t i o n of the v a r i a b l e s t o be measured i n o r d e r t o  on  on.  describe  a g i v e n p o p u l a t i o n poses a g r e a t e r problem than t h a t of d e f i n i n g the i t s e l f , due  of  population  t o the f a c t t h a t the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s a f -  f e c t i n g t r e e growth v a r i e s w i t h g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n and  tree species.  T i s d a l e and N e l s o n (1966) d e f i n e environments as the aggregate of a l l e x t e r n a l c o n d i t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s a f f e c t i n g the l i f e and an organism.  development of  They a l s o s t a t e t h a t the most i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s known t o i n f l u e n c e  p l a n t growth i n c l u d e : 1)  temperature,  2)  water  3)  r a d i a n t energy,  4)  c o m p o s i t i o n of atmosphere,  5)  s o i l a e r a t i o n and  6)  s o i l reaction,  7)  b i o t i c f a c t o r s , and  8)  supply  supply,  c o m p o s i t i o n of s o i l a i r , •  of m i n e r a l n u t r i e n t elements.  23 Assuming a p o p u l a t i o n w i t h an i d e n t i c a l g e n e t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n , and a complete knowledge of t h e environment, i t would be p o s s i b l e t o p r e d i c t p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h a v e r y h i g h degree of a c c u r a c y .  However, as t h e g e n e t i c c o n s t i -  t u t i o n o f t r e e s v a r i e s b o t h w i t h i n and between s p e c i e s , a complete knowledge of the environment i s i m p o s s i b l e .  Thus, r e c o g n i z i n g g e n e t i c v a r i a b i l i t y and a  l i m i t e d knowledge of t h e environment, one i s f a c e d w i t h t h e problem o f r e d u c i n g g e n e t i c v a r i a b i l i t y t o a minimum by l i m i t i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n s i z e , and s e l e c t i n g those e n v i r o n m e n t a l  f a c t o r s which are important  i n determining  t r e e growth and  w h i c h a r e r e l a t i v e l y e a s i l y measured.  DETERMINATION OF FOREST LAND PRODUCTIVITY The v a r i a b l e s used t o p r e d i c t f o r e s t l a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y i n c l u d e d mean annual i n c r e m e n t ,  species composition,  e l e v a t i o n , s o i l drainage,  of growing s e a s o n , w a t e r s u r p l u s ( a f t e r T h o r n t h w a i t e ) , to lime accumulation,  length  p e r cent s l o p e , depth  g r e a t s o i l group, and s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l .  DESCRIPTION OF DATA COLLECTION 1)  Mean a n n u a l increment was measured as c u b i c f e e t p e r a c r e i n  g r o s s m e r c h a n t a b l e volume t o a minimum d i a m e t e r o f f o u r i n c h e s i n s i d e b a r k o f t h a t s p e c i e s , o r group o f s p e c i e s , b e s t adapted t o t h e s i t e . The d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f mean a n n u a l increment (MAI) was c a r r i e d out as follows: a) s e l e c t i o n of " n o r m a l " , t h a t i s f u l l y s t o c k e d , stands no o b v i o u s d e f e c t s o r s i g n s o f d i s t u r b a n c e ,  with  24 b) d e l i n e a t i o n o f p l o t s one f i f t h o f an a c r e i n e x t e n t , c) enumeration o f s p e c i e s by one-inch d) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f mean s t a n d  diameter c l a s s e s ,  diameter,  e) s e l e c t i o n and d i a m e t e r , h e i g h t and age measurements o f f i v e t r e e s h a v i n g t h e mean p l o t d i a m e t e r ;  and, based on these t r e e s d e t e r m i n a t i o n  o f t h e t r e e o f average h e i g h t and age, f) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e volume o f t h e average t r e e , volume p e r p l o t , and volume p e r a c r e , g) d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f MAI p e r a c r e (volume p e r a c r e d i v i d e d by the mean age o f t h e average t r e e ) , and, h) e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f MAI t o a 100 y e a r base u s i n g E m p i r i c a l Y i e l d Tables  ( F l i g g , 1960) compiled by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e . Subsequent t o t h e s e l e c t i o n o f a s t a n d s u i t a b l e f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y  d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h e s o i l was examined i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner: a) t h e s o i l was checked f o r u n i f o r m i t y throughout t h e p l o t , b) i f t h e s o i l d i d n o t c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s e r i e s d e s c r i p t i o n , the p l o t was e l i m i n a t e d , c) i f t h e s o i l met t h e requirements to  o f a and b a p i t was dug  t h e p a r e n t m a t e r i a l and t h e f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n s were made: 1) h o r i z o n d e s c r i p t i o n s , depth o f each h o r i z o n , and t o t a l soil  depth,  2) t e x t u r e o f each h o r i z o n by h a n d - t e x t u r i n g , 3) s o i l d r a i n a g e based on g e n e r a l t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n ,  soil  p r o f i l e development, and s o i l w a t e r content a t t h e time o f excavation,  25  4) depth t o Cca and/or depth t o s o l u b l e c a r b o n a t e  deposits  as i n d i c a t e d by e f f e r v e s c i n g when a 10% HCI s o l u t i o n was applied, 5) a s p e c t , s l o p e , p o s i t i o n on s l o p e , and e l e v a t i o n , 6) g e n e r a l  comments w h i c h supplemented t h e above  information  and e l u c i d a t e d any apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c i e s i n p r o d u c t i v i t y .  I t s h o u l d be p o i n t e d one  out t h a t a d e s c r i p t i o n as comprehensive as t h e  o u t l i n e d above was t h e e x c e p t i o n  r a t h e r than t h e r u l e .  The v a r i a t i o n s i n  the d a t a c o l l e c t e d may b e s t be demonstrated by two s o i l p r o f i l e  descriptions:  Plot # 1 G r e a t S o i l Group Subgroup S o i l Series S o i l Drainage S l o p e and A s p e c t Elevation P o s i t i o n on Slope Soil Profile Texture Comments  Gray Wooded O r t h i c Gray Wooded Kinbasket No measure 8% E No measure No measure  /  Ae 8" Sil  Bt w e l l developed  Nil  P l o t # 71 Gray Wooded B r u n o s o l i c Gray Wooded Flatbow Well drained 12 t o 15% N 2,800 f t .  G r e a t S o i l Group Subgroup S o i l Series S o i l Drainage Slope and A s p e c t Elevation P o s i t i o n on Slope Soil  Profile  Texture Comments  6"  Bf  12" 8" 26" + Ae / Bt / Cca SiL GSiL SiCL GSiL stones s c a t t e r e d throughout p r o f i l e /  p l o t not f u l l y stocked, last resort  p u t i n as  26 The number o f p l o t s l o c a t e d on each o f the v a r i o u s s o i l s e r i e s considerably.  varied  As a g e n e r a l r u l e , i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s had  been l o c a t e d on a p a r t i c u l a r s o i l s e r i e s when t h e MAI of t h a t s e r i e s showed a d e f i n i t e trend  to f a l l w i t h i n a productivity c l a s s .  There were a number o f  i n s t a n c e s where i n s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s were l o c a t e d on the s o i l s e r i e s due t o poor stand c o n d i t i o n s ,  extensive logging,  and i n a c c e s s a b i l i t y .  Subsequent t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t and measurement of t h e p l o t s , t h e l a n d s u r f a c e was s e p a r a t e d i n t o homogenous l a n d u n i t s on the b a s i s o f p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , and a s s i g n e d a p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s .  The assignment o f t h e  p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s t o t h e l a n d u n i t s was on t h e b a s i s o f t h e p l o t measurements and a l l known o r i n f e r r e d i n f o r m a t i o n  about the u n i t i n c l u d i n g s u b s o i l ,  p r o f i l e , d e p t h , w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y and r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s , form, c l i m a t e , and  land-  vegetation.  A s u b c l a s s was a s s i g n e d t o each p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s . indicates  fertility,  soil  the l i m i t a t i o n s w h i c h a f f e c t t r e e growth.  The s u b c l a s s  The assignment o f t h e  s u b c l a s s t o the p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s was on t h e b a s i s o f a l l known o r i n f e r r e d information  about the s u b s o i l , s o i l p r o f i l e , d e p t h , w a t e r a v a i l a b i l i t y ,  f e r t i l i t y , l a n d f o r m , c l i m a t e , and  vegetation.  ACCURACY OF THE ASSIGNED PRODUCTIVITY CLASSES As p r e v i o u s l y  s t a t e d , i t was c o n s i d e r e d t h a t s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s had  been l o c a t e d on a p a r t i c u l a r s o i l s e r i e s when t h e MAI o f t h a t s e r i e s showed a d e f i n i t e trend to f a l l w i t h i n a p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s .  There were, however, a  number o f i n s t a n c e s where i n s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s were l o c a t e d mentioned.  f o r reasons a l r e a d y  27 The u n i t , was any  based on the mean MAI  land  of the p l o t s l o c a t e d on t h a t s o i l s e r i e s .  s e r i e s h a v i n g a wide d e v i a t i o n i n MAI  value. and  p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s assigned to a p a r t i c u l a r s o i l s e r i e s , or  T a b l e 3 shows the mean MAI,  would show a g e n e r a l i z e d  Thus,  productivity  s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n , maximum and minimum v a l u e s ,  the number of p l o t s f o r each s o i l s e r i e s . From T a b l e 3 i t i s e v i d e n t  that:  1) i n s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s were l o c a t e d on the g r e a t m a j o r i t y to give a s u f f i c i e n t l y accurate estimation  of p r o d u c t i v i t y ,  2) on those s o i l s e r i e s where i t was been l o c a t e d , the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was  of s o i l  series  and  thought t h a t s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s  so h i g h i t was  evident that  had  insufficient  p l o t s had been l o c a t e d , or the method of s e l e c t i n g p l o t l o c a t i o n s and/or measurement of MAI  c o u l d be  improved.  I t must be s t a t e d h e r e t h a t the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s  associated  with  each s o i l s e r i e s do not n e c e s s a r i l y mean t h a t the l a n d u n i t s o c c u r r i n g w i t h i n p a r t i c u l a r s o i l s e r i e s w i l l have a MAI d e v i a t i o n of t h a t s o i l s e r i e s . s h o u l d be  considerably  however, has  The  v a r i a t i o n w h i c h corresponds to the  v a r i a t i o n i n MAI  on a p a r t i c u l a r s o i l  reduced when the a r e a i s mapped i n t o l a n d u n i t s .  a  standard series This,  not y e t been proven.  