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Small farm function : a study of small farms in Matsqui Municipality in the Lower Mainland of British… Swinnerton, Guy Stretton 1969

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SMALL FARM FUNCTION: A STUDY OF SMALL FARMS IN MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY IN THE LOWER MAINLAND OF BRITISH COLUMBIA by GUY STRETTON SWTNNERTON B.A., University of London, 1965  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n the Department of Geography We accept this thesis as conforming to the requirefLs^andard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June, 1969.  In presenting this thesis i n partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make i t freely available for reference and study.  I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this  thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the Head of my Department or by his representatives.  It i s understood that copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of Geography The University of British Columbia Vancouver 8, Canada Date  June 9,  1969.  ABSTRACT This thesis documents and analyses some of the major characteri s t i c s of the present socio-economic  s i t u a t i o n of small farms i n the  Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia.  To obtain a r e a l i s t i c appreciation  of the small farm problem consideration i s given to the f a c t that the major function of small farms i s not always a g r i c u l t u r a l production. The major term of reference f o r the study was  that the character-  i s t i c s of small farms are the r e s u l t of the functions the holding serves f o r the farm operator and h i s family.  Small farms were i d e n t i f i e d as  holdings of l e s s than twenty-one acres and the heterogeneous functions of farm occupancy were synthesised i n t o three l e v e l s of farm operation on the basis of working time spent on the holding, r e l a t i v e income obtained from farm and non-farm sources and the value of,the sale of a g r i c u l t u r a l products.  Three types of small farm operators were recog-  nised: f u l l - t i m e , part-time and r e s i d e n t i a l . The Lower Mainland was selected because i t i s one of the most important a g r i c u l t u r a l areas i n B r i t i s h Columbia and the region contains a high percentage of the t o t a l number of small farms i n the province. In addition, the p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p between urbanisation, small farms and the part-time and r e s i d e n t i a l farmer was l i k e l y to be c l e a r l y represented because the area i s subject to the metropolitan dominance of Vancouver.  Within the Lower Mainland, Mats qui M u n i c i p a l i t y was singled out ii  iii for specialized study since i t is reasonably representative of the Lower Mainland's agriculture and is within commuting distance of Metropolitan Vancouver. The Real Property Appraisal Records for Matsqui Municipality were used as the sample frame and a random sample of forty fain operators completed the interview schedule. The evidence indicated that many of the small farms under study were not viable economic units, and some of their occupiers may be classed as low income families. However, the low financial returns reported by many of the small farm operators Implied that their reasons for living on farms were not necessarily founded on economic considerations. Social rather than economic factors explained the respondents' higher level of satisfaction with rural than city living, whereas any dissatisfaction with living on farms was related to the lack of economic success. The three most frequently stated reasons for preferring rural living were availability of space, a better place to bring up children and a superior physical environment to that experienced in urban areas. The evidence also indicated that there was an inverse relationship between dependency on farming for a livelihood and the level of satisfaction with rural living. The three factors which were most important in accounting for the relative economic success or failure of small farms were managerial efficiency, the availability of working capital and the desire of the farmer to operate his holding as a commercially orientated business. Because the majority of full-time small farms do not adequately fulf i l economic or human needs they will be phased out, whereas small farms used essentially as a place of residence or operated on a part-time basis will become increasingly common in the landscape of the Lower Mainland.  iv This is because although they do not adequately meet the economic requirements of a modern agricultural system, they do provide their occupiers with sufficient independence to satisfy their social needs>^  TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES  viii  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS  xi  A(3KNOWLEDGEMENTS  xii  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter I.  II.  THE SMALL FARM PROBLEM Choice of Criteria for Identifying Small Farms Factors Relating to the Persistence of Small Farms Identification of Pull-Time, Part-Time and Residential Farmers THE EVOLUTION OF AGRICULTURE IN THE LOWER MAINLAND  $  16*  Suitability of the Lower Mainland as a Study Area Matsqui Municipality as the Specialized Study Area Physical Geography of Matsqui Municipality Historical Geography of Agricultural Development Present Agricultural Situation Development of an Agribusiness Attitude Consequences of Urban Growth Sources of Primary Data in.  ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE FARM FAMILY Farm Tenure and Distribution Size of Farm Units Choice of Farm Enterprise Size Factor Type of Operator Intensity of Farming Operations Interrelationship of Factors. Capital Value of Small Farms Factors Affecting Farm Performance Farm Labour Contact with District Agriculturist Marketing Procedure v  Ill;  vi Farm Family Income Income from Agriculture Income from Off-Farm Employment Amount o f Off-Farm Employment Type of Off-Farm Employment Perquisite Consumption and Welfare Payments Summary IV.  NON-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE LIFE OF THE FARM FAMILY S o c i a l Background and Subsequent On-Farm Migration Place of B i r t h and Ethnic O r i g i n Migration to the Lower Mainland Level o f M o b i l i t y Reasons f o r Farm Occupancy Duration of Farm Residency and Age of Operator Demographic Characteristics o f the Farm Family Education Levels of Members of the Farm Family Education Levels of Farm Operators and Wives Education Levels and Future Plans of Farm Children Involvement i n the Community Social Participation Economic P a r t i c i p a t i o n Degree of I s o l a t i o n Within Mats qui Municipality Within the Lower Mainland S o c i a l Reasons f o r the Persistence of Small Farms Level of S a t i s f a c t i o n with Rural L i v i n g Reasons f o r Preferring Rural L i v i n g Future Plans of Small Farm Operators Summary  V.  SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary Factors Accounting f o r the Presence of Small Farms Economic Circumstances of Families on Small Farms Non-economic Aspects o f the L i f e o f the Farm Family Conclusion Factors Accounting f o r the Economic Success or F a i l u r e of Small Farms The Relative Value of Full-Time, Part-Time and Residential Small Farm Operations  BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDICES I. II.  SOME EXISTING GUIDELINES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FULL-TIME, PART-TIME AND RESIDENTIAL FARMS SOIL CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR AGRICULTURE  Til III. 17.  SELECTION OF SAMPLE FRAME AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR SMALL FARMS  Page 156  .....158  LIST OF TABLES Table I.  II. III. IV.  V.  Page Relative Importance of Farm Size Groups in Census Division k and Census Sub-Division UO, Matsqui Municipality 1951 - 1961  18  Urban-Rural Population Breakdown for Census Division 4, 1951, 1956, 1961 and 1966  21  Comparison of Area and Use of Farm Land in Census Division k and Matsqui Municipality for the years 1951 and 1961  23  Comparison of Operators and Type of Farm Tenure in Census Division k and Matsqui Municipality for the years 1951 and 1961  2k  Changes in Farm and Improved Farm Land Acreages in Census Division k and Matsqui Municipality for the Period 1921 1966  32  VI.  Crop and Livestock Production by Cash Income for the Fraser Valley in 1961  33  VII.  Comparison of Area and Use of Farm Land in Census Division k and Matsqui Municipality for the year 1966.  3U  VTII.  Percentage Distribution of Small Farm Respondents by Physical Relief in Matsqui Municipality  IX.  Percentage Distribution of Small Farm Respondents by Siae of Holdings  18  X.  Percentage Distribution of Small Farm Respondents by Adjusted Size of Holdings  50  XI.  Percentage Correlation Between Size of Farm Holdings and Types of Farm Enterprise for the Survey Farms...  XII. XIII.  U5  55  Percentage Distribution of Small Farm Respondents by Types of Farm Enterprise.  58  Percentage Distribution of \Land Use Types by Small Farm Respondents  60  viii  ix Table XIV.  XV. XVI. XVII. XVTII.  XIX.  Page Percentage Correlation Between Types of Farm Operator and Types of Farm Enterprise  62  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Small Farm Respondents by E s t i mated Total Capital Value of Farms..  63  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Real Property Taxes Levied on the Farm U n i t  6j>  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Relative Frequency of Personal Contacts with the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t .  68  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Relative Frequency of Attendance a t Meetings or F i e l d Days Sponsored by the D i s t r i c t A g r i c u l t u r i s t  69  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Gross Value 72  of Farm Products Sold XX.  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Gross Income from Off-Farm Employment  XXI. XXII. XXHI.  XXIV. XXV.  •  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Type o f Occupation of Operator's Wife  75  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Amount o f OffFarm Employment Expressed i n Days •  77  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Type of OffFarra Employment  19  Percentage of Farm Operators Reporting Types of Perquisites Consumed  81  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Place o f B i r t h of the Husband  XXVT. XXVII.  87  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Place of B i r t h of the Wife  87  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Immediate Previous Living Location  93  XXVTII. Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Respondents by Farm Childhood Reported by Husband and/or Wife.. XXIX.  74  Percentage D i s t r i b u t i o n of Farm Operators by Number of Years Resident on the Farm  9h  9$  X  Table XXX.  Page Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Age of Operator  •  96  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Marital Status of Farm Operator ;  97  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Number of Children Reported  98  XXXIII. Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Completed Level of Education by the Husband  100  XXXIV. Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Completed Level of Education by the Wife  101  XXXI. XXXII.  XXXV.  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents' Children of School Leaving Age by Future Living Location................  103  XXXVI. Distribution of Farm Respondents by Membership i n Formal and Semi-Formal Organisations by the Husband  106  XXXVII. Distribution of Farm Respondents by Membership i n Formal and Semi-Formal Organisations by the Wife  107  XXXVIII. Distribution of Farm Respondents by Level of Patronage of Local Services  108  XXXIX. Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Average Total Distance Travelled for Services  112  XL. XLI. XUI.  XLIII.  XLI7.  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Frequency of Visits to Vancouver  113  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Effect of Freeway on Frequency of Visits to Vancouver  115  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Level of Satisfaction with Rural or Urban Living Expressed by the Husband  116  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Level of Satisfaction with Rural or Urban Living Expressed by the Wife  118  Percentage Distribution of Farm Respondents by Proposed Function of the Farm Holding i n the Future.  120  LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure  Page  1.  Location of Matsqui Municipality i n relation to the Lower Mainland  19  2.  Distribution of Farm Respondents in Matsqui Municipality by Type of Operator.....  46  xi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  The author would like to acknowledge the helpful advice and constructive criticism of Dr. A.H. Siemens and Mr. R. Copley during the preparation of this study.  He i s particularly indebted to Mr. A. Sumnerville,  Land Assessor and Mr. A.H.W, Moxon, Municipal Clerk of Matsqui Municipal staff for their advice and assistance i n making available the appropriate municipal records. Mention should also be made of the farm operators i n Matsqui Municipality without whose co-operation this study would not have been possible.  Finally, I am indebted to Miss N.E. McCann for her i n -  valuable editorial critique of the various drafts.  June, 1969.  Guy S. Swinnerton.  xii  INTRODUCTION  Canada not only has too many farmers on non-agricultural and non-arable land, but also has too many farmers on the arable land as w e l l , operating excessively small units i n terms o f land and c a p i t a l . (Dion 1961:72).  This thesis i s an attempt to describe and analyse same o f the major c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f the present socio-economic s i t u a t i o n of small farms i n the Lower Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The author believes  that many of these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s are the r e s u l t o f the function or functions the holding serves f o r the farm operator and h i s family and the s p e c i f i c place farming has i n t h e i r scale o f values.  Because a g r i -  c u l t u r a l production i s only a subsidiary function o f many small farms i t i s e s s e n t i a l to recognise the contrasting l e v e l s o f farm operation i f a v a l i d assessment o f the s i t u a t i o n i s to be made.  With t h i s premise  i n mind the small farm i s studied as to whether the operator i s a f u l l time, part-time, or r e s i d e n t i a l farmer.  The study therefore covers a  wide range o f small farm types, from the h i g h l y s p e c i a l i s e d f u l l - t i m e small f r u i t o r p o u l t r y operator to the r e s i d e n t i a l farmer l i v i n g a t a l most a subsistence l e v e l . The study f a l l s within the f i e l d o f a g r i c u l t u r a l geography which i n i t s broadest sense seeks to describe and explain a r e a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n s i n a g r i c u l t u r e and the dynamic aspects o f these space r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n order to understand the problem o f land use, land-man r a t i o s , the conser-  - 1 -  -2  -  vation of a g r i c u l t u r a l resources, and rural-urban Interaction (Reeds  SI).  1964:  1  In the past, however, a disproportionate amount o f the work done by a g r i c u l t u r a l geographers has been land use orientated and descriptive with an emphasis on understanding the p h y s i c a l and b i o t i c aspects of agriculture (Dodge 1911:144).  The danger of t h i s approach i s that by concentrating on  those aspects of agriculture which are r e l a t i v e l y easy to map and see i n the f i e l d , the geographer r i s k s underestimating the importance of s o c i a l and economic factors which generally operate i n a more subtle way (Board 201).  1963:  I t has been shown that even i n areas e x h i b i t i n g considerable topo-  graphic influence the human f a c t o r i s extremely s i g n i f i c a n t i n explaining the a g r i c u l t u r a l pattern.  With the greater r e a l i s a t i o n of the importance  of socio-economic factors i n explaining farming patterns, geographers have come to make more use of material published and methods of i n v e s t i g a t i o n used by those researchers outside the d i s c i p l i n e of geography.  Although  much of the work done by a g r i c u l t u r i s t s , economists and r u r a l s o c i o l o g i s t s i s not s p e c i f i c a l l y geographical, " i t does contain much that has  geograph-  i c a l implications, and i t has been a source both of seminal ideas and o f material pertinent to the study of a g r i c u l t u r a l geography.!'  (Coppock 1964?  409). Siemens (1966) has indicated that there are a number o f features i n the present c u l t u r a l landscape of the Lower Mainland which are i n t e r e s t i n g to the f i e l d observation of the geographer, i n that they o f f e r clues to  References are standardised throughout the thesis i n t h i s form, where the year date of the p u b l i c a t i o n and the appropriate page number are placed i n parentheses on the l i n e with the text, immediately following the name of  the author (Turabian 1955s70).  change from rural to urban land use, from farm to non-farm and from one agricultural activity to another. New farm facilities, vestigal farm buildings, the small farm, the hobby farm and defunct service facilities mirror the widespread changes in the rural economy and the modes of l i f e and attitudes of the rural Inhabitant. Ironside (1968), however, has rightly criticised the geographer's reluctance i n many cases to go beyond this field observation stage and to obtain finer levels of Information In order to be i n a position to explain the forces underlying these changes taking place i n the rural landscape. This study i s therefore an attempt in part to rectify the position in that i t uses the social and economic statistics of farm families to illustrate those aspects of the rural landscape identifiable with the small farm. Chapter I deals with some of the existing studies on the snail farm phenomenon and discusses some of the problems i n defining this phenomenon. The chapter also reviews some of the methods used for distinguishing the full-time, part-time and residential farmer and indicates the terms of reference selected for this particular study. The reason for choosing the Lower Mainland and Matsqui Municipality in particular for the area of study is discussed in Chapter II. Within Chapter II the geographical background of the area and the sampling procedure and subsequent method of analysis are also discussed. The various aspects of the small farm as they pertain to those in Matsqui Municipality are discussed in terms of whether the operator is a full-time, part-time or residential farmer. By considering the socioeconomic aspects of the small farm in terms of the three types of operator a more realistic appraisal of these patterns is determined. Chapter III deals with the agricultural system and the economic performance of the farm family, whereas Chapter IV concentrates on the non-economic aspects of the  -h farm family.  The f i n a l chapter summarizes the main findings of the study  2 and b r i e f l y discusses the possible future of the small farm  i n the r u r a l  landscape o f the Lower Mainland.  For the purpose of t h i s study the small farm i s taken as any farm holding under 21 acres. See page 7 f o r further explanation.  CHAPTER I THE SMALL FARM PROBLEM  The small farm phenomenon i s one aspect of the Western Canadian r u r a l landscape which i s u s u a l l y regarded as a problem symbolising inadequate farm incomes and the i n e f f i c i e n t use of land resources.  Stutt, i n  h i s a r t i c l e "An Approach to the Small Farm Problem i n Canada", points out that on August 30,  1958  the Prime M i n i s t e r stated i n Parliament:  ...as a means o f meeting the small farm problem the government has under consideration ways and means o f improving the l e v e l o f l i v i n g f o r farmers on small farms by means of better land use, encouraging the formation o f economic family farm u n i t s , improving technical t r a i n i n g , extending unemployment insurance benefits to c e r t a i n classes o f farm workers, and by extending the vocational and t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g agreement f o r the b e n e f i t of those who wish to enter new occupations (Stutt 1961:LU). In addition, i t was pointed out that "the problem included mainly those f u l l - t i m e farmers on holdings with an inadequate capacity to provide a f a i r l e v e l o f l i v i n g and who f o r various reasons or l a c k o f opportunities were unable to make a s a t i s f a c t o r y adjustment",  ( i b i d : LU)  Choice of C r i t e r i a f o r Identifying Small Farms Despite t h i s awareness o f the small farm s i t u a t i o n both i n Canada and other advanced a g r i c u l t u r a l countries, there appears to be no absolute yardstick f o r defining the l i m i t s f o r t h i s type o f farm.  Zeman (l96la) i n  discussing the small farm s i t u a t i o n i n an area o f West Central Saskatchewan uses acreage as a measure o f s i z e , and c l a s s i f i e s small farms as those o f one h a l f section (320  acres) or l e s s .  - 5-  However, he c i t e s ( i b i d : 60)  a pub-  - 6 l i c a t i o n by Motheral (1953) i n which the small farm i s defined as a u n i t which cannot keep the operator and h i s family u s e f u l l y employed, cannot o f f e r them a reasonably good l i v i n g , and cannot support modern equipment to enable p r o f i t a b l e farming methods.  S i m i l a r l y , Abell(l956:ll5) describes  small farms as "farms which are generally considered to have too small an acreage and too small a volume of business to constitute an economic u n i t capable of providing an adequate l e v e l of l i v i n g f o r the farm family". A b e l l , i n the same publication, has taken two mixed farming areas of Manitoba as case examples and uses 200 acres or l e s s as the c r i t e r i o n f o r d i s tinguishing the small farm.  The problem of f i x i n g a l i m i t f o r the small  farm was also encountered by Wiens (i960) i n h i s study of small farms.in the  Davidson area o f c e n t r a l Saskatchewan.  Although he i n i t i a l l y used  h a l f - s e c t i o n farms to represent the small farm, he refers to small farms as three-quarter sections (U80 acres) and l e s s i n s i z e , but eventually uses a s i z e l i m i t of two-quarter section farms f o r h i s sample (Wiens  1960:810. In contrast to the studies mentioned above, the European Commission f o r Agriculture, i n i t s questionnaire f o r research into "The Small Farm Problem", points out that: ...the enquiry i s concerned with small farms - small that i s , as regards the labour force employed, not n e c e s s a r i l y as regards the area o f land, the amount of l i v e s t o c k or the c a p i t a l invested. I t takes i n t o account only farms permanently employing a maximum of two hands, f u l l - t i m e , or a minimum of one. (European Commission f o r  Agriculture, 1958:2).  A s i m i l a r term of reference i s used by Dexter and Barber (1961) f o r defining the  small farm.  With regard to the small farm s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t a i n , they  state that "the majority of farmers i n t h i s country are small-scale producers  employing either no regular labour or, a t the most, one or two f u l l - t i m e  workers" (Dexter and Barber 1961:2U0).  - 7 The numerous d e f i n i t i o n s mentioned above i n d i c a t e the problem of i s o l a t i n g the small farm phenomenon.  In t h i s p a r t i c u l a r study a size l i m i t  has been used as the d i s t i n g u i s h i n g c r i t e r i o n f o r i d e n t i f y i n g the small farm because i t was  the only data a v a i l a b l e from which a random sample of « m « n  farms could be drawn.  The  200 acre l i m i t used by Abe11 (1956) or the h a l f -  section l i m i t used by Zeman (1961a) would be inappropriate f o r d i s t i n g u i s h ing the small farms of the Lower Mainland. 1961  farms of 180  Table I (page 18) shows that i n  acres and over accounted f o r only 2.3  per cent and  per cent of the t o t a l number of farms i n Census D i v i s i o n i c i p a l i t y respectively.  0.88  and Matsqui Mun-  The l i m i t i n g s i z e f a c t o r must therefore be a p p l i -  cable to the pattern of a g r i c u l t u r e i n the area of study.  In the Lower  Mainland dairying i s the dominant a g r i c u l t u r a l concern, and the size f a c t o r f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g the small farm was agriculture.  therefore adjusted to t h i s form of  With reference to f i e l d data used i n the compilation of the  report "Dairy Farm Organization i n the Fraser V a l l e y of B r i t i s h Columbia" ( C r o s s f i e l d and Woodward,  1961), i t was found that d a i r y farms of under 21  acres had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n meeting the requirements f o r p r o f i t a b l e farming.  For the purpose of t h i s study, farms of under 21 acres were there-  fore c l a s s i f i e d as small farms, i r r e s p e c t i v e of whether they were d a i r y i n g concerns or not. Factors Relating to the Persistence of Small Farms Despite the wide v a r i a t i o n s i n the d e f i n i t i o n s used f o r i s o l a t i n g  Census D i v i s i o n No. 1; includes the v i l l a g e s of Squamish, Sechelt, Gibson's Landing, unorganised areas and Indian Reserves on Sechelt Peninsula, around Harrison Lake, and north of Hope, i n a d d i t i o n to the Lower Mainland Region (Fraser V a l l e y plus Census Metropolitan area).  2 Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y has been used as the s p e c i a l i s e d area of study within the Lower Mainland. For further explanation see page 23.  - 8 -  the small farm, most e x i s t i n g studies have couched the problem i n terms of inadequate economic returns from the farm holding and the subsequent e f f e c t on the s o c i a l and economic v i a b i l i t y of the farm family.  Abell  (1956) and  Zeman (I96lb) have attempted to explain the persistence of small farms i n Canada and although both studies are concerned with areas i n the P r a i r i e Provinces, some of t h e i r findings are pertinent to the small farm s i t u a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland of B r i t i s h Columbia. In a d e s c r i p t i o n of some of the conditions and attitudes p r e v a i l i n g on a selected group of small farms i n two areas of Manitoba A b e l l  (1956:120)  gives four reasons which she found to be of p a r t i c u l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e .  First-  l y , many of the operators of small farms were s a t i s f i e d with t h e i r present way of l i f e and t h i s s a t i s f a c t i o n had s o c i a l rather than economic foundations.  Secondly, many of the small farm operators had not adopted recom-  mended farming practices which could have increased t h e i r farm income. In association with t h i s evidence was  a r e l a t i o n s h i p between high income,  high standard of l i v i n g and high adoption of recommended farming p r a c t i c e s . Thirdly, many of the operators were opposed to t h e i r sons obtaining s u f f i c i e n t education which could e i t h e r open a l t e r n a t i v e employment opportunities to them or enable them to become more s k i l l e d farmers, and i n t h i s respect grade eight was regarded by many farmers as s u f f i c i e n t education to operate a farm.  Fourthly, there was  a reluctance by many of the operators to  take advantage of available c r e d i t f a c i l i t i e s to expand t h e i r farms with the r e s u l t that the i n t r a - f a m i l y transference of farms would take place without any appreciable change i n the s i z e of the farm operation.  In con-  clusion A b e l l stated that: These small farms seem to epitomize the "way of l i f e " aspects of farming. This study points to the need f o r adjustments (both s o c i a l and economic) which w i l l enable f a m i l i e s on small farms to maintain and r a i s e t h e i r farming e f f i c i e n c y and t h e i r l e v e l of l i v i n g while enjoying a way of l i f e which i s i n accord with t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r complex  of values (Abell 1956:120).  - 9 Many of the features discussed by A b e l l to by Zeman  (1961b)  (1956)  are also r e f e r r e d  i n h i s study of the Davidson area of Saskatchewan.  Zeman found that i n some cases the o r i g i n a l land settlement p o l i c y had favoured a small s i z e of farm and that subsequent generations had not had s u f f i c i e n t c a p i t a l to enlarge the holding.  In this connection Zeman points  out the d i f f i c u l t y of young farmers s u c c e s s f u l l y climbing the " a g r i c u l t u r a l ladder" i f they lack c a p i t a l and have an inadequate foundation to work from (ibid;86).  Zeman also found that l a c k of education was an important d e t r i -  mental f a c t o r i n that a higher l e v e l of education was now necessary i f maximum use was to be made of improvements i n farming techniques and management practices and that a lower l e v e l of schooling was a b a r r i e r to entry i n t o more remunerative occupations outside of agriculture ( i b i d : 85).  This l a t t e r s i t u a t i o n has become i n c r e a s i n g l y more evident with the  breakdown of r u r a l i s o l a t i o n , the r e s u l t i n g changing pattern of r u r a l l i f e and the farmer's awareness of a higher standard of l i v i n g frequently associ a t e d with white c o l l a r occupations and urbanisation ( F o r t i n ding  1959),  and (Hamilton  1958).  1961),  (Spaul-  Despite the changing r u r a l pattern, Zeman  found that some farmers s t i l l regarded farming simply as a way of l i f e with i t s associated advantages of s e c u r i t y and independence.  In addition, the  breakdown of i s o l a t i o n had meant that the s o c i a l and r e c r e a t i o n a l opport u n i t i e s were as p l e n t i f u l and l e s s c o s t l y than those of the urban dweller (Zeman  196lb:87).  Zeman suggested i n conclusion that:  He who has a small farm.. . w i l l probably solve h i s own problem by i n t e n s i f y i n g h i s operations, increasing the size of h i s farm business u n i t , securing off-farm employment i n addition to work on the farm, and even moving out of farming altogether (Zeman 196lb:9l). In a p u b l i c a t i o n dealing with the small farm s i t u a t i o n i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Steacy  (1959:13)  points out that f i f t y - f i v e per- cent of B r i t i s h  i  '  :  - 10 Columbia farms produced l e s s than  $1,200  the prime purpose of these holdings was part of the family income. cent of the  U,l50  per year but that i n many cases  r e s i d e n t i a l and only a supplier of  Nevertheless,  the f a c t that some f o r t y - f o u r per  f u l l - t i m e farmers engaged i n l i v e s t o c k and mixed farming  enterprises i n the Fraser V a l l e y were not producing adequate incomes showed the gravity of the s i t u a t i o n (ibid:27).  Once again, therefore, the small  farm s i t u a t i o n i s couched i n terms of the low income enterprise which  may  have r e s u l t e d from adverse h i s t o r i c a l , p h y s i c a l or economic factors ( i b i d : 21).  Steacy (ibid:42) suggested that there are eleven f a c t o r s which are the  causes of inadequate farm incomes: ( l a ) farms situated on marginal or  sub-  marginal landj ( l b ) crops and v a r i e t i e s planted i n areas which are marginal or sub-marginal, f o r s a t i s f a c t o r y production, and the growing of crops and v a r i e t i e s that do not have consumer acceptance j (2) and the type; (3)  the s i z e of the farm  lack of i n i t i a l and working c a p i t a l ; (h) poor management  of land, labour, c a p i t a l ; (5)  lack of desire or i n i t i a t i v e to improve;  a v a i l a b i l i t y of off-farm work or the lack of available farm labour; (7) f l i c t of competition between urban and r u r a l development; (8a)  (8b)  con-  competition  from imported farm produce at p r i c e s below cost of l o c a l production often grown on lands reclaimed l a r g e l y by Federal Finances;  (6)  and  vertical  integration i n the United States and Eastern Canada has r e s u l t e d i n commodit i e s so produced breaking the Vancouver market; (9)  high p r i c e s of farm land,  f o r i n many areas land i s sold not a t p r i c e s that could be paid from a g r i c u l t u r a l production, but at sub-division values f o r r e s i d e n t i a l or commerc i a l use; (10)  lack of sound marketing co-operatives; and ( l l ) adverse  As a comparison, ARDA i n i t s report Economic and S o c i a l Disadvantage i n Canada, some Graphic Indicators of Location and Degree (196U) uses an a g r i c u l t u r a l sales value per holding of l e s s than $2,500 to d i s t i n g u i s h the low income farms.  - 11 f r e i g h t rates.  Steacy  (1959*U3)  points out, however, that since many of  the small farms are not "problem" holdings and are indeed quite successful i t would appear that the c r i t i c a l feature i s how many of the adverse f a c t ors indicated above are involved i n any one i n d i v i d u a l enterprise. With regard to the Fraser Valley, Steacy  (1959:l6)  suggests that  two factors are p a r t i c u l a r l y s i g n i f i c a n t i n explaining the high incidence of small farms i n t h i s region.  These are the favourable moderate climate  and the proximity of an urbanised area with i t s i n d u s t r i a l employment, r e s u l t i n g i n many of the small farms being operated by semi-retired or parttime farmers.  With regard to the c i t y worker who  a l production, Steacy  (1959:l6)  attempts some a g r i c u l t u r -  states that operators i n t h i s group are f r e -  quently unable, u n w i l l i n g or lack the managerial knowledge to produce a q u a l i t y commodity f o r a competitive market.  One of the most important  ob-  servations that Steacy makes i s that these part-time or semi-retired farmers should not be confused with those farmers who  acquired land intending  to be f u l l - t i m e operators but who were forced to seek o f f the farm employment i n order to make a l i v i n g , or whose farm operations, while r e q u i r i n g f u l l - t i m e services, do not provide net incomes that w i l l ensure an adequate standard of l i v i n g f o r themselves or f o r t h e i r f a m i l i e s ( i b i d ; l 6 ) . In an a r t i c l e on agriculture i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Palmer 111)  (1953:  r e f e r s to the increase i n the number of small holdings e s p e c i a l l y i n  the Fraser V a l l e y and indicates that many of the operators have become small holders because the high wage scales i n B r i t i s h Columbia have forced them to operate the size of holding which necessitates no outside labour. In many cases these operators are part-time farmers who  regard t h e i r a g r i -  • c u l t u r a l endeavours as merely a supplementary source of income or even as a hobby.  Palmer  (1953:111)>  although recognising the f a c t that small, hold-  - 12 -  lugs have Increased the value of agricultural land to a disproportionate level and i n many instances represent an uneconomic form of agriculture, points out that these types of holdings have their advantages from the standpoint of the welfare of the nation. These advantages include the favourable surroundings i n which to bring up children, the satisfying of a need to grow plants and raise animals, and the development of suburban and rural communities where people can create much of their own entertainment and enjoy a rewarding type of l i f e (Palmer 1953:112). Many of these small farm operators subscribe to what McKain refers to as the "chicken farm myth" (McKain, Jr. 1963:27) and f a i l to recapture a romantic ideal of rural living but they are nevertheless tangible evidence of the breakdown of rural isolation and the subsequent confrontation of urban and rural so that "some people are i n the city but not of i t , whereas others are of the city and not i n i t " (Pahl 1966:327). Existing studies indicate that the small farm i s frequently an uneconomic unit but that many of these holdings are operated on a part-time basis or are used purely as a place of residence. It would therefore seem essential that i f a r e a l i s t i c appreciation of the problem i s to be obtained, f u l l consideration must be given to the fact that these contrasting levels of small farm operation and ownership do exist. Identification of Full-time, Part-time and Residential Farmers Despite the fact that no farm occupier i s l i k e l y to be motivated by one single reason for owning a farm, i t i s convenient to classify farm occupiers into " f a i r l y homogeneous groups by what appears to be the dominant forces activating them" (Gasson 1966:19). In this respect there would seem to be a logical division between the full-time, part-time and residential farmer, although their exact parameters are more d i f f i c u l t to define.  - 13 Farm Classification has usually taken into account one or more of the following:  the value of agricultural products sold, the relative time spent by the  farm operator at either agricultural Or non-agricultural work and the relative income obtained from farm and non-farm sources. Two papers dealing with the problem of farm classification (Benedict et al,19hh) and (Bachman et al.19)48) took into consideration both the value of agricultural products sold and the time spent by the operator on the farm (Appendix I ) . teria.  