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An investigation on the language structures in beginning readers compared with the language structures… Maminta, Rosario E. 1969

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AN INVESTIGATION ON THE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES IN BEGINNING READERS COMPARED WITH THE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES TAUGHT FOR ORAL PROFICIENCY IN THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE IN THE PHILIPPINES by ROSARIO E. MAMINTA B.S.Ed., University of the Philippines, 1946 M.Ed., University of the Philippines, 1952 TESL C e r t i f i c a t e , University of C a l i f o r n i a (Los Angeles), 1961 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF EDUCATION in the Department of Education We accept t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA OCTOBER, 1969 I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e a n d s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e H e a d o f my D e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . D e p a r t m e n t o f The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r 8, C a n a d a D a t e ABSTRACT The major assumption underlying t h i s investigation was that pupils learning English as a second language read more e f f e c t i v e l y i f beginning reading materials consist of language structures which are taught i n the o r a l language program. It was believed that structures learned i n the o r a l language course would reinforce reading s k i l l s and vice versa. Research evidence based on modern l i n g u i s t i c theory has indicated that patterns of form and arrangement of words, not words i n i s o l a t i o n alone, contribute to meaning. It has also been shown that comprehension i s a function of the degree of s i m i l a r i t y between the language structures learned o r a l l y and the language structures used i n the reading passage. The present study analyzed and compared the language structures i n the beginning readers with the language structures which are taught for o r a l proficiency i n the teaching guides for English used i n Philippine schools. The T-unit, which i s the shortest grammatically independent segment of language,, consisting of one independent clause and a l l subordinate clauses attached to i t was the basis of syntactic analysis and measure-ment . The language samples from the o r a l language guides and the reading texts were analyzed and compared on two l e v e l s . The f i r s t - l e v e l analysis was concerned with the underlying basic patterns and the length of the T-units as well as other i v r e l a t e d s t r u c t u r a l f e a t u r e s . The second l e v e l a n a l y s i s determined the kinds and number o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s produced by sentence-combining t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . The a n a l y s i s o f data r e v e a l e d t h a t there was a c l o s e s i m i l a r i t y between the kinds of b a s i c p a t t e r n s which occ u r r e d i n the o r a l language m a t e r i a l s and i n the re a d e r s . The f r e -quency o f occurrence centered around a few commonly used p a t t e r n s . There were r e l a t i v e l y more r a r e p a t t e r n s i n the re a d i n g passages than i n the o r a l language m a t e r i a l s . The l e n g t h of the T - u n i t i n the readers was g r e a t e r than i n the o r a l language m a t e r i a l s . The g r e a t e r l e n g t h o f the T - u n i t i n the re a d i n g t e x t s was due to the g r e a t e r number of subordinate c l a u s e s and n o n - c l a u s a l c o n s t r u c t i o n s produced by sentence-combining t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . The k i n d s and f u n c t i o n s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n s r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s which o c c u r r e d w i t h h i g h e s t f r e q u e n c i e s i n the re a d i n g t e x t s were s i m i l a r t o those i n the o r a l language m a t e r i a l s . But the data a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t types o f r a r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o c c u r r e d more f r e q u e n t l y i n the rea d i n g passages than i n the o r a l language m a t e r i a l s . The g r e a t e r number of sentence-combining t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s r e f l e c t s g r e a t e r complexity o f language s t r u c t u r e s i n the re a d i n g passages compared t o the language s t r u c t u r e s i n the o r a l language m a t e r i a l s . T h i s f i n d i n g suggests t h a t when the F i l i p i n o p u p i l begins to read E n g l i s h , h i s o r a l language back-ground seems inadequate to cope w i t h the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l r e l a t e d to the complexity o f s t r u c t u r e s o f h i s r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s . V Further investigations are necessary to provide more useful guidelines for evolving e f f e c t i v e reading materials i n second language teaching. Suggested follow-up studies i n second language classroom situations include comparison of comprehension between commonly used patterns and rare patterns, an investigation to es t a b l i s h a hierarchy of d i f f i c u l t y of the d i f f e r e n t kinds of sentence-combining transformations, and a quantitative study to determine the relationship of compre-hension to the number of transformations i n a reading passage. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This study has been made possible by the help and cooperation of many in d i v i d u a l s . The writer wishes to thank Dr. Harold M. Covell, Chairman, Reading Education Department, and Dr. Vera McKay for t h e i r cooperation and suggestions. The writer also wishes to thank Dr. T.D.McKie, whose constant help and c r i t i c i s m led to the improvement of the design of the study, and to Dr. Fred Bowers for his quidance i n the l i n g u i s t i c analysis. Sincere thanks i s expressed to Dr. Glenn M. Chronister, the writer's research supervisor, for his personal i n t e r e s t , encouragement and quidance i n the completion of t h i s study and throughout the writer's graduate program. Sincere appreciation i s expressed to Miss Jennifer Wing-King for her assistance and friendship throughout the duration of the study. TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER PAGE I. INTRODUCTION . . . . 1 , Major Assumptions and Importance of The Study 1 Background: Reading i n Philippine Schools . . 1 Statement of the Problem . 6 D e f i n i t i o n of Terms 7 Limitations of the Study . .- . 7 I I . RELATED STUDIES . 10 Analysis Based on Techniques Derived from Structural L i n g u i s t i c s 11 Analysis Based on Techniques Derived from Transformational Grammar 17 Studies on the Relationship of Language Structure and Reading Comprehension . . . . 20 Studies on Teaching English as a Second Language 24 I I I . METHODS AND MATERIALS 27 Methods of L i n g u i s t i c Analysis 27 Segmenting and C l a s s i f y i n g the Language Samples 29 F i r s t - L e v e l Analysis: Sequential Patterns of T-Units 32 v i i CHAPTER PAGE A n a l y s i s o f B a s i c S t r u c t u r e s 32 R a t i o n a l e f o r the System o f C l a s s i f i c a t i o n . 34 A n a l y s i s o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . 35 S e c o n d - L e v e l A n a l y s i s . 37 Kinds o f T r a n s f o r m a t i o n - P r o d u c e d C o n s t r u c t i o n s 38 Grammat ica l F u n c t i o n s o f Nominal C o n s t r u c t i o n s 44 Example o f An A n a l y s i s o f a T - U n i t 46 C u r r i c u l u m M a t e r i a l s B a s i c to The Study . . . 48 The T e a c h e r ' s Guide f o r E n g l i s h 48 C o n t r a s t i v e A n a l y s i s as B a s i s f o r C h o i c e o f Language S t r u c t u r e s 50 The B a s a l Readers 51 R a t i o n a l e and Procedure f o r Sampl ing 52 I V . ANALYSIS OF DATA 54 G a r b l e s . 55 F i r s t - L e v e l A n a l y s i s . . . . . . . 56 S e n t e n c e - L e n g t h i n R e l a t i o n t o T - U n i t Length . . . 56 D i s t r i b u t i o n o f S h o r t , M i d d l e - L e n g t h and Long T - U n i t s . 5 8 Number o f S u b o r d i n a t e C l a u s e s . 61 Types o f D i s c o u r s e i n Readers and Guide . . 64 S e q u e n t i a l P a t t e r n o f the T - U n i t , . 65 Frequency o f B a s i c P a t t e r n s i n D e c l a r a t i v e Statements 67 v i i i CHAPTER PAGE Types of Questions 71 Frequency of Underlying Basic Patterns i n Questions 74 Types of Transformations i n Derived Statements 77 Frequency of Underlying Basic Patterns i n Derived Statements 79 Second-Level Analysis 83 Nature of Sentence-Combining Transfor-mations 83 Kinds and Average Number of Sentence Combining Transformations . . 85 Nominal Constructions 88 Kinds of Headed Nominal Constructions . . . . 90 Kinds of Non-Headed Nominal Constructions . . 94 Grammatical Functions of Headed Nominals . . . ,97 Grammatical Functions of Non-Headed Nominal Constructions 100 Commonly Used Nominal Constructions and Their Functions . . . . . . i 104 Adverbial Constructions 105 Coordinate Constructions . . . . . . 108 Summary of Findings . 109 V. SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 117 Purpose of the Study 117 ix CHAPTER PAGE Methods and Materials 118 Summary of Findings and Conclusions 119 Recommendations for Further Research . . . . 121 BIBLIOGRAPHY 12 3 APPENDIX L i n g u i s t i c Analysis Worksheet 128 LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE I . T - U n i t s C l a s s i f i e d Into S i x C a t e g o r i e s and Examples f o r Each C a t e g o r y 30 I I . B a s i c P a t t e r n s o f E n g l i s h 33 I I I . Sentence Length F a c t o r s : T - U n i t L e n g t h and Number o f T - U n i t s Per Sentence i n the Guide Compared w i t h the Readers 57 I V . D i s t r i b u t i o n o f "Shor t" , M i d d l e - L e n g t h " , and "Long" T - U n i t s i n the Guide and i n the Readers 60 V . F r e q u e n c y , Per Cent and Rank o f B a s i c P a t t e r n s In D e c l a r a t i v e Statements I n c l u d i n g Quoted E x p r e s s i o n s i n the Guide and i n the Readers . 6 8 V I , F r e q u e n c y , Per Cent and Rank o f B a s i c P a t t e r n s i n D e c l a r a t i v e Statements E x c l u d i n g Quoted E x p r e s s i o n s i n the Guide and i n the Readers . 69 V I I . F r e q u e n c y , Per Cent and Rank o f U n d e r l y i n g B a s i c P a t t e r n s i n Q u e s t i o n s I n c l u d i n g Quoted E x p r e s s i o n s i n the Guide and i n the Readers 74 V I I I . F r e q u e n c y , Per Cent and Rank o f U n d e r l y i n g B a s i c P a t t e r n s i n Q u e s t i o n s E x c l u d i n g Quoted E x p r e s s i o n s i n the Guide and i n the Readers 75 TABLE PAGE IX. Frequency, Per Cent and Rank of Types of Transformations i n Derived Statements Including Quoted Expressions i n the Guide and i n the Readers . 78 X. Frequency, Per Cent and Rank of Underlying Basic Patterns i n Derived Statements Includ-ing Quoted Expressions i n the Guide and i n the Readers 81 XI. Frequency, Per Cent and Rank of Underlying Basic Patterns i n Derived Statements Exclud-ing Quoted Expressions i n the Guide and i n the Readers 82 XII. Kinds of Headed Nominal Constructions i n the Guide and i n the Readers . 90 XIII. Kinds of"Non-Headed Nominal Constructions i n the Guide and i n the Readers 95 XIV. Grammatical Functions of Headed Nominal Con-structions i n the Guide and i n the Readers . . 9 8 XV. Grammatical Functions of Non-Headed Nominal Constructions i n the Guide and i n the Readers . 101 XVI. Frequency, Per Cent and Rank of Adverbial Clauses and Near-Clauses i n the Guide and i n the Readers 106 XVII. Frequency and Percentage of Coordinate Con-structions i n the Guide and i n the Readers . . 109 LISTS OF FIGURES FIGURE PAGE 1. Number of T-Units of Each Length i n the Guide Compared to the Readers 59 2. Percentage of T-Units With One, Two, Three, or Four Clauses i n the Guide Compared to the Readers 63 3. Frequency of Question Sentence Types i n the Guide Compared to the Readers 73 4. Types of Constructions Produced by Sentence-Combining Transformations i n the Guide Compared to the Readers 86 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION MAJOR ASSUMPTIONS AND IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY The purpose of thi s study was to determine whether the materials used i n Philippine schools to teach children to read English as a second language are written i n the same language structures which pupils learn for o r a l proficiency. The research was designed to analyze and compare the language structures i n the authorized basal readers with the language structures which are taught for o r a l proficiency i n the teaching guides for English used i n Philippine schools. Research evidence based on studies i n l i n g u i s t i c s and language teaching has pointed to the importance of o r a l language as a base for learning to read. The key findings i n Loban.'s study supported the theory that "competence i n the spoken language appears to be a necessary base for competence in reading and writing."''" The major assumption underlying t h i s investigation was that children learning English as a second language read more e f f e c t i v e l y i f beginning reading materials consist of structures which are taught i n the o r a l language program. The process of ^Walter Loban, The Language of Elementary School  Children; A Study of the Use and Control of Language E f f e c t i v e - ness i n C ommun i c at ion and the Relations Among Speaking, Reading,. Writing and Listening, National Council of Teachers of English (Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1963) , p. 88. learning to read at the i n i t i a l stage i s e s s e n t i a l l y learning to associate the language learned o r a l l y with i t s written form, and to understand i t s meaning. The reader can readi l y grasp the meaning of the passage i f he already knows the meaning of i t s corresponding o r a l form. With adequate o r a l background therefore, learning to read w i l l be easier and w i l l mainly consist of mastering the writing system. The learner w i l l not be confronted with the additional problem of learning an unfamiliar language structure and i t s meaning. Strickland's study was based on the premise that "a study of children's speech, i t s structure and i t s pattern of arrange-ment and flow may o f f e r suggestions for the construction of better reading textbooks for beginners and possibly for older 2 children as well." It would also be reasonable to believe that reading materials for pupils learning English as a second language i n the Philippines should be based on curriculum materials i n the o r a l language courses. The structures taught i n the o r a l language lessons i n Philippine schools constitute mainly the base for the speech repertoire i n English of F i l i p i n o pupils. Another major assumption of th i s study was that language . 3 structure i s an important variable i n reading comprehension. 2 Ruth G. Strickland, The Language Off Elementary School  Children: Its Relationship To The Language of Reading Textbooks  Arid The Quality of Reading of Selected Children, (Bulletin of the School of Education, Indiana University, 1962) , p. 3. 3 Robert B. Ruddell, "An Investigation of the E f f e c t of S i m i l a r i t y of Oral and Written Patterns of Language Structures on Reading Comprehension" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1963). Recent studies i n l i n g u i s t i c s and reading have advanced the theory that patterned groupings of words give cues to meaning, not words i n i s o l a t i o n alone. S p e c i f i c meanings are "produced by the patterns; i f you miss the patterns, you miss the ,.4 meanings. The reader's a b i l i t y to understand a passage depends on his a b i l i t y to perceive s t r u c t u r a l relationships. Thus the ease or d i f f i c u l t y of understanding a passage i s related to i t s grammatical complexity. A sentence that has undergone transformations and derivations w i l l be more d i f f i c u l t to understand than i t s basic sentence pattern. It i s believed that language structures to be used i n beginning reading materials should be r e s t r i c t e d to those which 5 are taught i n the o r a l language lessons. Ruddell showed that comprehension i s better i n reading passages which are made up of structures frequently used i n children's o r a l language,, while Loban's study indicated that the r e l a t i v e complexity of a structure indicates the r e l a t i v e d i f f i c u l t y of producing and comprehending i t . Donald J. Lloyd and Harry R. Warfel, "The Way to Read By Structures," American English In Its Cultural Setting (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopp, 1956), p. 421. 5 Ruddell, op_. c i t . Loban, loc. c i t . BACKGROUND: READING IN ENGLISH IN PHILIPPINE SCHOOLS 4 English i s taught as a second language i n Philippine schools. It i s the language of in s t r u c t i o n from grade three through university. In the f i r s t two grades, systematic i n s t r u c t i o n i n o r a l English i s a regular part of the c u r r i c -ulum, while classroom i n s t r u c t i o n i s carried on i n the pupil's native language. At th i s time, pupils also learn to read t h e i r native language. Beginning reading i n English i s postponed to the l a t t e r part of grade two. The c h i l d reads teacher-prepared materials on charts, flashcards and the blackboards. The reading materials are confined to the same dialogs, rhymes, and stories previously mastered i n the o r a l languages lessons. Formal book reading i n English begins i n grade three when i t i s believed that the learner has acquired reasonable o r a l f a c i l t i y i n the basic sounds and structures of English. By that time, the pupil would have had two years of in s t r u c t i o n i n o r a l English. The c h i l d would also have learned to read his native language. The pupil's a b i l i t y to read the F i l i p i n o language con-tributes to his reading English insofar as mechanics and physical preparation are concerned. He would have acquired such s k i l l s as eye movement, l e t t e r discrimination and recogni-t i o n by the time he starts reading the second language. But the . a b i l i t y to read the f i r s t language can also be a great handicap. Differences i n the sound and structure of English and the native language create d i f f i c u l t i e s i n the comprehension of the passage i n English unless the pupil has o r a l f a m i l i a r i t y with the text. The carry-over of the native language sounds to the English text w i l l d i s t o r t the rhythm and intonation of the passage and the reader w i l l f a i l to perceive s t r u c t u r a l relationships of thought units. Rojas found that i f b i l i n g u a l children "are to learn to read well, they . . . must learn to recognize sounds used i n English words. If the sound system of t h e i r vernacular i s transferred to English, meaning i s confused." This d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehension i s compounded i f the pupil reads unfamiliar words and sentence patterns which he has not heard or spoken before. The d i f f i c u l t i e s i n learning to read English as a second language stress the need for using the pupil's o r a l language as a basis for developing his reading materials. F a m i l i a r i t y with the sounds and concepts of the reading passage w i l l enhance progress i n learning to read, while the reading process w i l l reinforce o r a l mastery. Pauline Rojas-, "Reading Materials for B i l i n g u a l Children as c i t e d by Mildred Dawson i n Interrelationship Among the  Language Arts: A Research B u l l e t i n of the National Conference  On Research i n English (Champaign: NCTE, 1954). STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 6 The major questions which th i s study was designed to answer were the following: 1. What i s the degree of relationship between the language g structures i n the authorized basal readers and i n the 9 Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade III based on the following l i n g u i s t i c features: a) Mean length of the T-units? b) Mean length of the sentence? c) Average number of T-units per sentence? d) Average number of subordinations per sentence? e) Average number of sentence-combining transformations per sentence? 2. What i s the degree of relationship between the number and kinds of basic patterns and t h e i r derived forms i n the authorized basal readers and i n the Teacher's  Guide for English i n Grade III? 3. What i s the degree of re l a t i o n s h i p between the number, kinds and grammatical functions of constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations i n the authorized basal readers and i n Teacher's Guide for  English i n Grade III? g Catalina Velasquez-Ty, et a l . , We_ Work and Play, (Transition Reader) F i r s t Reader, Level I, Grade Three, (Manila; Bureau of Public Schools); Velasquez-Ty, Fun At Home and Away, F i r s t Reader, Level I I , (Manila: Bureau of P u b l T c Schools). 9 Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade III (Manila: Bureau of Public Schools and the Philippine Center for Language Study, 1961). 7 DEFINITION OF TERMS The terms indicated w i l l be used i n t h i s study as defined below: 1. Language structure refers to the patterned grouping of words or the design underlying arrangement of words i n a communication unit. 2. T-unit i s the shortest grammatically complete sentence which consists of one independent clause and a l l the subordinate clauses attached to i t , i f any. 3. Second language i s any language learned after acquiring the basic sounds and patterns of one's native language. 4. Basic pattern refers to the structure of a T-unit which has not undergone any process of transformation, and i s any one of the nine s t r u c t u r a l types used i n th i s l i n g u i s t i c analysis. 5. •Sentence-combining transformation i s the grammatical process of deriving one sentence where there would otherwise be two or more. 6. Matrix sentence i s the base unit into which derived forms of one or more sentences are attached i n the process of a sentence-combining transformation. 7. Constituent sentence i s embedded into a matrix sentence i n the process of a sentence-combining transformation. