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Studies of the effects of different treatments on the metabolizable energy value of wheat El-Lakany, Safaa 1968

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STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TREATMENTS ON THE METABOLIZABLE ENERGY VALUE OF WHEAT  by  SAFAA  A T H E S I S SUBMITTED  EL-LAKANY  I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF  SCIENCE  IN AGRICULTURE  i n t h e Department of Poultry  We  accept t h i s  required  Science  t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g  to the  Standard  THE U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H COLUMBIA April  1968  In  presenting  for  an  that  advanced  thesis  shall  I further  agree  for scholarly  Department  o r by  publication  without  thesis  degree  the Library  Study.  or  this  my  Department  hits  of  P „  make  that  >a  /| J  may  be  thesis  l ^  granted  f  Columbia  (UZ  by  requirements  Columbia,  t h e Head  shall  and  copying  It i s understood  gain  I agree  for reference  for extensive  for financial  Sci,^ >  the  of B r i t i s h  available  permission  representatives.  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada Date  i t freely  permission.  u  fulfilment of  at the U n i v e r s i t y  purposes  of this  written  in partial  of  of  this  my  that  n o t be  copying  allowed  ABSTRACT  Four successive  e x p e r i m e n t s were c a r r i e d out  e f f e c t s of d i f f e r e n t treatments of wheat.  The  treatments  acid-soaking, boiling  untreated  Nitrogen was  the n u t r i t i v e  q u a l i t y of 4  used were a u t o c l a v i n g , f r e e z i n g ,  i n w a t e r , and  Metabolizable and  on  to study  combinations of these  energy v a l u e s  of the v a r i o u s  wheat were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g  2-3  the  samples  water-soaking, treatments.  samples of  weeks o l d  treated  chickens.  r e t e n t i o n f r o m d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g the d i f f e r e n t wheat  samples  a l s o measured. A u t o c l a v i n g o f w h e a t s a m p l e s f o r 60 m i n .  markedly  increased  metabolizable  the n u t r i t i v e  energy  Freezing  lb  pressure  q u a l i t y o f w h e a t as m e a s u r e d  by  values.  a t -4°C  i n the metabolizable  a t 15  f o r 5 days r e s u l t e d i n s i g n i f i c a n t  energy value  of the  improvement  samples o f wheat t r e a t e d i n  t h i s manner. Water- or a c i d - s o a k i n g energy values The  o f t h e wheat different  d i d not  improve the  samples.  treatments  d i d not  affect  n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n from d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g the Prolonged 15  lb pressure)  heating  reduced the  metabolizable  the  t r e a t e d wheat.  ( a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 90 m i n . energy v a l u e s  percentage nitrogen r e t e n t i o n .  percentage  and  120  o f w h e a t as w e l l as  min. the  at  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  I n t r o d u c t i o n and R e v i e w o f L i t e r a t u r e Materials  and Methods  Results  Page 1 14 20  Experiment 1  20  Experiment 2  20  Experiment 3  26  Experiment 4  31  Discussion  37  References  45  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  The w r i t e r w i s h e s t o e x p r e s s  h e r deep a p p r e c i a t i o n t o  P r o f e s s o r J a c o b B i e l y , Head o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e , and P r o f e s s o r B. E. M a r c h , o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P o u l t r y S c i e n c e , f o r suggesting interest this  t h e p r o b l e m , s u p e r v i s i n g t h e work, t h e i r encouragement and  and o f f e r i n g  a l l the f a c i l i t i e s  needed f o r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f  study. Grateful  acknowledgement  i s a l s o e x t e n d e d t o P r o f e s s o r E. L .  W a t s o n o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r a l M e c h a n i c s , D r . A. J . R e n n e y P r o f e s s o r o f Agronomy and t o D r . J . F. R i c h a r d s of P o u l t r y Science  o f t h e Department  f o r t h e i r v a l u a b l e a d v i c e and r e a d i n g t h e m a n u s c r i p t .  INTRODUCTION AND REVIEW OF LITERATURE  Wheat, t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f w h i c h p r o b a b l y d a t e s b a c k t o p r e - h i s t o r i c days,  i s one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o f t h e c e r e a l s .  Fortunately,  i t may b e g r o w n u n d e r a w i d e v a r i e t y o f s o i l  and c l i m a t i c  conditions.  Thus i t i s one o f t h e most w i d e l y grown c r o p s i n t h e  world. Numerous v a r i e t i e s has  o f w h e a t a r e known a n d P e l s h e n k e  s t a t e d t h a t 12,000 v a r i e t i e s  out the world.  Other  o f wheat have b e e n i d e n t i f i e d  a u t h o r i t i e s give the t o t a l  as something  (1930) throughlike  30,000. All  wheat, whether w i l d o r c u l t i v a t e d , belongs  T r i t i c u m o f t h e f a m i l y Gramineae, t h e "grass f a m i l y " . o n l y one o f some 6 0 0 g e n e r a itself  comprises The  f e e d , f o r seed  Triticum i s  belonging to this great family,  for  which  w e l l o v e r 5,000 s p e c i e s .  wheat g r a i n i s used  f o r human c o n s u m p t i o n ,  and f o r i n d u s t r i a l p u r p o s e s .  e s t i m a t e s o f t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f wheat:  human c o n s u m p t i o n ,  2.  11 p e r c e n t u s e d  cent f e d t o l i v e s t o c k , u t i l i z e d  f o r livestock  Malenbaum (1953),  s t u d y c o v e r i n g t h e f i v e y e a r s p r e c e d i n g The S e c o n d W o r l d the f o l l o w i n g  t o t h e genus  1.  ina  War, made 74 p e r c e n t  f o r propagation,  3.  15 p e r -  i n i n d u s t r y , o r wasted.  The  w h e a t k e r n e l may b e r e g a r d e d  as c o n s i s t i n g o f t h r e e  1.  The g e r m o r embryo i n c l u d i n g  i t s sheath, the scutellum  which produces  parts:  t h e new p l a n t .  2.  The s t a r c h y e n d o s p e r m .  3.  The v a r i o u s o u t e r c o v e r i n g s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e h u s k o f t h e  grain.  According  to Kent-Jones  a n d Amos ( 1 9 5 0 ) t h e  average c o m p o s i t i o n o f a wheat k e r n e l i s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 5 % e n d o s p e r m , 2% embryo a n d 137. h u s k . t h e same a u t h o r s , f r o m  L a t e r (1957)  t h e i r own e x t e n s i v e d a t a a n d  d a t a o f o t h e r i n v e s t i g a t o r s , have p r e s e n t e d showing the approximate  from  tables  c h e m i c a l c o m p o s i t i o n o f wheats  f r o m d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f t h e w o r l d and o f t h e v a r i o u s products  o f m i l l i n g d e r i v e d from  The c a r b o h y d r a t e s and  sugars.  and  i s c o n f i n e d almost  important source  found  i n wheat i n c l u d e s t a r c h ,  entirely  t o t h e endosperm.  The s t a r c h i s  as a n e f f e c t i v e a n d  inexpensive  energy. Wheat i s a s o u r c e , n o t o n l y o f c a r b o h y d r a t e s  protein,  cellulose  S t a r c h i s t h e most abundant c o n s t i t u e n t o f t h e wheat k e r n e l  i n animal n u t r i t i o n c h i e f l y  of  such wheats.  but a l s o of  s u p p l y i n g a d e q u a t e amounts o f some, b u t n o t a l l ,  e s s e n t i a l amino a c i d s .  Thus w h o l e w h e a t i s a g o o d s o u r c e  l e u c i n e , t h r e o n i n e , and v a l i n e , b u t o n l y a f a i r methionine,  p h e n y l a l a n i n e , and t r y p t o p h a n .  amino a c i d s a r e f o u n d lower o v e r a l l of l y s i n e ,  of the  i n wheat f l o u r  concentration.  t r y p t o p h a n , and  source of  These e i g h t  of  isoleucine,  lysine,  essential  i n s i m i l a r proportions but i n  The m a i n d e f i c i e n c i e s  a r e i n t h e amounts  methionine.  The f a t s o f t h e w h e a t g r a i n a r e o b v i o u s l y n o t p r e s e n t i n sufficient  quantities  t o p l a y an i m p o r t a n t r o l e  H o w e v e r , w h o l e w h e a t i s an e x c e l l e n t  source  as s o u r c e s  of  energy.  o f t h e f a t - s o l u b l e v i t a m i n E.  The o t h e r f a t - s o l u b l e v i t a m i n s A, D and K a r e n o t f o u n d  i n wheat.  r e g a r d s w a t e r - s o l u b l e v i t a m i n s , wheat c o n t a i n s s i g n i f i c a n t  As  amounts o f  3  most o f t h e B - v i t a m i n s b u t e s p e c i a l l y significant  amounts o f i r o n , p h o s p h o r u s  magnesium, manganese, copper It  thiamine.  Whole w h e a t  supplies  i n the form o f p h y t i n  phosphorus,  and z i n c .  i s e v i d e n t from the f o r e g o i n g b r i e f  much t o o f f e r a s a b a s i c f o o d , b u t t h a t , not form the s o l e source o f n u t r i e n t s  like  s u r v e y t h a t wheat h a s  a l l other foods, i t can  f o r a n i m a l s o r humans.  