More recent studies have continued to use these limiting c r i -  The Dominion Bureau of Statistics of Canada takes into consideration  a l l three factors, although the specific capital values used to identify the various classes have varied from census to census (Appendix I).  The Agri-  cultural Rehabilitation and Development Act (ARDA) "^publication concerned with Economic and Social Disadvantage i n Canada lar to that used by the 1966  census for distinguishing a farm, an institu-  tional farm, and criteria similar to the 1961 dential farm.  (1964) used c r i t e r i a simi-  census for defining a r e s i -  In a report published by the Ontario Economic Council  (1966),  People and Land i n Transition, the controlling criterion for defining the type of farmer was the relative time spent by the farm operator on and off the  farm (Appendix I).  (Noble 1967)  Another study dealing with agriculture i n Ontario  with particular reference to the farm family, uses the relative  value of income from on-and off-farm sources as the sole criterion for distinguishing the full-time and part-time farm (Appendix I ) . Probably the most d i f f i c u l t division to establish i s that between  ^On provide for Rural Areas ment i n 1966  June 22, 1961, the Parliament of Canada assented to an Act "to the rehabilitation of Agricultural Lands and the Development of i n Canada". The short t i t l e of the Act was changed by Parliato "Agricultural and Rural Development Act" (ARDA).  - Ill the full-time and part-time farms.  The examples cited above have frequent-  l y used a combination of limiting criteria but a somewhat different approach to the problem was introduced by Ashton and Cracknel! (l°6l).  They calcu-  lated the standard labour requirements^ for a twenty per cent sample of holdings i n the June 1 9 5 5 Agricultural Census for England and Wales, and i n so doing were able to classify holdings by standard labour requirements into various "size of business" categories.  It was found that farms with  less than 2 7 5 man-days or the equivalent could be regarded as part-time holdings irrespective of whether the occupier worked the holding parttime or not.^  The emphasis was therefore on the holding and the amount of  employment i t was capable of providing under existing management, rather than on the status of the occupier.  An earlier study dealing with British  agriculture orientated i t s classification to the status of the occupier, and the holdings were classified full-time or part-time according to whether or not the occupier was engaged full-time on the holding and dependent on i t for a l i v i n g (Thomas and Elms 1938). The National Farm Survey of England and Wales (1941-3) classification was also based on the status of the occupier rather than on the cropping and stocking qualities of the holding.  In a more recent study by  Gasson (1966) only a simple distinction was drawn between full-time and  -'Standard labour requirements (as used by Ashton and Cracknell) relate to a standard man-day of eight hours of adult male labour needed for the cultivation of the acreage of crops and care for the number of livestock on a given holding, assuming average rates of working. ^Ashton and Cracknell ( 1 9 6 1 : 4 7 8 ) cite a study by Sturrock ( 1 9 5 0 ) which indicated that i n agriculture a full-time man worked approximately 2 7 5 days a year, including time spent on maintenance. In spite of some changes i n the conditions of employment since then the figure i s s t i l l broadl y correct and regarded as providing a useful dividing line between f u l l time and part-time work.  -Impart-time farmers.  Part-time farmers included recipients of pensions and  private incomes and also retired persons, although i n a s t r i c t sense they may have had no income yielding occupation. Full-time farmers were those whose livelihood depended on their success i n farming andwho had no other comparable source of income (Gasson 1966:20). The whole problem of classification would therefore seem to revolve around the question of whether the classification i s pertaining to the farm holding or to the farm occupier.  In the present study where the type of  farm occupier i s of prime concern the criteria for establishing the classification are related to the relative working time spent by the occupier on on-farm and off-farm work and the income obtained from the associated activity.  It was eventually decided that the full-time, part-time and residen-  t i a l farm operators would be defined as follows:  the full-time operator i s  one who spends less than 100 days on off-farm work, or where at least 51 per cent of the family living income i s contributed by the farm; the part-time operator i s one who spends more than 100 days on off-farm work, or where at least 51 per cent of the family l i v i n g income i s derived from sources other than from the farm; and the residential farm operator i s one who received less than $250 from agricultural sales over the preceding twelve months irrespective of the time he spent on the farm.  The author recognises that  the criteria used for distinguishing the three types of farm operators would not be adequate for a l l studies but nevertheless seem appropriate terms of reference for the present one.  He therefore endorses the view of Jones  (1957:202) that "there i s no single type of farm classification which w i l l suit a l l purposes" and that the use of any farm classification i s limited to within the narrow sphere for which i t i s suitable (Chisholm 1964:102).  CHAPTER II THE EVOLUTION OF AGRICULTURE IN THE LOWER MAINLAND  In order to meet the requirements implied by the topic of this study i t was important to choose an area for investigation i n which the small farm was l i k e l y to be a strong and clearly defined phenomenon, and i n which the geographical setting was l i k e l y to have promoted the presence of full-time, part-time and residential farmers.  The f i r s t part of this chapter presents  s t a t i s t i c a l evidence primarily obtained from the 1951 illustrate the suitability of the area selected.  and 1961  Census which  This line of evidence i s  then supported by a brief description of the physical environment and historical geography with particular emphasis on those characteristics which may have affected the presence of small farms i n the area. Suitability of the Lower Mainland as a Study Area The Lower Mainland of British Columbia was chosen as the area of study for a number of reasons.  F i r s t l y , the Lower Mainland contains a high  percentage of the total number of small farms i n British Columbia.  With res-  pect to census farms of under ten acres, the number of farms reported for Census Division k^" was 53 per cent of the provincial total i n both 1951 1961.  and  Farms of under ten acres are also an important size range of farms  within Census Division k i t s e l f .  In 1951  they were 36.2  per cent of the  Census Division No. k includes the villages of Squamish, Sechelt, Gibson's Landing, unorganised areas and Indian Reserves on Sechelt Peninsula, around Harrison Lake, north of Hope, i n addition to the Lower Mainland Region (Fraser Valley plus Census Metropolitan area).  - 16 -  -  17  -  t o t a l number of farms and 3 5 . 5 per cent i n 1 9 6 l ( 3 5 . 0 per cent i n 1 9 6 6 ) . I t must be remembered that since t h i s study has used the s i z e l i m i t of 2 1 acres to d i s t i n g u i s h the small farm, a considerable number of these farms are contained within the census farm size group of ten to sixty-nine acres and are therfore not i d e n t i f i a b l e from the census figures as a discrete size group. Table I also shows that except f o r the farm s i z e group o f 1 0 - 6 9 acres, the farm size group of 3 - 9 acres formed the l a r g e s t percentage of the t o t a l number of farms involved f o r both Census D i v i s i o n k and Matsqui Municipality. The Lower Mainland was also chosen because i t i s a c i t y - o r i e n t a t e d region ( F i g . l ) .  Urban influences w i l l continue to r a d i c a l l y change r u r a l  l i f e i n the twentieth century ( S a v i l l e 1 9 6 6 : 3 5 )  and there i s no longer a  c l e a r demarcation between "agriculture", " r u r a l i n d u s t r i a l " , " r u r a l urban f r i n g e " , and s t r i c t l y "urban" population (Newman 1966:225).  With t h i s i n  mind and the f a c t that the part-time and r e s i d e n t i a l farmers are r e f l e c t i o n s of urbanisation i n the r u r a l landscape, i t would be convenient but quite u n r e a l i s t i c to study the small farm s i t u a t i o n i n i s o l a t i o n from this expanding phenomenon.  In addition, r e s u l t s of empirical studies both i n  North America and B r i t a i n have c l e a r l y shown that the a g r i c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t i e s o f an area are influenced by both the l e v e l of urbanisation within the area and the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of that area to a metropolitan centre (Anderson and C o l l i e r 1 9 5 6 ) and (Gasson 1 9 6 6 ) . By choosing the Lower Mainland a region was selected which i s not only the most important a g r i c u l t u r a l area i n B r i t i s h Columbia, but one which i s subject to the metropolitan dominance of the t h i r d l a r g e s t c i t y i n Canada.  - 18 TABLE I  RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF FARM SIZE GROUPS IN CENSUS DIVISION 4 AND CENSUS SUB-DIVISION 1*0, MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY  195l-196l  a  53557 Farm Size Groups Under 3 acres  3-9 10-69 70-129 130-179 180-239  240-399 400-559  560-759 760-1119 1120-1599  Census Division 4 Matsqui  3.80 32.40 52.70 7.40 2.10 0.80 0.60 0.10 0.05 o.ou  1600 & above  0.00 0.01  b  3.7 24.2 63.7 6.6 1.5 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  b  I~6l  1951-1961  Census Census Division 4 Matsqui Division 4 Matsqui  9.10 26.40 49.90 9.60 2.70 1.10 0.80 0.20 0.08 0.05 0.03 0.04  b  4.7 22.0 62.1 9.1 1.3 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 b  +5.3 -6.0 -2.8 +2.2 +0.6 +0.3 +0.2 +0.1 +0.03 +0.01 +0.03 +0.03 C  +1.0 -2.2 -1.6 +2.5 -0.2 +0.4 +0.1  C  •  Derived frora Canada Census 1951 and 1961. Number of farms i n each size group expressed as a percentage of total number of farms. b  Change of number of farms i n each size group with 1961 figures expressed as a percentage of 1951 figures for corresponding group. 0  Number of farms i n Census Division 4 - 1951, 9,985; 1961, 7,369; Matsqui Municipality 1951, 1,498; 1961, 1,276. The most distinctive feature concerning the Lower Mainland i s Metropolitan Vancouver's position as the financial and commercial centre of British Columbia and the province's central clearing house (B.C. Department of Agriculture 1967:44).  In 1961 the Lower Mainland's population was  893,619 with Vancouver's Metropolitan area accounting for 790,165, and the estimated numbers for 1966 were 1,034,000 and 910,650 persons respectively (L.M.R.P.B. 1957).  Further expansion of the Vancouver Metropolitan area  Figure  1.  Location  of  Matsqui  Municipality  in  relation  to  the  Lower  Mainland  would seem assured, but whereas Vancouver C i t y increased a t an average annual rate o f 1.2 per cent between l°6l and 1966, the growth rates o f the peripheral m u n i c i p a l i t i e s were considerably higher; Burnaby showed a 2.1 per cent increase, Surrey 2.7 per cent, West Vancouver U.3 per cent, Richmond 2.9 per cent, and Delta 7.1 per cent (B.C. Department o f A g r i culture 1967iUB)'  Irrespective of the s p e c i f i c geographical l o c a t i o n o f  the greatest population increase i n the years ahead, the L.M.R.P.B. (1957) estimated that by 1981 the Lower Mainland would have a population o f  2,912,000 with Metropolitan Vancouver accounting f o r 1,278,700 o f the regional t o t a l . The breakdown of the r u r a l population into farm and non-farm i s also an i n d i c a t i o n of the e f f e c t o f urbanisation w i t h i n an area, f o r a large non-farm sector i n the r u r a l population i s to a considerable extent dependent upon the a v a i l a b i l i t y of employment o f a non-primary productive nature which i s generally found i n an urban area.  In 1961, although 36.3  per cent of the t o t a l farm population i n B r i t i s h Columbia l i v e d i n A g r i c u l t u r a l Region k (Lower Mainland), they represented only 3.h per cent of the t o t a l population i n the region ( A l l i n 196*4:L43). Table I I shows the breakdown of the r u r a l population i n Census Divi s i o n h f o r the years 1951,  1956, 1961, and 1966, i l l u s t r a t i n g the high  percentage of non-farm population within the r u r a l category. 1951,  F o r the years  1956, 1961, and 1966 the non-farm population as a percentage o f the  r u r a l population was 62.1 per cent, 65.7 per cent, 79.9 per cent, and 76.9 per cent respectively.  In addition, the r u r a l farm population includes  those persons who reside on farms but who derive t h e i r incomes from non-  - 21 TABLE II  URBAN-RURAL POPULATION BREAKDOWN FOR CENSUS DIVISION I4  1951, 1956, 1961, 1966  a  1951 Total Population . Total Urban Population Total Rural Population Farm Population Non-Farm Population 0  a  649,238  544,668 104,570 39,615 6h,9^  1956  1961  1966  767,921  907,531 772,998 134,533 27,022 107,511  1,021,791  683,829  84,092 28,852 55,240  899,741 122,050 28,244 93,806  Derived from Canada Census, 1951, 1956, 1961 and 1966.  The definition of rural and urban for the 1966 and 1961 Census was substantially the same as that used i n 1956. The 1966 and 1961 definition specified that a l l cities, towns and villages of 1,000 and over, whether incorporated or not, were classed as urban, as well as urbanised fringes of: (i) cities classed as metropolitan areas ( i i ) those classed as other major urban areas ( i i i ) certain smaller cities, i f the city together with the urbanised fringe was 10,000 population or over. The remainder of the population was classed as rural. The main difference from 1956 results from the exclusion of any non-urbanised fringes within metropolitan areas, and the inclusion of urbanised fringes adjoining those cities covered i n ( i i i ) above. The classification of "rural farms" comprises a l l persons living on such holdings that are classed as farms regardless of the occupier's occupation. In 1966 a census farm was defined as a holding of one acre or more with sales of agricultural products during the previous twelve months of $50.00 or more. The definition of a "census farm" was similar i n 1961. In 1956 and 1951 a census farm was defined as a holding on which agricultura l operations were carried out and which was: (i) (ii)  three acres or more i n size or from one to three acres i n size and with agricultural production during the previous year valued at $250.00 or more.  Part of the decrease shown for the rural farm population in 1961 and 1966 i s due to the change i n farm definition from that used for the 1951 and 1956 census.  - 22 2 agricultural pursuits. The future trend would seem to be that more and more people w i l l settle i n the surrounding countryside, particularly within convenient commuting distance of Metropolitan Vancouver. Matsqui Municipality as the Specialized Study Area Within the Lower Mainland, Matsqui Municipality was singled out for specialised study since i t i s reasonably representative of the agricultural pattern of the Lower Mainland and i s within commuting distance of the Vancouver Metropolitan area.  Table I shows that not only do farms under ten  acres form a significant percentage of the total number of farms i n Matsqui Municipality, 27.2  per cent and 26.7  per cent i n 1951  and 1961 respectively,  but that the relative importance of each size group and the trends i n the number of farms i n each group between 1951  and 1961  were extremely similar  to those taking place within the Lower Mainland as a whole.  The r e l i a b i l i t y  of Matsqui Municipality as a representative area of Lower Mainland agriculture i s further indicated by reference to Table III and Table IV.  These two  tables illustrate the strong similarity i n .the relative importance of different types of land use and farm tenure i n the two areas. In addition, the Regional Index of British Columbia (1966:1610 i n describing the general pattern of agriculture i n the Lower Mainland and Matsqui Municipality assigns prime importance to dairying and poultry i n both cases, with small fruits and vegetables providing extra income. The evidence of a number of studies has confirmed that there i s a  2  •  The Rural population includes those populations not living in c i t - . ies, towns and villages of 1,000 and over, whether incorporated or notj the urbanised fringes of these centres, in a l l cases where the population of the city or town together with i t s urbanised fringe amounts to 10,000 or more. The farm population is that population irrespective of their occupation residing on a holding which is defined by the census as a farm.  - 23 TABLE I I I  COMPARISON OF AREA AND USE OF FARM LAND IN CENSUS DIVISION li AND MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY FOR THE YEARS  1951  AND  196l  a  C e n s u s M a t s q u i Division 4 Municipality  Land Use  39,492 37,661  Total Area o f Occupied Farm Land:*  1951 1961  304,291 274,588  Area o f Occupied Farm Land Owned:  1951 1961  262,337 86.22° 213,066 77.62  36,770 93.12° 31,292 83.12  Area o f Occupied Farm Land Rented:  1951 1961  41,954 13.82° 61,522 22. k%  2,722 6.92° 6,369 16.92  Total Area o f Improved Farm Land;  1951 1961  202,089 66.42° 198,458 72.32  23,413 59.32° 26,399 70.12  Total Area Under Crops:  1951 1961  112,684 55.72 108,492 54.72  12,310 52.6213,473 51.02  Total Area Under Summer Fallow:  1951 1961  Area Under Pasture:  1951 1961  73,144 36.22 8,926 38.12  Other "Improved Farm Land:  1951 1961  14,886 7.42 14,869 7.52  2,010 8.62 2,113 8.02  Total Area o f Unimproved Farm Land:  1951 1961  102,202 33.62° 76,130 27.72  16,079 40.72° 11,262 29.92  Total Area of Farm Woodland:  1951 1961  62,648 61.32 32,704 43.02  10,690 66.52 6,774 60.12  Other Unimproved Farm Land:  1951 1961  39,554 38.72 43,426 57.02  5,389 33.52 4,488 39.92  3  Derived from Canada Census, 1951  acres  d  1,375 1,467  0.72 0.72  d  d  d  6  s  acres  1  167 o.72 230 0.92  d  73,630 10,583 40.12 d  s  s  and 1961.  Area expressed i n acres. c Area expressed as a percentage of t o t a l area o f occupied farm land. d  A r e a expressed as a percentage of t o t a l area o f improved farm land. 6  A r e a expressed as a percentage o f t o t a l area o f unimproved farm land.  - 2h TABLE IV COMPARISON OF OPERATORS AND TYPE OF FARM TENURE IN CENSUS DIVISION 4 AND MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY FOR THE YEARS  1951 AND 196l  Census Division U  Type o f Farm Tenure  Matsqui Municipality  1,498 1,276  Total Number o f Farm Operators:  1951 1961  9,985 7,369  Total Number o f Owners:  1951 1961  8,747 87.6# 5,993 81.3%  Total Number o f Managers:  1951 1961  124 65  1.2% 0.9%  Total Number of Tenants:  1951 1961  505 509  5.l2  1951 1961  609 802  6.l2  Total Number o f Part OwnerPart Tenant:  a  b  h  b  6.9%  b  10.9%  1,384 92. 1,094 85.72 15 1.0#> 6 0.52 2.72 59 4.62 41  b  58 3.92 117 9.22  b  Derived from Canada Census, 1951 and 1961. •u  Number of operators i n each type o f farm tenure class expressed as a percentage o f the t o t a l number o f farm operators. strong r e l a t i o n s h i p between urban influence and part-time and hobby farming (Gasson  1966:25)  and that the incidence o f part-time farming v a r i e s with d i s -  tance from the urban centre (Harrison  1965),  that i s the proportion o f p a r t -  time farmers increases with proximity to the urban area. Copp  (19645343)  Goldsmith and  indicated that the average size o f farms tends to decrease  i n metropolitan counties and most non-metropolitan counties as the size o f the l a r g e s t urban place i n a county increases. Cracknell  (1961)  In B r i t a i n , Ashton and  have shown that there i s not only a p o s i t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p  between urbanisation and the occurrence o f small farms but there i s a f u r ther i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p between urbanisation, small farms, and the part-  - 25 -  time farmer. The high incidence of small farms i n Matsqui Municipality has a l ready been shown (Table I), and the fact that i t does come within the metropolitan dominance of Vancouver i s further illustrated by the fact that the area i s within commuting distance of the downtown area.  Figures published  by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board (1963b) showed that the r e s i dential development pattern tenninated at approximately 55 to 60 minutes driving time from dox-mtoxm Vancouver and that the 60 minute driving time choropleth passed through the Maple Ridge area (L.M.R.P.B., 1 9 6 3 b ) .  Since  then the development of the "Burnaby Throughway" has meant that even the Abbotsford-Clearbrook area is within this 60 minute driving time choropleth.  Further evidence of this commuting factor i s shown by the results  of a survey of the labour force i n the Abbotsford-Mission area.  The f i g -  ures indicated that 3 0 . 7 per cent of the working population living i n the Abbotsford area found employment i n the Greater Vancouver area (L.M.R.P.B., 1956:23).  The suitability of Matsqui Municipality as a study area i s therefore clearly illustrated since i t contains a large number of small farms, i s representative of Lower M a i n l a n d agriculture and exhibits extremely favourable conditions for the occurrence of full-time, part-time, and residential farmers. Physical Geography of Matsqui Municipality The roughly triangular shaped Lower Mainland of British Columbia extends ninety miles east to west and broadens to approximately thirty miles wide at the seax-rard end between the Coast Mountains and the Canada-United States Boundary. Within this area of approximately one million acres, which i f i t were circular xfould have a radius of only sixteen miles (L.M.R.P.B., 1963a:10, the population density i s over 1,000 per square mile and average  - 26 farms are only 34 acres i n size (Winter 1968:101).  The dominant physio-  graphic feature of the Lower Mainland i s the Fraser River valley, to the north and south of which are wide, relatively f l a t topped uplands separated by wide, f l a t bottomed valleys (Armstrong and Brown 1954s35>l). Most of these east-west orientated uplands consist largely of unconsolidated deposits and rise abruptly from the intervening valleys by a series of wave cut and river cut terraces (ibid:3?l). The western part of Matsqui Municipality i s physiographically part of the Langley Uplands which consist of a core of unconsolidated deposits with rolling hummocky surfaces of glacial t i l l and glacio-marine deposits with a maximum elevation of approximately 400 feet (Armstrong I960:"4). To the southwest of Abbotsford this upland area (also referred to as the Abbotsford Upland) has a f l a t terraced surface of glacial outwash which has north-south ridges on i t s eastern side that rise seventy-five to one-hundred feet above the general surface (Runka and Kelley 1964:3).  The Brown Podzol  soils associated with these upland areas are usually less f e r t i l e and not as well adapted to general farming as are the lowland soils but can become quite productive with irrigation.  The upland soils are predominantly classes  three and four on the Agriculture Soil Capability Classification^ with topography, adverse s o i l characteristics and moisture limitations i n the form of droughtiness being the main limiting factors.  A considerable part of the  upland area i s s t i l l tree covered, but there are large areas of early maturing crops such as strawberries, potatoes, carrots and other small fruits and  The classifications adopted by the Soils Sector of the Canada Land Inventory are based on the combined effects of s o i l and climate and show the land's limitations and general productive capacity for growing the common f i e l d crops. The seven classes used range from good arable land Class 1, to unproductive land Class 7 (see Appendix II). J  - 27 bulbs as w e l l as the p o u l t r y and f u r farms and the occasional dairying concern (Runka and K e l l e y 196*4:9). The upland areas are generally associated with the small farms which are e i t h e r part-time or r e s i d e n t i a l holdings or f u l l - t i m e operations concentrating on the more intensive forms of land use. The main area of lowland i n the municipality i s Matsqui  Prairie  which i s situated i n the northeast and i s bounded i n the east by Sumas Mountain.  This comparatively f l a t lowland of l e s s than 25 f e e t elevation  was formed by Matsqui g l a c i a l lake and by the Fraser River (Armstrong I4).  The other main area of lowland i s situated i n the northwestern  I960:  corner  of the municipality and i s the eastern part of the Glen V a l l e y which i s also part of the Fraser Lowland.  The lowland s o i l s are of post g l a c i a l o r i g i n  and range from two to s i x on the S o i l Capability C l a s s i f i c a t i o n ^ .  Although  Matsqui Prairie: i s protected by dykes, seepage occurs a t high water (Runka and K e l l e y 196)4:9) with the r e s u l t that excess water or inundation by water and the occurrence of s o i l s with undesirable structure and/or low permeabili t y severely l i m i t parts of the lowland f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l use.  The Glen  V a l l e y i s not protected by a dyke ( i b i d : 9 ) and part of the area i s adversely affected by inundation by water and excess water caused by poor runoff to Natham Creek. Valley.  Organic s o i l s occur i n both Matsqui P r a i r i e and the Glen  The muck s o i l s are suitable f o r truck farming but the deep peat  s o i l s are suitable only f o r selected crops (such as blueberries or cranberries) as these s o i l s require c a r e f u l management f o r maximum production (ibid:$5)«  Land use i n the lowland area i s l a r g e l y orientated t o dairying  with most of the area being used f o r hay, silage or pasture, although there  See Appendix I I f o r explanation of the S o i l Capability C l a s s i f i cation.  - 28 -  are scattered areas of specialised crops. Farms i n the lowland area also tend to be larger than those found i n the upland areas because of the ease of bringing into cultivation the prairie covered floodplain as opposed to the heavy tree cover of the uplands. The Lower Mainland's marine west coast climate (Chapman 1952:54) has had considerable influence on the developing cultural landscape of the area. The mean annual temperature range i s only 27°F. July and August show a mean of 63°F. while January and February have 37°F. (Verner and Gubbels  1967:2). At Abbotsford the average monthly temperatures for January and February are 34°F. and 38°F. respectively and 62°F. for both July and August.  The frost free period for this area i s about 166 days with the mean  for the last frost i n spring being April 2k, and a mean for the f i r s t frost i n autumn being October 7 (Runka and Kelley 1964:128).  Precipitation  conditions during the five months from May to September are the most important for crop growth.  In these months forty-two and forty-six per cent of  the years of record had less than two inches of r a i n f a l l per month at A l dergrove and Abbotsford respectively ( i b i d : 5 ) .  This mean3 that for heavy  soils having a water requirement of above five inches during the dry months, there i s a deficiency i n July and August and i n some years i n May, June or September ( i b i d : 5 ) .  Particularly on the low-moisture holding soils of the  upland areas, most crops would benefit from irrigation at some stage i n their development i n above eight years i n ten (Carne et a l . 1965:1). Despite the extremely favourable climatic conditions prevailing over the Lower Mainland, variations from the norm do occur and have had serious effects on both agricultural and non-agricultural activities i n  - 29 the area.''  The mild climate, however, with i t s maximum of human comfort and  a minimum of inconvenience (Stager and Wallis  1968:100)  has been an impor-  tant f a c t o r i n a t t r a c t i n g immigrants and other Canadians as p o t e n t i a l s e t t l e r s to the Lower Mainland.  This i s p a r t i c u l a r l y so i n the case of many P r a i r i e  farmers who have moved to the Lower Mainland to continue farming on a p a r t time basis or simply to r e t i r e on a few acres of land and thus become operators of small farms. Although the influence of topography and climate on the a g r i c u l t u r a l pattern of the Lower Mainland i s detectable i t i s somewhat dangerous to attempt to seek d i r e c t relationships between p a r t i c u l a r farm patterns and factors of the physical environment.  "The l a t t e r ( r e l i e f and climate) r e a l l y  are s t a t i c i n terms of the human time-scale, p a r t i c u l a r l y the time-scale i n which business decisions are made, whereas the pattern of farming i s constant l y changing."  (ChishoLm  1964:100).  This being the case, i t i s therefore  necessary to be aware of the changing patterns of farming that have occurred i n the Lower Mainland as some of today's problems associated with the small farm are legacies of nineteenth century pioneers whose twentieth century descendants have been confronted with a d i f f e r e n t economic and s o c i a l environment. H i s t o r i c a l Geography of A g r i c u l t u r a l Development The f i r s t farming operations i n the Lower Mainland were associated^ with the founding of F o r t Langley i n  1827  (L.M.R.P.B.  1962:36).  Initially,  however, farming was c a r r i e d out r e l u c t a n t l y as second choice to the e a r l y f u r trade and gold prospecting (MacGregor  1961:69).  With the discovery of  The hard winter of 1964 had a serious e f f e c t on the strawberry and raspberry plants i n the Lower Mainland. Information obtained from personal communication with Mr. Murray Anderson of Clearbrook Frozen Foods L t d . on May 31, 1967.  - 30 gold i n the Fraser River i n 1856 many people came to the Fraser V a l l e y and found not only gold, but an area with considerable a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l , and i t was the l a t t e r which attracted the f i r s t permanent s e t t l e r s to the Lower Mainland (White  1937:1+0).  In 1862 and  1863  the Chilliwack and Sumas  Valleys attracted many farmers, and there the f i r s t attempts a t systematic farming were made other than a t Fort Langley ( S c h o l f i e l d and Howay 1914* 592).  A f t e r 1865 agriculture developed i n other parts o f the Lower Main-  land despite c e r t a i n handicaps and disadvantages. Compared with other d i s t r i c t s i n western Canada the p r i c e o f land was high, the cost o f clearing the heavy timber cover was extreme and a considerable part o f the low l y i n g areas had to be dyked against flooding during the annual freshet of the Fraser (White  1937:U0)•  For these reasons  an i n i t i a l outlay o f considerable c a p i t a l was almost a necessity, and consequently many o f the holdings were of l i m i t e d acreage ( i b i d . ) . for  In 1902,  example, land which had l i t t l e improvement could be purchased f o r from  twenty to t h i r t y dollars per acre i n the Abbotsford-Matsqui-Aldergrove (Winter  1968:107),  area  but i n a d d i t i o n to t h i s i n i t i a l cost there was often the  expense o f c l e a r i n g which averaged 250 d o l l a r s an acre f o r even l i g h t l y timbered areas (White  1937:123).  Another f a c t o r which i n d i r e c t l y l e d to the  creation of small farms was the lack o f people during the e a r l y periods o f settlement so that families established themselves within close proximity of one another to mitigate loneliness (Winter  1968:111),  thus often pre-  venting farm expansion a t a l a t e r date by descendents of the i n i t i a l s e t t l e s . The e a r l y s e t t l e r s were, however, confident of the a g r i c u l t u r a l p o t e n t i a l of the area.  This confidence and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of ready markets i n the de-  veloping population centres of New Westminster and Vancouver and an expanding  communication network (Howell Jones  1966:35-40)  proved s u f f i c i e n t impetus  - 31 to further the development of agriculture i n the area.  The e a r l y optimism  expressed f o r agriculture continued, even though i t frequently arose out of ignorance, and a number of publications issued by various m u n i c i p a l i t i e s i n the Lower Mainland i n 1919 were rather pretentious i n acclaiming the a g r i -  6 c u l t u r a l merit of t h e i r repsective areas. The p u b l i c a t i o n put out by Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y e n t i t l e d Matsqui The Farmer's Paradise, and What You are Looking For, Wealth, Happiness^ Health, Prosperity, Home; I n d u s t r i a l Advantages and Opportunities indicated that the upland area of the municipality appealed to the orchardist, c a t t l e man,  the mixed farmer and the r e t i r e d home seeker, whereas the lowland areas  of Matsqui P r a i r i e and Glen V a l l e y were almost e x c l u s i v e l y the demesne of the cattleman (Matsqui 1919 :f>).  At t h i s time farming was s t i l l very much a  way of l i f e rather than purely a business enterprise and the small f r e e holder formed the backbone of the country ( i b i d ; 7 and 8).  In addition  part-time farming was already a recognisable feature i n the farming pattern of the area. ...The man on ten acres with h i s h a l f dozen head of stock makes a comfortable l i v i n g with these and the bye products of v e a l , pork and poultry, while the d i s t r i c t i s dotted with even smaller places of f i v e acres, where the man of small means but independent s p i r i t , can a s s i s t h i s neighbours i n spring and harvest, or the mill-man and road foreman i n t h e i r busy weeks, and s t i l l maintain h i s own land, stock and garden i n unshackled freedom (Matsqui 1919:7). Present A g r i c u l t u r a l Situation The subsistence farming which characterised so much of the Lower Mainland i n the l a t t e r part of the nineteenth century and e a r l y part of the twentieth century was gradually replaced by a more mechanised and market  These publications were almost c e r t a i n l y put mobilised soldiers and new and p o t e n t i a l immigrants to c i p a l i t i e s . Under provision of the Soldier Settlement s e t t l e r s purchased farms i n the Loxrer Mainland, mainly Langley and Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t i e s (White 1937:129).  out to a t t r a c t dethe respective muniAct of 1917, 802 i n Chilliwack, Surrey,  - 32 orientated a g r i c u l t u r e . 1941 of  The area of farm land expanded s t e a d i l y u n t i l about  when the amount of land classed as "occupied" farms reached i t s peak  330,000  acres.  From  1941  to  1966  t h i s t o t a l declined^ although the area  of "improved" land continued to increase u n t i l 1956.  These trends are shown  i n Table V.  TABLE V CHANGES IN FARM AND IMPROVED FARM LAND ACREAGES IN CENSUS DIVISION 4 AND MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY FOR THE PERIOD  1921-1966  Census Division 4  Farm Land Total Area of Occupied Farm Land  13  1921 1 931 1941 1951 1956  Total Area of Improved Farm Land  1961 1966 1921 1 931 l$4l 1951 1956 1961  1966  289,687 316,472 330,259 304,291 294,033 274,588 256,235  142,583  172,813 196,195 202,089 204,016 198,458 202,096  A  Matsqui Municipality c  30,980 38,425 39,492  40,270  37,661 37,425  c  14,434  21,474 23,413 26,470 26,399 29,636  Derived from Canada Census Area expressed i n acres Not available  ' The decline i n t o t a l farm land has l a r g e l y been the r e s u l t o f land l o s t to urban sprawl. Crerar calculated that f o r each increase i n population there i s an average l o s s of 382 acres of farm land on the metropolitan f r i n g e . If t h i s pattern of uncontrolled urban development were to be allowed-to take place i n the Lower Mainland the area would lose a l l i t s available farm land by (L.M.R.P.B.  (1962:190) 1980  1000  1962:12).  -  3 3  -  In addition to the changing pattern of land use, there has been a reorientat i o n i n the type of farm operation and a general trend toward s p e c i a l i s a t i o n which has been motivated by the economic necessity of lowering the cost of production (Richter  196)4:6).  The B.C. farmer i s a d a i r y farmer, or a f r u i t rancher, a c a t t l e rancher, a seed grower, or a b r o i l e r producer. He i s hardly ever a "farmer" only. (Richter 1 9 6 ) 4 : 6 ) . Today the Lower Mainland i s by f a r the most productive farming area i n the Province of B r i t i s h Columbia, and one of the more intensive a g r i c u l t u r a l areas i n Canada.  The area accounts f o r n e a r l y 50 per cent of the to-  t a l farm cash income of the province with the main types of production being dairying, poultry, vegetables and potatoes, s p e c i a l h o r t i c u l t u r e crops and small f r u i t s (Table 71).  This a g r i c u l t u r a l pattern i s also r e f l e c t e d i n  TABLE VI CROP AND LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION BT CASH INCOME FOR THE FRASER VALLEY IN 1 9 6 l Vegetables Special Horticulture Small F r u i t Potatoes Forage (sold) Grain Tree F r u i t Forage Seed Dairy Poultry Products Fur Bearers Beef Swine Sheep  a  l4,7)49,)46l  6 0 . 2 P  3 , 8 0 1 , 0 0 0  6)4.8  2 , 6 3 2 , 1 3 0  7 5 . 2  2 , 5 0 0 , 0 0 0  5 7 . 3  5 1 6 , 2 5 0  2 7 . 7  b  U.9  2 7 7 , 8 0 0 8 7 , 9 9 7  0 . 6  2 8 , 0 0 0  3 . 6  2 7 , 9 9 8 , 6 6 9  7 0 . 9  17,32)4,It80  6 6 . 7  2 , 9 0 8 , 5 4 6  8 5 . 0  2 , 2 8 9 , 0 0 0  1 3 . 0  1,01)4,590  3 9 . 3  6 9 , 1 6 0  The Table i s taken from a report by A l l i n  7 . 