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The present investigation was confined to a comparison of the curriculum materials which are used i n the o r a l language 8 program and curriculum materials i n beginning reading. The study did not attempt to present data on the language compe-tence of F i l i p i n o pupils who are using these materials i n the classrooms. Previous studies based on the assumption that the spoken language should serve as basis for developing reading materials have compared the language structures found i n the readers with the language structures used i n the o r a l language of children. This study, however, which dealt with a second language.situation, compared the language structures i n the reading textbooks with the language structures which are taught i n the o r a l teaching guides. Curriculum materials i n beginning reading were evaluated i n terms of t h e i r s u i t a b i l i t y to the curriculum materials i n the o r a l language program, rather than to the actual o r a l proficiency of children. The weakness of t h i s study was the lack of evidence to show that the language structures which are expected to be taught for o r a l proficiency i n the teacher's guides for English are used i n the o r a l language of F i l i p i n o children. It i s known that a gap exists between learning goals and s k i l l s as defined i n curriculum materials and achievement of learners i n the classroom. But at the i n i t i a l stage of second language learning, i t was assumed that reading materials should corres-pond clo s e l y to the o r a l language materials so that o r a l mastery could reinforce reading s k i l l s and vice versa. The o r a l language of an English-speaking c h i l d who has mastered the basic patterns of his home language at the age of 9 s i x 1 0 and has acquired reasonable o r a l f a c i l i t y can provide sound basis for evolving his reading materials. However, i t seemed reasonable to believe that at the i n i t i a l stage of second language learning, the child's o r a l language w i l l f a i l to provide language forms which can serve as foundation for developing e f f e c t i v e reading materials and which w i l l , at the same time, reinforce o r a l language s k i l l s . It was also believed that the comparison of two forms of written language i n the readers and i n the o r a l language teaching guides would y i e l d more v a l i d data than the results of previous investigations. It has been pointed out that the weakness of previous studies was the comparison of language structures i n the o r a l language and structures i n the written language. Modern l i n g u i s t i c science has shown that o r a l language and written language are two d i f f e r e n t kinds of a c t i v i t y . In the present investigation, however, th i s d i f f e r -ence between the two forms of language a c t i v i t y was controlled i n comparing the language structures. The investigation makes no claim to completeness of description of the language structures. Attention was focused only on the grammatical features included i n the method of l i n g u i s t i c analysis used i n t h i s study. Doris I. Noel, "A Comparative Study of the Relationship Between the Quality of the Child's Language Usage and the Quality and Types of Language Used i n the Home" as ci t e d by John B. C a r r o l l , "Language Development," Ency doped!a of Edu-cational Research, Chester W. Harris, Editor, (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1960), p. 750. CHAPTER II RELATED STUDIES Previous studies which, are pertinent to t h i s i n v e s t i -gation are researches concerned with analysis of o r a l and written language of children using techniques of modern l i n -q u i s t i c science, studies on the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p of o r a l proficiency and reading a b i l i t y , s p e c i f i c a l l y research i n sentence structure as a variable i n reading comprehension, and studies on reading for learners of English as a second language. Most of the studies on the language of children i n recent years have applied theories of modern l i n g u i s t i c s . Studies of language development of children such as the longitudinal study 1 2 . 3 4 of Loban, the studies of Strickland, R i l i n g , Sam, and Walter D. Loban, The Language off Elementary School  Children: A Study of the Use and Control off Language E f f e c t - iveness i n C ommun i c at ion and the Relations Among Speaking, Reading, Writing arid Listening, National Council of Teachers of English (Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1963). 2 Ruth G. Strickland, The Language of Elementary School  Children: Its Relationship to the Language off Reading Textbooks  and the Quality off Reading off Selected Children (Bulletin of the School of Education, Indiana University, 1963). 3 Mildred R i l i n g , Oral and Written Language of Children i n Grades 4 and 6, Compared With the Language of Their Text-books , Cooperative Research Project No. 2410, O f f i c e of Education, U.S.Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 1965. 4 Norman H. Sam, "Written Language Development of Intermediate. Grade Children" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburg, 1962). 1 1 5 Stine, have applied techniques of st r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s . 6 7 Later studies reported by Hunt, and O'Donnell, have employed schemes of analysis based on generative transformational grammar. ANALYSIS BASED ON TECHNIQUES DERIVED FROM STRUCTURAL LINGUISTICS The basic design of the present investigation i s cl o s e l y related to Strickland's study which compared the patterns of structure of children's o r a l language with the language of th e i r reading textbooks. But i n t h i s study which was concerned with F i l i p i n o pupils learning English as a second language, the language structures i n which reading materials were written were compared with the language structures i n the curriculum materials which are to be taught for o r a l mastery. 5 Eugene Samuel Stine, "Structural Analysis of Written Composition of Intermediate Grade Children" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Lehigh University, 1 9 6 5 ) . g Kellogg W. Hunt, Grammatical Structures Written at  Three Grade Levels, NTCE Research Report No. 3 (Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, 1 9 6 5 ) . 7 Ray O'Donnell, William J. G r i f f i n , and Raymond C. Norris, Syntax of Kindergarten and Elementary School Children: A Transformational Analysis, National Council of Teachers of English (Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1 9 6 7 ) . 12 Strickland based her analysis on twenty-five phonological units or "sentences" which were e l i c i t e d from each of her popu-l a t i o n of 575 elementary school children enrolled i n grades one to s i x . The syntactic analysis was made on two l e v e l s . The f i r s t l e v e l plotted the sequential arrangements of fixed s l o t s : subject, verb and complements and the movables. The second l e v e l i d e n t i f i e d the subordinate elements of s a t e l l i t e s which were used as f i l l e r s of the fixed s l o t s and movables. It showed whether words, phrases or clauses were used as subjects, verbs, complements or modifiers. The number of language patterns reported by Strickland ranged from 658 i n the f i r s t grade to 1,041 i n the sixth grade. But there were only f i v e or six patterns which occurred with greatest frequencies at a l l grade l e v e l s . Among the twenty-f i v e highest ranking patterns i n the upper grades, ten were not used by f i r s t grade pupils. This finding suggests the development of language maturity of pupils i n the upper grades. Strickland's analysis also proved that the length of the phonological unit or sentence i s not a v a l i d measure of language maturity. This evidence supports the assumption adopted i n the present investigation that T-unit length, rather than sentence length i s a v a l i d measure of l i n g u i s t i c maturity. Data from the analysis of four widely-used series of reading texts led Strickland to the conclusion that children used a great variety and complexity of language patterns which were not matched i n the readers. She showed that the "oral 13 language children use i s far more advanced than the language of the books i n which they are taught to read. The analysis also indicated that there seemed to be no provision for control and developmental sequence of sentence structure from l e v e l to l e v e l within each reading series which p a r a l l e l s provisions for vocabulary cont r o l . Thus Strickland pointed to the need for further research on whether sentence structure i s an important variable i n reading comprehension. Using the scheme of syntactic analysis used i n Strickland's study, R i l i n g also compared the language structures of reading textbooks with the language structures used o r a l l y by elementary school children. R i l i n g ' s study, however, had several d i s t i n c -t i v e features . The data included an analysis of the written language of children which was e l i c i t e d under s i m i l a r conditions as the or a l language samples. R i l i n g made int e r e s t i n g obser-vations on the differences i n language behavior between Negro and Caucasian pupils. Like Strickland, R i l i n g also noted a wide variety of sentence patterns, although only a few patterns were used frequently. She observed that there were considerably fewer patterns i n the written than i n the o r a l language of pupils. Some structures which were frequently used i n writing were ra r e l y or never used i n o r a l speech. R i l i n g made the int e r e s t i n g observation that fluency i s not a v a l i d index of language maturity. Subjects who were i n the lowest q u a r t i l e i n verbal i n t e l l i g e n c e produced less mazes or tangles i n speech. Negro children were more fluent 14 than the Caucasian children although they did not use the same variety of language structures as Caucasian children. R i l i n g found that there was a great difference between the structures used i n the o r a l language of children and the structures used i n the reading textbooks. But i t was also revealed that almost a l l of the language patterns used i n children's writing were found i n the reading textbooks. This finding showed that written language i s a d i f f e r e n t type of a c t i v i t y from o r a l language. Like Strickland's study, R i l i n g also pointed to the lack of developmental sequence of language structures i n the reading textbooks. Sixth grade reading books did not use more complex sentence structures than fourth grade reading books. Riling ' s study suggested that subject-matter as well as type of writing greatly influenced the kind of language structures used i n reading textbooks. Therefore, she emphasized that reading textbooks should be evaluated on language structure i n r e l a t i o n to subject-matter. Hocker also u t i l i z e d the scheme of l i n g u i s t i c analysis developed by Strickland. Her study recorded and analyzed 2,500 samples of the o r a l language of f i r s t grade children to determine t h e i r patterns of syntax, vocabulary and i n t e r e s t s . These data were to be used as guide for developing beginning reading materials. Hocker reported that of the f i v e basic sentence patterns that occurred i n the samples, the three that were used with 15 greatest frequency were the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-D-treot-Obj eot 3 Noun-Sub eat+Verb-L-Cnking+Noun-Predicate Noun, and Noun-Subjeet+Verb-Intpansitive. Numerous variations i n the children's o r a l language were b u i l t on these three basic patterns. The frequency trend from simple to more complex patterns indicates the developmental growth of children's language. Hocker confirmed Ril i n g ' s suggestion that the context or s i t u a t i o n i n which children's speech was uttered influenced the kinds of patterns used. She implied that the reading materials must be written i n language patterns appropriate to the subject-matter or s i t u a t i o n . The most important feature of Loban's investigation which i s related to the present study i s his use of the "communication unit" as basis for segmenting and analyzing language samples. He i d e n t i f i e d the communication unit as a "grammatically independent predication or an answer to the question that lacks only the r e p e t i t i o n of the question element g to s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i o n of independent predication." This unit of analysis which "consists of a grammatically independent clause with any of i t s modifiers," i s equivalent to the T-unit which was the basis of segmentation and analysis of the present study. The basic assumptions i n the present investigation were derived from the key findings i n Loban's study. The l o n g i -tudinal study of the language development of children from g Loban,. op. 'cit.,, p. 88, 16 kindergarten through grade twelve showed a d e f i n i t e p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n between reading and o r a l language. Subjects who excelled i n reading also excelled i n o r a l language. Loban also supported the theory which i s basic to t h i s study that grammatical complexity i s a measure of l i n g u i s t i c maturity. Analyzing the elements of st r u c t u r a l patterns and the components within these structures, Loban claimed that "not pattern but what i s done to achieve f l e x i b i l i t y within the pattern proves to be a measure of effectiveness and control of language at t h i s l e v e l of language development," Using techniques based on transformational grammar, Loban analyzed speech samples of two pupils: a boy of high a b i l i t y group and a g i r l of low a b i l i t y . The boy demonstrated greater control over language structure by his a b i l i t y to make transformations deriving questions, negatives, comparatives, etc. The g i r l persisted i n creating mostly simple declarative sentences. Loban indicated that the technique i s capable of showing " a l l forms of grammatical complexity, but i s a slow and long process of analysis." Sam and Stine also arrived at the conclusion of the previous studies c i t e d that the language development of children i s sequential and cumulative. Sam showed that "average sentence length, sentence complexity, use of modification and subordin-ation of ideas, frequency of use of clauses and phrases increase 9 as children progress from one grade l e v e l to the next." 9Sam, op. c i t , Analyzing the written compositions of intermediate grade children, Sam and Stine emphasized that the most impor-tant factor influencing growth i n the written language of children i s grade l e v e l rather than age. They reported that intermediate grade children make use of a wide variety of patterns and that the proportion of complex sentences increased as the children moved from one grade l e v e l to the next. But the study also found that t h i s progression did not appear i n the use of compound and compound-complex sentences. ANALYSIS BASED ON TECHNIQUES DERIVED FROM TRANSFORMATIONAL GRAMMAR Numerous studies on the analysis of the language of school children u t i l i z e d techniques derived from modern trans-formational-generative grammar. As suggested by Loban, transformational analysis i l l u s t r a t e s the p o s s i b i l i t i e s of a more precise method of measuring grammatical complexity and "holds promise for; future research.""''0 The technique of l i n g u i s t i c analysis adopted i n the present investigation was based mainly on Hunt's"'"''" study of the grammatical structures of children, written i n grades four, eight and twelve. Analyzing the writing samples of f i f t y - f o u r children of average IQ, Hunt established the T-unit length as a more r e l i a b l e index of maturity than other standard procedures "^Loban, op_. c i t . , p. 63. "'""'"Hunt, op. c i t . 18 The analysis indicated that T-unit length i s the best index of grade l e v e l , clause length i s the next best, and punctuated sen-tence length i s the least adequate. A c h i l d who underpunctuates and lengthens his sentences by stringing T-units with ands was regarded as l i n g u i s t i c a l l y immature. In the analysis of structures within the T-unit, i t was shown that the major factor that lengthens the T-unit i s the increase of non-clause modifiers of nouns and noun clauses. Older students reduced short clauses to mere modifiers which were consolidated with the same noun i n another clause. Hunt indicated that grammatical d i f f i c u l t y l i e s inside the T-unit. He suggested that t h i s method of analysis might be applied to books of reading designed for various grade l e v e l s . Thus the present investigation was an attempt to implement th i s recommendation. Besides determining the sequential pattern of the main clause, O'Donnell attempted a deeper analysis of the s t r u c t u r a l complexities of children's language by analyzing the kinds of sentence-combining transformations within the T-unit. Like Hunt, O'Donnell showed that as students grow older thay learn to consolidate independent clauses to non-clausal structures to form one from two or more sentences. The data obtained by O'Donnell showed that the number of sentence-combining transformations absorbed by T-units 12 increased with every advance i n grade l e v e l . " The greatest and most, s i g n i f i c a n t increases from one grade l e v e l to the next 12 O'Donnell, op_. c i t . , p. 77. were i n the use of transformation-produced. nomina,ls and adyerb-i a l s . On the other hand, the kind of sentence-combining transformation by coordination of main clauses decreased s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n grade seven. O'Donnell concluded that the a b i l i t y to produce trans-formation by deletion i s a better measure of language develop-ment than the a b i l i t y to produce transformation by addition or substitution., Thus, i t was noted that "such clauses as i n , The dove saw that the ant was drowning were easier to manage and e a r l i e r added to the child's repertory than the reduction of them to a single p a r t i c i p i a l modifier i n The dove saw the + J . 1 3 ant drowmng. Using techniques derived from transformational-generative 14 grammar, Menyuk analysed the tape-recorded speech of nursery school and f i r s t grade children. With the data obtained, she attempted to write a grammar for children including phrase structure and transformational rules. The study revealed that " a l l the basic structures used by adults to generate sentences could be found i n the grammar of nursery.school children. Most of the basic structures are acquired at an early age and are used consistently." It was 1 30'Donnell, Ibid. 1 4 P a u l a Menyuk, "A Descriptive Study of the Syntactic Structures i n the Language of Children: Nursery School and F i r s t Grade," (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Boston University, 1961). 20 shown i n the study that maturation i s the most s i g n i f i c a n t factor i n increasing the child ' s control of syntactic structures. STUDIES ON THE RELATIONSHIP OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND READING COMPREHENSION The basic rationale underlying t h i s study comparing the structures taught i n the o r a l language program with the structures i n which reading materials are written i s the theory advanced by modern l i n g u i s t i c science that structure or patterned groupings of words carry meaning. Recent studies on the application of l i n g u i s t i c s to language teaching have demonstrated s i g n i f i c a n t relationship between language structure and reading comprehension.. 15 Ruddell followed up Strickland's recommendation for more research to determine whether language structure i s an important variable i n reading comprehension. He t r i e d to determine the e f f e c t of s i m i l a r i t y of o r a l language structures and language structures i n reading passages on reading comprehens ion. Six controlled reading passages were designed using patterns of language structure with the same proportional frequency i n which they occurred i n the o r a l language of Robert Ruddell, "An Investigation of the E f f e c t of S i m i l a r i t y of Oral and Written Patterns of Language Structure On Reading Comprehension" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1963). 21 children. Vocabulary d i f f i c u l t y , sentence length, s p e c i f i c subject-matter content were equated i n the reading passages. The study showed that scores i n the close•comprehension tests were s i g n i f i c a n t l y better on reading passages made up of language structures frequently used i n the o r a l language of children than on reading passages made up of language structures not frequently used i n children's speech. Another study reported by Ruddell supported the hypothesis that "paragraph meaning, sentence meaning and vocabulary achieve-ment of f i r s t grade subjects at the end of grade one are a function of the control which subjects exhibit over designated aspects of t h e i r morphological language system and t h e i r 16 syntactic language system." Ruddell compared res u l t s of in s t r u c t i o n of four types of reading programs, c a l l e d Program B, Program P, and Program B+, and Program P+. The f i r s t two consisted of two published programs, the Sheldon Basal or Program B, and the Buchanan Programmed ser i e s , or Program P. The investigator developed two other programs c a l l e d Program B+ and Program ,p+ , - by retaining the basic elements i n Program B and Program P and supplementing each with materials and methods that stressed language structure i n r e l a t i o n to meaning. The post-test results showed that only subjects i n Program P+ which provided Robert B. Ruddell, "Reading Instruction i n the F i r s t Grade With Varying Emphasis on Regularity of Grapheme-Phoneme Correspondences and Relation of Language Structure to Meaning," The Reading Teacher, (May 1966), Vol. 19, No. 8. i n s t r u c t i o n i n phoneme-grapheme correspondencies i n -vocabulary as well as stress i n language structure i n r e l a t i o n to meaning scored, s i g n i f i c a n t l y higher i n paragraph meaning and sentence meaning than subjects i n Program P. Program B+ did not r e s u l t i n better scores i n paragraph meaning and sentence meaning than Program B. The present investigation focused attention on the number and kinds of sentence-combining transformations i n a T-unit. This l e v e l of analysis was based on the p r i n c i p l e that d i f f i c u l t y of reading material i s a function of gram-matical complexity i n terms of the transformations and d e r i -vations operating on the basic structure. Several studies on reading comprehension applying the p r i n c i p l e s of transforma-tional-generative grammar are related to the present study. 17 MacMahon tested the comprehension of sentences that were transformed into negative, passive and passive-negative. The subjects read each of the types of sentences and had to decide whether i t was true or f a l s e . In another s i t u a t i o n , the subjects evaluated sentences derived from basic patterns against pictured s i t u a t i o n s . MacMahon found that negative sentences required more time to understand and evaluate than affirmative sentences. True affirmative sentences were easier to evaluate than false affirmative sentences. L. MacMahon, "Grammatical Analysis As Part of Understanding A Sentence" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, 1963). MacMahon's experiments proved that understanding a sentence involves retracing a transform to i t s kernel and the time involved i s a function of i t s grammatical complexity. But the study also showed that negativity and truth value introduce semantic and psychological factors which are l i k e l y to obscure the e f f e c t of grammatical complexity. 18 Slobin likewise showed that subjects must retrieve the kernels underlying grammatically-transformed sentences i n order to understand them. It took longer for subjects to decide whether a passive-negative sentence was true or fals e with respect to a pictured s i t u a t i o n than sentences which are less grammatically complex. The subjects i n Slobin's experiment were presented with pictures and spoken sentences. The sentences were of four grammatical types; namely: kernel, passive, negative, and negative-passive. The sentences were either true or fals e with respect to the picture and were either reversible i n that the object could also serve as subject as i n dog chasing oat, or non-reversible as i n , boy Taking leaves. Slobin proved that syntactic complexity did not always predict the order of d i f f i c u l t y of sentences. Although grammatical theory indicates that passive i s more d i f f i c u l t than negative, the response time for negative sentences was 18 Don Slobin, "Grammatical Transformation In Childhood, and Adulthood" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, 1963). longer. N o n - r e v e r s i b i l i t y made i t clear which was the subject and the object of the sentence and f a c i l i t a t e d comprehension. These findings showed that psychological and semantic factors can a l t e r predictions of d i f f i c u l t y of sentences based on purely syntactic theory. STUDIES ON TEACHING ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE The studies which have been c i t e d involved subjects who speak English as a f i r s t language. The p_res'ent investigation, however, i s concerned with s t r u c t u r a l analysis of curriculum materials for F i l i p i n o children who are learning English as a second language. Similar studies on the reading comprehension of b i l i n g u a l children are pertinent to the present investigation. 