S e v e r a l i n v e s t i g a t o r s have r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e use o f heat i n the p r e p a r a t i o n o f c e r t a i n foods d e f i n i t e l y of the p r o t e i n .  the n u t r i t i v e  value  H e a t damage t o p r o t e i n becomes a t t i m e s a p r o b l e m o f  considerable n u t r i t i o n a l  importance.  M c C o l l u m and D a v i s  ( 1 9 1 5 ) r e p o r t e d a. l o s s o f n u t r i t i v e  i n c a s e i n a u t o c l a v e d f o r one h o u r this  alters  a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e a n d showed  value  that  l o s s was due t o c h a n g e s i n t h e p r o t e i n f r a c t i o n a n d n o t t o  toxicity. Geiling,  i n 1917, c o r r o b o r a t e d t h e s e f i n d i n g s .  I n 1925,  M o r g a n a n d K i n g showed t h a t h e a t i n g o f c e r t a i n c e r e a l f o o d s c a u s e d nutritive  impairment,  as e v i d e n c e d by a r e t a r d a t i o n o f g r o w t h  a  i n rats  f e d t o a s t e d c r a c k e d whole wheat, t o a s t e d w h i t e b r e a d , c r u s t o f w h i t e b r e a d , and p u f f e d wheat o r p u f f e d r i c e . h e r a s s o c i a t e s (1931) found t h a t d r y heat f o r 45 m i n . c a u s e d  S h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r Morgan and a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200°C  a l o s s o f much o f t h e g r o w t h  promoting v a l u e o f the  c e r e a l f o o d s t e s t e d , b u t s u p p l e m e n t a t i o n w i t h c a s e i n (57.) v e r y compensated f o r t h e l o s s the t o a s t e d p r o t e i n s altered,  i n nutritive value.  nearly  Because d i g e s t i b i l i t y o f  as c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e r a w c e r e a l s was b u t l i t t l e  those workers  concluded that the e f f e c t s o f the heat  treatment  4  were p r o b a b l y  r e l a t e d i n some way t o a l t e r a t i o n o f t h e p a t t e r n . o f  amino a c i d s a v a i l a b l e f o r a b s o r p t i o n . In an attempt t o l o c a t e c h e m i c a l l y a f f e c t e d by h e a t i n g ,  Block  the site of protein  ejt a l . ( 1 9 3 4 ) c a l l e d  particular vulnerability of lysine, a t 150°C f o r 65 m i n . , t h e y r e c o v e r e d  attention to the  f o r example, a f t e r h e a t i n g  been destroyed  mechanism o f heat lysine  by the h e a t i n g . injury  casein  p r a c t i c a l l y a s much l y s i n e f r o m t h e  h e a t e d c a s e i n as from unheated c a s e i n , thus p r o v i n g not  that the l y s i n e had  They c o n c l u d e d , t h e r e f o r e  that the  i s r e l a t e d i n some way t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e  i s made u n a v a i l a b l e  f o rn u t r i t i v e purposes.  They p o s t u l a t e d  molecular  re-arrangement whereby a p a r t o f t h e l y s i n e p r e c u r s o r s  resistant  to enzymatic degradation,  value  injury  and a t t r i b u t e d t h e l o w e r e d  a  became nutritive  o f the heated p r o t e i n to i t s r e s i s t a n c e t o enzymatic h y d r o l y s i s . Chick  e_t a l . i n 1 9 3 5 , b y means o f n i t r o g e n b a l a n c e  i n a d u l t r a t s , demonstrated a r e d u c t i o n o f b i o l o g i c a l value subjected  techniques i n casein  t o d r y h e a t a t 150°C f o r 66 h o u r s b u t n o t when h e a t e d  125°C, a n d i n l a c t a l b u m i n h e a t e d a t 120°C f o r 72 h o u r s .  below  Therefore,  i t may be s a i d t h a t  i t i s evident  s u s c e p t i b l e t o heat  i n j u r y a t v a r y i n g degrees o f t e m p e r a t u r e and time  of exposure.  that s e v e r a l types of proteins  were  Moreover t h e r e were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e mechanism o f  i n j u r y was r e l a t e d i n some way t o a m i n o a c i d i n t e r a c t i o n s . Later  a t t e n t i o n has been focused  upon t h e non-enzymatic  b r o w n i n g r e a c t i o n as a p o s s i b l e cause o f h e a t i n j u r y . first  described  This  reaction,  by M a i l l a r d i n 1912, i s t h e consequence o f an i n t e r a c t i o n  between amino a c i d s and r e d u c i n g  sugars under t h e i n f l u e n c e o f heat.  5  H a l e n y and of gluten  i n the presence of glucose  impairment of diminished acids  and  GuggenMum (1953) demonstrated t h a t  i t s nutritive value.  results in a This  enzymatic l i b e r a t i o n of the thus to a decrease  A r g i n i n e and  i n the  autoclaving  considerable  e f f e c t seems t o be  due  a v a i l a b i l i t y o f t h e s e amino therefore  of the p r o t e i n .  T h e y s u g g e s t t h a t on h e a t i n g  with glucose,  enzyme-resistant  acid non-resistant  l y s i n e , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and  were f o l l o w e d upon f u r t h e r h e a t i n g and  a c i d - r e s i s t a n t l i n k a g e o r by  by  the  linkage  glucose.  formation  the  gluten  form  These  o f an  acids.  limit  b i o l o g i c a l value  b e t w e e n a r g i n i n e and  a  c o n s t i t u e n t e s s e n t i a l amino  l y s i n e a p p e a r t o be m o s t a f f e c t e d and  an  to  reactions  enzymatic-  t h e d i s i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e amino a c i d  molecules. Emphasis upon the d e l e t e r i o u s a s p e c t s of p r o t e i n should  not  cause the  f a c t t o be  moderate temperature ranges there fact,  as has  b e e n shown r e p e a t e d l y  m o d e r a t e h e a t i n g may  a r e no  of severe heat  overlooked  that  the  such adverse e f f e c t s .  with respect  In  to soybean p r o t e i n ,  a c t u a l l y improve n u t r i t i v e v a l u e .  e t a l . (1936) d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t h e a t i n g  in  treatment  Thus Hayward  of soybean meal caused  nutritive  improvement. Fritz at  15  l b f o r 20  to p o u l t s .  e t a l . (1947) found t h a t ground soybeans - 30 m i n .  P a r s o n s and  r e s u l t e d i n a good b i o l o g i c a l v a l u e  her  associates  (1939) observed t h a t  of soybeans improved the n u t r i t i v e v a l u e d e t e r i o r a t i o n occurred periods.  In the  improvement.  latter  autoclaved  up  autoclaving  to a p o i n t , beyond  a f t e r exposure at h i g h e r instance,  when f e d  temperature f o r  l y s i n e supplementation f a i l e d  which longer to  give  6  E v a n s e_t al.  (1947) o b t a i n e d  meal a u t o c l a v e d  b e t w e e n 100°  meal autoclaved  at  was  130°C.  more c o m p l e t e l y  erepsin  in  and  The  digested  b e t t e r c h i c k growth w i t h  120°C f o r 30 m i n .  meal autoclaved  by  the  than with  at the  c h i c k s and  lower  a l s o by  soybean temperature  trypsin  o f h y p o t h e t i c a l t o x i c f a c t o r s by h e a t d e s t r u c t i o n . (1932) o b s e r v e d t h a t c o o k i n g  soybeans o n l y  slightly.  Their  has  b e e n shown t o be  Sandstedt i n 1944). one  cellulose  four  was  i s present  the  i n raw  of  caused the A trypsin (Ham,  e v i d e n c e t h a t more  than  R a c h i s and  f r o m s o y b e a n by  Anderson diethylaminoethyl-  chromatography. I n w h e a t , as w e l l , t h e  n u t r i t i v e value  has  Observations r e l a t i v e l y high  b e n e f i c i a l e f f e c t o f m o i s t h e a t on  been p a r t i a l l y as  t o t h e e f f e c t o f r a i s i n g w h e a t and  T h u s W e y l and  140"F  f o r s e v e r a l hours prevented subsequent washing out t h i s was  had  destroyed  confirmed  by  (1882) o b s e r v e d t h a t h e a t i n g  Jago  the normal nature  B e a u d o i n ejt al.  (1911), of the  demonstrated  improvement i n the b i o l o g i c a l v a l u e  who  flour  to  150°F, w e r e made many y e a r s  ago.  and  Bischoff  the  established.  temperature, approximately  pointed  out  flour of the  t h a t the  to gluten heat  gluten. i n 1951  of the  the  the  removal  soybean o i l meal  i n soybeans.  trypsin inhibitors  and  digestibility  of a t o x i c nature.  present  removal  Shrewsberry  that heating  Bowman ( 1 9 4 6 ) p r e s e n t e d  trypsin inhibitor  (1965) i s o l a t e d  increased  theory  or d e s t r u c t i o n of c e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s inhibitor  and  vitro.  Other i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have g i v e n c o n s i d e r a t i o n t o the  coworkers  soybean  significant  p r o t e i n o f the whole wheat  7  when s u b j e c t e d  to cooking  i n b o i l i n g w a t e r as  i n the p r e p a r a t i o n  of  shredded wheat. P a r b o i l e d wheat, or b u r g h u l , whole g r a i n wheat t o b o i l i n g drying  i n hot  sun.  t o Shammas and  alter  Adolph  study  has  the n u t r i t i v e v a l u e  been c o n d u c t e d by  (1962) t o compare t h e n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e wheat, p r e p a r e d from B r e r o r g r a i n or white f l o u r ratios  and  from the  c a s e i n were not  the  same w h e a t . obtained  of the  protein  Al-Nouri  the p r o t e i n s of  The  w i t h the  parboiled  that of  protein diets  kind  in rats.  