2  (196I4)  Cash Income expressed i n d o l l a r s Represents per cent contributed to the B.C. P r o v i n c i a l Total.  - 34 the extent and v a r i e t y o f land use i n the Lower Mainland (Table V T l ) . TABLE VII COMPARISON OF AREA AND USE OF FARM LAND IN CENSUS DIVISION 4 AND MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY FOR THE YEAR Land Use Total Area Total Area of Occupied Farm Land Area of Occupied Farm Land Owned Area of Occupied Farm Land Rented Total Area o f Improved Farm Land Total Area Under Crops Area Under Summer Fallow Area Under Pasture Other Improved Farm Land Total Area o f Unimproved Farm Land Area o f Woodland Other Unimproved Farm Land Number of Farm Operators  a  Derived from Canada Census  1966  a  Census Division 4  Matsqui Municipality  6,248,960 256,235 201,359 54,876 202,096 112,512 2,280 71,151 16,153 54,139 23,270 30,869 6,915  54,165 37,425 30,035 7,390 29,636 15,466 384 11,075 2,711 7,789 4,146 3,643 1,205  1966  Area expressed i n acres Development of an Agribusiness Attitude.  In order to appreciate  the small farm s i t u a t i o n i n the Lower Mainland, c e r t a i n other features which have not been indicated by Tables VI and VII must be considered.  These feat-  >  ures are e s s e n t i a l l y tangible expressions of the changing concept of " r u r a l i t y " , and more p a r t i c u l a r l y , a changing pattern of a g r i c u l t u r e .  Reference  has already been made to Richter's observation that s p e c i a l i s a t i o n and economies o f scale are an i n t e g r a l part of the developing pattern o f B r i t i s h Columbia agriculture (Richter Agriculture i n i t s report  1964:6).  The B r i t i s h Columbia Department o f  .Agricultural Outlook Conference 1967 pointed out  that the projected production figures f o r the Lower Fraser V a l l e y had been  . 5 3  calculated on the basis of a gradual change from extensive to intensive agriculture, more production per acre rather than an increased acreage, improved animal and plant breeding, and greater mechanisation,  a l l of  which would require sound farm management and more specialised knowledge (B.C. Department of Agriculture 1967:48). With respect to nearly a l l these trends the small farmers are at a disadvantage unless their type of enterprises are correctly adjusted to the size of holdings they operate.  The full-time farmers on a small unit are often i n no financial i  •  !  position to buy better stock and plant varieties or toi invest i n modern equipment and machinery.  The part-time farmers are i n an even worse  position, however, (with respect to the agricultural situation), i n that i n addition to the disadvantages experienced by the full-time operators on small acreages, they frequently lack specialised knowledge i n the f i r s t place and then have l i t t l e or no time or incentive to make themselves aware of agricultural information and to adopt any agricultural innovations. Although marketing boards have prevented vertical integration i n agriculture taking place i n the Lower Mainland to the same extent that i t has developed i n parts of the United States^ there has been nevertheless an adoption of an agribusiness attitude with a certain degree of vertical integration in the region (Richter 1964:3) and this trend would seem l i k e l y to increase i n the future. Vertical integration by contract farming usually implies the specification of prices, amounts and quality of the product i n volved (Hamilton 1958:5). In most cases, whether the contract involves small f r u i t , f l u i d milk, eggs or broilers, a significant feature of the arrangement i s the prerequisite imposed by the contractor to receive large quantities of Information obtained from personal communication on June 6, 1967 with Mr. C. W. Wood of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Poul try Division Branch at Abbotsford.  - 36 the produce at a standard quality from the farmer.  For example, i n the  small f r u i t industry many contractors encourage the elimination of the small producer by establishing unfavourable rates for those berry growers Q  who deliver insignificant quantities of f r u i t . A similar pattern occurs i n the egg marketing situation where egg stations encourage the delivery of large quantities of eggs by'offering one cent per dozen more for large deliveries^.  The small producer i s also handicapped with regard to crop  insurance, a feature which has become of greater necessity with the increase i n specialisation and the reliance by the farmer upon a single crop to provide the major part of his income. A producer can qualify for the crop insurance plan sponsored by the Government of British Columbia and Canada only i f his annual income from the specific crop or crops to be insured is at least 2,000 dollars (B.C. Department of Agriculture 1968:4). The reorganisation of resource use on individual farms resulting i n intensification and specialization and the adoption of an agribusiness attitude i n order to compete successfully with external producing areas would seem to put the small farmer at a disadvantage i n almost every respect, particularly i f he i s a part-time operator. Nevertheless, the small ' Clearbrook Frozen Foods Ltd. of Clearbrook i n Matsqui Municipality stipulate i n the introductory note to their contract agreement for 1967, that growers whose total delivery of strawberries, and/or raspberries, i s less than 2,000 pounds w i l l receive one cent per pound less than the established grower price, and for amounts of no more than 200 pounds of f r u i t i n a season, the price paid w i l l be three cents per pound less than the established grower price. Despite these penalties, however, 65 per cent of the raspberries received by Clearbrook Frozen Foods come from growers with holdings of 5 to 8 acres or less and 5 per cent of the strawberries come from holdings of a similar size range. (Information obtained from personal communication on May 31, 1967 with Mr. Murray Anderson of Clearbrook Frozen Foods Ltd., Clearbrook). Information obtained from personal communications on June 6, 1967 with Mr. C.W. Wood of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Poultry Division Branch at Abbotsford.  I  - 37 - ' farmer s t i l l produces a significant percentage of the total agricultural output of the Lower Mainland (MacGregor 1961:83). Consequences of Urban Growth. Despite the Lower Mainland's importance as an agricultural area, concern was expressed, particularly i n the early years of this decade, about the continuation of a viable agriculture i n the region (L.M.R.P.B. 1962:22).  This concern grew largely  out of the fear that existing agricultural areas would be overwhelmed by urban expansion.  Since that time, however, the implementation of zoning  regulations and a more positive approach to the conservation of agricultural land has meant that this fear has subsided considerably and that the situation i s now a far more optimistic one for f a r m i n g . N e v e r t h e less, the confrontation of urban and rural interests continues to exist and affect not only those areas on the periphery of the city i n the urbanrural fringe, but also those areas seemingly remote from urban influences. Associated with this pattern of development are high land values, unequal municipal taxation and the fragmentation and subdivision of farm holdings to create uneconomic units. At the present time farm land i n the Lower Mainland sells at between 750 and 2,000 dollars an acre i f under cultivation (Winter 1968: 108).  In Matsqui Municipality the value of cleared farm land i s approxi-  mately 750 to 1,000  dollars an acre near the Canada-United States Border,  650 dollars on Matsqui Flats, 600 dollars i n the area around Bradner, and approximately IjOO dollars an acre i n the western part of the municipality  ^ Information obtained from personal communication on June 7, 1967 with Mr. V.J. Parker, Executive Director of the Lower Mainland Regiona l Planning Boai-d.  - 38 near Aldergrove.  12  -  Land c l e a r i n g f o r agriculture i s s t i l l an expensive  proposition, and costs vary from between 100 pending on the type of timber c o v e r . ^  and 25(0  d o l l a r s an acre de-  (In comparison, land values with-  i n the Abbotsford-Clearbrook urban area can be over  5,000  d o l l a r s an acre)  Substantial areas of p o t e n t i a l a g r i c u l t u r a l land i n the Lower Mainland have already been l o s t to urban sprawl, and experiences both i n the U.S.A. and B r i t a i n have shown that unless zoning regulations are i n t r o duced and s t r i c t l y adhered to, spreading urbanisation eventually overwhelms almost a l l farm land because the land i s l e s s i n t e n s i v e l y developed than the land of the c i t y .  P r i o r to the complete elimination of a g r i c u l t u r -  a l land, however, there i s a stage when a g r i c u l t u r a l and urban i n t e r e s t s overlap, with the r e s u l t that bona f i d e farmers are not only p r i c e d o f f the land because of high land values, but also because of increased tax- ' a t i o n to meet the cost of s e r v i c i n g the surrounding subdivisions. Mainland Regional Planning studies i n 1954  Lower  showed that at that time farm-  ers r e s i d i n g i n m u n i c i p a l i t i e s which were p a r t l y urban and p a r t l y r u r a l paid more i n t o municipal funds than they received i n services (L.M.R.P.B.  1962:45  and  46).  In addition, the pattern of assessment associated with  t h i s s i t u a t i o n penalised the l a r g e r farm operation and i n so doing encouraged the subdividing of the farm holding ( i b i d . ) .  The present s i t u a t i o n  would appear to be more favourable to the farmer, however, i n that the  Information obtained from personal communication on June 6, with Mr. A. Summerville, Land Assessor f o r Matsqui Municipality. 1 3  1967  Ibid.  ~* Information obtained from personal communication on June 6, 1967 with Mr. M.L. Loeppky, President of Clearbrook Realty and Insurance Agency Ltd., Clearbrook.  I  - 39 assessed value for a farmer i s i n reality about 2$ per cent of the actual value, whereas for a non-farm resident i t i s $0 per cent of the actual n  15  value.  The fragmentation and subdivision of farm land to create small holdings of five acres or less, not only encourages urban sprawl (Foerstel I96J4: IJ46), but also limits the type of enterprise that can be carried on. smaller the unit, the fewer the alternatives open to the farmer.  The  Figures  issued by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, although not being precise limitations, are useful guidelines i n this respect. A farm of J4O acres or more can support any of the common types of agriculture i n the Fraser Valley. A 20 acre farm can support small fruits, but not successful dairying. At 10 acres the limit of successful small f r u i t farming i s reached. On 5 acres only the most intensive kinds of farming can be supported successfully (that i s , as full-time activities) such as poultry, pigs and mink (L.M.R.P.B. 1962:15). Many of the holdings classified as farms by the census i n the Lower Mainland f a l l within the five acre or less category (Table I), and the number of farms i n this group are increasing as subdivision increases. Zoning as a major tool i n conserving farm land i s already i n operation i n parts of the Lower Mainland (Ulmer 196U), and the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board i n i t s O f f i c i a l Regional Plan for the Lower Mainland Planning Area*"^ has suggested the subdivision size limits for rural areas i n -  1$  Information obtained from personal communication on June 8, with Mr. A.H.W. Moxon, Municipal Clerk, Matsqui Municipality.  1967  16 ^ O f f i c i a l Regional Plan for the Lower Mainland P l a n n i n g Area was i n i t i a l l y adopted by the Lower Mainland Planning Board and the Member Municipalities and then enacted as law by the Provincial Order-in-Council on August 29, 1966.  I  - ho the region, which would insure that "the Region's supply of arable land be retained i n large parcel sizes to promote economic farm activity, and that resource-orientated land be retained i n large parcels to facilitate future development" (L.M.R.P.B. 1966:6).  Three types of rural areas have been  identified i n the Regional Plan.  The "Acreage Rural Areas" are areas of  predominantly small holding parcel sizes with some potential for, or l o cation adjacent to future expansion, and have a parcel size l i m i t of not less than five acres (ibid:6).  A parcel size limit of not less than ten  acres has been assigned to the "Upland Rural Areas", and the "Lowland Rural Areas" have a parcel size limit of not less than twenty acres (ibid.). ? 1  The discussion of the physical geography and the historical geography of the development of agriculture i n the Lower Mainland has attempted to give sufficient background material to the small farm situation i n the region i n order that the more discrete data dealt with i n the following chapters be considered i n their correct perspective. Sources of Primary Data Although the Agricultural Census for British Columbia and existing studies such as those of Richter (1961;) and A l l i n (1964) provide valuable elucidation of the agricultural pattern and other salient background detail to the present study, they do not attempt to identify i n detail those charac-  17 Matsqui Municipality, as a Member Municipality of the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board has organised i t s zoning by-laws to largely coincide with the O f f i c i a l Regional Plan. In addition, the municipality has assigned a 1-a acre parcel size limit for small holdings which w i l l act as a buffer zone between the urban and rural areas, (information obtained from personal communication on June 6, 1967 with Mr. A. Summerville, Land Assessor for Matsqui Municipality).  - Ui t e r i s t i c s associated with the small farm s i t u a t i o n .  The present study, i n  contrast, i s an investigation of a p a r t i c u l a r aspect of the a g r i c u l t u r a l pattern, and, t h i s being the case, i t i s necessary to t r e a t the problem a t a d i f f e r e n t scale from that used by Richter and A l l i n .  Instead o f thinking  of B r i t i s h Columbia agriculture as a uniform e n t i t y undergoing recognisable change, i t i s necessary to regard the s i t u a t i o n as one i n which separate farm u n i t s react i n t h e i r own way to changing external s o c i a l and economic circumstances, and each of which has i t s own complicated i n t e r n a l structure to generate i t s own change.  In order to obtain adequate information to i n -  vestigate the small farm problem a t t h i s dimension,  i t was necessary to use  a c o n f i d e n t i a l interview schedule. This study i s l a r g e l y based on a random sample o f farms o f under 21 acres located within Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y i n the Lower Mainland o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  The sampling frame used was the "Real Property Appraisal Cards"  f o r those holdings i d e n t i f i e d as farms by the Assessment Departaent of Mat-  18 squi Municipality.  The universe consisted of 881 farms of under 21 acres  , 19 on the assessment l i s t i n January 1967. l  8  A random sample of 7.9 per cent  —  Holdings within Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y are classed as farms i f they meet the requirements described below. This r u l i n g has been e f f e c t i v e since I960. The holding i s more than f i v e acres and i s used f o r bona f i d e a g r i c u l t u r a l / h o r t i c u l t u r a l production, and includes poultry, bee and f u r farming, or where the holding i s less than f i v e acres but more than two and i f the owner signs a statutory declaration under oath that he makes more than f i f t y per cent of his t o t a l annual income from the a g r i c u l t u r a l production a t t r i b u t e d to the legally described p a r c e l o f land, (information supplied on June 6, 1967 by Mr. A. Summery-ille, Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y Land Assessor). 19 For more information as to the i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the universe see Appendix III,  - U2 was drawn by means o f a table of random numbers.  This sample consisted o f  70 farmers, and of t h i s number 1*0 operators (4.5 per cent o f the universe)  20 completed the interview schedule.  The Interview schedule (Appendix 17)  used was designed l a r g e l y with reference to the Socio-Economic Interview Schedule used by the Socio-Economic Sector of the Canada Land Inventory i n B r i t i s h Columbia, and the questionnaire adopted by the Food and A g r i c u l t u r a l Organisation of the United Nations f o r i t s i n q u i r y into the "Small Farm Problem" as carried out by the European Commission f o r A g r i culture. The f i e l d survey and interviews were conducted by the author from May 8 to May 25,  1967, and of the f o r t y interviews completed, 23 (57.5 per  cent) were with the husband, 13 (32.5 per cent) were conductedT^wAth the wife, and k (10.0 per cent ) were conducted with both the farm operator and h i s wife present.  A f t e r e d i t i n g f o r consistency of response the data were  punched on cope-chat processing cards f o r analysis.  I t was found that by  using the distinguishing c r i t e r i a discussed a t the end of Chapter I, 11 (27.5 per cent) of the respondents were f u l l - t i m e operators, 18 (45.0  per^  cent) were part-time farmers, and 11 (27.5 per cent) were r e s i d e n t i a l farmers.  The data was then sorted and analysed i n terms of these three types  of small farm operators. The interview schedule (Appendix TV) which contained forty-seven questions was designed not only to obtain information on the a g r i c u l t u r a l I t was found from e x i s t i n g information on the t h i r t y operators who refused to grant interviews, that they were not r e s t r i c t e d to any part i c u l a r s i z e of holding within the 21 acre l i m i t , or to any p a r t i c u l a r tax assessment group.  - U3 -  performance of the small farms, but also the relevant data which would help to explain the respondents' motivation for living on farms.  In this respect,  the interview schedule can be envisaged as being composed of two separate but closely interrelated sections.  Firstly, an economic section which was  composed, to enable documentation of the economic capacity of the farm family, and secondly, a series of questions orientated to the demographic and social characteristics of the farm families.  In the following chapters the data  obtained from the interviews are documented and analysed i n an attempt to 1  obtain a better understanding of small farms and their operators.  CHAPTER III ECONOMIC CIRCUMSTANCES OF THE FARM FAMILY The present period i n agriculture's evolution may be identified by the replacement of the concept of agrarian fundamentalism explicit i n "farming as a way of l i f e " , by farming as an agribusiness system which is integrated into a sophisticated and dynamic economy.  Subsequently,  the value of farm holdings i s generally weighed i n terms of their economic productive capacity and the standard of living this affords the operator and his family. Therefore, although the character of small farms develops out of the reaction of interrelated socio-economic forces to both internal and external circumstances, i t i s expedient to investigate i n i t i a l l y the economic situation of small farms because i t i s usually from the f i nancial standpoint that their value i s measured.  Chapter III concentrates  on the economic base of the farm family and, as a result, takes into consideration both agricultural and non-agricultural data.  The f i r s t part of  the chapter examines land tenure, size of holding, type of farm enterprise, land use and capital value i n terms of the three types of small farm operator. Farm Tenure and Distribution Nearly a l l of the respondents owned their property and of the ten per cent that did not, half were managers and the other half were tenant farmers.  Eight full-time operators (72.7 per cent) indicated that they  owned their property whereas two farmers i n this category (18.2 per cent) were managers and one respondent (9.1 per cent) was a tenant.  - hh -  In the case  - \6 of the part-time farmers, a l l eighteen respondents were owner-occupiers.  Of  the eleven residential occupiers, ten (90.9 per cent) were owners and only one (9.1 per cent) reported that he was a tenant farmer. With regard to the distribution of full-time, part-time and r e s i dential farmers i n the study area, the Bureau of Economics and Statistics i n the Regional Index of British Columbia stated that: Large areas of upland soils i n the Municipality of Matsqui have remained uncleared, and many small holdings are to be found between Abbotsford and Aldergrove, where farming i s often carried on as a part-time activity. (Bureau of Economics and Statistics  1966:16U).  In order to obtain an indication of farm distribution i n relation to the major physiographic divisions occurring i n Matsqui Municipality, the forty sample farms were plotted by types of operator on a contour base map (Fig.2). Thfl particular contours shown i n Table VIII were chosen because they indi. TABLE VIII . PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL FARM RESPONDENTS BT PHYSICAL RELIEF IN MATSQUI MUNICIPALITY Elevation in feet  0-50 51 - 250 251 - J4OO O v i o r l.i 00  Total  Full-Time No. % 2  18.2  1; 36.3 3 27,3  2 18.2 11 100.0  Part-Time No. %  1  , Residential a' No.  5.6  12 66.6 h ' 22.2 •  1 5.6 18 100.0  1 8  9.1 72.7  •1 9.1 1 9.1 11 100.0  catod the sigrd.ficent r e l i e f features i n the study area.  A l l Farms No. %  h 2k 8  10,0 60.0 20.0 10.0  h ho 100.0 The f i f t y foot  contour represents the approximate boundary of the Fraser River flood plain end the 250 foot contour and the 1(00 foot contour give some indication of the upland topography, the maximum elevation of which i s just over 1;00 feet. In the northeast corner of the municipality'-;, however., the western flank of Sumas Mountain exceeds the 1,000 foot elevation.  The distribution pattern  - 1 *  1  Figure 2.  Distribution  0  of  Farm  1  Respondents  -  2  3  in  Matsqui  Municipality  by  Type  of  Operator  - 1*7 of the small farms i n relation to these contour levels i s indicated i n Table VIII. As would be expected, the greatest number of farm respondents ( 6 0 . 0 per cent) occurred i n the 51 to 250 foot elevation range and this pattern was similar for the three types of operator categories.  This feature i s  partly a reflection of the fact that farms at this elevation have a safe location above the flood plain and that this area, other than the flood plain i t s e l f , i s the largest expanse of relatively level land for c u l t i vation.  The low percentage of farm respondents on the lowland area, ten  per cent of the total, illustrates two features.  F i r s t l y , the heavy tim-  ber cover of the uplands restricted the size of farm units and consequentl y farm density i n these areas i s greater than on the lowlands (Crerar 1954J2U).  Secondly, and perhaps more important, a large number of the  farms situated on the flood plain are dairying concerns exceeding the 21 acre size limit used for identifying the small farm i n this study. Despite the general tendency for larger farms to be situated on the flood p l a i n , of the twelve sample farms i n the size range of fifteen to twenty 1  acres, only two (16.7 per cent) occurred on the lowlands and only one of these was a dairy unit. Size of Farm Units It i s often assumed that the part-time farmer with less time to. spend on his holding and with less obligation to make a profit w i l l operate a smaller acreage than the full-time operator, and that the residential farmer w i l l occupy only the very small holdings (Gasson 1966 :Ii0).  Table IX  Information obtained from "Real Property Appraisal Cards" for a l l holdings identified as farms by the Assessment Department of Matsqui Munici pality.  - 48 indicates the extent to which these assumptions may be applied to the small farms i n the survey. TABLE IX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL FARM RESPONDENTS BT SIZE OF HOLDINGS  Farm S i z e  0 5 10 15  Pull-Time No. %  a  Part-Time No. %  Residential No. %  A l l Farms No. %  4 9 i4 20  5 5  45.5 45.5  6 3 8  5.6 33.3 16.7 44.4  4 4 3  36.4 36.4 27.2  1 2.5 15 37.5 12 30.0 12 30.0  Total  ll  100.0  18  100.0  11  100.0  40 100.0  -  l  a  9.0  l  Farm size i n acres  In terras of acreage, the average size of holding for the forty farms was 11.,0 acres.  The breakdown by types of operator indicated that  the average size for full-time holdings was 10.0 acres, 11.8 acres for part-time operations and 10.7 acres for residential holdings. Whereas the full-time and residential farms were concentrated i n the 5 to 14 acre size ranges, the part-time farms occurred most frequently i n the 15 to 20 acre range.  Although these findings contrast with the assumptions made by  Gasson (ibid.), they are largely explainable by the fact that, whereas her study in the South East of England included farms of between less than 5.0 and over 00 acres, this study has been restricted to a limited size range 3  of farm units. A more meaningful relationship between farm types and the size of holding may be obtained when farm acreages are adjusted to take into con-  - 49 sideration the soil's productive capacity for growing the common f i e l d crops. Noble in a study An Economic Classification of Farms i n Eastern Ontario  (1965) used a system whereby the various s o i l capability classes for agriculture as identified by the Canada Land Inventory (Appendix II) could be used to calculate the adjusted acreage of holdings i n terms of their s o i l capability. 1 1 1 1 1 1  acre acre acre acre acre acre  The adjustments used by Noble (ibid:9) were as follows: of of of of of of  soil soil soil soil soil soil  class class class class class class  No. No. No. No. No. No.  1 2 3 4 5 6  = = = = = =  1.00 O.87 0.75 0.33 0.25 0.20  adjusted adjusted adjusted adjusted adjusted adjusted  acre acre acre acre acre acre  Class 7 soils were not given an adjusted rating since these soils have no capability for arable agriculture or permanent pasture.  Although i t may be  questionable whether the adjustment values used by Noble would be appropriate for a l l farming areas, the fact that he suggested that the economic classification of farms using this criterion "may form the basis of a 'rough benchmark' for land use in dairy general farm units" (farm units which are essentially dairy operations) (ibid:3) would seem to indicate that i t i s an acceptable one to use for the Lower Mainland. With reference to the forty sample farms, the acreages of the various s o i l capability classes for each holding were obtained from the relevant Real Property Appraisal Cards and the adjusted acreages for the forty holdings were then calculated (Table X) using the adjustment values identified by Noble (ibid:9). In order to identify the effect of using an adjusted acreage factor, the relative importance of each farm type to the combined total acreage of the forty sample farms was calculated for both the normal and adjusted acreage values.  Although the total full-time farm area was only 25.0  per cent  - 50 of the combined total area of the forty farms using the normal acreage values, i t had increased by 6.2 per cent to register 31.2 total adjusted acreage of the sample farms.  per cent of the  The importance of the part-  time farm acreage decreased by 0.6 per cent to 47.7 per cent of the combined total adjusted acreage and the residential farm area decreased by 5.6 per cent to be only 21.1  per cent of the adjusted total area. TABLE X  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL FARM RESPONDENTS B T ADJUSTED SIZE OF HOLDINGS.  Adjusted Farm S i z e  0 - I 5 - 9 10-14 15-20 Total  a  Full-Time No. %  k 6  36.3 54.6  l  9.1  11  100.0  Part-Time No. %  7 8 3  18  38.9 44.4 16.7  Residential No. %  ."  100.0  6 5  11  A l l Farms No. %  54.5 45.5  17 19 3 1  42.5 47.5 7.5 2.5  100.0  40  100.0  a Adjusted farm size expressed i n acres. The above figures indicate that the smaller full-time farm units were in some ways compensated by the fact their soils were of superior capability for agriculture.  It i s d i f f i c u l t to ascertain the exact reason  why the full-time farms were generally located on the better soils, but perhaps the i n i t i a l full-time operators consciously settled i n these areas. Another factor i s the agricultural settlement history of the Lower Mainland. Most of the early market centres i n the Lower Mainland were located on good lowland soils (L.M.R.P.B. 1962:8).  Abbotsford, although not being situated  on Matsqui Prairie i t s e l f , was established on the edge of the Fraser River  - $1 flood plain and was therefore within a short distance of the lowland areas which were i n i t i a l l y developed for agriculture because of the lack of a heavy timber cover (ibidtlh).  As a result, holdings established at a later  date i n the v i c i n i t y of Abbotsford were restricted to the poorer upland s o i l areas and were frequently of a limited size.  Although these smaller holdings  were large enough to support a family at a subsistence farming level i n the latter part of the nineteenth and early part of the twentieth century, they have subsequently become part-time or residential farms i n a large number of cases.  In addition, the farms located on the lower quality soils would  be the f i r s t ones to be phased out of full-time farming. An important aspect when dealing with the size of agricultural holdings i s whether their acreage has increased or decreased over a certain time period or whether existing land has been cleared and brought into cultivation.  Part-time farming i s often regarded as a step on the ladder to-  ward full-size commercial farming, and the change toward this goal i s frequently attained by enlarging the size of holding i n addition to intensifying the level of operation. With regard to increasing the size of holdings by means other than by renting or buying existing farm land, the small farmer in the upland areas i n particular encounters the serious obstacles of proximity of other holdings and the high cost of clearing new land.  This being  the case, the newly cleared areas are usually put into intensive use. . Clearing and improvement of land already held was far more common than expanding the acreage of the holding. Eight (72.7 per cent) of the full-time operators had cleared and improved land, and the numbers reported for the part-time and residential farmers were six (33.3 per cent) and seven (63.6 per cent) respectively.  The high percentage of residential respondents  clearing land can be explained by the fact that most of this clearing or im-  - 52 provement was done when the present farmer was operating on a full-time or part-time basis.  Although some of the clearing on part-time holdings had  been done i n anticipation of the operator becoming a full-time operator, for the most part i t was to increase output but with the farmer remaining in his present type of operator category.  These findings therefore tend to  suggest that the part-time farmers may i n fact be a restraining influence on the farm size structure i n that once established, the operators have l i t t l e incentive to increase their size of unit but prefer to intensify their operation on their existing acreage. Choice of Faiw Enterprise Although the area of Matsqui Municipality i s only  5U,l65 acres  (approximately 100 square miles), a sufficiently clear land use pattern does occur within the area to permit some identification of regional specialisation.  Gasson's suggestion that farmers are l i k e l y to choose the  type of farming enterprise suited to their locality (Gasson 1966:34) was therefore investigated by over-laying the sample farms identified by their 2 type of enterprise on the present land use map  of Matsqui Municipality.  It was assumed for the purpose of this exercise that regional specialization identifiable from the land use pattern indicated the best type of farming suited to the area involved.  The various farm enterprises identified on  the forty small farms were, "dairying", "livestock", "poultry", "fruit and vegetables", "speciality crops", and "mixed fanning".  A holding was iden-  The present land use maps used were those covering Matsqui Municipality at the scale of 1:50,000 (Sumas Map Sheets 92G/1 East and West). The unpublished maps were compiled by the Present Land Use Sector of the Canada Land Inventory i n British Columbia from f i e l d checking i n 1967 and by the use of forty chain a i r photographs, taken i n June 1967.  - 53 t i f i e d by one of the above categories when at least half of the farm's i n come came from that type of enterprise.  For example, most of the farmers  reporting "fruit and vegetables" also kept one or two head of beef and also some poultry largely for home consumption. The overlay exercise indicated that i n the majority of cases, the farmers, irrespective of whether they were full-time, part-time or r e s i dential operators, had selected the types of enterprise which were common to their local area.  Dairy farms occurred i n the dairying area of Matsqui  Prairie and the small f r u i t and vegetable producers were, for the most part, located i n the horticultural area south of Clearbrook and Abbotsford near the Canada-United States Border.  The egg producers were situated close to  the Clearbrook-Abbotsford urban area, whereas the broiler production units were more widely distributed i n the upland areas.  The three specialised  producers, a l l of which were bulb or nursery operations, were located i n or near the Bradner d i s t r i c t which has become important for bulbs and cut flowers.  As would be expected, the types of enterprises with the most ran-  dom distribution were mixed farming and livestock operations. With regard to the influence of farm size and ethnic background of the operator affecting the choice of farm enterprise, a study by Gibson comparing the farming practices of Anglo-Saxon, Mennonite and Dutch farmers i n the Chilliwack, Sumas and South Poplar areas of the Lower Mainland, indicated that farm size was the paramount factor i n the differentiation of the rural landscape (Gibson 1959:183).  MacGregor i n a later study correctly  suggested that Gibson should have gone further i n his analysis and investigated the possibility that, although the choice of farm size i s often contingent on the available assets of the farmer, a more important factor i s the type of farm enterprise (MacGregor 1 9 6 l : 8 l ) .  In this respect, MacGregor  - 54 contrasted the small f r u i t enterprises of the Mennonites with the larger dairying concerns of the Dutch (ibid.).  MacGregor i s therefore suggesting  that although i t would appear that the type of farm enterprise and associated practices are explainable i n terms of farm size, this factor i s i t s e l f dependent upon the decision made by the operator as to the type of farming he wishes to pursue.  In addition, the decision-making process involved i n  choosing the type of farm enterprise i s frequently conditioned by the operator's ethno-religious background. With reference to the present study, i t would therefore seem feasible to suggest that, although the limited acreage of small farms does imply certain restrictions as to the types of farm enterprise that can be successfully maintained, this factor was taken into consideration by the majority of potential operators before they acquired a holding.  In other  words, the potential operator decides the specific function or functions the farm unit i s to serve for himself and his family and then attempts to obtain a holding which w i l l meet these requirements.  As a result, the  function the farm serves i s reflected i n the choice of farm enterprise and the size of the holding. In order to investigate the validity of this assumption, a series of tables was calculated to indicate the relationships between type of operator, type of enterprise, size of holding, and intensity of land use.  Although Table IX indicated the percentage distribution of  farm size by the three types of operators, a considerable variation as to the choice of enterprise was found to occur within these size categories (Table XI).  -  5 5  -  TABLE XI PERCENTAGE CORRELATION BETWEEN SIZE OF FARM HOLDINGS AND TYPES OF FARM ENTERPRISE FOR THE SURVEY FARMS  Farm Enterprise DairyLivestock PoultryFruit and Vegetables Speciality Crops Mixed No farm enterprise Total  0  5  -  1  1  -  No.  No.  1 6 . 7  2 . 5 °  1 0  9  % .  1)4 %  -  No.  1 5  No.  -  2 0  %  1  5o.o  1  5o.o  7  5 3 . 8  1  7 . 7  5  3 8 . 5  1  1 6 . 7  h  6 6 . 6  5  6 2 . 5  1  1 2 . 5  2  2 5 . 0  2  6 6 . 7  1  3 3 . 3  1  3 3 . 3  2  6 6 . 7  3  6 0 . 0  2  UO.O  1 5  3 7 . 5  1 2  3 0 . 0  1 2  3 0 . 0  Farm size categories i n acres. Number of farms i n each size category expressed as a percentage of the total number of operations reporting that type of enterprise. b  c Number of farms i n each size category expressed as a percentage of the total number of farms i n the sample. Size Factor. Dexter and Barber  (1961:2)42)  have indicated that a l -  though small farmers are almost as efficient as large-scale producers i n their use of resources, the small' farmer frequently does not produce enough to earn a satisfactory income because of the limitations imposed by the physical size of the holding. With regard to the Lower Mainland, reference has already been made to the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board's guidelines as to the size of holding necessary to maintain the types of farming enterprise found within the area (L.M.R.P.B.  1 9 6 2 : 1 5 ) .  