A l t e r n a t i v e methods of s a m p l i n g and  selecting plot locations w i l l  be  d i s c u s s e d i n the s e c t i o n headed ' A l t e r n a t i v e Methods f o r A s s i g n i n g P r o d u c t i v i t y Classes'. The  assignment of s u b c l a s s e s to the p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s was  based  a v a l u e judgement made by the r e s e a r c h workers engaged on the p r o j e c t , and  on  thus i s  open to q u e s t i o n . As w i t h  a l l measurements the d e t e r m i n a t i o n of MAI  I n a d d i t i o n to the e r r o r a s s o c i a t e d method of d e t e r m i n i n g MAI  with  i s subject to e r r o r .  the measurement of t r e e s on the p l o t ,  i s open to q u e s t i o n .  the  28  T a b l e 3. Summary o f Mean MAI, S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n , Maximum and Minimum V a l u e s , and Number o f P l o t s f o r each S o i l S e r i e s .  Soil  Series  Dark Gray  Mean MAI cu. f t . / a c .  Standard Deviation cu. f t . / a c .  Maximum & Minimum Values cu. f t . / a c .  Number of Plots  Soils  Elko FlagstoneHyak Mayook, W y c l i f f e.^ 2  1  18.7 52.0 41.5 19 44.7  4.6 49.9 12.0  24 109 50  16 16 33  17.4  58  25  26.5 25.5 38 43.0 69 80 51 39.9 49.0 29  5.9 2.1  38 27  22 24  25.3  82  16  10.5 5.7  67 53  25 45  3 3 2 1 3  Brown Wooded S o i l s Elkx^ Flagstone^ Hyak£ Mayook^ Michel^ Wigwam^ Wigwam, Wyclifre^ Wycliffe^ Wycliffe^  6 2 1 5 1 1 1 12 2 1  Gray Wooded S o i l s Abruzzi^ Abruzzi^ Craha^ Flatbow Hornickle^ Hornickle2 Hosmer Kinbasket Mayook2 Sparwood Wigwam^  56 57 87.5 42.0 100.5 83 76.0 42.0 72 59 65  6.4 7.0 0.7  92 49 101  83 35 100  2.8 19.0  78 73  74 20  1 1 2 3 2 1 2 6 1 1 1  29  Table 3 contd. S o i l Series  Mean MAI cu. f t . / a c .  Standard Deviation cu. f t . / a c .  Maximum & Minimum Number Values of cu. f t . / ac. Plots  Acid Brown Wooded Soils Cocato^ Cocat02 Crahan^ Elko Mayookg Miche^ 01dtown„ Soil A Soil C Soil D Soil E Wardrop Wigwam^ 3  88.7 52.3 76.0 27 37 77.3 73 84.3 99.5 44.5 47.2 130.5 62.0  22.8 11.9 2.8  114 66 78  57 45 74  31.9  106  43  20.5 3.5 9.2 12.1 9.2 1.4  105 102 51 62 137 63  64 97 38 33 124 61  26.9 5.7  137 75  64 62  12.0  55  38  6 3 2 1 1 3 1 3 2 2 6 2 2  Humic Gleysols and Regosols Crowsnest Salishan^ Salishan2 Wigwam2  95.6 69.8 109 142  5 4 1 1  Podzol Soils Cocato„ Soil B  62 46.5  1 2  Regosols Wigwam,  79  1  30  The d e t e r m i n a t i o n of MAI stand, or f u l l y stocked stand. are such t h a t "normal"  i s based on the concept  of the  "normal"  Problems a r i s e when t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s  does not r e p r e s e n t f u l l s t o c k i n g .  I t then becomes  n e c e s s a r y t o make a v i s u a l e s t i m a t e o f what c o n s t i t u t e s normal s t o c k i n g f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r a r e a , and then proceed o f a v i s u a l e s t i m a t e o f "normal"  on t h i s b a s i s .  O b v i o u s l y the  accuracy  or f u l l s t o c k i n g i s ; questionable.  The e x t r a p o l a t i o n of MAI  t o a base o f 100 y e a r s c o u l d r e s u l t i n  a c e r t a i n degree of e r r o r because: a)  a t ages below 60 y e a r s the growth and y i e l d t a b l e s are based  on r e l a t i v e l y few d a t a , hence s u b j e c t to e r r o r ; b)  f o r c e r t a i n s p e c i e s t h e MAI  than t w i c e the maximum MAI  and,  o b t a i n e d i n the f i e l d was  greater  l i s t e d i n growth and y i e l d t a b l e s f o r  that species. Subsequent work i n t h e c e n t r a l i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h Columbia r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e r e was  a s t r o n g tendency t o s e l e c t stands o c c u r r i n g on n o r t h , n o r t h -  e a s t e r n , and n o r t h - w e s t e r n  aspects.  T h i s tendency may  be e x p l a i n e d by  f a c t t h a t n o r t h e r n a s p e c t s have a more f a v o u r a b l e w a t e r regime, and as have more f u l l y s t o c k e d s t a n d s , w i t h a g r e a t e r growth p o t e n t i a l than o c c u r r i n g on s o u t h e r n  the such  stands  aspects.  As p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , p l o t s were not l o c a t e d on s o i l s w h i c h d i d not c o i n c i d e w i t h the s o i l s e r i e s d e s c r i p t i o n .  O b v i o u s l y , an a r e a mapped as a  s i n g l e s o i l s e r i e s w i l l i n c l u d e areas w h i c h do not c o i n c i d e w i t h t h e s e r i e s description. soils:  For example, a d r u m l i n i z e d t i l l p l a i n w i l l c o n s i s t o f two  the f i r s t o c c u r r i n g on the d r u m l i n s themselves;  distinct  the second o c c u r r i n g  31 i n t h e d r a i n a g e b a s i n s between t h e d r u m l i n s .  S i n c e t h e a r e a covered by t h e  d r u m l i n s u s u a l l y exceeds t h a t o f t h e d r a i n a g e b a s i n s , on t h e b a s i s o f t h e s o i l o c c u r r i n g w i l l not coincide with unsuitable  on t h e d r u m l i n s .  t h e s o i l w i l l be mapped Hence, t h e d r a i n a g e areas  the s e r i e s d e s c r i p t i o n and thus be e l i m i n a t e d  for productivity  as  determinations.  The s o u r c e s o f e r r o r i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s may be summarized as f o l l o w s : 1)  insufficient plots,  2)  t h e problem i n d e f i n i n g normal s t o c k i n g ,  3)  extrapolation  4)  t h e s t r o n g tendency t o s e l e c t p l o t s on n o r t h e r n a s p e c t s , and  5)  the exclusion  s o i l series  and i g n o r i n g s t a n d  density,  o f MAI t o a base of 100 y e a r s ,  of p l o t s from s o i l s w h i c h do n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o  descriptions.  I t has been shown t h a t t h e d a t a used t o map t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f i n d i v i d u a l s o i l s e r i e s , (Table 3 ) , have h i g h s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s be e x p e c t e d to g i v e a somewhat i n a c c u r a t e  and thus might  base from w h i c h t o a s s i g n  productivity.  A l t h o u g h no s t u d y has as y e t been u n d e r t a k e n t o a s s e s s t h e a c c u r a c y o f mapped l a n d u n i t s , i t a p p e a r s , from a v i s u a l e x a m i n a t i o n , t h a t i n some i n s t a n c e s t h e a s s i g n e d p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s i s n o t i n accordance w i t h class.  I t s h o u l d be s t r e s s e d  the true  t h a t t h i s apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c y  productivity i n mapped and  t r u e p r o d u c t i v i t y has n o t been proven.  ALTERNATIVE METHODS FOR ASSIGNING PRODUCTIVITY CLASSES The F o r e s t Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n was d e s i g n e d t o r a t e t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f f o r e s t l a n d u s i n g a system whereby t h e r a t i n g c o u l d be compared t o t h a t o f a l t e r n a t i v e l a n d uses.  I t was n o t d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e a complete  32  b a s i s f o r l a n d management. The  system p r e s e n t l y employed i s a compromise between a b r o a d r e g i o n a l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and an i n t e n s i v e management c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  As such i t has  l o s t a g r e a t d e a l o f v e r s a t i l i t y and does n o t f u l l y a c c o m p l i s h  either objective.  I t would appear t h a t two c o u r s e s o f a c t i o n can be t a k e n ; namely, t o modify t h e system t o one t h a t f u l f i l s t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f a b r o a d r e g i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , or t o a management c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , b u t n o t a c o m b i n a t i o n of b o t h .  POINT SAMPLING TECHNIQUES I t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t a system u s i n g p o i n t s a m p l i n g would provide the best foundation ductivity.  f o r a r e g i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of f o r e s t land pro-  An o u t l i n e o f t h e system and i t s advantages i s c o n t a i n e d 1)  Separation  physiographic  below.  o f t h e l a n d s u r f a c e i n t o homogeneous u n i t s based on  u n i t s w i t h i n s o i l s e r i e s p r i o r t o t h e f i e l d season.  2)  Use o f a p r i s m t o e s t a b l i s h an i n t e n s i v e sample, t h e b a s a l  area  f a c t o r o f t h e p r i s m b e i n g such t h a t 5 t o 10 t r e e s a r e s e l e c t e d p e r p o i n t sample (Smith,  1967). 3)  Determine MAI i n terms o f t o t a l c u b i c f o o t volume p e r a c r e .  4)  Check t h e b o u n d a r i e s o f mapped l a n d u n i t s i n t h e f i e l d a t t h e  time o f p l o t 5)  establishment. Use road c u t s and o c c a s i o n a l s o i l p i t s t o a i d i n t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n  of f a c t o r s l i m i t i n g t r e e growth, and check t h e v a r i a b i l i t y o f mapped s o i l s . I n t h e summer o f 1967 a p i l o t study was u n d e r t a k e n t o determine t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f a p o i n t s a m p l i n g system. r e s u l t s i s i n c l u d e d below.  A d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e methods and  33  P r o d u c t i v i t y measurements were c a r r i e d out as d e s c r i b e d i n t h e s e c t i o n headed ' D e t e r m i n a t i o n o f F o r e s t Land P r o d u c t i v i t y ' .  In addition, a point  sample was t a k e n on each p l o t u s i n g t h e p l o t c e n t r e as t h e s a m p l i n g p o i n t . F i f t y p l o t s were measured on some t h i r t e e n s o i l s e r i e s . meaningful  However,  r e s u l t s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d on o n l y f i v e s o i l s e r i e s due t o t h e low  number o f p l o t s l o c a t e d on t h e r e m a i n i n g e i g h t s o i l  series.  The method used t o determine MAI from t h e p o i n t samples i s o u t l i n e d below: 1)  summary o f t h e sampled t r e e s by diameter c l a s s e s ,  2)  c o m p u t a t i o n o f t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e i n each  diameter  c l a s s , and t o t a l number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e , 3)  computation o f t h e t r e e o f mean d i a m e t e r ,  4)  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a height-diameter  curve based on t r e e s sampled  on t h a t s o i l s e r i e s d u r i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l MAI d e t e r m i n a t i o n , 5)  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e h e i g h t o f t h e mean diameter  height-diameter  t r e e from t h e  curve,  6)  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e volume o f t h e mean t r e e from volume t a b l e s ,  7)  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e t o t a l volume p e r a c r e (volume o f mean t r e e  times t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e ) , 8)  d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h e mean annual increment  p e r a c r e ( t o t a l volume  per a c r e d i v i d e d by t h e mean age o f t h e sample t r e e s ) , and 9)  e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f MAI t o a base o f 100 y e a r s u s i n g growth and  y i e l d t a b l e s compiled by t h e B r i t i s h Columbia F o r e s t S e r v i c e .  