UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Leadership and power in an ethnic community Tryggvason, Gustav 1969

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LEADERSHIP AND POWER IN AN ETHNIC COMMUNITY. by GUSTAV TRYGG7ASGN B.A., University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1964  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS In the Department of Anthropology and Sociology  We aooept t h i s thesis as conforming to the required stapda^d  THE UNIVERSITY. OF BRITISH COLUMBIA Mayf I969  In p r e s e n t i n g an the  thesis  advanced degree at Library  I further for  this  shall  the  agree that  his  permission  of  this  written  representatives.  be  British  available  for  for extensive  g r a n t e d by  the  It i s understood  thes,is f o r f i n a n c i a l  gain  permission.  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s n V a n c o u v e r 8, Canada  f u l f i l m e n t of  U n i v e r s i t y of  make i t f r e e l y  s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may  by  in p a r t i a l  Columbia  shall  requirements  Columbia,  Head o f my  be  I agree  r e f e r e n c e and copying of  that  not  the  that  Study.  this  thesis  Department  copying or  for  or  publication  allowed without  my  - i ABSTRACT One of the s i g n i f i c a n t problems investigated by s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s i n recent years i s the question of how power i s used i n the community.  The presence of  power has generally been taken f o r granted; with the main research and a n a l y t i c a l e f f o r t being concentrated on i d e n t i f y i n g and explaining the actions of those members of the community, i . e . , the leaders, who are thought to possess power.  Their a b i l i t y to operate  e f f e c t i v e l y within the community i s generally i n t e r preted as a r e f l e c t i o n of t h e i r use of power, i . e . , t h e i r a b i l i t y to impose t h e i r w i l l upon others, with or without having to overcome direct or i n d i r e c t opposition i n the process of doing so. Such studies as have been carried out have usua l l y been conducted i n communities which are e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d as communities,  such as a c i t y or a town.  There are, however, other types of communities,  one  of which i s the ethnic community or sub-community. Ethnic communities,  such as those generally found i n  Canada, are a r e s u l t of the desire of the members of s p e c i f i c ethnic groups to continue to share some or a l l of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s with people of the same o r i g i n . In such communities the actions of the leaders may  be  based on several faotors, none of which i s comparable to the power which leaders i n other types of communities  - 11  -  may possess o r are believed to possess. Extensive f i e l d work was conducted In the Icelandic ethnic community In the Greater Vancouver area, beginning i n the f a l l of 1965 and continuing f o r some three years* Data was gathered I n i t i a l l y through Interviews with the members of t h i s community and subsequently by direct observation of and p a r t i c i p a t i o n In the a c t i v i t i e s of t h i s community and I t s leaders. The analysis of the data obtained indicates that the leaders of such a sub-community do not and cannot r e l l e upon an a b i l i t y to Impose t h e i r w i l l upon others. Put i n other words* the leaders of such a sub-community lack power.  T h e i r a b i l i t y to operate e f f e c t i v e l y i s  l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of the f a c t that t h e i r actions v i s - a v i s the community are r e s t r i c t e d to those which w i l l receive voluntary support from the members of the community.  - Iii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER  PAGE  I  INTRODUCTION  1  II  THE MIGRANTS Introduction The Primary Migration The Secondary Migrations  7  III  THE CULTURAL DEFINITION OF THE ETHNIC COMMUNITY General Comments The Ethnic Community as a C u l t u r a l Community The Icelandic Ethnic Community i n Vancouver The Members of the Community  IV  THE SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMUNITY Introduction The Community'8 Membership The Congregation and the A u x i l i a r y The Icelandic Old Folks Home Society The Ladies A i d S o l s k i n The Strondin Chapter Patterns of P a r t i c i p a t i o n  V  LEADERSHIP AND POWER IN THE ETHNIC COMMUNITY Leaders and O f f i c e r s Selected P r o f i l e s The Leaders and the Community Conclusions  VI  THE STUDY OF LEADERSHIP AND POWER Introduction Research Methods The Concept of Power Power i n the Community BIBLIOGRAPHY  2?  59  1*7  223  - iv -  LIST OP TABLES NUMBER  PAGE  I  Icelandic Immigration to Canada, 1872-1902.  12  II  Icelandic Immigration to Canada, 1906-1918.  13  I I I - l Icelandic Immigration to Canada; I9I9-I925.  16  I I I - 2 Icelandic Immigration to Canada, by ports of o r i g i n , I926-I945.  17  IV  Icelandic Immigration to Canada, by ports of o r i g i n ; 19*6-1965.  19  V  Canadians of Icelandic o r i g i n ; showing p a r t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n by s p e c i f i c provinces; 1881-1961.  26  VI  Certain Characteristics of the Icelandic Canadian Population; 1881-1961.  61  VII  Generation-Origin Groupings of the Community's Members: 1963-1966.  63  VIII  Generation-Origin Groupings of the Core Members: I 9 6 3 - I 9 6 6 .  6*  IX  Generation-Origin Groupings of the Congregation's Members: 1963-1966.  76  X  Generation-Origin Groupings of Core Members; Withdrawals, and New Members: 1963-1966.  77  XI  Generation-Origin Groupings of A u x i l i a r y Members: 1962.  83  XII  Generation-Origin Groupings of the Society's Members and L i f e Members: 1963.  97  XIII  Generation-Origin Groupings of the Aid's Members: 1963-1966.  103  XIV  Generation-Origin Groupings of the Association's Members: I 9 6 I - I 9 6 6 .  12*  XV  Generation-Origin Groupings of the Core Members; Withdrawals; and New Members: I963-I966.  127  Generation-Origin Groupings of the O f f i c i a l and P a r t i c i p a t o r y Members: I966-I967.  I30  XVI  CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The  study of l e a d e r s and t h e i r power has  a t t r a c t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e a t t e n t i o n among s o c i a l  scientists  s i n c e the p u b l i c a t i o n of P l o y d Hunter's book, Community Power S t r u c t u r e  (1953)«  Those who  have i n v e s t i g a t e d  t h i s p a r t i c u l a r phenomenon have tended to be i n t o two  divided  opposing s c h o o l s of thought - schools  divided  both i n the manner i n which they approach t h i s phenomenon and The  i n the c o n c l u s i o n s  r e l a t i v e merits  t h e y reach about i t .  of these opposing views w i l l  examined i n d e t a i l i n a subsequent chapter. be s a i d ; however; t h a t t h e s e two  It  be can  s c h o o l s appear to  share a common f e a t u r e which tends to weaken the v a l i d i t y o r a c c u r a c y of the v a r i o u s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s which have been drawn from the s t u d i e s i n q u e s t i o n . Readings i n the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e have l e f t the w r i t e r w i t h the impression researchers  who  t h a t those  have i n v e s t i g a t e d the phenomenon of  l e a d e r s h i p have a tendency t o f o r g e t t h a t the p o s i t i o n of a ' l e a d e r ' can o n l y have an o p e r a t i o n a l e x i s t e n c e i f t h e r e i s a c e r t a i n group of non-leaders o r f o l l o w e r s who  a r e a v a i l a b l e t o be l e d .  There i s a tendency t o  g i v e l i t t l e o r no c o n s i d e r a t i o n to the p o s s i b i l i t y or t h e p r o b a b i l i t y t h a t the manner i n which the group has  become a group may determine t h e n a t u r e of l e a d e r s h i p i n t h a t group.  The e f f e c t which t h e h i s t o r i c a l  development and growth o f t h e group has i n determining o r l i m i t i n g t h e v a r i e t y o r types o f l e a d e r s h i p  options  has not been g i v e n i t s r i g h t f u l p l a c e i n a n a l y s i s .  As  a r e s u l t many s t u d i e s o f l e a d e r s h i p have an a i r o f unr e a l i t y f o r t h e y seem t o suggest t h a t t h e l e a d e r s examined a r e i s o l a t e d from and q u i t e independent o f t h e p e o p l e t h e y a r e supposedly l e a d i n g . I f t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f t h e group i n t o a group has an e f f e c t on t h e type of l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n evident  i n t h a t p a r t i c u l a r group, i t i s  p o s s i b l e that the d i f f e r e n c e s l n the conclusions reached i n o t h e r s t u d i e s a r e due, not t o e r r o r s i n r e s e a r c h methods o r t o e r r o r s i n analysis-;' but t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e communities s t u d i e d d i f f e r so e x t e n s i v e l y i n t h e i r i n t e r n a l composition and development t h a t t h e emergence o f d i f f e r e n t types of l e a d e r s o r l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s was i n e v i t a b l e .  I t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t  there  i s no law, whether made by nature; man o r s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , which s t i p u l a t e s t h a t a l l communities must have t h e same k i n d o f l e a d e r s o r t h e same type o f l e a d e r ship pattern.  S i n c e d i f f e r e n t communities e x i s t i t i s  e q u a l l y s a f e t o assume t h a t d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f l e a d e r s and d i f f e r e n t types o f l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s even w i t h i n t h e same n a t i o n a l s o c i e t y .  exist also;  -  3 -  The t e s t i n g o f such an hypothesis  regarding  t h e o r i g i n and t h e c o n t i n u e d e x i s t e n c e of a v a r i e t y o f l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s r e q u i r e s s t u d i e s which c o n s i d e r a much g r e a t e r q u a n t i t y and v a r i e t y o f data c o v e r i n g much l o n g e r time p e r i o d s than has been t h e case up t o now.  T h i s study p r o v i d e s one such attempt t o g i v e a  d e t a i l e d , in-depth  a n a l y s i s o f t h e development o f a  c e r t a i n community and t h e l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n p e c u l i a r ; but not unique; t o i t .  The community i n q u e s t i o n i s  an e t h n i c community, one o f a number o f such subcommunities found i n some s o c i e t i e s .  The e t h n i c sub-  community; as a type of community; comes into, being as a r e s u l t o f t h e m i g r a t i o n o f people from one s o c i e t y i n t o another.  I t s development i s a f f e c t e d  by a v a r i e t y o f f a c t o r s ; such as t h e time o f m i g r a t i o n ; r a t e s o f m i g r a t i o n ; c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , o f t h e migrants; and so on.  These and o t h e r f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c e t h e  o r i g i n a l c r e a t i o n and subsequent development o f t h e e t h n i c community. I t appears t o be t h e ease t h a t an e t h n i c community can o n l y be a sub-community which e x i s t s w i t h i n a l a r g e r community - such as a c i t y - and o f which i t i s an i n t e g r a l p a r t .  Because o f t h i s  s t r u c t u r a l l i m i t a t i o n t h e e t h n i c sub-community may not p r o v i d e a u s e f u l t e s t o f any t h e o r i e s o r hypotheses r e l a t i n g t o t h e nature o f l e a d e r s h i p and  - 4 power d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t h e l a r g e r community.  In  the l a r g e r community t h e a c t i o n s taken by a l e a d e r o r l e a d e r s , however he o r they may be i d e n t i f i e d ; can have a c o n s i d e r a b l e e f f e c t on t h e l i v e s of t h e l e d , whether o r not they a r e aware of t h e l e a d e r ' s e x i s t e n c e and whether o r not t h e l e d a r e aware of and a g r e e a b l e t o t h e a c t i o n s taken.  I n t h e e t h n i c sub-community; and  p o s s i b l y l n o t h e r sub-communities, t h e a c t i o n s of a l e a d e r can; g e n e r a l l y speaking; o n l y have an e f f e c t on the l e d i f t h e r e i s . a p r i o r and c o n t i n u i n g  commitment  on t h e i r p a r t t o r e g a r d themselves as members o f t h a t particular  sub-community. The 'members' o f t h e l a r g e r community," such  as a c i t y ; a r e i n a sense c a p t i v e members; f o r t h e i r mere presence i s t h e proof of t h e i r membership; whether o r not t h a t membership s t a t u s i s ; d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y ^ a relevant controlling factor  i n their lives.  But t h e  sub-community; such as an e t h n i c community; l a c k s t h i s e s s e n t i a l l y t e r r i t o r i a l component and must, as a consequence, depend upon t h e p e r s o n a l commitment of i t s members on a c o n t i n u i n g b a s i s . commitment  This  personal  i s b a s i c a l l y a v o l u n t a r y a c t i o n and as  such i s e a s i l y i n f l u e n c e d o r changed by a number of f a c t o r s which do not operated  a t l e a s t not w i t h t h e  same e f f e c t ; i n t h e l a r g e r community.  The v o l u n t a r y  n a t u r e o f membership i n t h e sub-community i s c r u c i a l  -  5 -  f o r i t s main o p e r a t i o n a l e f f e c t i s t o p l a c e severe r e s t r i c t i o n s on t h e power o f t h e sub-community's leaders.  The e x e r c i s e o f t h e i r power can e a s i l y  d e s t r o y t h e p e r s o n a l commitment o f t h e members and once t h a t commitment i s gone t h e sub-community ceases t o e x i s t .  T h i s r e l a t i v e absence o f power may  reduce t h e v a l u e o r u s e f u l n e s s o f any a n a l y s i s o f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n such a community. T h i s study w i l l attempt t o g i v e a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f t h e h i s t o r i c a l development o f a p a r t i c u l a r e t h n i c community, namely t h e I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c community which e x i s t s I n the m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f t h e Lower M a i n l a n d o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and the l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s which appear w i t h i n i t . I n o r d e r t o do so i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o g i v e some a t t e n t i o n t o t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e primary m i g r a t i o n o f people from I c e l a n d t o Canada and t o t h e secondary migrations  which l e d some o f these migrants, o r t h e i r  descendants, t o t h e Lower Mainland.  This w i l l , i n  t u r n , p r o v i d e t h e s t a r t i n g p o i n t f o r an a n a l y s i s of the e t h n i c community which t h e s e people e s t a b l i s h e d ; as w e l l as an a n a l y s i s o f t h e f a c t o r s which i n f l u e n c e d the development o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p p a t t e r n s which a r e evident i n I t .  Gnce t h i s i s accomplished i t w i l l be  p o s s i b l e t o examine t h e e x i s t i n g l i t e r a t u r e , g i v i n g p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e two main schools o f thought;  - 6 t o see i f t h i s study p r o v i d e s a new i n s i g h t i n t o t h e study o f l e a d e r s h i p as a g e n e r a l phenomenon.  - 7CHAPTER I I THE  MIGRANTS  Introduction The h i s t o r y o f emigration from I c e l a n d t o Canada can be d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e q u i t e d i s t i n c t The  periods.  f i r s t p e r i o d begins l n t h e e a r l y 1870*s and l a s t e d  u n t i l t h e end o f t h e f i r s t World War.  I t was d u r i n g  t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e b u l k of a l l emigrants l e f t I c e l a n d and the overwhelming m a j o r i t y chose Canada as t h e i r new homeland.  The second p e r i o d began a t  the end o f t h e f i r s t World War and continued end o f t h e second World War. r a t e o f emigration  to the  During t h i s p e r i o d t h e  from I c e l a n d dropped  considerably  and t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e p l a c e d Canada as t h e f i r s t c h o i c e o f t h e emigrants.  The t h i r d and f i n a l  period  began a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f t h e second World War and continues  t o t h i s day.  During t h i s p e r i o d  emigration  from I c e l a n d appears t o have i n c r e a s e d , a t l e a s t temporarily,  but t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f emigrants which  came t o Canada continued first  to decline.  From being t h e  c h o i c e o f emigrants d u r i n g t h e f i r s t  period  Canada f e l l t o t h i r d p l a c e d u r i n g t h e t h i r d p e r i o d , c o n s i d e r a b l y behind t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Denmark and b a r e l y ahead o f Sweden.  The c o n d i t i o n s which  a f f e c t e d o r c r e a t e d t h i s p a r t i c u l a r p a t t e r n of overall  emigration  seem t o have been d i f f e r e n t i n each of  these periods.  The e f f e c t o f these v a r i e d c o n d i t i o n s  - 8 is  evident both i n t h e t o t a l s i z e o f t h e emigrating  groups and i n t h e f e a t u r e s which tend t o c h a r a c t e r i z e these groups as d i s t i n c t groups. The Primary M i g r a t i o n The Main P e r i o d : lo72 - 1918. The p r i n c i p a l and perhaps t h e o n l y Important c a u s a l f a c t o r i n v o l v e d i n t h e p a t t e r n of emigration i n t h e f i r s t p e r i o d was t h e extremely poor c o n d i t i o n of t h e i s l a n d ^  economy, which c o u l d best be d e s c r i b e d  as b e i n g not j u s t stagnant  but s t a g n a t i n g .  t h r e e o r f o u r decades preceeding  In the  this f i r s t period of  e m i g r a t i o n t h e p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e d from *6,000 t o 72,000 ( T h o r s t e i n s s o n , 1921, p. 13).  But d u r i n g  this  p e r i o d o f r a p i d p o p u l a t i o n i n c r e a s e t h e economy remained as i t had been f o r c e n t u r i e s - p r i m i t i v e i n technology  and poor i n p r o d u c t i v i t y ( B j o m s o n , 1963).  A g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r was  just  s u f f i c i e n t to provide a subsistence l e v e l of e x i s t e n c e and due t o t h e p r i m i t i v e nature of t h e technology to  i n use p r o d u c t i o n was e s p e c i a l l y s e n s i t i v e  adverse weather c o n d i t i o n s , as f a r as crops were  concerned, and t o epidemic d i s e a s e s , as f a r as l i v e s t o c k was concerned.  On a number o f occasions  d u r i n g these years t h e p a r t i a l o r complete d e s t r u c t i o n of f o o d crops and l i v e s t o c k due t o these  conditions  brought t h e i s l a n d e r s t o the b r i n k of m a s s - s t a r v a t i o n ,  - 9 a f a t e prevented o n l y by f o r e i g n c h a r i t y (Gudmundsson, 1955,  I956, passim; J . Helgason, 193?» p.  210).  A l t h o u g h the I c e l a n d e r s might have possessed the  d e s i r e and t h e a b i l i t y t o r e - o r g a n i z e o r modernize  t h e i r economy they were prevented from doing so by the p o l i t i c a l s t a t u s o f t h e i r homeland.  Por several  c e n t u r i e s the i s l a n d had been an i n t e g r a l p a r t of the Danish Kingdom and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n l a y w i t h o f f i c i a l s of t h e Danish government i n Copenhagen.  E v e r y d e c i s i o n , no matter how minor;  t o be r e f e r r e d t o them f o r a c t i o n . of  had  An extreme example  t h e extent o f t h e i r c o n t r o l i s the case of t h e  l e a k i n g r o o f of t h e o f f i c i a l r e s i d e n c e o f t h e Bishop of  I c e l a n d , an i n c i d e n t which took p l a o e d u r i n g t h e  1830*3.  Prom t h e time t h a t t h e r o o f began t o l e a k  i t took two years f o r t h e s e o f f i c i a l s t o a u t h o r i z e r e p a i r s (H.E. Johnson, was  19*3).  A comparable time l a g  e v i d e n t i n d e c i s i o n s of g r e a t e r importance. The winds o f change which swept through  Europe d u r i n g t h e l a s t  c e n t u r y e v e n t u a l l y gave r i s e t o  p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t i o n aimed a t o b t a i n i n g l o c a l autonomy l n p o l i t i c a l and economio matters i n I c e l a n d . campaign was  initiated  This  and maintained l a r g e l y by  I c e l a n d e r s r e s i d i n g i n Copenhagen.  These  individuals  were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n o b t a i n i n g a number of concessions i n t h e p o l i t i c a l sphere but t h e s e tended t o be of such  - 10  -  a minor nature that l i t t l e change occurred i n the island's basic p o s i t i o n .  Among t h e i r achievements  were the restoration of the Icelandic parliament, the A l t h i n g , as a consultative assembly i n the 1 8 * 0 * 3 ; the extension of press freedom to Iceland i n the 1850's and the promulgation of a constitution In 1874-. But the Danish government retained control over a l l f i s c a l and economic p o l i c i e s so that the effect of these concessions on conditions i n Iceland was Control over these important p o l i c y areas was  slight. not  turned over to the Icelanders u n t i l 188*, but by then i t was too l a t e to halt the wave of emigration which erupted without warning i n the early 1870»s. Mention might be made, at t h i s time, of two migrations which occurred before 1870.  The f i r s t , i n  the 1850's, Involved a number of Icelanders who  had  been converted to Mormonism by Icelandic students  who,  i n turn, had been converted by missionaries i n Copenhagen.  These people appear to have been  subjected to some persecution because of t h e i r r e l i g i o u s b e l i e f s (Gudmundsson, 1956, pp. 213,  215)  and l e f t the country to s e t t l e i n Spanish Forks, Utah (Thomas, 19*3).  The second; i n the 1860»s,  involved a society which was mass-emigration  to B r a z i l .  established to promote Several hundred people  joined the society and the B r a z i l i a n Imperial  -  11  -  Government a p p a r e n t l y agreed t o supply t h e p r o s p e c t i v e s e t t l e r s with transportation.  The promised s h i p s  never a r r i v e d hut a few people made t h e journey on t h e i r own.  The extreme d i s t a n c e s i n v o l v e d and t h e  t r a n s p o r t a t i o n d i f f i c u l t i e s prevented any major move t o B r a z i l and most of t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s  eventually  r e t u r n e d t o I c e l a n d o r went t o North America (W. K r l s t j a n s o n , 1950). •Eruption  1  i s perhaps t h e best one-word  d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e wave o f emigration which began i n t h e 1870*s, even though t h e beginning  was modest:  f o u r s i n g l e men t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n 18?0 (Walters; !953t P. *H) and one man t o Canada i n 1872 ( L i n d a l , 1953).  But i n 1873 a group o f I83 persons came t o  Canada, f o l l o w e d by a group o f 375 i n I 8 7 * . then on emigration  Prom  i n c r e a s e d by l e a p s and bounds,  encouraged i n p a r t by l e t t e r s which d e s c r i b e d t h e new l a n d and l i f e i n glowing terms (Walters, 1953, p. 3*) and i n p a r t by t h e determined e f f o r t s o f some of t h e e a r l y emigrants who r e t u r n e d t o I c e l a n d as immigration agents f o r t h e Canadian government.  The  l a t t e r appear t o have been d r i v e n by a d e s i r e t o rescue t h e i r f e l l o w countrymen "from t h e dark and d e s o l a t e i n h a b i a t i o n ( s i c ) and poverty s t r i c k e n communities o f . . . ( t h e i r ) poor and l o n e l y n a t i v e islands  (Freeman, I892)  - 12 Data on t h e number o f I c e l a n d i c emigrants t o Canada have been gathered from a v a r i e t y o f secondary sources f o r t h e years 1872 t o 1902,  These f i g u r e s a r e  g i v e n i n T a b l e I , below. TABLE I I c e l a n d i c Immigration t o Canada; 1872-1902. 18?2 I873  -  1 183  I876 1878  -  1300 200  187*  -  375  1887 1888-  1893 -  1900 1902  -  2000  5000  1003  230  Souroes: C h r l s t o p h e r s o n , 1901; Gibbons, 1938; Gudmundsson, 1955; B.K. K r i s t j a n s s o n , I 9 6 I ; L l n d a l , 1962. These sources i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e t o t a l number of  I c e l a n d e r s who migrated t o Canada d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d  was Just over 10,000.  T h i s f i g u r e can be compared w i t h  t h a t g i v e n i n another r e p o r t which uses I c e l a n d i c census d a t a t o p l a c e t h e t o t a l number o f emigrants from I c e l a n d between 1870 and 1900 a t 12,308 (A. Helgason,  I965). Canadian government r e p o r t s p r o v i d i n g  s t a t i s t i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n on immigration by I c e l a n d e r s o r those o f I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n t o Canada a r e r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e b e g i n n i n g i n 1906.  The  r e l e v a n t f i g u r e s f o r t h e balance o f t h i s  first  period are given i n Table I I .  - 13  -  TABLE I I I c e l a n d i c Immigration t o Canada^ 1906-1918. 1906 1907 1908 1909 1910 1911  -  1912 1913 191* 1915 1916 1917 1918  168 *6 97 35 95 250  -  205 23I 292 1*5 15 9 3  Sources: Canada Year Book. 1907 1919.  -  The t o t a l number of I c e l a n d i c immigrants  in  t h e balance of t h i s p e r i o d , a c c o r d i n g t o these f i g u r e s , i s 159L  These f i g u r e s do not, however; i n d i c a t e  many of t h e s e immigrants Canada.  how  came d i r e c t l y from I c e l a n d t o  B e g i n n i n g around 1900 t h e r e was  a considerable  secondary m i g r a t i o n of I c e l a n d i c s e t t l e r s from North Dakota t o Saskatchewan and A l b e r t a ( B.E.  I96I, I96*, passim)•  passim; Walters^  I953t  Kristjansson;  passim; Lindal,'  I955t  I t i s not p o s s i b l e t o g i v e exact f i g u r e s on  t h e s i z e of t h i s secondary m i g r a t i o n but i t might be noted t h a t a study of the American born i n Canada; based on Canadian t h e r e were 1008 p r o v i n c e s who,  census data; showed t h a t i n  1921  r e s i d e n t s i n the t h r e e p r a i r i e though they were r e c o r d e d as b e i n g of  I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c o r i g i n , had been born i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s (Coats and Maclean,  19*3;  P. H 2 , T a b l e X L I ) .  The emigrants of t h i s p e r i o d seem t o have been a c r o s s - s e c t i o n of I c e l a n d i c s o c i e t y as i t  - Ik was at t h i s time.  A l l occupational groups - farmers  and fishermen, ministers and businessmen; writers and j o u r n a l i s t s - appear to have been w e l l represented; as were a l l age groups.  Most of these emigrants  Iceland with t h e i r f a m i l i e s .  left  Kristjansson (I96I)  provides b r i e f l i f e h i s t o r i e s of numerous IcelandicCanadians and Icelandic-Americans; including 110* immigrants.  Of these immigrants  878; 79.5$i t r a v e l l e d  i n nuclear family groups and an additional 89, 8.0$, i n p a r t i a l family groups.  Only 137; 13.2$, were single  persons, t r a v e l l i n g alone or with some other group. The economic conditions which provided the major incentive to the emigrants began to change a f t e r 188* but several years passed before these changes had an effect on emigration, which continued at a very high rate during the 1880*s and 1890*s. A national bank was established i n I885 and cash transactions began to replace the barter system which had existed f o r centuries (Thorstelnsson, 1921, p. 8 3 ) . A beginning was made on the construction of a road network and of harbour f a c i l i t i e s (Malmstrom; 1958, p. 191)» The government began to a l l o c a t e growing amounts of money f o r the improvement of a g r i c u l t u r a l techniques and productivity.  Most of  t h i s money was channelled through a g r i c u l t u r a l co-operatives and p r i o r i t y was given to improving  - 15 l i v e s t o c k , f e n c i n g ranges, p r o v i d i n g  irrigation  f a c i l i t i e s and t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f machinery.  Between  I876 and 1900 government expenditures f o r these purposes i n c r e a s e d from 2*00 kronur p e r year t o *2,000 kronur and by 1910 these expenditures amounted t o over 228,000 kronur ( T h o r s t e l n s s o n , 1921, pp. 59 - 63).' At  t h e same time steps were taken t o r e -  o r g a n i z e and modernize t h e f i s h i n g i n d u s t r y .  Pre-  v i o u s l y f i s h i n g had been a p a r t - t i m e o c c u p a t i o n o f some farmers; whose equipment c o n s i s t e d of open row boats and hand l i n e s .  Some 3200 row boats and 38  decked v e s s e l s made up t h e f i s h i n g f l e e t i n 18?6. Excess f i s h p r o d u c t i o n , which amounted t o 5*00 tons i n t h a t year; was t h e i s l a n d ' s primary export commodity.  During t h e 1880*s and 189©»s these row  boats were r e p l a c e d , more o r l e s s g r a d u a l l y , by a f l e e t o f decked s a i l i n g v e s s e l s ; s h o r t one. The f i r s t  T h e i r day was a  steam-powered v e s s e l was  a c q u i r e d i n t h e 189©'s and t h e f i r s t 190*.  trawler i n  By 1922 t h e s a i l i n g s h i p s had been l a r g e l y  r e p l a c e d by steam and motor-powered v e s s e l s . The development o f c e n t r a l i z e d f i s h p r o c e s s i n g p l a n t s proceeded a t t h e same time and these p l a n t s ; and t h e i r a l l i e d s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s ; were a b l e t o absorb both the workers d i s p l a c e d by t h e mechanization of t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r y and t h e new workers  - 16  -  e n t e r i n g the l a b o u r f o r c e f o r the f i r s t time. r e s u l t of t h e s e and  As  a  o t h e r changes i n the i s l a n d ' s  economy the economic pressures  began t o d e c l i n e a f t e r  the t u r n of the century and as these  pressures  d e c l i n e d the i n c e n t i v e f o r emigration  d e c l i n e d as w e l l .  The Second P e r i o d : 1919 Emigration of the war  -  19*5.  to Canada resumed a f t e r the  but the numbers i n v o l v e d were q u i t e  compared t o the pre-war f i g u r e s .  The  end  small  available  o f f i c i a l s t a t i s t i c s a r e reproduced i n T a b l e s  III-l  and I I I - 2 , below.  the  f i g u r e s f o r 1926  Two and  t a b l e s a r e used s i n c e  subsequent years i n d i c a t e the  p o r t s of o r i g i n from which immigrants  entered  Canada. TABLE I I I - l I c e l a n d i c Immigration to Canada, 1919-1925. 1919 1920 1921 1922  -  12 11 50 37  1923 192* 1925  -  21 2? *9  -  17 -  TABLE I I I - 2 I c e l a n d i c Immigration t o Canada; by p o r t s o f o r i g i n , 1926-19*5. Year  USA*  1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 193** 1935  22 22 18 23 28 17 10 6 10 12  OPP** 53 30 28 2* 6 25  1 -  1  Year  USA  OPP  1936 1937 1938 1939 19*0 19*1 19*2 19*3 19** 19*5  6 2 5 8  6 1 3  * * 5 * * 6  _  1 1 1  * E n t e r i n g from U n i t e d S t a t e s p o r t s . ** E n t e r i n g from o t h e r f o r e i g n p o r t s ; Sources: Canada Year Book. I927 - 19*6. The  improved economic c o n d i t i o n s i n I c e l a n d  a t t h e beginning  o f t h i s p e r i o d removed t h e p r i n c i p a l  i n c e n t i v e f o r emigration  on t h e p a r t o f l a r g e groups.  However; i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e economic o r o c c u p a t i o n a l s i t u a t i o n s f a c e d by p a r t i c u l a r f a m i l i e s o r i n d i v i d u a l s o f t e n l e d t o a d e c i s i o n t o emigrate.  During t h e l a t t e r  p o r t i o n o f t h i s p e r i o d , on t h e o t h e r hand, economic c o n d i t i o n s were so poor t h a t even those who wanted t o emigrate c o u l d not do so and a f t e r t h e war began t h e r e were f u r t h e r o b s t a c l e s t o emigration. During t h i s p e r i o d t h e r e appears t o have been a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f s i n g l e males and s i n g l e females among t h e emigrants. I n t h i s connection  i t might be noted t h a t Canadian  immigration r e p o r t s f o r t h e years I926 t o 1931 show  - 18 t h a t j u s t over 20% o f a l l immigrants  from I c e l a n d  i n t h e s e years were females c l a s s e d as domestic servants. The T h i r d P e r i o d ; 19*6 E m i g r a t i o n from I c e l a n d a f t e r t h e second World War was i n f l u e n c e d by c e r t a i n f a c t o r s which had not been p r e s e n t p r e v i o u s l y .  One o f t h e s e was t h e  effect o r the r e s u l t of the stationing of foreign t r o o p s i n I c e l a n d d u r i n g t h e war and t h e i r r e t u r n a f t e r t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e Korean War.  Hany o f t h e s e  s o l d i e r s m a r r i e d I c e l a n d i c women and took them; and t h e i r I c e l a n d - b o r n c h i l d r e n ; abroad a f t e r t h e i r t o u r s of s e r v i c e were f i n i s h e d .  Between 1 9 5 3 and i 9 6 0  over k0% o f a l l emigrants were t h e I c e l a n d i c wives and I c e l a n d - b o r n c h i l d r e n o f such f o r e i g n e r s , most o f whom were American s o l d i e r s ( U t f l u t n i n g u r . 1 9 6 2 ) During t h e s e years ( 1 9 5 3 - i 9 6 0 )  over 50% o f a l l  I c e l a n d i c emigrants went t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i l e o n l y 9% went t o Canada.  And many o f t h e l a t t e r  subsequently went t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . The a v a i l a b l e f i g u r e s o f immigration by I c e l a n d e r s i n t o Canada d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e IV.  - 19 -  TABLE IV Icelandic Immigration to Canada; by ports of o r i g i n , 1 9 * 6 - 1 9 6 5 . Year  USA*  19*6 19*7 19*8 19*9 1950 1951 1952 1953 195* 1955  12 7  * 7 *  5 10 2 11 6  OPP** 3 1* 8 3 13  18  35 52 39 19  Year  USA  OFP  1956 1957 1958 1959 i960 1961 1962 1963 196* 1965  «.  *1 56 *3 23 12 5 1 12 16 3  5 9 7 2 2 3 6 1 6  * Entering from United States Ports. ** Entering from other foreign ports. Sources: Canada Year Book. 19*7 - I 9 6 6 . There are certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the emigrants, or rather the immigrants, of t h i s period which are worth mentioning.  In many eases these  individuals were not strangers to international migrations and many were; by b i r t h or naturalization, c i t i z e n s of countries other than Iceland.  Of the  f i f t y immigrants of Icelandic ethnic o r i g i n i n 1 9 5 * only 32 were Icelandic c i t i z e n s and the others were B r i t i s h , Danish, German and American c i t i z e n s . Twenty f i v e of these immigrants came from Iceland and the others came from A u s t r a l i a ; Denmark; Norway;" Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States.  In  1 9 5 6 , although t h i r t y eight of the fourty one immigrants were Icelandic c i t i z e n s only twenty two of them came to Canada from Iceland.  The others came from Denmark;  - 20 Finland, Norway and the United Kingdom, While many immigrants of Icelandic ethnic o r i g i n came to Canada from countries other than Iceland there were many immigrants of non-Icelandic origins who came from Iceland.  Between 1 9 5 * and  1956  there were twenty f i v e immigrants from Iceland of nonIcelandic o r i g i n s .  These included individuals of  B r i t i s h , Swedish, Norwegian, Lithuanian, I r i s h f German; Maltese and Swiss o r i g i n s .  I t might be noted  i n t h i s connection that between I96I and 1967  only  two immigrants from Iceland came to Vancouver.  Both  of these immigrants were Moroccans who had spent several years i n Iceland before coming to Canada.  And  both, i n c i d e n t a l l y ; speak Icelandic with a fluency which embarrasses many members of the l o c a l Icelandic community. Many of the f a m i l i e s which emigrated from Iceland to Canada a f t e r the war d i d not plan to stay i n Canada permanently or changed t h e i r views a f t e r arriving.  In I 9 6 I , f o r example; there were sixteen  f a m i l i e s of post-war immigrants i n Vancouver but by I967 only four of these were s t i l l i n the c i t y or i t s suburbs.  Two had moved to other parts of the  province; f i v e had returned to Iceland and f i v e had gone to the United States. I t might be noted that f o r many of these  - 21 f a m i l i e s the d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e I e e l a n d was  prompted  by b u s i n e s s and/or o t h e r d i f f i c u l t i e s f a c e d by t h e head of t h e f a m i l y .  S e v e r a l l e f t bankrupt b u s i n e s s e s  and heavy debts behind them and i n one case and p o s s i b l y l n more cases t h e f a m i l y head seems t o have a t t r a c t e d the a t t e n t i o n of the I c e l a n d i c p o l i c e ; perhaps w i t h j u s t i f i c a t i o n .  I n view of the f a c t  that  many of these i n d i v i d u a l s had f a i l e d t o a d j u s t thems e l v e s t o l i f e i n I c e l a n d ; whatever t h e reason f o r t h a t f a i l u r e , i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t o note t h a t many of  them f a i l e d t o a d j u s t themselves t o l i f e i n  Canada.  Many of t h o s e who  went i n t o b u s i n e s s found  out t h a t b u s i n e s s f i r m s operate q u i t e d i f f e r e n t l y i n Canada; so much so t h a t s e v e r a l of these persons went bankrupt once a g a i n and; more o f t e n than n o t ; escaped t h e i r debts by r e t u r n i n g t o I c e l a n d . A c t i o n s such as t h e s e tended t o o f f e n d t h e o l d e r immigrant  and o l d e r n a t i v e born groups i n t h e  community f o r such a c t i o n s d e t r a c t e d from the 'good r e p u t a t i o n ' which they had b u i l t up f o r themselves and t h e i r f e l l o w I c e l a n d i c - C a n a d i a n s .  These groups  were understandably c o o l towards a l l new  immigrants  u n t i l t h e l a t t e r proved t h a t they too were 'good* Icelandlc-Canadians.  - 22  -  The Secondary M i g r a t i o n s . The f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t e s t a b l i s h e d by the I c e l a n d e r s In Canada came Into b e i n g l a r g e l y by accident.  I n 1873  a  group of I83 persons  left  I c e l a n d w i t h the i n t e n t i o n of s e t t l i n g i n Wisconsin.  P o r some reason t h e group went by s h i p  from England t o Quebec C i t y ; i n s t e a d of t o New  York;  and began an o v e r l a n d t r a i n - j o u r n e y t o t h e U n i t e d States; was of  While s t i l l i n Canada; however ir t h e group  v i s i t e d by an Immigration  agent who  t h e s e t t l e r s i n t o s t a y i n g i n Canada.  s e t t l e d near Rousseau; O n t a r i o . year a l a r g e r group which was S c o t i a was  t a l k e d most T h i s group  I n the f o l l o w i n g  on i t s way  t o Nova  s i m i l a r i l y d i v e r t e d to Kinmont, O n t a r i o  (W. K r i s t j a n s o n , 19*3)•  Both s e t t l e m e n t s were s h o r t -  l i v e d f o r t h e promised work on r a i l w a y c o n s t r u c t i o n did  not m a t e r i a l i z e and t h e l a n d the s e t t l e r s r e c e i v e d  was  e i t h e r u s e l e s s o r of a t y p e w i t h which they were  not f a m i l i a r .  I n 187*  two groups from t h e s e s e t t l e -  ments; one w i t h about 125  persons and the o t h e r w i t h  about *o; moved t o Nova S c o t i a were t h e y s e t t l e d as o r i g i n a l l y planned.  N e i t h e r of these groups; one of  which s e t t l e d near H a l i f a x and the o t h e r near L o c k e p o r t ; was and by 1882  able to e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f  successfully  both had disbanded, w i t h most of the  s e t t l e r s going t o Manitoba  and North Dakota ( C r o n m i l l e r ;  1961f  P.  23  -  23I).  Those of t h e o r i g i n a l s e t t l e r s who  d i d not  go to Nova S c o t i a moved t o Winnipeg i n 1875•  A  party  of some 250 persons reached the c i t y t h a t f a l l and  was  g r e e t e d by a l a r g e crowd which came t o see what t h e •Eskimoes* l o o k e d l i k e (Walters, 1953V P. 5 3 ) .  About  h a l f of t h i s group remained i n Winnipeg and t h e r e s t moved n o r t h of the e x i s t i n g p r o v i n c i a l boundary to an a r e a on t h e south-west shore of Lake Winnipeg, where t h e Dominion government had  c r e a t e d an e x c l u s i v e  r e s e r v e f o r them ( L a x d a l , 1 9 6 1 ) .  Here they  e s t a b l i s h e d t h e settlement  Iceland (Somervillef  of New  19*5)» a settlement which i s g e n e r a l l y ^ and erroneously;  regarded  as t h e *mother  of a l l I c e l a n d i c settlements  probably  settlement  1  i n North America.  In  a d d i t i o n t o g i v i n g the s e t t l e r s e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s to the l a n d i n the r e s e r v e t h e Dominion government p r o v i d e d them w i t h a l o a n of $ 8 0 , 0 0 0 , which was used t o buy  equipment and  seed.  T h i s l o a n was  to  never  repaid. The  1  mother s e t t l e m e n t  not so motherly." a r r i v e d New epidemics,  Two  1  t u r n e d out to  years a f t e r the  I c e l a n d was  be  Icelanders  h i t by a combination of  f l o o d s , droughts and f o o d shortages  events which were i n p a r t caused by t h e  -  settler s  i n a b i l i t y to use t h e l a n d g i v e n him p r o p e r l y  be  1  and  -  2k -  p r o f i t a b l y ( V a n d e r h i l l ; 1963),Many of t h e s e t t l e r s moved t o o t h e r l o c a t i o n s and founded o t h e r communities. New s e t t l e r s came t o New I c e l a n d ; e i t h e r t o s e t t l e permanently o r t e m p o r a r i l y , but t h e i r numbers were never g r e a t enough t o use a l l t h e l a n d which had been a l l o c a t e d f o r them. New I c e l a n d served, t o a c e r t a i n extent, as a c e n t r e t o which many new immigrants came b e f o r e they d e c i d e d where t o go. of  However, by f a r t h e m a j o r i t y  t h e new immigrants stopped i n Winnipeg and, i f  t h e y moved, moved d i r e c t l y t o t h e d e s i r e d l o c a t i o n . Numerous s m a l l communities were e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e I c e l a n d i c immigrants a t S e l k i r k ; Vogar; Brown; A r g y l e , e t c . , (Jonasson,  1901).  By t h e mld-1880*s  s m a l l groups had reached t h e then North-West T e r r i t o r i e s , where they s e t t l e d i n t h e ChurchbridgeT a n t a l l o n and t h e Q u i l l Lakes a r e a s . l a t e r the f i r s t  A few years  s e t t l e r s were e s t a b l i s h i n g them-  s e l v e s i n what was t o become t h e p r o v i n c e o f A l b e r t a . Here t h e M a r k e r v i l l e - I n n i s f a l l a r e a near Red Deer became t h e major I c e l a n d i c s e t t l e m e n t . The f i r s t I c e l a n d i c immigrants t o s e t t l e i n B r i t i s h Columbia d i d so i n 1887; near V i c t o r i a .  By  t h e e a r l y 1890*s t h e r e were a number of f a m i l i e s i n V i c t o r i a but b e g i n n i n g i n 189* many o f these moved to  t h e new I c e l a n d i c settlement on P o i n t Roberts i n  Washington s t a t e .  Other Immigrants reached t h e  - 25 Okanagan I n t h e e a r l y 1890*s  t  the Princeton area i n  t h e l a t e 1 8 9 0 * s and t h e Crescent Beach r e g i o n s h o r t l y a f t e r t h e t u r n of t h e century.  Two u n s u c c e s s f u l  attempts were made t o e s t a b l i s h i s o l a t e d I c e l a n d i c communities i n t h e p r o v i n c e .  The f i r s t was e s t a b l i s h e d  i n I9I3 on Smith I s l a n d , i n t h e e s t u a r y of t h e Skeena R i v e r , and t h e second was begun about 1915 on Hunter I s l a n d i n t h e F i t z H u g h Sound a r e a .  The Hunter I s l a n d  community broke up d u r i n g t h e 1 9 2 0 * s and t h e Smith I s l a n d community broke up i n t h e 1 9 * 0 * s . The p r i n c i p a l c e n t r e f o r I c e l a n d i c s e t t l e ment i n t h e p r o v i n c e was t h e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a o f Vancouver. 1890*3.and  The f i r s t  immigrant a r r i v e d d u r i n g t h e  by t h e t u r n of t h e century t h e r e were  p o s s i b l y 100 I c e l a n d e r s r e s i d i n g i n t h e c i t y .  The  l a t e r movement o f I c e l a n d i c immigrants and t h e i r descendants t o t h e c i t y was a g r a d u a l m i g r a t i o n i n v o l v i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and f a m i l i e s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e g e n e r a l movement o f people t o t h e p r o v i n c e a f t e r the t u r n of the century. Although  t h e r e was a tendency f o r t h e  immigrants as a whole t o s e t t l e i n i t i a l l y  i n Manitoba  i t was o n l y a s h o r t time b e f o r e they and t h e i r descendants began t o spread f u r t h e r west and a f t e r t h e t u r n o f t h e century t h e r e was a f u r t h e r movement to  the eastern provinces.  Some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e  -  26  -  p r e s e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of Canadians o f I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e V*, below.  ethnic  Particular  a t t e n t i o n s h o u l d be p a i d t o t h e f i g u r e s f o r B r i t i s h Columbia; as t h e s e g i v e a f a i r l y rough i n d i c a t i o n of t h e growth of t h e I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c group i n the metropolitan area. TABLE V Canadians of I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n ; showing p a r t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n by s p e c i f i c p r o v i n c e s ; 1 8 8 1 - 1 9 6 1 . Year  Canada  1881 1901 1911 1921 1931 19*1 1951 1961  1,003?6.057T 7,109 15,876 19,382 21,050 23,623c, 30,623^  Man. 773 5.135 11,0*3 13,*50 13,95* 13.6*9 1*,5*7  B.C. -o 177 2*7 57 3 858 1,*78 3.557 5,136  Gnt. 57 1*5 1 37 326 817 1.371 2,313  Other Prov. 173 1.582 *,123 *,7*7 *,801 5.0*6. 