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Ecology as a factor in planning for outdoor recreation Bugslag, Claude Roberts 1968

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ECOLOGY; AS, A ..FACTOR IN PLANNING FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION by CLAUDE ROBERTS BUGSLAG B. Sc, , University .of Bri t ish. Columbia, 1963 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Science i n the Department of Community, and. Regional •Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to.the required standard• THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH. COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1968 In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f the r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree a t the U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, I agr e e t h a t t he L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and Study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u rposes may be g r a n t e d by the Head o f my Department or by hiis r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g or p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of Coimunlfcy and Regional Planning The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date i i i ABSTRACT The a t t i t u d e toward the problem of resource u t i l i z a t i o n a t any l e v e l i s t i e d p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y t o the man and nature r e l a t i o n s h i p which has developed over a long p e r i o d o f time. Two r e c u r r i n g elements w i t h i n t h i s theme a r e , f i r s t , the i d e a t h a t man conquers nature and, second, the common concept o f man as something a p a r t , or above, or outside o f the r e s t o f the n a t u r a l world. I n North America these i d e a s , c a r r i e d t o extremes, r e s u l t e d i n a p l u n d e r i n g or rape of n a t u r a l resources. The conservation movement developed as a r e a c t i o n against such wanton d e s t r u c t i o n . Among those propounding the conservation e t h i c were a l s o advocates of n a t i o n a l parks and nature r e s e r v e s . The park movement r e c e i v e d i t s i n i t i a l impetus from w i t h i n the c i t y i t s e l f . I t s supporters f e l t t hat l a r g e green spaces should be maintained f o r the b e n e f i t of the urban d w e l l e r s l i v i n g i n the burgeoning i n d u s t r i a l c i t i e s . The present r a p i d l y expanding demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n had i t s beginnings i n such a way l e s s than one hundred years ago. Pour main f a c t o r s , a l l p r e s e n t l y i n c r e a s i n g are c o n t r i b u t i n g t o t h i s demand. They are p o p u l a t i o n , m o b i l i t y , l e i s u r e time, and disposable income. While i t i s not the only aspect o f m o b i l i t y , the automobile has done much t o expand the r a d i u s o f t r a v e l o f the p r o s p e c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n i s t . Since the n a t u r a l e n v i r o n -ment i s the l o c a l e i n which the outdoor r e c r e a t i o n experience i s s a t i s f i e d i t i s l o g i c a l t o consider what e f f e c t the increased demand i s having on i t . I t appears t h a t the q u a l i t y o f the r e c r e a t i o n a l experience i s t o a large degree dependent on the quality of the environment i n which. i t . i s f u l f i l l e d . A high:.quality, site.may deteriorate, i f too many.people frequent . i t at the same time or over.a particular period of time. Ecology i s the branch of biological science that i s concerned with.the relationships of a l l l i v i n g things, to each other, and with.the non-living elements, of the environment. The understanding ;of.these relationships i s a necessary pre-condition to development of any kind. ' In the narrower context of this study, the proposed hypothesis i s that ecology i s a basic factor to be considered i n planning for outdoor recreation. . By:outlining some principles and concepts of ecology and relat ing these specif ical ly to a particular ecosystem; a wetland, the concept of an ecological point of view as a basis for planning has been explained. Supporting evidence, i n the.form of actual examples, has been drawn upon from a wide range of developments. The work, of three .men, Angus H i l l s , Phi l ip ..Lewis, and Ian McHarg i s also analyzed i n respect to their proposed solutions to the problems of resource analysis; from an ecologically based approach, William J . Hart has also used this: approach, i n park, planning and Artur Glikson.uti l izes b io log i -ca l information as an in t r ins ic element of his philosophy of regional plan-ning. . One of the f i r s t attempts:, i n th i s f i e l d , reviewed here, i s that .of E. H. Graham:who proposed a natural basis for land use,. . The hypothesis would largely.seem to be substantiated by the evidence presented. Ecological information should certainly be part of the input i n the planning process. . However, what i s clear i s that i n the past and to.a large extent even.to-day, th i s has not been the case. Most of the examples used to,I l lustrate .part icular points.are negative, that i s , cases : .V . of ecological information being ignored with, the result that a resource was either degraded or destroyed. Pew examples have been found to support the positive position. This study was limited to a review of existing l i terature. The topic, however, warrants further investigation by either experimental or survey methods or i n the review of the h is tor ica l record of a particular case from the ecological point of view. v i i . TABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I . INTRODUCTION 1 Man and the Environment 2 Man as a Disruptive Force 4 The Balance , 6 The Study ...., 7 Hypothesis , , , 8 Organization.., " , . . . . « . , 9 I I . RECREATION.... 10'. Free time, Leisure, Recreation and P lay . . . , . I I Histor ica l Sketch of Recreation i n North America, 17 Supply , , . • 20. Demand , 21 Five Outdoor Recreation Act iv i t ies on the Increase., , . 30 Summary , 33 I I I . ECOLOGY. 35 Histor ica l Review 37 Some Concepts and Principles of Ecology 41 The Ecosystem. 41 The Habitat . . , 45 The Community , 45 The Niche, 46 Succession. 47 Ecology of a Wetland. 49 Some Applications of Ecology , 58 Summary , 61 IV. PLANNING FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION. 63 The Park. Concept and Planning for Outdoor Recreation, 67 The "Ecological Point .of View" as a Basis of the Planning for Outdoor Recreation. , 73 Water, Vegetation and Wildl i fe , 86 Water. , 86 . Vegetation , 92 Wildl i fe 95 Summary.., , , 97 . V. SUMMARY AND.CONCLUSION, 99 BIBLIOGRAPHY I l l LIST OF TABLES. AND. FIGURES Table . Pag 1. Summary of Areas. Administered by National Park. S e r v i c e , 1 9 . 2. Time Table for .the.working day for Urban Workers i n the -Soviet. Union, according. to Time Budgets i n hou r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '26 3- Time required for Nondiscretionary Act iv i t i es and Discret ion-ary Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 27 4. Comparative Statements.of Vis i tors to.the National P a r k s . . . . . . . 72 .5 . Longtitudinal Distribution of Fishes i n L i t t l e . Stony Creek 88 Figure Pag 1. What Most' Americans Do. 31 2. The Biology "Layer Cake"., 36 . 3 . The Energy Cycle. , . . . . . . . . 42 4. Zonation of a Salt Marsh i n a Georgia Estuary: , . , 52 5 . Wheatgrass: Grazing Land, Central Utah. , 59 6 . Canadian National Park Attendance 71 7 . Everglades National Park. , 82 8. Information Required to Develop- Manipulative Techniques for '. Vegetation. 93 ACMOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks are extended to the many people who have contributed toward the completion of this thesis. Specif ical ly , the writer i s grateful to the School of Community and Regional Planning for a Mellon Fellowship award this past year and to Dr. H. P. Oberlander, Head of the School, who, as thesis advisor, provided inspirat ion, guidance and c r i t i c i s m . . Special thanks must also be extended to my wife, Sheila, for her unfail ing support and encouragement throughout the two years of this course. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The area to be Investigated In this thesis i s of increasing general concern as evidenced by i t s recent appearance i n a variety of the modern forms of mass media. The discussion has ranged widely from the level of s c i e n t i f i c philosophy to the solving of rather mundane, very specific, local problems. Radio and television have carried panel discussions and docu-mentary specials while i n the realm of the printed word, the subject has been covered i n varying degrees of completeness, authenticity, objectivity, and outright bias from the daily newspapers and popular magazines to a great variety of sci e n t i f i c and professional journals of every kind and description. Man i s suddenly showing more interest i n his environment than he has ever done before. Some authorities claim that this interest has come too late, others maintain that a l l the controversy and concern i s nonsense, what, they ask, i s the problem? One term that has achieved popular usage as the result of this interest i s "ecology". Ecology i s an area of study within the f i e l d of bio-logical or l i f e science. Popularization of the term has led to a subsequent confusion and misunderstanding as to what i s the concern of this important science. The aim of this study i s twofold, f i r s t , to try to present a general picture of ecological study and, second, to show that i t i s basic to the planning for outdoor recreation. Ecological information as an input can be applied equally well to planning as a whole, but within the limits of this study planning for outdoor recreation only w i l l be considered i n detail. For purposes of i l l u s t r a t i o n and explanation only one ecological system, or ecosystem, w i l l be discussed, that of a wetland. Man and the Environment . The present general concern with the environment has taken on a new urgency. However, there i s an impressive collection from virtually every era of the past, since written record has been kept, of the thoughts, observations, and warnings of perceptive people of every age about their environment. An a r t i c l e by Clarence Glacken, concerning this historical record, illustrated the richness of the past, the scope of the observations, and how their importance i s viewed over time. He states: In looking back on the past, i t seems that the thinkers of ancient and early modern times saw only' the changes that appeared i n l o c a l i t i e s known to them, that those of the eighteenth century realized these changes were world wide, and that the thinkers of the nine-teenth recognized both their? extent and their cumulative effect, while contemporary thinkers are impressed with the acceleration of change as a consequence of population growth and technological advance. The European writers i n this area are legion, coming from philosophy, history, science and technology.. In America, the f i r s t real foray of any consequence In this area was that of George Perkins Marsh whose book, Man arid Nature;  or Physical Geography as Modified by Human Action, was published i n 1864. This was largely based on.evidence gathered i n Europe and the Near East where Marsh spent some time as a representative of the American Government. It i s C. Glacken, "Changing Ideas of the Habitable World," Man's Role i n  Changing the Face .of .the Earth, ed. W.L. Thomas Jr., (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), p. bo1. 3 interesting to note that i n 1864, this man could pose the following questions. Many circumstances conspire to invest with great present interest the questions; how far man can permanently modify and ameliorate those physical conditions of te r res t r ia l surface and climate on which his material welfare depends; how far he can compensate, arrest, or retard the deterioration which many of his agricultural and industr ial processes tend to produce; and how far he can restore f e r t i l i t y and salubrity to soi ls which his fo l l i e s -or his crimes have made barren or pestilen-r i a l . 2 Certainly the modem science of ecology i s foreshadowed i n this following quotation: Apart from the hostile influence of man, the organic and inorganic world are, as I have remarked, bound together by such mutual relations and adapt-ations as secure, i f not the absolute permanence and equilibrium of both, a long continuance of the established,conditions of each at any given time and place, or at least, a very slow and gradual succession of changes i n those conditions.3 Marsh i s often credited with the i n i t i a t i o n , i n America, of what i s called the "conservation movement". This was real ly a plea for management of re-sources which, at that time, i n the United States, were being plundered. He was followed very soon by four other men of stature, on the American scene, Carl Schurz, John Wesley Powell, John Muir and Gifford Pinchot. Of the four, Pinchot and Muir are probably best known, for i t was the work of Pinchot which led to. the founding of the National Forests and the whole concept of forest management. Muir was noted for his eloquent writings on behalf of "preservation" and the National Park Movement. . But these were extraordinary men and they were not a l l repre- • sentative of their age. The prevailing attitude had essentially two aspects, G.P. Marsh, Man and Nature; or Physical Geography as Modified by Human  Action, ed. D. Lowenthal (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univer-s i ty Press, 1965, or iginal ly published 1864), p. 28. I b i d . , p.. 36. 4 f i r s t , that the world was man's oyster—there for his-taking and, second, the philosophy that developed around the concept of man conquering or subduing nature. In both of these aspects man puts himself above and outside the rest of nature and does not seem to recognize any responsi-b i l i t y toward the natural world. Man as a Disruptive Force In the book, Biogeography: An Ecological Perspective, Dansereau speaks of the' "scale -of human interference". This, he says has developed i n six successive stages which are: gathering, hunting, herding, agricul-ture, industry and urbanization. The Amazonian tribe, used as an example of gathering, conflicts very l i t t l e , i f at a l l , with i t s environment. It's members change l i t t l e i n the environment and have changed l i t t l e themselves over hundreds of years. At the other end of the scale i s urbanization which " i s the ultimate replacement of a l l natural elements ( s o i l , hydrologic system, vegetation and fauna) by man-made ones; roadway, sewage network, 5 lighting and heating apparatus, l i v i n g and working constructions." . The city has an undeniably great place i n the history of man. Man has been building c i t i e s for thousands of years. But.it i s important to remember that they are man-made, a r t i f i c i a l structures, and therefore subject to human error—errors of situation, design, construction and use. Many c i t i e s .of the past have been destroyed by natural catastrophes or as the result of human conflict. Cities have also been destroyed through unconscious acts perpetrated against nature. Others exist i n subnormal Pierre Dansereau, Biogeography: An Ecological Perspective (New York: Ronald Press, 1959), p. 264. Ibid., p. 263-5 condition forcing many of their inhabitants to li v e i n an ever deteriorating environment. The automobile seems to have accentuated this trend, but i t has also allowed many people, particularly i n North America, to flee the ci t y , and thus separate themselves further than ever from their place of work and spend more time i n transit to and from their home. The attitude seemed to be, that the cit y was necessary as a place of work but, i f possible, man should l i v e elsewhere. Artur Glikson views townbuilding as "the creation of a new ecologi-cal system of social interaction." He expresses the need for man to recog-nize his power i n changing the natural environment and the fact .that biologi-cal information is.so often neglected i n the process of instituting change. But at the same time, l i f e i n the new environ-mental structure becomes a matter of precarious . balance. Only a.step divides urban-rural mutuality . from exploitation, surplus productivity from s o i l -exhaustion, inter-regional contacts from war, the function of the town as a co-ordinating and distribution organ from that of a parasite.7 Man must recognize f i r s t , understand second, and then.act i n a positive way. Though he i s the dominant force he i s also, li k e the rest of the animal kingdom, s t i l l dependent on the plant kingdom for survival. How much of the vegetal variety can he destroy and replace with "agronomic 8 f l o r a " before the scale can no longer be balanced? Robert A r v i l l asks, "So, what i s the outlook for the future? Artur Glikson, "Man's Relationship to His Environment," Man and His  Environment, ed. G. Wolstenholme (Boston: L i t t l e Brown & Co., 1963), p. 136. 7 I b i d . , p. 136. g Aldo Leopold, A Sand Country Almanac (New York: Oxford University Press, 1949), .p. 194. 6 What i s the lesson to be learnt about the impact of man's demands for food, shelter, power and mobility? It i s that the natural environment can no Q longer survive without positive action to conserve i t . " ^ The Balance Occasionally, the disruptiveness of man's action i s brought home to him by nature's reaction to i t . Even then i t i s but a secondary effect since his primary concern i s the economic loss involved. Leopold records the results,of the wholesale k i l l i n g of predators, deemed necessary by some. Unfortunately the prey speeies then swiftly increased i n numbers and over-grazed their feeding grounds."^ Sears records the results of a massive i n -vestment i n a highly technical manufacturing plant built on a flood plain. A flood followed shortly after resulting i n an unfortunately large economic loss." 5" 1 Douglas presents a vivid portrait of the pollution of some of 12 America's rivers, i n particular the Mississippi. The l i s t of errors i s almost endless, but, u n t i l they involve an economic loss, l i t t l e i s done. This attitude i s presently undergoing change with, the massive problem of pollution i n a i r , land, and especially water, being f e l t across the country. The unfortunate part about i t i s that some communities w i l l not benefit from the new concern as the damage has already been done. It i s odd, however, that environmental study, preservation and manipulation i s forced to await Robert A r v i l l , Man and Environment (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd., 1967), p. 20. "^Leopold, op. ci t . . "^Paul A. Sears, The Living Landscape (New.York: Basic Books, 1966), p. 122. "'"^William 0. Douglas, A Wilderness BUI of Rights.(Boston: L i t t l e Brown & Co., 1965), p. the awakening o f the economic machine; 7 The 1 Study The problems d e s c r i b e d h e r e i n are r e a l l y u n i v e r s a l , a f f e c t i n g the biosphere as a.whole. One s m a l l area, which, w i t h a l l other areas, i s a f f e c t e d by the a c t s o f man and, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , i s dependent on the q u a l i t y or n aturalness o f the environment f o r i t s appeal i s outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . G e n e r a l l y t h i s i s , i n the context used here, l i m i t e d t o non-urban outdoor r e c r e a t i o n . A phrase o f t times used by the general p u b l i c as d e s c r i p t i v e o f what they l i k e about i t i s "the scenery". But why do we have t o p l a n f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n ? U n t i l about f i f t y years ago, not much thought was g i v e n t o . t h i s idea.at a l l . The r a d i u s o f a c t i v i t y o f the average man was short s i n c e there were no automobiles and only the wealthy would t r a v e l f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l purposes. The land s t r e t c h e d f a r and wide once the c i t y ' s boundaries were passed.. Indeed the b u l k o f the s e t t l e d l a n d was s t i l l r u r a l i n ch a r a c t e r . The work day was lon g and vaca-t i o n s g e n e r a l l y unknown. To-day these s i t u a t i o n s are r e v e r s e d . There i s T O g e n e r a l automobile ownership .(75 m i l l i o n i n the U.S. i n l'96l) and highways m a k e ' v i r t u a l l y every nook and cranny o f the continent a c c e s s i b l e . Over two t h i r d s o f the p o p u l a t i o n now l i v e i n areas c l a s s i f i e d as urban. The land no longer s t r e t c h e s f a r and wide, much i s a l i e n a t e d or f a l l s w i t h i n the ever widening c i r c l e s c a l l e d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l Areas. I t i s competed f o r by thousands o f agencies b o t h p u b l i c and p r i v a t e , each o f whom.consider t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r usage the most important and necessary to. the nation's economy. Douglas, op. c i t . , p. 23. 8 A l l of these uses must be co-ordinated and the use of the allotment of each must be carefully planned. The basis for non-urban outdoor recreation i s the natural environ-ment.. Henceit i s understandable that planning i s going.to have to be carried out to meet the pressures .of an increasingly urbanized society. These pressures infringe very greatly on the maintenance and quality of the natural environment. Ecology, then, which seeks to understand the relat ion-ship between the biot ic and the abiotic environment,. would seem to be central to this planning process. . Unfortunately i t has not been and even to-day does not receive the attention i n the way .of research and implementa-t ion that i t deserves. This paper w i l l . show the inter-relationships and interdependencies between.outdoor recreation, ecology and planning. It i s primarily.concerned with the North American context, though.other data, w i l l be used where applicable. The study.is limited to research of existing information i n recreation, ecology and planning. No .experiments,, surveys or other, inves t i -gational techniques have been employed due to limitations of time and the nature of the subject under investigation. Definitions of sc ien t i f i c , special, or unusual terms w i l l either be discussed i n the text of the appropriate section or be footnoted the f i r s t time they appear. Hypothesis The hypothesis put forth here i s that ecology i s a basic factor to. be considered i n planning for outdoor recreation. In this context, ecology i s used i n i t s broadest sense, encompassing what might also be called "biological information", information which would then stand along 9 side of physical, soc ia l , and economic data as an input i n the planning process. To date the physical and economic information have received emphasis to some extent because they .were .readily available, but also be-cause they were considered to be of more importance. With increasing interest i n environmental.quality and improved biological methodology the ava i lab i l i ty and use of such information should increase. Organization The study's three main•elements wi l l .be handled i n .the following order. Chapter I I w i l l deal with recreation. A br ief h is tor ica l sketch is.followed by discussion of such factors as mobility, age structure, income and increased leisure time.. 'Attention w i l l then be focused on non-urban outdoor recreation i n particular. Chapter I I I considers ecology from i t s h is tor ica l beginnings to a discussion of principles, concepts and applica-t ion . Included at this time w i l l be the description of the ecology of a wetland. Chapter IV w i l l synthesize Chapters I I and I I I through the process of planning for outdoor recreation. This .chapter w i l l be followed by a short summary and conclusion. CHAPTER I I RECREATION This chapter seeks to Investigate .the whole broad area encompassed by the term "recreation". Confusion. surrounds the use of this term and the associated terms "leisure" and "play" on both.the popular and academic levels. A portion of this chapter w i l l be devoted to the d i f f i cu l t issue of formu-lat ing acceptable standard definitions. The i n i t i a l observable dichotomy with reference to "recreation" i s that on one hand.it i s regarded as an ac t iv i ty or a group of ac t iv i t ies and on the.other as an attitude or "set of fee l ings" . 