UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Historical perspective for a literature curriculum Coburn, Marnie Alice 1968

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A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE FOR A LITERATURE  CURRICULUM  by MARNIE A L I C E COBURN B.A., U n i v e r s i t y  of British  Columbia,  1951  A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILMENT  OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  the F a c u l t y of Education  We a c c e p t required  this  t h e s i s as conforming  to the  standard  THE UNIVERSITY  OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA  April,  1968  In  presenting  for  an  that  advanced  the  I  thesis  for  Department  shall  further  agree  at  in  partial  the  make  it  that  permission  or  representatives.  hits  of  my w r i t t e n  this  thesis  may  for  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s J t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a  of  Columbia  be  for  granted  It  is  financial  of  British  freely, available  purposes  by  fulfilment  University  scholarly  publication  without  thesis  degree  Library  Study.  or  this  for  the  Columbia,  I  reference  and  extensive  by  the  requirements  copying  Head  understood  gain  shall  of  this  my  that  not  of  agree  be  copying  allowed  ABSTRACT  This  study  Investigates  h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e the  school.  one  leading  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  l n the E n g l i s h curriculum  of  The i n v e s t i g a t i o n moves I n two d i r e c t i o n s , t o an e x a m i n a t i o n o f the boundary  between  E n g l i s h a n d h i s t o r y t o s e e i f t h e b a r r i e r between  these  two  leads  humanistic  studies  c a n be l o w e r e d .  t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d times  ln literary  texts  The o t h e r  t o determine the  h i s t o r y from which the s e l e c t i o n s i n  t h e s e t e x t s were t a k e n a n d t h e e f f e c t s t h e t i m e s a r e likely  t o have on s t u d e n t s *  understanding of t h e i r  own  culture. The  teaching  to students* of  this  enjoyment o f l i t e r a t u r e .  study  "historical" historical  of historical literature  this  hypothesis l i m i t s  literature  contributes  F o r the purpose the d e f i n i t i o n o f  to imaginative  writing  events, a t t i t u d e s , and c h a r a c t e r s ;  accounts of exploration; this  century.  also  to enduring  expository  and t o l i t e r a t u r e w r i t t e n  insights; that  In  this  and  recog-  i n time.  t h e s i s I have e x a m i n e d t h e p u r p o s e o f  education  and then the c o n t r i b u t i o n s ii  and  i s , t o a sense o f h e r i t a g e ,  t h e a t t i t u d e s t o r e c u r r i n g themes e x p r e s s e d a t  different points  general  before  " E n j o y m e n t " r e f e r s t o immediate p l e a s u r e  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f d e s i r a b l e and p o s s i b l e v a l u e s , nizing  describing  of English  H i l i t e r a t u r e t o the c u r r i c u l u m o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . I r e a l i z e d the e f f e c t s o f fragmentation  When  o f l e a r n i n g on  g e n e r a l education and on E n g l i s h t e a c h i n g , I began t o c o n s i d e r how t h i s t r e n d toward s u b d i v i d i n g knowledge c o u l d be r e v e r s e d .  The common i n t e r e s t o f E n g l i s h and h i s t o r y  i n human beings  suggested t h a t t h e i r c o n t i g u i t y c o u l d be  e x p l o i t e d and I have t h e r e f o r e w r i t t e n a t l e n g t h on the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between them. s u b j e c t s i n the classroom  The c o r r e l a t i o n o f these  has rewards as w e l l as p e r i l s ,  as I have p o i n t e d out, b u t by r e l a t i n g my p e r s o n a l experience teacher  I have shown t h a t i t can be done by one  i n normal t e a c h i n g c o n d i t i o n s .  The c o n c l u d i n g  p a r t s o f t h e t h e s i s d e a l w i t h the e x t e n s i o n o f s e l e c t i o n s i n t o the p a s t and o f f e r annotated b i b l i o g r a p h i e s . Rather than a "proof" o r a " d i s p r o o f , " t h i s t h e s i s i s designed old  ideas.  t o g i v e a new and i n t e r e s t i n g approach t o  TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter I. II. III. IV.  Page GENERAL EDUCATION  1  ENGLISH AND GENERAL EDUCATION  6  FRAGMENTATION  OF LEARNING  10  THE INFLUENCE OF THE NEW CRITICISM  19  V.  HISTORY AND LITERATURE  22  VI.  METHODS OF CORRELATION  27  VII.  THE PRESENT DEGREE OF CORRELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES IN BRITISH COLUMBIA  (1965-66)  VIII. IX.  X.  CRITERIA FOR BOOK SELECTIONS IN CORRELATION  XIII.  38  DESIRABLE OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF 53  UNDESIRABLE OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF ENGLISH AND HISTORY  XII.  . .  SAMPLE LIST OF BOOKS FOR CORRELATION WITH PRESENT B. C. SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES  ENGLISH AND HISTORY XI.  36  60  PERSONAL APPLICATION  62  TIME EXTENSION OF SELECTIONS  77  Chapter  Page  FOOTNOTES  88  BIBLIOGRAPHY  9^  APPENDIX A.  EXTENDED LIST OF BOOKS FOR CORRELATION WITH SOCIAL STUDIES  APPENDIX B.  CHART ON CONTENTS OF TEXTS  APPENDIX C.  SUGGESTIONS FOR TIME EXTENSION  . . . .  104  OF SELECTIONS APPENDIX D.  TEXTS FROM THE PAST  APPENDIX E .  CORRELATION IN BRITISH UNIVERSITIES  99  105 122 . . .  123  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would generous  the  t o pay t r i b u t e t o the  i n t e r e s t o f the l a t e  who a d v i s e d 1965  like  me a t numerous  t o 1967. Faculty,  to undertake  Miss Edna B a x t e r  consultations  from  To Mr^ J o h n McGechaen, a l s o o f I am g r a t e f u l  this  paper.  f o r encouragement  AN  HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE IN THE  F o r God's s a k e , s t o p while  and  begin  TEACHING OF  researching  and that  rethinkers of values. we  rather  should than the  I t has  s p e a k more o f t h e extension  more t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e already  for a  t o think....We need...not  discoverers of facts...but explorers  of  LITERATURE  only  ideas  been w e l l  said  improvement,  of knowledge.  importance of  We  want  things  known.  Sir  Walter  Moberley  The  Crisis  i n the U n i v e r s i t y  1  CHAPTER I GENERAL EDUCATION Children are not the •supply* that meets any •demand* however urgent. They are i n d i v i d u a l human beings, and the primary concern of the schools should not be with the l i v i n g they w i l l earn but with the l i f e they w i l l l e a d . 2  Much dispute i n t h i s technological age takes place concerning the r e l a t i v e importance of general and vocat i o n a l education.  Simply stated, opinions d i f f e r on whether  schools exist primarily to teach what w i l l be useful In following s p e c i f i c vocations, or to teach what w i l l be benef i c i a l to the student regardless of which vocation he enters, Since the question i s one of p r i o r i t y no matter what c u r r i culum Is offered, one position alone w i l l not oust the other but w i l l be fundamental to i t . Current concern over vocational t r a i n i n g has two voices.  The one heard most c l e a r l y shouts that there w i l l  be no place i n the economy f o r the u n s k i l l e d , and that, therefore, the commonsense course of action i s to o f f e r more vocational t r a i n i n g .  The current high school c u r r i -  culum i n B r i t i s h Columbia with f i v e out of s i x programmes designed to teach s k i l l s f o r employment on graduation, i s such a response.  Indeed, i n the sense that the sixth, the  academic-technical, leads to opportunities f o r vocational t r a i n i n g at higher i n s t i t u t i o n s , one could say that the 1  2 t o t a l programme i s v o c a t i o n a l . courses  given  regardless  compulsory study  which s k i l l s education clearly The  i n this  a student  i n employablllty.  education  and the v a l u e  That a b i l i t i e s  what  with  of general  teacher.  What v o c a t i o n a l skills  o f voca-  In "Technical  C o n s e q u e n c e s " H. S c h e l s k y  i s required i n vocational  limit  are limited i s  when t h e s p e c i f i c  t r a i n i n g a r e o f temporary u t i l i t y ?  Change a n d E d u c a t i o n a l  Studies,  i s the  t o and i s a concern o f the v o c a t i o n a l  has g e n e r a l  tional  and S o c i a l  response  second and t h i r d p o i n t s a r e l i n k e d :  value  i s seen i n  can l e a r n , the speed  a r e becoming outdated,  evident  year,  that i s ,  f o r lesser periods.  What may be o v e r l o o k e d t h e number o f s k i l l s  education,  of vocational choice,  o f E n g l i s h i n every  Mathematics, and S c i e n c e  to  General  describes  training:  Modern v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g s h o u l d e m p h a s i z e comparatively a b s t r a c t o c c u p a t i o n a l and working qualities. The w o r k e r who c o n t r o l s a u t o m a t i c d e v i c e s and i n s t r u m e n t s i s r e q u i r e d t o d i s p l a y c o n c e n t r a t i o n , a t t e n t i o n , h i g h r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t e c h n i c a l knowledge, q u i c k response, and r e l i a b i l i t y . T h e s e q u a l i t i e s must form i n him a k i n d o f permanent l a t e n t d i s p o s i t i o n — a k i n d o f b a c k g r o u n d on w h i c h t o p e r f o r m p a r t i c u l a r activities. Today, m a i n l y a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s a r e r e q u i r e d o f workers, such as a b i l i t y t o o r g a n i z e , t o handle people and t o s u p e r v i s e , s e l f - c o n t r o l , i n t e l l i g e n c e a n d r e l i a b i l i t y , e x a c t i t u d e , k e e p i n g up w i t h work-pace, e t c . , w h i l e s i m p l e manual o r I n t e l l e c t u a l k n o w l e d g e a n d s k i l l s become l e s s a n d l e s s i m p o r t a n t . 3  If  one s t u d i e s t h e s e  nurture  qualities  them, one s e e s f i r s t  t o s e e how t h e c u r r i c u l u m c a n  that intelligence  t h o u g h g o o d t e a c h i n g makes i t more o p e r a b l e , nical  knowledge i s a d i s t i n c t  product  i s innate  and t h a t  of vocational  tech-  training.  3 Good t e a c h i n g  i n any a r e a  of a l l the other  contributes  requirements l i s t e d ,  t o the development but general  education  makes a p a r t i c u l a r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f ability  to organize,  literature, and  and s u p e r v i s e .  f o r example, r e c o g n i t i o n o f g e n r e s ,  plots calls  tion  concentrate,  f o rorganization  on a b s t r a c t q u a l i t i e s .  nature gained  In themes,  o f f a c t o r s and  concentra-  The u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f human  from the study o f such l i t e r a r y  characters  as  H a r e t o n E a r n s h a w i n W u t h e r l n g H e i g h t s , M i s s Thompson i n " M i s s Thompson Goes S h o p p i n g , essay, a  "National  supervisor  diversity  Prejudices,"  by e n l a r g i n g  and the b i g o t  H  contributes  i n Goldsmiths  t o t h e wisdom o f  h i s awareness o f t h e v i t a l  i n human b e i n g s .  Vaizey of Educational  a n d D e b e a u v a i s , w r i t i n g on "Economic Development," g i v e  another  Aspects  requirement:  As t h e economy d e v e l o p s , i t n e e d s more, a n d d i v e r s e , s k i l l s t h a t r e l y upon a g e n e r a l b a c k ground o f education f o r t h e i r development. A g r o w i n g economy a l s o r e q u i r e s a d a p t a b l e w o r k e r s who c a n q u i c k l y a n d w i t h e a s e l e a v e one s p e c i a l t y and t a k e up another.^" Such f l e x i b i l i t y and  grows f r o m r e c o g n i t i o n o f c h o i c e  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n so that  Imagination exercised  the wisest  choice  of action  may b e made.  and r e f i n e d i n the study o f l i t e r a t u r e ,  mathematios and h i s t o r y , d i s p l a y s p o s s i b l e c h o i c e s , t o them a n d t h e i r c o n s e q u e n c e s .  Flexibility  responses  and a d a p t a b i l i t y  4 are  e n c o u r a g e d by  the  Industrial Revolution affect  a working c l a s s  g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n which asks,  child  education which asks,  born  the  standard  "How  of l i v i n g  "What I s t h e p r o p e r  proportion of  to rubber  i n the manufacture o f automobile  General  education  offers  The looks  of t h a t c h o i c e from the  second v o i c e , not  t h a t the  i n a system  work, we for  not  may  be  Hen  will  student.  lives  After  from  call  "work," b u t  be  three  cyber-  the  d e p e n d e d on a wage f o r  will  given  occupy themselves  i n some  with  a  the r i g h t  e x p e r t s , the  absent.  Should  to  i n c e n t i v e to our  a s y s t e m , w h a t e v e r t h e s c h o o l s do  meaningful  will  hundred  In w h i c h wages a r e  probably  to l i v e w i l l  under such  their  persons.  income f o r e c a s t by  work i n o r d e r live  few  e n t e r i n g an age  they w i l l  guaranteed  demands  so l o u d l y h e a r d b e c a u s e i t  i n which s u r v i v a l  working.  activity  tires?"  u l t i m a t e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e m a c h i n e age  demand work f r o m v e r y years  c h o i c e o f a c t i o n and  to f u t u r e c o n d i t i o n s , i s the p r e d i c t i o n  netics  of  I n I83O?" more t h a n by v o c a t i o n a l  asphalt  justification  did  children t o make  come f r o m g e n e r a l r a t h e r  from v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n  i n i t s present  can  them i n v o c a t i o n a l c l a s s e s , t h e y  will  use  the  skills  need to use  enjoyable make and leisure  taught  their  purposes  f o r the p r o d u c t s  the p r o c e s s e s they w i l l  purpose of l i f e ,  imaginations  they  have an  form.  than  Before  to devise u s e f u l they  and  have l e a r n e d  have l e a r n e d t o p e r f o r m .  opportunity  and  to At  to c o n s i d e r a l s o  the meaning o f the good l i f e ,  students  the  their  5 choice  of goals.  Only  the p a s t have e n j o y e d wasted  the wealthy l e i s u r e d such  freedom.  i n n e u r o t i c musings o r inane  e d u c a t i o n must d e s c r i b e t h e g o a l s  classes of  L e s t o p p o r t u n i t y be activity,  general  f o r w h i c h men c a n l i v e .  One n e e d n o t d w e l l on o u r l o s s i f t h e f e u d a l a g e s h a d t a u g h t o n l y t h o s e s u b j e c t s w h i c h were •of use* t o t h a t p a r t i c u l a r time and s o c i a l structure. B u t t h e r e a r e advantages even i n barbarism: perhaps the c h i e f advantage o f m e d i e v a l b a r b a r i s m was t h e c r e a t i o n o f t h e European i n t e l l e c t u a l c l a s s . They d i d n o t a c c e p t , s t i l l l e s s w o u l d t h e y have t a u g h t , t h a t one s h o u l d become • a d j u s t e d * t o a s o c i e t y b a s e d on war, p i l l a g e a n d e x p l o i t a t i o n . Men o f l e a r n i n g . . . w e r e c o n s c i o u s t h a t t h e i r own i d e a s . . . w e r e n o t t h o s e o f s o c i e t y a r o u n d them. The lamp o f l e a r n i n g was f e d a t t h e d a r k e s t t i m e s b y t h e hope t h a t t h e p a t i e n t s p r e a d o f e d u c a t i o n might l e a d i n time t o a b e t t e r s o c i e t y . 5  We have now, i n t h e o r y ,  the opportunity t o f u l f i l the  dream o f a n e n l i g h t e n e d c i t i z e n r y , and  f r e e d from t o i l .  not  only the world  It will  literate,  come a b o u t when men know  as i t i s , b u t the world  be.  The g r a n d  possibility  will  earn," b u t i n "the l i f e  knowledgeable,  lies  as i t c o u l d  not i n "the l i v i n g  they w i l l  lead."  they  CHAPTER I I ENGLISH AND GENERAL EDUCATION The s i m p l e p o i n t i s t h a t l i t e r a t u r e b e l o n g s t o t h e w o r l d man c o n s t r u c t s , n o t t o t h e . w o r l d he s e e s ; t o h i s home, n o t h i s e n v i r o n m e n t .  It it  i s i n the imaginative insight  c o u l d be, i n t o  contributes  into  t h e "home" o f t h e q u o t a t i o n , t h a t  to a general education.  this precisely  i n describing  literature  I t c a n show f i r s t  t h e w o r l d d o e s n o t have t o be a s i t i s . state  t h e w o r l d as  Utopian  the i d e a l  that  writers  societies  they  construct:  Many t i m e s a l s o , when t h e y have no s u c h e woorke t o b e o c c u p i e d a b o u t e , a n open p r o c l a m a t i o n i s made, t h a t they s h a l l bestowe fewer houres i n worke. P o r t h e m a g i s t r a t e s doe n o t e x e r c i s e t h e i r e c i t i z e n s againste theire willes i n unneadefull laboures. For whie i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f t h a t weale p u b l i q u e , t h i s ende i s o n e l y e a n d c h l e f e l y p r e t e n d e d a n d mynded, t h a t what t i m e maye p o s s i b l y be s p a r e d f r o m t h e n e c e s s a r y e o c c u p a c i o n s a n d a f f a y r e s o f t h e commen w e a l t h , a l l t h a t the c i t l z e l n s shoulde withdrawe from the b o d e l y s e r v i c e t o t h e f r e e l l b e r t y e o f t h e minde, a n d g a r n i s s h l n g e o f t h e same. F o r h e r e i n t h e y s u p p o s e the f e l i c l t y e o f t h i s l l f f e t o c o n s i s t e . 2  Writers evils  o f s o c i a l p r o t e s t have s p u r r e d r e f o r m o f t h e  they s e e .  N a t h a n i e l Hawthorne i n The S c a r l e t  p r o t e s t s n o t s o much a g a i n s t t h e p i l l o r y , time  of his writing  Letter  since a t the  i t was no l o n g e r u s e d , b u t a g a i n s t  t h e c r u s h i n g shame o f p u b l i c  punishment:  6  7 ...This s c a f f o l d c o n s t i t u t e d a p o r t i o n of a penal m a c h i n e , w h i c h now, f o r two o r t h r e e g e n e r a t i o n s p a s t , has b e e n m e r e l y h i s t o r i c a l and t r a d i t i o n a r y among u s , b u t was h e l d , i n t h e o l d t i m e , t o be a s e f f e c t u a l an a g e n t , i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f g o o d c i t i z e n s h i p , a s e v e r was t h e g u i l l o t i n e among t h e t e r r o r i s t s of Prance. I t was, i n s h o r t , t h e p l a t f o r m o f t h e p i l l o r y ; and a b o u t i t r o s e t h e framework o f t h a t i n s t r u m e n t o f d i s c i p l i n e so f a s h i o n e d a s t o c o n f i n e t h e human h e a d i n i t s t i g h t g r a s p , a n d t h u s h o l d i t up t o t h e p u b l i c g a z e . The v e r y i d e a l o f i g n o m i n y was embodied a n d made m a n i f e s t i n t h i s c o n t r i v a n c e o f wood a n d i r o n . T h e r e c a n be no o u t r a g e , m e t h i n k s , a g a i n s t o u r common n a t u r e — w h a t e v e r be t h e d e l i n q u e n c i e s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l — n o o u t r a g e more f l a g r a n t t h a n t o f o r b i d t h e c u l p r i t t o h i d e h i s f a c e f o r shame; as i t was t h e e s s e n c e o f t h i s p u n i s h m e n t t o do.-'  Then a g a i n , t h e w o r l d may seems t o most p e o p l e .  Kafka's  be more t e r r i b l e  than i t  t e r r i f y i n g awareness  of  human v u l n e r a b i l i t y warns o f a w o r l d  t h a t may  exist  some t i m e  one  t h i s mad  I n any  man.  I n The  Castle  sees  at scene:  She t o o k a whip f r o m a c o r n e r and s p r a n g among the d a n c e r s w i t h a s i n g l e bound, a l i t t l e u n c e r t a i n l y , as a young lamb m i g h t s p r i n g . At f i r s t they f a c e d her a s i f she were m e r e l y a new p a r t n e r , a n d a c t u a l l y f o r a moment F r i e d a seemed i n c l i n e d t o l e t t h e whip f a l l , b u t she s o o n r a i s e d i t a g a i n , c r y i n g : ' I n t h e name o f Klamm i n t o t h e s t a l l w i t h y o u , i n t o t h e s t a l l , a l l of y o u l • When t h e y saw t h a t she was i n e a r n e s t t h e y began t o p r e s s towards the back w a l l i n a k i n d o f p a n i c i n c o m p r e h e n s i b l e t o K., and u n d e r t h e Impact o f t h e f i r s t few a d o o r s h o t open, l e t t i n g I n a c u r r e n t o f n i g h t a i r through which they a l l vanished w i t h F r i e d a b e h i n d them o p e n l y d r i v i n g them a c r o s s t h e c o u r t y a r d i n t o the s t a l l s . * ' 1  But found  i s the w o r l d  so m e a n i n g l e s s ?  Some s a y m e a n i n g i s  i n the m a t e r i a l world, m o r t a l , v i s i b l e ,  Horace p r o t e s t s a g a i n s t such a world  and  measurable.  i n " E x e g i Monumentum."  8 Now s t a n d s my t o w e r f o u r - s q u a r e , o u t l a s t i n g b r o n z e , O'ertopping the t a l l pyramids o f kings; Nor e a t i n g r a i n c a n r o t n o r v i o l e n t g a l e One s t o n e d i s l o d g e , t h o u g h Time's e t e r n a l f l i g h t L e a v e c e n t u r y on c e n t u r y b e h i n d . Not a l l o f me s h a l l d i e ; one p a r t s h a l l c h e a t The c e r e m e n t s , n o r my g a t h e r i n g fame a b a t e W h i l e Rome e n d u r e s , a n d h u s h e d i n h o l y awe P o n t i f f a n d V e s t a l mount h e r c i t a d e l . Be t h i s my p r a i s e : t h a t by the r u s h i n g stream Of A u f l d u s , where p a s t o r a l Daunus r u l e d H i s t h i r s t y p l a i n , I grew f r o m l o w t o s t r o n g , And on t h e r u d e I t a l i a n p i p e f i r s t breathed A e o l i a n numbers. R i s e , Melpomene! Assume t h y s t a t e , a n d i n t h e a c c o m p l i s h e d t a s k W e l l p l e a s e d , w i t h D e l p h i a n L a u r e l b i n d my brow.->  Nor agrees with  does t h e w o r l d Horace.  have t o be a s i t seems.  She shows i t may  be s o m e t h i n g  Here  Alice  quite  different: "0 T i g e r - l i l y ! said A l i c e , addressing herself t o one t h a t was w a v i n g g r a c e f u l l y a b o u t i n t h e w i n d , "I w i s h you c o u l d t a l k ! " "We c a n t a l k , " s a i d t h e T i g e r - I l l y , "when t h e r e ' s anybody worth t a l k i n g t o . " A l i c e was s o a s t o n i s h e d t h a t she c o u l d n ' t s p e a k for a minute: I t q u i t e seemed t o t a k e h e r b r e a t h away. A t l e n g t h , a s t h e T i g e r - l i l y o n l y went on waving a b o u t , she spoke a g a i n , i n a t i m i d v o i c e almost i n a whisper. "And c a n a l l t h e f l o w e r s t a l k ? " "As w e l l a s y o u c a n , " s a i d t h e T i g e r - l i l y . "And a great deal louder." " I t i s n ' t manners f o r us t o b e g i n , y o u know," s a i d t h e R o s e , "and I r e a l l y was w o n d e r i n g when y o u ' d speak! S a i d I t o m y s e l f , 'Her f a c e has g o t some s e n s e i n i t , t h o u g h i t ' s n o t a c l e v e r one!' S t i l l * y o u ' r e t h e r i g h t c o l o u r , a n d t h a t goes a l o n g way."" n  These s e l e c t i o n s o f f e r d i f f e r i n g views o f the w o r l d , or r e a l i t y ,  inspiring differing  responses  from the  imagination.  9 A well-read person, having responded to many views, has a greater opportunity than the person who has read l i t t l e , to discriminate "between opposing views and to use his imagination thus stretched to construct his own view of the world as i t i s and as i t should be.  Goals can be set  and purposes devised to reach them from a broader knowledge of the p o s s i b i l i t i e s .  This i s the reward of l i t e r a t u r e to  the student, and i s the role of l i t e r a t u r e i n his general education.  CHAPTER I I I FRAGMENTATION  OF LEARNING  The m i n u t e s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o f modern l i f e h a s "been l i k e t h e d i s s e c t i o n a n d a n a l y s i s o f t h e p a r t s o f a b u t t e r f l y . There i t l i e s i n the l a b o r a t o r y ; i t s d e l i c a t e w i n g s d e t a c h e d , i t s once q u i v e r i n g antennae s t i l l , i t s v i t a l organs exposed, e x p l a i n e d — and dead. How r e a n i m a t e t h e b u t t e r f l y , d u s t i t s wings a g a i n w i t h i r i d e s c e n t bloom, s e t i t f l u t t e r i n g a g a i n among t h e f l o w e r s , f l a s h i n g i n t h e s u n i t s b r i l l i a n t r e d and b l u e and gold? How a s s e m b l e t h e a r t s and s c i e n c e i n t o a b o l d and c o l o r f u l p i c t u r e o f t h e l i v i n g w o r l d ; how s e t I t g l o w i n g b e f o r e o u r students i n a l l i t s radiance t i l l they c r y out, " T h i s i s t h e l i f e we want a n d mean t o l i v e " ? 1  In  t h e d a y s o f w h i c h G r e e n e was s p e a k i n g , l e a r n i n g was  e n j o y e d by o n l y his  a few.  private library,  men o f h i s t i m e .  I t i s s a i d t h a t Bacon, having  knew a l l t h a t was known b y t h e l e a r n e d  Today n o t e v e n t h e most b r i l l i a n t  know a l l a v a i l a b l e k n o w l e d g e . scholars ledge  to other  mind can  T h e r e i s s o much t o l e a r n  have h a d t o s p e c i a l i z e , t o s t u d y one f i e l d  i n preference  mastered  fields.  This process  o f knowhas b e e n  refined  t o t h e p o i n t where a s p e c i a l i s t  defined  as one who knows more a n d more a b o u t l e s s a n d l e s s . Specialization  A pupil studies  "subjects,"  a s we c a l l  reading,  the f i e l d s  are subdivisions:  sition.  literature,  I t i s easy  of our  E n g l i s h , Drama, F r e n c h , a n d  geometry, a r i t h m e t i c , a l g e b r a , are  colloquially  i s r e f l e c t e d i n the s t r u c t u r e  curricula.  each s u b j e c t  has b e e n  that  o f knowledge.  Then  within  i n mathematics there a r e calculus; i n English  there  grammar, l a n g u a g e , s p e l l i n g ,  to forget  other  that  10  compo-  these s u b d i v i s i o n s a r e  11 related forget  t o mathematics and E n g l i s h . that  instance  subjects  i n "Social Studies,"  c e n t r a l viewpoint: civics,  are related.  this  sociology,  I t i s a l s o easy t o Some e f f o r t  i s made, f o r  t o connect the parts  "subject"  with  a  i s composed o f e c o n o m i c s ,  geography, and h i s t o r y taught w i t h i n the  framework o f h i s t o r y e x c e p t i n t h e geography c o u r s e s i n grades 9 and 1 2 . as  obtains  But within  inBritish  Columbia,  Teachers a r e not p l a i n l y "Biology  teachers,"  teachers,"  designated  divisions are strong.  as " t e a c h e r s "  b u t as  "Home E c o n o m i c s  such s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  large circulations  pondents," "Middle East political  specialized  i t s larger units.  have  "parliamentary  a  Newscorres-  correspondents," f i n a n c i a l e d i t o r s ,  columnists.  titles,  i s strongly  Medical  men have  prolific  and d e n t i s t r y i s f o l l o w i n g with  surgeons, o r t h o d o n t i s t s , d e n t a l mechanics, d e n t a l dental  such  and so f o r t h .  by s o c i e t y , p a r t i c u l a r l y  papers with  and  subject  "Spanish teachers,"  Outside schools, enforced  the system o f s p e c i a l t i e s  hygienists, dental r e c e p t i o n i s t s — a l l  d e n t i s t u s e d t o do b u t d o i n g  dental nurses,  doing  e a c h s e c t i o n o f work  more k n o w l e d g e a n d b e t t e r e q u i p m e n t .  t h e work with  I have h e a r d a n  economist r e f e r r e d t o as a "Keynesian economist"  ( a s i f he  were n e v e r e x p e c t e d t o change h i s p o i n t o f v i e w ) a n d I have enjoyed Flanders  a n d Swan's j o k e  about the s p e c i a l i s t  trend  i n b u r e a u c r a c y when t h e y r e f e r t o " t h e c h i e f a s s i s t a n t t o the  a s s i s t a n t c h i e f " i n t h e s o n g "The R e l u c t a n t  Cannibal."  12 There a r e sound economic and for  this  specialization  What I am on  our  interested  s c h o o l s and  specialization The  i n i s the e f f e c t  have on  than  the  "life  of t h i s  they w i l l field,  Nowhere i s t h i s  t o t h e enormous e x p a n s i o n  specialization  What i n f l u e n c e does lead"?  the l e s s  he'll  t r u i s m more  i n t h e chasm b e t w e e n s c i e n c e a n d  mainly As  students.  knows o f one  about o t h e r f i e l d s .  reasons  w h i c h I do n o t p r o p o s e t o d i s c u s s .  on o u r  more one  Intellectual  obvious  the humanities  of s c i e n t i f i c  and  a whole v o c a b u l a r y and  exclusive.  T h o s e who  bond o f h i g h  knowledge.  interest  speak the  way  o f t h i n k i n g becomes  l a n g u a g e have a  to themselves.  