8,627  3  Sources: Canada Year Book, v a r i o u s y e a r s . Notes: li These f i g u r e s cover o n l y those born i n I c e l a n d (see t a b l e V I ) , 2. T h i s f i g u r e i s f o r 1902. B.C. Bureau of P r o v i n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n , P o p u l a t i o n of B r i t i s h Columbia A c c o r d i n g t o E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t s . 1902. V i c t o r i a - ; B.C. King»s P r i n t e r , 1902. 3. I t has been p o i n t e d out by Ruth ( I 9 6 5 ) t h a t t h e f i g u r e f o r t h e t o t a l number of I c e l a n d i c Canadians i s not c o r r e c t . The e r r o r was due t o enumerators i n Quebec marking I c e l a n d i c when t h e y s h o u l d have marked I r i s h ; t h e F r e n c h v e r s i o n s o f t h e s e two names b e i n g almost t h e same. The f i g u r e s f o r t h e t o t a l number and t h e number i n t h e o t h e r p r o v i n c e s s h o u l d be reduced by about 2 , * 0 0 t o c o r r e c t f o r t h i s .  - 27 -  CHAPTER I I I THE CULTURAL DEFINITION OP THE ETHNIC COMMUNITY G e n e r a l Comments S t u d i e s o f community l e a d e r s h i p  and/or  power d i s t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s do n o t u s u a l l y  attempt  t o g i v e o r t o develop a s p e c i f i c d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e term community.  Such a d e f i n i t i o n i s not u s u a l l y  needed, however, s i n c e t h e s e s t u d i e s have g e n e r a l l y d e a l t w i t h e n t i t i e s which a r e e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d as b e i n g communities; a city.  such as a r u r a l a r e a , a town o r  Such an approach g i v e s a p r a c t i c a l  d e f i n i t i o n o f a community as b e i n g an e n t i t y which has d e f i n i t e and known t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries. G i v e n such a d e f i n i t i o n ; t h e i d e n t i f 1 c a t i o n o f t h e community's members i s a r e l a t i v e l y simple t a s k f o r o b v i o u s l y t h e members a r e t h o s e persons who  live  w i t h i n t h e p r e s c r i b e d t e r r i t o r i a l boundaries.  But  s i n c e any community w i l l ; from time t o t i m e f p l a y h o s t e s s t o n o n - r e s i d e n t s i t may be d e s i r a b l e t o distinguish actually  between t h e r e s i d e n t i a l members who  l i v e i n t h e community and t h e v i s i t i n g  members who may be present from time t o time on a regular or irregular basis.  O b v i o u s l y ! t h e s e two  groups o f members w i l l have d i f f e r e n t  interests  and w i l l a c c o r d i n g l y p l a y q u i t e d i f f e r e n t r o l e s i n t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h e t e r r i t o r i a l community.  - 28 -  The e t h n i c communities  which a r e found from  time t o time i n urban c e n t e r s i n N o r t h America a r e n o t , g e n e r a l l y speaking, based upon t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f a s p e c i f i c t e r r i t o r y as b e i n g t h e l o c a t i o n community.  of t h e i r  There a r e undoubtedly some exceptions t o  t h i s g e n e r a l r u l e , and one t h i n k s i n p a r t i c u l a r o f some Negro sub-communities communities  and t h e i s o l a t e d  e s t a b l i s h e d by some s m a l l r e l i g i o u s  s e c t s , but u s u a l l y t h e e t h n i c community dees not occupy a s p e c i f i c t e r r i t o r y and o n l y such a specific territory. The absence o f t h i s t e r r i t o r i a l  element  makes i t d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y t h e members o f t h e e t h n i c community, without whom, o f course; t h e r e would be no community. non-territorial establish  I t I s n e c e s s a r y t o develop  c r i t e r i a which can be used t o  t h e p o p u l a t i o n boundaries o f such a  sub-community.  An easy way out of t h i s dilemma  Is t o f a l l back on p o p u l a t i o n s t a t i s t i c s which c l a s s i f y people i n terms o f e t h n i c , or r a c i a l a f f i l i a t i o n s .  religious  Each o f these c h a r a c t e r -  i s t i c s refers  to different  (Ryder; 1955)  out d e s p i t e these d i f f e r e n c e s they  are  qualitative  standards  f r e q u e n t l y lumped t o g e t h e r without e x p l a n a t i o n .  Canadian immigration s t a t i s t i c s g e n e r a l l y c l a s s i f y immigrants i n terms o f ' e t h n i c o r i g i n  1  (such as  - 29  -  B e l g i a n , F r e n c h o r I t a l i a n ) but some a r e i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of ' r e l i g i o n  (Jewish) and o t h e r s i n terms  1  of r a c e (Negro, N o r t h American I n d i a n ) .  Population  s t a t i s t i c s a r e u s u a l l y reproduced i n much the same manner. The i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  of t h e e t h n i c community's  members would be a simple t a s k i f such s t a t i s t i c s c o u l d be used f o r such a purpose. p o i n t t o w r i t e r s who such a manner.  And i t i s easy t o  have used t h e s e s t a t i s t i c s i n  T h i s approach i s p a r t i c u l a r i l y  used by Canadian w r i t e r s who  accept the i d e a of t h e  • c u l t u r a l mosaic' as a v a l i d concept. to t h i s  According  i d e a Canadian c u l t u r e c o n s i s t s of the  s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t  c u l t u r e s of a l l r e s i d e n t  e t h n i c groups; each of which i s c o n t r i b u t i n g i t s share t o t h e new  Canadian c u l t u r e .  Such a view i s  expressed i n and supported by the w r i t i n g s of ethnic historians (Lindal,  1955;  1967;  Ramsay;  o t h e r o b s e r v e r s of t h e e t h n i c scene o r the mosaic' (Gibbons, 1 9 3 8 ;  Patterson, 1955)t  1958),  'cultural government  p u b l i c a t i o n s (Some Notes on t h e Canadian F a m i l y T r e e . i 9 6 0 ) and i n s t u d i e s whose approaches a r e o r seem t o be more s c i e n t i f i c (Lawless, 1 9 5 9 ;  Walhouse,  1961;  V a l l e e , et a l . , 1 9 6 * ) . But such an approach t o t h i s problem of identifying  t h e members o f t h e e t h n i c community i s not  -  partieularily useful. ' c u l t u r a l mosaic'  30 -  Playing with the idea of the  i s p r o b a b l y good f o r morale,  e s p e c i a l l y i f one wishes t o use i t t o c a s t d i r e c t o r I n d i r e c t s c o r n upon t h e 'melting p o t ' which a l l e g e d l y operates south of t h e border.  I t takes  more than words, however, t o g i v e r e a l i t y t o t h e concept o f t h e ' c u l t u r a l mosaic! A community i s an o r g a n i z e d e n t i t y and as such r e p r e s e n t s a method whereby c e r t a i n common i n t e r e s t s can be a c h i e v e d .  In the larger  community,  such a s a c i t y , those common i n t e r e s t s need n o t be g e n e r a l l y understood o r a c c e p t e d i n o r d e r t o be i n operation.  I n a c i t y ; f o r example, i t i s i n t h e  common i n t e r e s t t h a t law and o r d e r be maintained, and t h i s can be done even though t h e members a r e not g e n e r a l l y aware o f and i n agreement w i t h t h e methods b e i n g used t o a c h i e v e t h i s o b j e c t i v e .  The  sub-community i s s l m i l a r i l y an e n t i t y o r g a n i z e d l n o r d e r t o r e a l i z e c e r t a i n i n t e r e s t s which a r e common t o some i n d i v i d u a l members o f t h e l a r g e r Such p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s a r e i n a d d i t i o n  community. to or  t a k e t h e p l a c e o f some o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e l a r g e r community.  But because t h e sub-community's  i n t e r e s t s a r e t h e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s o f t h e few, then the p r i o r and c o n t i n u i n g a c t u a l r e c o g n i t i o n and acceptance o f those i n t e r e s t s i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e -  - 31 c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e emergence o f t h e sub-community. The  e t h n i c community i s a sub-community  which i s o r g a n i z e d  i n order t o achieve c e r t a i n  interests or objectives.  Those i n t e r e s t s may i n v o l v e  a d e s i r e ; on t h e p a r t o f some o r a l l members o f a group which can be i d e n t i f i e d as being  e t h n i c group  X, t o p r e s e r v e a l l o r some p a r t o f t h e i r heritage.  •cultural  1  S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e s e X*s may wish t o  p r e s e r v e a r e l i g i o n , a language, e a t i n g h a b i t s o r l i f e ceremonies which a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e s o c i e t y from which they o r t h e i r a n c e s t o r s Or t h e r e may be a d e s i r e t o p r o v i d e  came.  some mutual  support t o i n d i v i d u a l X*s on a group basis;* w i t h such support t a k i n g t h e form o f insurance welfare  and/or  schemes; sueh as those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  Sons o f Norway o r g a n i z a t i o n s . attempt t o g i v e t h e X»s,  Or t h e r e may be an  as a group, p o l i t i c a l  power i n t h e l a r g e r community;" as was t h e case w i t h some o f t h e e a r l y o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h Ukranian s e t t l e r s i n Canada (Kaye, 1957).  But  whatever t h e s p e c i f i c n a t u r e o f t h e i n t e r e s t s i n v o l v e d , t h e p r i o r and c o n t i n u i n g  recognition;  acceptance and support o f those i n t e r e s t s i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e - c o n d i t i o n f o r t h e emergence and continued  e x i s t e n c e o f t h e e t h n i c sub-community. The member o f t h e e t h n i c community; i n  -  32  -  o r d e r to q u a l i f y f o r membership, must g i v e proof of h i s acceptance of and support  continuing  f o r the  community's s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t s by a c t u a l l y p a r t i c i p a t i n g , t o a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree, i n the a c t i v i t i e s which r e p r e s e n t  the attainment o r  maintenance of those i n t e r e s t s . going and;  The  the  organized;  on-  i n a sense, g o a l - o r i e n t e d n a t u r e of t h e s e  a c t i v i t e s r e q u i r e s t h a t they be managed by o r through t h e medium of o r g a n i z a t i o n s which a r e designed to serve general or p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r e s t s .  The  required  k i n d of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , t h e r e f o r e , i s some degree of involvement i n one  o r more of the  organizations  whose c o l l e c t i v e membership e s t a b l i s h e s the p o p u l a t i o n boundaries of t h e e t h n i c sub-community. G i v e n such an approach the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of  the  e t h n i c community's members becomes a r e l a t i v e l y simple o p e r a t i o n , i n v o l v i n g the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the members of t h e s e e t h n i c o r g a n i z a t i o n s  or  associations. The  E t h n i c Community as a C u l t u r a l Community. I t seems reasonable  'the e t h n i c community' Implies  to say t h a t the phrase the e x i s t e n c e of a  d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l group whose members, i n t h e i r h a b i t s and l i f e customs, share c u l t u r a l and/or s o c i a l f e a t u r e s o r standards which a r e  qualitatively  -  33 -  d i f f e r e n t from those evident  i n t h e host community.  Such a b e l i e f , as was n o t e d e a r l i e r , i s i m p l i c i t , b o t h o v e r t l y and c o v e r t l y , i n t h e w r i t i n g s o f many o b s e r v e r s , such as t h e s t u d i e s by Walhouse ( I 9 6 I ) , an examination o f t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f e t h n i c t o t h e c u l t u r a l geography of Vancouver,  groups  and Lawless  ( 1 9 5 9 ) ; an a n a l y s i s o f t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e l e a d e r s of e t h n i c groups t o t h e process o f c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n a f f e c t i n g t h e i r peoples. I t i s apparent t h a t t h e i n i t i a l e s t a b l i s h ment of e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s , such as those e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e community examined i n t h i s study, was motivated by a d e s i r e t o p e r p e t u a t e c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l standards which were n o t those o f t h e dominant o r host group. immigrants  The I c e l a n d e r s ;  e s p e c i a l l y the early  o r some of them; b e l i e v e and b e l i e v e d  themselves t o be an e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y l i t e r a t e people and they honoured t h i s b e l i e f by e s t a b l i s h i n g l i t e r a r y s o c i e t i e s such as I n g o l f u r i n Vancouver. The p r i n c i p a l o b j e c t i v e o f such groups was t h e establishment o f l i b r a r i e s of I c e l a n d i c books t o be used by t h e i r members.  An e x t e n s i o n o f t h i s  p a r t i c u l a r b e l i e f was t h e establishment of I c e l a n d i c language p u b l i c a t i o n s which s p e c i a l i z e d i n the presentation of s c h o l a r l y appraisals of I c e l a n d i c h i s t o r y and l i t e r a t u r e .  The simultaneous  -  3* -  development o f numerous; and u s u a l l y s h o r t - l i v e d , I c e l a n d i c - l a n g u a g e newspapers was a f u r t h e r r e s u l t of  t h i s b e l i e f , though not n e c e s s a r i l y o n l y t h i s  belief.  The I c e l a n d e r s a l s o b e l i e v e d themselves t o  be a v e r y r e l i g i o u s people - and so they e s t a b l i s h e d congregations  i n which t h e I c e l a n d i c v e r s i o n o f t h e  Lutheran f a i t h c o u l d be  propagated.  Such o r g a n i z e d a c t i v i t i e s p e r m i t t e d t h e continued d i s p l a y and use o f such o t h e r c u l t u r a l Items as I c e l a n d i c f o o d and t h e I c e l a n d i c language. But  even i n t h i s p e r i o d o f i n i t i a l a c t i v i t y t h e r e  were a t l e a s t two c o n d i t i o n s which made t h e u l t i m a t e f a i l u r e o f these e f f o r t s t o p r e s e r v e and perpetuate t h e i r c u l t u r e i n e v i t a b l e and unavoidable. I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , these a c t i v i t i e s never a t t r a c t e d t h e support o f a m a j o r i t y of t h e e a r l y immigrants and t h e i r f i r s t descendants.  native-born  I t appears t h a t t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n o f  t h e s e c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s , w i t h i n t h e framework of  t h e e t h n i c community, was not an important  element i n t h e l i v e s o f most o f t h e e a r l y immigrants and t h e i r  descendants. It  i s p o s s i b l e that the b i t t e r f a c t i o n a l i s m  which marked t h e e a r l y attempts by t h e immigrants t o e s t a b l i s h v i a b l e communities antagonized many p o t e n t i a l members t o t h e p o i n t weee they r e f u s e d  - 35 to have a n y t h i n g t o do w i t h these attempts.  The  b i t t e r n e s s o f those d i s p u t e s i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g q u o t a t i o n from a l e t t e r w r i t t e n ; i n E n g l i s h ; by an I c e l a n d e r i n Winnipeg; i n 1 8 9 2 ; t o a f r i e n d who was working as an immigration agent I n I c e l a n d . "Here i n Winnipeg? t h i n g s a r e r u n n i n g much t h e same as u s u a l . The two opposing elements i n our Icelandic society, are s t i l l at each o t h e r s t h r o a t ; and w i l l be; so l o n g as t h e malignant s p i r i t ; a t t h e head o f o u r opponents ; continues t o be t h e g u i d i n g s t a r o f t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . We a r e . . . a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e b e t t e r advantage now t h a n we used t o be, f o r t h e simple reason; t h a t some o f those who have h i t h e r t o managed t o parade t h e country i n t h e i r sheep c l o t h i n g ; have a t l a s t been unmasked. Even 0 has been keeping h i s s o i l e d l i p s much c l o s e r t o g e t h e r o f l a t e t h a n he used t o do. "Every dog has h i s day* and I am i n c l i n e d t o t h i n k ; t h a t he has had h i s . There i s g r e a t j o l l i f i c a t i o n here among our f r i e n d s ; over t h e r e c o v e r y o f Mr B y which seems now t o be almost certain." He appeared i n o u r Church...and made a v e r y t o u c h i n g speech;^ H i s reappearance on t h e scene seems t o have c a r r i e d consternation into the hearts of the enemies o f o u r church; "Logberg" (one o f t h e I c e l a n d i c - l a n g u a g e newspapers) i s g e t t i n g a l o n g f a i r l y w e l l I t h i n k ; i t manages t o make both ends meet, and t h a t i s all. I am a f r a i d t h a t Hkr. ( H e i m s k r i n g l a - t h e opposing newspaper) i s n e a r l y i n t h e soup by t h i s time; and I do r e a l l y b e l i e v e ; t h a t by t h e time you r e a c h Winnipeg a g a i n ; you may have t h e chance o f p l a c i n g a wreath on h e r grave. In P o l i t i c s t h i n g s a r e v e r y q u i e t . • . 3 (Freeman; 1 8 9 2 ) 1  1  - 36 Such f a c t i o n a l i s m was not a permanent c o n d i t i o n hut one which o c c u r r e d from time t o time, u s u a l l y as a r e s u l t o f d i s p u t e s among t h e l e a d e r s . The h i s t o r y o f t h e l o c a l I c e l a n d i c community was marked "by a t l e a s t t h r e e p e r i o d s o f major i n t e r n a l c o n f l i c t , t h e f i r s t of which o c c u r r e d i n t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s . One o f t h e important Issues o f t h a t time was t h e q u e s t i o n o f whether o r n o t an I c e l a n d i c h a l l s h o u l d be b u i l t i n Vancouver.  community  The l e a d i n g  s u p p o r t e r s o f t h a t p r o j e c t were t h e then P r e s i d e n t and S e c r e t a r y o f t h e L a d i e s A i d S o l s k i n , w h i l e t h e major opponent was t h e A i d ' s t r e a s u r e r , Mrs R. A f t e r a l o n g and b i t t e r s t r u g g l e Mrs R p r e v a i l e d , and h e r opponents withdrew from any f u r t h e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e community's  activities.  The e a r l y 1 9 * 0 ' s a l s o witnessed major d i s p u t e s , many of which r e v o l v e d around t h e e s t a b l i s h ment of t h e c h u r c h congregation and i n which Mr E p l a y e d a p a r t i c u l a r i l y prominent p a r t .  I n view o f  t h e changes which took p l a c e i n t h e community's a s s o c i a t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e a t t h i s time i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s e d i s p u t e s were both numerous and b i t t e r .  Nor i s i t s u r p r i s i n g t o note t h a t many  a c t i v e members withdrew i n t h e course of these d i s p u t e s and because of t h e s e d i s p u t e s and t h e i r outcome, some f o r a l l time and others f o r s h o r t e r  periods.  37 -  Some o f t h e l a t t e r were l a t e r t o r e t u r n and  p l a y a prominent p a r t i n t h e d i s p u t e s which raged almost c o n t i n u o u s l y throughout t h e decade o f t h e I 9 6 0 s . ,  T h i s most r e c e n t e r a o f c o n t r o v e r s y began w i t h an i n t e r n a l s t r u g g l e f o r c o n t r o l o f t h e Home S o c i e t y and may y e t end i n t h e same way. As was t h e case w i t h the e a r l i e r episodes t h e s e d i s p u t e s were p a r t l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e l o s s of some members, p a r t i c u l a r l y from t h e church congregation  and from S t r o n d i n ,  though i n both cases t h e l o s s e s have been p a r t l y r e couped i n r e c e n t y e a r s .  T h i s e r a was, however,  marked by a v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t development - t h e d e c l i n e o f t h e community's u n i t y .  I n each o f t h e  e a r l i e r p e r i o d s o f s t r e s s t h e r e was a l o s s o f members but a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h i s t h e r e appears t o have been a c o n s o l i d a t i o n o f t h e remaining members, i n t h e sense t h a t more o f t h e s u r v i v i n g members h e l d m u l t i p l e memberships and as a r e s u l t t h e community was i n t e g r a t e d t o a g r e a t e r degree.  But t h e  d i s p u t e s o f t h e 1960's d i v i d e d t h e community i n t o t h r e e d i s t i n c t groupings - t h e church Strondin  ( l a t e r t h e I c e l a n d i c Canadian Club) and  t h e Home S o c i e t y - S o l s k i n group. different  congregation,  These had  e f f e c t i v e memberships and d i f f e r e n t  o f f i c e r s , and t h e more recent developments i n t h e recruitment  o f new members and o f f i c e r s have tended  -  38 -  t o I n t e n s i f y and exaggerate t h i s d i v i s i o n t o t h e p o i n t were a r e s t o r a t i o n of e f f e c t i v e community i n t h e sense of members w i t h e f f e c t i v e m u l t i p l e memberships - seems u n l i k e l y . T h i s membership problem i s r e l a t e d t o t h e o t h e r c o n d i t i o n a f f e c t i n g t h e s u r v i v a l of t h e e t h n i c community as a c u l t u r a l community.  The founders and  c h a r t e r members of t h e I c e l a n d i c a s s o c i a t i o n s e s t a b l i s h e d l o c a l l y a c t e d on t h e b a s i s o f t h e i r acceptance o f t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e i r distinctness.  cultural  However, t h e s e i n d i v i d u a l s l e a r n e d ,  sooner o r l a t e r , t h a t t h e y were not o n l y a m i n o r i t y w i t h i n a m i n o r i t y but t h a t they were a l s o a dying b r e e d .  While i t may have been p o s s i b l e f o r  them t o m a i n t a i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r own l i v e s , they were not a b l e , d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y , t o arrange f o r t h e p e r p e t u a t i o n of those d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e community. The  I c e l a n d i o immigrants and t h e i r  descendants were q u i t e e a r l y s c a t t e r e d among peoples of other o r i g i n s , i n p a r t i c u l a r people o f E n g l i s h . o r i g i n , both i n Manitoba and elsewhere.  They  l i v e d i n an environment which was E n g l i s h i n language and customs, which they had t o adopt t o a growing degree I n o r d e r t o l i v e .  Obviously, t h e  adjustments which were n e c e s s a r y were made a t t h e  -  39  -  expense of t h e i r o r i g i n a l c u l t u r a l h a b i t s .  The l o n g -  term r e s u l t of such a process I s , i n e v i t a b l y , cultural  complete  assimilation. A p p a r e n t l y t h e o n l y way  i n which  c o u l d be a v o i d e d i s f o r t h e immigrant i t s e l f physically  assimilation  group t o i s o l a t e  and as completely as p o s s i b l e .  t h e I c e l a n d i c immigrants  d i d not do, and as a  This  result  t h e e v e n t u a l disappearance of t h e i r d i s t i n c t n e s s c u l t u r a l terms i s o n l y a q u e s t i o n of time and  in  death.  I t i s p o s s i b l y t o t h e i r c r e d i t t h a t the early participants  i n these I c e l a n d i c  ethnic  a s s o c i a t i o n s both r e c o g n i z e d and accepted t h e i r albeit reluctantly.  Furthermore,  fate;  because of the  i n t i m a t e c o n n e c t i o n which they had c r e a t e d between t h e i r cultural distinctness  a t the p e r s o n a l l e v e l  and t h e i r e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n s and communities, they assumed t h a t the l a t t e r would d i s a p p e a r w i t h the former.  M i n d f u l of t h e heroism of t h e i r V i k i n g  a n c e s t o r s t h e y s t o i c a l l y accepted t h e burden of c a r r y i n g t h e i r c u l t u r e and t h e i r communities t o their  graves. Perhaps because i t was  p a r t of t h e i r own  integral  l i v e s t h e y mis-understood  d i d not see the p o t e n t i a l ethnic o r i g i n .  such an  or  importance of t h e i r  shared  That i s t o say, t h e y were not  I c e l a n d e r s j u s t because they r e f l e c t e d the c u l t u r e  - *0 and  s o c i e t y of I c e l a n d , o r thought they d i d , but  also  because they were of I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n ; by v i r t u e of t h e f a c t t h a t they o r t h e i r parents had been b o m t h a t country.  The  in  f a c t of t h a t o r i g i n c o u l d not  be  a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o c e s s of c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n .  As  t h e c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t n e s s which marked the members of the I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c group o r the I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c communities began t o d e c l i n e , as i t had  to,  t h e importance of t h a t element of shared o r i g i n became g r e a t e r and g r e a t e r u n t i l i t became the essence of t h e d i f f e r e n c e s between them and a l l o t h e r Canadians.  They might share e v e r y t h i n g  with  t h e i r f e l l o w Canadians - language, r e l i g i o u s h a b i t s , f o o d t a s t e s , r e a d i n g h a b i t s ; e t c . - but o n l y they were of I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n . T h i s element o r i d e a of shared o r i g i n ancestry  i s the p r i n c i p a l b u i l d i n g b l o c k of  e t h n i c community of the f u t u r e . may  and  charitable  shared i n a format which  i s i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from t h a t evident community i n the country.  the  That community  i n v o l v e r e l i g i o u s , s o c i a l and  a c t i v i t i e s organized  or  But  in  any  the members s h a r i n g  t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y of I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n and they base t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n upon a d e s i r e t o share c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s w i t h o t h e r i n d i v i d u a l s of that  origin.  - kl A t t h e time t h a t t h i s study began t h e I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c community i n Vancouver had a l r e a d y reached t h i s stage, even though t h e members were not r e a l l y aware o f i t .  The a s s o c i a t i o n s which operate  w i t h i n i t a l l use E n g l i s h - t h e church congregation and t h e Home S o c i e t y s i n c e they were e s t a b l i s h e d ? t h e L a d i e s A i d S o l s k i n s i n c e 1 9 5 8 and S t r o n d i n s i n c e 1963»  The l i b r a r y which had been such an  important element  i n t h e l i f e of t h e community f o r  so many years was g a t h e r i n g dust i n t h e Home. The I c e l a n d i c v e r s i o n o f t h e Lutheran f a i t h ,  upheld  u n t i l t h e merger of 19&3V had been r e p l a c e d by a new v e r s i o n ; but no one had taken any p a r t i c u l a r notice of that  event.  The i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from t h e i n t e r v i e w s conducted d i d n o t suggest t h a t t h e members of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g members o f a d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l group.  However, i t was obvious  t h a t t h e s e people were proud o f t h e i r o r i g i n , an 5  o r i g i n they shared w i t h o t h e r •good* I c e l a n d e r s . The  'good* I c e l a n d e r was one who p a r t i c i p a t e d , t o  a g r e a t e r o r l e s s e r degree, i n one o r more o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s , w h i l e those i n d i v i d u a l s o f I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a manner were not •good how much t h e y might  1  Icelanders, regardless of  r e v e r e t h e f a c t of t h e i r  origin.  - kz The  a c t i v i t i e s which these 'good*  Icelanders  shared were not a c t i v i t i e s which were o r a r e unique t o them; hut these a r e a c t i v i t i e s which they share as •good  1  Icelanders.  T h i s i s why  the membership i s s u e  i n the church c o u l d become such an important i s s u e , once i t was Icelanders  suggested t h a t the r i g h t s of *good* t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of  I c e l a n d i c o r g a n i z a t i o n were being q u e s t i o n e d .  an The  doors had t o be kept open to a l l of them a t a l l times.  Similarilyi  to be r e - o r g a n i z e d  the d e t a i l s of how i n I967 c o u l d not,  Strondin  was  i n themselves,  become an i s s u e because the r i g h t s of the good Icelanders  t o p a r t i c i p a t e were not being  questioned  by the proposed changes. The I c e l a n d i c E t h n i c Community i n Vancouver. E a r l y Developments; 1908 - 1917. The  h i s t o r i c a l development of  the  I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c community i n Vancouver has been r e constructed  from the accounts of informants  from documents i n t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n possession  and  i n the  of the a c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s .  community t r a c e s i t s beginnings to the  and  This establishment  of the L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y I n g o l f u r i n 1908.  The  i n i t i a l and b a s i c reason f o r the establishment t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n was  of  the d e s i r e of some I n d i v i d u a l s  t o e s t a b l i s h a c e n t r a l l i b r a r y of I c e l a n d i c books  - 43 which t h e members o f t h e S o c i e t y c o u l d use, i n exchange f o r an annual membership f e e o f $1.00. l a t e r years t h e S o c i e t y began t o host s o c i a l such as dances and c a r d p a r t i e s .  In  functions  The L a d i e s A i d  S o l s k i n f r e q u e n t l y co-operated i n these s o c i a l g a t h e r i n g s a f t e r i t was e s t a b l i s h e d i n I 9 I 7 .  The  A i d was s e t up by s e v e r a l women who used t o meet as a sewing c i r c l e t o make s m a l l items of c l o t h i n g f o r Icelanders seas.  s e r v i n g i n t h e Canadian F o r c e s over-  A f t e r t h e war t h e A i d changed i t s a c t i v i t i e s  t o meet t h e demands f o r i n c r e a s e d i n t h e community.  social  activity  One p r o j e c t which i t s members  worked on f o r s e v e r a l years was t h e establishment o f an I c e l a n d i c community h a l l i n Vancouver.  This  p r o j e c t f a i l e d t o m a t e r i a l i z e , due i n p a r t t o t h e l a c k of I n t e r e s t among t h e community's male members and  i n p a r t t o t h e stubborn o p p o s i t i o n o f t h e A i d ' s  t r e a s u r e r , Mrs R. The the  second decade o f t h e century a l s o saw  establishment of an I c e l a n d i c Lutheran  congregation; which was s e r v e d by t h e p a s t o r s of t h e I c e l a n d i c L u t h e r a n church i n B l a i n e ; Washington. A f o u r t h group o r g a n i z e d a t t h i s time was a s m a l l , and  s h o r t - l i v e d , c l u b which sponsored p i c n i c s and  climbing  expeditions  t h e summer months.  t o t h e N o r t h Shore d u r i n g  - 44 -  I t i s d i f f i c u l t to Judge how many of the Icelandic residents of the c i t y of that time were a c t i v e l n these associations.  Some of the *old timers*  r e c a l l that there were only 7 0 to 80 people involved around 1 9 2 0 ,  at which time census figures suggest  that there were between 400 and 500 residents of Icelandic o r i g i n .  The charter membership of Solskln  was about 30 and by 1 9 2 3 the t o t a l membership had increased to 41, although seven of these members l i v e d i n other provinces or i n the United States. A l i s t , compiled from the c i t y directory, containing the names of twenty nine Icelanders l i v i n g i n the c i t y i n 1 9 0 9 was once shown to several women who have l i v e d l n the c i t y and been a c t i v e i n the Icelandic community since 1 9 0 4 - 1 9 0 6 .  Only four of  these names were recognized by them, although several others were added a t t h e i r suggestion.  It  appears, therefore, that even at t h i s early stage the ethnic community represented  the i n t e r e s t s of  only a minority of those of Icelandic o r i g i n . F i r s t Period of Re-organlzatlon;  1935 - 1946.  The o v e r - a l l a s s o c l a t i o n a l structure established between 1 9 0 8 - 1917 remained unchanged u n t i l the mid-1930*s.  Then there came a decade of  re-appraisal and re-organization, during which a  - *5  -  number of changes took p l a c e In the which made up the community and which these a s s o c i a t i o n s The ed i n 191?  was  i n the  activities  c a r r i e d out.  Lutheran congregation which was  establish-  disbanded i n the e a r l y 1930* s * i d a  s e v e r a l years passed b e f o r e any I n 19*1  revive i t .  associations  e f f o r t s were made t o  the I c e l a n d i c  Evangelical  L u t h e r a n Synod i n N o r t h America, i n c o - o p e r a t i o n the Board of American M i s s i o n s o f the U n i t e d  with  Lutheran  Church, sent a m i s s i o n a r y p a s t o r to Vancouver to i f a new  I c e l a n d i c L u t h e r a n Congregation c o u l d  organized.  T h i s t a s k took s e v e r a l years and  c o n g r e g a t i o n was 19**.  see  be  the  not f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l March;  I t appears, however, t h a t a heavy p r i c e  was  p a i d f o r the completion of t h i s p r o j e c t . Three new 1937  and  members.  1938,  a s s o c i a t i o n s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n  each of which had between 30 and  50  These were, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a mixed c h o i r ,  a s o c i a l c l u b f o r young L u t h e r a n women named L j o m a l i n d and a s o c i a l c l u b f o r young people named Isafold.  When the c o n g r e g a t i o n was  d i r e c t o r of the c h o i r , who president  was  established  a l s o the  first  of the congregation, l e d most of  c h o i r ' s members i n t o the church.  the  the  In a d d i t i o n ,  the  c o n g r e g a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d a Women*s A u x i l i a r y which took a heavy t o l l of the membership of L j o m a l i n d .  -  46  -  As a r e s u l t t h e c h o i r d i s a p p e a r e d as an  independent  a s s o c i a t i o n and L j o m a l i n d , a f t e r s t r u g g l i n g f o r a few years, ceased t o operate, though i t was never f o r m a l l y disbanded.  I n both cases t h e r e were a  number o f i n d i v i d u a l members who were not i n t e r e s t e d i n j o i n i n g t h e church o r any o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n and they withdrew from t h e community. The life.  s o c i a l c l u b I s a f o l d a l s o had a s h o r t  Many o f i t s members l e f t t h e c i t y d u r i n g t h e  war years w h i l e s e r v i n g w i t h t h e armed f o r c e s and those who remained behind were unable t o c o n t i n u e i t s activities.  N e g o t i a t i o n s were entered i n t o w i t h t h e  members o f t h e L i t e r a r y S o c i e t y L j o m a l i n d and i n 1 9 * 6 t h e s e two a s s o c i a t i o n s were merged under t h e name Strondln.  The new a s s o c i a t i o n became a f f i l i a t e d  w i t h t h e I c e l a n d i c N a t i o n a l League, which was, and still  i s , c e n t e r e d i n Winnipeg, Manitoba.  Within a  few years t h e new a s s o c i a t i o n f e l l under t h e wing o f t h e church congregation, s h a r i n g t h e same members and l a t e r t h e same f a c i l i t i e s . A f o u r t h new a s s o c i a t i o n e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e 1930*8 was t h e I c e l a n d i c Badminton Club.  Like i t s  p r e d e c e s s o r , t h e h i k i n g c l u b ; i t was s h o r t - l i v e d . The f i n a l a c t I n t h i s p e r i o d o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n was t h e establishment of t h e I c e l a n d i c Old  P o l k s Home S o c i e t y , i n January,  19*6.  The members  - 47  -  o f the L a d l e s A i d S o l s k l n appear t o have p l a y e d  an  Important; i f not the dominant; r o l e i n the n e g o t i a t i o n s which brought t h i s new  a s s o c i a t i o n Into  The primary o b j e c t i v e o f t h e new establishment  s o c i e t y was  being. the  of a home where the o l d e r members of  t h e community c o u l d spend t h e i r l a s t days." I t Is a g a i n d i f f i c u l t t o determine the p o p u l a t i o n of the r e - o r g a n i z e d community;" but i t does not appear t o have been v e r y l a r g e .  The  charter  membership of t h e church; which absorbed most of members of t h e c h o i r and L j o m a l i n d ; was The  c h a r t e r membership of S t r o n d i n was  100  and t h e membership of S o l s k l n was  time than i t had been i n 1923.  The  about  the  120.  w e l l under lower a t t h i s  i n i t i a l member-  s h i p of the Home S o c i e t y appears t o have been around 130.  Such evidence as i s a v a i l a b l e suggests  t h a t t h e r e was  a considerable over-lapping l n the  memberships of t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s so t h a t the p o p u l a t i o n of the community was  not much over  total 200.  The number of r e s i d e n t s o f I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n appears t o have been around 1000  and growing r a p i d l y ; so  t h a t once a g a i n i t i s s a f e t o assume t h a t  the  i n t e r e s t s o f the e t h n i c community were the i n t e r e s t s o f o n l y a m i n o r i t y of a l l p o t e n t i a l members. The a c t i v i t i e s of t h e community underwent some change d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d but the changes  - 48 appear t o have been m a i n l y changes o f degree r a t h e r than changes i n k i n d .  The new congregation had a  l a r g e r membership than t h e f i r s t  c o n g r e g a t i o n but  i t s a c t i v i t i e s ; w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e c h o i r and p o s s i b l y t h e Women's A u x i l i a r y , were not new. The merger between I n g o l f u r and I s a f o l d l e d ; e v e n t u a l l y ; to  a r e d u c t i o n i n the new a s s o c i a t i o n ' s a c t i v i t i e s  since the l a r g e l y s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s associated with t h e younger members o f the l a t t e r were not maintained for  l o n g by t h e o l d e r members o f I n g o l f u r .  The  Home S o c i e t y p r e s e n t e d new problems i n f u n d r a i s i n g and management but t h e s e were from the b e g i n n i n g t h e primary concern o f t h e few persons who were o f f i o e r s of  the Society. There was one new element which had a  long-term e f f e c t on t h e community.  The community had  been and s t i l l was an e t h n i c community  and i t s  a c t i v i t i e s were concerned; a t l e a s t i n t h e o r y ; w i t h preserving a certain cultural identity. t h e s e years saw t h e f i r s t  However;  significant inclusion of  non-Icelanders i n t h e community, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e membership o f t h e church and t o a l e s s e r extent i n t h e membership o f t h e Home S o c i e t y .  Both o f  t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s used E n g l i s h a s t h e i r o p e r a t i n g language,  p a r t l y because o f t h e presence o f these  ' f o r e i g n e r s ' and p a r t l y because o f t h e need t o meet  - 49 oertain conditions associated with the incorporation of both groups under t h e p r o v i n c e ' s S o c i e t i e s * A c t . The  growing presence o f t h e non-Icelanders and t h e  spread o f E n g l i s h as t h e community*s f i r s t  language  had t h e long-term e f f e c t o f r e f i n i n g and r e d u c i n g i  the p u r e l y o u l t u r a l I m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e community. The  decline of the purely c u l t u r a l implications of  the community was f u r t h e r e d by t h e f a c t t h a t ,the I c e l a n d i c members were, t o a growing extent;  bom  i n Canada and unable; t h e r e f o r e ; t o m a i n t a i n  the .  0  d i s t i n c t l y I c e l a n d i c c u l t u r a l features of the community simply because t h e y had not a c q u i r e d them t o t h e same extent as t h e o r i g i n a l immigrants. Second P e r i o d o f H e - o r g a n i z a t i o n : The  1960*3,  t h e 1960*s .  t h e p e r i o d which i s o f p a r t i c -  u l a r i n t e r e s t t o t h i s study, was another p e r i o d o f r e - a p p r a i s a l f o f both a s s o c i a t i o n s and purposes. T h e r e were a few changes i n t h e community's a s s o c i a t l o n a l s t r u c t u r e ; though some o f t h e s e changes were changes l n name o n l y ;  F o r one t h i n g ; t h e  I c e l a n d i c L u t h e r a n Synod gave up t h e s t r u g g l e t o maintain  i t s independence and opted, w i t h some  r e l u c t a n c e , f o r f u l l membership i n t h e newly formed L u t h e r a n Church i n America. t h e congregation  Technically; therefore;  ceased t o be an I c e l a n d i c  - 50 . ••  -,.. • •  i  a s s o c i a t i o n (the name o f the congregation  was  changed  from the I c e l a n d i c L u t h e r a n Church t o the L u t h e r a n Church of C h r i s t ) but l t and  i t s members; a f t e r a  p e r i o d of u n c e r t a i n t y ; continued community.  to a c t w i t h i n  the  The Home S o c i e t y s u c c e s s f u l l y completed  a major expansion I n v o l v i n g t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n of a new  home w i t h room f o r s i x t y r e s i d e n t s .  It  was,  however; f a c e d w i t h a problem i n the f a c t t h a t  an  I n c r e a s i n g p r o p o r t i o n of I t s r e s i d e n t s were, of  non-  Icelandic origins. continued  The L a d i e s A i d S o l s k l n  t o work c l o s e l y w i t h the Home S o c i e t y  and had i n f a c t become i t s u n o f f i c i a l a u x i l i a r y . The A i d adopted E n g l i s h as i t s o p e r a t i o n a l language I n 1958;  In an e f f o r t t o a t t r a c t new One  new  a s s o c i a t i o n was  members."  established i n  i960 but was a c t i v e f o r o n l y a few y e a r s . the I c e l a n d i c Male Choir;" which r e l i e d new  This  was  heavily.upon  immigrants f o r members; when most of them moved  away t h e group was  unable t o  continue.  F o r the s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l s o c i e t y ; S t r o n d l n ; t h e e a r l y years of t h e 19.60* s were years o f t u r m o i l as opposing f a c t i o n s fought m a t t e r was  f o r control.'  not s e t t l e d u n t i l I965 and was  by a period; which l a s t e d two 1  This followed  o r t h r e e years ; when 1  d r a s t i c changes were f o r m a l l y i n t r o d u c e d ; both, i n i t s s t r u c t u r e and i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  The name was  - 51 changed t o the I c e l a n d i c Canadian Club o f B r i t i s h Columbia, and t h e c l u b ' s r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e I c e l a n d i c N a t i o n a l League l n Winnipeg were severed i n a manner which l e f t  considerable  ill-feeling  on b o t h s i d e s .  I t was n o t e d elsewhere t h a t t h e p e r i o d o f r e - o r g a n i z a t i o n which began i n t h e mid-1930*s and ended i n t h e mid-19*0's l e f t t h e community r e l a t i v e l y w e l l - i n t e g r a t e d a t t h e membership l e v e l .  There was  a l a r g e body o f members who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s o f a l l t h e t h r e e major a s s o c i a t i o n s  (the  church; S t r o n d i n and t h e Home S o c i e t y ) and s m a l l e r groups were s e l e c t i v e i n t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n . was,  i n addition; a considerable  There  degree o f u n i t y i n  t h e community's l e a d e r s h i p corps; w i t h a number,of i n d i v i d u a l s h o l d i n g o f f i c e s l n more than one a s s o c i a t i o n a t t h e same time.  T h i s u n i t y o f member-  s h i p and purpose l a s t e d u n t i l t h e l a t e 1950's, when two  f a c t o r s combined t o break t h a t u n i t y and almost  wrecked t h e  community.  One  o f t h e s e f a c t o r s was the p a r t i c i p a t i o n  o f the new post-war immigrants i n the p a r t i c u l a r i l y i n Strondin.  community;  The o t h e r f a c t o r was a  b i t t e r d i s p u t e between two opposing f a c t i o n s ; one centered Society.  i n the church and the o t h e r i n t h e Home The o r i g i n s o f t h i s d i s p u t e can be t r a o e d  t o an event which o c c u r r e d  i n the' management o f t h e  - 52 Home In 1 9 5 1 - 5 2 ,  and possibly even further way; In  time;' than that event.  The oombined effect of these  two f a c t o r s ; over a period of years; s p l i t the community into three d i f f e r e n t and r e l a t i v e l y d i s t i n c t groups which had l i t t l e to do with each other and whose leaders were often not on speaking terms.'  The effect of these and other events w i l l  be examined more f u l l y i n subsequent  chapters  dealing with the members of the community, I t s leaders and the issues which faced them; The Members of the Community General Comment I t was previously suggested that the population of the ethnic community consisted only of those people who take an a c t i v e part In the a c t i v i t i e s of the community; as these a c t i v i t i e s occur i n or involve one or more of the community*s associations. Continuing from t h i s statement i t i s possible to d i s t i n g u i s h three types, or l e v e l s , of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . The f i r s t l e v e l i s that of leadership and includes only those individuals who occupy recognized o f f i c i a l positions i n one or more of the existing associations. The second l e v e l i s the l e v e l of o f f i c i a l membership, which covers those individuals who maintain an o f f i c i a l membership i n one or more associations, whether or not t h i s type of membership leads them to take an a c t i v e part i n the a c t i v i t i e s Involved.  