By studying Table  H with reference to the size and type of enterprise guidelines, i t i s possible not only to see the relationship between farm size and type of  - 56 enterprise for the forty sample farms, but also which of these operations were l i k e l y to be successful as far as the acreage of the holding was concerned. Although both dairy units occurred within the two bigger acreage categories, neither of them ranked within the successful dairy farm size of over twenty acres suggested by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board (ibid.).  The livestock enterprise covered a wide range of holding sizes,  but just over half of them (53.8 per cent) occurred within the 5 - 9 acre category and the remainder (1*6.2 per cent) were larger than ten acres. Since most of the livestock enterprises concentrated on calf rearing and some hog production, a ten acre holding and over could possibly support a full-time operation. Only one poultry unit (16.7 per cent) was under the suggested five acre limit, whereas most of the operations (66.6 per cent) occurred on holdings of 10 to lh acres. The f r u i t and vegetable farms, however, did not compare so favourably with the minimum suggested size limit of ten acres. Five (62.5 per cent) of the holdings were under this l i m i t . The three nursery and bulb operations were a l l under intensive operation, a l though two of them were smaller than ten acres. The three mixed farming operations were a l l over the ten acre limit.  The fact that a l l of the opera-  tors reporting no type of farm enterprise had holdings of over ten acres implies that the size of unit was not a factor i n their decision not to farm.  It may therefore he suggested that the size of holding i s a signi-  ficant factor i n explaining the types of farm enterprise which have a relatively low intensity of land use, but that this importance diminishes as the intensity of land use' increases. Before discussing the correlation found between the types of farm operator and their choice of enterprise of the forty respondents, i t i s  - 57 worth while talcing into consideration some of the findings of other studies. A four county study i n Ohio by Moore and ¥ayt (1957:4) indicated that a l though part-time farmers tended to conform to the dominant type of farming around them and follow about the same combination of enterprises as f u l l time farmers, they did so with slightly less intensity, particularly i n the development of livestock enterprises.  Ashton and Cracknell (1961:492)  showed i n their study of agricultural holdings i n England and Wales that for part-time holdings the largest number of "one enterprise types" of operation were poultry, horticulture and cattle.  In the case of "combina-  tion enterprises", the type most frequently reported was poultry and cattle (ibid.).  The study also indicated that part-time operations with only one  or two enterprises were less common than might have been supposed (ibidt  480).  Gasson (1966:34) i n her study found that part-time farmers as a  whole derived more of their output from crops than from livestock, but that part-time farmers faced with the same alternatives tended to select the simpler enterprises which required less attention (ibid:35). Type of Operator.  Although full-time operators had chosen a wide  variety of farm enterprises (Table XII) none of them had gone into dairying and mixed farming because, particularly i n the case of dairying, a large acreage i s required to maintain a successful operation on a full-time 3 basis.  For the three full-time livestock operators their type of enterprise  was only a temporary status since they were reorganising their farm holdings. Both full-time poultry operations concentrated on broiler production. Although dry l o t dairying operations can maintain an animal density of more than sixty cows per acre (Gregor 1963:298), this form of o^irying i s as yet not.a feature of the Vancouver milkshed as i t i s i n many parts of the United States. Crossfield and Woodward (1961:24) i n their survey of dairying i n the Fraser Valley indicated that for commercial dairy farms the average animal density was two animal units per acre of pasture.  Those operators who had developed f r u i t and vegetable or speciality crop enterprises were putting high inputs of capital, labour and management into their holdings but were also obtaining relatively high returns. TABLE XII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL FARM RESPONDENTS BT TYPES OF FARM ENTERPRISE  Farm Enterprise Dairy Livestock Poultry Fruit and Vegetables Speciality Crops Mixed No farm enterprise Total  Full-Time No. %  3 2 3 3  Part-Time No. %  27.3 18.1 27.3 27.3  11 100.0  5.6 27.8 k 22.2 5 27.8  Residential No. %  1  1  9.0  5  5  145.5  5  Ii5.5  3 16.6 18 100.0  li  100.0  A l l Farms No. %  2 5.0 13 32.5 6 15.0 8 20.0 3 7.5 3 7.5 5 12.5 Uo 100.0  An equal number of part-time operators were classed i n the livestock category (27.8 per cent) and the f r u i t and vegetable category, but i n most cases, particularly i n the livestock enterprises, the units were less i n tensively operated than similar types of enterprise worked on a full-time basis.  Three quarters of the part-time poultry operators specialised i n  egg production, whereas only one (25.0 per cent) produced broilers.  Two  of the mixed farm occupiers reported that livestock was possibly the most important single aspect of their operation, but that small f r u i t and poultry formed an invaluable supplementary income.  The third operator i n the mixed  farming class concentrated on small f r u i t .  Of the eleven residential far-  mers, five ("45.5 per cent) were operators of livestock enterprises, rearing animals mainly for home consumption.  Only one of the five residential  - 59 farmers reporting no farm enterprise was retired; the others were simply using their holdings as residences. Although a farmer may report that his holding i s a small f r u i t and vegetable operation or other type of enterprise, i t i s unlikely that the total farm area w i l l be under this crop.  In order to investigate this s i t -  uation, the land use types as identified on the "Real Property Appraisal C a r d s f o r the forty sample farms were plotted for the three types of small farm operator (Table XIII). Intensity of Farming Operations.  Table XIII clearly indicates that  there i s considerable difference i n the way the three types of farm operators u t i l i s e their land resource.  If land use type 3, "specialised crops,"  is taken as an indicator of intensive land use, the higher intensity of land cultivation by the full-time operators as compared with the part-time and residential farmers i s clearly illustrated.  Not only did more f u l l -  time operators report having land under specialised crops (54.5 than either the part-time (l5.0  per cent)  per cent) or the residential farmers  (9.1  per cent), but this type of land use covered a larger percentage of the tot a l area of the eleven full-time farmers' holdings than was the case for the two other operator classes.  In the case of the full-time farmers, specialised  crops accounted for 28.7 per cent of the total combined acreage, whereas this figure was only 8.1 per cent for the part-time and 5.2 per cent for the residential farmers.  For unimproved land, indicated as land use type 5 i n  Table XIII, the trend i s exactly the opposite. Unimproved land accounted for only 8.6 per cent of the combined total acreage of the full-time farms,  ^ The land use data on the Real Property Appraisal Cards referred to the situation i n 1965. Any significant changes which had occurred since that time were taken into consideration i n compiling Table XIII.  1  TABLE XIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF LAND USE TYPES BY SMALL FARM RESPONDENTS  3-  Land Use  Area  Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type U Type 5  14.92  0  Full-Time . No. Av. c  81.8 1.7 37.35 45.6 3.4 31.57 54.5 5.3 16.79 2.7 5.6 9.44 45.5 1.9  &  13.5 33.9 28.7 15.3 8.6  110.07 100.0 6.4 100.0  Total  Area  Part-Time No. Av.  40.0 37.5 15.0 22.5 32.5  %  Area  Residential No. Av.  %  1.4 10.8 6.6 46.6 2.9 8.1 2.8 12.0 3.7 22.5  14.77 100.0 1.3 12.5 42.27 90.9 4.2 35.9 6.10 9.1 6.1 5.2 10.89 27.3 3.6 9.2 43.89 7.3 5.5 37.2  213.20 100.0 11.8 100.0  117.92 100.0 10.7 100.0  23.05 99.32 17.26 25.52 48.05  Area  52.74 178.94 54.93 53.20 101.38  A l l Farms No. Av. %  90.0 80.0 32.5 37.5 65.0  1.5 5.6 4.2 3.6 3.9  11.9  40.6 12.5 12.1 22.9  441.19 100.0 11.0 100.6  9. Land Use data obtained from Real Property Appraisal Cards of the forty sample farms. Area expressed i n acres of total combined area under that land use i n that farm type. c Number of farms reporting expressed as a percentage of the total number farms i n that operator class. d Average acreage of each land use on holdings reporting that type of use. e  Acreage of each land use type expressed as a percentage of the total combined area of that farm type.  Land Use Types: Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 -  Farm Buildings and associated uses Cultivated land and/or cuitivatable pasture Specialised crops, for example small fruits Permanent pasture with limitations for other use because of topography Unimproved land  - 61 -  but this amount had increased to 22.5 t a l acreage and 37.2  per cent of the part-time farms to-  per cent of the area under residential operation.  In addition to the land use pattern, the number of animal units per holding also indicated that full-time operators farmed more intensively than either the part-time or residential operators i n order to attain the economies of scale to maintain a viable farm unit.  Although both full-time poultry  operators handled four batches each of over 20,000 birds per year, the parttime operator dealt with only four batches of 4,000 broiler birds.  It was  d i f f i c u l t to make a comparison of the livestock enterprises because the three full-time operators i n this type of enterprise were i n a change over period when interviewed. However, information gained during the interviews indicated that when back i n normal operation they would have more animal units than their part-time counterparts. It i s now possible with reference to Table XIV to summarise and explain some of the more important relationships found occurring between the types of small farm operator, the choice of farm enterprise and the size of holdings. Interrelationship of Factors. The evidence has shown that the f u l l time farmers i n the small farm survey differed significantly from the parttime and residential operators with respect both to their choice of enterprises and the complexity and intensity of their farming operations. As . would be expected, the type of enterprise chosen by the operator was reflected i n the size of the holding. Where this was not so obvious, the relative amounts of cultivated and non-cultivated land on the holding indicated that the farmer had adjusted the cultivatable acreage of the holding to meet the requirements implied by the function of the farm unit.  Whereas the farming  enterprises chosen by the full-time operators needed constant labour input  - 62 and managerial attention, the part-time and residential farmers had tended to select those farming enterprises which were less time consuming.  In this res-  pect, the full-time operators ensured that they were gainfully employed throughout the year and consequently many of them carried other farming enterprises i n addition to the major one by which they were identified i n the tables.  The part-time operators had selected the more seasonal types of enter-  prise and quite often took their annual holidays from their non-farm job at the peak labour period on their farm while relying on family labour for the greater part of the time.  It was evident from the replies obtained from residential  farmers that any type of farm enterprise was orientated to subsidising the household food supply. One important feature that i s l i k e l y to increase i n the future i s that many of the types of farm enterprises, traditionally restricted to the full-time operator because of the large labour input, w i l l be operated by part-time farmers because of the substitution of labour by capit a l inputs i n the form of automated animal husbandry. TABLE XIV PERCENTAGE CORRELATION BETWEEN TYPES OF FARM OPERATOR AND TYPES OF FARM ENTERPRISE Farm Enterprise Dairy Livestock Poultry Fruit and Vegetable Speciality Crops Mixed No Farm Enterprise Total  Full-Time No. % a  3 23.0 2 33.3 3 37.5 3 100.0 11 100.0  Part-Time No. %  1 5 h  5  50.0 38.5 66.7 62.5  3 100.0 18 loo. b  Residential No. %  1 . 5  50.0 38.5 .  5 100.0 i i 100.0  A l l Farms No. %  2 13 6 8 3 3 5  5.0 32.5 15.0 20.0 7.5 7.5 12.5  ho IOO.O  Number of farms in each farm type expressed as a percentage of the total number of farms reporting that type of farm enterprise.  Capital Value of Small Farms The previous sections have used the physical size of the farm unit to measure the size of operation of small farms, without specific economic values being attached to the features identified.  Before discussing the small farms  in economic terms and attaching capital values to them, i t would be expedient to bear i n mind the ARDA definition of low income farms, since farms of a limited size are frequently regarded as uneconomic units (Chapter 1).  ARM  defined full-time lo\j income farms as farms with a total capital value of less than $25,000, gross sales of agricultural products of less than $2,500, and off-farm work by the operator of less than one month during the census year (Canada Department of Forestry 1964).  This original definition was regarded  by many as too restrictive, since i t identified only the hard core of farm poverty among full-time farmers (Buckley and Tihanyi 1967:33).  Adjustments  have subsequently been made by ARDA so that a low income farm i n the formula for allocating federal funds i s now one having a capital value of less than  $2^,000, but with gross sales of up to $3,750 (qbid.). In addition, families TABLE XV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT ESTIMATED TOTAL CAPITAL VALUE OF FARMS  Value  Less than $9,950  9,950- 14,949 14,950- 24,949 24,950- 49,949  49,950 and over Total  Full-time No. %  2 18.2  Part-time No. % l  5.6  5 45.4 2 18.2 2 18.2  10 55.5 6 33.3 1 5.6  11 100.0  18 100.0  Residential No. % 2  18.2 27.3  A l l Farms No. %  18.2  5 3 17 12 3  12.5 7.5 42.5 30.0 7.5  100.0  40  100.0  3 2 4  36.3  11  •  - 64 -  having less than $3,000 i n total income per year are identified by ARDA as sub-marginal or low income households (ibid.). For the purpose of expressing the size of the forty sample farms i n economic terms, the total capital value of the holding was used (Table XV). This figure took into consideration not only the land and buildings, but a l so the machinery, equipment and livestock.  The value reported was an estimate  of the market value, and not the original, replacement or assessed value. A l l of the respondents had a holding total capital value of over $7,45>0, and the highest reported value was $76,000.  Land and buildings accounted for the  major part of the total value i n a l l cases, and many of the full-time and part-time operators xrere i n the process of increasing this value by new building construction or improvements.  The three operations i n the $49,950  and over category (Table XV") were a l l poultry farmers with a high level of investment i n the large batches of broiler birds and the buildings and equipment needed for dealing with intensive production on a large scale.  Although  no significant pattern could be determined between the capital value of the holding and the type of farm operator, the evidence suggested that the major factor i n explaining the variation i n the value of the holdings was -the number of animal units involved and the investment i n equipment and buildings for dealing with them.  This factor is further illustrated by Table XVI, which  indicates a wide range of values for the real property taxes, both within the operator classes and between the three types identified.  Table XVI indi-  cates the value of the real property taxes levied on the respective holdings prior to the application of the occupiers for the Provincial-Home Owners Grant. Since the home owners grant must be applied to the value of the taxes levied against the l o t on which the house i s situated and not necessarily to the tot a l property, some of the small farm respondents suffered i n that their property consisted of more than one l o t .  - 65 TABLE XVI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT REAL PROPERTY TAXES LEVIED ON THE FARM UNIT  3,  Amount Less than $99  100 - 199 200 - 299 300 - 399  1*00 and over Total  F u l l -Time cf No. p  Part -Time cf No. p  3 3 2 2 1  27.3 27.3 18.2 18.2 9.0  1 10 6  5.6 55.5 33.3  1  5.6  11  100.0  18  100.0  Residential No. % k  5 1 1 11  36.4 145.J4 9.1 9.1 100.0  A l l Farms No. %  8 18 9 3 2  20.0 1)5.0 22.5 7.5 5.0  40  100.0  Data obtained from Tax Records pertaining to the Corporation of the District of Matsqui. The values indicated refer to the "current-year taxes" for 1967. Factors Affecting Farm Performance Farm income i s not only dependent on the physical capacity of the farm, but also on how efficiently these resources are used.  Three aspects of the  farms' organisation which were l i k e l y to affect eventual income were selected and investigated with reference to the three types of farm operator.  The  three features studied were farm labour, contact with the District Agricul* turist and the method of marketing the agricultural product. Farm Labour.  The labour force employed on a farm holding has frequent-  l y been used as an indicator of the size of farm business (Chapter l ) .  Gasson  (1966:43) has pointed out that although labour i s often regarded as a more accurate measure of the size of farm business than the area of land farmed, i t too has i t s limitations because i t s effectiveness i s partly dependent upon the proportion of capital, land and management available.  No attempt has been made  in this study to u t i l i s e the labour input as an indicator of farm efficiency or size.  Instead, the labour input has been studied i n terms of the relative im-  - 66 -  portance of hired labour and unpaid family labour, and which of the types of farm enterprise required a greater labour input than the farm family could supply.  Palmer (1953 s i l l ) suggested that the number of small holdings i n  the Lower Mainland was partly the result of farmers limiting their size of operation to that which would require no outside labour.  This being the  case, and the fact that labour costs have increased substantially since 1 9 5 3 , i t would be expected that hired labour on the small farm is restricted to a minimum because farmers are unable to obtain a labour supply which has already been absorbed by other sectors of the economy paying higher wages. The survey indicated that none of the forty farms employed outside labour on a full-time basis, and twenty-five ( 6 2 . 5 per cent) of the farm respondents used no hired labour at a l l .  Forty-four per cent of those re-  porting no hired help on the farm were the eleven residential farmers.  Six  ( 5 4 . 5 per cent) of full-time respondents used no hired labour, while five ( 4 5 . 5 per cent) used part-time labour only.  It was found that a l l the wives  of full-time operators (eight, 72.7 per cent were married) helped substantially on the farm (Table XXI).  In the full-time operator category, both poultry  operators hired part-time labour, two of the three f r u i t growers used hired labour, as did the two bulb operations. Nine ( 5 0 . 0 per cent) of the part-time operators reported that they used hired labour on a part-time basis.  In contrast to the full-time operator's  wives, only seven (58.3 per cent) of the wives of the part-time operators had no outside occupation and helped substantially on the farm (Table XXI).  The  following part-time respondents indicated that they used outside labours the one dairy operation, 2 0 . 0 per cent of the livestock operations, 2 5 . 0 per cent of the poultry operations, 66.7 per cent of the mixed farming enterprises, and 8 0 . 0 per cent of the small fruit operations. The type of farming enterprise was the most significant factor in ex-  - 67 -  plaining the use of hired labour, but the type of operator was more important i n explaining the number of persons hired.  A l l of the broiler producers took  on outside labour four times a year when the batches of birds were being shipped.  The dairy and livestock respondents indicated that hired labour  was only used during the haying season.  Hired help on the bulb and small  f r u i t and vegetable operations was used almost exclusively for picking. The length of time and the size of the temporary labour force involved on the different holdings varied considerably, but the average figure was ten persons for approximately three weeks. Many of the respondents employed persons of under eighteen years of age because they could be paid at a lower wage scale.  Despite the short period of time when outside help was used,  the cost of labour was one of the major expenses i n the farm's operation. It was also generally agreed that the small operator had considerable d i f f i culty in hiring labour because he could not compete with the wage scale offered by the larger operators and s t i l l make a profit. The amount of unpaid family labour was dependent not only on the type of occupier and the size of holding, but also upon whether the wife had an off-farm occupation.  In general, however, wives tended to contribute more  to the labour force on non-livestock enterprises than on holdings where animal husbandry was a major concern.  The amount of farm labour supplied by  the children of operators depended more on age than upon the sex of the i n dividuals concerned. Contact with District Agriculturist.  One of the main sources of i n -  formation and advice for farm operators i s the District Agriculturists, and i t has been shown that farmers who have more contact with him show a higher rate of adoption of new farm practices (Rogers and Capener I960).  Of the  four District Agriculturists stationed i n the Lower Mainland, one i s located at Abbotsford.  Two levels of contact with the District Agriculturists were  - 68 studied, one at the personal level and the other at the group level. TABLE XVII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BY RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF PERSONAL CONTACTS WITH THE DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST  Frequency Never Rarely Sometimes Often Total  Full -Time a No.  3 6 2  27.3 5U.5 18.2  11 100.0  Part-Time No. %  Residential No. %  A l l Farms No. %  5o.o 33.3 11.1 5.6  10 1  90.9  9.1  22 13 U 1  55.0 32.5 10.0 2.5  18 100.0  11  100.0  ho  100.0  9 6 2 1  The part-time farmers rated higher than the full-time farmers for both levels of contact, and particularly at the group level of contact.  This  was measured by the frequency of attendance at meetings or f i e l d days (Table XVTII).  The evidence obtained from the interviews indicated that attendance  was usually confined to those meetings dealing with the specific type of enterprise the operator was already involved i n . The survey also showed that personal contact with the District Agriculturist was usually on the basis of the respondent visiting the District Agriculturist's office rather than the other way round.  Irrespective of whether the farm operators were full-time  or part-time, the farmers who used the personal level of contact with the Dist r i c t Agriculturist were also more l i k e l y to attend the meetings than those who reported no contact on an individual basis. The fact that many of the farm operators had originated from outside the province of British Columbia (35.0  per cent) and would therefore have been  unaware of local conditions for agriculture in Matsqui Municipality, was not a significant factor in accounting for the amount of contact by respondents,; with  - 69 TABLE XVIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BT RELATIVE FREQUENCY OF ATTENDANCE AT MEETINGS OR FIELD DAYS SPONSORED BY THE DISTRICT AGRICULTURIST  Frequency Never Rarely Sometimes Often Total  Full-Time No. %  Part-Time No. %  Residential No. %  A l l Farms No. %  11  100.0  30  75.0  100.0  7 3 1+0  17.5 7.5 100.0  9  81.8  10  55.5  2  18.2  11  100.0  5 3 18  27.8 16.7 100.0  the District Agriculturist.  11  Some of the operators, both full-time and part-  time, had made an i n i t i a l contact with the District Agriculturist when they had f i r s t moved into the area, but v i s i t s after that were generally restricted to advice when specific problems occurred i n the farm's operation.  There was  also no significant correlation between the types of farm enterprise and the frequency of visits to the District Agriculturist by the operator.  However,  the livestock operators registered a lower percentage of v i s i t s to the Dist r i c t Agriculturist than farmers i n any of the other types of enterprise categories.  The two factors which were significant, and which were frequently i n -  ter correlated, i n accounting for the frequency of contact with the District Agriculturist were education (particularly adult education) and future plans of the farm operator.  Three (60.0 per cent) of the five part-time farmers i n -  tending to become full-time operators not only regularly attended the meetings and recorded the highest number of personal v i s i t s to the District Agriculturi s t , but had also completed adult education courses by either or attendance.  correspondence  The education level of the operator and, or his wife was also  - 70 the most significant factor i n explaining the frequency of contacts with the District Agriculturists for those remaining part-time operators, or those a l ready farming full-time.  It appeared that there was a positive relationship  between a higher level of education and the frequency of v i s i t s .  In the  greater number of cases, the District Agriculturist was contacted by the respondents i n a remedial capacity rather than a source of information with respect to innovations i n agriculture. Marketing Procedure.  Reference was made i n Chapter II to the develop-  ment of contract farming and to some of the prerequisites imposed by the contractor which discouraged the continuation of production by the small producer. With this i n mind, the small farm respondents were asked i f they marketed their product through any organisation.  Seventeen (42.5  per cent) of the  forty farmers marketed their agricultural produce under contract to the appropriate processing agency. As would be expected, none of the residential farmers marketed their produce under contract. These eleven operators accounted for 47.8 per cent of the 23 operators who did not have an agreement with a processing or marketing agency.  Six (54.5  per cent) of the full-time opera-  tors had contracts with other than co-operative organisations.  The figure for  the part-time operators was eleven (6l.l per cent). It would appear that the type of farm enterprise i s a more significant factor i n explaining the marketing procedure adopted by the farmer than either the size of operation or the type of operator.  Produce such as small f r u i t ,  broilers or eggs needs fast and effective handling when ready to be processed, and, particularly when large quantities of these products are involved, contract farming i s the most efficient means of dealing with them. With general livestock operations, however, this level of marketing efficiency i s not as acute.  - 71 Farm Family Income Although the chapter has so far concentrated on discussing the farm unit i n terms of i t s agricultural characteristics, economic values not directl y dependent upon these characteristics must be taken into consideration when evaluating the farm family income.  Sufficient data was not available to con-  struct operating statements for the forty sample farms and as a result, the gross value of income from the sale of agricultural products was compared with the financial returns from off-farm occupations i n order to identify some of the major economic features of small farms. Income from Agriculture.  The farm Income, which for the purpose of  this study was identified by the gross annual income from the soils, i s the normal dollar income from the sale of a l l products of the farm, but not i n cluding income from the rental of the farm or i t s buildings, or earnings or income of the operator from sources other than the farm (Ontario Economic Council 1966:2).  Even though the definition used i n this study for a r e s i -  dential farmer allowed gross farm sales to the value of $2]?0, a l l eleven respondents reported farm sales of less than $100, and five (U5.5 per cent) made no farm sales.  Where any sales were made by the residential farmer they were  usually restricted to a calf or beef animal.  Whereas ten (90.9 per cent) of  the full-time operators recorded agricultural sales of over $1,200, only twelve (66.7 per cent) of the part-time operators had agricultural sales over this value. Within the full-time farmer category, the gross annual incomes from the s o i l varied from $76,000 to a minimum of $2,000 except for the one operator who was essentially living off interest and rent. corded the biggest turnover of capital.  Poultry operations re-  One reported a gross value of farm  sales of $76,000 and the other operator had gross sales of $75,000.  The bulb  - 72 operations had gross farm sales of $9,000 and $7,000 respectively, and the livestock and f r u i t and vegetable operations recorded sales of between $2,000 and $4,000.  By subtracting farm expenses from the gross annual income from  the s o i l for each holding a very simplified profit margin was obtained. Except for the two poultry operations which had profit margins of $11,000 and  $8,000 and one of the bulb operations with a profit margin of $4,500, the other eight operations (72.7 per cent) had profit margins of less than $2,000. TABLE XIX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT GROSS VALUE OF FARM PRODUCTS SOLD  Full-Time No. %  Value  Less than $100  100 - 599 600 - 1,199 1,200 - 2,399  2,400 and over  1  3 7  9.1  27.3  63.6  11 100.0  Total  Part-Time No. %  5 1 1  11  27.7 5.6 5.6  Residential No. %  A l l Farms No. %  11  12  100.0  61.1  18 100.0  a  15.0  5 12.5 1 2.5 4 10.0  18 45.0 11  100.0  40 100.0  a Of the eleven residential operators, five of the respondents sold no agricultural produce. . Within the part-time farmer category, poultry operations also recorded the highest gross incomes from the s o i l and subsequent profit margins.  One of  the operations recorded a gross figure of $46,000 with a profit margin of  $8,000, but the average gross farm sales for the other poultry operations were $5,000.  Of the six (33.3 per cent) part-time farmers reporting gross  farm sales of less than $1,000, the majority were livestock operations. The calculation of the margin of profit for the eighteen part-time operations  I - 73 showed that five (27.8 per cent) had farm expenses i n excess of farm receipts from farm sales. The enterprises this applied to were the dairy operation, one of the small f r u i t operations, two of the livestock farms and one of the mixed farming operations.  In a l l five cases this deficit was covered by the  off-farm income. Income from Off-Farm Employment.  The preceding section clearly i l -  ustrated that for many of the respondents the farm income based on agricultural sales was insufficient to support a family at even a subsistence level in the second half of the twentieth century.  The fact that five of the part-  time operators recorded a loss on their agricultural activities, and a l l of the residential operators reported gross farm sales of less than $100 indicates that for many of the forty respondents the farm unit's primary function was a place of residence rather than agricultural production.  It would  therefore seem essential that in discussing the economic characteristics of the farm and the farm family sufficient consideration must be given to other forms of income accruing to that unit.  Even though farm occupiers may obtain  some of their income i n the form of interest on investment, pensions and p r i vate income, for the purpose of this study off-farm income was restricted to financial returns from income yielding occupations. The eleven full-time operators had no income yielding occupation other than working on their own holding (Table XX).  There was also no occupation re-  ported by any of their respective wives except for helping on their husbands' farms (Table XXI). As the definition implies, a l l of the part-time operators had some form of off-farm employment (Table XX).  In addition, six (33.3 per cent) of the  operators" wives contributed to the family income by having off-farm occupations (Table XXI) and another seven (38.9 per cent) helped substantially in  - 74 the running of the farm. No table was compiled for the wives' contribution to the farm family income since this amount did not affect the relative standing of the amount of off-farm income for the respective farms i n Table XX.  In nearly a l l cases where part of the off-farm income was contributed  by the wife, the husband's off-farm income was i t s e l f over $2,400. TABLE XX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BT GROSS INCOME FROM OFF-FARM EMPLOYMENT*  Amount $  Full-Time No.  Less than 600 600 - 1,199 1,200 - 2,399 2,400 and over Not reporting  11  Total  11  Part-Time cf No. p 2  11.1  100.0  2 13 1  100.0  18  11.1 72.2 5.6 100.0  Residential No. %  A l l Farms No. %  1 1  9.1 9.1  7 2  63.6 18.2  3 7.5 1 2.5 2 5.0 20 5 0 . 0 14 3 5 . 0  11  100.0  4o loo.o  Refers only to income contributed by the farm operator from offfarm employment. There was considerable variation i n the total value of off-farm i n comes (the combined operator's and wife's earnings).  Of the two respondents  reporting off-farm income of less than $600, one was receiving armed services and medical pensions, and the other one reported that his wife was the real contributor to their off-farm income. The two operators reporting total offfarm incomes of between $1,200 and $2,399 (Table XX) were both intending to become full-time farmers.  One operator whose wife contributed the total off-  farm income was identified as "not reporting" i n Table XX. Thirteen (72.2 per cent) of the part-time operations had off-farm incomes exceeding $2,400,  - 75 and of these six (46.2 per cent) reported incomes of over $5,000. TABLE XXI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BT TYPE OF OCCUPATION OF OPERATOR'S WIFE Type of Occupation  Full-Time No. %  Teaching Clerical Other No outside occupation  8  Total  8 a  farm.  a  Part-Time No. %  Residential No. %  100.0  1 3 2 12  5.6 16.7 11.1 66.6  1 8  100.0  18 100.0  9  b  C  A l l Farms No. %  11.1 88.9  1 3 3 28  100.0  35  d  2.8 8.6 8.6 80.0 100.0  A l l of the full-time operators' wives helped substantially on the  b  Seven (58.3 per cent) of the part-time operators wives i n this category helped substantially on the farm, Q  One (12.5 per cent) of the residential operator's wives i n this category helped substantially on the farm. ^ Sixteen (57.1 per cent) of a l l farm operators' wives helped substantially on the farm. 1  As far as the relative importance of the sources of the family income  was concerned, fourteen (77.8  per cent) of the part-time operations received  a higher income from off-farm employment than that which they derived from farm sales.  Three (l6.7  per cent) respondents whose farm sales yielded the  major part of the farm family income were intending to become full-time operators. Even though the residential farmers obtained l i t t l e or no income from agriculture, the relative values of their off-farm incomes were not significantl y different from those reported by the part-time operators. This was partly  - 76 because there was a greater tendency for part-time operators' wives to do off-farm work than was the case for residential operators' wives (Table XXI). In the residential operator category two (18.2 per cent) of the respondents were retired and their respective pensions were their major source of income, although this was supplemented i n both cases by the occupiers renting out some of their land. The other operator (9.1 per cent) i n the lower income bracket (Table XX) was living at a subsistence level with no other major source of income. Of the seven (63.6 per cent) respondents with off-farm income of over $2,1+00, four (5-7.1 per cent) earned more than $6,000.  One  of these four reported that although his wife worked off the holding, he himself earned nearly $5,000.  The evidence therefore suggested that the ma-  jority of part-time operators showed more resemblance to residential operators than they did to full-time farmers i n respect to their relative sources of income. Amount of Off-Farm Employment.  The importance attached by part-  time operators to their non-farm occupations was also reflected i n the amount of time they spent working off their holdings.  Fuguitt (1961:1+1) has suggest-  ed that occupational commitment i s more accurately measured i n hours than i n days because there i s no certainty that "a person working during a day i n a non-farm job has necessarily put i n a f u l l eight hours".  However, the criter-  ion used for this study was the number of days involved, since this was regarded as an accurate index for the purpose of the study.  Table XXII shows that  the occupational commitment by most of the part-time operators to their offfarm jobs was considerably more than that which they attached to operating their farms.  Eleven (6l.l per cent) of the respondents worked full-time off  the farm, and another two (11.1 per cent) spent more than half their working time in non-agricultural activities.  Of the four operators who reported that  - 77 they spent less than half of their time on off-farm work, two were intending to become full-time farmers, a third relied mainly pn his service and medical pensions, and another did some custom agricultural work, while his wife's occupation was the main source of income.  