19 Reed t r i e d to determine the e f f e c t of study of syntax and paragraph structure i n reading comprehension of monolingual and b i l i n g u a l children. The comprehension s k i l l s of the exper-imental group of 167 grade seven pupils which had a series of t h i r t y reading lessons stressing s y n t a c t i c a l units i n sentences and paragraph structure as aid to comprehension^were compared with that of-the control group which had the regular textbook lessons. 19 E s t e l l a Reed, "An Investigation of the Relative E f f e c t of the Study of Syntax and Paragraph Structure on Reading Comprehension of Monolingual and B i l i n g u a l Pupils i n Grade Seven" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University 1966). The results showed that b i l i n g u a l pupils i n the experi-mental group were superior i n reading comprehension to those i n the control group. Since there was no s i g n i f i c a n t difference i n the comprehension s k i l l s between monolingual pupils i n the experimental and control group, th i s methodology i s useful i n teaching b i l i n g u a l pupils to read. 20 Another study of McCanne compared the basal reader approach, the TESL (Teaching English as a Second Language) approach and the language-experience approach to f i r s t grade reading i n s t r u c t i o n for children from Spanish-speaking homes. The basal reader approach consisted of using s p e c i a l l y graded materials for sequential i n s t r u c t i o n i n reading s k i l l s while the TESL approach consisted of aural-oral practice on words, phrases and sentences designed i n sequence and u t i l i z i n g the same words, phrases and sentences for i n i t i a l reading and writing. The language experience approach used stories dictated or written by learners for i n s t r u c t i o n i n a l l language arts s k i l l s , including reading. The results showed that the basal reader approach was more e f f e c t i v e i n developing reading vocabulary and word study s k i l l s . In developing reading comprehension s k i l l , the TESL approach and the basal reader approach were found to be superior. The language experience approach was least e f f e c t i v e because of the d i f f i c u l t y of c o n t r o l l i n g the introduction of new sentence structures i n a sequential manner, 2(^Roy McCanne, "A Comparison of Three Approaches to F i r s t Grade English Reading Instruction for Children From Spanish Speaking Homes" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Denver, 1966), A g u a s s t u d y which concluded that a contrastive analysis of Tagalog and English could provide a useful working hypothesis for the construction of language learning materials supported the assumption i n the present investigation that the Teacher's Guide for English series was l i n g u i s t i c a l l y v a l i d source of language samples. The choice and sequence of language structures i n the Teacher 1s Guide for English series were derived from a contrastive analysis of Tagalog, the F i l i p i n o language, and English, the second language. E s t e l l a Aguas, "English Composition Errors of Tagalog Speakers and Implications for A n a l y t i c a l Theory" (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1964). CHAPTER III METHODS AND MATERIALS The main purpose of t h i s study was to analyze and compare the language structures i n the curriculum materials for o r a l i n s t r u c t i o n with the language structures used i n beginning reading materials for F i l i p i n o children who are learning English as a second language. The design and procedures used i n the l i n g u i s t i c analysis were derived from p r i n c i p l e s based on modern l i n g u i s t i c science. The method integrated techniques developed by the school of modern st r u c t u r a l l i n g u i s t i c s i n i t s focus on sequential patterns of structure and by theories of transformational-generative grammar which i s concerned with deeper rela t i o n s h i p s . These techniques were adapted from e a r l i e r studies made on the language of elementary school children such as the works of Loban, Hunt, and O'Donnell. METHODS OF LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS The language samples were analyzed on two l e v e l s . As explained above, the f i r s t l e v e l analysis gives a description of the sequential pattern of the unit of expression. The second-level analysis i s focused on deeper relationships within the unit of expression by describing constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transformations i n the basic structure. 28 The T-unit was used as basis for s t r u c t u r a l analysis and description. The "T-unit", abbreviated form for "minimal terminal syntactic unit" i s a complete sentence. Hunt defined the T-unit as the "shortest grammatically allowable sentence into which language can be segmented."''" Loban referred to t h i s unit of expression as the "communication unit" which i s "a grammatically independent predication or an answer to a question that lacks only the r e p e t i t i o n of the question element to 2 s a t i s f y the c r i t e r i o n of independent predication." A T-unit i s a simple or a complex sentence, while a compound sentence consists of two or more T-units. For example, the sentence The man is r i c h and the man bought a car can be segmented into two T-units corresponding to the two independent clauses. The complex sentence, The man who is r i c h bought a oar consists of only one T-unit corresponding to the independent clause plus the subordinate clause attached to i t . E a r l i e r studies on the development of children's o r a l and written language have widely used the sentence as the unit of analysis. But l i n g u i s t i c studies have proved that the length of the T-unit, rather than the length of the sentence i s a more v a l i d index of l i n g u i s t i c maturity. T-units are lengthened with the consolidation of more subordinate clauses ''"Kellogg Hunt, Grammatical Structures Written at Three  Grade Levels, NTCE Research Report No. 3 (Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, 1965), p. 21. 2 Walter D, Loban, The Language of Elementary School  Children: A Study of the Use and Control of Language E f f e c t -iveness i n Communication and the Relations Among Speaking, Reading, Writing and Listening, National Council of Teachers of English (Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1963), p. 6. 29 and phrases within the structure. This lengthening of the T-unit involves d i f f i c u l t y i n producing and understanding the language. But one who has not acquired dexterity i n handling s t r u c t u r a l relationships by reducing whole T-units to subordinate clauses and non-clausal structures may write long sentences by coordinating independent T-units with and's and hut's. Hunt's study suggested the use of T-unit as basis for analysis i n determining r e a d a b i l i t y l e v e l s . He indicated that grammatical complexity and comprehension d i f f i c u l t y resides within the T-unit. A T-unit which i s packed with embedded sentences reduced to clauses, phrases and non-clausal modifiers through sentence-combining transformations, carries more i n f o r -mation load and poses greater d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehension than a longer sentence consisting of strings of independent clauses. SEGMENTING AND CLASSIFYING THE LANGUAGE SAMPLES The f i r s t step i n the l i n g u i s t i c analysis was segmenting each language sample consisting of a punctuated sentence into T-units. The boundaries of each T-unit are c l e a r l y defined by well-known s t r u c t u r a l clues and grammatical rel a t i o n s h i p s , including the e s s e n t i a l elements: a subject-nominal, a f i n i t e verb or verb phrase and complements depending on the kind of verb. The grammatical relations e x i s t i n g within the T-unit are the "subject-verb r e l a t i o n , verb-object r e l a t i o n , modal-main verb r e l a t i o n , modifier-head r e l a t i o n and varied subordinate clause-main clause r e l a t i o n s . " 3 3 Hunt, op_. ext. , p. 67. 30 As defined e a r l i e r , a T-unit i s a single independent predication together with any subordinate clauses attached to i t . A simple or complex sentence consists of one T-unit while a compound sentence of two independent clauses consists of two T-units. For purposes of thi s study, each segmented T-unit was c l a s s i f i e d into s i x categories as i l l u s t r a t e d i n Table I below; TABLE I T-UNITS CLASSIFIED INTO SIX CATEGORIES AND EXAMPLES FOR EACH CATEGORY Category Description Example I Direct discourse with i n t r o -ductory clause of saying or asking. "I don't l i k e that game," said Joan. IA Included i n I, with the introductory clause deleted. I don't l i k e that game. II Direct dialog and narrative prose. 'Mother wants me to clean the yard;" or, One of the g i r l s saw Elsa coming. III P a r t i a l s with s t r u c t u r a l patterns derived from context. Yes, I am. IV Social formulas: greetings and leave takings. Hello, Joe. V Expressions which cannot be analyzed sy n t a c t i c a l l y . Clang! Clang! 31 Words representing sounds, noises and expressions which could not be s y n t a c t i c a l l y analyzed were c l a s s i f i e d into one category and discarded from the data. But units of expression or p a r t i a l s whose s t r u c t u r a l pattern could be derived from context were part of the data which constituted a separate category. Greetings and leave-takings, such as Hello, Hi3 Good-bye were also treated as a special type of T-unit. The number of words of each T-unit was noted i n the data but t h i s type of T-unit was excluded i n the l i n g u i s t i c analysis involving sequen-t i a l patterns of structure. Social formulas are kinds of i d i o -matic expressions whose s t r u c t u r a l patterns could not be de-scribed on the basis of the scheme of l i n g u i s t i c analysis used i n t h i s study. Direct discourse without the introductory clause contain-ing the verb of saying or asking was c l a s s i f i e d i n the same category as narrative prose. On the other hand, dialogs con-tai n i n g introductory clause of the verb of saying or asking were c l a s s i f i e d separately and further subdivided into Category. I and Category IA. In Category I, the quoted expression was regarded as a sp e c i a l type of noun clause functioning as d i r e c t object of the Verb of saying or asking of the introductory clause. But since the quoted.expression was actually a separate sentence with i t s own s t r u c t u r a l pattern, Category IA consisted of T-units segmented from the quoted expression. Thus two types of data 32 were considered i n the f i r s t - l e v e l analysis describing the structural,pattern of the T-unit, The f i r s t data included Category I with the quoted expression as a noun clause within a T-unit while the second data included the additional Category IA with the quoted expression as a separate T-unit. It was believed necessary to consider the st r u c t u r a l patterns of T-units i n Category. IA i n order to present a more accurate description of the s t r u c t u r a l patterns that make up the o r a l and reading materials of F i l i p i n o pupils. But i n the analysis of sentence-combining transformations, the general data excluded Category IA i n order to avoid duplicating the kind and number of sentence-combining transformations, except i n the accounting for noun clauses. Quoted expressions c l a s s i -f i e d as noun clauses within Category I were treated separately as "pseudo-noun" clauses. In cases where the quoted expressions could be c l a s s i f i e d into other categories such as s o c i a l formulas or expressions which cannot be analyzed s y n t a c t i c a l l y , these quoted expressions were c l a s s i f i e d as such. FIRST-LEVEL ANALYSIS: SEQUENTIAL PATTERN OF T-UNIT Analysis of Basic Structures After segmenting and assigning T-units into categories, the language samples were analyzed and c l a s s i f i e d into nine basic patterns as given i n Table I I . TABLE II 33 BASIC PATTERNS OF ENGLISH 1. Noun-Subject+Verb-Intransitive Ns vr 3 Peter laughed. His son c r i e d . The other one l e f t . Your horse ran. 2. Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Adjective (Predicate A d j e c t i v e ) Ns VL Adj.p.a. The meat Crying Yours You i s would be sounds have been tough. u s e l e s s . funny. very nasty. 3. Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Noun (Predicate Nominative) Ns VL N.p.n. My name Some of them They Those l a d i e s i s w i l l be have become appear to be Rosa. great men. s k i l l e d engineers, nurses. 4. Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Adverb (Location) Ns ^ VL Adv. Peter My mother i s w i l l be here. i n the garden. 5. Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object Ns VT N.d.o. I My f r i e n d s Our neighbor The o l d lady l i k e saw q u i t bought mangoes', the l a s t show, h i s job. s e v e r a l hats. 6. Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun - I n d i r e c t Object+Noun-Direct Ns VT N.i.o. N.d.o. Mother gave her a present. I , am asking you a q u e s t i o n . The army bought the country peace. The war has taught us a l l a l e s s o n . 7. Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object+Noun-Objectiye Complement Ns VT N.d.o. N.o.c. We Father Mother We a l l considered appointed found thought Elmer Mr.Diaz Mercedes her a f o o l . s e c t i o n c h i e f . a great help around the house. an e x c e l l e n t cook. 8. Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Obj e c t i v e Complement Object+Adjective-Ns VT N.d.o. Ad j.o.c. We The i n c i d e n t The commander Mother considered made b e l i e v e d found Elmer L i s a the s i t u a t i o n the weather f o o l i s h . very unhappy, q u i t e s e r i o u s , d e l i g h t f u l . 9. Expletive+Verb-Linking+Noun-Subject Exp VL Ns There was a cake on the t a b l e . There are a few c h a i r s i n that room. There 1 s a man here to see you. There were a l o t of people present. Eight basic patterns were adapted from the Teacher 1s Guide for English i n Grade I_, from which series the " o r a l " samples were drawn. But for the purposes of t h i s study, Basic pattern 4 , Noun-Subject-Verb-Linking+Adverb (Location)} 4 adapted from Thomas was included as one of the basic patterns. Rationale for the System of C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Since a l l the " o r a l " language samples drawn from the Teacher 1s Guide for English i n Grade III were c l a s s i f i e d into eight basic patterns, i t seemed l o g i c a l to adapt t h i s system i n c l a s s i f y i n g samples from the Readers i n order to est a b l i s h consistency and comparability. It was also deemed necessary to include i n t h i s present study the basic pattern: Noun-Sub j ect+Verb-Linking+Adverb (Location) i n order to provide a basis for the system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of sentence-combining transformations which was adapted from Thomas. The basic pattern Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Adverb (Location) i s the basis for deriving the nominalization noun+adverb where "predicate adverbs of location from a constituent sentence are introduced into a noun-modifying position i n a matrix sentence. For example, the noun+adverb i n the sentence, The f r o s t on the pumpkin is lovely, i s derived from a constituent sentence, Owen Thomas, Transformationa1•Grammar and the Teacher  of English (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc,"^ 19 65) , p. 165. 5 Thomas, Ibid., p. 95. 35 The f r o s t is on the pumpkin, which i l l u s t r a t e s Basic Pattern 4. But i n the Teacher' s Guide for English i n Grade I_, the sentence, Peter is here i l l u s t r a t i n g the pattern Noun-Subject+ Verb-Linking+Adverb (Location) i s c l a s s i f i e d as Noun-Subject+ V e r b - I n t r a n s i t i v e . I t i s believed that Thomas' c l a s s i f i c a t i o n adapted i n this study i s more precise than the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n the Teacher's Guide for English-in Grade I. Analysis of Transformations The next focus of the analysis was on the d i f f e r e n t types of transformations operating on the basic structures. The 6 following types of transformations..were considered: A. Question Transformations 1. "Yes-No" Questions Peter i s laughing >-Is Peter laughing? 2. "Wh-" Interrogative as Subject Peter i s laughing >-Who i s laughing? 3. "Wh-" Interrogative Modifying the Subject Peter i s laughing >-Which boy i s laughing? 4. "Wh-" Interrogative Functioning as Adverbial Peter i s laughing >-Why i s Peter laughing? B. Derived Statement Trans formations 1. Passive He bought a g i f t ->A g i f t was bought by him. Derived from the types discussed i n the Appendix, Teacher's. Guide f o r English i n Grade I, pp. 393-399. 2. Negative Marcial bought a TV set r-HXIarcial didn't buy a TV set. 3. Imperative You please help me ^-Please help me. 4. Emphatic He helped me —>-He did help me. 5. Interjection She's a nice g i r l ——>-What a nice g i r l ! 6. P a r t i a l s Yes, I play well >-Yes, I do. With the analysis of the basic pattern and the transfor-mations operating on the structure, a T-unit was c l a s s i f i e d as either a statement or a question. Statements were further subdivided into declarative statements and derived statements r e s u l t i n g from one or more of the passive, negative, imperative, emphatic, i n t e r j e c t i o n , and p a r t i a l types of transformations. Questions were either "Yes—No" or questions with interrogative words, otherwise c a l l e d "Wh-" type. Thus a T-unit may be c l a s s i f i e d into one or more of the transformation types. For example, the language sample, Who isn't here? i s a question transfor-mation which i s further converted into the negative. The data on the analysis of the basic patterns and types of transformations operating on the structure of T-units were organized into the following: I. Declarative Statements r (Simple or Complex) II. Derived Statements A. Passive B. Negative C. Imperative D. Emphatic E. Interjection F. P a r t i a l I I I . Questions A. "Yes—No" B. "Wh-" Question 1) "Wh-" Interrogative as Subject 2) "Wh-" Interrogative as Modifier of Subject 3) "Wh-" Interrogative as Adverbial. Other s i g n i f i c a n t l i n g u i s t i c features related to the sequential pattern of the T-unit which were analyzed and com-pared were: Word length of sentences Word length of T-units Mean number of T-units per sentence Average number of subordinate clauses per T-unit. SECOND-LEVEL ANALYSIS Deeper analysis of structure was focused on the number kinds and functions of constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transformations within the T-unit. The average 38 number of sentence-combining transformations per sentence was determined. This analysis gave a more precise description of the complexity of the grammatical structure. Sentence-combining transformation i s the process of producing one sentence where otherwise there would have been two or more. One or more T-units or independent clauses are reduced into subordinate clauses or non-clausal structures and consolidated into the base sentence to produce a single grammatically i n t e r r e l a t e d T-unit. The re s u l t i n g passage becomes succinct but s t r u c t u r a l relationships become more complex. More ideas are condensed into the grammatical unit. It has been established that comprehension d i f f i c u l t y due to s t r u c t u r a l ambiguity increases with grammatical com-p l e x i t y . In getting the meaning of the passage "the reader gets to a point i n the sentence where his f i r s t interpretation of the deep or surface structure i s no longer pl a u s i b l e : the remainder of the sentence becomes u n i n t e l l i g i b l e . He must pause and perhaps retrace his steps to e s t a b l i s h a second re-vised interpretation; one which w i l l carry him successfully 7 through the remainder of the sentence." Kinds of Transformation-Produced Constructions In the second-level analysis, the system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of constructions derived from sentence-combining transformations was based on O'Donnell and Thomas. Constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transfor-7 Hunt, op_. c i t . , p. 152, mations were c l a s s i f i e d into three general types: nominal constructions, adverbial constructions and coordinate con-structions. A d j e c t i v a l constructions were not c l a s s i f i e d separately since they became parts of nominal constructions. Constructions which modified adjectives were c l a s s i f i e d as adverbials while coordinate adjectives were c l a s s i f i e d as coordinate constructions. Nominal constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transformations were further c l a s s i f i e d according to kinds of construction based on structure and grammatical functions. For purposes of th i s research, constructions based on Owen Thomas' grammar were adapted i n the system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n . It was believed that t h i s grammar, which i s pedagogical i n nature,would best serve the purposes of th i s kind of study which attempted to apply the theories of l i n g u i s t i c science to language teaching. A. Headed Constructions: Constructions i n which the head can Examples of the kinds of constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transformations are the following: I. Nomina1 Constructions grammatically replace the whole construction: 1. Noun+Noun * ** Matrix S: Derived S: Insert S: My mother-in-law (+S) l i k e s roses. My mother-in-law i s a telephone operator. My mother-in-law, a telephone operator, l i k e s roses. *Sentence **The process of incorporating an optional sentence after every nominal i n the grammar as maintained by transformationalists. Noun+Adj ective Matrix S: Insert S: Derived S: God (+S) created the world (+S). God i s i n v i s i b l e . The world i s v i s i b l e . I n v i s i b l e God created the v i s i b l e world, Matrix S: He bought a car (+S). Insert S: The car i s green. Derived S: He bought a green car. Noun+Adverb Matrix S: Insert S: Derived S: We were very fond of the people (+S). The people were upstairs. We were very fond of the people upstairs, Noun+Prep. Phrase Matrix S: The f r o s t (+S) i s lovely. Insert S: The f r o s t i s on the pumpkin. Derived S: The f r o s t on the pumpkin i s lovely, Noun+Possessive Matrix S: I bought a car C+S). Insert S: John has a car. Derived S: I bought John's car. Matrix S: Insert S: Derived S: I bought a car (+S) He has a car. I bought his car. Matrix S: John took the book C+S), Insert S: I have a book. Derived S: John took my book. John took mine. 41 6. Noun+Relative Clause Matrix S: The man (+S) came from Calcutta. Insert S: The man l i k e s balloons. Derived S: The man who l i k e s balloons came from Calcutta. 7. Noun+cf)Relative Clause {that i s deleted) Matrix S: He met the g i r l (+S). Insert S: John spoke to the g i r l l a s t week. Derived S: He met the g i r l John spoke to l a s t week. 8. Noun+Infinitive Matrix S: John saved some money. Insert S: He went to the university. Derived S: John saved some money (for him) to go to the university. Matrix S: Insert S: Derived S: They made him a f i r e engine. The c h i l d rode i n the f i r e engine a l l day, They made him a f i r e engine (for him) to ride i n a l l day. 9, Noun+Participle Matrix S: I spoke to the man (+S). Insert S: The man i s sweeping the s t a i r s . Derived S: I spoke to the man sweeping the s t a i r s . B. Non-Headed Constructions: Constructions that function syntac-t i c a l l y as whole but cannot be grammatically replaced by a single word i n the construction: 1. Noun Clause Factive Nominal Matrix S: SOMETHING seems obvious. Insert S: She i s lovely. Derived S: That she i s lovely seems obvious. 