Y a n g and  s o f t w h i t e wheat, w i t h  b i o l o g i c a l values  p a r b o i l e d w h e a t as  of  rapid  (1954) t h i s  f r a c t i o n measured i n terms of the p r o t e i n e f f i c i e n c y A similar  submitting  f o r about t h r e e h o u r s f o l l o w e d by  According  o f h e a t t r e a t m e n t does not  i s p r e p a r e d by  whole  efficiency  containing  s o l e source of p r o t e i n or supplemented  d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h o s e of wheat g r a i n but  were  with greater  than those of white f l o u r , under comparable c o n d i t i o n s . Kohler  (1964) s t u d i e d  b i o l o g i c a l value logical  to bulgur  adversely  cooking  a t 5 p s i f o r 30  the  e f f e c t s of various  value  and  w h e a t and  and  and  t h a t the  biosevere  milder,  a t 80°C f o r 70  min.  min.).  (1961) t o study  autoclaving  the  shown t h a t t h e m o r e  (steeping  A s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s was  of barley  has  a f f e c t p r o t e i n q u a l i t y , but harmful  on  A p p l i c a t i o n of chemical  processing  c o n t r o l l e d processes are not and  e f f e c t of p r o c e s s i n g  o f wheat p r o t e i n s .  techniques  p r o c e s s e s can  the  c o n d u c t e d by  H a s k e l l e_t a l .  t r e a t m e n t s on  wheat m i x e d f e e d .  m i l d a c i d h y d r o l y s i s of the  the  nutritional  They f o u n d  cereal grains  that  greatly  8 increased feed  c h i c k growth.  Autoclaving  only  g a v e some i m p r o v e m e n t i n n u t r i t i v e Results  o f wheat and wheat m i x e d  value.  p r e s e n t e d b y Adams e t aJL. ( 1 9 6 1 ) showed t h a t t h e  g r o w t h p r o m o t i n g e f f e c t due t o w a t e r s o a k i n g by  a c i d soaking.  of grains  c a n be d u p l i c a t e d  Steam e x p a n s i o n causes a breakdown o f c e l l u l a r  i n the ground g r a i n without producing the water treatment They found t h a t  feeding  h a r d wheat and r e c o n s t i t u t e d wheat  structure  response. i n which  c o m p o n e n t s o f t h i s g r a i n a r e w a t e r t r e a t e d shows t h a t t h e w a t e r t r e a t ment e f f e c t s r e s i d u e s Although chicks than chicks retention. rations  p r i m a r i l y i n the f l o u r portion o f the grain.  f e d w a t e r - o r a c i d - t r e a t e d g r a i n grow a t a f a s t e r  fed untreated  g r a i n there  was no d i f f e r e n c e i n n i t r o g e n  However, t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e  energy value  Similar  feeding value  utilization  utilization.  improvement i n f e e d i n g  value  o f wheat upon w a t e r -  t r e a t m e n t h a s b e e n a c h i e v e d b y L e o n g e t al. ( 1 9 6 0 ) . the  of the treated  i n d i c a t e d that water treatment a f f e c t e d energy  without a f f e c t i n g protein  o f w h e a t was i m p r o v e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y  They found  i n n u t r i t i o n a l value  milling of  Chick experiments with  f r a c t i o n s showed t h a t w a t e r - t r e a t m e n t  a l l milling In  f r a c t i o n s except  than wheat  improved the u t i l i z a t i o n  flour.  1934 B o a s - F i x s e n et. aJL. o b s e r v e d t h a t w e a n l i n g r a t s  a t a somewhat g r e a t e r diet.  f o rpoultry.  that  (13 - 19%) b y  w a t e r - t r e a t m e n t a n d t h a t w h e a t s o t r e a t e d was e q u a l t o o r b e t t e r corn,  rate  grew  r a t e on a steamed wheat d i e t t h a n on a r a w wheat  I n t h o s e e x p e r i m e n t s t h e w h e a t d i e t was s t e a m e d f o r 4 0 m i n . a t  a m o i s t u r e c o n t e n t o f about 50%.  Such t r e a t m e n t would have g e l a t i n i z e d  9  the s t a r c h ,  and t h i s c o u l d h a v e b e e n a f a c t o r  r a t e o f g r o w t h w h i c h was  i n promoting the  improved  observed.  H u t c h i n s o n e£ a l .  (1964) compared t h e v a l u e o f m i l d l y  wheat i n p r o m o t i n g t h e g r o w t h o f t h e w e a n l i n g r a t w i t h t h a t o f wheat.  Diets containing  promoted  f l o u r o r whole meal  f r o m t h e steamed  unheated wheat  a h i g h e r r a t e o f g r o w t h and o f f o o d c o n s u m p t i o n t h a n t h o s e  c o n t a i n i n g corresponding m a t e r i a l from unheated S e v e r a l y e a r s ago, w h i l e t r y i n g o f manganese i n wheat germ m e a l , C r e e k highly detrimental this  f i n d i n g , and  availability  (1955) n o t e d t h a t t h e meal  to the growth o f c h i c k . i t was  wheat.  to assess the  Subsequent  S u b s e q u e n t l y C r e e k et_ a l .  and  feed e f f i c i e n c y .  could  15 l b p r e s s u r e .  ( 1 9 6 1 ) showed t h a t r a w w h e a t g e r m  m e a l d e p r e s s e s g r o w t h and f e e d e f f i c i e n c y b u t a u t o c l a v i n g b o t h g r o w t h and  This  is indicative,  of the presence of a t h e r m o l a b i l e f a c t o r which  impairs  improves  as t h e y p r o p o s e d , digestion.  E v i d e n c e as t o t h e p r e s e n c e o f a t h e r m o l a b i l e g r o w t h which affected  t h e g r o w t h o f young  a g a i n i n 1962.  u t i l i z a t i o n of f a t . retention  i s also  The  f a c t o r seems s p e c i f i c a l l y  H o w e v e r , C r e e k et a l . f o u n d a l s o ,  i m p r o v e d somewhat by h e a t i n g  a v a i l a b i l i t y m i g h t be  increased.  aqueous e x t r a c t s o f wheat f l o u r  inhibitor  c h i c k s has been p r e s e n t e d by  inhibiting  was  work c o n f i r m e d  determined that the growth i n h i b i t i o n  b e r e v e r s e d b y a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 30 m i n . a t 121°C  once  steamed  Learmonth inhibited  that  indicating  Creek  to block  nitrogen  that  protein  and Wood ( 1 9 6 3 ) f o u n d  the p r o t e o l y t i c  that  action of  t r y p s i n o n a g e l a t i o n s u b s t r a t e b y means o f t h e g e l a t i n t e s t .  It is  a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e i n h i b i t o r w h i c h i s p r e s e n t i n wheat f l o u r s  from  10  widely different  sources, i s not a t t r i b u t a b l e  to chemical treatment or  a d d i t i v e and i s n o t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b r a n and germ f r a c t i o n . is  shown t o r e d u c e  the i n h i b i t i n g  S h y a m a l a e_t al. i n h i b i t o r which found  activity.  (1961) s t a t e d t h a t wheat c o n t a i n s a  i s similar  i n soybean.  o f raw wheat germ gave s l i g h t l y when f e d t o w e a n l i n g Recently  (1960) found t h a t heat p r o c e s s i n g  lower r a t e s of growth  protein fraction.  a n d food  (1967) O l s e n s t u d i e d  the e f f e c t of heat treatment o f a v a i l a b i l i t y of the  She f o u n d t h a t a r g i n i n e a n d l y s i n e w e r e  a l l t r e a t m e n t s a n d t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t l o s s was o f l y s i n e  w h i c h h a d b e e n a u t o c l a v e d f o r 45 a n d 90 m i n . a b s o r p t i o n o f amino a c i d s ,  by a u t o c l a v i n g . ibility  Decreased  were r e f l e c t e d  as d e t e r m i n e d  decreased i n samples  D i g e s t i b i l i t y of protein w i t h r a t s , were  amino a c i d s a v a i l a b i l i t y  decreased  and p r o t e i n  digest-  i n l o w e r w e i g h t g a i n s and a r e d u c t i o n i n t h e  protein efficiency ratio. no t o x i c i t y  consumption,  rats.  w h e a t g e r m m e a l o n t h e q u a l i t y and b i o l o g i c a l  and  trypsin  t o , b u t n o t as p o t e n t a s , i t s c o u n t e r p a r t  H o w e v e r , H u t c h i n s o n e_t al.  by  Cooking  f o r the rats  O l s e n s t a t e d t h a t raw wheat germ m e a l and s u g g e s t e d  exhibited  that heat treatment a p p l i e d during  p r o c e s s i n g s h o u l d be k e p t a t a minimum. High p r e s s u r e p e l l e t i n g w i t h steam treatment has  frequently  b e e n shown t o i n c r e a s e i n t a k e o f t h e f e e d , a n d so e n h a n c e r a t e o f growth  (Haywang a n d M o r g a n , 1 9 4 4 ) .  T h i s improvement i n weight  is usually g r e a t e r f o r feeds of higher f i b e r content  gain  (Slinger et a l . ,  11  1 9 4 9 ; B e a r s e e t a l . , 1 9 5 2 ; Dymsza e t a l . , 1 9 5 5 ) . S i n c e p e l l e t i n g has produced high i n f a t content  (Pepper  experimental  improvement o f r a t i o n s  e t a l . , 1960; A l l e r d  1959) i t has b e e n s u g g e s t e d increased density raising  little  that the b e n e f i c i a l  e t a l . , 1 9 5 7 ; Combs, effect  the intake of n u t r i e n t s .  