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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Historical perspective for a literature curriculum Coburn, Marnie Alice 1968

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A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR A LITERATURE CURRICULUM by MARNIE ALICE COBURN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1951 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the F a c u l t y o f E d u c a t i o n We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r a n a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l m a k e i t f r e e l y , a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d S t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may b e g r a n t e d b y t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r b y h i ts r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t b e a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t T h e U n i v e r s J t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a ABSTRACT Th i s study I n v e s t i g a t e s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e l n the E n g l i s h c u r r i c u l u m o f the s c h o o l . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n moves In two d i r e c t i o n s , one l e a d i n g to an examination o f the boundary between E n g l i s h and h i s t o r y to see i f the b a r r i e r between these two humanistic s t u d i e s can be lowered. The other l e a d s t o an a n a l y s i s of the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s t o determine the times l n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y from which the s e l e c t i o n s i n these t e x t s were taken and the e f f e c t s the times are l i k e l y to have on students* understanding of t h e i r own c u l t u r e . The t e a c h i n g o f h i s t o r i c a l l i t e r a t u r e c o n t r i b u t e s to students* enjoyment of l i t e r a t u r e . F or the purpose o f t h i s study t h i s hypothesis l i m i t s the d e f i n i t i o n o f " h i s t o r i c a l " l i t e r a t u r e to im a g i n a t i v e w r i t i n g d e s c r i b i n g h i s t o r i c a l events, a t t i t u d e s , and c h a r a c t e r s ; e x p o s i t o r y accounts of e x p l o r a t i o n ; and to l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n b e f o r e t h i s c e n t u r y . "Enjoyment" r e f e r s to immediate p l e a s u r e and a l s o to enduring i n s i g h t s ; t h a t i s , to a sense o f h e r i t a g e , u nderstanding of d e s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l e v a l u e s , and rec o g -n i z i n g the a t t i t u d e s to r e c u r r i n g themes expressed a t d i f f e r e n t p o i n t s i n time. In t h i s t h e s i s I have examined the purpose o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and then the c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f E n g l i s h i i H i l i t e r a t u r e to the curriculum of general education. When I r e a l i z e d the effects of fragmentation of learning on general education and on English teaching, I began to consider how this trend toward subdividing knowledge could be reversed. The common intere s t of English and history in human beings suggested that t h e i r contiguity could be exploited and I have therefore written at length on the relationships between them. The cor r e l a t i o n of these subjects i n the classroom has rewards as well as p e r i l s , as I have pointed out, but by r e l a t i n g my personal experience I have shown that i t can be done by one teacher i n normal teaching conditions. The concluding parts of the thesis deal with the extension of selections into the past and o f f e r annotated bibliographies. Rather than a "proof" or a "disproof," t h i s thesis i s designed to give a new and interesting approach to old ideas. TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. GENERAL EDUCATION 1 I I . ENGLISH AND GENERAL EDUCATION 6 I I I . FRAGMENTATION OF LEARNING 10 IV. THE INFLUENCE OF THE NEW CRITICISM 19 V. HISTORY AND LITERATURE 22 VI. METHODS OF CORRELATION 27 VII. THE PRESENT DEGREE OF CORRELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (1965-66) 36 VIII. CRITERIA FOR BOOK SELECTIONS IN CORRELATION . . 38 IX. SAMPLE LIST OF BOOKS FOR CORRELATION WITH PRESENT B. C. SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES X. DESIRABLE OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF ENGLISH AND HISTORY 53 XI. UNDESIRABLE OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF ENGLISH AND HISTORY 60 XII. PERSONAL APPLICATION 62 XIII. TIME EXTENSION OF SELECTIONS 77 Chapter Page FOOTNOTES 88 BIBLIOGRAPHY 9^ APPENDIX A. EXTENDED LIST OF BOOKS FOR CORRELATION WITH SOCIAL STUDIES . . . . 9 9 APPENDIX B. CHART ON CONTENTS OF TEXTS 104 APPENDIX C. SUGGESTIONS FOR TIME EXTENSION OF SELECTIONS 105 APPENDIX D. TEXTS FROM THE PAST 122 APPENDIX E. CORRELATION IN BRITISH UNIVERSITIES . . . 123 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would l i k e to pay t r i b u t e to the generous i n t e r e s t of the l a t e Miss Edna Bax t e r who a d v i s e d me a t numerous c o n s u l t a t i o n s from 1965 to 1967. To Mr^ John McGechaen, a l s o o f the F a c u l t y , I am g r a t e f u l f o r encouragement to undertake t h i s paper. AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE IN THE TEACHING OF LITERATURE For God's sake, stop r e s e a r c h i n g f o r a while and b e g i n to think....We need...not on l y d i s c o v e r e r s of f a c t s . . . b u t e x p l o r e r s of ideas and r e t h i n k e r s of v a l u e s . I t has been w e l l s a i d t h a t we should speak more of the improvement, r a t h e r than the e x t e n s i o n of knowledge. We want more t h i n k i n g about the importance of t h i n g s a l r e a d y known. S i r Walter Moberley The C r i s i s i n the U n i v e r s i t y 1 CHAPTER I GENERAL EDUCATION Children are not the •supply* that meets any •demand* however urgent. They are individual human beings, and the primary concern of the schools should not be with the l i v i n g they w i l l earn but with the l i f e they w i l l lead. 2 Much dispute in this technological age takes place concerning the relative importance of general and voca-tional education. Simply stated, opinions differ on whether schools exist primarily to teach what w i l l be useful In following specific vocations, or to teach what w i l l be bene-f i c i a l to the student regardless of which vocation he enters, Since the question i s one of priority no matter what cu r r i -culum Is offered, one position alone w i l l not oust the other but w i l l be fundamental to i t . Current concern over vocational training has two voices. The one heard most clearly shouts that there w i l l be no place in the economy for the unskilled, and that, therefore, the commonsense course of action is to offer more vocational training. The current high school c u r r i -culum in British Columbia with five out of six programmes designed to teach s k i l l s for employment on graduation, i s such a response. Indeed, in the sense that the sixth, the academic-technical, leads to opportunities for vocational training at higher institutions, one could say that the 1 2 t o t a l programme i s v o c a t i o n a l . General e d u c a t i o n , t h a t i s , courses g i v e n r e g a r d l e s s o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e , i s seen i n compulsory study o f E n g l i s h i n every year, and S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Mathematics, and Sc i e n c e f o r l e s s e r p e r i o d s . What may be overlooked i n t h i s response i s the l i m i t t o the number o f s k i l l s a student can l e a r n , the speed w i t h which s k i l l s are becoming outdated, and the va l u e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n e m p l o y a b l l l t y . That a b i l i t i e s a re l i m i t e d i s c l e a r l y e v i d e n t t o and i s a concern of the v o c a t i o n a l t e a c h e r . The second and t h i r d p o i n t s a re l i n k e d : What v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e has g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n when the s p e c i f i c s k i l l s o f voca-t i o n a l t r a i n i n g are of temporary u t i l i t y ? In " T e c h n i c a l Change and E d u c a t i o n a l Consequences" H. Schelsky d e s c r i b e s what i s r e q u i r e d i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g : Modern v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g should emphasize compa r a t i v e l y a b s t r a c t o c c u p a t i o n a l and working  q u a l i t i e s . The worker who c o n t r o l s automatic devices and instruments i s r e q u i r e d to d i s p l a y c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a t t e n t i o n , h i g h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t e c h n i c a l knowledge, q u i c k response, and r e l i a b i l i t y . These q u a l i t i e s must form i n him a k i n d o f permanent l a t e n t d i s p o s i t i o n — a k i n d o f background on which to perform p a r t i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s . Today, mainly a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s a re r e q u i r e d o f workers, such as a b i l i t y to o r g a n i z e , t o handle people and to s u p e r v i s e , s e l f - c o n t r o l , i n t e l l i -gence and r e l i a b i l i t y , e x a c t i t u d e , keeping up wit h work-pace, e t c . , w h i l e simple manual or I n t e l l e c t u a l knowledge and s k i l l s become l e s s and l e s s important.3 I f one s t u d i e s these q u a l i t i e s to see how the c u r r i c u l u m can n u r t u r e them, one sees f i r s t t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e i s innate though good t e a c h i n g makes i t more operable, and t h a t t e c h -n i c a l knowledge i s a d i s t i n c t product o f v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . 3 Good t e a c h i n g i n any are a c o n t r i b u t e s to the development o f a l l the oth e r requirements l i s t e d , but g e n e r a l education makes a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n to the encouragement of a b i l i t y to o r g a n i z e , c o n c e n t r a t e , and s u p e r v i s e . In l i t e r a t u r e , f o r example, r e c o g n i t i o n o f genres, themes, and p l o t s c a l l s f o r o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f a c t o r s and concentra-t i o n on a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s . The understanding o f human nature gained from the study o f such l i t e r a r y c h a r a c t e r s as Hareton Earnshaw i n Wutherlng He i g h t s , Miss Thompson i n "Miss Thompson Goes Shopping, H and the b i g o t i n G o l d s m i t h s essay, " N a t i o n a l P r e j u d i c e s , " c o n t r i b u t e s to the wisdom of a s u p e r v i s o r by e n l a r g i n g h i s awareness of the v i t a l d i v e r s i t y i n human b e i n g s . V a i z e y and Debeauvais, w r i t i n g on "Economic Aspects o f E d u c a t i o n a l Development," g i v e another requirement: As the economy develops, i t needs more, and d i v e r s e , s k i l l s t h a t r e l y upon a g e n e r a l back-ground o f educa t i o n f o r t h e i r development. A growing economy a l s o r e q u i r e s adaptable workers who can q u i c k l y and wit h ease l e a v e one s p e c i a l t y and take up another.^" Such f l e x i b i l i t y grows from r e c o g n i t i o n o f c h o i c e o f a c t i o n and d i s c r i m i n a t i o n so t h a t the w i s e s t c h o i c e may be made. Imagination e x e r c i s e d and r e f i n e d i n the study o f l i t e r a t u r e , mathematios and h i s t o r y , d i s p l a y s p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s , responses t o them and t h e i r consequences. F l e x i b i l i t y and a d a p t a b i l i t y 4 are encouraged by g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n which asks, "How d i d the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n a f f e c t the standard of l i v i n g o f a working c l a s s c h i l d born In I83O?" more than by v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n which as k s , "What Is the proper p r o p o r t i o n of a s p h a l t to rubber i n the manufacture of automobile t i r e s ? " General e d u c a t i o n o f f e r s c h o i c e o f a c t i o n and demands j u s t i f i c a t i o n o f t h a t c h o i c e from the student. The second v o i c e , not so l o u d l y heard because i t looks to f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , i s the p r e d i c t i o n from cyber-n e t i c s t h a t the u l t i m a t e c o n d i t i o n of the machine age w i l l demand work from v e r y few persons. A f t e r three hundred years i n a system i n which s u r v i v a l depended on a wage f o r work, we may be e n t e r i n g an age In which wages are g i v e n f o r not working. Hen w i l l p r obably occupy themselves i n some a c t i v i t y they w i l l c a l l "work," but with the r i g h t to a guaranteed income f o r e c a s t by the e x p e r t s , the i n c e n t i v e to work i n order to l i v e w i l l be absent. Should our c h i l d r e n l i v e under such a system, whatever the s c h o o l s do to make t h e i r l i v e s meaningful w i l l come from g e n e r a l r a t h e r than from v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n i t s p r e s e n t form. Before students can use the s k i l l s taught them i n v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s , they w i l l need to use t h e i r imaginations to d e v i s e u s e f u l and enjoyable purposes f o r the products they have l e a r n e d to make and the processes they have l e a r n e d to perform. At l e i s u r e they w i l l have an o p p o r t u n i t y to c o n s i d e r a l s o the purpose of l i f e , the meaning of the good l i f e , and t h e i r 5 c h o i c e o f g o a l s . Only the wealthy l e i s u r e d c l a s s e s o f the p a s t have enjoyed such freedom. L e s t o p p o r t u n i t y be wasted i n n e u r o t i c musings or inane a c t i v i t y , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n must d e s c r i b e the goals f o r which men can l i v e . One need not dwe l l on our l o s s i f the f e u d a l ages had taught o n l y those s u b j e c t s which were •of use* to t h a t p a r t i c u l a r time and s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e . But there are advantages even i n barbarism: perhaps the c h i e f advantage of medieval barbarism was the c r e a t i o n o f the European i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s . They d i d not ac c e p t , s t i l l l e s s would they have taught, t h a t one should become •adjusted* to a s o c i e t y based on war, p i l l a g e and e x p l o i t a t i o n . Men of learning...were conscious t h a t t h e i r own ideas...were not those o f s o c i e t y around them. The lamp of l e a r n i n g was f e d a t the da r k e s t times by the hope t h a t the p a t i e n t spread o f educat i o n might l e a d i n time to a b e t t e r s o c i e t y . 5 We have now, i n theory, the o p p o r t u n i t y to f u l f i l the dream of an e n l i g h t e n e d c i t i z e n r y , l i t e r a t e , knowledgeable, and f r e e d from t o i l . I t w i l l come about when men know not o n l y the world as i t i s , but the world as i t c o u l d be. The grand p o s s i b i l i t y l i e s not i n "the l i v i n g they w i l l earn," but i n "the l i f e they w i l l l e a d . " CHAPTER I I ENGLISH AND GENERAL EDUCATION The simple p o i n t i s t h a t l i t e r a t u r e belongs to the world man c o n s t r u c t s , not to the.world he sees; to h i s home, not h i s environment. I t i s i n the i m a g i n a t i v e i n s i g h t i n t o the world as i t c o u l d be, i n t o the "home" of the q u o t a t i o n , t h a t l i t e r a t u r e c o n t r i b u t e s to a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . I t can show f i r s t t h a t the w o r l d does not have to be as i t i s . Utopian w r i t e r s s t a t e t h i s p r e c i s e l y i n d e s c r i b i n g the i d e a l s o c i e t i e s they c o n s t r u c t : Many times a l s o , when they have no suche woorke t o be oc c u p i e d aboute, an open p r o c l a m a t i o n i s made, t h a t they s h a l l bestowe fewer houres i n worke. Por the m a g i s t r a t e s doe not e x e r c i s e t h e i r e c i t i z e n s a g a i n s t e t h e i r e w i l l e s i n u n n e a d e f u l l l a b o u r e s . For whie i n the i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h a t weale p u b l i q u e , t h i s ende i s onelye and c h l e f e l y pretended and mynded, t h a t what time maye p o s s i b l y be spared from the necessarye occupacions and a f f a y r e s o f the commen wealth, a l l t h a t the c i t l z e l n s shoulde withdrawe from the bodely s e r v i c e to the f r e e l l b e r t y e o f the minde, and g a r n i s s h l n g e o f the same. For h e r e i n they suppose the f e l i c l t y e o f t h i s l l f f e to c o n s i s t e . 2 W r i t e r s o f s o c i a l p r o t e s t have s p u r r e d reform o f the e v i l s they see. N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne i n The S c a r l e t L e t t e r p r o t e s t s not so much a g a i n s t the p i l l o r y , s i n c e a t the time o f h i s w r i t i n g i t was no l o n g e r used, but a g a i n s t the c r u s h i n g shame o f p u b l i c punishment: 6 7 ...This s c a f f o l d c o n s t i t u t e d a p o r t i o n of a p e n a l machine, which now, f o r two or three g e n e r a t i o n s p a s t , has been merely h i s t o r i c a l and t r a d i t i o n a r y among us, but was h e l d , i n the o l d time, to be as e f f e c t u a l an agent, i n the promotion o f good c i t i z e n s h i p , as ever was the g u i l l o t i n e among the t e r r o r i s t s of Prance. I t was, i n s h o r t , the p l a t f o r m of the p i l l o r y ; and about i t rose the framework of t h a t instrument o f d i s c i p l i n e so f a s h i o n e d as to c o n f i n e the human head i n i t s t i g h t grasp, and thus h o l d i t up to the p u b l i c gaze. The very i d e a l o f ignominy was embodied and made man i f e s t i n t h i s c o n t r i v a n c e of wood and i r o n . There can be no out-rage, methinks, a g a i n s t our common n a t u r e — w h a t e v e r be the d e l i n q u e n c i e s of the i n d i v i d u a l — n o outrage more f l a g r a n t than to f o r b i d the c u l p r i t to hide h i s f a ce f o r shame; as i t was the essence o f t h i s punishment to do.-' Then a g a i n , the world may be more t e r r i b l e than i t seems to most p e o p l e . Kafka's t e r r i f y i n g awareness of human v u l n e r a b i l i t y warns o f a world t h a t may e x i s t a t some time In any man. In The C a s t l e one sees t h i s mad scene: She took a whip from a c o r n e r and sprang among the dancers w i t h a s i n g l e bound, a l i t t l e u n c e r t a i n l y , as a young lamb might s p r i n g . At f i r s t they f a c e d her as i f she were merely a new p a r t n e r , and a c t u a l l y f o r a moment F r i e d a seemed i n c l i n e d to l e t the whip f a l l , b ut she soon r a i s e d i t a g a i n , c r y i n g : 'In the name of Klamm i n t o the s t a l l w i t h you, i n t o the s t a l l , a l l of y o u l • When they saw t h a t she was i n earnest they began to press towards the back w a l l i n a k i n d o f p a n i c incomprehensible to K., and under the Impact of the f i r s t few a door shot open, l e t t i n g In a c u r r e n t of n i g h t a i r through which they a l l vanished w i t h F r i e d a b ehind them openly d r i v i n g them ac r o s s the c o u r t y a r d i n t o the s t a l l s . 1 * ' But i s the world so meaningless? Some say meaning i s found i n the m a t e r i a l world, m o r t a l , v i s i b l e , and measurable. Horace p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t such a world i n "Exegi Monumentum." 8 Now stands my tower four-square, o u t l a s t i n g bronze, O'ertopping the t a l l pyramids o f k i n g s ; Nor e a t i n g r a i n can r o t nor v i o l e n t g a l e One stone d i s l o d g e , though Time's e t e r n a l f l i g h t Leave ce n t u r y on century behind. Not a l l o f me s h a l l d i e ; one p a r t s h a l l cheat The cerements, nor my g a t h e r i n g fame abate While Rome endures, and hushed i n h o l y awe P o n t i f f and V e s t a l mount her c i t a d e l . Be t h i s my p r a i s e : t h a t by the r u s h i n g stream Of A u f l d u s , where p a s t o r a l Daunus r u l e d His t h i r s t y p l a i n , I grew from low to s t r o n g , And on the rude I t a l i a n p i p e f i r s t breathed A e o l i a n numbers. R i s e , Melpomene! Assume thy s t a t e , and i n the accomplished task W e l l p l e a s e d , w i t h Delphian L a u r e l b i n d my brow.-> Nor does the world have to be as i t seems. Here A l i c e agrees w i t h Horace. She shows i t may be something q u i t e d i f f e r e n t : "0 T i g e r - l i l y ! n s a i d A l i c e , a d d r e s s i n g h e r s e l f to one t h a t was waving g r a c e f u l l y about i n the wind, "I wish you c o u l d t a l k ! " "We can t a l k , " s a i d the T i g e r - I l l y , "when there's anybody worth t a l k i n g t o . " A l i c e was so a s t o n i s h e d t h a t she c o u l d n ' t speak f o r a minute: I t q u i t e seemed to take her b r e a t h away. At l e n g t h , as the T i g e r - l i l y o n l y went on waving about, she spoke a g a i n , i n a t i m i d v o i c e -almost i n a whisper. "And can a l l the flowers t a l k ? " "As w e l l as you can," s a i d the T i g e r - l i l y . "And a g r e a t d e a l l o u d e r . " " I t i s n ' t manners f o r us to beg i n , you know," s a i d the Rose, "and I r e a l l y was wondering when you'd speak! S a i d I to myself, 'Her face has got some sense i n i t , though i t ' s not a c l e v e r one!' S t i l l * you're the r i g h t c o l o u r , and t h a t goes a l o n g way."" These s e l e c t i o n s o f f e r d i f f e r i n g views o f the world, or r e a l i t y , i n s p i r i n g d i f f e r i n g responses from the i m a g i n a t i o n . 9 A well-read person, having responded to many views, has a greater opportunity than the person who has read l i t t l e , to discriminate "between opposing views and to use his imagination thus stretched to construct his own view of the world as i t is and as i t should be. Goals can be set and purposes devised to reach them from a broader knowledge of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s . This is the reward of literature to the student, and is the role of literature in his general education. CHAPTER I I I FRAGMENTATION OF LEARNING The minute s p e c i a l i z a t i o n of modern l i f e has "been l i k e the d i s s e c t i o n and a n a l y s i s o f the p a r t s o f a b u t t e r f l y . There i t l i e s i n the l a b o r a t o r y ; i t s d e l i c a t e wings detached, i t s once q u i v e r i n g antennae s t i l l , i t s v i t a l organs exposed, e x p l a i n e d — and dead. How reanimate the b u t t e r f l y , dust i t s wings a g a i n w i t h i r i d e s c e n t bloom, s e t i t f l u t t e r i n g a g a i n among the f l o w e r s , f l a s h i n g i n the sun i t s b r i l l i a n t r e d and blue and gold? How assemble the a r t s and s c i e n c e i n t o a b o l d and c o l o r f u l p i c t u r e o f the l i v i n g world; how s e t I t glowing b e f o r e our students i n a l l i t s r a d i a n c e t i l l they c r y out, "Thi s i s the l i f e we want and mean to l i v e " ? 1 In the days of which Greene was speaking, l e a r n i n g was enjoyed by onl y a few. I t i s s a i d t h a t Bacon, having mastered h i s p r i v a t e l i b r a r y , knew a l l t h a t was known by the l e a r n e d men of h i s time. Today not even the most b r i l l i a n t mind can know a l l a v a i l a b l e knowledge. There i s so much to l e a r n t h a t s c h o l a r s have had to s p e c i a l i z e , to study one f i e l d o f know-ledge i n p r e f e r e n c e to other f i e l d s . T h i s process has been r e f i n e d to the p o i n t where a s p e c i a l i s t has been c o l l o q u i a l l y d e f i n e d as one who knows more and more about l e s s and l e s s . S p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s t r u c t u r e of our c u r r i c u l a . A p u p i l s t u d i e s E n g l i s h , Drama, French, and other " s u b j e c t s , " as we c a l l the f i e l d s o f knowledge. Then w i t h i n each s u b j e c t are s u b d i v i s i o n s : i n mathematics there a re geometry, a r i t h m e t i c , a l g e b r a , c a l c u l u s ; i n E n g l i s h there are r e a d i n g , l i t e r a t u r e , grammar, language, s p e l l i n g , compo-s i t i o n . I t i s easy to f o r g e t t h a t these s u b d i v i s i o n s a re 10 11 r e l a t e d to mathematics and E n g l i s h . I t i s a l s o easy to f o r g e t t h a t s u b j e c t s are r e l a t e d . Some e f f o r t i s made, f o r in s t a n c e i n " S o c i a l S t u d i e s , " to connect the p a r t s with a c e n t r a l v i e w p o i n t : t h i s " s u b j e c t " i s composed o f economics, c i v i c s , s o c i o l o g y , geography, and h i s t o r y taught w i t h i n the framework o f h i s t o r y except i n the geography courses i n grades 9 and 1 2 . But w i t h i n the system o f s p e c i a l t i e s such as o b t a i n s i n B r i t i s h Columbia, s u b j e c t d i v i s i o n s are s t r o n g . Teachers are not p l a i n l y d e s i g n a t e d as " t e a c h e r s " but as "B i o l o g y t e a c h e r s , " "Spanish t e a c h e r s , " "Home Economics t e a c h e r s , " and so f o r t h . Outside s c h o o l s , such s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s s t r o n g l y e n f o r c e d by s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s l a r g e r u n i t s . News-papers wi t h l a r g e c i r c u l a t i o n s have "parlia m e n t a r y c o r r e s -pondents," "Middle E a s t correspondents," f i n a n c i a l e d i t o r s , and p o l i t i c a l c o l u m n i s t s . M e d i c a l men have p r o l i f i c s p e c i a l i z e d t i t l e s , and d e n t i s t r y i s f o l l o w i n g w i t h d e n t a l surgeons, o r t h o d o n t i s t s , d e n t a l mechanics, d e n t a l nurses, d e n t a l h y g i e n i s t s , d e n t a l r e c e p t i o n i s t s — a l l doing the work a d e n t i s t used to do but doing each s e c t i o n of work wit h more knowledge and b e t t e r equipment. I have heard an economist r e f e r r e d to as a "Keynesian economist" (as i f he were never expected to change h i s p o i n t o f view) and I have enjoyed F l a n d e r s and Swan's joke about the s p e c i a l i s t t r e n d i n bureaucracy when they r e f e r t o "the c h i e f a s s i s t a n t to the a s s i s t a n t c h i e f " i n the song "The R e l u c t a n t C a n n i b a l . " 12 There are sound economic and I n t e l l e c t u a l reasons f o r t h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n which I do not propose to d i s c u s s . What I am i n t e r e s t e d i n i s the e f f e c t of t h i s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n on our s c h o o l s and on our s t u d e n t s . What i n f l u e n c e does s p e c i a l i z a t i o n have on the " l i f e they w i l l lead"? The more one knows of one f i e l d , the l e s s h e ' l l know about o t h e r f i e l d s . Nowhere i s t h i s t r u i s m more obvious than i n the chasm between s c i e n c e and the humanities due mainly to the enormous expansion of s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. As s c i e n c e becomes more complex, so does the language i t speaks, and a whole vocabulary and way of t h i n k i n g becomes e x c l u s i v e . Those who speak the language have a common bond o f h i g h i n t e r e s t to themselves. A man who can chat comfortably w i t h h i s c o l l e a g u e s about the n e g a t i v e t r o p l s m toward heat o f the amoeba w i l l have to chat about something e l s e i f he i s w i t h a man who a t work i s concerned about the G r e a t e r Germans* r e j e c t i o n of Bismarck*s R e i c h . About t h e i r deep i n t e r e s t n e i t h e r can t a l k to the o t h e r , and u n l e s s they f i n d a common t o p i c or u n l e s s they l e a r n about each others* f i e l d s , an achievement becoming more and more u n l i k e l y because of the e x t e n s i o n o f knowledge, they w i l l not be t a l k i n g w i t h each o t h e r but w i t h t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o l l e a g u e s who are a c q u a i n t e d w i t h t h e i r work. The chasm i s widened by t h i s I s o l a t i o n . A schism e x i s t s , too, between the s c i e n t i s t and the o r d i n a r y man, and the r e s u l t i n g s u s p i c i o n can be seen i n 13 the r e v i v a l o f the myth of the s c i e n t i f i c v i l l a i n c o n c o c t i n g m o n s t r o s i t i e s i n h i s p r i v a t e t i n k e r i n g s w i t h the nature of t h i n g s ; the mantle o f the a l c h e m i s t w i t h a l l i t s s u p e r s t i t i o u s c o n n o t a t i o n s and symbolism, i s p l a c e d on the shoulders o f the s c i e n t i s t . Pear o f the power of n u c l e a r and b i o c h e m i c a l warfare outweighs g r a t i t u d e f o r the g i f t s from s c i e n c e of ease and h e a l t h . Add to t h i s s u s p i c i o n the l i n g u i s t i c b a r r i e r and the i n t e l l i g e n t use of s c i e n c e i s even more d i f f i c u l t to accomplish. "So the g r e a t e d i f i c e of modem p h y s i c s goes up, and the m a j o r i t y o f the c l e v e r e s t people i n the western worl d have about as much i n s i g h t i n t o i t as t h e i r n e o l i t h i c a n c e s t o r s would have had," says S i r C. P. Snow. 2 S p e c i a l i z a t i o n has produced ignorance even w i t h i n s c i e n c e . Emphasis o n t h e p a r t i c u l a r r a t h e r than the g e n e r a l has had a s p l i n t e r i n g e f f e c t : The p r a c t i c a l s c i e n t i s t knows l i t t l e s c i e n c e o u t s i d e h i s s p e c i a l i t y ; and there i s no reason to b e l i e v e he i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n t i f i c p h i l o s o p h y than the n e o - s c i e n t l s t . N e i t h e r can the m a j o r i t y of pure s c i e n t i s t s comprehend each o t h e r s s p e c i a l i t i e s , and i t may be suspected t h a t o n l y a few know t h e i r way about the whole o f 'the g r e a t e d i f i c e of modern physics'.3 The l e v e l o f u n i t y i s the p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e v e l and, a c c o r d i n g to P i n i o n , t h a t u n i t y does not reach a l l s c i e n t i s t s . T h i s p i t e o u s d e f i c i e n c y of understanding stemming from s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i n response to the i n c r e d i b l e growth o f knowledge l e a v e s us i n p o s s e s s i o n of fragmented l e a r n i n g E d u c a t i o n i s o f t e n d i v i d e d i n t o p a r t s which correspond to the supposed p a r t s of human n a t u r e — i n t o education of the mind and e d u c a t i o n o f the body, or i n t o education o f the i n t e l l e c t and education of the emotions and w i l l . These a b s t r a c t i o n s are p r o f e s s e d l y r e j e c t e d i n modern times owing to the d e c l i n e of p s y c h o p h y s i c a l dualism and f a c u l t a t i v e psychology; and the a n c i e n t Greeks are p r a i s e d f o r having avoided them. But i n p r a c t i c e , by omission i f not by com-m i s s i o n , these d i v i s i o n s s t u b b o r n l y p e r s i s t , and f a l s i f y the undeniable f a c t t h a t human nature i s p h y s i c a l , emotional, and v o l i t i o n a l as w e l l as i n t e l l e c t u a l . P h i l o s o p h i c dualism, t h a t blossomed i n the Middle Ages, viewed the world as mind and matter, man as body and s o u l . D e s p i t e the new knowledge i n p h i l o s o p h y and psychology t h a t s y n t h e s i z e s , s e e i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f p a r t s and t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s , modern man i s s t i l l a n a l y z e d and t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g to h i s p a r t s r a t h e r than h i s whole. Some f i e l d s o f knowledge are d e f y i n g t h i s view and s y n t h e s i z i n g f o r the sake of the whole man. M e d i c a l men who are s p e c i a l i s t s tend to work i n c l i n i c s , p o o l i n g t h e i r knowledge f o r the more complete treatment of t h e i r p a t i e n t s . Urban des i g n e r s are concerned not so much f o r i n d i v i d u a l zones but f o r t h e i r i n t e r - r e l a t i o n s h i p i n a complete c i t y . The church i s becoming s o c i a l l y a c t i v e and s p i r i t u a l l y ecumenical a f t e r l o n g years of i s o l a t i o n from s o c i a l i s s u e s and s e p a r a t i o n among i t s denominations. 