34 A sample c a l c u l a t i o n i s i n c l u d e d below. P l o t # 2 - Vanderhoof S e r i e s - O r t h i c Gray Wooded on L a c u s t r i n e  Clay  - Lodgepole P i n e Sample Trees - 2 x 9 " ,  1 x 10", 3 x 1 1 " , 2 x 12", 1 x 13", 1 x 15"  Number o f Trees p e r A c r e u s i n g 20 b a s a l a r e a f a c t o r (BAF) p r i s m # o f t r e e s = BAF x # o f t r e e s sampled i n each d i a m e t e r c l a s s B a s a l A r e a o f each Diameter C l a s s eg. 9" d i a m e t e r c l a s s # of trees =  20 x 2 22 x 4.5 x 4.5 7 x 144  = 90.52  Mean Diameter Mean Diameter  =  ^ /Total b a s a l area per acre ( T o t a l # of trees p e r acre  C o n s t r u c t i o n o f H e i g h t - D i a m e t e r Curve s t r a i g h t l i n e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s c a r r i e d out on sample t r e e s d e t e r m i n e l i n e o f b e s t f i t ( s e e F i g u r e 8) Determination  o f H e i g h t o f Mean Tree  t a k e n from h e i g h t - d i a m e t e r  curve  eg. d i a m e t e r = 10.8", t h e r e f o r e h e i g h t = 91 f t . Volume o f Mean Tree t a k e n from volume t a b l e s = 34.0 cu. f t . Mean A n n u a l Increment volume o f mean t r e e x t o t a l # o f t r e e s p e r a c r e mean age o f sample t r e e s eg.  34.0 x 307 169  =  62 c u . f t . p e r a c r e / y r .  e x t r a p o l a t i o n t o base 100 y r s . = 87 cu. f t . p e r a c r e / y r .  DBH IN INCHES  36 T a b l e 4 c o n t a i n s a summary o f r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d c o n v e n t i o n a l and p o i n t s a m p l i n g methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  from b o t h the MAI.  The  standard  d e v i a t i o n s f o r MAI d e r i v e d from t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method i n c l u d e d a l l p l o t s whereas these d e r i v e d from t h e p o i n t s a m p l i n g method i n c l u d e d o n l y p l o t s between 5 and 11 sample t r e e s .  containing  I t was observed t h a t where t h e number o f sample  t r e e s was l e s s than 5 o r g r e a t e r than 11 t h e MAI d e r i v e d b o r e l i t t l e t o t h a t d e r i v e d from the c o n v e n t i o n a l method.  relation  However, where t h e number o f  sample t r e e s ranged between 5 and 11 t h e MAIs d e r i v e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l and p o i n t s a m p l i n g methods showed a h i g h  correlation.  T a b l e s 5 and 6 show a comparison o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l and p o i n t s a m p l i n g r e s u l t s on an i n d i v i d u a l p l o t b a s i s f o r two s o i l s e r i e s .  I n T a b l e 5 t h e number  of sample t r e e s o b t a i n e d by t h e p o i n t s a m p l i n g method, w i t h the e x c e p t i o n o f one p l o t , ranged between 5 and 11, and hence gave a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method.  I n T a b l e 6 f o u r p l o t s had over 11  sample t r e e s and i n a l l cases t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e MAI values obtained.  S i m i l a r l y , i n t h e case o f p l o t 21, h a v i n g  4 sample t r e e s ,  t h e r e was a c o n s i d e r a b l e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e MAI v a l u e s o b t a i n e d by the two methods. The u n d e r l y i n g cause of v a r i a t i o n i n the MAI v a l u e s o b t a i n e d by t h e two methods, where t h e number o f sample t r e e s t a k e n i n the p o i n t sample was than 5 o r g r e a t e r than 11, i s r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e t o e x p l a i n .  less  An e x a m i n a t i o n o f  T a b l e s 5 and 6 w i l l show t h a t the number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e , o b t a i n e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method, ranged from 310 t o 555.  The t a b l e s a l s o show t h a t  there  i s l i t t l e c o r r e l a t i o n between t h e number o f sample t r e e s o b t a i n e d by the p o i n t s a m p l i n g method and t h e number o f t r e e s p e r a c r e o b t a i n e d by t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l s a m p l i n g method.  T h i s apparent i n c o n s i s t e n c y may be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t  T a b l e 4. Summary o f R e s u l t s Obtained from b o t h C o n v e n t i o n a l (C) and P o i n t Sampling Methods (P) f o r D e t e r m i n i n g MAI. S o i l Series  Number o f Plots  Number o f Trees Measured  Number o f Trees per Acre  Mean Annual Increment cu. f t . / a c r e  Beaverley  8  85  7  425  396  60+14.2  60+15.3  Cinema  4  91  9  505  374  59 +  58 +  Cobb  4  94  9  470  520  70 + 19.9  75 + 35.7  Deserters  5  96  9  480  431  85 + 2 8 . 7  80+29.5  Vanderhoof  5  87  8  434  395  61+12.8  66+12.7  2.9  4.4  S t a t i s t i c s p r e s e n t e d i n c l u d e o n l y those p l o t s where t h e number o f t r e e s t a l l i e d on t h e p o i n t samples ranged between 5 and 11.  T a b l e 5. Comparison o f C o n v e n t i o n a l (C) and P o i n t Sampling (P) R e s u l t s on an I n d i v i d u a l P l o t B a s i s o f t h e Vanderhoof S o i l S e r i e s . P l o t //  Number o f Trees Measured  Number o f Trees per Acre  C  P  Volume o f Mean Tree cu. f t . C  Mean Annual Increment cu. f t . / acre  C  P  P  C  P  2  80  11  400  307  24.9  34.0  83  87  3  78  7  390  268  17.9  22.2  60  60  7  102  8  510  412  12.4  17.2  58  67  16  107  8  535  553  9.9  11.0  50  56  33  67  8  335  428  18.2  15.0  55  58  34  82  1  410  45  7.1  20.7  28  10  00  T a b l e 6. Comparison o f C o n v e n t i o n a l (C) and P o i n t Sampling (P) R e s u l t s on an I n d i v i d u a l P l o t B a s i s f o r t h e Cinema S o i l S e r i e s . Plot #  Number o f Trees Measured  Number o f Trees per Acre  Volume o f Mean Tree cu. f t .  Mean Annual Increment cu. f t . / acre  9  98  6  490  287  10.9  18.1  55  54  21  77  4  385  118  12.3  20.3  49  25  23  76  13  380  443  20.4  26.5  75  115  24  96  5  480  227  11.1  19.2  61  56  32  91  12  455  803  12.9  12.2  56  92  40  120  9  600  619  12.0  11.6  60  60  51  90  7  450  373  11.6  15.6  61  64  54  62  13  310  451  20.5  16.3  64  88  56  111  12  555  993  13.7  9.1  80  95  40  t h a t a l t h o u g h the number of t r e e s per a c r e i s r e l a t i v e l y u n i f o r m over a l l t h e p l o t s , t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of stems w i t h i n t h e p l o t s i s n o t u n i f o r m . I t might be j u s t i f i a b l y argued t h a t , where t h e r e i s no c o n v e n t i o n a l p l o t as a check, a p o i n t sample count of l e s s than 5 o r g r e a t e r than 11 might r e f l e c t f u l l s t o c k i n g and thus s h o u l d n o t be e l i m i n a t e d . overcome i n e i t h e r o f two ways.  T h i s problem  can be  A sample count of l e s s than 5 o r g r e a t e r  t h a n 11 c o u l d be assumed t o i n d i c a t e t h a t the s t a n d was  e i t h e r under o r o v e r -  s t o c k e d and thus s h o u l d n o t be used f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s .  A  second  and p r e f e r a b l e method would be t o e s t a b l i s h two p o i n t samples a f i x e d d i s t a n c e a p a r t u s i n g each as a check on t h e o t h e r . A s t a n d a r d c h i - s q u a r e d t e s t ( F r e e s e , 1960) was  a p p l i e d to t h e r e s u l t s  c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e 4 i n o r d e r t o check the a c c u r a c y of the p o i n t s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e a g a i n s t the a c c e p t e d c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e . a c c u r a c y of 10 p e r c e n t o f the mean MAI i t was  Assuming a r e q u i r e d  o b t a i n e d by the c o n v e n t i o n a l system,  found t h a t t h e v a l u e s o b t a i n e d by t h e p o i n t s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e were  w i t h i n the r e q u i r e d a c c u r a c y l i m i t s a t t h e 5 p e r cent p r o b a b i l i t y p r o v i d e d t h a t the number o f sample t r e e s p e r p l o t was  level  n o t l e s s than 5 o r  g r e a t e r t h a n 11. The p o i n t s a m p l i n g system i n a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g as a c c u r a t e as the c o n v e n t i o n a l system has s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t advantages. i s t h e time s a v i n g element.  The g r e a t e s t advantage  I t i s e s t i m a t e d t h a t 4 t o 5 p o i n t samples w i l l  t a k e the same amount o f time as one c o n v e n t i o n a l p l o t , a l l o w i n g f o r a g r e a t e r number of p l o t s t o be l o c a t e d . a g r e a t e r coverage productivity.  The i n c r e a s e d number o f p l o t s w i l l r e s u l t i n  of the l a n d u n i t s and thus a more a c c u r a t e e s t i m a t i o n of  F o r example, i n the p l a c e of a s i n g l e p l o t b e i n g l o c a t e d on a  41  p a r t i c u l a r a s p e c t of a d r u m l i n , 4 o r 5 p l o t s c o u l d be l o c a t e d on v a r i o u s Specifying  5 t o 10 sample t r e e s per p l o t a c t s as a c o n t r o l on s t o c k i n g  aspects. density  by e l i m i n a t i n g over or u n d e r s t o c k e d s t a n d s . REGRESSION TECHNIQUES The  d e t e r m i n a t i o n of f o r e s t l a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y by the use  e q u a t i o n s based on e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s management c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  adapts i t s e l f more t o an  intensive  I t i s not s u i t e d to a r e g i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  account of the l e n g t h of t i m e r e q u i r e d a f f e c t i n g t r e e growth.  of p r e d i c t i o n  to i n v e s t i g a t e environmental  N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t was  influences  f e l t t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n of  c o r r e l a t i o n between f o r e s t l a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y and  environmental influences  p r o v e u s e f u l i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h of the i n f l u e n c e s were most h i g h l y w i t h p r o d u c t i v i t y o f the v a r i o u s  species  on  encountered.  the would  correlated  A l s o , the i n v e s t i g a t i o n  would show where the methods of d a t a c o l l e c t i o n were u n s a t i s f a c t o r y i n terms of t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n to s t a t i s t i c a l analyses. E l e v e n v a r i a b l e s were used i n the p r o d u c t i v i t y p r e d i c t i o n s , v a r i a b l e s used i n c l u d e d MAI,  species  composition, e l e v a t i o n , s o i l  l e n g t h of growing s e a s o n , w a t e r s u r p l u s  titled  drainage,  ( a f t e r T h o r n t h w a i t e ) , per cent  depth t o l i m e a c c u m u l a t i o n , g r e a t s o i l group, and  slope,  s o i l parent m a t e r i a l .  The  v a r i a b l e s were measured o r e s t i m a t e d as  1)  MAI  was  the  follows:  measured i n c u b i c f e e t per a c r e as o u t l i n e d i n the  section  ' D e t e r m i n a t i o n of F o r e s t Land P r o d u c t i v i t y ' . 