UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

A critical edition : poems by Thomas Hoccleve in HM 744 (formerly the Ashburnham MS); a MS in the Huntington… Tremaine, William Robert 1968

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-UBC_1969_A8 T74.pdf [ 7.09MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0104266.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0104266-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0104266-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0104266-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0104266-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0104266-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0104266-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0104266-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0104266.ris

Full Text

A CRITICAL EDITION: POEMS BY THOMAS HOCCLEVE i n HM 744 ( former ly the Ashburnham MS) a MS i n The Hunt ington L i b r a r y San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a by WILLIAM ROBERT TREMAINE B . A . , U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o , 1961 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of ENGLISH We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d s tandard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced deg ree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r ee t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and S t udy . I f u r t h e r ag ree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y pu rpo se s may be g r a n t e d by t he Head o f my Department o r by hits r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l no t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . _^ The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Co l umb i a Vancouve r 8, Canada Depar tment o f 1 f * * f r i tdittftt A>,.i.«* »»<«>»< -3—»•+— 1»* - ^ F r o n t i s p i e c e : f . 37r . ABSTRACT Of the minor poets of the 15th cen tu ry , those who c la imed Chaucer as t h e i r teacher and t h e i r master , Thomas Hoccleve i s perhaps one of the most i n t e r e s t i n g , not because of h i s a b i l i t i e s as a poet , which were i n the main mediocre , but for the v i v i d p i c t u r e he g ives us of h i s own l i f e and t imes . Hoccleve spent a l l h i s working l i f e as a s c r i b e i n the o f f i c e of the P r i v y S e a l . In the i n t r o d u c t o r y pages of t h i s e d i t i o n , H o c c l e v e ' s l i f e and works are d i scussed a t l e n g t h , and some c o n j e c t u r i n g i s done as to h i s r e l a t i o n w i t h Chaucer, of whom Hoccleve c la imed to be a w i l l i n g , i f somewhat d u l l student who " l e rned l i t e or nagh t . " His poetry i s put i n i t s h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g , and h i s borrowings from Chaucer i n l i t e r a r y forms and subjec t matter are d i s c u s s e d . His borrowings from Chaucer were e x t e n s i v e , but h i s i m i t a t i o n of the master i s mechanical ,T and u s u a l l y u n i n s p i r e d . We a re , however, indebted to Hoccleve for hav ing had a p o r t r a i t of Chaucer pa in ted and i n s e r t e d i n the margin of h i s own Regement of P r i n c e s . The a u t h e n t i c i t y of the p o r t r a i t s i s d i scussed i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y pages. In language, of which there i s a b r i e f c o n s i d e r a t i o n g i v e n , Hoccleve was an E a s t - M i d l a n d e r . His d i a l e c t has many s i m i l a r i t i e s to that of Chaucer, and of the London area as a whole . The MSS of H o c c l e v e ' s poetry which have come down are a l l qu i t e c o n s i s t e n t i n i v d i a l e c t f ea tu re s , which has l e d to i t be ing pos tu l a t ed that the MSS were a l l w r i t t e n , or copied by the same man, and that that man was Hocc leve . An examinat ion here tends to support the argument that the MSS were w r i t t e n by the same person, but whether or not tha t man was Hoccleve i s beyond the scope of c o n s i d e r a t i o n for t h i s paper. The MS HM 744, from the Hunt ington L i b r a r y i n San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a , has never been e d i t e d i n f u l l be fo re . The t r a n s c r i p t i o n g i v e n i n t h i s e d i t i o n i n c l u d e s a l l of the Hoccleve poetry from HM 744. The l a s t poem, Lerne to Dye, i s incomplete i n the MS. I t l a c k s some 300 l i n e s of poe t ry , and two pages of prose . This l a c k has been made up from a d i f f e r e n t e d i t i o n of the poem, i n order that the reader may have a f u l l copy of the work a t h i s d i s p o s a l . A s e c t i o n of exp lana to ry notes on the poe t ry , a g l o s s a r y and an ex tens ive b i b l i o g r a p h y of Hoccleve m a t e r i a l complete the c r i t i c a l appara tus . TABLE OF CONTENTS F r o n t i s p i e c e f . 38r i A b s t r a c t i i i Preface v i L i s t of A b b r e v i a t i o n s i x Chronology of H o c c l e v e ' s L i f e 1 L i f e of Hoccleve 2 His Knowledge of Chaucer 20 H o c c l e v e ' s P o e t i c Forms & Prosody 25 H o c c l e v e ' s Poet ry i n I t s H i s t o r i c a l S e t t i n g 33 The Poems of HM 744 36 Language of the MS 52 The S c r i b e of the Hoccleve MSS 61 D e s c r i p t i o n of MS HM 744 62 Provenance of the MS 63 A Note on E d i t i n g 65 The Text HM 744 66 APPENDICES Notes 156 Glossa ry 177 B i b l i o g r a p h y 188 PREFACE . This i s the f i r s t complete e d i t i o n of the Hoccleve poetry i n HM 744, fo rmer ly the Ashburnham MS. I s r a e l G o l l a c n z ' s e d i t i o n of 1925 does not i n c l u d e the 672 l i n e s of Lerne to Dye, which i s the l a s t poem i n the MS. He d i d not t r a n s c r i b e these l i n e s because the whole of the poem had a l r eady been p r i n t e d from another MS by F . J . F u r n i v a l l . •'• There i s compara t ive ly l i t t l e secondary source m a t e r i a l on Thomas Hocc leve . The b i b l i o g r a p h y i n c l u d e d here i s v i r t u a l l y exhaus t ive i n i t s l i s t i n g of a r t i c l e s and books on Hocc leve . The main sources for i n f o r m a t i o n about Hoccleve are h i s own poems. Much of h i s w r i t i n g i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l , and the c l a r i t y w i t h which he examines h i s own c h a r a c t e r , and the honesty w i t h which he faces h i s own shortcomings and f a i l u r e s , have a d e f i n i t e r i n g of t r u t h . Whatever documentation i s a v a i l a b l e ( F u r n i v a l l p r i n t s a number of documents concern ing Hoccleve i n h i s e d i t i o n of Minor Poems.) i t supports H o c c l e v e ' s s ta tements . There can be l i t t l e doubt, then, tha t the f ac t s about h i m s e l f which the poet sets before us are i n the main t r u e . I t i s d i f f i c u l t to imagine that he would o f f e r such a c o n s i s t e n t l y u n f l a t t e r i n g p o r t r a i t of h i m s e l f , throughout over twenty years of poe t ry , wi thou t there be ing a good dea l of t r u t h to i t . I n the biography s e c t i o n , below, I have taken the e s s e n t i a l f a c t s "of H o c c l e v e ' s l i f e from the poe t ry , and, where I have been able to do so , I have consu l t ed a v a i l a b l e secondary sources to b u i l d up a coherent and c o n s i s t e n t p i c t u r e of the l i f e he l e d . v i i For t h i s e d i t i o n , I have attempted to render the w r i t t e n s c r i p t of the MS as c l o s e l y as p o s s i b l e i n type . The accommodations I have made to t h i s end are d i scussed i n the s e c t i o n "A Note on E d i t i n g . " Tex tua l Notes and a g l o s s a r y f o l l o w the t r a n s c r i p t of the MS. To present the reader w i t h a coherent copy of the f i n a l poem of the MS, which i s incomplete i n HM 744, I have t r a n s c r i b e d the remainder of the poem and the c l o s i n g prose s e c t i o n , which fo l l ows l i n e 672 of t h i s MS, from F . J . F u r n i v a l l ' s e d i t i o n of the Durham MS i n Minor Poems. F i n a l l y , I should l i k e to o f f e r my thanks to Miss Jean Pres ton of the MS Department of the Henry E . Hunt ington L i b r a r y , San M a r i n o , C a l i f o r n i a , fo r p r o v i d i n g me w i t h the photo-copy of the MS, and a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of the MS, which I have p r i n t e d below. A l s o , I must thank Professor Mered i t h Thompson, of the Department of E n g l i s h , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, fo r h i s pa t i en t a s s i s t ance as my a d v i s e r i n the p roduc t ion of t h i s e d i t i o n , over so long a pe r iod of t ime . FOOTNOTES 1. F . J . F u r n i v a l l , e d . , The Minor Poems of Thomas Hocc leve , EETS, e s , 61 (London, 1892). Fur the r c i t a t i o n s w i l l be made s imply to Minor Poems. i x A b b r e v i a t i o n s used i n t h i s e d i t i o n . A b b r e v i a t i o n s for H o c c l e v e ' s major works : D i a l o g Complaint EC LD MR Regement D i a l o g w i t h a F r i e n d  H o c c l e v e ' s Complaint  E p i s t l e of Cupid  Lerne to Dye La Male Regie de Th. Hoccleve  Regement of P r inces General a b b r e v i a t i o n s : EETS, es EETS, os • MLN MLR MP NQ PMLA Spec. TLS UTSE E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , E x t r a S e r i e s . E a r l y E n g l i s h Text S o c i e t y , O r i g i n a l S e r i e s . Modern Language Notes Modern Language Review Modern P h i l o l o g y Notes and Queries P u b l i c a t i o n s of the Modern Language A s s o c i a t i o n Speculum Times L i t e r a r y Supplement U n i v e r s i t y of Texas S tud ies i n E n g l i s h . A Chronology of the l i f e of Th. Hoccleve Hoccleve bo rn , perhaps i n the v i l l a g e of H o c k c l i f f e , B e d f o r d s h i r e . Tra ined for p r i e s thood or law. Enters P r i v y Sea l as C l e r k . (17 R i c h . I I ) granted a cor rody at H a y l i n g ; t en pounds p . a . In I Henry IV he disposes of i t (1399). A l s o l i s t e d as r e c e i v i n g 1/2 share of 40 pounds worth of outlaws goods. 12 November. Ten pound annui ty granted for l i f e , or u n t i l such time as he should r e c e i v e a benef ice worth 20 pounds p . a . Chaucer d i e s . 25 October . L e p i s t r e de C u p i d . La Male Regie de Th. Hocc leve . Surrenders 10 pound annui ty for a new grant of 13 pounds 6 s h i l l i n g s 8 pence p . a . Hoccleve m a r r i e s , a f t e r w a i t i n g long for a preferrment which never came. Regement of P r i n c e s . Poem aga ins t O l d c a s t l e . Hoccleve goes mad. Loses h i s memory fo r a t ime . The d i s t r e s s l a s t s i n t e r m i t t e n t l y u n t i l 1421-22. This i s the pe r iod of h i s g rea tes t f i n a n c i a l d i s t r e s s as w e l l . Complaint and D i a l o g w i t h a F r i e n d . Lerne to Dye. 4 J u l y . Corrody granted at Southwick, Hampshire. Hoccleve d ie s i n l a t e s p r i n g or summer. H o c c l e v e ' s L i f e 1. Date of b i r t h and e a r l y y e a r s . Of age am I f i f t y w i n t e r and t h r e . So says Thomas Hoccleve i n h i s D i a l o g w i t h a F r i e n d . 1 In the same poem he r e f e r s to . . . m y l o r d bat now i s l i e u t e n a n t , My l o r d of G l o u c e s t r e . . . . Humphrey, Duke of G l o u c e s t e r , b ro ther of Henry V , was l o r d - l i e u t e n a n t of England from June 1421, when Henry re tu rned to France fo r the l a s t t ime, u n t i l the k i n g ' s death a t Vincennes on 31 Augus t , 1422.^ The poem was w r i t t e n du r ing t h i s space of t ime, then, and H o c c l e v e ' s b i r t h year can be taken as 1368 or 1369. F u r n i v a l l , i n h i s e d i t i o n of Minor Poems, quotes R. E . G. K i r k , and says that Hoccleve got h i s name most probably from the v i l l a g e of H o c k c l i f f e i n B e d f o r d s h i r e . 3 But the poet i s a Londoner through and through. F u r n i v a l l says of him l a t e r : "There i s so l i t t l e of the country i n H o c c l e v e ' s works that he was no doubt a cockney. "4-None of h i s imagery goes out i n t o the sun and a i r . He t a l k s l i t t l e of o ther areas than those i n c l o s e compass to the S t rand , where he had rooms, and the o f f i c e of the P r i v y S e a l , where he worked for so l o n g . Between h i s b i r t h and the time he i s f i r s t mentioned i n p u b l i c r e c o r d s , about 1387 or 1388, no th ing i s known of Hocc leve . We may surmise w i t h a f a i r degree of c e r t a i n t y , and w i t h the support of one - 3 . or two statements from h i s poems, that he was reasonably w e l l - e d u c a t e d . To be a s c r i b e i n the o f f i c e of the P r i v y Sea l would r e q u i r e a knowledge of French and L a t i n - - a knowledge Hoccleve e x h i b i t s . He was-, says Miss Lucy Toulmin Smi th , " l i k e Chaucer, probably bred to the law."5 She bases her judgement on the f ac t that Hoccleve l i v e d a t Chesters Inn i n the S t r and , as he t e l l s us h i m s e l f a t l i n e 5 i n the Regement of P r i n c e s . 6 Chesters Inn was one of the inns of Chancery, where young men were t r a i n e d to the law. On the other hand, F u r n i v a l l t h inks that the poet was r a i s e d to be a p r i e s t . Hoccleve h i m s e l f supports F u r n i v a l l : I whilom thoght have been a preest The f ac t tha t Hoccleve r e c e i v e d two c o r r o d i e s , or pensions pa id from p a r i s h e s , adds fu r the r s t r eng th to F u r n i v a l l ' s argument. In any event , h i s p o s i t i o n as a s c r i b e was probably achieved under the patronage of someone of i n f l u e n c e , as was h i s r e c e i p t of h i s f i r s t corrody i n 1395. In 1387 or 1388 Hoccleve entered the O f f i c e of the P r i v y Sea l as a s c r i b e . I n Regement he says In the o f f i c e of the p r i v e - s e a l I wone; To w r i t e there i s my custume and wone Unto the s e e l , and have twenty yere And foure , come E s t r e n , and that i s nere . Regement was t r a n s l a t e d for Henry, P r ince of Wales, i n 1411 or 1412, j u s t before h i s a c c e s s i o n on 21 March, 1412. S u b t r a c t i o n g ives us the rough date of 1387 or 1388. Hoccleve was 19 or 20. The dates c o i n c i d e w i t h the f i r s t mention of Hoccleve i n the p u b l i c r e c o r d s . F u r n i v a l l quotes from P r i v y C o u n c i l Proceedings and Ordinances , 1386-1400 (ed. N i c h o l a s , 1834, v o l . I , 88 ) , where Hoccleve i s named w i t h three others as " c l e r s en l ' o f f i s e du p r ive s e a l . " ^ Because Hoccleve i s mentioned i n the same document w i t h S i r John Clanvowe, who d ied before the end of A p r i l , 1390, the date of the document can be e s t a b l i s h e d as between 1386 and 1390.8 Hoccleve must, a t the beg inn ing of h i s c a r e e r , have had some pat ron to look a f t e r h i s i n t e r e s t s . Who, of the many he had dur ing h i s l i f e t i m e , cannot be determined. But i t must have been an important person, f o r i n 1395 (17 Richard I I ) he ; r ece ived a cor rody at H a y l i n g . 9 i n the same year he i s l i s t e d w i t h three f r i ends as be ing i n r e c e i p t of 1/2 share of f o r t y pounds worth of outlaws g o o d s . ^ But R icha rd was not to be long on the throne; and, whoever t h i s e a r l y patron was, there seems to have been a l a t e r f a l l i n g from favour . Hoccleve r e s igned the cor rody at H a y l i n g i n 1399, as soon as Henry IV came to the throne - - the r e s i g n a t i o n was undoubtedly a demonstra t ion of t r u s t i n and l o y a l t y to the new k i n g . I t seems to have been an e f f e c t i v e demonst ra t ion , fo r i n the f i r s t s i x weeks of Henry ' s r e i g n Hoccleve was granted h i s f i r s t annu i ty (on 12 November, 1399). The grant was ten pounds per annum fo r l i f e , or u n t i l such time as Hoccleve was granted a benef ice paying twenty pounds. F u r n i v a l l p r i n t s a t r a n s c r i p t of the document o r d e r i n g t h i s g ran t . ^ Hoccleve was always to have some t roub le c o l l e c t i n g the money due him from t h i s g ran t , and from a subsequent grant g i v e n on 17 May, 1409, which r a i s e d h i s annu i ty to t h i r t e e n pounds, s i x s h i l l i n g s , e i g h t pence. The f i n a n c i a l worry l a t e r c o n t r i b u t e d to h i s p h y s i c a l and mental breakdown. - 5 . -2. His l i f e p r i o r to 1412. Sa in t sbu ry says of Hoccleve that " . . . h i s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l confidences make him a so r t of E n g l i s h , and c r ime le s s V i l l o n . " From h i s e a r l i e s t days at the P r i v y Sea l Hoccleve enjoyed the h igh l i f e . He t e l l s us , i n La Male Regie de Th. H o c c l e v e , ^ w r i t i n g about 1406, tha t for . X X . t 3 - w y n t i r past c o n t i n u e l l y Excesse a t borde hath l e y d h i s knyf w i t h me. He was a member of a d i n i n g c l u b i n the Temple. One of h i s j o c u l a r poems to S i r Henry Somer, i n the P h i l l i p p s MS (now H M l l l ) , i s evidence of both h i s membership i n the c l u b , and of h i s l i f e as a bon v i v a n t . The ded i ca to ry l i n e s of the poem i d e n t i f y the c lub as "La Court de bone conpa ign i e . " i ^ - And h i s poetry i s f u l l of passages dec ry ing h i s excesses . He drank too much, he t e l l s us f i r s t i n La Male Regie : The outward signe of Bachus and h i s l u r e , bat h i s dore hang i th day by day, E x c i t i t h f o l k to taas te of h i s mois ture So o f t en bat a man can nat seyn nay. For me, I seye, I was enclyned ay Wlthouten daunger t h i d i r fo r to hye m e . ^ He chased the g i r l s : I dar nat t e l l e how bat the fresshe r e p e i r of venus femel l u s t y c h i l d r e n deere At Poules Heed me maden ofte appeere To t a l k e of mir the & to d i s p o r t e & p l eye . Indeed, among the taverners and those who might feed other of h i s d e s i r e s , who was b e t t e r known: Wher was a g r e t t e r ma i s t e r eek than y , Or bet aqweyntid a t Westmynstre y a t e , Among the tauerneres namely, And Cookes, whan I cam e e r l y or late?-*-? He was a s p e n d t h r i f t , and v a i n too , as he e x p l a i n s i n the passage i n La Male Regie about the boatmen, when he came to the water-s ide they would v i e w i t h one another i n p r a i s i n g h im, c a l l i n g him "mais ter H o c c l e v e . " They pleased h i s v a n i t y , and he paid them o v e r - w e l l : For r i o t pa i e th l a r g e l y euermo, He s t y n t i t y neuere t i l h i s purs be b a r e . - ^ Intemperate and v a i n , Hoccleve was a l s o somewhat f a i n t - h e a r t e d . He t e l l s us i n La Male Regie that he was shy, and though he l i k e d the company of the g i r l s at P a u l ' s Head Tavern, "of loues aa r t y i t touch id I no d e e l . " And he was f e a r f u l of f i g h t i n g : " I was so f e rd w i t h any man to f i g h t e , / Cloos kepte I me." The s e l f - p o r t r a i t that emerges from H o c c l e v e ' s a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l passages i s c o n s i s t e n t . V a i n he may be; p r o d i g a l he may be; somewhat cowardly he may be; but he i s t o t a l l y human. He i s an o r d i n a r y man g i f t e d w i t h some sma l l a b i l i t y to t e l l of h i m s e l f and h i s t ime . This he does w i t h a candid v i t a l i t y . E leanor P r e sco t t Hammond puts i t bes t when she says of h im, " i n s tudy ing Hoccleve we study someone who was ve ry l i t t l e of a w r i t e r , but a good dea l of a man."19 - 7. 3 . H i s marriage and changes i n h i s c h a r a c t e r . He l i v e d h i s r i o t o u s l i f e w h i l e he wa i t ed for a bene f i ce ; but none came. I gasyd longe f i r s t e , & wayted fas te A f t e r some bene f i ce , and when non cam By proces I me weddid a t t e l a s t e , And God i t wot, i t sore me agaste To bynde me where I was at my l a r g e . But done i t was: I took on me that charge.20 "By proces" i n d i c a t e s tha t i t was j u s t a matter of course that he should marry. I t suggests tha t Hoccleve came to i t as a d r i f t e r . The r a k e h e l l of h i s younger days s t i l l found that i t i r k e d him to be m a r r i e d : " to bynde me where I was a t my l a r g e , " but s l o w l y , r e s i g n e d l y , by de fau l t a lmost , he took on the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of i t . He may have mar r i ed a shrew. In the D i a l o g w i t h a F r i e n d , when the f r i e n d asks , "Thomas, how i s i t t w i x t thee and thy fee re?" there i s some sugges t ion that a l l i s no t , or has not been w e l l , fo r Hoccleve answers . . .What l i s t yow t h e r - o f heere? My wyf mighte haue h o k i r and greet desdyn I f I sho ld i n swich cas pleye and so leyn .21 Yet i n h i s l a t e r l i f e , when h i s h e a l t h had f a i l e d h im, there i s a l s o the sugges t ion that she was good to h im. In J e r e s l a u s ' Wi fe , i n the Minor Poems, Hoccleve says In ( a l ) the wor ld so louynge tendrenesse Is noon as i s the loue of a womman To h i r c h y l d namely & as I gesse To h i r e housbonde a l s o , wher-of wi tnesse We weddid men may bere i f bat us lyke And so byhoueth a thank us to p y k e . ^ There i s l i t t l e more i n h i s poet ry to show us h i s w i f e , and there i s no mention a t a l l of c h i l d r e n . But the e f f e c t h i s marriage seems to have had on h i s poetry i s marked. Before h i s marriage about 1412, he i s the gay member of a Temple d i n i n g c l u b , a would-be r ake , and a c e r t a i n s p e n d t h r i f t . H i s poetry r e f l e c t s t h i s . When he i s upb ra id ing h i m s e l f fo r h i s excesses , and swearing he w i l l change (he swears he w i l l change i n two separate poems w r i t t e n about s i x years a p a r t ) , there i s s t i l l a w i s t f u l n e s s i n the d e t a i l of the t e l l i n g . H i s most v i v i d passages are those i n which he desc r ibes the ve ry excesses he wishes to eschew. A f t e r 1412, however, he changes a b r u p t l y . He w r i t e s the Regement of P r inces for Henry V , i n which he r e s o l v e s to reform a g a i n . He fo l l ows t h i s w i t h the Complaint of the V i r g i n before the c r o s s . Some of the r e l i g i o u s verse a t the beg inn ing of the Hoccleve s e c t i o n of HM 744 i s w r i t t e n about t h i s t ime . I n 1415 he w r i t e s h i s poem Aga ins t O l d c a s t l e , i n which he a t t acks the h e r e t i c who e a r l i e r had been a pa t ron . The a t t a c k suggests some deep seated fears may have been p lagu ing Hocc leve ; some deep f e l t g u i l t s which make h i s r e l i g i o u s poems, conven t iona l though they may be, so powerful i n t h e i r statement of h i s own s ince re sense of s i n . His fears may have a r i s e n from h i s constant l i v i n g on the edge of penury w i t h p r i s o n not fa r o f f . The sense of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y brought on a t h i s marr iage , and the r e a l i z a t i o n that he might not be able to l i v e up to i t , would add to the unease. And f i n a l l y the heresy of O l d c a s t l e , a former pa t ron , and h i s l a t e r execu t ion might have d r i v e n ' H o c c l e v e f r a n t i c l e s t he be cons ide red to be i n league w i t h the h e r e t i c . Whatever the reasons fo r the change, i t can be dated f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y . The man-about-town became the sombre m o r a l i s t . And as the pressures inc reased the sombre m o r a l i s t broke down. 4 . H i s patrons and h i s money problems. Hoccleve had many pa t rons . F u r n i v a l l l i s t s Henry I V , Henry V , Humphrey Duke of C l o u c e s t e r , Edward Duke of Y o r k , the Duchess of Y o r k , the Duke of Bedford , John of Gaunt, the Lord C h a n c e l l o r , S i r Henry Somer, the Countess of Westmorland, Lady Here fo rd , Robert C h i c e l e , S i r John O l d c a s t l e (before h i s h e r e s y ) , and M a i s t e r Carpenter , town c l e r k of London.23 Many of the patrons are named fo r one extant poem o n l y , i n d i c a t i n g tha t Hoccleve may have been " t r y i n g them on" as pa t rons , a t tempt ing to get money from them at l e a s t once, w i t h a v iew to e s t a b l i s h i n g i t on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . A t l e a s t one of h i s pa t rons , M a i s t e r Carpenter , i s named i n the ded i ca to ry l i n e of a poem only a f t e r a previous name has been scra tched ou t . 2^ To some few he sent more than one poem: Henry V and S i r Henry Somer, fo r example; but most of ten he approaches a pa t ron on ly once. I f what he t e l l s us about h i m s e l f i s t r u e , he may have l acked the necessary charm and s o c i a l grace to g a i n cont inued patronage. Too, h i s a b i l i t i e s as a poet were main ly mediocre . - io. H o c c l e v e ' s i n a b i l i t y to get c o n t i n u i n g patronage, and h i s s p e n d t h r i f t a t t i t u d e and cons ide rab l e v a n i t y , l e f t him from an e a r l y date on the b r i n k of penury. When h i s a n n u i t i e s get i n t o a r r ea r s about 1413 or 1414, he i s f r i gh tened tha t he may go to p r i s o n fo r debt : . . . b u t the f l o o d of your r i a l l a rgesse Flowe vp on vs go ld hath i n swich hate . . . t h e scantnesse Wole a r t e us three to t r o t t e v n - t o Newgate.25 This fear i s almost c e r t a i n l y one of the c o n t r i b u t i n g f ac to r s i n h i s l a t e r madness. A l l but a few of h i s poems have patrons named i n ded i ca to ry l i n e s , and presumably were composed for some money c o n s i d e r a t i o n . Some, such as the example quoted a b o v e ^askvd i r e c t l y for a s s i s t a n c e . Others avo id t h e - d i r e c t r eques t : for example the humorous roundels i n HM 744, i n which the poet bemoans h i s poor c o n d i t i o n , and i n which a p e r s o n i f i e d "Lady Money" upbraids him for h i s was te fu lness . Other groups of poems r e l y on f l a t t e r y of the patron to achieve t h e i r end. Examples of t h i s l a t t e r type might be the poem to "Me i s t r e H . Somer," or the one "mys en l e l i v r e . . . d e Due de B e d f o r d , " i n which he p ra i se s Bedford as the " r i a l eg les e x c e l l e n c e , " and c h a r a c t e r i z e s h i m s e l f as a "humble c l e r c . " 2 6 But , patronage was never c o n s i s t e n t . I n h i s Complaint27 Hoccleve c r i e s that h i s p r o s p e r i t y and good fortune have long s ince deser ted h im. . . . f a r w e l l p r o s p e r i t i e . ' I am no lengar of your l yve rye .28 W r i t t e n i n h i s o l d age, the Complaint makes i t c l e a r that the poet f e e l s as i f everyone were out to cheat him of what l i t t l e money he may have l e f t . A t t h i s time he has a l r eady been through the pe r iod of h i s madness. The number of references to money i n these post-madness poems, D i a l o g w i t h a f r i e n d and Compla in t , are many. The f ac t that the references are of ten i r r e l e v a n t to the r e s t of the poem shows how much the problem plagued h im. Lack of c o n t i n u i n g patronage, coupled w i t h the p r o d i g a l i t y of h i s youth would have meant, as he grew o l d e r , tha t he cou ld no longer f o o l h i m s e l f i n t o b e l i e v i n g h i m s e l f to be a gentleman f o r e v e r . And, w i t h Newgate a t h r e a t , i t i s l i t t l e wonder tha t he l o s t c o n t r o l . 5. H o c c l e v e ' s Madness Some time i n 1416 Hoccleve went mad for a t ime. He l o s t h i s memory when he was s t r u c k w i t h a "wylde i n f i r m y t i e . " 2 9 His memory came back, he t e l l s us when he w r i t e s h i s Compla in t , f i v e years ago a t " a l l halwe messe."-^ But he found tha t a l l h i s f r i ends had deser ted h im: "wi th me to deale hadden they no dysdayne."31 He apparen t ly shut h i m s e l f away, and went on ly i r r e g u l a r l y to the P r i v y S e a l . Seve ra l times h i s c l e r k , John Welde, i s shown to have c o l l e c t e d money owing to Hocc leve , which would i n d i c a t e , perhaps, that Hoccleve was i n c a p a c i t a t e d . The date of h i s madness can be f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y determined. As was shown i n the d i s c u s s i o n of H o c c l e v e ' s date of b i r t h and e a r l y y e a r s , the date of the D i a l o g w i t h a f r i e n d and the Compla in t , which i s connected to the former poem, can be set a f t e r June of 1421, because of the reference to Gloueest-eras "Lord L i e u t e n a n t . " The f i v e years from " a l l halwe messe" of 1421 would g ive 1416 as the probable date fo r h i s madness. I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note that Hoccleve documents p r i n t e d by F u r n i v a l l show that h i s f i n a n c i a l d i s t r e s s reached a peak about t h i s t ime. And f i n a l l y , i t i s the pe r iod of O l d c a s t l e ' s escape from the Tower, and h i s condemnation. ( O l d c a s t l e i s captured and executed a year l a t e r ) . As has been po in ted out be fo re , H o c c l e v e ' s connec t ion w i t h O l d c a s t l e may have caused him some worry when h i s former pat ron became an avowed and condemned h e r e t i c . There i s one fu r the r sugges t ion as to the cause of H o c c l e v e ' s madness. In the Complaint there i s a v i v i d s tanza on drunkenness which mimics c l o s e l y the symptoms of madness tha t the poet has e a r l i e r d e s c r i b e d : I f a man ones f a l l i n dronkenesse, s h a l l he contynew t h e r e - i n evar mo? nay, thowghe a man doo i n drynkynge excesse so f e r f o r t h e that not speake he ne can , ne goo, and h i s w i t t e s welny ben r e f t e hym f r o o , and buryed i n the Cuppe he af tarward Comythe to hym s e l f e agayne e l l i s were i t ha rd ; Right so thowghe my w i t t were a p i l g r i m e , and went(e) f e r f ro home, he cam agayne.33 I t i s not too fa r fe tched to conclude that drunkenness may have been a c o n t r i b u t i n g cause to h i s " l o s s of memory." The past r eco rd of carousing- which he admits i n e a r l i e r poems would support t h i s p o s s i b i l i t ; - 13 . 6. H i s l a t e r y e a r s , and h i s L a s t Poems. A f t e r h i s madness, Hoccleve shut h i m s e l f up f o r long per iods of t ime. Hi s f r i e n d i n the D i a l o g r i d e s him because the poet has not been seen about for almost three months. And Hoccleve admits too that he avoided people f o r fear that they would r i d i c u l e him as they had done soon a f t e r h i s recovery from h i s madness. Now, however, a f t e r long i n a c t i v i t y , Hoccleve t e l l s us he wants to w r i t e some more poe t ry . He i s anxious to r i g h t the wrongs he had done to women i n the w r i t i n g of h i s E p i s t r e de Cupid so long ago. H i s f r i e n d chides him to i t : Thow woost wel on wommen, greet wyt & l a k Ofte haast thow put ; be waar l e s t thow be q w i t . - ^ So he t r a n s l a t e s two t a l e s from the Gesta Romanorum, which are i n c l u d e d i n the Durham MS. These t a l e s are J e r e s l a u s ' W i f e , and the Tale of  Jonathas and F e l l i c u l a . J F i n a l l y , he says he w i l l t r a n s l a t e the S c i t e M o r i , par t of the Horologium of Henry Suso, a four teen th century German m y s t i c . He t e l l s h i s f r i e n d that he has seen a L a t i n t r e a t i s e : i n l a t y n have I sene a sma l l t r e t i s ( e ) whiche 1 l e r n e for to dye ' I - c a l l y d i s And that have I purposed to t r a n s l a t e . 