15 While there are movements In education towards c o r r e l a t i o n of s u b j e c t s , there i s much evidence t h a t p a r t i t i o n of s u b j e c t matter i s s t i l l widespread. The D i s c i p l i n e and D i s c o v e r y r e p o r t s t a t e s : The high s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a l l too r e a d i l y accustoms students to ^think of knowledge as so many d i s c r e t e compartments. General education should d i s p e l t h i s n o t i o n , not r e i n f o r c e i t , and should p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e of the p a r t s f i t t e d t o g ether and I n t e r a c t i n g to form the u n i t y of knowledge.* The N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h a s s e r t s : Under the e l e c t i v e system, students go through s c h o o l w i t h the most s c a t t e r e d and l o p s i d e d views of l i f e , and even when e l e c t i o n s are reduced to a minimum and a s e t program o f s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d , f a i l u r e to c o r r e l a t e the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s of i n s t r u c t i o n l e a v e s the student unaware of t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n as r e l a t e d p a r t s i n the scheme of l i f e . Two a r t i c u l a t e s c h o l a r s have d e s c r i b e d the e f f e c t s of t h e i r e d u c a t i o n as they f e e l them. Charles Darwin was taught how to s y n t h e s i z e h i s data, but t h i s c o r r e l a t i o n was l i m i t e d to h i s s p e c i a l i z e d e d u c a t i o n i n s c i e n c e In these words: My mind seems to have become a k i n d of machine f o r g r i n d i n g g e n e r a l laws out of a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n of f a c t s , but why t h i s should have caused the atrophy of t h a t p a r t of the b r a i n a l o n e , on which the h i g h e r t a s t e s depend, I cannot c o n c e i v e . A man with a mind more h i g h l y organized or b e t t e r c o n s t i t u t e d than mine, would not I suppose have thus s u f f e r e d ; and i f I had to l i v e my l i f e a g a i n I would have made a r u l e to read some poetry and l i s t e n to some music a t l e a s t once a week; f o r 16 perhaps the p a r t s of my b r a i n now a t r o p h i e d c o u l d thus have been kept a c t i v e through use. The l o s s of these t a s t e s Is a l o s s of happiness, and may poss-i b l y be i n j u r i o u s to the i n t e l l e c t , and more prob a b l y t o the moral c h a r a c t e r , by e n f e e b l i n g the emotional p a r t of our nature.' His experience i s c o n t r a r y to t h a t of John S t u a r t M i l l , whose edu c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d the interdependence of human achievements. What made Wordsworth's poems a medicine f o r my s t a t e o f mind was t h a t they expressed not mere outward beauty, but s t a t e s o f f e e l i n g , and of thought c o l o u r e d by f e e l i n g , under the excitement of beauty. They seemed to be the v e r y c u l t u r e of the f e e l i n g s which I was i n quest o f . In them I seemed to draw from a source of u n i v e r s a l joy, of sympathetic and i m a g i n a t i v e p l e a s u r e , which c o u l d be shared In by a l l human beings....Prom them I seemed to l e a r n what would be the p e r e n n i a l sources of happiness when a l l the g r e a t e r e v i l s of l i f e s h a l l have been removed.... The d e l i g h t which these poems gave me proved t h a t w i t h c u l t u r e of t h i s s o r t there was n o t h i n g to dread from the most confirmed h a b i t o f a n a l y s i s . " I p r e f e r to t r y to reproduce i n my p u p i l s * l i v e s the experience o f M i l l : h i s p u b l i c c a r e e r as p h i l o s o p h e r and economist i s supported by h i s p r i v a t e p u r s u i t , he enjoys h i s e x c u r s i o n i n t o another f i e l d o f i n t e r e s t , and h i s s o l i t a r y r e a d i n g l i n k s him w i t h h i s f e l l o w human b e i n g s . None of these statements a p p l i e s to Darwin, s e n s i t i v e to h i s l o n e l i n e s s , h i s emotional inade-quacy, and h i s uncompleted and p a r t i a l growth. For p u p i l s t o become aware as M i l l was t h a t many f i e l d s o f knowledge are p e r t i n e n t t o "the l i f e they w i l l l e a d , " t h e i r e d u c a t i o n must show the r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the f i e l d s o f knowledge to each o t h e r and to the p u p i l s * own l i v e s . Man i s not a c r e a t u r e of s e c t i o n s and n e i t h e r i s h i s l i f e i n compartments. 17 In England, F. B. P i n i o n advocates a s i x t h form course t h a t weakens s u b j e c t b a r r i e r s . His aim I s : To ensure t h a t any s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s not d i v o r c e d from an adequate g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n which w i l l widen i n t e l l e c t u a l h o rizons and enable the a d o l e s -cent student t o see h i s p l a c e c l e a r l y In the modern world, judge i t s d i r e c t i o n and v a l u e s s e n s i b l y , and c u l t i v a t e h i s t a l e n t s , i n t e r e s t s , and p e r s o n a l i t y to the optimum.° He d e s c r i b e s the course as f o l l o w s : I t i s proposed t h a t they s h o u l d take three r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . . . . F o r example, the development o f music, p a i n t i n g and a r o h i t e o t u r e , and l i t e r a t u r e , shows common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n accordance w i t h the ' s p i r i t o f the age'; l i t e r a t u r e can o b v i o u s l y be l i n k e d w i t h h i s t o r y , h i s t o r y w i t h geography, and so on.... 1*' Such a course r e c o g n i z e s the danger of s p l i n t e r e d I n t e r e s t r e s u l t i n g from fragmented l e a r n i n g , and of d i s t r u s t and s u s p i c i o n t h a t grow from i n t e l l e c t u a l i s o l a t i o n . P r a c t i c a l l y , i t assumes the e x i s t e n c e o f teachers who can b r i d g e the sub-j e c t gap e i t h e r through knowledge o f more than one s u b j e c t o r through u n p r e j u d i c e d w i l l i n g n e s s to co-operate with other s p e c i a l i s t s , and to become i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e i r s u b j e c t s . I do not t h i n k i t i s imp o s s i b l e e i t h e r to f i n d or to t r a i n such t e a c h e r s — i n d e e d they may be i n g r e a t e r numbers than the p r e s e n t system r e v e a l s , o r encourages. There are ot h e r p r a c t i c a l hindrances to the p r a c t i c e o f an interdependent c u r r i c u l u m : textbooks t h a t ignore c o n t r i b u t o r y concepts from o t h e r s u b j e c t s , a p r e s c r i b e d 18 c u r r i c u l u m emphasizing s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , the v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s o f teachers and department heads. Nev e r t h e l e s s the hazards o f a l a c k of understanding and communication, o f an aware-ness o f o n l y a few o f the components of l i v i n g , and o f an u n f u l f i l l e d enjoyment, are to be seen now. A g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n can l e s s e n these e f f e c t s . For example, i t can i n c r e a s e r a p p o r t between the s c i e n t i s t and the layman by f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the aims and methods of s c i e n c e on the p a r t o f the layman, and by r e a l i z a t i o n of the l a r g e r con-t e x t o f h i s work by the s c i e n t i s t . The same s o r t of r a p p o r t i s needed among a l l s e c t i o n s of s o c i e t y . General education can promote t h i s understanding p a r t l y by p r e s e n t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i s c i p l i n e s ; i t i s t h i s method t h a t w i l l be d e s c r i b e d l a t e r with r e f e r e n c e to E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s . CHAPTER IV THE INFLUENCE OF THE NEW CRITICISM In the t w e n t i e t h century, when the c r i t i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e i s d i s p o s e d t o f e e d upon i t s e l f and to become d e s p e r a t e l y more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s r a t h e r than more p e n e t r a t i n g or more s u b t l e , the tendency i s to r e j e c t simple v a l u e s and to se t up complex or c o n t o r t e d o n e s . 1 C l o s e l y r e l a t e d to fragmentation i s the r i s e o f the New or P r a c t i c a l C r i t i c i s m . Based on a n a l y s i s o f the t e x t , i t c o n t r a s t s w i t h the Old or H i s t o r i c a l C r i t i c i s m c h a r a c t e r i z e d by emphasis on l o c a t i o n o f the work i n time and p l a c e . B e l i e v i n g t h a t "events i n one ar e a o f human experience have a way of growing out of c o n d i t i o n s i n ot h e r a r e a s , " 2 the h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c s t u d i e s a work of l i t e r a t u r e p a r t i c u l a r l y i n r e l a t i o n to the author*s l i f e and s o c i e t y , and to the l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n t o which h i s work i s r e l a t e d . The i n f l u e n c e o f h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s m i s v i s i b l e i n the use of a n t h o l o g i e s , b i o g r a p h i e s , and manuals as t e x t s , and i n the de s i g n o f survey and p e r i o d c o u r s e s . The assumption o f the h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c i s t h a t a l i t e r a r y work i s a "product of the e n t i r e imagina-t i v e experience o f i t s c r e a t o r " ^ and t h a t to understand t h i s e x perience, one must see i t s i n d i v i d u a l and c o l l e c t i v e s l g -n l f i c a n c e i n the "context of t o t a l c u l t u r e . " C u l t u r e i t s e l f i s o r g a n i c , hence c y c l i c a l and dynamic, and these q u a l i t i e s a r e shown i n the l i t e r a r y symbols of the ages o f man: the whale, the r i v e r o f l i f e , the t r e e , the innocence of c h i l d -hood and the wisdom of expe r i e n c e . ^ 19 20 C u l t u r e to the p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c , on the other hand, i s s t a t i c and m e c h a n i s t i c . Man i s not e v o l v i n g , he i s l e a r n i n g to l i v e w i t h i n f i x e d l i m i t s . Images d e p i c t i n g t h i s p h i l o s o p h y In l i t e r a t u r e are the wheel, the shut gate, the b r i d g e , and chess.°" C r i t i c i s m r e f l e c t s t h i s c l o s e d system by becoming "an a c t of a n a l y z i n g and e v a l u a t i n g a work of l i t e r a t u r e " ? c o n c e n t r a t i n g on i t s language of symbolism and i t s techniques of r h e t o r i c . In the s c h o o l s , t r a i n i n g i n c r i t i c a l r e a d i n g of the t e x t s , p u b l i s h e d In separate works Instead of i n a n t h o l o g i e s , r e f l e c t s the I n f l u e n c e o f p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c i s m . Suppose one were to teach K e a t s 1 "Ode on a G r e c i a n Urn." What would be taught from each p o i n t o f view? The h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c would say t h a t the Important p o i n t s to be taught would be Keats* i l l - h e a l t h , h i s c l a s s i c a l p r i v a t e s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , h i s r o l e as a Romantic poet, h i s views which had been i n f l u e n c e d by Wordsworth, h i s "chamber of Maiden-Thought" In h i s view of l i f e . These p a r t i c u l a r s r e i n f o r c e what the teacher wishes to draw a t t e n t i o n t o : the w i s t f u l tone a t the end, the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f the p l a s t i c a r t s , the poem as an i m a g i n a t i v e experience, the sympathetic understanding of the s e p a r a t i o n of I d e a l beauty from a c t u a l l i f e , and the d e l i g h t i n the beauty of the urn. What the p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c recommends to be taught i s taken d i r e c t l y from the t e x t : the v i s u a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the p i c t u r e groups; the f i r s t c o n c l u s i o n t h a t i d e a l a r t , 21 because of i t s unchanging p e r f e c t i o n , i s s u p e r i o r to nature; the second c o n c l u s i o n o f s e p a r a t i o n of i d e a l a r t from the r e s t o f l i f e ; the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n of the u n i t y o f beauty and t r u t h and i t s ambiguity. He would have students note the metaphors, the d i c t i o n , the i r r e g u l a r l i n e s and the purposes they f u l f i l ; the c u r i o s i t y o f the poet and h i s l o v e o f the imagined world; the changes of mood; the presence o f e t e r n i t y i n the poet's mind. In a c t u a l p r a c t i c e the f r o n t i e r between these two p o i n t s o f view i s not s t r o n g l y guarded and i s f r e q u e n t l y c r o s s e d . But i t remains. The co n n e c t i o n w i t h fragmentation i s t h a t the emphasis on a n a l y s i s tends to i s o l a t e the poem from i t s author and from the world i n which i t s author l i v e d . There i s no view of the poem as p a r t o f a l i t e r a r y p a s t , p r e s e n t , or f u t u r e . A n a l y s i s must be f o l l o w e d by s y n t h e s i s . G r a t e f u l as I am f o r b e i n g brought i n t o the t e x t by the p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c , I am g r a t e f u l a l s o to the h i s t o r i c a l c r i t i c who says, "...the dimension o f the p a s t 8 i s an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f the l i v i n g p r e s e n t . . . . " When the p r a c t i c a l c r i t i c i s m outweighs the h i s t o r i c a l , fragmentation i s i n c r e a s e d . CHAPTER V HISTORY AND LITERATURE .•.A g r e a t work of l i t e r a t u r e Is a l s o a p l a c e In which the whole c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f the n a t i o n t h a t produced I t comes i n t o f o c u s . I've mentioned Robinson Crusoe: you can get from t h a t book a k i n d of detached v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Empire, imposing i t s own p a t t e r n wherever i t goes, c a t c h -i n g i t s man F r i d a y and t r y i n g to t u r n him i n t o an e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Nonconformist, never dreaming of •going n a t i v e , 1 t h a t h i s t o r y alone would h a r d l y g i v e . No matter how e a r n e s t l y one wishes to b r i n g together the two d i s c i p l i n e s of l i t e r a t u r e and h i s t o r y , one recog-n i z e s c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l d i f f e r e n c e s . H i s t o r y p u r p o r t s to t e l l what a c t u a l l y happened, w h i l e l i t e r a t u r e expresses men^s r e a c t i o n s to happenings and c o n d i t i o n s . Thus h i s t o r y shows the t y p i c a l , the type of f o r c e , event, s i t u a t i o n to which men r e a c t I n d i v i d u a l l y . L i t e r a t u r e p i c t u r e s the emotions of i n d i v i d u a l s which, no matter how " t y p i c a l * * a c h a r a c t e r i s , are determined by t h a t i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r . In h i s imaginary world, the l i t e r a r y a r t i s t may d i s t o r t h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s as he wishes, c o n f i n e d only by the extent o f h i s t o r i c a l knowledge he expects h i s reader to have. The h i s t o r i a n i s always conscious o f f a c t s ; he must t e l l what he b e l i e v e s i s a t r u t h f u l account r e g a r d l e s s of h i s r eader's knowledge. His w r i t i n g as a r e s u l t may be d u l l and I n s t r u c t i v e r a t h e r than i n s p i r i n g , but t h i s d u l l n e s s 22 23 does not d e t r a c t from i t s worth unless he has s e t out to be a "popular" h i s t o r i a n . Por example, i n r e c o r d i n g the con-finement, the widespread misery of d a i l y l i f e , the c l o s e d p h i l o s o p h y , the r i g i d s t a b i l i t y of the s o c i a l system, the h i s t o r i a n may g i v e the impression t h a t medieval l i f e was a drab e x i s t e n c e ; he i s g i v i n g the t y p i c a l . The poet can, j u s t as h o n e s t l y , p o r t r a y medieval l i f e as c o l o r f u l and e x c i t i n g by s e a r c h i n g above and below the t y p i c a l l i f e p i c t u r e d by the h i s t o r i a n . I f he has the p e r c e p t i o n , t o l e r a n c e , and humour of Chaucer, he can show t h a t the human behaviour w i t h i n the medieval c o n t e x t i s as r i c h i n v a r i a t i o n as i n any c o n t e x t . Should he express the I d e a l s o f the human beings i n the Middle Ages, h i s a l l e g o r i e s enact the a b s t r a c t v a l u e s and the f a n c i -f u l dreams t h a t add another dimension to medieval l i f e . Because h i s purpose i s to evoke emotions, the l i t e r a r y a r t i s t i n v i t e s the reader to r e c o g n i z e h i m s e l f . Where the h i s t o r i a n must be s k e p t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l , the w r i t e r must be i m a g i n a t i v e and s y n t h e t i c . The h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s t can r e - c r e a t e an age by s e l e c t i o n and emphasis. "He i s not bound to g i v e a f a i r statement of a l l p o i n t s of view."3 In r e - c r e a t i n g an h i s t o r i c a l person, "where the h i s t o r i a n must c o n f i n e h i m s e l f to s a y i n g 'This or t h i s may have been h i s reason,' or * I t i s impossible to say what l e d him to take t h i s s t e p , 1 the n o v e l i s t may g i v e h i s own e x p l a n a t i o n of the a c t i o n s or the i n a c t i o n of a h i s t o r i c a l f i g u r e , f i l l i n g the gaps l n the s t o r y a c c o r d i n g to h i s own i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of c h a r a c t e r and circumstance."^" zk What, then, l i n k s the h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s t t o the h i s t o r i a n ? What c o n t r o l s must he have to he a good h i s t o r i c a l w r i t e r ? F i r s t , h i s l i b e r t y w i t h f a c t s must not be l i c e n s e . C r e d i b i l i t y , e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the mature rea d e r , s u f f e r s i f f a c t s a r e o u t r a g e o u s l y i n a c c u r a t e . In recommending h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n t o y o u t h f u l r e a d e r s , the w a t c h f u l t e a c h e r i n s p e c t s i t s f a c t u a l accuracy. Only those adjustments t o the h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s e s s e n t i a l to the t o t a l p i c t u r e of a p e r i o d or person a c c o r d i n g to the w r i t e r * s purpose a r e a c c e p t a b l e . For i n s t a n c e , i n a n o v e l about Benvenuto C e l l i n i * s c a r e e r , i t would be p e r m i s s i b l e to omit h i s o p i n i o n s of Michelangelo*s works, but not to omit M i c h e l a n g e l o *s temperament and outlook on the Renaissance world s i n c e the former adds n o t h i n g , and the l a t t e r much, to the p o r t r a i t o f such a sycophant as C e l l i n i . A w r i t e r concerned w i t h farm l i f e i n Upper Canada would be j u s t i f i e d i n r e c o u n t i n g such t r a n s p o r t a t i o n improvements as roads and c a n a l s used by the d i s t r i c t he i s d e s c r i b i n g and i g n o r i n g the b u i l d i n g o f r a i l w a y s i f they were b u i l t o u t s i d e the d i s t r i c t and had no i n f l u e n c e on i t , even though t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n took p l a c e i n the p e r i o d o f which he i s w r i t i n g . Such m a n i p u l a t i o n of f a c t s strengthens the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the fundamental theme. More m i s l e a d i n g than e r r o r s of f a c t a r e e r r o r s o f atmosphere. "The w r i t e r may take r e a l p ains t o get h i s f a c t s and d e t a i l s r i g h t , but then proceed to i n j e c t modern psychology and modern assumptions i n t o h i s c h a r a c t e r s . . . . " 5 25 C h e s t e r t o n has observed o f Henty's t a l e s , 'the same v e r y E n g l i s h and modern young gentleman from Rugby or Harrow turns up a g a i n and a g a i n as a young Greek, a young C a r t h a g i n i a n , a young Gaul, a young V i s i g o t h , a young Scandinavian, a young A n c i e n t B r i t o n , and almost e v e r y t h i n g s h o r t of a young Negro••° In the same way, f o r Crusoe to urge F r i d a y to r e t u r n w i t h him to England by t e l l i n g him o f the " c i v i l r i g h t s " o f a B r i t i s h s u b j e c t would be an incongruous anachronism i n t e rminology and i n p o l i t i c a l h i s t o r y . E r r o r s t h a t g i v e a l a s t i n g m i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , say, o f New France as a haven f o r f r e e - t h i n k e r s , a r e s e r i o u s e r r o r s because the s t o r y i s immediately cut o f f from i t s supposed s e t t i n g and becomes u n b e l i e v a b l e as a work based on h i s t o r y . Less s e r i o u s e r r o r s o f f a c t , such as a l a d y ' s wearing a b u s t l e i n England i n 1810, which do not d i v i d e the s t o r y from I t s s e t t i n g , a r e minor and a c c e p t a b l e i f I n f r e q u e n t . Indeed, they may have a p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n . C a t c h i n g the author out i n f a c t i s "the f i r s t t a s t e o f b l o o d i n the savage game of c r i t i c i s m . " 7 Sometimes the d i s t i n c t i o n between h i s t o r y and l i t e r a -t u r e d i s a p p e a r s because the w r i t e r may be both an a r t i s t i n h i s s t y l e and i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of thoughts and f e e l i n g s , and a h i s t o r i a n i n h i s p r e s e n t a t i o n of the t r u t h of the s i t u a t i o n , the man, or the event as p r e c i s e l y as he can. L i t e r a t u r e has adopted as i t s own Pepys 1 D i a r y . P e r i c l e s ' f u n e r a l o r a t i o n by Thucydldes, and Strachey's Eminent V i c t o r i a n s . These a u t h o r s were r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r times, but a h i s t o r i a n would r e j e c t them as c o l l e a g u e s because t h e i r apparent i n t e r e s t i s 26 i n a p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l experiences and o p i n i o n s . Strachey was s e a r c h i n g f o r "unsuspected t r u t h s , not f o r a restatement o f recorded f a c t s ; h i s aim was e s t h e t i c , not e t h i c a l . . . . H e was not a detached historian."® However, " p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l experiences and o p i n i o n s " i s not the o n l y c r i t e r i o n by which t o p l a c e a p i e c e o f w r i t i n g i n the l i t e r a r y r a t h e r than the h i s t o r i c a l c a t e g o r y . "You're a pore benighted 'eathen but a f i r s t - c l a s s f i g h t i n 1 man," says K i p l i n g i n "Fuzzy-Wuzzy," drawing from H i s own experience but e x p r e s s i n g the t y p i c a l r e s p e c t o f s o l d i e r s i n a l l ages f o r courageous a d v e r s a r i e s . M i l t o n * s A r e o p a g l t i c a p r o t e s t e d the tyranny under which he s u f f e r e d , but i t has supported f r e e e x p r e s s i o n ever s i n c e . S i m i l a r l y , Byron's l o v e o f democracy has i n f l u e n c e d democrats s i n c e h i s time because h i s poetry expresses a widespread r e c o g n i t i o n o f human d i g n i t y . While we do not say "Nigger," today, we accept i t i n Huckleberry F i n n because i t a c c u r a t e l y r e c o r d s an a t t i t u d e common i n the p l a c e and time o f the s t o r y . At f i r s t g l a n c e , W i l f r e d Owen i s a World War I poet, but t h o u g h t f u l c o n s i d e r a t i o n r e v e a l s t h a t h i s poetry t e l l s not only h i s own f e e l i n g s about h i s own experiences i n war but what c o u l d reasonably be the f e e l i n g s men have had about war a t many times i n h i s t o r y ; he expresses the u n i v e r s a l experience. A second c r i t e r i o n , then, i s the l e v e l o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . To the extent t h a t w r i t e r s o f i m a g i n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e express the common s o c i a l a t t i t u d e o f t h e i r times, or the r e c u r r i n g human c o n d i t i o n , they belong a l s o t o h i s t o r y . The d i s t i n c t i o n , i f i t i s t o be made a t a l l , must be accompanied by a d e f i n i t i o n o f " l i t e r a t u r e " and " h i s t o r y . " CHAPTER VI METHODS OP CORRELATION H i s t o r y Is enmeshed i n the "entanglement of causes and the m u l t i p l i c i t y of human w i l l s . . . . To understand t h i s he /the h i s t o r i a n / may p r o f i t a b l y t u r n to the n o v e l i s t who lends h i s mind out to show h i s f e l l o w s 'things they might have passed a hundred times nor cared to see1."