1 Much effort has been expended i n trying to resolve these d i f f i cu l t i e s of definit ion which inevitably lead to.problems of communica-t ion and misunderstanding. Two ac t iv i t ies widely played for pleasure, tennis and golf, now have professional counterparts. To the men.and women, involved, these are no longer ac t iv i t i es to.be engaged i n during free.time but are their means of earning a l i v i n g . There are also professional hunting and fishing guides and individuals who operate .charter services for fishing craft , yachts and other recreational.services. The range of pursuits, both active and passive, available to.the public to-day i s countless and new ones are constantly being added. Some of these enjoy sudden "booms" and whole new sets of regulations, some woefully inadequate, must be quickly developed to cope with them. Two such recent, examples might be water skiing and the current winter sport, "ski-dooing". "'"Norman P. M i l l e r and .Duane M." Robinson, The .Leisure Age (.Belmont, Ca l i f -ornia: Wadsworth Publishing.Co., 1 9 6 3 ) , p. 7-11 Many of the so-called, amateurs i n various f ie lds , such as orn i -thology, botany or astronomy, have contributed to the wealth of human knowledge through discovery of some previously unknown phenomena. Some act iv i t ies not only require the acquisition of scient i f ic knowledge but also the development of technological and physical s k i l l s . For example, a spelunker may also be a lapidary and hence meet the requirements of the above category. . He would require many of the physical s k i l l s of a mountain climber i n exploring the caves and would also need scient i f ic knowledge of geology and mineralogy i n order to obtain the specimens which, with his special technological s k i l l , he could then cut and pol ish. Such an undertaking could quite conceivably satisfy what Dumazedier ca l l s "the 2 three functions of leisure", relaxation, entertainment and personal develop-ment The one characteristic which i s common to the above examples i s that of their voluntary nature. They are embarked upon freely and under no. compulsion. This particular.aspect w i l l be discussed further as part of the section on definitions. Free Time,. Leisure, Recreation, arid Play The broad subject of recreation enjoyed i t s . f i r s t period of active .academic interest,. on .this.continent,. during the th i r t i e s . This was followed by a,long .period of sporadic ac t i v i t y .un t i l the late f i f t i e s when interest was revived. Much of the writing concerns the problem.of terminology and also the statement of work and leisure as opposites. The.former w i l l be J . Dumazedier, Towarda^'SbcTety^of Leisure (New York: The Free Press, 1967), p. 14. " ^ " 12 discussed now, while the lat ter w i l l receive consideration presently. "Free time" or as.some.authors prefer to c a l l i t , discretionary time, i s that portion of our daily twenty-four hour allotment remaining when the hours of sleep, work and general "house-keeping" have been sub-tracted. The length of the day i s the same for everyone. However, the disposition of i t over the.four categories stated above i s apt to vary greatly. Not everyone requires the. same amount of sleep or spends the same amount of time over meals or works the same number of hours i n a day. I t follows, then, that free time represents, a broad range which may be a function of such things as socio-economic status, education, type of work and i t s location i n respect to place of residence, and others. These fac-tors i n turn w i l l affect the very nature of the free time,, that i s , the period during the twenty-four hours at which.it occurs and whether this be i n the form of a block or small portions interspersed with other ac t iv i t i e s . The use to. which this free time can be put w i l l be greatly affected by a l l of the above mentioned conditions. Certainly a person who regularly works a night shift must develop a regimen completely different from that of the normal nine-to-five employee. The choice of ac t iv i t ies i n which to participate would also undoubtedly be more limited for him. The rotating shift presents, a similar, problem i n that the free time may occur during a period'of the day which an individual may find i s not suitable to him. Free time,..therefore, varies not only i n extent but also i n disposition and, i n terms of the individual , may be rated.at a premium or The term i s used here as a collective expression to encompass a wide variety of necessary ac t iv i t ies performed dai ly . 13 of l i t t l e value depending on what he wishes to.do wi th . i t and how the above limitations affect i t . '-'Leisure','' according.to M i l l e r and Robinson i s "the complex of self-f u l f i l l i n g and self-enriching values achieved, by the individual as he uses 4 leisure time i n self-chosen ac t iv i t ies that recreate him". They distinguish between "leisure" and "leisure time", the la t ter being "that portion of available free time devoted to the pursuit of leisure values". Dr. Mi l l e r stressed this point at the 45th. National Recreation.Congress during a d i s -cussion involving himself, Robert TheobbTd, Paul Haun and Charles K. B r i g h t b i l l . I t i s interesting to note that he was the only one to make such a dis t inct ion. This particular term i s probably the most controversial, most.confused.and least crysta l l ized. De Grazia points out that leisure i s frequently equated with free time and hence "thought of as the opposite .of work". . He goes on, "anybody can have free time.'. Not everybody can have l e i su re . . . .Leisure refers to. a 7 state,of being, a condition of man, which few desire and fewer.achieve." The French., sociologist, ..Dumazedier, presents. a s l ight ly different view again. "Leisure i s . a c t i v i t y - apart from the obligation of work, family, and society. - to.which the individual turns at w i l l , for either relaxation, diversion, or broadening his knowledge and his spontaneous social part icipa-4 r M i l l e r and Robinson, op. c i t . , .p. 6. 5 l b i d . ^S. de Grazia, Of Time, Work and Leisure (Garden Ci ty , N .Y . : The Twentieth Century Fund Inc. , 1962), (Anchor Books edition, 1964), p. 4. 7 I b i d . , p. 5. t i on , the free exercise of his creative capacity." undoubtedly this i s an area i n great need of c la r i f i ca t ion . To that end a survey of several sociological journals was carried out, covering the period from 1962 to the present. L i t t l e evidence was found to indicate a contemporary interest or concern with this area. Indeed, Giddens maintains that the study of leisure i s "one .of the neglected fields Q of sociology". He also expresses the opinion that the approach to the subject of leisure i n sociology has been i n "terms of a polar contrast to work".1'"' Giddens, l i k e de Grazia, feels that this has led to leisure being considered t r i v i a l or not worthy of study and to the "conceptual confusion and ambiguity, i n the use of the key terms ' l e i su re ' , 'play' and ' r ec rea t ion ' . " 1 1 Regardless of the confusion i t i s an important concept and one which most authors feel i s t ied direct ly to . industr ia l society i n i t s development.. Leisure has expanded concurrently along with technologi-ca l innovation and industr ial izat ion. For .purposes, of further discussion within this thesis-the. . definit ion of M i l l e r and Robinson w i l l be adopted. 'kecreation'-'has faired somewhat better than the other terms con-sidered, so far. There-are differences, but basically a l l of the definitions specify similar attributes'. and.it. i s only a matter ;of.degree, which Dumazedier, op. ' c i t . , p. 16-17. 9 ^A. Giddens,: "Notes on the Concepts .of piay and Le isure"Soc io log ica l Review, X I I , 1964,'p. .83. 1 Q I b l d . , p. 81. Ibid. separates them. Three.cases. w i l l . serve t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . Clawson and Knetsch state, t h e i r case very simply, as f o l l o w s ; R e c r e a t i o n " i s the a c t i v i t y , or a c t i v i t i e s ( i n c l u d i n g i n a c t i v i t y , i f f r e e l y 12 chosen) engaged i n d u r i n g l e i s u r e time." They l a y the s t r e s s on the a c t i v i t y i t s e l f and the f a c t o r s , such as age and sex, which may exert con-s i d e r a b l e i n f l u e n c e , , a l o n g w i t h physical., economic and s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s , over the choice o f t h e s e . a c t i v i t i e s . The d e f i n i t i o n o f D o e l l and F i t z g e r a l d i s broader and perhaps more p h i l o s o p h i c a l i n . n a t u r e . To them r e c r e a t i o n " i s the n a t u r a l ex-p r e s s i o n o f c e r t a i n , human i n t e r e s t s and needs . seeking s a t i s f a c t i o n c h i e f l y d u r i n g l e i s u r e . " . They i d e n t i f y two primary needs: s u r v i v a l needs and p e r s o n a l i t y o r developmental needs, and go on t o e x p l a i n t h a t r e c r e a t i o n 14 i s more c l o s e l y r e l a t e d . t o .the l a t t e r . Two related.concepts.which are i n themselves adjuncts, t o .this p a r t i c u l a r l i n e o f thought can.be explained at t h i s point.. The f i r s t i s t h a t r e c r e a t i o n can be " r e c r e a t i v e " t h a t i s , i t can f u l f i l l the r o l e o f " r e p a i r i n g the wear and t e a r i n f l i c t e d by the 15 o r d i n a r y r o u t i n e o f l i f e " ; t h i s i s the s o - c a l l e d . " r e l a x a t i o n " theory. Or, second, there i s the i d e a t h a t i t serves a " c r e a t i v e " f u n c t i o n a l l o w i n g the i n d i v i d u a l to.experience and express values.and t a l e n t s not found i n .other human.activity. 12 Marlon Clawson and Jack Knetsch, The Economics o f Outdoor  Rec r e a t i o n (Baltimore: John.Hopkins P r e s s , 1966), p. 27. 1 3C.E. D o e l l and.G.B. F i t z g e r a l d , A B r i e f H i s t o r y o f Parks and  Recr e a t i o n i n the- United States (Chicago: The A t h l e t i c I n s t i t u t e , 1954), p. 127. I b i d . 15 C.G. Wrenn and.D.L. Harley, Time on T h e i r Hands (Washington: American C o u n c i l o f Education, 1941), p. 15. Thus, recreational ac t iv i t ies are not confined to participation i n sports, hobbies or cultural pursuits but may involve voluntary aid to other persons or groups of people who benefit from such service. Such an act may be truly "re-creative" for the volunteer,worker involved, i n that he achieves a.sense of satisfaction and enjoyment from doing.i t . There i s personal gain, but i t i s not of an economic nature. M i l l e r and Robinson expand their definit ion of recreation even further. Recreation, they, say, " is the process of engaging i n ac t iv i t ies during leisure time, with a set of attitudes that makes possible the at tain-16 ment of leisure values." In emphasizing the process over the ac t iv i ty , they, represent the opposite.pole from that expressed by Clawson and Knetsch. However, the breach i s not as serious as i n the case of leisure. "Play" is.not' a term i s common usage to-day for, popularly, i t has.connotations only of the ac t iv i t ies of children. In f a c t , . i t predates most of the above terms i n i t s application to the topic under discussion. A review,of the h i s tor ica l developments and their modern counterparts i s presented by Sapora and Mitchel l i n , The Theory of Play and.Recreation, a work referred to by Giddens. One of the earliest theories, the surplus energy theory, was put forth, by Fredrick Schi l ler l a t e . in the eighteenth century. Simply stated, this meant that play was just a means of u t i l i z i n g energy not.consumed in.other l i f e processes. Other theories.followed i n the nineteenth, and twentieth.century: . the recreation .theory; the recapitur-la t lon theory and the instinct-practice theory. Giddens noted that early educational theory "viewed,play i n an unfavourable l ight as a 'wasteful l l e r and Robinson, bp. c i t . , p.. . 7 . activity'." Some of the modern approaches have been through the work of psy-chology and psychoanalysis. Giddens reports Freud's description of play as serving a "cathartic function", that i s , acting i n the discharge of emotional tension and frustration and Claparede's statement that i t allows l 8 for the expression of ego and the display of personality. This attitude may be summed up by one of Dr. Paul Haun's remarks at the 45th National Recreation Congress. "Play, i t seems to me, i s a primary biologic activity, an elementary need, comparable In a general 19 way to the need for food, sleep and ai r to breathe." There i s also the pervading feeling that play i s comprised of such elements as fun or gaiety, spontaneity and naturalness. These definitions are bound to change i n the light of further research and changing attitudes. But i t i s necessary to c l a r i f y the present situation as much as possible i n order to avoid confusion of terminology and misunderstanding of intent. Historical Sketch of Recreation i n North. America The f i r s t city park i n the United States was Boston Common which was established i n 1634. This was really part of the European tradition and admittedly its. original function was not recreation. Some American c i t i e s Giddens, op. c i t . , p.m 78 . •45th. National Recreation Congress, Leisure the Heart of Living (St. Louis, Missouri: 1963), p. 13. of Spanish origin had a square or plaza for public use. Other early examples of the concern for public open space within the c i ty are William Perm's treatment of Philadelphia i n 1682 and L'Enf ants' plan for Washington D.C. i n 1792. These are.somewhat isolated examples, however, i n that general concern i n this area did not take place u n t i l about the middle of the nineteenth century. This stage i s perhaps best marked by the development of Central Park i n New York City i n 1853 under the guiding hand of Fredrick Law 03mstead, who later was one of the major forces behind the establishment of the Yosemite Grant. It i s interesting to note that the Central Park issue received i t s i n i t i a l stimulus from a group of interested citizens and that the land was designated specifical ly for park purposes. The program grew very quickly from this time on: By 1877 about twenty c i t i e s had established parks, by 18.92;the number of c i t i es having such areas had increased.to one hundred, and i n 1902 positive steps had been taken along that l ine by nearly . eight hundred.municipalities.^ I t i s from these beginnings that the vast system of both indoor and out-door recreational f a c i l i t i e s i n use to-day, has developed. The Yosemite Grant was made i n 1864, giving to the state of California a portion of what i s now Yosemite National Park. The f i r s t l i nk i n the National Park chain was forged i n 1872 with the designation of Yellowstone National Park. By 1957 the National Park Service of the United States administered over one hundred seventy-five separate areas representing almost twenty three mi l l ion acres of land. These are not C. Frank Brockman, Recreational Use of Wildlands (New York: McGraw-H i l l , 1959, p. 51. Table ; 1 19 Summary of Areas Administered by the Nat i o n a l Park S e r v i c e , January 1, 1960 Lands w i t h i n T o t a l landg e x t e r i o r w i t h i n boundaries not e x t e r i o r F e d e r a l land f e d e r a l l y owned boundaries Type of area Number (acres) (acres) (acres) N a t i o n a l Parks 29 13,205,071.01 250,307.45 13 ,455,378.46 Nat. H i s t o r i c a l Parks 7 31,841.66 5,359.87 37,201.53 Nat. Monuments 83 8,984,449.45 v145,087.79 9 ,129,537.24 Nat. M i l i t a r y Parks 12 26,324.71 2,383.57 28,708.28 Nat. Memorial Park 1 68,708.36 1,665.94 70,374.30 Nat. B a t t l e f i e l d Parks 3 5,318.07 2,170.03 7,488.10 Nat. B a t t l e f i e l d S i t e s 5 188.63 547.35 735.98 Nat. H i t o r i c S i t e s 12 l,491 f40 2.12 1,493.52 Nat. Memorials 13 4,447.96 152.00 4,599.96 Nat. Cemeteries 10 215.10 5.00 220.10 Nat. Seashore R e c r e a t i o n a l Area 1 24,705.23 3,794.77 28,500.00 Nat. Parkways j 3 91,429.72 21,458.44 112,888.16 Nat. C a p i t a l Parks 1 39,503.53 1,444.00 40,947.53 T o t a l , Nat. Park System 180 22,483,694.83 434,378.33 22 ,918,073.16 Other Areas Nat. Recreation Areas 3 2,013,768.00 54,900.00 2 ,068,668.00 Grand T o t a l 183 24,497,462.83 489,278.33 24 ,986,741.16 Includes C a t o c t i n Park, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, P r i n c e W i l l i a m F o r e s t Park, Baltimore-Washington Parkway, S u i t l a n d Parkway among the 780 u n i t s administered. (Source? Ise, Our N a t i o n a l Park P o l i c y , p.2.) 20 a l l parks but Include historic parks, monuments, memorials, parkways and others (see Table 1 ) . In Canada the national system was started i n 1885 with the founding, by statute, of Banff National Park. This was.quickly followed by the establishment of Glacier and Yoho National Parks i n 1886. Since that time some fifteen others have been added and more have been proposed. The whole elaborate structure i s hardly more than one hundred years old. Yet, at the national level, these two North American systems predate their counterparts i n most other countries. To-day, there i s concern that some of the parks are suffering from over use. The number of visitors continues to increase yearly as population, interest, and free time also r i s e . One of the most important questions yet to be answered i s - how are these people to be accommodated without destroying the natural qualities and beauty the park concept originally sought to preserve. Supply . As was.stated earlier, raw natural landscape,, that i s , land and water, i s the resource on which a l l outdoor recreation i s based. Both land and water are present i n a variety of forms and the use to which they can be.put i s largely dependent on .their form. This also conditions to a great extent what kind of development w i l l occur. Recreation competes with other land uses for a share of the total. The result i s that a variety of land parcels ranging i n size from the very small children's playground to the vast national park or reserve are devoted to recreation. These areas can be considered to be single use areas i n that they are designed for and primarily function as areas of recreational use. But recreation cannot be confined to them and hence must share the remaining land and water with.other uses, many of which are single use categories. Conflicts arise from this situation causing argument as to which particular use should have priority. One innovation .which, at tempts, to ensure enough, park, space for everyone, i s the standard, such as that of ten acres per thousand people for city parks, adopted by the National Recreation Council of the United States. But the standard i s only part of the story; location, degree and type of development are not usually taken into account by i t . As densities increase i t may become physically impossible to apply the standard. Another common misconception i s that there i s plenty of space available for recreation. Not every mountain i s suitable for skiing, nor every beach for swimrning. The number of times on a given coastline that correct slope, sand and suitable water temperature coincide may be few indeed. I f such a site were developed for industry, then the recreational activity must be f u l f i l l e d on one of lower quality. Some areas.to-day are being over used, others not used to capa-cit y . Perhaps some of the overuse i s the result of not providing alternative spaces for a particular activity, the rest i s probably due to sheer increa-sed demand. Demand It has been established that there i s a basic human need for respite or repose through, recreational activity. What then, are some of the factors which contribute to increasing demand for recreation? The 21 Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission Study considered the U.S. ORRRC, Participation i n Outdoor Recreation: Factors Affecting Demand Among American .Adults..- (Study Report No. 20,. Washington: G.P.O., 1962). following eight factors: age, income, education, occupation, residence, mobility,- opportunity for ac t iv i ty and natural character. Clawson and 22 Knetsch, described population, leisure, transportation and income as 23 the four main factors. . Brockman uses population, leisure and transport-24 ation. A r v i l l , i n a discussion .of the Br i t i sh situation, considers population, free time, money, mobility and incl inat ion. Population, free time, income and mobility seem to be common to a l l of the above studies and.perhaps on that basis can be considered to be the main factors. Population i s the only one that can be considered independently. The other three definitely interact and reinforce each other. There are three important elements that must be considered i n any discussion of population with respect to recreation. These are the general increase, the changing urban-rural rat io and the age.structure. The population of the United States at the time of the f i r s t census, i n 1790, was less than four mi l l ion . In the f a l l of 1967-it had reached two hundred mi l l i on . The annual rate of growth declined from approximately three.percent i n the f i r s t half of the nineteenth century to about one half percent during the depression era of the 1930's. To-day, i t has reached an annual rate of increase of almost one and three quarters percent. In Canada the population stood at just over five and one third Clawson and Knetsch, dp. c i t . , p. 93 f f 23 Brockman, dp. c i t . , p. 12 f f 24 Robert Arv i l l , 'Man and Environment (Ifermondsworth: Pelican Original , 1967), p. 72 f f . 23 mil l ion i n 1901 and by 1961 had reached more than eighteen mi l l ion . What of the future? Clawson and Knetsch put i t this way, "Every demographer, economist, sociologist, or other student of population changes expects the United States to have a substantially larger to ta l 25 population i n the decades: ahead." The changing urban-rural rat io i s considered to be of particular importance as, far as participation i n outdoor recreation i s concerned. It may well.be one of the main factors contributing to. the Increase i n th is area. In 1790 five percent ;of the American population was urban and ninety-five percent rura l . By 1950, fifty-nine percent was urban and forty-one percent ru ra l . Even i f consideration i s given to. problems of de f in i -t ion of terms and census designations, there i s . s t i l l a very significant reorientation towards the urban situation. Some projections indicate this trend w i l l continue and by the year 2 0 0 0 , eighty to eighty-five percent of 26 the population w i l l be urban. Canada i s experiencing a similar trend. In 1901 the population was th i r ty-f ive percent urban and sixty-five percent rura l , • By I 9 6 I the situation had completely reversed, seventy-one percent being urban and twenty-nine percent rura l . Another interesting observation also related to this urbanizing trend i s the changing nature of many occupations away from the active outdoor category to the re la t ively sedentary. indoor type. This too, may be another reason for the appeal of outdoor recreation. Age distr ibution i s of importance because of the changing interests of people as their age increases. Participation i n active sports Clawson and Knetsch, op. c i t . , ,p. 9^. Ibid. usually declines with increasing age. As the number of people i n the different age distribution categories varies, the requirements for specific f a c i l i t i e s are also affected. The general trend recognizable i n North America to-day i s one of increases at each end of the'. scale. The percentage increase i n young people has been particularly noticeable since the end of World War II.. On the other, hand, there have been steady increases i n the .percent of the population over forty-five since 1890 according to U.S. s t a t i s t i c s . While population is.more independent than free time, income or mobility there i s a certain amount of overlap and inter-relationship as evidenced by the effects of the urban-rural ratio. Free time has been described, as the amount remaining after hours of work, sleep and "house-keeping" have been.subtracted. Some investigators equate free or discretionary time with leisure. This assumption has not been accepted here. Most would accept the idea that recreation forms only a part of leisure time.. The whole concept of time i s a subject for study and analysis i n . i t s e l f . Time has. a paramount place i n society to-day. There are discrete, hours of work, hourly pay rates, schedules for a great range of a c t i v i t i e s from a i r and shipping lines, concerts and football games, to hours of worship and education, a l l neatly arranged and co-ordinated by the clock. This point i s brought out i n the summary of a chapter devoted to time i n the book Work and Leisure by Nels Anderson. Perhaps never i n human existence has i t been so necessary for man to be so time conscious as Westerners are to-day. Man marked the seasons as they came and went and he counted the years, but he had no need of a watch for dividing time into tiny fractions. Western man not only counts time i n tiny fractions but he measures hours and minutes against money much as hep7 measures goods and services against money. One method of studying how time i s used i s i n the compilation of what i s called a "time-budget". According to Alexander Szalai "the original time-budget study was concerned with the daily l i f e of Moscow workers and the data were gathered by the Nestor of Soviet economic 28 planning. Professor S.G. Strumlin". This study, done i n 1924, formed the basis for a comparative one carried out i n 1959 by Professor G.A. Prudensky (see Table 2). It differs from some of the ones i n use to-day i n that i t i s expressed for individuals i n terms of a twenty-four hour period whereas the latter are for the nation i n terms of a year. In a study by Mary A. Holman " i t was assumed that a l l time 29 not consumed by sleep and personal chores was leisure." On this basis she determined that between 1900 and 1950 daily leisure increased one hundred f i f t y percent, week-end leisure, two hundred f i f t y percent and vacation leisure, two hundred percent. For the period 1950 to 2000, the projected figures were one hundred percent, two hundred seventy percent and four hundred percent respectively (see Table 3). In 1900 there was a sixty-hour work week, a ten-hour day and there were virtually no annual vacations. By 1950 there was a forty-hour work week, an eight 27 Nels Anderson, Work and Leisure (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961) , p. 73. 