A man  who  common can  c o m f o r t a b l y w i t h h i s c o l l e a g u e s about the n e g a t i v e toward heat else  i f he  o f t h e amoeba w i l l i s w i t h a man  who  G r e a t e r Germans* r e j e c t i o n deep i n t e r e s t  n e i t h e r can  f i n d a common t o p i c fields,  talking  talk  Reich.  t o the o t h e r , and they  learn  with  chat troplsm  something  a t work i s c o n c e r n e d  of Bismarck*s  or unless  about About  each o t h e r but w i t h  the their  unless  they  about each o t h e r s * unlikely  e x t e n s i o n o f knowledge, they w i l l n o t  are acquainted with this  have t o c h a t a b o u t  an a c h i e v e m e n t b e c o m i n g more and more  because o f the  by  due  s c i e n c e becomes more c o m p l e x , so does t h e l a n g u a g e i t  speaks,  who  know  be  their respective colleagues  t h e i r work.  The  chasm i s w i d e n e d  Isolation. A schism  o r d i n a r y man,  exists,  and  t o o , between the s c i e n t i s t  the r e s u l t i n g  s u s p i c i o n c a n be  and  seen  the in  13 the r e v i v a l  o f t h e myth o f t h e  monstrosities things;  the  health.  and  world  i s p l a c e d on  Add  to t h i s  "So  the m a j o r i t y o f the  w o u l d have h a d , "  Specialization science. general  has  says  had  a splintering  i t as  S i r C. P.  produced  of  biochemical  linguistic  of barrier  difficult  of modem p h y s i c s  into  i n the their  Snow.  ignorance  Emphasis o n t h e p a r t i c u l a r has  shoulders  from s c i e n c e  c l e v e r e s t people  have a b o u t a s much i n s i g h t  ancestors  the  i s e v e n more  the g r e a t e d i f i c e  of  a l l i t s superstitious  s u s p i c i o n the  of science  concocting  the n a t u r e  P e a r o f t h e power o f n u c l e a r a n d  i n t e l l i g e n t use  to accomplish. up,  symbolism,  outweighs g r a t i t u d e f o r the g i f t s  e a s e and and  and  scientist.  warfare  villain  i n his private tinkerings with  the mantle o f the a l c h e m i s t w i t h  connotations the  scientific  goes  western  neolithic  2  even w i t h i n  r a t h e r than  the  effect:  The p r a c t i c a l s c i e n t i s t knows l i t t l e s c i e n c e o u t s i d e h i s s p e c i a l i t y ; and t h e r e i s no r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e he i s more i n t e r e s t e d i n s c i e n t i f i c p h i l o s o p h y than the n e o - s c i e n t l s t . N e i t h e r can t h e m a j o r i t y o f p u r e s c i e n t i s t s comprehend e a c h o t h e r s s p e c i a l i t i e s , and i t may be s u s p e c t e d t h a t o n l y a few know t h e i r way a b o u t t h e w h o l e o f ' t h e g r e a t e d i f i c e o f modern p h y s i c s ' . 3  The  level  o f u n i t y i s t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l l e v e l and,  t o P i n i o n , t h a t u n i t y does n o t This piteous from s p e c i a l i z a t i o n  reach  a l l scientists.  d e f i c i e n c y of understanding i n response  according  to the  stemming  incredible  growth  o f k n o w l e d g e l e a v e s us  i n possession  of fragmented l e a r n i n g  Education i s often divided into parts which c o r r e s p o n d to the supposed p a r t s of human n a t u r e — i n t o e d u c a t i o n o f t h e m i n d a n d e d u c a t i o n o f the body, o r i n t o e d u c a t i o n o f the i n t e l l e c t and e d u c a t i o n o f the emotions and w i l l . These a b s t r a c t i o n s a r e p r o f e s s e d l y r e j e c t e d i n modern t i m e s owing to the d e c l i n e of p s y c h o p h y s i c a l dualism and f a c u l t a t i v e p s y c h o l o g y ; and the a n c i e n t G r e e k s a r e p r a i s e d f o r h a v i n g a v o i d e d them. B u t i n p r a c t i c e , by o m i s s i o n i f n o t b y comm i s s i o n , these d i v i s i o n s stubbornly p e r s i s t , a n d f a l s i f y t h e u n d e n i a b l e f a c t t h a t human n a t u r e i s p h y s i c a l , e m o t i o n a l , and v o l i t i o n a l as w e l l a s i n t e l l e c t u a l .  Philosophic  dualism,  viewed  the w o r l d  soul.  Despite  psychology  still  rather  as mind and  t h e new  and  synthesizing  knowledge i n p h i l o s o p h y the  and  relationships man  t r e a t e d a c c o r d i n g to h i s p a r t s  f o r t h e s a k e o f t h e whole man. t e n d t o work i n c l i n i c s ,  t h e i r k n o w l e d g e f o r t h e more c o m p l e t e patients.  Urban designers  individual  zones b u t  complete c i t y .  social  and  o f knowledge a r e d e f y i n g t h i s view  are s p e c i a l i s t s  spiritually  a s body  Ages,  h i s whole.  Some f i e l d s  who  man  t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g p r i n c i p l e s , modern  analyzed  than  i n the Middle  matter,  that synthesizes, seeing  o f p a r t s and is  t h a t blossomed  The  for their church  ecumenical  i s s u e s and  Medical  not  of  their  so much f o r  inter-relationship  i s becoming s o c i a l l y  a f t e r long years  men  pooling  treatment  are concerned  and  in a  active  of i s o l a t i o n  s e p a r a t i o n among i t s d e n o m i n a t i o n s .  and  from  15 While correlation partition  t h e r e a r e movements I n e d u c a t i o n of s u b j e c t s , there  i s much e v i d e n c e  of subject matter i s s t i l l  The  Discipline  and  towards  Discovery  that  widespread. report  states:  The h i g h s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m a l l t o o r e a d i l y a c c u s t o m s s t u d e n t s t o ^ t h i n k o f knowledge as s o many d i s c r e t e c o m p a r t m e n t s . General education s h o u l d d i s p e l t h i s n o t i o n , n o t r e i n f o r c e i t , and s h o u l d p r e s e n t a p i c t u r e o f the p a r t s f i t t e d t o g e t h e r and I n t e r a c t i n g t o f o r m t h e u n i t y o f knowledge.*  The  N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers  of E n g l i s h a s s e r t s :  U n d e r t h e e l e c t i v e s y s t e m , s t u d e n t s go t h r o u g h s c h o o l w i t h t h e most s c a t t e r e d and l o p s i d e d v i e w s o f l i f e , and e v e n when e l e c t i o n s a r e r e d u c e d t o a minimum and a s e t p r o g r a m o f s t u d i e s r e q u i r e d , f a i l u r e to c o r r e l a t e the v a r i o u s s u b j e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n l e a v e s t h e s t u d e n t unaware o f t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n as r e l a t e d p a r t s i n t h e scheme o f l i f e .  Two of  their  taught limited  articulate  education  how  as  s c h o l a r s have d e s c r i b e d t h e they  feel  them.  Charles  to s y n t h e s i z e h i s data, but  to h i s s p e c i a l i z e d  education  this  effects  Darwin  was  correlation  i n science  In t h e s e  My m i n d seems t o have become a k i n d o f m a c h i n e f o r g r i n d i n g g e n e r a l laws o u t o f a l a r g e c o l l e c t i o n o f f a c t s , b u t why t h i s s h o u l d have c a u s e d t h e a t r o p h y o f t h a t p a r t o f t h e b r a i n a l o n e , on w h i c h the h i g h e r t a s t e s depend, I cannot c o n c e i v e . A man w i t h a mind more h i g h l y o r g a n i z e d o r b e t t e r c o n s t i t u t e d t h a n m i n e , w o u l d n o t I s u p p o s e have t h u s s u f f e r e d ; a n d i f I had t o l i v e my l i f e a g a i n I w o u l d have made a r u l e t o r e a d some p o e t r y and l i s t e n t o some m u s i c a t l e a s t once a week; f o r  was words:  16 p e r h a p s t h e p a r t s o f my b r a i n now a t r o p h i e d c o u l d t h u s have b e e n k e p t a c t i v e t h r o u g h u s e . The l o s s o f t h e s e t a s t e s I s a l o s s o f h a p p i n e s s , a n d may p o s s i b l y be i n j u r i o u s t o t h e i n t e l l e c t , and more p r o b a b l y t o t h e m o r a l c h a r a c t e r , by e n f e e b l i n g t h e emotional p a r t o f our n a t u r e . '  His  experience i s c o n t r a r y to that  o f John  e d u c a t i o n r e c o g n i z e d the interdependence  Stuart M i l l ,  o f human  whose  achievements.  What made W o r d s w o r t h ' s poems a m e d i c i n e f o r my s t a t e o f m i n d was t h a t t h e y e x p r e s s e d n o t mere outward b e a u t y , b u t s t a t e s o f f e e l i n g , and o f t h o u g h t c o l o u r e d by f e e l i n g , u n d e r t h e e x c i t e m e n t of beauty. T h e y seemed t o be t h e v e r y c u l t u r e o f t h e f e e l i n g s w h i c h I was i n q u e s t o f . I n them I seemed t o draw f r o m a s o u r c e o f u n i v e r s a l j o y , o f s y m p a t h e t i c a n d i m a g i n a t i v e p l e a s u r e , w h i c h c o u l d be s h a r e d I n b y a l l human b e i n g s . . . . P r o m them I seemed t o l e a r n what w o u l d be t h e p e r e n n i a l s o u r c e s o f h a p p i n e s s when a l l t h e g r e a t e r e v i l s o f l i f e s h a l l have b e e n r e m o v e d . . . . The d e l i g h t w h i c h t h e s e poems gave me p r o v e d t h a t w i t h c u l t u r e o f t h i s s o r t t h e r e was n o t h i n g t o d r e a d f r o m t h e most c o n f i r m e d h a b i t o f a n a l y s i s . "  I  prefer  of  Mill:  to t r y to reproduce his public  s u p p o r t e d by another  field  his private pursuit, of interest,  Darwin, s e n s i t i v e  quacy, and  and  h i s uncompleted  t o "the l i f e  show t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p s o t h e r and  lives  experience  economist  h i s emotional growth.  t h a t many f i e l d s  him  applies  inade-  For p u p i l s  to  o f knowledge a r e  l e a d , " t h e i r e d u c a t i o n must  o f the f i e l d s lives.  is his l i f e  is  reading links  None o f t h e s e s t a t e m e n t s  and p a r t i a l  own  the  enjoys h i s excursion i n t o  his solitary  they w i l l  to the p u p i l s *  s e c t i o n s and n e i t h e r  he  to his l o n e l i n e s s ,  become aware as M i l l was pertinent  pupils*  c a r e e r as p h i l o s o p h e r and  w i t h h i s f e l l o w human b e i n g s . to  i n my  o f knowledge t o Man  each  i s not a creature of  i n compartments.  17 In England,  F. B. P i n i o n advocates  t h a t weakens s u b j e c t b a r r i e r s .  a sixth  form  course  His aim I s :  To e n s u r e t h a t a n y s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s n o t d i v o r c e d from an adequate g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n which w i l l widen i n t e l l e c t u a l horizons and enable the a d o l e s c e n t s t u d e n t t o s e e h i s p l a c e c l e a r l y I n t h e modern w o r l d , judge i t s d i r e c t i o n and v a l u e s s e n s i b l y , and c u l t i v a t e h i s t a l e n t s , i n t e r e s t s , and p e r s o n a l i t y to the optimum.° He d e s c r i b e s t h e c o u r s e  as f o l l o w s :  I t i s proposed t h a t they s h o u l d take three r e l a t e d s u b j e c t s . . . . F o r example, t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f m u s i c , p a i n t i n g a n d a r o h i t e o t u r e , a n d l i t e r a t u r e , shows common c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e ' s p i r i t o f t h e a g e ' ; l i t e r a t u r e c a n o b v i o u s l y be l i n k e d w i t h h i s t o r y , h i s t o r y w i t h geography, and s o on.... *' 1  Such a course  recognizes  the danger o f s p l i n t e r e d I n t e r e s t  resulting  from fragmented l e a r n i n g , and o f d i s t r u s t and  suspicion  t h a t grow f r o m i n t e l l e c t u a l  it  isolation.  assumes t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t e a c h e r s who  j e c t gap e i t h e r or through  through  k n o w l e d g e o f more t h a n  a n d t o become  interested  I do n o t t h i n k i t i s i m p o s s i b l e e i t h e r such  teachers—indeed  the p r e s e n t  can b r i d g e  in their to find  the sub-  one s u b j e c t  unprejudiced w i l l i n g n e s s to co-operate  specialists,  Practically,  with  other  subjects. or to t r a i n  t h e y may be i n g r e a t e r numbers  than  system r e v e a l s , o r encourages.  There a r e other p r a c t i c a l o f an i n t e r d e p e n d e n t c o n t r i b u t o r y concepts  curriculum:  hindrances textbooks  t o the p r a c t i c e that  ignore  from o t h e r s u b j e c t s , a p r e s c r i b e d  18 curriculum  emphasizing  o f t e a c h e r s and  specialization,  department heads.  o f a l a c k o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g and ness  o f o n l y a few  unfulfilled  Nevertheless  t o be  s e e n now.  l e s s e n these e f f e c t s .  part  the  and  t e x t o f h i s work b y  by r e a l i z a t i o n  the s c i e n t i s t .  awareof  an  A general  and  t h e layman  t h e a i m s a n d methods o f s c i e n c e on  o f the layman, and  hazards  F o r example, i t c a n  i n c r e a s e r a p p o r t between the s c i e n t i s t f a m i l i a r i t y with  interests  communication, o f an  o f t h e components o f l i v i n g ,  enjoyment, a r e  e d u c a t i o n can  the v e s t e d  the  o f the l a r g e r  The  i s n e e d e d among a l l s e c t i o n s o f s o c i e t y .  same s o r t General  by  con-  of rapport education  can promote t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g p a r t l y by p r e s e n t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s between d i s c i p l i n e s ; will  be  Studies.  i t i s t h i s method  d e s c r i b e d l a t e r w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o E n g l i s h and  that Social  CHAPTER  IV  THE INFLUENCE OF THE NEW C R I T I C I S M  I n t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y , when t h e c r i t i c a l i n t e l l i g e n c e i s d i s p o s e d t o f e e d upon i t s e l f a n d t o become d e s p e r a t e l y more s e l f - c o n s c i o u s r a t h e r t h a n more p e n e t r a t i n g o r more s u b t l e , the tendency i s t o r e j e c t simple v a l u e s and t o s e t up c o m p l e x o r c o n t o r t e d o n e s . 1  Closely or  Practical  related  Criticism.  contrasts with by  to fragmentation  B a s e d on a n a l y s i s  the Old or H i s t o r i c a l  e m p h a s i s on l o c a t i o n Believing  i s the r i s e  o f t h e New  o f the text, i t  Criticism characterized  o f t h e work i n t i m e a n d p l a c e .  t h a t "events  i n one a r e a o f human  experience  have a way o f g r o w i n g o u t o f c o n d i t i o n s i n o t h e r a r e a s , " historical in  relation  literary of  critic  s t u d i e s a work o f l i t e r a t u r e  to the author*s  tradition  historical  life  the  particularly  and s o c i e t y , and t o the  t o w h i c h h i s work i s r e l a t e d .  criticism  2  is visible  The i n f l u e n c e  i n t h e use o f a n t h o l o g i e s ,  b i o g r a p h i e s , and manuals as t e x t s , and i n the d e s i g n o f s u r v e y and is  period courses.  o f the h i s t o r i c a l  t h a t a l i t e r a r y work i s a " p r o d u c t  tive  experience  experience, nlficance is  The a s s u m p t i o n  of the e n t i r e  critic  imagina-  o f i t s c r e a t o r " ^ and t h a t to understand  this  one must s e e i t s i n d i v i d u a l a n d c o l l e c t i v e s l g -  i n the "context  of total  culture."  Culture  o r g a n i c , hence c y c l i c a l a n d d y n a m i c , a n d t h e s e  qualities  a r e shown i n t h e l i t e r a r y  s y m b o l s o f t h e a g e s o f man:  whale, the r i v e r  the t r e e ,  of l i f e ,  hood a n d t h e wisdom o f e x p e r i e n c e . ^  19  the innocence  itself  the  of child-  20 Culture is  static  learning this  and  to the p r a c t i c a l mechanistic.  to l i v e  philosophy  gate,  within  closed  Man  fixed  s y s t e m by  and  are  chess.°"  b e c o m i n g "an  i s not  In the  schools,  published reflects  training  In s e p a r a t e the  S u p p o s e one Urn."  historical be  taught  school  critic  w h i c h had  been  taught  would say  w o u l d be  education,  i t s techniques  of p r a c t i c a l  Keats* his role  the w i s t f u l plastic  tone a t  arts,  sympathetic  the  poem as  What t h e taken d i r e c t l y  and  practical f r o m the  p i c t u r e groups;  the  texts,  anthologies,  criticism. 1  "Ode  on a  Grecian  t h a t the  to  ill-health, as  Important p o i n t s his c l a s s i c a l  private  a Romantic p o e t , h i s views Wordsworth, h i s These  "chamber  of  particulars  w i s h e s t o draw a t t e n t i o n t o :  an  the a p p r e c i a t i o n o f imaginative  o f the  the  in  o f the  The  end,  understanding  from a c t u a l l i f e ,  the  the  of  on i t s  rhetoric.  reading  Keats  M a i d e n - T h o u g h t " In h i s v i e w o f l i f e . teacher  of  this  from each p o i n t o f view?  i n f l u e n c e d by  r e i n f o r c e what t h e  is  and  concentrating  in critical  hand,  shut  reflects  act of analyzing  were t o t e a c h  What w o u l d be  other  the wheel, the  works I n s t e a d  Influence  the  Images d e p i c t i n g  Criticism  e v a l u a t i n g a work o f l i t e r a t u r e " ? l a n g u a g e o f s y m b o l i s m and  on  e v o l v i n g , he  limits.  In l i t e r a t u r e  the b r i d g e ,  critic,  the  experience,  separation  of  the  Ideal beauty  d e l i g h t i n t h e b e a u t y o f the critic  text: first  recommends t o be  the v i s u a l conclusion  urn.  taught  recognition of that  ideal art,  is  21 because  o f i t s unchanging  the second rest  perfection,  of l i f e ;  the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n  metaphors, the d i c t i o n , they f u l f i l ;  the poet's  points  crossed. is  that  from  the i r r e g u l a r  o f the poet and h i s l o v e o f the  i s no v i e w  past, present, or future.  tends  the world  fragmentation  to i s o l a t e  i n which  critic  t h e poem  i t s author  o f t h e poem a s p a r t  of a  literary  A n a l y s i s must be f o l l o w e d b y  G r a t e f u l a s I am f o r b e i n g b r o u g h t  t e x t by the p r a c t i c a l historical  and i s f r e q u e n t l y  The c o n n e c t i o n w i t h  t h e e m p h a s i s on a n a l y s i s  synthesis.  of eternity  t h e f r o n t i e r b e t w e e n t h e s e two  i s n o t s t r o n g l y guarded  But i t remains.  There  l i n e s and the purposes  mind.  i t s a u t h o r and from  lived.  o f beauty and  t h e c h a n g e s o f mood; t h e p r e s e n c e  actual practice  o f view  of the u n i t y  He w o u l d have s t u d e n t s n o t e t h e  the c u r i o s i t y  imagined world;  In  to nature;  c o n c l u s i o n o f s e p a r a t i o n o f i d e a l a r t from the  t r u t h and i t s ambiguity.  in  i s superior  critic,  into the  I am g r a t e f u l a l s o  who s a y s , " . . . t h e d i m e n s i o n  to the  o f the past  8 is  an e s s e n t i a l p a r t  practical  criticism  is increased.  o f the l i v i n g outweighs  present...."  the h i s t o r i c a l ,  When t h e  fragmentation  CHAPTER HISTORY AND  V  LITERATURE  .•.A g r e a t work o f l i t e r a t u r e I s a l s o a p l a c e I n w h i c h t h e w h o l e c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y o f the n a t i o n t h a t p r o d u c e d I t comes i n t o f o c u s . I've m e n t i o n e d Robinson Crusoe: you c a n g e t f r o m t h a t b o o k a k i n d of detached v i s i o n of the B r i t i s h Empire, i m p o s i n g i t s own p a t t e r n w h e r e v e r i t g o e s , c a t c h i n g i t s man F r i d a y and t r y i n g t o t u r n him i n t o a n e i g h t e e n t h century Nonconformist, never dreaming of •going n a t i v e , t h a t h i s t o r y a l o n e would h a r d l y g i v e . 1  No the  two  nizes tell  m a t t e r how  disciplines  of l i t e r a t u r e  wishes and  what a c t u a l l y h a p p e n e d , w h i l e t o h a p p e n i n g s and  shows the  typical,  w h i c h men  react  emotions of character In h i s  the  type of  Individually.  i s , are  d e t e r m i n e d by  f a c t s as  of h i s t o r i c a l  he  the  believes  is a  r e a d e r ' s knowledge.  History purports  literature  Instructive rather  conditions.  m a t t e r how  that  literary  Thus h i s t o r y  of  w r i t i n g as  the  "typical**  a  individual  character.  a r t i s t may  distort  o n l y by  the  expects h i s r e a d e r to f a c t s ; he  this  extent  have.  must  a r e s u l t may  than i n s p i r i n g , but  22  to  expresses  t r u t h f u l account regardless His  recog-  Literature pictures  h i s t o r i a n i s always conscious  what he  together  h i s t o r y , one  wishes, confined  knowledge he  to b r i n g  f o r c e , event, s i t u a t i o n to  i n d i v i d u a l s w h i c h , no  imaginary world,  historical  and  one  certain essential differences.  men^s r e a c t i o n s  The  earnestly  of be  tell his dull  dullness  23 does n o t a  d e t r a c t from i t s worth unless  "popular"  finement,  historian.  Por  example,  the r i g i d  h i s t o r i a n may  give  drab e x i s t e n c e ;  stability  the  he  of  impression  i s g i v i n g the  portray medieval l i f e  by  searching  a b o v e and I f he  o f C h a u c e r , he  has  can  medieval context  show t h a t t h e  the  Ages, h i s a l l e g o r i e s ful  dreams t h a t a d d  the  reader  Where t h e  is  not  can  bound t o g i v e a  confine  himself  reason,' step,  1  o r the the and  or  age  fair  i n any  t h e n o v e l i s t may  circumstance."^"  humour the  i n the  and  the  Middle fanci-  life.  literary  by  s k e p t i c a l and synthetic.  s e l e c t i o n and  artist  analytical, The  t o say  g i v e h i s own  of  "He  view."3  historian  must  have b e e n h i s  what l e d him explanation  figure,  historical  emphasis.  "where t h e  ' T h i s o r t h i s may  t o h i s own  the  himself.  and  i n a c t i o n of a h i s t o r i c a l  story according  the  just  context.  statement of a l l p o i n t s  * I t i s impossible  a  p i c t u r e d by  human b e i n g s  h i s t o r i c a l person,  to saying  was  exciting  t o l e r a n c e , and  i s t o evoke e m o t i o n s ,  r e - c r e a t e an  the  poet can,  the a b s t r a c t v a l u e s  imaginative  con-  human b e h a v i o u r w i t h i n  h i s t o r i a n must be  I n r e - c r e a t i n g an  life  be  closed  c o l o r f u l and  typical  I d e a l s o f the enact  to  system,  The  i n v a r i a t i o n as  to recognize  t h e w r i t e r must be novelist  rich  social  the  another dimension to medieval  Because h i s purpose invites  as  the p e r c e p t i o n ,  i s as  express  the  life,  typical.  honestly,  historian.  s e t out  that medieval l i f e  as  below the  has  i n r e c o r d i n g the  the widespread m i s e r y o f d a i l y  philosophy,  S h o u l d he  he  filling  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  to take o f the  this  actions  t h e gaps l n character  zk What, t h e n , l i n k s t h e h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s t historian?  What c o n t r o l s must he  historical writer? n o t be  license.  reader, suffers  First,  the  have t o he a good  his l i b e r t y with facts  Credibility,  must  e s p e c i a l l y w i t h the mature  i f facts are outrageously inaccurate.  recommending h i s t o r i c a l  f i c t i o n to youthful readers,  watchful teacher inspects i t s factual accuracy. adjustments  to  to the h i s t o r i c a l  facts  essential  In the  Only  to the  those total  p i c t u r e of a p e r i o d or person a c c o r d i n g to the w r i t e r * s purpose  are acceptable.  Benvenuto C e l l i n i * s omit  For instance, i n a novel  c a r e e r , i t w o u l d be p e r m i s s i b l e t o  h i s o p i n i o n s o f M i c h e l a n g e l o * s works, but n o t  o m i t M i c h e l a n g e l o *s temperament and Renaissance  world  s i n c e the  l a t t e r much, t o t h e p o r t r a i t A w r i t e r concerned be  justified  as roads and  about  and  ignoring  with  former  o u t l o o k on  a d d s n o t h i n g , and  by  as  and  the d i s t r i c t  had no  Cellini.  he  improvements  i s describing  t h e b u i l d i n g o f r a i l w a y s i f t h e y were  outside the d i s t r i c t  the  i n Upper Canada w o u l d  i n r e c o u n t i n g such t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c a n a l s used  the  o f such a sycophant  farm l i f e  to  i n f l u e n c e on i t ,  built  even though  t h e i r c o n s t r u c t i o n t o o k p l a c e i n t h e p e r i o d o f w h i c h he i s writing.  Such m a n i p u l a t i o n o f f a c t s  p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the fundamental  strengthens  the  theme.  More m i s l e a d i n g t h a n e r r o r s o f f a c t a r e e r r o r s atmosphere. f a c t s and psychology  "The  details  w r i t e r may  of  take r e a l pains to get h i s  r i g h t , but then proceed  and modern a s s u m p t i o n s  into his  to i n j e c t  modern  characters...."5  25 C h e s t e r t o n has o b s e r v e d o f H e n t y ' s t a l e s , ' t h e same v e r y E n g l i s h and modern y o u n g g e n t l e m a n f r o m Rugby o r Harrow t u r n s up a g a i n and a g a i n a s a y o u n g G r e e k , a y o u n g C a r t h a g i n i a n , a young G a u l , a y o u n g V i s i g o t h , a young S c a n d i n a v i a n , a y o u n g A n c i e n t B r i t o n , and a l m o s t e v e r y t h i n g s h o r t o f a young N e g r o • • ° In the him  same way,  f o r Crusoe to urge F r i d a y  t o E n g l a n d by  British  subject  w o u l d be  t e r m i n o l o g y and Errors o f New  telling  that give  F r a n c e as  story  story  i s immediately cut  becomes u n b e l i e v a b l e errors  Infrequent.  I n d e e d , t h e y may  Catching the  a u t h o r out  blood  s a v a g e game o f  ture his  s t y l e and  or  a d o p t e d as by  i t s own  as  w h i c h do  a work b a s e d  not  a  lady's  divide  acceptable i f  have a p o s i t i v e first  w r i t e r may  be  Pepys  of the  contribution. taste  b o t h an  of  p r e c i s e l y as 1  Diary.  he  can.  artist  in  Pericles' funeral  a  situation,  Literature  S t r a c h e y ' s Eminent V i c t o r i a n s .  colleagues  litera-  f e e l i n g s , and  t r u t h of the  a u t h o r s were r e f l e c t i n g t h e i r t i m e s , b u t them a s  o f f from i t s  f a c t , such as  m i n o r and  say,  serious  d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n h i s t o r y and  event as  T h u c y d l d e s , and  reject  are  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h o u g h t s and  the  in  criticism."7  historian i n his presentation t h e man,  of  i n f a c t i s "the  disappears because the  a  history.  i n E n g l a n d i n 1810,  Sometimes t h e  r i g h t s " of  incongruous anachronism  from I t s s e t t i n g , a r e  i n the  "civil  with  a lasting misinterpretation,  Less serious  wearing a b u s t l e the  of the  a haven f o r f r e e - t h i n k e r s ,  s u p p o s e d s e t t i n g and history.  an  in political  e r r o r s because the  on  him  to r e t u r n  has  oration These  a h i s t o r i a n would  because t h e i r apparent i n t e r e s t i s  26 in  a personal expression of individual  Strachey  was s e a r c h i n g f o r " u n s u s p e c t e d  restatement  o f recorded  facts;  e x p e r i e n c e s and o p i n i o n s . truths, not f o r a  h i s a i m was e s t h e t i c , n o t  e t h i c a l . . . . H e was n o t a d e t a c h e d  historian."®  However, " p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n o f i n d i v i d u a l and  o p i n i o n s " i s n o t t h e o n l y c r i t e r i o n by w h i c h t o p l a c e a p i e c e  of writing  i n the l i t e r a r y  "You're a pore says K i p l i n g but  experiences  benighted  'eathen  but a f i r s t - c l a s s  i n "Fuzzy-Wuzzy," d r a w i n g f r o m  expressing the t y p i c a l  courageous a d v e r s a r i e s . tyranny  r a t h e r than the h i s t o r i c a l  fightin  H i s own  respect of soldiers  ever s i n c e .  "Nigger,"  Milton*s Areopagltica protested the free  S i m i l a r l y , B y r o n ' s l o v e o f d e m o c r a c y has  r e c o g n i t i o n o f human d i g n i t y .  today,  we a c c e p t  i t i n Huckleberry  a c c u r a t e l y records an a t t i t u d e  While  expresses  we do n o t s a y  F i n n because i t  common i n t h e p l a c e a n d t i m e o f  the  story.  but  thoughtful consideration reveals that h i s poetry t e l l s not  only  At f i r s t  man,"  i n a l l ages f o r  i n f l u e n c e d democrats s i n c e h i s time because h i s p o e t r y a widespread  1  experience  u n d e r w h i c h he s u f f e r e d , b u t i t has s u p p o r t e d  expression  category.  g l a n c e , W i l f r e d Owen i s a W o r l d War I p o e t ,  h i s own f e e l i n g s a b o u t h i s own e x p e r i e n c e s  could  reasonably  times  i n history;  second  criterion, To  express  b e t h e f e e l i n g s men have h a d a b o u t war a t many he e x p r e s s e s then,  the universal  i s the l e v e l  experience.  of their  times,  literature or the  human c o n d i t i o n , t h e y b e l o n g a l s o t o h i s t o r y .  