The t h i r d l e v e l  - 53 i s t h e l e v e l o f p a r t i c i p a t o r y membership and i n c l u d e s t h o s e i n d i v i d u a l s who; though they take an a c t i v e p a r t i n what i s going on; do not; f o r one reason o r another; m a i n t a i n a n o f f i c i a l membership i n any association. The Leaders The s i z e o f t h e l e a d e r s h i p corps i n t h e I c e l a n d i c community i s l a r g e l y determined b y t h e number o f e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s a v a i l a b l e i n t h e a c t i v e associations.  During t h e p e r i o d under study these  t o t a l l e d 41 (42 a f t e r I967) and were d i s t r i b u t e d as f o l l o w s : a ten-member Board o f D i r e c t o r s f o r t h e Home S o c i e t y ; a six-member E x e c u t i v e Committee f o r t h e L a d l e s A i d S o l s k l n ; a twelve-member Board o f T r u s t e e s f o r t h e church congregation; a six-member E x e c u t i v e Committee i n t h e church's Women's A u x i l i a r y and a seven-member  E x e c u t i v e Committee f o r S t r o n d i n  ( l a t e r an eight-member Board o f D i r e c t o r s f o r t h e I c e l a n d i c Canadian C l u b ) •  The a c t u a l number o f  i n d i v i d u a l s I n v o l v e d i s n o t as h i g h i n any one year as t h e number o f p o s i t i o n s s i n c e a few persons  still  h o l d o f f i c e s l n more than one a s s o c i a t i o n .  The O f f i c i a l  Members  The s t a t u s o f o f f i c i a l membership i s o b t a i n e d  - 5* o n l y by those i n d i v i d u a l s who meet c e r t a i n s p e c i f i e d c o n d i t i o n s f o r membership i n one o r more o f t h e s e associations*'  The most important of t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s ,  and u s u a l l y t h e o n l y onef i s t h e payment of members h i p dues on an annual b a s i s .  The L a d i e s A i d S o l s k i n f  t h e c h u r c h a Women*s A u x i l i a r y and S t r o n d i n 1  annual dues o f 50^ o r $1.00 a person.  charged  The c o n s t i t u -  t i o n of t h e church s e t out t h e q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r membership and t h e s e i n c l u d e d b o t h r e l i g i o u s and financial criteria.  Members had t o accept c e r t a i n  r e l i g i o u s d o c t r i n e s and had t o make * c o n t r i b u t i o n s of r e c o r d *  towards t h e congregation's expenses.  O f f i c i a l membership l i s t s g e n e r a l l y c o n t a i n o n l y t h e names o f t h o s e who pay t h e r e q u i r e d dues. The o n l y a s s o c i a t i o n whieh c r e a t e d a problem i n t h i s r e g a r d was t h e Home S o c i e t y .  The  Home S o c i e t y * s c o n s t i t u t i o n s e t t h e cost o f an annual membership a t #2.00 and t h a t o f a membership a t $25.00.  life  I t f u r t h e r d i r e c t e d that a  membership l i s t was t o be maintained.  These r e g u l a -  t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o membership were never a c t e d upon; and t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e Home S o c i e t y took t h e view t h a t a l l I c e l a n d i c Canadians were members of t h e Home S o c i e t y and e n t i t l e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l d i s c u s s i o n s and d e c i s i o n s .  The o n l y p u b l i c meetings  t h i s a s s o c i a t i o n holds a r e t h e annual g e n e r a l meetings;  - 55 and t h e s e s e t r e c o r d s f o r b r e v i t y and s i l e n t  partici-  p a t i o n on t h e p a r t o f t h e a t t e n d i n g members. It  i s p o s s i b l e ; however, t o use t h e Home  S o c i e t y ' s f i n a n c i a l r e c o r d s t o i d e n t i f y those  persons  who s h o u l d be regarded as I t s members because t h e i r donations t o t h e Home S o c i e t y meet t h e f i n a n c i a l c r i t e r i a f o r membership.  The examination o f t h o s e  r e c o r d s produced a l i s t c o n t a i n i n g t h e names o f I63 persons who q u a l i f i e d f o r membership l n I963i w i t h a somewhat s m a l l e r number q u a l i f y i n g i n 196*.  The  r e q u i r e d i n f o r m a t i o n f o r l a t e r years was n o t a v a i l able.  The 161 persons who were members i n 1963  i n c l u d e d 127 l i f e members - i n d i v i d u a l s who had made a d o n a t i o n i n excess o f $25*00 on one o c c a s i o n - and an a d d i t i o n a l t h i r t y persons who made donations d u r i n g t h e year which exceeded $2.00 but which were under $25.00.  The o t h e r f o u r members were d i r e c t o r s who;  a l t h o u g h they d i d n o t q u a l i f y f o r membership a c c o r d i n g to  t h e s e f i n a n c i a l c r i t e r i a ; o b v i o u s l y have t o be  included.  The p r o p o r t i o n o f l i f e members; 79$ i n  1963; i n c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g year; t o 83$;  due t o a drop i n t h e number o f persons making  annual d o n a t i o n s . It  s h o u l d be noted t h a t t h e o f f i c e r s o f  t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s have not; g e n e r a l l y speaking; p l a c e d a v e r y s t r o n g emphasis upon t h e need f o r people  - 56 t o m a i n t a i n an o f f i c i a l membership i n any a s s o c i a t i o n . These o f f i c e r s share a r a t h e r g e n e r a l view which s t a t e s t h a t i t i s not p o s s i b l e t o f o r c e people t o pay annual dues and t h a t those who a r e I n t e r e s t e d must be a l l o w e d to p a r t i c i p a t e f u l l y i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n s , whatever t h e s t a t u s o f t h e i r membership. It  i s evident,  however; t h a t most members; and  e s p e c i a l l y most p o t e n t i a l o f f i c i a l members; do not s h a r e t h i s view.  The members g e n e r a l l y f e e l t h a t they  must pay t h e i r dues b e f o r e they can p a r t i c i p a t e t o any extent  i n t h e management o f t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s ; y e t  few attempts a r e made t o get them t o pay such dues and when they make t h e f i r s t move they o f t e n meet w i t h  little  encouragement• The P a r t i c i p a t i n g Members The extent o f t h e p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership i s not known, f o r r a t h e r obvious reasons; but t h e meager evidence a v a i l a b l e suggests t h a t i t may be as l a r g e as t h e o f f i c i a l membership.  The o f f i c e r s o f  t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y c l a i m a muhh l a r g e r membership than i s i n d i c a t e d by t h e o f f i c i a l O f f i c e r s o f t h e congregation,  interviewed  lists.  i n 1965;  were g e n e r a l l y unanimous I n c l a i m i n g a membership of around 370, year contains  even though t h e o f f i c i a l l i s t f o r t h a t o n l y 2*7 names.  S i m i l a r i l y , some o f t h e  - 57 o f f i c e r s o f S t r o n d i n i n t e r v i e w e d a t t h i s time  claimed  a membership o f around 300, even though t h e o f f i c i a l list  f o r 1965 c o n t a i n s o n l y 108 names. Some u s e f u l d a t a was gathered on t h i s p o i n t  d u r i n g I966-I967, a f t e r t h e w r i t e r was e l e c t e d , by a c c l a m a t i o n , t o t h e post o f S e c r e t a r y on S t r o n d i n ' s E x e c u t i v e Committee,  A t h i s s u g g e s t i o n a guest book  was o b t a i n e d and put i n t o use a t t h e p u b l i c meetings h e l d by S t r o n d i n between A p r i l ,  1966, and A p r i l ,  1967.  D u r i n g t h e time i n I966 t h a t t h e book was I n use l t was s i g n e d by some 3*0 persons; o f whom 265 l i v e d i n the metropolitan area.  About 18$ o f these  persons  were o f f i c i a l members o f S t r o n d i n t h a t year and about *2$ were o f f i c i a l members o f o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s i n t h e community.  But around *0$ o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s  were not, and g e n e r a l l y had never been,  official  members o f any I c e l a n d i c e t h n i c a s s o c i a t i o n I n Vancouver o r elsewhere. These p a r t i c i p a t i n g members a r e an important element f o r two d i s t i n c t reasons.  First;  these  i n d i v i d u a l s a r e a l l p o t e n t i a l o f f i c i a l members and s h o u l d a membership d r i v e be i n i t i a t e d they would be t h e f i r s t persons t o be p i c k e d up.  Some o f these  p e o p l e do become o f f i c i a l members i n one o r another a s s o c i a t i o n but they do so on an i n t e r m i t e n t b a s i s s i n c e they a r e g i v e n l i t t l e  encouragement t o develope  - 58 -  a stable membership history.  The second and more  important reason i s the fact that the p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership i s the primary source f o r new o f f i c e r s . Vacancies which occur i n the community*s o f f i c e structure are generally f i l l e d by the recruitment of new o f f i c e r s from the p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership rather than from the o f f i c i a l membership. The Non-Icelanders. I t was noted previously that the f i r s t non-Icelanders entered the community during the I9*0»s. Few to begin with the non-Icelandic members accounted for  Just under o n e - f i f t h of the o f f i c i a l members  during I963 - 1966 and t h e i r numbers grew i n l a t e r years.  These individuals were usually married to  Icelanders who were members of the community.  Their  presence contributed to the reduction of the Importance attached to retaining the community as a c u l t u r a l community.  But t h e i r presence and the extent of t h e i r  contributions to the community are generally not f u l l y recognized by the Icelandic members, who tend to assume; at least p u b l i c l y , that a l l good things come only from *good* Icelanders.  -.. 59 CHAPTER IV THE  SOCIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE COMMUNITY  Introduction D u r i n g t h i s s t u d y i n t e r v i e w s were conducted w i t h more than h a l f o f a l l t h e o f f i c i a l members* These i n t e r v i e w s produced a l a r g e q u a n t i t y o f data regarding  c e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e community's  p o p u l a t i o n which c o u l d be t r e a t e d i n a s t a t i s t i c a l manner*  T h i s i n c l u d e d Information  on t h e g e n e r a t i o n a l  l e v e l and o r i g i n s ; i n terms o f b i r t h p l a c e ; o f a l a r g e number o f o f f i c i a l  and, as i t turned out,  p a r t i c i p a t i n g members*  T h i s data has been  analyzed;  from b o t h t h e viewpoint  o f t h e community as a whole  and f o r each o f t h e a c t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s , and t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l be presented l n subsequent s e c t i o n s * F o u r d i f f e r e n t groupings; based on g e n e r a t i o n and o r i g i n , were i d e n t i f i e d .  The f i r s t  consists of  the o l d e r immigrants (OIM) who came t o Canada d u r i n g t h e f i r s t p e r i o d o f immigration.  The second c o n s i s t s  o f t h e newer immigrants (NIM) who came d u r i n g t h e t h i r d p e r i o d o f immigration.  Two Immigrants who  a r r i v e d i n Canada i n 1920 were a s s i g n e d t o t h e o l d e r immigrant group.  I t was a l s o decided t h a t those  members o f t h e o l d e r immigrant group who were f i v e years o l d o r under a t t h e time o f t h e i r a r r i v a l l n Canada would be a s s i g n e d t o t h e o l d e r  native-born  -  group.  This decision was  60  -  cased on the f a c t that  these children were brought up i n communities which were not s p e c i f i c a l l y Icelandic communities; an experience which would tend to eliminate the c u l t u r a l differences, i f any, between them and the f i r s t Canada-born children of e a r l i e r immigrants. The t h i r d group; the older native-born group; includes those individuals who,  (ONB)  i n their  respective f a m i l i e s , were the f i r s t Canada-bom generation.  The fourth group; the younger native-bom  (YNB), includes those Individuals who are i n the second ( t h i r d , etc.) native-born generation i n t h e i r respective f a m i l i e s .  Besides these four groups of  Icelandic ethnics there i s a f i f t h group composed of those individuals of non-Icelandic (NI) origins who,; f o r one reason or another; are o f f i c i a l or p a r t i c i p a t o r y members of the community. Before proceeding to an analysis of the community's population i n these terms i t Is useful to reproduce and review certain f a c t s about the Icelandic Canadian population i n general.  Table VI;  below, provides the figures a v a i l a b l e on the growth of t h i s population"; how many of them were bom Iceland and the number who «mother* tongue.  in  claim Icelandic as t h e i r  - 61 TABLE VI Certain C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the Icelandic Canadian Population, 1881 - 1961. Year  Number  1881  1,003 6,057 7,109 15,876 19,382 21;050 23.623 3©;623*  1901 1911 1921 1931 19*1 1951 1961  Born i n Iceland  Icelandic Mother Tongue  6;057 15,510 11,207 8;-993  Source: Canada Census; I96I. * See Table V, note 3. These figures i n d i c a t e that the Icelandic Canadian population i s b a s i c a l l y a Canadian-born population - i n I96I the proportion born l n Iceland was only about ?%•  These immigrants; i n turn; are  mainly those who came to Canada during the f i r s t period of immigration.  About three quarters of a l l  the immigrants i n the l o c a l community*s o f f i c i a l membership came to Canada before 1920.  The  proportional d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h i s t o t a l population between the four generation-origin groupings may be of the following order: OIM - 5.5#; NIM - 1.5#; ONB - 30# and YNB - 6 ^ .  This possible d i s t r i b u t i o n  may also be v a l i d f o r the l o c a l Icelandic Canadian population. The decline; between 19*1 and I 9 6 I , i n the  - 62 p r o p o r t i o n who  c l a i m I c e l a n d i c as t h e i r  tongue s h o u l d a l s o he noted.  'mother'  The 'mother' tongue  i s t h e language which i s l e a r n e d f i r s t and i s not n e c e s s a r i l y t h e language which i s spoken a t t h e time t h a t t h e Census was taken.  The I c e l a n d i c  Canadian p o p u l a t i o n i s b a s i o a l l y an E n g l i s h speaking p o p u l a t i o n and t h e p r o p o r t i o n who correctly i s small.  can speak I c e l a n d i c  I t might he noted i n t h i s  connection that the Ladies A i d S o l s k i n recorded the  minutes of i t s b u s i n e s s meetings i n I c e l a n d i c  from 1917 the  u n t i l 1958.  But from t h e v e r y f i r s t  page  q u a l i t y of t h e language i s very poor and t h e  change t o E n g l i s h was l o n g over-due. The Community's  Membership  The r e s u l t s o f t h e a n a l y s i s of the o f f i c i a l membership o f t h e community i s g i v e n I n T a b l e V I I , f o l l o w i n g , f o r t h e years i n I963 and 1966,  , 63 TABLE V I I G e n e r a t i o n - O r i g i n Groupings o f t h e Community's Members: 1963-66.  1963 Combined L i s t e d Memberships A c t u a l Number o f Members A n a l y s i s based on data f o r O l d e r Immigrants Newer Immigrants Older Native Bom lounger Native B o m Not I c e l a n d i c  1966  6*0 *59 63.8#  *69 368 71.5#  21;~l£ 7.8 33.1 20;* 17.6  18.2^ 8.7 3I.9 22.8 18.2  Changes i n t h e p r o p o r t i o n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e community's members d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d were r e l a t i v e l y s l i g h t , d e s p i t e a 19$ d e c l i n e i n t h e t o t a l membership, from *59 t o 368;  and d e s p i t e t h e f a c t  t h a t j u s t over *<# o f t h e o f f i c i a l members i n I963 were not o f f i c i a l members merely t h r e e years l a t e r . Most o f t h e members - 71.9$ i n I963 and  78.5$ i n I966 - maintained an o f f i c i a l membership i n o n l y one a s s o c i a t i o n .  The o t h e r members; who  h e l d an average o f 2.* membership i n I963 and an average o f 2.3 memberships i n 1966; can be regarded as t h e community's core members, by v i r t u e o f t h o s e m u l t i p l e memberships.  That does not mean, however;  t h a t t h e s e members were a v t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n more than one a s s o c i a t i o n .  The g e n e r a t i o n - o r i g i n  groupings o f these c o r e members a r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from those o f t h e o v e r - a l l memos er s h i p , as i s shown i n Table VIII,  following.  -  64  -  TABLE V I I I G e n e r a t i o n - O r i g i n Groupings o f t h e Core Members: 1 9 6 3 - 0 6 .  1963  1966  Number o f Core Members A n a l y s i s based on data f o r O l d e r Immigrants Newer Immigrants O l d e r N a t i v e Born Younger N a t i v e Born Not I c e l a n d i c  31. ¥ 9.5  28.8$  9.5 9.5  13.0 7.2  40.0  The p o s i t i o n o f t h e o l d e r immigrant and o l d e r n a t i v e - b o r n groups becomes c l e a r e r when t h e obvious d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f o u r g e n e r a t i o n - o r i g i n groupings, i n t h e community as a whole and t h e c o r e membership i n p a r t i c u l a r ; a r e examined.  These two groups, which account f o r j u s t  over h a l f o f t h e t o t a l o f f i c i a l membership (54.2$ and 50«1$» r e s p e c t i v e l y ) ; account f o r some t h r e e q u a r t e r s o f t h e c o r e members (7L*$ and 75.1$; respectively).  To put t h e s e f i g u r e s i n t h e p r o p e r  p e r s p e c t i v e i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o examine t h e membership h i s t o r i e s of the individuals i n question.  To  a l a r g e extent t h e s e members f i r s t J o i n e d t h e  community at  i n t h e 19*0*s and t h e e a r l y 1950's. And  t h a t time t h e s e two groups accounted f o r t h e  overwhelming m a j o r i t y o f a l l t h e members and t h e s e members tended t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a l l t h e major a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h i n t h e community.  Furthermore,  - 65 the o l d e r immigrant and o l d e r n a t i v e - b o r n have continued  members  t o p a r t i c i p a t e l n these v a r i o u s  a s s o c i a t i o n s ; a t l e a s t t o t h e extent o f m a i n t a i n i n g o f f i c i a l memberships i n a l l o f them. The  cohesion o f t h e community a t t h e  membership l e v e l began t o d e c l i n e i n t h e l a t e 1950*s, due  t o t h e i n c r e a s e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f t h e new  immigrants and t h e younger n a t i v e - b o r n  groups.  These i n d i v i d u a l s tended t o be r a t h e r p a r t i c u l a r i n t h e i r i n t e r e s t s and tended t o j o i n and support o n l y one a s s o c i a t i o n .  The new Immigrants were i n i t i a l l y  i n v o l v e d i n b o t h t h e church and S t r o n d i n but i n t h e 1960*3 they began t o c o n c e n t r a t e in the l a t t e r association. younger n a t i v e - b o r n  their participation  D i f f e r e n t groups o f t h e  began t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e  a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e church, t h e L a d i e s A i d S o l s k l n and S t r o n d i n .  These members were g e n e r a l l y o r i e n t e d  towards p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n s and not towards t h e community as a whole.  The d e c l i n e l n t h e community's  c o h e s i o n was f u r t h e r e d by t h e f r a c t u r i n g o f t h e community*s l e a d e r s h i p corps i n t o t h r e e  relatively  e x c l u s i v e and more o r l e s s m u t u a l l y h o s t i l e groupings. The  Congregation and t h e A u x i l i a r y I t was n o t e d p r e v i o u s l y t h a t t h e f i r s t  I c e l a n d i c L u t h e r a n church was e s t a b l i s h e d i n 191? and  - 66 t h a t i t was disbanded i n t h e e a r l y 1930*8, due t o "the d e p a r t u r e from t h e Community o f some o f i t s leaders"  ( F e l s t e d f 1956)  I n 19*1. t h e I c e l a n d i c ?  L u t h e r a n Synod, i n c o o p e r a t i o n American M i s s i o n s  w i t h t h e Board o f  o f t h e U n i t e d Lutheran Church;-  sent a p a s t o r t o Vancouver t o determine whether a new congregation c o u l d be e s t a b l i s h e d among those of t h e r e s i d e n t s o f I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n who adhered t o t h e Lutheran f a i t h .  still  His f i r s t  report  on h i s work p a i n t e d a r a t h e r gloomy p i c t u r e .  He  noted, among o t h e r t h i n g s ; t h a t a major e f f o r t t o o r g a n i z e a Christmas s e r v i c e f o r children;' i n cooperation  w i t h "one o f t h e n e u t r a l  among t h e I c e l a n d e r s  organizations  i n Vancouver? was a f a i l u r e  because "not a s i n g l e o h i l d came?  He estimated  t h a t t h e r e were p o s s i b l y 700 people o f I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n i n t h e c i t y , o f whom 100 were i n t e r e s t e d and about 200 others were l i k e l y p r o s p e c t s .  But he  a l s o noted t h a t a very l a r g e number o f o u r people M  have never come near o u r s e r v i c e s , (they) s t a y away religiously  deliberately?  Despite h i s misgivings the  p a s t o r ; a s s i s t e d by a few laymen; p e r s e v e r e d and i n March; 19**;  t h e I c e l a n d i c E v a n g e l i c a l Lutheran  Church o f Vancouver was f o r m a l l y e s t a b l i s h e d ; w i t h a c h a r t e r membership o f about 120. S e r v i c e s f o r t h e new congregation were h e l d In  - 67 a Danish L u t h e r a n Chureh u n t i l 1956.  The r e g u l a r  s e r v i c e s were always i n E n g l i s h w i t h s p e c i a l I c e l a n d i c s e r v i c e s conducted once o r t w i c e a month. D u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y years t h e attendance f i g u r e s were r e l a t i v e l y stable? the E n g l i s h services being attended by an average o f about 70 persons and t h e I c e l a n d i c s e r v i c e s by about h a l f t h i s number. membership grew r a t h e r s l o w l y ; 1950*  The congregation's  reaching  1*0 I n e a r l y  Many o f t h e new members tended t o be newly  r e c r u i t e d o f f i c e r s and members o f t h e i r f a m i l i e s . A b u i l d i n g programme was i n i t i a t e d i n t h e l a t t e r h a l f o f 1955 and completed i n t h e summer o f 1956.  I n t h e s p r i n g o f t h a t year a membership d r i v e  was i n i t i a t e d and by t h e end o f 1956 t h e members of r e c o r d numbered 262.  T h i s sharp i n c r e a s e i n t h e  t o t a l membership d i d n o t produce a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n t h e average attendance f i g u r e s .  Attend-  ance a t t h e E n g l i s h language s e r v i c e s grew s l o w l y t o an average o f about 90 i n t h e e a r l y 1960's but d u r i n g the same time t h e I c e l a n d i c language s e r v i c e s were g r a d u a l l y phased o u t . The number o f members  attending  these I c e l a n d i c services declined s t e a d i l y during t h e s e years and a f t e r t h e e x p u l s i o n o f t h e l a s t I c e l a n d i c pastor;  i n 1963;  they were no  longer  p r e s e n t e d on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . I t was noted above t h a t t h e Board of  - 68 American M i s s i o n s had p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e establishment of  the congregation*  The Board's I n i t i a l  share i n  t h e s e a c t i v i t i e s was mainly r e s t r i c t e d t o g i v i n g f i n a n c i a l a i d t o cover t h e p a s t o r ' s expenses* was  This a i d  i n t e n d e d t o be on a s h o r t - t e r m b a s i s u n t i l the  c o n g r e g a t i o n was  l a r g e enough t o support i t s e l f .  But  t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n f a i l e d t o grow; e i t h e r i n s i z e o r wealthy and t h e Board was  o b l i g e d t o not o n l y m a i n t a i n  but t o i n c r e a s e t h e f i n a n c i a l a i d i t was  providing.  The  gave c o n s i d e r a b l e moral and f i n a n c i a l support t o t h e b u i l d i n g programme, and t o t h e membership d r i v e , i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e s e e f f o r t s would e v e n t u a l l y make the congregation s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . were not f u l f i l l e d *  These e x p e c t a t i o n s  The I n c r e a s e i n t h e  official  membership f a i l e d t o produce a s i g n i f i c a n t i n c r e a s e i n a c t u a l attendance and a l t h o u g h donations i n c r e a s e d t h e s e f a i l e d t o keep pace w i t h t h e i n c r e a s i n g c o s t s of  operation.  I n s t e a d of b e i n g a b l e t o reduce and t o  e v e n t u a l l y withdraw i t s f i n a n c i a l support the Board of American M i s s i o n s found i t s e l f  o b l i g e d t o g i v e endless  amounts t o keep t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n i n o p e r a t i o n . The o r i g i n a l c o s t of t h e church;  -  depending  on  which r e p o r t i s accepted; was  t o be between $30;000 and  |50,000*  j u s t under $80;000, o f  The a c t u a l c o s t was  which h a l f was  t o be met  pledged by t h e members.  by donations and f r e e l a b o u r The b a l a n c e was  p r o v i d e d by  - 69 -  f i v e mortgages, one ( f o r i8;Q00) held by the Hoyal Trust Company and the other four by the Board of Missions.  The mortgages provided by the Board had  to be Increased i n 1957 since a quarter of the pledges made by the members were not paid.  In an attempt to  correct t h i s s i t u a t i o n the o f f i c e r s of the Board of Missions l i t e r a l l y forced the o f f i c e r s of the congregation to i n i t i a t e a series of special fund drives to r a i s e more money. p a r t i a l l y successful.  These efforts were only  The congregation was never able  to r a i s e enough money i n any one year to cover i t s expenses f o r that year and the Board of Missions was obliged to provide f i n a n c i a l a i d on a permanent basis. The year I963 saw a major merger involving several Lutheran churches which joined together to form the Lutheran Church i n America;  One of the  major parties to t h i s merger was the United Lutheran Church, which acted on i t s own behalf and on behalf of several smaller a f f i l i a t e s .  One of these a f f i l i a t e s  was the Icelandic Lutheran Synod.  The Icelandic Synod  had been a f f i l i a t e d to the United Lutheran Church since 19*0 and was not i n a p o s i t i o n to object to a f u l l merger.  The Synod's p o s i t i o n was spelled out l n a  l e t t e r written by i t s president to the Vancouver congregation; shortly before the merger was completed.  - 70 "As t o t h e p r o p o s e d m e r g e r , t h e r e I s n o t much a l t e r n a t i v e a n d t h e r e s u l t s of these n e g o t i a t i o n s a r e f a i r l y c e r t a i n ; namely t h a t we w i l l a l l go I n t o t h i s t h i n g t o g e t h e r . • . I f we d e c i d e n o t t o m e r g e ; we w i l l "be a b l e t o continue f o r a while, or u n t i l t h e r e are vacancies i n our pastoral offices. I n such a c a s e s ; o u r churches would not be a b l e t o g e t a m i n i s t e r , - no one w o u l d l o o k o u r way...V F o r t h e I c e l a n d i c Synod; and  i t s members, i t was  " m a t t e r o f C h r i s t i a n duty and J o i n t h i s merger? The  congregation  of t h e s e n e g o t i a t i o n s but merger had  a significant  t o t h e o l o g y was  p r a c t i c a l necessity to 1962)  (Eylands;  local  a  had  i t took effect.  adopted without  been kept  informed  some t i m e b e f o r e The  the  r e v i s e d appraoch  question,  even though  t h i s meant t h e abandonment o f t h e f e a t u r e s p e c u l i a r the I c e l a n d i c v e r s i o n of the Luthesan c o n s t i t u t i o n was congregation's  a l s o accepted;  Increased  l n s i z e and  c o n s e c u t i v e terms The  without expected  A  a limit any  Trustees  p l a c e d on t h e number o f  one  trustee could name -  serve. the  T h e s e c h a n g e s w e r e made  major d i f f i c u l t i e s ; ' p a r t l y because they and  had  The  re-organized.  a l s o g i v e n a new  Church of C h r i s t .  new  the  eliminated; the Board of  (two)  c o n g r e g a t i o n was  Lutheran  under whioh  o f f i c e s t r u c t u r e was  B o a r d o f D e a c o n s was  faith.  to  been a c c e p t e d  members; e s p e c i a l l y t h o s e who  as n e c e s s a r y . held offices  were  But  i n the  the  - 71  -  congregation, were not prepared f o r , nor w i l l i n g t o a c c e p t ; t h e next major post-merger event - a determined  e f f o r t by t h e new  Synodical authorities  t o break t h e e t h n i c i n t e g r i t y of t h e congregation. The L u t h e r a n Church i n America i s t h e product of a l o n g s e r i e s of mergers between the Synods e s t a b l i s h e d by v a r i o u s groups of Immigrants but i t does not l o o k w i t h f a c o u r upon congregations which use a language o t h e r than E n g l i s h i n t h e i r s e r v i c e s o r which draw t h e i r members l a r g e l y o r mainly one e t h n i c group.  The l o c a l I c e l a n d i c  from  congregation  used E n g l i s h i n i t s s e r v i c e s and i n I t s b u s i n e s s a f f a i r s but most of the members were of I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n and those who  were not tended t o be m a r r i e d t o  persons of t h a t o r i g i n .  These members were s c a t t e r e d  a l l o v e r t h e Lower Mainland, and t h i s was  from Squamish t o Langley,  c o n t r a r y t o the Lutheran Church's  p r e f e r e n c e f o r congregations whose members entered such congregations because they l i v e d i n I t s n e i g h bourhood.  I n a d d i t i o n , t h e Lutheran Church was  much  s t r i c t e r than t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e I c e l a n d i c c o n g r e g a t i o n i n t h e implementation  o f the r e g u l a t i o n s  concerning membership. The l a s t I c e l a n d i c p a s t o r t o s e r v e t h e c o n g r e g a t i o n was He was  a p p o i n t e d t o h i s post i n e a r l y  1962.  p r o v i d e d by t h e U n i t e d Lutheran Church and  - 72 -  a r r i v e d with s p e c i f i c instructions to change these conditions.  His attempts to do so miscarried badly  and lead him into a b i t t e r dispute with the trustees, the members of the congregation and even the members of  the other associations l n the community.  The  trustees took the lead l n c r i t i c i z i n g him; f i r s t i n private and then l n public, and i n the end he was simply ostracized.  The pastor suffered the anger of  the community f o r a l i t t l e while but l a t e i n 1963 he accepted his defeat and l e f t his post. The d i f f i c u l t i e s created by t h i s dispute had a severe effect on the congregation.  There was a  sharp decline l n the extent to which i t s members p a r t i c i p a t e d i n both r e l i g i o u s and soolal a c t i v i t i e s . This decline i n support was p a r t i c u a a r i l y evident l n the congregation's worsening f i n a n c i a l s i t u a t i o n and the annual d e f i c i t s grew sharply. And, understandably; the treatment given the pastor d i d not Improve the already poor relations between the congregation and the headquarters of the Western Canada Synod of the Lutheran Church; to which the congregation adhered following the merger of 1963. A new pastor was appointed by the Synodical o f f i c e i n Edmonton i n the f a l l of 196*. his  Hey l i k e  predecessor; was instructed to do something to  reduce the importance of the congregation's ethnic  -  identity.  73  -  He, however; was i n i t i a l l y  more c a u t i o u s  than h i s p r e d e c e s s o r and s u r v i v e d f o r a l o n g e r time His  first  t a s k was t o attempt  t h e congregation's s t e a d i l y worsening condition.  to correct  financial  The budget prepared f o r h i s f i r s t  y e a r (1965) p r o j e c t e d expenditures o f about  full $14,000,  w i t h t h e expected d e f i c i t b e i n g about $ 2 , 0 0 0 .  But a  mid-year review i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e d e f i c i t would be at  l e a s t $4;000 and c o u l d go much h i g h e r .  I n an  effort to reverse t h i s trend the pastor i n i t i a t e d a s p e c i a l f u n d d r i v e i n t h e f a l l o f I965 through which t h e a c t u a l d e f i c i t was reduced t o j u s t over In  a d d i t i o n t o d i s c u s s i n g t h e church's  $1500,  financial  d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h t h e members he d i s c u s s e d t h e i r own p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e congregation's  activities.  These meetings w i t h t h e members convinced him t h a t a t h i r d o f more o f t h e l i s t e d members were not i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e church and, furthermore; they d i d n o t r e a l l y c a r e whether o r not t h e i r names appeared membership r o l l . did  on t h e  Many, i f n o t most, o f these members  n o t meet t h e f i n a n c i a l c r i t e r i o n f o r membership  and few i n t e n d e d t o change t h i s .  The p a s t o r d e c i d e d  t h a t he c o u l d b e g i n t o c a r r y out t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s g i v e n him by t h e Synod by having these i n d i v i d u a l s removed from t h e membership r o l l .  T h i s he was  e v e n t u a l l y a b l e t o do but h i s success marked h i s own  - 7* defeat.  T h e r e a f t e r he was unable t o i n f l u e n c e t h e  course o f f u t u r e events o r t o save h i m s e l f from t h e f a t e which b e f e l l h i s predecessor. The w r i t e r a t t e n d e d a meeting o f t h e Board of T r u s t e e s h e l d e a r l y I n I966 a t which t h i s members h i p Issue was d i s c u s s e d . c u r i o u s meeting.  I t was i n many ways a very  F o l l o w i n g t h e opening p r a y e r t h e  p a s t o r r e a d a "sad and shameful t a l e " d e a l i n g w i t h t h e f a t e o f L u t h e r a n churches immigrants from I n d i a .  e s t a b l i s h e d i n Burma by  These Immigrants r e f u s e d t o  abandon t h e i r n a t i v e languages  and customs and  r e f u s e d t o admit Burmese c i t i z e n s t o membership l n t h e i r congregations.  As a r e s u l t these Immigrants  were e v e n t u a l l y e x p e l l e d from Burma and t h i s was f o l l o w e d by t h e e x p r o p r i a t i o n o f t h e i r p o s s e s s i o n s . The scene o f t h e s t o r y then s h i f t e d t o N o r t h America and t h e many e t h n i c congregations which a c t e d i n t h e same manner as t h e s e I n d i a n congregations.  Such  a c t i o n s were d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g c o n t r a r y t o C h r i s t i a n i d e a l s and a l l t h e congregations concerned were urged t o open t h e i r doors and t h e i r arms t o Lutherans o f other o r i g i n s . The p a s t o r ' s request f o r comments on t h i s t a l e was a t f i r s t met by a s t r a i n e d silence;' which was f i n a l l y broken by Mr U, who remarked: ."Yes; i t i s v e r y true?  But t h a t remark; which was not addressed  - 75 to any s p e c i f i c item i n that t a l e ; was the only verbal reaction from the trustees. The pastor then tabled a l i s t containing the names of twenty s i x members and requested that they be removed from the membership l i s t on the grounds that they d i d not only not q u a l i f y farr membership but that they d i d not want to be members.  Several of the  trustees, including U, came out with remarks which generally supported both the pastor's reasoning and his  request.  However, before a formal vote was taken  one of the trustees, Mr I, began to c r i t i c i z e t h i s action. of  Noting that most of the members named were  Icelandic o r i g i n , he pointed out that the church  was an Icelandic church which must always keep i t s doors open to people of Icelandic origin ? whether or 1  not they paid t h e i r dues.  " I t i s t h e i r church and  they must f e e l f r e e to come to l t whenever they need to  or want to'.'  Mr l ' s Intervention silenced a l l the  other trustees, who sat and l i s t e n e d while he and the pastor debated the issue f o r nearly half an hour.  In the face of l ' s determined opposition  and i n the absence of any support from the other trustees the pastor retreated and suggested that a decision on t h i s matter be deferred to the next meeting. Although h i s plans were blocked at t h i s  - 76 time the pastor was  eventually successful i n having  the names of these and other individuals removed from the membership r o l l .  This i s shown by the  figures reproduced i n Table IX; belowf which provides an analysis of the congregation's membership; i n terms of generation-origin groupings, f o r the years  1963 - 1966. TABLE IX Generation-Origin Groupings of the Congregation's Members: I963-I966.  1963 Number of Members Analysis based on data f o r Older Immigrants Newer Immigrants Older Native Born Younger Native Born Not Icelandic  1965  1966  2*2 66.1$  2*7 61.5$  171 73.1$  15.6$ 8.1 30.0 26.2 20.0  1*.5$ 10.5 25.6 23.O 26.3  16.0$ 2.* 30.* 25.6 2*.8  The t o t a l o f f i c i a l membership of the congregation declined by just over 30$ In a single year.  This decline was due l a r g e l y to the pastor's  e f f o r t s to eliminate the non-participants and the lowparticipants from the o f f i c i a l membership.  These  e f f o r t s , i n turn; were a part of a long-term project to eliminate the ethnic element i n the congregation's composition and image.  But the success of t h i s f i r s t  step made the l a t t e r and more important objective v i r t u a l l y unattainable. Table X; below, provides an analysis, i n terms of generation-origin groupings; of three types of members: those who  remained members  - 77 throughout t h i s period (core members); those who withdrew during t h i s period (withdrawals) and those who joined during t h i s period (new members). TABLE X Generation Origin Groupings of Core Members, Withdrawals;; and New Members, I963-I966; r  Core Members Number of Members Analysis based on data f o r  124  Withdrawals  New Members  129  *7  69.2#  52.7%  57*2$  Older Immigrants Newer Immigrants Older Native Born Younger Native Bom  22.0$ 2.3 40.6 17.4  4.4$ 20.6 16.1 33.8  11.1 40.7  Not Icelandic  17.4  25.0  48.1  The members who were most anxious to preserve and protect the congregation's ethnic i d e n t i t y  tended  to be concentrated among the older immigrant and oldernative bom individuals; while the members who took a more moderate stand on t h i s issue; or who considered i t to be a very minor matter, tended to be concentrated i n the younger native-bora and non-Icelandic groups.  The f i r s t two groups accounted f o r over  60% of the core members while the l a s t two accounted f o r about 60% of the members who withdrew from the congregation.  The pastor's successful campaign to  reduce the s i z e of the congregation, as the f i r s t step l n a campaign to reduce the importance of the congregation's ethnic i d e n t i t y ; turned out to be a  - 78 pyrrhic v i c t o r y .  The membership was  effectively  reduced to a hard core of members who rejected h i s long-term goal while the groups whose support he needed, and could expect to have, were subjected to a v i r t u a l purge.  The new members; l t Is true, were  drawn almost e n t i r e l y from these two groups (the younger native-born and the non-Icelandic) but; p a r t l y because they were new members, they could not be expected to take an important part In the congregation's a f f a i r s right away.  In addition;  most of these new members were recruited by the older members, whose ethnic patriotism was being aroused by what they saw as an attempt to destroy the congregation's image.  To defeat that attempt they  sought new members; using slogans which appealed to the ethnic patriotism of the non-members.  "This  church i s the Icelandic church and i t i s going to stay that wayl  We must be proud of our Icelandic  heritage and must do everything to protect i t !  Such  was the motto coined by Miss M; a lady who moved from the obscurity of ordinary membership to the p o s i t i o n of a leader during, and as a result of; t h i s struggle over the congregation's image. The success of t h i s campaign to reduce the membership to an e f f e c t i v e and p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership marked a turning point i n the pastor's career.  - 79 In the f i r s t two years of h i s stewardship he had moved cautiously to b u i l d a personal following i n the congregation and had made attempts to groom some new o f f i c e r s to replace the trustees he had, i n a sense, inherited with the Job.  He appeared  to be succeeding i n both tasks, but the supporters he had gained abandoned him l a r g e l y because of his r e f u s a l to budge on the membership issue. When he was interviewed, the pastor indicated that he had prepared himself f o r his task by reading a l l the a v a i l a b l e accounts dealing with the Icelanders i n Canada, p a r t i c u l a r i l y those accounts dealing with t h e i r church organizations. As a r e s u l t of these readings he expected to f i n d that the members of the congregation were members of a d i s t i n c t c u l t u r a l group, whose language, customs, etc., were d i f f e r e n t from those of English Canadians. But he found a congregation whose members preferred to use English instead of Icelandic and who  shared,  or appeared to share, the customs, attitudes, etc., of English Canadians.  He noted that no one had  objected when the Icelandic version of the Lutheran f a i t h had been replaced by the version adopted by the founding convention of the Lutheran Church i n America.  He noted that the Icelandic  language services had always been poorly attended  - 80  -  and that no one appeared to regret t h e i r passing. What he saw and heard convinced him that he had been wrong i n expecting to f i n d a group whose culture was i n some way  d i f f e r e n t from h i s .  He became convinced  that the ethnic congregation and i t s image was phantom which would disappear when exposed.  a He  further concluded that a move such as the one he  was  planning on the membership question would arouse no opposition.  Unfortunately,  his analysis was  based  on the wrong premise and his f a i l u r e to understand that i n i t i a l error lead him to mis-interpret what he saw and heard. He erred when he assumed that the congregation's ethnic image would be based on r e a l c u l t u r a l differences, such as those of language, customs, attitudes, etc.  He expected, i n effect,  to hear the members j u s t i f y t h e i r ethnic image on the basis of v i s i b l e or audible c u l t u r a l c r i t e r i a . He gave no consideration to the p o s s i b i l i t y that they would base t h e i r perception of t h e i r ethnic image or i d e n t i t y on non-visible or inaudible criteria.  He f a i l e d to understand that t h e i r  feelings  of ethnic i d e n t i t y were not derived from the f a c t that they spoke Icelandic - which r e l a t i v e l y few did but from the fact that they were of Icelandic o r i g i n , by v i r t u e of the further fact that one or more of  -  81  -  t h e i r ancestors had been born i n Iceland. This very important f a c t o r was one which the pastor could neither see nofc hear and as a result his misinterpret a t i o n of the s i t u a t i o n was almost i n e v i t a b l e . The pastor's success was based on the t e c h n i c a l i t y that the individuals whose names he wanted removed from the membership l i s t d i d not meet the f i n a n c i a l requirements f o r membership and could be removed automatically, with or without the approval of the trustees.  Although many of the  trustees had indicated, both i n private and i n public, that they d i d not, at least, oppose his actions they began to change t h e i r minds when Mr I made h i s opposition known.  Other members of the  congregation; including Miss M, began to take notice of what was going on, and t h e i r general reaction took the form of a membership drive aimed at former members, as well as potential new members, who would be i n c l i n e d to support a defense of the congregation's ethnic image.  Mr E ;  long regarded as the congregation's most i n f l u e n t i a l lay member, abandoned the pastor, whom he had been supporting i n a somewhat nominal fashion, once he saw what the members were doing and took command of t h e i r e f f o r t s . The change i n the pastor's p o s i t i o n was  r e l a t i v e l y sudden*  82  -  As l a t e as t h e summer o f I966  he b e l i e v e d t h a t he was  on good terms w i t h  the  members and t h e t r u s t e e s except f o r Mr I , whose o p p o s i t i o n he tended t o d i s m i s s as unimportant* Then, v i r t u a l l y o v e r n i g h t ;  c o n d i t i o n s changed.'  On  r e t u r n i n g from a s h o r t v a c a t i o n he found t h e t r u s t e e s , under E's leadership;' u n i t e d a g a i n s t him and  doing  e v e r y t h i n g they c o u l d t o undermine h i s a c t i o n s . The g e n e r a l membership; which had been a t l e a s t well-disposed  towards him,  was  i n a h o s t i l e mood.  