UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Analytical survey of the Pemberton Valley in British Columbia with special reference to adult education Dickinson, James Gary 1968

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A N A N A L Y T I C A L S U R V E Y O F T H E P E M B E R T O N V A L L E Y IN B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A W I T H S P E C I A L R E F E R E N C E T O A D U L T E D U C A T I O N b y J A M E S G A R Y D I C K I N S O N B . E d . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1963 M . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966 A D I S S E R T A T I O N S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F D O C T O R O F E D U C A T I O N In the F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n we accept this d i s s e r t a t i o n as c o n f o r m i n g to the r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d : T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A A P R I L , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s in p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree at the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I ag ree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department o r by h i s r e p r e s e n -t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department nf Adult Education The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co lumb ia Vancouve r 8, Canada April 30, 1968 i A B S T R A C T T h e study p r o b l e m was to ana lyze adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a r u r a l c o m m u n i t y i n conjunct ion with a de ta i l ed s u r v e y of the c o m m u n i t y and its r e s i d e n t s . T h r e e hypotheses w e r e tes ted to a s c e r t a i n whether or not there w e r e any s ign i f i cant d i f f erences between adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s with r e s p e c t to s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s , and l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e . T h e a n a l y t i c a l s u r v e y m e t h o d was u s e d and the p r i n c i p a l m e a n s of data c o l l e c t i o n was the p e r s o n a l i n t e r v i e w . One h u n d r e d f i f ty -e ight non- Ind ian h o u s e h o l d heads and a s a m p l e c o n s i s t i n g of t h i r t y - t w o nat ive Indian respondents w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d . T h e c o m m u n i t y s tudied was the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a w h i c h i s an i s o l a t e d m o u n t a i n v a l l e y one h u n d r e d m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of V a n c o u v e r . A p p r o x i m a t e l y one- f i f th of the n o n -Indian respondents were c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m while the r e m a i n d e r w e r e not engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e . In g e n e r a l , the non- Ind ian popula t ion i i h a d s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the r e s i d e n t s of other r u r a l a r e a s i n the p r o v i n c e . T h e y h a d a m e d i a n of nine to e l even y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d , an a v e r a g e annual i n c o m e of s l i g h t l y l e s s than $6, 000, and w o r k e d m a i n l y i n u n s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d occupat ions . T h e Indians b y c o m p a r i s o n h a d l e s s educat ion , l o w e r i n c o m e s , and w e r e m a r g i n a l i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . S y s t e m a t i c adult educat ion i n P e m b e r t o n was l i m i t e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y to night s c h o o l c o u r s e s . T w e n t y - t h r e e c o u r s e s o f f e r e d between 1964 and 1966 h a d a tota l e n r o l l m e n t of 352 adul t s . Some 22. 2 p e r cent of the n o n - I n d i a n respondents h a d taken at l e a s t one c o u r s e wi th in the t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d . T h e r e w e r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erences between the adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s wi th r e s p e c t to nine s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s tud ied i n c l u d i n g age, n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n at h o m e , b i r t h p l a c e , n u m b e r of y e a r s r e s i d e n t i n the a r e a , n u m b e r of r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n P e m b e r t o n , f a r m or n o n - f a r m res ident , fa ther ' s educat ion , p e r c e i v e d adequacy of s k i l l s , and d e s i r e for fur ther educat ion or t r a i n i n g . O f the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s tudied , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r o a d op in ion d i f ferent ia ted between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . L o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e was r e l a t e d to adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n and the n u m b e r of respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d d e c r e a s e d as d i s tance f r o m the n i g h t s c h o o l center i n c r e a s e d . i i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S C H A P T E R P A G E I I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 T h e P r o b l e m 3 H y p o t h e s e s 4 P r o c e d u r e 5 A R D A S u r v e y 5 O t h e r D a t a 7 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 9 Def in i t ions and L i m i t a t i o n s 12 P l a n of the Study 14 II R E V I E W O F R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E 16 Extent of P a r t i c i p a t i o n 17 S o c i a l In terac t ion 20 L o c a l i t y of R e s i d e n c e 22 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 25 H I T H E A R E A 29 P h y s i c a l D e s c r i p t i o n 30 E x p l o r a t i o n 31 E a r l y Set t l ement 36 A b a n d o n m e n t 41 i v C H A P T E R P A G E R a i l r o a d C o n s t r u c t i o n 45 Re s ettl e ment 48 R e c l a m a t i o n 56 S u m m a r y 59 I V T H E P E O P L E 61 F a m i l y S i z e and C o m p o s i t i o n 61 M a r r i a g e P a t t e r n s 66 L i v i n g C o n d i t i o n s 68 P a t t e r n s of R e s i d e n c e "70 S u m m a r y 78 V O C C U P A T I O N , A G R I C U L T U R E , ' ! A N D I N C O M E 80 T h e P e m b e r t o n E c o n o m y 80 O c c u p a t i o n s • 85 P r e s e n t Jobs 85 E m p l o y m e n t H i s t o r y 94 A g r i c u l t u r e 102 Income 109 Income for n o n - F a r m F a m i l i e s I H Income for F a r m F a m i l i e s 115 L o w Income F a m i l i e s 120 Indian Incomes 125 S u m m a r y . 127 C H A P T E R P A G E V I S O C I A L I N T E R A C T I O N 129 T h e P e o p l e and the C o m m u n i t y 129 I n f o r m a l S o c i a l In terac t ion 136 V i s i t i n g P a t t e r n s 144 S o c i a l D i s t a n c e 151 F o r m a l O r g a n i z a t i o n s 153 Influence of the R o a d 159 S u m m a r y 165 VII E D U C A T I O N 166 T h e Schoo l s 166 E d u c a t i o n a l A c h i e v e m e n t 170 Job T r a i n i n g 179 S u m m a r y 182 Vin A D U L T E D U C A T I O N 184 T h e P r o v i s i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 185 I n f o r m a t i o n - S e e k i n g C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 188 F a r m e r s ' U s e of I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e s • • • • 189 T r a i n i n g W a n t e d 19 3 E x t e n t of P a r t i c i p a t i o n 199 S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 204 S o c i a l In terac t ion 213 L o c a l i t y of R e s i d e n c e 219 S u m m a r y 227 C H A P T E R P A G E I X S U M M A R Y 228 T h e C o m m u n i t y and Its R e s i d e n t s 228 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n 231 C o n c l u s i o n 235 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 237 A P P E N D I X O N E 243 A P P E N D I X T W O 252 v i i L I S T O F T A B L E S T A B L E P A G E 1 W a t e r and L a n d M i l e a g e s on the H a r r i s o n -L i l l o o e t Route 36 2 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y A g e 63 3 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y M a r i t a l Status 64 4 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y N u m b e r of C h i l d r e n R e p o r t e d 65 5 P e r c e n t a g e of N o n - I n d i a n and Indian F a m i l i e s P o s s e s s i n g Items on the L e v e l of L i v i n g S c a l e 69 6 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents by B i r t h p l a c e 71 7 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y P l a c e of R e s i d e n c e b e f o r e M o v i n g to P e m b e r t o n 73 8 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e i n the A r e a 74 9 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y L e n g t h of R e s i d e n c e i n P r e s e n t H o m e 7 5 10 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n C h i l d r e n b y P l a c e of R e s i d e n c e 77 11 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n cf N o n - F a r m and N o n -Indian Respondents b y P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n s 86 v i i i T A B L E P A G E 12 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y E m p l o y m e n t Status 89 13 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n F a r m Respondents b y P r o p o r t i o n of T i m e i n O f f -F a r m W o r k 90 14 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n F a r m Respondents b y S e c o n d a r y and T e r t i a r y J o b s . . 91 15 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n S c o r e s for F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents 93 16 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y N u m b e r of Y e a r s i n P r e s e n t O c c u p a t i o n 9 5 17 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents by P r e v i o u s Jobs H e l d for M o r e T h a n S ix Months 97 18 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y F a t h e r s ' O c c u p a t i o n 99 19 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m Respondents b y A g r i c u l t u r a l P r o d u c t s S o l d 103 20 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m Respondents b y A v e r a g e N u m b e r of A n i m a l Uni ts i n 1965. . . 104 21 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m Respondents b y E s t i m a t e d V a l u e of F a r m s 106 22 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Changes P l a n n e d b y F a r m e r s 108 23 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n F a m i l i e s b y T o t a l Income 110 24 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y Net Income f r o m P r i n c i p a l and S e c o n d a r y Jobs 112 i x T A B L E P A G E 25 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - F a r m N o n -Indian F a m i l i e s by A m o u n t of Income f r o m Dependents and O t h e r S o u r c e s 114 26 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of G r o s s and Net F a r m Income for N o n - I n d i a n F a r m e r s 116 27 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n F a r m H o u s e h o l d s b y R e t a i l V a l u e of P e r q u i s i t e s C o n s u m e d 117 28 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n F a r m e r s by Net Income f r o m O f f - F a r m Jobs 119 29 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n F a r m H o u s e h o l d s b y A m o u n t of Income f r o m Dependents and O t h e r S o u r c e s 121 30 A v e r a g e and P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of T o t a l Income b y S o u r c e for L o w and H i g h Income N o n - F a r m F a m i l i e s 122 31 A v e r a g e and P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of T o t a l Income b y S o u r c e for L o w and H i g h Income F a r m F a m i l i e s 124 32 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents by At t i tude T o w a r d R u r a l L i v i n g 130 33 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y C o m m u n i t y Sa t i s fac t ion S c o r e 132 34 . P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of A l l N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y D i s t a n c e s T r a v e l l e d for Seven S e r v i c e 134 35 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y A v e r a g e T o t a l D i s t a n c e T r a v e l l e d for Seven S e r v i c e s 135 X T A B L E P A G E 36 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y F r e q u e n c y of V a r i o u s N e i g h b o u r i n g P r a c t i c e s 138 37 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y F r e q u e n c y of F r e e L a b o u r and M a c h i n e r y E x c h a n g e s 140 38 V i s i t i n g H a b i t s of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y L o c a l i t y G r o u p 147 39 P e r c e n t a g e Distr ibut ion of V i s i t s E x c h a n g e d b y N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y L o c a l i t y G r o u p . . . 150 40 S o c i a l D i s t a n c e Quot ients for Indian and N o n -Indian Respondents C o m p a r e d with U n i t e d States N o r m s . . ' 152 41 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y S o c i a l P a r t i c i -pa t ion S c o r e 158 42 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y N u m b e r of T r i p s O u t s i d e the V a l l e y B e f o r e and A f t e r C o m p l e t i o n of the R o a d 161 43 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents by R o a d O p i n i o n 164 44 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondents b y Y e a r s of S c h o o l C o m p l e t e d 171 45 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m W i v e s by Y e a r s of Schoo l C o m p l e t e d 17 3 46 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m Respondents b y Y e a r s of S c h o o l C o m p l e t e d by F a t h e r s 17 5 47 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m C h i l d r e n b y E d u c a t i o n a l Standing 176 x i T A B L E P A G E 48 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m and N o n - F a r m N o n - I n d i a n Respondent s , W i v e s , a n d F a t h e r s b y Job T r a i n i n g R e p o r t e d 180 49 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents R e p o r t i n g Job T r a i n i n g b y O c c u p a t i o n a l G r o u p 181 50 S u m m a r y of E n r o l l m e n t i n N i g h t S c h o o l C o u r s e s , 1964 to 1966 ." . 187 51 D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m Respondents b y F r e q u e n c y of P e r s o n a l Contac t s wi th the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t 190 52 D i s t r i b u t i o n of F a r m Respondents b y F r e q u e n c y of U s e of I m p e r s o n a l I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e s . . . • 192 53 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n . Respondents by P e r c e i v e d A d e q u a c y of S k i l l s . 194 54 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents Who Want F u r t h e r T r a i n i n g 195 55 K i n d s of T r a i n i n g Wanted b y N o n - I n d i a n Respondents Who D e s i r e F u r t h e r T r a i n i n g . . . 196 56 D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n H o u s e h o l d s b y P a r t i c i p a t i o n o r N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n N i g h t S c h o o l C o u r s e s f r o m 1964 to 1966 201 57 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of N o n - I n d i a n Respondents and T h e i r W i v e s Who P a r t i c i p a t e d i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n b y N u m b e r of N ight S c h o o l C o u r s e s T a k e n f r o m 1964 to 1966 202 58 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Non-Indian H o u s e h o l d s W i t h A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s b y N u m b e r of N ight S c h o o l C o u r s e s T a k e n f r o m 1964 to 1966 203 x i i T A B L E P A G E 59 C h i Square V a l u e s for D i s t r i b u t i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s b y Soc io E c o n o m i c C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 205 60 A g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s 207 61 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n -P a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n b y P l a c e of B i r t h 208 62 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n b y N u m b e r of Y e a r s R e s i d e n t i n the A r e a 210 63 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s b y N u m b e r of R e l a t e d F a m i l i e s L i v i n g i n P e m b e r t o n 211 64 C h i Square V a l u e s for D i s t r i b u t i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s b y S o c i a l In terac t ion C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 215 65 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s b y S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e 216 66 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n P a r t i c i p a n t s and N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s b y R o a d O p i n i o n S c o r e 219 67 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of T o t a l C o u r s e s T a k e n b y H o u s e h o l d M e m b e r s b y L o c a l i t y G r o u p . . . . 221 68 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of Respondents who P a r t i c i p a t e d i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n b y L o c a l i t y G r o u p 222 69 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of T o t a l C o u r s e s T a k e n b y Respondents b y L o c a l i t y G r o u p • 224 x i i i T A B L E P A G E 70 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of W i v e s Who P a r t i c i p a t e d i n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n by-L o c a l i t y G r o u p 225 71 P e r c e n t a g e D i s t r i b u t i o n of T o t a l C o u r s e s T a k e n b y Wives b y L o c a l i t y G r o u p 226 X x i v L I S T O F F I G U R E S F I G U R E P A G E 1 M a p of P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y Showing L o c a l i t y G r o u p s and L o c a t i o n of Respondents 11 2 D i s t a n c e B e t w e e n L o c a l i t y G r o u p s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y 149 C H A P T E R O N E I N T R O D U C T I O N T h e c o m m u n i t y i s a c o m p l e x s o c i a l unit w h i c h r e q u i r e s cont inuous study and a n a l y s i s and s i n c e adult educators u s u a l l y w o r k wi th in the context of a c o m m u n i t y , i t i s e s s e n t i a l that they be aware of i ts s t r u c t u r e and func t ions . W i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y a r e g e n e r a t e d the needs , i n t e r e s t s , and m o t i v a t i o n s for educat ion of the adult r e s i d e n t s , and a c o m m u n i t y depends upon adult educat ion for c e r t a i n e s s e n t i a l p r o c e s s e s i n i t s c o r p o r a t e l i f e . " A c o m m u n i t y a l so m a k e s a b r o a d adult educat ion p r o g r a m both f eas ib l e and p o s s i b l e and i t p r o v i d e s a l a b o r a t o r y for m a n y k inds of adult l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . A d u l t educa tors a r e constant ly e x h o r t e d to know 1. W . C . H a l l e n b e c k , " C o m m u n i t y i n the T h e o r y and P r a c t i c e of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . " W . C . H a l l e n b e c k , ed . , C o m m u n i t y and  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1962, p . 1. 2 2 t h e i r c o m m u n i t y but i t i s s e l d o m s p e c i f i e d with c o n s i s t e n c y just what i t i s that they need to know. T h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k s r e g a r d i n g the p h e n o m e n o n a r e g e n e r a l l y f r a g m e n t a r y and, as m a n y w r i t e r s have p o i n t e d out, no c o m p l e t e t h e o r y of c o m m u n i t y 3 yet ex i s t s . A n adult educator has few sound guide l ines o n w h i c h to b a s e a s tudy of h i s c o m m u n i t y . In addi t ion to the dear th of c o m m u n i t y t h e o r y , t h e r e a r e few c o m m u n i t y studies w h i c h d e a l with adult educat ion as an i m p o r t a n t top ic for i n v e s t i g a t i o n and w h i c h c o u l d p r o v i d e m o d e l s for the adult e d u c a t o r . R e s e a r c h on c o m m u n i t y and adult educat ion has b e e n c o n c e r n e d ch ie f ly with d i f f erent ia t ing the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of those r e s i d e n t s who p a r -t i c ipa te i n cont inuing educat iona l p r o g r a m s f r o m those who do not . 2. See for e x a m p l e : H a l l e n b e c k , op. c i t . See a l s o : S a m u e l E . H a n d , O u t l i n e of a C o m m u n i t y S u r v e y for P r o g r a m P l a n n i n g i n A d u l t  E d u c a t i o n . T a l a h a s s e e , F l o r i d a : State D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n , J u l y , 1957.. ( B u l l e t i n 7 1 F - l ) . 3. G . W . B l a c k w e l l , " A T h e o r e t i c a l F r a m e w o r k for S o c i o l o g i c a l R e s e a r c h i n C o m m u n i t y O r g a n i z a t i o n . " S o c i a l F o r c e s , 33:57-64, ( O c t o b e r , 1954). E . de S. B r u n n e r , T h e G r o w t h of a S c i e n c e . New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1957. K a t h a r i n e B . C o o k e , " A T h e o r e t i c a l A p p r o a c h to A n a l y s i s of Interdependence A m o n g C o m m u n i t i e s . " U n p u b l i s h e d P h . D . d i s s e r t a t i o n , C o r n e l l U n i v e r s i t y , 1965. A . J . R e i s s , A R e v i e w and E v a l u a t i o n of  R e s e a r c h on C o m m u n i t y . N a s h v i l l e : S o c i a l S c i e n c e R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l , 1954. 3 S u c h studies e i ther d e s c r i b e the c l i ente le of a p a r t i c u l a r p r o g r a m or ins t i tu t ion or e l se s u r v e y the extent and n a t u r e of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a s p e c i f i e d popu la t ion o r a r e a . In g e n e r a l , these inves t iga t ions have shown that c e r t a i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as educat ion and age d i s t i n g u i s h between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the n o n -p a r t i c i p a n t s but this i s not r e l a t e d to the s t r u c t u r e or d y n a m i c s of 4 the c o m m u n i t y s tudied . In r e v i e w i n g this body of r e s e a r c h , B r u n n e r noted that c a r e f u l study of the s o c i a l , e c o n o m i c , and e c o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a c o m m u n i t y and i ts peop le i s n e c e s s a r y i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e the pat terns of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , c o m m u n i c a t i o n , and i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h a r e l i k e l y to be effect ive i n r e a c h i n g and i n v o l v i n g the v a r i o u s e l ements of the popula t ion 5 i n educat iona l p r o g r a m s and a c t i v i t i e s . T H E P R O B L E M P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion i s r e l a t e d to the v a r i o u s s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of a c o m m u n i t y although the p r e c i s e na ture of this r e l a t i o n s h i p has not yet b e e n d e t e r m i n e d . 4. See for e x a m p l e : E . de S. B r u n n e r , et. a l . A n O v e r v i e w of  A d u l t E d u c a t i o n R e s e a r c h . C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959, p p . 89-118 . 5. Ibid. , p . 110. 4 T h e g e n e r a l p r o b l e m of th is s tudy i s to d e s c r i b e and a n a l y z e a r u r a l c o m m u n i t y i n s o m e de ta i l so as to ident i fy those f a c t o r s w h i c h m a y in f luence p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion . B y r e l a t i n g such p a r t i c i p a t i o n to s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the c o m m u n i t y and to p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of i t s r e s i d e n t s , i t m a y b e p o s s i b l e to i s o l a t e those i t e m s w h i c h appear to be s ign i f i cant in f luences on p a r t i c i p a t i o n . H Y P O T H E S E S 6 T h r e e hypotheses w i l l be t e s t ed i n this s tudy. 1. T h e r e a r e s ign i f i cant d i f f erences between the s o c i o -e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n adult educat ion p r o g r a m s . 2. T h e r e a r e s ign i f i cant d i f f erences between the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pat terns of p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n adult educat ion p r o g r a m s . 3. T h e r e a r e s ign i f i cant d i f f erences i n adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n between r e s i d e n t s of d i f ferent l o c a l i t i e s i n the s a m e c o m m u n i t y . 6. T h e hypotheses w i l l be p h r a s e d i n the n u l l f o r m for s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t ing w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e . 5 P R O C E D U R E T h e a n a l y t i c a l s u r v e y m e t h o d was u s e d i n this s tudy. A n u m b e r of data s o u r c e s w e r e u s e d i n c l u d i n g data ga thered i n a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u r v e y for the A g r i c u l t u r a l and R u r a l D e v e l o p -ment A d m i n i s t r a t i o n ( A R D A ) , i n t e r v i e w s with k e y l o c a l i n f o r m a n t s , p u b l i s h e d and u n p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t s and documents , and i n f o r m a t i o n r e s p e c t i n g adult educat ion c o u r s e s and e n r o l l m e n t s . A R D A S u r v e y S t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w e r e conducted with the p o p u l a t i o n of n o n - I n d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads i n the study c o m m u n i t y , 7 the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , i n A u g u s t , 1966. T h i s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u r v e y was f inanced b y A R D A . A l i s t of 178 h o u s e h o l d heads was p r o v i d e d b y two m e m b e r s of the P e m b e r t o n F a r m e r s ' Institute. Seventeen u n l i s t e d n a m e s w e r e added d u r i n g f i e l d w o r k i n the a r e a and ten were de le ted because the h o u s e h o l d heads h a d e i ther m o v e d away f r o m the c o m m u n i t y or they w e r e not p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n t s . T h u s , the r e v i s e d l i s t 7. F i v e p e r s o n s i n c l u d i n g the w r i t e r conducted these i n t e r v i e w s . 6 conta ined 185 n a m e s of w h i c h 158 (85 .4 p e r cent) w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d , 23 (12 .4 p e r cent) c o u l d not be contacted, 3 (1. 6 p e r cent) r e f u s e d , and an e l d e r l y widow l i v i n g with h e r son was not i n t e r -v i e w e d . F o r c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s , e v e r y fifth h o u s e h o l d on the Mount C u r r i e Indian R e s e r v e , w h i c h contains a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200 dwe l l ings , was contacted and this r e s u l t e d i n 32 c o m p l e t e d i n t e r -v iews with Indian r e s p o n d e n t s . 8 T h r e e i n t e r v i e w schedu le s w e r e c o m p l e t e d with each h o u s e h o l d h e a d c o n s i s t i n g of: (1) a S t a n d a r d S o c i a l Schedule d e s i g n e d to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n on p e r s o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , f a m i l y c o m p o s i t i o n , , educat iona l ach i evement , and attitudes t o w a r d jobs , the c o m m u n i t y , and r u r a l l i v i n g , (2) a S u p p l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l Schedule to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n about the effects of the new r o a d into the a r e a and the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pa t t erns of the r e s i d e n t s , and (3) e i ther a F a r m or N o n - F a r m E c o n o m i c Schedule as a p p r o p r i a t e to p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n on occupat ion and i n c o m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e s e data a r e u s e d i n subsequent chapters p r i n c i p a l l y to d e s c r i b e the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the P e m b e r t o n 8. See A p p e n d i x T w o , Schedules A , B , C , and D . 7 r e s i d e n t s . A chi s q u a r e va lue and a . 05 l e v e l of s i g n i f i c a n c e w e r e u s e d to tes t the n u l l hypothes i s of no s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a r m and n o n - f a r m n o n - I n d i a n respondents b y v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e e x a m i n e d b y c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s i s and the r e l e v a n t tables a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x O n e . O t h e r D a t a A t the s a m e t i m e as the A R D A s u r v e y was i n p r o g r e s s , s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w s w e r e conducted with e l even o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f i c e r s and twenty-one l o c a l b u s i n e s s m e n to c o l l e c t data on f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and the e c o n o m y of the 9 study a r e a . I n f o r m a l v i s i t s w e r e m a d e with k e y l o c a l i n f o r -mants both d u r i n g and after the A R D A f i e l d w o r k to gather add i t iona l i n f o r m a t i o n about educat ion and the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of the c o m m u n i t y . 9. See A p p e n d i x T w o , Schedules E and F . 8 A s m a l l amount of p u b l i s h e d m a t e r i a l deals 10 e x c l u s i v e l y with the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . F o u r studies have r e p o r t e d on d i f ferent aspects of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the a r e a , but other m a t e r i a l i s s c a t t e r e d i n r e g i o n a l h i s t o r i e s and g e n e r a l s tud ies . A l l the a v a i l a b l e r e p o r t s and documents w e r e s c r u t i n i z e d for r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s and add i t i ona l i n f o r m a t i o n was sought f r o m l o c a l i n f o r m a n t s and v a r i o u s g o v e r n m e n t d e p a r t m e n t s . N e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s i n the S q u a m i s h T i m e s that w e r e w r i t t e n b y the P e m b e r t o n c o r r e s p o n d e n t s w e r e a l so r e v i e w e d for r e l e v a n t m a t e r i a l s . T h e s e data s o u r c e s w e r e u s e d to s u p p l e m e n t and a m p l i f y that g a t h e r e d i n the A R D A s u r v e y and to develop a s o c i a l h i s t o r y of the c o m m u n i t y . 10. F . C . C l a r k , R e p o r t on A n a l y s e s of F o r a g e , H a y and S o i l  S a m p l e s and Cat t l e H a i r S p e c i m e n s f r o m the P e m b e r t o n  V a l l e y , B . C . , 1964-1965. New W e s t m i n s t e r : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1965. C . V . F a u l k n o r , P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y L a n d U t i l i z a t i o n S u r v e y ,  1951. V i c t o r i a : D e p a r t m e n t of L a n d s and F o r e s t s , 19 51. R . M . H a l l , F e r t i l i z e r and C r o p Studies i n the P e m b e r t o n  V a l l e y of B . C . , 1932-1956. A g a s s i z : C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1959- M . M . S o r b o e , " F a r m i n g i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . " C a n a d i a n F a r m  E c o n o m i c s , 222-27, ( A p r i l , 1967). 9 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n S o m e data r e s p e c t i n g adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n w e r e g a t h e r e d i n the A R D A s u r v e y of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . * * T h e y a r e u s e d i n this study to d e s c r i b e the f a r m respondent s ' use of v a r i o u s i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s and to ana lyze the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the d e s i r e to take f u r t h e r educat ion or t r a i n i n g i n both the f a r m and n o n - f a r m p o p u l a t i o n . T h e h o u s e h o l d heads a lso i n d i c a t e d whether or not they h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n an adult educat ion p r o g r a m wi th in the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s . O t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g adult educat ion p r o g r a m s and e n r o l l m e n t s was obta ined f r o m night s c h o o l r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s p r o v i d e d b y the A d u l t E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s w e r e a v a i l a b l e for m o s t of the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n the 1964, 1965, and 1966 s easons . T h e h o u s e -h o l d heads i n t e r v i e w e d w e r e m a t c h e d wi th the r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s and four m e a s u r e s of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n w e r e c o m p u t e d i n c l u d i n g n u m b e r of c o u r s e s taken b y the respondent , n u m b e r of c o u r s e s taken b y the wife, n u m b e r of c o u r s e s i n w h i c h both h u s b a n d and wife p a r t i c i p a t e d , and to ta l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e . 11. See for e x a m p l e : Schedu le A , I t em 7; Schedule C , I tems 27 and 28; Schedule D , Items 17 and 18. 10 T h e s e index s c o r e s w e r e c o r r e l a t e d wi th the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t s as a p a r t i a l test of the study hypothese s . T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e c o m p a r e d with the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s u s i n g a ch i s q u a r e va lue and a . 05 l e v e l of s i gn i f i cance to fur ther test the study hypothese s . T h e f i r s t two hypotheses r e s p e c t i n g s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pat terns o f p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e amenab le to t e s t ing for the c o m m u n i t y as a whole . In o r d e r to tes t the t h i r d hypothes i s r e g a r d i n g l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e and adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n , the c o m m u n i t y 12 was d i v i d e d into f ive g e o g r a p h i c l o c a l i t y g r o u p s . T h e s e units a r e dep ic t ed i n F i g u r e 1 w h i c h a l so i l l u s t r a t e s the l o c a t i o n of the A R D A r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e f i r s t l o c a l i t y , the U p p e r V a l l e y , extends f r o m a p p r o x i m a t e l y s ix m i l e s nor thwes t of P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e to the h e a d of the v a l l e y and 29 respondents (18 .4 p e r cent) r e s i d e d t h e r e . T h e L o w e r V a l l e y i n c l u d e s the t e r r i t o r y f r o m the v i l l a g e to the s o u t h e r n b o r d e r of the U p p e r V a l l e y and 24 respondents (15 .2 p e r cent) l i v e d i n this l o c a l i t y . S ix ty - two (39. 2 p e r cent) 12. T h e s e d i v i s i o n s a r e r e c o g n i z e d by the r e s i d e n t s of the c o m m u n i t y and the t e r m i n o l o g y u s e d h e r e i n i s cons i s tent with l o c a l usage . 11 FIGURE 1 MAP OF PEMBERTON V A L L E Y SHOWING L O C A L I T Y GROUPS AND LOCATION OF RESPONDENTS r e s i d e d i n P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e whi le the Mount C u r r i e locality-i n c l u d e d 27 n o n - I n d i a n respondents (17. 1 p e r cent) who l i v e d a long the r o a d connect ing the v i l l a g e wi th the Indian r e s e r v e . T h e fifth l o c a l i t y , B i r k e n - D ' A r c y , accounted for 16 respondents (10. 1 p e r cent) who r e s i d e d i n the nor theas t s ec t i on o f the study a r e a . D E F I N I T I O N S A N D L I M I T A T I O N S T h e non- Ind ian popula t ion of the study a r e a was d i v i d e d into f a r m and n o n - f a r m on the b a s i s of sa les of a g r i -c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . T h o s e respondents who n o r m a l l y h a d annual sa les of at l e a s t $250 w o r t h of p r o d u c t s r a i s e d on t h e i r l a n d w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m whi le those who d id not w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - f a r m . A p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s i s of the data i n d i c a t e d that t h i r t y - f o u r respondents (21. 5 p e r cent) w e r e f a r m o p e r a t o r s and this i s cons i s tent wi th p r e v i o u s a g r i c u l t u r a l s tudies of the c o m m u n i t y . 13. T h e m o s t r e c e n t p u b l i s h e d r e p o r t p e r t a i n i n g to a g r i c u l t u r e i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y noted that t h e r e w e r e t h i r t y - e i g h t f a r m s i n the a r e a . See: S o r b o e , op. c i t . , p . 22. S y s t e m a t i c adult educat ion i n the c o m m u n i t y i s p r o v i d e d a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y through a night s c h o o l p r o g r a m that s e r v e s both the Indian and n o n - I n d i a n segments of the popu la t ion . A d d i t i o n a l educat iona l a c t i v i t i e s for f a r m e r s a r e o r g a n i z e d f r o m t i m e to t i m e b y the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t who s e r v e s the a r e a . . B e c a u s e of the l i m i t e d amount of data a v a i l a b l e r e g a r d i n g Indian p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion , this s tudy concentra tes m a i n l y on the n o n -Indian popu la t ion . It i s not known to what extent the f indings of this study a r e b i a s e d b y the f a i l u r e to i n t e r v i e w fifteen p e r cent of the n o n -Indian h o u s e h o l d h e a d s . It w i l l be a s s u m e d , h o w e v e r , that those who w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the to ta l popu la t ion . S o m e b i a s m a y have b e e n i n t r o d u c e d i n the Indian s a m p l e s ince s o m e of these h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e w o r k i n g i n other p a r t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a or the N o r t h w e s t U n i t e d States at the t i m e the i n t e r v i e w s w e r e conducted . T h e r e a r e a l so i n h e r e n t l i m i t a t i o n s i n u s i n g an i n t e r v i e w schedule d e s i g n e d for non- Ind ian respondents with a d i f ferent c u l t u r a l group . W h e r e v e r p o s s i b l e , the f indings r e l a t i n g to the Indians a r e v e r i f i e d aga ins t other s o u r c e s . • P e r h a p s the greates t l i m i t a t i o n i n any c o m m u n i t y study i s a l a c k of e m p i r i c a l l y t e s ted c o m m u n i t y t h e o r y to guide f i e ld o b s e r v a t i o n s and m e a s u r e m e n t s . T h i s s tudy i s t h e r e f o r e 14 se l ec t ive of concepts for i n v e s t i g a t i o n . T h e f indings a r e only-a p p l i c a b l e to the c o m m u n i t y s tud ied and g e n e r a l i z a t i o n b e y o n d its b o u n d a r i e s i s h a z a r d o u s , h o w e v e r , the f indings of this study a r e c o m p a r e d with those of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h whenever such data a r e a v a i l a b l e . P L A N O F T H E S T U D Y T h e l i t e r a t u r e r e l a t i n g to c o m m u n i t y and adult educat ion i s r e v i e w e d i n C h a p t e r T w o of this s tudy i n o r d e r to i l l u s t r a t e the p r e s e n t status of this r e s e a r c h and to p inpoint those aspects of c o m m u n i t y w h i c h m a y have r e l e v a n c e to adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h a t chapter i s fo l lowed b y one w h i c h out l ines the s o c i a l h i s t o r y of the study a r e a , wi th e m p h a s i s on pa t t erns of se t t l ement and t h e i r in f luence on s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i n the c o m m u n i t y . C h a p t e r F o u r i s the beg inn ing of a de ta i l ed s tudy of the c o m m u n i t y and this s ec t ion i s c o n c e r n e d with p r e s e n t i n g s u c h b a s i c d e s c r i p t i v e data about the popu la t ion as f a m i l y s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n , m a r r i a g e p a t t e r n s , l i v i n g c o n -d i t ions , and pa t t erns of r e s i d e n c e . T h e e c o n o m y of the c o m m u n i t y i s d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e and s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pat terns i n the subsequent s e c t i o n whi le the p r e s e n t educat iona l 15 s tanding of the popula t ion i s c o n s i d e r e d i n C h a p t e r Seven . In C h a p t e r E i g h t , this a n a l y t i c a l s u r v e y of the c o m m u n i t y i s r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion and the study hypotheses a r e t e s ted . 16 C H A P T E R T W O R E V I E W O F R E L A T E D L I T E R A T U R E A subs tant ia l p o r t i o n of the l i t e r a t u r e of adult educat ion cons i s t s of d e s c r i p t i v e and a n a l y t i c a l s tudies of the extent and n a t u r e of adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n educat iona l a c t i v i t i e s . A n u m b e r of these studies have b e e n r e v i e w e d b y V e r n e r and 1 2 3 N e w b e r r y , b y B r u n n e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s , and b y K n o x . T h o s e r e v i e w s i n d i c a t e d that t h e r e a r e i m p o r t a n t v a r i a t i o n s i n p a r t i c i -pat ion b y g e o g r a p h i c l o c a l e and b y the d i f ferent ins t i tu t ions o f f e r i n g adult educat ion p r o g r a m s , consequent ly , this r e v i e w w i l l e m p h a s i z e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l a r e a s and i n night s c h o o l 1. C o o l i e V e r n e r and John S. N e w b e r r y , J r . , "The N a t u r e of A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 8:208-222, ( S u m m e r , 1958), 2. E . de S. B r u n n e r , et. a l . , A n O v e r v i e w of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n  R e s e a r c h , C h i c a g o : A d u l t E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1959-3. A l a n B . K n o x , " C l i e n t e l e A n a l y s i s . " R e v i e w of E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 35:231-239, (June, 1965). 17 p r o g r a m s s i n c e these two d i m e n s i o n s a r e of p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n this s tudy. • A s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion a p p e a r s to be r e l a t e d to other k i n d s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n , s o m e r e s e a r c h f indings r e l a t i n g to s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n w i l l be i n t r o d u c e d w h e r e a p p r o p r i a t e . E X T E N T O F P A R T I C I P A T I O N A l t h o u g h na t iona l s u r v e y s o f adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n a r e r a r e , a r e c e n t study i n the U n i t e d States b y Johnstone and 4 R i v e r a e s t i m a t e d that 20 p e r cent of the adult popu la t ion h a d taken an adult educat ion c o u r s e i n the twelve month p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g the 5 s u r v e y . T h e C a n a d a D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of S ta t i s t i c s e s t i m a t e d that 3. 6 p e r cent of the p o p u l a t i o n aged fourteen and o v e r h a d taken an adult educat ion c o u r s e wi th in the n ine m o n t h p e r i o d p r e c e d i n g the ir s u r v e y . T h e r e a p p e a r s , then, to be a wide d i s c r e p a n c y between adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n ra tes i n the two c o u n t r i e s . 4. J o h n W . C . Johnstone and R a m o n J . R i v e r a , V o l u n t e e r s for  L e a r n i n g . C h i c a g o : A l d i n e P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , 1965. 5. D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of S ta t i s t i c s , P a r t i c i p a n t s i n F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n  i n Canada^; Ot tawa: Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , 1963. 18 W i t h i n each country , however , there a r e v a r i a t i o n s i n the p a r t i c i p a t i o n rate i n d i f ferent g e o g r a p h i c r e g i o n s . In g e n e r a l , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the U n i t e d States appears to be h i g h e r i n the w e s t e r n states and i n l a r g e m e t r o p o l i t a n a r e a s than i t i s i n the s o u t h e r n states and i n r u r a l a r e a s . ^ T h i s p a t t e r n s eems to h o l d for C a n a d a as w e l l . T h e lowest p a r t i c i p a t i o n ra te of 2. 3 p e r cent was r e c o r d e d for the A t l a n t i c p r o v i n c e s whi le B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h a d the h ighes t i n the c o u n t r y at 5. 3 p e r cent. S o m e 38 p e r cent of the to ta l C a n a d i a n popu la t ion l i v e d i n centers h a v i n g m o r e than 200, 000 people but these c i t i e s h a d 47 p e r cent of the adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s . O n the other hand, 24 p e r cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p a r e d with 32 p e r cent of the popu la t ion r e s i d e d i n cen ter s 7 with l e s s than 10, 000 r e s i d e n t s o r i n r u r a l a r e a s . T h u s , adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n both the U n i t e d States and C a n a d a appears to be p r i m a r i l y an u r b a n phenomenon . T h e r e a r e v a r i a t i o n s i n the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adults who p a r t i c i p a t e i n educat iona l p r o g r a m s o f f e r e d b y di f ferent i n s t i t u t i o n s . N i g h t s c h o o l s , a g r i c u l t u r a l extens ion , and u n i v e r s i t y extens ion , for example , a l l draw t h e i r p a r t i c i p a n t s f r o m 6. Johnstone and R i v e r a , op_. c i t . , p . 7. 7. D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of S t a t i s t i c s , op . c i t . , p p . 12-16. 19 d i f ferent segments of the adult popu la t ion . In the U n i t e d States , the C o o p e r a t i v e E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e i s unques t ionab ly the m a j o r 8 in s t i tu t ion for adult educat ion i n r u r a l a r e a s . In C a n a d a , h o w e v e r , and i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a e s p e c i a l l y , the D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e p e r f o r m s m o r e of a r e g u l a t o r y than an educat iona l 9 funct ion . A s a r e s u l t , m o s t of the educat iona l opportuni t i e s a v a i l a b l e to r u r a l adults i n the p r o v i n c e a r e o f f e r e d b y p u b l i c adult night s c h o o l s . A n u m b e r of adults have a v a i l e d t h e m s e l v e s of these opportun i t i e s as two studies conducted i n w ide ly s e p a r a t e d r u r a l a r e a s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a have shown. In the P r i n c e G e o r g e a r e a , 19. 3 p e r cent of the respondents i n a s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s u r v e y h a d taken at l ea s t one adult educat ion c o u r s e wi th in a t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d and the p e r c e n t a g e of f a r m (23. 3 p e r cent) exceeded the n u m b e r of n o n - f a r m r e s i d e n t s (16. 5 p e r cent) who h a d p a r t i c i -pa ted . ^ In the E a s t K o o t e n a y a r e a , 10.2 p e r cent of the f a r m 8. B r u n n e r , op . c i t . , p . 97. 9. J . S. A l l i n , " T h e R o l e of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n i n the E d u c a t i o n of R u r a l A d u l t s . " J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n of the F a c u l t y of  E d u c a t i o n , 10:36-47, ( A p r i l , 1964). 10. C o o l i e V e r n e r , F r a n k W . M i l l e r d , and G a r y D i c k i n s o n , A_ S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S u r v e y of the P T i n c e G e o r g e S p e c i a l Sa les  A r e a i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967, p . 38. 20 and 2 1 . 3 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m respondents h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult educat ion for a to ta l of 16. 9 p e r cent p a r t i c i p a n t s . S O C I A L I N T E R A C T I O N P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion a p p e a r s to be r e l a t e d to other f o r m s of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y noted: S ince p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n any one a c t i v i t y i s r e l a t e d to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a l l other s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , the p r o b l e m cannot be s tud ied adequate ly b y i s o l a t i n g one f o r m of a s s o c i a t i o n f r o m a l l o thers , t h e r e f o r e , p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n o r g a n i z e d adult educat ion m u s t be c o n s i d e r e d i n conjunct ion with other phases of o r g a n i z e d s o c i a l l i f e i n the c o m m u n i t y . 1^ T h e r e s e a r c h p e r t a i n i n g to s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has been s u m m a r i z e d 13 14 by V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y and b y B r u n n e r and his a s s o c i a t e s , t h e r e f o r e , th is r e v i e w ment ions on ly b r i e f l y s o m e aspects of this r e s e a r c h that have p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e to adult educat ion p a r t i -c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s . 11. C o o l i e V e r n e r , G a r y D i c k i n s o n , and E . P a t r i c k A l l e y n e , A S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S u r v e y of the E a s t K o o t e n a y A r e a i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968, p . 36. 12. V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , p . 208. 13. Ib id . , p p . 2 0 9 - 2 1 3 . 14. B r u n n e r , op. c i t . , p p . 98-114 . 21 S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n has b e e n def ined as ". . . i n t e r a c t i o n with o thers i n a s o c i a l l y def ined r e l a t i o n s h i p w h e r e i n the r o l e s of those p a r t i c i p a t i n g a r e m o r e or l e s s s t r u c t u r e d and m u t u a l l y 15 u n d e r s t o o d . " T h e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p m a y be e i ther f o r m a l or i n f o r m a l i n n a t u r e . I n f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n such as o c c u r s within the f a m i l y or the n e i g h b o u r h o o d i s m o r e w i d e s p r e a d than 16 other f o r m s of p a r t i c i p a n t ac t iv i ty , and there appears to be a g r e a t e r r e l i a n c e on i n f o r m a l than on f o r m a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s whereas f o r m a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s m o r e p r e v a l e n t i n u r b a n c o m m u n i t i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d s t r u c t u r e s of a c o m m u n i t y appears to be m o r e analagous to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s y s t e m a t i c adult educat ion p r o g r a m s than is i n f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y s ix ty p e r cent of the adult popu la t ion does not p a r t i c i p a t e i n the f o r m a l l y o r g a n i z e d l i fe 18 of t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s . T h e r e a r e s ign i f i cant d i f f erences between the pat terns of f o r m a l s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l and 15. Ib id . , p . 99. 16. Ib id . , p . 101. 17. Ib id . , p . 108. 18. V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , p . 209. u r b a n a r e a s and, as V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y noted, r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s " . . . t end to have l e s s c l e a r l y def ined and c o m p l i c a t e d d i s t inc t ions a m o n g peop le so that p a r t i c i p a t i o n g e n e r a l l y c r o s s e s a l l l i n e s . " ^ T h i s suggests that s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status wou ld not be a m a j o r fac tor i n f l u e n c i n g adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r u r a l a r e a s , however , those who a r e m o r e ac t ive s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a n t s m i g h t a l so be m o r e ac t ive adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s s ince the two a c t i v i t i e s a r e s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e . L O C A L I T Y O F R E S I D E N C E R u r a l s o c i o l o g i c a l s tudies have i n d i c a t e d that the s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e of r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s v a r i e s with the g e o g r a p h i c a r e a of r e s i d e n c e . T h e t e r m l o c a l i t y group r e f e r s to a g e o g r a p h i c a r e a h a v i n g c o m m o n s e r v i c e s at a center and group ident i f i ca t i on of the 20 r e s i d e n t s wi th the center and the a r e a . L o c a l i t y groups cont inue to ex is t i n r u r a l a r e a s a l though they a r e not as c l e a r l y def ined as they once w e r e and despi te p r e d i c t i o n s that i m p r o v e d 19. Ib id . , p . 211. 20. F . D . A l e x a n d e r , "The P r o b l e m of L o c a l i t y - G r o u p C l a s s i -f i c a t i o n . 1 1 R u £ a l S o c i £ l o g y _ , 17:236-244, (September , 1952). See a l s o : S. C . M a y o , " T e s t i n g C r i t e r i a of R u r a l L o c a l i t y G r o u p s . " R u r a l Soc io logy , 14:317-325, ( D e c e m b e r , 1949). 23 m e a n s of c o m m u n i c a t i o n would e l i m i n a t e t h e m . S o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and, b y i m p l i c a t i o n , adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n v a r i e s a m o n g i n d i v i d u a l s a c c o r d i n g to t h e i r l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e . T h e s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of an a r e a u s u a l l y centers i n an i n c o r p o r a t e d v i l l a g e and a c lose r e l a t i o n s h i p exis ts between the d i s tance f r o m a center and the n u m b e r of contacts with the c e n t e r . A s a r e s u l t , the f r e q u e n c y - of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s tends 22 to d e c r e a s e wi th d i s tance f r o m the c e n t e r . Mathews c o n c l u d e d that even r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l d i f f erences i n the degree of p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n can in f luence the n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n s and . , , 23 the ra te of s o c i a l change. T h e l e s s frequent adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n of r u r a l c o m p a r e d with u r b a n r e s i d e n t s appears to be r e l a t e d to t h e i r l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e and to the r e l a t i v e l y g r e a t e r d i s tances that they m u s t t r a v e l to attend c l a s s . E v e n i n an u r b a n a r e a d i s tance 21. F . D . A l e x a n d e r and C . F . K r a e n z e l , R u r a l S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n  of Sweet G r a s s County , M o n t a n a . B o z e m a n , M o n t a n a : M o n t a n a State C o l l e g e A . E . S . , 1953, ( B u l l e t i n 490). 