-*-Using the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between branches of knowledge i s not a new p r a c t i c e . Today i t i s f a v o r e d more by the elementary teacher than by the secondary t e a c h e r . Perhaps t h i s p r e f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d because an e a r l y Canadian champion o f c o r r e l a t i o n , Donalda D i c k i e , was i n f l u e n t i a l i n elemen-t a r y s c h o o l s . She c a l l e d her method the " e n t e r p r i s e theory" and d e f i n e d i t as "the c o - o p e r a t i v e achievement of a s o c i a l purpose t h a t a t e a c h e r p r e s e n t s to her c l a s s w i t h a view to having them use i t as an experience i n i n t e l l i g e n t s o c i a l behaviour."2 While her aim was to change behaviour r a t h e r than to teach r e l a t i o n s h i p s , she c o r r e l a t e d academic s u b j e c t s i n o r d e r to teach a c e n t r a l t o p i c . T h i s method a t t r a c t e d elementary teachers i n t e r e s t e d In p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n . L e t us see how i t works. Por i n s t a n c e , how would an elementary teacher t y p i c a l l y teach the importance o f the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y to the people o f B r i t i s h Columbia? For f a c t s about l o c a t i o n , p r o d u c t i v i t y , and t r a d e , he w i l l p r o b a b l y send h i s p u p i l s to a t l a s e s , almanacs, and the 27 28 Canada Year Book. The c h a r t s and graphs t h e r e i n , the terms such as "percentage," "median," and " r a t e , " demand s k i l l s o f i n t e r p r e t a t i o n l e a r n e d i n a r i t h m e t i c c l a s s . The "matter" of the i n d u s t r y b e i n g t r e e s , the s c i e n c e c l a s s w i l l study the types of t r e e s used f o r lumber and p u l p , the p a r t s of t r e e s used i n manufacturing, the d i s p o s a l of waste, the e f f e c t s of d i s e a s e , animals, and f i r e on the crop, and, indeed, the i d e a of a f o r e s t as a "crop." The "crop" concept i s s c i e n t i f i c i n s o f a r as i t i s concerned with p r e d i c t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n of theory, but a l s o s o c i a l i n t h a t i t expresses r e s o l u t i o n s of the c o n f l i c t i n g i n t e r e s t s of p r ovidence and p r e s e n t g a i n , government c o n t r o l and s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n , p r i v a t e ownership and the common good. I t would be mentioned, t h e r e f o r e , i n both s c i e n c e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s c l a s s e s . The process from seeding, n u r t u r i n g , f e l l i n g , t r a n s p o r t i n g , , manufacturing, and s e l l i n g , to f i n a l use i s e s s e n t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n t o o . W i l l i t be taught i n s c i e n c e or s o c i a l s t u d i e s ? The elementary teacher, who u s u a l l y teaches most s u b j e c t s to h i s own c l a s s , doesn't have to worry about answering t h i s q u e s t i o n ; he can teach i t when he wishes. He can a l s o teach i t w i t h the e m p h a s i s — s c i e n t i f i c or s o c i a l — t h a t he p r e f e r s . To balance the e f f e c t s so f a r taught o f men on f o r e s t s , and to show the 29 r e v e r s e i n f l u e n c e , the s h o r t s t o r y , "Dour Davie's D r i v e , " read i n r e a d i n g p e r i o d I l l u s t r a t e s p i o n e e r l o g g i n g methods and t h e i r demands on human c h a r a c t e r . The s e t t i n g of the s t o r y i n a l o g g i n g community teaches the customs and value s of the camp and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s . Comparison of the t e c h -niques o f then and now r e s u l t s l n d i s c u s s i o n of the meaning of p r o g r e s s . Has man progressed i n h i s human development as f a s t as l n h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l t a l e n t s ? Are these two comparable? How can we measure them? Can we only evaluate each s e p a r a t e l y ? What l£ "progress"? Here we have a r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c t s and concepts to which the teacher a d r o i t l y leads the c h i l d r e n by d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e i r own l e v e l s o f understanding. Songs and p a i n t i n g s are other ways of d e s c r i b i n g a c u l t u r e . Should these be con-s i d e r e d when music and a r t pe r i o d s r o l l around? Or should they n a t u r a l l y conclude the study o f the s t o r y ? By now l t i s almost Impossible to see the b a r r i e r s between s u b j e c t s , and with t h i s s u b j e c t o f f o r e s t r y , even l e s s do these b a r r i e r s seem d e s i r a b l e . I f the " p r o g r e s s i v e " teacher has s e t the problem, "How Important to B. C. i s the f o r e s t i n d u s t r y ? " , h i s students w i l l not a t the end of the study r e p o r t o n l y , " I t ' s our main exp o r t . " Whatever the method, by s t u d y i n g f o r e s t r y from the p o i n t s o f view of many d i s c i p l i n e s , the students l e a r n the importance of f o r e s t r y to people. Here i s a concept with which the students have become e m o t i o n a l l y as w e l l as I n t e l l e c t u a l l y i n v o l v e d . 30 Such t o t a l Involvement i s l e s s l i k e l y In the secondary s c h o o l . There, the weighty l o a d of s u b j e c t matter, lugged a l o n g the t r a c k s o f courses o f study under the dark c l o u d o f u l t i m a t e government examinations, has f o r c e d teachers to s p e c i a l i z e i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s , and consequently to c o n s i d e r p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and any connected technique both time wasting and i m p r a c t i c a b l e . And so I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e that a student i n one day w i l l be c a l l e d upon to i n t e r e s t h i m s e l f In the French R e v o l u t i o n , the romantic poets, the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of mono-co t y l e d o n s , how to f i n d square r o o t , how to order from a French menu, and how to budget h i s money. P u l l e d i n so many d i r e c -t i o n s , the student i s f o r t u n a t e to become I n t e r e s t e d i n more than one of these l e s s o n s . What o p p o r t u n i t y has he to develop an i n t e r e s t t h a t i s sparked d u r i n g h i s day? Would I t be impossible In one day to teach him connected s u b j e c t matters, f o r Instance, the a t t i t u d e s o f Wordsworth and Burns to r e v o l u t i o n , the i n f l u e n c e o f s c i e n c e on the Age of Reason, the s t r u c t u r e of graphs and s t a t i s t i c s of the c a s u a l t i e s o f the r e v o l u t i o n , a paragraph from V o l t a i r e , and the r i g h t s and d u t i e s o f a c i t i z e n ? That s o r t o f day would have a focus and the demands of the d i s c i p l i n e s would be s a t i s f i e d . A l o o k over the w a l l to see what the younger c l a s s e s are doing under teachers "who teach e v e r y t h i n g " r e v e a l s the worthwhile and a p p l i c a b l e p r a c t i c e o f c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t c o u l d with perseverence be adapted to the secondary s c h o o l . 31 However t h i s view i s not being seen now. One reason i s the f e e l i n g t h a t other s u b j e c t s are of no concern to the s p e c i a l i s t . Indeed, s u b j e c t s are so enclosed i n i n t e l l e c t u a l kingdoms t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d i m p o l i t i c i f not i m p o l i t e to c r o s s the f r o n t i e r s . That these boundaries may be p r o f i t a b l y c r o s s e d I w i l l show i n examples of E n g l i s h and S o c i a l S t u d i e s communication. C o r r e l a t i o n has been d e f i n e d as "a method of moving students through the c i r c l e of f a c t , i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , and e x p r e s s i o n i n the j o i n t f i e l d s of E n g l i s h and h i s t o r y . " 3 Three f a c t o r s must be present f o r any technique of c o r r e -l a t i o n to be e f f e c t i v e : a w e l l - s t o c k e d l i b r a r y and time to c o n s u l t l t ; a broad academic knowledge of a g e n e r a l f i e l d , l n t h i s Instance, the l i b e r a l a r t s ; and a w i l l i n g n e s s to enlarge the knowledge and move the p o i n t of view when there i s a reasonable hope t h a t the change w i l l be f o r the b e t t e r . The second and t h i r d f a c t o r s are p e r s o n a l demands on the teacher and may seem to be a s k i n g a l o t . But the techniques of c o r r e l a t i o n d i f f e r so b r o a d l y i n degree of d i f f i c u l t y and f a c i l i t y o f usage I t h i n k most teachers even i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s t a t e s of knowledge and a d a p t a b i l i t y w i l l f i n d them u s e f u l . I s h a l l d e s c r i b e these techniques from the p o i n t o f view of an E n g l i s h t e a c h e r . I n c i d e n t a l c o r r e l a t i o n i s l a r g e l y unplanned, o c c u r r i n g as circumstances a r i s e . I t may be e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r , as i n a 32 p u b l i c speaking c l u b where a poem such as Blake's "The L i t t l e B l a c k Boy" can be read to support a p l e a f o r brotherhood. The b u l l e t i n board may show p i c t u r e s of the Great F i r e o f London to a c l a s s r e a d i n g Pepys* D i a r y . Current events p r o v i d e t o p i c s f o r w r i t i n g ; "Pretend you are a b l a c k (or a white) Hhodesian. In a l e t t e r to a Canadian f r i e n d , d e s c r i b e Mr. Wilson's a r r i v a l i n S a l i s b u r y as you saw i t . " Such a t o p i c might supplement the study o f To K i l l a Mockingbird. J u l i u s Caesar demands an understanding o f the r e p u b l i c a n i d e a l s o f Home; The K o n - T l k l E x p e d i t i o n c a l l s f o r an acquaintance w i t h the l o c a t i o n , shape, c o n s t i t u e n t l a n d , of the South P a c i f i c Ocean. The E n g l i s h teacher makes sure h i s p u p i l s have t h i s background. He i s not te a c h i n g h i s t o r y through l i t e r a t u r e ; he i s t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l p r i n c i p l e s seen i n a v a r i e t y o f s e t t i n g s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s by u s i n g h i s knowledge and h i s r e s o u r c e s . C l o s e r c o r r e l a t i o n , " s e m i - i n t e g r a t i o n , " r e q u i r e s c o - o p e r a t i o n between teachers of E n g l i s h and teachers of S o c i a l S t u d i e s . The l o o s e s t arrangement i s a p a r a l l e l s t r u c t u r e where the courses of study are compared and become f a m i l i a r to teachers o f both s u b j e c t s . When the B r i t i s h r o l e In the Second World War i s taught i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8, the E n g l i s h teacher may f i n d i t convenient to teach a t the same time The Snow Goose. He w i l l f i n d h i s p u p i l s a cquainted w i t h the h i s t o r i c a l background which he w i l l need only to review, and prepared to l i n k the event o f Dunkirk with the 33 f e e l i n g s of the B r i t i s h a t t h a t time as seen i n P h i l i p Rhayader. I f the l e s s o n s were not simultaneous but staggered, an a b l e c l a s s c o u l d s t i l l see the r e l a t i o n s h i p by r e c a l l i n g t h e i r h i s t o r y . The t e n s i o n of the r e a l s i t u a t i o n however, i s more v i v i d l y r e a l i z e d when the teachings c o i n c i d e . Where the teacher f e e l s inadequate he may request teacher exchange. A S o c i a l S t u d i e s teacher t e a c h i n g the I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n might be g r a t e f u l i f the E n g l i s h teacher gave the S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s a l e s s o n on the c l a s s s t r u g g l e d e s c r i b e d by n o v e l i s t s such as E l i o t or Dickens. At the same time, the S o c i a l S t u d i e s teacher c o u l d i n t e r p r e t the p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n r e l e v a n t to "An I t a l i a n i n England" f o r the E n g l i s h t e a c h e r . A more complex but s i m i l a r arrangement i s team t e a c h i n g . Here, a teacher who knows a p e r i o d of h i s t o r y p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l l e c t u r e s to combined E n g l i s h c l a s s e s , f o r example, on Communist p r i n c i p l e s to e n l i g h t e n s t u d e n t s 1 understanding o f what i s b e i n g s a t i r i z e d i n Animal Farm. An E n g l i s h teacher l e c t u r e s on Major Barbara t o c l a s s e s s t u d y i n g the reform movement In V i c t o r i a n England. Team t e a c h i n g can be used w i t h i n a s u b j e c t t o o . The p h i l o s o p h i c a l f o u n d a t i o n of Romantic l i t e r a t u r e i s a case i n p o i n t . The complexity of t h i s technique demands c a r e f u l study of I t s d i f f i c u l t i e s . C a r l s e n p o i n t s out one when he says, "Team t e a c h i n g , the development of audio-v i s u a l a i d s , and programmed l e a r n i n g have been i n c l i n e d t o be i n s i g n i f i c a n t i n E n g l i s h because the q u e s t i o n of what 3k they a r e being used to teach i s always open to grave doubts and many questions." 1*' Even should unanimity on aims be a r r i v e d a t , t h e r e a r e f u r t h e r i s s u e s to be s e t t l e d : adminis-t r a t i v e d e t a i l s o f t i m e - t a b l i n g and room a l l o t m e n t , the mutual r e s p e c t o f teachers and t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to share the l e c t u r e d u t i e s f a i r l y ( a f t e r d e c i d i n g what " f a i r l y " means), an agr e e a b l e balance between freedom and conformity i n course sequence. "There i s n o t h i n g l i k e a theory f o r b i n d i n g the wise," s a i d Meredith i n The Ordeal of R i c h a r d F e v e r e l and the s k e p t i c a l reader c o u l d a p p l y t h i s warning both to c o r r e l a t i o n and to team t e a c h i n g ! The most complete i n t e g r a t i o n i s f u s i o n , "complete i n t e g r a t i o n , " or "core c u r r i c u l u m . " Here the whole grade i s i n v o l v e d i n p l a n n i n g a course on a wide t o p i c such as Man and S o c i e t y , i n which each teacher g i v e s the c o n t r i -b u t i o n of h i s own d i s c i p l i n e to an understanding o f the whole. To s o l v e common problems, to show the same theme through s e v e r a l media, to use one s u b j e c t to i l l u s t r a t e a n o t h e r — t h e s e are the purposes of the core c u r r i c u l u m . I t u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s such as E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , Languages. The proposed programme f o r f i r s t year A r t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia i s of t h i s type. The d i s c i p l i n e s operate i n t h r e e groups: Man and S o c i e t y , Man and Thought, Man and E x p r e s s i o n , u n i t e d by the common f a c t o r , Man.-* Because i t i s the u l t i m a t e form of f u s i o n , t r a n s c e n d i n g s u b j e c t matter 35 d i v i s i o n s , the proposed a d o p t i o n of a core c u r r i c u l u m may meet with s k e p t i c i s m from students who b e l i e v e t h a t they w i l l "miss" the t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s which i n s p i r e c o n f i d e n c e by t h e i r c o n v e n t i o n a l appearance and t h e i r more ready acceptance by other u n i v e r s i t i e s , and w i t h h o s t i l i t y from teachers whose customary course c o n s t r u c t i o n i s t h r e a t e n e d . But d i f f i c u l t i e s must be balanced by advantages i n c o n s i d e r i n g any new usage or new form of an o l d usage. The argument f o r c o r r e l a t i o n i s simple. As one f a c e t of a jewel by i t s e l f r e f l e c t s dimly without l i g h t from the o t h e r f a c e t s t o show i t s f u l l g l o r y , so our students see the f u l l depths of the world-gem not through one face of i t but through each face i l l u m i n a t e d by i t s f e l l o w s . Indeed, the argument i s e a s i e r t o accept than the p r a c t i c e . CHAPTER VII THE PRESENT DEGREE OP CORRELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA (1965-66) The present S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o u r s e s 1 d e a l w i t h a l l p a r t s o f the world g e o g r a p h i c a l l y , and a l l p e r i o d s o f B r i t i s h , French, Canadian, American h i s t o r y as w e l l as a n c i e n t h i s t o r y and contemporary world problems. The o p p o r t u n i t i e s an E n g l i s h teacher has to c o r r e l a t e the t e x t u a l matter o f the E n g l i s h courses with the S o c i a l S t u d i e s courses of the same grade l e v e l are s l i g h t . In E n g l i s h 7 and E n g l i s h 8 , there Is no obvious c o r r e l a t i o n . In E n g l i s h 9» there i s s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n i n the d i a r i e s o f e x p l o r e r s and the geography s t u d i e s . In E n g l i s h 10 there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e o p p o r t u n i t y by means of nove l s and poems i l l u s t r a t i n g s o c i a l problems. To K i l l a Mockingbird. The D i a r y o f Anne Frank. The  C h r y s a l l d s . Animal Farm, Hiroshima. Gandhi, are d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . No c o r r e l a t i o n was obvious to me i n E n g l i s h 11 t i t l e s l i s t e d i n Appendix B but i n E n g l i s h 40 some s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e i n the speeches on Canadian n a t i o n a l s p i r i t . No c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d I see i n E n g l i s h 4-1, but with the modern w r i t e r s i n E n g l i s h 91 there Is c o n s i d e r a b l e r e f l e c t i o n of the matter s t u d i e d In H i s t o r y 91 . 36 37 C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h courses of a d i f f e r e n t grade l e v e l i s p o s s i b l e . E n g l i s h 7 o f f e r s some s e l e c t i o n s t h a t c o u l d be used i n t e a c h i n g Canadian h i s t o r y i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8; Men and Gods and K o n - T l k l i n E n g l i s h 8 i l l u s t r a t e some s e c t i o n s o f S o c i a l S t u d i e s 7; s e l e c t i o n s from Aesop and about Socrates i n E n g l i s h 9 demonstrate p a r t s of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s 7 co u r s e . I conclude, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be made p o s s i b l e l e s s by the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s than by the freedom of the resource course. P a r t l y because they are by modern w r i t e r s , p r e s e n t E n g l i s h t e x t s o f f e r l i t t l e a i d i n c o r r e l a t i o n . CHAPTER V I I I CRITERIA FOR BOOK SELECTION IN CORRELATION Let us have no pose or a f f e c t a t i o n about I t . Reading Blake to a c l a s s Is not going to turn boys Into s a i n t s . In the o t h e r p a r t s of our E n g l i s h course we can be c e r t a i n o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g something; In l i t e r a t u r e there i s merely a chance t h a t we s h a l l do something f o r somebody, and i n t h a t hope we p r o c e e d . 1 The advantage of l i t e r a t u r e to other s u b j e c t s i s the emotional dimension i t adds to the s u b j e c t matter. Whether the emotional a b s o r p t i o n of the reader i s i n the dramatic, as Ben Hur, or In the e v o c a t i v e , as Sand, Wind, and S t a r s t h i s enjoyment a t t r a c t s him to the s u b j e c t and f o s t e r s an i n t e r e s t i n i t . Compare the t e c h n i c a l v i e w p o i n t , d i c t i o n , and s t y l e of a b i o l o g y t e x t with those o f My_ Family and  Other Animals In which G e r a l d D u r r e l l teaches about animals with the primary purpose, however, of showing h i s d e l i g h t e d a f f e c t i o n f o r them. Should I wish to encourage study of b i o l o g y I would recommend D u r r e l l r a t h e r than the t e x t because i t would a t t r a c t as w e l l as inform, and would draw the a t t e n t i o n of the u n i n i t i a t e d . In the same way l i t e r a t u r e can serve h i s t o r y . "The f i r s t s e r v i c e t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s t can render the h i s t o r i a n i s to g i v e the young a taste, f o r h i s t o r y . " 2 F a c t s and dates are not lessons to be l e a r n e d but I n t e g r a l 38 39 p a r t s o f the l i v e s and adventures of the c h a r a c t e r s . H i s t o r i -c a l n o v e l s "appeal to the romantic s t r e a k i n a young r e a d e r — to h i s t a s t e f o r the u n f a m i l i a r , the e x c i t i n g , the h e r o i c , " 3 employing the c o l o r of the fabulous as other novels cannot. To choose books f o r c o r r e l a t i o n I use s e v e r a l c r i t e r i a . The f i r s t i s the q u a l i t y o f w r i t i n g . Por the sake of other f a c t o r s I may accept a w r i t e r who t a l k s down to c h i l d r e a d e r s , but i f h i s s t y l e i s i n s i n c e r e I tend to l o s e c o n f i d e n c e i n h i s m a t e r i a l . Cardboard c h a r a c t e r s of unimpeachable v i r t u e or s l a t e b l a c k v i c e I would not recommend to c h i l d r e n from the age of ten and upward. Then I l o o k f o r the m a t e r i a l l n the book. Gross d i s t o r t i o n of f a c t , such as p r e s e n t i n g Robin Hood as a l e a d e r of the barons c o n f r o n t i n g King John i n 1215» or o f atmosphere, such as a middle c l a s s teenage miss i n 1790 clamoring f o r the " r i g h t " to a " c a r e e r " d e s t r o y the h i s t o r i c a l mental s e t . Such e r r o r s i n d i c t i o n detach the reader from the h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n which the book i s s e t . I f a modern person i s t r a n s p l a n t e d i n t o a previous age, as i n Below the S a l t , the t r a n s f e r should be c l e a r l y s t a t e d . Minor d e v i a t i o n s from h i s t o r i c a l accuracy as l o n g as they are committed i n accordance with a j u s t i f i a b l e p o i n t of view, are a c c e p t a b l e . Such an i n s t a n c e would be a n o v e l s e t i n the Russian R e v o l u t i o n of 1917 i n t e n d i n g to show the c o n f l i c t between i n d i v i d u a l s e l f - e s t e e m and a b j e c t s e r v i t u d e to an ZfO i d e a l s t a t e , but o m i t t i n g the outbreaks of 1 9 0 5 . The u n i t y of time, the age of the c h a r a c t e r s , the l i k e l i h o o d t h a t they knew l i t t l e o f t h a t happening of they l i v e d f a r from i t — t h e r e may be many s a t i s f a c t o r y reasons f o r the o m i s s i o n , N e v e r t h l e s s students should be aware t h a t a h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s not as r e l i a b l e as a t e x t f o r i n f o r -mation on d a t e s , r e l a t i v e I n f l u e n c e s of events, widespread c o n d i t i o n s , and reasonable i n f e r e n c e s . A f t e r i n s p e c t i n g the q u a l i t y of w r i t i n g and the contents of the book, I would t r y to judge s u i t a b i l i t y f o r my s t u d e n t s . T e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s of word c h o i c e , l e n g t h o f sentences, balance between the number of paragraphs of e x p l a n a t i o n or m e d i t a t i o n and the number g i v e n to a c t i o n and d i a l o g u e , a r e e a s i l y seen and r e l a t e d to s t u d e n t s ' r e a d i n g a b i l i t i e s . Por the slow reader context c l u e s , simple sentences, and l i v e l y movement of p l o t are encourag-i n g . More d i f f i c u l t t o judge i s the g e n e r a l tone where, i n p a r t i c u l a r , e x p l o i t a t i o n o f y o u t h f u l emotions f o r s e n s a t i o n r a t h e r than f o r development of mature f e e l i n g s , needs to be examined. On t h i s p o i n t o f d e l i c a t e d e c i s i o n Burton a d v i s e s w i t h "doubtful'' books two c r i t e r i a : Is the n o v e l an e x c e l l e n t example of f i c t i o n ? Is the theme l i k e l y t o be comprehensible to a d o l e s c e n t s ? These a r e a c c e p t a b l e g e n e r a l g u i d e l i n e s but t h e r e i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t one a d o l e s c e n t has g r e a t e r p e r c e p t i o n than the t y p i c a l a d o l e s c e n t . Where The Wall may s t r e n g t h e n f e e l i n g s of compassion and 1*1 i n s p i r e a d m i r a t i o n f o r courage i n one a d o l e s c e n t , i t may bewitch others i n t o v e n e r a t i o n o f the f o r c e o f v i o l e n c e , or d r a i n t h e i r s p i r i t s o f p i t y and t o l e r a n c e . Acute e s t i m a t i o n o f the p u p i l ' s m a t u r i t y and of the s o c i a l m i l i e u i n which he l i v e s as w e l l as o f the d e f e n s i b l e a t t i t u d e s d e s i r e d by the tea c h e r supports the courage he needs t o make these decisions.-' The t h i r d c o n s i d e r a t i o n i s the d e s i r a b i l i t y o f con-currence o f the matter o f the h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g with the h i s t o r i c a l s t u d i e s o f the st u d e n t s . In the sample l i s t i n the next chapter I have chosen books p e r t a i n i n g to the present B r i t i s h Columbia S o c i a l S t u d i e s c u r r i c u l u m . The books f o r grade seven, f o r i n s t a n c e , shed l i g h t on some asp e c t s of t h a t course i n a n c i e n t h i s t o r y . The observant reader w i l l probably n o t i c e the l i m i t a t i o n imposed by t h i s p a t t e r n i n which some very good books a r e omitted because they are too d i f f i c u l t f o r c h i l d r e n s t u d y i n g the h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l l n t h e i r s o c i a l s t u d i e s c o u r s e s . I note p a r t i c u l a r l y the omission o f B r i t i s h p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n g e n e r a l European movements i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10, and r e g r e t f u l l y exclude f o r t h i s reason n o v e l s l i k e Rose Macaulay 1s They Were Defeated on 17th century England. S i m i l a r l y mature n o v e l s on a n c i e n t Greece and Rome l i k e those o f M i t c h i s o n c o u l d not be i n c l u d e d s i n c e t h a t kz h i s t o r i c a l matter i s taught i n grade seven. The purpose of the p a t t e r n i s to show use of r e l a t e d books i n the present s i t u a t i o n f o r ready a d a p t a t i o n . The books a r e d i v i d e d i n t o two groups, i n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g worthy of c l a s s time and study, and e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g f o r p e r u s a l i n p r i v a t e or i n s m a l l groups. The i n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g books are not books chosen p r i m a r i l y f o r t h e i r appeal or f o r t h e i r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h the S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o u r s e s , but f o r t h e i r v a l u e i n t e a c h i n g l i t e r a r y p r i n c i p l e s . They are t h e r e -f o r e s u i t a b l e t o the t y p i c a l student i n the grade whereas the e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g books va r y from v e r y easy to very d i f f i c u l t i n s t y l e , i n complexity of theme and i n the amount of d e t a i l e d knowledge the reader i s expected t o possess. CHAPTER IX SAMPLE LIST OF BOOKS FOR CORRELATION WITH PRESENT BRITISH COLUMBIA SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES Good s t o r i e s r e s p e c t the i n t e g r i t y of the reader and are true to the s u b j e c t they d e a l w i t h . They are not romances and means of escape. They g i v e h i s t o r y the impact of immediacy, and the excitement of i t . They are e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n awakening the young to a sense of h i s p a s t , c a p i t a l i z i n g on the c h i l d ' s p l e a s u r e i n the use of the Imagination, and on h i s c u r i o s i t y . 