distinction,  i f i t i s t o b e made a t a l l ,  a  o f " l i t e r a t u r e " and " h i s t o r y . "  definition  A  of interpretation.  the extent that w r i t e r s of imaginative  t h e common s o c i a l a t t i t u d e  recurring  i n war b u t what  The  must be a c c o m p a n i e d b y  CHAPTER V I METHODS OP  CORRELATION  H i s t o r y I s enmeshed i n t h e " e n t a n g l e m e n t o f c a u s e s a n d t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f human w i l l s . . . . To u n d e r s t a n d t h i s he /the h i s t o r i a n / may p r o f i t a b l y t u r n t o t h e n o v e l i s t who l e n d s h i s m i n d o u t t o show h i s f e l l o w s ' t h i n g s t h e y m i g h t have p a s s e d a h u n d r e d t i m e s n o r c a r e d t o see ."-*1  Using i s n o t a new elementary  the r e l a t i o n s h i p s practice.  teacher  b e t w e e n b r a n c h e s o f knowledge  Today i t i s f a v o r e d more b y  than by  the secondary  teacher.  t h i s p r e f e r e n c e o c c u r r e d because an  early  o f c o r r e l a t i o n , D o n a l d a D i c k i e , was  influential  tary schools. and  She  d e f i n e d i t as  called "the  h e r method t h e  them u s e  behaviour."2 than  i t as an  While  h e r a i m was  teachers  L e t us an elementary  see  she  interested  how  "enterprise theory"  T h i s method  Por  For  f a c t s about l o c a t i o n , p r o d u c t i v i t y ,  rather  would  importance  of B r i t i s h and  of  Columbia? t r a d e , he  t o a t l a s e s , a l m a n a c s , and  27  social  attracted  i n s t a n c e , how  teach the  i n d u s t r y to the p e o p l e  his pupils  to  In p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n .  i t works.  teacher t y p i c a l l y  social  c o r r e l a t e d academic s u b j e c t s  forest  send  i n elemen-  in intelligent  the  probably  champion  t o change b e h a v i o u r  to teach a c e n t r a l t o p i c .  elementary  Canadian  to her c l a s s with a view  experience  to teach r e l a t i o n s h i p s ,  in order  Perhaps  c o - o p e r a t i v e achievement of a  purpose that a teacher presents having  the  the  will  28 Canada Y e a r Book. terms such as skills  of  c h a r t s and  "percentage,"  of interpretation  "matter" study  The  o f the  of trees  used  o f d i s e a s e , a n i m a l s , and  indeed,  the  concept  is scientific  that of  fire  i n s o f a r as  on t h e c r o p ,  "crop."  studies classes.  felling,  ownership  The  and  with  social  interests  is essential  information too.  Will  usually  t e a c h e s most s u b j e c t s t o h i s own about  when he w i s h e s .  scientific effects  The  answering He  or s o c i a l — t h a t  on  i t be  teacher,  class,  can  To b a l a n c e and  final  who  doesn't  t e a c h i t w i t h the  forests,  to  taught i n  q u e s t i o n ; he  he p r e f e r s .  s o f a r t a u g h t o f men  selling,  elementary  this  can a l s o  seeding, nurturing,  and  or s o c i a l  have t o w o r r y  studies?  and  s c i e n c e and  from  transporting,, manufacturing,  in  t h e common g o o d .  i n both  process  the  "crop"  o f the c o n f l i c t i n g  science  it  The  i t i s concerned  I t w o u l d be m e n t i o n e d , t h e r e f o r e , social  will  and,  p r o v i d e n c e and p r e s e n t g a i n , government c o n t r o l  self-regulation, private  use  o f waste,  of theory, but a l s o  resolutions  The  the s c i e n c e c l a s s  the d i s p o s a l  i d e a o f a f o r e s t as a  i t expresses  class.  f o r lumber a n d p u l p , t h e p a r t s  i n manufacturing,  application  the  " r a t e , " demand  learned i n arithmetic  effects  p r e d i c t i o n and  therein,  "median," and  industry being trees,  the types  trees used  graphs  teach  emphasis— the  t o show t h e  29 reverse read and  i n f l u e n c e , the s h o r t  i n reading  period  story,  Illustrates  "Dour D a v i e ' s pioneer  t h e i r demands on human c h a r a c t e r .  story  i n a logging  community  teaches  o f t h e camp a n d i t s i n h a b i t a n t s .  Drive,"  logging  methods  The s e t t i n g o f t h e t h e customs a n d v a l u e s  Comparison o f the t e c h -  n i q u e s o f t h e n a n d now r e s u l t s l n d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e m e a n i n g of progress. as  fast  Has man p r o g r e s s e d  i n h i s human  as l n h i s t e c h n o l o g i c a l t a l e n t s ?  comparable?  How  each s e p a r a t e l y ?  c a n we measure them?  adroitly  What l £ " p r o g r e s s " ?  own l e v e l s other  leads  of understanding.  Here we have a  they n a t u r a l l y conclude  and  with  Impossible this  subject  seem d e s i r a b l e . problem, his  "How  students  "It's  Should roll  t h e s e be c o n -  around?  Or  the study o f the story?  should  By now l t  t o s e e t h e b a r r i e r s between  subjects,  o f f o r e s t r y , e v e n l e s s do t h e s e b a r r i e r s  I f the " p r o g r e s s i v e "  Important will  t o which the  Songs a n d p a i n t i n g s a r e  s i d e r e d when m u s i c a n d a r t p e r i o d s  almost  evaluate  t h e c h i l d r e n by d i s c u s s i o n a t t h e i r  ways o f d e s c r i b i n g a c u l t u r e .  is  A r e t h e s e two  Can we o n l y  r e l a t i o n s h i p between f a c t s and c o n c e p t s teacher  development  teacher  t o B. C. i s t h e f o r e s t  has s e t t h e industry?",  n o t a t t h e end o f t h e s t u d y r e p o r t  o u r main e x p o r t . "  W h a t e v e r t h e method, b y  studying  forestry  from the p o i n t s  students  l e a r n the importance o f f o r e s t r y t o people.  is  a concept with  as  w e l l as I n t e l l e c t u a l l y  only,  o f v i e w o f many d i s c i p l i n e s , t h e  which the students involved.  have become  Here  emotionally  30 Such t o t a l school. along  There,  Involvement  the weighty  the tracks  i s less  load  o f courses o f study  i n certain  impracticable.  i n one day w i l l  upon t o i n t e r e s t  the romantic poets,  cotyledons,  how t o f i n d  square  menu, a n d how t o b u d g e t  one  the student  that  influence graphs  time  root,  h i s money.  wasting  that a student  h i m s e l f In t h e F r e n c h  the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  o f mono-  how t o o r d e r f r o m a F r e n c h Pulled  i n s o many  direci n more t h a n  What o p p o r t u n i t y has he t o d e v e l o p a n  i s s p a r k e d d u r i n g h i s day?  In one day t o t e a c h him c o n n e c t e d the a t t i t u d e s  to consider  i s f o r t u n a t e t o become I n t e r e s t e d  o f these l e s s o n s .  interest  technique both  And so I t i s q u i t e p o s s i b l e  Revolution,  tions,  teachers to  s u b j e c t s , and c o n s e q u e n t l y  be c a l l e d  lugged  under t h e dark c l o u d o f  has f o r c e d  p r o b l e m - s o l v i n g and any connected and  In the secondary  of subject matter,  u l t i m a t e government e x a m i n a t i o n s , specialize  likely  Would  I t be i m p o s s i b l e  subject matters,  f o r Instance,  o f Wordsworth and Burns t o r e v o l u t i o n , t h e  o f s c i e n c e on t h e Age o f R e a s o n , t h e s t r u c t u r e o f  and s t a t i s t i c s  o f the c a s u a l t i e s  paragraph  from V o l t a i r e ,  That  o f day w o u l d have a f o c u s a n d t h e demands o f t h e  sort  disciplines  and the r i g h t s  o f the r e v o l u t i o n , a  w o u l d be s a t i s f i e d .  and d u t i e s  of a  A l o o k over the w a l l  what t h e y o u n g e r c l a s s e s a r e d o i n g u n d e r t e a c h e r s "who everything" reveals correlation  that  secondary s c h o o l .  the worthwhile  citizen?  t o see teach  and a p p l i c a b l e p r a c t i c e o f  could with perseverence  be a d a p t e d  to the  31 However t h i s v i e w i s n o t is  the  feeling  specialist.  that other  the  crossed  s e e n now.  subjects are  o f no  frontiers.  I will  That  impolitic  these  One  in  i f not  boundaries  reason  concern  I n d e e d , s u b j e c t s a r e so e n c l o s e d  kingdoms t h a t i t i s c o n s i d e r e d cross  being  the  intellectual i m p o l i t e to  may  be  show i n examples o f E n g l i s h and  to  profitably  Social  Studies  communication. Correlation students  through  expression Three lation  the  i n the  factors t o be  has  circle  joint  must be  this  enlarge  a reasonable  The  s e c o n d and  t e a c h e r and  facility  useful.  o f E n g l i s h and f o r any  third  liberal  arts;  and  and  time  asking a l o t .  so b r o a d l y  d e s c r i b e these  field,  a w i l l i n g n e s s to  be  But  i n degree of  the  the  techniques  difficulty  even  adaptability w i l l techniques  there  f o r the b e t t e r .  demands on  o f usage I t h i n k most t e a c h e r s  v i e w o f an E n g l i s h  in  their  find  them  from the p o i n t  teacher.  correlation  circumstances  library  of c o r r e -  move t h e p o i n t o f v i e w when  seem t o be  I shall  history."3  technique  factors are personal  differ  and  a c a d e m i c knowledge o f a g e n e r a l  s t a t e s o f knowledge and  Incidental  interpretation,  hope t h a t t h e change w i l l  may  of c o r r e l a t i o n  present  the  "a method o f m o v i n g  a well-stocked  t h e knowledge and  is  and  fields  effective:  Instance,  of f a c t ,  present  to c o n s u l t l t ; a broad ln  been d e f i n e d as  arise.  is largely I t may  be  u n p l a n n e d , o c c u r r i n g as  extra-curricular,  as  in a  of  32 public  speaking  c l u b where a poem s u c h  B l a c k B o y " c a n be r e a d b u l l e t i n board to a c l a s s topics  o f the Great  r e a d i n g Pepys* D i a r y .  Hhodesian.  "Pretend  In a l e t t e r  Mr. W i l s o n ' s t o p i c might  arrival  Caesar  ideals  o f Home;  acquaintance  Current  t o a Canadian  the study  friend,  o f To K i l l  with  the l o c a t i o n , Ocean.  o f London  provide  describe  a  Such a  Mockingbird.  o f the r e p u b l i c a n f o r an  shape, c o n s t i t u e n t l a n d ,  The E n g l i s h t e a c h e r makes  sure h i s p u p i l s  have t h i s b a c k g r o u n d .  history  literature;  in a variety  The  (or a white)  The K o n - T l k l E x p e d i t i o n c a l l s  of the South P a c i f i c  seen  events  you a r e a b l a c k  demands an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  through  Fire  i n S a l i s b u r y as y o u saw i t . "  supplement  Julius  "The L i t t l e  to support a plea f o r brotherhood.  may show p i c t u r e s  for writing;  as B l a k e ' s  He i s n o t t e a c h i n g  he i s t e a c h i n g g e n e r a l  of settings  and r e l a t i o n s h i p s  principles  by u s i n g h i s  knowledge and h i s r e s o u r c e s . Closer correlation,  "semi-integration," requires  c o - o p e r a t i o n between t e a c h e r s Social  Studies.  The l o o s e s t a r r a n g e m e n t  s t r u c t u r e where t h e c o u r s e s familiar role  subjects.  I n t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War i s t a u g h t  same t i m e  the h i s t o r i c a l  review,  find  The Snow G o o s e .  and p r e p a r e d  is a parallel  o f s t u d y a r e compared a n d become  to teachers o f both  t h e E n g l i s h t e a c h e r may  with  o f E n g l i s h and t e a c h e r s o f  When t h e B r i t i s h i n Social Studies  i t convenient  He w i l l  find  t o teach a t the  his pupils  b a c k g r o u n d w h i c h he w i l l to l i n k  the event  8,  acquainted  need o n l y t o  o f Dunkirk  with the  33 feelings If  the  class  o f the B r i t i s h  a t t h a t time  as  l e s s o n s were n o t  simultaneous  but  could s t i l l  history.  The  more v i v i d l y teacher  r e a l i z e d when t h e  Social Studies  inadequate teacher  grateful  Studies class novelists  such  he may  as E l i o t  the  class  or Dickens.  teacher  s i t u a t i o n r e l e v a n t t o "An  is  request  t e a c h i n g the  a l e s s o n on  teacher.  situation  teachings  Industrial  team t e a c h i n g .  Where  the  Revolution  same the  similar  H e r e , a t e a c h e r who  the  exchange.  Social  struggle described  i n England"  A more complex b u t  able  however, i s  teacher  At  Rhayader.  their  coincide.  could interpret Italian  an  recalling  i f the E n g l i s h t e a c h e r gave the  the S o c i a l S t u d i e s  English  staggered,  the r e l a t i o n s h i p by  t e n s i o n o f the r e a l  feels  m i g h t be  see  seen i n P h i l i p  by  time,  political f o r the  arrangement  knows a p e r i o d o f  h i s t o r y p a r t i c u l a r l y w e l l l e c t u r e s t o combined E n g l i s h classes, students  f o r e x a m p l e , on 1  understanding  A n i m a l Farm.  An  The  Team t e a c h i n g c a n be  in point.  careful  study  when he  The  says,  t o be  in Barbara  Victorian  used w i t h i n a s u b j e c t  o f Romantic l i t e r a t u r e  complexity  of this  of Its d i f f i c u l t i e s .  v i s u a l a i d s , and  satirized  t h e r e f o r m movement I n  p h i l o s o p h i c a l foundation  case  one  o f what i s b e i n g  to enlighten  E n g l i s h t e a c h e r l e c t u r e s on M a j o r  to classes studying England.  Communist p r i n c i p l e s  technique  is a  demands  Carlsen points  out  "Team t e a c h i n g , t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f programmed l e a r n i n g have b e e n  insignificant  too.  audio-  inclined  i n E n g l i s h b e c a u s e t h e q u e s t i o n o f what  A  3k they and  are being  used  to teach  many q u e s t i o n s . " * '  Even s h o u l d  1  arrived  a t , there are  trative  details  i s a l w a y s open t o g r a v e  f u r t h e r i s s u e s t o be  o f t i m e - t a b l i n g and  m u t u a l r e s p e c t o f t e a c h e r s and the  lecture duties f a i r l y  m e a n s ) , an in  course  agreeable sequence.  said  and  skeptical  reader  c o r r e l a t i o n and The  is Man  could apply  discipline  through  s e v e r a l media, t o use  i s fusion,  on a w i d e t o p i c gives the  s o l v e common p r o b l e m s , t o show t h e  are  one  subject to  the purposes of the  u s u a l l y c o n s i s t s of r e l a t e d S t u d i e s , Languages.  this  Man  and  type.  The  disciplines  S o c i e t y , Man  u n i t e d by ultimate  The  and  core  "complete grade  such  as  contriof  the  same theme  curriculum.  s u b j e c t s such  as E n g l i s h ,  p r o p o s e d programme f o r  operate  T h o u g h t , Man  t h e common f a c t o r , Man.-* form o f f u s i o n ,  to  illustrate  year A r t s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h  of  of Richard  t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g  To  first  Ordeal  for  teaching!  whole.  Social  l i k e a theory  t h i s warning both  S o c i e t y , i n which each t e a c h e r  another—these  share  conformity  or " c o r e c u r r i c u l u m . " Here t h e whole  b u t i o n o f h i s own  It  i n The  involved i n planning a course and  the  "fairly"  between f r e e d o m and  most c o m p l e t e i n t e g r a t i o n  integration,"  adminis-  t h e i r w i l l i n g n e s s to  Meredith  t o team  be  settled:  room a l l o t m e n t ,  "There i s n o t h i n g  t h e wise,"  on a i m s  ( a f t e r d e c i d i n g what  balance  binding the  unanimity  doubts  Columbia i s  i n three and  groups:  Expression,  Because i t i s the  transcending  subject  matter  Feverel  35 divisions,  the proposed  adoption  meet w i t h  s k e p t i c i s m from  they w i l l  "miss"  c o n f i d e n c e by more r e a d y hostility is  by  difficulties  argument a j e w e l by  the other see t h e of  s u b j e c t s which  inspire their  o t h e r u n i v e r s i t i e s , and  with  t e a c h e r s whose c u s t o m a r y c o u r s e c o n s t r u c t i o n  c o n s i d e r i n g any  of  believe that  c o n v e n t i o n a l a p p e a r a n c e and  acceptance  may  threatened. But  The  s t u d e n t s who  the t r a d i t i o n a l  their  from  of a core curriculum  balanced  u s a g e o r new  for correlation itself reflects  form  As  dimly without glory,  d e p t h s o f t h e world-gem n o t  through  by a d v a n t a g e s i n  o f an  i s simple.  f a c e t s t o show i t s f u l l  full  i t but  new  must be  each f a c e i l l u m i n a t e d  I n d e e d , t h e argument i s e a s i e r t o a c c e p t  o l d usage. one  facet  light  so our  students  through by  from  one  face  i t s fellows.  than  the  practice.  CHAPTER V I I THE PRESENT DEGREE OP CORRELATION BETWEEN ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES IN B R I T I S H COLUMBIA (1965-66) The parts  present  S o c i a l Studies  o f the world geographically,  British, ancient  an E n g l i s h  and a l l p e r i o d s  teacher  The  has t o c o r r e l a t e t h e  courses with  7 and E n g l i s h  the d i a r i e s o f explorers  In E n g l i s h  8, there  I n E n g l i s h 9» t h e r e  correlation.  the S o c i a l  10 t h e r e  I s no o b v i o u s  i s slight correlation  and the geography  i s considerable  a M o c k i n g b i r d . The D i a r y  studies.  opportunity  means o f n o v e l s a n d poems i l l u s t r a t i n g Kill  of  c o u r s e s o f t h e same g r a d e l e v e l a r e s l i g h t . In E n g l i s h  To  deal with a l l  h i s t o r y and contemporary world problems.  t e x t u a l matter o f the E n g l i s h Studies  1  F r e n c h , Canadian, American h i s t o r y as w e l l as  opportunities  in  courses  social  by  problems.  o f Anne F r a n k . The  C h r y s a l l d s . A n i m a l Farm, H i r o s h i m a . G a n d h i , a r e d i r e c t l y concerned w i t h s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l c o r r e l a t i o n was o b v i o u s  t o me  conditions.  i n English  No  11 t i t l e s  listed  i n A p p e n d i x B b u t i n E n g l i s h 40 some s l i g h t c o r r e l a t i o n is  possible  i n t h e s p e e c h e s on C a n a d i a n n a t i o n a l  No c o r r e l a t i o n c o u l d modern w r i t e r s of  I s e e i n E n g l i s h 4-1, b u t w i t h t h e  i n English  the matter s t u d i e d  spirit.  91 t h e r e  In H i s t o r y 36  Is considerable  91.  reflection  37 C o r r e l a t i o n w i t h courses o f a d i f f e r e n t grade is  possible.  be  used  E n g l i s h 7 o f f e r s some s e l e c t i o n s t h a t  i n teaching  of S o c i a l Studies  i n English  8 illustrate  i n E n g l i s h 9 demonstrate p a r t s  Social  7 course.  I conclude, made p o s s i b l e  therefore,  by  that  course.  modern w r i t e r s , p r e s e n t  in correlation.  some  of the  c o r r e l a t i o n w i l l be  l e s s by the p r e s c r i b e d  freedom o f the resource  8;  7; s e l e c t i o n s f r o m A e s o p a n d  about Socrates Studies  could  Canadian h i s t o r y i n S o c i a l Studies  Men a n d Gods a n d K o n - T l k l sections  level  texts  than by t h e  P a r t l y because they a r e  English  texts  offer l i t t l e a i d  CHAPTER V I I I CRITERIA FOR  BOOK SELECTION IN CORRELATION  L e t us have no p o s e o r a f f e c t a t i o n a b o u t I t . Reading B l a k e t o a c l a s s Is not g o i n g to t u r n boys I n t o s a i n t s . I n t h e o t h e r p a r t s o f o u r E n g l i s h c o u r s e we c a n be c e r t a i n o f a c c o m p l i s h i n g s o m e t h i n g ; In l i t e r a t u r e t h e r e i s m e r e l y a c h a n c e t h a t we s h a l l do s o m e t h i n g f o r somebody, and i n t h a t hope we p r o c e e d . 1  The  advantage  emotional dimension  of l i t e r a t u r e  to o t h e r s u b j e c t s i s the  i t adds t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r .  the e m o t i o n a l a b s o r p t i o n o f the r e a d e r i s i n the a s Ben his  Hur,  and  him  t o t h e s u b j e c t and  style  In which G e r a l d D u r r e l l  animals  however, o f s h o w i n g h i s d e l i g h t e d  I wish  to encourage  recommend D u r r e l l  rather  than the t e x t because  as w e l l as  an  and  teaches about  Should  i n f o r m , and  t  diction,  o f a b i o l o g y t e x t w i t h t h o s e o f My_ F a m i l y  the primary purpose, them.  Stars  fosters  i n i t . Compare t h e t e c h n i c a l v i e w p o i n t ,  Other Animals  for  dramatic,  o r In t h e e v o c a t i v e , as S a n d , Wind, and  enjoyment a t t r a c t s  interest  Whether  affection  study o f b i o l o g y I would  w o u l d draw t h e a t t e n t i o n  i t would of  attract  the  uninitiated. I n t h e same way first  service  that  literature  can s e r v e h i s t o r y .  the h i s t o r i c a l n o v e l i s t  i s t o g i v e t h e young a t a s t e , f o r h i s t o r y . "  F a c t s and  dates are not  38  "The  can r e n d e r  historian  l e s s o n s t o be  with  l e a r n e d but  the  2  Integral  39 parts  o f the  c a l novels  lives  "appeal  and  a d v e n t u r e s o f the  to the romantic  To The  first  factors but  the  c o l o r o f the  fabulous  I may  accept  i f his style  material.  as  of w r i t i n g .  a w r i t e r who  Cardboard  characters  o f t e n and  the book.  upward.  I use Por  in  the  sake o f  f o r the  h i s t o r i c a l mental s e t . reader  from  the  down t o c h i l d  of unimpeachable v i r t u e  of  fact,  s u c h as p r e s e n t i n g  a middle c l a s s  or  "right"  to a  "career" destroy  Such e r r o r s i n d i c t i o n  Robin  teenage miss  detach  the  the  h i s t o r i c a l p e r i o d i n which the book i s s e t .  i n Below the S a l t ,  the  t r a n s f e r s h o u l d be  Minor d e v i a t i o n s from h i s t o r i c a l accuracy  Russian  in his  John i n  i s transplanted into a previous  i n accordance with a  acceptable.  readers,  to l o s e confidence  I f a modern p e r s o n  committed  other  Then I l o o k f o r t h e m a t e r i a l l n  Gross d i s t o r t i o n  clamoring  criteria.  recommend t o c h i l d r e n f r o m  o r o f a t m o s p h e r e , s u c h as  1790  cannot.  several  Hood a s a l e a d e r o f t h e b a r o n s c o n f r o n t i n g K i n g 1215»  reader—  heroic,"3  the  other novels  talks  i s i n s i n c e r e I tend  s l a t e b l a c k v i c e I would not t h e age  exciting,  choose books f o r c o r r e l a t i o n i s the q u a l i t y  Histori-  s t r e a k i n a young  t o h i s t a s t e f o r the u n f a m i l i a r , the employing  characters.  S u c h an  Revolution  between i n d i v i d u a l  clearly as  as  stated.  l o n g as  they  are  j u s t i f i a b l e p o i n t of view,  are  i n s t a n c e w o u l d be a n o v e l  o f 1917  age,  set in  i n t e n d i n g t o show t h e  s e l f - e s t e e m and  the  conflict  a b j e c t s e r v i t u d e to  an  ZfO ideal  s t a t e , but  unity  of time,  that  they  t h e age  knew l i t t l e  from i t — t h e r e omission,  may  of the c h a r a c t e r s , the  be many s a t i s f a c t o r y  h i s t o r i c a l novel  students  i s not  as  m a t i o n on d a t e s , r e l a t i v e  After contents f o r my  reasonable  Technical aspects  balance  dialogue, are  ing.  sentences,  Por and  More d i f f i c u l t  infor-  widespread  o f w r i t i n g and  the  suitability  o f word c h o i c e ,  length  between t h e number o f p a r a g r a p h s  easily  reading a b i l i t i e s .  f o r the  inferences.  o f t h e book, I would t r y t o judge  students.  s e e n and the  to  related  slow r e a d e r  lively  to  students'  context  movement o f p l o t  clues,  are  encourag-  judge i s the g e n e r a l tone  where, i n  e x p l o i t a t i o n o f y o u t h f u l emotions  r a t h e r than  f o r development of mature f e e l i n g s , needs  examined.  advises with an  On  this  for sensation  " d o u b t f u l ' ' b o o k s two  criteria:  Is the  novel  I s t h e theme l i k e l y  comprehensible  to adolescents?  guidelines  but  there  adolescent  has  g r e a t e r p e r c e p t i o n than  the t y p i c a l  may  of compassion  Wall  to  point of d e l i c a t e d e c i s i o n Burton  e x c e l l e n t example o f f i c t i o n ?  Where The  of  t h e number g i v e n t o a c t i o n  particular,  be  far  be aware t h a t a  Influences of events,  e x p l a n a t i o n o r m e d i t a t i o n and  simple  reasons  lived  r e l i a b l e as a t e x t f o r  i n s p e c t i n g the q u a l i t y  of sentences,  and  should  The  likelihood  of t h a t happening of they  Neverthless  c o n d i t i o n s , and  of 1 9 0 5 .  o m i t t i n g the outbreaks  These a r e a c c e p t a b l e  i s always the p o s s i b i l i t y  strengthen  feelings  that  to  be  general one  adolescent. and  1*1  inspire admiration bewitch  f o r c o u r a g e i n one a d o l e s c e n t , i t may  others into veneration o f the force o f v i o l e n c e ,  or d r a i n t h e i r  spirits  of pity  and t o l e r a n c e .  Acute  e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e p u p i l ' s m a t u r i t y and o f t h e s o c i a l i n w h i c h he l i v e s  milieu  as w e l l as o f t h e d e f e n s i b l e a t t i t u d e s  d e s i r e d by t h e t e a c h e r s u p p o r t s  t h e c o u r a g e he n e e d s t o make  these decisions.-' The currence  British  chapter  The limitation  I n t h e sample l i s t i n  I have c h o s e n b o o k s p e r t a i n i n g  Columbia S o c i a l  Studies curriculum.  f o r i n s t a n c e , shed  i n ancient  o f con-  o f the h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g with the  studies of the students.  grade seven, course  consideration i s the d e s i r a b i l i t y  o f the matter  historical the next  third  light  to the present  The b o o k s f o r  on some a s p e c t s  of that  history.  observant  reader w i l l  probably n o t i c e the  i m p o s e d by t h i s p a t t e r n i n w h i c h some v e r y  good books a r e o m i t t e d because t h e y a r e t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r children  studying the h i s t o r i c a l  studies courses.  I note  British participation Social  S t u d i e s 10,  material l n their  particularly  the omission o f  i n g e n e r a l E u r o p e a n movements i n  and r e g r e t f u l l y  exclude  for this  n o v e l s l i k e R o s e M a c a u l a y s They Were D e f e a t e d 1  England. like  those  social  reason  o n 17th  century  S i m i l a r l y m a t u r e n o v e l s on a n c i e n t G r e e c e a n d Rome o f M i t c h i s o n c o u l d n o t be i n c l u d e d s i n c e t h a t  kz historical pattern  matter i s taught  i s t o show u s e  f o r ready  i n private  books a r e n o t  and  or  study,  and  books chosen p r i m a r i l y  the  situation  i n teaching l i t e r a r y  s u i t a b l e to the  The  intensive  f o r t h e i r appeal  i s expected  to  They a r e  reading or f o r for there-  i n t h e g r a d e whereas  from v e r y  o f theme and  reading  extensive reading f o r  principles.  t y p i c a l student  s t y l e , i n complexity  knowledge t h e r e a d e r  groups, i n t e n s i v e  the S o c i a l S t u d i e s c o u r s e s , but  e x t e n s i v e r e a d i n g books v a r y in  i n t o two  i n small groups.  c o r r e l a t i o n with  their value fore  purpose of  o f r e l a t e d books i n t h e p r e s e n t  books a r e d i v i d e d  worthy o f c l a s s time  their  The  adaptation.  The  perusal  i n grade seven.  easy  to very  difficult  i n t h e amount o f possess.  the  detailed  CHAPTER  IX  SAMPLE L I S T OF BOOKS FOR CORRELATION WITH PRESENT B R I T I S H COLUMBIA SOCIAL STUDIES COURSES Good s t o r i e s r e s p e c t t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e r e a d e r and a r e t r u e t o the s u b j e c t they d e a l w i t h . They a r e n o t romances and means o f e s c a p e . They g i v e h i s t o r y t h e i m p a c t o f immediacy, a n d t h e e x c i t e m e n t o f i t . They a r e e s p e c i a l l y u s e f u l i n a w a k e n i n g t h e young t o a s e n s e o f h i s p a s t , c a p i t a l i z i n g on t h e c h i l d ' s p l e a s u r e i n t h e use o f t h e I m a g i n a t i o n , a n d on h i s c u r i o s i t y . 1  Social  S t u d i e s 7:  The in  beginning of history,  the Middle E a s t , c l a s s i c a l  t h e age Intensive reading:  of  Extensive reading:  Knights  Baumann, H.,  The  World o f the  H o s f o r d , D.,  By_ H i s Own  diction  standing.  " p r o s e w h i c h has  modern c o l l o q u i a l i s m s " points  out.  This edition  Lotte Reiniger. about  as  R e d c a p Runs Away o f t h e a c t i o n s and  s o a r c h a i c as  the Faber has  t o impede  and  Faber  attractive  i n medieval  43  England.  1957  undernor  edition  Illustrations easy  the  historical  n e i t h e r archaisms  Rhoda Power's book i s an  a runaway b o y  Pharaohs  Might  them f l u e n t l y , w i t h  f l a v o r but without It is a  the  Hunters  stories  tells  and  Table  Caves o f  are romantic He  King Arthur  The  Power, R.,  of c h i v a l r y .  