22. A . H . H a w l e y , H u m a n E c o l o g y . New Y o r k : R o n a l d P r e s s , 1950, p . 255. 23. M . T a y l o r M a t h e w s , E x p e r i e n c e - W o r i d s of M o u n t a i n P e o p l e . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1937. 24 m a y be a l i m i t i n g fac tor as M c K i n n o n found that 15. 7 p e r cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s at three night s c h o o l c en ter s t r a v e l l e d l e s s than one m i l e to attend c l a s s and 78. 0 p e r cent w e r e wi th in f ive m i l e s , 24 h o w e v e r , on ly 3. 6 p e r cent t r a v e l l e d m o r e than ten m i l e s . In a s tudy of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n a s u b u r b a n adult night s c h o o l p r o g r a m , D i c k i n s o n found that 18.9 p e r cent t r a v e l l e d l e s s than ten m i n u t e s to attend c l a s s and an add i t iona l 57. 0 p e r cent t r a v e l l e d ten to n ineteen minute s but on ly 8. 6 p e r cent t r a v e l l e d 25 m o r e than t h i r t y m i n u t e s . T h e r e i s s o m e ev idence , t h e r e f o r e , that a c c e s s i b i l i t y 2 and p r o x i m i t y to adult educat ion centers i n c r e a s e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n . K a p l a n sugges ted that geograph ic d i s tance i s not synonymous with a c c e s s i b i l i t y to adult educat ion p r o g r a m s and that p s y c h o l o g i c a l 27 and s o c i a l f a c t o r s in f luence th i s . T h u s , l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e and d i s tance t r a v e l l e d appear to set b r o a d l i m i t s on the effect ive 24. D o n a l d P . M c K i n n o n , " A C o m p a r i s o n of D i s t a n c e s T r a v e l l e d to U r b a n N i g h t S c h o o l C e n t e r s . " U n p u b l i s h e d M . E d , t h e s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. 25. J . G . D i c k i n s o n , "Pat terns o f P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a P u b l i c A d u l t N i g h t S c h o o l P r o g r a m . " U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . thes i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1966. 26. B r u n n e r , op_. c i t . , p . 97. 27. A . A . K a p l a n , S o c i o - E c o n o m i c C i r c u m s t a n c e s and A d u l t P a r t i -c ipa t ion i n C e r t a i n C u l t u r a l and E d u c a t i o n a l A c t i v i t i e s . N e w Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1943, p . 53. 25 range of an adult educat ion center but the p r e c i s e b o u n d a r i e s have not been d e t e r m i n e d , i n p a r t b e c a u s e of the p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l f a c t o r s that enter into the r e l a t i o n s h i p . It wou ld be expected , however , that p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion would d e c r e a s e as d i s tance f r o m a center i n c r e a s e d . S O C I O - E C O N O M I C C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S A d u l t educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s d i s t r i b u t e d throughout a l l s egments of the adult popula t ion , however , t h e r e a r e d i s c r e -p a n c i e s i n the extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y adults i n d i f ferent c a t e g o r i e s wi th r e s p e c t to v a r i o u s s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A l t h o u g h a n u m b e r of c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s have b e e n e x a m i n e d , age, educat ion, and o c c u p a t i o n have d i f ferent ia ted between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n m o s t s tudies but the d i f f erences a r e l e s s d i s t inc t i n r u r a l than i n u r b a n a r e a s . M o s t s tudies of p a r t i c i p a n t s tend to support the g e n e r a l i z a t i o n that adult educat ion p r o g r a m s a t trac t p r o p o r t i o n a l l y m o r e younger adults but fewer o l d e r adults than t h e r e a r e i n the popu la t ion s e r v e d . L o n d o n , W e n k e r t , and H a g s t r o m , for e x a m p l e , r e p o r t e d that the n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an u r b a n a r e a d e c l i n e d with each s u c c e s s i v e decade f r o m 20 p e r cent i n the twenty to twenty-n ine age group to 7 p e r cent i n the fifty to f i f ty -n ine y e a r 28 group . Johnstone and R i v e r a r e p o r t e d a m e d i a n age of 36. 5 y e a r s for adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s w h i c h was m o r e than s ix y e a r s younger than the m e d i a n age for the to ta l s a m p l e and that n e a r l y four - f i f ths of the p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e l e s s than fifty y e a r s 29 o l d . In an a n a l y s i s of census data for the U n i t e d States , B o o t h noted that n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e m o s t l i k e l y to appear among those 30 f o r t y - f i v e y e a r s o r o l d e r and a p a t t e r n of d e c r e a s i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n with age was r e p o r t e d b y the D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of S ta t i s t i c s i n C a n a d a . A n u m b e r of s tudies have found that the rate of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n tends to i n c r e a s e with h i g h e r educat iona l a t ta inment and V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y c o n c l u d e d that this was the 28. J a c k L o n d o n , R o b e r t "Wenkert, and W a r r e n O . H a g s t r o m , A d u l t E d u c a t i o n and S o c i a l C l a s s . B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y of C a l i f o r n i a S u r v e y R e s e a r c h C e n t e r , 1963, p . 43. 29. Johnstone and R i v e r a , op. c i t . , p . 6. 30. A l a n B o o t h , " A D e m o g r a p h i c C o n s i d e r a t i o n of N o n - P a r t i c i p a t i o n . A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 11:223-229, ( S u m m e r , 1961). 31. D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of S ta t i s t i c s , op. c i t . , p . 13. 27 32 m o s t s ign i f i cant d e t e r m i n a n t of p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Johnstone and R i v e r a r e i t e r a t e d this c o n c l u s i o n and r e p o r t e d that whi le the adults i n t h e i r s a m p l e a v e r a g e d 11. 5 y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d , the 33 adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s a v e r a g e d 12.2 y e a r s . B o o t h noted that n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e m o s t l i k e l y i n the group with l e s s than h i g h s c h o o l educat ion . In addi t ion , n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n was m o r e p r e v a l e n t a m o n g r u r a l than u r b a n r e s i d e n t s r e g a r d l e s s of 34 educa t iona l a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s wou ld tend to s u p p o r t the e a r l i e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n b y V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y that adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y r u r a l r e s i d e n t s tends to cut a c r o s s a l l l i n e s , thus, educat ion wou ld s e e m to be l e s s i m p o r t a n t a factor i n d i s t i n -g u i s h i n g between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n r u r a l than i n u r b a n a r e a s . T h e r e i s s o m e ev idence to i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i o n s h i p between o c c u p a t i o n and adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n and B r u n n e r 35 c o n c l u d e d that these v a r i a b l e s w e r e "highly r e l a t e d . " V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y c o n c l u d e d that w h i t e - c o l l a r w o r k e r s , h o u s e w i v e s , and p r o f e s s i o n a l s tended to p a r t i c i p a t e m o r e i n p u b l i c s c h o o l adult 32. V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , p . 218. 33. Johnstone and R i v e r a , op_. c i t . p . 7. 34. B o o t h , op. c i t . 35. B r u n n e r , op_. c i t . p . 9 6 . 28 educat ion p r o g r a m s than t h e i r p r o p o r t i o n a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the 36 popu la t ion wou ld i n d i c a t e . L o n d o n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s have found that p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e c r e a s e d f r o m 19 p e r cent i n u p p e r white 37 c o l l a r to 9 p e r cent i n l o w e r b lue c o l l a r o c c u p a t i o n s . T h e y o b s e r v e d that this p a t t e r n o c c u r r e d b e c a u s e the p r o p o r t i o n of educated people v a r i e d i n each o c c u p a t i o n a l g r o u p . T h u s , the m o r e p r e s t i g i o u s and r e s p o n s i b l e the occupat ion , the l a r g e r the p r o p o r t i o n of educated w o r k e r s and the l a r g e r the p r o p o r t i o n of educated w o r k e r s , the m o r e l i k e l i h o o d of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . M u c h of the v a r i a t i o n i n adult educat ion p a r t i c i -p a t i o n accounted for b y occupat ion wou ld p r o b a b l y be o b s c u r e d , however , i n r u r a l a r e a s w h e r e occupat ions a r e g e n e r a l l y quite homogeneous i n n a t u r e . 36. V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op. c i t . , p . 216. 37. L o n d o n , op_. c i t . , p p . 40 -41 . 2 9 C H A P T E R T H R E E T H E A R E A T h e P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i s r e a d i l y i d e n t i f i e d as a d i s c r e t e c o m m u n i t y for a n a l y s i s s ince i t i s a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d m o u n t a i n v a l l e y a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d m i l e s n o r t h e a s t of V a n c o u v e r i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e n e a r e s t se t t l ements a r e S q u a m i s h w h i c h i s f ifty m i l e s southwest and L i l l o o e t w h i c h i s f ifty m i l e s nor theas t of P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e . T h e r e l a t i v e i s o l a t i o n f r o m other popula t ion cen ter s of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y has p l a y e d an i m p o r t a n t h i s t o r i c r o l e i n i ts se t t l ement . T h e l a c k of r e a d y m e a n s of a c c e s s c o u p l e d wi th p e r i o d i c f looding i n the v a l l e y l e d to a p a t t e r n of se t t l ement and then abandonment of the l a n d which s t i l l p e r s i s t s to s o m e extent. 30 P H Y S I C A L D E S C R I P T I O N T h e C o a s t M o u n t a i n Range has f o r m e d P e m b e r t o n into a V - s h a p e d v a l l e y with the apex of the V at P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e w h i c h i s the on ly i n c o r p o r a t e d se t t l ement i n the a r e a . T h e n o r t h -west b r a n c h of the v a l l e y extends for fifty m i l e s a long the L i l l o o e t R i v e r to its s o u r c e , but on ly the l o w e r twenty m i l e s a r e inhabited. T h i s i n h a b i t e d s ec t i on has an a v e r a g e e l evat ion of 900 feet above sea l e v e l . It i s about o n e - h a l f m i l e i n width at the n o r t h e r n end but g r a d u a l l y widens to two m i l e s n e a r the v i l l a g e . T h e n o r t h e a s t b r a n c h of the v a l l e y extends f r o m P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e for twenty-f ive m i l e s to A n d e r s o n L a k e . T h i s s ec t i on s e l d o m exceeds o n e -h a l f m i l e i n width and i s s p a r s e l y popula ted . T h e c l i m a t e i n the v a l l e y i s d o m i n a t e d b y m o i s t , r e l a t i v e l y m i l d P a c i f i c a i r for m o s t of each y e a r . T h e weather s tat ion at P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s r e p o r t e d m o n t h l y m e a n t e m p e r a t u r e s of 23 degrees i n J a n u a r y and 64 degrees i n J u l y . T h e r e a r e 134 f r o s t f r e e days on the a v e r a g e wi th the l a s t s p r i n g f r o s t o c c u r r i n g about M a y 20 and the f i r s t f a l l f r o s t about S e p t e m b e r 28. T h e annual p r e c i p i t a t i o n a v e r a g e s 36 i n c h e s but t h e r e i s a to ta l of on ly 31 t h r e e i n c h e s of r a i n d u r i n g June, J u l y , and A u g u s t . N e a r l y h a l f of the y e a r l y p r e c i p i t a t i o n o c c u r s i n N o v e m b e r , D e c e m b e r , and J a n u a r y and h a l f of this fa l l s as snow w h i c h a v e r a g e s 150 inches annua l ly . E X P L O R A T I O N T h e P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y was n a m e d i n honour of J o s e p h D e s p a r d P e m b e r t o n , the S u r v e y o r - G e n e r a l of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m 18 51 to 1864 and a m e m b e r of the o r i g i n a l 2 H o u s e of A s s e m b l y of V a n c o u v e r I s land . T h e e a r l i e s t inhabitants of the v a l l e y w e r e the L i l l o o e t d i v i s i o n of the I n t e r i o r S a l i s h Indians . T h e f i r s t white m a n to t r a v e r s e the southern i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e was S i m o n F r a s e r , who i n 1808 o b s e r v e d s e v e r a l E u r o p e a n - m a d e a r t i c l e s i n c l u d i n g a copper tea ket t le and a l a r g e gun i n the p o s s e s s i o n of an out ly ing d i v i s i o n of the 1. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a L a n d s S e r v i c e , T h e Q u e s n e l - L i l l o o e t B u l l e t i n A r e a . V i c t o r i a : Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r , 1961, p p . 15-19. 2. H . S. S a m p s o n , " M y F a t h e r , J o s e p h D e s p a r d P e m b e r t o n . " T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 8:111-125, ( A p r i l , 1944). 32 3 L i l l o o e t s . F r a s e r , h o wever , d i d not venture into the P e m b e r t o n d i s t r i c t . A . C . A n d e r s o n , C h i e f T r a d e r for the H u d s o n Bay-C o m p a n y , a p p e a r s to have b e e n the f i r s t white m a n to d i s c o v e r the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . H e set out f r o m K a m l o o p s on M a y 15, 1846, i n an attempt to f ind a nav igab le route to the coast . O n o r about M a y 20 A n d e r s o n found that he was unable to d e s c e n d the F r a s e r R i v e r and s t r u c k w e s t w a r d o v e r the route w h i c h was l a t e r to be known as the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t T r a i l . H e found this a d i f f icu l t j o u r n e y , "but the nat ives e v e r y w h e r e r e c e i v e d h i m 4 wi th d e m o n s t r a t i o n s of joy, and lent h i m e v e r y a s s i s t a n c e . " A n d e r s o n c o m p l e t e d his j o u r n e y to the coast on M a y 24 when he r e a c h e d F o r t L a n g l e y . A n d e r s o n ' s route appears to have b e e n l i t t l e u s e d i n the y e a r s i m m e d i a t e l y fo l lowing h i s d i s c o v e r y . T h e next account of a j o u r n e y through the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y was w r i t t e n 3. C . H i l l - T o u t , T h e N a t i v e s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I. T h e F a r  W e s t . L o n d o n : A r c h i b a l d C o n s t a b l e , 1907, p p . 21-22 . 4. H . H . B a n c r o f t , H i s t o r y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . San F r a n c i s c o : T h e H i s t o r y C o m p a n y , 1887, p . 161. 33 5 by C . C . G a r d i n e r -who t r a v e l l e d f r o m H a r r i s o n L a k e to L i l l o o e t . G a r d i n e r r e p o r t e d that he "went up a r i v e r of 5 m i l e s , at the h e a d of i t b e i n g a beaut i fu l v a l l e y of some thousand a c r e s , on which was s i tuated a l a r g e R a n c h a r e e of Indians , the m o s t of w h o m w e r e naked , and a p p e a r e d somewhat h o s t i l e . " T h u s , i n e a r l y 18 58 t h e r e d i d not appear to be any white s e t t l er s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . W i t h the d i s c o v e r y of go ld a long the F r a s e r R i v e r i t b e c a m e n e c e s s a r y to open a route f r o m the coas t to the i n t e r i o r of the p r o v i n c e . A F r a s e r C a n y o n r o a d was c o n s i d e r e d i m p r a c t i c at the t i m e , so G o v e r n o r J a m e s Douglas sugges ted i n J u l y , 1858 that the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route would be the bes t a l t e r n a t i v e . In a despatch to L o r d Stanley on J u l y 26 Douglas noted that he p l a n n e d to b u i l d the r o a d that s u m m e r u n l e s s he r e c e i v e d 6 i n s t r u c t i o n s to the c o n t r a r y . O n A u g u s t 19 Doug las r e p o r t e d i n another despatch that f ive h u n d r e d m e n w e r e w o r k i n g on the p r o j e c t and that 5. C . C . G a r d i n e r , " T o the F r a s e r R i v e r M i n e s i n 18 58. " T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 1:243-253 ( O c t o b e r , 1937). 6. P a p e r s R e l a t i v e to the A f f a i r s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L o n d o n : Q u e e n ' s P r i n t e r . P a r t i , 1859, p . 23. 34 7 s ix teen m i l e s h a d a l r e a d y b e e n c o m p l e t e d . T h e l a b o u r e r s r e c e i v e d no p a y for t h e i r w o r k ; r a t h e r , they w e r e each r e q u i r e d to pos t a $25 bond which was to be r e p a i d i n p r o v i s i o n s when w o r k was c o m p l e t e d and they a l so r e c e i v e d a two week h e a d s tar t on a l l o ther t r a f f i c to the go ld f i e lds . T h e t r a i l was c o m p l e t e d i n O c t o b e r , 1858 after m a n y p r o b l e m s wi th fores t f i r e s , Indian s c a r e s , s c a r c i t y of supp l i e s , and the need to b u i l d the r o a d o v e r 8 swamps between L i l l o o e t and A n d e r s o n L a k e s . A s the r o a d was h a s t i l y bu i l t , i t was l i t t l e m o r e than a p a c k t r a i l and i t soon p r o v e d to be inadequate . D u r i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n p e r i o d the Indians of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y e x p e r i e n c e d the ir f i r s t extended contact with whites but a c c o r d i n g to one s o u r c e , they d i s p l a y e d 9 l i t t l e h o s t i l i t y towards the go ld m i n e r s . B o t h the F r a s e r C a n y o n and the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t routes to the i n t e r i o r w e r e di f f icul t to t r a v e r s e . In an attempt to f ind an e a s i e r t r a i l , J o s e p h M c K a y left F o r t L a n g l e y on S e p t e m b e r 1, 1858 and t r a v e l l e d the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route to 7. I b i d . , p . 28. 8. J . H . S tewar t R e i d , M o u n t a i n s , M e n and R i v e r s . T o r o n t o : R y e r s o n P r e s s , 1954, p . 146. 9. M i l e n a N a s t i c h , "The L i l l o o e t : A n A c c o u n t of the B a s i s of Ind iv idua l Status . " U n p u b l i s h e d M . A . the s i s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1954, p . 21. 35 the h ead of L i l l o o e t L a k e n e a r the p r e s e n t v i l l a g e of P e m b e r t o n . H e r e p o r t e d that the de l ta at the n o r t h end of the lake was s w a m p y and c o n s i s t e d of about one thousand a c r e s . ^ M c K a y then s t r u c k w e s t w a r d to Howe Sound w h i c h he r e a c h e d on S e p t e m b e r 11. H e c o v e r e d the f i f ty - f ive m i l e s f r o m P e m b e r t o n to H o w e Sound i n f ive days . H i s route p r o v e d to be too di f f icul t for r e g u l a r use so i t was not deve loped at that t i m e . T h e route to the i n t e r i o r taken b y m o s t t r a v e l l e r s i n the late 1850's was the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t . F r o m P o r t Doug las at the head of H a r r i s o n L a k e to the F r a s e r R i v e r n e a r L i l l o o e t was a d is tance of 108 m i l e s . T h r e e l a k e s h a d to be c r o s s e d i n v o l v i n g a to ta l d i s tance of 44 m i l e s . T w o l o n g and two s h o r t por tages to ta l l ed 64 l a n d m i l e s . ( T a b l e 1). S ix ty - two b r i d g e s h a d to be c r o s s e d on the two l o n g p o r t a g e s . A t the end of 1858, G o v e r n o r Doug las was able to r e p o r t that the t r a i l was " f a i r l y open to t r a f f i c . " H o w e v e r p o o r the route was, i t h a d a c c o u n t e d for , £ l 4 , 674 out of total expenses of j[25, 059 for the co lony of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a i n the y e a r ending F e b r u a r y 23, 10. P a p e r s R e l a t i v e . . . . P a r t II, 1859, pp . 30-33. 11. Ib id . , p . 46. 12. P a p e r s R e l a t i v e . . . . P a r t ILL I860, p . 3. 36 T A B L E 1 W A T E R A N D L A N D M I L E A G E S O N T H E H A R R I S O N - L I L L O O E T R O U T E Sec t ion L a n d M i l e s W a t e r M i l e s P o r t Douglas - P o r t L i l l o o e t 34 P o r t L i l l o o e t - P o r t P e m b e r t o n 13 P o r t P e m b e r t o n - P o r t A n d e r s o n 25 P o r t A n d e r s o n - E a s t P o r t 15 E a s t P'ort - W e s t P o r t 1 W e s t P o r t - P o r t Seaton 16 P o r t Seaton - F r a s e r R i v e r 4 T o t a l 64 44 S o u r c e : A d a p t e d f r o m P a p e r s R e l a t i v e . . . . , II, p . 33. E A R L Y S E T T L E M E N T E v i d e n c e of white se t t l ement i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y was f i r s t p r e s e n t e d b y Judge Mathew B e g b i e who rode 13 c i r c u i t o v e r the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route i n A p r i l , 18 59. 13. Ib id . , pp . 17-24. H e deeded a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d to nine i n d i v i d u a l s n e a r the e a s t e r n end of the t r a i l and noted that a M r . B r y a n t h a d a p p l i e d for 250 a c r e s n e a r P e m b e r t o n . B e g b i e r e p o r t e d the ex i s tence of "some f ive or s i x s q u a r e m i l e s of exceed ing ly r i c h p r a i r i e l a n d " i n the v a l l e y and "a good h a l f - w a y house" at P o r t P e m b e r t o n w h i c h was s i tuated at the nor theas t c o r n e r of L i l l o o e t L a k e . T h i s b u i l d i n g was the on ly c o n c r e t e i n d i c a t i o n of se t t lement t h e r e s i n c e B e g b i e noted that t h e r e was "a comple te m o n o p o l y t h r o w n into the hands of the r e s t a u r a n t e u r in the on ly b u i l d i n g at P e m b e r t o n . " E x p a n s i o n appears to have c o m e q u i c k l y that s p r i n g , as i n d i c a t e d i n a r e p o r t b y R . C . M a y n e who set out to s u r v e y 14 the effects of the go ld r u s h . He found that r e s t a u r a n t s w e r e l o c a t e d a l l a long the p o r t a g e s of the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route and he d e s c r i b e d these eat ing p l a c e s as " s i m p l y huts , where the t r a v e l l e r can obta in a m e a l of b a c o n , beans , b r e a d , sa l t , but ter , and tea o r coffee, for a d o l l a r ; whi le , i f he has no tent with h i m , he can se l ec t the softest p lank i n the f l oor to s leep on . " P o r t P e m b e r t o n i n M a y , 1859 c o n s i s t e d of "a couple of r e s t a u r a n t s and h a l f - a - d o z e n huts , o c c u p i e d b y m u l e t e e r s and b o a t m e n . 1 1 14. R . C . M a y n e , F o u r Y e a r s i n V a n c o u v e r I s land and B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a . L o n d o n : J o h n M u r r a y , 1862, p p . 133-136. 38 T h e v a l l e y f ive m i l e s west of P o r t P e m b e r t o n conta ined " s e v e r a l a g r i c u l t u r a l s e t t l e r s . " L i e u t e n a n t H . S. P a l m e r of the R o y a l E n g i n e e r s a l so e x a m i n e d the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route i n M a y , 18 59 i n p r e p a r a t i o n for i m p r o v e m e n t s to the r o a d w h i c h w e r e then 15 contempla ted . In his r e p o r t he noted that the town of P e m b e r t o n c o n s i s t e d of f ive or s i x houses s i tuated on a "wre tched r o c k y site i n the n o r t h e r n m o s t c o r n e r of L a k e L i l l o o e t . A t h igh stages of the water the town is a c c e s s i b l e to boats , but i n the winter a l o n g flat b a r of sand p r e v e n t s t h e i r c o m i n g wi th in 500 y a r d s of i t . " W e s t o f P o r t P e m b e r t o n , "a few f a r m i n g m e n have c u l t i v a t e d land , and t h e r e i s a l so a l a r g e Indian v i l l a g e . " A s a r e s u l t of h i s s u r v e y P a l m e r r e c o m m e n d e d that the town be r e - l o c a t e d n e a r i ts p r e s e n t s i te i n o r d e r to open up the v a l l e y . H e a l so sugges ted that i n d u c e m e n t be g iven to f a r m e r s "to c l e a r and cul t ivate the l a n d i n the v i c i n i t y of this town, wh ich m i g h t o t h e r w i s e be neg lec ted , i n consequence of i t s r e m o t e n e s s f r o m any m a i n route of c o m m u n i c a t i o n . " In June , 1 859 , G o v e r n o r Douglas took ac t ion to i m p r o v e the condi t ion of the r o a d . H e not i f i ed L o n d o n that he wou ld be sending , under P a l m e r ' s d i r e c t i o n , one h u n d r e d R o y a l 15. P a p e r s R e l a t i v e . . . . P a r t U l , I 8 6 0 , p p . 4 0 - 4 8 . E n g i n e e r s and R o y a l M a r i n e s p lus t h i r t y c i v i l i a n l a b o u r e r s to i m p r o v e the s ec t i on n o r t h of H a r r i s o n L a k e into a good wagon r o a d . F u r t h e r i m p r o v e m e n t s to this s ec t ion w e r e m a d e u n d e r 17 the d i r e c t i o n of C a p t a i n G r a n t i n I860 and 18 61. B y m i d - 1 8 6 0 t h r e e new s t e a m e r s w e r e i n o p e r a t i o n i n c l u d i n g the " C h a m p i o n " on.Seton L a k e , the " L a d y of the L a k e " on A n d e r s o n L a k e , and the 18 " M a r z e l l e " on L i l l o o e t L a k e . G o v e r n o r Doug las j o u r n e y e d o v e r the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route i n S e p t e m b e r , I8 60. H e noted that a se t t l ement h a d been f o r m e d f ive m i l e s west of P o r t P e m b e r t o n , as L i e u t e n a n t P a l m e r h a d e a r l i e r r e c o m m e n d e d , and that exce l l ent c r o p s w e r e b e i n g p r o d u c e d t h e r e . A M r . Jones , d e s c r i b e d as "the o ldes t and p r i n c i p a l s e t t l er , " h a d s o l d potatoes for J[240 p e r a c r e i n 1859 but the r e t u r n was r e p o r t e d to be on ly h a l f that for I860. T h i r t y f a m i l i e s w e r e l i v i n g on the Indian R e s e r v e n e a r b y and, a c c o r d i n g to D o u g l a s , they s e e m e d happy and contented d e r i v i n g 16. Ib id . , p . 17. 17. F . W . H o w a y , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f r o m the E a r l i e s t T i m e s to  the P r e s e n t . V a n c o u v e r : S. J . C l a r k e P u b l i s h i n g C o m p a n y , 1914, v o l . II, p . 93. 18. N o r m a n R . H a c k i n g , "Steamboat ing on the F r a s e r i n the ' S i x t i e s . " T h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a H i s t o r i c a l Q u a r t e r l y , 10: 1-41. ( J a n u a r y , 1946). 40 19 a l i v i n g f r o m f i sh in g and a g r i c u l t u r e . G o v e r n o r Douglas i s s a i d to have g iven the Indians 160 a c r e s of l a n d at this t i m e 20 but the r e s e r v e was not r e c o r d e d i n the L a n d O f f i c e . R . C . M a y n e r e v i s i t e d the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n I8 60, r e a c h i n g i t f r o m Howe Sound o v e r M c K a y ' s route . H e r e p o r t e d that t h e r e w e r e a n u m b e r of f a r m e r s i n the v a l l e y although" P o r t P e m b e r t o n h a d changed l i t t l e s ince his v i s i t the p r e v i o u s y e a r . M a y n e r e g a r d e d the p o r t as a k e y point on the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route : O u r sense of i t s (the v a l l e y ' s ) c h a r m s was not a l i t t l e he ightened p e r h a p s b y the few s igns o f c i v i l i z a t i o n b e f o r e u s , and the s ight far off of the th in white s m o k e w h i c h t o l d w h e r e the huts w h i c h const i tute the i m p o r t a n t c i ty of P e m b e r t o n , whi ther we w e r e bound, l a y . 2 1 19. P a p e r s R e l a t i v e . . . . . P a r t I V , 1862, p . 24. 20. A n n u a l R e p o r t of the D e p a r t m e n t of Indian A f f a i r s . Ot tawa: M a c l e a n , R o g e r and C o m p a n y , 188 3, p . 79. 21. M a y n e , op. c i t . , p . 203. 41 A B A N D O N M E N T T h e H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route to the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a q u i c k l y o u t l i v e d i ts u s e f u l n e s s . T h e r o a d was c l o s e d for four months d u r i n g the winter of 18 61-62 b e c a u s e of snow and 22 l a n d s l i d e s . Goods h a d to be h a n d l e d at l e a s t eight t i m e s between V i c t o r i a and the C a r i b o o and d e l i v e r y u s u a l l y took f r o m 23 twenty to f o r t y days . A s a r e s u l t , w o r k began on an a l t ernate route i n the F r a s e r C a n y o n b y 1862. A n intense r i v a l r y s p r a n g up between c o m p e t i n g s h i p p e r s on the two routes and a group of F r a s e r C a n y o n p r o m o t e r s s p o n s o r e d an a d v e r t i s i n g p o s t e r 24 d e n i g r a t i n g the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route : T a k e a S P L E N D I D s t e a m e r at New "Westminster for H a r r i s o n R i v e r . T h e r e h i r e E L E G A N T I N D I A N C A N O E S to po le you o v e r the r a p i d s , or walk a long the p e b b l y s h o r e , W A D E F O U R S L O U G H S i m d S W I M one s m a l l r i v e r to r e a c h a h i g h - t o n e d  p r o p e l l e r , w h i c h runs at the speed of 2 m i l e s p e r hour (wind p e r m i t t i n g ) . No c l o s e conf ined cabins on b o a r d , but p u r e , 22. R e i d , op. c i t . , p . 159-23. Ib id . , p . 151. 24. T h e p o s t e r i s r e p r o d u c e d i n H o w a y , op. c i t . , p . 108. T h e e x c e r p t i quoted h e r e deals with the f i r s t h a l f of the route . 42 w h o l e s o m e a i r on deck, with the p r i v i l e g e of s t i c k i n g your nose i n the cook's g a l l e y to w a r m i t without e x t r a c h a r g e . T w e n t y -five h o u r s w i l l take you to the m o u t h of the Douglas S lough, where she connects with capac ious canoes , f a r e $2. 00 to the edge of the i c e n e a r Douglas R a n c h e r i e s , ( s m a l l p o x there - but don't h u r t white m e n , on ly k i l l s Indians , ) then foot i t to D o u g l a s . F o o t it aga in to 29 m i l e house o v e r four feet of snow. T h e l i t t l e l ake b e i n g f r o z e n o v e r , walk a r o u n d i t to L i l l o o e t L a k e - s c e n e r y de l ight fu l . T h e r e ca tch another elegant and h i g h - t o n e d s t e a m e r i f you can; i f you can't , wait a day or two - m e a l s on ly $1. 00. W h e n the s t e a m e r "toots h e r h o r n " get a b o a r d and r e s t y o u r s e l f on the open deck for 4 h o u r s ; weather m o i s t , or a i r k e e n . R e a c h P e m b e r t o n ; good m e a l s t h e r e for $1 .00 each; beds 50 cents -C r a w l e r s G r a t i s - ( s m a l l p o x b lankets c a r e -fu l l y washed) . U n t i l 1863 the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route h a d a n e a r m o n o p o l y on f re ight t r a f f i c but this was q u i c k l y d e s t r o y e d when the F r a s e r C a n y o n r o a d opened. T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n the t o l l c o l l e c t i o n s that w e r e m a d e i n the m i d - 1 8 6 0 ' s : at Y a l e on the F r a s e r C a n y o n they d e c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y f r o m £ 8 , 726 i n 1864 to J^7, 585 i n 1865. A t Douglas on the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route , h o w e v e r , t o l l c o l l e c t i o n s f e l l f r o m ^6, 438 i n 1864 to P / 25 £ 2 , 259 i n 1865. M i n o r r e p a i r s w e r e m a d e on the r o a d p a s s i n g through the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n the s p r i n g of 18;64, but after that y e a r no m o r e p u b l i c m o n e y was ever spent on i t . " 25. Ib id . , p . 107. 26. R e i d , op. c i t . , p . 155. 43 T h e r o a d cont inued to c a r r y s o m e l ight t r a f f i c u n t i l the late 1860's but the o r i g i n a l white s e t t l e r s s e e m to have abandoned the a r e a . W i t h the dec l ine of t r a f f i c head ing for the go ldf ie lds , l i t t l e o p p o r t u n i t y r e m a i n e d for the sa le of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s and the s e r v i c e i n d u s t r i e s l o c a t e d at P o r t P e m b e r t o n h a d no f u r t h e r r e a s o n to ex is t . T h e dec l ine i n the white popula t ion i s apparent f r o m 27 an e x a m i n a t i o n of vo ter s l i s t s for the a r e a . T h r e e p e r s o n s l i v i n g at P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s w e r e ent i t led to vote i n the e l e c t o r a l d i s t r i c t of L i l l o o e t i n 1877 i n c l u d i n g W a l t e r B u r g e s s , S y d n e y C o l e , a n d . J a m e s H a l l i d a y . J o h n M e k a n was added to the l i s t i n 1878 but i n 188 6 t h e r e w e r e no e l i g ib l e vo ter s l i s t e d for the P e m b e r t o n a r e a . T h e abandonment of the v a l l e y b y white s e t t l e r s was c o n f i r m e d i n M a r c h , 1882 b y the Indian R e s e r v e C o m m i s s i o n e r , P . O ' R e i l l y , who r e p o r t e d that "in the e a r l y days of the P T o v i n c e , a l m o s t e v e r y a v a i l a b l e a c r e h e r e was p r e - e m p t e d or r e c o r d e d for 27. P a r l i a m e n t of the P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S e s s i o n a l  P a p e r s ; V i c t o r i a : G o v e r n m e n t P 'r in ter , v a r i o u s y e a r s . 4-4 28 p u r c h a s e . " B y 1882 the l a n d h a d "in e v e r y in s tance b e e n abandoned. . . and t h e r e i s not a white m a n r e s i d e n t wi th in this en t i re v a l l e y . " Consequent ly , the C o m m i s s i o n e r c o n s i d e r e d the a r e a to be "the m o s t d e s i r a b l e l o c a t i o n for an Indian r e s e r v a t i o n that I have yet m e t wi th" and he r e c o m m e n d e d that the en t i re v a l l e y be m a d e into a r e s e r v e . O ' R e i l l y r e p o r t e d that the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y conta ined about 9, 000 a c r e s of l a n d of wh ich at l e a s t 1, 500 a c r e s w e r e capable of c o n v e r s i o n into "excel lent a r a b l e l a n d . " T h e r e w e r e 203 Indians l i v i n g i n the v a l l e y at the t i m e i n c l u d i n g 54 m e n , 49 women , and 100 c h i l d r e n . T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r i n d i c a t e d that f i s h e r i e s w e r e t h e i r " n a t u r a l " m e a n s of support and this was supplemented b y hunt ing, t r a p p i n g , and m i n i n g . A g r i c u l t u r e was not m e n t i o n e d . T h e C o m m i s s i o n e r a l l o c a t e d five r e s e r v e s t o t a l l i n g 1560.75 a c r e s , the l a r g e s t c o n s i s t i n g of 1, 300 a c r e s at the mouth of the L i l l o o e t R i v e r between the n o r t h and south b r a n c h e s . T h e Indian R e s e r v e S u r v e y o r , W . S. J e m m e t , s u r v e y e d this l a n d i n i n S e p t e m b e r and O c t o b e r of 1882 and d i v i d e d i t into nine p a r c e l s t o ta l l ing 1816. 53 a c r e s . T h e P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y Indians b a n d e d together under C h i e f J a m e s S tager at about this t i m e . 28. C o m m i s s i o n e r O ' R e i l l y ' s r e p o r t i s i n c l u d e d i n A n n u a l  R e p o r t . . . , op. c i t . , p p . 79-83 . T h e L o w e r F r a s e r A g e n c y was extended to i n c l u d e the P e m b e r t o n Meadows b a n d i n 1884. T h e A g e n c y Super intendent i n d i c a t e d that: T h i s l a n d at P e m b e r t o n i s of s u c h exce l l en t q u a l i t y that, with v e r y l i t t l e l a b o r , the Indians r a i s e abundance of potatoes and other vegetables , a l so l a r g e quanti t ies of hay . T h e y have l a r g e n u m b e r s of catt le and h o r s e s . ^ T h e Indians w e r e unable to s e l l t h e i r s tock o r p r o d u c e b e c a u s e of the long d i s tance to m a r k e t s . B e t w e e n 1884 and 1886 the b a n d popula t ion i n c r e a s e d f r o m 140 to 162, but the 1887 r e p o r t i n d i c a t e d a s l ight setback to 156 m e m b e r s . T h i s was p r o b a b l y a r e s u l t of a s e v e r e winter d u r i n g w h i c h the b a n d l o s t 97 h e a d of catt le and 89 h o r s e s , "at l e a s t 75% of the i r whole 30 s tock . " A f t e r that y e a r the b a n d s t ead i ly i n c r e a s e d i n s i ze to 186 i n 1888, 197 i n 1894, 218 i n 1896, 255 i n 1900, and 261 i n 1908. R A I L R O A D C O N S T R U C T I O N i T h e go ld r u s h of the late 1850's h a d p r o v i d e d the 29. A n n u a l R e p o r t . . . , 1885, p . 103. 30. A n n u a l R e p o r t . . . , 1887, p . 111. 46 i m p e t u s for the i n i t i a l white se t t l ement of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . T h i s e a r l y hab i ta t ion was c l o s e l y l i n k e d wi th the c o n s t r u c t i o n and subsequent decay of the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t T r a i l . T h e s e c o n d wave of se t t l ement was s t i m u l a t e d b y the deve lopment of a new t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n l i n k , the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y . A s e a r l y as 1891 p lans h a d b e e n m a d e to b u i l d a r a i l w a y to the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , p a s s i n g t h r o u g h the 31 P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . J o h n H e n d r y i n c o r p o r a t e d the V a n c o u v e r , N o r t h e r n , P e a c e R i v e r and A l a s k a R a i l w a y on A p r i l 20, 1891, but c o n s t r u c t i o n n e v e r s t a r t e d . H e n d r y m a d e another u n s u c c e s s f u l attempt i n 1899 and then f o r m e d the V a n c o u v e r , W e s t m i n s t e r and Y u k o n R a i l w a y i n 1901. T h i s l i n e p r o p o s e d to r u n n o r t h through the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . T h e V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e r e p o r t e d on J a n u a r y 28, 1907 that a p r o m i n e n t r a i l w a y c o n t r a c t o r h a d b e e n "making e n q u i r i e s about the c h a r a c t e r of the c o u n t r y t h r o u g h P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s . " In M a r c h of that y e a r the Howe Sound, P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y and N o r t h e r n R a i l w a y was c h a r t e r e d despi te the p r o t e s t s of H e n d r y ' s group who c l a i m e d that they h a d a l r e a d y 31. T h e fo l lowing m a t e r i a l r e g a r d i n g the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the r a i l w a y i s b a s e d , un le s s o therwi se noted, on: B r u c e R a m s e y , P . G . E . : R a i l w a y to the N o r t h . V a n c o u v e r : M i t c h e l l P r e s s , 1962, p p . 3 - 8 1 . 47 f i l e d s u r v e y s and p lans for the route to P 'emberton . T h e new group i n c l u d e d J . W . M c F a r l a n d who was d e s c r i b e d as a " f inanc ier , r a i l r o a d e r and landowner i n 32 P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s . " T h e y p u r c h a s e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1500 a c r e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y b e f o r e announcing i n 1909 that they h a d found a l o w - g r a d e route f r o m S q u a m i s h to L i l l o o e t . T h e c o m p a n y n a m e was s h o r t e n e d to Howe Sound and N o r t h e r n and t r a c k l a y i n g s t a r t e d i n 1909. i n 1910 the c o m p a n y p l a c e d an a d v e r t i s e m e n t i n a V a n c o u v e r n e w s -p a p e r announc ing that they h a d l o c a t e d a townsite i n P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s and h a d s u b - d i v i d e d an adjo in ing b l o c k of l a n d into f ive 33 and ten a c r e f a r m s , each f a c i n g on a r o a d . In 1912 the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y C o m p a n y was c r e a t e d b y the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a l e g i s l a t u r e and the agency p u r c h a s e d the H o w e Sound and N o r t h e r n i n O c t o b e r of that y e a r for about $1, 225, 000. C o n s t r u c t i o n was speeded up and on F e b r u a r y 20, 1914 the f i r s t t r a i n r e a c h e d L i l l o o e t . 32. O t h e r b l o c k s of l a n d w e r e h e l d at that t i m e b y P e m b e r t o n and Sons and b y the Y o r k s h i r e G u a r a n t e e C o m p a n y . 33. V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , O c t o b e r 14, 1910. 48 R E S E T T L E M E N T White se t t l ers began to a r r i v e aga in i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y s o m e t i m e between 1886 and 1890. W h e r e a s the l i s t of e l i g ib l e v o t e r s i n c l u d e d no one f r o m P e m b e r t o n i n the f o r m e r y e a r , f ive w e r e l i s t e d i n 1890 i n c l u d i n g John C u r r i e , D u g a l d M c D o n a l d , H a r v e y N e l s o n , Sy lvanus Pe t i t , and G e o r g e T e r r y . O f this group only the C u r r i e n a m e i s p r e s e n t l y found a m o n g the v a l l e y 34 r e s i d e n t s . N i n e t e e n e l i g ib l e v o t e r s w e r e l i s t e d i n 1894 for P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s i n d i c a t i n g a r e a w a k e n e d i n t e r e s t i n the v a l l e y as an a r e a for se t t lement . One l o c a l i n f o r m a n t r e p o r t e d that t h e r e w e r e l e s s than fifty whites l i v i n g i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n 1906. T h r e e Ronayne b r o t h e r s a r r i v e d i n that y e a r , and t h e i r descendants s t i l l l i v e i n the a r e a . D u r i n g 1906 and 1907 s e v e r a l other f a m i l i e s a r r i v e d to w o r k i n the n e w l y e s t a b l i s h e d D o m i n i o n s a l m o n h a t c h e r y l o c a t e d t h r e e m i l e s east of the Indian r e s e r v e . 34. A l o c a l i n f o r m a n t noted that two m i n e r s , H a r t z e l l and M i l l e r , w o r k e d i n B r a l o r n e d u r i n g the s u m m e r s and c l e a r e d l a n d i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y d u r i n g the w i n t e r s i n the 1880's and e a r l y 1890's. N e i t h e r n a m e was found i n the v o t e r s l i s t s for the p e r i o d . A n u m b e r of M i l l e r ' s descendants now l i v e i n the v a l l e y . 49 T h e P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y was a l so b e g i n n i n g to be no t i ced by the p o l i t i c i a n s . A n u n s u c c e s s f u l candidate i n the 1906 p r o v i n c i a l e l ec t ions , J . W . W e a r t , p r o m i s e d that h is p a r t y would develop a s y s t e m of roads to m a k e l a n d m o r e a c c e s s i b l e to s e t t l e r s , "and not l eave i s o l a t e d set t lements for y e a r s without a r o a d , s u c h as ex is ts at P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s , w h e r e a l l the m a c h i n e r y and suppl i e s en ter ing that v a l l e y through the S q u a m i s h m u s t be p a c k e d i n on e i ther the b a c k s of the se t t l ers or on i „ 3 5 h o r s e s . " 36 T e i t s tudied the Indian popula t ion of the v a l l e y at this t i m e and found that there w e r e f ive v i l l a g e s i n P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s . A l t h o u g h two of t h e m had only two or three houses each, the l a r g e s t v i l l a g e h a d twenty - f ive inhab i t ed houses and a c h u r c h . T e i t noted that whi le the Indian popu la t ion of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a was d e c r e a s i n g , that of the P e m b e r t o n b a n d was i n c r e a s i n g , a fact w h i c h he a t tr ibuted to t h e i r d i s tance f r o m whites . H e a l so i n d i c a t e d that m e m b e r s of the P e m b e r t o n b a n d h a d i n t e r m a r r i e d so m u c h with the S q u a m i s h and Seche l t bands that t h e r e w e r e 35. R a m s e y , op_. c i t . , p . 15. 36. J . T e i t , " T h e L i l l o o e t Indians . " M e m o i r s of the A m e r i c a n  M u s e u m of N a t u r a l H i s t o r y , 2: 193-300, 1906. 50 " v e r y few f a m i l i e s who d id not have r e l a t i v e s a m o n g these t r i b e s . ' T h e P e m b e r t o n Indians who m a r r i e d outs ide the v a l l e y tended to m o v e outs ide r a t h e r than t h e i r m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s m o v i n g to P e m b e r t o n . A l a n d s u r v e y o r who w o r k e d i n the v a l l e y r e p o r t e d i n 1912 that the P e m b e r t o n Indians , who l i v e d on an i s l a n d i n the L i l l o o e t R i v e r , "appear to be v e r y in te l l igent and i n d u s t r i o u s . It i s not an u n c o m m o n thing, after t a l k i n g with one of t h e m for a few m i n u t e s , to l e a r n that he has b e e n educated at the Indian 38 M i s s i o n at M i s s i o n C i t y . " T h e Indians began to c o m e into c l o s e r contact with the white r e s i d e n t s of the v a l l e y d u r i n g the F i r s t W o r l d W a r . P r i o r to this the f a r m e r s h a d n e v e r h i r e d Indian l a b o u r e r s but whi le m e n w e r e away d u r i n g the w a r , Indians w e r e h i r e d for one d o l l a r p e r day. T h e R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on Indian A f f a i r s for the p r o v i n c e a l l o c a t e d eight r e s e r v e s to ta l l ing 39 6353.70 a c r e s to the P e m b e r t o n b a n d i n 1916. T h i s ac t ion m o r e than t r i p l e d the band's f o r m e r h o l d i n g s . D u r i n g this p e r i o d 37. Ib id . , p . 200. 38. E x t r a c t s f r o m R e p o r t s on L i l l o o e t D i s t r i c t m a d e b y B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a L a n d S u r v e y o r s , 1908-1928. V i c t o r i a : K i n g 1 s P r i n t e r , 1929, p . 22. 39. R e p o r t of the R o y a l C o m m i s s i o n on Indian A f f a i r s for the  P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V i c t o r i a : A c m e P r e s s . 1916. v o l . 3, p . 686. 51 the b a n d popula t ion cont inued to i n c r e a s e , r e a c h i n g 259 m e m b e r s i n 1911, 275 i n 1915, and 287 i n 19 18. In the m e a n t i m e , the white s e t t l er s w e r e h a v i n g d i f f i cu l ty i n ga in ing a foothold i n the v a l l e y due to n e a r l y annual f looding of the L i l l o o e t R i v e r . A l a n d s u r v e y o r , G . M . Downton, sugges ted i n 1913 that the v a l l e y h a d i n c o m p a r a t i v e l y r e c e n t t i m e s conta ined a lake w h i c h r e a c h e d eight m i l e s up the L i l l o o e t R i v e r f r o m the h e a d of L i l l o o e t L a k e . W h e n L i l l o o e t L a k e r o s e d u r i n g the f lood s e a s o n i n e a r l y s u m m e r , the b a s i n l y i n g n o r t h of the l a k e was c o n v e r t e d into "a waste of waters a m o n g w h i c h 40 c l u m p s of cottonwood and w i l l o w . . . appear l i k e i s l a n d s . 1 1 F l o o d i n g i n the u p p e r p a r t of the v a l l e y a l so o c c u r r e d n e a r l y e v e r y s u m m e r s ince the L i l l o o e t R i v e r was of g l a c i a l o r i g i n . 41 N e v e r t h e l e s s , as a 1912 r e p o r t h a d noted, . the s o i l i n the' v a l l e y was f e r t i l e and t r u c k gardens grew abundantly . S t o c k -r a i s i n g was a m a i n i n d u s t r y and g r a i n s p r o d u c e d good y i e l d s , but l a c k of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s to outs ide m a r k e t s h a d l i m i t e d c r o p s to those that c o u l d be c o n s u m e d b y the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s or b y the ir s tock . B e g i n n i n g i n 1910 and for s o m e y e a r s a f t e r w a r d 40. E x t r a c t s . . . . , op. c i t . , p . 31. 41. Ib id . , p . 22. 52 the i n c i d e n c e of death among c a l v e s and young p igs i n the v a l l e y was quite h i g h due to g o i t r e . In 1917 the iod ine r e m e d y was d i s c o v e r e d and the f a r m e r s b e g a n to a d m i n i s t e r i t to the a n i m a l s w h i c h a m e l i o r a t e d the s i tuat ion . F u r t h e r se t t l ement d u r i n g the 1910's cont inued wi th the opening of the r a i l r o a d t h r o u g h the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . T h e f i r s t s c h o o l was b u i l t i n P e m b e r t o n Meadows i n 1916 and it opened wi th s ix teen p u p i l s . T h e consequences of th is expanded se t t l ement w e r e noted i n a r e - s u r v e y of the a r e a b y Downton i n 1919: I c o n s i d e r that o v e r the whole a r e a . . . t h e r e i s no vacant C r o w n l a n d su i table for se t t l ement at the p r e s e n t t i m e . . . . a l l the l a n d sui table for se t t l ement has l o n g s ince b e e n taken up, and wi th the except ion , p e r h a p s , of an odd a c r e h e r e and t h e r e between the foot of the m o u n t a i n and the b a c k of the r a n c h e s , t h e r e i s p r a c t i c a l l y nothing left . ^ Desp i te the fact that m o s t of the l a n d was p r i v a t e l y h e l d , Downton was s t r u c k b y the "rather n e g l e c t e d and d e s e r t e d a p p e a r a n c e of the p l a c e . " H e r e p o r t e d see ing thousands of a c r e s of good b o t t o m l a n d w h i c h was e i ther u n o c c u p i e d or on w h i c h the f a r m i n g was of a " v e r y n e g l i g i b l e quant i ty . " Downton a l so noted that a 53 l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t i n v o l v i n g d r e d g i n g at the n o r t h end of 43 L i l l o o e t L a k e h a d a l r e a d y b e e n c o n s i d e r e d . O n e e s t imate of the cost of this p r o j e c t was $75, 000 and this expendi ture wou ld r e c l a i m a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7, 000 a c r e s . A fur ther 10, 000 a c r e s wou ld b e c o m e a v a i l a b l e i f the r i v e r was s t ra ightened . B y 1920 t h e r e w e r e about t h i r t y - t w o white f a m i l i e s 44 l i v i n g i n the u p p e r v a l l e y and s i x i n P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e . T h e r e w e r e t h r e e s tores to s e r v e this popu la t ion i n c l u d i n g one at the P e m b e r t o n r a i l w a y stat ion o p e r a t e d b y a M r . W e l l i n g t o n , one about a m i l e f r o m the f i r s t o p e r a t e d b y the P e m b e r t o n T r a d i n g C o m p a n y , and one at O w l C r e e k n e a r the D o m i n i o n G o v e r n m e n t 45 F i s h H a t c h e r y kept b y a M r . Spe tch . T h e f i r s t m o t o r v e h i c l e was brought into the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n 1921 and s e v e r a l o thers fo l lowed s h o r t l y t h e r e a f t e r . 43. R a m s e y , op. c i t . , p . 68 i n d i c a t e d that the v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s h a d i n 1912 r e q u e s t e d the f e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t to p a r t i c i p a t e i n a r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t . 44. One l o c a l i n f o r m a n t who h a d a r r i v e d i n the a r e a s h o r t l y b e f o r e 1920 was able to r e c a l l the n a m e of each h o u s e h o l d h e a d . - T h e n a m e s w e r e t a l l i e d as they w e r e r e c a l l e d b y the i n f o r m a n t . 45. E x t r a c t s . . . . , op. c i t . , p . 7 5. A l o c a l i n f o r m a n t sugges ted that the f i r s t s tore d u r i n g the p e r i o d of r e s e t t l e m e n t h a d been r u n b y a p r o s p e c t o r n a m e d M a c k e n z i e . It was a g e n e r a l s t o r e o p e r a t i n g a r o u n d 1912. 54 T h e s e au tomobi l e s c o u l d on ly be u s e d wi th in the v a l l e y , however , as t h e r e w e r e no r o a d s to the outs ide . F a r m e r s b e g a n to grow foundat ion seed potatoes when c e r t i f i c a t i o n was i n t r o d u c e d i n 46 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a d u r i n g the 1920's. T h e s e c o n d s c h o o l was b u i l t i n 1926 w h e r e u p o n the o r i g i n a l b u i l d i n g was c o n v e r t e d into a c h u r c h with one s e r v i c e e v e r y s ix m o n t h s . A n E n g l i s h v i s i t o r to B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a took the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y f r o m S q u a m i s h i n 1926 and s topped at P e m b e r t o n for a day. She subsequent ly r e c o r d e d h e r i m p r e s s i o n s of a t r i p f r o m the r a i l w a y s tat ion to P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s . T h i s i s r e a c h e d on ly b y a s t r e t c h of tor tuous r o a d r u n n i n g a longs ide the L i l l o o e t R i v e r , s o m e t i m e s i m p a s s a b l e when the r i v e r i s i n spate and at a l l t i m e s dangerous f r o m f a l l i n g r o c k s on the other s ide . 47 W h e n she r e a c h e d P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s she v i s i t e d s e v e r a l s e t t l e r s . T h e s e t t l er s a r e a l l p i o n e e r s , up the v a l l e y , s e v e r a l of the f a m i l i e s v i o l e n t l y I r i s h ; they h a d b e e n there ten o r f ifteen y e a r s , h a v i n g gone to p r o s p e c t and, f inding that r a r e c o m b i n a t i o n of l ight c l e a r i n g and f e r t i l e s o i l , s tayed . ^8 46. G r e e t i n g s to P a c i f i c N a t i o n a l E x h i b i t i o n G o l d e n I960 A n n i -v e r s a r y f r o m the O r g a n i z a t i o n s and P e o p l e of the P e m b e r t o n  D i s t r i c t . I960, 12 pp . ( P a m p h l e t . ) 47. H . G l y n n - W a r d , T h e G l a m o u r of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . L o n d o n : H u t c h i n s o n and C o m p a n y , 1926, p . 7. 48. Ib id . , p . 8. 