1 S o c i a l S t u d i e s 7: The b e g i n n i n g of h i s t o r y , a n c i e n t h i s t o r y i n the Middle E a s t , c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y , the age of c h i v a l r y . I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Green, Roger L., King A r t h u r and h i s Knights of the Round Table E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Baumann, H., The Caves of the Great Hunters Baumann, H., The World of the Pharaohs Hosford, D., By_ His Own Might Power, R., Redcap Runs Away Green's t a l e s are romantic s t o r i e s of the a c t i o n s and the e t h i c s of c h i v a l r y . He t e l l s them f l u e n t l y , w i t h h i s t o r i c a l f l a v o r but without d i c t i o n so a r c h a i c as to impede under-s t a n d i n g . I t i s a "prose which has n e i t h e r archaisms nor modern c o l l o q u i a l i s m s " as the Faber and Faber 1957 e d i t i o n p o i n t s out. T h i s e d i t i o n has a t t r a c t i v e I l l u s t r a t i o n s by L o t t e R e i n i g e r . Rhoda Power's book i s an easy to read P u f f i n about a runaway boy i n medieval England. I t c o u l d be used i n 43 grade 8 t o o . Baumann*s book on the Lascaux caves Is e a s i e r r e a d i n g than h i s book on the pharaohs. By_ His Own Might i s a good r e t e l l i n g o f the Beowulf s t o r y . S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8: The h i s t o r y of England and France emphasizing the time of the settlement of Canada, the h i s t o r y of Canada wi t h r e f e r e n c e to the h i s t o r y of the U n i t e d S t a t e s . The geography of these c o u n t r i e s a l s o . I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : A v e r i l l , E. H., C a r t i e r S a i l s the S t . Lawrence S c o t t , S i r Walter, Ivanhoe E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Treece, Henry, The L a s t of the V i k i n g s P y l e , H., Men of Iron Baker, N. B., S i r Walter R a l e i g h G a i t , Thomas, F i g h t e r f o r Freedom The p i c t u r e s i n Ivanhoe of Norman-Saxon f r i c t i o n and the m a g n i f i c e n t tournament scenes are s i g n i f i c a n t to B r i t i s h h i s t o r y , w h i l e the o s t r a c i s m of the Jews, a g e n e r a l European c o n d i t i o n , Is v i v i d l y brought to l i f e l n the treatment of Isaac and Rebecca and t h e i r responses to p e r s e c u t i o n . B r i t a i n o f the e l e v e n t h century i n her p e c u l i a r c o n d i t i o n and her g e n e r a l r e l a t i o n s w i t h a m i n o r i t y i s made more memorable than Is the hero. The A v e r i l l t e x t Is l a r g e l y from the s h i p s ' l o g s but Is easy to read and In the Harper e d i t i o n of 195? has good I l l u s t r a t i o n s . Treece*s l i f e of H a r o l d Hardrada has 45 a p o e t i c s t y l e t h a t i s easy to r e a d . P y l e t e l l s o f Lord Falworth's r u i n because o f h i s l o y a l t y to R i c h a r d I I w h i l e a p l o t i s under way a g a i n s t Henry IV. The d i a l e c t i s c l o s e to the speech o f the time but i s a l i t t l e a r t i f i c i a l . The l a s t two books are b i o g r a p h i e s , the l a t t e r o f P e t e r Zenger and h i s concern f o r freedom of the p r e s s d u r i n g the American R e v o l u t i o n . S o c i a l S t u d i e s 9« World Geography I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Conrad, J . , The Heart of Darkness D u r r e l l , G., The Overloaded Ark Heyerdahl, T., Aku-Aku E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Baker, N. B., P i k e o f P l k e * s Peak Mead, M., People and P l a c e s Wibberley, L., The E p i c s of E v e r e s t A l l t h r e e authors i n the i n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g s e c t i o n w r i t e from t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e s , a u t h e n t i c a l l y and c r e d i b l y . Students w i l l be f a m i l i a r w i t h Heyerdahl a f t e r s t u d y i n g K o n - T i k l i n grade 8 , and the i n t e r e s t i n a r t i f a c t s generated i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s 7 w i l l a l s o help them l i n k Aku-Aku w i t h what they have a l r e a d y l e a r n e d . D u r r e l l ' s book on animal c o l l e c t i n g i n A f r i c a i s w r i t t e n w i t h modesty and humour. With the heavy course content i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s 9 on weather and c l i m a t e , p h y s i c a l and economic geography, i t i s l i k e l y t h a t A f r i c a n animals 46 v a l u a b l e f o r t h e i r own sakes are n e g l e c t e d i n the A f r i c a n s t u d i e s . D u r r e l l * s book, i n a d d i t i o n to d e s c r i b i n g A f r i c a n animals, w i l l make more v i v i d the landscapes where these animals l i v e . While Conrad's t h r e a t e n i n g mood i s h a r d l y t y p i c a l of newly-independent A f r i c a , h i s demonstration of the i n f l u e n c e of landscape on p e r s o n a l i t y d u r i n g a dark p e r i o d i n h i s t o r y c o n t r i b u t e s to i m a g i n a t i v e understanding of the west c o a s t A f r i c a n scene as w e l l as to economic and p o l i t i c a l geography. His dramatic s t y l e c o n t r a s t s with the o b j e c t i v i t y of Heyerdahl and the whimsy of D u r r e l l . Margaret Mead's book i s w r i t t e n f o r high s c h o o l s t u d e n t s , a p p e a l i n g f o r peace and i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n moving but not s e n t i m e n t a l terms. Baker, a p o p u l a r w r i t e r f o r young people, Is a t t r a c t i v e to younger a d o l e s c e n t s . Wibberley's book g i v e s accounts of E v e r e s t e x p e d i t i o n s between 1921 and 1953» naming the members o f the teams and t h e i r r o l e s , and emphasizing t h e i r s k i l l s and team work. A l l these books show people i n f l u e n c e d by t h e i r p h y s i c a l surroundings and t h e i r responses t o these i n f l u e n c e s . S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10: Medieval to Modern Times I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Bellamy, Edward, Looking Backward L l e w e l l y n , E., How Green Was My V a l l e y Reade, C h a r l e s , The C l o i s t e r and the  Hearth 47 E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Dickens, C , A T a l e of Two C i t i e s H a r n e t t , C , Caxton's Challenge Orbaan, A l b e r t , With Banners F l y i n g P r e s c o t t , H., The Man on a Donkey Reade's panorama n o v e l of the e a r l y Renaissance i n western Europe s h i f t s from Burgundy to Rome to H o l l a n d d e s c r i b i n g Renaissance i n n o v a t i o n s a g a i n s t the o l d e r p a t t e r n s o f l i f e . Based l a r g e l y on Erasmus's C o l l o q u i e s on the l i v e s of h i s pa r e n t s , the p l o t i s a well-developed romance. E a s i e r to read because i t s background demands l e s s d e t a i l e d knowledge, but j u s t as a p p l i c a b l e t o c o r r e l a t i o n i s L l e w e l l y n ' s n o v e l on the e f f e c t s o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on Welsh miners. Bellamy's e x c i t i n g v i s i o n of 2000 A.D. from the time p o i n t of 1887 i s i n t e r e s t i n g not onl y f o r i t s uncanny accuracy i n prophecy but f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c concept of a h e a l t h y moral environment. I t i s a u s e f u l f o r e r u n n e r to 1984 and Brave New  World, more o p t l m l s t i o and l e s s c y n i c a l than i t s s u c c e s s o r s . P r e s c o t t ' s n o v e l of the s i x t e e n t h century i s concerned mainly w i t h the d i s s o l u t i o n o f the monasteries i n England. For mature readers i t t e l l s the e f f e c t s o f the r e l i g i o u s d i s p u t e s on the l i v e s o f f i v e persons from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s e s . Orbaan d e s c r i b e s seven b a t t l e s from Carthage to Waterloo i n d e t a i l w i t h maps. The l a t e r b a t t l e s are most c l o s e l y connec-t e d w i t h the course but the e a r l y c l a s s i c a l ones w i l l r e c a l l impressions from the S o c i a l S t u d i e s 7 course. Harnett's n o v e l about p r i n t i n g i s very easy to read and c o u l d be 48 p r o f i t a b l y used i n grade 8 as w e l l . The b e t t e r readers w i l l f i n d Dickens* comparison of London and P a r i s a s i m p l i f i c a t i o n o f many i s s u e s t h a t makes the p o l i t i c a l events understandable i n human terms. S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11: Canada, her geography, h i s t o r y , economics, government, c u l t u r e , and f o r e i g n r e l a t i o n s I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : MacLennan, Hugh, Two S o l i t u d e s Mowat, F a r l e y , The Desperate People E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Hutchison, Bruce, I n c r e d i b l e Canadian Innes, Hammond, Campbell's Kingdom K l l b o u r n , W i l l i a m , The F i r e b r a n d Leacock, Stephen, Laugh with Leacook London, Jack, C a l l of the W i l d Mowat, F a r l e y , Ordeal by Ice MacLennan, Hugh, Barometer R i s i n g MacLennan's love s t o r y Involves not only the E n g l i s h Canadian and French Canadian l o v e r s , but t h e i r f a m i l i e s * t r a d i t i o n s , r e l i g i o n s , customs, speech, and a t t i t u d e s to Canada, so t h a t the two main c h a r a c t e r s r e p r e s e n t many of the Issues of Canadian l i f e t h a t a r e s t i l l p r e s s i n g today. I t i s a b e a u t i f u l l y w r i t t e n book t h a t I would teach to an above-average c l a s s . Mowat's book c o u l d be read by an average c l a s s . I t f o l l o w s the moving People  o f the Deer w i t h an a n g r i e r tone i n i t s demand f o r r e c o g n i t i o n o f Canada's n o r t h e r n people. Barometer R i s i n g Is a dramatic d e s c r i p t i o n of a f a m i l y In H a l i f a x a t the time of the munitions e x p l o s i o n i n 1917* Set i n a more homogeneous community than k9 t h a t of the Quebec people i n Two S o l i t u d e s . the c h a r a c t e r s * i n t e r a c t i o n Is e a s i e r to grasp than the i s o l a t i o n of the two groups i n the other n o v e l . Ordeal by Ice was compiled by Mowat from l o g s of A r c t i c e x p l o r e r s who t e l l i n t h e i r own words of t h e i r voyages. I t i s so a u t h e n t i c and e x c i t i n g l y v i v i d t h a t the a r c h a i c language of the e a r l i e r accounts i s l e s s a hindrance than one might expect. London and Leacock I count among w r i t e r s not to be missed by students of mine. London i s easy to read and h i s sympathy wi t h animals and h i s acceptance of the harsh r e a l i t i e s o f w i l d surroundings makes him po p u l a r w i t h a d o l e s c e n t boys. Leacock's g e n t l e Irony w i l l p r obably appeal more to a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s . The b i o g r a p h i e s o f Mackenzie King by Hutchison and of W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie by K i l b o u r n are u s e f u l examples of t h a t a r t f o r able students who w i l l a l s o l e a r n much of the c r u c i a l times i n which these men were i n f l u e n t i a l . Innes's n o v e l i s an e x c i t i n g t a l e of o i l d i s c o v e r i e s In the Rockies and the i n t r i g u e s f o r power t h a t f o l l o w e d . General Business 11: Economic Geography of B. C. (A Commercial course, o f t e n taught by S o c i a l S t u d i e s teachers) I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Robins, J . D., A P o c k e t f u l of Canada MacLennan, Hugh, Seven R i v e r s of Canada E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : B e r t o n , P., Stampede f o r Gold Hutchison, B., Canada—Tomorrow's Giant Jackson, A. Y., A P a i n t e r ' s Country 50 Lee, Norman, Klondike C a t t l e D r i v e Morley, A l a n , Vancouver, From M l l l t o w n  to M e t r o p o l i s Mowat, F a r l e y , People of the Deer Olson, S. F., The Lonely Land R i v e t t - C a r n a c , C , P u r s u i t In the  Wilderness Both the i n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g books can be used from time to time; they do not r e q u i r e continuous study. There w i l l be i n these S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s a wide range of a b i l i t y i n c o n c e n t r a t i n g as w e l l as i n r e a d i n g so t h a t t e x t s which may be read i n p a r t p r o v i d e u s e f u l f l e x i b i l i t y . The Robins book i s an anthology of poems, s h o r t s t o r i e s and essays, and i s i l l u s t r a t e d . The MacLennan book t e l l s the h i s t o r y , geology, and geography of seven areas f e d by r i v e r s , with i l l u s t r a t i v e anecdotes and c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s which commend l t to a b l e r s t u d e n t s . Berton's K l o n d i k e f o r younger readers and Lee's w e l l I l l u s t r a t e d book are the l e a s t d i f f i c u l t although Morley's s t o r y Is a l s o easy and should have an appeal f o r B. C. students who know Vancouver. Mowat's appeal f o r sympathetic help f o r the n o r t h e r n Canadians c a l l s f o r r e s p o n s i b l e and knowledgeable c i t i z e n s h i p . The Lonely Land, an account of modern voyageurs, i s a t r a v e l book of the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r . Rivet-Carnac's autobiography recounts h i s adventures i n the R.C.M.P. 51 H i s t o r y 1 2 : Modern World H i s t o r y I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : F o r s t e r , E. M*, A Passage to I n d i a S t e i n b e c k , J . , The Grapes of Wrath E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Graham, G., and S. C. H o l l a n d , Dear Enemies M i l l e r , A., The C r u c i b l e MacLean, A l i s t a i r , H.M.S. Ul y s s e s Paton, A l a n , Cry, the Beloved Country Remarque, E. M., A l l Quiet on the  Western F r o n t S h a p i r o , L., The S i x t h of June Ullman, J . , The White Tower Shute, N., The P l e d P i p e r F o r s t e r and S t e i n b e c k c o n t r a s t not only i n t h e i r l i t e r a r y s t y l e s but i n t h e i r a t t i t u d e s to modern problems: the need f o r acceptance i n F o r s t e r c o n t r a s t s with the demand f o r a c t i o n i n S t e i n b e c k . Students' previous acquaintance w i t h S t e i n b e c k as w e l l as the r e a l i s m of Grapes o f Wrath w i l l i n c l i n e them to accept with b e l i e f and sympathy h i s d e s c r i p -t i o n of e x p l o i t a t i o n . The lower key F o r s t e r would be more d i f f i c u l t to teach, e s p e c i a l l y as i n c e r t a i n ways l t i s i n c o n c l u s i v e , drawing on the reader's a b i l i t y to adapt i t s themes to s i t u a t i o n s he knows r a t h e r than h i s judgment on the Indian s i t u a t i o n of the book. The e x t e n s i v e books may seem a b i t heavy, with the e x c e p t i o n of Shute, but I t h i n k t h e i r s t i m u l a t i o n of c l a s s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l encourage students to read them. Comparisons may be u s e f u l l y made; f o r example, 52 Paton and Graham r e g a r d i n g m i n o r i t i e s , Shapiro and Shute on love In wartime, Ullman and MacLean on ambition and I n t e g r i t y , Remarque and M i l l e r on the i n d i v i d u a l and h i s s o c i e t y . Other c o u p l i n g s are p o s s i b l e with books so r i c h i n r e f e r e n c e s to a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n s , events, and i s s u e s . Geography 12: World Geography I n t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Hardy, T., The Return of the Native Verne, J . , Twenty-Thousand Leagues Under the Sea E x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g : Darwin, C h a r l e s , The Voyage of the Beagle I r v i n g , Washington, The Legend of  Sleepy Hollow Laurence, Margaret, The Prophet's  Camel B e l l Hardy's n o v e l i n t e r m i n g l e s the customs, b e l i e f s , h a b i t s , o f country people with the landscape t h a t shaped them. Scenery c r e a t e s the mood, and the e a r t h shapes human d e s t i n y . Verne's undersea t r a v e l book i s a c l a s s i c a l f o r e r u n n e r of modern s c i e n c e f i c t i o n . Darwin's account, abridged and e d i t e d by M i l l i c e n t Selsam, c o n t r a s t s with t h a t of the im a g i n a t i v e Verne. Students c o u l d be asked to see i f Darwin's voyage had any I n f l u e n c e on Verne. I r v i n g ' s legend a r i s e s p a r t l y from the landscape and depends on i t f o r v i v i d n e s s . Laurence's s e n s i t i v e s t o r i e s o f human r e l a t i o n s i n modern Somaliland concern a c u l t u r e dependent on the l a n d . Environment i n these books forms a necessary i l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e i r themes. CHAPTER X DESIRABLE OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF ENGLISH AND HISTORY The people I r e s p e c t most behave as i f they were Immortal and as i f s o c i e t y was e t e r n a l . Both assumptions are f a l s e : both of them must be accepted as t r u e i f we are to go on e a t i n g and working and l o v i n g , and are to keep open a few b r e a t h i n g holes f o r the human s p i r i t . Many concepts taught i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s are i l l u s t r a t e d i n l i t e r a t u r e , the i n s i g h t of g r e a t authors i l l u m i n a t i n g these concepts and f i x i n g them i n the reader's mind by making them p a r t o f h i s own ex p e r i e n c e . He Is drawn by h i s emotional attachment to the l i t e r a t u r e to e x p e r i e n c i n g the s p i r i t o f an age. . . . I f ' p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e ' knowledge does not engage the f e e l i n g s o f the knower, i t can never be d e c i s i v e f o r him. Man i s not an I n t e l l e c t alone but a c r e a t u r e of f e e l i n g as w e l l , and i n order to t r u l y know some-t h i n g , he must be a b l e to r e l a t e i t to h i m s e l f p e r s o n a l l y . 2 Some concepts f o l l o w , w i t h l i t e r a r y sources and the ques t i o n s they r a i s e . M a j o r i t y r u l e J u l i u s Caesar Is the mob's a c t i o n what we mean by m a j o r i t y r u l e ? What c o n d i t i o n s do we need to make m a j o r i t y r u l e an instrument of freedom? 53 54 S o c i a l Great E x p e c t a t i o n s What e f f e c t does the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n c l a s s s t r u c t u r e have on P i p ' s c h a r a c t e r ? Is P i p ' s r i s e i n s o c i e t y a d e s i r a b l e type o f upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ? Does P i p ' s education, both formal and i n f o r m a l , show him any oth e r way to be a man? N a t i o n a l O l i v e r Twist How would the s o c i e t y i n p r o s p e r i t y which O l i v e r l i v e d be d e s c r i b e d by an economist? What c l a s s e s i s Dickens d e s c r i b i n g ? M i n o r i t y Ivanhoe How was one expected to s o c i a l groups t r e a t Jews? Why? I f Ivanhoe l i v e d i n Canada today, would h i s behaviour be the same as i t was i n the book? Compare h i s a t t i t u d e to Jews with Huckleberry Finn's a t t i t u d e to negroes. By becoming i n v o l v e d w i t h B r u t u s ' d e c i s i o n to j o i n the c o n s p i r a t o r s a t the expense of h i s f r i e n d , the student i s f o r c e d to d i s t i n g u i s h between s e l f - i n t e r e s t and the r a t i o n a l i -z a t i o n o f i t . He shares P i p ' s d e s i r e to improve h i m s e l f and 55 l e a r n s t h a t c l i m b i n g the s o c i a l c l a s s l a d d e r has c o s t s he may-have not c o n s i d e r e d . A student who b e l i e v e s modem society-i s eminently h y p o c r i t i c a l w i l l see i n O l i v e r Twist how boys s u r v i v e d a s o c i e t y more r i g i d than h i s own i n i t s h y p o c r i s y though perhaps l e s s s i n i s t e r . I t i s not d i f f i c u l t to move from Isaac and Rebecca to members of i l l - t r e a t e d contem-po r a r y groups and t o compare the responses o f the persecuted, such as f a l s e h u m i l i t y and c u l t u r a l l o y a l t y , which p r o v i d e f o r o u t c a s t s some comfort and s e c u r i t y i n t h e i r h o s t i l e w o r l d s . By empathy the student gains i n s i g h t i n t o the complex terms " c o n s p i r a t o r s , " " s o c i e t y , " "persecuted," commonly used i n h i s t o r y . He a l s o becomes entangled w i t h the problems o f men; he has been taught i n h i s t o r y the v a r i e d s o l u t i o n s men have proposed but now he i s committed to judging them p e r s o n a l l y and to s o l v i n g human problems i n h i s own s o c i e t y . He i s c l o s e r to becoming the person o f i n t e g r i t y d e s c r i b e d by F o r s t e r . The second outcome i s a sense of s e c u r i t y . By t h a t I do not mean the b l i n d n e s s of the o s t r i c h but an i n t e l l i g e n t r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t men have coped w i t h r a d i c a l changes i n t h e i r l i v e s , have s u r v i v e d them and even b e n e f i t e d by them. Mass communications alarm us d a i l y but p a n i c t h i n k i n g i s n e i t h e r d e s i r a b l e nor n e c e s s a r y . A c h i l d l e a r n s t h a t Kenya i s not p o p u l a t e d o n l y by Mau-Mau t e r r o r i s t s and r a v i n g n a t i o n a l i s t s when he reads K a m l t l : A F o r e s t e r ' s Dream, a c h i l d r e n ' s book i n which race r e l a t i o n s are conducted w i t h r e s p e c t and a f f e c t i o n . The Caves of the Great Hunters shows how the 56 unknown a r t i s t s of the Lascaux caves d e a l t with the t h r e a t o f s t a r v a t i o n and unknowingly l e f t a r e l i c o f g r e a t beauty-through which they s u r v i v e . C a s t l e on the Border shows how a g i r l s u r v i v e d World War I I . An a l l e g o r y such as P i l g r i m 1 s  Progress t e l l s us t h a t many of our v a l u e s , c l o t h e d today i n d i f f e r e n t d r e s s , have been questioned b e f o r e and answered. The Red Badge of Courage l e t s us admit our f e a r s ; the hero i s a f r a i d o f h i s f e a r i n the American C i v i l War and y e t , because we share h i s i n s e c u r i t y we can understand him. The h o r r o r s f a c e d by F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e are found by the reader o f The L o n e l y Crusader to have been g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d i n our day. L i t e r a t u r e can encourage a p u p i l to t h i n k of h i m s e l f as an i n h e r i t o r i n the f a m i l y of man, p r o t e c t e d by h i s a n c e s t o r s * accomplishments, and c h a l l e n g e d by t h e i r f a i l u r e s . A t h i r d d e s i r a b l e outcome i s t h a t the student may be expected to enjoy h i s h i s t o r y l e s s o n s more when he can see them i n the f i c t i o n a l c o n t e x t . H i s t o r y can seem merely f a c t u a l , c o l d l y r a t i o n a l and d i s c o n n e c t e d from " r e a l l i f e " as the p u p i l s see i t . L i t e r a t u r e , while f i c t i o n a l and not as " r e a l " i n one sense as h i s t o r y , engages the emotions so t h a t whatever h i s t o r y i t encompasses can become p a r t of the p u p i l s * r e a l i t y . L e a r n i n g becomes r e a l as i t combines with other l e a r n i n g to form a l a r g e r s y n t h e s i s . Greater c o r r e l a -t i o n l e a d s to g r e a t e r involvement, and hence g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e as the student becomes more s k i l f u l i n making i n f e r e n c e s , s e e i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s and becoming i n t e l l i g e n t l y committed. 57 Perhaps c o r r e l a t i o n would console E r n e s t Green who wrote i n E d u c a t i o n f o r a New S o c i e t y ; We do not seem, as y e t , to have s o l v e d the problem of making e d u c a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e to the o r d i n a r y man. He may be convinced of I t s importance but, on the whole, he shows the same r e l u c t a n c e toward a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t t h a t he shows toward h i s engagements wi t h the d e n t i s t , and counts both unpleasant experiences t o be avoided as l o n g as p o s s i b l e . 3 Less t h e o r e t i c a l i s the d e s i r a b l e outcome of i n c r e a s e d knowledge o f " p l o t s , names, e t h i c a l c o n n o t a t i o n s . " 4 P i t y the p u p i l (and the teacher) s t u d y i n g Some village-Hampden, t h a t w i t h d a u n t l e s s b r e a s t The l i t t l e T y rant o f h i s f i e l d s withstood; Some mute, i n g l o r i o u s M i l t o n here may r e s t , Some Cromwell g u i l t l e s s o f h i s country's blood-* w i t h no understanding o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the three men. How meaningful i s E l e c t i o n , E l e c t i o n and R e p r o b a t i o n — i t ' s a l l v e r y w e l l . But I go t o - n i g h t to my boy, and I s h a l l not f i n d him i n H e l l 6 without knowledge of C a l v l n l s t l c b e l i e f i n f o r e - o r d l n a t l o n ? The essence o f "A J a c o b i t e ' s F a r e w e l l " by Swinburne i s l o s t i f one cannot determine what a J a c o b i t e i s . T h i s e n l a r g e d knowledge of r e f e r e n t s a p p l i e s to concepts as w e l l as f a c t s . A student knowledgeable i n h i s t o r y knows what i t i s t h a t i s t h r e a t e n i n g G e a s l e r i n " Q u a l i t y " by Galsworthy; he knows the pres s u r e s toward 58 c o n f o r m i t y t h a t p r o v i d e the s e t t i n g f o r "The C r u c i b l e " by M i l l e r . I f he i s aware of the r i g i d c l a s s p a t t e r n of Edwardian England, he enjoys more f u l l y the s a t i r e of Shaw i n "Pygmalion." The r e c u r r i n g f e a r and s u s p i c i o n o f s c i e n c e recounted i n h i s t o r y adds c r e d i b i l i t y to "The Birthmark" by Hawthorne. Blake's "London" l o s e s i t s melodramatic I n t e n s i t y and becomes deeply f e l t rage when the reader i s f a m i l i a r w i t h the s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the time. The sensuous beauty of " S t . Agnes Eve" by Keats i s a p p r e c i a t e d when one r e c o g n i z e s medieval a s p i r a t i o n s and a r t . I f the h i s t o r y and the s p e c i a l s t u d i e s ^ . . . ( l i t -e r a t u r e ) are s e l e c t e d to throw as much l i g h t as p o s s i b l e on the o t h e r , not o n l y w i l l a q u i c k e n i n g of i n t e r e s t and a c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f ideas r e s u l t but a l s o an enhanced understanding of the i n f l u e n c e s which make s o c i e t i e s g r e a t or mediocre. The student w i l l be b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d to judge the p a s t ; and he w i l l a l s o , i f the p e r i o d or p e r i o d s f o r study have been j u d i c i o u s l y s t u d i e d , be i n a _ b e t t e r p o s i t i o n to e v a l u a t e h i s own c i v i l i z a t i o n . ' Of the f o u r d e s i r a b l e outcomes, i l l u s t r a t i o n o f con-c e p t s , sense o f s e c u r i t y , enjoyment, knowledge of r e f e r e n t s , I t h i n k the most enduring i s the g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e i n the two s u b j e c t s because they have become more meaningful, e n l a r g i n g the reader's power to experience them. As Broudy says, The o n l y v a l i d c r i t e r i o n of education i s whether o r not the i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t s those tendencies developed under i n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n ceases. ...Only when the p u p i l f r e e l y chooses to p r a c t i c e h i s knowledge and s k i l l and d e r i v e s genuine s a t i s f a c t i o n from doing so can we be sure t h a t a r e l i a b l e h a b i t has been formed. Every w e l l developed h a b i t con-t a i n s an emotional b i a s f a v o r i n g i t s own e x e r c i s e . How to b r i n g about t h i s emotional attachment i s p r o b a b l y education's most d i f f i c u l t p r o blem. 8 CHAPTER XI UNDESIRABLE OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES I t Is tempting and easy to approach c o r r e l a t i o n on the b a s i s o f the f a l s e assumption t h a t f i c t i o n i s a complete and a c c u r a t e embodiment of h i s t o r y . I t does not c l a i m to be r e l i a b l e source m a t e r i a l when i t p o r t r a y s men and events, but a reader who b e l i e v e s i n the f i c t i o n , and q u i t e r i g h t l y , can e a s i l y be persuaded to b e l i e v e i n the h i s t o r y w i t h i n the f i c t i o n , and so be m i s l e d Into t h i n k i n g he has l e a r n e d the t y p i c a l s i t u a t i o n or i n f l u e n c e r e l i a b l y d e s c r i p t i v e o f a p e r i o d . Primary sources, w r i t i n g s o f men p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d , can g i v e a m i s l e a d i n g p i c t u r e even when they are a c c u r a t e , v i v i d , and in t e n s e accounts. As Simon s a y s , 1 v e r y few men o f any g e n e r a t i o n a re a r t i c u l a t e and fewer s t i l l are so a r t i c u l a t e as to a t t r a c t readers years l a t e r . The w r i t e r s so e x c e l l e n t as t o be c o n s i d e r e d persons o f genius are f r e q u e n t l y the onl y w r i t e r s w i d e l y read from a p a r t i c u l a r p e r i o d ; they a re seldom r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r age. I f Fr y e , MacLuhan, and Cohen, from our presen t g e n e r a t i o n , s h o u l d be read w i d e l y i n 2000 A.D., c o u l d we h o n e s t l y say they are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r f e l l o w Canadians o f 1966? T r u l y they g i v e the t a s t e o f our times, but not our times i n t o t o . L i t e r a r y a r t i s t s can choose the events, thoughts, 60 61 t r e n d s , and r e a c t i o n s t h a t they wish to w r i t e on, and t h e i r b i a s c o n t r i b u t e s to t h e i r work. In h i s t o r y , however, a w r i t e r i s o b l i g e d to o f f e r a l l r e l e v a n t f a c t s to support and j u s t i f y i t . One i n s t a n c e i n l i t e r a t u r e may g i v e focus to a whole n o v e l , but i t proves n o t h i n g h i s t o r i c a l l y . An u n d e s i r a b l e outcome, then, i s the assumption t h a t one i n s t a n c e , one remark, one crusade, i s t y p i c a l and g e n e r a l . I t i s p a r t o f the g e n e r a l danger of t r e a t i n g l i t e r a t u r e as i f i t were h i s t o r y , a danger which was d e a l t w i t h i n chapters 5 and 8. A second u n d e s i r a b l e outcome i s the assumption t h a t because a book deal s w i t h an a s p e c t of h i s t o r y or geography t h a t a student has s t u d i e d , t h a t book w i l l i n t e r e s t the s t u d e n t . C o r r e l a t i o n i s no guarantee of enjoyment or i n s i g h t i f the book i t s e l f i s not i n t e r e s t i n g . A poor book may b e n e f i t from happening to be concerned w i t h a t o p i c known to the reader whose c u r i o s i t y f o r t h a t reason may strengthen h i s p e r s i s t e n c e , but t h a t I t s t o p i c i s a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r i s a shabby excuse f o r p r e s e n t i n g bad w r i t i n g . A t h i r d danger i s imbalance. A student who f e e l s he i s stuck w i t h h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n d u r i n g h i s whole year o f book r e p o r t s w i l l r i g h t l y f e e l cheated i n h i s r e a d i n g time and u n w i l l i n g to reap the r i c h e s of c o r r e l a t i o n . C o r r e l a t i o n i s u s e f u l but i t i s not the f i r s t f u n c t i o n of a l i t e r a t u r e programme. CHAPTER X I I PERSONAL APPLICATION With two c l a s s e s i n 1966-67 I used book r e p o r t assignments to put i n t o p r a c t i c e c o r r e l a t i o n o f l i t e r a t u r e and s o c i a l s t u d i e s . In October I a s s i g n e d to a s u p e r i o r E n g l i s h 8 c l a s s the r e a d i n g o f h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n , p r e f e r a b l y about B r i t a i n , France and Canada as f a r as books on these n a t i o n s were a v a i l a b l e . D e f i n i n g h i s t o r i c a l f i c t i o n proceeded as they i n v e s t i g a t e d the reso u r c e s o f the l i b r a r y . I accepted Anne of Green Gables and Huckleberry F i n n s i n c e they are books about people i n oth e r p l a c e s i n the p a s t , but most chose Cue f o r Treason and Eagle of the N i n t h . The q u e s t i o n to answer i n a paragraph was "What would you have to l e a r n to l i v e i n t h a t p l a c e a t t h a t t i m e ? w The q u e s t i o n was de-si g n e d to a v o i d r e t e l l i n g o f p l o t s and to encourage com-p a r i s o n o f t h e i r own ways of l i v i n g and those o f people i n former times. I t ac h i e v e d these purposes. Answers s t r e s s e d the l e a r n i n g o f s k i l l s such as r i d i n g , sewing, f i g h t i n g , walking, and s i n g i n g , and the l e a r n i n g to l i v e without modern conveniences. Obedience to the demands of one's c l a s s was a l s o observed. From t h i s assignment the p u p i l s l e a r n e d t h a t i n a d d i t i o n to e a t i n g strange foods and wearing strange c l o t h e s , people have had d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s and m o t i v a t i o n s w i t h i n which to make the d e c i s i o n s t h a t form h i s t o r y . 