history,  o f t h e Round  Baumann, H., Great  ethics  history  chivalry.  Green, Roger L., his  Green's t a l e s  ancient  to read  I t c o u l d be  by Puffin used  in  grade  8 too.  reading  Baumann*s b o o k on  the Lascaux  t h a n h i s b o o k on t h e p h a r a o h s .  a good r e t e l l i n g S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8:  o f the Beowulf The  history  States.  easier  Might i s  story. France  the time o f the s e t t l e m e n t  Canada, t h e h i s t o r y  reference  Is  By_ H i s Own  o f E n g l a n d and  emphasizing of  caves  o f Canada w i t h  to the h i s t o r y The  geography  o f the U n i t e d  of these  countries  also. Intensive reading:  Averill, St.  E . H.,  Cartier Sails  Lawrence  Scott, S i r Walter, Extensive reading:  T r e e c e , H e n r y , The Pyle,  H.,  Baker, Gait, The  pictures  magnificent  i n Ivanhoe tournament  Men  N. B.,  Ivanhoe Last  o f the  S i r Walter Raleigh  Thomas, F i g h t e r  f o r Freedom  o f Norman-Saxon f r i c t i o n a n d scenes a r e s i g n i f i c a n t  Is v i v i d l y brought  I s a a c and R e b e c c a of  and  to  British European  l n the treatment  of  t h e i r responses  to p e r s e c u t i o n .  Britain  t h e e l e v e n t h c e n t u r y i n h e r p e c u l i a r c o n d i t i o n and  the hero.  logs but has  the  to l i f e  general relations with a minority Is  The  Is easy  Vikings  of Iron  h i s t o r y , w h i l e t h e o s t r a c i s m o f t h e Jews, a g e n e r a l condition,  the  Averill  text  t o r e a d and  good I l l u s t r a t i o n s .  her  i s made more memorable  Is l a r g e l y  In the Harper  Treece*s l i f e  from  the  edition  than  ships' of  195?  of H a r o l d Hardrada  has  45 a  poetic style  Falworth's plot to  and  a g a i n s t H e n r y IV.  speech of the  two  Pyle t e l l s  r u i n because of h i s l o y a l t y  i s u n d e r way  the  last  t h a t i s easy t o r e a d .  time but  The  dialect  Lord  I I while  latter  f o r freedom o f the p r e s s  a  i s close  is a little artificial.  books a r e b i o g r a p h i e s , t h e  h i s concern  to Richard  of  of Peter  during the  The  Zenger American  Revolution. 9«  Social Studies  World  Intensive reading:  Geography C o n r a d , J . , The Durrell,  G.,  Heyerdahl, Extensive  reading:  three authors  from t h e i r Students in  own  will  grade 8 ,  be  and  7 will  already  learned.  Mead, M.,  P e o p l e and  and  The  intensive reading  interest  Ark  of Plke*s Places  Epics of  Everest  section write  a u t h e n t i c a l l y and  in artifacts  Peak  credibly. studying  generated  Kon-Tikl  in Social  a l s o h e l p them l i n k Aku-Aku w i t h what t h e y D u r r e l l ' s book on a n i m a l  w r i t t e n w i t h m o d e s t y and  content  Pike  f a m i l i a r with Heyerdahl a f t e r the  Darkness  Aku-Aku  B.,  L.,  of  Overloaded  B a k e r , N.  experiences,  Studies  is  i n the  The  T.,  Wibberley, All  Heart  i n Social  humour.  With the  S t u d i e s 9 on w e a t h e r and  economic geography, i t i s l i k e l y  collecting heavy  have  in Africa  course  climate, physical  that A f r i c a n  animals  46 valuable  for their  studies.  own  sakes a r e n e g l e c t e d i n the  D u r r e l l * s book, i n a d d i t i o n  animals, w i l l  make more v i v i d  animals  live.  typical  of newly-independent  the i n f l u e n c e period of  While  t h e l a n d s c a p e s where  African these  C o n r a d ' s t h r e a t e n i n g mood i s h a r d l y  of landscape  the west c o a s t A f r i c a n geography.  objectivity  Africa,  h i s demonstration  on p e r s o n a l i t y  of Heyerdahl  peace and  during a  of  dark  accounts  as w e l l as  and  style  to economic  and  contrasts with  t h e whimsy o f D u r r e l l .  the  Margaret  f o r high school students, appealing  i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o - o p e r a t i o n i n moving b u t  s e n t i m e n t a l terms. attractive  scene  His dramatic  Mead's b o o k i s w r i t t e n  Is  to d e s c r i b i n g  i n h i s t o r y c o n t r i b u t e s to imaginative understanding  political  for  African  Baker,  a popular writer  to younger a d o l e s c e n t s .  o f E v e r e s t e x p e d i t i o n s between  not  f o r young p e o p l e ,  Wibberley's  1921  and  1953»  naming  t h e members o f t h e teams a n d  their roles,  their  A l l t h e s e b o o k s show p e o p l e  s k i l l s and  i n f l u e n c e d by to  these  team work.  their physical  and  book g i v e s  s u r r o u n d i n g s and  emphasizing  their  responses  influences.  S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10:  Medieval  Intensive reading:  t o Modern T i m e s  Bellamy,  Edward, L o o k i n g B a c k w a r d  L l e w e l l y n , E . , How Reade, C h a r l e s , The Hearth  G r e e n Was  My  C l o i s t e r and  Valley the  47 Extensive  reading:  Dickens,  C , A T a l e o f Two C i t i e s  Harnett,  C ,  Caxton's  Orbaan, A l b e r t ,  Challenge  With Banners  Flying  P r e s c o t t , H., The Man on a Donkey R e a d e ' s panorama n o v e l  o f the e a r l y  Renaissance  i n western  E u r o p e s h i f t s f r o m B u r g u n d y t o Rome t o H o l l a n d d e s c r i b i n g Renaissance  innovations a g a i n s t the o l d e r p a t t e r n s o f l i f e .  Based l a r g e l y parents,  the p l o t  read because but on  i s a well-developed  i t s b a c k g r o u n d demands l e s s  the e f f e c t s  exciting vision  Easier to  detailed  knowledge,  i s Llewellyn's  o f i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n on W e l s h  novel  miners.  o f 2000 A.D. f r o m t h e time  point  1887 i s i n t e r e s t i n g n o t o n l y f o r i t s uncanny a c c u r a c y i n  prophecy b u t f o r i t s i n t r i n s i c environment.  I t i s a useful  W o r l d , more o p t l m l s t i o Prescott's novel with  forerunner  and l e s s  i tt e l l s  the e f f e c t s  of a healthy  d e t a i l w i t h maps.  than  but the e a r l y  i s very  i s concerned  i n England.  mainly  For  o f the r e l i g i o u s  disputes  classes.  easy  a r e most c l o s e l y  c l a s s i c a l ones w i l l  from the S o c i a l S t u d i e s  n o v e l about p r i n t i n g  i t s successors.  from Carthage t o Waterloo i n  The l a t e r b a t t l e s  the course  moral  t o 1984 a n d B r a v e New  from d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l  Orbaan d e s c r i b e s seven b a t t l e s  impressions  cynical  o f the monasteries  the l i v e s o f f i v e persons  ted with  concept  of the sixteenth century  the d i s s o l u t i o n  mature r e a d e r s on  romance.  j u s t as a p p l i c a b l e t o c o r r e l a t i o n  Bellamy's of  on E r a s m u s ' s C o l l o q u i e s on t h e l i v e s o f h i s  7 course.  connecrecall  Harnett's  t o r e a d and c o u l d be  48 p r o f i t a b l y used f i n d Dickens*  i n g r a d e 8 as  comparison  o f many i s s u e s in  well.  The  o f London and  t h a t makes t h e  better  readers  will  Paris a  simplification  events  understandable  political  human t e r m s .  S o c i a l Studies  11:  Canada, her  geography, h i s t o r y ,  g o v e r n m e n t , c u l t u r e , and Intensive  reading:  Extensive  reading:  foreign relations  MacLennan, Hugh, Two Mowat, F a r l e y , The  economics,  Solitudes  Desperate  Hutchison, Bruce, Incredible I n n e s , Hammond, C a m p b e l l ' s Kllbourn,  William,  The  Canadian  Kingdom  Firebrand  L e a c o c k , S t e p h e n , Laugh w i t h London, J a c k , C a l l o f  People  the  Mowat, F a r l e y , O r d e a l by  Leacook  Wild Ice  MacLennan, Hugh, B a r o m e t e r R i s i n g MacLennan's l o v e and  Involves  French Canadian l o v e r s , but  religions, the  two  life  c u s t o m s , s p e e c h , and  main c h a r a c t e r s  that are  book t h a t could of  story  the  be  still  read  by  an  D e e r w i t h an  o f Canada's n o r t h e r n description explosion  of a family  i n 1917*  Set  the  Issues of  that Canadian  It is a beautifully written  above-average c l a s s .  tone  Canadian  families* traditions,  many o f  average c l a s s .  people.  the E n g l i s h  a t t i t u d e s t o C a n a d a , so  today.  t o an  angrier  only  their  represent  pressing  I would teach  not  I t follows  Mowat's book  the moving People  i n i t s demand f o r  Barometer R i s i n g  In H a l i f a x a t  the  recognition  Is a  time o f  dramatic  the  munitions  i n a more homogeneous community  than  k9 that  o f t h e Quebec p e o p l e  interaction groups  Is e a s i e r  to grasp  i n the o t h e r n o v e l .  Mowat f r o m  logs of A r c t i c  words o f t h e i r v o y a g e s . vivid  that  I count  tell  in their  t o be  missed  of wild  gentle  p r o b a b l y a p p e a l more t o a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s .  also  useful  who  will  men  were i n f l u e n t i a l .  oil  discoveries  The  l e a r n much o f t h e c r u c i a l  In the R o c k i e s  novel and  and  his  makes  Irony biographies  o f W i l l i a m Lyon Mackenzie  examples o f t h a t a r t f o r a b l e  Innes's  Leacock  surroundings  Leacock's  H u t c h i s o n and  is  s t u d e n t s o f mine.  h i s sympathy w i t h a n i m a l s  o f the h a r s h r e a l i t i e s  K i l b o u r n are  own  excitingly  London and by  two  by  o f the e a r l i e r a c c o u n t s  among w r i t e r s n o t to r e a d and  o f the  compiled  I t i s so a u t h e n t i c and  expect.  o f M a c k e n z i e K i n g by  that  I c e was  e x p l o r e r s who  popular with adolescent boys.  will  by  O r d e a l by  might  acceptance  the c h a r a c t e r s *  the i s o l a t i o n  one  London i s e a s y  than  Solitudes.  than  the a r c h a i c language  l e s s a hindrance  him  i n Two  times  i s an  the  students  i n which  exciting  intrigues  these  tale  of  f o r power  followed.  General Business  11:  E c o n o m i c G e o g r a p h y o f B.  C.  (A  c o u r s e , o f t e n t a u g h t by S o c i a l  Commercial Studies  teachers) Intensive reading:  Robins,  J . D.,  A P o c k e t f u l o f Canada  MacLennan, Hugh, S e v e n R i v e r s o f Canada Extensive  reading:  B e r t o n , P.,  Stampede f o r G o l d  H u t c h i s o n , B., J a c k s o n , A. Y.,  Canada—Tomorrow's  Giant  A P a i n t e r ' s Country  50 L e e , Norman, K l o n d i k e C a t t l e Morley,  Drive  A l a n , V a n c o u v e r , From M l l l t o w n  to Metropolis Mowat, F a r l e y , P e o p l e O l s o n , S.  F.,  The  Rivett-Carnac,  o f the  Lonely  C,  Deer  Land  Pursuit  In  the  Wilderness Both  the  time; in  intensive  r e a d i n g b o o k s c a n be  t h e y do n o t  r e q u i r e continuous  be  read  is  an a n t h o l o g y  anecdotes  The  and  students.  MacLennan b o o k t e l l s  book a r e  the l e a s t  know V a n c o u v e r .  will  The  The  calls  Robins  recounts  h i s adventures  book is  geology,  illustrative abler Lee's  well  Morley's  f o r B.  f o r sympathetic  L o n e l y L a n d , an a c c o u n t  may  e s s a y s , and  f o r r e s p o n s i b l e and  be in  t e x t s which  although  s h o u l d have an a p p e a l  to  of a b i l i t y  r i v e r s , with  a t r a v e l book o f t h e C h u r c h i l l R i v e r .  autobiography  There  the h i s t o r y ,  difficult  Mowat's a p p e a l  the n o r t h e r n Canadians  is  f e d by  time  K l o n d i k e f o r y o u n g e r r e a d e r s and  I s a l s o e a s y and  citizenship.  areas  and  from  c l a s s i c a l a l l u s i o n s w h i c h commend l t t o  Berton's  Illustrated  flexibility.  o f poems, s h o r t s t o r i e s  geography of seven  story  i n r e a d i n g so t h a t  i n part provide useful  illustrated.  who  study.  t h e s e S o c i a l S t u d i e s c l a s s e s a wide r a n g e  c o n c e n t r a t i n g as w e l l as  and  used  C.  students  help f o r  knowledgeable  o f modern  voyageurs,  Rivet-Carnac's  i n t h e R.C.M.P.  51 History  12:  Modern W o r l d H i s t o r y  Intensive reading:  F o r s t e r , E . M*, Steinbeck,  Extensive reading:  A Passage to I n d i a  J . , The  Graham, G.,  and  S.  G r a p e s o f Wrath C.  Holland,  Dear Enemies Miller,  A.,  The C r u c i b l e  MacLean, A l i s t a i r , Paton,  Alan, Cry,  Remarque, E . M., Western  S h u t e , N.,  styles for  but  acceptance  action  i n Steinbeck.  incline  Students'  The  d r a w i n g on  as  he  the  o f the book.  Indian s i t u a t i o n  seem a b i t h e a v y , w i t h  to  them.  literary the  and  key  will  F o r s t e r w o u l d be  more  i n c e r t a i n ways l t i s  The  to adapt i t s  h i s judgment  e x t e n s i v e books  discussion w i l l be  with  sympathy h i s d e s c r i p -  the e x c e p t i o n o f Shute, but  C o m p a r i s o n s may  need  t h e demand f o r  knows r a t h e r t h a n  s t i m u l a t i o n of class  read  only i n t h e i r  the r e a d e r ' s a b i l i t y  themes t o s i t u a t i o n s  their  Pled Piper  previous acquaintance  lower  to teach, e s p e c i a l l y  inconclusive,  Tower  t h e r e a l i s m o f G r a p e s o f Wrath  of e x p l o i t a t i o n .  the  o f June  t o modern p r o b l e m s :  them t o a c c e p t w i t h b e l i e f  difficult  The  Sixth White  i n F o r s t e r contrasts with  S t e i n b e c k as w e l l a s  tion  c o n t r a s t not  in their attitudes  Country  A l l Q u i e t on  The  U l l m a n , J . , The  Steinbeck  the B e l o v e d  Front  S h a p i r o , L.,  F o r s t e r and  H.M.S. U l y s s e s  may  I think  encourage  u s e f u l l y made;  on  students  f o r example,  52 P a t o n a n d Graham r e g a r d i n g m i n o r i t i e s , S h a p i r o a n d S h u t e on love  I n w a r t i m e , U l l m a n a n d MacLean on a m b i t i o n a n d I n t e g r i t y ,  Remarque a n d M i l l e r  on t h e i n d i v i d u a l a n d h i s s o c i e t y .  c o u p l i n g s a r e p o s s i b l e w i t h books actual  situations,  Geography  12:  so r i c h  Other  i n references to  e v e n t s , and i s s u e s .  World  Geography  Intensive reading:  Hardy,  T., The R e t u r n o f t h e N a t i v e  V e r n e , J . , Twenty-Thousand Under Extensive reading:  Leagues  the Sea  D a r w i n , C h a r l e s , The Voyage  o f the  Beagle I r v i n g , Washington, Sleepy  The L e g e n d o f  Hollow  L a u r e n c e , M a r g a r e t , The P r o p h e t ' s Camel Hardy's n o v e l  intermingles  country people with creates  Bell  the customs, b e l i e f s ,  t h e l a n d s c a p e t h a t s h a p e d them.  t h e mood, a n d t h e e a r t h  fiction.  Millicent Verne. any  Darwin's  f o r e r u n n e r o f modern  that  o f the imaginative  S t u d e n t s c o u l d be a s k e d t o s e e i f D a r w i n ' s on V e r n e .  l a n d s c a p e a n d depends  Irving's  legend a r i s e s  on i t f o r v i v i d n e s s .  stories  o f human r e l a t i o n s  culture  dependent  Verne's  a c c o u n t , a b r i d g e d a n d e d i t e d by  Selsam, c o n t r a s t s with  Influence  Scenery  s h a p e s human d e s t i n y .  u n d e r s e a t r a v e l book i s a c l a s s i c a l science  habits, of  voyage had  partly  Laurence's  from the sensitive  i n modern S o m a l i l a n d c o n c e r n a  on t h e l a n d .  forms a n e c e s s a r y i l l u s t r a t i o n  E n v i r o n m e n t i n t h e s e books of their  themes.  CHAPTER X DESIRABLE  OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF ENGLISH AND  HISTORY  The p e o p l e I r e s p e c t most b e h a v e as i f t h e y were I m m o r t a l a n d a s i f s o c i e t y was e t e r n a l . Both assumptions a r e f a l s e : b o t h o f them must be a c c e p t e d a s t r u e i f we a r e t o go on e a t i n g a n d w o r k i n g a n d l o v i n g , a n d a r e t o k e e p open a few b r e a t h i n g h o l e s f o r t h e human s p i r i t .  Many c o n c e p t s in  literature,  the i n s i g h t  concepts and f i x i n g part  taught  i n Social Studies are i l l u s t r a t e d of great authors  these  them i n t h e r e a d e r ' s m i n d b y m a k i n g them  o f h i s own e x p e r i e n c e .  attachment  illuminating  t o the l i t e r a t u r e  He I s drawn b y h i s e m o t i o n a l t o e x p e r i e n c i n g the s p i r i t o f  an age. . . . I f ' p u r e l y o b j e c t i v e ' k n o w l e d g e does n o t engage t h e f e e l i n g s o f t h e knower, i t c a n n e v e r be d e c i s i v e f o r h i m . Man i s n o t a n I n t e l l e c t a l o n e b u t a c r e a t u r e o f f e e l i n g a s w e l l , a n d i n o r d e r t o t r u l y know somet h i n g , he must be a b l e t o r e l a t e i t t o h i m s e l f personally. 2  Some c o n c e p t s they  follow, with l i t e r a r y  sources and the q u e s t i o n s  raise.  Majority rule  Julius  Caesar  I s t h e mob's a c t i o n  what  we mean b y m a j o r i t y r u l e ? What c o n d i t i o n s do we n e e d t o make m a j o r i t y r u l e an instrument o f freedom?  53  54 Social  G r e a t E x p e c t a t i o n s What e f f e c t  stratification  class  does t h e  s t r u c t u r e have  on P i p ' s  character?  Is P i p ' s r i s e  i n society  a d e s i r a b l e type o f upward s o c i a l m o b i l i t y ? Does P i p ' s both  education,  formal and i n f o r m a l ,  show h i m a n y o t h e r way t o b e a man? National  O l i v e r Twist  prosperity  How w o u l d t h e s o c i e t y i n which O l i v e r l i v e d be d e s c r i b e d by an economist? What c l a s s e s i s D i c k e n s describing?  Minority social  Ivanhoe  groups  How was one e x p e c t e d t o t r e a t Jews?  Why?  Ivanhoe l i v e d today, be  Compare h i s t o Jews w i t h  Huckleberry attitude  c o n s p i r a t o r s a t t h e expense o f h i s f r i e n d , forced  t o d i s t i n g u i s h between s e l f - i n t e r e s t  zation  of i t .  Finn's  t o negroes.  involved with Brutus' decision  He s h a r e s  behaviour  t h e same a s i t was i n  attitude  becoming  i n Canada  would h i s  the book?  By  If  to join the  the student i s and the r a t i o n a l i -  P i p ' s d e s i r e t o improve h i m s e l f a n d  55 learns  t h a t c l i m b i n g the s o c i a l  have n o t is  considered.  eminently  A s t u d e n t who  hypocritical will  s u r v i v e d a s o c i e t y more r i g i d though perhaps l e s s from  I s a a c and  porary such  as  By  b e l i e v e s modem  h i s own  I t i s not  h u m i l i t y and  cultural and  gains  in history.  He  he  insight  been taught  varied  have p r o p o s e d  to  j u d g i n g them p e r s o n a l l y and  in  h i s own  of  integrity  society.  The  He  t h a t men  into  the  in history he  with  the  i s committed  to becoming the  of s e c u r i t y .  have c o p e d w i t h r a d i c a l  us  person  o n l y by  A child  intelligent  them.  their Mass  thinking is neither  and  raving nationalists  A F o r e s t e r ' s Dream, a c h i l d r e n ' s b o o k  i n which race r e l a t i o n s are conducted The  that  l e a r n s t h a t Kenya i s not  Mau-Mau t e r r o r i s t s  reads K a m l t l :  By  changes i n  even b e n e f i t e d by  d a i l y but panic  d e s i r a b l e nor necessary.  affection.  provide  "persecuted,"  b u t now  outcome i s a s e n s e  communications a l a r m  when he  persecuted,  t o s o l v i n g human p r o b l e m s  is closer  have s u r v i v e d them and  populated  t o move  hostile  I do n o t mean t h e b l i n d n e s s o f t h e o s t r i c h b u t an  lives,  boys  d e s c r i b e d by F o r s t e r .  second  realization  how  a l s o becomes e n t a n g l e d  t h e p r o b l e m s o f men; s o l u t i o n s men  has  o f the  in their  complex terms " c o n s p i r a t o r s , " " s o c i e t y , "  society-  contem-  l o y a l t y , which  security  may-  i n i t s hypocrisy  difficult  t o compare t h e r e s p o n s e s  empathy t h e s t u d e n t  commonly u s e d  c o s t s he  i n O l i v e r Twist  than  sinister.  f o r o u t c a s t s some c o m f o r t worlds.  see  l a d d e r has  R e b e c c a t o members o f i l l - t r e a t e d  g r o u p s and false  class  Caves o f the G r e a t  with respect  H u n t e r s shows how  and the  56  unknown a r t i s t s  o f the  o f s t a r v a t i o n and  unknowingly l e f t  through which they a girl  tells  different  is  Red  horrors  an  us  threat  of great  beauty-  t h e B o r d e r shows  a l l e g o r y s u c h as values,  have b e e n q u e s t i o n e d  share  Lonely  Florence  Nightingale  Pilgrim s 1  before  and  answered.  f e a r s ; the War  and  hero  yet,  u n d e r s t a n d him. are  found by  The  the  reader  C r u s a d e r t o have b e e n g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d  L i t e r a t u r e can i n the  A third expected  can  f a m i l y o f man,  to enjoy  challenged  by  p r o t e c t e d by their  his h i s t o r y lessons  fictional  coldly  context.  r a t i o n a l and  as  t h e p u p i l s see  as  "real"  i n one  in  i t .  sense as  other tion as  reality.  the  ancestors*  student  may  more when he  disconnected  from  can  seem m e r e l y "real  fictional  h i s t o r y , engages the  Learning  becomes r e a l as  l e a r n i n g to form a l a r g e r s y n t h e s i s . leads  the  seeing  to g r e a t e r  student  i n v o l v e m e n t , and  becomes more s k i l f u l  r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  as  failures.  H i s t o r y can  L i t e r a t u r e , while  his  life"  and  emotions  t h a t w h a t e v e r h i s t o r y i t encompasses c a n become p a r t o f pupils*  our  encourage a p u p i l to t h i n k of h i m s e l f  d e s i r a b l e outcome i s t h a t  them i n t h e  how  c l o t h e d today i n  admit our  h i s i n s e c u r i t y we  f a c e d by  factual,  An  the  o f h i s f e a r i n the American C i v i l  inheritor  see  II.  t h a t many o f o u r  a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s , and  be  a relic  C a s t l e on  Badge o f C o u r a g e l e t s  b e c a u s e we  o f The  us  dress,  afraid  day.  survive.  s u r v i v e d W o r l d War  Progress  The  Lascaux caves d e a l t with  i t combines Greater  hence g r e a t e r  i n making  not so the with  correlapleasure  inferences,  becoming i n t e l l i g e n t l y  committed.  57 P e r h a p s c o r r e l a t i o n w o u l d c o n s o l e E r n e s t G r e e n who w r o t e in Education  f o r a New S o c i e t y ;  We do n o t seem, a s y e t , t o have s o l v e d t h e p r o b l e m o f m a k i n g e d u c a t i o n a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e o r d i n a r y man. He may be c o n v i n c e d o f I t s i m p o r t a n c e b u t , on t h e w h o l e , he shows t h e same r e l u c t a n c e t o w a r d a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l e f f o r t t h a t he shows t o w a r d h i s engagements w i t h t h e d e n t i s t , a n d c o u n t s b o t h u n p l e a s a n t e x p e r i e n c e s t o be a v o i d e d a s l o n g as p o s s i b l e . 3  Less  theoretical  i s t h e d e s i r a b l e outcome o f i n c r e a s e d  k n o w l e d g e o f " p l o t s , names, e t h i c a l the p u p i l  (and the teacher)  connotations."4  Pity  studying  Some v i l l a g e - H a m p d e n , that with dauntless breast The l i t t l e T y r a n t o f h i s f i e l d s w i t h s t o o d ; Some mute, i n g l o r i o u s M i l t o n h e r e may r e s t , Some C r o m w e l l g u i l t l e s s o f h i s c o u n t r y ' s blood-*  w i t h no u n d e r s t a n d i n g  o f the s i g n i f i c a n c e  o f t h e t h r e e men.  How m e a n i n g f u l i s E l e c t i o n , E l e c t i o n and R e p r o b a t i o n — i t ' s a l l very w e l l . B u t I go t o - n i g h t t o my b o y , a n d I s h a l l n o t f i n d h i m in H e l l 6  without The if  knowledge o f C a l v l n l s t l c  essence  belief  i n fore-ordlnatlon?  o f "A J a c o b i t e ' s F a r e w e l l " b y S w i n b u r n e i s l o s t  one c a n n o t  determine  what a J a c o b i t e i s .  T h i s e n l a r g e d knowledge o f r e f e r e n t s a p p l i e s t o concepts  as w e l l as f a c t s .  A student knowledgeable i n  h i s t o r y knows what i t i s t h a t i s t h r e a t e n i n g G e a s l e r i n " Q u a l i t y " by Galsworthy;  he knows t h e p r e s s u r e s  toward  58 c o n f o r m i t y t h a t p r o v i d e the s e t t i n g Miller.  I f he  i s aware o f t h e r i g i d  Edwardian England, in  "Pygmalion."  recounted  The  Blake's  becomes d e e p l y  the s o c i a l  e n j o y s more f u l l y recurring  f e a r and  "London" l o s e s felt  by K e a t s  aspirations  the s a t i r e  by  o f Shaw  suspicion of science  t o "The  Birthmark"  i t s melodramatic  r a g e when t h e r e a d e r  c o n d i t i o n s o f the time.  " S t . Agnes E v e " medieval  he  Crucible"  class pattern of  i n h i s t o r y adds c r e d i b i l i t y  Hawthorne. and  f o r "The  The  Intensity  is familiar  sensuous beauty  i s a p p r e c i a t e d when one  by  with of  recognizes  and a r t .  I f the h i s t o r y and the s p e c i a l s t u d i e s ^ . . . ( l i t e r a t u r e ) a r e s e l e c t e d t o t h r o w a s much l i g h t as p o s s i b l e on t h e o t h e r , n o t o n l y w i l l a q u i c k e n i n g o f i n t e r e s t and a c r o s s - f e r t i l i z a t i o n o f i d e a s r e s u l t b u t a l s o an e n h a n c e d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n f l u e n c e s w h i c h make s o c i e t i e s g r e a t o r m e d i o c r e . The s t u d e n t w i l l be b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d t o j u d g e t h e p a s t ; a n d he w i l l a l s o , i f t h e p e r i o d o r p e r i o d s f o r s t u d y have b e e n j u d i c i o u s l y s t u d i e d , be i n a _ b e t t e r p o s i t i o n t o e v a l u a t e h i s own c i v i l i z a t i o n . '  Of cepts,  the f o u r d e s i r a b l e  sense  of security,  I t h i n k t h e most e n d u r i n g  outcomes, i l l u s t r a t i o n  enjoyment, knowledge o f  of  con-  referents,  i s the g r e a t e r p l e a s u r e i n the  two  s u b j e c t s b e c a u s e t h e y have become more m e a n i n g f u l , e n l a r g i n g t h e r e a d e r ' s power t o e x p e r i e n c e  them.  As B r o u d y  says,  The o n l y v a l i d c r i t e r i o n o f e d u c a t i o n i s w h e t h e r o r not the i n d i v i d u a l m a n i f e s t s those tendencies developed under i n s t r u c t i o n a f t e r i n s t r u c t i o n ceases. . . . O n l y when t h e p u p i l f r e e l y c h o o s e s t o p r a c t i c e h i s knowledge and s k i l l and d e r i v e s genuine s a t i s f a c t i o n  f r o m d o i n g s o c a n we be s u r e t h a t a r e l i a b l e h a b i t has b e e n f o r m e d . Every w e l l developed h a b i t cont a i n s an e m o t i o n a l b i a s f a v o r i n g i t s own e x e r c i s e . How t o b r i n g a b o u t t h i s e m o t i o n a l a t t a c h m e n t i s p r o b a b l y e d u c a t i o n ' s most d i f f i c u l t p r o b l e m . 8  CHAPTER X I UNDESIRABLE OUTCOMES OF CORRELATION OF ENGLISH AND SOCIAL STUDIES It  Is tempting  and easy  t o a p p r o a c h c o r r e l a t i o n on  the b a s i s o f the f a l s e assumption and  accurate  reliable  that f i c t i o n  embodiment o f h i s t o r y .  i s a complete  I t does n o t c l a i m t o be  s o u r c e m a t e r i a l when i t p o r t r a y s men a n d e v e n t s ,  but  a r e a d e r who b e l i e v e s i n t h e f i c t i o n ,  can  e a s i l y be p e r s u a d e d  the  fiction,  the  typical  to b e l i e v e i n the h i s t o r y  a n d s o be m i s l e d situation  and q u i t e  rightly,  within  I n t o t h i n k i n g he h a s l e a r n e d  or influence reliably  descriptive  of a period. Primary can  s o u r c e s , w r i t i n g s o f men p e r s o n a l l y i n v o l v e d ,  g i v e a m i s l e a d i n g p i c t u r e e v e n when t h e y a r e a c c u r a t e ,  vivid,  and intense accounts.  As Simon s a y s ,  1  very  o f any generation a r e a r t i c u l a t e  and fewer s t i l l  articulate  years  so  as t o a t t r a c t  readers  later.  e x c e l l e n t as t o be c o n s i d e r e d persons  frequently period;  the only writers widely  read from a p a r t i c u l a r  they g i v e  If  generation,  i n 2000 A.D., c o u l d we h o n e s t l y s a y  they a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r  toto.  The w r i t e r s  they a r e seldom r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e i r age.  s h o u l d be r e a d w i d e l y  in  a r e so  o f genius a r e  F r y e , MacLuhan, a n d Cohen, f r o m o u r p r e s e n t  Truly  few men  f e l l o w C a n a d i a n s o f 1966?  the t a s t e o f o u r times, b u t n o t our times  Literary artists  can choose the events,  60  thoughts,  61  trends, bias  reactions  contributes  writer and  and  to  is obliged  justify  i t .  undesirable instance,  they wish to w r i t e  t h e i r work.  but  instance  r e m a r k , one  o f the  i s t y p i c a l and  i t were h i s t o r y , a d a n g e r w h i c h was  t h a t because a book d e a l s  student.  