3 6 When the t r a n s l a t i o n i s f i n i s h e d , Hoccleve goes on to t e l l h i s f r i e n d , " I nevar th inke / more i n englyshe a f t a r be o c c u p i e d . " I w i l l w r i t e no more. He t r a n s l a t e s Lerne to Dye i n 1422 or 1423, and, apparen t ly t rue to h i s word, he w r i t e s no more. By t h i s time he i s age ing , shor t s i g h t e d , and i n i l l h e a l t h . He only wa i t s fo r some pens ion . A t l a s t on 4 J u l y , 1424, i t comes. He i s granted . . . su s t enance y e a r l y , dur ing h i s l i f e , i n the p r i o r y of Southwick, Hampshire, as had been h e l d p r e v i o u s l y by Nicho la s Mokkynge, l a t e master of S t . Lawrence i n the P o u l t r y . 3 7 Perhaps h i s l a s t years were reasonably secure w i t h the income from the cor rody at Southwick. So we may hope. 7. The date of h i s Death. U n t i l r e c e n t l y Hoccleve was assumed to have d i ed a t a ve ry o l d age - - i n h i s e i g h t i e s - - about 1450. This date was e s t a b l i s h e d on the b a s i s of a poem "To my Gracious Lord of York , "38 ± n w n i c h Hoccleve makes mention of P r i n c e Edward. The Edward r e f e r r e d to was assumed to be the young P r i n c e Edward, son of R i c h a r d , Duke of Y o r k . This Edward was born i n 1442. Because the p r i n c e ' s t u t o r , a "Ma i s t e r P i c a r d , " i s mentioned, i t was fu r the r assumed that the p r ince would have to have been a t l e a s t s i x years o l d . Consequently the date for the poem was set a t 1448 to 1450, and H o c c l e v e ' s dea th , fo r the purposes of neatness , was assumed to have occurred soon a f t e r . The gap between H o c c l e v e ' s l a s t poem i n 1421 or 1422, and 1448, was such as to r a i s e some doubts , but no evidence for H o c c l e v e ' s death c o u l d be found, and the mat ter had to s tand the re . - 15. -I n 1937 H . C. Shulz took up the matter of t h i s l a t e poem and the date of H o c c l e v e ' s death.39 H e c o n c i u d e d that the poem to "My Lord of York" was w r i t t e n to Edward, Duke of York and son of Edmund P lan tagene t , who h e l d the t i t l e from 1402 to h i s death i n France i n 1415. Such a c o n c l u s i o n , Shulz c l a imed , was more i n keeping w i t h the p a l e o g r a p h i c a l evidence which i n d i c a t e d that the P h i l l i p p s MS, i n which the poem i s found, was a l l cop ied about the same t ime . Yet no proof for a date of H o c c l e v e ' s death was found to subs t an t i a t e S h u l z ' c l a i m that Hoccleve probably d i ed about 1430. In 1951, however, reasonably f i r m evidence was d i s c o v e r e d . H. S. Bennet t , w r i t i n g i n the Times L i t e r a r y S u p p l e m e n t , ^ i n d i c a t e d that he had e s t a b l i s h e d almost c e r t a i n l y that Hoccleve d i e d i n 1437, and probably the summer of that yea r . The Calendar of Close R o l l s ( C . C . R . ) fo r 1435 to 1441, says Bennet t , shows that on 18 August , 1437, a cor rody was g iven to A l i c e Penforde and Thomas Baker , to be h e l d at the P r i o r y of Southwick, Hampshire. This i s the same P r i o r y to which Hoccleve had p r e v i o u s l y been g iven a cor rody on 4 J u l y , 1424. Bennett makes i t c l e a r that Hoccleve d i d not h o l d a cor rody there concurrent w i t h Penforde and Baker . A f t e r examining the Calendar of Patent R o l l s for the P r i o r y i n q u e s t i o n , Bennett found that i n October of 1336 a judgement was passed l i m i t i n g Southwick to on ly one c o r r o d i a n . There i s no fu r the r r eco rd that t h i s was changed, and there i s no reason to assume tha t Hoccleve h e l d the corrody c o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h the people mentioned i n the C . C . R . fo r 1435 - 1441. Therefore , Bennett - 16. -argues , we can assume that Hoccleve d i e d , l e a v i n g the corrody vacan t , not l a t e r than the summer of 1437. He was 68 or 69. The B a l l a d "To my Lord of Y o r k " can now be e s t a b l i s h e d as hav ing been w r i t t e n i n the pe r iod 1402 to 1415, i n accordance w i t h the p a l e o g r a p h i c a l evidence Shulz brought forward e a r l i e r . And we can e s t a b l i s h more than j u s t a l i k e l i h o o d that H o c c l e v e ' s l a s t poem was Lerne to Dye, w r i t t e n about 1422. FOOTNOTES 1. F . J . F u r n i v a l l , e d . , The Minor Poems of Thomas Hocc leve , EETS, e s , 61 (London: 1892). The two quota t ions are from l i n e s 246, and 533-4. Fu r the r references to t h i s e d i t i o n w i l l be r e f e r r e d to s imply as Minor Poems. 2. Minor Poems 3 . Minor Poems 4 . Minor Poems , v i i . 5 . " B a l l a d by Thomas Hocc leve , Addressed to S i r John O l d c a s t l e , AD 1415," A n g l i a , V o l . 5 (1882), 12. 6. F . J . F u r n i v a l l , e d . , The Regement of P r i n c e s , EETS, e s , 72 (1897). The quo t a t i on i s from l i n e s 802-05. The work w i l l be r e f e r r e d to he rea f t e r s imply as Regment. 7. Minor Poems, x . 8. I b i d . 9. Henry S. Bennet t , S i x Med ieva l Men and Women (Cambridge: 1955), 82. 10. I b i d . 11. Minor Poems, 12. The End of the Midd le Ages , 205. Volume 2 of The Cambridge H i s t o r y • qf E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , A . W. Ward and A . R. W a l l e r , eds . (Cambridge: 1907-27) . - 18. -13. Minor Poems, 25. 11. 111-2. 14. Minor Poems, 64. 15. MR, 121-6. 16. MR, 137-144. 17. MR, 177-184. 18. MR, 199-200. 19. E n g l i s h V e r s e : Chaucer to Surrey (Durham, N . C . : 1927), 56. 20. Regement, 1451-56. 21 . Minor Poems, D i a l o g , 739-42. 22. 11 . 394-99 23. Minor Poems, x x x i v . 24. Minor Poems, 63, f n . 25. Minor Poems, "Item au Roy, que d i eu P a r d o i n t J " 62. 26. Minor Poems, Balad to Somer i s a t page 59; b a l l a d to 27. Minor Poems, 95. 28. Minor Poems, "Compla in t , " 11. 270-271. 29. Minor Poems, " C o m p l a i n t , " 1. 40. - 19. -30. "Complaint," 1. 55. 31. "Complaint," 1. 66. 32. Minor Poems, "Appendix of Hoccleve Documents," l i - l x x . 33. "Complaint," 11. 225-233. 34. Minor Poems, "Dialog w i t h a F r i e n d , " 667-668. 35. In Minor Poems, 140, and 215, r e s p e c t i v e l y . 36. " D i a l o g , " 11. 205-6/ 2 1 1 . 37. From P r i v y C o u n c i l Proclamations, i i i , 152, quoted i n D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography entry on Hoccleve's l i f e . 38. Minor Poems, 49. 39. "Thomas Hoccleve, S c r i b e , " Speculum, 12 (1937), 71-81. 40. "Thomas Hoccleve's Death," TLS, F r i d a y , December 25, 1953, 833. H o c c l e v e ' s Knowledge of Chaucer I f our on ly i n t e r e s t i n Hoccleve were i n h i s poe t ry , any mention of him might long ago have ceased. But i n Regement of P r i n c e s , the beggar says to the poet : bou were aqueynted w i t h Chaucer pardee; God saue h i s s o u l e , best of any w y g h t . l Our i n t e r e s t qu ickens . Hoccleve has i n h i s poetry s e v e r a l s tanzas expres s ing g r i e f a t Chaucer ' s dea th . As the f i f t e e n t h century wears on almost every poet o f f e r s some l i n e s expres s ing g r i e f a t the death of Chaucer, and c l a i m i n g acquaintance w i t h h im. But , of them a l l , H o c c l e v e ' s c l a i m i s the most l i k e l y to be v a l i d . The P r i v y Seal O f f i c e was n e a r l y opposi te Chaucer ' s house on the s i t e of Henry V I I ' s Chapel i n the Abbey. This must have ensured that Hoccleve would see Chaucer, a t the l e a s t , from time to t ime. Hoccleve c l a ims Chaucer was h i s teacher , and he a w i l l i n g , i f somewhat d u l l s tuden t : My dere m a i s t i r - - God h i s soule quyte.' - -And f a d i r Chaucer, fayn wolde han me tagh t , But I was d u l , and l e rned l i t e or naght .3 There i s a c e r t a i n genuine r i n g to these l i n e s , i f on ly i n the con fes s ion that Hoccleve l acked the w i t to l e a r n much from Chaucer. The c l a i m of tu te lage i s probably p o e t i c l i c e n c e , but the s i n c e r i t y of the g r i e f i s r e a l enough. - 21. But welaway, i s i s myn h e r t ( e ) wo, That be honour of the Englyssh tonge i s deed Of which I wont han c o n s e i l and r e e d . ^ A l i a s ! my w o r t h i ma i s t e r honorable This landes v e r r y t r e s o r and r i c h e s s e ! Dethe, by t h i deth hath harme i r r e p a r a b l e Vnto vs d o o n . , . . ^ (Death) mighte han ta ryed h i r vengeance a w h i l e T i l tha t some man had ega l to the be. Nay, l a t be ba t ! sche knew wei bat b i s y l e May never man f o r t h brynge l y k to the .^ He c o u l d have known Chaucer. Of a l l the f o l l o w e r s , the l i k e l i h o o d i s s t ronges t w i t h Hocc leve . H o c c l e v e ' s poetry i m i t a t e s many of Chaucer ' s verse forms and subjec t mat te r . He even mimics Chaucer ' s i r o n i c s t y l e i n L e p i s t r e de  Cup id , which i s t r a n s c r i b e d i n the e d i t i o n of the MS HM 744, below. H o c c l e v e ' s copying of verse forms and subject matter i s d i scussed a t g rea te r l eng th i n the s e c t i o n on poe t ry , verse forms and prosody. F u r n i v a l l t h inks that because Hoccleve r e f e r s so g r a p h i c a l l y to Chaucer ' s death bed i n Regement; " p i bed m o r t e l , " he c a l l s i t a t l i n e 1966, that Hoccleve may have been w i t h Chaucer when he d i e d , or a t l e a s t w i t h him dur ing h i s l a s t days .? There i s no d i r e c t evidence to support t h i s , but the f a c t that H o c c l e v e ' s place of work was so c lo se to Chaucer ' s house makes i t p o s s i b l e . He may indeed be the student he c la imed to be . - 22. The Chaucer P o r t r a i t s Because of h i s love for and h i s i m i t a t i o n of Chaucer, we are indebted to Hocc leve ; but our indebtedness goes f u r t h e r , fo r Hoccleve has l e f t us two p o r t r a i t s of Chaucer. They are i n c l u d e d i n two cop ies of the Regement of P r i n c e s : H a r l e i a n MS 4866, and Royal MS 17, D. v i . This i s the u l t i m a t e t r i b u t e of the s tudent ; drawings prompted by a genuine reverence and r e spec t ; prompted by a de s i r e to keep Chaucer a l i v e i n everyone ' s mind. He says : Albough h i s l y f e be queynt, be resemblaunce Of him hab i n me so f ressh l y f l y n e s s e , bat to putte o t h i r men i n remembraunce Of h i s persone, I haue heere h i s lyknesse Do make, to b i s ende, i n so th fas tnesse , bat b e i bat haue of him l e s t bought & mynde, By b i s peynture may ageyn him fynde.8 The e x p r e s s i o n "do make" i n d i c a t e s tha t Hoccleve i s not c l a i m i n g to have done the p a i n t i n g s h i m s e l f . Rather he i s t e l l i n g us that heccaused them to be done, or had them done for the reason g i v e n i n the s tanza quoted. M. H . Spielman th inks that i t was probably an i l l u m i n a t o r - a r t i s t a t the P r i v y S e a l , who was commissioned to do them. The p o r t r a i t s are s i m i l a r , as can be seen by examining the r ep roduc t ions which Spielman p r i n t s , but the bes t of the two i s the 3/4 l eng th p o r t r a i t i n the H a r l e i a n MS 4866. The other p o r t r a i t i s f u l l l e n g t h , but not as w e l l executed . The l i n e i s rough and h u r r i e d i n i t , though i t does bear a reasonable s i m i l a r i t y to the 3/4 l eng th p a i n t i n g . ^ The 3/4 l eng th p a i n t i n g , says Spei lman, i s the one cons idered most r- 23. trustworthy, even though i t i s admittedly a p a i n t i n g from memory. The other, f u l l length p a i n t i n g , despite resemblances to the f i r s t , i s amateurish, and may have been done much l a t e r than the copying of the MS. Of the Chaucer p o r t r a i t s which have come down, Hoccleve's p o r t r a i t s are now b e l i e v e d to be c l o s e s t i n time to Chaucer h i m s e l f . Two other p o r t r a i t s , the F a i r f a x Murray, or Seddon p o r t r a i t , and the p o r t r a i t i n the BM A d d i t i o n a l MS 5147, were thought to be contemporary with the Hoccleve p a i n t i n g s , but, according to Speilman, t h i s i s now do u b t f u l . The l a r g e r (19 by 14 inches) Seddon p o r t r a i t i s b e l i e v e d to be a t h i r d hand reproduction of the Hoccleve p o r t r a i t i n H a r l . 4866, because the pose and c o l o r i n g are s i m i l a r . I t i s b e l i e v e d to date from the l a t t e r h a l f of the f i f t e e n t h century. The p o r t r a i t i n BM Ad d i t . 5147 has the date 1402 on i t , but Speilman thinks t h i s i s spurious, and that the p i c t u r e cannot date e a r l i e r than the r e i g n of E l i z a b e t h I . ^ 1 Though a r t i s t i c a l l y they may not, then, be the best of the Chaucer p o r t r a i t s -- the miniature i n the Ellesmere MS and the Seddon P o r t r a i t are probably the most b e a u t i f u l of the many -- those which Hoccleve has l e f t may w e l l be t r u e s t to t h e i r o r i g i n a l . And, i n any event, the pa i n t i n g s are a sin c e r e t r i b u t e , earning Hoccleve a place i n l i t e r a r y h i s t o r y which he might not otherwise have had. FOOTNOTES 1. Regement, 11. 1867-8. 2. M. H . Spie lman, The P o r t r a i t s of Geoffrey Chaucer (London: 1900), The Chaucer S o c i e t y . See the footnote on page 6. 3 . Regement, 11. 2077-9. 4 . Regement, 11. 1958-60. 5. Regement, 11. 2080-83. 6. Regement, 11 . 2101-04. 7. Minor Poems, x x x i . 8. Regement, 11. 4992-98. 9. Spei lman, P o r t r a i t s , op c i t . , 5 , f f . 10. Spei lman, 13. 11. Spei lman, 10. H o c c l e v e ' s P o e t i c Forms and Prosody. 1. H i s Borrowing from Chaucer. Ten B r i n k i s probably c o r r e c t i n say ing that Hoccleve "comes nearer to the grea t model than almost any of the poets" of the p e r i o d .1 And i t i s t rue that Hoccleve does show v i t a l i t y i f not o r i g i n a l i t y i n h i s d i a l o g u e , or when he i s d i s c u s s i n g h i m s e l f , e i t h e r w i s h f u l l y d e s c r i b i n g h i s y o u t h f u l h e l l - r a i s i n g , or w o e f u l l y dec ry ing h i s s e l f i s h -ness , or s i n c e r e l y begging a b s o l u t i o n through " C h r i s t e s modir dee re . " He has a sense of humour a t t imes , but there i s a s t rong s t r eak of d i d a c t i c i s m i n h i s poetry which s t i f l e s most of the r e a d e r ' s smi les before they are begun. For the most part h i s i m i t a t i o n of Chaucer i s mechan ica l , and I cannot agree w i t h ten B r i n k that "everywhere we can t r ace the i n f l uence of the master wi thout be ing able to c a l l i t mere i m i t a t i o n . " ^ Nothing of H o c c l e v e ' s verse forms i s o r i g i n a l . A l l the forms he uses were used by Chaucer before h im, and he mimics them w e l l , as we s h a l l see. Hoccleve takes the Rhyme Royal s tanza from Chaucer. Chaucer f i r s t used i t i n E n g l i s h i n h i s "Complaint unto P i t y . " Parlement of F o u l e s , T r o i l u s and Cr i seyde and the P r i o r e s s ' s Tale are three of h i s major poems i n which i t i s used, and from which Hoccleve c o u l d have drawn. Bu t , u n l i k e Chaucer, Hoccleve uses the Rhyme Royal s tanza i n almost a l l o f h i s poe t ry ; he a l l but does i t to dea th . What fo r Chaucer had been a p l a s t i c form becomes, fo r Hocc leve , s t a t i c and u n y i e l d i n g , and composed most o f t e n , one imagines , by simple f i n g e r c o u n t i n g . A l l of H o c c l e v e ' s major - 26. poems: L e p i s t r e de Cupid, Mother of God, Regement of P r i n c e s , Lerne to  Dye, are i n Rhyme Royal. A l l of the poems i n HM 744 except the three roundels are i n t h i s form. I I n a few poems Hoccleve does use other verse forms and rhyme schemes, but here too he draws from the master. The e i g h t l i n e stanza of La Male Regie and the Poem Against O l d c a s t l e , rhymed a b a b b c b c , i s found i n The Monk's Tale, and the shorter poems Fortune and The Former  Age. Hoccleve's use of i t i s uninventive. There are one or two poems i n d e c a s y l l a b i c nine l i n e stanzas, of which h i s Balade to my Gracious Lord of York i s an example. The rhyme scheme here i s a a b a a b b a b. In t h i s form he i s f o l l o w i n g the example Chaucer sets i n A n e l i d a and A r c i t e . In the roundels i n HM 744 and the P h i l l i p p s MS, now HM 111 i n the Huntington L i b r a r y , Hoccleve was not i n n o v a t i n g e i t h e r . He had s e v e r a l examples from Chaucer, of which M e r c i l e s Beaute may have been one. Hoccleve wrote v i r e l a y s as w e l l . W. W. Skeat, i n "Hoccleve's Rhymes and Chaucer's V i r e l a y s , " 3 points out that the P h i l l i p p s MS item IV, Balade to the K i n g , has a much more i n t r i c a t e rhyme scheme than had p r e v i o u s l y been noted. The b a s i c rhyme scheme of the poem i s a b a b b c b c , i n f i v e e i g h t l i n e stanzas. But, :Skeat notes that i n the whole poem there are only three rhyme sounds. These are u a l , " "-ee," and "-ay," The simple rhyme scheme i n v a r y i n g order i s the e s s e n t i a l point of the v i r e l a y , says Skeats. Chaucer, i n the Legend of Good Women admits he wrote v i r e l a y s : He made...the Parlement of Foules, and I gesse And a l the love of Palamon and A r c i t e Of Thebes . . . And many an ympne for your halydayes That h i g h t e n ba lades , rounde l s , v i r e l a y e s ; ^ Only two of Chaucer ' s v i r e l a y s have come down to us . Both of them are i n A n e l i d a and A r c i t e , l i n e s 256 to 271, and 317 to 332. Skeat l i s t s s e v e r a l other of the poems from the P h i l l i p p s MS as v i r e l a y s --• Balade on the  Removal of the Bones of Richard I I to Westminster , 1413; Balade to my  Lord the Chance l l o r are two. I t i s h i g h l y probable that Hoccleve learned the form from Chaucer, and, as Skeat concludes I t seems . . . a most i n t e r e s t i n g f ac t t ha t , though we have not got many of Chaucer ' s e i g h t l i n e v i r e l a y s , we know p r e c i s e l y how they a l l went.5 Hoccleve does not experiment w i t h verse forms, then. He takes them from Chaucer, h a r d l y v a r i e d , and i t i s ma in ly the Rhyme Royal he uses . He i s the f i r s t of the f i f t e e n t h century poets to emulate Chaucer, and he does so f a i r l y a c c u r a t e l y , i f m e c h a n i c a l l y . As other poets enter l a t e r , the forms are d i s t o r t e d . As Miss E . P. Hammond says inccomparing Hoccleve and Lydgate , and the statement might w e l l be a p p l i e d to a l l o f the poets of the century f o l l o w i n g Chaucer ' s dea th , "ne i t he r man understood Chaucer ' s rhythm, but they misunderstand ve ry d i f f e r e n t l y . " 6 2. H i s Prosody. In genera l Hoccleve i s un inven t ive i n h i s prosody. He uses most of the convent ions common throughout Midd le E n g l i s h poe t ry . H i s - 28. -meter i s almost s o l e l y iambic pentameter. Because of the m a c h i n e - l i k e q u a l i t y of h i s rhythms, some c r i t i c s have accused him of coun t ing h i s s y l l a b l e s on h i s f i n g e r s . In HM 744 there are on ly a sma l l number of the 1814 l i n e s of the MS which are i r r e g u l a r , and, as has been poin ted out , these i r r e g u l a r i t i e s were common throughout Midd le E n g l i s h poe t ry . F i r s t o f a l l , there i s the "head less" l i n e , the l i n e beg inn ing w i t h a s t rong s t r e s s r a the r than the u sua l weak one. For example: t i I I i God and man wi thouten wo or duresse There are some examples of the broken s t r e s s l i n e , i n which a s y l l a b l e u s u a l l y expected to be under the heavy s t r e s s of the foot appears under the weak. i t i i And dim my look and as heuy a s ' l e e d With Hoccleve t h i s i s apparen t ly a common l i n e f a u l t . I t bears out what Sa in t sbury says of h i m : "so long as he can count ten s y l l a b l e s by h i s f i nge r s he i s con ten t . "7 Sa in t sbu ry goes on to d i s cus s H o c c l e v e ' s use of f i n a l - e . You have to va lue the f i n a l - e ' s i n a manner that was i n a l l p r o b a b i l i t y at the time qu i t e obsole te and u n n a t u r a l , i n order to get even the t e s t of the f i n g e r s answered.^ He fu r t he r says that Hoccleve uses or r e j e c t s the f i n a l -e "as he chooses . " On the whole S a i n t s b u r y ' s a n a l y s i s i s not t r u e . Hoccleve uses the same c r i t e r i a fo r pronouncing or s i l e n c i n g the f i n a l -e as had been i n use throughout the Middle E n g l i s h p e r i o d . In g e n e r a l , but by no means r i g i d l y , the f i n a l -e was pronounced before a consonant and s i l e n c e d before a f o l l o w i n g vowel or h - . I n a l i n e l i k e "Of wommen be i t prose rym or v e r s , " the -e of "prose" i s s y l l a b i c , whereas i n l i n e s l i k e And seen how deeth h i s bowe hath fo r me bent And fo r our g i l t sende us c o n t r i c i o u n the -e of "bowe," and of "sende" would be s i l e n c e d . As I have s a i d , the f i n a l -e " r u l e " was never r i g i d l y a p p l i e d i n Midd le E n g l i s h poe t ry , and a l though Hoccleve does f o l l o w the r u l e f a i r l y c a r e f u l l y throughout HM 744 (and indeed throughout the other MSS of h i s p o e t r y ) , there are many ins tances i n which the r u l e i s not a p p l i e d . An example might be i n H o c c l e v e ' s l i n e In mete and drynke I de ly t e me where the -e of " d r y n k e , " coming a t a s y n t a c t i c break i n the l i n e , i s pronounced. The p r o n u n c i a t i o n of the -e f i n a l at such a break i n the l i n e was not a t a l l uncommon i n poetry of the p e r i o d . The f i n a l - e a t the end of a l i n e , the s tandard feminine rhyme of Midd le E n g l i s h poe t ry , was apparen t ly s t i l l pronounced under an a d d i t i o n a l weak s t r e s s . L i n e s w i t h f i n a l -e are not g e n e r a l l y rhymed w i t h l i n e s l a c k i n g i t , but there are s i x l i n e s i n the MS where t h i s occurs fo r example the rhyme words for the l i n e s V I I I . 125/127/128 " I - sogh t " - 3 0 . - "noght" - "broghte." Occurrences l i k e t h i s are few, and they may be s c r i b a l errors rather than an i n d i c a t i o n that the -e was unpronounced. Some eleven s y l l a b l e l i n e s i n Hoccleve cannot be reduced no matter how the f i n a l -e may be valued. Examples are very few i n number, and i t seems that the poet attempts to correct, or smoothe over the i r r e g u l a r i t y by grouping the i r r e g u l a r l i n e s i n rhyme couplets or t r i p l e t s , so that where one i r r e g u l a r appears, i t i s followed by another, or sometimes two, i n a rhyme group. For example: VII. 9 9 / 1 0 1 Tho yeeres past and his soule was betaght Who serueth our lady l e e s i t h reighte naght Hoccleve, then, i s not a prosodic innovator. The devices he uses are quite common to the period. His meter i s d e f i n i t e l y mechanical. Because he varies h i s iambic pentameter l i n e very l i t t l e , h i s verse has a monotonous r e g u l a r i t y . He does not understand the ebb and flow of Chaucer's rhythms, and consequently, when he imitates them, he imitates only feebly. His own estimate of his verse shows he r e a l i z e s t h i s only too w e l l : ...how unconnyngly My book i s metrid; how raw my sentence How feeble eek been my colours:....^ - 31 . A note on s p e l l i n g i n rhyme words There are some s p e l l i n g i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n H o c c l e v e ' s rhyme words which deserve some comment. Words of French o r i g i n va ry i n t h e i r l a s t s y l l a b l e , i n which there may or may not be a - u - . For example " -ance / - aunce , " c ' i o n / - i o u n , " " - o r / - o u r / - u r . " These s p e l l i n g s are common to most of Midd le E n g l i s h poe t ry . The v a r i a n t s of one form may rhyme w i t h each o the r , which i n d i c a t e s that forms w i t h the - u - and forms wi thout the - u - were pronounced the same. Forms i n -e rhyme w i t h both forms i n - i e , and forms i n - ee . Bu t , words i n - i e are neverrrhymed w i t h words i n -ee . Examples a r e : X I . 534/536/537 h i e - prophecie - be; I I I . 1/2 d i e t ee - be. I t i s understandable that words i n - i e and -ee should not rhyme, but the f a c t tha t both forms are rhymed w i t h forms i n - e , when the -e i s under heavy s t r e s s i n the f o o t , may i n d i c a t e some c l o s e r p ronunc i a t i on between the three i n t h i s d i a l e c t than has been assumed. In forms i n which - i - v a r i e s w i t h -e - i n grammatical s u f f i x e s ( - i t h . - e t h ; - i s t / - e s t ; - i d / - e d ) the - i - . forms do not rhyme w i t h the -e - forms. See the l anguage . s ec t i on for a d i s c u s s i o n of these forms i n r e l a t i o n to d i a l e c t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . FOOTNOTES 1. Bernhardt A . K . ten B r i n k , H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e (London: 1893-6) , V o l . i i , 215. 2. l o c c i t . 3 . The Athenaeum, 4 March, 1893, 281. F u r n i v a l l publ i shes a r e p r i n t of t h i s paper a t the back of the Minor Poems. 4 . Legend of Good Women, 11. 419-423. 5 . Skeat , ap_ c i t . 6. E . P. Hammond, E n g l i s h Ve r se , Chaucer to Surrey (Durham, N . C . : 1927), 55. 7. Ge'orge S a i n t s b u r y , A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Prosody (London: 1906-10), V o l . 1, 232. 8. I b i d . , 234. 9. Minor Poems, "Balade to the Due de B e d f o r d , " 11. 12-14. H o c c l e v e ' s Poetry i n I t s H i s t o r i c a l S e t t i n g By comparison w i t h other poets of the f i f t e e n t h cen tu ry , the volume of H o c c l e v e ' s poetry i s s l i m . Where h i s contemporary, Lydgate , produced tens of thousands of l i n e s of poe t ry , Hoccleve w r i t e s about twelve thousand l i n e s at most. He has three longer works , two of which are p r i n t e d below, i n the t r a n s c r i p t i o n of HM 744 - - L e p i s t r e de Cupid and Lerne to Dye t o t a l some 1400 l i n e s , w h i l e the Regement of P r i n c e s , h i s longes t work, runs to almost 6000 l i n e s . Two other poems are of moderate l e n g t h : Poem Aga ins t O l d c a s t l e , and Mother of God. The l a t t e r poem i s cons idered the best of H o c c l e v e ' s r e l i g i o u s poems. The r e s t of h i s poetry i s made up of a number of r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s , and o c c a s i o n a l poems, most of which were intended as begging poems to patrons whom he thought might be able to o b t a i n him h i s a r r ea r s i n a n n u i t i e s . As h i s volume of poetry was l i m i t e d , so too were H o c c l e v e ' s sources . H i s longer works are t r a n s l a t i o n s from f a i r l y w e l l known French or L a t i n sources . The one t a l e a k i n to some of the Canterbury T a l e s , The V i r g i n ' s S l e e v e l e s s Garment, which appears i n HM 744, and which was long mis taken for one of Chaucer ' s own, has a Midd le E n g l i s h o r i g i n a l d a t i n g about 1200, as w e l l as s e v e r a l L a t i n v e r s i o n s from which Hoccleve c o u l d have drawn. Regement of P r inces i s put together from De Ludo Scachorum, of Jacobus de C e s s o l i s , from the Secre ta Secretorum, and from the De Regime Pr inc ipum of Egedio Colonna. I n t h i s poem, however, Hoccleve adds almost 2000 l i n e s of personal d i a l o g u e , i n which he d i scusses h i s - 34. -l i f e , h i s varying s o c i a l s i n s , and h i s work as a scribe at the o f f i c e of the Privy Seal. Leipistle de Cupid i s translated from a poem by Christine de Pisan. He adds some d e f i n i t e a l l u s i o n s to Chaucer's Legend of Good Women, but he does not acknowledge the e a r l i e r source at a l l . Lerne to Dye had a L a t i n o r i g i n a l i n Henry Suso's Horologium, to which Hoccleve adds some material from the Sarum Breviary. He t e l l s us i n h i s Dialog with A Friend that he had access to a L a t i n copy of this poem. His other poetry i s o r i g i n a l i n composition, i f not i n subject matter. Occasional poems, l i k e the Poem Against Oldcastle? 