55 T h e B u r e a u of P r o v i n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n for B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r e p o r t e d i n 1933 that t h e r e w e r e two se t t l ement cen ter s 49 i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . A g e r t o n was about one m i l e f r o m the r a i l r o a d s tat ion and P e m b e r t o n Meadows was s i x m i l e s f a r t h e r up the v a l l e y . B o t h w e r e s a i d to be "centers of f a r m i n g c o m m u n i t i e s , with p o s t - o f f i c e s , s t o r e s , s c h o o l s , and the f o r m e r has a ho te l . " A t o u r i s t ho te l was a l so i n o p e r a t i o n at D ' A r c y on A n d e r s o n L a k e . F a r m i n g c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y of c a t t l e - r a i s i n g and h a y g r o w i n g . A l l of the good l a n d was r e p o r t e d to have b e e n taken up al though on ly ten p e r cent of i t was cu l t iva ted . A c c o r d i n g to l o c a l i n f o r m a n t s the d e p r e s s i o n of the 19 30's d i d not have m u c h effect on the p r e d o m i n a n t l y f a r m popula t ion of the v a l l e y . P r i c e s dropped , but f a r m l a b o u r was p l e n t i f u l . One l o c a l r e s i d e n t noted that w o m e n tended to b e c o m e d i s s a t i s f i e d wi th l i v i n g i n the a r e a b e c a u s e of the i s o l a t i o n . T h e y a t tempted to in f luence t h e i r husbands to l e a v e the v a l l e y and thus the p a t t e r n of se t t l ement and abandonment of the l a n d p e r s i s t e d . S u c h s l ight popula t ion growth as d id o c c u r d u r i n g this t i m e s eems to r e p r e s e n t a g r a d u a l a c c r e t i o n of h a r d y p i o n e e r s . 49. P r o v i n c e of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , B u r e a u of P r o v i n c i a l I n f o r m a t i o n , V i c i n i t y of the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n  R a i l w a y : S q u a m i s h to C l i n t o n . V i c t o r i a : K i n g 1 s P ' r i n t e r , 1933. R e p r i n t e d without change i n 1938 and 1949-56 R E C L A M A T I O N T h e w o r s t f lood r e c o r d e d i n the upper v a l l e y o c c u r r e d i n O c t o b e r , 1940. M a n y a n i m a l s w e r e d r o w n e d and as one r e s i d e n t r e c a l l e d : D u r i n g this f lood, the folks thought nothing of see ing b i g cottonwood t r e e s , n e i g h b o u r ' s outbui ld ings and m a n y other things go f loat ing down the f i e lds , s o m e of i t getting stuck on the f ences . ^ Y e a r s l a t e r , a V a n c o u v e r n e w s p a p e r noted this event, i n d i c a t i n g that "a d i s t r i c t that p r o d u c e d w o r l d and e m p i r e a g r i c u l t u r a l c h a m p i o n s h i p s i n other y e a r s . . . was d r i v e n a l m o s t into w i l d e r -51 ness b y f lood ing . " T h e 1940 f lood a p p e a r s to have been the f ina l s t i m u l u s needed to p r o d u c e g o v e r n m e n t ac t ion to r e l i e v e the threat of f looding i n the v a l l e y . In subsequent y e a r s the a r e a was s u r v e y e d and i n 1946 the W a t e r D e v e l o p m e n t B r a n c h of the P r a i r i e F a r m R e h a b i l i t a t i o n A c t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n m o v e d into P e m b e r t o n to u n d e r -take a r e c l a m a t i o n p r o g r a m . D y k e s , r i v e r cut -o f f s , and d i tches 50. S q u a m i s h T i m e s , M a r c h 31, 1966. 51. V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 8, 1952. 57 w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d o v e r a f i v e - y e a r p e r i o d at a cost of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 52 one and a h a l f m i l l i o n d o l l a r s . W h e n the p r o j e c t was n e a r i n g c o m p l e t i o n i n 1951 the p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t undertook to " . . . a s s e s s the a g r i c u l t u r a l po tent ia l i t i e s of p r i v a t e and c r o w n - h e l d l a n d wi th in the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y D y k i n g D i s t r i c t i n o r d e r to guide future se t t l ement a long 53 sound l a n d u t i l i z a t i o n l i n e s . " T h e v a l l e y was e s t i m a t e d to conta in between s ix teen and twenty thousand a c r e s of a r a b l e l a n d of w h i c h seven thousand w e r e p r i v a t e l y owned but on ly one thousand a c r e s w e r e under cu l t i va t ion . T w e l v e thousand a c r e s h a d b e e n r e c l a i m e d b y the P . F . R . A . p r o j e c t . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r e s t i m a t e d that t h e r e w e r e between 200 and 250 white r e s i d e n t s and 8 5 Indian f a m i l i e s to ta l l ing 450 peop le r e s i d i n g i n the v a l l e y . It was p r o j e c t e d that i f a l l the a v a i l a b l e l a n d was taken up, the 54 popula t ion wou ld m u l t i p l y s ix to eight t i m e s . 52. C . V . F a u l k n o r , P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y L a n d U t i l i z a t i o n S u r v e y , 1951. V i c t o r i a : D e p a r t m e n t of L a n d s and F o r e s t s , 1951, p . 1. 53. Ibid. , p . 2. 54. V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 8, 1952. 58 T h e l i v i n g condi t ions of the white r e s i d e n t s a p p e a r e d to be quite p r i m i t i v e i n 1951. A c c o r d i n g to F a u l k n o r , "ful ly m o d e r n h o m e s i n the a r e a a r e few i n n u m b e r ; conven iences s u c h 55 as a bath , to i let , and r u n n i n g water i n the house a r e r a r e . " E l e c t r i c i t y was i n t r o d u c e d i n the v a l l e y that y e a r w h i c h g r e a t l y f a c i l i t a t e d the i m p r o v e m e n t of l i v i n g cond i t ions . O n c e the L i l l o o e t R i v e r was under c o n t r o l , the p a t t e r n of se t t l ement and abandonment of the l a n d c o u l d be b r o k e n . C o m p l e t i o n of the r e c l a m a t i o n p r o j e c t and the i n t r o -duct ion of e l e c t r i c i t y p r o v i d e d the condit ions n e c e s s a r y for s u b s t a n t i a l popu la t ion growth . T h u s , the popula t ion of P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e i n c r e a s e d f r o m an e s t i m a t e d 125 i n 1956 to 181 i n l 9 6 l , h o w e v e r , i t d e c l i n e d s l i gh t ly i n 1966 to 172. P e m b e r t o n Meadows grew f r o m 230 peop le i n 1956 to 265 i n 1961, and the non- Ind ian popu la t ion i n the v i c i n i t y of Mount C u r r i e i n c r e a s e d f r o m 78 i n 1956 to 105 i n 1961. T h e p o r t i o n s of the v a l l e y not i n c l u d e d i n the three a r e a s m e n t i o n e d above h a d a popula t ion of 73 i n 1961 thus g i v i n g the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y a total of 624 white r e s i d e n t s 56 an that y e a r . 55. F a u l k n o r , op_. c i t . , p . 17. 56. • P o p u l a t i o n f i g u r e s w e r e p r o v i d e d on s p e c i a l r e q u e s t by the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t of I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e and C o m m e r c e . 59 A fur ther s t i m u l u s to se t t l ement was p r o v i d e d b y the opening of an a l l - w e a t h e r r o a d into the v a l l e y f r o m S q u a m i s h i n the s p r i n g of 19 65. C u r r e n t e s t imates b y i n f o r m e d c i t i zens p l a c e the white popula t ion at about 850. T h e n u m b e r of Indian r e s i d e n t s has a l so cont inued to i n c r e a s e . T h e r e w e r e 895 r e g i s t e r e d on the b a n d r o l l s i n 1964 and this f igure wou ld c u r r e n t l y be c lo se to 1, 000 Indians wi th the m a j o r i t y l i v i n g at Mount C u r r i e . S U M M A R Y T h e P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i s a r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d m o u n t a i n a r e a a p p r o x i m a t e l y one h u n d r e d m i l e s nor theas t of V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e i n i t i a l white se t t l ement of the a r e a was c l o s e l y l i n k e d wi th the deve lopment and subsequent dec l ine of the H a r r i s o n - L i l l o o e t route to the i n t e r i o r of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . A s e c o n d wave of se t t l ement was s t i m u l a t e d b y the b u i l d i n g of the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y . P o p u l a t i o n growth has b e e n h i n d e r e d u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y b y n e a r l y annual f looding of the L i l l o o e t R i v e r . A m e n i t i e s s u c h as e l e c t r i c i t y and te lephone s e r v i c e have c o m e m u c h l a t e r to the v a l l e y than to other a r e a s . T h e s e f a c t o r s have p l a y e d an 60 i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n d e t e r m i n i n g w h i c h i m m i g r a n t s r e m a i n e d i n P 'emberton and i n the pat terns of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n that have e m e r g e d a m o n g those who s tayed . 61 C H A P T E R F O U R T H E P E O P L E T h e non- Ind ian popu la t ion of the P e m b e r t o n Val ley-i s r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the r u r a l popu la t ion of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as d e s c r i b e d i n the 1961 C e n s u s of C a n a d a . S o m e d i f f erences o c c u r between the popula t ion of P e m b e r t o n and that of the p r o v i n c e as a whole and these m a y be a t t r ibuted i n p a r t to the p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n of the a r e a . W i t h i n the v a l l e y , d i s t inc t d i f f erences between the Indian and the non- Ind ian r e s i d e n t s w e r e o b s e r v e d . F A M I L Y S I Z E A N D C O M P O S I T I O N T h e m e d i a n age of the n o n - I n d i a n respondents was i n the 45 to 54 y e a r c l a s s . S o m e 21. 5 p e r cent w e r e l e s s than 35 y e a r s of age c o m p a r e d with 28. 5 p e r cent who w e r e m o r e than 62 55 y e a r s o l d . ( T a b l e 2). T h e p r o p o r t i o n of to ta l respondents i n each age group was no m o r e than four p e r c e n t a g e points d i f ferent f r o m that r e p o r t e d for a l l r u r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a h o u s e h o l d heads i n the 1961 C e n s u s of C a n a d a . A l t h o u g h the m e d i a n age for both the f a r m and n o n - f a r m popula t ion was i n the s a m e ca tegory , t h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the age d i s t r i b u t i o n between the two g r o u p s . T h r e e f a r m (8 .9 p e r cent) and t h i r t y - o n e n o n - f a r m respondents (25 .0 p e r cent) w e r e l e s s than 35 y e a r s o l d whereas 38. 3 p e r cent of the f a r m and 25 .8 p e r cent of the n o n -f a r m respondents w e r e 55 y e a r s of age o r o l d e r . . T h u s , the f a r m popu la t ion t ended to be o l d e r than the n o n - f a r m . A b i - m o d a l d i s t r i -but ion b y age was found for the Indian s a m p l e with 25. Q p e r cent i n the 55 to 64 y e a r group and 28. 1 p e r cent i n the 35 to 44 y e a r c l a s s . T h e m e d i a n age of the Indians was a l so i n the la t t er c l a s s . E i g h t y p e r cent of the n o n - I n d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e m a r r i e d whi le ten p e r cent w e r e s ing le and a l i k e n u m b e r w e r e e i ther widowed, d i v o r c e d , o r s e p a r a t e d . ( T a b l e 3). T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the m a r i t a l status d i s t r i b u t i o n between the f a r m and n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads , h o w e v e r , s l i g h t l y m o r e f a r m respondents w e r e s ing le whereas m o r e n o n - f a r m respondents w e r e e i ther widowed, d i v o r c e d , o r s e p a r a t e d . S o m e 75. 0 p e r cent of the Indian s a m p l e r e p o r t e d that 63 T A B L E 2 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y A G E A g e No T o t a l . % F a r m N o . % Non' N o . - F a r m % 15 - 24 6 3.8 1 2 .9 5 4. 0 25 - 34 28 17. 7 2 5.9 26 21. 0 35 - 44 35 22. 2 8 23. 5 27 21. 8 45 - 54 40 25. 3* 9 26. 5* 31 25. 0* 55 - 64 22 13.9 11 32. 4 11 8 .9 65 and o v e r 23 14. 6 2 5. 9 21 16.9 No R e s p o n s e 4 2. 5 1 2 .9 3 2 . 4 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A chi s q u a r e va lue of 11. 06 was obta ined . T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 0 5 l e v e l . they w e r e m a r r i e d whi le 15. 6 p e r cent w e r e widowed, d i v o r c e d , or s e p a r a t e d and the r e m a i n d e r w e r e s ing l e . T h e n o n - I n d i a n respondents r e p o r t e d a to ta l of 406 c h i l d r e n for an a v e r a g e of 2. 6 c h i l d r e n p e r h o u s e h o l d c o m p a r e d with the p r o v i n c i a l f i gure of 1.9 for r u r a l f a m i l i e s . T h e P e m b e r t o n m e d i a n s w e r e two c h i l d r e n for f a r m and t h r e e for n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d s . ( T a b l e 4). M o r e f a r m than n o n - f a r m 64 T A B L E 3 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y M A R I T A L S T A T U S M a r i t a l Status T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m N o . % N o . % N o . % Sing le 16 10. 1 4 11. 8 12 9 .7 M a r r i e d 126 79. 7 27 79. 4 99 79 .8 O t h e r 16 10. 1 3 8. 8 13 10. 4 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 Note : A chi s q u a r e va lue of 0. 01 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . respondents r e p o r t e d one, two, o r four c h i l d r e n but a h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e of n o n - f a r m respondents h a d three , f ive , or s ix c h i l d r e n . T h e Indian s a m p l e r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e of 4. 6 c h i l d r e n or n e a r l y twice the a v e r a g e p e r h o u s e h o l d as was found i n the n o n - I n d i a n p o p u l a t i o n . T e n p e r cent of the Indians s a i d that they h a d no c h i l d r e n but 21. 9 p e r cent h a d f ive and 53. 1 p e r cent r e p o r t e d s ix or m o r e . 65 T h e i n t e r v i e w s that w e r e conducted i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y accounted for 690 white r e s i d e n t s : 158 re spondent s , 126 spouses , and 406 c h i l d r e n . A to ta l of 204 Indians w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d : 32 respondents , 24 spouses, and 148 c h i l d r e n . T h e t y p i c a l Indian f a m i l y t h e r e f o r e c o n s i s t e d of 6. 4 p e r s o n s whi le the non- Ind ian househo lds c o n s i s t e d of 4. 4 p e r s o n s on the a v e r a g e . T A B L E 4 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y N U M B E R O F C H I L D R E N R E P O R T E D N u m b e r of T o t a l F a r m Non. - F a r m C h i l d r e n N o . % N o . % N o . % None 33 20. 9 5 14. 7 28 22. 6 1 12 7 .6 4 11.8 8 6. 5 2 31 19. 6 9 26. 5* 22 17. 7 3 25 15. 8* 4 11.8 21 16. 9* 4 34 21. 5 9 26. 5 25 20. 2 5 11 7. 0 2 5.9 9 7. 3 6 o r m o r e 11 7. 0 1 2 .9 10 8. 1 No R e s p o n s e 1 0. 6 0 0. 0 1 0.8 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100.0 124 100.0 * M e d i a n Note : A ch i s q u a r e value of 1. 27 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . 66 M A R R I A G E P A T T E R N S T h e Indian respondents tended to be r e l a t e d to m o r e f a m i l i e s that w e r e p r e s e n t l y l i v i n g i n the v a l l e y than w e r e the whi tes . T h i r t e e n (40. 6 p e r cent) of the Indian s a m p l e s a i d that they w e r e r e l a t e d to twenty or m o r e f a m i l i e s and eight (25. 0 p e r cent) w e r e r e l a t e d to between ten and n ineteen f a m i l i e s . E v e r y Indian respondent h a d at l e a s t one r e l a t e d f a m i l y l i v i n g i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . S o m e 57. 0 p e r cent of the white h o u s e h o l d heads , on the other hand, h a d no r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n P e m b e r t o n whi le 12. 6 p e r cent h a d ten o r m o r e and the a v e r a g e was 3. 5 r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s . T h u s , the Indians a p p e a r e d m o r e l i k e l y than the whites to choose m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s f r o m wi th in t h e i r p r e s e n t c o m m u n i t y of r e s i d e n c e . One r e a s o n for th is d i s c r e p a n c y m a y l i e i n the d i f f e r -ent ia l length of se t t l ement of the two groups i n the v a l l e y . T h e l o n g e r inhab i ta t ion b y the Indians has p e r m i t t e d t h e m m o r e t i m e to e s t a b l i s h k i n s h i p n e t w o r k s , but even i n the non- Ind ian popula t ion t h e r e a p p e a r s to be a tendency for the l o n g e r - t e r m r e s i d e n t s to have e s t a b l i s h e d a n u m b e r of k i n s h i p t ies i n the v a l l e y . B e c a u s e of the s h o r t e r se t t l ement h i s t o r y of the whites i t 67 wou ld be m o r e d i f f icu l t to p r e d i c t to what extent the p a t t e r n of m a r r i a g e w i t h i n the v a l l e y w i l l p e r s i s t o v e r t i m e , e s p e c i a l l y i n l ight of the e a s i e r a c c e s s to the outs ide that i s now a v a i l a b l e . F o u r t e e n m a r r i a g e s that took p l a c e i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y and that w e r e r e p o r t e d i n the S q u a m i s h T i m e s between A u g u s t , 1964 and A u g u s t , 1967 w e r e a n a l y z e d i n o r d e r to d e t e r m i n e to what extent v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s w e r e c u r r e n t l y c h o o s i n g m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s f r o m wi th in the a r e a . S e v e n of the four teen m a r r i a g e s w e r e between non-Ind ians , s ix w e r e between Indians, and one case was a m i x e d m a r r i a g e . In t h r e e of the white m a r r i a g e s both p a r t n e r s w e r e P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y r e s i d e n t s . Two cases i n v o l v e d P e m b e r t o n w o m e n m a r r y i n g m e n f r o m the outs ide and two i n v o l v e d P e m b e r t o n m e n m a r r y i n g w o m e n f r o m the outs ide . T h r e e of the four outs ide spouses w e r e f r o m the other p a r t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . B o t h p a r t n e r s i n the m i x e d m a r r i a g e w e r e f r o m the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y as w e r e both p a r t n e r s i n four of the s i x Indian m a r r i a g e s . In the two other Indian m a r r i a g e s the b r i d e s w e r e f r o m Mount C u r r i e and the g r o o m s w e r e f r o m outs ide . T h u s , of the fourteen m a r r i a g e s r e p o r t e d on ly s ix i n v o l v e d a l i n k wi th a n o n - v a l l e y r e s i d e n t . A l t h o u g h the ev idence i s l i m i t e d , this s e e m s to be an i n d i c a t i o n that choos ing 68 a m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r f r o m wi th in the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i s a p e r s i s t i n g p a t t e r n of b e h a v i o r . L I V I N G C O N D I T I O N S A s h o r t f o r m of Sewe l l ' s F a r m F a m i l y S o c i o - E c o n o m i c Status S c a l e was u s e d to a s s e s s the l i v i n g condi t ions of f a m i l i e s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . T h e p e r c e n t a g e of Indian and n o n - I n d i a n househo lds r e p o r t i n g p o s s e s s i o n of the v a r i o u s i t e m s w h i c h const i tute this s ca l e a r e shown i n T a b l e 5. In g e n e r a l , the white respondents h a d a f a i r l y h igh s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . M o s t of t h e i r h o u s e s w e r e w e l l c o n s t r u c t e d and f i n i s h e d and i n t h r e e - f o u r t h s of the cases t h e r e was at l eas t one r o o m p e r p e r s o n . N i n e t y - t h r e e p e r cent of the houses h a d e l e c t r i c l i g h t i n g and 91 .1 p e r cent h a d water p i p e d i n which i s eight p e r c e n t a g e points above the r u r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a v e r a g e . W a s h i n g m a c h i n e s w e r e owned b y 80. 4 p e r cent of the respondents , but there is a co in w a s h i n P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e w h i c h has l e d s o m e of the inhabitants to s e l l t h e i r own w a s h e r s . D e s p i t e the p o o r r a d i o r e c e p t i o n i n the a r e a , 96 .8 1. W . H . S e w e l l , " A S h o r t F o r m of the F a r m F a m i l y . S o c i o -e c o n o m i c Status Sca le" , R u r a l Soc io logy , 8:161-170, (June, 1943). Data r e g a r d i n g the y e a r s o f s c h o o l i n g for husbands and wives w h i c h a r e i n c l u d e d i n this s c a l e a r e p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r Seven . 69 T A B L E 5 P E R C E N T A G E O F N O N - I N D I A N A N D I N D I A N F A M I L I E S P O S S E S S I N G I T E M S O N T H E L E V E L O F L I V I N G S C A L E I t e m P e r c e n t a g e of F a m i l i e s N o n - I n d i a n Indian ( N = 158 ) ( N = 32) H o u s e C o n s t r u c t i o n B r i c k , s tucco , or p a i n t e d 69 .6 f r a m e U n p a i n t e d f r a m e or other 30 .4 R o o m - P e r s o n Rat io 26. 6 B e l o w 1.00 43. % 1. 00 = 1. 99 29 .7 2. 00 and o v e r L i g h t i n g f a c i l i t i e s E l e c t r i c 93 .0 G a s , m a n t l e , or p r e s s u r e 5.7 O i l l a m p s , other or none 1. 3 W a t e r p i p e d into H o u s e Y e s 91 .1 N o 8 .9 O w n e r s h i p of W a s h i n g M a c h i n e Y e s 8 0 . 4 N o 19.6 R e f r i g e r a t i o n M e c h a n i c a l 89-9 Ice 0 .6 O t h e r o r none 9. 5 O w n e r s h i p of R a d i o Y e s 96 .8 N o 3.2 T e l e p h o n e i n H o u s e Y e s 84 .2 N o 15.8 31. 3 68. 7 65. 6 34 .4 0. 0 71. 9 9 .4 18.7 43 .8 56. 2 53. 1 4 6 . 9 50. 0 0. 0 50. 0 8 4 . 4 15. 6 34. 4 65 .6 69 a T A B L E 5 (cont'd) P e r c e n t a g e of F a m i l i e s I t em N o n - I n d i a n Indian ( N = 158 ) ( N ~ 32) O w n e r s h i p of A u t o m o b i l e Y e s 7 8 . 5 18.8 No 15.8 81 .2 F a m i l y takes D a i l y o r W e e k l y N e w s p a p e r Y e s 84 .2 34 .4 N o 15.8 65 .6 70 p e r cent owned a r a d i o whi le 84. 2 p e r cent h a d a te lephone . T h e r e i s no t e l e v i s i o n r e c e p t i o n i n the a r e a and no n e w s p a p e r s a r e p u b l i s h e d l o c a l l y , but 84. 3 p e r cent took a d a i l y or w e e k l y n e w s -p a p e r f r o m L i l l o o e t , S q u a m i s h , o r V a n c o u v e r . L i v i n g condi t ions on the Indian r e s e r v e w e r e s u b s t a n -t i a l l y p o o r e r than i n the r e s t of the v a l l e y . M a n y of the Indian houses w e r e i n p o o r condi t ion and o v e r c r o w d e d . S u c h a m e n i t i e s as wash ing m a c h i n e s , r e f r i g e r a t o r s , te lephones and a u t o m o b i l e s 2 i n w o r k i n g condi t ion w e r e owned by fewer Indians than whi tes . P A T T E R N S O F R E S I D E N C E S o m e 10.8 p e r cent of the non- Ind ian respondents w e r e b o r n i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y whi le 26. 6 p e r cent w e r e f r o m other p a r t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and 33. 5 p e r cent w e r e f r o m other C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s , thus, 70 .9 p e r cent w e r e b o r n i n C a n a d a . ( T a b l e 6). S ix teen p e r cent w e r e of E u r o p e a n o r i g i n , m o s t of t h e m Swis s or S c a n d i n a v i a n . T h e U n i t e d K i n g d o m was the c o u n t r y of b i r t h for ten p e r cent and t h r e e p e r cent w e r e b o r n i n the U n i t e d States . T h e s e f igures di f fer f r o m those for r u r a l B r i t i s h 2. A l t h o u g h n e a r l y e v e r y Indian h o m e h a d at l ea s t one c a r and s o m e t i m e s s e v e r a l on t h e i r p r o p e r t y , few of t h e m w e r e i n w o r k i n g o r d e r . 71 T A B L E 6 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y B I R T H P L A C E B i r t h p l a c e T o t a l F a r m Non. - F a r m N o . % N o . % N o . % P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y 17 10.8 5 14. 7 12 9 .7 O t h e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 42 26. 6 4 11.8 38 30.7 O t h e r P r o v i n c e s 53 33. 5 8 23. 5 45 36. 3 United. States 4 2. 5 2 5 .9 2 1.6 U n i t e d K i n g d o n 16 10. 1 4 11. 8 12 9 .7 W e s t e r n E u r o p e 22 13.9 11 32. 4 11 8 .9 E a s t e r n E u r o p e 3 1.9 0 0. 0 3 2 .4 O r i e n t 1 0. 6 0 0. 0 1 0. 8 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of 6.92 was obta ined. T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . C o l u m b i a as a whole i n that E u r o p e a n countr i e s and the U n i t e d K i n g d o m a r e o v e r - r e p r e s e n t e d whi l e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s and other C a n a d i a n s a r e u n d e r - r e p r e s e n t e d i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y popu la t ion . T h u s , t h e r e i s a l a r g e r group of f o r e i g n - b o r n household; ' heads i n • the a r e a than i s g e n e r a l l y found i n r u r a l d i s t r i c t s of the p r o v i n c e . 72 T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a r m and n o n - f a r m respondents b y b i r t h p l a c e . F o r t y p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e b o r n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 37 .9 p e r cent i n other p a r t s of N o r t h A m e r i c a , and 21 .8 p e r cent i n the r e s t of the w o r l d . O f the f a r m re spondent s , h o w e v e r , 26. 5 p e r cent w e r e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a n s and 29. 4 p e r cent w e r e f r o m the r e s t of N o r t h >-America but 44. 2 p e r cent w e r e b o r n i n other c o u n t r i e s . T h e f a r m popula t ion t h e r e f o r e conta ined a l a r g e r n u m b e r of i m m i g r a n t s f r o m countr i e s outs ide N o r t h A m e r i c a and this w o u l d account for m u c h of the d i f f erence wi th r e s p e c t to b i r t h p l a c e between the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y and r u r a l B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a as a whole . N e a r l y a l l of the white respondents who w e r e not b o r n i n P e m b e r t o n h a d se t t l ed i n other p a r t s of the p r o v i n c e b e f o r e r m o v i n g to the v a l l e y . T h e on ly except ions w e r e the twelve (7. 6 p e r cent) who c a m e d i r e c t l y to the v a l l e y f r o m other C a n a d i a n p r o v i n c e s / . a n d one who c a m e f r o m the U n i t e d K i n g d o m to P e m b e r t o n . ( T a b l e 7). T h i s p a t t e r n of i m m i g r a t i o n to the c o m m u n i t y m a y be a r e s u l t of a l a c k of a w a r e n e s s b y o u t s i d e r s of the v a l l e y ' s ex i s t ence . E v e n i n other p a r t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a few people know of P e m b e r t o n . 73 T A B L E 7 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y P L A C E O F R E S I D E N C E B E F O R E M O V I N G T O P E M B E R T O N P r e v i o u s R e s i d e n c e T o t a l N o . % F a r m N o . % N o n N o . - F a r m % B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 125 79. 1 25 73. 5 100 8 0 . 7 O t h e r P r o v i n c e s 12 7. 6 3 8 .8 9 7. 3 U n i t e d K i n g d o m 1 0. 6 0 0. 0 1 0. 8 Not a p p l i c a b l e ( L i v e d i n P e m b e r t o n for e n t i r e l ife) 20 12. 7 6 17. 7 14 11. 3 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of 0. 07 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . T w e n t y n o n - I n d i a n respondents (12 .7 p e r cent) h a d spent the i r en t i re l i f e t i m e i n the v a l l e y and t h i r t y - f o u r o thers (21 .5 p e r cent) h a d been t h e r e for m o r e than twenty y e a r s . ( T a b l e 8). A l m o s t the s a m e n u m b e r of respondents h a d l i v e d i n P e m b e r t o n for two y e a r s or l e s s (13 .9 p e r cent) as h a d spent t h e i r ent i re l i f e t i m e t h e r e . T h e m e d i a n l ength of r e s i d e n c e 74 for f a r m respondents was e l even to f ifteen y e a r s and for n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads i t was s ix to ten y e a r s , however , t h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the length of r e s i d e n c e d i s t r i b u t i o n of the two g r o u p s . M o r e than h a l f of the respondents h a d a r r i v e d i n the a r e a after the c o m p l e t i o n of the l a n d r e c l a m a t i o n T A B L E 8 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y L E N G T H O F R E S I D E N C E IN T H E A R E A Y e a r s i n A r e a T o t a l N o . % N o . F a r m % N o n N o . - F a r m % 2 o r l e s s 22 13.9 0 0. 0 22 17. 7 3 - 5 21 13. 3 3 8. 8 18 14. 5 6 - 1 0 31 19. 6 8 23. 5 23 18. 6* 11 - 15 26 16. 5* 8 23. 5* 18 14. 5 1 6 - 2 0 4 2. 5 1 2 .9 3 2. 4 M o r e than 20 34 21. 5 7 20. 6 27 21 .8 E n t i r e l i f e t i m e 20 12.7 7 20. 6 13 10. 5 T o t a l 158 100.0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a Note : A chi square va lue of 3 .84 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . p r o j e c t i n 19 51, but the new r o a d into P e m b e r t o n s eems to have h a d l i t t l e effect thus far i n a t t r a c t i n g new r e s i d e n t s . N o f a r m e r s h a d a r r i v e d i n the two y e a r s p r i o r to the study. T h e non- Ind ian h o u s e h o l d heads h a d l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t dwel l ings s l i g h t l y l onger than the p r o v i n c i a l a v e r a g e for r u r a l a r e a s . T w e n t y - s e v e n p e r cent h a d been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t h o m e s for two y e a r s o r l e s s c o m p a r e d with 46. 2 p e r cent i n the three to ten y e a r c l a s s and 27. 2 p e r cent h a d l i v e d for e l even y e a r s o r m o r e i n t h e i r p r e s e n t dwe l l ing . ( T a b l e 9). In the l a t t er group w e r e four respondents who h a d spent t h e i r en t i re l i f e t i m e i n the s a m e house . T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a r m and n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads b y n u m b e r of y e a r s r e s i d e n t i n the p r e s e n t h o m e . W h e r e a s 80. 7 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads h a d l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t h o m e for ten y e a r s or l e s s , 44. 1 p e r cent of the f a r m respondents w e r e i n this length of o c c u p a n c y c l a s s . O n the other hand, 6. 5 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m respondents but 32. 4 p e r cent of the f a r m o p e r a t o r s w e r e m o r e than t w e n t y - y e a r occupant s . T h e m e d i a n c la s s for y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t dwel l ing was t h r e e to five y e a r s for n o n - f a r m respondents whi le the c o m p a r a b l e f igure for f a r m respondents was e l even to f ifteen y e a r s . T h e s e f indings i n d i c a t e that the f a r m 75a T A B L E 9 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y L E N G T H O F R E S I D E N C E IN P R E S E N T H O M E Y e a r s i n H o m e T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m N o . % N o . % N o . % 2 or l e s s 42 26. 6 0 0. 0 42 33. 9 3 - 5 34 21. 5 7 20. 6 27 21. 8: 6 - 10 39 24. 7* 8 23. 8 31 25. 0 11 - 15 18 11. 4 6 17. 7* 12 9. 7 16 - 20 6 3. 8 2 5. 9 4 3. 2 M o r e than 20 15 9. 5 7 20. 6 8 6. 5 E n t i r e l i f e t i m e 4 2. 5 4 11. 8 0 0. 0 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note: A c h i s q u a r e va lue of 21. 76 was obta ined. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . respondents tended to be m o r e s table with r e s p e c t to house o c c u p a n c y than w e r e the n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s , and this i s to be expected as the na ture of the a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e p l a c e s r e s t r i c t i o n s on g e o -g r a p h i c m o b i l i t y . 3 S ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients w e r e obta ined between age and n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t h o m e (r = . 45) and between the l a t t e r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the a r e a (r = . 59). T h u s , the o l d e r respondents and those who h a d l i v e d m o r e y e a r s i n P e m b e r t o n a l so h a d r e s i d e d l onger i n t h e i r p r e s e n t d w e l l i n g s . T h e s e data a r e cons i s tent with the g e n e r a l t r e n d r e p o r t e d i n the l i t e r a t u r e of r u r a l s o c i o l o g y for s tab i l i t y of r e s i d e n c e 4 to i n c r e a s e wi th s u c c e e d i n g stages of the l i f e c y c l e . M o s t of the c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d by the non- Ind ian respondents w e r e s t i l l l i v i n g with t h e i r p a r e n t s but c h i l d r e n who h a d left the p a r e n t a l r e s i d e n c e w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to l eave the v a l l e y than to stay. S o m e 21 .2 p e r cent of a l l c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d h a d m o v e d away f r o m P e m b e r t o n w h e r e a s 919 p e r cent w e r e s t i l l l i v i n g i n the a r e a . ( T a b l e 10). 3. C o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients for t h i r t y - t w o c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for a l l P e m b e r t o n respondents a r e p r e s e n t e d i n A p p e n d i x O n e , T a b l e 1. 4. E . de S. B r u n n e r , T h e G r o w t h o f a S c i e n c e , New Y o r k : H a r p e r and B r o t h e r s , 1957, p . 66. 77 T A B L E 10 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N C H I L D R E N B Y P L A C E O F R E S I D E N C E P l a c e of R e s i d e n c e T o t a l N o . % F a r m N o . % N o n N o . - F a r m % L i v i n g at p a r e n t s ' • h o m e 280 69. 0 61 70.9 219 68.4 E l s e w h e r e i n P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y 40 9.9 10 11. 6 30 9.4 M o v e d away f r o m P e m b e r t o n 86 21.2 15 17.4 71 22.2 T o t a l 406 100. 0 86 100. 0 320 100. 0 Note : A ch i s q u a r e value of 1. 50 was obta ined . T h i s is not s ign i f i cant at the . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f ference i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n b y p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e between f a r m and n o n - f a r m c h i l d r e n , however , a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r p e r c e n t a g e of the f a r m c h i l d r e n w e r e s t i l l l i v i n g i n the v a l l e y . T h e r e s i d e n c e p a t t e r n of the Indian s a m p l e was d i s t i n c t l y d i f ferent f r o m that o b s e r v e d i n the non- Ind ian p o p u l a t i o n . T h e Indians w e r e a l l b o r n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , m o s t of t h e m (71.9 p e r cent) i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . O n l y s even 78 of the s a m p l e h a d l i v e d e l s e w h e r e i n the p r o v i n c e . A l l of the Indians r e p o r t e d that they h a d l i v e d i n the a r e a for m o r e than twenty y e a r s or for t h e i r ent i re l i f e t i m e i f they were l e s s than twenty y e a r s of age. S o m e changes i n dwel l ing p l a c e h a d o c c u r r e d wi th in the c o m m u n i t y . N e a r l y h a l f h a d l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t h o m e s for ten y e a r s or l e s s whi le only two h a d spent t h e i r en t i re l i f e t i m e i n the s a m e h o u s e . S U M M A R Y T h e non- Ind ian popula t ion of P e m b e r t o n i s s i m i l a r to that of other r u r a l a r e a s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a with r e s p e c t to f a m i l y s i z e and c o m p o s i t i o n . T h e Indian s a m p l e h a d l a r g e r f a m i l i e s , p o o r e r l i v i n g condi t ions , and e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d geograph ic m o b i l i t y of p e r m a n e n t r e s i d e n c e c o m p a r e d with the n o n - I n d i a n popula t ion but the s i tuat ion on the r e s e r v e is c o m p a r a b l e to that of other bands throughout the p r o v i n c e . A subs tant ia l n u m b e r of white r e s i d e n t s w e r e b o r n outs ide of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and m a n y of the f a r m e r s w e r e not b o r n i n C a n a d a . O n c e they h a d m o v e d to the v a l l e y , however , the f a r m popula t ion tended to have g r e a t e r s tab i l i ty of r e s i d e n c e than the n o n - f a r m g r o u p . M a r r i a g e to other v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s a p p e a r e d to be the n o r m for 79 both the Indian and non- Ind ian populat ion , but c h i l d r e n tended to m o v e away f r o m the a r e a when they left the p a r e n t a l r e s i d e n c e . 80 C H A P T E R F I V E O C C U P A T I O N , A G R I C U L T U R E , j A N D I N C O M E T h e e c o n o m i c w e l l - b e i n g of the P e m b e r t o n Val ley-r e s i d e n t s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n dependent on a g r i c u l t u r e but i n r e c e n t y e a r s another p r i m a r y i n d u s t r y , f o r e s t r y , has b e c o m e i n c r e a s i n g l y i m p o r t a n t as a s o u r c e of i n c o m e . A t p r e s e n t there a r e no s e c o n d a r y i n d u s t r i e s i n the v a l l e y , thus, with the except ion of a few r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s , the c o m m u n i t y r e l i e s e n t i r e l y on e a r n i n g s d e r i v e d f r o m w o r k that i s c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the l a n d . T H E P E M B E R T O N E C O N O M Y S ince the days of f i r s t se t t lement the e c o n o m y of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y has h a d an a g r i c u l t u r a l b a s e . T h e e a r l i e s t white s e t t l er s r a i s e d vegetables and l i v e s t o c k for sa le to the 81 m i n e r s and subsequent inhabitants were r e l i a n t on a g r i c u l t u r e for s u b s i s t e n c e . B e g i n n i n g i n the 1930's, the v a l l e y p r o d u c e d a w a r d r w i n n i n g potatoes and P e m b e r t o n is s t i l l one of the p r i n c i p a l a r e a s i n the p r o v i n c e for the p r o d u c t i o n of seed potatoes . In 1966 P e m b e r t o n h a d 212. 7 c e r t i f i e d a c r e s w h i c h is 14. 2 p e r cent of the p r o v i n c i a l to ta l i n seed potatoes . T w e n t y - f o u r p r o d u c e r s w e r e l i s t e d at an a v e r a g e of 8 .9 a c r e s p e r f a r m e r . S ixty c a r l o a d s of 2 s eed potatoes w e r e sh ipped f r o m the v a l l e y i n 1951, but this d e c l i n e d to fifty c a r l o a d s i n the 1965-1966 c r o p y e a r . T h e l a r g e s t b u y e r i n 1965-1966 was the N o r t h e r n Seed C o m p a n y L i m i t e d w h i c h p u r c h a s e d 37 r a i l c a r s of Net ted G e m seed potatoes . B u c k e r f i e l d s p u r c h a s e d ten and other s m a l l b u y e r s accounted for a p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e r a i l c a r s . T h e tota l va lue of these sh ipments to the P e m b e r t o n 3 f a r m e r s was about $65, 000. B e e f cattle a r e b e c o m i n g an i m p o r t a n t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t a l though the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y f a r m e r s have f requent ly h a d p r o b l e m s i n r a i s i n g catt le s u c c e s s f u l l y . D i f f i cu l t i e s w e r e 1. C a n a d a C e r t i f i e d Seed P'otatoes, S u m m a r y of C r o p s P'assed i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a - 1966, V a n c o u v e r : 1 966. 2. V a n c o u v e r P r o v i n c e , M a r c h 8, 1952. 3. I n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d b y the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t of I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e and C o m m e r c e . 82 f i r s t e n c o u n t e r e d i n the 1910's with go i tre condi t ions i n young a n i m a l s w h i c h was r e m e d i e d b y the use of i o d i n e . In 1950 a v e t e r i n a r i a n i n v e s t i g a t e d a condi t ion that the l o c a l r e s i d e n t s c a l l e d "the g r u n t s . " T h i s was d iagnosed as H e m o r r h a g i c E n t e r o t o x e m i a . A n t i t o x i n was p u r c h a s e d and a p r o g r a m of p r e v e n t i o n and c u r e was i n t r o d u c e d with what a p p e a r e d to be good 4 r e s u l t s . P r o b l e m s a r o s e aga in i n the e a r l y 1960's and n u m e r o u s catt le w e r e r e p o r t e d s i c k or dead. A n i n v e s t i g a t i o n c o m m i t t e e was appointed i n A p r i l , 1964 and they took s a m p l e s of hay , s o i l , and catt le h a i r for a n a l y s i s . T h e h a y s e e m e d to be def ic ient i n the p e r c e n t a g e content of c r u d e p r o t e i n and s e l e n i u m but other p r o b l e m s w e r e noted i n c l u d i n g ev idence of p a r a s i t e s , c o c c i d i o s i s , l a c k of c l ean water , and p o s s i b l e l a c k of p r o p e r 5 s e l e c t i o n i n bee f b r e e d i n g h e r d s . T h e i m p o r t a n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e to the e c o n o m y of the v a l l e y was noted i n a s u r v e y b y the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t 6 of I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e and C o m m e r c e : 4. F . C . C l a r k , R e p o r t on A n a l y s e s of F o r a g e , H a y and S o i l  S a m p l e s and Cat t l e H a i r S p e c i m e n s f r o m the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y , B . C , 1964-1965. New W e s t m i n s t e r : B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t -ment of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1965. 5. C l a r k , op_. c i t . , p . 20. 6. D e p a r t m e n t of I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e and C o m m e r c e , T h e South C o a s t a l R e g i o n : A n E c o n o m i c S u r v e y , V i c t o r i a : B u r e a u of E c o n o m i c s and S ta t i s t i c s , 1967, p . 12. 83 In the Pemberton Valley, agri-culture is extremely important as other sources of employment are limited. This valuable farm-land is not producing anywhere near its potential level but assistance is needed in guiding the farmers to a better standard of living. Lack of management skills was evidenced by the fact that only two of the farmers were trained in agriculture. Forestry production in the valley is mainly extractive, although there are three small sawmills that serve the local market. According to one local operator, seven firms and several independents were logging in Pemberton in the summer of 1966. The number of men employed by each f i r m ranged from four to twenty-five and between seventy-five and one hundred men were employed in logging operations that summer. Depending on the severity of winter weather conditions, logging is suspended for one to four months each year. There are at least twenty-one retail business establish-ments serving the Pemberton population. Eleven of these are in 7 Pemberton Village with six at Mount Currie and two each at Birken and D'Arcy. These include coffee shops, hardware stores, grocery stores, a drugstore, a bank, and a farm machinery supplier 7. One man owned three of the businesses at Mount Currie and another man owned two. 84 as w e l l as a shoe r e p a i r shop, a p o o l h a l l , and a chains aw d e a l e r . T h e r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l popu la t ion of the v a l l e y has r e s t r i c t e d the n u m b e r and scope of the r e t a i l b u s i n e s s e s and s u c h s e r v i c e s as a b a r b e r a r e not a v a i l a b l e t h e r e . T h e b u s i n e s s e s appear to be m o s t l y s m a l l s c a l e o p e r a t i o n s with r e s p e c t to c a p i t a l i n v e s t m e n t s ince s ix teen (76.2 p e r cent) h a d but a s ing le o w n e r . T h r e e w e r e l i m i t e d c o m p a n i e s , one was a ' -par tnersh ip , and one was a f a r m e r s ' c o o p e r a t i v e . A p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y - f i v e people i n c l u d i n g the owners and m a n a g e r s a r e e m p l o y e d e i ther f u l l - t i m e o r p a r t - t i m e b y the b u s i n e s s e s . T h e l a r g e s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t , the hote l , h a d e leven f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s but n ine b u s i n e s s e s h a d just one e m p l o y e e . T h e p o s i t i o n of the Indians i n the v a l l e y e c o n o m y i s g m a r g i n a l as i t i s i n m o s t of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . M o s t of t h e i r e a r n e d i n c o m e i s d e r i v e d f r o m logg ing but a few Indians w o r k at the hote l o r i n c l e r i c a l pos i t ions i n the r e t a i l s t o r e s . V e r y few Indians a r e engaged i n a g r i c u l t u r e on r e s e r v e l a n d although s o m e w o r k at s e a s o n a l f a r m l a b o u r i n g jobs i n the nor thwes t U n i t e d States and on l o c a l f a r m s . 8. H . B . H a w t h o r n , C . S. B e l s h a w , and S. M . J a m i e s o n , T h e  Indians of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T o r o n t o : U n i v e r s i t y of T o r o n t o P r e s s , I960, p . 84. 85 O C C U P A T I O N S A respondent was c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m i f he n o r m a l l y s o l d m o r e than $250 w o r t h of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e r a i s e d on his l a n d . M a n y of those c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m b y this c r i t e r i o n a c t u a l l y spent c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e t i m e and e a r n e d m o r e i n c o m e f r o m o f f - f a r m w o r k than on the f a r m . O f the non- Ind ian h o u s e h o l d heads i n t e r -v iewed , 3. 8 p e r cent w e r e w h o l l y dependent on f a r m i n g for t h e i r i n c o m e and 78. 5 p e r cent r e p o r t e d no i n c o m e f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e . T h e r e m a i n i n g 17. 7 p e r cent r e p o r t e d i n c o m e f r o m both f a r m and n o n - f a r m s o u r c e s . In s o m e cases n o n - f a r m respondents d e r i v e d p a r t of t h e i r sustenance f r o m the l a n d i n the f o r m of vegetable gardens o r m i l k cows, but s ince they d id not s e l l $250 w o r t h of these p r o d u c t s f a r m i n g was not c o n s i d e r e d to be even a s e c o n d a r y o r t e r t i a r y o c c u p a t i o n . • P r e s e n t Jobs T w e n t y - s i x d i f ferent c a t e g o r i e s of occupat ions w e r e 9 r e p o r t e d b y the non- Ind ian n o n - f a r m r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e d e t a i l e d d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r i n c i p a l and s e c o n d a r y occupat ions is p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 11. T h e m o s t f requent ly r e p o r t e d p r i n c i p a l o c c u p a t i o n 9. O c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s w e r e m a d e a c c o r d i n g to the t h r e e -dig i t code u s e d i n : D o m i n i o n B u r e a u of S ta t i s t i c s , O c c u p a t i o n a l  C l a s s i f i c a t i o n M a n u a l C e n s u s of C a n a d a , 1961. Ot tawa: Queen ' s P r i n t e r , 1961. 86 T A B L E 11 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - F A R M A N D N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y P R E S E N T O C C U P A T I O N S O c c u p a t i o n P r i n c i p a l N o . % Secondary-N o . % M a n a g e r s 23 18. 6 8 22. 2 L o g g e r s 17 13.7 2 5. 6 R e t i r e d 17 13.7 0 0. 0 E q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r s 10 8. 1 1 2 .8 R o a d t r a n s . O p e r a t o r s 8 6. 5 4 11. 1 E l e c t r i c i a n s 5 4. 0 0 0. 0 T e a c h e r s 4 3. 2 2 5 .6 C a r p e n t e r s 4 3. 2 2 5. 6 F a r m w o r k e r s 3 2. 4 6 16. 6 S a l e s m e n 3 2. 4 3 8. 3 O t h e r p r o f e s s i o n a l s 3 2. 4 1 2. 8 O t h e r s e r v i c e s 3 2 .4 1 2. 8 L a b o u r e r s 2 1. 6 2 5. 6 P r o t e c t i o n o f f i c e r s 2 1. 6 1 2 .8 H e a l t h p r o f e s s i o n a l s 2 1. 6 0 0. 0 C l e r i c a l 2 1. 6 0 0. 0 F o o d S e r v i c e 2 1. 6 0 0. 0 M i n e r s 2 1. 6 0 0. 0 M e c h a n i c a l and r e p a i r 2 1. 6 0 0. 0 S e c t i o n m e n 2 1. 6 0 0. 0 M i s c e l l a n e o u s 6 4 .9 3 8. 3 No r e s p o n s e 2 1,6 0 0. 0 T o t a l 124 100. 0 36 100. 0 87 was i n the m a n a g e r i a l c a t e g o r y w h i c h i n v o l v e d 18. 6 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads . T h e s e w e r e m a i n l y owners and m a n a g e r s of r e t a i l s t o r e s , e ighteen of w h o m w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d u s i n g a 10 s p e c i a l l y p r e p a r e d schedule . N i n e of the b u s i n e s s m e n i n t e r -v i e w e d (50. 0 p e r cent) h a d h a d m a n a g e r i a l e x p e r i e n c e p r i o r to opening t h e i r e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e r a n g e d f r o m two to t h i r t y y e a r s and the a v e r a g e was 14; 6 y e a r s . Seven of the m a n a g e r s (38. 9 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d that they h a d r e c e i v e d some b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g : two h a d u n i v e r s i t y degrees i n c o m m e r c e , two h a d taken s o m e u n i v e r s i t y c o m m e r c e c o u r s e s , one h a d attended a c o - o p e r a t i v e co l lege , one h a d taken night s c h o o l c o u r s e s , and one h a d taken a t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m o f f ered b y a c h a r t e r e d bank. T h e seven respondents with b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g a lso h a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e whi le none of those without p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e r e p o r t e d b u s i n e s s t r a i n i n g . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that h a l f of the s tore m a n a g e r s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y h a d begun o p e r a t i n g a b u s i n e s s without the benef i t of e i ther e x p e r i e n c e or t r a i n i n g i n m a n a g e m e n t p r a c t i c e s . L o g g i n g was the p r i n c i p a l o c c u p a t i o n of 13. 7 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads and a s i m i l a r n u m b e r w e r e 10. See A p p e n d i x T w o , Schedule F . 88 r e t i r e d . T h e on ly other p r i n c i p a l occupat ions r e p o r t e d b y m o r e than f ive p e r cent w e r e equipment o p e r a t i o n and r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p e r a t i o n . S o m e 60. 6 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m respondents w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n f ive c a t e g o r i e s of p r i n c i p a l occupat ions and 7. 2 p e r cent w o r k e d i n jobs c l a s s i f i e d as p r o f e s s i o n a l . A s T a b l e 12 i n d i c a t e s , m o r e n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e w o r k i n g for o thers (53. 2 p e r cent) than w e r e s e l f - e m p l o y e d (27 .4 p e r cent) i n t h e i r p r i n c i p a l o c c u p a t i o n s . T h i r t y - s i x n o n - f a r m respondents (29- 0 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d a s e c o n d job and the l a r g e s t n u m b e r was aga in i n the m a n a g e r i a l c a t e g o r y . T h i s was fo l lowed b y s ix who w o r k e d as f a r m l a b o u r e r s to supplement t h e i r p r i n c i p a l job i n c o m e whi le four w e r e s e c o n d a r i l y e m p l o y e d as r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p e r a t o r s . M o r e of the n o n - f a r m respondents with s e c o n d jobs w e r e se l f -e m p l o y e d than w e r e w o r k i n g for o t h e r s . F i v e n o n - f a r m h o u s e -h o l d heads h e l d a t h i r d job . T h e n u m b e r of respondents w o r k i n g i n two o r even t h r e e jobs i s h i g h i n c o m p a r i s o n with other r u r a l areas^ an the p r o v i n c e and i n d i c a t e s the m a r g i n a l i t y of m a n y of those i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . A n add i t i ona l fac tor o p e r a t i n g to p r o d u c e this p a t t e r n i s a l a c k of s teady e m p l o y m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n the v a l l e y . 11- See, for e x a m p l e : C o o l i e V e r n e r , F r a n k W . M i l l a r d , and G a r y D i c k i n s o n , A S o c i o - E c o n o m i c S u r v e y of the P r i n c e G e o r g e  S p e c i a l Sales A r e a . V a n c o u v e r : D e p a r t m e n t of A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967, p . 43. 89 T A B L E 12 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y E M P L O Y M E N T S T A T U S Se l f W o r k E m p l o yment for O t h e r s No Job T o t a l No % N o . % N o . % N o . % N o n - f a r m e r s ' p r i n c i p a l 34 27. 4 66 53. 2 24 19.4 124 100. 0 N o n - f a r m e r s' secondary- 23 18. 5 13 10. 5 88 71. 0 124 100. 0 F a r m e r s' s e c o n d a r y 5 14.7 14 41. 2 15 44. 1 34 100. 0 F a r m e r s ' t e r t i a r y 2 5. 9 2 5.9 30 88. 2 34 100. 0 S o m e 38. 2 p e r cent of the n o n - I n d i a n f a r m respondents s a i d that they d id no o f f - f a r m w o r k i n 1965 and seven (20. 6 p e r cent) spent l e s s than o n e - f o u r t h of t h e i r w o r k i n g t i m e i n o f f - f a r m jobs . ( T a b l e 13). O n the other hand , eight f a r m e r s (23. 5 p e r cent) w o r k e d f r o m t h r e e - f o u r t h s to f u l l t i m e at o f f - f a r m jobs . T h e f a r m respondents wi th m o r e educat ion tended to do m o r e o f f - f a r m w o r k as t h e r e was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n coef f i c i ent (r = . 41) between the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 90 T A B L E 13 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S B Y P R O P O R T I O N O F T I M E IN O F F - F A R M W O R K P r o p o r t i o n of T i m e i n O f f - F a r m W o r k N o . % None 13 38. 2 L e s s than 25 p e r cent 7 20. 6* 25 - 49 p e r cent 2 5 .9 50 - 74 p e r cent 3 8. 8 75 - 100 p e r cent 8 23. 5 No r e s p o n s e 1 2 .9 T o t a l 34 100. 0 * M e d i a n O f f - f a r m jobs w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d i n the s a m e o c c u p a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s r e p o r t e d b y the n o n - f a r m popu la t ion . M a n a g e m e n t , l ogg ing , and c a r p e n t r y each accounted for four of the f a r m respondent s ' s e c o n d a r y occupat ions whi le the r e m a i n d e r w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r seven other c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s . ( T a b l e 14). F o u r f a r m e r s (11.8 p e r cent) h a d a t h i r d job and two of t h e m w e r e l a b o u r e r s . 91 T A B L E 14 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S S E C O N D A R Y A N D T E R T I A R Y J O B S S e c o n d a r y T e r t i a r y N o . % N o . % M a n a g e r s 4 20. 0 1 25. 0 L o g g e r s 4 20. 0 0 0. 