bad  w i t h an  as  in  studied,  of h i s t o r y  t h a t book  guarantee i s not  his persistence,  or  will of  interesting.  concerned  r e a d e r whose c u r i o s i t y  strengthen  i s already  but  for that  f a m i l i a r i s a shabby excuse f o r  Its  presenting  writing. third  i s stuck  t i m e and  danger i s imbalance.  with h i s t o r i c a l  o f book r e p o r t s  will  rightly  fiction feel  u n w i l l i n g to reap the  Correlation a  aspect  C o r r e l a t i o n i s no  t o p i c known t o t h e  A he  general.  assumption  b e n e f i t f r o m h a p p e n i n g t o be  r e a s o n may  topic  one  dealt with  i n s i g h t i f the book i t s e l f  A p o o r b o o k may  that  An  treating literature  outcome i s t h e  g e o g r a p h y t h a t a s t u d e n t has  with a  focus  8.  A second undesirable  enjoyment or  a  historically.  crusade,  if  the  their  give  assumption that  danger of  and  support  i s the  is part  interest  f a c t s to  i n l i t e r a t u r e may  It  c h a p t e r s 5 and  general  on,  h i s t o r y , however,  i t proves nothing  outcome, t h e n ,  one  In  to o f f e r a l l r e l e v a n t One  t o a whole n o v e l ,  that  literature  i s u s e f u l but programme.  A s t u d e n t who during  cheated  feels  h i s whole in his  year  reading  riches of c o r r e l a t i o n .  i t i s not  the  first  function  of  CHAPTER X I I PERSONAL APPLICATION  With  two c l a s s e s  assignments and  social  i n 1966-67 I u s e d b o o k  to put into practice  correlation  report  of literature  studies.  In October  I assigned to a superior English  the r e a d i n g o f h i s t o r i c a l  fiction,  8 class  p r e f e r a b l y about  Britain,  F r a n c e a n d Canada a s f a r a s b o o k s on t h e s e n a t i o n s were available.  Defining historical  investigated  chose  proceeded  the resources o f the l i b r a r y .  Anne o f G r e e n G a b l e s books about  fiction  people  I accepted  and Huckleberry F i n n s i n c e  t o answer i n a p a r a g r a p h  signed  i n that place a t that to avoid r e t e l l i n g  times.  the l e a r n i n g  time?  of plots  The q u e s t i o n was d e -  w  and t o encourage  com-  and those o f people i n  I t achieved these purposes. of s k i l l s  The q u e s t i o n  was "What w o u l d y o u have t o l e a r n  p a r i s o n o f t h e i r own ways o f l i v i n g former  they a r e  i n o t h e r p l a c e s i n t h e p a s t , b u t most  Cue f o r T r e a s o n a n d E a g l e o f t h e N i n t h .  to l i v e  as they  Answers  stressed  such as r i d i n g ,  sewing,  fighting,  w a l k i n g , and s i n g i n g , and the l e a r n i n g  to l i v e  without  modern c o n v e n i e n c e s . c l a s s was a l s o learned  that  Obedience  observed.  i n addition  strange c l o t h e s , people  t o t h e demands o f one's  From t h i s to eating  assignment  strange foods and wearing  have h a d d i f f e r e n t  c o n d i t i o n s and  m o t i v a t i o n s w i t h i n w h i c h t o make t h e d e c i s i o n s  62  the p u p i l s  that  form  history.  63 In  January I asked  "What i t means t o me generally  t h e same c l a s s  t o be a C a n a d i a n . "  flowery patriotism, gratitude  and a d v e r t i s e m e n t o f C a n a d a . these essays.  this  described. put  f o rnatural resources,  A f t e r marking,  I d i d not return  t h e q u e s t i o n t o a n s w e r b e i n g , "What  book t e a c h y o u a b o u t  more c o n c r e t e ;  The r e s p o n s e s were  I t h e n a s s i g n e d a book r e p o r t on a b o o k a b o u t  Canada o r by a Canadian, did  t o w r i t e a n e s s a y on  Canada?"  heroes, trade, railways,  Then I n J u n e  These  r e s p o n s e s were  social  c u s t o m s were  I r e t u r n e d the o r i g i n a l  essays, and  the f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s : 1.  What was t h e b o o k r e p o r t  2.  What b o o k d i d y o u r e a d f o r i t ?  3.  What d i d y o u l e a r n a b o u t (e.g., geography).  4.  D i d you enjoy the reading?  5.  D i d you enjoy w r i t i n g  6.  What c r i t i c i s m have y o u o f y o u r a. tone b. mechanics c. p l a n n i n g Explain.  7.  What w o u l d y o u change i n t h e e s s a y i f y o u w r o t e on t h e same t o p i c now?  8.  How has y o u r c o n c e p t o f b e i n g a C a n a d i a n s i n c e you wrote the essay?  9.  To what book? a. b. c. d. Why?  Who w r o t e I t ?  Canada f r o m t h i s  book?  the report?  e x t e n t was t h i s much? some? little? none?  assignment?  essay?  changed  c o n c e p t a f f e c t e d by t h e  6k The numbers 2,  questions pertinent 3>  7»  8,  9»  to this  so I s h a l l  thesis  r e f e r only  are t o them.  A  summary o f t h e a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s f o l l o w s . Question  two:  What book d i d y o u r e a d f o r i t ?  Who  wrote i t ?  (When more t h a n one s t u d e n t r e a d t h e same book, I have g i v e n t h e number o f p u p i l s who read it,;) A n d e r s o n , W i l l i a m ' A . , A n g e l o f Hudson Bay B e c k e r , May L a m b e r t o n , G o l d e n T a l e s o f Canada B e n n e t t , E . M. G., L a n d f o r t h e i r I n h e r i t a n c e B o n n e r , Mary G., Made i n Canada B u r p e e , L a w r e n c e J . , The D i s c o v e r y o f Canada C a r r , E m i l y , Book o f S m a l l C a t h e r , W i l l a , Shadows on t h e Rock C l a r k , C a t h e r i n e , The Sun H o r s e (2) C o l l i e r , E r i c , T h r e e A g a i n s t t h e W i l d e r n e s s (2) Gowland, J . S., R e t u r n t o Canada H a i g - B r o w n , R., Mounted P o l i c e P a t r o l (2) H a l g - B r o w n , R., S t a r b u c k V a l l e y W i n t e r H a y e s , J o h n F., B u c k s k i n C o l o n i s t K r i l l , Mary E . , A l l A c r o s s Canada L e i t c h , A d e l a i d e , Canada, Young G i a n t o f t h e N o r t h M i t c h e l l , W. 0., J a k e a n d t h e K i d Mowat, F a r l e y , The B l a c k J o k e Mowat, F a r l e y , L o s t In t h e B a r r e n s (2) R i c e , O l i v e , T r a i l s Out West R i t c h i e , C. T., The F i r s t C a n a d i a n (2) R o s s , F r a n c e s A l l e e n , The L a n d and P e o p l e o f Canada Roy, G a b r i e l l e , The T i n F l u t e S c h u l l , J o s e p h , B a t t l e f o r t h e Rock S h a r p , E d i t h L . , Nkwala Stowe, L e l a n d , C r u s o e o f Lonesome L a k e  Question  three:  What d i d you l e a r n a b o u t Canada f r o m t h i s (The number o f s t u d e n t s whose a n s w e r s f a l l under each h e a d i n g appears a t the r i g h t . )  a.  "Personality  o f my  Country"  (3)  C a n a d i a n s * l i v e s and dreams; F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s ' r e l i g i o n and r e s i l i e n c e a g a i n s t w i n t e r ; " I don't t h i n k I l e a r n e d a n y t h i n g a b o u t Canada I d i d n o t a l r e a d y know, b u t I know I d i d l e a r n a r e s p e c t f o r t h e p e o p l e who f o u g h t t o make Canada t h e way it is."  book?  65 b. H i s t o r y  (10)  C h a m p l a i n ; l i f e i n " l a r g e c i t i e s d u r i n g t h e war y e a r s , how much F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s are l i k e E n g l i s h C a n a d i a n s , a n d t h e g r e a t p o v e r t y t h a t e x i s t e d i n Canada"; Newfoundland's h i s t o r y , p e o p l e and c l a s s e s o f the M a r i t l m e s ; " W o l f e was a p o o r g e n e r a l , " t h e importance o f t h e outcome o f t h e B a t t l e o f t h e P l a i n s o f Abraham; how p e o p l e u s e d t o l i v e i n Canada; o l d V i c t o r i a ; p r a i r i e l i f e a n d w a t e r f o w l ; H.C.M.P. ( 2 ) ; FrenchEnglish rivalry.  c. Negative  answers  (3)  " . . . i t was humour a n d n o t t o o i n f o r m a t i v e " ; v e r y little: " I t was w r i t t e n by a n E n g l i s h w r i t e r i n E n g l a n d " ( T r a i l s Out W e s t ) ; " T h e book was fiction a n d d i d n o t have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h C a n a d a " (The Sun H o r s e ) .  d. N a t i v e peoples  (4)  I n d i a n s o f B. C , p l a c e names; E s k i m o s and I n d i a n s ; what I n d i a n s made a n d how t h e y f i t i n t o C a n a d i a n history; Indian t r i b e s . e. Geography  (13)  T r a p p e r s ' h a r d s h i p s ; the geography, w i l d l i f e , a n d p e o p l e o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f B. C ; scenery; " t h e w e a t h e r o f t h e i n t e r i o r o f B. C., a n d t h e h a b i t s o f t h e t r u m p e t e r swan"; t h e n o r t h : animals, p e o p l e , w e a t h e r , d a n g e r s (3)» w i l d l i f e , scenery, h o s p i t a l i t y , v a s t n e s s , g r o w t h o f Canada; B. C. geography, e s p e c i a l l y r e s t i n g p l a c e s f o r b i r d s (The Sun H o r s e ) ; w i l d e r n e s s : s u r v i v a l , t r a p p i n g , b e a v e r dams, a n i m a l t r a c k s , p l a n t s ( 2 ) ; geography o f Canada (2).  66 Question seven:  a. C r i t i c a l  What w o u l d y o u change i n t h e e s s a y w r o t e on t h e same t o p i c now?  (5)  thinking  "not a l l b e a u t i f u l "show t h e g o o d a n d I w o u l d h i n t a t an a f t e r a l l Canada i  b . No  change  c. A d d i t i o n s  i f you  s c e n e r y a n d good t h i n g s " ; t h e b a d " ; "Next t i m e I t h i n k u n d e r t o n e o f improvement, s h t a l l that perfect!"  (2)  (6)  b e n e f i t s o f geography, f e e l i n g s about n a t i o n a l i t y ; "more h i s t o r i c , more a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d e m o c r a c y . "  d. Replacements  (2)  "•British Subject to •Canadian C i t i z e n * " ; "how p r o u d I am o f Canada i n s t e a d o f what f o r e i g n p e o p l e l o o k f o r w a r d t o when c o m i n g t o C a n a d a . " 1  The p a u c i t y of  the q u e s t i o n :  o f answers  h e r e I s due  most s t u d e n t s  to the ambiguity  t o o k i t t o mean c h a n g e s i n  style.  Question eight:  How has y o u r c o n c e p t o f b e i n g a C a n a d i a n changed s i n c e you wrote the essay? (The numbers a t t h e r i g h t show t h e number o f s t u d e n t s whose a n s w e r s came u n d e r e a c h h e a d ing.)  a. Greater approval  (5)  Prouder because o f Canada s " p e a c e f u l stand i n the w o r l d s i t u a t i o n " ; "more p a t r i o t i c . . . 1 am g l a d n o t t o be a Communist"; "more g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d b y t h e F r e n c h now" a n d "have l e a r n e d t o a p p r e c i a t e t h e new C a n a d i a n f l a g " ; " I a d m i r e t h e F r e n c h - C a n a d i a n s more t h a n e v e r " ; h a p p i e r t o be a C a n a d i a n b e c a u s e o f t h e C e n t e n n i a l celebrations. 1  67  b. Less  (5)  approval  " . . . i t i s n ' t so g r e a t t o be a C a n a d i a n " b e c a u s e o f the government, the prime m i n i s t e r , the F r e n c h q u e s t i o n ( t h i s s t u d e n t r e a d a book on t h e w i l d e r n e s s ) ; "Canada i s c o w a r d l y " b e c a u s e o f t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f UNEF f o r c e s ; "My c o n c e p t was c h a n g e d t o w o r s e " b e c a u s e o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t and V i e t n a m ; Canada s t a n d s b y a n d w a t c h e s N o r t h V i e t n a m b e i n g bombed; " I d o n ' t t h i n k a p e r s o n f r o m a n o t h e r c o u n t r y s h o u l d have t o w a i t f i v e y e a r s f o r h i s c i t i z e n s h i p p a p e r s . . . I do t h i n k . . . h i s p o l i c e r e c o r d s h o u l d be checked."  c. L i t t l e  o r no  change:  d. I n c r e a s e d knowledge: Question nine:  a . Much: b . Some:  (1?)  (3)  To what e x t e n t was b y t h e book?  this  concept  affected  C(55 (7)  c. L i t t l e  (also  d . None:  (12)  i n t e r p r e t e d as  (5)  "a l i t t l e " ) :  R e a s o n s f o r "None" i n c l u d e d : a l r e a d y knew t h e s e t h i n g s ; f i c t i o n d o e s n ' t t e a c h you much; no p r o o f my c o n c e p t was wrong; i t a g r e e d w i t h my c o n c e p t ; t h e book was on g e o g r a p h y n o t m o r a l s o r p o l i t i c s . As  a t e s t o f the e f f e c t i v e n e s s of e f f o r t s  this  second  students all a  s e t o f work f r o m J a n u a r y  themselves  the answers a r e  to d i s c o v e r the subjective.  toward  to June r e q u i r e d the influences of  The  reason  the g i v i n g  of  correlation:  for this  s e t o f o b j e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s g i v e n b e f o r e and  w o u l d have s u g g e s t e d  correlation,  after  " r i g h t " answers.  i s that the  reading  These  68 c h i l d r e n w o u l d have d i s c u s s e d t h e q u e s t i o n s among t h e m s e l v e s after  the f i r s t  remembered  test  to find  the r i g h t n  the answers r e a c h e d  test unreliable  M  a n s w e r s a n d w o u l d have  by c o n s e n s u s , making such  e v e n when r e p e a t e d  in different  N e i t h e r c o u l d I have t e s t e d t h e e f f e c t s on t h e i r r e t e n t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t course.  A s t u d e n t who  of  1759  to  put the B a t t l e  ter In  were  o f the reading  o f the S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8 the  events  s t u d i e d i n S o c i a l S t u d i e s w o u l d have b e e n a b l e  t h e same way  o f the P l a i n s  o f Abraham  into context  bet-  had r e a d a b o u t N e w f o u n d l a n d .  t h e N e w f o u n d l a n d r e a d e r w o u l d be a b l e t o  a n s w e r a g e o g r a p h y q u e s t i o n more a b l y t h a n  study  words.  had r e a d about Wolfe a f t e r  t h a n w o u l d t h e s t u d e n t who  would.  a  B u t t h e g e o g r a p h y o f Canada on C a n a d a .  By t h e t i m e  the h i s t o r y  i s the f i r s t  of the r e - t e s t ,  reader  p a r t o f the  he m i g h t have  f o r g o t t e n more o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s b a c k g r o u n d t o h i s r e a d i n g than  t h e p u p i l who The n a t u r e  test. and  had r e a d a b o u t W o l f e w o u l d have f o r g o t t e n . o f the c l a s s  The c h i l d r e n were  articulate writers.  also affected  the c h o i c e o f  i n t e l l i g e n t and i n t e r e s t e d  readers  They knew t h e y were n o t t o be  marked  on t h e i r a n s w e r s w h i c h were done b e c a u s e I "wanted" them T h e y were and  told  were aware  o f t h e w e a k n e s s e s w h i c h I saw that I expected  in their  done.  essays  e x a c t , s i n c e r e , and p e r t i n e n t  answers t o the q u e s t i o n s .  T h e s e c h i l d r e n were a b l e t o examine  their  eyes,  to  essays with c r i t i c a l  look at their reactions objectively. For  was  t o remember t h e i r b o o k s , a n d  these  reliable.  reasons  I believe this  subjective testing  69  Now l e t us s e e i f t h e r e was c o r r e l a t i o n a n d , i f s o , to  what e x t e n t .  about  Canada.  essay. in  A l l the students but three learned  T h i r t e e n w o u l d have made improvements t o t h e  The m a j o r i t y f e l t  their  concept  the essay,  t h e r e had b e e n l i t t l e  o f b e i n g a Canadian  b u t t h e changes n o t e d  more b y c u r r e n t e v e n t s students s a i d by  their  t h i n k i n g about  January  The  Canada a s a r e s u l t  agriculture,  nations, animals,  affected  assignments.  class.  on "The U s e s o f G e o g r a p h y . "  f o r understanding  They  stated  of current a f f a i r s ,  t r a v e l , war s t r a t e g i e s ,  human s u r -  t r a d e , the f o u n d i n g and t h e growth o f  space  exploration,  international  The n e c e s s i t y o f i n t e r r e l a t i n g  relations,  geographic  barriers,  facts,  t h e need  new maps a s man c h a n g e s t h e e a r t h ' s s u r f a c e , a n d t h e  wise  and f o o l i s h  dents. in  were  o f these E n g l i s h  t h e human s t r u g g l e t o overcome g e o g r a p h i c for  Most  t h e r e was l e a r n i n g a n d  were p r e c i s e a n d c o m p r e h e n s i v e .  weather, t r a n s p o r t a t i o n ,  sports.  caused  correlation.  I a s s i g n e d an essay  t h a t g e o g r a p h y was u s e d  and  seem t o have b e e n  same p a t t e r n was u s e d w i t h a l o w E n g l i s h 9  responses  vival,  s i n c e they had w r i t t e n  o f being a Canadian  I conclude  Thus t h e r e was s i g n i f i c a n t  In  o r no change  than t h e r e a d i n g o f t h e book.  concepts  r e a d i n g the books.  The  something  I felt  geography.  human u s e s  o f the l a n d , concerned  some  stu-  t h e s t u d e n t s were w e l l - i n f o r m e d a n d i n t e r e s t e d  70 In  F e b r u a r y I a s s i g n e d a b o o k r e p o r t on a b o o k where  l a n d s c a p e was  a paramount f e a t u r e .  c h o i c e o f books nical.  The  was  wide:  questions,  from t h i s book?  How  travel,  Browsing r e v e a l e d adventure, escape,  "What d i d I l e a r n a b o u t  does  t h e b o o k depend  on g e o g r a p h y  1  What g e o g r a p h y  I w i s h I had p h r a s e d t h e f i r s t did I learn  tech-  geography  a r o u s e t h e r e a d e r s i n t e r e s t ? " were s a t i s f a c t o r i l y (With h i n d s i g h t  the  from t h i s book?  to  answered.  question thus:  That form  would  have b e e n more c o n c i s e a n d more e x a c t . ) In these  June  I returned  the geography  put  questions: 1.  What was  2.  D i d you e n j o y the r e a d i n g ?  3.  D i d you e n j o y the w r i t i n g ?  4.  What w o u l d y o u change i n y o u r a. s t y l e 1 tone 11 m e c h a n i c s i l l order b. content 1 additions l i deletions  5«  Have y o u r i d e a s o f t h e u s e s o f g e o g r a p h y s i n c e you wrote the essay? Explain.  6.  What d i d y o u l e a r n a b o u t g e o g r a p h y  7.  Have y o u r i d e a s o f t h e u s e s o f g e o g r a p h y s i n c e you r e a d the book? How?  8.  What was  9.  Who  was  the  assignment?  the t i t l e  answers.  essay?  changed  from t h i s  the author? 6»  7»  8,  9»  book?  changed  o f y o u r book?  The p e r t i n e n t q u e s t i o n s , numbers 5» these  e s s a y s and  produced  71 Question f i v e :  Have y o u r i d e a s o f t h e u s e s o f g e o g r a p h y changed s i n c e you wrote the essay? Explain.  a . No a n s w e r : b . None:  (2)  (12)  c. Yes:  (k)  d . Much:  (2)  Question s i x :  ( t h e I m p o r t a n c e o f g e o g r a p h y ; more l e a r n i n g took place i n S o c i a l Studies lessons)  What d i d y o u l e a r n a b o u t g e o g r a p h y f r o m t h i s book? (4)  a . No a n s w e r : (3)  b. Nothing:  c. A l i t t l e :  (2)  d . Not much:  (1)  e . New  knowledge:  ( " I t was  chiefly a story  f o r enjoyment.")  (10)  Examples i n c l u d e d : g e o g r a p h y c a n be d e s t r u c t i v e ; i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g ; "A p e r s o n c o u l d g e t l o s t i n a r e g i o n , e v e n i f he h a d a map"; d e p e n d e n c e on g e o g r a p h y b y p e o p l e i n c e n t r a l Canada; "why some c o u n t r i e s a n d p e o p l e a r e l i k e they a r e " ; marine d i v e r s and the c r o p s o f t h e s e a ; how o t h e r p e o p l e l i v e ; b e n e v o l e n c e a n d power o f g e o g r a p h y .  Question seven:  Have y o u r i d e a s o f u s e s o f g e o g r a p h y c h a n g e d s i n c e y o u r e a d t h e book? How?  a . No a n s w e r :  (4)  b. L i t t l e :  ("It didn't  (2)  say anything  different.")  72 c. A l i t t l e : d . None:  (7)  e. Some:  (4)  f . Much:  (1)  Questions  (2)  e i g h t and  nine:  What was t h e t i t l e o f y o u r book? Who was t h e a u t h o r ?  Day, V e r o n l q u e , L a n d s l i d e D i t m a r s , Raymond L . , A F o r e s t o f A d v e n t u r e H l n t o n , Sam, U n d e r t h e S e a L i f e M a g a z i n e , Canada M a r q u i s , Thomas G., "The War C h i e f o f t h e O t t a w a s " f r o m C h r o n i c l e s o f Canada Meader, S t e p h e n W., Trap L i n e s North Morrow, H., On t o O r e g o n Mowat, F a r l e y , L o s t i n t h e B a r r e n s O l s e n , J a c k , The C l i m b up t o H e l l O l s o n , S., The L o n e l y L a n d R i e s e b e r g , H a r r y , C i t y Under the Sea S c o t t , C o l . R. J . , God Is my C o - p i l o t T r e e c e , Henry, V i k i n g * s Sunset U l l m a n , J . R., B a n n e r In t h e Sky W a r w i c k , J o h n , Yukon Wood, K e r r y , The Map Maker Not g i v e n : (2) Incomplete: (2) Was  there  useful correlation?  o f twenty r e p o r t e d writing, book.  their  t h i r t e e n had  i d e a s had  While only e i g h t  changed s i n c e the  l e a r n e d geography from r e a d i n g  Thirteen, a majority again,  reported  o f t h e u s e s o f g e o g r a p h y were c h a n g e d a f t e r Of  course  i t is difficult  essay the  conceptions  reading  the  book.  t o d i s t i n g u i s h w h e t h e r one's  concepts  have c h a n g e d b e c a u s e o f one  another,  and  the q u e s t i o n s  their  out  factor rather  seem r e p e t i t i o u s .  than  However,  the  73 explanations giving  o f a n s w e r s r e f e r r e d t o one f a c t o r a t a  t o me more c o n f i d e n c e  students  realization  ment c o u l d  i n the answers a n d t o t h e  that a factor l i k e a reading  influence t h e i r understanding  matter o f another correlation  course.  time,  assign-  o f the s u b j e c t  Thus t h e r e was c o r r e l a t i o n ,  that the students  a  recognized.  A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e two programmes r e f l e c t s t h e abilities The  a n d h a b i t s o f t h e two v e r y  l e s s a b l e wrote substandard  t h e i r books refrained  i n spite  than  o f the r e q u i r e d card f i l e  Thus t h e i r r e s p o n s e s  Question  of your assignments help you w i t h  less  of correlation  i n the  studies?  Please  " D i d any I f 'yes,'  e x p l a i n how t h e  F o r t y - s i x p u p i l s answered  answered "Yes."  to four subjects  two was:  other  s t a t e which s u b j e c t ( s ) : . . . .  r e a d i n g was o f a s s i s t a n c e . "  ferred  readings,  I p u t t o a l l c l a s s e s on t h e  r e a d i n g programme.  sixty-five  inspire  o f c o r r e l a t i o n appeared  responses t o a questionnaire  and  on  o f the b e t t e r s c h o l a r s .  Further evidence  please  t o remember  and tended t o  i n the e x i s t e n c e and the extent  do t h o s e  extensive  English, failed  f r o m a n s w e r i n g some q u e s t i o n s ,  g i v e vague answers. confidence  different classes.  "No"  The p o s i t i v e a n s w e r s r e -  i n the p r o p o r t i o n s  Social Studies: Typing: 1 English: 8 Science: 5  51  shown b e l o w :  74 The r e a d i n g a s s i s t e d  students  In l e a r n i n g the f o l l o w i n g :  F a c t u a l knowledge: 44 Insight to r e a l l i f e : 5 English history: 5 Geography Middle East Communism Understanding p l a y s and s e t t i n g s Napoleon: 2 Business Letters Biology History No a n s w e r : Again  the responses  resulted first  from the f a c t  have  t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n was p u t i n t h e  o f some r e a d i n g a s s i g n m e n t s .  students  claimed  After another times  a r e s u b j e c t i v e , a n d t h e y may  p l a c e , o r from a w i l l i n g n e s s t o p l e a s e , o r from the  nature the  2  this  Nevertheless  t h e r e h a d b e e n some  personal experience,  benefit arises  from t h i s  type  most o f  correlation.  i t seems t o me of correlation.  Many  when I have a s s i g n e d r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s i n t h e l i b r a r y ,  I have b e e n d i s a p p o i n t e d i n t h e q u a l i t y because o f students*  reliance  of the research  on t h e e n c y c l o p e d i a .  seem t o b e l i e v e t h a t o n l y a n e n c y c l o p e d i a c a n g i v e the o b j e c t i v e t r u t h ,  t h e " r i g h t answer."  mastered the encyclopedia Information ges  that  very quickly.  and present  like  they  Then t h e y  them a s t h e i r  o f an e n c y c l o p e d i a , contents  index,  Once t h e y  can f i n d  them have  factual  o f t e n copy whole  passa-  own work a s I f t h e a n o n y m i t y  t h a t o f a d i c t i o n a r y , makes i t s  t h e i r s a n d does n o t r e q u i r e t h e s o u r c e  acknowledged.  They  The e n c y c l o p e d i a  i s reliable  t o be  and a v a i l a b l e  75 but  these  very  qualities  the knowledge c o n t a i n e d  encourage i n an  encyclopedia  to b e l i e v e  i s the  whole  truth.  Hence i f he  others*  r e s e a r c h , he b e l i e v e s t h a t t h a t i s s u f f i c i e n t  search  on  puts  the s t u d e n t  h i s p a r t and  i n t o h i s w r i t i n g the r e s u l t s  t h e d e s i r e d end  I d o u b t v e r y much i f s u c h the  student's  the  feelings teacher the  on  reason.  student's  the  The  encyclopedia  of h i s assignment. i s assimilated into  i s objectionable for  e n c y c l o p e d i a makes no  emotions.  Hence he  about a s u b j e c t are not concerned with  student  personal  in his studies.  c l a i m to  tends to b e l i e v e t h a t h i s important.  An  English  r e s p o n s e wants t o  He  involve  must be  involve  Interested in  them, and  t o become I n t e r e s t e d i n them he must r e a c t  them w i t h  h i s h e a r t as w e l l as  One may  be  purchase tool buy  reason  t h a t an  f o r the  complex.  teacher  o f the  i s probably  the  encyclopedia  first  Because i t i s a  s e t t i n g up  teacher-librarian  funds  (and  to  wary o f c h o o s i n g  in  use  costly  fundamental  a library  tends  to  A f t e r t h a t , b o o k s e l e c t i o n becomes more  I f the  the matters  to  head.  frequent  encyclopedia  of research, a  be  his  f o r a school l i b r a r y .  l t first.  re-  background.  Reliance another  information  of  I have n e v e r met  i n the  one  fiction  who only  encyclopedia.  using additional c r i t e r i a  i s hampered b y isn't), i n order  The  i n book  he to  librarian selection.  is  l a c k of going  amplify is  Justified  76 Two  s o l u t i o n s to t h i s problem of  dominance o c c u r  t o me:  encyclopedia  much more money f o r  and  much g r e a t e r use  use  of c o r r e l a t i o n would g i v e the d e s i r a b l e b a l a n c e  tween s u b j e c t i v e a n d matter.  My  of c o r r e l a t i o n .  libraries  A more  objective interpretations  p u p i l s were e n c o u r a g e d  in their  r e a d i n g t o r e t u r n a book t h a t d i d n o t browse u n t i l was  done b y  they  engaged. order  found  Whether t h e  to f i l l  Therefore  they  of subject  extensive  interest  enjoyed.  be-  them a n d  I believe  to  this  l e a r n e d the  new  t h a t t h e i r e m o t i o n s were  students  would c o n s u l t f i c t i o n  in  a r e s e a r c h a s s i g n m e n t I d o u b t v e r y much  b e l i e v e they  tributes  they  same t i m e  because they are not do  one  most o f them.  i n f o r m a t i o n a t the  extensive  aware o f f i c t i o n a l  realize  sources, but  that imaginative l i t e r a t u r e  to t h e i r personal mastery of a s u b j e c t .  way  c o r r e l a t i o n seems t o me  the  encyclopedia.  to counter  In  the r e l i a n c e  I conthis on  CHAPTER  XIII  TIME EXTENSION OF SELECTIONS I f e v e n t i m e , t h e enemy o f a l l l i v i n g t h i n g s , a n d t o p o e t s , a t l e a s t , t h e most h a t e d a n d f e a r e d o f a l l t y r a n t s , c a n . b e b r o k e n down b y t h e i m a g i n a t i o n , anything can be. A history  teacher  soon r e a l i z e s  insufficient on  searching  f o r h i m t o make c o n s i s t e n t l y f a i r  t h i n k he c o u l d  to c o n s i d e r i n g  This  Prescribed  Judgments  a n d he may  on w r i t e r s who  then  lived  closer  t h o u g h t may l e a d him, a s i t l e d me,  older writers  time o f w r i t i n g c o n t a i n last  of fiction,  r e l y more h a p p i l y  to t h e i r m a t e r i a l .  with  t h a t h i s own h i s t o r i c a l k n o w l e d g e i s  the h i s t o r i c a l accuracy  curricula.  f o r books f o r c o r r e l a t i o n  t h a n t h o s e t h a t a p p e a r on o u r  texts  in British  Columbia a t the  s e l e c t i o n s written mainly  two h u n d r e d y e a r s .  This  general  pattern  i n the  i s not sur-  p r i s i n g b u t the extent  o f r e l i a n c e on modern w r i t e r s a n d  the  of older writers  consequent n e g l e c t  greater  than I had e x p e c t e d . The  the  I have, f o u n d t o be  chart  present  s i t u a t i o n appears  i n the Appendix.  i n the t a b l e below and  In the c h a r t  t h e number o f  s e l e c t i o n s w r i t t e n b y a u t h o r s b o r n more t h a n two h u n d r e d years  ago a p p e a r i n g  i n each a n t h o l o g y  i s expressed as a  p e r c e n t a g e o f t h e t o t a l number o f s e l e c t i o n s . b u t I n g r a d e s 11  t h i s percentage  increases  f o r E n g l i s h 91»  i t decreases.  