3, or the poem celebrating the return of Henry V to England, which i s printed below, were prompted by the happenings of the moment. The r e l i g i o u s poems, of which there are f i v e examples i n HM 744, have t h e i r origins i n a genuine r e l i g i o u s f e e l i n g s , but t h e i r execution i s u n o r i g i n a l . The personal sources for the long autobiographical poems, La Male Regie, and the Complaint and Dialog with a Friend, are the most i n t e r e s t i n g , because he draws incidents from his own l i f e . They have a vividness which the r e s t of h i s poetry lacks. In assessing the merit of Hoccleve's poetry, we tend, of course, to compare him with Chaucer, which i s probably u n f a i r , for then Hoccleve i s shown as a very weak poet indeed. I f , however, we compare him with other poets of the f i f t e e n t h century, he stands out better. Lydgate, whose volume of poetry over a broad range of subjects i s phenomenal, i s p r o l i x , and Hoccleve, by comparison, spare. He has the v i r t u e which the good monk of Bury St. Edmund's lacks -- he knows how to - 35. -t e l l a s t o r y w i t h some economy. Benedic t Burgh, who was a l a t e r f o l l o w e r of Lydga te , a f f e c t s a more a r c h a i c s t y l e than Lydgate h i m s e l f , i n h i s Secrees of Old P h i l o s o p h r e s , but H o c c l e v e ' s d i c t i o n i s , i n c o n t r a s t , c l e a r , and n a t u r a l . He speaks the language of h i s t ime. Osborne Bokenham, i n h i s Legendys of Hooly Wummen, i s rough and unpo l i shed i n h i s l i n e , whereas H o c c l e v e ' s c a r e f u l s y l l a b l e coun t i ng , mechanical though i t may be , a t l e a s t r e t a i n s some of the " m a i s t e r ' s " rhythms. Ashby, Bradshaw, and Hawes, whose extant works are scant i n comparison w i t h even H o c c l e v e ' s , come at the end of the cen tu ry , and i t i s d i f f i c u l t to o f f e r any wor thwhi le comparisons w i t h Hocc l eve . The language, or a t l e a s t the g raph ic r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of i t , was i n process of change; sub jec t mat ter was becoming s e c u l a r i z e d ; and the fu r the r i n time we get from Chaucer, the weaker we f i n d the p r o s o d i s t s . The S c o t t i s h Chaucerians bear some comparison w i t h Hocc leve . On the whole , the few: James I of S c o t l a n d i n h i s The K i n g i s Q u a i r , Henryson i n h i s f ab les and The Testament of C r e s s e i d , and the c l e r i c s Dunbar and Douglas , are cons idered by many c r i t i c s to be more o r i g i n a l f o l l o w e r s of Chaucer. They fo l lowed the verse forms and rhythms of Chaucer b e t t e r than t h e i r E n g l i s h coun te rpa r t s , and t h e i r subjec t matter was more o r i g i n a l . I t can be seen, of course , that H o c c l e v e ' s subjec ts were d i f f e r e n t than those of the S c o t t i s h w r i t e r s . They were a l l a t tempt ing to emulate Chaucer ' s forms and meters , and the Scots do i t b e t t e r . H o c c l e v e ' s poe t ry , then, i s of h i s own t ime. His subjects are the conven t iona l sub j ec t s . His r e l i g i o u s poetry i s p e d e s t r i a n , and h i s t r a n s l a t i o n s are f a i r l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . But , i n c o n t r a s t w i t h other w r i t e r s of the p e r i o d , h i s personal confess ions and d ia logue are - 36. -e x c i t i n g . His charac te r s are not fa r removed from r e a l people : i n q u i s i t i v e and g o s s i p y , r a k i s h or r eve ren t , or somewhat p a t h e t i c i n t h e i r meek humanity. Here i s H o c c l e v e ' s v a l u e . He shows h i m s e l f , v a i n perhaps, but unadorned, and he shows us the l i f e o f h i s time w i t h a candor t o t a l l y u n l i k e so many of h i s contemporaries whose works have come down, who draw unhuman charac te rs i n weak c l a s s i c a l landscapes . Hoccleve shows us r e a l people , and for that we must be g r a t e f u l . The Poems of HM 744 To these genera l comments on H o c c l e v e ' s poet ry i n a h i s t o r i c a l s e t t i n g can now be added a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the poems i n HM 744. There are t h i r t e e n separate poems i n the MS, of which the f i r s t f i v e are r e l i g i o u s l y r i c s . There f o l l o w s a shor t p r o l o g , and then the t a l e of The V i r g i n ' s S l eeve l e s s Garment. L e p i s t r e de Cupid i s nex t , fo l l owed by the o c c a s i o n a l poems: Balade to the K i n g , and three r o u n d e l s . The l a s t poem i n the MS i s Lerne to Dye. I t i s incomple te , m i s s i n g about 300 l i n e s of poetry and three pages of prose . The f u l l t e x t of Lerne to Dye can be found i n F . J . F u r n i v a l l ' s e d i t i o n H o c c l e v e ' s  Minor Poems, where i t i s p r i n t e d from the Durham MS. The f i r s t four poems of the MS form a separate group of themselves, and are undoubtedly in tended to appear together i n the order g i v e n . The t i t l e s of the poems make up a b e n e d i c t i o n : I n v o c a t i o n to the  F a t h e r , To the Son, Honour and G l o r y , To the Holy S p i r i t , To the Blessed  V i r g i n . C a r e l t o n Brown, i n h i s R e l i g i o u s L y r i c s of the F i f t e e n t h Century , p r i n t s a number of groups of poems gathered together i n j u s t t h i s o rde r . - 3 7 . These poems may have been inspired by a geniune religious spirit in Hoccleve, but they are mundane in feeling and in expression. Unlike the religious poems of the previous century, the very formality of structure and rhyme scheme tend to dampen rather than heighten the effect. No real fervour is conveyed by these poems. They are an exercise merely. The rhymes are standard, and the ten syllable rhythm uninterrupted, which makes the continual request to "reewe on us wrecches ful of wo" merely repetitive. The fifth poem in the MS stands alone. It is a poem of praise \ to the Virgin. Like the first four poems in the MS, this one is formalized and uninspired. Carleton Brown points out that poems to the Virgin, of which this might be a typical example, were written in very large numbers during the fifteenth century. His characterization of them applies very well to this Hoccleve poem: These expressions of devotion, i t must be said, when compared with those of the preceeding century, show a certain loss of fervour, and tend to become formal exercises. 4-Meter and rhyme vary not at a l l . And, while we may not doubt Hoccleve's religious sincerity, sincerity is not enough to sustain the poem. Hoccleve has a number of poems to the Virgin. The best is Mother of God, which Furnivall prints in Minor Poems. They are within the tradition of the "Mary cult" which grew up in the twelfth and early thirteenth century, and gathered great impetus in the fourteenth and fifteenth, as is indicated by the great numbers of poems and legends - 38. produced dur ing t h i s p e r i o d . The V i r g i n came to be revered as "the mother of G o d , " and was revered almost as much as was God h i m s e l f . As Hoccleve says a t l i n e 103, " In thee, next god, i s a l bat us may saue ." This i s the c u l t f u l l b lown. Of a l l the new testament c h a r a c t e r s , Mary, the mother, i s perhaps the most unders tandable , and hence the one that the s imple devotee can most a s s o c i a t e h i m s e l f with.-* The next poem i n the MS, the P ro log and Tale of the V i r g i n ' s  S l e e v e l e s s Garment, shows us another face t of the Mary c u l t : the m i r a c l e legend. B r i e f l y , the t a l e i s t o l d of a monk who, one day w h i l e he i s a t p rayer , sees the V i r g i n appear i n a garment wi thou t any s l e e v e s . The monk i s taken a p p r o p r i a t e l y aback, and when he enquires of the V i r g i n why she has no s l e e v e s , she r e p l i e s that he must repeat h i s Ave Mar ias 150 t imes , r a the r than j u s t the 50 times that he was used to do ing . A f t e r each group of ten Aves , he i s fu r the r i n s t r u c t e d to add one Pater Nos te r . The monk accepts t h i s r a the r incongruous answer to a p e r f e c t l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d q u e s t i o n , because the V i r g i n adds t h a t , i f he prays as he i s t o l d , she w i l l r e t u r n to him i n a week's time To t h i s p l a c e , thee to glade and confor te D u t i f u l l y the Monk does as he i s b idden , and the V i r g i n appears to him the f o l l o w i n g week i n a b e a u t i f u l dress "wi th s leeves longe and wyde." Because he d i d as she had asked h im, the V i r g i n t e l l s the Monk, he w i l l be rewarded w i t h both e a r t h l y honours and heavenly grace . And so he i s : he i s made Abbot of the monastery a t S t . G y l e s , and i s assured a place i n heaven when he d ie s seven years l a t e r . - 39. This legend enjoyed a c e r t a i n amount of p o p u l a r i t y . There are s e v e r a l L a t i n sources fo r the poem, accord ing to Miss B e v e r l y Boyd.6 Miss R. W. Tryon , i n " M i r a c l e s of Our Lady i n Middle E n g l i s h V e r s e , p o i n t s out tha t Hoccleve cou ld have drawn h i s t a l e from the m i r a c l e legend "How Our Lady ' s P s a l t e r Was F i r s t Found , " which i s i n Q the Vernon MS, Minor Poems, e d i t e d by F . J . F u r n i v a l l . This v e r s i o n i s i n 250 l i n e s , compared w i t h H o c c l e v e ' s 150, but the p l o t and some of the wording are so c lo se to H o c c l e v e ' s v e r s i o n that a connec t ion between the two can be s t r o n g l y argued. A r t h u r Bea t ty , i n A New Ploughman's T a l e , ^ says that m i r a c l e s which turned on the assiduous r e p e t i t i o n of a prayer were common. Mis s Boyd says that the custom of r e c i t i n g a l a rge number of Aves , e s p e c i a l l y numbers of 150 (the number of psalms i n the p s a l t e r ) , or m u l t i p l e s of 150, was known as say ing "our Lady ' s P s l a t e r , " of which there were a number of d i f f e r e n t l e g e n d s . 1 0 H o c c l e v e ' s v e r s i o n may be cons idered t y p i c a l of these : legends which honour the V i r g i n . He says h i m s e l f : . . . t o bat lady free we do s e r u i c e , honour and pleasance And to bat ende, heere i s a remembrance. H o c c l e v e ' s v e r s i o n of the legend i s one of h i s b e t t e r poems. I t i s e n l i v e n e d by d ia logue which makes i t more than j u s t a frame for t each ing the p s a l t e r of our Lady. The monk addresses Mary, and she answers him i n an i n t e r e s t i n g g ive and t ake . E s p e c i a l l y d e l i g h t f u l i s the monk's a s ton i shed address to the V i r g i n , made w i t h no preamble, when she f i r s t appears to h im: 0 goode Lady, by your leeve What garnament i s t h i s , and hath no s leeve? He i s too taken aback by her appearance to p ra i se h e r , but must f i r s t s a t i s f y h i s c u r i o s i t y as to why she appears so d ressed . D ia logue , as has been poin ted out , i s H o c c l e v e ' s f o r t e . He cou ld draw from Chaucer for examples of n a t u r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n , but he cou ld a l s o , as C a r l e t o n Brown seems to f e e l , be drawing from the v i t a l i t y of burgeoning drama of the p e r i o d . H L e p i s t r e de Cupid was w r i t t e n i n 1402. This date i s d e f i n i t e l y e s t a b l i s h e d at 1 ine 476 of the poem. Cupid t e l l s us tha t he has w r i t t e n the poem i n May, but of course , t h i s par t of the date need not be taken l i t e r a l l y . The month, but not the yea r , i s i n H o c c l e v e ' s source , L ' e p i s t r e au d i e u d'amours, by C h r i s t i n e de P i s a n . The poem i s i n the form of a l e t t e r from Cupid to " a l l e tho bat to our de i t ee been s o g e t t e s , " i n which Cupid complains at l eng th that. England i s the worst place of a l l fo r men eager to deceive and take advantage of defenseless women. And, he adds, C l e r k i s . . . h a n maad bookes of h i r (women's) deffame In which they l akken wommenes weke And speken of hem greet r ep ree f and shame. The c l e r k s , and men g e n e r a l l y , says Cup id , should reform t h e i r treatment of women, or they w i l l be v i s i t e d w i t h extreme punishment. Men should remember tha t the V i r g i n was a woman, and t r e a t a l l women as they would h e r . Men are the r e a l d e c e i v e r s , not women. Not even Eve was r e a l l y d e c e i t f u l , and no more should men defame them i n word or a c t i o n . - 41 . -I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g , i n t h i s poem, to see Hoccleve a t tempt ing to b lend (as h i s source d i d ) C l a s s i c a l and C h r i s t i a n mythology - - c o u r t l y love and C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y . Bu t , where Gower, i n Confess io Amantis "manages. . . to combine the r o l e s of a c o u r t l y love poet and a C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i s t , " 1 2 Hocc leve , who a l l u d e s to Gower at at l e a s t one po in t i n the poem, f a i l s i n the at tempt . He i s , i n mat ters r e l i g i o u s , somewhat g u i l t - r i d d e n , and consequent ly heavy-handed. The E p i s t l e i s in tended as an i r o n i c defence of women, r a the r than a s e r ious t reatment . Hoccleve l a t e r f e l t some g u i l t , which he t e l l s us about i n h i s D i a l o g w i t h a F r i e n d , about the f ac t that the E p i s t l e of Cupid had made women angry, r a the r than pleased them. There i s a good dea l of i r o n y i n , fo r example, H o c c l e v e ' s mention that women carp a t be ing defamed by the B i b l e . Women are prepared, he i s sugges t ing , to se t as ide even the i n f a l l i b i l i t y of the B i b l e . There i s a l i v e l i n e s s i n the e a r l y par t of the poem, when Hoccleve in t roduces some imagined d ia logue between the v a r i o u s dece ive r s of women. The pirns are coarse and j o c u l a r , as the seducers e n l i v e n t h e i r c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h everyday e x p r e s s i o n s . But , when the poet t r i e s , l a t e i n the poem, to add r e l i g i o u s s a n c t i o n to the c l a s s i c a l mythology, he f a i l s . The poem becomes a hodge-podge of d i d a c t i c i s m which i s on ly lessened when the C h r i s t i a n imagery i s dropped, and the c l a s s i c a l a s se r t s i t s e l f once more. The Balade to K ing Henry V i s the poem which dates the MS HM 744 w i t h some c e r t a i n t y . The genera l content of the poem i s u n i n t e r e s t i n g . - 42. Hoccleve wrote a number of such poems pure ly to attempt to b e t t e r h i s f i n a n c e s . A number of these begging poems are p r i n t e d i n Minor Poems, and t h i s one i s s i m i l a r to them. I t i s f u l l of b l a t a n t p r a i s e , but empty of any i n d i c a t i o n of r e a l f e e l i n g . In the mat ter of the d a t i n g of the poem, and the MS, i t does have some i n t e r e s t . A t l i n e e i g h t , Hoccleve r e f e r s to Henry V as " h e i r and Regent of F r a u n c e , " that (at l i n e 14) "twyxt to Remes (realms) han knyt up the pees . " These two l i n e s set the date before which the poem c o u l d not have been w r i t t e n . The da te : 1420 or 1421. In 1420, Henry concluded the t r e a t y of Troyes w i t h France , and to s e a l the t r e a t y mar r i ed K a t h e r i n e , daughter of the K i n g of France . Ho l inshed has i t thus : A f t e r a few daies they f e l l to c o u n c e l l i n which at l eng th i t was concluded that K i n g Henrie of England should come to T ro i s and marie the l a d i e K a t h a r i n e ; and the k i n g h i r f a the r a f t e r h i s death should make him h e i r of h i s realme, crowne and d i g n i t e e . I t was a l s o agreed, that K ing H e n r i e , du r ing h i s fa ther i n lawes l i f e , should i n h i s s tead have the whole gouernment of the realme of France as regent t h e r o f . . . . 1 3 Duly the t r e a t y was s igned on the 10th of June, 1420. I n 1421, on the 6th of January , Henry and Kathar ine re tu rned to England , e v e n t u a l l y a r r i v i n g i n London. The a r r i v a l i n London i s undoubtedly the occas ion for t h i s p r o d u c t i o n : "Welcome be your famous e x c e l l e n c e . " The MS i s g e n e r a l l y assumed to have been copied over a shor t p e r i o d of t ime . The ca tch phrases i n d i c a t i n g ga ther ings of the MS show tha t a l l the poems are r e l a t e d , and none are l a t e r i n s e r t s . The Balade - 43 . -appears i n the middle of a g a t h e r i n g , so i t can be assumed that i t was copied at the same time as other poems i n the MS. The f a c t that the d e d i c a t i o n to the poem inc ludes the words "que d i e u p a r d o i n t , " i n d i c a t e s tha t when the poem was copied i n the MS the k i n g was dead. The French phrase i s the e q u i v a l e n t of "God save h i s s o u l . " Henry d i ed on 31 August , 1422, a t Vincennes , i n France , where he had re turned i n June of 1421. So the poem was copied i n HM 744 sometime a f t e r t h i s da te . How long af terward cannot be d e f i n i t e l y s t a t e d , bu t , i f t h i s MS i s a ho lograph , as some c r i t i c s c l a i m , and Hoccleve l e f t the P r i v y Sea l i n J u l y of 1424, i t was probably copied between 1422 and 1424.14 In the MS t r a n s c r i p t i o n , I have grouped the three roundels together as i t em X . The f i r s t two poems are r e l a t e d , be ing a statement and a response between two speakers . The t h i r d can stand a lone . I w i l l d i scuss the poems w i t h t h i s i n mind . In the Complaint to Lady Money, and i t s companion La Reponse (of Lady Money to H o c c l e v e ) , we see a humour Hoccleve shows r a r e l y . He i s d e a l i n g w i t h a p e r s o n a l , e v e r y d a y problem, and, he re , as i n La Male  Reg ie , w i t h such subjec ts he does h i s most l i v e l y and v igorous w r i t i n g . In the Complaint to Lady Money, Hoccleve i l l o g i c a l l y complains tha t because he was so sympathet ic and l e t Lady Money out of h i s purse when she was impr isoned the re , she should not now leave him i n the d i r e p o s i t i o n i n which he f inds h i m s e l f . In La Reponse, Lady Money, t y p i c a l l y c h a r a c t e r i z e d as an u n f e e l i n g female, t e l l s Hoccleve that h i s complaint i s w o r t h l e s s . She was, she i n s i s t s , w h i l e Hoccleve h e l d h e r , not t r ea t ed a t a l l as b e f i t t e d her "h igh d i g n i t e e . " His excesses made her t h i n and - 44. -faded, and there fore she w i l l not come back to h im. I f , she reasons , Lords o"fcey her (and i t i s presumably H o c c l e v e ' s own money that the Lords now have at t h e i r d i s p o s a l ) , why should she pay any a t t e n t i o n to a poor wretch l i k e Hocc leve . The t h i r d poem, H o c c l e v e ' s P ra i s e of His Lady, i s h i s most humorous poem. I t i s i n the roundel form, and undoubtedly draws on a long t r a d i t i o n of se r ious poems p r a i s i n g the l a d y . The f i n e poem To A l y s o u n shows us the standards of beauty of the t ime , fo r example. But Hoccleve takes the conven t iona l beauty po in t s and turns them about, much as Shakespeare does i n the sonnet "My m i s t r e s s ' eyes are no th ing l i k e the s u n . " H o c c l e v e ' s roundel l acks the turn-around couple t which makes the sonnet so t ouch ing , but the sus t a ined humour of i t makes i t an e f f e c t i v e poem none the less . C o n v e n t i o n a l l y Hoccleve begins by say ing tha t he may w e l l r e j o i c e i n h i s l a d y ' s beauty, but as he proceeds to desc r ibe he r , the beauty fades q u i c k l y : b l a c k h a i r and eyes , when brown were the acme of beauty; c l a y - l i k e bu lgy cheeks, where f a i r f i n e s k i n was u s u a l l y p r a i s e d . Add to t h i s the l a rge nose that C y r a n o - l i k e j u t s out to prevent the r a i n from e n t e r i n g her mouth, and a wide mouth, too , i t i s - - "nothyng scan t" - - and the c a r i c a t u r e i s almost complete . Her par ro t v o i c e , when a v o i c e "ever • s o f t , gent le and l o w , " was and i s to be p r a i s e d , and a body "shape as i s a foot b a l , " round out t h i s photo-negat ive of feminine beauty of the p e r i o d . The l a s t poem i n the MS i s Lerne to Dye. I t was w r i t t e n , as has a l r e a d y been poin ted out , about 1421 or 1422. In t h i s MS the poem i s incomple te , w i t h o n l y 672 of the 938 l i n e s of poetry appear ing . A ca tch phrase: "The b lake f a c e d , " appears a t the bottom o f the l a s t l e a f i n t h i s MS. The whole poem i s p r i n t e d i n F u r n i v a l l ' s e d i t i o n of Minor Poems, from the Durham MS. The Poem opens w i t h S a p i e n t i a , or Knowledge promis ing to show a d i s c i p l e how to l e a r n to d i e , how to l i v e , how to r e c e i v e knowledge l i k e a sacrament, and how to love and honour her "wi th an her te c lene and p u r e . " The d i s c i p l e promises to be d i l i g e n t i n l e a r n i n g these four t h i n g s , and Knowledge conjures up the image of a man about to d i e . The d i s c i p l e and the image of the dy ing man then en ter i n t o a c o n v e r s a t i o n , w i th the image t a k i n g the major p a r t . He desc r ibes a l l the v a r i o u s torments he f e e l s as he i s d y i n g ; torments over h i s l a c k of oppor tun i ty for repentance of s i n s . This i s f o l l owed by a d e s c r i p t i o n of the torments he sees a w a i t i n g him a f t e r he has e x p i r e d . The MS breaks o f f a t t h i s p o i n t . The sources of H o c c l e v e ' s poem are p o s i t i v e l y i d e n t i f i e d by Benjamin K u r t z , i n three papers.15 Hoccleve h i m s e l f po in ted the way i n h i s D i a l o g w i t h a F r i e n d : i n l a t y n have I sene a sma l l t r e t i s e whiche ' l e r n e fo r to dye 1 I - c a l l y d i s : And tha t have I purposed to t r a n s l a t e I f god h i s grace l y s t t h e r - t o me l e n e . H i s L a t i n o r i g i n a l was the Horologium S a p i e n t i a e . The author was a four teen th century German m y s t i c , one Henry Suso. The second chapter - 46 . of t h i s work i s the Ars S c i e n d i M o r i , and i t was t h i s chapter which formed the source for most of the poetry i n Lerne to Dye. Kur tz po in t s out that i t i s doubt fu l that Hoccleve knew the whole of the Horologium. But , the second chapter was ve ry popula r , and K u r t z c i t e s s e v e r a l MSS to which Hoccleve might have had access .16 Suso ' s Horologium i s not the on ly source fo r the poem, a l though i t i s c e r t a i n l y the o n l y source fo r that p o r t i o n of i t which appears i n HM 744. K u r t z draws a t t e n t i o n to the second l a s t s tanza of the poetry p o r t i o n of Lerne to Dye, where Hoccleve says he w i l l conclude the poem w i t h . . . t h e . i x . e l e s son which i s rad In h o l y c h i r c h e up-on a l l halwen day. The l a s t s tanza of the poetry i s a paraphrase of the " four th and f i f t h sentences of the n i n t h l e s son fo r the f i r s t of November, i n the Sarum B r e v i a r y . " 1 7 The L a t i n , which K u r t z p r i n t s s ide by s ide w i t h Hocc l eve ' s l a s t s tanza of poe t ry , reads Consideremus ergo i n c l i t a m u r b i s i l l i u s f e l i c i t a t e m , i n quantum cons ide ra re p o s s i b l e e s t : com-I o prehendere n u l l u s sermo s u f f i c i e t . ° Hoccleve paraphrases : How greet i o i e and b l i s s e i s shapen to hem bat so shu ln passe hens vp to the C i t ee C a l l i d c e l e s t i a l , Ie rusa lem. A f t i r our might and p o s s i b i l i t e e Le t us cons idere a l thogh i t so be, That fo r to comprehende bat g ladnesse , V e r r a i l y no w i t may, ne tonge expresse . -.47. The prose s e c t i o n which f o l l o w s , then, begins a t the s i x t h sentence fo r the b r e v i a r y and f o l l o w s the l e s son word fo r word. Kur t z goes on to po in t out that par t of the second l a s t , and a 1-1 of the l a s t paragraphs of prose have no cor responding L a t i n i n the b r e v i a r y . K u r t z f e e l s that t h i s l a s t i s H o c c l e v e ' s own i n v e n t i o n , and that i t i s " s l o v e n l y " i n comparison w i t h the m a t e r i a l taken d i r e c t l y from the b r e v i a r y . 1 9 i n read ing t h i s l a s t s e c t i o n , one i s fo rced to agree w i t h K u r t z . H o c c l e v e ' s terseness seems f o r c e d , and the d e s c r i p t i o n s t r a i n e d as he con t r a s t s the pains of H e l l i n t h i s l a s t paragraph w i t h the p leasures of the new Jerusa lem which have gone be fo re . The reader i s l e f t w i t h the impress ion that the poet s imply rushed through the f i n a l paragraph to round o f f the d e s c r i p t i o n and end the work as q u i c k l y as p o s s i b l e . On the r e l a t i o n of H o c c l e v e ' s poem to i t s source , K u r t z shows that Hoccleve omits the t r a n s l a t i o n of some 900 words of h i s o r i g i n a l , and yet h i s poem i s s t i l l twice as long as the m a t e r i a l he draws from. G e n e r a l l y speak ing , says K u r t z , H o c c l e v e ' s t r a n s l a t i o n technique i s as f o l l o w s : he "attempted a s imple exp re s s ion of the L a t i n i dea i n the f i r s t three l i n e s of the s t anza . The l a s t four l i n e s then be ing too l i t t l e space fo r the development of any new i d e a , he was fo rced to augment the L a t i n idea w i t h i n v e n t i o n or r e p e t i t i o n . 2 0 For example, here i s the L a t i n o r i g i n a l Eya vos omnes q u i a d e s t i s , q u i meam miser iam v i d e t i s , qu i f i o r e i v v e n t u t i s adhuc g a u d e t i s , . . . m e miserum r e s p i c i t e . H o c c l e v e ' s s tanza i s as f o l l o w s . The t r a n s l a t i o n from the L a t i n i s - 48. u n d e r l i n e d , the remainder of the s tanza i s the poe t ' s own i n v e n t i o n : 0 a l l e yee bat heere been present Yee bat f l o u r e i n youthes l u s t y grennesse And seen how deeth h i s bowe hath for me bent And tyme conuenable han to redresse bat youre un ru ly youthes wantonnesse Offendid hath - - cons ide re th my m i s e r i e The stormy seson f o l w i t h dayes mer ie .21 This example, which K u r t z g i v e s , i s , he says , one of the b e t t e r of H o c c l e v e ' s augmentings of h i s o r i g i n a l , and desp i t e the f a c t that the g rea te r par t of the poe t ' s a d d i t i o n s are merely l i n e f i l l e r , Hoccleve does improve on h i s o r i g i n a l a t t imes , "by b r i n g i n g f r e sh phrases of personal r e v e l a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y of remorse and f ea r . "22 Improvements over h i s o r i g i n a l i n the d e s c r i p t i o n of personal r e v e l a t i o n should not be s u r p r i s i n g . As we have seen, Hoccleve w r i t e s h i s most v i v i d poe t ry , w i t h themcsst s i n c e r i t y and depth of f e e l i n g , when he i s speaking of h i m s e l f , and, i n Lerne to Dye, much of the dy ing man's s e l f - d e n i g r a t i o n i s powerful because Hoccleve i s i n a d v e r t e n t l y t a l k i n g of h i m s e l f . FOOTNOTES A . C. Baugh, The Midd le E n g l i s h P e r i o d , v o l . 2 of A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y  of England (New York , 1948), 293. I b i d . , 294. Oxford , 1939. Brown, oja c i t . , x x . See E . F . W i l s o n , e d . , The S t e l l a Mar i s of John Gar l and , No. 45 , Medieva l Academy of America (Cambridge, M a s s . : 1946). There i s a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n of the r i s e of the c u l t of the Blessed V i r g i n . See a l s o H. J . M u l l e r , The Loom of H i s t o r y (New York 1959), fo r a d i s c u s s i o n of the c u l t i n r e l a t i o n to the c u l t of the "Mother Goddess." B e v e r l y Boyd. "Hocc leve ' s M i r a c l e of the V i r g i n , " UTSE, XXXV (1956), 116. In PMLA, 38 (1923), 308-88. EETS, o r . s e r . , 117. 777 f f . A New Ploughman's Tale (London: 1902), The Chaucer S o c . , i x . Boyd, op c i t . , 120. She d i r e c t s the reader to Laura H. Loomis, "Chaucer and the A u c h i n l e c k M S , " i n Essays and S tudies i n  Honor of C a r l e t o n Brown (New Y o r k : 1940), 111-28. - 50. 11. Brown, op c i t . , x x v i i . 12. B o r i s F o r d , e d . , The Age of Chaucer, Volume 1 of the P e l i c a n Guide to E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , (London, 1954), 53. 13. H o l i n s h e d ' s C h r o n i c l e s of England , Sco t l and and I r e l a n d , V o l . 3 , " E n g l a n d . " London, 1808. This i s a f a c s i m i l e of the e d i t i o n of Ho l in shed of 1588. The quo t a t i on i s taken from page 113. 14. On HM 744 as a Hoccleve ho lograph , see the note below on the s c r i b e of the MS, and see a l s o H . C . S h u l z , "Thomas Hocc leve , S c r i b e , " i n Speculum 12 (1937), 71 - 81 . 15. B. P. K u r t z . The papers a r e : "Sources of H o c c l e v e ' s Lerne to D y e , " i n MLN 38 (1923), 337-40; "The Prose of H o c c l e v e ' s Lerne to D y e , " i n MLN 39 (1924), 56-7; and "The R e l a t i o n of H o c c l e v e ' s Lerne to Dye to I t s s o u r c e , " i n PMLA 40 (1925), 252-75. 16. K u r t z , MLN 38. 388. 17. K u r t z , MLN 29. 56. 18. K u r t z , MLN 39. 57. 19. K u r t z , l o c c i t . 20. K u r t z , PMLA 40. 256 21. K u r t z , PMLA 40. 269. The s tanza from LD i s a t l i n e s 288 to 294. 22. K u r t z , PMLA 40. 265. Old i g l i s h Eas t -NE •midland-'-SE London 2 Chaucer 3 H o c c l e v e 4 OE Examples HM 744 ae a a a a a nae cod fae s te n a k i d fas te (adv. ) an+i an an en en en • bencan th inken -ea+r e r / a r e r / a r ar a r / e r a r / e r ea r t a r t (pr .2s "be .") -ea+1 o l d o l d o l d o l d o l d e a l d o l d ae 1 e e, E E , (e) E , .e e, E dae d dede (deed) 5 2 E , e . E , ( e ) E , (e) E , (e) E , (e) dae 1 d e l (par t ) y i , e i , e e i , u , e i , (e) f y r i a n f y r i d ( k i n d l e ) y i , e i , e e i , u i , e , (u ) l y s t a n l i s t eo e e e e e leoma lemes eo e e e e e ceor fan k e r f e ea e e e e e leac leeke ea e e e e e 1 The OE cha r t and the cha r t of the East Midlands are from H . C . Wyld, A Short H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h (London, 1927), 139. 2 W y l d , op c i t . , 137. 3wyld, op c i t . , 141. 4 W y l d , op c i t . , 141. Language of the MS 1. Phonology. The cha r t on the oppos i te page, b u i l t up from m a t e r i a l i n H . C . Wyld ' s A Short H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h , i s i n c l u d e d to i l l u s t r a t e the r e l a t i o n -sh ip between H o c c l e v e ' s d i a l e c t and those of Chaucer, London, and the E a s t -mid lands . The cha r t g ives only the s a l i e n t features of the d i a l e c t s as they developed from OE. The symbols, w i t h one e x c e p t i o n , are those of Wyld . They are phone t i c , not graphemic. I have used E and E to represent Wyld ' s symbol fo r the long and shor t " s l a c k - e - " sound. B r a c k e t s , as i n Wyld, represent ve ry ra re ins tances of a p a r t i c u l a r sound. Some b r i e f annota t ions of the char t f o l l o w . a . se 1 - - H o c c l e v e ' s E for t h i s OE sound i s probably r a r e . I was unable to f i n d any p o s i t i v e examples of i t i n t h i s MS. I t represents a South-west development from the OE, r a the r than a Mid land development. b # as ^ "~ Here the E i s expected, but e i s n o t . As Wyld i n d i c a t e s , the occurrence of the l a t t e r sound i s r a r e . A g a i n , i n t h i s MS I have been unable to f i n d any d e f i n i t e examples of e as a development of the OE i 2 . c . ea - - Wyld i n d i c a t e s tha t the development of the shor t ea i n Hoccleve was a long sound e. I have accepted Wyld ' s a n a l y s i s because I have been unable to f i n d any examples i n th i s MS i n which the shor t ea develops i n t o a shor t e. Eas t -mid land London pr . 3s pr . p i P r . p. P . P . 3 p l pn. N . G . D . 3s pn. A . masc. 3s pn. N. fem. S t r . v . p . p . a . p r e f i x b . s u f f i x NE - e s , - y s -eb - e n , - y n , - y s , -s -and(e) -end(e) -yng -e(n) he, bey; he re , b e i r ; h i s , es she, sche, sho. No i --e(n) SE - e b , - i b . - e s , - i s . - e n , - y n -end(e) , •and(e) -e(n) he, l a t e r bey; here ; h i s , i s , es she, scae , sge No i --e(n) •eb, -en • inde, -ende -e(n) h i e , h i , he here ; hem. h i s , i s , hes heo; l a t e r she ( i - ) -e(n) Chart from H . C . Wyld, Short H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h , 139. Wyld, op c i t . , 141, for char t of London, Chaucer and Hocc leve . Chaucer - e t h , - i t h -e(n) - inge -e(n) t h e i ; he r ; hem. No h i s she ( i - ) -e(n) Hoccleve - e t h , - i t h -e(n) -ynge - e ( n ) , - -they; h i r e ; hem h i s she(e) ( i - ) -e(n) - 54. -2. Acc idence . The pronoun and i n f l e c t i o n a l cha r t on the opposi te page i s again from Wyld , A Short H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h . I t i l l u s t r a t e s c o n c i s e l y the r e l a t i o n s h i p between H o c c l e v e ' s d i a l e c t and that of the Eas t -mid l ands , London, and Chaucer. Some annota t ions f o l l o w . a ' p r . 3s - - H o c c l e v e ' s i n f l e c t i o n s - e t h , and - i t h f o l l o w the usage of the SE M i d l a n d s . I t i s of i n t e r e s t that an examinat ion of H o c c l e v e ' s poetry shows tha t the - i - v a r y i n g w i t h the -e - occurs most of ten under the f o l l o w i n g c o n d i t i o n s : a f t e r - p , - b , - t , =d, - k , - s , - s h , - c h the vowel of the i n f l e c t i o n i s - i -a f t e r any other consonant the vowel of the i n f l e c t i o n i s - e - . There are on ly one or two examples i n t h i s MS where an -e - occurs i n the i n f l e c t i o n when an - i - might be expected. The same v a r i a t i o n occurs c o n s i s t e n t l y i n the p r e t e r i t marker - - - i d / - e d - - under the same c o n d i t i o n s o u t l i n e d above. The v a r i a t i o n i s a l s o apparent i n the p r . 