The members; p a r t i c u l a r i l y t h e l e a d e r s , were 'out f o r b l o o d ' and w a i t i n g f o r an excuse o r  an  o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a showdown. The  f i r s t major c l a s h under t h e s e changed  c o n d i t i o n s took p l a c e a t the congregation's meeting i n January, 1967;  i n connection  annual  with,an  attempt i n i t i a t e d by the p a s t o r to have the Women's A u x i l i a r y disbanded. The A u x i l i a r y was a c h a r t e r membership of 23. members c o n c e n t r a t e d  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 19*14; w i t h From the beginning i t s  on f u n d - r a i s i n g a c t i v i t i e s ;  as bazaars, t e a s , f o o d - s a l e s ; e t c . these gatherings  was  i n p a r t due t o  p a r t i c i p a t i o n by persons who members of the congregation support  The  by a t t e n d i n g such f u n c t i o n s .  of  extensive  were not but who  success  such  offioial  gave i t l i m i t e d Within a  few  -83years t h e A u x i l i a r y ' s earnings, from these and o t h e r e s s e n t i a l l y s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , were between $2,500 and  $3;000  a year.  D i r e c t cash donations t o t h e  c o n g r e g a t i o n o f t e n accounted f o r between 10% and 15% of  i t s budget.  In addition, the Auxiliary  spent  l a r g e sums on f u r n i s h i n g s and f i x t u r e s f o r t h e church, which was completed  l n 1956.  The membership o f t h e A u x i l i a r y grew from 23 i n 19*4 t o a h i g h o f 46 i n 1953. d e c l i n e d t o 23 by 1962.  Thereafter I t  An a n a l y s i s o f t h a t  membership; l n terms o f g e n e r a t i o n - o r i g i n groupings, i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e X I ; below; f o r t h a t year. TABLE XI G e n e r a t i o n - O r i g i n Groupings of A u x i l i a r y Members; 1962.  1962 Number o f Members A n a l y s i s based on d a t a f o r  23 74.0$  O l d e r Immigrants Newer Immigrants O l d e r Native-Born Younger Natlve-Born  23.5$  Non-Icelandic  23.5  52.9  The founding f a t h e r s o f t h e Lutheran Church i n America a p p a r e n t l y d i d n o t approve o f sub-congreg a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s which devoted themselves t o r a i s i n g money.  Such o r g a n i z a t i o n s were supposed t o  c o n c e n t r a t e on spreading a knowledge o f t h e Lutheran f a i t h amongst t h e i r members.  T h i s was p a r t i c u l a r l y  needed a f t e r t h e merger i n I963, when a new v e r s i o n o f  * 84 the f a i t h was adopted. The l a s t Icelandic pastor t r i e d to have the A u x i l i a r y ' s s o c i a l and fund-raising a c t i v i t i e s terminated  or at l e a s t reduced, but he was unsuccessful.  His successor was ablet however, to have those 1  a c t i v i t i e s reduced to providing the refreshments f o r the occasional congregational meeting. His success was i n part due to the f a c t that the trustees; e s p e c i a l l y E, were a f r a i d that they had gone to f a r i n t r e a t i n g his predecessor as they d i d and, fearing r e p r i s a l s from the Synod, looked the other way. The A u x i l i a r y ' s members were of two minds about t h i s development.  Some of the younger members  supported t h i s change because they f e l t that they had done more than t h e i r share of the work i n the past. But the older members were not i n favour of t h i s change; though they d i d not make an issue of t h e i r opposition.  To a c e r t a i n extent t h e i r l i v e s had  revolved around the work they had been doing i n and f o r the A u x i l i a r y and they were disturbed and unhappy over t h e i r sudden state of unemployment or underemployment. The reduction i n i t s a c t i v i t i e s eventually had an effect on the membership; which declined slowly as the members who eeased to p a r t i c i p a t e were not replaced.  In mid-1966 the pastor suggested that  - 85 the A u x i l i a r y should be disbanded because of i t s d e c l i n i n g membership;  His proposal incurred l i t t l e  overt opposition to begin with; i n part because Mrs Ly the A u x i l i a r y ' s president; agreed with his reasoning and h i s decision. I t was at t h i s point that Miss M noticed that something was amiss with that part of her world which embraced the Icelandic Lutheran Church.  She  had been a member f o r many years but, l i k e most of her fellows, d i d not r e a l l y pay much attention to the congregation and i t s a c t i v i t i e s .  I t was theref and  had always been there; to be used by her and other 'good* Icelanders when the need or the urge to do so was present.  Now; however; things seemed to be  changing, and the grapevine was f u l l of gossip and rumours.  •Good' Icelanders were being driven away  from ' t h e i r ' church; they were being refused the use of  the church and i t s services.  The A u x i l i a r y was  to be disbanded, i t s members and t h e i r good works forgotten.  Clearly; the character of t h e i r church  was under attack and i t had to be defended. among others, responded to the challenge;  Miss M;  1  The motion to disband the A u x i l i a r y was presented to the annual meeting and supported by the pastor and Mrs L. Miss M delivered an angry rebuttal; denouncing t h i s attempt to destroy an  -86 Icelandic organization.  -  She promised to organize  a drive f o r members to restore i t s strength and activities.  The members of the congregation,  their  ethnic patriotism aroused, e a s i l y defeated the motion; d e l i v e r i n g a public rebuke to the pastor. In the following month the storm broke. In the space of three weeks the pastor gave the church's top leaders; E and I ; cause to f e e l personally i n s u l t e d by incidents which involved t h e i r sons and then outraged the membership by refusing to permit the funeral services f o r a p a r t i c i p a t i n g member to be held i n the church. The sons of the two leaders were at that time members of the church's choir.  The f i r s t  incident involved l ' s son, who was to sing a solo during a church service.  He asked the pastor f o r  permission to stand beside the organ during h i s performance.  The pastor refused to permit t h i s  and I J r . then not only refused to sing but withdrew from the choir and the congregation.  A week  l a t e r E's son did give a solo performance but the pastor f a i l e d to thank him. well.  E j r . then withdrew as  The fathers of both chose to f e e l  offended  by the pastor's actions but before they could protest the t h i r d incident occurred. An Icelandic woman, who was a member of  - 8? the Unitarian ohurch, died, a f t e r expressing a desire to he buried from the Icelandic ohurch.  During her  l i f e t i m e she had occasionally attended services i n that church and had often supported the a c t i v i t i e s of the A u x i l i a r y . Accordingly,* she was  regarded as  a member of the Icelandic church and e n t i t l e d to i t s services when she wanted them.  The  pastor  refused to grant her wish on the grounds that she was not only not an o f f i c i a l member of the church but a Unitarian instead of a Lutheran.  Although  his objection oarried the day i t f a i l e d to prevent a very angry reaction from the members,  A number  of them made a point of informing a l l the other 'good* Icelanders, both Inside and outside the congregation," of the shocking treatment given to one of t h e i r fellow Icelanders,  On the Sunday  following her funeral; from a l o c a l funeral parlour; 1  a s p e c i a l meeting of the Board of Trustees was  held;  at which E delivered a sharp l e c t u r e to the pastor, c i t i n g many instances of his unacceptable actions and warning him that he had better mend his ways or s u f f e r the consequences.  The Board further  decided, at a regular meeting held a few days l a t e r ; that the r e s t r i c t i o n s placed on the A u x i l i a r y were no longer i n force and that the ladles could resume t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s whenever they wanted to do  - 88 so. The membership drive launched by Miss M d i d not a t t r a c t many new members; other than herself and some members of the T family.  However; a l l the  o l d members came back ready and w i l l i n g to resume their activities.'  Thfcs they d i d with a vengeance;  once the Board of Trustees gave t h e i r approval. Several teas, food-sales; etc., were planned and held; beginning i n March; 19671' and the A u x i l i a r y soon regained i t s former p o s i t i o n and popularity. The pastor was badly shaken by the continuing decline i n h i s fortunes.  I t became  obvious to him that he had not understood the r e a l i t y of the congregation's ethnic image; as i t was viewed by the members; and that he had overestimated the amount of support he had within the congregation.  He had also badly under-estimated  the extent of l ' s Influence over the other trustees and the members of the congregation.  His opposition  silenced those of the trustees who were beginning to support the pastor and turned what could have been a minor administrative decision into an issue with an immense emotional value to the members. they were aroused the congregation's other top leader, E; switched sides and; assuming command; brought the f i g h t to a successful f i n i s h .  Once  - 89 The pastor; of course; remembered what had happened to h i s predecessor a f t e r he had run afoul of the congregation's leaders. Not wishing to s u f f e r the same f a t e he, without the knowledge of those individuals, sought and found a new  position  and then tendered h i s resignation, e f f e c t i v e In August, 1967. March; 1968;  He was  eventually replaced, i n  by a pastor discovered by E.  The  new  pastor, an immigrant from Germany; could be expected to avoid any further attempts to crack the congregation's ethnic integrity;- not only because he was an immigrant but also because the Synodlcal a u t h o r i t i e s , having f a i l e d i n two separate attempts to do that, threw i n the towel. The congregation's leaders were quite pleased with t h e i r success i n t h i s dispute.  The  f i g h t to preserve the congregation's ethnic image convinced them, and many others; that the congregation was the only ' r e a l ' Icelandic association i n Vancouver.  Twice i n four years i t s  i d e n t i t y had been challenged and twice i t had been successfully defended.  The fact that throughout  t h i s period the congregation's f i n a n c i a l problems continued unabated was an i n c i d e n t a l matter which would be corrected l n time; as i t was.' In August, 1968;" the Synod suggested that  - 90 the congregation might solve i t s f i n a n c i a l problems by agreeing to share the church and i t s f a c i l i t i e s with another congregation; such as the l o c a l Germanspeaking congregation which was about to lose i t s church to a re-development project.  E initiated  the necessary negotiations with the o f f i c e r s of that congregation; and by March; 19^9; he had reached an agreement with them; under which the two congregations would share the available f a c i l i t i e s ; the services of the pastor and some of the costs Involved i n operating a church. The Icelandic Old Folks Home Society During the 19*0's a number of Icelandic communities i n Canada and the United States established homes were the members of the older generation could spend t h e i r l a s t years.  Such homes  were b u i l t i n Mountain; North Dakota; Blaine, Washington and i n Vancouver.  The i n i t i a t i v e f o r  the l o c a l home came t o a large extent from the members of the Ladles A i d Solskin.  These women  and other members of the l o c a l community worked to develope wide-spread interest i n and support f o r such a project.  These efforts culminated i n  the establishment of the Icelandic Old Folks Home Society i n January, 19*6.  - 91 Two years passed before the Society was able to purchase and renovate a house i n the Shaughnessy area of Vancouver; at a cost of some $30 "i 000.  Just  over one-third of the cost was covered by a grant from the p r o v i n c i a l government; about $8;000 was collected l n donations from the Society*s supporting members and the balance was l n the form of a $10,000, interest f r e e loan from the Icelandic Evangelical Lutheran Synod.  The Synod, which,owned a s i m i l a r  home i n Gimli, Manitoba, at f i r s t i n s i s t e d that the l o c a l home should be owned by the l o c a l  congregation.  The leaders of the Society refused to accept t h i s condition^ as they wanted the home to be at least formally independent of the congregation.  The  pastor and the president of the congregation, who was also the president of the Home Society; attended the Synod*s annual convention i n the spring of 19*8 and requested, successfully; that the loan be granted without any conditions. The home; which opened i n October; 19*8;' had accomodations f o r twenty residents and was f u l l y occupied within a very short time.  Consideration  was given, as early as 19*91 to building a new home but the suggestion was shelved'; due; i n part; to the high cost involved; u n t i l the l a t e 1950*s.  Then the  suggestion t o b u i l d a new home was revived, the main  - 92 proponent being the Society's vice-president, Mr D. His motives f o r reviving t h i s project at t h i s time were mixed, to say the l e a s t .  On the one hand, there  was a demand f o r space which could not be met i n the existing home. But on the other hand, the promotion of t h i s project at t h i s time (1957 - 58) gave D an opportunity to avenge himself against E, the leader of the congregation.  D believed, possibly with  reason, that he had been misused and abused by E i n the years following the f i n a n c i a l scandal which h i t the Home Society i n 1952.  The promotion of t h i s  project a t t h i s time would undermine the efforts being made by E and the other o f f i c e r s of the church to r a i s e enough money from the community to meet t h e i r f i n a n c i a l obligations to the Board of American Missions. A b i t t e r struggle f o r control of the Home Society ensued, and lasted f o r the next three years. When t h i s dispute began, i n 1957; the 'church contingent* held seven of the ten seats on the Home Society*s Board of Directors, while D*s f a c t i o n consisted only of himself and two other directors. D made a b i d f o r the presidency In 1958 but was d e c i s i v e l y beaten by the incumbent 'church* candidate*: though he himself retained his own seat on the Board.  He continued to press the attack  - 93 within the Board and at the same time b u i l t a large personal following In the r a p i d l y growing new immigrant group i n Strondin.  This group c a r r i e d D's  f a c t i o n t o a complete v i c t o r y , though he himself d i d not ascend to the presidency. The f i n a l clash i n t h i s dispute took place at the Home Society's annual meeting i n January, i 9 6 0 . D was nominated f o r the presidency but declined and threw his support behind another director, Mr P, who defeated the church candidate; SE. SE was at that 1 time the vice-president and top leader of Strondin.\ A year l a t e r D repaid his debt to the new immigrants by helping them organize a coup which ousted SE and a l l of his supporters from the o f f i c e s they held i n Strondin. Once the question of who was to control the Home Society was settled, the construction of the new home moved r a p i d l y ahead.  The sod-turning  ceremony was held i n I96I, during the v i s i t of the President of Iceland to Vancouver.  Actual construc-  t i o n began i n the following year and the home was ready f o r occupancy i n the spring of I963.  T  n  e  new home, b u i l t on a l o t acquired from the c i t y , could accomodate s i x t y residents and provided l i m i t e d quarters f o r the s t a f f .  The cost was just  - 9* over $200,000.  The p r o v i n c i a l government provided  a grant of about $80*000, a mortgage of $50,000 was arranged and the balance came equally from donations and the sale of the o l d home. I t was noted elsewhere that the i n i t i a l membership of the Home Society appears to have been around 130. These persons were members l a r g e l y by v i r t u e of the donations which they had made to the Society and f o r most of them the act of donating was the t o t a l extent of t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s affairs.  The ordinary members were given no  opportunity to take a more active part l n implementing the decision to establish such a home, and that decision was i n any case made p r i o r to the formal establishment of the Home Society.  Only two  public meetings are normally held i n any year, the annual general meeting l n January and the home's annual birthday party i n October.  The f i r s t of  these meetings i s a business meeting and i t has r a r e l y attracted a large audience.  Por example,  the annual meeting held i n January. 195*. was attended by only eighteen persons, ten of whom were directors of the Home Society. The birthday parties have usually attracted a greater number but these gatherings were s o c i a l gatherings only. This s i t u a t i o n changed temporarily i n the  - 95 l a t e In the 1950's as a r e s u l t of the struggle f o r control of the Home Sooiety.  The vice-president  made h i s b i d f o r control using the rapidly growing new Immigrant group i n Strondin, Few of these people q u a l i f i e d f o r membership i n the Home Society i n accordance with i t s own regulations concerning that status.  However,' since the Home Society was  established the o f f i c e r s have taken the p o s i t i o n jbhat anyone who attended the annual meetings was a member and therefore e n t i t l e d to vote on a l l and any issues brought before those meetings. immigrant  The new  group simply out-numbered and out-voted  the 'church contingent' and i t s supporters a t the annual meetings i n 1959 and I960.' While the number of people p a r t i c i p a t i n g at t h i s time increased; t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n was both r e s t r i c t e d and short-lived.  Once the 'church  contingent* had been voted out there was nothing f o r them to do, unless they ished to s t i c k around to give formal approval to the decisions being made by the new leadership regarding the construct i o n of the new home. Few were interested i n sueh l i m i t e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n and attendance a t the Society's public meetings, especially the annual general meetings, declined. In recent years these meetings have attracted an average of about *0  -  9  6  -  persons; most of whom are the directors of the Home Society o r o f f i c e r s of Solskln, t h e i r spouses and a few close f r i e n d s . I t i s possible, of course; that the  non-  o f f i c e holding members of the Home Society could have taken a more aetive part i n i t s a f f a i r s , p a r t i c u l a r i l y as these were d i r e c t l y concerned with the home's residents.  Such a development was precluded by the  r o l e assumed by the Ladies A i d Solskln.  From the  beginning the A i d assumed the p o s i t i o n and some of the duties of an a u x i l i a r y to the Society, but retained i t s own d i s t i n c t i d e n t i t y . The members of Solskln organized such a c t i v i t i e s as were organized f o r the benefit of the residents."  But since Solskln  continued to organize a c t i v i t i e s f o r i t s own members and supporters  the programme developed f o r the  residents was very r e s t r i c t e d i n scope; consisting of small monthly birthday parties; held during the winter months, and an annual Christmas party. The members of the Home Society and the members of the other associations were not encouraged to provide any further services o r a c t i v i t i e s f o r the residents of the home;  The residents have," i n f a c t , become  the forgotten people; who are expected to show proper gratitude f o r t h e i r beds and t h e i r seats i n the dining room.  - 97 The Society's constitution states that individuals can become members by paying annual dues of |2,00 o r by purchasing a l i f e membership f o r |25.00.  The Home Society's f i n a n c i a l records were  examined i n order to determine the i d e n t i t y of the persons who met either of these conditions by donating an equal amount to the Society*  This group  of members was expanded by the addition of these directors who d i d not meet the f i n a n c i a l c r i t e r i a f o r membership.  In t h i s manner i t was determined  that the members numbered 161 l n I963 and 157 i n 196*.  !  Table XII; below, shows the generation-origin  groupings of these members and, separately, of the l i f e members f o r 1963. TABLE XII Generation-Origin Groupings of the Society's Members and L i f e Members; 1963. All M emb er s Number of Members Analysis based on data f o r Older Immigrants Newer Immigrants Older Native-Born Younger Native-Born Non-Icelandic  Life M emb er s  161 71.6%  126 72.2%  25.8% 3.5 *7i5 8.5 14.7  2$;2% 53.8 7.7 13.1  The Home Society's membership; defined i n the manner described above; was a r e l a t i v e l y stable group.' L i f e members accounted f o r 78$ of a l l members i n I963 and t h i s proportion grew s l i g h t l y , to 83$;  - 98 In 196* as a result of a decline i n the number of Just over half (5©»9$) of a l l the  annual members.  members i n 1963 ^- membership records (or records i)0  of donations) extending to 1950 or e a r l i e r ST while just 11$ had f i r s t joined (or donated) i n i960 . or l a t e r .  The changes which took place i n t h i s  o v e r - a l l membership i n l a t e r years were l a r g e l y a r e s u l t of changes i n the composition of the Board of Directors. I t should be noted that the members are drawn l a r g e l y from the older immigrant and older native-born groups."  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of these  members^ i n terms of generation-origin groupings; i s quite s i m i l a r to the d i s t r i b u t i o n of the core members of the church, although only 23$ of the Home Society's members were also members of the church.  The younger native-born members  account f o r a rather small proportion of the t o t a l membership but they hold a growing number of directorships.  D was the only director  from t h i s group i n i960 but by 1968 s i x of the ten seats were held by younger native-born members. The new immigrants, t h e i r r o l e i n the dispute of the l a t e 1950's to the contrary, have never taken an active interest In the Home Society. Very few have become members by v i r t u e of t h e i r donations  - 99 and only one of t h e i r number has ever held a seat on the Board of Directors. The Ladles A i d Solskln During the f i r s t twenty f i v e years of i t s existence the A i d s e t t l e d into a f i x e d routine of a c t i v i t i e s , which centered on monthly card parties and an annual bazaar and food sale.  The net revenues  from these a c t i v i t i e s were used to provide group outings f o r the members and to provide a l i m i t e d amount of assistance to needy members of the A i d and; to a much l e s s e r extent; to needy members of the other associations;  In the early 19*0*s some of  the members began to t a l k about a new project - the construction or a c q u i s i t i o n of a home f o r the benefit of the older members of the community, including themselves.  As time passed the A i d became deeply  involved i n the discussions underway i n the community and, to encourage others to think of t h i s project i n favourable terms, the o f f i c e r s of the A i d promised to donate fi;000 to a building fund; i f and when such a fund were established.  When the Icelandic  Old Folks Home Society was f i n a l l y established i n January, 19*6; two of Solskln*s o f f i c e r s were among the f i r s t seven elected and appointed directors of the Home Society and i t s f i r s t president was the  - 100 husband of the then president of Solskln, Mrs K. The A i d f u l f i l l e d Its promise and then proceeded to a l l o c a t e most of the net earnings from Its a c t i v i t i e s to the same cause*  I t became c l o s e l y  i d e n t i f i e d with the Home Society and when the f i r s t home was opened the A i d moved i n along with the residents*  The home's meeting room, such as i t was,  was taken over f o r i t s a c t i v i t i e s , which were increasingly being conducted f o r the long-term benefit of the Home Society*  The Aid's donations  to the Home Society, over the next twenty years, amounted to some $15,000*  In addition, the A i d  furnished the quarters which i t had appropriated i n the o l d home and l a t e r repeated t h i s action i n the new home.  The auditorium of the new home i s  generally regarded as being as much the Aid's property as i t i s the property of the Home Society, and any other group which wishes to use i t must have t h e i r permission, as well as the permission of the Board of the Home Society. The A i d was a well-established and r e l a t i v e l y successful association at the time that the Home Society was organized.  Most of i t s members  had been a c t i v e participants f o r a number of years and i t had developed a regular schedule of a c t i v i t i e s which received considerable support from i t s own  - 101 members and other individuals within the community. When the A i d moved into the home i t d i d not abandon either these a c t i v i t i e s o r those supporters but began to use them f o r the ultimate material benefit of the Home Society.  The A i d also assumed respon-  s i b i l i t y f o r organizing such a c t i v i t i e s as were organized f o r the d i r e c t benefit of the home's residents.  But because t h e i r schedule was already  a demanding one they could not provide more than a very r e s t r i c t e d programme f o r the residents. The p o s i t i o n and the roles assumed by the Aid's members i n the operations of the home and the Home Society prevented the general membership of the l a t t e r from taking a more a c t i v e part l n those operations. It was noted previously that the A i d grew out of an informal sewing c i r c l e organized by a few women during the f i r s t World War.  These women were  friends before they formed the sewing c i r c l e and once they had decided to continue t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s l n a more formal manner they recruited other members from among t h e i r non-member friends.  A group of  some 25 to 30 women formed the core membership and most of them were present when the A i d celebrated i t s fourtfeeth anniversary i n 19*7.  Perhaps a  dozen of these o r i g i n a l members were also present when the A i d celebrated i t s f i f t i e t h anniversary  - 102 ten years l a t e r . The f o u r t i e t h anniversary marked the end of an era f o r the A i d and Its members. Most of the members had grown o l d with the A i d and i t was becoming quite d i f f i c u l t f o r them to do a l l the work they had assumed.  Accordingly; they decided to r e -  c r u i t a new generation of members who could maintain the schedule of a c t i v i t i e s which had been developed In an e a r l i e r time.  And, i n order to accomodate  these expected members, they changed the language of operations from Icelandic to English.  Initially  the recruitment of new members was r e s t r i c t e d to the daughters of the o r i g i n a l members and, somewhat l a t e r i n time, to the wives of the younger directors of the Home Society.  These new members; i n turn;  began to r e c r u i t some of t h e i r friends during the 1960's.  At that time some of the daughters of the  non-Icelandic residents of the home began to take an interest i n the A i d and were admitted to membership i n i t . The following table; Table XIII, provides an analysis of the Aid's membership during the years 1963-1966, In terms of generation-origin groupings.  - 103 TABLE XIII Generation-Origin Groupings of the Aid's Members: I963-I966.  1963  1964  1965  1966  Number of Members Analysis based on data f o r  *7  57  58  57  77.1#  75.¥  Older Immigrants Newer Immigrants Older Native-Born Younger Native-Born Non-Icelandi c  41.1#  36.3^ 2.2 25.0 22.7 13.6  37.2$ 2.4 23.4 23.:4 13.6  72.$ 2.9 29.5 20.5 5.9  39.0^ 2.4 29.2 21.9 7.3  As was the case with the associations examined previously, the bulk of the members are drawn from the older immigrant and older native-born groups.  But many  of these members do not take an a c t i v e part i n the Aid's a f f a i r s , simply because they are not p h y s i c a l l y able to do so. The younger native-born and non-Icelandic members have taken over most of the work and now occupy a l l of the o f f i c e s as well.  But t h e i r entrance into the A i d  has not resulted i n the introduction of any new p o l i c i e s , nor i s i t l i k e l y to do so. The new immigrants have taken v i r t u a l l y no part l n the operations of the Aid, l a r g e l y because few of them formed friendships with the existing members. No major or unexpected changes took place i n the Aid's membership i n the years a f t e r I 9 6 6 .  A few  members continued to be recruited, mainly from the younger native-born group.  Among them were several  members of the T and H f a m i l i e s , most of whom were  - 10*  -  recruited to f i l l vacant o f f i c e s on the Aid's Executive Committee. The Strondin Chapter of the Icelandic National League. (The Icelandic Canadian Club of B r i t i s h Columbia) The establishment of the s o c i a l - c u l t u r a l association; Strondin; In 19*6 was the r e s u l t of negotiations between the o f f i c e r s of the l l t e r a y society; Ingolfur, and the s o c i a l club, I s a f o l d .  The  then president of Ingolfur played a key r o l e i n these negotiations.  He, as well as others, apparently  believed that these two groups could operate more e f f e c t i v e l y together than either of them could alone. In addition, he wanted to establish a group i n the c i t y which would be large enough and active enough to take an important part i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the Icelandic National League; which had i t s headquarters i n Winnipeg.  Although the new association was  estab-  l i s h e d i t f a i l e d to l i v e up to his expectations i n i t s l o e a l a c t i v i t i e s and; although i t became an a f f i l i a t e d chapter of the League; i t d i d not take an a c t i v e part i n the operations of the League. The new group*s f a i l u r e to l i v e up to those expectations was due l a r g e l y to the fact that the two parent groups had l i t t l e i n common with each other and were not able to either merge t h e i r d i f f e r e n t interests  - 105 or to develop a new programme of a c t i v i t i e s which could overcome those differences.  The members of  Ingolfur were generally drawn from the older immigrant and older native-born groups and t h e i r main interests were c u l t u r a l ones, such as the continued use of the language and the l i b r a r y .  The  members of I s a f o l d were drawn l a r g e l y from the younger native-born group and they had established I s a f o l d as a s o c i a l club.  During the war years  many of Isafold*s members were absent from the c i t y and few of them resumed t h e i r memberships a f t e r they returned.  As a result the members of I s a f o l d who  i  entered the new association were a d i s t i n c t minori t y and t h e i r interests were not the interests of the majority.  An uneasy peace prevailed f o r a few years  but i t was, inevitably, broken. The o r i g i n a l executive committee of Strondin was divided,- more or l e s s equally, between the l a s t o f f i c e r s of the two parent groups.  But these two  groups of o f f i c e r s d i d not and could not reach a permanent agreement on what a c t i v i t i e s should be organized f o r the members.  The impasse which resulted  was f i n a l l y broken when the former o f f i c e r s and members of Ingolfur closed t h e i r ranks and removed the former I s a f o l d o f f i c e r s from t h e i r positions i n Strondin, at the annual meeting held i n January, 19*9«  - 106  -  Among the o f f i c e r s removed at t h i s meeting were D, then the treasurer, and C; then the president.  The  new o f f i c e r s were, without exception, members of the congregation and several of them were then, or would soon become, o f f i c e r s of the congregation, i  Under the d i r e c t i o n of the new leadership  Strondin quickly reverted back to the kinds of a c t i v i t i e s associated with Ingolfur.  Icelandic was  the only language used l n I t s operations and the l i b r a r y once again became the center of attention i t s preservation, expansion and use was the primary objective of the association.  Public gatherings,  which were held two or three times a year, usually featured lectures on the history and l i t e r a t u r e of Iceland and the history of the Icelandic Canadians, with the frequent addition of poetry readings and films.  Such a c t i v i t i e s offered l i t t l e inducement  to the members of the younger native-born group, even i f they could understand the language being used.  In f a c t , such a c t i v i t i e s appealed to only a  small proportion of the available older immigrants and older native-born i n d i v i d u a l s . During the 1950*s Strondin became Intimately associated with the church congregation.  Most of  the members were also members of the congregation; as were a l l of the o f f i c e r s .  Several of the o f f i c e r s  - 107 were also members of the Board of Trustees or the Board of Deacons and the pastor who served the congregation during the 1950*s was an o f f i c e r of Strondin f o r a period of s i x years.  The association was; not  unexpectedly, generally believed to be a group operated f o r the further benefit of the members of the congregation. This state of a f f a i r s began to change i n the l a t e 1950's as a result of the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the new immigrants.  The number of new immigrants i n  Vancouver grew very rapidly, p a r t l c u l a r i l y a f t e r 1957 # and they tended to concentrate t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the community i n t h i s one association.  However, they  d i d not f i n d the existing programme of a c t i v i t i e s very appealing; p a r t l y because they d i d not think that these a c t i v i t i e s r e f l e c t e d the society which they had l e f t so recently.  In any case, they proved to be  more interested i n purely s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , such as dances, but they were not able to convince the existing membership that such a c t i v i t i e s were either desirable or practicable.  These two groups were not  able to resolve t h e i r differences and possibly d i d not make a determined e f f o r t to do so. Events which occurred elsewhere i n the community made a negotiated settlement of t h i s problem unnecessary; at least f o r the new immigrants.  - 108 I t was noted e a r l i e r that the young nativeborn leader, D, had organized the new immigrants into a bloc, which was then used to overthrow the church contingent on the Board of Directors of the Home Society,  The high point of t h i s p a r t i c u l a r dispute  took place at the Home Society's annual meeting i n January, i 9 6 0 , at which P was elected president. His opponent, SE, was a former trustee of the church and, more importantly, the most I n f l u e n t i a l leader of Strondin,  He had l e d the group which had taken  command of the association i n 19*9 and since then h i s leadership had not been challenged.  But a year a f t e r  he was defeated i n his b i d f o r the presidency of the Home Soolety he was defeated, along with a l l of his colleagues, when he presented himself f o r re-election as the president of Strondin.  D and his new immigrant  a l l i e s simply stacked the annual meeting and voted i n an e n t i r e l y new s l a t e of o f f i c e r s , which included D and F , the up-and-coming new immigrant leader. A mini-election, made necessary by the resignations of two other new immigrants elected without t h e i r p r i o r knowledge and consent, l a t e r added C and another new Immigrant, J .  SE took h i s defeat rather badly and  refused to surrender the association's records and the l i b r a r y and l e g a l proceedings had to be i n s t i t u t e d before these were f i n a l l y turned over to the new leaders.  - 109 The newly elected o f f i c e r s took o f f i c e under the slogan "new  men with new  ideas?  They were not,  however, required to substantiate t h e i r claims right away since events elsewhere took command of the situation.  The President of Iceland made a State  V i s i t to Canada and h i s i t i n e r a r y included v i s i t s to his main Icelandic Canadian constituences i n the country, one of which was i n Vancouver.  Strondin was  designated as h i s host during h i s stay i n the c i t y . The banquet arranged i n i t s name and i n his honour was  the largest public gathering ever held i n the  community, with 350 persons i n attendance.  The  association basked i n the glory and the p u b l i c i t y which i t received f o r i t s part i n t h i s a f f a i r .  But  behind the glow of public success, i n the p r i v a t e world of the leaders; the reputations of i n f l u e n t i a l leaders had been damaged by actions which they had performed or with which they were associated.  Other  equally i n f l u e n t i a l leaders f e l t insulted as a result of those same actions and began to plot revenge. Strong a l l i a n c e s began to crumble and new ones were being formed.  A dispute between the leaders was  beginning and, i n time, that dispute would rock the association and the community to i t s very foundations. External events and t h e i r effect continued to influence and shape the course of events i n the  - 110 years a f t e r the President's  In I962 the  visit.  Icelandic Embassy i n Washington arranged a concert tour f o r an Icelandic p i a n i s t , which included a performance i n Vancouver under the auspices of the association.  Also i n that year an o f f i c i a l of one  of the major Canadian a i r l i n e s suggested that the association should sponsor a charter f l i g h t to Iceland.  The o f f i c e r s accepted t h i s suggestion  and also accepted the o f f e r of a l o c a l t r a v e l agency to handle the bulk of the work involved i n such a project.  The f l i g h t was successful; due l a r g e l y to  the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of recent Icelandic Immigrants to the United States.  One hundred and ten persons, two  t h i r d s of them American residents, joined f o r the t r i p to Iceland i n the summer of 1963.  Another  f l i g h t , involving about 70 persons, was arranged f o r the following year.  These f l i g h t s were the f i r s t  charter f l i g h t s to Iceland and added  considerably  to the association's prestige but they d i d not have a substantial effect on i t s l o c a l a c t i v i t i e s as few of the t r a v e l l e r s were or became active participants i n Its on-going programme. During 1964 the association also played host to the Icelandic Ambassador to the Canada and to the Icelandic Prime Minister.  But again these  events began outside of the community and the  -  association was  Ill  -  only reacting to external s t i m u l i .  Once again, as had happened on e a r l i e r occasions, the success of the public gatherings held i n honour of these v i s i t o r s did not reveal the growing dispute between the leaders.  And within the association  i t s e l f a palace revolution was  brewing.  The numerous successful events of the past four years had b u i l t F*s reputation to the point were he eclipsed every other o f f i c e r of the association was  and  the equal; i n reputation, of any other leader i n  the community.  But his public reputation bore l i t t l e  r e l a t i o n to his reputation among some of his fellow o f f i c e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r J and H.  Each of these events  had been, i n t h e i r opinion, marred by errors of omission and comission f o r which P was  held  responsible.  They further believed, or chose to believe, that P  was  only interested i n building his personal power and influence.  They were further convinced, or chose to  be convinced, that P would not pay any attention to the growing number of signs - such as declining o f f i c i a l membership and actual attendance figures - which indicated a declining interest i n the association and which threatened i t s long-term s u r v i v a l . i n t h e i r opinion, P was ideas and was  And;  not producing enough new  unwilling to l i s t e n to those suggested  by others, including, of course, those suggested by  - 112 J and H.  -  They decided that F must he removed, f o r  the good of the association.  And having decided  they acted. The key to t h e i r success l a y i n t h e i r control of the nominating committee, of which J was the chairman,  and i n t h e i r a b i l i t y to stack the annual meeting  i n January, I965.  F i v e o f f i c e r s , including F and D,  were denied r e - e l e c t i o n .  Since they were not informed  that they would not be nominated f o r r e - e l e c t i o n u n t i l a few days before the meeting, and since J warned them that the bloc he had organized was big enough to outvote any other bloc which could be organized i n such a short time, they d i d not even t r y to contest the election.  But because the manoeuvres which preceded  the meeting were not p u b l i c l y known t h e i r f a i l u r e to r e s i s t gave the event the appearance of an orderly t r a n s f e r of positions and authority.  This appearance  of an orderly transfer was furthered by the fact that F was  elected to represent the association of the  annual convention of the Icelandic National League; whieh was to be held i n Winnipeg l n February; 19&5* Up to t h i s time t h i s p o s i t i o n had been l a r g e l y an honourary one, given as a reward f o r services rendered.  The delegate was sent at the association's  expense, to j o i n i n the convention f e s t i v i t i e s .  On  his (or her) return he would give a report on his t r i p  - 113  -  and on the League s a c t i v i t i e s . 1  This report rarely-  attracted much attention since the o f f i c e r s of the association were not very interested i n the League, nor had the League been very interested i n Strondin u n t i l quite recently.  As Strondin gained i n prestige  i n the years a f t e r I 9 6 I the League began to  request,  and l a t e r to demand, that the association l i v e up to an e a r l i e r agreement to become a f u l l chapter.  This  status would require a payment to the League, from the chapter, of a membership fee of $1.00 Its  members.  f o r each of  The o f f i c e r s of the association had  been increasing the membership payments they were making to the League, from $7.00 i n I96I to $40.00 i n 1964,  but they were i n no hurry to meet the  League*s demands, though they planned to o f f e r a compromise solution at a l a t e r date. was  Such an o f f e r  to be made i n the course of a gradual re-  organization of the association. Once again events which occurred outside of the l o c a l community took command of the association's destiny.  P went to Winnipeg; but on his return he  reported that he had been elected a member-at-large of the League's Executive Committee and had also been made the League's Special Plenipotentiary, with f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and control over a l l of the League's a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver and, at a l a t e r time,  - 114  -  i n Seattle. The association's o f f i c e r s had not had time to digest t h i s announcement before he made another; more s t a r t l i n g statement.  He informed them that he  had been appointed to serve as the Icelandic member of the Ethnic Organizations  Sub-Committee of the  P r o v i n c i a l Centennial Commission.  As such he  was  under instructions to organize a committee which would work with him to ensure that the Icelandic community would p a r t i c i p a t e i n the coming centennial celebrations.  Having gone to some lengths to remove  P from the scene the leaders of Strondin were, to put i t mildly, a l i t t l e disturbed at t h i s turn of events. Their response was  slow i n coming; f o r they  were at the same time t r y i n g to respond to an even bigger blow than P's reappearance on the scene. Although they f a u l t e d P f o r the mistakes he made or was  supposed to have made during his tenure as  president they d i d appreciate and value the immense prestige which had accrued to the association l n those years.  In t h e i r eyes i t was  the largest and  most a c t i v e Icelandic association i n North America. They expected that i t s great prestige would survive, and help i t survive, u n t i l the association could be reorganized  i n a way  which would put substance behind  - 115  -  i t s reputation. Accordingly, they were not prepared f o r the sudden and unexpected emergence of a new Icelandic association i n Seattle, which almost overnight proved i t s e l f to be even bigger and more active than the Vancouver association. Icelandic ethnie organizational a c t i v i t y i n S e a t t l e dated back to the year 1900, society V e s t r i was founded.  when the l i t e r a r y  I t s a c t i v i t i e s ; over the  years, were s i m i l a r to those of Ingolfur and of Strondin before I 9 6 I .  Sinee these a c t i v i t i e s only  appealed to a few i t was never a very large group, as f a r as membership was concerned, and i t began to decline a f t e r the second World War,  I t f a i l e d to  a t t r a c t the members of the younger native-born group f o r the existing members refused to change the nature of the society's a c t i v i t i e s .  I t also f a i l e d  to a t t r a c t any of the post-war immigrants,, who  failed  to see a connection between the society they had just l e f t and the a c t i v i t i e s supported by V e s t r i . Although the younger native-born Icelandic residents of Seattle were not interested i n the c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s provided by V e s t r i they were interested i n maintaining s o c i a l relationships with each other.  Unable to change V e s t r i they organized  t h e i r own club, the Icelandic Club of Greater Seattle. A f t e r careful planning by a group of very able charter  - 116 o f f i c e r s , the Club was launched In a blaze of p u b l l o i t y i n the f a l l of 1964.  