62 63 In January I asked the same c l a s s to w r i t e an essay on "What i t means to me to be a Canadian." The responses were g e n e r a l l y flowery p a t r i o t i s m , g r a t i t u d e f o r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s , and advertisement o f Canada. A f t e r marking, I d i d not r e t u r n these essays. I then a s s i g n e d a book r e p o r t on a book about Canada or by a Canadian, the q u e s t i o n to answer being, "What d i d t h i s book teach you about Canada?" These responses were more c o n c r e t e ; heroes, t r a d e , r a i l w a y s , s o c i a l customs were d e s c r i b e d . Then In June I r e t u r n e d the o r i g i n a l essays, and put the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1. What was the book r e p o r t assignment? 2. What book d i d you read f o r i t ? Who wrote I t ? 3 . What d i d you l e a r n about Canada from t h i s book? (e.g., geography). 4. D i d you enjoy the reading? 5. D i d you enjoy w r i t i n g the r e p o r t ? 6. What c r i t i c i s m have you of your essay? a. tone b. mechanics c. p l a n n i n g E x p l a i n . 7. What would you change i n the essay i f you wrote on the same t o p i c now? 8. How has your concept of being a Canadian changed s i n c e you wrote the essay? 9. To what ex t e n t was t h i s concept a f f e c t e d by the book? a. much? b. some? c. l i t t l e ? d. none? Why? 6k The q u e s t i o n s p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s t h e s i s are numbers 2, 3> 7» 8, 9» so I s h a l l r e f e r only to them. A summary of the answers to these questions f o l l o w s . Question two: What book d i d you read f o r i t ? Who wrote i t ? (When more than one student read the same book, I have g i v e n the number of p u p i l s who r e a d it,;) Anderson, William'A., Angel of Hudson Bay Becker, May Lamberton, Golden T a l e s of Canada Bennett, E. M. G., Land f o r t h e i r I n h e r i t a n c e Bonner, Mary G., Made i n Canada Burpee, Lawrence J . , The D i s c o v e r y of Canada C a r r , Emily, Book of Small Cather, W i l l a , Shadows on the Rock C l a r k , C a t h e r i n e , The Sun Horse (2) C o l l i e r , E r i c , Three A g a i n s t the Wilderness (2) Gowland, J . S., Return to Canada Haig-Brown, R., Mounted P o l i c e P a t r o l (2) Halg-Brown, R., Starbuck V a l l e y Winter Hayes, John F., Buckskin C o l o n i s t K r i l l , Mary E., A l l Across Canada L e i t c h , A d e l a i d e , Canada, Young Giant of the North M i t c h e l l , W. 0., Jake and the K i d Mowat, F a r l e y , The B l a c k Joke Mowat, F a r l e y , L o s t In the Barrens (2) R i c e , O l i v e , T r a i l s Out West R i t c h i e , C. T., The F i r s t Canadian (2) Ross, Frances A l l e e n , The Land and People of Canada Roy, G a b r i e l l e , The T i n F l u t e S c h u l l , Joseph, B a t t l e f o r the Rock Sharp, E d i t h L., Nkwala Stowe, L e l a n d , Crusoe of Lonesome Lake Question t h r e e : What d i d you l e a r n about Canada from t h i s book? (The number of students whose answers f a l l under each heading appears a t the r i g h t . ) a. " P e r s o n a l i t y o f my Country" (3) Canadians* l i v e s and dreams; French-Canadians' r e l i g i o n and r e s i l i e n c e a g a i n s t w i n t e r ; "I don't t h i n k I l e a r n e d a n ything about Canada I d i d not a l r e a d y know, but I know I d i d l e a r n a r e s p e c t f o r the people who fought to make Canada the way i t i s . " 65 b. H i s t o r y (10) Champlain; l i f e i n " l a r g e c i t i e s d u r i n g the war y e a r s , how much French-Canadians are l i k e E n g l i s h -Canadians, and the g r e a t p o v e r t y t h a t e x i s t e d i n Canada"; Newfoundland's h i s t o r y , people and c l a s s e s of the Maritlmes; "Wolfe was a poor g e n e r a l , " the importance of the outcome o f the B a t t l e of the P l a i n s of Abraham; how people used to l i v e i n Canada; o l d V i c t o r i a ; p r a i r i e l i f e and waterfowl; H.C.M.P. ( 2 ) ; French-E n g l i s h r i v a l r y . c. Negative answers (3) " . . . i t was humour and not too i n f o r m a t i v e " ; very l i t t l e : " I t was w r i t t e n by an E n g l i s h w r i t e r i n England" ( T r a i l s Out West);"The book was f i c t i o n and d i d not have a n y t h i n g to do with Canada" (The Sun Horse). d. N a t i v e peoples (4) Indians of B. C , p l a c e names; Eskimos and Indians; what Indians made and how they f i t i n t o Canadian h i s t o r y ; I ndian t r i b e s . e. Geography (13) Trappers' h a r d s h i p s ; the geography, w i l d l i f e , and people of the i n t e r i o r of B. C ; scenery; "the weather of the i n t e r i o r of B. C., and the h a b i t s of the trumpeter swan"; the n o r t h : animals, people, weather, dangers (3)» w i l d l i f e , scenery, h o s p i t a l i t y , v a s t n e s s , growth of Canada; B. C. geography, e s p e c i a l l y r e s t i n g p l a c e s f o r b i r d s (The Sun Horse); w i l d e r n e s s : s u r v i v a l , t r a p p i n g , beaver dams, animal t r a c k s , p l a n t s ( 2 ) ; geography of Canada ( 2 ) . 66 Question seven: What would you change i n the essay i f you wrote on the same t o p i c now? a. C r i t i c a l t h i n k i n g (5) "not a l l b e a u t i f u l scenery and good t h i n g s " ; "show the good and the bad"; "Next time I t h i n k I would h i n t a t an undertone of improvement, a f t e r a l l Canada i s h t a l l t h a t p e r f e c t ! " b. No change (2) c. A d d i t i o n s (6) b e n e f i t s o f geography, f e e l i n g s about n a t i o n a l i t y ; "more h i s t o r i c , more a p p r e c i a t i o n of democracy." d. Replacements (2) " • B r i t i s h S u b j e c t 1 to •Canadian C i t i z e n * " ; "how proud I am of Canada i n s t e a d o f what f o r e i g n people loo k forward to when coming to Canada." The p a u c i t y of answers here Is due to the ambiguity o f the q u e s t i o n : most students took i t to mean changes i n s t y l e . Q uestion e i g h t : How has your concept of b e i n g a Canadian changed s i n c e you wrote the essay? (The numbers a t the r i g h t show the number of students whose answers came under each head-ing.) a. G r e a t e r a p p r o v a l (5) Prouder because of Canada 1s " p e a c e f u l stand i n the world s i t u a t i o n " ; "more p a t r i o t i c . . . 1 am g l a d not to be a Communist"; "more g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d by the French now" and "have l e a r n e d to a p p r e c i a t e the new Canadian f l a g " ; " I admire the French-Canadians more than ever"; h a p p i e r to be a Canadian because o f the C e n t e n n i a l c e l e b r a t i o n s . 67 b. Less a p p r o v a l ( 5 ) " . . . i t i s n ' t so g r e a t to be a Canadian" because of the government, the prime m i n i s t e r , the French q u e s t i o n ( t h i s student r e a d a book on the w i l d e r n e s s ) ; "Canada i s cowardly" because of the withdrawal o f UNEF f o r c e s ; "My concept was changed to worse" because of the government and Vietnam; Canada stands by and watches North Vietnam being bombed; "I don't t h i n k a person from another country should have to wait f i v e years f o r h i s c i t i z e n s h i p papers...I do t h i n k . . . h i s p o l i c e r e c o r d should be checked." c. L i t t l e or no change: (1?) d. Increased knowledge: (3) Question n i n e : To what extent was t h i s concept a f f e c t e d by the book? a. Much: C(55 b. Some: (7) c. L i t t l e ( a l s o i n t e r p r e t e d as "a l i t t l e " ) : (5) d. None: (12) Reasons f o r "None" i n c l u d e d : a l r e a d y knew these t h i n g s ; f i c t i o n doesn't teach you much; no p r o o f my concept was wrong; i t agreed w i t h my concept; the book was on geography not morals or p o l i t i c s . As a t e s t o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e f f o r t s toward c o r r e l a t i o n , t h i s second s e t of work from January to June r e q u i r e d the students themselves to d i s c o v e r the i n f l u e n c e s o f c o r r e l a t i o n : a l l the answers are s u b j e c t i v e . The reason f o r t h i s i s t h a t a s e t of o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s g i v e n b e f o r e and a f t e r the r e a d i n g would have suggested the g i v i n g of " r i g h t " answers. These 68 c h i l d r e n would have d i s c u s s e d the que s t i o n s among themselves a f t e r the f i r s t t e s t t o f i n d the n r i g h t M answers and would have remembered the answers reached by consensus, making such a t e s t u n r e l i a b l e even when repeated i n d i f f e r e n t words. N e i t h e r c o u l d I have t e s t e d the e f f e c t s o f the r e a d i n g on t h e i r r e t e n t i o n of the content of the S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8 c o u r s e . A student who had read about Wolfe a f t e r the events of 1759 were s t u d i e d i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s would have been a b l e to put the B a t t l e o f the P l a i n s of Abraham i n t o c ontext b e t -t e r than would the student who had read about Newfoundland. In the same way the Newfoundland reader would be able to answer a geography q u e s t i o n more a b l y than the h i s t o r y reader would. But the geography of Canada i s the f i r s t p a r t o f the study on Canada. By the time of the r e - t e s t , he might have f o r g o t t e n more o f the S o c i a l S t u d i e s background to h i s r e a d i n g than the p u p i l who had read about Wolfe would have f o r g o t t e n . The nature of the c l a s s a l s o a f f e c t e d the c h o i c e of t e s t . The c h i l d r e n were i n t e l l i g e n t and i n t e r e s t e d readers and a r t i c u l a t e w r i t e r s . They knew they were not to be marked on t h e i r answers which were done because I "wanted" them done. They were t o l d o f the weaknesses which I saw i n t h e i r essays and were aware t h a t I expected exact, s i n c e r e , and p e r t i n e n t answers to the q u e s t i o n s . These c h i l d r e n were a b l e to examine t h e i r essays w i t h c r i t i c a l eyes, to remember t h e i r books, and to l o o k a t t h e i r r e a c t i o n s o b j e c t i v e l y . For these reasons I b e l i e v e t h i s s u b j e c t i v e t e s t i n g was r e l i a b l e . 6 9 Now l e t us see i f there was c o r r e l a t i o n and, i f so, to what e x t e n t . A l l the students but three l e a r n e d something about Canada. T h i r t e e n would have made improvements to the essay. The m a j o r i t y f e l t there had been l i t t l e or no change i n t h e i r concept o f b e i n g a Canadian s i n c e they had w r i t t e n the essay, but the changes noted seem to have been caused more by c u r r e n t events than the r e a d i n g o f the book. Most students s a i d t h e i r concepts o f being a Canadian were a f f e c t e d by r e a d i n g the books. I conclude there was l e a r n i n g and t h i n k i n g about Canada as a r e s u l t o f these E n g l i s h assignments. Thus there was s i g n i f i c a n t c o r r e l a t i o n . The same p a t t e r n was used w i t h a low E n g l i s h 9 c l a s s . In January I a s s i g n e d an essay on "The Uses of Geography." The responses were p r e c i s e and comprehensive. They s t a t e d t h a t geography was used f o r understanding o f c u r r e n t a f f a i r s , weather, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , t r a v e l , war s t r a t e g i e s , human s u r -v i v a l , a g r i c u l t u r e , t r a d e , the founding and the growth of n a t i o n s , animals, space e x p l o r a t i o n , i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s , and s p o r t s . The n e c e s s i t y o f i n t e r r e l a t i n g geographic f a c t s , the human s t r u g g l e t o overcome geographic b a r r i e r s , the need f o r new maps as man changes the earth's s u r f a c e , and the wise and f o o l i s h human uses o f the l a n d , concerned some s t u -d e n t s . I f e l t the students were w e l l - i n f o r m e d and i n t e r e s t e d i n geography. 70 In February I a s s i g n e d a book r e p o r t on a book where landscape was a paramount f e a t u r e . Browsing r e v e a l e d the c h o i c e o f books was wide: t r a v e l , adventure, escape, t e c h -n i c a l . The q u e s t i o n s , "What d i d I l e a r n about geography from t h i s book? How does the book depend on geography to arouse the r e a d e r 1 s i n t e r e s t ? " were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y answered. (With h i n d s i g h t I wish I had phrased the f i r s t q u e s t i o n thus: What geography d i d I l e a r n from t h i s book? That form would have been more c o n c i s e and more exact.) In June I r e t u r n e d the geography essays and put these q u e s t i o n s : 1. What was the assignment? 2. D i d you enjoy the reading? 3 . D i d you enjoy the w r i t i n g ? 4. What would you change i n your essay? a. s t y l e 1 tone 11 mechanics i l l order b. content 1 a d d i t i o n s l i d e l e t i o n s 5« Have your ideas of the uses of geography changed s i n c e you wrote the essay? E x p l a i n . 6. What d i d you l e a r n about geography from t h i s book? 7. Have your ideas of the uses of geography changed s i n c e you r e a d the book? How? 8. What was the t i t l e o f your book? 9. Who was the author? The p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n s , numbers 5» 6» 7» 8, 9» produced these answers. 71 Question f i v e : Have your ideas of the uses o f geography changed s i n c e you wrote the essay? E x p l a i n . a. No answer: (2) b. None: (12) c. Yes: (k) d. Much: (2) (the Importance of geography; more l e a r n -i n g took p l a c e i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s l e s s o n s ) Question s i x : What d i d you l e a r n about geography from t h i s book? a. No answer: (4) b. Nothing: (3) c. A l i t t l e : (2) d. Not much: (1) ("It was c h i e f l y a s t o r y f o r enjoyment.") e. New knowledge: (10) Examples i n c l u d e d : geography can be d e s t r u c t i v e ; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g ; "A person c o u l d get l o s t i n a r e g i o n , even i f he had a map"; dependence on geography by people i n c e n t r a l Canada; "why some c o u n t r i e s and people are l i k e they a r e " ; marine d i v e r s and the crops of the sea; how ot h e r people l i v e ; benevolence and power of geography. Question seven: Have your ideas of uses of geography changed s i n c e you read the book? How? a. No answer: (4) b. L i t t l e : (2) ("It d i d n ' t say a n y t h i n g d i f f e r e n t . " ) 72 c. A l i t t l e : (2) d. None: (7) e. Some: ( 4 ) f . Much: (1) Questions e i g h t and n i n e : What was the t i t l e o f your book? Who was the author? Day, Veronlque, L a n d s l i d e Ditmars, Raymond L., A F o r e s t of Adventure Hlnton, Sam, Under the Sea L i f e Magazine, Canada Marquis, Thomas G., "The War C h i e f of the Ottawas" from C h r o n i c l e s of Canada Meader, Stephen W., Trap L i n e s North Morrow, H., On to Oregon Mowat, F a r l e y , L o s t i n the Barrens Olsen, Jack, The Climb up to H e l l Olson, S., The Lonely Land R i e s e b e r g , Harry, C i t y Under the Sea S c o t t , C o l . R. J . , God Is my C o - p i l o t Treece, Henry, V i k i n g * s Sunset Ullman, J . R., Banner In the Sky Warwick, John, Yukon Wood, Ke r r y , The Map Maker Not g i v e n : (2) Incomplete: (2) Was there u s e f u l c o r r e l a t i o n ? While o n l y e i g h t out o f twenty r e p o r t e d t h e i r ideas had changed s i n c e the essay w r i t i n g , t h i r t e e n had l e a r n e d geography from r e a d i n g the book. T h i r t e e n , a m a j o r i t y a g a i n , r e p o r t e d t h e i r conceptions o f the uses o f geography were changed a f t e r r e a d i n g the book. Of course i t i s d i f f i c u l t to d i s t i n g u i s h whether one's concepts have changed because of one f a c t o r r a t h e r than another, and the q u e s t i o n s seem r e p e t i t i o u s . However, the 73 e x p l a n a t i o n s o f answers r e f e r r e d to one f a c t o r a t a time, g i v i n g to me more confidence i n the answers and to the students r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t a f a c t o r l i k e a r e a d i n g a s s i g n -ment c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e i r understanding of the s u b j e c t matter of another course. Thus there was c o r r e l a t i o n , a c o r r e l a t i o n t h a t the students r e c o g n i z e d . A comparison of the two programmes r e f l e c t s the a b i l i t i e s and h a b i t s o f the two v e r y d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s . The l e s s a b l e wrote substandard E n g l i s h , f a i l e d to remember t h e i r books i n s p i t e o f the r e q u i r e d c a r d f i l e on r e a d i n g s , r e f r a i n e d from answering some q u e s t i o n s , and tended to g i v e vague answers. Thus t h e i r responses i n s p i r e l e s s c o n f i d e n c e i n the e x i s t e n c e and the extent o f c o r r e l a t i o n than do those o f the b e t t e r s c h o l a r s . F u r t h e r evidence o f c o r r e l a t i o n appeared i n the responses t o a q u e s t i o n n a i r e I put to a l l c l a s s e s on the e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g programme. Question two was: "Did any of your assignments help you w i t h other s t u d i e s ? I f 'yes,' p l e a s e s t a t e which s u b j e c t ( s ) : . . . . Please e x p l a i n how the r e a d i n g was of a s s i s t a n c e . " F o r t y - s i x p u p i l s answered "No" and s i x t y - f i v e answered "Yes." The p o s i t i v e answers r e -f e r r e d to f o u r s u b j e c t s i n the p r o p o r t i o n s shown below: S o c i a l S t u d i e s : 51 Typing: 1 E n g l i s h : 8 S c i e n c e : 5 74 The r e a d i n g a s s i s t e d students In l e a r n i n g the f o l l o w i n g : F a c t u a l knowledge: 44 I n s i g h t to r e a l l i f e : 5 E n g l i s h h i s t o r y : 5 Geography Middle E a s t Communism Understanding p l a y s and s e t t i n g s Napoleon: 2 Busin e s s L e t t e r s B i o l o g y H i s t o r y No answer: 2 Again the responses are s u b j e c t i v e , and they may have r e s u l t e d from the f a c t t h a t the q u e s t i o n was put i n the f i r s t p l a c e , o r from a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p l e a s e , o r from the nature o f some r e a d i n g assignments. N e v e r t h e l e s s most o f the students c l a i m e d there had been some c o r r e l a t i o n . A f t e r t h i s p e r s o n a l experience, i t seems to me that another b e n e f i t a r i s e s from t h i s type o f c o r r e l a t i o n . Many times when I have a s s i g n e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n the l i b r a r y , I have been d i s a p p o i n t e d i n the q u a l i t y of the r e s e a r c h because of students* r e l i a n c e on the e n c y c l o p e d i a . They seem to b e l i e v e t h a t o n l y an e n c y c l o p e d i a can g i v e them the o b j e c t i v e t r u t h , the " r i g h t answer." Once they have mastered the e n c y c l o p e d i a index, they can f i n d f a c t u a l Information v e r y q u i c k l y . Then they o f t e n copy whole passa-ges and p r e s e n t them as t h e i r own work as I f the anonymity o f an e n c y c l o p e d i a , l i k e t h a t o f a d i c t i o n a r y , makes i t s contents t h e i r s and does not r e q u i r e the source to be acknowledged. The e n c y c l o p e d i a i s r e l i a b l e and a v a i l a b l e 75 but these v e r y q u a l i t i e s encourage the student to b e l i e v e the knowledge c o n t a i n e d i n an e n c y c l o p e d i a i s the whole t r u t h . Hence i f he puts i n t o h i s w r i t i n g the r e s u l t s o f others* r e s e a r c h , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t re-s e a r c h on h i s p a r t and the d e s i r e d end of h i s assignment. I doubt v e r y much i f such i n f o r m a t i o n i s a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o the student's background. R e l i a n c e on the e n c y c l o p e d i a i s o b j e c t i o n a b l e f o r another reason. The e n c y c l o p e d i a makes no c l a i m to i n v o l v e the student's emotions. Hence he tends to b e l i e v e t h a t h i s f e e l i n g s about a s u b j e c t are not important. An E n g l i s h teacher concerned w i t h p e r s o n a l response wants to i n v o l v e the student i n h i s s t u d i e s . He must be I n t e r e s t e d i n them, and to become I n t e r e s t e d i n them he must r e a c t to them wi t h h i s h e a r t as w e l l as h i s head. One reason f o r the frequent use of the e n c y c l o p e d i a may be t h a t an e n c y c l o p e d i a i s p r o b a b l y the f i r s t c o s t l y purchase f o r a s c h o o l l i b r a r y . Because i t i s a fundamental t o o l o f r e s e a r c h , a teacher s e t t i n g up a l i b r a r y tends to buy l t f i r s t . A f t e r t h a t , book s e l e c t i o n becomes more complex. I f the t e a c h e r - l i b r a r i a n i s hampered by l a c k of funds (and I have never met one who i s n ' t ) , he i s going to be wary of choosing f i c t i o n o n l y i n order to a m p l i f y the matters i n the e n c y c l o p e d i a . The l i b r a r i a n i s J u s t i f i e d i n u s i n g a d d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i a i n book s e l e c t i o n . 76 Two s o l u t i o n s to t h i s problem of e n c y c l o p e d i a dominance occur to me: much more money f o r l i b r a r i e s and much g r e a t e r use of c o r r e l a t i o n . A more e x t e n s i v e use of c o r r e l a t i o n would g i v e the d e s i r a b l e balance be-tween s u b j e c t i v e and o b j e c t i v e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f s u b j e c t matter. My p u p i l s were encouraged i n t h e i r e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g to r e t u r n a book t h a t d i d not i n t e r e s t them and to browse u n t i l they found one they enjoyed. I b e l i e v e t h i s was done by most of them. Ther e f o r e they l e a r n e d the new i n f o r m a t i o n a t the same time t h a t t h e i r emotions were engaged. Whether the students would c o n s u l t f i c t i o n i n o r d e r to f i l l a r e s e a r c h assignment I doubt v e r y much because they are not aware of f i c t i o n a l sources, but I do b e l i e v e they r e a l i z e t h a t i m a g i n a t i v e l i t e r a t u r e con-t r i b u t e s to t h e i r p e r s o n a l mastery o f a s u b j e c t . In t h i s way c o r r e l a t i o n seems to me to counter the r e l i a n c e on the e n c y c l o p e d i a . CHAPTER X I I I TIME EXTENSION OF SELECTIONS I f even time, the enemy o f a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s , and to po e t s , a t l e a s t , the most hated and f e a r e d o f a l l t y r a n t s , can.be broken down by the im a g i n a t i o n , a n y t h i n g can be. A teacher s e a r c h i n g f o r books f o r c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h h i s t o r y soon r e a l i z e s t h at h i s own h i s t o r i c a l knowledge i s i n s u f f i c i e n t f o r him to make c o n s i s t e n t l y f a i r Judgments on the h i s t o r i c a l accuracy o f f i c t i o n , and he may then t h i n k he c o u l d r e l y more h a p p i l y on w r i t e r s who l i v e d c l o s e r to t h e i r m a t e r i a l . T h i s thought may l e a d him, as i t l e d me, to c o n s i d e r i n g o l d e r w r i t e r s than those t h a t appear on our c u r r i c u l a . P r e s c r i b e d t e x t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia a t the time o f w r i t i n g c o n t a i n s e l e c t i o n s w r i t t e n mainly i n the l a s t two hundred y e a r s . T h i s g e n e r a l p a t t e r n i s not s u r -p r i s i n g but the extent o f r e l i a n c e on modern w r i t e r s and the consequent n e g l e c t o f o l d e r w r i t e r s I have, found to be g r e a t e r than I had expected. The p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n appears i n the t a b l e below and the c h a r t i n the Appendix. In the c h a r t the number of s e l e c t i o n s w r i t t e n by authors born more than two hundred years ago appearing i n each anthology i s expressed as a percentage of the t o t a l number o f s e l e c t i o n s . Up to grade 10 t h i s percentage i n c r e a s e s but In grades 11 and 12, except f o r E n g l i s h 91» i t decreases. Texts which are not a n t h o l o g i e s 77 78 and t e x t s w r i t t e n s o l e l y by one author are l i s t e d here w i t h r e f e r e n c e to t h e i r time o f w r i t i n g . COURSE E n g l i s h 7 TITLES Treasure I s l a n d Christmas C a r o l Jean V a l Jean AUTHORS1 PERIOD (modem—born s i n c e 1765) a l l modem E n g l i s h 8 E n g l i s h 9 Moonfleet The K o n - T l k l E x p e d i t i o n  Men and Gods The Red Pony and The P e a r l Shakespeare f o r Young P l a y e r s Shaw; Three P l a y s The Snow Goose The Human Comedy Typhoon The Old Man and the Sea three out of f o u r modern f i v e out o f s i x modem E n g l i s h 10 To K i l l a Mockingbird  D i a r y o f Anne Frank  The C h r y s a l l d s  Animal Farm  Hiroshima Gandhi Where Nests the Water Hen 79 COURSE TITLES AUTHORS * PERIOD (modern—born s i n c e 17&5) twelve out of t h i r t e e n modern Shakespearean Shakespearean Shakespearean E n g l i s h 91 The new courses (7 to 10) are commendable f o r t h e i r e x c i t i n g and vi g o r o u s i n n o v a t i o n s . They are admirably designed to c a r r y out t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s and o f f e r readings s t i m u l a t i n g and readable with v a r i e t y to s u i t many l e v e l s of m a t u r i t y and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y w i t h i n each grade. They ar e r e s o u r c e courses which encourage teachers t o use oth e r books f o r e n r i c h i n g the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s . The weakness, and i n the midst o f wonder a t the n o v e l t y o f the new p r o -gramme one might c o n s i d e r i t a minor weakness, i s the r e l i a n c e almost wholly on contemporary m a t e r i a l . E n g l i s h 10 (continued) E n g l i s h 11 E n g l i s h kO E n g l i s h kl Huckleberry F i n n  Who Has Seen the Wind  Ki n g Solomon* s Mines  Great E x p e c t a t i o n s  The Odyssey  Annapurna J u l i u s Caesar Romeo and J u l i e t Macbeth 80 I t seems to me t h a t i n s t r e s s i n g the immediate i n t e r e s t i n modern w r i t i n g and the f a c i l i t y o f r e a d i n g i t , the E n g l i s h programme i s n e g l e c t i n g one of i t s f u n c t i o n s as I see them, the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n o f our c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . I d e f i n e t h a t h e r i t a g e as the knowledge o f o n e s e l f as an i n h e r i t o r o f h i s p a s t w i t h access to i t s thought and achievements and as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the con-t i n u i n g e v o l u t i o n of the c u l t u r e from which he s p r i n g s . Youth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y t h i n k s of i t s e l f as com-p l e t e l y unique, sometimes p a r e n t l e s s . T h i s convenient i l l u s i o n i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y s t r o n g e s t i n adolescence when p h y s i c a l dependence i s weakest and youth s e t s out to make i t s own wor l d . Experience wears o f f much o f t h i s s e l f -c onsciousness as f o r c e s o u t s i d e h i m s e l f a f f e c t h i s s e l f image. C o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the wide world i s p a i n f u l and sometimes t r a g i c i f the young man can see no p l a c e f o r h i m s e l f i n the e x i s t i n g c o n d i t i o n s . I t seems to me t h a t knowledge o f how the world came to be as i t i s and how i t has f a i l e d to be what i t c o u l d be not onl y helps the young person a v o i d a l i e n a t i o n but a l s o sheds l i g h t on h i s own nature and h i s r o l e i n the human drama. In the wider impersonal world, many f a c t o r s can seem unique: the speed and e f f i c i e n c y o f machines; the c u r r e n t problems of peace making, the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n of food, and o v e r p o p u l a t i o n ; the modern wonders of space t r a v e l and mass media. In f a c t they are qu e s t i o n s t h a t have 81 concerned mankind in many periods of time before ours. More*s Utopia 2 took steps to control population growth many centuries before demography became a science. He was a reformer rather than a prophet, recognizing the dangers that Insupportable populations brought to nations of his time. To whom might Swift be referring in this passage? "I said there was a Society of Men among us, bred up from their Youth in the Art of proving by Words multiplied for the Purpose, that White i s Black, and Black i s White, accord-ing as they are paid. To this Society a l l the rest of the People are Slaves."3 In his day the persuaders to false belief were lawyers. Curiosity about space i s timeless: the Greeks accounted for their f i r s t gods by the union of Mother Earth and Father Sky, recognizing the inter-actions of these separate regions; Daedalus trusted Jupiter's rule over the heavens when he flew home from Crete to escape the tyrant Minos; and Chaucer rose into the ai r in an eagle's claws to view the capricious dispensation of fame in "The House of Fame." In their tales of the heavens men have reached for control of uninhabited space and for understanding of i t s relation to their earthly l i f e . "So far as most of the important things in our l i f e are con-cerned, we are governed by attitudes, preferences, internal reconstructions of reality, the roots of which are lost in inconceivable abysses of tlme.''