28 Alexander Szalai, "Trends i n Comparative Time Budget Research", Ekistics, Vol. 24, No. 144.- (Nov., 1967) , p.- 38'5. p q ^Mary A. Holman, "A National Time-Budget for the Year 2000" i n Sociology and Social Research, Vol. 46 ( I 9 6 I ) , p. 24. Table 2 Time Table f o r the Working Day f o r Urban Workers i n the S o v i e t Union, According to Time Budgets i n Hours Time expenditure 1924 1959 Time not at own d i s p o s a l men women men women I. Productive work f o r the community (with overtime) 7.83 7.64 7.17 7.20 p r i v a t e 0.45 0.57 0.78 0.62 t o t a l . 8.28 8.21 7.95 7.82 I I . Housework ( i n the fa m i l y ) p r e p a r a t i o n of meal s 0.48 2.56 0.23 1.41 care of c h i l d r e n 0.16 0.53 0.43 0.65 other 1.08 1.71 1.04 1.85 t o t a l 1.72 4.80 1,70 3.91 I I I . L o s t time to and from the plac e of work 0.95 0.86 1,93 1.30 shopping and wa i t i n g i n queues 0.22 0.20 0.37 ,0.65 t o t a l 1.17 1.06 2.30 1.95 t o t a l of time spent f o r i n d i s p e n s i b l e a c t i v i t i e s ( I - I I I t o t a l ) 11.17 14.07 11.95 13.68 IV.Ihdi s p e n s i b l e n e c e s s i t i e s meals on the job and at home 1.55 1.27 1.18 0.93 s l e e p at night and duri n g the day 7.74 6.83 7.48 6.97 b O u a i 9.29 8.10 8.66 7.90 ( I-IV t o t a l ) 20.46 22.17 20.16 21.58 Time at own d i s p o s a l -study and i n d i v i -dual c u l t u r a l ac-t i v i t y 1.86 0.68 1.68 1.15 r e c r e a t i o n and entertainment 1,68 1.15 1.71 1.27 t o t a l 3.54 1.83 3.39 2.42 percentage of time 14.7% fund 7.6$ 14.l£ 10.1% t o t a l hours per day (sum of the budget) 24 24 24 24 ( Source; S z a l a i i , E k i s t i c s ,November, 1967 , p. 385 ) Table 3 Time Required f o r Nondi s c r e t i o n a r y A c t i v i t i e s and D i s c r e t i o n a r y Time B i l l i o n s of hours, annually Item 1900 1950 2000 Po p u l a t i o n with 24 hours 667 1329 2907 No n d i s c r e t i o n a r y time Sleep 265 514 1131 Personal care 37 74 164 Work • 86 132 206 Housekeeping 61 68 93 School 11 32 90 Under 5 years, nonsleeping hours 30 56 110 T o t a l n o n d i s c r e t i o n a r y t i me 490 876 1794 D i s c r e t i o n a r y time D a i l y l e i s u r e Labor f o r c e and housewives 61 159 287 School p o p u l a t i o n 11 30 88 Week-end l e i s u r e Labor f o r c e and housewives 35 143 379 School p o p u l a t i o n 15 36 104 V a c a t i o n l e i s u r e Labor f o r c e and housewives 0 7 99 School p o p u l a t i o n 17 28 83 R e t i r e d - Other 6 24 56 32 26 16 T o t a l d i s c r e t i o n a r y time 177 453 1112 ^Includes c h i l d r e n between 5 and 13 not i n sch o o l . (Source; Holman, Table I, p. 19 ) 28 hour day and. on the average, a one week annual vacation. "In the year 2000, the estimated twelve hours a week increase i n discretionary time could be equally allocated between a shorter work day, fewer days worked 30 each week, and an extended vacation." There seems to be l i t t l e doubt that the amount of free time i s increasing. But the distr ibution of i t over the day, week, month or year i s changing, so that the form i n which i t appears i n the future w i l l be considerably different from to-day. This may be, for instance, as a three day week-end. What effect would this have on the recreational f a c i l i t i e s of any given area? Mobility i s not just the result of an increase i n the number of registered automobiles. Rather i t i s the increased a b i l i t y of the population at large to make use of various modes of travel more easily and more economically. Consequently distance becomes much less of a barrier to recreational t ravel . Attractions now thought remote become available to the average man and his family. A i r travel i s expected to increase i n the United States from th i r ty b i l l i o n passenger miles i n i960 to one hundred f i f t y b i l l i o n i n 1967. Air l ines have made off-season economy fares more available along with reduced fares for students and various group organizations. Club or group charter f l ights are more frequent. There i s also the poss ib i l i ty , already i n evidence to a limited degree, of using a i r travel to cover major distances and of hir ing automobiles at the destination. The numbers of automobiles i s also expected to. increase and the continent wide highway system w i l l inevitably expand to meet this • " Ib id . , p. 30. 3 1 U . S . ORRRC, Outdoor Recreations for America,(Washington: G.P.O., 1962), p. 317 pressure. In 1966, driving for pleasure was s t i l l rated the most popular 32 outdoor recreation ac t iv i ty . The National Park Service of the United States has been involved i n the development of parkways since 1933. They are described as "a federally owned, elongated park featuring a road de-signed for pleasure t ravel , and embracing scenic, recreational or historic •5-5 features of national significance." Another aspect of mobility i s i t s effect bnatravel between countries, not only from North America to other parts ;of the world but from other parts of the world to North America. Future prospects are for a larger population with greater mobility and much more free time.. The fourth and last of the factors affecting demand for recreation to be considered here i s income. I t i s predicted that the gross national product of the United States w i l l continue to r i s e . However, the National Planning Association issues this warning: A larger G.N.P. does not necessarily reflect a better world or.even greater efficiency i n the operation of our econo-mic system. Such value judgements must take into consider-ation more detailed information on family consumption levels , distr ibution of income, hours of work, use of leisure and on the kind of Government services which are contained i n ' the G.N.P. estimates.34 The expected rate of increase i s three and one half percent annually. Coupled with th i s , the real income per capita i s considered to be i n -creasing by about two percent annually. 3%ldridge Lovelace, "The Automobile and Recreation", Traffic Quarterly, .(.October 1966], p. 530'.. 33 Clermont H.. Lee, "Landscape Integration i n Road Design", Landscape  and:Humah L i f e , ed. C.R.V. Tandy, (Amsterdam: ©j'ambatani Publishers and Cartographers, 1966), p. 83. oh U.S.. ORRRC Economic Projections for the Years 1976 and 2000 (Study Report No. '23, Washington: "G.P.O., 1962), p. 130. Approximately five to six percent of personal disposable income i s presently spent for recreation, according to 1956 s ta t i s t ics . This i s expected to r i se i n response to the other two trends noted above. There are very d i f f i cu l t problems to be overcome i n the categorization and estimations of recreation spending. This i s i l lus t ra ted by the fact that "there i s l i t t l e agreement as to the definition of recreation as far as, expenditures are concerned. The basic d i f f i cu l ty i s that recreation i s a purpose of expenditure, rather than a kind of expenditure." Though this i s a d i f f i cu l t area to quantify accurately, there i s no doubt of i t s importance to participation i n recreation as a whole, and outdoor recreation i n particular. To purchase an automobile or a i r l ine t icket requires a certain monetary outlay. Some forms of outdoor recreation, such as camping, skiing or skin diving, can entai l consider-able capital expenditure, on the part of an individual , for equipment. The question of participation i n such ac t iv i t ies i s , at least part ly, related to income. The four factors under discussion i n this section are of paramount importance i n understanding the phenomenal increase i n demand for recreation. They are not the only factors, but at present, they seem the most c r i t i c a l . Five Outdoor Recreation Act iv i t i es on the Increase Driving for pleasure has already been mentioned as an area of 'Clawson and Knetsch, op. c i t . , p. 103. NUMBER OF ACTIVITY DAYS PER PERSON, 12 YEARS AND OVER JUNE I, 1960-MAY 30, 1961 ,: DRIVING FOR PLEASURE WALKING FOR PLEASURE PLAYING OUTDOOR. GAMES OR SPORTS SWIMMING SIGHTSEEING ' - BICYCLING ' ' > FISHING ATTENDING SPORTS EVENTS . PICNICKING NATURE WALKS BOATING (NOT CANOE OR SAIL) HUNTING HORSEBACK RIDING CAMPING ICE SKATING SLEDDING OR TOBOGGANING HIKING'. • WATER SKIING " ATTENDING OUTDOOR DRAMA. CONCERTS, ETC. CANOEING SAILING MOUNTAIN CLIMBING SNOW SKIING io 15 J 20 I l'17 0'J ' 4.19 13.75 [3.53 2 70 f •1.95 11.86 !l 25 1.86 55 .51 '•> f.42 1.39 .12 .11 09 .07 illiiif M'a^c,;,.;-; mmmm, mm&m asm :':.-.-V'4;:V Figure! What Americans Do Most ( S o u rc e ; O R R RC, O ^ o o H ^ c . J o r ^ m en ca, p. 33) interest and demand. Closely associated with i t i s picnicking, with the result that some roadside f a c i l i t i e s suffer from perpetual overcrowding during the season. Camping i s another ac t iv i ty enjoying unprecedented growth, part icularly i n respect to the use of t ra i le rs and campers. The space requirements established for camping by tent are inadequate to handle the load under these conditions. The questions of access and effect on the natural surroundings, both i n terms of ecology and human perception, must be carefully studied i n respect to the type of camping. Some kinds of recreation are not only limited by the seasons but also by the specific natural conditions they require. Skiing i s one of these. The natural requirements are met i n only a. few places and for many reasons may or may not be capable of development. There has been increasing interest i n skiing and associated winter sports with resultant overcrowding on better or more accessible f a c i l i t i e s . The capital cost of constructing the finished fac i l i ty , from the raw state can be high. The demand, however, i s present. To single out one element i n the natural environment as having more importance i n outdoor recreation than any other i s not d i f f i c u l t . Water i s undoubtedly that element. A whole range of water based a c t i v i -t ies enjoys high user-preference ratings. These range from simply looking at i t while walking, hiking or driving, to t ravel l ing or skiing on i t , . swimming or fishing i n . i t , or diving under i t . Skin-diving and water-skiing were unknown a few years ago and, while the former does not require much space, the lat ter does. A r v i l l , sums i t up this way. An angler on the bank needs a small space and quiet, a fisherman In a rowing boat may require half an acre, but a water-skl ier requires f i f ty acres and his speed boat may create pollution.36 Pollution of natural water bodies i s the result of human ignorancej thoughtlessness or neglect. Streams, r ivers , or lakes so affected are unuseable.for recreation and the costs of treating water to make i t f i t for human consumption are extremely high. Water supply was once a matter of local concern; i t has now reached the international level and i s the subject of negotiation between national governments. I t i s a c r i t i c a l factor i n the maintenance of l i f e , and future use and allocations may have international ramifications. Summary This chapter has sought to introduce the subject of recrea-t ion , particularly outdoor recreation; to establish the fact that recreation i s indeed an integral part of our society and the legitimate concern of government; that i t i s not t r i v i a l or inconsequential, or can be accommodated by u t i l i z i n g leftovers from other land uses; that recreational f a c i l i t i e s are necessary and land use for this purpose i s as important,for instance, as timber production. Some of the main factors affecting demand for recreation have been discussed. One point i s clear, i n many areas data necessary for a more complete understanding of recreation are scanty. This makes projection of future demands d i f f i c u l t . Master plans prepared for reservoir projects, i n the late 1940's and early 1950's are to-day A r v i l l , dp. c i t . , p..114. outmoded...The predictions of annual attendance were found i n practice to be greatly below the actual count made ten to twelve years after the estimate.37 The national parks are testament enough to the fact that our society considers many natural wonders to be unique•and worthy of preser-vation and protection for the benefit of a l l who wish to experience nature unspoiled. A mul t ip l ic i ty of pressures on the natural environment exist to-day. The continued provision of adequate recreation f a c i l i t i e s of high quality w i l l require careful planning and much further research. Dr. :E.C. Crafts, Director of the Bureau of Outdoor Recreation of the United. States, has - said I t i s astounding that there has been so l i t t l e comprehensive research i n an ac t iv i ty that involves 90% of the people; one half b i l l i o n acres of land, a consumer expenditure of $20.bil l ion a year and vast public programs.38 Daniel L . Leedy stated that "basic to making more meaningful surveys of the outdoor recreation resources are better s o i l , water, wi ld l i f e and 39 vegetation mapping and classi f icat ion techniques." This i s the area i n which the concepts and principles of ecology can be put to use i n making this information of more value for planning purposes. Recreation.survey of the Pacific Northwest Region, Part Two: Recreation Report, Recreation Subcommittee, Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Committee, October 1964, p. 19. qO 45th National Recreation Congress, op. c i t . , p. 65. Ibid, p. .67. CHAPTER ILT ECOLOGY I t has been, e s t a b l i s h e d .that there i s a great demand f o r outdoor r e c r e a t i o n and t h a t the n a t u r a l environment i s the l o c a l e i n which t h i s demand i s s a t i s f i e d . . There are a number o f l e v e l s o f a c t i v i t y which i n t u r n r e q u i r e q u i t e d i f f e r e n t f a c i l i t i e s . These f a c i l i t i e s d i f f e r i n the degree t o which they a f f e c t o r change the n a t u r a l environment and t h i s i s u s u a l l y r e f l e c t e d i n the s c a l e o f c a p i t a l expenditure r e q u i r e d t o i n i t i a t e the development.. Two major elements/are inherent i n the phrase " n a t u r a l environment": i t s p h y s i c a l components such as a i r , l a n d and water, and the b i o l o g i c a l or l i v i n g components which i n h a b i t the a i r , l a n d and water and i n t e r a c t w i t h them. The branch o f science which.concerns i t s e l f with...the above r e l a t i o n s h i p s i s c a l l e d ecology. Odum des c r i b e s i t s p l a c e i n the b i o l o g i c a l o r l i f e s ciences by u s i n g the " b i o l o g y - ' l a y e r cake'". 1 (see f i g u r e 2..) Here ecology along w i t h morphology, g e n e t i c s , and o t h e r s , are represented by the h o r i z o n t a l l a y e r s w h i l e v e r t i c a l s e c t i o n s o f the cake r e p r e s e n t such l a r g e d i v i s i o n s as ;phycol'ogy , entomology, and.others. "Thus ecology i s a b a s i c d i v i s i o n o f b i o l o g y and, as such, i s a l s o an p i n t e g r a l p a r t o f any and a l l o f the taxonomic d i v i s i o n s . " This, chapter w i l l d e a l w i t h the study o f ecology, some o f i t s ^Eugene Odum, Fundamentals o f Ecology ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W.B. Saunders Co., 1 9 5 9 ) , . p . 4. . 2 I b i d . , p. 5 . F i g u r e 2 The B i o l o g y " L a y e r C a k e " ( S o u r c e ; O d u m , F i g . 1 p . 4 ) Lo principles and concepts, and some of i t s applications. . Before proceeding with a discussion of principles and concepts i t would.be advantageous, at this point, to consider a short historical review of the subject. A comment by Sears i s also worth noting at this time. Over the years he has observed two recurring criticisms of ecology. One, that i t i s "a matter of merely emphasizing the obvious" and two, that "we do not know enough about bricks and mortar to get on with the building". He counters these accusations with, the following statement: As Frank Darling has demonstrated, ecology despite its.fragmentary progress beginning with.the environmental relations of plant l i f e , i s a study of the entire ecosystem. Of this system, man i s not just an observer and irresponsible exploiter but an integral part, now the world's dominant organism. He has come into the system and survived this far by the bounty of that system plus his own marvelous power of adjustment. Even so the'historical record i s replete with his failures.5 Historical Review The origins of the modern science of ecology are diverse and d i f f i c u l t to trace. Various authors on the subject tend to stress both different areas of biology and different men as well, depending to a large extent, on their own background and bias. Nordenskiold claims the beginnings of ecology for Carl Linnaeus, the great Swedish botanist whose binomial system of nomenclature •3 Paul B. Sears, "Ecology: A Subversive Science", Bioscience, (July, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 11. ' \ b i d . Ibid. Erik Nordenskiold, A History of Biology (New York: Alfred Knopf, 1928) i s used i n both plant and animal taxonomy to-day. These i n i t i a l observa-tions, i n the mid-eighteenth century, were mainly concerned with the re la -tionships between, and geographical distr ibution of, plants and grew out of Linnaeus.'s... work on class i f icat ion. Alexander von Humboldt coined the word "association" i n 18Q5 and was essentially responsible for setting the.study of plant geography on a sound scient if ic basis. He "f ina l ly dwells on the special advantages which s o i l and climatic 7 conditions offer to the vegetable world i n different latitudes." Humboldt's.name is.common.to the writings of many men on this subject and though better known for his work i n other fields of science his b io log i -cal investigations, partly attached to the natural philosophy of the day, are of no small importance. The whole of this conception of plant l i f e and this grouping of i t s individual components according to common conditions of l i f e , instead of according to the nomenclature of species, represents a new idea; i t i s true that Humboldt has learnt something, as he himself acknowledges, from Buff on, as well as from a number of earl ier describers of landscapes, but out of these ideas and as the result of his own observations he created a new f i e ld of research, which was cultivated and extended at a later period with great success.8 From the f i r s t quarter of the nineteenth century on, many men working i n a wide range of f ields made valuable contributions to that we now c a l l ecology. Generally, plant ecology evolved f i r s t and animal ecology, which does present some problems not inherent i n the former, followed. Nordenskiold, op. c i t . , p. 315-' i b i d . , p. 316. This led, quite naturally, to the situation where one group considered only plants and the other, group only animals. The general consideration ;of the dynamic interaction between the biotic and the abiotic evolved much later. The origin of the term "ecology" i s attributed to Ernst Haeckel i n 1869. ' It has i t s root i n the Greek word "oikos" meaning "house" or "place to l i v e " . There are a great many terms which have appeared over time to express a similar concept; however, very few are s t i l l i n use. Karl Mobius made what in essence was an ecological investi-gation of oyster beds, i n 1865 and proposed the term "biocoenose". Some other terms were; "formations", Grisebach i n 1838; "microcosm", Forbes i n 1887; "naturkomplex", Markus i n 1926; and the one i n use to-day, "ecosystem", Tansley i n 1935. When did.ecology become recognized as a discrete, area of biology? W.M. .Pearsall, writing on the Development of Ecology i n Britain, would seem to.put i t about fifteen years later than the one fixed by 9 Odum at "about 1900" . Pearsall goes on to describe the situation, as he sees i t , about the time of the Fi r s t World War. There were essentially three lines of development. In Britain, investigation centred on "the habitat effects on vegetation as the characteristic feature of vegetative u n i t s . " ^ . In America, F.E. Clements published.his book Plant Succession i n 1916. and i n i t outlined the importance of climate, exposing the concept Odum, dp. c i t . , p.. 3-10 W.M. Pearsall, "The .Development of Ecology i n Britain", i n B r i t i s h  Ecological Society Jubilee Symposium, eds. A. MacFadyen and P.J. Newbould. A Supplement to the Journal of Ecology 52 and Journal of Animal Ecology 3 3 , (March, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. 1.. -40 of climatic climax vegetation. In Russia, the pedologists were concentrat-. ing their attention on the relationship between the kind of vegetation and type of s o i l . The f i r s t definit ive work concerning the fauna was Animal Ecology published i n 1927. by Charles Elton. I n i t i a l l y there were two recognized subdivisions within the subject. "Autecology", a term f i r s t used by Haberlandt i n 1884, concerns the study of the relationships between an individual or a species and the environment.. "Synecology", on the other hand, "deals with the study of 11 groups of organisms which are associated together as a u n i t . " The modern trend i s away from this break-down altogether and toward a recog-n i t i o n of four subdivisions; species ecology, population ecology, ccmmunity ecology and ecosystem ecology, which are based on the levels^of-organization concept. Odum considers the number of levels to be arbitrary, but he recognizes. ,ten. These are, i n ascending order of complexity, protoplasm, c e l l s , tissues, organs, organ systems, organisms, populations, comniunities, ecosystems and the biosphere. The five levels from organisms upward are the province of ecology. I t i s principly i n population ecology that mathematical theory and models have been developed. These techniques are also being used i n the study of energy transfers and productivity where there has been a progression from flow chart models to the use of analogue-computer methods. Ecology has. come a long way i n just over half a century. Much of i t s subject matter must be studied i n s i tu and therefore the problems involved i n developing a suitable methodology, are manifold. 'Odum, op. c i t . , p. .8 . 41 Beyond i t s simplest and most elementary concepts, ecology deals with phenomena and problems that are mostly too complex for direct understanding or for handling by ordinary mathematical methods. Furthermore, they are frequently phenomena that are i n t r i n s i c a l l y changed by experimental methods and even by approaches involving factor analysis.12 Some Concepts and Principles of Ecology  The Ecosystem As the ecosystem i s considered to be "the basic functional unit 13 i n ecology", i t i s the logical concept to explain f i r s t . Fosberg, i n discussing the term, used part of Tansley's original definition, saying that the ecosystem represented "the interaction system comprising l i v i n g things together with their non-living habitat...including 'not only the organism-complex, but also the whole complex of physical factors forming •14 what we c a l l the environment'" The description of an ecosystem may include i t s spatial relations; inventories of i t s physical features, i t s habitats and ecological niches, its, organisms, and i t s basic resources of matter and energy; the nature of i t s income (or input) of matter and energy; i t s pattern of circulation of matter and energy; the nature of i t s losses of matter and energy; and the behaviour or trend of i t s entrophy level. Collection of this basic data must precede an effective understanding of an ecosystem.15 Odum's restatement of Tansley's concept i n 1955 was a refinement but added 12 F.S. Fosberg, "The Island Ecosystem", Man's Place i n the Island  Ecosystem, A Symposium, Tenth Pacific Science Congress, ed. F.R. Fosberg (Honolulu, Hawaii: Bishop Museum Press, 1963)» P- !