The e f f o r t expended  was well rewarded f o r by mid-1965 the Club had over 300 o f f i c i a l members (at a time when the Vancouver association had only about 100). and an extensive and well-supported programme of a c t i v i t i e s . Far from being the masters of t h e i r own the new  fate,  leaders of Strondin f e l t themselves to be  under attack from both within and without t h e i r community.  As the year advanced, the pressures from  both sides grew.  F began to issue orders to them;  both i n his capacity as the League*s representative and as the Icelandic member of the Ethnic Organizations Sub-Committee.  And the S e a t t l e Club continued to  grow bigger and became even more active u n t i l , or so i t was thought, i t s growing prestige completely eclipsed that of the Vancouver association. The leaders of Strondin reached a temporary accomodation with P.  The instructions he was issuing  i n connection with the v i s i t of an Icelandic actor; to be held under the auspices of the League i n the spring of 1966,  were accepted.  the establishment  His suggestion f o r  of a centennial committee composed  of representatives of the various Icelandic associations was also accepted but the s l a t e of members he proposed was  rejected.  Instead H selected the members  of the committee and staggered the representation so  - 117  -  that the association had a majority of the members.  H  also selected the committee*s chairman, giving the p o s i t i o n to a new  o f f i c e r , V.  But at the same time as  they reached t h i s accomodation with F the leaders of Strondin, H and J , decided that he would have to be taught a lesson f o r continuing to i n t e r f e r e i n the association's a f f a i r s .  Furthermore, they decided  that the League would have to be equally punished f o r i t s attempts to i n t e r f e r e i n those same a f f a i r s through him. Having reached a temporary accord with F the leaders of Strondin, H and J ; accompanied by TI and V; journeyed to Seattle f o r a meeting with the o f f i c e r s of the Icelandic Club.  Their mission was  to  l e a r n the secrets that had propelled that club t& i t s great and growing success.  Those secrets, as  explained  by t h e i r hosts, were simple. An Icelandic association which wanted to a t t r a c t members from the younger native-born had to be an English-speaking English name.  group  association with an  I t must provide an extended programme  of s o c i a l a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t i c u l a r i l y dances; and operate a number of l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t programmes f o r small groups within i t s membership.  As many members  as possible must be deeply involved i n operating  the  the association and t h i s goal could be achieved, as  - 118 they had a c h i e v e d  it,  by d i v i d i n g t h e work as much  as p o s s i b l e and a s s i g n i n g  each separate task t o a  d i f f e r e n t member o r sub-committee. v e r y Important and was best achieved d u c t i o n o f a monthly n e w s l e t t e r ,  P u b l i c i t y was by t h e i n t r o -  which would be  d i s t r i b u t e d t o members and non-members a l i k e . a c t i v i t y must be evaluated  Every  and those which f a i l e d t o  c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e f u r t h e r i n g of t h e c l u b ' s i n t e r e s t s must be e l i m i n a t e d .  An example o f such an unpro-  d u c t i v e a c t i v i t y was t h e maintenance o r acceptance of an a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e I c e l a n d i c N a t i o n a l League, were t h e c o s t s i n v o l v e d f a r exceeded t h e b e n e f i t s received. The  l e a d e r s o f S t r o n d i n were a l r e a d y aware  of some o f t h e s e l e s s o n s and had decided  t o accept  any and a l l a d v i c e g i v e n them by t h e o f f i c e r s o f t h e Seattle association.  But, i n t h e i r t u r n , they  suggested t h a t because t h e s e two groups were  organized  l a r g e l y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f people o f I c e l a n d i c o r i g i n i t would be n e c e s s a r y t o r e t a i n some c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o r t o develop a new p o l i c y on t h a t question.  They suggested t h a t t h e s e two a s s o c i a t i o n s  should adopt a j o i n t p o l i c y o f i n v i t i n g I c e l a n d i c e n t e r t a i n e r s t o v i s i t t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c i t i e s and t o e n t e r t a i n t h e i r members.  The very s u c c e s s f u l t o u r  r e c e n t l y completed by an I c e l a n d i c actor;- under t h e  -  119  -  auspices of the LeagueJr Indicated that such an a c t i v i t y would be well supported.  But the tours to  be arranged under t h i s new p o l i c y would s p e c i f i c a l l y exclude Winnipeg from the i t i n e r a r y i n favour of the c i t i e s on the P a c i f i c Coast.  This suggestion  was  met with enthusiasm and adopted without much discussion. Three months l a t e r a second Joint meeting of the o f f i c e r s of these associations was held i n Vancouver, at which the question of relations with the League was  f u l l y discussed.  The League's  representative", F; was present and requested  that  both associations immediately accept f u l l membership i n the League.  The o f f i c e r s of both associations  rejected t h i s request as too costly i n view of the low return expected.  The president of the Icelandic  Club of Greater Seattle pointed out that such a step would cost his group about $400 i n membership fees, plus the costs of sending a delegate to the annual convention.  Strondin, i n turn, would have  to pay about $150 i n membership fees, plus the costs of the  delegate.  Both clubs agreed on a compromise s o l u t i o n ; under which they would accept a f f i l i a t e status and would pay up to $ 5 0 . 0 0 per year i n dues.  At t h e i r  suggestion; P agreed to inform the League's o f f i c e r s  - 120 of t h i s o f f e r , with copies of his l e t t e r to them being sent to both associations.  He also promised  to inform both associations of the League's reaction as soon as possible.  But, as events turned out, F  did not inform the o f f i c e r s of the League of t h i s compromise o f f e r . The leaders of Strondin, H and J , did not enter the discussions with open minds.  They had  already decided to end the association's a f f i l i a t i o n with the League.  They were convinced  that F had guaranteed that both associations would accept f u l l membership i n the League and were certain that he would not inform the League's o f f i c e r s of any compromise o f f e r , f o r fear of compromising his own reputation with those i n d i v i d u a l s . I t was; therefore, important f o r t h e i r plans to extract a promise from him to inform the League of the compromise o f f e r ; which they had no intention of accepting; and equally important f o r those plans that he would not f u l f i l l that promise. During the summer of I966 a committee, composed of H, J and V, drew up a detailed plan f o r the re-organizatlon of the association.  Under t h i s  plan the name was to be changed from Strondin to the Icelandic Club of B r i t i s h Columbia.  The a f f i l -  i a t i o n with the League was to be ended, i n an i n d i r e c t  - 121  -  manner by p r o h i b i t i n g any f i n a n c i a l t i e s with any other organization.  The membership dues were to be  increased, the o f f i c i a l year changed from a calendar ©ne to a f i s c a l one,  ending on August 3 1 s t . , and  time of the annual meeting was to September.  the  changed from January  The monthly meetings of the Board of  Directors were to be open to the members and t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n decision-making was to be encouraged. Several other changes were included i n the  new  constitution presented to the members attending the annual meeting i n January, 1967.  and approved by  them, on a secret b a l l o t , by a vote of 32 to 6. association's new name was  The  subsequently changed to  the Icelandic Canadian Club of B r i t i s h Columbia. The formal reorganization of the associat i o n was followed by a period of increased a c t i v i t y . The open business meetings were often well attended. The number of s o c i a l gatherings was was  the v a r i e t y of such meetings.  increased, as Dances were held  f o r the general membership and l i m i t e d i n t e r e s t programmes, such as card parties and f i l m shows, were held f o r smaller groups within that membership. The newsletter, which had been introduced on a regular basis i n 1966, was  became more elaborate and  d i s t r i b u t e d to an ever-growing number of  addresses.  But t h i s period of increased a c t i v i t y  - 122  -  was r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t - l i v e d f o r the o f f i c e r s soon found out that i t took f a r more of t h e i r time and energy than they were able or w i l l i n g to give to i t . Eventually they began to reduce t h i s o v e r - a l l programme to more manageable proportions.  The open  business meetings were eliminated, as were most of the l i m i t e d interest a c t i v i t i e s .  The c i r c u l a t i o n  of the newsletter was eventually r e s t r i c t e d to the o f f i c i a l members only.  Even the number of dances  held during the year was reduced somewhat.  But the  reduction of the club*s programme d i d not have an effect on the membership, which grew year by year, reaching the 300 mark i n early 1969. One innovation which the o f f i c e r s d i d not want to borrow from the Seattle Club was the very elaborate o f f i c e structure set up by i t s founders. The club had a Board of Trustees, a Board of Directors and some twenty sub-committees.  A f t e r a lengthy  discussion of t h i s matter the leaders of the Vancouver association decided to adopt a compromise solution.  The o f f i c e struoture of the reorganized  club included a Board of Directors and s i x standing committees. But having made a decision on t h i s matter they were unable to implement i t . They convinced themselves that they would not be able to f i n d enough  - 123 able and w i l l i n g workers to f i l l a l l the positions which had been created.  Accordingly, they made no  e f f o r t to a c t i v a t e the standing committees.  Only one  of these standing committees ever became active; and then only because i t had been set up before the association was reorganized.  The f a i l u r e to act  more d e c i s i v e l y on t h i s matter was l a t e r hailed as foresight.  In I968 the Seattle Club collapsed with  as much speed as i t had o r i g i n a l l y appeared.  The  immediate cause of that collapse was a dispute over p o l i c y among the o f f i c e r s which e f f e c t i v e l y paralyzed i t s operations.  The o f f i c e r s of the l o c a l association  were of the opinion that the very elaborate o f f i c e structure had f a c i l i t a t e d the emergence of several opposing factions whose differences were not reconcilable. During these years the composition of the o f f i c i a l membership, viewed i n terms of generationo r i g i n groupings^ changed to a greater degree than i n any other association; O r i g i n a l l y drawn almost e n t i r e l y from the older immigrant and older nativebom  groups; the character of the o f f i c i a l member-  ship began to change i n the l a t e 1950's; due i n i t i a l l y to the large-scale p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the new The new  immigrants.  Immigrants; by and large,' tended to concentrate  i n t h i s association; with only token and generally  - 124 s h o r t - l i v e d p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the other associations. Those members of the new  immigrant group who  rose to  positions of leadership and Influence within the community tended to do so only through t h e i r p a r t i c i pation i n t h i s association," p a r t i c u l a r l l y a f t e r the coup of I 9 6 I . Table XIV; below, provides an analysis of the changes which occurred i n the composition of the o f f i c i a l membership between I 9 6 I and I 9 6 6 . TABLE XIV Generation-Origin Groupings of the Association*s Members, I963 -  1961  I 9 6 6 .  1963  1965  1966  278 159  108  159 109  T o t a l Members Local Members Analysis based on data f o r  63.8$  78.6%  72.$  85.0%  Older Immigrants Newer Immigrants Older Native-Born Younger Native-Born Non-Icelandi0  22.2 27.7 7.* 1.8  30.9$ I3.6 31.2 12.0 8.8  25.7*  18.7% 23.0 29.6  83 83  98  11.4  30.0 22.8 10.0  24.1 4.4  The s i z e of the o f f i c i a l membership grew s t e a d i l y i n the following years (I967. 1967-68, 1968-69)» reaching the 3 0 mark i n the l a s t year indicated. Q  The propor-  t i o n of these o f f i c i a l members drawn from the younger native-born and non-Icelandic groups increased from 28.5$ i n 1966 to 51.6$ A f t e r 1961  i n early 1968-69. there was a gradual s h i f t i n the  nature of the a c t i v i t i e s supported by the association.  - 125 Readings i n p o e t r y were phased o u t i n f a v o u r  of a  g r e a t e r number o f d a n c e s , two o f w h i c h w e r e h e l d i n commemoration o f i m p o r t a n t first,  i n February;  major f e s t i v e  Icelandic holidays.  The  commemorates t h e T h o r r a b l o t , a  day, a n d t h e seond, i n June;  o r a t e s I c e l a n d ' s I n d e p e n d e n c e Day.  commem-  The l i b r a r y ,  which  had  b e e n t h e c e n t e r o f a t t e n t i o n f o r s o many y e a r s ,  was  g i v e n t o t h e home, a t D's s u g g e s t i o n .  I n 19&3  t h e E x e c u t i v e Committee c h a n g e d t h e l a n g u a g e used from I c e l a n d i c t o E n g l i s h , mainly  being  t o accomodate  H, who t h r e a t e n e d t o r e s i g n i f t h e c o m m i t t e e to  continued  u s e a l a n g u a g e h e c o u l d n o t u s e . He was  b y J , who m a i n t a i n e d  that this  supported  change would have t o  b e made t o a c c o m o d a t e f u t u r e o f f i c e r s who c o u l d n o t use  t h e I c e l a n d i c language. But  t h e c h a n g e s w h i c h w e r e made d u r i n g  p e r i o d w e r e made l a r g e l y  i n response  to pressures  e x e r t e d by v a r i o u s groups and i n d i v i d u a l s . was  No a t t e m p t  made t o p r o d u c e a n d i m p l e m e n t a c o - o r d i n a t e d  programme o f new i d e a s . was  this  T h e blame f o r t h i s  failure  p l a c e d o n F b y H a n d J a n d became a n o t h e r  justifying  h i s removal from o f f i c e .  reason  But H and J , i n  t u r n , w e r e n o t a b l e t o p r o d u c e t h e i r own programme i n their both his  own t i m e  s i n c e t h e y were f o r c e d t o a c t quickly*,  t o counter F's continued attempts t o maintain i n f l u e n c e a n d t o meet t h e t h r e a t , t o t h e  association's emergence. career  prestige,  They f e l t  126 -  posed by t h e S e a t t l e  obliged  t o a c t t o end F ' s  a n d t o a d o p t a programme s i m i l a r t o t h e one  which had been so s u c c e s s f u l The  i n Seattle.  new programme, f o r m a l l y  native-born  group and t h e i r non-Icelandic  friends.  interest  In addition,  a c t i v i t i e s were i n t r o d u c e d .  officers  activities  t o r e c r u i t enough  a n d t o c o n c e n t r a t e a& t h e s o c i a l  the  exception  its  first  test i n  between  reorganization the  group.  activities But, with  o f t h e new c u l t u r a l p o l i c y , w h i c h h a d  1967»  the constituent  programme h a d b e e n i n t r o d u c e d  fashion  structure  the limited interest  p l a n n e d f o r t h e younger n a t i v e - b o r n  this  Eventually,  t o a c t i v a t e t h e sub-committee  them t o e l i m i n a t e  spouses  a number o f l i m i t e d  however, t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e l e a d e r s  forced  adopted i n  1967* was d e s i g n e d t o a p p e a l t o t h e y o u n g e r  January,  and  Club's  I96I  a n d 1965.  c a r r i e d out i n  elements o f  i n a piece-meal  As a r e s u l t t h e  I967  d i d not Involve  i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new p o l i c i e s a s much a s i t  was a n e f f e c t i v e c o n s o l i d a t i o n a n d r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n o f the  c h a n g e s made i n e a r l i e r Nevertheless,  believed  that  years.  the officers  t h e changes e v i d e n t  composition of both the o f f i c i a l  generally  after  I967  i n the  and p a r t i c i p a t o r y  membership w e r e a d i r e c t r e s u l t o f t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n  - 127 of  t h a t year.  But T a b l e XIV shows t h a t t h e member-  s h i p was a l r e a d y b e g i n n i n g t o change b e f o r e 19&7 and it  i s likely  t h a t t h e t r e n d s evident would have  continued, r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e a c t i o n s taken o r not taken i n connection w i t h t h e name, t h e a f f i l i a t i o n w i t h t h e League and so on. Some support f o r t h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n i s g i v e n i n T a b l e XV, below; which p r o v i d e s an a n a l y s i s of  t h r e e types of members: those who remained members  d u r i n g t h e years I963-I966 ( c o r e members); those who withdrew d u r i n g these years (withdrawals) and those who j o i n e d f o r t h e f i r s t time l n t h e same p e r i o d (new members). TABLE XV G e n e r a t i o n - O r i g i n Groupings o f the Core Members; Withdrawals, and New Members, I963-I966.  Core Members  Withdrawals  New Members  L o c a l Members A n a l y s i s based on data f o r  *5  64  93.3$  56.3$  84.3$  O l d e r Immigrants Newer Immigrants O l d e r Native-Born Younger N a t i v e - B o r n Non-Icelandic  33.3$ 21.4$ 26.1 16.6 2.3  28.2$ 10.5$ 3^.1 U.7 15.3  9.2$ 20.3$ 22.2 35.1 9.2  151  The o l d e r immigrant and o l d e r n a t i v e - b o r n groups p r o v i d e d about 60$ o f t h e core members but l e s s than a t h i r d of t h e new members.  The younger  n a t i v e - b o r n and n o n - I c e l a n d i c groups! which  accounted  - 128 for less  than a f i f t h  j u s t under h a l f  o f t h e c o r e members, p r o v i d e d  o f t h e new members.  A t t h e same  t i m e o v e r 60% o f t h o s e who d i s c o n t i n u e d t h e i r  member-  s h i p s were from  native-  born groups.  t h e o l d e r immigrant  I t i s difficult  and o l d e r  t o s a y ; however, what  p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e members w i t h d r e w b e c a u s e  they  w e r e unhappy w i t h t h e c h a n g e s underway i n t h e a s s o c i ation's a c t i v i t i e s .  I963 in  and  I96*  Many o f t h e s e members  Joined i n  i n order t o qualify f o r participation  the charter f l i g h t s  of those years.  M o s t o f them  h a d n o t b e e n members b e f o r e t h e s e f l i g h t s  and v e r y  few m a i n t a i n e d t h e i r membership s t a t u s a f t e r t h e f l i g h t s were o v e r . viewed, interest  Some o f t h e s e p e o p l e , when  stated, quite bluntly, i n the association,  that  inter-  t h e y h a d no  f o r that matter  they  c o u l d n o t s e e why a n y o n e w o u l d h a v e a n i n t e r e s t and  they themselves  had j o i n e d o n l y because  regulations governing charter f l i g h t s o n l y members o f a s p o n s o r i n g g r o u p charter  in i t f  t h e IATA  stipulate  that  could Join a  flight. F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e membership b e g a n  to  c h a n g e d r a s t i c a l l y b e f o r e 1967  comparison  of the o f f i c i a l  memberships. an  During  1966  i s p r o v i d e d by a  and t h e p a r t i c i p a t o r y and t h e e a r l y p a r t  of  1967  e f f o r t was made t o r e c o r d t h e names o f a l l t h o s e  a t t e n d i n g t h e p u b l i c g a t h e r i n g s h e l d by t h e a s s o c i a t i o n .  - 129 The f i r s t p u b l i c g a t h e r i n g attended by the w r i t e r , a f t e r he had been e l e c t e d t o the a s s o c i a t i o n * s E x e c u t i v e Committee i n February;  1966;  dance h e l d t h e f o l l o w i n g month.  T h i s dance  attended by some 160  persons.  was  a dinnerwas  During c o n v e r s a t i o n s  w i t h t h e a s s o c i a t i o n * s o t h e r o f f i c e r s , on t h e n i g h t i n q u e s t i o n and on subsequent o c c a s i o n s , i t became evident t h a t t h e o f f i c e r s were f a m i l i a r o r acquainted w i t h o n l y a m i n o r i t y of those who it  had attended.  This;  s h o u l d be noted; d i d not cause them any worry.  But  t h e w r i t e r suggested t h a t i t might prove u s e f u l t o know who  was  a c t u a l l y a t t e n d i n g the a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  p u b l i c g a t h e r i n g s - such p a r t i c i p a n t s might be i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming o f f i c i a l members; i f they were not o f f i c i a l members a l r e a d y . guest book was  At h i s s u g g e s t i o n a  o b t a i n e d and used a t most of the  p u b l i c g a t h e r i n g s , o t h e r than business h e l d between A p r i l , 1966,  and A p r i l ,  meetings,  I967.  An a n a l y s i s of t h e data o b t a i n e d l n t h i s manner i s p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e XVI,  f o l l o w i n g , which  p r o v i d e s a comparison of t h e o f f i c i a l and p a t i n g memberships.  partici-  The l a t t e r , of c o u r s e ; i n c l u d e s  some of t h e o f f i c i a l members.  - 130 TABLE XVI The Generation-Origin Groupings of the O f f i c i a l and P a r t i c i p a t i n g Members, 1966-67. Off. Number of Members Local Members Analysis based on data f o r . Older Immigrants Newer Immigrants Older Native-Bom Younger Native-Born Non-Icelandic  1966  159 109  Part.  Off.  3*0 265  13* 125  1967  Part.  165 165  85.$  79.0$  87.5$  88.6$  18.7$  12.8$ 1*.7 25.1 25.6 21.8  22.9$ 11.9 19.3  10.2$ 9.3 2*. 8  16.9  27.3  23.0 29.6 24.1 4.1  28.*  28.2  A more detailed analysis of t h i s data provided some i n t e r e s t i n g findings.  The o f f i c i a l members of the  association accounted f o r only 18$ of the participants during 1966  and a s l i g h t l y higher portion i n the early  part of 1967.  Furthermore,  less than half (about  *0$)  of the o f f i c i a l members ever attended any gathering hosted by the association during the period covered by the data.  In both years they appear to rank a poor  t h i r d behind individuals who belonged to other associations i n the community and other individuals who belonged to none.  In l a t e r years, as conditions  became more stable, more of the o f f i c i a l members began to p a r t i c i p a t e i n such a c t i v i t i e s and by I969 they were beginning to provide a majority of a l l participants at some public gatherings.  But at the  same time there was a steady increase i n the number of non-Icelandic participants, many of whom were o f f i c i a l  - 131 members, and there were gatherings  i n I968 and  later  were the non-Icelanders accounted f o r 40$ or more of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s . In general the analysis of the p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership indicates that the s h i f t i n the group c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the a s s o c i a t i o n ^ e f f e c t i v e supporters was  already well established before the  reorganization of  196?.  The leaders p u b l i c l y j u s t i f i e d t h i s reorganization on the grounds that i t was  necessary  i n order to a t t r a c t the younger native-born i n d i v i d u a l s . But t h e i r motives were not quite as simple, or as pure, as those public statements indicated. ohange the name was  The desire to  l a r g e l y a reaction to the fact  that the o f f i c e r s of the Icelandic Club of  Greater  S e a t t l e gave much of the credit f o r t h e i r success to that English name. A number of other changes, such as the increase i n the membership dues, the change i n the time of the annual meeting, the reorganization of the o f f i c e structure and the Introduction of the p r i n c i p l e of l i m i t e d tenure f o r the d i r e c t o r s , were a l l borrowed from that Club, simply because they were thought to be, and were stated to be, among the other elements which contributed to that  success.  S i m i l a r i l y , the decision to sever the t i e s with the Icelandic National League was  l a r g e l y a by-product of  - 132  -  the continuing dispute between P and the association's leaders. H and J .  Before I965 these two men had not  been too interested i n the League or i n the t i e s between the association and the League.  But they  were w i l l i n g to dlseuss the question of future rel a t i o n s up to the moment that P was made a d i r e c t o r of the League and given control over i t s a c t i v i t i e s on the coast.  H and J were incensed at what they r e -  garded as an unwarrented attempt by the League to i n t e r f e r e i n t h e i r a f f a i r s through P.  Both had to  be and were, punished. The proponents of these changes did not think i t necessary to consult with the members, whether o f f i c i a l or participatory.  Their decisions  were l a r g e l y a response to pressures which they alone f e l t and the opinions of the members were of l i t t l e interest to them.  Nevertheless, they d i d go  through  the motions of consulting the members by c a l l i n g a s p e c i a l general meeting, which was held i n November, I966.  Ostensibly the meeting was c a l l e d to give  the members an opportunity to examine and discuss certain tentative proposals being considered by the o f f i c e r s i n connection with a r e v i s i o n of the present constitution.  But i n fact there was nothing tentative  about any of these proposals, which were contained i n a completely new  constitution.  The decisions  - 133 involved had been made months e a r l i e r and none of them were considered negotiable.  The r e a l purpose of  the meeting was to give the leaders a public forum i n which they could humiliate and d i s c r e d i t F to the point were both his reputation and his w i l l to lead were destroyed.  Careful planning f o r that objective  paid hansome dividends, and a f t e r t h i s meeting F  was  r a r e l y seen at any public meeting held by or under the auspices of any of the associations i n the community. Patterns of P a r t i c i p a t i o n The names of the ordinary members interviewed i n the i n i t i a l stages of t h i s study (I965-66) were drawn from the membership l i s t s which had been obtained up to that time.  The interviews which were conducted  had two main objectives.  F i r s t , they were designed to  provide personal data which could be treated i n a s t a t i s t i c a l manner.  This included information on such  points as birthplace and birthdate, occupation, marital status (and spouse's ethnic o r i g i n , i f nonIcelandic) , migration history, record of p a r t i c i p a i n Icelandic and non-Icelandic associations, and so on. Second, these interviews were designed to provide information on the extent to which these individuals i d e n t i f i e d themselves or could be i d e n t i f i e d as being  -134  -  members of the ethnic community*  This was to be  accomplished i n d i r e c t l y by determining the extent of t h e i r knowledge of three points: the history of the community and/or the associations, the i d e n t i t y of the community^ leaders and t h e i r awareness of the important issues, i f any. I t was thought that the more knowledgeable the members were on a l l or any of these points the greater t h e i r sense of belonging to a community would be. I t d i d not take very many interviews to establish the fact that the ordinary members of the community generally had l i t t l e detailed knowledge of either the history of the community or the history of the associations within i t .  Some simply knew  nothing, while others had vague, and usually erroneous, opinions. No s p e c i f i c statement could be accepted unless v e r i f i e d by numerous witnesses and, i f possible, by documentary sources.  Most of  the members d i d not know when a given association had been established, why i t was established or who had established i t .  Few had any but the vaguest  notions as to what had happened p r i o r to the time they had f i r s t joined, assuming, of course, that they were able to remember when they had f i r s t become members.  Nor were they much better informed  about the events which had occurred a f t e r they had  joined. recent  135 -  . T h e y w e r e aware o f some o f t h e h i g h l i g h t s o f years,  such as t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n  the  visit  of the President  the  o l d f o l k s home, b u t t h e y l a c k e d  and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f  knowledge about t h e s e and o t h e r The  ordinary  of t h e church,  any d e t a i l e d  events.  member's l a c k o f h i s t o r i c a l  knowledge i s n o t n e c e s s a r i l y an unexpected f i n d i n g . There i s , a f t e r a l l ,  no r e a s o n why s u e h a n i n d i v i d u a l  should  have o r needs t o have s u c h knowledge, p a r t i c u -  l a r l y  when l i t t l e  opportunity  o r nothing  to acquire  i s done t o g i v e h i m a n  such knowledge.  The l a c k o f  s u c h k n o w l e d g e does n o t b a r h i m f r o m p a r t i c i p a t i n g quite  extensively  and  this  and  little  i n the affairs  community.  After all,  initiative  of these  associations  i t t a k e s no k n o w l e d g e  o n t h e member's p a r t  mumbled c o n s e n t o r t o r a i s e h i s hand, a l o n g thirty has  other  to give with  people, t o approve a d e c i s i o n which  n o t been f u l l y  explained  and which i s b a r e l y  understandable. The  officers  of the associations  were  g e n e r a l l y more aware o f t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e community and  the associations than the ordinary  T h e r e were; however, t h r e e these o f f i c e r s ,  g r o u p i n g s among  i n s o f a r as t h e depth o f t h e i r  edge was c o n c e r n e d . greatest  distinct  members.  quantity  knowl-  The group which possessed t h e  o f knowledge c o n s i s t e d o f i n d i v i d u a l s  -136  -  who had been o f f i c e r s f o r twenty years or longer. Their d e t a i l e d knowledge of the past was, i n part, a by-produce of t h e i r intimate personal with those events. expectedly,  connection  The passage of years, not un-  tended to r e s u l t i n versions which were  biased i n one way or another.  Another group con-  s i s t e d of those individuals who had just recently : been elected to t h e i r positions.  These new o f f i -  cers, who were often new members as well, were f r e quently so busy performing t h e i r duties that they had no time, and often l i t t l e desire, to learn about past events.  They tended to r e l i e on the often  biased versions of t h e i r seniors, who were i n some cases the victorious survivors of epic but unpublicized disputes.  But although such new o f f i -  cers were not always obtaining a very accurate p i c ture of the past they were usually learning modern history by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n i t s creation. The o f f i c e r s of Strondin were p a r t i c u l a r i l y prominent i n t h i s group.  Two separate purges of the  association's o f f i c e r corps, one i n I 9 6 I and the other i n 1965* had brought into o f f i c e individuals who had only recently become members of the association.  Their knowledge of the association's past  history was very meager and consisted l a r g e l y of a rather one-sided view of the most recent events,  coloured  137 -  I n a way which d i s c r e d i t e d P and h i s a c t i o n s . There was a t h i r d , r a t h e r s m a l l , group o f  i n d i v i d u a l s , some o f whom were then i n o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s and some o f whom had r e c e n t l y v a c a t e d such p o s i t i o n s , u s u a l l y a f t e r s e r v i n g o n l y f o r a year o r two.  These i n d i v i d u a l s were no b e t t e r informed then  the o r d i n a r y members.  T h e i r tenure, past and p r e s -  ent, i n t h e i r o f f i c i a l p o s i t i o n s had not g i v e n them any  r e a l knowledge o f what was going on.  The  interviews  i n d i c a t e d t h a t although t h e  o r d i n a r y members were not w e l l informed as f a r as t h e community's h i s t o r y was concerned they d i d know, or f e l t  they knew, who t h e l e a d e r s were.  But t h e  number o f i n d i v i d u a l s they i d e n t i f i e d as l e a d e r s was s m a l l , r a r e l y more than two o r t h r e e and q u i t e o f t e n o n l y one.  These nominations were u s u a l l y i n t h e  form o f very d e f i n i t e statements, such as D runs W  the home? Mrs H runs S o l s k l n ? o r E I s t h e church? M  W  On t h e b a s i s o f these nominations i t appeared t h a t t h e t o p l e a d e r s h i p o f t h e community c o n s i s t e d o f E, I, P, D and Mrs R.  I t appeared t h a t E, on t h e  b a s i s o f t h e number o f nominations he r e c e i v e d , was the community's s i n g l e most i n f l u e n t i a l o r powerf u l leader. J,  I n a d d i t i o n , a number o f other persons -  H, 0, C, Mrs K, B, Mrs D, Mrs F, U and P - seemed  -  138 -  t o f o r m a second e c h e l o n on t h e b a s i s nations  they received.  indicated that not  o f t h e nomi-  But subsequent  the reputations  analysis  of these leaders  always r e l a t e d t o t h e r e a l i t y o f t h e i r  were  respective  situations. It  was n o t e d e a r l i e r t h a t most o f t h e  members o f t h e community w e r e members o f o n l y o n e a s s o c i a t i o n and t h a t  their  effective or actual  i p a t i o n was r e s t r i c t e d t o o n e a s s o c i a t i o n .  partic-  Even  those  i n d i v i d u a l s who h a d o f f i c i a l memberships i n two o r more a s s o c i a t i o n s  tended to r e s t r i c t  p a r t i c i p a t i o n to only official  one o f these,  memberships i n t h e o t h e r  merely a token of support. ency t o r e s t r i c t  their  their while  actual their  associations  Because of t h e i r  was  tend-  effective participationthe  members, b y a n d l a r g e , w e r e i g n o r a n t  of the r e a l i t i e s  o f t h e community a n d t h e y t e n d e d t o n o m i n a t e t h e leaders  o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n as t h e l e a d e r s  community.  When t h e n o m i n a t i o n s made were  with the associational a f f i l i a t i o n s the  s i n g l e group o f t o p l e a d e r s  several separate  of the compared  of t h e nominators  was b r o k e n  Into  groupings.  The l e a d e r s  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e c h u r c h were  E and I ; those a s s o c i a t e d w i t h S t r o n d i n  w e r e P a n d D;  t h o s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e Home S o c i e t y w e r e D a n d M r s R, a n d t h e S o l s k i n l e a d e r s  were M r s R a n d M r s K.  A  - 139 s i m i l a r regrouping also i n order.  -  of the second rank of leaders  was  The appearance of a h i e r a r c h i c a l ,  single grouping of the leaders was a direct result of the bias Introduced by the differences i n the sizes of the memberships of these associations. church had the largest  The  e f f e c t i v e membership and as a  result E and I received by f a r the highest number of nominations.  On the other hand, the  effective  memberships of the Home Society and Solskln were rather small and D and Mrs E received f a r fewer votes than either of the church leaders, t h e i r r e l a t i v e ranking i n the o v e r - a l l leadership group being boosted by the nominations they received from members of other associations. The members interviewed tended to regard P and D as the top leaders of Strondin.  These Inter-  views were conducted as much as a year a f t e r these two men were removed from t h e i r o f f i c e s but the fact of t h e i r removal had not yet been f u l l y comprehended by the membership.  This was  partly due to the fact  that H and J had f a i l e d to publicize the fact that they were now  i n command and the members were  generally under the impression that P was president and that D was  s t i l l in office.  still  the  In f a c t ,  several years passed before l t was generally r e a l ized that there had been a change of command In t h i s  -  association.  But  membership h a d H.  the  by  learned  l a t t e r had,  c e e d e d by learned  J.  And  that  the  S.  ship of S t r o n d i n  t i m e t h a t t h e mass o f  i n turn; by  The  -  that F  the  change J had  s u c c e e d e d by  140  had  r e t i r e d and  high,  t i m e when t h e  of  the  remained b a s i c a l l y the  concerned the  had  been  i n the  leader-  I c e l a n d i c Canadian  so  Club  partioularily  other  by  suc-  t h e members  r a t e of turnover  leadership  been  a l s o r e t i r e d and  o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) was  usually out-of-touch  been succeeded  time that  ( l a t e r the  the  at  a  associations  same, t h a t t h e members were  with reality,  i d e n t i t y of the  as  f a r as  association^  reality top  leaders. The  I n d i v i d u a l s n o m i n a t e d by  were u s u a l l y a b l e t o p r o v i d e t i o n of the and  provided  u a l s who, in  associations  of the  v i r t u e of t h e i r o f f i c i a l  than the  as  course of  events.  But  tended t o t h i n k p r i m a r i l y i n terms  a result,  ordinary  composition of the other  individ-  p o s i t i o n s , were  t h e p a r t i c u l a r a s s o c i a t i o n t h e y were  w i t h and,  the  s t r u c t u r e s of t h e i r  a more c o m p l e t e l i s t i n g  leaders  members  a more d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p -  a p o s i t i o n to i n f l u e n c e the  even t h e of  by  office  the  t h e y w e r e no  members as leadership  associations.  to the  affiliated  better  informed  extent  and  or o f f i c e r  T h e y knew t h e  corps  top  the of  leaders  t h o s e a s s o c i a t i o n s , o r a t l e a s t t h e y knew who  they  of  - 141 were, but other  they d i d not  -  know t h e  identities  of  the  l e s s p r o m i n e n t o f f i c e r s o f t h o s e same a s s o c i -  ations. Since community h a d for  been engaged i n a c o n t i n u o u s  c o n t r o l over the p o l i c i e s  associations. of  l a t e 1950*s the l e a d e r s  the  During t h i s  the major a s s o c i a t i o n s  t h e Home S o c i e t y  - had  groups of l e a d e r s ideas  and  and  opinions  a s s o c i a t i o n should effective  and  struggle - the  leaders,  The  leaders  and  c o n t r o l over  church, S t r o n d i n  the each and  its  own  t o what t h e f u t u r e o f t h e i r  be.  T h e r e was  no  longer  continued  g o i n g i n i t s own  any  the  them i f t h o s e p o l i c i e s of the  co-opera-  p o l i c i e s t h e y implemented i n  f o r t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n and  ability  or  direction.  t o p r a i s e community  p r i v a t e were implemented i n t h e  expectation  i t was  o f no  of  gains  i n t e r e s t to  t e n d e d t o damage o r weaken  other  associations  to  implement  policies. The  c o u l d not activities an  of  b e e n d i v i d e d between d i f f e r e n t  e a c h was  t i o n i n p u b l i c but  their  struggle  futures  e a c h s u c h g r o u p had  as  the  communication between t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s ;  the  the  the  of  leader  express too of the  expression  was  (or leaders) great  other  an  an  association  interest in  the  a s s o c i a t i o n s because such  b o u n d t o be  d e l i b e r a t e l y so - a s  o f one  interpreted -  often  u n w a r r e n t e d and u n j u s t i f i e d  - 142  attempt him to  to i n t e r f e r e i n matters which d i d not  ( o r them). risk  -  the  Few  l e a d e r s were w i l l i n g ,  e r u p t i o n which would r e s u l t  a mutual i f unspoken agreement, l e f t alone  and  affairs  concentrated  on  h i s own  o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n he  leaders avoided as w e l l they  not  only  were not  any  and  his  And  longer,  most,  and  the  because  c o n f r o n t a t i o n s but  really  the  contacts  i n a p o s i t i o n to l e a r n too  about the l e a d e r s of the o t h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s were t h e y  by  colleagues  affairs  led.  concern  much  nor  i n t e r e s t e d i n such i n f o r m a t i o n  any  longer.  The  information produced i n the  conducted at t h i s impression  t h a t t h i s was  S u c h a p i c t u r e was and  by  great with  common c o u r s e  But  cracks  e a r l y and  t h e o r d i n a r y members  w e l l they  e a s i l y they  o f a c t i o n , and  each t o the b e s t and  how  how  of h i s a b i l i t y ,  the p r i n c i p l e of  got  to  along  a l l a g r e e d on they  community  a  a l l worked,  to maintain  appeared i n t h i s peaceful they  the  co-operation. scene  quite  widened c o n s i d e r a b l y a f t e r the  writer  became a n a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t i n t h e a c t i v i t i e s these  leaders.  the  community.  Many o f t h e l a t t e r went  t o d e s c r i b e how  each other,  g e n e r a l l y gave  a peaceful l i t t l e  p a i n t e d by  the o f f i c e r s . lengths  spirit  (I965-66)  time  interviews  Only then d i d the  extent  of  the  of  - 1*3 disputes  -  between t h e l e a d e r s ; and t h e i r  effect;  (1966)  g r a d u a l l y become e v i d e n t .  And a t t h i s t i m e  a number o f t h e s e d i s p u t e s  were r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h i n g  the  s t a g e were a p u b l i c e x p l o s i o n  was i n e v i t a b l e  and  unavoidable, despite  that  were r e a l l y leaders had  the fact  the leaders  reluctant to quarrel i n p u b l i c  generally  t o be s o l v e d  a public dispute  agreed that  their  The  disagreements  i n p r i v a t e f o r they feared  that  w o u l d a n t a g o n i z e o r d i s t u r b many  members t o t h e p o i n t w e r e t h e y w o u l d s i m p l y draw f r o m t h e community.  with-  B u t sometimes t h e i r  agreements c o u l d n o t be r e s o l v e d  i n private,  diseither  b e c a u s e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s were t o o extreme o r because a p r i v a t e s o l u t i o n was n o t r e a l l y w a n t e d , a n d e i t h e r o r b o t h f a c t i o n s would choose t o f i n i s h i n p u b l i c what t h e y h a d s t a r t e d i n p r i v a t e . finish  i n v a r i a b l y had t h e f e a r e d  And such a e f f e c t on t h e  membership. G i v e n s u c h an a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t leaders  and t h e o f f i c e r s  s u r p r i s i n g to note that generally  i t i s not  t h e members were n o t  or continuously  c o u l d be d e s c r i b e d as  together,  of the  aware o f a n y t h i n g  as an important  issue.  which Insofar  t h e y knew, t h e community was u s u a l l y a t p e a c e  with i t s e l f act within  and t h i s  condition permitted  i t as they d e s i r e d .  A n d what  them t o they  - 144 desired was an opportunity to meet t h e i r fellow Icelandic Canadians and to share a cup of coffee and the l a t e s t personal gossip with them.  They  generally did not want to be d i r e c t l y Involved i n the often onerous task of keeping the associations i n operation - that, a f t e r a l l , was what the o f f i cers were supposed to do. Accordingly, they had l i t t l e desire to get involved i n the disputes which might a r i s e between those o f f i c e r s . But because not a l l disputes could be resolved i n private the members could not avoid a l l contact with the important Issues of the day.  Ifa  dispute was thought to be insoluble, within the l i m i t s of the t r a d i t i o n a l method of handling such a f f a i r s , or i f , f o r some reason, a private solution was not desired, then one or both of the factions involved would decide to r e f e r the dispute to the members f o r t h e i r decision.  This would be done at  the regular annual meeting or a s p e c i a l general meeting.  Such meetings are usually very poorly  attended and the outcome of any votes taken by those attending can be manipulated rather easily, often by as few as a dozen persons acting together on p r i o r i n s t r u c t i o n s . The decision i s often made so quickly that the members do not r e a l i z e that an important issue has been s e t t l e d and i t may take  - 145 some t i m e b e f o r e t h e y f u l l y of the it not  events  understand  they witnessed.  By  t h e meaning  then,  of  course,  i s t o o l a t e t o o b j e c t , i f t h e d e c i s i o n was a c c e p t a b l e t o them.  t h e i r presence  They were t h e r e and  became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e  or i s by  particular  decision i n question. The  p r i n c i p a l b e n e f i t t h e members r e c e i v e  from these a s s o c i a t i o n s i s the opportunity given them t o meet a n d who  do  not  only  them b u t who  talk with friends Just share  The  events  such f r i e n d s ,  with  remembering a n d  their lives  I s one  as w e l l as an  participation can be  and  of the p r i n c i p a l  taining  on  in their  Such exchanges  public gathering.  But  approve  r o u t i n e or s p e c i a l matters  per-  to the o p e r a t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n s , p r o v i d e  relatively l i t t l e  time  f o r such  m e e t i n g s have a t e n d e n c y t o be the o f f i c e r s  exchanges. very long,  g e n e r a l l y want t o h a v e t h e  Such since  formal  a p p r o v a l o f t h e membership f o r e v e r y m i n o r major d e c i s i o n o r a c t i o n t h e y have taken to take.  past  for their  the g e n e r a l meetings, which are h e l d to decisions taken  since  exchange of  events  reasons  i n such g a t h e r i n g s .  