2)  S p e c i e s C o m p o s i t i o n - where s p e c i e s  independent v a r i a b l e the s t a n d was accounted f o r g r e a t e r  c o m p o s i t i o n was  used as  c o n s i d e r e d to be pure i f the major  an  species  t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t of the t o t a l number o f stems per  however, i n most cases the major s p e c i e s c e n t of the number of stems per  acre.  accounted f o r g r e a t e r  than seventy  acre; per  42  sea  3)  E l e v a t i o n was measured w i t h an a n e r o i d barometer i n f e e t above  4)  S o i l d r a i n a g e was e s t i m a t e d and p l a c e d i n c l a s s e s r a n g i n g from  level.  r a p i d l y drained t o i m p e r f e c t l y drained or gleyed.  S i n c e i t was i m p o s s i b l e t o  measure d r a i n a g e q u a n t i t a t i v e l y the d r a i n a g e c l a s s e s were coded.  In this,  and a l l subsequent c o d i n g , t h e a u t h o r used v a l u e s r a n g i n g from 2 t o 15. The code v a l u e d e s i g n a t e d was based on t h e e f f e c t t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r would have on f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y , 2 r e f e r r i n g t o t h e l o w e s t r e l a t i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y and 15 r e f e r r i n g t o t h e h i g h e s t r e l a t i v e p r o d u c t i v i t y .  I t s h o u l d be noted  that  i n no cases were p l o t s l o c a t e d on s i t e s where excess w a t e r might be d e t r i m e n t a l to t r e e growth.  The codes a s s i g n e d t o t h e d r a i n a g e c l a s s e s were: a) r a p i d l y d r a i n e d  -  2  b) w e l l d r a i n e d  -  5  -  8  -  10  e) p o o r l y d r a i n e d  -  13  f) i m p e r f e c t l y drained or gleyed  -  15  c) w e l l t o moderately d) moderately  5)  drained  drained  Length o f growing season was o b t a i n e d from c l i m a t o l o g i c a l maps  and r e c o r d e d i n number o f days. 6)  P r e c i p i t a t i o n was o b t a i n e d from c l i m a t o l o g i c a l maps and r e c o r d e d  7)  Water s u r p l u s ( a f t e r T h o r n t h w a i t e )  i n inches. was o b t a i n e d from c l i m a t o l o g i c a l  maps and r e c o r d e d i n i n c h e s . 8)  Slope was r e c o r d e d i n p e r c e n t .  9)  Depth t o l i m e a c c u m u l a t i o n was r e c o r d e d i n i n c h e s .  43  10)  The code v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o g r e a t s o i l group were based on t h e  observed c o r r e l a t i o n between g r e a t s o i l group and f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y .  The  code v a l u e s a s s i g n e d were:  11)  a) Dark Gray  -  2  b) Brown Wooded  -  4  c) Gray Wooded  -  8  d) A c i d Brown Wooded  -  12  e) Humic G l e y s o l s  -  15  The code v a l u e s a s s i g n e d t o s o i l p a r e n t m a t e r i a l were on t h e  b a s i s o f t e x t u r e and t o p o g r a p h i c p o s i t i o n .  C o a r s e - t e x t u r e d s o i l s were a s s i g n e d  low code v a l u e s due t o t h e i r poor w a t e r r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s , except i n t h e case of  t h e f l o o d p l a i n s and second bottoms where t h e poor w a t e r r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s  were supplemented by a s u p p l y o f ground w a t e r .  The codes a s s i g n e d were:  a) g r a v e l l y g l a c i a l r i v e r d e p o s i t s  -  2  b) sandy g l a c i a l d e p o s i t s  -  5  c) a l l u v i a l fans and c o l l u v i u m  -  8  d) g l a c i a l t i l l  -  10  e) s i l t and c l a y g l a c i a l r i v e r and lake deposits  -  12  f ) f l o o d p l a i n s and second bottoms  -  15  S t a t i s t i c a l Analyses A n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e and s i m p l e and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d out on t h e d a t a . A n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e ( S t e e l and T o r r i e , 1960) i s an a r i t h m e t i c method of p a r t i t i o n i n g t h e t o t a l sum o f squares i n t o components a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  44  recognized  sources of v a r i a t i o n .  The t o t a l v a r i a t i o n o f a s e t o f d a t a i s t h e  sum o f t h e squared d e v i a t i o n s about t h e g e n e r a l mean o f a l l t h e measures. component o f t h e sum o f squares n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a r e c o g n i z a b l e v a r i a t i o n i s d e s i g n a t e d as t h e e r r o r term.  The  source of  The e r r o r term corresponds t o the  measure o f v a r i a t i o n e x p e c t e d when no treatment o r o t h e r e x t e r n a l  influences  are p r e s e n t . I n o r d e r t o t e s t whether t r e a t m e n t s b e l o n g t o t h e same o r d i f f e r e n t p o p u l a t i o n means, t h e components o f t h e t o t a l sum o f squares a r e d i v i d e d by the degrees o f freedom a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r components, and t h e r a t i o of t h e t r e a t m e n t mean square t o t h e e r r o r mean square i s c a l c u l a t e d . i s d e s i g n a t e d as t h e F v a l u e o r v a r i a n c e  ratio.  This  A s i g n i f i c a n t variance  ratio  i m p l i e s t h a t a l l t h e t r e a t m e n t means do n o t b e l o n g t o t h e same p o p u l a t i o n but  i t does n o t i n d i c a t e w h i c h d i f f e r e n c e s may be c o n s i d e r e d  value  mean,  statistically  significant. Kramer's m o d i f i c a t i o n o f Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t was used t o determine s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s i n a m u l t i p l e comparison o f treatment means w i t h d i f f e r e n t numbers o f r e p l i c a t i o n s .  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y  of Kramer's m o d i f i c a t i o n has n o t as y e t been v e r i f i e d . Simple and m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n s  characterize the s t r a i g h t  l i n e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s .  I n t h e case  of a s i m p l e r e g r e s s i o n , t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e dependent and one i n d e pendent v a r i a b l e i s c h a r a c t e r i z e d .  I n t h e case o f m u l t i p l e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n s ,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e dependent and more than one independent v a r i a b l e i s characterized.  A procedure i n v o l v i n g e l i m i n a t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e s  was used t o determine t h e b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e s .  The  45 e l i m i n a t i o n o f independent v a r i a b l e s i s d i s c u s s e d  by Kozak and Smith (1965).  In b r i e f , the e l i m i n a t i o n procedure involves the e l i m i n a t i o n of the v a r i a b l e with  the smallest  regression  absolute c o n t r i b u t i o n to the variance  equation. Other s t a t i s t i c s 1)  regression  accounted f o r by t h e  calculated  include:  S t a n d a r d e r r o r e s t i m a t e - a measure o f d i s p e r s i o n about t h e  line, 2)  M u l t i p l e c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t - measures t h e degree o f  a s s o c i a t i o n between t h e dependent and independent v a r i a b l e s , 3)  R e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t - r a t e o f change o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e  w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e independent v a r i a b l e , 4)  C o e f f i c i e n t of determination - defines  the proportion  of the  sum o f squares o f t h e dependent v a r i a b l e t h a t can be a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e independent v a r i a b l e s . 5)  Standard d e v i a t i o n - a measure o f t h e d i s p e r s i o n o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l  v a l u e s about t h e i r mean, 6)  Maximum and minimum v a l u e s . Results  and D i s c u s s i o n  of Analyses  The  r e s u l t s w i l l be d e a l t w i t h i n two s e c t i o n s ; namely, t h e d e f i n i t i o n  of p o p u l a t i o n  b o u n d a r i e s , and t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v i t y w i t h i n t h e d i f f e r e n t  population  boundaries.  Population The  population  Boundaries  b o u n d a r i e s used i n t h e p r e d i c t i o n o f p r o d u c t i v i t y were:  1) t h e e n t i r e s t u d y a r e a ,  46 2) a d i v i s i o n of the s t u d y a r e a i n t o two p o p u l a t i o n s based on geog r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , i . e . the Rocky Mountain Trench and the E l k R i v e r V a l l e y , 3) a d i v i s i o n of the study a r e a i n t o f o u r p o p u l a t i o n s based on the major s p e c i e s , i . e . ponderosa  p i n e , D o u g l a s - f i r , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , and w h i t e  spruce, 4) a d i v i s i o n of t h e s t u d y a r e a i n t o f i v e p o p u l a t i o n s based on Great S o i l Group, i . e . Dark Gray, Brown Wooded, Gray Wooded, A c i d Brown Wooded, and Humic G l e y s o l . The wide v a r i a t i o n i n c l i m a t e and geology n e c e s s i t a t e d the d i v i s i o n of  the s t u d y i n t o v a r i o u s p o p u l a t i o n s .  The author f e l t t h a t d i v i s i o n s based  on  g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , s p e c i e s , and Great S o i l Group were t h e most l o g i c a l i n terms o f t h e o b j e c t i v e s of the s t u d y and ease of d e f i n i n g t h e p o p u l a t i o n s . Two of  a n a l y s e s o f v a r i a n c e were c a r r i e d out on the d a t a .  t h e s e a n a l y s e s was  The  purpose  t o determine whether t h e c h o i c e of p o p u l a t i o n s c o u l d be  j u s t i f i e d i n terms of b i o l o g i c a l phenomena. The f i r s t a n a l y s i s , T a b l e 7, shows the r e s u l t s of Kramer's M o d i f i c a t i o n of Duncan's New for  M u l t i p l e Range T e s t a p p l i e d t o t h e ranked s p e c i e s means  a l l the measured or e s t i m a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s .  An e x a m i n a t i o n of  t h e t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t G r e a t S o i l Group and water s u r p l u s gave the b e s t separation of species.  O b v i o u s l y G r e a t S o i l Group i s e a s i e r t o d e f i n e i n the  f i e l d than w a t e r s u r p l u s , and hence i s the p r e f e r r e d p o p u l a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n . the second a n a l y s i s , T a b l e 8, Kramer's M o d i f i c a t i o n of Duncan's New Range T e s t was  In  Multiple  a p p l i e d t o the ranked p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s means f o r a l l the v a r i a b l e s  measured o r e s t i m a t e d .  An e x a m i n a t i o n of the t a b l e i n d i c a t e s t h a t d r a i n a g e and  G r e a t S o i l Group gave the b e s t s e p a r a t i o n of p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s .  Again, i t  47  T a b l e 7. Kramer's M o d i f i c a t i o n of Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range A p p l i e d t o t h e Ranked S p e c i e s Means f o r a l l V a r i a b l e s . Variable  Species  Elevation i n feet  Pp 2816  Sw 3394  Df 3581  Lp 4188  Drainage coded  Pp 3.90  Df 4.94  Lp 6.78  Sw 13.4  Length o f Growing Season i n days  Lp 146  Sw 164  Df 171  PP 178  Precipitation i n inches  Pp 16.7  Df 19.2  Sw 34.3  Lp 41.9  Water S u r p l u s i n inches  Pp 2.78  Df 6.33  Sw 14.9  Lp 19.0  P e r Cent S l o p e  Sw 9.60  PP 12.8  Lp 19.8  Df 32.9  Depth t o Lime i n inches  Pp 12.2  Sw 24.3  Df 24.9  Lp 29.4  Great S o i l Group coded  Pp 3.81  Df 6.89  Lp 10.1  Sw 13.7  S o i l Parent Material coded  Pp 6.77  Lp 7.78  Df 8.89  Sw 11.1  MAI i n cu. f t .  