2s of the i n d i c a t i v e . I t w i l l be i l l u s t r a t e d c l e a r l y i n the verb paradigms which f o l l o w below. D « p r . p. - - The -ynge form of the present p a r t i c i p l e i n Hoccleve i s seen a l s o i n the NE M i d l a n d s . I t i s a Nor thern form, which here can be seen to be s l o w l y moving i n t o more s o u t h e r l y a reas . c . 3 p l pn .N. - - The form " they" i s another Nor thern form which g r a d u a l l y extended i n t o the southern a reas . I t appeared f i r s t i n the NE M i d l a n d s , - 55 . l a t e r moving i n t o the SE. d . 3 p l pn. G. and D. .-- Hoccleve r e t a i n s the more s o u t h e r l y forms fo r the g e n i t i v e and d a t i v e of the p l u r a l pronouns, a l though t h e i r Nor thern coun te rpar t s have a l r e a d y made t h e i r appearance i n the NE Midlands a t t h i s t ime . e. 3s pn. N . fern. - - The form "she" i s another Nor thern d i a l e c t form which s l o w l y extended southward du r ing the Middle E n g l i s h p e r i o d , r e p l a c i n g the Southern "heo . " This l a t t e r form i s s t i l l apparent here i n the London d i a l e c t . One other fea ture of the Nor thern d i a l e c t areas which i s not i l l u s t r a t e d on the char t i s the use of - e th ( - i t h ) fo r the impera t ive p l u r a l . Hoccleve preserves t h i s usage. H o c c l e v e ' s d i a l e c t i s e s s e n t i a l l y E a s t - M i d l a n d , then. I t can be seen that some of the fea tures of the more Nor thern d i a l e c t s which Hoccleve d i s p l a y s are f a i r l y common to the London and E a s t - M i d l a n d area as a whole by t h i s t ime. With London the c u l t u r a l c r o s s - r o a d , the e x t e n s i o n and adopt ion of Nor thern forms, which have been d i s c u s s e d , would be f a c i l i t a t e d . None of the forms Hoccleve uses are used by him i n i s o l a t i o n from the r e s t of h i s d i a l e c t a r ea . 3 . Some d e t a i l s : a . The Noun. In H o c c l e v e ' s d i a l e c t there are on ly two case forms: an unmarked form, and an i n f l e c t e d form for the g e n i t i v e and the p l u r a l . The i n f l e c t i o n i s - e s , and sometimes - s . For example: g e n i t i v e , I I I . 9 - 56. "hertes f i l t h y p r i v i t e e , " and p l u r a l , 11.67 "feendes b l a k e . " The symbol "yogh , " which I have rendered -3, i s used twice i n the MS, both times as a p l u r a l i n d i c a t o r to p l u r a l i z e " s e ruan t , " r a the r than as i t was o r d i n a r i l y used, as a semi-vowel , much l i k e the i n i t i a l sound i n modern " y e s , " or to i n d i c a t e a v e l a r s p i r a n t , as i n "thur3." The symbol occurs a t 1.43 and V . 8 3 . 3 . b . Pronouns. The f o l l o w i n g paradigms i l l u s t r a t e H o c c l e v e ' s use of pronouns. Where no example i s found i n the MS the space has been l e f t empty. SINGULAR Nom. Gen. Dat . R e f l e x i v e 1st i / y myn/ my me me/ my+ s e l f 2nd thow thyn / thy the(e) masc. he h i s him him him+ s e l f 3rd fern. she(e) h i r (e) her (e ) shee neut, i t PLURAL 1st 2nd 3rd Nom. we y e £ e ) they Gen. our(e) your(e) h i r ( e ) Dat . us yow hem R e f l e x i v e hem/ hem-se l f - 57. The form " h i r ( e ) " i s used more of ten i n the MS than the form "he r ( e ) " fo r 3s fem. Gen. 3 . c . Verbs . The Present System The paradigm below i l l u s t r a t e s the v e r b a l i n f l e c t i o n s fo r the present system i n HM 744. I have g iven examples from the MS to i l l u s t r a t e each s e c t i o n . I n d i c a t i v e Examples S. 1. - e / - -2. - i s t / - e s t / - s t 3 . - i t h / - e t h / - t h 11.57 XI .127 11.61 XI .162 X I . 12 V I I I . 6 0 V I I I . 4 4 7 V I I I . 1 1 5 . . . I d e ly t e me. I look on euery s i d e . Of g a l l e thow t a a s t i s t . Thow me w i t h thee drawest . Thow. . . be r s t the keye. He fas te him speed i t h . . . i n woman regneth a l the constance. Repreef of here he spekth . P I . -e(n) I I I . 3 7 1.1 We knowen w e e l . To thee we make our i n u c a c i o n - 58. Sub junc t ive -e(n) I I I . 2 9 1.108 I I I . 8 Examples we thee byseeche thow us deeme f a d i r , we preyen thee We thee preye Imperat ive S2 - e / — P2 -e th / - i t h V I I . 71 Beholde n o w . . . . 11.69 graunt us grace . V I I I . 253 Trus te th wel b a t . . . V I I I . 4 2 8 But , u n d i r s t o n d i t h . I n f i n i t i v e -e(n) 1.12 What may b e t t r e be than p r e y e . . . . V I I I . 2 8 5 p e r i l s fo r to r o l l e n . P a r t i c i p l e -ynge I I I . 6 5 To our axynge meekly, The P r e t e r i t System a . Former OE Weak Verbs . There i s a genera l p r e t e r i t marker for verbs i n t h i s c l a s s , which i s appa ren t ly c o n d i t i o n e d by phonetic environment. The form i s - d / - t / - i d / - e d . To the verb stem plus one of these forms of the p r e t e r i t marker are added other i n f l e c t i o n s shown i n the paradigm. - 59. I n d i c a t i v e Is 2s 3s - e / - -- i s t / - e s t -e(n) XI .311 XI .146 11.38 11.65 V I I . 1 8 V I I . 36 V I I I . 198 I herde i t naght. I p e r i s s h i d . I synned g reuous ly . Thow s u f f r i d i s t fo r our sake. He obserued w e i . S h e . . . s e i d e . They . . . be t r ayden Adam. Subjenc t ive No examples Past P a r t i c i p l e I . 71 I I . 39 Whan h i s body scourg id was Thow greued w e r e . . . . The p r e t e r i t marker i s c o n d i t i o n e d by phonet ic environment. I f the stem ends i n a s imple v o w e l , - d i s the p r e t e r i t marker. Where the present stem vowel i s l o n g , and s h i f t s to shor t i n the p r e t e r i t , and the stem ends i n a v i o c e l e s s consonant, - t i s the p r e t e r i t marker. In most other cases the marker i s - i d , or - e d . The phonet ic c o n d i t i o n i n g which governs the occurrence of -e or - i , has been o u t l i n e d above, i n the d i s c u s s i o n of d i a l e c t . The a n a l y s i s , i t may be po in ted out i s t e n t a t i v e , and holds fo r MS HM 744 a l o n e , a t p resent . - 60. -b . Former OE Strong Verbs . In t h i s MS the f o l l o w i n g i n f l e c t i o n s are added to the p r e t e r i t form of s t rong v e r b s : I n d i c a t i v e Examples Is - - 1.40 I s p a k . . . . 2s - - IV .12 Thow baar god. 3s - - 1.65 'He) s t a r f . p en V I I I . 2 5 4 They kneewen Subjunc t ive No examples Past P a r t i c i p l e 11.43 I woxe am prowd. -e(n) V I I . 3 7 Thow has t me youen ( i t ) . 3 . d . A d j e c t i v e s . There are some t races of a d j e c t i v e i n f l e c t i o n remaining i n H o c c l e v e ' s language. An -e i s sometimes found where an a d j e c t i v e might be expected to be "weak." For example: "our f i r s t e m o d i r . " But there are more except ions to the r u l e than there are r e g u l a r examples. There i s an i n f l e c t i o n a l c o n t r a s t between s i n g u l a r and p l u r a l a d j e c t i v e s , however, which i s fo l l owed more r e g u l a r l y . For example: "Sharpe thornes" con t ras t ed w i t h "penaunce sharp and h a r d . " The S c r i b e of the Hoccleve MSS F . J. F u r n i v a l l , i n h i s e d i t i o n of the Minor Poems, argues that the three Hoccleve MSS, HM 744 (the Ashburnham MS), HM 111 (the P h i l l i p p s MS) , and the Durham MS are a l l i n the same hand. In post -s c r i p t , however, he r e t r a c t s h i s statement on the ground that the number of "ca re l e s snesses" i n the MSS made i t u n l i k e l y that Hoccleve wrote them. 1 In "Thomas Hocc leve , S c r i b e , " H . C . Shulz takes up the argument. He conc ludes , from paleographic ev idence , that the three MSS cou ld indeed have been w r i t t e n by the same man, and that man i s Hocc l eve . He compares the h a n d w r i t i n g i n the MSS of poetry w i t h one other MS, the B r i t i s h Museum A d d i t i o n a l MS 24062. A marg ina l note i n t h i s l a t t e r MS ass igns a good dea l of i t to the hand of Thomas Hocc leve . The hands of a l l four MSS are qu i t e c l o s e , and hence the three MSS of poetry cou ld w e l l have been done by Hoccleve h i m s e l f . Shulz f u r t he r argues tha t the mistakes that F u r n i v a l l had seen i n the three MSS can be e x p l a i n e d away as common s c r i b a l e r r o r s , and need not be cons idered as s t rong evidence fo r or aga ins t the MSS hav ing been cop ied by the same man. Ne i the r F u r n i v a l l nor Shulz l i s t s \ these e r r o r s . For t h i s e d i t i o n of HM 744, however, I have made note of a number of the e r r o r s i n t h i s MS i n the t e x t u a l notes s e c t i o n f o l l o w i n g the t r a n s c r i p t of the MS. - 62. D e s c r i p t i o n of the MS HM 744 Miss Jean P re s ton , of the Department of Manuscr ip t s at the Hunt ington L i b r a r y , provided the main p o r t i o n of t h i s d e s c r i p t i o n i n a l e t t e r to the w r i t e r dated 5 March, 1964. The d e s c r i p t i o n i s as f o l l o w s . a . Contents f f . l r - 3 v Table for de te rmining Eas t e r Day. Made 1386. 4 r -10r I s i d o r e of S e v i l l e , C o n s i l i a , E n g l i s h . lOv Augus t ine , De contemptu mundi, E n g l i s h . l l v "Erthe upon e r t h e , " B v e r s i o n , w i t h the i n t r o d u c t o r y coup le t w r i t t e n as prose. 12v The e i g h t g h o s t l y d w e l l i n g places of the s o u l . 13v-23r W y c l i f f e , commentary on the ten commandments. " A l l c r i s t e n men shuld holde Goddis byddynges." 23v W y c l i f f e , the seven works of mercy b o d i l y . 24v On keeping the commandments, incomple te . 25r Hocc leve , poems i n E n g l i s h . b . C o l l a t i o n The MS HM 744 i s i n four s e c t i o n s , w i t h a t o t a l of 68 l e a v e s . S e c t i o n one has two ga ther ings of 12 leaves each. S e c t i o n two has three ga ther ings of e i g h t leaves each; s e c t i o n three one ga the r ing of four l e aves ; and s e c t i o n four two ga ther ings of e i g h t l e a v e s . The t ex t frame i n the s e c t i o n up to the Hoccleve poetry i s s i x inches by f o u r . i n c h e s , w i t h r u l i n g i n i n k . I n the Hoccleve s e c t i o n - 63. the frame i s s i x and one quarter inches by four i n c h e s , and the r u l i n g i s i n plummet. There are blue i n i t i a l s w i t h red pen d e c o r a t i o n i n the f i r s t ga the r ing of the MS, and i n the Hoccleve s e c t i o n . In the Hoccleve par t the i n i t i a l s are rendered i n a d i f f e r e n t shade of b l u e , however. Pa r t one, up to the Hoccleve s e c t i o n , i s i n four d i f f e r e n t hands, Mis s P res ton r e p o r t s , w h i l e the poetry i n the second par t i s a Hoccleve autograph. The two separate par ts of the MS are bound together i n "contemporary l imp l e a t h e r , " Miss Pres ton w r i t e s i n her l e t t e r . Provenance of HM 744 De R i c c i ' s Census of Med ieva l Manuscr ip t s i n the Uni ted S ta tes  and Canada^ g ives the f o l l o w i n g provenance fo r HM 744: Owned c a . 1500 by Thomas F y l e r . - - N . 142 i n a sa le c a . 1850; the E a r l o f Ashburnham c o l l . (appendix, n . 133); h i s sa le (London, 1899, n . 81) to L e i g h t o n ; George Dunn sa le (London, 1913, I , n . 518) to Maggs; S i r I s r a e l G o l l a n c z c o l l . - - c f . F r . J . F u r n i v a l l , EETS, e s , L X I (1892), pp. x x v i - x x i x , f a c s ; C a r l e t o n Brown, Reg i s t e r of Middle  E n g l i s h V e r s e , I , p. 468. The MS has been i n the Henry E . Hunt ington L i b r a r y i n San Mar ino , C a l i f o r n i a , s ince the mid 1930 ' s . FOOTNOTES 1. Seymour De R i c c i , w i t h the a s s i s t ance o f J . W i l s o n , Census of Medieva l  and Renaissance Manuscr ip ts i n the Un i t ed S ta tes and Canada, J u l y , 1935 (Repr . , New Y o r k , 1961), i n 3 volumes. HM 744 i s d e s c r i b e d , and the provenance g iven i n V o l . 1, p. 74. - 65. A Note on the E d i t i n g of the MS Iti HM 744 the Hoccleve s e c t i o n runs from f o l i o 25r to f o l i o 68v. In the top r i g h t hand corner of each page of t h i s t r a n s c r i p t I have put the f o l i o number from which i t i s t aken . The poems i n the MS I have ass igned Roman numerals from I to X I . The three roundels are r e l a t e d , and I have grouped them a l l under X , numbering them sepa ra t e ly C . i , X . i i , and X . i i i . I have added l i n e numbers at r e g u l a r i n t e r v a l s throughout each poem, and each poem has a separate s e r i e s of l i n e numbers. I have represented the l e t t e r " t h o r n " w i t h b - , as i n " b a t . " I have represented "yogh" w i t h - 3 , as i n " s e ruan t3 . " There are on ly two occurrences of t h i s l e t t e r i n the MS. The l e t t e r - u - i s used i n t h i s t r a n s c r i p t acco rd ing to Middle E n g l i s h usage to represent both v o c a l i c - u - and consonanta l - v - . S i m i l a r l y , the l e t t e r - i - i s used to represent the l e t t e r - i - , and a l s o the l e t t e r we would now w r i t e as j - . I have expanded shorthand forms used by the s c r i b e , and u n d e r l i n e d those l e t t e r s which I have s u p p l i e d . THE TEXT HM 744 I . Inuocacio ad patrem. To thee we make oure inuocac ion Thow god, the f a d i r , which un- to us a l l e A r t euermo, fo r our sauuacion , Reedy to heere_ vs whan we to thee c a l l e In any cause ba_t may happe & f a l l e , As fe r as sowneth i n - t o R igh twisnesse , which excede nat may thy b l i s s f u l n e s s e . f f o r thow, f a d i r , a r t t routhe and v e r i t e e ; Thyn owne sone bat same i s a l s o ; And, syn i t so i s , what may b e t t r e be, I f bat a man sha l to the t routhe go, Than preye thee, wi thouten wordes mo: f f a d i r of heuene, i n thy sones name, f foryeue our g i l t e s , and r e l e s s e our blame. f f a d i r and sone yee been knyt for euere , So s ad ly bat no thyng bat man may thynke Or speke you may unbynde or d i s s eue re . Than, f a d i r l a t our preyere i n thee synke, And of thy p i tous mercy yeue us drynke, I n tokne bat there i s no va r i aunce Betwyxt yow two bat been but o substance. 0 f a d i r god, k i n g of eterne g l o r i e , w i t h her te repentaunt , we thee byseeche That thow have of thy sone swich memorie That thy p i t ee be no thyng fo r to seeche Our sorwes for to augmente or / / to eeche But bat by him thyn i r e asswagid be, By cause bat thyn owne sone i s he . f f o r o f t e n , by the i n t e r c e s s i o n Of sones, i s the f a d i r s wrat the appes id . And they bat fo r h i r g i l t w e r £ i n p r i s o n , I n y ren bondes greuous ly d i s e s i d , D e l i u r e d been, and of h i r bondes e s i d , bat sholde han ronne i n - t o dethes sentence, hadde nat be the sones reuerence. And nat oonly y i t g r a u n t i d was h i r l y f , But ouer bat han had encrees of g race : Tho sones eek weren so en t en ty f , hat of h i r f a d i r s kowden they purchace So greet l oue , withynne a l i t i l space, Vnto the g i l t y f o l k of which I spak, ba_t of good l o r d s h i p e hadde they no l a k . Thus, f r o s e r u a n t 3 v o i d i t h malencolie Of lordes at h i r sones good instaunce; Almighty f a d i r of the heuenes hye, we thee byseeche bat of our greuance Thou vouche sauf to graunte us allegeance At instance of thy b l e s s i d sone and deere And i n thy loue make us shyne c l e e r e . The kay of grace grante us f o r to take, bat we may maken our confessioun vn-to thy name, and of our bondes blake vnbownden be, thurgh our c o n t r i t i o u n ; And a f t i r be of swich c o n d i t i o u n As bat may lyke un-to thy d e i t e e , And o t h i r nat, we preyen, moot i t be. And us, whom bat our d i s s e r t e s manace The mortel sentence, to l y f r e s t o r e By preyer of thy sone, and sende us grace Thy lawes keepe & wirke a f t i r thy l o r e ; And oure_ offenses, bat s t i k e i n us sore, w i t h herte c a r e f u l bewaille_ and weepe, Er our careyne i n to the eerthe creepe. - 70. f . 26v 10. whom shu l we preye our mene fo r to be, But thy sone, on the c r o i s bat s t a r f and dyde f f o r our t respas and oure i n i q u i t e e ; hat s i t preyyng for vs on thy r i g h t syde? he i s the lamb, b a t , w i t h h i s wowndes wyde, Before h i s tormentoures hee ld h i s pees f f o r a l h i s g r i e f , a l were he g i l t e l e e s 70 11. f f o r , whan h i s body s cou rg id was & be te , And a l byspet was h i s b l e s s i d v i s a g e , f f o r aght they kowde rebuke him or t h r e t e , he kepte him coy; he owt id no langage; Ther mighte no thyng chaungen h i s corage, But h i s torment he took i n pa t i ence , And dyde fo r our t respas and of fense . 77 12. f f a d i r , byholde , of thy b e n i g n i t e e , And of i u s t i c e , we requeren t h i s : bat syn thy sone, by the w i l of thee, Dyde to wynne bat was thyn and h i s , f f o r to redresse bat ba_t was amis, Considere i t , and reewe on us t e n d r e l y , Syn thou a r t c a l l i d f a d i r of mercy. 84 - 7 1 . f. 27r 13. he i s pat meek and spotlees Innocent bat, f o r our g i l t , to dye no thyng draddei; which to h i s deeth was maad obedient, And i n h i s torment f u l greet d e l y t hadde, Remembrynge how we s y n f u l f o l k e s badde Redempt sholde be, thurghe_ h i s passioun, Out of the daunger of the feend adoun. 91 14. Thy godhede him made our nature take, And were a man of f l e s s h and blood & boon; And on the c r o i s he dyde f o r our sake, hat tendre, louyng l o r d ; to vs echoon Swich a louer was ther neuere noon, f f o r g e t e our g i l t e s & remembre hem noght, Mercyful l o r d , putte a l out of thy thoght. 98 15. Lat thy loue ay to us endure & l a s t e . The gracious yen of thy magestee we thee byseeche on thy sone thow caste; Shewe thy mercy and thyn hy p i t e e , which bat may thoght, spoken, ne w r i t e n be: And on thy sone preeue h i t heere_ i n deede; Beholde h i s sydes and see how they bleede. 105 - 72. f . 27v 16. h i s g i l t l e s s handes, how they stremen, see, w i t h b lody stremes, and bat we han wroght Ageyn thy w i l ; f a d i r we preyen thee f foryeve i t us , and reuolue i n thy thoght how deere_ bat thy sone hath us boght; At g r e t t e r prys ne mighte us no man bye, Than for our g i l t e s and our synnes dye. 112 17. h i s feet and handes w i t h nay les been perced; See whiche annoyes hath our redemptour. A l l h i s tormentes may nat be reherced By noon e n d i t o u r , ne by t r a n s l a t o u r , Ne no wight e l l e s , fo r so many a s t o u r , And so greuous, souf ford he for our synne, bat to t e l l e a l , mannes w i t i s to thynne. 119 18. w i t h sharpe thornes f a d i r , wei thow woost , Coroned was thy sone & sore pyned, And wowndid to the h e r t e , and y a l d the goost ; An harder deeth may nat been ymagyned. h i s f r e s sh c o l o u r , bat whilom was beshyned w i t h swich beautee bat i t wolde a l thyng g lade , wax wan and dusk and p a l e , and gan to fade. 126 Beholde thy sones humanitee, And mercy haue on our seek feeblenesse ; Beholde h i s to ren membres, f a d i r f r e e , And l a t our substance i n thyn her te impresse; Thynke on thy sones peyne and heuynesse, As I before spoken haue & s e i d , And unbynde us bat been i n synnes t e i d . f f a d i r and l o r d of mercy on us reewe, bat fo r our synnes stynken i n thy s i g h t e ; Thow graunte us grace u i ces to escheewe, And of our pynfu l b i r d o n thow us l i g h t e j Ageyn the feend encorage us to f i g h t e , And s t i f l y graunte us i n thy cause stonde And f l i t t e na t , whan we take i t on honde. I I . Ad f i l i u m / Honor e t G l o r i a 0 b l e s s i d c h y l d I e su , what haast thow do, bat fo r us s h u l d i s t souff re swich Iewise? Louynge c h y l d , what s t i r e d thee ther t o , That thow woldes t be t r e t e d i n swich wyse? what c a u s i d thee to take bat empryse? what was thy g i l t , and thyn of fense , I preye, And cause of deeth and dampnyng eek, I seye? - 74. f . 28v 2. I am the wownde of a l thy greuance; I am the cause of thyn o c c i s i o u n ; And of thy deeth desser t of thy vengeance. I am a l s o v e r r a y f l a g i c i o u n ; I c a u s i d thee thy greuous pass ioun; Of thy torment I am s o l i c i t o u r , Thow goddes sone, our l o r d & Sauueour. 14 3. 0 goddes secree d i s p o s i c i o u n , And w o n d i r f u l and pr iuee iugement, f f u l m e r v e i l l o u s i s thy c o n d i c i o u n ! The w i k k i d man synneth, the good i s shent; The g i l t y t r e space th , the Innocent Is be ten; & the shrewe dooth of fense , The meek i s dampned i n h i s innocence . 21 f . 29r:. 4 . The peyne bat the w i k k i d man d i s s e r u e t h , The g i l t e l e e s r e c e i u e t h p a t i e n t l y ; The l o r d , h i s seruant i n h i s g i l t , preserueth f f r o punysshyng, & b i e t h i t d e e r l y h i m - s e l f ; & ba_t the man dooth w i k k i d l y , God k e e p i t h him f ro punisshyng & teene, And a l bat charge him l i s t fo r him susteene. 28 f f r o whenne, b l e s s i d sone of god, f ro whenne Descendid i s thy greet h u m i l i t e e ? Whens comth the loue we fee le i n thee brenne? f f r o whens, eek, i s p roced id thy p i t e e ; And f ro whens growi th thy ben ign i t ee? Whens s t r e c c h i t h thy loue and a f f e c c i o u n ; f f r o whens i s sprongen thy compassioun? I am he bat wroght haue s y n f u l l y , And thow, g i l t l e s s , took up on thee the peyne. I dide amis; I synned g reuous ly , f f o r which thow greeued were i n euery veyne. Thy louyng c h a r i t e e nat l i s t desdeyne To bye our g i l t , thogh thow were_ innocen t , But on the c r o i s s o u f f r i d d i s t thy torment. I woxe am prowd, thow k e e p i s t thy meeknesse; My f l e s s h i s bo lned , thyn i s woxen thynne. Myn her te i s wrappid i n unbuxumnesse, And thow, buxum, our soules for to wynne, Boghtest deere_ our co r rup t & ro ten synne. My l u s t obeied un- to g lo tonye , But thee l i s t nat thee to ba_t l u s t a p p l i e . I was vanyssh id by concupiscence , f f o r to e ten of the u n l e e f f u l t r e e ; And f o r my l u s t and inobedience Thy feruent loue & par fy t c h a r i t e e , 0 b l i s s f u l c h y l d , to the c r o i s ladden thee: where as bat I took the de f fend id thyng, Thow de ides t fo r me, I e su , heuene kyng. In mete & drynke I d e l y t e me, And on the g i b e t took thow greet duresse : Betwyxt tho two i s greet d y u e r s i t e e . T a a s t i d haue I the f a i r apples swetnesse, Of g a l l e thow t a a s t i s t the b i t t r e n e s s e : Eeue me g l a d i t h , w i t h a lawwhyng y e , And weepynge up on thee r eewi th M a r i e . 0 Kyng of g l o r i e , thow beholde & see what peynes thow s u f f r i d d i s t fo r our sake.' And syn bat we so deere cos ted thee, Thow keepe us f ro the might of feendes b lake La t nat thy c h a r i t a b l e loue a s s l a k e ; And graunt us grace thee to loue & drede; And yeue us heuene whan ba_t we be dedel I l l Ad S p i r i t u m Sanctum. Now h o l y goost of the hy d e i t e e , Loue and h o l y communicacioun Of f a d i r and sone, b l e s s i d thow be. 0 thow benigne conso l ac ioun Of heuy f o l k ; o, our sauuacioun; 0 tendre h e r t i d , cause of a l qu i ee t e , Our b i t t r e n e s s torne a l i n to sweete. And , by thy mighty u e r t u , we thee preye bat oure her tes f i l t h y p r iue tee Thow vouche sauf to d e n s e and wasshe aweye; Thurgh thy mercy ther make thyn en t ree , 0 h o l y goos t , there_ enhabyte thee, And the d i r k ha lkes of our soules l i g h t e And glade w i t h thy f i r y lemes b r i g h t . And oure h e r t e s , whiche by long roghnesse w e l k i d been, & forgoon han h i r u i g o r By enchesoun of excessyf drynesse , Dewe habundantly w i t h thyn holsum shour; Our soules lu rkyng sores and langour , w i t h thy brennyng dar t and thy loues broond V i s i t e and h e l p e ; our h e l t h e i s i n thyn hoond. - 78. f. 30v 4. K i n d l e eek and qwikne w i t h thy l y f l y lemes Our slouthy hertes of uertu bareyne; Our soules perce w i t h thy shynyng bemes. To thy godhede thow us knytte and cheyne. The r i u e r of thy l u s t l a t on us reyne. Of w o r l d l y sweet uenym s o u f f r e us nat t a a s t e , Ne our tyme i n t h i s world mis spend and waaste. 28 5. 0 god we thee byseeche thow us deeme, And our cause f r o w i k k i d f o l k discerne] Thow graunte us grace thee to plese and qweeme, And to thy w i l & pleasaunce us gouerne. Our seekly f r e e l t e e beholde and concerne, And reewe on our b r o t i l condicioun, And f o r our g y l t sende us c o n t r i c i o u n . 35 f. 31r 6. wher thow makist thyn habytacioun we knowen weel, and f u l l y leeuen we. Thow f o r f a d i r and sone a mansioun Ma k i s t , i n whom thee l i s t herberwe thee: f f u l happy and f u l b l i s s i d man i s he, f f o r h i s s p i r i t may r e s t e s i k i r l y , Vnabassht of the feend oure_ enemy. 42 - 79. Come o n , c o n f o r t o f o u r s o u l e s s e e k n e s s e , A n d a y r e e d y i n o u r n e c e s s i t e e ; O f w o w n d e s l e c h e ; h e l p e r e i n d i s t r e s s e d 0 come n o w f o o r t h s t r e n g t h e o f o u r f r e e l t e e , C l e n s e r e _ o f o u r g y l t a n d i n i q u i t e e , R e l e e u e r e o f h e m b a t d o u n s l i p p e a n d s l y d e , G r o u n d o f m e e k n e s s e & d e s t r o y o u r o f p r y d e j O f f a d r e l e e s c h i l d r e n 0 f a d i r f r e e ; O f w i d w e s e s y l u g e ; a n d h o p e a n d t r u s t O f p o o r e f o l k ; a n d i n a d u e r s i t e e R e f u y t a n d h e l p e ; h e l p e u s , f o r s o t h o w m u s t ] O f o u r e s o u l e s r u b b e a w a y t h e r u s t . T h y g r a c e t o r e c e y u e m a k e u s a b l e , A n d k y t h e i n u s b a t t h o w a r t m e r c i a b l e . 0 l o d e s t e r r e ; o f s h i p b r e c h e s e u r p o r t ; 0 o o n l y h e l t h e o f o u r m o r t a l i t e e ; 0 h o l y g o o s t , c a u s e o f a l o u r c o n f o r t ; S i n g u l e r h o n u r o f a l l e b a t b e ; T e l l e u s t o whom r e c o u r s h a u e m a y we B u t u n - t o t h e e , b a t w i t h t h y n h o l s u m b r e e t h M a i s t s a u e u s a l l e f r o t h e t e r n e l d e e t h ! - 80. -f . 31v 10. 0 h o l y goos t , l yke i t to thy goodnesse, To oure_ axynge meekly, condescende. Mercy haue on our synne & w i k k i d n e s s e , And f ro the feendes ma l i ce us deffende. To f a d i r , sone, and to thee we commende Our s o u l e s , hem to haue i n gouernance. 0 T r i n i t e e haue us i n remembrance] 70 I V . Ad beatarn V i rg inem 1. Wors sh ip fu l maiden to the w o r l d , M a r i e ; Modir moost louynge un- to a l man kynde; Lady to whom a l s y n f u l peple c r i e In h i r d i s t r e s s e , haue us i n thy mynde. Thurgh thy benigne p i t ee us unbynde Of our g i l t e s , bat i n thy sones b i r t h e To a l the wor ld broghtes t the i o i e & m i r t h e . 7 f . 32r 2. To whom s h a l I t r u s t e so s i k e r l y To axen h e l p i n my neces s i t ee As unto thee, thow modir of mercy? f f o r to the wor ld mercy cam i n by thee: Thow baar the l o r d of mercy, l ady f r ee , who may so l i g h t l y mercy us purchace Of god thy sone as thow, modir of grace? 14 Lady, r i g h t as i t i s an imposs ib l e bat thow sho ldes t nat haue i n remembrance why thow baar god; so i t i s i n c r e d i b l e , To any wight of c a t h o l y k creaunce, Thee nat to reewe on our s y n f u l greuaunce f f o r thy , l ady benigne and m e r c i a b l e , Vnto thy sone make us accep t ab l e . 0 god, bat maad a r t sone unto woman f f o r mercy, & thow woman, which a l s o , By grace , a r t maad modir to god & man, Ou th i r reewe on us wrecches f u l of wo, s. deus s. domina Thow sparyng, and thow preyynge; dooth so Or e l l e s wisse us w h i d i r fo r to f l e e To hem ba_t been mercyfullere_ than yee . I f i t so be, as wei I woot i t i s , That so greuous i s myn i n i q u i t e e , And bat I haue wroght so moche amis , So smal my f e i t h , so slow my c h a r i t e e , And l o r d , so unkonnynge i s , unto thee And thy modi r , my lewed o r i s o u n , So imparfyt my s a t i s f a c c i o u n , - 82. f . 32v 6. bat n e i t h e r of my g i l t e s indu lgence , Ne grace of he1the, i n no maner wyse Disserued haue I fo r my greet o f fense : L o , ba.t meene I , bat i s my couetyse , That , where_ as my d i s s e r t may nat souf fyse , The grace of mercy of yow bothe tweye Ne f a i l l e n a t , bat i s i t bat I preye. 42 7. M e r c y f u l l o r d , haue upon me mercyI And l a d y , thy sone unto mercy meeue. w i t h her te c o n t r y t preye I thee meekly; Lady thy p i t e e on me wrecche preeue. B i s y l y preye, fo r I f u l l y leeue f f o r whom thow preyest god nat l i s t denye Thyn axynge, b l e s s i d maiden M a r i e . 49 Syn thow modir - 83. V . Item de beata v i r g i n e Syn thow, modir of g race , haast euere i n mynde Alle_ tho bat up on thee han memorie, Thy remembrance ay oghte oure her tes bynde Thee for to honure, b l i s f u l qweene of g l o r i e . To alle_ c r i s t e n f o l k i t i s n o t o r i e bat thow a r t shee i n whom bat a l man kynde May t r u s t e f u l l y grace and he lp to fynde. what wight i s ba t , that w i t h angwissh and wo Tormented i s , i f he preye un to thee him to d e l i u r e and to putte him ther f r o , Thow ne uo ides t h i s adue r s i t ee Thurgh preyre_ of thy wowndid c h a r i t e e ? And thogh bat preye may h i s tonge noght , Y i t h e l p i s he thurgh c r y of her tes thoght . The oyle of thy mercy f l o w i t h eueremore; There_ i n noon ebbe hath dominacion; That l i c o u r our wowndes greuous & sore S e r c h i t h , and i s our f u l c u r a c i o n ; That i s the kay of our sauuacion; And syn bat ther of i s so greet p len tee , And thow so l i b e r a l , g l ad may we be. - 84. A l bat the heuene of the eer the t a k i t h , And bat the eerthe by heuenes moistnesse Doun shed f o o r t h b r y n g i t h , thy ue r tu i t mak i th ; So a r t thow f u l of uertuous r i c h e s s e , S t e r r e of the see, whos shynyng b r igh tnesse The d i r k e soule of man maki th to shyne, And him preserueth hoo ly f ro ruyne. Thow cause of a l our i o i e , o f l y f the t ree bat f r u y t of he l t he baar p e r p e t u e l ; God, i n the rynde of our m o r t a l i t e e , I n thy body him l a p p i d e u e r y d e l ; And h i s hynesse enc lyned , woot I w e l , Vn to the va l eys of our l owlynesse , Our f i r s t e g i l t w i t h h i s b lood to r ed re s se . The whyt f l e e s of thy wombe u i r g i n a l , Of which the gowne of pe rpe tue l pece was maad, wi thou ten mannes werk at a l : honur and thank be to i t endelees! f f o r thy sone i n h i s pass ion doutelees I t i n t o purpre hath fo r man kynde d i e d , f f o r bat him l i s t w i t h us to been a l l i e d . - 85. f. 34f 7. Thow worthy a r t un to the sonnes l i g h t Be likned, and preferred for to be The cleernesse of the moone shynyng bright. f f o r as an heuenly morwen thy bountee Ete r n e l day hath gete us, lady free, That dirknesse of our soule away hath chaced, And out of thraldam freedam us purchaced. 49 8. Thow a r t shee which bat strengthest hertes chaaste with a sad and constant perseuerance. what bat we i u s t l y preye i s sped i n haaste, Swich i s thy grace & he1ply purueance. To keepe us f r o the feendes destourbance, Thow mennes hertes f y r e s t with the hete Of f e i t h and charitee, as Clerkes t r e t e . 