work, i n w h i c h feed  greater ingestion of pelleted  i n t a k e was  feed  is a result  However, f u r t h e r  controlled,  indicated  that  i s not s o l e l y r e s p o n s i b l e (Black  £t  a l . , 1 9 5 8 ) , a l s o where r e g r o u n d  is  a n i n d i c a t i o n t h a t p e l l e t i n g h a s more t h a n a p h y s i c a l e f f e c t i n  enhancing  c h i c k growth ( A l l e r d  that there and  i s a chemical  pressure, which e i t h e r  nutrients or destroys in chemical found  p e l l e t s have been f e d t o c h i c k s  et a l . , 1957).  effect,  due t o p e l l e t i n g  factor present  c o m p o s i t i o n between p e l l e t e d  by B o l t o n ,  ejt a l . p r o p o s e d  at high  temperature  o f some o f t h e  i n feed.  No d i f f e r e n c e s  and n o n - p e l l e t e d f e e d  the e f f e c t s of g r i n d i n g , p e l l e t i n g  on t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e  energy v a l u e s  of c h i c k e n s have been reviewed  and d i e t  by M c i n t o s h  (1962).  t o y i e l d more m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y t h a n g r o u n d  by c h i c k e n s  obtained  i n d i c a t e d t h a t no c o n s i s t e n t i n c r e a s e i n m e t a b o l i z a b l e  w h e a t was. f o u n d  or pelleted  (one e x p e r i m e n t ) f o r m s .  no d i f f e r e n c e was  of the d i e t s  balance  The r e s u l t s  from the g r i n d i n g or p e l l e t i n g of c e r e a l g r a i n .  experiment  were  o f c e r e a l g r a i n s and o n t h e p e r f o r m a n c e  energy r e s u l t e d  experiments)  there  (1960).  However,  by t h e s e w o r k e r s  Allerd  improves the a v a i l a b i l i t y  a toxic  of  or i n the weight  evident  However,  i n the metabolizable  Whole (two  in a energy  gains or i n the e f f i c i e n c y of feed  f e d ground, p e l l e t e d o r whole wheat.  third content conversion  12  Studies  by J e n s e n (1961) on t h e b a s i s o f t h e growth  of b i r d s f e d p e l l e t s have l e d t o the c o n c l u s i o n the  a v a i l a b l e energy o f a r a t i o n .  pelleted  that p e l l e t i n g  The m e t a b o l i z a b l e  r a t i o n s was f o u n d t o b e s l i g h t l y  higher  response increases  energy content  of  than that of unpelleted  rations. Gave e_t al. ( 1 9 6 5 ) f o u n d t h a t h i g h - p r e s s u r e  steam-pelleting of  r a t i o n s c o n t a i n i n g 507» o f w h e a t b y - p r o d u c t s i m p r o v e d g r o w t h a n d f e e d e f f i c i e n c y markedly.  The l e v e l o f f e e d  r a t i o n s and t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e germ meal were i n c r e a s e d  value, optimal  energy v a l u e  of bran, shorts  according  a t i o n as measured Renner  t o know w h e t h e r  to these c r i t e r i a by m e t a b o l i z a b l e and H i l l  the heating  of n u t r i t i o n a l  conditions which are  are also optimal  f o rgreatest  stated able  utiliz-  energy.  (1960) a p p l i e d t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e  to the q u a n t i t a t i v e e v a l u a t i o n o f the e f f e c t s of h e a t i n g and e x t r a c t e d  and wheat  work has used r a t e o f g r o w t h and i t s  i n r e l a t i o n t o p r o t e i n i n t a k e as a c r i t e r i a  i t i s important  for a l l  b y 3 0 , 14 a n d 157. r e s p e c t i v e l y .  S i n c e most p r e v i o u s efficiency  i n t a k e was i n c r e a s e d  on  energy method soybeans  soybean f l a k e s as a measure o f o v e r a l l u t i l i z a t i o n .  t h a t t h e degree o f heat treatment which produced maximal  energy v a l u e  a l s o produced maximal  r a t e of growth.  t h e y u s e d w e r e 107°C f o r 10 - 6 0 m i n . f o r e x t r a c t e d a t 107°C f o r g r o u n d  They metaboliz-  The c o n d i t i o n s  f l a k e s , a n d 10 m i n .  soybeans.  O t h e r s t u d i e s b y t h e same a u t h o r s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n t o d e t e r m i n e the  r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  soybean  h e a t t r e a t m e n t and u t i l i z a t i o n  and e x t r a c t e d d e h u l l e d  o f ground  soybean f l a k e s by measurement o f  13  m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y and  fat absorbability.  m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s o f the unheated significantly also  I t was  observed  m a t e r i a l s were m a r k e d l y  lower than those of the o p t i m a l l y heated  found that a b s o r b a b i l i t y of d i e t a r y  that  f a t was  samples.  i m p a i r e d by  and  They  unheated  samples. The  m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s o f w h e a t and w h e a t b y - p r o d u c t s  have been s t u d i e d by H i l l Slinger  et a l . (1960), P o t t e r  ( 1 9 6 2 ) , S i b b a l d and  Slinger  (1963)  and  (1960), Sibbald Schumaier  and  and  McGinnis  (1967). No  information  is available  i n the l i t e r a t u r e upon the  effect  o f a u t o c l a v i n g o f whole wheat upon t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s . The  following  s t u d y u n d e r t a k e s t o examine t h i s  aspect of  nutrition.  14  MATERIALS AND METHODS  F o u r s u c c e s s i v e e x p e r i m e n t s were c o n d u c t e d effect of different  to determine the  t r e a t m e n t s on t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s o f  whole wheat.  I.  General Day-old White  subjects. pens.  Leghorn  c o c k e r e l c h i c k s were used  as e x p e r i m e n t a l  The c h i c k s w e r e r e a r e d i n e l e c t r i c a l l y h e a t e d , w i r e  floored  They were g i v e n w a t e r and f e e d ad l i b i t u m d u r i n g t h e p r e l i m i n a r y  p e r i o d , which  lasted  f o r experiment period  2.  two weeks f o r e x p e r i m e n t s  1, 3, a n d 4 a n d 3 weeks  Composition of the basal diet  i s shown i n T a b l e 1.  fed during the preliminary  The a v e r a g e n i t r o g e n c o n t e n t a n d m e t a b o l i z a b l e  e n e r g y v a l u e f o r t h e b a s a l d i e t w e r e 3.927» a n d 3378.4 c a l / g r a m d r y m a t t e r , respectively. Three treatments.  r e p l i c a t e pens were a s s i g n e d t o each o f t h e d i e t a r y  The number o f b i r d s p e r r e p l i c a t e was  ment a n d 6 i n t h e s u b s e q u e n t  8 i n the f i r s t  experi-  experiments.  E x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s were f o r m u l a t e d by a d d i n g , on a d r y m a t t e r basis,  the t e s t  basal diet.  i n g r e d i e n t s a t t h e expense  The r a t e o f s u b s t i t u t i o n was 257. o f t h e d i e t .  were f e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d i e t s Feed  f o r one d a y t o a c c u s t o m  The  chicks  them t o t h e d i e t s .  i n t a k e was m e a s u r e d a n d e x c r e t a was c o l l e c t e d o v e r t h e f o l l o w i n g  3-day  period. The e x c r e t a s a m p l e s  and  of a p o r t i o n of the t o t a l  the dried  were f r e e z e - d r i e d  and ground.  The  e x c r e t a were a s s a y e d f o r g r o s s energy u s i n g a P a r r  diets Oxygen  T A B L E 1.  Composition of basal  diet  Component Ground  7.  wheat  Ground y e l l o w  29.2 corn  37.8  S o y b e a n m e a l 487. p r o t e i n  15  H e r r i n g meal 72% p r o t e i n  10  Dried d i s t i l l e r s '  solubles  3  Dehydrated c e r e a l  grass  2  Bone m e a l  1.5  Lime  1  stone  Iodized  salt  .5  mg/kg Manganese  sulphate  .242  V i t a m i n A ( 3 2 5 , 0 0 0 I.U./gm)  .0138  Vitamin  .0165  D3 ( 3 3 , 0 3 9 . 7 I.U./gm)  Riboflavin  .0036  Baciferm  .176  - 25  A m p r o l i u m 257. m i x t u r e  4.994  16  Bomb C a l o r i m e t e r .  N i t r o g e n was d e t e r m i n e d  e x c r e t a by t h e method o f K j e l d a h l . analyzed f o r t h e i r dry matter  i n the d i e t s  In addition  and i n t h e  t h e f e e d samples were  content.  From these r e s u l t s , the m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s o f t h e diets  on a d r y m a t t e r b a s i s  calculated  M. K c a l dry  as  and c o r r e c t e d  for nitrogen retention,  follows:  p e r gram diet  _  Gross Kcal/gm dry diet  |~ ( K c a l / g m e x c r e t a ) ( g m e x c r e t a ) I gm d r y d i e t consumed  8.22 gm N 2 r e t a i n e d d r y d i e t consumed  The n i t r o g e n r e t a i n e d following  were  p e r gram d i e t  p e r gm  consumed was c a l c u l a t e d  by t h e  formula:  Gm N retained/gm dry d i e t consumed 2  B  g  m  N  / ^  g m  diet  -  (gm ^ / g m .  To d e t e r m i n e t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y o f t h e t e s t matter basis,  M Kcal/gm t e s t  the following  ingredient  f o r m u l a was  =  excreta)(gm excreta) g dry diet m  ingredients  on a d r y  used:  M Kcal/gm b a s a l d i e t  M Kcal/gm t e s t grams t e s t  The p e r c e n t a g e n i t r o g e n r e t a i n e d  diet  +  -  M Kcal/gm b a s a l  ingredient/gm test  was c a l c u l a t e d  as  diet  follows:  diet  17 „ „ 7o N  2  II.  gm No i n f e e d c o n s u m e d - gm No i n e x c r e t a s & 2 £ gm N£ i n f e e d c o n s u m e d  . . j retained  =  Treatment  o f samples o f wheat t e s t e d  x  . 