Pp 35.4  Df 43.0  Lp 70.6  Sw 94.0  Key:  those means which a r e u n d e r l i n e d a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 95% p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l , Those means w h i c h a r e n o t u n d e r l i n e d a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 95% p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . Pp - ponderosa p i n e Df - D o u g l a s - f i r  Lp - l o d g e p o l e p i n e Sw - w h i t e spruce  48  T a b l e 8. Kramer's M o d i f i c a t i o n o f Duncan's New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t A p p l i e d to t h e P r o d u c t i v i t y C l a s s Ranked Means f o r a l l V a r i a b l e s . P r o d u c t i v i t y Class  Variable  (P.C.)  Elevation i n feet  P.C. 6 2717  P.C. 1 3100  P.C. 5 3501  P.C. 3 3716  P.C. 4 3820  P.C. 2 4144  Drainage coded  P.C. 6 3.41  P.C. 5 4.21  P.C. 4 6.10  P.C. 3 10.3  P.C. 2 11.4  P.C. 1 13.3  Length of Growing Season i n days  P.C. 6 178  P.C. 1 175  P.C. 5 171  P.C. 4 158  P.C. 3 153  P.C. 2 147  Precipitation i n inches  P.C. 6 16.9  P.C. 5 20.9  P.C. 1 32.5  P.C. 4 32.8  P.C. 3 38.4  P.C. 2 42.9  Water S u r p l u s i n inches  P.C. 6 3.29  P.C. 5 6.29  P.C. 4 13.3  P.C. 1 16.0  P.C. 3 16.0  P.C. 2 19.8  Per  P.C. 3 6.61  P.C. 1 9.75  P.C. 2 14.8  P.C. 6 17.5  P.C. 5 26.0  P.C. 4 30.9  Depth t o Lime i n inches  P.C. 6 10.7  P.C. 5 20.5  P.C. 4 24.4  P.C. 3 25.9  P.C. 2 32.0  P.C. 1 39.5  Great S o i l Group coded  P.C. 6 4.12  P.C. 5 6.64  P.C. 4 8.70  P.C. 3 10.7  P.C. 2 11.8  P.C. 1 13.3  S o i l Parent Material coded  P.C. 6 6.39  P.C. 5 7.61  P.C. 1 8.22  P.C. 2 9.22  P.C. 3 9.28  P.C. 4 9.30  Cent S l o p e  Key:  t h o s e means w h i c h a r e u n d e r l i n e d a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 95% p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l , those means w h i c h a r e n o t u n d e r l i n e d a r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t a t t h e 95% p r o b a b i l i t y l e v e l . Productivity class  (P.C.)  1 2 3 4 5 6  MAI MAI MAI MAI MAI MAI  = 111 c u . f t . + = 91 t o 110 cu. f t . = 71 t o 90 c u . f t . = 51 t o 70 cu. f t . = 31 t o 50 c u . f t . = 11 t o 30 c u . f t .  49  i s o b v i o u s t h a t d r a i n a g e i s more d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e i n t h e f i e l d than Great S o i l Group and hence Great S o i l Group i s t h e p r e f e r r e d d e f i n i t i o n . The d e f i n i t i o n o f p o p u l a t i o n b o u n d a r i e s based on s p e c i e s i s j u s t i f i a b l e i n the l i g h t of the d i f f e r e n t s i l v i c a l requirements of the s p e c i e s .  The  sharp c l i m a t i c b r e a k between t h e Rocky Mountain Trench and E l k R i v e r V a l l e y j u s t i f i e s a p o p u l a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n based on g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . The r e s u l t s c o n t a i n e d i n T a b l e 8, i n a d d i t i o n t o j u s t i f y i n g t h e use of G r e a t S o i l Group as a p o p u l a t i o n d e f i n i t i o n , s u b s t a n t i a t e t h e method and v a l u e s used i n c o d i n g o f d a t a .  P r i o r t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n of t h e t a b l e ,  i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o p o i n t out t h a t t h e ranked p o s i t i o n of p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s 1 may, i n c e r t a i n i n s t a n c e s , be i g n o r e d .  An e x a m i n a t i o n of t h e o r i g i n a l d a t a  shows, w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n , t h a t t h o s e p l o t s g i v i n g a p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s o f 1 were l o c a t e d i n s p r u c e s t a n d s . p l a i n s o f t h e Kootenay  The stands were l o c a t e d e i t h e r i n t h e f l o o d  and E l k R i v e r s o r a t r e l a t i v e l y h i g h e l e v a t i o n s i n t h e  E l k R i v e r V a l l e y , and thus comprised two p o p u l a t i o n s .  I n the analyses these  two p o p u l a t i o n s were combined and thus t h e means f o r t h e v a r i a b l e s E l e v a t i o n , Length o f Growing Season, P r e c i p i t a t i o n , Water S u r p l u s , and S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l are n o t m e a n i n g f u l . From T a b l e 8 i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t t h e coded v a l u e s f o r : 1)  Drainage a r e j u s t i f i a b l e , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e r a n k i n g o f  p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s i n n u m e r i c a l o r d e r from 6 t o 1 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n coded v a l u e s from 3.41 t o 13.25, 2)  Great S o i l Group a r e j u s t i f i e d , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e r a n k i n g o f  p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s i n n u m e r i c a l o r d e r from 6 t o 1 a s s o c i a t e d w i t h an i n c r e a s e i n coded v a l u e s from 4.12 t o 13.25,  50  3)  S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l a r e n o t j u s t i f i e d , as e v i d e n c e d by t h e l a c k  of any d e f i n i t e r a n k i n g  order.  F a i l u r e o f t h e c o d i n g system f o r S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l may be  explained  by t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h s o i l t e x t u r e d e t e r m i n e s , t o some e x t e n t , t h e w a t e r r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s , h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y , and i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e of t h e s o i l , i t does n o t r e f l e c t t h e p r e s e n c e o f seepage w a t e r o r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . c o d i n g system would work i n a u n i f o r m c l i m a t e p r o v i d e d w a t e r was t a k e n i n t o  The  t h a t t h e e f f e c t of seepage  consideration.  PREDICTION OF PRODUCTIVITY BY USE OF REGRESSION TECHNIQUES R e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s were used t o : 1) (correlation 2)  d e f i n e how c l o s e l y MAI v a r i e d w i t h t h e independent v a r i a b l e s coefficient), define the proportion  o f t h e v a r i a t i o n (sum o f s q u a r e s ) i n MAI  a t t r i b u t a b l e t o t h e independent v a r i a b l e s ( c o e f f i c i e n t o f 3)  determination),  d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between MAI and t h e independent v a r i a b l e s  as they a c t i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h one a n o t h e r , and by themselves  (regression  coefficient), 4)  d e r i v e p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n s f o r MAI based on t h e measured o r  e s t i m a t e d independent v a r i a b l e s , and 5) of  d e f i n e the accuracy of the p r e d i c t i o n equations (standard  error  estimate). PREDICTION OF PRODUCTIVITY BASED ON THE ENTIRE STUDY AREA The  p r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n s were based on a l l p l o t s i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e i r  g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n , G r e a t S o i l Group, and s p e c i e s  composition.  51  The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e regression equation MAI  =  was:  - 7 2 . 3 + 3 . 0 9 (Drainage) + 0.316 (Depth t o Lime) +1.60 (Water S u r p l u s ) + 1.20 (Great S o i l Group) - 1.10 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) + 0.429 (Length of Growing Season). Where:  the c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n = 7 4 . 3 % t h e s t a n d a r d e r r o r of. e s t i m a t e  = ± 15.3  the number of o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 97  cu. f t .  PREDICTION OF PRODUCTIVITY BASED ON GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION Two  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d out.  The f i r s t was based on  d a t a from a l l p l o t s l o c a t e d i n t h e E l k R i v e r V a l l e y ; the second on d a t a a l l p l o t s l o c a t e d i n t h e Rocky Mountain Trench. M o u n t a i n Trench v a r y markedly  from  The E l k R i v e r V a l l e y and Rocky  i n e l e v a t i o n , c l i m a t e , s p e c i e s , and  soils.  Elk River Valley The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from the m u l t i p l e regression equation  was:  MAI = -130.6 + 3 . 6 8 (Drainage) -2.63 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) + 0.975 (Length o f Growing Season) + 2.61 (Water S u r p l u s ) + 0.171 (Depth t o Lime) Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t of determination =  62.4%  standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 17 cu. f t .  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 40  Rocky M o u n t a i n Trench The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from the m u l t i p l e regression equation  was:  52  MAI  = -78.8 + 5.11 (Drainage) + 0.305 (Depth t o Lime) + 0.249 (Per Cent Slope) - 1.22 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) - 2.67 (Water S u r p l u s ) + 0.009 ( E l e v a t i o n ) + 1 . 5 (Precipitation) + 0.293 (Length o f Growing Season) Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t of determination  =  66.8%  standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 9.72  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 50  cu. f t .  PREDICTION EQUATIONS BASED ON SPECIES Four l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were conducted.  The s e p a r a t e r e g r e s -  s i o n a n a l y s e s were based on d a t a from p l o t s h a v i n g g r e a t e r than 50 p e r cent o f t h e stems per a c r e o f the p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s b e i n g a n a l y z e d .  Ponderosa P i n e The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e regression equation MAI  was:  = -86.5 + 0.036 ( E l e v a t i o n ) + 7 . 0 4 (Drainage) + 0 . 3 8 (Per Cent Slope) - 1.59 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t of d e t e r m i n a t i o n  =  73.9%  s t a n d a r d e r r o r of e s t i m a t e  = ± 9.22  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 31  cu. f t .  Douglas-Fir The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from the m u l t i p l e regression equation MAI  was:  = 6.72 + 0.365 (Per Cent Slope) + 1.15 ( P r e c i p i t a t i o n ) + 1.95 (Drainage) - 1.40 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) + 0.719 (Great S o i l Group)  53  Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t of determination  = 60.2%  standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 7.46 c u . f t .  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 18  Lodgepole P i n e The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was: MAI = 41.36 + 3.54 (Drainage) + 0.832 (Water S u r p l u s ) - 1.35 ( S o i l Parent M a t e r i a l ) Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t of determination  =56.3%  standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 14.2 c u . f t .  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 32  White Spruce The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was: MAI = -484.0 + 2 . 