^ Our knowledge of these an-cient roots i s found in the literature about them, not just in the literature of the recent buds. 82 What would be d e s i r a b l e outcomes of extending the time dimension of l i t e r a t u r e s e l e c t i o n s ? The f i r s t i s a sense of c o n t i n u i t y , a sense t h a t whatever c o n d i t i o n s we face have i n some way been met by our a n c e s t o r s . By means of a l e g a c y of l i t e r a t u r e they speak to us of t h e i r e x p e r i -ences and s a t i s f y i n p a r t the r e c u r r i n g human d e s i r e to know from where we have come. We see t h i s d e s i r e i n c h i l d r e n who ask, "What d i d you do when you were my age, Grandma?" The l u c k y ones w i t h i m a g i n a t i v e Grandmas can expect to be whisked i n t o marvellous adventures which seem to be t h e i r own. Grandma i s t h e i r grandma and her l i f e Is p a r t of t h e i r l i v e s because they are a l l i n the same f a m i l y . In the l a r g e r world what the f a m i l y of mankind has done or seen o r thought belongs to us a l l . Knowing t h i s h e r i t a g e helps t o ease the p a n i c t h i n k i n g r i s i n g from an i n d i v i d u a l view o f the immediate world. As the farmer lamenting drought i s comforted by a p i l o t who has been a b l e to spy a d i s t a n t r a i n c l o u d and measure i t s speed and d i r e c t i o n toward the farmer's l a n d , so the man o f today who i s e i t h e r confused and t e r r i f i e d by dangers or complacent about them, can be Informed, warned, o r i n s p i r e d by w r i t e r s speaking from another p o i n t i n time. Older w r i t e r s o f f e r a perspec-t i v e modern w r i t e r s cannot o f f e r . These w r i t e r s have another advantage; they have s l i p p e d through the s i e v e o f time, they have s u r v i v e d the 83 ages. "The e r o s i o n of time i s i n i t s e l f a c r i t e r i o n of the o l d e r book, g i v i n g i t the power to wash away the i r r e l e v a n c i e s and p r o v i d e a steady view of existence."5 Contempla-t i n g the endurance of P i l g r i m ' s Progress and the d i s -appearance of other w r i t i n g s on r e l i g i o n and p o l i t i c s , A. C. Ward say s : The innumerable works on these s u b j e c t s t h a t have p e r i s h e d , p e r i s h e d f o r want of a r t ; the h a n d f u l t h a t have s u r v i v e d commend themselves to one g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r another, of the converted and the unconverted a l i k e , through t h e i r v e r b a l d e x t e r i t y and g r a c e — by the q u a l i t y c a l l e d l i t e r a r y s t y l e which a r i s e s from each i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r ' s t a s t e and s k i l l as a chooser and a r r a n g e r of words. There i s no other reason f o r the i m p r e s s i v e f a c t t h a t the w r i t i n g s of one r e l a t i v e l y uneducated godly t i n s m i t h have out-l a s t e d those of a m u l t i t u d e of godly s c h o l a r s and l e a r n e d t h e o l o g i a n s who were not l e s s p a s s i o n a t e l y devout than John Bunyan." The teacher has other c r i t e r i a t o c o n s i d e r such as compre-hension of theme, d i c t i o n and s t r u c t u r e . As f a r as q u a l i t y of w r i t i n g and importance of theme, he can be more c o n f i -dent t h a t these a r e s a t i s f i e d by the w e l l known o l d e r w r i t e r s merely because they have endured where others have faded. Older w r i t e r s have a l s o unique v a l u e s . In t e a c h i n g language s t r u c t u r e and the development of modern E n g l i s h , examples from the B i b l e , Malory, and Addison are o b v i o u s l y u s e f u l and a r e comprehensible and i n t e r e s t i n g . In t e a c h i n g the forms of l i t e r a t u r e , f o r i n s t a n c e , the f u n c t i o n s and s t y l e s of the essay, Bacon, Johnson, and Montaigne are e s s e n t i a l . E v o l u t i o n of blank v e r s e from Anglo-Saxon poetry 84 appears In Langland and Malory. George Sampson recommends P l a t o ' s C r l t o f o r f o u r t h form boys, not o n l y because i t i s r eadable but a l s o because there i s n o t h i n g l i k e i t i n most c u r r i c u l a . He c o n t i n u e s : That process of steady mental i n t e r r o g a t i o n , t h a t g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n of a b s t r a c t i o n s , e i t h e r to t h e i r a i r or to something a c t u a l i s . . . p r e c i s e l y the k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n our p u p i l s need and ought to get.' The unique value of o l d e r l i t e r a t u r e t h a t f a c i l i t a t e s t e a c h i n g o f contemporary l i t e r a t u r e i s the f a m i l i a r i t y i t o f f e r s with a l l u s i o n s . Students f a m i l i a r with the B i b l e , the myths, and the legends do not have to choose between c o n s u l t i n g a r e f e r e n c e and i g n o r i n g the a l l u s i o n i n the hope o f f i n d i n g context c l u e s . Coming a c r o s s "Sweeter f a r than by harp or by p s a l t e r y " i n "The P l e d P i p e r of Hamelin" by Browning, the student w i t h knowledge of the B i b l e knows tha t a p s a l t e r y was l i k e a z i t h e r and he a l s o r e c o g n i z e s t h a t Browning's i n v e r s i o n of the o r i g i n a l phrase i m p l i e s c o n n o t a t i o n s of a d o r a t i o n and p r a i s e as w e l l as d e n o t a t i o n o f sweet music. A l l u s i o n s such as t h i s one are o f t e n g i v e n more a t t e n t i o n than they deserve by a c o n s c i e n t i o u s teacher who i n s i s t s h i s p u p i l s know a l l I m p l i c a t i o n s of each phrase and f o r c e s the e x p l a n a t i o n s or i n v e s t i g a t i o n s to dominate oth e r aspects of the work b e i n g s t u d i e d . I t i s p r e f e r a b l e i f such a l l u s i o n s are so f a m i l i a r t h a t a l l the teacher need do i s to draw a t t e n t i o n to t h e i r f i t n e s s . 85 In Who Has Seen the Wind, an E n g l i s h 10 t e x t , there are concepts as w e l l as a l l u s i o n s : God as a shepherd and as a god of vengeance, the stewardship of C h r i s t i a n s , God as a c r e a t o r , a n g e l s , grace, P h i l i s t i n i s m , the uniqueness o f man. In o rder to understand S t . Sammy's d i s c o u r s e s , the student must a l s o know the s t o r i e s of the P r o d i g a l Son and C r e a t i o n as w e l l as the s t y l e of Genesis. The time to l o c a t e or e x p l a i n these r e f e r e n c e s c o u l d e a s i l y become d i s p r o p o r -t i o n a t e . Time may be misspent t o o . In Huckleberry F i n n , a f t e r d e s c r i b i n g King Solomon's d e c i s i o n to g i v e h a l f the baby to each c l a i m a n t , Jim concludes: You take a man dat's got on'y one er two c h i l l e n ; i s dat man gwyne to be waseful o' c h i l l e n ? No, he a i n ' t ; he can't ' f o r d i t . He know how to v a l u e 'em. But you take a man dat's got 'bout f i v e m i l l i o n c h i l l e n r u n n i n ' roun' de house, en i t ' s d i f f u n t . He as soon chop a c h i l e i n two as a c a t . Dey's p l e n t y mo'. A c h i l e er two, mo' e r l e s s , warn't no consekens to Sollermun, dad f e t c h hlml° A student u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the o r i g i n a l s t o r y w i l l l i k e l y spend h i s r e a d i n g time i n understanding Jim's misconception, i n s t e a d of s e e i n g what t h a t m i sconception r e v e a l s about Jim's p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d of v a l u e s . A minimum l i s t o f B i b l i c a l s e l e c t i o n s t h a t c h i l d r e n can know b e f o r e s e n i o r high s c h o o l and t h a t would be most u s e f u l i n c l u d e s : 86 The S t o r y o f C r e a t i o n : Chapter 1, Genesis The Ten Commandments: Chapter 2 0 , v e r s e s 1 to 17, Exodus Psalms 2 3 , 27 The Lord*s Servant: Chapter 53* I s a i a h o D a n i e l and the L i o n s * Den: Chapter 6 , D a n i e l The F i e r y Furnace: Chapter 3» D a n i e l The Good Samaritan: Chapter 10, v e r s e s 29 to 3 7 , Luke The P r o d i g a l Son: Chapter 15, v e r s e s 11 to 3 2 , Luke The Nature o f Love: Chapter 13, I C o r i n t h i a n s F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h these passages ensures acquaintance w i t h v o c a b u l a r y , images, and n a r r a t i v e s f r e q u e n t l y appearing i n l i t e r a t u r e . Vocabulary i n c l u d e s : the t r e e o f knowledge, graven image, sounding b r a s s , green p a s t u r e s ; Images i n c l u d e : the apple as the f r u i t o f knowledge, men as sheep and God as shepherd, s e e i n g through a g l a s s d a r k l y . In a d d i t i o n , the s t o r i e s are models f o r l a t e r w r i t i n g s . I t i s w e l l to add t h a t f a m i l i a r i t y does not n e c e s s a r -i l y mean f u l l u n d erstanding. One of the reasons f o r the enduring worth o f these passages i s t h a t r e - r e a d i n g them as time enlarges the experience b r i n g s g r e a t e r i n s i g h t . Although the wisdom they o f f e r may not always be t r a n s m i t t e d t o the young reader, around the s t o r i e s he can be g i n to gather a s s o c i a t e d ideas and f e e l i n g s . 87 In the same way, knowledge of c l a s s i c a l myths and f o l k legends a l l o w s the student to summon connotations and symbols when he meets words l i k e Venus, Olympus, Neptune, D e l p h i c , and adapt them to the work b e i n g s t u d i e d . His e a r l y experience i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s new experience without the hindrance o f s t o p p i n g to r e s e a r c h o r , much worse, i g n o r i n g the r e f e r e n c e and m i s s i n g a l t o g e t h e r i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n . C e r t a i n images have been used throughout the ages, "Mother e a r t h " by the Greeks and the Japanese, "from swords i n t o ploughshares" f o r "peace" s i n c e B i b l i c a l times, "the s l e e p " o f d e a t h 1 ^ — — t h e s e and many more bywords are glimpses o f "the t y p i c a l , r e c u r r i n g , or what A r i s t o t l e c a l l s u n i v e r s a l e v e n t " 1 1 which Frye says i s the f u n c t i o n o f the poet to t e l l . In s e e i n g the t i m e l e s s n e s s o f themes i n l i t e r a t u r e the student sees h i m s e l f not as an i s o l a t e d b e i n g i n an i s o l a t e d age but as an i n h e r i t o r of a welcome l e g a c y . FOOTNOTES ^F. B. P i n i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l Values i n an Age of  Technology (New York: Macmillan, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 4 0 . Chapter I ^ C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n , "The Pressure of Economic Change," i n E d u c a t i o n . Economy, and S o c i e t y , ed. A. H. Halsey, Jean Floud, C. A r n o l d Anderson (New York: The Free P r e s s , 1 9 6 l ) , p. 3 0 . ^Halsey, F l o u d , and Anderson, op. c i t . , p. 3 6 . h a l s e y , F l o u d , and Anderson, op. c i t . , p. 3 8 . ^Adam Greene, "Canadian E d u c a t i o n : A Utopian Approach," i n S o c i a l Purpose f o r Canada. ed. M i c h a e l O l i v e r (Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 9 4 . Chapter I I ^-Northrop F r y e , The Educated Imagination. The Massey L e c t u r e s , Second S e r i e s (Toronto: Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1963)t p. 8 . 2 S i r Thomas More, U t o p i a (London, Dent and Sons, 1935)» p. 6 0 . ^Lewis A. Coser, ed., S o c i o l o g y Through L i t e r a t u r e : An I n t r o d u c t o r y Reader (Englewood C l i f f s : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1 9 6 3 ) , P. 4 3 . ^Franz Kafka, The C a s t l e , t r a n s . W i l l a and Edwin Muir (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 4 4 . ^James and Janet Maclean Todd, ed., V o i c e s from the  P a s t . V o l . I I (London: Arrow, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 122. 88 89 Lewis C a r r o l l , A l i c e ' s Adventures i n Wonderland and Through the L o o k l n g - G l a s s . . i n The Annotated A l i c e , ed. M a r t i n Gardner (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965), p. 200. Chapter I I I x N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h , A Cor-r e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m : A Report of the Committee on  C o r r e l a t i o n . Ruth Mary Weeks, Chairman, E n g l i s h Monograph No. 5 (New York: Appleton-Century, 1936), p. 286. 2 P i n i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l V a l u e s , p. 135. 3 l b i d . ^ P h i l i p H. Phenix, , Realms of Meaning: A P h i l o s o p h y  o f the C u r r i c u l u m f o r General E d u c a t i o n (New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1964), p. 17. " ; 5c. W. J . E l i o t , K. D. Naegele, M. Prang, M. W. S t e i n b e r g , L. T i g e r , " D i s c i p l i n e and D i s c o v e r y , A P r o p o s a l t o the F a c u l t y of A r t s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia" (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B. C , 1965), p. 12. ^N.C.T.E., op. c i t . p. 1 . 7pinion, op. c i t . , p. 147. 8 I b i d . 9pinion, op c i t . , p. 73. (For f u l l e r e x p l a n a t i o n o f h i s aims and d e s c r i p t i o n of c u r r e n t c o r r e l a t i o n , see Appendix E.) 1 0 I b i d . Chapter IV 1A. C. Ward, I l l u s t r a t e d H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . (London: Longmans Green, 1957) I» x i i i . 2 R o b e r t E. S p i l l e r , " I s L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y O bsolete?", C o l l e g e E n g l i s h . XXV (Feb. 1963), p. 346. 3 l b i d . ^ I b i d . S l b i d . , p. 349 6 I b l d . 90 ^Sylvan Barnet, Morton Berman, William Burto, A Dictionary of L i t e r a r y Terms (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, I960), p. 2 7 . ^Robert E. S p i l l e r , "Is L i t e r a r y History Obsolete?", College English. XXV (Feb. 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 347. Chapter V ^ r y e , The Educated Imagination, p. 24. 2Walsh, Gerald, " F i c t i o n i n the Teaching of History," unpublished paper. 3Helen Cam. H i s t o r i c a l Novels (London: H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1961;, p. 9 . ^ I b i d . , p. 10. 5 l b i d . , p. 8 . 6 I b i d . ?Ibid., p. 6 . o °B. J . Whiting et a l , The College Survey of English. Shorter E d i t i o n (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 194*7), p. 1149. Chapter VI •••Helen Cam, H i s t o r i c a l Novels (London: H i s t o r i c a l Association, 1 9 o l ) , p. 5» 2Donalda Dickie, The Enterprise l n Theory and Practice (Toronto: W. J . Gage, 1 9 4 l ), p. 125. 3N.C.T .E., A Correlated•Curriculum, p. 5 8 . ^G. R. Carlsen, "New Curriculum Patterns f o r English Teachers," American Association of Colleges for Teacher. Education Yearbook. XV (1962). p. 104. 5c. W. J . E l i o t et a l , " D i s c i p l i n e and Discovery," p. 5 . Chapter V I I "•Social S t u d i e s 7* a n c i e n t and c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y , age of c h i v a l r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8: h i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , France, and Canada S o c i a l S t u d i e s 9: world geography S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10: the western world from the middle ages to modern times S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11: Canadian h i s t o r y H i s t o r y 12: European c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n c e 1815 Geography 12: world geography Chapter V I I I •''George Sampson, E n g l i s h f o r the E n g l i s h (Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952), p. 107. 2Cam, H i s t o r i c a l Novels, p. 5» 3 l b i d . , p. 7 . ^Dwight L. Burton, L i t e r a t u r e Study i n the High Schools (New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1964), p. 4 3 . ^ A l s o s u p p o r t i v e i s Sampson's statement, "Boys c o u l d not f i n d , i f they sought f o r i t , l i t e r a t u r e so d e l i b e r a t e l y p e r n i c i o u s as the matter i n most of our newspapers—matter d e l i b e r a t e l y p e r n i c i o u s i n s u g g e s t i o n and i n s u p p r e s s i o n . I f any reader t h i n k s I am e x a g g e r a t i n g l e t him buy a day's newspapers i n London and, having c o n s i d e r e d them, ask h i m s e l f i f one of t h e i r main purposes i s not to per-petuate a n i m o s i t y , produce misunderstanding, a l i e n a t e sympathy and c r e a t e the atmosphere i n which d i s p u t e s can never be a d j u s t e d , t r o u b l e s avoided or wrongs r i g h t e d . Nothing t h a t the boy reads does t h i s d a l l y e v i l . " E n g l i s h f o r the E n g l i s h , p. 1 0 3 . Chapter IX Walsh, " F i c t i o n i n the Teaching of E n g l i s h , " p. 2. 92 Chapter X E. M. F o r s t e r , Two Cheers f o r Democracy (London: H a r c o u r t , Brace, 1951), p. 71. 2George F. K n e l l e r , " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m and E d u c a t i o n , " i n P h i l o s o p h i e s of E d u c a t i o n , ed. H. W. Burns and C h a r l e s J . Brauner (New York: Ronald P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 2 9 8 . ^ P i n i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l V a l u e s , p. 4 7 . ^N.C.T.E.. A C o r r e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m , p. 6 l . ^Thomas Gray, "Elegy W r i t t e n i n a Country Church-Yard." ^ A l f r e d L o r d Tennyson, "Rizpah." ^ P i n i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l V a l u e s , p. 9 4 . Q °Harry S. Broudy, " I m p l i c a t i o n s of C l a s s i c a l Realism f o r P h i l o s o p h y of E d u c a t i o n , " i n P h i l o s o p h i e s of E d u c a t i o n , ed. H. W. Burns and C h a r l e s J . Brauner iwew xorEf: Jtionaia P r e s s , 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 258. Chapter XI ~-H. W. Simon, "Some Dangers i n Teaching L i t e r a t u r e as S o c i a l H i s t o r y , " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l XX: 8 (Oct. 1 9 3 D . p. 646. Chapter X I I I •1-Frye, The Educated Imagination, p. 33* 2 " B u t t o t h l n t e n t the p r e s c r i p t number o f the c i t e z e n s shoulde n e i t h e r decrease, nor above measure i n c r e a s e , i t i s o r d e i n e d t h a t no f a m i l l e which i n every c l t i e be v i . thousand i n the whole, besydes them of the c o n t r e y , s h a l l a t ones have fewer c h i l d r e n of the age of x l l i i . yeares or there about then x. or mo then x v i . f o r of c h i l d r e n under t h i s age no numbre can be p r e s c r i b e d or a p p o i n t e d . T h i s measure or numbre i s e a s e l y observed and kept, by p u t t i n g them t h a t i n f u l l e r f a m i l i e s be above the number i n t o f a m i l i e s of s m a l l e r i n c r e a s e . " U t o p i a , p. 6 0 . 93 ^Jonathan Swift, HA Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms,M i n The Comic i n Theory and Practice, ed. John J . Enck, E. T. Porter, and A l v i n Whitley (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, i960), p. 215. ^Fosco Maraini, Meeting with Japan (New York: Viking Press, i960), p. 270. 5Burton, L i t e r a t u r e Study, p. 60. ^Ward, I l l u s t r a t e d History of English L i t e r a t u r e . p. x i . 7sampson, English for the English, p. 104. % a r k Twain, Huckleberry Finn (Boston: Houghton-M i f f l i n , 1958), p.~W. Q 7"For a l i e that bereth baselardes . bryght swerde, other launce Axe, other accett . other eny kynne wepne, Shal be demed to the death . bote yf he do h i t smythie In-to sykel other into sithe . to shar other to c u l t e r " William Langland, "Piers Plowman," i n A. J . Wyatt, The T u t o r i a l History of English Literature (London: University T u t o r i a l Press, 1929), p. 25. lOiorquato Tasso, "The Golden Age" i n The Portable  Renaissance Reader, ed. James Bruce Ross ancPMary Martin McLaughlin (New York: Viking Press, 1959)» p. 91. X i F r y e , op. c i t . , p. 24. BIBLIOGRAPHY Anderson, Margaret S., ed. Splendour of E a r t h : An Anthology  of T r a v e l . London: George P h i l i p , 19557 A l t i c k , R i c h a r d A. L i v e s and L e t t e r s : A H i s t o r y o f L i t e r a r y  Biography i n England and America. New York: Knopf, 1965. Baugh, A l b e r t C , ed. A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of England. New York: Appleton-Century-Crof t s , 1~~~~8. Boas, Ralph P h i l i p , and Barbara M. Hahn. S o c i a l Backgrounds  o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . Boston: L i t t l e Brown, 1934. Broudy, Harry S. " I m p l i c a t i o n s of C l a s s i c a l Realism f o r P h i l o s o p h y of E d u c a t i o n , " P h i l o s o p h i e s of E d u c a t i o n , ed. H. W. Burns and C h a r l e s J . Brauner. New York: Ronald P r e s s , 1962, 2 5 2 - 2 6 3 . Brown, G. W., ed. Readings In Canadian H i s t o r y . Toronto: Dent and Sons, 1940. Burton, Dwight L. L i t e r a t u r e Study i n the High S c h o o l s . New York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and Winston, 1964. Cam, Helen. H i s t o r i c a l Novels. London: H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , 1961. C a r l s e n , G. Robert. "How Can the Language A r t s Promote I n t e r n a t i o n a l Understanding?" An E n g l i s h Teacher's  Reader, Grades £ Through 12, ed. M. J e r r y Weiss. New York: Odyssey P r e s s , 1 § 6 2 . --• . "New C u r r i c u l u m P a t t e r n s f o r E n g l i s h Teachers," American A s s o c i a t i o n of C o l l e g e s f o r Teacher E d u c a t i o n  Yearbook. XV ( 1 9 6 2 ) . 104 - 1 0 . C a r r o l l , Lewis. A l i c e ' s Adventures In Wonderland and Through  the L o o k i n g - g l a s s , Annotated A l i c e , ed. M a r t i n Gardner. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965• 94 95 C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n . "The Pressure o f Economic Change," E d u c a t i o n , Economy, and S o c i e t y , ed. A. H. Halsey, Jean Ploud, C. A r n o l d Anderson. New York: The Free P r e s s , 1961, 45-53. A C o l l e g e Survey o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , S h o r t e r e d i t i o n , v. , ed. B. J . Whiting, et a l . New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1947. Corry, J . A. "The U n i v e r s i t y and the Canadian Community," News from U.B.C. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October 27, 1965. Coser, Lewis A., ed. S o c i o l o g y Through L i t e r a t u r e : An  I n t r o d u c t o r y Reader. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1963. D i c k i e , Donalda. The E n t e r p r i s e i n Theory and P r a c t i c e . Toronto: W. J . Gage, 1941. A D i c t i o n a r y o f L i t e r a r y Terms, ed. Sylvan Barnet, et a l . Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, i960. E a k i n s , Mary K., ed. Good Books f o r C h i l d r e n . Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y o f Chicago P r e s s , 1962. E l i o t , C. W. J . , e t a l . " D i s c i p l i n e and D i s c o v e r y . " Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1965. F o r s t e r , E.. M. Two Cheers f o r Democracy. London: Harcourt, Brace, 1951• F r y e , Northrop. The Educated Imagination, The Massey L e c t u r e s , second s e r i e s . Toronto: Canadian B r o a d c a s t i n g C o r p o r a t i o n , 1963. Greene, Adam. "Canadian E d u c a t i o n : A Utopian Approach," S o c i a l Purpose f o r Canada, ed. Mi c h a e l O l i v e r . Toronto: U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto P r e s s , I96I . Hanna, Geneva R. and Mariana K. M c A l l i s t e r . Books, Young  People and Reading Guidance. New York: Harper and Bros., I960. 96 Haydn, Hiram, ed. The P o r t a b l e E l i z a b e t h a n Reader. New York: V i k i n g , 1946. Heilman, Robert B. "Genre and C u r r i c u l u m , " C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , XXIV (Feb. 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 5 8 - 6 0 . Holbrook, David. E n g l i s h f o r M a t u r i t y . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y Press~j 1961. Kafka, F r a n z . The C a s t l e , t r a n s . W i l l a and Edwin Mulr. Harmondsworth: .Penguin, 1963. K n e l l e r , George F. " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m and E d u c a t i o n , " P h i l o s o p h i e s of E d u c a t i o n , ed. H. W. Burns and Charles J . Brauner. New York: Ronald P r e s s , 1962, 2 8 8 - 3 0 4 . Krug, Edward A. C u r r i c u l u m P l a n n i n g . E d u c a t i o n f o r l i v i n g S e r i e s , ed. H. H. Rimmers. New York: Harper and Bros., 1957. Macdonald, J . B. " E x c e l l e n c e and R e s p o n s i b i l i t y , " an Inaugural Address. Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, October 2 5 , 1962. M a r a i n i , Fosco. Meeting with Japan. New York: V i k i n g , i 9 6 0 . Matthews, W i l l i a m , ed. L a t e r Medieval E n g l i s h Prose. New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , I 9 6 3 . Mish, C h a r l e s C. Short F i c t i o n of the Seventeenth Century. New York: New York U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963• More, S i r Thomas. U t o p i a . London: J . M. Dent and Sons, 1935. N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teadhers of E n g l i s h . A C o r r e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m : A Report of the Committee on C o r r e l a t i o n , Ruth Mary Weeks, Chairman. E n g l i s h Monograph No. 5« New York: Appleton-Century, 1936. Owen, E. T. The S t o r y of the I l i a d . Toronto: C l a r k e Irwin, 1964. The Oxford Book of Canadian Verse, ed. A. J . M. Smith. Toronto: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , i 9 6 0 . Phenix, P h i l i p H. Realms of Meaning: A P h i l o s o p h y of the  C u r r i c u l u m f o r General E d u c a t i o n . ~~McGraw-Hill S e r i e s i n C u r r i c u l u m and Methods i n E d u c a t i o n . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964. 