56 9. And sooth i t i s , o heuenes Emperice, bat thow, for us, beforn the rightwisnesse Of God thy sone, as our mediatrice, Preyest of custumable bisynesse. Cesse thow nat, syn, for our wrecchidnesse, Our Redemptour thee hath i n bat o f f i c e Ordeyned for to pourge us of our v i c e . , 63 - 86. Right as among the membres of a man Oonly h i s ye i s p e r c e p t i b l e of l i g h t , In swich maneere, o thow b l e s s i d womman, Among uirgynes a l l e , haast the might Oonly to s h i t t e i n thee, as i t i s r i g h t , Theternel g l o r i e of goddes magestee, f f o r thy clennesse and thyn h u m i l i t e e . I f bat the feend wynd of temptacioun Putte i n oure_ h e r t e s , or floodes of pryd, Or o t h i r u i c i o u s e x c i t a c i o u n , Our soules f r o thy sone to dyuyde, Swich aduocatrice a r t thow f o r our syde, That our tempestes may no whyle l a s t e ; At thy preyere a l s t y n t i d i s as f a s t e , And to wedir of grace i s torned a l . To god so acceptable i s thy preyere, The feendes malice hurte us may but smal. Syn thow w i t h us a r t , Crystes modir deere, wei may the feend abassht been i n h i s cheere, Thy seruant3, bat so of t e n sythe a s s a i l l i t h , And thurgh thyn help h i s labour naght a u a i l l i t h . - 87. f . 35r 13. By thee thy sone g r a u n t i t h foryeunesse To s y n f u l men; to l a b o r e r e s , r e s t e ; To hem bat been i n p e r i l , s i k i r n e s s e ; To seek men, h e l t h e ; swich r i g h t as hem l e s t e . Of c rea tu res al le_, o thow the bes te , f f e i t h among freendes g r a u n t i d i s by thee, And betwyxt foos , pees and t r a n q u i l l i t e e . 91 14. To hem bat i n d i sese and angwissh be, Graun t id i s a l s o c o n s o l a c i o u n ; In thynges bat been doutous, c e r t a i n t e e ; Solace and i o i e i n t r i b u l a c i o u n ; In e x y l , r e c o n s i l i a c i o u n ; In per i s shynge , s i k i r hauene and p o r t : Thus artow euery where a l our c o n f o r t . 98 15. Syn swich power to thee committed i s , bat soule o f man i s as thee l i s t i t haue: Amende a t oure_ axynge that i s amis; Of duetee we wole i t axe and craue . In thee, next god, i s a l bat us may saue; Thow, as thee l i s t , h i s her te mayst enc lyne , And he c o n s e n t i t h wel bat thow i t myne. 105 - 88. -f . 35v 16. Thy sone ha th boght our soules a t swich p rys , bat derrere_ might no thyng han be boght : And he a chapman i s nat so unwys, Thogh bat we s y n f u l been i n deede & thoght , Our soules l i g h t l y leese he thoght i t noght . he mercy weneth neuere a t thyn i n s t a n c e , f f o r why, we thee preye of cont inuance . 112 17. Our Redemptour, by thee modir of g race , G r a u n t i t h honour, i o i e and e t e r n i t e e ; Le t see the mercy of thy sone embrace Preeue thee swich as thow a r t wont to be , And thanne of grace seur ynow been we f f o r euere , or t h i s ha th been the bysynesse To purchace of our g i l t foryeuenesse. 119 18. And now to s tynte of bat he1ply custume bat un to man kynde i s so p r o f i t a b l e : No wight on him can taken or presume; The kynde i s nat fo r to be changeable, But i s v e r t u to be constant and s t a b l e ; And so thow a r t , l a d y , wi thou ten f a i l l e _ ; we doute i t naght , no do foo r th thy t r a u a i l l e ! 126 - 89. -Lady i n whom a l v e r t u hath h i s r e s t e , Modir of mercy, modir of p i t e e , Of a l bountee thow verra y c o f r e & cheste, Deffende us f r o the feendes s o t i l t e e , bat us nat greeue h i s greet i n i q u i t e e ; Thy tendre loue upon us wrecches preeue bat been the sones e x y l i d of Eeue. Un to thy b l i s s i d sone us rec o n s y l e , f f o r to bat ende and un to bat entente, As thow wel woost, i n to t h i s wrecchid y l f f o r our behoue, h i s f a d i r him doun sente In mannes loue, how f e r u e n t l y he brente h i s passion witnesse bere may; Remembere on bat, and preye f o r us aye. - 90. f . 36r V I . Item de beata v i r g i n e Who so d e s i r i t h to yete and conquere Ce feust f a i t e < l i n s t a n c e de T. The b l i s s e of heuene, needful i s a gyde Mar leburgh . him to condue, & for to brynge him there ; And so good knowe I noon, for mannes syde, As the roote of humblesse & fo to pryde, That l ady of whos te tes v i r g i n a l Sook our Redemptour, the makere_ of a l . 7 f . 36v Betwyxt god and man i s shee m e d i a t r i c e , f f o r oure_ offenses mercy to purchace. Shee i s our seur sheeld ageyn the ma l i ce Of the feend, bat our soules wolde embrace And c a r i e hem un to bat h o r r i b l e place wher as e t e r n e l peyne i s and torment, More than may be spoke o f , thoght , or ment. 14 Now, syn ba_t l ady noble and g l o r i o u s To a l man kynde hath so greet cheer tee , That i n t h i s s l i p i r l y f and p e r i l l o u s , S t a f of confo r t and he lp to man i s shee, Conuenient i s bat to bat l ady free we do s e r u i c e , honour & plesance; And to bat ende heere_ i s a remembrance. 21 E x p l i c i t prologus ) & i n c i p i t f abu la ) - 91 . f . 37r V I I . (The t a l e of the V i r g i n ' s s l e e v e l e s s garment) 1. There was, whi lom, as bat s e i t h the s c r i p t u r e , In f f r aunce , a ryche man and a worthy, TThat god and h o l y ch i r che to honure And plese enforced he him b i s i l y ; And un to Crys tes modir s p e c i a l l y , b £ t noble l a d y , bat b l i s s i d v i r g y n e , f f o r to worsshipe he d i d h i s might & pyne. 7 2. I t shoop so bat t h i s man had a yong sone, Un to which he y a f in fo rmac ion Euery day to haue i n custume, and wone f f o r to seye a t h i s e x c i t a t i o n , The ange l ike s a l u t a c i o n . L . sythes i n worsship and honour Of goddes modi r , of ue r tu the f l o u r . 14 3. By h i s fadres w i l , a monk a f t i r w a r d In thabbeye of s e i n t Gyle maad was he; where_ as he i n penance sharp & hard Obserued wei h i s ordres duetee, Lyuynge i n uertuous r e l i g i o u s t e e ; And on a tyme, him to pleye and s o l a c e , h i s f a d i r made him come hoom to h i s p l a c e . 21 Now was t he r , at our ladyes reuerence, A Ghapel i n i t maad and e d i f i e d , In to which the monk, whan conuenience Of tyme he had awayted & e s p i e d , h i s fadres l o r e to f u l f i l l e _ , him h i e d ; And . L . sy thes , w i t h deuout corage , Seide Ave M a r i e , as was h i s usage. And whan pat he had endid h i s preyeere Our l a d y , c l o t h i d i n a garnement S l e e u e l e e s , byfore him he sy appeer: where_ of the monk took good auisament, M e r u e i l l y n g e him what ba_t t h i s might han ment And s e i d e , " . o . goode l a d y , by your l eeue , What garnament i s t h i s and hath no s leeue?" And she answerde & s e i d e , " t h i s c lothynge Thow has t me youen, fo r thow euery day , L . sythe Aue Mar i a seyynge, honured has t me; hens f o o r t h , I the pray, Use to t r e b l e bat by any way, And to euery . x : 1 -* 1 6 * Aue ioyne a l s o A pater nos t e r ; do thow euene so . "The f i r s t e . L . t : L wole I bat s e i d be In the memorie of the i o i e and honour That I had whan the Angel g r e t t e me, which was r i g h t a w o n d i r f u l confor tour To me whan he seide the Redemptour Of a l man kynde I receyue sho lde ; Greet was my i o i e whan he so me to lde "Thow s h a l t eek seyn the seconde, . L . ^ * In honur and i n mynde of the gladnesse That I had whan I baar of my body God and man, wi thouten wo or duresse . The . i i j : ^ e . . l .*-y i n thyn her te impresse , And seye i t eek, w i t h good deuocioun, In the memorie of myn Assumpcioun, "Whan bat I was coroned queene of heuene, In which my sone regneth , and s h a l a y . " A l l t h i s was doon bat I speke of and meene As the book s e i t h , up on an ha lyday . And than s e i d our l a d y , the g l o r i o u s May, "The next ha lyday wole I r e s o r t e To t h i s p l ace , thee to glade and c o n f o r t e . - 94. f . 38v 10. And ther w i t h a l f ro thens departed shee, The monk i n h i s deuocion dwel lynge; And euery day Ave Mar ia he S e i d e , a f t i r h i r doctryne & enformynge. And the next h a l i d a y a f t i r suynge, Our l a d y , f r e s s h l y a r r a i e d and w e l , To the monk cam, beynge i n bat Chapel . 70 11. And un to him s e i d e , "beholde now how good c l o t h y n g j and how f r e s sh a p p a r a i l l e That t h i s wyke to me youen has t thow; Sleeues to my c lothynge now nat f a i l l e ; V Thee thanke I , and f u l wel for thy t r a u a i l l e _ S h a l t thow be qwit heere_ i n t h i s l y f present , And i n bat o t h i r whan thow hens a r t went. 77 12. "Walke now, and go hoom un to thabbeye whan thow comst. Abbot s h a l t thow chosen be. And. the couent teche thow for to seye My p s a l t e r , as byforn taght haue I thee; The peple a l s o thow s h a l t i n genera l tee The same lessoun to myn honur teche, And i n hyre_ hur tes wole I been h i r l e c h e . 84 " . V i j . e yeer lyue s h a l t thow for to do This charge, & whan the yeeres been agoon Thow passe s h a l t hens, & me come un t o : And of t h i s doute haue thow righte_ noon. By my p s a l t e r s h a l ther be many oon Saued, and had up to e t e r n e l b l i s s e , ba t , i f bat nere , sholden there_ of m i s s e . " Whan shee had s e i d what b y t i d h i r £ to seye Shee up to heuene ascendid up and s t y . And soone a f t i r , Abbot of ba_t Abbeye he maad was, as ba.t t o lde him our l a d y . The Couent and the peple deuout ly The monk enformed and taughte h i r p s a l t e e r f f o r to be s e i d a f t i r bat v i j e . y ee r . Tho yeeres pas t ; h i s soule was betaght To god: he heuene had un to h i s meede. who serueth our l ady l e e s i t h r i g h t naght; Shee s o u f f i s s a n t l y qwyt i th euery deede. And now heer a f t i r the b e t t r e to speede, And i n h i r grace c h e e r l y for to s tonde, h i r p s a l t e e r for to seye l e t us fonde. E x p l i c i t . V I I I . L e p i s t r e de Cupide. Cupido, un to whos conunandement The g e n t i l kynrede of goddes on hy , And peple i n f e r n a l , been obedient , i And the m o r t e l f o l k seruen b i s y l y ; Of goddesse S i t he ree sone oon ly ; To alle_ tho bat to our de i t ee Been soge t t e s , greetynges senden we. In genera l we wole bat yee knowe bat ladyes of honur and reuerence, And o t h i r g e n t i l wommen, han I-sowe Swich seed of conpleynte i n our audience , Of men bat doon hem outrage & of fense , bat i t oure eres greeueth for to heere , So p i tous i s the 'ffect o f h i r mateere. And passynge a i l e londes , on t h i s y l e , That c l e p t i s A l b i o u n , they moost conpleyne; They seyn bat there_ i s croppe and roote of gy le So can tho men d i s s i m u l e n and feyne, w i t h standyng dropes i n hire_ yen tweyne whan bat hire_ her te f e e l i t h no d i s t r e s s e , To blynde wommen w i t h h i r doublenesse. - 97. h i r wordes spoken been so s i g h y n g l y , And w i t h so p i tous cheere and contenance, That euery wight bat meeneth t rewely Deemeth bat they i n her te han swich greuance, They seyn so impor table i s h i r penaunce, b a t , but h i r l ady l i s t to shewe hem grace , They r i g h t anoon moot s te ruen i n the p l a c e . "A l ady myn," they seyn, " I yow ensure, Shewe me grace , & I sha l euere be, whyles my l y f may l a s t e n & endure, To yow as humble i n euery degree As p o s s i b l e i s , and keepe a l thyng secree , As bat your se luen l y k i t h bat I do, And e l l e s moot myn her te b res te on two . " f f u l hard i s i t to knowe a mannes h e r t e , f f o r outward may no man the t routhe deeme, whan word out of h i s mouth may ther noon s t e r t e But i t sholde any wight by reson qweeme, So i s i t s e i d of h e r t e , i t wolde seeme. 0 f e i t h f u l womman f u l of Innocence, Thow a r t be t rayed by f a l s apparence! - 98. f . 40v 7. By procesj wommen meeued of p i t e e , Weenyng a l thyng were_ as bat tho men seye, Graunten hem grace of h i r b e n i g n i t e e , f f o r they nat sholden for h i r sake deye; And w i t h good her te se t te hem i n the weye Of b l i s s f u l l o u e , keepe i t i f they konne: Thus o t h i r whyle been the woman wonne. 49 8. And whan the man the pot hath by the s t e l e , And f u l l y of hire_ ha th possess ioun , w i t h bat womman he k e e p i t h nat to dele A f t i r , i f he may fynden i n the toun Any womman h i s blynde a f f e c c i o m . On to bestowe, fou le moot he preeue: A man, for a l h i s oo th , i s hard to l eeue . 56 9. And for ba_t euery f a l s man hath a make, As un to euery wight i s l i g h t to knowe, whan t h i s T r a i t o u r the womman hath fo r sake , he fas te him speed i th unto h i s fe lawe; T i l he be there_, h i s her te i s on a lowe; h i s f a l s d e c e i t ne may him nat souf fyse , But o f h i s t r e son t e l l i t h a l the wyse. 63 Is t h i s a f a i r - 99. f . 41r 10. Is t h i s a f a i r auant? i s t h i s honour A man h i m / s e l f to accuse & diffame? Now i s i t good confesse him a t r a i t o u r , And brynge a woman to a sclaundrous name, And t e l l e how he h i r body hath doon shame? No worssh ip may he thus to him conquere, But f u l greet r ep ree f unto him and he re . 70 11. To here_ nay y i t was i t no r ep ree f , f f o r a l fo r p i t ee was i t bat shee wroghte; But he bat breewid hath a l t h i s mescheef, ba_t spake so f a i r & f a l s l y inward thoghte , h i s be the shame, as i t by reson oghte, And unto here_ thank p e r p e t u e l , bat i n a neede helpe can so w e l . 77 12. A l thogh bat men, by s l e i g h t e & s o t i l t e e , A c e l y , symple, and ignoran t woman Be t r aye , i s no wondi r , syn the c i t e e Of T r o i e , as bat the s t o r i e t e l l e can, Betrayed was thurgh the d e c e i t of man, And set a f y r e , & a l doun ouerthrowe, And f i n a l l y des t royed as men knowe. 84 - 100. f . 41v 13. Betrayen men nat Remes grete and kynges? what wight i s bat can shape a remedie Ageynes f a l s e & h i d purposed thynges? who can the c r a f t , tho c r a f t e s to espye, But man, whos w i l ay reedy i s t a p p l i e To thyng bat souneth i n to hy fa lshede? wommen be waar of mennes s l e i g h t e , I - r ede . 91 14. And fur thermore, han the men i n usage, b a t , where_ as they nat l i k l y been to speede, Swich as they been, w i t h a double u i sage , They procuren for to pursue h i r neede. he preyeth him i n h i s cause proceede, And l a r g e l y him qwyt i t h h i s t r a u a i l l e _ : \ Smal w i t e n wommen how men hem as sa i l l e_ . 98 15. To h i s felawe an o t h i r wrecche s e i t h , "Thow f i s s h i s t faire_, shee bat hath thee f y r i d Is f a l s and incons t an t & hath no f e i t h . Shee f o r the rode of f o l k i s so d e s y r i d e , And as an hors f ro day to day i s h y r i d , That whan thow twynnest from h i r compaignie, An o t h i r comth, and b i e r i d i s thyn y e . 105 - 101. "Now p r i k e on f a s t e , & ryde thy iourneye ; whyl thow a r t t he r , shee behynde thy bak So l i b e r a l i s , shee can no wight w i th seye , But q w i k l y of an o t h i r take a snak; f f o r so the wommen fa ren a l the pak: who so hem t r u s t i t h , hangid moot he be] Ay they d e s i r e n chaunge & n o u e l t e e . " where_ of p r o c e d i t h t h i s , but of enuye? f f o r he him s e l f e here ne wynne may, Repreef of here he spekth , and v i l l e n y e , As mannes labbyng tonge i s wont a lway. Thus sundry men f u l o f ten make assay f f o r to destourbe f o l k i n sundry wyse, f f o r they may nat accheuen hire_ empryse. f f u l many a man eeke wolde fo r no good, bat hath i n loue spent h i s tyme & u s i d ; Men w i s t h i s l ady h i s axyng w i t h s t o o d , And ba_t he were_ of h i s l ady r e f u s i d , Or waast & ueyn were_ a l bat he had musid; wherfore he can no bettre_ remedie, But on h i s lady shap i th him to l i e . - 102. "Euery womman," he s e i t h , " i s l i g h t to gete Can noon seyn nay i f shee be wei I - sogh t . who so may l i e f e r han w i t h hire_ to t r e t e , Of h i s purpos ne s h a l he f a i l l e noght, But on maddynge he be so deepe broghte , bat he shende a l w i t h open hoomlynesse bat louen wommen na t , as ba_t I g e s s e . " To sc laundre wommen thus , what may profy te? To g e n t i l s namly, ba.t hem armen sho lde , And i n deffense of wommen hem d e l y t e , As bat the ordre of g e n t i l l e s s e wolde : I f bat a man l i s t g e n t i l to be h o l d e , A l must he f l e e bat i s to i t c o n t r a r i e : A sc laundryng tonge i s ther to A d u e r s a r i e . A f o u l u i ce i s of tonge to be l i g h t , f f o r who so m o c h i l c l a p p i t h , gabbi th o f t e . The tonge of man so s w i f t i s , and so Wight , ba_t wan i t i s a r e i s i d up on l o f t e , Reson i t sueth so s l o w l y and s o f t e , bat i t him neuere ouertake may: Lord so the men been t r u s t y a t assay] - 103. -A l be i t bat men fynde o womman nyce , Incons tan t , r e c h e l e e s , or u a r i a b l e , Deynous, or prowd, f u l f i l l i d of m a l i c e , wi thoute f e i t h or l o u e , & deceyuable , S l y , qweynte, & f a l s , i n a l u n t h r i f t coupable , w i k k i d and f e e r s , & f u l of c r u e l t e e : I t f o l w i t h nat swich a i l e wommen be. whan bat the hy god angels formed hadde, Among hem alle_ whe th i r ther was noon bat fownden was m a l i c i o u s & badde? Y i s , men wel knowen ther was many oon, b a t , fo r h i r pryde, f i l from heuene anoon. Sha l man the r fo re a i l e angels prowde name? Nay, he bat tha t sus teneth i s to blame. Of . x i j . e a p o s t l e s , oon a t r a i t o u r was; The remanaunt y i t goode were_ and treewe; Thanne i f i t happe men fynden, par cas , 0 womman f a l s , swich i s good for teschewe And deeme nat bat they been a i l e untreewe. 1 see wel mennes owne fa l snesse hem c a u s i t h wommen fo r to t r u s t e l e s s e . - 104. 0, euery man oghte han an her te tendre Un to woman, & deeme hire_ honurab le , whe th i r h i s shap be e i t h i r t h ikke or s c l e n d r e , Or he be badde or good; t h i s i s no f a b l e ; Euery man woot, bat w i t hath r e sonab le , bat of a womman he descendid i s : Than i s i t shame speke of hire_ amis . A w i k k i d t ree good f r u y t may noon f o o r t h brynge f f o r swich the f ruy t i s as bat i s the t r e e : Take heede of whom thow took thy begynnynge] L a t thy. modir be mi rour un to thee; honure hire_, i f thow w i l t honured be; Despyse thow nat hire_ i n no maneere, L e s t bat ther thurgh thy wikk idnesse appere. An o l d prouerbe s e i d i s i n e n g l i s s h : Men seyn bat b r i d or f o u l i s deshonest , what so i t be , and ho lden f u l c h e r l i s s h bat wont i s to de f fou le h i s owne ne s t . Men to seye of wommen w e i , i t i s bes t , And nat for to despise hem, ne depraue, I f bat hem l i s t hire_ honur keepe and saue. - 105. f . 44r 28. Ladyes eek conpleynen hem on C l e r k i s , bat they han maad bookes of h i r deffame, In whiche they lakken wommennes w e r k i s , And speken of hem greet r ep ree f and shame, And cause lees , hem yeue a w i k k i d name: Thus they despys id been on euery syde, And sc laundred and belowen on f u l wyde. 196 29. The w i k k i d bookes maken mencion how they be t rayden, i n s p e c i a l , Adam, Dauid , Sampson, & Salomon, And many oon mo; who may rehercen a l The t resoun bat they haue doon & sha l? who may hire_ hy ma l i ce conprehende? "Nat the w o r l d , " C le rkes seyn, " i t ha th noon ende j" 203 30. Ouyde, i n h i s book c a l l i d Remedie Of l o u e , greet r ep ree f of wommen w r i t i t h , Where_ i n , I t rowe, he d i d greet f o l i e ; And euery wight bat i n swich cas d e l i t i t h . A c l e r k e s custume i s , whan he e n d y t i t h Of wommen, be i t prose , rym, or v e r s , Seyn they be w i k k e , a l knowe he the r e u e r s . 210 - 106. And bat book s c o l e r s l e rne i n h i r c h i l d h e d e , f f o r they of wommen be waar sholde i n age, And fo r to loue hem euere been i n drede, Syn to deceyue i s set a l h i r corage. s. l i b r i They seyn, p e r i l to cas te i s auantage, Namely swich as men han i n be t r a p p i d , f f o r many a man by wommen han mis happ id . No charge, what so that the C le rkes seyn: Of a l h i r wrong wrytyng do we no cure ; A l h i r labour and t r a v a i l l e i s i n ueyn, f f o r , betwyxt us & my Lady nature Shal nat be sou f f r ed , whyl the w o r l d may dure , C l e r k e s , by hire_ outrageous t i r a n n y e , Thus upon wommen kythen h i r m a i s t r y e . whilom, f u l many of hem were_ i n our cheyne Tyd, and l o , now, what for unweeldy age, And for .unlus-t , may nat to loue a t t eyne , And seyn bat loue i s but uer ray dotage; Thus for bat they hem s e l f l akken corage, They f o l k excyten by h i r wikked sawes, f f o r to r e b e l l e ageyn us and our lawes. - 107. -f . 45r 34. But maugree hem ba.t blamen wommen moost, Swich i s the force of oure impress ioun , bat sodeynly We f e l l e can h i r boos t , And a l h i r wrong ymaginacioun. I t s h a l nat been i n hire_ e l l e c c i o u n , The f o u l e s t s l u t t e i n a l a toun refuse I f bat us l i s t , fo r a l bat they can muse; 238 35. But hire_ i n her te as brennyngly desyre , As thogh shee were_ a duchesse or a qweene. So can We mennes her tes se t t e on f y r e , And as us l i s t hem sende i o i e & teene. They that to wommen been I-whet so keene, Our sharpe s t rokes how sore they smyte Shul f ee l e and knowe, & how they kerue & b y t e . 245 36 . Pardee, t h i s greet C l e r k , t h i s s o t i l Ouyde, And many an o t h i r han deceyued be of wommen, as i t knowen i s f u l wyde; what no men more, & bat i s greet deyntee, So e x c e l l e n t a C l e r k as bat was he, And o t h i r mo bat kowde so wel preche, Be t r app id wen, f o r aght they kowde teche. 252 - 108. And t r u s t e t h wei bat i t i s no m e r u a i l l e , f f o r wommen kneewen p l e y n l y hire_ entente ; They w i s t e how s o t i l l y they kowde a s s a i l l e hem, and what falshode i n her te they mente And tho Cle rkes they i n h i r daunger hente ; w i t h o uenym an o t h i r was des t royed , And thus the C le rkes of ten were anoyed. This l adyes , ne g e n t i l s , na thelees weren nat they bat wroghten i n t h i s wyse; But swiche f i l t h e s bat weren u e r t u l e e s , They qwi t t en thus , t h i s e olde Cle rkes wyse To Cle rkes fo r thy l e s se may souffyse Than to .de.praue- wommen g e n e r a l l y , f f o r honur shulen they gete noon therby . I f bat tho men, bat louers hem pretende, To wommen weren f e i t h f u l , goode, & treewe, And dredden hem to deceyue and offende, wommen to loue hem wolde nat escheewe; But euery day hath man an her te neewe; I t up on oon abyde can no why le : what force i s i t swich oon fo r to begyle? - 109. Men beren eek the wommen up on honde, bat l i g h t l y and wi thouten any peyne They wonne been; they can no wight w i ths tonde , bat h i s d i sese l i s t to hem conpleyne: They been so f r e e l , they mowe him nat r e s t r e y n e ; But who so l y b i t h may hem l i g h t l y haue, So been hire_ her tes esy i n to graue. To M a i s t e r John de Meun, as I suppose, Than i t was a lewde occupacioun, In makynge of the Romaunce of the Rose; So many a s l y ymaginacioun, And p e r i l s fo r to r o l l e n up and doun, So long procees , so many a s l y c a u t e l e , f f o r to deceyue a c e l y damoise le . Nat can We seen, ne i n our w i t conprehende, bat a r t , and peyne, and s o t i l t e e may f a i l l e f f o r to conquere, and soon make an ende, whan man a feeble place s h a l a s s a i l l e , And soon a l s o to venquisshe a B a t a i l l e , Of which no wight dar make r e s i s t e n c e , Ne her te hath noon to stonden at defense. - 110. f . 46v 43 . Than moot i t fo lwen, of n e c e s s i t e e , Syn a r t a s k i t h so greet engyn & peyne, A womman to deceyue what she be; Of Constance they been nat so barreyne As bat some of tho s o t i l C le rkes feyne; But they been as bat wommen oghten be, Sad, cons taunt , and f u l f i l l i d of p i t e e . 301 44. how f r eend ly was Medea to Iason In the conqueryng of the f l e e s of gold] how f a l s l y qwi t te he hire_ a f f e c c i o n , . By whom v i c t o r i e he ga t , as he hath wo ld l how may t h i s man for shame be so b o l d To f a l s e n hire_, ba_t from deeth & shame him kepte , and gat him so greet prys & name? 308 45. Of T ro i e a l s o the t r a i t o r Eneas, The f e i t h l e e s man, how hath he him forswore To Dido , bat Queene of Cartage was, bat him re leeued of h i s greeues sore? what g e n t i l l e s s e mighte shee do more Than shee, w i t h he r t e unfeyned, to him kidde? And what mescheef to h i r e of i t b e t i d d e l 315 In our legende of m a r t i r s may men fynde, who so bat l y k i t h ther i n for to rede , That ooth noon, ne byheeste , may men bynde; Of r ep ree f , no of shame, han they no drede; I n he r t e of man conce i t e s treewe a rn dede: The s o i l e i s naght, ther may no t routhe growe To womman i s h i r u i ce nat unknowe. C le rkes seyn a l s o ther i s no ma l i ce Unto wommannes c r a b b i d w i k k i d n e s s e . 0 womman, how s h a l t thow t h y / s e l f cheuyce, Syn men of thee so m o c h i l harm wi tnesse? Yee s t ra t i ] do foor th] take noon heuynesse; Keep thyn owne, what men clappe or c r ake , And some o f hem shu ln smerte, I u n d i r t a k e . M a l i c e of wommen? what i s i t to drede? They s l ee no men, d e s t r o i e n no C i t e e s ; They nat oppressen f o l k , ne ouer lede ; Betraye Empyres, Remes, ne Duchees; Ne men byreue h i r l andes , ne h i r mees, f f o l k enpoysone, or howses se t t e on f y r e ; Ne f a l s con t rac tes maken for noon h y r e . - 112. f . 47v 49 . Trus t pa r fy t loue and enteer c h a r i t e e , f fe ruen t w i l and e n t a l e n t i d corage , To thewes goode, as i t s i t wel to be, han wommen ay of custume & usage; And wel they can a mannes i r e asswage w i t h sof te wordes, d i s c r e e t & benigne: what they been inward , shewith owtward s i g n e . 343 50. wommannes her te to no crewel tee Enc lyned i s ; but they been c h a r i t a b l e , P i t o u s , deuout, f u l of h u m i l i t e e , Shamefast, debonaire_ and amiab le , D r e e d f u l , and of h i r wordes mesurable . what womman t h i s e hath na t , per auenture , f f o l w y t h nothyng the way of h i r na tu re . 350 51 . Men seyn oure. f i r s t e modi r , na the l ees , Made a l man kynde leese h i s l i b e r t e e , And n a k i d i t o f i o i e ; dou te lees , f f o r goddes heeste d i s o b e i e d shee, \ whan shee presumed to ete of the t ree which god forbad bat shee nat ete of sho lde , And nad the feend been, no more shee wolde . 357 - 113. f . 48r 52. Thenuyous swe l lyng bat the feend, our f o , had un to man i n her te fo r h i s welthe Sent a se rpent , and made h i r e to go To deceyue Eeue; and thus was mannes welthe Byre f t him by the feend, r i g h t i n a s t e l t h e . The womman nat knowyng of the d e c e i t : God woot, f u l fe r was i t from h i r c o n c e i t . 364 53 . wher fore , We seyn, t h i s good womman Eeue Our f a d i r Adam ne deceyued noght . Ther may no man for a d e c e i t i t preeue p r o p r e l y , but i f bat shee i n h i r thoght had i t conpass id f i r s t or i t was wroght : And fo r swich was nat hire_ impres s ion , Men calle_ i t may no d e c e i t by r e son . 371 54. No wight deceyueth but he i t purpose: The feend t h i s d e c e i t cas te & nothyng shee: Than i s i t wrong fo r to deeme or suppose bat shee sholde of bat g i l t the cause be; w y t i t h the feend, and h i s be the maugree, And fo r e x c u s i d haue hire_ Innocence, Sauf on ly bat shee brak obedience. 378 - 114. f . 48v 55. Touchynge wh ich , f u l fewe men ther been, Vnnethes any, dar We s a u f l y seyn, f f r o day to day as men mowe wei seen, But ba_t the heeste of god they d i sobeye : This haue i n mynde, s i r e s , We yow preye; I f bat yee be d i s c r e e t and resonable Yee wole hire_ holde the more excusab le . 385 56. And wher men seyn i n man i s s t i d f a s t n e s s e , And womman i s of h i r corage u n s t a b l e , who may of Adam bere_ swich wi tnesse? T e l l i t h on t h i s : was he nat changeable? They bothe weren i n a cas semblable , Sauf w i l l y n g l y the feend deceyued Eeue; So d i d shee nat Adam, by your l eeue . 392 57. Y i t was bat synne happy to man kynde; The feend deceyued was fo r a l h i s s l e i g h t e ; f f o r aght he kowde him i n h i s s l e i g h t e s wynde, God, to descharge man kynde of the weighte Of h i s t r e spas , cam doun from heuenes h e i g h t e , t. And f l e s s h and b lood he took of a u i r g y n e , And souf f red deeth , man to d e l i u r e of pyne. 399 And god f ro whom - 115. f . 49r 58. And god, f ro whom ther may no thyng h i d be, I f he i n womman knowe had swich m a l i c e , As men of hem recorde i n gene ra l t ee , Of our l a d y , of l y f r e p a r a t r i c e , Nolde han be born ; but fo r bat shee of u i ce was uo ide , and of a l ue r tue , wel he w i s t e , Endowid, of hire_ be born him l i s t e . 406 59. hire_ hep id ue r tu hath swich e x c e l l e n c e , bat a l to weyke i s mannes f a c u l t e e To dec la re i t , & the r fo re i n suspense h i r due laude put moot needes be; But t h i s We Witen v e r r a i l y , bat shee, Next god, the best freend i s ba_t to man l o n g i t h : The keye of mercy by h i r g o r d i l h o n g i t h . 413 60. And of mercy hath euery wight swich neede, ba_t cessyng i t , f a rwe l the i o i e of man. Of h i r power i t i s to taken heede; Shee mercy may wole , & purchace can; D i sp l e se h i r n a t , honureth ba.t womman, And o t h i r wommen alle_ for h i r sake; And but ye do, your sorwe sha l awake. 420 - 116. f . 49v 61 . Thow precious gemme, M a r t i r Margare te , Of thy b lood d r e d d i s t noon e f f u s i o n ! Thy mart i rdom ne may We nat fo rge te ; 0 constant womman, i n thy pass ion Ouercam the feendes temptacion, And many a wight conuerted to thy doctryne Un to the f e i t h of god, h o l y u i r g y n e . 427 62. But u n d i r s t o n d i t h : We commende h i r noght By encheson of h i r u i r g i n i t e e ; T r u s t i t h r i g h t w e i , i t cam nat i n our thoght; f f o r ay We wer re i e ageyn c h a s t i t e e , And euere s h a l , but t h i s l eeue th wei yee: h i r louyng her te and constant to t h i s l a y , Dryue out of remembrance we nat may. 434 63. In any book a l s o wher can yee f i n d ba_t of the w i rkes or the deeth or l y f Of Ihesu spekth or maki th any mynde, bat women him forsook fo r wo or s t r y f e ? wher was ther any wight so en ten ty f Abouten him as wommen? pardee, noon! Thapost les him forsooken euer ichoon; 441 - 117. f . 50r 64. wommen forsook him noght, fo r a l the f e i t h Of h o l y c h i r c h e i n wommen l e f t e oon ly . This i s no l e e s , fo r thus h o l y w r i t s e i t h ; Look and yee shu ln so fynde i t h a r d i l y , And the r fo re i t may preeued be ther by, That i n womman regneth a l the constaunce, And i n man i s a l chaunge & v a r i a u n c e . 448 65. Now h o l d i t h t h i s for ferme, & fo r no l y e , bat t h i s i s treewe & i u s t commendacioun Of wommen i s nat t o l d fo r f l a t e r i e , Ne to cause hem pryde or e l a c i o u n , But oonly l o fo r t h i s en tenc ioun , To yeue hem corage of perseuerance In u e r t u , & h i r honur to enhaunce. 455 66. The more u e r t u , the l a s se i s the pryde; V e r t u so noble i s , and worthy i n kynde, bat u i ce & shee may nat i n feere abyde; Shee p u t t i t h u i ce cleene out of mynde; She f l e e t h from h im, shee l eue th him behynde; 0 womman, ba_t of ue r tu a r t hos tes se , Greet i s thyn honur & thy worthynesse] 462 - 118. f . 