0 C a r p e n t e r s 4 20. 0 0 0. 0 R o a d T r a n s . O p e r a t o r s 2 10. 0 0 0. 0 E n g i n e e r 1 5. 0 0 0. 0 O t h e r P r o f e s s i o n a l 1 5. 0 0 0. 0 P 'rotect ion O f f i c e r 1 5. 0 0 0. 0 F o o d S e r v i c e 1 5. 0 0 0. 0 F a r m W o r k e r 1 5. 0 0 0. 0 E q u i p m e n t O p e r a t o r 1 5. 0 0 0. 0 Sa les 0 0. 0 •1 25. 0 L a b o u r e r s 0 '. -0. 0 2 50. 0 T o t a l 20 100. 0 4 100. 0 92 B r a y f i e l d and Rothe 's Index of Job S a t i s f a c t i o n was a d m i n i s t e r e d to those respondents e m p l o y e d at the t i m e of the s u r v e y and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s c o r e s b y n o n - I n d i a n r e s p o n -dents i s shown i n T a b l e 15. S e v e n t y - f o u r p e r cent of a l l r e s p o n s e s to the job s a t i s f a c t i o n i t e m s w e r e e i ther f a v o r a b l e o r s t r o n g l y f a v o r a b l e . T h e m e d i a n job sa t i s fac t i on s c o r e was between 27 and 34 i n d i c a t i n g a m o d e r a t e degree of sa t i s fac t i on with the p r e s e n t p r i n c i p a l job . T w o respondents s c o r e d m o r e than 43 points whi le s even h a d l e s s than 27. T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n b y job sa t i s fac t i on s c o r e between f a r m and n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d h e a d s . T h e r e w e r e a n u m b e r of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n s between job sa t i s fac t ion and other s o c i o - e c o n o m i c v a r i a b l e s . Job sa t i s fac t i on was n e g a t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d with age (r =-v40), n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the a r e a (r = -.25), and n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t h o m e (r = - .28). T h e s e r e l a t i o n s h i p s 12. A . H . B r a y f i e l d and H . F . Rothe , " A n Index of Job S a t i s -fact ion , " J o u r n a l of A p p l i e d P'sychology, 35:307-311, ( O c t o b e r , 1951). T h i s s c a l e cons i s t s of e ighteen s tatements such as " M y job i s l i k e a hobby to m e , " and " E a c h day of w o r k s e e m s l i k e i t w i l l n e v e r end. " T h e s c a l e was s h o r t e n e d to nine i t e m s for this s tudy. F i v e r e s p o n s e s r a n g i n g f r o m " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " to " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " w e r e a v a i l a b l e for each i t e m and each r e s p o n s e was s c o r e d f r o m one to f ive p o i n t s . A m a x i m u m s c a l e s c o r e of 45 points w o u l d i n d i c a t e a h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e job attitude w h e r e a s a m i n i m u m s c o r e of 9 points wou ld be i n d i c a t i v e of e x t r e m e job d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n . 93 T A B L E 15 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F J O B S A T I S F A C T I O N S C O R E S F O R F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S S c o r e T o t a l N o . % F a r m N o . % N o n -N o . • F a r m % L e s s than 27 7 5. 3 2. ' 6. 3 5 5. 0 27 - 34 74 56. 1* 17 53. 1* 57 57. 0* 35 - 42 49 37. 1 12 37. 5 37 37. 0 43 or m o r e 2 1. 5 1 3. 1 1 1. 0 T o t a l 132 100. 0 32 100. 0 100 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A chi s q u a r e va lue of 0. 12 was obta ined T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . i n d i c a t e that the o l d e r , l o n g e r - t i m e r e s i d e n t s of the v a l l e y w e r e l e s s s a t i s f i e d wi th their p r i n c i p a l occupat ions than w e r e the younger , n e w e r r e s i d e n t s . T h i s i s not unexpec ted as i n t e r e s t i n and l i k i n g for 13 occupat ions tends to d e c r e a s e with age. Job sa t i s fac t ion s c o r e s w e r e h i g h e r for those respondents who h a d m o r e educat ion (r = . 19) and whose wives h a d m o r e educat ion (r = . 19). In addi t ion , 13. See, for e x a m p l e : D . B . B r o m l e y , T h e P s y c h o l o g y of H u m a n  A g e i n g . M i d d l e s e x : P e n g u i n B o o k s , 1966. 94 degree of s a t i s f a c t i o n with the p r e s e n t occupat ion was r e l a t e d to l e v e l of l i v i n g (r = . 27) i n d i c a t i n g that those respondents wi th m o r e h o u s e h o l d a m e n i t i e s s u c h as a te lephone and r e f r i g e r a t o r w e r e m o r e s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r job . T h e Indian s a m p l e of respondents h a d a d i s t r i b u t i o n of job s a t i s f a c t i o n s c o r e s s i m i l a r to that of the non-Indians but a s m a l l e r p e r c e n t a g e of the Indians were i n the l a b o u r f o r c e . Seventeen (53. 1 p e r cent) w e r e e m p l o y e d at the t i m e they w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d and three of the seventeen w e r e s e l f - e m p l o y e d . T h e m o s t f requent ly r e p o r t e d p r e s e n t jobs were logg ing with eight and l a b o u r i n g with four Indian h o u s e h o l d heads . T w o h a d s e c o n d a r y jobs and both were s e l f - e m p l o y e d . E m p l o y m e n t H i s t o r y In g e n e r a l , the non- Ind ian f a r m respondents h a d w o r k e d m o r e y e a r s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n than the n o n - f a r m r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e m e d i a n for the f o r m e r group was twenty or m o r e y e a r s c o m -p a r e d with ten to n ineteen y e a r s for the la t t er g r o u p . ( T a b l e 16). T w o of the f a r m e r s (5 .9 p e r cent) h a d b e e n i n a g r i c u l t u r e for l e s s than f ive y e a r s whereas twenty-t'wo (64.7 p e r cent) h a d been f a r m i n g for twenty or m o r e y e a r s . In the n o n - f a r m popula t ion , on the other hand, 8. 9 p e r cent h a d been i n t h e i r p r e s e n t occupat ion for twenty or m o r e y e a r s c o m p a r e d with 21 .8 p e r cent i n the l e s s than five y e a r c l a s s . 95 S T A B L E 16 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y N U M B E R O F Y E A R S IN P R E S E N T O C C U P A T I O N Y e a r s T o t a l N o . % F a r m N o . % Non. N o . - F a r m % L e s s than 5 29 18.4 2 5 .9 27 21 .8 5 - 9 25 15.8 3 8 .8 22 17..8 1 0 - 1 9 47 29. 7* 7 20. 6 40 32. 3* 20 or m o r e 33 20. 9 22 64. 7* 11 8 .9 Not w o r k i n g at p r e s e n t 24 15. 2 0 0. 0 24 19- 3 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of 114. 08 was obta ined. T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . S t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients w e r e obta ined for a l l n o n - I n d i a n respondents between n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t o c c u p a t i o n and n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the a r e a (r a'. 1 and n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t h o m e (r = . 40). T h e a s s o c i a t i o n s ind ica te a p a t t e r n of c o n s i s t e n c y with r e s p e c t to r e s i d e n c e and occupat ion with the l o n g e r - t e r m v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s hav ing w o r k e d i n the s a m e k inds of jobs l o n g e r than the newer r e s i d e n t s . D a t a on p r e v i o u s jobs h e l d for l o n g e r than s ix months w e r e c o l l e c t e d f r o m respondents and up to five r e s p o n s e s w e r e r e c o r d e d . T h e non- Ind ian h o u s e h o l d heads r e p o r t e d a tota l of 297 p r e v i o u s jobs at an average of 1.9 each . . T h e a v e r a g e for f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads of 1. 4 was s l i g h t l y l o w e r than the 2. 0 r e p o r t e d b y n o n - f a r m respondents i n d i c a t i n g a l e s s e r range of job e x p e r i e n c e for the f a r m o p e r a t o r s . L o g g i n g was the m o s t f r equent ly r e p o r t e d p r e v i o u s job with 15. 5 p e r cent of the r e s p o n s e s . Some 12.8 p e r cent of a l l n o n - I n d i a n respondents h a d been c a r p e n t e r s and 10. 4 p e r cent h a d been f a r m e r s ( T a b l e 17). C a r p e n t r y accounted for t h i r t e e n (27. 0 p e r cent) of the jobs f o r m e r l y h e l d b y f a r m e r s and t h i r t y h o u s e h o l d heads who w e r e not f a r m i n g at p r e s e n t h a d done so i n the pas t . O t h e r p r e v i o u s jobs r e p o r t e d f requent ly i n c l u d e d r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n 97 T A B L E 17 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y P R E V I O U S J O B S H E L D F O R M O R E T H A N SIX M O N T H S T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m N o . % N o . % N o . % L o g g e r s 46 15. 5 9 18.7 37 15. 0 C a r p e n t e r s 38 12.8 13 27. 0 25 10. 1 F a r m e r s 31 10. 4 1 2, 1 30 12. 1 R o a d T r a n s , o p e r a t o r s 27 9. 1 5 10. 4 22 8 .8 L a b o u r e r s 22 7 .4 5 10. 4 17 6.8 E q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r s 20 6.7 3 6. 2 17 6. 8 M a n a g e r s 19 6 .4 1 2. 1 18 7. 2 S a l e s m e n 13 4. 4 0 0. 0 13 5. 2 P r o t e c t i o n O f f i c e r s 11 3.7 1 2. 1 10 4. 0 M e c h a n i c s 11 3 .7 2 4. 2 9 3. 6 C l e r k s 8 2. 7 1 2. 1 7 2. 8 M a c h i n i s t s 8 2 .7 1 2. 1 7 2. 8 M i s ce l laneous 43 14. 5 6 12. 6 37 14. 8 T o t a l 297 100. 0 48 100. 0 249 100. 0 Note : E a c h of the m i s c e l l a n e o u s job c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s accounted for s ix o r l e s s p r e v i o u s jobs h e l d b y r e s p o n d e n t s . 98 (9. 1 p e r cent), l a b o u r i n g (7 .4 p e r cent), equipment o p e r a t i o n (6 .7 p e r cent), and m a n a g e r i a l (6 .4 p e r cent) . T h u s , the p r e v i o u s jobs r e p o r t e d w e r e m a i n l y i n the s a m e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s as w e r e the p r e s e n t jobs and m o s t of t h e m r e q u i r e d on ly m i n i m a l s k i l l o r t r a i n i n g . T h e r e a p p e a r e d to have been l i t t l e u p w a r d o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y wi th in the c a r e e r s of m o s t r e s p o n d e n t s . In addi t ion , t h e r e s e e m s to have been l i t t l e o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y between the h o u s e h o l d heads and t h e i r f a t h e r s . Data on fa ther ' s o c c u p a t i o n w e r e sought f r o m the respondents and 41; 1 p e r cent s a i d that t h e i r fa thers h a d b e e n f a r m e r s . ( T a b l e 18). E i g h t e e n of the p r e s e n t f a r m respondents (53. 0 p e r cent) as aga ins t 37. 9 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m respondents r e p o r t e d that f a r m i n g was t h e i r fa ther ' s o c c u p a t i o n . S o m e 10. 1 p e r cent of the h o u s e h o l d heads s a i d that t h e i r fa thers h a d b e e n m a n a g e r s and 6. 3 p e r cent r e p o r t e d c a r p e n t r y but no other o c c u p a t i o n a l c l a s s accounted for m o r e than four p e r cent of the r e s p o n s e s . T h e s e o c c u p a t i o n a l groups w e r e a l so a m o n g the m o s t f requent ly r e p o r t e d p r e s e n t a n d p r e v i o u s jobs of the re spondent s , sugges t ing a t r a d i t i o n a l p a t t e r n of r e s t r i c t e d cho ice of occupat ions brought about i n p a r t b y the r e l a t i v e l y u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d and i s o l a t e d e c o n o m y of the P 'emberton V a l l e y . 99 T A B L E 18 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y F A T H E R S ' O C C U P A T I O N O c c u p a t i o n T o t a l N o . % N o . F a r m % N o n N o . - F a r m % F a r m e r 65 41. 1 18 53. 0 47 37. 9 M a n a g e r 16 10. 1 3 8. 8 13 10. 5 C a r p e n t e r 10 6. 3 4 11.9 6 4.9 L o g g e r 6 3.8 0 0. 0 6 4.9 C l e r k 5 3 .2 1 2.9 4 3. 2 S e c t i o n m a n 5 3.2 1 2.9 4 3 .2 L a b o u r e r 5 3 .2 1 2.9 4 3. 2 F i s h e r m a n or hunter 4 2. 5 0 0. 0 4 3.2 M a c h i n i s t 4 2. 5 2 5.9 2 1.6 S a l e s m a n 3 1.9 1 2.9 2 1. 6 R a i l r o a d o p e r a t o r 3 1.9 0 0. 0 3 2 . 4 M i n e r 3 1.9 0 0. 0 3 2. 4 E q u i p m e n t o p e r a t o r 3 1.9 0 0. 0 3 2. 4 M i s ce l l aneous p r o f e s s i o n a l 2 1. 3 0 0. 0 2 1.6 T r a n s p o r t a t i o n s u p e r v i s o r 2 1. 3 1 2.9 1 0. 8 P a i n t e r 2 1. 3 0 0. 0 2 11. 6 S ing le r e s p o n s e c a t e g o r i e s 16 10. 1 1 2:9 15 12. 1 No r e s p o n s e o r don't know 4 2. 5 1 2.9 3 2. 4 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 100 T h e l a c k of job s k i l l s i n the popula t ion coupled with a d e a r t h of e m p l o y m e n t opportuni t i es i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y had r e s u l t e d i n t h i r t y - f i v e n o n - f a r m respondents (28. 2 p e r cent) b e i n g out of w o r k at s o m e t i m e i n the l a s t three y e a r s . In the s a m e p e r i o d , three f a r m e r s h a d sought o f f - f a r m w o r k and h a d been unable to obta in i t . T h e m e d i a n length of u n e m p l o y m e n t for the n o n - f a r m respondents was one to s i x months , e ight of t h e m for m o r e than a y e a r . A s m a n y of the n o n - f a r m respondents w e r e engaged i n occupat ions which a r e affected by a d v e r s e weather condi t ions , s e a s o n a l layoffs was the m o s t f r equent ly r e p o r t e d r e a s o n for u n e m p l o y m e n t b y 74. 3 p e r cent of those who h a d b e e n out of w o r k . T h r e e n o n - f a r m respondents who h a d b e e n u n e m p l o y e d gave hea l th d i s a b i l i t i e s as the r e a s o n and two s a i d that they p o s s e s s e d insuf f i c i en t s k i l l to obta in w o r k . No respondents w e r e c u r r e n t l y d r a w i n g u n e m p l o y m e n t i n s u r a n c e , however , the i n t e r -v iews w e r e conducted i n A u g u s t when the logg ing i n d u s t r y was i n f u l l o p e r a t i o n and jobs were r e l a t i v e l y abundant. T h e e m p l o y e d Indian respondents had spent a m e d i a n of ten to n ine teen y e a r s i n t h e i r p r e s e n t occupat ion with four i n the m o r e than twenty y e a r c l a s s . A l m o s t a l l of the fa thers h a d b e e n engaged i n occupat ions c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with the l a n d s u c h as logg ing , l a b o u r i n g , t r a p p i n g and hunting, f a r m i n g and m i n i n g . 101 T w e n t y - s i x Indians i n the s a m p l e (81 .3 p e r cent) h a d been u n e m p l o y e d at s o m e t i m e i n the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s and the m e d i a n length of u n e m p l o y m e n t was one to two y e a r s . N i n e Indians h a d been out of work for m o r e than two of the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s . H a l f of those u n e m p l o y e d r e p o r t e d s e a s o n a l layoffs as the r e a s o n w h e r e -as f ive r e p o r t e d hea l th d i s a b i l i t i e s , four s a i d that t h e r e was no w o r k a v a i l a b l e , and two i n d i c a t e d that they h a d insuf f i c i ent s k i l l to obtain a job . T h e s e data ind ica te the o c c u p a t i o n a l m a r g i n a l i t y of the Indians i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . T h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l hunting, f i sh ing , and food ga ther ing e c o n o m i e s e m p h a s i z e d outdoor r a t h e r than i n d o o r o c c u p a t i o n s . M o r e o v e r , they p r e f e r r e d w o r k w h i c h was v a r i a b l e r a t h e r than even-paced , ". . . with p e r i o d s of peak p h y s i c a l effort fo l lowed b y opportuni t i e s for r e s t and 14 r e l a x a t i o n . " T h i s p a t t e r n of w o r k i s i n c o n s i s t e n t with the demands of n o n - I n d i a n e m p l o y e r s , t h e r e f o r e , Indians a r e at a d isadvantage i n c o m p e t i n g with non-Indians for ava i lab le jobs . T h e e m p l o y m e n t p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d a m o n g the P e m b e r t o n Indians is cons i s tent with the t r a d i t i o n a l w o r k pa t t ern , and t h e i r l a c k of b a s i c educat ion and job t r a i n i n g inh ib i t any change i n t h e i r m a r g i n a l s tatus . 14. H a w t h o r n , op. c i t . , p . 88. 102 A G R I C U L T U R E B y the c r i t e r i o n u s e d i n this study, t h i r t y - f o u r or 21.5 p e r cent of the n o n - I n d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m but not a l l of t h e m w e r e f u l l - t i m e f a r m e r s . E i g h t f a r m respondents (23. 5 p e r cent) d e r i v e d m o r e than eighty p e r -cent of t h e i r to ta l i n c o m e f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e but t h i r t e e n (38. 2 p e r cent) s a i d that they d i d no o f f - f a r m w o r k . T h e degree of c o m m i t t m e n t to a g r i c u l t u r e as m e a s u r e d b y o c c u p a t i o n a l and i n c o m e c r i t e r i a v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y among those c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m o p e r a t o r s . In terms; .of g r o s s revenue the p r i m a r y a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t was bee f catt le for 53. 0 p e r cent of the P e m b e r t o n f a r m e r s whi le 38. 2 p e r cent r e p o r t e d that vegetables w e r e t h e i r m a i n revenue s o u r c e . A s T a b l e 19 i n d i c a t e s , these two p r o d u c t c a t e g o r i e s w e r e a l so the m o s t f requent ly m e n t i o n e d s e c o n d a r y revenue s o u r c e s . O n l y t h r e e f a r m e r s s o l d f i e l d c r o p s s u c h as h a y w h i c h suggests that th is p r o d u c t i s b e i n g p r o d u c e d i n insu f f i c i en t quanti t ies to suppor t the beef catt le d u r i n g the winter feed ing p e r i o d . In fact, the P e m b e r t o n f a r m e r s i m p o r t t h o u s -ands of tons of hay y e a r l y f r o m the U n i t e d States and the F r a s e r 103 T A B L E 1 9 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S B Y A G R I C U L T U R A L P R O D U C T S S O L D P r o d u c t P r i m a r y S e c o n d a r y T e r t i a r y N o . N o . N o . % B e e f Cat t l e 18 53. 0 13 38. 2 0 0. 0 V e g e t a b l e s 13 38. 2 6 17. 6 2 5 .9 F i e l d C r o p s 1 2 .9 2 5.9 0 0. 0 D a i r y P r o d u c e 0 0. 0 1 2 .9 2 5 .9 O t h e r 0 0. 0 1 2 .9 2 5 .9 None 2 5.9 11 32. 5 28 82. 3 T o t a l 34 100. 0 34 100. 0 34 100. 0 V a l l e y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a at a f re ight cost of a r o u n d twelve d o l l a r s p e r ton . T h r e e f a r m e r s r e p o r t e d s e l l i n g s o m e d a i r y p r o d u c e for the l o c a l m a r k e t . T h e d i s t r i b u t i o n of to ta l a n i m a l units owned by the f a r m 16 respondents i s shown i n T a b l e 20. Two f a r m e r s h a d no a n i m a l s 15. D e p a r t m e n t of I n d u s t r i a l Deve lopment , T r a d e and C o m m e r c e , op. c i t . , p . 45. 16. T h e to ta l a n i m a l units for e a c h f a r m was d e t e r m i n e d by m u l t i -p l y i n g the a v e r a g e n u m b e r of each type of a n i m a l on the f a r m i n 1965 b y an a n i m a l unit f a c t o r . A fu l ly g r o w n h o r s e or bee f cow, for e x a m p l e , h a d an a n i m a l uni t fac tor of 1. 0 whi le a ca l f u n d e r one y e a r o l d was v a l u e d at . 25 and a h e i f e r between one and two y e a r s at . 66. T h e s e va lues a r e u s e d b y the C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e i n the ir s tudies of a g r i c u l t u r a l e n t e r p r i s e s . 104 T A B L E 20 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S B Y A V E R A G E N U M B E R O F A N I M A L U N I T S I N 1965 A n i m a l Uni t s N o . % N o a n i m a l s 2 5.9 L e s s than 10 4 11.8 10 - 19 3 8 .8 20 - 29 7 20. 6 30 - 39 9 26. 4 * 40 - 49 2 5.9 50 - 59 5 14.7 60 or m o r e 2 5.9 T o t a l 34 100. 0 * M e d i a n i n 1965 whi le four (11.8 p e r cent) m a i n t a i n e d l e s s than ten a n i m a l u n i t s . T e n f a r m e r s r e p o r t e d ten to twenty -n ine and the m e d i a n c a t e g o r y was t h i r t y to t h i r t y - n i n e a n i m a l u n i t s . T w o f a r m e r s s a i d that they h a d an a v e r a g e of m o r e than s ix ty a n i m a l units i n 1965. T h e f a r m respondents who h a d m o r e a n i m a l units t ended to be m o r e s a t i s f i e d wi th f a r m i n g than those wi th fewer 105 a n i m a l s as t h e r e was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r = . 35) between job s a t i s f a c t i o n and n u m b e r of a n i m a l u n i t s . M o s t of the P e m b e r t o n f a r m s would be c l a s s i f i e d as p a r t - t i m e o p e r a t i o n s on the b a s i s of n u m b e r of a n i m a l units s ince A c t o n and W o o d w a r d found that i n 1958 B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a r a n c h e s a v e r a g e d 43 a n i m a l 17 units for p a r t - t i m e and 217 for f u l l - t i m e o p e r a t i o n s . T h e f a r m s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y w e r e a l so s m a l l -s c a l e e n t e r p r i s e s i n that they g e n e r a l l y e m p l o y e d few peop le outs ide of the f a m i l y uni t . T w e l v e f a r m e r s (35. 3 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d that they u s e d no h i r e d l a b o u r whi l e o n l y one r e p o r t e d the use of s o m e y e a r r o u n d plus s o m e s e a s o n a l h i r e d l a b o u r . S e a s o n a l w o r k e r s w e r e e m p l o y e d b y 61.8 p e r cent of the f a r m o p e r a t o r s and m o s t of these l a b o u r e r s w e r e r e c r u i t e d f r o m the 18 M o u n t C u r r i e Indian r e s e r v e . F a r m owners w e r e a s k e d to e s t imate the va lue of t h e i r f a r m s b y the ques t ion , "What w o u l d you p a y to own and operate this f a r m as a going c o n c e r n , with e v e r y t h i n g i n c l u d e d ? " 17. B . K . A c t o n and E . D . W o o d w a r d , Cat t l e R a n c h i n g i n B r i t i s h  C o l u m b i a , 1958-1959, V a n c o u v e r : E c o n o m i c s D i v i s i o n , C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e , 1959. 18. T h e Indian f a r m w o r k e r s a r e g e n e r a l l y p a i d $1. 00 p e r h o u r p l u s m e a l s and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n . One Indian w o m a n o r g a n i z e s groups of l a b o u r e r s and contrac t s wi th the i n d i v i d u a l f a r m e r s for t h e i r w o r k . She then a r r a n g e s to p a y the w o r k e r s and p r o v i d e s t r a n s -p o r t a t i o n for t h e m . 106 T h e values e s t i m a t e d b y the respondents a r e s u m m a r i z e d i n T a b l e 21. T h e m e d i a n v a l u a t i o n was i n the $34, 950 to $49, 949 c l a s s and the a v e r a g e was $45, 350. O n e f a r m was v a l u e d at l e s s than $25, 000 and t h r e e w e r e s a i d to be w o r t h m o r e than $99, 950. T h e respondents wi th m o r e a n i m a l units t ended to p l a c e h i g h e r va lues on the ir f a r m s as t h e r e was a s ign i f i cant a s s o c i a t i o n (r - .41) between the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T A B L E 21 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S B Y E S T I M A T E D V A L U E O F F A R M S V a l u e N o . % L e s s than $24, 950 1 2 .9 24, 950 - 34, 949 8 23. 5 34, 950 - 49, 949 11 32 .4* 49, 950-99, 949 10 29. 4 99, 950 or m o r e 3 8. 8 U n a b l e to e s t imate 1 2 .9 T o t a l 34 100. 0 * M e d i a n 107 T h e f a r m respondents w e r e a s k e d to ind ica te whether or not they p l a n n e d to m a k e any changes i n t h e i r f a r m operat ions wi th in the next five y e a r s . F o u r t e e n f a r m e r s (41. 2 p e r cent), p l a n n e d no changes but the r e m a i n d e r r e p o r t e d at l e a s t one change each . E i g h t f a r m e r s p l a n n e d to change the na ture of t h e i r e n t e r p r i s e w h i c h wou ld i n v o l v e swi tch ing f r o m growing potatoes to r a i s i n g b e e f catt le , for e x a m p l e . ( T a b l e 22). Seven intended to c l e a r o r d r a i n addi t iona l l a n d whi le t h r e e wanted to i n c r e a s e the s i ze of t h e i r f a r m and two p l a n n e d to i n c r e a s e the i r s tock . S ix f a r m e r s p l a n n e d to d e c r e a s e t h e i r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e , two b y doing m o r e o f f - f a r m w o r k and four b y r e t i r i n g f r o m f a r m i n g . T h e changes c o n t e m p l a t e d b y the f a r m e r s ind ica te a m i x e d attitude t o w a r d the future of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . A n u m b e r of changes i n v o l v e d expanding the f a r m opera t ions w h i c h w o u l d suggest a b a s i c a l l y o p t i m i s t i c out look. O n the other hand, the m o s t f requent ly m e n t i o n e d change was i n the na ture of the e n t e r p r i s e w h i c h c o u l d m e a n that the f a r m e r s w e r e p e s s i m i s t i c about the future for the c u r r e n t a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s . P e s s i m i s m was a lso i n d i c a t e d i n the r e s p o n s e s of those who p l a n n e d to r e t i r e o r i n c r e a s e the i r o f f - f a r m w o r k . 108 T A B L E 22 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F C H A N G E S P L A N N E D B Y F A R M E R S Change P l a n n e d N o . % Change na ture of e n t e r p r i s e 8 30. 8 C l e a r o r d r a i n l a n d 7 26. 9 R e t i r e f r o m f a r m i n g 4 15. 4 I n c r e a s e s i ze of f a r m 3 11. 5 I n c r e a s e s tock 2 7. 7 M o r e o f f - f a r m w o r k 2 7. 7 T o t a l 26 100. 0 T h e Mount C u r r i e r e s e r v e contains s o m e of the best a g r i c u l t u r a l l a n d i n the v a l l e y but the Indians m a k e l i t t l e u s e of i t . Jus t t h r e e of the Indian respondents w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m o p e r a t o r s and they r e p o r t e d g r o s s f a r m i n c o m e s of l e s s than $1, 500. T h e t h r e e f a r m s c o n s i s t e d of s e v e r a l s m a l l , s c a t t e r e d plots of l a n d . E a c h f a r m e r s a i d that h i s p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t was beef catt le and s o m e vegetables w e r e r a i s e d for h o m e consumpt ion . T h e s e f indings a r e cons i s tent wi th those of H a w t h o r n and h i s a s s o c i a t e s who r e p o r t e d i n I960 109 that on ly one Indian i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y was a f u l l - t i m e f a r m e r 19 while nine o thers f a r m e d p a r t - t i m e . A f u l l - t i m e a g r i c u l t u r a l a s s i s t a n t was m a i n t a i n e d b y the Indian A f f a i r s B r a n c h for the M o u n t C u r r i e b a n d u n t i l the late 1950's but f a r m i n g has l a r g e l y b e e n i g n o r e d b y the Indians . I N C O M E T h e m e d i a n to ta l i n c o m e for a l l n o n - I n d i a n f a m i l i e s was i n the $6, 000 to $6, 999 c l a s s and the a v e r a g e was $5, 992. T w e n t y - n i n e househo lds (18. 3 p e r cent) h a d tota l i n c o m e s of l e s s than $3, 000 whi le e ighty- two (42. 0 p e r cent) h a d m o r e than $6, 000. ( T a b l e 23). T h e f a r m f a m i l i e s h a d a m e d i a n to ta l i n c o m e f r o m a l l s o u r c e s of $4, 000 to $4, 999 and an a v e r a g e of $4, 905 as aga ins t a m e d i a n of $6, 000 to $6, 999 and an a v e r a g e of $6, 291 for n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s . T h u s , t h e r e was a d i f f erence of $1, 386 i n the a v e r a g e total i n c o m e of the f a r m and n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s i n 1965, with the d i s c r e p a n c y f a v o r i n g the la t t er group . Some 23. 5 p e r cent of the f a r m f a m i l i e s c o m p a r e d wi th 16. 8 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s h a d l e s s than $3, 000 whi le 29. 4 p e r cent of the f a r m but 58. 1 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m househo lds 19. H a w t h o r n , op. c i t . , p . 151. 110 T A B L E 23 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N F A M I L I E S B Y T O T A L I N C O M E T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m Income C l a s s N o . % N o . % N o . % L e s s than $1, 000 6 3. 8 0 0. 0 6 4. 8 1, 000 - 1, 999 10 6. 3 3 8 .8 7 5. 6 2, 000 - 2, 999 13 8. 2 5 14. 7 8 6 .4 3, 000 - 3, 999 14 8.9 5 14. 7 9 7. 3 4, 000 - 4, 999 23 14. 5 7 20. 6* 16 12. 9 5, 000 - 5, 999 10 6. 3 4 11. 8 6 4 .8 6, 000 - 6, 999 32 20. 2* 7 20. 6 25 20 .2* 7, 000 - 7, 999 8 5. 1 0 0. 0 8 6 .4 8, 000 - 8,999 14 8.9 0 0. 0 14 11. 3 9, 000 - 9,999 11 7. 0 1 2.9 10 8. 1 10, 000 or m o r e 17 10.8 2 5.9 15 12. 1 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n h a d m o r e than $6, 000. T o t a l i n c o m e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th l e v e l of l i v i n g (r = . 35) i n d i c a t i n g that the respondents wi th m o r e i n c o m e s a l so h a d a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g . A h i g h e r tota l i n c o m e was I l l a l so a s s o c i a t e d wi th a h i g h e r degree of job sa t i s fac t i on (r = . 37) and with a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t occupat ion (r •= . 23 ) . O f the educat iona l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s tudied , on ly y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g c o m p l e t e d b y the wife showed a s ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n wi th to ta l i n c o m e and there was no a s s o c i a t i o n between tota l i n c o m e and age. T h u s , the educat iona l l e v e l and age of re spondents d i d not appear to be r e l a t e d to the tota l i n c o m e of the non- Ind ian f a m i l i e s s tud ied . Income for N o n - F a r m F a m i l i e s T h e tota l i n c o m e of n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s was d e r i v e d f r o m four s o u r c e s : net i n c o m e f r o m p r i n c i p a l job, net i n c o m e f r o m s e c o n d a r y jobs , dependents' e a r n i n g s , and other s o u r c e s s u c h as g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s f e r p a y m e n t s , r en t s , and i n t e r e s t on i n v e s t m e n t s . T h e m e d i a n net i n c o m e r e c e i v e d f r o m p r i n c i p a l jobs was i n the $5, 000 to $6, 999 c l a s s for the n o n - f a r m r e s p o n d e n t s . ( T a b l e 24). S ix teen of the e m p l o y e d h o u s e h o l d heads r e c e i v e d l e s s than $3, 000 whi le seven e a r n e d m o r e than $10, 000 f r o m t h e i r p r i n c i p a l job i n 1965. T w e n t y - f o u r (19 .4 p e r cent) w e r e e i ther r e t i r e d , u n e m p l o y e d , o r on w e l f a r e and t h e r e f o r e e a r n e d no i n c o m e w h e r e a s t h r e e chose not to d ivulge the amount of t h e i r 112 e a r n i n g s . T h i r t y - s i x n o n - f a r m respondents (29 .0 p e r cent) r e c e i v e d i n c o m e f r o m s e c o n d a r y jobs and the m e d i a n was i n the $1, 000 to $1, 999 r a n g e . No one r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g m o r e than $5, 000 f r o m a s e c o n d job but nine h a d m o r e than $2, 000. T A B L E 24 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y N E T I N C O M E F R O M P R I N C I P A L A N D S E C O N D A R Y J O B S Income C l a s s P r i n c i p a l Job S e c o n d a r y Jobs N o . % N o . % L e s s than $1, 000 5 4. 0 17 13.7 1, 000 - 1, 999 4 3.2 9 7. 3* 2, 000 - 2, 999 7 5. 6 6 4 .8 3, 000 - 3,999 13 10. 6 2 1. 6 4, 000 - 4 ,999 11 8 .9 1 0.8 5 ,000 - 6,999 32 2 5 . 8 * 0 0 .0 7, 000 - 9 ,999 18 14. 5 0 0. 0 10, 000 or m o r e 7 5. 6 0 0. 0 No p r i n c i p a l or s e c o n d a r y job .24 19 .4 88 71 .0 No r e s p o n s e 3 2 . 4 1 0.8 T o t a l 124 100.0 124 100.0 * M e d i a n 113 In g e n e r a l , those c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h p r o d u c e d s ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients with to ta l i n c o m e w e r e a l so r e l a t e d to e a r n e d i n c o m e . T h i s was expected as t h e r e was a h igh p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of .92 between the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e r e was a s ign i f i cant negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n between e a r n e d i n c o m e and age (r = - . 23 ) s ince the o l d e r n o n - f a r m respondents had r r e t i r e d and t h e r e f o r e w o u l d not be e a r n i n g any of t h e i r i n c o m e . T w e n t y - s e v e n p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads r e p o r t e d e a r n i n g s b y t h e i r dependents i n 1965 and the m e d i a n was i n the $1, 000 to $1, 499 c l a s s . ( T a b l e 25). • S ix dependents r e c e i v e d m o r e than $3, 500 w h i c h wou ld suggest that they h a d f u l l -t i m e jobs . T h e o l d e r n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads tended to r e c e i v e m o r e i n c o m e f r o m dependents as t h e r e was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r a . 17) between age and dependents' i n c o m e . A h i g h e r dependents' i n c o m e was a l so a s s o c i a t e d with g r e a t e r to ta l i n c o m e (r a . 35) and a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g (r = . 16). Income f r o m other s o u r c e s s u c h as f a m i l y a l l owances , p e n s i o n s , and rents was r e p o r t e d b y 82. 3 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e m e d i a n was l e s s than $500, but i n s ix in s tances the s u m exceeded $3, 500. N i n e n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads stated that they w e r e r e c e i v i n g s o m e f o r m of w e l f a r e p a y m e n t s . T h e r e was a s ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n between age and other i n c o m e 114 (r = . 38) w h i c h i n d i c a t e s an expected tendency for o l d e r respondents to r e c e i v e m o r e m o n e y f r o m s u c h s o u r c e s as pens ions than d id the younger n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d h e a d s . T A B L E 25 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N F A M I L I E S B Y A M O U N T O F I N C O M E F R O M D E P E N D E N T S A N D O T H E R S O U R C E S N o . % N o . % L e s s than $500 7 5. 6 59 47. 6* 500 - 999 6 4.8 12 9. 7 1, 000 - 1, 499 8 6. 5* 12 9.7 1, 500 - 2, 499 4 3.2 10 8.1 2, 500 - 3, 499 2 1. 6 3 2.4 3, 500 o r m o r e 6 4.8 6 4.8 N o i n c o m e f r o m these s o u r c e s 91 73. 5 22 17.7 T o t a l 124 100.0 124 100.0 * M e d i a n 115 Income for F a r m F a m i l i e s T h e to ta l i n c o m e of n o n - I n d i a n f a r m f a m i l i e s was d e r i v e d f r o m s ix s o u r c e s : net i n c o m e f r o m the sa le of a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c t s , r e t a i l va lue of p r o d u c t s r a i s e d on the f a r m e r s ' l a n d and c o n s u m e d i n t h e i r own househo lds ( p e r q u i s i t e s ) , net i n c o m e f r o m s e c o n d a r y jobs , net i n c o m e f r o m t e r t i a r y jobs , dependents' e a r n i n g s , and other s o u r c e s . T h e m e d i a n g r o s s f a r m i n c o m e was i n the $2, 500 to $3, 499 c l a s s whi le the a v e r a g e was $4, 963. E l e v e n of the f a r m e r s (32 .4 p e r cent) h a d l e s s than $1, 500 i n sa les whi le four (11 .8 p e r cent) w e r e over the $11, 500 f i g u r e . ( T a b l e 26). T h e m e d i a n net f a r m i n c o m e was between $500 and $999 with s ix teen f a r m e r s (47. 1 p e r cent) h a v i n g l e s s than $500. S i x f a r m respondents net ted m o r e than $3, 000 but none h a d as m u c h as $7, 000 r e m a i n i n g after c a s h expenses h a d been deducted . T h e a v e r a g e net f a r m i n c o m e was $1, 588, or 32. 0 p e r cent of the a v e r a g e g r o s s . A p a r a l l e l s tudy of f a r m b u s i n e s s e s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y was donducted b y the E c o n o m i c s D i v i s i o n of the C a n a d a 20 D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e . T h a t agency i n t e r v i e w e d e ighteen 20. M . M . S o r b o e , " F a r m i n g i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a " . C a n a d i a n F a r m E c o n o m i c s , 2 : 2 2 » 2 7 ( .Apr i l 1967). T h e data g a t h e r e d i n this study w e r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e for c o m -p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . 116 T A B L E 26 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F G R O S S A N D N E T F A R M I N C O M E F O R N O N - I N D I A N F A M I L I E S G r o s s F a r m Income N o . % Net F a r m Income N o . % L e s s than $1, 500 11 32. 4 L e s s than $500 16 47. 1 1, 500 - 2, 499 3 8 .8 500 - 999 2 5. 9* 2, 500 - 3, 499 3 8. 8* 1, 000 - 1, 999 3 8. 8 3, 500 - 5, 499 4 11.8 2, 000 - 2, 999 7 20. 6 5, 500 - 7, 499 5 14. 7 3, 000 - 3, 999 2 5.9 7, 500 - 9, 499 1 2 .9 4, 000 - 4, 999 3 8 .8 9, 500 - 11, 499 3 8 .8 5, 000 - 6, 999 1 2 .9 11, 500 - 13, 499 2 5.9 13, 500 e r m o r e 2 5.9 T o t a l 34 100. 0 34 100. 0 * M e d i a n f a r m e r s i n the a r e a and c o m p i l e d de ta i l ed r e c o r d s of t h e i r a g r i -c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s i n 1965. Seventeen of t h e i r respondents w e r e a l so i n t e r v i e w e d i n the p r e s e n t study. T h e f a r m e r s who w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d twice r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e g r o s s f a r m i n c o m e of $9, 941 to the D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e as aga ins t $5, 356 r e p o r t e d to this s tudy. T h i s d i s c r e p a n c y o c c u r r e d p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e of d i f f erences between the two studies i n the i t e m s i n c l u d e d under g r o s s f a r m i n c o m e . Net f a r m i n c o m e data w e r e s i m i l a r 117 i n the two studies as they a v e r a g e d $2, 097 and $1, 779 r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e s e net f i gures wou ld be m o r e i n d i c a t i v e of the e c o n o m i c r e t u r n s f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e to the P e m b e r t o n f a r m f a m i l i e s than wou ld g r o s s f a r m i n c o m e . M o s t f a m f a m i l i e s have an opportun i ty to c o n s u m e s o m e of the p r o d u c e r a i s e d on t h e i r own l a n d . T h e P e m b e r t o n f a r m respondents w e r e t h e r e f o r e a s k e d to e s t imate the r e t a i l value of these p e r q u i s i t e s for the p r e v i o u s y e a r . T h e m e d i a n e s t imate was i n the $300 to $399 c la s s and fourteen f a r m e r s "(41.2 p e r cent) e s t i m a t e d a va lue of m o r e than $400 for p e r q u i s i t e s . ( T a b l e 27). T A B L E 27 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N F A R M H O U S E H O L D S B Y R E T A I L V A L U E O F P E R Q U I S I T E S C O N S U M E D A m o u n t N o . % L e s s than $100 2 5.9 100 - 199 8 23. 5 200 - 299 6 17. 6 300 - 399 4 11 .8* 400 - or m o r e 14 41. 2 T o t a l 34 100. 0 * M e d i a n 118 T h e m e d i a n net i n c o m e f r o m o f f - f a r m jobs for the twenty f a r m respondents who d id s u c h w o r k i n 1965 was between $2, 000 and $2, 999 but the a v e r a g e was $3, 487. T w o f a r m e r s e a r n e d m o r e than $7, 000 f r o m o f f - f a r m w o r k whi le s even r e c e i v e d l e s s than $2, 000. ( T a b l e 28). F o u r f a r m e r s (11.8 p e r cent) h a d a t h i r d job but each e a r n e d l e s s t h a n $ l , 000 f r o m this s o u r c e . T h e seventeen f a r m o p e r a t o r s who w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d twice r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e i n c o m e f r o m o f f - f a r m jobs of $2, 610 i n the C a n a d a D e p a r t m e n t of A g r i c u l t u r e study and $2, 441 i n the p r e s e n t study. T h e f a r m respondents with m o r e educat ion tended to r e c e i v e m o r e i n c o m e f r o m o f f - f a r m jobs and t h e r e was a s i g n i f i -cant c o r r e l a t i o n (r = .44) between the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h o s e wi th h i g h e r net f a r m i n c o m e s r e c e i v e d l e s s i n c o m e f r o m o f f - f a r m jobs (r •= - . 43) w h i c h suggests a g r e a t e r dependence on a g r i c u l t u r e b y these p e o p l e . T h e f a r m e r s who h a d l i v e d m o r e y e a r s i n the a r e a (r = - . 38) and m o r e y e a r s on t h e i r p r e s e n t f a r m (r = - . 45) r e c e i v e d l e s s i n c o m e f r o m o f f - f a r m w o r k . T h e s e two a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e that the f a r m e r s who h a d b e e n se t t l ed i n the P e m b e r t o n a r e a for a l o n g e r p e r i o d w e r e l e s s l i k e l y to supplement t h e i r a g r i c u l t u r a l earn ings b y w o r k i n g at o f f - f a r m jobs . T h i s i s p e r h a p s a consequence of the geograph ic i s o l a t i o n of the v a l l e y w h i c h f o r c e d the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s to b e c o m e m o r e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n t . In addi t ion , these 119 T A B L E 28 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N F A R M E R S B Y N E T I N C O M E F R O M O F F - F A R M J O B S A m o u n t S e c o n d Job N o . % % T h i r d Job N o . % L e s s than $1, 000 3 8 .8 4 11.8 1, 000 - 1 ,999 4 11.8 0 0. 0 2, 000 - 2, 999 3 8. 8* 0 0. 0 3, 000 - 3, 999 4 11.8 0 0. 0 4, 000 - 4, 999 3 8 .8 0 0. 0 5, 000 - 6, 999 1 2 . 9 0 0. 0 7, 000 - 9, 999 1 2 . 9 0 0. 0 10, 000 or m o r e 1 2 . 9 0 0. 0 No o f f - f a r m job 14 41. 2 30 88. 2 T o t a l 34 100. 0 34 100. 0 * M e d i a n people h a d a l so r e c e i v e d l e s s educat ion and job t r a i n i n g w h i c h w o u l d tend to r e s t r i c t t h e i r a b i l i t y to enter the n o n - f a r m l a b o u r f o r c e . T h e r e was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n of . 55 between tota l i n c o m e and amount of o f f - f a r m w o r k and a . 7 9 f i gure for to ta l i n c o m e i n r e l a t i o n to i n c o m e f r o m o f f - f a r m w o r k . 120 T h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s i m p l y a c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o f f - f a r m e m p l o y m e n t and tota l f a r m f a m i l y i n c o m e . T h u s , those who d i d m o r e o f f — f a r m w o r k h a d a h i g h e r f a m i l y i n c o m e w h e r e a s those who w e r e m o r e dependent on a g r i c u l t u r e tended to have a l o w e r to ta l i n c o m e . N i n e f a r m e r s (26. 5 p e r cent) s a i d that i n c o m e was r e c e i v e d b y t h e i r dependents i n 1965 but the m a j o r i t y e a r n e d l e s s than $500 and o n l y one dependent h a d m o r e than $3, 500. ( T a b l e 29). T w e n t y - t w o f a r m e r s (64 .7 p e r cent) r e c e i v e d i n c o m e f r o m other s o u r c e s but t w o - t h i r d s of these respondents r e p o r t e d l e s s than $500. T h e p e r c e n t a g e d i s t r i b u t i o n s for dependents and other i n c o m e b y f a r m househo lds w e r e s i m i l a r to those for n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s . L o w Income F a m i l i e s F a m i l i e s h a v i n g l e s s than $3, 000 i n to ta l i n c o m e p e r y e a r a r e des ignated b y A R D A as s u b - m a r g i n a l o r low i n c o m e h o u s e h o l d s . In the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y , eight f a r m f a m i l i e s (23. 5 p e r cent) and twenty-one n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s (16. 8 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d l e s s than $3, 000 to ta l i n c o m e for 1965. T h e s e s u b -m a r g i n a l f a m i l i e s w e r e c o m p a r e d wi th those r e p o r t i n g m o r e than $3, 000 wi th r e s p e c t to s o u r c e s of i n c o m e and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 121 T A B L E 29 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N F A R M H O U S E H O L D S B Y A M O U N T O F I N C O M E F R O M D E P E N D E N T S A N D O T H E R S O U R C E S A m o u n t Dependents ' Income N o . % O t h e r N o . Income % L e s s than $500 5 14. 7* 14 41. 2* 500 - 999 0 0. 0 1 2 .9 1, 000 - 1, 499 1 2 .9 1 2 .9 1, 500 - 2, 499': 2 5.9 4 11.8 2, 500 - 3, 499 0 0. 0 2 5.9 3, 500 e r m o r e 1 2 .9 0 0. 0 No i n c o m e f r o m these s o u r c e s 25 73. 5 12 35. 3 T o t a l 34 100. 0 34 100. 0 * M e d i a n T h e low i n c o m e n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d an a v e r a g e tota l i n c o m e of $1, 488 c o m p a r e d wi th $7, 269 for the h i g h e r i n c o m e n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s . ( T a b l e 30). T h e s u b - m a r g i n a l group r e c e i v e d 63. 2 p e r cent and the h i g h e r i n c o m e group 9. 6 p e r cent of t h e i r a v e r a g e to ta l i n c o m e f r o m other s o u r c e s s u c h as pens ions o r w e l f a r e p a y m e n t s . P r i n c i p a l jobs , on the other hand, accounted 122 T A B L E 30 A V E R A G E A N D P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T O T A L I N C O M E B Y S O U R C E F O R L O W A N D H I G H I N C O M E N O N - F A R M F A M I L I E S 124 n o n - f a r m 21 low i n c o m e 103 h igh i n c o m e f a m i l i e s % of f a m i l i e s % of f a m i l i e s % of A v e r a g e T o t a l A v e r a g e T o t a l A v e r a g e T o t a l P r i n c i p a l job $4, 733, 87 75. 3 $ 523.81 35. 2 $5, 592. 23 76. 9 S e c o n d a r y job 379.03 6. 0 23 .81 1. 6 451. 46 6. 3 Dependents ' e a r n i n g s 437 .50 6.9 526. 70 7, . 2 O t h e r s o u r c e s 739. 92 11. 8 940. 48 63. 2 699. 03 9. . 6 T o t a l $6, 290. 32 100. 0 $1, 488.10 100. 0 $ 7 , 2 6 9 . 42 100. . 0 for 76 .9 p e r cent of the a v e r a g e tota l for h i g h e r as against 35.2 p e r cent for l o w e r i n c o m e n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s . T h e n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s wi th m o r e than $3, 000 i n to ta l i n c o m e a lso r e c e i v e d g r e a t e r p r o p o r t i o n s f r o m s e c o n d a r y jobs and dependents ' e a r n i n g s than d id the s u b - m a r g i n a l g r o u p . T h e d i f f erence between the a v e r a g e to ta l i n c o m e of low and h i g h i n c o m e f a r m f a m i l i e s was not as great as i t was i n the c a s e of n o n - f a r m househo lds s ince the s u b - m a r g i n a l f a r m e r s a v e r a g e d $2, 109 c o m p a r e d with $5, 764 for the h igh i n c o m e f a r m 123 f a m i l i e s . ( T a b l e 31). T h e a v e r a g e i n c o m e f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e for the low i n c o m e f a r m e r s was on ly ha l f that reportedM>y h i g h i n c o m e f a r m e r s , however , the f o r m e r group r e c e i v e d 55. 5 p e r cent of t h e i r to ta l f r o m a g r i c u l t u r e whereas the la t ter group r e c e i v e d 36.8 p e r cent f r o m f a r m s o u r c e s . O f f - f a r m jobs accounted for 46. 5 p e r cent of the h i g h but for 14. 8 p e r cent of the low i n c o m e f a r m f a m i l i e s a v e r a g e total i n c o m e . T h e s u b -m a r g i n a l f a r m f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d 28. 1 p e r cent of t h e i r i n c o m e f r o m other s o u r c e s , far l e s s than the 63. 2 p e r cent r e p o r t e d b y the low i n c o m e n o n ^ f a r m h o u s e h o l d s . It a p p e a r s , then, that the low i n c o m e f a r m f a m i l i e s w e r e able to s u b s i s t f r o m what they c o u l d r a i s e on t h e i r own l a n d and w e r e able to a v o i d going on the w e l f a r e r o l l s . T h e low i n c o m e n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s , on the other hand, h a d no a l t e r n a t i v e m e a n s of sub s i s tance and consequent ly w e r e dependent to a g r e a t e r extent on g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s f e r p a y m e n t s . T h e s u b - m a r g i n a l and the h i g h e r i n c o m e househo lds w e r e c o m p a r e d to d e t e r m i n e whether o r not t h e r e w e r e any s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h d i f f erent ia ted between the 124 T A B L E 31 A V E R A G E A N D P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T O T A L I N C O M E B Y S O U R C E F O R L O W A N D H I G H I N C O M E F A R M F A M I L I E S 34 f a r m 8 low i n c o m e 26 h i g h i n c o m e S o u r c e f a m i l i e s % Q f f a r m f a m : <yQ Q f f a r m f a m : aj0 D f A v e r a g e T o t a l A v e r a g e T o t a l A v e r a g e T o t a l Ne t f a r m i n c o m e $ 1 , 5 8 8 . 2 4 32. 4 $ 968 .75 45. 9 $1, 778 .85 30.9 V a l u e of p e r -qu i s i t e s 308,82 6. 3 203. 13 9 . 6 341. 35 5.9 S e c o n d job . 2, 051 .47 41. 8 281. 25 13. 3 2, 596. 15 45. 0 T h i r d job 73. 53 1. 5 31. 25 1. 5 86. 54 1. 5 Dependents e a r n i n g s 308.82 6. 3 31 .25 1. 5 394. 23 6.9 O t h e r s o u r c e s 573. 53 11. 7 593. 75 28. 1 567.31 9 .8 T o t a l $4, 904. 41 100. 0 $2, 109. 38 100. 0 $5, 764 .43 100. 0 two g r o u p s . In the n o n - f a r m popula t ion , age a p p e a r e d to be an i m p o r t a n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c for ident i fy ing the s u b - m a r g i n a l f a m i l i e s 21. T h e C h i S q u a r e test was u s e d to test for s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erences i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for the n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s wi th m o r e than and l e s s than $3, 000 to ta l i n c o m e . T w e l v e of the t h i r t y - t h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s t e s ted y i e l d e d s ign i f i cant ch i s q u a r e va lues at the . 05 l e v e l . Some f i f t y -eight c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e e x a m i n e d for the f a r m popu la t ion but s ince t h e r e w e r e only eight low i n c o m e f a r m e r s , a s t a t i s t i c a l test was not u s e d . F r o m an i n s p e c t i o n of the data there a p p e a r e d to be l i t t l e d i f f erence i n s o c i o - e c o n o m i c charac ter i s t i c s between h i g h e r and l o w e r i n c o m e f a r m f a m i l i e s . 125 as i n f ifteen of the twenty-one cases (71 .4 p e r cent) w h e r e to ta l i n c o m e was l e s s than $3, 000 the h o u s e h o l d h e a d was f i f ty - f ive or o l d e r . A g e was r e l a t e d to n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the a r e a and 30. 2 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m e r s who h a d l i v e d i n P e m b e r t o n for m o r e than seventeen y e a r s w e r e i n the low i n c o m e group c o m p a r e d wi th 5. 0 p e r cent of those who h a d b e e n l e s s than two y e a r s i n the v a l l e y . E l e v e n of the low i n c o m e n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads (52. 4 p e r cent) h a d eight o r l e s s y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d . T h e s u b - m a r g i n a l respondents tended to l i v e alone and ten of t h e m were not m a r r i e d . M o r e o v e r , 31 .0 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m respondents with low i n c o m e s r e p o r t e d that they h a d no c h i l d r e n . A s expected, a n u m b e r of e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s d i f f erent ia ted between the l o w e r and h i g h e r i n c o m e f a m i l i e s . T h e s u b - m a r g i n a l n o n - f a r m respondents e a r n e d l e s s f r o m p r i n c i p a l and s e c o n d a r y occupat ions and h a d l o w e r dependents' e a r n i n g s than d id the h i g h e r i n c o m e f a m i l i e s . F o u r t e e n of the l o w e r i n c o m e respondents (66. 7 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g $500 or m o r e f r o m g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s f e r p a y m e n t s , h o w e v e r , f ive f a m i l i e s r e c e i v e d no m o n e y f r o m this s o u r c e . Indian Incomes T h e average f a m i l y i n c o m e r e p o r t e d b y the Indian 126 respondents ($4, O i l ) was l o w e r than that of the non-Indians 5, 992) but i t was not as low as p r e v i o u s e s t imates have suggested . T h e Indian a v e r a g e was g r e a t l y affected, however , b y two i n d e p e n -dent l o g g e r s i n the s a m p l e who r e p o r t e d annual earn ings of m o r e than $12, 000. T h e m e d i a n i n c o m e for the Indians was $3, 250 w h i c h i s s t i l l s u b s t a n t i a l l y above the e s t imates m a d e b y other 22 s o u r c e s . T h i r t e e n Indian f a m i l i e s (40. 6 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d i n c o m e s of l e s s than $3, 000 p e r y e a r . T h e a v e r a g e tota l i n c o m e r e p o r t e d b y the t h r e e Indian f a r m o p e r a t o r s was $4, 7.00. N e t f a r m i n c o m e accounted for on ly 23. 6 p e r cent of t h e i r to ta l whi le 60. 3 p e r cent c a m e f r o m off-f a r m jobs and 16. 1 p e r cent was r e c e i v e d f r o m g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s f e r p a y m e n t s . T h e t h i r t e e n Indian f a m i l i e s wi th l e s s than $3, 000 p e r y e a r a v e r a g e d $1, 654 of w h i c h 52. 4 p e r cent was r e c e i v e d f r o m job earn ings and 47. 6 p e r cent f r o m g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s f e r p a y m e n t s . O n the o ther hand , the s ix teen n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s with m o r e than $3, 000 a v e r a g e d $5, 797 with 76. 0 p e r cent c o m i n g f r o m job earn ings and 24. 0 p e r cent f r o m g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s f e r p a y m e n t s . 22. T h e D e p a r t m e n t of I n d u s t r i a l D e v e l o p m e n t , T r a d e and C o m m e r c e e s t i m a t e d an a v e r a g e annual i n c o m e of $1, 600 for Indian a f fa i r s and the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y Study C o m m i t t e e w h i c h was f o r m e d b y l o c a l r e s i d e n t s e s t i m a t e d a $2, 200 a v e r a g e . 127 T h e d i s p a r i t y between Indian and n o n - I n d i a n f a m i l y i n c o m e i s quite m a r k e d , e s p e c i a l l y when the l a r g e r a v e r a g e f a m i l y s i z e of the Indians is c o n s i d e r e d . T h e r e was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r •= . 