• 13 Odum, op. c i t . , p. 11 •14 Fosberg, op. c i t . , p..1. 15lbid. a p . 2 . F igure 3 The Energy C y c l e (Source, Niering, p. 65) ••43 l i t t l e to i t . The l i v i n g or biot ic sector of the ecosystem has two dist inct characteristics based essentially on the mode of obtaining nourishment. The autotrophic portion are those organisms " in which the fixation of l ight energy, use of simple inorganic substances and.buildup of complex substances predominate."1^ The hetertrophic portion i s characterized mainly by the "u t i l i za t ion , rearrangement and decomposition of complex 17 materials". I t i s now possible to describe four dist inct elements of any ecosystem. • One, the abiotic or basic organic and inorganic compounds present i n general abundance;"two, the producers or those autotrophic organisms capable of manufacturing food from simple inorganic materials, mainly green plants; three, the consumers, sometimes also called macro-consumers, or those heterotrophic organisms which ingest other organisms and/or organic material, mainly animals; and four, the decomposers, also heterotrophic organisms which reduce the highly complex dead matter to i t s simple elements, thus making i t again available to the producers. These are mainly the bacteria and fungi. There are no discrete lines of demarcation between the above three l i v i n g categories. The distinctions are made on a functional basis^ but there i s some overlap. This would appear to be jus t i f ied for reasons of both descriptive c la r i ty and methods of study. The old idea of a "balance i n nature" has been replaced by the concept of the "steady.state" or homeostasis. This deals with the Odum, op. c i t . , p. 10. 1 7 I b i d . s t a b i l i t y of the functional relationships between, the above mentioned four categories as they interact i n a completely dynamic system. Action or inaction i n any of the above areas automatically triggers appropriate reactions i n the other sectors. One of the general principles which has evolved from the study of ecosystems i s that diversity i s necessary for maximum efficiency, nrinimum energy loss, and the highest degree of sta b i l i t y of an ecosystem. "In short, organisms exploit their environ-ment to their best advantage-and contribute unconsciously to the ideal of non-loss of energy from the ecosystem as a whole and, at the same time, to the maintenance of the maximum active flow of energy through 18 the ecosystem." This principle i s of particular importance to man i n respect to his present environmental management policies. These seem to be committed to the idea that simplicity or monoculture i s the ideal to.be strived for i f man i s to maintain and "control" the environment to meet his own ends. Questions have only recently been asked, outside the f i e l d of ecology, regarding the possible end result of such a program. The change i n the face of North America by reason of industrial man's dominance has resulted i n a high standard of material well being, but the ecological consequence may not yet be understood - . Q . f u l l y nor the ultimate cost appreciated. Fosberg summarizes quite, neatly the present tentative generalizations regarding ecosystems.. Some of these would undoubtedly be questioned i ft F. Fraser Darling, "A Wider Environment of Ecology and Conservation", Daedalus, Vol. 96. No. 4 . , ( F a l l , 1967), p. 1008. 19 ^John V. K r u t i l l a , "Some Environmental Effects of Economic Develop-ment", Daedalus, Vol. 96. No. 4., ( F a l l , 1964), p. IO67. 45 by other workers i n the f i e ld . However, these were presented during a symposium and were received with l i t t l e argument or opposition. l ) a l l ecosystems are open systems (Evans, 1956); 2)ecosystems may be stable or unstable; 3)the stable ecosystem i s i n a 'steady state ' ; 4)the entrophy i n an unstable ecosystem i s more l i k e l y to increase than to decrease; 5)there i s a tendency toward diversity in natural ecosystems; and 6)there i s a tendency toward uniformity i n a r t i f i c i a l ecosystems or those strongly influenced by man.20 Ecosystems are complex and dynamic making study of them extremely d i f f i - • cul t . Accurate methods of quantifying some of the features of an ecosystem are only now being investigated. Success has been limited to a few such systems. Derek Ovington's work on the forest ecosystem and that of several workers i n the marine ecosystem are cases in.point. The Habitat The habitat might be described as the place where any given plant or animal i s found. A particular set of physical features i s usually related to i t . Though lichens are found on the branches and trunks of trees i n moist coniferous forests, they are also found on bare, to ta l ly exposed rocks. These represent two different habitats. The Community. The ecologic community i s a very important concept and one more often associated with plants, than animals because when a community i s named i t i s often named for the donrinant producer or green plant. Fosberg, op. c i t . , p. 3 . • 46 According to Dice, "an ecologic coranunity is. an assemolage of ecologically related organisms composed of two or more species. Such a community may be of any ecologic rank and may include any number of associated ind iv id-uals. An assemblage of individuals a l l of the same species i s not a 21 community, but a society." To oversimplify, for purposes of i l l u s t r a -t ion , i t can be said that an.ecosystem i s made up of habitats and an ecologic community. The community and the association, as used by Humboldt, are roughly synonomous terms. The Niche This concept apparently originated with Charles Elton and relates to the function that an organism performs i n i t s habitat. - Eraser Darling uses as an example the wolverine i n the Arctic and the hyena i n the tropics. Both, as bone-grinding scavengers, occupy the. same niche. Stanley A. Cain describes at some .length.the "three ways the' 22 term 'niche' has. been used." He agrees that the functional usage was probably the i n i t i a l concept. The other two he describes are the "place niche", equivalent to a microhabitat or biotope and the "ecological niche" where i t i s used i n the sense ;of an.ecosystem, "that i s , as a hio-23 tope i n the f i r s t sense together with.the occupying organisms". Odum subscribes to Elton's; concept of niche. The.question of niche i s very important when.it is. proposed to Lee Ray Dice, Natural Communities (Ann.Arhor: University of Michigan Press, 19521, p. 20. 22 Stanley A. Cain, "Biotope and Habitat", The Future Environments of  North. America, eds. F. Fraser Darling and John P. Milton CGarden Ci ty: The Natural History Press, 19.66), p.' .47. 2 3 l b l d . Introduce an exotic species of plant or animal to an area. An assessment must f i r s t be made of the status of the particular niche involved i n the receiving community. Succession This concept and many of the attendant terms stem mainly from the work of F .E . Clements on plants. "Typically i n an ecosystem, community development begins with pioneer.stages which are replaced by a series of more mature coinmunities u n t i l a re la t ive ly . stable community 24 is.evolved which i s i n equilibrium with the local conditions." Succession represents the systematic change and replacement i n communities. The whole series i s called the "sere". Any of the temporary communities i n the series i s called a "serai stage", and the ultimate community a "climax". The : ,climatic climax association' i s a biot ic community that i s not subject to progressive change but i s i n a fluctuating equilibrium with the prevailing climate and mature s o i l . The climax association has been arrived at by a series of conmunities replacing one another of which i t i s the termination capable of replacing and restoring i t s e l f . It i s to be found mainly on mature soi ls which are themselves a consequence of the long interaction of c l imat ic-biological-geological inf luences .25 Two types of succession are recognized. "Primary succession 2 6 i s in i t i a ted on a bare area where no vegetation has grown before." 24 Odum, op. c i t . , p. 257• 25 Cain, dp. c i t . , p. 42. ' . Henry J . Costing, The Study of Plant Communities-(San Francisco and London: W.H. Freeman, 1956), p. '240. The invading vegetative types are classified by the amount .of moisture found i n the habitat i n which.they develop. A lichen establishing i t s e l f on a bare rock i s called a Xerophyte, the habitat, xeric. This term denotes the dry habitat usually also lacking i n organic material which would otherwise stimulate, growth. The rate, of such a xerarch succession i s extremely slow. There are two.other categories. The mesic habitat i s of an intermediate nature and the hydric habitat, which i s the opposite of xeric, begins with open water. "Secondary succession results when a normal succession i s disrupted by f i r e , cultivation, lumbering, wind throw, or any similar disturbance .that destroys the principal species of an established 27 community." Hence succession following logging can be quite rapid. However, i f a slash f i r e does get.out of control and the organic material of a shallow s o i l i s consumed.by i t , . xerach succession may result. These are some of the important principles.and concepts of ecology. The l i s t i s by no means, complete but rather ..than discussing any more i t might prove to.he more profitable to apply these few to a particular ecosystem. As has. been mentioned, "the term ecosystem may be applied: concretely to a single example or abstractly to a class, comprising examples similar i n specified significant respects, either embodied i n a definition or.commonly understood. Familiar examples of this abstract usage are the s o i l , the strand, the prairie, the tropical rain forest, the tundra, the oceans, streams, lakes and, i n the present 28 instance, islands." To this can be added, wetlands, which take several forms, lagoons, swamps, bogs:, lakes, estuaries and are defined by A r v i l l 27 Posting, bp. c i t . , p. 24Q. 28 Fosberg5 o p. c i t . , p. 2. as being "areas of marsh and water less than twenty feet deep (six 29 metres)." He goes on to discuss three specific cases of international significance, the . Everglades, Florida, U.S .A. ; ' Broadland, East Anglia, England; and the Camarque, South France and concludes: These cases reveal the great economic, scient if ic and aesthetic wealth of wetlands, which are an essential part of the ecology of r iver basins and serve i n many unique ways to meet man's needs.30 The wetland, l ike some alpine or arct ic environments, i s very vulnerable to the outside influence of man be i t intentional or not. Presumed inconsequential actions may have broad ramifications not easily alleviated. Ecology of a Wetland Even within the general class of wetland there are a great many dist inct classes each with i t s own characteristic f lora and fauna. H.L. Mason presents the following as "a pract ical , though rough, sort:- of c lass i f icat ion that w i l l comprehend a l l the major characteristics of wet-land hab i t a t s . . . " 3 1 I Water.Standing or Essentially So Presence of water permanent and level f a i r l y persistent Open water surface the most conspicuous feature Fresh Water Lakes Ponds Robert A r v i i l , Man ana. Environment (Harmondsworth: Pelican Books, 1967), p. 154. 3 ° I b i d . , p. 160. 31 H.L. Mason, A Flora ,df the Marshes of California. (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1957), P- 4. Salt Water Salt lakes Bays and Oceans Estuaries Vegetation more conspicuous than water . surface Vegetation dominantly herbaceous Marshes Alkaline marshes Salt marshes . Brackish marshes Fresh-water marshes Bogs Quaking bogs Floating bogs '. Vegetation dominated by trees or shrubs Swamps Presence of water intermittent or at least the level widely fluctuating ]jitermittence seasonal Vernal pools . Vernal marshes Intermlttence t i d a l Salt-water marshes Seasonally salt and fresh-water marshes Fresh-water marshes subject t o . t i d a l influence I I Water Flowing Live.streams Intermittent.streams Irrigation ditches. Hi l l s ide bogs Streamside marshes I I I Wet S o i l Adjacent to Habitats with Standing or Flowing Water Strand areas Riparian lands Lacustrine lands ^ 2 Seasonally wet floodlands The f lora and fauna characteristic of any of the above classes w i l l be dependent on the geographic location, i n particular the lati tude, of the wetland. 'Mason, op . c i t . , p. 4. 51 The. richness of the wetland mi l ieu . i s direct ly related to the water source and i t s s t ab i l i t y , or at least regularity, such as i n a t i d a l marsh where there i s water level fluctuation but i s i s of a regular nature. The form and content of the water i s as important, i n terms of what f lora and fauna develop, as the water i t s e l f . It i s necessary to determine whether i t i s flowing or.standing, brackish, saline or fresh, high or low i n mineral content, and many other physical, chemical and biological factors. These features of the water when combined with the natural character of the substrate w i l l l i m i t , to a large extent, the f lora and fauna which develop. The f lora are the pioneers of wetlands. Three broad classes can be descrihed. The floaters are of two kinds. Duckweed i s rootless and merely floats on the surface of shallow water. The leaves and flowers of the water- l i ly are connected by long leaf stalks to the stem or rhizome buried i n the bottom sediments. The submergents, such as some pondweeds and algae, are a group that l i ve entirely under the water. The emergents. are highly'water.tolerant. Bullrushes and ca t - t a i l s , for example, normally thrive with their rooted portion under water and the remainder of the plant protruding above. Rooted or floating, submerged or emergent, with broad leaves on the surface or ribbony underwater leaves (or both), aquatic plants make a fundamental difference to-the other l i v i n g things with, which they share the water. Those that are rooted.serve as bases to which protozoans and algae can attach themselves. They give concealment.to crustaceans, insects, and fishes, enabling many species to elude PRODUCTION UNITS Marsh Grass Mud Algae , Phytoplankton Edge Marsh Figure 4 Z o n a t i o n o f a S a l t M a r s h i n a G e o r g i a E s t u a r y (Source; Odum, Fig.l 15, p.365) their enemies for a time and populate the waters.33 Once an area i s colonized hy either c a t - t a i l s or bullrushes new habitats are developed as a result. In Europe the cord-grass Spartina tbwnsehdii i s particularly efficient i n colonizing t i d a l mud-flats:. It i s an interesting case i n that i t i s a natural hybrid of the native English species Spartina martihia and an introduced American form Spartina alternlflora . I n i t i a l l y . i t was slow to develop but since 1870, when i t was f i r s t seen, i t has, almost.completely replaced "the original American 34 - parent." And i t i s on the whole a rather useful plant, because i t stabilizes previously bare and mobile mud between tide-marks;, on which often no other vascular plant . . could grow, helps to form new land and often i n the f i r s t instance provides saltnmrsh; grazing. Its effects upon the coastal pattern are, however, not yet f u l l y understood by physiographers and plant ecologists; but Tansley remarks that 'no other species of.salt-marsh, plant, i n north-western Europe at least, has, anything like so rapid and so great , r an influence i n gaining 1land from the sea.' Hence, once an area is, colonized, different spec les. move in. to f i l l the newly created habitats. With each, succeeding addition of a plant or animal there i s dynamic readjustment and interaction. There may even,be a climax community,established under certain.conditions and 3 3William A. Niering, The Life of the Marsh (New York: • McGraw-Hill, 1966); p. 108. o4 Elton, dp. c i t . , p. 26. 3 5 I b i d . over a period of time. In Europe, the general progression through serai stages to a climax seems to be the usual case. According to Chapman, "deviation of a succession i s not common with coastal vegetation, but i t has been recorded on Nova Scotian salt marshes where i t was produced as a result of persistent mowing for hay grass." In a European mud f la t raised almost to the level of the high tide such a climax community 37 i s quite often dominated by the sea rust Juncus martimus. In a study of the marshlands of the Torch River area of Saskat-q Q chewan succession i n the muskegs was noted to be influenced by ground fires and impeded drainage. -.Where muskegs had been par t ia l ly dried by repeated burning, grasses began to take hold and were followed by scrub willow and birch. This scrub was followed by white spruce which eventually came to dominate the area, though never completely replacing a l l of the deciduous trees. This progression provides numerous habitats for a wide variety of fauna. In this case sharp t a i l l e d grouse, ruffed grouse, ducks, deer, elk and moose are found i n abundance. Generally, the fauna.follow the f lora . As the variety and complexity of the vegetation increases the number of habitats available to small and large mammals, waterfowl and upland birds increases also. Once this stage i s reached, however, the animals'influence the vegetation and i n some cases retard or actually stop the processes of succession. V . J . Chapman, Coastal Vegetation (London: Pergamon Press, 1 9 6 4 ) , p. .3-3 7 T b i d . , p. 94. q n .M.I. Dirschl and.H.S. Maliepaard, Wildl i fe and Rural Development, A Report to the Co-ordinating Committee of the Torch River Rural Development Area, A p r i l 1963. 55 The beaver, for instance, not only f a l l s trees for food and lodge construction, but the lodges themselves, built across streams function as dams and greatly affect the amount and depth of the water retained behind them as well as the flow downstream. Hence beavers may .be very effective' water controllers i n a wetland environment. Browsers like deer and moose can also greatly modify the vegetation of an area, particularly i f they are protected from the effects of natural predation. A classical example of prey-predator relationships i s that of the Kaibab deer population. The 700,000 acre Kaibab plateau, north of the Grand Canyon, Arizona, supported an estimated 4,000 deer i n 1907- For sixteen years man actively tried to eliminate the predators. :The deer herd increased to over 100,000 by 1925 and virtually every bit of vegetation within reach was eaten. The whole plateau was badly overgrazed and more than forty percent of the population.starved to death i n two winters. Even though the numbers appeared to stabilize at about 10,000 the range over which they had to feed was badly depleted and would require many years to recover. The inter-relationships of flora and fauna i n the wetland as elsewhere are more easily understood through the relationships of the food chain. The sun forms the f i r s t link i n any such chain. A producer i s next, followed by a variable number of consumers. One such .chain i n a fresh, water marsh might be, the sun, algae, May-fly nymph, sunfish and great blue heron. Sometimes, for certain animals, there are no alternative choices for food. The everglade kite i s one of these. The Florida Everglades have been in difficulty.since about 1948 56 when man interfered with the natural water cycle. This was done to supply the needs of an expanding agriculture and for flood control. No heed was paid to the swamp and i t i s drying up. Much of the wild l i f e i s threatened with extinction while the question of water i s slowly dealt with by the p o l i t i c a l system. The everglade ki te faces the most serious threat, because of i t s specialized feeding habit. I t eats only one kind of sna i l . Since drought i s k i l l i n g the vegetation on which the snai l feeds, fewer snails are able to survive. As a resul t , the everglade kite i s i n great danger of extinction.39 The t i d a l marsh performs a number of ac t iv i t ies as part of i t s natural ecological cycle. This i s well i l lustrated i n the following le t ter to the editor of Landscape Architecture magazine. The letter was prompted by a previous issue to which a variety of authors, including Ian McHarg, contributed, on the subject of ecology. Through.hundreds of thousands of years man has evolved as a creature of nature, dependent for his health and survival upon his adjustment to i t . Modern technology has suddenly been dislocating this adjustment to his detriment. The evolution of the landscape i s the product of many natural forces inter-acting for mil l ions of years. Even i n the coastal metropolis, certain features can be preserved by plan to the enrich-ment of human l i f e . A prime -example i s the t i d a l wetland, a l l too frequently destroyed to the detriment of the whole community. 39 Niering, op. c i t . , p. 17. 57 The estuary, with. i ts productive meadows and meandering streams, i s one of the loveliest and most restful features of our Atlantic coastline. As an ecosystem, i t exhibits a l l those healthy features l i s t ed by Mr. Ian McHarg as desirable attributes to the landscape-diversity, interdependence, and s t ab i l i ty . Acre for acre, they are as productive (without human care) as the most care-fu l ly t i l l e d agricultural upland. Their contribution to the enrichment of human l i f e begins with the purification of the a i r . They provide the base for a food chain of fantastic complexity and a nursery ground for species of f i sh , upon which our sport and commercial sources of food are dependent. They serve as a feeding and resting ground for migratory waterfowl and for man, an aesthetic backdrop.for his home and for his recreation at the water's edge. And they protect his shores from erosion and the underground watertable from the salt of the sea. Our society can i l l .afford further ^ destruction of this wonderful resource. The wetland i s a complex ecosystem; the balance of which i s direct ly t ied to i t s source of water. Any actions that change the amount,. distr ibution or quality of water supplied a wetland w i l l inevi t -ably be fe l t throughout the whole system. The reactions may be sudden and dramatic or, as. more often i s the case, they are slow and almost imperceptible, making their real izat ion d i f f i c u l t . Thus dangerous or intolerable conditions may not be realized u n t i l i t i s too late to effect their a l levia t ion. Richard K. Goodwin, Dept. of Botany, Connecticut College, New London, Connecticut i n a le t ter to the Editor Landscape Architecture Vo l . 57 No. 4. (July 1967). 58 Some Applications of Ecology Four areas where ecologic principles have been applied with some success are agriculture, forestry, range management and wildlife manage-ment. In agriculture and forestry the use of the concepts has not always been wise, mainly because they were used with very narrow ends in view. The concepts of productivity and limiting factors have been used to i n -crease yields i n agriculture, while the s i l v i c u l t u r i s t has applied forest ecology to the task of producing marketable timber. There i s an exploitive element i n both of the above applications whereas i n both range and wild l i f e management i t was a restorative need which led to the application of ecologic principles. Overgrazing by cattle and sheep was the primary reason for range management, a form of applied ecology. Under the effects of persistent overgrazing a perennial grass community may undergo the following successive changes. Perennial forbs would begin to mix with the grasses which would gradually be replaced by .perennial weeds, (see Figure 5) Ultimately, these would largely be replaced by a sparse growth of annual 41 weeds and then the land would be open to erosion by surface water and wind. Range management seeks to prevent considerable waste of funds and effort by pointing out that plant cover and animal numbers are directly related to intensity of use, and that an adjustment of use, i n this instance E.H. Graham, Natural Principles of Land Use (New York: Oxford Press, 1944, p. 52. . 