The situation was similar for the  residential operators, with six (54.5 per cent) working full-time off the farm.  Those reporting a low level of commitment to off-farm work either  were on pensions (18.2 per cent) or other financial sources, or were living at a subsistence level. ! TABLE XXII  i  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BY AMOUNT OF OFF-FARM EMPLOYMENT EXPRESSED IN DAYS  Number of Days Less than 48  49 - 72 73 - 96 97 - 126 127 - 156 157 - 228 229 - 365  Not reporting Total  Full-Time No. %  11 100.0 11 100.0  Part-Time No. A>  2  11.1  1 1  5.6 5.6  2 ll.l 11 61.1 1 5.5 18 100.0  Type of Off-Farm Employment.  Residential cf No.  1  9.1  1 9.1 1 9.1 6 54.5 2 18.2 11 100.0  A l l Farms No. %  2 5.0 1 2.5 1 2.5 1 2.5 1 2.5 3 7.5 17 42.5 14 35.0 40 100.0  The type of off-farm occupational com-  mitment i s also an important factor i n that the nature of the work and i t s location can determine the amount of time the operator can spend on his holding.  It would appear that this was the case for the majority of small farm  operators with off-farm employment since the income and time commitment tables (Tables XX and XXII) indicate that the agricultural function of the holding was organised to coincide with the off-farm occupation rather than vice versa.  - 78  -  Part-time farming has always been a characteristic of agriculture i n British Columbia,  but the type of off-farm employment available to the rural  resident has become more varied.  The brief historical outline of agriculture  in the Lower Mainland (Chapter II) indicated that farming was frequently combined with other forms of rural occupation such as agricultural custom work, logging or labouring. In contrast, the type of off-farm employment now available to the part-time or residential farmer i s considerably more varied, and includes industrial, commercial and service occupations i n addition to those occupations traditionally associated with rural residency (Table XXLT). Two distinct, but interrelated factors have been mainly responsible for this change.  Firstly, the development of an urban hierarchy i n the Lower  Mainland (Hoxrell Jones 1966:76-81) has meant that centres such as Clearbrook and Abbotsford now contain numerous commercial, manufacturing and service enterprises which are capable of absorbing part of the labour potential of their local area (Bureau of Economics and Statistics 1966:161).).  Secondly, the i n -  creased mobility of people and commodities with the development of a comprehensive road network has meant that a wider range of occupational opportunities are available to the rural resident. (Greater emphasis w i l l be attached to this aspect i n the next chapter). A third factor, which to some extent i s related to the f i r s t two, i s the adoption by many industrial and manufacturing concerns of a shift system for labour employment. It can be seen from Table XXII that the part-time farmers have tended to neglect the traditional rural occupations and instead have found employment in the secondary and tertiary sectors. However, these forms of employment frequently have had agricultural connections.  Two of the three employed i n factory  ^ Information obtained from personal communication on August 30, 1966 with Mr. B.K. Acton, Canada Department of Agriculture, Economics Branch, Vancouver.  - 79 -  production were concerned i n some way with agricultural products, as was the case of one of the respondents classified as a truck driver.  In the "other"  category (Table XXIII) three of the part-time farmers were insurance agents, one was a salesman, one was a hard rock miner and the other part-time respondent was a storekeeper.  Residential farm occupiers tended to have even less  connection with primary production i n their off-farm work with the only respondent whose occupation had agricultural connections being a salesman. He was classed under "other" i n Table XXIII. TABLE XXIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BY TYPE OF OFF-FARM EMPLOYMENT  Type of Employment  Full-Time No. %  Agriculture Logging Construction Factory Production Clerical Truck or bus driver Other Not reporting  11 100.0  Total  11  Part-Time No. % £.6  1  100.0  Residential No. %  U 22.2 3 16.6 1 5.6 2 11.1 6 33.3 l 5.6 a  18 100.0  1 3  9.1  27.3  k 36.3 1 9.1 2° 18.2 11  100.0  A l l Farms No. % 1 2.5 1 2.5 7 17.5  3  7.5 2.5 6 15.0 7 17.5 lk 35.0 1  ko 100.0  a  Although the farm operator reported no off-farm work his wife had a full-time job. b Two respondents were retired. Twelve (70.6 per cent) of the seventeen part-time operators reporting off-farm employment worked within Matsqui Municipality, and only two (11.8 per cent) travelled into the Vancouver Metropolitan area for their place of employ-  - 80 -  ment. The other three respondents also found employment within the Lower Mainland.  Six (66.7 per cent) of the nine residential farmers reporting  off-farm work found employment within Matsqui Municipality and two (22.2 per cent) worked i n the Vancouver Metropolitan area.  The higher percentage  of residential farm operators working in the Vancouver Metropolitan area was a result of them not having farm commitments to the same extent as the parttime farmers, and i n some cases, the respondents having been former Vancouver residents who had moved into Matsqui Municipality with the knowledge that they were s t i l l within commuting distance of downtown Vancouver.  A l l of .  the part-time and residential operators' wives reporting off-farm employment worked within Matsqui Municipality. Perquisite Consumption and Welfare Payments Two other factors which often affect farm family income were investigated with reference to the forty sample farms.  They were the perquisite con-  sumption of the farm family, and whether or not any of the household units received welfare payments. Sven though perquisite consumption i s i n no way a direct contributor to farm family income, the judicious use of home produced food can often lead to a considerable decrease i n the amount of money budgeted for food purchases.  Thirty-two (90.0 per cent) of the forty respondents said they raised  agricultural products, part of which went for home consumption (Table XXIV). In the case of both the full-time and residential respondents, seven (63.6 per cent) operators in each category reported perquisite consumption.  A l l of the  part-time operators relied to some extent on home grown produce.  The average  full-time farmer reporting perquisite consumption used, in varying combinations, three of the five commodities shown i n Table XXIV.  The situation was approxi-  - 81 mately the same for residential respondents.  Three of the part-time opera-  tors reported that home produced food accounted for almost the total "quantity of a l l five commodities referred to.  In the majority of cases, however,  most families produced only three of the five commodities for home consumption.  No distinct pattern was observed as to the estimated value of perqui-  sites consumed and the type of farm operator.  The average value of perqui-  site consumption was between $200 and $250, although some respondents reported values of less than $100, tween $350 and $400.  while others estimated that they were be-  There was no evidence that low income families con-  sciously attempted to supplement their low income by a greater perquisite consumption.  In fact, the opposite relationship predominated, with higher  income families reporting higher values of perquisite consumption than those reported by the low income families. TABLE XXIV PERCENTAGE OF FARM OPERATORS REPORTING TYPES OF PERQUISITES CONSUMED  3,  Type Milk Butter Eggs Meat Garden Produce  Full-Time No. % 4 1 4 4 7  36.4 9.1 36.4 36.4 63.6  Part-Time No. % 10 4 7 io 14  55.6 22.2 38.9 55.6 77.8  Residential No. % 3 1 3 5 5  27.3 9.1 27.3 45.5 45.5  A l l Farms No. % 17 6 14 19 26  42.5 15.0 35.0 47.5 65.0  Perquisite consumption of a commodity was only considered when home production accounted for the major part of total family consumption. None of the forty respondents were receiving welfare payments at the time the interviews were conducted.  In general, the majority of welfare pay-  - 82 ments were made to the urban population, although there were exceptions to this, such as people who were trying to farm on a very small parcel of land,  6  or those who had not succeeded i n farming and whose property was up for sale. Summary The evidence has shown that the size of the farm holding i s a signifant factor i n explaining the types of farm enterprise which have a relativel y low intensity of land use, but that this importance diminishes as the i n tensity of land use increases.  In addition, the full-time farmers differed  significantly from the part-time and residential operators with both respect to their choice of enterprise and the complexity and intensity of their farming operations. This was largely because whereas the majority of the parttime farmers and a l l of the residential farmers subscribed to the hobby-farm ideal, the full-time farmers on small farms were obliged to concentrate on specific intensive type enterprises i f they were to attain the economies of scale which would maintain viable economic units.  In this respect the f u l l -  time farmers aimed for economic efficiency whereas the part-time and residential farmers paid greater attention to technical efficiency i n operating the farm. The contention that small farms frequently symbolise inadequate farm incomes would seem to hold true for a number of the respondents i n the present study.  In addition, the farms with low capital values were also the ones with  the lowest farm cash incomes.  The evidence relating to the relative value of  income from and occupational commitment to farm and non-farm activities indicated that the part-time farmers showed greater resemblance to the residential operators than they did to the full-time operators. Because financial returns ^ Information obtained by correspondence, February 27, 1°68 from Mr. A.H.W. Moxon, Municipal Clerk, Matsqui Municipality. The i n i t i a l source of information was Mr. L. Vanderveen, District Supervisor of the Department of Social Welfare i n Abbotsford.  - 83 -  from agricultural production were only supplementary sources of income for the part-time and particularly the residential operators, standards of economic evaluation adopted for full-time farmers are severely limited i n their application towards the other operator categories.  In this respect, low i n -  comes reported by full-time farmers are an agricultural problem whereas low family incomes reported by part-time and residential operators are to a greater extent a reflection of the situation of other forms of employment in the economy. Although some of the farm occupiers would be classed as low income families by ARDA, none of the respondents were on welfare.  There was also .  a tendency for low income families to have made no attempt to improve the family budget by increasing the level of perquisite consumption. Because of the variation i n house values among the respondents no exact figures were available to indicate what capital saving resulted from farm living as opposed to c i t y living for the farm sector of the rural population. Nearly a l l the respondents owned their property and rent was therefore not a cost factor. Nevertheless, i t would seem that small farm occupiers do benefit from lower cost housing and lower assessment rates than those experienced i n the city, but that this i s frequently off-set by inconveniences of rural living which necessitate capital expenditure to overcome them.  For  example, i n the case of the part-time and residential operators i t i s often necessary for the family to have two cars instead of the one because of the distance involved i n the husband getting to the place of his off-farm employment and the wife doing the shopping and other activities.  Were they to live  i n the city, public transportation would negate the necessity of the second car. Despite the fact that the farm family incomes of some of the respondents permitted them to achieve a reasonably high standard of living, the  1  - 8U -  low financial returns reported by many of the small farm occupiers would imply that their reasons for living on farms were not necessarily founded on economic considerations.  CHAPTER TV NON-ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE LIFE OF THE FARM FAMILY A large volume of literature has been published on the changing role of the farm family as part of the evolution of modern agriculture. The development of an agribusiness attitude i n farming and the process of urbanisation have been well documented with numerous studies done in Britain (Pahl 1965, Gasson 1966, Wibberley I960, Higgs, ed. 1966); the United States (Spaulding 1959,  ¥ilkening 1964,  Fuguitt 1963)  and Canada (Fortin 1966,  Noble 1967, Buckmire 1966, Tremblay and Anderson, eds. 1966).  The purpose  of this chapter i s , therefore, not to give an overall analysis of the sociology of the changing agriculture of the Lower Mainland, but rather to i n vestigate some of the major social characteristics of families on small farms which may explain or complement the economic aspects discussed i n the previous chapter.  In addition, the farm family is studied with reference to  its social participation in the community and patronage of local services. Noble (1955:13) has stated that the quality of rural l i f e and the efficiency of operation of Canadian farms is largely determined by those who farm.  As  a result, the background, experience, age and education of the farm operators and their families are important considerations i n realising the f u l l implications of the economic performance of small farms. Social Background and Subsequent On-Farm Migration Some of the studies dealing with agriculture i n the Lower Mainland of  - 85 -  - 86 British Columbia have pointed out that not only have certain national groups been attracted to agriculture more than others (MacGregor 1961), but that some of these groups have favoured specific types of farming (Siemens  I960)  and (Ginn 1967). MacGregor (1961:72) indicated that three of the national groups which particularly favoured living on farms were the Dutch, the Russians and the Japanese, whereas a larger proportion of British and West European immigrants became urban residents. Place of Birth and Ethnic Origin.  Tables XXV and XXVI specify the  place of birth of the farm operators and their wives respectively, and a l though they would i n i t i a l l y seem to contrast with what MacGregor (ibid.) found, this i s not the case.  In both tables Canada as the place of birth  registered the highest percentage of respondents (50.0 per cent of the husbands and 51.h  per cent of their wives).  However, when the racial origins  of the respondents were identified, a large percentage of them were found to have come to the Lower Mainland from Eastern Europe via the Prairies and other parts of British Columbia.  In other words, the Canadian birthplace category  included f i r s t and second generation Canadians who were frequently of east European origin.  Both tables (XXV and XXVI) show that the East Europeans  composed the largest category which were foreign born (22.5  per cent of the  husbands and 25.7 per cent of the wives), and of the male respondents five  (55«5 per cent) l i s t e d their place of birth as Russia. A l l of the Russian respondents were Mennonites.  Of the other eight Mennonites included i n the  sample, seven were born on the Prairies and one was born i n the Lower Mainland.  (These figures refer to the farm operators only and not their wives).  Siemens (1968 :lfj) has suggested that because of their variation i n ethnic o r i gin (German and Dutch), Mennonites are best considered as a religious rather than an ethnic group.  Certainly as a group they probably express themselves  - 87 "more clearly than any other in Matsqui Municipality, particularly i n Clearbrook which is approximately seventy-five per cent Mennonite and contains most of the major institutions associated with this religious group (ibid.). They have also become identified mth small farms and the u t i l i s a t i o n of high family labour inputs on small f r u i t and poultry enterprises. TABLE XXV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION CF FARM RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH OF TIE HUSBAND Full-Time No.  Birthplace Matsqui Municipality Other B.C. Other Canada United States United Kingdom Western Europe Eastern Europe Orient  1  9.1  2  18.1 9.1  2 3 2  18.1  1  27.3 18.1  11 100.0  Total  Part-Time No. 1  i 10 1 1 1 3  5.6 5.6 55.4 5.6 5.6 5.6 16.6  18 100.0  Residential " A l T Farms cf No. No. % /•)  2 1 2  18.2  4  18.2  3  27.3  3  27.3  14 2 4 3 9 2  11  100.0  9.0  2  10.0 5.o 35.o 5.0 10.0 7.5 22.5 5.0  40 100.0  TABLE XXVI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY PLACE OF BIRTH OF THE WIFE  Birthplace Matsqui Municipality Other B.C. Other Canada United States United Kingdom Western Europe Eastern Europe Orient Total  FullL-Time cf No.  1 2 1  12.5 25.0 12.5  2 1 1  25.0 12.5 12.5  8 100.0  Port-Time cf No. /•>  3  16.6  9 1 1  50.0  '5.6 5.6  4 18  Residential No. p  1 2  11.1 22.3  3  33.3  22.2  3  33.3  100.0  9  100.0  A l l Farms No. . cfi°  3 8.6 2 5.7 13 37.1 2 5.7 4 11.4 l 2.9 9 25,7 1 2.9 35 100.0  - 88 -  The absence of respondents of Dutch origin was a result of this nationa l group preferring larger farms on which to develop dairying, and they were therefore excluded from the sample on the basis of farm size.  Although peo-  ple of British origin accounted for approximately sixty per cent of the tot a l population of Census Division U (Census of Canada, l ? 6 l ) , they only accounted for 10.0 per cent of the farm operators (Table XXV) and 11.U per cent of their wives (Table XXVI). This i s probably because many of the more recent immigrants reflect selective migration from the British Isles of people with a sufficiently high education level to enable them to enter the more remunerative occupations available i n Vancouver.  Both farm operators  from Japan operated speciality crop enterprises, bulbs, a form of agriculture with very high labor inputs, which i s traditionally associated with this national group. Three main factors help to explain the percentage distribution of the various national groups i n Table XXV. Firstly, the development of a nucleus of a particular national or cultural group attracts others holding the same set of values.  This would explain the continuing development of  Clearbrcok as a Mennonite centre.  Secondly, many of the European immigrants  of non-British origin have had considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n ccatimunicating with their fellow Canadians because of a language problem.  A few of the respon-  dents said that their English was not good enough for them to obtain a job i n Vancouver when they f i r s t came to the Lower Mainland, and as a result, they had often done farm work because i t did not necessitate them being fluent i n English.  In many cases these people have remained on their farms even  though their command of the English language would now permit them to obtain off-farm employment.  This, however, was not a common problem i n the case of  - 89 the respondents i n the present study because most of the immigrants had not come directly to the Lower Mainland from Europe, but had spent a number of years on the Prairies.  The third factor i s to some extent associated with  the language problem but i s essentially the reluctance of some labour unions to permit immigrant Europeans to engage i n occupations for which they are qualified.^  Persons affected by this ruling have already been granted entry  into Canada by the Federal Immigration Department and consequently have to obtain some form of occupation by which they can sustain themselves.  In a  large number of cases these people end up farming or labouring on one of the larger farms i n the Lower Mainland.  This category of immigrant would  therefore contribute to the large number of non-English speaking persons working or living on farms. Not only was there considerable diversity i n the percentage d i s t r i bution of the farm operators by their place of birth (Table XXV), but this dissimilarity was also present i n the migration patterns of the respondents. Six ($k'$  per cent) of the residential respondents had been born outside of  Canada (Table XXV), and of these, four (66.7  per cent) had lived i n a province  other than British Columbia before moving to the survey area.  In a l l four  cases one of the Prairie Provinces had been the i n i t i a l place of residence in Canada.  This pattern was relatively similar to that reported by the f u l l -  time respondents.  Seven (63.6  per cent) of the full-time farmers had immi-  grated to Canada (Table XXV), and of these, five (71.h  per cent) had lived  outside of British Columbia prior to living i n the Lower Mainland.  Once again,  the Prairies had been their i n i t i a l area of residence i n Canada. Although  Information obtained from personal cor.imunication on June 8, 1967 xri-th Mr. C. Hacker, Editor, of the "Abbotsford, Sumas.and Matsqui News".  - 90 -  six (33.3 per cent) of the part-time operators were immigrants to Canada (Table XXV), a l l of them had come directly to the Lower Mainland. The contrast in the migration patterns of the three types of farm operators would appear to be largely explainable i n terms of what function the farm was to serve for the farm operator and his family. The potential full-time farmers had gone to the Prairies because i t was one of the most distinct areas of agriculture in Canada.  The attraction of this area was  no doubt enhanced by the fact that there already existed there members of their particular national or cultural groups.  This theory of ethnic or  religious concentrations would also seem to apply to many of the immigrants now classed as residential farmers.  Most of these respondents were, however,  full-time or part-time farmers when living on the Prairies and would therefore have been attracted to that area basically because of i t s agricultural potential, and the availability of land for farming. The part-time farmers, i n contrast, were generally younger (Table XXX) than the full-time and residential operators, and only about half as many of them had immigrated to Canada (33.3 per cent) as was the case of the full-time ( 6 3 . 6 per cent) and residential operators($4.5 per cent).  Some Of  the part-time farmers had come directly to the Lower Mainland because the Clearbrook area had developed as a Mennonite centre. However, the main reason would appear to be that the part-time respondents had emigrated to the Lower Mainland because i t was an area where they, could combine off-farm employment with farm living and maintain some attachment to the s o i l which they had experienced in their homeland. Although most of the part-time respondents had been brought up on farms, they had not necessarily gone into farming before emigrating to Canada.. For those who had been full-time farmers, the c change over to farming on a part-time basis had often been done with the idea  - 91 that an off-farm occupation would put them into a higher income bracket than they were formerly accustomed to. Further analysis of the migration patterns of the forty respondents tended to substantiate these findings. Migration to the Lower Mainland.  Four (10.0 per cent) of the farm  operators had been born i n Matsqui Municipality and another two (5>.0 per cent) had been born i n other parts of British Columbia.  However, most of  the respondents (8£.0 per cent) had come to the Lower Mainland from other parts of Canada or were immigrants to this country (Table XXV).  MacGregor  (1961:78) suggested four factors that help to explain the influx of people to the Lower Mainland.  They were, the milder climate compared with other  parts of Canada, the 30b opportunities which were superior both i n agriculture and off-farm occupations, the intensive form of agriculture which appealed to them, and the scenery and the more attractive living conditions. In addition to the factors suggested by MacGregor (ibid.) information collected from interviews for the present study showed that a number of other factors were also of considerable importance i n explaining the in-migration, particularly from the Prairies.  Firstly, the availability of better school-  ing for their children was mentioned by a number of the respondents, and i n this respect the proximity of secondary schools was an important consideration.  Secondly, there was the existence of members of their respective eth-  nic or religious groups already settled i n the area.  Thirdly, a number of  full-time respondents had previously farmed part-time on the Prairies and wanted to work on the land on a full-time basis, but could not afford to obtain a large farm i n their former locality.  Two of the respondents indi-  cated that they had wanted to own their own farm rather than rent i t , as had been the case with their previous holdings, As would be expected, another factor i n the movement off the Prairies was the exodus during the Depression of the 1930's. Two of the older operators mentioned that farming in the  - 92 Lower Mainland offered them a rural way of l i f e with the security and convenience of proximity to social services associated with urban centres. A l though a number of respondents reported that i l l health and excessive work necessary to maintain the larger Prairie farms had prompted them to move to the Lower Mainland and settle on a small farm, there was l i t t l e  indication  that the thought of retirement had been a principal motive for their migration. Level of Mobility.  The migration patterns of the forty respondents  showed that residential operators were the least mobile of the three types of farm operators, whereas the full-time farmers reported the most moves. Six (54.5 per cent) of the residential operators had made one move or less since birth, four (36.4 per cent) had made two moves, and only one respondent (9.1 per cent) had lived i n three different places i n addition to his place of origin.  The migration patterns of the full-time operators were  such that two (18.2 per cent) had made one move or less, seven (63.6 per cent) had made two moves, and two (18.2 per cent) of them had made three or more changes since leaving their place of birth.  Nine (50.0 per cent) of the  part-time operators had moved once or less, seven (38.9 per cent) had made two moves and two (11.1 per cent) of them had made three moves or more. For the forty respondents as a whole there was a greater tendency for part-time and residential farmers to have lived at some stage i n their lives i n urban areas than there was for full-time farmers.  With reference  to the last move made by the forty respondents, 27.8 per cent of the parttime farmers, and 36.4 per cent of the residential farmers had moved from an urban area to their present farms, whereas only 18.2 per cent of the f u l l time farmers had lived previously i n urban areas (Table XXVTl).  Four ( 8 0 . 0  per cent) of the five part-time farmers who had lived i n an urban area with-  in the Lower Mainland before moving to their present holding were immigrants to Canada (Table XXVTl). A comparable situation was found to occur with the residential farmers, where two of the three (66.6  per cent) respondents re-  porting they had lived i n an urban area i n the Lower Mainland were immigrants (ibid.). TABLE XXVII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BY IMMEDIATE PREVIOUS LIVING LOCATION  Type of Location  Full-•Time No.  3,  Rural intra Urban intra Rural ultra Urban ultra Total  5 45.4 b  1 4 1 11  9.1 36.4 9.1 100.0  Part-Time a' No.  i°  0 44.4 5 27.8 5 27.8 18  100.0  Residential a' No.  5  4?.4 • 3 27.3 2 18.2 1 9.1 11 100.0  A l l Farms No. %  18 45.0 9 22.5 11 27.5 2 5.0 40 100.0  Previous living location referred to location whether i n Canada or not i f the respondent was a recent immigrant. Rural and Urban intra - indicates that the location was within the Lower Mainland. Rural and Urban ultra indicates that the location was outside the Lower Mainland. b  One respondent had lived in his present holding a l l his l i f e .  Reasons for Farm Occupancy.  The motivations behind the change from  an urban to a rural environment are often prompted by sentimentality and the attempt to recapture a romantic ideal, escapism from the insecurities of city l i f e , the possibility of a cheaper cost of living and a set of personal values which exalt the virtues of the rural way of l i f e .  In a l l probability the rela-  tive significance of these motives i s not consciously weighed by the exurbanite before moving into the rural area. McKain (1963;26) has propounded that the  reasons for electing this change i n environment are not really formulated  - 9h u n t i l the families have been subjected to their new way of l i f e and experienced their ability or inability to adjust to i t . Many of the respondents who had moved from an urban area onto farms in Matsqui Municipality had done so with some of the suppositions mentioned above i n mind. However, the major reason for the generation of belief i n the virtues of rural living appeared to have been the fact that most of the respondents had been brought up on farms and wanted to give their children and themselves the benefits of this type of l i f e (Table XXVIII).  It i s i n -  teresting to note that whereas 81.8 per cent of the full-time farm operators had been brought up on farms, this figure was 83.3 per cent and 90.9 per cent of the part-time and residential operators respectively.  The attitude  of the forty respondents to rural living and their level of satisfaction w i l l be discussed towards the end of the chapter subsequent to the consideration of other social aspects of the farm family. TABLE XXVIII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT FARM CHILDHOOD REPORTED BT HUSBAND AND/OR WIFE  Full-Time No. % Both Husband only Wife only Neither Total  7 6 .6 2 18.2 1 9.1 1 9.1 11 100.0  Part-Time No. %  3  a  14 1 3  77.8 5.5 16.7  18 100.0  Residential No. % .  8 2  72.7 18.2  1 9.1 11 100.0  a  A l l Farms No. % 29 72.5 5 12.5 4 10.0 2 5.0 40 100.0  a One was a bachelor. Duration of Farm Residency and Age of Operator.  The duration of occu-  pancy on a particular farm by a farmer may give some indication of his experience i n agriculture, but to a greater extent i t reflects his satisfaction  - 95 -  with a place and that type of l i f e .  Part-time farmers s u r p r i s i n g l y record-  ed on the average a longer period of residence on.their present holding than did the f u l l - t i m e farmers (Table XXIX).  This s i t u a t i o n was d i f f e r e n t  from the findings of many studies dealing with this aspect of farm  occupancy.  Gasson (1966:28), however, i l l u s t r a t e d i n her study of farming i n South East England that patterns of residency of d i f f e r e n t types of farm operators can be found to vary considerably i f a long enough time period i s taken into consideration.  The reason f o r the pattern i d e n t i f i e d i n Matsqui Municipality  could be that part-time farming on holdings of twenty acres or l e s s offers greater economic and s o c i a l s t a b i l i t y than i f they are worked as f u l l - t i m e operations.  A higher percentage of the r e s i d e n t i a l respondents ( 4 5 . 5 per  cent) had l i v e d on the holding f o r less than f i v e years than was the case of e i t h e r the f u l l - t i m e (36.4 per cent) or the part-time (27.8 per cent) farmers.  This was mainly a r e f l e c t i o n of new immigrants to the Lower Main-  land, some of whom were commuters and had been attracted t o the area following the completion of the Trans Canada Highway as a freeway system l i n k i n g the Abbotsford area and Vancouver and others were operators who had already farmed i n other parts of the Lower Mainland. TABLE XXIX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM OPERATORS BY NUMBER OF YEARS RESIDENT ON THE FARM Number of Years Under 5 5 - 15 16 - 25 Over 25 Total  Full-Time No. %  Part-Time No. %  4 4 2 1  36.4 36.4 18.2 9.0  5 8 5  27.8 44.4 27.8  11  100.0  18  100.0  Residential No. % '  5 3 1 2  45-4 27.3 9.1 18.2  11  100.0  A l l Farms No. % 14 15 8 3  35.0 37.5 20.0 7.5  40 1 0 0 . 0  - 96 The age of the operator may affect not only the level of activity that he can put into the farm operation, but also the decision-making process towards occupational mobility either on the farming ladder or out of farming altogether. Eight (72.7 per cent) of the full-time operators were over f i f t y - f i v e years of age (Table XXX).  This pattern was not unexpected,  hoxrever, since the rural farm population i n British Columbia tends to be older than the rural non-farm residents except for age groups over seventy (Whyte 1966:17).  The part-time farmers recorded the largest percentage un-  der forty-five years of age with 33.3 per cent in this category.  Only 27.2  per cent of the residential operators occurred within this age limit and the figure was only 18.2 per cent for the full-time farmers.  Of the five part-  time operators who intended to become full-time operators, only two were over forty-five.  It would therefore appear that age was not as important a  factor for mobility within the farming system as i t i s for occupational mob i l i t y out of farming. TABLE XXX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT AGS OF OPERATOR  Tears Under 35  35 - U5 I46 - 55 56 - 65  Over 65 Total  Full -Time cf No.  1 1 1  9.1 9.1 9.1  54.5 2 18.2 11 100.0 6  Part-Time No. %  1 5.5 5 27.8 10 55.6 2 11.1 18 100.0  Residential cf No. p  2 1 3 3  2 11  18.2 9.0  27.3  27.3 18.2 100.0  A l l Farms No. %  4 10.0 7 17.5 14 35.0 11 27.5 4 10.0 40 100.0  The evidence also indicated that the Lower Mainland may not be as important a farmer retirement area as i s often assumed, particularly i f i t is  - 97 suggested that farmers migrate to the Lower Mainland specifically to retire on another farm.  Although just over f i f t y per cent of the full-time farmers  had been living on their present holdings for less than ten years (Table XXIX), in most cases they had been living i n the Lower Mainland on another farm prior to moving to the present holding (Table XXVTI).  This would suggest that they  had not specifically come to the Lower Mainland because i t was a suitable area i n which to retire to a small holding. This line of reasoning could also be applied to the residential respondents, since a l l five who were over f i f t y - s i x had lived i n Matsqui Municipality for over twenty years. Demographic Characteristics of the Farm Family The majority (87.5 per cent) of the farm operators were married, while two ( 5 . 0 per cent) were single, two ( 5 . 0 per cent) were widowers and one (2.5 per cent) respondent was separated (Table XXXI).  There was therefore no sig-  nificant difference between the three types of farm operators with regard to their marital status (Table XXXI). TABLE- XXXI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY MARITAL STATUS OF FARM OPERATOR  Status  Full-Time cf No. p  Single Married Separated Widower Total  1 9.1 8 72.7 1 9.1 1 9.1 11 100.0  Part-Time No. %  18 100.0 18 100.0  Residential No. /°  1 9  9.1 81.8  1 9.1 11 100.0  A l l Farms No. %  2 3 5  1 2  5.o 87.5 2.5  5.0  ho 100.0  The average rural family i n Canada has always been larger than the rural non-farm family, which i n turn has been larger than urban families (Whyte 1966:49).  In 1961 the average number of persons per farm family i n  British Columbia was 4.0, whereas the average size of rural non-farm familywas 3.9 and the urban family 3.4 (ibid:52).  The sample showed a total of  158 children at an average of 3.95 children per family.  The full-time farm  average was 4.18 children per family, the part-time average 4.11 and the residential farm average was 3.45 children per family. full-time operators' families had children, and five (45.5 respondents had five children or more (Table XXXII). time respondents had no children.  Six (33.3  children A l l of the  per cent) of the  Only one of the part-  per cent) of the part-time resn  pondents had five children or more, and one family had twelve children. Three of the married residential respondents had no children but four  (36.4  per cent) had five or more and one family had twelve, j  .  TABLE XXXII  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT NUMBER OF CHILDREN REPORTED  Number of Children None  Full-Time No. $ l  1 - 3  2  8 11  Over 3 Total a b  a  9.1  18.2  72.7 100.0  Part-Time No. % 1  9  8 18  5.6  50.0  44. U 100.0  Residential No. : % 4  b  3  4 11  I 36.4 1 1  27.2  36.4  100.0  A l l Farms No. % 6  14  20  15.0  35.0 50.0  40 100.0  One of the full-time operators was a bachelor, One of the residential operators x\ras a bachelor.  The evidence indicated that the relative size of families was similar to that reported for the Province of British Columbia, since a number of the residential farmers had been urban dwellers or non-farm rural residents i n the past. Although the full-time operators reported the largest families, on the average there was a general wish among the younger respondents for  - 99 three or l e s s c h i l d r e n .  This desire was  r e l a t e d to such, f a c t o r s as being  able to adequately provide f o r t h e i r needs and education.  There was  a  general trend among the three types of farm operators f o r the f a m i l i e s with a higher income and farm c a p i t a l value to p r e f e r fewer c h i l d r e n . contrasted with the attitudes of some of the older respondents who  This  stated  that a large family had contributed or would contribute to the farm labour force and therefore more than compensated the extra money which was needed for  their provision.  