50v 67. Than thus we wolen conclude and deffyne: we you commaunde, our m i n i s t r e s echoon, bat reedy been to oure_ hees tes enc lyne , ba_t of tho men untreewe, our r e b e l foon, Yee do punisshement, & bat anoon; Voide hem our Cour t , & banisshe hem fo r euere , So bat ther ynne they ne come neuere. 469 68. f f u l f i l l i d be i t cessyng a l d e l a y . Look ther be noon excusac ion . w r i t e n i n t h e i r the l u s t y monthe of May In our pa l eys , wher many a m i l i o n Of louers treewe han h a b i t a c i o n , The yeer of g race , i o i e f u l and iocounde, .M.CCCC. and secounde. 476 E x p l i c i t e p i s t o l a C u p i d i n i s . nCeste balade ensuante feuste f a i t e pur l a b i e n venue du t r e snob le Roy. H. l e . vtm> qu i d i e u pardoin t hors du Roialme de f f r aunce , c e s t a s s a u o i r sa dareine venue n IX (Balade to K i n g Henry V . ) V i c t o r i o u s c r i s t e n P r i n c e , our l o r d souere in Our l i g e l o r d f u l dred and douted, we Youre_ humble and buxum l i g e s treewe seyn Right thus unto your r i a l d i g n i t e e : Henr i the , V . t n e welcome be yee! welcome be your famous e x c e l l e n c e , Swerd of knyghthode, & f l o u r of sapience! Yee been welcome h e i r and Regent of ffraunce Our g rac ious kyng, the ensaumple of honur; Righ t f e i t h f u l l y , w i t h her tes obeissance , welcome be yee, worthy Conquerour, w h i c h , no p e r i l eschuyng, ne labour In armes k n y g h t l y han yow put i n prees , And twyxt two Remes knyt han up the pees! Your worthynesse e x c e d i t h & surmounti th The prowesse of kynges & pr inces al le_: \ ffame so s e i t h , thus a l the w o r l d a c o u n t i t h . what may we seyn, or what may we yow c a l l e ? we can for noon aa r t ba.t may happe or fal le_ Your worthy deedes, as be oghte, p r e i s e , They been so manye, and so m o c h i l peyse. - 120. -Ignoraunce i s un to us swich a f o , I f we d i l a t e sho lde , and drawe a long Your prys and thank, we kowden nat do so : To l i t i l seyn we sho lde , & do yow wrong, Nat on our w i l l e s , but w i t t e s a l o n g : And syn bat ther to oure_ i n t e l l i g e n c e S o u f f y s i t h na t , we keepe moot s i l e n c e . But soue re in l o r d , l i g e , as we se ide aboue, welcome be your e x c e l l e n t hynesse; w i t h a l our s p i r i t e s , and her tes loue More welcome than we can expresse ; Your hy presence i s t r e s o r & r i c h e s s e To us f u l g r ee t , fo r why, to us echone, welcome be your peereles persone. Cest tout Cy ensuent t r o i s chaunceons, lune con-pleynante a l a dame monoie, & l a u t r e l a reponse dele a c e l l u i qu i se conp leyn t , & l a t i e r c e l a commendacion de ma dame. - 121. -X . Three Roundels i ) Complaint to Lady Money Wei may I pleyne on yow, l ady moneye, bat i n the p r i s o n of your sharp scantnesse Souff ren me bathe i n wo and heuynesse, And deynen nat of socour me purueye. whan bat I baar of your p r i s o n the keye, Kepte I yow s t r e i t e ? Nay, god to wi tnesse wei may I p l e y n e . . . I l e e t yow out ; o now of your noblesse Seeth unto me; i n your deffaute I deyej wei may I p l e y n e . . . Ye s a i l l e n a l to f e r , re tourne I preye; Confor te th me ageyne t h i s Cr i s t emesse , E l l e s I moot, i n r i g h t a feynt g ladnesse , Synge of yow thus , & yow accuse and seye: wei may I p l e y n e . . . . - 122. i i ) La response Hoccleue , I wole i t to thee knowen be, I l ady moneie, of the wor ld goddesse, bat haue a l thyng und i r my buxumnesse, Nat se t t e by thy pleynte r i s s h e s th ree! Myn hy might haddest thow i n no cheer tee , whyle I was i n thy s l i p i r s i k i r n e s s e . Hocc leue , I w o l e . . . A t ins tance of thyn e x c e s s i f l a r g e s s e , Becam I of my body delauee. Hocc leue , I w o l e . . . And, syn bat lo rdes grete obeien me, Sholde I dreede of thy poore symplesse? My golden heed a k i t h for thy lewdnesse. Go, poor wrecche, who s e t t i t h aght by thee Hoccleue , I w o l e . . . . Cest tout - 123. f . 52v i i i ) H o c c l e v e ' s p ra i se of h i s l a d y . Of my lady wel me r e i o i s e I may: h i r golden forheed i s f u l narwe & smal; h i r browes been l y k to dym reed c o r a l ; And as the i e e t hire_ yen g l i s t e n ay . 4 h i r bowgy cheekes been as sof te as c l a y , w i t h l a rge iowes and s u b s t a n c i a l ; 6 Of my l a d y . . . h i r nose a pent ice i s , bat i t ne s h a l Reyne i n h i r mowth, thogh she up r i g h t e s l a y . 8 Of my l a d y . . . h i r mowth i s nothyng scan t , w i t h l i p p e s gray; h i r c h i n unnethe may be seen a t a l ; h i r comly body shape as a foot b a l ; And shee s y n g i t h f u l l y k a papejay. 12 Of my l a d y . . . Cest tout A f t i r our song, our mir the and our g ladnesse , Heer f o l w i t h a l essoun of heuynesse: Syn a i l e e t c . - 124. f . 53r X I . Lerne to Dye Hie i n c i p i t a rs u t i l i s s i m a s c i e n d i m o r i / Cum cmjn.es homines e t c . 1. Syn a l l e men n a t u r e l l y desyre To konne o e terne sapience , 0 un ive r se1 P r i n c e , l o r d and Syre , Auctour of na tu re , i n whos e x c e l l e n c e Been h i d a l l e the t r e s o r s of s c i e n c e ; Makere_ of a l , and bat a l seest and woost , This axe I thee, thow, l o r d of mightes moost: 2 . Thy t r e s o r of wisdam, and the konnynge Of s e in t e s opne thow to me I preye, That I there_ of may haue a knowlechynge; Enforme eek me, & un to me bywreye, Syn thow of a l sc ience b e r s t the keye , S o t i l e materes profounde & g r e t e , Of whiche I f e r u e n t l y d e s i r e t r e t e . 3 . "0 sone myn, sauoure nat to h i e , But dreede herkne , & I sha l teche thee Thyng bat s h a l to thy soule f r u c t i f i e ; A chosen y i f t e s h a l t thow haue of me: My l o r e — e t e r n e l l y f s h a l to thee be; The dreede of god, which the begynnyng i s Of wisdam, s h a l t thow l e e r e , & i t i s t h i s 14 I n i c i u m Sap ienc ie e t c . - 125. "Now herkne a d o c t r i n e s u b s t a n c i a l : f f i r s t how l e rne d ie t e l l e wole y ; The second how bat a man lyue s h a l ; The . i i j . ^ e how a man sac ramenta l ly Receyue me s h a l wel and w o r t h y l y ; The , i i i j . e - how w i t h an her te c lene and pure That a man loue me s h a l & honure . " "Tho thynges . i i i j . good l o r d haue I euere Des i red for to knowe, & hem to l e e r e ; Un to myn her te there i s no thyng l eue re ; A b e t t r e thyng can I nat wisshen heere ; But t e l l i t h me t h i s , t h i s feyn wolde I heere , what may profyte the l o r e of dyynge, Syn deeth noon hauyng i s , but a pryuynge? " f f o r shee man reueth of l y f the swetnesse ." "Sone the a r t to l e rne fo r to d i e Is to the soule an e x c e l l e n t swetnesse, To which I rede thow thyn her te a p p l i e ; There_ i s noon aa r t bat man can s p e c i f i e So p r o f i t a b l e , ne worthy to be P r e f e r r e d aar tes al le_, as bat i s shee. - 126. f . 54r 7. "To wi t e and knowe bat man i s morte1 I t i s to commune un to f o l k e s alle_; bat man s h a l nat lyue ay heer , woot he w e l ; No t r u s t a t a l may i n h i s her te fa l le_ , That he eschape or f l e e may dethes galle_; But fewe bat can d i e , s h a l t thow seen: I t i s the g i f t e of god best bat may been. 49 8. "To le rne for to d ie i s to haue ay Bothe her te and soule redy hens to go, bat whan deeth cometh for to cacche h i r pray, Man rype be the l y f to twynne f r o , And hire_ to take and receyue a l s o , As he bat the comyng of h i s felawe D e s i r i t h , and ther of i s g l ad and fawe. 56 9. "But more harm i s , f u l many oon s h a l t thow fynde bat ageyn deeth maken no purueance; Hem lo then deeth for to haue i n h i r mynde; That thoght they holden thoght of encombrance: w o r l d l y swetnesse s l e e t h swich remembrance; An syn to d i e nat l e rned han they, f f r o the wor ld twynne they wolde i n no wey. 63 - 127. "They m o c h i l of h i r tyme han dependid In synne, and fo r thy , whan, unwaarly, deeth Up on hem f a l l i t h and they nat amendid, And s h a l from hem byreue wynd & b r e e t h , f f o r shee unreedy fynt hem, whan shee s l e e t h , To h e l l e goon the soules m i s e r a b l e , There_ to dwelle_ i n peyne perdurab le . "Deeth wolde han of te a b r y d i l put on thee, And thee w i t h hire_ l e d away she wolde, Nadde the hand of goddes mercy be; Thow a r t r i g h t m o c h i l un to bat lo rde h o l d e , bat fo r thow wrappid were_ i n wynnes o l d e , he s p a r i d thee; thy synnes now fo r sake , And un to my doctryne thow thee take . "More to thee profyte s h a l my l o r e Than chosen g o l d , or the bookes echone of p h i l o s o p h r e s ; & for t h a t , the more f f e r u e n t l y sholde i t s t i r e thy persone, Undi r s e n s i b l e ensaumple, thee to one To god; & thee the b e t t r e fo r to thewe, The m i s t e r i e of my l o r e I sha l thee shewe. - 128. -f . 55r 19. " I looke on euery s ide b i s y l y , (13) But he lp i s noon; helpe & confo r t been dede. A uo i s h o r r i b l e of deeth sowynyng heere y , bat s e i t h me thus , which encreceth my drede: 'Thow d ie s h a l t ; resonn noon, ne kynrede, f f r e n d s h i p e , g o l d , ne noon o t h i r r i c h e s s e May thee d e l i u r e out of dethes duresse . 133 20. ' "Thyn eende i s come, comen i s thyn eende; (14) I t i s decreed, there_ i s no r e s i s t e n c e . ' Lord god, s h a l I now d ie & hennes weende? wheth i r nat chaunged may be t h i s sentence; 0 l o r d , may i t nat be put i n suspense? Shal I out of the wor ld so soone go? A l i a s , wole i t noon o t h i r be than so? 140 21 . 0 deeth! o deeth , gree t i s thy c r u e l t e e ! (15) Thyn o f f i c e a l to sodeynly doost thow. Is ther no grace? l a k k i s t thow p i t e e ? Spare my youthe , of age rype ynow To d ie am I nat y i t ; spare me now! how c r u e l bat thow a r t ! on me nat kythe.' Take me nat out of the w o r l d so swythe! 147 129. f . 55v 22. whan the d i s c i p l e t h i s conpleynte had he rd , (16) he thoght a l bat he spake nas but f o l i e , And i n t h i s wyse hath un to him answered: "Thy wordes f reend , wi thouten any l i e , bat thow haast but smal l e r n e d , t e s t i f i e ; Euene to alle_ i s dethes iugement; Thurgh out the w o r l d s t r e c c h i t h h i r paiement. 154 23. "Deeth fauorable i s to maner w igh t ; (17) To a l l e , h i r s e l f , shee d e l i t h e q u a l l y . Shee d r e e d i t h hem nat bat been of greet might , Ne of the o l d & yonge hath no mercy; The ryche and poore f o l k eek c e r t e y n l y Shee s e s i t h ; shee s p a r i t h r i g h t noon e s t a a t : A l bat l y f b e r i t h , w i t h h i r chek i s maat. 161 24. " f f u l many a wight i n youthe t a k i t h shee, (18) And many oon a l s o i n m i d d i l age, And some nat t i l they r i g h t e olde be; wendis t thow han been a t swich auantage bat shee nat durs te han paied thee thy wage, But oonly han thee spared & f o r b o r n , And the Prophetes de id han heer beforn?" 168 - 130. -f . 56r 13. "Beholde, inward , the l i k n e s s e and f i g u r e (17) Of a man dyyng, and t a l k y n g w i t h t h e e . " The d i s c i p l e of bat speche took good cure , And i n h i s c o n c e i t b i s i l y soghte he And ther w i t h a l cons idere he gan, and see; In him s e l f put the f i g u r e and l i k n e s s e Of a yong man of e x c e l l e n t f a i r n e s s e , 91 14. Whom deeth so ay r a n s a k i d hadde & soghte, (18) That he withynne a whyle sholde d i e ; And for h i s soules h e l t h e had he r i g h t noght D i s p o s i d ; a l unreedy hens to h i e was he , & the r fo re he bygan to c r i e w i t h lamentable u o i s , i n t h i s maneere, That sorwe and p i t ee greet was i t to heere : 98 15. "Enuyrond han me, dethes Waymentynges, Circumdederunt (19) me gemitus mor t i s Sorwes of helle_ han compaced me. A l i a s e terne god.' o kyng of kynges, wher to was I born i n th i s w o r l d to be; 0, a l i a s , why i n my n a t i u i t e e Nad I p e r i s s h i d ? o the begynnynge Of my l y f was w i t h sorwe and wjLth wepynge, 105 131. -f . 56v 16. "And now myn ende comth; hens moot I go (22) w i t h sorwe, waylynge, & greet heuynesse. 0 , dee th , thy mynde i s f u l of b i t t i r wo Un to an her te wont unto g ladnesse , And n o r i s s h i d i n d e l i c a t swetnesse; H o r r i b l e i s thy presence, & f u l g reuab le , To him bat yong i s , s t r ong , & prosperab le . 112 17. " L i t i l wende I so soone to han d e i d . (23) 0 c r u e l deeth , thy comynge i s sodeyn! f f u l unwaar was I of thy t h e e f l y b r e i d ; Thow haast as i n awayt up on me l e y n ; Thyn hour was un to me f u l uncer teyn ; Thow haast up on me s t o l e n , and me bownde; Eschape I may nat now my mor t e l wownde. 119 18. "Thow me w i t h thee drawest i n yren cheynes, (24) As a man dampned wont i s to be drawe To h i s torment; outrageous been my peynes. 0 now, for sorwe, and fere of thee, & awe, w i t h handes c l i g h t , I c r i e & wolde fawe w i t e the place w h i d i r fo r to f l e e ; But swich oon fynde can I noon, ne see. 126 - 132. -"Or as an arwe shot out of a bowe Twynneth the e y r , which f o o r t h w i t h r e d i l y Agayn i s c l o s e d , pat man may nat knowe wher pa_t i t pa s t e , no wight the way s y . R igh t s o , syn pat I born was, fare haue y Anoon r i g h t e s I s t y n t i d for to be , And tokne of u e r t u shewid noon i n me. "I am consumed i n my w i k k i d n e s s e ; Myn hope i s , as i t were, a w o l l e loke Wi th the wynd blowe away fo r h i s l i g h t n e s s e ; Or smal foom, pa_t d i s p a r p l e d i s and broke Wi th tempest; or as w i t h wynd w a a s t i t h smoke; Or as mynd of an hoos t , pa_t but a day A b i t , and a f t i r p a s s i t h f o o r t h h i s way. " f f o r why my speeche i s now i n b i t t i r n e s s e , And my wordes been f u l of sorwe and wo; Myn her te i s p lonng id deepe i n heuynesse, Myn yen been a l dymme, & d i r k e a l s o . who may me graunte pa_t I may be so . As I was whan I beautee hadde, & s t r eng the , And had beforn me many a yeeres l eng the , 133. f . 57v 34. " In which I the harm mighte han seen b e f o r n , (28) pa_t now i s on me f a l l e ? I yaf no charge Of the good p r e c i o u s l t y m e ; I haue i t l o r n . But as the w o r l d l y wynd bleew i n my barge , f f o r t h droof I ther w i t h , and l e e t goon a t l a r g e ; A l loos the b r i d i l of concupiscence , And ageyn ue r tu made I r e s i s t e n c e . 238 35 . "My dayes I despente i n V a n i t e e ; (29) Noon heede I took of hem, but l e t hem passe , Nothyng cons ideryng h i r p r e c i o u s t e e , But hee ld my s e l f f ree born as a wylde asse ; Of the a f t i r c l a p i n s igh t e had no man l a s s e ; I ouer b lynd was; I not s y , ne dredde, w i t h what wo deeth wolde haaste me to bedde. 245 36. "And now, as f i s she s been w i t h hookes caght , (30) And as bat b r iddes been take i n a snare , Deeth hath me hent ; eschape may I naght . Th i s unwaar woful hour me maki th bare Of my custurned i o i e and my w e l f a r e ; The tyme i s p a s t , the tyme i s goon for a y , No man reuoke or c a l l e ageyn i t may." 252 - 134. f . 58r 25. Than spak thymage, answerynge i n t h i s wyse: (31) "Sooth ly thow a r t an heuy con fo r tou r : Thow u n d i r s t a n d i s t me nat as tho wyse: They pat cont inued han i n hire_ e r r o u r , Lyuyng i n synne un to h i r dethes hour , worthy be dampned fo r ba_t they han wroght; And how my deeth i s , they ne dreede noght. 175 26. "Tho men f u l blynde been, & b e s t i a l ; (32) Of bat s h a l folwe a f t i r t h i s l y f present , f f o r s i g h t e swiche f o l k han noon a t a l . I nat bewaille_ dethes iugement; But t h i s i s a l the cause of my torment: The harm of u n d i s p o s i d deeth I weepe; I am nat reedy i n the ground to creepe. 182 27. " I weepe nat bat I sha l hennes twynne, (33) But of my dayes I the harm bewaille_ f f r u y t l e e s past sauf wi^th b i t t i r f r uy t of synne; I wroghte i n hem nothyng ba_t mighte aua i l le_ To soules h e l t h e ; I dide no t r aua i l l e_ To lyue w e i , but lened to the s t a f Of w o r l d l y l u s t e s ; to hem I me y a f . 189 - 135. f . 58v 28. "The way of t routhe I l e f t e , & drow to wrong; (34) On me nat shoon the l i g h t of r i g h t w i s n e s s e ; The sonne of i n t e l l e c t nat i n me sprong. I weery am of my wroght w i k k i d n e s s e ; I w a l k i d haue weyes of hardnesse And of p e r d i t i o n ; nat kowde I knowe The way of god; w i k k i d seed haue I sowe. 196 29. " A l i a s , what hath pryde profy ted me, (35) Or what am I bet fo r r i c h e s s e hepynge? A i l e they as a shadwe pass id be, And as a messager fas te rennynge, And a l s o as a s h i p bat i s s a i l ynge In the wawes and f loodes of the See, whos k e r f nat fownde i s , whan pas s id i s shee. 203 30. "Or as a b i r d , which i n the e i r bat f l e e t h , (36) No way fownde i s of the cours of h i s f l i g h t ; No man esp ie can i t , ne i t see th , Sauf w i t h h i s wynges the wynd sof te and l i g h t e he b e t i t h , and k u t t i t h t h e i r w i t h the might Of swich s t i r y n g e , & foo r th he f l e e t h h i s way, And tokne a f t i r bat no man see ther may. 210 - 136. f . 59r 37. "So shor t was nat pat tyme pat i s goon, • But I of g o o s t l y l u c r e s and wynnynges Mighte haue i n i t purchased many oon, Excedyng i n va lue a l l e e e r t h e l y thynges Inconparabe ly ; but to h i s wynges The tyme hath take h im, and no purueance There i n made I , my soule to auance. 259 38. " A l i a s , I c a y t i f , fo r angwissh and sorwe My teeres t r i k l e n by my cheekes down; No s a l t w a t i r me n e e d i t h begge or borwe, Myn yen flowen now i n greet foysoun. A l i a s t h i s i s a sharp c o n c l u s i o u n l Thoughe I the tyme past conpleyne & mourne, f f o r a l my care wole i t nat r e tou rne . 266 39. "0 my l o r d god, how l a a c h and n e g l i g e n t Haue I beenI why haue I put i n de lay And taryynge myn amendement? Wher to haue I d i s s imuled? weleawayj A l i a s , so many a f a i r and grac ious day Haue I l o s t , and be f ro me goon & ronne, That mighte i n hem my soules he l the han wonne. 273 - 137. f . 59v 40 . "Myn her tes woful waymentacions, who can hem t e l l e , or who can hem expresse? Now f a l l e n on me accusacions w o n d i r l y t h i k k e of my wroght w i k k i d n e s s e ; I n f l e s s h l y l u s t and y d i l bysynesse I l e e t my dayes dryue f o o r t h and s l i p p e , And nat was scourg id w i t h penaunces whippe. 280 4 1 . "Why se t t e I so myn her te i n van i t ee? 0 , why ne had I l e rned fo r to d i e? why was I nat f e rd of goddes maugree? what e i l e d me to bathe i n swich f o l i e ? why nadde reson goten the m a i s t r i e Of me? Why? fo r my s p i r i t was r e b e l , And l i s t nat undi rs tande to do w e l . 287 42 . "0 alle_ yee ba_t heere_ been p re sen t , Yee pa_t f l o u r e i n youthes l u s t y grennesse, And seen how deeth h i s bowe hath fo r me ben t , And tyme conuenable han to redresse ba_t youre_ u n r u l y youthes wantonnesse Offendid hath - - cons ide re th my m i s e r i e : The stormy seson f o l w i t h dayes m e r i e . 294 - 138. "Le t me be youre_ ensaumple, and your mi rour L e s t yee s l i p p e i n to my p l y t m i s e r a b l e ; w i t h god despende of your dayes the f l o u r ; I f yee me fo lwe , i n to p e r i l semblable Yee ent re s h u l n ; to god yee yow enable , I n h o l y wi rkes your tyme occup ie , And w h i l tyme i s , your u i ces m o r t i f i e . " A l i a s , o youthe , how a r t thow f ro me s l i p t 0 god e t e rne , I un to thee conpleyne The wrecchidnesse i n which pa_t I am c l i p t l l o s t i s my youthe; I smerte i n euery veyne The g i l t that wroght hath my s y n f u l careyne 0 youthe , thy fresshnesse- and i o l i t e e h a t i t h thy soothes to be t o l d to thee . "No l u s t had I to doon as I was t agh t ; There_ of had I f u l greet desdeyn and h o k i r ; whan men c o n s e i l l e d w e l l , I herde i t naght : Nat so moche as by an o l d boote or c o k i r Se t t e I ther by; i n to myn her tes l o k i r Ent re mighte noon hoolsum d i s c i p l y n e ; No w i l had I to good c o n s e i l enc lyne . - 139. f . 60v 46. "Lord god now i n a deep dych am I f a l l e ; I n t o the snare of deeth entred am y ; Bet had i t been than i t had thus befal le_, Neuere han be born of my modres body, But there_ i n han p e r i s s h i d u t t i r l y : f f o r I despente i n pryde and i n bobance The tyme l e n t to me to do penance." 322 47. To which answerde the d i s c i p l e t ho : "Lo we d ie a i l e , and as w a t i r we s lyde I n to the ee r the , which pat neuermo Retorne s h a l ; but on a s i k i r syde we standen a i l e , fo r god nat wole hyde h i s mercy f r o man; who so l i s t i t c raue , Be repentaunt , and mercy axe , and haue. D i s c i p l e Ecce mo-r imur e_t quas i e t c . 329 48. "God h a a s t i t h nat the g i l t of man to wreke, But c u r t e i s l y a b y d i t h repentaunce. heere me now what I sha l seye and speke: f f o r pat thow hadst o f fend id do penaunce; Tome un to god w i t h her tes obeysaunce; Axe hym mercy, which i s a l m e r c i a b l e , And saued s h a l t thow been, t h i s i s no f a b l e . " pen i t en t i am age de t r a n s a c t i s et conuertere ad dominum 336 - 140. f. 61r Thymage of deeth answerde anon to t h a t : "How s p e k i s t thow man? s h a l I me repente? Shal I me torne? o man, ne seest thow nat? Ne t a k i s t thow noon heede ne entente Of dethes angwisshes, bat me tormente And oppressen so greuously and sharpe, That I not what to do, or thynke, or carpe? Ymago quis e st hi e sermo quem tu l o q u e r i s . Debeo penitere debeo me con-uertere e t c . 343 "As a p a r t r i c h , bat w i t h the hawk i s hent, And streyned w i t h h i s c l e e s , so i s agast That h i s l y f ny from him i s goon and went, Right so my w i t i s cleene f r o me past, And i n my mynde i s ther no thoght ne c a s t , O t h i r than serche a way how deeth eschape; But I i n veyn ther a f t i r looke and gape; 350 "Nat wole i t be, f o r deeth me doun o p p r e s s i t h . The twynnyng of my l y f f u l b i t t i r i s , pat h u r t i t h me greuously and d i s t r e s s i t h ; f f u l holsum had i t been to me or t h i s Penance han doon f o r bat I wroghte amis, whyles my tyme was i n h i s rypnesse, f f o r bat had been the way of s i k i r n e s s e . 357 - 141. -f . 61v 52 . But , he bat l a t e to penance him t a k i t h , Qui autem tarde pen i t enc i e se whether he v e r r a i l y or feynyngly commi t t i t dubius e r i t qu ia n e s c i t utrum vere v e l Repente, he not u n c e r t a i n i t him m a k i t h : f i c t e . wo i s me bat my l y f so s i n f u l l y I l edde , and to co r r ec t e i t l a c h i d y : Ageyn my soules he l t he haue I w e r r e i e d , That for i t haue no b e t t r e purue ied . 364 53 . " A l i a s to longe hath been the taryynge And the de lay of c o r r e c i o n : A good purpos wi thoute begynnynge; A good w i l wi thou ten operac ioun; Good promesse and noon execucioun f f o o r t h dryue amendes f ro morwe to morwe, And neuere doon bat c a u s i t h now my sorwe. 371 54. "0 , morwe, morwe, thow haast me b e g i l t ] 0, whe th i r t h i s m i s e r i e nat exceede A l w o r l d l y wrecchidnesse , a l i a s my g i l t , wel worthy i s i t bat myn he r t e b leede , And w i t h angwisshe_ and wo him f o s t r e & feede. See how my dayes ny a rn s l i p t me f r o : . x x x . t : L yeer of myn age away been go; 378 - 142. f . 62r 55. " f f u l w r e c c h i d l y , god woot, haue I hem l o s t , And a l myn owne s e l f i s i t to wyte; So good a p i l e r was I neuere, or post Un to my soule, as o day me d e l y t e . I n v e r t u or aght wei to god me qwyte, As pa_t I mighte haue doon or oghte; By aght I woot, I neuere a f t i r pat soghte. 385 56. "Lord god, how shamefully stand I shal At the doom beforn thee and se i n t e s a l l e _ , wher I shal a r t e d be to rekne of a l pa_t I doon haue and l e f t ; whom sha l I c a l l e To helpe me? o how sh a l i t b e f a l l e ? My torment and my wo me haaste & h i e hens f o r to twynne, as blyue shal I d i e . 392 57. "0, now t h i s day more i o i e and gladnesse I wolde haue of a l i t e l o r isoun By me s e i d , w i t h hertes deuout sadnesse As they angelyk s a l u t a c i o u n , Thanne I wolde haue of many a m i l l i o u n Of gold and s i l u e r ; f o u l e haue I me born, And f o l y l y bat sy nat t h i s beforn. 399 - 143. f . 62v 58. "whan I mighte haue i t seen, than wolde I naght; how manye houres haue I l o s t pat neuere Retorne shuln? how m o c h i l haue I wroght Ageyn my s e l f ? my l u s t was to perseuere In v i c i o u s l y f e , & from i t nat d i s s eue re ; I l e f t e bat good was & necessa r i e Un to my s o u l e , and dide the c o n t r a r i e . 406 59. "More than was neede or expedient Un to the he lp of many o t h i r wight Entended I ; I was f u l inpruden t ; I took noon heede to my s e l f a r i g h t ; By soules p rofy t get te I nat but l i g h t , whan tyme was, fynde cowde I no tyme Me to co r r ec t e of myn offense & cryme. 413 60. "But now fee l e I ba t , un to the gretnesse Vere nunc cog-n o u i quod ad Of mer i t es c e l e s t i a l , had been bet magnitudinem nremiorum a r te My w i t t e s han kept w i t h soules c lennesse , c e l e s t i u m e t c . Than bat l e f t , w i t h her te c o r r u p t l y s e t , And ageyn deedes ver tuous y whet, he lpe me mighte any mannes prayeere , Thogh . x x x : t : L yeer he preyd had for me heere . 420 - 144. f . 63r 61 . "0 herkneth now; herkneth now alle_ yee pa_t heere been and seen my wrecchidnesse! The tyme as bat ye seen now f a i l l i t h me; My freendes p re ide I pa_t they sum almesse Of thabundance of h i r g o o s t l y r i c h e s s e And w i r k e s goode wolden to me d e l e , I n my greet neede, fo r my soules h e l e , 427 62. "And eek i n r e l e e f and amendement Of my g i l t e s ; but hirje answer was nay: They s e i d e n , ther to youen oure_ assent wole we n a t , i n no manere of way, Les t i t us and yow nat souffyse may. On euery paar t thus am I d e s t i t u t ; ffynde can I no socour ne r e f u t . 434 63. "0 god benigne! o f a d i r merc iab le I Beholde and reewe up on thy p a c i e n t l To me, thyn handwerk^be thow socourab le ; That I g r e e t l y haue er red & miswent Me wel remembri th, t h i s tyme p resen t . A l i a s , why stood I i n myn owne l i g h t So fou le? o l o r d , now me helpe of thy m i g h t ! " 441 - 145. f . 63v 64. "How grete r i c h e s s e s s p i r i t u e l , And heuenly t r e s o r s , had I been wys, Mighte I han g a d r i d , and nat dide a d e l . 0 good l o r d god I o l o r d of paradys! f f u l l e o f to me now were , & of greet prys Of s a t i s f a c c i o n , the l e e s t e deede; Righ te dereworthe were i t i n t h i s neede. 448 65. "0 now the l e e s t e crommes, bat ther fal le_ f f r o the l o rde s bordes & tab les down, Refresshe wolden me r i g h t wei w i t h al le_; But noon fynde I of swich c o n d i c i o u n , pat yeue me wole any p o r c i o u n ; 1 haue espyd the f reendshipe i s f u l s t r e i t ; Of t h i s wor ld i t i s mirour of d e c e i t . 455 66. "Reewe eek on me yee a l l e & p i t e e haue, And w h i l e s your force and v igou r may l a s t e , And han eek tyme, or yee be ny your graue, I n to bernes of heuene gadereth fas te Tresor c e l e s t i a l , bat a t t e l a s t e Yee may receyue , whan bat yee shu ln twynne ffrom hens , the b l i s s e bat s h a l neuere b lynne . 462 - 146. f . .64r 67. "And beeth nat vo ide of v e r t u , ne empty, whan bat the deeth an o t h i r day to yow Approche s h a l , as yee may see ba_t y Am voide of deedes vertuous r i g h t now." f f r e e n d , quod the d i s c i p l e , I see we l ynow D i s c i p l e Thy torment and thy greuous p a s s i o n , Of which myn he r t e hath greet conpass ion; 469 68. "And by a lmigh ty god I thee coniure bat thow me yeue reed how me to gye, L e s t ba_t I heer a f t i r , par auenture , I n to l y k p e r i l haaste may & hye Of u n d i s p o s i d sodein dee th , and drye The wo which I cons idere pat thee v e x i t h , Wherthurgh myn her te sore agrysed w e x i t h . " 476 69. Than spak thymage, the best purueance Ymago And w i t i s haan ve r r ay c o n t r i c i o u n , I n s t rengthe & h e l e , of the mis gouernance Of thy l y f , and p l ene r confess ioun Make of thy g i l t , and s a t i s f a c c i o n , And assee th do , and alle_ v i c e s l e u e , That heuenes b l i s s e mighten thee byreue . 483 - 147. f . 64v 70. "And so , w i t h a l thyn h e r t e , i s i t the beste keepe thee f o o r t h , as bat thow t h i s day r i g h t Or to morwe, or t h i s wike a t the f e r t h e s t e , Sholdes t departe f ro t h i s worldes l i g h t ; And ther w i t h a l enforce thow thy might , As I s h a l seyn, i n thyn her te to thynke, And thow s h a l t i t nat reewe ne fo r thynke . 490 71 . "Caste i n thyn her te as now thy soule were In p u r g a t o r i e , and hadde pyned be . x . yeer i n a fourneys brennynge the re , And t h i s oonly yeer were_ g r aun t i d thee f f o r thyn h e l p ; so beholde of ten and see Thy s o u l e , i n the flaumbes of fy r brennynge, w i t h a wrecch id v o i s thus to thee c ryynge : 497 72. "Of a i l e f reendes, thow the derwor thes te , Do to thy wrecch id soule h e l p and socour , bat i s a l d e s o l a t ; purchace i t r e s t e ; See how I brennej o reewe on my langourj Be fo r me so f r eend ly a purue iour , That i n t h i s hoot p r i s o n I no lengere Tormentid be; l a t i t nat thus me dere . 0 amicorum d u l c i s s i m e succurre e t c . 504 - 148. f . 65r 73. " 'The worldes fauour cleene i s f ro me went; f fo rsake am I ; f rendshipe I can noon fynde; Ther i s no w i g h t , pa_t to the i nd igen t P u t t i t h h i s h e l p l y hand; s l i p t out of mynde I am; i n peynes sharpe I walwe and wynde; And of my wo ther i s no wight pat r e c c h i t h ; Nat knowe I f r endsh ipe , or to whom i t s t r e c c h i t h . 511 74. '"Men seeken thynges pat to hem s e l f l onge , And leuen me i n the flaumbes vengeable . 0 good f reend , l a t me nat thus pyne l o n g e ! " To which the d i s c i p l e , w_ith cheere_ s t a b l e D i s c i p l e S e i d e , thy l o r e were p r o f i t a b l e , who so i t hadde by exper ience As thow haas t , ther to yeue I may credence. 518 75. "But thogh thy wordes sharpe & s t i r y n g e seeme, To many a man aua i l l e_ they but l y t e ; They look a paar t and l i s t take no yeeme Un to the ende which mighte hem p r o f y t e ; Yen they haan & seen nat wor th a myte; Eres a l s o , and may nat w i t h hem heere; They weene longe fo r to lyuen heere . 525 - 149. f . 65v 76. "And for they , und i spos id deeth nat d reed , f f o r s i g h t e a t a l han tho wrecches r i g h t noon Of the harm pat ther of moot folwe neede; They demen stande as s i k i r as a s t oon , But wei I see by thee so moot I goon; They shu l han cause i t fo r to dreede and doute , Or bat h i r lyues l i g h t e be f u l l y ou te . 