59 Range Improved) i ) Wheatgrass Climax ( Agropyron ) t grazing no grazing 2) Mixed: Grass-weed Stage ( Stipa, Poa, Festuca, Chrysothamnus ) no grazing grazing 3) Perennial Weed Stage ( Achillea, Artemisia, Penstemmom) t no grazing grazing; 4) Annual Weed Stage ( Chenopodium, Polygonium, Sophia ) Range Deteriorated Figure 5 Wheatgrass Grazing Land, Central Utah (Sampson,1919) ' . , ; , ( Source ; G r a h a m , Nat. Principles of Land Use , p. 145 ) 60 . reduction of livestock, may not only diminish:.the -weeds, and rodents, by removing the.reason for their . occurence, hut result i n a more productive range.42 Through, an understanding of the grassland ecology, proper management of the resource can be undertaken so that It i s not down-graded to the point where restoration i s economically impossible. In wi ld l i f e management, protection has been sought along .three lines of development. Through application of game laws and "bag" l imi ts breeding stocks have been preserved. In the case of some game birds and f i sh , a r t i f i c i a l stocking has been carried.out.. Then, more generally, habitat creation, improvement, and maintenance has also been attempted. Odum considers this to he the most important,:. for " i f su i t -"43 able habitat i s lacking, protection or stocking i s useless. Aldo Leopold was a.strong advocate,of habitat improvement, recognizing that the transit ion zone or ecotone between two different communities contained a wide range of habitats. This he called the "edge" and by simply increasing the amount of edge the number of habitats could be increased. Ih.some cases: i t was a matter of management i n order to retain a particular serai.stage for the.benefit of a.selected species of animal. These four examples are representative of some of the areas where ecological information has been used to. the benefit of man. Admit-tedly- i n some cases It has come almost too late , or been prompted by Graham, bp. c i t . , p. 52. 'Odum, op. c i t . , p. 433.' 61 i n i t i a l errors and ignorance. S o i l conservation i n the United States was such a case. Some who unwittingly diminish the productivity of our land were not raiders at a l l , but imprudent husbandmen l i ke the early tobacco and cotton farmers who 'wore out' two or three farms i n a fu t i le and half-hearted search for the secrets of s o i l f e r t i l i t y . The homesteaders and their sons who plowed up the Dust Bowl were honest husbandmen who never understood The Draconian Laws of drought and the importance of grass - cover i n an arid landM Man must understand the natural system with which he. i s dealing before .' introducing change of any kind. Summary Ecology, as a science, i s young. A broad outline of i t s or ig in , scope and some of i t s applications have been briefly discussed i n this chapter. It deals with the l i v i n g and the non-living and the whole biosphere i s i t s laboratory. The linkages between l i v i n g and non-living, and l i v i n g and l i v i n g are complex. One continuous thread running through the work of many distinguished scientists i n this f i e ld i s that diversity i n ecosystems, natural or a r t i f i c i a l , i s necessary for the s tab i l i ty of those systems. Man tends to simplify ecosystems for his own short term ends which are often cast i n economic terms. But, what are the long term economic results of such action? Can the actual cost of the Dust Bowl be calculated? Stewart Udal l , The Quiet Cr is i s (New York: Avon Books, 1 9 6 4 ) , P. 79-62 We are forever tempted, because of p o l i t i c a l and economic expediency, to remove just one more 'useless' species or process; we are sure to feel that there i s room for just one more person. The Golden Rule, however, i s a flexible guide and not a yardstick; and Schweitzer's . Reverence for l i f e and Aldo Leopold's Ecological Conscience come close to what I suggest as proper companions to even the most expert ecological manipulation .^5 Outdoor recreation takes place i n the natural environment. In planning for this function i n the face of a seemingly ever increasing number of users the ecological "concepts of 'levels of biological integration and points of view', and their philosophic basis, formulated 46 by Frank E. Egler twenty-five years ago" must surely form a part. 45 ^Daniel. McKinley, "The True Wealth of Nations: The Need for an Ecological Conscience", landscape, (Autumn, 1962) , p. 15. 46 Dillon Ripley and Helmut K. Buechner, "Ecosystem Science as a Point of Synthesis", Daedalus, Vol. 9 6 , No. 4., ( F a l l , 1967) , p. 1192. t CHAPTER IV PLANNING FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION Each of the preceding two chapters has considered an important element of the problem of planning for outdoor recreation. In Chapter I I j the question of recreation, leisure time and some other elements of an increasing demand were examined. In Chapter III, a few of the p r i n c i -ples and concepts of the science of ecology were described. It appears from the above that "the growth of a largely urban, increasingly leisured and highly mobile population i s making new demands 1 2 for the use of common land, particularly for outdoor recreation". Though this quotation refers specifically to the English context i t i s equally applicable to the land beyond city boundaries i n North America. Land, generally, i s under pressure from a variety of sources. Only approximately twenty-five percent of the earth's surface i s land, and half of this i s nonutilizable under current economic conditions. The fe a s i b i l i t y of habitation i n the polar regions, deserts or mountainous areas i s s t i l l a future possibility. At. present, the earth has about 25 million square miles of habitable and cultivable land, but nearly 780 square miles (half a million acres) are being "*The term "common land" i n this instance refers to a particular form of land tenure found i n England. Jonathan Wagerj "Outdoor Recreation on Common Land", Journal df the  Town Planning Institute, Vol. 53. No. 9. (November, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 398. 64 taken out of cult ivation every day for urban expansion, mineral working and roads and by erosion. I t has been calculated that every human requires the product from at least 2h_ acres per annum to support hum. It i s obvious, therefore, that with this rocketing population and the decline i n the quality of his environment, man cannot afford to squander or misuse the land.3 Urbanization, industry and modern transportation transform large areas of land each year for their needs. Modern airports, for instance, require huge areas of f la t land, which for reasons of safety, become restricted. I t i s also recognized that "more often than not, these changes are executed with l i t t l e or no regard for the in t r ins ic values :inherent i n Nature's design." . Yet,, sometimes, a success i n this area i s acclaimed. McHarg and Wallace have shown by constructing an appropriate many-sided model, what great opportunities for improving the human habitat actually exis t , once the forces that are now blindly despoiling the landscape and depressing every human value are guided with intelligence and imagin-ation to more va l id goals.5 This chapter i s composed of three sections. F i r s t , the historic aspect of parks i s reconsidered i n relation to their planning. I n i t i a l l y , the only planning for outdoor recreation resulted i n the provision of c i ty parks. These tended to be alloted on a rather arbitrary basis. How-ever, the boundaries of the c i ty or town were discrete and beyond i t lay Robert A r v i l l , Man and Environment (Harmondsworth: Pelican Books, 1967) , p. 25. Phi l ip H. Lewis J r . , "Quality Corridors for Wisconsin", Landscape  Architecture, Vol . 54. No. 2. (January, 1964) , p. 100. 5 Lewis Mumford, commenting on "Plan for the Valleys vs. Spectre of Uncontrolled Growth" by Ian McHarg and David A. Wallace, Landscape Archi- tecture, Vo l . 55. No. 3 . (April, 1965) , p. 179. 65 the countryside which was relat ively untouched, rural i n character, and could be v is i ted at w i l l . The park concept w i l l be traced quickly from i t s c i ty origin to i t s ultimate position of national status. The second and thi rd sections relate not only to parks but to the countryside and the planning for outdoor recreation as a whole. Parks represent only a portion of the whole outdoor recreation scene. It i s the character of the countryside that draws city-dwellers out; and to-day the bulk of the people l ive i n c i t i e s . Yet i t i s the character of the country-side i t s e l f that i s being changed so rapidly. The tendency seems to be toward a monotonous sort of quasi-urban continuum, any individual land-scape character being degraded to a level of equal anonymity. This amounts to the haphazard extension of the urban scene, i n a much diluted form, into the countryside. This topic has been the subject for a series of conferences i n Great Br i ta in entit led The Countryside i n 1970?. Preceding i t there has been a "National Nature Week". This display of interest i n the conservation of nature was most encouraging, but that i s not enough to provide a concerted plan for future action. The question that had to be answered was, 'What sort of countryside do we a l l want to see i n 1970?' That i s how this Conference came about and why i t s t i t l e was "The Countryside i n 1970."6 The interesting implici t assumption i n that question i s the idea that we are capable of doing something about i t . But many of the problems of the countryside have their roots i n a misunderstood or ignored ecological H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh, Foreward, The Countryside i h 1970 I'London: . Her Majesty's. Stationery Office,- 1964), .p. x x i . 66 fact. Streams become biologically barren through pollution. Even the simple dumping of heated water from a power station can completely change the ecology of a stream by raising the temperature of the water. Alpine communities can be destroyed by the trampling of the feet of man or his domesticate ungulates. In the alpine passes of Switzerland and Austria the alpine f l o r a have been greatly reduced around parking areas through trainpling and picking. Succession i s extremely slow i n such areas and i n one study of climax tundra i n Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, U.S.A., exposed to visitors for twenty-five years, i t was estimated "that a minimum 7 of 500 years w i l l be necessary for the restoration of the ecosystem". Marshlands, such as the unique Everglades, are threatened by water regulation that does not consider the marsh. Yet i t i s designated a National Park and i s being managed as.such by National Park Service. The v i t a l question of water regulation, however, i s outside their control and must be fought for through Congress. The question i s , w i l l there be a National Park l e f t by the time the water problem has been settled p o l i t i c -a l l y . The second section considers the "ecological point of view" as a means of overcoming or at least meeting the above problems i n the planning for outdoor recreation. The concept of ecology as a means of synthesis, as an attitude, or as a basis for a ho l i s t i c approach to such problems, i s necessary to meet to-day's increasing demands for recreation. Dr. Bettie Willard Scott-Williams, "Recoverytime 500 Years", Landscape  Architecture,.Vol. 57. No. 2 (January, 1 9 6 7 ) , p. 102.-67 The third section concentrates on water, vegetation and wi l d l i f e ; three significant factors i n the world of the outdoor, recreationist. Eco-logical error i n the u t i l i z a t i o n of these three resources can result i n a chain.of irreversible.events, culminating, i n some cases, i n the extinction of a species, or loss of a particular community forever. The Park: Concept and Planning for Outdoor Recreation Reference was made earlier to the fact that the park concept was bom i n the city. It was advocated i n America about the middle of the nineteenth century and action followed approximately twenty years later. Ekirch. states that "the organized movement for the modem-type city, park seems to have had.its inception i n the idea of making American 8 burial grounds into scenic cemeteries". He goes on to quote Andrew Jackson Downing, who noted that."these cemetaries are the only places i n the country that can give an untravelled American any idea of the beauty of many of the public parks and gardens abroad."^ Downing edited.a paper called the Horticulturist from 1846 to 1852 . and "incessantly preached the gospel of public parks as .they were .being established i n England.""'"^ He was completely captivated by the English landscape park of Lancelot Brown and Humphrey Repton and about 1850, induced a young Englishman, named Calvert Vaux, to come and help him with his work on o Arthur A. Ekirch Jr., Man and Nature i n America (New York and London: The Columbia University-. Press, 1963), p. 30 . .^Andrew Jackson Downing, Rural Essays (New York: Putnam, 1853) , p. 4 4 , quoted i n Arthur A. Ekirch J r . , Man and Nature i n America (New York and London: The Columbia University. Press, 1965), P- 30. 1 0Chas..E. Doell and Gerald B. Fitzgerald, A Brief History of Parks and  Recreation i n the United:States (Chicago: The Athletic Institute, 1954) , p. 182. . 68 the Horticulturist.. When Downing died i n 1852,. Vaux carried on his work. Later, when a competition was held for a design for Central Park, New York, he approached Fredrick Law Olmsted and together they worked out the design that won the competition. The question of a large park for New York was not new. Downing had proposed a site and the newspaper editor, William Cullen Bryant, had been agitating for such a consideration since the l840's. Bryant accepted Downing's proposal but also was i n favor of one in Jones Wood on the East River. The proposed parks became a p o l i t i c a l issue . i n the mayoral election of 1851: Kingsland, who was elected, was a supporter of the proposals, but i n 1853 an act was passed for the acquisition only of the Central Park land; this land became available i n 1856. Olmsted had travelled widely i n England and continental Europe and was particularly impressed with Paxton's work i n Birkenhead Park which he had visited i n 1850. Vaux, though trained i n Europe, had been strongly influenced by his association with Downing. The talents of these two men, combined i n the formulation of the design for Central Park, provided the impetus for a continent-wide movement i n this direction. This idea of large parks within c i t i e s was readily embraced. Olmsted was commissioned by many of the major American c i t i e s for similar tasks. In Canada, he did work i n Montreal and Niagara Falls. The idea of park systems was also put forward by him since he saw Central Park as only one of many George.F. Chadwick, The Park arid the Town (London: The Architectural Press, 1'9'66), p. 182.. 69 others to be'constructed i n the surrounding area. This idea was further extended by a pupil of olmsted, .Charles E l l i o t , who was instrumental i n the establishment of the f i r s t metropolitan park commission, located i n Boston. Even as American c i t i e s were establishing their individual parks, as well as whole park systems after the Olmstedian manner, certain events took place that were destined to influence the future concept and scope of park development: the establishment of the f i r s t national park, the creation of metropolitan park systems, and the introduction of the "playground movement".12. The park concept leapt from the local c i ty level to national status with the founding i n 1872 of Yellowstone National Park. The state or provincial park post dates the national park concept and "consequently, the function of state parks at f i r s t was conceived to be substantially that of 13 the National Park Service transferred to a state level" . Chadwick credits Olmsted with considerable influence i n the whole f i e l d . Vi r tua l ly single-handed he had formed a new profession i n America, and not only t h i s , he had made fundamental contributions to public park design, not simply taking over English precedents, but pioneering many new ideas which are even more va l id and necessary i n the c i ty and region of tomorrow than they were i n the American c i t i e s and countryside of yesterday: the separate t raf f ic systems of Central Park, designed for enriching human l i f e , not merely for unthinking easing of t raff ic flow: the :parkway--' system of Boston; the real izat ion that green space i s both a necessary and an economic element of 12 Doell and Fitzgerald, op. c i t . , p. 3 1 -13 Charles E. Doel l , The Elements of Park and Recreation 'Administration (Minneapolis: . Burgess Publishing Company, 1963), p. 49. 70 the town; the provision of playing space for small children—all these are truly biotecbnic realizat ions , and to these must be added the work at Yosemite, and with Vaux at Niagara F a l l s , the presursors of. the regional reser-vation and national park.-^ Olmsted viewed the park as an intrusion or reserve of natural surrounding within the city.to.be used only i n a passive.1 or semi-active way. In the early 1900's when demand occurred for active recreation i n the form of playing f ields for active sports and covered outdoor gymnasiums conflicts developed between those advocating such ac t iv i t ies and "park-purists" who maintained that they did not belong i n the park. Thus the f i r s t indications that parks could not serve a l l outdoor recreational demands,and survive, were heard. Inherent i n the idea of planning for parks i s the notion that they must also be "planned", or designed, within themselves. Olmsted conciously applied design principles but active recreation was not one of his consider-ations. Parks of a l l kinds are now only a part of the to ta l outdoor recrea-t ional f a c i l i t y ; the countryside at large i s assuming an increasing role i n this respect. A limited impression of the pressures being exerted by the demands for outdoor recreation can be gained from the record of attendance at Canadian National Parks, (see Figure 6 and Table 4 ). In.less than ten years v i s i t s to national parks have more than t r ip led i n the Central and Atlantic Regions and more than doubled.in the Western Regions. In 1966—67 Banff National Park, alone, had more than two mi l l ion v i s i to r s , over two hundred thousand more than the previous year. Chadwick, op. c i t . , p. 195. VISITS TO NATIONAL PARKS 1956 - 1965 REFERENCE ^-.| Weitern Region . Central ond Atlantic Regions 1956 . 1957 1956 1959 I960 1961 1962 1963 1964 8 6 5 Figure .6 Canadian National Pa rk Attendance ( S o u r c e ; Dpt. N. Af fa i r s , Annual Report p.127 J Table 4 Comparative Statements of Visitors to the National Parks for the period April 1 to March 31 Increase or National Parks 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 1 9 6 4 - 6 5 Decrease Banff 1 , 8 0 3 , 4 9 0 1 , 6 0 5 , 7 8 4 1 9 7 , 7 0 6 1 2 . 3 1 Cape Breton Highlands 7 2 9 , 4 4 3 6 2 4 , 9 4 2 1 0 4 , 5 0 1 1 6 . 7 2 Elk Island 1 9 7 , 7 2 8 1 7 5 , 1 0 5 2 2 , 6 2 3 1 2 . 9 1 Fundy 6 7 9 , 4 0 6 5 6 6 , 4 4 3 1 1 2 , 9 6 3 1 9 . 9 4 Georgian Bay Islands 8 ,361 8 , 3 7 1 10 N/C Glac ier 7 6 7 , 2 0 6 7 0 5 , 1 5 0 6 2 , 0 5 6 8 . 8 0 Jasper 5 2 2 , 6 5 8 4 8 0 , 1 0 2 4 2 , 5 5 6 8 . 8 6 Kootenay 6 3 8 , 8 1 2 5 4 8 , 5 1 5 9 0 , 2 9 7 . 1 6 . 4 6 Mount Revelstoke 7 4 1 , 4 5 7 7 0 6 , 0 1 5 3 5 , 4 4 2 5 . 0 2 Point Pelee 6 9 7 , 3 2 8 6 6 1 , 1 6 6 3 6 , 1 6 2 5 . 4 6 Prince Albert 1 5 2 , 2 5 6 1 4 0 , 5 2 1 1 1 , 7 3 5 8 . 3 5 Prince Edward Island 9 6 7 , 3 7 2 1 , 1 1 2 , 5 3 6 - 1 4 5 , 1 6 4 - 1 3 . 0 4 Riding Mountain 6 8 7 , 9 5 9 6 8 1 , 3 1 3 6 , 6 4 6 . 9 7 St. Lawrence Islands 6 0 , 3 3 0 6 7 , 1 0 9 - 6 , 7 7 9 - 1 0 . 1 0 Terra Nova 1 0 8 , 7 3 8 6 6 , 1 8 0 4 2 , 5 5 8 6 4 . 3 0 Waterton Lakes 3 9 3 , 4 2 6 3 7 1 , 2 5 8 2 2 , 1 6 8 5 . 9 7 Yoho 6 8 9 , 3 1 3 6 5 8 , 5 1 8 3 0 , 7 9 5 4 . 6 7 Total 9 , 8 4 5 , 2 8 3 1 9 , 1 7 9 , 0 2 8 6 6 6 , 2 5 5 7 . 2 5 Inc rease or National Parks 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 1965-66 Decrease Banff 2 , 0 4 4 , 5 3 7 1 , 8 0 3 , 4 9 0 2 4 1 , 0 4 7 1 3 . 3 6 Cape Breton; Highlands 8 5 1 , 6 5 3 7 2 9 , 4 4 3 1 2 2 , 2 1 0 1 6 . 7 5 Elk Island 2 0 4 , 2 8 6 1 9 7 , 7 2 8 6 , 5 5 8 3 . 3 1 Fundy 7 5 3 , 3 1 0 6 7 9 , 4 0 6 7 3 , 9 0 4 1 0 . 8 7 Georgian Bay Islands 1 0 , 4 3 8 8 , 3 6 1 2 , 0 7 7 2 4 . 8 4 Glacier 9 1 7 , 2 6 4 7 6 7 , 2 0 6 1 5 0 , 0 5 8 1 9 . 5 5 Jasper 5 9 5 , 1 6 4 5 2 2 , 6 5 8 7 2 , 5 0 6 1 3 . 8 7 Kootenay 7 2 2 , 7 4 3 6 3 8 , 8 1 2 8 3 , 9 3 1 1 3 . 1 3 Mount Revelstoke 8 7 2 , 3 6 7 7 4 1 , 4 5 7 1 3 0 , 0 1 0 1 7 . 6 5 Point Pelee 7 2 6 , 0 3 5 6 9 7 , 3 2 8 2 8 , 7 0 7 4 . 1 1 Prince Albert 1 4 6 , 6 2 4 1 5 2 , 2 5 6 - 5,-632 - 3..69 Prince Edward Island 1 , 1 3 0 , 7 7 3 9 6 7 , 3 7 2 1 6 3 , 4 0 1 1 6 . 8 9 Riding Mountain 7 3 8 , 7 2 4 687 ,,959 5 0 , 7 6 5 7 . 3 7 St. Lawrence Islands 122, T 304 6 0 , 3 3 0 6 1 , 9 7 4 102..72 Terra Nova 1 7 9 , 6 4 7 1 0 8 , 7 3 8 7 0 , 9 0 9 6 5 . 2 1 Waterton Lakes 4 8 7 , 5 8 9 3 9 3 , 4 2 6 9 4 , 1 6 3 2 3 . 9 3 Ybho 8 6 4 , 4 5 4 6 8 9 , 3 1 3 1 7 5 , 1 4 1 2 5 - 4 0 Total 11 , 3 6 7 , 9 1 2 9 , 8 4 5 , 2 8 3 1 , 5 2 2 , 6 2 9 1 5 . 4 6 ( Source; Annual Reports of the Dpt. of N. Affairs & Nat. Resources, 1 9 6 5 - 6 6 , p . 1283 and the Dpt. of Indian Affairs &':N-. Development, 1 9 6 6 - 6 7 , p. 130 ) 73 Outdoor recreation has.continued to change. The automobile .became a recreational vehicle i n that i t allowed for a much larger radius of recreational operation within the hours of a single day. Simply driving for pleasure or for a picnic became a form of mass recreation. The country-side, rather than a single park, complete within i t s e l f , was the objective of the recreationist. A new dimension has been added to the planning for outdoor recreation, parks, i n themselves, are no longer enough. The "Ecological Point of View" as a Basis of the Planning for Outdoor  Recreation L i t t l e attention has been paid to the recreational resources or potential of the countryside as a whole. Until recently i t s use for recreation has been taken for granted simply because i t has always been there and available for the use of the urban dweller. But pressure of numbers has put an entirely different light on the issue. Some landowners are now denying the public access to spaces which were once open, i n some cases the d i f f i c u l t i e s arise from lack of knowledge of both trends and the manage-ment necessary to cope with them. Others are infuriated by visitor's carelessness or their failure to contribute to upkeep costs. The point of the leisure boom i s that a mass of people cannot enjoy, i n the same places and at the same time, the pleasures that once a few enjoyed. As demand increases, so must planning and consideration for others. If this opportunity for unorganized, informal recreation i s to remain i n the future, steps must be taken now to identify, protect, and preserve those things deemed important by the recreating public. 'Arvill, op. c i t . , p. 78. •74 E. H. Graham was one of the f i r s t to apply .ecological methods to land use. His book. The Natural Principles of Land Use was published i n 1944. In the introduction of this work he states, "to think wisely of the future use of land, we must f i r s t look carefully at i t s past, for a know-ledge of what has caused a landscape helps materially i n judging i t s future.""'"