Education Levels of Members of the Farm Family The demands of r u r a l l i f e i n Canada f i f t y years ago required l i t t l e i n the way  of formal education  (Whyte  1966:62).  In the l a t t e r h a l f of the  twentieth century, however, r u r a l youth are faced with the problem of a more sophisticated form of agriculture and the necessity f o r the majority of them to seek off-farm employment ( i b i d . ) .  Despite the presence of push and p u l l  forces r e s u l t i n g i n off-farm migration, a large percentage of Canada's r u r a l youth are not educationally equipped to compete s u c c e s s f u l l y i n an urban l a bour market.  Reference was made i n Chapter I to the study by A b e l l  which s p e c i f i e d that lack of education was sistence of small farms on the P r a i r i e s . l a c k of education was  one of the reasons f o r the perZeman  (1961b)  likewise found that  an important detrimental f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g the e f f i c i e n c y  of farm operations and the a v a i l a b i l i t y of off-farm occupations.  (1966:62)  (1956)  Buckmire  i n a study of occupational m o b i l i t y of farm people i n the Bonnyville  D i s t r i c t of Alberta found that education was  one of the most important  variables influencing occupational m o b i l i t y decisions.  He found that "a low  l e v e l of education not only l i m i t e d the i n d i v i d u a l ' s earning capacity but als5 the extent of his s o c i a l and economic p a r t i c i p a t i o n " ( i b i d . ) .  (1965)  L. Siemens  found that educational aspirations of high school students were d i r e c t -  - 100 l y correlated with the socio-economic status of the family, prestige of the father's occupation, and the level of education attained by both father and mother.  The forty small farm respondents i n Matsqui Municipality were there-  fore investigated as to the level of education completed by both parents and the aspirations of their respective children. Education Levels of Farm Operators and Wives.  Grade eight was the  highest level of education completed by the majority of the farm operators (Table XXXEIl) and their wives H^ble XXXIV). Although there was no significant difference i n the distribution of years of school completed by the part-time and residential farmers, the full-time operators were the only operator class with respondents having completed grade twelve (Table XXXIII). There was a general tendency, particularly i n the part-time and residential categories, for the younger respondents to report a higher level of education. This feature applied to both farm operators and their wives.  The evidence  also suggested that respondents had usually selected marital partners of similar educational achievements. TABLE XXXEIl PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BY COMPLETED LEVEL OF EDUCATION BY THE HUSBAND  Level  Full-Time cf No.  Less than grade 5  5 -8 9 - 11  7  Grade 12 University Total  63.6  1 2 1  9.1 18.2 9.1  11  100.0  Part-Time No. %  Residential No. %  15 3  16.7  83.3  9 2  81.8 18.2  18  100.0  11  100.0  A l l Farms No. % 31 6 2 1  77.5  15.0 5.0 2.5 1+0 100.0  None of the full-time or residential respondents had done adult education courses either by correspondence or attendance.  The four part-time  respondents who had done courses since leaving school reported that the  - 101 courses they had taken were primarily for their off-farm occupation rather than increasing their agricultural knowledge.  Two of the respondents had  done bookkeeping which they admitted helped them to maintain more accurate farm accounts, although the training had been done i n i t i a l l y for their offfarm jobs. Only the one part-time respondent who had fixed a date for becoming a full-time farmer had done an adult education course specifically to help with his farm operation. In this case, i t was the wife who had done a course i n farm accounting and bookkeeping techniques. TABLE XXXIV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT COMPLETED LEVEL OF EDUCATION BT THE WIFE  Level Less than grade 5  5 - 8 9 - 11  Grade 12 University Total  Full-Time No. %  6 2  75.0 25.0  8 100.0  Part-Time No. %  A l l Farms No. %  Residential No. %  77.8 16.7 5.5  7 2  77.8 22.2  27 7 1  77.1 20.0 2.9  18 100.0  9  100.0  35  100.0  lh  3 1  A number of the older respondents regarded their level of education as sufficient, but the majority of farm respondents expressed the desire that their children would remain i n school longer than they had.  Another  comment which was made by farm operators with regard to education was that they would have followed another career had they had a better education, but that they would have s t i l l attempted to live i n a rural area.  Some stated  that their children were not academically inclined and thus farming would probably be the most appropriate occupation for them. The part-time and residential respondents were the farmers who were most aware of the limitations of an inadequate education.  In many cases this lack of education  was reflected i n their off-farm occupation, with manual jobs such as truck  - 102 driving or construction work accounting for a large percentage of the total number of off-farm jobs reported (Table XXIII). Education Levels and Future'Plans of Farm Children.  From the general-  l y low level of education attained by the farm operators and their wives i t would be expected that the educational aspirations of their children would also be relatively limited. Although none of the children were available for interviewing, some idea of their future intentions as far as place of residence and their attitude to remaining on the farm with i t s associated job opportunities was obtained from their respective parents.  The inquiry  was only applied to children of school leaving age since i t was postulated that this period marked the time when children were most l i k e l y to exercise their choice as to their future career and subsequent place of residence. The most significant feature which is identified i n Table XXXV i s the large number of respondent's children who had already l e f t home. Thirty-four (73'9 per cent) of the full-time operators' children had l e f t home, fifteen (20.3 per cent) of the part-time operators' children had made similar moves, and the figure for the residential respondents' children was twenty-three (6£.0 per cent).  A major factor influencing the relative num-  bers that had l e f t was the age of the operator.  The full-time farmers were  generally older than either the residential or part-time farmers (Table  XXX)  and consequently more of their children would have reached school leaving age.  The opposite was true for the part-time farmers where the farm opera-  tors were younger than their full-time or residential counterparts and  70.3  per cent of their children were younger than school leaving age. Only one person intended to remain on the farm.  The respondents'  children who intended to live on the farm but have a non-agricultural occupation  would eventually leave the area in a large number of the cases, ac-  cording to the statements made by their parents.  In most cases this cate-  - 103 gory was composed of children who were seeking farther education before taking up a full-time career.  Parents stated that generally the g i r l s had less de-  sire to remain i n school than the boys, and those which had l e f t home were usually i n jobs which did not require a particularly high academic a b i l i t y . For most of these people their place of work was i n Vancouver.  Some of the  sons who had l e f t the farm were doing some form of training i n the technical or mechanical f i e l d , and i n a number of cases this training had agricultural connections. pondents  1  Professional training had been sought by very few of the res-  children who had already l e f t school.  Only one respondent, a f u l l -  time farmer, had sons who had gone into farming. TABLE XXXV PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS' CHILDREN OF SCHOOL LEAVING AGE BT FUTURE LIVING LOCATION  Location  Full-Time No. %  Work on farm Live on farm Leave the farm Not applicable Total  1 3 3.  2.2 6.5 6.5 39 84.8 46 100.0 b  a  Part-Time No. %  5 6.8 2 2.7 67 90.5 74 100.0 J  c  Residential No. %  4.  d  38  10.5 89.5 100.0  A l l Farms No. %  1 8  0.6 5.1 9 5.7 140 88.6 158 100.0  a One of the eleven respondents i s a bachelor age.  b  0  Of this total, 34 had l e f t the farm and 5 were under school leaving The eighteen respondents were married but one had no children. Of this total, 15 bad l e f t the farm and 52 were under school leaving  One of the eleven respondents was a bachelor, and three had no c h i l Of this total, 23 had l e f t the farm, 1 lived on the farm but did off f farm work and 10 were under school leaving age. dren.  6  The general pattern was therefore one of off-farm migration by the  - 104 respondents' children with l i t t l e likelihood of them becoming farm occupiers except as residential farmers. Although three of the full-time respondents had hoped their sons would have been interested in farming, the attitude of most of the respondents was that farming was a useful career i f their children did not show much academic ability.  The other factor which was mentioned by  some of the part-time farmers was that the limited size of the farm was too much of a handicap for their sons to compete against the larger operations i f they wanted to go into farming. Involvement in the Ccrorrunity A high level of involvement in the community', often developing out of a need for mutual aid, characterised traditional rural society. The greater mobility of people and the breakdown of rural isolation has meant that the farm population no longer constitutes a homogeneous entity. Despite this, Donohue (195*7:228) found that there was no significant difference between part-time and full-time farmers with respect to attitudes toward basic institutional complexes, and that the thesis that part- time farmers are cultural hybrids and contribute to instability in the rural social structure was questionable. Because of the nature of their off-farm occupations, parttime and residential farmers are frequently presumed to represent groups influenced by both the traditional values of rural society and also those associated with the diversity of urban l i f e .  With this assumption in mind, the  forty respondents were investigated as to their commitment to the local community in terms of social participation and patronage of local services. It would be expected that part-time and residential farmers would be less likely to partake in the affairs of the local community than the full-time farmers because of their connection with other institutions associated with their off-farm work and the fact that they had in a large number of cases  - 105 moved from an urban area to their present farm. Social Participation*  Social participation i s a measure of an indivi-  dual's involvement i n a ccjmmunity i n both formal and semi-formal organisations (Bertrand 1958:139)*  Formal organisations include churches and farmer or-  ganisations, whereas semi-formal participation includes buying supplies, borrowing money and marketing the farm produce (ibid.).  The distribution of  social participation was measured for both farm operators and their wives. The four categories chosen for investigation were selected to cover the wide range of interests that would be found i n an area such as Matsqui Municipality where there were both rural and urban activities available. A f f i l i a t i o n with a church was the most frequent form of membership for both farm operators and their wives (Tables XXXVI and XXXVII), and i n most cases, the respondents who reported church a f f i l i a t i o n indicated that they attended the services regularly.  That the church i s an important i n -  stitution i n rural l i f e was reflected i n the breakdown of membership reported by the three types of farm operators (Tables XXXVI and XXXVII). Membership i n organisations related to the farms' operation was the second most important means of participation.  This included membership i n local co-operatives  and the marketing of farm produce.  As would be expected, the full-time and  part-time respondents recorded the largest number of participants (Table XXXVI). Organisations associated with other aspects of farming or offrfarm occupations had a low level of participation recorded by the forty respondents.  Participation i n social activities, other than those associated d i -  rectly with the church, were attended by a larger percentage of the resident i a l farm operators and their wives than by either of the other two operator classes.  This pattern indicated a number of important features.  Firstly,  most of the full-time operators reported that any social activities were re-  - 106 l ated directly to the church, and secondly, the time factor prevented them having other regular social commitments.  These factors also applied to the  part-time respondents, and i n other operator categories the operators were more active i n social activities than their wives.  The evidence also indi-  cated that where part-time or residential operators belonged to an organisation they were more l i k e l y to be committee members than their full-time counterparts.  This was often the result of their off-farm occupation having  given them certain attributes which would be beneficial to certain societies. TABLE XXXVI DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT MEMBERSHIP IN FORMAL AND SEMI-FORMAL ORGANISATIONS BT THE HUSBAND  Full-Time No. %  Type Church Farm . Societies Social a  0  9  7 1 1  81.8 63.6 9.1 9.1  Part-Time No. %  12 11 2 3  66.7 61.1 11.1 16.7  Residential No. %  5  45.5 27.3  A l l Farms No. %  26 16 3  7  65.0 40.0 7.5  Organisations including co-operatives and marketing agencies. Organisations other than those i n the "Farm" category, but included membership i n those associated with either agriculture or off-farm occupations. c Social clubs other than those directly associated with a church. b  The rural church was the predominant socialising institution reported by the forty respondents.  There i s l i t t l e doubt that the low level of par-  ticipation i n other organisations i s explainable by the large number of Mennonites i n the area and the establishment of a comprehensive variety of organisations under the auspices of the Mennonite religious body. The evidence also clearly showed that the institution traditionally sponsored by rural society, the church, had greater patronage from the full-time farmers than the  - 107 other two operator groups. Another reason for the low level of non-church social participation could be that because of the gap between various ethnic and religious groups, membership was limited to small groups which were sponsored by the churches.  This last factor was one which was noted by Buckmire  (1966:80) in his study of the Bonnyville District of Alberta. TABLE XXXVII DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT MEMBERSHIP IN FORMAL AND SEMI-FORMAL ORGANISATIONS BT THE WIFE  Full-Time No. %  Type  8 100.0  Church Farm Societies Social  Part-Time No. %  12 66.7  a  b  2  0  11.1  Residential No. %  5  55.6  3  ?3.3  A l l Farms No. % 25 71.lt  2 3  5.7 8.6  Organisations including co-operatives and marketing agencies. b  Organisations other than those In the "Farm" category, but includes membership in those associated with either agriculture or off-farm occupations. 0  Social clubs other than those directly associated with a church.  Economic Participation. In addition to social participation in the local community, there is economic participation, which may be measured by the level of patronage of local retail services.  Traditionally, the local  service centre could supply a l l or most of the commodities necessary to maintain a farming community because its populace only required the essentials for rural living.  Two factors which are both related to the breakdown of rural  isolation have, however, altered this relationship. Firstly, there has been the influx Into rural areas of people who have acquired an urban set of values and who demand the services capable of providing the standard of living associated with those values. Secondly, the increased mobility of  - 108 rural populations and their awareness through the mass media of the wider range of services available i n the larger urban centres permits them to exercise a choice i n their purchasing habits, not only as to what they buy but where they go to buy i t . The migration patterns of many of the forty respondents indicated that they had at some stage lived i n an urban area and would have consequently been subject to an urban set of values, however limited this may have been. With this i n mind, the purchasing habits of the forty respondents were i n vestigated with reference to the major commodities necessary for maintaining the rural family. No attempt was made to isolate the patronage of local services at the local store level, but rather the relative importance of centres such as Abbotsford, Clearbrook, Matsqui or Mission City compared with Vancouver. TABLE XXXVIII DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT LEVEL OF PATRONAGE OF LOCAL SERVICES  3  Type of Services Food Clothing Household Agricultural Entertainment Average  Full-Time No. % 11 100.0 10 90.9 11 100.0 11 100.0 11 100.0 10.8 98.2  Part-Time No. % 18 100.0 15 83.3 17 9k.k 18 100.0 17 94.4 17 94.1*  Residential No. % 11 100.0 9 81.8 10 90.9 11 100.0 9 81.8 10.0 90.9  A l l Farms No. % 40 100.0 34 85.0 38 95.0 1*0 100.0 37 92.5 37.8 94.5  a "Local" was recorded when respondents acquired the respective services i n Matsqui Municipality, usually Clearbrook or Abbotsford, rather than purchasing them i n Vancouver. A l l of the forty respondents purchased locally the larger part of their food supply, and this was also the case for agricultural equipment and machln-  - 109 ery (Table XXXVH). Although almost a l l of the full-time operators (90.9 per cent) purchased their clothing i n Abbotsford, this figure was lower f o r part-time (83.3 per cent) and residential farm operators (81.8 per cent). This purchasing pattern could possibly be explained by the greater number of non-agricultural contacts made by the latter two operator categories which necessitated a greater variety of clothing. the operators and their wives.  This factor would apply to both  Household purchases were generally made i n  Abbotsford, and the residential category once again reported the lowest level of patronage of the local services.  Entertainment was also acquired l o c a l l y  by the majority of the respondents, but i n most cases the operators indicated that outside the church and associated organisations entertainment was generally kept to a minimum. The lack of entertainment available l o cally, particularly for the children, was criticised by many of the respondents.  Some of the part-time and residential operators stated that they  sometimes went to Chilliwack City for their entertainment since i t had theatres and a greater variety of recreation f a c i l i t i e s for both young and old people. The "average" figures l n Table XXXVIII help to illustrate the general pattern of patronage of local services.  The fact that the average figure for  a l l the respondents for the five categories of commodities was 94.5* per cent suggests that the services available l n Abbotsford were adequate for nearly  2 a l l the respondents.  As would be expected, the level of patronage when  applied to the three types of farm operators showed that the full-time operators relied to the greatest extent on the local stores and services.  The  Although Abbotsford Village had a population of 792 i n 1966, the tot a l urban area of Abbotsford and Clearbrook has a population of approximately 7,000. The size of the urban area may be further illustrated by the fact that Abbotsford has five banks and a newspaper with a circulation of 3,811 (Bureau of Economics and Statistics 1966:168).  - 110 average figure for the full-time operators was 98.2 per cent, 94.4 per cent for the part-time operators and 90.9 per cent for the residential operators. The reasons given by the part-time and residential operators for shopping i n Vancouver rather than i n Matsqui Municipality were a combination of greater available choice and the fact that some of them had formerly lived i n Vancouver and were therefore acquainted with specific stores i n which they could obtain particular quality items.  Interviews with storekeepers i n the  small centres i n Matsqui Municipality such as Peardonville, Clayburn and Mount Lehman indicated that their sales were generally made to the older regular patrons of the store or to the younger families when they had forgotten commodities i n Abbotsford or Clearbrook. Degree of Isolation The physical isolation of the forty respondents was investigated from two standpoints. F i r s t l y , the degree of isolation within Matsqui Municipality, and secondly, the degree of isolation within the Lower Mainland. This latter factor was measured by the frequency of v i s i t s to the Vancouver Metropolitan area. Within Matsqui Municipality.  The degree of physical isolation with  regard to the major services for any resident within Matsqui Municipality was negligible since the municipality covers only one hundred square miles and eontains numerous small service centres i n addition to the major centres of Clearbrook and Abbotsford.  However, a number of patterns were identified sub-  sequent to comparing the average total distance travelled for services by the three types of farm operators.  The average total distance travelled for the  seven services"^ was obtained by calculating for each respondent the total  The seven services included: food, clothing, medical, church, elementary school, secondary school and post office.  - Ill -  one way distance to the nearest places where each of the seven services could be obtained. This figure was then divided by seven to obtain the average distance. Because the nearest location for many of the services was not necessarily Abbotsford or CLearbrook but at centres such as Peardcarville, Matsqui, Mt. Lehman or Clayburn, the figures do not Indicate an accurate distance factor from the centre of Abbotsford. In addition, respondents who lived i n the northern part of the municipality sometimes shopped in Mission City, whereas those in the western part of the municipality often shopped in Aldergrove for their daily requirements. However, the faot that a l l of the respondents obtained their medical, secondary school, and clothing needs i n Abbotsford does permit the average figure to be used as an approximate indication of the relative location of the forty respondents to the centre of Abbotsford. Of the seven services taken Into consideration, the elementary school was nearest and the post office was the second closest for the majority of the respondents.  Residential operators tended to be closer to the seven  services than either the part-time or full-time operators (Table XXHX). Blue (81.8 per cent) of the residential operators travelled an average distance of less than 5 miles for the seven items, but only eleven (61.1 per cent) parttime operators and five (45.5 per cent) of the full-time operators were within that distance." Only four (10.0 per cent) operators had more than six miles to travel for the seven items, and a l l of these were part-time farmers. The reasons for this pattern became more evident when the travelling time from the centre of Abbotsford was taken into consideration. Using the choropleth pattern mapped by the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board (1965) for the five minute and ten minute driving times from the centre of Abbotsford, an overlay was made of the location of the forty sample farms.  It was found  - 112 from the exercise that nine (81.8 per cent) of the residential farmers were within ten minutes driving time from the centre of Abbotsford. The figures for the part-time and full-time farmers were nine (50.0 per cent) and six (5U.5 per cent) respectively. TABLE XXXIX PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT AVERAGE TOTAL DISTANCE TRAVELLED FOR SERVICES  3  Distance in Miles 2 or less 3 -4 5 -6 7-8  Full-Time No % 2 18.2 3 27.3 6 5U.5  Part-Time No. % 5 27.8 7 38.9 2 ll.l U 22.2  Residential No. % k 36.U 5 U5.4 2 18.2  A l l Farms No. % 11 27.5 15 37.5 10 25.0 k 10.0  Total  11 100.0  18 100.0  11  HO 100.0  100.0  a The services included: food, clothing, medical, church, elementary school, secondary school and post office. By using the data assembled in Table XXXIX and the driving time information i t was possible to ascertain a number of features. Firstly, resident i a l fanners tended to settle in a location more convenient to the centre of Abbotsford than either of the other types of farm operators, and that this was the nearest place for most of them to obtain the seven items indicated in Table XXXIX. Secondly, for many of the part-time operators, small local stores were more convenient for everyday needs than Abbotsford centre. T»»i« pattern was similar for the full-time farmers but not so distinctly developed. Thirdly, the ease of access to either the freeway or Highway 11 (the main highway from Mission City to Abbotsford) was in some cases a more Important influence on the time travel factor than the actual distance involved. Within the Lower Mainland. The development of a comprehensive Infrastructure in the Lower Mainland has encouraged the overflow of an urban  - 113 orientated population into a large part of this region. A major stimulant in this movement has been the construction of a modern freeway system. The existing figures relating to the mobility of people in the Lower Mainland are in terms of commuter distances and times, and the number of people involved (L.M.R.P.B. 195*6). The frequency of visits to Vancouver by the farm population would therefore seem to contribute an Important dimension ln an attempt to identify the level of isolation experienced by the farm family. Two questions in the interview schedule were orientated to this problem. One focused on the frequency of visits made by the respondents to Vancouver, and the other one attempted to ascertain the effect the freeway may have had on this travel pattern. As would be expected, the full-time operators recorded a lower frequency of visits to Vancouver than either of the other types of farm operators. The highest level of frequency of visits by full-time respondents was monthly, which was reported by three (27.3 per cent) of them (Table XL). The three respondents who travelled daily to Vancouver did so in TABLE XL PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT FREQUENCY OF VISITS TO VANCOUVER  Frequency Daily Weekly Monthly Six or less Less than one Total a  a  a  Full-Time No. % 3 27.3 6 5*4.5" 2 18.2 11 100.0  Part-Time No. % 1 $jF 3 16.7 2 11.1 10 5*5*.5* 2 11.1 18 100.0  a  Number of visits per year.  b  Daily visit with off-farm employment.  Residential No. % 2 18.1 D  3 3 3 11  27.3 27.3 27.3 100.0  All No. 3 3 8 19 7 40  Farms % 7.5* 7.5* 20.0 U7.5* 17.5" 100.0  -114 connection with their off-farm occupation. Both residential respondents (18.1 per cent) i n this category had previously lived in the city itself, but this was not the case for the one (5.6 per cent) part-time farmer. Residential farmers also reported the largest percentage of respondents (27.3 per cent) who visited Vancouver less than once a year. Two (18.2 per cent) of these respondents reported that their age was the controlling factor i n the lack of visits, whereas the other respondent indicated that he did not like urban areas. The data indicated that for the majority of the respondents, the Vancouver urban area held no special attraction. This was because a large somber of respondents did not like to go into large urban areas unless i t was absolutely essential and the fact that Abbotsford was a large enough urban centre to supply most of their needs. Three major factors could be determined which affected the frequency of visits to Vancouver.  Firstly, a high visiting fre-  quency was related to the off-farm occupations of the respective respondents. Secondly, the lowest frequency level of visits was resultant upon an age factor. Thirdly, the number of farm respondents reporting visits on a monthly basis or six times a year or less was largely a function of whether these respondents had members of their immediate family living in Vancouver.  In general,  any other business that was transacted in Vancouver, such as shopping or sightseeing, was combined with the personal visits. The majority of the forty respondents reported that the construction of the freeway had made no difference to their frequency of visits to Vancouver (Table XLI). No really significant factor was found to explain the response pattern tabulated in Table XLI except for the age of the respondents. In a l l three operator classes the respondents who reported that the freeway had made a positive change in the number of visits to Vancouver were in the  - 115 younger age groups shown In Table XXX. TABLE XII PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT EFFECT OF FREEWAT ON FREQUENCY OF VISITS TO VANCOUVER  Positive Undecided Negative Total  Full-Time No. %  3 27.3 2 18.2 6 54.5 11 100.0  Part-Time No. %  It 22.2 2 11.1 12 66.7 18 100.0  Residential No. %  3 1 7  ii  27.3 9.1 63.6 100.0  All Farms No. f  10 5  25.0 12.5 2 ? 62.£ UO 100.0  Social Reasons for the Persistence of Small Farms The short summary at the end of Chapter III stated that the low f i nancial returns reported by many of the small farm respondents implied that the reasons for farm living were not necessarily based on economic considerations. The last section of this chapter therefore attempts to identify some of the social reasons for the persistence of small farms within the context of the three types of small farm operators. In addition, the future Intentions of the forty respondents with regards to the function of their respective farms are identified. Level of Satisfaction with Rural Living. The likelihood of farmers remaining on small farms although the economic returns from the farm operation are often limited i s often Influenced by their level of satisfaction with rural living which cannot necessarily be expressed ln economic terms (Abell 19561 120).  In order to Investigate the attitude and satisfaction of the forty  respondents to living on farms i n Matsqui Municipality, the farm operators and their wives were asked to indicate which of the five statements shown In Table XLII most accurately described their level of preference for either  - 116 living in a rural or urban environment. Although only ten per cent of the interviews were conducted with both the farm operator and his wife present, the respondents in the remainder of the Interviews were asked what the attitudes of their husband or wife were as was appropriate. TABLE XUI PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH RURAL OR URBAN LIVING EXPRESSED BT THE HUSBAND  Level Reported 1. 2. 3. 4.  a  Full-Time No. % 7 63.6 3 27.3 1 9.1  Part-Time No. % 16 88.9 2 11.1  Residential No. % 10 90.9 1  9.1  All Farms No. % 33 82.5 5 12.5 2 5.0  11 100.0  18 100.0  11  100.0  UO 100.0  5.  Total  Levels of satisfaction were obtained by asking the respondents which of the statements best described the way they felt: 1. 2. 3. li. 5.  I am strongly favourable to living In the rural environment. I am favourable to living in a rural environment. I am neutral to living in the country or the city, I am favourable to living in the city. I am strongly favourable to living in the city.  Thirty-three (82.5 per cent) of the farm operators were strongly favourable to living in a rural environment. Within the three types of operator categories, residential operators had the largest percentage of respondents (90.9 per cent) expressing this level of satisfaction. Sixteen (88.9 per cent) of the part-time operators were strongly favourable to living in a rural environment but only seven (63.6 per cent) of the full-time farmers felt the same way. The relatively low percentage of full-time operators ex-  - 117 pressing a high level of satisfaction with rural living could not be explained by any one particular factor.  Although the four operators (36.li per cent)  which expressed a lower level of satisfaction were not restricted to a low income group, the Impression gained from a number of the interviews was that part-time farmers experienced more enjoyment from farming because they were not burdened with i t s financial worry to the same extent as their full-time counterparts.  This line of reasoning was further substantiated by the fact  that the residential respondents, the operator class relying least on the economic returns from farming to supply the family income, had the highest percentage of respondents which Indicated a high level of satisfaction with rural l i v i n g .  The one full-time operator who reported that his feelings  were neutral to living i n the country or the c i t y was sixty-five and intended to retire to dearbrook.  The interviews indicated that social rather  than economic considerations were the major factors i n explaining the respondents' higher level of satisfaction with rural than urban living, whereas any dissatisfaction with living on farms was caused by the awareness of a lack of economic success.  Consequently, full-time farmers reported a lower  level of satisfaction with rural living because they were dependent on farming for their family Income. A higher percentage of the wives indicated that they were strongly favourable to living i n a rural environment (Table XLIII). Whereas 82.5 per cent of the farm operators were classified i n this category, the figure was 85.7 per cent for their wives.  In a l l cases except one, the wives' feelings  towards l i v i n g i n a rural or urban environment were identical to those of their respective husbands.  - 118 TABLE XLIII PERCENTAQE DISTHIBITTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT LEVEL OF SATISFACTION WITH RURAL OR URBAN LIVING EXPRESSED BT THE WIFE  Level Reported 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Total  Full-Time No. % 6 75.0 1 12.5 1 12.5  a  8 100.0  Part-Time No. % 16 88.9 2 11.1  18  100.0  Residential No. % 8 88.9 1  11.1  9  100.0  AU Farms No. % 30 85.7 3 8.5 1 2.9 1 2.9 35  100.0  a  Levels of satisfaction vera obtained! by asking the respondents which of the statements best described the way they felt: 1. 2. 3. li. 5.  I I I I I  am am am am am  strongly favourable to living in the rural environment. favourable to living in a rural environment. neutral to living in the country or the city, favourable to living In the city. strongly favourable to living in the city.  Reasons for Preferring Rural Living. The reasons for preferring rural living were basically the same for the three types of small farm operators. On the whole, however, the part-time respondents were far more dogmatic in expressing their reasons for rural living than either the full-time or residential operators. For nearly a l l the respondents, the factor of privacy with its associated benefits of freedom and more space was the prime reason for rural living.  This was closely followed by the contention that a farm,  however small, was a better place to bring up children since i t made them more self-reliant, gave them a greater sense of responsibility and a superior sense of moral and psychological values than i f they had been brought up l n the city.  The third most important aspect of farm living according to the  respondents was the physical environment. This included fresh air, the ab-  - 119 sence o f p o l l u t i o n associated with c i t i e s , and the absence o f excessive noise.  For some o f the f u l l - t i m e operators and those part-time operators  who hoped to farm on a f u l l - t i m e basis the f a c t that farming gave the operator a sense o f independence and achievement was an important consideration. Respondents from the three operator categories also suggested that l i v i n g on a farm i n Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y s t i l l permitted them to partake o f the conveniences formerly avail able only i n urban areas and therefore there was no advantage t o becoming an urban dweller.  Other reasons which were mentioned  by the respondents to a l e s s e r extent were, that farm l i f e offered security, i t was cheaper than l i v i n g i n the c i t y , the respondents were used to l i v i n g i n the country, and that there was a b e t t e r community s p i r i t i n r u r a l areas. I t was evident from the responses o f some o f the respondents that farming was s t i l l considered a way o f l i f e and that there s t i l l existed an evaluation of r u r a l as opposed to c i t y l i f e based on e t h i c a l and moral grounds which were frequently founded on r e l i g i o u s i d e a l s . Future Plans o f Small Farm Operators In order to obtain some idea o f the future o f small farms i n Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y from the outlook o f the farm operators, the f o r t y respondents were asked what function the farm would be used f o r i n the future. (63.6  per cent) o f the f u l l - t i m e operators indicated that they would remain  farming on a f u l l - t i m e basis on t h e i r present holding (Table XLIV). (27*3  Seven  Three  per cent) o f the f u l l - t i m e operators intended t o remain on the farm and  use i t only as a place o f residence. f i v e and the other one was s i x t y - f o u r .  Two o f these operators were over s i x t y The one f u l l - t i m e operator who was  vacating the farm was s i x t y - f i v e and was moving i n t o Clearbrook to l i v e . Thirteen ( 7 2 . 