4 42 2. Gerund Matrix S: Insert S: Derived S: SOMETHING was the high point of the the evening. John sings "Celeste Aida". magnificently. The magnificent singing of "Celeste Aida" was the high point of the evening. John's singing of "Celeste Aida" was the high point of the evening. 3. I n f i n i t i v e Matrix S: SOMETHING i s unusual. Insert S: I study hard. Derived S: For me to study hard i s unusual. 4. I n f i n i t i v e with Subject Matrix S: They considered John SOMETHING. Insert S: John i s lazy. Derived S: They considered John (to be) lazy. 5. Prepositional Phrase Matrix S: We put the tent. Insert S: The tent i s up. Derived S: We put the tent up. I I . Adverbial Structures: (Clauses and Near-Clauses) 1. Time Matrix S: He l e f t i n the morning. Insert S: I came in the morning. Derived S: He l e f t when I came. Place Matrix S: Insert S: Derived S: I study i n the l i b r a r y . He works i n the l i b r a r y . I study where he works. Cause Matrix S: Insert S: Derived S: I l e f t . He came. I l e f t because he came. Condition Matrix S: I l e f t . Insert S: He came . Derived S: He came even i f I l e f t . Comparison Matrix S: Mary i s (comparative +S) t a l l . Insert S: Harry i s t a l l . Derived S: Mary i s less t a l l than Harry. (Reduced Comparison) Matrix S: Ron i s t a l l . Insert S: John i s t a l l . Derived S: Ron i s (Comparative +S) t a l l , Ron i s as t a l l as John. Complement to Adjective Matrix S: I am glad. Insert S: You can come. Derived S: I am glad you can come. Adverbial I n f i n i t i v e Matrix S: He came home. Insert S: He v i s i t e d us. Derived S: He came home to v i s i t us. 44 8. Sentence Modifiers Matrix S: Todd had plenty of time. It was fortunate. Insert S: Derived S: Fortunately, Todd had plenty of time. Matrix S: They played bridge. It happened i n the meantime. In the meantime, they played bridge. Insert S: Derived S: II I . Coordinate Structures \ 1. Nominals John quarrelled. Edna quarrelled. John and Edna quarrelled. 2. Predicates John fished. John loafed. John sat i n the sun. John fished, loafed and sat i n the sun. 3. Modifiers A young man came i n . The young man was nice. A nice young man came i n . GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS OF NOMINAL CONSTRUCTIONS The system of c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of grammatical functions of constructions was based on the p o s i t i o n a l classes used to f i l l i n slot s i n the basic sentence patterns i n the Teacher's g Guide for English i n Grade 1. A construction occupying a s l o t 8 Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade T, op. c i t pp. 388-391. i n the sentence reserved for certain p o s i t i o n a l classes per-forms the function of that c l a s s . For example, i n the sentence, To err is human, the nominalized construction, To err3 which occupies the position reserved for subject, performs the function of the subject of the structure. Objective and workable c r i t e r i a for tes t i n g p o s i t i o n a l classes i n the basic sentence pattern discussed i n the Teacher' s Guide for English i n Grade I_ were used extensively i n the process of analysis. In certain few cases of s t r u c t u r a l ambiguity where constructions could not be l a b e l l e d on the basis of transformational grammar, c l a s s i f i -9 cation and analysis were based on Jespersen's Modern English Grammar, Poutsma's^° A Grammar of Late Modern English, and V i s s e r ' s ^ H i s t o r i c a l Syntax off The English Language. C l a s s i f i -12 cations were further v e r i f i e d by a s p e c i a l i s t i n transfor-mational analysis. The grammatical functions of nominal constructions which were i d e n t i f i e d i n the sentences were: 1. Subject 2. Direct Object 3. Object of Preposition ' Q Otto Jespersen, A Modern English Grammar (London: George A l l e n & Unwin Ltd. , 19 337". 1 0H. Poutsma, A Grammar of Late Modern English (Groningen: P. Noordhoof, 1916). 1 1F.T. Visser, An H i s t o r i c a l Syntax off the English Lan- guage , Vols. I and II (Leiden: E.J. Brill,"T963). 12 Dr. Fred Bowers of The Department of English, Univer-s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia. 46 4. Indirect Object 5. Subjective Complement 6. Objective Complement 7. Appositive 8. Adverbial Noun. EXAMPLE OF AN ANALYSIS OF A T-UNIT Below i s a step-by-step procedure i n segmenting and analyzing a T-unit: A - T-UNIT I Sample Text No. of Words i n Sentence No. of Words i n Unit  No. of T-Unit No. of_ Clauses Noun Clause Adverb Clause  Type of T-Unit  Structural Pattern of T-Unit Number and Kinds of - Sentence No. 8, page 156, Fun at Home and Away* "Here's what you have earned today, Laura," said Nita's mother as she gave Laura f i f t y centavos. - 17 - 17 1 4 2 1 I - Ns-VT-Ndo. Sentence-combining Transformations - page 47, 47 Nominal!zation Kind - Function Text Noun+Possessive Subject Nita's mother. Noun+Noun Nominative of Address you, Laura. Noun Clause Direct Object "Here's what you have earned today, Laura." Noun Clause Subject of Subordinate "What you have earned Clause today," Laura." Adverbial Structure Adverbial Clause of Time - as she gave Laura f i f t y centavos. B - T-UNIT IA Text : "Here's what you have earned today, Laura." No. of Words i n T-Unit 8 No, of T-Units - 1 No. of Clauses - 2 Noun Clause - 1 Type of T-Unit - I A Str u c t u r a l Pattern of T-Unit - Ns-VL-ADV (location) Number and Kinds of Sentence-Combining Transformations - below Nominalization Kind Function Text Noun+Noun Noun. Clause Nominative of Address Subject you, Laura, "What you have earned today, Laura." 48 CURRICULUM MATERIALS BASIC TO THE STUDY Teacher's Guide for English Language samples taught for o r a l mastery were drawn from the Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade III which w i l l be referred to as Guide throughout the text i n t h i s study. This curriculum material i s part of a series which consists of teachers' guides, pupils' textbooks and workbooks for the teach-ing of English as a second language i n Philippine schools, and which was developed by s p e c i a l i s t s i n l i n g u i s t i c s and language teaching at the Philippine Center for Language Study as a project of the University of C a l i f o r n i a (Los Angeles) Philippine Government Language Program. This cooperative undertaking of the University of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles and the Philippine government, with the f i n a n c i a l support of the Rockefeller Foundation, ca r r i e d out a program for the improvement of English i n s t r u c t i o n through research and experimentation on various aspects of the language problem i n the Phili p p i n e s . The duration of the program was for a period of eight years, from 1957 to 1966. The l i n g u i s t i c soundness of the Teacher's Guide for English series as v a l i d bases for developing beginning reading materials i n English for pupils i n the Philippines, i s supported by authorities i n the English-teaching profession. The review on the Teacher Guide for English i n Grade 1_ i n English Language  Teaching commends the high q u a l i t y of the i n s t r u c t i o n a l material. 49 This book i s an impressive example of what cooperation among teachers , admin is t ra tors , l i n g u i s t s , and teacher-t ra iners can achieve. Nothing, one f e e l s , i s l e f t to chance in th is t i g h t l y padded, c l o s e l y integrated volume. The work r e f l e c t s sound l i n g u i s t i c and pedagogic p r i n c i p l e s ; mater ia l i s analyzed and graded; meticulous d e t a i l marks every stage and every stage i s re in forced by background information for the teacher. The d i v i s i o n of the year 's work into f i ve uni ts which represent important areas of experience in the l i v e s of f i r s t grade ch i ld ren i s r e a l i s t i c . . . but not only do they have an appropr iate ly l o c a l b i a s , but the s i t u -a t iona l mater ia l providing the necessary c lose l inks with the c h i l d r e n ' s d a i l y l i f e i s considerably r i c h e r than i s commonly found. 13 A lber t Marckwardt, past president of the Nat ional Counci l of Teachers of Eng l ish re fers favorably to the mater ia ls and to the P h i l i p p i n e program as a whole: We are now acquir ing valuable experience in developing mater ia ls and t r a i n i n g teachers of Eng l ish as a second language throughout the world. One of our most notable e f f o r t s has been in the Ph i l ipp ines where the Un ivers i ty of C a l i f o r n i a , with Rockefe l ler Foundation's support , has undertaken an ambitious program and has executed i t ab ly . Elementary school textbooks have been developed, teachers have been t ra ined . . . . 14 An evaluat ion report publ ished in Language Learning a lso states that "The Center has to i t s c r e d i t an exce l lent s i x -volume ser ies for the teaching of Eng l ish in elementary 15 s c h o o l s . " Eng l i sh Language Teaching, V o l . 17,. No. 2, (January 1963) , pp. 100-101. 14 A lber t Marckwardt, "Engl ish as a Second Language and Eng l i sh as a Foreign Language," o r i g i n a l l y given as an address at the Convention of the Modern Languages A s s o c i a t i o n , Wash-ington ,. D..C . , December 29, 1962, and subsequently published i n Teaching Eng l ish As A Second Language, ed. by Harold A l l e n , CNew York: McGraw H i l T , 1965) , p. 6, Contrastive Analysis as Basis for Choice of Language  Structures One of the research projects of the P h i l i p p i n e s -16 University of C a l i f o r n i a (Los Angeles) Language Program provided the basic guidelines for curriculum writers i n the choice and sequencing of language structures i n the Teacher's  Guide for English s e r i e s . This study involved the alignment of the s t r u c t u r a l systems of the two languages to determine t h e i r points of contrast and s i m i l a r i t y . A hierarchy of d i f f i -culty was evolved which i d e n t i f i e d language structures that posed learning problems for F i l i p i n o speakers of English. Charles F r i e s states that "the most e f f e c t i v e materials are those that are based upon s c i e n t i f i c description of the language to be learned, c a r e f u l l y compared with a p a r a l l e l description 17 of the native language of the learner." The v a l i d i t y of the choice and sequencing of language structures i n the Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade I i s further stressed i n English Language Teaching: 15 James W. Ney, "English Teaching On The Rim of Asia," Language Learning: A Journal of Applied L i n g u i s t i c s , Vol. 13, Nos. 3 and 4, p. 196. "^Robert B. Stockwell, "A Contrastive Analysis of English and Tagalog, Part I: Introduction and Phonology, Part I I : Grammar." (Unpublished Manuscript, University of C a l i f o r n i a at Los Angeles, 1958). 17 Charles F r i e s , Teaching and Learning English i n a Foreign Language (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1945), p. 9, 51 Here, i t seems, i s an answer to the often postulated dilemma: should one provide the material and the tech-niques within a course, or should the r e s p o n s i b i l i t y for s e l e ction remain with the teacher? This American approach implies quite c l e a r l y that the selection of both methods and materials i s more complex than can reasonably be l e f t to the i n d i v i d u a l . Equally, there i s no reduction of the teacher's r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , for the standard of professional attainment necessary for the teaching of the course i s high. This i s teacher-t r a i n i n g i n depth. 18 The Basal Readers The language samples i n reading were drawn from the authorized basal readers, We Work and Play (Transition Reader), F i r s t Reader, Level I, Grade Three, and Fun At Home and Away, F i r s t Reader, Level II, These books w i l l be referred to as Readers throughout the text i n t h i s study. The Readers are the f i r s t formal reading materials i n English of pupils i n the Philippine public schools. These Readers were produced by a team of curriculum writers i n the Bureau of Public Schools. The texts also acknowledge the assistance extended by Dr. C l i f f o r d N. Prator, then Project Supervisor of the Philippine-University of C a l i f o r n i a (Los Angeles) Language Program for "offering valuable suggestions as to the language of the books"; and Dr. Bernice Leary, at the time Technical Assistant On Textbooks Preparation assigned to the Bureau of Publis Schools, Manila, under the sponsorship of the Agency for International Development of the United States government. English Language Teaching, op. c i t . , p. 100. 52 Each reader contains a vocabulary analysis. The vocabulary analysis gives an accounting of words i n the Readers including those which have previously been learned i n e a r l i e r grades i n speaking and l i s t e n i n g a c t i v i t i e s , and new words which are introduced. No s i m i l a r information i s given on the language structures used i n the Readers. RATIONALE AND PROCEDURE FOR SAMPLING A complete analysis of a l l sentences i n the Guide and i n the Readers was not f e a s i b l e . But according to v a l i d s t a t i s t i c a l procedures, a well-chosen sample can provide almost as much information as the "whole" population at much less cost and often more accurately, since p o s s i b i l i t i e s of error are greater with too large samples. The sampling procedure devised i n t h i s research was believed to draw language samples representative of the whole text. A l l of the sentences i n the o r a l presentation material of each lesson i n the Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade  III were used as language samples representative of the language structures which were taught for o r a l mastery. These sentences which are used i n r e a l i s t i c meaningful context i n dialogs', interviews, and rhymes, i l l u s t r a t e the language structures to be mastered for each lesson. These same sentences are intended as springboards for reading and writing a c t i v i t i e s i n each language lesson. Although the pupil i n Philippine schools begins formal reading only i n grade three, his o r a l English repertoire which would serve as basis for reading i s acquired from grades one through grade three. Using the Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade I and the Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade I I , the pupi l i s introduced to the basic sounds and patterns i n English through purely aural-oral a c t i v i t i e s i n the regular classroom period. But for the major purpose of comparing the Guide with the Readers, sampling was confined to the sentences i n the Teacher 1s Guide for English i n Grade I I I . It was believed that the sentences i n the o r a l presentation material for each lesson i n grade three were representative samples of the basic structures and sentence-combining transformations which the pupil has acquired cumulatively from grade one through grade three, "since most of the structures i n grade three are review materials and the new ones are var i a t i o n s , transformations, expansions or combinations of the basic patterns taught i n A -.19 previous grades. A 10 per cent sampling of the pages i n the basal readers was made by analyzing the sentences i n the f i r s t page of the text and every tenth page thereafter. Only f u l l pages were considered. A page that was predominantly i l l u s t r a t e d was omitted and the next page which was not predominantly i l l u s -trated was used. It was assumed that by t h i s method of sam-pling, the findings would be i n d i c a t i v e of the whole text and would also reveal any scheme of gradual development of complex-i t y of structures i n each text. 19 Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade I I I , p. Ix. CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF DATA The methodology described i n the preceding chapter sought to compare the s i g n i f i c a n t features of the patterns of structure of the language samples drawn from beginning reading materials with the language samples for o r a l mastery from the Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade I I I . This report on the findings of the l i n g u i s t i c analysis w i l l consist of two main parts. The f i r s t part w i l l present the data obtained from the f i r s t - l e v e l analysis which was mainly concerned with the sequential pattern of the T-unit and other related features. The following w i l l be considered: 1. Word length of sentences 2. Word length of T-units 3. Mean number of T-units per sentence 4. Average number of subordinate clauses per T-unit 5. Sequential patterns of T-units The next part w i l l describe the results of the second-level analysis which was focused on deeper relationships i n terms of sentence-combining transformations. The data to be presented w i l l include: 1. Average number of sentence-combining transformations per T-unit 2. Kinds of sentence-combining transformations 55 3. Functions of nominal constructions formed by sentence-combining transformations. GARBLES After segmenting the language samples into i d e n t i f i a b l e units and c l a s s i f y i n g them into Categories I to VI, as explained e a r l i e r i n Table I, a l l segments c l a s s i f i e d as Category VI were discarded. These segments were mainly words representing noises or human and animal sounds which could not be syntactic-a l l y analyzed. The term "garble", which was used by Hunt, corresponds to "mazes" as used by Loban and Strickland. The mazes or garbles i n the previous studies of these authors were signals of pauses, hesitations or revisions r e s u l t -ing i n s t r u c t u r a l tangles i n the o r a l and written language of children. These language samples were e l i c i t e d and transcribed i n actual communication si t u a t i o n s . Since the language samples i n t h i s study were "edited" written passages from authorized curriculum materials, rather than actual o r a l speech, such kinds of garbles r e s u l t i n g from s t r u c t u r a l tangles were not found. The "garbles" i n these samples served a s p e c i f i c purpose i n making the language more a l i v e and more int e r e s t i n g to the children. Examples of such garbles are expressions representing the barking of a dog, Arf! Arf! Arf!, the ringing of a b e l l , Clang! Clang! Clang! 3 the sound made by a man p u l l i n g the reins of a horse, Hya!- Rya!3 or a c h i l d shouting Vow! to express surprise and delight. There were twenty-four garbles excluded from the data. FIRST-LEVEL ANALYSIS 56 The f i r s t - l e v e l analysis was focused on the sequential pattern of the T-unit. This was described i n terms of the basic structure or the derived structure r e s u l t i n g from transformations. The analysis also included the word-length of the sentence, the word-length of the T-unit, and the factors related to the lengthening of the units of expression; namely, subordinate clauses and the number of T-units per sentence. Sentence-Length i n Relation to T-Unit Length Although the T-unit was the basis of syntactic analysis and measurement i n t h i s study, the word-length of the sentence was considered i n the analysis of data i n r e l a t i o n to the word-length of the T-unit. The two factors that influence sentence-length are T-unit length and the number of T-units per sentence. The T-unit lengthens with corresponding lengthening of the sentence, as more subordinate clauses and phrases are consolidated within the basic structure. This process r e s u l t s i n grammatical complexity. Another way of lengthening a sen-tence i s increasing the number of T-units, although i t has been shown that t h i s r e l a t i v e lengthening does not indicate r e l a t i v e complexity of structure. For example, the one T-unit sentence, The c h i l d is happy becomes longer with the consolidation of a subordinate clause within the structure as i n The c h i l d who 57 laughs is happy. On the other hand, the same sentence, The c h i l d is happy i s lengthened with the increase i n the number of T-units as i n The c h i l d is happy and the c h i l d laughs. Sentence length i n i t s e l f i s a poor index of l i n g u i s t i c maturity since a sentence may derive i t s length from the number of T-units as well as from the length of the T-units. But the findings i n t h i s study as shown i n Table III reveal that the sentences i n the language samples derived t h e i r length from the length of the T-units, rather than from the number of T-units per sentence. TABLE III SENTENCE LENGTH FACTORS: T-UNIT LENGTH AND NUMBER OF T-UNITS PER SENTENCE IN THE GUIDE COMPARED WITH THE READERS Mean T-unit Length i n Words Mean No. of T-units per Sentence Mean Sentence Length i n Words Guide Readers 6.59 i 7.94 2 i 1.08 c 1.02 7.06 8.21 Both the mean sentence length and the mean T-unit length i n the Readers were greater than that i n the Guide. The d i f f e r -ence i n sentence length was 1.15 words while the difference i n mean T-unit length was 1.34. However, there were more T-units for every sentence i n the Guide than i n Readers. The average number of T-units per sentence i n the Guide was 1.0 8 compared with 1.02 T-units i n the Readers. 58 The data i n Table III show prec i s e l y how sentence length i s derived from T-unit length and number of T-units per sentence. In the Guide, mean T-unit length of 6.59 multiplied by mean number of T-units per sentence of 1.0 8 gives the mean sentence length of 7.06. In the case of the Readers, mean T-unit length of 7.94.multiplied by mean number of T-units per sentence of 1.02 equals the mean number of words per sentence of 8.21. Since the samples on which the means were based were very large, there was l i t t l e sampling error and the samples could be taken to represent the population values very c l o s e l y . The difference between the means was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .0001 l e v e l . D i s t r i b u t i o n of Short, Mi dd1e-Length and Long T-units Figure 1 compares the d i s t r i b u t i o n of T-units i n the Readers and i n the Guide according to the number of words that they contain. E a r l i e r studies have referred to T-units of one to eight words as "short", of nine to twenty words as "middle-length", and of twenty words and above as "long". In terms of t h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n we see i n Table IV that almost 75 per cent of the T-units i n the Guide were "short" compared to 6 3 per cent i n the Readers. A l l the rest of the 25 per cent i n the Guide are "middle-length" compared to 36.5 per cent i n the Readers. 59 NO. OF WORDS IN T-UNITS 'rReaders Guide NUMBER OF T-UNITS OF EACH LENGTH IN THE GUIDE COMPARED TO THE READERS FIGURE 1 60 TABLE IV DISTRIBUTION OF "SHORT","MIDDLE-LENGTH" AND "LONG" T-UNITS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers Words Fre- Per Cumula- Fre- Per Cumula-quency Cent ti v e Fre- quency Cent ti v e Fre-quency quency Short 1-word 9 2.08 2 .32 2-word 23 5.49 7.17 5 .81 1.14 3-word 30 6.94 14.12 27 4.41 5.56 4-word 60 13.88 28.00 38 6 .21 11.78 5-word 47 10.87 38.88 67 10 .96 22.74 6-word 63 14.58 53.47 89 14.56 37.31 7-word 54 12.50 65.97 86 14.07 51.39 8-word 37 8.56 74.53 73 11.97 63. 33 Middle-Length 9-word 39 9 .02 83.56 61 9.98 73.32 10-word 31 7.17 90.74 35 5.72 79.05 11-word 12 2.77 93.51 45 7.36 86.41 12-word 9 2.08 95.60 24 3.92 90.34 13-word 7 1.62 97.22 ,2 3 3.76 94 .10 14-word 6 1.38 98.61 12 1.96 96 .07 15-word 2 .46 99.07 11 1.80 97.80 16-word 2 .46 99.56 1 .16 98.03 17-word . 0 0 .00 0.00 6 .98 99.01 18-word 1 .23 100.00 0 0.00 99 .01 19-word 0 0.00 0 .00 2 0.32 99.34 20-word 0 0.00 0.00 . 