a r e h e l d a t any  with  reviewing of  i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t t h e more r e c e n t lives,  acquaintances,  a common a n c e s t r y  have o f t e n shared  childhood.  and  to  The  or  or plan  members, a c c o r d i n g l y , s t a y away f r o m  - 1*6  -  such meetings quite deliberately, except f o r the few brave souls who r i s k being caught i n the crossf i r e , should the leaders be f i g h t i n g again. There was, or appeared to be, a considerable difference i n the extent to which d i f f e r e n t individuals were attached to or had a sense of belonging to the community or one of i t s associations.  The o f f i c e r s , especially the leaders, had  a very high and often a very personal commitment, serving a worthy cause with with s e l f l e s s devotion and humility. else w i l l ?  "Some one must do i t and no one  But the ordinary members, by and large,  were not as deeply or as continuously committed to the community, since the benefits they sought and received could be, and often were, obtained outside of the community.  - 1*7 CHAPTER V LEADERSHIP AND POWER IN THE ETHNIC COMMUNITY Leaders and O f f i c e r s The minutes of the annual general meeting of the Women's A u x i l i a r y of the Icelandic Lutheran Church, held i n November, 1950, contains the following description of the elections held that year: "At t h i s time of the meeting the e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s commenced. The president stepped down and asked Mrs S to take the chair, which she d i d , and the annual struggle commenced, "The Executive a l l resigned and no one wished to take over, Mrs U was the unanimous choice f o r president and was pressed into servioe with Mrs GJ as v i c e president? Matters improved somewhat over the years, as the following excerpt from the minutes of the A u x i l i a r y ' s annual meeting i n October, 1959* indicates: "There were no elections necessary as the same executive w i l l i n g l y accepted t h e i r o f f l o e s f o r another term? The minutes of the annual meeting of Strondin, held i n January, 1963, describe how J i n t r o duced a more democratic method of electing the association's offloors.  Instead of presenting a s i n g l e  • l a t e of nominees f o r the seven positions on the Executive Committee and the nine sub-committee positions, he presented the nominees one by one.  - 148 i n v i t i n g f u r t h e r nominations from t h e f l o o r f o r every p o s i t i o n .  No f u r t h e r nominations were made,  and those nominated by J were e l e c t e d by a c c l a m a t i o n . One  d i s s e n t i n g v o t e was east a g a i n s t one o f these  nominees.  The s e c r e t a r y , nominated f o r r e - e l e c t i o n ,  voted against The presented  himself. chairman o f t h e nominating committee  a full  s l a t e o f nominees f o r t h e Board  o f T r u s t e e s t o t h e members a t t e n d i n g t h e annual g e n e r a l meeting o f t h e I c e l a n d i c L u t h e r a n Church i n January, 1964. acclamation.  The nominees were a l l e l e c t e d by  One o f t h e new t r u s t e e s was Mr GB,  who was not present a t t h e meeting.  By an u n f o r t u -  n a t e o v e r s i g h t t h e ohairman o f t h e nominating committee had f o r g o t t e n t o t e l l Mr GB t h a t he was to  be nominated f o r a s e a t on t h e Board o f T r u s t e e s .  By an e q u a l l y u n f o r t u n a t e o v e r s i g h t he f o r g o t t o t e l l Mr GB t h a t he had been e l e o t e d t o t h a t s e a t . Some time l a t e r Mr GB was asked by t h e Board* s s e n i o r member why he was not a t t e n d i n g t h e Board's meetings.  Mr GB, l n r e t u r n , wondered why he  s h o u l d be a t t e n d i n g t h o s e meetings.  The balance  o f t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n was p r o b a b l y not without its  humourous overtones,  as Mr GB i n s i s t e d t h a t  he was n o t a t r u s t e e and h i s c o l l e a g u e t h a t he was.  Mr GB f i n a l l y persevered,  insisted but o n l y  - 1*9 w i t h g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y and i n the f a c e o f a  determined  opposition. The L a d i e s A i d S o l s k l n c e l e b r a t e d i t s f i f t i eth  a n n i v e r s a r y i n November, 1967*  I n recognition of  t h e i r p a s t s e r v i c e s t h e Board o f D i r e c t o r s o f t h e Home S o o l e t y honoured them w i t h a banquet.  One item  on t h e programme r e q u i r e d t h e p r e s i d e n t o f the Home S o c i e t y t o i n t r o d u c e t h e A i d ' s present o f f i c e r s t o t h e and!ence.  He encountered  no problems u n t i l he  came t o t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e v i c e - s e c r e t a r y . He d i d not know who t h e v i c e - s e c r e t a r y was,  nor apparently  d i d anyone e l s e s i n c e h i s request t h a t she i d e n t i f y h e r s e l f was met by a dead s i l e n c e . an extended p e r i o d o f whispered  There f o l l o w e d  c o n v e r s a t i o n s as  t h o s e p r e s e n t searched t h e i r ranks f o r t h e m i s s l o g officer.  T h i s s e a r c h was brought t o an abrupt end  when one o f t h e s e a r c h e r s Jumped up and shouted: " I t ' s mei" The p r e s i d e n t o f t h e Home S o c i e t y stunned t h e members a t t e n d i n g t h e annual meeting i n January, 1968,  b y d e c l a r i n g t h a t i l l - h e a l t h f o r c e d him t o  d e c l i n e nomination office.  f o r a n i n t h c o n s e c u t i v e term i n  Only a f t e r overcoming strenuous o b j e c t i o n s  from those p r e s e n t was he a b l e t o c a l l f o r nominat i o n s f o r t h e post o f p r e s i d e n t . nominations  Three such  were made, t h e candidates b e i n g D, 0 and  - 150 T2. to  The l a t t e r two demanded t h a t they be a l l o w e d d e c l i n e nomination  acclamation*  and t h e p o s i t i o n went t o D by  The next p o s i t i o n t o be f i l l e d was  t h e d i r e c t o r s h i p being v a c a t e d by Mrs R, h e r term having expired*  She was not present, but she had  sent a l e t t e r t o t h e meeting i n d i c a t e d t h a t i f no o t h e r c a n d i d a t e c o u l d be found she would accept nomination  f o r re-election*  The members accepted  h e r o f f e r and e l e c t e d her, i n t h e u s u a l manner, t o her seventh c o n s e o u t l v e t h r e e - y e a r term*  E l e c t i o n time has not always been as peace f u l o r as l a c k i n g i n g e n e r a l I n t e r e s t , as t h e aboved e s o r i b e d events might i n d i c a t e *  As r e c e n t l y as  I96I t h e r e were two opposing s l a t e s o f nominees f o r t h e e x e c u t i v e p o s i t i o n s i n S t r o n d i n , although t h e e l e c t i o n I t s e l f was no c o n t e s t * were opposing  Similarily,  there  candidates f o r t h e vacant s e a t s on  t h e Home S o c i e t y * s Board i n 1958,  1959 and i960,  though, o f course, t h e outcome o f t h e e l e c t i o n s was p r e d i c t a b l e * The p o s i t i o n o f an o f f i c e r l n one of t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s i s n o t a h i g h l y d e s i r e d one.  Because  t h e o f f i c i a l work f o r c e i s s m a l l and t h e q u a n t i t y of  r o u t i n e house-keeping d u t i e s g r e a t , h i s l i f e can  be a d i f f i c u l t  one.  He must be ready and w i l l i n g t o  -  151  -  give an almost unlimited amount of his time and energy to help deal with the one hundred and  one  tasks which must he performed i n order to keep the associations i n operation.  These tasks are contin-  uous and often onerous, requiring frequent meetings with his colleagues and solo performances, often several times a month.  In addition to the time he  must give i n private he i s under an o b l i g a t i o n to attend every public gathering held by the association of which he i s an o f f i c e r . Although h i s p o s i t i o n i s not always an envied one,  l t i s , f o r the associations and  community, a very Important one.  the  When the community  i s defined i n terms of i t s constituent associations, those associations must be kept operational.  They  are kept operational by the combined e f f o r t s of the individuals who  occupy the o f f i c e s which constitute  the o f f i c e structures of the associations. i n d i v i d u a l s who  Only those  hold such o f f i c i a l positions are  accorded the r i g h t , by t h e i r colleagues and, to a l e s s e r extent, by the members, to act as leaders  or  to share i n the formulation and implementation of policy. I t i s , of course, conceivable that the officeholders represent  only the formal leadership,  with r e a l or e f f e c t i v e control being exercised by  non-  - 152 o f f i c e r s behind the scene.  But t h i s i s not the case  i n t h i s community. There i s a shortage of p o t e n t i a l or actual officeholders, and t h i s shortage i s a continuing problem f o r a l l of these associations.  This shortage  i s p a r t l y due to the f a c t that the members, by and large, p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of these associations f o r the personal benefits they r e ceive i n the form of opportunities to meet friends and acquaintances.  Generally they do not have a  desire to take part i n the a c t i v i t i e s which enable these associations to operate. The o f f i c e structures of these associations have been reduced to a minimum i n s i z e , usually a board o r executive committee with s i x to twelve members.  Despite the minimal s i z e , i t has often  been the case that not enough o f f i c e r s or p o t e n t i a l candidates f o r o f f i c e have been found to f i l l a l l the a v a i l a b l e o f f i c e s , even when a p o t e n t i a l candidate was offered a p o s i t i o n but freed of any o b l i g a t i o n to take an a c t i v e part i n the a c t i v i t i e s of h i s colleagues.  GB was not the only person to be elected  to an o f f i c e without h i s p r i o r consent, nor was he the only person to be urged to r e t a i n his o f f i c e without an o b l i g a t i o n to perform the duties which might be attached to i t . I f he had accepted t h i s o f f e r , the  - 153  -  other o f f i c e r s would not have had to engage.in yet another tiresome search f o r a successor," Because there i s a shortage of  acceptable  o f f i c e r s or p o t e n t i a l candidates f o r o f f i c e ; i t , i s not s u r p r i s i n g to note that any i n d i v i d u a l ; regardl e s s of his membership status, who  expresses more  than a passing i n t e r e s t i n the business a f f a i r s of these associations becomes a p o t e n t i a l candidate for office*  Whether t h i s p o t e n t i a l i s translated  into actual e l e c t i o n to an o f f i c e or an appointment to an o f f i c e depends upon other factors, e s p e c i a l l y the assessment made by the leaders of his (her) p o t e n t i a l effect upon the association and; more importantly; upon t h e i r own  status as leaders*  Miss M had been a r e l a t i v e l y i n a c t i v e member of the congregation  f o r several years p r i o r to the  time (mid-1966) that she began to object to the planned d i s s o l u t i o n of the Women*s A u x i l i a r y ; an organization which she had never joined or supported to any extent*  Her objections were based on the  grounds that an Icelandic organization simply could not be permitted to die; and she promised to see to i t that new members would be brought i n to give i t : a new lease on l i f e *  Her objections and promises  angered some of the A u x i l i a r y ' s o f f i c e r s , such as Mrs L, who  f e l t that she had no right to i n t e r f e r e  - 154 In an organization which she had never supported.  But  Miss M was giving voice to the growing fears of most of the congregation*s members, whose ethnic patriotism was being aroused by I and E.  Her objections c a r r i e d  the day at the annual meeting i n 1967*  But her  objections also c a r r i e d her Into o f f i c e as the A u x i l i a r y ' s treasurer*  Once i n o f f i c e she became so  absorbed by the quantity of work which had to be performed that she was never r e a l l y able to mount the promised drive f o r new members* The writer's a c t i v i t i e s during 1965 were interpreted by the leaders of Strondin as indicating the existence of a personal interest which transcended any other interests*  Because of the purges c a r r i e d  out i n e a r l i e r years, they were In an even more d i f f i c u l t s i t u a t i o n than the leaders of the other associations, and they offered him as many positions as he oared to accept*  In a matter of months he  was  elected; by due democratic process; to serve as the secretary of the Executive Committee and as the senior delegate to the Scandinavian Central Committee, and was appointed the chairman of the centennial committee, the chairman of an ad hop p u b l i c relations committee, the secretary of an ad hoc by-law committee and the secretary of the Scholarship Committee*  By  his service i n these and other capacities he, i n the  - 155 course of time; became as prominent and; by reputation, as powerful a leader as H and J.  In timet i n f a c t ; the  threesome of H, J and V (the writer) was recognized as a clique, known u n o f f i c i a l l y within a small c i r c l e as the Unholy T r i n i t y ; which was';' by reputation, so powerful and i n f l u e n t i a l that no i n d i v i d u a l o r assoc i a t i o n within t h e i r sphere of i n t e r e s t could challenge them and f e e l his or i t s future to be secure.  But, not un-  expectedly,' t h e i r reputation l i v e d longer than the reality. The writer made I t c l e a r ; or t r i e d to, that he accepted these positions because they might prove u s e f u l f o r the purposes of t h i s study.  I t was assumed  that the process of leadership could best be studied by close observation of and controlled p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the deliberations and a c t i v i t i e s of the leaders.  r  These i n d i v i d u a l s ; howeverf declined to accept that reason as a r e a l one; a t least they declined to do so f o r the benefit of t h e i r p u b l i c ; and In time the writer was l i t e r a l l y paraded by H and J as l i v i n g proof of the success of the new p o l i c y they developed during 1966 and formally Introduced  i n I967.  The positions accepted permitted a very & close scrutiny of the operations of the leaders i n t h i s association and gave almost unlimited access to the operations of the other associations i n the  community ( v i a the centennial committee) and; to a l e s s e r extent, to the operations of the leaders of other ethnic communities ( v i a the Scandinavian Central Committee)• In these two cases the expression  or  appearance of an Interest i n the business a f f a i r s of the associations i n question brought Miss M and  the  writer to the attention of the leaders of these associations.  Given the shortage of o f f i c e r s , that  i n t e r e s t made them p o t e n t i a l candidates f o r o f f i c e . And once i t was  established that t h e i r i n t e r e s t s  and opinions were not contrary to those of the leaders; or were thought to be neutral i n the current disputes;' the way f o r nomination was open and e l e c t i o n to o f f i c e was  guaranteed.  Once In o f f i c e each of  these individuals had a choice between operating as an o f f i c e r , by performing only those duties which by t r a d i t i o n or formal description were attached to t h e i r o f f i c e s , or moving towards the status of a leader, by taking advantage of the to perform a d d i t i o n a l duties. or her own  opportunity  Both, each f o r his  reasons; chose the l a t t e r path. There are considerable differences between  the p o s i t i o n and status of o f f i c e r s and leaders i n such a community. individuals who  The leaders are usually the  played a major or a dominant r o l e  - 157  -  l n the o r i g i n a l establishment of one or more associations and have remained o f f i c e r s of such associations since then.  Because of the r o l e they  played i n the o r i g i n a l establishment of the associations the leaders are usually the individuals who formulated the p o l i c y pr p o l i c i e s which govern the operations of those associations and who  super-  v i s e the on-going implementation of those p o l i c i e s . The o f f i c e r s tend to be individuals recruited by the leaders, f o r shorter or longer periods, to a i d i n the implementation of these policies,  4  Such  o f f i c e r s are generally l i m i t e d to performing certain s p e c i f i c tasks while no such l i m i t s are placed on or exist f o r the range of duties or tasks which are or may be performed by the leaders. The leaders tend to be v i s i b l e to the members to a f a r greater degree than the o f f i c e r s . This high v i s i b i l i t y i s the r e s u l t of a complex of f a c t o r s , some of which are more important than others.  The fact that the leaders were the chief  or among the chief organizers of the association means that t h e i r membership records usually antedate those of the other members and o f f i c e r s .  The  l a t t e r cannot r e c a l l a time when the leaders were not there i n t h e i r respective positions;  The duties  performed by the leaders i n effect put them on display  - 158 before the members during p u b l i c gatherings while the o f f i c e r s , though present, do not appear as prominently;  1  And because the o f f i c e r s generally do not  perform i n o f f i c e s or work situations which are v i s i b l e to the members they tend to be unknown by the l a t t e r .  Their r e l a t i v e lack of v i s i b i l i t y tends  to exaggerate the v i s i b i l i t y of the leaders, and tends to create the Impression that only the l a t t e r have a part to play i n the a c t i v i t i e s which keep the association i n operation. This sharp d i v i s i o n between the leaders and the o f f i c e r s i s maintained; i n part; by the r e l a t i v e l y poor development of any formal means of spreading information amongst the members of the community.  At the time that t h i s study began none  of the associations issued a newsletter, or a comparable instrument, on a regular basis.  Specific  events, such as the i n i t i a t i o n of a charter f l i g h t or the c a l l i n g of a general meeting, were sometimes p u b l i c i z e d by means of a short newsletter or post card.  Such announcements generally provided a  minimum of information and generally gave only a f i n a l decision without any explanation of the deliberations, i f any, which l e d to i t .  The leaders  did not think i t was necessary to provide a more d e t a i l e d or a more continuous presentation by such  - 159 Formal means and tended to r e l i e on an Informal verbal grapevine to a much greater extent.  But the  grapevine tends to be very s e l e c t i v e i n the kinds and quantities of information transmitted, as well as In the speed with which such information i s transmitted.  And Insofar as i t i s e f f e c t i v e i t tends  to emphasize the roles of the leaders by transmitting messages regarding on-going or future events which are s p e c i f i c a l l y associated with one or more leaders and which do not mention the other individuals who might have played a part i n the formulation of the message. The newsletter issued by Strondin, on a monthly basis, beinning i n the spring of I966, d i d not e f f e c t i v e l y change or Increase the amount of information given to the members of the community. I t was generally r e s t r i c t e d to announcing the dates and locations of future public meetings to be held by t h i s and other associations. The use of names, of leaders, o f f i c e r s o r members, i n connection with such events was d e l i b e r a t e l y r e s t r i c t e d .  This  r e s t r i c t i o n was, i n theory, Intended to de-personali z e the events i n question but, because some names had to be mentioned as sources f o r t i c k e t s and/or further information, i t s a c t u a l effect was to emphasize the roles of the leaders who organized and  - 160 supervised these events.  The newsletter became a  means whereby the roles of the association's leaders were given a p a r t i c u l a r prominence* while the roles of the association's other o f f i c e r s , as well as those of the leaders and o f f i c e r s of the other associations, were either not mentioned or were de-emphasized. The high positions of the leaders are not due s o l e l y to the fact that they generally control and can manipulate the community's i n f o r mation services, such as they are.  The leaders  have also achieved t h e i r positions by doing more f o r the associations, or appearing to have done more, over a longer period of time than anyone else.  The f i v e Individuals nominated as top  leaders had been o f f i c e r s f o r an average of years; or 28.2 years i f P i s excluded. 3  23.8  But the ten  second-rank leaders; on the basis of the nominations; had been o f f i c e r s f o r an average of only 10.6 years and the twenty three other o f f i c e r s f o r an average of 5»3 years.  The top leaders;' with the exception  of P, had been the leaders f o r so long and had done so muoh to earn t h e i r positions that no one, least of a l l they themselves; questioned t h e i r right to those positions. The attitudes of the top leaders are not  1  - 161 without importance i n explaining t h e i r positions. D attained the presidency of the Home Society i n January, I 9 6 8 ; a f t e r P was obliged to r e t i r e because of poor health.  He was asked by the writer how long  he expected to r e t a i n his new p o s i t i o n ;  He r e p l i e d  by t e l l i n g a story about a woman who had asked him some years e a r l i e r , how long he planned te r e t a i n the vice-presidency of the Home Society, an o f f i c e he had held f o r so long that I t was generally believed that he was the only person to have held it.  His reply to her was allegedly i n the following  form. "A murderer gets a l i f e sentence f o r his crime and I hope to get the same f o r mine - which Is being only humble enough t o serve? His fellow leaders did not use quite such an analogy, nor did they proclaim t h e i r humility quite as loudly as he d i d ; but they share his attitude.  To them I t Is only r i g h t that they should  both reign and r u l e - a f t e r a l l , somebody had to do I t and no one else would.  The f a c t that they used  t h e i r control over the recruitment  of new o f f i c e r s  to ensure that no competitors appeared on the seene was not a subject t o be discussed i n public o r i n private. Elections are usually held every year or every three years and they can be quite humorous f o r  - 162  an observer.  -  The Individuals about to be re-elected,  especially the leaders, move about complaining; at length and with apparent bitterness, about the long and hard years behind them and the others which s t r e t c h before them.  They wonder why no one wants  ; to succeed them and suggest, to t h e i r l i s t e n e r s ; that they would only be happy to step aside f o r anybody else.  T h e i r complaints are often addressed to  individuals who are t r y i n g to l e t i t be known, by word and by deed; that they would l i k e to be officers.  But such e f f o r t s are not noticed by the  complaining o f f i c e r s ; who  complain r i g h t up to the  moment when they are nominated f o r re-election by the chairman of the nominating committee.  Then,  resigned to t h e i r fate, they accept yet another term by acclamation. Selected P r o f i l e s The leaders of the community have shaped i t into i t s present mold by the parts they have played i n i t s history.  I t has moved as they have  acted and the constituent associations have become; i f they have not always been, the creations and the creatures of the leaders. The l i f e and history of the community can be described i n terms of the l i f e  - 163 h i s t o r i e s of I t s leaders; as Is shown by the following p r o f i l e s of the f i v e nominated top leaders. Leader E E was born i n Manitoba, i n 1900, the f i r s t native-born generation.  and Is of  He l e f t school  before completing h i s education and worked at various jobs before joining the Hudson*s Bay Company l n  1937.  The Company sent him to i t s o f f i c e s i n Vancouver and he worked there u n t i l he r e t i r e d i n 1962.  At the  time of h i s retirement he was the Company's chief comptroller f o r i t s operations i n B r i t i s h Columbia and A l b e r t a . E's career as a leader i n the l o c a l Icelandic community began as soon as he a r r i v e d l n Vancouver.  He  became Involved l n the establishment of the Icelandic Choir i n 1937  and was  as i t s d i r e c t o r .  elected by I t s members to serve  He continued to d i r e c t I t a f t e r i t  was merged, at h i s suggestion; with the church congregation i n 1944 and i s s t i l l i t s d i r e c t o r at the present time (1969).  The choir's fortunes have  changed through the years as h i s own personal interest In I t has changed.  His Interest and the choir's  a c t i v i t i e s were at a high point i n early 1967  when  the pastor offended h i s son by not thanking him properly f o r performing a solo number during a church  - 164 service.  There was; accordingly; an element of  genuine anger i n E's reaction to an event which not only hurt a member of h i s own family but which damaged an organization which was intimately connected with him. E was appointed; In the f a l l of 1941; to head a committee of laymen organized to help the pastor; who was working to re-establish the Icelandic Lutheran congregation In Vancouver.  When the  congregation was formally set up, In March; 1944; E joined the Board of Trustees and has remained a member of i t since then.  He served as the president  of the Board i n 1944-45, again i n 1948-50, when the congregation's charter was being revised; and then i n 1956* when the construction of the church was completed.  At the same time (1956) he was the chair-  man of the Building Fund Committee and was responf o r r a i s i n g , or t r y i n g to r a i s e ; enough money from the community to meet the congregation's f i n a n c i a l obligations t o the Board of American Missions of the United Lutheran Church.  In between sessions as the  president of the Board he has served as i t s v i c e president, serving i n t h i s l a t t e r capacity f o r nineteen years.  In 1965 the charter of the congre-  was revised again and the vice-presidency of the Board, then held by E, became the highest l a y o f f i c e  - 165 l n the congregation. E played a leading r o l e l n defending the congregation's ethnic i d e n t i t y when that Identity came tinder attack i n 1962-63 and i n I966.  But before  the l a t t e r incident he appeared to have changed his own opinions on t h i s matter and d i d indicate that the pastor's'actions on the membership question had his support.  But I's campaign to preserve the church's  character as an Icelandic organization received an immediate response from the members, and E changed his opinions again.  He became the chief defender of the  congregation as an ethnic congregation and the pastor's principal c r i t i c .  When the pastor resigned E sought  out and hired a replacement  and then i n i t i a t e d  negotiations with another congregation which produced an agreement concerning the sharing of the Icelandic church by both congregations.  This agree-  ment had the further effect of solving the congregation's perennial f i n a n c i a l d l f f i c u l t e s and gave E's prestige a major boost. Although he has been primarily  concerned  with the congregation; E has taken an interest i n the other associations i n the community.  He was Involved  i n the negotiations which preceded the establishment of the Icelandic Old Folks Home Society and served as a member of i t s Fund Committee and as the chair-  - 166 man of a committee which selected a name f o r the home.  He took a deeper interest i n the Home Society's  a f f a i r s during the 1950's and served on i t s Board, as the representative of Strondin, f o r several years. During t h i s time he appears to have t r i e d to establish a more d i r e c t and firm control over i t s operations by arranging the election of a number of directors who were members and usually o f f i c e r s of the  congregation.  In June, 19*4* E was appointed to serve as the f i r s t diplomatic representative (Honourary ViceConsul) i n Vancouver of the newly established Republic of Iceland. 1955.  He served i n t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l  when he resigned at his employer's request.  Gn  his recommendation the p o s i t i o n was then given to U, who was then a trustee of the congregation and the chairman of i t s Building Committee. the Order of the Falcon i n 1957  E was awarded  by the Icelandic  Government i n recognition of his services as the Vlee-Consul. In 1961 E became the chairman of the committee established to prepare a reception f o r the President of Iceland, who  v i s i t e d Vancouver during  his State V i s i t to Canada.  E's service i n that  capacity further increased his reputation and his public standing i n the community.  However, his  manner of operating the committee angered many  - 167 people, among them several of the o f f i c e r s of Strondin,  They f e l t that he had manipulated the nec-  essary arrangements to benefit himself and h i s friends.  Their anger was increased when, at the  banquet arranged i n the President's honour, E d e l i v ered a welcoming address which, i n t h e i r opinion; was a lengthy catalogue of h i s own achievements and contributions to the community.  His p o s i t i o n was  not improved when he, unintentionally, Insulted the President during the course of that welcoming address,  E made some remarks about the Order of the  Falcon which he had received and the President f e l t or chose to f e e l that those remarks were a deliberate insult.  A f t e r he returned to Iceland he took steps  to ensure that the leadership of the l o c a l community learned that he had been Insulted,  E's reputation  among his fellow leaders, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the leaders of Strondin (other than F ) , already damaged by the events whioh occurred during the President's v i s i t , took a beating from whioh i t never recovered. But because the members of the community never learned of t h i s incident h i s public reputation, p a r t i c u l a r l y among the members of the congregation, remained as high as ever.  They could see. In the  arrangements made f o r the v i s i t s of other d i s t i n guished v i s i t o r s (such as the Ambassador and the Prime Minister i n 1964), that he was being snubbed  - 168 by his colleagues but they never knew why. He continued to be the most prominent leader of the congregation, a man whose long and devoted service gave him a f i r s t claim on t h e i r l o y a l t y and support, such as l t was. Leader I Leader I was born i n Manitoba, i n 1912; and i s of the second native-born generation.  He i s an  e l e c t r i c a l engineer and has been employed by the B.C. Hydro and Power Authority (formerly the B.C.  Electric  Company) slnee his a r r i v a l i n Vancouver i n 19*6. Leader I a r r i v e d i n Vancouver i n 19*6 as a member of the armed forces and remained i n the c i t y a f t e r demobilization. He joined the congregation i n 19*8 and was elected a member of the Board of Trustees i n 1950»  Leader I was o r i g i n a l l y nominated by E, then  the chairman of the nominating p o s i t i o n of secretary.  committee, f o r the  His immediate predecessor  i n that o f f i c e had successfully opposed E on a key Issue and had suffered the f a t e of a l l rebels. The issue concerned the name to be given t o the congregation under the revised constitution being prepared at that time.  E favoured the name Grace  Lutheran Church and a t his suggestion the Board of Trustees recommended t h i s name to the members attending  - 169 the annual meeting In January* 194-9.  The secretary,  who had apparently not taken a part l n the Board's deliberations on t h i s issue, objected to t h i s name on the grounds that the church, being the Icelandic church, should be c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d as the Icelandic church. At h i s suggestion the members of the congregation advised the Board to reconsider and bring back a name which r e f l e c t e d that f a c t .  The Board d i d as requested  but two months l a t e r , at a special general meeting c a l l e d f o r t h i s purpose, they recommended that the church be named the Grace Lutheran Church.  The  secretary objected again, f o r the same reason, but then presented a motion to the members which would name the ohurch the Icelandic Lutheran Church.  This motion was  accepted, apparently without an actual vote.  E took  his defeat with grace but eight months l a t e r he declined to nominate the secretary f o r re-election to another term.  The nomination was given to Leader I .  Leader I served as the Board's secretary f o r seven years.  During t h i s time he took part i n the  planning of the congregation's building programme and i n the planning of the associated fund and membership drives.  In 1957 he succeeded E as the president of  the Board of Trustees and held t h i s position u n t i l I965, when a revised constitution gave the o f f i c e of president to the pastor.  During h i s term of o f f i c e  - 170 Leader I was deeply involved i n a continuing e f f o r t to place the congregation*s finances on a sound footing and i n a number of s p e c i a l drives designed to r a i s e enough money to meet the f i n a n c i a l obligations incurred during the construction of the church.  These  e f f o r t s generally d i d not achieve t h e i r objectives and by the time that Leader I turned his o f f i c e over to the pastor the congregation*s f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were extreme.  But the fact of those d i f f i c u l t i e s d i d  not r e f l e c t on h i s p o s i t i o n o r reputation as a leader. Leader I continued to serve as a member of the Board a f t e r he gave up the presidency.  He worked  with the new pastor during 19&5* while the l a t t e r was making h i s t r y at resolving the f i n a n c i a l problem. This e f f o r t was p a r t l y successful sinee the proposed d e f i c i t f o r 19^5 was reduced, by a special drive, from #4,000 to $15,000, i n a budget t o t a l l i n g some $14,000.  But t h e i r co-operation came t o an end when  the pastor began to enforce the constitutional regulations governing membership.  Leader I objected  to t h i s step and i n s i s t e d that as an Icelandic organization the church must never do anything which might make the p o t e n t i a l members think they were not welcome.  When he f a i l e d to deter the pastor he  sought the support of the congregation*s members. He based h i s appeal to the members on  - 171 p a t r i o t i c grounds.  As members of an Icelandic organ-  i z a t i o n they could not stand aside and l e t that Icelandic character be attacked or undermined. The members responded, generally because they accepted his i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of these events.  But some of them were  already disturbed and angry and needed l i t t l e encouragement from him.  There were members of the A u x i l i a r y who  were not w i l l i n g to accept the planned d i s s o l u t i o n of t h e i r group.  There were members of the Board of  Deacons, abolished i n 1965* who f e l t that they had never been properly thanked f o r t h e i r past services by the new pastor. 1  As soon as i t became evident that the members  of the congregation were being aroused by Leader I and his  campaign, E, who had been rather i n a c t i v e f o r about  a year; stepped i n and took command.  Leader I took a  back seat during the c r i t i c a l years which followed, when E successfully defended the congregation's  image,  obtained a new pastor and then solved the perennial . f i n a n c i a l problems.  Having solved a l l the problems E  stepped aside and, i n March, 1969, Leader I resumed the leadership of the congregation, at least i n the formal sense by accepting, on E's nomination, the highest l a y o f f i o e , that of vice-president of the Board of Trustees.  -  172 -  Leader P P was born i n Iceland i n 1924 and emigrated to Canada i n 1958*  The immediate cause of h i s decision  to leave Iceland was the bankruptcy of the construction f i r m he had established.  He continued to work l n t h i s  l i n e a f t e r he came to Vancouver and eventually established a small and t h r i v i n g business, F was the f i r s t of the new Immigrants to achieve the p o s i t i o n of a top leader and the f i r s t to lose It, his  He joined Strondin l n 1958, shortly a f t e r  a r r i v a l , and was among those who asked f o r l e s s  poetry and more dancing.  He was unable to do anything  on his own to achieve t h i s objective u n t i l a f t e r he , became a l l i e d with D.  A f t e r the successful conclu-  sion of h i s f i g h t to wrest control of the Home Society away from the congregation,  D supported the e f f o r t s of  P and others to seize control of Strondin,  This was  done at the association's annual meeting i n January, 1961,  F , on D's nomination, was elected i t s new  president,  ?  The f i r s t of the many problems F encountered began immediately.  The deposed leader, SE, refused to  surrender the association's records and the l i b r a r y . A f t e r t r y i n g and f a l l i n g to reason with SE p r i v a t e l y F sought l e g a l assistance.  Private e f f o r t s by the  - 173 lawyer proved equally unsuccessful and a law s u i t was initiated. the  Only then d i d SE surrender the records and  library.  F's conduct i n t h i s unfortunate incident  was observed by many, some approved but others, among them J , d i d not. Another of his early problems was caused by the  resignations of the other two new immigrants  elected i n January, 1961.  Both were elected without  t h e i r p r i o r knowledge and consent and both refused to serve i n the positions to which they were elected.  A  mini-election had to be arranged, at which J , a new immigrant, and C, one of the association's founding o f f i c e r s , were elected. In the spring of I96I P was advised that the President of Iceland would be v i s i t i n g Vancouver and that Strondin was to be i n charge of the preparations for his v i s i t .  The Executive Committee of Strondin  decided that P should chair a reception committee, to which the other associations would be Invited t o send a single representative. the  Among those who accepted  o f f e r were H, then the president of the Icelandic  Male Choir, and E, who a r r i v e d at the f i r s t meeting of t h i s committee accompanied by seven of the Trustees of the church.  F, on his own authority,  turned the chairmanship of the committee over to E. F was aware of the incidents which occurred before  - 17*  -  and during the President »s v i s i t but he d i d not plaoe any p a r t i c u l a r blame f o r these events on E, nor did he support those of h i s colleagues who did. The years of P's presidency were marked by a series of public successes which b u i l t h i s prestige as w e l l as that of the association.  He appears to  have paid considerable attention to h i s relations with the members and with some of the community's other leaders, especially E and D.  But he d i d not  give as much attention to his relations with the other o f f i c e r s of Strondin, p a r t i e u l a r l l y J and H, who became Strondin's treasurer, on J's suggestion, i n 1963.  As time passed they became quite disturbed  over mistakes he made or was alleged to have made i n connection with s p e c i f i c events and the effect these mistakes had on the association.  They were also  becoming convinced that P was more interested i n building h i s own career as a leader then i n putting the association on a stable basis.  P apparently  never r e a l i z e d the extent of t h e i r feelings, even though there had been arguments ©ver various matters, such as the manner i n which H and J had deliberately excluded E from the arrangements made i n connection with the v i s i t s of the Ambassador and the Prime Minister i n 196*.  Possibly he f e l t secure because  his good f r i e n d J was,  as he had been f o r several  - 175 years, the chairman of the nominating committee. A few days before the annual meeting i n January, 19^5,  J informed him that the s l a t e of nomi-  nees to be presented to the members f o r t h e i r approva l was  ready.  other o f f i c e r s .  This s l a t e excluded F, D, C, and I t was  expected that the new  two  slate  would be unopposed but F could expect to be nominated as the delegate to represent the association at the annual convention of the Icelandic National League, which would be held i n February i n Winnipeg. F accepted t h i s turn of events; there  was  l i t t l e else he could do given the fact that the meeting was  only a few days away and the additional  f a c t that his opponents were well prepared.  But  he  was not quite ready to abandon his p o s i t i o n as a leader* and t h i s became evident when he accepted two new positions offered to him, by groups outside the community, on the grounds that somebody had to accept those positions and no one. else appeared to want them. was  One reason why no one else wanted them  the fact that no one else knew of t h e i r e x i s t -  ence u n t i l F announced that he had them.' The f i r s t of these positions was  that of a  member-at-large and Special Plenipoteniary of the League's Executive Committee, which earrled with i t d i r e c t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r and control over the League's  - 176 a c t i v i t i e s i n Vancouver and Seattle,  The other posi-  t i o n was that of the Icelandic member of the Ethnic Organizations Sub-Committee of the P r o v i n c i a l Centennial Commission, i n which capacity he was to supervise the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of the Icelandic community i n the coming centennial celebrations. The new leaders of Strondin, E and J , were not pleased to see him reappear a f t e r they had gone to considerable lengths to remove him from the scene.  But f o r the moment they  were obliged to work with him. They accepted h i s request to set up a committee to work on the community's centennial projects but selected the committee's members on t h e i r own.  They also co-operated with him i n preparing a  reception f o r an Icelandic actor, who was to tour several Canadian and American c i t i e s under the auspices of the League i n the spring of 1966.  But they  accepted t h i s s i t u a t i o n with reluctance and acted only because they believed they had no other choice. They could not refuse to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the coming a c t i v i t i e s , nor could they refuse to receive a v i s i t o r from Iceland. As time passed E and J became increasingly b i t t e r over the manner i n which F was continuing to i n t e r f e r e i n t h e i r a f f a i r s and i n the a f f a i r s of the association they controlled. They decided to act  - 177 -  against him i n a more f o r c e f u l manner; p a r t l y to protect t h e i r own positions and to give emphasis to the fact that they and not he commanded i t s a f f a i r s * Having decided, they waited f o r an opportune moment. T h e i r opportunity came during t h e i r preparations f o r the association's annual meeting i n January, I967.  This meeting was to approve a plan  f o r reorganizing the association along the l i n e s of the Icelandic Club of Greater S e a t t l e .  The actual  preparation of t h i s plan had been completed during the summer of I966.  The two key Issues, or the two  p o t e n t i a l key issues, were the changing of the name from an Icelandic name to an English name and the termination of the association's t i e s with the League.  The leaders assessed the reaction which  these and other changes might produce among the members and concluded that there would be no opposition unless someone d e l i b e r a t e l y organized an e f f o r t to block the introduction of t h i s plan. P was Judged to be the only person who might want to do so and; furthermore, i f he d i d so he could be expected to base his objections on p a t r i o t i c grounds. That i s to say, he could be expected to i n s i s t that an Icelandic association, because i t was an Icelandic association, should have an Icelandic name and should be a f f i l i a t e d with the Icelandic National League.  - 1?8 Such an objection, based on the grounds of ethnic patriotism, might arouse the members to the point were they would defeat any attempt to reorganize the association.  Evidence was available, however, which,  i f revealed, would tend to d i s c r e d i t F i f he made such an attempt to block t h e i r plans. The leaders had i n t h e i r f i l e s a copy of a l e t t e r written and signed by F i n 1961, l t h as the president of Strondin.  i n his capac-  This l e t t e r was  addressed to a l o c a l catering f i r m and i n i t F had translated the association's name from Strondin to the Icelandic Canadian Society.  Obviously, any  attempt on h i s part to object t o the planned change, from Strondin to the Icelandic Club of B r i t i s h Columbia, on the grounds of ethnic patriotism would be undermined by the revelation of his own aetion on t h i s matter i n an e a r l i e r time.  Simllarily,  I f he were to object to the termination of the t i e s with the League he would have to explain why he, as the League's o f f i c i a l representative, had f a i l e d to inform the League's o f f i c e r s of the terms under which the association might r e t a i n i t s present as an a f f i l i a t e  status  chapter.  The leaders decided to use t h i s information against him, f o r the purpose of d i s c r e d i t i n g him, before the annual meeting,  A s p e c i a l general meeting  was  179  -  c a l l e d , f o r November, I966, o s t e n s i b l y t o g i v e  t h e members a chance t o d i s c u s s some proposed amendments t o t h e present The  c o n s t i t u t i o n of the a s s o c i a t i o n .  