7 p e r cent) o f the part-time operators intended to continue farming on a part-time b a s i s , although three o f them hoped to enlarge t h e i r enterprises by increasing the acreage under small f r u i t s or r e a r i n g a  - 120 larger number of cattle. Five (27.8 per cent) of the part-tine operators hoped to become full-time farmers. Only one of them, however, had set himself an approximate date when he would make the change in his operation. For the other four respondents, the inhibiting factor was basically the same. This was the difficulty of building up a sufficiently large profitable farm business while s t i l l maintaining their off-farm occupation. Moore and Wayt (1957:1*) in their study of part-time farming as a route to full-time farming showed that the difficulty mentioned above was complicated by the fact that as operators built up their size of farm business, their average non-farm earnings decline, leaving no net gain in expendable income. They (ibid.) also suggested that most operators who became full-time farmers did so for reasons which were partly non-economic and which were instead based on the capacity for making decisions, the willingness to sacrifice same Income i f necessary, and the co-operation and attitude of the farm family as a whole. Ten (90.9 per cent) of the residential respondents Intended to remain on their farm and use i t solely as a place of residence. TABLE X L I 7  PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF FARM RESPONDENTS BT PROPOSED FUNCTION OF THE FARM HOLDING IN THE FUTURE Proposed Full-Time Function No. % Fun-Time Farming 7 63.6 Part-Time Farming Residence 3 27.3 vacate the farm 1 9.1 Total 11 100.0  Part-Time No. % 5 27.8 13 72.2  Residential No. % 1 10  9.1 90.9  18 100.0  11  100.0  AU Farms No. % 12 30.0 lit 35.0 13 32.5 1 2.5 1*0 100.0  - 121 SiTntmaTy  The evidence discussed in Chapter 17 clearly Indicated that although many of the non-economic characteristics of the farm families were not direct factors in accounting for the economic predicament of the farm family income they were nevertheless Important considerations ln understanding the present relationship between the operator and his holding and the family and the local community. The ethnic background of many of the respondents was important i n explaining the presence of many of the farm operators in farming.  In a number  of cases the inability to speak English and the reluctance of labour unions to recognize foreign qualifications left the immigrant l i t t l e choice but to enter farming as a means of livelihood. Associated with these factors were low educational levels and the fact that the majority of the respondents had been brought up on farms. These factors behind entry Into farming were strengthened in the ease of the Mennonite religious group by the presence of others of the same faith who had adopted a type of farming which was associated with relatively small holdings and the intensive use of family labour. This association between a specific type of farming and an ethnic group was also found to exist in the case of the Japanese and the Butch. There was no significant difference between the marital status reported for the three operator categories but full-time farm families were larger than those of the part-time or residential farmers.  The most significant pat-  tern with regard to farm children was that of off-farm migration with their occupations being other than agricultural. Despite the fact that many of the part-time and residential operators had lived in an urban area at some time during their lives, the part-time farmers had occupied their present holding for a longer period than their f u l l -  - 122 time counterparts. This would seem to indicate that part-time farming on small farms offers greater economic and social security than i f farming i s the only source of income. However, part-time farming as a step on the agricultural ladder to full-time farming was not a particularly successful or eff i c i e n t means of attaining this objective. Social participation except for church membership was generally low for the majority of the respondents.  Although full-time farmers reported the  highest level of patronage of local stores and services, Abbotsford's f a c i l i ties were sufficient to meet most of the demands of a l l the respondents.  As  a result shopping excursions to Vancouver were limited even with the availab i l i t y of a freeway system. The evidence also indicated that although many of the respondents must have experienced considerable d i f f i c u l t y i n retaining their capital assets the social advantages evolving out of farm residency more than compensated for their economic predicament.  The result of the interviews further sug-  gested that rural living rather than farming per se was the major attraction for living on farms since i t manifested the availability of space without the hardships traditionally associated with agriculture.  CHAPTER V SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS Summary The purpose of this study was to document and analyse some of the major characteristics of the present socio-economic situation of small farms i n the Lower Mainland of British Columbia.  The present chapter summarises  the more important findings of the survey, and b r i e f l y discusses the Implications of this evidence i n terms of the possible future of small farms. The i n i t i a l chapters indicated that because the major function of small farms i s often other than agricultural production, there i s the necess i t y to recognise the contrasting functions which holdings may serve for the operators and their families.  In this respect the synthesis of the hetero-  geneous motives for farm occupancy into three levels of farm operation, f u l l time, part-time and residential provided a convenient and rewarding approach to the problem. For the purpose of this study farms of under twenty-one acres were classified as small farms.  The criteria used for establishing the types  of occupiers were related to the relative working time spent by the occupier at on-farm and off-farm work and the Income obtained from the associated activity.  Using these terms of reference a full-time operator was one who  spent less than 100 days on off-farm work, or where at least £l per cent of the family l i v i n g income was contributed by the farm; the part-time operator was one who spent more than 100 days on off-farm work, or where at least $1 per cent of the family living income was derived from sources other than from the farm; and the residential farm operator was one who received less than  - 123 -  - 121;  -  $25>0 from agricultural sales over the proceeding twelve months irrespective of the time he spent on the farm. Although these parameters were established for identifying small farms and the three types of operators involved, their limitations were acknowledged from the standpoint that a l l classifications are subjective because their u t i l i t y i s related to the purpose for which they are designed (Chisholm 196U:°2). Their appropriateness was nevertheless  substantiated  by the fact that the analysis of the f i e l d data using these terms of reference permitted the identification of the different systems and perceptions of farm occupancy which occur among small farm occupiers. It has been shown that the breakdown of rural isolation has meant that the rural population no longer constitutes an homogenous entity, and this i s reflected i n the variety of motives for l i v i n g on farms.  In addition,  the interrelationship between urbanisation, small farms, and the part-time and residential farmer i s a distinctive feature of the farm ownership pattern i n Matsqui Municipality, and i n a l l probability other parts of the Lower Mainland within commuting distance of downtown Vancouver.  The fact that only  eleven ( 2 7 . 5 per cent) of the farms i n the sample were operated as full-time farms clearly indicates that commercial agriculture i s not necessarily the primary function of farm holdings. Factors Accounting for the Presence of Small Farms.  Small farms have  been an integral part of the rural landscape of the Lower Mainland since the inception of agriculture i n the region i n the latter part of the 1820's.  Ini-  t i a l l y , factors such as the high cost of land, the excessive cost of clearing the heavy timber cover, and the desire of the early settlers to establish their holdings close together led to the establishment of small farms.  In addition,  - 125 there was l i t t l e necessity for the farmers to enlarge their holdings since ten acre units at the turn of the century and up until the 1930' s could afford their occupiers a standard of living which was comparable to or even better than that enjoyed by most of society. The farmer also had status and independence and could establish a viable farm operation as a tangible capital asset. During World War II the scarslty of food caused a high market price for raspberries to the extent that the returns from one season's crop could pay for an entire farm (Imus 1948:87). These circumstances encouraged the subdivision of land considered marginal for dairying into five or ten acre lots. As a result more small farms were established particularly In the upland areas of Matsqui Municipality, but also other parts of the Lower Mainland. After World War II the gradual breakdown of rural isolation and the greater integration of production, processing and marketing in agriculture has meant that farm operations must conform to the economy as a whole i f they are to remain effective production units. In addition many of the small units which resulted from the subdivision process mentioned above were not large enough to support their occupiers when the small fruit market collapsed. However, despite the fact that small farm units tend to restrict the type of farming enterprises that may be operated, subdivision continues because high taxes have made i t necessary to dispose of part of the farm unit or urban expansion has engulfed agricultural land along the urban fringe and In dispersed pockets. Economic Circumstances of Families on Small Farms. The data relating to the forty sample farms Indicated that although the average size of f u l l time farms was less than that of the part-time and residential farms, the  - 126 former tended to be situated on soils which recorded a higher rating on the s o i l capability classification.  In addition the full-time farms i n parti-  cular were located on soils which were favourable for the types of agriculture the operators wished to pursue.  However, s o i l characteristics were not  as important as other factors, such as managerial attention or working capit a l i n explaining the farms' economic position.  With regard to the types of  farm enterprises followed by the farm operators the evidence Indicated that these were closely related to the available time and capital that the farmers could devote to their farm operation, as well as the acreage of the holding. For the full-time operators the most significant factor affecting the type of farm enterprise was the acreage of the farm. Within the l i m i tations set by this factor the specific type of enterprise was often the result of previous farming experience and the availability of capital for i n vestment i n machinery, livestock or plant varieties.  The evidence obtained  from some of the interview schedules indicated, however, that the limited size factor could be negated by the input of sufficient capital and the i n troduction of intensive specialisation. The most significant factor affecting the choice of enterprise reported by the part-time operators was the working time the operators could commit to the farms' operation, since i n the majority of cases the incomes obtained from agricultural returns were only supplementary to those obtained from their off-farm occupations.  I t would also appear that because of the  limited amount of working time part-time operators could spend on their farms they tended to operate their holdings less intensively than their full-time counterparts. Although part-time farmers concentrated on simplification from the standpoint of labour input and managerial attention, they had a greater variety of enterprises involved i n their operations than was reported  - 127 by the f a l l - t i m e farmers. The reasons f o r t h i s s i t u a t i o n would seem t o be l a r g e l y explainable by two f a c t o r s .  F i r s t l y , most of the part-time operators, except f o r those  intending to become f u l l - t i m e farmers, admitted that because they were not t o t a l l y dependent on t h e i r farm sales f o r a l i v e l i h o o d they could a f f o r d t o experiment with various enterprises and thus subscribe to the hobby-farm ideal.  Secondly, the f u l l - t i m e farmers on small farms were obliged to con-  centrate on s p e c i f i c enterprises, f o r example b r o i l e r production o r s p e c i a l t y crops, i f they were to a t t a i n the economies o f scale which would maintain v i a b l e economic u n i t s .  Although the f u l l - t i m e farmers d i d have secondary  farm enterprises these took a very subsidiary p o s i t i o n to the main farm enterprise.  In addition, whereas the majority of part-time farmers were con-  cerned with t e c h n i c a l e f f i c i e n c y , the f u l l - t i m e farmers aimed f o r a high l e v e l o f economic e f f i c i e n c y . In contrast, the importance o f agriculture to the r e s i d e n t i a l f a r mers was so i n s i g n i f i c a n t that any c o l l a t i o n between t h i s group and the other two would not have been v a l i d i n terms o f a g r i c u l t u r a l production. With r e gard to the general appearance o f the farms, part-time operators tended t o maintain t h e i r e n t i r e holding i n b e t t e r condition than the r e s i d e n t i a l operators d i d . Although the l a t t e r frequently maintained the house i n good cond i t i o n t h i s concern d i d not always extend to the other farm buildings and the land.  On a number o f r e s i d e n t i a l holdings only a l i m i t e d acerage was being  a c t i v e l y used f o r crop production or l i v e s t o c k r e a r i n g while most o f the land was l e f t i n low q u a l i t y rough pasture.  This being the case i t may be f e a s i b l e  to suggest that some areas o f low c a p a b i l i t y s o i l s could be zoned f o r resident i a l farming and that the s i z e o f these l o t s should not exceed f i v e acres.  In  the upland areas where these s o i l s tend to occur the timber cover would permit  - 123 -  relatively close proximity of dwellings without given the impression of suburbia which would be the case of such development on the open landscape of the  flood plain* The contention that small farms, particularly- i f operated on a f u l l -  time basis, frequently symbolise inadequate farm incomes and the subsequent lower standard of living of the farm family would seem to hold true for a number of respondents i n the present study.  It i s d i f f i c u l t to appraise the  economic position of farm units and farm family income without comparison to a generally accepted yardstick'.  Reference was made i n Chapter H I to the  definition of low income full-time farms used by ARDA, and the fact that the capital value of $25,000 and the gross farm sale value of $3,750 provided a convenient guage for the present study. Five (Ii5.5 per cent) of the f u l l time farms i n the sample would be classed as low Income units on the basis of farm sales, and another two (18,2 per cent) were slightly above the $3,750 figure.  The same seven farms were also the ones with capital values of less  than $25,000,  This relationship substantiates the findings of other studies  that farms with low capital values are also the ones with the lowest farm cash incomes. Five (27.8  per cent) of the eighteen part-time farmers recorded  farm expenses i n excess of farm receipts, and only four (22.2 corded farm sales of over $3,750.  per cent) re-  In contrast a l l of the part-time farmers  recorded a family income of over $3,000 (the poverty line used by ARDA for rural non-farm families) even when the deficits from the farms' operation were taken into consideration. None of the residential farmers had gross farm sales of over $100, but only two (18.2  per cent) other than those which  were retired, recorded incomes of less than $3,000.  Although no exact figures  were obtained during the interview as to the use of farm occupancy l n the  - 129 "writing off of taxes levied against the other sources of farm family i n 11  come, this would no doubt be an important consideration for some of the occupiers. From the standpoint of the farms' operation a number of factors help to explain the organisation behind the eventual financial situation.  Firstly,  although labour costs were a major expense i n the farms' operation i t was apparent that on a number of holdings there was an Inefficient use of the family labour supply.  Secondly, l i t t l e contact was made with the District Agricul-  turist, and except for a few part-time farmers who intended to farm f u l l time, he was approached i n a remedial capacity rather than as a source of information associated with agricultural innovations. Thirdly, even though most operators who needed dependable and efficient marketing for their products (e.g. poultry and small fruit) belonged to marketing organisations, some of them received less than the established grower price because of their i n a b i l i t y to produce the product i n large enough quantities.  This was particu-  l a r l y true for those operators whose small f r u i t enterprises formed only secondary activities i n their farms' operation. The evidence relating to the relative value of income obtained from farm and non-farm sources and occupational commitment indicated that for the majority of the part-time farmers agricultural production was only a subsidiary function of their working time.  Fourteen (77.8 per cent) of the part-  time farmers received a greater income from their non-farm occupation than from the farm, and eleven (61.1 per cent) worked full-time off the farm. With regard to the off-farm occupations there was a tendency for the respondents, whether part-time or residential, to neglect the traditional rural occupations for employment i n the secondary and tertiary sectors which had l i t t l e or no connection with farming.  Nevertheless, the majority of the res-  - 130 pondents found off-farm employment i n Matsqui Municipality, and only a small percentage commuted to the Vancouver Metropolitan area for employment.  All  of the full-time operators wives helped substantially on the farm as did 1  over half (£8.3 per cent) of the part-time operators' wives who had no offfarm occupation.  In contrast the majority of the residential operators'  wives (81.8 per cent) had no occupation either on or off the farm. The value of perquisite consumption i n supplementing the farm famil i e s ' food budgets varied considerably, but the average value given was between $200 and $25>0. There was no evidence to suggest, however, that the lower income families attempted to ameliorate their situation by relying to a greater extent on home produced food. None of the forty respondents were receiving welfare payments at the time the interviews were conducted.  The absence of such welfare payments  would seem to indicate that none of the respondents formed the hard core of rural poverty.  Steacy (l°5°:U0) indicated that although farmers may be i n  the inadequate income group and are denying themselves and their families amenities and material possessions to which every home should be entitled, they are not necessarily poverty stricken.  Nevertheless, the operators of  many of the small farms are incapable of taking f u l l advantage of innovations i n agriculture and the higher standard of living being achieved by other sectors of the population. Non-economic Aspects of the Life of the Farm Family.  There are numer-  ous factors which are not necessarily economic i n origin which influence the financial situation of the farms' operation. The demographic characteristics of the farm family and their participation i n the local community are important considerations i n realising the f u l l implications of the economic performance of small farms.  - 131 A large percentage of the respondents were f i r s t and second generation Canadians whose ancestors were frequently of East European origin* Many of those whose families were originally from Eastern Europe were Mennonites who had obtained small farms and who by concentrating on such enterprises as f r u i t and poultry were able to u t i l i s e a large family labour supply. The statements obtained from the interview schedules Indicated that low education levels and the i n a b i l i t y to speak English were two  important  factors i n accounting for the presence of many of the operators i n farming. The fact that the majority of the farmers and their wives had been brought up on farms was another Important factor i n this respect. Whereas the majority of the full-time and residential farmers were immigrants who had farmed i n i t i a l l y on the Prairies, the part-time farmers who were immigrants had come directly to the Lower Mainland i n order that they could combine farm l i v i n g with a non-agricultural occupation.  The rea-  sons for this in-migration particularly from the Prairies varied considerably and resulted from the Lower Mainland having a favourable physical environment, the availability of better social and economic f a c i l i t i e s and the presence of other people of the same religious or ethnic group.  There was, however,  l i t t l e indication that farmers migrate to the Lower Mainland specifically to retire on small farms, or that they are financially well off when they came to this area.  Despite the fact that full-time farmers were more mobile than  the part-time or residential farmers i n terms of the number of moves made, the two latter categories of operators could be regarded as being more adaptable to change In their place of residence since many of them had at some stage lived i n an urban area.  This was not the case for the full-time far-  mers, the majority of whom had always lived i n rural areas. From the figures relating to the duration of occupancy on the present  - 132 farm, the part-time farmers had occupied them for a longer period than their full-time counterparts, although the full-time farmers were generally older than the part-time and residential respondents.  This would seem to indicate  that part-time farming on small farms offers greater economic and social s t a b i l i t y than i f farming i s the only source of revenue. The majority of the respondents were married with children, but the full-time farm families tended to be larger than those of the part-time or residential operators. The most significant pattern with regard to farm children was one of off-farm migration with their occupations being nonagricultural.  This trend reflected the opinion expressed by most of the  respondents that farming small farms as a full-time occupation was a potential career for their children only i f they were not academically i n clined.  In this respect i t i s significant that grade eight was the highest  level of schooling completed by the majority of the parents, and only a very limited number of farmers had done any form of adult education. Social participation, except for church membership, was generally low for a l l of the respondents.  Part-time farmers recorded the highest  level of social participation i n the community, but on the whole the supposition held by many potential rural residents that rural l i v i n g permits a greater social involvement i n the community had not materialised for the maj o r i t y of the respondents. Economic patronage of local stores and services was high for nearly a l l of the forty respondents with full-time farmers reporting the highest level of patronage.  Although many of the part-time and residential farmers  had at some stage lived i n urban areas and acquired to a certain extent an urban set of values, Abbotsford*s shopping f a c i l i t i e s were sufficient to supply most of their needs. As a result shopping excursions to Vancouver or New Westminster were limited and were usually combined with social v i s i t s .  - 133 The distribution of the forty farmers indicated that a l l of the respondents were fairly accessible to a l l of the major services, but that residential farmers had tended to settle ln closer proximity to the centre of Abbotsford than was the case for the other two types of small farm operators. Because large urban areas held no special attraction for the majority of the respondents and their wives, their frequency of visits to Vancouver were generally low and only the younger farmers indicated that they travelled to Vancouver more frequently since the freeway had been constructed. Social rather than economic considerations were the major factors in accounting for the respondents higher level of satisfaction with rural than 1  city living, whereas any dissatisfaction with living on farms was related to the lack of economic success. The three most frequently stated reasons for preferring rural living were, availability of space, a better place to bring up children and a superior physical environment to that experienced in urban areas. It was evident from the responses of some of the older respondents that farming was s t i l l considered a way of l i f e with its associated supposedly superior social, moral and psychological values compared to the city way of life. The future plans of the forty respondents indicated that there was l i t t l e likelihood of any of the full-time farmers taking off-farm jobs to supplement their farm income, and that most of them would remain on their farms at least until they retired. Although five (27.8 per cent) of the parttime farmers wanted to work full-time on their farms the difficulty of building up a sufficiently large farm business while s t i l l maintaining an offfarm occupation was a strong inhibiting factor to making the change over to full-time farming. It would therefore appear that part-time farming as a step on the agricultural ladder to full-time farming was not a particularly successful or efficient means of attaining this objective. The majority of  - I3h -  the residential farmers Intended to remain on their holdings and use them as places of residence and security with no attempt at commercial agriculture. The evidence indicated that there was an inverse relationship between dependency on farming for a livelihood and the level of satisfaction with rural living and that consequently rural living rather than farming per SB was the major attraction for living on small farms. Conclusion The large volume of field data represented in Chapters H I and 17 has clearly illustrated the wide range of small farm types not only from the standpoint of the type of farm enterprise and the type of operator but also from the economic status and viability of the farms operation. Because 1  most existing studies have couched the small farm situation in terms of inadequate economic returns from the farm holding, an attempt will be made in the conclusion to identify those economic factors which help to perpetuate this characteristic of many of the small farms in the Lower Mainland. In addition the small farm will be evaluated in terms of the three types of farm operations as to whether they are beneficial to the occupier and the future of the Lower Mainland. Factors Accounting for the Economic Success or Failure of Small Farms. The evidence obtained from the interviews indicated that some small farms are viable economic units and do provide an adequate level of living for the operator and his family. Since a l l the farms included In the sample were within a limited size range the physical size factor in terms of acreage would not appear to be a significant one in explaining the variation in farm income which occurred among the forty farms. It should be pointed out, however, that g r ^ n farmers in general are at a disadvantage when compared with the larger farmers because their farm businesses are too small to allow them to economically utilise many of the innovations in agriculture unless they organise  - 135 -  joint ownership programs or co-operatives. It was found that the majority of the farms, except possibly those classed as residential holdings, were located on soils which were capable of supporting the types of crops that the operators had under cultivation. As a result the resource base could not be regarded as a prime factor in differentiating economically successful and unsuccessful small farms. Although certain types of farm enterprises are more capable of providing adequate returns from small acreages than others, variation in income did occur within specific enterprise categories. It was found, for example, that broiler production was the enterprise type which yielded its operators the greatest profit margin, and a l l the broiler producers operated viable economic holdings. In contrast, whereas some of the small fruit operators were operating economically successful holdings other operators on approximately the same size of holding were making a very narrow profit margin per annum. The types of enterprise which reported the lowest profit margins generally were those concentrating on livestock production, other than poultry. "4  r  By the process of elimination i t was concluded that from an economic standpoint farm size, soil type or type of enterprise were not primary factors in accounting for the relative success or failure of small farms. In addition neither were education levels, ethnic origin or age of operator direct factors In this respect. The three factors which seemed to have the greatest influence were managerial efficiency, the availability of working capital and the desire of the farmer to operate his holding as a commercially orientated farm business. The full-time and part-time operators of small farms who were not In the low income category were those who had been able to adapt to modem agricultural techniques by expedient managerial decisions, the operationalising of these decisions by the input of sufficient capital, and relinquishing the  - 136 -  concept of farming as a war of l i f e where this attitude would have jeopardised efficient farming*  In contrast, the small farms which were the pro-  blem holdings were those where the operators were trapped because they were unwilling or unable to make the necessary adjustments. For some of the farmers reorganisation of their capital investment within the farms' operation would probably help to irradicate some of the inefficiencies of the system. However, the major problem for most of the small farmers was the lack of working capital to expand their business by either increasing their acreage or by intensifying their operation with the introduction of high quality seed or livestock, and labour saving equipment in association with high utility buildings. With the increasing investment and expenditures involved in modern farming operations credit is usually the only means whereby farmers can obtain the necessary capital to make any Improvements. The evidence relating to the sample farms indicated that some of the older farms were reluctant to use credit since they s t i l l maintained the belief that credit was something to be avoided and that i t was preferable i f they could manage without i t .  Even  for those farmers who were willing to use credit the small farm operators were limited by the fact that the amount of credit that could be forwarded to applicants was dependent upon the appraised value of their farms. For example, the two types of loans sponsored by the Farm Credit Corporation allow credit up to seventy-five per cent of the appraised value of the farm (Farm Credit Corporation 196U). Another factor was the age limit of forty-five for the "Package-deal loan" offered by the Farm Credit Corporation (ibid.).  In the  case of the full-time farmers in the present study, only 18.2 per cent would have been eligible to apply for the "Package-deal loan" mentioned above. Although not a l l credit corporations have identical regulations to those already indicated i t would seem that small farmers were not always able to secure farm  - 137  -  credit of the kind or i n the amounts required, because of their age or the value of their present farm operation.  These circumstances therefore i n -  crease the divergence between many of the small farm operators and the m&in£ stream of commercial agriculture which i s associated with increasingly larger production units. The Relative Value of Full-Time, Part-Time and Residential Small Farm Operations.  Full-time farmers who have successfully adjusted their agricul-  tural system to meet the demands of the market appear to be amongst the most satisfied farm occupiers and rural dwellers. They receive an income from the farm which permits them to anjoy a reasonably high standard of l i v i n g without being constantly tied to farm duties and problems.  In this way they are satis-  fied both economically and socially with their present way of l i f e . In contrast, the full-time farmers who have not been able to obtain sufficient capital or to make use of i t by efficient management or have l i t t l e impetus to farm effectively are those who really symbolise the core of the small farm problem.  These types of small farm operators form the substratum  of both the farm and non-farm sector of the rural population and are looked into a way of l i f e which i s losing significance and status.  Although they  receive a certain level of subsistence and security from farm residency the economic returns from the farms' operation do not permit them to take an active part either economically or socially i n the community.  In addition there i s  l i t t l e likelihood that they w i l l improve their economic status because they are  reluctant to take off-farm jobs on a part-time basis and their age and  limited level of education are inhibiting factors for obtaining such occupations.  Their low farm income leads them to express a relatively low level  of satisfaction with rural l i v i n g and yet they s t i l l regard farming as a way of l i f e rather than a challenging business operation. Except f o r those operators who can adjust to the evolving agricultur-  -  138  -  al pattern the full-tine small farm operators will be phased out of farm occupancy. They will either sell out in speculation of making sufficient capital to retire* be forced off the farm by increasing taxes associated with urban sprawl or they will remain on the farm until they die with very l i t t l e likelihood of any of their children maintaining the holding on a full-time basis. Since the majority of the children of the existing operators have already left the farm or have expressed the desire to do so, the future of these farms would seem to lie in amalgamation by larger farms or, in their operation on a part-time or residential basis, with the latter function being the more likely.  This is because the business and professional class who are  likely to form the part-time and residential farm category to even a greater extent in the future are the sectors of society which have available capital to purchase such holdings. For the part-time operators who intend to become full-time farmers the lack of available capital and the difficulty of building up a sufficiently large profitable farm business while s t i l l maintaining their off-farm occupation was the major problem. In a number of cases farmers were not able to extend their holdings' acreage because of the proximity of other holdings. The evidence indicated, however, that the part-time operators who intend to expand their operation to a full-time concern are prepared to change from regarding farming as a way of life to realising i t is a business enterprise. The majority of the part-time farmers and particularly those who operate low Income farms have l i t t l e or no intention of operating their farms as commercial concerns. To these people farming offers a useful source of supplementary income and the benefits of space and independence associated with rural living.  In addition they are prepared to cover any farming losses with  their off-farm occupation in order to retain this way of l i f e .  The farmers who  are successfully combining their farming and their off-farm occupations are  - 139 the households reporting the highest farm family incomes. Because the majority of the part-time farmers are not farming as eff i c i e n t l y and intensively as the larger full-time farmers, and are d u r i n g for technical efficiency as opposed to economic goals they may be regarded as Inefficient users of the resource base.  However, many of them contribute  more to the social and economic stability of the community than the majority of the full-time farmers.  In addition, although their presence on small  farms has often developed out of an unrealistic and sentimental attraction to farm occupancy they are not trapped i n this position to the same extent as their full-time counterparts. This i s because they are not totally dependent on agriculture for their source of income.  I t would also appear that  because the part-time farmers tend to be younger and have lived i n urban areas at some stage i n their lives they would be more adaptable to change Initiated by either internal or external circumstances. The part-time farms would seem to be beneficial to the local municipality i n two closely related ways. F i r s t l y , because the part-time operators tend to be conscious of the appearance of their farms the Improvements they make are transferred into properly taxes for the local municipality.  Secondly,  the rural areas of the Lower Mainland must f u l f i l l a dual purpose, agricultura l production and the availability of an aesthetically attractive environment for the local inhabitants and the recreational activities of the c i t y dweller.  