100 n n  Experiment 1 Wheat No. 1, 13.87. p r o t e i n , u n t r e a t e d , a n d g r o u n d . Wheat No. 1, a u t o c l a v e d f o r 15 m i n u t e s a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n - d r i e d a t room t e m p e r a t u r e and g r o u n d . Wheat No. 1, a u t o c l a v e d f o r 30 m i n u t e s a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n - d r i e d a t room t e m p e r a t u r e and g r o u n d . Wheat No. 1, a u t o c l a v e d f o r 60 m i n u t e s a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n - d r i e d a t room t e m p e r a t u r e and g r o u n d . Wheat No. 2, 12.47. p r o t e i n , u n t r e a t e d , a n d g r o u n d . Wheat No. 2, b o i l e d  i n w a t e r f o r 10 m i n . , f a n - d r i e d a t  room t e m p e r a t u r e and ground. Wheat No. 2, f r o z e n f o r 3 - d a y s a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y and  -15°C, t h a w e d ,  ground. Wheat No. 2, b o i l e d  at approximately  i n w a t e r f o r 10 m i n . , f r o z e n f o r 3 d a y s  -15°C, f a n - d r i e d a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e a n d g r o u n d .  Experiment 2 Wheat No. 3, 15.47. p r o t e i n , u n t r e a t e d , a n d g r o u n d . Wheat No. 3, a u t o c l a v e d dried  f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n -  a t room t e m p e r a t u r e and g r o u n d . Wheat No. 3, s o a k e d i n w a t e r o v e r n i g h t , a u t o c l a v e d f o r 60 m i n .  at  15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n - d r i e d a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e a n d g r o u n d .  18  Wheat No. 3, s o a k e d  i n 1 N HC1 f o r 24 h r , w a s h e d t h o r o u g h l y  w i t h w a t e r , f a n - d r i e d a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e a n d g'round. Wheat No. 3, s o a k e d  i n 1 N HC1 f o r 3 h r , a u t o c a l v e d  f o r 60 m i n .  a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n - d r i e d a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e a n d g r o u n d . Wheat No. 3, f r o z e n f o r 5 d a y s  a t -4°C, t h a w e d , a n d g r o u n d .  Experiment 3 Wheat No. 3, 15.47» p r o t e i n , u n t r e a t e d ,  and g r o u n d .  Wheat No. 3, a u t o c l a v e d f o r 6 0 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n d r i e d a t room t e m p e r a t u r e and g r o u n d . Wheat No. 3, s o a k e d  i n water overnight, autoclaved  f o r 60 m i n .  a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n - d r i e d a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e a n d g r o u n d . Wheat No. 3, f r o z e n f o r 5 d a y s  a t -4°C, t h a w e d , a n d g r o u n d .  Wheat No. 4, 12.17, p r o t e i n , u n t r e a t e d , a n d g r o u n d . Wheat No. 4, a u t o c l a v e d dried  f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n -  a t room t e m p e r a t u r e and g r o u n d . Wheat No. 4, s o a k e d i n w a t e r o v e r n i g h t , a u t o c l a v e d  f o r 60  m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n - d r i e d a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e a n d g r o u n d . Wheat No. 4, f r o z e n f o r 5 d a y s  a t -4°C, a n d g r o u n d . a f t e r  thawing.  Experiment 4 Wheat No. 3, 1 5 . 4 % p r o t e i n , u n t r e a t e d ,  and g r o u n d .  Wheat No. 3, a u t o c l a v e d f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n dried  a t room t e m p e r a t u r e , and g r o u n d . Wheat No. 3, a u t o c l a v e d  dried  f o r 90 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n -  a t room t e m p e r a t u r e , and g r o u n d .  19  Wheat No. dried  3, a u t o c l a v e d  a t r o o m t e m p e r a t u r e , and  f o r 120 m i n .  ground.  a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e , f a n -  20  RESULTS  Experiment The  1  metabolizable  o f wheat s u b j e c t e d  to d i f f e r e n t  None o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s able energy values variance  (Table  imposed had  a f f e c t on  the  to the  metaboliz-  a n a l y s i s of  nitrogen  c o n t a i n i n g w h e a t t r e a t e d i n d i f f e r e n t ways  (Tables not,  d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e mean v a l u e s  2  The  experimental  f i n d i n g s are presented  i n summarized form i n  The  data  improvement i n the u t i l i z a t i o n  the  f o l l o w i n g treatments:  6. show a n  pressure, water-soaking pressure, 15  a significant  2.  5).  receiving  at  are summarized i n T a b l e  A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t d i d  Experiment  Table  samples  a s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the percentage  h o w e v e r , r e v e a l any m e a n i n g f u l (Table  treatments  f o r the  3).  r e t e n t i o n from d i e t s 4).  obtained  o f the samples o f wheat a c c o r d i n g  T h e r e was  2 and  energy values  f o l l o w e d by  of  wheat  a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 60 m i n .  a t 15  a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 60 m i n .  a c i d - s o a k i n g f o r 3 h r f o l l o w e d by  lb pressure,  and  a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 60  f r e e z i n g f o r 5 days at  N e i t h e r a c i d - s o a k i n g f o r 24 h r n o r f o l l o x r e d by e f f e c t on  a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 60 m i n .  the m e t a b o l i z a b l e  a t 15  energy content  a t 15  lb lb  min.  -4°C. a c i d - s o a k i n g f o r 24  lb pressure  had  o f t h e wheat  any  hr  significant  (Tables  7 and  8).  21  T A B L E 2.  E f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s on m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s and % N r e t e n t i o n o f two s a m p l e s o f w h e a t i n e x p e r i m e n t 1. 2  No. 1  M.E. c a l / g d r y m a t t e r Replicate Average  Treatments Wheat No. 1 Untreated (13.8% p r o t e i n )  3368.6 3357.0 3365.4  Wheat No. 1 A u t o c l a v e d 15 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3372.2 3358.2 3347.8  Wheat No. 1 A u t o c l a v e d 30 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3373.0 3361.0 3368.6  Wheat No. 1 A u t o c l a v e d 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3279.4 3346.6 3420.6  Wheat No. Untreated  3342.2 3339.0 3328.2  2 (12.47. p r o t e i n  Wheat No. 2 B o i l e d i n water f o r 10 m i n .  3339.8 3331.0 3325.4  Wheat No. 2 F r o z e n f o r 3 days a t a p p r o x . -15°C  3411.4 3253.8 3447.8  Wheat No. 2 B o i l e d i n w a t e r f o r 10 m i n . and f r o z e n f o r 3 d a y s a t a p p r o x . -15°C  3309.8 3331.8 3332.6  7. N retention Replicate Average 2  3363.7  50.8 51.2 50.88  50.96  3359.4  51.13 50.00 50.94  50.69  3367.5  49.67 52.25 50.56  50.83  3348.9  49.53 49.01 52.07  50.20  3336.5  53.08 52.98 51.39  52.48  3332.1  48.74 49.26 50.38  49.46  3371.0  52.64 50.94 52.44  52.01  3324.7  52.82 52.52 51.92  52.42  22  TABLE 3.  A n a l y s i s of variance f o r the metabolizable energy values o f the f i r s t experiment  Source of v a r i a n c e  SS  F  MS  d.f.  Replication  4170.3  2  2085.15  Treatment  6495.4  7  927.9  Error  2.8048.9  14  2003.5  Total  38714.6  23  T A B L E 4.  Analysis of variance f o r the % nitrogen of the f i r s t experiment  Source o f v a r i a n c e  SS  Replication  1.04 .463  retention  d.f.  MS  .4428  2  .2214  Treatment  24.6788  7  3.526  Error  13.5253  14  0.966  Total  39.6496  23  * S i g n i f i c a n t a t 5%  level  .229 3.650*  TABLE 5.  Treatments  Means  R e s u l t o f New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t f o r t h e 7. n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n of the f i r s t experiment  5  52.48  8  7  52.42  Mean.; v a l u e s s h a r i n g a t 57. l e v e l .  1  52.01  50.96  50.83  3  2  50.69  4  50.2  6  49.46  t h e same l i n e a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y d i f f e r e n t  24.  T A B L E 6.  No. 1  E f f e c t o f v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s on t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s a n d 7. ^ r e t e n t i o n o f one s a m p l e o f whole wheat i n experiment 2  M.E. c a l / g d r y m a t t e r Replicate Average  Treatments Wheat No. 3 U n t r e a t e d (15.4% p r o t e i n )  3347.3 3323.4 3313.5  Wheat No. 3 A u t o c l a v e d 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3399.4 3420.9 3365.6  Wheat No. 3 Water-soaked o v e r n i g h t a u t o c l a v e d 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3430.0 3396.5 3456.7  Wheat No. 3 A c i d - s o a k e d f o r 24 h r .  