l e a d e r s were not very I n t e r e s t e d i n the  opinions  t h a t the members might have but they d i d want an audience f o r t h e i r a c t i o n s a g a i n s t F. ance was  His  attend-  guaranteed r a t h e r simply by g i v i n g him  enough i n f o r m a t i o n , and m i s i n f o r m a t i o n ,  Just  about t h e i r  p r o p o s a l s t o arouse h i s i n t e r e s t . The meeting i t s e l f prepared  f o l l o w e d the  script  by the l e a d e r s t o such an extent t h a t I t  appeared t h a t F had had a p a r t i n w r i t i n g i t . p r o p o s a l s brought forward  by the l e a d e r s  The  covered  e i g h t t y p e w r i t t e n pages but the d i s c u s s i o n centered on t h e f i r s t a r t i c l e of the proposed new  constitu-  t i o n , which d e a l t w i t h t h e name, and the l a s t  arti-  cle  with  of the by-laws, which d e a l t w i t h the t i e s  the League. H i n i t i a t e d the d i s c u s s i o n over the name by n o t i n g t h a t an E n g l i s h name was  required both f o r  t h e b e n e f i t of the younger n a t i v e - b o r n members did  not know what S t r o n d i n meant, as a word,  who  and  a l s o f o r the b e n e f i t of the f i r m s t h e a s s o c i a t i o n had t o d e a l with, such as c a t e r i n g f i r m s .  F re-  sponded t o the l a t t e r s u g g e s t i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t the a s s o c i a t i o n was  f o r the b e n e f i t of I c e l a n d e r s ,  - 180 not f o r the benefit of non-Icelandic firms.  H then  p u l l e d out the l e t t e r P had written, described i t s contents and asked F to explain why he had thought i t necessary to change the association's name f o r the benefit of a non-Icelandic firm.  From t h i s  point the meeting became rather heated and the l a n guage which was used, p a r t i c u l a r l y by F a f t e r he began to r e a l i z e what was happening, was not the kind of language normally heard i n public meetings i n t h i s community. The events which occurred at t h i s meeting could not, i n themselves and by themselves, achieve the desired goal of destroying F's p o s i t i o n as a leader, whatever the damage done to his reputation. That depended, to an extent, upon the assessment made by F of the damage done to him by these events. His assessment may be indicated by the f a c t that a f t e r t h i s meeting he v i r t u a l l y ceased to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the community's public a c t i v i t i e s and,' more import a n t l y , he made no further attempts to act i n either of h i s two positions.  The leaders of Strondin, t h e i r  control p u b l i c l y demonstrated, then proceeded with t h e i r plans. Leader D D was born In Manitoba, i n I9I3, and i s of  - 181 the second n a t i v e - b o r n g e n e r a t i o n .  He d i d n o t f i n i s h  h i s grade s c h o o l education, being o b l i g e d t o go t o work a t an e a r l y age. He s e r v e d i n t h e armed f o r c e s d u r i n g t h e war and was s t a t i o n e d i n Vancouver. remained i n t h e c i t y a f t e r d e m o b i l i z a t i o n .  He  He i s a  c a r p e n t e r by o c c u p a t i o n . D's c a r e e r as a l e a d e r , o r a t l e a s t as an o f f i c e r , began i n 19*6, when he entered t h e f i r s t e x e c u t i v e o f S t r o n d i n as I t s t r e a s u r e r .  He was nomi-  n a t e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n by h i s good f r i e n d C, who as the l a s t p r e s i d e n t o f I s a f o l d a u t o m a t i c a l l y r e c e i v e d the v i c e - p r e s i d e n c y o f t h e newly e s t a b l i s h e d S t r o n d i n . C became t h e p r e s i d e n t o f S t r o n d i n i n mid-19*6,  after  the o r i g i n a l occupant o f t h a t o f f i c e l e f t t h e c i t y . C r e t a i n e d h i s new o f f i c e u n t i l 19*9 and D r e t a i n e d t h e t r e a s u r e r ' s p o s i t i o n u n t i l t h e same year.  Both  were among t h e o f f i c e r s removed by t h e group l e d by SB. D became a member o f t h e Home S o c i e t y i n 19*7t by v i r t u e o f a $25.00 donation.  He worked on  some o f t h e Home S o c i e t y ' s subcommittees and a f t e r the home had been purchased, i n 19*8* he worked on the r e n o v a t i o n s needed, f r e e o f charge.  L a r g e l y as  a reward f o r t h e s e s e r v i c e s he was e l e c t e d a d i r e c t o r o f t h e Home S o c i e t y i n January, 19*9* t h e same month i n which he l o s t h i s o f f i c e i n S t r o n d i n .  -  182  -  The elected directors of the Home Society, other than the president, are elected to serve threeyear terms.*  In the l a s t year of his f i r s t term, 1951;  D was elected, by the members of the Board of Directors, to f i l l the vice-presidency,  which was l e f t vacant when  the incumbent moved out of the c i t y .  In January; 1952,  D was re-elected as a d i r e c t o r and; subsequently, as the vice-president.  The new president elected at t h i s  annual meeting, LS; f e l l i l l shortly afterward and remained i l l throughout his one-year term.  Effective  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r his duties devolved on D. D was almost immediately presented with a very d i f f i c u l t problem.  The matron of the home had  exceeded her authority and hired an accountant to look a f t e r the Home Society's House Account; which shey as the matron, controlled.  The Board ordered  the matron to dismiss the accountant and also conducted a routine audit of the House Account.  The matron  refused to dismiss the accountant she had hired but since the audit had revealed no errors the Board did not press the matter.  But shortly a f t e r t h i s occurred  one of the directors learned that the matron had cashed some large cheques, made out to and by herself, i n a l o c a l department store.  As these cheques were drawn  on the House Account the Board ordered a s p e c i a l audit. This audit, which was not completed, revealed losses amounting to several hundred d o l l a r s .  The matron was  -  I83 -  f i r e d immediately and was replaced by Mrs K, who r e signed from the Board to accept the p o s i t i o n . The Board was faced with the problem of what f u r t h e r action should be taken against the matron. They wanted to recover the money which had been l o s t but they d i d not want to take any public action;' p a r t l y because the Home Society's public reputation might suff e r as a r e s u l t of such action.  But they were also  reluctant to act p u b l i c l y because the matron had many f r i e n d s and p o t e n t i a l supporters, among them her cousin E.  s  D suggested that t h i s a f f a i r should be s e t t l e d d i -  r e c t l y , and i n private; by himself and E. The Board agreed and D informed E of the evidence against the matron.  E examined t h i s evidence on his own and then  repaid the known losses from his own funds. The e n t i r e a f f a i r was e f f e c t i v e l y hushed up and D was quite s a t i s f i e d that he had handled t h i s very delicate matter i n the best way possible;  His opinion changed  abruptly when he was made the scapegoat f o r the entire affair. E joined the Board i n the following year; I953f as the representative of Strondin. He also engineered the election of a f r i e n d as the Home Society's president and placed a member of the congregation i n one of the vacant directorships.  The following year,  195** he was able to arrange the election of two more  - 184 -  members of the congregation to the Home Society's Board.  And, l n January, 1955, D» his seeond term  having expired, was denied an o f f i c i a l nomination f o r re-election. D was understandably b i t t e r at t h i s turn of events.  He f e l t that E had mistreated him and abused  him without cause, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n view of the fact that he had, by his actions, saved E's family from the embarrassment which a public action against the matron would have caused.  He was determined to avenge himself  f o r that mistreatment.  He attempted to regain his seat  on the Home Society's Board on his own but f a i l e d to achieve t h i s i n either 1955 o r 1956. ceeded i n 1957.  He f i n a l l y suc-  He had no sooner regained his seat  before he revived the o l d plans f o r building a new, and bigger, home. D made a b i d f o r the presidency of the Home Society i n 1958 but was d e c i s i v e l y beaten by the incumbent, CE, a former trustee of the congregation. He continued to promote the plans f o r the immediate construction of a new home and the i n i t i a t i o n of a d r i v e f o r funds. but  The l a t t e r proposal could not help  antagonize the leaders of the congregation, who  were t r y i n g to r a i s e enough money from the community to meet the f i n a n c i a l obligations which had been i n curred i n connection with the construction of the  - 185 church.  Any other project requiring large amounts  of money would only make t h e i r task more d i f f i c u l t . The leaders of the congregation then negotiated an agreement with the directors of the Home Society under which the l a t t e r agreed to take no action on any plans f o r expansion u n t i l a f t e r the congregation*s f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were resolved. The Board of the Home Society; dominated by the seven members who were members of the congregation, accepted t h i s agreement over D*s objections.  Other events, however; played into h i s  hands. At t h i s time the new immigrant group i n Vancouver was a large one and growing rapidly.  Many  of these immigrants had o r i g i n a l l y l e f t Iceland because they were not able t o adjust to l i f e there.  Not sur-  p r i s i n g l y , many of them f a i l e d to adjust to l i f e i n Vancouver,  Their f a i l u r e s , which were often rather  public i n character, not unnaturally; offended the older immigrant and older native-born members of the congregation and Strondin,  They saw the good reputa-  t i o n established by the Icelanders i n Canada endangered by the antics of these newly a r r i v e d  immigrants.  And, being offended by them, they tended to l e t the new immigrants know the nature and the extent of t h e i r feelings i n a variety of ways.  The new immigrants,  not unnaturally, were, i n turn, offended at the t r e a t -  - 186 ment they were receiving.  D noted what was happening  and took advantage of t h e i r anger. Since I t was establised the directors of the Home Society have operated on the assumption that a l l Icelandic Canadians were, and are, supporters of the Home Society. Anyone who attended the annual general meeting o r any s p e c i a l general meeting was considered a member and e n t i t l e d to vote on a l l and any matters placed before such a meeting, whether o r not such persons had ever paid membership dues o r donated anything to the Home Society. D now took advantage of t h i s as w e l l .  He, i n effect, t o l d the  new immigrants that they could return the s l i g h t s they had received, and were receiving, from the members of the congregation and Strondin by voting them out of t h e i r o f f i c e s i n the Home Society. The new immigrants l i s t e n e d and acted. The annual general meetings of the Home Society had r a r e l y attracted more than t h i r t y members of the older immigrant  and older native-born groups.  Now these meetings began to be attended by scores of new immigrants, few of whom had ever or would ever contribute a dime to the Home Society. Seven directors associated with the congregation f e l l one a f t e r another.  They and t h e i r supporters were simply  over-powered by numbers and out-voted.  And as they  - 18? fell  so d i d t h e agreement w i t h  congregation plans  concerning  t i o n went t o P, t h e new  t h e t i m i n g o f t h e Home S o c i e t y ' s  one  a t t a i n the presidency of the f i r s t  immigrant b l o c .  presidency  and  But  the planning  and  t h e home was  was  o p e n e d D was  not  o n l y as  e f f e c t , as He  to  1968,  when he  finally  home,  an  the purchase of l a n d  i960.  opened i n  from  C o n s t r u c t i o n began i n  I963.  I t s most f r e q u e n t  A f t e r t h e home  visitor,  serving  t h e Home S o c i e t y ' s v i c e - p r e s i d e n t b u t , t h e home's c h i e f j a n i t o r a n d  was,  and  still  supervising v i r t u a l l y and  by  D played a major r o l e i n  o p e r a t i o n which began w i t h  and  directors elected  c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e new  the C i t y of Vancouver In  - that p o s i -  D d i d r e t a i n the v i c e -  held i t u n t i l  i n h e r i t e d the presidency.  well.  the  f o r expansion. D d i d not  1962  the leaders of  handyman  I s , an almost d a i l y  every  d e t a i l of I t s  s o l v i n g many p r o b l e m s a s  soon as t h e y  in  as  visitor,  operations are  reported  him. D r e p a i d t h e new  organize  i m m i g r a n t s by  a c o u p w h i c h swept S E  of t h e i r o f f i c e s executive,  i n Strondin.  u n d e r P,  i960  He  his colleagues served  f r o m I96I u n t i l  removed f r o m o f f i c e by In  and  D had  yet another  helping  I965.  on  them out  Strondin's  when he  was  coup.  become i n v o l v e d w i t h  the  posed c o n s t r u c t i o n of a chronic care h o s p i t a l ,  to  probe  - 188 -  b u i l t and operated by the f i v e Scandinavian Rest Home Societies.  There was l i t t l e interest i n t h i s project  among the Icelanders, p a r t l y because the planning and construction of the home was just beginning.  Five  years l a t e r , i n 1965* D revived t h i s project and put a considerable e f f o r t into promoting i t among the various Scandinavian  associations.  As a part of t h i s  e f f o r t he approached the members and o f f i c e r s of the Home Society.  The project was discussed, rather i n -  d i f f e r e n t l y and not too favourably, at the Home Society*s annual meeting i n January, I966.  When the  motion involved was put to a vote ten out of the some f i f t y persons i n attendance raised t h e i r hands to pass i t by a vote of seven to three.  Under t h i s  motion a s p e c i a l general meeting was to be held i n March to consider a f i n a l decision on t h i s project. This meeting was never held.  But, at t h e i r February  meeting, the members of the Board, most of whom were against any such project, voted unanimously to support it fully.  This decision, however, became rather  academic when the project f a i l e d , due, i n part, to a lack of i n t e r e s t on the part of the other  Scandinavian  associations. The Icelandic home was freed of a l l debts i n the spring of I967 and D Immediately proposed an expansion, costing some $50,000.  The proposed additions  -  189 -  Included eight more rooms and an expansion of the home's auditorium,  A detailed outline of the expan-  sion was given i n a story which appeared i n the Icelandic language weekly, Logberg-Heimskrlngla,  which  i s published i n Winnipeg, two months before these plans were presented to the members attending the Home Society's annual meeting i n January, 1968, Those members gave t h e i r formal approval a f t e r about f i v e minutes of i n d i f f e r e n t discussion. Leader Mrs R Mrs R was born i n North Dakota; i n 1885, and i s of the f i r s t native-born generation.  She moved with  her parents, while s t i l l quite young, to Winnipeg.  Her  parents l a t e r moved to Vancouver i n 190* but Mrs R remained i n Winnipeg u n t i l she graduated from the University of Manitoba, as a teacher, i n I906.  She  then followed her family to Vancouver. Mrs R was a c t i v e i n a number of Icelandic associations during her f i r s t ten years i n the c i t y . In 1917 she was one of the founders of the Ladies A i d Solskin and served on i t s f i r s t executive as the secretary.  The following year she became the Aid's  f i r s t treasurer and held t h i s p o s i t i o n u n t i l 1922. During t h i s time she successfully opposed a plan under which the A i d was to be incorporated.  Mrs R held no  - 190 o f f i c e l n 1923 hnt served as the Aid's vice-president i n 1924- and 1925*  Absent again i n 1926. she resumed  the treasurer's p o s i t i o n i n 1927V replacing her s i s t e r , who became the vice-treasurer.  Mrs R held the treas-  urer's p o s i t i o n continuously u n t i l 1959.  By the time  that she r e t i r e d from t h i s o f f i c e she had held i t f o r so long that no one could remember a time when she had not been the treasurer.  I t was generally believed;  and she encouraged that b e l i e f , that she had held t h i s o f f i c e continuously since 1917* Mrs B was deeply involved i n the negotiations which preceded the establishment  of the Icelandic Old  Polks Home Society and served on i t s f i r s t as the representative from the A i d .  executive  She was i n s t r u -  mental i n having the A i d promise an i n i t i a l donation of $1,000 to the Building Fund.  A f t e r the Home Society  was established the A i d began to divert most of i t s net earnings to I t and continues to do so to t h i s day. These donations have been accepted but not because they have been needed.  The home has always been  operated on the basis that the inmates would pay f o r the costs of housing and feeding themselves, i f not i n d i v i d u a l l y than c o l l e c t i v e l y ; Mrs R was elected to a three-year term as a d i r e c t o r of the Home Society i n January; 1951 • She was subsequently elected by the members of the Board  -  191  -  to f i l l the vacant treasurer's position.  She i s  presently (I969) serving her nineteenth year In t h i s o f f i c e , having been re-elected as a director s i x times without opposition and i n the usual manner; that i s to say, with applause.  She was not too deeply  involved i n D's e f f o r t s to remove the church contingent from the Board i n the l a t e 1950*s. But she d i d take an a c t i v e part i n the planning which preceded the construction of the new home. P a r t l y to reward her f o r her services the Board appointed ywo of her sons to serve as the consulting engineers to this project. She d i d not, of course, abandon her interest i n the A i d a f t e r she r e t i r e d from the treasurer's p o s i t i o n i n 1959,  She gave t h i s p o s i t i o n to her f r i e n d ;  Mrs K; whose own record as an o f f i c e r , of both the A i d and the Home Society, extended back into the 19*0's, Mrs K held the position u n t i l I 9 6 3 , when she decided to r e t i r e .  In her opinion she was getting on i n years  (she was then 75 compared to Mrs B's age of 78) and f e l t that the time had come to l e t someone younger take over.  This younger person, at Mrs H's suggestion,  was Mrs D.  The l a t t e r has indicated that while she  had the o f f i c e and t i t l e of treasurer the work involved was performed by Mrs R or i n accordance with her Instructions.  And when Mrs D became the Aid's secretary  - 192 -  she was replaced, at Mrs B's suggestion, by Mrs H2. The A i d holds an annual spring bazaar, whioh usually a t t r a c t s between 125 and 150 people.  Such a  crowd i s too b i g to be comfortably handled i n the home's auditorium.  When D f i r s t thought of the need  to increase the number of rooms i n the home he discussed his proposal with a number of interested persons, among them Mrs R.  He suggested that the auditorium could be  expanded at the same time, a t a cost of about to accomodate t h i s crowd more comfortably.  $12,000,  Mrs R, who  had not been i n favour of any action which increased an o l d debt or created a new one, gave the entire project her whole-hearted approval;  Four of the f i v e nominated top leaders actua l l y held the p o s i t i o n which the members believed them to have.  They were not leaders of the community, but  they d i d lead s p e c i f i c associations within i n ; and they had done so f o r so long that they were intimately connected with those associations i n the minds of the members.  E was not just the leader of the ohurch he  was the church and the same could be said f o r I, D and Mrs R.  Each of these nominees has continued t o  act i n the capacities they held l n 1965-66 and can be expected to continue to do so f o r the foreseeable future, provided that death or other disasters do not  - 193 s t r i k e them down. Only i n Strondin  ( l a t e r the Icelandic Canadian  Club) did matters take a different turn and the extent of the difference, as well as i t s long-term v i a b i l i t y ^ i s perhaps d i f f i c u l t to judge.  The p r i n c i p l e of l i m i t e d  tenure (no more than three consecutive one-year terms i n the same o f f i c e ) was introduced  i n January, 1967,  and was made retroactive to January, 1965.  This, added  to what may be regarded as the normal turnover which could occur i n any group of eight people, had a s t r i k i n g effect.  The o f f i c e r s elected at the annual meeting i n  September, I968, were so new, not Just to o f f l c e r s h l p but to membership as well, that they, by and large, d i d not know the members; nor d i d the members know them. Only TI remained of the o f f i c e r s brought i n by the coup of I965 and he was being elected to his t h i r d (and f i n a l ) term as the treasurer, with no prospects of receiving another o f f i c e when his term  expired.  F i v e other o f f i c e r s , re-elected by acclamation, had been members of the association f o r an average of 2.2 years and o f f i c e r s f o r an average of l.~8 years.  The  two o f f i c e r s elected f o r the f i r s t time had never previously p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the association or the community.  By contrast, the then  directors of the Home Society had been i n o f f i c e f o r an average of 6.7 years and three had been i n o f f i c e  - 19* f o r ten or more years. congregation  And the then trustees of the  had been l n o f f i c e f o r an average of 12  years and three had been i n o f f i c e f o r sixteen or more years;  The Leaders and the Community, The United E f f o r t The foundations  of the present community were  l a i d during the 19*0*s, when the associations were being reorganized or, i n some cases, established f o r the f i r s t time.  The leading figures of the day; as well as those  whose roles were not quite as prominent, were involved i n a co-operative e f f o r t to place the community on a stable footing,  E was the chief organizer of the congre-  gation but he was also involved i n the establishment of the Home Society,  The f i r s t president of the Home  Society was the husband of the then president of the Ladles A i d Solskln; Mrs K.  His successor  (K died i n  mid-19*6) was a t the same time the president of the congregation*s Board of Trustees;  The Home Society's  f i r s t treasurer was the husband of the then v i c e president of the congregation's Women's A u x i l i a r y , The Home Society's f i r s t secretary (who held the p o s i t i o n from 19*6 u n t i l 1957; when she moved out of the c i t y ) was a t that time the vice-president of the A i d . There were numerous other t i e s of t h i s nature which;  - 195 when added to those created by individuals with o f f i c e s i n two or more associations, embraced the leadership of the community and made i t a single; r e l a t i v e l y w e l l integrated network. There was a considerable degree of co-operat i o n i n the establishment of p o l i c i e s and p r i o r i t i e s . The congregation was established before the Home Society but there was a general agreement which gave the building plans of the l a t t e r a p r i o r i t y over the s i m i l a r plans of the congregation.  Everyone worked  together to r a i s e the money needed to purchase and renovate the f i r s t home.  The o f f i c e r s of the congre-  gation, some of whom were also o f f i c e r s of the Home Society, and the pastor, who was the immediate past president of the Icelandic Lutheran Synod, used t h e i r influence with the Synod to obtain an interest f r e e loan with no strings attached.  The Synod wanted the  l o c a l home to be owned by the l o c a l congregation but the leaders of the l o c a l community wanted these two associations to be at least formally independent of each other.  This decision on t h e i r part was moti-  vated, to a certain extent, by the s t i l l - f r e s h memories of the scandalous conditions which had existed u n t i l quite recently i n the f i r s t such home, establ i s h e d by the Synod i n Gimll, Manitoba,  Brought into  being with the purest of motives, i t had been turned  - 196  -  into a sweatshop operated f o r a p r o f i t and f o r the benefit of the Synod. Following the establishment  of the home the  community s leaders tackled the f i r s t stage of the 1  congregation*s plans, the purchase of the land needed f o r the church.  Once the land was  selected i t was  nec-  essary to r a i s e the money needed to pay f o r i t and  this  objeotive had the highest p r i o r i t y and the f i r s t claim on any funds which might be a v a i l a b l e i n the community f o r an Icelandic project.  The plans f o r a new  home or  a major expansion of the e x i s t i n g one were shelved to ensure that there would be no competition f o r such funds.  The land was  d r i v e was  selected i n 19*9  and the fund  conducted over the next two or three years.  Subsequently, work began on the planning and l a t e r the construction of the church i t s e l f . During 19*9  there were two developments  which effected a further degree of integration i n the leadership of the community.  By t h i s time the asso-  c i a t i o n s were, i n a sense, s e t t l i n g down and l e s s work was  required of the o f f i c e r s .  The o f f i c e structures  tended to shrink i n s i z e as a number of sub-committees, especially those i n the Home Society and the congregation, completed t h e i r work and were abolished.  Fewer  o f f i c e r s were required to keep the associations i n e f f e c t i v e operation and the leadership corps tended to  - 197 shrink l n s i z e .  In addition there were some personnel  changes which e f f e c t i v e l y Increased the degree of i n t e gration within t h i s reduced network.  The new o f f i c e r s  of Strondin were a l l members of the congregation and were, o r would soon become, o f f i c e r s of other associations. Other t i e s between the associations at the o f f i c e l e v e l continued to be important.  The secretary  of the Home S o c i e t y s Board was now the president of 1  the Ladies A i d Solskln.  The Home Society*s new treas-  urer, the son of the congregation's founding pastor, was a former trustee of the congregation.  And, among  the o f f i c e r s of the Women's A u x i l i a r y , there was Mrs SJS.  Then the A u x i l i a r y ' s vice-president, she was  soon to become the matron of the home.  She was related  by marriage to the pastor and by blood to, among others, E, then the president of the congregation's Board of Trustees, and to OS, then a d i r e c t o r of the Home Society and a member of the congregation's Board of Deacons. Mrs SJS became the home's matron i n the f a l l of 1951.  Eight months l a t e r she was f i r e d .  A special  audit of the Home Society's House Account revealed losses amounting to several hundred d o l l a r s .  Part of  t h i s loss was covered by several cheques cashed by the matron i n a l o o a l department store and the balance i n a number of entries f o r payments f o r goods and services  - 198 rendered by l o c a l firms which could not be authenticated*  The known losses were repaid by E and the  entire a f f a i r was q u i e t l y forgotten. But while the a f f a i r i t s e l f was burled i t had a considerable and a long-term effect on the community.  At f i r s t i t brought about a greater degree of  integration i n the community's leadership corps but eventually i t became the o r i g i n a l cause of the decline of the community. E's reputation was threatened by t h i s a f f a i r , because of the family t i e s between himself and the matron.  He took steps t o ensure that i t remained a  secret by accepting D's o f f e r t o handle the matter quietly.  Then he made an attempt to e s t a b l i s h a degree  of personal control over the Home Society.  He joined  the Board of Directors as the representative of Strondin and over a period of three years arranged the e l e c t i o n of a number of the congregation's  members,  including some past and present o f f i c e r s , to the Board. This was not a very d i f f i c u l t task as the Home Society's annual meetings, at which elections were held, were usually poorly attended.  In the f i n a l act of t h i s  move to e s t a b l i s h h i s control D was denied a nomination f o r r e - e l e c t i o n t o a t h i r d term as a d i r e c t o r . The church contingent on the Home Society's Board of Directors f o r 1955 included the president and v i c e -  - 199 president (both former trustees of the congregation); a l l three elected d i r e c t o r s and the representatives of Strondin (E) and the congregation (SE, then the p r e s i dent of Strondin),  I n the following year E, pre-  occupied by the construction of the chureh and under pressure from his employer to reduce the extent of his p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the o f f i c i a l a c t i v i t i e s of the community, l e f t his seat, turning i t over to another trustee of the congregation,  D made a second un-  successful b i d f o r r e - e l e c t i o n i n 1956 and then t r i e d again, more successfully, i n 1957* The years 1957 and 1958 marked a high point i n the community's unity.  The integration of the  leadership corps was the highest ever, with members of the congregation occupying a l l of the executive o f f i c e s i n Strondin and most of those i n the Home Society. These individuals negotiated an agreement, l a r g e l y i n reaction to D's proposal that an immediate s t a r t should be made on constructing a new home and an associated fund drive, under which the d i r e c t o r s of the Home Society agreed t o defer t h e i r plans u n t i l a f t e r the church's f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s had been resolved f o r a l l time.  This agreement, as well as the congre-  gation's control over the Home Society and Strondin; f e l l to the new immigrant bloc organized and used by D.  - 200 The Decline of the Community The new Immigrant bloc, whose appearance on the scene was l a r g e l y fortuitous and generally shortl i v e d , became the instrument whereby the united and cooperative e f f o r t which had marked e a r l i e r a c t i v i t i e s of the community was ended.  This bloc was used by D to  end the congregation's control over the Home Society by the simple device of having them stack the Home Society's annual meetings and vote against the election or r e - e l e c t i o n of anyone associated with the congregation.  Subsequently t h i s bloc was used to bring an  end to SE's control over Strondin, thereby separating that association from the congregation as w e l l . The new immigrants d i d not take a part i n the Home Society's a f f a i r s , beyond the l i m i t e d r o l e they took l n breaking the congregation's control over it.  Only one of t h e i r number ever served on the  Home Society's Board of Directors, and he was an appointed representative who served only one oneyear term (i960).  They did, however, elect a new  s l a t e of o f f i c e r s drawn either from outside the community's existing membership or from among the members of the Ladles A i d Solskln and t h e i r husbands. There were considerable changes i n the membership of the Board i n the years a f t e r i960 but these changes were of r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e s i g n i f i c a n c e as they Involved  - 201 the appointed representatives or the d i r e c t o r s - a t large rather than the i n d i v i d u a l s who held the four executive positions (president, vice-president, secretary and treasurer).  P held the presidency from i960  u n t i l 1968, when 111 health forced him to r e t i r e . who  D,  had retained the vice-presidency during that time,  then v i r t u a l l y i n h e r i t e d the highest o f f i c e .  There was  no one else whose claim to l t was as great as h i s and, of course, no one else wanted I t .  Hrs B retained the  treasurer's o f f i c e throughout t h i s period.  I t took  these i n d i v i d u a l s some time t o f i n d a s u i t a b l e candidate to f i l l the secretary's o f f i c e .  The p r i n c i p a l  q u a l i t y being looked f o r i n such a candidate was an a b i l i t y to perform the duties of secretary i n the same manner that the Home Society's o r i g i n a l secretary (who  held the p o s i t i o n from 19*6 u n t i l 195?) had per-  formed them.  A f t e r t r y i n g several candidates who  proved themselves to be below t h i s standard the p o s i t i o n was given to D's aunt, who has held i t since 1963. In l a t e r years there were a number of changes which furthered the integration of the Home Society and the Ladies A i d Solskln a t the leadership l e v e l . The executives of these two associations elected f o r the year 1969 included four husband-wife teams." D was the president of the Home Society at the time that h i s wife was  the secretary of the A i d .  D was succeeded as v i c e -  « 202 -  president by T2; who had been brought Into the Board of Directors to f i l l a vacancy created by the resignation of  H2 i n mld=l966.  Mrs T2, a non-Icelander, served  as the Aid's president i n 1968 and then demoted hers e l f t o the vioe-presidency f o r 1969*  She was succeeded  by Mrs T3» another non-Icelander, whose husband, T3, a cousin of T2, was elected to f i l l a vacant seat on the Home Society's Board i n January; I969,  F i n a l l y ; H2  returned to a seat on the Home Society's Board i n January; 1969, a t a time when h i s wife was beginning her fourth term as the Aid's treasurer* And i n the previous year; H2»s niece had served on the Home Society's Board as the representative of the A i d and her husband had served as the representative of the congregation; r e placing 0 , who had been allowed to stand f o r election to  the director's seat vacated by D when he became the  president* Some of these individuals had t i e s with the other associations i n the community or with t h e i r officers* Tl,  T 2 , f o r example; was the younger brother of  one of the supporters and benefactors of the 1965  coup i n Strondin* of  H2; i n turn; was the older brother  H; one of the p r i n c i p a l a r c h i t e c t s of that coup.  T2 was also a member of the congregation's Board of Trustees; having been elected t o that Board i n 1966, the year i n which he joined the congregation*  Such  - 203 t i e s , however, d i d not become a means whereby the associations were brought into closer or more co-operative contacts with each other.  These t i e s involved o f f i c e r s  only at a time when the leaders of these various associations were barely on speaking terms i n public and rather c r i t i c a l and sometimes quite abusive of each other i n private* The co-operative e f f o r t s which had marked the e a r l i e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between the congregation and the Home Society ended i n I960*  The Home Society immedi-  a t e l y i n i t i a t e d i t s plans to b u i l d a bigger home. Land was purchased i n 1961, the sod turned i n I 9 6 I and construction began i n 1962*  At the same time the d i r e c -  tors of the Home Society i n i t i a t e d a massive drive f o r funds, which brought i n over $30,000 from l o c a l r e s i dents between i960 and 196*. A d d i t i o n a l sums were r a i s e d by the A i d and by Strondin.  At t h i s time the  congregation's f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s were increasing steadily*  The annual d e f i c i t s , which had been between  10$ and 15$, grew to as much as *0$ i n some of these years*  Meetings of the trustees often turned into two  hour debates over small issues; such as whether o r not the monthly telephone b i l l should be paid.  The congre-  gation's leaders were b i t t e r and protested, p r i v a t e l y , over the way i n which the Home Society was draining the community of a l l a v a i l a b l e funds.  Their protests  - 204 f e l l on unsympathetic ears.  As f a r as the leaders of  the Home Society were concerned i t was not only t h e i r problem but one which they had created by f a i l i n g t o operate the congregation i n a manner which induced increased donations from the community.  Similar p r i -  vate protests were made by the congregation's leaders i n 1966, when the leaders of Strondin were conducting a drive i n behalf of the association's Scholarship Fund,  These, too, were rejected on the same grounds. The recently planned expansion of the home  was dealth with e n t i r e l y by the Home Society's Board. There were consultations between D and other i n t e r ested persons, namely Mrs R, Mrs E, and the then p r e s i dent of the Aid, Mrs AJ, There were no o f f i c i a l or u n o f f i c i a l consultations with the leaders of the other associations and the suggestion that such t a l k s might be i n order was f l a t l y rejected.  The new immigrant bloc made i t s l a s t appearance a t Strondin's annual meeting i n January, 1961, were I t voted SE and h i s colleagues out of o f f i c e .  The  new executive was headed by a new immigrant, F, and included two other new immigrants, both of whom declined to serve,  A mini-election held i n March, I 9 6 I , elected  J , a new immigrant, and C, one of the founders of the association.  The years a f t e r I96I saw increased co-  - 205 operation between Strondin and the Home Society.  Two  men, C and D, held o f f i c e s i n both and they were i n strumental i n having Strondin change the l o c a t i o n of most of i t s meetings from the church to the home.  They  were also instrumental i n having the l i b r a r y given to the home and i n having Strondin r a i s e money f o r the Home Society's Building Fund. The changes which took place In the association's a c t i v i t i e s a f t e r 1961 were not so much the result of deliberate planning as they were a reaction to outside events, such as the v i s i t s by various Icelandic d i g n i t a r i e s and the sales campaigns of l o c a l a i r l i n e s looking f o r business f o r t h e i r charter f l i g h t s . The lack of a concentrated effort to d e l i v e r the new ideas promised i n I 9 6 I had a predictable effect on the association's membership.  I t grew i n response to such  outside events and then declined as these events declined. I t was evident by 1964 that such changes as had occurred were not achieving the objective desired by some, which was to place the association on a course which would assure i t s s u r v i v a l beyond the l i f e - t i m e s of the older immigrant and older native-born members. The new immigrants, though numerous i n the l a t e 1950's, could not be r e l i e d on to maintain i t , mainly because there were so few of them l e f t i n Vancouver.  Beginning i n I 9 6 I  there was a general exodus of the new immigrants from  - 206 the c i t y , some returning to Iceland and others, majority, moving to the United States. were only a few new  the  By 1964  there  immigrants l e f t i n the c i t y and  most of them were not taking an a c t i v e part i n the association*s a c t i v i t i e s . Not a l l of Strondin*s  o f f i c e r s were con-  cerned over t h i s state of a f f a i r s - most of them did not think that there was  anything wrong.  But H and J  were worried, though i t i s perhaps d i f f i c u l t to judge whether they became worried over the signs of decline before or a f t e r they decided that F had to go. decision, i n turn, may own  That  have been prompted by t h e i r  leadership ambitions, which could not be f u l f i l l e d  while he remained l n o f f i c e .  The successful imple-  mentation of t h e i r decision to remove F and his supporters was  guaranteed by t h e i r control of the nomi-  nating committee.  Subsequently, they were obliged to  take further action to impress upon F, and everyone else, that they controlled the association.  They  also, a f t e r a further assessment of t h e i r s i t u a t i o n , decided to t r y to emulate the Icelandic Club of Greater Seattle and attempt to a t t r a c t increased support from the younger native-born  group, whose  members were just beginning to take an Interest i n the association*s a c t i v i t i e s .  That decision  provided  a j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r the formal reorganization of the  - 20? association i n 1967* even though, i n the end, there was l i t t l e substance to that reorganization since the a c t i v i t i e s supported by the associations a f t e r 1967 were those introduced i n a piecemeal fashion between  1961  and 1965. T h e i r membership objectives were r e a l i z e d ,  however, to the extent that the majority of the o f f i c i a l members; i n early I969, were from the younger nativeborn and non-Icelandic  groups and a l l but one of the  association's o f f i c e r s were from these two groups. Furthermore; some 60$ of the 229 o f f i c i a l members l i v i n g i n and around Vancouver had f i r s t joined the association i n 1967 or l a t e r *  And only 19$ of these  new members were or had been members of other a s s o c i ations i n the community*  At the same time only 8$ of  the o f f i c i a l members l i v i n g i n and around Vancouver had membership records which began before 1961.  The  association's p a r t i c i p a t i n g membership (which Included many o f f i c i a l members) was drawn to an even greater extent from groups that had not previously p a r t i c i pated i n the a c t i v i t i e s of any of the associations i n the community. The one other element which prevented the formal reorganization of the association from being a complete f a r c e was the more or l e s s deliberate introduction of a new pattern of leadership.  This  - 208  -  came about In part because H and J were or became convinced that the tendency of the other associations i n the community, as well as that of Strondin  before  t h e i r time, to move as one or two persons wanted was not i n the best i n t e r e s t s of any such association. Permitting a greater number of persons to play a r e a l part i n operating the association would or should give i t greater s t a b i l i t y and ensure Its future.  But  t h e i r conclusions on t h i s question were i n part prompted by the f a c t that two separate purges of the association* s leadership l n f i v e years had  effectively  wiped out the supply of p o t e n t i a l future o f f i c e r s . many people who  might q u a l i f y f o r o f f i c e simply  Too  could  not be trusted to support them and the association i n the desired manner. to r e c r u i t new  Accordingly, they had to endeavour  o f f i c e r s from outside of the community  and they believed that i t would be necessary to o f f e r these new  o f f i c e r s at least a chance to advance to the  highest possible positions. The o f f i c e r s r e c r u i t e d by these leaders from the time of t h e i r coup were a l l r e c r u i t e d i n t h i s manner.  P a r t l y because of t h e i r laek of experience  and p a r t l y because of the f a c t that they were so  new  to membership that they knew v i r t u a l l y nothing about the association or the community, i t took some time f o r these new  r e c r u i t s to begin to play an e f f e c t i v e  - 209  -  r o l e In the management of the association. The leaders continued to decide a l l matters of p o l i c y and programming, though there were some efforts made to i n volve the other o f f i c e r s and the o f f i c i a l members i n t h e i r deliberations. The e f f e c t i v e control of the leaders was  ended, rather unexpectedly, on October 7»  I967i when t h e i r fellow directors reversed a decision made and already implemented by the leaders on a key issue of that day. During I967 the leaders decided to give f u r ther emphasis to the fact of the association's independence of the other associations i n the community by ceasing to use t h e i r f a c i l i t i e s , especially the auditorium of the home.  Having decided they waited f o r an  opportunity to implement t h i s decision i n a manner which would place the blame f o r t h i s break i n r e l a t i o n s on the Board of the Home Society.  Such an opportunity  presented i t s e l f , quite by accident, at the association's annual meeting i n September, 1967* which was held i n the home. Due to an oversight on the part of one o f f i c e r , the matron was not s p e c i f i c a l l y advised of the date and the time of the meeting and she reacted rather badly when the members of the association came i n to attend the meeting.  The leaders decided to use the manner of  her reaction (verbal abuse) as a pretext f o r ending t h e i r use of the home's f a c i l i t i e s .  A l e t t e r was  accordingly  - 210 written to the Board of the Home Society explaining that l n view of the matron's h o s t i l i t y they f e l t obliged to seek other quarters f o r those of the assoc i a t i o n ' s meetings which were held i n the home*  Their  decision and the action taken were communicated to t h e i r colleagues at a meeting of the Board of Directors (of the Icelandic Canadian Club), held on October 7 .  1967. The leaders had acted i n t h i s manner f o r some time*  Decisions were made and Implemented and only  then were the association's other directors informed of the steps taken i n t h e i r c o l l e c t i v e names*  Each  time the directors had given formal approval to those actions*  But t h i s time they objected and objected  vigorously*  In t h e i r view the relations between the  Club and the Home Society were too important to both to be broken f o r any reason*  They unanimously  rejected  the suggestion that a written complaint be lodged with the Board of the Home Society and they also rejected the suggestion that other quarters be found f o r those meetings which had previously been held i n the home* Their objections placed the leaders i n an embarrassing s i t u a t i o n since they had already acted upon both of t h e i r suggestions*  They were saved from increased  embarrassment by a very c o n c i l i a t o r y response from the Home Society's Board and by a mutual and generally  -  211 -  unspoken agreement by those involved to forget t h i s event. This incident may sound t r i v i a l but i t was, nevertheless, an important one. Never again would the leaders aet without f u l l and genuine consultations with t h e i r fellow directors on every issue, no matter how minor.  