1 0 .16 99 .50 Long 21-word 0 0.00 0.00 3 .49 100 .00 The l o n g e s t i n the Guide i s an 18-word T - u n i t which i s a h e a l t h rhyme f o r c h i l d r e n : An A-I c h i l d has: Good teeth, cleav skin good height, and weight cleav eyes and a good appetite. The unusual l e n g t h of the T - u n i t i s due to the unusual number of c o o r d i n a t e d nominals i n a s e r i e s . 61 The three longest T-units i n the Readers were 21 words long. These sentences were d i r e c t discourse with introductory-clauses containing the verbs of saying. One of the sentences on page 157 i n Fun At Home and Away i s the following: " J hope I can find the biggest tree in the woods3" said the man as he walked along with his axe. There are four clauses i n the sentence: two independent and two dependent clauses. The introductory clause i s expanded by an adverbial clause. A noun clause i s embedded i n another noun clause used as d i r e c t object of the verb of saying. To test whether the language samples from the Guide and from the Readers have been drawn from the same population, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two sample test was used. The test revealed that the two sample cumulative d i s t r i b u t i o n s were so far apart that i t was v i r t u a l l y certain the two samples come from d i f f e r e n t populations. The observed D was much larger than the computed value required for r e j e c t i o n of the n u l l hypoth-esis at the .0002 l e v e l . Number of Subordinate Clauses It has been noted i n the e a r l i e r sections that the major factor i n lengthening the T-unit i s the increase i n the number of subordinate clauses attached to i t . Subordination decreases the number of T-units i n the sentence, where an independent clause becomes a dependent clause. For example, the two T-unit sentence, The man bought a car and the man is r i c h i s reduced to a one T-unit sentence, The man who is r i c h bought a car3 62 with corresponding lengthening of the T-unit. The subordin-ation process also results i n embedding a T-unit within another T-unit. The data that have been presented showed that the mean T-unit length i n the Readers was longer than i n the Guide. The difference of 1.34 words was found to be highly s i g n i f i c a n t . Analysis and comparison of the d i s t r i b u t i o n of subordinate clauses among multi-clause T-units would account for the d i f f e r -ence i n T-unit length. Figure 2 shows the d i s t r i b u t i o n of subordinate clauses among the multi-clause T-units i n the Readers and the Guide. The greater number of T-units i n the Guide, consisting of 85 per cent were one clause T-units, while i n the Readers, only 57 per cent were T-units of one clause. There were r e l a t i v e l y more multi-clause T-units i n the Readers than i n the Guide. T-units i n the Readers were expanded or lengthened through subordinate clauses added to the main clause. This greater frequency of subordinate clauses resulted i n longer T-units and i n the smaller mean number of T-units per sentence i n the Readers compared to the Guide. A subordinate clause was added to the main clause 50 per cent of the time i n the Readers, while i n the Guide a subordinate clause was added to the main clause 15 per cent of the time. It has to be noted, however, that the high average number of subordinate clauses for every main clause i n the Readers was due to the great number of dialogs i n the samples. PERCENTAGE OF T-UNITS WITH ONE, TWO, THREE OR FOUR CLAUSES IN THE GUIDE COMPARED TO THE READERS FIGURE 2 In the Guide, there were only two dialogs i n the samples. In th i s type of TOunit, the quoted expression was c l a s s i f i e d as noun clause functioning as d i r e c t object of the verb of saying or asking i n the introductory clause. If th i s type of "pseudo-noun" clause was excluded from the data by subtracting 217 T-units i n Category I from 311, the t o t a l number of subordinate clauses, the average number of subordinate clauses for every main clause i n the Readers would be .20. This i s much less than .50, the average number of subordinate clauses for every main clause with the inclu s i o n of quoted expressions functioning as noun clauses. Types of Discourse i n Readers and Guide The difference i n the mean length of the T-units i n the Guide and i n the Readers may be explained by the difference i n the types of discourse of the passage from which the samples were derived. Although the language i n the Guide are written forms, these units of expression which pupils learning English as a second language are expected to master o r a l l y approximate more closely, o r a l discourse than the language i n the Readers. These language forms are presented i n the context of situations which c a l l for or a l communication such as dialogs and interviews. The aim of the language lesson i n the Guide i s to help the learner acquire authentic forms of the o r a l language. A large number of the language expressions i n the Guide are written forms of utterances i n informal conversational s t y l e such as 65 p a r t i a l s , short answers, and reduced questions. While expressions i n the Guide approximate forms of o r a l discourse, the reading passages are narrative prose which consist largely of dialogs or d i r e c t discourse. The T-units are longer with introductory clauses containing the verb of saying or asking added to the quoted expression. Dialogs have been commonly used i n the basal readers to add natural-ness of expression i n the reading passages. SEQUENTIAL PATTERN OF THE T-UNIT The preceding sections have analyzed and compared the data describing the length of the T-unit and other l i n g u i s t i c features related to the unit of communication as a whole. This section w i l l describe the sequential pattern of the T-unit according to the underlying basic structure of the main clause. Findings i n the analysis of language samples from the Readers and the Guide were compared to determine t h e i r degree of s i m i l a r i t y . The underlying structures of a l l English sentences can be reduced to a few basic patterns or kernels. Variations from basic patterns are the r e s u l t of the process of transfor-mation operating on these basic patterns. Variations from the basic patterns due to the process of transformation take the form of expansion, reordering, addition, deletion or substitu-tion of the functional elements i n the pattern. An element i s expanded when words, phrases or clauses are added to a word i n the pattern i n order to l i m i t , describe or q u a l i f y i t . This i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n the sentence, The man who is r i c h bought an expensive oar where the clause who is r i c h and the modifier expensive expand the subject man and the d i r e c t object oar. Reordering of verb and subject i n the sentence Peter is here results i n the question, Is Peter here? In the passive and negative transformations, as i n John drives the car to. The car wasn't driven by John, new elements are added. Substitution of the interrogative word for some element i n the basic struc-ture transforms a statement to a "Who" question as i n John was here to Who was here? It has been shown that i n the process of understanding a sentence, the reader has to relate the outer or modified structure to the deep or basic structure. Studies based on the application of l i n g u i s t i c theory to reading comprehension have proved that understanding a sentence involves r e t r i e v i n g i t from i t s derived to i t s basic form. Thus, i n understanding the passive sentence, The cat was chased, the reader has to recode the structure to i t s basic form of SOMEONE (Subject) chased the cat, where the deep subject has to be supplied and the subject i s reverted to i t s true position or function as deep object. Research studies have further indicated that the ease or d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehending a passage depends on the distance of the outer or surface structure from i t s basic structure i n terms of modifications due to transformation. To insure rapid progress i n learning how to read i n a second language s i t u a t i o n , close correspondence should be maintained between the basic and transformation structures learned i n o r a l language lessons and those used i n beginning reading materials. This analysis w i l l show the extent to which the structures of the language samples from the Readers are based on the structures of the samples drawn from the Guide. Frequency off Basic Patterns i n Declarative Statements Findings on the frequency of occurrence of basic patterns i n declarative statements i s shown i n Table V which included data with quoted expressions as separate T-units. Frequency of use of the underlying basic statement patterns i n both the Readers and the Guide centered around three basic patterns. The three ranking patterns, namely the following: Rank 1 - Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object Rank 2 - Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Intransitive Rank 3 - Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Adjective were the same i n both the Readers and the Guide. Table V also shows that the most popular pattern was the common d o e r — a c t i o n — g o a l sequence or the Noun-Subj ect + Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object which accounted for 68 per cent i n the reading materials and 40.65 per cent i n the o r a l language materials. The data further revealed that the basic patterns with the objective complements: Noun-Subj eet+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object+ Noun-Obj ective Complement and Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Transitive + Noun-Direct Object+Adjective-Objective Complement were rarely used i n the curriculum materials. The pattern with the expletive, There is+Subject also occurred very r a r e l y . 68 In the Readers, the great mass of T-units or 68 per cent clustered around only the highest ranking pattern, while the patterns Noun-Subject+Verb-Intransitive, Noun-Subject-Verb Linking+Adj ective and Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Indirect Object+Noun-Direct Object accounted for only the next 25 per cent. One s t r i k i n g d i s p a r i t y i n the d i s t r i b u t i o n of patterns was the r e l a t i v e l y more frequent occurrence of the i n d i r e c t object pattern i n the Readers, than i n the Guide. TABLE V FREQUENCY, PER CENT AND RANK OF BASIC PATTERNS IN DECLARATIVE STATEMENTS INCLUDING QUOTED EXPRESSIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Basic Pattern Guide Readers Fre-quency Per Cent Rank Fre-quency Per Cent Rank Ns-VI 45.00 18.29 2.0 80 .00 14.31 2 Ns-VL-Adj. 43.00 17.47 3.0 31.00 5.56 3 Ns-VL-N.p.n 21.00 8.53 4.0 18.00 3.2.3 5 Ns-VL-Adv. 11.00 4.47 5.0 10.00 1.79 6 Ns-VT-N.d.o. 100.00 40.65 1.0 380.00 68.10 1 Ns-VT-N.i.o. N.d.o. 8.00 3.25 6.5 20.00 3.58 4 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -N.o.o. 5.00 2.03 8.5 4.00 0.75 9 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -Adj.o.c. 5.00 2.03 8.5 6.00 1.07 8 Exp-VL-Subj. 8.00 3.25 6.5 8.00 1.43 7 Table VI presents data on the frequency of occurrence of basic patterns i n declarative statements excluding Category IA, or quoted expressions as separate T-units. As i n the 69 TABLE VI FREQUENCY, PER CENT AND RANK OF BASIC PATTERNS IN DECLARATIVE STATEMENTS EXCLUDING QUOTED EXPRESSIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers Basic Pattern Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Ns-VI 45.00 18.44 2.0 75.00 15.69 2.0 Ns-VL-Adj. 42.00 17.21 3.0 19.00 3.95 3.0 Ns-VL-N.p:.n. 20.00 8.19 4.0 6.00 1.25 5.0 Ns-VL-Adv. 11.00 4.50 5.0 5.00 1.04 6.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. 100.00 40.98 1.0 347.00 72.59 1.0 Ns-VT-N.i.o. -N.d.o. 8.00 3.27 6.5 16 .00 3,34 4.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -N.o.c. 5.00 2.04 8.5 3.00 0.62 8.5 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -Adj.o.c. 5.00 2.04 8.5 4.00 0.83 7.0 Exp-VT-Subj. 8.00 3.27 6.5 3.00 0.62 8.5 f i r s t data presented, the pattern Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Transitive+ Noun-Direct Object has the highest frequency of occurrence i n Table VI. As was expected however, the r e l a t i v e proportion of frequency of t h i s pattern increased from 68 per cent to 72.5 per cent. With the exclusion of Category IA i n the data, a l l the dialogs with the introductory clause or Category I have the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object pattern with the quoted expression as d i r e c t object. Table V indicates, as does Table VI, that the occurrence of the basic patterns consisted of the r e p e t i t i o n of only a few of the basic patterns. The data on the frequency of occurrence of the basic patterns confirmed the results of previous studies which deter-70 rained the most frequent and ra r e l y used patterns of English i n both o r a l and written materials. Strickland found that the common pattern of highest frequency i n o r a l speech of children i n reading textbooks was the Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object pattern. Loban confirmed t h i s data, and O'Donnell also reported that the d i r e c t object pattern and the Noun-Subject+Verb-Intransitive accounted for 80 per cent to 85 per cent i n the speech and writing of children. A l l studies reported that the patterns with the objective complement and i n d i r e c t objects were rarely found i n the language samples. Compared with the reports of previous studies of Loban, Strickland and O-Donnell, the rank of f i v e among the basic patterns i n frequency of occurrance of the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Indirect Object+Noun-Direct Object pattern was comparatively higher. The Expletive-There is+Noun-Subject pattern was also reported as a rare pattern i n English. In order to determine the degree of relationship of f r e -quency of occurrence of the underlying basic patterns i n the Guide and i n the Readers, the co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of the paired data was computed using Spearman's rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t , (or rho). The co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .92 of the paired measurements i n Table V indicates a high p o s i t i v e relationship i n the ranks based on the frequency of occurrence of the underlying basic statement patterns i n the Guide and i n the Readers. In Table VI, the degree of rela t i o n s h i p of the ranks based on frequency of occurrence of the basic patterns i n the Guide and i n the Readers i s lower with a rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .88. This difference between Table V and Table VI i s due to the fluctuation i n rank of the three r a r e l y used patterns. The rank cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s indicated a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y that exists between the underlying basic statement patterns taught to F i l i p i n o pupils i n o r a l language lessons and basic patterns used i n beginning reading materials A one t a i l e d - t e s t based on N equals 9 indicated that the values of the rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s were highly s i g n i f icant at the .01 level.''" Types of Questions The questions i n the language samples were c l a s s i f i e d into two types, namely: "Yes—No" questions and questions with interrogative words who, where, when, what, c a l l e d "Wh-" question patterns. The "Wh-" type was further subdivided into three subtypes, namely "Wh-" as subject, as i n the sentence Who is here?; "Wh-" as modifier of the subject as i n Which bo is good?, and "Wh-" as adverbial, as i n Why did Peter laugh? The t o t a l number of questions i n the Guide was propor-tionately greater by 100 per cent than the number of questions i n the Readers. Question patterns represented 18 per cent of ''"J.P. Guilford, Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and Education (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956), Table L, p. 549. 72 a l l the language samples from the Guide, while i n the Readers, only 9 per cent were questions. In the Guide, there were r e l a t i v e l y more "Yes—No" questions, while i n the Readers, there were r e l a t i v e l y more questions with the interrogative words. Figure 3 shows the r e l a t i v e frequency of the types of questions i n the Guide and i n the Readers. The question i n which the interrogative word was used as adverbial was more commonly used i n both the Readers and the Guide. The question with._the interrogative word as modifier of the subject was not used i n both the Readers and Guide. Analysis of the other types of transformations i n questions showed that more questions i n the Guide were further converted by other types of transformations. The most popular type of transformation was the negative. Most of the negative questions i n the Guide were further reduced into p a r t i a l s . The passive question was not found i n the Guide, while only one passive "Yes—No" question occurred i n the Readers. It seemed that the r e l a t i v e l y greater frequency of the question i n the Guide than i n the Readers was i n d i c a t i v e of the informal conversational s t y l e of the language of the Guide. Other transformations on the question were largely those which resulted i n making the language approximate o r a l speech such as reducing questions into p a r t i a l s as i n the tag questions: Isn't he? Didn't he?s etc. 'YES-NO" 'WH- AS SUBJECT" 'WH- AS MODIFIER OF SUBJECT" 'WH- AS ADVERBIAL" Guide Readers NO. OF QUESTION SENTENCE TYPES IN PER CENT FREQUENCY OF QUESTION SENTENCE TYPES IN THE GUIDE COMPARED TO THE READERS FIGURE 3 74 Frequency of Underlying Basic Patterns i n Questions Table VII presents data on the frequency of the under-ly i n g basic patterns i n questions including quoted expressions. The greater number of questions i n the language samples were derived from the Noun-Sub j' ect+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object pattern. This pattern, which represented 44.87 per cent i n Guide and 46.47 per cent i n Readers ranked f i r s t i n frequency of occurrence i n both the Readers and the Guide. The pattern which ranked second i n both materials was the Noun-Subjeot+ Vevb-Linking+Noun-Predioate Nominative. TABLE VII FREQUENCY, PER CENT AND RANK OF UNDERLYING BASIC PATTERNS IN QUESTIONS INCLUDING QUOTED EXPRESSIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Basic Pattern Guide Readers Fre-quency Per Cent Rank Fre-quency Per Cent Rank Ns-VI 8.000 10.256 4.0 7.000 9.589 3.0 Ns-VL-Adj. 10.000 12.820 3.0 6.000 8.219 4.5 Ns-VL-N.p.n. 18.000 23.076 2.0 16.000 21.917 2.0 Ns-VL-Adv. 3.000 3.846 5.0 6.000 8.219 4.5 Ns-VT-N.d.o. 35.000 44.871 1.0 34.000 46.575 1.0 Ns-VT-N.i.o. -N.d.o. 2.000 2.564 6.0 3.000 4.109 6.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -N.o.c. 1.000 1.282 7.5 0.000 0.000 8.5 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -Adj.o.c. 1.000! 1.282 7.5 0.000 0.000 8.5 Exp-VT-Subj . 0.000 0.000 9.0 1.000 1.369 7.0 The patterns which were rarely used i n declarative statements were also rarely used i n questions. There were no questions with the objective complement patterns i n the 75 Readers, while there were two questions with objective comple-ments i n the Guide. The f i r s t question, Did the people eleot the mayor? was used i n the o r a l presentation of the predicate pattern elect/choose+Noun-Objective Complement. The expletive pattern was also r a r e l y used i n questions. This pattern did not occur i n questions i n the Guide, while only one question had the expletive pattern i n the Readers. The most common basic pattern i n questions conformed to the findings of other studies. The frequency of Noun-Subject+ Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object pattern shows i t s high functional value. It seemed that the inclu s i o n of the questions with the objective complement was intended to meet the commun-ic a t i o n needs of pupils i n connection with s o c i a l studies. The TABLE VIII FREQUENCY, PER CENT AND RANK OF UNDERLYING BASIC PATTERNS IN QUESTIONS EXCLUDING QUOTED EXPRESSIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers Basic Pattern Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency cent Ns-VI 8.000 10.256 4.0 4.000 10.526 4.0 Ns-VL-Adj. 10.000 12.820 3.0 5.000 13.157 3.0 Ns-VL-N,p.n. 18.000 23.076 2.0 6.000 15.789 2.0 Ns-VL-Adv. 3.000 3.846 5.0 3.000 7.894 5.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. 35,000 44.871 1.0 18.000 47.368 1.0 Ns-VT-N.i.o. -N.d.o. 2.000 2.564 6.0 2.000 5.263 6.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -N.o.c. 1.000 1. 282 7.5 0.000 0.000 8.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -Adj.o.c. 1.000 1.282 7.5 0.000 0.000 8.0 Exp-VT-Subj. 0.000 0.000 9.0 0.000 0.000 8.0 76 predicate pattern elect/choose+Noun-Objective Complement was appropriate for the subject-matter on elections i n s o c i a l studies. Using Spearman's formula for rank cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c -i e n t , a correlation of .92 existed between the basic patterns underlying the questions i n the Guide and i n the Readers. This r e f l e c t s high relationship of the patterns i n the reading materials and those patterns taught i n the o r a l language lessons. In Table VIII, questions which occurred i n quoted ex-pressions c l a s s i f i e d as Category IA were excluded from the data. The data i n Table VIII were based on only 38 questions i n the Readers, although the number of samples from the Guide remained the same. Of the t h i r t y - e i g h t questions, twenty were "Yes—No" questions which represented 53 per cent, while 47 per cent were "Wh-" questions. In the Readers, only two questions were negative and one question was p a r t i a l . Except for the three rarely used patterns, the f i r s t s i x ranking patterns were the same i n both the Readers and the Guide. The most popular pattern, which ranked f i r s t i n both materials was the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object pattern. The pattern Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Noun-Predicate Nominative was second i n frequency. The co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s of the patterns i n Table VII i s .98 compared to .92 i n Table VIII. These rank cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s r e f l e c t a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y i n the kinds of underlying basic patterns i n questions i n the Guide and i n the Readers. The values were found to be highly s i g n i f i c a n t beyond the .01 l e v e l i n a one-tailed t e s t . Types of Transformations i n Derived Statements A l l statements i n the language samples were c l a s s i f i e d as either declarative or derived. In th i s study, derived statements are T-units which have been converted into one or more of the passive, negative, imperative, emphatic, i n t e r -j e c t i o n or p a r t i a l type of transformations as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the following: Passive: The cat was chased by the dog. Negative: He i s n ' t going home. Imperative: Come back soon. Emphatic: You do work very hard. Interjection: Yes, he i s . A T-unit may reveal two or more transformations operating on i t s basic structure such as the passive and the negative i n the sentence, Be wasn't admired by everyone or imperative and emphatic i n , Do oome back soon, or the p a r t i a l and negative i n No, he i s n ' t . A comparison of the frequency of these types of transformations i n the language samples from the Guide and the Readers i s shown i n Table IX. The three most common transformation types i n derived statements i n both the Guide and the Readers were the negative, imperative and p a r t i a l . These three types of transformations constituted 87,86 per cent of the t o t a l number of transfor-mations i n derived statements i n the Guide, while i n the Readers, these transformations represented 84.83 per cent. The 78 TABLE IX 'FREQUENCY, PER CENT, AND RANK OF TYPES OF TRANSFORMATIONS TN DERIVED STATEMENTS INCLUDING QUOTED EXPRESSIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers Type Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Passive 9.00 5.45 4.5 8.00 3.79 5.0 Negative 61.00 36.96 1.0 59.00 27.96 2.0 Imperative 31.00 18.78 3.0 84.00 39 . 