535 77. "whan dethes message^ comth, sharp seeknesse, freendes and felawes hem haaste & h i e The seek man to confor te i n h i s f eeb l e s se , And a l thyng pat good i s they p rophec ie ; They seyn , thogh thow seek i n thy bed now be , Be nat aga s t , no dethes c r u e l haast thow, f f o r t h i s thow s h a l t eschape wei ynow. 539 78. "Thus bodyes freendes been maad enemys To the s o u l e , fo r w h i l seeknesse greeueth The man c o n t i n u e l l y , y i t so unwys I s he b_at h i s enformours he wei l e e u e t h ; He h o p i t h to been h o o l , and he mescheueth; where as he wende haan recouered be, Und i spos id to d i e , s t e rue th he . 546 - 150. f . 66r 79. "Right so thyn herkneres and thyn A u d i t o u r s , Tho pat greet t r u s t haan i n mannes prudence, Nat l i s t h i r e peynes p u t t e , or h i r l a b o u r s , To execute thyn holsum sentence; Thow mightes t as weel keepe thy s i l e n c e , They by thy wordes yeuen nat a l e e k . " To which thymage thus answerde & speeke_ Ymago 552 80 . f f o r t h y , whan they i n dethes net been hent , whan sodeyn wrecchidnesse hem sha l a s s a i l l e , whan deeth as tempest sharp & v i o l e n t w i t h woful t r o u b l e hem sha l vexe & t r a u a i l l e , They shu ln c r i e a f t i r h e l p , and there of f a i l l e , f f o r they i n hate sapience hadde, And despised my r eed , and hee ld i t badde. 560 81 . "And r i g h t as now ther been but fewe fownde, pa_t of my wordes conpunct wole h i r l y f , Cor rec te ne amende i n no stownde, Nat may to hem aua i l l e_ my motyf; But they h i r synnes usen ay f o o r t h r y f e , And haan no l u s t f ro synnes hem wi thdrawe, No more than they neuere had herd my sawe. 567 - 151. f . 66v 82. "Right so fo r the ma l i c e of tyme, and l a k Of g o o s t l y l o u e , and for t h i n i q u i t e e Of the w o r l d , v e r t u i s so dryue a bak, pat fewe to the deeth d i s p o s i d be So weel bat l i s t t h i s wor ldes van i t ee l e u e , and fo r d e s i r of l y f bat s h a l euere Endure coue i t en hens to d i s s e u e r e . 574 83. "But whan deeth on hem s t e l i t h , w i t h h i r d a r t e , They unredy, wownded i n consc i ence , Nat oonly goon hens whan they hens depar te , But they wi_th a manere of v i o l e n c e Been hent away, so pa_t f u l greet prudence They wolde han holde i t han de id as a man, And nat as a bees t , bat no reson can . 581 84. " I f of t h i s commun p e r i l thenchesoun Thee l i s t to knowe, I wole i t now expresse : The desyr of honoures out of resoun; The body bathynge i n w o r l d l y swetensse, E e r t h e l y l oue ; and to greet greedynesse I n muk hepynge, b lynden many an h e r t e , And causen f o l k i n t o tho p e r i l s s t e r t e . 588 - 152. " I f t h o w d e s y r e t h e p e r i l s t o f l e e O f u n d i s p o s i d d e e t h , my c o n s e i l h e e r e : T h i s h e u y p l y t i n w h i c h t h o w s e e s t now me R e u o l u e o f t e i n t h y m y n d e , a n d b y me l e e r e f f o r t o b e w a a r ; i f t h o w i n t h i s m a n e e r e w i l t d o , i t s h a l b e t h y g r e e t a u a n t a g e , A n d s e e t h e e a t t h y l a s t p a s s a g e . " I t s h a l u n t o t h e e p r o f y t e i n p a t h o u r T h a t o o n l y d i e s h a l i t n a t t h e g a s t e , B u t d e e t h e e k , a s e n d o f w o r l d l y l a b o u r A n d b e g y n n y n g e o f b l i s s e a y b a t s h a l l a s t e , A b y d e t h o w s h a l t , a n d d e s i r e f a s t e w i t h a l t h y n h e r t e i t t o t a k e & r e c e y u e , A n d a l w o r l d l y l u s t l e y e a p a a r t & w e y u e . " E u e r y d a y h a u e o f me d e e p r e m e m b r a n c e ; I n t o t h y n h e r t e l e t my w o r d e s s y n k e ; T h e s o r w e a n d a n g w i s s h a n d g r e u o u s p e n a n c e w h i c h t h o w h a a s t s e e n i n m e , c o n s i d e r e , & t h y n k e T h a t o f p e r i l t h o w a r t f u l n y t h e b r y n k e ; R e m e m b r e o n my d o o m , f o r s w i c h s h a l t h y n b e , M y n y i s t i r d a y , a n d t h i s d a y u n t o t h e e . - 1 5 3 . f . 67v 88. "Looke up on me, and thynke on t h i s nyght ay w h i l e s thow l y u e s t , o how good b l e s s i d A r t thow, A r c e n i u s , which ba_t always Th i s i l k e hour hadd i s t i n thyn he r t e i m p r e s s i d , That man as i n an h o l y w r i t i s w i t n e s s i d , w h i c h , whan god comth & k n o k k i t h a t t e y a t e , wakyng him fynt he b l e s s i d i s a l g a t e ; 616 89. " B l e s s i d i s he bat thanne fownden i s Redy to passe , fo r he b l i s f u l l y Departe s h a l , and t r u s t e r i g h t weel t h i s , Thogh deeth a s s a i l L e , and vexe greuous ly The good l y u e r e , or s l e e him sodeyn ly , how so he d i e , he gooth un to bat p l ace where as confor t i s refresshynge and g race . 623 90. "He s h a l be purged cleene & p u r i f i e d , And d i s p o s i d the g l o r i e of god to see; Angels shu ln keepe h im, & he sha l be gyed And l e d by C i t e i n s of the hy Cont ree , And of the cour t of heuene up taken be; And of h i s s p i r i t sha l been the bsynge In to e t e r n e l b l i s s e the en t rynge . 630 - 154. -"But a l i a s , where s h a l my wrecch id goost This nyght become? w h i d i r sha l i t go? what herbergh sha l i t haue, or i n what coost Sha l i t a r ryue? who sha l receyue i t ? who? 0 , what f rendshipe sha l i t haue tho? 0 soule a b i e c t , deso la t and fo r s ake , Greet cause haast thow for fere & wo to qwake! "Wherfore I hauyng of my s e l f p i t e e , Amonges heuy wordes I out shede Teeres i n greet habundance & p l e n t e e ; But nat a u a i l l i t h me, i t i s no drede , hens f o o r t h weepe and conpleyne & c r i e & grede, f f o r i n no wyse chaungid i t be may; A l man kyndes fo s topp id hath my way. " In h i d l e s , i n awayt as a l e o u n , he hath l e y n , and my soule l e d hath he I n to the p i t of deeth a l deepe adoun. 0 my l o r d god, t h i s sharp-aduers i t ee To s tyn te of speeche now c o n p e l l i t h me, 1 may no more hens f o o r t h speke & b e w a i l l e , My tonge, and eek my w i t so now me f a i l l e _ . - 155. -f . 68v 94. "Ther i s noon o t h i r , I see weel ynow Habeamus miserum unde puncture mor t i s amarissime me circumdant e t c . The tyme i s come as b lyue I s h a l be deed; See how my face we x i t h pale now, And dim my l o o k , and as heuy as l eed Myn yen synk eek deepe i n to myn heed, And torne up so doun, and myn handes two wexen a l s t i f and s t a r k , & may nat do. 658 95. "Pr ikkynges of deeth me wrecche conpace; S t i r t m e e l gooth my pous, & e l l e s naght; M o r t e l pressures sha rp ly me manace, My bree th begynneth f a i l l e _ , and eek the draght Of i t f ro f e r i s f e t and deepe kaght; No lengere_ I now see t h i s worldes l i g h t , Myn yen l o s t han h i r e o f f i c e & might . 665 96. "But now I see w i t h myn yen mental Thestat a l of an o t h i r wor ld than t h i s ; I am ny goon as fas te passe I s h a l . 0 my l o r d god, a g a s t f u l s igh te i t i s I Now of confo r t haue I greet l a k & mi s ; h o r r i b l e freendes, and innumerable, Awayten on my soule m i s e r a b l e . The b lake faced APPENDICES Notes Glossa ry B i b l i o g r a p h y Notes I Inuocacio ad patrem: 140 l i n e s I I Ad f i l i u m / Honor e t G l o r i a : 70 l i n e s I I I Ad s p i r i t u m sanctum: 70 l i n e s IV Ad beatam V i r g i n e m : 49 l i n e s The poems form a s i n g l e group. They do not appear i n any other MS. A l l four are i n rhyme r o y a l . I Inuocac io ad patrem 26 The dash i s i n e x p l i c a b l e i n t h i s l i n e . A s i m i l a r mark i n L e p i s t r e de Cup id , appears a t l i n e 434, where a word has been l e f t ou t . As i t i s t h i s l i n e scans p r o p e r l y , and there i s no other MS aga ins t which to check the r e a d i n g . 43 " se ruan t3 : " The p l u r a l i z i n g s u f f i x " - 3 " i s used on ly twice i n the MS. The other appears at l i n e 83 i n Poem V , where i t i s a l s o used to make the p l u r a l of " se ruan t . " I I Ad f i l i u m / H o n o r e t G l o r i a The t i t l e of the poem appears a t the bottom of f 28r , w h i l e s tanza one appears a t the top of f 28v. The t i t l e i s i n two l i n e s , and i s s l i g h t l y ornamented. - 157. I l l Ad s p i r i t u m sanctum 5 "heuy f o l k " = e a r t h l y people , m o r t a l s . 57 " l o d e s t e r r e " = l o d e s t a r . P o l a r i s , the no r th s t a r ; the m a r i n e r ' s gu ide . " . . . o f shipbreche seur p o r t . . . " = sure haven (por t ) aga ins t the dangers o f shipwreck. 65 "meekly" modi f i e s "axynge ," r a the r than "condescend." IV Ad beatam Vi rg inem 26 The L a t i n s u p e r s c r i p t i o n s are added to c l a r i f y the references of " thow," here used t w i c e . The f i r s t "thow" r e f e r s to God, the second to the V i r g i n . In the photocopy i t i s d i f f i c u l t to t e l l whether the L a t i n i s i n a d i f f e r e n t hand or no t . 49 Thej ca tch phrase a t the bottom of the l e a f : "syn thow M o d i r , " marks the end of the f i r s t g a t h e r i n g . V Item de beata V i r g i n e 140 l i n e s : ababb c c . The poem does not appear i n any other MS. - 158. 26 " s t a r r e of the see : " reference to the V i r g i n as S t e l l a M a r i s , s t a r of the sea . For a d i s c u s s i o n of the many S t e l l a Mar i s poem groups, which make the development of the name c l e a r , see E v e l y n Faye W i l s o n , The S t e l l a Mar i s of John of Gar land , No. 45 of the Medieva l Academy of America (Cambridge, Mass: 1946). 83 " se ruan t3 : " see note to 1.43. V I Item de Beata V i r g i n e V I I The t a l e of the V i r g i n ' s S l eeve le s s Garment V I , the P ro log to the t a l e : 21 l i n e s V I I , The T a l e : 105 l i n e s . Both rhymed ababb c c . The prologue and t a l e e x i s t i n three MSS. HM744 i s probably the o l d e s t , acco rd ing to Beve r ly Boyd i n "Hocc l eve ' s M i r a c l e s of the V i r g i n , " UTSE, 35 (1956). The other two MSS are R . 3 . 2 1 , T r i n i t y Co l l ege (c .1442-1483) , and MS 152, C h r i s t Church, Oxford . In the l a t t e r MS the t a l e i s a s c r i b e d to Chaucer ' s Ploughman, the MS be ing one of the cop ies of the Canterbury T a l e s . MS R.3 .21 i s desc r ibed by M. R. James i n The Western Manuscr ip t s i n the L i b r a r y of T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge (Cambridge: 1901), and MS 152, C h r i s t Church, i s desc r ibed by J . M. Manly and E d i t h R i c k e r t i n The Text of the Canterbury Tales (Chicago: 1940). - 159. -VI Item de Beata V i r g i n e The T. Marleburgh of the d e d i c a t i o n opposi te l i n e one of the prologue i s unknown. V I I The Tale " s c r i p t u r e : " here j u s t a w r i t t e n work, not b i b l i c a l w r i t i n g n e c e s s a r i l y . The word had not s t r i c t l y taken on the more r e s t r i c t e d meaning i t has now, r e f e r r i n g to the B i b l e a l one . " . L . " = 50. A l l numbers i n the MS are g i v e n i n the Roman f a s h i o n . "thabbeye of s e i n t G y l e : " a reference to the Rhone monastery which s tood on the s i t e of the present day S a i n t - G i l l e s , Provence. S t . G i l e s was a hermi t who made h i s hermitage i n a wood near the mouth of the Rhone. He may have l i v e d sometime before the n i n t h cen tu ry . In the legends S t . G i l e s dreaded temporal p r o s p e r i t y . The Rhone monastery was an important place of p i lg r image i n the middle ages, and the s a i n t was one of the most popular of the p e r i o d , as over 160 churches ded ica ted i n h i s name i n Europe and England a t t e s t . " h a l y d a y . " Not j u s t " h o l y - d a y , " but probably a Saturday, which was the day of the week ded ica ted to the V i r g i n . The l i n e " . . . a t our ladyes r e v e r e n c e . . . " would i n d i c a t e that the - 160. V i r g i n ' s f i r s t appearance e v i d e n t l y took place on a Saturday as w e l l (see l i n e 2 1 f f . ) . r; V I I I L e p i s t r e de Cupid 476 l i n e s : ababb cc H o c c l e v e ' s L e t t e r of Cupid e x i s t s i n more MSS than does any other of h i s sho r t e r poems. There are nine MSS of i t : HM 744 S h i r l e y MS, T r i n i t y C o l . Camb. R . 3 . 2 0 . Durham MS. U n i v e r s i t y L i b . V . i i . 1 3 P h i l l i p p s MS 8151, now HM 111 i n the Hunt ing ton L i b r a r y , San Marino C a l i f o r n i a . Selden MS, B24. F a i r f a x MS, 16. Bodley 638 B. Tanner 346 T. Digby 181 D. MSS Se lden , F a i r f a x , Bodley , Tanner and Digby are i n the B o d l e i a n . In the l a t t e r four of t h i s group L e p i s t r e de Cupid i s i n company w i t h Chaucer ' s Par l iament of Foules and Lydga te ' s Complaint of the B l a c k  K n i g h t . - 161. 5 " S i t h e r e e A form of Cy the rea , one of the names for Venus or A p h r o d i t e . The name i s g iven to an Aegean I s l a n d , where Venus i s supposed to have been born from the s ea . She i s the mother of Cupid i n mythology. 80 " c i t e e of T r o i e . " H o c c l e v e ' s sources were probably not too arcane . The Troy legends were becoming more and more p o p u l a r . H i s u l t i m a t e source was p robab ly , as was Lydga te ' s for h i s Troy Book, Guido d i Colonna ' s H i s t o r i a T ro j ana . H o c c l e v e ' s note a t l i n e 84, "as men knowe," a t t e s t s to the fac t tha t the legends were common knowledge. 137 "ordre o f g e n t i l l e s s e : " the c o u r t l y love order of c h i v a l r y . Hocc leve may have i n mind a poem c a l l e d The Court of Love , once a t t r i b u t e d to Chaucer , which i n pa r t deals w i t h the ""statutes o f l o v e , " tha t sets out r u l e s p a r a l l e l i n g those of a c h i v a l r i c o r d e r . I n T r i n i t y C o l l e g e , Cambridge MS R . 3 . 1 9 ; the a u t h e n t i c i t y o f t h i s poem i s d i scussed by Eleanor P r e s c o t t Hammond i n Chaucer , A B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Manual (New Y o r k , 1908), 418-19. 142 "Whoso m o c h i l c l a p p i t h g r a b b i t h o f t e . " The person who t a l k s a l o t t a l k s a l o t o f nonsense. 155-61 The re fe rence i s to the F a l l o f the A n g e l s . The subjec t was probably the exemplum o f many a sermon Hocc leve h e a r d . - 162. -184-86 The meaning of the adage i s c l e a r . The adage i s s t i l l w i t h us i n modern E n g l i s h . Both H o c c l e v e ' s and the modern one are coa r se , but have a c e r t a i n e x p l i c i t charm as w e l l . 199 The fac t that a l l the people mentioned are b i b l i c a l cha rac te r s shows that Hocc leve i s t a k i n g a somewhat i r o n i c view o f the whole problem of the d e c e i v i n g o f women. Given the B i b l e ' s i n f a l l i b i l i t y the fac t tha t women carp at be ing defamed i n i t i s i r o n i c , and, Hocc leve fur ther i n s i s t s , t y p i c a l o f women. "Wikk id 1 " i s the ope ra t i ve word for the s t a n z a ' s i r o n y . There may not be the he igh t o f i r o n y in tended that a modern reader might see, however. On the freedom w i t h which people o f the p e r i o d r e f e r r e d to B i b l i c a l c h a r a c t e r s , see F . N . Robinson , Works o f Chaucer (Cambridge: 1933), 720, a note to l i n e 555 o f the S q u i r e ' s T a l e . 204 "Ouyde" = O v i d . The work referred'.fco i s h i s Remedia Amor i s . 211 ""that book:" the B i b l e . 215 "They s e y n : " the books say . The L a t i n s u p e r s c r i p t i o n draws the r e a d e r ' s a t t e n t i o n to the fac t that " they" r e f e r s to " b o o k s . " 221 "My Lady n a t u r e : " I n Pa r l i amen t of Foules Nature s i t s on a " h i l o f f l o u r e s , " before which the b i r d s gather to choose t h e i r mates. Cupid i s nearby, f o r g i n g and f i r i n g h i s arrows - 163. -"some fo r to s l e , and some to wounde and k e r v e . " The a l l i a n c e between the god of Love and the goddess of Nature , which Hoccleve i s sugges t ing here , i s probably drawn from Chaucer ' s work. "Swich i s the f o r c e . . . . q w e e n e : " C u p i d ' s idea of punishment fo r these e r r an t c l e r k s i s d e f t . Unless they change t h e i r ways, he w i l l force each of them to accept an i n v e r t e d love p o t i o n , which would make a man take the " f o u l e s t s l u t t e " i n any town as a l o v e r , and imagine her to be a duchess or a queen. "Pardee. . .kowde t e c h e . " Ovid and the other sub t l e c l e r k s , fo r a l l t h e i r knowledge, were dece ived . The phrase, "by women," remains u n s a i d . " T h i s , l a d y e s . . . g e t e noon t h e r b y . " The syntax here seems • g a r b l e d . I would t r a n s l a t e the s tanza as f o l l o w s : These l a d i e s , not g e n t l e s , none the less , were not the ones tha t d i d t h i s , but such f i l t h s tha t were v i r t u e l e s s (were the ones) that t r ea t ed these o l d , wise c l e r k s i n t h i s way. As for c l e r k s , i t might be b e t t e r not to speak i l l of women g e n e r a l l y , fo r they w i l l get no honour thereby. The antecedent fo r " t h i s " a t the beginning of the s tanza i s d i f f i c u l t to determine. Hoccleve seems too f a i n t h e a r t e d to cont inue . ' h i s t i r a d e aga ins t the C l e r k s he has been ma l ign ing i n j e s t . The - 164. i r o n y he has developed to t h i s p o i n t breaks down because of h i s f a i n t - h e a r t e d n e s s . I n an e f f o r t to r eve r se h i m s e l f before he gets more deeply embroi led i n h i s charges aga ins t the B i b l e and the c l a s s i c s , he r e v e r t s to the u n i n s p i r e d d i d a c t i c i s m which c h a r a c t e r i z e s so much o f h i s r e l i g i o u s p o e t r y . 274 "beren . . . u p on honde:" to accuse f a l s e l y , or persuade f a l s e l y . 281 " M a i s t e r John de Meun:" author of the greater pa r t eo f Roman de l a Rose. The s a t i r e aga ins t women enjoyed cons ide rab l e p o p u l a r i t y . Here Hocc leve takes the author to task for the i n o r d i n a t e l eng th o f the poem composed j u s t " f o r to deceyue a c e l y d a m o i s e l l e . " 302 " M e d e a . . . I a s o n : " L i k e Chaucer , r a the r than l i k e Gower, Hocc leve makes of Jason a more v i l l a i n o u s c h a r a c t e r , i n order to show Medea i n a more sympathetic l i g h t . I t i s Legend o f Good Women, r a the r than Confess ion Amantis that Hocc leve has i n mind . 309 " E n e a s . . . D i d o : " House o f Fame and LGW both absolve D i d o , as Hocc leve does h e r e , and p l a c e a l l the blame on Aeneas ' t r e a c h e r y . - 165. 316 "our legende o f m a r t i r s : " A r e f e r e n c e , almost c e r t a i n l y , to LGW. "Our legende" because, i n Chaucer ' s poem, C u p i d , through Queen A l c e s t e , d i c t a t e d tha t Chaucer should w r i t e LGW to the god 's s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i n e x p i a t i o n for h i s s in s i n producing e a r l i e r a n t i - f e m i n i s t w r i t i n g s : Thow s h a l t . . . y e r e by y e r e , The moste pa r t e of thy tyme spende I n makyng o f a g l o r i o u s legende Of good wymmen, maydenes and wyves That weren trewe i n lovyng a l h i r e l y v e s . (481-85) 351 "our f i r s t e m o d i r : " Eve . 360 "sent a serpent and made h i r e g o : " N o t i c e tha t the serpent i s f emin ine , as i n d i c a t e d by " h i r e . " 365-92 The abso lu t ion ' -o f Eve of the g u i l t o f o r i g i n a l s i n i s unorthodox. The blame i s s h i f t e d to Adam. The Oxford  D i c t i o n a r y of the C h r i s t i a n Church (London: 1957) , p o i n t s out tha t the a b s o l u t i o n of Eve was accepted because her name i n L a t i n , " E v a , " when reversed was " A v e , " the f i r s t word by which the angel addressed Mary when she was t o l d tha t she would bear J e s u s . 393 The s h i f t to a se r ious r e l i g i o u s tone at t h i s p o i n t i s q u i t e ab rup t . The attempted wedding of the c o u r t l y love theme and C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y i s a f a i l u r e . The l i g h t tone which has gone before i s l o s t . - 166. 421 " M a r t i r M a r g a r e t e : " The reference i s to the legend of S t . Margaret of A n t i o c h , reputed to have l i v e d about A . D . 300. Legend has i t that she was taken, as a maiden, by a P re fec t of D i o c l e t i a n as a m i s t r e s s . She r e s i s t e d the P r e f e c t ' s advances and was imprisoned and t o r t u r e d . She was f i n a l l y beheaded, but she s t e a d f a s t l y guarded her v i r g i n i t y to the end. Hoccleve undoubtedly knew of the legend through an ME source . Se in te Marhere te , an ME l i f e of the s a i n t , appears i n the Ka tha r ine Group of three l i v e s of s a i n t s , and two h o m i l i e s . 428-9 "we commende h i r noght / By encheson of h i r u i r g i n i t e e . " Hocc leve , or r a the r Cup id , must r e g a i n h i s d i g n i t y as god of l o v e . He cannot commend the s a i n t fo r her v i r g i n i t y , but for her constancy. The argument he re , l i k e the argument of the Wife of Bath i n the prologue to her t a l e , s k i r t s the edges of he resy , almost b e l i t t l i n g the powerful c u l t of the v i r g i n . To have Cupid advocate v i r g i n i t y i s i m p o s s i b l e . The attempt a t union of the c l a s s i c and C h r i s t i a n themes now becomes weaker and weaker. The medieval ambivalence toward v i r g i n i t y and c h a s t i t y can be seen ve ry w e l l he re . The worship of v i r g i n i t y was almost a concomitant of the worship of the V i r g i n . A t the same time the d e s i r e for p r o c r e a t i o n was s t r o n g . For another statement of t h i s ambivalence, see the prologue of the Wife of Ba th ' s t a l e . Her arguments are more cogent . - 167. The dash i n t h i s l i n e represents some s o r t of c o r r e c t i o n , to make the l i n e scan more e x a c t l y . The Durham MS, which F u r n i v a l l e d i t s i n Minor Poems has Dryue out of my rem(em)braunce/l ne may The "my" and the " I " of the Durham MS argue for a dropped "our" i n the MS he re . The re ference here i s to the devo t ion to Jesus of Mary Magdalene and the o ther Mary (as she i s known to d i s t i n g u i s h her from Mary His mother) du r ing and a f t e r the c r u c i f i x i o n , when the A p o s t l e s a l l deser ted Him. "our m i n i s t r e s echoon:" I , Cup id , command that each one of you women become my m i n i s t e r s , i s what the god of love now says . His s p e c i f i c commmand for duty f o l l o w s : the women are to ban ish fo rever any man who does not obey Cup id ' s command to honor women and r e f r a i n from d e c e i v i n g and seducing them. The poem'-s date of compos i t ion i s f i x e d by the f i n a l l i n e . May as the month of compos i t ion need not be taken l i t e r a l l y . I t i s the conven t iona l month fo r l o v e , the month fo r r e b i r t h , when l o v e , j o y f u l l y , cou ld be c a r r i e d on out of doors once a g a i n . - 168. IX Balade to K ing Henry V 35 l i n e s : ababb cc This poem appears only i n t h i s MS 14 Reference i s to the Treaty of Troyes : 10 June, 1420. X Three Roundels a . Complaint to Lady Money b . La Response (of the Lady) c . H o c c l e v e ' s p ra i se of h i s l a d y . The roundels do not appear e lsewhere . S c h e m a t i c a l l y the rhyme scheme i s as f o l l o w s , w i t h the bracke ted s e c t i o n i n d i c a t i n g the recurrence of the f i r s t four l i n e s i n t a c t : (abba)/ ab(abba) / ba(abba) / abba(abba). a . Complaint to Lady Money 6 F o l l o w i n g t h i s l i n e the s c r i b e uses braces and a marg ina l n o t a t i o n to show the r e p r i s e of the f i r s t four l i n e s of the poem a f t e r l i n e s 6, 8, and 12. I have i n d i c a t e d t h i s i n my t r a n s c r i p t i o n s imply by p r i n t i n g the f i r s t three words of the repeated s e c t i o n . 7-8 " I l e e t y o w . . . I deye!" The i n v e r s i o n makes the meaning d i f f i c u l t he re . I would t r a n s l a t e the two l i n e s : - 169. I l e t you f r e e . Now, because of your n o b i l i t y , look a f t e r me. Without you I ( w i l l ) d i e . 10 "Chr i s tmesse . 1 1 Chr i s tmas , of course . The poem, or the s e r i e s of th ree , i s probably a Christmas reminder to some patron to remember poor Thomas. b . La Reponse 4 " r i s s h e s t h r e e . " three rushes . Something of v e r y l i t t l e v a l u e . c . H o c c l e v e ' s P ra i s e of H i s Lady For the i d e a l s of feminine beauty which Hoccleve i s s a t i r i z i n g he re , see the much e a r l i e r poem "To A l i s o u n . " .7 " p e n t i c e . " a penthouse, n o t , however, i n the modern meaning. The reference here i s to a roughly a t t ached , s l a n t - r o o f e d o u t - b u i l d i n g , u s u a l l y aga ins t the w a l l of a l a r g e r , more s u b s t a n t i a l s t r u c t u r e , and added a f t e r the l a r g e r b u i l d i n g has been completed. From the L a t i n appendi t ium, "a sma l l sacred b u i l d i n g dependent upon a l a r g e r c h u r c h . " (NED) 12 "pape jay ." a p a r r o t . - 170. X I Lerne to Dye 672 l i n e s : ababb cc c The poem e x i s t s i n seven MSS. The incomplete copy i n HM 744 may be the o l d e s t . For a d i s c u s s i o n of t h i s see B . K u r t z , "The R e l a t i o n of H o c c l e v e ' s Lerne to Dye to i t s s o u r c e , " PMLA 40 (1925), 255. The other MSS i n which the poem appears are B o d l e i a n 1504. B o d l e i a n 3441 (miss ing s t z a s . 1 - 3 ) B o d l e i a n 27627 H a r l e i a n 172 Royal 1 7 . D . v i Durham V . i i i . 9 1 The L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n i n the heading i s the f i r s t l i n e of the poem i n t r a n s l a t i o n . The L a t i n g iven by G o l l a n c z a t the end of that p o r t i o n of HM 744 e d i t e d by him does not appear any-where i n t h i s MS. Go l l ancz g i v e s : Salomon Extrema gaudi j  l u c t u s occupat , &c. But he p r i n t s i t as i f i t were i n the MS. 15 The marg ina l i n s c r i p t i o n i n d i c a t e s the speaker . The f i r s t speaker i s Knowledge, S a p i e n t i a . The marg ina l i n s c r i p t i o n s are contemporary w i t h the copy ing , a l though i t i s d i f f i c u l t i n the photocopy to be c e r t a i n i f the hand i s the same or n o t . 29 The D i s c i p l e speaks f i r s t a t t h i s p o i n t . - 171. 84 f f . Stanza 13, a t f 56 r . A t t h i s po in t the MS i s bound wrongly . The f u l l page c o n t a i n i n g leaves 55 r ,55v , and 58r ,58v i s bound i n s i d e tha t c o n t a i n i n g the leaves 56 r ,56v , and 57 r , 57v , w i t h the r e s u l t tha t the proper s tanza order i s broken. I have c o r r e c t e d the order of s t anzas , and have numbered them c o n t i n u o u s l y , bu t , I have put i n the bracke ts the numbers of the s tanzas as they appear i n the MS, so tha t anyone w i s h i n g to do so may r e c o n s t r u c t the s tanza order of the wrongly bound g a t h e r i n g . Numbers ou ts ide the parentheses, then, i n d i c a t e the proper order of the s tanzas ; numbers i n the bracke ts i n d i c a t e the a c t u a l order of stanzas i n the MS as i t i s now bound. F u r n i v a l l , G o l l a n c z and H. C. Shulz a l l po in t out t h i s e r r o r i n b i n d i n g the MS. 85 S a p i e n t i a asks the D i s c i p l e to imagine a man d y i n g . This image becomes so v i v i d tha t i t begins a d ia logue w i t h the D i s c i p l e . This d ia logue cont inues to the end of the MS. 149 The pronoun references here may be a b i t u n c l e a r . ?He t h o g h t . . . " = the D i s c i p l e . " . . . h e s p a k e . . . " = the Image of the dy ing man. 161 "wi th h i r chek i s maat:" L i t e r a l l y : Death checkmates everyone. Compare some of Chaucer ' s chess imagery: fo r example, The Book  of the Duchess, 618-619: "For f a l s for tune hath pleyed a game a t t e ches w i t h me." - 172. 219 "wol l e l o k : " a piece of carded woo l , s t r e t ched ou t , or p u l l e d out and made ve ry t h i n and l i g h t . 253 With s tanza 37 r e g u l a r s tanza numeration and page order i s e s t a b l i s h e d a g a i n . 312 " o l d book or c o k i r : " something of v e r y l i t t l e v a l u e . 323 The L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n i n the margin t r a n s l a t e s the f i r s t l i n e of the D i s c i p l e s speech. 338-9 The Image i s i m i t a t i n g the D i s c i p l e s w a i l i n g s - - r i d i c u l i n g him - - before a fu r the r e x h o r t a t i o n . - - The L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n a t t h i s l i n e , and i n a number of p laces which f o l l o w , d i f f e r s from that provided by F u r n i v a l l i n h i s e d i t i o n of the Durham MS. He g ives Quis e s t / h i c sermo/quem l o q u e r - / i s 'debeo pen i t e re ; /debeo me/ conuer t e re? 1 Nonne v i d e s / a u g u s t i a s &c. These d i f f e r e n c e s i n the L a t i n might be the c r u c i a l f a c t o r i n de te rmin ing i f Hoccleve were indeed the s c r i b e of the MSS. I f the L a t i n i s i n the same hand as the body of the MS i s cou ld be determined whether the L a t i n i s from H o c c l e v e ' s source (which i t may ve ry w e l l b e ) , or a r e - t r a n s l a t i o n i n t o L a t i n of the E n g l i s h l i n e . A l s o , the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the L a t i n of the Durham MS and that of HM 744 should be determined. - 173. Because both MSS are cons idered to be Hoccleve autographs, the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s i s impor tan t , i e s p e c i a l l y as they appear to be i n the same hand as the poetry of the MSS. Wherever the L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n s d i f f e r , I have s u p p l i e d the i n s c r i p t i o n from the Durham MS i n these no tes . 333 The L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n i s a t r a n s l a t i o n of par t of the l i n e . 358-60 The " h e . . . h i m " c o n s t r u c t i o n I i n t e r p r e t as some from of r e f l e x i v e , and the whole passage I would t r a n s l a t e as f o l l o w s : The person who comes l a t e to making pen-ance, whether he makes i t t r u t h f u l l y or f a l s e l y , he i s not (cannot be) c e r t a i n i n h i m s e l f tha t h i s penance i s going to be e f f e c t i v e . - - The L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n opposi te t h i s l i n e i n the Durham MS i s Qui autem/tarde p e n i t e n c i e / se c o m m i t t i t / dubius e r i t / q u i a n e s c i t / utrum vere v e l / f i c t e p e n i t e n t / 378 " X X X t : L y e e r : " K u r t z b e l i e v e s Lerne to Dye was w r i t t e n i n 1420-21, therefore the 30 year reference i s not to H o c c l e v e ' s own age, desp i t e h i s tendency to s i m i l a r forms of autobiography e lsewhere . 414 The i n s c r i p t i o n here d i f f e r s from that i n the Durham MS. The Durham MS has - 174. Vere nunc/cognoui quod/ ad magnitudinem/ premiorum p l u s / m i c h i c o n t u l i s e t / s o l i -c i t a c u s t o d i a / c o r d i s &c. 437-9 "To me, t h y n . . . . t y m e p re sen t : " The syntax i s d i s t o r t e d a b i t he re . I would t r a n s l a t e the passage as f o l l o w s : To me, your handiwork, g ive sustenance (despi te the f a c t ) that I have g r e a t l y e r r e d the dev ia t ed (from your command-ments) . Remember me now. 471 A r e f l e x i v e c o n s t r u c t i o n : "Show me how to conduct m y s e l f . " -491 "Caste i n thyn h e r t e : " Imagine. 