5 0 (Length o f Growing Season) + 6 . 0 8 (Drainage) + 0.732 ( P e r Cent Slope) + 9 . 1 9 ( P r e c i p i t a t i o n ) - 4.96 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) - 15.10 (Water S u r p l u s ) Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n = 89.0% standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 14.90 c u . f t .  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 16  PREDICTION EQUATIONS BASED ON GREAT SOIL GROUPS F i v e l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were c a r r i e d o u t , t h e s e p a r a t e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s were based on d a t a from t h e p l o t s o c c u r r i n g on each Great S o i l Group.  54  Dark Gray The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was: MAI = -70.77 + 7 . 3 2 (Drainage) + 0.031 ( E l e v a t i o n ) - 2.68 P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) + 0.336 ( P e r Cent S l o p e ) Where:  (Soil  c o e f f i c i e n t of determination  = 92.3%  standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 5.8 c u . f t .  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 11  Brown Wooded The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was: MAI = -18.84 + 2.68 ( P r e c i p i t a t i o n ) + 2.98 (Drainage) + 0.430 (Depth t o Lime) - 2.87 (Water S u r p l u s ) Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n = 49.6% standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 11.99 c u . f t .  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 27  Gray Wooded The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n was: MAI = 9.02 + 2.57 ( P r e c i p i t a t i o n ) +.4.33 (Drainage) - 1.73 P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) - 3.38 (Water S u r p l u s ) Where:  (Soil  c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n = 70.6% standard e r r o r of estimate  = ± 12.4 c u . f t .  number of o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 20  55 A c i d Brown Wooded The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from the m u l t i p l e regression equation MAI  was:  = -59.69 + 3.13 (Drainage) + 0.479 (Depth t o Lime) - 3.77 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) +4.15 (Water S u r p l u s ) + 0 . 6 3 (Length of Growing Season) - 1.13 ( P r e c i p i t a t i o n ) Where:  c o e f f i c i e n t of determination =  70.2%  s t a n d a r d e r r o r of e s t i m a t e  = + 17.0  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 30  Humic G l e y s o l s and  cu. f t .  Regosols  The b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from the m u l t i p l e regression equation MAI  was:  = 130.7 - 7.44 ( S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l ) +1.44 + 4 . 5 3 (Drainage) Where:  ( P e r Cent S l o p e )  c o e f f i c i e n t of d e t e r m i n a t i o n =  82.3%  standard e r r o r of estimate  = + 15.0  number o f o b s e r v a t i o n s  = 9  cu. f t .  B e f o r e p r o c e e d i n g , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o e x p l a i n what i s meant by  'The  b e s t e q u a t i o n f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from t h e m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n ' and the appearance of S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l i n the e q u a t i o n s . As p r e v i o u s l y mentioned, a procedure developed by Kozak and (1965), i n v o l v i n g the e l i m i n a t i o n of s i n g l e independent to determine  the b e s t c o m b i n a t i o n of independent  v a r i a b l e s , was  variables.  Smith used  The b e s t e q u a t i o n  f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y from the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i s t h a t e q u a t i o n w h i c h g i v e s t h e b e s t compromise between a h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t of d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a low number o f i n e x p e n s i v e l y measured independent  variables,  56 and a low s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e .  T a b l e 9 shows the e l i m i n a t i o n of i n d e -  pendent v a r i a b l e s from the m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n f o r MAI  of the e n t i r e  study area. An e x a m i n a t i o n of the t a b l e shows t h a t e q u a t i o n 4 g i v e s the b e s t compromise between a h i g h c o e f f i c i e n t of d e t e r m i n a t i o n , a low number of i n d e pendent v a r i a b l e s , and a low s t a n d a r d e r r o r o f e s t i m a t e .  The decrease i n the  c o e f f i c i e n t of d e t e r m i n a t i o n from e q u a t i o n 1 to e q u a t i o n 4 i s 0.004, o r  0.4  p e r c e n t , whereas the decrease i n the c o e f f i c i e n t o f d e t e r m i n a t i o n from e q u a t i o n 1 t o e q u a t i o n 5 i s 0.021, o r 2.1 p e r c e n t .  The number o f independent  variables  i n e q u a t i o n 4 has decreased from 9, i n e q u a t i o n 1, t o 6, and the s t a n d a r d e r r o r of e s t i m a t e of e q u a t i o n 4 i s lower than t h a t o f any o t h e r e q u a t i o n . I t was  s t a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t t h e f a i l u r e of the c o d i n g system f o r S o i l  P a r e n t M a t e r i a l may  be e x p l a i n e d by t h e f a c t t h a t a l t h o u g h s o i l t e x t u r e d e t e r -  mines, t o some e x t e n t , the w a t e r r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s , h y d r a u l i c c o n d u c t i v i t y and i n f i l t r a t i o n r a t e of t h e s o i l , i t does not r e f l e c t the presence o f seepage w a t e r o r c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s . When S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l i s used i n a r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h o t h e r independent  v a r i a b l e s r e f l e c t i n g the  presence  o f seepage w a t e r and c l i m a t i c c o n d i t i o n s , then the c o d i n g system i s j u s t i f i e d .  COMPARISON OF POINT SAMPLING AND REGRESSION TECHNIQUES FOR DETERMINING FOREST LAND PRODUCTIVITY I t has been shown t h a t the p o i n t s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f o r e s t l a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y gave a h i g h c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d by the c o n v e n t i o n a l method ( T a b l e s 4, 5 and 6 ) . To determine the a c c u r a c y of the r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f o r e s t l a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y , the W y c l i f f e . S e r i e s found on the Brown Wooded Great  T a b l e 9. E l i m i n a t i o n o f Independent V a r i a b l e s from M u l t i p l e MAI of t h e E n t i r e Study A r e a Equation  CD  SEe  Const  Regression Drain  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Key:  .747 .746 .745 .743 .721 .709 .691 .664 .548 CD SEe Const Drain DTL WS GSG SPM LGS Elev %S Ppt  -  15.49 15.43 15.37 15.34 15.91 16.16 16.57 17.69 19.18  -50.96 -43.86 -45.29 -73.22 15.11 9.81 13.43 14.91 24.51  Regression Equations f o r  3.48** 3.80** 3.72** 3.90** 4.17** 3.68** 4.23** 4.90** 5.08**  DTL .304** .332** .340** .316** .317** .296** .341** .486**  C o e f f i c i e n t of Determination Standard E r r o r o f E s t i m a t e Constant Term, o r Y i n t e r c e p t S o i l Drainage Depth t o Lime Water S u r p l u s Great S o i l Group S o i l Parent M a t e r i a l Length o f Growing Season Elevation P e r Cent Slope Precipitation  WS 1.21 1.67** 1.65** 1.60** .562** .664** .848**  ** *  Coefficients  GSG  SPM  1.25* 1.26* 1.28* 1.20* 1.32* 1.26*  -1.11 -1.05 - .99 -1.10* -1.02  LGS  Elev  %S  .404* .385 .388 .492*  -.004 -.004 -.004  .046 .043  - S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 99% probability level - S i g n i f i c a n t a t t h e 95% probability level  58 S o i l Group was  s e l e c t e d because i t had a r e l a t i v e l y wide range i n MAI  and  a  l a r g e number o f p l o t s . The method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the MAI v a l u e s from the r e g r e s s i o n was  c a r r i e d out as 1)  equation  follows:  the d a t a f o r a l l p l o t s l o c a t e d on the W y c l i f f e ^ S e r i e s were  summarized, 2)  the i n d i v i d u a l p l o t d a t a were s u b s t i t u t e d i n t o the e q u a t i o n  MAI = -18.84 + 2.68 ( P r e c i p i t a t i o n ) + 2.98 Lime) -2.87 (Water S u r p l u s ) 3)  the s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n was  (Drainage) + 0.43  (Depth t o  calculated.  T a b l e 10 shows the comparison of the r e s u l t s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l and regression  techniques f o r determining  MAI.  T a b l e 10. Comparison of R e s u l t s of t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l and R e g r e s s i o n Techniques f o r D e t e r m i n i n g MAI on the W y c l i f f e ^ S e r i e s . P l o t Number  10 61 62 63 64 65 66 82 85 86 93 94 95 Mean MAI = 40 + 11.2  MAI  Determinations cu. f t . / a c . Conventional Regression 38 67 30 45 37 39 38 39 40 25 25 53 45 cu. f t . / a c .  38 + 5.3  32 35 35 48 43 33 40 40 34 37 37 31 46 cu.  59 From T a b l e 10 i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t w h i l e t h e r e g r e s s i o n MAI d e t e r m i n a t i o n s on an i n d i v i d u a l p l o t b a s i s showed, i n some c a s e s , a wide v a r i a t i o n from t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h e mean r e g r e s s i o n MAI was almost  identical  t o t h e mean c o n v e n t i o n a l MAI and had a s m a l l e r s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n than t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l MAI. T a b l e 11 shows t h e comparison o f r e s u l t s o f c o n v e n t i o n a l and r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g MAI f o r those s e r i e s on w h i c h 5 o r more p l o t s were l o c a t e d . T a b l e 11. Comparison o f R e s u l t s o f t h e C o n v e n t i o n a l and R e g r e s s i o n Techniques f o r D e t e r m i n i n g MAI on Four S o i l S e r i e s . S o i l Series  Great S o i l Group  MAI and Standard D e v i a t i o n i n cu. f t . / a c . Conventional Method  Regression Method  1  Brown Wooded  28 +  6:2  26 +  8.9  Wycliffe^  Brown Wooded  41 + 10.7  38+  5.3  Kinbasket  Gray Wooded  42 + 17.4  49 + 21.9  Crowsnest  Humic G l e y s o l  96 + 26.9  93 + 27.0  Elko  From T a b l e 11 i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t w h i l e t h e r e i s some degree o f v a r i a t i o n between t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method and t h e r e g r e s s i o n method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g MAI, t h e r e s u l t s a r e s u f f i c i e n t l y c l o s e t o j u s t i f y t h e use o f r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g MAI. The use o f r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g MAI has two d i s t i n c t advantages over t h e p o i n t s a m p l i n g method. 1)  These a r e :  t h e method a l l o w s f o r p r o d u c t i v i t y d e t e r m i n a t i o n s on areas where  s t a n d c o n d i t i o n s p r e c l u d e t h e d i r e c t measurement o f MAI,  60  2)  t h e c o l l e c t i o n of s o i l and c l i m a t i c d a t a a l l o w s f o r a more  a c c u r a t e assignment o f p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b c l a s s e s . The d i s a d v a n t a g e s o f u s i n g r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g productivity are: 1) per p l o t ,  t h e method i s time consuming, t a k i n g a p p r o x i m a t e l y two  hours  and 2)  i t i s more c o s t l y , r e q u i r i n g t h e use o f a computer.  