81 1.0 Emphatic 0.00 0.00 6.0 4.00 1.89 6.0 Interjection 9.00 5.45 4.5 20 .00 9 .45 4.0 P a r t i a l 53.00 33.33 2.0 36 .00 17.06 3.0 most common derived statement i n the Guide was the negative statement while the most frequent type of derived statement i n the Readers was the imperative. There were half as many p a r t i a l s i n the Guide as i n the Readers, while the frequency of imperatives i n the Readers was more than i n the Guide. The number of rare transformations i n the Readers exceeded the number i n the Guide. There were more in t e r j e c t i o n s and emphatic statements i n the Readers, although the passive transformation was rare i n both the Readers and the Guide. The r e l a t i v e l y greater number of the imperative trans-formation i n the Readers was due to the common use of dialog i n the narratives. The quoted speech or d i r e c t discourse usually took the form of commands or requests where the subject or the person to whom the command or request was addressed was deleted. The frequent occurrence of the p a r t i a l s , e s p e c i a l l y 79 i n the Guide, also indicated the informal conversational s t y l e of the language. It seemed that the functional value of the negative transformation i n expressing concepts accounted for i t s popularity. The negative transformation i s also commonly used i n tag questions and short answers such as i n Isn't he? and No 3 he isn ' t. A rank correlation c o e f f i c i e n t of .82 was found between the types of transformations i n derived statements i n the Guide and i n the Readers. This indicated a f a i r l y close simi-l a r i t y between the types of transformations i n derived state-ments i n both materials. A one-tailed test based on N equals 6 indicated significance of the values at the .05 l e v e l . Frequency of Underlying Basic Patterns i n Derived  Statements Comparison of the r e l a t i v e frequency of basic patterns i n derived statements based on the data including quoted expressions i n the Guide and i n the Readers as shown i n Table X indicated that the patterns Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+ Noun-Direct Object and Noun-Subject+Verb-Intransitive ranked f i r s t and second i n both materials. This finding conformed to the data i n the analysis of declarative statements i n which the two patterns ranked f i r s t and second i n the frequency of occurrence. Although there was lack of one-to-one correspon-dence i n rank of the commonly used patterns due to the r e l a t i v e l y high frequency of the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct 80 Obj ect+Noun-Obj ective Complement i n the Readers, the patterns of high frequency were the Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Noun-Predicate Adjective which ranked t h i r d i n the Guide and fourth i n the Readers, and the Noun-Subject+Verb-Linking+Noun-Predicate Nominative which ranked fourth i n the Guide and f i f t h i n the Readers. The expletive pattern and the Noun-Subject+Verb-Tran-sitive+Noun-Direct Object+Adjective-Objective Complement pattern did not occur i n derived statements i n the Guide while the Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Linking+Adverb (Location) occurred only once. The adjective-objective complement pattern was rarely used i n the Readers while the i n d i r e c t object pattern occurred more often i n the Guide. A s t r i k i n g finding i n the analysis was the r e l a t i v e l y high frequency of the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Obj ect+Noun-Obj ective Complement which ranked t h i r d i n the Readers but ranked sixth i n the Guide. This observation did not conform to the analysis of basic patterns of declarative statements and questions. 1 V e r i f i c a t i o n of the high frequency of the pattern of Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Obj ect+Noun-Obj ective Complement i n the Readers revealed that the pattern occurred i n a greater number of times i n the form of "Let's"+ base form of verb which i s analyzed as (lou) + " l e t ' s " (You and us) + to verb or Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Obj ect+Noun-Obj ective Complement. The i n f i n i t i v e i s used as objective 81 complement. T h i s e x p r e s s i o n of "Let's " was commonly used i n the d i a l o g s i n the Readers. I t seemed t h a t the frequent use of t h i s p a t t e r n was d i c t a t e d by i t s appropriateness to the context o f group experiences o f c h i l d r e n i n the n a r r a t i v e s found i n the Readers. TABLE X FREQUENCY, PER CENT, AND RANK OF UNDERLYING BASIC PATTERNS IN DERIVED STATEMENTS INCLUDING QUOTED EXPRESSIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers B a s i c P a t t e r n F r e - Per Rank F r e - Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Ns-VI 19.000 17.60 2.0 39.000 22.65 2.0 Ns-VL-Adj. 13.000 12.05 3.0 14.000 8.14 4.0 Ns-VL-N.p.n. 10.000 9.25 4.0 10.000 5.81 5.0 Ns-VL-Adv, 1.000 0.93 7.0 6.000 3.49 6.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. 56.000 51.90 1.0 69 .000 40.10 1.0 Ns-VT-N.i.o. -N.d.6. 5.000 4.63 5.0 1.000 0.58 8.5 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -N.o.c. 4.000 3.70 6.0 27.000 15.70 3.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o -Adj.o.c. 0.000 0.00 8.5 1.000 0.58 8.5 Exp-VT-Subj. 0.000 0.00 8.5 5.000 2.92 7.0 The .78 c o r r e l a t i o n based on Spearman's formula or rho r e v e a l s t h a t t h e r e i s a f a i r l y c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p between the b a s i c p a t t e r n s o f d e r i v e d statements i n the Guide and i n the Readers. There was correspondence i n rank of the two most common p a t t e r n s , but the r e l a t i v e l y h i g h frequency of the n o m i n a l - o b j e c t i v e p a t t e r n i n the Readers was not found i n the Guide, 82 Table XI which excluded from the data the quoted exp r e s s i o n s i n d i a l o g s as independent T - u n i t s reduced the number of d e r i v e d statements w i t h the e x p l e t i v e p a t t e r n i n the Readers from a rank o f f i v e i n Table X t o a rank of e i g h t i n Table XI. The correspondence of the two h i g h e s t r a n k i n g p a t t e r n s i n the Guide and i n the Readers i n Table X i s maintained i n Table XI, w i t h the Noun-Subject+Verb-Tvan-sitive+Noun-Direct Object p a t t e r n as rank one and the Noun-Subject+Verb-Intransitive as rank two. The r e l a t i v e pro-p o r t i o n o f the number of the nominal o b j e c t i v e complement p a t t e r n remained the same wi t h the rank o f t h r e e . TABLE XI FREQUENCY, PER CENT, AND RANK OF UNDERLYING BASIC PATTERNS IN DERIVED STATEMENTS EXCLUDING QUOTED EXPRESSIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers B a s i c P a t t e r n F r e - Per Rank F r e - Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Ns-V.I 19.000 17.60 2.0 22.000 12.80 2,0 Ns-VL-Adj. 13.000 12.05 3.0 6.000 3.48 4,5 Ns-VL-N.p.n. 10.000 9.25 4.0 6.000 3.48 4.5 Ns-VL-Adj. 1.000 9.25 7.0 4.000 2.32 6.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. 56.000 51.90 1.0 48.000 27.90 1.0 Ns-VT-N.i.o -N.d.o. 5.000 4.63 5.0 1.000 0.58 8.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. -N. o . c. 4.000 3.70 6.0 17.000 9.89 3.0 Ns-VT-N.d.o. Adj.o.c. 0.000 0.00 8.5 1.000 0.58 8.0 Exp-VT-Subj. 0.000 0.00 8.5 1.000 0.58 8.0 83 The rank cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of ,80 i s also i n d i c a -t i v e of the f a i r l y good relationship of the basic patterns underlying the derived statements i n the Guide and i n the Readers. A one-tailed test revealed significance at the .01 l e v e l , SECOND-LEVEL ANALYSIS Nature of Sentence-Combining Transformations The f i r s t - l e v e l analysis was aimed towards a description of the basic pattern of the T-unit and variations r e s u l t i n g from processes of transformations within the single grammatical structure. The following section deals with the second-level analysis which was concerned with a description of variations r e s u l t i n g from processes of transformations as one T-unit i s consolidated into another T-unit. The f i r s t - l e v e l analysis was focused on single-base transformations while the second-l e v e l analysis was concerned with double-base transformations, aptly c a l l e d sentence-combining transformations. It has been discussed e a r l i e r i n th i s chapter how the length of a T-unit increases as more subordinate clauses and non-clausal modifiers are attached at various points within i t s structure. This capacity of the T-unit to absorb other grammatical structures into i t s framework can be explained 2 by Chomsky's theory of transformational generative grammar. 2 Noam Chomsky, "A Transformational Approach to Syntax," Third Texas Conference On Problems of L i n g u i s t i c Analysis i n  English, May 18-20, ed. Archibald H i l l (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1962), p. 128. 84 Simply stated, the theory maintains that a constituent sentence can be embedded into a matrix sentence to produce a single i n t e r r e l a t e d unit through various transformational processes including rearrangements, deletions, substitutions and expan-sions. These sentence-combining transformations compress two or more sentences into one i n t r i c a t e sentence. It has been explained e a r l i e r that the kind and number of sentence-combining transformations are related to the grammatical complexity of the sentence. As one sentence i s reduced to phrases and clauses and consolidated into another sentence, the information load of the derived sentence i s also increased. Loban claims that "phrases and dependent clauses are verbal means of showing relat i o n s h i p s : through them speakers communicate more complex propositions than are possible 3 with simple independent clauses." Therefore, i t has been assumed i n th i s study that sentence-combining transformations influence the d i f f i c u l t y of a reading passage. Oral f a m i l i a r i t y with the sentence-combining transforma-tions i n reading materials w i l l ease the d i f f i c u l t y of compre-hension. Comparison of the kind and number of sentence-combining transformations i n the language samples drawn from the o r a l language materials used i n Philippine schools and the sentence-combining transformations i n reading passages w i l l be presented i n the following section. 3 Walter D. Loban, The' Language of Elementary School  Children: A Study of the Use and Control of Language E f f e c t - Iveness i n Communication and the Relations Among Speaking, Reading, Writing and Listening, National Council of Teachers of English" (Champaign, I l l i n o i s , 1963). 85 Kinds and Average Number'.of Seritence-Combining  Transformations The three general categories of constructions produced from sentence-combining transformations are nominal construc-tions, adverbial constructions, and coordinate constructions. A nominal construction i s produced when the transformation-derived structure functions as a noun phrase i n the sentence. Adverbial constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transformations are either adverbial clauses or reduced adverb-i a l clauses. Coordinate constructions are nominals, predicates, and modifiers which are coordinated elements within the T-unit. Figure 4 compares the number of nominal, adverbial and coordinate constructions i n the Guide and Readers. The number of nominal constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations exceeded the other kinds of constructions i n both language and reading materials. The number of nominal constructions i n the Readers which constituted 71.71 per cent was r e l a t i v e l y greater than the number i n the Guide which was equivalent to 6 3.88 per cent. But the number of adverbial constructions i n the Guide was r e l a t i v e l y greater than the adverbial constructions i n the Readers. Coordinate constructions were not very common i n both the Readers and the Guide. The percentage of coordinate constructions i n the Guide which was 6.6 8 per cent did not d i f f e r greatly from the coordinate constructions i n the Readers which constituted 6.37 per cent. NUMBER OF SENTENCE-COMBINING TRANSFORMATIONS IN PER CENT TYPES OF CONSTRUCTIONS PRODUCED BY SENTENCE-COMBINING TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE GUIDE COMPARED TO THE READERS FIGURE 4 87 The great number of nominal constructions i n the f i n d -ings seemed to confirm what l i n g u i s t s claim as the general c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the English language. Thomas states that "English i s a nominalizing language. There are more operations that transform words or groups of words into noun phrases than there are sim i l a r operations for creating new 4 members of any other part-of-speech category." As has been indicated e a r l i e r i n the f i r s t - l e v e l analysis, the mean T-unit length i n words i n the Readers was greater than the mean T-unit length i n the Guide by 1 . 3 4 and that t h i s difference i n means was found to be highly s i g n i f i -cant. Since T-unit lengthens as more subordinate clauses and phrases are attached to the basic structure, therefore T-unit length i s p o s i t i v e l y related to the number of sentence-combining transformations that derive clauses and phrases. Computation of the number of sentence-combining transformations per T-unit showed that there were more sentence-combining transformations per T-unit i n the Readers than i n the Guide. The mean number of sentence-combining transformations i n the Readers was 1 . 6 6 compared to 1 . 1 1 i n the Guide. For every T-unit i n the Readers, there were 1 . 6 6 derived constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations compared to 1 . 1 1 derived constructions embedded i n every T-unit i n the Owen Thomas, Trans formationa1 Grammar and The Teacher  of English, (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1965) p. 7 4 . 88 Guide. A test of the significance of the difference between the means revealed that the difference i s s i g n i f i c a n t at the .0001 l e v e l . Nominal Cons truc t ions Nominal constructions have been c l a s s i f i e d into two sub-types: headed and non-headed nominal constructions. In headed nominal constructions, the modified noun c a l l e d the head could function grammatically by i t s e l f i n place of the whole construction. For example, the head man i n the construc-t i o n , The very r i c h young man could function by i t s e l f as subject i n the sentence, The very r i c h young man bought a car. Thus the sentence becomes The man bought a car. Non-headed nominal constructions are "those i n which no single word by i t s e l f could function grammatically i n place of the whole structure. No single word i n the noun clause, who she is could replace the construction which functions as d i r e c t 5 object i n John knows who she is. The kinds of headed and non-headed nominal constructions which have been i l l u s t r a t e d with matrix and in s e r t sentences i n Chapter III are the following: Charles F. Hockett, A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s (New York: MacMillan Company, 1958), p. 183. 89 A. Headed 1. Noun+Noun The tele-phone operator i s busy, 2. Noun+Adjective The r i c h man bought a car. 3. Noun+Prepositional Phrase The g i r l in the car i s a t t r a c t i v e . 4. Noun+Adverb The man upstairs rang the b e l l . 5. Noun+Possessive John's hat i s on the table. 6. Noun+Relative Clause He sold the house that he bought l a s t year. 7. Noun+cj)Relative Clause She's the g i r l I met yesterday. 8. Noun+Infinitive I borrowed a book to read. 9. Noun+Participle The nurse carried the sleeping baby. B. Non-Headed 1. Noun Clause (Direct Object) He knew where he was going. 2. Gerund (Subject) Dancing i s her hobby. 3. I n f i n i t i v e Phrase (Direct Object) The student wanted to win the contest. 90 4. I n f i n i t i v e Phrase with Subject (Objective Complement) He made him win the contest, 5. Prepositional Phrase (Objective Complement) The boys put the tent up. Kinds of Headed Nominal Constructions Findings on the frequency of occurrence i n the kinds of headed nominal constructions are indicated i n Table XII. TABLE XII KINDS OF HEADED NOMINAL CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers Kinds Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Noun+Noun 73 32.2 1.0 89 23.7 2.0 Noun+Adj. 56 24.7 2.0 79 21.0 3.0 Noun+Adv. 3 1.3 8.0 8 2.1 9.0 Noun+Prep. Phrase 30 13.2 4.0 51 13.6 4.0 Noun+Pos. 46 20.3 3.0 102 27.1 1.0 Noun+Rel.Cl. 4 1.8 7.0 9 2.4 7.5 Noun+4>Rel.Cl. 2 0.9 9.0 3 3.5 6.0 Noun+Infin. 6 2.6 6.0 9 2.4 7.5 Noun+Part. 7 3.1 5.0 16 4.3 5.0 The table suggests that the three most common headed nominal constructions i n both the Guide and the Readers were the noun+noun, noun+adjective, and noun+possessive. However, 91 there was r e l a t i v e l y greater frequency of noun+noun and noun+ adjective i n the Guide, and a r e l a t i v e l y greater frequency of the noun+possessive i n the Readers. The large number of nominal constructions, noun+adjective, noun+prepositional phrase and noun+possessive only confirmed the findings of other studies on the popularity of the adjec-t i v e , the prepositional phrase and the possessive as modifiers of nouns. Possessive constructions such as Elsa's book, with the noun i n the possessive form, and possessive pronouns as i n her brother, t h e i r friend and mine were more common i n the reading materials. The noun+noun construction includes compound nouns such as City B a l l , oyster s h e l l , etc., appositives such as Berto, the brag, and nominatives of address used i n apposition to the subject nominal as Nena, w i l l you help Rosa? This construction exceeded any of the other headed nominal constructions i n f r e -quency of occurrence and constituted more than one ha l f for both the Readers and the Guide. The greater number seemed to be due to the common use of commands and requests i n the dialogs using the nominative of address. The frequent use of compound nouns, especially i n the or a l language materials was due to emphasis on i t s correct use. It has been recognized that the F i l i p i n o speaker of English has special d i f f i c u l t y on the stress pattern of compound nouns so that curriculum materials have included lessons to overcome t h i s d i f f i c u l t y . Comparing the frequency of occurrence of the kinds of headed nominal constructions i n the Guide and i n the Readers, a rank c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .84 existed between the two sets of language samples. This figure revealed a fairly-high relationship between the ranks based on the kinds and frequency of headed nominal constructions i n the Guide and i n the Readers, although the r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence of rare constructions was greater i n the Readers. A one-tailed test revealed that the value of the rank co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . Closer examination, of the kinds of headed nominal con-structions i n the samples revealed that certain sub-types of nominals occurred more frequently i n the Readers than i n the Guide. The following sentences from Fun At Home and Away, F i r s t Reader, Level I I , i l l u s t r a t e the sub-type of noun-pavticiiple construction, which occurred rarely i n the Guide: 1. They saw- Efren playing with his red boat i n the d i t c h . 2. One of the g i r l s saw El s a coming. 3. He saw them getting near the plants. 4. Aunt Loleng heard Mother and Romel t a l k i n g . 5. Just before they went out, they heard a man c a l l i n g , "There's a good movie tonight." In t h i s analysis, the p a r t i c i p i a l phrase i n the above sentences was regarded as a d j e c t i v a l modifying the d i r e c t object. But t h i s construction i s considered ambiguous and 6 Noam Chomsky,. Syntactic Structures (The Hague: Mouton and Company, 1966), p. 82. 93 may be analyzed i n a second way where the p a r t i c i p i a l phrase i s complement to the verb. This inherent ambiguity would seem to make the sentences d i f f i c u l t for beginning reading. An observation which seemed to account for the greater mean number of words i n each T-unit i n the Readers was the r e l a t i v e l y more frequent use of r e l a t i v e clauses as noun modifiers. The r e l a t i v e clause retains the subject and the f i n i t e verb whereas other nominal constructions involve dele-t i o n of a larger portion of the elements of the constituent sentences. For example, the sentence, the room is upstairs i s converted into room upstairs as noun+adverb construction, but i s transformed into which is upstairs as a r e l a t i v e clause. In the Readers, r e l a t i v e clauses constituted 5.9 per cent compared to 2.7 per cent i n the Guide. Further study of representative sentences containing r e l a t i v e clauses i n the Readers revealed how the sentence-combining transformations influence grammatical complexity and greater length of T-unit. The following sentences are from Fun At Home and Away, F i r s t Reader, Level I I : 1. We can go look for the things we need. 2. I hope she's the g i r l you are looking for. 3. So the boys went to look for the things they could play with. 4. They gave Nita's mother a l l the money they got from s e l l i n g the boiled bananas. A l l the above sentences contain constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations other than the r e l a t i v e 94 clause. The f i r s t sentence has an adverbial i n f i n i t i v e of purpose, (to) look after go3 and the second sentence has a noun clause embedding another clause. The noun clause (thc\t) she 's a g i v l which i s used as d i r e c t object embeds the r e l a t i v e clause you are looking for. The t h i r d sentence has an adverbial i n f i n i t i v e phrase to look for the things. Four sentence-combining transformations including the r e l a t i v e clause make sentence four an i n t r i c a t e grammatical unit. It contains the noun+possessive3 Nita's mother3 a gerund used as object of the preposition, s e l l i n g , a noun+partioiple3 boiled bananas and the <}> r e l a t i v e olause3 they got. Kinds of Non-Headed Nominal Constructions Table XIII, Data 1, indicates a one-to-one correspondence of the r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence of the kinds of non-headed nominal constructions i n the Readers and i n the Guide. The table shows that noun clauses constituted the greatest percentage i n frequency i n both the Readers and the Guide. The data included the quoted speech i n the dialogs which were c l a s s i f i e d i n thi s study as noun clauses performing the func-t i o n of d i r e c t object of the verb of saying or asking i n the introductory clause. In Table XIII, Data 2, with the exclusion of these "pseudo-noun" clauses numbering 217 i n the Readers and 2 i n the Guide, the i n f i n i t i v e ranked f i r s t i n r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence i n the Readers while noun clauses ranked second. The least common non-headed nominal construction was the prep-o s i t i o n a l phrase or adverbial l o c a t i v e . 95 TABLE XIII KINDS OF NON-HEADED NOMINAL CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Data 1* Guide Readers Kinds Rank Fre- Per Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Noun Clause 25 36.20 1 257 69.65 1 Gerund 9 13.00 4 17 4.63 4 I n f i n i t i v e 20 30.40 2 53 14.44 2 I n f i n . with Subj . 14 18.85 3 36 9.81 3 Prep. Phr. 1 1.44 5 3 1.47 5 Data 2** Kinds . Guide Readers Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Noun Clause 23 34.33 1 40 26.00 2 Gerund 9 13.44 4 17 11.33 4 I n f i n i t i v e 20 31.34 2 53 35.33 1 In f i n . with Subj . 