^ Graham, however, was not concerned, with recreation as a specific land use. Recently, William.J. Hart has made just such a suggestion. In respect to cities, and their.suburbs he describes what he calls "functional open space". By Hart's definition ."functional open space means that:the location, extent and shape of open space for parks, buffer zones and green corridors i s treated as a land use on the same terms as residential, commercial and 17 industrial zones." But,."it does not mean, however, that sites of national importance should be forced into servicing urban crowds but rather that alternative sites should be found to divert urban pressure from the fragile 18 areas". Many authorities reiterate this point.. There i s a dirth of recreational areas adjacent to centres of population and hence, i n some cases, national parks are forced into the position of serving a local function. The Study Group No. 6, "Outdoor Recreation: Active and Passive" for the Second Conference on The Countryside i n 1970 put i t this way: The location of intensive recreation areas close to potential users i s of paramount importance as the deficiencies are a l l the more appalling when the distribution of the existing areas i s taken into.consideration. We believe a new 16 E. H. Graham,. Natural'Principles of Land Use (New York: Oxford Univer-sity Press, 1944), p. 3-17 William J. Hart, A Systems Approach to Park Planning (Morges, Switzer-land: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources ,1966), p. 44. Ibid. • 75 attitude towards the concept of public open space i s required i f we are to retrieve something of the lost balance between.town and country and divert away from the country-side some of the intensive pressures for man-made forms of recreation f a c i l i t i e s which f a l l upon i t .19 How do we know what to develop? And knowing that, where do we develop i t ? Some techniques, basically ecologically oriented, have been developed to t ry to answer these questions. Of these, the approach of Phi l ip Lewis of the University of Wisconsin, i s probably the only one developed specif ical ly i n response to outdoor recreation. The main innovation Lewis has brought to this whole area i s 'that the basis of his approach l i e s i n a selected inventory which i s conducted i n a very particular way. He makes no attempt to rate, qualify or find p r io r i t i e s for a.study area before he has accumulated, sifted and ordered a complete inventory of both cultural and natural resources. In the Wisconsin study three major resources were identified and mapped at the same scale.so that by a system of overlays they could be super-imposed on one another. When this was done, the significant topography, surface water and wetlands, combined to form large linear patterns which Lewis called an."environmental corridor." In our f i r s t phase, we called these patterns 'Environmental Corridors' . These are the . basic research units for recreational planning. Once inventoried and mapped, they encourage planning for to ta l environmental development, rather than for piecemeal and perhaps haphazard development r- a picnic table here, observation The Countryside i n 1970 Second Conference (London: The Royal Society of Arts , 1965), p. 6 .8. 76 point there, and private or inharmonious use of scenic areas i n between. An observation tower overlooking a poorly-developed suburb that once was a pleasant valley i s hardly worth v i s i t i n g - particularly i f the traveller must drive through a suburb just l i ke his own to get there.20 Beyond these major resources an extensive l i s t of "additional landscape 21 resources for recreation" were also inventoried and mapped. In doing this experts from a variety of other f ields were employed. This i s another dis t inct ive aspect of Lewis' work. Above a l l , th is was a team effort, for no single professional d isc ip l ine , i n our opinion, i s able adequately to evaluate and interrelate the many aspects of a regional landscape which, combined, produce an invaluable recreational resource.22 Such an inventory, when done at a state or province wide l eve l , would form a sound basis for the development•of a l i s t of areas to receive pr ior i ty for detailed study. Many unique and irreplaceable areas would show up once the i n i t i a l inventory was complete and action could then be taken, i n the proper context for there would be a basis of comparison, for their immediate preservation. The two others whose work was also reviewed by the Harvard group (see footnote 21) were Angus H i l l s , and Ian McHarg. While Lewis' work was in i t ia ted with recreation i n mind, that of H i l l s and McHarg was not. I t i s Lewis, dp. c i t . , p. 103. 21 Landscape Architecture Research Office, Graduate School of Design, Harvard University; Three Approaches to Environmental Resource Analysis (Washington: The Conservation Foundation, I 9 6 7 ) , p. 43 . 77 now recognized, however, that Lewis' work has much broader applications than just recreation alone. H i l l s ' system was developed within the Department of Lands and Forests of the Province of Ontario i n response to their program "in multiple-resource planning." It grew out of the author's work i n forest manage-24 ment and was "expanded to cover a l l types of biological production." By studying the present and past uses of specific areas, that i s , by comparing similar physiographic types, H i l l s developed a "use-capability rating" for the various categories. Though his main aim was a land-use framework based on ecological principles, he did within that context, consider recreation. Unlike Lewis, who acknowledges the cultural landscape, H i l l s i s concerned chiefly with the land i t s e l f . He considers i t s biological product-i v i t y i n relation to the use man desires to put the land to. Although mannrianagement may dominate the planning of considerable areas of the national and provin-c i a l parks, forest and wi l d l i f e management must remain the basic management... .The maintenance of vegetative cover, even under the strain of dense .' human occupance, i s one of the main objectives of recreat ional land management .25 The inventory concept i s not inherent i n H i l l s ' system, .which.in many respects i s more detailed and therefore more time consuming to apply, than Lewis'. Being more detailed i t does not lend i t s e l f as readily to state or province-wide application. 23 G. A. H i l l s , The Ecological Basis for Land-Use Planning (Research Report No. 40,. Ontario Department of Lands & Forests, 1961), p. 2. 24 Ibid. 25 Ibid., p. 124, 78 Ian McHarg approaches the subject from the position of a practising planner. His interest i s i n "a method which has the power to reveal nature 26 as process, containing intrinsic form," and he further.states; "I believe that ecology provides the single indispensible basis for landscape archi-27 tecture and regional planning." He has actively pursued this position i n his work, as was revealed above i n reference to plan for Green Spring and Worthington valleys. The Plan for the Valleys depends exclusively upon physiographic deternhnism to. reveal the optimum pattern of development. This concept i s yet another aspect of the report having wide relevance to problems of develop-ment. In.short, physiographic determinism suggests that development should respond to the operation of natural processes.23. It i s interesting to note that both McHarg and Lewis advocate limited development on flood plains and the protection of marshlands so that they may perform their natural role as major water storage areas. Compat-ible with that function, however, i s their use for a variety of recrea-tional purposes. McHarg is.convinced that a considerable portion of the damage done by the storm of March, 1962 to the New Jersey coast was the direct result of ignoring available ecological information i n the development of that area. Sand dunes are a natural occurance along that part of the Atlantic Coast. A special kind of vegetation adapted to that habitat invades the 26 Ian McHarg, "An Ecological Method.for Landscape Architecture", Land- scape Architecture, Vol. 57. No. 2. . (January, 1967) , p. 105. 2 7 I b i d . 28 Ian L. McHarg and David A. Wallace, "Plan for the Valleys vs. Spectre of Uncontrolled Growth", Landscape Architecture, Vol. 55- No. 3 . (April, 1965) , p. 179. 79 bare dune and gradually complete..vegetal cover.is established. Once this i s accomplished the dune system functions as a natural protective barrier between the land and the sea. In this case the sand dunes were breached, bui l t -on, and generally misused so that the vegetation died. They became unstable and when the storm struck, "the consequences were inevitable; with i t s natural defenses destroyed, the shore was vulnerable and was extensively 29 damaged." The understanding of the dune ecosystem i s not only of importance i n controlling coastal erosion. On.popular bathing beaches backed by dunes that have been stabil ized by vegetation, the degree to which the vegetation w i l l withstand trampling must be ascertained. Since the process of succession unfolds slowly from the time the bare sand i s f i r s t invaded by the pioneer plants, i t must also be understood i n order to determine the vulnerability of any one.stage to human use. This succession from bare uncolonized ground i s termed a "prisere" by Chapman. Dune restoration work has been undertaken along the coast of the County of East Lothian near Edinburgh, Scotland. The coastline, some forty-two miles eastward from Edinburgh, has suffered a variety of abuses over the years. A larger and.more mobile population from around Edinburgh made more demands on the same area for outdoor recreation. This, as well as coastal erosion, made the restoration work necessary. Two important factors showed up; one, that the to ta l number of people allowable i n a given area was direct ly related to the amount and stage of development of the vegetation Ian McHarg, "Ecological Determinism", The Future Environments of North  America (New York: The Natural History Press, 1966), p. 534. > 80 and two, that the movement of these people had to be restricted to marked paths. The increased use of this stretch of coast-line by Edinburgh people i s being met by increasing the capacity of the dunes by this planting and i s controlled by the size of the car parks, which are gradually extended as the dunes area i s secured, but there i s a limit to this. In order to limit the t r a f f i c along the coast road, proposals are being can-vassed for constructing a main a r t e r i a l road inland and forming the coast road into loops and culs-de-sac to which entry can be controlled when necessary. This also has the advantage of avoiding costly coastal road works and the severing of villages from their beaches.30 Though, in. this case, development i s minimal and related to outdoor recreation, the concept on which i t i s based bears a strong resemblance to McHarg's idea 31 of the morphology of development being revealed by ecological analysis. The importance-of the work of Lewis, H i l l s and McHarg l i e s i n the fact that each of them i n his own way has recognized and responded to natural. ecosystems They have actively endeavoured to relate man and his works to them. They have acknowledged man as the chief ecological force of change i n the world to-day. . But, at the same time, they have respected the need to know and understand natural systems before imposing the a r t i f i c i a l systems of man upon them. These men offer hope precisely because they presuppose a unity i n nature, into which man f i t s , as something less than a smothering ! 3 0 F . P. Tindall(M), "The Care of a Coastline", Journal of the Town  Planning Institute, Vol. 53. No. 9.,(November, 1967} p. 389. 31McHarg, dp. c i t . , p. 535-81 colossus. They explain i n a sense not only why man does not stand alone, but also why he must not try to do so.32 The contribution of W. J . Hart has been specif ical ly i n the f i e ld of park planning. His main premise i s that parks i n a given area, of a l l kinds and sizes "are related to each other, to the use of resources i n the 33 landscape which includes them, and to the society which supports them." They form a complete system. But there already are national park "systems", provincial park "systems" and municipal park "systems", however; Such systems do not represent park systems as conceived of i n this study. Each system i s based on a'single rationale which sets the standards for each individual park i n the system and each park i s usually considered only in.terms of the c r i t e r i a of i t s own system. The result i s the tradit ional approach to parks - each one i s a separate, discrete unit i n space and time and i s unrelated to other types of parks which may exist i n the same region. Yet every land uni t , no matter how large or small, bears some relation to a l l other land units within some logica l ly defined region around.it. In r ea l i ty , what happens outside the boundaries of a given park i s often as important - perhaps more important - as what happens inside the bounda-r i e s , particularly i n terms of habitat protec-t ion . Each park within each system bears a relationship to the other parks i n other systems and to use patterns of the land i n which a l l the parks are situated. 34 The Everglades National Park i s an excellent example of the importance of events outside of park boundaries. In 1947 a large project was undertaken by the United States Corps of Army Engineers i n order to control the flow Daniel McKlnley, "The True Wealth of Nations: The Need for an Ecologi-cal Conscience", Landscape, (Autumn 1 9 6 2 ) , p. 16. 33 Hart, dp. c i t . , p. x i . 3 4 I . b id . : P . . 3 , ; , . . • . 8 2 igure 7 Everglades National Park ( S o u r c e ; Na t . Paiks M a g a z i n e , Aug.,1965, p-9 ) 83 of water from Lake Okeechobee, the source of water for the Everglades. Its purpose.was to prevent flooding and provide water for agricultural and municipal use. There followed a complicated bureaucratic entanglement involving the Federal Government, the Department of the Interior, the National Park Service, the Corps of Engineers, the State of Florida and, a state agency possessing autonomous power, the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District (see Figure 7 ) . The value and needs of the park were some-how sublimated and "to this day no written agreement exists between the State.of Florida and the Federal Government to provide the assurance of a nrinimum. supply of fresh water for the park." Since I 9 6 I , when a cycle of dry weather began, conditions i n the park have deteriorated yearly. Stanley Joseph, the park superintendent set the minimum annual requirements of the park at "250,000. acre-feet of water - an amount equal to the average flow over the past twenty years." The United States Geological Survey reported that over the years 1963-65 more than 1,500,000 acre-feet of water not needed for agricultural or municipal use, was released into the sea. Yet, i n the park i n 1965 j emergency pumping measures had to be undertaken i n order to prevent complete loss of certain areas. The l i f e and quality of the park were affected by actions taken outside i t s boundaries and by the i n a b i l i t y of a number of organizations to agree on a solution. Its.future i s s t i l l threatened by the slowness of the p o l i t i c a l system to respond to a situation ^^Michael Straight, "The Water Picture i n Everglades National Park", National Parks Magazine, Vol.. 39. No. 215. (August, 1 9 6 5 ) , p.' 6. 3 6 I b i d . 84 that requires immediate action. Though Hart uses the broader term, biological factors, the biologi-cal problems are mainly cast i n an.ecological context. Along with the bio-logi c a l , the other two basic factors of concern are, physical and social. These three combine to "affect the location, size and management of parks 37 and'other reserves." But, where the biological factors determine the loca-tion of a particular park, they.should also determine the size and management. A park conceived to protect a rare specie of large mammal must take i t s natural range into consideration when the size of the park i s set. Otherwise, the result w i l l be nothing more than an open a i r zoo with a l l the intensive and expensive management problems peculiar to zoos. A broad picture of the w i l d l i f e and gross vegetation of an area can be gained by what Fraser Darling calls an "ecological reconnaissance". He and Starker Leopold carried out such a survey of Alaska during a four month period i n 1952, "collecting nothing, making no tests, but just using such q O power of comparative observation as we possessed." Their investigation revealed some interesting relationships between the caribou, moose and vege-tation. This w i l l be discussed later i n the portion of the chapter on w i l d l i f e . What i s of interest here i s the technique i t s e l f . It does require specialists but as a means of obtaining a gross picture i n ecological terms of conditions i n a given area i t has considerable merit. Such surveys have since been successfully carried out i n Africa and Mexico. Hart, op. c i t . , p.. .3« qQ F. Eraser Darling, "Conservation and Ecological Theory", B r i t i s h Eco- logical Society Jubilee Symposium, MacFadyen and Newbould (eds.) (March, 1964), p. 42. .85 The ecological reconnaissance i s an economical tool which.governments have been slow to adopt. The expenditure of a few thousands of pounds on eco-logical reconnaissance i n Tanganyika might have saved many millions i n the catastrophic groundnut. scheme .39 In some respects the ecological reconnaissance i s a kind of modi-fled, gross inventory. Inventories were the f i r s t step i n the work of both Lewis and McHarg. It i s a logical prerequisite to any kind of planning for any purpose whatsoever. McHarg i s careful to point out, that even though the resource inventory material i s mapped, i t can i n no way be construed to 40 be a plan.for " i t does not contain any information of demand." If an inventory i s undertaken at a l l , several factors may act as restraints. These may include such things as the length of time available for research, the accessibility of data, budgetary restraints, and the amount of technical s k i l l required. The process i s fundamental to whatever follows, and careful consideration should be given f i r s t l y ; to doing an inventory and secondly, to the method used. In the context of planning for outdoor recreation the need to possess an overview of the region or province such as that provided by one of the above methods, i s of primary importance and preliminary to any more detailed work. The systematised accumulation of environmental information can then be reviewed i n the light of population distribution and the demands of the public for specific outdoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s . Philip Lewis Darling, dp. c i t . , p. 42. 140 Ian McHarg, "An Ecological Method for Landscape Architecture," Land- scape Architecture, Vol. 57. No. 2. (January, I967), p. 106. Includes cultural resources as well i n his inventory, so that relationships can be established with the natural".features at the same time. Unique natural and h i s t o r i c a l features are duely recorded allowing for p r i o r i t i e s of acquisition and development to be established. I f no such surveys are completed prior to the designation of f a c i l i t i e s the result i s l i k e l y to be what Lewis calls "scatter-shot programs" of recreation development. Water, Wildlife and Vegetation Water, wildlife and vegetation are three components of outdoor recreation particularly subject to ecological disturbance. Each one w i l l be examined and.some ecological features important to planning for outdoor recreation w i l l be emphasized. Water Water seems to.be the most significant, single element i n the out-door recreation experience of a great many people. Whether they go to the coast or stay inland, the greatest number of active recreationists need water on which to boat, canoe, dive, s a i l , swim or water-ski. Even more enjoy-viewing the 'waterscape'. And this i s universal. The Rockefeller Report^l showed clearly that water i s the focal point of much active recreation.42 It i s consistently rated highly i n user surveys. Every recreation survey emphasizes the importance of water.- It was found that i n most U.S.A. and Canadian parks some form ^"The Rockefeller Report i s another name for the report of the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. A r v i l l , op. c i t . , p. 81. 87 . ;of; water proved to be the most c r i t i c a l single factor used or enjoyed by 70$-80% of park visi tors .^3 Though i n many cases i t i s not used d i rec t ly , great value i s placed on i t as an element of the "scenery". One of the great "booms" of recent years has been i n the general area,of water-based ac t iv i t i e s . Sports such as water skiing require large acreages and for reasons of public safety the numbers must be limited once a certain threshold i s reached. The f i r s t important point to consider about water i s that i n most cases i t represents a biot ic community which i s dependent on a particular combination of physical, chemical and biological factors. In a r iver , for instance, these factors are not uniform. : Various combinations occur.in i n rapids, r i f f l e s , pools or slow deep stretches of a r iver . The main differences between running water or l o t i c communities and standing water or lentic communities are'the effects of current, depth, and oxygen. The current i s a direct function of the gradient of the stream and i s one of the main l imi t ing factors i n streams. There i s usually much greater va r iab i l i ty of depth i n streams, than ponds, consequently wide fluctuation of temperature occurs. when the effects of current and.depth are combined i n the stream the resultant i s a community that i s more dependent on the substrate and surrounding land for supplies of nutrients. In lentic communities oxygen and chemical constituents are subject to s t ra t i f ica t ion , as opposed to almost complete mixing i n the l o t i c . Eugene Mattyasovsky, "Recreation Area Planning: Some Physical and Ecological Requirements", Plan, Vol . 8. No. 3. (1967), p. 100. Table 5 Longtitudinal Distribution of Fishes in L i t t l e Stony Creek Stations 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 pH 5.6 5.6 5.8 5.8 5.9 6.2 6.4 6.6 7.0 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.4 Teraperature(°C) 15 15 16 16 17 18 18 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 Salvelinus. f. f o n t i n a l i s X X X X X X X X X X Rhinichthys atratulus obtusis X X X X Catonotis f. f l a b e l l a r i s X~ X X X Salrao gairdnerii irideus X X X X X X X Cottus b. b a i r d i i X X X Campostoma aaornalura X X Notropis albeolus . X Rhinichthys cataractae - X Catostoraus c. commersonnii _ X (Source; Odum, Table 18, p. 325) 89 Zonation i n ponds or lakes tends to be horizontal In response to the s t r a t i -f icat ion factor and longtitudinal i n streams i n response to current and depth, (see Table 5) The above biological conditions are very important i n considering more intensive use of a good fishing stream or lake for other ac t iv i t i e s . Since some species, such as Notropis albeolus in the preceding table, respond only to a narrow range of environmental conditions these other uses must be carefully chosen and integrated to preserve their habitat. For outdoor recreation use, water quality has many facets. The requirements of f ishing, swiriming and boating are not the same. Questions of public health also arise and these are often related to the separate problem of water pollut ion. The term "pollution" i s frequently used to describe a deteriorated or undesirable condition of land, a i r or water. It i s commonly used but does not, as yet, have a precise defini t ion. The term "polluted water", says Mattayasovsky, "covers a wide range of quality conditions, according to the 44 causes of the pol lut ion, the so-called pollutants". Fosdick defines pollution as "a resource that i s out of place, since substances that are considered undesirable pollutants under some circumstances may be valuable 45 under others.. ." He goes on to describe two catagories of such substances, natural materials such as dust or s i l t , and those "created by man, such as 46 sewage, the sprays of agriculture, and junk p i l e s . " 44 - r Mattyasovsky, op. c i t . , p. 106. 45 El lery R. Fosdick, "The Pollution of Man's Environment", National  Parks Magazine, Vol . 