RECOMMENDED TECHNIQUE FOR DETERMINING FOREST LAND PRODUCTIVITY FOR THE ARDA LAND CLASSIFICATION Three a l t e r n a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f o r e s t l a n d product i v i t y have been d i s c u s s e d and compared.  From t h e r e s u l t s of  comparisons  of a c c u r a c y , a l l g i v e a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same a c c u r a c y and t h e r e f o r e t h i s i s n o t a c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e c h o i c e of method. The major c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n t h e c h o i c e of t e c h n i q u e s appears t o be t h e amount of time r e q u i r e d f o r the measurement of MAI  from t h e stands e s t a b -  l i s h e d on the p a r t i c u l a r s o i l s e r i e s b e i n g i n v e s t i g a t e d . measurement of MAI  For the d i r e c t  from p r e s e n t l y e x i s t i n g s t a n d s , the p o i n t s a m p l i n g  appears t o be s u p e r i o r t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e .  technique  However, subsequent  work by t h e a u t h o r on Vancouver I s l a n d tends t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e p o i n t s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e g i v e s c o n s i s t e n t l y h i g h MAI v a l u e s when compared t o t h e MAIs d e r i v e d from o n e - t w e n t i e t h a c r e p l o t s .  T a b l e 12 shows a comparison  of  d e r i v e d from p o i n t samples and o n e - t w e n t i e t h a c r e p l o t s i n the Lake Cowichan D i s t r i c t o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  I t s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e v a l i d i t y o f the  use o f o n e - t w e n t i e t h a c r e p l o t s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g MAI has not y e t been v e r i f i e d and hence t h e r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d from t h i s system may  be s u s p e c t .  61 T a b l e 12.  'lot No.  Comparison o f MAIs D e r i v e d from O n e - t w e n t i e t h A c r e P l o t s and P o i n t Samples i n t h e Lake Cowichan D i s t r i c t o f Vancouver I s l a n d .  Landform and S o i l P a r e n t M a t e r i a l  Stand Age years  Mean Annual Increment cu. f t . / ac. One-twent i e t h P o i n t Sample Acre P l o t  1 2  A l l u v i a l Cone - A l l u v i u m A l l u v i a l Cone - A l l u v i u m  38 36  187 205  133 251  3 11  A l l u v i a l Fan - A l l u v i u m A l l u v i a l Fan - A l l u v i u m  38 45  213 181  228 215  6 8  Delta - Alluvium Delta - Alluvium  49 47  231 308  250 253  4 5  Mountain S i d e - A b l a t i o n T i l l Mountain S i d e - A b l a t i o n T i l l  48 43  169 197  199 268  7 9 10  Mountain S i d e - A b l a t i o n T i l l Mountain Side - A b l a t i o n T i l l Mountain S i d e - A b l a t i o n T i l l  50 48 47  302 265 199  360 304 262  From t h e p r e c e e d i n g d i s c u s s i o n i t i s obvious t h a t t h e optimum s a m p l i n g system, i n terms o f a c c u r a c y and t i m e , f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e p o t e n t i a l MAI has y e t t o be developed. s a m p l i n g systems w i l l  I t may w e l l be t h a t a c o m b i n a t i o n o f  g i v e t h e b e s t r e s u l t s ; t h e s a m p l i n g system  depending upon t h e l o c a l  used  conditions.  P r e d i c t i o n e q u a t i o n s can be d e r i v e d from t h e d i r e c t measurement o f MAI u s i n g p o i n t s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s and measurement o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s . I t i s t h e a u t h o r ' s o p i n i o n t h a t t h e a d d i t i o n a l time r e q u i r e d t o measure o r e s t i m a t e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s , and t o conduct an i n t e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e s o i l , does n o t w a r r a n t t h e advantages  r e s u l t i n g from t h e use o f p r e d i c t i o n  e q u a t i o n s i n a b r o a d r e g i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n such as t h e Canada Land I n v e n t o r y . Doug las-fir  62 ASSIGNMENT OF PRODUCTIVITY SUBCLASSES The  p r o d u c t i v i t y subclass  l i m i t a t i o n s t o t r e e growth.  i n d i c a t e s the nature of the environmental  The p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b c l a s s e s  l i m i t a t i o n s due t o c l i m a t e , s o i l w a t e r , p e r m e a b i l i t y  and r o o t i n g depth,  or h i g h l e v e l s of t o x i c e l e m e n t s , s t o n i n e s s , i n u n d a t i o n The  and a c t i v e  fertility  erosion.  assignment o f a p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s i s on t h e b a s i s o f a l l known  or i n f e r r e d information ability, fertility, The  a r e grouped i n t o  about t h e s u b s o i l , s o i l p r o f i l e , d e p t h , w a t e r a v a i l -  l a n d f o r m , c l i m a t e , and v e g e t a t i o n .  assignment o f a p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b c l a s s  excess s o i l w a t e r , s h a l l o w  based on l i m i t a t i o n s due t o  r o o t i n g depth, s t o n i n e s s , and a c t i v e e r o s i o n i s  r e l a t i v e l y s i m p l e and r e l i a b l e owing t o t h e ease o f r e c o g n i z i n g However, t h e assignment o f p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b c l a s s e s  based on l i m i t a t i o n s due t o  c l i m a t e , a v a i l a b l e s o i l w a t e r , p e r m e a b i l i t y , and f e r t i l i t y t o x i c elements i s more complex.  these c o n d i t i o n s .  or high l e v e l s of  T h i s c o m p l e x i t y i s due t o t h e d i f f i c u l t y i n  d e t e r m i n i n g t h e degree t o w h i c h these f a c t o r s l i m i t t r e e growth. the assignment o f s u b c l a s s e s  I n the past,  has been based on a v a l u e judgement made by t h e  r e s e a r c h workers engaged on t h e p r o j e c t , and thus a r e open t o q u e s t i o n . I t was h y p o t h e s i z e d t h a t t h e c a l c u l a t i o n of a s i m p l e r e g r e s s i o n  analysis  between MAI and the i n d i v i d u a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s would i n d i c a t e t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e most h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d w i t h p r o d u c t i v i t y , and thus be more l i k e l y t o l i m i t t r e e growth when d e f i c i e n t o r e x c e s s i v e .  This  approach  works i n p a r t , b u t i s n o t e n t i r e l y s a t i s f a c t o r y . The  drawbacks i n c l u d e :  1)  t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between MAI and t h e measured,  o r e s t i m a t e d , e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s on Humic G l e y s o l s  and R e g o s o l s ,  63 2)  where t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between MAI and any  p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e , i t i s n o t an i n d i c a t i o n t h a t t h i s f a c t o r does n o t l i m i t t r e e growth; t h e l a c k o f a s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n may be due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p a r t i c u l a r f a c t o r i s u n i f o r m w i t h i n t h e p a r t i c u l a r population, 3)  where t h e r e i s no s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n between MAI and a  p a r t i c u l a r e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e , i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o determine t h e optimum v a l u e o f t h a t f a c t o r and t h e n , assuming a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n , t h a t f a c t o r must be c o n s i d e r e d  l i m i t i n g a t any v a l u e below t h e optimum v a l u e ; however, t h e  maximum v a l u e observed i n the f i e l d may n o t be t h e t r u e optimum, 4)  t h e method p r o v i d e s  no i n d i c a t i o n as t o w h i c h o f two o r more  f a c t o r s has t h e g r e a t e s t i n f l u e n c e i n l i m i t i n g t r e e growth. I t would appear t h a t t o determine t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s on l i m i t i n g t r e e growth, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i s o l a t e each f a c t o r and determine i t s i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t . I n a s t u d y conducted by Quenet (1967) the e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s  concen-  t r a t i o n s o f CaCOg on the growth o f Pseudotsuga m e n z i e s i i , P i n u s c o n t o r t a v a r . l a t i f o l i a , and P i c e a g l a u c a s e e d l i n g s was i n v e s t i g a t e d . by  t h e a u t h o r tended t o s u p p o r t the t h e o r y  Field  t h a t t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  s h i p between t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e major c o n i f e r o u s s p e c i e s concentration  observations relation-  and t h e CaCO^  o f t h e s o i l s o c c u r r i n g i n the E l k and Kootenay R i v e r V a l l e y s .  A greenhouse e x p e r i m e n t , u s i n g n a t u r a l l y o c c u r r i n g s o i l s c o l l e c t e d from t h e a r e a , was s e t up t o determine t h e e f f e c t o f v a r y i n g c o n c e n t r a t i o n s CaCOg on the growth o f D o u g l a s - f i r , l o d g e p o l e  of  p i n e , and w h i t e s p r u c e .  Based on t h e r e s u l t s o f t h e s t u d y and an e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , i t was c o n c l u d e d t h a t :  64 1)  t h e pH o f t h e s o i l does n o t d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e growth response,  2)  under a l k a l i c o n d i t i o n s t h e c a t i o n , o r c a t i o n s , r e s p o n s i b l e f o r  t h e h i g h pH i n f l u e n c e t h e growth response through t h e i r e f f e c t on t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y o f b o t h c a t i o n s and anions by s a t u r a t i o n o f t h e exchange s i t e s and/or by r e n d e r i n g t h e i o n s u n a v a i l a b l e , 3)  t h e response o f D o u g l a s - f i r , l o d g e p o l e p i n e , and w h i t e  spruce  v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y on t h e same s o i l s , 4)  h i g h CaCO^ c o n c e n t r a t i o n depressed t h e growth o f l o d g e p o l e  to a greater extent than i t d i d e i t h e r D o u g l a s - f i r o r white 5)  pine  spruce,  t h e response o f t h e s p e c i e s t o t h e s o i l s depended, t o some e x t e n t ,  upon t h e growth parameter b e i n g measured, 6)  s e e d l i n g m o r t a l i t y was c o n f i n e d t o t h e l o d g e p o l e p i n e  seedlings  on t h o s e s o i l s h a v i n g a pH o f g r e a t e r t h a n 7.0, 7) diameter,  f o r a l l s p e c i e s t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t d e c r e a s e i n r o o t c o l l a r  s h o o t w e i g h t , r o o t w e i g h t , and h e i g h t growth from pH 5.7 t o 6.0. The  r e s u l t s b f t h i s study a r e u s e f u l t o a c e r t a i n degree i n a s s i g n i n g  productivity subclasses.  