14 19.40 3 36 24.00 3 Prep. Phr. 1 1.49 5 3 3.33 5 * Including quoted speech c l a s s i f i e d as noun clause. ** Excluding quoted speech c l a s s i f i e d as noun clause. The rank co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of '.90 based on Data 2 indicated that a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y existed i n the frequency of the kinds of non-headed nominal constructions i n the Guide and i n the Readers. A one-tailed test showed significance at the .05 l e v e l . 96 However, c e r t a i n s t r u c t u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s r e l a t e d t o noun c l a u s e s performing the f u n c t i o n of d i r e c t o b j e c t i n the d i a l o g s i n the Readers showed how T - u n i t s i n the Readers a c q u i r e d g r e a t e r T - u n i t l e n g t h through g r e a t e r number of sen-tence-combining t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s . The expansion of the i n t r o -d uctory c l a u s e of the d i r e c t d i s c o u r s e preceding the noun cl a u s e s through more sentence-combining t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s lengthened the T - u n i t i n the Readers as i l l u s t r a t e d i n the sentence, "And always be careful when you cross the street, too," said the policeman as he let the jeep driver go. The i n t r o d u c t o r y c l a u s e said the policeman i s expanded by the a d v e r b i a l c o n s t r u c t i o n as he let the jeep driver go. Another embedded s t r u c t u r e i n the a d v e r b i a l c l a u s e i s the i n f i n i t i v e to go which i s used as o b j e c t i v e complement. I t was a l s o noted i n s e v e r a l samples from the Readers t h a t the i n f i n i t i v e phrases were f a i r l y long compared to the i n f i n i t i v e phrases i n the Guide. T h i s l e n g t h e n i n g o f i n f i n i t i v e phrases was due to the use of noun c l a u s e s as d i r e c t o b j e c t s of the i n f i n i t i v e s as i n the f o l l o w i n g sentences: 1. I don't want t o know what the s u r p r i s e i s . 2. I want to see why i t gets n e c t a r from f l o w e r s . 3. Do you want to know why her t e e t h are hea l t h y ? 4. They want to see what they have grown. 5. Nonong put down the crabs and began to t h i n k about what lie c o u l d do wit h them. The use of noun c l a u s e s as d i r e c t o b j e c t of the i n f i n -i t i v e was found more o f t e n i n the Readers. On the other hand, the i n f i n i t i v e construction i n the sentence, You do nothing but work, which i s actually You do nothing except to work, where the i n f i n i t i v e (to) work i s the object of the prepo-s i t i o n except occurred i n the Guide, but not i n the Readers. Grammatical Functions of Headed NominaIs After c l a s s i f y i n g the kinds of nominal constructions b u i l t by sentence-combining transformations, the next phase of the analysis was to determine the functions performed by these constructions i n the sentence. The sentences below i l l u s t r a t e the grammatical functions of headed nominal con-structions which were analyzed: 1. Subject (Noun+Possessive) John's brother won the contest. 2. Direct Object (Noun+Relative Clause) The police caught the prisoner who escaped. 3. Object of the Preposition (Noun+Adjective) I saw him i n the big c i t y . 4. Indirect Object (Noun+Participle) The nurse gave the crying baby his toy. 5. Subject Complement (Noun+Participle) Joan i s a singing star. 6. Objective Complement (Noun+Adjective) The people thought him a loyal p a t r i o t . 7. Appositive (Noun+Possessive) E l l e n , my secretary, i s very e f f i c i e n t . 8. Adverbial Noun (Noun+Preposition) He walked a mile away. 98 Table XIV shows that i n both the Readers and the Guide, the grammatical functions performed by headed nominal constructions centered around only four: subject, d i r e c t object, object of preposition, and subjective complement. In other words, most of these nominal constructions usually occupied positions within the sentence reserved for subject, direct' object, object of preposition, and subjective comple-ment . TABLE XIV GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS OF HEADED NOMINAL CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE GUIDES AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Subject 69 29.5 2.0 108 28.7 2.0 Direct Obj. 93 41.0 1.0 152 40.4 1.0 Obj. of Prep. 35 15.4 3.0 79 21.0 3.0 Indirect Obj. 2 0.9 6.5 5 1.3 5.0 Subj. Comp. 22 9.7 4.0 27 7.2 4.0 Obj. Comp. 1 0.4 8.0 0 0.0 8.0 Appositive 5 2.2 5.0 3 0.8 6.0 Adv. Noun 2 0.9 6.5 2 0.5 7.0 In the Guide, the t o t a l number of structures performing the four functions constituted 9 5.6 per cent with only ten constructions, equivalent to 4.4 per cent used as i n d i r e c t object, objective complement, appositive, and adverbial noun. In the Readers,. the greater proportion, equivalent to 9 7.3 per cent performed the four grammatical functions, while there were a mere ten constructions, equivalent to 2.7 per cent 99 performing the rarer functions. No construction was used as objective complement i n the Readers. Table XIV also shows that the most common grammatical functions of headed nominal constructions i n both the Readers and the Guide were as subjects and d i r e c t objects. The r e l a t i v e frequencies of nominals used as subjects and d i r e c t objects were almost the same i n both the Readers and the Guide. But more nominals were used as objects of preposition i n the Readers than i n the Guide. There was a very close s i m i l a r i t y of the Readers and the Guide i n the kinds of nominal constructions which were used as subjects, d i r e c t objects, objects of prepositions, and subjective complements. Certain kinds of nominal constructions often occupied positions within the sentence reserved for these four grammatical functions. The three nominal constructions i n the subject and di r e c t object positions which ranked f i r s t , second and t h i r d i n frequency were i d e n t i c a l i n both the Readers and the Guide. The noun+noun, the noun+possessive and the noun+adj ective which/ ranked f i r s t , second and t h i r d i n frequency of occurrence were used as subjects. In the case of d i r e c t objects the f i r s t four ranking constructions which assumed th i s function were the noun+adjective, the noun+pveposition, the noun+ possessive and the noun+noun. In both sets of language samples the most common form of subjective complement was the noun+ adjective construction. 100 The rank cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .95 based on f r e -quency of occurrence of the kinds of nominals performing the d i f f e r e n t grammatical functions indicated that a f a i r l y high degree of relationship existed between the Guide and the Readers i n the grammatical functions performed by the d i f f e r e n t types of headed nominal constructions. The value of the rank corr e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t was found to be s i g n i f i c a n t at the .05 l e v e l . But there were r e l a t i v e l y more rare nominal constructions performing the d i f f e r e n t grammatical functions i n the Readers than i n the Guide. There were more noun+relative clause con-structions used as d i r e c t objects, objects of prepositions and subjective complements i n the Readers than i n the Guide. A type of noun+pavtici-ple construction af t e r such verbs as see, watch, hear, which was regarded as ambiguous, occurred f r e -quently i n the Readers but was seldom found i n the Guide. Grammatical Functions of Non-Headed Nominal Constructions The greatest percentage of non-headed nominal construc-tions i n both the Readers and the Guide performed the function of d i r e c t object. These included noun clauses, gerunds, and i n f i n i t i v e s with subjects. Table XV, Data 1 shows that there were 316 non-headed constructions used as d i r e c t objects i n the Readers compared to 47 i n the Guide. This number included 217 which were actually the quoted speech of dialogs i n the Readers, c l a s s i f i e d i n t h i s study as noun clauses used as d i r e c t objects of the verbs of saying or asking i n the i n t r o -ductory clause. X O l TABLE XV GRAMMATICAL FUNCTIONS OF NON-HEADED NOMINAL CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Data 1* Guide Readers Functions Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Subject 3 4.3 3.5 4 1.1 4.5 Direct Obj. 47 68.2 1.0 316 86.3 1.0 Obj. of Prep. 3 4.3 3.5 5 1.4 3.0 Indirect Obj. 0 0.0 6.0 0 0.0 6.0 Subj. Comp. 2 2.9 5.0 4 1.1 4.5 Obj. Comp. 14 20.3 2.0 37 10.1 2.0 Data 2** Guide Readers Functions Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank quency Cent quency Cent Subject 3 4.4 3.5 4 2.7 4.5 Direct Obj. 45 67.2 1.0 99 66 .4 1.0 Obj. of Prep. 3 4.5 3.5 5 3.4 3.0 Indirect Obj. 0 0.0 6.0 0 0.0 6.0 Subj. Comp. 2 3.0 5.0 4 2.7 4.5 Obj. Comp. 14 20.9 2.0 37 24.8 2.0 *including quoted speech as noun clauses used as di r e c t objects of verbs of saying or asking. * * Excluding quoted speech as noun clauses used as di r e c t objects of verbs of saying or asking. Excluding these "pseudo-noun" clauses as indicated i n Table XV, Data 2, ninety-nine constructions were used as d i r e c t objects i n the Readers and f o r t y - f i v e i n the Guide. 102 The second greatest percentage of non-headed nominals were used as objective complements i n the Readers and i n the Guide. The constructions which performed the function of objective complements were sol e l y i n f i n i t i v e s with subject and prepositions. Non-headed nominal constructions were rarely used as subjects, subjective complements and prepositional phrases. No construction was used as i n d i r e c t object i n both the Guide and the Readers. The grammatical functions performed by nominalized verbs such as gerunds and i n f i n i t i v e s were s i m i l a r i n both the Readers and the Guide with two exceptions. In the Readers, the i n f i n i t i v e phrase was found to perform the function of the sub-jec t i v e complement i n the sentence, Be seemed to be interested in the story. The non-headed nominalized construction to be interested which was derived from the passive was interested did not occur i n the Guide. On the other hand, the use of i n f i n i t i v e as object of preposition i n such sentence as, You do nothing but work, a c t u a l l y , You do nothing except to work which occurred i n the Guide did not have i t s correspondence i n the Readers. There was greater d i v e r s i t y of the types of verbs with the i n f i n i t i v e as d i r e c t object i n the Readers, than i n the Guide. In the Readers, a number of verbs with i n f i n i t i v e s as d i r e c t object were such types as t e l l , ask, as i n the sentence, The old moth told the young one not to fly near the f i r e . The young 103 one i s the i n d i r e c t object and the i n f i n i t i v e to fly i s the d i r e c t object. Except i n one sentence with the same type of verb as above, use of verbs with i n f i n i t i v e s as d i r e c t objects i n the Guide was limited to want, forget, remember, and t r i e d , as i n the sentences, I don't want to see one, When you grow •up, what do you want to be? Another type of verb i n the Readers which did not occur with corresponding frequency i n the Guide, was the verb type in the sentence, I heard the thunder roar. The i n f i n i t i v e with subject (to) roar was c l a s s i f i e d i n this study as second d i r e c t object. The above construction, l i k e the sentence, They saw Elsa playing, i s ambiguous and i s therefore regarded as d i f f i c u l t for beginning readers. But no s t r i k i n g difference existed between the verb types used i n sentences i n which the i n f i n i t i v e with subject performed the function of objective complement. In both the Readers and the Guide, the greatest number of sentences were of the type of Let's + (to) + verb. The other verbs used were help and make as i n the sentence, Vitamins help us grow i n which the i n f i n i t i v e (to) grow, performed the function of objective complement. A comparison of the ranks based on frequency of occur-rence of grammatical functions performed by non-headed nominal constructions based on Data 2 reavealed a rank co r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .95 between the samples i n the Guide and i n the Readers. A one-tailed test indicated significance at the .01 l e v e l . But the data also indicated that certain grammatical 104 functions performed by non-headed nominal constructions i n the Readers were not found i n the Guide. Many ambiguous structures containing i n f i n i t i v e s i n the Readers did not occur i n the Guide. Commonly Used Nominal Constructions and Their Functions The following tabulation gives a summary of the most common nominal constructions performing the grammatical functions which occurred with the highest frequencies i n the Guide and i n the Readers. A. Headed Nominals Guide Readers Subject Per Cent Per Cent Noun + Noun 15.4 Direct Object Object of Preposition Subjective Complement B. Non-Headed Nominals Guide Readers Direct Object Per Cent Per Cent Noun Clause 33.4 I n f i n i t i v e 26.1 Gerund 7.2 I n f i n i t i v e 34.9 Noun Clause 23.5 Gerund 6.7 Objective Complement I n f i n i t i v e with Subject 19.4 I n f i n i t i v e with Subject... 22.8 Adverbial Con struct ion s Adverbial constructions produced by sentence-conbining transformations i n the language samples were c l a s s i f i e d into the following types of clauses and near-clauses i l l u s t r a t e d i n the sentences below: 1. Tjme The professor began to give his lecture when the bell rang. 2. Place He went where his services were needed. 3. Cause Mary won the contest because she worked very hard. 4. Condition You w i l l miss your plane unless you s t a r t early. 5. Comparison Mary i s t a l l e r than her mother. 106 6. Complement to the Adjective He was glad to see his friends. 7. Adverbial I n f i n i t i v e He went home to work. 8. Sentence Modifier In the meantime, he talked to the porter. Unfortunately, the accident happened. Yes, I w i l l . TABLE XVI FREQUENCY, PER CENT AND RANK OF ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND NEAR-CLAUSES IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide Readers Fre- Per Rank Fre- Per Rank Kind quency Cent quency Cent Time 14 9.29 3.0 33 15.00 3.0 Place 0 0.00 8.0 5 2.27 7.0 Cause 10 7.09 5.0 2 0.90 8.0 Condition 13 9.21 4.0 10 4.54 6.0 Comparison 42 29.78 2.0 37 16.81 2.0 Comp. of Adj. 9 6.38 6.0 15 6.81 5.0 Adv. I n f i n i t i v e 8 5.67 7.0 24 10.90 4.0 Sentence Mod. 45 31.91 1.0 94 42.72 1.0 The data presented i n Table XVI above indicate that the sentence modifiers and clauses or near-clauses of comparison were the two most common types of adverbial constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations i n both the Readers and the Guide. Sentence modifiers, constituting 42.72 per cent i n the Readers and 31.91 per cent i n the Guide ranked f i r s t i n frequency of occurrence. In thi s study, sentence 107 modifiers included "Yes—No" adverbials and adverbs and phrases occupying either i n i t i a l or f i n a l position which are generally set o f f by commas. Clauses and reduced clauses of ..comparison constituted the second largest number of adverbial constructions i n both the Readers and the Guide. The least common adverbial construc-t i o n i n the Readers was the adverbial clause of cause while the adverbial clause of place was not found i n the Guide. It seemed that adverbs or prepositional phrases of place were generally used i n the language samples. Although sentence modifiers and clauses and reduced clauses of comparison ranked f i r s t and second i n frequency of occurrence, the proportion of sentence modifiers was r e l a t i v e l y greater i n the Readers than i n the Guide. Adverbial i n f i n i t i v e s occurred more frequently i n the Readers but the number of adverbial clauses of cause and condition i n the Guide exceeded those i n the Readers. It seemed that the r e l a t i v e l y greater frequency of occurrence of sentence modifiers and adverbial i n f i n i t i v e s i n the Readers was due to the greater number of certain sub-types of sentence modifiers and adverbial i n f i n i t i v e s . The use of the p a r t i c i p i a l phrase as sentence modifier i n such sentences as, Abul went boating and swimming with his friends i n which the p a r t i c i p i a l phrase was c l a s s i f i e d as sentence modifier s h i f t e d to the i n i t i a l p osition as i n Boating and swimming3 Abdul went with his friends occurred frequently i n the Readers but only r a r e l y i n the Guide, Likewise the type of adverbial i n f i n i t i v e i n the sentence, I need one to put a l l these things i n 3 . i n which the i n f i n i t i v e expresses the purposes of the action of the main verb, occurred more frequently i n the Readers. The rank- cor r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t of .714 indicates a f a i r degree of relationship between the Readers .and the Guide based on frequency of occurrence of adverbial constructions. A one-tailed test indicated significance beyond the .05 l e v e l . Coordinate Constructions Coordinate elements within the T-unit are produced by sentence-combining transformations when two or more T-units are coordinated and the common elements i n them deleted.- The following types of coordinate elements were c l a s s i f i e d i n the language samples: 1. Nominals The gardener planted f r u i t s and vegetables i n the farm. 2. Predicates Judy sings and danoes on the stage. 3. Modifiers The t i r e d old woman walked feebly. The greatest number of coordinated elements i n the Guide and i n the Readers were nominals. Table XVII shows that the number, o f coordinated nominals i n the Guide exceeded the t o t a l number of coordinated predicates and modifiers. But 109 in the Readers, there were more coordinations of predicates and modifiers than nominals. TABLE XVII. FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE OF COORDINATE CONSTRUCTIONS IN THE GUIDE AND IN THE READERS Guide ________________ Readers Frequency Per cent Frequency Per cent Nominals 20.00 62.500 27.00 42.187 Predicates 5.00 15.625 23.00 35.937 Modifiers 7.00 21.875 14.00 21.875 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 1. The length of the sentence was considered i n r e l a t i o n to the length of the T-unit which was the basis of syntactic analysis and measurement i n the present study. The two factors that influence sentence length are T-unit length and the number of T-units per sentence. The mean sentence length of 8.21 i n the Readers was greater than the mean sentence length of 7.06 i n the Guide. The difference between the means was found to be highly s i g n i f i c a n t . 2. It was established i n the analysis that the greater mean length of the sentence i n the Readers as compared to the Guide was derived from the length of the T-unit rather than 110 from the number of T-units'per sentence. The average number of T-units per sentence i n the Readers was less than the average number of T-units per sentence i n the Guide. There were 1.02 T-units for every sentence i n the Readers compared to 1.08 T-units for every sentence i n the Guide. 3. The factor that contributed to the greater mean length of the sentence i n the Readers as compared to the Guide was the greater length of the T-unit. The mean T-unit length i n the Readers was 7.94, while the mean T-unit length i n the Guide was 6.59. There were more "short" T-units containing less than nine words i n the Guide compared to the Readers, while there were more "middle-length" T-units of nine to twenty words i n the Readers than i n the Guide. A l l the T-units i n the Guide were either "short" or "middle-length", but there were three "long" T-units of twenty-one words i n the Readers. 4. The lengthening of the T-unit i n the Readers was due to the greater number of subordinate clauses attached to the main clause. There were more one-clause T-units i n the Guide than i n the Readers, and there were more multi-clause T-units in the Readers compared to the Guide. A subordinate clause was added to the main clause 50 per cent of the time i n the Readers, while i n the Guide, a subordinate clause was added to the main clause 15 per cent of the time. Or i f quoted speech i n the dialogs which were c l a s s i f i e d as noun clauses were excluded from the data, the I l l average number of subordinate clauses for every main clause i n the Readers would s t i l l be greater than i n the Guide. The lesser number of subordinate clauses attached to the main clause accounted for the shorter length of the T-units i n the Guide as compared to the Readers. Less subordination also accounted for the greater number of T-units per sentence i n the Guide than i n the Readers. 5. There was a high degree of s i m i l a r i t y of the under-lying basic patterns of simple or complex declarative sentences i n the Guide and i n the Readers. The three commonly used patterns were the same i n both the Readers and the Guide, namely, the Noun-Subj ect+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object, which ranked f i r s t , the Noun-Subject+Verb-Intransitive which ranked second, and the Noun-Subj ect + Verb-Linking+Adj ective-Predicate Adjective which ranked t h i r d . The greater number of T-units, clustered around the most commonly used d o e r — a c t i o n — g o a l pattern. The three rarely used patterns i n both the Guide and the Readers were the Noun-Subj ect + Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Obj ect+Noun-Obj ective Complement3 the Noun-Subject + Verb-Transi-tive+Noun-Direct+Adjective-Objective Complement and the Expletive-Subj ect pattern. The r e l a t i v e frequency of occurrence of the Noun-Subj ect +Verb-Transitive+Noun-Indirect Object+Noun-Direct Object which ranked fourth i n the Readers did not correspond to the findings i n the Guide. The number of T-units with i n d i r e c t objects i n the Readers exceeded the number of T-units with the Noun-Subj ect 112 +Verb-Linking+Noun-Predicate Nominative pattern which occurred frequently i n other studies. The findings on the r e l a t i v e frequency of underlying basic patterns i n declarative statements confirmed the conclu-sions of previous studies on the commonly used basic patterns as well as the rarely used patterns. 6. There were r e l a t i v e l y more questions i n the Guide than i n the Readers. Questions constituted 18 per cent of the samples i n the Guide and 9 per cent i n the Readers. The great-est number of questions i n the Guide were of the "Yes—No" type. Further types of questions r e s u l t i n g from transformations which occurred more frequently i n the Guide than i n the Readers were negative questions, and tag questions or p a r t i a l s . These types of questions resulted i n more informal and natural s t y l e of language i n the Guide, than i n the Readers. The types of questions which occurred more frequently i n the Readers were questions beginning with interrogative words such as who, what, when, 7. The greater number of questions i n the language sam-ples from both the Guide and the Readers were derived from the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object pattern, while the Noun-Subject+Veyb-Intvansitive ranked second i n frequency. Patterns which were rarely found i n declarative statements were also rare i n questions. 8. The three most common transformations i n derived statements i n both the Readers and the Guide were the negative, the imperative,, and the p a r t i a l . The passive, emphatic, and i n t e r j e c t i o n were infrequent. The negative was the most common transformation operat-ing on derived statements i n the Guide, while the imperative was the most common i n the Readers. Rare types of transfor-mations such as the emphatic occurred more frequently iri> the Readers than i n the Guide. 