3349.6 3360.5 3319.8  Wheat No. 3 A c i d - s o a k e d (24 h r . ) and a u t o c l a v e d 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3301.8 3329.2 3351.7  Wheat No. 3 A c i d - s o a k e d f o r 3 h r . and a u t o c l a v e d 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3365.7 3415.2 3428.6  Wheat No. .3 F r o z e n a t -4 C f o r 5 d a y s  3368.5 3403.4 3397.4  % N2 r e t e n t i o n Replicate Average  3328.1  47.41 45.84 45.87  46.37  3395.3*  48.65 45.91 44.92  46.49  3427.7*  46.70 45.36 45.68  45.91  3343.3  46.91 46.16 45.89  46.32  3327.6  44.18 45.65 45.78  45.20  3403.2*  43.22 46.39 46.75  45.45  3389.8*  47.45 49.58 49.04  48.69  * S i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the untreated a t t h e 57. l e v e l .  sample  25  T A B L E 7.  Analysis of variance f o r the metabolizable energy v a l u e s of the second experiment  Source o f v a r i a n c e  SS  Replication  d.f.  MS  F  610.6  2  305.3  .4374  28941.9  6  4823.65  6.9189**  Error  8365.9  12  697.16  Total  37918.4  20  Treatment  ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t 17. l e v e l  TABLE 8.  Treatments  R e s u l t o f New M u l t i p l e Range T e s t f o r t h e v a l u e s o f second experiment  3  6  3403.2  2  3395.3  7  3389.8  M.E.  4  3343.3  1  3328.1  Means  3427.7  Mean v a l u e s 57. l e v e l .  s h a r i n g t h e same l i n e a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y  5  3327.6  different at  26  No d i f f e r e n c e s w e r e a p p a r e n t in the percentage wheats  among t h e v a r i o u s  n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n from d i e t s  treatments  containing the different  (Table 9 ) .  Experiment 3 Table  10 shows t h e e f f e c t s o f v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s  m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s o f two d i f f e r e n t 15.3%  a n d 12.17. o f p r o t e i n r e s p e c t i v e l y .  the d i e t s  on t h e  s a m p l e s o f wheat c o n t a i n i n g  The n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n f r o m  f o r m u l a t e d w i t h t h e d i f f e r e n t wheats a r e l i k e w i s e g i v e n i n  T a b l e 10. The d a t a  from t h i s  experiment  were a n a l y s e d u s i n g  two-way  analysis of variance. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n m e t a b o l i z a b l e were s t a t i s t i c a l l y  s i g n i f i c a n t , Table  11.  energy v a l u e s T h e r e was no  among  treatments  significant  d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e o f t h e two u n t r e a t e d samples o f wheat. not  A l s o t h e i n t e r a c t i o n , wheat samples x t r e a t m e n t ,  significant. A p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e D u n c a n ' s M u l t i p l e Range T e s t  indicated  t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s o f t h e two s a m p l e s o f u n t r e a t e d were n o t s t a t i s t i c a l l y for  was  d i f f e r e n t , b u t were s i g n i f i c a n t l y  lower  that  wheat than  values  t h e t r e a t e d samples, Table 12. With  experiment,  regard t o the percentage  the analysis of variance  d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e r e p l i c a t e s , to. b e  invalid.  nitrogen retention i n this  ( T a b l e 13) showed  therefore, this  significant  t e s t was  considered  TABLE 9.  Source of Replication  Analysis nitrogen  variance  of variance f o r the percentage r e t e n t i o n o f the second experiment  SS .664  d.f. 2  MS .332  Treatment  23.3542  6  3.89  Error  21.5980  12  1.78  Total  45.6162  20  F .187 2.185  28  TABLE 1 0 .  E f f e c t o f v a r i o u s t r e a t m e n t s on t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s a n d 7. N r e t e n t i o n o f two s a m p l e s o f whole wheat i n e x p e r i m e n t 3 2  No. 1  M.E. . c a l / g d r y m a t t e r Replicate Average  Treatments Wheat No. 3 U n t r e a t e d (15.47. p r o t e i n )  3342.18 3350.32 3319.80  Wheat No. 3 A u t o c l a v e d f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3424.24 3391.48 3408.64  Wheat No. 3 Water-soaked o v e r n i g h t p l u s a u t o c l a v i n g 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3419.48 3406.36 3380.40  Wheat No. 3 F r o z e n f o r 5 d a y s a t -4°C  3389.64 3419.32 3372.60  Wheat No. Untreated  4 (12.17. p r o t e i n )  3323.84 3336.64 3302.20  Wheat No. 4 A u t o c l a v e d f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3402.44 3422.44 3373.40  Wheat No. 4 Water-soaked o v e r n i g h t p l u s a u t o c l a v i n g 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3420.80 3407.36 3382.92  Wheat No. 4 F r o z e n f o r 5 d a y s a t -4°C  3393.00 3365.48 3404.52  7. No r e t e n t i o n Replicate Average  3337.4  54.33 55.92 54.63  54.96  3408.12*  53.61 53.73 55.18  54.17  3402.08*  55.29 55.45 54.47  55.07  3393.85*  55.15 54.60 53.37  54.37  3320.89  54.25 53.43 51.24  52.97  3399.43*  53.07 55.41 50.09  52.86  3403.69*  55.94 54.68 54.25  54.96  3387.67*  54.46 55.42 55.13  55.00  * S i g n i f i c a n t l y higher than the untreated a t t h e 57. l e v e l  sample  29  TABLE 1 1 .  Analysis of variance f o r the metabolizable energy values o f the t h i r d experiment  Source o f v a r i a n c e  SS  d.f.  MS  2229.8  2  1114.9  22680.2  3  7560.06  941.2  6  156.8  Wheat  332.5  1  332.5  .847  T r e a t m e n t x wheat  250.9  3  83.6  .213  3138.3  8  392.3  29572.9  23  Replication Treatment Error  Error  a  b  Total  F 7.11 48.21**  * * S i g n i f i c a n t a t 17. l e v e l  TABLE 1 2 .  R e s u l t o f new m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t f o r t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy values o f the t h i r d experiment  Treatments  Means  2  3408.12  3403.69  7  3402.08  3  6  3399.43  4  3393.85  Mean v a l u e s s h a r i n g t h e same l i n e a r e n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a t 57. l e v e l .  8  1  5  3387.67 3 3 3 7 . 4 3320.9  different  TABLE 13.  Source of  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e 7. n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n of the t h i r d experiment  SS  variance  d.f.  MS  F  Replieat ion  7.1450  2  3.5725  9.623  Treatment  8.3136  3  2.7712  7.4649*  Error  2.2274  6  Wheat  2.9051  1  2.9051  T r e a t m e n t x wheat  6.2362  3  2.078  16.8823  8  2.1102  43.7096  23  Error Total  a  b  * Significant  a t 5%  level.  .37123 1.3766 .9847  31  A p p l i c a t i o n o f Duncan's m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t d i d n o t r e v e a l any s i g n i f i c a n t  Experiment  d i f f e r e n c e s among t h e mean v a l u e s T a b l e 1 4 .  4  The e f f e c t o f a u t o c l a v i n g f o r v a r i o u s p e r i o d s o f t i m e o n the m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy r e t e n t i o n from d i e t s summarized  content  o f wheat and p e r c e n t a g e  nitrogen  c o n t a i n i n g t h e t r e a t e d w h e a t i s shown b y t h e d a t a  i n T a b l e 15. The s a m p l e a u t o c l a v e d f o r 6 0 m i n . was s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r i n  m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy  content  than t h e raw wheat.  T h e d a t a a l s o showed  t h a t a u t o c l a v i n g w h e a t f o r 90 m i n . a n d 1 2 0 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e significantly heat  treatment  lower m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy  produced  values than d i d the milder  ( 6 0 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e ) a n d e v e n t h e u n t r e a t e d w h e a t .  The r e s u l t s  o f a n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e and a p p l i c a t i o n o f Duncan's m u l t i p l e  range t e s t ,  are presented  Values  i n Table  f o r the percentage  16 a n d 17 r e s p e c t i v e l y . n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n from d i e t s c o n t a i n -  i n g t h e u n t r e a t e d a n d t r e a t e d w h e a t showed t h a t t h e r a w a n d a u t o c l a v e d ( f o r 120 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e ) s a m p l e s p r o m o t e d l o w e r n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n t h a n t h e s a m p l e s o f w h e a t a u t o c l a v e d f o r 6 0 a n d 90 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  ( T a b l e s 18 a n d 1 9 ) .  Figure  1 represents these  findings  graphically.  32  TABLE 14.  Treatments  3  R e s u l t o f new m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t f o r t h e percentage nitrogen r e t e n t i o n of the t h i r d experiment  8  55.0  7  Means  5507  54.96  Mean v a l u e s 57. l e v e l .  s h a r i n g t h e same l i n e  1  4  2  5  6  54.96  54.37  54.17  52.97  52.86  are not s i g n i f i c a n t l y  different at  33  TABLE 15.  