Up t o g r a d e  a n d 12,  Texts which a r e not  77  10  except anthologies  78 and  texts written  with reference  s o l e l y b y one a u t h o r a r e l i s t e d  to t h e i r  time o f w r i t i n g .  COURSE  English  AUTHORS (modem—born  TITLES 7  here  Treasure  1  PERIOD since 1765)  Island  Christmas  Carol  all  modem  Jean V a l Jean  English  8  Moonfleet The K o n - T l k l Men  Expedition  a n d Gods  9  modern  The Snow Goose  five  out o f  The Human Comedy  six  S h a k e s p e a r e f o r Young Shaw;  Three  Pearl Players  Plays  Typhoon The O l d Man  English  10  out of  four  T h e Red Pony a n d The  English  three  To K i l l Diary The  a  and the Sea  Mockingbird  o f Anne  Frank  Chrysallds  A n i m a l Farm Hiroshima Gandhi Where N e s t s  the Water  Hen  modem  79 COURSE  TITLES  E n g l i s h 10 (continued)  Huckleberry  AUTHORS * PERIOD ( m o d e r n — b o r n s i n c e 17&5)  Finn  Who Has S e e n t h e Wind K i n g Solomon* s M i n e s  twelve  Great  thirteen  The  Expectations  out o f modern  Odyssey  Annapurna 11  English  Julius  Shakespearean  Caesar  E n g l i s h kO  Romeo a n d J u l i e t  Shakespearean  English  kl  Macbeth  Shakespearean  English  91  The  new c o u r s e s  e x c i t i n g and v i g o r o u s designed  (7 t o 10) a r e commendable f o r t h e i r innovations.  They a r e a d m i r a b l y  t o c a r r y o u t t h e i r o b j e c t i v e s and o f f e r  stimulating  and readable with v a r i e t y  of m a t u r i t y and r e a d i n g a b i l i t y are resource courses  t o s u i t many  w i t h i n each grade.  which encourage t e a c h e r s  books f o r e n r i c h i n g the p r e s c r i b e d t e x t s . and  i n the midst  readings levels They  t o use o t h e r  The w e a k n e s s ,  o f wonder a t t h e n o v e l t y o f t h e new p r o -  gramme one m i g h t c o n s i d e r i t a m i n o r w e a k n e s s , i s t h e r e l i a n c e almost  wholly  on c o n t e m p o r a r y m a t e r i a l .  80 It interest  seems t o me t h a t  i n modern w r i t i n g a n d t h e f a c i l i t y  t h e E n g l i s h programme as  i n s t r e s s i n g t h e immediate  i s n e g l e c t i n g one o f i t s f u n c t i o n s  I s e e them, t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y  cultural  heritage.  of reading i t ,  I define  f o r transmission  o f our  t h a t h e r i t a g e as t h e knowledge  o f o n e s e l f as an i n h e r i t o r o f h i s p a s t w i t h  access  to i t s  thought and achievements and as a p a r t i c i p a n t i n the continuing  e v o l u t i o n o f t h e c u l t u r e f r o m w h i c h he s p r i n g s . Youth c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y  pletely  thinks of i t s e l f  u n i q u e , sometimes p a r e n t l e s s .  This  a s com-  convenient  illusion  i s psychologically strongest  physical  d e p e n d e n c e i s w e a k e s t a n d y o u t h s e t s o u t t o make  its  own w o r l d .  consciousness image.  Experience  sometimes t r a g i c himself  i n the e x i s t i n g  failed  himself a f f e c t  t h e wide w o r l d  unique:  self-  his self  i s p a i n f u l and  conditions.  I t seems t o me  that  came t o b e a s i t i s a n d how i t  t o b e what i t c o u l d b e n o t o n l y h e l p s  p e r s o n a v o i d a l i e n a t i o n b u t a l s o sheds l i g h t nature  when  i f t h e young man c a n s e e no p l a c e f o r  k n o w l e d g e o f how t h e w o r l d has  wears o f f much o f t h i s  as f o r c e s o u t s i d e  Confrontation with  i n adolescence  and h i s r o l e  i n t h e human drama.  In the wider  impersonal  t h e young  on h i s own  w o r l d , many f a c t o r s c a n seem  the speed and e f f i c i e n c y  o f machines; the c u r r e n t  problems o f peace making, the growth and d i s t r i b u t i o n o f food, and  and overpopulation;  mass m e d i a .  In fact  t h e modern wonders o f s p a c e they  are questions  that  have  travel  81 concerned mankind i n many periods of time before ours. More*s U t o p i a  2  took steps to control population growth  many centuries before demography became a science.  He was a  reformer rather than a prophet, recognizing the dangers that Insupportable populations brought to nations of his time. To whom might Swift be r e f e r r i n g i n t h i s passage?  "I said  there was a Society of Men among us, bred up from t h e i r Youth i n the Art of proving by Words multiplied for the Purpose, that White i s Black, and Black i s White, according  as they are paid.  To t h i s Society a l l the rest of the  People are Slaves."3  In his day the persuaders to f a l s e  b e l i e f were lawyers.  Curiosity about space i s timeless:  the Greeks accounted  for t h e i r f i r s t gods by the union  of Mother Earth and Father Sky, recognizing the i n t e r actions of these separate regions; Daedalus trusted Jupiter's rule over the heavens when he flew home from Crete to escape the tyrant Minos; and Chaucer rose into the air of  i n an eagle's claws to view the capricious dispensation fame i n "The House of Fame."  heavens men  In t h e i r tales of the  have reached f o r control of uninhabited space  and f o r understanding of i t s r e l a t i o n to t h e i r earthly l i f e . "So f a r as most of the important things i n our l i f e are concerned, we are governed by attitudes, preferences, i n t e r n a l reconstructions of r e a l i t y , the roots of which are l o s t i n inconceivable abysses of tlme.''^  Our knowledge of these an-  cient roots i s found i n the l i t e r a t u r e about them, not just i n the l i t e r a t u r e of the recent buds.  82 What w o u l d  be  d e s i r a b l e outcomes o f e x t e n d i n g t h e  time dimension o f l i t e r a t u r e  selections?  The  sense o f c o n t i n u i t y , a sense t h a t whatever face  have i n some way  b e e n met  by  first  conditions  our a n c e s t o r s .  they speak  ences and  t h e r e c u r r i n g human d e s i r e  i n part  know f r o m where we who  ask,  The  lucky  whisked  have come.  We  "What d i d y o u do when y o u were my  i n t o m a r v e l l o u s adventures which  Grandma i s t h e i r grandma a n d  their  l i v e s because  t o ease  cloud  As  who  s o t h e man  i n time.  t i v e modern w r i t e r s writers  In  done o r  Knowing t h i s  heritage  from an i n d i v i d u a l  has b e e n a b l e  o f t o d a y who  or complacent  I n f o r m e d , w a r n e d , o r i n s p i r e d by w r i t e r s  These  of  the farmer lamenting  t e r r i f i e d by dangers  from another p o i n t  their  to spy  a n d m e a s u r e i t s s p e e d and d i r e c t i o n  the farmer's l a n d ,  c o n f u s e d and  slipped  world.  i s c o m f o r t e d by a p i l o t  a distant rain  c a n be  Grandma?"  Is p a r t  o f m a n k i n d has  the p a n i c t h i n k i n g r i s i n g  v i e w o f t h e immediate  toward  in children  seem t o be  her l i f e  s e e n o r t h o u g h t b e l o n g s t o us a l l .  drought  age,  to  t h e y a r e a l l i n t h e same f a m i l y .  l a r g e r w o r l d what t h e f a m i l y  helps  desire  experi-  ones w i t h i m a g i n a t i v e Grandmas c a n e x p e c t t o be  own.  the  t o us o f t h e i r  see t h i s  we  By means  of a legacy of l i t e r a t u r e satisfy  is a  cannot  Older writers  about  them,  speaking  o f f e r a perspec-  offer.  have a n o t h e r a d v a n t a g e ;  through the s i e v e  is either  t h e y have  o f t i m e , t h e y have s u r v i v e d  the  83 a g e s . "The  e r o s i o n of time  o l d e r book, g i v i n g c i e s and  is in itself  a criterion  i t t h e power t o wash away t h e  p r o v i d e a steady view of existence."5  t i n g the endurance o f P i l g r i m ' s Progress  and  A.  C. Ward  the  irrelevan Contempla-  the  a p p e a r a n c e o f o t h e r w r i t i n g s on r e l i g i o n and  of  dis-  politics,  says:  The i n n u m e r a b l e works on t h e s e s u b j e c t s t h a t have p e r i s h e d , p e r i s h e d f o r want o f a r t ; t h e h a n d f u l t h a t h a v e s u r v i v e d commend t h e m s e l v e s t o one g e n e r a t i o n a f t e r a n o t h e r , o f t h e c o n v e r t e d and t h e u n c o n v e r t e d a l i k e , t h r o u g h t h e i r v e r b a l d e x t e r i t y and g r a c e — by t h e q u a l i t y c a l l e d l i t e r a r y s t y l e w h i c h a r i s e s f r o m e a c h i n d i v i d u a l w r i t e r ' s t a s t e and s k i l l a s a c h o o s e r and a r r a n g e r o f w o r d s . T h e r e i s no o t h e r reason f o r the impressive f a c t that the w r i t i n g s of one r e l a t i v e l y u n e d u c a t e d g o d l y t i n s m i t h have o u t l a s t e d t h o s e o f a m u l t i t u d e o f g o d l y s c h o l a r s and l e a r n e d t h e o l o g i a n s who were n o t l e s s p a s s i o n a t e l y devout than John Bunyan."  The  teacher  hension  has  o f theme, d i c t i o n and  o f w r i t i n g and dent  other c r i t e r i a  importance  because they  structure.  o f theme, he  that these are s a t i s f i e d  merely  t o c o n s i d e r such as  by  u s e f u l and  values.  the B i b l e , Malory,  are comprehensible  and  and  Addison  quality confi-  faded.  In t e a c h i n g English,  are obviously  interesting.  In t e a c h i n g  f o r i n s t a n c e , the f u n c t i o n s and  o f t h e e s s a y , B a c o n , J o h n s o n , and  essential.  more  t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f modern  the forms o f l i t e r a t u r e , styles  c a n be  have e n d u r e d where o t h e r s have  l a n g u a g e s t r u c t u r e and from  f a r as  t h e w e l l known o l d e r w r i t e r s  O l d e r w r i t e r s have a l s o u n i q u e  examples  As  compre-  E v o l u t i o n of blank verse  Montaigne  are  from A n g l o - S a x o n  poetry  84 appears  In L a n g l a n d and  Plato's  Crlto for fourth  readable but curricula.  Malory.  G e o r g e Sampson  form boys, not  a l s o because there He  only  i s nothing  recommends  because i t i s  like  i t i n most  continues:  That process of steady mental i n t e r r o g a t i o n , that g r a d u a l r e d u c t i o n of a b s t r a c t i o n s , e i t h e r to t h e i r a i r o r t o something a c t u a l i s . . . p r e c i s e l y the k i n d o f e d u c a t i o n o u r p u p i l s n e e d and o u g h t t o g e t . '  The teaching offers the  unique v a l u e  of  of older  contemporary l i t e r a t u r e  with a l l u s i o n s .  myths, and  consulting  the  Students  l e g e n d s do  a reference  and  t h a n by  h a r p o r by  psaltery"  t h a t Browning's connotations of  like  and  praise  t h a n t h e y d e s e r v e by  insists his pupils  and  forces  other aspects  the  or  work b e i n g  if  such a l l u s i o n s are  so  do  i s t o draw a t t e n t i o n  Bible,  he  as  of  the  phrase  implies denotation  are  often  a conscientious of  investigations  given  teacher  each phrase  to  It is  f a m i l i a r t h a t a l l the to t h e i r f i t n e s s .  Hamelin"  recognizes  w e l l as  studied.  far  B i b l e knows  also  t h i s one  the  "Sweeter  Piper  know a l l I m p l i c a t i o n s  explanations of  Pled  original  A l l u s i o n s s u c h as  who  the  the  the  allusion in  Coming a c r o s s  a z i t h e r and  of adoration  more a t t e n t i o n  the  i n "The  i n v e r s i o n of  sweet m u s i c .  familiarity i t  s t u d e n t w i t h knowledge o f  t h a t a p s a l t e r y was  facilitates  have t o c h o o s e between  ignoring  f i n d i n g context clues.  Browning, the  i s the  that  f a m i l i a r with  not  hope o f  by  literature  dominate preferable  t e a c h e r need  85 I n Who are concepts as a god  Has  S e e n t h e Wind, an E n g l i s h  as w e l l as a l l u s i o n s :  God  o f vengeance, the s t e w a r d s h i p  In order to understand  or explain  the s t y l e  there and  of Christians,  God  the  uniqueness  S t . Sammy's d i s c o u r s e s , t h e  s t u d e n t must a l s o know t h e s t o r i e s C r e a t i o n as w e l l as  text,  as a s h e p h e r d  as a c r e a t o r , a n g e l s , g r a c e , P h i l i s t i n i s m , o f man.  10  o f t h e P r o d i g a l Son  of Genesis.  The  time  to  and locate  t h e s e r e f e r e n c e s c o u l d e a s i l y become d i s p r o p o r -  tionate. Time may  be m i s s p e n t  too.  d e s c r i b i n g K i n g Solomon's d e c i s i o n each  claimant, Jim  In Huckleberry F i n n , to give h a l f  after  the baby t o  concludes:  You t a k e a man d a t ' s g o t on'y one e r two c h i l l e n ; i s d a t man gwyne t o be w a s e f u l o' c h i l l e n ? No, he a i n ' t ; he c a n ' t ' f o r d i t . He know how t o v a l u e 'em. B u t y o u t a k e a man d a t ' s g o t 'bout f i v e m i l l i o n c h i l l e n r u n n i n ' r o u n ' de h o u s e , en i t ' s d i f f u n t . He as s o o n chop a c h i l e i n two a s a c a t . Dey's p l e n t y mo'. A c h i l e e r two, mo' e r l e s s , w a r n ' t no c o n s e k e n s t o S o l l e r m u n , dad f e t c h h l m l °  A student unfamiliar with spend h i s r e a d i n g time instead Jim's  the o r i g i n a l  i n understanding  Jim's  o f s e e i n g what t h a t m i s c o n c e p t i o n  likely  misconception,  reveals  about  personal standard of v a l u e s . A minimum l i s t  of B i b l i c a l  selections  c a n know b e f o r e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l and useful  story w i l l  includes:  that  children  t h a t w o u l d be  most  86  The  Story of Creation:  The  T e n Commandments:  o  D a n i e l and the L i o n s * F i e r y Furnace:  The  Good S a m a r i t a n :  The  P r o d i g a l Son:  The  Nature  literature. graven  Daniel  C h a p t e r 3» D a n i e l Chapter  1 0 , v e r s e s 29 t o 3 7 , Luke  1 5 , v e r s e s 11  Chapter  o f Love:  images,  Chapter 6,  Den:  Chapter  F a m i l i a r i t y w i t h these passages vocabulary,  Genesis  C h a p t e r 53* I s a i a h  Lord*s Servant:  The  1,  Chapter 2 0 , v e r s e s 1 t o 17, Exodus  P s a l m s 2 3 , 27 The  Chapter  13,  t o 3 2 , Luke  I Corinthians  ensures acquaintance with  and n a r r a t i v e s  Vocabulary includes:  frequently appearing i n t h e t r e e o f knowledge,  image, s o u n d i n g b r a s s , g r e e n p a s t u r e s ; Images  the a p p l e as the f r u i t shepherd,  o f k n o w l e d g e , men a s sheep  seeing through a g l a s s d a r k l y .  s t o r i e s a r e models f o r l a t e r It  i s well  i l y mean f u l l enduring worth  a n d God a s  In a d d i t i o n , the  writings.  t o add that  understanding.  include:  familiarity  does n o t n e c e s s a r -  One o f t h e r e a s o n s  o f these passages  f o r the  i s t h a t r e - r e a d i n g them a s  time e n l a r g e s the experience b r i n g s g r e a t e r i n s i g h t . A l t h o u g h t h e wisdom t h e y o f f e r may n o t a l w a y s t o t h e young r e a d e r , around gather associated  the s t o r i e s  ideas and f e e l i n g s .  be t r a n s m i t t e d  he c a n b e g i n t o  87 I n t h e same way, f o l k legends  allows  k n o w l e d g e o f c l a s s i c a l myths  the s t u d e n t  and  t o summon c o n n o t a t i o n s  and  s y m b o l s when he meets words l i k e V e n u s , Olympus, N e p t u n e , D e l p h i c , and early  adapt  experience  without  them t o t h e work b e i n g s t u d i e d .  i s i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o h i s new  the h i n d r a n c e  His  experience  o f s t o p p i n g t o r e s e a r c h o r , much  worse, i g n o r i n g the r e f e r e n c e and m i s s i n g a l t o g e t h e r i t s contribution. Certain  images have b e e n u s e d  "Mother e a r t h " b y  the Greeks and  into ploughshares" 1  calls  of  "the  universal  o f the poet  being  i n an  legacy.  typical, event"  to t e l l .  in literature  the  the Japanese,  f o r "peace" s i n c e B i b l i c a l  sleep" of d e a t h ^ — — t h e s e glimpses  throughout  1 1  and  the "from  times,  many more bywords  recurring,  o r what  which Frye says  ages, swords "the  are  Aristotle  i s the f u n c t i o n  I n s e e i n g t h e t i m e l e s s n e s s o f themes  student  i s o l a t e d age  sees but as  h i m s e l f n o t as an an  isolated  i n h e r i t o r o f a welcome  FOOTNOTES  ^ F . B. P i n i o n , E d u c a t i o n a l V a l u e s i n a n Age T e c h n o l o g y (New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1 4 0 . Chapter  of  I  ^ C e n t r a l A d v i s o r y C o u n c i l f o r E d u c a t i o n , "The P r e s s u r e o f E c o n o m i c C h a n g e , " i n E d u c a t i o n . Economy, and S o c i e t y , e d . A. H. H a l s e y , J e a n F l o u d , C. A r n o l d A n d e r s o n (New Y o r k : The F r e e P r e s s , 1 9 6 l ) , p . 3 0 . ^Halsey,  Floud,  and  A n d e r s o n , op.  cit.,  p.  36.  halsey,  F l o u d , and  A n d e r s o n , op.  cit.,  p.  38.  ^Adam G r e e n e , " C a n a d i a n E d u c a t i o n : A Utopian Approach," i n S o c i a l Purpose f o r Canada. e d . M i c h a e l O l i v e r ( T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y o f T o r o n t o P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , p. 9 4 .  Chapter  II  ^-Northrop F r y e , The E d u c a t e d L e c t u r e s , Second S e r i e s ( T o r o n t o : C o r p o r a t i o n , 1963)t p. 8. Sir 60. 2  p.  Thomas More, U t o p i a  I m a g i n a t i o n . The M a s s e y Canadian Broadcasting  ( L o n d o n , Dent and  Sons, 1935)»  ^ L e w i s A. C o s e r , e d . , S o c i o l o g y T h r o u g h L i t e r a t u r e : An I n t r o d u c t o r y R e a d e r ( E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s : Prentice-Hall, 1 9 6 3 ) , P. 4 3 . ^ F r a n z K a f k a , The C a s t l e , t r a n s . W i l l a and (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963), p. 44.  Edwin Muir  ^James and J a n e t M a c l e a n T o d d , e d . , V o i c e s P a s t . V o l . I I (London: Arrow, i 9 6 0 ) , p. 122.  from  88  the  89 L e w i s C a r r o l l , A l i c e ' s A d v e n t u r e s i n W o n d e r l a n d and T h r o u g h t h e L o o k l n g - G l a s s . . i n The A n n o t a t e d A l i c e , e d . M a r t i n G a r d n e r (Harmondsworth: P e n g u i n , 1965), p . 200. Chapter I I I N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l of Teachers of E n g l i s h , A Corr e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m : A R e p o r t o f t h e Committee on C o r r e l a t i o n . R u t h M a r y Weeks, C h a i r m a n , E n g l i s h Monograph No. 5 (New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y , 1936), p . 286. x  2  Pinion,  E d u c a t i o n a l V a l u e s , p.  135.  3lbid. ^ P h i l i p H. P h e n i x , , Realms o f M e a n i n g : o f t h e C u r r i c u l u m f o r G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n (New H i l l , 1964), p . 17. " ;  A Philosophy York: McGraw-  5c. W. J . E l i o t , K. D. N a e g e l e , M. P r a n g , M. W. S t e i n b e r g , L . T i g e r , " D i s c i p l i n e and D i s c o v e r y , A P r o p o s a l t o the F a c u l t y of A r t s of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia" (Vancouver: U n i v e r s i t y o f B. C , 1965), p . 12. ^N.C.T.E., op. c i t .  p.  1.  7 p i n i o n , o p . c i t . , p . 147. 8  Ibid.  9 p i n i o n , op c i t . , p . 73. (For f u l l e r explanation of h i s aims and d e s c r i p t i o n o f c u r r e n t c o r r e l a t i o n , s e e A p p e n d i x E.) Ibid.  1 0  Chapter  IV  1A. C. Ward, I l l u s t r a t e d H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h (London: Longmans G r e e n , 1957) I» x i i i .  Literature.  Robert E. S p i l l e r , "Is L i t e r a r y History Obsolete?", C o l l e g e E n g l i s h . XXV ( F e b . 1963), p . 346. 2  3lbid. Slbid.,  ^Ibid. p . 349  6  Ibld.  90  ^ S y l v a n Barnet, Morton Berman, W i l l i a m B u r t o , A D i c t i o n a r y o f L i t e r a r y Terms (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown, I 9 6 0 ) , p. 2 7 . ^Robert E . S p i l l e r , " I s L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y O b s o l e t e ? " , C o l l e g e E n g l i s h . XXV (Feb. 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 3 4 7 . Chapter V ^ r y e , The Educated Imagination, p. 24. W a l s h , G e r a l d , " F i c t i o n i n the Teaching o f H i s t o r y , " u n p u b l i s h e d paper. 2  3Helen Cam. H i s t o r i c a l Novels A s s o c i a t i o n , 1961;, p. 9 .  (London:  Historical  ^ I b i d . , p. 10. 5lbid., 6  p. 8 .  Ibid.  ? I b i d . , p. 6 . o  °B. J . W h i t i n g e t a l , The C o l l e g e Survey o f E n g l i s h . S h o r t e r E d i t i o n (New York: H a r c o u r t , Brace, 194*7), p. 1149. Chapter VI •••Helen Cam, H i s t o r i c a l Novels A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 o l ) , p. 5»  (London:  Historical  D o n a l d a D i c k i e , The E n t e r p r i s e l n Theory and P r a c t i c e ( T o r o n t o : W. J . Gage, 1 9 4 l ) , p. 1 2 5 . 2  3N.C.T .E., A C o r r e l a t e d • C u r r i c u l u m , p. 5 8 . ^G. R. C a r l s e n , "New C u r r i c u l u m P a t t e r n s f o r E n g l i s h Teachers," American A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s f o r Teacher. E d u c a t i o n Yearbook. XV (1962). p. 104. 5c. W. J . E l i o t  e t a l , " D i s c i p l i n e and D i s c o v e r y , " p. 5 .  Chapter  VII  " • S o c i a l S t u d i e s 7*  a n c i e n t and c l a s s i c a l h i s t o r y , age o f c h i v a l r y S o c i a l S t u d i e s 8: h i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , and Canada S o c i a l S t u d i e s 9: w o r l d geography S o c i a l S t u d i e s 10: the w e s t e r n world from the middle a g e s t o modern t i m e s S o c i a l S t u d i e s 11: Canadian h i s t o r y H i s t o r y 12: E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n s i n c e 1815 G e o g r a p h y 12: world geography  Chapter  VIII  •''George Sampson, E n g l i s h f o r t h e E n g l i s h Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1952), p. 107. 2  Cam, H i s t o r i c a l  3lbid.,  (New  p.  Novels,  p.  (Cambridge:  5»  7.  ^Dwight L . B u r t o n , L i t e r a t u r e Study i n the High S c h o o l s York: H o l t , R i n e h a r t , and W i n s t o n , 1 9 6 4 ) , p . 4 3 .  ^ A l s o s u p p o r t i v e i s Sampson's s t a t e m e n t , "Boys c o u l d n o t f i n d , i f t h e y s o u g h t f o r i t , l i t e r a t u r e so d e l i b e r a t e l y p e r n i c i o u s a s t h e m a t t e r i n most o f o u r n e w s p a p e r s — m a t t e r d e l i b e r a t e l y p e r n i c i o u s i n s u g g e s t i o n and i n s u p p r e s s i o n . I f any r e a d e r t h i n k s I am e x a g g e r a t i n g l e t him buy a d a y ' s n e w s p a p e r s i n L o n d o n a n d , h a v i n g c o n s i d e r e d them, a s k h i m s e l f i f one o f t h e i r m a i n p u r p o s e s i s n o t t o p e r p e t u a t e a n i m o s i t y , produce m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , a l i e n a t e sympathy and c r e a t e t h e a t m o s p h e r e i n w h i c h d i s p u t e s c a n n e v e r be a d j u s t e d , t r o u b l e s a v o i d e d o r wrongs r i g h t e d . N o t h i n g t h a t t h e boy r e a d s does t h i s d a l l y e v i l . " E n g l i s h f o r the E n g l i s h , p. 103.  Chapter  IX  Walsh, " F i c t i o n  i n the T e a c h i n g  of E n g l i s h , " p.  2.  92  Chapter  X  E . M. F o r s t e r , Two C h e e r s f o r Democracy H a r c o u r t , B r a c e , 1 9 5 1 ) , p . 71.  (London:  G e o r g e F . K n e l l e r , " E x i s t e n t i a l i s m and E d u c a t i o n , " i n P h i l o s o p h i e s o f E d u c a t i o n , e d . H. W. B u r n s and C h a r l e s J . B r a u n e r (New Y o r k : Ronald P r e s s , 1962), p. 298. 2  ^Pinion, Educational Values,  p.  47.  ^N.C.T.E.. A C o r r e l a t e d C u r r i c u l u m , p .  6l.  ^Thomas G r a y , " E l e g y W r i t t e n i n a C o u n t r y ^ A l f r e d L o r d Tennyson,  Church-Yard."  "Rizpah."  ^Pinion, Educational Values,  p.  94.  Q  ° H a r r y S. B r o u d y , " I m p l i c a t i o n s o f C l a s s i c a l R e a l i s m f o r Philosophy of Education," i n Philosophies of Education, e d . H. W. B u r n s and C h a r l e s J . B r a u n e r iwew xorEf: Jtionaia P r e s s , 1962), p. 258.  Chapter  XI  ~-H. W. Simon, "Some D a n g e r s i n T e a c h i n g L i t e r a t u r e a s S o c i a l H i s t o r y , " E n g l i s h J o u r n a l XX: 8 ( O c t . 1 9 3 D . p . Chapter  646.  XIII  •1-Frye, The  Educated  Imagination,  p.  33*  " B u t t o t h l n t e n t t h e p r e s c r i p t number o f t h e c i t e z e n s s h o u l d e n e i t h e r d e c r e a s e , n o r above measure i n c r e a s e , i t i s o r d e i n e d t h a t no f a m i l l e w h i c h i n e v e r y c l t i e be v i . t h o u s a n d i n t h e w h o l e , b e s y d e s them o f t h e c o n t r e y , s h a l l a t o n e s have f e w e r c h i l d r e n o f t h e age o f x l l i i . y e a r e s o r t h e r e a b o u t t h e n x . o r mo t h e n x v i . f o r o f c h i l d r e n u n d e r t h i s age no numbre c a n be p r e s c r i b e d o r a p p o i n t e d . T h i s measure o r numbre i s e a s e l y o b s e r v e d and k e p t , by p u t t i n g them t h a t i n f u l l e r f a m i l i e s be above t h e number i n t o f a m i l i e s o f s m a l l e r i n c r e a s e . " U t o p i a , p. 6 0 . 2  93 ^Jonathan S w i f t , A Voyage t o the Country o f the Houyhnhnms, i n The Comic i n Theory and P r a c t i c e , ed. John J . Enck, E . T. P o r t e r , and A l v i n Whitley (New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , i960), p. 215. H  M  ^Fosco M a r a i n i , Meeting w i t h Japan (New York: V i k i n g P r e s s , i960), p. 270. 5Burton, L i t e r a t u r e Study, p. 60. ^Ward, I l l u s t r a t e d H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e . p. x i . 7sampson, E n g l i s h f o r the E n g l i s h , p. 104. % a r k Twain, Huckleberry F i n n (Boston: M i f f l i n , 1958), p.~W.  Houghton-  Q 7  " F o r a l i e t h a t bereth b a s e l a r d e s . bryght swerde, o t h e r launce Axe, other a c c e t t . other eny kynne wepne, S h a l be demed t o the death . bote y f he do h i t smythie I n - t o s y k e l other i n t o s i t h e . t o shar other t o culter"  W i l l i a m Langland, " P i e r s Plowman," i n A. J . Wyatt, The T u t o r i a l H i s t o r y o f E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (London: U n i v e r s i t y T u t o r i a l P r e s s , 1929), p. 25. l O i o r q u a t o Tasso, "The Golden Age" i n The P o r t a b l e Renaissance Reader, ed. James Bruce Ross ancPMary M a r t i n McLaughlin (New York: V i k i n g P r e s s , 1959)» p. 91. X i  F r y e , op. c i t . , p. 24.  BIBLIOGRAPHY  A n d e r s o n , M a r g a r e t S., e d . Splendour of Earth: of T r a v e l . London: George P h i l i p , 19557 A l t i c k , R i c h a r d A. L i v e s and L e t t e r s : B i o g r a p h y i n E n g l a n d and A m e r i c a . Knopf, 1965.  An  Anthology  A History of New Y o r k :  Literary  Baugh, A l b e r t C , ed. A L i t e r a r y History of England. New Y o r k : A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , 1~~~~8. Boas,  R a l p h P h i l i p , a n d B a r b a r a M. Hahn. S o c i a l B a c k g r o u n d s of English L i t e r a t u r e . Boston: L i t t l e Brown, 1 9 3 4 .  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C o t t r e l l , The L a n d o f t h e P h a r a o h s ( e a s i e r t h a n Baumann's, p . 