9. As i n declarative statements and questions, the highest frequency pattern underlying derived statements was the Noun-Subject+Verb-Transitive+Noun-Direct Object. The Noun-Sub ject+Vevb-Intransitive ranked second i n frequency of occur-rence. The patterns which were rarely found i n declarative statements and questions were also infrequent i n derived state-ments except the Noun-Subject+Verb-Tvansitive+Noun-Direct Object+Noun-Objective Complement. This pattern ranked t h i r d i n the Readers but the r e l a t i v e l y greater frequency was not matched i n the Guide. This finding also deviated from data obtained i n previous studies on the r e l a t i v e frequency of basic patterns. 10. T-unit was p o s i t i v e l y related to the number of sentence-combining transformations r e s u l t i n g i n constructions which expanded the basic structure. More sentence-combining transformations per T-unit were found i n the Readers than i n the Guide. For every T-unit i n the Readers,there were 1.66 derived constructions produced by sentence-combining transfor-mations compared to 1.11 derived constructions for every T-114 unit i n the Guide., The number of nominal constructions pro-duced by sentence-combining transformations exceeded the other kinds of constructions i n both the Readers and the Guide. This finding conformed to the established c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of English as a nominalizing language. 11. The frequency of occurrence of headed nominal con-structions i n both the Readers and the Guide centered around four: noun+noun3 noun+possessive3 noun+adjective and noun+ prepositional phrase. A high relationship existed between the Guide and the Readers based on the kinds of headed nominal constructions, but there were more rare patterns i n the Readers than i n the Guide. 12. The most common non-headed nominals i n both the Readers and the Guide are noun clauses and i n f i n i t i v e s , while gerunds and prepositional phrases were the least common con-structions. There was proportionately greater number of i n f i n i t i v e s and i n f i n i t i v e s with subjects i n the Readers than in the Guide. Ambiguous constructions consisting of verb types with i n f i n i t i v e s as complements were r e l a t i v e l y more frequent i n the Readers than i n the Guide. 13. Most of the headed nominal constructions i n both the Readers and the Guide performed mainly the same grammatical functions as subjects, d i r e c t objects, objects of prepositions and subjective complements. These constructions included noun+ noun3 noun+adjective3 noun+possessive3 and noun+prepositional phrase. 115 While the most common headed nominal constructions per-formed the same grammatical functions, the use of some of the rare constructions was fluctuating.and infrequent. There were more rare constructions performing the grammatical functions i n the Readers than i n the Guide. Noun+velative clause and noun+participle constructions occurred frequently i n the Readers than i n the Guide. 14. In both the Guide and the Readers, the greater number of non-headed nominal constructions, including noun clauses, i n f i n i t i v e phrases, gerunds and i n f i n i t i v e s with subjects, per-formed the function of d i r e c t object. The second greatest number consisting of i n f i n i t i v e s with subjects and prepositions were used as objective complements. In the Readers, the noun clause performed the functions of subject, d i r e c t object, object of preposition and subjective complement, while i n the Guide, i t s use was confined only to d i r e c t object and subjective complement. The use of the i n f i n -i t i v e as a second d i r e c t object which was found i n the Readers was rare i n the Guide. 15. Although sentence modifiers ranked f i r s t i n f r e -quency of occurrence i n both the Guide and the Readers, there was proportionately greater number i n the Readers than i n the Guide. Some sub-types of p a r t i c i p i a l sentence modifiers which occurred i n the Readers were not found i n the Guide. The number of adverbial constructions of comparison, cause and condition i n the Guide exceeded that i n the Readers, 116 but there were more adverbial i n f i n i t i v e s i n the Readers than i n the Guide. 16. The greatest number of coordinated elements i n both materials were nominals. There were more coordination of pre-dicates and modifiers i n the Readers than i n the Guide. CHAPTER V I SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The purpose of t h i s study was to analyze and compare the language s t r u c t u r e s i n the authorized basal readers with the language structures which are taught for or a l proficiency i n the teaching guides used i n Philippine schools where English i s taught as a second language. The major assumption underlying t h i s investigation was that children learn to read more e f f e c t i v e l y i f the language structures i n beginning read-ing materials correspond to the language structures which are taught for or a l mastery i n the language program • This investigation was designed to answer the following questions: 1. What i s the degree of relationship between the lan-guage structures i n the Readers and i n the Guide based on the following l i n g u i s t i c features: a) Mean length of the T-units? b) Mean length of the sentence? c) Average number of T-units per sentence? d) Average number of subordinations per sentence? e) Average number of sentence-combining transfor-mations per sentence? 118 2. What i s the degree of relationship between the number and . kinds of basic patterns and t h e i r derived forms i n the authorized basal readers and i n the Teacher's Guide for English  i n Grade III? 3. What i s the degree of relationship between the number, kinds and grammatical functions of constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations i n the authorized basal readers and i n Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade III? METHODS AND MATERIALS The language samples drawn from the Guides and the Readers were segmented into T-units which were the basis of syntactic analysis and measurement. A T-unit was analyzed on two l e v e l s . The f i r s t - l e v e l analysis gave a description of the sequential pattern of the T-unit and other related features; namely, length of sentence, length of the T-unit, average number of T-units per sentence, and average number of subordinate clauses per sentence. The second-level analysis was concerned with the kinds and grammat-i c a l functions of constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations. The average number of sentence-combining transformations which i s i n d i c a t i v e of grammatical complexity was determined. Estimates of the degree of r e l a t i o n s h i p between the various features of language structure i n the Readers and i n the Guide was computed by using Spearman's formula of rank corr e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t . SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS 119 The analysis, of data showed that the mean length of the T-unit i n the Readers was greater than the mean length of the T-unit i n the Guide, but there were more T-units per sentence i n the Guide than i n the Readers• The greater length of the T-unit i n the Readers was due to the greater number of subor-dinate clauses and non-clausal constructions produced by sentence-combining transformations which were attached to the main clause. The r e l a t i v e l y greater frequency of the trans-formation process of reducing independent T-units into depen-dent clauses and phrases would seem to account for the r e l a t i v e l y less number of T-units i n the Readers compared to the Guide. The mean length of the sentence i n the Readers was greater than i n the Guide. Since the two factors that influence sentence length are T-unit length and the number of T-units per sentence, i t was revealed that the greater length of the sentence i n the Readers was derived from the length of the T-unit, rather than from the number of T-units i n the sentence. There was a close s i m i l a r i t y between the kinds and rank order of basic patterns underlying T-units i n the Readers and in the Guide. The frequency of occurrence of basic patterns i n both the Guide and the Readers centered around few commonly used patterns. These basic patterns with highest frequencies in t h i s study corresponded to the commonly used patterns i n previous studies on the or a l and written language of children. But the data also indicated that although the frequency of 120 occurrence of the less common patterns was rare and f l u c t u -ating, r e l a t i v e l y more of these rare patterns were found i n the Readers. The kinds and functions of constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transformations which occurred with highest frequencies i n the Readers were sim i l a r to the kinds and functions of constructions i n the Guide. The kinds of construc-tions which occurred frequently i n the Guide and i n the Readers were limited to a few types. The same types of constructions performed mainly the same grammatical functions i n the Guide and i n the Readers although certain sub-types of constructions, which were used frequently i n the Readers seldom occurred i n the Guide. The kinds of basic patterns and the kinds of transfor-mation-produced constructions used to f i l l the s l o t s i n the patterns were r e s t r i c t e d to few commonly used structures which were the same i n the Guide and i n the Readers. But the data revealed that the number of constructions r e s u l t i n g from sentence-combining transformations was greater i n the Readers than i n the Guide. The greater length of the T-units i n the Readers re-f l e c t s more complexity of structures i n the reading passage compared to the structures i n the or a l language materials. The occurrance of rare constructions i n the Readers also indicate the use of language structures which are unfamiliar to the reader at the i n i t i a l stage of learning to read. 121 This study was not concerned with determining the re-lationship of comprehension to the degree of s i m i l a r i t y of the language structures i n the o r a l language materials and struc-tures i n the reading passage. However, the findings suggest that the oral language background of the F i l i p i n o pupil when he begins to read English seems inadequate to cope with the d i f f i c u l t y l e v e l of the beginning readers. The grammatical complexity of the reading passage increases the d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehension of the reader who lacks..the necessary o r a l proficiency as basis for recognizing and interpreting the written language. Unfamiliar language structures also pose d i f f i c u l t y for the reader who has to learn the grammatical meanings of the structures as he recognizes the printed symbols. This additional task slows down progress i n better comprehension and recognition. More evidence drawn from investigations i n second lan-guage classroom situations are necessary to determine the s u i t a b i l i t y of the reading materials i n terms of the language structures taught i n the or a l language program. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH This study has raised several problems for research esp e c i a l l y i n the teaching of reading to pupils learning English as a second language. More investigations related to structural control i n reading passages w i l l provide useful guidelines for curriculum writers i n evolving more e f f e c t i v e reading materials at the beginning stage. The following are suggestions for further research: 1. A follow-up study i n a second language classroom si t u a t i o n to compare comprehension between reading passages consisting of commonly used structures which were found i n the Guide and i n the Readers, and reading passages consisting of rarely used language structures which occurred only i n the Readers but not i n the Guide. 2. A research designed to compare comprehension between reading passages consisting of acceptable language structures which were used i n actual o r a l communication situations by children who speak English as a second language, and reading passages consisting of language structures which did not occur in the o r a l speech of these children but which are commonly used by native speakers of English. 3. A study to compare comprehension between reading passages derived from single base transformations or trans-formations within a single sentence, and comprehension of reading passages derived from sentence-combining transform-ations . 4. A research designed to e s t a b l i s h a hierarchy of d i f f i c u l t y i n comprehension of the varied kinds of construc-tions produced by sentence-combining transformations. 5. A quantitative study to determine the relationship of comprehension to the number of sentence-combining transfor-mations per sentence. BIBLIOGRAPHY Aguas, E s t r e l l a . "English Composition Errors of Tagalog Speakers and Implications for A n a l y t i c a l Theory." Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1964. A l l e n , Harold". Teaching English as a Second Language. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1965. Beaver, Joseph C. "Transformational Grammar and the Teaching of Reading," Research i n the Teaching of English. Vol. 2, No. 2, F a l l 1968, Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, I l l i n o i s . Bowen, Donald J. The UCLA-Philippine Language Program. 1957-1966, Los Angeles: Department of English, University of C a l i f o r n i a , Los Angeles, 1968. Brooks, Nelson. Language and Language Learning. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World"^ 1964. Chomsky, Noam. "A Transformational Approach to Syntax," i n A.A. H i l l , ed., Proceedings of the Third Texas Conference  On Problems of L i n g u i s t i c Analysis i n English. 1958, Austin, Texas, The University of Texas, 1962. Syntactic Structures. De Hague: Mouton and Company, 1966. Curme, George Oliver. Syntax. Boston: D.C., Heath and Co., 1931. English Language Teaching. Oxford University Press, Vol. XVII, No. 2, Ferguson, George A. S t a t i s t i c a l Arialysis i n Psychology arid  Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1966. Finocchiaro, Mary. Teaching English As A Second Language. New York: Harper and Brothers, 195 8. F r i e s , Charles C. L i n g u i s t i c s and Reading. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1962. ' . Structure of English. New York: Harcourt Brace and World, Inc., 1952. 124 F r i e s , Charles C. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign  Language. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1945. Gleason, H.A. L i n g u i s t i c s and English Grammar. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1965. Goodman, Kenneth, ed. Psycholinguistics and Reading. Newark International Reading Association, Newark, New Jersey, 1968. Guildford, J.P. Fundamental S t a t i s t i c s i n Psychology and  Education. New York: McGraw H i l l Book Co. Inc., 1956. Gurrey, P. Teaching English As A Foreign Language. London: Longmans, Green and Company, 19 55. H a l l , Robert A. Introductory L i n g u i s t i c s . Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1964. Hemphill, Roderick J . , ed. Background Readings i n Language Teaching. Philippine Center for Language Study Monograph Series Number 1, Quezon C i t y : Phoenix Publishing House, Inc., 1962. Hocker, Mary Elsa. "Reading Materials for Children Based On Their Language Patterns of Syntax, Vocabulary and Interest." Unpublished Masters' Thesis, University of Arizona, 1963. Hockett, Charles F. A Course i n Modern L i n g u i s t i c s . New York: New York, The MacMillan Co., 1958. Hornby, A.S., E.V. Gutenby, and H. Wakefield. The Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English. Oxford University Press, 19 63. Hunt, Kellogg W. Grammatical Structures Written At Three Grade Levels. National Council of Teachers of English Research Report No, 3, Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, 1965. Jespersen, Otto. A Modern English Grammar. London: George Al l e n and Unwin Ltd., 19 33. Lado, Robert. L i n g u i s t i c s Across Cultures. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1957. Lee, Robert B. The Grammar of English Nominalization. Bloomington" Indiana: Research Center i n Anthropology, Folklore and L i n g u i s t i c s , 1960. 125 Lloyd, Donald, and Harry E. Warfel. "The Way to Read By Structures," American English i n Its Cultural Setting. New York: A l f r e d A. Knopp, 1956. Loban, Walter D. The Language of Elementary School Children. National Council of Teachers of English Research Report No. 1, Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, 1963. MacMahon, L. "Grammatical Analysis as Part of Understanding A Sentence," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, 1963. McCanne, Roy. "A Comparison of Three Approaches to F i r s t Grade English Reading Instruction for Children from Spanish-Speaking Homes," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Denver, 1966. Menyuk, Paula. "A Descriptive Study of the Syntactic Structure i n the Language of Children: Nursery School and F i r s t Grade," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Boston University, 1961. Ney, James. "English Teaching On the Rim of Asia," Language  Learning, A Journal of Applied L i n g u i s t i c s , Vol. XIII, Nos. 3 and 4. O'Donnell, Roy C., William J . G r i f f i n and Raymond C. Norris. Syntax of Kindergarten arid Elementary School Children: A T r an s format ion a1 Analysis. National Council of Teachers of English Research Report No. 8, Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, 1967. Poutsma, H. A Grammar off Late Modern English. Groningen: P. Noordhoof, 1916. Reed, E s t e l l a . "An Investigation of the Relative E f f e c t of the Study of Syntax and Paragraph Structure on Reading Comprehension of Monolingual and B i l i n g u a l Pupils i n Grade Seven," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1966. "Revised Philippine Educational Program," Department of Education Order No. I, s. 1957. R i l i n g , Mildred. Oral and Written Language of Children i n  Grades 4 and 6_ Compared With The Language of Their  Textbooks. Report to the H.S. O f f i c e of Education, Cooperative Research Project No. 2410, Durant, Oklahoma. Roberts, Paul. English Syntax. A Programmed Introduction to Transformational Grammar. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1964. 126 Robinett, Ralph. "Constructing a Developmental Reading Program for Children Who Speak Other Languages: Some Basic C r i t e r i a , " i n Carol Kriedler, ed., On Teaching  English To Speakers of Other Languages. National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, 1966. Rojas, Pauline. "Reading Materials for B i l i n g u a l Children," as c i t e d by Mildred Dawson i n "Interrelationships Between Speech and Other Language Arts Areas," Inter- relationships Among the Language Arts. National Coun-c i l of Teachers of English, Champaign, I l l i n o i s : National Council of Teachers of English, 1957. Ruddell, Robert B. "An Investigation of the E f f e c t of S i m i l a r i t y of Oral and Written Patterns of Language Structures on Reading Comprehension," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Indiana University, 1963. "Reading Instruction i n the F i r s t Grade With Vary-ing Emphasis on Regularity of Grapheme-Phoneme Corres-pondences and Relation of Language Structure to Meaning," The Reading Teacher. (May, 1966), Vol. 19, No. 8. Sam, Norman H. "Written Language Development of Intermediate Grade Children," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of Pittsburg, 1962. Siegel, Sidney. Non-parametric S t a t i s t i c s for The Behavioral  Sciences. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., 1956. Slobin, Don. "Grammatical Transformations i n Childhood and Adulthood," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Harvard University, 1963. S o f f i e t t i , James P. "Why Children F a i l to Read: A L i n g u i s t i c Analysis," Harvard Educational Review. Harvard Univer-s i t y , Vol. XXV, January - December, 1965. Stine, Eugene Samuel. "Structural Analysis of Written Compo-s i t i o n of Intermediate Grade Children," Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Lehigh University, 1965. Strickland, Ruth G. The Contribution of Structural Linguis-t i c s 1 to the Teaching of Reading, Writing and Grammar i n  the Elementary School. B u l l e t i n of the School of Educa-t i o n , Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, 1964. The Language of Elementary School Children: Its Relationship to Their* Reading Textbooks and the Quality  of Reading of Selected Children. B u l l e t i n of the School of Education, Indiana University, Bloomington: Indiana University, 1962. Stockwell, Robert P. "A Contrastive Analysis of English and Tagalog," Part I and I I , an Unpublished Manuscript. Swanson, J. Chester, (Chairman). A Survey of. the Public Schools of the Ph i l i p p i n e s . Manila: U.S. Operations Mission, Philippines, 1960. Teacher 1s Guide for English i n Grade I. Manila: Bureau of Public Schools and the Philippine Center for Language Study, 1961. Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade TI. Manila: Bureau of Public Schools and the Philippine Center for Language Study, i960. Teacher's Guide for English i n Grade I I I . Manila: Bureau of Public Schools and the Philippine Center for Language Study, 1961. Thomas, Owen. Transformational Grammar and the Teacher of  English. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc., 1967. Catalina Velasquez, et al_. We_ Work and Play. Transition Reader, F i r s t Reader, Level I, Manila: Bureau of Public Schools. . Fun at Home and Away. F i r s t Reader, Level I I , Manila: Bureau of Public Schools. Visser, F.T. An H i s t o r i c a l Syntax of the English Language. Vol. I and II , Seiden: E.J. B r i l l , 1963. Wardhaugh, Ronald. "Linguistics—Reading Dialog," The  Reading Teacher. February, 1968, Vol. 21, No. 5. 128 LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS WORKSHEET I. Book Page Sentence No. No. of Words Text: "Look at a l l the children!" said Oscar. II . Category of T-Unit II I . No. of T-Unit i n Sentence T-Unit No. No. of Words i n T-Unit No. of Clauses Kinds of Dependent Clauses: N Adj. Adv. Kinds of Noun Clauses: Direct Discourse (included! Saying Asking ; d i r e c t discourse (not included) Saying Asking IV. Structural Pattern of T-Unit: Statements-Kernel Questions - Derived Statements-Derived "Yes-No" Wh- as subject Wh- as Modifier of subj. Wh- as Adverb-i a l Passive Negative Al.Ns-VI Bl C l Dl E l E l Gl A2a.Ns-VL-Adj. (p.a.) B2a C2a D2a E2a F2a G2a A2b.Ns-VL-N(p.n.) B2b C2b D2b E2b F2b S2b A2c.Ns-VL-Adv. (Loc.) B2c C2c D2c E2c F2c G2c A3a.Ns-VT-N(d.o.) B3a C3a D3a E3a F3a G3a A3b.Na-VT-N(io) N (do) B3b C3b D3b E3b F3b G3b A4a.Ns-VT-N(do) N (oc) B4a C2a 04a E4a F4a G4a A4b.Ns-VT-N(do) Adj.(oc) B4b C4b D4b E4b F4b G4b A5.Exp.Vt-Subject B5 C5 D5 E5 F5 G5 Statements Derived Imperative Emphatic Int e r j e c t i o n P a r t i a l s HI 11 J l Kl H2a I2a J2a K2a H2b I2b J2b K2b H2c I2c J2c K2c H3a 13a J3a K3a H3b 13b J3b K3b H4a I4a J4a K4a H4b I4b J4b K4b H5 15 J5 K5 V. No. of Sentence - Combining Transformations A. Nominalizations: Kinds Functions Headed Nouns + Modifiers Sub-j e c t Direct Object Obj.of Prep. Indirect Object Subj . Comp. Objec-t i v e Comp. Appos-i t i v e Adv. Noun 1. Noun+Noun 2. Noun+Adj. 3. N.+Adverb 4. N.+Prep.Phr. 5. N.+Possessive 6. N.+Rel.Clause 7, N.cfiRel.Clause 8. N.+Inf. 9. N.+Participle Non-Headed 1. Noun Clause 2. Gerund 3. I n f i n i t i v e Ph. 4. Inf. with subj. B. Adverbial Structures: Adverbial Clauses and Near-Clauses 1. Time 2 . Place 3. Cause 4. Condition 5. Comparison 6. Complement of Adjective 7. Adverbial I n f i n i t i v e 8. Sentence Modifiers C. Coordinate Structures: 1. Nominals 2. Predicates 3. Modifiers 

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