E f f e c t o f h e a t t r e a t m e n t s on t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s a n d 7. N r e t e n t i o n o f one s a m p l e o f wheat i n e x p e r i m e n t 4 2  No.  1  Treatments ~~  M.E. .cal/g d r y m a t t e r Replicate Average  Wheat No. 4 U n t r e a t e d (15.47. p r o t e i n )  3371.09 3379.57 3359.37  Wheat No. 4A u t o c l a v e d f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3457.17 3479.21 3489.09  Wheat No. 4 A u t o c l a v e d f o r 90 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3327.37 3296.81 3334.01  Wheat No. 4 A u t o c l a v e d f o r 120 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  3314.41 3322.53 3334.25  1 o  "LV^ retention Replicate Average  3370.01  50.57 50.64 51.68  50.96  3475.16  53.25 52.65 53.39  53.09  1  3319.39  52.39 52.82 52.04  52.42  1  48.84 47.58 48.95  48.46  2  3323.73  2  2  S i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r t h a n u n t r e a t e d w h e a t a t t h e 57. l e v e l . Significantly  l o w e r t h a n u n t r e a t e d w h e a t a t t h e 57. l e v e l .  34  TABLE 16.  Analysis of variance f o r the metabolizable energy v a l u e s o f the f o u r t h experiment  SS  Source o f v a r i a n c e  d.f.  F  MS  311.2  2  155.6  47227.1  3  15742.366  Error  14.14.9  6  Total  48953.2  11  Replication Treatment  ** Significant  TABLE 17.  .6598 66.75**  235.82  a t 1% l e v e l ,  R e s u l t o f new m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t f o r t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s o f t h e f o u r t h experiment  Treatments  Means  3475.16  3370.01  Mean v a l u e s s h a r i n g t h e same l i n e d i f f e r e n t a t 57. l e v e l .  3323.73  are not  3319.39  significantly  TABLE 18.  Source o f  A n a l y s i s o f v a r i a n c e f o r t h e 7. n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n of the f o u r t h experiment  variance  d.f.  SS  Replication  MS  F  .7072  2  .3536  37.9652  3  12.6551  Error  1.8389  6  .3065  Total  40.5113  11  Treatment  1.1537 41.289**  ** S i g n i f i c a n t a t 1% l e v e l .  TABLE 19.  R e s u l t o f new m u l t i p l e r a n g e t e s t f o r t h e 7. n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n o f t h e f o u r t h experiment  Treatments  Means  53.09  52.42  M e a n v a l u e s s h a r i n g t h e same l i n e d i f f e r e n t a t 57. l e v e l .  50.96  are not  48.46  significantly  3465 r 0)  "5 £  3435 U  >_  U)  2 3405  2)  _2 3395 o >  0 C ,1*  3365 L  -g 3335 N ~0  < 3305  3275  120 T i me  Fig.  1.  in  m i n u t e s  E f f e c t o f d i f f e r e n t t i m e s o f a u t o c l a v i n g wheat o n t h e M. E . v a l u e s a n d % N£ r e t e n t i o n ( E x p e r i m e n t 4)  37  DISCUSSION  In s i m i l a r  s t u d i e s by o t h e r  investigators  the major  which have been used t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f heat  criteria  treatment  on t h e  n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e o f wheat, have been growth r a t e o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l animals  and t h e r a t e and e x t e n t o f p r o t e i n d i g e s t i o n i n v i v o and i n  vitro. It  i s , however, important  t o know w h e t h e r t h e h e a t  which are b e n e f i c i a l according t o these able  criteria  also affect  treatments metaboliz-  energy. A s e r i e s o f experiments  various treatments boiling value  was c o n d u c t e d  to study  (autoclaving, freezing, water-soaking,  i n w a t e r and c o m b i n a t i o n  o f these  treatments)  the effect of acid-soaking,  on t h e n u t r i t i o n a l  o f wheat as measured by t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e e n e r g y v a l u e s  n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n from d i e t s In the f i r s t used s i g n i f i c a n t l y  and by  c o n t a i n i n g t h e t r e a t e d wheat.  experiment  none o f t h e t r e a t m e n t s  w h i c h was  ( P \ ^ . 0 5 ) i m p r o v e d t h e e n e r g y u t i l i z a t i o n o f t h e two  s a m p l e s o f w h e a t b u t t h e r e was a s u g g e s t i o n t h a t s a m p l e s w h i c h h a d b e e n autoclaved  f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  were s l i g h t l y experiment two  improved i n m e t a b o l i z a b l e  was c o n d u c t e d  treatments  and t h o s e  which had been f r o z e n  energy v a l u e .  u s i n g t h e same p r o c e d u r e s  p l u s a c i d and w a t e r s o a k i n g  The s e c o n d  and r e p e a t i n g  these  ( T a b l e 6 ) . The e f f e c t o f  w a t e r and a c i d - s o a k i n g have been r e p o r t e d by H a s k e l l e t a_l. (1961) and Adams e t al. and  (1961),  g r a i n components.  t o improve t h e n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e o f g r a i n s  The r e s u l t s  of this  experiment  showed t h a t  38  autoclaving soaking  f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  (3 h r . )  energy v a l u e s soading  or water-soaking  Acid-soaking  the metabolizable  f o r 24 h r . o r a c i d -  energy as compared t o t h e u n t r e a t e d  f i n d i n g s are i n disagreement w i t h those  ( 1 9 6 1 ) who f o u n d t h a t a c i d - s o a k i n g  sample.  o f Adams ejt a l .  improved t h e n u t r i t i o n a l v a l u e as  measured by growth promoting e f f e c t . differences  or after acid-  f o l l o w e d b y a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  did not affect metabolizable These l a t t e r  markedly increased  over t h e raw wheat.  (24 h r . )  e i t h e r alone  This  discrepancy  may b e d u e t o  i n t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n and t i m e o f a c i d - s o a k i n g .  The  c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f t h e a c i d w h i c h was u s e d b y Adams et_ a l . ( 1 9 6 1 ) was n o t specified. When n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n o f c h i c k s f e d d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g t h e untreated  w h e a t was c o m p a r e d w i t h t h a t o f d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g t r e a t e d w h e a t  s a m p l e s no d i f f e r e n c e s d u e t o t r e a t m e n t From t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e retention  (Table  were o b s e r v e d .  energy values  and p e r c e n t a g e  6 ) , i t i s c l e a r that autoclaving, water-soaking  a u t o c l a v i n g , and a c i d - s o a k i n g energy u t i l i z a t i o n without  (3 h r . )  by  plus  f o l l o w e d by a u t o c l a v i n g a f f e c t e d  affecting nitrogen retention.  w i t h Adams e_t a l . ( 1 9 6 1 ) who f o u n d t h a t w a t e r t r e a t m e n t utilization,  nitrogen  This  agrees  a f f e c t e d energy  b u t t h e r e was no e f f e c t o n p r o t e i n u t i l i z a t i o n  as m e a s u r e d  nitrogen retention. The  third  e x p e r i m e n t was c a r r i e d o u t t o c o m p a r e  samples o f wheat g i v e n 3 d i f f e r e n t of t h i s  treatments  (Table  10).  different The r e s u l t s  e x p e r i m e n t c l e a r l y showed t h a t a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 60 m i n . a t 15  lb pressure  o r f r e e z i n g f o r 5 d a y s a t -4°C i n c r e a s e d  the metabolizable  39  energy content  o f wheat.  p r o t e i n ) were s i m i l a r l y i n the percentage  Both  samples o f wheat  affected.  No s i g n i f i c a n t  14).  of- s u b s t i t u t i o n , 257. t e s t  i m p r o v e m e n t was  to demonstrate mainly  T h i s may b e due t o t h e r e l a t i v e l y  was  conducted  u s i n g t h e same  the e f f e c t of prolonged  m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s o f wheat. showed m a r k e d d e p r e s s i o n  The d a t a o f t h i s  a l s o a marked decrease  i s well  treatment  pressure)  treatment  on t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e It  heat.  of foodstuff containing  also, confirmed  energy v a l u e s  the  (N.R.C. 1 9 5 0 ) . enhancing  o f wheat  (Figure 1).  i s w e l l known t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o s o y b e a n s many o t h e r  In the present  a f t e r the a p p l i c a t i o n of m i l d  w o r k , when w h e a t was  c o m p a r a t i v e l y m i l d a u t o c l a v i n g , an apparent m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy values T h i s marked  f o r 120 m i n .  ( a u t o c l a v i n g f o r 60 m i n . a t 15 l b  legumes improve i n n u t r i t i v e v a l u e moist  nitrogen  containing the tested  e s t a b l i s h e d and r e v i e w e d  The r e s u l t s o f t h e f o u r t h e x p e r i m e n t ,  was  as c o m p a r e d t o  c o n t a i n i n g wheat s a m p l e a u t o c l a v e d  e f f e c t s of heat  e f f e c t of moderate heat  experiment,  i n percentage  a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e when c o m p a r e d w i t h t h e o t h e r d i e t s  p r o t e i n and c a r b o h y d r a t e  technique  i n t h e e n e r g y u t i l i z a t i o n when w h e a t  T h e r e was  The a d v e r s e  low r a t e  h e a t i n g on t h e  f o r 90 m i n . a n d 120 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e  r e t e n t i o n w i t h the d i e t  wheat.  found  i n g r e d i e n t , used.  A f o u r t h experiment  u n t r e a t e d wheat.  