97 P i n i o n , F. B. E d u c a t i o n a l Values In an Age of Technology. New York: Macmillan, 1964. P r l t z k a u , P h i l o T. Dynamics of C u r r i c u l u m Development. Englewood C l i f f s , N. J . : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1959. R e i d , J . H., e t a l . , ed. A Source-book of Canadian  H i s t o r y , Toronto: Longmans Green, 1959 Ross, James Bruce, and Mary M a r t i n McLaughlin, ed. The P o r t a b l e Renaissance Reader. New York: V i k i n g , 1959• Sampson, George. E n g l i s h f o r the E n g l i s h . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952. S c h e l s k y , H. " T e c h n i c a l Change and E d u c a t i o n a l Consequences," E d u c a t i o n , Economy, and S o c i e t y , ed. A. H. Halsey, Jean F l o u d , C. A r n o l d Anderson. New York: The Free P r e s s , 1961. Simon, H. W. "Some Dangers i n Teaching L i t e r a t u r e as S o c i a l H i s t o r y , " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l . XX:8 (Oct. 1931), 645-8. Smith, Mary L., and I s a b e l V. Eno. "What Do They R e a l l y Want to Read?" E n g l i s h J o u r n a l . L : 5 (May, 1961) , 3 4 3 - 5 . S p i l l e r , Robert E. "Is L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y Obsolete?" C o l l e g e E n g l i s h . XXV (Feb. 1 9 6 3 ) , 3 4 5 - 8 . S w i f t , Jonathan. "A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms, The Comic i n Theory and P r a c t i c e , ed. John J . Enck, E. T . F o r t e r , and A l v i n W h i t l e y . New York: Appleton-C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , i 9 6 0 . Todd, James E., and Janet Maclean Todd, ed. Voices from the  P a s t . London: Arrow Books, i 9 6 0 . Turner, A r l l n . " L i t e r a t u r e and Student i n the Space Age," C o l l e g e E n g l i s h . XXVII:7 ( A p r i l , 1 9 6 6 ) , 5 1 9 - 2 2 . Twain, Mark. Huckleberry F i n n . R i v e r s i d e E d i t i o n . Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n , 195o\ V a l z e y , John, and M i c h a e l Debeauvais. "Economic Aspects of E d u c a t i o n a l Development," E d u c a t i o n , Economy, and S o c i e t y ed. Halsey, e t a l . New York: The Free P r e s s , 1961. 98 Walsh, G e r a l d , " F i c t i o n i n the Teaching of H i s t o r y . " Unpublished paper. Ward, A. C. I l l u s t r a t e d H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , V o l . I . London: Longmans Green, 1 9 5 7 * Webster, H. C. "Who Reads the C l a s s i c s ? " Saturday Review. XLIV : 1 (March 1 8 , 1 9 6 l ) , 1 1 - 1 3 . White, H. C , W. N. F r a n c i s , A. R. K i t z h a b e r . "New P e r s p e c t i v e s on E n g l i s h , " C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , XXIII (March, 1 9 6 2 ) , 4 3 3 - 4 4 4 . Wyatt, A. J . The T u t o r i a l H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . London: U n i v e r s i t y T u t o r i a l P r e s s , 1 9 2 9 * 1 APPENDIX APPENDIX A EXTENDED LIST OF BOOKS FOB CORRELATION WITH SOCIAL STUDIES SS7 C h a r l e s K l n g s l e y , The Heroes (myths) A l a n Honour, Cave of Rlohes (Dead Sea S c r o l l s ) R oderick Haig-Brown, The Whale People (West Coast I n d i a n s ) P a u l Hamlyn, Greek Mythology ( b e a u t i f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d ) M i c h a e l Grant, Myths o f the Greeks and Romans (sources and i n f l u e n c e s ; f o r the teacher) Norma L. Goodrich, The Medieval Myths ( f o r t e a c h e r use) Joseph Gaer, The Adventures o f Rama: The Story of the g r e a t Hindu e p i c . Ramayana Genevieve F o s t e r , Augustus Caesar's World A, Duggan, Three's Company (the Rome of Lepidus) A. Duggan, Knight w i t h Armour ( F i r s t Crusade, 1 1 t h , 12th C e n t u r i e s ) L. C o t t r e l l , The Land of the Pharaohs ( e a s i e r than Baumann's, p. 3~~1 P a d r a i c Colum, Myths of the World P a d r a i c Colum. The Adventures of Odysseus (the b e g i n n i n g of r e l i g i o n ) P a d r a i c Colum, C h i l d r e n of Odin T. C. Chubb, The Byzantines B u l f l n o h ' s Mythology, a b r i d g e d by Edmund F u l l e r (Greeks, f a b l e s , Charlemagne, Age of C h i v a l r y ) Bryher, Roman Wall (The Alemannl B a r b a r i a n I n v a s i o n s ) Bryher, The Gate to the Sea (Paestum, 7 th C. B.C.) M a r j o r i e Braymer, The Walls of Windy Troy: A Biography o f H e l n r l o h Schllemann ( D i f f i c u l t r e a d i n g ) SS8 E l i z a b e t h B a i t y , Americans B e f o r e Columbus ( s e m i f i e t i o n -a l i z e d I n d i a n s , i l l u s t r a t e d , easy reading) N. B. Baker, Amerigo V e s p u c c i (well-documented biography, easy t o read") Franz Bengtsson, The Long Ships ( V i k i n g s , l i v e l y ) B r y h e r , Ruan (Druid boy escapes h i s u n c l e p r i e s t ) Marchette Chute, The Innocent Wayfaring ( g i r l from medieval convent runs away, meets a wandering poet and marries him i n Chaucer's England; a p p e a l i n g t o young a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s ) E l i z a b e t h Coatsworth, Door to the North (boy r e s t o r e s f a t h e r ' s honour on e x p e d i t i o n to s e a r c h f o r l o s t Greenland colony) T. B. C o s t a i n , Below the S a l t (20th C. man becomes h i s Saxon a n c e s t o r ) 99 100 SS8 (continued) Foxe's Book of Martyrs ( f o r teacher; e.g., eye witness to R i d l e y ' s death g i v e s not o n l y d e s c r i p t i o n o f event but mood o f r e s i g n a t i o n ) V a l Gendron, Powder and Hides ( l a s t b u f f a l o hunt, 1873) Grey Owl, Book o f Grey Owl Leo Gurko, Tom Painet Freedom's A p o s t l e R o d e r i c k Haig-Brown, C a p t a i n o f the D i s c o v e r y R o d erick Haig-Brown, Mounted P o l i c e P a t r o l T " t r a n s i t i o n 1 ' n o v e l ) John F. Hayes, Treason a t York P a u l i n e Johnson, Legends of Vancouver C h a r l e s K l n g s l e y , Hereward the Wake (Harold v s . Hereward as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i g u r e s ) Rudyard K i p l i n g , Puck of Pook's H i l l (Sussex i n 1 1 t h , 1 2 t h C , medieval order p r o t e c t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n ) Rudyard K i p l i n g , Rewards and F a i r i e s ( l 6 t h and 17th C. England) L a d y b i r d Achievement Books R i c h a r d Bowood, The S t o r y of our Churches and C a t h e d r a l s (more d i f f i c u l t than other L a d y b i r d s ; i n c l u d e s new Coventry) B i o g r a p h i e s of W i l l i a m I , Cromwell, Dickens, e t c . (every o t h e r page i s a p i c t u r e ; very easy; compact and i n f o r m a t i v e ) T. M. L o n g s t r e t h , The S c a r l e t Force (RCMP) A. D. M i l l e r , The White C l i f f s (with Snow Goose w i l l a p p e a l to g i r l s ) Rhoda Power, Redcap Runs Away ( P u f f i n book; medieval England; m i n s t r e l s ; easy to read) V i o l a P r a t t , Canadian P o r t r a i t s (famous d o c t o r s ) George H. Pumphrey, G r e n f e l l of Labrador H. P y l e , The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood ( S c r i b n e r ' s 1955 e d i t i o n w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d ! Robert S e r v i c e , Songs of a Sourdough J a n S t r u t h e r , Mrs. M i n i v e r (with Snow Goose w i l l a ppeal to g i r l s o f good r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ! G e o f f r e y T r e a s e , The Baron's Hostage (Simon deMontfort) G e o f f r e y T r e a s e , Cue f o r Treason (Spanish s p i e s i n Queen E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n ; v e r y easy) G e o f f r e y Trease, M i s t over Athelney ( A l f r e d the G r e a t — 9 t h , 1 0 t h C.) G e o f f r e y Trease, S i r Walter R a l e i g h Henry Treece, V i k i n g ' s Dawn ( T r i l o g y on Road to M l k l a g a r d H a r a l d Sigurdson) V i k i n g ' s Sunset Leonard Wlbberley, The King's Beard (16 year o l d boy and Drake's r a i d on Cadiz) Joanne S. W i l l i a m s o n , The G l o r i o u s Conspiracy (from England i n 1780's to U.S., Hamiltonian v s . J e f f e r s o n i a n p o l i t i c s ) C e c i l Woodham-Smith, Lonely Crusader (abridged v e r s i o n of The L i f e of F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e ) 101 SS 8 (continued) C h a r l o t t e Yonge, The L i t t l e Duke (Normandy be f o r e 1066) SS 9 N. B. Baker, Pike of Pike's Peak (very easy) R i c h a r d S t . Barbe Baker, K a m i t l : A F o r e s t e r ' s Dream ( i n Kenya and England, b l a c k and"~white boys are f r i e n d s ; e t c h i n g s ) 0. G. S. Crawford, S a i d and Done: Autobiography of an A r c h a e o l o g i s t (1955) (England, Sudan, World War I, I n t e r n a t i o n a l Geographical Congress on uniform s c a l e of Roman Empire maps, f o r mature readers) E l l a E. C l a r k , Indian Legends of the P a c i f i c Northwest L a d y b i r d Books David S c o t t , F l l g h t Four: I n d i a (very easy; a l t e r n a t e pages are i l l u s t r a t i o n s ) J . G. F y f e , ed., Short S t o r i e s of the Sea R i c h a r d H a l l i b u r t o n , The Romantic World of R i c h a r d H a l l i b u r t o n (from seven of h i s books) H e i n r i c h H a r r e r , Seven Years i n T i b e t J o s e p h i n e Kamm, Gertrude B e l l : Daughter of the Desert (biography of the feminine Lawrence) H. V. Morton, The Heart of London Sl a v o m i r Rawicz, The Long Walk (from a Russian p r i s o n i n the A r c t i c to I n d i a by f o o t ) Evelyn,CM. Richardson, L i v i n g I s l a n d ( o b s e r v a t i o n s of d a i l y l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y b i r d s , on Bon Portage Island) Joshua Slocum, S a i l i n g Alone around the World John Steinbeck, T r a v e l s w i t h C h a r l e y (Caravanning i n the U. S. with a personable dog) Laurens Van der Post, The L o s t World of the K a l a h a r i J u l e s Verne, Around the World i n E i g h t y Days 0. W i s t e r , The V i r g i n i a n (Wyoming In 1880's) SS10 I r v i n g A d l e r , The Sun and i t s Family ( h i s t o r y a p p l i e d to astronomy: G a l i l e o , Brahe, K e p l e r , Newton) N. B. Baker, S i r Walter R a l e i g h (emphasizing c o l o n i z a t i o n , s c i e n c e , p o e t r y r a t h e r than n a v a l e x p l o i t s ) W i l l i a m B a r r e t t , L i l i e s of the F i e l d (Negro B a p t i s t and German-American nuns) James M. B a r r i e , The Admirable C r l c h t o n (comedy on s o c i a l c l a s s e s ) Hans Baumann, The Barque of the B r o t h e r s : A T a l e  of the Days of Henry the Navigator Margot B e n a r y - I s b e r t , C a s t l e on the Border (post-World War I I Germany! Margot B e n a r y - I s b e r t , Dangerous Sp r i n g ( A n t i - N a z i p a s t o r and 16 year o l d g i r l i n Germany l n World War II) 102 SS 10 (continued) G e o f f r e y Chaucer, Prologue to The Canterbury T a l e s , t r a n s . N e v i l l e C o g h i l l Joan C h l s s e l l , Chopin (biography with some sc o r e s ) A. J . C r o n i n , The Green Years ( n a t i o n a l and r e l i g i o u s p r e j u d i c e s i n l i f e o f I r i s h orphan d o c t o r ) J . H. Daugherty, W i l l i a m Blake (with Blake's drawings) C. S. F o r e s t e r , The Good Shepherd (W. W. I I n a v a l s t o r y ) D. J . Goodspeed, Bayonets a t S t . Cloud (18th Brumaire; d i f f i c u l t ) E l i z a b e t h Goudge, Towers i n the Mist (Penguin, a b r i d g e d , has 367 pages; a motherless f a m i l y i n Sidney's time a t Oxford) Giovanni_Guar©schi., The L i t t l e World o f Don C a m l l l o ( r i g h t ^ a n d l e f t i n p o l i t i c s p e r s o n i f i e d by I t a l i a n p r i e s t and mayor i n s m a l l town who f i g h t f o r p r i n c i p l e s and embrace f o r l o v e ; humorous and s i n c e r e approach to t o l e r a n c e ) M. Kennedy, A Night i n Cold Harbour ( c h i l d l a b o u r i n I n d u s t r i a l R e v o l u t i o n ) Jay W i l l i a m s , Leonardo d a V l n c l ( d a V i n c i i l l u s t r a t i o n s , H o r i z o n C a r a v e l Book) SS 11 Roger B u l i a r d , Inuk. M i s s i o n a r y to the Eskimos M a r j o r l e W. Campbell, The Saskatchewan E m i l y C a r r , Growing Pains (autobiography) W i l l a Cather, Shadows on the Rock (Frontenac's Quebec) E l l a E. C l a r k , I n d i a n Legends of Canada Thomas B. C o s t a i n , The White and the Gold Donald G. C r e i g h t o n , John A. MaoDonald. The Young P o l i t i c i a n ( d i f f i c u l t ) " De l a Roche, Mazo, J a l n a ( E n g l i s h upper c l a s s O n t a r i o f a m i l y ) Andrew Lang Fleming, A r c h i b a l d the A r c t i c ( a u t o b i o -graphy of f i r s t Bishop o f the A r c t i c ) M o l l i e G i l l e n , The Masseys E l i z a b e t h Grey. F r i e n d w i t h i n the Gates: The S t o r y o f Nurse E d i t h C a v e l l (easy! T. G u t h r i e , R. Davies, G. Macdonald, Twice Have the Trumpets Sounded ( f i r s t two years of S t r a t f o r d F e s t i v a l ) R. C. H a l i b u r t o n , Sam S l i c k , the Clockmaker L o m e J . Henry, Canadians. a Book o f B i o g r a p h i e s P a u l H i e b e r t , Sarah Blnks ( s a t i r e on poets, p r a i r i e s , t e a c h e r s ; f o r mature r e a d e r s ) E r i c Koch, V i n c e T o v e l l , John Sayw e l l , Success of a M i s s i o n (play on Durham) Anne Langton, A Gentlewoman i n Upper Canada (1834-1846 p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s ) 103 SS11 (Continued) W. 0. M i t c h e l l , Jake and the K i d ( r u r a l Saskatchewan boy growing up"5 Susanna Moodle, Roughing I t In the Bush ( p i o n e e r i n g with humor and enthusiasm) F a r l e y Mowat, West V i k i n g Desmond Pacey, ed., Book o f Canadian S t o r i e s Kenneth Roberts, Northwest Passage (War of 1812, adventure) Leo Rosten, The E d u c a t i o n of Hyman Kaplan (humor wit h sympathy f o r immigrants' problems) Joseph S c h u l l , B a t t l e f o r the Rock J . Sager, E r i c the Red Robert Weaver, ed., Canadian Short S t o r i e s H i s t o r y 12 P a u l B r i c k h i l l , Reach f o r the Sky (Bader) P i e r r e B o u l l e , B r i d g e on the R i v e r Kwal ( B r i t i s h commander i n Japanese p r i s o n camp i s more concerned with honesty than m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y ) Walter Van T i l b e r g C l a r k , The Ox-Bow I n c i d e n t (psychology of mob a c t i o n , c f . J u l i u s Caesar) Lawrence D u r r e l l , B i t t e r Lemons (Cyprus b e f o r e the f i g h t i n g , a p e r s o n a l view, not easy reading) T. S. E l i o t , Murder i n the C a t h e d r a l (Henry I I and Thomas a Becket, c f . Becket, A n o u i l h and movie) D. J . Goodspeed, The C o n s p i r a t o r s ( s i x coups d ' e t a t , c a r e f u l l y a n a l y z e d , v i v i d l y t o l d ) G. deLampedusa, The Leopard ( a r i s t o c r a t of p r e -G a r l b a l d l e r a i n Southern I t a l y ; f o r mature readers) James Mlchener, The B r i d g e s a t Toko-Rl ( a i r waa? i n Korea) A l i s t a i r MacLean, The Guns of Navarone ( n e a r l y impossible World War I I m i s s i o n ! S i r H a r o l d G. N l c o l s o n , King George V Sean O'Casey, Juno and the Paycock ( I r e l a n d ' s C i v i l War) C o r n e l i u s Ryan, The Longest Day (D-Day from many viewpoints) Kate Seredy, Chestry Oak ( e f f e c t s of war on c h i l d r e n , easy reading) Wheeler-Bennett, King George VI APPENDIX B PERCENTAGE OF CONTENTS WRITTEN BY AUTHORS BORN BEFORE I865 BECKONING TRAILS INVITATION TO POETRY SHORT STORIES OF DISTINCTION POEMS OF SPIRIT AND ACTION PROSE READINGS HARRAP BOOK OF MODERN SHORT STORIES i INTRODUCING POETRY EIGHTEEN STORIES DRAMA IV SELECTION OF ENGLISH POETRY GOLDEN CARAVANS PROSE OF OUR DAY REPRESENTATIVE SHORT STORIES ON STAGE POEMS WORTH KNOWING ESSAYS OF YESTERDAY AND TODAY m ARGOSY TO ADVENTURE mm ADVENTURES IN READING 104 APPENDIX C SUGGESTIONS POR TIME EXTENSION OR SELECTIONS E x t e n s i o n w i t h C o r r e l a t i o n There are two source books of Canadian h i s t o r y t h a t E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s c o u l d use f o r t e a c h i n g p o i n t of view, o b j e c t i v i t y , and d e s c r i p t i o n . Because they are source books they have a v a r i e t y of forms: documents,; p e r s o n a l d i a r i e s , r e p o r t s , d i a r i e s . The s t y l e s of w r i t i n g v a r y t o o , a c c o r d i n g t o the e d u c a t i o n , b i r t h p l a c e , and b i r t h year of the a u t h o r s . The book s u i t a b l e f o r j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l i s G* W— Brown f cs Readings In Canadian H i s t o r y . p u b l i s h e d i n Toronto by Dent i n 1940., I t s items are s h o r t and do not r e q u i r e much h i s t o r i c a l background. No one event i s covered i n d e t a i l , and I t c u l l s i t s m a t e r i a l from w r i t e r s on happenings up to 1793• The immediacy o f the s e l e c t i o n s as w e l l as the ease of r e a d i n g enables: studentS3 t o absorb f a s c i n a t i n g scenes such as the founding o f H a l i f a x , , the homes i n New France d e s c r i b e d by an Intendent, and Canada i n t e r p r e t e d by a Swedish s c i e n t i s t . !2he more d e t a i l e d volume i s A Source-book of Canadian H i s t o r y , e d i t e d ™" — — — — — — — ^ — by J . Hi* R e i d , J * Hi. Stewart, Kenneth McNaught,, and Harry S. Crowe,' and p u b l i s h e d by Longmans Green i n Toronto i n 1 9 5 9 . An example of the unusual contents i s the r e p o r t of the p h y s i c i a n who examined L o u i s R i e l t o see i f he were i n s a n e . The m a t e r i a l i n 472 pages covers the years up to 195&« While these books are undoubtedly of prime i n t e r e s t t o the 105 106 S o c i a l S t u d i e s t e a c h e r s , E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s can use them p r o f i t a b l y f o r t e a c h i n g i n f e r e n c e s , c o n n o t a t i o n s , language h i s t o r y and oth e r r e a d i n g s k i l l s while r e i n f o r c i n g the knowledge of the oth e r s u b j e c t . An anthology of d e s c r i p t i v e and n a r r a t i v e s e l e c t i o n s u s e f u l i n c o r r e l a t i o n with geography i s Margaret S. Anderson's Splendour o f E a r t h . An Anthology a f T r a v e l (London: George P h i l i p , 1 9 5 4 ) . The s e l e c t i o n s are organized a c c o r d i n g t o the r e g i o n s they d e s c r i b e . P e r s o n a l impressions of people and t h e i r customs and t h e i r standards of l i v i n g i l l u s t r a t e human geography. The E n g l i s h t e a c h e r can use them t o t e a c h r e a d i n g s k i l l s of d i s c e r n i n g a t t i t u d e s , e n l a r g i n g v o c a b u l a r y , and comprehending v a r i o u s s t y l e s of sentence s t r u c t u r e , as these appear i n s e v e r a l p e r i o d s of time. A n t h o l o g i e s f o r Teacher Use The d i f f i c u l t i e s o l d e r w r i t i n g s g i v e modern readers i n s p e l l i n g , s t r u c t u r e , and d i c t i o n , make many whole works t o o time consuming f o r c l a s s i n s t r u c t i o n . A n t h o l o g i e s , on the o t h e r hand, o f f e r s h o r t passages as l e t t e r s , poems, and e s s a y s , which can be s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r i n t e r e s t and a p p l i -c a b i l i t y t o oth e r work being s t u d i e d . The P o r t a b l e R e n a i s - sance Reader, ed. James B. Ross and Mary M. McLaughlin (New York:; V i k i n g , 1959) c o n t a i n s d e s c r i p t i v e , n a r r a t i v e and e x p o s i t o r y prose, and l y r i c and d e s c r i p t i v e p o e t r y . Erasmus, Cervantes, Rabelais:, B o c c a c c i o , P e t r a r c h , 107 Lorenzo d e 1 M e d i c i , M i c h e l a n g e l o , Bonsard, S i r P h i l i p Sidney, da V i n c i , V e s a l i u s , G a l i l e o , Knox, Lu t h e r , L a t i m e r , are names known t o students of SS 10 who may be c u r i o u s t o read the w r i t i n g s of these famous men a f t e r r e a d i n g about them. I f s t u d e n t s have been shown U t o p i a , a r e a d i n g o f " S t . Thomas More" by H a r p s f l e l d w i l l r e v e a l t o them the contemporary r e a c t i o n to t h a t book i n c l u d i n g steps to send a m i s s i o n to those admirable but u n c h r l s t e n e d Utopians, so r e a l d i d they appear a t the time t o readers u n f a m i l i a r with v i s i o n s of s o c i e t y o u t s i d e church s p o n s o r s h i p . James Todd and Janet Maclean Todd have e d i t e d a two volume anthology of c l a s s i c a l w r i t e r s c a l l e d V o i c e s From the  P a s t . Volume I from Homer to E u c l i d i s f o l l o w e d by Volume I I from P l a u t u s t o S t . A u g u s t i n e . A\ s h o r t biography and a l i t -e r a r y e v a l u a t i o n precede each w r i t e r ' s works. T r a n s l a t o r s a r e from s e v e r a l p e r i o d s , mainly the 19th and 20th c e n t u r i e s , but Dryden, S w i f t , and Johnson appear, t o g e t h e r with Shake-speare's extended paraphrase of Ovid i n The Tempest. The matters of "How to F i n d the Area of a T r i a n g l e * by Hero, a l e t t e r from the s c h o o l boy Theon s c o l d i n g h i s f a t h e r f o r not t a k i n g him on a t r i p t o A l e x a n d r i a , "The E r u p t i o n of V e s u v i u s " i n which P l i n y the Younger w r i t e s to T a c i t u s about how P l i n y the E l d e r d i e d from the vapours, have r e c o g n i z a b l y human authors w i t h purposes and a t t i t u d e s t h a t make them l i v e l y people t o meet. For examples of l i t e r a r y forms, C i c e r o ' s " F i r s t O r a t i o n a g a i n s t C a t i l i n e " : "The Spook"' from P l a u t u s * comedy M o s t e l l a r l a . V i r g i l * s ; d e s c r i p t i o n of Humour, i l l u s t r a t e 108 o r a t o r y , d i a l o g u e , a l l e g o r y i n b r i e f , and s p r i g h t l y passages. These two books and the Renaissance anthology are i n pocket book e d i t i o n s . Another u s e f u l paperback i s The P o r t a b l e E l i z a b e t h a n  Reader (New York: V i k i n g , 1946), ed. Hiram Haydn, which would be u s e f u l f o r background to Shakespeare s t u d i e s , e s p e c i a l l y i n p r o v i d i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e a d i n g works contemporary to him f o r f a m i l i a r i t y with E l i z a b e t h a n E n g l i s h and f o r comparison w i t h the master. These s e l e c t i o n s are g e n e r a l l y l o n g e r but they have the advantage of a u t h e n t i c i t y s i n c e they have not been modernized. Pre-Twentleth Century Works  In Teaching Composition For reasons of l e n g t h and s t y l e of r h e t o r i c , the E n g l i s h teacher may be wary of u s i n g o l d e r w r i t e r s * whole works. I t i s a f a c t t h a t most w r i t i n g b e f o r e the t w e n t i e t h century was addressed to a s m a l l educated c l a s s , w i t h back-ground and m a t u r i t y we cannot expect our students to have. In order to supply the c o n t i n u i t y of l i t e r a t u r e without s t i f l i n g s t u d e n t s ' i n t e r e s t i t i s u s e f u l to use s e l e c t i o n s from l o n g e r works to s t i m u l a t e w r i t i n g . A "He drew her hand more s e c u r e l y on h i s arm, to make her s e n s i b l e t h a t she leaned on a p i l l a r o f s t r e n g t h . " (The E g o i s t ) 109 A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n on the r e l a t i o n s h i p of s u p e r i o r - I n f e r i o r t h a t t h i s passage Implies, the gesture as i t might appear to an observer and as i t appears to the reader, the t r i t e " p i l l a r of s t r e n g t h " as a r e f l e c t i o n of the man's t h i n k i n g , and the use of " s e n s i b l e , " an assignment on the c h a r a c t e r of the man as i m p l i e d by the w r i t e r and imagined by the student c o u l d be g i v e n . B "*He pores over a l i t t l e I n e x a c t i t u d e i n phrases, and pecks a t i t l i k e a domestic f o w l . • " "The g u l f of a caress hove i n view l i k e an enormous b i l l o w h o l l o w i n g under the c u r l e d r i d g e . " (The E g o i s t ) The E g o i s t o f f e r s these p i c t u r e s q u e s i m i l e s , worthy-examples f o r study of t h a t form of f i g u r a t i v e language. C "The m a l t s t e r , a f t e r having l a i n down i n h i s c l o t h e s f o r a few hours, was now s i t t i n g b e s i d e a t h r e e - l e g g e d t a b l e , b r e a k f a s t i n g o f f bread and bacon. This was eaten on the p l a t e l e s s system, which i s performed by p l a c i n g a s l i c e o f bread upon the t a b l e , the meat f l a t upon the bread, a mustard p l a s t e r upon the meat, and a p i n c h o f s a l t upon the whole, then c u t t i n g them v e r t i c a l l y down-wards wi t h a l a r g e p o c k e t - k n i f e t i l l wood i s reached, when the severed lump Is impaled on the k n i f e , e l e v a t e d , and sent the proper way of f o o d . " (Far from the Madding Crowd) As an example of d e s c r i p t i o n t h i s passage shows the employ-ment of formal terms to an i n f o r m a l procedure, order, p a r a l l e l i s m and r e p e t i t i o n f o r emphasis, and p r e c i s e d e t a i l . Students c o u l d be asked to d e s c r i b e a s i m i l a r procedure of 110 common l i f e a p p l y i n g some or a l l of these techniques* C MMy Dear E r n e s t , My o b j e c t i n w r i t i n g i s not to u p b r a i d you w i t h the d i s g r a c e and shame you have i n f l i c t e d upon your mother and myself, to say n o t h i n g o f your b r o t h e r Joey, and your s i s t e r . S u f f e r of course we must, but we know to Whom to l o o k i n our a f f l i c t i o n , and are f i l l e d with a n x i e t y r a t h e r on your b e h a l f than our own...." wMy d a r l i n g , d a r l i n g boy, pray with me d a i l y and h o u r l y t h a t we may y e t a g a i n become a happy, u n i t e d , God-fearing f a m i l y as we were b e f o r e t h i s h o r r i b l e p a i n f e l l upon u s . . . . M (The Way of a l l F l e s h ) Presented w i t h these two l e t t e r s , students should see the d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t i t u d e , o p i n i o n , outlook, of the w r i t e r s , and c o u l d imagine E r n e s t ' s response to each of them. His r e p l y , w r i t t e n by the students, c o u l d encompass the nature o f h i s d i s g r a c e as w e l l as h i s f e e l i n g s about i t . T h i s e x e r c i s e r e q u i r e s becoming a person known only through the o p i n i o n s of o t h e r s . Other e x e r c i s e s a r e , of course, p o s s i b l e i n p r e s e n t i n g o l d e r l i t e r a t u r e i n s h o r t s e c t i o n s not r e q u i r i n g a whole r e a d i n g of a work. D Longer passages r e l y i n g l e s s on d i s c e r n i n g i m p l i -c a t i o n s and more on t e x t u a l study o f a s u s t a i n e d r e l a t i o n -s h i p show causes o f a c t i o n s and o p i n i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g passages, l i k e the s h o r t e r ones, can be l i f t e d from the whole t e x t s without harm, to show how good w r i t e r s support t h e i r c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n s w i t h p e r t i n e n t d e t a i l s . Passage from Chapter I I I of S h i r l e y by C. Bronte Helstone and Moore, being both In e x c e l l e n t s p i r i t s , arid u n i t e d f o r the present i n one cause, you would expect that,, , as they rode s i d e by s i d e , they would converse amicably. Oh, no'. These two men, of hard b i l i o u s natures both, r a r e l y came i n t o c o n t a c t but they chafed each other's moods. T h e i r f r e q u e n t bone of c o n t e n t i o n was the war. Helstone was a h i g h Tory (there were T o r i e s i n those days), and Moore was a b i t t e r W h i g — a Whig, a t l e a s t , as f a r as o p p o s i t i o n to the war-party was concerned; t h a t b e i n g the q u e s t i o n which a f f e c t e d h i s own i n t e r e s t ; and o n l y on t h a t q u e s t i o n d i d he p r o f e s s any B r i t i s h p o l i t i c s a t a l l . He l i k e d to i n f u r i a t e H elstone by d e c l a r i n g h i s b e l i e f i n the i n v i n c i b i l i t y o f Bonaparte; by t a u n t i n g England and Europe w i t h the impotence of t h e i r e f f o r t s to withstand him; and by c o o l l y advancing the o p i n i o n t h a t I t was as w e l l t o y i e l d to him soon as l a t e , s i n c e he must i n the end crush every a n t a g o n i s t , and r e i g n supreme. Helstone c o u l d not bear these sentiments: i t was o n l y on the c o n s i d e r a t i o n of Moore b e i n g a s o r t o f o u t c a s t and a l i e n , and having but h a l f measure of B r i t i s h blood to temper the f o r e i g n g a l l which corroded h i s v e i n s , t h a t he brought h i m s e l f t o l i s t e n t o them without i n d u l g i n g the wish he f e l t t o cane the speaker. Another t h i n g , too, somewhat a l l a y e d h i s d i s g u s t ; namely, a f e l l o w - f e e l i n g f o r the dogged tone w i t h which these o p i n i o n s were a s s e r t e d , and a r e s p e c t f o r the c o n s i s t e n c y of Moore's crabbed contumacy. As the p a r t y turned i n the S t i l b r o ' road, they met what l i t t l e wind there was; the r a i n dashed i n t h e i r f a c e s . Moore had been f r e t t i n g h i s companion p r e v i o u s l y , and now, braced up by the raw breeze, and perhaps i r r i t a t e d by the sharp d r i z z l e , he began to goad him. "Does your P e n i n s u l a r news please you s t i l l ? " he asked. "What do you mean?" was the s u r l y demand of the R e c t o r . "I