40..No. 228. (September, I966), p. 16. Ibid. 90 Pollution arises i n many ways. S i l t i ng of streams can occur as the result of erosion or from mining, logging or other industr ial enterprises. Once i n the stream, these suspended solids are carried for long distances and may actually destroy the aquatic l i f e . A wide range of industr ial wastes as well as domestic sewage also contribute to the lowering of water quality. This effect i s by no.means uniform and to a great extent i s dependent on the relat ive size and rate of flow of the receiving stream or r iver . Pollution occurs when the natural system can no longer d i lu te , or decompose the pollutants at a rate which keeps them below their specific levels of tox ic i ty , or the level at which they begin to reduce the oxygen content of.the water. Two fa i r l y recent problems are stream or lake contamination by pesticides carried into them i n run off from adjacent agricultural land or forest spraying and algal blooms i n water bodies receiving "clean" effluents, which are high i n nutrients, from sewage lagoons. Both of these were reported this past summer i n the loca l press as having occurred i n Skaha and Okanagan Lakes i n the Br i t i sh Columbia in ter ior . In this case, the pollutants were sprays used i n the orchards of the area and washed into the lakes during runoff, and nutrient r i ch effluent from loca l sewage lagoons. Douglas records the case of enormous f i sh k i l l s i n the Mississippi Pdver between i960 and 1963. On investigation, "scientists discovered that the pesticide endrin, used i n sugar cane fields to k i l l the sugar cane borer, was responsible" for k i l l i n g the f i sh . Douglas, op. c i t . , p. 113. Lakes or streams with wide seasonal fluctuations i n level are of low recreational value unless i t i s feasible to develop a r t i f i c i a l s t ab i l -iz ing devices. This has also been a problem with recreational use of .reser-voirs . The period of intense recreational use coincides with the period of greatest draw down on the reservoir. Sometimes ..there are also problems of developing the shoreline of a reservoir. Water c l a r i t y , freedom from microscopic pests or weeds, water remperature, and slope and condition of the bottom are the c r i t i c a l factors i n swimming areas. Water oriented outdoor recreation responds not only to the amount of water but also to i t s various forms. The physical sizes of lakes and streams deterniine, only to a limited extent, their recreational use. We are forced to conclude that water quality i s one of the most important l imi t ing factors i n recreational use. Quality of water exer-cises this control through i t s effect on the quality of the experience. I t i s the quality of the experience that makes outdoor recreation one of the important pursuits In a c i v i l i z e d existence.48 Water quality i s a question of the inter-relationships between physical, chemical and biological factors. Before much can be done to control quality a clear understanding of the original condition must be gained. Then not only the direction of change can be identified but quite possibly the elements as wel l . Restoration of a completely deteriorated system requires much time and a great deal of money and In some cases the or iginal conditions can never be duplicated. . U.S. ORRRC, Water for Recreation - Values and Opportunities (Study Report #10.,. Washington: G.P.O., 1962),, p. 54. •92 Vegetation Vegetation along with: the actual land form i t s e l f i s the commonest feature i n the outdoor recreation experience. I t i s so common and taken for granted that concern for i t often.does not arise u n t i l major changes have occurred. The emphasis: on the "natural" environment by recreationists refers mainly to the vegetation. Yet few areas exist i n their or ig ina l , natural, indigenous vegetal cover undisturbed by man, around centers of pop-ulation or the inhabited.countryside. For example, A r v i l l points,out that i n England, c i t izen and tourist al ike accept grassland and heath as part of the "natural countryside. But their naturalness and unity are only i n the mind of the user.. .The chalk and lime-stone grasslands of England are of special importance as attractive open spaces for the urban dweller. Few appreciate that they are an. artefact - a man-^ nade creation- - and that their continuance depends upon management.^9 The idea of management seems to create.considerable consternation amongst certain groups of users. They associate i t with, a r t i f i c i a l i t y and so do not want i t i n the "wild" of "natural" areas. Unfortunately they do not real ize .that the continued existence of many areas depends on manage-ment or manipulations of the governing factors by qualified personnel. According to.Stone "management consists merely of those actions that are necessary to achieve one or more objectives, whatever they may he, even i f 50 the objective i s '-no management'". Stone has developed an. out l ine of the 49 A r v i l l , dp. c i t . , p. 171.. 50 Edward C. Stone, "Preserving Vegetation i n Parks and Wilderness", Science, V o l . 150 (December 3, 1 9 6 5 ) , p. 1264, 93 C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f v e g e t a t i o n i n te r r a s o f m e a s u r -a b l e e c o s y s t e m u n i t s C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n of e c o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l o f s p e c i e s i n v o l v e d . E c o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l i s d t e r m i n e d by t h e a b i l i t y o f a s s o c i a t e d p l a n t s p e c i e s t o : 1. o c c u p y p o s i t i o n s a l o n g p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r a d i e n t s eg 1, m o i s t u r e , l i g h t , t e m p e r a t u r e , s o i l n u t r i e n t s ( p h y s i o l o g i c a l p o t e n t i a l ) 2. m o d i f y e n v i r o n m e n t a l g r a d i e n t s on w h i c h t h e y become e s t a b l i s h e d 3. s u r v i v e u n d e r g r a z i n g p r e s s u r e , and i n s e c t a nd p a t h o g e n a t t a c k . 4. w i t h s t a n d f i r e and r e - e s t a b l i s h f o l l o w i n g f i r e . C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f e n v i r o n m e n t i n t e r m s o f : 1. m u l t i d i m e n s i o n a l p h y s i c a l and c h e m i c a l g r a d i e n t s . 2. p r e v a l e n c e o f u n g u l a t e s , r o d e n t s , i n s e c t s , p a t h o g e n s , and f i r e . C h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f s u c c e s s i o n a l t r e n d s o v e r t h e v a r i e t y o f e n v i r o n -ments i n v o l v e d ( s u c c e s s i o n a l p o t e n t i a l ) D e v e l o p m e n t o f m a n i p u l a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s t h a t c a n c o n t r o l t h e s u c c e s s i o n a l f o r c e w i t h o u t u p s e t t i n g t h e r e l a t i o n -s h i p between o t h e r o r g a n i s m s i n t h e e c o s y s t e m . O p e r a t i o n a l t e s t i n g O j > e r a t i o u a l i n v e n t o r y t e c h n i q u e s O p e r a t i o n a l m a n i p u l a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s Figure 8 Information required to develop manipulative techniques for vegetation (Source; Stone , Science, Vol.150, D e c , 1965, p . l 262) 94 Information required for such management, (see Figure 8) A. "W. Kuchler has advocated the mapping of the vegetation of the'entire United States. He maintains that the State of Wisconsin has progressed further than any other state i n this respect. A map of the existing vege-tation i n selected regions i s necessary to accomplish any management aims. For most areas, such information i s just not available. Though i t was stated earl ier that the fauna usually follow the f lo ra , this was not meant to imply the s t r ic t independency of plants and dependency of animals. The two interact and are to a certain degree, inter-dependent. Large ungulates can affect the process of succession by over-browsing i f their ..numbers exceed the carrying capacity.of their range. Many plant seeds are disseminated by animals. The presence of particular animals can influence or favour a particular plant association or community. It i s important to remember that vegetation forms an extremely high proportion of the habitat of most te r res t r ia l animals. I f the animals themselves are considered of value, their habitat must be maintained. The vegetation i s sometimes direct ly affected by man's ignorance or carelessness, but on some occasions i t i s affected indirectly by other actions. Compaction of the . so i l has already been mentioned, either by men or machines. Lowering of the water table and pollution of the a i r also contribute to vegetation loss. Certain ecosystems, such as marshlands, dune and alpine f lora are extremely fragi le . This must be recognized i f they are to be incorporated successfully into an outdoor recreation system. 95 Wildl i fe Apart from the 'function of the fauna i n helping.to.maintain s tab i l i ty i n ecosystems,, certain groups, particularly the larger birds and mammals, are an important component in:the outdoor scene.for many recrea-t ionis t s . Whether they hunt,.photograph, engage i n wi ld l i fe study or just 51 l ike to "look", - " in some way, most people have an interest i n w i l d l i f e . " Many species of animals have become extinct, A r v i l l quotes Dr. Ian McTaggart Cowan as saying that "In nineteen hundred years, the world has lost 52 107. mammals and close on 100. kinds of birds." Extinction i t s e l f i s a natural process, the question i s for how many of the above losses was man direct ly responsible. Of a l l wildlife.species on the continent the most numerous was the passenger pigeon. At the beginning of the nine-teenth:, century the.number of these birds was estimated.to be an incredible 5,000,000,000. Around 181Q,. Ornitholo-gist Alexander Wilson reported sighting i n Kentucky a single flock which was a mile wide and 240 miles long, containing, he guessed1 more.than 2,000,0.00,000 birds. It is; l i k e l y that these p ro l i f i c pigeons . then constituted.about a third of the entire bird population of the United States. . Succulent and easy to k i l l , they were shipped by the carload to c i ty markets, and some farmers used them for hog feed. It was inevitable that these vast flocks would be depleted. They were an easy mark for the hunters, and the forest levelers were destroying their habitat. Ultimately, however, the passenger pigeons were not : . depleted - they were exterminated. At the ' end of the' nineteenth century there was 5 1 A r v i l l , op. c i t . ? p. 143.' 5 2 I b i d . , p. 142. not one.to be seen, and a few years later the last survivor of the species died i n the Cincinnati zoo.53 No one thought i t possible that a bird so numerous could be wiped out. The buffalo, also extremely numerous, almost met the same fate. To preserve selected species i s not, as f i r s t thought just the simple matter of protecting them from their natural enemies. The habitat i t s e l f must be managed and protected. The range of the animals and whether or not they migrate i s also important. To protect and provide feeding grounds, on one hand, and then turn around and destroy breeding grounds, on the other, serves no purpose whatsoever. The problem must be faced i n i t s ecological context. During the ecological reconnaissance of Alaska, conducted by Leopold and Darling, an interesting relationship was discovered between moose, caribou and vegetation. Man and predators had long been held responsible for the great reduction i n caribou herds. Leopold and Darling pointed out, however, "that the caribou was a creature of climax vegetation - the lichen 54 tundra - and the moose one of mid-successional vegetation." Once this climax vegetation was destroyed, due to f i r e , overgrazing and other causes, i t was followed by the scrub growth of mid-successional vegetation. Thus the range of .the caribou was further reduced while that of the moose was extended. This i s an excellent example of a case where "conservation of the 'Stewart C. Udal l , The Quiet Cr i s i s (New York: Avon Books, 1964), p. 75. bar l ing, dp. c i t . , p. 42.. 97 range should be dominant over conservation of the individual animal, not the 55-other way around". Darling, Huxley and.others.have argued that man has a responsibility to protect wi ld l i f e i n i t s natural state by the mere fact that i t exists. Posberg, Sears, Bates and others have emphasized through their work i n eco-system ecology, as shown i n Chapter I I I , that one of their tentative conclu-sions i s that variety i n natural ecosystems i s an indication of s t ab i l i ty . This s t ab i l i ty affords the ecosystem the ab i l i t y to withstand disturbances, either natural or a r t i f i c i a l , and return to i t s or iginal condition. : variety i n ecosystems.seems to indicate s t ab i l i t y ; s implici ty , ins tab i l i ty . This i s another, more v i t a l reason, for the preservation of w i ld l i f e . Of more interest here though i s the fact that animals are very much a part of the outdoors and the quality of the outdoor experience would be degraded were once familiar animals only to be found i n zoos. Summary This chapter has sought to show the fundamental importance of ecological Information to the outdoor recreation planning process. The facts are that i n the past l i t t l e of the information available has been u t i l i z ed and even now i s not used to the extent i t should be. The discussion was presented i n three sections. The f i r s t considered the h i s tor ica l aspects of the park concept i n relat ion to planning. Then the concept of an "ecological point of view" was discussed as a basic, approach to the planning for outdoor recreation. Ian McHarg i s representative of this approach. He i s not specif ical ly concerned with recreation; however, A. Starker Leopold and F. Fraser Darling, Wildl i fe i n Alaska: A Eco- logica l Reconnaissance (New York: The Ronald Press, 1953) , p. 112. 98 he has carried the approach further and applied i t to planning as a.whole. 56 Artur Glikson i s also one of the few planners to recognize and actively use such information i n his work. ' The th i rd section pointed out three areas where ecological processes could be c r i t i c a l . There are areas where specialists.. i n . such disciplines as limnology, botany or game management might need to.be consulted.' In such instances the planner should consult them before development occurs or at least make them part of the on-going process of the development i t s e l f . To commit errors out of ignorance and then c a l l i n the appropriate consultant to repair the damage i s a particularly dangerous technique. In the case of natural ecosystems i t can be disastrous since a point can quickly be reached where restoration i s either biologically or economically impossible. Biological information must form an input i n the process of planning for outdoor recreation just as social and economic information now do. That planning i s unquestionably done for the benefit of people i s impl i c i t , but i f i t i s to be done well i t must be done i n the l ight of as complete a know-ledge of the natural environment as science can make available. The planning process must also be prepared to adapt as new fields of knowledge are uncovered and not remain a static approach to what i s already known to be a process composed of an immense number ;of interacting, interdependent dynamic systems. Artur Glikson, Regional Planning and.Development (Leiden: A. ;W. S i j t h o f f s Uitgeversmaatscappij N. V . , 1955) CHAPTER V SUMMARY AMD CONCLUSION This study.started by.considering .the broad relationships between man and nature which have evolved through history as man's association with the natural world has changed through the development of c i v i l i z a t i o n and technology. The progression of man from the position of a minor influent 1 on the natural world to his position to-day as the major ecological force has not been uniform. The rate of change began to increase with the industrial revolution. Unt i l that time man's world, c i v i l i z e d or otherwise, was largely ordered by the natural processes of the seasons and the daily r i s ing and setting of the sun. Time, except i n those terms, had very l i t t l e importance. But, as Nels Anderson pointed out, a drastic change occurred with the general regulation of the day by the hours, minutes and seconds of the clock. The whole cycle of l i f e was reoriented to this and the production techniques of the industr ial revolution. The machines could go on twenty-four hours a day, only their human attendants and operators required rest. Ci t ies became centres of attraction and consequently they grew both i n number and size. Rural l i f e and ethic were broken but were replaced by nothing but the d i r t , disease and degradation of the nineteenth century industr ial c i t y . The trend continued and continues even to-day. Modern c i t i e s The term i s used here i n the animal ecology sense of an animal having a "minor influence" on a habitat as opposed to.being a "dominant". I . 100 . are larger and better, to. a degree, than their nineteenth century counter-parts. Ian McHarg feels that: "ci t ies are probably the most inhuman environments ever made by man for man. It i s taking the best efforts of modern medicine and social legis lat ion to ameliorate the abuses which the 2 physical environment imposes on us." However, urban dwellers to-day do enjoy better l i v i n g and working conditions than i n the past and have time for other things. Recreational needs can, to a certain degree, be f u l f i l l e d within the urban centres. However, as cities.grow i t becomes more and more d i f f i cu l t to satisfy outdoor recreational needs within their boundaries. . But, there also appears to be a biological "need" to seek out the natural countryside for "re-creative" purposes. I t has already been established that increasing population, leisure time, disposable income and mobility are prime factors i n the phenomenal increase i n the demand for recreation f a c i l i t i e s of a l l kinds. Outdoor recreation i s no exception. Many new ac t iv i t ies have appeared. In 1958 when John Steinbeck set out on the journey which he recorded i n Travels With Charley . he had to have the camper unit custom-made for his truck. To-day, barely ten years la ter , there are over a thousand manufacturers of camper un i t s . in the United States and Canada. Attendance at National Parks (see Figure 6) has continued to increase and some are beginning to show signs of wear and tear. The unique and scenic areas preserved i n National Parks are suffering ecological harm. The natural Ian McHarg, "The Ecology of the Ci ty" , A . I .A . Journal, Vol . XXXVIII No.. 5XNovember, 19621.p. 101. 3 Dr. G. S. Sharpe, Lecture, Forestry 563, U .B .C . , March 20, 1968. 101 environment i t s e l f i s being degraded. But the recreation experience i s doubly affected: f i r s t , by .the degradation of the natural features and, second, by the appearance of too many people i n the same place at the same time. I t would appear, i n short, that the rudimentary grades of outdoor recreation consume their resource-base; the higher grades, at least to a degree, create their own satisfactions with l i t t l e or no a t t r i t ion of land or l i f e . It i s the expansion of transport without a corres-ponding growth.of perception that threatens us with qualitative bankruptcy of the recreational process. Recreational development i s a job not of building roads into lovely country, but of building perceptivity, into the s t i l l unlovely human mind.4 Large numbers of people are demanding recreation space and f a c i l i t i e s . Supplies of land and water are f ini te , and, i n any case, there are a great many more uses to which land can be put.tonlay than i n 1900.. Nearly a l l non-urban land i s controlled to a degree, for some purpose, be i t agriculture, timber production, rights of way or airports. To accommodate a l l uses on the available land requires planning. To endeavour to do th is and maintain a natural harmony i n the landscape and, at the same time achieve maximum social gain requires a planning process rooted i n ecological principles and concepts. In outdoor recreation i t i s the natural environment that i s of prime importance. The hypothesis i n this study i s that ecology i s a basic factor i n the planning for.outdoor recreation. The evidence has been presented i n the form of actual examples i n their relat ion to ecological principles Aldo Leopold, A Sand County. Almanac (New York: The Oxford University Press, 1949), p. 176. 102 and concepts. Most o f these are n e g a t i v e i n t h a t they represent s i t u a t i o n s which.should not have occurred had e c o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n been u t i l i z e d . Very few examples have been found t o support the p o s i t i v e p o s i t i o n . Two f a c t o r s , apart from ecology yet b e a r i n g d i r e c t l y on i t , make r e c r e a t i o n p l a n n i n g d i f f i c u l t . These are space and time. Outdoor r e c r e a t i o n i s very much a f f e c t e d by seasonal v a r i a t i o n s . The coincidence o f l a r g e numbers o f people i n space and time has already been mentioned i n respect t o n a t i o n a l parks. Heavy use i n summer months i s t o be expected, but how t o cope w i t h . i t i s another problem. Thomas L. Burton showed, f o r i n s t a n c e , t h a t seventy-eight percent of the Swedes compared w i t h s i x t y percent o f the B r i t o n s took annual v a c a t i o n s . But, more important i s the f a c t t h a t over e i g h t y percent i n . b o t h c o u n t r i e s took t h e i r v a c a t i o n s between June and 5 August. Thus a great number o f people expect t o partake of s i m i l a r experiences i n a p e r i o d o f only three months. When t h i s f a c t i s coupled w i t h the i n d i -v i d u a l a b i l i t y o f each p r o s p e c t i v e r e c r e a t i o n i s t t o cover l o n g d i s t a n c e s d u r i n g an annual v a c a t i o n , the problems o f p r e d i c t i n g the numbers of v i s i t o r s at a p a r t i c u l a r park or other a t t r a c t i o n a t a given t i n e , are manifold. "At present, Americans i n d i c a t e t h a t they w i l l e x p l o i t t h e i r m o b i l i t y and spend t h e i r l e i s u r e i n d i f f e r e n t s e t t i n g where they can pursue a wide v a r i e t y o f a c t i v i t i e s . " Many c o u n t r i e s have disco v e r e d t h a t t h e i r r e c r e a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s , e v e r y t h i n g from parks and game reserves t o beaches, s k i slopes and commercial entertainment, are no longer j u s t p r o v i n c i a l o r n a t i o n a l i n Thomas L. Burton, "Outdoor R e c r e a t i o n i n America, Sweden and Britain',' J o u r n a l of Town and.Country P l a n n i n g , V o l . 34. No. 10.,(October, 1966.) Douglas H. Sessoms, "New Bases f o r R e c r e a t i o n P l a n n i n g " , J o u r n a l o f the  American I n s t i t u t e o f Planners, V o l . XXX. No. 1.. (February, 1964), p. 29. 103 scope, but International as wel l . Planning for outdoor recreation must.attempt to take the above mentioned problems into consideration. Unfortunately "outdoor recreation 7 supplied to one-person does diminish the amount supplied to other persons", and "s imilar ly , i t can be argued.that the point beyond .which-planned capacity i s exceeded i s the point also at which sharp quality deterioration g sets i n . " These points raise the question of limitations of use and the problems of establishing ecological c r i t e r i a on which to base them. Even though "quality deterioration" i s , i n this case, the observation of an econo-mist, i t s solution l i e s i n the realm of ecology. Great recreational demand on resources, different ial ly distributed, and of variable type and quality poses many d i f f i cu l t problems i n the planning for outdoor recreation. Before even considering the system of parks proposed by Hart, the prime prerequisite to an adequate planning program i s an inventory, at least as.comprehensive as that of Phi l ip Lewis. • Hart contends that "the fundamental requirement for sound progress i n park work on a national basis i s an g inventory of the natural and cultural attributes of the country. He establishes the inventory as the necessary precondition to the development of an integrated system of parks, rather than.the present situation where several "systems" are each concerned with their own c r i t e r i a and development. In Canada, i t was not u n t i l 1965 that the inventory of recreation capability, was started under the Land Inventory Divison .of .the Agriculture 7 Warren,C. Robinson, "The Simple Economics of Public Outdoor Recreation", Land Economics, Vo l . XLIII . No. 1., (February, 1967), p. 73-o I b i d . , p. 77. J . Hart, A Systems Approach: to Park Planning (Morges, Switzerland: International Union for the.Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 1966), p. 41-.-. 104 and Rural Development Agreement (ARDA). Admittedly this i s a nationwide program being co-ordinated and carried out by Federal-Provincial agreement. However, only a small portion of the country has been done and there i s some question as to.when the Information w i l l be available.. In the ARDA. study . "the basis ..of c lass i f icat ion i s the quantity of recreation which may be generated and sustained per unit area of land per 10 year under perfect market conditions." Lewis, however, has made a decision that topography, surface water and wetlands are-the basic information required. This information i s supplemented by recording other natural and cultural features of the landscape. A system of some two hundred symbols has been developed to .represent these graphically. In this analysis Lewis i s not concerned with, capability. The extent of detail,allowable i n such a survey w i l l to a large extent depend on the time,.staff and funds available. A less detailed and.;..