A s t a t i s t i c a l a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that  the CaCO^ c o n c e n t r a t i o n i n t h e s o i l p l a y s a r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g and t h a t i t s e f f e c t i s most s e r i o u s on l o d g e p o l e p i n e .  t r e e growth,  I t a l s o showed t h a t an  i n c r e a s e i n pH from 6.0 t o 7.4 d i d n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d e c r e a s e t h e growth response o f any measurement.  I n a d d i t i o n , i t showed t h a t t h e r e was a r e l a t i o n s h i p between  the e f f e c t o f CaCO^ and s o i l t e x t u r e ; t h e c o a r s e r t h e s o i l t e x t u r e t h e more a d v e r s e t h e e f f e c t o f a s p e c i f i c c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f CaCO^. There i s no method a v a i l a b l e f o r a c c u r a t e l y a s s i g n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y subclasses.  T h e r e f o r e , i t appears t h a t f o r t h e p r e s e n t , p r o d u c t i v i t y s u b c l a s s e s  65 w i l l be based on v a l u e judgements made by r e s e a r c h w o r k e r s .  RECOMMENDATIONS The r e s u l t s o f t h i s s t u d y d i s c l o s e t h r e e areas where f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h w i l l r e s u l t i n a more a c c u r a t e F o r e s t Land C l a s s i f i c a t i o n .  These areas i n c l u d e  (1) t h e measurement o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s which determine p r o d u c t i v i t y , (2) the u s e o f f i e l d  and greenhouse experiments  t o e s t a b l i s h methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  the r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s i n l i m i t i n g t r e e growth, and (3) a more e x t e n s i v e s t u d y o f t h e u s e o f v a r i o u s s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s t o g e t a d i r e c t measure o f p r o d u c t i v i t y i n terms o f MAI. The Measurement o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l F a c t o r s f o r D e t e r m i n i n g F o r e s t Productivity The r e s u l t s o f t h e r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y showed t h a t t h i s method was as a c c u r a t e as t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l method, i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s were measured o r e s t i m a t e d i n a r a t h e r crude manner.  Refinement o f t h e methods used t o measure, o r e s t i m a t e ,  t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s w i l l l e a d t o a more a c c u r a t e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . t h e measurement o f a d d i t i o n a l f a c t o r s w i l l undoubtably  Also,  r e s u l t i n a more a c c u r a t e  classification. I f use o f r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s f o r d e t e r m i n i n g f o r e s t l a n d product i v i t y i s contemplated,  t h e f o l l o w i n g e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s s h o u l d be  measured: 1)  total soil  depth,  2)  effective soil  3)  depth o f i n d i v i d u a l s o i l h o r i z o n s ,  depth,  66 4)  s o i l organic matter content,  5)  s o i l t e x t u r e , p e r m e a b i l i t y and d r a i n a g e ,  6)  depth t o w a t e r  7)  soil  8)  pH of s o i l h o r i z o n s ,  9)  s o i l water r e t e n t i o n p r o p e r t i e s ,  table,  nutrients,  10)  r o o t i n g depth,  11)  c l i m a t e , i n c l u d i n g p r e c i p i t a t i o n , l e n g t h o f growing s e a s o n , temperature regimes, e v a p o t r a n s p i r a t i o n , and s o l a r r a d i a t i o n ,  12)  t o p o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s such as s l o p e , p o s i t i o n on s l o p e , exposure, aspect, and m i c r o t o p o g r a p h y .  The D e t e r m i n a t i o n of t h e R e l a t i v e E f f e c t o f E n v i r o n m e n t a l I n f l u e n c e s i n L i m i t i n g Tree Growth The e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f e n v i r o n m e n t a l i n f l u e n c e s on l i m i t i n g t r e e growth i s t h e most i m p o r t a n t problem encountered.  Not o n l y i s i t n e c e s s a r y f o r l a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n , b u t i t i s o f  extreme i m p o r t a n c e i n f o r e s t f e r t i l i z a t i o n .  Obviously there i s l i t t l e point i n  expending l a r g e amounts o f c a p i t a l t o f e r t i l i z e i f some f a c t o r o t h e r than s o i l f e r t i l i t y i s l i m i t i n g tree In  growth.  o r d e r t o determine t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t o f v a r i o u s e n v i r o n m e n t a l  i n f l u e n c e s on l i m i t i n g t r e e growth, i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o i s o l a t e each f a c t o r and determine i t s i n d i v i d u a l e f f e c t and from t h e r e proceed t o c o n d i t i o n s where two or more f a c t o r s a r e l i m i t i n g . of  f a c t o r i a l experiments.  T h i s can be done t o a l i m i t e d e x t e n t by t h e use  67 Sampling Techniques  f o r a D i r e c t Measure o f P r o d u c t i v i t y i n Terms o f MAI  I t would be a d v i s a b l e t o conduct an e x t e n s i v e s t u d y i n t o t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f v a r i o u s s a m p l i n g t e c h n i q u e s i n o r d e r t o develop t h e optimum t e c h n i q u e i n terms o f a c c u r a c y and time o r c o s t .  CONCLUSIONS The F o r e s t Land C a p a b i l i t y C l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r F o r e s t r y was d e s i g n e d to  r a t e t h e p r o d u c t i v i t y o f f o r e s t l a n d on a b a s i s comparable w i t h a l t e r n a t e  uses. The method o f r a t i n g f o r e s t l a n d p r o d u c t i v i t y comprised t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f MAI o f ' n o r m a l l y ' s t o c k e d stands on a l l t h e s o i l s e r i e s r e p r e s e n t e d , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t r e e growth, and t h e e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f t h e s e d a t a based on p h y s i o g r a p h i c and s o i l b o u n d a r i e s . The a c c u r a c y o f t h e a s s i g n e d p r o d u c t i v i t y c l a s s e s was examined. was found t h a t t h e s o u r c e s o f e r r o r i n c l u d e d :  It  (1) i n s u f f i c i e n t p l o t s , (2)  problems i n d e f i n i n g 'normal' s t o c k i n g , (3) e x t r a p o l a t i o n o f MAI t o a base o f 100 y e a r s , (4) a s t r o n g tendency  t o s e l e c t p l o t s on n o r t h e r n a s p e c t s , and  (5) t h e e x c l u s i o n o f p l o t s on s o i l s which d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d t o s o i l  series  descriptions. The use o f p o i n t s a m p l i n g was i n v e s t i g a t e d .  I t was found t h a t t h e  a c c u r a c y of t h e p o i n t s a m p l i n g and c o n v e n t i o n a l method, i . e . MAI d e t e r m i n a t i o n s based on l / 5 t h a c r e p l o t s , was almost i d e n t i c a l , w i t h i n t h e c o n s t r a i n t s p r e s c r i b e d , and o n l y i n t h e I n t e r i o r o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The r e s u l t s o b t a i n e d  from p o i n t samples on Vancouver I s l a n d were s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t from those o b t a i n e d on o n e - t w e n t i e t h a c r e p l o t s .  68 S o i l , p h y s i o g r a p h i c and c l i m a t i c d a t a from 97 p l o t s l o c a t e d on Great S o i l Groups were a n a l y z e d t o determine tivity  and t o d e r i v e p r e d i c t i o n equations  t h e i r i n f l u e n c e on f o r e s t  for productivity.  five  produc-  P r o d u c t i v i t y equa-  t i o n s gave r e s u l t s comparable t o the c o n v e n t i o n a l method, i n s p i t e of r a t h e r crude measuring t e c h n i q u e s . Based on the r e s u l t s of the c o n v e n t i o n a l , one-twentieth p o i n t sampling  and r e g r e s s i o n t e c h n i q u e s , and  optimum method f o r d e t e r m i n i n g MAI, study be i n i t i a t e d I t was s u b c l a s s e s was  t o determine  and  the need f o r d e t e r m i n i n g  the  recommended t h a t an e x t e n s i v e  the optimum sampling  technique.  found t h a t the o n l y f e a s i b l e method f o r a s s i g n i n g p r o d u c t i v i t y  on the b a s i s of a v a l u e judgement made by r e s e a r c h workers.  F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was environmental  i t was  acre p l o t ,  recommended i n t o  (1) the measurement of the  f a c t o r s determining f o r e s t p r o d u c t i v i t y ,  greenhouse experiments  e f f e c t of e n v i r o n m e n t a l  (2)  the use of  t o e s t a b l i s h methods f o r d e t e r m i n i n g the  f a c t o r s i n l i m i t i n g t r e e growth, and  e x t e n s i v e study of the use of v a r i o u s sampling measure of p r o d u c t i v i t y i n terms of  MAI.  techniques  (3)  field  relative  a more  to o b t a i n a d i r e c t  69 BIBLIOGRAPHY A u t e n , J . T. 1945. P r e d i c t i o n of s i t e i n d e x f o r y e l l o w p o p l a r from s o i l topography. J o u r . F o r . , 43: 662-668.  and  A. R.D.A. 1967. Maps c o m p i l e d f o r the B r i t i s h Columbia A g r o - C l i m a t o l o g y Committee, A.R.D.A. Dept. Geog., U n i v . B r i t . C o l . B. C. Dept. A g r i c . 1965. 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F r a s e r . 1955. E s t i m a t i o n o f s i t e q u a l i t y i n j u v e n i l e D o u g l a s - f i r s t a n d s . B. C. F o r . S e r v . , Res. Note No. 28: 5 pp.  73 APPENDIX I MAIs D e r i v e d on C o n v e n t i o n a l P l o t s by S o i l  Series  EAST KOOTENAYS MA I  S o i l Series Dark Gray S o i l s 24; 109; 50; 19 58;  Elko Flagstone Hyak^ Mayook, Wycliffe„ 2  16; 16 3 1 ; 16 33 5 1 ; 25  Brown Wooded S o i l s 38; 27; 38 82; 69 80 51 67; 53; 29  ElkOj^  Flagstone Hyak Mayook^ Michel^ Wigwam^ Wigwam, Wycliffe^ Wycliffe^ Wycliffe„ 2  26; 26; 24; 23; 22 24; 48; 43; 26; 16  46; 45; 43; 40; 39; 38; 37; 31; 30; 25 45  Gray Wooded S o i l s Abruzzi^ Abrizzi„ Crahan Flatbow Hornickle Hornickle2 Hosmer Kinbasket Mayook^ Sparwood Wigwam, 2  1  56; 57 92; 83 49; 42; 35 101; 100 83 78; 74 73; 52; 45; 34; 28; 20 72 59 65  74  EAST KOOTENAYS  Contd.  S o i l Series  MAI  A c i d Brown Wooded S o i l s CocatOj^ Cocato Crahan^ Elko MayookMichel;: 01dtown„ Soil A Soil C Soil D Soil E Wardrop Wigwam.,  114; 110; 97; 86; 68; 57 66; 46; 45 78; 74 27 37 106; 83; 43 73 105; 84; 64 102; 97 51; 38 62; 6 1 ; 48; 40; 39; 33 137; 124 63; 61  2  3  Humic G l e y s o l s and Regosols Crowsnest Salishan Salishan* Wigwan^  137; 102; 90; 85; 64 75; 73; 69; 62 109 142  ]  Podzols Cocato„ Soil B  62 55; 38 Regosols  Wigwam,.  79  VANDERHOOF Soil  Series A c i d Brown Wooded S o i l s  Cobb  91; 82; 59; 48  75 VANDERHOOF Contd. Soil  Series  MAI  Gray Wooded S o i l s Beaverley Cinema Deserters Vanderhoof  82; 76; 68;. 59; 56; 47; 46; 45 61; 61; 60; 55 110; 110; 96; 60; 49 83; 60; 58; 55; 50 APPENDIX I I  MAIs D e r i v e d on P o i n t Samples VANDERHOOF Soil  Series  A c i d Brown Wooded S o i l s  122; 82; 55; 41  Cobb  Gray Wooded S o i l s Beaverley Cinema Deserters Vanderhoof  92; 70; 60; 59; 58; 53; 50; 41 64; 60; 56; 54 109; 104; 89; 49; 48 87; 67; 60; 58; 56  

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