In this respect the well kept and newly painted farm buildings of  the part-time farmers afford greater visual attraction to the local recreational 1st or the tourist than the dilapidated buildings of the low income full-time farmers. Part-time farming w i l l almost certainly Increase i n the future with the phasing out of uneconomic full-time small farms, the greater availability and choice of non-farm occupations, and the increasing number of people who  - mo are essentially non-farmers but who a l l o t rural residency a high place on their scale of values and who can afford to pay for this land space. Whereas the motivations behind the current part-time farm operators may be regarded as extensions of those held by their predecessors, the character of the present residential farmers identify them as distinct entities i n the agricultural milieu.  Although the majority of the part-time farmers show  considerable resemblance to the residential farmers and subscribe to the hobby-farm ideal they have nevertheless retained some association with commercial agriculture.  The residential farmers i n contrast are completely d i -  vorced from farming as a business, and as a result standards of evaluation adopted for full-time and part-time farmers are severely limited i n their application towards this operator category. Low incomes occurring among the residential farmer category are not an agricultural problem but one relating to the other sectors of the economy. On the whole, however, the residential farmer i s better off economically and socially than the full-time small farmer because he i s not locked into a disappearing way of l i f e .  Farm occupancy Instead offers him security, possibly  a cheaper place to l i v e than a c i t y dwelling, and particularly the privacy and space which most of them regard as prime motives for l i v i n g i n rural areas. It would seem that residential farm occupancy w i l l become an even more common phenomenon i n the future i n the Lower Mainland.  The reasons that  were stated for the increase i n part-time farming w i l l probably find stranger expression i n the residential farm occupier category.  In addition, to the  increase i n numbers involved there w i l l tend to be a change i n the types of people who w i l l identify themselves with this type of farm occupancy. Whereas the present residential farmer category i s composed to a considerable extent of people with a rural background or those who are not attraoted financ i a l l y or culturally to the city, i n the future this occupier category w i l l  - lhl largely Involve business and professional people "whose place of residence i s subjectively an important aspect i n the style of l i f e to which they aspire?" (Pahl 1966 O05*). There i s every indication that the small farm w i l l continue as a common phenomenon In the cultural landscape of the Lower Mainland.  The wri,n1nmm  suggested size limits for farms indicated i n the O f f i c i a l Regional Plan for the Lower Mainland Planning Area (L.M.R.P.B. 1966:6) allows f o r the presence 1  of small farms of ten acres i n the "Upland Rural Areas" (see Fig.l.) and farms of down to five acres i n "Acreage Rural Areas" which are those areas of possible long term absorption Into urban development. The established positive relationship between urbanisation and the occurrence of small farms, and i n particular those operated on a part-time or residential basis, w i l l also be more clearly identifiable i n the Lower Mainland as the Vancouver Metropolitan area expands and the level of urbanisation throughout the region increases. It would therefore appear that although small, farms w i l l survive the relative Importance of their functions w i l l change. The majority of the small full-time operated farms w i l l gradually be replaced because they do not adequately f u l f i l l economic or human needs.  The units worked on a part-time or  residential basis do appear to be admissible however, because although they do not adequately meet the economic requirements of a modern agricultural system they do provide their occupiers with sufficient independence to satisfy most of their social needs.  The Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board was disbanded March 31. 1969 by Provincial Order. Instead the Lower Mainland has been divided into four Regional District Boards for future planning decisions. It is intended that the guidelines established ln the Official Regional Plan will be largely followed by the four Regional District Boards. Information obtained from a personal common-I cation in February 1969 with Mr. D. South Director of the Regional Planning Division in the British Columbia Department of Municipal Affairs, Victoria.  BLBLIOORAPHT ABELL, H.C. 1956. Same reasons f o r the persistence o f small farms. The Economic Annalist, 26(5): 115 - 120. ACTON, B.K. 1966. Personal interview with Mr. Acton o f the Canada Department o f Agriculture, Economics Branch, Vancouver, August 30, 1966. ALLTN, J.S. 1961;. Inventory of agriculture i n B r i t i s h Columbia, Transactions of the 15th B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, pp li;0 151. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r . ANDERSON, M. 1967. Personal interview with Mr. Anderson o f Clearbrook Frozen Foods l t d . Abbotsford, May 31, 1967. ANDERSON, R.T. and J . COLLIER 1956. Metropolitan dominance and the r u r a l hinterland. Rural Sociology, 21: 152 - 157* ARMSTRONG, J.E. and W.L. BROWN 1954* Late Wisconsin marine d r i f t and assoc i a t e d sediments o f the Lower Fraser Valley, B r i t i s h Columbia, Canada. B u l l e t i n o f the Geological Society o f America, 65: 349 - 364. ARMSTRONG, J.E. I960.. S u p e r f i c i a l geology o f Sumas map-area, B r i t i s h Columb i a . Department of Mines and Technical Surveys Canada, Paper 59 - 9, Ottawa: Queen's Printer. ASHTON, J . and B.E. CRACKNELL 1961. A g r i c u l t u r a l holdings and farm business structure i n England and Wales (with s p e c i a l reference t o part-time farm businesses). Journal of A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics, 14(4): 472 - 499. BACKMAN, K.L. e t a l . 1948. Appraisal o f the economic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f farms. Journal o f F a r m Economics, 30(4): 680 - 702. BENEDICT, e t a l . 1944. Need f o r a new c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f farms. Farm Economics, 26(4): 694 - 708. BERTRAND, A.L.(ed.) 1958. Rural Sociology. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.  Journal o f  New York, Toronto and London:  BOARD, C. 1963. F i e l d work i n geography with p a r t i c u l a r emphasis on the r o l e of land-use survey. Frontiers i n Geographical Teaching, eds. R.C. Chorley and P. Haggett, pp. 186 - 214. London: Methuen and Co. Ltd. BRITISH COLUMBIA Bureau of Economics and S t a t i s t i c s i960. Regional index o f B r i t i s h Columbia. Department o f I n d u s t r i a l Development, Trade and Commerce. V i c t o r i a : Queen's Printer. - 142 -  - 143 BRITISH COLUMBIA Department o f Agriculture 1 9 6 7 . A g r i c u l t u r a l outlook conference, 1 9 6 7 . V i c t o r i a : Department o f Agriculture. 1968. 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The loss of farm land i n the growth of metropolitan regions of Canada, Resources for Tomorrow, Supplementary Volume, pp. 181 - 195* Ottawa: Queen's Printer. CROSSFIELD, D.C. and E.D. WOODWARD 1961. Dairy farm organisation i n the Eraser Valley of British Columbia, Vancouver: Economics Division, Canada Department of Agriculture. DEXTER, K. and D. BARBER 1961.  Farming for profits, London: Penguin Books.  DION, H.G. 1962. Research for agricultural adjustment, Resources f o r Tomorrow, Supplementary Volume, pp. 69 - 82. Ottawa: Queen's Printer. DODGE, R.E. 1911. Georgraphy and agriculture (abstract). Association of American Geographers, 1:144*  Annals of the  DONOHUE, G.A. 1957* Full-time and part-time farmers' value orientations toward social institutions. Rural Sociology, 22: 221 - 229. EUROPEAN COMMISSION FOR AGRICULTURE 1958. The small farm problem: Inquiry questionnaire and explanatory notes. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Stations (Mimeographed). FARM CREDIT CORPORATION 1964. of Agriculture.  Credit for profit.  Ottawa: Canada Department  FOERSTEL, H.J. 1964* The effectiveness of land use controls i n curbing urban sprawl: a case study i n Richmond. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Ccmnnunity and Regional Planning, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. FOR TIN, G. 1961. Social effects of the evolution of Canadian agriculture, Resources for Tomorrow, Volume 1, pp. 143 - 155* Ottawa: Queen's Printer. FUGUITT, G.V. 1961. A typology of the part-time farmer. Rural Sociology,  26(1) 39 - 48.  - 12*5" ________ 1963.  The c i t y and countryside.  Rural Sociology, 28(3) 2l|6 - 26l.  GASSON, R. 1966. The influence of urbanisation on farm ownership and practice. Studies i n Rural Land Use, Report No. 7. Department of Agricultural Economics, Wye College (University of London), Ashford: Headley Bros. Ltd., GIBSON, J.R. 1959. A comparison of Anglo-Saxon, Mennonite and Dutch farms i n the Lower Fraser Valley, a methodology of areal differentiation and the relative influences of the physical and cultural environments, unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Oregon, Corvallis. GINN, M. 1967. Rural Dutch immigrants i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. GOLDSMITH, H.F. and J.H. COPP 196I.. Metropolitan dominance and agriculture.  Rural Sociology, 29(1+) 385 - 395.  GREGOR, H.F. 1963. Industrialised drylot dairying: an overview. Economic Geography, 39* 298 - 318. HACKER, H. 1967. Personal interview with Mr. Hacker, editor of the "Abbotsford, Sumas and Matsqui News", Abbotsford, June 8, 1967. HAMILTON, CH. 1958. The sociology of a changing agriculture.  37(1): 1 - 7 .  Social Forces,  HARRISON, A. 1966. The farms of Buckinghamshire - some features of farm businesses i n a county adjoining Greater London. Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Reading, Reading. HIGGS, J . (ed.) 1966. People i n the countryside: studies i n rural social development, London: The National Council of Social Service. HOWELL JONES, G.I. 1966. A century of settlement change: a study of the evolution of settlement patterns i n the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. IMUS, H.R. 19U8. Land u t i l i s a t i o n i n the Sumas Lake d i s t r i c t of British Columbia. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of Washington, Seattle. IRONSIDE, R.G. 1968. Planning for rural development: census districts 12 and l i ; i n Alberta. Paper delivered to the Western Division of the Canadian Association of Geographers at Simon Fraser University, British Columbia. March 1968. JONES, R.B. 1957. Farm classification i n Britain: an appraisal. Agricultural Economies, 12: 201 - 215.  Journal of  - 11+6 LOEPPKY, M.L. 1967. Personal interview with Mr. Loeppky, President of Clearbrook Reality and Insurance Agency Ltd., Clearbrook, June 7,  1967.  LOVER MAINLAND REGIONAL PLANNING BOARD 1956. The need for river crossings i n the central part of the Fraser Valley. New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B.  __________ 1957* Summary of population trends i n the Lower Mainland Region 1921 - 1971. ___________  1962.  New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B.  Land for farming. New Westainster: L.M.R.P.B.  ________ 1963a. Chance and challenge. New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B. ____^__ 1963b. The dynamics of residential land settlement. New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B. _________ 1965. Location study for Matsqui-Sumas-Abbotsford Community centre. New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B, _______ 1966.  O f f i c i a l regional plan. New Westminster: L.M.R.P.B.  MACGREGOR, N.M. l°6l. The British Columbian i n agriculture, Lower Mainland and Vancouver Island. Transactions of the 13th British Columbia Natural Resources Conference, pp. 69 - 85. Victoria: Queen's Printer. MADGE, J . 1965. The tools of social science: an analytical description of social science techniques. New Tork: Anchor Books. MATSQUI MUNICIPAL COUNCIL 1919. Matsqui - the farmer's paradise, and what you are looking for, wealth, happiness, health, prosperity, heme: industrial advantages and opportunities. Matsqui. MCKAIN, W.C. J r . 1963. The exurbanite: why he moved. A Place to Live, The Yearbook of Agriculture, pp. 26 - 29. Washington, D.C: The United States Department of Agriculture. MINISTRY OF AGRICULTURE AND FISHERIES 1946. National farm survey of England and Wales 1941 - 1943, London: His Majesty's Stationery Office. MOORE, H.R. and W.A. WATT 1957. The part-time route to full-time farming. Research Bulletin 793, Wooster, Ohio: Ohio Agricultural Experiment a l Station. MOTHERAL, J.R. 1953. The small farm i s doomed. Ames, Iowa: Farm Policy Forum, cited by J. Zeman, 196la. A study of small farms i n the Rosetown - Elrose area of west central Saskatchewan, The Economic Annalist, 31(3): 60. MOXON, A.H.W. 1967. Personal interview with Mr. Moxon, Municipal Clerk, Matsqui Municipality. June 8, 1967.  - 147 NEWMAN, J . 1°66. Contemporary developments i n r u r a l l i f e i n Europe. Soc i o l o g i a B n r a l i s , 6(3 - 4): 224 - 237. NOBLE, H.F. 1955. Farm t i t l e transfer survey 1900 - 1950. Toronto: Farm Economics Branch, Ontario Department o f A g r i c u l t u r e .  ____________ 1965.  An economic c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f farms i n eastern Ontario. Toronto: Farm Economics, Co-operatives and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, Ontario Department o f Agriculture and Food.  _________ 1967.  Socio-economic problems and adjustment needs o f the farm family i n eastern Ontario. Toronto: Farm Economics, Co-operatives and S t a t i s t i c s Branch, Ontario Department o f Agriculture and Food.  ONTARIO EC01I0MIC COUNCIL 1966. People and land i n t r a n s i t i o n : opportunities and resource development on r u r a l Ontario's marginal and abandoned acres. Toronto: Ontario Economic Council. PAHL, R.E. 1965. Urbs i n r u r e : the metropolitan fringe i n Hertfordshire. London School o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science, Geographical Papers No. 2. London: London School o f Economics and P o l i t i c a l Science. 1966.  The rural-urban continuum.  Sociologia R u r a l i s , 5(3 -  4):  299 - 326. PALMER, R.C. 1953. Trends i n the agriculture of B r i t i s h Columbia, Transactions of the 6th B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, pp. 108 113. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r . PARKER, V.J. 1967. Personal interview with Mr. Parker, Executive Director o f the Lower Mainland Regional Planning Board, New Westminster, June 7,  1967.  REEDS, L.G. 1964. A g r i c u l t u r a l geography, progress and prospects. Geographer, 8(2): 51 - 63.  Canadian  RICHTER, J . J . 1964. Developing pattern o f B.C. Agriculture, Transactions o f the 15th B r i t i s h Columbia Natural Resources Conference, pp. 151 - 165. V i c t o r i a : Queen's P r i n t e r . ROGERS, E.M. and H.R. CAPENER I960. The county extension agent and h i s cons t i t u e n t s . Research B u l l e t i n 858: 6 - 7 , Wooster, Ohio: Ohio A g r i c u l t u r a l Experimental Station. RUNKA, G.G. and C.C. KELLEY 1964. S o i l survey of Matsqui Municipality and Sumas Mountain. Preliminary Report No. 6, Lower Fraser V a l l e y S o i l Survey, Kelowna: B r i t i s h Columbia Department of Agriculture. SAVILLE, J . 1966. Development problems i n r u r a l areas. People i n the Countrys i d e : Studies i n Rural Social Development, ed. J . Higgs, pp. 35 - 51. London: The National Council o f Social Service.  - 148 5CH0LFIELD, E.O.S. and F.W. HOWAY, 1914. British Columbia from the earliest times to the present, Vol. II, Vancouver: S.J. Clark. SIEMENS, A.H. I960* Mennonite settlement i n the Fraser Valley. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver. _________ 1966. Selected source material on the Lower Fraser Valley. Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (mimeographed) . SIEMENS, L.B. 1965. The Influence of selected family factors on the educational and occupational aspiration levels of high school boys and g i r l s . Number 1, Faculty of Agriculture and Home Economics, Univers i t y of Manitoba, Winnipeg. SOUTH, D. 1969. Telephone conversation with Mr. South, Director of the Regional Planning Division, British Columbia Department of Municipal Affairs, Victoria, February 1969. SPAULDEIG, I.A. 1959. Change in rural l i f e and the reintegration of a social system. Rural Sociology, 24 (3): 215 - 225. STAGER, J.K. and J.H. WALLIS 1968. The climatic factor - variations on a mean. Lower Fraser Valley: Evolution of a Cultural Landscape, ed. A.H. Siemens, pp. 89 - 100. Vancouvert Tantalus Research Limited. STEACY, N.P. 1959. A brief dealing with the problems of the small farm unit i n British Columbia. Presented to the Special Committee of the Senate on Land-Use i n Canada. Victoria: Department of Agriculture, British Columbia. STURROCK, F.G. 1950. The productivity of labour In British agriculture. Journal of Proceedings of the Agricultural Economics, cited by J. Ashton and B.E. Cracknell, 1961. Agricultural holdings and farm business structure i n England and Wales (with special reference to part-time farm businesses). Journal of Agricultural Economics, 14(4): 478. STUTT, R.A. 1961. An approach to the small farm problem In Canada. The Economic Annalist, 31(1) 14 - 16. SUMMERVILLE, A. 1967. Personal interview with Mr. Suramerville, Land Assessor, Matsqui Municipality, Clearbrook, June 6, 1967. THOMAS, E. and C.E. ELMS. 1938. 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The adoption or rejection of innovations by dairy farm operators i n the Lower Fraser Valley. Publication No. 11, Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada. WHITE, G.B. 1937. A history of the eastern Fraser Valley since 1885. Unpublished M.A. Thesis, Department of History, University of Britich Columbia, Vancouver. WHITE, D.R. 1966. Rural Canada i n Transition. Rural Canada i n Transition, eds. M-A. Tremblay and W.J. Anderson Publication No. 6, pp. 1 - 113, Ottawa: Agricultural Economics Research Council of Canada. WLBBERLET, G.P. 1959.  Agriculture and urban growth. London: Michael Joseph.  WIENS, J.K. I960. A study of small farms i n the Davidson area of central Saskatchewan. The Economic Annalist, 30(4): 84 - 89. WILKENING, E.A. 1964. Some perspectives on change i n rural societies. Sociology, 29(1): 1-17.  Rural  WINTER, G.R. 1968. Agricultural development i n the Lower Fraser Valley, Lower Fraser Valley: Evolution of a Cultural Landscape, ed. A.H. Siemens, pp. 101 - 115, Vancouver: Tantalus Research Limited. WOOD, C.W. 1967. Personal interview with Mr. Wood, of the British Columbia Department of Agriculture, Poultry Division Branch, Abbotsford, June  6, 1967.  ZEMAN, J . 196la. A study of small farms i n the Rosetown - Elrose area of west central Saskatchewan. The Economic Annalist, 31(3): 60 - 66. ________ 196lb. He who has a small farm. The Economic Annalist, 31(4): 83 -  91.  APPENDIX I SOME EXISTING GUIDELINES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF FULL-TIME, PART-TIME AND RESIDENTIAL FARMS The problem of farm classification i s a complicated one. There are many variables involved, but those most frequently used are, the value of agricultural products sold, the relative time spent by the farm operator at either agricultural or non-agricultural work, and the relative Income obtained from farm and non-farm sources. Benedict et a l . (1944) distinguished the following types of farmst large scale farms, family commercial farms, part-time farms, residential farms, and small scale farms.  The last three types which were most appro-  priate to the present study were distinguished as follows.  A l l three types  were farms that sold less than $600 of agricultural products. The part-time farm was one on which the operator spent more than 100 days on non-farm work. Small farms were those where the operator was under 65 years of age and spent less than 100 days on off-farm work.  Residential farms were identified by  the operator being over 65 years of age and the amount of time spent i n offfarm work was less than 100 days per year. Bachman et a l . (191+8) identified small scale farms as those where the land and buildings were valued at under $8,000, the products sold were valued at between $500 and $1,200 and the operator worked less than 100 days o f f the farm i n a year.  They (ibid.) identified part-time units as those where the  operator worked for 100 days or more off the farm, and the value of agricultural products sold ranged from $250 to $1,200.  - 150 -  - 151 The Census of Canada i n 1966  (Canada Census 1966)  defined a census  farm as an agricultural holding of one acre or more with sales of agricultura l products of $50 or more during the twelve month period prior to the census date.  This definition was the same as that used i n 1961  used i n the 1956 and 1951  Census.  but differed from that  Commercial farms for the 1966 Census were  defined as census farms that reported $2,500 or more income from the sale of agricultural products.  Eight classes were identified on the basis of the  value of farm products sold.  The Census also identified small scale farms,  which were census farms (excluding "institutional farms, etc.") for which the reported value of agricultural product sales was less than $2,500. small scale farms were reported i n three economic classes.  The  They were $1,200  - $2,499, $250 - $1,199 and $50 - $249. The introduction to the 1966 Census pointed out that many of the small scale farms were rural residences, holdings of semi-retired people and holdings of part-time operators who had f u l l time or part-time jobs outside of farming.  Institutional farms were experi-  mental farms, community pastures, Indian reserves and farms operated by i n stitutions regardless of the amount of sales of agricultural products. In the 1961  Census (Canada Census 1961)  commercial farms were census  farms (except "Insitiutional farms, etc.") with a total value of agricultural products sold of $1,200 or more. The commercial farm group was divided into seven classes based on the value of agricultural products sold.  The small  scale farms were divided into two subgroups, namely, part-time farms and other small scale farms.  Part-time farms included those census farms with sales of  agricultural products of $250 - $1,199 and where the operator reported 100 days or more of off-farm work (excluding exchange work), or where the operator reported the income received by the operator and his family from a l l other sources (excluding income from investments) was greater than the income received from  I'  - 152 the sale of agricultural products.  "Other" small scale farms were farms  which reported agricultural sales of $250 - $1,199 and where the operator worked off the farm less than 100 days and where the agricultural sales were greater than the income received from other sources. Residential and other small farms included those farms with agricultural sales of less than $250. The definition used f o r distinguishing institutional farms was identical to that indicated f o r the 1966  Census.  In a study of marginal and sub-marginal rural land i n Ontario, the Ontario Economic Council distinguished three types of farm occupiers by the relative duration of time the occupant spent off the farm (Ontario Economic Council 1966:2).  Full-time farmers were operators who spent no more than  thirty days i n the year at off-farm work, and part-time farmers were those operators who spent more than thirty days i n the year at off-farm work. A rural resident was defined as an occupant of a farm property of 25 acres or more who worked entirely off the farm.  (Some or a l l of the farm may have  been rented to a full-time or a part-time farmer.) The relative sources of income rather than the relative time spent by the farm operator on the farm was used by Noble (1967) to distinguish f u l l and part-time farms.  A full-time farm was a farm either operated active-  l y on a full-time basis by the farm operator or a farm that contributed at least 51 per cent of the family living income (ibid:8).  Part-time farms  were either those farms which were not operated actively by the farm operator, or where at least 51 per cent of the family living income was derived from sources other than the farm (ibj__,). The part-time farm category included farms which were used as rural residences only but there was no qualification for defining the latter category (ibid,).  - 153 No attempt has been made In this appendix to compile a comprehensive annotated bibliography dealing with farm classification.  The sources quoted  are those studies which are basically orientated to the problem of small or uneconomic farms and the types of operator occupying them.  In this respect  they were used as guidelines for the establishment of criteria for distinguishing the three types of farm operator In the present study.  APPENDIX I I SOIL CAPABILITY CLASSIFICATION FOR AGRICULTURE The  s o i l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r agriculture used i n t h i s study  was the one adopted by the Canada Land Inventory under the administration o f the A g r i c u l t u r a l and Rural Development Act (Department o f F o r e s t r y  1965).  Two sources o f data pertaining t o s o i l c a p a b i l i t y i n the survey area were available to the author.  These were the s o i l c a p a b i l i t y ratings  indicated  on the Real Property Appraisal records o f the sample farms, and also the unpublished s o i l c a p a b i l i t y maps covering Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y a t the scale o f  1:50,000.  These maps were compiled by the A g r i c u l t u r a l S o i l s Sector o f the  Canada Land Inventory i n B r i t i s h Columbia  (1968).  The c a p a b i l i t y  classes  used i n both sources were i d e n t i c a l , the only difference being that the s o i l c a p a b i l i t y maps were s i m p l i f i e d versions o f the assessment data. The  s o i l c a p a b i l i t y c l a s s i f i c a t i o n f o r agriculture arranged the mineral  s o i l s i n seven classes to show t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y f o r growing the common f i e l d crops ( i b i d . ) .  Organic s o i l s were indicated on the maps but were not c l a s s -  i f i e d as to t h e i r c a p a b i l i t y capacity.  The seven classes adopted were:  CLASS 1: S o i l s i n t h i s class have no s i g n i f i c a n t l i m i t a t i o n s i n use f o r crops. CLASS 2: S o i l s i n t h i s class have moderate l i m i t a t i o n s that r e s t r i c t the range of crops or require moderate conservation p r a c t i c e s . CLASS 3» S o i l s i n t h i s class have moderately severe l i m i t a t i o n s that r e s t r i c t the range o f crops or require s p e c i a l conservation p r a c t i c e s .  - 15U  - 155 CLASS li: Soils i n this class have severe limitations that restrict the range of crops or require special conservation practices or both. CLASS St Soils In this class have very severe limitations that restrict their capability to produce perennial forage crops, and improvement practices are feasible. CLASS 6t Soils i n this class are capable only of producing perennial forage crops, and improvement practices are not feasible. CLASS 7« Soils i n this class have no capability for arable culture or permanent pasture. Further information regarding capability subclasses and guidelines for placing soils In capability classes i s given i n the Canada Land Inventory Report No. 2 (Canada Department of Forestry 1965).  APPENDIX III SELECTION OF SAMPLE FRAME AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE The study i s based on a random sample of farms under twenty-one acres i n Matsqui Municipality i n the Lower Mainland of British Columbia. An acreage size limit was used as the distinguishing criterion for identifying small farms i n the survey area.  The reasons for selecting the particular size  limit were discussed i n Chapter I. The sample frame adopted was the Real Property Appraisal Records for a l l farms within Matsqui Municipality.  This sample frame had the advantage  that the records covered a l l pre-empted lots identified as farms or parts of farms by the Assessment Department of Matsqui Municipality.  Each l o t was  represented by a Real Property Appraisal card which indicated the name of the t i t l e holder, his location and mailing address and the legal description of the lot's location and size.  In addition,the card included information on  land use, i t s type and extent, the s o i l types and distribution, the types and extent of the soils according to their capability for growing the common f i e l d crops, and the market value and assessed value of the specific l o t .  Infor-  mation on the cards relating to the physical characteristics of the l o t was calculated In 1965,  but the assessment l i s t was consulted l n January 1967 for  the number of farms on the municipal records. The Real Property Appraisal records Indicated that there were 2119 empted farm lots, and of these 1159  pre-  were less than twenty-one acres i n size.  Although the appraisal cards were i n " r o l l number" order, that i s by section  - 156 -  - 157 and township, the cards representing the 115°  l o t s under twenty-one acres  were put i n alphabetical order using the surnames of the t i t l e holders. was found that 632  It  t i t l e holders had t i t l e s to more than one l o t , and that  t h e i r combined l o t acreages exceeded the twenty-one acre l i m i t . of e l i m i n a t i o n l e f t 967  e l i g i b l e t i t l e holders.  This process  In a d d i t i o n , 86 of the  967  t i t l e holders also had i n d i v i d u a l l o t s of over twenty-one acres and these were consequently eliminated from the count.  A random sample was eventually  drawn from a universe of 881 l o t s using a table of random numbers. ple  The sam-  consisted of seventy farms, the locations of which were p l o t t e d on a  of Matsqui Municipality.  map  The appropriate farm operators were subsequently  contacted, and f o r t y respondents  completed the interview schedule.  APPENDIX 17 INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR SMALL FARMS Prior to the selection of an interview schedule as the method for obtaining the necessary evidence on small farms, careful consideration was given to the documentation of interviews and their use i n Madge (1965*154-28°). The interview schedule was designed largely with reference to the Socio-Economic Interview Schedule used by the Socio-Economic Sector of the Canada Land Inventory i n British Columbia (Verner 1967), and the questionnaire adopted by the Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations for i t s i n quiry into the "Small Farm Problem" as carried out by the European Commission for Agriculture (1958). Although the questions were asked i n the predetermined sequence set out i n the interview schedule, the interviewer extended the questions where i t was appropriate to obtain additional pertinent information. These additional questions were, however, of a standardised nature for purposes of comparability.  - 158 -  SOCIO-ECONOMIC INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR SMALL FARMS  R o l l Number  Respondent's Name  Location Address  M a i l i n g Address  Person Interviewed  Date o f Interview  - 159 -  - 160 (1)  What "type of tenure do you have to your property? (l) owner (2J manager (3) tenant (4) part owner, part tenant  (2)  How (1) (2) (3) (4)  (3)  Have you increased the size of your holding since you have been living on it? (1) yes (2) no  (4)  If yes, by what means? (1) added new land (2) cleared existing land (3) improved existing land  many acres does your property cover? 0 - 4 acres 5* - 9 acres 1 0 - 1 4 acres 15 - 20 acres  no. of acres no. of acres no. of acres  (5) What would you estimate is the total capital market value of your land, buildings, machinery, equipment including automobile, poultry and livestock? (1) under $ 4,950 (2) $ 4,9507,449 7,4509,949 9,950- 14,949 (5) 14,950- 24,949 (6) 24,950- 49,949 (7) 49,950 and over (6)  What is your principal type of farm enterprise?  (that is, the type that  supplies f i f t y per cent or more of your gross farm sales) (l) dairy livestock (cattle, hogs and sheep) poultry grains field crops other than grains fruit and vegetables speciality crops (flowers etc.) mixed no farm enterprise  Comments:  - 161 (7)  What i s the value of the farm products sold?  (gross annual income from  the soil) (1)  under  $  100  (2) $ 100- $99 (3) . 600- 1,199 Ik) 1,200-2,399 (5)  2,1+00 and over  (8)  Are your farm receipts greater than your farm expenses? (1) yes (2) no  (9)  Do you hire any labour to help i n the running of your farm? (1) full-time (2) part-time (3) no outside labour (h) number of hired workers  (10) How often do you consult your District Agriculturist? (1) never (2) rarely (3) sometimes Ik) often (11)  How often to you attend meetings or f i e l d days sponsored by your District Agriculturist? (1) never (2) rarely (3) sometimes (h) often  (12) Do you belong to any type of organisation for marketing your agricultural produce? yes no (13)  I f so, what type of organisation?  (ll+) Which of the following products consumed by yourself last year were largely home produced? (1) milk (2) butter (3) eggs (U) meat (5>) garden produce  Comments:  - 162 (15)  Do you have any form of off-farm occupation? (1) yes (2) no (16) If so, what type of work is it? (1) agriculture (working off one's holding) (2) logging (3) fishing (4) construction work (5) factory production work 6) clerical work 7) truck or bus driver (8) other (17) Does your off-farm occupation have agricultural connections? (1) yes  (2) no (18) How many days do you spend working at your off-farm occupation during the year? (1) 1 - 6 days  (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) 7)  7-12 13 - 2U 25 - 48 49 - 72 73 - 96 97 - 126 8) 127 - 156 9) 157 - 228 (10) 229 - 365  (19) What is the gross value of your off-farm income? (1) under $ 100  2) $ 100600(4) 1,2003)  (5) (20)  599  1,199  2,399  2,400 and over  Do you obtain a larger gross income from your farm sales than from your off-farm occupation? (1) yes (2) no  (21)  Does your wife work? (1) yes (2) no  Comments:  - 163  -  (22)  I f so, what i s her occupation? (1) teaching (2; c l e r i c a l (3) other (li) no outside occupation  (23)  Do you receive any other form of income? (1) yes (2) no  (24)  I f so, what type i s i t ?  (25)  What i s your age? ( l ) under 35 years  (5)  35 46 56 -  45 55 65  over 65  (26)  What i s your marital status? (1) single (2) married (3) separated (4) widower  (27)  How many children do you have? (1) none (2)  (3)  1-3  over 3  (28)  Where were you and your wife born? (1) Matsqui Municipality (2) Other, B r i t i s h Columbia (3) Other, Canada (4) united States (5) United Kingdom (6J Western Europe (7} Eastern Europe (8) Orient (9) Other  (29)  Were you and/or your wife brought up on a farm? (1)  (2) (3) (4)  Comments:  both  husband only wife only neither  Husband  - 164 (30)  Where was your immediate previous l i v i n g l o c a t i o n to t h i s farm? (1) r u r a l within the Lower Mainland (2) urban within the Lower Mainland (3) r u r a l outside the Lower Mainland (4) urban outside the Lower Mainland  (31)  How long have you been l i v i n g on t h i s farm? l ) l e s s than 5 years 2; 5-15 years 3) 16 - 25 years 4) over 25 years  (32)  What l e v e l of education did you and your wife complete? Husband Wife ( l ) l e s s than grade 5 (2} grade 5-8 (3) grade 9 - 11 (4) grade 12 (5j university  (33)  Have e i t h e r you or your wife done any adult education courses? (1) yes  (2) (34)  no  I f y e 3 , what type were they, and d i d they help you i n the farm's operation?  (35)  What i s the proposed career and place of residence of your c h i l d r e n o f school leaving age? l ) work on the farm 2J l i v e on the farm but do off-farm work (3) leave the farm  (36)  Do you and/or your wife belong to organisations? Husband (1) yes (2) no  (37)  I f yes, what type of organisations are they? Husband 1) church 2) farm 3) societies 4) social  Comments;  Wife  Wife  - 165 (38)  Do you and/or your wife serve on any committees associated with the above organisations? Husband  (39)  (1)  yes  (2)  no  Wife  How f a r must you t r a v e l i n miles to receive the following services? (one way only and the nearest place) 1) 2) (3) (li) (5) 16) (7)  (1+0)  food clothing medical church elementary school secondary school post o f f i c Total e Distance  Do you make the greatest expenditure on the following, a t a service centre i n Matsqui M u n i c i p a l i t y or i n Vancouver? Local (1) food 2) clothing 3J household (1+) a g r i c u l t u r a l (f>; entertainment  Vancouver  (1+1)  How often do you go i n t o Vancouver? (1) daily (2) weekly ( 3 ) monthly (1+) s i x times or l e s s a year (5; l e s s than once a year  (li2)  Do you go i n t o Vancouver more often since the freeway has been b u i l t ? (1) yes (2) no (3)  (1+3)  undecided  Which of these f i v e statements do you f i n d best describes the way you feel (1) (2) (3) (1+) (5)  Comments:  about your place of residence? I am strongly favourable to l i v i n g i n the r u r a l environment I am favourable to l i v i n g i n a r u r a l environment I am neutral to l i v i n g i n the country or the c i t y I am favourable to l i v i n g i n the c i t y I am strongly favourable to l i v i n g i n the c i t y  - 166 (1+1+) Which of these f i v e statements would best describe the way your wife feels? (1+5)  I f you p r e f e r l i v i n g In a r u r a l environment, what are the reasons f o r t h i s preference?  (46)  I f you would prefer to l i v e i n an urban environment what are the reasons f o r t h i s preference?  (1+7)  What (l) (2J (3; (1+)  Comments:  function do you intend to use your farm f o r i n the future? Full-time farming part-time farming a place of residence vacate the farm  

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