Never again would one or two people r u l e  the association as i t had been ruled i n the past, even i f the public appearance of the Board's a c t i v i t i e s tended to imply that that was s t i l l the case. The leaders continued to reign but from now on they ruled with and by the consent of t h e i r colleagues. This change i n the manner i n which the assoc i a t i o n was operated had at least one unexpected effect.  The decision-making process became a more  extended process, both i n the time i t took to reach a conclusion and i n the extent of discussion and invest i g a t i o n involved.  Eight people require more time  to decide on a c e r t a i n course of action than would be required by one or two persons.  As the decision-  making process became more extended and involved the number of actual decisions made began to decline. And as the number of decisions made declined the a c t i v i t i e s which resulted from the o v e r - a l l process declined as well.  This trend towards a more extended decision-  making process contributed to the need to reduce the  -  212  -  association's schedule of a c t i v i t i e s to manageable proportions*  Among the programmes eliminated i n the  course of t h i s step were most of the programmes which had involved public meetings using the f a c i l i t i e s of the home*  Conclusions A sub-community which i s defined i n terms of the people who  belong to I t , by v i r t u e of t h e i r actual  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , does not come into being on i t s own volition*  Generally, i t w i l l develop only In response  to the actions taken by s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s to bring i t into being*  Such actions tend to be l i m i t e d i n  nature and i n e f f e c t . who  That i s to say, the individuals  i n i t i a t e the a c t i o n do not, as i t were, say "Let  us set up a community" but, more s p e c i f i c a l l y , "Let us set up a community of t h i s kind? uals who  And the i n d i v i d -  i n i t i a t e the l i m i t e d actions which may  i n the creation of a sub-community may  result  become or l a t e r  acquire positions of leadership within that  sub-  community. With the exception of the Ladies A i d Solskln, the associations whose members constitute the population of the present Icelandic ethnic community i n Vancouver were established i n the 19*0*s. tions was  Each of these associa-  set up f o r a more or less c l e a r l y defined and  -  l i m i t e d purpose*  213 -  Individuals of Icelandic o r i g i n were  i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s of those assoc i a t i o n s ; within the l i m i t s set by t h e i r various n a l purposes.  origi-  F o r example, the decision to b u i l d o r  acquire a home f o r r e t i r e d individuals of Icelandic o r i g i n was taken before the Home Society was established to implement that decision.  Accordingly,  wide-spread  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i t s a f f a i r s was r e s t r i c t e d to donating the funds which might a i d i n the attainment of the objective involved.  Further p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the  members of the Home Society i n t h e i r capacities as members was severely r e s t r i c t e d by the general preemption of such other roles as were open by the members of the Ladies A i d Solskln. Since the associations were o r i g i n a l l y set up f o r l i m i t e d and defined purposes, they tended to a t t r a c t only those p o t e n t i a l members who supported those purposes.  The decision to r e - e s t a b l i s h the  Icelandic Lutheran congregation e f f e c t i v e l y defined those who would respond to i t s re-establishment by becoming members of i t . Only those l o c a l residents who were Icelandic by o r i g i n ; Lutheran by r e l i g i o n ; and church-goers by habit were l i k e l y to respond to the c a l l f o r members. The members who responded to the i n v i t a t i o n to Join one o r more of these associations at t h i s time  - 21* (l9*0*s) d i d not j o i n i n order to a i d i n defining the a c t i v i t i e s or objectives which the associations would perform or seek.  These had already been defined and  i t was the acceptance of the defined a c t i v i t i e s or objectives which, i n part, motivated the p o t e n t i a l members into becoming a c t i v e members.  They joined to  p a r t i c i p a t e i n on-going a c t i v i t i e s , not to p a r t i c i p a t e l n defining what those a c t i v i t i e s would be.  Someone  else had already done that. I t appears that when individuals decide to p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a c t i v i t i e s which r e s u l t from d e c i sions made by other individuals they tend to r e s t r i c t themselves to accepting the l i m i t s of those a c t i v i t i e s and do not t r y to change them.  Nor do they tend to  take an i n t e r e s t or an active part i n the necessary organizational operations whioh precede such a c t i v i t i e s since they are, almost by d e f i n i t i o n , only interested i n the a c t i v i t i e s themselves, whether these are r e l i gious services, food sales, poetry readings or dances. The r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r performing the operations which must precede such a c t i v i t i e s tends to be l e f t , almost by default, to those who want to perform them or to those who performed them i n the period of time when the associations were established.  The  l a t t e r , i n p a r t i c u l a r , have or appear to have an option to peform i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l roles as organizers  - 215 f o r as long as they want to do so, provided that neither the a c t i v i t i e s nor the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s or the Interests of the participants change. The attitudes of the I n i t i a l organlzaers hecomes very Important In such a case.  I f they, whatever  t h e i r reasons or reasoning, have a desire to lead or to play a leading r o l e , or i f they believe themselves to be p a r t i c u l a r l y endowed with the q u a l i t i e s of leaders, then they w i l l tend to r e t a i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l roles over a long period of time.  Mrs R i s very proud of her long  record of service (now past the half century mark) and equally proud of the f a c t that that record has made her, i n her opinion, "a very important person" i n t h i s l i t t l e community.  E matches her f e e l i n g s and gives p a r t i c u l a r  attention and emphasis to h i s long and personally  cher-  ished l i s t of f i r s t s : f i r s t d i r e c t o r of the choir (1937); f i r s t president of the congregation (19*4); f i r s t Icelandic diplomatic representative i n Vancouver (19*4); f i r s t to receive the Order of the Falcon (1957); f i r s t to head a committee receiving a President of Iceland on an o f f i c i a l v i s i t (1961).  His l i s t includes other  f i r s t s earned i n h i s a c t i v i t i e s i n the greater community. Since the members, by and large, p a r t i c i p a t e i n order to receive the benefits they might obtain from s p e c i f i c events they do not i n t e r f e r e with or i n the  - 216 -  a c t i v i t i e s of the leaders or other individuals who organize such events.  The i n t e r e s t s of the members  are quite l i m i t e d and they tend not to exceed those l i m i t s , as long as they continue to receive such benefits.  Accordingly, the leaders, i n effect, have a f r e e  hand within the l i m i t s which the nature of the association's a c t i v i t i e s places upon them.  The leadership  pattern which develops appears to be authoritarian i n nature, with the leaders acting without r e f e r r i n g t h e i r actions to t h e i r fellow o f f i c e r s or the members, except for  the most routine and formal expression of i n t e r e s t  or approval on t h e i r part.  But there i s l i t t l e sub-  stance to t h i s appearance, since i t i s generally understood and accepted, more or l e s s consciously, that there are l i m i t s within which the leaders must and do operate.  Exceeding those l i m i t s by, f o r example,  changing the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s w i l l have an immediate effect on the p a r t i c i p a t i n g members, who would no longer have a motive f o r continued  partici-  pation. This pattern of leadership i s also potent i a l l y unstable.  When the members are not interested  i n the necessary organizational operations, but only i n the public a c t i v i t i e s which r e s u l t from those operations, they tend to stay away from those meetings arranged, by custom or because of l e g a l requirements,  217  -  to approve or to act upon various decisions or actions which might require formal approval from the membership, including the e l e c t i o n or r e - e l e c t i o n of o f f i c e r s ,  Most  of these associations operate under charters or c o n s t i tutions which are registered with the p r o v i n c i a l government, under the provisions of the Societies Act,  That  Act, among other points, requires that a certain number or percentage of the o f f i c i a l members, I.e., those who have paid t h e i r membership dues, i s necessary f o r a quorum before the decisions made or approved by annual or s p e c i a l general meetings are l e g a l l y binding.  The  required number among these associations ranges from 15 members i n the Icelandic Canadian Club to Z$% of the members l n the Home Society,  The Home Society has  not  held a l e g a l annual meeting f o r several years, i f the l e t t e r of the law i s applied.  The most recent (I969)  annual meeting of the congregation had to be postponed because a quorum of the members (20$)  was not  present.  The quorum required f o r an annual or a s p e c i a l general meeting of the Icelandic Canadian Club i s 15,  a figure  that was adopted i n I967 l a r g e l y because i t was  equal  to the number of directors and t h e i r wives. Because these meetings are i n general  very  poorly attended I t Is always possible that a coup against the existing leadership can not only be organi z e d but successfully c a r r i e d out.  A l l that would be  - 218 -  necessary i s a group of perhaps twenty persons who have been instructed or who have agreed to vote as a bloc f o r or against c e r t a i n candidates. The motivation f o r such a step might come from the  general membership as a r e s u l t of a general d i s s a t -  i s f a c t i o n with the state of a f f i r s i n the association. But such an o r i g i n f o r a coup i s u n l i k e l y since the member's d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n i s more easily, and more usua l l y * corrected by withdrawing from the community or the  association, with or without an explanation. A coup or the purge of the existing leader-  ship of an association i s usually the r e s u l t of a d i s pute between the leaders, involving either personality clashes or disagreements over p o l i c y or both.  One of  the  parties to such a dispute may decide to eliminate  the  opposition by manipulating the election process at  an annual meeting.  In the case of the Home Society  there was a disagreement over policy, though t h i s d i s agreement concerned the timing of the expansion, not the  expansion plan i t s e l f .  But t h i s disagreement was  overshadowed by a b i t t e r personal clash between E and D.  The l a t t e r believed himself to have been unjustly  treated by the former and acted, to a great degree, out of a desire f o r personal revenge.  His plans were suc-  c e s s f u l l a r g e l y because of the fortuitous presence of a large number of new immigrants who, i n turn, f e l t  - 219 themselves to be c o l l e c t i v e l y mistreated by the older immigrant and older native-born members of the congregation and Strondin.  Their anger was used to eliminate  those directors of the Home Society, and l a t e r those o f f i c e r s of Strondin, who were a f f i l i a t e d or associated with the congregation.  The subsequent palace revolt i n  Strondin d i d derive i n part from a disagreement over p o l i c y but was derived at least equally from a persona l i t y clash between F, on the one side, and H and J , on the other side.  This coup succeeded because i t s authors  combined the element of surprise with the time-honoured technique of stacking the annual meeting.  But,  having  learned a lesson from the coups they had observed and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n , the new leaders took steps to ensure that subsequent meetings would be well attended by faithful  supporters. The changes i n the personnel of the Home  Society's leadership corps d i d not r e s u l t i n a pattern of leadership which diverted from the t r a d i t i o n a l mold of apparently authoritarian r u l e .  Eventually, however,  the leadership pattern i n Strondin ( l a t e r the Icelandic Canadian Club) became more diffused, i n the sense that a l l of the association's o f f i c e r s took a s i g n i f i c a n t part i n both the formulation of p o l i c i e s and In the continuous decision-making process which i s needed to implement those p o l i c i e s .  - 220 -  The leaders i n such a sub-community play a most c r u c i a l r o l e , since t h e i r actions are not only r e sponsible f o r the sub-community's creation but also f o r I t s continued existence. In the case of the subcommunity studied here, the actions of the leaders have catered to the desire on the part of some l o c a l r e s i dents of Icelandic o r i g i n to continue to p a r t i c i p a t e l n c e r t a i n a c t i v i t i e s which they can share with others of that o r i g i n .  The nature of the a c t i v i t i e s Is n o t a s  important to them as the fact that those a c t i v i t i e s are shared with such people.  Within the l i m i t s placed on  them by the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s they have begun, the leaders have a v i r t u a l l y f r e e hand to operate as they please and, i f they so choose, to b u i l d themselves, by force of personality and/or by the extent of t h e i r own e f f o r t s i n behalf of the associations or the community, i n t o individuals who are recognized as and may a c t u a l l y be the top leaders, whose word i s law within that r e s t r i c t e d sphere of s o c i a l space embraced by those shared a c t i v i t i e s . T h e i r word i s law or at least appears to be law.  But I t i s not law because the leaders are able to  oblige others to comply with t h e i r wishes.  A leader can  act and h i s actions are usually taken i n the expectation of a response from the members of the community or an association.  But the response comes only from those  - 221  -  i n d i v i d u a l members who agree with or accept the p a r t i c u l a r action i n question.  The leader's a c t i o n merely  provides them with an opportunity to do something they already want to do. Those who do not agree with or who do not accept h i s a c t i o n can and do ignore i t and there i s nothing that the leader can do to compel them to. change t h e i r reaction. Although they may not agree on anything else, the researchers who have examined the r o l e of the leader i n a community apparently dp agree that the leader must have power or the a b i l i t y to impose h i s w i l l , continuously pr intermittently, upon other people i n the community.  I f t h i s i s what a leader must have i n order to  q u a l i f y f o r the t i t l e of leader than thiscommunity has no leaders.  No one, no matter how great h i s reputation;  can impose h i s w i l l were i t i s not wanted. The.officers of the congregation, l e d by the community's most prominent member; E, spent more than ten years i n one.special fund d r i v e a f t e r another i n an attempt to place the congregation's finances on a sound footing.  And, although  they came close to t h e i r objective on occasion, they failed.  F a i l e d because the members of the community,  including the members of the congregation, simply were not Interested enough i n the church to make the desired response. Yet the community does have leaders.  Leaders  - 222 who do not impose t h e i r w i l l but who,  i n a sense, comply  with the w i l l of the l e d . The members of the community desire or want to share some of t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s with t h e i r fellow Canadians of Icelandic o r i g i n .  Shared  a c t i v i t i e s ; especially when or where the numbers involved are large or r e l a t i v e l y large, must be.organized l n advance, to a l e s s e r or greater degree.  Those i n d i v i d -  uals who perform those necessary p r e - a c t l v i t y operations can become leaders.  Leaders who may.spend many days;  spread over a longer or shorter period of time; organi z i n g a meeting f o r the members.  Leaders whomust.then  wait, with crossed fingers and a prayer on t h e i r lips,' hoping that they have complied w i t h t h e wishes or the w i l l of enough people to j u s t i f y the e f f o r t they have expended.  Hope springs eternal, as the o l d expression  goes, and nowhere does i t spring so often to such disappointments as among the leaders of t h i s community. They; as leaders, are the servants of f i c k l e masters.  - 223  -  CHAPTER VI THE STUDY OP LEADERSHIP AND POWER Introduction A great deal of energy has been expended i n recent years on investigating the phenomenon of leadership but the results which have been obtained or achieved do not appear to be s a t i s f a c t o r y , i n the sense that the conclusions reached i n various studies have not been generally accepted.  Some of the disagreements  which have arisen between the researchers involved i n t h i s e f f o r t appear to be beyond resolution.  There are  three i n t e r r e l a t e d areas of disagreement.The f i r s t i s i n the area of methodology: how are the leaders to be i d e n t i f i e d and t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s o b s e r v e d ? T h e second Involves the problem of defining and measuring the element which i s , or i s represented to be, the essence of leadership, namely, the power possessed by the leader.  The t h i r d , which i s an extension of the  second, involves the more general problem of how power i s d i s t r i b u t e d within a s p e c i f i e d community or s o c i a l system. I t i s not the intention of the writer to attempt to resolve these disputes.  The  sub-community,  such as the one examined here, d i f f e r s i n a s i g n i f i c a n t manner from the communities i n which t h i s phenomenon  - 224 has usually been studied.  This difference i s p a r t i c u -  l a r l y connected with the manner i n which power i s present i n the sub-community and the effect i t s exercise can have on the sub-community*s membership.  The r e l i a n c e on  voluntary I d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the sub-community, as a basis f o r a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n , i s such an important element and so c r u c i a l f o r the sub-community*s continued existence that power, though i t may be present, cannot be e f f e c t i v e l y used.  Since power cannot be. used, i t i s  d i f f i c u l t to generalize from t h i s sub-community or study into communities or studies which have examined those communities i n which power Is not only present but  can be used, possibly within certain l i m i t s , without  endangering the continued existence of such communities. Research Methods Insofar as methodology Is concerned, the researchers involved have tended to use one of the two major research techniques or methods developed f o r t h i s purpose.  The f i r s t of these, the reputational approach,  was used by Hunter (1°53» 1959)  and other writers.  It  involves the use of panels of judges, who are usually selected by the researcher i n accordance with c e r t a i n specific criteria.  These Judges are asked to name or  nominate the ten (or more) top leaders, key i n f l u e n t i a l s ; e f f e c t i v e workers, etc., of t h e i r community.  The other,  - 225 the decision-making approach, used by Dahl ( I 9 6 I ) , i n volves the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n , by the researchers pr by selected members of the community, of the key or important issues and the subsequent  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the  individuals who p a r t i c i p a t e i n the process whereby decisions are made i n connection with these issues. The r e l a t i v e merits of these two techniques have been the subject of an extended and apparently unfinished debate amongst the writers who have used them.  The reputational technique has been used and  sometimes defended by such writers as Agger and Ostrom (1956); Barth and Abu-Loban (1959); D*Antonio, (I96I,  et a l . ,  1962a, 1962b); Form, et a l . , (1959); Klapp, et  a l . , (i960); Larsen, et a l . , (1965); P e l l e g r l n , et a l . , (1956); Schulze (1957/58); Skinner (1958) and Thornetz (1963)*  The decision-making technique has been mainly  used and/or defended by Dahl (1958, I 9 6 I ) ; Polsby (1959a, 1959b. i960, 1963) and Wolfinger (i960, I962). Other writers have used both of these and other methods simultaneously, (Freeman, et a l . , I963), or have refined one of these main methods, as Bonjean (I963, 1964a, 1964b) refined the reputational method. Each of these methods has i t s f a u l t s or at least i t s p o t e n t i a l f a u l t s .  The individuals nominated  as the leaders are nominated, to a greater or l e s s e r extent, on the basis of t h e i r reputations f o r being  - 226 leaders, and those reputations may not r e f l e c t t h e i r actual positions.  But a s i m i l a r objection can be raised,  and has been r a i s e d (Bachrach and Baratz, I962), i n connection with the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of key issues.  There  i s no guarantee that the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of an issue as a key issue i s not made i n the same manner or on the same basis as the nomination of an i n d i v i d u a l as a leader.  A  b e l i e f i n the importance of an issue may be as misleading as a b e l i e f i n the reputation of a leader. I t i s to be assumed, or at least hoped, that the individuals who have used these methods are s u f f i c i e n t l y competent to judge t h e i r effectiveness i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r studies.  The experience gained i n t h i s study  i s by no means thought to be such that either of these techniques can or should be discarded.  A research  technique i s , a f t e r a l l , only a t o o l to be used by a researcher and the q u a l i t y of the data gathered and the subsequent analysis made of i t Is at least as much a t e s t of the researcher*s a b i l i t y as i t i s a test of the v a l i d i t y of that  technique.  The writer, having been a sometime p a r t i c i pating member of the sub-community studied here; had no d i f f i c u l t y In gaining access to the community.  Data  was gathered I n i t i a l l y through interviews with the community*s members and o f f i c e r s , followed by observat i o n at public meetings and then, increasingly, by  -  227  -  observation of and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the a c t i v i t i e s of the leaders.  Eventually, by the extent of that p a r t i c l - .  pation, the writer joined the ranks of the top leaders. In t h i s community, the view from the top, o r from the inside, i s quite d i f f e r e n t from the view from the bottom, or from the outside.  But such a method of  obtaining data, e s p e c i a l l y about the a c t i v i t i e s of the leaders, i s not always possible, nor i s i t always practical. The i n i t i a l data on the i d e n t i t i e s of the leaders of the community studied was gathered by obtaining nominations from the members of the associations.  The d i s t r i b u t i o n of the nominations at l e a s t  suggested that some leaders were not as well known, as individuals or as leaders, as some others.  The d i f f e r -  e n t i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of the nominations might also have been interpreted as showing the existence of a h i e r archy of leaders embracing the entire community. But; although h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s p a r t i c u l a r subcommunity had been quite l i m i t e d p r i o r to the i n i t i a t i o n of t h i s study; the writer was aware of the fact that the leadership of the community was not united. Detailed analysis l a t e r indicated that the d i v i s i o n s i n the community's leadership were rather recent, i n o r i g i n ; as was noted elsewhere.  The d i v i s i o n s derived  - 228  -  i n part from the l a r g e l y fortuitous presence of a Large and angry group of new immigrants at a c r u c i a l time. Had they not been there, or i n the mood they were i n , i t i s u n l i k e l y that D's e f f o r t s would have succeeded.  The  congregation*s leaders were too concerned over i t s f i n a n c i a l d i f f i c u l t i e s to permit any competition f o r the funds which might be a v a i l a b l e .  Under normal ( i . e . , pre-  1958) membership conditions they would have had the numerical strength to protect t h e i r control of the Home Society from any coup, no matter what I t s o r i g i n or who led i t . Once the nominations were compared with the a s s o c i a t i o n a l a f f i l i a t i o n s of the nominators, a more r e a l i s t i c picture of the community's leadership emerged. With the exception of the leadership of Strondin, the members were r e l a t i v e l y accurate l n the nominations they made. Pour of the f i v e nominated top leaders were s t i l l i n t h e i r o f f i c e s In early 1969.  But only three- (0," Mrs  D and U) of the nominated second-rank leaders were s t i l l i n o f f i c e ; along with eleven of the twenty three other o f f i c e r s of 1966. Insofar as the issue-oriented or decisionmaking approach i s concerned, i t should be noted that the  only issue which the members of the community were  aware of to any great extent during the course of t h i s study was the membership issue i n the congregation. This  - 229 started out as a routine administrative decision by the pastor to remove from the membership r o l l those i n d i v i d uals who d i d not q u a l i f y f o r membership i n accordance with the constitution's f i n a n c i a l c r i t e r i a .  I t should  be noted that most of the i n d i v i d u a l s involved were not interested i n maintaining t h e i r membership status and did hot object to the step taken by the pastor. .But t h i s decision was d e l i b e r a t e l y turned into a major issue by the leaders, f i r s t I and then E, who interpreted i t to the members as an attack designed to destroy the congregation's character or image as the Icelandic congregation. But there were many other issues - issues which interested and preoccupied the leaders and sometimes the o f f i c e r s but never the members.  Such issues  were usually dealt with e n t i r e l y within the small c i r c l e of i n d i v i d u a l s who occupied the o f f i c e s of the various associations.  The ordinary members frequently never  heard of these issues and when they d i d they displayed a t o t a l lack of i n t e r e s t i n the issues or the actions taken on them. The s p e c i a l general meeting of Strondini held i n November! 1966,  f o r purposes described elsewhere; was  attended by twenty persons.' Thirteen were then off l e e r s or had been o f f i c e r s i n recent years; and these o f f i c e r s ; past and present, argued around the two key issues.: the  - 230 -  change i n the name and the termination of the a f f i l i a t i o n with the Icelandic National League.  The seven members  who had never been o f f i c e r s watched and l i s t e n e d and contributed two remarks to the debate.  A f t e r one p a r t i c -  u l a r l y angry outburst from F one of them, a grandmotherly type, remarked: "Tut!  Tut!" A f t e r the meeting adjourned  f o r coffee another of the watchers; another grandmotherly type, remarked; with a laugh: " I t ' s good to see you boys fight!" When the decision to terminate the association's t i e s with the League was p u b l i c l y announced; some of the members learned f o r the f i r s t time that there had been such an a f f i l i a t i o n f o r twenty years. The o f f i c e r s ; however, have yet to make an announcement about another important issue which arose at the time that the t i e s with the League were ended.  The o f f i c e r s i n i t i a t e d  negotiations with other s i m i l a r associations; including the  Icelandic Canadian Clubs of Winnipeg and Toronto;  f o r the purpose of developing interest i n a new national organization.  1  These negotiations, conducted by mail and  i n personal contacts; have reached the stage were a general agreement exists on the structure of the new organization and the a c t i v i t i e s i t i s to support. But the members are not interested i n the a c t i v i t i e s engaged i n by the leaders and could not care less what they were p l o t t i n g and planning.  - 231 So Ions as the leaders spend some of t h e i r time organizing public meetings were the members can meet t h e i r friends and acquaintances, they w i l l be l e f t alone.  Given the very l i m i t e d interests of the members  i t i s not r e a l i s t i c to expect to f i n d them i n a continuous or even occasional turmoil over issues.  This does  not mean there are no issues which are important, but that they are generally only known and of i n t e r e s t to the leaders and o f f i c e r s . The Concept of Power Simon (1953* P* 501) suggests that power i s a word that "means what we want i t to mean?  That seems >  to be an apt description of a word or a concept which; despite i t s c r u c i a l importance to the analysis of leadership, i s more often assumed or taken f o r granted than i t i s defined.  Hunter (1953* PP* 2-3) does state that power  i s "a word that w i l l be used to describe the acts of men going about the business of moving other men to act i n r e l a t i o n to themselves or...to organic or inorganic things?  Drucker (1961) appears to t a l k of, but never  a c t u a l l y defines, the power of a government (and how i t i s no longer the supreme or e f f e c t i v e center of power i n society) and personal power or "personal freedom outside of organized power? (oj>. cit.-. p. 21).  Dahl  (1958); i n turn; appears to believe that power exists  - 232 only i n oases of c o n f l i c t , and i n such cases he who wins would presumably be more powerful.  Other writers; such  as M i l l e r (I96I) and others who use the reputational approach, often speak of power or powerful leaders but r a r e l y give a d e f i n i t i o n or* i n some cases; even an i l l u s t r a t i o n of i t s presence. Danzger (1961) quotes Weber s d e f i n i t i o n of 1  power as being "the p r o b a b i l i t y that one actor within a s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i l l be i n a p o s i t i o n to carry out his own w i l l despite resistance?- (p. 713).  Danzger  t i e s Weber's d e f i n i t i o n into his own and defines power as the p o t e n t i a l capacity, f o r action rather than the action i t s e l f .  The outcome of an action to achieve a  goal would depend on the resources a v a i l a b l e to the actor and on the d e s i r a b i l i t y of that p a r t i c u l a r goal. Danzger*s d i s t i n c t i o n between power as a p o t e n t i a l capacity and, as i t . were; power i n a c t i o n i s echoed by other writers, including E h r l i c h (I96I). But Bachrach and Baratz (I963) suggest that power Is r e l a t i o n a l instead of possessive or substantive.  In an  e a r l i e r paper (1962) they suggest that while some power actions are v i s i b l e to the observer others are not and the l a t t e r may well be the important power actions. This would appear to be a research problem which would decline i n importance and i n effect as the observer got closer to those who not only have but who wield power.  - 233 But the concept remains, as Bachrach and Baratz point out ( I 9 6 2 ) ,  elusive.  Their p a r t i c u l a r ap-  proach cannot bring l t Into clearer focus, l a r g e l y because of the assumption they make, f o r the sake of safety If nothing  else, that not a l l of the power actions are  v i s i b l e to an outside observer.  In that case the observ-  er can never be c e r t a i n that he has observed a l l there i s to observe or that he has observed the important power actions.  Yet there i s no way i n which he can be certain,  unless he has penetrated  r i g h t into the heart of the  power structure, to use another term which appears to defy d e f i n i t i o n , and p a r t i c i p a t e d i n the power actions which take place there. Danzger's approach seems equally d i f f i c u l t to use, since the p o t e n t i a l f o r power i s almost to measure or, more importantly, i t becomes a power action.  impossible  to t e s t ; u n t i l and unless  But then the outcome of such  a power action may not r e f l e c t the r e a l extent of the actor's p o t e n t i a l since the action may only involve a token show of force or resistance or a l i m i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n of h i s p o t e n t i a l . Generally, these approaches seem to treat power, however they define I t , as a unitary e n t i t y . There are other approaches to the problem of defining power; such as that of Goldhammer and S h i l s (1938); who define power as influence over others, based on law;  -  t r a d i t i o n or charisma. and manipulation,  23*  -  They also mention physical force  i n which one actor manipulates the  events a f f e c t i n g another actor, without the l e t t e r ' s knowledge.  And Peabody ( I 9 6 I ) makes a d i s t i n c t i o n be-  tween formal power, based on law or positions described as having c e r t a i n powers or authority, and f u n c t i o n a l power, based on t e c h n i c a l expertise or the a b i l i t y to get along with others. There are two s o c i a l relationships which occur i n t h i s community i n which power, i n one form or another, may  operate.  The f i r s t i s the leader-member  relationship and the other i s the leader-leader (or leader-officer) r e l a t i o n s h i p . I t was  suggested previously that power,  whether i t be the a b i l i t y to influence or to compel others to act.or respond i n a c e r t a i n way,  does not  appear i n the leader-member r e l a t i o n s h i p . The  leader  cannot influence or compel the member to take c e r t a i n actions or respond i n c e r t a i n ways unless the member i s already , of his own 1  such a manner.  v o l i t i o n , ready to act or respond i n  Attempting, by any means; to compel a  member to respond i n a c e r t a i n manner i s dangerous, since i t may  drive the member out of the community.  The problem of the leader-leader or the leadero f f i c e r relationship Is rather d i f f i c u l t to assess, i n part because so many of the s p e c i f i c relationships  - 235 involved appear to be i n the same form as the leadermember r e l a t i o n s h i p . Because the l i m i t s of the a c t i v i t i e s to be organized are generally known and the a c t i v i t i e s themselves tend to be routine and r e p e t i t i v e ; there are few opportunities f o r observing situations which might c a l l f o r the use of influence or compulsion. The purges which have occurred from time to time since 1959 a t best indicate, that some leaders; given the required conditions; can manipulate s p e c i f i c events f o r s p e c i f i c purposes. Power does not appear very c l e a r l y , i f Itappears at a l l , i n the leader-leader or the leadero f f i c e r r e l a t i o n s h i p . Frequently the o f f i c e r s  accept,  without question, the right of the leaders to tahe such actions as they see f i t , within the l i m i t s imposed by the nature of the a c t i v i t i e s of the association.  Years  of service have, i n a sense, given them a right - a right which i s accepted by members and o f f i c e r s a l i k e - to act i n t h i s manner. Leader E i s not the congregation's most prominent nor i t s . most i n f l u e n t i a l member just because he has been associated with i t since i t was conceived.  He has  also done more f o r the congregation than any other member. His part i n the recent congregational  dinner, held In  honour of the congregation's twenty-fifth anniversary; i l l u s t r a t e s the extent of his contribution.  He suggested  - 236  -  that the dinner be held; supervised tieket reservations; greeted guests at the door; escorted them to t h e i r seats; gave the opening address; introduced three speakers and seventeen charter members (including himself).  After  dinner he l e d the way from the church h a l l to the church proper, where he introduced the entertainers he had obtained to provide an evening of c l a s s i c a l music and gave an extra five-minute speech while the l a s t of the entertainers a r r i v e d and prepared to perform.  He then gave  a closing statement and remained behind to supervise the clean-up d e t a i l . He does so much, not just f o r t h i s event but f o r a l l of the congregation's a c t i v i t i e s , p a r t l y because he wants to, p a r t l y because he i s the f i r s t to volunteer to do something he has suggested and because  everyone  automatically gives him the f i r s t chance to acoept another job. his  Yet the power which E may have i n h i s relations with fellow leaders and o f f i c e r s i s l a r g e l y p o t e n t i a l ;  assuming he has any.  As f a r as i s known E has never been  d i r e c t l y challenged by another leader or o f f i c e r .  But he  has often been beaten i n decisions involving public meetings, which have been manipulated by his opponents, just as he has had to, on occasion, manipulate events against such opponents. D's case i s somewhat s i m i l a r to E's.  D is  always doing something f o r the home or the Home Society.  - 237 He i s an almost d a i l y v i s i t o r to the home and looks into everything or anything, though he cannot manage to solve a l l the problems which are put before him. He, l i k e E, has earned the right to have a dominant voice i n everything and i n effect Inherited the presidency of the Home Society.  Yet i t i s possible that i f he had been opposed  he would have been d e c i s i v e l y beaten.  D's personality,  i f that i s the right word to use, has a flaw which i s at the same time a weakness and a source of strength. In D's opinion i t i s impossible f o r anyone to have an honest difference of opinion with him.  A person who disagrees  with him does so not of h i s own v o l i t i o n but because he i s a t o o l being used by s i n i s t e r and e v i l forces, which are blackmailing such an Individual to act against D. D's reaction to such misguided opponents - and his reaction i s seen and heard frequently - i s vituperative abuse of those opponents i n private and i n public.  Pew, i f any,  individuals can stand up to such verbal abuse, as i t goes f a r beyond the boundaries of reasonable debate.  This  feature of h i s behaviour has contributed to the l o s s ; f o r the Home Society; of a number of able o f f i c e r s and p o t e n t i a l leaders.  The most recent such victim was D's  o l d f r i e n d C, who was so shaken by D's f i r s t performance as the president of the Home Society that he withdrew from the community. The leaders possess a very l i m i t e d form of  - 238 power i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s , very p o o r l y developed.  but  I t i s l i m i t e d and need not  i t is be  c o n s t a n t l y used, s i n c e the o f f i c e r s , no l e s s than t h e members, accept the l e a d e r * s  r i g h t to a c t w i t h i n the  limits  imposed upon him by the a c t i v i t i e s of the a s s o c i a t i o n . l o n g as t h e l e a d e r does not not be  exceed those l i m i t s he  So  will  challenged.  Power i n the Community The  study of l e a d e r s h i p has as one  of i t s  main o b j e c t i v e s the d e s c r i p t i o n of the manner i n which power i s d i s t r i b u t e d and used l n communities. g e n e r a l l y been the case t h a t those who of the two  have used e i t h e r  regarding  t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f power  i n the s p e c i f i c communities they have s t u d i e d .  being  has  main r e s e a r c h techniques have reached q u i t e  d i f f e r e n t conclusions  researchers  It  These  have tended t o accept t h e i r c o n c l u s i o n s  as  g e n e r a l l y v a l i d f o r a l l communities. The  d i s t r i b u t i o n of power i s u s u a l l y s a i d t o  be such t h a t those who  h o l d power a r e e i t h e r welded i n t o  a s i n g l e , i n t e g r a t e d power s t r u c t u r e o r e l i t e , o r they a r e d i v i d e d i n t o s e v e r a l d i s t i n c t and u s u a l l y opposing groups. Hunter d e s c r i b e d the l e a d e r s h i p of A t l a n t a i n terms of a s i n g l e e l i t e dominated by b u s i n e s s men,  and those who  have  used the r e p u t a t i o n a l t e c h n i q u e have g e n e r a l l y reached same c o n c l u s i o n s  f o r the communities they s t u d i e d .  But  the  - 239 Dahl and o t h e r s contend t h a t power i s d i s t r i b u t e d between d i f f e r e n t groups, as i n t h e case of New  Haven.  Each s i d e  has g e n e r a l i z e d from t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r s t u d i e s , i f f o r no b e t t e r reason, because i t i s customary t o g e n e r a l i z e on the b a s i s of a s i n g l e study o r s e v e r a l s t u d i e s . T h i s problem appears to d e r i v e i n p a r t from t h e g e n e r a l f a i l u r e t o d e f i n e power i n m u t u a l l y a c c e p t a b l e and a c c u r a t e t h e o r e t i c a l and o p e r a t i o n a l terms.  The  manner i n which a community becomes a community i s p r e sumably r e l e v a n t f o r d e s c r i b i n g t h e manner i n which power enters i n t o i t and how  i t i s o r can be used w i t h i n  it.  The community begins a t some p o i n t i n time and i n some s p e c i f i c and more o r l e s s o r g a n i z e d form.  Not a l l com-  m u n i t i e s b e g i n a t t h e same time nor do they possess t h e same o r i g i n a l form o r the same s p e c i f i c o r g e n e r a l purposes.  Some communities  may  remain i n t h e i r  original  form, as i n t h e case of an a g r i c u l t u r a l community which remains an a g r i c u l t u r a l community, w i t h o r without any changes i n technology, e t c .  Others may  d e v e l o p i n g o r a c q u i r i n g new  or different  A l l communities  change over time, purposes.  have l e a d e r s , i n d i v i d u a l s  who  t a k e a l e a d i n g r o l e , f o r one reason o r another, i n organi z i n g , s u p e r v i s i n g and a d v i s i n g upon t h e performance o f a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n t h e community.  The l e a d e r s may  obtain  t h e i r positions, r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s , prerogatives, etc.; f o r any number o f reasons, such as t h e i r c o n t r o l of  - 2*0 economic resources, t h e i r personal wealth, t h e i r s o c i a l status, or t h e i r knowledge of relevant matters.  But the  d e f i n i t i o n of t h e i r positions w i l l be within the l i m i t s f o r which the community was organized or which have developed i n that community subsequently. The leaders may operate e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e i r positions and achieve the objectives which they set f o r themselves or which are set f o r them.  One of the reasons  why they can do so may l i e i n t h e i r a b i l i t y , whatever the source of that a b i l i t y , to compel others to act i n roles which a i d i n the attainment of those objectives.  In  any one community the individuals who possess t h i s a b i l i t y i n any degree may  combine f o r Joint action over a longer  or shorter period of time, but whether they a c t u a l l y  do  so w i l l depend on p a r t i c u l a r events which occur at part i c u l a r times.  The results which may appear i n one com-  munity as a result of t h i s combination of forces may not and need not appear i n any other community. combinations do appear In two communities,  Even i f such the f a c t of  that appearance i s not i n i t s e l f of significance which occur i n s t i l l other  to events  communities.  Sub-communities, such as the one examined i n t h i s study,' are sometimes based on, both i n t h e i r o r i g i n a l creation and i n t h e i r subsequent s u r v i v a l , voluntary decisions by individuals  to p a r t i c i p a t e  i n their activities.  In such a community, no i n d i v i d u a l can compel others to  - 2*1 p a r t i c i p a t e and, as a r e s u l t , t h a t p a r t i c u l a r a b i l i t y ( o r form o f power) does not and cannot become a r e l e v a n t o r useable operational  feature.  - 2*2 BIBLIOGRAPHY I  C i t e d government p u b l i c a t i o n s ; i n c l u d i n g sources.  statistical  B r i t i s h Columbia, Bureau o f P r o v i n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n . P o p u l a t i o n o f B r i t i s h Columbia A c c o r d i n g t o E l e c t o r a l D i s t r i c t s . 1902. V i c t o r i a , B.C.; King's P r i n t e r , 1902. Canada, Bureau o f S t a t i s t i c s . Census of t h e P r a i r i e P r o v i n c e s ; 1916. 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