3~~1 P a d r a i c Colum, Myths o f t h e W o r l d P a d r a i c Colum. The A d v e n t u r e s o f O d y s s e u s ( t h e b e g i n n i n g of r e l i g i o n ) P a d r a i c Colum, C h i l d r e n o f O d i n T. C. Chubb, The B y z a n t i n e s B u l f l n o h ' s M y t h o l o g y , a b r i d g e d by Edmund F u l l e r ( G r e e k s , f a b l e s , C h a r l e m a g n e , Age o f C h i v a l r y ) B r y h e r , Roman W a l l (The A l e m a n n l B a r b a r i a n I n v a s i o n s ) B r y h e r , The G a t e t o t h e Sea (Paestum, 7 t h C. B.C.) M a r j o r i e B r a y m e r , The W a l l s o f Windy T r o y : A Biography of H e l n r l o h Schllemann ( D i f f i c u l t reading)  SS8  E l i z a b e t h B a i t y , A m e r i c a n s B e f o r e Columbus ( s e m i f i e t i o n a l i z e d I n d i a n s , i l l u s t r a t e d , easy r e a d i n g ) N. B. B a k e r , A m e r i g o V e s p u c c i ( w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d biography, e a s y t o read") F r a n z B e n g t s s o n , The Long S h i p s ( V i k i n g s , l i v e l y ) B r y h e r , Ruan ( D r u i d boy e s c a p e s h i s u n c l e p r i e s t ) M a r c h e t t e C h u t e , The I n n o c e n t W a y f a r i n g ( g i r l f r o m m e d i e v a l c o n v e n t r u n s away, meets a w a n d e r i n g p o e t a n d m a r r i e s him i n C h a u c e r ' s E n g l a n d ; a p p e a l i n g t o young a d o l e s c e n t g i r l s ) E l i z a b e t h C o a t s w o r t h , Door t o t h e N o r t h (boy r e s t o r e s f a t h e r ' s h o n o u r on e x p e d i t i o n t o s e a r c h f o r l o s t Greenland colony) T. B. C o s t a i n , B e l o w t h e S a l t ( 2 0 t h C. man becomes h i s Saxon a n c e s t o r )  99  100 SS8  (continued) F o x e ' s Book o f M a r t y r s ( f o r t e a c h e r ; e . g . , eye w i t n e s s t o R i d l e y ' s death g i v e s not o n l y d e s c r i p t i o n o f event b u t mood o f r e s i g n a t i o n ) V a l G e n d r o n , Powder and H i d e s ( l a s t b u f f a l o h u n t , 1873) G r e y Owl, Book o f G r e y Owl L e o G u r k o , Tom P a i n e t Freedom's A p o s t l e R o d e r i c k Haig-Brown, C a p t a i n o f the D i s c o v e r y R o d e r i c k H a i g - B r o w n , Mounted P o l i c e P a t r o l T " t r a n s i t i o n ' novel) J o h n F. Hayes, T r e a s o n a t York P a u l i n e J o h n s o n , Legends o f V a n c o u v e r C h a r l e s K l n g s l e y , Hereward t h e Wake ( H a r o l d v s . Hereward as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f i g u r e s ) Rudyard K i p l i n g , Puck o f Pook's H i l l (Sussex i n 1 1 t h , 12th C , medieval o r d e r p r o t e c t i n g c i v i l i z a t i o n ) R u d y a r d K i p l i n g , Rewards and F a i r i e s ( l 6 t h and 1 7 t h C. England) L a d y b i r d Achievement Books R i c h a r d Bowood, The S t o r y o f o u r C h u r c h e s a n d C a t h e d r a l s (more d i f f i c u l t t h a n o t h e r L a d y b i r d s ; i n c l u d e s new Coventry) B i o g r a p h i e s of W i l l i a m I , Cromwell, Dickens, e t c . (every o t h e r page i s a p i c t u r e ; v e r y easy; compact and i n f o r m a t i v e ) T. M. L o n g s t r e t h , The S c a r l e t F o r c e (RCMP) A. D. M i l l e r , The W h i t e C l i f f s ( w i t h Snow Goose w i l l appeal to g i r l s ) Rhoda Power, R e d c a p Runs Away ( P u f f i n book; m e d i e v a l England; m i n s t r e l s ; easy t o read) V i o l a P r a t t , C a n a d i a n P o r t r a i t s (famous d o c t o r s ) G e o r g e H. Pumphrey, G r e n f e l l o f L a b r a d o r H. P y l e , The M e r r y A d v e n t u r e s o f R o b i n Hood ( S c r i b n e r ' s 1955 e d i t i o n w e l l i l l u s t r a t e d ! R o b e r t S e r v i c e , Songs o f a S o u r d o u g h J a n S t r u t h e r , M r s . M i n i v e r ( w i t h Snow Goose w i l l a p p e a l t o g i r l s o f good r e a d i n g a b i l i t y ! G e o f f r e y T r e a s e , The B a r o n ' s H o s t a g e (Simon d e M o n t f o r t ) G e o f f r e y T r e a s e , Cue f o r T r e a s o n ( S p a n i s h s p i e s i n Queen E l i z a b e t h ' s r e i g n ; very easy) Geoffrey Trease, Mist over Athelney ( A l f r e d the G r e a t — 9 t h , 10th C.) Geoffrey Trease, S i r Walter R a l e i g h H e n r y T r e e c e , V i k i n g ' s Dawn ( T r i l o g y on Road t o M l k l a g a r d Harald Sigurdson) V i k i n g ' s Sunset L e o n a r d W l b b e r l e y , The K i n g ' s B e a r d (16 y e a r o l d boy and D r a k e ' s r a i d on C a d i z ) J o a n n e S. W i l l i a m s o n , The G l o r i o u s C o n s p i r a c y ( f r o m E n g l a n d i n 1780's t o U.S., H a m i l t o n i a n v s . Jeffersonian politics) C e c i l Woodham-Smith, L o n e l y C r u s a d e r ( a b r i d g e d v e r s i o n o f The L i f e o f F l o r e n c e N i g h t i n g a l e ) 1  101 SS  8  (continued) C h a r l o t t e Yonge, The before 1066)  SS  9  SS10  Little  Duke  (Normandy  N. B. B a k e r , P i k e o f P i k e ' s Peak ( v e r y e a s y ) R i c h a r d S t . B a r b e B a k e r , K a m i t l : A F o r e s t e r ' s Dream ( i n K e n y a and E n g l a n d , b l a c k and"~white b o y s a r e friends; etchings) 0. G. S. 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M o r t o n , The H e a r t o f L o n d o n S l a v o m i r R a w i c z , The L o n g Walk ( f r o m a R u s s i a n p r i s o n i n t h e A r c t i c t o I n d i a by f o o t ) Evelyn,CM. R i c h a r d s o n , L i v i n g I s l a n d ( o b s e r v a t i o n s o f d a i l y l i f e , e s p e c i a l l y b i r d s , on Bon P o r t a g e I s l a n d ) J o s h u a Slocum, S a i l i n g A l o n e a r o u n d t h e W o r l d John Steinbeck, T r a v e l s with Charley (Caravanning i n t h e U. S. w i t h a p e r s o n a b l e dog) L a u r e n s Van d e r P o s t , The L o s t W o r l d o f t h e K a l a h a r i J u l e s V e r n e , A r o u n d t h e W o r l d i n E i g h t y Days 0. W i s t e r , The V i r g i n i a n (Wyoming In 1 8 8 0 ' s ) I r v i n g A d l e r , The Sun and i t s F a m i l y ( h i s t o r y a p p l i e d to astronomy: G a l i l e o , B r a h e , K e p l e r , Newton) N. B. B a k e r , S i r W a l t e r R a l e i g h ( e m p h a s i z i n g c o l o n i z a t i o n , s c i e n c e , p o e t r y r a t h e r than n a v a l exploits) W i l l i a m B a r r e t t , L i l i e s o f t h e F i e l d (Negro B a p t i s t a n d German-American n u n s ) J a m e s M. B a r r i e , The A d m i r a b l e C r l c h t o n (comedy on social classes) H a n s Baumann, The B a r q u e o f t h e B r o t h e r s : A T a l e o f t h e Days o f H e n r y t h e N a v i g a t o r M a r g o t B e n a r y - I s b e r t , C a s t l e on t h e B o r d e r ( p o s t W o r l d War I I Germany! Margot B e n a r y - I s b e r t , Dangerous S p r i n g ( A n t i - N a z i p a s t o r a n d 16 y e a r o l d g i r l i n Germany l n W o r l d War I I )  102 SS  10  (continued)  G e o f f r e y C h a u c e r , P r o l o g u e t o The C a n t e r b u r y T a l e s , trans. Neville Coghill J o a n C h l s s e l l , C h o p i n ( b i o g r a p h y w i t h some s c o r e s ) A. J . 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K e n n e d y , A N i g h t i n C o l d H a r b o u r ( c h i l d l a b o u r i n Industrial Revolution) Jay W i l l i a m s , Leonardo d a V l n c l ( d a V i n c i i l l u s t r a t i o n s , H o r i z o n C a r a v e l Book) SS  11  Roger B u l i a r d , Inuk. M i s s i o n a r y t o the Eskimos M a r j o r l e W. C a m p b e l l , The S a s k a t c h e w a n E m i l y C a r r , Growing P a i n s (autobiography) W i l l a C a t h e r , Shadows on t h e Rock ( F r o n t e n a c ' s Quebec) E l l a E . C l a r k , I n d i a n L e g e n d s o f Canada Thomas B. C o s t a i n , The W h i t e and t h e G o l d D o n a l d G. C r e i g h t o n , J o h n A. M a o D o n a l d . The Young Politician (difficult) " De l a R o c h e , Mazo, J a l n a ( E n g l i s h u p p e r c l a s s O n t a r i o family) Andrew L a n g F l e m i n g , A r c h i b a l d t h e A r c t i c ( a u t o b i o graphy o f f i r s t Bishop o f the A r c t i c ) M o l l i e G i l l e n , The M a s s e y s E l i z a b e t h Grey. F r i e n d w i t h i n the Gates: The S t o r y o f Nurse E d i t h C a v e l l (easy! T. G u t h r i e , R. D a v i e s , G. M a c d o n a l d , T w i c e Have t h e T r u m p e t s Sounded ( f i r s t two y e a r s o f S t r a t f o r d F e s t i v a l ) R. C. H a l i b u r t o n , Sam S l i c k , t h e C l o c k m a k e r L o m e J . H e n r y , C a n a d i a n s . a Book o f B i o g r a p h i e s P a u l H i e b e r t , S a r a h B l n k s ( s a t i r e on p o e t s , p r a i r i e s , t e a c h e r s ; f o r mature r e a d e r s ) E r i c Koch, V i n c e T o v e l l , John S a y w e l l , Success of a M i s s i o n ( p l a y on Durham) Anne L a n g t o n , A Gentlewoman i n U p p e r Canada (1834-1846 p e r s o n a l o b s e r v a t i o n s )  103 SS11  (Continued) W.  0. M i t c h e l l , J a k e and t h e K i d ( r u r a l Saskatchewan boy g r o w i n g up"5 Susanna Moodle, Roughing I t In the Bush ( p i o n e e r i n g w i t h humor and e n t h u s i a s m ) F a r l e y Mowat, West V i k i n g Desmond P a c e y , e d . , Book o f C a n a d i a n S t o r i e s K e n n e t h R o b e r t s , N o r t h w e s t P a s s a g e (War o f 1812, adventure) L e o R o s t e n , The E d u c a t i o n o f Hyman K a p l a n (humor w i t h sympathy f o r i m m i g r a n t s ' p r o b l e m s ) J o s e p h S c h u l l , B a t t l e f o r the Rock J . S a g e r , E r i c t h e Red R o b e r t Weaver, e d . , C a n a d i a n S h o r t S t o r i e s  History  12  P a u l B r i c k h i l l , R e a c h f o r t h e Sky ( B a d e r ) P i e r r e B o u l l e , B r i d g e on t h e R i v e r Kwal ( B r i t i s h commander i n J a p a n e s e p r i s o n camp i s more c o n c e r n e d with honesty than m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y ) W a l t e r Van T i l b e r g C l a r k , The Ox-Bow I n c i d e n t ( p s y c h o l o g y o f mob a c t i o n , c f . J u l i u s C a e s a r ) L a w r e n c e D u r r e l l , B i t t e r Lemons ( C y p r u s b e f o r e t h e f i g h t i n g , a p e r s o n a l view, not easy r e a d i n g ) T. S. E l i o t , M u r d e r i n t h e C a t h e d r a l (Henry I I and Thomas a B e c k e t , c f . B e c k e t , A n o u i l h and m o v i e ) D. J . G o o d s p e e d , The C o n s p i r a t o r s ( s i x coups d ' e t a t , carefully analyzed, v i v i d l y told) G. deLampedusa, The L e o p a r d ( a r i s t o c r a t o f p r e G a r l b a l d l e r a i n S o u t h e r n I t a l y ; f o r mature r e a d e r s ) James M l c h e n e r , The B r i d g e s a t T o k o - R l ( a i r waa? i n Korea) A l i s t a i r M a c L e a n , The Guns o f N a v a r o n e ( n e a r l y i m p o s s i b l e W o r l d War I I m i s s i o n ! S i r H a r o l d G. N l c o l s o n , K i n g G e o r g e V S e a n O'Casey, J u n o and t h e P a y c o c k ( I r e l a n d ' s C i v i l War) C o r n e l i u s Ryan, The L o n g e s t Day (D-Day f r o m many viewpoints) K a t e S e r e d y , C h e s t r y Oak ( e f f e c t s o f war on c h i l d r e n , easy r e a d i n g ) W h e e l e r - B e n n e t t , K i n g George V I  APPENDIX B PERCENTAGE OF CONTENTS WRITTEN BY AUTHORS BORN BEFORE I865  BECKONING  TRAILS  INVITATION TO POETRY SHORT STORIES OF DISTINCTION POEMS OF S P I R I T AND ACTION PROSE READINGS HARRAP  i  BOOK OF MODERN SHORT STORIES  INTRODUCING POETRY EIGHTEEN STORIES DRAMA I V SELECTION OF ENGLISH POETRY GOLDEN  CARAVANS  PROSE OF OUR  DAY  REPRESENTATIVE SHORT STORIES ON STAGE  m  POEMS WORTH KNOWING ESSAYS OF YESTERDAY AND  TODAY  mm  ARGOSY TO ADVENTURE ADVENTURES I N READING  104  APPENDIX C SUGGESTIONS POR Extension with There  TIME EXTENSION OR  SELECTIONS  Correlation  a r e two  source books o f Canadian  t h a t E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s c o u l d use view, o b j e c t i v i t y ,  and  f o r teaching point of  description.  s o u r c e b o o k s t h e y have a v a r i e t y personal diaries,  history  Because t h e y  of forms:  reports, diaries.  The  documents,;  s t y l e s of  v a r y t o o , a c c o r d i n g t o the e d u c a t i o n , b i r t h p l a c e , birth high  year of the a u t h o r s . s c h o o l i s G* W—  published  i n Toronto  s h o r t and  do n o t  No  one  event  The fc  i s covered  in detail,  Crowe,' and  p h y s i c i a n who  i t s material of  o f r e a d i n g enables:  France  such as the  founding  d e s c r i b e d by a n  Intendent,  !2he more  History,  edited  K e n n e t h McNaught,, and H a r r y in  c o n t e n t s i s the r e p o r t o f  examined L o u i s R i e l  m a t e r i a l i n 472  While  are  p u b l i s h e d by Longmans G r e e n i n T o r o n t o  example o f t h e u n u s u a l  History.  immediacy  volume i s A S o u r c e - b o o k o f C a n a d i a n ™" — — — — — — —^—  b y J . Hi* R e i d , J * Hi. S t e w a r t ,  The  The  C a n a d a i n t e r p r e t e d by a S w e d i s h s c i e n t i s t .  detailed  and  background.  It culls  t o 1793•  f a s c i n a t i n g scenes  o f H a l i f a x , , t h e homes i n New  An  and  s e l e c t i o n s as w e l l as the ease  studentS3 t o absorb  and  I t s items  r e q u i r e much h i s t o r i c a l  writing  for junior  Brown s R e a d i n g s I n C a n a d i a n  f r o m w r i t e r s on h a p p e n i n g s up the  book s u i t a b l e  by Dent i n 1940.,  are  t o see  i f he were  p a g e s c o v e r s t h e y e a r s up  t h e s e books a r e undoubtedly 105  1959. the insane.  t o 195&«  o f prime i n t e r e s t  S.  to  the  106 Social  S t u d i e s t e a c h e r s , E n g l i s h t e a c h e r s c a n u s e them  profitably history  f o rteaching inferences, connotations,  and o t h e r r e a d i n g s k i l l s w h i l e  knowledge o f t h e o t h e r An useful  anthology  of descriptive  and n a r r a t i v e s e l e c t i o n s  g e o g r a p h y i s M a r g a r e t S. A n d e r s o n ' s  o f E a r t h . An Anthology  1954).  Philip,  r e i n f o r c i n g the  subject.  i n c o r r e l a t i o n with  Splendour  a f T r a v e l (London:  The s e l e c t i o n s a r e o r g a n i z e d  regions they d e s c r i b e .  Personal impressions  and  their  standards  customs and t h e i r  reading and  The  illustrate  c a n u s e them t o t e a c h enlarging vocabulary,  o f sentence  s t r u c t u r e , as  f o r T e a c h e r Use d i f f i c u l t i e s o l d e r w r i t i n g s g i v e modern  spelling, time  the  o t h e r hand, o f f e r  essays, cability  consuming f o r c l a s s  instruction.  t o o t h e r work b e i n g  sance Reader, e d .  A n t h o l o g i e s , on  short passages as l e t t e r s ,  w h i c h c a n be s e l e c t e d f o r t h e i r  York:;  readers  s t r u c t u r e , a n d d i c t i o n , make many w h o l e w o r k s  too  and  o f people  appear i n s e v e r a l periods o f time.  Anthologies  (New  of l i v i n g  s k i l l s of discerning attitudes,  comprehending v a r i o u s s t y l e s  these  in  The E n g l i s h t e a c h e r  George  according t o  the  human g e o g r a p h y .  language  studied.  interest  poems, a n d and a p p l i -  The P o r t a b l e  James B . R o s s a n d Mary M.  Renais-  McLaughlin  V i k i n g , 1959) c o n t a i n s d e s c r i p t i v e , n a r r a t i v e  expository prose,  Erasmus, C e r v a n t e s ,  and l y r i c and d e s c r i p t i v e  Rabelais:, B o c c a c c i o ,  poetry.  Petrarch,  107 Lorenzo de  Medici,  1  Michelangelo, Bonsard, S i r P h i l i p  Sidney,  d a V i n c i , V e s a l i u s , G a l i l e o , Knox, L u t h e r , L a t i m e r , a r e 10  known t o  students of  SS  who  writings  o f t h e s e famous men  may  after  s t u d e n t s have b e e n shown U t o p i a , M o r e " by  Harpsfleld will  be  reading  appear at society  the  outside  church  volume a n t h o l o g y o f  erary  t o send a m i s s i o n  from  but  Dryden, S w i f t ,  classical writers  called Voices i s followed  A\ s h o r t  "How  from the  t a k i n g him  and  to Find school  on a t r i p  i n which P l i n y the the  Elder  died  19th  m a i n l y the  and  boy  "First  Oration  For  a  "The  20th c e n t u r i e s , with  Shake-  Tempest.  Eruption  to Tacitus  of  The  :  "The  forms,  Spook"' f r o m  a not  Vesuvius"  a b o u t how  Pliny  human  a t t i t u d e s t h a t make them  Catiline"  II  lit-  Theon s c o l d i n g h i s f a t h e r f o r  examples o f l i t e r a r y  against  the  by Volume  v a p o u r s , have r e c o g n i z a b l y  a u t h o r s w i t h p u r p o s e s and p e o p l e t o meet.  From  t h e A r e a o f a T r i a n g l e * by H e r o ,  to Alexandria,  the  two  Translators  Johnson appear, together  Younger w r i t e s  from  they of  b i o g r a p h y and  s p e a r e ' s e x t e n d e d p a r a p h r a s e o f O v i d i n The  letter  did  to  J a n e t M a c l e a n Todd have e d i t e d a  several periods,  of  real  precede each w r i t e r ' s works.  are  matters  contemporary  sponsorship.  to St. Augustine.  evaluation  If  " S t . Thomas  U t o p i a n s , so  Volume I f r o m Homer t o E u c l i d  from Plautus  the  time t o readers u n f a m i l i a r w i t h v i s i o n s  James Todd and  Past.  of  r e v e a l t o them t h e  unchrlstened  to read  a b o u t them.  a reading  r e a c t i o n t o t h a t book i n c l u d i n g s t e p s t h o s e a d m i r a b l e but  curious  names  lively  Cicero's Plautus*  comedy M o s t e l l a r l a . V i r g i l * s ; d e s c r i p t i o n o f Humour,  illustrate  108 oratory,  dialogue,  T h e s e two  allegory in brief,  b o o k s and  the  and  s p r i g h t l y passages.  Renaissance anthology are  i n pocket  book e d i t i o n s . A n o t h e r u s e f u l p a p e r b a c k i s The Reader  (New  w o u l d be  York:  1946), e d .  u s e f u l f o r background  especially  in providing  contemporary and  Viking,  t o him  opportunities  for familiarity  since  longer  but  t h e y have n o t  t h e y have t h e  Elizabethan  H i r a m Haydn, w h i c h  to Shakespeare  studies,  f o r reading  works  with Elizabethan  f o r comparison w i t h the m a s t e r .  generally  Portable  English  These s e l e c t i o n s  are  advantage of a u t h e n t i c i t y  been modernized.  P r e - T w e n t l e t h C e n t u r y Works In Teaching Composition For  reasons of length  English  teacher  works.  It is a fact  century  was  g r o u n d and  may  be  wary o f  s t y l e of  using  older writers*  we  to a s m a l l  cannot expect our  to supply  the  stifling  students'  interest i t is useful  A  c o n t i n u i t y of  works t o s t i m u l a t e  the  the whole  twentieth  educated c l a s s , with  In o r d e r  from l o n g e r  rhetoric,  t h a t most w r i t i n g b e f o r e  addressed maturity  and  students  literature t o use  to  have.  without selections  writing.  "He drew h e r hand more s e c u r e l y on h i s arm, t o make h e r s e n s i b l e t h a t she leaned on a p i l l a r o f s t r e n g t h . " (The  back-  Egoist)  109 A f t e r d i s c u s s i o n on that to  t h i s passage  an  observer  "pillar and  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  Implies,  and  as  t h e use  t h e man  as  c o u l d be B  superior-Inferior  the g e s t u r e as  i t appears  o f s t r e n g t h " as  of  i t might  to the r e a d e r ,  a reflection  t h e w r i t e r and  the  trite  o f t h e man's t h i n k i n g ,  o f " s e n s i b l e , " an a s s i g n m e n t on i m p l i e d by  appear  the  imagined  character  by  the  of  student  given. "*He p o r e s phrases, fowl.•"  over a l i t t l e Inexactitude i n and p e c k s a t i t l i k e a d o m e s t i c  "The g u l f o f a c a r e s s hove i n v i e w l i k e an enormous b i l l o w h o l l o w i n g u n d e r t h e c u r l e d ridge." (The  The  Egoist offers  examples f o r s t u d y  C  these  picturesque  an  language.  "The m a l t s t e r , a f t e r h a v i n g l a i n down i n h i s c l o t h e s f o r a few h o u r s , was now sitting beside a three-legged table, breakfasting o f f b r e a d and b a c o n . T h i s was e a t e n on t h e p l a t e l e s s system, which i s p e r f o r m e d by p l a c i n g a s l i c e o f b r e a d upon t h e t a b l e , t h e meat f l a t upon t h e b r e a d , a m u s t a r d p l a s t e r upon t h e meat, and a p i n c h o f s a l t upon t h e w h o l e , t h e n c u t t i n g them v e r t i c a l l y downwards w i t h a l a r g e p o c k e t - k n i f e t i l l wood i s r e a c h e d , when t h e s e v e r e d lump I s i m p a l e d on t h e k n i f e , e l e v a t e d , a n d s e n t t h e p r o p e r way o f f o o d . " f r o m t h e M a d d i n g Crowd)  example o f d e s c r i p t i o n  ment o f f o r m a l parallelism Students  s i m i l e s , worthy-  o f t h a t form of f i g u r a t i v e  (Far As  Egoist)  and  t e r m s t o an repetition  c o u l d be  asked  t h i s p a s s a g e shows t h e  informal procedure, f o r emphasis, and  employ-  order,  precise  detail.  to d e s c r i b e a s i m i l a r procedure  of  110 common l i f e C My  applying  Dear  M  some o r a l l o f  these  techniques*  Ernest,  My o b j e c t i n w r i t i n g i s n o t t o u p b r a i d you w i t h t h e d i s g r a c e and shame you have i n f l i c t e d upon y o u r m o t h e r and m y s e l f , t o s a y n o t h i n g o f y o u r b r o t h e r J o e y , and y o u r s i s t e r . S u f f e r o f c o u r s e we must, b u t we know t o Whom t o l o o k i n o u r a f f l i c t i o n , and a r e f i l l e d w i t h a n x i e t y r a t h e r on y o u r b e h a l f t h a n o u r own...." w  My d a r l i n g , d a r l i n g boy, p r a y w i t h me d a i l y and h o u r l y t h a t we may y e t a g a i n become a happy, u n i t e d , G o d - f e a r i n g f a m i l y a s we were b e f o r e t h i s h o r r i b l e p a i n f e l l upon u s . . . . M  (The Presented  with  differences and  could  these  two  letters,  Way  students  i n a t t i t u d e , opinion, outlook,  imagine E r n e s t ' s  r e p l y , w r i t t e n by  the  o f h i s d i s g r a c e as  response  students,  w e l l as  of a l l Flesh) should  t o e a c h o f them.  c o u l d encompass t h e  h i s f e e l i n g s about  i t .  r e q u i r e s b e c o m i n g a p e r s o n known o n l y  opinions  of others.  possible  in presenting  Other e x e r c i s e s are, older literature  r e q u i r i n g a whole r e a d i n g D  Longer passages r e l y i n g  c a t i o n s and ship  more on  the  whole t e x t s w i t h o u t  nature This  through  the  course,  i n short  on  sections  discerning  of a sustained  opinions.  s h o r t e r ones, can  be  harm, t o show how  characterizations with  of  His  work.  less  t e x t u a l study  show c a u s e s o f a c t i o n s and  passages, l i k e  their  of a  the  o f the w r i t e r s ,  exercise  not  see  pertinent  The  lifted  relation-  following from  good w r i t e r s details.  impli-  the support  Passage from  Chapter  I I I o f S h i r l e y by C.  Bronte  H e l s t o n e and Moore, b e i n g b o t h I n e x c e l l e n t s p i r i t s , arid u n i t e d f o r t h e p r e s e n t i n one c a u s e , you w o u l d e x p e c t t h a t , , , a s t h e y r o d e s i d e by s i d e , t h e y w o u l d c o n v e r s e a m i c a b l y . Oh, no'. T h e s e two men, o f h a r d b i l i o u s n a t u r e s b o t h , r a r e l y came i n t o c o n t a c t b u t t h e y c h a f e d e a c h o t h e r ' s moods. T h e i r f r e q u e n t bone o f c o n t e n t i o n was t h e war. H e l s t o n e was a h i g h T o r y ( t h e r e were T o r i e s i n t h o s e d a y s ) , and Moore was a b i t t e r W h i g — a Whig, a t l e a s t , a s f a r as o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e w a r - p a r t y was c o n c e r n e d ; t h a t b e i n g t h e q u e s t i o n w h i c h a f f e c t e d h i s own i n t e r e s t ; and o n l y on t h a t q u e s t i o n d i d he p r o f e s s any B r i t i s h p o l i t i c s a t a l l . He l i k e d t o i n f u r i a t e H e l s t o n e by d e c l a r i n g h i s b e l i e f i n t h e i n v i n c i b i l i t y o f B o n a p a r t e ; by t a u n t i n g E n g l a n d and E u r o p e w i t h t h e i m p o t e n c e o f t h e i r e f f o r t s t o w i t h s t a n d him; and by c o o l l y a d v a n c i n g t h e o p i n i o n t h a t I t was a s w e l l t o y i e l d t o him s o o n a s l a t e , s i n c e he must i n t h e end c r u s h e v e r y a n t a g o n i s t , and r e i g n supreme. H e l s t o n e c o u l d n o t b e a r t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s : i t was o n l y on t h e c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f Moore b e i n g a s o r t o f o u t c a s t and a l i e n , and h a v i n g b u t h a l f measure o f B r i t i s h b l o o d t o temper t h e f o r e i g n g a l l w h i c h c o r r o d e d h i s v e i n s , t h a t he b r o u g h t h i m s e l f t o l i s t e n t o them w i t h o u t i n d u l g i n g t h e w i s h he f e l t t o cane t h e s p e a k e r . A n o t h e r t h i n g , t o o , somewhat a l l a y e d his d i s g u s t ; n a m e l y , a f e l l o w - f e e l i n g f o r t h e dogged t o n e w i t h w h i c h t h e s e o p i n i o n s were a s s e r t e d , and a r e s p e c t f o r t h e c o n s i s t e n c y o f Moore's c r a b b e d c o n t u m a c y . As t h e p a r t y t u r n e d i n t h e S t i l b r o ' r o a d , t h e y met what l i t t l e w i n d t h e r e was; t h e r a i n d a s h e d i n t h e i r f a c e s . Moore h a d b e e n f r e t t i n g h i s companion p r e v i o u s l y , and now, braced up by t h e raw b r e e z e , and p e r h a p s i r r i t a t e d by t h e s h a r p d r i z z l e , he b e g a n t o goad him. "Does y o u r P e n i n s u l a r news p l e a s e y o u s t i l l ? " he a s k e d . "What do y o u mean?" was t h e s u r l y demand o f t h e R e c t o r . "I mean have you s t i l l f a i t h i n t h a t B a a l o f a L o r d Wellington?" "And what do you mean now?" "Do y o u s t i l l b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s w o o d e n - f a c e d and p e b b l e h e a r t e d i d o l o f E n g l a n d has power t o send f i r e down f r o m h e a v e n t o consume t h e F r e n c h h o l o c a u s t you want t o o f f e r u p ? " Ill  112 Passage  f r o m C h a p t e r I I I o f S h i r l e y by C. B r o n t e  (continued)  "I b e l i e v e W e l l i n g t o n w i l l f l o g Bonaparte's marshals i n t o s e a , t h e day i t p l e a s e s him t o l i f t h i s arm." " B u t , my d e a r s i r , y o u c a n ' t be s e r i o u s i n what you s a y . B o n a p a r t e ' s m a r s h a l s a r e g r e a t men, who a c t u n d e r t h e g u i d a n c e o f a n o m n i p o t e n t m a s t e r - s p i r i t ; y o u r W e l l i n g t o n i s t h e most hum-drum o f commonplace m a r t i n e t s , whose s l o w m e c h a n i c a l movements a r e f u r t h e r cramped by a n i g n o r a n t home g o v e r n m e n t . " " W e l l i n g t o n i s the s o u l of England. W e l l i n g t o n i s the r i g h t c h a m p i o n o f a good c a u s e ; t h e f i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a p o w e r f u l , a r e s o l u t e , a s e n s i b l e , and an h o n e s t n a t i o n . " " Y o u r good c a u s e , as f a r a s I u n d e r s t a n d i t , i s s i m p l y the r e s t o r a t i o n of that f i l t h y , f e e b l e Ferdinand to a throne w h i c h he d i s g r a c e d ; y o u r f i t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a n h o n e s t people Is a d u l l - w i t t e d drover, a c t i n g f o r a d u l l e r - w i t t e d f a r m e r ; and a g a i n s t t h e s e a r e a r r a y e d v i c t o r i o u s s u p r e m a c y and I n v i n c i b l e g e n i u s . " "Against legitimacy i s arrayed usurpation: against m o d e s t , s i n g l e - m i n d e d , r i g h t e o u s , and b r a v e r e s i s t a n c e t o encroachment, i s a r r a y e d b o a s t f u l , double-tongued, s e l f i s h , and t r e a c h e r o u s a m b i t i o n t o p o s s e s s . God d e f e n d t h e r i g h t ' . " "God o f t e n d e f e n d s t h e p o w e r f u l . " the  Sybil  Benjamin Chapter XIII  The  Disraeli  P o o r Workman  I t was a c l o u d y , g l i m m e r i n g dawn. A c o l d w i t h e r i n g e a s t w i n d blew t h r o u g h t h e s i l e n t s t r e e t s o f Mowbray. The s o u n d s o f t h e n i g h t had d i e d away, t h e v o i c e s o f t h e day had n o t commenced. There r e i g n e d a s t i l l n e s s complete and absorbing. S u d d e n l y t h e r e i s a v o i c e , t h e r e i s movement. The f i r s t f o o t s t e p o f t h e new week o f t o i l i s h e a r d . A man m u f f l e d up i n a t h i c k c o a t , and b e a r i n g i n h i s hand what w o u l d seem a t t h e f i r s t g l a n c e t o be a s h e p h e r d ' s c r o o k , o n l y i t s h a n d l e i s much l o n g e r , a p p e a r s upon t h e pavement. He t o u c h e s a numb e r o f windows w i t h g r e a t q u i c k n e s s a s he moves r a p i d l y a l o n g . A r a t t l i n g n o i s e s o u n d s upon e a c h p a n e . The u s e o f t h e l o n g h a n d l e o f h i s i n s t r u m e n t becomes a p p a r e n t a s he p r o c e e d s , e n a b l i n g him a s i t d o e s t o r e a c h t h e u p p e r windows o f t h e d w e l l i n g s whose i n m a t e s he has t o r o u s e . T h o s e Inmates a r e t h e f a c t o r y g i r l s , who s u b s c r i b e i n d i s t r i c t s t o engage t h e s e h e r a l d s o f t h e dawn; a n d by a s t r i c t o b s e r v a n c e o f whose c i t a t i o n they can a l o n e escape the dreaded f i n e t h a t awaits t h o s e who h a v e n o t a r r i v e d a t t h e d o o r o f t h e f a c t o r y b e f o r e the b e l l ceases t o sound. The s e n t r y i n q u e s t i o n , q u i t t i n g t h e s t r e e t s , and s t o o p i n g t h r o u g h one o f t h e s m a l l a r c h w a y s t h a t we have b e f o r e noticed, entered a court. Here l o d g e d a m u l t i t u d e o f h i s e m p l o y e r s ; a n d t h e l o n g c r o o k a s i t were by some s l e i g h t o f hand, seemed s o u n d i n g o n b o t h s i d e s , a n d a t many windows a t t h e same moment. A r r i v e d a t t h e end o f t h e c o u r t , he was a b o u t t o t o u c h t h e window o f t h e u p p e r s t o r e y o f t h e l a s t t e n e m e n t , when t h e window o p e n e d , and a man, p a l e and c a r e w o r n , and i n a m e l a n c h o l y v o i c e , s p o k e t o him. "Simmons," s a i d t h e man, "you n e e d n o t r o u s e t h i s