12.17o  n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n f r o m d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g wheat t r e a t e d  i n d i f f e r e n t ways ( T a b l e  autoclaved  (15.47c. a n d  over  subjected to the  improvement i n t h e  t h e u n t r e a t e d w h e a t , was  i n c r e a s e i n m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s  demonstrated.  d i d n o t change t o  40  any  s i g n i f i c a n t d e g r e e when w h e a t was  soaked  i n water or a c i d  before  autoclaving. The  e f f e c t of a u t o c l a v i n g ,  e n e r g y c o n t e n t o f w h o l e w h e a t , has  p a r t i c u l a r l y on  not  B e a u d o i n e_t a l . ( 1 9 5 1 ) i n d i c a t e d t h a t a significant  improvement i n the  H u t c h i n s o n et^ a l . ( 1 9 6 4 ) u s i n g  material  greater  from untreated The  I n the  in  increased  However,  c o o k i n g o f whole wheat r e s u l t e d f o r the  rat. contain-  consumption than those c o n t a i n i n g  corresponding  wheat.  i s not  increase  i n n u t r i t i v e value  removal of  t o x i c s u b s t a n c e s o r d i r e c t a c t i o n on o f c e r t a i n amino  improvement i n n u t r i t i v e v a l u e  h e a t t r e a t m e n t as m e a s u r e d b y that  an  a trypsin  observed inhibitor,  the p r o t e i n r e s u l t i n g  acids.  g r o w t h and  growth r a t e  gave c o n s i d e r a t i o n  be  and  food  intake.  due  to a r e a l  They  increase  r a t e of  to the p o s s i b i l i t y  have improved the p a l a t a b i l i t y of the  intake of food.  They  that a p a r t i c u l a r treatment food  suggested  improvement  of the p r o t e i n , which induces a f a s t e r r a t e  c o n s e q u e n t l y an  for  o f t h e p r o t e i n o f t h e wheat upon  i m p r o v e m e n t i n g r o w t h r a t e may  the n u t r i t i o n a l value  wheat  known.  c a s e o f l e g u m e s w h e r e s i m i l a r phenomena w e r e  availability  of  H u t c h i n s o n ejt a l . ( 1 9 6 4 ) g a v e some p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s this  in  steamed wheat promoted a f a s t e r r a t e  hypotheses have been advanced:  e l i m i n a t i o n of  before.  growth promoting value  actual reason f o r this  upon heat treatment  various  food  metabolizable  r a t s also demonstrated that d i e t s  i n g f l o u r or whole meal from the o f g r o w t h and  been r e p o r t e d  the  so t h a t more i s e a t e n  in  of also may and,  41  when i n t a k e o f p r o t e i n i s t h e f a c t o r l i m i t i n g g r o w t h , t h i s a p p e t i t e promotes a f a s t e r r a t e o f growth. also that  H u t c h i n s o n e_t a l . d e m o n s t r a t e d  t h e s t e a m - t r e a t m e n t may h a v e d e s t r o y e d  which i s present  increased  the a n t i - t r y p s i n factor  i n w h e a t ( C r e e k e_t a l . , 1 9 6 1 , 1962 a n d L e a r m o n t h and  Wood, 1 9 6 3 ) . The they favour  last possibility  i s that  since the treatment destroys  wheat p r o t e i n t o form g l u t e n , e f f i c i e n t l y masticated The hence i n c r e a s e since there different  and  possibility  and w h i c h  the capacity  of the  i t may r e n d e r t h e m e a l more e a s i l y a n d  digested. that heating  may  t h e r a t e o f i n t a k e o f food  increase  t h e p a l a t a b i l i t y and  i s not v a l i d  was no n o t i c a b l e d i f f e r e n c e i n f e e d  intake  i n our experiments, among t h e  treatments. Destroying  capacity  suggested by these authors,  t h e a n t i - t r y p s i n f a c t o r and/or d e s t r o y i n g the  o f wheat p r o t e i n t o f o r m g l u t e n  a r e two p o s s i b l e  explanations  for the present findings. Another explanation  i s t h a t h e a t may c a u s e some e s s e n t i a l  p r o t e i n f r a c t i o n w h i c h was u n a v a i l a b l e for  absorption  and m e t a b o l i c  use.  This  i n t h e r a w w h e a t , t o become a v a i l a b l e was a l s o s u g g e s t e d b y H a y w a r d  et a l . (1936) i n soybean meal. The of  moist heat applied during  some p r o t e i n r e n d e r i n g  i t more r e a d i l y d i g e s t i b l e .  another p o s s i b l e explanation achieved  i n this  work.  a u t o c l a v i n g might cause  denaturation  T h u s t h i s may b e  f o r t h e improvement i n n u t r i t i v e  value  42  The is  adverse  also confirmed  effect of heat-treatment  i n these s t u d i e s .  on energy  utilization  T h e r e was a m a r k e d d e c r e a s e i n  m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s o f wheat samples a f t e r  autoclaving f o r  p e r i o d s o f 90 a n d 120 m i n . a t 15 l b p r e s s u r e . The treatment of  impairment  of the n u t r i t i v e value a f t e r the severe  i s already well established.  T h e r e a r e many p o s s i b l e  r e a c t i o n s w h i c h may l o w e r t h e b i o l o g i c a l v a l u e o f p r o t e i n .  i m p o r t a n t ones a r e t h e M a i l l a r d  v a l u e s upon s e v e r e heat  that the decrease  i n the metabolizable  t r e a t m e n t was a c c o m p a n i e d b y a d e c r e a s e  nitrogen retention.  treatments  a f f e c t b o t h m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy v a l u e s  An  I t may b e c o n c l u d e d  that severe  energy  i nthe heat  i n g e n e r a l and p r o t e i n  i n particular. improvement i n t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy  wheat has been a c h i e v e d by f r e e z i n g . p r o c e s s b r i n g s about t h i s of  The m o s t  1962).  percentage  utilization  types  r e a c t i o n s , c r o s s - l i n k a g e r e a c t i o n s , and  d i s i n t e g r a t i n g r e a c t i o n s (Donoso e t a l . , I t was a l s o n o t e d  heat  wheat i s unknown.  The mechanism b y w h i c h  the freezing  improvement i n t h e m e t a b o l i z a b l e energy  I t appears  c h a r a c t e r o f some c o m p o n e n t s . f r e e z i n g caused mechanical  content o f t h e whole  values  t h a t t h e change i s i n t h e p h y s i c a l  Perhaps  stress,  i c e forming  i n the course of  s o t h a t a l t e r a t i o n may o c c u r  i n some  u n a v a i l a b l e f r a c t i o n o f p r o t e i n a n d as a r e s u l t make t h e p r o t e i n more r e a d i l y o r c o m p l e t e l y h y d r o l y z e d by d i g e s t i v e  enzymes.  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e c h a n g e may b e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e carbohydrate  components.  Freezing could affect  the physical  structure  43 of the carbohydrate  to render  F u r t h e r experiments  i t more e a s i l y  digested.  are needed t o e l u c i d a t e these  points.  44 SUMMARY  A  s e r i e s o f e x p e r i m e n t s was  on n u t r i t i v e  out  to study  q u a l i t y o f t r e a t i n g whole wheat i n d i f f e r e n t  M e t a b o l i z a b l e energy values were d e t e r m i n e d u s i n g 2 - 3 diets  carried  the  effects  ways.  of the v a r i o u s samples of  week o l d c h i c k e n s .  wheat  Nitrogen r e t e n t i o n of  c o n t a i n i n g t h e d i f f e r e n t w h e a t s a m p l e s , t r e a t e d and  untreated  were  a l s o measured. A u t o c l a v i n g w h e a t f o r 60 m i n . metabolizable  energy values  in significant  improvement a l s o .  the m e t a b o l i z a b l e The  over  energy values  various treatments  a t 15  lb pressure,  the u n t r e a t e d wheat.  increased  Freezing resulted  Water- o r a c i d - s o a k i n g d i d not o f t h e wheat d i d not  improve  samples.  affect protein  utilization  as m e a s u r e d b y p e r c e n t a g e n i t r o g e n r e t e n t i o n f r o m d i e t s c o n t a i n i n g treated  the  wheat. Prolonged  heating  (90 m i n .  and  120 m i n .  r e d u c e d t h e e n e r g y v a l u e o f w h o l e w h e a t as w e l l as retention.  Various  explanations  a t 15  lb  pressure)  the percentage n i t r o g e n  f o r the e f f e c t s noted  were  discussed.  45  REFERENCES  Adams, 0. L . a n d E. C. N a b e r . 1961. " S t u d i e s on t h e mechanism o f the c h i c k growth p r o m o t i n g e f f e c t a c h i e v e d by water t r e a t m e n t of g r a i n s and t h e i r components." P o u l t . S c i . 4 0 : 1369-1370. A l l e r d , J . B., L . S. J e n s e n a n d J . M c G i n n i s . 1957. " F a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g the response o f c h i c k s and p o u l t s t o f e e d p e l l e t i n g . V Poult. S c i . 36: 517-523. B e a r s e , G. E., L . R. B e r g , C. F . M c C l a r y a n d V. L . M i l l e r . 1952. "The e f f e c t o f c h i c k g r o w t h a n d f e e d e f f i c i e n c y o f p e l l e t i n g rations of dietary f i b e r l e v e l s . " P o u l t . S c i . 31: 907. B e a u d o i n , R., J . M a y e r a n d F. J . S t a v e . 1951. "Improvement o f p r o t e i n q u a l i t y o f w h o l e w h e a t . " P r o c . S o c . E x p t l . B i o l . Med. 7 8 : 450-451. B l a c k , D. J . A., R. C. J e n n i n g s a n d T. R. M o r r i s . 1 9 5 8 . 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