39) between the e a r n e d p o r t i o n of i n c o m e and educa t iona l a c h i e v e m e n t for the Indian s a m p l e w h i c h ind ica te s that those who h a d c o m p l e t e d m o r e y e a r s of s c h o o l e a r n e d m o r e of t h e i r to ta l i n c o m e than d id the respondents with fewer y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . A subs tant ia l n u m b e r of the Indians w e r e able to support t h e m s e l v e s b y t h e i r own job a c t i v i t i e s , m a i n l y i n the l ogg ing i n d u s t r y , but n e a r l y h a l f of t h e m w e r e dependent on v a r i o u s f o r m s of s o c i a l w e l f a r e to m e e t t h e i r e c o n o m i c needs . S U M M A R Y A g r i c u l t u r e has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the b a s e for the e c o n o m y of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y but l ogg ing a p p e a r s to be c o m i n g to the f o r e f r o n t as a m e a n s of e a r n i n g a l i v i n g , e s p e c i a l l y a m o n g the Indians . T h e r e l a t i v e i m p o r t a n c e of a g r i c u l t u r e has d e c l i n e d al though attempts a r e b e i n g m a d e to shift f r o m potato g r o w i n g to m o r e l u c r a t i v e c r o p s . T h e d i s tance of the a r e a f r o m m a j o r m a r k e t s , h o w e v e r , has tended to inh ib i t 128 a g r i c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t s . T h u s , the e c o n o m y of the v a l l e y s t i l l depends on p r i m a r y i n d u s t r i e s i n w h i c h e m p l o y m e n t i s tenuous and m a r g i n a l . M o s t of the job e x p e r i e n c e r e p o r t e d w e r e i n u n s k i l l e d o r s e m i - s k i l l e d t r a d e s and t h e r e was l i t t l e ev idence of o c c u p a t i o n a l m o b i l i t y . F a r m f a m i l i e s h a d s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r tota l i n c o m e s than the n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s . 1 2 9 C H A P T E R SIX S O C I A L . I N T E R A C T I O N T h e g e o g r a p h i c i s o l a t i o n of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y has b e e n an i m p o r t a n t fac tor i n d e t e r m i n i n g the way that s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th in the c o m m u n i t y have deve loped and i n the o r i e n t a t i o n of the r e s i d e n t s to the outs ide w o r l d . L o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e wi th in the v a l l e y i t s e l f has a l so i n f l u e n c e d pa t t erns of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n . T h i s chapter is c o n c e r n e d wi th m e a s u r i n g the i m p a c t of p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e on v a r i o u s f o r m s of f o r m a l and i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w h i c h o c c u r wi th in the v a l l e y and on the l i n k s that have deve loped between the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s and the outs ide w o r l d . T H E P E O P L E A N D T H E C O M M U N I T Y T h e n o n - I n d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e i n m o s t c a s e s f a v o u r a b l y d i s p o s e d t o w a r d l i v i n g i n a r u r a l a r e a as i n d i c a t e d 130 b y t h e i r r e s p o n s e s to an attitude i t e m . Some 74. 1 p e r cent r e p o r t e d that they w e r e s t r o n g l y f a v o r a b l e and 17. 7 p e r cent w e r e f a v o r a b l e t o w a r d r u r a l l i v i n g w h e r e a s 8. 2 p e r cent p r e f e r r e d u r b a n l i v i n g o r w e r e n e u t r a l i n t h e i r e x p r e s s e d att itude. ( T a b l e 32). T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the attitude t o w a r d r u r a l l i v i n g T A B L E 32 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N OF N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y A T T I T U D E T O W A R D R U R A L L I V I N G At t i tude T o t a l N o . % F a r m N o . % Non< N o . - F a r m % S t r o n g l y f a v o r a b l e t o w a r d r u r a l l i v i n g 117 74. 1 29 85. 3 88 7 1 . 0 F a v o r a b l e t o w a r d r u r a l l i v i n g 28 17. 7 4 11. 8 24 19.4 N e u t r a l 8 5. 1 0 0. 0 8 6. 5 F a v o r a b l e t o w a r d u r b a n l i v i n g 4 2. 5 0 0. 0 4 3. 2 S t r o n g l y f a v o r a b l e t o w a r d u r b a n l i v i n g 1 0. 6 1 2 .9 0 0. 0 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 Note : A chi square va lue of 1. 60 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . 131 d i s t r i b u t i o n between f a r m and n o n - f a r m respondents al though the f a r m e r s i n d i c a t e d s l i g h t l y s t r o n g e r p r e f e r e n c e s for r u r a l l i f e . * S ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients w e r e obta ined between r u r a l attitude and husband's educat ion (r - * 17) and n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the p r e s e n t h o m e (r = . 16). T h u s , the respondents with m o r e educat ion tended to p r e f e r u r b a n to r u r a l l i v i n g , as d i d those who h a d l i v e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t h o m e s for a l e s s e r n u m b e r of y e a r s . , T o m e a s u r e m o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y the r e s i d e n t s ' attitudes 2 t o w a r d P e m b e r t o n , D a v i e s ' C o m m u n i t y S a t i s f a c t i o n S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d to the n o n - I n d i a n respondents and the d i s t r i b u t i o n of to ta l s c a l e s c o r e s i s shown i n T a b l e 33. T h e m e d i a n to ta l s c o r e was i n the 1. M o s t of the h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e m a l e and they tended to p r e f e r a r u r a l e n v i r o n m e n t . I n f o r m a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s wi th t h e i r w i v e s , however , sugges ted that the w o m e n w e r e not so enthus ias t i c about r u r a l l i f e . M a n y of t h e m noted that they d i d not l i k e the g e o g r a p h i c and s o c i a l i s o l a t i o n of P e m b e r t o n . 2. A s r e v i s e d b y : R . S c h u l z e , J. A r t i s , and J . A . B e e g l e , " T h e M e a s u r e m e n t of C o m m u n i t y S a t i s f a c t i o n and the D e c i s i o n of M i g r a t e . " R u r a l Soc io logy , 28: 279-283, (September , 1963). T h i s s c a l e cons i s t s of eight s tatements s u c h as, " T h e future of the c o m m u n i t y looks b r i g h t . " T h e s ca l e i s r e p r o d u c e d i n A p p e n d i x T w o , Schedule A , Items 44 to 52., F i v e r e s p o n s e s r a n g i n g f r o m " s t r o n g l y a g r e e " through "undec ided" to " s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e " w e r e a v a i l a b l e for each i t e m and each r e s p o n s e was s c o r e d f r o m one to f ive p o i n t s . A m a x i m u m s c a l e s c o r e of 40 wou ld i n d i c a t e a h i g h l y f a v o r a b l e attitude t o w a r d the c o m m u n i t y and a m i n i m u m s c o r e of 8 wou ld show a s t r o n g l y u n f a v o r a b l e att itude. 132 T A B L E 33 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y C O M M U N I T Y S A T I S F A C T I O N S C O R E S Communi ty -S a t i s f a c t i o n S r n r p T o t a l N o . % N o . F a r m % Non^ N o . - F a r m % L e s s than 16 1 0. 6 0 0. 0 1 0. 8 16 - 19 2 1. 3 1 2 .9 1 0. 8 20 - 23 6 3. 8 1 2 .9 5 4. 0 24 - 27 22 13. 9 7 20. 6 15 12. 1 28 - 31 53 33. 5* 9 26. 5* 44 35. 5* 32 - 35 61 38. 6 14 41. 2 47 37. 9 36 or m o r e 11 7. 0 2 5 .9 9 7. 3 No r e s p o n s e 2 1. 3 0 0. 0 2 1. 6 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of L 19 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the .05 l e v e l . 28 to 31 c l a s s whi le the l a r g e s t n u m b e r of re spondent s , 38. 6 p e r cent, w e r e i n the 32 to 35 point range w h i c h wou ld ind ica te at l ea s t a f a v o r -able attitude t o w a r d each s c a l e i t e m . A s sugges ted b y the l a c k of to ta l s c o r e s i n the l o w e r r a n g e s , v e r y few respondents c o n s i s t e n t l y e x p r e s s e d d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n v w i t h the c o m m u n i t y . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between f a r m 133 and n o n - f a r m respondents b y tota l s ca l e s c o r e . T h e h o u s e h o l d heads who h a d l i v e d for m o r e y e a r s i n the v a l l e y tended to be m o r e s a t i s -f i ed with the c o m m u n i t y than w e r e the newer r e s i d e n t s (r = . 18). T h e r e s p o n s e s of the Indian s a m p l e i n d i c a t e d that they w e r e g e n e r a l l y sa t i s f i ed with r u r a l l i v i n g and wi th the c o m m u n i t y . D e s p i t e a g e n e r a l s a t i s f a c t i o n with the c o m m u n i t y , m a n y of the n o n - I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s r e p o r t e d t r a v e l l i n g long d i s tances to r e c e i v e e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s or to p u r c h a s e s o m e k inds of goods. T h i s is e s s e n t i a l l y a r e f l e c t i o n of the geograph ic i s o l a t i o n of P e m b e r t o n . S e v e n i t e m s i n c l u d i n g food, c lo th ing , m e d i c a l c a r e , c h u r c h , e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , s e c o n d a r y schoo l , and pos t off ice w e r e s tud ied with r e s p e c t to d i s tance t r a v e l l e d . T h e i t e m with the lowest a v e r a g e d i s tance was e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l at 3. 2 m i l e s fo l lowed by post off ice at 4. 2 m i l e s and c h u r c h at 5.2 m i l e s . ( T a b l e 34). S i n c e t h e r e i s on ly one s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y this a v e r a g e f i gure of 5. 7 m i l e s was somewhat h i g h e r than the c o r r e s p o n d i n g one for e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s . M o s t people p u r c h a s e d t h e i r food i n the v a l l e y as the a v e r a g e d i s tance t r a v e l l e d for this i t e m was 12. 3 m i l e s , but 7. 0 p e r cent of the re spondent s went fifty o r m o r e m i l e s for food p u r c h a s e s . . A n even l a r g e r n u m b e r (38. 0 p e r cent) t r a v e l l e d fifty or m o r e m i l e s to b u y c lo th ing as aga ins t 50. 6 p e r cent who t r a v e l l e d five m i l e s o r l e s s for this i t e m . T h e a v e r a g e d i s tance t r a v e l l e d for m e d i c a l c a r e was 74. 2 134 T A B L E 34 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F A L L N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y D I S T A N C E S T R A V E L L E D F O R S E V E N S E R V I C E S 5 m i l e s 6-15 16-50 50 m i l e s T o t a l A v e r a g e o r l e s s m i l e s m i l e s o r m o r e D i s t a n c e -i • % % % F o o d 69. 0* 20. 2 3. 8 7. 0 100. 0 12. 3 C l o t h i n g 50. 6* 8.9 2. 5 38. 0 100. 0 59. 2 M e d i c a l C a r e 15.8 11.4 7. 0 65. 8* 100. 0 74. 2 C h u r ch 78. 4* 16. 5 5. 1 0. 0 100. 0 5. 2 E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l 89. 3* 8. 2 2. 5 0. 0 100. 0 3. 2 S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 70. 9* 20.2 8. 9 0. 0 100. 0 5.7 P o s t O f f i c e 79. 1* 19. 6 1. 3 0. 0 100. 0 4. 2 * M e d i a n m i l e s i n d i c a t i n g that m o s t of the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s t r a v e l l e d e i ther to S q u a m i s h or V a n c o u v e r for this s e r v i c e . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n b y a v e r a g e total d i s tance t r a v e l l e d between f a r m and n o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s , however , the m e d i a n d is tance for f a r m respondents was i n the 21 to 2 5 m i l e c l a s s c o m p a r e d with 16 to 20 m i l e s for the 135 n o n - f a r m r e s p o n d e n t s . ( T a b l e 35). T w e n t y respondents (12 .7 p e r cent) w e r e w i t h in an a v e r a g e d i s tance of f ive m i l e s f r o m the seven i t e m s whi le t w e n t y - s e v e n (17. 1 p e r cent) h a d to t r a v e l an a v e r a g e of m o r e than t h i r t y m i l e s . S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r cent of the Indian respondents t r a v e l l e d an a v e r a g e of f ive m i l e s o r l e s s to buy the goods and r e c e i v e the s e r v i c e s s tudied , thus, m o s t of t h e m f u l f i l l e d t h e i r r e q u i r e m e n t s without going off the r e s e r v e . T A B L E 35 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M A N D N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y A V E R A G E T O T A L D I S T A N C E T R A V E L L E D F O R S E V E N S E R V I C E S T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m D i s t a n c e N o . % N o . % N o . % 0 - 5 m i l e s 20 12. 7 2 5.9 18 14. 5 6 - 1 0 19 12. 0 4 11.8 15 12. 1 11 - 15 20 12.7 5 14.7 15 12. 1 16 - 20 20 12. 7* 5 14.7 15 12. 1* 21 - 25 18 11 .4 4 1 1 . 8 * 14 11. 3 26 - 30 33 20. 9 7 20. 6 26 21. 0 M o r e than 30 27 17. 1 7 20. 6 20 16. 1 No r e s p o n s e 1 0. 6 0 0. 0 1 0. 8 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of 0. 49 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 0 5 l e v e l . 136 T h e r e was a s ign i f i cant negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n (r = 16) for the non-Ind ians between d i s tance t r a v e l l e d and y e a r s r e s i d e n t i n the a r e a . T h i s suggests that the o l d e r segments of the p o p u l a t i o n have b e c o m e m o r e f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d i n t h e i r p r e s e n t s i tuat ions and tend not to l eave the a r e a even for p u r c h a s e s of e s s e n t i a l goods and s e r v i c e s . T h i s m a y be a consequence of the long t i m e p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n of the v a l l e y w h i c h has shaped the habi t pa t terns of the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s . T h u s , the o l d e r peop le have l e a r n e d to get b y without r e l y i n g on the outs ide w o r l d w h e r e a s the younger r e s i d e n t s a r e m o r e dependent on e x t e r n a l s o u r c e s of supply for goods and s e r v i c e s . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is cons i s tent with the r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e v i o u s l y noted w h e r e the newer r e s i d e n t s w e r e l e s s s a t i s f i e d with r u r a l l i v i n g and wi th the c o m m u n i t y . T h e i r r e l a t i v e d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with P e m b e r t o n a p p e a r s to have r e s u l t e d i n m o r e frequent contacts with the outs ide w o r l d as m e a s u r e d b y d i s tance t r a v e l l e d for goods and s e r v i c e s . I N F O R M A L S O C I A L I N T E R A C T I O N Indiv iduals i n a c o m m u n i t y m a y engage i n a n u m b e r of d i f ferent k i n d s of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n and s e v e r a l types w e r e 137 e x a m i n e d i n P e m b e r t o n . B e r n a r d ' s N e i g h b o u r i n g P r a c t i c e s Schedule was u s e d to c o l l e c t i n f o r m a t i o n r e g a r d i n g the f r e q u e n c y of contacts between peop le r e s i d i n g i n c lo se p r o x i m i t y to each o t h e r . ( T a b l e 36). M o r e than t w o - t h i r d s of the n o n - I n d i a n respondents s a i d that they knew everyone i n t h e i r n e i g h b o u r h o o d . S o m e 60. 7 p e r cent f requent ly engaged in chats wi th the ir n e i g h b o u r s w h e r e a s on ly two respondents r e p o r t e d that they n e v e r d i d th i s . A b o u t t h r e e - f o u r t h s exchanged a r t i c l e s wi th t h e i r n e i g h b o u r s e i ther " s o m e t i m e s " or "often" and s e r v i c e s w e r e exchanged with a p p r o x i m a t e l y the same f r e q u e n c y . Shopping together was the l e a s t f requent ly r e p o r t e d n e i g h b o u r i n g p r a c t i c e and 45; 6 p e r cent s a i d that they n e v e r d id th i s . T h e two p r a c t i c e s of t a l k i n g o v e r p r o b l e m s and p i c n i c i n g together showed s i m i l a r pat terns of r e s p o n s e s wi th the m a j o r i t y doing these things " s o m e t i m e s . " O n e - f i f t h r e p o r t e d that they "often" took c a r e of e a c h o thers c h i l d r e n when n e c e s s a r y b e c a u s e of i l l n e s s and on ly a few respondents felt that people i n the n e i g h b o u r h o o d weren ' t v e r y f r i e n d l y . 3. See: D . C . M i l l e r , Handbook of R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and S o c i a l M e a s u r e -ment , New Y o r k : D a v i d M c K a y C o m p a n y , 1964, p p . 217-219. T h i s s chedu le i n c l u d e s quest ions c o n c e r n i n g s u c h p r a c t i c e s as chatt ing wi th n e i g h b o u r s , exchanging r e c i p e s , p r e s e r v e s , and other objec ts , shopping together , t a l k i n g o v e r p r o b l e m s , and going on p i c n i c s wi th n e i g h b o u r s . T h e r e a r e n ine i t e m s on the schedule and the r e s p o n s e s range f r o m "never" (1 point) to "often" (4 po ints ) . T h e m a x i m u m and m i n i m u m total s c o r e s w o u l d t h e r e f o r e be 36 and 9 points r e s p e c t i v e l y . T A B L E 36 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S • B Y F R E Q U E N C Y O F V A R I O U S N E I G H B O U R I N G P R A C T I C E S P r a c t i c e N e v e r R a r e l y S o m e t i m e s Of ten T o t a l N o . % N o . % N o . % N o . % N o . % K n o w m o s t of ne ighbours 0 •0. 0 10 6. 3 39 24. 7 109 69. 0 258 100. 0 C h a t s 2 1. 3 21 13. 3 39 . 24. 7 96 60. 7 158 100. 0 E x c h a n g e a r t i c l e s 14 8. 9 27 17. 1 56 35. 4 61 38. 6 158 100. 0 E x c h a n g e s e r v i c e s 18 11. 4 26 16. 5 60 38. 0 54 34. 1 158 100. 0 Shop T o g e t h e r 72 45. 6 44 27. 9 28 17. 7 14 8. 8 158 100. 0 T a l k o y e r p r o b l e m s 24 15. 2 33 20. 9 70 44. 3 31 19. 6 158 100. 0 T a k e c a r e of c h i l d r e n 56 35. 4 23 14. 6 45 28. 5 34 21/5, .L&8 . 100. 0. P i c n i c s 25 15. 8 33 20. 9 69 43. 7 31 19. 6 158 100. 0 F e e l people a r e n ' t n e i g h b o u r l y 13 8. 2 7 4.4 31 19. 6 107 67. 8 158 100. 0 A v e r a g e 25 15. 8 25 15. 8 48 30.4 60 38. 0 158 100. 0 Note: C o m p l e t e d e s c r i p t i o n s of the nine n e i g h b o u r i n g p r a c t i c e s a r e i n A p p e n d i x T w o , Schedule B , I tems 16 to 24. 139 T h e r e w e r e s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s for the n o n -Indian re spondent s between tota l n e i g h b o u r i n g p r a c t i c e s s c o r e and n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n (r = . 16), l e v e l of l i v i n g (r = . 18), job s a t i s f a c t i o n (r = .31) , and c o m m u n i t y s a t i s f a c t i o n (r = . 4 1 ) . T h e respondents who h a d m o r e c h i l d r e n and those with a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to engage i n the k inds of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n m e a s u r e d b y the n e i g h b o u r i n g p r a c t i c e s s c h e d u l e . S i m i l a r l y , those who m o r e f r e q u e n t l y engaged i n n e i g h b o u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s w e r e a lso m o r e s a t i s f i e d wi th t h e i r c o m m u n i t y and with t h e i r p r e s e n t job . A n o t h e r type of i n f o r m a l i n t e r a c t i o n s tudied was the f r e q u e n c y of f r e e l a b o u r and m a c h i n e r y exchanges w h i c h i s e s s e n t i a l l y a "he lp ing" r e l a t i o n s h i p wi th no n e i g h b o u r h o o d b o u n d a r i e s n e c e s s a r i l y i m p l i e d . Such r e l a t i o n s h i p s w e r e not an e v e r y d a y o c c u r r e n c e among the n o n - I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s as 21. 5 to 41. 1 p e r cent n e v e r a s s i s t e d o thers o r w e r e a s s i s t e d b y t h e m . ( T a b l e 37). T w i c e as m a n y h o u s e h o l d heads r e p o r t e d that they gave free l a b o u r to o thers "often" than r e p o r t e d r e c e i v i n g s u c h he lp but the m a j o r i t y of r e s p o n s e s w e r e i n the " s o m e t i m e s " c a t e g o r y . M a c h i n e r y and equipment was exchanged l e s s f requent ly than l a b o u r , and aga in m o r e h o u s e h o l d heads r e p o r t e d g iv ing than r e c e i v i n g s u c h a s s i s t a n c e "often. " T h e n o r m a l p a t t e r n a p p e a r e d to be for the respondents to r e l y for the m o s t p a r t on t h e i r own ef forts , w i th o c c a s i o n a l a s s i s t a n c e f r o m o thers , but a subs tant ia l n u m b e r d i d 140 T A B L E 37 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y F R E Q U E N C Y O F F R E E L A B O U R A N D M A C H I N E R Y E X C H A N G E S N e v e r R a r e l y S o m e t i m e s Often T o t a l I t e m N o . % N o . % N o . % N o . % N o . % F r e e l a b o u r t o o t h e r s 34 2 1 . 5 16 10.1 70 44. 3 38 24. 1 158 100.0 F r e e l a b o u r to r e s p o n d -ent 42 2 6 . 6 24 15. 2 72 45. 5 20 12.7 158 100.0 M a c h i n e r y t o o t h e r s 53 33 .5 18 11.4 56 35. 5 31 19- 6 158 100.0 M a c h i n e r y to r e s p o n d -ent 65 4 1 . 1 35 22. 2 48 30 .4 10 6.3 158 100.0 A v e r a g e 49 31. 0 23 14. 6 61 38. 6 25 15.8 158 100.0 not p a r t i c i p a t e i n these h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s . T h e n o n - I n d i a n respondents w e r e a l so a s k e d to ind ica te to 4 w h o m they went for a d v i c e wi th g e n e r a l and s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s . 4. See A p p e n d i x T w o , Schedule B , Ques t ions 29 and 30. T h e r e s p o n -dents w e r e r e q u e s t e d to r e s t r i c t t h e i r n o m i n a t i o n s to those r e s i d i n g i n the c o m m u n i t y . 141 T h e r e d i d not appear to be any s ingle i n d i v i d u a l who was consu l t ed f requent ly for g e n e r a l adv ice as f o r t y - e i g h t r e s i d e n t s were m e n t i o n e d a tota l of 88 t i m e s and s i x was the m a x i m u m n u m b e r of t i m e s any i n d i v i d u a l was n a m e d . Seventy respondents (44. 3 p e r cent) d i d not n a m e anyone to w h o m they would go for adv ice on a g e n e r a l p r o b l e m . A s i m i l a r r e l u c t a n c e to d i s c u s s s p e c i f i c p r o b l e m s with other v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s was o b s e r v e d . T h i r t y - o n e n o n - I n d i a n respondents (19. 6 p e r cent) s a i d that they went to the h igh s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l for adv ice on educa t iona l p r o b l e m s and two t e a c h e r s w e r e n a m e d a to ta l of e l even t i m e s . None of the h o u s e h o l d heads i n d i c a t e d that they sought e d u c a t i o n a l adv ice f r o m a n o n - s c h o o l s o u r c e . T h i r t y - o n e respondents (19. 6 p e r cent) s a i d that they sought adv ice about c h i l d r e a r i n g f r o m a r e s i d e n t of the c o m m u n i t y but no i n d i v i d u a l was n a m e d m o r e than twice . T h e bank m a n a g e r was n a m e d by twenty respondents (12.7 p e r cent) as a s o u r c e of c o u n s e l for b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m s but no other c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r was m e n t i o n e d m o r e than five t i m e s . T w o - t h i r d s of the h o u s e h o l d heads s a i d that they d id not go to anyone for he lp with a b u s i n e s s p r o b l e m . O n l y s ix teen respondents (10. 1 p e r cent) wou ld seek adv ice on p r o b l e m s i n v o l v i n g g o v e r n m e n t and no one was n a m e d m o r e than twice . 142 In c o n t r a s t to these f indings , the non- Ind ian f a r m e r s a p p e a r e d to be quite w i l l i n g to d i s c u s s the i r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m s with other f a r m o p e r a t o r s i n the v a l l e y . T h i r t y - o n e Jarmers (91.2 p e r cent) n a m e d a p e r s o n l i v i n g i n the c o m m u n i t y to w h o m they went for adv ice on a f a r m i n g p r o b l e m . T w o m e m b e r s of one of the p i o n e e r f a m i l i e s i n the U p p e r V a l l e y w e r e m e n t i o n e d a to ta l of t h i r t e e n t i m e s and another f a r m e r was n a m e d s i x t i m e s . T h e s e t h r e e m e n h a d a l l l i v e d i n P e m b e r t o n for m o r e than twenty y e a r s , two of t h e m for t h e i r ent ire l i f e t i m e . T h e y w e r e a l l m o r e than fifty y e a r s o l d and each h a d m o r e than 100 i m p r o v e d a c r e s . In each case the p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l -t u r a l p r o d u c t s o l d was potatoes and the s e c o n d a r y p r o d u c t was b e e f catt le . T h e i r net f a r m i n c o m e s r a n g e d f r o m $2, 000 to $4, 999 and two of t h e m d id no o f f - f a r m w o r k whi le one spent l e s s than o n e - f o u r t h of h i s w o r k i n g t i m e at an o f f - f a r m job. None of the t h r e e m e n who w e r e c o n s u l t e d f requent ly for f a r m i n g a d v i c e h a d ever taken an a g r i -c u l t u r e c o u r s e . T w o other f a r m e r s w e r e n a m e d t h r e e t i m e s each as s o u r c e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l adv ice and they w e r e a l so l o n g - t i m e v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s with s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s to the m o s t f requent ly n a m e d f a r m o p e r a t o r s . T h u s , with the except ion of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m s , the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s a p p e a r e d to be r e l u c t a n t to seek adv ice f r o m other m e m b e r s of the c o m m u n i t y . T h i s i s cons i s tent with the l a c k of h e l p i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s p r e v i o u s l y noted. In addi t ion , the r e s i d e n t s 143 know each other , chat with one another frequent ly , and fee l that e v e r y -one i s n e i g h b o u r l y , but the s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s do not appear to develop m u c h b e y o n d this s u r f a c e l e v e l . T h i s p a t t e r n m a y be a consequence of the l o n g - t i m e p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n of the v a l l e y w h i c h has c o n t r i b u t e d to the f o r m a t i o n of an independent , p i o n e e r type of r e s i d e n t . T h e respondents i n the Indian s a m p l e tended to be m o r e ac t ive than non-Ind ians with r e s p e c t to the n e i g h b o u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s s tudied and t h e r e w e r e i n m o s t cases ten to twenty p e r cent m o r e Indians i n the "often" ca tegor i e s on the n e i g h b o u r i n g p r a c t i c e s i t e m s . T h e p a t t e r n of r e s p o n s e s b y the Indians to the exchange of f ree l a b o u r and m a c h i n e r y i t e m s was a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e as that of the • n o n - I n d i a n s . T h e Indian respondents m a d e a to ta l of 89 n o m i n a t i o n s of people to w h o m they went for a d v i c e . T h e chief , who r e c e i v e d 30. 3 p e r cent of the n o m i n a t i o n s , was r e g a r d e d as the bes t c o u n s e l o r for g e n e r a l and p o l i t i c a l p r o b l e m s . V a r i o u s n o n - I n d i a n v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s r e c e i v e d 23. 6 p e r cent of the n o m i n a t i o n s m a d e b y the Indians and whites w e r e v i e w e d as the bes t s o u r c e of a d v i c e on p r o b l e m s of c h i l d r e a r i n g . T h e Indian A g e n t was n a m e d 16.9 p e r cent of the t i m e and i n d i v i d u a l s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the R o m a n C a t h o l i c chuch r e c e i v e d 14. 6 p e r cent of the nominat ions as d id Indians other than the chief . T h u s , there a p p e a r s to be dependence b y the Indians on 144 non-Indians for advice with various kinds of problems. Institutional representatives seemed to be the main information sources for the Indians whereas the non-Indians were more apt to ask another private individual, if anyone, for advice. The pattern noted here is consistent with the paternalistic view of the white man that has not been dis-couraged in the past by those responsible for dealing with the Indians of Brit i s h Columbia. Informal social interaction among the Indian respondents is restricted mainly to the Mount Currie reserve. Few of the Indian families owned an automobile in working condition so that their range -of potential interaction is limited to within walking distance of their homes. Eighty-four per cent of the sample reported that the family which visited them most frequently was related and fifty-nine per cent of the families most frequently visited by the household heads interviewed were related. Thus, in addition to the geographic limitations imposed by the reserve, Indian social interaction tended to be restricted along kinship lines. VISITING PATTERNS Since the non-Indian respondents had an average of 3. 5 related families living in Pemberton, it was anticipated that a 145 good dea l of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n would o c c u r between r e l a t e d 5 f a m i l i e s . T h e h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e r e q u e s t e d to n a m e the f a m i l y that they v i s i t e d m o s t f requent ly and the one that v i s i t e d t h e m m o s t f requent ly . A r e l a t e d f a m i l y was n a m e d as the m o s t f requent ly v i s i t e d b y 21. 5 p e r cent of the respondents and b r o t h e r s or s i s t e r s accounted for h a l f of these v i s i t s . S o m e 24. 1 p e r cent s a i d that t h e i r m o s t frequent v i s i t o r s w e r e r e l a t e d and o n e - t h i r d of t h e m w e r e b r o t h e r s o r s i s t e r s whi le o n e - f o u r t h w e r e p a r e n t s . T h e s e p e r c e n t a g e f i gures a r e both l o w e r than those r e p o r t e d b y H a n n a for an E a s t e r n K e n t u c k y county w h e r e r e l a t i v e s w e r e v i s i t e d m o s t f requent ly b y t w e n t y - s i x p e r cent and w e r e m o s t f r equent ly v i s i t e d by t h i r t y - t w o 6 p e r cent. C r i t e r i a other than k i n s h i p a p p e a r e d to be m o r e i m p o r t a n t i n d e t e r m i n i n g the v i s i t i n g pa t t erns of the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s . T o invest igate an a l t e r n a t i v e hypothes i s , the v a l l e y was d i v i d e d into f ive l o c a l i t y g r o u p s . T h e s e w e r e n u m b e r e d f r o m I to V beg inn ing at the nor thwes t end of the v a l l e y through the v i l l a g e and 5. O n l y a s a m p l e of Indians was i n t e r v i e w e d , t h e r e f o r e , the s o c i o m e t r i c techniques u s e d i n the fo l lowing a n a l y s i s of n o n -Indian v i s i t i n g pat terns c o u l d not be a p p l i e d to Indian v i s i t i n g p a t t e r n s . 6. E . B . H a n n a , T h e Integrat ion of L o c a l i t y G r o u p s i n an E a s t e r n  K e n t u c k y County , L e x i n g t o n , K e n t u c k y : U n i v e r s i t y of K e n t u c k y . A . E . S. , B u l l e t i n 640, 1956. 146 east to D ' A r c y . T h e n u m b e r of respondents l i v i n g i n each l o c a l i t y r a n g e d f r o m 16 to 62 with an a v e r a g e of 31.6 r e s i d e n t s . T h e r e s p o n -dents w e r e a s k e d to n a m e the t h r e e v a l l e y f a m i l i e s wi th w h o m they m o s t f r e quent ly exchanged v i s i t s . S o m e 70. 3 p e r cent r e p o r t e d that they f requent ly exchanged v i s i t s wi th at l e a s t one f a m i l y and the n u m b e r v a r i e d f r o m 59. 3 p e r cent i n L o c a l i t y I V (Mount C u r r i e ) to 79. 2 p e r cent i n L o c a l i t y II ( L o w e r , V a l l e y ) . ( T a b l e 38). L o c a l i t y I ( U p p e r V a l l e y ) and L o c a l i t y III ( P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e ) h a d s l i g h t l y m o r e than the a v e r a g e n u m b e r of f a m i l i e s r e p o r t i n g v i s i t s whereas L o c a l i t y V ( B i r k e n - D ' A r c y ) was be low the a v e r a g e . T h e non- Ind ian respondents r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e of 1.78 f a m i l i e s with w h o m they f requent ly exchanged v i s i t s , with the h ighes t a v e r a g e , 2. 17 f a m i l i e s , i n the L o w e r V a l l e y and the lowest , 1. 25 f a m i l i e s , i n the B i r k e n - D ' A r c y l o c a l i t y . W h e n on ly the re spondent s who n a m e d other f a m i l i e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d , the a v e r a g e n u m b e r of v i s i t o r s was 2. 53 and the r a n k o r d e r of the l o c a l i t i e s r e m a i n e d p r a c t i c a l l y i d e n t i c a l . V i s i t s between f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the s a m e l o c a l i t y accounted for 55. 9 p e r cent of a l l the v i s i t i n g r e p o r t e d and, as T a b l e 39 i n d i c a t e s , the h ighes t p r o p o r t i o n of v i s i t s was i n e v e r y i n s t a n c e between f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g i n the h o m e a r e a . T h e geo -g r a p h i c l i m i t a t i o n s on this f o r m of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n ' w a s p a r t i c u l a r l y 147 T A B L E 38 V I S I T I N G H A B I T S O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y L O C A L I T Y G R O U P T o t a l I II in I V V N o . of respondents 158 29 24 62 27 16 % 100. 0 18. 4 15. 2 39. 2 17. 1 10. 1 N o . r e p o r t i n g no v i s i t s 47 7 5 18 11 6 % 29. 7 24. 1 20. 8 29. 0 40. 7 37. 5 N o . r e p o r t i n g some v i s i t s 111 22 19 44 16 10 % 70. 3 75 .9 79. 2 71. 0 59. 3 62. 5 N o . of v i s i t o r s r e p o r t e d 281 60 52 109 40 20 % 100. 0 2 1 . 4 18. 5 38. 8 14. 2 7. 1 A v e r a g e no. of v i s i t s p e r r e s ponde nt 1.78 2. 07 2. 17 1. 76 1. 48 1. 2: A v e r a g e no. of v i s i t s by-respondents r e p o r t i n g v i s i t s 2. 53 2. 73 2. 74 2. 48 2. 50 2. 01 Note: T h e respondents r e p o r t e d a to ta l of 43 v i s i t s w i t h people who w e r e not i n t e r v i e w e d i n the study. It was not p o s s i b l e to ident i fy how m a n y of t h e m w e r e a c t u a l l y v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s who w e r e not i n t e r v i e w e d o r whether they r e s i d e d outs ide the c o m m u n i t y , t h e r e f o r e , they h a v e b e e n e x c l u d e d f r o m the above c a l c u l a t i o n s . 148 evident i n L o c a l i t y I w h e r e 68. 3 p e r cent of the v i s i t s exchanged w e r e between f a m i l i e s i n that l o c a l i t y and i n L o c a l i t y V w h e r e the f igure was 8 0 . 0 p e r cent. T h e r e w e r e no v i s i t s exchanged between r e s i d e n t s of these two a r e a s . T h e m a j o r i t y of v i s i t s that w e r e r e p o r t e d b y peop le l i v i n g i n P e m b e r t o n v i l l a g e w e r e wi th other f a m i l i e s i n the v i l l a g e , but the in f luence of geography a p p e a r e d to l e s s e n for respondents who r e s i d e d i n the L o w e r V a l l e y and i n Mount C u r r i e . T h e s e two l o c a l i t i e s a r e cont iguous to the v i l l a g e and a l m o s t the s a m e n u m b e r of h o u s e h o l d heads v i s i t e d f a m i l i e s w i th in the v i l l a g e as v i s i t e d f a m i l i e s wi th in the h o m e l o c a l i t y . T h e r e w e r e few v i s i t s , however , be tween f a m i l i e s i n L o c a l i t y II and L o c a l i t y I V . D i s t a n c e a p p e a r e d to be a fac tor l i m i t i n g v i s i t i n g p a t t e r n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y with r e s p e c t to i n t e r a c t i o n between f a m i l i e s r e s i d i n g i n L o c a l i t i e s I and V . A s F i g u r e Z i n d i c a t e s , i t wou ld take a j o u r n e y of a p p r o x i m a t e l y f o r t y - f i v e m i l e s over g r a v e l r o a d s for r e s i d e n t s of those two l o c a l i t i e s to v i s i t each o ther . A s a r e s u l t , no v i s i t s w e r e exchanged b y these f a m i l i e s . D i s t a n c e alone, h o w e v e r , wou ld not e x p l a i n the r e l a t i v e l y low f r e q u e n c y of v i s i t i n g between r e s i d e n t s of L o c a l i t i e s II and TV. S u c h v i s i t s wou ld i n v o l v e a m a x i m u m j o u r n e y of ten m i l e s and a m i n i m u m of two m i l e s . S i m i l a r l y , respondents l i v i n g i n L o c a l i t y H I wou ld have to t r a v e l between one and five m i l e s to v i s i t f a m i l i e s i n L o c a l i t i e s II or IV but few of t h e m did so . 149 FIGURE 2 DISTANCE BETWEEN LOCALITY GROUPS IN THE PEMBERTON VALLEY 150 T A B L E 39 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F V I S I T S E X C H A N G E D B Y N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y L O C A L I T Y G R O U P S L o c a l i t y of v i s i t o r N o . I % L o c a l i t y II N o . % of Respondent i n IV N o . % N o . % N o . V % II 41 68. 3 8 15. 4 6 5. 5 3 7. 5 0 0. 0 II 9 15. 0 20 38. 5 20 18. 3 4 10. 0 0 0. 0 H I 7 11.7 19 36. 5 64 58.8 16 40. 0 3 15. 0 IV 3 5. 0 3 5.8 14 12. 8 16 40. 0 1 5. 0 V 0 0. 0 2 3.8 5 4. 6 1 2. 5 16 80. 0 T o t a l 60 100. 0 52 100. 0 109 100. 0 40 100. 0 20 100. 0 Note: A c h i s q u a r e va lue of 302.99 was obta ined . T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . T h e s e data i n d i c a t e that the v i s i t i n g pat terns o b s e r v e d i n the v a l l e y a r e shaped to s o m e extent b y g e o g r a p h i c f a c t o r s . W h i l e s o m e s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r s between l o c a l i t y groups adjacent to the v i l l a g e , t h e r e i s l i t t l e v i s i t i n g that extends f r o m one a r m of the v a l l e y to the o t h e r . T h u s , P e m b e r t o n v i l l a g e a p p e a r s to s e r v e as a b a r r i e r to the deve lopment of i n t e r p e r s o n a l re la t ions between those i n the U p p e r and L o w e r V a l l e y and the r e s i d e n t s of the Mount C u r r i e and 151 B i r k e n - D ' A r c y l o c a l i t i e s . Such i n t e r a c t i o n as does o c c u r between r e s i d e n t s of these a r e a s p r o b a b l y happens as an un intended consequence of e c o n o m i c and o r g a n i z a t i o n a l ac t iv i t i e s w h i c h a r e c e n t e r e d at P e m b e r t o n v i l l a g e . S O C I A L D I S T A N C E T h e v a r i o u s k inds of i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n s tudied i n the P e m b e r t o n v a l l e y a p p e a r e d to be s t r a t i f i e d r a c i a l l y . T h e Indians r e s t r i c t e d t h e i r v i s i t i n g m a i n l y to other f a m i l i e s on the r e s e r v e and few non-Indians r e p o r t e d exchanging v i s i t s wi th Indian f a m i l i e s . In o r d e r to examine the attitude of each group towards the other , the B o g a r d u s S o c i a l D i s t a n c e S c a l e was a d m i n i s t e r e d 7 to both the Indian and n o n - I n d i a n r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e r e s u l t i n g r a c i a l d i s tance quotients together with the s ca l e n o r m s a r e shown i n T a b l e 40. 7. E . S. B o g a r d u s , S o c i a l D i s t a n c e , Y e l l o w S p r i n g s , O h i o : A n t i o c h P r e s s , 1959. S c o r i n g of the r e s p o n s e s was done as sugges ted i n : D e l b e r t C . M i l l e r , Handbook of R e s e a r c h D e s i g n and S o c i a l M e a s u r e -ment . New Y o r k : D a v i d M c K a y C o m p a n y , 1964, pp . 143-144. T h e r a c i a l d i s tance quotient r e p r e s e n t s the a r i t h m e t i c m e a n of the to ta l n u m b e r of the "nearest c o l u m n s " c h e c k e d b y the r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e n o r m s w e r e c a l c u l a t e d f r o m an a p p l i c a t i o n of the s ca l e to 2, 053 p e r s o n s i n the U n i t e d States i n 1956. T h e i t e m s u s e d i n this a p p l i c a t i o n of the s ca l e are shown i n A p p e n d i x T w o , Schedule B , Q u e s t i o n s 31-36. 152 T A B L E 40 S O C I A L D I S T A N C E Q U O T I E N T S F O R I N D I A N A N D N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S C O M P A R E D W I T H U N I T E D S T A T E S N O R M S G r o u p N o n - I n d i a n s Indians U n i t e d States N o r m s A m e r i c a n s ... 1.08 1. 16 1. 08 E n g l i s h 1. 01 1. 13 1. 23 F r e n c h 1. 09 1. 13 1. 47 Swedes 1. 00 1. 13 1. 57 Indians (native) 1.97 1. 00 2. 35 C h i n e s e 1. 64 1. 44 2. 68 T h e n o n - I n d i a n respondents e x p r e s s e d l i t t l e s o c i a l d i s tance with r e s p e c t to Swedes , the E n g l i s h , A m e r i c a n s , or the F r e n c h . T h e s o c i a l d i s tance quotient was l a r g e r for C h i n e s e (1. 64) and was the h ighes t for nat ive Indians (1 .97) . T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y 8 s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the s o c i a l d i s tance s c o r e of the non-Indians t o w a r d the nat ive Indians and C h i n e s e . T h i s suggests a h i g h e r degree of p r e j u d i c e ex i s t ing with r e s p e c t to Indians and C h i n e s e than other 8. A t w o - t a i l -fc* - test and a . 01 s i g n i f i c a n c e l e v e l was u s e d to test the .nul l hypothes i s of no s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the s o c i a l d i s tance quot ients . 153 ethnic groups. The Indian respondents indicated no social distance toward members of their own group, but they had significantly higher social distance scores with respect to Chinese than toward any other ethnic group. There were no statistically significant differences in the social distance quotients calculated for the Indian and non»Indian respondents in regard to five of the six ethnic groups, thus, the response of the two groups appeared to follow the same pattern. Statistically significant intercorrelations were obtained for the non-Indian respondents between many of the attitudes toward the six ethnic groups. . This suggests that those who were prejudiced toward the Indians also felt more socially distant from other groups, thus, prejudice appeared to be more a general characteristic than specifically directed toward the particular groups studied. The attitude of social distance toward the Pemberton Indians seemed to be unrelated to socio-economic characteristics since the correlation coefficients were al l of a low order. Nevertheless, some social barriers do exist between the Indian and non-Indian residents of the valley. FORMAL, ORGANIZATIONS The patterns of informal social interaction in a community 154 u n d e r l i e the deve lopment of f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e s e voluntary-groups compete wi th each other for t i m e , i n t e r e s t , and the l o y a l t y of c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s . T h e l i f e - s p a n of f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s g e n e r a l l y beg ins wi th a s h a r p i n i t i a l r i s e r e f l e c t i n g a g-rowijig" m e m b e r s h i p and an i n i t i a l h igh p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y each m e m b e r . A f t e r this i n i t i a l f l u r r y of a c t i v i t y t h e r e fo l lows a g r a d u a l dec l ine as the t i m e devoted to the o r g a n i z a t i o n b y each m e m b e r , i f not the ac tua l n u m b e r of m e m b e r s , i s r e d u c e d . T h i s t r e n d m a y b e t e m p o r a r i l y r e v e r s e d b y the i n t r o d u c t i o n of a new s e r v i c e , i n t e r e s t , or goa l , but a new dec l ine 9 eventua l ly sets i n . E l e v e n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ex is t i n P e m b e r t o n and a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of e a c h was i n t e r v i e w e d . M o s t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s a p p e a r e d to be on a d o w n w a r d t r e n d wi th r e s p e c t to a c t i v i t i e s and m e m b e r s h i p . F o u r ex i s t ing groups w e r e f o r m e d i n the 1930's, two i n the 1940's, and four o thers w e r e founded i n I960. T h e newest o r g a n i z a t i o n , a L i o n ' s C l u b , was f o r m e d i n 1966n.and i t i s p r e s e n t l y the m o s t ac t ive o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the c o m m u n i t y . T h e to ta l m e m b e r s h i p of the e l even o r g a n i z a t i o n s has g r a d u a l l y d e c l i n e d f r o m 328 i n 1964 to 318 i n 1965 and to 310 i n 1966. 9. "Wilbert E . M o o r e , S o c i a l Change , E n g l e w o o d C l i f f s , New J e r s e y : P r e n t i c e - H a l l , 1963, p . 59. 155 E i g h t of the P e m b e r t o n groups a r e a f f i l i a ted wi th a p r o v i n c i a l o r n a t i o n a l b o d y and four o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e s p o n s o r e d b y or a f f i l i a ted with another l o c a l g r o u p . T h e m e d i a n annual budget for the e l even o r g a n i z a t i o n s i s $1, 000 with a range of f r o m $250 to $15, 000. F o u r of the o r g a n i z a t i o n s extend m e m b e r s h i p on ly to m a l e s and four have on ly f e m a l e m e m b e r s . A t the t i m e that the f i e l d w o r k was conducted , t h e r e w e r e o n l y t h r e e nat ive Indian m e m b e r s i n the 10 P e m b e r t o n o r g a n i z a t i o n s . E x e c u t i v e off ices i n the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a r e w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d a m o n g the c o m m u n i t y r e s i d e n t s . In 1 9 6 6 , f ive peop le h e l d two of f ices whi le t h i r t y - o n e h e l d one off ice each . F o u r t e e n of the o f f i c e r s ( 3 8.9 p e r cent) r e s i d e d i n P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e whereas s ix l i v e d i n the U p p e r V a l l e y , eight i n the L o w e r V a l l e y , and seven i n the Mount C u r r i e l o c a l i t y . * None of the o r g a n i z a t i o n o f f i c er s l i v e d i n the B i r k e n - D ' A r c y a r e a . W h e n p a s t o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e s i d e n t s for the l a s t f ive y e a r s w e r e l i s t e d , four c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s h a d b e e n 10. T h e Mount C u r r i e Indians support a wide v a r i e t y of c lubs and f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s on the r e s e r v e , however , these w e r e not e x a m i n e d . T h e r e a p p e a r e d to be v i r t u a l l y no p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y non-Ind ians i n these g r o u p s . 11. One o f f i c e r was not i n t e r v i e w e d , hence h i s p l a c e of r e s i d e n c e was not e s t a b l i s h e d . 156 p r e s i d e n t of two whi le e ighteen h a d h e a d e d one o r g a n i z a t i o n . O n e -t h i r d of the p a s t p r e s i d e n t s r e s i d e d i n P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e and a s i m i l a r n u m b e r l i v e d n e a r M o u n t C u r r i e whi le two w e r e U p p e r V a l l e y and one was a L o w e r V a l l e y r e s i d e n t . T h e r e w e r e no p a s t p r e s i d e n t s f r o m the B i r k e n - D ' A r c y l o c a l i t y and s i x h a d left the v a l l e y s ince s e r v i n g t h e i r p r e s i d e n c y . T h e wide geograph ic d i s t r i b u t i o n of off ices i n P e m b e r t o n i s i n c o n s i s t e n t with the o b s e r v a t i o n of A l e x a n d e r and K r a e n z e l who sugges ted that v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s h o l d l e a d e r s h i p pos i t i ons r e l a t i v e l y 12 m o r e f r e q u e n t l y than do n o n - v i l l a g e r e s i d e n t s . It i s cons i s tent , h o w e v e r , wi th the i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n pa t t erns o b s e r v e d i n P e m b e r t o n . I n f o r m a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s wi th in the v a l l e y t end to be s t r u c t u r e d b y l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e wi th l i t t l e contact between l o c a l i t i e s . T h u s , i t cou ld be ant i c ipa ted that o r g a n i z a t i o n off ices w o u l d be r a n d o m l y d i s t r i b u t e d throughout the c o m m u n i t y . 12. F . D . A l e x a n d e r and C . F . K r a e n z e l , R u r a l S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n  of Sweet G r a s s County , M o n t a n a , B o z e m a n , M o n t a n a : M o n t a n a State C o l l e g e A . E . S. , B u l l e t i n 490, N o v e m b e r , 1953. 157 C h a p i n ' s S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e was u s e d to m e a s u r e the extent and nature of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s b y the n o n - I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s . T h i r t y p e r cent of the P e m b e r t o n respondents r e p o r t e d that they d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e i n any l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n and 27. 3 p e r cent h a d a tota l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e of f r o m one to ten p o i n t s . ( T a b l e 41). T h u s , m o r e than h a l f of the h o u s e h o l d heads p a r t i c i p a t e d e i ther not at a l l or on ly m i n i m a l l y i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . O n the other hand , n ineteen of the h o u s e h o l d heads (12. 0 p e r cent) s c o r e d m o r e than t h i r t y points on the s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e . O t h e r studies of s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n have found that a p p r o x i m a t e l y s i x t y p e r cent do not take p a r t i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n a l 14 l i f e of t h e i r c o m m u n i t i e s , t h e r e f o r e , the P e m b e r t o n respondents w e r e somewhat m o r e ac t ive i n this r e g a r d than wou ld be expected . 13. F . S. C h a p i n , • S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c a l e , M i n n e a p o l i s : U n i v e r s i t y of M i n n e s o t a P r e s s , 1938. T h e extent of p a r t i c i p a t i o n i s m e a s u r e d b y the n u m b e r of m e m b e r s h i p s h e l d d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s y e a r and e a c h m e m b e r s h i p counts as one point t o w a r d the tota l s c a l e s c o r e . Intensity , o r degree of i n v o l v e m e n t , i s m e a s u r e d b y attendance at m e e t i n g s , f i n a n c i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s , c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s h i p s , and the h o l d i n g of o f f i ces . A h i g h s ca l e s c o r e r e f l e c t s a h igh ra te of p a r t i c ip a t ion . 14. C o o l i e V e r n e r and John S. N e w b e r r y , J r . , " T h e N a t u r e of A d u l t P a r t i c i p a t i o n . " A d u l t E d u c a t i o n , 8:208-222, ( S u m m e r , 1958). 158 T A B L E 41 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y S O C I A L P A R T I C I P A T I O N S C O R E T o t a l F a r m Non. - F a r m S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n S c o r e N o . % N o . % N o . % 0 48 30 .4 4 11.8 44 35. 5 1 - 5 11 7 .0 2 5.9 9 7. 3 6 - 10 32 2 0 . 3 * 12 35. 3* 20 16. 1* 11 - 15 7 4 . 4 2 5.9 5 4. 0 1 6 - 2 0 16 10. 1 2 5.9 14 11. 3 21 - 25 13 8 .2 4 11.8 9 7. 3 26 - 30 12 7. 6 3 8 .8 9 7. 3 M o r e than 30 •19 12.0 5 14.7 14 11. 3 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of 23. 35 was obta ined . T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of f a r m and n o n - f a r m respondents b y s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e with the f a r m group tending to be m o r e ac t ive p a r t i c i p a n t s . S o m e 11. 8 p e r cent of the f a r m c o m p a r e d with 35. 5 p e r cent of the n o n - f a r m respondent s r e p o r t e d no p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . T h e d i f f erence between the two groups m a y b e accentuated b y the 159 ex i s t ence of s p e c i a l i z e d f a r m e r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s w h i c h would p r o v i d e m o r e oppor tun i t i e s for p a r t i c i p a t i o n b y f a r m respondents than ex is t for n o n - f a r m r e s i d e n t s of P e m b e r t o n . T h e r e w e r e a n u m b e r of s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients obta ined between s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and other s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . T h e respondents who w e r e m o r e s a t i s f i e d wi th t h e i r job (r = .23) and wi th the c o m m u n i t y (r = . 16) tended to p a r t i c i p a t e m o r e i n l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s as d i d those wi th a h i g h e r total i n c o m e (r = .21) and a h i g h e r s t a n d a r d of l i v i n g (r = . 37). H i g h e r educat iona l at ta inments b y the respondent (r = .25) , the wife (r = .31) , and the father (r = .21) w e r e a l so r e l a t e d to m o r e s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h o s e who r e p o r t e d m o r e i n v o l v e m e n t i n n e i g h b o u r i n g a c t i v i t i e s a l so h a d h i g h e r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s (r = .25) and this was expected b e c a u s e the two p h e n o m e n a a r e s i m i l a r i n n a t u r e . I N F L U E N C E O F T H E R O A D U n t i l the s p r i n g of 1965 there was no r o a d l i n k between P e m b e r t o n and the outs ide w o r l d except for a r o u g h t r a i l to S q u a m i s h w h i c h fo l lowed the power t r a n s m i s s i o n l i n e s . T h i s t r a i l was p a s s a b l e for f o u r - w h e e l d r i v e v e h i c l e s , but c o n s t r u c t i o n of an ac tua l r o a d - b e d d id not b e g i n u n t i l la te 1964. T h e on ly p r a c t i c a l way of en ter ing 160 and l e a v i n g the v a l l e y , t h e r e f o r e , was b y the P a c i f i c G r e a t E a s t e r n R a i l w a y . A s a r e s u l t , the t r a d i t i o n a l e l ements i n the v a l l e y s o c i a l s y s t e m w e r e p e r p e t u a t e d due to a m i n i m u m of contacts with p a n -c o m m u n i t y i n f l u e n c e s . B y A p r i l of 1965 the new r o a d into the v a l l e y was s a i d to be "rough but p a s s a b l e " and the P e m b e r t o n c o r r e s p o n d e n t to the S q u a m i s h T i m e s r e p o r t e d that "quite a few folks a r e p l a n n i n g on m a k i n g the t r i p out to the coast for the E a s t e r H o l i d a y s . " T h e r o a d was e n t i r e l y unpaved but t enders for s u r f a c i n g as far n o r t h as A l t a L a k e w e r e opened i n S e p t e m b e r , 1965. D u r i n g the s u m m e r there h a d b e e n s e v e r a l a c c i d e n t s , one of t h e m fatal , ten m i l e s south of P e m b e r t o n . T h r o u g h o u t the f a l l of 1965 the c o m m u n i t y sent t e l e g r a m s and delegat ions to the p r o v i n c i a l d e p a r t m e n t of h ighways s eek ing i m p r o v e m e n t s to the r o a d . P a v i n g was c o m p l e t e d to A l t a L a k e late i n 1966 but the l a s t twenty m i l e s into P e m b e r t o n a r e s t i l l g r a v e l s u r f a c e d , as a r e a l l the r o a d s i n the v a l l e y . T h e opening of the r o a d has h a d a n u m b e r of consequences for the c o m m u n i t y o f P e m b e r t o n . T h e m o s t obvious of these has b e e n an i n c r e a s e i n the f r e q u e n c y of contacts b y the n o n - I n d i a n r e s i d e n t s with the outs ide w o r l d . A s T a b l e 42 i n d i c a t e s , the m e d i a n n u m b e r of t r i p s to the outs ide has i n c r e a s e d f r o m one to t h r e e p e r y e a r b e f o r e the r o a d opened to e l even or m o r e annual t r i p s 161 now. M o r e than h a l f of the n o n - I n d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads now go outs ide the v a l l e y at l ea s t once p e r month whereas on ly 15. 