-costly survey of the entire area.concerned would be preferable to a detailed study of only a portion of i t should the choice have to be made. This i s , of course, assuming the area i s re lat ively large and not of uniform topography and character. In such a case, or i n a situation involving a large area and a low population, .the ecological reconnaissance.as used.by Darling and Leopold may give a gross picture as well as indicate areas of concern. This would allow.for the more costly and-detailed studies to be done on a smaller scale. The .whole of Hart's.exposition on "parks systems" i s on a regional and national basis or scale.. In the ensuing discussion of "region", Hart Canada Land Inventoryj F i e l d Manual, Land Capability for.Outdoor  Recreation (Dept. of Forestry and Rural Development,.June , 1967)> P• 7 • 105 makes the point that "In planning, use of regions tailored to specific needs 11 i s finding increasing favor as a basis of analysis." He goes on to describe the dangers inherent i n such a process when economic, social and physical problems form an indivisible complex. For park planning, the landscape region seems most relevant and has been used as a fundamental unit for analysis i n a number of U.S. park planning studies. The landscape region i s based on homogeneous, land forms... .Boundaries of regions may overlap p o l i t i c a l boundaries, or be truncated by them, depending on the nature of . the planning problem and the perspective . brought to.the problem by the planner. More work may show that landscape regions have a significant correlation with many socio-economic factors which w i l l make such regions even more valuable for recreation planning. At this stage, i t seems evident that the landscape region has application to the analysis and resolution of many resource-use problems.12 The so-called "landscape region" i s analogous to the larger areas defined by H i l l s , Lewis and McHarg. . Hart,. as .shown i n the above quotation, attributes considerable significance to i t as a regional concept for resource-use. What i s of importance here i s the fact that ecological principles are a basic consideration i n the designation of a landscape region. I f i t i s to be used regionally for resource allocation, would i t not be, i n effect, functioning as the basis for regional planning? Planning for outdoor recreation seems to be emerging as an activity of regional scale. This same impression i s conveyed by the work of Artur Glikson who approaches recreational use of land as an integral part of the t o t a l i t y of regional planning. "Hart, dp. c i t . , p. 43 . 106 Out of the theoretical development of, and the s t i l l very limited practical experience i n , regional and town planning, the most important conclusion to be drawn with respect to planning for recreation i s the need for comprehensive-ness. Land-use planning for recreation should be comprehensive i n the geographical sense.13 Glikson feels that i t i s impossible to supply the needed amount of land for recreational use at the regional scale . i f i t i s to.be used exclusively for that purpose. His conclusion, while consonant with.his.own philosophy of regional planning, would not necessarily be acceptable to someone l ike Hart or to a national park service. Our conclusion therefore, i s that the c r i s i s of recreational land use can be solved only by opening up for recreational use the whole of the region. Nowhere should recreation be . an exclusive function of an area; a land-scape should be* useful and beautiful at the ^ same time - a resource of l i f e and i t s renewal. Perhaps i f development were to proceed as outlined in.that particular paper by Mr. Glikson such a time would come when the designation "park" would be unnecessary and the whole landscape would emerge "as an inexhaustible 15 resource of human recreation." I t must be stated, however, that i n the thirteen years since the ar t ic le was written l i t t l e progress;has been recorded i n that direction. Examples have been cited i n this paper to indicate that absolute losses have been incurred i n some areas. Under these conditions 13 Artur Glikson, "Recreational Land Use", Man's Role i n Changing the Face  of the Earth, ed. W. H. Thomas (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956), p. 904. l 4 I b i d . , p. 906. 1 5 I b i d . , p. .-912. 107 a system of parks, from the highly a r t i f i c i a l user-oriented park of the ci ty to s t r i c t l y controlled wilderness areas, appears to be the only way of assuring at least par t ia l fulfillment of the demand for outdoor recreation f a c i l i t i e s . Though Artur Glikson's work i s concerned with "regional planning and development" his approach and philosophy evolve from a consideration of the land form, physiography and ecology. He defines the human environment "as 1 a set of biological and physical facts i n space, as modified by man." The .whole issue of recreation i s within his context as a regional planner and receives equal treatment and consideration because of this Intrinsic relationship. The relationship i t s e l f i s established by Glikson's commitment to the ecological point of view and the resulting process i s one of comprehensiveness, harmony and unity. Though this study has been restricted i n scope and depth to a review of some basic ecological principles i n respect to planning for outdoor recreation, some interesting conclusions can be stated. The study was con-fined to an appraisal of existing li terature i n the fields of recreation, ecology and planning. No experimental or survey work or specific case study was undertaken. In order to support the hypothesis, data connected with a l l forms of development, not merely park or recreation development, were drawn upon. During the study an., interesting aspect emerged from the .consider-ation of the work of both. Artur Glikson and Ian McHarg. The concepts put Artur Glikson, "Man's Relationship to His.Environment", Man and His  Environment, ..ed. .G...Wolstenholme (Boston: L i t t l e Brown and .Co., I 9 6 3 ) , p. 132. 108 forth here as the basis of planning for outdoor recreation have, i n their works, been extended to the regional planning process as a.whole. A more detailed study of their work might prove to be very revealing, particularly i n respect to the application, at the practical planning l eve l , by a planner of ecological principles and concepts. One dist inct d i f f icu l ty during the study was to separate the concept of planning for outdoor recreation from the to ta l i ty of regional planning. By making this a r t i f i c i a l separation expl ic i t i n the hypothesis there i s a tendency to impl ic i t ly accept the idea that i n rea l i ty an actual divis ion exists. Both McHarg and Glikson indicate this i s not so. The'planning i s of the to ta l i ty not of the individual parts. The evidence presented i n the preceding chapters would.seem to sub-stantiate the following four conclusions. 1) Increases i n population, mobility, leisure time and disposable income are contributing to a greatly increased demand for outdoor recreation. This demand, particularly i n some areas, i s not yet accurately predictable. 2) Fini te resources of land and water are also experiencing increasing demands through increases i n population and a mult i -tude of factors associated with the general trend towards urbanization. 17 3) The natural environment 1 i s the.locale i n which the outdoor recreation experience i s satisfied. . However, not a l l land and The natural environment being the sum of the biot ic and abiotic factors and the modifications brought upon them by man. 109. water i s suitable for.some forms of outdoor .recreation. Certain elements, considered of high value by the recreationist, are almost to ta l ly regulated by natural processes which the science of ecology seeks to understand. These processes are affected both positively and negatively by the actions of man. Most of these actions are undertaken i n complete ignorance of their short or long term effect on the natural systems. Some eco-systems, already reasonably well understood, are known to be very susceptible to change. 4) Many ecologists have agreed that one of the basic tentative conclusions to emerge from,the.study of ecosystem ecology i s that optimum u t i l i za t i on of energy occurs in.stable ecosystems and stable ecosystems usually exhibit complexity and diversity rather than simplicity, and uniformity. McHarg summarizes these ideas concisely i n the following table, under the headings of retrogression and evolution. retrogression evolution Furthermore, i t has also been recognized that the actions of man tend to lead to simplicity i n ecosystems. This i s sometimes conciously done because i t has been assumed that by s imp l i f i -r simpllci ty uniformity complexity diversity interdependence (symbiosis) s tab i l i ty (steady-state) high number of species low entropy 1r> i l l health < independence Instabili ty, low number of species chigh entropy health Ian McHarg, "An Ecological Method.for Landscape Architecture", Land- scape Architecture,'.Vol. 57. No. 2 . (January, 1967)> P« 107. 110 cation man i s better able to control and u t i l i z e natural systems. The knowledge of ecosystems gained to date, though incomplete, indicates that this may be a very serious mis-conception that leads, as the above table shows, to retrogression instead of evolution. Finally, i n respect to the above conclusions, i t must be remembered, as discussed i n Chapter II, that recreation i n any form whatsoever i s a per-sonal experience. Regardless of whether the event occurs when an individual i s alone in a wilderness or with his family and hundreds of others on a beach, i t i s a personal event. It ultimately stimulates or "re-creates" the i n d i v i -dual and a premium or l i t t l e value i s placed on i t i n respect to the amount of satisfaction that the person gains from i t . I f the event is an established practice, then by that fact alone, i t w i l l have a "quality expectation" attached to i t . When this quality expectation i s not met, as expected, the individual w i l l become dissatisfied. He may seek to duplicate the experience elsewhere or may no longer indulge i n that particular form of recreation. The ecological point of view applied to planning for outdoor recreation can help to alleviate conditions which might lead to the above situation. The existing demand for outdoor recreation i s not being met. Natural resource allocation continues to take place, for the most part, without respect to natural systems and the inherent capability of the land. Many fragile ecosystems presently designated for recreational uses are suffering from overuse and other such ecosystems of potential recreational use are being degraded either by misallocation or misuse. Man i s the paramount ecological force i n the world to-day and must recognize his responsibility i n this regard. The economic costs of totally disregarding natural processes in development of the earth for human habitat-ion are only now being realized. B I B L I O G R A P H Y BIBLIOGRAPHY A. BOOKS Anderson, Nels. Work and Leisure. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961. A r v i l l , Robert./ Man and Environment. Harmondsworth; Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1967• Athletic Institute. A Brief History of Parks and Recreation i n the United States. Chicago, I l l i n o i s : 1954. Blake, Peter. God's Own Junkyard. "The Planned Deterioration of America's Landscape." New York: Rinehart and Winston, 1964. Brockman, Prank C.' Recreational Use of Wildlands. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1959-Chadwick, George.P. The Park and the Town. London: The Architectural Press, 1966. Chapman, V. J. Coastal Vegetation.. London: Pergamon Press, 1964. Clawson, Marion and Knetsch, Jack L. Economics of Outdoor Recreation. B a l t i -more: John Hopkins Press, for Resources for the Future Inc., 1966. Dansereau, Pierre. Biogeography: An Ecological Perspective. New York: Ronald Press, 1957. Dasmann, Raymond.E. The Destruction of California. New.York: Collier:Books, . 1966. ;. deGrazia, -Sebastian. Of Time, Work, and Leisure. Garden City, New York; Anchor Books, Doubleday and.Company Inc., 1964. 113. Dice, Lee R. Natural Communities. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, .1952. Doel l , Charles E. Elements of Park and Recreation Administration. Minneapolis: . Burgess Publishing Company, 1963. Douglas, William 0. A Wilderness B i l l of Rights.. Boston: L i t t l e , Brown and Co., 1965. Dumazedier, J . Toward a Society of Leisure. New York: The Free Press, 1967. Ekirch, Arthur. A. J r . Man and Nature i n America. New. York and London: Columbia University. Press, 1963. Elton, Charles. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. London: . Butler and Tanner L t d . , 1958. Glikson, Artur. Regional Planning and Development.. Leiden: A. W. S i j t h o f f s Uitgeversmaatschappij N. V . , 1955. Graham, E. H. Natural Principles ,of Land Use. New York: Oxford University Press, 19M.. Halg-Brown, R.. The Living Land. Toronto: The MacMillan Co. of Canada L t d . , Hart, William J . A Systems Approach to Park Planning. Morges, Switzerland: International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, I966. Ise, John. Our National. Park Policy. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, for Resources for the Future Inc . , 1961. Jarrett , H. (ed.) Comparisons i n Resource Management...' Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, for Resources for .the Future Inc. , I96I.. Kaplan, Max. .Leisure i n America: A Social Inquiry. New York: John Wiley, I960.. 114 Larrabee, E. and Meyersohn, R. (eds.) Mass Leisure.. Glencoe: The Free Press, 1958. . Leopold, Aldo. A Sand County Almanac. New York: Oxford University Press, 1949. Leopold, A. Starker and Darling, P. Eraser. Wildlife i n Alaska:: An Ecological ' Reconnaissance. New York: The Ronald Press.Co., 1953-Marsh, George Perkins. Man and Nature, edited by.D. Lowenthal, Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1965. (First published i n 1864.) Mason, H. L. A Flora of the Marshes of California. . Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1957. Miller, N. P. and Robinson, D. M. The Leisure Age. .' Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Co., 1'9'63. Niering, Wm. A. The Life of the Marsh: The North. American Wetlands. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., World Book Encyclopedia, 1966. Nordenskiold, Erik. The History of Biology. New York: Tudor publishing Co., 1928. Odum, Eugene.P. Fundamentals of Ecology. • 2nd ed, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1959. Ovington, J. D. Woodlands. London: The English Universities Press, St. Paul's House, Warwick Lane, 1965. Sears, P. A. The Living Landscape. New York: Basic Books Inc., I 9 6 6 . Shelford, V. E. The Ecology ;of North. America. . Urbana: . University of I l l i n o i s Press, I 9 6 3 . Tapper, Margo. No Place to Play. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, I 9 6 6 . 115. Udal, Stewart L. The Quiet C r i s i s . New.York: Avon.Books, 1964. Wrenn, C. G. and Harley, D. L. Time oh Their Hands. Washington: American Council of Education, 194l. . B. ARTICLES.IN PERIODICALS B l a i r , W. Frank. "The Case for Ecology", Bioscience, July , 1964. pp. 17-19. Burton, Thomas L. "Outdoor Recreation i n America, Sweden and Br i t a in" , Journal of Town, and Country Planning, 34, No. 10, October, 1966. Cole, Lamont C. "The Impending Emergence of Ecological Thought", Bioscience, July , 1964, pp. 30-32. Dansereau, Pierre. "The Future of Ecology", Bioscience, Ju ly , 1964, pp.20-24. Darling, F. Fraser. "A Wider Environment of Ecology and Conservation", Daedalus, 96, No.: 4, F a l l , 1967, pp. 1003-1019. Deevy, Edward S. Jr . . "General and Histor ical Ecology," Bioscience, July, . 1964, pp. 33-38. Etzkorn, K. Peter. "Leisure and Camping: The Social Meaning of a Form of Public Recreation", Sociology and Social Research, 49, 1964-65, pp. 76-88. Fosdick, El lery R. J r . "The Pollution of Man's Fnvironment", National Parks  Magazine, 40,.No. 228, September, 1966, pp. 16-20. Giddens, A. "Notes on the Concepts of Play and Leisure", Sociological Review, New Series, 12.,. 1964, pp.. 73-85 Holman, Mary-A. "A National Time-Budget for the Year 2Q00", Sociology and  Social Research, 46, 1961-62, pp. 17-25. : .116. K r u t i l l a , John.V. "Some Environmental Effects of Economic Development", Daedalus, 9 6 , .No. 4 , F a l l , 1967, pp. IO58-IO69. Kuchler, A. W. "where i s What?", Bioscience, July, 1964, pp. 39-41 . Landsberg, Hans.S. "Quantity and Quality of Resources", Daedalus, 9 6 , No.- 4 , F a l l , 1967, PP- 1034-1057. Law, Sylvia. "Planning for Outdoor.Recreation i n the Countryside", Journal of the Town Planning Insti tute, 5 3 , No. 9 , November, 1967, pp. 383-386. Lewis, .Phil ip.H. J r . "Quality..Corridors i n Wisconsin", Landscape Architecture, 54, No. 2 , January, 1964, pp. 100-107. Lovelace, Eldridge. "The Automobile and Recreation", Traffic Quarterly, October, 1966, pp. 528-537. McHarg, Ian L . "The Ecology of the Ci ty" , Architectural Institute of America Journal, XXXVIII, No. 5 , November,.1962, pp. 101-103. _ _ _ _ _ _ "An Ecological Method for Landscape Architecture", Landscape Archi-tecture, 57,'.No.. 2 , January, 1967, pp. 105-107.' ______> and Wallace, David A. "Plan for the Valleys vs. Spectre of . Uncontrolled Growth", Landscape Architecture, 55 , No. 3 , A p r i l , 1965, pp. 179-181. . McKinley, Daniel. "The True Wealth, of Nations: The Need for an Ecological Conscience", Landscape,.12, No. 1 , August, 1962, pp. 15-17-Masser, Ian. "The Use of Outdoor.Recreation Facilities"^.Town•Planning .Review, . A p r i l , 1966, pp. •41-54. Mattyasovsky, Eugene.. "Recreation Area Planning: Some Physical and.Ecological Requirements", Plan: - Canada, 8 , No. 3 , 1967, pp. .91-109. 117 Munford, Lewis.' "Social Function of Open Spaces", Landscape, 10, No. 2, Winter, 1960-61, p. 4. Nelson, Gaylord A. et a l . "Ecology as a Basis for the -20th Century Planning and Design: Essays on Man's Intrusion into Environment with Hopeful Suggestions for a less Intrusive Future," 'Landscape Architecture, 57, No. 2, January, 1967, pp. 102-104. Odum, Eugene. "The New Ecology", Bioscience, July, 1964, pp. 14-16'. Papageorgiou, Alexis. "Architectural Schemata for Outdoor Recreation Areas of Tomorrow", Daedalus, 96, No. 4, F a l l , 1967, pp. . 1158-1171 •'. P a t r i , Tito. "Foggy Clues: The.Cost of Ignoring Ecology i n Development", Landscape Architecture, .57, No. 2, January, 1967, PP- 113-115. Pattersen, Robert W. "The Art of the Impossible", Daedalus, 96, No. 4, F a l l , 1967, pp. 1020-1033. Piatt, Robert B. et a l . "The Importance of Environment to Li f e " , Bioscience, July, 1964, pp. .25-29. . Revelle, Roger. "Outdoor Recreation i n a Hyper-Productive Society", Daedalus, 96, No. 4,. F a l l , 1967, pp..1172-1184..' Ripley, S. Dillon and Buechner, Helmut K. "Ecosystem Science as a Point of Synthesis", Daedalus, 96 , No. 4,. F a l l , I 9 6 7 , pp..1192-1209. Robinson, Warren C. "The Simple Economics of Public Outdoor Recreation", Land Economics, XLIII,.No. 1, February, 1967, pp. 71-83. St. Bodfan Bruffydd, J. "The.Pursuit of Nature Undefiled", Landscape Archi- tecture, 54, No. 2, January, 1964, pp. 108-111. Sears, Paul B. "Ecology - A.Subversive Science", Bioscience, July, 1964,. pp. 11-13. 118 Sessoms, H. Douglas, "New Basis for Recreation Planning", Journal of the American Institute of Planners, XXX, No. 1 , February, 1964, pp. 2 6 -33. Simmons,.1. G. 'Wilderness i n the Mid-Twentieth Century U.S .A." , Town Plan- ning Review, 36, No.- 34, January, 1966, pp. 249-255. Stone, Edward. C. "Preserving Vegetation i n Parks and Wilderness", Science, . 150, .December, 1965, p. 1262.. Straight, Michael. "The Water Picture i n Everglades National Park", National Parks Magazine, 3 9 , No-.215, August, I 9 6 5 , pp.- 4 - 9 . Szalai , Alexander. "Trends in.Comparative Time-Budget Research", E k i s t i c s , . 24, No. 144,,. November, 1 9 6 7 , p. 384. Rindal l , F. P. "The Care of Coastline", Journal dT the Town Planning Institute, • 5 3 , No. 9 , November, 1967, pp. 387-392. Wagar, J . Alan. "The Carrying Capacity of Wild Lands for Recreation", Forest  Science - Monograph 7 , Washington: Society of American Foresters, 1964. Wagar, Jonathan. "Outdoor Recreation on Common Land", Journal of the Town Planning Insti tute, 5 3 , No. 9 , November, I967, pp.. 398-403. Wolfe, R. I . "Perspective on Outdoor Recreation: A Bibliographic Review", "Geographical Review, A p r i l , 1964 , pp. -233 • _______ "Leisure: The Element of Choice", Journal of Human Ecology, I I , No. ' . 1952, pp. 1-12. Wollman, Nathaniel. . "The New.Economics of Resources", Daedalus, 96 , No. 4 , P a l l , 1967, pp. IIO8-.UI3. 119 C. GrOvEFJSlMENT DOCUMENTS, REPORTS, CONFERENCES, .SYMPOSIUMS AND CONGRESSES Balch, R. E.: The Ecological Viewpoint. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 1965. Bates, Marson. "Nature's Effect on and Control of Man". Man's Place i n the Island Ecosystem. . A Symposium. Tenth Pacific Science Congress, ed. F. R. Fosberg, Honolulu, Hawaii:. Bishop Museum Press, I963. Brower, David (ed.). M i d l a n d s i n Our Civilization. 8th Biennial Wilder-ness Conference, San Francisco: Sierra Club, 1964. Cain, Stanley. "Biotope and Habitat". Future Environments of:North America. Being a.record of a Conference convened by The Conservation Foundation i n Ap r i l , I965, at Airlee House, Warrenton, Virginia, eds. F. Fraser Darling and John P. Milton. Garden City, New York: The Natural History Press, I966. Canada Land Inventory.. Field Manual, Land Capability,Classification for Out- door Recreation. ARDA, June, 1967. Darling, F. Fraser. "Conservation and Ecological Theory". :' B r i t i s h Ecological Society Jubilee.Symposium, eds. A. Macfadyen and,P. J. Newbould. 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Report to the Coordinating Committee ;of the Torch River Rural Development Area, A p r i l , 1963. 45th.National Recreation Congress. Leisure - The Heart of Living. St. Louis, Missouri: 1963-Fosberg, F. R. "The Island Ecosystem". Man's Place i n the Island Ecosystem. A Symposium. Tenth. Pacific Science Congress, ed. F. R. Fosberg. Honolulu, Hawaii: The Bishop Museum Press, 1963. Glacken, Clarence.J. "The Growing Second World Within the World of Nature". Man's Place i n the Island Ecosystem. A Symposium. . Tenth Pacific Science Congress, ed. F. R. Fosberg, Honolulu, Hawaii:. The Bishop Museum Press, 1963. Glickson, Artur. "Man's Relationship.to His Environment".1 Man arid His Environment. ed. .G. ..Wolstenholme, Boston: L i t t l e Brown and .Co., 1963. _________ "Recreational Land. Use". 1 Man's Role i n Changing the Face of the Earth. (International Symposium on -) ed. W. L. Thomas Jr. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1956. 121 Graham, Edward H. 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Royal Society of Arts. .The Countryside i n 1970• Second Conference, Proceed-ings . London: Royal Society of Art s, 1'9'66. ________ The :Countryside i n 1970.. Second Conference,.Reports, London: Royal Society of Arts, 1966. Searsj Paul B. "The Processes of Environmental Change by Man". : Man's Role i n .Changing the Face of the Earth. "(International Symposium on -) ed. W. L. Thomas Jr. Chicago: University.of Chicago Press, 1956. Tandy, C l i f f o r d R. V. (ed.). Landscape and Human Life . 9th.Congress of International Federation of Landscape Architects. Amsterdam: Djambatan, Publishers and Cartographers, I966. United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare. A:Strategy:for a Livable Environment. A Report to the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare by The Task Force on Environmental Health and Related Problems Washington: G.P.O., June, 1967. United States Outdoor Recreation Resources Review.Commission. 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Unreleased report to the Provincial Government, May, 1967-Goodwin,. Richard H. Letter to the Editor of Landscape Architecture, 57• No. 4 . July, 1967. Modeland, R. C. "The Functions of the Demand for and Supply of Recreational Land In B r i t i s h Columbia.Lower Mainland for the .Period of 1'9'60 to 1985" , Unpublished Bachelor's thesis, University of Br i t i sh Columbia, 1966. Parker, W. S. "Outdoor Recreation and the Public Interest"..' Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Br i t i sh Columbia, 1964. Spankie, C. D. M. "Space for Outdoor Recreation: Planning Aspects, for a National Pol icy" , Unpublished Master!s..thesis, University of B r i t i s h Columbia, 1967. 


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