mean have you s t i l l f a i t h i n t h a t B a a l of a Lord W e l l i n g t o n ? " "And what do you mean now?" "Do you s t i l l b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s wooden-faced and pebble-hearted i d o l of England has power to send f i r e down from heaven to consume the French h o l o c a u s t you want to o f f e r up?" I l l 112 Passage from Chapter I I I of S h i r l e y by C. Bronte (continued) "I b e l i e v e W e l l i n g t o n w i l l f l o g Bonaparte's marshals i n t o the sea, the day i t p l e a s e s him to l i f t h i s arm." "But, my dear s i r , you can't be s e r i o u s i n what you say. Bonaparte's marshals are great men, who a c t under the guidance o f an omnipotent m a s t e r - s p i r i t ; your W e l l i n g t o n i s the most hum-drum of commonplace m a r t i n e t s , whose slow mechanical movements are f u r t h e r cramped by an i g n o r a n t home government." " W e l l i n g t o n i s the s o u l of England. W e l l i n g t o n i s the r i g h t champion of a good cause; the f i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a p o w e r f u l , a r e s o l u t e , a s e n s i b l e , and an honest n a t i o n . " "Your good cause, as f a r as I understand i t , i s simply the r e s t o r a t i o n of t h a t f i l t h y , f e e b l e Ferdinand to a throne which he d i s g r a c e d ; your f i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of an honest people Is a d u l l - w i t t e d drover, a c t i n g f o r a d u l l e r - w i t t e d farmer; and a g a i n s t these are a r r a y e d v i c t o r i o u s supremacy and I n v i n c i b l e g enius." "Against l e g i t i m a c y i s a r r a y e d u s u r p a t i o n : a g a i n s t modest, single-minded, r i g h t e o u s , and brave r e s i s t a n c e to encroachment, i s a r r a y e d b o a s t f u l , double-tongued, s e l f i s h , and t r e a c h e r o u s ambition to possess. God defend the right'." "God o f t e n defends the powerful." S y b i l Benjamin D i s r a e l i Chapter X I I I The Poor Workman I t was a cloudy, glimmering dawn. A c o l d w i t h e r i n g east wind blew through the s i l e n t s t r e e t s of Mowbray. The sounds o f the n i g h t had d i e d away, the v o i c e s of the day had not commenced. There r e i g n e d a s t i l l n e s s complete and a b s o r b i n g . Suddenly t h e r e i s a v o i c e , t h e r e i s movement. The f i r s t f o o t s t e p of the new week of t o i l i s heard. A man m u f f l e d up i n a t h i c k c o a t , and b e a r i n g i n h i s hand what would seem a t the f i r s t g l a n c e t o be a shepherd's crook, o n l y i t s handle i s much l o n g e r , appears upon the pavement. He touches a num-ber of windows wi t h g r e a t quickness as he moves r a p i d l y a l o n g . A r a t t l i n g n o i s e sounds upon each pane. The use of the l o n g handle of h i s instrument becomes apparent as he proceeds, en-a b l i n g him as i t does to r e a c h the upper windows of the dwel-l i n g s whose inmates he has to rouse. Those Inmates are the f a c t o r y g i r l s , who s u b s c r i b e i n d i s t r i c t s t o engage these h e r a l d s o f the dawn; and by a s t r i c t observance of whose c i t a t i o n they can alone escape the dreaded f i n e t h a t awaits those who have not a r r i v e d a t the door o f the f a c t o r y b e f o r e the b e l l ceases to sound. The s e n t r y i n q u e s t i o n , q u i t t i n g the s t r e e t s , and stoop-i n g through one of the s m a l l archways t h a t we have b e f o r e n o t i c e d , entered a c o u r t . Here lodged a m u l t i t u d e of h i s employers; and the l o n g crook as i t were by some s l e i g h t o f hand, seemed sounding on both s i d e s , and a t many windows a t the same moment. A r r i v e d a t the end o f the c o u r t , he was about to touch the window o f the upper s t o r e y of the l a s t tenement, when the window opened, and a man, p a l e and c a r e -worn, and i n a melancholy v o i c e , spoke to him. "Simmons," s a i d the man, "you need not rouse t h i s s t o r e y any more; my daughter has l e f t us." "Has she l e f t Webster's?" "No; but she has l e f t . u s . She has l o n g murmured a t her hard l o t ; working l i k e a s l a v e , and not f o r h e r s e l f . And she has gone, as they a l l go, to keep house f o r h e r s e l f . " 113 114 "That's a bad b u s i n e s s , " s a i d the watchman, i n a tone not devoid o f sympathy. "Almost as bad as f o r the parents to l i v e on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s wages," r e p l i e d the man, m o u r n f u l l y . "And how i s your good woman?" "As p o o r l y as needs be. H a r r i e t has never been home s i n c e F r i d a y n i g h t . She owes you nothing? "Not a halfpenny. She was as r e g u l a r as a l i t t l e bee, and always p a i d every Monday morning. I am s o r r y she has l e f t you, neighbour." "The Lord's w i l l be done. I t ' s hard times f o r such as us," s a i d the man; and, l e a v i n g the window open, he r e t i r e d i n t o h i s room. I t was a s i n g l e chamber of which he was the tenant. In the c e n t r e , p l a c e d so as to g a i n the best l i g h t which the gloomy s i t u a t i o n c o u l d a f f o r d , was a loom. In two corners o f the room were mattresses p l a c e d on the f l o o r , a check c u r t a i n , hung upon a s t r i n g i f necessary, c o n c e a l i n g them. In one was h i s s i c k w i f e ; i n the o t h e r , t h r e e young c h i l d r e n : two g i r l s , the e l d e s t about e i g h t years of age; between them t h e i r baby b r o t h e r . An i r o n k e t t l e was by the h e a r t h , and on the m a n t e l p i e c e , some c a n d l e s , a few l u c i f e r matches, two t i n mugs, a paper o f s a l t , and an i r o n spoon. In a f a r t h e r p a r t , c l o s e to the w a l l , was a heavy t a b l e or d r e s s e r ? t h i s was a f i x t u r e , as w e l l as the form which was f a s t e n e d by i t . The man seated h i m s e l f a t h i s loom; he commenced h i s d a i l y t a s k . "Twelve hours o f d a i l y l a b o u r , a t the r a t e of one penny each hour; and even t h i s l a b o u r i s mortgaged! How i s t h i s t o end? Is i t r a t h e r not ended?" And he looked around him a t h i s chamber without r e s o u r c e s : no food, no f u e l , no f u r n i t u r e , and f o u r human beings dependent on him, and l y i n g i n t h e i r wretched beds, because they had no c l o t h e s . " I cannot s e l l my loom," he continued, " a t the p r i c e of o l d f i r e w o o d , and i t c o s t me g o l d . I t i s not v i c e t h a t has brought me to t h i s , not i n d o l e n c e , not imprudence. I was born t o l a b o u r , and I was ready to l a b o u r . I l o v e d my loom, and my loom l o v e d me. I t gave me a cottage i n my n a t i v e v i l l a g e , surrounded by a garden, o f whose claims on my s o l i c i t u d e i t was not j e a l o u s . There was time f o r both. I t gave me f o r a w i f e the maiden t h a t I had ever l o v e d ; and i t gathered my c h i l d r e n round my hearth w i t h p l e n t e o u s -ness and peace. I was c o n t e n t : I sought no other l o t . I t i s not a d v e r s i t y t h a t makes me l o o k back upon the p a s t w i t h tenderness. "Then why am I here? Why am I, and s i x hundred thousand s u b j e c t s of the Queen, honest, l o y a l , and i n d u s t r i o u s , why are we, a f t e r m a n f u l l y s t r u g g l i n g f o r y e a r s , and each year s i n k i n g lower i n the s c a l e , why a r e we d r i v e n from our innocent happy homes, our country c o t t a g e s t h a t we l o v e d , 115 f i r s t t o b i d e i n c l o s e towns without comforts, and g r a d u a l l y to crouch i n t o c e l l a r s , or f i n d a s q u a l i d l a i r l i k e t h i s , without even the common n e c e s s a r i e s o f e x i s t e n c e ; f i r s t the o r d i n a r y conveniences of l i f e , then raiment, and a t l e n g t h , food, v a n i s h i n g from us. " I t i s t h a t the c a p i t a l i s t has found a s l a v e t h a t has supplanted the l a b o u r and i n g e n u i t y of man. Once he was an a r t i s a n : a t the b e s t , he now o n l y watches machines; and even t h a t o c c u p a t i o n s l i p s from h i s grasp, to the woman and the c h i l d . The c a p i t a l i s t f l o u r i s h e s , he amasses immense wealth; we s i n k , lower and lower; lower than the beasts o f burthen; f o r they are f e d b e t t e r than we a r e , c a r e d f o r more. And i t Is J u s t , f o r a c c o r d i n g to the p r e s e n t system they are more p r e c i o u s . And y e t they t e l l us t h a t the i n t e r e s t s o f C a p i t a l and of Labour are i d e n t i c a l . " I f a s o c i e t y t h a t has been c r e a t e d by l a b o u r suddenly becomes independent of i t , t h a t s o c i e t y i s bound to main-t a i n the race whose onl y p r o p e r t y i s l a b o u r , out o f the proceeds of t h a t other p r o p e r t y , which has not ceased to be p r o d u c t i v e . "When the c l a s s of the N o b i l i t y were supplanted i n France, they d i d not amount l n number to o n e - t h i r d of us Hand-Loom weavers; y e t a l l Europe went to war to avenge t h e i r wrongs, every S t a t e s u b s c r i b e d to m a i n t a i n them i n t h e i r a d v e r s i t y , and when they were r e s t o r e d to t h e i r own country, t h e i r own l a n d s u p p l i e d them wit h an Immense indemnity. Who cares f o r us? Yet we have l o s t our e s t a t e s . Who r a i s e s a v o i c e f o r us? Yet we are a t l e a s t as Innocent as the n o b i l i t y o f France. We s i n k among no s i g h s except our own. And i f they g i v e us sympathy—what then? Sympathy i s the s o l a c e o f the Poor; but f o r the R i c h , there i s Compensation." "Is t h a t H a r r i e t ? " s a i d h i s w i f e , moving i n her bed. The Hand-Loom weaver was r e c a l l e d from h i s r e v e r i e to the urgent misery t h a t surrounded him. "Nol" he r e p l i e d l n a q u i c k hoarse v o i c e , " I t i s not H a r r i e t . " "Why does not H a r r i e t come?" "She w i l l come no morel" r e p l i e d the weaver; "I t o l d you so l a s t n i g h t : she can bear t h i s p l a c e no l o n g e r ; and I am not s u r p r i s e d . " "How a r e we to get food then?" r e j o i n e d h i s w i f e ; "You ought not to have l e t her l e a v e us. You do n o t h i n g , Warner. You get no wages y o u r s e l f ; and you have l e t the g i r l escape." "I w i l l escape myself i f you say t h a t a g a i n , " s a i d the weaver: " I have been up these three hours f i n i s h i n g t h i s p i e c e which ought to have been taken home on Saturday n i g h t . " "But you have been p a i d f o r i t beforehand. You get n o t h i n g f o r your work. A penny an h o u r l What s o r t of work i s i t , t h a t b r i n g s a penny an hour?" 116 "Work t h a t you have o f t e n admired, Mary; and has b e f o r e t h i s gained a p r i z e . But i f you don't l i k e the work," s a i d the man q u i t t i n g h i s loom, " l e t i t a l o n e . There was enough y e t owing on t h i s p i e c e t o have allowed us to break our f a s t . However, no matter; we must s t a r v e sooner o r l a t e r . Let us b e g i n a t once." "No, no P h i l i p ! work. Let us break our f a s t , come what may." "Twit me no more then," s a i d the weaver, resuming h i s s e a t , "or I throw the s h u t t l e f o r the l a s t time." "I w i l l not taunt you," s a i d h i s w i f e i n a k i n d e r tone. " I was wrong; I am s o r r y ; but I am very i l l . I t i s not f o r myself I speak; I want not to eat; I have no a p p e t i t e ; my l i p s a re so ve r y parched. But the c h i l d r e n , the c h i l d r e n went s u p p e r l e s s to bed, and they w i l l wake soon." "Mother, we a i n ' t a s l e e p , " s a i d the e l d e r g i r l . "No, we a i n ' t a s l e e p , mother,"said her s i s t e r ; "We heard a l l t h a t you s a i d t o f a t h e r . " "And baby?" "He s l e e p s s t i l l . " " I s h i v e r v e r y much!" s a i d the mother. " I t ' s a c o l d day. Pray shut the window, Warner. I see the drops upon the pane; i t i s r a i n i n g . I wonder i f the persons below would l e n d us one b l o c k o f c o a l . " "We have borrowed too o f t e n , " s a i d Warner. "I wish t h e r e were no such t h i n g as c o a l i n the l a n d , " s a i d h i s w i f e , "and then the engines would not be a b l e to work; and we should have our r i g h t s a g a i n . " "Amen!" s a i d Warner. "Don't you t h i n k , Warner," s a i d h i s w i f e , " t h a t you c o u l d s e l l t h a t p i e c e t o some oth e r person, and owe Barber f o r the money he advanced?" "No!" s a i d her husband, f i e r c e l y . " I ' l l go s t r a i g h t . " "And l e t your c h i l d r e n s t a r v e , " s a i d h i s w i f e , "when you c o u l d get f i v e o r s i x s h i l l i n g s a t once. But so i t always was wit h you. Why d i d not you go t o the machines years ago l i k e o ther men, and so get used t o them?" " I should have been supplanted by t h i s time," s a i d Warner, "by a g i r l o r a woman! I t would have been j u s t as bad!" "Why t h e r e was your f r i e n d , Walter Gerard; he was the same as you, and y e t now he gets two pound a week; a t l e a s t I have o f t e n heard you say so." "Walter Gerard i s a man of g r e a t p a r t s , " s a i d Warner, "and might have been a master h i m s e l f by t h i s time had he ca r e d . " "And why d i d he n o t ? " "He had no w i f e and c h i l d r e n , " s a i d Warner; "he was not so b l e s s e d . " The baby woke and began t o c r y . 11? "AM my c h i l d 1 . " exclaimed the mother. "That wicked H a r r i e t t Here, Amelia, I have a morsel of c r u s t here. I saved i t yesterday f o r baby; moisten i t l n water, and t i e l t up i n t h i s p i e c e of c a l i c o : he w i l l suck i t ; i t w i l l keep him q u i e t ; I can bear anything but h i s c r y . " "I s h a l l have f i n i s h e d my j ob by noon," s a i d Warner; "and then please God, we s h a l l break our f a s t . " " I t i s y e t two hours t o noon," s a i d h i s w i f e . "And Barber always keeps you so l o n g l I cannot bear t h a t Barber: I dare say he w i l l not advance you money a g a i n , as you d i d not b r i n g the job home on Saturday n i g h t . I f I were you P h i l i p , I would go and s e l l the p i e c e u n f i n i s h e d a t once t o one of the cheap shops." "I have gone s t r a i g h t a l l my l i f e , " s a i d Warner. "And much good i t has done you," s a i d h i s w i f e . "My poor AmeliaJ How she s h i v e r s t I t h i n k the sun never touches t h i s house. I t i s , Indeed, a most wretched p l a c e . " " I t w i l l not annoy you l o n g , Mary," s a i d her husband: "I can pay no more r e n t ; and I o n l y wonder they have not been here a l r e a d y t o take the wee&." "And where are we to go?" s a i d the w i f e . "To a place which c e r t a i n l y the sun never touches," s a i d her husband, w i t h a k i n d of malice i n h i s m i s e r y — " t o a c e l l a r . " "Oh! wny was I ever born!" exclaimed h i s w i f e . "And y e t I was so happy once! A n d . i t i s not our f a u l t . I cannot make i t out, Warner, why you should not get two pounds a week l i k e Walter Gerard?" "Bah!" s a i d the husband. "You s a i d he had no f a m i l y , " continued h i s w i f e . "I thought he had a daughter." "But she i s no burthen t o him. The s i s t e r of Mr. T r a f f o r d i s the S u p e r i o r or the convent here, and she took S y b i l when her mother d i e d , and brought her up." "Oh', then she i s a nun?" "Not y e t ; but I dare say i t w i l l end i n i t . " " W e l l , l thimc I would even sooner s t a r v e , " s a i d h i s w i f e , "than my c h i l d r e n should be nuns." At t h i s moment th e r e was a knocking a t the door. Warner descended from h i s loom, and opened i t . " L i v e s P h i l i p Warner here?" i n q u i r e d a c l e a r v o i c e of p e c u l i a r sweetness. "My name i s Warner." "I come from Walter Gerard," continued the v o i c e . ttYour l e t t e r reached him o n l y l a s t n i g h t . Toe g i r l a t whose house your daughter l e f t i t , has q u i t t e d t h i s week past Mr. T r a f f o r d ' s f a c t o r y . " "Pray e n t e r . " And t h e r e entered SYBIL. U8 S y b i l — C h a p t e r IV P o l i t i c s and the A r i s t o c r a c y "My dear C h a r l e s , " s a i d Lady Marney to Egremont, the morning a f t e r the Derby, as b r e a k f a s t i n g w i t h her i n her boudoir he d e t a i l e d some of the circumstances of the r a c e , "we must f o r g e t your naughty h o r s e , I sent you a l i t t l e note t h i s morning, because I wished t o see you most par-t i c u l a r l y b efore you went out. A f f a i r s , " continued Lady Marney, f i r s t l o o k i n g around the chamber to see whether there were any f a i r y l i s t e n i n g t o her s t a t e s e c r e t s , " a f f a i r s are c r i t i c a l . " "No doubt of t h a t , " thought Egremont, the h o r r i d phantom of s e t t l i n g - d a y [Bis r a c i n g debts] seeming t o obtrude i t s e l f between h i s mother and h i m s e l f ; but, not knowing p r e c i s e l y a t what she was d r i v i n g , he merely sipped h i s t e a , and i n n o c e n t l y r e p l i e d , "Why?" "There w i l l be a d i s s o l u t i o n , " s a i d Lady Marney. "What! are we coming i n ? " Lady Marney shook her head. "The p r e s e n t men w i l l not b e t t e r t h e i r m a j o r i t y , " s a i d Egremont• "I hope n o t , " s a i d Lady Marney. "Why, you always s a i d t h a t , w i t h another g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , we must come i n , whoever d i s s o l v e d . " "But t h a t was w i t h the Court i n our f a v o u r , " r e j o i n e d Lady Marney, m o u r n f u l l y . "What*, has the k i n g changed?" s a i d Egremont. "I thought i t was a l l r i g h t . " " A l l was r i g h t , " s a i d Lady Marney. "ehese men would have been turned out a g a i n , had he o n l y l i v e d three months l o n g e r . " " L i v e d ! " exclaimed Egremont. "Yes," s a i d Lacly Marney; "the k i n g i s d y i n g . " S l o w l y d e l i v e r i n g h i m s e l f o f an e j a c u l a t i o n , Egremont l e a n t back i n h i s c h a i r . "He may l i v e a month," s a i d Lady Marney; "he cannot l i v e two. : I t i s the g r e a t e s t of s e c r e t s ; known a t t h i s moment o n l y t o f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s , and I communicate i t t o you, my dear C h a r l e s , i n t h a t a b s o l u t e confidence which I hope w i l l always s u b s i s t between us, because i t i s an event t h a t may g r e a t l y a f f e c t your c a r e e r . " "How so, my dear mother?" "Marbury! I have s e t t l e d w i t h Mr. Tadpole t h a t you s h a l l stand f o r the o l d borough. With the government In our hands, as I had a n t i c i p a t e d , a t the g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n success I t h i n k 119 was c e r t a i n : under the circumstances which we must encounter, the struggle w i l l be more severe, but I think we s h a l l do i t : and i t w i l l be a happy day for me to have our own again, and to see you i n Parliament, my dear c h i l d . " "Well, my dear mother, I should l i k e very much to be i n Parliament, and p a r t i c u l a r l y to s i t for the old borough; but I fear the contest w i l l be very expensive," said Egremont, Inq u i r i n g l y . "Oht I have no doubt," said Lady Marney, "that we s h a l l have some monster of the middle c l a s s , some tinker or t a i l o r , or candlestick-maker, with his long purse, preaching reform and p r a c t i s i n g corruption; exactly as the Li b e r a l s did under Walpole: bribery was unknown i n the time of the Stuarts; but we have a c a p i t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n , Mr. Tadpole t e l l s me. And a young candidate with the old name w i l l t e l l , " said Lady Marney, with a smile, "and I s h a l l go down and canvass, and we must do what we can." "I have great f a i t h i n your canvassing," said Egremont; "but s t i l l at the same time, the powder and s h o t — " "Are e s s e n t i a l , " said Lady Marney," I know i t , i n these corrupt days; but Marney w i l l of course supply those. I t i s the l e a s t he can do: regaining the family influence, and l e t t i n g us hold up our heads again. I s h a l l write to him the moment I am j u s t i f i e d , " said Lady Marney, "perhaps you w i l l do so yourself, Charles." "Why, considering I have not seen my brother f o r two years, and we did not part on the best possible terms—" "But that i s a l l forgotten." "By your good o f f i c e s , dear mother, who are always doing good: and yet," continued Egremont, a f t e r a moment's pause, "I am not disposed to write to Marney, e s p e c i a l l y to ask a favour." "Well, I w i l l write," said Lady Marney; "thoughfel cannot admit i t as any favour. Perhaps i t would be better that you should see him f i r s t . I cannot understand why he keeps so at the Abbey. I am sure I found i t a melancholy place enough i n my time. I wish you had gone down there, Charles, i f i t had been only f o r a few days." "Well, I did not, my dear mother, and I cannot go now. I s h a l l t r u s t to you. But are you quite sure that the king i s going to die?" "I repeat to you, i t i s c e r t a i n , " r e p l i e d Lady Marney, i n a lowered voice, but decided tone; "certain, c e r t a i n , c e r t a i n . My authority cannot be mistaken: but no considera-t i o n i n the world must throw you o f f your guard at t h i s moment; breathe not the shadow of what you know." 120 At t h i s moment a servant e n t e r e d , and d e l i v e r e d a note t o Lady Marney, who read i t with an i r o n i c a l s m i l e . I t was from Lady S t . J u l i a n s , and r a n thus: Most C o n f i d e n t i a l My d e a r e s t Lady M a r n e y , — I t i s a f a l s e r e p o r t ; he i s i l l , hut not dangerously; the hay f e v e r ; he always has i t ; n o t h i n g more; I w i l l t e l l my a u t h o r i t y when we meet; I dare not w r i t e i t . I t w i l l s a t i s f y you. I am going on w i t h my q u a d r i l l e . Most a f f e c t i o n a t e l y yours, "Poor woman! she i s always wrong," s a i d Lady Marney, throwing the note t o Egremont. "Her q u a d r i l l e w i l l never take p l a c e , which i s a p i t y , as i t i s t o c o n s i s t o n l y o f b e a u t i e s and e l d e s t sons. I suppose I must send her a l i n e ; " and she wrote: My dea r e s t Lady S t . J u l i a n s , — H o w good of your t o w r i t e t o me, and send me such c h e e r i n g news! I have no doubt you are r i g h t ; you always a r e . I know he had the hay f e v e r l a s t y e a r . How f o r t u n a t e f o r your q u a d r i l l e , and how charming i t w i l l be! L e t me know i f you hear a n y t h i n g f u r t h e r from your unmentionable q u a r t e r . Ever your a f f e c t i o n a t e C M . 121 Q u e s t i o n s : S h i r l e y 1. Is e i t h e r man blinded, by p r e j u d i c e ? Where? 2. What experiences of e i t h e r man would l e a d him to adopt h i s o p i n i o n of Napoleon? 3. Of what man c o u l d these two c h a r a c t e r s argue today i s a d e v i l or a genius? 4. Write a contemporary d i a l o g u e between these two men, g i v i n g as Bronte does, p r e v i o u s d e s c r i p t i o n s . of t h e i r l i v e s . Q uestions: S y b i l 1. Is H a r r i e t j u s t i f i e d i n running away? E x p l a i n . 2. How has she caused her f a m i l y worry? 3. Comment on the s u i t a b i l i t y of the d i a l o g u e to the speakers. 4. Imagine today a man i n a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n of d e s p a i r . Write h i s thoughts on h i s p o s i t i o n . 5. What i s the purpose of the a r i s t o c r a t i c c h a r a c t e r s p r o p o s i n g C h a r l e s run f o r Parliament? 6. What does C h a r l e s Egremont mean by "powder and shot"?. 7. Would you say that Warner or Egremont i s more aware of the s t a t e of the country? Which would make a b e t t e r M.P.? 8. Imagine Lady Maraey i n Warner's room, l o o k i n g around l t by h e r s e l f . Write her thoughts on the i n h a b i t a n t s . APPENDIX D TEXTS FROM THE PAST The f o l l o w i n g books are comprehensible to mature a d o l e s c e n t s and e x c e l l e n t l y w r i t t e n , worth t e a c h i n g i n t o t o . E m i l y Bronte, Wutherlng Heights John Bunyan, The P i l g r i m ' s Progress Samuel B u t l e r , Erewhon Miguel Cervantes, Don Quixote D a n i e l Defoe, Robinson Crusoe George E l i o t , The M i l l on the F l o s s Thomas Hardy, The Return of the N a t i v e C h a r l e s Lamb, Essays of E l l a C h r i s t o p h e r Marlowe, The T r a g i c a l H i s t o r y of Doctor Faustus Edmond Rostand, Cyrano deBergerac W i l l i a m Makepeace Thackeray, V a n i t y F a i r The I l i a d and The Odyssey, proposed f o r the new E n g l i s h courses, c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y be complemented by s e l e c t i o n s from the Aeneid found i n V o i c e s from the Pas t , ed. Todd. 122 APPENDIX E CORRELATION IN BRITISH UNIVERSITIES E d u c a t i o n a l Values In an Age of Technology P. B. P i n i o n S p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r degrees tends to c r e a t e a corpus of I n t e l l e c t u a l s ready to assume, u n t i l they grow up, t h a t most matters o u t s i d e t h e i r s p e c i a l i t y are not t h e i r b u s i n e s s . I t i s hard to see how academic c u l t u r e can have a widespread i n -f l u e n c e on the n a t i o n i f we are content to l i v e In c o n f i n e d departments. T h i s helps to e x p l a i n the p a s s i v i t y , or impas-s i v i t y , o f so many E n g l i s h graduates, and an immaturity or i n -e l a s t i c i t y of mind which l i m i t s t h e i r powers of c i t i z e n s h i p and l e a d e r s h i p In t h e i r communities. As a r e s u l t , power tends to pass i n t o the hands o f b i g b u s i n e s s and of p o l i t i c a l p a r t i -sans who espouse p o p u l a r causes. U n i v e r s i t y l e a r n i n g does not r e s u l t as i t should i n the a p p l i c a t i o n o f Ideas to common prob-lems, and there e x i s t s a widespread d i v o r c e between knowledge and r e l e v a n t a c t i o n which looks a t times l i k e s e m i - p a r a l y s i s * I f s u b j e c t s were r e l a t e d to t h e i r s o c i a l , economic and i n t e l -l e c t u a l backgrounds, they would not o n l y throw more l i g h t on the problems o f modern s o c i e t y ; they would enable s p e c i a l i s t s to throw l i g h t on each other's problems. The c l a s s i c i s t and h i s t o r i a n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to p o l i t i c a l thought; the h i s t o r i a n t o p o l i t i c s and l i t e r a t u r e ; the mathematician, to s c i e n c e ; and the s c i e n t i s t , to modern p h i l o s o p h y . In the p a s t t h i s was much more p o s s i b l e , because the whole f i e l d o f knowledge was much s m a l l e r . Today, knowledge has outgrown the i n t e l -l e c t u a l power of i n d i v i d u a l s , and the r e s u l t Is fragmentation, and l o s s of i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s h i p and sense of g e n e r a l r e -s p o n s i b i l i t y . I t i s the main reason f o r a l a c k of g r e a t n e s s . A t a l l p o i n t s In our h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , I t i s o f urgent im-portance t h a t steps should be taken to c o u n t e r a c t t h i s t e n -dency to d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s . At Oxford, the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n was taken w i t h the i n s t i t u t i o n o f Modern Greats, a course i n p h i l o s o p h y , p o l i t i c s , and economics. At Cambridge, N a t u r a l S c i e n c e i n the f i r s t two years i s a broad course i n chemistry, p h y s i c s , and b i o l o g y ; and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to see how there can be a g r e a t advance i n any one of these a l l i e d s u b j e c t s u n l e s s t h e i r l n t e r - r e l a t l o n s h l p i s known: the advanced study 123 of chemical elements i s a subject for the physicist, and biochemistry has recently become one of our most impor-tant sciences. On the humanistic side, English Literature at the University of Cambridge has been rightly and successfully associated with the social history and the s c i e n t i f i c , religious, and philosophical thought of i t s age. The new University of Sussex proposes to adopt such a policy in a l l i t s courses, and study subjects with refer-ence to their contexts. In English, for example, one of the special subjects w i l l be "Poetry, Science, and Religion in the Seventeenth Century." In general, three related subjects w i l l be taken, and intensification w i l l be sharpened by holding seminars on special topics, which w i l l not only help to focus the subject with reference to Its background but also raise questions which have their parallel in the modern world. A new university can organ-ize, fashioning i t s syllabuses to modern needs, without being hampered by faculty regulations which have a habit of outlasting their usefulness.—p. 9 1 . 

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