2 p e r cent d id so b e f o r e the r o a d was c o m p l e t e d . T h e des t inat ion of t r i p s m a d e b y the v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s has changed l i t t l e . M o r e than t w o - t h i r d s of the respondents went to V a n c o u v e r m o s t often and this n u m b e r has r e m a i n e d s table . S q u a m i s h has i n c r e a s e d f r o m 2. 2 p e r cent to 11 .4 p e r cent as a frequent des t inat ion of t r i p s outs ide the v a l l e y . T h e n u m b e r of n o n -T A B L E 42 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y N U M B E R O F T R I P S O U T S I D E T H E V A L L E Y B E F O R E A N D A F T E R C O M P L E T I O N O F T H E R O A D T r i p s p e r Y e a r B e f o r e N o . R o a d % A f t e r N o . R o a d % N o n e o r not a r e s i d e n t b e f o r e 24 15. 2 1 0. 6 1 - 3 58 36 .7* 28 17. 7 4 - 6 32 20. 2 23 14. 6 7 - 10 20 12. 7 25 15.8 11 or m o r e 24 15. 2 81 51. 3* T o t a l 158 100.0 158 100.0 * M e d i a n Note : A c h i s q u a r e va lue of 21 .49 was obta ined . T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . 15. T w e n t y - t h r e e respondents r e p o r t e d that they m o v e d to P e m b e r t o n after the r o a d was opened. 162 Indian residents owning a car has decreased slightly from 85.2 per cent to 78. 5 per cent since the road was opened and three people who had cars before no longer owned them. Some 38. 5 per centcf those who had lived in the valley since before the road opened estimated that they now spend more money outside than they did before. The non-Indian household heads who owned an automobile went outside the valley more frequently than those who did not own cars. If an automobile was owned, there was a tendency for the respondent to go to Vancouver whereas those who did not own cars went elsewhere. Automobile ownership was also an indicator of more money being spent outside the valley now than before completion of the road. The opening of the road has made a lesser impact on the Indian population, partly because few of them own cars that are in working order. Two-thirds of the sample now make one to three yearly trips outside the valley arid only three Indian respondents go outside more than ten times per year. As with the non-Indian group the most frequently reported destination was Vancouver but one-fourth of the Indians went most often to Lillooet. The influence of the road on the spending habits of the Indians appears to have been negligible since just three of the respondents said that they mow spend more money outside the Pemberton Valley than they did before the road was completed. 163 While completion of the road has greatly increased the frequency of contacts by the Pemberton residents with the outside world, it-has also increased the probability of outsiders entering the valley. It was anticipated that this two-way communication which is now possible might have had some negative consequences, therefore, twenty opinion items were administered to the non-Indian respondents in order to gauge their present feelings about the road. ^  Seventy-three per cent of the responses made by non-Indians were favorable toward the road while twenty-one per cent were unfavorable and the remainder were neutral. The median total score was in the 70 to 79 class and 43. 0 per cent of the respondents were in this category. (Table 43). The scores ranged from four (2. 5 per cent) in the less than 50 class to eight (5. 1 per cent) with.90 or more total points. There was a statistically significant difference between farm and non-farm respondents in the distribution by road opinion with the farmers tending to be less favorably disposed toward the road. 16. Five responses ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree were available for each item and each response was scored from one to five points. The maximum possible total score was 100 points and the minimum was 20. A high score would reflect a favourable attitude toward the road. 164 T A B L E 43 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y R O A D O P I N I O N S S c o r e N o . T o t a l % F a r m N o . % N o n -N o . F a r m % L e s s than 50 4 2. 5 2 5.9 2 1.6 50 - 59 5 3.2 3 8 .8 2 1. 6 60 - 69 30 19. 0 6 17. 6 24 19. 4 70 - 79 68 43. 0* 16 47. 1* 52 41.9* 80 - 89 29 18.4 5 14. 7 24 19. 4 90 - o r m o r e 8 5. 1 2 5.9 6 4 .8 No r e s p o n s e 14 8 .8 0 0. 0 14 11. 3 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Notes:. A chi s q u a r e va lue of 16.22 was obta ined . T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the .105 l e v e l . F o u r t e e n n o n - f a r m e r s w e r e r e l a t i v e n e w -c o m e r s to the v a l l e y so the r o a d attitude s ca l e was not a d m i n i s t e r e d to t h e m . M o s t of the c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients between r o a d o p i n i o n and other s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e of a low o r d e r , but the total s c o r e was s i g n i f i c a n t l y a s s o c i a t e d with n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the a r e a (r = . 18) and wi th c o m m u n i t y sa t i s fac t i on (r = . 16). T h e la t t er f igure i n d i c a t e s that those who w e r e m o r e sa t i s f i ed wi th the P e m b e r t o n 165 c o m m u n i t y w e r e a l so m o r e i n favour of the r o a d , wh i l e the f o r m e r c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ient suggests that the l o n g e r - t i m e v a l l e y r e s i d e n t s w e r e m o r e f a v o r a b l e t o w a r d the r o a d than w e r e the newer r e s i d e n t s . T h i s f inding r u n s counter to the a s s u m p t i o n that the o l d e r r e s i d e n t s wou ld r e s i s t the r o a d for fear of u n f a v o u r a b l e changes that i t m i g h t b r i n g about. It a p p e a r s , then, that the l o n g - t i m e r e s i d e n t s w e r e not a v e r s e to the r o a d and they c o n s i d e r e d i t to be a u s e f u l innovat ion . S U M M A R Y T h e g e o g r a p h i c i s o l a t i o n of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y has tended to shape the attitudes and s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s of the r e s i d e n t s . S o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n i s l i m i t e d to a great extent b y l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e and few i n f o r m a l exchanges o c c u r b e y o n d l o c a l i t y b o u n d a r i e s . T h e in f luence of outs ide f o r c e s on the c o m m u n i t y s o c i a l s y s t e m has i n the pas t been on ly m i n i m a l but now s e e m s to be i n c r e a s i n g as a consequence of the c o m p l e t i o n of a r o a d into the a r e a . A s f r e q u e n c y of contact with the outs ide w o r l d i n c r e a s e s , i t i s p o s s i b l e that the t r a d i t i o n a l pa t t erns of s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n w i l l be a l t e r e d . 166 C H A P T E R S E V E N E D U C A T I O N T h e educa t iona l s y s t e m of a c o m m u n i t y p l a y s an i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n the i n c u l c a t i o n of ex i s t ing va lues and attitudes and i n the s o c i a l -i z a t i o n of young c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s . In addi t ion , the educat ion that an i n d i v i d u a l r e c e i v e s i n h i s p r e - a d u l t y e a r s exer t s a c o n s i d e r a b l e in f luence on h i s o c c u p a t i o n a l cho ice and consequent ly h i s e a r n i n g po tent ia l . T h e educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t and v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l l e v e l of the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s i s g e n e r a l l y low but i t i s c o m p a r a b l e with o ther r u r a l a r e a s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T H E S C H O O L S 1 T h e P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i s i n c l u d e d i n S c h o o l D i s t r i c t 48, 1. T h i s s ec t ion i s b a s e d on i n f o r m a t i o n s u p p l i e d by the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l , M r . G e o r g e H a y e s , i n an i n t e r v i e w conducted i n A u g u s t , 1966 and b y v a r i o u s i s s u e s of the S q u a m i s h T i m e s i n 1965 and 1966. 167 H o w e Sound, w h i c h was f o r m e d i n 1946 as a c o n s o l i d a t i o n of s e v e n s m a l l e r d i s t r i c t s . One r e s i d e n t of P e m b e r t o n r e p r e s e n t s the v a l l e y on the s c h o o l b o a r d . T w o schoo l s s e r v e d the c h i l d r e n of the v a l l e y i n 1948, one at P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s wi th twelve p u p i l s and one i n the v i l l a g e wi th ten p u p i l s . T h e C r e e k s i d e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l was opened i n 1949 and b y 1950 to ta l s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t i n the v a l l e y a p p r o a c h e d one h u n d r e d . G r o w t h has b e e n g r a d u a l s i n c e the e a r l y 1950's and e n r o l l m e n t i n non- Ind ian schoo l s r e a c h e d 174 i n I960 and 202 i n 1965. U n t i l 1966 t h e r e w e r e a few c l a s s e s of e l e m e n t a r y students i n the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l but the opening of S i g n a l H i l l E l e m e n t a r y p e r m i t t e d P e m b e r t o n S e c o n d a r y to r e s t r i c t i ts c u r r i c u l u m to G r a d e E i g h t to G r a d e T w e l v e c o u r s e s . T h e r e w e r e f ive schoo l s i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n 1966. P e m b e r t o n M e a d o w s and C r e e k s i d e a r e e l e m e n t a r y schoo l s each h a v i n g about fifteen p u p i l s i n G r a d e s One to T h r e e . S i g n a l H i l l E l e m e n t a r y i n P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e o f fers G r a d e s One to Seven and has a p p r o x i m a t e l y 160 students e n r o l l e d . A n Indian D a y "School at Mount C u r r i e a l so has G r a d e s One to S e v e n . T h a t s c h o o l is s u p p o r t e d b y the D e p a r t m e n t of Indian A f f a i r s and has about 150 s tudents . P e m b e r t o n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l has a p p r o x i m a t e l y 150 e n r o l l e d i n G r a d e s E i g h t to T w e l v e . 168 Desp i t e i t s s m a l l s i z e , the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l o f fers m o s t of the p r o g r a m s and c o u r s e s i n the B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a D e p a r t m e n t of E d u c a t i o n c u r r i c u l u m . - S ince 1964 s o m e $500, 000 has b e e n spent to renovate and expand the e x i s t i n g p h y s i c a l p lant and $120, 000 was expended for equipment that i s r e q u i r e d for s p e c i a l i z e d p r o g r a m s . A $160, 000 add i t ion to the s c h o o l was opened i n A p r i l , 1965 wi th the D e p a r t m e n t of Indian A f f a i r s p a y i n g h a l f the cost s i n c e a p p r o x i m a t e l y h a l f of the s e c o n d a r y students a r e Indians f r o m the Mount C u r r i e r e s e r v e . O n l y a few of the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l students , between ten and twenty p e r cent i n e a c h g r a d e , take an a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m of s tudies . T h e l e v e l of s c h o l a s t i c a c h i e v e m e n t r e a c h e d b y the a c a d e m i c graduates s e e m s to be i n c r e a s i n g : t h r e e of t h e m r e c e i v e d f i r s t c l a s s m a r k s on t h e i r u n i v e r s i t y entrance examinat ions i n 1966 and f ive won s c h o l a r s h i p s to continue t h e i r educat ion . P r i o r to 1966 on ly two students h a d ever a c h i e v e d f i r s t c la s s s tanding . T h e g r a d u a t i n g c l a s s of the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i s g e n e r a l l y quite s m a l l , c o n s i s t i n g of s ix teen students i n 1965 and twelve i n 1966. Indian students who enter the s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l have h a d d i f f i cu l ty i n cop ing with t h e i r s c h o o l w o r k , consequent ly , a " G r a d e E i g h t - N i n e " p r o g r a m i s now o f f e r e d w h i c h takes t h r e e y e a r s to c o m p l e t e . T h e m a j o r i t y of the Indian students and a few of the whites take th is 169 program which places emphasis on arithmetic and language funda-mentals and involves a great deal of reading. The secondary school is usually the fi r s t place where Indian and non-Indian children come into close contact and this occurs both in the classroom and in extra-curricular activities. The school principal indicated that integration generally occurred more readily at the Grade Eleven and Twelve levels than in earlier grades. Several instances of Indian-white dating were reported. The secondary school has a Student Council which organizes most of the extra-curricular activities such as dances which are held about once a month. No school-affiliated clubs are currently operating. Ample equipment is available for sports such as soccer, volleyball, grass hockey, basketball, and tumbling and the students are grouped in a house system for noon-hour competitions. Sports are also a means of bringing students into contact with the outside world. Teams journey frequently to Squamish or Lillooet and occasionally to more distant points for athletic competitions. Teams from the outside also visit Pemberton occasionally. Groups of students are taken to cultural events outside of the valley in an attempt to enlarge their world of experiences. The Pemberton schools find it difficult to retain teachers because of the isolation, poor winter weather, and the lack of social 170 contacts in the valley. Inexperienced teachers are attracted to the area by a relatively high salary scale, isolation bonuses, and the provision of teacherages at subsidized rentals, but staff turnover remains quite high. The secondary school principal reported that only three of the teachers in valley schools had been there for five or more years, and eight of the eleven teachers at the secondary school were new in September, 1966. The staff had high academic qualifications, with three teachers holding a masters degree while the remaining eight had a bachelors degree. The secondary school has no Parent-Teacher organization but contact with parents is maintained by open houses which follow each report card issuance. Parents are encouraged to attend these open houses and to enter into discussions with the principal and teachers. The school is rented on occasion to groups or individuals in the community for showers and dances and most touring entertain-ments which come to the valley make use of the school auditorium. Thus, nearly a l l of the Pemberton residents make some use of the secondary school facilities. EDUCATIONAL ACHIEVEMENT The non-Indian household heads in the Pemberton Valley reported a median of nine to eleven years of school completed. 171 ( T a b l e 44). S o m e 34.8 p e r cent h a d between five and eight y e a r s whi le 7. 0 p e r cent h a d l e s s than f ive y e a r s of s choo l ing w h i c h p l a c e s t h e m i n the f u n c t i o n a l l y i l l i t e r a t e g r o u p . T w e n t y respondents (12.7 p e r cent) h a d c o m p l e t e d - G r a d e T w e l v e whi le seven (4 .4 p e r cent) h a d r e c e i v e d s o m e u n i v e r s i t y educat ion and seven o thers h a d r e c e i v e d a d e g r e e . T A B L E 44 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y Y E A R S O F S C H O O L C O M P L E T E D Y e a r s of T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m S c h o o l i n g N o . % N o . % N o . % L e s s than 5 11 7. 0 1 2 .9 10 8; 1 5 - 8 51 32. 3 16 47. 1* 35 28 .2 9 - 1 1 55 34. 8* 12 35. 3 43 34 .7* 12 20 12.7 3 8 .8 17 13.7 S o m e u n i v e r s i t y 7 4 .4 0 0. 0 7 5 .6 U n i v e r s i t y degree 7 4. 4 1 2 .9 6 4 .8 No r e s p o n s e 7 4 . 4 1 2 .9 6 4 .8 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 -100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A ch i s q u a r e value of 15. 61 was obta ined . T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the 1,05 l e v e l . 172 T h e p e r c e n t a g e of respondents i n each c a t e g o r y of educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t i s s i m i l a r to that for r u r a l a r e a s of the p r o v i n c e as a whole except that t h e r e w e r e s l i g h t l y l e s s func t iona l ly i l l i t e r a t e h o u s e h o l d heads i n P e m b e r t o n than wou ld be expected on the b a s i s of census data. T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n b y educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t between f a r m and n o n - f a r m respondents and the m e d i a n for f a r m e r s was five to eight y e a r s w h e r e a s it was n ine to e l even y e a r s for the n o n - f a r m g r o u p . A l m o s t ha l f of the f a r m respondents h a d f ive to eight y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g but on ly one was c l a s s e d as funct iona l ly i l l i t e r a t e . A t the other e x t r e m e of educat iona l a c h i e v e me n t , on ly one f a r m e r h a d attended a u n i v e r s i t y . T h u s , the f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e c l u s t e r e d i n the f ive to e l even y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g range w h e r e a s n o n - f a r m e r s w e r e m o r e w i d e l y d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r the di f ferent c a t e g o r i e s of educat iona l a c h i v e m e n t . T h e y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d for wives was s l i g h t l y h i g h e r than for husbands but the m e d i a n was s t i l l i n the nine to e l even y e a r c a t e g o r y . ( T a b l e 45). S o m e 24. 1 p e r cent of the wives as against 39- 3 p e r cent of the n o n - I n d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads h a d eight or l e s s y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g w h e r e a s 26. 0 p e r cent of the wives c o m p a r e d wi th 21. 5 p e r cent of the husbands h a d twelve o r m o r e y e a r s . N i n e wives (5. 7 p e r cent) w e r e funct iona l ly i l l i t e r a t e . 173 T A B L E 45 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M W I V E S B Y Y E A R S O F S C H O O L C O M P L E T E D Y e a r s of T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m S c h o o l i n g N o . % N o . % N o . % L e s s than 5 9 5. 7 1 2 .9 8 6. 5 5 - 8 29 18.4 8 23. 5 21 16.9 9 - 1 1 57 36. 1* 15 44. 1* 42 33 .9* 12 30 19. 0 4 11.8 26 21. 0 S o m e u n i v e r s i t y 8 5. 1 3 8 .8 5 4. 0 U n i v e r s i t y degree 3 1.9 0 0. 0 3 2 .4 No spouse 22 13.9 3 38. 8 19 15. 3 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A c h i s q u a r e va lue of 5. 53 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . T h e data d e s c r i b i n g the educat iona l l e v e l of fathers of non- Ind ian h o u s e h o l d heads w e r e i n c o m p l e t e as 38. 6 p e r cent of the respondents d i d not know the educat ion of t h e i r f a t h e r s . ( T a b l e 46). N e v e r t h e l e s s , f r o m the data a v a i l a b l e i t a p p e a r s that the respondents h a d r e c e i v e d m o r e y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g than h a d t h e i r f a t h e r s . T h e 174 m e d i a n educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t of fa thers was f ive to eight y e a r s wi th 12.7 p e r cent funct iona l i l l i t e r a t e s . E i g h t p e r cent h a d c o m p l e t e d G r a d e T w e l v e and an add i t i ona l s even p e r cent h a d at l e a s t some u n i v e r s i t y e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between f a r m and n o n - f a r m fa thers b y educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t and the fa thers of f a r m e r s tended to have m o r e y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g than the fa thers of n o n - f a r m e r s . A l t h o u g h the data w e r e i n c o m p l e t e , it a p p e a r e d that the n o n - f a r m group h a d i n c r e a s e d t h e i r m e d i a n y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d o v e r that r e p o r t e d for t h e i r f a t h e r s . O n the other hand, the f a r m respondents s e e m e d to have fewer y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g than the ir fa thers w h i c h i n d i c a t e d a dec l ine i n educa t iona l a c h i e v e m e n t for the s econd g e n e r a t i o n . T h e m a j o r i t y of c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d b y n o n - I n d i a n r e s p o n d e n t s , 49 .8 p e r cent, w e r e s t i l l attending s c h o o l and 18.7 p e r cent w e r e of p r e - s c h o o l age. ( T a b l e 47 . ) S o m e 16.7 p e r cent of the c h i l d r e n h a d c o m p l e t e d G r a d e T w e l v e whi le 14.8 p e r cent h a d left s c h o o l without c o m p l e t i n g that g r a d e . T h e r e was no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n between f a r m and n o n - f a r m c h i l d r e n b y educat iona l s tanding . T h e r e was s o m e i n d i c a t i o n that the c h i l d r e n w e r e r e c e i v i n g m o r e s c h o o l i n g than the respondents h a d r e c e i v e d s ince 53. 1 p e r cent of the c h i l d r e n who left s c h o o l d id so after c o m p l e t i n g G r a d e T w e l v e . T h e h i g h s c h o o l c o m p l e t i o n Irate for f a r m c h i l d r e n was 62. 1 p e r cent c o m p a r e d with 50. 5 p e r cent for 175 T A B L E 46 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S B Y Y E A R S O F S C H O O L C O M P L E T E D B Y F A T H E R S Y e a r s of T o t a l F a r m N o n - F a r m S choo l ing N o . % N o . % N o . % L e s s than 5 20 12.7 3 8 .8 17 13.7 5 - 8 37 23 .4* 5 14.7 32 25 .8* 9 - 1 1 16 10. 1 . 6 17. 7* 10 8. 1 12 12 7. 6 3 8. 8 9 7. 3 S o m e u n i v e r s i t y 5 3 .2 3 8. 8 2 1; 6 U n i v e r s i t y D e g r e e 6 3 .8 2 5.9 4 3. 2 Dont know 62 39. 2 12 35. 3 50 40. 3 T o t a l 158 .100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 * M e d i a n Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of 7. 06 was obta ined . T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . n o n - f a r m c h i l d r e n . T h e r e was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ient (r = . 31) between the educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t of the n o n - I n d i a n respondents and t h e i r spouses and between that of the respondents and t h e i r fa thers (r = . 37). T h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s i n d i c a t e that the h o u s e h o l d heads whose fa thers h a d m o r e s c h o o l i n g a l so tended to have 176 T A B L E 47 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M C H I L D R E N B Y E D U C A T I O N A L S T A N D I N G E d u c a t i o n a l Status T o t a l N o . % N o . F a r m % N o n - F a r m N o . % P r e - s c h o o l age 76 18. 7 11 12 .8 65 20. 3 A t t e n d i n g s c h o o l 202 49 .8 46 53. 5 156 48 .8 C o m p l e t e d G r a d e T w e l v e 68 16.7 18 20. 9 50 15. 6 D i d not c o m p l e t e G r a d e T w e l v e . 60 14.8 11 12.8 49 15. 3 T o t a l 406 100.0 86 100. 0 320 100. 0 Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue of 3. 71 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s i gni f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . h i g h e r educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t and, i n addi t ion , they t ended to m a r r y w o m e n wi th m o r e s c h o o l i n g . C o n v e r s e l y , low educat iona l s tanding s e e m e d to be c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of s o m e f a m i l i e s . T h e r e does not appear to have b e e n m u c h u p w a r d m o b i l i t y wi th r e s p e c t to educat ion between fa thers and sons or between m a r r i a g e p a r t n e r s . 177 Although there were no statistically significant correlations between respondents' education and any income characteristics, there was a positive association (r = .49) between education and level of living. This latter factor was associated with income. Thus, a higher educational standing was related to possession of more of the amenities such as a telephone, automobile, and washing machine. The pattern of relationships between the education of the wife and other characteristics was similar to that found for household heads. Three income characteristics including total income were significantly associated with the wife's but not with the husband's education. There may be intervening variables such as motivation that are supplied by the wives with more education but such factors were not measured in this study. There were significant negative correlations between respondents' education and number of years resident in the area (r = -. 22) and number of years in the present home (r = -.28) which, when considered together, suggest that those who had lived for a longertime in the valley had a lower level of education. Since these people were also older, it appears that fewer years of schooling was associated with advancing age and this is consistent with long-term 2 trends regarding length of schooling. In addition, school 2. D. R. Whyte, "Rural Canada in Transition, " in M. A. Tremblay and W. J. Anderson, eds., Rural Canada in Transition, Ottawa: Mutual Press, 1966, p. 64. 178 f a c i l i t i e s i n the P e m b e r t o n a r e a w e r e inadequate u n t i l r e l a t i v e l y r e c e n t l y , t h e r e f o r e , those who h a d l i v e d i n the v a l l e y for a long t i m e would not have h a d the opportuni ty to r e c e i v e m o r e than e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l i n g . T h e educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t of the Indian respondents was s u b s t a n t i a l l y l o w e r than that of the n o n - I n d i a n s . H a l f of the s a m p l e h a d l e s s than five y e a r s of s choo l ing , 28. 1 p e r cent h a d between five and eight y e a r s , but only four Indian h o u s e h o l d heads h a d c o m p l e t e d G r a d e T w e l v e and none h a d attended u n i v e r s i t y . T h e r e was a h i g h negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n (r = - . 83 ) between educat ion and age w h i c h i n d i c a t e s that the younger Indians h a d a c h i e v e d a m u c h h i g h e r l e v e l of s c h o o l i n g than h a d the o l d e r r e s p o n d e n t s . L e v e l of educat ion s e e m e d , as with the non- Ind ians , to be a f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c as there w e r e s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between respondent ' s and fa ther ' s educat ion (r = .46) and between the educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t of h o u s e -h o l d heads and t h e i r wives (r = . 75 ) . Indian wives h a d a l e v e l of educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t c o r r e s p o n d i n g to that of the h o u s e h o l d h e a d s . H a l f of the wives had l e s s than five y e a r s of s choo l ing , two h a d c o m p l e t e d G r a d e T w e l v e , and one h a d attended u n i v e r s i t y but d id not r e c e i v e a degree . O n l y one respondent i n the Indian s a m p l e r e p o r t e d that h i s father h a d as m a n y as f ive to eight y e a r s of s c h o o l i n g . M o r e than half , 53. 1 p e r cent 179 \. r e p o r t e d l e s s than five y e a r s and the r e m a i n d e r d i d not know the educat ion of t h e i r f a t h e r s . T h e educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t of the Indians a p p e a r e d to be i n c r e a s i n g with the c h i l d r e n of the respondents a l though i t was s t i l l be low that of non- Ind ian c h i l d r e n . O f f i f ty -e ight Indian c h i l d r e n who w e r e r e p o r t e d to have left s choo l , f ifteen (25.9 p e r cent) h a d c o m p l e t e d G r a d e T w e l v e . A s a r e s u l t , the Indian c h i l d r e n would be at a d isadvantage c o m p a r e d with the non- Ind ian c h i l d r e n i n c o m p e t i n g for e m p l o y m e n t . T h i s wou ld tend to perpetuate the r e l a t i v e l y low s o c i o - e c o n o m i c status of the Indians . J O B T R A I N I N G S e v e n t y - t h r e e n o n - I n d i a n respondents (46. 3 p e r cent) s a i d that they h a d r e c e i v e d some type of v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g after l e a v i n g s c h o o l . ( T a b l e 48). S l ight ly m o r e f a r m o p e r a t o r s (52.9 p e r cent) than n o n - f a r m respondents (44. 3 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d t r a i n i n g . V o c a t i o n a l i n s t r u c t i o n was r e c e i v e d m o s t f r equent ly at a t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l or o n - t h e - j o b and t w e n t y - s i x h o u s e h o l d heads r e p o r t e d each type . T h e m o s t f requent ly r e p o r t e d occupat ion i n w h i c h re spondent s w e r e t r a i n e d was the m e c h a n i c a l t r a d e s and e l even n o n - f a r m but no f a r m respondents h a d r e c e i v e d s u c h t r a i n i n g . 180 T A B L E 48 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M A N D N O N - F A R M N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S , W I V E S , : A N D F A T H E R S B Y J O B T R A I N I N G R E P O R T E D S o m e T r a i n i n g N o T r a i n i n g No R e s p o n s e N o . % N o . % N o . % Respondents T o t a l 73 46. 3 77 48. 7 8 5. 1 F a r m 18 52 .9 15 44.- 1 1 2 .9 N o n - F a r m 55 44. 3 62 50. 0 7 5 .6 W i v e s T o t a l 52 32.9 84 53. 2 22 13.9 F a r m 13 38. 2 18 52.9 3 8.8 N o n - F a r m 39 31. 5 66 , 53. 2 19 15. 3 F a t h e r s T o t a l 47 29. 8 57 36. 1 54 34. 2 F a r m 12 35. 2 15 44, 1 7 20. 6 N o n - F a r m 35 28 .2 42 33. 9 47 37. 9 ( T a b l e 49). S i m i l a r l y , eight n o n - f a r m but no f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads h a d taken i n s t r u c t i o n i n c l e r i c a l w o r k . E i g h t h o u s e h o l d heads i n c l u d i n g four f a r m e r s r e p o r t e d c a r p e n t r y t r a i n i n g . O t h e r o c c u p a t i o n a l f ie lds w e r e r e p o r t e d b y l e s s than ten per . ;cent of the respondents wi th . 181 T A B L E 49 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S R E P O R T I N G J O B T R A I N I N G B Y O C C U P A T I O N A L G R O U P O c c u p a t i o n N o . T o t a l % N o . F a r m , % Non< N o . » F a r m % M e c h a n i c a l or R e p a i r 11 15. 1 0 0. 0 11 20. 0 C l e r i c a l 8 11. 0 0 0. 0 8 14. 5 Carpentry - 8 11. 0 4 22. 2 4 7. 3 M i s c e l l aneous P r o f e s s i o n a l 7 9 . 6 3 16.7 4 7. 3 E l e c t r i c a l 6 8 .2 2 11. 1 4 7. 3 P r o t e c t i o n S e r v i c e s 5 6.8 1 5 .6 4 7. 3 A g r i c u l t u r e 4 5. 5 2 11. 1 2 3 .6 M a c h i n i s t 4 5. 5 1 5. 6 3 5. 5 Sa les 4 5. 5 0 0. 0 4 7. 3 M a n a g e r i a l 2 2 .7 0 0. 0 2 3. 6 L o g g i n g 2 2. 7 0 0. 0 2 3. 6 E q u i p m e n t O p e r a t i o n 2 2. 7 1 5. 6 1 1.8 S ing le r e s p o n s e C a t e g o r i e s 10 13.7 4 22 .2 6 10. 9 T o t a l 73 100.0 18 100. 0 55 100. 0 t r a i n i n g and on ly two f a r m e r s h a d r e c e i v e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e . 182 V o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g was r e p o r t e d for 32.9 p e r cent of the w ives and s l i g h t l y m o r e f a r m than n o n - f a r m wives h a d t r a i n i n g . S o m e 29 .8 p e r cent of the n o n - I n d i a n respondents ' fa thers h a d taken a job t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m and aga in m o r e f a r m than n o n - f a r m fathers w e r e i n v o l v e d . T h e Indian s a m p l e h a d l o w e r educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t than the non-Indians and they a l so r e p o r t e d l e s s v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . S ix Indian respondents (18.8 p e r cent), three w i v e s , and one father h a d b e e n t r a i n e d i i n a s p e c i f i c job . T h i s low p r o p o r t i o n of s k i l l e d m a n p o w e r i s i n p a r t a consequence of the low educa t iona l a c h i e v e m e n t of the Indians . In g e n e r a l , they do not have the fundamenta l educat ion r e q u i r e d to enter or s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p l e t e v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m s . S U M M A R Y T h e educat iona l a c h i e v e m e n t of the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s , whi le g e n e r a l l y low, i s s i m i l a r to that found i n other r u r a l a r e a s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h e educat iona l l e v e l of the v a l l e y popula t ion a p p e a r s to be i n c r e a s i n g s l i g h t l y with s u c c e e d i n g generat ions but the Indians l a g b e h i n d the non-Indians i n both y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d 183 and job t r a i n i n g . T h i s operates to m a i n t a i n the Indians at an e c o n o m i c d i sadvantage r e l a t i v e to the non-Indians s ince o c c u p a t i o n and e a r n i n g s a r e dependent on g e n e r a l educat ion and t r a i n i n g i n s p e c i f i c j obs . T h e r e w e r e few i n d i c a t i o n s of u p w a r d educat iona l m o b i l i t y i n the n o n - I n d i a n popu la t ion and this does not suggest an o p t i m i s t i c future for the u p g r a d i n g of o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s or i n c o m e l e v e l s . 184 C H A P T E R E I G H T A D U L T E D U C A T I O N T h e deve lopment of s y s t e m a t i c adult educat ion i n the P e m b e r t o n "Valley has b e e n r e s t r i c t e d by the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l p o p u l a t i o n of the a r e a . S u c h p r o g r a m s as do ex i s t a r e o f f e r e d p r i m a r i l y b y the night s c h o o l although there are a few s p e c i a l i z e d p r o g r a m s for f a r m e r s . T h i s chapter w i l l f i r s t d e s c r i b e the p r o v i s i o n s that have b e e n m a d e for the educat ion of the adult c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s and then the i n f o r m a t i o n - s e e k i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the r e s i d e n t s w i l l be a n a l y z e d . T h e study hypotheses r e s p e c t i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n p a t t e r n s , and l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e w i l l be t e s ted i n the m a j o r s ec t i on of this c h a p t e r . 185 T H E P R O V I S I O N O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N T h e r e w e r e few educat iona l opportuni t i e s a v a i l a b l e to the adults r e s i d i n g i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y p r i o r to 1964. In that y e a r , f ive night s c h o o l c o u r s e s w e r e o f f e r e d under the a u s p i c e s of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . A p a r t - t i m e Night S c h o o l D i r e c t o r was appointed for the v a l l e y and he a r r a n g e d c o u r s e s with the guidance of the s c h o o l d i s t r i c t A d u l t E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r . A n A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C o m m i t t e e was f o r m e d i n A u t u m n , 1965, for the Mount C u r r i e Indian populat ion and a young nat ive couple a s s u m e d the m a i n r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for o r g a n i z i n g c o u r s e s . T h e to ta l e n r o l l m e n t for the f ive c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n 1964 was 68 p e r s o n s . T h e r e was an i n c r e a s e of 70. 6 p e r cent to 116 i n 1965 and a fur ther i n c r e a s e of 44 .8 p e r cent o c c u r r e d i n 1966 when the night s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t r e a c h e d 168. ( T a b l e 50). A c c o r d i n g to the Indian A f f a i r s B r a n c h , there w e r e 42 Indians e n r o l l e d i n the c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n 1965 and they accounted for 36. 2 p e r cent of the tota l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n that y e a r . T h e n u m b e r of Indian p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c r e a s e d to 57 i n 1966 although t h e i r percentage of the to ta l 1. Data r e s p e c t i n g night s c h o o l c o u r s e s and e n r o l l m e n t s w e r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e b y M r . J e r r y C l a r k e who was f o r m e r l y the R e c r e a t i o n and A d u l t E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t o r for S c h o o l D i s t r i c t N o . 36, H o w e Sound. 186 e n r o l l m e n t d e c r e a s e d s l i g h t l y to 33.9 p e r cent. T h u s , m u c h of the ga in i n tota l e n r o l l m e n t i n night s c h o o l c o u r s e s m a y be a t t r ibuted to the i n c l u s i o n of Indians as p a r t i c i p a n t s . W h e n non- Ind ian p a r t i c i p a t i o n was e x a m i n e d , t h e r e was an i n c r e a s e o v e r the 1964 f igure of 8. 8 p e r cent to 74 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 1965 and a fur ther i n c r e a s e of 23. 0 p e r cent to 9 1 p a r t i c i p a n t s i n 1966. In the t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d t h e r e has deve loped a g r e a t e r v a r i e t y of c o u r s e s o f f e r e d and s o m e shift has o c c u r r e d i n the p e r c e n t a g e of tota l e n r o l l m e n t accounted for b y di f ferent ca t egor i e s of c o u r s e s . R e c r e a t i o n a l c o u r s e s s u c h as B a d m i n t o n and S q u a r e D a n c i n g accounted for 39. 5 p e r cent of the to ta l e n r o l l m e n t i n the three y e a r p e r i o d . T h e s e c o u r s e s accounted for 64.7 p e r cent of the 1964 tota l but for 30 .9 p e r cent of the 1966 e n r o l l m e n t . Subjects s u c h as F i r s t A i d , W e l d i n g , C a r p e n t r y , and B o o k k e e p i n g w h i c h p r o v i d e educat ion r e l a t e d to vocat ions h a d 32. 7 p e r cent of a l l p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the t h r e e y e a r p e r i o d and the p e r c e n t a g e of the tota l e n r o l l m e n t i n these c o u r s e s . r e m a i n e d r e l a t i v e l y s table . C o u r s e s i n the d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e s e n r o l l e d m a i n l y Indian w o m e n . A l t h o u g h s u c h c o u r s e s w e r e not o f f e r e d u n t i l 1965, they accounted for 2 1 . 6 p e r cent of a l l e n r o l l m e n t s and for 30. 9 p e r cent of the 1966 to ta l . T w o c o u r s e s , L i t e r a c y and D r i v e r T r a i n i n g , w e r e each o f f e r e d once . T h e i r c l i en te l e was c o m p o s e d e n t i r e l y of Indians 187 . T A B L E 50 S U M M A R Y O F E N R O L L M E N T I N N I G H T S C H O O L C O U R S E S , 1964 T O 1966 C o u r s e 1964 1965 1966 T o t a l S q u a r e D a n c i n g 24 24 24 72 B a d m i n t o n 20 20 27 67 C o o k i n g and Sewing M 16* 22* 38 Sewing 8 30** 38 F i r s t A i d 9 12** 13 34 W e l d i n g 9 9 14 32 B o o k k e e p i n g and T y p i n g 6 10** 10 26 C a r p e n t r y 11* 12* 23 L i t e r a c y - mm 16* 16 D r i v e r T r a i n i n g •* 6* 6 T o t a l 68 116 168 352 Note : C o u r s e s m a r k e d with one a s t e r i s k w e r e c o m p o s e d e n t i r e l y of Indians . C o u r s e s m a r k e d with two a s t e r i s k s h a d s o m e Indian and s o m e n o n - I n d i a n p a r t i c i p a n t s . D a t a on the ethnic c o m p o s i t i o n of c l a s s e s o f f e r e d i n 1964 w e r e not a v a i l a b l e . and the two c o u r s e s accounted for 6.2 p e r cent of the tota l e n r o l l m e n t for a l l c o u r s e s i n the 1964 to 1966 p e r i o d . 188 O t h e r than the night s c h o o l p r o g r a m , the on ly o r g a n i z e d adult educat ion i n the v a l l e y c o n s i s t s of s p e c i a l i z e d p r o g r a m s for f a r m e r s . F i e l d days a r e s p o n s o r e d p e r i o d i c a l l y b y the F a r m e r s ' Institute at w h i c h t ime s e v e r a l f a r m s a r e v i s i t e d and c o m m o n a g r i -c u l t u r a l p r o b l e m s a r e d i s c u s s e d . A F a r m B u s i n e s s M a n a g e m e n t P r o g r a m was o r g a n i z e d i n 1965 and i t has cont inued t h r o u g h 1967. T h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n this p r o g r a m m e e t wi th the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t four t i m e s p e r y e a r i n o r d e r to d i s c u s s t h e i r p r o b l e m s . F o u r of the o r i g i n a l eight p a r t i c i p a n t s d r o p p e d out and t h r e e new ones w e r e added i n 1966. F o u r f a r m e r s have cont inued wi th the p r o g r a m s ince i ts i n c e p t i o n and the e n r o l l m e n t at the end of 1967 was s e v e n f a r m e r s . I N F O R M A T I O N - S E E K I N G C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S T h e r e has b e e n a l i m i t e d n u m b e r of c o u r s e s p r o v i d e d for the adults of P e m b e r t o n , h o w e v e r , the f a r m r e s i d e n t s i n p a r t i c u l a r have t u r n e d to a l ternate s o u r c e s s u c h as the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t for i n f o r m a t i o n . In addi t ion , the c o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s h a d p e r c e p t i o n s as to the adequacy of t h e i r educat ion and job s k i l l s and they e x p r e s s e d v a r y i n g i n t e r e s t i n fur ther educat ion or t r a i n i n g . 189 F a r m e r s ' U s e of I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e s : T h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i s one of the m a i n s o u r c e s of i n f o r m a t i o n and educat ion for f a r m o p e r a t o r s . T h e degree of acquaintance of the a g r i c u l t u r a l change agent with h i s const i tuents can v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y , but r e s e a r c h has i n d i c a t e d that f a r m e r s who have m o r e contact wi th h i m show a h i g h e r ra te of adopt ion of new 2 f a r m p r a c t i c e s . A l t h o u g h the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t for the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i s s ta t ioned i n the F r a s e r V a l l e y w h i c h i s m o r e than one h u n d r e d m i l e s f r o m P e m b e r t o n , twenty-e ight of the f a r m respondents (82 .4 p e r cent) knew h i s n a m e . T h e n u m b e r of f a r m e r s who h a d h a d s o m e p e r s o n a l contact wi th the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t i n the p r e c e d i n g y e a r r a n g e d f r o m 14. 7 p e r cent to 52. 9 p e r cent, depending on the type of contact . ( T a b l e 51). T e l e p h o n e c a l l s and v i s i t s to the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ' s of f ice w e r e the l e a s t f requent ly r e p o r t e d k inds of contact a n d 85. 3 p e r cent of the f a r m respondents h a d no c o m m u n i -ca t ion of these types . T h e D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t h a d v i s i t e d 44. 1 p e r cent of the f a r m s wi th in the p a s t y e a r whi le 52. 9 p e r cent of the f a r m o p e r a t o r s h a d attended a m e e t i n g or a f i e l d day. 2. E . M . R o g e r s and H . R . C a p e n e r , T h e County E x t e n s i o n A g e n t and  H i s C o n s t i t u e n t s . W o o s t e r , O h i o : O h i o A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p e r i m e n t Stat ion, I960. 190 T A B L E 51 D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S B Y F R E Q U E N C Y O F P E R S O N A L C O N T A C T S W I T H T H E D I S T R I C T A G R I C U L T U R I S T F r e q u e n c y p e r Y e a r T y p e of C o n t a c t 0 1 2or3 4or5 N o . N o . N o . N o . (%) (%) (%) (%) M o r e T o t a l than 5 N o . No.(%); (%) V i s i t s to D . A . Of f i c e 29 2 2 0 1 34 (85. 3) ( 5.9) ( 5.9) ( 0.0) ( 2 .9) (100. 0) D . A . V i s i t s to F a r m 19 7 . 6 . 2 (55.9) (20. 6) (17. 6).( 5.9) ( 0 34 0. 0 ) 1 (100 . 0) P h o n e C a l l s to D . A . 29 1 2 0 2 34 (85. 3) ( 2 .9) ( 5.9) ( 0.0) ( 5.9) (100. 0) A t t e n d a n c e at mee t ings or f i e l d days 16 12 6 0 0 34 (47. 1) (35. 3) (17. 6) (CO. 0),( 0. 0) (100.0) 23. 3 5. 5 4 .0 0 .5 0 .7 34 A v e r a g e (68.5) ( 1 6 . 2 ) (11.8) ( 1.5) ( 2. 0) (100.0) T h e r e w e r e t h r e e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients a m o n g the four types of p e r s o n a l contact wi th the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t w h i c h suggests that those r e p o r t i n g m o r e frequent contacts of one type w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to have a l so h a d m o r e of the 191 other k inds of p e r s o n a l contact . T h e f a r m respondents who w e r e m o r e ac t ive p a r t i c i p a n t s i n c o m m u n i t y o r g a n i z a t i o n s m a d e m o r e te lephone c a l l s to the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t about f a r m p r o b l e m s (r = . 57), wh i l e the f a r m o p e r a t o r s who h a d b e e n w o r k i n g i n a g r i c u l -t u r e for m o r e y e a r s attended m o r e meet ings and f i e l d days (r = . 34) than the n e w e r f a r m e r s . In addi t ion , the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t m a d e m o r e v i s i t s to the f a r m respondents who u s e d m o r e h i r e d l a b o u r (r = . 4 6 ) . I m p e r s o n a l s o u r c e s o f a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n s e e m e d to be u s e d l e s s f requent ly b y the P e m b e r t o n f a r m e r s than w e r e p e r s o n a l contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t . S o m e 91 .2 p e r cent of the f a r m respondents n e v e r l i s t e n e d to f a r m r a d i o p r o g r a m s and 88. 2 p e r cent s a i d that they n e v e r r e a d f a r m n e w s p a p e r a r t i c l e s . ( T a b l e 52). M o r e f a r m respondents r e a d m a i l f r o m the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , however , as 41 .2 p e r cent s a i d that they n e v e r d id t h i s . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients ob ta ined between the use of i m p e r s o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n s o u r c e s and s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a r m o p e r a t o r s w e r e g e n e r a l l y of a low o r d e r , i n d i c a t i n g a f a i r l y r a n d o m d i s t r i b u t i o n of the use of these s o u r c e s i n the f a r m popu la t ion . T h e m o r e frequent use o f p e r s o n a l contacts c o m p a r e d wi th i m p e r s o n a l s o u r c e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l i n f o r m a t i o n i s not cons i s tent with 192 T A B L E 52 D I S T R I B U T I O N O F F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S B Y F R E Q U E N C Y O F U S E O F I M P E R S O N A L I N F O R M A T I O N S O U R C E S N e v e r R a r e l y S o m e -t i m e s Often T o t a l S o u r c e N o . N o . N o . N o . N o . (%) (%) (%) (%)'• (%)' M a i l f r o m D . A . 14 3 12 5 34 (41.2) ( 8.8) (35. 3) (14.7) (100. 0) F a r m R a d i o P r o g r a m s 31 1 2 0 34 (91.2) ( 2 .9) ( 5.9) ( 0.0) (100.0) F a r m N e w s p a p e r A r t i c l e s 30 2 2 0 34 (88.2) ( 5.9) ( 5.9): ( 0.0) (100. 0) 25. 0 2. 0 5. 3 1.7 34 A v e r a g e (73.5) ( 5.9) (15.6) ( 5.0) (100.0) 3 the p a t t e r n o b s e r v e d i n other r u r a l a r e a s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . T h i s i s c a u s e d i n p a r t by the p h y s i c a l i s o l a t i o n of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y ; for e x a m p l e , r a d i o r e c e p t i o n i n the a r e a i s p o o r . T h i s p l a c e s a g r e a t e r b u r d e n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for a g r i c u l t u r a l educat ion on the 3. See, for e x a m p l e : V e r n e r , M i l l e r d and D i c k i n s o n , op_. c i t . , pp . 60-62. 193 District Agriculturist -who is not a resident of Pemberton. As a result, agricultural information is difficult to obtain when i t is needed to solve immediate farming problems and this has tended to retard the development of agriculture in the area. Training Wanted: Two-thirds of the non-Indian household heads interviewed felt that their vocational skills were adequate to ensure satisfactory-employment in the future. (Table 53). Some 5. 1 per cent were uncertain while 13.9 per cent felt that their present skills were inadequate for continued job security. There was no statistically significant difference between the distribution of farm and non-farm respondents by perceived adequacy of ski l l s . Despite the general satisfaction with present skills , the majority of non-Indian respondents (55. 1 per cent) wanted to take some kind of further education or training. (Table 54). There was a statistically significant difference between the distribution of farm and non-farm respondents by desire for further education. The farm group contained 44i 1 per cent who wanted more education compared with 58. 1 per cent of the non-farm population. These data indicate some desire for upward occupational and educational mobility. While most of the respondents felt that their skills were 194 T A B L E 53 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S B Y P E R C E I V E D A D E Q U A C Y O F S K I L L S P e r c e i v e d A d e q u a c y of S k i l l s T o t a l N o . % F a r m N o . % N o n N o . - F a r m % A d e q u a t e for s a t i s f a c -t o r y future e m p l o y m e n t 107 67. 7 24 70. 6 83 66.9 Not adequate for s a t i s -f a c t o r y future e m p l o y -m e n t 22 13. 9 6 17. 7 16 12. 9 U n c e r t a i n 8 5. 1 3 8. 8 5 4. 0 R e t i r e d -.20 12. 7 1 2 .9 19 15. 3 No R e s p o n s e 1 0. 6 0 0. 0 1 0 .8 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 Note : A ch i s q u a r e va lue o f 3. 57 was obta ined . T h i s i s not s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . adequate to e n s u r e job s e c u r i t y , m o r e than h a l f wanted to take m o r e educat ion o r t r a i n i n g . A s i m i l a r p a t t e r n was o b s e r v e d i n the Indian s a m p l e w h e r e m o r e than t w o - t h i r d s w e r e s a t i s f i e d as to the adequacy of t h e i r s k i l l s but 62. 5 p e r cent wanted m o r e educat ion or t r a i n i n g . T h e m a j o r i t y of the Indian reques t s for t r a i n i n g w e r e i n m e c h a n i c a l or c a r p e n t r y t r a d e s . 195 T A B L E 54 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S W H O W A N T F U R T H E R T R A I N I N G T r a in ing Wante d T o t a l F a r m Non. - F a r m N o . % N o . % N o . % Y e s 87 55. 1 15 44. 1 72 58. 1 No 70 44. 3 19 55.9 51 41. 1 No R e s p o n s e 1 0. 6 0 0. 0 1 0 .8 T o t a l 158 100. 0 34 100. 0 124 100. 0 Note : A chi s q u a r e va lue of 5. 84 was obta ined . T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . T h e k inds of t r a i n i n g r e q u e s t e d b y the non-Indians w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d o v e r a n u m b e r of c a t e g o r i e s as shown i n T a b l e 55. S ix teen respondents (18 .4 p e r cent) wanted a c a d e m i c educat ion . F o u r t e e n r e s p o n d e n t s , none of t h e m f a r m o p e r a t o r s , d e s i r e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n the m e c h a n i c a l t r a d e s whi le twelve (13.8 p e r cent) wanted m a c h i n i s t t r a i n i n g . F o u r f a r m respondents and seven n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads i n d i c a t e d that they w o u l d be w i l l i n g to take any t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m that was m a d e a v a i l a b l e to t h e m . F o u r t e e n other k inds of t r a i n i n g w e r e each m e n t i o n e d b y s ix o r l e s s r e s p o n d e n t s . A m o n g these reques t s w e r e t h r e e f a r m and two n o n - f a r m respondents who wanted t r a i n i n g i n a g r i c u l t u r e . T A B L E 55 K I N D S O F T R A I N I N G W A N T E D B Y N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S W H O D E S I R E F U R T H E R T R A I N I N G T y p e of T r a i n i n g T o t a l F a r m Non< - F a r m N o . % N o . % N o . % A c a d e m i c 16 18. 4 3 20. 0 13 18. 1 M e c h a n i c a l or R e p a i r 14 16. 1 0 0. 0 14 19 .4 M a c h i n i s t 12 13.8 4 26 .7 8 11. 1 A n y t r a i n i n g a v a i l a b l e 11 12. 6 4 26. 7 7 9 .7 D r a u g h t i n g o r S u r v e y i n g 6 6.9 0 0. 0 6 8. 3 C l e r i c a l 5 5. 7 0 0. 0 5 6.9 C a r p e n t r y 5 5. 7 1 6 .7 4 5 .6 F a r m i n g 3 3. 5 1 6.7 2 2. 8 E l e c t r i c a l 3 3. 5 0 0. 0 3 4 .2 L o g g i n g 2 2. 3 0 0. 0 2 2. 8 T e a c h i n g 2 2. 3 0 0. 0 2 2 .8 A g r i c u l t u r e p r o f e s s i o n a l 2 2. 3 2 13. 3 0 0. 0 S ing le R e s p o n s e s 6 6.9 0 0. 0 6 8. 3 T o t a l 87 100.0 15 100. 0 72 100.0 T h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents want ing fur ther educat ion or t r a i n i n g w e r e c o m p a r e d with those not want ing i t to d e t e r m i n e whether or not t h e r e w e r e any c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s w h i c h 197 distinguished between the two groups. Age was a differentiating characteristic in both the farm and non-farm population and younger respondents seemed to be more willing to undertake an educational program. More education or training was desired by 81.8 per cent of the farm respondents under 45 years of age but by only 27'. 3 per cent of those over 45 years. Similarly, in the non-farm population 77. 4 per cent of those under 35 years and 67. 2 per cent of those between 35 and 54 years wanted more education but the figure decreased to 21.9 per cent for the age group 55 and over. Since miscellaneous income from sources such as pensions tended to increase with advancing age, it was not unexpected that the desire for further education or training decreased as miscel-laneous income increased. This occurred in both the farm and non-farm groups. Social participation was also related to the desire for further education in both groups of respondents. In the farm population, for 4. The chi square test and a . 05 level of significance were used to test the null hypothesis of no statistically significant difference in the distribution of respondents between those wanting and not wanting further education or training by 41 characteristics for farm and 25 characteristics for non-farm respondents. Only those instances in which the null hypothesis was rejected are reported here. 198 e x a m p l e , 27. 8 per cent of those w i t h s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e s of ten or l e s s points c o m p a r e d w i t h 62. 5 per cent of those w i t h m o r e than ten points wanted m o r e educat ion and the percentages w e r e s i m i l a r i n the n o n - f a r m group . A s the l e v e l of l i v i n g of the n o n -f a r m respondents i n c r e a s e d , so d id the d e s i r e for f u r t h e r educat ion unt i l 74. 