s t o r e y any more; my d a u g h t e r has l e f t u s . " "Has she l e f t W e b s t e r ' s ? " "No; b u t s h e has l e f t . u s . She has l o n g murmured a t h e r h a r d l o t ; working l i k e a s l a v e , and n o t f o r h e r s e l f . And she has g o n e , a s t h e y a l l go, t o k e e p house f o r h e r s e l f . "  113  114 " T h a t ' s a bad b u s i n e s s , " s a i d t h e watchman, i n a t o n e d e v o i d o f sympathy. " A l m o s t a s bad a s f o r t h e p a r e n t s t o l i v e on t h e i r c h i l d r e n ' s wages," r e p l i e d t h e man, mournfully. "And how i s y o u r good woman?" "As p o o r l y a s n e e d s b e . H a r r i e t has n e v e r b e e n home since Friday night. She owes y o u n o t h i n g ? "Not a h a l f p e n n y . She was a s r e g u l a r a s a l i t t l e b e e , and a l w a y s p a i d e v e r y Monday m o r n i n g . I am s o r r y she has l e f t you, neighbour." "The L o r d ' s w i l l be d o n e . I t ' s hard times f o r such as u s , " s a i d t h e man; a n d , l e a v i n g t h e window o p e n , he r e t i r e d i n t o h i s room. I t was a s i n g l e chamber o f w h i c h he was t h e t e n a n t . In t h e c e n t r e , p l a c e d so as t o g a i n t h e b e s t l i g h t which t h e gloomy s i t u a t i o n c o u l d a f f o r d , was a l o o m . I n two c o r n e r s o f t h e room were m a t t r e s s e s p l a c e d on t h e f l o o r , a c h e c k c u r t a i n , hung u p o n a s t r i n g i f n e c e s s a r y , c o n c e a l i n g them. I n one was h i s s i c k w i f e ; i n t h e o t h e r , t h r e e y o u n g c h i l d r e n : two g i r l s , t h e e l d e s t a b o u t e i g h t y e a r s o f a g e ; b e t w e e n them t h e i r baby b r o t h e r . An i r o n k e t t l e was by t h e h e a r t h , and on t h e m a n t e l p i e c e , some c a n d l e s , a few l u c i f e r m a t c h e s , two t i n mugs, a p a p e r o f s a l t , and a n i r o n s p o o n . In a f a r t h e r p a r t , c l o s e t o t h e w a l l , was a heavy t a b l e o r d r e s s e r ? this was a f i x t u r e , a s w e l l a s t h e f o r m w h i c h was f a s t e n e d by i t . The man s e a t e d h i m s e l f a t h i s l o o m ; he commenced h i s d a i l y task. " T w e l v e h o u r s o f d a i l y l a b o u r , a t t h e r a t e o f one penny e a c h h o u r ; and e v e n t h i s l a b o u r i s m o r t g a g e d ! How i s t h i s t o end? Is i t r a t h e r n o t ended?" And he l o o k e d a r o u n d him a t h i s chamber w i t h o u t r e s o u r c e s : no f o o d , no f u e l , no f u r n i t u r e , and f o u r human b e i n g s d e p e n d e n t on him, and l y i n g i n t h e i r w r e t c h e d b e d s , b e c a u s e t h e y had no c l o t h e s . "I c a n n o t s e l l my l o o m , " he c o n t i n u e d , " a t t h e p r i c e o f o l d f i r e w o o d , and i t c o s t me g o l d . I t i s n o t v i c e t h a t has b r o u g h t me t o t h i s , n o t i n d o l e n c e , n o t i m p r u d e n c e . I was b o r n t o l a b o u r , a n d I was r e a d y t o l a b o u r . I l o v e d my l o o m , a n d my loom l o v e d me. I t g a v e me a c o t t a g e i n my n a t i v e v i l l a g e , s u r r o u n d e d by a g a r d e n , o f whose c l a i m s on my s o l i c i t u d e i t was n o t j e a l o u s . T h e r e was t i m e f o r b o t h . I t g a v e me f o r a w i f e t h e m a i d e n t h a t I had e v e r l o v e d ; a n d i t g a t h e r e d my c h i l d r e n r o u n d my h e a r t h w i t h p l e n t e o u s n e s s and p e a c e . I was c o n t e n t : I s o u g h t no o t h e r l o t . I t i s n o t a d v e r s i t y t h a t makes me l o o k b a c k upon t h e p a s t w i t h tenderness. not  "Then why am I h e r e ? Why am I , and s i x h u n d r e d t h o u s a n d s u b j e c t s o f t h e Queen, h o n e s t , l o y a l , and i n d u s t r i o u s , why a r e we, a f t e r m a n f u l l y s t r u g g l i n g f o r y e a r s , and e a c h y e a r s i n k i n g l o w e r i n t h e s c a l e , why a r e we d r i v e n f r o m o u r i n n o c e n t happy homes, o u r c o u n t r y c o t t a g e s t h a t we l o v e d ,  115 f i r s t t o b i d e i n c l o s e towns w i t h o u t c o m f o r t s , and g r a d u a l l y to crouch i n t o c e l l a r s , or f i n d a s q u a l i d l a i r l i k e t h i s , w i t h o u t e v e n t h e common n e c e s s a r i e s o f e x i s t e n c e ; f i r s t t h e o r d i n a r y c o n v e n i e n c e s o f l i f e , then r a i m e n t , and a t l e n g t h , food, v a n i s h i n g from us. " I t i s t h a t t h e c a p i t a l i s t has f o u n d a s l a v e t h a t has s u p p l a n t e d t h e l a b o u r and i n g e n u i t y o f man. Once he was an a r t i s a n : a t t h e b e s t , he now o n l y w a t c h e s m a c h i n e s ; and e v e n t h a t o c c u p a t i o n s l i p s f r o m h i s g r a s p , t o t h e woman and the c h i l d . The c a p i t a l i s t f l o u r i s h e s , he amasses immense w e a l t h ; we s i n k , l o w e r and l o w e r ; l o w e r t h a n t h e b e a s t s o f b u r t h e n ; f o r t h e y a r e f e d b e t t e r t h a n we a r e , c a r e d f o r more. And i t I s J u s t , f o r a c c o r d i n g t o t h e p r e s e n t s y s t e m t h e y a r e more p r e c i o u s . And y e t t h e y t e l l us t h a t t h e i n t e r e s t s o f C a p i t a l and o f Labour a r e i d e n t i c a l . " I f a s o c i e t y t h a t has b e e n c r e a t e d by l a b o u r s u d d e n l y becomes i n d e p e n d e n t o f i t , t h a t s o c i e t y i s b o u n d t o m a i n t a i n t h e r a c e whose o n l y p r o p e r t y i s l a b o u r , o u t o f t h e p r o c e e d s o f t h a t o t h e r p r o p e r t y , w h i c h has n o t c e a s e d t o be p r o d u c t i v e . "When t h e c l a s s o f t h e N o b i l i t y were s u p p l a n t e d i n F r a n c e , t h e y d i d n o t amount l n number t o o n e - t h i r d o f us Hand-Loom w e a v e r s ; y e t a l l E u r o p e went t o war t o a v e n g e t h e i r w r o n g s , e v e r y S t a t e s u b s c r i b e d t o m a i n t a i n them i n t h e i r a d v e r s i t y , a n d when t h e y were r e s t o r e d t o t h e i r own c o u n t r y , t h e i r own l a n d s u p p l i e d them w i t h an Immense indemnity. Who c a r e s f o r us? Y e t we have l o s t o u r e s t a t e s . Who r a i s e s a v o i c e f o r us? Y e t we a r e a t l e a s t as I n n o c e n t as t h e n o b i l i t y o f F r a n c e . We s i n k among no s i g h s e x c e p t o u r own. And i f t h e y g i v e us s y m p a t h y — w h a t t h e n ? Sympathy i s the s o l a c e o f the Poor; b u t f o r the R i c h , t h e r e i s Compensation." "Is t h a t H a r r i e t ? " s a i d h i s w i f e , moving i n her bed. The Hand-Loom w e a v e r was r e c a l l e d f r o m h i s r e v e r i e t o t h e u r g e n t m i s e r y t h a t s u r r o u n d e d him. " N o l " he r e p l i e d l n a q u i c k h o a r s e v o i c e , " I t i s n o t Harriet." "Why does n o t H a r r i e t come?" "She w i l l come no m o r e l " r e p l i e d t h e w e a v e r ; " I t o l d you so l a s t n i g h t : she c a n b e a r t h i s p l a c e no l o n g e r ; and I am n o t s u r p r i s e d . " "How a r e we t o g e t f o o d t h e n ? " r e j o i n e d h i s w i f e ; "You o u g h t n o t t o have l e t h e r l e a v e u s . You do n o t h i n g , W a r n e r . You g e t no wages y o u r s e l f ; and y o u have l e t t h e g i r l e s c a p e . " "I w i l l escape m y s e l f i f you say t h a t a g a i n , " s a i d the weaver: " I have b e e n up t h e s e t h r e e h o u r s f i n i s h i n g t h i s p i e c e w h i c h o u g h t t o have b e e n t a k e n home on S a t u r d a y n i g h t . " "But y o u have b e e n p a i d f o r i t b e f o r e h a n d . You g e t n o t h i n g f o r y o u r work. A penny an h o u r l What s o r t o f work i s i t , t h a t b r i n g s a penny an h o u r ? "  116 "Work t h a t y o u have o f t e n a d m i r e d , Mary; a n d has b e f o r e t h i s gained a p r i z e . B u t i f y o u d o n ' t l i k e t h e work," s a i d t h e man q u i t t i n g h i s loom, " l e t i t a l o n e . T h e r e was enough y e t o w i n g o n t h i s p i e c e t o have a l l o w e d u s t o b r e a k o u r fast. However, no m a t t e r ; we must s t a r v e s o o n e r o r l a t e r . L e t us b e g i n a t o n c e . " "No, no P h i l i p ! work. L e t us b r e a k o u r f a s t , come what may." " T w i t me no more t h e n , " s a i d t h e w e a v e r , r e s u m i n g h i s s e a t , " o r I throw t h e s h u t t l e f o r t h e l a s t t i m e . " "I w i l l n o t taunt you," s a i d h i s wife i n a k i n d e r tone. " I was wrong; I am s o r r y ; b u t I am v e r y i l l . I t i s not f o r m y s e l f I s p e a k ; I want n o t t o e a t ; I have no a p p e t i t e ; my l i p s a r e so v e r y parched. But the c h i l d r e n , the c h i l d r e n went s u p p e r l e s s t o b e d , and t h e y w i l l wake s o o n . " " M o t h e r , we a i n ' t a s l e e p , " s a i d t h e e l d e r g i r l . "No, we a i n ' t a s l e e p , m o t h e r , " s a i d h e r s i s t e r ; "We heard a l l t h a t you s a i d t o f a t h e r . " "And b a b y ? " "He s l e e p s s t i l l . " " I s h i v e r v e r y much!" s a i d t h e m o t h e r . "It's a cold day. P r a y s h u t t h e window, W a r n e r . I s e e t h e d r o p s upon t h e pane; i t i s r a i n i n g . I wonder i f t h e p e r s o n s below w o u l d l e n d us one b l o c k o f c o a l . " "We have b o r r o w e d t o o o f t e n , " s a i d W a r n e r . " I w i s h t h e r e were no s u c h t h i n g a s c o a l i n t h e l a n d , " s a i d h i s w i f e , "and t h e n t h e e n g i n e s w o u l d n o t be a b l e t o work; a n d we s h o u l d have o u r r i g h t s a g a i n . " "Amen!" s a i d W a r n e r . "Don't y o u t h i n k , W a r n e r , " s a i d h i s w i f e , " t h a t y o u c o u l d s e l l t h a t p i e c e t o some o t h e r p e r s o n , and owe B a r b e r f o r t h e money he a d v a n c e d ? " "No!" s a i d h e r h u s b a n d , f i e r c e l y . " I ' l l go s t r a i g h t . " "And l e t y o u r c h i l d r e n s t a r v e , " s a i d h i s w i f e , "when you c o u l d g e t f i v e o r s i x s h i l l i n g s a t once. B u t so i t a l w a y s was w i t h y o u . Why d i d n o t y o u go t o t h e m a c h i n e s y e a r s ago l i k e o t h e r men, a n d s o g e t u s e d t o them?" " I s h o u l d have b e e n s u p p l a n t e d b y t h i s t i m e , " s a i d Warner, "by a g i r l o r a woman! I t w o u l d have b e e n j u s t a s bad!" "Why t h e r e was y o u r f r i e n d , W a l t e r G e r a r d ; he was t h e same a s y o u , a n d y e t now he g e t s two pound a week; a t l e a s t I have o f t e n h e a r d y o u s a y s o . " " W a l t e r G e r a r d i s a man o f g r e a t p a r t s , " s a i d Warner, "and m i g h t have b e e n a m a s t e r h i m s e l f by t h i s t i m e had he cared." "And why d i d he n o t ? " "He had no w i f e a n d c h i l d r e n , " s a i d Warner; "he was not so b l e s s e d . " The baby woke a n d b e g a n t o c r y .  11? "AM my c h i l d . " e x c l a i m e d t h e m o t h e r . "That wicked Harriett H e r e , A m e l i a , I have a m o r s e l o f c r u s t h e r e . I s a v e d i t y e s t e r d a y f o r baby; m o i s t e n i t l n w a t e r , a n d t i e l t up i n t h i s p i e c e o f c a l i c o : he w i l l s u c k i t ; i t w i l l k e e p him q u i e t ; I c a n b e a r a n y t h i n g b u t h i s c r y . " " I s h a l l have f i n i s h e d my j o b b y n o o n , " s a i d Warner; "and t h e n p l e a s e God, we s h a l l b r e a k o u r f a s t . " " I t i s y e t two h o u r s t o n o o n , " s a i d h i s w i f e . "And B a r b e r always keeps you so l o n g l I cannot bear t h a t Barber: I d a r e s a y he w i l l n o t a d v a n c e y o u money a g a i n , a s y o u d i d n o t b r i n g t h e j o b home o n S a t u r d a y n i g h t . I f I were y o u P h i l i p , I w o u l d go a n d s e l l t h e p i e c e u n f i n i s h e d a t once t o one o f t h e c h e a p s h o p s . " " I have gone s t r a i g h t a l l my l i f e , " s a i d W a r n e r . "And much good i t h a s done y o u , " s a i d h i s w i f e . "My p o o r A m e l i a J How she s h i v e r s t I t h i n k the sun n e v e r touches t h i s house. I t i s , I n d e e d , a most w r e t c h e d place." " I t w i l l n o t annoy y o u l o n g , Mary," s a i d h e r h u s b a n d : " I c a n p a y no more r e n t ; a n d I o n l y wonder t h e y have n o t b e e n h e r e a l r e a d y t o t a k e t h e wee&." "And where a r e we t o g o ? " s a i d t h e w i f e . "To a p l a c e w h i c h c e r t a i n l y t h e s u n n e v e r t o u c h e s , " s a i d h e r husband, w i t h a k i n d o f m a l i c e i n h i s m i s e r y — " t o a cellar." "Oh! wny was I e v e r b o r n ! " e x c l a i m e d h i s w i f e . "And y e t I was s o happy o n c e ! A n d . i t i s not our f a u l t . I c a n n o t make i t o u t , Warner, why y o u s h o u l d n o t g e t two pounds a week l i k e W a l t e r G e r a r d ? " "Bah!" s a i d t h e h u s b a n d . "You s a i d he had no f a m i l y , " c o n t i n u e d h i s w i f e . " I t h o u g h t he had a d a u g h t e r . " "But she i s no b u r t h e n t o h i m . The s i s t e r o f Mr. T r a f f o r d i s t h e S u p e r i o r o r t h e c o n v e n t h e r e , a n d she t o o k S y b i l when h e r m o t h e r d i e d , a n d b r o u g h t h e r u p . " "Oh', t h e n she i s a n u n ? " "Not y e t ; b u t I d a r e s a y i t w i l l end i n i t . " " W e l l , l t h i m c I would even sooner s t a r v e , " s a i d h i s w i f e , " t h a n my c h i l d r e n s h o u l d be n u n s . " A t t h i s moment t h e r e was a k n o c k i n g a t t h e d o o r . W a r n e r d e s c e n d e d f r o m h i s l o o m , a n d opened i t . " L i v e s P h i l i p Warner h e r e ? " i n q u i r e d a c l e a r v o i c e o f p e c u l i a r sweetness. "My name i s Warner." " I come f r o m W a l t e r G e r a r d , " c o n t i n u e d t h e v o i c e . Your l e t t e r r e a c h e d him o n l y l a s t n i g h t . Toe g i r l a t whose house y o u r d a u g h t e r l e f t i t , has q u i t t e d t h i s week p a s t Mr. T r a f f o r d ' s factory." "Pray e n t e r . " And t h e r e e n t e r e d S Y B I L . 1  tt  U8 S y b i l — C h a p t e r IV  Politics  and t h e A r i s t o c r a c y  "My d e a r C h a r l e s , " s a i d L a d y Marney t o E g r e m o n t , t h e morning a f t e r the Derby, as b r e a k f a s t i n g w i t h her i n her b o u d o i r he d e t a i l e d some o f t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f t h e r a c e , "we must f o r g e t y o u r n a u g h t y h o r s e , I sent you a l i t t l e n o t e t h i s m o r n i n g , b e c a u s e I w i s h e d t o s e e y o u most p a r t i c u l a r l y b e f o r e y o u went o u t . A f f a i r s , " continued Lady M a r n e y , f i r s t l o o k i n g a r o u n d t h e chamber t o s e e w h e t h e r t h e r e were a n y f a i r y l i s t e n i n g t o h e r s t a t e s e c r e t s , " a f f a i r s a r e critical." "No d o u b t o f t h a t , " t h o u g h t E g r e m o n t , t h e h o r r i d phantom o f s e t t l i n g - d a y [Bis r a c i n g d e b t s ] seeming t o obtrude i t s e l f b e t w e e n h i s mother and h i m s e l f ; b u t , n o t k n o w i n g p r e c i s e l y a t what she was d r i v i n g , he m e r e l y s i p p e d h i s t e a , and i n n o c e n t l y r e p l i e d , "Why?" " T h e r e w i l l be a d i s s o l u t i o n , " s a i d L a d y M a r n e y . "What! a r e we c o m i n g i n ? " L a d y Marney s h o o k h e r h e a d . "The p r e s e n t men w i l l n o t b e t t e r t h e i r m a j o r i t y , " s a i d Egremont• " I hope n o t , " s a i d L a d y M a r n e y . "Why, y o u a l w a y s s a i d t h a t , w i t h a n o t h e r g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n , we must come i n , whoever d i s s o l v e d . " "But t h a t was w i t h t h e C o u r t i n o u r f a v o u r , " r e j o i n e d L a d y Marney, m o u r n f u l l y . "What*, h a s t h e k i n g c h a n g e d ? " s a i d E g r e m o n t . "I thought i t was a l l r i g h t . " " A l l was r i g h t , " s a i d L a d y M a r n e y . " e h e s e men w o u l d h a v e b e e n t u r n e d o u t a g a i n , had he o n l y l i v e d t h r e e months longer." " L i v e d ! " e x c l a i m e d Egremont. " Y e s , " s a i d Lacly Marney; " t h e k i n g i s d y i n g . " S l o w l y d e l i v e r i n g h i m s e l f o f a n e j a c u l a t i o n , Egremont l e a n t back i n h i s c h a i r . "He may l i v e a month," s a i d L a d y Marney; "he c a n n o t l i v e two. : I t i s t h e g r e a t e s t o f s e c r e t s ; known a t t h i s moment o n l y t o f o u r i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d I communicate i t t o y o u , my d e a r C h a r l e s , i n t h a t a b s o l u t e c o n f i d e n c e w h i c h I hope w i l l a l w a y s s u b s i s t b e t w e e n u s , b e c a u s e i t i s an e v e n t t h a t may g r e a t l y a f f e c t your c a r e e r . " "How s o , my d e a r m o t h e r ? " " M a r b u r y ! I h a v e s e t t l e d w i t h Mr. T a d p o l e t h a t you s h a l l stand f o r the o l d borough. W i t h t h e government I n o u r h a n d s , as I h a d a n t i c i p a t e d , a t t h e g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n s u c c e s s I t h i n k  119 was c e r t a i n : under the circumstances which we must encounter, the s t r u g g l e w i l l be more severe, but I t h i n k we s h a l l do i t : and i t w i l l be a happy day f o r me t o have our own a g a i n , and t o see you i n P a r l i a m e n t , my dear c h i l d . " " W e l l , my dear mother, I should l i k e v e r y much t o be i n P a r l i a m e n t , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t o s i t f o r the o l d borough; but I f e a r t h e c o n t e s t w i l l be v e r y expensive," s a i d Egremont, Inquiringly. "Oht I have no doubt," s a i d Lady Marney, " t h a t we s h a l l have some monster o f the middle c l a s s , some t i n k e r o r t a i l o r , o r candlestick-maker, with h i s l o n g purse, p r e a c h i n g reform and p r a c t i s i n g c o r r u p t i o n ; e x a c t l y as the L i b e r a l s d i d under Walpole: b r i b e r y was unknown i n the time o f t h e S t u a r t s ; but we have a c a p i t a l r e g i s t r a t i o n , Mr. Tadpole t e l l s me. And a young candidate with the o l d name w i l l t e l l , " s a i d Lady Marney, w i t h a s m i l e , "and I s h a l l go down and canvass, and we must do what we can." "I have g r e a t f a i t h i n your c a n v a s s i n g , " s a i d Egremont; "but s t i l l a t t h e same time, the powder and s h o t — " "Are e s s e n t i a l , " s a i d Lady Marney," I know i t , i n these c o r r u p t days; but Marney w i l l o f course supply t h o s e . I t i s the l e a s t he can do: r e g a i n i n g the f a m i l y i n f l u e n c e , and l e t t i n g us h o l d up our heads a g a i n . I s h a l l w r i t e t o him the moment I am j u s t i f i e d , " s a i d Lady Marney, "perhaps you w i l l do so y o u r s e l f , C h a r l e s . " "Why, c o n s i d e r i n g I have not seen my b r o t h e r f o r two y e a r s , and we d i d n o t p a r t on the best p o s s i b l e t e r m s — " "But t h a t i s a l l f o r g o t t e n . " "By your good o f f i c e s , dear mother, who a r e always doing good: and y e t , " continued Egremont, a f t e r a moment's pause, "I am not d i s p o s e d t o w r i t e t o Marney, e s p e c i a l l y t o ask a favour." " W e l l , I w i l l w r i t e , " s a i d Lady Marney; "thoughfel cannot admit i t as any f a v o u r . Perhaps i t would be b e t t e r t h a t you should see him f i r s t . I cannot understand why he keeps so a t the Abbey. I am sure I found i t a melancholy p l a c e enough i n my t i m e . I wish you had gone down t h e r e , C h a r l e s , i f i t had been o n l y f o r a few days." " W e l l , I d i d n o t , my dear mother, and I cannot go now. I s h a l l t r u s t t o you. But are you q u i t e sure t h a t the k i n g i s going t o d i e ? " "I repeat t o you, i t i s c e r t a i n , " r e p l i e d Lady Marney, i n a lowered v o i c e , but decided tone; " c e r t a i n , c e r t a i n , c e r t a i n . My a u t h o r i t y cannot be mistaken: but no c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n the world must throw you o f f your guard a t t h i s moment; breathe not the shadow o f what you know."  120 A t t h i s moment a s e r v a n t e n t e r e d , a n d d e l i v e r e d a n o t e t o L a d y M a r n e y , who r e a d i t w i t h a n i r o n i c a l s m i l e . I t was f r o m L a d y S t . J u l i a n s , a n d r a n t h u s : Most  Confidential  My d e a r e s t L a d y M a r n e y , — I t i s a f a l s e r e p o r t ; he i s i l l , h u t n o t d a n g e r o u s l y ; t h e h a y f e v e r ; he a l w a y s h a s i t ; n o t h i n g more; I w i l l t e l l my a u t h o r i t y when we meet; I d a r e n o t w r i t e i t . I t w i l l s a t i s f y y o u . I am g o i n g o n w i t h my q u a d r i l l e . Most a f f e c t i o n a t e l y y o u r s , " P o o r woman! s h e i s a l w a y s wrong," s a i d L a d y M a r n e y , t h r o w i n g t h e note t o Egremont. "Her q u a d r i l l e w i l l n e v e r take p l a c e , which i s a p i t y , as i t i s t o c o n s i s t o n l y o f b e a u t i e s a n d e l d e s t s o n s . I s u p p o s e I must s e n d h e r a l i n e ; " and she w r o t e : My d e a r e s t L a d y S t . J u l i a n s , — H o w good o f y o u r t o w r i t e t o me, a n d s e n d me s u c h c h e e r i n g news! I have no d o u b t y o u a r e r i g h t ; y o u a l w a y s a r e . I know he had t h e h a y f e v e r l a s t y e a r . How f o r t u n a t e f o r y o u r q u a d r i l l e , a n d how c h a r m i n g i t w i l l b e ! L e t me know i f y o u h e a r a n y t h i n g f u r t h e r from your unmentionable q u a r t e r . Ever your a f f e c t i o n a t e CM.  121 Questions:  Shirley  1.  I s e i t h e r man  2.  What e x p e r i e n c e s o f e i t h e r man adopt  3.  Where?  w o u l d l e a d him  is a devil  could these or a  two  c h a r a c t e r s argue  g i v i n g as Bronte  . of t h e i r Questions:  today  genius?  W r i t e a c o n t e m p o r a r y d i a l o g u e between t h e s e men,  to  h i s o p i n i o n of Napoleon?  Of what man  4.  b l i n d e d , by p r e j u d i c e ?  does,  previous  two  descriptions  lives.  Sybil  1.  Is H a r r i e t  2.  How  3.  Comment on  has  justified  she  caused the  i n r u n n i n g away?  her  Explain.  f a m i l y worry?  suitability  of the d i a l o g u e to  the  speakers. 4.  Imagine t o d a y a man despair.  5.  What  in a  similar  Write h i s thoughts  i s the purpose  on  situation  of  his position.  of the a r i s t o c r a t i c  characters  proposing C h a r l e s run f o r Parliament? 6.  What d o e s C h a r l e s Egremont mean by  "powder  and  shot"?. 7.  Would you of  the  better 8.  say  t h a t Warner o r Egremont  s t a t e o f the c o u n t r y ?  i s more aware  Which w o u l d make a  M.P.?  Imagine L a d y Maraey i n W a r n e r ' s room, l o o k i n g a r o u n d lt  by h e r s e l f .  Write her  thoughts  on  the  inhabitants.  APPENDIX D TEXTS FROM THE PAST The  f o l l o w i n g books a r e comprehensible  t o mature  a d o l e s c e n t s and e x c e l l e n t l y w r i t t e n , worth t e a c h i n g i n t o t o .  E m i l y Bronte, Wutherlng  Heights  J o h n B u n y a n , The P i l g r i m ' s Samuel B u t l e r ,  Progress  Erewhon  M i g u e l C e r v a n t e s , Don  Quixote  D a n i e l Defoe,  Robinson  Crusoe  George E l i o t ,  The M i l l  on t h e F l o s s  Thomas H a r d y , The R e t u r n  C h a r l e s Lamb, E s s a y s  o f the Native  of E l l a  C h r i s t o p h e r M a r l o w e , The T r a g i c a l H i s t o r y  of Doctor  Faustus Edmond R o s t a n d ,  Cyrano  deBergerac  W i l l i a m Makepeace T h a c k e r a y , The  Iliad  Vanity  a n d The O d y s s e y , p r o p o s e d  Fair  f o r t h e new E n g l i s h  c o u l d p r o f i t a b l y be complemented b y s e l e c t i o n s found  i n V o i c e s from  the P a s t , e d . Todd.  122  from  courses,  the Aeneid  APPENDIX E CORRELATION IN B R I T I S H UNIVERSITIES  Educational Values  I n an Age  P. B.  of  Technology  Pinion  S p e c i a l i z a t i o n f o r degrees tends to c r e a t e a corpus o f I n t e l l e c t u a l s r e a d y t o assume, u n t i l t h e y grow up, t h a t most matters outside t h e i r s p e c i a l i t y are not t h e i r business. It i s h a r d t o s e e how a c a d e m i c c u l t u r e c a n have a w i d e s p r e a d i n f l u e n c e on t h e n a t i o n i f we a r e c o n t e n t t o l i v e In c o n f i n e d departments. T h i s h e l p s t o e x p l a i n t h e p a s s i v i t y , o r impass i v i t y , o f s o many E n g l i s h g r a d u a t e s , and an i m m a t u r i t y o r i n e l a s t i c i t y o f m i n d w h i c h l i m i t s t h e i r powers o f c i t i z e n s h i p and l e a d e r s h i p In t h e i r communities. As a r e s u l t , power t e n d s t o p a s s i n t o t h e hands o f b i g b u s i n e s s a n d o f p o l i t i c a l p a r t i s a n s who e s p o u s e p o p u l a r c a u s e s . U n i v e r s i t y l e a r n i n g does n o t r e s u l t a s i t s h o u l d i n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f I d e a s t o common p r o b l e m s , and t h e r e e x i s t s a w i d e s p r e a d d i v o r c e between k n o w l e d g e and r e l e v a n t a c t i o n which l o o k s a t times l i k e s e m i - p a r a l y s i s * I f s u b j e c t s were r e l a t e d t o t h e i r s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c and i n t e l l e c t u a l b a c k g r o u n d s , t h e y w o u l d n o t o n l y t h r o w more l i g h t on t h e p r o b l e m s o f modern s o c i e t y ; t h e y w o u l d e n a b l e s p e c i a l i s t s t o t h r o w l i g h t on e a c h o t h e r ' s p r o b l e m s . The c l a s s i c i s t a n d h i s t o r i a n c o u l d c o n t r i b u t e to p o l i t i c a l thought; the h i s t o r i a n t o p o l i t i c s and l i t e r a t u r e ; t h e m a t h e m a t i c i a n , t o s c i e n c e ; a n d t h e s c i e n t i s t , t o modern p h i l o s o p h y . In the p a s t t h i s was much more p o s s i b l e , b e c a u s e t h e w h o l e f i e l d o f k n o w l e d g e was much s m a l l e r . T o d a y , k n o w l e d g e has o u t g r o w n t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l power o f i n d i v i d u a l s , a n d t h e r e s u l t I s f r a g m e n t a t i o n , and l o s s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l e a d e r s h i p and sense o f g e n e r a l r e sponsibility. I t i s the main r e a s o n f o r a l a c k o f g r e a t n e s s . A t a l l p o i n t s I n o u r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , I t i s o f u r g e n t imp o r t a n c e t h a t s t e p s s h o u l d be t a k e n t o c o u n t e r a c t t h i s t e n dency t o d i m i n i s h i n g r e t u r n s . A t Oxford, the r i g h t d i r e c t i o n was t a k e n w i t h t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f Modern G r e a t s , a c o u r s e i n p h i l o s o p h y , p o l i t i c s , and economics. A t Cambridge, N a t u r a l S c i e n c e i n t h e f i r s t two y e a r s i s a b r o a d c o u r s e i n c h e m i s t r y , p h y s i c s , a n d b i o l o g y ; a n d i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o s e e how t h e r e c a n be a g r e a t a d v a n c e i n any one o f t h e s e a l l i e d s u b j e c t s u n l e s s t h e i r l n t e r - r e l a t l o n s h l p i s known: the advanced study  123  of chemical elements i s a subject for the p h y s i c i s t , and biochemistry has recently become one of our most important sciences. On the humanistic side, English Literature at the University of Cambridge has been r i g h t l y and s u c c e s s f u l l y associated with the s o c i a l history and the s c i e n t i f i c , r e l i g i o u s , and philosophical thought of i t s age. The new University of Sussex proposes to adopt such a p o l i c y i n a l l i t s courses, and study subjects with r e f e r ence to t h e i r contexts. In English, f o r example, one of the special subjects w i l l be "Poetry, Science, and Religion i n the Seventeenth Century." In general, three related subjects w i l l be taken, and i n t e n s i f i c a t i o n w i l l be sharpened by holding seminars on special t o p i c s , which w i l l not only help to focus the subject with reference to Its background but also raise questions which have t h e i r p a r a l l e l i n the modern world. A new u n i v e r s i t y can organi z e , fashioning i t s syllabuses to modern needs, without being hampered by f a c u l t y regulations which have a habit of o u t l a s t i n g t h e i r u s e f u l n e s s . — p . 9 1 .  

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