493-5 " . x . yeer i n a f o u r n e y s . . . t h i s oonly yeer were graunted thee fo r thyn h e l p e : " I have not been able to f i n d any d o c t r i n a l a u t h o r i t y for t h i s , but the l i n e seems to i n d i c a t e that one year i n ten would be granted as a r e s p i t e from the flames of H e l l i f the su f f e r e r c o u l d have someone pray fo r h im. There i s a reference to a s i m i l a r so r t of r e s p i t e be ing g ran ted , i n Shaw's S t . Joan , i n the f i n a l a c t : JOAN: Be you a s a i n t ? SOLDIER: Yes , l a d y , s t r a i g h t from h e l l . DUNOIS: A s a i n t , and from h e l l ! SOLDIER: Y e s , noble c a p t a i n : I have a day o f f every yea r , you know. Tha t ' s my al lowance for my one good a c t i o n . - 175. The L a t i n i n s c r i p t i o n i s d i f f e r e n t i n the Durham MS. F u r n i v a l l g ives 0 amicorum omnium d u l c i s s i m e succurre The symbol i n the middle of the l i n e i s the L a t i n shorthand n o t a t i o n f o r " e t c . " This symbol on ly appears once i n the body of the MS, the usua l symbol be ing " & . " The Durham MS has "and . " "For they i n h a t e . . . b a d d e : " I t r a n s l a t e as "They h e l d Knowledge i n contempt and despised my a d v i c e , which they thought was b a d . " " A r c e n i u s : " Reference to S a i n t Arsen ius ( c . A . D . 400) . Records show that t h i s s a i n t had s e v e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s which had undoubted appeal to Hocc leve . He d e l i b e r a t e l y l i v e d i n great pover ty , a f t e r l e a v i n g the cour t of Emperor Theodosius . He had the " g i f t of t e a r s , " and was noted for h i s s e l f ^ d e p r e c i a t i o n . He was a l s o noted for h i s s t r i c t s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , a t r a i t Hoccleve might w e l l envy. The l a s t four l i n e s of th i s s tanza are a reference to the h a b i t the s a i n t had of spending a l l of Saturday n i g h t i n d e v o t i o n , prayer and wa tch ing , u n t i l Sunday morning. His l a t t e r years were l i v e d i n Egypt as a h e r m i t , and r e p u t e d l y , he d i ed a b o u f 4 4 9 - 5 0 . " d o : " here means "move," or "work." - 176. -659 The Durham MS i n s c r i p t i o n i s s h o r t e r , than the one here ; Puncture m o r t i s / amarissime me/ c i r -cumdant e t c . 670 I I f r eendes : " s c r i b a l e r r o r . The Durham MS shows "feendes, I I which i s undoubtedly the c o r r e c t r e a d i n g . 672 With the ca tch phrase "The b lake faced , I I HM 744 breaks o f f . The break o f f i s a t the end of a g a t h e r i n g . A l a t e r hand has added, ve ry f a i n t l y a t the end of the page: "14 stanzas more ." In f a c t the complete poem has 38 more stanzas plus two and one h a l f pages of prose . To complete the poem, for t h i s e d i t i o n , I have copied F u r n i v a l l ' s e d i t i o n of the Durham MS from l i n e 673 to the end of the prose s e c t i o n . - 177. A note on the G l o s s a r y : 1. Verbs are i n d i c a t i v e unless otherwise noted . 2. For verbs i n the present , person i s i n d i c a t e d fo r the s i n g u l a r i n a l l cases , but fo r the p l u r a l o n l y i f there may be some doubt. 3 . For verbs i n the past person i s on ly g iven i f there may be some doubt. 4 . Nouns are i n d i c a t e d p l u r a l where there may be some doubt) o the rwise , they are s i n g u l a r . Language A b b r e v i a t i o n s A F . Anglo-French A r . A r a b i c L . L a t i n ME Midd le E n g l i s h OE Old E n g l i s h OF Old French ON Old Norse - 178. Grammatical A b b r e v i a t i o n s s. s i n g u l a r imp. impera t ive p i . p l u r a l pn. pronoun Is f i r s t person s i n g u l a r fem. feminine 2s second person s i n g u l a r masc. mascul ine 3s t h i r d person s i n g u l a r neut . neuter v . verb n . noun s t r . v . s t rong verb a . a d j e c t i v e p r . present adv. adverb p r . p . present p a r t i c i p l e N . or Nom. Nominative p . p . past p a r t i c i p l e G. or Gen. G e n i t i v e pa. past D. or Dat . Dat ive sub. sub junc t ive A . or A c c . A c c u s a t i v e - 179. A a a r t e s : n . p i . (OF ars -L . artem) a r t s . X I . 4 2 . a b i e c t : a . (L . ab jec tus ) brought low, a b j e c t . X I . 636. a b i t : v . 3 s . (OE abidan) w a i t s , remains. X I . 2 2 4 . a f t i r c l a p n . ( a f t e r + c l a p ) unexpected blow when defense i s dropped. X I . 2 4 3 . agas t : v . pa. (OE gae s tan) f r i g h t e n e d , t e r r i f i e d . X I . 538. a k i t h : v . p r . 3 s . (OE acan) aches. X . i i . l l . a r t e d : v . p . p . (L . a r t a r e -draw c l o s e ) c o n s t r a i n e d , r e q u i r e d to do something. X I . 3 8 8 . a s say : n . (OF a s s a i ) t e s t of f i t n e s s of a person, t e s t o f v i r t u e . V I I I . 1 4 7 . a s s ee th : n . (OF a ( s ) s e t ) ammends, compensation. X I . 4 8 2 . asswagid: v . p . p . (OF as-souager) s o f t e n , m i t i g a t e . 1.16. auant : n . (OF v . avanter) a boas t . V I I I . 6 4 . auantage; n . (OF avantage) supe r io r p o s i t i o n . V I I I . 215. auisament: n . (OF a ( d ) -visement) d e l i b e r a t i o n , c o n s u l t a t i o n , a warn ing . V I I . 3 2 . B baa r : v . pa . (OE beran) bore , gave b i r t h t o . I V . 1 2 . belowen: v . p r . p i . (OE b y l g i a n ) u s u a l l y w i t h " o n , " b e l l o w , shout a g a i n s t . F i g . s l a n d e r . V I I I . 1 9 6 . blame; n . (OF blasmer) s i n , g u i l t . 1.14. b lynne : v . i n f . (OE b l i n n a n ) s top , cease. X I . 4 6 2 ) . bpbance: n . (OF bobance) b o a s t f u l n e s s , a r rogance . X I . 3 2 1 . bo lned : v . pa. (ON bolgna) s w o l l e n , puffed up. 11 .44. bowgy: a . (OF bouget - l e a the r pouch or w a l l e t ) b u l g i n g . F i g . l i k e a s t u f f e d pouch. X . i i i . 5 . broond; v . pa. (OE br innan) burned. I I I . 2 0 . b r o t i l : a . (OE v . breotan) • b r i t t l e , e a s i l y b roken . F i g . f i c k l e , i n c o n s t a n t . I I I . 3 4 . buxumnesse: n . (ME buhsum, OE v . bugan - bow) p l i a n c e , submiss iveness , g r a c i o u s -ness . I I . 45 . - 180. -byspe t : v . p . p . (OE s p i t -tan) s p i t upon, d e f i l e d w i t h s p i t . 1.72. C can : v . i n f . cowde, kowde: pa. s. kowden: pa. p i . can . c o u l d . c a s t e : v . i n f . (ON kas ta ) cas t or throw d ice or l o t s . V I I I . 2 1 5 . c a s t e s : n . p i . (ON kas ta ) s t rokes of fo r tune . V I I I . 8 8 c a u t e l e : n . (OF caus t e l e -a p recau t ion) c r a f t y dev-i c e , s t ra tegem. V I I I . 2 8 6 . c e l y : a . (OE g e s a e l i g ) i n -nocent , de fense les s . V I I I . 79. chapman: n . (OE ceapmann) merchant, purchaser . V .108 . cheer tee : n . (OF c h i e r t e ) dearness i n p r i c e , dea r th . X . i i . 5 . chek; (OF *eschek) chess term - - check. X I . 1 6 1 . cheuyce: v . p r . (OF chev i se ) succeed. As a r e f l e x i v e - -take care of o n e s e l f . V I I I . 3 2 5 . c l a p p e : v . p r . sub. s. (OE c l a p p i a n ) make a n o i s e . V I I I . 3 2 8 . c l a p p i t h : v . p r . 3s (same as above etym.) F i g . p ra t e , nag. V I I . 1 4 2 . c l i g h t : v . p . p . (OE c l y c -can) c l e n c h the f i s t , h o l d t i g h t l y i n a c l u t c h . X I . 124. c o k i r : n . (OE cocer - a qu ive r ) l e a the r ca s ing fo r the legs u s u a l l y h igh and l a c e d . X I . 3 1 2 . concerne: v . p r . imp. ( L . concernare) p e r c e i v e , be-h o l d . I I I . 3 3 . concupiscence : n . (L . con-c u p i s c e n t i a ) v i c e , esp. sexua l v i c e , d e s i r e . 11 .50 . conpunct: v . p . p . (L . com-punctus) p r i c k e d , s tung. F i g . (conscience) s tung . X I . 5 6 2 . c o u e i t e n : v . p r . p i . (OF c u v e i t i e r ) d e s i r e , want. X I . 5 7 4 . c r a b b i d : a . (OE crabba - -a crab) d i s a g r e e a b l e , i r r i -t a b l e . V I I I . 3 2 4 . creaunce: n . (OF creance) b e l i e f , t r u s t . I V . 1 8 . c r a k e : v . p r . (OE *c rac ian ) to c roak , u t t e r a harsh g r a t i n g c r y . V I I I . 3 2 8 . c roppe: n . (OE cropp) head of a herb or f l o w e r . V I I I . 1 7 . c u r e : n . (OF cure - care) c a r e , a t t e n t i o n . V I I I . 2 1 9 . custumable: a . (OF custumable) h a b i t u a l . V . 6 0 . - 181. D dampnyng; v . p r . p. here n . (OF dampner) judgement, dam-n a t i o n . I I . 7. de f f au t e ; n . (OF defaute) want, s c a r c i t y . X . i . 1 2 . deynous: a . (OF desdeignous) d i s t a i n f u l , proud. V I I I . 1 5 0 . de lauee: a . (OF des lave) washed away, worn away. X . i i . 1 2 . dereworthe: a . (OE deor + wube - dear + worthy) worthy of h igh e s t i m a t i o n . X I . 448. d e s s e r t ; a . (OF dese r t ) d e s e r v i n g , wor thy. 11 .10 . d e s s e r t e s : n . p i . (same as above fo r etym.) d e s s e r t s . 1.57. dym: a . (OE dimm) dim, dark . X . i i i . 3 . d i s p a r p l e d : v . pa. (OF d e s p a r p e l i e r ) s c a t t e r e d , d i s p e r s e d , s p r i n k l e d . X I . 221. duetee: n . (AF duete) du ty . V . 102. E eech : v . i n f ; : (OE ecan) to e n l a r g e , augment. 1.26. e l l e c c i o u n : n . (OF e l e c t i o n ) e l e c t i o n , a formal choos ing . V I I I . 2 3 6 . empryse: n . (OF emprise) en-t e r p r i s e , unde r t ak ing . I I . 5 . enchesoun; n . (OF encheson) o c c a s i o n , cause, reason. I I I . 1 7 . enformours: n . p i . (L . in fo rm-+ -e r ) i n s t r u c t o r . X I . 5 4 3 . e n t e n t y f : a . (OF i n t e n t i f ) a t t e n t i v e . 1.38. e u e r y d e l : n . (OE ae f re + dae1) every p a r t , the whole . V . 3 2 . e x y l : n . (OF e x i l i e r ) an e x i l e . V . 9 6 . e x y l i d : v . p . p . here as a . (OF e x i l i e r ) e x i l e d . V . 1 3 3 . F f a b l e : n . (OF fauble) a t a l e . F i g . a f o o l i s h or r i d i c u l o u s s t o r y . V I I I . 1 7 2 . f a s t e : adv. (OE fas s t e ) f a s t . V . 77. f awe: a . (OE v . faegnian) g l a d , w e l l p leased . X I . 5 6 . f e r d : v . p . p . (OE faeran) a f r a i d . X I . 2 8 3 . f e t : v . p . p . (OE f e t i a n ) f e tched , brought . X I . 2 8 3 . - 182. -f i l t h e s : n . p i . (OE f y l b ) f i l t h y or f o u l persons. V I I I . 2 6 2 . f y r i d : v . pa. (OE f y r i a n ) f i r e d , k i n d l e d . F i g . f i l -l e d w i t h p a s s i o n . V I I I . 1 0 0 , f i s s h i s t : v . p r . 2s (OE f i s c i a n ) f i s h , cas t about . V I I I . 1 0 0 . f l a g i c i o u n : n . (L . f l a g i -t ium - shameful cr ime) a c r i m i n a l , wicked person. 11 .11 . g e n t i l s : n . p i . (OF g e n t i l ) people of gen t l e or noble b i r t h . V I I I . 2 6 0 . ge te ; v . i n f . (OE - g i e t a n ) ge t , o b t a i n . V I I I . 1 2 7 . gye: v . i n f . (OF g u i e r ) conduct , l e a d . X I . 4 7 1 . g l a d e : v . i n f . (OE g l a d i a n ) to make g l a d . I I I . 1 4 . grede: v . imp. (OE grae dan) c ry ou t , w a i l . X I . 6 4 2 . f l e e s : n . (OE f l e o s ) woo l , f l e e c e . V . 3 6 . f l i t t e : v . imp. s. (ON f l y t j a ) depar t , go away. 1.140. fonde: v . p . p . (0E fandian) t r i e d , a t tempted. V I I . 1 0 5 . f o r thynke : v . p r . s u b . 2s (OE forbencan) d e s p a i r . X I . 4 9 0 . foysoun; n . (OF f o i s o n -popular) a p l e n t i f u l sup-p l y . X I . 2 6 3 . f r e e : a . (OE f reo) n o b l e , honourable . 1.129. freedam; n . (0E freo + dom) freedom. G g a b b i t h : v . p r . 3s (OF gabber, ON gabba - to mock) l i e s , t e l l s l i e s . V I I I . 1 4 2 . H h a l k e s : n . p l . _ ( 0 E h e a l h , and Nom. p i . h a l a s ) corner hen t : v . p . p . (OE hentan) l a y h o l d of , s e i z e , cap tu re . X I . 2 4 8 . hepynge: n . (OE v . heapian) ac-cumula t ion . X I . 2 4 0 . herberwe: v . imp. s. (0E herebeorgian) g ive s h e l t e r t o , p r o t e c t . I I I . 3 9 . heuy: a . (OE h e f i g ) heavy. F i g . e a r t h l y . I I I . 5 . h i d l e s : n . p i . (OE h y d e l s ) h i d i n g p l a c e s . XI-.645. h o k i r : n . (OE hocor) s c o r n , contempt. XI .310 hoos t : n . (OF o s t e , hos t e . L . h o s t i s - s t ranger ) a gues t . OED quotes Gower and others for t h i s sense. X I . 2 2 3 . - 183. I / Y y e ; n . s . (OE eage) eye. 1 1 . 6 2 . i e e t : n . and a . (OF j a i e t ) hard b l a c k form of c o a l . F i g . b l a c k . X . i i i . 4 . i ewyse: n . (OF j u i s e , L . judic ium) judgement, sen-t ence , p e n a l t y . I I . 2 . i n f e r n a l : a . (OF i n f e r n a l ) of the underworld or s p i r i t w o r l d . V I I I . 3 . youen: v . p . p . (OE g ie fan) g i v e n . V I I . 7 3 . iowes: n . p i . (Perhaps from OE ceowan - chew) jaws. i s s y n g e : v . p r . p . (OF i s sue ) i s s u i n g , going f o r t h . X I . 6 2 9 . K kay : n . (OF kay) key . 1 .50. k e r f e : n . (OE c y r f -a c u t t i n g ) f i g . the f u r -row made i n water by a sh ips k e e l . X I . 2 0 3 . k i d d e : v . p a . (OE cythan) confessed , d e c l a r e d . V I I I . 314. k y t h e : v . imp. (OE cythan) confess ! d e c l a r e ! I I I . 5 6 . k n y t : v . p . p . (OE cnyt tan) k n i t , woven. 1 .15. L l a a c h : a . ( L . l axus) l a x , l o o s e , n e g l i g e n t . X I . 2 6 7 . l a c h i d : v . p a . (OF l a c h e r ) l a s h , scourge. X I . 3 6 2 . l a p p i d : v . p a . (ME c . 1200) i n compound b i - l a p p e ) en-f o l d , swathe. V . 3 2 . l aude : n . ( L . laudum) de-c i s i o n , judgement. V I I I . 410. lawwhyng: v . p r . p . (OE h l i e h h a n - to laugh) l a u g h i n g . 1 1 . 6 2 . l e c h e : n . (OE lae ce) l e e k . F i g . Something of l i t t l e v a l u e . X I . 5 5 2 . l e i s e r : n . (OF l e i s i r ) l e i s u r e . V I I I . 1 2 9 . lemes: n . p i . (OE leoma) l i g h t , beam of l i g h t . I I I . 14. l e o f : a . (OE l e o f ) dear , be loved . X I . 4 4 6 . l i s t : v . (OE l y s t a n ) im-p e r s o n a l , w i t h pronoun -to choose or p lease to do something. 1 1 . 2 8 . l o k e : n . (OE l o c ) l o c k or t u f t of w o o l . X I . 2 1 9 . - 184. -l y k i t h : v . p r . 3s (OE l T c i a n ) wants , p leases , V I I I . 2 7 9 . M maad: v . p . p . (OE macian) made, c r e a t e d . I V . 2 2 . maat: n . ( A r . shah mata -the k i n g i s dead) i n chess (check)-mated. X I . 1 6 1 . m a i s t r i e : n . (OF m a i s t r i e ) a u t h o r i t y , dominion. X I . 2 8 5 . manace: v . sub. s. p r . (OE manacer) t h r e a t e n . 1.57 maugree: n . & p rep . (OF maugre) n . s p i t e , i l l w i l l , p rep , i n s p i t e o f , no t -w i t h s t a n d i n g . V I I I . 376. mees: n . (AF messuage -c o r r u p t i o n of menage) d w e l l i n g house. V I I I . 3 3 4 . mescheueth: v . p r . 3s (OF meschief) s u f f e r s . X I . 5 4 4 . N n a k i d : v . p a . (OE nacod) s t r i p p e d , ba red . V I I I . 3 5 3 . ne : nega t ive p a r t i c l e ne re : ne were were not n y : adv . (OE neah) nea r , c l o s e . X I . 3 7 7 . nyce : a . (OF n i c e ) f o o l i s h , s t u p i d , wanton, V I I I . 1 4 8 . o c c i s i o u n : n . (OF o c c i s i o n ) s l a u g h t e r , k i l l i n g . I I . 9 . oos t : n . (OF o s t e , hoste) h o s t , h o s t e l e r . F i g . i n "mynd of an oos t " a memory shor t as an innkeeper ' s X I . 2 2 3 . o w t i d : v . p a . (from OE a . u t e r a - outer) u t t e r r e d . 1.74. moot: v . aux. (OE motan) must . V I I I . 2 8 . mowe: v . p r . sub. p i . (OE motan) may. V I I I . 2 7 8 . muk: n . (ON myki - dung) muck, dung. F i g . and i r o n i c muk-hepyng amassing of papejay: n . ( F . papegaj) p o p i n j a y , p a r r o t . X . i i i . 1 2 . peyse: a . (OF v . peser -to weigh) heavy, burdensome. X I . 2 1 . - 185. p e n t i c e : n . (OF a p e n t i s ) ou t -b u i l d i n g w i t h s l o p i n g roo f and p r o j e c t i n g eaves. F i g . and i r o n i c a t X . i i i . 7 . p e r i l : n . (OF p e r i l ) p e r i l danger. V I I I . 1 1 5 . pyne: n . (OE p i n ) p a i n , t o i l , e f f o r t . V I I I . 7 . p o t : n . (OE pot) p o t . V I I I . 5 0 . pous: n . (OF pous) p u l s e . X I . 660. p r ee s : n . (OE press ) p r e s s , p r e s s u r e . X I . 1 3 . preeue: v . imp. (OF prover ) show, demonstrate . I V . 4 6 . p r o c e s : n . (OF proces) i n by proces - a t l e n g t h , i n the course of t i m e . V I I I . 4 3 . prowd: a . (OE p r u t ) p roud , a r r o g a n t . 1 1 . 4 3 . p u t : v . p . p . (OE *put ian) p u t , p l a c e d . V I I . 4 1 0 . R reewe: v . imp. (OE hreo-wan) on - take p i t y on. 1.83. r e f u y t : n . (OF r e f u i t e ) re fuge . I I I . 5 3 . reyne: n . (OE regn) r a i n . X . i i i . 7 . remedie: n . (OF remede) remedy, c u r e . V I I I . 2 0 4 . rernes: n . p i . (OF reaume) rea lms . V I I I . 8 5 . requeren: v . p r . p i . (OF requerre) a sk , r eques t . 1 .79. r y f : adv . (OE r y f e ) abundant, p l e n t i f u l . X I . 5 6 5 . rynde : n . (OE r i n d ) outer su r f ace , s k i n . F i g . the outer nature of a person as con t ras t ed w i t h t h e i r s o u l . V . 3 1 . Q queerne: v . sub. (OE que-man) p l e a s e , g r a t i f y . I I I . 3 1 . q u i e e t e : n . ( L . q u i e t - ) q u i e t , calmness, repose . I I I .6" ; . q w i t : v . p a . (OF q u i t t e r ) set f r e e , a b s o l v e d . V I I . 7 6 . S s a i l l e n : v . p r . p i . (OE s i g -lan) s a i l . X . i . 1 7 . s ap ience : n . ( L . s a p i e n t i a ) wisdom, knowledge, p e r s o n i f i e d i n X I . scantnesse : n . (ON skamt) penury. X . i . 2 . s ee th : v . imp. p i . (OE seon) beho ld ! Look! X I . i . 1 2 . - 186. sy_: v . p a . (OE seon) . V I I . 3 1 . seur : a . (OF sure) sure , secure , sa fe . I I I . 5 7 . sh ipbreche : n . (OE s c i p b r y c e ) sh ipwreck. I I I . 5 7 . s h i t t l e : v . i n f . (OE scy t t an ) to e n c l o s e , shut i n , c o n t a i n . V . 6 8 . shoop: v . pa. (OE scieppan) a rose , came about . V I I . 8 . s h u l n : v . p r . p i . (OE scu lan) s h a l l . V I I I . 3 2 9 . s i k i r : a . (OE s i c o r ) se-cu re , sa fe . X I . 3 2 6 . s i k i r l y : adv. s i k i r + ly_ see s i k i r . sy thes : n . (OE s i b ) t imes , as i n 50 t imes . V I I . 1 3 . s l e i g h t e s : n . p i . (ON sias gb) s k i l l s , cunning a c t s . V I I I . 395. s l i p i r : a . (OE s l i p o r ) s l i p p e r y , u n r e l i a b l e . V I . 1 7 . snak: n . (etym. u n c e r t a i n ) shor t t ime , sna tch . F i g . perhaps from a snap or b i t e as of a dog. V I I I . 1 0 9 . socour : n . (OF sucurs) h e l p , a i d . X . i . 4 . socourab le : a . socour + a b l e . see socour . X I . 4 3 7 . sook: v . p . p . (OE sucan) sucked. V I . 7 . s o t i l t e e : n . (OF s o u t i l i t e ) cunning , s u b t e l t y . V . 1 3 0 . s o u f f i s s a n t l y : adv. (OF s u f f i s a n c e ) s u f f i c i e n t l y . V I I . 1 0 2 . sparyng: v . p r . P. (OE spar ian) s p a r i n g , s a v i n g , showing mercy. I V . 2 6 . s t e l e : n . (OE s t y l e ) s t e e l (hand le ) . V I I I . 5 0 s t i f l y : adv. (OE s t i f ) r e -s o l u t e l y . 1.139. s t y n t i d : v . pa. (OE styntzan) cut s h o r t , s topped. V . 7 7 . s t i r e d : v . pa. (OE s t y r i a n ) moved, roused e m o t i o n a l l y . I I . 3 . s t i r t m e e l : adv. (from OE s t y r t a n + mai 1) f i t f u l l y , i r r e g u l a r l y . X I . 6 6 0 . s t r a h : n . (OE streaw) s t raw. F i g . something of l i t t l e v a l u e . V I I I . 3 2 7 . s t r e i t : a . ( e a r l y ME s t r e g t ) s t r a i g h t . F i g . honest , v i r -tuous. X I . 4 5 4 . sue th : v . p r . 3s (AF suer) f o l l o w s , pursues. V I I I . 1 4 5 . suynge: v . p r . p. (AF suer) f o l l o w i n g . V I I . 6 5 . swythe: adv. (OE swibe) q u i c k l y , s w i f t l y , X I . 1 4 7 . - 187. T t a p p l i e : v . con t rac t ed _to + a p p l y . V I I I . 8 9 . teene; n . (OE teona) harm, i n j u r y . 11 .27 . t e t e s : n . p i . (OE t i t t ) t e a t s , n i p p l e s . V I . 6 . thabbeye: n . con t rac t ed the + abbey. VII";.. 16. t h a f t i r c l a p : con t rac ted the + a f t i r c l a p . See a f t i r c l a p . thewe: v . i n f . (OE thea-wian) to i n s t r u c t i n manners or mor a l s . X I . 8 3 . thewes: n . p i . (OE theawas) customs, h a b i t s . V I I I . 3 3 9 . twynnest: v . p r . 2s . (OE a . twinn) separa te . V I I I . 1 0 4 . U/V vnabassht : v . pa. (OF e s b a i r ) unabashed, b o l d . I I I . 4 2 . vnbuxumnesse: n . obs t i na c y , see buxum. 11 .45 . unnethe: adv. (OE uneabe) s c a r c e l y , h a r d l y . V I I I . 3 8 0 . v s e : v . p r . imp. (OF user ) comply. X I . 5 6 5 . v a n y s s h i d : v . pa. (OF v a i -nc re ) vanquished . 11 .50 . venym: n . (OF venim) po i son . F i g . any mal ign q u a l i t y . I I I . 2 7 . W waymentacions: n . p i . (OF waymenter) c r i e s . X I . 2 7 4 . weyue: v . p r . sub. ( e a r l y ME weyven) fo r sake , r e l i n -q u i s h . X I . 602. w e r r e i e : v . p r . sub. (OF w e r r e i e r ) make war. V I I I . 4 3 1 . whet: v . p . p . (OE hwettan) sharpened. X I . 4 1 8 . w i g h t : a . (ON v i g h t - s k i l l e d i n arms) a g i l e , a c t i v e . V I I I . 143. w o l l e : n . (OE w u l l ) w o o l . X I . 2 1 9 . wone: n . (OE ge-wuna) h a b i t , custom. V I I . 1 0 . wrecche: n . (0E wrae c) poor wre tch . I V . 4 6 . Y y a l d : v . pa. (OE g i e l d a n ) y i e l d e d , gave up. F i g . d i e d . 1.122. yeeme; n . (OE gieme) w i t h take + yeeme - take n o t i c e , g ive thought t o . X I . 5 2 1 . BIBLIOGRAPHY The b i b l i o g r a p h y i s d i v i d e d i n t o four s e c t i o n s . The f i r s t three l i s t MSS, e d i t i o n s of Hocc leve , and c r i t i c i s m . S e c t i o n four l i s t s o ther works c o n s u l t e d . Al though Hoccleve i s noted and d i scussed i n a l a rge number of pe r iod h i s t o r i e s of l i t e r a t u r e , i t was not thought necessary to i nc lude a l i s t of these works . Only those l i t e r a r y h i s t o r i e s which were immediately h e l p f u l i n the p r epa ra t i on of t h i s e d i t i o n are c i t e d . 1. Manuscr ip t s of Hoccleve Poet ry The f i r s t three MSS l i s t e d here c o n t a i n the b u l k of H o c c l e v e ' s work. The remaining MSS c o n t a i n i n d i v i d u a l p i e c e s , u s u a l l y one of the longer works , and sometimes some shor t e r poems as w e l l . Where i t can be determined, the works con ta ined i n these MSS are g i v e n . - 189. -Durham MS I I I . 9 . HM 111 (Hunt ington L i b . , C a l i f o r n i a ) , fo rmer ly the P h i l l i p p s MS 8151, HM 744 (Huntington L i b . ) , fo rmer ly the Ashburnham MS. BM A d d i t . MS 24062. P r i v y Sea l documents i n H o c c l e v e ' s hand. Eger ton MS. The f o l l o w i n g MSS c o n t a i n copies of the Regement of P r i n c e s . H a r l e i a n MS 4866. Sloane MS 1212. BM MS Royal 1 7 . D . V I . The f o l l o w i n g MSS c o n t a i n copies of the E p i s t l e of Cup id . Durham MS V . i i . 1 3 . Selden MS B24. F a i r f a x MS 16. S h i r l e y MS. T r i n i t y C o l l . Cambridge. R . 3 . 2 0 / Bodley 638 B. Tanner 346 T. Digby 181 D. The f o l l o w i n g MSS c o n t a i n copies of Lerne to Dye. B o d l e i a n 1504. B o d l e i a n 3441. - 190. Bod le i an 27627. H a r l e i a n 172. Durham V . i i i . 9 . 2 . E d i t i o n s of H o c c l e v e ' s Works. B e a t t y , A r t h u r , e d . , A New Ploughman's T a l e : Thomas H o c c l e v e ' s Legend of  the V i r g i n and her S l eeve l e s s Garment. London, 1902. The Chaucer S o c i e t y . F u r n i v a l l , F r e d r i c k J . , e d . , H o c c l e v e ' s Works I : The Minor Poems i n the  P h i l l i p p s MS 8151 (Cheltenham), and the Durham MS I I I . 9 . London, 1892. EETS, e s , 61 . , H o c c l e v e ' s Works I I I : The Regement of P r i n c e s , from the H a r l e i a n MS 4866, and Four teen of H o c c l e v e ' s Minor Poems from  the Eger ton MS 615. London, 1897. EETS, e s , 72. . G o l l a n c z , S i r I s r a e l , H o c c l e v e ' s works I I : The Minor Poems i n the Ashburnham  MS A d d i t . 133. London, 1925 ( for 1897), EETS, e s , 73. 3 . Hoccleve C r i t i c i s m Baugh, A l b e r t C . , e d . , A L i t e r a r y H i s t o r y of England : The Midd l e E n g l i s h  P e r i o d by A . C . Baugh. New Y o r k , 1948. Bennet t , Henry S . , S i x Medieva l Men and Women. Cambridge, 1955. "Thomas H o c c l e v e , " pp. 69 to 99. , Chaucer and the F i f t e e n t h Century, v o l . 2a of The Oxford H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , F . P . W i l s o n and Bonancey Debree, eds. Oxford , 1947. Hoccleve i s d i scussed 146 f f . Bennet t , Henry S . , "Thomas H o c c l e v e ' s Dea th , " a l e t t e r to the e d i t o r : TLS, F r i d a y , Dec. 25, 1953. P. 833. B r i n k , Bernhard A . K . t en , H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , t r . from the German by Wm. Cla rke Robinson. 3 v o l s . London, 1893-6. Hoccleve d i scussed pp. 212-220. V o l . 1. - 191. Boyd, B e v e r l y , "Hocc leve ' s M i r a c l e of the V i r g i n , " UTSE, 35 (1956), pp. 116-122. Hammond, E leanor P r e s c o t t , E n g l i s h Verse , Chaucer to Su r r ey . Durham, N . C . , 1927. - - , "The Nine S y l l a b l e d Pentameter L i n e i n Some Post Chaucer ian M a n u s c r i p t s , " MP 23 (Nov. 1925), pp. 129-52. H u l b e r t , J . R . , "An Hoccleve I t em , " MLN 36 (1921), p. 57. K e r n , J . H . , "Hocc l eve ' s V e r s e i l e , " A n g l i a 40, pp. 367-9. - - , "Date of H o c c l e v e ' s D i a l o g , " A n g l i a 40, pp. 370-3 . , "Der Schre ibe r O f f o r d e , " A n g l i a 40, p. 374. , "Zum Texte e i n i g e r Dictungen Thomas H o c c l e v e s , " A n g l i a 39 (1916), pp. 389-494. K u r t z , Benjamin P . , "Sources of H o c c l e v e ' s Lerne to D y e , " MLN 38 (1923), pp. 337-40. 9 "The Prose of H o c c l e v e ' s Lerne to D y e , " MLN 39 (1924), pp. 56-7 . , "The R e l a t i o n of H o c c l e v e ' s Lerne to Dye to i t s S o u r c e , " PMLA 40 (1925), pp. 252-75. MacCracken, H . N . , "Another Poem by Hocc leve?" MLN 24 (1909). , "Hoccleve and the Poems from D e g u i l l e v i l l e , " N a t i o n (NY), 26 September, 1907, p . 280. S a i n t s b u r y , George, The End of the Midd le Ages, v o l . 2 of The Cambridge H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h L i t e r a t u r e , A.W. Ward, and A . R . W a l l e r , eds . Cambridge, 1908. Hoccleve d i scussed on 197 - f f . Sandison, He len Es tabrook , " ' E n mon dedui t a moys de May : " The O r i g i n a l of H o c c l e v e ' s Balade to the V i r g i n and C h r i s t , ' i n Vassar  Med ieva l S t u d i e s , C h r i s t a b e l Forsythe F i s k e , ed . New Haven, 1923. Pp. 235-45. S c h u l z , H . C . , "Thomas Hocc l eve , S c r i b e , " Spec. 12(1937), pp. 71-81. Smi th , Lucy Toulmin , " B a l l a d by Thomas Occleve Addressed to S i r John O l d c a s t l e , A . D . 1415 ," A n g l i a 5 (1882), pp. 9-42. - 192. S te rnberg , Theodore, "The Durham MS of H o c c l e v e ' s Minor Poems and A Gorgeous G a l l e r y , " NQ 154, 18 February , 1928, p. 116. V o l l m e r , E . , "Sprache und Reime des Londoners H o c c l e v e , " A n g l i a 21 (1898), pp. 201-21. 4. Other Works A t t w a t e r , Donald, The Penguin D i c t i o n a r y of S a i n t s . London, 1965. The Book of S a i n t s and a D i c t i o n a r y of Servants of God Canonized by the C a t h o l i c Church: e x t r a c t e d from the Roman and other M a r t y r o l o g i e s . Compiled by the Bened ic t ine Monks of S t . A u g u s t i n e ' s Abbey, Ramsgate. 4 th Edn. New Y o r k , 1947. Bouyer, L o u i s , The D i c t i o n a r y of Theology, t r a n s , by Rev. Chas. U n d e r h i l l Quinn. Belg ium, 1965. B r i n k , Bernhard A . K . t en , The Language and Meter of Chaucer. London, 1901. M. Bent inck Smi th , t r a n s . Brown, C a r l e t o n , and R . H . Robbins , The Index of Midd le E n g l i s h V e r s e . New York , 1943. , A Reg i s t e r of Midd le E n g l i s h R e l i g i o u s and D i d a c t i c Ve r se . Oxford , 1916. , e d . , R e l i g i o u s L y r i c s of the XVth- Century . Oxford , 1939. Brunner , K a r l , An O u t l i n e of Midd le E n g l i s h Grammar. Oxford , 1963. Trans . Grahame Johns ton . C a p p e l l i , A d r i a n o , D i z i o n a r i o d i abbrev ia tu re L a t i n e ed I t a l i a n e . M i l a n o , 1912. Cary , M . , and J . D . Dennis ton , e t al_, The Oxford C l a s s i c a l D i c t i o n a r y . Oxford , 1949. F . L . C ros s , e d . , The Oxford D i c t i o n a r y of the C h r i s t i a n Church. London, 1957. Dav ies , John S. e d . , An E n g l i s h C h r o n i c l e of the Reigns of R ichard I I , Henry V , and Henry V I . London, 1856. - 193. -F u r n i v a l l , F r e d r i c k J . , e d . , The Minor Poems of the Vernon MS, Par t I I . London, 1902. EETS, or s e r . 117. Graves, Rober t , The Greek Myths . 2 v o l s . London, 1964. H a l l , Edward, H a l l ' s C h r o n i c l e : c o n t a i n i n g The H i s t o r y of England d u r i n g the Reign of Henry IV and the Succeeding Monarchs to the end of the r e i g n of Henry the E i g h t h . London, 1809. H o l i n s h e d ' s C h r o n i c l e s of England, S c o t l a n d , and I r e l a n d : V o l . I l l , Eng land . London, 1808. A f a c s i m i l e e d i t i o n of Hol inshed of 1588. Janson, H.W. H i s t o r y of A r t . New York , 1963. K a l u z a , Max, A Shor t H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h V e r s i f i c a t i o n from the E a r l i e s t Times to the Present Day. Trans. A . C . Dunstan. London, 1911. Moore, Samuel, H i s t o r i c a l Ou t l i ne s of E n g l i s h Phonology and Morphology. Ann A r b o r , 1925. Powicke, S i r F . M a u r i c e , and E . B . F ryde , e d s . , Handbook of B r i t i s h Chronology. London, 1961. R i c c i , Seymour de, and W . J . W i l s o n , Census of Medieva l and Renaissance  Manuscr ip t s i n the Un i t ed Sta tes and Canada. 3 v o l s . J u l y , 1935. Repr. New York , 1961. Robinson, F . N . , e d . , The Works of Geoffrey Chaucer. Cambridge, M a s s . , 1957. S a i n t s b u r y , George, A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h Prosody, i n 3 v o l s . London, 1906-10. Hoccleve d i scussed i n v o l . 1, pp. 231-4. Saunders, W i l l i a m , A n c i e n t Handwr i t i ngs : An In t roduc to ry Manual for In tending Students of Paleography and D i p l o m a t i c . London, 1909. Sch ipper , Jakob, A H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h V e r s i f i c a t i o n . Oxford , 1910. Shaw, George Berna rd , S a i n t Joan , i n v o l . 27 of the Ayot S t . Lawrence C o l l e c t Works. New York , 1930. Spei lman, M. H . , The P o r t r a i t s of Geoffrey Chaucer. London, 1900. The Chaucer Soc. Thurs ton, S . J . and Donald A t t w a t e r , B u t l e r ' s L i v e s of the S a i n t s : r e v i s e d and supplemented. Aberdeen, 1956. Tryon, Ruth W i l s o n , " M i r a c l e s of Our Lady i n Midd le E n g l i s h V e r s e , " PMLA 38 (1923), pp. 308-88. - 194. W i l s o n , E v e l y n Faye, e d . , The S t e l l a Mar is of John of Gar l and . P u b l i c a t i o n No. 45 of the Med ieva l Soc. of Amer ica , Cambridge, M a s s . , 1946. Wyld, Henry C e c i l , The Growth of E n g l i s h . London, 1907. , A H i s t o r y of Modern C o l l o q u i a l E n g l i s h . London, 1920. } A Short H i s t o r y of E n g l i s h . 3rd E d i t i o n , London, 1937. , "South-eas te rn and South-east Mid land D i a l e c t s , " Essays and S tud ies by Members of the E n g l i s h A s s o c i a t i o n , . v o l . 6. Oxford , 1920. P. 112 f f . 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0104266/manifest

Comment

Related Items