0 per cent of those w i t h m o r e than 88 points on the l e v e l of l i v i n g s ca l e wanted m o r e educat ion or t r a i n i n g . F i v e other c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e -ment , n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n , n u m b e r of i m p r o v e d a c r e s , p e r q u i s i t e s , and p e r c e i v e d adequacy of s k i l l s d i f f erent ia ted the f a r m respondents who wanted m o r e educat ion or t r a i n i n g f r o m those who d i d not. S o m e 68. 8 per cent of the f a r m respondent s w i t h m o r e than eight y e a r s of s choo l ing wanted fur ther educat ion c o m p a r e d w i t h 23. 5 per cent of those w i t h l o w e r e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t . A s the n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n r e p o r t e d i n c r e a s e d , so d id the d e s i r e for f u r t h e r educat ion or t r a i n i n g and 68. 8 per cent of the f a r m respondents w i t h t h r e e or m o r e c h i l d r e n as aga ins t 22. 2 per cent of those w i t h two or l e s s wanted m o r e educat ion . T h e f a r m respondents w i th fewer i m p r o v e d a c r e s w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to want fur ther educat ion or t r a i n i n g than those w i t h m o r e i m p r o v e d a c r e s whi le the f a r m e r s who c o n s u m e d m o r e p e r q u i s i t e s tended to want m o r e educat ion . Seventy per cent of the f a r m o p e r a t o r s who fe l t that the ir s k i l l s w e r e inadequate to i n s u r e s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p l o y m e n t in the future wanted to upgrade t h e i r s k i l l s c o m p a r e d w i t h 33. 3 per cent of those who w e r e sa t i s f i ed w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s k i l l s . T h e data r e s p e c t i n g educat ion and t r a i n i n g wanted ind ica te a n unf i l l ed d e m a n d for adult educat ion p r o g r a m s . T h e younger adults and the f a r m populat ion a r e two groups w h i c h appear to be p a r t i c u l a r l y l a c k i n g i n e d u c a t i o n a l oppor tun i t i e s . W i t h a few except ions , the reques t s for educat ion and t r a i n i n g w e r e i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h the k inds of adult educat ion p r o g r a m s that have been o f f ered i n P e m b e r t o n . N o a c a d e m i c p r o g r a m s and few v o c a t i o n a l subjects \of the type r e q u e s t e d have been i n c l u d e d i n the night s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m . T h u s , the c o u r s e s o f fered appear to be p e r i p h e r a l to the needs e x p r e s s e d by the r e s i d e n t s . E X T E N T O F P A R T I C I P A T I O N T w e n t y - e i g h t (17.7 per cent) of the n o n - I n d i a n respondents r e p o r t e d that they h a d taken an adult educat ion c o u r s e 5 withint the l a s t three y e a r s but an e x a m i n a t i o n of the night s c h o o l 5. T e n Ind ian respondents (32. 3 p e r cent) r e p o r t e d taking a c o u r s e w i t h in the l a s t three y e a r s . A s data w e r e a v a i l a b l e for only a segment of the Indian populat ion , they w e r e e x c l u d e d f r o m the fo l lowing a n a l y s i s of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 200 r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s i n d i c a t e d that t h i r t y - f i v e respondents (22. 2 per cent) had p a r t i c i p a t e d . (Table 56). T h e d i s c r e p a n c y between the two f i gures a p p e a r s to be s l ight , but only f ifteen re spondent s w e r e i d e n t i f i e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s by both m e a s u r e s . T h i r t e e n s a i d that they had taken a n adult educat ion c o u r s e when they w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d but there w e r e no r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s as ev idence of s u c h p a r t i c i p a t i o n . Some of t h e m m a y have taken o t h e r t h a n night s c h o o l c o u r s e s but this c o u l d not be v e r i f i e d . T w e n t y respondents w e r e i d e n t i f i e d as p a r t i c i p a n t s f r o m the r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s a l though they d id not r e p o r t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the s u r v e y . It a p p e a r s , then, that m a n y of the adults who ac tua l ly p a r t i c i p a t e d d id not ident i fy t h e i r ac t iv i ty as being educa t iona l when they w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d , C o n s e q u e n t l y , r e g i s t r a t i o n data w e r e used i n the a n a l y s i s of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n s ince i t a p p e a r e d to be ar i -more r e l i a b l e m e a s u r e . In addi t ion to t h i r t y - f i v e r e s p o n d e n t s , t h i r t y - t h r e e w ives (26. 2 per cent) had e n r o l l e d i n at l eas t one night s c h o o l c o u r s e i n the three y e a r p e r i o d for w h i c h r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s w e r e a v a i l a b l e . F o u r t e e n respondents (8. 9 per cent) had e n r o l l e d w i t h the ir wives i n the same c o u r s e . A t l eas t one night s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a n t was found for fifty of the households (31.6 per cent) in the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y . 201 T A B L E 56 D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N H O U S E H O L D S B Y P A R T I C I P A T I O N O R N O N - P A R T I C I P A T I O N I N N I G H T S C H O O L C O U R S E S F R O M 1964 T O 1966 T o t a l P a r t i c i - N p n - P a r t i -M e a s u r e pants c ipants N o . % N o . % N o . % A R D A S u r v e y - respondents 158 100.0 28 17.7 130 82 .3 R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s - r e s -pondents 158 100.0 35 22 .2 123 7 7 . 8 R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s - w ives 126 100.0 33 26 .2 93 7 3 . 8 R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s - r e s -pondents and w i v e s i n s a m e c o u r s e 158 100.0 14 8.9 144 91 .1 R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s - tota l for h o u s e h o l d 158 100.0 50 31 .6 108 68 .4 A l t h o u g h the m a j o r i t y of respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d had taken just one c o u r s e , nine (25. 7 per cent) had taken two and f ive (14. 3 per cent) had e n r o l l e d i n three or m o r e c o u r s e s . ( T a b l e 57). S i m i l a r l y , n e a r l y t w o - t h i r d s of the wives who h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d took one c o u r s e but 30. 3 p e r cent e n r o l l e d i n two c o u r s e s and two wives (6. 0 p e r cent) took three or m o r e c o u r s e s . T h u s , m o s t of the adult 202 T A B L E 57 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N R E S P O N D E N T S A N D T H E I R W I V E S W H O P A R T I C I P A T E D IN A D U L T E D U C A T I O N B Y N U M B E R O F N I G H T S C H O O L C O U R S E S T A K E N F R O M 1964 T O 1966 Respondents W i v e s N u m b e r of C o u r s e s % % N o . N o . 1 21 60. 0 21 63. 6 2 9 25. 7 10 30. 3 3 3 8. 6 1 3. 0 4 2 5. 7 0 0. 0 5 0 0. 0 1 3. 0 T o t a l 35 100. 0 33 100. 0 educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s took only one c o u r s e i n the three y e a r p e r i o d and m u l t i p l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n s by i n d i v i d u a l s w e r e r e l a t i v e l y in frequent . O f the fifty households w i t h at l ea s t one n ight s c h o o l e n r o l l e e , twenty-two (44.0 per cent) h a d one p e r s o n who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n one c o u r s e . (Tab le 58). 203 T A B L E 58 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F N O N - I N D I A N H O U S E H O L D S W I T H A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A N T S B Y N U M B E R O F N I G H T S C H O O L C O U R S E S T A K E N F R O M 1964 T O 1966 Jtiouseholds N u m b e r of C o u r s e s N o . % 1 22 44. 0 2 14 28. 0 3 7 14. 0 4 2 4. 0 5 4 8. 0 6 1 2. 0 T o t a l 50 100.0 M u l t i p l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n s w e r e r e c o r d e d for the r e m a i n i n g f a m i l i e s and f o u r t e e n (28. 0 p e r cent) had two c o u r s e s e n r o l l m e n t s whi le the same percentage of f a m i l i e s had three or m o r e c o u r s e s . T h e m e m b e r s of one f a m i l y had taken s ix night s c h o o l c o u r s e s a m o n g t h e m . 204 S O C I O - E C O N O M I C C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S T h e respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult educat ion w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h those who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e on twenty - three s o c i o -e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 59. T h e n u l l hypothes i s of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence was r e j e c t e d for nine c h a r a c t e r -i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g age, n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n at h o m e , b i r t h p l a c e , n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the a r e a , n u m b e r of r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n P e m b e r t o n , f a r m or n o n - f a r m r e s i d e n t , fa ther ' s educat ion , p e r c e i v e d adequacy of s k i l l s , and d e s i r e for f u r t h e r educat ion . T h u s , there was a s i g n i -f icant d i f f erence between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i th r e s p e c t to the above nine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . A s has been found i n p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , age was a d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c and the younger respondents tended to p a r t i c i p a t e m o r e . T h e age group f r o m 15 to 34 conta ined 20. 9 per cent of the respondents but i t had 34. 3 p e r cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s c o m p a r e d w i t h 17. 1 p e r cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . ( T a b l e 60). O n the other hand, the 55 y e a r s or o l d e r g r o u p h a d 29. 1 per cent of the respondents and 34. 9 p e r cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s as aga ins t 8. 6 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e age g r o u p f r o m 35 to 54 conta ined the l a r g e s t 205 T A B L E 59 C H I S Q U A R E V A L U E S F O R D I S T R I B U T I O N O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S B Y S O C I O - E C O N O M I C C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S C h a r a c t e r i s t i c D e g r e e s of F r e e d o m C h i S q u a r e A g e 2 10. 84 M a r i t a l Status 1 0. 27 C h i l d r e n at H o m e 1 4. 60 L e v e l of L i v i n g 2 3. 58 B i r t h p l a c e 2 19. 29 Y e a r s i n A r e a 3 19. 30 Y e a r s i n P r e s e n t H o m e 2 0. 31 R e l a t e d F a m i l i e s 2 10. 31 F a r m or N o n - F a r m 1 6. 50 P r i n c i p a l O c c u p a t i o n 2 1. 57 S e c o n d a r y O c c u p a t i o n 1 0. 11 Y e a r s in O c c u p a t i o n 1 0. 04 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n 1 0. 57 U n e m p l o y m e n t 1 1.47 T o t a l Income 3. 35 R e s p o n d e n t ' s E d u c a t i o n 1 1. 54 R e s p o n d e n t ' s T r a i n i n g 1 1. 70 W i f e ' s E d u c a t i o n 1 0. 34 W i f e ' s T r a i n i n g 1 1. 52 F a t h e r ' s E d u c a t i o n 1 6. 35 F a t h e r ' s T r a i n i n g 1 1.02 A d e q u a t e S k i l l s 1 8. 05 F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n 1 16.42 Note: T h e u n d e r l i n e d va lues a r e s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . 206 n u m b e r of re spondents (50. 0 p e r cent), p a r t i c i p a n t s (57. 1 p e r cent) and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s (48. 0 per cent) . T h e n u m b e r i n e a c h age g r o u p who p a r t i c i p a t e d d e c l i n e d f r o m 36 .4 per cent of those between 15 and 34 y e a r s to 25. 3 per cent i n the 39 to 54 y e a r g r o u p and to only 6. 5 per cent i n the 55 or o l d e r g r o u p . T h e r e was a s ign i f i cant negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n (r = - . 24)^ between age and re spondent ' s p a r t i -c i p a t i o n w h i c h f u r t h e r substant iates the t r e n d for adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n to d e c r e a s e w i th a d v a n c i n g age. It a p p e a r s , then, that the o lder r e s i d e n t s of P e m b e r t o n d id not take p a r t i n the c o u r s e s o f f ered by the n ight s c h o o l . T h e ex i s tence of a l a r g e r n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g at h o m e d id not appear to inh ib i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion . In fact , the respondents w i th m o r e c h i l d r e n at home w e r e m o r e ac t ive p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e n u m b e r of re spondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d was 16.8 per cent for those w i t h two or l e s s c h i l d r e n but i t was 31. 6 p e r cent for those w i t h three or m o r e and the d i f f erence was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant . N e i t h e r d id m o r e c h i l d r e n appear to l i m i t p a r t i c i p a t i o n by w ives s ince there was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r = . 26) 6. See A p p e n d i x O n e , T a b l e 5 for c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ients r e s p e c t i n g adult e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t i o n . 207 T A B L E 60 A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S A g e T o t a l N o . % N o n - p a r t i -c ipants N o . % P a r t i c pants N o . i -% Respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d % 15 - 34 33 20. 9 22 17. 1 12 34. 3 36 .4 35 - 54 79 50. 0 59 48. 0 20 57. 1 25. 3 55 or m o r e 46 1 29. 1 43 34 .9 3 8. 6 6. 5 T o t a l 158 100. 0 123 100. 0 35 100. 0 22. 2 Note: A c h i square value of 10. 84 was obta ined. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . between n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n l i v i n g at h o m e and wife ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adul t educat ion . T h u s , both the husbands and the w i v e s w i t h m o r e c h i l d r e n p a r t i c i p a t e d m o r e in educa t iona l a c t i v i t i e s . T h r e e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s p e r t a i n i n g to r e s i d e n c e history-showed s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f e r e n c e s i n the i r d i s t r i b u t i o n s between p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . A s i n d i c a t e d i n T a b l e 61, 58. 8 p e r cent of the respondents who w e r e b o r n i n P e m b e r t o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adul t educat ion c o m p a r e d w i t h 28. 6 per cent of those f r o m other p a r t s of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a and 13. 1 per cent of those b o r n e l s e w h e r e . 208 T A B L E 61 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C IP A N T S IN A D U L T E D U C A T I O N B Y P L A C E O F B I R T H Respondents B i r t h p l a c e T o t a l N o n - P a r t i c i p a n t s P a r t i c i p a n t s Who P a r t i c i p a -N o . % N o . % N o . % % P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y 17 10.8 11 :.5.7 10. 28 .6 58 .8 O t h e r B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 42 26 .6 30 24 .4 12 34 .3 28 .6 E l s e w h e r e 99 62 .6 86 69 .9 13 37 .1 13.1 T o t a l 158 100.0 123 100.0 35 100.0 22 .2 Note: A c h i square value of 19. 29 was obtained. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . A l t h o u g h 10. 8 per cent of the respondents w e r e b o r n i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y , this group accounted for 28. 6 p e r cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s and 5. 7 p e r cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s . In c o n t r a s t , 62. 6 per cent of the respondents were b o r n outside of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a but 37. 1 p e r cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s a n d 69. 9 p e r cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e i n this g r o u p . T h o s e b o r n i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a but not i n P e m b e r t o n accounted for 26. 6 per cent of the r e s p o n d e n t s , 24. 4 p e r cent of the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s , and 34. 3 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . 209 A n i n c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n of p a r t i c i p a t i o n was found w i t h r e s p e c t to n u m b e r of y e a r s r e s i d e n t in the a r e a . T h e highest n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s (55. 0 per cent) was i n the group who h a d spent the i r ent i re l i f e t i m e i n P e m b e r t o n but the lowes t f i g u r e (5. 3 p e r cent) was for those who had l i v e d i n the v a l l e y for seventeen or m o r e y e a r s . ( T a b l e 62). S o m e 18. 6 p e r cent of those who had l i v e d in the a r e a for f ive y e a r s or l e s s p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult educat ion as d i d 24. 6 p e r cent i n the s i x to s i x t een y e a r ca tegory . T h u s , the r e l a t i v e n e w c o m e r s and the l o n g e r - t e r m r e s i d e n t s who w e r e not b o r n i n the v a l l e y had fewer p a r t i c i p a n t s than d i d the other two g r o u p s . T h e respondents who had e s t a b l i s h e d m o r e k i n s h i p l inks i n the v a l l e y w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to be adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s as t h e r e was a s i gn i f i cant pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i o n (r - . 25) between the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . S o m e 14. 4 per cent of the respondents w i th no r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s i n P e m b e r t o n w e r e adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s as against 25. 6 per cent of those r e l a t e d to between one and five f a m i l i e s and 44. 0 per cent of those w i t h m o r e than five r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s . (Tab le 63). A l t h o u g h e a c h of these three c a t e g o r i e s conta ined a p p r o x i m a t e l y the s a m e n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s , the n u m b e r of n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s r a n g e d f r o m 62. 6 p e r cent of the g r o u p w i t h no r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s to 11 .4 per cent of those w i t h m o r e than f ive . T h e data suggest that the night s c h o o l c o u r s e of fer ings i n P e m b e r t o n m a y be in f luenced to a 210 T A B L E 62 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S IN A D U L T E D U C A T I O N B Y N U M B E R O F Y E A R S R E S I D E N T I N T H E A R E A Y e a r s R e s i d e n t T o t a l N o n - P a r t i c i -pants P a r t i c ipants Respondents Who P a r t i c i p a t e ! N o . % N o . % N o . % % 5 or l e s s 43 27. 2 35 28. 5 8 22. 9 18. 6 6 - 16 57 36. 1 43 35. 0 14 40. 0 24. 6 17 or m o r e 38 24. 1 36 29. 3 2 5. 7 5. 3 E n t i r e L i f e -t i m e 20 12. 6 9 7. 2 11 31. 4 55. 0 T o t a l 158 100. 0 123 100. 0 35 100. 0 22. 2 Note: A c h i square value of 19. 30 was obtained. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . c o n s i d e r a b l e extent by the l o n g - e s t a b l i s h e d f a m i l i e s . O n the other hand, the n e w c o m e r s to the a r e a w e r e l e s s ac t ive p a r t i c i p a n t s and they a p p e a r e d to have a c o r r e s p o n d i n g l y l e s s e r inf luence on the k i n d of c o u r s e s o f f ered . 211 T A B L E 63 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S B Y N U M B E R O F R E L A T E D F A M I L I E S L I V I N G I N P E M B E R T O N N u m b e r N o n - P a r t i - R e s p o n d e n t s Q f T o t a l c ipants P a r t i c i p a n t s Who P a r t i c i p a t e d F a m i l i e s N o - % N o - % N o > % oj0 None 90 57 .0 77 62 .6 13 37. 1 14. 4 1 i 5 43 27 .2 32 26 .0 11 31. 4 25. 6 M o r e than 5 25 15.8 14 11 .4 11 31. 4 44. 0 T o t a l 158 100.0 123 100.0 35 100.0 22 .2 Note: A c h i s q u a r e value of 10. 31 was obta ined. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 0 5 l e v e l . T h e only o c c u p a t i o n a l or i n c o m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c that d i f f eren t ia t ed the p a r t i c i p a n t s f r o m the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was the f a r m -n o n - f a r m c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . T h i r t e e n f a r m o p e r a t o r s (38. 2 per cent) c o m p a r e d w i t h twenty- two n o n - f a r m respondents (17. 7 p e r cent) had e n r o l l e d i n at l ea s t one n ight s c h o o l c o u r s e d u r i n g the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s and the d i f f erence was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant . E i g h t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of f a r m respondents i n c l u d i n g n u m b e r of a c r e s owned, 212 n u m b e r of i m p r o v e d a c r e s , n u m b e r of a n i m a l un i t s , g r o s s f a r m i n c o m e , amount of o f f - f a r m w o r k , p e r s o n a l and i m p e r s o n a l contacts w i t h the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a g r i c u l t u r e c o u r s e s w e r e s tud ied but none of t h e m d i f f erent ia ted between the f a r m respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d and those who d id not. T h u s , the nature of the a g r i c u l t u r a l oper.ation d i d not appear to in f luence the night s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a t i o n of f a r m e r s . In c o n t r a s t to p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h , ne i ther the educat ion n o r job t r a i n i n g of the husband or the wife was r e l a t e d to adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e educat ion of the fa ther , however , was a s ign i f i cant c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Some 16. 8 p e r cent of the respondents whose father had eight or l e s s y e a r s of s c h o o l c o m p l e t e d w e r e p a r t i c i p a n t s w h e r e a s 31 .6 p e r cent w i t h a father s educat ion of m o r e than eight y e a r s p a r t i c i p a t e d and the d i f f erence was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant . T h e respondents who r e p o r t e d that their s k i l l s w e r e adequate to e n s u r e s a t i s f a c t o r y e m p l o y m e n t i n the future had s i gn i f i can t ly fewer adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s (18. 4 per cent) among t h e m than d i d those who w e r e u n s a t i s f i e d w i t h t h e i r p r e s e n t s k i l l s (45. 5 p e r cent) . T h i s suggests that i n n e a r l y hal f the c a s e s , uncer ta in ty w i t h r e s p e c t to job s k i l l s h a d r e s u l t e d i n a m e l i o r a t i v e ac t ion be ing t a k e n by the r e s p o n d e n t s . S o m e 7. 1 per cent of the respondents who 213 s a i d that they d i d not want to take f u r t h e r educat ion or t r a i n i n g had taken a night s c h o o l c o u r s e but 34. 1 p e r cent of those d e s i r i n g m o r e educat ion had taken at l e a s t one c o u r s e . T h e r e w e r e s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between d e s i r e for fur ther educat ion and n u m b e r of c o u r s e s taken by the re spondent s (r - . 29) and by the wife (r =. 21). T h u s , the d e s i r e for m o r e e d u c a t i o n s e e m s to have been p a s s e d f r o m one househo ld m e m b e r to the other but the d i r e c t i o n of the m o v e m e n t was not e s t a b l i s h e d . T h e l a c k of r e l a t i o n s h i p between p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adul t educat ion and v a r i o u s educat ion , occupat ion , and i n c o m e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the P e m b e r t o n r e s i d e n t s s eems to c o n f i r m the c o n c l u s i o n r e a c h e d 7 by V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y that r u r a l c o m m u n i t i e s have l e s s c l e a r l y def ined d i s t inc t ions among people so that p a r t i c i p a t i o n c r o s s e s a l l l i n e s . In the p r e s e n t case , p e r s o n a l a n d f a m i l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s s u c h as age and n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n i n the home a n d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h r e s i d e n c e h i s t o r y and k i n s h i p t ies a p p e a r e d to be m o r e i m p o r t a n t than s o c i a l c l a s s as i n d i c a t o r s of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . S O C I A L I N T E R A C T I O N T h e respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult educat ion w e r e c o m p a r e d w i t h those who d i d not p a r t i c i p a t e on ten s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n 7. V e r n e r and N e w b e r r y , op_. c i t . , p . 211. 214 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s l i s t e d i n T a b l e 64. T h e n u l l hypothes is of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence was r e j e c t e d for two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and r o a d opin ion . T h u s , there was a s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the p a r t i c i p a n t s and the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s w i t h r e s p e c t to these two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . I n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n of the k i n d m e a s u r e d by the n e i g h b o u r i n g p r a c t i c e s s c a l e was not a s s o c i a t e d w i t h adul t educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the re spondent but t h e r e was a s ign i f i cant pos i t i ve c o r r e l a t i o n (r ; .28) between the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s for w i v e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was r e l a t e d to adul t educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n for both the respondents (r - . 22) and t h e i r w i v e s (r = . 23). S o m e 6. 3 p e r cent of the respondents who d id not take p a r t i n the a c t i v i t i e s of an o r g a n i z a t i o n p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adul t educat ion c o m p a r e d w i t h 23. 3 p e r cent i n the one to ten point c a t e g o r y and 32. 8 p e r cent w i t h e l e v e n or m o r e points on the s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c a l e . ( T a b l e 65). T h e la t t er group accounted for 4 2 . 4 p e r cent of a l l respondents but for 62. 8 p e r cent of the adul t educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s . O n the otner hand, those w i t h a z e r o s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s c o r e accounted for 30 .4 per cent of the respondents as against 8. 6 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s i n adult educat ion . 215 T A B L E 64 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S B Y S O C I A L I N T E R A C T I O N C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S C h a r a c t e r i s t i c D e g r e e s of F r e e d o m C h i Square R u r a l S a t i s f a c t i o n 1 0. 01 Comrr iun i ty S a t i s f a c t i o n 2 1. 84 D i s t a n c e T r a v e l l e d for S e r v i c e s 2 5. 89 S o c i a l D i s t a n c e 2 2. 48 N e i g h b o u r i n g P r a c t i c e s 2,. 3. 05 S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n 2 11. 50 T i m e s Outs ide V a l l e y B e f o r e R o a d 2 1. 79 T i m e s Outs ide V a l l e y N ow 2 1. 70 M o n e y spent outs ide 1 0. 68 R o a d O p i n i o n 2 14. 58 Note: T h e u n d e r l i n e d values a r e s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . 216 T A B L E 65 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N - P A R T I C I P A N T S B Y S O C I A L P A R T I C I P A T I O N S C O R E N o n - P a r t i - Respondents S o c i a l c ipants P a r t i c i p a n t s Who P a r t i c i -P a r t i c i p a t i o n T o t a l pated No. % N o . % N o . % % 0 48 3 0 . 4 ' 45 36 .6 3 8 .6 6 .3 1 - 10 43 27 .2 33 26 .8 10 28 .6 23 .3 11 or M o r e - 67 4 2 . 4 45 36 .6 22 62 .8 32 .8 T o t a l 15 258 100.0 123 100.0 35 100.0 22 .2 Note: A c h i square value of 11. 50 was obtained. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion a p p e a r e d to be a s i m i l a r p h e n o m e n o n to p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s and tnis was not unexpected . In P e m b e r t o n , p a r t i c i p a t i o n in e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e d w i t h m o r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n a l l i fe of the c o m m u n i t y . In add i t i on , the wives who w e r e m o r e ac t ive i n i n f o r m a l ne ighbourhood groups t ended to a l s o be m o r e ac t ive adult e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s but i n f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n d id not appear 217 to in f luence adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the m a l e h o u s e h o l d heads . T h e data ind icate an i n a b i l i t y on the p a r t of the night s c h o o l p r o g r a m to a t t r a c t the n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s i n f o r m a l organ iza t ions and e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s s e e m to be i n s u f f i c i e n t l y d i s t inc t ive f r o m o r g a n i z a t i o n ac t iv i t i e s to b r e a k the p a t t e r n of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e r e was some ev idence to indicate that f r e q u e n c y of use of the r o a d into the v a l l e y was r e l a t e d to adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . A s ign i f i cant negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n coef f ic ient (r = - . 17) was obta ined between the n u m b e r of t i m e s p e r y e a r the r e s p o n d e n t went outs ide the v a l l e y before the r o a d was opened and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adul t educat ion . T h i s i n d i c a t e s that the respondents who m a d e m o r e t r i p s outs ide w e r e l e s s act ive adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s and suggests that as e x p o s u r e to p a n - c o m m u n i t y in f luences i n c r e a s e d , adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n d e c r e a s e d . T h e opposite was found for the w i v e s , however , as there was a s ign i f i cant p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n (r = . 19) between n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a t i o n s i n adult educat ion by w i v e s and f r e q u e n c y of t r i p s outs ide the v a l l e y s ince the r o a d was bui l t . T h u s , the w o m e n who h a d m o r e frequent contacts w i t h the outs ide w o r l d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adul t educat ion m o r e than d i d the wives w i th fewer contacts outs ide the c o m m u n i t y . 218 T h e m o r e subject ive m e a s u r e s of r e s p o n d e n t s ' opinions r e g a r d i n g the r o a d showed an i n v e r s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h adul t educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n as there was a s ign i f i cant negative c o r r e l a t i o n (r - - . 19) between the two c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . F u r t h e r m o r e , there was a s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s by r o a d op in ion s c o r e . ( T a b l e 66). W h e r e a s 24. 7 per cent of a l l re spondents had l e s s than seventy points on the op in ion s c a l e , 48. 6 p e r cent of the adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e i n this c a t e g o r y and 8. 6 per cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s but 23. 4 per cent of the respondents had eighty or m o r e po ints . Some 8. 1 p e r cent of the la t ter g r o u p p a r t i c i p a t e d i n adult educat ion c o m p a r e d w i t h 19. 1 per cent of those between 70 and 79 points and 43. 6 p e r cent of the g r o u p l e a s t f a v o r a b l e t o w a r d the r o a d . T h e data suggest that p a r t i c i p a t i o n in adult educat ion i n c r e a s e d as s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the r o a d d e c r e a s e d . P a r t of the exp lanat ion for this m a y l ie i n the d i f f e r e n t i a l r o a d opinions of the f a r m and n o n - f a r m respondent s . T h e f a r m group w e r e l e s s f a v o r a b l e t o w a r d the r o a d and they a l so had a g r e a t e r n u m b e r of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e r e m a y be a d d i t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i c a l v a r i a b l e s supply ing the d y n a m i c s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p but s u c h f a c t o r s w e r e not s tudied . 219 T A B L E 66 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F A D U L T E D U C A T I O N P A R T I C I P A N T S A N D N O N P A R T I C I P A N T S B Y R O A D O P I N I O N S C O R E Road-O p i n i o n T o t a l N o . N o n - P a r t i c i -pants N o . « P a r t i c i - Respondents pants Who P a r t i c i -pated N o , % % L e s s than 70 39 24 .7 22 17.9 17 70 - 79 68 43. 0 55 4 4 . 7 13 80 or M o r e 37 23 .4 34 27 .6 3 48. 6 43. 6 37 .1 19.1 8. 6 8. 1 N o R e s p o n s e 14 8.9 12 9. 8 5.7 14.3 T o t a l 158 100.0 123 100.0 35 100.0 22 .2 Note: A c h i square va lue of 14. 58 was obtained. T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . L O C A L I T Y O F R E S I D E N C E T h e n u l l hypothes i s of no s ign i f i cant d i f f e r e n c e s i n adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n between r e s i d e n t s of d i f ferent l o c a l i t i e s was r e j e c t e d for p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the r e s p o n d e n t s , t h e i r w i v e s , a n d 220 by to ta l p a r t i c i p a t i o n s for the two h o u s e h o l d m e m b e r s . L o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e had d i f f e r e n t i a l effects on the p a r t i c i p a t i o n of m a l e h o u s e h o l d heads a n d t h e i r w i v e s , but i n m o s t ins tances the h ighes t n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s was f r o m the l o c a l i t y in w h i c h the n ight s c h o o l was l o c a t e d . T h e n ight s c h o o l c o u r s e s o f f ered i n the v a l l e y w e r e h e l d i n the P e m b e r t o n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l w h i c h i s s i tuated i n L o c a l i t y II, the L o w e r V a l l e y , a p p r o x i m a t e l y two m i l e s n o r t h of P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e . L o c a l i t y V w h i c h is s i tuated at the n o r t h e a s t end of the study a r e a had no adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s w h e r e a s 51 (48. 6 p e r cent) of the to ta l e n r o l l e e s in c o u r s e s o f f e r e d f r o m 1964 to 1966 r e s i d e d i n L o c a l i t y III, P e m b e r t o n V i l l a g e . (Tab le 67). T w e n t y - f o u r c o u r s e s (22. 9 p e r cent) w e r e taken by r e s i d e n t s of L o c a l i t y II c o m p a r e d w i th s ix teen (15. 2) p e r cent) i n L o c a l i t y I and f o u r t e e n (13.3 per cent) i n L o c a l i t y I V . M o r e c o u r s e s w e r e taken by r e s i d e n t s of L o c a l i t i e s II and III and fewer w e r e taken by r e s i d e n t s of the other l o c a l i t i e s than wou ld be expected by the d i s t r i b u t i o n of to ta l households and the d i f f erence was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s igni f icant . S o m e 71. 5 p e r cent of the c o u r s e s taken w e r e accounted for by the r e s i d e n t s of L o c a l i t i e s II and III w h i c h conta ined 54 .4 p e r cent of the households in the v a l l e y . 221 T A B L E 67 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T O T A L C O U R S E S T A K E N B Y H O U S E H O L D M E M B E R S B Y L O C A L I T Y G R O U P T o t a l T o t a l L o c a l i t y C o u r s e s H o u s e h o l d s N o . % N o . % I 16 15. 2 29 18. 4 II 24 22. 9 24 15. 2 in 51 48. 6 62 39. 2 I V 14 13. 3 27 17. 1 V 0 0. 0 16 10. 1 T o t a l 105 100. 0 158 100. 0 Note: A c h i square va lue of 13. 62 was obtained. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . F o u r t e e n of the t h i r t y - f i v e respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n night s c h o o l c o u r s e s (40. 0 p e r cent) l i v e d i n L o c a l i t y III as aga ins t 22. 9 p e r cent i n both L o c a l i t y I and II and 14. 2 p e r cent i n L o c a l i t y I V . ( T a b l e 68). T h e r e was a s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the d i s t r i b u t i o n of p a r t i c i p a n t s and to ta l respondents by l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e . T h e grea te s t d i s c r e p a n c i e s o c c u r r e d i n L o c a l i t y II w h i c h had 22. 9 p e r cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s but 15. 2 p e r cent of the respondents and i n 222 T A B L E 68 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F R E S P O N D E N T S W H O P A R T I C I P A T E D IN A D U L T E D U C A T I O N B Y L O C A L I T Y G R O U P P a r t i c i - T o t a l Respondent s pant s Respondent s Who P a r t i c i p a t e d L o c a l i t y N o . % N o . % % I 8 22. 9 29 18.4 27. 6 II 8 22. 9 24 15. 2 33. 3 i n 14 40. 0 62 39. 2 22. 6 I V 5 14. 2 27 17. 1 18. 5 V 0 0. 0 16 10. 1 0. 0 T o t a l 35 100. 0 158 100. 0 22. 2 * Note: A c h i square va lue of 12. 59 was obtained. T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the .05 l e v e l . L o c a l i t y V w h i c h had no p a r t i c i p a n t s but 10. 1 p e r cent of the r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e percentage of respondents who p a r t i c i p a t e d was 33. 3 p e r cent i n L o c a l i t y II, 27. 6 per cent i n L o c a l i t y I, 22. 6 p e r cent in L o c a l i t y i n , and 18. 5 per cent i n L o c a l i t y I V . 223 T h e r e w e r e m o r e m u l t i p l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n s by the respondents l i v i n g i n L o c a l i t y III than i n any other l o c a l i t y a n d this g r o u p accounts for 48. 2 p e r cent of the c o u r s e s taken by the households; heads c o m p a r e d w i t h 4 0 . 0 p e r cent of the p a r t i c i p a n t s . A s T a b l e 69 i n d i c a t e s , there w e r e a l s o m o r e c o u r s e s taken by the re spondent s who r e s i d e d i n L o c a l i t i e s I and II and fewer by the r e s i d e n t s of L o c a l i t i e s I V and V than w o u l d be expected on the b a s i s of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of re spondents by l o c a l i t y and the d i f f erence was s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant . T h u s , f r e q u e n c y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n by respondents a p p e a r e d to be i n f l u e n c e d by l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e and this was r e l a t e d to d i s tance . A s d i s tance f r o m the night s c h o o l center i n c r e a s e d , the f r e q u e n c y of p a r t i c i p a t i o n tended to d e c r e a s e . L o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e a p p e a r e d to have a s l i gh t ly g r e a t e r inf luence on p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the w ives than i t d i d for the m a l e house -h o l d heads . W h e r e a s 62 .9 per cent of the m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s l i v e d in L o c a l i t y II and ILI, the c o r r e s p o n d i n g f i gure for wives was 72. 7 p e r cent . F i v e f e m a l e p a r t i c i p a n t s (15. 2 p e r cent) l i v e d i n L o c a l i t y I V and four (12. 1 p e r cent) w e r e f r o m L o c a l i t y I. ( T a b l e 70). S o m e 33. 3 p e r cent of the w ives i n L o c a l i t y II p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n ight s c h o o l c o u r s e c o m p a r e d w i t h 25. 8 per cent i n L o c a l i t y III, 18. 5 per cent i n L o c a l i t y I V , and 13. 8 p e r cent i n L o c a l i t y I. 224 T A B L E 69 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T O T A L C O U R S E S T A K E N B Y R E S P O N D E N T S B Y L O C A L I T Y G R O U P T o t a l T o t a l L o c a l i t y C o u r s e s Respondents N o . % N o . % I 11 19. 6 29 18. 4 II 11 19. 6 24 15. 2 i n 27 48. 2 62 39. 2 I V 7 12. 5 27 17. 1 V 0 0. 0 16 10. 1 T o t a l 56 100. 0 158 100. 0 Note: A c h i square value of 12. 27 was obtained. T h i s i s significant at the . 05 l e v e l . A n a n a l y s i s of to ta l c o u r s e s taken by the w ives i n d i c a t e d that l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e i n f l u e n c e d m u l t i p l e p a r t i c i p a t i o n to only a s l ight extent. (Tab le 71). L o c a l i t i e s II and III, wh i l e account ing for 72. 7 p e r cent of the wives who p a r t i c i p a t e d , conta ined 75. 5 p e r cent of the to ta l c o u r s e s taken by w i v e s . 225 T A B L E 70 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F W I V E S W H O P A R T I C I P A T E D IN A D U L T E D U C A T I O N B Y L O C A L I T Y G R O U P P a r t i c i - T o t a l W i v e s Who pant; s R e spondents P a r t i c i p a t e d L o c a l i t y N o . % N o . % % I 4 12. 1 29 18 .4 13. 8 II 8 24. 2 24 15. 2 33. 3 III 16 48. 5 62 39. 2 25. 8 I V 5 15. 2 27 17. 1 18. 5 V 0 0. 0 16 10. 1 0. 0 T o t a l 33 100. 0 158 100. 0 20. 9 Note: A c h i square value of 14. 53 was obta ined. T h i s i s s i gn i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . O n the other hand, the tota l c o u r s e s taken by the w ives i n L o c a l i t i e s I and I V w e r e s l i g h t l y l e s s than the f i gures for the n u m b e r of w ives who p a r t i c i p a t e d . In g e n e r a l , the data ind ica te that the n u m b e r of r e s i d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n night s c h o o l c o u r s e s d e c r e a s e d i n s u c c e s s i v e l o c a l i t i e s 226 T A B L E 71 P E R C E N T A G E D I S T R I B U T I O N O F T O T A L C O U R S E S T A K E N B Y W I V E S B Y L O C A L I T Y G R O U P T o t a l T o t a l L o c a l i t y C o u r s e s Respondents N o . % N o . % I 5 1.0. 2 29 18.4 II 13 26. 5 24 15. 2 III 24 49. 0 62 39. 2 I V 7 14. 3 27 17. 1 V 0 0. 0 16 10. 1 T o t a l 49 100. 0 158 100. 0 Note: A c h i square value of 17. 14 was obtained. T h i s i s s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . away f r o m the one in w h i c h the night s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d . O n l y at the e x t r e m e e a s t e r n end of the v a l l e y i n L o c a l i t y V was d i s tance s u c h a b a r r i e r as to c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o u r a g e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion . T h i s was a l s o found i n the a n a l y s i s of v i s i t i n g p a t t e r n s , thus , the B i r k e n - D ' A r c y a r e a a p p e a r s to be a d i s t inc t s o c i a l unit hav ing few contacts w i t h the r e s t of the P e m b e r t o n populat ion . T h e respondents 227 s e e m e d to be m o r e w i l l i n g to t r a v e l f r o m the r e s i d e n c e l o c a l i t i e s at i n t e r m e d i a t e d i s tances f r o m the n ight s c h o o l center than w e r e the w i v e s . T h i s i s b o r n e out by the s ign i f i cant negat ive c o r r e l a t i o n (r = - . 1 9 ) between p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the wife and dis tance t r a v e l l e d for e s s e n t i a l goods and s e r v i c e s w h e r e a s d is tance and adul t educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n d i d not show a s ign i f i cant a s s o c i a t i o n for the r e s p o n d e n t s . S U M M A R Y D e s p i t e the l i m i t e d n u m b e r of night s c h o o l c o u r s e s o f f ered i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y , m o r e than one- f i f th of the re spondent s had taken a c o u r s e i n the three y e a r s p r e c e d i n g the study. M o r e than half , h o w e v e r , s a i d that they wanted to take f u r t h e r educat ion or job t r a i n i n g . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion a p p e a r e d not to be i n f l u e n c e d by s o c i o -e c o n o m i c status but age, r e s i d e n c e h i s t o r y , s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n , and l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e w e r e a l l r e l a t e d to adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T h e younger respondents and the longer e s t a b l i s h e d v a l l e y f a m i l i e s w e r e m o r e act ive adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s as w e r e those who l i v e d c l o s e r to the n ight s c h o o l center and who p a r t i c i p a t e d m o r e i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s . 228 C H A P T E R N I N E S U M M A R Y S y s t e m a t i c adul t educat ion is g e n e r a l l y c a r r i e d on w i t h i n a c o m m u n i t y set t ing , t h e r e f o r e , a t h o r o u g h knowledge of the corrrmunity and its r e s i d e n t s i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e for p r o g r a m p l a n n i n g and eva luat ion . T h i s a n a l y t i c a l s u r v e y of the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a has p r e s e n t e d a s o c i a l and e c o n o m i c study of a n i s o l a t e d r u r a l c o m m u n i t y and then r e l a t e d these data to adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n . T H E C O M M U N I T Y A N D I T S R E S I D E N T S One h u n d r e d f i f ty -e ight n o n - I n d i a n h o u s e h o l d heads r e s i d i n g i n the P e m b e r t o n V a l l e y w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d i n A u g u s t , 1966. T h i r t y - f o u r respondents (21. 5 per cent) w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as f a r m o p e r a t o r s whi l e the r e m a i n d e r d i d not have sa les of a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s exceed ing $250 per y e a r a n d w e r e c l a s s i f i e d as n o n - f a r m r e s i d e n t s . In g e n e r a l , the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the respondents w e r e not 229 unlike those of residents in other rural areas of the province. There were some differences between the Pemberton population and that of rural B r i t i s h Columbia as a whole and between the farm and non-farm residents of Pemberton. The median age of the household heads was in the 45 to 54 year category but the farm group was significantly older than the non-farm respondents. Four-fifths of the non-Indian respondents were married and had an average of 2. 6 children. The farm group contained a larger number of immigrants than did the non-farm and they tended to be more stable with respect to house occupancy. Children who left the parental residence were more likely to move away from Pemberton than to stay in the valley. Seven per cent of the non-Indian respondents were classed as functional illiterates. The farm respondents had a median of five to eight years of school completed compared with nine to eleven years for the non-farm household heads. The educational, achievement of the farmers was lower than that of their fathers which is contrary, to the usual trend. The non-farm respondents, on the otner hand, showed a substantial increase in education in comparison with their fathers. More farm than non-farm respondents reported receiving vocational training and more farm children had completed Grade Twelve. 230 T h e m o s t f requent ly r e p o r t e d p r i n c i p a l job of the n o n -f a r m respondents was that of m a n a g e r of a s m a l l b u s i n e s s and this was f o l l o w e d by logg ing , equ ipment o p e r a t i o n , and r o a d t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o p e r a t i o n . N e a r l y o n e - t h i r d h a d a s e c o n d job w h i c h is i n d i c a t i v e of the m a r g i n a l na ture of o c c u p a t i o n a l s k i l l s and e m p l o y m e n t p o s s i b i l i t i e s . T h i r t e e n f a r m respondents (38. 2 per cent) d i d no o f f - f a r m w o r k whi l e those who d i d tended to w o r k i n s i m i l a r k inds of jobs to those r e p o r t e d by the n o n - f a r m r e s p o n d e n t s . T h e p r e v i o u s jobs r e p o r t e d by both groups w e r e p r i m a r i l y i n u n s k i l l e d and s e m i - s k i l l e d occupat ions s u c h as l ogg ing , c a r p e n t r y , and equ ipment o p e r a t i o n . N o n - f a r m f a m i l i e s a v e r a g e d $5, 992 in to ta l i n c o m e for the y e a r 1965 a.nd 16. 8 p e r cent r e c e i v e d l e s s than $3, 000. T h e low i n c o m e respondent s tended to be o l d e r , to have l i v e d i n the a r e a l o n g e r , to have l e s s educat ion , and to l i ve a lone . F a r m f a m i l i e s r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e to ta l i n c o m e of $4, 90 5 a n d 23. 5 per cent w e r e i n the low i n c o m e group . T h e m e d i a n g r o s s f a r m i n c o m e was i n the $2, 500 to $3 ,499 c l a s s whi l e the m e d i a n net was between $500 and $999. T h e p r i n c i p a l a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s s o l d by the P e m b e r t o n f a r m e r s w e r e beef catt le and potatoes . T h e respondents w e r e g e n e r a l l y sa t i s f i ed w i t h l i v i n g i n a r u r a l a r e a and- in the P e m b e r t o n c o m m u n i t y . I n f o r m a l v i s i t i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p s a p p e a r e d to be i n f l u e n c e d m o r e by geographic l o c a l i t y 231 of r e s i d e n c e than by k i n s h i p t i e s , despite the fact that the re spondent s r e p o r t e d an a v e r a g e of 3. 5 r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n the a r e a . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s was somewhat h igher than is u s u a l l y found i n r u r a l a r e a s a n d the f a r m respondents tended to be m o r e ac t ive i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s than the n o n - f a r m h o u s e h o l d heads . T h e r e c e n t l y c o m p l e t e d r o a d into the v a l l e y has g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d the n u m b e r of contacts that the r e s i d e n t s have w i t h the outs ide w o r l d and the re spondent s g e n e r a l l y felt that the r o a d was a good thing for P e m b e r t o n . A s a m p l e c o n s i s t i n g of t h i r t y - t w o nat ive Indian h o u s e h o l d heads was i n t e r v i e w e d for c o m p a r a t i v e p u r p o s e s . T h e s e respondents had l a r g e r f a m i l i e s and p o o r e r l i v i n g condi t ions than the non-Indians and they had e x p e r i e n c e d e x t r e m e l y l i m i t e d geograph ic m o b i l i t y . T h e Indians tended to lag b e h i n d i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c h i e v e m e n t and job t r a i n i n g , consequent ly , they w e r e m a r g i n a l i n the l a b o u r f o r c e and t h e i r m e d i a n f a m i l y i n c o m e was $3, 250. M o s t of the Indian i n f o r m a l and f o r m a l s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o c c u r r e d w i t h other r e s i d e n t s on the M o u n t C u r r i e R e s e r v e . A D U L T E D U C A T I O N T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s y s t e m a t i c adult educat ion i n 232 P e m b e r t o n has b e e n h a m p e r e d by the r e l a t i v e l y s m a l l popu la t ion of the a r e a . T w e n t y - t h r e e night s c h o o l c o u r s e s w e r e o f f e r e d between 1964 and 1966 and these e n r o l l e d a to ta l of 352 p a r t i c i p a n t s . A l t h o u g h the e n r o l l m e n t i n 1966 was m o r e than double that of 1964, m u c h of the i n c r e a s e m a y be a t t r ibuted to the i n t r o d u c t i o n of Indians to the night s c h o o l p r o g r a m in 1965. T h e c o u r s e s o f fered w e r e m a i n l y i n v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , d o m e s t i c s c i e n c e s , a n d r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . M o r e than ha l f of the n o n - I n d i a n respondents r e p o r t e d that they wanted to take f u r t h e r educat ion or job t r a i n i n g , but the n ight s c h o o l c o u r s e s that had been o f f e r e d had l i t t le r e l a t i o n s h i p to the needs e x p r e s s e d . A p a r t f r o m the night s c h o o l p r o g r a m , the only other o r g a n i z e d adul t educat ion i n the a r e a c o n s i s t e d of s p e c i a l i z e d a g r i c u l t u r e p r o g r a m s . S e v e n f a r m e r s w e r e e n r o l l e d i n a F a r m B u s i n e s s M a n a g e m e n t c o u r s e and n e a r l y ha l f of the f a r m respondents h a d attended meet ings or f i e l d days i n the p r e v i o u s y e a r . T h e f a r m e r s tended to use p e r s o n a l s o u r c e s of a g r i c u l t u r a l J i n f o r m a t i o n m o r e often than they u s e d i m p e r s o n a l s o u r c e s . A m a t c h i n g of night s c h o o l r e g i s t r a t i o n f o r m s w i t h the i n t e r v i e w schedules i n d i c a t e d that 22. 2 per cent of the non- Ind ian re spondent s and 26 .2 p e r cent of the w ives h a d taken a c o u r s e between 1964 and 1966. In the m a j o r i t y of c a s e s only one c o u r s e had been 233 taken but 40. 0 p e r cent of the respondents and 36. 4 p e r cent of the w ives who h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d took two or m o r e c o u r s e s . F i f t y households (31 .6 per cent) had at l e a s t one night s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a n t . T h e n u l l hypothes i s of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was r e j e c t e d for nine c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s i n c l u d i n g age, n u m b e r of c h i l d r e n at h o m e , b i r t h p l a c e , n u m b e r of y e a r s i n the a r e a , n u m b e r of r e l a t e d f a m i l i e s l i v i n g i n P e m b e r t o n , f a r m or n o n - f a r m r e s i d e n t , fa ther ' s educat ion , p e r c e i v e d adequacy of s k i l l s , and d e s i r e for fur ther educat ion . In g e n e r a l , the younger respondents and those w i t h m o r e c h i l d r e n w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to be adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a n t s . T h e f a r m popula t ion had m o r e p a r t i c i p a n t s than the n o n - f a r m and the respondents whose fa thers had m o r e educat ion w e r e m o r e l i k e l y to be night s c h o o l p a r t i c i p a n t s . U n c e r t a i n t y w i t h r e s p e c t to the adequacy of p r e s e n t job s k i l l s and the d e s i r e to take m o r e educat ion or job t r a i n i n g w e r e a l so i n d i c a t i v e of m o r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adul t educat ion . T h e respondents who w e r e b o r n i n P e m b e r t o n , had l i v e d there for t h e i r ent i re lifeti-rne, and h a d m o r e k i n s h i p t ies h a d h igher adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n rates than the newer r e s i d e n t s who c a m e to the v a l l e y f r o m other a r e a s . T h e n u l l hypothes i s of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence between the s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of adult educat ion 234 p a r t i c i p a n t s and n o n - p a r t i c i p a n t s was r e j e c t e d i n two c a s e s . T h e respondents who w e r e m o r e ac t ive p a r t i c i p a n t s i n f o r m a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s w e r e a l s o m o r e ac t ive adult e d u c a t i o n p a r t i c i p a n t s and this was not unexpected as the two p h e n o m e n a a r e s i m i l a r i n na ture . A l e s s f a v o r a b l e op in ion r e g a r d i n g the r o a d was a l so a s s o c i a t e d w i t h m o r e p a r t i c i p a t i o n . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n adult educat ion a p p e a r e d to be r e l a t e d to l o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e . In g e n e r a l , the n u m b e r of p a r t i c i p a n t s d e c r e a s e d as d i s tance f r o m the night s c h o o l center i n c r e a s e d unt i l there was no p a r t i c i p a n t s f r o m the e x t r e m e e a s t e r n l o c a l i t y of the a r e a s tudied . L o c a l i t y of r e s i d e n c e a p p e a r e d to be a g r e a t e r l i m i t i n g fac tor on p a r t i c i p a t i o n by the wife than by the husband. T h u s , the n u l l hypothes i s of no s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant d i f f erence i n adult educat ion p a r t i c i p a t i o n between r e s i d e n t s of d i f ferent l o c a l i t i e s i n the s a m e c o m m u n i t y was r e j e c t e d . 235 C O N C L U S I O N In g e n e r a l , the f indings of this study a r e cons i s t en t w i t h those of p r e v i o u s r e s e a r c h on adult p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P e m b e r t o n was. d i s t r i b u t e d w i d e l y throughout the popula t ion but c e r t a i n c a t e g o r i e s of people w e r e l e s s l i k e l y than others to p a r t i c i p a t e . T h i s suggests the need for cont inuous study of c o m m u n i t y by adul t educa tors i n o r d e r to evaluate the e f fect iveness of t h e i r p r o g r a m s i n r e a c h i n g v a r i o u s segments of the popula t ion . Studies fo l l owing a s y s t e m a t i c p r o c e d u r e s u c h as the one r e p o r t e d h e r e a r e u s e f u l i n this r e g a r d . T h e study of c o m m u n i t y can a l s o be a u s e f u l a i d i n i m p r o v i n g p r o g r a m p lanning p r a c t i c e s . In P e m b e r t o n , the c o u r s e s that had been o f f ered b o r e l i t t le r e l a t i o n s h i p to the needs e x p r e s s e d by the r e s i d e n t s . In add i t i on , c e r t a i n a r e a s i n the c o m m u n i t y s t r u c t u r e w e r e r e v e a l e d w h e r e educa t iona l p r o g r a m s m i g h t be he lp fu l in i m p r o v i n g e c o n o m i c cond i t i ons . M a n y of the r e t a i l b u s i n e s s m e n , for e x a m p l e , l a c k e d t r a i n i n g i n m a n a g e m e n t s k i l l s . 236 A detailed examination of community would enable adult education administrators to use more effectively the existing patterns of social organization for developing educational programs. In the present case, much of the social interaction observed occurred among residents of the same locality. This indicates a need to decentralize adult education courses so that distance to the night school center w i l l not limit participation to such a degree as occured in Pemberton. When a population is widely dispersed, additional facilities and alternative methods of organizing for adult education would enhance the possibility of participation by more community residents. 237 B I B L I O G R A P H Y A . G E N E R A L A l e x a n d e r , F . D . "The P r o b l e m of L o c a l i t y - G r o u p C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . : ' R u r a l S o c i o l o g y , 17: 236-244, (September , 1952). A l e x a n d e r , F . D . and C . F . K r a e n z e l . R u r a l S o c i a l O r g a n i z a t i o n  of Sweet G r a s s C o u n t y , M o n t a n a . B o z e m a n , M o n t a n a : M o n t a n a State C o l l e g e A . E . S. , 1953, ( B u l l e t i n 490). A l l i n , J . S. "The R o l e of A g r i c u l t u r a l E x t e n s i o n in the E d u c a t i o n of R u r a l A d u l t s . i ; J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n of the F a c u l t y  of E d u c a t i o n , 10: 36-47, ( A p r i l , 1964). B l a c k w e l l , G . 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S o c i o -E c o n o m i c S u r v e y of the P r i n c e G e o r g e S p e c i a l Sa les A r e a  i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1967. V e r n e r , C o o l i e , G a r y D i c k i n s o n , and E . P a t r i c k A l l e y n e . A S o c i o -E c o n o m i c S u r v e y of the E a s t K o o t e n a y A r e a i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : F a c u l t y of E d u c a t i o n , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1968. 243 A P P E N D I X O N E T A B L E P A G E 1 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s for A l l N o n -Indian Respondents 244 2 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s for N o n - I n d i a n F a r m Respondents 246 3 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s for F a r m e r s ' U s e of I n f o r m a t i o n S o u r c e s 248 4 C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s for N a t i v e Indian Respondents 249 5 A d u l t E d u c a t i o n C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s for N o n - I n d i a n Respondents 251 Note: U n d e r l i n e d values i n the fo l lowing tables a r e s t a t i s t i c a l l y s ign i f i cant at the . 05 l e v e l . 244 1 2 3 4 5 1. 1.00 2. .15 1.00 3. - .15 .31 1.00 4. .00 .06 - .03 1.00 5. - .12 .37 .11 - .03 1.00 6. .21 ** • 2 2 - .23 - .08 .01 7. .45 - .28 - .23 - .04 .00 8. - .04 - .09 .18 - .12 .05 9. - .19 .49 .52 - .03 .27 10. .01 .25 .31 .03 .21 11. ^.40 .19 .19 .05 .08 12. .11 .09 .09 .03 .09 13. .05 - .17 .01 .07 - .02 14. .15 - .01 .00 .04 .03 15. - .23 .13 .22 .09 .09 16. .17 .06 .19 .08 .03 17. - .38 - .09 - .02 - .05 .03 18. - .08 .12 _126 .10 .10 19. .11 - .20 - .07 .05 .13 20. - .07 .01 .01 - .08 .12 21. - .10 - .08 .07 . 16 .05 22. -.01 - .06 - .07 .00 - .16 23. .11 - .02 .02 .15 .01 24. - .06 .13 .09 - .04 - .11 APPENDIX ONE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR 6 7 8 9 10 11 1.00 .59 1.00 - .16 - .09 1.00 - .14 - . 15 - .08 1.00 • <* - .04 - .09 .00 .37 1.00 - . 25 - .28 - .01 .27 .23 1.00 .18 .07 - .08 .09 .16 .15 .12 .16 - .03 .00 .11 - . 05 .19 .40 -.01 .14 .06 .10 - .05 .01 - .15 . 35 .15 .48 .05 .06 - .05 .16 .17 - .06 .11 .15 .11 - .13 .06 - . 30 - .01 .07 - .13 .35 .21 .3,7 .26 .46 .05 - .14 - .05 .02 i .39 .27 - .10 .13 - . 0 5 - .03 .07 - .09 - .13 .18 .25 .31 - .12 - .03 - .14 - .05 - .01 - .12 I . 18 .07 .12 .00 .15 1 .05 - .21 - .38 - .03 .05 .04 - .01 245 T A B L E 1 A L L NON-INDIAN RESPONDENTS 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 List of Factors : - -21 Factor 1.00 .11 - .02 .00 .14 .12 .07 - .10 .10 .41 -.07 . 16 .05 1.00 -.06 -.01 .06 -.03 .00 .13 .15 .09 .08 - .10 1.00 .30 -.14 -.08 .23 .38. .10 .00 -.06 .12 -.16 1.00 .06 -.26 .92 .12 .08 .14 -.06 ,00 -.02 1.00 .08 1.00 .35 .01 1.00 - .05 .01 .11 -.02 -.09 .05 .02 -.06 .12 -.02 .01 -.06 .12 .05 .05 .15 .07 .04 22 23 Description 24 1. Age 2. Husband's Education 3. Wife's Education 4. Number of Children 5. Father's Education 6. Years in the Area 7. Years in Present Home 8. Distance Travel led 9. Level of Living 10. Social Participation 11. Job Satisfaction 12. Community Satisfaction 13. Rural Attitude 14. Years in Occupation 15. Net Income from Jobs 16. Dependents' Income 17. Miscellaneous Income 18. Total Income 19. Acres Owned 20. Number of Related Fami l : 21. Neighbouring Practices 22. Attitude Toward Indians 23. Road Attitude 24. Present Land Use Intensi l.OO .13 1.00. -.08 .12 1.00 - .15 -.09 -.12 1.00 .06 .05 .07 -.16 - .55 -.24 .05 .20 1.00 -.02 1.00 246 APPENDIX ONE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. 1.00 2. .14 1.00 3. .33 -.37 1.00 4. -.25 .47 ' -.14 1.00 • 5. .02 .41 -.19 .30 1.00 6. .28 .62 -.23 .41 .19 1.00 7. .20 .33 .05 .18 -.04 .16 1.00 8. .30 -.25 .42 -.15 -.06 -.00 .11 1.00 9. .59 -.21 .78 -.12 -.13 -.02 .07 .62 1.00 10. .46 .02 .36 -.09 .11 .17 .12 .25 .44 1.00 11. .10 -.14 .29 -.41 -.25 .03 -.22 .22 .24 .26 12. .16 .03 .21 -.04 -.12 _J34 -.26 .20 .11 .03 13. .09 .15 .21 .12 .14 .35 -.04 .31 .13 -.10 14. .15 -.17 .36 .13 -.15 .23 .08 .36 .31 i .21 15. .24 -.20 . 33 .09 -.15 .19 .08 .34 .32 .11 16. -.21 .41 -.31 .16 .22 .17 .26 -.27 -.36 .22 17. -.21 .44 -.38 .31 .08 .23 .24 -.32 -.45 .2 1 18. .01 .19 .01 -.06 -.04 .28 -.30 -.08 -.07 .1 1 19. .18 -.17 .23 -.14 .01 .22 -.20 .31 .16 .1 2 20. .00 .40 -.14 .37 .18 .30 .32 -.11 -.22 .3,6 21. .16 .12 -.11 -.21 .14 -.02 -.00 -.11 .00 . 14 247 T A B L E 2 NON-INDIAN F A R M R E S P O N D E N T S 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 . 20 21 L i s t of Factors: No. Description 1 Age 2 Husband's Education 3 Years in the A r e a 4 . Leve l of L iv ing 5 Social Participation 6 job Satisfaction 7 Community Satisfaction 8 Years in Agricul ture 9 Years on Present F a r m 10 Tenure 11 Tota l Size of F a r m 12 Improved A c r e s 13 A n i m a l Units 14 Gross F a r m Income 1.00 15 Net F a r m Income .59 1.00 16 Amount of Of f - farm "Wor 17 Off - farm Income .31 .61 1.00 18 Estimated F a r m Value .41 .60 .62 1.00 19 Hired Labour Used 20 Tota l Income .18 .46 .88 , 1.00 21 Land Use Intensity - .23 - .25 - .31 - . 45 - .55 1.00 - .18 - .09 - .23 - .32 - .43 .79 1.00 .78 .77 .41 .43 .20 . - .05 .05 1.00 .26 .50 .32 .54 .59 - .28 - .24 .29 1.00 .01 .15 .06 .14 .04 .55 .79 .23 .03 1.00 .16 - .30 - .13 - .24 - .31 .01 .15 - .02 - .27 .02 1.00 A P P E N D I X O N E , T A B L E 3 C O R R E L A T I O N C O E F F I C I E N T S F O R F A R M E R S ' U S E O F I N F O R M A T I O N S O U R C E S Extension Techniques Knowledge V i s i t s Phone Vis i t s F i e l d M a i l f r o m D . A . D . A . of D . A . to D . A . Ca l l s by D . A . Days D . A . • Radio Newspaper to D . A . T a l k s A r t i c l e s Knowledge of D . A . 1.00 Vis i ts to D . A . .15 1.00 Phone Ca l l s to D . A . .16 .54 1.00 Vis i ts by D . A . . .33 .33 .39 1.00 D . A . Meetings .40 .03 - . 0 5 . .42 1.00 D . A . M a i l .23 - . 07 .13 .40 .36 1.00 F a r m Radio - .17 .00 - . 1 0 .25 .23 .31 .1.00 F a r m Newspapers .16 - .11 .05 .13 .16 .28 .13 1.00 Husband's Education .36 - . 0 5 .02 - . 0 5 .12 • .32 .23 .09 Years in the A r e a - .02 - .02 - .18 - .04 .03 - . 1 5 - . 2 6 ; . l l Social Participation .25 .25 .57 • .07 - .16 .19 - . 2 0 .04 [ob Satisfaction .51 .06 .16 .15 .27 .24 .00 - . 0 5 Years in A g r i c u l t u r e .20 . - . 1 5 - . 11 .20 .34 - .18 - . 1 3 .15 Years on Present F a r m .14 .01 - . 09 - . 0 5 : .13 - .16 - . 2 6 .25 Tenure .30 - . 14 - . 12 - .28 - .02 . - . 21 . - . 8 5 .12 Total A c r e s .09 - . 26 - . 18 - .03 .00 - .06 - . 1 5 . .04 •Improved A c r e s .34 - . 1 5 - . 08 .10 .10 . - . 04 .04 - .01 F a r m Value .28 - . 1 6 - . 08 .03 .02 . 14 - . 0 1 .08 :iired Labour Used . 15 .15 .23 .46 .26 .18 - . 1 5 .07 249 \ APPENDIX ONE CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. 1.00 2. - .83 1.00 3. ^ 5 6 .75 1.00 4. .04 .05 .03 1.00 5. .35 - .38 - .16 .40 1.00 6. - .28 .46 .45 - .24 - .40 . 1.00 7. - . 43 : .35 .35 .29 .16 .15 1.00 8. .49" - .51 -^55 - .17 • .03 • 04 - .06 1.00\ 9. .07 .10 .15 - .10 - .00 .12 - .36 - .11 1.00 10. - .11 .25 .23 .13 .03 - . 13 .03 - .07 .40 11. - . 05 .10 .10 .42 .18 - .04 .11 .04 .15 12. - .36 .30 .30 .26 .06 - .12 .07 - .44 .20 13. .02 - .23 - .27 .19 .28 - .42 - .28 — ,22 .11 14. .06 - .09 .14 .01 .18 .16 .21 .20 - .04 15. .29 - .36 - .33 - .29 .10 - .28 - .50 .10 .22 16. - .44 .39 .26 - . 00 .03 - .06 .21 - .24 .03 17. .16 - .06 - .02 - .18 - .46 .17 - .36 - .08 .18 18. .36 - .27 • 14 .10 .38 - .03 - .01 .02 - .04 19. - .34 .33 .32 - .01 .07 - .04 .16 - .27 .06 20. .03 - .01 - .15 .03 .23 - .14 - . 15 .04 .24 250 T A B L E 4 F O R N A T I V E INDIAN R E S P O N D E N T S 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Lis t of F a c t o r s : - -1.00 .45 1.00 f .55 .30 1.00 .22 .10 _._48 1.00 .06 - .26 - .16 - .30 1.00 - .02 - .07 .08 .31 - .44 1.00 .24 .23 .43 .16 - .12 - .04 1.00 .19 .21 .21 .06 - .14 .20 - .12 - .11 - .31 - .31 - .02 .18 .06 - .32 .26 .41 .41 .18 - .11 .01 .95 .04 .21 .21 .04 - .24 .30 .14 17 18 19 20 No. Descript ion 1 Age 2 Husband's Education 3 Wife's Education 4 Adult Education 5 Number of Chi ldren 6 Father's Education 7 Years in the A r e a 8 Y e a r s in Present Home 9 Distance Trave l l ed 10 Leve l of L iv ing 11 Social Participation 12 Job Satisfaction 13 Community Satisfaction 14 R u r a l Attitude 15 Years in Present job 16 Net Income from Jobs 17 Dependents' Income 18 Miscellaneous Income 19 T o t a l Income 20 Size of Holding 1.00 - .11 1.00 .02 - .06 1.00 - .09 - .13 .10 1.00 2 5 1 ; APPENDIX ONE TABLE 5 ADULT EDUCATION CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS FOR NON-INDIAN RESPONDENTS Husband's A.E. Wife' s A.E. Household A.E. Husband's A.E. 1.00 W i f e ' s A.E. .36 1.00 Household A.E. .84 .81 1.00 Age -.24 -.21 -.27 Husband's E d u c a t i o n *. 04" .07" .07 Husband's T r a i n i n g -.10 .11 -.01 Wife 's E d u c a t i o n .01 .04 .03 W i f e ' s T r a i n i n g .02 -.11 -.05 C h i l d r e n a t Home .15 .26 .25 F a t h e r ' s E d u c a t i o n .15 .02 .11 F a t h e r ' s T r a i n i n g -.14 -.03 -.10 Years i n Area .12 .07 .11 Years i n Home .04 -.05 .00 D i s t a n c e T r a v e l l e d -.12 -.19 -.19 L e v e l of L i v i n g .08 .14 .13 " S o c i a l P a r t i c i p a t i o n .22 .23 .27 Job S a t i s f a c t i o n .02 .12 .08 Community S a t i s f a c t i o n -.02 .08 .04 R u r a l S a t i s f a c t i o n -.05 -.11 -.10 Times Out B e f o r e -.17 .04 -.09 Times Out Now .04 .19 .14 More Money Out .13 .06 .11 R e l a t e d F a m i l i e s .25 .08 .21 N e i g h b o u r i n g Score .09 .28 .22 I n d i a n A t t i t u d e -.06 .07 .01 Road A t t i t u d e -.19 -.02 -.13 P r i n c i p a l O c c u p a t i o n -.07 .05 -.01 Secondary O c c u p a t i o n -.18 .01 -.10 Years i n O c c u p a t i o n -.03 . 06 .01 T o t a l Income .13 .21 .21 Unemployment -.11 -.04 -.09 Adequate S k i l l s .09 .16 .15 F u r t h e r E d u c a t i o n .29 .21 .31 252 A P P E N D I X T W O S C H E D U L E P A G E A S t a n d a r d S o c i a l Interv iew Schedule 253 B S u p p l e m e n t a r y S o c i a l Interv iew Schedule 264 C F a r m E c o n o m i c Interv iew Schedule 274 D N o n - F a r m E c o n o m i c Interv iew Schedule 28 6 E O r g a n i z a t i o n Interv iew Schedule 291 F B u s i n e s s Interv iew Schedule 299 253 STANDARD SOCIAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name: Address: ' Telephone Number: Enumerator: Record of V i s i t s : Date Time Comments Fir s t Second Third Respondent's Number (Interviewer omit) 1,3. Data Card Number 4. 1. What i s your marital status? 1. single 5. 1 2. married 2 3. widowed, divorced, or separated 3 2. What is your age? 1. 15-24 6. 1 2. 25 - 34 2 3. 3 5-44 3 4. 45-54 4 5. 55-64 5 6. 65 or over 6 3. What was the highest year you completed in school? 1. less than 5 7. 1 2. 5 - 9 2 3. 9 - 1 1 3 4. 12 4 5. some university 5 6. university degree 6 7; university graduate work 7 254 2. a. Did you have any training after you l e f t school? If yes, where did you obtain this training? 1. no other training 8. 1 2. technical or trade school 2 3. apprenticeship 3 4. ar t i c l i n g t 5. on-the-job 5 6. other (specify) • 6 b. What were you trained in? 9,11. 5. What was the highest year your wife completed in school? 1. less than 5 12. 1 2. 5 - 8 2 3. 9 - 11 3 4. 12 4 5. some university 5 6. university degree 6 7. university graduate work 7 6. Did your wife have any other training after she l e f t school? If yes, specify the nature of the other training. 1. no other training 13. 1 2. technical school or trade school 2 3. apprenticeship 3 4. a r t i c l i n g M-5. other (specify) . - • 5 7. Have you taken any adult education courses in the last three years? By adult education I mean a night school course, agriculture refresher course, and so on. 1. yes lit. 1 2. no 2 8. How many children do you have? 1. 0 2. 1 3. 2 i*. 3 5. M-6. 5 7. 6 or more 15. 1 2 3 5 6 7 255 3. 9. How many of your children are s t i l l in school? 1. 0 16. 1 2. 1 2 3. 2 3 4. 3 4 5. 4 5 6. 5 6 7. 6 or more 7 10. How many of your children have completed Grade 12? 1. 0 17. 1 2. 1 2 •3. 2 3 4. 3 M-5. 4 5 6. 5 6 7. 6 or more 7 11. How many of your children who have l e f t school did not complete Grade 12? 1. 0 18. 1 2. 1 2 3. 2 3 4. 3 4-5. M- 5 6. 5 6 7. 6 or more 7 12. How many of your children are l i v i n g at home? 1. 0 19. 1 2. 1 2 3. 2 3 4. 3 4 5. 4 5 6. 5 6 7. 6 or more 7 13. How many of your children are not l i v i n g at home but are s t i l l l i v i n g in this area? 1. 0 20. 1 2. 1 2 3. 2 3 4. 3 ij. 5. 4 5 6. 5 6 7. 6 or more 7 256 4. 14. How many of your children are not l i v i n g at home and have moved to another area? 1. 0 21. 1 2. 1 2 3. 2 3 4. 3 4 5. M- 5 6. 5 6 7. 6 or more 7 15. What was your father's occupation? . 22. 23. 2M, 16. How many years of school did your father complete? 1. don't know 25. 1 2. less than 5 years 2 3. 5 - 8 3 i*. 9 - 11 4 5. 12 5 6. some university 6 7. university degree 7 8. university graduate work 8 17. Did your father have any other training after he l e f t school? If yes, specify the nature of the other training. 1. don't know 26, l 2. no other training 2 3. technical or trade school 3 apprenticeship 4 5. a r t i c l i n g 5 6. other (specify) 6 18. Where were you born? 1. this area 27. 1 2. British Columbia 2 3. Canada 3 4. united States 5. United Kingdom 5 6. Western Europe 6 7. Eastern Europe 7 8. Orient 8 9. Other (specify) 9 257 5. 19. How long have you lived in this area? 1. less than 2 years 28. 1 2. 3 - 5 years 2 3. 6-10 years 3 4. 11 - 16 years M-5. 17 - 20 years 5 6. more than 20 years 6 7. entire lifetime 7 20. How long have you lived in your present home? 1. less than 2 years 29. 1 2. 3 - 5 years 2 3. 6-10 years 3 4. 11 - 15 years 4 5. 16 - 20 years 5 6. more than 20 years 6 7. entire lifetime 7 21. Where did you li v e before coming to this area? 1. not applicable (lived in area for lifetime) 30. 1 2. Brit i s h Columbia 2 3. Canada 3 4. United States 5. United Kingdom 5 6. Western Europe 6 7. Eastern Europe 7 8. Orient 8 9. Other fspecify) 1 22. Now I would lik e to ask you how far you and your family must travel, in miles, to receive the following services: (one way only) 1. food purchases _____________ """les 2. clothing purchases . miles 3. medical care ' miles 4. church miles 5. elementary school miles 6. secondary school ' ' "' miles 7. post office miles Total Distance = miles Divide by 7 - 31, 33. (cont.) 258 (cont.) Distance travelled score 0 - 5 miles 6-10 11 - 15 16 - 20 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 35 36 - 40 41 or more 34. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 23. (SEWELL SCALE, SHORT FORM) The next few items are eoncerlwsd with some of the things that your family owns. ITEMS SCORE 1. Construction of house a. brick, stucco, etc. or painted frame (5) ________ b. unpainted frame or other (3) 2. Room-person ratio: Number of rooms plus number of persons _______________ equals . Ratio; a. below 1.00 (3) b. 1.00 - 1.99 (5) c. 2.00 and up (7) 3. Lighting facilities a. electric (8) b. gas, mantle, or pressure (6) c. o i l lamps, other or none (3) 4. Water piped into house a. yes (8) b. no (4) 5. Power washer a. yes (6) b. no (3) 259 7. SCORE 6. Refrigeration a. mechanical (6) b. ice (6) c. other or none (3) ________ 7. Radio a. yes (6) b. no (3) 8. Telephone a. yes (6) b. no (3) 9. Automobile (other than truck) a. yes (6) b. no (2) 10. Family takes daily or weekly newspaper a. yes (6) b. no (3) 11. Wife's education: grades completed a. 0 to 7 (2) b. 8 (4) c. 9 - 11 (6) d. 12 (7) e. 13 and up (8) 12. Husband's education: grades completed (See Question #3) a. 0 to 7 (3) b. 8 (5) c. 9 - 11 (6) d. 12 (7) e. 13 and up (8) m 13. Husband attends church or Sunday School at least once a month: a. yes (5) b. no (2) . 260 8. 14. Wife attends church or Sunday School at least once a month: a. yes (5) b. no (2) ___ Total Score 35,37. Score 39 - 45 46 - 51 52 - 57 58 - 63 64 - 69 70 - 75 76 - 81 82 - 87 88 and over (CHAPIN SCALE) Would you now please try to recall the names of a l l the organizations that you have belonged to in the past year. (Do not include attendance at church). Name of Organization 2. Atten-dance 3. Financial contribution 4. Member of committee 5. Offices held 1. 2. -3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. (XX) Total (X2) (X3) (X4) (X5) Total participation score 39,40. Code 38. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 261 9. (cont.) Social Participation Score Code 0 41. 1 I - 5 2 6-10 3 I I - 15 4 16-20 5 21-25 6 26-30 7 3 1 - 3 5 8 over 35 9 25-43 (BRAYFIELD AND ROTH'S INDEX OF JOB SATISFACTION) I would like to find out how you feel about your job. 2 Please reply to each statement using the five phrases $ & on this card. (Hand respondent card). ,8! .<? C • •> m C 2 -° - e £ « 3 f» ft 25. My job i s like a hobby to me. 42. 5 4 3 2 1 26. My job i s usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored. 43. 5 4 3 2 1 27. It seems that my friends are more interested in their jobs than I am. 44. 1 2 3 4 5 28. I consider my job rather unpleasant. 45. 1 2 3 4 5 29. I enjoy my work more than my leisure time. 46. 5 4 3 2 1 i 30. I am often bored with my job. 47. 1 2 3 4 5 31. I fe e l f a i r l y well satisfied with my job. 48. 5 4 3 2 1 32. Most of the time I have to force myself to go to work. 49. 1 2 3 4 5 33. I am satisfied with my job for the time being. 50. 5 4 3 2 1 34. I fe e l that my job i s no more interesting than others I could get. 51. 1 2 3 4 5 35. I definitely dislike my work. 52. 1 2 3 4 5 262 10. 36. I feel that I am happier in my work than most other people. 37. Most days I am enthusiastic about my work. 38. Each day of work seems like i t w i l l never end. 39. I like my job better than the average worker does. 40. My job i s pretty uninteresting. 41. I find real enjoyment in my work. 42. I am disappointed that I ever took this job. Total Scale Score: 60 ,61. Total Scale Score al ,C t> <E 3" A $ 53. 5 4 3 2 1 54. 5 4 3 2 1 55. 1 2 3 4 5 56. 5 4 3 2 1 57. 1 2 3 4 5 58. 5 4 3 2 1 59. 1 2 3 4 5 Code 18 - 26 62. 1 27 - 34 2 35 - 42 3 43 - 50 4 51 - 58 5 59 - 66 6 67 - 74 7 75 - 82 8 83 - 90 9 44 - 52. (DAVIES* COMMUNITY SATISFACTION SCALE - REVISED. Rural Sociology 28:281) I would like to ask you now a few questions concerning how you feel about your community. Please give your immediate reaction to each statement, using the five responses on the card. 44. There are not many families you would care to marry into. 45. Not much can be said in favour of a place this size. 46. It w i l l never seem l i k e home to me. 47. No one seems to care how the community looks. 64. 65. 66. a: 1 S "0 <u >~ & i A £ 63. 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 263 I - * 11. * 6 J. -S JO C 48. The community i s not located in a very v> ^  3 R $ desirable place. 67. 1 2 3 4 5 49. It i s d i f f i c u l t for the people to get together on anything. 68. 1 2 3 4 5 50. The future of the cbntnunity looks bright. 69. 5 4 3 2 1 51. With few exceptions the leaders are capable and ambitious. 70. 5 4 3 2 1 Total Scale Score: 71,73. Score Code 8 - 11 74. 1 1 2 - 1 5 2 1 6 - 1 9 3 20-23 4 24-27 5 2 8 - 3 1 6 32 - 35 7 36-39 8 40 9 53. I w i l l now read you five statements concerning how different people might f e e l about l i v i n g i n a rural area. Please pick the statement that best describes how you f e e l . 1. I am strongly favorable to l i v i n g i n the rural environment. 75. 1 2. I am favorable to l i v i n g i n the rural environment. 2 3. I am neutral toward l i v i n g in the country br the city. 3 4. I am favorable to l i v i n g i n the city. 4 5. I am strongly favorable to l i v i n g in the c i t y . 5 54. Are your gross sales of products off your own land more than $250 per year? 1. yes 2. no 76. 1 2 264 ; ;B. SUPPLEMENTARY SOCIAL INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name: ; ; '  Respondent's Address: ; ; ; ' START DATA CARD 5 Respondent's Number (Interviewer to omit) 1J3- . Data Card Number 4. 5 1. Do you own a car? 1. yes 5 - 1 2. no 2 2. Did you own a car before the road was bui l t? 1. yes 6. 1 2. no 2 3. About how many times a month did you go outside the val ley before the road was opened? 1. none 7 * 1 2. 1 2 3- 2 3 k. 3 • * 5. k 5 6. 5 or more 6 k. What was your main reason for going outside the val ley before the road was opened? 1. none 8. 1 2. shopping 2 3- business 3 k. medical care 4 5. conventions, conferences, meetings 5 6. holidays 6 7. other (specify) 7 265 2. 5. Where did you usually go when you l e f t the valley? 1. none 9« 1 2. L i l looet 2 3. Squamish 3 k. Vancouver 4 5. Other (specify) _ 5 6. About how many times a month do you go outside the valley now? 1. none 10. 1 2. 1 2 3. 2 3 k. 3 • * 5. 4 5 6. 5 or more 6 7. What i s your main reason for going outside the val ley now? 1. none 11. 1 2. shopping 2 3. business 3 k. medical care 4 5 . conventions, conferences, meetings 5 6. holidays .6 7. Other (specify) 7 8. Where do you usually go when you go outside the val ley now? 1. none 12. 1 2. L iHooet 2 3. Squamish 3 4. Vancouver 4 5. Other (specify) 5 9. Have you tended to spend more money outside the valley since the road was bui l t? 1. yes 13- 1 2. no 2 3. don't know 3 10. To how many families in the val ley are you related?- 14,15. 11. How many of these are related by birth? l6, l6. 12. How many of these are related by marriage? 18,19. 266 3. (Name) _ b. Are they related to you? 1. yes 20. 1 2. no 2 c. If they are related, what is their relationship to you? 1. not applicable 21. 1 2. parents 2 3. children 3 k. uncle or aunt 4 5. niece or nephew 5 6. brothers or sisters 6 7• grandchildren 7 8. cousins 8 9. other . 9 d. Where do, they live? 1. Pemberton Village 22. 1 2. Pemberton Meadows 2 3. Mount Currie 3 h. Birken h 5. Elsewhere in the valley 5 6. Squamish 6 7 . Vancouver 7 8. Elsewhere 8. Ik. a. What family would you say you visit most often? (Name) ; - -•  b. Are they related to you? 1. yes 23. 1 2. no 2 c. . If they are related, what is their relationship to you? 1. not applicable 2k. 1 2. parents 2 3. children 3 k. uncle or aunt 4 5. , niece or nephew 5 6. • brothers or sisters 6 7. grandchildren 7 8. cousins 8 9 . other 9 267 d. Where do they l ive? 1. Pemberton Vi l lage 25. 1 2. Pemberton Meadows 2 3 . Mount Currie 3 k. Birken U 5. Elsewhere i n the valley 5 6. Squamish 6 7 . Vancouver 7 8 . Elsewhere 8 15. What three families l i v i n g in the val ley do you most often exchange v i s i t s with? (Names) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16-21+. (BERNARD'S NEIGHBOURING PRACTICES SCHEDULE - REVISED) 16. About how many of the people who l i v e in your neighborhood would you recognize by sight i f you saw them i n a large crowd? 1. None 26. 1 2. Seme 2 3 . Most 3 k. A l l k (HAND RESPONDENT CARD) 17. About how often do you chat or v i s i t with your neighbours? 1. Never 27. 1 2. Rarely 2 3 . Sometimes 3 k. Often k 18. Do you and your neighbours exchange things, such as books, magazines, jams1, preserves, suggestions, tools , dishes, or other similar things? 1. Never 28. 1 2. Rarely 2 3 . Sometimes 3 k. Often k 268 5. 19. Do you and your neighbours exchange favors or services, such as receiving parcels , telephone messages, or other similar things? 1. Never 29. 1 2. Rarely 2 3 . Sometimes 3 4. Often 4 20. Do you and your neighbours ever go shopping together? 1. Never 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes 4. Often 21. Do your neighbours ever talk over their problems with you; when they are worried, or ask you for advise or help? 1. Never 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes 4. Often 22. Do you and your neighbours ever take care of each other's children when the other i s sick or busy? 1. Never 32. 1 2. Rarely 2 3 . Sometimes 3 4. Often 4 23. Do you and your neighbours ever have picnics or outings or parties together? 1. Never 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes 4. Often 24. Do you fee l that the people here are not very neighbourly? 1. Never 34. 1 2. Rarely 2 3. Sometimes 3 4. Often 4 31. 1 2 3 4 33. 1 2 3 4 Tota l Neighbouring Score 35,36. (cont.) 269 6. (cont.) Score 9 - 1 2 1 3 - 1 5 16 - 18 1 9 - 2 1 22 - 2k 25 - 27 2 8 - 3 0 31 - 33 3I+ and over 25. a. Do you ever contribute free labor to help others in the valley? 1. 2. yes no 37- 1 2 3 k 5 6 7 8 9 38. 1 2 b. I f yes, how often? 1. Not applicable 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes k. Often 39- 1 2 3 k 26. a. Do you ever make loans of machinery or equipment to others in the valley? 1. 2. yes no 1 2 b. I f yes, how often? 1. Not applicable 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes k. Often U l . 1 2 3 k 27. a. Do other people i n the val ley ever contribute the ir labor to help you? 1. 2. yes no k2. 1 2 b. I f yes, how often? 1. Not applicable 2. Rarely 3. Sometimes k. Often *3. 1 2 3 k 270 7 . 28. a. Do you borrow equipment or machinery from other people? 1. Yes 44. 1 2. No 2 b. If yes, bow often? 1. Not applicable 45. 1 2. Rarely 2 3. Sometimes 3 4. Often 4 29. If you had a problem that you f e l t you would be unable to solve by yourself, to whom In the community would you go for advice? 30. To whom in the community would you go for advice on: a. Farming (farmers ohly) b. education c. problems of children d. Business matters e. p o l i t i c s 271 8. 31-36 (BOGARDUS SOCIAL DISTANCE SCALE) This section i s concerned with the way you feel about different cultural groups. Do not give your reactions to the best or to the worst members that you have known, but think of the picture that you have of the whole race. I w i l l t e l l you the name of the race,, and then you t e l l me how many of the categories on this card you would "go along with" for each race. (Hand respondent card). (Indicate by marking X In appropriate boxes). Category 31 English 32 Swedes 33 Indians 34 Americans 35 French 36 Chinese 1. To close kinship by marriage 2. To my club as personal chums -- •-3. To my street as neighbours 4.' To, emp loymen t in my occupation --l 5. To citizenship in my country • -6. As visitors only to my country —-7. Would exclude from my country English 46. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Swedes 47. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Indians 48. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Americans 49. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 French 50. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Chinese 51. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 272 37-56 (Attitude Toward the Road) 37. We w i l l enjoy liv i n g here more because of the road. 38. Only a few people here really wanted the road. 39. We do not want large numbers of tourists here. 40. The only good thing about the road i s that we can go outside more easily. 41. I am afraid that the road w i l l destroy the privacy and isolation which we enjoy here. 42. The road w i l l bring a lot of opportunities for making money to people here. 43. The road w i l l Improve job opportunities for/young people. 44. The road w i l l cause prices to r i s e . 45. The road w i l l make i t easier for people to move away. 46. The road w i l l bring many new residents which w i l l be good for the community. 47. The road w i l l destroy many of our customs and traditions. 48. I feel that the road w i l l make too many changes here. 49. I am afraid that we w i l l lose control of things here to outside interests. 50. I am afraid people w i l l grow dissatisfied with living here now that the road is opened. 51. In general, the road is a good thing for the valley. 52. I think that in a few years we may regret that the road was opened. 53. I w i l l be much happier here knowing that I can get out easily when I need to. <u i. <u n ^ -n -52. 5 4 3 2 1 53. 1 2 3 4 5 54. 12 3 4 5 55. 12 3 4 5 56. 1 2 3 4 5 57. 5 4 3 2 1 58. 5 4 3 2 1 59. 1 2 3 4 5 60. 12 3 4 5 61. 5 4 3 2 1 62. 12 3 4 5 63. 1 2 3 4 5 64. 12 3 4 5 65. 1 2 3 4 5 66. 5 4 3 2 1 67. 12 3 4 5 68. 5 4 3 2 1 273 10. 54. I am afraid that serious crime w i l l increase because of the opening of the raod. 55. The road probably won't cause a change in the pace of l i f e here. 69. 12 3 4 5 70. 5 4 3 2 1 56. I am afraid that the road w i l l destroy the pleasant l i f e we have had here. Total Score Scale Score 20 - 29 30 - 39 40 - 49 50 - 59 60 - 69 70 - 79 80 - 89 90 and over 71. 72,74. 1 2 3 4 5 75. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 274 c- FARM ECONOMIC INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name START DATA CARD 3 Respondent's Number (Interviewer to omit) 1«3. Data Card Number 4. 3 1. How many years have you been working i n the agricultural industry? 1. fewer than 5 5. 1 2. 5 - 9 2 3. 10 - 19 3 4. 20 or more 4 2. How many years have you been on your present farm? 1. less than 1 6 . 1 2. 2 - 4 2 3. 5 - 9 3 4. 10 - 19 4 5. 20 or more 5 3. Do you own this farm, own part and rent part, or rent i t entirely? 1. own 7. 1 2. own more than half and rent the remainder 2 3. rent more than half and own the remainder 3 4. rent i t entirely 4 5. manager 5 275 2. 4. How did you acquire this farm? 1. from the Crown-purchase 8. 1 2. from the Crown-pre-empt or homestead 2 3. bought as a going concern 3 4. inherited as a going concern 4 5. through marriage ' 5 6. combinations of the above 6 7. other . . 7 5. What i s the total size of your farm in acres? 1. under 10 9. 1 2. 10 - 69 2 3. 70 - 99 3 4. 100 - 129 4 5. 130 - 179 5 6. 180 - 239 6 7. 240 - 399 7 8. 400 - 759 8 9. 760 and over 9 6. How many acres are improved land? (land which has been cleared and used for hay, pasture, or other crops) 1. n i l 10. 1 2. under 10 2 3. 10 - 69 3 4. 70 - 99 4 5. 100 - 129 • 5 6. 130 - 179 .-" .6 7. 180 - 239 7 8. 240 -399 8 9. 400 and over 9 7. Of your unimproved land, how many acres are grass meadows or natural pastures? (land which has not been cleared or improved, i s used in i t s natural state) 1. n i l 11. 1 2. under 10 2 3. 10-69 3 4. 70 - 99 4 5. 100 - 129 5 6. 130 - 179 6 7. 180 - 239 7 8. 240 - 399 8 9. 400 - and over 9 276 .•"3. 8. How many unimproved acres in bush or timber? 1. n i l 12. 1 2. under 10 2 3. - 10 - 69 3 4. 70 - 99 4 5. 100 - 129 5 6. 130 - 179 6 7. 180 - 239 7 8. 240 - 399 i 8 9. 400 and over 9 9. What i s your principal agricultural product sold? (that i s , the product from which you obtained the largest gross revenue) A. 1. dairy produce (milk or cream shipper) 13. 1 2. beef 2 3. sheep 3 4. other livestock 4 5. f r u i t and vegetables 5 6. other f i e l d crops 6 7. mixed 7 8. woodiest products 8 9. other 9 B. What other agricultural products do you sell? (If more than one response, check second response i n B (2)). (1) 1. dairy produce 14. 1 • 2. beef . .. . 2 3. sheep 3 4. other livestock 4 5. f r u i t and vegetables 5 6. f i e l d crops 6 7. mixed 7 8. woodlot products 8 9. other 9 (2) 1. dairy produce 15. 1 2. beef 2 3. sheep 3 4. other livestock 4 5. f r u i t and vegetables 5 6. f i e l d crops 6 7. mixed 7 8. woodlot products 8 9. other 9 277 4. 10. What was the average number of animals on your farm l a s t year? da i ry animals cows • h e i f e r s calves b u l l s beef animals cows h e i f e r s year l ings b u l l s t o t a l animal un i t s 1. no animals 2. l e s s than 10 3. 10 - 19 4. 20 - 29 5. 30 - 39 6. 40 - 49 7. 50 - 59 8. 60 - 79 9. 80 and over 16. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 horses sheep _ swine T o t a l a l l animals 11. In what range would your 1965 gross farm income f a l l ? 1. l e s s than $1,500 17. 1 o 2. $1,500 - $2,499 & 3 3. $2,500 - $3,499 *•* U 4. $3,500 - $5,499 5. $5,500 - $7,499 6 6. $7,500 - $9,499 7 7. $9,500 - $11,499 f 8 9 8. $11,500 - $13,499; 9. $13,500 and over 278 5. 12. What i s your estimate of your net farm income in 1965? (gross income minus cash expenses) 1. less than $500 2. $500 - $999 3. $1,000 - $1,999 4. $2,000 - $2,999 5. $3,000 - $3,999 6. $4,000 - $4,999 7. $5,000 - $6,999 8. $7,000 - $9,999 9. $10,000 and over 18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 13. Did you work off your farm last year? If yes, how did the amount of time spent working off your farm compare with the amount of t^me spent working on your farm? 1. no off farm work 19. 1 2. less than 1/4 off farm: more than 3/4 on farm' 2 3. 1/4 to less than 1/2 off farm: 3/4 to more than 1/2 off farm 3 4. 1/2 to less than 3/4 off farm: 1/2 to more than 1/4 off farm 4 5. 3/4 to almost f u l l time off farm: 1/4 or less time spent on farm 5 14. If you worked off your farm last year, what job or jobs did you have? (Principal') 20,22. Were you self-employed: 1. yes 23. 1 2. no 2 (Secondary) 24,26. Were you self-employed: 1. yes 2. no 27. 1 2 279 6. 15. What was your t o t a l net income from your p r i n c i p a l o f f - farm job? 1. l e s s than $500 28. 1 2. $500 - $999 2 3. $1,000 - $1,999 3 4. $2,000 - $2,999 4 5. $3,000 - $3,999 5 6. $4,000 - $4,999 6 7. $5,000 - $6,999 7 8. $7,000 - $9,999 8 9. $10,000 and over 9 16. What was your t o t a l net income from your secondary o f f - f a r m job? 1. l e s s than $500 29. 1 2. $500 - $999 2 3. $1,000 - $ 1 , 9 9 9 3 4. $2,000 - $2,999 4 5. $3,000 - $3,999 5 6. $4,000 - $4,999 6 7. $5,000 - $6,999 7 8. $7,000 - $9,999 8 9. $10,000 and over 9 17. Did you or members o f your fami ly rece ive income or payments from other sources i n 1965? (such, as i n t e r e s t , re turns on investments, r e n t s , e tc . ) Source Amount Pensions (old age, e tc . ) . $ Government Payments (family al lowance, unemployment insurance) M i s c . g i f t s and. insurance In teres t , Div idends , Rent 1. None 30. 1 2. l e s s than $500 2 3 . $500 - $999 3 4. $1,000 - $1,499 4 5. $1,500 - $2,499 5 6. $2,500 - $3,499 6 7. $3,500 - and over 7 T o t a l $ 280 7. 18. Did any of your fami ly dependents l i v i n g at home earn income l a s t year? I f yes , how much was t h i s income? 1. no earnings 31. 1 2. l e s s than $500 2 3 . $500 - $999 3 4. $1,000 - $1,499 4 5. $1,500 - $2,499 5 6. $2,500 - $3,499 6 7. $3,500 and over 7 19. What would you pay to own and operate t h i s farm as a going concern? (everything included) I . l e s s than $4,950 32. 1 2. $4,950 - $9,449 2 3. $9,950 ~ $14,949 3 4. $14,950 - $19,949 4 5. $19,950 - $24,949 5 6. $24,950 - $34,949 6 7. $34,950 - $49,949 7 8. $49,950 - $99,949 8 9. $99,950 and over 9 20. Do you use h i r e d labor f o r your farm operat ion , and i f so, an what bas i s do you h i r e labor? 1. no h i r e d labor used 2. h i r e d labor used only on seasonal bas i s 3. h i r e d labor on a year round bas i s 4. some year round l a b o r , some seasonal 21. What would you estimate was the value o f produce consumed on the farm l a s t year? value milk but ter eggs meat garden produce T o t a l l e s s than $50 $50 - $99 $100 - $149 $150 - $199 $200 - $249 $250 - $299 $300 - $349 $350 - $399 $400 and over 33. 34. 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 281 8. 22. Previous to enter ing the a g r i c u l t u r a l industry were you engaged i n other types of work or f i e l d s of em-ployment? 1. yes 35. 1 2. no 2 23. I f yes , what s p e c i f i c jobs d i d you have f o r more than 6 months? Job previous to a g r i c u l t u r e • • ; ' 36,38. Next previous job _ , j ; ; 39,41. Next previous job . 42,44. Next previous job ; 45,47. Next previous job , 48,50. 24. Have you sought o f f - farm work i n the past three years and been unable to obtain any? 1. yes 51. 1 2. no 2 25. I f yes , what were the reasons that prevented you from ge t t ing work? 1. seasonal work pat tern 52. 1 2. poor hea l th 2 3. no work a v a i l a b l e 3 4. work a v a i l a b l e , but i n s u f f i c i e n t s k i l l s to get any 4 5. fami ly 5 6. Other 6 282 9. 26. Do you think you have an adequate l e v e l of s k i l l s to ensure yourse l f of s a t i s f a c t o r y employment i n the future? 1. yes 2. no 3. uncertain 53. 1 2 3 27. Would you l i k e to take some k ind of fur ther education or t r a i n i n g ? 1. yes 2. no 54. 1 2 28. I f yes , what k i n d o f t r a i n i n g would you be in teres ted in? 55,57. Present land use c l a s s i f i c a t i o n Land c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n 58,63. 64,10. Respondent's Number (Interviewer omit) START DATA CARD 4 1,3. Data Card Number 4. 29. Who i s your D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t ? 1. r i g h t 2. wrong 3. don't know 30. Have you v i s i t e d your d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r i s t o f f i c e during the past year? JUL IX9XLCU ^ U U l UlOblJL  1. no 2. once 3. 2 - 3 times 4. 4 - 5 times 5. more than 5 times i n h i s 5. 1 2 3 6. 1 2 3 4 5 283 10. 31. Have you consulted your d i s t r i c t agriculturist about a farm matter over the telephone during the past year? 1. no 7. 1 2. once 2 3. 2 - 3 times 3 4. 4 - 5 times 4 5. more than 5 times 5 32. Did your d i s t r i c t agriculturist v i s i t you during the past year about a farm matter? 1. no 8. 1 2. once 2 3. 2 - 3 times 3 4. 4 - 5 times 4 5. more than 5 times 5 33. Have you attended local meetings or f i e l d days sponsored by the d i s t r i c t agriculturist during the past year? If so, how many? 1. none 9 . 1 2. one 2 3. 2 - 3 3 4. 4 - 5 4 5. more than 5 5 34. Did you read circular letters, mailed announcements, or bulletins from your d i s t r i c t agriculturist during the past year? If so, how often? 1. Never 10. 1 2. Rarely 2 3. Sometimes 3 4. Often 4 284 11. 35. Have you l i s t e n e d to radio announcements by your d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r i s t during the past year? I f so, how often? 1. Never 11. 1 2. Rarely 2 3. Sometimes 3 4. Often 4 36. Did you read any newspaper a r t i c l e s wri t ten by your d i s t r i c t a g r i c u l t u r i s t during the past year? I f so, how often? 1. Never 12. 1 2. Rarely 2 3. Sometimes 3 4. Often 4 37. Have you taken any a g r i c u l t u r e courses i n h igh school? 1. yes 13. 1 2. no 2 38. Have you taken any a g r i c u l t u r e courses at a vocat iona l school? 1. yes 14. 1 2. no 2 39. Have you taken any a g r i c u l t u r e courses at un ivers i ty? 1. yes 15. 1 2. no 2 40. Have you taken any adult education courses i n agr i cu l ture? 1. yes 16. 1 2. no 2 285 12. 41. During the next five years do you have any definite plans to change your activities or operations in respect to: 1. farming 17. 1 2. off-farm work 2 3. both (2) and (3) 3 4. other. 4 5. no plans 5 42. What kind of change do you hope to make? 1. increase farm size 18. 1 2. change enterprise 2 3. clear and/or drain land 3 4. change buildings 4 5. education 5 6. take an off-farm job 6 7. increase off-farm work 7 8. retire 8 9. increase stock 9 Present land.use classification 19,24. Land capability classification 25,30. 286 D. NON-FARM ECONOMIC INTERVIEW SCHEDULE Respondent's Name Respondent's Address Start Data Card 2 Respondent's Number (Interviewer to omit) 1,3. _______ Data Card Number 4. 2 1. What i s your principal occupation? 5,7. 2. Are you self-employed? 1. yes 8. 1 2. no 2 3. How many years have you worked at this occupation or type of work ( f u l l or part-time)? 1. less than 5 9. 1 2. 5 - 9 2 3. 10 - 19 3 4. 20 or more 4 4. Do you have a secondary occupation or source of income? 1. yes 10. 1 2. no 2 5. If yes, what i s your secondary occupation? 11,13. 6. Are you self-employed in your secondary occupation? 1. yes 14. 1 2. no 2 287 2. 7. Do you have a t h i r d job? 1. yes 15. 1 2. no 2 8. How many weeks d i d you work i n 1965? 16,17. 9. What was your t o t a l net income from your p r i n c i p a l occupation? 1. d i d not work or no income 18. 1 2. l e s s than $1,000 2 3. $1,000 - $1,999 3 4-. $2,000 - $2,999 4 5. $3,000 - $3,999 5 6. $4,000 - $4,999 6 7. $5,000 - $6,999 7 8. $7,000 - $9,999 8 9. $10,000 and over 9 10. What was your t o t a l net income from your other occupations? 1. d i d not work or no income 19. 1 2. l e s s than $1,000 2 3. $1,000 - $1,999 3 4. $2,000 - $2,999 4 5. $3,000 - $3,999 5 6, $4,000 - $4,999 6 7. $5,000 - $6*999 7 8. $7,000 - $9,999 8 9. $10,000 and over 9 11. Did any of your fami ly dependents l i v i n g at home earn income l a s t year? I f yes , how much was t h i s income? 1. no earnings by family dependents 20. 1 2. l e s s than $500 2 3. $500 - $999 3 4. $1,000 - $1,499 4 5. $1,500 - $2,499 5 6. $2,500 - $3,499 6 7. $3,500 and over 7 288 3. 12. Did you or members of your fami ly rece ive income or payments from other sources during 1965? I f yes , what were the sources and how much d i d you rece ive from them? Source Pensions (old age pension, war veteran's) Government payments (family allowances, unemployment insurance) Misc . g i f t s and insurance Interes t , d iv idends , rent Other ( ) T o t a l Amount 1. no other income 21. 1 2. l e s s than $500 2 3. $500 - $999 3 4. $1,000 - $1,499 4 5. $1,500 - $2,499 5 6. $2,500 - $3,499 6 7. $3,000 and over 7 13. Have you worked at any job other than the one(s) you are now working at? 1. yes 22. 1 2. no 2 I f yes , what s p e c i f i c jobs have you had f o r more than s ix months: Previous job 23,25. Next previous job 26,28. Next previous job 29,31. Next previous job ' '. • 32,34. Next previous job .' 35,37. 14. Have you been unemployed during the past 3 years? A . B. 1. 2. yes no I f yes , f o r how long? 1. l e s s than a month 2 . 1 - 6 months 3. 6 - 1 2 months 4. greater than a year , but l e s s than 2 years 5. two years or more 38. 39. 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 289 4. 15. If you were unemployed, what was the cause or nature of your unemployment? 1. seasonal layoffs 40. 1 2. health d i s a b i l i t i e s 2 3. no work available 3 4. work available, but i n -sufficient s k i l l to get work 4 5. family reasons 5 6. other 6 16. Do you think.you have an adequate level of s k i l l s to ensure yourself of satisfactory employment in the future? 1. yes 41. 1 2. no 2 3. uncertain 3 17. Would you like to take some kind of further education or training? 1. yes 42. 1 2. no 2 18. If yes, what kind of training would you be interested in? - __; . 43,45. 19. Are you currently receiving 1.. unemployment insurance 46. 1 2. welfare or r e l i e f assistance 2 3. other forms of assistance 3 4. no assistance payments 4 20. Do you own or rent your house and land? 1. own i t outright 47. 1 2. part ownership or mortgage 2 3. rent or lease 3 4. other 4 290 5. 21. If you own your own house and/or land, how did you acquire It? 1. do not own house 48. 1 2. purchased as is 2 3. built i t yourself or had i t built 3 4. inherited 4 5. through marriage 5 6. other 6 22. How many acres of land do you own here? 1. n i l 49. 1 2. less than 10 2 3. 10 - 39 3 4. 40 - 69 4 5. 70 - 99 5 6. 100 - 129 6 7. 130 - 179 7 8. 180 - 239 8 9. 240 and over 9 (To be omitted by interviewer) Present land use classification 50,55. Land capability classification 56,61. 2 9 1 E . O R G A N I Z A T I O N I N T E R V I E W S C H E D U L E N a m e of O r g a n i z a t i o n O f f i c e r Interv iewed: N a m e A d d r e s s T e l e p h o n e N u m b e r T i t l e 292 ORGANIZATION INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 1. In what year was the organization formed in Pembert? 2. Is the local organization affiliated with a regional, provincial, or national organization? 3. Is the local organization sponsored by or affiliated with a local church, school, government agency, or another local organization ? 4. If yes, what is the name of the agency with which it is affiliated ? 5. Does the local organization have a constitution and/or bylaws or written rules or regulations ? 6. What services does the local organization provide for its members? 7. What services does the local organization provide for the community ? 293 What s e r v i c e does the p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n ( i f any) p r o v i d e for the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? What s e r v i c e does the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n p r o v i d e i n a s s o c i a t i o n wi th other l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s ? S e r v i c e C o - o p e r a t i n g O r g a n i z a t i o n In the pas t y e a r , what p r o j e c t s o r a c t i v i t i e s s p o n s o r e d by , begun by , or taken p a r t i n b y m e m b e r s of your l o c a l o r g a n i -zat ion c o n s u m e d the m o s t t i m e and e n e r g y of the m e m b e r s ? What other m a j o r p r o j e c t s has the o r g a n i z a t i o n b e e n ac t ive i n s ince 1962? 294 12. What was the a p p r o x i m a t e tota l budget for y o u r o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the p a s t f i s c a l y e a r ? 13. In the pas t f i s c a l y e a r what p r o p o r t i o n of the tota l i n c o m e for the o r g a n i z a t i o n c a m e f r o m each of the s o u r c e s l i s t e d b e l o w ? S o u r c e : P e r cent F i n a n c i a l S u p p o r t l e s s than 75-100 50-74 25-49 10-24 1 0 % 0 Dues f r o m m e m b e r s  F e e s , p e n a l t i e s , and a s s e s s -ments against m e m b e r s R e c e i p t s f r o m enter ta inment dances , sa les etc. , Income from, i n v e s t m e n t s Gi f t s and beques t s G o v e r n m e n t funds F u n d s f r o m p a r e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n O t h e r s o u r c e s : 295 14. In the past fiscal year what proportion of the organization's expenditures went to each of the sources listed below? Source Percent of Expenditures less than 75-100 50-74 25-40 10-24 10 0 Expenses for entertain-ment, dances, sales etc Organization operating expenses Funds sent to the parent organization Gifts to the community Investments Other Sources: 15. How many members were there in the organization at June 30th of each of the past five years? (If known) 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 16. Is membership in the organization restricted by sex? 296 17. If yes , how i s i t r e s t r i c t e d ? 18. A r e t h e r e age l i m i t s for m e m b e r s h i p i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 19- If yes , what i s the m i n i m u m a n d / o r m a x i m u m age? Man. M a x . •. 20. What p r o p o r t i o n of the m e m b e r s h i p i s under 18 and attending s c h o o l ? 21. A r e t h e r e any nat ive Indian m e m b e r s i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 22. If yes , what p r o p o r t i o n of the m e m b e r s h i p i s N a t i v e Indian? 23. Does the o r g a n i z a t i o n l i m i t the to ta l n u m b e r of m e m b e r s ? 24. If yes , what is the m a x i m u m n u m b e r ? 25. M a y anyone who meets the f o r m a l r e q u i r e m e n t s and who wishes to j o i n b e c o m e a m e m b e r without f o r m a l a p p r o v a l ? 26. M u s t a p r o s p e c t i v e m e m b e r be a p p r o v e d b y a m e m b e r s h i p c o m m i t t e e or b o a r d b e f o r e be ing accep ted as a m e m b e r ? 27. M u s t a p r o s p e c t i v e m e m b e r be a p p r o v e d o r p a s s e d on by the m e m b e r s h i p b e f o r e be ing accepted? 297 28. A r e mee t ings of the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n conducted a c c o r d i n g to r u l e s of o r d e r ? 29. In the pas t y e a r how frequent ly d i d the l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n h o l d r e g u l a r l y s c h e d u l e d meet ings open to a l l the m e m b e r s ? 30. A p p r o x i m a t e l y what p r o p o r t i o n of the m e m b e r s attended each m e et ing ? 31. How m a n y of the mee t ings w e r e open to the g e n e r a l p u b l i c ? 32. W o u l d you p l e a s e name the p r e s e n t execut ive o f f i cers i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n . P r e s i d e n t V i c e P r e s i d e n t S e c r e t a r y T r e a s u r e r 33. What other people have s e r v e d as p r e s i d e n t of the o r g a n i z a t i o n i n the pas t f ive y e a r s ? 1966 1965 1964 1963 1962 298 34. W h e n d id you f i r s t b e c o m e an o f f i cer i n the o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 35. In a m o n t h of n o r m a l ac t iv i ty , a p p r o x i m a t e l y how m a n y h o u r s do you spend i n the w o r k of this o r g a n i z a t i o n ? 36. H a s the i m p r o v e m e n t of the r o a d h a d any effect on your o r g a n i z a t i o n ? E x p l a i n . 37. W h i c h t h r e e o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n P e m b e r t o n would you c o n s i d e r to be the m o s t i m p o r t a n t ? 38. Who would you c o n s i d e r to be the three m o s t i m p o r t a n t people act ive i n o r g a n i z a t i o n s i n P e m b e r t o n ? 2 9 9 F . B U S I N E S S I N T E R V I E W S C H E D U L E N a m e of B u s i n e s s O f f i c e r In terv i ewed: N a m e : A d d r e s s : T e l e p h o n e N u m b e r ; T i t l e : C o m m e n t s : 300 1. When was this business f i r s t e stablished? 2. - Was i t e s t a b l i s h e d by the p r e s e n t owner? 3. How did the p r e s e n t owner acquire the b u s i n e s s ? 4. Is the business a single p r o p r i e t o r s h i p , p a r t n e r s h i p , or a company? 5. D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y the type of business this i s 6. D i d the p r e s e n t owner have any pr e v i o u s business e x p e r i e n c e ? 7. If yes: (a) How many years of e x p e r i e n c e ? (b) Where was this experience gained? 8. Has the p r e s e n t owner had any s p e c i a l i z e d business t r a i n i n g ? 9. If yes, d e s c r i b e the t r a i n i n g . 10. Does the p r e s e n t owner belong to ass o c i a t i o n s or clubs? any businessmen's 301 11. If yes , n a m e the a s s o c i a t i o n s or c l u b s . 12. How m a n y f u l l - t i m e e m p l o y e e s does the b u s i n e s s h a v e ? 13. H o w m a n y p a r t - t i m e e m p l o y e e s does the b u s i n e s s h a v e ? 14. O n what days i s the b u s i n e s s c l o s e d ? 15. D e s c r i b e b r i e f l y the b u s i n e s s t rade a r e a 16. W h e r e a r e m o s t of the b u s i n e s s p u r c h a s e s m a d e ? 17. Does the b u s i n e s s do any a d v e r t i s i n g ? 18. If yes , what m e d i a a r e u s e d ? 19. What p r o p o r t i o n of the b u s i n e s s t rade i s with t o u r i s t and v a c a t i o n e r s ? 302 20. H a s the i m p r o v e m e n t of the r o a d h a d any effect on the v o l u m e of your b u s i n e s s ? E x p l a i n . 21. Do you think that the r o a d w i l l have any effect on your b u s i n e s s i n the future? E x p l a i n . 22. H a v e you m a d e any p lans for expans ion i n your b u s i n e s s b e c a u s e of the r o a d ? E x p l a i n . 23. 24. Do you fee l that the people of the v a l l e y a r e be ing adequate ly s e r v e d b y the e s t a b l i s h e d b u s i n e s s e s ? What new b u s i n e s s e s , i f any, a r e needed i n the v a l l e y ? 

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